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Vorrlsanls, Kings Bridge and VITest Ferins 
which have been annexed to 
• New York City 

J.Thonas Scharf, AIM., LL.D. 

Voliane. 1 
part 2 

L.E. Preston ft Co. 


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Mr. Cromwell is a descendant of the famous family 
whose history was for so many years identified with 
that of the British Empire. Among his ancestry are en- 
rolled the names of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, 
Secretary of State to Henry VIII., who was beheaded 
July 28, 1640 ; Sir Henry Cromwell, of Hinchinbrook, 
sariiamed, for his munificence, the GU)lden Knight ; 
Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, and 
many others.* 

Two nephews of the Lord Protector came to this 
coantry; one settled in South Carolina and the other 
in Westchester County. It is from the Westchester 
branch of the family that Charles Thorn Cromwell is 
descended. His father, John I.-Cromwell, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Thorn, of Glen Cove, L. L,was a 
wholesale dry-goods merchant in Ne^v York City un- 
til the war was declared, in 1812, with Great Britain. 
At that time he gave up his business, and, raising 
a company of volunteers, marched with it to the 
northern frontier, becoming actively engaged there 
in most of the battles which took place. He was ap- 
pointed second lieutenant of artillery and was in com- 
mand of a company at the battle of Plattsburg, 
where he also acted as quartermaster. His bravery 
won for him the respect and esteem of his superior of- 
ficers, and he was brevetted first lieutenant as a reward 
of merit. Many flattering letters from the generals 
under whom he served, from time to time, are still in 
the possession of his son, notable among which is an 
autograph note from Major-General McComb. 

At the close of the war his name was honorably 
mentioned in general qrders and the government of- 
fered him a position upon the peace establishment, 
which he declined, in order that he might retire from 
active life, which he did. Removing to Glen Cove, he 
purchased a farm and resided upon it until his death, 
in 1824. 

Charles Thorn Cromwell, his third child, was born 
in New York, May 8, 1808. Aiter attending private 
schools at Jamiica and Flushing, L. I., he entered 
Union College, graduating in 1829. While there, 
with three others, all of whom are now dead, he 
organized the "Sigma Phi Society." After his 
graduation be entered the law-ofiice of Minott Mit- 
chell, at White Plains, N. Y., and remained with 
him two years, when, with two friends, he made a 
tour of Europe. He spent a year in most interesting 
and profitable diversion, and then returned to New 
York and was admitted to the bar. 

He opened an ofiice in the city, where he remained 
for many years, building up for himself an extensive 
and lucrative practice. Twenty years ago he retired 
from bnainesB, though his name is still connected 
with the legal firm which he organized, and whose 
ofiice is at No. 21 Park Row. 

1 Vor a f^lacconnt of the Cromwell family, see *'Foeter> Britteta 
Statesmen,** ▼!. 2; also, ''Carlyle's Letters and Speechei of OroAiw^V 
i. 32-40. 

During his active career Mr. Cromwell handled 
many prominent cases with such skill as to win for 
himself not only a high reputation in commerqial 
centres, but also the regard and respect of the entire 

For many years he has lived in his beautiAil resi- 
dence on Manersing Island, near Port Chester, spend* 
ing his winters in New York. 

He is a member of Christ Church (Episcopal) and 
was formerly one of its vestrymen, having contibuted 
largely toward its erection. He married Henrietta 
Amelia Brooks, daughter of Benjamin Brooks, of 
Bridgeport, Conn. She is a descendant of Colonel 
John Jones and Theophilus Eaton, first Governor of 
the colony of New Haven. There were three chil- 
dren, one of whom (the eldest son) was drowned from 
a yacht in Long Island Sound. Those surviving are 
Oliver Eaton and Henriettaj who married John De 

Mr. Cromwell, though well along in life, still re- 
tains his strength, and his name continues to be asso- 
ciated with every progressive and benevolent move- 
ment in and about the village which is the home 
of his choice. He is at present one of the oldest liv- 
ing members of the St. Nicholas Club. 


Mr. Van Rensselaer was the second son of the pa- 
troon, Stephen Van Rensselaer, of Albany, and was 
born March 6, 1805. His mother was a daughter pt 
Judge William Paterson, of New Jersey. After 
graduating at Yale College, in 1824, he was commis- 
sioned aid-de-camp to Governor De Witt Clinton, with 
the title of colonel, which post he soon rblinquishedi 
and from 1826 spent four years in Europe, traveling 
extensively and pursuing legal studies in Edinburgh. 

Upon his return he entered the oflBce of Peter A. 
Jay, then a well-known lawyer in New York, For a 
number of years afterward he resided in Albany and 
Rensselaer County, but the last twenty years of his 
life were spent at his home at Manursing Island, near 
Rye, Westchester County. He died in New York, 
November 13, 1872. 

He inherited from his distinguished father many 
noted characteristics. Conspicuous among these was a 
true simpliciiy. Free from all pretension and eminent- 
ly unselfish, he found his happiness in a life of retire- 
ment and in unobtnisive but earnest endeavors to do 
good. A genuine sympathy with works of Christian 
benevolence was another inherited trait. He was an 
attentive observer of the great and philanthropic 
movements of the day and a most liberal supporter 
of every worthy cause whose claims were brought to 
his notice. 

A man of noble impulses and clear convictions, he 
was no less decided in the rebuke of injustice and in- 
iquity that in the approval of that which was good. 

The uprightness and elevation, the kindliness and 
generosity of his nature, his fine intellectual gifls and 



high culture, and with all an unaffected humility, 
the fruit of true religion, made him the marked ex- 
ample of a Christian gentleman. 


In an old-fashioned frame dwelling-house still 
standing, though considerably older than our Federal 
Constitution, Mr. Tilden was born on the 9th of Feb- 
ruary, 1814. The old homestead, where four genera- 
tions of the family have been reared, fronts upon the 
long street which constitutes the back-bone of the 
village of New Lebanon, in the county of Columbia, 
in the State of New York. 

Mr. Tilden's ancestry may be traced back to the 
latter part of the sixteenth century and to the county 
of Kent, in England, where the name is still most 
honorably associated with the army, the navy and 
the church. In 1684 Nathaniel Tilden was among 
the Puritans who left Kent to settle in America. 
Eleven years previous he had been mayor of Tenter- 
den. He was succeeded in that office by his cousin 
John, as he had been preceded by his uncle John in 
1585 and 1600. He removed with his family to Scit- 
uate, in the colony of Massachusetts, in 1634. He 
was one of the commissioners to locate that town, and 
the first recorded conveyance of any of its soil was 
made to him. His brother Joseph was one of the 
merchant adventurers of London who fitted out the 
" Mayflower." This Nathaniel Tilden married Hannah 
Bourne, one of whose sisters married a brother of 
Governor Winslow and another a son of Governor 
Bradford. Among the associates of Joseph Tilden in 
fitting out the " Mayflower " was Timothy Hatherby, 
who afterward married the widow of Nathaniel Til- 
den, and was a leading citizen of Scituate until ex- 
pelled from public life for refusing to prosecute the 

Governor Tilden's grandfather, John Tilden, set- 
tled in Columbia County, since then uninterruptedly 
the residence of this branch of the Tilden family. 
The Governor's mother was descended from William 
Jones, Lieutenant-Gk)vernor of the colony of New 
Haven, who, in all the histories of Connecticut, is 
represented to have been the son of Col. John Jones, 
one of the regicide judges of Charles the First, who 
is said to have married a sister of Oliver Cromwell 
and a cousin of John Hamden. The Grovemor's 
father, a farmer and merchant of New Lebanon, was 
a man of notable judgment and practical sense and 
the accepted oracle of the county upon all matters of 
public concern, while his opinion was also eagerly 
sought and justly valued by all his neighbors, but by 
none more than by the late President Van Buren, 
who, till his death, was one of his most cherished 
and intimate personal friends. 

Samuel J., af^er a suitable preparat«>ry education 
at Williamstown, Massachusetts, was entered at Yale 
College in the class of 1833, where, however, in con- 
sequence of ill health, he was not able to complete 

the course. He concluded his collegiate studies at 
the New York University, and then took the course 
of law in that institution, at the same time entering 
the law-office of the late John W. Edmunds, then a 
prominent member of the New York bar. While 
yet in his teens he was a watchful student of the polit- 
ical situation, and tradition has preserved many inter- 
esting stories of his triumphs, both of speech and pen, 
in the political arena. Young and obscure as he then 
was, Presidents Jackson and Van Buren had few 
more efiective champions in this State of the great 
measures of their respective administrations than this 
stripling from New Lebanon. 

He was admitted to the bar in 1841. Four years 
before, and when only twenty -three years of age, he 
delivered a speech in Columbia County on the subject 
of " Prices and Wages," which not only attracted the 
attention and won the admiration of the leading 
political economists of that time, but is to-day one of 
perhaps the half-dozen most profound, comprehen- 
sive and instructive papers on that complicated sub- 
ject now in print in any language. 

Upon his admission to the bar, Mr. Tilden opened 
an office in Pine Street, in the city of New York, 
which will be remembered by his acquaintances of 
that period as a favorite resort for the leading Demo- 
crats, whether resident or casually on a visit to that 

In 1844, in anticipation and preparation for the 
election which resulted in making James K. Polk 
President, and Silas Wright Governor of the State of 
New York, Mr. Tilden, in connection with John L. 
O'Sullivan, founded the newspaper called the Daily 
News, by far the ablest morning journal that had up 
to that time been enlisted in the service of the Demo- 
cratic party. Its success was immediate and complete, 
and to its efficiency was largely due the success of the 
Democratic ticket that year. As Mr. Tilden did not 
propose to enter into journalism as a career, and had 
embarked in this enterprise merely for its bearing 
upon the Presidential campaign of 1844, he retired 
from it soon afler the election, presenting his entire 
interest in the property to his colleague. 

In the fall of 1845 he was sent to the Assembly from 
the city of New York, and while a member of that 
body was elected to the convention for remodeling 
the Constitution of the State, which was to commence 
its sessions a few weeks after the Legislature adjourned. 
In both of these bodies he was a conspicuous author- 
ity, and left a permanent impression upon the legis- 
lation of the year, and especially upon all the new 
constitutional provisions affecting the finances of the 
State and the management of its system of canals. In 
this work he was associated, by personal and political 
sympathy, most intimately with Governor Wright, 
Michael Hoffman and with Azariah C. Flagg, then 
the controller of the State, who had all learned to 
value very highly his counsel and co-operation. 

The defeat of Mr. Wright in the fall of 1846, and 

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the coolnesB which had grown up between the friends 
of President Polk and the ^ends of the late President 
Van Boren, resulted fortunately for Mr. Tilden, if not 
for the country, in withdrawing his attention from 
politics and concentrating it upon his profession. He 
inherited no fortune, but depended upon his own ex- 
ertions for a livelihood. Thus far his labor for the State, 
or in hi8j>rofe8sion, had not been lucrative, and, de- 
spite his strong tastes and pre-eminent qualifications 
for political life, he was able to discern at that early 
period the importance, in this country at least, of 
a pecuniary independence for the successful prosecu- 
tion of a political career. With an assiduity and a 
concentration of energy which has characterized all 
the transactions of his life, he now gave himself up to 
his profession. It was not many years before he be- 
came as well known at the bar as he had before been 
known as a politician. His business developed rapidly, 
and though he continued to take more or less interest 
in political matters, they were not allowed after 1857 
to interfere with his professional duties. 

From that time until 1869, when he again conse- 
crated all his personal and professional energies to 
the reform of the municipal government of New York 
City, a period of about twenty years, his was nearly or 
quite the largest and most lucrative practice in the 
country conducted by any single barrister. During 
what may be termed tlie professional parts of his 
career he has associated his name imperishiOt>ly with 
some of the most remarkable forensic struggles of our 

It was, however, during this period of Mr. Tilden*s life, 
in which he was devoting himself almost exclusively 
to his profession, that his name figures prominently 
in one of the most important political transactions in 
American history. The convention held in 1848 at 
Baltimore for the selection of a Presidential ticket to 
be supported by the Democratic party presumed 
to deny to the regular delegates from New York 
State, of whom Mr. Tilden was one, admission to 
their body upon equal terms with the del^ates from 
other States, assigning as a reason that the convention 
which chose them had declared that the immunity 
from slavery contained in the Jeffersonian ordinance 
of 1787 should be applied to all the Territories of the 
Northwest, so long as they should remain under the 
government of Congress. Mr. Tilden was selected by 
his colleagues of the delegation to make their report to 
their constituents, — a report which helps to make the 
Utica Convention of June, 1848, one of the most mo- 
mentous in the history of the country. 

"With this intolerant profciiption of the New York Democracy began 
tiM dtaftrouN tchinn which was destined to rend in twain both the great 
parttes crf^the country and practically to annihilate the political organi- 
aOion which had given a wise and beneficent government to the country 
for hatf a century. Then, too, and th«'re were laid the foundations of the 
poUtSeal conglomerate, which in 1800 acquired, and for a quarter of a 
cratary retained, uninterrupted control of our Federal Government. . . . 

* Just twen^-eight years after the delegate fh>m New York, who had 
been selected by his colleagues for the purpose, broke to their outraged 
ooartttiients the story of their State's humiliation, that same delegate 

received the suffrages of a large minority of his countrymen for the high- 
est honor in their gift ; and to-day, through that delegate's influence,, 
another citizen of New York who was nominated by a Democratic Na- 
tional Convention, which imposed no sectional tests, and who was 
elected without the vote of a single slaveholder, becomes the chief magis- 
trate and most honored citisen of the Bepublic. 

* The wheel is come ftill circle.* 

and the bones of the Democratic party that were l»x>ken upon the cmra 
of slavery in 18441, now, aft**r an interval of thirty-six years, are once 
more knit together, and the traditions and the doctrines inherited frum 
the golden Age of the Republic are sbout to resume, not merely their 
offlcial, but their moral supremacy in the nation." * 

The four years from 1869 to 1878 were mainly de- 
voted by Mr. Tilden to the overthrow of what was 
known as the Tweed Ring, which had thoroughly de- 
bauched every branch of the New York City govern- 
ment, legislative, executive and judicial, and was 
threatening the State government also with its foul 

** The total surrender of my profenioDal business during that period," 
he has said in one of his published communications, ** the nearly absolute 
withdrawal of attention fh>m my private affiilrs, andfh>m all enterprises 
in which I am interested, have cost me a loss of actual income, which » 
with expenditures and contributions the contest has required, would be 
a respectable endowment of a public charity. 

" I do not speak of these things," he adds, "to regret them. In my 
opinion, no instrumentality In human society is so potsntial in its influ- 
ence on the well-being o€ mankind as the governmental machinery 
which administers Justice and makes and executes laws. No beneCaction 
of private benevolence could be so fruitful in benefits as the rescue of 
this machinery fh>m the perversion which had made it a means of con- 
si^racy, fhtud and crime against the rights and the most sacred interests 
of a great community." 

When Mr. Tilden thus wrote he had not exper- 
ienced nor could he have foreseen the legal consum- 
mation of his labors in the arrest, imprisonment or 
flight of all the parties who, only a few months before, 
seemed to hold the wealth and power of the Empire 
State in the hollow of their hands, nor the condemna- 
tion of Tweed to the striped jacket and cell of a felon, 
nor the recovery of verdicts which promised to restore 
to the city treasury many millions of ill-gotten plun- 

Nor could he have foreseen, among the most direct 
and immediate results of his labors for the purifica- 
tion of the New York City and State governments, 
his election as Governor in the fall of 1874, by a ma- 
jority of more than fifty thousand over Qeneral Dix, 
the Republican candidate. 

The talents and public virtues which, as a municipal 
reformer, won the confidence of the people of his na- 
! tive State and made him Governor, on this new and 
wider theatre won the confidence and admiration of 
the nation and made him its choice by a considerable 
popular majority for the Presidency in 1876. It was 
not, however, in the order of Providence that he 
or the people were to enjoy the legitimate fruits of 
this latter victory. 

When Congress convened in the winter of 1876- 
77, and proceeded to discharge its constitutional 

1 "Writings and Life of Samuel J. Tilden," edited by John Bigelow. 
Pub., Harper k Brothers, 1885. 




duty of counting the electoral votes for President and 
Vice-President, it appeared that there were one hun- 
dred and eighty-four uncontested electoral votes for 
Samuel J. Tilden for President and for Thomas A. 
Hendricks for Vice-President, one hundred and six- 
ty-five uncontested electoral votes for Rutherford B. 
Hayes for President and William A. Wheeler for 
Vice-President, and twenty votes in dispute. One 
hundred and eighty -five votes were necessary for a 
choice ; consequently, one additional vote to Tilden 
and Hendricks would have elected them, while twen- 
ty additional votes were required for the election of 
the rival candidates. The whole election, therefore, 
depended upon one electoral vote. This gave to 
the mode of counting the vote an importance 
which it had never possessed at any of the twenty- 
one previous elections in the history of our govern- 

The provisions of the Constitution relating to the 
mode of counting the vote were sufficiently vague to 
iurnish a pretext for some diversity of opinion upon 
the subject, wherein the temptation to find one was 
so great. A majority of the Senate being Republi- 
cans and a majority of the House of Representatives 
being Democrats, that the Senate would not agree to 
to count any one of these twenty votes for Tilden and 
Hendricks was assumed; and to avoid a conflict of 
jurisdiction, which was thought by some to threaten 
the peace of the country, a special tribunal, to consist 
of members of Congress and of the Supreme Court, 
fifteen in number, was created, upon which the duty 
of counting the electoral vote was devolved by an act 
of Congress. One of the members of this tribunal was 
classified as an Independent, seven as Republicans 
and seven as Democrats. The Republicans voted to 
count all the votes of the three contested States for 
Hayes, and the Independent, voted with them, and 
the candidate elected to the Presidency by a consid- 
erable popular majority was compelled to give place 
to the candidate of a minority. 

The circumstances under which Mr. Tilden was 
deprived of the Presidency made it inconvenient, in- 
deed impossible, to obey the counsels and warnings 
of declining health to lay down the leadership of the 
great party whose unexampled wrong was represented 
in his person, until he could surrender it into the 
hands of its proper national representatives. As soon, 
however, as the National Democratic Convention as- 
sembled in 1880, he felt constrained to address to the 
chairman of the New York delegation the memorable 
letter in which he proclaimed his well-considered in- 
tention to retire from public life, for the labors of 
which he had long felt his health and strength were 
unequal. In 1884 he was obliged to repeat his resolu- 
tion, to prevent his nomination by the delegates to the 
National Convention, who were almost unanimously 
chosen because of their avowed partiality for Mr. Til- 
den as their candidate, notwithstanding his impaired 
and failing health. Finding it impossible to obtain 

his consent to run, the convention accepted a candi- 
date of his choice from the State which he had served 
so long and faithfully, and his choice was ratified by 
the nation at the general election. 

Mr. Tilden is now enjoying the repose he ban so 
fully earned, and such health as repose only could con- 
fer, at his princely home of Greystone on the banks of 
the Hudson, now the pilgrim^s shrine of the reinstated 
party, which Jefferson planted and which Jackson 
and Van Buren watered. 

*'He is one of the few sunriTing itateetneD who had the good fortniM 
to receive early political traioiDg Id the golden age of the Democratio 
party, when public measurea were thoroughly teated by the Oonatitntion 
and by public opinion, and when by ample debate the Toters of the 
whole nation were educated, not only to embrace, but also to com- 
prehend, the principles upon which their goTemment was conducted, — 
a training to which hit snbeeqnent political career bean continual taeti- 
mony. Whatever heresies of doctrine haTe crept into our public pc4icy 
since thoee days, the responsibility for them will not rest with him. In 
all the papers and speeches with which fh>m time to time he has endeav- 
ored to enlighten his countrymen, it will be difficult to find a line or a 
thought not in harmony with the teachings of the eminent stataamen 
who, during the first fifty years of our naUonal history, traced the limits 
and defined the functions of constitutional Democracy in America. From 
that epoch to this there has been scarcely a question of public concern 
having its roots in the Constitution which Mr. Tilden has not carefully 
considered and more or leas thoroughly treated. He was a champion of 
the Union and of President Jackson against the NuUiflers and Mr. Gal* 
houn. He denounced the American system of Mr. Clay as unconatitn- 
Uonal, inequitable and sectional. He rindicatad the remoral of the 
government deposits fh>m the United States Bank by President Jackson, 
and exploded the sophistical doctrine of its lawyers that the Treasury is 
not an executive department. He vindicated President Van Buren fh»n 
the charge made by William Leggett of unbecoming subserviency to the 
Slaveholding States in his Inaugural Address. He was among the first 
to insist upon f^e banking under general laws, thus opening the busi- 
ness eqiwlly to all, and abolishing the monopoly which was a nearly 
universal superstition. He exposed the perils of banking upon public 
funds. He advocated the divorce of bank and State, and the eetabUsh. 
ment of a sub-treasury. He asserted the supervisory control of the 
Legislature over corporations of its own creation. He exposed the enor- 
mities of Mr. Wobetor*8 scheme to pledge the public lands for the pay- 
ment of the debts of the States. He drew and vindicated in a profoundly 
learned and able report the Act which put an end to the discontents of 
the New York * Anti-renters.' He wrote the protest of the Democracy 
of New Turk against making the nationalisation of slavery a test of 
party fealty. He was the first, we believe, to assign statesmanlike rea- 
sons for opposing coercive temperance legislation. He pointed out, as 
no one had done before, the (|apger uf sectionalizing the government. 
He planned the campaign, he secured the requisite legislation, he hon 
much the largest share of the expense, and, finally, he led the storming- 
party which drove Tweed and his predatory associates to prison or into 
exile. He purified the judiciary of the city and State of New York by 
procuring the adoption of measures which resulted in the removal of 
one Judge by impeachment and of two judges by resignation. He in- 
duced the Democratic Convention of 1874 to declare, in no nnoartaln 
tone, for a sound currency, when not a single State Convention of either 
party had yet ventured to take a stand against the financial delusions be- 
gotten of the war, which for yenni had been sapping the credit of the 
country. It was at his instance that the Democratic party of New York, 
in the same Convention, pronounced against third-term Presidenta, and 
effectively strengtliened the exposed intrenchments whicli the country, 
for eighty years and more, had hevn erecting against the insidious en- 
croachments of dynasticiam. Duilng his career as Governor Bfr. Tilden 
applied the principles of the political school in which he had been edu- 
cated to the new questions which time, civil war and national aflluenoe 
had made paramount. He overthrew the Canal King, which had become 
ascendant in all the departments of the State government. He diqiened 
the lobby which infested tho legislative bodies. He introduced a practi- 
cal reform in the civil service of this State, and elevated the staadani of 
official morality. In his messages he oxpvm<d the weakness and inade- 
quacy of the financial policy of the party in power, the mismanagement 
of our canal system, the Federal Hssaults upon State sovereignty, and 










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the preaiing need of nulical reforms both in the State and Federal ad- 
ministraUooB.'^ i 

It is due to Mr. Tilden, also, to say that he has rare- 
ly discussed any matter . of public concern without 
planting the structure of bis argument upon the solid 
ground of fundamental principles. Always cautious 
in the selection of his facts, singularly moderate in 
his statements and temperate in his language, he, 
better than perhaps any other statesman of our time, 
can afford to be judged by his record. Who that has 
figured so prominently in public affairs has said or 
written less that he would prefer not to have said ; 
less that his maturer judgment cannot approve; 
less that will not commend itself to the deliberate 
judgment of thoughtful men and to an unprejudiced 
posterity ? 


Mr. Depew, distinguished as a lawyer and states- 
man, was born at Peekskill, April 23, 1834. His 
ancestry was of the Huguenot race, from which have 
sprung so many noble men to make immortal names 
in history. His family were early settled at Peeks- 
kill, where his father, Isaac Depew, resided on the 
farm which had been the home of his ancestors for 
two hundred years. His early years were spent on 
the old homestead, and his education was finished at 
Yale College, where he graduated in 1856. Resolved 
to enter the legal profession, he studied law with 
Hon. William Nelson, was admitted to the bar in 
1S58, and commenced practice in his native town. 
His natural ability, sound knowledge of the law and 
great oratorical talent caused his rapid advancement. 
In his youth he took part in politics, was a delegate 
to the Republican State Convention in 1858, and a 
distinguished and effective speaker in the campaign 
of 1860. In every Presidential contest from that time 
to the present, his speeches have been listened to by 
thousands of bis fellow-citizens, and his opinions 
have never failed to attract attention and command 
respect. At the beginning of the war he was adjutant 
of the Eighteenth Regiment N. Y. V., and served 
three months. In 1861 he was elected member of 
Assembly, and re-elected in 1862. His legislative 
career, which was marked with great ability, prepared 
the way for a still higher position, and in 1863 he 
was elected Secretary of State. He received, but de- 
clined, the appointment of commissioner of emigra- 
tion, but served for one year as tax commissioner for 
the city of New York. In 1866 he received from 
; President Johnson the appointment of minister to 
Japan, — a position which he resigned after holding 
the commission for one month. He was appointed 
one of the commissioners of the new capitol at Albany 
in 1871. The Liberal Republican party gave Mr. 
Depew the nomination for Governor in 1872 ; but he. 


"WritlnffiaiMl Speeches of Samuel J. Tilden/'edlted by John Blgelow, 

together with the rest of the ticket, failed of election. 
During the controversy which led to the resignation 
of Hon. Roscoe Conkling as United States Senator,. 
Mr. Depew was one of the most prominent among 
the candidates proposed as his successor, but with- 
drew his name in the interests of harmony. He was 
appointed one of the regents of the university in 
1877, a position which he still retains. For several 
years he was vice-president and general counsel for 
the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, 
and is now (1886) president of the road, — a position 
which furnishes ample scope for his abilities. 

Among the prominent orators of the day, there are 
few who have been more frequently called upon to 
deliver addresses upon occasions of public import- 
ance. A speech delivered in the Legislature, in 1862, 
upon the subject of " State Finances " has been con- 
sidered one of his best efforts, and attracted wide 
attention. On the 4th of July, 1876, he delivered 
the centennial oration at Sing Sing, and made a 
brilliant address at Kingston on July 30, 1877, the 
anniversary of the formation of the State govern* 
ment. On September 23, 1880, he addressed a large 
assembly at Tarry town, in commemoration of the 
capture of Major Andre, and he was the orator of the 
day upon the occasion of unveiling the statue of 
Alexander Hamilton, in Central Park. At the elec- 
tion of a United States Senator, in 1885, he was ten- 
dered the nomination by all divisions of the Repub- 
lican party, but declined to be considered a candi- 
date, and the choice fell upon Hon. William M. 

Upon his maternal side, Mr. Depew is connected 
with the family of the celebrated Roger Sherman, of 
Connecticut, his mother being a granddaughter of 
the sister of that illustrious statesman. 

He married, in 1871, Elise, daughter of William 
Hegeman, Esq., of New York, and has one son, who 
bears his father's name. 


Francis Larkin, well and prominently known 
among the legal fraternity of Westchester County^ 
was born at Sing Sing, August 9, 1820. His father, 
John Larkin, came from the neighborhood of Belfast,. 
Ireland, and after his arrival in this country, married 
Elizabeth Knox, who was also born in Ireland, near 
Don^al. The early part of Mr. Larkin's life was 
passed on a farm, upon which he worked till he at- 
tained his majority. After teaching school for a 
while, he resolved to study for the legal profession, and 
entered the office of Richard R. Voris, Esq., who waa 
a prominent lawyer, and District Attorney of the 
County. In 1847 he was admitted to the bar as at- 
torney and counsellor at law. Immediately aft^r hia 
admission he established his practice in Sing Sing, and 
has continued it to the present time, and by strict at- 
tention to the duties of his profession, has established 
an enviable reputation, commanding the confidence 



of a very extended clientage. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Republican party, and received its nomi- 
nation for Congress, in 1864, but as the district was 
strongly Democratic, his opponent, Hon. William 
Radford, was elected. 

He has held the offices of trustee and president of 
the village of Sing Sing, iand justice of the peace, and 
in 1851 was elected supervisor of the town of Ossi- 
ning, in which positions he performed the duties of 
the offices to the entire satisfaction of the commu- 

He was married April 1, 1852, to Sarah E., daugh- 
ter of Ebenezer Hobby, of New York. Their children 
are Mary E., wife of Adrian H. Joline, a prominent 
lawyer of New York City ; Sarah, wife of Dr. Joel 
Madden ; Frank, who 
married Lily, daughter of 
George A. Brandreth ; 
John, Adrian H., and 
Alice. Of these Frank 
and John are practicing 
lawyers, and both gradu- 
ates of Princeton Col- 
lege, and the youngest 
«on, Adrian H., is now a 
student at the same insti- 
tution. The youngest 
daughter is at present 
studying at the school for 
young ladies under the 
tuition of Miss Dana, at 
Morristown, N. J. 


The family of which 
Mr. Purdy is a represent- 
ative has long been settled 
In Westchester County, 
their ancestor b'e i n g 

their ancestor b'eing cr /O >^ 

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previous to 1659. The 
line of descent is as follows, — 1st, Francis; 2d, 
John ; 3d, Joseph ; 4th, Jonathan ; 5th, Jonathan ; 
6th, Benjamin ; 7th, Sylvanus ; 8th, Samuel M. 

Sylvanus Purdy, the father of Samuel M., married 
Effalinda, daughter of Andrew Purdy, of East Chester, 
and his son was born at the homestead of his maternal 
grandfather, August 28, 1824. This homestead (which 
was on the farm formerly belonging to Bartholomew 
Ward, and sold by him to Andrew Purdy), stood in 
what is now the village of Mount Vernon, at the 
corner of Sixth Avenue and Fourth Street, on the 
east side, and now belongs to the heirs of John 
Stevens. The early boyhood of Mr. Purdy was passed 
at this place, and at the age of twelve he went to 
Mamaroneck, and attended a school taught by John 

M. Ward, a well-known teacher of that day. Here 
he prepared to enter Columbia College, a plan which 
he afterwards abandoned, and at the conclusion of 
his school term he entered, in 1848, the law office of 
Samuel E. Lyon. In this office he remained four 
years, was then admitted to the bar, and established 
his practice at West Farms. During his first year 
there he was elected to the offices of Justice of the 
peace and town clerk, and has been continuously 
re-elected to the former position. He was elected 
supervisor of the town of West Farm, and held 
that office in 1855, 1856, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 
1867 and 1868, being four times elected without 
opposition, and at the other elections by a very large 
majority. In 1867 he was elected member of Assembly 

by a majority of eight 
hundred and twenty, aud 
served on the committee 
on internal affisiirs. The 
following year he was re- 
elected, and was re-ap- 
pointed on the above- 
named committee. 

His practice as a law- 
yer has been almost en- 
tirely confined to real 
estate. In this branch 
of legal knowledge he 
has few equals, and it 
may be safely said that 
there is no one who is 
more thoroughly con- 
versant with the history 
of the land titles in this 
county. He is constantly 
called upon to decide 
questions concerning an- 
cient boundaries, the lo- 
cations of which have 
passed from memory. The 
amount of money invest- 
ed upon the security of 
real estate in this county, 
and of which he has the 
charge and oversight, exceeds a million dollars, which 
shows better than any words can express, the con- 
fidence which is placed in him by the community 
where his clientage is so large. 

He was in early life a Whig, but joined the Demo- 
cratic party at the election of Buchanan, and has ever 
since been connected with it. 

He married, in 1847, Rachel, daughter of Caleb 
Purdy, of Harrison. Their only son, Caleb, a young 
man of great promise, died, in 1869, soon after his 
graduation from Columbia College. 

Mr. Purdy is a member of the Episcopal Church, 
and now holds the position of senior warden, and is 
superintendent of the Sabbath -school. 
Soon after establishing his practice at West Farms 





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he purchased the homestead formerly belonging to 
Dr. William Hofiman, on the west side of Main 
Street, or the old Boston Post Road, which has ever 
since been his residence. 

Mr. Pardy is a type of the self-made man. Com- 
mencing with small means he has accumulated a com- 
petency ; by strict attention to business, and by his 
integrity and honesty of purpose, he has gained what 
is of still greater importance, the confidence and re- 
spect of the entire community. 


On Broadway in Tarrytown stands the handsome 
stone mansion, which for four years previous to his 
death was the residence of William Augustus Beach, 
formerly a leading lawyer in New York City, and is 
at present occupied by his family. 

Mr. Beach was bom at Saratoga Springs, New 
York, December 10, 1809. His father. Miles Beach, 
was an early settler and successful merchant in that 
village. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Catharine Warren, was a first cousin of Oeneral 
Warren of Revolutionary fame. Augustus (as Mr. 
Beach was usually known) received no college educa- 
tion. He studied law in his native village and for 
some years after his admission to the bar was engaged 
there in the practice of his profession. In the law 
firm of which he was a member, Nicholas Hill, Jr., 
and Augustus Bockes, who was later a supreme court 
judge of that district, were the other partners. From 
the first, he showecl remarkable powers in influencing 
juries to the conclusions he desired, and a keenness 
in seizing upon the points of advantage in his cases, 
and he soon acquired a local reputation as an advo- 
cate of ability. 

In 1851 he removed to Troy, New York, where he 
made his residence for the next twenty years. In 
this new and larger field, he achieved a proportion- 
ately greater fiune and success. He founded the firm 
of Pearson, Beach <& Smith, which later, on the re- 
tirement of Hon. Job Pearson, became Beach & 
Smith. Legal interests of great importance were in- 
trusted to his care, and he became attorney and coun- 
sel for all the large railroad corporations in the city. 

When the Hudson River Bridge Company secured 
articles of incorporation for the purpose of bridging 
the Hudson River at Albany, the city of Troy, which 
was opposed to the building of the bridge, engaged 
Mr. Beach to endeavor to prevent its construction by 
an appeal to the courts. A preliminary injunction 
was obtained enjoining the bridge company irom 
proceeding with their work,but an attempt to have the 
injunction made permanent resulted in the case being 
carried into the Supreme Court of the United States, 
where the bill of complaint was dismissed. 

During the administration of Governor Seymour, 
while the Civil War was in progress, Mr. Beach was 
retained to defend Col. NortK and others, who were 
<;harged with tampering with the votes of soldiers. 

This case was carried into the Supreme Court of the 
United States, where, during that time of high politi- 
cal excitement, it occasioned widespread interest. Mr. 
Beach not only succeeded in procuring the acquittal 
of his clients, but also laid the foundation for the 
proceedings which ended in the discontinuance of the 
system of substituting military inquisitions for 
authorized civil courts. His argument was listened 
to by Senators and Representatives and his skillful 
conduct of the case made him the recipient of many 
enthusiastic manifestations of approbation. 

In 1868 he obtained the acquittal before the courts 
of impeachment of canal commissioner Robert C. 

During his residence in Troy he was frequently 
tendered the nomination to a judgeship, but declined 
the honor. The title of judge, however, was com- 
monly prefixed to his name. 

In 1871 he removed to New York, where he com- 
manded at once a large practice, and was pitted in 
the legal arena against the foremost lawyers of the 
city. He took the place of Charles A. Rapallo, now 
a justice of the New York Court of Appeals, in the 
firm of Rapallo, Daly & Brown. Afterwards on the 
withdrawal of Mr. Daly, the firm became Beach & 
Brown. Their oflSce was in the Herald building. Mr. 
Beach became engaged in a number of noteworthy 
cases. In the action brought by the Erie Railway 
Company against Wm. H. Vanderbilt, popularly 
known as the five million dollar suit, Messrs. Beach 
and Rapallo were retained by Mr. Vanderbilt, and 
succeeded in obtaining a verdict in his favor. In the 
celebrated suit of Bowen vs. Chase, which involved 
the title to the valuable real estate left by Madame 
Jumel, Mr. Beach appeared for the plaintiff and was 
opposed by Charles O'Connor. The trial lasted for 
over a month, and resulted in the disagreement of 
the jury. 

In the prosecution of Edward S. Stokes for the mur- 
der of James Fisk, Jr., he assisted the district attor- 
ney^ with the result that Stokes was convicted of 
murder in the first degree. In a re-hearing of the 
case Mr. Beach did not appear and the decision was 
reversed. When Frank Walworth was tried for kill- 
ing his father Mr. Beach and Charles O'Connor de- 
fended him, and Mr. Beach refused any remuneration 
for his services. 

Perhaps the most widely known of his cases was 
the suit brought by Theodore Tilton against Henry 
Ward Beecher. He was senior counsel for Mr. Tilton 
and was assisted by Wm. Fullerton, General Roger A. 
Pryor, Samuel D. Morris and Thomas E. Pearsall. 
For Mr. Beecher appeared William M. Evarts, John 
K. Porter, Austin Abbott, Benjamin F. Tracy, Thomas 
G. Shearman, John L. Hill and John W. Sterling. 
In summing up the evidence for Mr. Tilton, Mr. 
Beach occupied the sessions of the court from June 
10th to June 23d, 1875. The result of this trial, as is 
well known, was the disagreement of the jury. 



After this time his activity in the pursuit of hb 
profession began to decrease. For ten or fifteen years 
previous to his death he suffered from heart disease, 
which gradually grew worse, and in the first half of 
1884 his condition became very serious. The imme- 
diate cause of his death was a congestive chill, taken 
at the house of his physician, at Tarry town, at one 
o'clock Saturday afternoon, June 28, 1884. He was 
removed to his own home on Broadway, in Tarry- 
town, and died there at forty minutes past three 
o'clock the same afternoon. 

In person he was somewhat above the medium 
height and well proportioned. He had a massive 
head and regular and strongly marked features. His 
white hair, which only partly covered his head, when 
brushed back, as he always wore it, showed a broad, 
ftill forehead. He wore a chin beard which, in his 
advanced years, was white. In disposition he was 

He left a wife and six children. He married Jen- 
nie Wilson, daughter of Jesse Wilson, of Albany, in 
1858. His children were Captain Warren Beach, at 
present a member of General Hancock's staff; Judge 
Miles Beach, of the Court of Common Pleas in New 
York ; John Beach, of Knoxville, Tenn.; Anna, wife 
of Walter S. Appleton, of the firm of D. Appleton & 
Co.; William, aged eleven years ; and George, aged 
ten years. 


The ancestors of Mr. Smith have been citizens of 
Westchester County for many generations past. His 
great grandfather, John Smith, was a tenant and 
afterward the owner of one of the farms of the Manor 
of Phillipsburg. This homestead, situated about 
two miles east of Sing Sing, he left by will to his son 
Caleb Smith, who died in 1832, at an advanced age. 
The latter married Elizabeth Sherwood, and they 
were the parents of a large family. One of their sons 
Isaac C. Smith, was born in 1797, and married Maria, 
daughter of George Titlar, who came when a child to 
this country from the north of Ireland, was a soldier 
during the Revolution, and one of the company who 
laid the great chain across the Hudson River at West 
Point. Mr. Smith died in 1877, leaving three chil- 
dren, — George T., Cornelia (wife of James T. Stratton, 
of Oakland, Cal., late United States Surveyor-Gen- 
eral of that State), and J. Malcolm Smith, who was 
bom in New York, March 11, 1823, while his parents 
were residing temporarily in that city, but removed 
with them to Sing Sing in early infancy. His father 
was desirous of giving him a collegiate education, 
and with that view he attended the preparatory 
school at Middletown, Conn., and subsequently 
entered the Wesley an University. Here he con- 
tinued till he passed the sophomore examination, 
when he was compelled to leave college on account 
of ill health, and was principally engaged in out- 
door pursuits until past the age of thirty. During 

this time he studied law, was admitted to the bar and 
established his practice at Sing Sing, where he re- 
mained till 1868. While a resident Mr. Smith was 
elected one of the trustees of the village, and was also 
elected justice of the peace for three successive terms. 
He was for a number of years one of the loan com- 
missioners for Westchester County, and for five years 
prior to 1867 clerk of the Board of Supervisors. At 
the general election in 1867 he was made county 
clerk of Westchester County and removed to White 
Plains in 1868. Finding the records and business of 
the important office, to which he had been chosen, in 
great confusion, as reported by a committee of the 
Board of Supervisors, he, upon taking possession of 
the office, at once devoted himself to the task of 
bringing order out of comparative chaos. So well 
did he perform his duties that at the expiration of his 
term he was re-elected, and in 1873 was chosen for a 
third term without opposition, his election being 
especially favored by the most prominent lawyers of 
the county without regard to party ties. Upon his 
retirement from office the following appeared in one 
of the leading newspapers of the county, reflect- 
itig, in substance, notices which appeared in nearly 
all the county papers ; 

** J. Malcolm SmiUi, Esq., whone third term of offic« m Oounty Clerk 
of this County expired on the flret of the present montli, carries witb 
him, in retiring from his official labon, the respect, good opinion and 
confldcuce of onr entire community ; and our Board of Supervisors, on the 
eve of his retiring from the office which he has fo long and so ably filled,, 
took occasion to give public and official certification to the correct and 
efficient manner in which he has discharged the various and important 
duties of the office during the past nine yeur^ in the unanimoiui adop- 
tion of the Beport of its Standing Committee on County Clerk." 

The report of the Supervisors' Committee referred 
to closes as follows : 

'• Your Committee would report that at the request of J. Malcolm 
Smith, the present County Clerk, whose term of office is about to expire, 
they have made a thorough Investigation as to the present condition of 
the books, papers and records of the office, and find the minutes of all 
the Courts duly recorded ; the Registers of Actions and Special Proceed- 
ings written up to date and properly indexed ; the Judgments docketed 
in the most plain and neat manner ; the Lis Pendens, Sheriff's Certifi- 
cates, Assignments, Ac., all recorded and plainly indexed ; and erery- 
thing relating to the papers and records of the office showing that 
regularity and order prevail throughout, and that no unfinished busi- 
ness will be left to be performed by Mr. Smith's successor in office. 

"Mr. Smith has always been a Democrat, and for twenty years prior 
to his retirement from office held a prominent position in the councils of 
his party.'* 

Since his retirement he has been engaged in the 
practice of law in White Plains, devoting himself 
more especially to examination of titles and matters 
of law pertaining to real estate. He has been for 
forty years connected with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and is well known as an active and influ- 
ential member, largely aiding financially and by judi- 
cious counsel in the erection of churches, both in 
Sing Sing and White Plains. He has been an ex- 
tensive traveler in various portions of the United 
States and few men in this county have a wider circle 
of acquaintance. He married Hannah, daughter ot 
James McCord, of Sing Sing. They have one child^ 


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Ella, wife of Charles V. Moore, of the well-known 
insurance firm of W. M. Onderdonk & Co., of New 
York City. 

A few words should be added concerning his father, 
Captain Isaac C. Smith. During his whole life Cap- 
tain Smith was identified with the growth and busi- 
ness of Sing Sing. He was the builder of the steam- 
boat "Mount Pleasant" ;in 1835 and the "Tele- 
graph " in 1836, and was the projector of the morning 
steamboat line from Sing Sing to New York. He 
was the builder of more than one hundred vessels, 
from a small sloop to a ship of three thousand tons. 
During his life he bore a part in the erection of five 
churches, and was known as the " father of Sing 
Sing Methodism," being one of the original corpora- 
tors of the first church of that denomination in the 
village, and the largest contributor towards its erec- 
tion. Afler a life of active usefulness, he died while 
on a visit to his son in White Plains, having reached 
his eightieth year. 


Among the political leaders of Westchester County 
a prominent place must be given to Hon. John B. 
Haskin, who is descended from a long line of true 
American ancestry. His grandfather, Benjamin F. 
Haskin, was a native of Sheffield, Massachusetts, 
where he was born in 1767, and removed when a 
young man to Poughkeepsie, where he entered a store 
as clerk, and became partner. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Gilbert Corn well, who lived at Nine Part- 
ners, and removing to New York, became largely con- 
nected with shipping interests, and the owner of 
several vessels. His children were Henry R.; Benja- 
min F., a sea-captain who settled in Peru, where his 
descendants are still found ; William E., of Daven- 
port, Iowa, who died in 1884, Harriet, wife of 

Collins; Maria, wife of Graham; Jane, wife 

of Casper Trumpy, now living at Greenwich, Ct. ; and 
Caroline, wife of William Brown, of Yonkers, who 
died in 1885. 

Henry B. Haskin, the oldest son, was born October 
27, 1794, and died January 24, 1848. He was edu- 
cated at St. Mary's College, Maryland ; was a mid- 
shipman in the War of 1812; was with Commodore 
Chauncey at the battle of Sackett's Harbor, and was 
wounded there. He was a man of good education 
and ability, and' established business in a store on 
Varrick Street, New York. In 1816 he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Bussing, who lived near 
Williams' Bridge, and was a descendant of Aaron 
Bussing, who came from Holland, and settled at Har- 
lem. He was the owner of a farm of four hundred 
acres in the Manor of Fordham, which he left to his 
two sons, Johannes and Petrus. It remained in the 
bands of their descendants for one hundred and fifty 
years, and a portion of it is now in Bedford Park. 
The children of this marriage were Henry R., who 
died in California ; John B. ; and William R, now 

treasurer of the Board of Excbe in New York. Af- 
ter the death of Mrs. Haskin, Mr. Haskin was mar- 
ried a second time, to Ann, daughter of Benjamin F. 
Lowe, and they had two children — Harriet, wife of 
R. Ridgly Wheatly, of New York, and Benjamin F., 
a member of the Excise Board of New York, who 
died, greatly lamented by his many friends, March 
1, 1884. 

John B. E[askin, the second son, was bom at the 
Mansion House, in Fordham, August 27, 1821, the 
place of his birth being now a portion of Woodlawn 
Cemetery. His mother, whose name he never fails to 
mention in terms of the utmost respect and afiection, 
was a woman of great energy and determination, 
qualities which she transmitted to her son. His early 
education was received at the public school, and when 
fourteen years old he entered the law-office of G^rge 
Wilson. His natural quickness and ability were such 
that in four years he was sufficiently expert to take 
charge of the law-offico of John M. Bixby. From 
his earliest days he was brought in constant contact 
with politics and politicians, and having passed the 
requisite examination, he was admitted to the bar May 
16, 1842, his certificate being signed by Hon. Samuel 
Nelson, Judge of the Supreme Court. Five years 
later he was elected to the offiee of civil justice, and 
held court at the comer of Bowery and Third Street, 
and continued in this position till 1849, when the 
office was abolbhed. He seemed naturally destined 
for active political life, and his influence and ability 
were soon felt in the councils of his party. Fortu- 
nately for himself and the public, he was not a man to 
be bound by party trammels, or to be the obsequious 
slave of party rule. He called himself a " National 
Conservative Democrat," and might almost be said to 
be his own party. In 1848 Mr. Haskin removed from 
New York and settled at Fordham, near the scenes 
of his early childhood. The Democracy of his native 
county had to some extent escaped the corrupting in- 
fluences which had made the party in New York a dis- 
grace to the city and the State. Here he came in con- 
tact with a class of politicians who were more able to 
appreciate his tme position and ready to join their 
force') with his own. In 1850 he was elected super- 
visor, and was re-elected, and one of his many acts for 
public benefit was his successful efibrt to erect a free 
bridge over Harlem River. 

In 1853 he was appointed corporation attorney and 
held office till 1856. In that year he was elected mem- 
ber of Congress for the Ninth District on the regular 
Democratic ticket. It was soon evident that he Was 
not the man to sit on a back seat. His first speech 
attracted at once the attention of the House, being 
made in opposition to the attempt of Alexander H. 
Stephens to disgrace Admiral Hiram Paulding for 
causing the arrest of the noted filibuster, William H. 
Walker. This speech marked Mr. Haskin as one of 
the accomplished orators of the House. In the fierce 
political strife which followed the attempt to introduce 



slavery into the Territory of Kansas, he took at once 
a prominent position, and was one of the first to raise 
his voice against the Lecompton fraud, among the 
most active of the adherents of Senator Stephen A. 
Douglass, and an untiring organizer of the Democrats 
in the House against the administration. As a mat- 
ter of course, a man who ventured to kick over the 
traces of party discipline was speedily denounced as 
a traitor to his party, but his opposition to Buchanan 
has been more than justified by the impartial verdict 
of history. 

In 1858 Mr. Haskin was an Independent candidate 
for Congress, his opponent being (Jouvemeur Kemble, 
of Cold Spring. This was probably the most exciting 
political contest ever witnessed in the district, and 
resulted in the election of Mr. Haskin by a miyority 
of thirteen votes. His nature showed itself when he 
stated from his seat in Congress, " I came here with 
no party collar on my neck." His independence was 
too plain to be misunderstood, and an attack upon 
him in the personal organ of President Buchanan 
was answered by him in an able speech on the floor 
of the House, in which his position and relation to 
the Democratic party were fully explained. ''I am a 
Democrat, — a Democrat in essence, in substance, and 
not in mere form ; Democracy, according to my read- 
ing, IB the rule of the people under the law." In the 
Thirty-sixth Congress he was chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Public Expenditures, and member of the 
Committee on Public Printing, and organized the re- 
search into current corruption known as the " Covodc 
Investigation." Among his most intimate friends 
was Senator Broderick, of California, who had been 
his early schoolmate, and the friendship then begun 
continued till the day when the Senator fell, the victim 
of a duel occasioned by political animosity. It devolved 
upon Mr. Haskin to deliver a fitting tribute to the 
memory of his friend, which was a masterpiece of 
pathetic eloquence. 

His last speech in Congress was delivered February 
23, 1861 . It was a characteristically bold and clear 
review of the agitation which led to the great crisis 
in our history ; expressed his belief that the perilous 
condition of the country was directly traceable to the 
conduct of President Buchanan, and contained a 
scathing denunciation of the treasonable acts of his 

During the course of the war a weaker man in his 
position would have been a Copperhead, but in Mr. 
Haskin the Union found a strong supporter. In 1863 
he was elected supervisor of West Farms, and con- 
ducted with success the measures for raising troops 
and assisting the government in its efforts to subdue 
rebellion. Prominently identified with all local im- 
provements, his most active efforts were devoted to 
the establishment of the public school in his district 
on a sure foundation. In the face of bitter opposi- 
tion on the part of many of the wealthy men in the 
vicinity, he succeeded in procuring the erection of 

the present school building at Fordham, at a cost of 
seventy thousand dollars, which must ever remain a 
monument to his energy and public spirit. 

Mr. Haskin married Jane, daughter of Peter Val- 
entine, a representative of one of the oldest families 
in the county. Their children are Elizabeth, wife of 
E. V. Welsh ; Emma, wife of Colonel J. Milton 
Wyatt ; John B., Jr., Adele Douglass, wife of Joseph 
Murray, Jr.; and Mary. 

The estate of Mr. Haskin, at Fordham, though 
now a part of the great city, has not yet lost its rural 
beauty. Here, surrounded by all that can make life 
enjoyable, he passes his days in the society of his 
family and Mends. The visitor will find there as his 
host one who is thoroughly versed in the ways of the 
world, and whose intimate acquaintance with politics 
and politicians has made the name " Tuscarora Has- 
kin " one of the best known in Westchester County. 

As a politician Mr. Haskin has been remarkably 
successful, but the secret of his success and influence 
may be stated in a few words. Utterly fearless in 
the expression of his views, his friends know him as 
one upon whom they can depend, while his enemies 
find in him a man who can neither be frightened nor 
cajoled. A weak politician of an inferior grade will 
truckle to his adversaries and strive to conciliate by 
unworthy means. Mr. Haskin is the type of a poli- 
tician who boldly defies his opponents and challenges 
them to a contest which they generally have the pru- 
dence to avoid. Among the notable instances of his 
traits may be mentioned his fearless letter to the 
authorities of the St. John's College, of Fordham, 
representatives of a power to which weaker politi- 
cians would have yielded with obsequious reverence, 
while his bold and scathing rebukes of many of the 
prominent politicians of the present time are too well 
known to require mention, and his firm self-reliance 
has shown by its success the truth of the saying, 
" They can conquer who believe they can." 


Mr. Banta, who is among the best known jurists of 
Westchester County, and by his activity in the es- 
pousal of every just cause has brought himself 
prominently before its people, both in political and 
social life, was bom in the city of New York, October 
3, 1828. He was one of ten children and the only 
son of Solomon Banta, who married Maria Eoome, of 
New Jersey. 

While quite young his father sent him to Public 
School No. 3, in the Ninth Ward, New York City, 
from which he graduated. He then attended the 
private school of Mr. Starr, in Amos Street, leaving it 
at the age of sixteen to enter the University of the 
City of New York. 

In 1848, after his graduation from college, he 
entered the law-office of David E. Wheeler as manag- 
ing clerk, remaining in this position till the death of 
his employer, in 1869, when the business was divided. 


•^ ' / 




slavery into tlie Territory of Kansas, he took at once | the nrpaaty* --' 
a prominent position, and was on#» nf ♦*• - '^ 

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the real estate portion of it falling into his own 

Mr. Banta has since continued to manage the busi- 
ness. By his faithful attention to the interests of his 
clients and his skill in the management of the affairs 
which they have placed in his hands, he has accumu- 
lated for himself an extended and lucrative practice, 
which is continually increasing. 

In 1870, after a long residence in New York, he re- 
moved to Mamaroneck, where he resides at present. 
From his arrival in Westchester County he has 
deeply interested himself in its politics. Being a 
Democrat, he immediately identified himself with his 
party in Mamaroneck, and was elected in 1877 super- 
visor of the town, an office he continues to hold. The 
liberal course pursued by 
him in the County Board 
so won the approval of his 
party that in 1885 he was 
made their nominee for 
surrogate, and received a 
large majority of the votes 
cast at the election. A pre- 
viously rendered decision, 
however, to the effect that 
no vacancy existed, de- 
prived him of the office. 

In 1849 Mr. Banta mar- 
ried Miss Eliza Gedney. 
They have three children, 
— Hannah M., wife of 
William A. Turner ; Ever- 
etto, wifeof F.S.Sheldon ; 
and Eloise J. 

He is an attendant of 
the Methodist Church, of 
Mamaroneck, and is high- 
ly respected in the com- 
munity as an honorable 
and useful citizen. 

1861, when he entered the office of Carpentier & 
Beach, in New York, and remained until May, 1864. 
In 1863 he joined the Seventy-first Regiment New 
York Militia during the Gettysburg campaign, and 
returned at the close of the riots in New York. He 
resumed his law studies until August 24, 1864, when 
he joined the navy as a landsman, and was detailed as 
clerk on board the receiving ship in Brooklyn Navy- 
Yard. He was afterwards on the United States 
steamer " Mohican," commanded by Daniel Ammen, 
now rear admiral on the retired list, and was at- 
tached to the North Atlantic Squadron. While on 
this vessel he was clerk to the executive officer. He 
was engaged in both battles of Fort Fisher, N. C, in 
December, 1864, and January, 1865, spent the 
winter on the Ogeechee 



Hon. Ernest Hall, prom- 
inent as a member of the 

bar, and a judge of the City Court of New York, was 
bom in London, England, October 24, 1844. His 
father, Henry B. Hall, was a landscape and portrait 
engraver, came to America with his family in 1860 
and settled at Woodstock, in Morrisania. He after- 
wards removed to George Street, near the Boston 
road, where he died in 1884. 

Judge Hall attended the old Public School No. 
3, on Fordham Avenue (now Third Avenue), 
near One Hundred and Sixty-ninth Street, from 1851 
to 1858, when he graduated. He then obtained a 
position in the well-known publishing house of the 
Putnams, and remained until 1860. In the fall of that 
year he began the study of law in the office of Henry 
Spratley, of Morrisania. He continued there until 

River, in Georgia, and 
assisted in the dismant- 
ling of Fort McAllister, 
which had previously 
been captured by Sher- 
man's army. He came 
North in March, and re- 
ceived his discharge in 
Boston, May 24, 1865. 
He then entered the law 
school of the University 
of the City of New 
York in the senior class, 
graduated June 17, 1866, 
and was admitted to the 
bar. He established an 
office for the practice of 
law in Morrisania, which 
he continued till 1877, 
when he removed to New 
York, and was elected 
judge of the City Court 
November, 1881, a posi- 
tion which he still holds. 
^■^ From 1869 to 1873 he 

k i jT) \_\ ^ was a member of the board 

Uvy (jJn^^AA^ ^^ tU/\/riJ^ of trustees of the town of 

"^^^ Morrisania. In the latter 

year he was appointed counsel to the corporation, and 
served in that capacity until the time of the annexa- 
tion to the city of New York. He was subsequently 
appointed by E. Delafield Smith, then corporation 
counsel of the city of New York, to attend to all suits 
then pending affecting the annexed district, and was 
continued in this position by William C. Whitney^ 
the successor of Mr. Smith. He was also counsel of 
the Board of Excise, of the German Savings Bank 
and of the Fire Department of Morrisania. He is 
a member of Post Lafayette, of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and assisted in its organization. 

Judge Hall's brothers, as well as himself, were 
actively engaged in the late war. Henry B. Hall was 
major of the Sixth New York Artillery, fought at the 



battle of Bull Run, was wounded at Brandy Station 
in 1868, and was discharged from service upon re- 
covering from his wound. Charles B. Hall was a 
member of the Seventy-first Regiment in 1861, and 
afterward joined the Ninety-fifth Regiment New York 
Volunteers, and his brother Al fred was a member of the 
Seventy-first Regiment in 1862-63. Judge Hall has 
four sisters — Annie, wife of Edmund H. Knight (she 
died in 1858, leaving three children) ; Emily, wife of 
William Momberger ; Alice and Eliza, both unmar- 

Judge Hall married Charita, daughter of Cyprian 
Tallient. Their children are Charita, Alma and 

He is well known as an able and distinguished 
member of the bar, and is especially noted for the 
clearness and perspicuity with which he delivers his 
charges to the jury. Gifted with a voice of remark- 
able power, his enunciation and his reasoning are 
alike perfect. Every point of the subject is laid down 
in so careful a manner as to render it perfectly plain 
to the most common intellect, and with an impar- 
tiality which leaves no ground for the charge of in- 
tentional bias on either side of the case. As an active 
and energetic politician, he is one concerning whom 
it is safe to prophesy still higher positions in the 

The brothers of Judge Hall constitute the well- 
known firm of H. B. HalPs Sons, steel engravers, and 
their name is known in connection with the finest 
specimens of that art to be found in this country. 


Mr. Johnson is a great-great-grandson of the dis- 
tinguished American clergyman. Dr. Samuel John- 
son, who was born in Guilford, Conn., October 14, 
1696, and died at Stratford, in the same State, June 6, 

His son, William Samuel Johnson, was first presi- 
dent of Columbia College, a member of the conven- 
tion that framed the Constitution of the United States 
and the first delegate in the Senate of the United 
States from the State of Connecticut.^ 

A grandson of William Samuel Johnson, was a New 
York lawyer of prominence and was a member of the 
Senate of the State of New York. He married Miss Lau- 
ra Wolsey, sister of President Wolsey, of Yale College. 
Their second child and oldest son, Samuel William, was 
born in the city of New York, October 27, 1828. 
After a preparatory course in private schools of the 
city he entered Princeton College, graduating in 1849. 
He then entered the Law School, Cambridge, Mass., 
and after a full course graduated in 1851. He after- 
ward entered Ihe law-office of District Attorney N. 

1 For a fnll description of hts life. Me Appleton'i Encyclopaedia ; alio 
**Life of Dr. Samuel Johnion,*' bj E. E. Beardsley (New York, 1874). 

Bowditch Blunt, remaining till 1852, when he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. 

Immediately after admission Mr. Johnson removed 
to Cattaraugus County, N. Y., where he remained for 
thirteen years in charge of a large landed interest. 
In 1866 he retired from active life, removing at the 
same time to Rye Neck, where he has since resided. 
He has been active in the politics of the county ever 
since his arrival in it. He early connected himself 
with the Democratic party in the home of his choice 
and has held several important political positions. 

In 1871 he was appointed by Governor John T. 
Hoffman commissioner-general and chief of ord- 
nance for the State of New York. He has been nine 
times elected supervisor of the town of Rye and was 
for two years chairman of the board. For three years 
he was a member of Assembly from the Second Dis- 
trict of Westchester County. It is a remarkable fact 
that he is the fourth member of the family in the di- 
rect line who has represented a constituency in State 
Legislatures. He also interested himself in military 
affairs. From 1853 to 1872 he held commissions 
from the State of New York, the last one being that 
of brigadier-general. 

He has been prominent in club life and is at pres- 
ent a member of the Manhattan, University and St. 
Nicholas Clubs, of New York City. He is also a 
director in the North River Fire Insurance Company 
and a trustee of the Port Chester Savings Banks. 

He married Miss Frances Ann Sanderson, of New 
York, who died at her home in Mamaroneck in 1879. 
Their only living child, William Samuel, is a member 
of the bar in New York City, and resides with his 

Mr. Johnson is a highly respected and useful citi- 
zen and his liberal spirit and cordial disposition has 
made him many warm and lasting friendships. 


The ancestors of the family of which Mr. Scribner 
is an honored representative were among the early 
settlers of Salisbury, N. H., and the name is fre- 
quently found in the annals of that town. That of 
Samuel Scribner occurs in 1764, and during the 
following year he, in company with one of his 
neighbors, was taken prisoner by the Indians and 
carried to Canada, where he was sold as a captive, but 
was subsequently ransomed by the colonial govern- 
ment. In 1756 he joined the regiment of Colonel 
Nathan Meserve, which was raised for the Crown 
Point expedition, and served from May to December 
of that year. In 1757 he was a soldier in the regi- 
ment of Colonel Thomas Tash, and in the following 
year appears as one of the regiment raised by Colonel 
John Hart. The Revolution found in him a man 
ready for the hour, and, though exempt by age, he 
was one of the first to enlist in the regiment com- 
manded by Colonel John Stark, which took an active 


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/ .' a>- 



part in the battle of Bunker Hill. Among the list 
of soldiers in the town of Salisbury, May 27, 1776, are 
the names of Edward, Ebenezer, Benjamin and Jon- 
athan Scribner. 

David Scribner, son of Ebenezer and grandson of 
Samuel, was born May 12, 1767, and was the father of 
thirteen children, — David, Hannah, Sarah, Eben, 
Sewall B., Silus, Ruth, Jacob D., Jonathan, Albert G., 
Hannah D., Alfred and Almira H. 

Sewall B. Scribner was born March 12, 1793, and 
removed from his native place (Andover, N. H.) to 
Monroe CJounty, N. Y., in 1816. At that time the 
present city of Rochester was a mere hamlet, and Mr 
Scribner was among the pioneers in what is now one 
of the most prosperous portions of the State. 

In 1821 he married Clarissa De Wayne Hilton? 
daughter of David Hilton, who was descended from 
a uoted line of English ancestry, whose family records 
are unbroken from June 23, 1295, to the present time. 
The children of this ' marriage were Gilbert Hilton 
Scribner, Alsada, Arveda (wife of William E. Stick- 
land, of Rochester), Albert S. (who died in 1852), 
Mary (wife of Van Buren Denslow), Celesta (de- 
ceased) and Celia M. 

Gilbert Hilton Scribner was born in Ogden, Mon- 
roe County, N. Y., June 23, 1831, and his early edu- 
cation was received in the common schools of his na- 
tive place, which offered exceptional advantages. He 
subsequently became a student at the Genesee Wes- 
leyan Seminary, at Lima, N. Y., and, after remaining 
there two years, entered college at Oberlin, where be 
received the highest honors for his thoroughness and 
originality. At the close of his collegiate course, in 
1853, he went to New York and began life in the 
great city without friends or acquaintance, and 
with little to encourage him, but an amount of 
determination and energy with which he could 
not fail to work his way. Commencing the study 
of law in the office of Hon. Daniel B. Taylor 
who enjoyed a large practice and was the possessor of 
one of the largest law libraries in the city, the young 
Btudent, by indefatigable labor, soon made himself 
useful in his chosen profession, and, in 1855, was ad- 
mitted to the bar and soon after called to practice in 
the United States Courts as proctor, solicitor and ad- 
vocate. Rising rapidly in his profession, his prudence 
and ability soon gained him a large and lucrative 
practice, and he was frequently retained as counsel 
for many monied corporations and large estates. In 
1862 he was one of the organizers of the North Amer- 
ica Life Insurance Company of New York, of which 
he became a director and counsel, and, after long and 
arduous labor in collating and analyzing facts and 
statistics in relation to travel and accidents, framed a 
bill, which was passed by the Legislature, allowing 
that company to insure against accidents to travelers. 
This was the first authority granted in this country 
for accident insurance. 

Mr. Scribner came to Yonkers in 1858, and since 

that time his life and career have been identified with 
the history of Westchester County. Upon coming to 
Yonkers he built a house on Woodworth Avenue, 
near Locust Street, there being at that time very 
few dwellings in that vicinity. His home was sur- 
rounded by a beautiful locust grove. He subsequently 
moved to a residence at " Hillside," near the corner of 
Broadway and High Street. His present residence, 
** Inglehurst," was purchased in the spring of 1 880, and 
from its elevated position commands one of the finest 
views of the Hudson River. It is also a landmark, 
being situated at the extreme north bounds of the 
•'Lemuel Wells estate," which embraced the greater 
part of the thickly-settled portion of the city of 

The first ofiScial position held by Mr. Scribner was 
that of village trustee, in 1863. At that time, with a . 
few others, he organized a very thorough temperance 
reform. Born of Whig parentage, he early attached 
himself to that party, and remained a member while 
it had an existence. He attended the convention 
which nominated Fremont, in 1856, and since that 
time has been an able and earnest supporter of the 
Republican party. In 1863 he was made chairman of 
the County Committee. It was due to his ownership 
and efibrts that the Statesmany the leading Republican 
paper in the county, was established. In addition to 
his extensive law practice, he was for a time the pres- 
ident of the Palisades Bank of Yonkers, and also a 
director of several large corporations. 

In 1868 he retired from the practice of law and with 
his family made a long tour in Europe. He made a 
second trip in 1870, was present at the declaration of 
the Franco-Prussian War, and enjoyed special oppor- 
tunities of visiting the armies of the contending 

Previous to his departure for Europe he had re- 
ceived and declined a nomination for State Senator, 
but upon his return, in the fall of 1870, was elected 
member of the Assembly by a very large majority, 
and was the first member other than a Democrat who 
had been elected from the district for over thirty 
years. The weight of his ability and influence was 
soon felt and he soon became a leader in the Legis- 
lature and in his party, devoting much of his time 
and effort to opposing the measures of the "Tweed 
Ring,'' then in the height of its power, but destined 
to a sudden and disastrous fall. In March, 1871, he 
was instrumental in organizing the Young Men's 
State Republican Association, the object of which was 
to unite discordant elements and end the strifes which 
had impaired the usefulness of the party. This or- 
ganization very naturally chose Mr. Scribner for its 
president, and having shown himself a competent and 
faithful leader, he was nominated by acclamation at 
the State Convention in Syracuse, in 1871, for Secre- 
tary of State, a nomination which was signally con- 
firmed at the succeeding election by a majority of over 
twenty thousand. Soon after the close of the L^is- 



latare of 1871 the representatives of the insurance, 
banking and other corporate interests of the State 
united in a complimentary tribute to Mr. Scribner 
for his intelligent, able and successful opposition to un- 
just legislation while a member of Assembly. The 
ceremony of the presentation of a service of silver 
plate took place in the chambers of the Board of Un- 
derwriters in New York, and an address engrossed on 
parchment, signed by and presented on behalf of the 
presidents of more than fifty of the monied institu- 
tions of New York, was not only a compliment to 
Mr. Scribner's character, but a certification that he 
had performed his public services in an acceptable 

Notwithstanding the engrossing cares of an active 
political and business life, he has never permitted his 
tastes for literature and art to become dull or enfee- 
bled. Often organizing and always connected with one 
or more literary circles, he has not suffered his love of 
learning to be stifled by the cares and responsibilities 
of his profession or the routine of daily labor. To 
him is due the credit of establishing the Bancroft 
Society of New York, and also **The Society oJ 
Pundits,*', a literary circle, which for many years con- 
tinued its meetings, and embraced in its membership 
some of the brightest men and Women of the city 
which he had made his home. He was also for many 
years a trustee of the Bible Union and also of the 
Rochester Theological Seminary. 

The profound problem of the origin of life upon 
our planet has engrossed the attention of the greatest 
minds in the world of science, but still remains a 
question to which there seems no reply. Next to this 
comes the inquiry as to the place of its first manifes- 
tation, the determination of which would appear 
equally hopeless. Devoting his leisure time and 
thought to this and kindred subjects, Mr. Scribner has 
embodied his theories and the results of his investiga- 
tions in a monograph entitled *^ Where did Life 
Begin ?" This work, which appeared in November, 
1883, immediately attracted the attention of the inves- 
tigating and scientific public. It is a carefully pre- 
pared and forcibly written treatise, having for its 
object the establishment of the theory that all life, 
both vegetable and animal, must have had its origin 
within the polar circles, and further, that by the cool- 
ing of the earth's substance, and the consequent 
lowering of surface temperature at the poles, all 
organic life has been gradually driven to the temperate 
and to the equatorial regions. To express an opinion 
as to the truth or fallacy of this theory would in this 
place be presumptuous, but it is sufficient to say that 
the hypothesis has not only been well received by 
the press and scholars, but has been the means of 
turning the attention of men of science to a closer 
consideration of the subject, and the discoveries that 
may follow may far exceed the most sanguine expec- 
tations of its author. 

Upon his retirement from political life Mr. Scribner 

accepted the office of vice-president of the Belt Rail- 
road (so-called) of New York, and retained that 
position until 1880, when he was chosen president, 
a position which he still holds. He is also connected 
with many associations of asocial and charitable nature, 
being a member of the Union League Club, president 
of the Skin and Cancer Hospital of New York, an 
institution which has done much to relieve human 
suffering ; a member of both the British and the 
American Associations for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, and trustee of St. John's Hospital in Yonkers. 

He married Sarah Woodbury, daughter of Hon. 
James Osgood Pettengill of Rochester, who, as a leg- 
islator, and as an officer and patron of the Rochester 
Theological Seminary and other institutions of learn- 
ing, is well known in Western New York. His father. 
Captain James Pettengill, came fi-om Salisbury, 
N. H., and settled at Ogden, Monroe ^County, in the 
early part of the present century. The ancestors of 
the various families of this naiAe were four brothers, 
Matthew, David, Andrew and Benjamin, who came 
from Yorkshire, England, in 1640, and settled in 
Newburyport, Mass., whence they removed to Salis- 
bury. The mother of Mrs. Scribner was Emeline, 
daughter of Manlius G. Woodbury, who was an early 
settler and was made alderman in the first charter 
election in the city of Rochester. 

Mr. Scribner has six surviving children, — Gilbert 
Hilton, Jr., Howard, Florence, Marion, Marguerite 
and Osgood Pettengill. 


Phillip Smith was born in Connecticut, March 15, 
1774, and married Sally Smith November 23, 1799. 
She was a granddaughter of Benjamin Stebbins, who 
came from England and settled in Deerfield, Mass., 
and was probably the ancestor of the families of that 
name in this country. Phillip and Sally Smith lo- 
cated shortly after their marriage at Bedford, West- 
chester County, N. Y., and were members of the old 
Episcopal Church of that place. They were parents 
of eight children, of whom Chauncey Smith was the 
sixth and was born November 10, 1810. 

Bedford was then the county -seat and a pla<^e of no 
small importance ; in fact, the principal village of the 
county. Mr. Smith at an early age entered the Hi^h 
School and academy at Bedford, which was an insti- 
tution of note, second to none in the State, and in- 
cluded among its pupils Hon. William H. Robertson, 
Hon. James W. Husted and many others of distinc- 
tion. A short time after graduating he studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar January 7, 1851. 

He married Hannah, daughter of John P. Horton, 
of New Castle, Westchester County, whose wife was 
Elizabeth Fowler, both descended from old West- 
chester County families. 

Elizabeth was a first cousin of Isaac Van Wart, who 
was one of the captors of Major Andre. Mr. Smith 
moved to White Plains and was appointed depaty 



county clerk in 1847, and appointed county clerk the 
same year, to fill a vacancy. 

Id January, 1847 or 1848, he was appointed agent of 
Sing Sing State Prison, and after leaving Sing Bing 
practiced law in White Plains for several years. 

He removed to Morrisania shortly after the settle- 
ment of the new village, about thirty years ago, and 
opened a law-ofiice where he continued successfully 
the practice of his profession up to the winter of 1877, 
when he was compelled to give up business on account 
of a paralytic stroke. He was an old-school type of a 
Christian gentleman, highly respected in all the walks 
of life, and active in the true interests of the society 
and community in which he lived. He was inti- 
mately acquainted with, and highly respected by. the 

men who were first con- 

nected with the growth 
and prosperity of Mor- 
risania, 8uch as Nicholas 
McGraw, Jordan L. Mott> 

Gouvemeur, Henry and 

William H. Morris, Rob- 
ert H.Elton, Hon. Silas D. 

Gifford and many others 

and was well known 

thronghout the county. 

He was naturally of a 

retiring disposition, and 

although oflen urged to 

accept public office, he 

refused. He continued 

an invalid from 1877 to 

his death, which occurred 

December 25, 1883, at the 

homestead in which he 

had resided for more than 

twenty-five years. He left 

two daughters and one 

son, W. Stebbins Smith, 

who is a member of the 

bar, in active prac- 
tice, particularly 

in the counties of 

New York and 

Westchester. Mr. Smith studied law in the office 

of his father and attended the Columbia College 

Law School, from which institution he received his 

diploma, and was admitted to the bar June 12, 1871. 

lyCty'-X^ ^^^ 


Mr. Lovatt was bom May 22, 1850, at Newark, N. J. 
His father was John Lovatt and his mother Mary 
Ann Lovatt, He was the eldest of six children. 
Educated both in the ordinary English branches and 
in the classics in the public schools of that city, he 
graduated with high honors at the Public High School 
when he was but fifteen years old, receiving his 
diploma on July 21 , 1865. He then went to the city 
of New York and began life as an errand boy in a 

wholesale fancy goods house, but his parents having 
removed, on May 23, 1866, to the village of North 
Tarrytown, in Westchester County, he entered his 
father's silk mills, in that village, to learn silk manu- 
facture, and acquired a thorough knowledge of that 

On May 22, 1871, he married Miss Sarah Theodosia 
Tompkins, a descendant of one of the most respected 
families of Westchester County, she being a grand- 
niece of the Hon. Daniel D. Tompkins, formerly 
Gk)vemor of New York and Vice-President of the 
United States. 

For several years after marriage Mr. Lovatt re- 
mained at his trade, but it being distasteful to him he 
determined to become a lawyer, which had always 
been his great ambition. 
In order to do this, not 
having the means to at- 
tend college, he laid out 
the same course of reading 
as he would have been re- 
quired to take if attending 
law school, and while busy 
in the mills during the 
day, pursued his studies at 
night and early in the 
morning, thus mastering 
the many thousands of 
pages of legal text works 
necessary to a thorough 
understandingof the prin- 
ciples of law. Entering a 
law-office in Tarrytown,- 
he completed the three 
years' clerkship then ne- 
cessary for a student's ad- 
mission to practice. On 
February 14, 1878, he 
passed the prescribed ex- 
amination, was sworn in 
as an attorney-at- 
law, and in May, 
1878, was admitted 
as a Counsellor of 
the Supreme Court. His energy, perseverance and 
knowledge of the law soon gave him a leading place 
in his profession at the Westchester County bar. 

He has been engaged in numerous cases of import- 
ance, both in the criminal and civil courts, many of 
which have been reported. He has been remarkably 
successful as an advocate. Among the many cases in 
the criminal courts in which he was counsel for the 
defense, some of the more prominent murder trials 
were those of William Newman, Fitzgerald, Brown- 
lee, Coleman and Angelo Cornetti, the last-named 
being the first tried in this State under the amend- 
ments to the Code of Criminal Procedure, by which 
all capital cases can be appealed and execution of 
sentence thereby stayed until the appeal can be heard. 



He has also tried a great number of civil causes 
and has met with unusual success. He was one of 
the counsel in the famous " Anderson Will Case," in 
which a large sum of money was recovered for hin 
clients, — two little girls, aged ten and twelve years, 
grandchildren of John Anderson. 

He has built up an extensive and lucrative prac- 
tice, has acquired property, and his pleasant and 
modest house on Beekman Avenue, North Tarrytown, 
is provided with all the surroundings and appoint 
ments necessary to make it, what it certainly is, a 
happy home. 

No person in his neigh- 
borhood takes a deeper 
interest in educational 
matters. Being a firm 
believer in the public- 
school system of the State, 
he is one of its most active 
supporters and is now 
president of the Board of 
Education of the village. 

Mr. Lovatt has always 
been an ardent Republi- 
can, and upon the princi- 
ple that all good citizens 
should participate in the 
politics of the State and 
country, he has taken a 
very active part, having 
been a delegate to most 
of the conventions held 
•by his party. 

In March, 1883, al- 
though running against a 
highly respected citizen 
of his village, he 
was elected pres- 
ident, having re- 
ceived four-fiflhs 
of the ballots 

In November 
of the same year, 
in the Republi- 
can County Con- 
vention, he was unanimously nominated for district 
attorney of Westchester County. 

He is a member of the Republican County Com- 
mittee and enjoys the friendship and confidence of 
the other leaders of the party. He is of a genial and 
social disposition and has a large circle of warm 
friends. He is a member and trustee of St. Paul's 
Methodist Episcopal Church of North Tarrytown. 

He is an effective public .speaker, easy in his man- 
ners, ready and fluent in speech, possessing a large 
fund of mother wit. His studious habits, quick per- 
ception, faculty of illustration, clear judgment and 
logical conclusions carry conviction with them. 



Of Sing Sing. 

Excepting to gentlemen of the medical profession, 
there is nothing particularly interesting in the life of 
a physician or the transactions of a medical society. 
Each family, though familiar with its own medical 
adviser, seldom looks beyond its favorite to learn the 
traita of character, the 
extent of acquirements or 
the skill of others. The 
technical studies, and 
subtle researches of physi- 
cians, who strive to keep 
abreast with the rapid 
progress of the medical 
sciences, possess no inter- 
est or charm to the gen- 
eral public. It is only 
concerned with powers 
and results, and these on ly 
when disease interferes 
with the performance of 
the daily routine of busi- 
ness and pleasure, or 
when danger threatens 
life. So it becomes a 
diilicult, perhaps a need- 
less, and almost certainly 
a thankless task to at- 
tempt to write the sketch 
On the 1st day of June, 
1858, the writer 
of this chapter 
read the annual 
address, as presi- 
dent, before the 
Medical Society 
of the County 
of Westchester, 
taking for his 
theme "Biogra- 
phical Sketches of the Deceased Physicians of West- 
chester County, N. Y.," which address was subse- 
quently published in pamphlet form, "by order of the 
Society." (New York, 1861, 8vo., pp. 52.) 

He must now go back seven and twenty years, and 
make extracts from that " plain, unvarnished tale of 
character, merits, traits and experience of those med- 
ical men who have previously been the incumbents of 
the field we now occupy," to which will be added 
brief sketches of several honored members of our be- 
loved profession who have since been called from 
their labor — some at the full end of man's allotted 
time, and others abruptly, in the prime of man- 



hood's vigor, and in the midst of their greatest use- 

Oyer twenty years ago, Dr. James Fountain gave 
the writer a little document that was previously 
supposed to be irrecoverably lost, which contains the 
original records of the first five meetings of the Med- 
ical Society of Westchester County. This book was 
restored to the society, by which it is now preserved. 
It begins thus, — 

** At ft iwpaeteble Meediig of Pbydcians of the Ooonty of WMtcheiter 
OB the 8th D«7 of May, 1797— i|t the Hooee of WiUUun Barker in the 
White PUOns—PTMeiit— 

" Archibald HcDooald. 
Charlea McDonald. 
John Ingenoll. 
Sliaha Bmiflter. 

Lyman Cook. 
Mataon Smith. 
Elias Cornelius. 

** That a doe improTement and proper regalations may be maid in the 
Practice of Phyaic within the County of Weetcheeterandior thePurpoee 
of a nnoiify and immediate compliance with the Law of the Legislature 
passed the last Session. The Physicians afforesaid formed themseWes 
into a Society to be known and called hereafter by the name and style of 
As Mtdieal 8oei«tg of Ik* Onmtg of WetUkmUr, Upon Motion Docf . A. 
McDonald; of the white plains, was Elected president of the Society Pro 
IsMpors, and opon said motion Doctr. Matson Smith, of New Bochelle, 
was Elected Secretary thereof. 

** The Society, Pleased with the present p rogres s and deslreousthat the 
Board shall hereafter exist upon the most fair and respectable terms : and 
that the Physicians of the County shall indiscriminately receire an inri- 
tation to unite with the present members and to encourage this Laud* 
able dissign.** (Here ends the first page.) 

*^ B4$oh0d upon motion that tbe following resolution be inserted in the 
Dmtbtm y J tmrn al and Motmi PUa»cuU BtgiUer: 

" Assofosd upon m<rtion the Physicians of Westchester County be in- 
discriminately informed that it is the intention and hearty wish of the 
Members of the Society that there may be a perfect union of the Profes- 
sioB of Physic within the County fur the pnrpoee ol establishing the 
Practice npon a liberal and satisfactory Plan, that there may be a due 
obsRnranoe of the law passed at the last session of the Legislature of the 
State : And that an oppertonity may be giren f<M- such an union, the So- 
ciety hare propoeed a meeting on the 13th Day of Jntie next, at House of 
MsJ'. Jesse Hally, in Bedford, and hope this mode will be considered un- 
eqoirioally an inritation. Should any gentleman neglect the pressnt 
season of uniting with the Society after the Meeting afforesaid, no 
Ssntleman can expect admission in the Society without a rote for the 

** Upon motion resolved that Docf . A. McDonald, David Bodgen and 
Mataon Smith be a Commit ee to propoee a Constitution for this Society 
a^lnst the Meeting at Bedford, which Constitution shall be Subject to 

** The Board A^jonmM to Meet at the House of Miv{r Jesse Hally, In 
Bedford, on the 13th Day of June next 

"Matson Smith, 

"Secrstory Pro. IVrnpoty." 

The second meeting took place, as proposed, at 
Major Holly's house, June 18, 1797, at which seven- 
teen doctors were present. After the transaction of 
buainess it was 

f rmolv^ that the Rev>4 Bobt Z. Whltmore be Inrited 
to preach a Sermon befCH^ tbe Society at their next meeting. The 
board Adjourned to meet at the House of Mr. Sutton Craft, Near New 
GhMtle Church, on Tueiday, the 8th Day of August Next, at 10 o'clock 

Only six members were present at the third meeting. 

1 The biographies of living medical men which have been inserted in 
the chapter by Ibe editor of this history are indicated by foot-notes, and 
the writer b in no way responsible for them. They have been prepared 
by varioos persons, and are inserted in accordance with the wishes of 
tbe pabltshere of the work. 

No mention is made concerning the sermon, and we 
are left in doiibt as to whether it was preached or not^^^ 

The fourth meeting occurred September 12, 179T7^ 
at Mr. Sutton Craft's, with eight members present. 
This is the first meeting at which it appears that any- 
thing strictly medical was proposed. " Doctor Eben- 
ezer White waa appointed to deliver a dissertation 
on the utility of a Medical Society,'' at the next 

The fifth meeting took place at White Plains, 
"Tuesday the 31st day of October, a.d. 1797." Eight 
doctors were present At this meeting the constitu- 
tion was adopted. This is given in full in the minutes. 

The sixth, and last meeting recorded in this little 
manuscript of thirteen pages was the annual meeting, 
which was held in Bedford on Tuesday, May 8, 1798, 
at which twelve members were present. Dr. Lemuel 
Mead " delivered a dissertation upon Physiology to the 
satitifaction of the Society." 

The records of the society from this meeting to June, 
1880, are, unfortunately, lost. The aociety, I believe, 
has never failed to convene, at least annually, since 
its organization. At the present time it holds four 
sessions a year, each of which is fairly well attended. 
It has served the general purposes for which it was 
founded, though it cannot boast of having made any 
considerable contributions to medical literature. Its 
publications consist of several editions of its consti- 
tution and bye-laws,— a "Fee Bill," 1868; "Proceed- 
ings of the Society at its annual meeting, held in the 
village of Sing Sing June 3, 1856," 8vo., pp. 50, Sing 
Sing, 1857 ; and two pamphlets of " Biographical 
Sketches of Deceased Physicians of Westchester 
County, X. Y.," 8vo., pp. 52, 1861 ; " In Memoriam,'* 
8vo., pp. 41, 1875 ; and a " List of Registered Physi- 
cians," 1881. 

The individual members of the society have made 
no insignificant additions to the literature of the pro- 
fession. Appended will be found as nearly a com- 
plete list of the contributions as it has been possible 
to make at this time. By this it will be seen that 
more than a hundred articles, aggregating about 
twenty-two hundred pages of medical matter, have 
been put in print by our physicians during the past 
sixty years. 


This list mast prove Interesting, not only to the ph jsici&ns of the 
present time, but to those who may follow as in the future. If escb of 
the counties of our State has contribated as much as Westchester, the 
aggregate must amount to many Tolomes of no inconsiderable yalns. 


** An Account of an Epidemic Erysipelatous Ferer Prevailing in the 
Counties of Westchester and Putnam, in the State of New York." By 
James Fountain, M.D. Pp, 30. [N. T. Med. and Ph^. Jr., yo\. Iv. pp. 
330-359. New Yorls, 1825,] 

"Observations on Prenanthes Altissima.** By Dr. James Hubble, of 
Westchester, N. Y. Pp. 3. \N. Y. Med. and Phyt. Jr., vol. iv. pp. 484- 
486. New York, 1825.] 

**0n the Employment of Calomel and Opium in Dysentery." By Dr. 
Moore Holt, ofPt^kskill, N. Y. Pp.4. [/6W., vol. Iv. pp. 487- 



" ReflectfoDS on DlMaaM of Irritation/* By Jtanm Fountain, H.D. 
Pp. 60. [.V. r. Med. and Piky*. Jr., vol. t. pp. 146-164 ; pp. 397-426. 
New York, 1826] 

*<ACaM of Chorea Sancti Yiti.** By Jamee Fountain, M.D.. of 
Yorktown, Wettcherter County, N. Y. Pp. 6. [IbUL, toI. t. pp. 663- 

" Obeenrations on Intermittent Fever." By James Fountain, M.D. 
Pp. 27. [AT. r. Med. and Pkft. Jr., vol. ri. pp. 629-666, New York, 

" A Case of Pwudo Sypbillt.** By Jamee Fountain, M.D. Pp. 3. 
\N. Y. Med. and Pky: Jr., vol. vil. pp. 348-351. New York, 1828.] 

"Practical Obeervationi on Punctured Wounds." By Jamee Foun- 
Uln, M.D., of Yorktown, Wertcheeter County, N. Y. P. 3. [N. Y. 
Med. and Fht/e. Jr., vol. I. New Series, pp. 308-310. New York, 1829.] 

" An Enay on Typhus Fever." By James Fountain, H.D., of West- 
chester County, N. Y. Pp. 31. [Trans, of the Med. 8oc. of the State of 
New York, vol. Hi. pp 207-237. Albany, N. Y., 1837.] 


" On the Nature of Phlegmasia Dolens." By James D. Trask, M.D. 
Pp. 38. [Am. Jr. Med, Sci., N. S., vol. xiii. p. 26 January, 1847.] 

'* An Address to the Westchester County Medical Society on the Laws 
of Epidemics, as exhibited in those that have prevailed in that county 
during the last twenty yean." By BeiOamin Bassett, M.D., president 
of the Society. Pp. 9. [The N. Y. Jr. of Med. and The CoUaieral 
Boiencee, vol. ix. pp. 183-192. New York, 1847. 

"Baptisttt Tinctoria" [Indigo Weed.] By James Fountain, M.D. 
[N. Y. Jr. of Med. and The OoUaUral Sdencee, vol. Ix. pp. 410, 411.] 


** Monograph. A Statistical Inquiry into the Oftuaes, Symptoms, Pa- 
thology and Treatment of Rupture of the Uterus." By James D. Trask, 
M.D. Pp. 79. [Am. Jr. Med. Soc, N. S., vol. xv. January, 1848, p. 
104-146; April, 1848, p. 383-418.] Includes 303 cases. 

** Congenital Enlargement of Kidney." By Q. J. Fisher. P. 1. [Am. 
Jr. Med. 8ci., N. a, voL xv. p. 670. April. 1848.] 


*' Amputation of the Thigh for Caries." By O. J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 
i. [Nelson's Sorikom Lanoel, vol. vii. p. 161. June, 1863] 

" Report of Physician and Surgeon of New York State Prisons at Sing 
Sing for the year 1863." By Geo. J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 8. {Ammai Re- 
port of In»pect^>r$for 1863, p. 132-140.] 

*' Report of the Physician and Surgeon of New York State Prisons at 
Sing Sing for the year 1864." By O. J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 13. [An- 
mmal Report of Intpectore for 1854, p. 298-310.] 

** Prize Essay. Statistics of PUcenta Prsevia." By James D. Trask, 
M.D. I^. 97. [Extracted from the Tram. Am. Med. A$$o., vol. viii. p. 
672-689. Philadelphia, 1866.] 261 


** Cases of Rupture of the Womb, with Remarks ; Being a Sequel to a 
Monograph upon this Sul^ect, in this Journal for January and April, 
1848." By James D. Trask, M.D. Pp. 81. [Am. Jr. Med. SeL, N. 8., 
vol. xxxii. p. 81-111.] 

** Report of Committee on ^Medical Topography, Epidemics and En- 
demics of the Southern Section of Westchester County." By James D. 
Trask, M.D. , of White Plains. Pp.26. [Proc. of Med. Soc. of West- 
chester Countj', 1857, p. 3-28.] 

** Case of Phlegmasia Dolens after Typhoid Fever, and the Same of the 
Upper and Lower Extremities after Parturition." By James Fountain, 
M.D., of Jefferson Valley. Pp. 2. [Ihid. p. 40-41.] 

" A Case of Chronic Nephretis, Ac." By G. J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 4. 
[Trans. 31ed. Soc. S. of N. Y., 1H5C, p. 173-170.] 
" (^«8t*s Illustrating the Effects of Needles Accidentally Penetrating Dif- 

ferent Portions of the Body." By Geo. J. Fisher, M.D., of Slug Sing, 
N. Y. Pp. 6. [Proc. of Med. Soc. of Westchester County., p. 29-33.] 

** An Apology for a Report on Surgery for the Northern Section of 
Weatcbester County." By G. J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 4. [IbkL, p 


** Removal of a Laige Fibrous Nasal Polypus, by the Knife." By O. 
J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 2. [Am. Med. Momfhl^, voL vllL p. 16-17.] 

** Double Monstrosity." By G J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 2. [Am. Med. 
MontMjf for Oct., 1857, voL viiL p. 229.] 

**ACase of Chronic Tubercular Splenitia." By G.J. Fiaher, M.D. 
Pp. 3. [Trans. Med. Soc. S. of N. Y., 1867, p. 176-177.] 

** Remarks on Table of Contents and General Index of Transactions of 
Med. Soc. of the State of N. Y." ** List of.Presldents of Med. Soc. of Stato 
of N. Y., 1807-1857." **TiUes of Articles in the Trans. M. 8. of 8. of 
N. Y., 1832-ia'i7." "General Index of Trans. M. 8. of 8. of N. Y., 
1832-1867." By Geo. J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 60. [Trans. 1857, p. 17t>- 

"Puerperal Mania: Has it any Connection with Toxaemia?" By J. 
Foster Jenkins, M.D. Pp. 7. [Reprinted from Am. Med. Monthly, 
N. Y.. Nov., 1867.] 


"Splitting of the AlveoUr Process of the Lower Jaw." By G. J. 
Fiaher, M.D. Pp. 2. [Dental RegieUr of the Weel, vol. xii. p. 187-189 ] 

"Report on Spontaneous Umbilical Hemorrhage of the Newly-Born.^ * 
By J. Foster Jenkins, M.D. Pp. 68. [Reprinted fh>m Trans, of the Am. 
Med. Assoc., vol. xi. p. 263-318. Phila., 1868.] 

"Biographical Sketches of the Deceased Physicians of Westchester 
County, N. Y. Being the Annual Address before the Westchester 
County Medical Society, at Its seasson held In White PUlns, June 1, 
1868." By George J. Fisher, A.M., M.D. Published by order of the 
society. 8vo, pp. 62. New York, 1861. 

" Spontaneous Complete Inversion of the Uterus ; repodted recovery.** 
By G. J. Fisher, M.D. P. 1. [Am. Jr. Med. 8eL, N. 8., vol. xL p. 341.] 


"A Successful Case of Ovariotomy." By G. J. Fisher, A.M., M.D., 
of Sing Sing, N. Y. Pp. 2. [The Am. Med. Tunst, N. 8., vol. ill. p. 
356-357, N. Y., 1861.] 

" Rupture of the Uterus ; an account of three cases, with remarks, etc.** 
By G. J. Fisher, M.D., of Sing Sing, N. Y. Pp. 9. [Trans, of the Med. 
Soc. of the State of N. Y., p. 171-179. Albany, 1861.] 

" On the Animal Substances Employed as Medicines by the Ancients.** 
By G. J. Fisher, A.M., M.D., of Sing Sing, N. Y. Read before the WeM- 
Chester Co. Med. Soc., June 11, 1861. Pp. 16. [From the Am. Med. 
Monthly for January, 1862.] 


" A Description of the Newly-invented Elaatic Tourniquet, for the uae 
of Armiee and Employment in Civil Life. Ita Uaee and AppUcationa, 
with Remarka on the Different Methoda of Arresting Hemorrhage trotn 
Gunshot and other Wounds." Pp.31. N.Y., 1862. [This tourniquet, 
called LamberCe, was Invented by Dr. Charies A. Lee, who wrote this 
anonymous pamphlet] 


" Relations of War to Medical Science. The annual addreai delivered 
before the Westchester County Med. Soc., June 16, 1863." By J. Foster 
Jenkins, M.D. Pp. 16. [Published by request of the Society. N. Y., 

" Report of Fifty-seven Cases of amputation in the Hospitals nesu- 
Sharpsburg, Md., after the Battle of Antietam, September 17, 1872.*' By 
G. J. Fisher, M.D., of Sing Sing, N. Y. Pp. 8. [Am. Jr. of the Med. 
ScL, N. S., vol. xlv. pp. 44-61. Phila. 18C3.] 

"Dlploteratology. An Essay on Compound Human Monsters, Com- 
prising the History, Literature, Classification, Description and Embryol- 
ogy of Double and Triple Formation, Including the so-called Panultlc 
Monsters, FcBtus In Fcetu, and Supernumerary Formation of Parts or 
Organs in Man." ByG. J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 193; 126 figures on 32 
lithographic plates. [Trans, of the Mod. Soc. of the State of N . Y. 1865, 
p. 2:J2-268. Ihtd., 1866, p. 207-296. Ibid., 1867, p. 396-430. Ibid., 
186S, p. 276-31 »C.] 




** Oa Prorteion for the Inaane Poor of the State of New York ttnd the 
AdtptatioD of the * Asylum and Cottage Plan * to their wants ; as illus- 
trated by the Hkitory of the Colony of Fits James, at Clermont, France.** 
By Charles A. Lee, M.D. Pp. 30. [Trans. Med. Soc. of the State of N. 
T. forl866,p.l5e-l8&.] 


•• Report on Insanity.*' By Charles A. Lee, M.D. Pp. 32. [Extracted 
from the Trans, of the Am. Med. Assoc, vol. xix., p. 161-168. Phila. 

** Report on Texas Cattle Disease.** By Oeorge J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 
2. [Reporf of MetropoUtan Board of Health, 1868, p. 18»-190.] 

" Report to MetropollUn Board of Health of Sanitary Inspector of the 
Town of Osiining.** By George J. Fisher, M.D. Pp. 2. [Beport 
Met. Bd. of Health for 1869, p. 16&-166.] 


'* Does Maternal Mental Influence have any ConstmctlTe or Destruc- 
tive Power in the Production of Malformation* or Monstrosities at any 
Stage of Embryonic Development?** By G. J. Fisher, M.D., of Sing 
Sing, N. Y. Pp. 57. [Reprinted from vol. xxvi. of the Am. Jr. of /a- 
•amitf for January, 1870. Utica, N. Y., 1870.] 

" Three Cases of Imperforate Anus, with Remarks.** By J. H. Pooley. 
M.D. Pp. 20. [Reprinted fh)m Am. Jr. Ob$L, vol. ill., No. 1, May, 1870.] 

** Tent Hospitals.** Ity J. Foster Jenkins, M.D. Pp. 25. [Trans. Am. 
Social SeisMCS ^Imoo. Cambridge, Mass., 1874.] 

" A Medico-Legal Opinion relating to the sanity of Carlton Gates.** 
By Charles A. Lee, M.D. Pp. .3i). [Papers read before the Med.-Leg. Soc. 
4if the City of New York. First series, p. 204-233.] 

^ A Contribution to the Natural History of Tubercles.** By C. F. 
Bodenstein, .M.D. Pp. 20. [Read before the Yonkers Med. Aswx^iatlon. 
Published at the request of Med. Soc. of Westchester County, N. Y. Re- 
printed fh>m the N. Y. Med. Jr., Dec., 1871.] 

'*The Late Dr. John Conolly, of Hanwell, England.** By Charles A. 
Lee, M.D. Pp. 12. [Reprinted ftom the Am. PracL for Aug. 1871.] 

*' Report of the Surgical Cases Treated in the St. John's lUveraide 
Hospiul, Yonkers, N. Y., during, the Year 1870.** By J. H. Pooley 
M-D. Pp. W. [Reprinted from the N. Y. Med, Jr., Nov., 1871.] 

** Suggestions Relative to the Sequestration of the Person of Alleged 
Lunatics.** By B. L. Parsons, M.D. Pp. 42. [Papers read before the 
Med.-Legal Soc of the City of New York. First series, p. 332-373.] 

*< Medico-Legal Considerations upon Alcoholism, and the Moral and 
Criminal Responsibility of Inebriates.'* By Palnel De Marmon, M.D. 
Pp. 24. [Bead before the Med.-Leg. Soc. of the City of New York, March 
31, 1871. Reprinted from the Med. World, Dec. 1871 ; also in first series 
of papers re^ before Med.-Leg. Soc. of the City of N<>w York, p. 374- 

^ Medico-Legal Suggestions on Insanity.** By Charles A. Lee, M.D. 
Pp. 22. [Papers read before the Med-Leg. Soc. First series, p. 467- 



** On Imperforate Anns: the Rectum Communicating with the Vag- 
ina." By J. H. Pooley, M.D. Pp. 34. [Reprinted from Am. Jr. of Ob- 
4t9trie», Ac, vol. Iv., No. 4, Feb., 1872.] 

*The Origin of Ceesarean Section ,- an historical sketch.'* By C. F. 
- Bodenstein, M.D. Pp. 19. [Reprinted from the N. Y. Med. Jr., April, 

" Two Cases of Rare Disease of the Tongue.'* By J. H. Pooley, M.D. 
Pp. 4. [Extracted from Amer. Jr. Med. 8ci. for April, 1872.] 

** Beport of the Surgical Oases Treated In the St John*s Riverside 
Hospital. Yonkers, N. Y., during the year 1871 (second year).** By 
J. H. Pooley, M.D. Pp. 20. [Reprinted from the N. Y. Med. Jr., Nov., 

"Some General Remarks on the Surgery of Childhood.** By J. H. 
Pooley, M.D. Pp. 13. [Reprinted from '* Trans. Med. Soc. of the State 
-of New York,** 1872.] 


* Thermometry in Cerebro-Splnal Meningitis.** By C. F. Bodenstein, 
M.D. Pp. 13. [Read before Med. Soc. of the County of Westchester. 
Reprinted from Dr. Brown-Sequard's " Archives of Scientific and Practi- 
cal Medicine," vol. i. p. 210-222, March, 1873.] 

'* NwvuB.** By J. H. Pooley, M.D. Pp. 28. [Reprinted from N. T. 
Med. Jr., June, 187:).] 

** Report of the Surgical Cases Treated in the St. John*s Riverside 
Hospital, Yonkers, N. Y., during the year 1872 (third year).** By J. H. 
Pooley, M.D. Pp. 30. [Reprinted from A'. Y. Med. Jr., Oct.. 1873.] 

'* Case of Epithelioma of the Cheek and Lower Eyelid. Removal-^ 
BlepharopUsty." By J. H. Pooley, &1.D. Pp. 7. [Reprinted from 
"Archives of Ophthalmology and Otology," rol. iii., 1873.] 


"Oases in Surgery, Lumbar Colotomy, etc.** By J. H. Pooley, M.D. 
Pp. 11. [Reprinted from the N. Y. Med. Jr., Jan., 1874.] 

** Iqjectious of Tincture of Iodine into the Cavity of the Uterus in 
Hemorrhage alter Delivery.'* By James D. Trask, M.D. Pp. 16. [Re- 
printed from Jr. of Obeletrice tor Feb., 1876.] 

"Morphine-Poisoning Successfully Treated by Atropia and Electricity.*' 
By J. D. Trask, M J). Pp. 13. [Reprinted from the N. Y. Med. Jr., 
Aug., 1874.] 

"Report of the Surgical Cases Treated in the St John*s Blverslde 
Hospital, Yonkers, N. Y., during the year 1873 (fourth year).*' By 
J. H. Pooley, M.D. Pp. 29. [Reprinted frum N. Y. Med. Jr., Dec, 
1874, and Jan., 1876,] 

"Ii\lurles which Happeu to the Wrist-Joint and to the Parts in its 
Vicinity, as Results of F^lls upon the Hand. An examination of the evi- 
dence on which is based the establishment of the occurrence of luxations 
at the wrist and radio-carpal articulations ; also a consideration of the 
nature of the deformity, of the symptoms and of the treatment of 
Colles' fracture, with a rfeumi of the literature of this sul^ect, being 
the Merritt H. Cash prize essay for 1874.** By Thomas K. Cruse, 
M.D. Pp. 63. [Trans. Med. Society of the State of New York, 1874, 
p. 66-118.] 


** De Mortuis Nil Nisi Bonum. Biographical sketches of lately de- 
ceased members of the Medical Society of the County of Westchester.** 
Published by the vote of the Society, passed June 16, 1874. 8vo, pp. 
40. Katonah, N. Y., 1875. 

*' Biographical Sketch of the Late James Fountain, M.D., of Jeffer- 
son Valley, Westchester County, N. Y.** By James H. Curry, M.D. 
Pp. 9. Katenah, N. Y., 1876. 

** Biographical Sketch of Philander Stewart, M.D., of Peeksklll, 
N. Y.** By J. H. Curry, M.D. Pp. 4. Katonah, N. Y., 1874. 

** Biographical Sketch of Peter Moniton, M.D.** By Dr. WUliam C. 
Pryer. Pp. 9. Katonah, N. Y., 1876. 

**Tecratology.** By George Jackson Fisher, M.D. Pp.4. [Johnson's 
•* CyclopsBdla,'* vol. iv. p. 782-786.] 

'* Inaugural and Annivermry Addresses delivered before the Medical 
Society of the State of New York, at its Sixty-ninth Sesrion, held at 
the City of Albany, February 2, 8, and 4, 1875.** By the President, 
George Jackson Fisher, M.D., of Sing Sing, N. Y. 8vo, pp. 67. New 
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1876. [Trans, of the Med. Soc. of the 
State of New York for the year 1875, p. 4-16, p. 64-111.] 

*' A Brief Historical Sketch of the Discovery of the Circnlation of 
the Blood.** By George Jackson Fisher, M.D. Pp. 14. [Reprinted 
by the Popuiar Science MoiUM^, July, 1877.] 


" On the Effect of Atropine in Diminishing the Pains and Shorten- 
ing the Duration of the First Stage of Labor.** By Henry L. Horton, 
M.D. [Reprinted fh)m the Am. Jr. of OOeUtriet and Dieeaeee of Women 
and Children, vol. xi.. No. 3, July, 1878.] Pp. 20. New York, 1878. 

" Clinical Notes in Obstetrics and Gyneecology.*' Read before the 
Yonkers Med. Association March 16, 1878. By Eugene Peugnet, M.D. 
Pp. 83. [Reprinted trom the Ohio Med. and Snrg. Jr., Columbus, 1878.] 

By E. F. Brush, M.D. 

" Observations on the Digestion of Milk.* 
[N. Y. Med. Jr., Sept., 1879.] 

"Case of a Rare Variety of Human Dlproeopic Monster, with Obser- 
vations on the Genus Diprosopus.*' By George Jackson Fisher, M.D. 
Pp. 4. [Anuals of the Anatomical and Surgical Society, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., vol. II. p. 193-197.] 



** Historical and Bibliographical Notes : A Series of Sketchet of the 
Liyee, Timee and Works of the Old Masters of Anatomy and Snrgery." 
By George Jackson Fisher, M.D. Pp. 330. [Annals of Anatomy and 
Surgery, New York and Brooklyn, vols. IL-yiiL, 1880-83. Vol. ii.: 
Par^ Eustachius, Golot, Fallopius, Taliacotius, Columbus, Wiseman, 
IU>riclus ab Aquapendenta, Guy de Chauliac, Harvey. Vol. ill.: Har- 
rtj, Bhodion, Hippocrates. Vol. iv.'Herophilus and Eraslstratus, Galen. 
YoL v.: Celsus. Vol. vi.: Mundlnus, RhaEes. VoL vii.: Avicenna, Hally 
-Abbas. Vol. viii.: Albncasls, Avensoar.] 


" Milk. An eoay read (before the Med. Soo. of the County of West- 
chester Tuesday, June 21, 1881." By E. F. Brush, M.D., Mount Vernon, 
N. Y. [The Med, Record, vol. xx. p. 14»-151.] 

"Skimmed Milk as an Article of Food.** By E. F. Brush, M.D. 
[The Med. lUoordy vol. xx. p. 469-161.] 

I ^"^One Mode of Improving Gow*s Milk for Human Food. Read be- 
fore the Yonkers Med. Soc. Oct 7, 1881." By E. F. Brush, M.D. [Ibid., 
▼oL XX. p. 539-Ml.] 

" Kumyss.** By E. F. Brush, M.D. [JMd., voL xx. p. 673-675.] 

"One Phase of the Germ Theory. Bead before the Yonkers Med. 
Soc. April 22, 1881." By E. F. Brush, M.D. [Ibid., voL xlv. p. 668- 

" The Tartrate of QuinoUne as an Antiperiodic." By Edwin L Harring- 
ton, M.D. Pp. 3, and temperature charts. [Med. BMaUn, Phila., Nov. 

" Nicholas Tulp-(15»3-1672).*» A sketch by George Jackson Fisher, 
M.D.,of Sing Sing, N. Y. Pp. 5. [N. C. Med. Jr., voL vii. p. 204-208, 
WlUnington, N. C, 1881.] 

"On the Private Care of the Insane." By Balph L. Parrans, M.D. 
Pp. 26. [Beprint fh>m The AUewttt and Neurologitt, St. Louis, Oct. 


" Imperfect Nutrition in Infants." By E. H. Hermance, M.D., Yon- 
ken, N. Y. [TheJtfsd. Bee., vol. xxii. p. 320.] 

"Acute Mllk-Polsoning." By E. F. Brush, M.D. [The Med. Rec., 
VOL xxii. p. 424-426.] 


** Vaccination Observations and Suggestions." ByE. F. Brush, M.D. 
[The Med. Bee., vol. xxliL p. 677-679.] 

** CEsophagitis as a Disease of Infancy." By E. F. Brush, M.D. [Ibid., 
vol. p. xxUl. 35-37.] 

" Badprocal Insanity." By Ralph L. Parsons, M.D. Pp. 17. [Re- 
printed ttom the AUeidei and Nenrologiet, Oct. 1883.]* 

" Jury Trial of the Insane." By Ralph L. Parsons, M.D. Pp. 27. 
[Papers read before the ited.-LegarSoc. of the City of N. Y., 1883, p. 


** Sketch of Abfil-Walid Mohammed Ibn-Ahmed Ibn-Mohammed Ibn* 
Boshd (commonly called Averroee)." By George Jackson Fisher, M.D. 
Pp. 6. [Pop. Sci. MonOdj/, July, 1884, p. 405-409.] 

" A Memorial Sketch of the Life and Character of the late John Foster 
Jenkins, A.M., M.D., of Yonkers, N. Y." By George Jackson Fisher, 
M.D., of Sing Sing, ^. Y. Pp. 21. [^P^nted f^om the Transactions of 
the Med. Soc. of the State of N. Y., by order of the Med. Soc. of West- 
chester Co., N. Y. Syracuse, N. Y., 1884.] 

" The Faculty of Speech." By E. F. Brush, M.D. [PoptOar Science 
MoiUJdy, April, 1884.] 

" An Obstinate Case of Ovarian Dysmenorrhea, Oophorectomy, with 
Remarks on the Utility of the Operation." By E. H. Hermance, M.D., 
of Yonkers, N. Y. [The Med. Bee. vol. xxv. p. 430-431.]. 


"History of Surgery." By George Jackson Fisher, M.D. Pp.57. 
[btUrnational Encychpmdia of Surgery, N. Y., 1886, vol. vl. p. 1146-1202.] 

" Vesical and Renal Calculi—Open Urach us— Lithotomy." By A. C. 
Benedict, M.D., of Yonkers, N. Y. [The Med. Bee., vol. xxvii. p. 208. 
N. Y., 1885.] 

"Traumatic Gastric Fistula Opening into the Pancreatic Duct, result- 
ing in death after forty years." By £. F. Bnish, M.D., of Mt. Vernon, 
N. Y. [The Med. Bee, vol. xxvii. p. 623-024. N. Y., 1885.] 

<* Intubation of the Larynx." By E. F. Brush, M.D. [Ibid, vol. 
xxvlL p. 206-207. N. Y., 1886.] 

Dr. Peter Hugeford, of CorUandtown, was probably 
the first regular physician in the northwestern por- 
tion of Westchester County. 

He was an Englishman by birth and education, an 
accomplished medical practitioner and a gentleman 
of the decided English stamp, as can be seen by hii 
ftill-length portrait which now hangs in an ancient 
parlor of his granddaughter, Mrs. Betsey Field, a 
widow of over eighty years, residing near the village 
of Peekskill. He was a successftil practitioner pre* 
vious to the Eevolution. Being a Boyalist, he retired 
to the British army when war was declared. His fine 
farm of two hundred acres was confiscated, and sub- 
sequently given by government to John Paulding, for 
his service as one of the three captors of Major 

He was probably the most accomplished physician 
of his day in this country. 

Dr. Stanly, of Cortlandtown, was cotemporary 
with Dr. Hugeford. He emigrated from Connecticut, 
and settled in Cortlandtown, at precisely what date is 
not known. He was celebrated for his great caution ; 
he carried with him his scale and weights, and at all 
times weighed carefiilly every dose of medicine he 

He had one son, whom he educated thoroughly to 
the medical profession. Young Dr. Stanly married 
the only child of Richard Currie, a wealthy fsurmer of 
this county. They united under the most auspicious 
and flattering circumstances. He died prematurely 
of brandy, his wife of opium, leaving a large family, 
most of them in indigent circumstances. 

Dr. Elias Cornelius, of Somers, was a native of 
Long Island, and served as surgeon's mate in the 
Revolutionary army. After the close of the war be 
settled in the western part of Somers, where he prac- 
ticed his profession over forty years with eminent 
success and credit. During the Revolution he con- 
tracted the habit of smoking, snuffing and tippling^ 
but, contrary to the generally received opinion, was 
never intoxicated during his long and arduous life. 

Dr. James Fountain says: "Dr. Cornelius was 
truly a pattern physician ; with a very limited medi- 
cal education, he commenced the active duties of his 
profession, but full of energy and ambition, he 
studied and practiced both by day and by night. He 
kept three good horses, and rode off rapidly, and on 
his arrival at home he gave his horse over to his 
groom, and went directly into his office, and there 
spent all his available time in the pursuit of knowl- 
edge or in the compounding of medicines. He 
availed himself of every means of information ; he 
commenced taking the first medical periodical ever 
published in America, viz. : Tke Medical RepoBUoty^ 
and ever since continued to read it. He had also all 
the principal authors of his day, and studied them 
thoroughly. Having been inspired by a genuine 
love, with the requisite enthusiasm, for his profession, 
he gave it his undivided attention, [and the whole 



force of his energies and talents were made sub- 
ser^ient to it. He died at the age of sixty-eight 
years, having been blessed with a large &mily, which 
were carefully and respectably bred. One of his sons, 
having been thoroughly educated, became one of the 
most celebrated and accomplished divines in the 
New England States." 

He commenced life in extreme poverty, and left 
his heirs an estate of nearly fifty thousand dollars. 

Dr. Lyman Cook, of Cortlandtown, was an eminent 
and successful physician. He was chosen the dele- 
gate of the Westchester County Society, which he 
represented by attending the first meeting of the 
State Medical Society in 1807. 

He engaged somewhat in politics, and was once 
elected to the office of high sheriff of the county. 
He removed to one of the Western States, where he 
located as a physician. 

Dr. Elias Quereau, of Yorktown, was bom in the 
city of New York, and pursued his medical studies 
under Dr. Hugeford. Early in the Revolutionary 
War he married in the city of New York, where he 
engaged in practice for a short time. 

Owing to the unsettled state of the country he f^ 
quently changed his residence and field of practice. 
Being a Royalist, he embarked for St. John's, with 
other refugees, but soon returned to his native State 
in consequence of the inclemency of the Canadian 
climate. He finally settled in Yorktown, in this 
county, which was the native place of his wife, where 
he continued to reside during the remainder of his 

In Yorktown he seems to have commenced anew. 
He joined the Baptist denomination and became an 
active member. With a few others he built a church, 
which, under the charge of Elder E. Fountain, was a 
prosperous society, was kept together forty years by 
their united aid, and continues to the present. 

He was a modest, quiet and unassuming man, and 
a pious, consistent and benevolent Christian. His 
Sunday earnings he invariably set apart for the bene- 
fit of the church, believing that, as his duties on that 
sacred day were labors of love and necessity, he had 
no right to appropriate the avails thereof to the com- 
mon purposes of life. He died in his eighty-sixth 
year, leaving several children and many friends to la- 
ment his loss. 

Dr. Francis Fowler practiced in White Plains and 
vicinity about eighty or ninety years ago. He came 
from Newburgh, Orange County, N. Y., and soon af- 
ter his arrival married a sister of ex-Sheriff Amos 
W. Hatfield, of White Plains. His talents and 
practice are said to have been respectable and gave 
promise of good success, but in a few years after set- 
tling in White Plains, he died, leaving a widow, but 
no children. 

Dr. Brewster also practiced in White Plains prev- 
ious to or about the time of Dr. Fowler, but nothing 
forther is known of him. 

Dr. William Baldwin, late of New York City, lies 
beneath a large, plain, but handsome monument, in 
the yard of the first, or old Methodist Church, of 
White Plains. He was born in Northford, Conn., 
commenced practice about 1800, and married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John Falconer, a prominent citi- 
zen of White Plains, where he practiced with con- 
siderable success for about fifteen years. He then 
removed to the city of New York and located him- 
self in East Broadway ; became a prominent and suc- 
cessful practitioner in that section of the city, and 
gained a more than ordinary practice and honorable 
position among his professional brethren. He left a 
widow, but no children. 

Dr. Seth Miller, of Sing Sing, was born in April, 
1766. * He came from Lower Salem, and, after prac- 
ticing several years at New Castle, settled at Sing 
Sing, before 1790, being the first physician to locate 
in the latter village. Mrs. John Miller, who, in 1858, 
was eighty-six years old, stated that Dr. Miller had 
attended her husband when he was suffering from the 
yellow fever. It was the first case of the disease known 
in Sing Sing, and did not spread, Mr. Miller being 
the solitary victim. He had contracted it during a 
visit to New York, where it was raging at the time. 

Dr. Miller's eldest daughter married Dr. Kissam, of 
New York, and his second became the wife of Dr. 
Wallace, of Troy. She was extremely beautiful and 
highly accomplished, and is said to have been so well 
versed in medicine that she undertook to continue 
her husband's practice after his death. Her father is 
said to have been very skillful and enjoyed the confi- 
dence of a large circle of friends and patients. His 
health began to fail several years before his death/ 
and he invited Dr. Jeremiah Drake Fowlei to settle 
at Sing Sing and participate in and eventually suc- 
ceed to his practice. He died November 23, 1808, in the 
forty-second year of his age, and was interred in the 
cemetery at Sparta, below Sing Sing. 

Dr. Archibald Macdonald, of White Plains, was 
one of the most distinguished of the early physicians 
of the county and prominent among the founders of 
the Medical Society. He was a native of Inverness^ 
Scotland, and came of the Glengarr^ branch of the 
Macdonalds. His father, in 1745, joined the forces of 
Charles Edward, the last of the Stuart pretenders who 
endeavored to regain by arms the British throne, and 
perished in battle when his son was but a few weeks 
old, so that the parent and his youngest child never 
saw each other. The embryotic physician was brought 
to this country about 1767, when he was twelve years 
old, by his brother, a British officer serving in Can- 
ada. He received his m^ical education in Philadel- 
phia, at the charge of this brother, who may be 
supposed to have procured him the position which he 
subsequently held of surgeon in the King^s army. 
After practicing in North Carolina, in 1787 he mar- 
ried in Dutchess County, N. Y., and in 1795 removed 
to White Plains, where he practiced until his death, 



December 21, 1813, in his sixty-ninth year. The 
genealogy of the family indicates that one of his 
ancestors married a daughter of Robert Bruce. Per- 
sonally very popular, his practice was large and his 
professional reputation so high that he was often 
called long distances for consultations. 

His son, James Macdonald, studied jbedicine with 
Dr. David Palmer, of White Plains, and Dr. David 
Hosack, of New York. As an investigator of insan- 
ity, in the treatment of which he became an expert, 
he visited the principal lunacy asylums of Europe ; 
and, on his return to this country, was one of the 
founders and proprietors of the Sanford Hall Asylum, 
at Flushing, L. I. He died in 1849, leaving his 
brother, Allen Macdonald, in charge of that institu- 

Dr. Stephen Fowler, a native of Orange County, 
N. Y., practiced in New Castle, Westchester County, 
eight years previous to his death, which occurred in 
1814, when he was but thirty-five years of age. De- 
spite his youth, he was quite successful, and accumu- 
lated in that short time a moderate fortune. He died 
from typhoid pneumonia, which was then epidemic 
in the neighborhood. Dr. Joshua W. Bowron was 
one of his students, and upon his death located in the 
immediate vicinity of his ofiSce. 

Dr. Donal, ofColaburg (now Croton),on the Hud- 
son, was a young man who began practice in 1814, 
during the prevalence of typhoid pneumonia, and won 
much praise for his successful treatment of the dis- 
ease by the stimulating plan. He removed to New 
York and died there. 

Dr. Clark Sanford resided at Greenwich, Conn., but 
for thirty years prior to his death, in 1820, when he 
was over aixty years old, had a wide professional con- 
nection in Westchester County. He was a native of 
Vermont, and the manufacturer of a superior article 
of pulverized Peruvian bark. His grinding-mills 
were at Byrom's Mills, now called Glenville; they 
were the first establishment of the kind in the 
United States, and his son John continued and en- 
larged the business with great profit. He is spoken 
of as ^' a bold practitioner of both medicine and surg- 
ery." He was a very eccentric man and an inveter- 
ate smoker, always carrying his pipe between his lips 
or in his boot leg. He could never endure the smell 
of ipecacuanha, which produced in him an asthmatic 
affection. He educated to the profession his son Jo- 
sephns, who settled in the South and died there. An- 
other son, Henry, became an apothecary in New York 

Dr. William H. Sackett, bom at Greenwich, Conn., 
in 1781, made his home at Bedford, Westchester 
County, about 1805, and married a daughter of Col. 
Jesse Holly some three years later. A man of splen- 
did general culture, and a keen student of the new 
lights then being thrown upon the science of medi- 
cine by Cullen, Brown, Darwin and Rush, he was es- 
teemed the most accomplished physician in the 

county. He had graduated at Yale and pursued hi? 
medical studies under Dr. Perry, at Ridgefield, Conn. 
Prompt in response to calls, he rode the country over 
on a fast gray mare which is still associated with his 
memory. To his excessively arduous labor is attrib- 
uted his premature death, for he passed away Decem- 
ber 29, 1820, in the thirty-ninth year of his age. He 
was the preceptor of Dr. Joseph Baily and Dr. Mead, 
of Tarry town. 

Dr. Ebenezer White, son of Rev. Ebenezer White, 
of Southampton, L. I., was born in the lower section 
of Westchester County, in 1744, located in Yorktown 
before the Revolution and was so ardent a patriot 
that the British made several attempts to capture 
him. Once a squadron of horse were sent to Crom- 
pond with orders to surround his house and take 
him prisoner, so that he might be exchanged for a 
British surgeon whom the Americans held. A 
friendly warning enabled him to escape, but they 
seized Dr. James Brewer, who resided in the neigh- 
borhood, and in a skirmish with a party of Americans 
who fired upon them as they were passing along 
Stoney Street, Dr. Brewer was mortally wounded. He 
expired the next morning, November 20, 1780, in 
the arms of Dr. White. He was a native of Massa- 
chusetts, but thirty-nine years old, and the husband 
of Hannah Brewer, \fy whom he had four sons and 
three daughters. Dr. James Brewer, of Peekskill, 
was his grandson. Dr. White was prominent in poli- 
tics and the church. He was once elected to the 
New York State Senate, and died March 8, 1825, 
aged eighty-one. 

Dr. Henry White, son of Dr. Ebenezer White, was 
born at Yorktown, August 31, 1781, and studied med- 
icine under the tuition of his father. In 1802 he at- 
tended the medical lectures at Columbia College. In 
1808 he was in partnership with Dr. Joshua Secor, in 
New York City, but in the same year returned to the 
place of his nativity. In 1804 he practiced at Hack- 
ensack, but once more came back to Yorktown in the 
same year. The Westchester County Medical So- 
ciety, in 1809, elected him delegate to the State So- 
ciety for four years. He was for several years surro- 
gate of the county, and in 1823 became one of the 
judges of the Court of Common Pleas. He continued 
the general practice of medicine un^l about 1840, af- 
ter which he accepted no calls except as consulting 
physician. He died in November, 1867. ; 

Dr. Elisha Belcher was born in Lebanon, Conn., 
in 1757, and became surgeon's mate and surgeon in 
the Revolutionary army. Stationed at Greenwich, 
Conn., he made that place his residence after peace had 
been declared, and extended his practice across the 
State line into Westchester County. He educated 
many young men in the profession, including his sons 
Dr. William N. Belcher, of Sing Sing, and Dr. Elisha 
R. Belcher, of New York City. Four of his seven 
daughters married physicians — the fourth becoming 
the wife of Dr. Stephen Fowler, of North Castle, and 



after his death the wife of Dr. Henry White, of York- 
town. Other daughters married Dr. Darius Mead, of 
Greenwich, Conn., Dr. David Palmer, of White 
Plains, and Dr. Bartow F. White, of Somers, son of 
Dr. Ebenezer White. Dr. Elisha Belcher died in 
December, 1825, as he was approaching his sixty- 
ninth year. 

Dr. John Ingersoll, born about 1745 ; the place of 
his nativity is unknown ; came from the vicinity of 
Horseneck prior to 1804, and settled three miles north 
of Yonkers, where he died of delirium tremens in 
Angost, 1827. Being the first physician about 
Yonkers, he had a practice which obliged him to ride 
from King's Bridge to the outskirts of White Plains, 
and he would encounter the darkest night and the 
most pitiless storm rather than neglect his duty at the 
bedside of a patient. Until inebriety conquered him 
he was fairly successful as a physician and was espe- 
cially favored in obstetrical cases, but his surgery is 
recorded to have been very bungling — probably be- 
cause of a lack of training in that department. 

Dr. Samuel Adams, a Scotchman by birth and sur- 
geon in the British army, went upon the medical staff 
of the American forces during the Revolution, and 
then bought a farm near Mount Pleasant, which for 
nearly fifty years he cultivated while practicing his 
profession. Uncouth in his manners and abrupt in 
speech, his surgical skill yet caused him to be em • 
ployed in difficult cases in all parts of the county, 
and his services were in constant requisition. His 
energy and will were indomitable, his perseverance 
unflinching, and he was a tyrant over his professional 
associates and his patients. His operations were of 
the heroic kind, and their progress emphasized with 
profhse oaths, the expressions of his passionate tem- 
per. He seems to have lived and died an avowed 
atheist. He served a term in the State Legislature, 
and was over ninety years of age when he died, about 

Dr. Jeremiah Drake Fowler, bom December 28, 
1785, at Peekskill, studied at the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, New York City, where he re- 
ceived his degree, and located at Sing Sing. No med- 
ical man could have been more popular than he was 
in his day, and he earned his eminence legitimately 
by skill in his profession. He was a prominent mem- 
ber of the Westchester County Medical Society, and 
several times its delegate to the State Society. In 
1817-18-he was elected justice of the peace and was 
also a practical surveyor. Through going security for 
friends he nearly ruined himself financially, and died 
October 28, 1828. 

Dr. Samuel Strang, of Peekskill, was a son of Ma- 
jor Joseph Strang, of Revolutionary fame. The fam- 
ily name of L'Estrange has been corrupted from the 
original French form. They were Huguenot emigres 
and came to this country in 1686. Dr. Strang was 
bom in Yorktown in 1766, studied with Dr. Ebenezer 
White, married his daughter and moved to Peeks- 

kill, where he died in December, 1831. He was the 
preceptor of his son. Dr. Eugene J. Strang, who died 
at the age of twenty-seven, after practicing one year. 

Dr. William F. Arnold, born at Chatham, Rensse- 
laer County, New York, June 1, 1809, learned the 
drug business in the store of Drs. Piatt and Nelson, at 
Rhinebeck, and was aided by friends to attend a 
course of lectures at Rutgers Medical College. When 
he located at White Plains, about 1829, he was almost 
penniless, but his abilities soon procured him a re- 
munerative practice. In May, 1832, he married Miss 
Williams, of Rhinebeck, and shortly afterward removed 
to New York City on account of his failing health, 
but within a brief period returned to White Plains, 
where he and his brother conducted a drug-store in 
connection with his office practice. In the autumn of 
1843 he went to St. Thomas, W. I., for the improve- 
ment of his health and practiced dentistry there, but 
his disease gained on him so rapidly that in the 
course of a year or two he started to return home and 
died on the voyage. 

Dr. Howard Lee, of Sing Sing, practiced there 
previous to 1838, but made no mark on cotemporary 

Dr. David Rogers moved firom Fairfield, Conn., 
to Rye, in 1810, where he spent the remainder of his 
days in retirement. His son, Dr. David Rogers, Jr., 
settled at Mamaroneck in 1800, and from 1817 to 1820 
was president of the Westchester County Medical So- 
ciety ; moving to New York City, in 1820, he died there 
in 1843 or '44, aged nearly seventy. His sons. Dr. 
David L. and Dr. James Rogers, followed him in the 
profession in the city. 

Dr. Matson Smith, of New Rochelle, was born in 
1767, at Lyme, Conn., where he studied medicine with 
Dr. Samuel Mather, whose daughter became his first 
wife. In 1787 he came to New Rochelle, and, notwith- 
standing his youth, quickly established a remarkably 
large practice, which in time covered most of the 
southern towns of the county. A memoir of him, pre- 
pared by his son. Dr. Joseph Mather Smith, says : 
" Devoted to the practice of physic proper, obstetrics 
and surgery, it may, perhaps, be said, aside from some 
of the rarer and more delicate operations of surgery, 
which he referred to special experts, that he was 
equally skillfiil in these departments.^' He adopted 
vaccination at a very early date after its introduction 
into this country, and took great pains to remove the 
doubts of those whose minds wavered in relation to 
its value. He was a close student of the modifications 
of disease induced by atmospheric influences, and of 
rare and new forms of epidemic maladies. His "Ac- 
count of a Malignant Epidemic which prevailed in 
the County of Westchester in the Summer of 1812'\ 
was a most important contribution to the history of 
the scourge of typhoid pneumonia, so fatal about that 
time in the Northern and Eastern States, and a valu- 
able aid to the treatment of it. He was for several 
years president of the Westchester County Medical 



Society, and in 1830 received from ther^ento of the 
University of New York the honorary degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine. He was a devout Christian and 
foremost in educational projects, as well as in advo- 
cating the temperance cause. He died March 17, 

Dr. Joseph M. Scribner was bom at Bedford, West- 
chester County, May 11, 1793, and was licensed by 
the Medical Society of the county in April, 1817, after 
haying studied with Dr. William H. Sackett and at- 
tended lectures at the New York City Hospital and 
the Medical Institution of the State of New York. 
Opening an office two and a half miles southeast of 
Sing Sing, he remained there a year and spent the 
next year at Bedford. For the succeeding fifteen 
years he had his office within a mile and a half of Tar- 
rytown ; th^n moving, in 1835, into that village, he 
continued his practice up to his death, on December 
27, 1847. He died of ship-fever, contracted while at- 
tending at the almshouse upon emigrants, among 
whom the disease had broken out at sea. 

Dr. Joseph Roe, bom near Flushing, L. I., in 1811, 
graduated at the College of Physicians, New York 
City, having previously been instructed by Dr. John 
Graham and Drs. Bedford, Pendleton and Bush. Lo- 
cating at White Plains, he went into partnership with 
Dr. David Palmer, then the only physician in the 
place. He contracted ship-fever at the same time and 
under the same circumstances as Dr. Scribner ; in at- 
tending upon the latter he sacrificed his own strength, 
and died January 11, 1848. For many years he 
availed himself of the practice of the county alms- 
house as a school of observation, and was exceedingly 
kind to the forlorn and helpless paupers. He was 
the inventor of an improvement on Amesbury's splint. 
His name was coupled with that of Dr. Scribner in 
resolutions of regret passed by the County Medical 
Society, June 6, 1848, for " the death of two of our 
most worthy and esteemed professional brethren.'* 

Dr. Isaac Gilbert Graham, born at Woodbury, 
Conn., September 10, 1760, was a son of Dr. Andrew 
Graham, who fitted him for the profession. At a 
Tery early age he was appointed assistant surgeon in 
the American army, and at West Point came under 
the personal notice of Washington, who is said to 
have conceived a warm feeling for him, because of 
his medical knowledge and his sturdy patriotism. He 
was granted an annual pension of four hundred and 
forty dollars by the government for his services. In 
1784 he settled at Unionville, Westchester County, 
and practiced for nearly half a century. He was 
considered very skillful in treating cases of small-pox, 
or " winter fever," as it was then called, by inocula- 
tion, and is alleged to have earned fourteen hundred 
dollars in one season by this branch of practice, 
although he devoted much time to the poor, from 
whom he never looked for any recompense. He 
died September 1, 1848. 

Dr. Stephen Allen Hart, born June 11, 1820, at 

Shrub Oak, Weschester County, was a student under 
Dr. John Collett, and in the spring of 1846 obtained 
his diploma from the University Medical College, in 
New York City. His career was brief, as he died at 
Yorktown, where he had practiced, on February 22, 

Dr. Nathaniel Drake, born in Yorktown, August 
27, 1763, was a pupil of Dr. Peter Hugeford and Dr. 
Ebenezer White. He attended medical lectures and 
dissections in New York City, and was one of the 
students obliged to seek safety in flight from the mob 
which attacked the dissecting departments. Subse- 
quently to practicing for a short time in the town of 
his birth, he changed his location to Peekskill, where 
he died February 1, 1850. With him perished the 
name of his family. While in his general practice be 
always had his fair proportion, it was in the ob- 
stetrical branch that he especially bore off* the palm. 

Dr. Oeorge C. Finch was bom April 6, 1817, at 
Croton Falls, Westchester County, and had for his 
first preceptor in medicine Dr. Seth Shove. Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, granted him his 
degree as Doctor of Medicine in the spring of 1841. 
He employed the next term in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of the City of New York, and, 
after being associated with Dr. Shove, went to hia 
native place to practice. So strong was his oppo- 
sition to the followers of Hahnemann, that when 
invited to meet a distinguished member of that school 
in consultation, he replied : " I would be pleased to 
meet with Dr. J. as an old friend and preceptor, but not 
as a physician.'' For six years he was supervisor of 
North Salem ; in 1853 represented his district in the 
Legislature, and at the time of his death, May 28, 
1856, was one of the committee for erecting new 
public buildings for the county. 

Steven Archer was the son of John Archer, of Tar- 
rytown, where he was born September 9, 1803. He 
married Emeline Ascough, and after her death was 
married to Deborah Underbill. His children were 
Sarah, wife of William Macy, of New York ; Isaac; 
and Emma, wife of Dr. Joseph Hasbrouck. He died 
December 16, 1877. 

Dr. Joshua W. Bowron, born at Washington, 
Dutchess County, in April, 1788, a pupil of Dr. Stephen 
Fowler, graduated at the Barclay Street College of 
Medicine, New York City. He began practice near Sing 
Sing, but soon removed to New Castle to occupy the 
field vacated by the death of Dr. Fowler, which he, 
filled for nearly forty years. In 1848 and 1849 he was 
president of the Westchester County Medical Society. 
His labors were so enormous that when about sixty- 
two years old he broke down under an apoplectic 
stroke, and die<l February 20, 1857. 

Dr. Benjamin Bassett, born at Derby, Conn., De- 
cember 6, 1784, was a graduate of the University of 
Pennsylvania, practiced at Yorktown from 1826 to 
182^, and then settled at Peekskill, where he died 
March 21, 1858. He was president of the Westches- 



ter County Medical Society in 1846 and 1847, and in 
the latter year delivered an address ''On the laws of 
epidemics as exhibited in those that had prevailed io 
the county the preceding twenty years." In 1831 he 
wrote a valuable treatise on '' Epidemic Dysentery 
and Intermittent Fever," published in the New York 
Medical Journal for May of that year. About the 
same time he prepared several articles on the effect 
of sulphate of quinine, but it is not known when they 
were published. He honored his profession except 
in placing too low an estimate on the value of his 
services ; "his charges were so small that he was un- 
able to live in the manner suitable to a man of his 
ability, skill and position." 

Dr. James Fountain was spoken of in the biograph- 
ical sketch prepared by Dr. James Hart Curry, at the 
request of the Westchester County Medical Society, 
as ''one of the most remarkable men of his 
time, in the region round-about him." Bom at Bed- 
ford, January 30, 1790, he began the study of medicine 
ander Dr. Sackett, and was one of the first, if not the 
very first, student from Westchester County to matric- 
ulate in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
New York City, where he graduated March 16, 1812. 
Beginning practice in his native county, in a year he 
moved to S eaten Island, but, at the solicitation of his 
father, soon returned to Jefferson Valley. He had 
become a member of the Westchester County Medi- 
cal Society a year before his graduation, and when, 
fifty years afterward, he reMgned, he said, in his char- 
acteristic letter : — 

*' I witnenad Its (the Society's) gradual rise to distinction until, in tlie 
acme of itsueefulneas and glory it waacrippled by an act of our ignorunt 
legislature. To court popularity and to support a mistaken Democracy, 
th«-y, in their zeal to level all distinct'ons among men, passed a law de<> 
Glaring the ignorant quack and the most learned physician on a perfect 
level and equally entitled to protection. Since then our authority to 
keep down quackery has oeaaed, so that now a large portion of our best 
practice is ei^oyed by ignorant quacks under the cloak of homoeopathy. 
The consequences to our society are almost ruinous. Shorn of its power, 
ita memben hare become discouraged, and a few only of the most faith- 
fnl are found attending its meetings. All our strugglee must be laborious 
eo long as ignorance of physiology prevails among the people, and that 
most continue a long time. 

**I am now in my seventieth year. I consider myself professionally 
dead. It Is my last prayer that you may penievere until the rays of 
knowledge shall illumine the eyee of the people and induce them to 
value the realities of knowledge over ignorance and regard our profession 
In its true light.*' 

He was frequently a delegate to the New York 
State Medical Society, and at the session of 1846 was 
made a permanent member. His numerous contri- 
butions to the medical journals, as full a list of which 
as can be made is embodied in the foregoing schedule 
of professional writings by Westchester physicians, 
bear witness to his profound research as well as to his 
pugnacious disposition. Having been thrown in his 
early practice greatly upon his own resources for 
medical agents, no drug-stores being near him, he 
became, of necessity, conversant with our indigenous 
medical botany, and applied it with marked results, 
and often w^ith great success. He boldly and contin- 

ually, and without the aid of the chemist, prescribed 
such potences as lobelia, Scutellaria, actia sanguin- 
aria, ergot, juglans, Indian hemp and many of the 
vegetable acids. But he was by no means restricted 
to any set of drugs or stereotyped forms of practice. 
If heroic practice means anything, Dr. Fountain was 
a hero of the boldest stamp. Arsenic, strychnine, 
mercury, tartar emetic, the lancet and the blister 
were the great weapons of his warfare, and he was 
not afraid to use them. In his treatment there was 
no half and half— he gave disease no quarter — and it 
must be confessed that often, in drawing out the 
enemy, he shook the citadel terribly, but when he had 
slain the foe, if the patient survived, like a discrimi- 
nating general, he was quick to take advantage of cir- 
cumstances, stopping medication when he thought 
the case would warrant, or modifying it as the symp- 
toms might demand. In his treatment of old dis- 
eases, especially those of the lungs, as in asthma of 

:.,v A 


the aged, hydrothorax and bronchorrhoea, notwith- 
standing (or rather by the aid of) blood-letting, an- 
timony, ptyalism and blistering, he was remarkably 
successful, often holding the disease in abeyance for 
many years after it had become apparently incur- 

Neither in auscultation or percussion, nor, in fact, 
in any of the more modern modes of physical explo- 
rations, did he ever make much proficiency, and he 
professed but little faith in them, believing, until his 
death, that the rational signs of disease would gen- 
erally lead the rational practitioner to a correct diag- 

In surgery he was not a brilliant operator, although 
his isolated position and immense practice continu- 
ally forced him to use the knife. It was his boast, 
and true, that during a practice of fifty years no 
irregular practitioner had been able to make any head 
in all his field of practice, and it must be added that 
during his prime it was a risky matter for any phy- 



sician, regular or otherwise, to infringe upon his 
domain. His cultivated mind and vastly superior 
medical attainments made him the natural antagonist 
of empiricism, and his indomitable will, his con- 
sciousness of his own superiority, raised the hands of 
others against his. ** In fact,'' his son, Hosea Foun- 
tain, wrote, " he was in hot water the most of the time. 
Of course such a man had bitter enemies and strong, 
warm-hearted friends.'' His field of labor extended 
from Fishkill to Tarrytown, and from the Hudson 
River to beyond the Connecticut line. " He kept the 
beet horses and rode constantly in the saddle ; he was 
very active, was up and away before we were up. 
Would ride all day, and then in hot weather I have 
known him to strip to the skin and help his man draw 
hay off by moonlight ; then off in the morning again 
as usual." In 1862 he removed to Waverly, N. Y., 
to spend the remainder of his days with his son. He 
died May 19, 1869, during a visit to his old home in 
Jefferson Valley, and was buried in the Presbyterian 
grave-yard at Crompond. 

Dr. Seth Stephen Lounsbery ^ was born at Bedford, 
Westchester County, September 11, 1837, and in 1861 
received his diploma from the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York City, having previously 
studied medicine under the direction of his uncle, Dr. 
William Minos. After a year of city practice he 
accepted, September 15, 1862, a commission as assist' 
ant surgeon of the One Hundred and Seventieth Regi- 
ment New York Volunteers, and on December 22, 
1864, was promoted to the rank of surgeon of the One 
Hundred and Fifty-fifth Regiment. In these com- 
mands, notwithstanding his feeble constitution, he 
served in the field almost continuously until the close 
of the war. At Cold Harbor he narrowly escaped 
being taken prisoner, and he witnessed most of the 
movements of the army of the Potomac around Rich- 
mond and at the Weldon Railroad. In October, 1865, 
he was associated with Dr. William S. Stanley in his 
practice at Mamaroneck, where he continued for the 
remainder of his life. He died, April 25, 1872, at his 
father's home in Bedford. In 1866 he joined the 
Westchester County Medical Society, and was usually 
present at its meetings. 

Dr. Caleb W. Haight ' was bom in New York City 
February 20, 1820 ; came with his family to Bedford 
when he was a very young child. In the spring of 
1842 he entered the ofiSce of Dr. Shove as a student, 
and in March, 1846, graduated at the University of the 
City of New York, beginning practice in September 
at Chappaqua. Eighteen months, subsequently, he 
removed to Pleasantville, where he died March 5, 
1873. In 1848 he became a member of the West- 
chester Medical Society, in which from time to time, 
he acceptably filled all its important ofiSces. He was 
a constant attendant at its meetings, and contributed 

liberally to its transactions. In 1860 he was elected 
a member of the American Medical Association, and 
in 1861 of the New York State Medical Society. 

Dr. Peter Moulton,' at his death the oldest member 
of the Westchester County Medical Society, and prob- 
ably the oldest physician in active practice in the 
county, was born at Oxford, N. H., October 7, 1794. 
In May, 1816, he began to study medicine with Dr. 
Cyril Carpenter, of Saratoga Springs, N. Y., and. as 
a student was successively under Dr. Daniel Ayers, 
of Openheim, N. Y., and Dr. Nathaniel Drake, of 
Peekskill. He completed his studies as the private 
pupil of Dr. Cyrus Perkins, professor of anatomy and 
surgery in Dartmouth College, where he attended lec- 
tures and fulfilled all requirements necessary for his 
degree as doctor of medicine, but could not obtain it 
because two conflicting boards of trustees claimed to 
control the affairs of the institution. He, however, 
on November 8, 1819, passed an examination before 
the censors of the medical society of the county of 
New York, who granted him a license to practice, 
which for the greater part of his professional life, was 
his only diploma. But on March 27, 1860, the regents 
of the State University, at the instance of the State 
Medical Society, conferred on him the honorary de- 
gree of doctor of medicine, and in 1864 he was elected 
a permanent member of the State Society. In Novem- 
ber, 1819, he established himself in East Chester, and 
his reputation for learning and skill soon spread 
throughout that part of Westchester County. His 
practice extended into the towns of White Plains, 
Scarsdale, Yonkers, Greenburgh, New Rochelle, Pel- 
ham, Mamaroneck and Rye. In 1835 or '36 he trans- 
ferred his location to New Rochelle, where he prac- 
ticed for nearly forty years. 

About two years before his death, while walking 
upon the track of the New Haven Railroad, a short 
distance above New Rochelle, he was struck by an 
engine and he and his medicine chest thrown thirty 
feet forward and down an embankment twenty feet 
deep. Refusing to go into the train, he walked home 
with his precious chest under his arm. ** On my en- 
trance," says Dr. Pryer, ** he called out* * doctor, I 
have a broken arm.' Proceeding to examine the arm 
very tenderly, fearful of giving pain, I said, 'are you 
sure it is broken? ' *0h, yes,' said he, * see here,' and 
he shook the elbow to and fro again and again, until 
the broken bones grated against one another in a 
manner that produces a shudder to this day when the 
sensation comes back to me. The doctor's scientific 
inter^t in proving the fracture was so great that it 
overcame entirely all sense of pain." 

As a surgeon Dr. Moulton was bold and skilful, 
but it was as an obstetrician that he most excelled, 
and he is said to have assisted at the birth of more 
children than any other physician in the county. He 

1 Biographical aketch by William S. Stanley, M.D., Mamaroneck. 
s Biographical sketch by Seth Shove, M.D. 

3 Biographical sketch read before the Westchester County Medical 
Society, February 17, 1874, by Dr. William C. Pryer. 



was an accomplished botanist and drew many of his 
medicines from native plants gathered in his daily 
walks. It is not known at what date he became a 
member of the Westchester Ck>unter County Medical 
Society, but since 1831 he held the following offices: 

Elected in 1831, censor ; 1833-34, treasurer; 1838, yic& president ; 
1836-37, president ; 1838, censor ; 1841, essayist for fall meeting ; 1842, 
committee to draft nUe MU, sernng with Drs. Liringstone Boe and 
Gates ; 1851, reported a case of puerperal peritonitis, treated by " <^ium 
alone ;'* 1862, censor ; 1863, vice-president and committee to report on 
"Ship Fever;'* 1854, rice-president; 1866, committee on surgery; 
1867, essayist, also committee on Indigenous Medical Botany and 
senred on this committee six years ; 1868, delegate to American Medical 
Amodation ; 1863, Tioe-president and delegate to American Medical As- 
sociation ; 1866, delegate to American Medical Association. 

On December 1, 1873, Dr. Moulton rose early, vis- 
ited various patients, traveled to New York City and 
back on professional business, and in the evening 
made visits to the sick in East Chester, Cooper's Cor- 
ners, Mamaroneck and Scarsdale, in the teeth of an 
easterly storm. When he reached home he was too 
feeble to ascend to his bed-room and remained in his 
office all night in his wet clothing. Pneumonia su- 
pervened and he died on December 7th. On the 9th 
a meeting of the citizens of New Rochelle, at the 
Town Hall, passed resolutions of respect to his mem- 
ory, and similar action was taken by the Board of 
Education and the Huguenot Lyceum, of both of 
which he had been a member. He had been made an 
honorary member of the Westchester County Medical 
Society at its annual meeting in 1869, and at the meet- 
ing in 1872, at White Plains, he met his brother mem- 
bers for the last time. On the day of his funeral, busi- 
ness was suspended in New Rochelle, flags hung at 
half-mast from the public and many private buildings, 
the church, school and engine-house bells were tolled, 
the schools were dismissed and the scholars stood bare- 
beaded in the street as the cortege passed. No such 
honors had ever been paid to any private citizen of 
the town. 

Dr. Philander Stewart* was bom in Danbury, Con- 
necticut, June 20, 1820, and in 1840 began to study 
for the profession in Brookfield, the adjoining town. 
At the medical institution of Yale College he at- 
tended his first course of lectures and graduated at 
Jefferson College, Philadelphia, in 1844. After two 
years of practice in Roxbury, Connecticut, he came 
to Peekskill, and although in three years he had 
established remunerative professional connections 
there, he returned to Philadelphia to avail himself of 
another course of lectures and clinical observations 
under Prof. Pancoast. Then he resumed his field of 
labor at Peekskill and cultivated it for upwards of 
thirty years. In the year 1867 he made a trip to 
Europe and pursued his investigations for some time 
in the hospitals and medical schools of the United 
Kingdom and the Continent. He early attached 

» Biographioal sketch by Dr. James Hart Curry, read before the Weet- 
Coanty Medical Sodety at its annual meeting, June 16, 1874. 

himself to the Westchester County Medical Society^ 
in which he held every office, many of them for suc- 
cessive terms, and was frequently its delegate to the 
State Society. For twenty years he was a member 
of the latter body, making it a point never to be ab- 
sent from its meetings. He was also from the begin- 
ning a member of the American Medical Association, 
and made long and expensive journeys to meet its 
annual sessions. As an operating surgeon, for years 
he was among the first in all the region about him. 
His manipulations and operations for strangulated 
hernia were very frequent and successful, as was his 
management in all cases of difficult parturition. He 
performed many amputations. His hand was steady^ 
his instruments many and various, his knives were 
sharp, his determination almost dogged, his judg- 
ment good and he was never taken by surprise. In 
auscultation and percussion he was far above the 
average, his touch being delicate and his ear acute. 
If his diagnosis was sometimes shaped too much by 
his preconceived notion of things, and hence may 
have missed the mark, it was no more so than is pecu- 
liar to independent minds. His prognosis was re- 
markably true ; he had an almost intuitive knowledge 
of the end from the beginning. 

By being thrown from his carriage on May 26, 1869^ 
Dr. Stewart broke an arm and was stunned by a blow 
upon the head. Terrible paroxysms of pain in the 
head attacked him ; in October, 1872, he began to 
lose memory of names and places, his penmanship 
became entirely changed and he wrote with difficulty. 
A consultation with Dr. Brown-Sequard on Decem- 
ber 3, 1873, resulted in pronouncing his case hopeless. 
He visited patients the next day, but was at once 
prostrated mentally and physically, and after ten 
weeks of darkness of intellect he died February 11, 

Dr. Havilah Mowry Sprague,* bom at Scotland, 
Windham County, Conn., July 4, 1836, received his 
first tuition in medicine in the office of Dr. Hutchins. 
West Killingly, Conn., and in 1858 became a student 
under Professor A. C. Post, New York City. He at- 
tended the New York University Medical College, 
and received at the close of the session of 1859-60 the 
first prize for the best report of clinical cases — a post- 
mortem set of instniments, which were finally used 
at his own autopsy. 

He graduated March 4, 1864, receiving also a " Cer- 
tificate of Honor " for having pursued a more extend- 
ed course of study than is required by law. In the 
competitive examination for the position of '^ Junior 
Walker " in the New York Hospital, he passed an 
examination of superior excellence and was appointed. 
While here he parsed the United States Army Medi- 
cal Examining Board, standing No. 2 in general merit 
out of one hundred and twenty-five candidates exam- 
ined (it is said that No. 1 was the son of the president 

s Biography by Dr. John Parsons, King's Bridge. 



of the Examining Board). He was commissioned 
assistant surgeon United States army May 28, 1861, 
and ordered to New Mexico, but upon his arrival 
in Missouri was attached to the army of General 
Lyon, was present when he was killed at Spring- 
field, and subsequently received the thanks of the 
commanding general for bravery and skill in attend- 
ance upon the wounded. 

Dr. Sprague was transferred to Assistant Surgeon 
General Wood's office, in St. Louis, where he remained 
until early in 1868, when he was placed in command 
of the Eliot General Hospital, in St. Louis. That was 
shortly discontinued, and he took charge of the hos- 
pital steamer '' City of Memphis,'' transporting the sick 
and wounded of Grant's army around Vicksburg to 
hospitals up the river. During the final days of the 
siege of Vicksburg he displayed exalted bravery and 
fidelity in attention to the men torn with shot and 
shell, sent to his steamer for such aid as the surgeons 
could render them. In November he was ordered on 
duty as secretary of the Army Medical Examining 
Board, in New York City, and then to command of 
the McDougall General Hospital, at Fort Schuyler, 
New York Harbor. Thence he was returned to the 
Examining Board, and in May, 1865, resigned from 
the army, his name standing high on the list for 
promotion. He began the practice of medicine at 
West Farms, and in 1868 moved to Fordham. He was 
appointed health officer of the town of West Farms, 
was the first physician to the " Home for Incurables," 
and first physician to the ^* House of Rest for Con- 
sumptives," at Tremont. He was a member of the 
Westchester County Medical Society, president of the 
Yonkers Medical Association, was elected a dele- 
gate to the American Medical Association for 1874 
from the latter society, and was preparing to at- 
tend its meeting at Detroit, Mich., when he was 
arrested by death ; was a corresponding member of 
the American Microscopic Society, and member of the 
New York Pathological Society. He was deeply 
learned in pathology, and marvelously skilled in the 
use of the microscope and the preparation of speci- 
mens. On May 80, 1874, he died at the '' House of 
Rest," where he had been seized with a malarious at- 
tack during a visit on the previous day. An autopsy 
was made, and his brain was found to weigh sixty 

John Foster Jenkins, A.M., M.D., was born at 
Falmouth, Mass., April 15, 1826. His preliminary 
course of medical reading was under Dr. Alexander 
M. Vedder, at Schenectady, N. Y., and in 1848 he re- 
ceived his degree from the Medical Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania. The next year he de- 
voted to an extra course of didactic and clinical lec- 
tures at the Harvard Medical School, Boston. From 
May, 1849, to May, 1856, he practiced in the city of 
New York (except that from November, 1850, to July, 
1851, he was in Europe, employing most of that time 
at the lectures and clinics and in the hospitals of 

Paris). In May, 1856, he located in Yonkers as a 
general practitioner of medicine, surgery and obstet- 
rics. In August, 1861, he entered the service of the 
United States Sanitary Commission as hospital visitor 
and associate secretary, and in May, 1868, succeeded 
Frederick Law Olmsted as general secretary, an office 
which, in May, 1865, he was compelled to resign be- 
cause of the failure of his health in the performance 
of its arduous obligations. He renewed his practice 
in Yonkers, and, in 1869, made a second voyage to 
Europe. On June 21, 1877, he was elected president 
of the Medical Society of the State of New York, but 
declined to accept because of his doubt as to the 
legality of the meeting at which he was chosen. 
Other offices which he held were as follows: Physi- 
cian of the St. John's Riverside Hospital, at Yonk- 
ers ; surgeon of the Yonkers Board of Police ; senior 
warden of St. Paul's Parish, Yonkers ; president of 
the Yonkers Medical Association (of which he was 
one of the founders) ; president of the Westchester 
County Medical Society ; vice-president of the New 
York Obstetrical Society ; permanent member of the 
American Medical Association ; member of the Amer- 
can Public Health Association ; corresponding Fellow 
of the New York Academy of Medicine ; member ot 
the American Social Science Association. In 1878 he 
spent six months at the sanitary resorts along the 
Mediterranean for the benefit of his health, and for 
nearly three years after his return kept steadily at his 
work. He died October 9, 1882, and, as an expres- 
sion of the esteem in which he was held, the Yonkers 
Medical Association, at its next meeting, unanimously 
resolved to change its name to the ''Jenkins Medical 

Dr. Jenkins was a student and an ardent lover of 
medical literature, both ancient and modem. He 
collected a large and valuable medical library. His 
contributions to the literature will be found in the list 
at the head of this chapter. 

Dr. Henry L. Horton was bom at Croton, West- 
chester County,' December 6, 1826, and accumulated 
by manual labor the money which enabled him to 
enter the Albany Medical College, from where he 
graduated in 1858, but continued to serve some time 
afterward as house surgeon. In 1859 he removed to 
Morrisania and entered upon a large and successful 
practice. In 1879, and again in 1881, he visited 
Europe, but his health, which had greatly failed, was 
only partially restored, and on September 18, 1884, 
he again sailed. At Florence, Italy, a cold, which he 
caught while waiting outside the railway station, de- 
veloped into p leurisy and ended fatally on February 
24, 1885, at Rome. His remains were brought to his 
home and interred March Sd, at Sing Sing. 

Dr. Piatt Rogers Halsted Sawyer, bom August 14, 
1834, at Westport, N. Y., studied medicine with Dr. 
Bridges, at Ogdensburgh, N. Y., while engaged as 
principal of the High School of that town. After a 
course of lectures at the University of Vermont he 


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entered the Albany Medical Ck>llege, from which he 
graduated. At the opening of the Civil War he was 
oonunissioned assistant surgeon of the Forty-second 
Regiment, New York Volunteers, and was promoted 
to surgeon of the Ninety -sixth Kegiment. After the 
master out he practiced at Port Henry, N. Y., then 
at GloTerBville, and in 1868 settled at Bedford, West- 
chester County, where he died March 31, 1885. 

He was for two terms elected justice of the peace, and 
in 1881 was elected school commissioner and re- 
elected in 1884. He was a member, from its organi- 
zation, of Stewart Hart Post, G. A. B., Mount 
Kisco, and its commander for one year ; and an earn- 
est and active member of Kisco Lodge, F. and A. M. 
Among other offices he had held were those of vice- 
president of the New York State Medical Society, 
president of the Westchester County Medical Society 
and for several years he was a trustee of the Bedford 



Oeorge Jackson Fisher, M.D., who has contributed 
more to the medical literature of Westchester County 
than any man either living or dead, was bom in 
We6tche»ter County, N. Y., November 27, 1825, and 
is a descendant of the early Dutch settlers, whose 
original name was V ischer. His father, who had been 
a merchant in the city of New York, removed to the 
central part of the State, and engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, when his son George was but eleven years 
of age. To his somewhat solitary life in the country 
the doctor attributes his fondness for Nature. To 
him she has always had *' a voice of gladness, and a 
smile and eloquence of beauty," and much of his life 
has been spent in holding communion with her visi- 
ble forms. This is the secret of his preference for 
rural and village life, instead of the allurements of a 
city practice. The principal portion of his office pu- 
pilage was under the direction of Dr. Nelson Nivison, 
then of Mecklenburgh, Tompkins County, N. Y., 
now professor of physiology and pathology in the 
Medical Department of the Syracuse University. Dr. 
Fisher attended his first courses of medical lectures 
at Ae Medical Department of the University of Buf- 
falo, at which time Austin Flint, Sr., Frank Hastings 

Hamilton, James P. White and other celebrated pro- 
fessors gave character to this excellent school of med- 
icine. He next attended the lectures and demonstra- 
tions at the Medical Department of the University of 
the City of New York, where Mott, Pattison and 
Draper were the great luminaries of science and 
practice. Here he graduated in the class of 1849. 
Immediately thereafter he entered .into a copartner- 
ship with his preceptor. In \851 he removed to 
Sing Sing, where he has continued his practice to the 
present time. In his time he has performed most of 
the important operations of surgery, including ampu- 
tations, trephining, ovariotomy, the Csesarean sec- 
tion, the removal of uterine fibroids, and, on two 
occasions, the ligation of the common carotid artery, 
with successful results. He has been the recipient of 
many honors, among which was the honorary d^ree 
of Master of Arts, in 1859, from Madison Univer- 
sity; twice the presidency of the Medical Society of 
Westchester County; in 1864, vice- 
president of theMedical Society of 
the State of New York, and in 
1874 president of the same ; cor- 
responding member of the Boston 
Gynaecological Society ; Fellow of 
the New York Academy of Medi- 
cine; member of the New York 
Lyceum of Natural History ; corres- 
ponding member of the New York Historical Society ; 
permanent member of the Medical Society of the 
State of New York, and of the American Medical 
Association ; delegate from the Medical Society of the 
State of New York to the International Medical Con- 
gress in Philadelphia, in 1876, etc. He has also held 
the office of president of the village of Sing Sing,, 
and was for several years physician and surgeon of 
the State Prisons at Sing Sing, for both males and 
females. For twenty years he was brigade-surgeon^ 
N. Y. S. M., and, for a like period. United States 
examining surgeon in the Pension Bureau. 

On several occasions he served as a volunteer sur- 
geon for the United States Sanitary Commii^sion, after 
the great battles of the Rebellion, and also as medical 
director of a floating hospital. 

His professional essays which have been thus far 
printed amount to not less than one thousand octavo 
pages. They embrace a variety of interesting topics; 
among them are the following titles : ** Biographical 
Sketches of Deceased Physicians of Westchester 
County, N. Y." (1861) ; " On the Animal Substances 
employed as Medicines by the Ancients " (1862) ; 
" Diploteratology," or an essay on "Double-Mon- 
sters " (Trans, of the Med. Soc. of the State of N, K, 
1865-68) ; "A Brief History of the Discovery of the Cir- 
culation of the Blood " {Pop, Sci, Monthly, July, 1877) ; 
" Teratology " (Johnson's Universal Cyclopcedia, vol. iv.); 
" Influence of the Maternal Mind in the Production 
of Malformations " (Amer, Journ. of Insanity^ vol. 
xxvi. January, 1870) ; "Sketches of the Lives, Times 



and Works of some of the Old Masters of Anatomy, 
Surgery and Medicine" (consi:<ting of twenty aketcheSj 
in Annals of Anatomy and Surgeryj vols, ii.-viii., 
1880-83); "History of Surgery" (International 
Eneyclopcedia of Surgery^** vol. vi., N. Y., 1886). 
Several minor articles could be added to the above list. 

Dr. Fisher has shown a profound interest in the 
literature of his profession, both ancient and mod- 
ern. His library, wTiich is quite well known to the 
medical scholars of the country, contains about 
four thousand volumes, including many, of the 
rarest books now existing, in most of the depart- 
ments of the healing art. There is, perhaps, no 
collection of the medical classics equal to his to be 
found in private hands in the United States. It 
includes large series of works illustrating the devel- 
opment of anatomy, surgery, materia medica and 
medicine, from the earliest periods to the present 
time. His collections of works pertaining to the 
history of medicine, and the biography of physicians 
and surgeons, are quite extensive. 

The doctor has also been to great pains and cost in 
collecting the bibliography of teratology, a subject to 
which he has bestowed special attention. Mention 
should also be made of his collection of medals relat- 
ing to the medical profession ; and, also, of his collec- 
tion of more than one thousand engraved portraits of 
celebrated physicians, surgeons, anatomists and medi- 
cal authors. His library is enriched by a well- 
selected collection of medical essays, embracing 
about three thousand pamphlets, all carefully cata- 
logued and indexed. His private museum contains 
collections of typical objects in conchology, palaeon- 
tology, mineralogy and archaeology. The latter de- 
partment is quite rich in specimens of the stone 
implements of the American aborigines. 

It is to Dr. Fisher that we are indebted for the his- 
tory of the town of Ossining, which forms one of the 
chapters of this work. 


The Jay family,^ so well-known throughout West- 
chester County, and indeed throughout the whole 
country, trace their ancestry to Pierre Jay, who left 
France on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 

He was an active and opulant merchant, extensively 
and profitably engaged in commerce. He married 
Judith, a daughter of Mr. Francois, a merchant in 
Rochelle. One of her sisters married M. Mouchard, 
whose son was a director of the French East India 
Company. Pierre Jay had three sons and one daugh- 
ter. The sons were Francis, who was the eldest; 
Augustus, born March 23, 1665 and Isaac. The 
daughter's name was Frances. Mr. Jay seems to 
have been solicitous to have one of his sons educa- 
ted in England. He first sent his eldest, but he un- 
fortunately died of sea-sickness on the passage. 

iThe Jay family and John Olarkson Jay, M.D., (conipUed from a 
sketch of the Jay fiunily In " Baird's History of Rye.") 

Notwithstanding this distressing event, he immedi- 
ately sent over Augustus, who was then only twelve 
years old. In 1683, he recalled Augustus and sent 
him to Africa, but to what part or for what purpose 
is now unknown. 

During the absence of Augustus, the persecution of 
the Protestants in France became severe ; and Pierre 
Jay became one of its objects. Dragoons were quar- 
tered in his house, and his family were subjected to 
serious annoyance. He was imprisoned in the castle 
of Rochelle, but was released through the influence 
of some Roman Catholic connections. Having at 
the time several vessels out at sea which were ex- 
pected soon in port, he desired a Protestant pilot in 
his employ to take the first of these veasels that 
should arrive to a place agreed upon the Island of 
Rhe. The ship that arrived first was one fn>m Spain, 
of which he was the sole owner. The pilot was 
faithful to his trust, and in due time Mr. Jay reached 
England and rejoined his family, whom he had sent 
to England some time before, at Plymouth. 

Augustus Jay returned to France from Africa, 
ignorant of these family changes. As it was unsafe 
to appear in Rochelle openly, he was secreted for some 
time by his aunt, Madame Mouchard, a Protestant, 
but whose husband was a Roman Catholic. With 
the help of his Mends he escaped to the West Indies, 
and thence to Charleston, S. C. The climate proving 
unfavorable, he removed to Philadelphia and after- 
wards to Esopus on the Hudson River, where he 
entered into business ; but ultimately settled in New 
York. He re- visited France and England in 1692, and 
saw his father and sister ; his mother had lately died. 

in 1697 he married, in New York Anna Maria, 
daughter of Balthazar Bayard, the descendant of a 
Protestant professor of theology at Paris in the reign 
of Louis XIII., who had been compelled to leave 
Paris and take refuge with his wife and children in 
Holland ; whence several members of the family came 
to America. Mrs. Jay was a woman of eminent 
piety. It is mentioned that she died while on her 
knees in prayer. 

Augustus Jay lived to the good old age of eighty- 
six, respected and esteemed by his fellow citizens, 
and died in New York where he had pursued his 
calling as a merchant with credit and success, March 
10, 1751. 

Peter Jay, only son of Augustus, married Mary, 
daughter of Jacobus VanCortlandt, January 20, 1728. 
Like his father, he was a merchant in the city of New 
York. Having earned a fortune which added to the 
property he had acquired by inheritance and mar- 
riage, he thought sufficient, he resolved when little 
more than forty years old, to retire into the country, 
and for this purpose purchased a farm at Rye, where 
he died April 17, 1782. 

James Jay, third son of Peter, born October 16, 
1732, became Sir James Jay, Kt.; he resided for some 
years in England, and returned after the Revolution 

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to New York, where he lived until his death, Octo- 
ber 20, 1815. On his return from England in 1784 
or 1785, he brought propositions from the CJountess of 
Huntington to some of the States of the Union, for 
establishing settlements of emigrants among the 
Indians, with a view to civilizing them, and convert- 
ing them to Christianity. General Washington in a 
letter to him dated January 25, 1785, expresses his 
entire approval of the plan, and suggests that it 
should be brought before Congress.^ 

Peter, fourth son of Peter Jay, and brother of the 
former, was born December 19, 1734, and married in 
1789, Marj' Duyckinck. Though he had the misfor- 
tune of losing his eyesight in early life through an 
attack of small-pox, many interesting stories are re- 
lated of his ingenuity and sagacity and he is said to 
have possessed a tine mind and an excellent character. 

John Jay, sixth son of Peter, was born December 12, 
1745. His boyhood was spent at Rye and New 
Rochelle. He was admitted to the bar in 1768. On 
April 28, 1774, he married Sarah, daughter of William 
Livingston, afterwards governor of New Jersey. He 
soon took a foremost position in the politics of the 
country, and was prominent in the debates of the first 
and the second Continental Congress. In 1777 he was 
appointed chief justice of the State of New York. In 
1778 he was elected president of Congress. In 1779 
he was sent as Minister to Spain, and from thence, in 
1780, went to Paris as Commissioner to assist in the 
negotiation of a treaty of peace with Great Britain. 
He returned to New York in 1784, after an absence of 
five years, and was received with tokens of esteem 
and admiration. December 21, 1784, he was appointed 
by Congress, secretary for foreign affairs, and held 
the office for five years. He was one of the con- 
tributors to The Fcederalist. In 1789 he was appointed 
chief justice of the United States, — an office which he 
was the first to fill. In 1794 he was sent as special 
Minister to London, upon a delicate and most im- 
portant mission, relating to difficulties growing out 
of unsettled boundaries and certain commercial com- 
plications. He discharged this duty with great 
ability, and upon his return to America, in 1795, was 
elected by a large majority Governor of the State of 
New York. At the end of three years he was re- 
elected, and at the expiration of a second term was 
solicited to become a candidate for election a third 
time. But he had determined to renounce public 
life, and though nominated again in 1800, to the 
office of chief justice of the United States, declined 
the honor, and retired to his paternal estate, at Bed- 
ford ; a property — part of the Van Cortlandt estate — 
which his father had acquired by marriage with 
Mary, a daughter of Jacobus Van Cortlandt. There 
he lived for twenty -eight years a peaceful and hon- 
ored life. In 1827 he was seized with severe illness, 
and after two years of weakness and suffering, was 

1 " Writings of Washington," by Jarod Sparks. Vol. IX., pp. 86-80. 

Struck with palsy, May 14, 1829, and died three days 
after. He was buried in the family cemetery at Rye. 
His public reputation as a patriot and statesman of 
the Revolution was second only to that of Washing- 
ton, and his private character as a man and a Chris- 
tian is singularly free from stain or blemish.' 

Peter Augustus, eldest son of John Jay, was born 
January 24, 1776. He graduated from Columbia 
College in 1794 and studied law under Peter J. 
Monroe. He married Mary Rutherford, daughter of 
General Matthew Clarkson, and became prominent 
in the legal profession and public affairs. He was 
a member of the State Assembly in 1816 ; recorder 
of New York in 1818 ; a member of the convention 
which framed the constitution of the State in 1821, 
and for many years president of the New York Historic 
cal Society, trustee of Columbia College, etc. He re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. in 1831, from Harvard, and 
in 1885 from Columbia. He died February 20, 1843. 

John Clarkson Jay, M.D., eldest son of Peter 
Augustus, was born September 11, 1808, and mar- 
ried Laura, daughter of Nathaniel Prime. He is the pro- 
prietor of the estate atRye,andthe present well-known 
representative of the family in Westchester County. 
After a thorough preparation in private schools, among 
which were those of the blind teacher, Mr. Nelson, 
and the McCulloch school at Morristown, N. Y., he en- 
tered Columbia College, from ^hich he graduated, to- 
gether, with the late Secretary of State, Hamilton 
Fish, and many other distinguished men in the class 
of 1827.^ In 1831 he took his degree as M.D. He has 
been a deep student of natural history, especially of 
conchology, and the valuable collection of shells, 
formerly in his possession, and which is now in the 
New York Museum of Natural History, having been 
purchased by Miss Wolf and presented to that in- 
stitution by her, in memory of her father, has the rep- 
utation of being the finest in the country. On this 
blanch Dr. Jay has written several pamphlets, among 
which are the following: "Catalogue of Recent 
Shells, etc.," New York, 1836, 8vo, pp. 56; " De- 
scription of New and Rare Shells, with four plates," 
New York, 1836, 2d ed., pp. 78; ** A Catalogue, &c., 
together with a description of new and Rare Species," 
New York, pp. 125, 4to., ten plates. The article on 
shells in the narrative of Commodore Perry's expedi- 
tion to Japan, is also by him. He has been con- 
nected with many prominent literary and social or- 
ganizations, both in Westchester County and in the 
city of New York, where he spends much of his time. 
He has been for many years a trustee of Columbia 
College, and has, at two different periods, served as 
trustee of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
the City of New York. He was one of the founders 
and at one time recording secretary of the New York 
Yacht Club, the annals of which will show the lively 
interest which he took in its management and general 

« •♦ The Life of John Jay," In 2 vols. By his son, William Jay. 
'See "Continued Qttalogue of Colombia College.*' 



affairs. The records of the New York Lyceum of Natnral 
History, now known as the New York Academy of 
Natural Sciences, will exhibit the interest man! (ested 
by him in that most useful organization. 

Dr. Jay b an Episcopalian and has been connected 
for many years with Christ Church, Bye, of which he 
is warden. He is well known throughout Westches- 
ter County, where he has long been greatly appre- 
ciated for his social and literary qualities. 

These and many other illustrious names have 
adorned the history of the Jay family in America, 
the members of which have ever been faithful to their 
country, faithful to their religion and faithful to them- 
selves. Their residence there has added lustre to West- 
chester County, and their noble influence will be re- 
membered while American history continues to be read. 


William Anderson Varian, M.D., is descended from 
an old French family, who came to this country at an 
early date, the regular line of descent being as fol- 
lows : First, Isaac, who was living in New York in 
1720 and died about 1800 ; second, James, born Janu- 
ary 10, 1734, died December 11, 1800; third, James, 
born November 22, 1765, died December 26, 1841 ; 
fourth. Dr. William A. Varian, who was born at Scars- 
dale January 23, 1820. His mother was Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Cornell, a member of the Society of 
Friends and of a family noted for patriotism and vir- 
tue. He attended school in his native place up to the 
age of sixteen, and then went to White Plains, where 
he was a student at the academy for three years. He 
then entered the office of Livingston Roe, M.D., and 
continued with him for the same period. The death 
of his father, which occurred about that time, ren- 
dered it necessary for him to labor for his own sup- 
port, and for a while he was employed as a teacher in 
East Chester. He afterwards entered the office of 
Dr. James R. Wood, a prominent physician of New 
York, and remained under his instruction for three 
years, at the same time attending the lectures at the 
medical department of the University of the City of 
New York, where he graduated, with the degree of 
M.D., March 4, 1846. After practicing for one year 
in New York he removed to King's Bridge, which has 
ever since been his home, and has been constantly 
employed in the practice of his profession. In 1849 
he purchased a portion of the old Macomb estate and 
erected his present residence. He married Frances 
Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Losee, September 11, 
1845. Their children were Sarah (deceased), Pamelia 
(wife of Maynard L. Granger), James (of Neola, Iowa), 
George Dibble (deceased), Sarah and Alice (both de- 

Dr. Varian is one of the oldest residents of King's 
Bridge and thoroughly acquainted with the history of 
the locality and its early families. When he com- 
menced practice, the country round was thinly set- 
tled, and his rides to visit his patients extended from 

One Hundred and Tenth Street on one hand to Green- 
burgh on the other. He was also frequently called to 
the villages on the western bank of the Hudson, and 
on one occasion, while crossing during a cold winter 
night, his boat became fast in the floes of floating ice 
and drifted below Fort Washington ; he and his two 
companions narrowly escaping a watery grave. He 
was present when ground was broken for the Hudson 
River Railroad and was surgeon for the company of 
contractors, they paying him at the rate of twenty- 
five cents a month for each man on the work. 

In 1850 he made the acquaintance of Dr. Edwin N. 
Bibby, a prominent physician of New York, and thia 
acquaintance ripened into a deep friendship, which 
lasted till the death of Dr. Bibby, in 1882. He was 
for many years his family physician. Dr. Bibby hav- 
ing retired from practice and spent the last years of 
his life on the Van Cortlandt Manor. During the 
late war Dr. Varian was a strong friend of the Union 
and plainly outspoken in his sentiments. During the 
riots in 1863 his life was repeatedly threatened, and 
for a while he made his professional visits armed with 
a double-barreled gun and a revolver, which he 
would have unhesitatingly used had occasion required. 
In politics and religion he maintains independent and 
liberal views, and the evening of his life is passed in 
the enjoyment of friends and home He had for many 
years been one of the police surgeons of New York and 
commands the respect of his professional brethren. 


Hosea Fountain, M.D., the second son of James 
Fountain, M.D., was bom at Jefferson Valley, a ham- 
let in the northern portion of Yorktown, July 24, 
1817. His ancestry, both paternal and maternal, 
were English. The Fountain family, probably, were 
of Norman origin, and are 'supposed to be descended 
from Sir John Fountain, a monument to whom ia 
found in a village church-yard in Devonshire, Eng- 
land. Moses Fountain emigrated from Bedfordshire,. 
England, in 1650. The genealogy is as follows, — 

Motes Foontain. 

Moeee Foaotain (whom we find in the town of Bedford in 1741.) 

Matthew Fountain (who being a loyalist daring the Revolution, moved 
I within the English lines to East Chester.) 

ReT. Ezra Fountain (pastor of the Paptist Church in Bedford for thirty* 
I five years.) 

James, M.D. 



Jabes Hnsted. 

Hosea 1 

Qyrus Horton. Ezra James, M.D. 

Dr. Fountain's maternal grandfiather lived at Cos- 
cob, Conn., prior to the Revolution, but being a 
loyalist his property was confiscated and he was 
obliged to accept a settlement at the hands of the 
British government at St. John, New Brunswick. 
Charlotte Husted was born there, but at the age of 
twelve or thirteen years, came to New York to reside 


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with her aunt, who was a Van Guilder. Here, doubt- 
less, Dr. James Fountain made her acquaintance. 

Hosea Fountain received his English education in 
the district school of his native village, and at a school 
kept by a Rev. Mr. Patterson, in Patterson, Putnam 
County, N. Y. His professional studies were pursued 
at several schools. He attended the medical depart- 
ment of Fairfield College, Fairfield, N. Y., 1835-56 ; 
Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa., 1836- 
37 ; College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, 
1837-38, and would have graduated at the latter in 
March, 1838, if he had reached his majority. For 
this reason we find him in 1838-39 at the Medical 
Institution of Yale College, New Haven, Ct. He re- 
ceived hii degree of M.D. March 26, 1839, from the 
College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York, 
and spent six months in 
the New York Hospital. 
He practiced medicine 
with his father at Jeffer- 
son Valley for a time, and 
after his marriage with 
Mary Horton, daughter of 
Joel and Harriet Mont- 
roos Horton, in February 
19, 1840, he settled at 
PeekskiU. In 1843 he 
removed to Somers, and 
later in 1854 or 1855 he 
purchased the property on 
which he resided, until his 
death, August 28, 1885. 
Yorktown and the adjoin- 
ing town of Somers were 
the field of his profession- 
al labors, until April, 1884, 
more than forty years. He 
was laid to rest Septem- 
ber 1, 1885. The funeral 
took place in the Presby- 
terian Church, which was 
filled with those who^ 
themselves or in their 
fiunilies, had had the benefit at one time or another of 
his professional services. June 20, 1872, he married, 
as his second wife, Mary Brett, daughter of James and 
Helen Ann Brett, of Fishkill and grand-daughter of 
£benezer White, M.D., of Somers. She survives him. 
The issue of the first marriage are Harriet Louise, 
Elias, Charlotte (now Mrs. Erskine Westervelt, of 
Hackensack, N. J.), and Mary Emma (now Mrs. 
Theodore F. Tompkins, of Yorktown.) Of the second, 
Grace, Elias Fountain (who was second lieutenant of 
the Sixth New York Heavy Artillery, and died from 
the effects of a wound received at Cedar Creek, Va., 
October 19, 1864), and his sister, Harriet Louise, who 
died ten days later from a gangrenous sore-throat, con- 
tracted from him while caring for him in his last illness. 


The Hasbrouck family is of French Huguenot 
origin, and descended from Abraham Hasbroucq, who 
was a native of Calais. His father moved to the 
Palatinate, in Germany, with his two sons, Jean and 
Abraham, and a daughter. Here they lived for 
several years, and in 1675 Abraham Hasbroucq came 
to America ^'with several of bis acquaintances, the 
descendants or followers of Peter Waldus." He 
landed at Boston, and in July, 1675, found his way to 
Esopus, Ulster County, N. Y., where he found his 
brother Jean, *' who had come two years before." The 
next year he married Marie, daughter of Christian 
Duyou (Deyo), with whom he, was acquainted in the 

Palatinate. She died 
March 27, 1741, at the age 
of eighty-eight. In 1677 
he, with twelve others, ob- 
tained a patent from Oov- 
emor Andross, for a large 
tract of land at New 
Paltz, in Ulster County, 
where he and his brother 
settled and 'Mived and 
died there." Abraham 
Hasbroucq was one of the 
founders of the Walloon 
Protestant Church, at 
New Paltz. He was a 
very prominent citizen, 
and for many years a 
member of the Provin- 
cial Assembly. On Sun- 
day, March 17, 1717, he 
was struck with apoplexy, 
"whereof he died very 
suddenly at a very good 
old age, and rests in the 
Lord till his coming to 
judge both the quick and 
the dead." He left five 
children, — Joseph, Solo- 
mon (who died April 3, 
1753), Daniel (died January 25th, 1759, aged 
sixty-seven), Benjamin and Rachel, (wife of Louis 

Joseph, the eldest son, married, in 1706, Elsie, daugh- 
ter of Captain Joachim Schoonmaker, whose father, 
Hendrick Joakimse Schoonmaker, " was a native of 
Hanse Town, in Germany." Joseph Hasbrouck died 
January 28, 1723-24, age forty years and three months. 
His wife, Elsie, died July 27, 1764, aged seventy-eight 
years, eight months, three days, "and was buried 
at New Paltz by the side of her husband. She 
brought up all her children in honor and credit." 
They left " six sons and four daughters," — Abraham ; 
Isaac D.; Rachel, born 1715, died 1756, wife of Jan 
Eltinge; Mary, wife of Abraham Hardenberg, born 



January 10, 1714, died 1774; Sarah, wife of William 
Osterhoudt. born February 21, 1709, died 1780; Ben- 
jamin ; Jacob, who married Mary Hoornbeck ; and 
Colouel Jonathan.^ The names of one son and one 
daughter do not appear. Abraham, the eldest son, 
was born on the old family homestead at Guilford, 
Ulster County, August 21, 1707. He married his first 
cousin, Catharine Bruyn, January 5, 1788-89, She 
was born June 24, 1720, and died August 10, 1793. 
She was a daughter of Jacobus Bruyn, and his wife, 
Tryntie, who was a daughter of Captain Joakim 
Schoon maker, and died August 27, 1763, aged seventy- 
eight. The father of Jacobus Bruyn " was a native 
of Nonvay, and came here in the Dutch time, and 
married Oertruy Esselstein." Jacobus Bruyn lived at 
Bruynswyck, in Ulster County, and died November 
21, 1744, aged sixty-four. He had a sister Esther, 
who married Zachariah Hoffman. Abraham Has- 
brouck was one of the most prominent men of Ulster 
County, and was for thirty years a member of the 
Legislature. He settled in Kingston in 1735, and 
died there November 10, 1791, and "was buried the 
next day with the honors of war." He left eight 
children, — Elsie, wife of Abraham Salisbury; Catha- 
rine, wife of Abram Houghtaling; Mary, wife of 
David Bevier; Jonathan, who married Catharine, 
daughter of Cornelius and Catharine Wynkoop ; Jo- 
seph, who married Elizabeth Bevier ; Jacobus, who 
married Maria, daughter of Charles De Witt ; and 
Daniel, who married Rachel, daughter of Colonel 
Jonathan Hasbrouck (his uncle), of Newburgh. 

Isaac Hasbrouck, the second son of Joseph, was 
born March 12, 1712 (o.s.). In 1766 he married 
Antie Low, widow of John Van Gaasbeck. They had 
three children — ^Joseph, Elsie and Jane, wife of John 
Crispell. Isaac died April 6, 1778, "and was buried 
at the Shawangunk church-yard, near the burying- 
place of Jacobus Bruyn's family." His widow, 
Antie, died October 2, 1784. 

Joseph Hasbrouck, the son of Isaac and Antie, 
married Cornelia, daughter of Edmond Schoon maker, 
and they were the parents of nine children — Stephen ; 
Sarah, wife of David Tuttle ; Maria, wife of Thomas 
Ostrander ; Jane, wife of Cornelius De Witt ; Katy, 
wife of Samuel Johnson ; Levi, George, Abel and 

Augustus Hasbrouck married Jane Eltinge, and 
left children — Dr. Stephen, of Yonkers; Dr. Joseph, 
of Dobbs Ferry; Wilhelmus, Cornelius, Richard, 
Augustus, Cornelia, wife of William Simpson, Abra- 
ham, James H., Aaron, David, Herman and Edward. 

1 Col. Jonathan Hasbrouck was the youngest child, and was born April 
12, 1722. He married Tryntie, daughter of Ck>meliu8 Dubois, and set- 
tled in Newburgh. He died July 31, 1780, and " was buried on his own 
kind by two of his sons, between his house and the North River." His 
homestead is the famous *< Washington's Headquarters," at Newburgh, 
now owned by the SUte of New York. He left children— Ck>melius, 
Isaac, Jonathan, Bacbel and Mary. He was a verj' tall man, being six 
feet four inches in height. 

Stephen Hasbrouck, M.D., son of Augustus Has- 
brouck and Jane Elting, was born in Bergen County, 
N. J., January 29, 1842. His maternal grandfather 
was pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church at Paramus 
for thirty years. At the age of fourteen young Has- 
brouck went to Great Falls, Mass., where he engaged 
asaclerk. Hestayed three years, then returned home, 
and attended the Normal School at Trenton, and 
al^erwards entered business as a commission mer- 
chant in New York. In 1862 he entered the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, and afterwards studied 
in the New York Homoeopathic Medical College. 
At the close of the late war a colony from New Or- 
leans, composed of persons who had been disloyal to 
the Union, resolved to seek a new home in Brazil. 
They numbered about three hundred souls, and en- 
gaged the services of Dr. Hasbrouck as surgeon to the 
expedition. The experience of a few years convinced 
most of them that they had not bettered their condi- 
tion by leaving their native country, and, through the 
influence of Dr. Hasbrouck, the captjiins of some ot 
the United States war vessels were induced to bring 
back the relics of the colony, who returned much 
better reconciled to the government and the starry flag 
than when they went away. While in Brazil he wrote 
a history of the practice of homoeopathy in t^at 
country, which was published by the New England 
Medical Oazetie. He was on the island of St. Thomas 
during the hurricane and earthquake which devas- 
tated it, and published the first description of the 
fearful scene of destruction. On his return he gradu^ 
ated from the New York Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, and settled at Dobbs Ferry, where he remained 
three years in the practice of his profession. In 1874 
he removed to New York, where he stayed till 1881, 
when he made a very extensive tour in Europe and 
the East, visiting Egypt and Palestine and most ot 
the countries of the Old World. Returning from his 
travels in 1883, he settled in Yonkers, which has since 
been his home. 

He married Anna M., daughter of Captain John 
Stillwell, of New York, and has two children — Au- 
gustus and Mabel. He holds a good positicMi 
among the members of the homoeopathic medical pro- 
fession, and is esteemed as a useful and worthy 

Dr. Hasbrouck's maternal grandfather, Wilhelmut 
Elting, was of Huguenot origin, and his ancestry 
could be traced back to Henry IV. of France. Pr. 
Hasbrouck was a surgeon in the Brazilian army dar- 
ing the war with Paraguay, and, while in South. 
America, passed through several epidemics of small- 
pox and cholera. He was in St. Thomas during a 
violent epidemic of yellow fever, and the good results 
that followed his methods of treatment proved their 

Joseph Hasbrouck, M.D., was bom in Bergen 
County, New Jersey, March 20, 1839, and remained 
in his native village till the age of fifteen, when he 

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commenced teaching school, in which he was engaged 
for two years. 

At the establishment of the New Jersey Normal 
School he entered that institution, and graduated in 
due time. He then engaged in teaching until he 
reached the age of twenty-nine. During the latter 
part of this period he pursued the study of medicine, 
and in 1869 graduated from the Medical Department 
of the University of the City of New York. He im- 
mediately investigated the system of homoeopathy, 
and has since practiced it. His first year of practice 
was at Goshen, Orange County, N. Y. From thence 
he removed to Newton, Sussex County, N. J., and 
was the first to practice homoeopathy in that county. 
In 1875 he removed to Dobbs Ferry, which has since 
been his place of residence. He is a member of the 
Westchester County Homoeopathic Medical Society, 
and was its president for two years. He has been 
four times married. His wives were Sarah and Anna 
D., both daughters of Elias Dayton, of New Jersey, 
and cousins of Hon. Wm. L. Dayton ; Emma, daugh- 
ter of Steven Archer; and Ellen M., daughter of Rev. 
D. L. Marks, of the New York Conference. Of the 
children of Dr. Hasbrouck, his eldest son, Dayton, 
who died January 13, 1885, at the age of twenty four, 
was at the time of his death a member of the senior 
class of the New York Homoeopathic College. His 
surviving children are Edith S. and Mabel E., twin 
daughters, and an infant son, David Marks. 

Although not a professional politician, he has al- 
ways taken a deep interest in political afiairs, and is 
especially interested in all that pertains to the wel- 
fare of the locality in which he lives. He has been 
for several years a member of the Board of Education 
of Dobbs Ferry, and is its present president. He is 
also health officer of the village, and president of the 
savings bank. He has been connected with the Re- 
publican party since its organization, and has always 
taken a deep interest in its success. 

His residence is one of the historical land marks 
of Westchester County. It is the old Livingston 
mansion, formerly the residence of Van Brugh Liv- 
ingston. It was at this house that General Washing- 
ton, Governor Clinton and General Sir Guy Tarleton 
met on the suspension of hostilities. May 3, 1783, to 
arrange for the evacuation of New York. The man- 
sion, which is a well-preserved relic of olden times, 
stands on the east side of the old Albany post road, a 
short distance below Livingston Avenue. The place 
was sold by Van Brugh Livingston to Steven Archer 
in 1836, and was his residence till the time of his 
death, which occurred in 1877, and was purchased 
from his heirs by Dr. Hasbrouck in 1882. 

Dr. Levi Wells Flagg was bom in West Hartford, 
Conn., February 14, 1817. After receiving a thorough 
primary education, he became a student of Yale Col- 
lie, where he graduated in 1839. Among his class- 
mates were Charles Astor Bristed and John Sher- 
wood, of New York, Rev. Francis Wharton, joint 

author of " Wharton and Stille's Medical Jurispru- 
dence," and Hon. H. L. Dawes, of Massachusetts, ex- 
Governor Hall of Missouri, Prof. J. D. Whitney, of 
California, the eminent chemist and geologist, and 
others who have become distinguished. 

After graduating he went south and spent three 
years in teaching in St. Francisville, Louisiana. Re- 
turning to his native place in lft42, he studied medi- 
cine for a year with Dr. Pinckney W. Ellsworth. At 
the expiration of that time removing to New York 
City, he entered the office of Prof. Willard Parker, 
with whom he remained two years. In 1847 he 
graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
(old Crosby Street school), and in the following year 
established himself in Yonkers as an allopathic physi- 
cian. Shortly afterward he was induced to investi- 
gate homoeopathy, the result being a conviction as 
he said of its superiority over the old system of 
practice. He at once became its strong advocate 
and the pioneer practitioner in the county. His suc- 
cess in introducing the new system was most marked ; 
he grew rapidly in favor with the community, ac- 
quiring wealth and a pre-eminent position among 
the physicians of the locality. 

Notwithstanding hirt change of faith, the relations 
between himself and his old teacher. Professor Par- 
ker, greatly to the honor of the latter ever continued 
of the most friendly character. 

Dr. Flagg avoided politics entirely, and never held 
any public office of a political character. He always 
devoted himself wholly to his profession, in 
which he was a zealous and untiring worker ; a 
portion of a year spent in Europe and a short time 
in Mexico, being almost the only relaxation he al- 
lowed himself between the commencement of his 
practice and his death on May 15, 1884. 

When, in 1865, the Westchester County Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society was organized, he was elected 
its president and held that office for three years. He 
was also a member of the American Institute of 

He married on May 17, 1848, Charlotte Whitman, 
of Hartford, ConA., and had eight children, five of 
whom are still living. Their names are Howard W., 
Marietta W., Lucy W., G^rge A. and Robert N. 
Flagg, M. D., who succeeds to the practice of his 

It is with pleasure that we present our readers 
with the above brief outline sketch of one of the most 
popular and successful physicians as well as most 
useful and upright citizens that it has ever been the 
good fortune of Westchester County to possess. Dr. 
Flagg came to Yonkers when the village was in its 
infancy and for thirty-six years watched its develop- 
ment and growth. No one was or could be better 
known than he. By his steadfast integrity, his pro- 

1 The above with slight modiflcatiQn is fit>m the " Biographical cycio- 
pedia of honueopathic physicians and Burgeons.** (S. A. George A Ck>. 



fessional ability and his genial and winning manner 
he won for himself the respect of the business com- 
munity, an extensive and lucrative practice and a 
high social standing. His death not only creates a 
vacancy beside the family hearth, but is also a loss to 
the city and county in which he lived, which is irre- 


Dr. Adrian K. Hoffman, who is remembered as one 
of the most distinguished physicians of Westchester 
County, was bom at the Manor of Livingston, in 
Columbia County, March 26, 1797. Entering the pro- 
fession of medicine at an early age, his first experi- 
ence was on a three years' cruise as surgeon's mate on 
board the United States man-of-war " Franklin," 
commanded by Commodore (afterwards Admiral) 
Charles Stewart. After his return Dr. Hofibian set- 
tled at Sing Sing, and for nearly half a century prac- 
ticed his profession with great success. His reputa- 
tion was widely extended, and he was justly esteemed 
by his fellow-citizens as a wise and skillftil physician 
and a prudent and able man of business. He was 
chosen several times as president of the village of 
Sing Sing by unanimous elections. 

He married Jane, daughter of Dr. John Thompson, 
of Saratoga County, with whom he had studied medi- 
cine. The issue of this marriage were Cornelia, who 
married Alfred Buckhout, and died in January, 1866 ; 
John Thompson, who became in succession twice 
recorder, twice mayor of the city of New York and 
twice Governor of the State, and who married Ella, 
daughter of Henry Starkweather, of New York ; Mary 
E., wife of Colonel Charles O. Joline ; Emma Kis- 
sam, who married Rev. M. M. Wells, and occupies the 
homestead at Sing Sing; and Katharine, who first 
married Captain Charles C. Hyatt, United States 
Army, and, after his decease, married General Wil- 
liam H. Morris. 

After a long life of active useftilness Dr. Hoffman 
died May 6, 1871, universally beloved and mourned 
by all his neighbors. On the day of his ftineral the 
houses and places of business were draped in mourn- 
ing and all business was suspended. He is spoken 
of with loving respect by those who knew him and yet 
survive, and by the children of others, with whom his 
name is a household word. 


Henry Ernest Schmid, M.D., who is a well-known 
member of the medical profession, was bom in Sax- 
ony, Prussia, May 1, 1824. His father, who was a 
publisher and connected with the famous family of 
Tauchnitz, intended him to follow his profession. 
After receiving his early education at the great Latin 
school at Halle, Dr. Schmid commenced a higher 
literary course for that purpose. His father, unfor- 
tunately, incurred the censure of the government, and 
this changed the whole tenor of the son's life. The 

latter emigrated to this country in 1853, and soon 
after his arrival went to Virginia, and having an 
early predilection for the study of medicine, pursued 
that branch of science at Winchester and at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. For a while he was connected 
with a newspaper in Bichmond, and in 1859 was sent, 
under the auspices of the Episcopal Board of Foreign 
Missions, as medical missionary to Japan. While in 
that country he organized a hospital and his practice 
increased to an enormous extent among the natives, 
who were quick to learn the superiority of foreign 
practitioners. Owing to the failure of his health he 
obtained a position on board the flag-ship of an Eng- 
lish surveying fleet as interpreter. In this capacity 
he visited Corea and northern China, Borneo, Java 
and Sumatra. The ship, having narrowly escaped 
destruction in a typhoon, went to Cape Town for re- 
pairs, and Dr. Schmid embraced the opportunity to 
make an extensive tour in southern AMca. He after- 
wards went to St. Helena and the Azores, and thence 
to England, returning to this country in 1862. 

He came to White Plains, Westchester County, in 
1859, when he made a short visit. Upon his return 
from England he settled in this place, and has been 
engaged in the practice of his profession to the pres- 
ent time. With a devoted love of science. Dr. 
Schmid, while in Japan, made many valuable collec- 
tions for the Smithsonian Institution, which led to 
his being made a member of the Oriental Society, 
and of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

In his profession he has enjoyed a very extensive 
practice, and is justly considered one of the leading 
physicians of the county. He is a member of the 
American Medical Association, the State Medical 
Society and the Westchester County Medical Society. 
As a prominent citizen of the village he is president 
of the Board of Health, and of the Board of Educa- 
tion, and is a member of the vestry of Grace Episco- 
pal Church. He is also the physician in charge of 
St Vincent Retreat for the Insane. He married Eu- 
genia, daughter of Eugene T. Prudhomme, of White 
Plains, and they have three children — ^Theodora, 
Gertrude and Permetta. 


The father of Charles J. Nordquist, M.D., the well- 
known physician, was Lars Peter Nordquist, who 
was bom at Sounerly, in Sweden, March 29, 1781. 
He was a surgeon in the Swedish army, which he 
entered April 22, 1802, remaining 'in the employ of 
the government till his decease, in 1824. He was an 
eminent physician and was the recipient of many 
high appointments both in military and civil life. 
On the 16th and 17th of March, 1809, he accompanied 
the Boyal Mounted Life Guards in their retreat upon 
the ice over the Gulf of Bothnia, and afterward be- 
came surgeon to Bernadoth, King of Sweden. On 
January 3, 1812, he married Sophia Christina Weu- 







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gren (daughter of Ivan Weugren and Sophia Chris- 
tina Habicht) who was born December 18, 1782, and 
died June 10, 1830. 

Charles J., their son, was born at Jousered, near 
Gotienberg, Sweden, on the 16th of July, 1821. He 
was left at three years of age in the care of his 
father's cousin, Lars Peter Afzelius, dean of Alingsas, 
who sent him at the age of nine to the high school in 
that place. Here he remained for eight years, when 
he removed to Stockholm for the purpose of acquaint- 
ing himself with the drug trade. After three years 
of practical experience as a pharmacist, he entered 
the Carlingasta Institute, where he studied medicine, 
graduating in 1842. A 
year spent in traveling 
through Europe followed 
his graduation, after 
which he sailed for the 
United States, arriving at 
New York in 1843. He 
engaged first as a drug 
clerk, but in 1848, having 
meanwhile mastered the 
English language, he es- 
tablished a store of his 
own on the corner of 
Broome and Mulberry 
Streets, New York. 

Disposing of this at a 
profit to himself, he en- 
gaged until 1854 in the 
fitting out and selling of 
drug-stores. He then en- 
tered the University Med- 
ical College of the city of 
New York, from which he 
graduated in 1856. After 
practicing two years in 
New Y'ork City, he 
removed to Tucka- 
hoe, N.Y. In 1861 
he joined the Ninth 
Regiment as surgeon, 
and like his father's, 
his army life was an 
eventful one. From the time he was commissioned, 
he rose rapidly in favor with his superiors and received 
one mark of respect after another with enviable rapid- 
ity. He was appointed chief surgeon of the Third 
Brigade, medical director of the Second Division, and 
finally medical inspector of the First Army Corps. 

On February 1, 1864, he received a note of thanks 
from the commanding general for the ef&cient manner 
in which he had performed his duties ; and two years 
after the departure of the Ninth Regiment from New 
York, he was presented by its non-commissioned 
officers and privates with a handsome gold watch and 
chain as a token of their respect and esteem. 

Unlike some of the officers of the late war. Dr. 

Nordquist did not make use of his official power 
to shirk his duty in the hour of danger, but was pres- 
ent and actively engaged at every battle, in which 
his division participated. On the fields of Harper's 
Ferry, Cedar Mountain, Rappahannock Station, Thor- 
oughfare Gap, Second Bull Run, Chantilly, South 
Mountain, Antietam, First Fredericksburg, Chancel- 
lorsville, Gettysburg, The Wilderness, Laurel Hill, 
Spottsylvania and Coal Harbor he was present in per- 
son, administering the comforts of his profession to the 
sick and dying soldiery. As a surgeon, he was most 
successful, and several of his cases are mentioned 
in the surgical history of the war of the Rebellion. 

At the battle of Gettys- 
burg, on the 1st of July, 
1863, he was taken prison- 
er by the Confederates and 
was held for three days 
and nights upon one pint 
of flour without the means 
of preparing it for food. 
Being placed by his cap- 
tors in one of the churches 
of the town, he escaped 
by crawling into the stee- 
ple and remaining con- 
cealed till the advance of 
the Union troops. On 
June 23, 1864, he closed 
his career in the army and 
sought again the quiet of 
his home in Tuckahoe. 
Here he has since re- 
mained, honored and re- 
spected among his asso- 
ciates in the profession 
and looked up to with 
pleasure by the many 
friends who surround 
the home of his adop- 

He is a Republican 
in politics, and held 
the office of coroner 
for four years. He 
is a member of the Lutheran Chur«h, and is well- 
known for his liberality. He married on April 28, 
1846, Harriet Louise Goodwin, and has had three 
children, all daughters, of whom one died in early 
vouth and two still survive and are married. 


To chronicle within the limits of this work, all 
that is either important or interesting in the record of 
a family prominent in English and American history 
for a period of more than eight hundred years would 
be impossible, and but a brief outline of it can be given 

The first trace of the family is found in the reign of 



Edward the Confessor (son of Etheired and Emma) 
before the conquest, 1042 to 1066, when Ulnod dwelt 
in the Isle of Wight, in the County of Hampshire, at 
a place called Sandes. From this the surname (at the 
time of the Holy Wars) of Sandes, Sandis, Sandys, 
Sands is derived. Sir John Sandys of Hampshire 
was a knight-baronet, in the reign of Richard II., 
1377-1399. John Sands, born in 1485 at Horborm, 
Straffordshire, died in 1625 at the age of one hundred 
and forty. His wife lived to be one hundred and 
twenty years old. Sir William Sandys was the first 
baron of the name. By his eminent services to the 
Kings Henry VII. and VHI., he advanced his family 
to wealth and honor. He was prominent in the sup- 
pression of the Cornish Rebellion, and was created 
Lord Sandys in 1524 by 
Henry VIII., who ap- 
pointed him Lord Cham- i 
berlain in 1526. The same 
king made him a Knight 
of the Garter and employ- 
ed him in the wars with 
France, after which he 
was created Baron. 

Sir William, Lord 
Sandys, his grandson, was 
a member of Parliament, 
and one of the commis- 
sioners appointed by 
Queen Elizabeth for the 
trial of Thomas Howard, 
Duke of Norfolk, Jan- 
uary 16, 1571; also for 
that of Mary Queen of 
Scots, October 12, 1586. 
and Philip Howard, Earl 
of Arundel,April 18, 1589. 
He was imprisoned for a 
short time in 1600 for 
joining with Robert, Earl 
of Sussex, in an 
insurrection in 
London. His 
princely man- 
sion at Basing- 
stoke, called the Vine, was famous as the reception 
place of the State embassy sent by King Henry IV. of 
France to Queen Elizabeth in 1601. 

Edwin Sandys, D. D.,wasan eminent Prelate of Eng- 
land. He was born in 1519, became Master of St. Cath- 
erine College in 1547, Prebendary of Peterboro in 1549 
and of Carlisle in 1552. He was Vice-Chancellor of 
Cambridge University in 1553, and a strong advocate 
of the reformation. He preached a sermon in favor 
of the royal claims of Lady Jane Grey, and refused to 
proclaim Mary Queen of Scots, for which he was 
deprived of his honors, sent to the Tower and after- 
ward to Marshalsea, where he was imprisoned for 
seven months. 

Pursued by the persecution of his enemies, he 
escaped from England in May 1554. In 1558, after 
the coronation of Elizabeth, he returned to England. 
Under her, he held many important positions. He 
was one of the nine Protestants sent to dispute with 
nine Catholics before Parliament, and in 1559 became 
Bishop of Worcester. He was appointed by Queen 
Elizabeth one of a commission under Bishop Parker 
to prepare a new translation of the Bible, known as the 
Bishops' Bible. In 1570 he became Bishop of London, 
and in 1576 Archbishop of York. He died at the 
Archiepiscopal palace of Southwell, July 10, 1588, 
and his alabaster tomb and efiSgy are looked upon by 
visitors to this day with peculiar interest. 
^ Sir Edwin Sandys, son of the preceding, born 
in Worcester, 1561, was 
\ an English statesman ot 
great ability. He travel- 
ed extensively on the 
continent, aft;er which he 
published "Europse Spec- 
ulum, or a Survey of the 
State of Religion in the 
Western part of the 
World." He was knight- 
ed by James I. in 1608, 
and became an influen- 
tial member of the Sec- 
ond London Company for 
Virginia, into which he 
introduced the vote by 
ballot. He was the trea- 
surer or chief oflBcer of 
the company, and was 
indefatigable in promot- 
ing public prosperity and 
security. In 1620, Span- 
ish influence having been 
exerted against him,King 
James, in violation of the 
charter, forbade 
^r^ yj^ ^ his re-election. 
ty^^-^y * George, a bro- 

ther of Sir Ed- 
win, was a fa- 
mous English poet. He was educated at Ox- 
ford, and published "A Relation of a Journey 
Begun A.D. 1610, in Four Books, Containing 
a Description of the Turkish Empire, of Egypt, 
of the Holy Land and of the Remote Parts of Italy 
and Adjoining Islands ;" also a " Translation of Ovid's 
' Metamorphoses.' " In 1621 he became colonial 
treasurer of Virginia, where he distinguished himself 
by his public zeal. He executed all orders concern- 
ing staple commodities ; to him is due the build- 
ing of the first water mill; he promoted the establish- 
ment of iron works in 1621, and in the following 

iFrom Appleton's "Encyclopajdia." 
* Also from Appleton. 


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year introduced ship building. While in Virginia 
he translated the last ten books of the " Metamor- 
phoses/' and, afler returning to England, in 1626, he 
published the translation of the whole. He also wrote 
poetical versions of the Psalms, of the Book of Job, 
Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, etc., and of the Song of 
Solomon. His life, by the Rev. J. H. Todd, is pre- 
fixed to "Selections from Sandy's Metrical Para- 
phrases." (London, 1839.) Samuel Sandys, who, in 
1741, accused Sir Robert Walpole of fraud and cor- 
ruption, was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
in 1742; created Lord Sandys by George IL, 1743; 
was First Commissioner of the Board of Trade, 1761 ; 
and died 1770. These and many other gentlemen 
whose names are conspicuous in English history, were 
members of the family in the direct line. Though 
many of their descendants have also been prominent 
in this country, the family is still influential in Eng- 
land. Its present representative there is Baron 
Augustas Frederick Arthur Sandys, born March 1, 
1S40; married, August 3, 1872, Augustus Ann, second 
daughter of the late Charles Des Voeux, Bart. His 
seat is at Ombersley Court, Droitwich. The first 
known member of the American family was Henry 
Sandy, who came to Boston, Mass., and establisihed 
himself as a merchant. He was prominent as a relig- 
ious worker, and upon one occasion, when he, with 
others, was in the act of starting a new church at 
Rowley, a clerk 'called him Sands, which was the ori- 
gin of the present spelling. 

D. Jerome Sands, M.D., president of the village of 
Port Chester, and one of the first physicians in West- 
chester County, is one of his direct descendants. In 
his qualities of perseverance and persistency in sup- 
port of principle, Dr. Sands strongly resembles his 
illustrious ancestry. He was born November 26, 
1814, and was the second child of David Sands and 
Elizabeth Brady, of New Castle, N. Y. His father, 
who was a farmer and civil engineer, early sent him 
to the school at his native place, after which he also 
attended a higher academy at Sing Sing, N. Y. After 
leaving Sing Sing he spent a year or two in farming 
and study together. At the close of this time he en- 
tered the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the 
city of New York, graduating in 1840. Shortly after 
this he began the long and successful professional 
career, in Port Chester, which has ended not only in 
the possession of an extended and lucrative practice, 
but in winning a host of warm and steadfast friends. 

Dr. Sands has given much of his time to outside 
work. He is at present a director of the First Na- 
tional Bank of Port Chester. For over ten years he 
was trustee of the village, and is now its president. 
He is also health officer of the town and a member of 
the County Medical Society. He married, on the 27th 
of April, 1842, Miss Ann Maria Green, of Port 
Chester, and has had three children, — one daughter, 
who died in childhood, and two sons, who are still living. 
Morton J. Sands, M.D., the oldest, practices with his 

father, and Purdy G., the youngest, who holds the 
position of town clerk, is a civil engineer at Port 
Chester. Dr. Sands has also a grandchild, — Benjamin 
J., a son of Morton J. 


Norman K. Freeman, M.D., who is the oldest 
physician in the southern portion of Westchester 
County, was born in Warren, Herkimer County, 
N. Y., May 3, 1814. The ancestors of the family were 
three brothers who came from the north of England, 
where the home is still found, in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century. They landed in Philadelphia, 
but one of them went to Massachusetts, and has many 
descendants in that portion of the country and in the 
northern part of this State. Another of the brothers 
was drowned in the Delaware River, and his widow, 
with the surviving brother, made their home at 
Woodbridge, N. J., where four generations of their 
descendants are interred in the old burying-ground. 

Thomas Freeman, one of the descendants, was a 
soldier of the Revolution and a prisoner in the Sugar- 
House in New York, and on board a prison ship, from 
which he escaped by swimming. He married Sallie 
Moore, of Scotch descent. Their children were John, 
Smith, Ariel, Thomas, Linus, Moores, Rachel (wife of 
Moses Freeman, her cousin), Polly (wife of Thomas 
fklgar) and Henry. Of these children, Henry Free- 
man was born June 21, 1789. In his early manhood 
he learned the tcnde of a carpenter and subsequently 
went to Warren, where his uncle Isaac resided, and 
was the builder of the first mill in that place. He 
remained there till 1822, when he removed to Rich- 
field, Otsego County, and purchased a farm on the 
west side of Canaderago Lake, which he made his 
home until his death, in 1869. He married, in 1813, 
Mercy, daughter of Holden and Rhoda Sweet, of 
Berlin, Rensselaer County, N. Y. Their children 
were Norman K. ; George S., born August 25, 1816, 
and died unmarried Jan. 30, 1840; Emily, born Oct. 
21, 1816 (wifeof Borelli Ingalls) ; and Delos, born April 
22, 1819. He died August 8, 1843, without descendants. 

Dr. Norman K. Freeman remained on his father's 
farm, attended the district school, then taught school 
and worked by the month for the neighboring farm- 
ers, giving half his wages to his father and educat- 
ing hi mself with the remainder. At the age of twenty- 
one he went to New York and served, until 1837, as a 
clerk in a store on Maiden Lane. In 1838 he returned 
to Richfield, and studied medicine with Dr. Alonzo 
Churchill. Two years later he went to Geneva and 
continued his studies under the instruction of Dr. 
Thomas Spencer, who was then president of the Ge- 
neva Medical College. He graduated February 8. 
1842, and his diligence and skill were so well known 
to Dr. Spencer that he was received by him as a part- 
ner. In the fall of that year he was compelled, by 
the failing health of his brother Delos, to accompany 
him on a trip to the South, and after his death oc- 



curred, in 1843, he came to Westchester and began 
practice with Dr. Wm. Bayard, a physician of great 
local prominence. He remained with Dr, Bayard till 
June, 1845, and then established a practice on his 
own account, which he has continued with unabated 
zeal to the present. He was the physician of St. John's 
College, at Fordham, from 1845 till 1850, when the 
failure of his health compelled him to retire to his 
farm in Richfield. He remained there till 1852, and 
then returned and resumed his practice, and purchased 
a homestead of William Simpson, on the west bank 
of Bronx River, which he has since made his resi- 
dence. Under the administration of President Fill- 
more, he was for three years postmaster at West 
Farms, and was assistant inspector of the Metropolitan 
Board of Health while it continued to have an exist- 
ence* Dr. Freeman was married, October 17, 1837, 
to Ann Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel W. Lowerre, 
of New York City, by whom he had four sons. Only 
two are now living, — Norman, who is a broker in New 
York, and Wm. Francis, who is in business in the city 
of Albany. Both are married and have children. 

It is safe to say that there is no man to whom West 
Farms is more indebted for its present efficient 
Union schools than to Doctor Freeman. His exertions 
in this respect were crowned with well-merited suc- 
cess, though his efforts met with the most determined 
opposition from many who might have been expected 
to show better judgment. 

The Union school established by hi^ active zeal and 
determination was the first organized in the State 
under the act of 1853. For twenty-one yeirs he was 
a member of the Board of Education, and for twenty 
years of that time clerk of the board. He was one of 
the first to anticipate the time when the sparsely 
settled districts of Morrisania and West Farms would 
become thickly populated portions of New York City, 
and he was among the foremost in promoting the 
cause of annexation. 

In all his views he has ever been greatly in advance 
of his times, and has had the satisfaction of seeing 
them in course of time adopted by the community, 
which at first opposed them. A strong advocate of 
temperance, his practical devotion to the cause has 
been a prominent feature of his life, and the reward 
of his temperance is found in the fact, that at the age 
of seventy-two, and after a life of constant and severe 
labor, he is to-day as hale and hardy as a man of fifty. 
During his professional career bis practice embraced 
a very large portion of the county, and there is no one 
who is a better representative of its local practitioners. 


The parents of Dr. James Bathgate, who is well 
known as the oldest resident physician in Morrisania, 
were Charles and Margaret Bathgate, who came from 
Scotland, and settled at West Farms. Their children 
were Charles and John (both deceased), Dr. James 
Alexander (now living in Morrisania), Jane, the wife 

of William J. Beck (deceased), of West Farms, and 
Margaret Ann. The father of this family was a 
skillful agriculturist, and noted for his superior horses 
and cattle, which he raised on his farm. He removed 
from West Farms to Morrisania, where the younger 
children were born. James first attended school at 
Harlem, from whence he went to Mount Pleasant 
Academy, at Sing Sing. He was subsequently a 
student in the University of the City of New York, 
and studied medicine with Professor Joseph M. 
Smith, one of the professors of the Collie of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, and graduated from that institu- 
tion in 1847. He was for three years assistant and 
resident physician in the Medical Department of the 
New York Hospital, and subsequently phyf>ician in 
the New York Dispensary, but his health failing, he 
removed from New York and settled at Morrisania 
upon a farm which was purchased from Gouverneor 
Morris. From that time to the present Dr. Bathgate 
has devoted his time and attention to the practice of 
his profession. He is a member of the State Medical 
Association, and takes an active interest in all that 
tends to advance its interests, and he enjoys a very 
extensive practice in Morrisania and the surrounding 
country. During his long practice at Morrisania he 
has never failed to command the confidence and re- 
spect of the community, in which his professional 
services have been uniformly successful. In political 
affairs he is a strong supporter of the principles of 
the Republican party, but without being a politician 
in the common acceptation of the term. The Bath- 
gate estate, in Morrisania, which is now rendered ex- 
tremely valuable by the advancement of New York 
City, is a farm purchased from (jouverneur Morris. 
The estate is bounded on the east by the old Patent 
Line, which separates Morrisania from the patent of 
West Farms. It is bounded on the west by the Mill 
Brook, and extends south to the tract which was 
bought by Jordan L. Mott and others, who founded 
the new village of Morrisania, the south line being 
near One Hundred and Seventieth Street, and the 
north line a short distance south of One Hundred 
and Seventy -fifth Street. 

The residence of Dr. Bathgate is very pleasantly 
situated on the west side of Third Avenue, and still 
retains much of the rural beauty that once distin- 
guished it, and here he enjoys a quiet home in the 
company of his brother and sister, who are, like him- 
self, unmarried. St. Paul's Church, of Morrisania, is 
on the south side of the estate, and the church lot 
was presented to the congregation by this family. 


Dr. James W. Scribner was born at Tarrytown, 
January 17, 1820. His grandfather, Enoch Scribner, 
was a resident of Bedford, Westchester County, to 
which place he is supposed to have moved from Con- 
necticut, and died July 18, 1848, at the age of eighty. 
He married Mary Miller, and they were the parents 


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of two SODS, Joseph M. and James W. The former 
was born May II, 1793, and was a prominent physi- 
cian. He married Rebecca, daughter of Thomas 
Ward, of Sing Sing, of a family long known in this 
county, and died December 28, 1847, leaving four 
children, — Dr. James W., John C, Mary (wife of 
Robert Jameson) and Philip W. His son, James W., 
attended the public schools until he was fifteen years 
old, when he was transferred to the collegiate school 
of Bedford, of which Samuel Holmes was principal. 
Having acquired a good classical education, he com- 
menced the study of medicine with his father, who 
was then, and had been for many years, one of the 
physicians in charge of the Westchester County 
almshouse, where the son had ample opportunity of 
seeing much practice while yet a student. After at- 
tending three courses of lectures at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in New York, he graduated 

The next year he began practice in his native 
town, and continued it until the close of his life, 
being invariably favored with a large, remunerative 
and responsible practice. He became his father's 
successor in the profession, and was appointed to fill 
his place at the Almshouse. 

During his entire life Dr. Scribner held a high 
position among his professional brethren in the 
county. So acute were his perceptions, so widely 
read was he in his profession, and so skillful in ap- 
plying his acquirements to practical use, that if he 
had made a specialty of any one department of med- 
icine, he would have become renowned as a leader 
in it. But he devoted himself to general practice, 
and was satisfied to gain a local reputation as a skill- 
ful physician, surgeon and obstetrician. It is seldom 
that any one becomes as accomplished in all these 
divisions of practical medicine as was Dr. Scribner. 
His counsel was frequently sought by physicians at 
a distance, and in his own neighborhood he was the 
one always sent for when consultation was required 
in cases of prolonged illness or in emergencies. He 
was devoted to his profession and to the friends he 
had acquired in following it, and could seldom be 
induced to withdraw himself from his work for relax- 
ation or amusement. During the last year of his life, 
while suffering from the acute pains of a malignant 
disease and from the depression naturally arising 
from it, he attended regularly to business day and 
night, without murmur or complaint, ministering 
unto hundreds who were far less in need of help than 
he was himself, until his force was all expended, and 
he kid down his labor and his life together. In all 
his professional relations he was pre-eminently a 
silent man, never gossiping about his cases in the 
sick room, and seldom indulging in conversation, 
even upon topics of general interest. Though digni- 
fied and courteously reserved in his intercourse with 
the world, among his friends he was always cheerful 
and fully enjoyed light amusements and harmless jokes. 

Dr. Scribner*s professional silence grew out of his 
hatred for shams of all kinds. His profession was to 
cure, not to amuse, and he never sought to win suc- 
cess by any means outside of his skillful treatment of 
cases. Operations of a complicated nature and re- 
quiring the highest skill were performed by him ; but 
his modesty kept him from reporting the cases, and 
they remain unknown to all except the ones who 
were directly benefited by his art. 

It is needless to say that his moral and professional 
worth were alike appreciated by the entire commu- 
nity. For several years he was elected president of 
the village, held the highest offices in the Westches- 
ter County Medical Society, and was a delegate to 
the National Medical Association in 1871. He was 
also a member of the New York State Medical So- 
ciety and of the American Medical Association, and 
an honorary member of the California State Medical 
Society. For several terms he was chosen president 
and director of the Westchester County Agricultural 
Society, and was an able and efficient member of the 
Board of Education of Tarrytown. 

He married Margaret E. Miller, and left two 
daughters, — Josie and Ella. By his death, which 
occurred January 28, 1880, the community suff*ered 
an irreparable loss; all classes mourned him as a 
friend, and it was with feelings of no common vener- 
ation that his friends and neighbors bore to their 
final home the remains of one who had been in all 
the relations of life a useful and honored man. 


Samuel Swift, M.D., is descended from an old 
English family who came to New England at an 
early date. His immediate ancestors were residents 
of Dorchester, Mass. He was born in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., August 5, 1849, his father, Samuel Swift, being 
then a prosperous merchant in New York. His 
mother was Mary, daughter of Samuel Phelps, of 
West Hampton, Mass., of a family well known in the 
history of that portion of the country. Dr. Swift re- 
sided in Brooklyn till 1858, when he went to Massa- 
chusetts and entered Williston Seminary., In 1865 
he entered Yale College, and graduated in 1868 with 
the degree of Ph.B. In the fall of 1869 he joined 
the Medical Department of Cambridge University, 
where he remained one year. He then entered the 
Medical Department of Columbia College, and was 
also a private pupil of Dr. T. M. Markoe. In 1872 
he graduated and received the diploma of M.D., and 
was the valedictorian of his class. After completing 
his studies he made a short tour to Europe, where he 
spent six months, principally in Germany. Previous 
to his trip he had been appointed resident physician 
at the " Nursery and Child's Hospital," in New York, 
obtaining this position by a successful competitive 
examination ; after completing his services there he 
was for a time connected with the Northeastern 



In the fall of 1873 he came to Yonkers, where he 
has since resided. Here he entered into a business 
partnership with Dr. J. Foster Jenkins, a physician 
of great skill and reputation, and this connection con- 
tinued till the death of Dr. Jenkins, in 1882. In hit 
profession Dr. Swift has attained an enviable and 
well-merited reputation. He is a member of the 
Medical Society of the State of New York, of the 
New York Academy of Medicine, of the Westchester 
Medical Society, the Jenkins Medical Society of 
Yonkers and the Boylston Medical Society of Boston, 
Mass. He has always been identified with the Demo- 
cratic party, and in 1882 was elected mayor of the city 
of Yonkers. He has also been president of the Board 
of Education, and is justly recognized as a prominent 
and useful citizen and a skillful medical practi- 

He married Lucy, daughter of Hon. Henry E. 
Davis, late judge of the Court of Appeals of New 
York, and has one child, Martha. He is a member 
of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, where he has served 
as vestryman since 1877, and is at present junior 
warden of the church. 


Dr. Augustus Van Cortlandt was bom August 31, 
1826, and died December 24, 1884. He was the son 
of Frederick Augustus Van Cortlandt and Harriet, 
daughter of Peter Jay Munro, of Mamaroneck. His 
paternal grandfather was James Morris, of Morrisania, 
and his grandmother Helen Van Cortlandt. His 
father took the name of Van Cortlandt to inherit an 
estate at Lower Yonkers, now called King's Bridge. 
The house in which Dr. Van Cortlandt was born was 
afterwards purchased, with a small portion of the 
property, by Hon. Waldo Hutchings. 

Dr. Van Cortlandt was sent at an early age to a 
school at White Plains. He had a wonderful memory 
and learned very rapidly. When the California fever 
broke out he went to California, and upon his return 
to New York began the study of medicine. When 
the war opened he joined the Ninth New York Regi- 
ment and went to Washington. With a number of 
others, heshortly left the Ninth and joined the Twelfth. 
On the return of his raiment he went out with the 
Seventh. On returning home he was sent to David's 
Island as physician. Subsequently he commenced 
the practice of medicine in New Rochelle, which he 
continued until his death. 

His practice was never very remunerative, being 
principally amt'Ug the poor, by whom he seemed to 
be much beloved. 


Pierre Cortlandt Van Wyck, M.D., was born at the 
old Van Cortlandt Manor-house, on the banks of the 
Croton River, September 24, 1824. 

His father, Philip Gilbert Van Wyck, was the 
nephew and adopted son of General Philip Van Cort- 
landt, who died a bachlor and left his large estate, 
including the Van Cortlandt Manor, to be divided 
between his two nephews^^ Pierre Van Cortlandt and 
Philip G. Van Wyck. 

Dr. Van Wyck's mother was Mary Smith Gardiner, 
daughter of Colonel Abraham Grardiner, who was one 
of the lineal descendants of Lion Gardiner, of Gardi- 
ner's Island. 

Coming of a race of those who had from the earliest 
history of the country been foremost in patriotism, 
generosity and the development of all the nobler 
traits of human nature, descended from the Van 
Cortlandts, Van Rensselaers, Gardiners and Van 
Wycks, whose names are so intimately interwoven 
with the early history of our own country, he never 
forgot the traditions of his ancestry, but was always 
the genial, high-toned, honorable gentleman. 

Beginning life under these favorable auspices, he 
entered Princeton College and graduated with the 
class of 1846. 

He began the study of medicine under the care of 
Dr. Adrian K'. Hofiman. He was afterwards a student 
at the College of 'Physicians and Surgeons of New 
York, where he enjoyed the benefit of the instruc- 
tions of the celebrated Dr. Willard Parker. 

He graduated in 1849, and was afterwards appoint- 
ed by President Taylor, United States inspector of 
drugs, at the port of New York, 

While holding this position he became interested 
in the firm of Radway & Co., in which he still held 
an interest at the time of his death. 

In 1862 he was appointed by President Lincoln 
assessor of internal revenue for the Fourth District 
of New York. 

He organized the district and continued to admin- 
ister it ably and efficiently until it was consolidated 
in 1871. In January, 1882, President Arthur ap- 
pointed him superintendent of the United States 
Assay Office in New York, to succeed Mr. Thomas C. 
Acton, who was made Assistant Treasurer of the 
United States. 

In politics he was a Whig until 1866, when he 
joined the Republican party during the Fremont cam- 
paign. He had always been prominent in the coun- 
cils of his party and was many times sent as a dele- 
gate to State and National Conventions, and was one 
of the famous three hundred and six who voted so 
persistently for General Grant at Chicago in 1880. 

When the nomination of General Garfield was 
announced. Governor Dennison of Ohio, came to the 
New York delegation and said that any candidate 
they named for Vice-President would be nominated. 
Dr. Van Wyck proposed the name of Chester A. 
Arthur, which was unanimously indorsed. 

Dr. Van Wyck had been the personal friend of 
President Arthur for twenty years, and was with 
him on that memorable night of September 19, 1881, 




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otd Helena Sanford, August 

^ente of twelve children ; 

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'<^ut. Gov. Pierre 

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^nte of twelve children ; 

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'■"vut. Gov. Pierre 

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when the sad news came that President Grarfield had 
passed away, and he was one of the nine persona 
present when the oath of office was administered by 
Judge Brady to the new President during the silence 
and solemnity of the midnight hour. 

Dr. Van Wyck had a brilliant mind, cultivated by 
deep study and extensive foreign travel, combined 
with refined and artistic tastes. He lived and died a 
bachelor. He was a man of domestic habits, and de- 
voted himself to the care and comfort of his sisters, 
Miss Joanna L. Van Wyck and Mrs. Annie V. R. 
Wells, who resided with him at the Van Wyck man- 
sion, Grove Hill, in the village of Sing Sing. This 
had always been the seat of generous and refined hos- 
pitality, and it was at this 
home that he died sud- 
denly, of pneumonia, on 
the 23d day of April, 1883. 

The funeral was largely 
attended, not only by his 
associates and friends in 
his own circle of life, but 
by all his numerous ten- 
antry and the poor of the 
surrounding country, who 
found him always a friend 
and brother to each and 
all, irrespective of race or 

Of him it may well 
be said : " Write me as 
one that loves his fellow- 

The interment took 
place in the family burial 
ground at Oroton, where 
repose the remains of 
those sterling Revolution- 
ary patriots. Lieutenant 
Governor Pierre 
Van Cortlandt 
and his sons, 
Oeneral Philip 
and G e n ejr a 1 
Pierre, and of his grandsons, General Philip G. 
Van Wyck and Recorder Pierre C. Van Wyck and 
numerous other members of the Van Cortlandt and 
Van Wyck families. 

Of the ancestry of Dr. Van Wyck a few words may 
be added. 

Cornelius Barentse Van Wyck came to America in 
1660, firom Wyck, a town on the river Teck in Hol- 
land. He married Anna Polhemus ; their son Theo- 
dorus who was bom September 17, 1668, and died 
December 4, 1753, married Margaretta Brinckehoff, 
February 8, 1686. They were the parents of eight 
children, one of whom. Abraham, who was born No- 
vember 7, 1605, married Catherine Provost in 1717. 
Of their nine children, the eldest, Theodorus, born 


November 30, 1718, married Helena Sanford, August 
2, 1740, and they were the parents of twelve children ; 
one of their sons, Abraham, was bom in 1748, and 
married Catherine, daughter of Lieut. Gov. Pierre 
Van Cortlandt, January 7, 1776. Their children were 
Theodorus, Pierre Cortlandt, Van Wyck (who was for 
many years Recorder for the City of New York) and 
Philip Gilbert Van Wyck, who was born June 4, 
1786, and married Mary Smith, daughter of Col Abra- 
ham Gardiner, and granddaughter of David Gardiner, 
fourth proprietor of Gardiner's Island. Their chil- 
dren were Joanna Livingston Van Wyck, now resid- 
ing at Sing Sing; Catherine, wife of Stephen H. Bat- 
tin; Philip Van Cortlandt, who died unmarried, Jan- 
uary 12,1842; Eliza, wife 
of William Van Ness Liv- 
ingston, who died Decem- 
ber 9, 1865 ; Gardiner, who 
died unmarried, April 7, 
1860 ; Annie Van Rens- 
selaer, who married the 
late Hon. Alexander 
Wells, of the Supreme 
Bench of California, and 
whose only child, Ger- 
trude Van Cortlandt, mar- 
ried Schuyler Hamilton, 
Jr., great-grandson ot 
Alexander Hamilton; 
David Gardiner, who died 
unmarried, December 16, 
1848, and Dr. Pierre Cort- 
landt Van Wyck, the 
subject of this article. 

The Van Wyckn of 
Holland, are an aristo- 
cratic and wealthy fami- 
ly, and continue to bear 
the same coat of arms as 
those brought by 
the VanWycks 
to this country 
upwards of two 
centuries ago. 


The first known ancestor of Henry K.Huntington, 
M. D., in America, was one to whom tradition baa 
assigned the name of Simon. He was an English- 
man, and in 1633 started with his wife and family for 
this country. His death occurred during the voyage, 
and his son Christopher, who succeeded to the pater- 
nal cares, brought the family first to Norwich, Conn., 
and finally to Windham, in the same State, where a 
permanent settlement was effected. The branch of 
the family from which Dr. Huntington is descended 
has apparently remained within a short distance of 
the original homestead, for we find by an examina- 



tion of the records that Samuel Howard HuntiDgton, 
hi8 father, who was bom December 14, 1793, was 
married in Hartford October 19, 1835, the lady being 
his second wife. Her name was Sarah Blair Watkin- 
son, and she was a daughter of Robert Watkinson, a 
merchant residing in Hartford. 

Henry K., their son, was bom at Hartford March 
27, 1845. He remained in his native town till 1862, 
in which year, having meanwhile graduated from the 
Hartford public school, he entered Trinity College. 
In 1867, after graduating there, he made a first at- 
tempt at self-support. Proceeding as far west as 
Racine, Wis., he engaged as a tutor in the college 
there. A year's experience as an instmctor, how- 
ever, convinced him that 
teaching was not his forte, 
and at the end of the first 
term he resigned his posi- 
tion at Racine, with the 
intention of studying 

Retracing his steps, he 
came eastward, and in 
1868 entered the Univer- 
sity (medical college) of 
the city of New York, 
from which he graduated 
in 1871. The success 
which has attended him 
as a physician, has con- 
vinced him, as well as his 
many friends, that he 
made no mistake in his 
second choice of a pro- 
fession. Immediately fol- 
lowing his graduation, he 
devoted sixteen months 
to service in the Charity 
Hospital on Black- 
welPs Island. As a 
reward for the profi- 
ciency with which he 
had performed his du- 
ties there, be was 
commissioned in 1872 with the re-organization of the 
Convalescent Hospital on Hart's Island, and to him is 
due the credit of originating what is now known as 
the Hart's Island Hospital. 

On the 23d of September, 1873, he removed to New 
Rochelle, where he still resides. By careful attention 
to the needs of his patients and faithfulness in the per- 
formance of his professional duties, he has won for 
himself not only a large and extended practice, but 
also the esteem of bis fellow-townsmen 

He is a member of Trinity Episcopal Church, was 
formerly a trustee of the public schools and is con- 
nected with the County and State Medical Associa- 
tions. He is at present physician to the Board of 
Health of the town of New Rochelle. 

Dr. Huntington married Sept. 23, 1873, Miss Momca 
Frances De Figaniere, and has no children. He is 
one of the most successful physicians in the county. 



Maximilian Joseph Reinfelder, M.D., was bom in 
Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria, March 4, 1821. His 
father, Ferdinand Reinfelder, was a surgeon in the 
military academy of that capital, where he was in 
active service thirty-three years. From his four- 
teenth year Dr. Reinfelder paid great attention to 
the study of the natural sciences, especially chemis- 
try, in which he graduated from the University of 
Munich in 1844. From 1847 to 1850 he pursued his 

medical studies there. 

Attracted by the large 
field of usefulness which 
America afibrds to scien- 
tific men as medical prac- 
titioners, as well as by his 
natural and unconquer- 
able predilection for this 
il • country almost from his 

childhood, he came to the 
United States in 1854. 

Notwithstanding the 
thoroughness of his Euro- 
pean medical education, 
he matriculated at the 
University Medical Col- 
lege, in New York City. 
His object in doing this 
was to familiarize him- 
selt with American medi- 
cal authorities, and iden- 
tify himself with Ameri- 
can interests ; also to ob- 
serve and study the great 
changes which took place 
during twenty years in 
all branches of medical 
science. Having fin- 
ished the courses pre- 
scribed in the school 
of medicine, he was graduated in 1869, receiving, be- 
side his regular diploma, a certificate of honor, as an 
evidence of having pursued a fuller course of medical 
instruction than that usually followed by students. 
He continued the practice of medicine in Yonkers, 
where he has been located for the last thirty-one years. 
He is a roan of acknowledged reputation in the pro- 
fession, and is at present consulting physician to St. 
John's Riverside Hospital. He is a Fellow of the 
New York Academy of Medicine, and also a mem- 
ber of the Westchester Medical Society. 

He was married, in 1864, to Miss A. Merz, of Lin - 

dau, Lake Constance, Bavaria, and has one daughter, 

Armina J., who resides with him at the present time. 

He is now a gentleman of advanced years. By 



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carelul attention to the wants of his patients, and 
strict economy in the management of his private af- 
fairs, he has accumulated for himself an extensive 
practice and a moderate fortune. He is greatly re- 
spected in the city of his adoption both as a private 
citizen and an influential physician. 


The family of Ralph Barnard Griswold, M.D., was 
originally English. The first ancestor in this coun- 
try was Roger Griswold, who came to New London, 
Conn., before the Revolution, and it is supposed that 
Fort Griswold, near that city, was named after some 
of the members of the family. 

Ralph Barnard Gris- 
wold, M.D., son of Lucius 
and Julia Elizabeth (Bar- 
nard) Griswold, was bom 
at Colebrook, Litchfield 
County, Conn., January 
18, 1835. His parents 
moved to the thriving vil- 
lage of Winsted in 1848, 
where he attended the 
district school, after which 
he became a pupil of St. 
James' School, taught 
by Revs. Jonathan and 
James R. Goe. He 
taught school in the 
academy at Winchester 
Centre and also nine 
months at Stroudsburg, 
Pa. His success was so 
great there that he was 
urged to tarry longer. 
For years, however, it 
had been his desire to 
become a physician, and 
while yet en- 
gaged as a 
teacher in 
he fiiUy de- 
cided to exe- 
cute this purpose. He read medicine with H. B. Steele, 
M.D., of Winsted, Conn., and attended his first course of 
lectures at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New 
York, and a full course at the Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute of Cincinnati, O., where he graduated in Feb 1857. 

It had been his father's wish that he should spend 
some time in Europe to further advance his medical 
education, but being of an ambitious turn of mind, 
and having confidence in his own ability, he decided 
not to accept the kind offer thus made. In April, 
1857, he came to North Castle, where he immediately 
began the practice of medicine and has succeeded in 
building up a business second to none in this part of 
the county. He is now called to Stanwich, Round 

Hill, Armonk, Bedford, New Castle and Long Ridge, 
and is the leading physician in North Castle, his 
post-office address being Banksville, Fairfield County, 
Conn. He is town physician and is also health 
officer of the Board of Health. 

He joined the Methodist Episcopal Church at 
Winsted, Conn., in his seventeenth year, and in 1857 
brought his letter from this church to the Middle 
Patent Methodist Church, where he has been an 
acceptable member for twenty-eight years, hold- 
ing the offices of trustee, steward and chorister from 
the time of his arrival to the present. He has been 
since his earliest recollection connected with Sabbath- 
schools, either as a pupil, superintendent or teach- 
er. For fifteen years Dr. 
Griswold has managed the 
financial matters of the 
church of which he is a 
member, and has rendered 
valuable service in the 
collection of funds neces- 
sary for its support. 

May 1, 1858, he married 
Mary Jane Early. Four 
children were born to 
them, of whom William L. 
Griswold, Ph.B., M.D., 
now practicing medicine 
in Greenwich, Conn., and 
Julia Alice Griswold are 
still living. Hehas held 
the office of commissioner 
of highways of his town 
for five consecutive terms 
of three years each, and 
still holds the position. 
He has also been tendered 
_ the nomination for su- 

— - s-:-'^^^ pervisor, but owing to 

pressure of 
^^ y^'y professional 

to decline the 
honor. He 
has always been a temperance man, and became espec- 
ially active in that work in 1870, when he assisted in 
organizing the Middle Patent Division of the Sons of 
Temperance. He was made its first Worthy Patriarch, 
and some three years afterward was elected Grand 
Worthy Patriarch of the Grand Division "Sons of Tem- 
perance " of Eastern New York, embracing in its juris- 
diction some thirteen counties of the State. He is also 
an ex-officio member of the National Division of the 
same association. He has always been a consistent 
Republican, not having missed either a town or 
State election in over twenty-eight years. He has 
identified himself, irrespective of party, church or state,, 
with any and every cause which bethought was for the 



benefit of the community, being always ready to lend 
a helping hand. He has often, after a day of toil or 
a thirty or forty-mile ride, driven away again some 
five miles to drill or take charge of a company 
of singers in giving a concert or entertainment 
for some weak society. His liberal tendencies, 
together with his cordial disposition and the valuable 
servicer which he has in times past and still con- 
tines to render the community in which he lives, 
have endeared him to its people and made his name 
an honor to the county of his adoption. 


Walton Jay Carpenter, M.D., is descended from an 
English family who came 
to New England during 
the seventeenth century. 
From thence a branch re- 
moved to the town of Pur- 
chase, in Westchester 
County, where they took 
up land and engaged in 
farming. Charles B. Car- 
penter, father of Walton 
Jay, was of this line. He 
married Rachel White, 
and of their five children, 
Dr. Carpenter was the 
oldest. He was born in 
Duanesburgh, Schenec- 
tady County, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 11, 1862, and re- 
moved with his family 
■when but four years of age ^^^^^^^ 
to Illinois. After a stay ^^^^^B * 
of two years in the West 
the family returned to 
Duanesburgh where the 
youth attended the public 
school, leav- ^y 
ingattheage ^ 

of fifteen for 
the Delaware 

Literary In- ^^ 


he passed two winters. A period of three years, divided 
between teaching and study followed ; then a two years' 
course of select studies at Union College and a term of 
medical preparation under the celebrated professor, 
Dr. Alfred Loomis, of New York. In the fall of 1875 
he entered the medical department ' of the Univer- 
flity of the City of New York, and finally fin- 
ished his course in the spring of 1877, when he 

He first settled at Round Hill, Connecticut, where 
he practiced for a few months, in connection with his 
uncle, J. C. White, M.D. ; but this town not offering 
the advantages which he craved, he returned to New 
York City and entered upon a post-graduate course 

at the University, after completing which in 1878 he 
removed to Katonah, where he still resides. 

He has by care and industry succeeded in building 
up for himself an extensive practice, and has during 
his residence in Katonah effected many cures which 
will render his reputation permanent and his presence 
in the place a continual agency for good. He is a 
member of the Methodist Church of Katonah, and 
also a member of the following Masonic organiza- 
tions : Kisco Lodge, No. 708 ; Croton Chapter, No. 
202 ; and Crusade Commandery, No. 56. 

He married April 30, 1884, Miss Anna L. Green, 
daughter of Alsoph Green, of Katonah. 
Dr. Carpenter is connected with the Westchester 
Medical Society, among 
the members of which he 
is widely known and as 
widely respected. 





j. thos. 8charp, a.m., ll.d 

Westchester County 
has good reason to pride 
herself on her contribu- 
tions to the literature ot 
the country. Few, if any, 
counties in the Union, can 
show an equally brilliant 
record. She has given 
birth to many noted wri- 
ters and has nurtured 
many more. The great- 
est literary genius, proba- 
bly, that our 
country has 
produced, the 
^ weird, uncan- 
ny Poe, found 
within her borders, on the banks of the lordly 
Hudson, and that sunny, facile intellect which 
dwelt in the pure and lofty brow of Washington 
Irving found equal delight in exploring the mystic 
nooks and windings of its " Sleepy Hollows." Feni- 
more Cooper, the great pioneer of American fiction, 
roamed over its rugged hills and through its pleasant 
meadows, and treading close upon his heels came 
James Kirke Paulding, Irving's firiend and collabora- 
teur, whose strong Americanism was quite as pure 
and unadulterated as was that of the patriotic 
Cooper. Among political writers, Westchester pre- 
sents the great names of Hamilton, Tom Paine, Sea- 
bury, Wilkins, the Jays, Gk)uvemeur Morris, Daniel 



D. Tompkins, John Bigelow, Horace Greeley, James 
Watson Webb, besides a host of lesser celebrities. 

George Washington, though not, properly speaking, a 
literary character, deserves to be included among those 
who have transmitted noble thoughts as well as noble 
deeds to his countrymen. His association with the 
people of Westchester County during the Revolution- 
ary era is fully set forth elsewhere in this work. 
Among his writings are to be found vivid bits of 
description of Westchester localities, with which he 
became ^uniliarized in passing through the county. 
The Sparks collection of Washington's writings fills 
twelve large octavo volumes. His first appearance as 
an author was in the publication, in 1754, at Williams- 
burg, Va., and in London, of his journal of his pro- 
ceedings " To and from the French of the Ohio," a 
brief tract written hastily irom the rough notes taken 
on his expedition. His State papers, correspondence 
and " Farewell Address " are too well known to need 
description here. Major John Andre, whose mournful 
fate is indissolubly linked with the glorious deeds of 
Washington, spent the closing days of his career in 
Westchester. He was a poet as well as a soldier and 
an accomplished man of letters. 

Daniel D. Tompkins, Vice-President of the United 
States, belongs to the political, rather than to the 
literary history of Westchester County, although his 
talents as a speaker and writer, entitle him to recog- 
nition as a man of letters. He was a native of Scars- 

Samuel J. Tilden may be included in the same 
category, and can be claimed as one of the celebri- 
ties of Westchester County, where, at his beautiful 
estate " Greystone," he spends much of his time in 
elegant and scholarly retirement 

General John C. Fremont, the soldier, explorer, 
author and politician, resided at one time at Mount 
Pleasant, in the house built by General James Wat- 
son Webb. His wife, who is the daughter of Senator 
Benton, of Midsouri, is a woman of great accomplish- 
ments and decided literary tastes. General Fremont, 
who was bom at Savannah, Ga., January 21, 1818, is 
known to literature by his graphic reports, which 
were published by the federal government, of his 
W«tem explorations. Devoting himself in early life 
to civil engineering, he obtained an appointment in 
the government expedition for the survey of the head- 
waters of the Mississippi, and was afterwards employed 
at Washington preparing maps of the country ex- 
plored. In 1842, at the head of a small force, he 
crossed the Bocky Mountains and opened to com- 
merce and emigration the Great South Pass. His 
report of his adventures was so interesting that it 
was reprinted by publishers in this country and in 
England and was translated into various foreign lan- 
gtuiges. He next accomplished an expedition to 
Oregon, and, spiking southward and westward, after 
iBcredible hardships, succeeded in exploring the re- 
gion of Alta California, including the Sierra Nevada, 

the valleys of San Joaquin and Sacramento and the 
gold r^on. Returning to Washington in 1844, he 
published another report, and upon its completion 
set out on another expedition to the Pacific, the re- 
sult of which was the acquisition of California by the 
United States. He was sent to Washington in 1860 
as the first United States Senator from California. 
In 1856 he was the Republican candidate for Presi- 
dent of the United States and during the Civil War 
held a commission as major-general in the Union 
army. A superb edition of his reports, entitled " Fre- 
mont's Explorations," was published in 1859. 

Among other names associated with the history of 
Westchester County which have attained to distinc- 
tion in literature are those of J. Rodman Drake, John 
Savage, William Leggett, Robert Rogers, David 
Humphreys, Gulian C. Verplanck, Ann Eliza Bleeck- 
er, Mrs. Haven, James Parton, Rev. Thomas Allen, a 
chaplain of the Revolutionary army at White Plains, 
who took an active part in the political discussions of 
the time ; Charles Tafin Armand, the Marquis de la 
Rouarie, an eloquent and persuasive speaker and 
writer, who, in 1778, was actively engaged in West- 
chester County in opposing Simcoe, Emmerick and 
Baremore, the Loyalist, whom he captured near King's 
Bridge November 8, 1779; Aaron Burr, who was sta- 
tioned in Westchester County in the winter of 1778- 
79, and whose duel with Hamilton took place at 
Weehawken; Nathaniel Chipman, LL.D., the Ver- 
mont jurist, who participated in the battle of White 
Plains ; Joel Barlow, the author of the " Columbiad," 
and Rev. William Crosswell, D.D., clergyman and 
scholar, born at Hudson, November 7, 1804, and 
died at Boston November 9, 1851 ; James De Lancey, 
the jurist, bom in 1703 and died in 1760; General 
Oliver De Lancey, of the British army, who fought at 
White Plains ; Horace Green, M.D., LL.D., the dis- 
tinguished physician and medical writer, who died at 
Greenmount, Sing Sing, N. Y., December 24, 1802 ; 
Rev. Freeborn Gkirretson Hibbard, D.D., at one time 
editor of the Northern Christian Advocate and author 
of several books, bom at New Rochelle, Febraary 22, 
1811 ; James Macdonald, M.D., author of valuable 
papers on the treatment of insanity, born at White 
Plains, July 18, 1803, died at Flushing, Long Island, 
May 5, 1849 ; Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, the noted 
naval officer and author of the lives of Paul Jonts, O. H. 
Perry, Stephen Decatur and many other works, born in 
New York, April 6, 1803, lived in Mount Pleasant, on 
the Sing Sing road, and died at Tarrytown, Septem- 
ber 13, 1848 ; Benjamin Moore Norman, the author 
of interesting books of travel, bom at Hudson, De- 
cember 22, 1809, died near Summit, Miss., Febraary 
1, 1860 ; Rear Admiral Hiram Paulding, son of John 
Paulding, one of Andre's captors, and a distinguished 
naval officer and author of a '^ Journal of a Cruise 
Among the Islands of the Pacific," bora in Westchester 
County, December 11, 1797; Calvin W. Philleo, the 
novelist, bom at Vernon, July 14, 1822, died at Suf- 



field, Conn., June 30, 1858; Winthrop Sargent, the 
soldier, statesman and writer, who fought at White 
Plains; Joseph Mather Smith, M.D., the eminent 
physician and medical writer, who was a native of 
New Rpchelle; John Savage, the editor and poet, 
who lives at Fordham ; John Canfield Spencer, LL.D., 
lawyer and politician, a native of Hudson, who is 
known to the literary world for having edited the first 
American edition of De Tocqueville's " Democracy 
in America," with an original preface and notes; 
William Leete Stone, the noted journalist, who, in 
1813, edited the Herkimer American and afterwards a 
political paper at Hudson, becoming finally one of 
the proprietors of the New York Commercial Adver- 
tiser; Peter Van Schaack, LL.D., jurist, loyalist in 
the Revolutionary War and author, bom at Kinder- 
hook, where he died, September 27, 1832; Aaron 
Ward, lawyer, politician and author, born at Sing 
Sing, July 6, 1790 ; Robert Watts, M.D., physician 
and medical writer, bom at Fordham in 1812; and 
Thurlow Weed, the journalist and politician, born at 
Cairo, N. Y., November 16, 1797, and whose early 
life was passed as a cabin boy on the Hudson. 

Of contemporary writers, the following have been 
more or less identified with Westchester County : 

General Adam Badeau, author of the '^ History of 
General U. S. Grant," etc., who lived in North Tarry- 
town, Mount Pleasant, from boyhood until about 
1856 ; Clarence Cook, the art critic, who attended 
school at Irving Institute, Tarrytown, and lived at 
Irvington; A. C. Wheeler ("Nym Crinkle"), poet 
and critic, who also attended school at Irving Institute 
and lived at North Tarrytown ; Charles A. Brace, 
author and philanthropist, who lived at Hastings ; 
Frank Vincent, Jr., author and traveler, who wrote 
" The Land of the Whit€ Elephant," "Through and 
Through the Tropics " and " Norsk, Lapp and Finn," 
and whose home is in Tarrytown ; Rev. William C. 
Wilkinson, D.D., formerly professor in Rochester 
Theological Seminary, who has written a critique on 
A mold's " Light of Asia," etc., and who resides at 
Tarrytown ; Stephen H. Thayer, the poet, who wrote 
" Songs of Sleepy Hollow," and lives in North Tarry- 
town; Latham C. Strong, poet and journalist, who 
wrote " Castle Windows," " Poke O'Moonshine," etc., 
and was a resident of North Tarrytown until his 
death; Hamilton Mabie, editor of The Christian Unions 
who lived in North Tarrytown ; Marshall H. Bright, 
editor of The Christian at Work, who lives in Tarry- 
town ; Rev. Pharcellus Church, D.D., the author of 
a number of books, reviews, etc., and a resident of 
Tarrytown ; Rev. Jacob Dutcher, author of " The Old 
Home by the River," who was born in Greenburgh ; 
Minna Irving, poetess, a contributor to The Century, 
whose full name is Minna Irving Odell,and who lives 
in Greenburgh ; Henry Drisler, scholar, author and 
professor, who lived in Greenburgh ; Rev. John A. 
Paine, professor in Robert College, Constantinople, 
archaeologist to the Palestine Exploring Expedition, 

and author of a work on that subject, whose home is 
in Tarrytown ; Colonel Church, editor of 77ie Army 
and Navy Journal; E. Z. C. Judson ("Ned Bunt- 
line "), who lived at Chappaqua ; Dr. Edward Bright, 
editor of The Examiner, who lives at Yonkers ; and 
Robert B. Coffin (" Barry Gray "), who lives at Kato- 

In music and the fine arts Westchester is also not 
without distinction. Among composers may be men- 
tioned George F. Bristow and Francis H. Nash, both 
residents of Morrisania ; and among painters, Albert 
Bierstadt, the fomous landscape painter, who lived 
within the corporate limits of Tarrytown, and whose 
residence was destroyed by fire; Francis W. Ed- 
monds, Edward W. Nichols, Tait, Gustavo M. Ar- 
nolt, the young Grerman painter of animals, and 
Samuel Fanshaw and Robert Hite, both of them emi- 
nent painters on ivory. Robert Walter Weir, the 
distinguished painter, who succeeded C. R. Leslie as 
instructor in drawing at West Point, was bom at 
New Rochelle on June 18, 1803. 

The earliest of the Westchester County literaH wa» 
Adrian Van der Donck, a graduate of the University 
of Leyden, who was appointed by the patroon of 
Rensselaerwick sheriff of his colony, and came tp New 
Netherland in 1642. In 1648 he was granted a tract 
of land at Yonkers. In the deed he was spoken of a» 
Yonker Van der Donck, Yonker being the usual title 
of gentleman. His name appears among the signers 
of a tract, published at the Hague in 1650, describing 
the New Netherland. It has been translated by Mr. 
Henry C. Murphy for the New York Historical Soci- 
ety, and published by them, and also by James Len- 
ox, of New York. Owing to its attacks on the gov- 
ernment of Kieft and Stuyvesant, Van der Donck 
was denied access to the colonial records during the 
preparation of his " Description of New Netherland," 
which has been translated and occupies one hun- 
dred and six pages of the *' New York Historical So- 
ciety's Collections," 1841. It describes the rural pro- 
ducts, animals and inhabitants of the (5olony. The 
date of the first edition is unknown. The second was 
published at Amsterdam, in 1656, by Ebert Nieu- 
wenhof, who introduced the work with a poetical 

Right Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D., first bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, may be classed 
among the literary men of Westchester, from the f^ct 
that, while in charge of St. Peter's Church, Westches^ 
ter, he wrote and published, anonymously, during the 
Revolutionary period, a series of pamphlets in de- 
fense of the crown, under the signature, it is said, of 
" A. W. Farmer." He was the son of Rev. Samuel 
Seabury, missionary of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel, at New London, Conn., and 
was bora at Croton, November 30, 1729, and gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1748. He then went to Scotland to 
study medicine, but while in that country also de- 
voted his attention to theology, and was ordained by 



the Bishop of London in 1753, and, on his return, 
settled at New Brunswick, N. J., as a missionary of 
the Propagation Society. In 1757 he removed to Ja- 
maica, and from thence, in 1766, to Westchester, 
where, in addition to his church, he had charge of a 
school. The authorship of the *' Farmer " pamphlets, 
which were commonly attributed to him, caused him 
t4t be seized by the Whigs, in 1775, and carried to 
New Haven, where he was imprisoned. As the fact 
of the authorship could not be established by legal 
proof, he was suffered to return to Westches er, where 
he renewed his efforts in behalf of the Loyalist cause. 
Upon the Declaration of American Independence he 
removed to New York City. Here he remained until 
the close of the war, officiating part of the time as 
chaplain to the King's American Regiment, and 
practicing medicine. In 1783, having been elected 
bishop of the diocese of Connecticut, he sailed for 
England and applied for consecration to the Arch- 
bishop of York, the See of Canterbury being va- 
cant His application was refused, in consequence of 
the inability of the English bishops to dispense with 
the oath of allegiance to the crown. In August, 
1784, he made a similar application to the bishops of 
the Scottish Church, by whom he was consecrated, at 
Aberdeen, November 14, 1784. In the spring of the 
following year he returned to America and began the 
discharge of his duties as bishop. He displayed con- 
siderable ability and force as a writer on a variety 
of topics, and rendered important services to his 
church in the arrangement of the Liturgy and other 
matters. He died February 25, 1796, at New Lon- 
don, Cone., where he had filled his father's place as 
rector of the church, besides discharging his epis- 
copal duties. The '' Farmer " pamphlets have been 
attributed to Isaac Wilkins, and also to Dr. Chand- 
ler, Dr. Inglis and Dr. Myles Cooper, but it is 
believed they were written by Seabury. The strong- 
est evidence is found in the draft of a document in 
Seabury's own writing, in which he states that he was 
the author of a pamplet, entitled ** Free Thoughts on 
the Proceedings of the Congress at Philadelphia," 
which was published shortly after the first Congress 
broke up, and other publications which followed, all 
of them signed " A. W. Farmer." He also states 
that on the 19th of November, 1775, an armed force 
of one hundred horsemen came from Connecticut to 
his house, and, not finding him at home, beat his 
children to compel them to tell where their father 
was, ** which, not succeeding, they searched the neigh- 
borhood and took him from his school, and, with much 
abusive language, carried him in great triumph to 
New Haven, seventy miles distant, where he was pa- 
raded through most of the streets, and their success 
celebrated by firing cannon, &c" At this time, ac- 
cording to his own statement. Dr. Seabury ** lived at 
Westchester, in the then province of New York, and 
was, though not wealthy, yet in easy circumstances, 
and supported a large family — viz., a wife and six 

children — comfortably and decently ; that his income 
was at least £200 Srerl. p' a", arising from his Par- 
ish, Glebe & from a grammar School, in which he 
had more than 20 young Gentlemen, when the Re- 
bellion began." The " Free Thoughts " of Seabury, 
we are told, excited the bitterest feeling. It was re- 
printed in London, in 1775, "for Richardson & Ur- 
quhart, at the Royal Exchange." Mr. Trumbull 
says that " when copies of these pamphlets fell into 
the hands of the Whigs, they were disposed of in such 
a manner as most emphatically to express detestation of 
the anonymous authors and their sentiments. Some- 
times they were publicly burned, with imposing for- 
mality; sometimes decorated with tar and feathers 
[from the Turkey-buzzard, as ' the fittest emblem of 
the author's odiousness '], and nailed to the whip- 
ping-post." Rev. Jonathan Boucher, writing of Sea- 
bury's authorship of the pamphlets, states that, 
" being attributed to another gentleman, he alone de- 
rived any advantage from them, for to him the Brit- 


ish government granted a handsome pension, whilst 
the real* author [Seabury] never received a farthing." 
Who the spurious pensioner was, Mr. Boucher does 
not state. Bishop Seabury received the degree of 
A.M. from Columbia (then King's) College, N. Y., in 
1761, and that of D.D. from the University of Ox- 
ford, England. His son Charles, a distinguished 
clergyman and father of Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D., 
of New York, was born at Westchester, May 20, 1770. 
Isaac Wilkins, D.D., was born at Withywood in 
the Island of Jamaica, December 17, 1742, and was 
the son of Martin Wilkins, an eminent lawyer and 
judge, who came to New York in order to educate 
his son. His parents died when he was a child and 
his care and education devolved on his aunt, Mrs. 
Mary Macey, his mother's sister. He graduated at 
King's College in 1760, and was married, November 
7, 1762, to Isabella, daughter of Hon. Lewis Morris. 
They resided at Morrisania for a year or two, when 
Mr. Wilkins purchased an estate known as Castle 



Hill Neck, in Westchester County. In 1772 he was 
sent to the Colonial Le^slature from the borough of 
Westchester and took an active part in its proceed- 
ings until April, 1775, on the side of the Loyalists. 
As the reputed author of the " Westchester Farmer " 
pamphlets, he became obnoxious to the Whigs and was 
forced to leave for England, where he remained about 
a year, making every effort to reconcile the dispute be- 
tween the colonies and the mother country. He then 
returned to his family, whom he removed from 
Castle Hill, which had been laid waste and made 
desolate, to Long Island, where, at Newtown and 
Flatbush, he resided until the peace. He sold his 
farm in 1784 and took hb family to Nova Scotia, 
where he purchased a farm and returned to his agri- 
cultural pursuits. He was sent to the Assembly of the 
province, and soon after placed at the head of a com- 
m ittee for the distribution of lands to the American refu- 
gee Loyalists. In 1798 he returned to New York, and 
while preparing for the ministry was called to the 
partial rectorship of St. Peter's, Westchester. As 
soon as he was ordained deacon he entered upon the 
discharge of his duties. He was ordained a priest by 
Bishop Provoost, January 14, 1801. He was now in 
the enjoyment of a pension from the British govern- 
ment of one hundred and twenty pounds per annum. 
In 1811 the degree of D.D. was conferred upon him 
by King's College. He died at the rectory in West- 
chester February 6, 1830, in his eighty-ninth year. 

Right Rev. William Heathcote De Lancey, D.D., 
D.C.L., Protestant Episcopal bishop of Western New 
York, was one of Westchester's most distinguished 
sons. He was born at Mamaroneck October 8, 1797, 
and died at Geneva, N. Y., April 6, 1865. He gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1817, studied theology under Bishop 
Hobart, was ordained deacon in 1819 and priest in 
1822, and soon after became assistant to Bishop 
White in Philadelphia. He was annually chosen 
secretary of the Diocesan Convention of Pennsylvania 
from 1826 to 1830, and was secretary of the House of 
Bishops from 1823 to 1829. He was provost of the 
University of Pennsylvania from 1828 to 1833; trav- 
eled in Europe in 1835 and on his return, after the 
death of Bishop White, succeeded to the rectorship 
of St. Peter's, Philadelphia. In 1838 he was chosen 
first bishop of the diocese of Western New York, and 
was consecrated May 9, 1839. The Hobart Free Col- 
lege at Geneva was chiefly indebted to his efforts for 
its maintenance. In 1852 he was a delegate to Eng- 
land from the Episcopal bishops of the United States, 
and was one of the recognized leaders of the High 
Church party. He received the degree of D.C.L. 
from the Oxford University in 1852 ; D.D. from 
Yale in 1828 and LL.D. from Union College in 1847. 

Thomas Paine, the noted political and atheistic wri- 
ter, is identified with Westchester County by the fact 
that for his Revolutionary services the State of New 
York granted him five hundred acres of land in New 
Rochelle, where he resided part of the time ailer his re- 

turn to the United States, in 1802. Paine was a native 
of Thetford, Norfolk, England, bom January 29, 1737 ; 
died in New York City, June 8, 1809. His parentage 
was humble and his educational opportunities lim- 
ited. For a time he preached occasionally as a dis- 
senting minister, and in 1774, at the suggestion of 
Franklin, came to America. He soon became known 
as a writer of uncommon force and logic and an op- 
ponent of slavery. His celebrated pamphlet, ** Com- 
mon Sense," in which he advocated the independence 
of the colonies, was published in January, 1776, and 
had an extraordinary influence in disseminating re- 
publican ideas. His subsequent publications were of 
inestimable benefit to the patriotic cause. He was out- 
lawed in England for his celebrated *' Bights of Man," 
which appeared in 1791, in answer to Burke's ** Re- 
flections on the French Revolution," and in September, 
1792, was elected a member of the French National 
Convention. In consequence of his outspoken op- 
position to the execution of Louis XVI., he narrowly 
escaped being put to death during the Reign of Ter- 


ror. His remains were taken to England in 1819 by 
William Cobbett. A monument was erected to his 
memory in 1839, near his original burial-place in New 

The literary reputation of John Jay is chiefly that 
which attaches to his political character, but he is 
pre-eminently worthy of being ranked among the lit- 
erary men whom old Westchester has either pro- 
duced or nurtured. Of Huguenot descent and a 
native of Now York City, bom December 12, 1745, 
he graduated at Columbia College and was a delegate 
to the First Revolutionary Congress at the age of 
twenty-eight, three years later chief justice of his 
State, and subsequently minister to Spain and ne- 
gotiator of the peace with Great Britain, Secretary of 
State, Chief Justice of the United States and Gov- 
ernor of New York. Notwithstanding these various 
trusts, he was enabled to spend nearly thirty years of 
retirement in pleasant country life at Bedford, West- 
chester County, where he died on the 17th of May, 

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1829, at the age of eighty-four. His 'life has been 
written by his son, William Jay. His national state 
papers, written when a member of the Continental 
(Congress, and his contributions to the FsderaUst, were 
powerful aids to the patriot cause. His *' Address to 
the People of Great Britain," in 1774, called forth ex- 
pressions of admiration from Jefferson. He was also 
the author of a number of other political treatises of 
great clearness and vigor. 

William Jay, second son of Chief Justice Jay, was 
also a person of decided literary talent. He was born 
June 16, 1789, graduated at Yale, and studied law at 
Albany under John B. Henry, until, compelled to 
abandon study by an affection of the eyes, he retired 
to his father's country-seat at Bedford. In 1812 he 
married the daughter of John McVickar, a New 
York merchant. He was appointed first j udge of the 
county of Westchester by Governor Tompkins and 
was succeMively reappointed by Clinton, Marcy and 
Van Buren. Throughout his life he was a prominent 
opponent of slavery and in this connection published 
many addresses and pamphlets, which were collected 
by him in his ^' Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery," 
published at Boston in 1854. In 1832 he published 
"The Life and Writings of John Jay." He died at 
his residence in Bedford, October 14, 1858. 

John Jay, son of William Jay, bom June 23, 1817, 
and a graduate of Columbia College in 1836, is also 
the author of several pamphlets on the slavery ques- 
tion, together with many other papers on topics of 
public interest. He studied law in the city of New 
York and was admitted to the bar 'in 1839. His 
residence of late years has been the old homestead at 
Bedford. In April, 1869, he was appointed minister 
to Austria and represented this country with dis- 
tinction at the Court of Vienna. 

Gouverneur Morris, the noted statesman and writer, 
was a native of Morrisania. The first of his ances- 
tors who emigrated to America was Richard Morris, 
who is said to have been an officer in Cromwell's army. 
He came to New York after a short residence in 
the West Indies and purchased an estate at Harlem, 
which was invested by the Governor with manorial 
rights. His son Lewis succeeded to the estate and 
during the last 'eight years of his life was Governor of 
New Jersey. His eldest son, Lewis, became a mem- 
ber of the New York Legislature. The second Lewis 
had four aons, of whom the youngest was Gouverneur, 
who was born January 31, 1762. At an early age he 
was placed in the family of M. Tetar, at New Ro- 
chelle, where he acquired a thorough knowledge 
of the French language. At the age of sixteen 
he graduated at King's College, distinguishing him- 
aelf by a florid address on " Wit and Beauty." He then 
studied law in the office of William Smith, colonial 
hisiorian of New York, and at the age of eighteen 
began the publication of a series of anonymous news- 
paper articles against a proposition in the Assembly 
for raising money by emitting bills of credit. In 

1775 he was elected a member of the Provincial Con- 
gress, in which he soon attracted attention by a 
speech on the mode of issuing a paper currency by 
the Continental Congress. Its chief suggestions 
were afterwards adopted by that body. In 1777 he 
was elected a member of the Continental Congress 
and the following winter was one of the committee 
appointed to inquire into the state of the army, then 
stationed at Valley Forge. He was also chairman of 
the committee appointed in 1779 to consider the dis- 
patches from the American commissioners in Europe, 
which were the basis of the subsequent treaty of 
peace. In the discussion of the question as to the 
jurisdiction of the State of New York over the New 
Hampshire grants, now the State of Vermont, Morris 
was supposed to be in favor of the independence of that 
region and consequently lost his election by the Legis- 
lature to Congress. He continued to reside in Philadel- 
phia and engaged in the practice of his profession. 
In the early part of 1780 he commenced the publica- 


tion of a series of essays on the state of the national 
finances, which were then in a desperate condition. 
He attacked with great ability the laws making the 
receipt of paper money at a fixed value compulsory, 
and also those regulating the prices of commodities. 
In May, 1780, Morris was seriously hurt by being 
thrown from his carriage and it was necessary to 
amputate one of his legs. In 1781 he was appointed 
by Robert Morris, who had been placed at the head 
of the national finances, his assistant. He performed 
the duties of this position for three years and a half. 
In 1786 his mother died. Her life interest in the 
estate at Morrisania thus terminated, and the prop- 
erty passed into the possession of the second son, 
Staats Long Morris, a general in the British army, 
the eldest son, Lewis, having received his portion 
during his father's life-time. Gouverneur purchased 
the estate from his brother. In 1787 he took his seat 
as delegate from Pennsylvania in the convention 



which framed the Constitution of the United States. 
President Madison bearn testimony to his exertions 
for the promotion of harmony, and states that the 
draft of the Constitution was placed in his hands to 
receive its finished form. In 1788 he sailed for France 
and in January, 1791, visited London by appointment 
of President Washington as a private agent to the 
British government to settle unfulfilled articles of the 
treaty of peace. During his stay in London he re- 
ceived his appointment as minister to France. During 
the troubled times of the Directory in Paris he con- 
ducted the affairs of his office with great tact and 
prudence. In August, 1794, he was succeeded by 
Monroe, his recall having been asked by the French 
government after the recall of Citizen Genet at the 
request of the United States. He next made a tour 
of Europe, and while in Vienna endeavored to secure 
the release of Lafayette from Olmtitz. In October, 
1798, he returned home. In 1799 he was chosen 
United States Senator from New York. He sided in 
the Senate and for the remainder of his life with the 
Federalists. His term closed in March, 1803, after 
which he resided at Morrisania. On Christmas day, 
1809, ho married Miss Anne Carey Randolph, of Vir- 
ginia. Mr. Morris delivered funeral orations on 
Washington, Hamilton and Governor George Clin- 
ton and an inaugural discourse before the New York 
Historical Society on his election as president, and 
contributed frequently in the later years of his life to 
the New York Evening Post, the Examiner and the 
United States Gazette, He was an early advocate of 
the Erie Canal and chairman of the canal commis- 
sioners from their first appointment, in March, 1810, 
to the time of his death, which occurred November 
6, 1816. His life, with selections from his corre- 
spondence and papers, by Jared Sparks, was published 
in 1822. In person he so closely resembled Wash- 
ington that he stood as a model of his figure for 
Houdon, the pculptor. 

The association of Alexander Hamilton with the 
history of Westchester County is of a tragic char- 
acter, for it was at Weehawken that he lost his life in 
the duel with Burr, July 12, 1804. One of his best 
known productions — his description of the fate of 
Major Andre — also links him with the literary chron- 
icles of the county, and one of hh strongest, political 
papers was his reply to Dr. Seabury's supposed " West- 
chester Farmer" pamphlets. Of Andre he wrote, 
'* Never, perhaps, did any man suffer death with more 
iustice or deserve it less." Of the famous Federalist, 
papers, Hamilton wrote fifty-one out of eighty-five 
numbers. His life and public services are too well 
known to require consideration here. His fame will 
chiefly rest upon his able adminstration of the Treas- 
ury Department. In the eloquent language of Web- 
ster, ''he smote the rock of the national resources and 
abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. He 
touched the dead corpse of the public credit and it 
sprung upon its feet." 

James A. Hamilton, son of Alexander Hamilton, 
lived in Greenburgh, north of Dobbs Ferry, from 
1885 until his death. He was the author of an interest- 
ing volume entitled ''Reminiscences of Men and 
Events at Home and Abroad During Three-Quarters 
of a Century," published by Charles Scribner & Co., 
New York, 1869. 

General Alexander Hamilton, grandson of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, lives in Tarrytown, Greenburgh. 
He has written tragedies, poems, prose, etc, and is 
a highly cultivated and accomplished liUerateur, 

David Humphreys, the soldier poet of the Bevolu- 
lution, composed his " Address to the Armies of the 
United States of America" in 1782, while encamped 
at Peekskill, the foe being in possession of New York 
and Charleston. He was the son of a Congregational 
clergyman, Rev. Daniel Humphreys, and waa bom in 
Derby, Connecticut, in 1753. He was educated at 
Yale, where he formed a personal and literary friend- 
ship with Dwight and Trumbull. He entered the Rev- 
olutionary army, and became a member of Washing- 
ton's military family, with the rank of colonel. He 
wrote a life of General Putnam, and a number of poems 
and plays. After the war he resided with Washington 
at Mount Vernon, and when he became President, 
traveled with him to New York. Among his poetical 
productions is " Washington's Farewell to the Army," 
in verse. He held the diplomatic post of ambassador 
to Lisbon, 1794-1797, and minister to Spain, 1797-1802. 
He died at New Haven, February 21, 1818. 

Robert Rogers, the noted ranger and writer, nar- 
rowly escaped being captured by Lord Stirling's 
troops at Mamaroneck, so that his associations con- 
nected with Westchester County were not, perhaps, 
of the pleasantest character. He was then a coiou<il 
in the British service, commanding the Queen's 
Rangers. After the incident ut Mamaroneck he went 
to England, and was succeeded in his command by 
Colonel Simcoe. He was a native of Duubarton, New 
Hampshire, and early achieved reputation as comman- 
der of a company of Rangers during the French War. 
His name is perpetuated by "Rogers' Slide " on Lake 
George, so-called from the daring act of Rogers iu 
escaping from the Indians by sliding down the steep 
face of the mountain to the shore of the lake. After 
many romantic adventures in this country and in 
Europe, he figured in 1775 as an ardent patriot. 
Washington, however, suspected him, and in June 
1776, ordered his arre8t. He professed to be on his 
way to offer his services to Congress, which body 
ordered his return to New Hampshire. He soon after 
openly espoused the cause of the King. He was pro- 
scribed and banished by his native State, and his sub- 
sequent history is unknown. Rogers published in 
1765, his "Journals,' a spirited account of his early 
adventures as a ranger, and in the same year, " A 
Concise Account of North America." In the follow- 
ing year, he published a tragedy, " Ponteach," founded 
on scenes of frontier life. 



Rev. Nathaniel Scudder Prime, D.D., author of a 
" Treatise on Baptism " and the ** History of Long 
Island/' died at Mamaroneck, March 27, 1866. He 
was horn at Huntington, L. I., April 21, 1785 ; gradu- 
ated in 1804 at Princeton College, from which, in 
1848, he received the degree of D.D., and was or- 
dained a Presbyterian minister October 24, 1809. 

In the spring of 1830 the Rev. Dr. Prime came to 
Sing Sing with his family from Cambridge, Washing- 
ton County, N. Y. He had been invited by the 
trustees of the Mount Pleasant Academy, in Sing 
Sing, to be its principal and had accepted the appoint- 
ment. Having been the principal of the academy in 
Cambridge, he brought several pupils with him, and 
a high reputation as a scholar and teacher. 

Dr. Prime was a very remarkable man. His father 
and grandfather were men of learning, and he him- 
self had made great attainments in the ancient 
languages, philosophy and mathematics. There was 
probably no superior to him as a teacher in this 
country at that time. His two eldest sons, Alanson 
Jeimain and Samuel Irenseus, were associated with 
him in the work of instruction. 

The Female Seminary in Sing Sing, then under the 
care of Miss Dawson, was soon purchased by Dr. 
Prime, and his daughters, Miss Maria M. Prime and 
Miss Cornelia Prime, conducted the school with great 

The academy flourished and attracted students from 
distant parts of the country. 

The Presb3rterian congregation of the village invited 
Dr. Prime to take charge of the pulpit, and he 
preached in it as stated supply about three years. He 
identifled himself with the improvement of the place, 
taking an active part in all public movements of a 
philanthropic and moral character. In addition to 
the sons and daughters already named, two sons 
more were trained in the academy, Edward D. G. 
Prime and William C. Prime, the first-named graduat- 
ing at Union Collfge and the other at Princeton. 
The oldest son, A. J. Prime, pursued the study of 
medicine with Dr. A. K. Hoflman, and was for many 
years a successful physician at White Plains, where 
he died April 3, 1864, aged fifty-three years. 

During the time of Dr. Prime's principalship of the 
academy, and almost entirely through h:s persever- 
ance and enterprise, the large and handsome stone 
building now occupied by the institution was built, 
and it stands as a monument to his memory. 

In the year 1835 Dr. Prime and his family removed 
to Newburgh, N. Y., where they conducted a female 
seminary and also the Newburgh Academy. 

His son. Rev. Samuel Irenseus Prime, D.D., who 
died in 1885, was for many years the editor of the 
New York Od»erver, and known throughout the 
country as a graceful writer of travels and religious 
works, as well as for his able editorial management of 
the Observer. He was born at Ballston, N. Y., 
November 4, 1812, graduated at Williams College in 

1829, was ordained a Presbyterian minister and re- 
ceived the degree of D.D. from Hampden-Sidney 
College, Virginia. His brother, E. D. Prime, also of 
the Observer, and W. C. Prime, formerly of the New 
York Journal of Commerce^ were also residents of 
Sing Sing in early life. 

John Swinburne, A.M., the distinguished scholar 
and teacher, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., August 11, 
1808. His father was a native of England, and came 
to this country when a young man. His mother was 
a native of Ireland, and was brought to the United 
States by her parents^ in early childhood. After their 
marriage his parents settled in Brooklyn, where they 
had three children, — ^two sons and one daughter. 
John was the eldest of the three. When twelve 
years of age he lost his father by death. His educa- 
tion, from its earliest stages until he entered on the 
duties of active life, was directed by an English gen- 
tleman of rare attainments as a scholar and eminent 
skill as a teacher, and the successful results of his 
training were finely illustrated in the subsequent 
career of his gift;ed pupil. Aft;er leaving school he 
turned his attention for a short time to mercantile 
pursuits, and was engaged as book-keeper by a large 
commercial house in North Carolina. Not finding 
this sphere of effort congenial to his taste, he returned, 
aft^er a year and a half, to Brooklyn, where he estab- 
lished, and successfully conducted for ten years, a 
select school. On October 5, 1825, he was married to 
Mary W., daughter of Isaac Searles, of Brooklyn. A 
few years afterward he accepted an invitation to the 
position of principal of White Plains Academy, an 
incorporated literary institution under the care of the 
regents of the State. This position he filled with the 
highest credit to his ability as an educator of youth. 
While principal of this academy he received, as an 
entirely voluntary tribute to his learning and skill, 
the honorary degree of Master of Arts from the Wes- 
leyan University at Middletown, Conn. The president, 
Rev. Wilbur Fiske, D.D., LL.D., in presenting this 
degree, said, in his letter to Professor Swinburne : "This 
honor is regarded by our Faculty and Board of 
Trustees as justly due to your superior scholarship, as 
proved by the fact that your scholars, who enter our 
Institution, are the best fitted of any we receive." 

In 1841, Professor Swinburne, who desired a school 
which should be subject to his sole authority, and in 
which he might carry out practically and fully his 
views of the proper education of boys, established 
" The White Plains Institute," a boarding-school for 
boys. The reputation of its proprietor and principal, 
as an accomplished instructor and as a Christian gen- 
tleman of the highest qualities, was so extensively 
known and fully established, that from its opening 
applicants for admission to the institute were more 
numerous than could be received. He now found 
himself in just the sphere of educational effort which 
he had long wished. His school was his own, wa« ad- 
mirably located, liberally furnished in every depart- 


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ment, and would rise or fall as his long-cherished 
ideal of such a school should find practical realiza- 
tion from his efforts. To say that his success was 
pre-eminent is only to state a fact testified to hy all 
who know the history of the school. The prominent 
characteristic of its instruction throughout was 
thoroughness. Mastery of the study pursued, at every 
step of progress made, was the end aimed at and re- 
quired ; and in this feature it strikingly resembled the 
celebrated Rugby School of Dr. Arnold in England. 
His scholars who left the school to enter upon a col- 
legiate course uniformly took a^high rank, and often 
the highest rank, in scholarship in the institutions 
they joined; and those who pursued a course prepara- 
tory to a business life have almost invariably been 
found among the most successful and honored in the 
circles of mercantile and commercial enterprise. 
The advanced years of the professor are often glad- 
dened now by visits from his formeT pupils, — gener- 
ally gray-headed men and distinguished in their sev- 
eral spheres of life, who approach their venerable 
teacher and friend with strong and often touching 
expressions of respect, gratitude and affection. The 
lapse of years and the changes of more than a gen- 
eration seem only to have strengthened and made 
more tender the ties which were created by the rela- 
tion that once existed. From his early youth the 
professor evinced a remarkable genius for mathemat^ 
ics. While yet a young man he was. a contributor to 
some of the ablest mathematical periodicals of the 
country. Even now, when more than eighty- years of 
age, he in often found engaged in mathematical in- 
vestigations, as a mere pastime. This natural capac- 
ity for and pleasure in this science, connected with a 
peculiar facility in simplifying to young minds its 
rules and processes, enabled the professor to awa- 
ken in his school that fondness for mathematical 
studies, and secure that unusual advancement in 
them, which was one of the marked results of his 

With the literature of ancient Greece and Rome 
he has rare familiarity. Many of the most elegant 
of the classic authors of antiquity in their original 
languages are to him as hand-books, and his transla- 
tions of a number of them into our vernacular tongue 
are among the permanent and most valuable fruits of 
his scholarly labors. He is now just finishing a trans- 
lation of the works of Horace, which, in fidelity to 
the original text, and in perspicuity and elegance of 
expression, will, in the opinion of classical scholars 
who have had the privilege of examining his work, 
be superior to any we now have. It is earnestly de- 
sired that he will give these translations to the world 
through the press, and that his health and strength 
will be continued, that he may personally superintend 
their publication. 

Among the sciences to which he has successfully 
given his attention is mineralogy, and through more 
than half a century he has been engaged in collecting 

specimens from different parts of the world, Uli he 
has now a choice and valuable cabinet 

In 1853 Professor Swinburne met with an irrep- 
arable loss in the death of his wife. This most 
estimable lady, naturally active and energetic, pos- 
sessed of superior practical wisdom and endowed 
with great tenderness of affection, had rendered 
invaluable aid in the administration of a school 
whose government was peculiarly parental. Even 
after the lapse of more than thirty years, the 
testimony borne to her watchful care and mater- 
nal kindness, by those once pupils of the school, 
is a most touching tribute to her memory, and 
furnishes pathetic proof of the great loss sus- 
tained by the school in her decease. The uninter- 
rupted prosperity of the institute had secured to its 
proprietor a handsome competency; and having no 
longer the important aid of his wife, he decided to 
retire from the school to whose interests he had given 
the best years of his life. In the sphere of a teacher 
of youth for thirty years. Professor Swinburne had 
earned and received its highest honors, and he could 
now lay aside its labors in the gratifying conscious- 
ness that to the advancement of the cause of educa- 
tion, second in importance to none that can employ 
the human mind, he had given his best powers and 
most devoted efforts. 

Since his retirement from teaching, he has contin- 
ued his residence in White Plains, and has often 
been honored by his fellow-citizens with positions of 
responsibility and trust. On the organization of the 
fire department of the town, he was made its first 
president, and continued such for a number of years. 
When the village was incorporated, he was elected 
its first president, and re-elected for several successive 
terms. He was made the first president of the White 
Plains Savings Bank, and president and treasurer of 
the Board of Commissioners of Westchester Avenue. 
At the opening of the War of the Rebellion, and 
through its whole progress, his influence was power- 
fully felt in support of the cause of the Union. In 
his eloquent appeals at public gatherings to the pa- 
triotism of those who could take the field, as well as 
by his liberal contributions of money to aid in the 
raising and equipment of military organizations and 
to meet the wants of the families of soldiers who 
were absent at the seat of war, he rendered most val- 
uable aid and inspired hearts in many an anxious 
home with gladness and hope. Professor Swinburne 
is a firm believer in the Christian faith. For more 
than forty years he has been in communion with the 
Protestant Episcopal Church and a liberal supporter 
of its worship at home and of its benevolent efforts 
through the land. Although eighty-three years of age 
and laboring under the physical infirmities incident 
to his years, his mental faculties continue unim- 
paired, and he enjoys his literary labors as highly, 
and enters into the current affairs of the day as ear- 
nestly and welcomes the society of his friends as cor- 



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diftUy, as when in the prime of life. The circle of 
his friends is almost unlimited, and rarely has a man 
lived who could boast of those more devoted. 

Robert Havell, an eminent English engraver and 
publisher, resided for many years in Sing Sing. Mr. 
Havell distinguished himself as the publisher, as well 
aB the chief engraver, of that world-renowned and su- 
premely sumptuous work, Audubon's " Birds of Amer- 
ica." This work appeared in ten magnificent vol- 
umes, so large as to occasion the invention of the term 
eUpkant folio. They contained over five hundred 
plates, colored to the life, each bird being shown in 
life size, even to the extent of a large specimen of 
the wild turkey. The subscription price was one 
thousand dollars per copy. Mr. Havell spent fourteen 
long yea/sin engraving, with his own hands, the most 
difficult portions of this work. He also employed a 
fiill force of assistants. Besides this work, Mr. Havell 
also published the grand work of Lord Kingsborough 
on the "Antiquities of Mexico," in nine quarto volumes, 
richly illustrated. The subscription price of this 
work was one hundred and seventy-five pounds per 
copy. To the above must be added Donnovan's *' In- 
sects of India " and " Insects of China," two exceed- 
ingly beautiful illustrated works in quarto, and a su- 
perb folio on "Lilies and Amaryllas.*' After the 
completion of " The Birds of America," Audubon in- 
duced Mr. Havell to accompany him to this country. 
He came to Sing Sing, one day, to enjoy the scenery, 
and while there made a bid on a parcel of land then 
being sold at auction, and had it struck off to him. 
This surprised him, as he had made his bid more in 
jest than in earnest. However, he accepted the bar- 
gain, and subsequently built a house on the grounds 
and occupied it as his residence for many years. He 
eventually removed to Tarrytown, where he died a 
few years since. Tbe Havell mansion was situated 
on the high grounds nearly opposite the grand gate- 
way of Dale Cemetery. The little avenue leading to 
these places still bears his name. 

That distinguished English writer on mental disor- 
ders, the late Dr. Forbes Winslow, resided in Sing 
Sing for several years during his boyhood. His moth- 
er, who was then a widow, and her two sons, Forbes 
and Octavius, both of whom subsequently became 
celebrated, one as a physician, the other as a divine, 
resided for several years in a house that then stood 
where the present mansion of Mr. Frank Larkin now 

Rev. Robert Bolton, author of Bolton's " History of 
Westchester County," was born in the city of Bath, 
England, April 17, 1814. He was the eldest of the 
fimrteen children of the Rev. Robert Bolton and Anne, 
daughter of the distinguished Rev. William Jay, of 

The Bolton family is of ancient British stock, their 
goiealogy being traced up to the time of the Con- 
quest ; resident, anciently, at Bolton and Blackburn, 
in Lancashire, and Wales, in Yorkshire. In the long 

line of the Bolton ancestry the name of Robert is 
rarely without a bearer. A number of these were 
distinguished for their learning and piety. A Rob- 
ert, bom in 1572, was noted at Lincoln and Brazen 
Nose Colleges, Oxford, for his varied accomplish- 
ments, and afterward as a divine. A Robert, born 
in England in 1688, became a prominent mer- 
chant in Philadelphia. His son Robert, bom in 
1722, was a merchant in Savannah, Georgia. His son 
Robert, born in 1767, became a very prominent 
merchant of Savannah, and the owner of much 
valuable real estate. His son Robert, bom in 1788, 
in Savannah, became a merchant in Liverpool, Eng- 
land, afterward the rector of Christ Church, Pel- 
ham, Westchester County, and subsequently chap- 
lain to the Earl of Ducie, at Tortworth, in Glou- 
cestershire. His son Robert is the subject of this 

Mr. Bolton and his four brothers became clergy- 
men in the Protestant Episcopal Church. He was 
ordained a deacon in October, 1868, and a presbyter 
in June, 1869. He was rector of St. John's Church, 
South Salem, at the time of his death. 

His brother, William Jay, at the time of his death, 
was rector of St. James', Bath, England, and an au- 
thor of note ; John is rector of Trinity Church, West- 
chester, Pa. ; Cornelius Winter is rector of the Church 
of the Redeemer, Pel ham vi lie, Westchester County; 
and James was the incumbent of St. Paul's Chapel, 
Kilburn, London. All of Mr. Bolton's sbters who 
survived youth achieved distinction in teaching, in 
literature or in art. 

Robert Bolton was educated in England, and stud- 
ied medicine there, but never practiced it as a pro- 
fession. He came to this country in 1836, and set- 
tled at Bronxville, in East Chester, becoming a 
farmer. From there he removed to New Rochelle 
and published his first book, " The Guide to New 
Rochelle." He then removed to Tarrytown and en- 
gaged in teaching, an occupation to which he gave 
attention for the remainder of his life. He there be- 
came principal of the Irving Institute, and enjoyed 
intimate relations with Washington Irving, who had 
long been a close friend of his father. He next re- 
moved to Bedford, taking charge of the Female In- 
stitute there, and after «vard founded a school in Lew- 

While preparing the " Guide to New Rochelle " he 
became interested in Westchester County history, and 
at once began the collection of the materials which 
he published in two volumes in 1848. The labor 
involved in this work, in the searching of collections 
of documents, the examination of papers and the 
personal visitation of every spot of interest and 
nearly every person of advanced age, was very great. 
Hid knowledge of the history of county localities was 
remarkable. He was actively engaged in the revi- 
sion of his history at the time of his death. He was 
also the author of the " History of the Protestant 



Episcopal Church in Westchester County/' and of 
the " Memoirs of the Bolton Family." 

In 1838 he married Elizabeth Rebecca, daughter of 
James Brenton, of Newport, R. I.; she died in 1852. 
In 1854 he married Josephine, daughter of Brewster 
Woodhull, of Pdtchogue, L. I., by whom he had 
eleven children. 

Mr. Bolton's father founded the celebrated Bolton 
Priory, at Pelham, with which the family name has 
been so prominently connected. He purchased this 
estate, charmingly situated upon the shore of Long 
Island Sound, in 1837, and erected thereon a hand- 
some stone edifice for a residence, and laid out the 
grounds with surpassing taste. This was afterward 
used for a young ladies' school, and under the man- 
agement of Miss Nanetta Bolton, became justly 
famous. Here Robert Bolton, the historian, died 
October 11, 1877. 

Beside being a laborious, painstaking historian, a 
diligent teacher and an earnest minister, Mr. Bolton 
was accomplished in many ways. He was dexter- 
ous in wood-carving, apt with his pencil and skill- 
ful in painting. He had a passion for the antique, 
and was a man of peculiarly fine and cultivated 

Rev. Cornelius Winter Bolton, brother of Robert 
Bolton, the historian, was born in Bath, England, 
June 3, 1819. He came to this country and studied 
divinity at the Protestant Episcopal Theological 
Seminary at Alexandria, Va. ; was admitted to dea> 
con's orders in 1847, and was ordained priest in 1848. 
In 1850 he became assistant minbter of Christ 
Church, Baltimore, and in 1855 rector of Christ 
Church, Pelham. In 1858 he was rector of South 
Yonkers Church, and he then became minister of St. 
George's Chapel, in New York City. He became 
rector of St. Mark's Church, New Castle, in 1867, 
and then of St. Stephen's, North Castle,and at pres- 
ent is rector of the Church of the Redeemer, Pel- 

In 1856 he married Cornelia, daughter of Cor- 
nelius Glen Van Rensselaer, Esq., of Greenbush, 
Rensselaer County, N. Y. 

Mr. C. W. Bolton is the author of" The Shepherd's 
Call," the *' Sunday-school Prayer-Book" and other 
publications. In 1854 he edited Jay*s "Female 
Scripture Characters" and Jay's "Autobiography 
and Reminiscences." In 1881 he edited and pub- 
lished his brother Robert's " History of Westchester 

Edmund March Blunt, the nautical writer, was for 
many years a resident of Sing Sing. He was born 
at Portsmouth, N. H., June 20, 1770, and died at 
SiDg Sing, January 5, 1862, in the ninety-third year 
of his age. He was the publisher of the Newburyport 
Herald, and in 1796 he published his first "Coast Pilot," 
which is still in use, and which has been translated 
into most of the languages of Europe. He also published 
** Strangers' Guide to New York City" in 1817, and 

numerous nautical books and charts. He lived about 
forty years in the house in State Street, Sing Sing, now 
owned and occupied by Dr. Wm. H. Helm. 

Mrs. Ann Eliza Bleecker, the poetess, was at one 
time a resident of Westchester County, having lived 
at Poughkeepsie a year or two just after her marriage. 
Mrs. Bleecker was the youngest daughter of Brandt 
Schuyler, and was born in the city of New York in 
October, 1752. In 1769 she married Mr. John J. 
Bleecker, of New Rochelle, and removed with him to 
Poughkeepsie. After leaving Poughkeepsie, Mr. and 
Mrs. Bleecker settled at Tomhanick, a beautiful little 
village about eighteen miles above Albany. She died 
there November 23, 1783. Her poems were written 
without a view to publication, but several of them 
were printed in the earlier numbers of the Upw York 
Magazine. A collection of her poems and stories was 
published in 1793, under the supervision of her 
daughter, Margaretta, who added a number of verses 
and essays from her own pen. 

Gulian C. Verplanck belongs to the literary char- 
acters of Weetchegter County by right of residence, 
for many years dividing his time between the city of 
New York and the Verplanck homestead at Fishkill 
Landing, on the Hudson, a well-preserved old man- 
sion, in which the Society of the Cincinnati was 
founded. A graduate of Columbia College, he studied 
law, was admitted to the bar and after spending 
several years in Europe returned to New York, and 
was elected a member of the Legislature. In 1818 
he delivered the first of the series of public addresses 
on which his literary reputation mainly rests. About 
1820 he was appointed professor of the Evidences of 
Christianity in the General Protestant Episcopal 
Seminary, and in 1824 published a volume of essays 
on this subject In 1825 he was elected a member of 
Congress from New York City and remained in the 
House eight years. He was especially prominent in 
advocacy of the bill extending the term of copyright 
from twenty-eight to forty-two years. For several 
years he was a member of the New York Senate. 
In 1827 Verplanck, Sands and Bryant united in the 
production of an annual called The Taliiman. Mr. 
Verplanck also wrote a number of essays on a variety 
of subjects and published an edition of Shakespeare's 
plays, with notes from various sources, including 
some from his own pen. Mr. Verplanck, who was 
born in New York City August 6, 1786, died there 
March 18, 1870. His private life, says Bryant, " was 
as beautiful as his public life was useful and benefi- 

James Fenimore Cooper is another distinguished 
name which may be included among the literati oi 
Westchester County, for his first novel was written 
while he resided at Mamaroneck. Cooper was bom 
at Burlington, N. J., September 15, 1789. His father. 
Judge William Cooper, removed the following year 
to the neighborhood of Otsego Lake, N. Y., where he 
had purchased a large tract of land on which he 



established a settlement, to which he gave the name of 
Cooperstown. In this frontier home, in the midst of 
a population of settlers, trappers and Indians, young 
Ck>oper imbibed that knowledge of backwoods life 
and of the habits of the aborigines which afterwards 
served him so well in the construction of his romances. 
At the age of thirteen he entered Yale College, and 
after remaining there three years received an ap- 

of the bishop of Western New York. They settled 
in the village of Mamaroneck, in Westchester County, 
and not' long after Cooper's mind was accidentally 
turned to the field of fiction. One day, after reading 
an English novel, he remarked to his wife that he be- 
lieved he could write a better story himself. To test the 
matter he wrote *' Precaution." He had not intended 
to publish the novel, but was induced to do so by his 

pK>intment as midshipman in the United States 
Navy. In the latter he obtained, during the six 
years of his service, a familiarity with nautical life 
which he utilized with splendid results in his 
famous sea-stories. 

In 1811 Cooper resigned his commission in the 
navy and married Miss De Lancey, a member of the 
well-known New York family of that name and sister 
11 . 

wife and his friend, Charles Wilkes. The descrip- 
tions of English life and scenery gave it great popu- 
larity in England where it was re-published. The 
" Spy," which followed, was as thoroughly American, 
and obtained great success, not only in this country, 
but abroad. It was almost immediately re-published 
in all parts of Europe. " The Pioneers " was the first 
of the series of frontier and Indian stories, on which 



the novelist's reputation chiefly rests. It was fol- 
lowed by "The Pilot," the first of his sea-stories. 
Other novels followed in quick succession, and 
Cooper's reputation grew apace. He was also sharply 
criticised and became involved in various contro- 
versies, which culminated finally in a series of libel 
suits against his detractors in the newspapers. In 
1826 he visited Europe, and upon his return to this 
country made his home at Cooperstown, N. Y. Dur- 
ing his residence abroad (1826-33) he was every- 
where received with marked attention. His literary 
activity was unchecked by his wanderings, and during 
his stay in Europe he wrote a number of novels. 
After hb return to this country he wrote the "Naval 
History of the United States," which excited an 
acrimonious discussion as to the correctness of his 
account of the battle of Lake Erie. In one of his 
libel suits Cooper defended, in person, the accuracy 
of his version of the battle. A lawyer, who was an 
auditor of the closing sentences of his argument, re- 
marked, " I have heard nothing like it since the days 
of Emmet." Cooper continued to write with amaz- 
ing fertility and vigor almost to the close of his life, 
which was terminated by dropsy, September 14, 1851. 
Notwithstanding his defects of sty le, his romances are 
conceded to be among the most vivid and original of 
all American works of fiction. He was the first of 
his countrymen who obtained a wide recognition in 
other portions of the world. His works were trans- 
lated into many languages, and the Indian tales 
especially were universal favorites in Europe. The 
great French novelist, Balzac, said of him, " With, 
what amazing power has he painted nature! How 
all his pages glow with creative fire I Who is there 
writing English among our contemporaries, if not 
of him, of whom it can be said that he has a 
genius of the first order?" "The empire of the 
sea," says the Edinburgh Review, " has been con- 
ceded to him by acclamation ; " and the same journal 
adds, " In the lonely desert or untrodden prairie, 
among the savage Indians, or scarcely less savage 
settlers, all equally acknowledge his dominion." 

Of all the writers who have in any way been 
associated with the history of Westchester County, 
Washington Irving is perhaps the most illustrious. 
Born in New York City, his whole life, with brief in- 
tervals, was spent within the borders of the county, 
and some of his very best work bears the impress of 
local influences. On the " lordly Hudson " Irving 
" chose and built the home where he lived for many 
years, and in which he did much of his life's best 
work, and here he died." * 

" Westchester," said another eulogist of Irving, " has 
a claim peculiarly her own, for, while we are joint- 
heirs with others of his fame, Irving was here 
honored during his life for other qualities besides 

I Addroas of Chief Justice Noah Duris at tho Irving aniiiremrj, at 
Tarrytown, N. Y., April 3, 1883. 

those of the gifted author, as he was here also known 
as the good citizen, the genial neighbor and the 
Christian gentleman." ' 

Irving first came to know Tarry town and Sleepy 
Hollow when a lad of fourteen or fiftieen. He 
spent some of his holidays here, and formed an 
attachment for the spot which never left him. Irving 
was born on the 3d of April, 1783, in a house which 
stood on William Street, New York City, next to the 
comer of Fulton. He was the youngest son of 
William Irving, a merchant and native of Scotland, 
who had married an English lady. He had an ordi- 
nary school education, but early developed a taste for 
literature. At the age of sixteen he began the study 
of law. His brother, Dr. Peter Irving, edited the 
Morning Chronicle^ and for this paper Washington 
Irving wrote a series of essays on the theatres, man- 
ners of the town and kindred topics, with the sig- 
nature of Jonathan Oldsty le. In 1 804 for the benefi t of 
his health he visited the south of Europe, returning 
by way of Switzerland to France and proceeding 
thence aft^r a sojourn of a few months in Paris to 
England via Flanders and Holland. While at Rome 
he formed the acquaintance of Washington Allston, 
the artist, with whom he studied painting for a time 
with the idea of himself becoming a painter. Kdet 
an absence of two years, however, he returned to 
New York, in March, 1806, and again took up the 
study of law. He was admitted to the bar, but never 
practiced. About this time he wrote and published 
his portion of the " Salmagundi " papers, which ap- 
peared as a serial. Paulding wrote a portion of the 
work, William Irving the poetry and Washington 
Irving the remainder. In December, 1809, he pub- 
lished " Knickerbocker's History of New York," an 
extravagant burlesque, which excited general laugh- 
ter, although it was gravely held up to reprehen- 
sion in an address before the Historical Society of 
New York. Its grotesque descriptions of Dutch 
manners and customs in the colony of New Nether- 
lands are full of humor. After the publication of 
this work Irving engaged as silent partner with two 
of his brothers in mercantile business. The second 
war with Great Britain breaking out, he joined the 
military staff* of Grovernor Tompkins, with the rank 
of colonel. After the war he paid a visit to the 
British Islands, and intended to make a tour of the 
Continent, but business reverses involving the ruin 
of his firm compelled him to abandon his puq>oee. 
Irving now turned to literature for support, and 
through the friendly aid of Sir Walter Scott, secured 
the publication of the " Sketch Book " by Murray, 
the great English publisher, who bought the copy- 
right for two hundred pounds, which he subsequently 
increased to four hundred pounds. 

In 1820 Irving took up his residence in Paris, where 
he formed the acquaintance of Tom Moore. While in 

3 Addrow of Jaipes Wood, Tarrytowu celebration, 1883. 



I . • ' 

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//^>.//;\ ,y/;;/ Jy^c^^/, c. 



Paris he wrote " Bracebridge Hall." The winter of 

1822 was spent in Dresden. Returning to Paris in 

1823 he published, in December of the following year, 
his " Tales of a Traveller," for which he received from 
Marray the sum of £1500. In 1826, after spending a 
winter in the south of France, he went to Madrid, 
where he wrote his " Life of Columbus,'* the English 

■ edition of which brought him 3000 guineas. His 
" Conquest of Granada " and "Alhambra" followed. 
In July, 1829, having been appointed Secretary of 
Legation, at London, he left Spain for England. In 
1831 he received, from the University of Oxford the 
degree of LL.D. After an absence of seventeen years 
he returned to America, in May, 1832. His arrival 
was commemorated by a public dinner in New York 
City, at which Chancellor Kent presided. A few 
months later he made a journey west of the Missis- 
sippi, which he described in his " Tour of the Prai- 
ries." In 1836 he published " Astoria " and subse- 
quently the "Adventures of Captain Bonnevill." From 
1839 for two years he contributed a series of papers to 
the Knickerbocker Magazine. A number of these 
papers, together with others, were published in 1855, 
in a volume which received the title "Woolfert's 

In 1842 Irving was appointed Minister to Spain, an 
office which he retained for the next four years. He 
then returned home and for the rest of his life resided 
at his cottage residence "Sunnyside," near Tarry- 
town, the spot which he had described years before in 
the " Legend of Sleepy Hollow " as the castle of the 
Herr Van Tassel, and of which he wrote — " If ever I 
should wish for a retreat whither I might steal from 
the world and its distractions, and dream quietly away 
the remainder of a troubled life, I know of none more 
promising than this little valley." Here in this re- 
treat he lived in the midst of a family circle composed 
of his brother and his nieces, hospitably entertaining 
his friends and engaged in writing his biographies of 
Goldsmith and Mahomet and his " Life of Washing- 

His life at " Sunnyside " was simple, kindly and 
affectionate. He was a good friend and neighbor and 
a devout communicant at Christ Episcopal Church in 
Tarry town. For many years he was a vestryman and 
warden, and it was his practice during the greater 
part of this time to take up the collection at the Sun- 
day services. He never married, having lost by death 
his betrothed wife, Matilda Hoffman, a beautiful 
young girl. His death occurred at Tarrytown, No- 
vember 28, 1859, and he was buried in the beautiful 
cemetery of Sleepy Hollow. The ivy upon the tower 
of Christ Church was taken from " Sunnyside " and 
planted by Irving himself. It was originally brought 
from Melrose Abbey. His pew in the church is 
marked with his name and was set apart years ago by 
the vestry for the use of any members of the Irving 
family who might wish to worship there. As near 
the pew ss it could be placed is a mural tablet 

erected by the vestry to his memory. In the centre 
is the Irving coat of arms and on the stone the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

Wasbington Irving, 

Born in the City of New York, April 3, 1788. 

For nuny yean a commnnicant and warden of this church, 


Repeatedly one of its delegates to the Convention 

Of the Dloceee. 

Lored, Honored, Revered. 

He fell asleep in Jesus, 

November 28th. 1859. 

Irving died at ** Sunnyside," having just taken leave 
of the family-circle. Three days later he was buried in 
the old Dutch Church cemetery, where he had gome time 
before selected the spot for his grave, and where the 
remains of the brothers and sisters who had died before 
him were buried. An account of the funeral says : " It 
was a remarkable assemblage from the city, of men of 
worth and eminence, the friends of his youth and mid- 
dle-life, and universally of the population of the town 
and adjacent country, where he was beloved by all. The 
area of Christ Church, Tarrytown, where the funeral 
services of the Episcopal Church, of which he had 
been a member, were performed, was much too lim- 
ited to contain the numbers which thronged to the 
simple ceremony. The neighboring hillside was cov- 
ered, and the road to the cemetery lined with specta- 
tors, villagers and others, clad in their Sunday attire. 
The shops of Tarrytown were all closed. Thus was 
borne to the grave with simple but heartfelt honors all 
that was mortal of Washington Irving. Eulogies, res- 
olutions and addresses from civic, religious, literary 
and other societies followed his death. The city gov- 
ernment of New York, the Athenaeum Club, the Niew 
York Historical Society, the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, heaped these honors on his tomb, while per- 
sonal tributes in sermons, editorial articles and vari- 
ous reminiscences were called forth in great num- 

" By his will, says the same account, '' which made 
ample provision to continue the home at ' Sunnyside ' 
to the brother and nieces by whom Mr. Irving had 
been surrounded, he left his manuscripts to his neph- 
ew, Pierre M. Irving, who had been his assistant in 
some of his more important labors of research, as his 
literary executor." Mr. Irving afterwards published 
a memoir of his distinguished uncle. Mr. George P. 
Putnam, the New York publisher, issued a uniform 
edition of Washington Irving's works, in 1847, which 
yielded Mr. Irving and his representatives more than 

On the 3d of April, 1888, the centennial anniver- 
sary of Irving's birth was commemorated at Tarry- 
town by " The Washington Irving Association," which 
had been formed on the 19th of March for the purpose 
of appropriately observing the anniversary. The ex- 



ercisen took place on the evening of April 3d, at the 
Second Reformed Church. Judge Noah Davis pre- 
sided, and from New York, Brooklyn and many adja- 
cent points many came to swell the assemblage. The 
church was beautifully decorated with flowers and ever- 
greens. As a prelude to the addresses, Miss Hawes 
played the overture from the opera of " Rip Van Win- 
kle " on the organ. Addresses were delivered by Judge 
Davis, Mr. James Wood, president of the Westchester 
County Historical Society ; Rev. James Selden Spen- 
cer, Donald G. Mitchell, Charles Dudley Warner and 
Professor William C. Wilkinson. A poem by Mr. 
Stephen H. Thayer, of Tarrytown, was read by Rev. 
Washington Choate. Letters of regret from a number 
of invited guests were also read, among them being 
responses from Governor Cleveland, John G. Whit- 
tier, George William Curtis, John Jay and President 
Porter, of Yale. Miss Sears sang " The Lost Chord," 
and Professor T. S. Doolittle, D.D., pronounced the 
benediction. At the request of the committee of ar- 
rangements the Misses Irving opened "Sunny side" 
to the public, and for several days persons from all 
parts of the country availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity to visit" Woolfert's Roost," which remained as 
it was at Mr. Irving*s death. A memorial volume 
containing an account of the commemoration, with 
the addresses and poem, was afterwards published by 
the Irving Association. It is embellished by fine 
steel portraits of Irving and Matilda Hoffman and by 
views of" Sunnyside," Christ Church, the old mill in 
Sleepy Hollow and " Woolfert's Roost." 

Among the literati of Westchester County the name 
of Henry B. Dawson suggests itself, at once, as among 
the most prominent of those identified with the work 
of historical research in America. Although not a 
native of the county, he has been so completely a 
part of its social and literary life for more than a 
generation, that he may justly be regarded as one of 
its representative men. 

Henry Barton Dawson was born at Gosberton, in Lin- 
colnshire, about teti miles southwest of Boston, Eng- 
land, on Friday, June 8, 1821. His father, Abraham 
Dawson, was born in July, 1795, at Wisbeach, in the 
neighboring county of Cambridge, where his grand- 
father, originally of Lincolnshire, was then residing. 
His father's mother, a Miss Culy, belonged to a family 
of French Huguenots, who lived on a farm called 
Guy him, near Wisbeach. His mother was Mary 
Barton, second daughter of John Barton, of the parish 
of Bicker, five miles north of Gosberton. Mr. Barton 
was a respectable £Eirmer. His daughter, Mary, mar- 
ried Abraham Dawson, May 15, 1820. 

Henry Barton Dawson was their only son and the 
eldest of six children. He received his first instruc- 
tion from a school-mistress, who found him an apt and 
ready pupil. At nine years of age, having in the 
meantime had the care of the village school -master, 
he attended, for a year, the noted school of Mr. Moses 
of Donnington. The last school in his native county, 

at which he was taught, was kept by Mr. Greenfield, 
a pupil of Mr. Moses, who carried him through a 
course of practical surveying. 

In the spring of 1834 his parents, with their family, 
removed from England to the United States. They 
landed at New York on the 9th of June in the same 
year. His father's chief reason for emigrating was his 
dissatisfaction with the British government. At Man- 
hattan ville, eight miles from New York, he established 
himself as a gardener, an occupation which he con- 
tinued to pursue until a short time before his death, 
in January, 1872. Henry attended the public schools 
in West Seventeenth Street, New York, and at Man- 
hattan ville until the spring of 1836, except during the 
summer of 1835, when he was at work with his father. 
In March, 1836, he left school in order to assist his 
father, who was then gardener at the Bloomingd&le 
Lunatic Asylum. Before he left the trustees of the 
Public School Society tendered him a free scholar- 
ship in college, but the limited means of his father 
would not admit of his acceptance. He continued to 
work in the garden of the asylum with his father until 
the fall of 1837, when the family removed to Ithaca, 
Ni Y., with the intention of settling on a farm. His 
father, however, resumed his occupation of gardener, 
and Henry continued to assist him for a short time. 
He then became an apprentice to a wheel-wright, Mr. 
Ira Bower, and soon after a clerk in the book-selling 
and publishing house of Messrs. Mack, Andrus & 
Woodrufi; at Ithaca. In the winter of 1838-39 he left 
the latter to take the position of confidential clerk for 
Judge Gere, a wealthy resident of the town, and in 
April, 1839, returned to New York, where his em- 
ployer had established a large lumber-yard. His salary 
at this time was one hundred and twenty-five dollars 
a year. Mr. Dawson continued in this business, under 
successive employers, until May, 1844, when he was 
engaged by Messrs. Comstock & Co., of Cortlandt 
Street, large dealers in patent medicines, as book- 
keeper. He also performed the duties of their cashier 
and corresponding clerk. In June, 1846, he became 
book-keeper for Messrs. Cumming, Main & Co., drug- 
gists, with whom he remained one year. 

Although Mr. Dawson had contributed articles for 
the daily press, generally on political topics, as early 
as the winter of 1840, his first pecuniary venture in 
literature was brought about in a rather singular way. 
Having, in 1845, while still employed by Comstock & 
Co., advanced some money to the proprietor of The 
Orystal Founts a weekly temperance and literary news- 
paper, he was obliged to take the printing-office and 
paper in repayment of his loan. For more than a 
year he edited and published the paper besides dis- 
charging his duties as book-keeper, and finding the 
work too burdensome, he finally, in 1846, gave up his 
position with Cumming, Main & Co., and devoted 
all his time to the newspaper. In November of the 
same year he was obliged to discontinue its publica- 
tion with the loss, not only of the original loan, but 




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also of all his savings. Tlie paper was the organ of 
theOrder of the Rechabites, and Mr. Dawson's uncom- 
promising spirit having involved him in difficulties 
with the principal officers of the order, the paper 
saffered from the enmities thus aroused. « 

Mr. Dawson next accepted the agency of the Inter- 
national Art Union, and in the following year, that 
of the American Art Union, which latter he retained 
until the concern was closed by the Supreme Court. 
After this he was an officer of the Wall Street Ferry 
to Brooklyn, and was successively connected with 
three different insurance companies in New York. In 
1856, owing to the failure of the company of which 
he was secretary, he was again lefl without employ- 
ment, and accepted an offer from Messrs. Johnson, 
Fry & Co., Publishers, to write a work for them on 
the military and naval history of this country. This 
was his first book, although he had already become 
known among historical writers, by " The Park and 
its Vicinity," written for and published in the " Man- 
ual of the Common Council of the City of New York " 
for 1855; the "Life and Times of Anne Hutchinson," 
written for the Baptist Historical Society ; and " The 
Retreats through Westchester County, in 1776," writ- 
ten for the New York Historical Society. 

"The Battles of the United States by Sea and 
Land," which is the title of the military and naval 
work, written for Messrs. Johnson, Fry & Co., was 
published, as a serial, in forty numbers, the first 
number appearing in the autumn of 1858. Besides 
its merits as a popular work, it is of recognized value 
as an historical authf rity, the events of each battle 
being given in detail with copious references, the 
principal documents relating to the engagement, and, 
occasionally, biographical sketches of the prominent 
actors. The success of the work was so decided that 
he undertook to write a complete military history of 
the United States, but the Civil War stopped the work 
as it also did the progress of the " Life and Times of 
Gk>vemor Daniel D. Tompkins," which he had under- 
taken at the request of the family. 

While writing the " Battles," he became involved 
in a controversy concerning the merits of Major Gen- 
eral Israel Putnam, with Messrs. Griswold and Dem- 
ing, of Hartford, Conn., in the Daily Post of that 
city. The correspondence attracted the attention 
of scholars throughout the entire country, the Legis- 
Utureof Connecticut being led by it to take special 
action on the subject; and the letters were subse- 
quently collected and published in a handsome vol- 
ume, copies of which have commanded prices as 
high as fifty dollars each. 

In 1862 Mr. Dawson was enabled to make a com- 
plete transcript of the receipts and disbursements of 
moneys for the municipal purposes of the city of New 
York, during the entire occupation of that city by the 
Royal Army, 1776 to 1783, together with all the mil- 
itary orders on which those receipts and disburse- 
ments rested, and all the vouchers of the auditors 

appointed by the successive Commanders-in-chief 
through whom those accounts were settled. 

As none of these were previously known and as the 
Finance Department of the city needed only these to 
make the financial records of the city complete from 
a very early period, this work of Mr. Dawson was wel- 
comed by the city authorities as few such works have 
ever been welcomed. The mayor honored it by send- 
ing it to the common council with a special message; 
and the latter spread not only the message, but the 
entire financial and historical statement made by Mr. 
Dawson on its Minutes, made a liberal appropriation 
for his compensation ; gave to him an official vote of 
thanks, a copy of which elegantly engrossed and 
framed ornaments his dining-room ; and gave to him, 
also, the unusual privilege of copying and publishing 
any of its ancient records and files which he should, 
at any time, desire to employ. 

Mr. Dawson's edition of the " Foederalist " was the 
first of a projected series of historical works upon the 
Constitution of the United States, to be completed in 
seven octavo volumes, namely, " the Fcederalist," two 
volumes ; " the Anti-Foederalist, two volumes, which 
were to consist of contemporary articles written 
against the adoption of the Constitution; and a 
" History of the Constitution," an original work, 
written by Mr. Dawson, three volumes. Other en- 
gagements, however, prevented him from completing 
a work which would doubtless have proved a most 
important contribution to the political literature of 
the United States. 

In 1863 the first volume of Mr. Dawson's edition 
of "The Fcederalist" appeared. The distinguishing 
feature of this edition was the restoration of the 
original text and the rejection of unauthorized muti- 
lations. Prefixed was an historical and bibliograph- 
ical introduction, giving a careful review of the polit- 
ical condition of the State of New York in 1787 ; an 
account of the causes which led its authors to write 
the series of articles of which the work is composed; 
the names of the writers of the several articles ; a 
list of the different editions which Mr. Dawson had 
found ; and a very elaborate analysis of " The Fceder- 
alist" itself. The peculiar merit of that edition of 
this celebrated work was recognized by Harvard Uni- 
versity, Williams College and several others, as well 
as by the Board of Education in the city of New 
York, all of whom added it to their respective lists 
of text-books ; by the leading scholars of that period, 
led by the venerable Joshua Quincy, and by the At- 
torney General and the Secretary of State of the 
United States, each of whom adopted it as the edition 
of " The Fcederalist," which should, thenceforth, be 
used in their respective offices. 

The publication of "The Fcederalist" called forth 
an attack on the volume and its editor by the Hon. 
John Jay, grandson of one of the authors of the 
original work and more recently United States minis- 
ter to Austria-Hungary. It was also assailed by the 



venerable James A. Hamilton, son of Alexander 
Hamilton, another of its authors. These articles 
were printed in the New York Evening Post, and 
created much excitement among the politicians and 
historians. Mr. Dawson replied to each and the 
controversy proved highly interesting. The inter- 
course between Mr, Hamilton and Mr. Dawson 
was afterwards resumed and their personal relations 
were perfectly friendly until the death of the for- 

In 1863 Mr. Dawson also published his work on 
" The Assault of Stoney Point by General inthony 
Wayne." It was an elegant volume, illustrated by 
maps and fac-similes. The germ of the work was a 
paper read April 1, 1862, before the New York and 
Pennsylvania Historical Societies. In preparing it 
he had the use of the correspondence and other 
family papers of General Wayne himself. 

In 1864 Mr. Dawson reprinted the " Foederalist Cor- 
respondence " with John Jay and James A. Hamil- 
ton as the first number of a protracted series entitled, 
"Current Fictions Tested by Uncurrent Facts." In 
the following year he published " The Diary of David 
Dow," a soldier of the Revolution, which, like all of 
Mr. Dawson's publications, was exhaustively anno- 
tated, and an edition of Dring's '* Recollections of the 
Jersey Prison-Ship," which was published originally 
at Providence, R. /., in 1829, being compiled from 
Mr. Dring's manuscripts by Albert Gorton Greene, 
the well-known scholar and poet. The value of the 
work was greatly enhanced by the addition of an 
elaborate appendix prepared by Mr. Dawson. 

A new edition of " The Park and its Vicinity " has 
been printed as No. I. of his," Gleanings in the 
Harvest Field of American History," but has not 
been published. Several of his works already men- 
tioned had been issued as numbers in this series — 
namely, the " Diary of David How " as No. IV. ; 
" Putnam Correspondence " as No. V., and " Stoney 
Point " as No. XI. The series is elegantly printed, 
in uniform style, royal octavo, and the editions 
are all limited. Besides these various works Mr. 
Dawson has written a paper on " The Sons of Liberty 
in New York;" one on "The Battle of Harlem 
Heights," and one on " The City of New York on 
Sunday Morning, April 23, 1775," all of them for the 
New York Historical Society ; one on the " Battle of 
Bennington" for the Vermont Historical Society; 
and one on the " Battle of Long Island " for the Long 
Island Historical Society, together with several minor 
tracts, and numerous articles for periodicals with 
which he has had no editorial connection; and he 
edited, in 1861, for the Mercantile Library Associa- 
tion of New York City a volume of original papers, 
generally of the Revolutionary War, to which he 
added voluminous notes. The introduction to the 
last-named volume, which bore the title of "New 
York CMty During the American Revolution," at- 
tracted much attention, since it contained a carefully 

prepared and minute description of the city as it 
was at that early period, as if written at the time and 
by one who was personally acquainted with every 
part of it, and with the principal persons who lived 
there. Like the greater number of Mr. Dawson's 
works this volume was printed in elegant form for 
private circulation, and commands very high prices 
when copies are thrown on the market. In 1866 he 
edited the official " Record of the Trial of Joshua 
Hett Smith, Esq.,, for Alleged Complicity in the 
Treason of Benedict Arnold," of which only fifly 
copies were printed ; and five large octavo volumes of 
selections from the Historical Magazine^ bearing the 
general title of "The Magazine Miscellany," and 
elegantly printed in an edition of only twenty-five 
copies, have also appeared under his editorial super- 

In the spring of 1865, Mr. Dawson was invited to 
take the editorial charge of Tlie Oazetie, a Democratic 
newspaper, published weekly at Yonkers, N. Y., 
which invitation he accepted. During the eleven 
months of his connection with the Gazette, he gave a 
new character to the publication, and proved himself 
an able controversialist and critic. His last number 
appeared on the 31st of March, 1866. The historical 
and bibliographical material with which he occupied 
the first page of the OazetUy at once commanded at- 
tention from the leading men of the country. Judge 
Nelson," of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
ordered a great case to be re-argued, in order that ar- 
ticles bearing on it, which had appeared in the OazetU 
after the case had been argued, could be judicially 
admitted as authorities before the decision of the 
court was given ; and it is said that the authoritative 
character of those articles, which were from Mr. 
Dawson's pen, were seen in the decision of the court 
given by that distinguished jurist. In Brodhead's 
"History of the State of New York," and in other works 
of equally high character, the historical articles 
which Mr. Dawson prepared for The Gazette, were re- 
peatedly referred to as standard authorities. Odd 
numbers of the Gazette of that period are eagerly 
sought, and command high prices; files of it are 
bound and carefully preserved in the state and 
historical society's libraries; and it is known that, 
during the past year, fifteen dollars were paid for an 
unbound file of it for the twelve months during 
which Mr. Dawson was its editor. 

Four volumes of selections from the more im- 
portant articles in the Gazette have been printed un- 
der the general title of the " Gazette Series." The 
titles of the several volumes are: vol. i. "Papers 
concerning the capture and detention of Major John 
Andre," collected by Henry B. Dawson, Yonkers, 
N. Y., 1866; vol. ii., "Papers concerning the bound- 
ary between the States of New York and New Jer- 
sey," written by several hands, Yonkers, 1866 ; vol. 
iii., "Papers concerning the town and village of 
Yonkers, Westchester County," a fragment, by Heniy 



B. Dawson, Yonkere, 1866; vol. iv., "Rambles in 
Westchester CJounty," a fragment, by Henry B. Daw- 
son, Yonkers, 1866. The authors of the articles in 
vol. ii. were General John Cochrane, Attorney-Gen- 
eral of New York; Hon. J. Romeyn Brodhead, (two 
articles) ; William A. Whitehead, of Newark, in reply 
to the last ; Mr. Dawson himself, who endeavored to 
act as umpire between the two ; Mr. Whitehead, in 
reply to Mr. Dawson ; Mr. Dawson, in reply to Mr. 
Whitehead ; and the Attorney-General of New York 
in closing the argument. The correspondence closes 
with a postscript by Mr. Dawson. The volume was 
subsequently printed for the use of the United States 
Court in one of the boundary suits ; and the argu- 
ments and evidence which Mr. Dawson presented in 
his articles, are said to have influenced Judge Nelson 
in determining the case for New York. The Andre 
volume is probably the most perfect " Andreana" in 
print. The series of volumes has been sold at one 
hundred dollars for the set, the edition being very 
small, only twenty-six copies having been printed. 

A month or two after dissolving his relations with 
the Gazetie, Mr. Dawson purchased The Historical 
Magazine, of which he became the editor and pub- 
lisher. His first number was that for July, 1866. 
Ten volumes having been completed at the end of 
the year, he began in January, 1867, a new and en- 
larged series of the work giving double the number 
of pages and making two volumes in a year. As ed- 
itor of this publication Mr. Dawson has achieved 
wide reputation among literary people, and especially 
among the students of every branch of American 
history. The magazine became a mine of historical 
information, and continues to be regarded as one of 
the standard references of American literature. 

In 1868 the " Manual of the New York Common 
Council " passed into the editorial care of the new 
clerk, Joseph Shannon, and his deputy, F. J. Twomey. 
It now began to be issued in an enlarged and im- 
proved form. Mr. Dawson, on invitation, furnished 
the historical material and added some new features 
to the work. The Cjiarter of the city was collated 
by him, critically, with the ancient parchments, and 
was first printed accurately in the manual. Mr. 
Dawson also furnished an elaborate paper on the bat- 
tle of Harlem Heights and the death of Colonel 
Knowlton. The State authorities of New York subse- 
quently employed him to examine and report on the 
boundaries of that state on the lines of New Jersey, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut; and the vestry of 
Trinity Church, New York, invited him to become 
the historian of that ancient and noted parish. Mr. 
Dawson did nothing under either of these re- 
quests, but his selection indicates the estimation in 
which he is held as an authority on historical ques- 
tions relating to New York. 

Mr. Dawson has long conducted an extensive corres- 
pondence with literary people and conspicuous actors 
in public events. He has been elected a resident mem- 

ber of the New York Historical Society, the American 
Institute, and the American Geographical and Statis- 
tical Society ; an honorary member by the Minnesota 
and the New England Methodist Historical Societies, 
and a corresponding member by the Massachusetts, 
Vermont, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, Wisconsin, Chicago, and New England Historic- 
Genealogical, the Long Island, the Oneida and the 
Cayuga County Historical Societies ; and also by the 
Worcester (Massachusetts) Society of Antiquity, the 
American Statistical Association and the Albany In- 

Mr. Dawson possesses a fine library on American 
history — the result of many years of historical in- 
quiry, and undoubtedly one of the most valuable 
collections, for practical purposes, in the country. Not 
only on the special subjects of which he has written, 
but in the general field of American history, Mr. 
Dawson's searching and retentive intellect has stored 
up a mass of most valuable information, in the use of 
which he is skilled by long practice to such an extent 
as to make him one of the most formidable of con- 

In religious opinion he is a resolute and uncom- 
promising Calvinistic Baptist ; and in politics an old- 
fashioned ** States-rights Democrat." He voted for 
Polk for President in 1844, and attached himself to 
that wing of the Democratic party known as the 
** Barnburners," which, in 1848, assisted in forming 
the Free Soil party. During the Presidential canvass 
of that year, he was a member of the New York 
City committee of that party, and in 1849 was on the 
" general committee " of the city — what was known as 
"the old men's committee" — of which S. J. Tilden, 
B. F. Butler, ex- Attorney-General of the United States, 
Wilson G. Hunt, George H. Purser, Mark Spencer, 
Anthony J. Bleecker, John Van Buren, David Dudley 
Field, Lucius Robinson, Nelson J. Waterbury and 
other well-known politicians were members. He ad- 
hered to the Free Soil party and its successor, the 
Republican party, till the War of Secession, to the 
last-named, however, not as a " Republican," but as 
"a Democrat opposed to the administration." Since 
the close of the War he has been, as he maintains he 
had been before the War, a Democrat and a rigid 
opponent of centralized power both in State and 
Federal government. 

Mr. Dawson was married May 28, 1845, to Cathe- 
rine, daughter of Abraham D.and Esther (Whelpley) 
Martling, of Tarry town, Westchester County, N. Y., 
one of the oldest families of the county. They have 
had nine children — 1, Spencer H. C, born May 11, 
1846, died July 9, 1871; 2, Henry B., Jr., born De- 
cember 19. 1847, died March 10, 1876; 3, William 
Martling, born August 27, 1849; 4, Stephen Van 
Rensselaer, born September 21, 1861 ; 5, George 
Cooley, bom September 25, 1853, married Mary Kate 
Dean November 16, 1881 ; 6, Mary Dawson, born June 
17, 1855, married William H. Halsey July 6, 1875 ; 7, 



Catherine Martling, born April 9, 1859; 8, Esther 
Martling, born July 17, 1861, died March 16,1865; 
and 9, Caroline Dutcher, born August 31, 1863, died 
April 22, 1880. They have also had an adopted 
daughter, Anna Augusta, born October 30, 1851, who 
died May 31, 1878. 

James Kirke Paulding, the friend of Irving and 
his associate in the production of the SalnuKjundi 
papers, was of Westchester extraction, though a native 
of Dutchess County. His grandfather, many years 
previous to the Revolution, settled in Westchester 
County on a farm at Tarrytown, slill in possession of 
his descendants. The family removed to a tract of 
land in Dutchess County which had been granted 
them by King William III. This change was made 
in consequence of the fact that the Paulding 
dence being *^ within the lines," that is in the dis- 
trict intervening between the British Army at New 
York and the American forces in the Highlands, and 
the Pauldings being Whigs they were exposed to the 
depredations of the British troops and their Tory 
allies. Paulding was born at a place called Pleasant 
Valley in Dutchess County, August 22, 1779. His 
father was a leader of the Whig party in the county 
of Westchester, a member of the first committee of 
safety and subsequently Commissary General of the 
New York quota of troops. He was financially 
ruined by furnishing the army with supplies obtained 
on his personal credit for which he could obtain no 
compensation from the government. 

After the close of the war, the family returned to 
their former home in Westchester, and Paulding was 
educated at the village school — a log house nearly 
two miles distant from his residence. Here he receiv- 
ed all the education he ever obtained from tuition. 
On arriving at manhood in 1800 he removed to New 
York City, staying at first with Washington Irving's 
brother, William, who had married Paulding's sister. 
His first attempts in literature were his contributions 
to the Salmagundi papers. At the beginning of the 
War of 1812 he published a clever satire on the policy 
of England toward America with the title of " The Di- 
verting History of John Bull and Brother Jonathan" 
which waa reprinted in one of the English journals. 
Following this was " The Lay of the Scottish Fiddle," 
a parody of the "Lay of the Last Minstrel," in which he 
satirized the predatory warfare of the British on the 
Chesapeake Bay, and described the burning and 
sacking of Havre-de-Grace at the mouth of the Sus- 
quehanna by Admiral Cockburn's fleet. It was re- 
published in London in handsome style with a com- 
plimentary preface and provoked a fierce review from 
the London Quarterly, He next published "The 
United States and England," a strong defense of this 
country against the strictures of the Quarterly ^ which 
attracted the notice of President Madison. In 1815 he 
published his "Letters From the South by a Northern 
Man," written after a visit to Virgiiiia, and in 1818 his 
principal poetical work " The Backwoodsman," He next 

published the novel "Konigsmark," or, a.s it was after- 
wards called, "Old Times in the New World," the scene 
of which is laid amongst the early Swedish settlers 
on the Delaware. The^e were followed by a number of 
tales and sketches and his "Life of Washington,'' pre- 
pared chiefly for the more youthful class of readers. 
In 1836 he publinhed a defence of slavery under the 
title " Slavery in the United States." Most of his works 
were republished by Harper & Brothers in a uniform 
edition in 1835. Paulding was thoroughly Ameri- 
can in spirit and feeling, and his writings did much 
to confirm and strengthen in the popular mind the 
sentiments of patriotism engendered by the Revolu- 
tion and the war of 1812. Their value was recog- 
nized ofiicially by his appointment in 1814 or 1815 
as secretary of the Board of Navy Commissioners, 
then first established. He was transferred several 
years later to the post of Navy Agent for the port of 
New York, which he retained for twelve years under 


diflerent administrations and resigned to accept the 
position at the head of the Navy Department, under 
the administration of President .Van Buren. Upon 
the accession of President Harrison to office, he re- 
signed and soon afterwards retired to a pleasant 
residence, " Hyde Park," on the east bank of the 
Hudson in the county of Dutchess, where he spent 
the closing years of his life. He died in the eighty- 
second year of his age, on the 6th of April 1860. The 
"Literary Life of James K. Paulding," by his son, Wil- 
liam Irving Paulding, was published in 1867. 

Near the road leading from West Farms to 
Hunt's Point, on the sound and on the edge of the 
marshes which border the Bronx River, stands an 
ancient burial place in which repose the remains of 
Joseph Rodman Drake, the poet who charmed the 
senses of thousands with the music of "The Culprit 
Fay," and strung the patriotic feelings of Americans 
to the highest tension when his muse sung of the 
national glory. Dying at the age of twenty-five, his 



was a life of promise cut short long before the maturi- 
ty of his gifts could be reached. All readers know 
that he forever celebrated the rural beauties of the 
Bronx in some of his daintiest verse, and it was 
proper that he should be laid to rest near its banks. 
Bat whatever fitness there might have been in the 
Belection of his burial place is lost in the neglect into 
which it was afterward permitted to fall. One who 
visited it in 1865 ' gave a most depressing description 
of its forsaken and desolate appearance. The entire 
inclosure was covered with briers, weeds and rank 
grass, which grew thickly around the poet's monu- 
ment This was a neat marble shaft, eight feet high, 
bearing the inscription, — 


to the memory 


Joseph R. Drake, MJ)., 

who died Sept. 2l0t, 


Aged 25 yean. 

None knew him bat to lore him, 

Nor named him but to praiee."* 

The salt marsh surrounded the knoll on which the 
cemetery is laid out and the Bronx at that point is 
but a lazily fiowing stream. At the rate of decay 
then in progress the people of a few generations later 
would be compelled to refer to books and maps to 
know where the grave of Drake was situated. 

J. Rodman Drake was bom in New York City, 
August 7, 1795. He studied medicine under Dr. 
Nicholas Bomayne, and shortly afterwards married 
Sarah, the daughter of Henry Eckford, a connection 
that placed him in affluent circumstances. The youth- 
ful couple took a trip to Europe, but Drake's health 
soon after failed, and, after spending the winter of 
1819 in New Orleans, in the hope of regaining it, he 
returned to New York fatally smitten with consump- 
tion, dying on September 21, 1820, at the age of 

Drake was a poet from his boyhood. Some of his 
youthful compositions have been preserved and show 
great fluency and aptness of expression. In March, 
1819, he published the first of the famous "Croakers," 
the verses to " Ennui," which were written in con- 
junction with his friend, Halleck. "The Culprit 
Fay" was written to refute an assertion, by Fenimore 
Cooper and Halleck, that the rivers of this country 
furnished no such romantic associations as the Scot- 
tish streams for purposes of poetical composition. 
The scene is laid in the highlands of the Hudson, but 
the chief associations relate to salt water, " the poet 
drawing his inspiration from his familiar haunt on the 
Sound, at Hunf s Point." " The Culprit Fay " is an 
exquisite creation of the fancy and will always re- 
tain for its author a niche in the gallery of American 
poets. A selection of his poems, including "The 


iHi«t Mag., Feby., 1872. 

Culprit Fay," was made, and published in 1886, by 
his only child, the wife of Commodore McKay. 

£>lgar Allan Poe, wrote some of his most noted pro- 
ductions while a resident of Westchester County, 
including the famous "Raven". Although he was very 
poor during most of the time, this was probably 
the brightest period of his melancholy life ; for he was 
happier in the companionship of his wife, the lovely 
Virginia Clemm, and her mother, than at any other 
stage of his chequered career. His wife's death, 
after a residence in the county of about three years, 
was a sad blow to the poet's sensitive organization ; 
but it is pleasant to think that the sweetest as well as 
the saddest memories of his " dear heart" his " dear 
Virginia," were associated with the charming land- 
scapes of Morrisania and Fordham. Poe was nearly 
thirty-four years old when, in the autumn of 1844, he 
removed to New York City from Philadelphia. Born 
in Boston, in January 1811, his early life was as 
chequered and eventful as his manhood was dark 
and stormy. The Poe family was one of the oldest 
and most respectable in Maryland. Edgar's grand- 
father was a quartermaster-general in the Continen- 
tal Army and the friend of Lafayette. His father 
while a law student fell in love with a beautiful 
actress, Elizabeth Arnold, and went on the stage. He 
was discarded by his family, and he and his wife died 
within a few weeks of each other in Richmond, Va., 
leaving three children, Henry, Edgar and Rosalie, in 
a state of destitution. Edgar was adopted by Mr. 
John Allan, a wealthy merchant of Richmond, from 
whom he derived his middle name. Mr. and Mrs. 
Allan treated him with great kindness, and after a 
tour of the British Islands in 1816, placed him at 
school at Stoke Newington near London, where he 
remained four or five years. In 1822 he returned to 
Richmond, and in 1825 was entered as a student at 
the University of Virginia. His life at the University 
was marked by many youthful excesses, which finally 
resulted in his expulsion. He was very much in debt 
and upon Mr. Allan's refusal to satisfy the claims of 
some of his creditors he quarreled with his benefactor 
and set out to join the Greeks, who were then in the 
midst of their war with Turkey. After wandering in 
Europe for about a year, he finally made his way to 
St. Petersburg where he became involved in a quarrel 
with the Russian authorities, from which he was extri- 
cated through the kind offices of the American 
minister, Mr. Middleton. Returning to America he 
was again taken into favor by Mr. Allan, who sent 
him to West Point, where his conduct was so irregular 
that in ten months after his admission he was cash- 
iered. He was again received into Mr. Allan's family 
but another rupture ensued, in consequence, it is said, 
of Poe's uncivil behavior toward Mr. Allan's second 
wife. Mr. Allan died a few years latter, leaving Poe 

Thrown upon his own resources, Poe turned to 
literature for support. In 1829, he had published in 



Baltimore a volume of poems, " Ai Aaraaf, Tamerlane 
and Minor Poems," which had been received with favor. 
He seems to have had but little difficulty in obtaining 
employment from magazines and newspapers, but the 
pay was meagre. In despair he enlisted in the army 
and then deserted. Luckily for him, in 1833 he 
entered the competition for prizes offered by the 
Baltimore Saturday Visitor for a story and a poem. 
He was awarded both prizes but was subsequently 
excluded from the second prize and only given that 
for the story. His story was the " MSS. found in a 
Bottle" and his poem " The Coliseum." His produc- 
tions attracted the notice of John P. Kennedy, the 
novelist, who befriended him and finally secured him 
employment on the Southern Literary MeMenger, 
This may be said to have been the beginning of Poe's 
literary career. In 1836, he was made editor of 

have sheltered Washington and some of his generals 
in the days of the Revolution. The front windows 
command the Boulevard (formerly Bloomingdale 
Road) and the nev/ Riverside Park. The Hudson is 
seen through the trees, with the lofty Palisades be- 
yond, a view still meet for the poet, and far more 
picturesque and beautiful when Poe looked upon it. 
Poe was often seen walking along the banks of the 
river, and he and his wife no doubt were wont to sit 
at the western window and watch the decline of the 
sun as it sank to rest behind the embattled front of 
the Palisades. The room formerly occupied by Poe 
and in which "The Raven" was written, is an apart- 
ment of moderate size, on the second floor of the 
house. Its windows look out upon the Hudson. The 
mantel, a relic of by-gone days, is of wood, curiously 
carved and painted in imitation of ebony. Here, be- 



that publication at a salary of five hundred dollars 
per annum and removed to Richmond, where he mar- 
ried his cousin, Virginia Clemm. 

In January, 1837, he left Richmond and returned 
to Baltimore, whence he proceeded to Philadelphia 
and New York. In Philadelphia he obtained employ- 
ment as a contributor to the Gentleman^s Magazine, 
and in May, 1839, was made its editor. In the fol- 
lowing year he took charge of Graham's Magazine. 
In the spring of 1843, he wrote "The Gold Bug," for 
which he received a prize of one hundred dollars. 
He had previously written a number of critical pa- 
pers and 8torie.s, among them " The Mystery of Marie 
Roget." In the autumn of 1844 he removed to New 
York. His residence at first was on what is now 
Eighty- fourth Street. The house, a large bleak 
structure, stands on a rocky elevation. It is said to 

' fore the old fashioned fire-place, the poet sat and 
dreamed his wonderful dreams, the weirdest of which, 
perhaps, is embodied in " The Raven." 

Poe's next place of residence was Fordham. In 
the winter of 1846, says one of his biographers, he 

I was living in extreme destitution at Fordham. In 
the meantime he had been employed by Willis &, 
Morris, as critic and assistant editor of The Mirror, a 
position which he retained about six months, and as 
associate editor with C. F. Briggs of The Broadway 
Journal, The latter publication ceased in January, 
1846, and Poe then began a series of papers, "The 
Literati of New York City," which were published in 
The Lady 8 Book, Their pungency and personality 
created for him many enemies. His troubles now be- 
gan to thicken. His wife's health, which had always 
been delicate, was failing rapidly and Poe was sub- 



jected to the agony of seeing her fading, day by day, 
without the means at liand to minister properly to 
her comfort. His necessities were finally made known 
by some friendly hand in the newspapers and a sub- 
scription was raised in his behalf. But, although his 
sufferings were extreme, he must have had many 
gleams of happiness in the little old-fashioned cottage 
at Fordham. It is a quaint little structure, a story 
and a half high, with a white shingled gable-end to- 
ward the street and a porch on one side. It is perched 
on the top of a hill and is surrounded by old fruit- 
trees, mossy stone walls and thickets of brambles and 
flowers. In one of his papers on the Literati, Poe 
severely criticised Dr. Thomas Dunn English, who 
retorted in a personal article which was reproduced 
in the Evening Mirror, Poe thereupon sued for libel 
and recovered from the Mirror several hundred dol- 
lars, with which he refitted his cottage. His 
life at this time was one of 
singular domestic tranquillity 
and sweetness. His mother-in- 
law, Mrs. Clemm, who seems to 
have been much attached to 
bim, watched over him with 
tender kindness and solicitude, 
and managed the afiairs of the 
little household with great skill 
and prudence. Poe's affection 
for his wife and her mother is 
the one bright spot in his 
sombre life. In a tender letter 
of June 12, 1846, to his wife he 
speaks of Mrs. Clemm as " our 
mother,'' and declares that his 
"dear Virginia" is his "great- 
est and only stimulus now, to 
battle witb this uncongenial, 
unsatisfactory and ungrateful 
life.'' Nearly all the personal 
reminiscences of Poe which tell 
of his life at Fordham are of a 
bright and pleasing character. 
One of his friends describes his wife as looking very 
young. "She had large, black eyes and a pearly 
whiteness of complexion which was a perfect pallor. 
The pale face, her brilliant eyes and her raven hair 
gave her an unearthly look. One felt that she was al- 
most a disrobed spirit, and when she coughed it was 
made certain that she was rapidly passing away." 
M«. Clemm, we are told, "was a tall, dignified old 
lady with a most lady-like manner, and her black 
dress, though old and much worn, looked really ele- 
gant on her." The same informant says, " the cot- 
tage had an air of taste and gentility that must have 
been lent it by the presence of its inmates. So neat, 
so poor, so unfurnished, and yet so charming a dwel- 
ling I never saw." 

A short distance back of the cottage there is a 
rocky elevation, crowned with cedars. It overlooks 

a pleasant landscape and the hills of Long Island in 
the distance. Tradition asserts that this was a favor- 
ite spot of Poe's, and here, perhaps, he wove in his 
brain the ideas which found expression in " Eureka," 
" Annabel Lee," " For Annie" and " Ulalume," all 
of which were written while he lived at Fordham. 
Another favorite resort was the Aqueduct pathway, 
leading from High Bridge to Fordham. 

A recently published description of the cottage and 
its surroundings says : " Two years ago the place was 
sold at public auction, under foreclosure, and it was 
bid in for five thousand seven hundred dollars. The 
unpaid taxes and accrued interest amounted to some- 
thing more than that. From the railroad station the 
road winds up the Fordham hill to the cottage, with 
the native rock as a pavement. The cottage seems 
no more than a little paint-box, shingled on the sides 
as well as the roof, and covered with vines on which 


the foliage is now appearing. It is only a few feet 
from the road, but in summer is almost obscured by 
the trees. Within, the rooms are more spacious than 
they appear from the road. A cherry-tree planted 
by Poe, now vigorous and thrifty, shades a pleasant 
porch. There are two good-sized rooms, a bed-room 
and a kitchen on the lower floor. In the front room 
Virginia, Poe's invalid wife, lay through her sickness, 
and died. On the upper floor there are three 
rooms, one of them quite large. The old-fashioned 
chimney passes through it, affording an old-time fire- 
place, which in winter, when filled with crackling 
wood, would be a cheerful place. It was a favorite 
room with the poet, and here he wrote " Ulalume " 
and "Eureka." 

"Poe moved to Fordham from Amity Street. 
Washington Square was then the centre of the fine 



residences of the city, and his house in Amity Street, | 
into which he moved when the * Raven ' had brought 
him a reputation, was only a short distance from the 
square. He had been engaged on the Evening Mr- 
tor at a salary of ten dollars a week, and in a suit 
against the paper for libel, after resigning his posi- 
tion, he secured a verdict and obtained several hun- 
dred dollars. With this money he secured the Ford- 
ham cottage, at a rental of one hundred dollars a year, 
furnished it and removed there with his wife and her 
mother, Mrs. Clemm, who remained there until Poe's 
death in 1849. The grounds, comprising about two 
acres, are as interesting as the house, and have asso- 
ciations reaching back to Revolutionary times, 
when this neighborhood was a part of the ' neutral 
ground ' and the field of Cooper's * Spy.' The lawn 
slopes into a grassy hollow. A massive ledge of blue- 


gray rock overlooks the valley at the height of a bun • 
dred feet and forms the eastern wall of the place. The 
site is said to have been occupied at one time by a 
British battery. Now a tennis club, composed of 
young men and women of Fordham, meets on the 
lawn in summer. The rocky ledge commands a view 
of the Long Island hills in purple background and 
against the horizon. In the growth of the city it is 
likely to become one of the choice sites for resi- 

" The place rents -for four hundred dollars a year. 
For several years it has been occupied by Mrs. E. D. 
Dechert, the widow of an engineer who drew many i 
of the plans of Central Park, and afterward most of 
the avenues and drives of Fordham. A few of those 
who knew Poe and his family are still living in the 
neighborhood. One of these was his nearest neigh- 

bor, Mrs. Reuben Cromwell, then a young girl. She 
said recently that the first time she saw Poe he was 
up in a cherry-tree picking the fruit, and his wife 
stood beneath the tree. 'He was a nice-looking 
young man,' continued Mrs. Cromwell, *and soci- 
able.' His wife had come out here to get the good 
air, he said, and to dig in the ground and get well. 
But she was too thin and weak to dig. She soon be- 
came ill and never came out until she was buried. 
Her mother they called Muddie, and Mr. Poe they 
alwa3rs called Eddie. They were awful poor ; poorer 
than I ever want to be. 

" Mrs. Cromwell describes going over to the house 
the morning that she heard of Poe's death. Mrs. Clemm 
was packing his things, having received a letter from 
him the day before, in which he wrote of his intended 
marriage to a Baltimore lady, and said that he would 
come on for her. She was overcome when 
informed of his death, and was sure that he 
would not have died had she been there to 
' nurse him in his bad spell.' The neighbors 
raised money to enable her to go to Baltimore. 
Poe had not paid any rent for several months, 
and Mrs. Clemm afterwards returned and sold 
their few effects. Among these Mrs. Cromwell 
obtained the family Bible, a rocking-chair and 
a clock, which she still retained as relics of her 
distinguished but unfortunate neighbor." 

In January, 1847, Poe's wife died and was 
buried in the church-yard of the old Dutch 
Church, on the King's Bridge road, about half 
a mile to the westward of the cottage. She 
was laid in the vault belonging to the Valen- 
tine family, who owned the cottage which Poe 
rented. In 1878 the remains were taken to 
Baltimore, to be placed beside those of her 
devoted ** Edgar," and the vault itself has now 
5^ disappeared. After the death of his wife, Poe's 
^ sister, Rosalie, came to live with him at 

Fordham. Poe continued to reside in the 
cottage until June, 29, 1849, when he started 
forth on the journey which terminated in his 
death. Before leaving, he arranged his papers and 
instructed Mrs. Clemm as to what disposition to make 
of them in case he died. After spending some time 
in Richmond he started on his return to New York, 
but got no farther than Baltimore when he was taken 
ill, and died in an infirmary on the 7th of October, 
1849, at the age of thirty-eight. 

Rev. Daniel Curry, D.D., the clergyman and author, 
was bom near Peekskill, November 26, 1809; gradu- 
ated from the Wesleyan University in 1837, and in 
the same year became principal of the Troy Con- 
ference Academy, at West Poultney, Vermont. In 
1839 he became a professor in the Greorgia Female 
College at Macon, and in 1841 entered the Georgia 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He filled pastoral charges at Athens, Savannah and 
Columbus, and in 1844 was transferred to the New 

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York Conference where he continued to engage in 
pastoral work until 1854, when he was chosen presi- 
dent of the Indiana Asbury University, at Green- 
castle, Indiana. After three years he returned to 
New York and in 1864 was elected editor of the 
Christian Advocate^ at New York. He was re-elected 
in 1868 and 1872, and in 1876 became the editor of the 
Ixtdies* Repository of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Dr. Curry has written much for the periodicals of 
bis church in addition to the articles which he 
ga?e to his regular editorial work. He has pub- 
lished a **Life of Wyckliff," "The Metropolitan City 
of America," and a " Life of Bishop Davis W. 
Clark," and has edited the writings of the late Rev. 
Dr. James Floy, and an edition of ^outhey's " Life 
of Wesley." 

Rev. Robert Baird, D.D., the author and philan- 
thropist, spent the closing hours of his busy life in 
Westchester County, dying at Yonkers on the 15th of 


March, 1863. Born in Fayette Co., Pennsylvania, in 
1798, he was graduated at Jefferson College in 1818, 
and received the degree of D.D. in 1842. From 
1835 to 1843 he was the most part of the time 
in Europe, striving to revive the Protestant faith in 
the south of the continent, and to promote the cause 
of temperance in the North. He published a number 
of valuable works. His son. Professor Henry M. 
Baird, D.D., LL.D., of Yonkers, professor of Greek 
in the University of New York, is a distinguished 
scholar and historian. He has published a book of 
travels entitled, " Modem Greece," and more recently 
a " History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France," 
2 vols. 8vo., which has taken rank among the more 
important historical works of -the day. 

Another son, Rev. Charles W. Baird, D.D., is the 
author of two chapters of this work, the histories of the 
the towns of Rye and Harrison, and is a distinguished 
literatenr. He was bom in Princeton, N. J., August 
28, 1828, and was graduated at the University of the 

city of New York in 1848 and at the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1852. He was ordained for tike 
ministry and in 1852-54 was the American chaplain 
in Rome, Italy. In 1859-61 he was the minister at 
the Reformed Dutch Church on Bergen Hill, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and since May 9, 1861, has been pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church of Rye, N. Y. Dr. Baird 
has written "Eutaxia: Historical Sketches," New 
York, 1855; "A Book of Public Prayer," New 
York, 1857; " History of Rye, N. Y.," 1870; "His- 
tory of Bedford Church," 1882; "History of the 
Huguenot Emigration to America," 2 vols., 1885. 

Elias Cornelius, D.D., the educator and missionary, 
was born at Somers in 1794, graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1813 and died at Hartford, Conn., February 
12, 1832. In early life he studied theology and in 
1816 visited the Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians as 
a missionary. In 1818 he went to New Orleans in 
the employ of the Missionary Society of Connecti- 
cut. In July, 1819, he was installed with Dr. Wor- 
cester at Salem, but upon being appointed, in Sep- 
tember, 1826, secretary of the American Educational 
Society he was dismissed. He contributed to the 
Quarterly Journal and published the reports of his 
educational society. 

His father was surgeon's mate of Colonel Angell's 
regiment during the Revolution, and at one time an 
inmate of the "Jersey" prison-ship. He died at 
Somers, June 13, 1823, aged sixty-five years. 

Among the eminent men who, after having 
made high reputations for themselves in other 
localities, selected Yonkers as the home of their ad- 
vanced life, is Professor William Holmes Chambers 
Bartlett. For more than forty years he was identified 
with the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, first as a cadet, and subsequently as Professor 
of Natural and Experimental Philosophy. The lead- 
ing particulars of his life, obtained in outline firom 
Cullum's " Register of the Officers and Graduates " of 
the academy, with such details as we have been able 
to gather from other sources, are as follows : 

Professor Bartlett was born in Pennsylvania in 
September, 1804, but as his parents removed imme- 
diately after his birth to St. Louis, Missouri, his 
childhood and youth were passed in the latter State, 
and it was from it that he was in due time sent to 
West Point. His parents were poor, and as there, 
were then no schools at the West, he had no home 
advantages for education. Attracting, however, the 
notice of Missouri men who were able to command 
the influence of Senator Thomas H. Benton, an ap- 
pointment was procured for him as a cadet. He was 
received at West Point on the 1st of July, 1822, at 
seventeen years and eight months of age, stood at the 
head of his class through his whole four years of 
study, and was graduated at its head on the 1st of 
July, 1826, having served as Acting Assistant Profes- 
sor of Mathematics during the last two years of his 
course. From August 30, 1826, to August 30, 1829, 



he continued to be employed at the academy, first as 
Assistant Professor, and later as Principal Assistant 
Professor of Engineering. In 1828 he took part as 
assistant engineer in the construction of Fortress 
Monroe, Va., and from 1829 to 1832 was engaged in 
the construction of Fort Adams, Newport Harbor* 
R. I. From 1832 to 1834 he was assistant to the chief 
engineer at Washington, D. C. In the latter year 
he returned to the Point, and became Acting Profes- 
sor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy. To 
the full professorship in this department he finally 
received an appointment from General Jackson 
in 1836, and continued to fill the position until 
1871, when he resigned and was appointed colonel 
in the regular army on the retired list. The instru- 
ment by which he was appointed to his professorship 
in 1836 is still in his possession. It was forwarded 
to General Cass, and sent by him, through his son, 
to Professor Bartlett. It was as follows: 

** I hereby appoint Second Lieut. WiUiiun H. C. Bartlett, of the Corps 
of Engineers, Prof, of Nat. and, Exper. Pblloeophy (vice Courtney 

(Signed,) Amdbkw Jackson. 

During the student days of Professor Bartlett, as we 
have seeil, he spent two years in teaching in the acad- 
emy. Many men, afterwards distinguished in United 
States history, and several who, on both sides, in our 
civil contest, became men of mark, were at the institu- 
tion. Leonidas Polk, a relative of James K. Polk, and 
afterwards Bishop of Louisiana, was his room-mate, 
and Alb^t Sidney Johnston, afterwards killed at the 
battle of Shiloh, was both his room-mate and class- 
mate. Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and Charles 
Mason (alterwards Judge Mason, of Iowa) were under 
his instruction, as were many others who in due time 
became widely noted. 

While engaged in the construction of Fort Adams, 
between 1829 and 1832, Professor Bartlett contributed 
to Sillittian's Journal a paper on " The Expansibility of 
Coping Stones,^* which has been frequently referred 
to by foreign writers. During his life in Washington 
(1832 to 1834), as first assistant to Chief Engineer (Gen- 
eral) Gratiot, he had a great deal to do with the engi- 
neering on the Cumberland National road, and with 
fortifications all over the country. In 1840 he was 
ordered by President Van Buren, through his Secre- 
tary of War, Mr. Poinsett, to examine the European 
observatories, with a view to improving the course 
of instruction in astronomy, practical and theoretical, 
in the Military Academy. In this work he was absent 
from the countrj^ about five months, and made many 
valuable acquaintances in Europe. On his return 
he submitted to the War Department the report of 
his work, the receipt of which was duly ncknowledged. 
It is a misfortune, however, that this valuable report 
has in some way been lost. Frequent search has 
been made for it, but without success. It suggested 
a plan for an observatory to be located in Washington 

In addition to these labors, the Professor, during 
his long service at the Point, prepared several text- 
books for the use of the cadets. In 1839 he pub- 
lished a "Treatise on Optics;" in 1858, one on 
" Synthetical Mechanics," and another on " Spherical 
Astronomy," and in 1859 one on "Acoustics and 
Optics " and another on " Analytical Mechanics." 
Before finally retiring from his professorship he also 
published an article entitled "Strains on Rifie Guns," 
which will be found in the Memoirs of the National 
Academy of Sciences, Volume I. It was also sep- 
arately published. All this shows the years of his 
life at West Point to have been busy and productive. 
In 1847 Geneva College conferred upon the professor 
the degree of Doctor of Laws. The degree of Master 
of Arts had been conferred upon him as an honorary 
d^ree by the College of New Jersey, at Princeton, 
ten years before. He is a member of the Philosoph- 
ical Societies of Philadelphia and Boston, and is one 
of the original corporators of the American Academy 
of Science, incorporated by Congress. 

His books and his writings in periodicals are a 
monument to Professor Bartlett's scholarship and 
industry. The value of his books may be inferred 
from the fact that they have passed through a succes- 
sion of editions. The ninth edition of " Analytical 
Mechanics " was published in 1874. We judge from 
a mere passing sentence in the preface to the second 
edition that, in the so-called conflict between scien- 
tists and the Bible, this eminent scholar and scientist 
has no sympathy with Anti-Theism. Speaking of a 
mathematical formula which he framed and which 
expresses the laws that govern the action and reaction 
of forces upon bodies, he says of this formula, — 

" It embraces alike, in their reciprocal action, the 
"gigantic and distant orbs of the celestial regions 
" and the proximate atoms of the ethereal atmosphere 
" which pervades all space, and establishes an uu- 
" broken continuity upon which its divine architect 
" and author may impress the power of His will at a 
" single point and be felt everywhere." 

This, even in an academy text-book, is a strong 
tribute to Theism, and when it is added as a fact that 
Professor Bartlett is a worthy member of the Episco- 
pal communion, |it may be safely taken as a tribute 
to Theism in its Christian phase. 

In 1871, at sixty-seven years of age, Professor 
Bartlett was retired at his own request. On the 1st 
of July he removed from West Point to Yonkers, 
and took possession of a fine residence which he had 
purchased for himself on Locust Hill Avenue. Here 
he has since lived. At the time of his retirement 
from the Point he was elected actuary of the Mutual 
Life Insurance Company of New York, and this posi- 
tion he still holds, faithfully fulfilling its duties day 
by day, even at eighty-one years of age. He has ren- 
dered exceedingly valuable service to the company. 
Among his labors have been the construction of 
tables to facilitate their office work, and the prepara 



HISTORY OF W^'^T'^^r^^T'^T^. mrS'^^Y 

he coDtinued to be employed at the slv^ ' 

AssiBtant Professor, and later as P 

Professor of EngineeiiDg. J^ 

assistant engineer in \^ 

Monroe, Va., and fxf^ 

the constructipr^ 

R. I. Fro^' 



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tion of an elaborate report of thirty-oue years of the 
working of their institution. 

Professor Bartlett was married during his work 
upon Fort Adams, in Newport Harbor, February 4, 
1829, to Miss Harriet Whitehorne, daughter of Sam- 
uel Whitehorne, a merchant of that place. He has 
had eight children, of whom four sons and three 
daughters are yet living. Mrs. Bartlett is also still 
spared. The professor, though somewhat infirm, is 
still both mentally and physically active, keeps up a 
deep interest in passing events, and is a fluent and 
sprightly conversationalist and companion, full of rem- 
iniscences of the country's history, and of an eventful 
and interesting personal life. 

Rev. John A. Todd, D.D., pastor of the Second 
Reformed Church of Tarrytown, N. Y., who con- 
tributed to this work the two chapters on the history 
of the townships of Greenburgh and Mount Pleasant, 
is a native of Somerset CJounty, N. J., and a graduate 
of Rutgers Collie and of the Theological Seminary 
of the Reformed Church, at New Brunswick, N. J. 
After completing his course at the Seminary, in 1848, 
he was settled towards the latter part of that year as 
pastor of the Reformed Church of Griggstown, N. J. 
His personal connection with Westchester County 
dates back to 1855, when he accepted the call of the 
Second Reformed Church of Tarr3rtown, and entered 
upon his duties as pastor. Having lived since then 
in themid^t of the historical scenes of which he has 
written, and having enjoyed the friendship of many 
whose ancestors had long lived there before them and 
had borne a prominent part in the great revolutionary 
struggle, he has had peculiar opportunities of in- 
formation in r^ard to the localities described. 

Among other productions of Dr. Todd's pen may be 
mentioned his " Discourse on the Character and Death 
of Washini^ton Irving," 1859 ; "Memories of the Rev. 
Peter Labagh, D.D., with Notices of the History of 
the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in North 
America," 1860 ; "The Law of Spiritual Growth, a re- 
view of Boardman's ' Higher Christian Life,' " in the 
Princeton Review of October, 1860 ; " The Man for the 
Times," an Oration delivered before the Governor of 
the State, the Trustees, and the Alumni of Rutger's 
College, at the Dedication of Creological Hall, New 
Brunswick, N. J., June 18, 1872 ; " The Posture of the 
Ministers and People of the Reformed Dutch Church 
daring the Revolution," prepared by request of a 
committee of the General Synod, and published by 
order of the Synod in the volume of Centennial Die- 
cauneg, 1876; "The Good Fight and the Victor's 
Crown," a Memorial Discourse on the Life, Character 
and Services of the Rev. Abraham Moesle, D.D., 
1882 ; " Letters from Europe, from Canada and the 
Saguenay, from Nova Sco<4a, Prince Edward Island, 
Cape Breton, and Newfoundland," 1880-1884. Dr. 
Todd has also published a number of translations 
from the German and the Spanish, both in prose and 

Since completing the two chapters included in this 
work, he has resigned his pastoral charge, but will 
continue to reside in Tarrytown, and be chiefly oc- 
cupied in literary pursuits. 

James Parton, the well-known historical writer, 
received his early education in Westchester County. 
He is a native of England, born at Canterbury, Feb- 
ruary 9, 1822. Brought to the United States when 
but five years of age, he was educated in New York 
City and vicinity, chiefly at a school at White Plains. 
For seven years he taught school, finally becoming 
known as a writer by his editorial contributions to 
the Home Journal, His first published work, which 
appeared in 1855, was the " Life of Horace Greeley." 
It was a successful piece of work, and secured the 
author employment in the compilation of "The Hu- 
morous Poetry of the English Language," which ap- 
peared in 1857. It was followed, in 1859, by the 
" Life and Times of Aaron Burr," and in 1860 by the 
"Life of Andrew Jackson." In 1864 his "Life of 
Benjamin Franklin" appeared. Since then he has 
been a prolific writer of recognized popularity. In 
1856 he married Sara Pay son Willis, sister of N. P. 
Willis, the poet, and herself widely known for her 
literary productions under the nom deplume of Fanny 

John Bigelow, the veteran writer and politician, 
was, for three years, a resident of Westchester County 
as one of the inspectors of the state prison at Sing 
Sing. Mr. Bigelow was appointed to this position in 
1845, and during his term of service introduced va- 
rious reforms in the prison discipline. Mr. Bigelow 
is a native of Maiden, Ulster County, N. Y. He was 
bom November 25, 1817; graduated at Union Col- 
lege 1835; studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
in New York City in 1839. For ten years he was 
engaged in the practice of his profession, occupying 
himself, at the same time, more or less with literature 
and literary journalism. In 1850 he became one of 
the proprietors and editors of the New York Evening 
Post, and sustained this relation more than ten years. 
In 1856 he published a life of General Fremont, 
when the latter was a candidate for the Presidency. 
He spent the years 1859 and 1860 abroad, writing 
letters to the Evening Poet, He had previously written 
interesting narratives of trips to Jamaica and Hay ti ; 
the former presenting his views of the practical work- 
ing of emancipation in Jamaica. E^rly in the ad- 
ministration of President Lincoln he was appointed 
consul at Paris, and upon the death of the minister, 
Mr. Dayton, in 1864, was chosen to succeed him. 
While consul, he published in French, for the in- 
formation of the people of France, a valuable work 
on the resources of the United States. Early in 1867 
he returned to the United States, bringing with him 
the original manuscripts of Benjamin Franklin's 
autobiography, which he published in the following 
year, with notes and an introduction by himself. 
Mr. Bigelow is the author of some valuable mono. 



graphs on social and political phases of French his- , 
tory, as well as of many other papers and sketches. 
In December, 1871, he submitted to Senator Conk- i 
ling, of New York, an elaborate scheme for the com- ! 
memoration of the first centennial anniversary of 
American independence in 1876, which was pub- 
lished in the New York Tribune, and first directed : 
public attention to the approach of that occasion. 
Mr. Bigelow was a warm supporter of Governor Til- 
den for the Presidency, and for some years has been 
prominent before the public as Mr. Tilden's trusted , 
adviser and intimate friend. Early in 1886 he was | 
appointed United States Sub-Treasurer at New York, 
and confirmed by the Senate, but, before qualifying, 
resigned the position, not caring to undertake its 
arduous duties. Upon the retirement of Louis J. 
Jennings, he was appointed editor of the New York 
Timea, but found the labors of daily journalism too 
arduous for his tastes. 

Alice B. Haven, the author of a number of poems and 
tales under the name of Cousin Alice,'' is a resident of 
Mamaroneck. She was born at Hudson, N. Y. Her 
maiden name was Bradley. She became a contribu- 
tor to the periodicals of the day at an early age, and 
in 1846 was married to Joseph C. Neal, author of the 
" Charcoal Sketches." Upon his death a few months 
later, she took charge of the literary department 
of NecWi Qazeife, of which her husband had been a 
proprietor, and conducted it for several years with 
success. She also contributed frequently to the lead- 
ing monthly magazines. ** The Gossips of River- 
town, with Sketches in Prose and Verse," from her 
pen, was published in 1850. She is also the author- 
ess of a series of popular juvenile works published 
under the name of " Cousin Alice." In 1853 Mrs. 
Neal was married to Mr. Samuel L. Haven, and has 
since resided at Mamaroneck. 

Cornelius Mathews, the novelist, play-wright and 
journalist, was a native of Port Chester. He was 
born October 28, 1817. His early country life on the 
banks of Byram River and the rolling uplands of Rye 
and its picturesque lake, made a deep impression on 
his mind, as is shown by traces in many pages of his 
writings. He was among the early graduates of the 
New York Uuiversity in 1835, and began his literary 
career while still a youth. To the American Monthly 
Magazine of 1836, he contributed both prose and 
verse. He was also a contributor to the New YorX: 
Review and the Knickerbocker Magazine. In 1837 
he was admitted to the bar. In " Behemoth " he pro- 
duced an original romance, describing the efibrts of a 
supposed anti-Indian race to overcome the pre-his- I 
toric animal known as the mastodon. From Decem- 
ber 1840, to May 1842, he edited the Arcturus, 
a monthly magazine, besides writing a comedy and 
another novel. In 1843 he published a volume of i 
poems, and in 1846 his tragedy " Witchcraft," was j 
successfully produced. This was followed by a num- { 
ber of tales and sketches. A collected edition of his I 

writings was published by the Harper's in 1843. Mr. 
Mathews was also a constant writer in the journalism 
of the day and has been prominently identified with 
the discussion of the international copyright 

William L^gett, the well-known writer, married 
in New Rochelle and spent the closing years of his 
life there. Mr. Leggett was born in New York City 
in the summer of 1802 and was partially educated at 
Geoigetown College. In consequence of his fiither's 
failure in business, he was withdrawn before the com- 
pletion of his course, and in 1819 accompanied his 
father to Illinois, where the family settled. In 1822 
he entered the navy as midshipman but resigned his 
commission in 1826. Shortly afterwards he published 
*' Leisure Hours at Sea," a volume of verses written 
at intervals during his naval career. He also wrote a 
prose tale " The Rifle," in which he portrayed the 
scenes and incidents of western pioneer life. Other 
stories followed and were afterwards collected and 
published under the titles of ** Tales by a Country 
School-master," and •* Tales of the Sea." In 1828 he 
married Miss Almira Waring of New Rochelle, and 
in November of the same year commenced the 
publication of The Oriiic, a weekly literary periodical. 
It was discontinued at the end of six months and 
united with the Mirror, to which Mr. L^gett became 
a contributor. In the summer of 1829, he became, 
with Wm. C. Bryant, one of the editors of the New 
York Evening Post, a position which he retained 
until December, 1836. He became a zealous Demo- 
crat and an earnest advocate of free-trade, as well a^ 
a strong opponent to the United States Bank. After 
his retirement from the Evening Post, he established 
The Plain Dealer, which he conducted with ability. 
It was involved, however, in the failure of its pub- 
lisher, and ceased to exist at the end of ten months. 
Mr. Leggett did not engage in any literary or news- 
paper work afler this, his health having become 
impaired. He passed the brief remainder of his life 
at his country place at New Rochelle, which had 
been his residence since hb marriage. In May 1839 
he was appointed by President Van Buren, diplo- 
matic agent to the Republic of Guatemala, but he 
died while preparing to start for his post, on the 29th 
of May, 1839. He was a writer of great fluency and 
persuasive force, and a man who possessed in an emi- 
nent degree, the courage of his convictions. 

Elise Justine Bayard, daughter of Mr. Robert Bay- 
ard, of Glenwood, near Fishkill, was the author of a 
number of poems, some of which have appeared in 
the Knickerbocker Magazine and Literary World, She 
married Mr. Fulton Cutting, and died about 1850. 

Hon. William Cauldwell, so well-known as the 
editor and proprietor of the New York Sunday Mer- 
cury and as a legislative representative of Westches- 
ter County, was born in the city of New York, Octo- 
ber 12, 1824. His fether, Andrew Cauldwell, who 
married Margaret, daughter of William Giffen, was a 



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native of Kilmaruock, Scotland, and came to this 
country about 1816. The primary education of his 
son was obtained at the then well-known high school 
in Crosby Street, New York, but at the early age of 
eleven he went at the request of his uncle, Adam 
Giffen, to Louisiana, and lived for a while at St. Mar- i 
tinsville in that State. He afterwards attended school | 
ac Opelousas, but his school-life there was somewhat | 
suddenly terminated. His teacher, a Mr. Tinnerman, 
who was an old soldier of Napoleon, had heard that | 
the noted Colonel David Crockett was to pass through i 
that place on his way to Texas, where he was destined I 
to end his eventful career at the fated Alamo. Re- 
solved to be one of the brave colonel's followers, he 
announced his intention to his pupils, and instructed 
them to inform their parents and guardians that the 
institution would close. After this, young Cauldwell 
atr«nded Jefferson College, on the banks of the 
MiffiisBippi River, south of Plaquemine, where he re- 
mained three years. He then returned to his native 
city, and entered a dry-goods store, but at the end of 
two years, following the bent of his inclination, he 
drifted into a printing office, where he learned the 
trade. This office was conducted by Samuel Adams, 
whose murder by John C. Colt caused a great sensa- 
tion throughout the country. After the tragic death 
of Mr. Adams, young Cauldwell secured a position as 
compositor on the Sunday Atlas, and remained on 
that paper till about 1850. At that time one-third of 
the Sunday Mercury was owned by Elbridge G. Page, 
who was a regular contributor to its columns under 
the name of ** Dow, Jr.," and his "Short Patent Ser- 
mons," were a well-known feature of the paper, and 
a source of amusement to thousands of readers. This 
share Mr. Cauldwell purchased, and Page went to 
California, where he died some years after. At the 
time when Mr. Cauldwell became connected with the 
Mercury, it was a small sheet, with a comparatively 
limited circulation. He immediately went to work 
with energy and vigor to make it the foremost paper 
of its kind. It waa the pioneer of Sunday journalism, 
and from that time to the present its circulation has 
constantly increased, and its sales now number 75,000 
copies weekly. The best humorous writers of the 
country have contributed to its columns, and here 
appeared the brilliant sketches, written by men of 
whoee life and history the world knows nothing, but 
whose noms deplume, are household words, and known 
the length and breadth of the land. Among these 
u-pre "Orpheus C. Kerr," (Robert H. Newell) whose 
witty papers were the delight of Abraham Lincoln ; 
" Doesticks," (Mortimer G.Thompson); Charles F. 
Brown, known the world over as " Artemus Ward ; " 
Joseph Barber, author of a long series of racy 
papers under the name of the " Disbanded Volun- 
teer." and a host of others whose productions were 
the delight of the reader, and made the Sunday Mer- 
cury a welcome visitor to many thousands of house- 
holds. Under his skillful and energetic management, 

the paper has increased its size to a journal of fifty- 
six columns, and two of Hoe's perfecting presses are 
required to work off its regular edition. 

In the early part of the year 1848 an association 
of householders, of whom Mr. Cauldwell's father was 
one> purchased a tract of land north of the Harlem 
River, and laid out the village of Morrisania. His 
father, as well as his brother-in-law and himself, 
joined in the purchase of one share, or an acre of 
land, and Mr. CauldwelPs father was the first to 
erect a house, which he built on " Lot 64 " of the vil- 
lage of Morrisania, located on Washington Avenue, 
between what is now One Hundred and Sixty-ninth 
and One Hundred and Seventieth Streets. In the 
autumn of 1848 William Cauldwell and family occu- 
pied a portion of his father's residence, and during 
this time he purchased from Robert H. Elton a plot 
of ground at the comer of One Hundred and Sixty- 
sixth Street (then George Street) and Boston Avenue 
(then known as the old Boston Post Road), and next 
north of the famous land-mark known as Pudding 
Rock, and here built in 1852 the mansion which has 
since been his home. In 1855 the inhabitants of 
Morrisania village, unwilling to remain longer a part 
of the town of West Farms, resolved to form a 
separate township, which was done in the same year. 
Of the new town, Gouvemeur Morris was, in 1856, the 
first supervisor, and was succeeded the next year by 
Mr. Cauldwell, who held the office for fifteen terms, 
and up to the time (1874) when the town was annexed 
to the city of New York. 

For twelve years Mr. Cauldwell was also a member 
of the Board of Fiducation of the town of Morrisania, 
and was chosen chairman of the Board of Supervisors 
of Westchester County in 1866, and held the same 
position in 1868 and 1869. In 1867 the Board of 
Supervisors were equally divided between the Demo- 
cratic and Republican parties. Mr. Cauldwell re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination for chairman, 
having for his competitor ex-Senator Hezekiah D. 
Robertson. After one hundred and eleven ballots 
had been taken, the opposing candidates withdrew, 
and united upon Abraham Hatfield, an old and re- 
spected citizen of Westchester, as presiding officer for 
that year. The handsome gold mounted gavels 
which were presented to Mr. Cauldwell as testi- 
monials of his service as chairman of the board, 
are highly prized by him. His first appear- 
ance in active politics was in 1856, at which time he 
was an ardent worker to secure the election of James 
Buchanan, for President, and John B. Haskin for 
Congress, and in 1858 took a prominent part in the 
re-election of Mr. Haskin. In 1863 he was instru- 
mental in procuring the passage of an act authorizing 
the construction of a horse railway for Morrisania 
and West Farms, an enterprise which was rapidly 
pushed to completion, and since its organization has 
been treasurer of the company. In 1867 the ques- 
tion of rapid transit began to attract public atten- 



tion, and having been in that year elected to the 
State Senate (his opponent being Hon. James W. 
Husted), his influence secured the passage of the first 
act ever passed by the Legislature for that purpose. 
In 1869 he was re-elected, and in 1871 he again 
received the unanimous nomination of his party, but 
was defeated by the Hon. W. H. Robertson. To show 
Mr. CauldwelPs adaptability for public affairs, he was 
at one and the same time holding the offices of State 
Senator, president of the Board of Town Trustees, 
chairman of the Board of Supervisors of the county, 
member of the Board of Eklucation, president of the 
Saving's Bank and chairman of the Democratic General 
Committeeof Morri8ania,and in all of these his duties, 
varied as they were, have been faithfully performed. 
True to the Union during the war, his duties as super- 
visor were so faithfully performed, that he was the 
recipient of most honorable testimonials from the 
Citizens' Mutual Protection Association, and an en- 
grossed copy of the action of that body, neatly 
framed, is among the treasures which adorn his 

In 1874 his fellow citizens again called upon him 
to go to the Legislature, in order to perfect the some- 
what rude Act of Annexation, which had been passed 
in 1873. He was elected by a very large minority, 
and devoted himself to the matter with such energy 
that a new act was passed so perfect in its details, 
that no need to amend it has yet occurred. It is a 
somewhat curious circumstance, that when elected 
to the Assembly, he met in the Legislature both of his 
former competitors for senatorial honors, Hon. W. H. 
Robertson and Hon. James W. Husted, the former as 
President of the Senate, the latter as Speaker of the 
Assembly. With every work of a public nature in 
the town of Morrisania, Mr. Cauldwell has been 
prominently identified. During the fifteen terms in 
which he held the office of 8uper\isor, nearly a mil- 
lion and a half of dollars passed through his hands ; 
and his duties were performed with such exactness as 
to merit and receive the complimentary endorsement 
of those who were appointed as a board of audit to 
examine his accounts, and the fact remains on record 
that for this long service, Mr. Cauldwell received the 
sum of two hundred and twenty dollars for incidentals 
(his own services being voluntary), which speaks vol- 
umes for his unselfishness. It is also worthy of men- 
tion that the entire quota of eight hundred men re- 
quired from his town by the various drafts during the 
war, was filled by volunteersjand substitutes procured 
through his efforts. 

Among the men who are much indebted to him for 
their success in public life, may be mentioned Waldo 
Hutchins and Clarkson N. Potter, both of whom be- 
came prominent members of Congress. 

In 1876 Cauldwell became the sole proprietor 
of the Sunday Mercury, and in 1883 he purchased the 
building No. 3 Park Row, New York, which is fitted 
with every appliance for a first-class printing and 

publishing office. He was married October 27, 1845, 
to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of George Dyer. Their 
children are Leslie G., Nettie G. and Emily L., wife 
of Thomas Rogers. 

His career has been alike creditable to himself, 
and to the county which he has so ably represented, 
and in his profession as a publisher, few can show 
a more successful record, and none a more honorable 

Horace Greeley, the noted journalist, spent much 
of his leisure at his country home in Westchester 
County, and breathed his last at Chappaqua. Mr. 
Greeley was bom at Amherst, N. H., February 3, 
1811. He received a common-schoool education, 
which was supplemented by his own unwearied efforts 
in the acquisition of knowledge. At the age of four- 
teen, his parents having removed to Vermont, he ob- 
tained employment as apprentice-boy in the office of 
the NoHhem Spectator, Pultney, Vt. In 1830 he re- 
turned home, owing to the discontinuance of the pa- 
per, but soon afterwards secured another position as 
apprentice at Erie, Pa., for fifty dollars a year. 

In August, 1831, having saved enough money to pay 
his traveling expenses, besides giving twenty -five or 
thirty dollars to his father, he arrived in New York 
City '^ with a suit of blue cotton jean, two brown 
shirts and five dollars in cash." He obtained work 
as a journeyman printer, and, in 1834, commenced 
with Jonas Winchester (afterwards publisher of the 
New World) a weekly paper, of sixteen pages quarto, 
called the New Yorker, Although conducted with 
much ability it was not successful, and was finally 
abandoned. While editing this journal Mr. Greeley 
also conducted, in 1838, The Jefferwnum, published 
by the Whig Central Committee of the State, and the 
Log Oi^», a campaign paper, published in the Presi- 
dential contest of 1840. 

On Saturday, April 20, 1841, Mr. Greeley began 
the publication of the New York Tribune, which soon 
obtained recognition for the spirited and independent 
tone of its utterances. In 1848 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the United States House of Representatives, 
and in 1851 visited Europe and was chosen chairman 
of one of the juries of the World's Fair, at London. 
While in Paris the Emperor had him imprisoned 
for his caustic criticism of the imperial govern- 
ment, but he was soon released through the inter- 
vention of the American Minister. His letters 
from Europe, written to the Tribune, were pub- 
lished in a volume entitled "Glances at Europe." 
In 1856 he published his *' History of the Struggle for 
Slavery Extension," and, three years later, " An Over- 
land Journey from New York to San Francisco," a 
series of letters reprinted from the Tribune, Of Mr. 
Greeley's editorial work on the IHbune it may be said 
that it was one of the most powerful of literary agen- 
cies in forming the Republican Party and in paving 
the way for the downfall of slavery. The Tribune was 
interdicted in many Southern homes, on account of 



its radical and uncompromiding utterances, and Hor- 
ace Greeley drew upon himself the wrath of the en- 
tire slave-holding section. His style was rugged, 
trenchant and forcible ; always breathing the spirit o^ 
candor and sincerity. In 1864 and 1867 were pub- 
Ibhed the two subscription volumes of Mr. Greeley's 
** American Conflict, or History of the War for the 
Union." The sale soon reached one hundred thou- 
sand copies, but was checked for some years after it 
had become known that Mr. Greeley had generously 
consented to affix his name to the bail-bond of Jef- 
ferson Davis. 

In 1867-68 Mr. Greeley contributed to theNew York 
Ledger a series of autobiographic reminiscences, which 
were afterwards republished in a volume entitled " Re- 
collections of a busy life." In 1870 he reprinted from 
the JVibune a series of " Essays on Political Econ- 
omy,'* defending the " protection theory," which were 
dedicated to the memory of Henry Clay. In 1872 he 
published '' What I Know about Farming." He also 
originated and edited the Tribune AlmomaCy which for 
many years has been a standard book of reference. 

In 1872 Mr. Greeley was nominated for President 
of the United States by the Liberal Republican and 
Democratic Conventions, but, as is well known, was 
overwhelmingly defeated by General Grant. His po- 
litical reverses and the death of his wife proved too 
great a strain for his frame, enfeebled by overwork, 
anxiety and weary vigils at his sick wife's bedside. 
He died November 29, 1872, at the residence of Dr. 
Choate, several miles from his home at Chappaqua. 
Mr. Greeley's strict integrity, guilelessness of charac- 
ter, simplicity and candor, as well as his lofty aspira- 
tions and great services to his country, caused him to 
be universally mourned, and nowhere more so than in 
Westchester County, where he was so well known. 

James Watson Webb, the noted journalist, resided 
at Mount Pleasant f^om about 1848 to 1861, when he 
was appointed minister to Brazil. Born at Claverack, 
N. Y., February 8, 1802, he entered the United States 
Army as second lieutenant of artillery August, 1819, 
but resigned in 1827 to take charge of the Morning 
QmrieTy which had been established in New York 
City in May of that year. In 1829 he purchased the 
3*quirer and combined the two with the name of the 
Mormng Churiercmd New York Enquirer, He became 
the sole editor, and, in the following year, sole pro- 
prietor, which position he retained for thirty-four 
years. At an early period his paper became identified 
with the principles of the Whig party, of which it 
was an able exponent. In 1851 he was appointed 
enginer in chief of the State of New York, with the 
rank of brigadier- general. In 1849 he was appointed 
minister to Austria, and in 1861 minister to Constan- 
tinople, but this appointment was exchanged for the 
mission to Brazil. In 1865, being in Paris, he nego- 
tiated a secret treaty with the Emperor Napoleon for 
the withdrawal of the French troops from Mexico. 
In 1869 he resigned the mission to Brazil and re- 

turned to New York City, where he afterward?* re- 

Henry Ward Beecher, the great pulpit orator and 
author, has made his summer home at Peekskill for 
many years. Mr. Beecher comes of a remarkai)le 
family. His father, Lyman Beecher, was one of the 
famous divines of his day, and of his four sons each 
rose to eminence in the ministry, while his two 
daughters were equally prominent in literature, one 
of them, Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, achieving a 
world-wide reputation as the author of " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin." Henry Ward Beecher was born in Litch- 
field, Conn., June 24, 1813, graduated at Amherst 
College in 1834, and studied divinity at the Lane 
Theological Seminary at Cincinnati. He first had 
charge, as an ordained minister, of a Presbyterian 
congregation at Lawrenceburgh, Ind., whence he re- 
moved in 1839 to Indianapolis. In 1847 he left the 
latter city to accept the pastorate of Pljrmouth Con- 
gregational Church at Brooklyn, N. Y., which he has 
rendered famous throughout the land as the church 
in which he preaches. Mr. Beecher has been equally 
successful on the lecture platform, and has long occu- 
pied an undisputed position as one of the leading 
orators of the country. He has been a voluminous 
contributor to the press, and assisted in founding two 
religious newspapers — 7%€ Independent and The Chris- 
Han Union, both of which achieved a large circula- 
tion and commanding influence. He has published 
a number of essays, lectures, etc., in book form, which 
have been read by many thousands of people, and his 
published sermons have long commanded a host of 
readers. In April, 1865, Mr. Beecher, at the request 
of the federal government, delivered an oration at 
Fort Sumter on the anniversary of its fall, and on the 
occasion of the formal restoration of the national flag 
by Major Anderson. Besides his other literary labors, 
Mr. Beecher edited "The Plymouth Collection of 
Hymns and Tunes," a work largely used by churches 
that practice congregational singing. In 1867 he 
wrote for the New York Ledger, for which he had pre- 
viously contributed a series of papers teaching the 
art of profit and enjoyment in familiar objects^ — a novel 
entitled, " Norwood ; or. Village Life in New Eng- 
land," which was affcerwards published in book form. 
In 1872 he published "The Life of Jesus Christ: 
Part I. — Earlier Scenes," of which the introductory 
" Overture to the Angels," had appeared in 1869. In 
the same year he accepted the " Lyman Beecher Lec- 
tureship on Preaching," then recently founded in the 
theological department of Yale College. Mrs. Henry 
Ward Beecher has also contributed to the press, and 
in 1859 published anonymously a work of fiction, 
" From Dawn to Daylight : A Simple Story of a West- 
em Home, by a Minister's Wife." Her "Motherly 
Talks with Young Housekeepers " appeared in 1878. 

Alexander H. Wells was bom January 18, 1805, 
at Cambridge, Washington County, N. Y.. to which 
his father, Daniel, son of Edmonds Wells, had emi- 



grated from Hebron, Tolland County, Conn., about 
the beginning of the Revolutionary War. Edmonds 
Wells was one of six patentees of the tract twelve 
miles square now embraced in the townships of Cam- 
bridge, White jCreek and Jackson, Washington Coun- 
ty. On his mother*s side Alexander H. was descended 
frem Rev. Elijah Lothrop, a stem Whig, who w%8 
the Congregationalist minister at Gilead, Tolland 
County, Conn., during the Revolution. Gilead was 
also the residence of Rev. Dr. Peters, the historian, 
who was roughly treated by his patriotic neighbors 
and finally driven out of the town, whence he escaped 
to England. Hannah, the daughter of Dr. Lothrop, 
married Daniel Wells. When a girl, she saw the 
people riding Peters on a rail, and when he returned 
to this country the reminiscence was renewed in con- 
versation between them. Alexander H. was the 
youngest son and sixteenth child of his parents. He 
graduated at Cambridge Academy and devoted his life 
to politics and journalism. In 1840 Gk>vernor Sew- 
ard appointed him surrogate of Westchester County, 
and in 1848 he was appointed warden of Sing Sing 
prison by David D. Spencer, Isaac N. Comstock and 
John B. Q^ney, the first inspectors under the con- 
stitution of 1847. In the fall of 1848 he was himself 
elected to Gledney's place in the board. He was edi- 
tor of the Weekly 7V7»««, Haverstraw, Rockland County, 
four years; of the Hudson JRiver r%ro?iic/e, Sing Sing, 
three years; and of the Daily Times^ Troy, three years. 
As a journalist he possessed much force and facility, 
but his headstrong disposition carried him into fre- 
quent situations from which he was forced to retreat. 
As usual with men of his combative temperament — 
for he was happiest in a controversy — he had warm 
friends and bitter enemies. 

In 1829 he married Mary Collins, of Bloomfield, N. 
J., and they had two children, one of whom, Mary 
Elizabeth, was born January 8, 1838, and died Au- 
gust 7, 1848. Margaret, the oldest daughter, married 
Horace Stone, a St. Louis merchant, and died in 1881, 
leaving one son, Hamilton Stone. 

Mr. Wells died at Sing Sing December 21, 1857, 
and is buried in Dale Cemetery, beside his youngest 
daughter and his wife. The latter survived him fifteen 
years, dying October 21, 1872. 

Mr. James Wood has contributed largely to the lit- 
erary development of Westchester County by his 
writings, his lectures and his earnest efforts to pro- 
mote intellectual activity and especially historical re- 
search. He is the author of two chapters in this work 
— that on the Indians of Westchester County and 
another on the Early Explorations and Settlers of the 
County, and has aided the compiler in many ways— 
by suggestions, by correcting manuscripts and read- 
ing proof and by lending his valuable support in var- 
ious directions to the promotion of the enterprise. 
He is justly regarded as one of the most intelligent 
and public-spirited gentlemen in the county and as 
ne of its most cultured and useful citizens. 

James Wood was bom November 12, 1839, at the 
place where he now resides, and where his father and 
grandfather lived before him, one mile north of the 
present village of Mount Kisco, in the town of Bedford. 
He bears his grandfather's name. His Other's name 
was Stephen. He died in 1876. His brothers were 
Henry, Charles and John J,, of whom the first alone 
is now living. There were three sisters. James is the 
youngest of the family. 

The family came from Long Island early in &e last 
century. They are descended from Jonas Wood, who 
came from Halifax, in England, in 1635, and was 
named in the patent of Hempstead in 1644. He was 
connected with the family of Lord Halifax. 

Mr. Wood's mother was Phoebe, daughter of Caleb 
Underbill, of Yorktown, a descendant of John Un- 
derhill, who came from Ettington, in Warwickshire, 
England, and settled at Oyster Bay, Long Island, in 
1667. The Underbill mansion and buildings are still 
standing at Ettington, while numerous brasses and 
monuments to members of the family remain in the 
old parish church. The estates are now in the pos- 
session of Lord Frere's family — the Shirleys— with 
whom the Underbills intermarried. Another John 
Underbill of this family was chaplain to Queen Eliz- 
abeth, and was made Bishop of Oxford in 1589. 

Mr. Wood married, June 7, 1866, Emily Hollings- 
worth Morris, daughter of Henry Morris, of Phila- 
delphia. They have three children, — Ellen M., Caro- 
lina M. and Levi Hollingsworth. 

Mr. Wood attended the Reynolds Academy, at 
Bedford, in 1850 and '51, Westtown School, Pa., in 
1851 and '52, and entered the sophomore class in 
Haverford College, Philadelphia, in 1853. From this 
college he has the degree of Master of Arts. He is 
now a member of the corporation of the college and of 
the board of managers. 

Mr. Wood has never held any political office except 
that of supervisor of his native town in 1862 and '63. 
He has never allowed his name to be used in convec- 
tion with a political nomination. 

Mr. Wood has taken a great interest in the cultiva- 
tion of his farm and in importing and breeding fine 
sheep. He has been a frequent contributor to the 
agricultural press, has delivered many agricultural 
addresses, has taken an active part in the discussions 
of the Bedford Farmers' Club and has held official po- 
sitions in the New York State Agricultural Society. 

He was one of the original incorporators of the 
Westchester County Historical Society, and has been 
its president since 1879. He has read a number of 
papers before the society. He has taken especial in- 
terest in local Indian history and has an extensive 
collection of Indian implements and remains. 

He has also taken an active interest in the West- 
chester County Bible Society, which has long been an 
important auxiliary to the American Bible Society. 
He has been its treasurer since 1878. 

Mr. Wood is a member of the religious Society of 



Friends, as were also his father and grandfather. He 
has heen the clerk (presiding officer) of their Yearly 
Meeting for the States of New York and Vermont and 
is now clerk of the Representative Meeting. He is a 
member of the Missionary and Educational Boards of 
that denomination. 

Mr. Wood has frequently appeared upon the lecture 
platform, with a variety of subjects, in aid of various 
institutions and charities. In this way he has largely 
sustained the Mount Kisco Lyceum and Free Library 
Association, of which he has been the president since 
its organization, in 1880. 

Besides the management of his farm and personal 
afi&irs, Mr. Wood's most active business connections 
have been with a number of estates as their trustee. 
He is the president of the Genesee Salt Company, 
whose works are at Pifford, in Livingston Ck>unty, 
New York, and have the capacity for producing five 
thousand bushels of salt per day. He is also presi- 
dent of the Oak wood Cemetery Association. 

Mr. Wood's family have been unfortunate in hav- 
ing their homesteads destroyed by fire. A new house, 
built by his father, was biurned in 1819. The one 
built upon the same site, and in which Mr. Wood was 
bom, was destroyed in 1869. Upon this site Mr. 
Wood, in 1870, built the large stone house in which 
he now resides. The farm buildings are largely of 
stone, and, with the green-houses, grapery, museum 
of cariosities, vineyards and orchards of many kinds 
of fruits, combine to make an attractive country 

Mr. Joseph Barrett, author of the town histories of 
Bedford, North Castle and New Castle, in this work, 
is a gentleman of cultured literary taste and a clear 
and interesting writer. He was born in Bedford, 
May 25, 1840, was prepared for college at the old 
Bedford Acadamy and graduated at Lafayette Col- 
lege, E^ton, Pa., in 1861. He was school commis- 
sioner, i.e. Superintendent of Schools, for the third 
school district of Westchester County from 1867 to 
1875 inclusive and occasionally prepared and read 
papers before teachers' societies, and once before the 
State Association of Superintendents and Commis- 
sioners. On the 4th of July, 1876, he read an histor- 
ical address on the town of Bedford. Mr. Barrett was 
one of the original members of the Westchester 
County Historical Society and in 1878 read a paper 
before the Society on " Enoch Crosby, the Spy of the 
Neutral Ground." For many years years he was sec- 
retary of the Bedford Farmers' Club, being then a 
farmer, and has written a number of articles on agri- 
cultural topics. From July, 1881, to July, 1885, he 
was special deputy collector in the New York Cus- 
tom House, and from November, 1884, to July, 1885, 
cashier of that institution. 

William Allen Butler, the noted author of '^ Noth- 
ing to Wear," and of a number of other poetical and 
prose compositions, is a resident of Yonkers. He is 
the son of the eminent lawyer and politician, Benja- 

min F. Butler, of New York, who was a member of 
the cabinets of Jackson and Van Buren. William 
Allen Butler was born in Albany, in 1825. After a 
course of study at the University of the City of New 
York, he read law in his father's office and then went 
abroad, where he remained a year and a half. Al- 
though since 1855 engrossed with the practice of his 
profession in New York City, Mr. Butler has devoted 
much time to literature. Among his writings are 
some spirited translations from the German poet 
Uhland, a series of biographical and critical sketches 
of the old masters, some pleasant descriptions of Old 
World localities, and a number of poems, including 
clever satires on social follies. Of these the most 
successful was " Nothing to Wear," which was printed 
anonymously in 1857. Many editions were published 
in England as well as in this country and the poem 
was translated into both French and German. In 
1871 Mr. Butler published '* Lawyer and Client," a 
valuable exposition of the relations, rights and duties 
which ought to exist between the two. In the same 
year appeared a volume of " Poems," containing the 
translations from Uhland, " Nothing to Wear," poems 
of travel and other verses. Other published works of 
Mr. Butler are " The Bible By Itself," an address be- 
fore the New York Bible Society, 1860 ; " Martin Van 
Buren, Lawyer, Statesman and Man," 1862, a compre- 
hensive though brief biography of that eminent 

Mr. Butler has lived in Yonkers nearly a score of 
years, and his family by their culture and taste, to- 
gether with the accessory advantage of wealth and 
liberality in the use of it, have been one of many 
who have made themselves felt in the city socially 
and in many varieties of useful work. 

Frederic S. Cozzens, author of the ^'Sparrowgrass 
Papers," etc., was a resident of Yonkers. He was born 
in New York City, March 5, 1818, and died at Brook- 
lyn, December 23, 1869. Mr. Cozzens' occupation 
was that of a wine merchant, but he early evinced a 
taste for literature, and contributed a number of pop- 
ular sketches to the Knickerbocker and Putnam^s 
Magcusinea, In 1853 he published a volume of sketches 
in prose and verse, entitled '^ Prismatics, by Richard 
Hayward." It was illustrated by Darley, Hensett, 
Elliott and others. His '* Sparrowgrass Papers," de- 
scribing a cockney's residence in the country, were 
first written for PuinanCs Monthly, but in 1856 
were published in book form. He also published, in 
connection with his business, a pleasant miscellany, 
entitled The Wine Press, which he continued to 
edit for seven years, relinquishing the publication on 
the breaking out of the Civil War. A collection of 
essays on gastronomic and kindred topics from its 
pages was published, in 1867, with the title, " Sayings 
of Dr. Bushwhacker and Other Learned Men." 
Another book, '^ Acadia; or A Sojourn Among the 
Blue Noses," had been published nine years before, 
in 1858, and one year later, in 1868, his last work, a 



" Memorial of Fitz-Greene Halleck," was published 
by the New York Historical Society. 

The twin brothers, Willis Gay lord Clark and Lewis 
Gay lord Clark, were bom at Otisco, Onondaga Coun- 
ty, N. Y., in 1810. Willis, on the completion of his 
education, went to Philadelphia and commenced the 
publication of a weekly paper, similar to the New 
York Mirror, which was soon discontinued. He then 
associated himself with Rev. Dr. Brantley, a Baptist 
clergyman, as assistant editor of the Columbian Star, 
a religious publication,from which position he retired to 
take charge of the Philadelphia Gazette, the oldest daily 
newspaper in that city. He became its proprietor 
and remained at its head for the rest of his life. Mr. 
Clark died in 1841. He was the author of a number 
of short poems and of a series of short essays, anecdotes, 
etc., entitled ** OUopodiana," which were published 
in the Knickerbocker Magazine, then edited by 
his brother Lewis. The latter conducted the Knick- 
erbocker for many years, and became widely known 
by his monthly " Editor's Table," a selection from 
which was published with the title, '' Knick-knacks 
from an Editor's Table," in 1862. He died at Pier- 
mont-on-the-Hudson, November 3, 1878. 

The noted naval commander, Matthew Galbraith 
Perry, whose claim to literary distinction rests upon 
the notes which he furnished for an interesting ac- 
count prepared by F. L. Hawks and George Jones, of 
his naval expedition to Japan, resided at one time in 
Mount Pleasant, on the Sing Sing road. Commodore 
Perry was born at Newport, R. I., in 1794, and was a 
brother of the famous Oliver Hazard Perry, who 
fought the battle of Lake Erie. As commander of the 
'' Cyane," he fixed the first settlement of Liberia, and 
in a cruise in the schooner "Shark," in 1821-24, he 
captured several pirates. He took an active part in 
the Mexican War, and in 1852-54 commanded the 
expedition to Japan, with which country he negotiated 
an important treaty, March 21, 1854. 

Another great naval hero. Admiral D. G. Farragut, 
was a resident of Westchester County (Hastings, in 
the town of Greenburgh) in 1861-62. 

John Orde Creighton, another commodore of the 
United States navy, who was bom in New York 
City, died at Sing Sing, October 13, 1838. Commo- 
dore Joseph B. Hull, of the United States navy, was 
also born in Westchester. 

John Lorimer Worden, who commanded the iron- 
clad " Monitor " in the famous engagement with the 
ironclad " Merrimac," in Hampton Roads, March 9, 
1862, was born at Mount Pleasant on March 12, 1817. 
He was appointed a midshipman in the United States 
navy on January 12, 1835; lieutenant, November 30, 
1846; commander. May 27, 1862 ; captain, February 
3, 1863 ; and commodore, May 27, 1868. In April, 
1861, he was sent with dispatches to Fort Pickens, 
and captured by the Confederates, and kept in prison 
seven months. In the engagement with the " Merri- 
mac," Captain Worden's eyes were severely injured ' 

by the explosion of a shell from the " Merrimac " 
upon the eyehole of the pilot-house. In the command 
of the ironclad " Montauk," of the South Atlaqtic 
Blockading Squadron, he engaged Fort McAllister, 
January 27, 1 863, and on February 28th attacked and 
destroyed the privateer steamer " Nashville," under 
the guns of that fort. He was in the attack of 
Charleston, under Dupont, April 7, 1863, and on De- 
cember 1, 1869, was appointed superintendent of the 
United States Naval Academy, at Annapolis. 

Rev. David Cole, D.D., has been a Yonkers pastor 
since 1865, and is the oldest of eight children of Rev. 
Isaac D. Cole and Anna Maria Shatzel. On bis 
father's side he is of unbroken Holland descent. The 
original spelling of the family name was " Kool." 
His mother's parents were John M. Shatzel, Jr., and 
Barbara Wood. The former was a son of John M. 
Shatzel and Anna Maria Tremberin, both bom at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, and the latter, a daughter of 
Ebenezer Wood, of Welsh, and Margaret Hubbard, 
or Hoeber, of Holland descent. 

On preserved New Amsterdam (New York) records, 
the name '* Eool " first appears with oflSdal papers of 
1630 and 1633. Lenart Eool, as Director Minoif s 
deputy secretary, signed the famous patent to Eiliaen 
Van Rensselaer for a tract of land on the Hudson 
River, August 13, 1630, and Barent Jacobsen Eool, 
as an oflScer of the West India Company, with six 
others, signed a " Condition and Agreement " between 
Jacob Van Curler and certain Indian chieft on the 
8th of June, 1633. Whether these were related is 
not known. The latter was the earliest American 
ancestor of Rev. Dr. Cole. The form of his name in- 
dicates that he was a son of Jacob Eool. The father 
is not known to have come to America. The son, in 
an affidavit made in January, 1645, and still preserved, 
represents himself as then thirty-five years old, which 
shows that he was born (of course in Holland) about 

The prominent position he occupied in 1633, at 
twenty-three years of age, proves that he must then 
have been in New Amsterdam and with the West 
India Company a considerable time. Without doubt 
he came to the colony with Minuitand his suite about 
1625 or 1626. He retained his connection with the 
company till the surrender of 1664, occupying even to 
that date one of its houses for its officers on Bridge 
Street. After this he followed some of his children to 
Ulster County, where his name appears on a list of 
male inhabitants as late as 1689. The date of his 
death is not known. 

The line from him to Rev. Dr. Cole is in hand 
without a break. It is widely represented by de- 
scendants in different States of the Union, but it is 
especially to be noted that from its earliest appear- 
ance in America it has never failed to be represented 
by resident families in the city of New York. 

1. Barent Jacobsen Eool and Marretje Leenderts 
had nine children, viz.: Jacob Barentsen, Ael^'e, 

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Dievertje, ApoUonia, Leendert, Arent, (lat) Theanis 
A rent, (2d), and Pieter. 

2. Jacob Barentsen Kool (born before 1639) and 
Marretje Simons had eight children, viz.: Barent(l8t), 
Barent (2d), Simon, Arent, Marretje, Barent (3d), 
Claartje and Jacob. 

3. Jacob Kool (baptized at Kingston, N. Y., Janu- 
ary 1, 1673) and Barbara Hanse settled at Tappan. 
X. Y., about 1695, and united with the New Reformed 
Church, organized the year before. They had six 
children born in Tappan between 1695 and 1707, viz.: 
Geer^e, Jacob, Jr., Tryntje, Jan, Barent and Abra- 
ham. This family first introduced the Kool line into 
the lower part of Orange (now Rockland) County, 
where its representatives have been numerous and 
prominent ever since. 

4. Abraham Kool (baptized at Tappan November 2, 
1707) and Annetje Meyer had eight children, viz. ^ 
Jacob, Ide (1st), Ide (2d), Isaac, Johannes, Rachel, 
Abraham and Andreas. 

5. Isaac Kool (born January 2lst and baptized at 
Tappan February 15, 1741) and Catharine Serven 
(born at Tappan August 28, 1747) were married at 
Tappan by Rev. Samuel Verbryk, pastor of the Tap- 
pan Reformed Church, October 15, 1764. They set- 
tled at New City, in their native county, and had fif- 
teen children born there, viz.: Abndiam, Br^hje, 
Rachel, John, Jacob, Anna, Elizabeth, David, Isaac, 
Jr., Mary, Margaret, Philip, Catharine, Andrew and 
Sarah. In 1794 the parents removed to Broadalbin 
(or Fondabush), in Fulton County, where the father 
died and was buried in October, 1800. The mother, 
after his death, returned to Rockland County, where 
she died in 1832. It was in this generation that 
the spelling of the family name was changed to 
" Cole.'' The pronunciation under its earlier and later 
forms was the same. The change in spelling was 
adopted to protect the name against mispronunciation 
by an incoming people not acquainted with Hol- 
land forms and sounds. 

6. David Cole (born at New City September 26th 
and baptized at Clarkstown, by Rev. Nicholas Lan- 
sing, October 5, 1777) married Elizabeth Meyer, at 
Kakiat, January 11, 1798, the ceremony being per- 
formed by Rev. George G. BrinkerhofT. The wife was 
a daughter of Johannes Meyer and Tryntje Van Hou- 
ten, both bom in the county, but of Holland descent. 
These had three children — Isaac D., Catharine and 
Eliza. The last died unmarried in 1851. The second, 
Mrs. Thomas Lippincott, who died September 23, 
18S1, is represented numerously by descendants in 
New York City and elsewhere. The first was the 
father of Rev. Dr. Cole. 

7. Rev. Isaac D. Cole was bom at Spring Valley, 
Rockland County, N. Y., January 25th and baptized 
at Kakiat by Rev. G^. G. BrinkerhofiT, March 25, 
1799. He was a resident of New York City with 
brief intervals, from 1801 to 1826, and was married, 
November 3, 1821, by Rev. Christian Bork, to Anna 

Maria Shatzel, born in the city November 3, 1797. 
His history is given with fulness of detail in the 
" History of Rockland County," published in 1884, 
under the editorial direction of his son. After sev- 
eral years of teaching in New York City he entered 
the Theological Seminary at New Bmnswick, N. J., 
in 1826, and having been licensed to the missionary 
in 1829, at once became pastor of the Reformed 
Church at Tappan, in which his ancestors had wor- 
shipped from its beginning, more than a century and 
a quarter before, and continued in his pastorate, with 
an interval of one year, till his retirement from the 
active duties of the ministry in 1864, at sixty-five 
years of age. Subsequently and until his death, on 
the 30th of August, 1878, he lived at Spring Valley 
upon the family home-ground of more than a hun- 
dred years, which he had inherited from his father. 
His sterling character, his remarkable gifts as an in > 
structor, his special life-work in the ministry, the 
valuable influence of his precept and example and 
the preciousness of his memory are so fully put on 
record in the history mentioned above that they need 
no reproducing here. The children of Rev. Isaac D. 
Cole and Anna Maria Shatzel were eight, viz. : David, 
Caroline, Elizabeth, Juliana (1st), Juliana (2d,) Cathar- 
ine Amelia, Margaret Ann, Benjanun Wood and 
Isaac D., Jr. Of these children, Juliana (1st), Caro- 
line Elizabeth (Mrs. Dr. James J. Stephens), Catha- 
rine Amelia (Mrs. Benjamin L. Disbrow) and Isaac 
D., Jr., late president of the Knickerbocker Fire In- 
surance Company, of New York City, have passed 

What has thus been given shows that Rev. Dr. 
Cole belongs to, one of the oldest New York families. 
It is not believed that there are any older, though 
there may be a very few others as old. The fomily is 
of the Reformed Church of Holland from its very 
start in that country. It was identified with the 
organization of the first Reformed Church in New 
Amsterdam (the " Church in the Fort ") and subse- 
quently with the organization of the Reformed 
Churches of Kingston, Tappan, Clarkstown and West 
Hempstead (or Kakiat), and it also, before 1800, 
founded a Reformed Church in Fondabush, Fulton 
County, which, however, was changed to a Presby- 
terian Church in 1825. Rev. Dr. Cole is thus, 
through his father, of strictest Holland descent. He 
feels the derivation of his name from so historic a 
stock and is equally alive to the character for sim- 
plicity and spotless business integrity which has been 
handed down through the American generations. 
With the exception of the first member of the line, 
who was a govemment officer, all the generations, 
down to his father, were farmers. All of them were 
continuously, and many of them officially, connected 
with the life and work of the Reformed Churches. 
Purity of life, probity in dealing, steadiness of aim 
and purpose have been the heritage handed down to 
him, and this heritage he cherishes with the most 



sacred reverence and would not exchange for any 
other form of inheiitance whatever. 

Rev. Dr. (Dole was bom at Spring Valley September 
22, 1822, during a brief summer visit of his parents, 
then residents of New York City, to the old family 
homestead. Being the first child of a conscientious 
and gifted teacher, his training naturally engaged his 
father's close thought. The course taken with him was 
such as to give to his mind an early and strong bias 
for the study of languages, without, however, impair- 
ing his education in other branches. But his father's 
view of the importance of languages was such that he 
was started in Latin at four, in Greek at six and in 
Hebrew at nine, and was prepared for college at 
twelve years of age. No effort was spared to lay his 
foundations solidly. The consequence was the awaken- 
ing of an enthusiasm for languages which has shaped a 
life, and is one of its leading characteristics. From 
twelve to sixteen years of age study was suspended 
during the summers, and training on a farm substi- 
tuted, for the building up of a physical and mental 
strength that had been too severely taxed. The 
winters, however, continued to be devoted to study. 
In November, 1838, at sixteen years of age, he entered 
the Grammar School of Rutgers College. After a 
year spent in reviewing old studies, and especially 
in earnest work upon mathematics, he entered the 
Sophomore Class of the college in October, 1839, from 
which, in July, 1842, he was graduated. Being too well 
prepared for college at his entrance, he had thrown 
himself upon his past studies to a large extent, and 
as a result, came to his graduation, though with credit, 
yet without distinction. At once after graduation be 
began to teach near his father's residence at Tappan, 
and continued teaching from August, 1842, to No- 
vember, 1858, more than sixteen years, devoting him- 
self through almost the whole period to the teaching 
of the Latin and Greek languages alone. During his 
work as a teacher he prepared many young men for 
college, several of whom were graduated with honor. 
His greatest successes as a teacher were attained during 
several years in the principalship of an academy at 
Trenton, N. J., during which his students were sent 
to Princeton, Rutgers, Harvard, Yale, Union, Am- 
herst and the Universities of New York and Pennsyl- 

In 1855, prominently through his influence, the 
State Normal School of New Jersey was brought 
into being, of which, by the appointment of Governor 
Rodman M. Price, he was one of the first trustees. In 
1857 he became a professor in that institution, resign- 
ing his trusteeship to accept the post. For several 
years during his teaching life, however, he had been 
privately studying for the ministry, and, in connection 
with his teaching work, had established and carried 
on an enterprise, on which, as a foundation, many 
years ago, grew up the present Fifth Presbyterian 
Church of Trenton. Having induced his pastor and 
friends of the First Presbyterian Church of that city 

to build a house for the purpoae in the suburbs, he 
founded and conducted a large Sunday-school in it, 
and soon after began, while still a layman and prin- 
cipal of an academy, to preach twice in it every Sab- 
bath, and lecture in the houses of his hearers on 
Thursday evenings. From this work and from his 
professorship in the State Normal School he passed 
into the ministry in 1858. Several offers of pulpits 
were at once made to him, but he decided to accept 
the charge of the new Reformed Church at East 
Millstone, N. J. Here he was ordained November 
23, 1858, and remained pastor until April 1, 1863. In 
February of that year he had been called to the pro- 
fessorship of the Greek language and literature in 
Rutgers College, and had accepted the call. Entering 
upon his new post March 16, 1863, he remained in it 
till January 1, 1866. During this period of three 
years, however, he was several times urged to re-enter 
the pastorate. The teaching in the coUege was a 
fascination to him, but the attraction to the pulpit 
proved the stronger, and in December, 1865, a call 
from the Reformed Church of Yonkers was accepted. 
From the 10th of that month he has been connected, 
as its pastor, with the history and life of that church. 
During his professorship at New Brunswick die de- 
gree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by 
the trustees of Franklin and Marshall College, at 
Lancaster, Pa. 

The period from 1861 to 1865 was with Dr. Cole 
one of strong decision and great activity. From the 
firing on Sumter he took the most pronounced poaition 
for the Union, and during his pastorate at East Mill- 
stone, and his college life at New Brunswick, was at 
all times forward in sustaining the government and 
making sentiment for it by writing and speakijig in 
its behalf. Many incidents of interest in his history 
in that connection might be related, but want of 
space excludes them here. 

Dr. Cole's activity as a writer began soon after hi» 
graduation from college, but confined itself for some 
years to newspaper articles. His first book was a small 
*^ Manual of English Grammar,*' published in 1848. 
and his only other book \mtten during his teaching 
life was a larger one, entitled *' Principles of English 
Grammar Applied," issued in 1853. These books 
were intended mostly for his own use, but had a con- 
siderable circulation in the schools of New Jersey in 
their day. It was not till about 1855 that be b^^ 
to appear much as a public speaker. At this time, in 
addition to his evangelistic work, before alluded to, 
in Trenton, he became deeply enlisted in a new 
educational movement in the State of New Jersey, 
and, by permission of the State Legislature, joined 
with others in pressing the interests and wants of the 
public schools upon the members assembled for the 
purpose in joint session. He also formed one of a 
company who visited the various counties of the 
State, speaking everywhere for the cause of popular 
education. Several of his addresses on these subjects. 



from 1855 onward, were printed. Besides this, he 
spoke in yarious places upon topics connected with 
higher education. In December, 1854, he read an 
important paper at the Smithsonian Institution on 
** Classical Education,'' which was published in Bar- 
nard's American Journal of Education, and drew 
commendation from both sides of the Atlantic. In 
1856-56 he was New Jersey editor of the New York 
Thaeher and wrote many of its editorials. After 
his entrance into the ministry, in 1858, he dropped 
speaking and writing in the special interest of edu- 
cation, finding enough to do for his pulpit and in the 
defense of the Union cause during the war. During 
his ministry he has been absorbed in two specialties, 
the one being his principal and the other his second- 
ary object of pursuit. 

The former is the critical study of the Bible origin- 
als and the development of the Bible's thought, and 
the latter is the tracing of Divine Providence through 
history. Of the results of his Bible study, he has 
written and printed very much, but not in pamphlet or 
book-form. Upon history, his researches have been 
mostly of local bearing, being developments of church 
and local annals. In October, 1865, he delivered an his- 
torical address upon his first church at East Millstone, 
then ten years old; in 1868, another upon his church 
at Yonkers, then twenty-five ; and in 1883, a third 
upon the same church, tben forty years old. All 
these were published by the congregations. His 
Thanki»giving sermon of 1866 was also published by 
his people, and his Centennial Thanksgiving sermon 
(1876) on "Our American Republic, the Child of 
Special Providence," was called for by a representa- 
tion from the uniting congregations that heard it, and 
published. The General Synod of the Reformed 
Church published also a sermon he preached before 
it in 1874 on " Offerings to the Lord," being its " An- 
nual Sermon on Benevolence." In 1876, Dr. Cole 
himself published a large octavo volume, the fruit of 
very great labor, giving the genealogy of his own 
Holland family from 1580 to date. In October, 1882, 
at the call of his fellow-citizens of Yonkers, he de- 
livered in the open air, to niany thousands of people, 
a bi-centennial oration commemorative of the found- 
ing of the Manor (now the city) Hall of Yonkers, 
which was printed and very widely circulated. In 
1883 and 1884 he edited the " History of Rockland 
County," alluded to above. In September, 1884, as 
president of the Greneral Synod of the Reformed 
Church, he presided at the installation of Rev. John 
G. Lansing, D.D., as professor in the Theological 
Seminary at New Brunswick, and delivered a sermon 
on " Gk>d'a noteworthy preparations of the two original 
languages of the sacred Scriptures to become the 
conveyancers of His divine revelation to men, and 
His no less noteworthy preparations of a modern 
language to effect the spread of this revelation over 
the earth." The sermon was published with the 
proceedings of the day. In October of the same year, 

in the same capacity, he presided at the first session 
of the centennial of the same seminary, and delivered 
the "Response" to the "Address of Welcome," 
which was printed in a volume with the proceedings. 
His latest publication has been the " History of Yon- 
kers," contained in this work. In all his published 
historical addresses he has had in view one controlling 
object — to hold up in the most conspicuous light the 
Providence of Grod as manifested in the details of 
church, historical, community and family life. 

Dr. Cole married, on the 18th of April, 1844, Abbie 
D. Wyckoff, a daughter of Jacob Wyckoff and Eliza- 
beth Van Deventer, of New Brunswick, both of purest 
Holland descent. The children have been six in 
number, of whom the third died in infancy, in 1855, 
viz.: Mary Elizabeth (wife of Rev. James Henry 
Bertholf, of Nassau, Rensselaer County, N. Y.), Isaac 
D., Ella, J. Wyckoff, Frank Howard and Edward R. 
None of the sons are married. Rev. and Mrs. Ber- 
tholf have four children, viz.: Harry W., Charles 
Howard, Bessie and Griffith Durst. 

Thomas Henry Edsall is descended from Samuel 
Edsall, Esq., a native of Reading, Berkshire, Eng- 
land, by his marriage with Ruth Woodhull, daughter 
of Richard Woodhull, Esq., a native of Thenford, 
Northamptonshire, England. Samuel Edsall came to 
Boston, Mass., in 1648, settled among the Dutch in 
New Amsterdam in 1655, and afterwards became 
quite prominent in the colonial affairs of New York 
and New Jersey. Mr. Woodhull came to Lynn, Mass., 
about 1640, and was an early settler and leading citi- 
zen of Southampton and Brookhaven, L. I. Other 
immigrant ancestors of Mr. Edsall came in the seven- 
teenth century from Holland and France (Huguenot). 
In the last century several of his progenitors bore 
arms in the old French War and in support of Amer- 
ican independence during the Revolution. He is the 
only son of the late Thomas Edsall, Esq., and 
Phebe A. Jones, daughter of the late Hon. Nathaniel 
Jones, of Orange County, N. Y., and was born Octo- 
ber 7, 1840, in the city of New York. After complet- 
ing his academic education he entered Brown Univer- 
sity at seventeen, and was graduated in 1861. The 
following year he assisted in raising a regiment of in- 
fantry, which was afterwards consolidated to form the 
One Hundred and Seventy -sixth New York Volun- 
teers— " Ironsides "—of which he was commissioned 
adjutant. The regiment was assigned to the ''Banks 
Expedition " and served in the Department of the 
Gulf. During the summer and autumn of 1863 Mr. 
Edsall was detached and assigned to duty at head- 
quarters under the chief engineer of the department. 
In November he returned to New York and was mus- 
tered out with his regiment. He then studied law 
with O'Connor & Dunning and at Columbia College 
Law School, was admitted to the bar in the spring of 
1865, and has since been in practice in New York 
City. He is now a member of the firm of Dunning, 
Edsall, Hart & Fowler. 



For several years Mr. Edsall has devoted mach 
attention to historical and genealogical researches, 
and has contributed several papers on those subjects 
to the New York Historical and the New York Gen- 
ealogical and Biographical Societies, some of which 
have been published. He has given special study to 
the early history of King's Bridge and its neighbor- 
hood, where he has resided for several years, in Spuy- 
ten Duyvil. Mr. Edsall has prepared a very inter- 
esting and valuable history of that town for this work, 
which is published elsewhere. He is a member of the 
University Club, the New York Historical Society, a 
trustee of the New York Genealogical and Biograph- 
ical Society and the vice-president of the Society of 
the Sons of the Revolu- 

Josiah Sherman Mitch- 
ell, son of Minot Mitchell, 
one of the most distin- 
guished members of the 
Westchester County bar, 
was born at White Plains, 
February 2, 1816. He 
studied law in his father's 
office, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1845. He is 
still (1886) pursuing the 
practice of his profession, 
and resides in White 
Plains. Mr. Mitchell has 
devoted a good deal of 
study to the history of his 
locality, and is recognized 
as an authority upon that 
subject. Besides writing 
the very able and inter- 
esting history of White 
Plains for this work, he 
has written a number of 
other articles on sub- 
jects relating to White 
Plains, or other points 
in the county, but none 
of them have hitherto 
appeared in printed 
form. He prepared two 
papers on "The French in Westchester County," 
which were read before a social club of White Plains, 
and has read two papers before the Westchester County 
Historical Society, of which he is a member, one of 
them being a "Life of Ann Hutchison," the other a 
review of the events succeeding the battle of White 
Plains, giving reasons for Howe's retreat. A paper 
has also been written by Mr. Mitchell in which he 
brings forward arguments to show that the sect of 
Methodists acquired a foothold in Westchester County 
before having done so in New York City, — a conclu- 
sion contrary to the received teaching on that point, 
which is, that the Methodist Society in this country 

acquired its first converts in the latter place. The 
paper is deposited with the pastor of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church at White Plains. 

Mr. Mitchell has been twice married. His first 
wife was Elizabeth Anderson, daughter of the Hon. 
Joseph H. Anderson. Their children were William 
Anderson, who is now a manager of one of the de- 
partments of the New York Safe Deposit Company, 
of New York City, and Anna Caroline. His second 
wife was Margaret Louise Dusenbury. Their only 
child is Charles Halsey. 

Rev. William Samuel Cofiey was bom in the city 
of New York in 1827, and in 1847 graduated from 
Columbia College. After studying for the ministry 
he graduated from the 
General Theological Sem- 
inary of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in 1850, 
and was ordained deacon 
in the same year at Trin- 
ity Church, New York. 
In 1851 he received the 
full orders of the priest- 
hood at Grace Church, 
Brooklyn Heights. On 
February 1, 1862, he be- 
came rector of St. Paurs 
Church, East Chester, and 
his pastorate has continu- 
ed to the present time, a 
period of over thirty-four 
years, during which he 
has been most efficient 
and active in his minis- 
terial labors, and has 
greatly endeared himself* 
to the community. He 
has held the commissions 
of the State as chaplain 
of the Third Regiment 
and consequently of the 
Twenty-seventh Regi- 
ment N. Y. S. N. G. In 
r 1856 he founded Trin- 
ity Church at Mount 

Mr. CoflTey's literary work has only been second in 
importance and value to his labors in the ministry. 
He delivered the centennial address of the laying of 
the corner-stone of St. Paul's Church, East Chester, 
in October, 1865, and a memorial paper in 1875 upon 
the life and services of Rev. Thomas Standard, D.D., 
at the dedication of a tablet erected in his honor in 
the church. He also delivered a historical address 
in October, 1884, in St. Peter's Church, Westchester, 
upon the eminent career of Rev. Samuel Seabury as 
rector of that parish. To these volumes he has con- 
tributed three important chapters,— ** The General 
History of Westchester County from 1688 to 1774 ;"' 



" The General Hbtory of Westchester County from 
1783 to 1860," and the " History of the town of East 
Chester/' which is a complete review of that town in 
all its social, political and religious aspects from the 
earliest period to the present year. The public ad- 
dresBes of Mr. Coffey upon religious and secular topics 
and occasions have been numerous, while for many 
years he has contributed to the newspapers of the 
coanlry the results of his profound thought and 
thorough scholarship as brought to bear upon the 
questions which interest mankind. On October 4, 
1876, he married Henrietta, daughter of Henry P. 
Eeliogg, of New Rochelle, and has two sons, both of 
whom are living. 

John William Draper, M.D., LL.D., the late 
chemist and physiologist, was born in Liverpool, 
England, May 5, 1811, and at the time of his death, 
in 1886, lived at Irvington, in Westchester County. 
He was educated at the University of London. Emi- 
grating to America in 1838, he continued his chemical 
and medical studies at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, where he took the degree of M.D. in 1836. 
Besides holding prominent professorships in various 
seats of learning, he contributed a large number of 
valuable works to the literature of America. Between 
1888 and 1857 he fUmbhed to the Edinburgh FMlo- 
ioptdoalJoumal about forty treatises, besides con- 
tributing to other scientific journals. He was the 
author of a " Treatise on the Organization of Plants," 
4to, 1844; a popular "Text-Book on Chemistry," 
1846; another on "Natural Philosophy," 1847; a 
"History of the Intellectual Development of Europe ; " 
'^Thoughts on the Future Civil Policy of America; " 
" History of the American Civil War," 3 vols., 1867-68 ; 
and " Memoirs on the Chemical Action of Light." 
His most elaborate work is a treatise on " Human 
Physiology, Statical and Dynamical," 1856. 

Robert Bonner, the proprietor of the New York 
Ledger, bom in Londonderry, Ireland, about 1820, of 
Scotch-Presbyterian ancestry, is or was a resident of 
Westchester. While a lad in the printing-office of 
the Harford Ocmrant it is said he could set up more 
type in a day than any man in the State. He went 
to New York City in 1844, purchasing the Ledger, 
then an obscure sheet, and brought it to the position it 
now occupies by engaging Fanny Fern, Edward Ever- 
ett, Henry Ward Beecher and other eminent writers 
as contributors. 

General Adam Badeau, the author of a " History 
of Qeneral Grant " and numerous newspaper and 
magazine articles, was born in New York and resided 
in Westchester County. He was made captain and 
aide-de-camp of United States Volunteers in April, 
1862, and afterward appointed on the staff of General 
German. He was severely wounded at Port Hudson, 
joined Qeneral Grant in January, 1864, as his military 
secretary, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and 
was made brevet brigadier-general United States 
army for faithful and meritorious services in the war. 

He became colonel and aide-de-camp to the general 
of the army in March, 1865, and continued to May, 
1869, when he was retired. He was secretary of lega- 
tion to the English court at London. 

Rev. Wm. E. Turner, of Elmsford, kindly furnishes 
the following account of the eariy life and literary 
labors of Jay Gould, the noted financier, who, while 
a mere lad, wrote the history of Delaware County : 

"Jay Gould did not in early life enjoy the advan- 
tages of a literary education. His only opportunities 
were first in a private school taught in the neighbor- 
hood, for the benefit of a few of the neighbors, by a 
young man named Oliver. He subsequently removed 
to the academy in Franklin, where young Gould fol- 
lowed him and very early finished his education. 
Hence it could not be said that he ever acquired much 
of a literary taste, but rather a business education. 
He did, however, write the history of Delaware 
County, which is still extant and certainly a very 
creditable performance for a youth of sixteen years 
of age. His education, as we have said, was more of 
a business character. Hence we see him, after spend- 
ing a little time as clerk in a country store, engaged 
in measuring the distances and assisting in plotting 
the maps of Ulster and Scoharie Counties. We should 
not forget to mention that his first business venture 
was with a mouse- trap which he had constructed and 
brought to the city of New York for the purpose of 
placing it among the curiosities and useful exhibits of 
the Crystal Palace. This venture seems, in some re- 
spects, to have been unfortunate ; for, while on his 
way, as he was admiring the wonders of the city, a 
thief stole the trap. The offender, however, was 
caught and on his arraignment before the Police Court 
it was recorded that the mouse-trap had taken larger 
game — it had caught a thief. 

" At an early age — ^before he was twenty — he left 
his native town to engage in a large business in Penn- 
sylvania — managing the financial af&irsof a tannery, 
said at that time to be the largest in the country, if 
not in the world." 

Mr. Gk)uld's life story, as told by himself before the 
Senate Labor Committee in New York, in September, 
1883, was as follows : Having stated that he was born 
in Roxbury, N. Y., on May 27, 1836, he said he as- 
sbted his sisters in tending the cattle and one day he 
said to his father he would like to go to school. The 
father replied that he was too young, " but," said the 
witness, '*I was determined to secure an education, 
as I was then fourteen years of age. At last," said 
the witness, with a smile, '' I fell in with a black- 
smith, and as I could write a good hand, I told him I 
could keep his books. He consented and that was 
the first occupation that brought me remuneration." 

He had a taste for mathematics; used to get up at 
three o'clock in the morning and study till six and 
in this way prepared himself for a start in life. 

Mr. Gtould then proceeded to say that he heard of 
a man in Ulster County who was making a map of 



that county, and having a great taste for surveying he 
(the witness) went and offered his assistance. He 
was thereupon engaged at twenty dollars per month, 
but his work proved so unsatisfactory that his em- 
ployer told him the work he performed was a 
silly lot of stuff. " After that," said the witness, " I 
had not the heart next day to ask anybody to give 
me a dinner." He finally went to a quiet place, 
where nobody could see him, and had a good cry. 
He then went to his sister's house, where he went up 
stairs and prayed, after which he felt better. After 
that he resolved not to go home again, but to go 
ahead and die in the last ditch. He returned to his 
task of completing the map and made similar sur- 
veys of Delaware and Albany Counties, from which 
he realized five thousand dollars, which was his first 

After the panic of 1857 he came to New York and, 
owing to the depreciation of values in property, he 
was able to buy on credit the bonds of the Rutland 
and Washington Railroad for ten centM on the dollar. 
He took charge of the railroad and was its president, 
treasurer and general manager. He conducted the 
road until its consolidation with the Rensselaer and 
Saratoga road, when he was able to sell out his in- 
terest at a large profit. Subsequently he took a bank- 
rupt friend's interest in the Cleveland and Pittsburgh 
road and held it till he was able to sell it to advan- 
tage. He became a large owner of Union Pacific 
stock in consequence of a misunderstanding with 
parties interested and also owing to the illness of Mr. 
Horace F. Clark in Chicago. The road was then in 
a bad way, the stock going down to fifteen, and the 
only thing he could do to save himself was to hold 
on to what he had, while at the same time he still 
kept buying. He made up his mind to stick to the 
road and build it up, and he persevered till it at last 
paid dividends. Before the road became a success a 
great clamor arose that it was Jay Gould's road, as 
though that was a dangerous thing. He was then 
engaged in selling out his stock, which was soon in 
the hands of seven thousand investors, representing 
the earnings of many widows and orphans. 

The next venture was the building up of the Gould 
railroad system in the South and West. It began with 
purchase of the Missouri and Pacific from Commo- 
dore Grarrison. Other roads were purchased and 
connections were made to different points. Mr. 
Oould said that he had at this time passed the point 
where money-making was an object, and his only 
idea was in carrying out the system to merely see 
what could be done by combinations. The lines now 
spread through Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Mis- 
souri, Arkansas and Indian Territory, Texas, Louis- 
iana and Mexico. There ^are central connections at 
Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago and New Orleans. All 
the construction of this system of roads was com- 
pleted in 1882, and represented about ten thousand 
miles of road. The earnings of the lines when he 

took possession of them were about seventy thousand 
dollars a month. The earnings for the month of 
August, 1883, were five million ^ve hundred thousand 
dollars. In building up this system, the Southwest 
has been opened up and the country thrown open to 
civilization. Mr. Gould stated that he was a director 
in the Chicago and Northwest, Chicago and Rock 
Island, Delaware, Lackawanna and Western, New 
York and New England and several other smaller 

Incidental to his railroad interests he has become 
largely interested in the telegraphic business. This 
was on account of the intimate connection between 
the two industries. He was instrumental in starting 
the American Union to make it a competing line with 
the Western Union. He found it would be impos- 
sible to accomplish this on accountof the extent of the 
latter's connections. He then turned his attention to 
getting control of Western Union by bu3ring stock 
when it was low. Finding it a paying investment, he 
had been constantly increasing his interest. His 
subsequent history as a successftil business man, and 
finally as one of the greatest magnates of Wall 
Street, is well known, but has little to do with the 
literary annals of Westchester County. 

Another Westchester County HUerateur^ Mr. Fred- 
erick Whittaker, is a prolific writer of stories, and 
widely known for his '* Life of Custer." Mr. Whit- 
taker is the second son and fourth child of Henry 
Whittaker and Catharine Maitland, and was born in 
Sloane Street, London, on December 12, 1838. His 
father was a solicitor with a large practice, but was 
ruined by indorsing for a noble client, Lord Kensing- 
ton, the original of Thackeray's " Lord Crabs " in the 
" Yellowplush Papers." Mr. Whittaker was compelled 
to flee from England to escape imprisonment for debt. 
For some years he wandered from place to place with 
his family on the Continent, and finally, in 1850,. 
came to this country, settling in New York, where he 
obtained a good practice as a lawyer, and wrote the 
first book on practice, under the code. " Whittaker's 
Practice " was a standard book until superseded by 
later decisions and later books. Frederick Whit- 
taker's education in the mean time was of a desultory 
character, and his attendance at school was limited to 
six months at a Mr. Walker's private school in 
Brooklyn. His father tried to make a lawyer of him, 
but the boy's tastes inclined to literature. At sixteen 
he entered the oflSce of N. Pane Ellingwood, a law- 
yer, as office-boy, and two or three years later ob- 
tained a position in the office of Henry G. Harrison, 
architect. A defect in his eyesight, however, which 
was now discovered, put an end to his efforts to 
become an architect. In the mean time he had made 
many boyish attempts at literary composition, and 
finally succeeded in getting into print in a magazine, 
now extinct, called The Great Republic Monthly, 
When the Civil War broke out he joined a cavalry 
regiment, and on his return obtained employment as 



a book canvasser, and afterwards as a school-teacher. 
After repeated failures to secure the publication of 
some of his writings he attracted the notice of Mayne 
Reid, who published a little song '' Starlighted Mid- 
night" from his pen in his (Reid^s) magazine, Onward, 
Geid gave him some good advice, and pointed out the 
course he should pursue in order to succeed.* Mr. 
Whittaker's next step was the publication by Frank 
Leslie of some stories of adventure which he had 
submitted, fa 1870, with some money inherited from 
English relatives, he was enabled to buy his present 
home at Mount Vernon. He also married and set to 
work in earnest to earn a living by his pen. This he 
succeeded in doing by writing serials and dime novels 
for Mnnro, of the Fireside Companion, Beadle and 
others. He also contributed a set of papers to the 
Army and Navy Journal, called " Volunteer Cavalry; 
the Lessons of the Decade.'' These attracted much 
attention, and in 1874 Mr. Whittaker became the 
first National Guard editor, and afterwards assistant 
editor of the Journal. In 1876 he left it for a time 
and wrote the "Life of General Custer." In the 
following year he returned to the Journal and also 
wrote a good deal for the Galaxy magazine. He also 
published a novel, '* The Cadet Button," about this 
time. Since then he has been engaged in writing 
serials for a living, and has also written a play, 
"Napoleon," intended for Edwin Booth, but never 
acted. He compiled for this work, the chapter on 
" Civil War " in Westchester County. 

Eliza W. Farnham, philanthropist and author, was 
born at Rensselaerville, November 17, 1815, and died 
in New York City, December 15, 1864. Her maiden- 
name was Burhaus. She went to Illinois in 1835, 
and was married there in the following year to 
Thomas J. Farnham. In 1841 she returned to New 
York, and was employed in visiting prisons and 
lecturing to women. In the spring of 1844 she 
accepted appointment as matron of the Female De- 
partment of the State Prison, at Sing Sing. In 1848 
she was connected with the Institution for the Blind, 
in Boston, and from 1849 to 1856 resided in California. 
Shereturned to New York and published "California, 
in Doors and Out." She was also the author of 
several books, and was active ia promoting social re- 
forms and the rights of women. 

Rev. William James Cumming, author of the his- 
tories of the towns of Cortlandt and Yorktown in 
this work, and compiler of the Civil List, was born in 
New York City, July 22, 1847, and is the son of John 
Pollock Cumming and Isabella Pollock, both of Ban- 
gor, Ireland. He was educated at the public schools 
of New York City and .in the College of the City of 
New York, where he graduated in 1867. He studied 
for the ministry at the Union Theological Seminary, 
graduating in 1871 and was ordained August 8, 1876, 
since which time he has been pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church at Yorktown. Previous to that time, 
1872-75, he taught school at Norwalk, Conn., and in 

New York City. His literary work has comprised a 
number of historical papers and newspaper articles, 
and he is a member of the Westchester Historical 
Society and secretary of the Westchester Bible So- 

Mr. Charles E. Culver, author of the town histories 
of Somers and North Salem in this work, was born 
on the 6th of April, 1842, in the town of Somers, in 
the house now owned and occupied by James P. Teed. 
His father was Edward W. Culver, the son of Joshua 
Culver, and he was born in the' house directly oppo- 
site Mt Zion Church. The Culver family are of 
Welsh descent. Charles E. Culver's mother was 
Sarah J., daughter of Samuel Teed. She was born in 
the Teed homestead, now the residence of her brother, 
James P. Teed. The Teed family are of French ex- 
traction. His parents removed to New York City 
when he was a child, and among the earliest of his 
recollections is the attendance at a private school in 
Amos, (now West Tenth) Street. Owing to continued 
ill health in childhood and by advice of a physician, 
his father disposed of his business in the city, and re- 
moved to North Salem on a farm. Charles then at- 
tended the preparatory department of the North 
Salem Academy. John F. Jenkins, A.M., was the 
principal, his daughter, Miss Mary Jenkins, having 
charge of the preparatory department. The family 
then removed to Whitlockville, (now Katonah,) and 
Charles attended the private school of Mrs. Miller 
and Miss Mitchell, near that place. He continued 
his studies, after the close of the latter school, at the 
public school and under tutors. In 1860 he began 
the study of dentistry in New York, intending to 
complete the course at the Baltimore Dental College, 
but the approach of the war and excitement of the 
times turned his attention to other than civil pur- 
suits. In 1861-62—63 he was engaged in various 
government employments, both under the State and 
nation. He was married in New York City in 1863, 
and removed to West Farms, where he carried on the 
manufacture of writing ink. In 1864 he removed to 
Northern Illinois and remained West ten years, being 
a resident of Chicago during the memorable fire of 
1871, where his publishing business, as well as his 
home and everything he possessed, including a fine 
library, were completely destroyed, his family and 
himself escaping with but the clothing they wore. 
In 1869 he started the publication of the Chicago Dis' 
patch, a weekly Sunday paper, under the firm-name 
of Culver, Harris & Wilson. Charles E. Harris (Carl 
Pretzel) is now the publisher of PretzePs Weekly, 
Col. T. B. Wilson was from Alabama, and had charge 
of the Masonic department of the paper. After the 
firm had sold out the publication, Mr. Culver became 
connected with the daily press of Chicago, having 
began to write for the press when a mere lad. His 
first real newspaper work was done for the late Horace 
Greeley about 1861, since which time he has been 
more or less actively engaged as correspondent or in 



an editorial capacity. He baa had two children, both 
now deceased. In politics he is a Democrat. 

Rey. David Cole, D.D., of Yonkers, who has con- 
tributed so much towards this history of Westchester 
County, has furnished us with the following interest* 
ing sketch of a few of the authors and writers in hi^ 

Pastors, editors and newspaper correspondents haye> 
of course, in Yonkers, as in other places, written volu- 
minously. We have already spoken of all editors 
and conductors of papers who live in the city, and 
will not bring them in here. But, among paper cor- 
respondents, many facile Yonkers pens, driven both 
by ladies and gentlemen among us, have been driven 
to purpose upon articles that have appeared in our 
own and in outside papers and periodicals. We can- 
not mention these, but confine ourselves, in the fol- 
lowing catalogue, to writers who have published pam- 
phlets or books. 

Lyman Cobb, Sr., bom in Massachusetts in 1800, 
and one of the greatest educators and most indefati- 
gable authors of his time, spent the last five years of 
his life in Yonkers. Mr. Cobb b^an teaching at 
sixteen, and published his famous ^* Cobb's Spelling- 
Book " at nineteen years of age. This book went 
into all the schools of the country. His subsequently 
published books were very numerous. They included 
five reading-books, a speaker, a dictionary, an expos- 
itor, a miniature lexicon and extended to many other 
volumes. At his death he left unfinished a concord- 
ance, a national dictionary and a pronouncing Testa- 
ment Mr. Cobb was as active in humane enterprises 
as he was in educational and literary work. He was 
a member of each of many benevolent societies of 
prominence, and a leader in them all. He was noted 
for intelligent zeal, for promptness in action, for kind- 
ness of heart and for simplicity of conduct. His 
death occurred on October 26, 1864, and he left in 
Yonkers four children, two of whom are prominent 
in Yonkers business life, and have both been men- 
tioned in their places in this work. 

J. Henry Pooley, M.D., who has been spoken of 
among the Yonkers physicians, was, during his long 
residence and practice in Yonkers, a frequent writer 
of pamphlets and fugitive articles upon professional 
subjects, some of which at least attracted wide notice. 
These were his diversions. He did not make writ- 
ing a profession. 

Several leading business men of Yonkers have done 
more or less amateur writing, now and then throwing 
their productions into pamphlet form. Among these, 
one is Mr. Robert P. Getty, whose overflowing life has 
made itself felt in so many and such various direc- 
tions. Mr. Getty's home delight has been in his 
library, within the walls of which he has collected 
and systematically filed newspapers and other regis- 
ters of passing events, with which he has kept up 
familiarity to such a remarkable degree that he is al- 
most an encyclopaedia of the history of New York and 

its vicinity. He has grappled with history, with 
science and with social, political and financial econ- 
omy, and has written considerably on them all, and 
many articles he has printed. One little waif of his, 
in doggerel verse, will keep his memory alive. It is 
entitled, '^ Chronicles of Yonkers." It was published 
in 1SS4 without name, and thrown upon the tables of 
a fair held in the interest of the New York Sanitary 
Commission, to be sold for the benefit of the fair. It 
is sprightly and pungent, full of caustic allusions to the 
early history of Yonkers, as well as hits at the living 
men and the usages of the place at the time in which 
it was written. But, most of all, it helps to reveal 
the mind and vivacity of the writer, who has himself 
been one of the institutions of Yonkers since 1849. 

Hon. G. Hilton Scribner, who came to Yonkers 
about twenty years ago as a practicing lawyer, and 
who, firom 1871 to 1878, was Secretary of State, 
has now long confined himself to the management of 
a New York City railroad. He is, however, another 
of the amateur writers of Yonkers. His most not- 
able production is a monograph, published about two 
years ago, entitled '' Where did Life Begin ? " It has 
attracted wide attention for its subject, for the way in 
which the subject is treated, and from the fact that 
several minds on both sides of the Atlantic seem al- 
most simultaneously to have set forth its theory, 
which is, that all life of all varieties began at the 
poles. Mr. Scribner does not make writing a pursuit, 
but writes in a neat, self-controlled and pleasant style, 
which always insures respectful attention for what- 
ever he prints. 

Foremost among the writers of Yonkers is the 
Rev. Henry Martyn Baird, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., an 
accomplished linguist, and one of the best read 
and most scholarly of men. He has been professor 
of Greek in the University of the City of New York 
since 1859. His writings have been numerous. A 
list of them may easily be obtained. It is enough 
here to cite his last and greatest work, entitled '' Rise 
of the Huguenots of France," published in two vol- 
umes in 1879. Dr. Baird was widely known before, 
but this masterly work gave him a gpreatly increased 
reputation. Its style is a model, it thrills with in- 
terest, its grasp is profound, and altogether it is a 
masterpiece. The notices of it by foreign as well as 
home journals, while independent and in many cases 
ably critical, have been most flattering, and some 
have not hesitated to rank the work with the great 
histories of Prescott and Motley. Dr. Baird is still 
prosecuting his researches into his great subject, and 
Airther volumes, we understand, may be expected in 
due time. 

Dr. Dio Lewis, the author and teacher of physical 
culture, died at his residence in Yonkers, in 1886, 
from erysipelas. A couple of weeks before his death 
he fell from his horse and received an injury to his 
left leg, below the knee. On Wednesday following 
he came to New York, and in returning home was 



carried past Yonkers to Hastings. He walked home, 
a distance of about four miles. The exertion proved 
too much for his injured leg, causing erysipelas to 
set in. 

Dr. Lewis was a native of Auburn, N. Y., and was 
sixty-three years old. He studied medicine in the 
Harvard Medical School, and b^an the practice of 
his profession in Auburn in 1845, at the age of 
twenty-two. Two years later he removed to Buffalo, 
where he practiced five years, and wrote and pub- 
libhed a number of papers on the causes and treat- 
ment of cholera, which ravaged that city in 1849 and 
1861. Dr. Lewis during those years of practice be- 
came impressed with the necessity of physical culture 
to prevent disease, and in 1855 he gave up the prac- 
tice of his profession, and began a course of lecturing 
and writing on the subject of public and personal 
hygiene. During four years he lectured almost every 
night, giving his days to the invention of his new 
ayatem of gymnastics. 

In 1860, having perfected this system, he aban- 
doned the platform and settled in Boston, where he 
established his normal school for physical training. 
He was assisted in teaching by the cele- 
brated Dr. Walter Channing, Dr. Thomas 
Hoskins and other well-known medical 
scholars, and within seven years more than 
four hundred persons had been graduated 
from his normal school, and were spreading 
the principles of his system of physical training 
throughout the land. He next established a seminary 
for girls in Lexington, Mass., his object being to illus- 
trate the possibilities in the physical development of 
girUMuring their school-life. This seminary rapidly 
became popular, and attracted pupils from all parts of 
the country and even from Central America and the 
West Indies. Dr. Lewis remained in Boston until 1882, 
when he removed to Yonkers and established a maga- 
zine in New York devoted to sanitary and social 
science, and known as IHo IjCwu^ Monthly, 

Dr. Lewis published a number of books on physical 
culture which had a wide circulation, the most promi- 
nent of them being •*Our Girls," "Our Digestion" 
and " Weak Lungs." 

Besides the authors mentioned, the celebrated nov- 
elist Mrs. E. D. £. N. Southworth has been a resident 
of Yonkers since 1876. She was born in Washing- 
ton, D. C, December 26, 1819, her parents being 
Charles Le Compte Nevitte, a merchant of Alexan- 
dria, Ya., and Susannah Qeorge Wailes Nevitte, of 
St. Mary's, Md. She married Frederick H. South- 
worth, of Utica, N. Y., in 1840. Her first story was 
written in the latter part of 1846, and published in 
the Baltimore Saturday VUitor of that year. From 
1847 to 1857 all her writings were issued in the Wiuh- 
ington National Era, Her first novel in book-form 
was published by the Harpers of New York, in 1849, 
affcer having been run through the Era, From 1857 
«he has been writing for the Ne%o York Ledger. 

Since the latter year she- has published through 
the New York Ledger only. She is at present (Decem- 
ber, 1885) writing her sixty-seventh novel. Her 
works have been republished in England, and trans- 
lated into Oerman, French and Spanish. Mrs. South- 
worth is a lady of refinement, of great intelligence 
and extensive reading, especially familiar with all the 
characters and phases of Washington life, and a most 
interesting conversationalist She is so devoted to her 
work as to be seldom seen in public. She is under* 
stood to be an admirer and perhaps a disciple of 
Swedenborg. Her disposition is one of great amia- 
bility, and she is noted for her practical sympathy 
with and ready hand for all who are in trial and need. 

It would not be possible to give the names of all 
Yonkers men and women who have simply published 
pamphlets or been active in newspaper correspond- 
ence. Among the latter have been several Yonkers 
ladies, some of whom have been professional paper 
and magazine contributors, writing under assumed 
names. We have tried to recall at least all writers of 
books, and hope that to this extent our effort has 
been a success. 




Of Yorktoini. 

October 3, 1642, John Throgmorton (or Throck- 
morton) and some friends, who had suffered in the 
persecution against Roger Williams, obtained permis- 
sion of the authorities of the New Netherlands to 
settle thirty-five families in what is now the town of 
Westchester, and doubtless the settlement was made 
shortly after this date. This territory had been pur- 
chased of the Indians in 1640, and bore the name 
Vredeland — ^land of peace. * This grant was con- 
firmed by William Kieft, director-general, July 6, 
1643. John (or Jan) Throckmorton was to receive 
the land in fee-simple and to be allowed the free ex- 
ercbe of religien, on condition that he, his associates 
and successors should " acknowledge as their lords 
and patroons'' the Dutch authorities. This grant 
really made John Throckmorton the patroon of the 
portion of Vredeland granted to him. The settle- 
ment was designated by the Dutch Oostdorp and by 
the English Easttown. This is the first civil division 
in what is now Westchester County^ ' in which, doubt- 

iO*Callagbftn*i "Htotory of the New Netherlaoda/* toI. it. p. 312. 
« See ♦* History of Town of Wettchefter," bekm. 



less, English ideas and government, subject to the 
supremacy of the Dutch, prevailed. 

August 8, 1639, the Dutch purchased a large tract 
of land on the Hudson, north of Manhattan Island, 
from the Indians. In 1646, Adriaen van der Donck 
received a grant of this tract, called Nepperhaem, 
where Yonkers now stands, from the Dutch. ^ This 
grant was made under the " Charter of Privileges and 
Exemptions," issued June 7, 1629, " which provided 
that any member of the company who should pur- 
chase of the Indians, and found in any part of New 
Netherland (except Manhattan) a colonic of filly 
persons over fifteen years of age, should be in all re- 
spects the feudal lord and patroon of the territory •f 
which he should thus take possession." * This colony 
bears the name of Colen Donck. Here we have the 
second civil division. 

In 1655, Thomas Pell, of Fairfield, Conn., laid claim 
to Vredeland under color of an Indian conveyance ' 
of November 14, 1654, and called it Westchester. 
S^tlement took place shortly after by the English 
from New England. April 2, 1655, the Dutch or- 
dered them off. March 6, 1656, an order was issued 
by the director-general and Council for the arrest of 
the English intruders. A force, sent for the purpose, 
arrested twenty -three persons and brought them to 
New Amsterdam. On the 16th the prisoners offered 
to submit to the Dutch authority. Their offer was ac- 
cepted. They requested the privilege of choosing 
their own officers and of making and administering 
their own laws. They were granted the same privi- 
leges as the freemen of the villages of Middleborough, 
Brenkelen, Midwout and Amersfoort. They were 
allowed to nominate double the number of persons, 
from whom the executive would make selections. 
These officers were called "Schepens."* * The civil 
designation originally given to Throckmorton's set- 
tlement Oostdorp or I^itown, was continued. 

'* In Uie manicipftl goTemment of these settlemento two systemi, m- 
sentially different in principle obtained. In the 'ColonieeJ the snperin- 
tending power -wu lodged in one individual, who, though the immediate 
Taatal of the Movereign authority fh)m which hefderlred his lands, was 
himself lord paramount in his manor, where he not only represented 
the soTereign, but exercised feudal jurisdiction over his colonists, who 
stood towards him in the same relation he occupied towards the supreme 
head of the State. ... In return for this obedience the patroon was 
bound to iMTOtect the colonists, who had the additional right to address 
tiiemselves by appeal to the supreme authority at Amsterdam, in case 
they were either aggrieved or oppressed. . . . 

** Towns or communes sometimes acquired independence of these 
feudal lords, and held their privileges directly fh)m the crown. They 
were incorporated and held land in fee, and possessed the rights of 
patroons. They named persons from whom the executive selected offl- 
cers called * schepens.* These constituted a board of communication with 
their sovereign head, were a local court of Justice, and had a schout or 
sheriff, a secretary and a marshaL Their official term was one year. 
One hundred years before the Dutch settlement there were in Holland 

1 0'Callaghan*s •* History of the New Netherlands," vol. li. p. 382. 
a Civil List of State of New York, 1880, p. 57. 
»0*CalUghan's "Hist of N. H." 
^O'Callaghan's " History of N. H.," pp. 312-313. 
• There is among the records of the town of Westchester one entitled 
« The Book of Courts Acts from 1657 to 1662.* 

300 such municipalities. Both idsas came with the people and were 
found here. 

** Strange as it may seem, while every colenie, and almost every ham- 
let, had its local magistracy, the citixens of New Amsterdam [New Yoiii 
City], the capital of the whole province, continued, greatly to their dis- 
content, without a voice in the management of their municipal affairs. 
The government of the city still remained in the hands of the Director- 
General and his council.*' > 

Colendonck, (Yonkers) was under the government 
of a patroon, such a^ is described above ; and the fol- 
lowing statement gives some idea of the " Charter of 
Privileges and Exemptions" issued by the West 
India Ck)mpany*s College of Nineteen, June 7, 1629, 
in accordance with which the grant was made to 
Van der Donck : 

^The Patroon had power to amwint officers and magistrates in all 
towns and cities on his lands ; to hold manorial courts, from which. In 
oases where the Judgment exceeded Uttj guilders, the only aK>eal was to 
the Director-General and Council ; in short, to hold and govern his^ 
great manor vrith as absolute a rule as any baron of the Middle Ages. 
The power of the Patroons over their tenants was almost unlimited. No 
man or woman, son or daughter, man-servant or maid-servant conid 
leave a Patroon's service during the time they had agreed to remain,, 
except by his written consent, no matter what abuses or breaches of con- 
tract existed on part of the Patroon. This charter prescribed regula- 
tions and granted pri>ileges with regard to trade, gave to the freemen 
all the land they could cultivate, and exempted them from taxation for 
ten years. Churches and schools were required to be estalflished, and 
the manufacture of cloths was prohibited. The company retained the 
taT trade and fettered commerce. Several directors of the company 
availed themselves of the advantages offered. The Patroon of Ken»- 
selaerswyck, however, was the only one who estahlfcrfied a manorial 
court, and he rendered the privilege of iH>peal nugatory by exacting of 
his tenants, as a condition to the occupation of land, that they would not 
avail themselves of it This monopoly had a disastrous elfoct upon the 
colony. Differences arose between the company and the Patroons, and 
a new policy vnui, therefore, inaugurated. In 1638 free emigration vras 
encouraged, and iu 1640 (July 19) the College of Nineteen passed an or- 
dinance materially modifying the Charter of Privileges and Exemptions. 
The policy of f^-ee emigration, free lands and f\ree trade, incomplete as it 
was, increased at once the prosperity of the colony.** i 

In what is now Westchester County we have, there- 
fore, both systems — in Colendonck the government of 
a patroon or feudal baron, in Oostdorf the commune 
or town, with some local autonomy. 

The New Netherlands were governed by the **Dutch 
Roman [or Civil] Law, the imperial statutes of Charles 
v., and the edicts, customs and resolutions of the 
United Netherlands^ and such ordinances as the 
Dutch West India Company should prescribe. 

The boundary between the New England colonies 
and the New Netherlands had been in dispute. By 
the treaty of 1650 Greenwich on the main land and 
Oyster Bay on Long Island became the eastern limits 
of the latter. • November 15, 1658, Westchester was 
ceded by Stuyvesant to Connecticut, and English law 
and customs prevailed. Less than a year later, Sep- 
tember 8, 1664, the New Netherlands surrendered to an 
English squadron under Richard Nicolls. The New 
Netherlands became New York, the Dutch West 
India Company were succeeded by the Duke of York 
(to whom his brother, Charles II., " by the most des- 

«0'Callaghan's " History of N. N.," pp. 391-393. 
^ Civil List of SUte of N. Y., 1880, pp. 67-68. 

8 Civil List of State of N. T., 1880. p. 23. 

9 Bancroft's ** Hist, of U. 8.*' (last edition), vol. I. p. 508. 



potic instrument recorded in the colonial archives of 
England," which ignored alike English charters and 
Dutch claims), * and the civil law gave place to the 
common law. With the exception of a brief period of 
Dutch occupation in 1673 to 1674, English rule re- 
mained until the Revolution. Anglo-Saxon ideas 
and customs still predominate. Richard Ni colls took 
Stuyvesant's place, and found it profitable employ- 
ment, for the fees received, to issue new patents to the 
old settlers. The Duke of York, whose deputy the 
Governor was, promised more privileges than he ever 

County under English Rule. — Changes in the 
proprietors and systems brought with them local 
changes. Colendonck (Yonkers), the second civil divi- 
sion of what is now called Westchester County, had 
been blotted from the map by the massacre of its in- 
habitants by the Algonquin Indians in September, 
1655.' Nothing remained but the charter. In 1664, 
only Westchester, formerly called by the Dutch Oost- 
dorp, or E^ttown, remained. ''A convention of two 
delegates from each town on Long Island' was held 
at Hempstead in February, 1666, for the purpose of 
receiving fit)m the Governor the code which he had 
prepared, and which was called * the Duke's Laws.' The 
code was chiefly compiled from laws then in force in 
'Sew England, 'with an abatement of the severity 
against such as differ in matters of conscience and 
religion.' The only popular feature of the code was 
the one organizing the town courts. It provided 
for the election, by a majority of the freeholders of 
each town, of eight overseers, to try minor causes, 
and adopt local ordinances, subject to the approval of 
the Court of Assize. Four were to retire each year, 
and from them a constable was to be elected on the 
lat or 2d of April, to act with the overseers, his 
election being subject U) confirmation by the justice, 
in whose hands the local administration was really 
vested. Long Island, Staten Island and parts of West- 
chester were united in a shrievalty called Yorkshire, 
and divided into three districts, called ridings. The 
English system of sheriff's courts was introduced. 
The Governor and the Council appointed each year a 
sheriff for the whole of Yorkshire, and three justices 
of the peace for each riding, who were to continue in 
office during the Governor's pleasure, and were to hold 
a Court of Sessions in each riding three times a year, 
in which the Governor or any of his councilors might 
preside. Besides their local duties, the high sheriff and 
justices were to sit with the Governor and his Council 
in the Supreme Court of the Province, called the Court 
of Assize, which was to meet at New York once a 
year, on the last Thursday in September. This court 
was also a legislative body, as it was invested with 
' the supreme power of making, altering and abolish- 

iBaiicroft*t '* History of the U. S./' yoI. 1. p. 518 (last edition). 

>Thit h a mistake ; Westchester was represented by Edward Jessup 
ud John Quinby. 

ing any laws,* except customs laws, in which it could 
only recommend changes. Town officers were required 
to make assessments annually, and taxes were levied 
through the Courts of Sessions, which made requisi- 
tions upon the town authorities. The delegates to the 
convention asked for power to choose their local magis- 
trates. This was denied, the Governor exhibiting his 
instructions from the Duke of York, ^ wherein the 
choice of all the officers of justice was solely to be 
made by the Governor.'" * From 1665 to 1683 the 
inhabited portion this county formed, with Staten 
Island, Kings County and Newtown, the West Biding 
of Yorkshire. 

Westchester County, with substantially the same 
boundaries as at present, was erected, November 
1, 1688, by the following act of the General Assembly, 
assented to by the Governor and Council : 

" An Act to divide the Provinot of New York amd depmidendee into ihirea 
<tnd ocmntite, etz. 

** Having taken into consideration the necessity of dlTidlng the Prov- 
ince into reepectiTe countys, for the better governing and settling courts 
in the same, be it enacted by the Governor, Council and the Bepreeen- 
tativee, and by the authority of the same, that the laid Province be di- 
vided into twelve countys as followeth . The County of Westchester to 
conteyne, West and Eastcheeter, Bronx-land, Fordham, Anne Hook's 
Neck, Richbell^s, Miniford's Islands, and all the land on the maine to 
the eastvrard of Manhattan's Island, as farre as the government extends, 
and the Yonker's land, and northward along Hudson's River as fSure as 
the Highland. . . . 

"The bill having been three times read before the governor and 
Council, is assented to the first of November, 1683.*** 

This act is confirmed by one passed October 1, 
1691 (3d William and Mary). 

The dividing line between this State and Connecti- 
cut was in dispute. As this was a border county, it 
was involved. Prior to the taking of the New Neth- 
erlands by the English a controversy was going on 
between the Dutch and colony of Connecticut. This 
was inevitable from the fact that the charters came 
from different nations. There could have been 
but one outcome — the Dutch were obliged to yield 
and the inhabitants of Connecticut would have 
pushed their settlements to the Hudson River. The 
charters granted by the English did not settle matters. 
The Duke of York's domain extended to the Con- 
necticut River, that of Connecticut to the ''South 

The determination of the boundary line settled the 
civil status of Bedford and Rye. Both colonies ac- 
knowledging one supreme authority an amicable ad- 
justment was possible. Commissioners were sent over 
for the purpose in 1664. The line decided upon was 
to be twenty miles eafit of the Hudson River and was 
located at the Mamaroneck River. The towns named 
above fell to our neighbor. The matter was reopened 
in 1683 and the dividing line placed by agreement at 
Byram River. Bedford and Rye became a part of 

4 Civil List of state of New York, 1880, pp. 46 and 46. 

» Provincial Laws of N. Y., Co. Clerk's Office, Queen's Co., L. 1., as 
quoted by Bolton—" History of West Co.," vol. i. pp. 7 and 8 (new edi- 



New York. The King died before this settlement re- 
ceived his approval, and the subject was an open one 
once more. March 29, 1700, William III. approved 
of the agreement of 1688. The line was not finally 
established until May 14, 1731, by which the " Ob- 
long,'' a tract of sixty-one thousand four hundred 
and forty acres, extending as far north as the Massa- 
chusetts line, was ceded to New York, in compensa- 
tion for loss of territory along the Sound, in addition 
to the towns named above. That portion of the '* Ob- 
long " which belongs to this county was erected into 
the town of Salem (now Lewisboro). By an act enti- 
tled " An Act to ascertain Part of the Southern and 
Western Boundaries of the County of Westchester 
and Eastern Boundaries of the County of Orange and 
Part of the Northern Bounds of Queens County," 
passed December 31, 176f8 (9th George III.), the wa- 
ter boundaries were given more definitely. 

Courts.— By the act of 1683, Westchester was 
made the county-town, and the courts there estab- 
lished. From the report to the Committee on Trade 
on province of New York, of February 22, 1687, made 
by Governor Dongan, who had summoned the General 
Assembly of 1683, we gain some idea of the courts 
established by the act referred to, — 

Courts of Justice are now ettablishad by Act of Assembly, and they 

*' 1. The Court of Chancery, consisting of Goremor and Council, is the 
Supreme Court of this prorince, to which appeals may be brought fh>m 
any other court. 

'* 2. The Assembly finding the inconvenience of bringing y* peace, 
sheriffs, constables @ other persons concerned from the remote parts of 
this goTemment to New York, did, instead of theConrt of Aaaizee which 
was yearly held for the whole OoTemment of this province, erect a Court 
of Oyer and Terminer, to be held once every year within each county, 
for the determining of such matters as should arise within them respect- 
ively, the members of which court were appointed to be one of the two 
Judges of this proTlnce, assisted by three Justices of the peace of that 
wherein such court is held, which Court of Oyer and Terminer has like- 
wise power to bear appeals from any inferior Court. 

" 4. There is likewise In every county, twice in every year (except in 
New York, where its four times, (a> in Albany, where its thrice), Courts 
of BesiioDs held by the Justices of the Peace for the reepeotive conntiea, 
as in England. 

"5. In every town within y« Government there are 3 Commissioners 
appointed to hear and determine all matters of difference not exceeding 
the value of £5, which shall happen in the respective towns." ^ 

By the act of General Assembly passed May 6, 1691, 
and ordinance of 1699, several changes were made in 
the judicial system of the province. A Supreme 
Court was established, the Court of Oyer and Termi- 
ner as a distinct court was abolished, and its jurisdic- 
tion vested in the Supreme Court, which retained also 
the name for its criminal circuit, the functions of the 
Court of Sessions were confined to criminal matter;*, 
and a Court of Common Pleas, erected for each coun- 
ty, with cognizance of all actions, real, personal and 
mixed, where the value exceeded five pounds^^*Trora 
the civil list of the province of New York for 1693^ 
we learn something of civil affairs in this county, — 

1 0'CHllaghan's " Doc. History of N. Y.," vol. i. pp. 147 and 148. 
' O'Callu^buu'tf " lK»c. History of N. Y.," vol. i. pp. 31o and 319. 

" Justices in Westchester County : Caleb Heathcote, £M]r., Judge of 
Common Pleas ; Joseph Tbeall, Wm. Barnes, Daniel Strange, James 
Mott, John Hunt, Thomas Chadderton, Thomas Pinckney, Esqn.; Beiy. 
Collier, Sheriff ; Joseph Lee, Clerk of County ; CoUecton, Assesson and 
Constables elective. 

**An account of att EtUMiMhmenti of JuHtdioUon WUU» Ikit Ptovimc*, 

*'iSMi^eJtM(io«.— Every Justice of the Peace bath power to deteraine 
any suite or controversy to the value of 4Cls. 

" Quarter Sesstoiw.— The Justices of the Peace in Quarter Seerions hare 
all such powers and authorities as are granted in a commlaslon of y« 
Peace in England. 

*' ComUif Qmrt—Th^ County Court or Common Pleas hath cognixaoce 
of Civil Aocdns to any value, excepting what oonoems tiUe of land and 
noe Acc6n can be removed from this court, if the damage be under £30. 

**Supr«m€ Oowrf.— The Supreme Court hath powers of King's Bench, 
Common Pleas ft Exchequer in England and noe Accdn can b« removed 
fh>m this court if under £100. 

** Chancery.— The Governor ft Council are a Court of Chancery and 
have powers of the chancery in England, tronx whose sentence or decree 
nothing can be removed under £300. 

" lYtrogaime Qmrl. — The Governor discharges the fdace of Ordlnaiy 
in granting administmcdns and proveing Wills, etc. The Secretary is 
Register. The Governor is about to appoint Delegates in the remoter 
parts of the Government, with supervisors tor looking after intestate's 
estates and provideing Cur orphans." 

Minor criminal offenses were looked after by the 
Court of Sessions, and the more flagrant by the judges 
of the Supreme Court in their circuits through the 
counties. They had for this purpose ''a commission 
of oyer and terminer and general jail delivery, in 
which some of the county judges were joined."' 

Smith, in his " History of New York," gives us an 
interesting account of the courts as they were in 

'* Justices of the peace are appointed by commission fhnn the Govern* 
ors, who, to serve their purposes in elections, sometimea grant, as it is 
called, the administration to particular favorites in each county, whidi is 
the nomination of officers civil and military ; and by these means Jus- 
tices have been astonishingly multiplied. There are instances of some of 
these who can neither write nor read. These Genii, besides their ordi- 
nary powers, are by acts of assembly enabled to hold courts for the de- 
termination of small causes of 5 pounds and under ; but the parties ars 
privileged, if they choose it, with a Jury ; the proceedings are in a sum- 
mary way, and the conduct of the Justices has given Just cause to innu- 
merable complaints. The Justices have also Jurisdiction with crimes 
under the degree of grand larceny ; for any three of them (one being 
of the quorum) may try the criminal without a Jury, and inflict punish 
ments not extending to life or limb. 

" Ths Seaaknu ond Onrnt of Common Plsos.— The Court of Common 
Pleas takes cognizance of all causes where the matter In demand is in 
value above 6 pounds. It is established by ordinance of the Governor in 
Council. The judices are ordinarily three, and hold their offices daring 
pleasure. Thro' the InDuicy of the country, few. If any of them, ars 
acquainted with the law. The practice of these courts is similar to that 
of the common bench at Westminster. They have each a clerk, commiS' 
sioned by the Governor, who issues their writs, enters their minntfs and 
keeps the records of the country. They are held twice eveiy year. 
These Judges, together with some of the Justices, hold at the same time 
a court of general sesnions of the peace. . . . 

•• Supreme Court.— The Judges of this court, according to the act of 
Aseembiy, are judges of the Niai IVfos, of course, and agreeably to an or- 
dinance of the Governor and Coundl, perform a drcnlt thro* the counties 
once every year. They carry with them at the same time, a commisiioB 
of oyer and terminer and gentral Jail delivery, In which some of the 
county Justices are Joined. They- have but two clerks— one attendant 
upon the Supreme Court at New York and the other on the drcuifet.*' * 

From these accounts and other sources we gain 
some idea of the judicial system of the county during 

« Civil List, 1880, p. 209. 

* Smith's •♦ History of N. Y.," voL i. pp. 369 377. 



colonial times. Under the Duke'a Laws there ex- 
isted a Court of Sessions "^th both civil and criminal 
jurisdiction, held three times* a year by the resident 
justices of the peace and the Town Court, held by the 
constable and at least five overseers of town. The 
latter court had both legislative and judicial func- 
tions, while the former exercised some of the func- 
tions of the supervisors.* From 1688 to 1691 we have 
the Court of Oyer and Terminer, with civil, criminal 
and appellate jurisdiction, held by one judge and 
three resident justices of the peace ; a Court of Sessions, 
with civil and criminal jurisdiction and power to 
audit and levy the county and town charg«js, held 
twice each year ; and a Town Court, held by three 
commissioners. From 1691 to 1776 there were Cir- 
cuit Courts held annually by one of the Supreme 
Court jiistices, who had a commission of Oyer iind 
Terminer, in which some of the county judges were 
associated ; the Court of Common Pleas, composed of 
one judge and two or more justices of the peace, which 
took cognizance of all actions, real, personal and 
mixed, where the matter in demand exceeded the 
sum of five pounds in value ; the Court of Sessions, 
whose jurisdiction was now confined to criminal 
cases ; the Ju8tice*s Court in the various towns. The 
people had comparatively little voice in their own 
government. The judges of the various courts, jus- 
tices of peace, sheriff, county clerk, surrogate, and, 
in fact, all officen, except the town ofiScers (supervis- 
ors, collectors, assessors and constables), were ap- 
pointed by the Governor, who was responsible only 
I to the King. Most of the officers thus appointed held 
I office during the pleasure of the Governor. This con- 
dition of afiairs produced dissatisfaction among the 
; people, and led to an almost perpetual conflict be- 
I tween the Grovemment and the General Assembly. 
The elective officers were the overseers, supervisors, 
collectors, assessors and constables of the town, the 
mayor, aldermen and Common Council of the town or 
borough of Westchester,' (which had a special charter) 
and representatives in the General Assembly. 

County under the Constitution. — When New 
York ceased to be a colony of England and became 
an independent State, great and radical changes in 
principle were made, yet the machinery of govern- 
ment was but little changed. The source of authority 
was changed, not its expression. The Constitution of 
1777 substituted for a Governor appointed by the 
King one elected by the people; the Council ap- 
pointed by the King or Governor became a Senate, 
elected by the people; and the General Assembly 
elected by the people remained. The apportionment 
in both branches of the Legislature was according to 
population, — a principle not previously recognized. 
The number of elective officers remained the same, but 
the appointing power was vested in the Council of 

igee Snpenriflore, below. 

<See History of Town of Wettchester. 

Appointment, presided over by the Governor, who 
had a casting vote, consisting of one Senator elected 
annually by the Assembly from each of the four sena- 
torial districts. A Gh>vernor and Council holding oflSce 
at the pleasure of the King gave place to a Governor 
and a Council elected by the people for a limited 
term, and thus became directly amenable to them. 
The elective franchise in principle remained the 
same, with the single exception that there was no 
discrimination on account of religion. The property 
qualification was still retained. The judicial system 
remained largely the same. The common and 
statute law of Great Britain and the acts of Colonial 
General Assembly, except so far as they conflicted 
with the new order of things, were made the law of 
the State until modified by the L^islature. The 
radical change was in the constitution of the court of 
final resort. Under the colonial system the Gov- 
ernor and Council were the court for the correc- 
tion of errors and appeals, from whom appeals, 
where the value exceeded five hundried pounds, or 
where the Episcopal Church was involved, lay to the 
King in Privy Council. Under the first constitution 
the executive had no judicial functions ; the court of 
final resort was called the Court for the Trial of 
Impeachments and the Correction of Errors, consisting 
of the Lieutenant-Gh)vernor, Senate, chancellor and 
judges of the Supreme Court. One other important 
change was made. In England the granting (ff pro- 
bates was a royal prerogative and in the colony was 
vested in the King's representative, the Governor. 
The Grovernor of the State was stripped of this au- 
thority, which was granted to the surrogates of the 
counties and the Court of Probate. With these ex- 
ceptions, the colonial courts were recognized, and 
we have the Court of Chancery with equity powers, 
the Supreme Court, Court of Common Pleas, Court of 
Sessions and the Justices' Courts. Their powers re- 
mained substantially the same. The Supreme Court 
judges held Circuit Courts and Courts of Oyer and 
Terminer in each of the counties. In the latter, two 
or more judges of the Common Pleas were associated. 

The Constitution of 1821 extended the elective 
franchise by virtually removing the property qualifi- 
cation, except in the case of colored persons, who 
were to be freeholders of two hundred and fifly dol- 
lars and tax-payers. The appointing power was 
vested in the Governor with the advice and consent 
of the Senate. The offices of sheriff* and county clerk 
became elective (term of service three years). The 
justices of the peace were to be appointed by the 
supervisors and judges of the County Court. 

The courts in name remained the same, but the 
constitution of the Supreme Court was somewhat 
changed and a Circuit Court was added. "The 
Supreme Court sat four times a year in review of 
their decisions and for the determination of questions 
of law. Each justice was empowered to hold circuit 
courts and any justice of the Supreme Court could 



likewise preside at the Oyer and Terminer."*' 
The Constitution provided that the State should 
be divided into not less than four nor more than 
eight circuits.' Each district had its circuit judge, 
who possessed the powers of a justice of the Supreme 
Court at chambers, in the trial of issues joined in the 
Supreme Court, and in the Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner. The Courts of Common Pleas and Sessions 
and Justices' Court were continued. Prior to the 
adoption of this Constitution most offices were held 
either during good behavior or at the pleasure of 
the appointing power. The judges of the Court of 
Common Pleas were appointed for the term of five 
years, and the surrogates for four years. In 1823 the 
Court of Probates disappears, and appeals from the 
surrogates lay to the chancellor. The justices of the 
peace became elective in 1826. 

The Constitution of 1846 extended the franchise 
to every resident white male citizen who was twenty- 
one years of age. The XV. Amendment to the Con- 
stitution of the United States erased the word 
white. All judicial offices of the State, all county 
offices and almost all civil offices in the gift of the 
State became elective. The Court for the Final Im- 
peachment and the Correction of Errors disappears. A 
new Court of Appeals is established, the constitution 
of which was somewhat modified by the amendment 
of 1866. A new Supreme Court was erected, vested 
with the powers hitherto possessed by the Supreme 
Court, the Court of Chancery and the Circuit Court. 
The County Court takes the place of the Common 
- Pleas and the county judge, with two justices of the 
peace, holds the Court of Sessions. The jurisdiction 
of the former was much greater than its. predecessor. 
This county forms part of the Second Judicial Dis- 
trict. At the present time the Supreme Court holds 
four terms and the County Court five each year at the 
court-house, White Plains. 

County-Seat. — By an act of Greneral Assembly en- 
titled " An Act for the more orderly hearing and deter- 
mining matters of controversy, " etc., passed October 
29, 1683, it was directed that Courts of Session for West- 
chester County should be held on the first Tuesdays of 
June and December, one to be held at Westchester 
and the other at East Chester. On the first Wednes- 
day of December a Court of Oyer and Terminer and 
General Jail Delivery was to be held. Westchester 
remained the shire or county-town until November 6, 
1759, when the last session of the Court of Common 
Pleas was held there. * The New York Post-Boy of 
February 13, 1758, contained the following item : 
" New York, February 13th.— We hear from West- 
chester that on Saturday the 4th inst., the court-house 
at that place was unfortunately burnt to the ground. 

1 CiTil List, 1880, pp. 211 and 212. 

s It Memed to hAve had same powers as general term of present Su- 
preme Court. 

3 Westchester Oounty was in the Second Circuit. 

4 See records of Court of Common Pleas. 

We have not heard how it happened." * The destruc- 
tion of the court-house on February 4, 1758, and the 
felt necessity for a more central location for the coun- 
ty town, led to the passing of the following act on 
December 16, 1758: "An Act to impower the 
Justices of the Peace and Aldermen of the Borough 
of Westchester, in conjunction with the Supervisori 
of the said County, to ascertain and fix the place for 
erecting a new Court-House and Gkol for the said 
County; and for raising a sum not exceeding One 
thousand Pounds, on the Estates, real and personal, of 
all the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the said 
County, for and towards erecting the said Court- 
House and Gaol." White* Plains was selected as the 
place, and on November 7, 1759, the Court of Common 
Pleas held its first session in the court-house. ^ The 
act of February 6, 1773, directed the supervisors to 
meet in the court-house. In July, 1776, the Provin- 
cial Convention met in it. November 5, 1776, the 
building was burned by some of the American troops, 
the records having previously been removed to a safe 
place* During the Revolutionary War the courts 
were held in the Presbyterian Church at Bedford 
until its destruction by the British, in 1779. From 
this time until November, 1884, they were held at the 
meeting-house in Upper Salem. The act of April 11, 
1785, ordered them to be held in the Presbyterian 
meeting-house at Bedford until the court-house should 
be rebuilt or until further orders of the Legislature. 
The act of May 1, 1786, directed the erection of court- 
houses at both White Plains and Bedford and eigh- 
teen hundred pounds was appropriated for the purpose. 
Stephen Ward, Ebenezer Lockwbod, Jonathan G. 
Tompkins, Ebenezer Purdy, Thomas Thomas, Richard 
Hatfield and Richard Sacket, Jr., superintended their 
construction. The first session of the County Court 
was held in Bedford court-house January 28, 1788, and 
that at White Plains on May 26th following. The 
courts were held alternately at these places until 1870, 
when, by chapter five hundred and fifty by the laws of 
1870, it was directed that they be hereafter held in the 
new court-house at the latter. The present county 
buildings were erected in 1856-^7, under the superin- 
tendence of a committee appointed by the Board of 
Supervisors, consisting of Abraham Hatfield, States 
Barton, William Marshall, Jr., Daniel Hunt and 
George G. Finch, at a cost of one hundred and twenty 
thousand dollars. '' 

Elections. — During the colonial period elections 
were held on the first Tuesday of April in each of the 
towns for choosing of town officers, and as often as 
writs of election directed to the high sheriff* were 
issued for the purpose of selecting members of the 
Colonial Assembly. The places where the latter were 

fi Bolton*s *' History of Westchester Connty/* toI. iL pu 299 (dsw 

« Court-house cost £2000. Additional appropriations vers made in 
1760 and 1762. 

7 Proceedings of Board of Supervisors, 1873, p. 714. 



held were within the bounds of the civil divisions 
represented. The representative for the county was 
elected at first in the southern part of the county, 
and later near the Presbyterian meeting-house at 
White Plains.^ The voting in all cases was viva voce. 
The Constitution of 1777 made provision for a trial of 
voting by ballot. The act of March 27, 1778, au- 
thorized the use of the ballot in the election of Gov- 
ernor and Lieutenant-Governor, and that of February 
13, 1787, extended it to the election of members of 
the legislature. Doubtless up to the passage of the 
latter act elections were carried on in much the same 
manner as they had been during colonial times. The 
act last mentioned provided that they should be held in 
every borough, town, district, precinct or ward under the 
supervision of inspectors chosen for that purpose. 
Until after the passage of the act of March 27, 1799, the 
canvassers were a joint committee of the Legislature, 
the boxes containing the ballots being sent by the 
sherifi* to the Secretary of State for the purpose. After 
that date there were local canvassers. The result was 
recorded by the town clerk, who made return to the 
connty clerk, who made record and transmitted it to 
the Secretary of State, who, with the comptroller and 
Measurer, constituted a State Board of Canvassers. 
The act of April 17, 1822, instituted a County Board 
of Canvassers, consisting of one inspector of election 
from each town. Each town or ward was made an 
election district. The act of April 5, 1842, made the 
sapervisors the county canvassers, and provided for 
the division of towns and wards into a convenient 
number of election districts. This duty devolved 
apon the supervisors, assessors and clerks of towns, 
who were required to do it where the population ex- 
ceeded five hundred. ^^ 

Election Days.— The act of February 18, 1787, 
appointed the last Tuesday of April the day for the 
general election, which might be held for five days. 
By the act of April 17, 1822, it was changed to the 
first Tuesday of November, and the polls were opened, 
by adjournment from place to place, for three succes- 
sive days. The act of April 6, 1842, the Tuesday suc- 
ceeding the first Monday of November was desig- 
nated, and the election was confined to one day. 
The election for town officers takes place on the last 
Tuesday of March. 

SUPEBVISOES.— By the "Duke's Laws," promul- 
gated in 1665, the Courts of Sessions levied the taxes 
upon the towns. By an act of the General Assembly, 
passed October 18. 1701 (18th William in.), the jus- 
tices of the peace, in special or general session, were 
directed to levy once a year the necessary county and 
town charges and allowance for their representative 
in the General Assembly, to make provision for the poor, 
and to issue warrants for the election of two assessors 

I **Aq act to fix and ascertain the place for election of repreeentativee 
to aenre in Oenerml A«aembly for county of Weatcheater, paawd the 25th 
of November, 1751." 

and one collector, and for the collection of taxes.' 
These duties were transferred to a Board of Supervis- 
ors by an act of General Assembly passed June 19, 
1703 (2d Anne), entitled " An Act for the better ex- 
plaining and more effectually putting into Execu- 
tion an Act of General Assembly made in the third 
year of the Reign of their late Majesties King William 
and Queen Mary, entitled an Act for defraying the 
publick and necessary charges thro'out this Province 
and for maintaining the poor and Preventing Vaga- 
bonds." The freeholders and inhabitants of each 
town were authorized to choose once each year, on 
the first Tuesday of April (unless otherwise directed), 
one supervisor, two assessors and one collector. The 
supervisors elected were directed to meet in the county 
town on the first Tuesday of October, ascertain the 
contingent charges of the county and such sums as 
were imposed by the laws of the colony, apportion to 
each town, manor, liberty, jurisdiction and precinct 
their respective quotas, and to transmit them to the 
assessors of the different towns, etc., who should ap- 
portion them among the inhabitants. The supervis- 
ors were authorized to choose annually a treasurer. 
The Court of Sessions was thus relieved of that por- 
tion of its duties which was legislative and not judi- 
cial. Supervisors had been chosen in several of the 
towns before the passage of the act of 1703 (East Ches- 
ter, 1686; Mamaroneck, 1697; New Rochelle, 1700), 
but what were their duties it is impossible to state. 
The records of the proceedings of the supervisors prior 
to 1772 having been lost during the Revolutionary 
War, we can only surmise what sections of the county 
came under the provisions of the act. East Chester, * 
Westchester, Philipsburg, Pelham Manor, Morrisania, 
Mamaroneck, New Rochelle, Bedford and Rye prob- 
ably elected these ofScers. Tbe census' for 1712 gives 
some idea of the civil divisions recognized by law or 
usage, with the population of each, — 

•• Weetchetter 572 

East Cheater 300 

Bye 616 

MewBochelle 304 

Younkeri. 260 

Philipsburg 348 

Mo Marronack 84 

jaorrisania 62 

Pelbam 62 

Bedford 172 

Cortland's Pattent 91 

Byke*sPattent 82 

Scaredale 12 

Total 281fl " 

November 1, 1722 (9th Geo. I.), an act was passed 
entitled ''An Act to increase the number of Supervis- 
ors in the county of Westchester, and that no wages 
of Supervisors shall be any part of the said county's 
rate for the future." After authorizing the choice of 
a freeholder by the freeholders and inhabitants, it was 

SOivil List, 1880, p. 209. 

8 O'Callaghan's "Doc. Hist of N. T.," vdl. U 



provided that in case of failure to elect, or where there 
were not more than twenty inhabitants, the owner of 
the manor or his steward should be supervisor. The 
freeholders of the Manor of Cortlandt were author- 
ized, by the act of December 16, 1737, to elect annu- 
ally one supervisor, one treasurer, two assessors and 
one collector, and Ryke*s Patent, by the act of Janu- 
ary 27, 1770, were granted a similar privilege. While 
much is left to surmise prior to the year 1772, the 
records give both the towns and the supervisors who 
represented them from that day to this. The follow- 
ing is the list for 1773: 

** Wm. Barker, Esq., for 8cu«d«Ie; Doot. Haverlmkl, for Bye ; Col. 
Oortlandt, for Tonken ; Jae. Pell, for Pelbam ; Col. Holmes, for Bed- 
ford; Jaa. Ferris, Esq., for Westchester; Col. Morris, for Morrisania ; 
AbUah Gilbert, for Salem; Wm. Davis, for Pbilipsborough ; Doct. 
Daton, for North Castle ; Stephen Ward, for Eastchester ; Wm. Satton, 
Esq., loan officer and snperrisor for Memorineck ; Justice Lockwood, for 
Ponndridge ; M%). Cortlandt, for Cortlandt Manor ; Jas. Cronkhite, for 
Byks Patten ; Doct. Graham, for the White Plains.*' i 

The supervisors met at first in the county town, 
Westchester. This place being inconvenient, the 
supervisors were directed to meet in the school-house 
at Bye, by an act entitled, '' An Act to alter the place 
of the supervisors* meeting in the county of West- 
chester,'' passed 29th of November, 1745, with the 
privilege of adjourning to such place as the majority 
should deem proper. The population of the northern 
portions of the county increased rapidly, and for their 
convenience the place of meeting was changed by act 
of February 6, 1773, to the court-house at White 
Plains, with the same privilege of adjournment. After 
the burning of the court-house, in 1776, the super- 
» visors became a vagrant body, with no certain meeting- 
place. They met in Bedford, Manor of Cortlandt or 
Salem. But few towns were represented. All through 
these trying years we find about the same persons 
present, — Ebenenezer Lockwood, of Poundridge ; 
Major Joseph Strang, of Manor of Cortlandt ; Israel 
Lyon, of Bedford ; Jacob Purdy, of North Castle ; 
and Abijah Gilbert, of Salem. May 31, 1784, the 
supervisorR met at the house of John Cromwell, in 
Harrison's Precinct, and there were present the fol- 
lowing persons: 

John Thomas, Rye ; Wm. Panlding, Manor of Philipsbnrgh ; Jona- 
than 6. Tompkins, Manor of Scandals; Joseph Strang, Manor of Cort- 
landt; Thad. Crane, town of Upper Salem; B«iv|. Stevenson, New 

Bochelle ; Israel Honeywell, Tonkers ; Miller, Harrison's. Precinct; 

Ebeneser Lockwood, Poundridge ; Ebenezer L. Burling, East Chester ; 
Abel Smith, North Castle ; Daniel Horton, White PhUns; Gilbert Budd, 
Mamaroneck ; AbiJah Gilbert, Salem. 

The business was to levy two thousand pounds on 
Westchester, Yonkers, East Chester, New Rochelle, 
Mamaroneck, Manor of Scarsdale and the Manor of 
Pelham, as a war tax. 

By the act of March 7, 1788, entitled " An act for de- 
fraying the necessary charges of the respective counties 
of the State,'* this county was divided into twenty towns 
viz. : Bedford, Cortlandt, EaH Chester, Greenburgh, 

1 See Record of Board of Supervisors. 

Harrison, Mamaroneck, Mount Pleasant, New Ro- 
chelle, North Castle, North Salem, Pelham, Pound- 
ridge, Rye, Salem, Scarsdale, Stephentown, West 
Chester, White Plains, Yonkers and Yorktown. " The 
name of the town of Salem was changed to South 
Salem April 6, 1806, and to Lewisboro February 1$, 
1840, and a part of North Salem was annexed April 
26, 1844. Ossining was formed from Mount Pleasant 
May 2, 1845. New Castle was formed from North 
Castle March 18, 1781, and a part of Somers annexed 
May 12, 1846. The name of Stephentown was changed 
to Somers April 6, 1808. West Farms was formed 
from Westchester May 18, 1846. Morrisania was 
formed from West Farms December 7, 1855. King's 
Bridge was formed from Yonkers December 16, 1872. 
By an act of the Legislature passed May 23, 1873, the 
towns of Morrisania, West Farms and King's Bridire 
were annexed to the county of New York, to take 
eflfect on the 1st day of January, 1874.' 

From 1784 to 1788 the supervisors met in different 
places, usually, however, at White Plains, once in 
the Presbyterian meeting-house at Bedford ; after the 
latter date they met alternately at the court-houses, at 
Bedford and White Plains until 1870; since the latter 
date the court-house at White Plains has been their 
place of meeting. 


Colonial Assembly. — ^The history of the various 
assemblies and conventions of the colonial period is a 
very important part of that of the struggle which 
ended in the independence of the colonies. It began 
in the conflict between the people and the director- 
general and Council in the Dutch colonial period, in 
which the former claimed a voice in the govemmeot, 
and the " Twelve Selectmen " of 1641, " The Eight 
Men" of 1643 and 1645, and " The nine men " of 1647, 
'49, '50 and '52, which necessity wrung from the latter, 
are really the later Assembly in embryo. Our interest 
begins with the English period. March 1, 1665, a con- 
vention met at the summons of Grovernor Nicolls, at 
Hempstead, L. I., simply for the promulgation of the 
" Duke's Lawa," which had been framed by the Gover- 
nor under the authority of James, Duke of York and 
Albany. Westchester (later the borough and town of 
Westchester) was represented by Edward Jessup and 
John Quinby . The tyranny and the customs law of the 
Duke of York so exasperated the people that the 
Duke, fearing lest the expenses of the colony shoold 
become a charge on his private purpose, sent out 
Governor Dongan with authority to convene a Gen- 
eral Assembly. He ordered, September 13, 1683, 
the election of an Assembly of fourteen representa- 
tives. The apportionment gave four to Westches- 
ter. Its first act was entitled " Charter of Liberties 
and Priviledges granted by his Boyal Highness to 

« Proceedings of the Board of Supenrlsori, 1873, p. 715. 

a We acknowledge our indebtednev to the Civil lAtft of the Sute d 
New York, of 1880, for Information, and even language to which ifiectel 
reference ii not made. 



the iDhabitants of New York and its dependencies.'' 
This act proves its autliors worthy descendants of a 
liberty-loving ancestry, and the true progenitors of 
the founders of American liberties. James had be- 
come King of England, and it is scarcely necessary 
to add that this charter received the royal disapproval, 
and the General Assembly was abolished, June 16, 
1686. Westchester was represented in this Assembly by 
Thomas Hunt, Sr., Jno. Palmer, Richard Ponton 
and William Richardson. At Leisler's Assembly, 
in 1690, Thomas Browne was Westchester's repre- 
sentative. He died and a new writ of election wbs 
issued. Giovernor Slough ter arrived March 19, 1691, 
with instructions from William and Mary to re-es- 
tablish the Assembly and reinstate the people in their 
ri^ts. It consisted of seventeen members, but was 
afterwards increased to twenty-seven. April 9, 1691, 
it met for the first time. From this date until it 
ceased to exist, April 8, 1775, it was engaged in one pro- 
longed conflict with the Governor and the crown for 
the rights of the people. By the act of May 8, 1699, the 
rqM-esentatives were elected by the freeholders of forty 
pounds in value, who were residents of the electoral 
district at least three months prior to the issue of the 
writ. The elections were held by the sheriff at one 
place in each county, and voting was viva voce. The 
act of November 25, 1751, directed the sheriff to hold 
his court of election near the Presbyterian meeting- 
house at Whit© Plains. Previously it had been held 
in the southern part of the county, doubtless at West- 
chester. Catholics could neither vote nor hold the 
office, and at one time the Quakers and Moravians 
were also virtually disqualified by their unwillingness 
to take the oath. 

The General Assembly legally dates from 1691, 
with which date the compilers of the colonial laws 
were directed to commence. In the first eight As- 
semblies the county of Westchester was represented. 
By the royal charter of April 6, 1696, the borough of 
Westchester (qow town) was established, the free- 
holders of which were empowered to choose a mayor, 
six aldermen and six assistants or Common Council 
for the government of the borough ; also one discreet 
burgess to every Genera) Assembly. The borough of 
Westchester is represented from the Ninth Assembly. 
The Manor of Cortland t was also entitled by its 
charter (dated June 17, 1697) to one representative 
after twenty years had elapsed. The General Assem- 
bly recognized this right June 11, 1784, and Philip 
Verplanck took his seat June 22d following. From 
this date what is now Westchester County had three 

**0n ttM day appointed for the moating of a new Legitlatare the 
■lemberv-elect conveDod at the Aaeembly Chamber in the City of New 
Tork, and if they were above thirteen in number, eent the Clerk of 
the HoQie to inform the QoTemor of their attendance. CommiwionerB, 
CeneraDy, the Judges of the Supreme Court were sent to the Assembly 
Chamber to qualify them, alter which their preefnce was required before 
his Excellency^ who requested them to return to their Chamber and 
elect a Speaker. For that purpose they again retired, and baring made 
ik choice, conducted the person elected to the Chair, which was placed at 

the upper end of Uie long table. He subsequently presented himself, 
accompanied by the members, to the Governor, for his approval, which 
was, of course, granted. The Speaker thereupon addressed the Gov- 
ernor, and, in behalf of the House, prayed ' that their words and actions 
may have a fkvorable construction ; tiiat the members may have ft^se ac- 
cess to him, and they and their servants be privileged with freedom from 
arrests.^ The Governor having granted this request, opened the session 
by reading his speech to both Houses, a copy whereof was delivered to 
the Speaker of the Assembly. Messages to the Council were conveyed 
by one of the members of the House, who was met at the bar of the 
Council by the Speaker of that body, into whose hands the message was 
delivered. All money bills originated in the AssemUy, which, according 
to the practice of the House of Commons, allowed no amendment to be 
made thereto by the Council. Both houses were present in the Council 
Chamber when the Governor passed the bills sent him, on which occa- 
sion the custom was for his Excellency to ask the advice of his Council 
with respect to eveiy bill. If approved, he signed them after these 
words, ' I aaent to this bill, enacting the same, and order it to be en- 
rolled.* The acts were thereupon published in the open street, near the 
City Hall, New York, in the presence of the Governor and both branches 
of the Legislature. All Uws passed were subject, subsequently, to an 
absolute veto of the King.** > 

IM ofm€mben of the OoUmial Atmkblyfrom WettcheiUr County. 
Joaeph Budd, Westchester, 1716-22. 
John De Lancey, Borough of Westchester, 1768-72. 
Peter De Lancey, Borough of Westchester, 1760-68. 
John Drake, Westchester, 1608-1701, 1809-10. 
Joseph Drake, Westchester, 1713-16. 
Henry Fowler, Westchester, 1701. 
Caleb Heathcote, Westchester, 1701-2. 
John Hoite, Westchester, 1712-13. 
John Hunt, Westchester, 1699-1701. 
Joeiah Hunt, Borough of Westchester, 1702-10. 
Josiah Hunt, Westchester, 1716-16. 
Lewis Morris, Sr., Borough of Westchester, 1710-28. 
Lewis Morris, Jr., Borough of Westchester, 1732-60. 
Lewis Morris, Sr., Westchester, 1733-^. 
Lewis Morris (3d), Borough of Westchester, 1760. 
Jonathan Odall, Westchester, 1716-16. 
John Pell, Westchester, 1091-06. 
Adolph Phillipsp, Westchester, 1722-26. 
Fred. Philiipse, Westchester, 1726-60. 
Fred. Philiipse (2d), Westchester, 1761-76. 
Daniel Purdy, Westchester, 1739-43. 
Joseph Purdy, Westchester, 1695-09, 1701-5, 1709. 
Joseph Theale. Westchester, 1691-94, 1697. 
John Townsend, Westchester, 1745-76. 
Pierre Van Cortlandt, Manor of Cortlandt, 1768-76. 
Philip Verplanck, Manor of Cortlandt, 1734-68. 
Edmund Waid, Westchester, 1706-09, 1710-12. 
Isaac Wilkins, Borough of Westchester, 1772-76. 
Gilbert Willet, Borough of Westchester, 1728-32. 
Isaac Willet, Borough of Westchester, 1772-76. 
William Willet, Westchester, 1701-9, 1710-16, 1716-33. 
WillUm Willet, Westchester, 1738. 

Of these members, Adolph Philipse and Lewis Mor- 
ris, Jr., were elected Speakers. There were thirty-one 
Assemblies, — terms of service from two months to ten 
years. The compensation of the representatives from 
Westchester County and Manor of Cortlandt was six 
shillings (seventy-five cents) a day ; that of the repre- 
sentative of the borough of Westchester, ten shillings 
($1.25.) These allowances were paid by their con- 

Delegates to the Provincial Convention of 
April 20, 1775. — ^This convention was summoned by 
the Committee of Sixty, because the General Assem- 
bly refused to comply with the recommendation of 
the Continental Congress to choose delegates to the 

1 CiWl List, 1880, page 269. 



Continental Congress. The Westchester County 

Samuel Drake. Jonathan Piatt. 

Bobert Graham. John Thomaa, Jr. 

James Holmes. Philip Van Cortlandt. 

Lewis Morris. Stephen Ward. 

Provixcial Congress. — ^The last session of the 
Colonial Assembly was held April 3, 1775. These 
conventions were four in number. The first Provin- 
cial Convention met May 22, 1775. The apportionment 
varied. Some of the members were elected for one 
year, others for six months. The vote was taken by 
counties. The First, Second and Third Congresses met 
in New York, while the Fourth was migratory, — meet- 
ing at White Plains, Fishkill and Kingston. The 
deputies were chosen from the counties in the same 
manner as representatives to the Colonial Assembly. 

DepKtiei from We$tchtHer County. 
Name. No. of Congress. 

DaTid Dayton 1st. 

Gilbert Drake 2d, «d, 4th. 

Joseph Drake Ist, 2d. 

Peter Fleming 3d. 

Lewis Graham 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th. 

Robert Graham let, 2d. 

Samuel Haviland 3d, 4th. 

James Holmes 1st. 

Ebenezer Lockwood 2d, 3d, 4th. 

Zebadiah Blills 4th. 

GouTerneur Morris Ist, 3d, 4th. 

Lewis Morris 4th. 

William Paulding 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th. 

Jonathan PUtt 4th. 

Benj. Smith 4th. 

John Thomas, Jr Ist, 2d. 

Jonathan G. Tompkins 3d, 4th. 

Philip Van Cortlandt Ist. 

Pierre Van Cortlandt 2d, 3d, 4th. 

Stephen Ward 1st, 2d. 

Committee of Safety and Council of Safety. 
— During the recesses of the Congresses, a Commit- 
tee of Safety from its members was entrusted with 
executive functions. After the formation of the Con- 
stitution of 1777 a temporary form of government, 
called the Council of Safety, was appointed until a 
Governor and Legislature should be elected. 

Membenfrom WntchesUr Oounty. 
Gouremeur Morris. Jonathan G. Tompkins. 

Pierre Van Cortlandt 

The latter was the presiding ofScer. 

State Conventions. — The Fourth Provincial 
Congress, which assumed the name of the Conven- 
tion of Representatives of the State of New York, re- 
solved itself into a convention to frame a Constitu- 
tion for the State. August 1, 1776, a committee^ of 
thirteen members was appointed to prepare a form of 
government. This committee reported March 12, 
1777, and the first Constitution was adopted April 
20th, following. It is saturated with the principles for 
which the people had contended for more than a cen- 

1 For names of repreeentatlTee of Fourth Prorincial Congress, see list 
aboTe. Gouvemeur Morris, of Westchester County, was on the com- 

tury. The three distinct functions of government 
were recognized. A Legislature, consisting of a Sen- 
ate and Assembly, was the law-making body. The 
executive officer was called the Governor. The ap- 
pointing power was vested in a Council of Appoint- 
ment, which consisted of one Senator from each of 
the four Senatorial Districts. These members of the 
Council were appointed annually by the Assembly. 
The Governor, who presided over the Council of Ap- 
pointment, was to have " a casting voice, but no other 
vote." The elective officers were Governor, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Senators, Assemblymen and the clerks, 
supervisors, constables and collectors of the several 
towns. All other officers — civil and military — ^were 
appointed by the Council of Appointment Male 
resident owners of freeholds of one hundred pounds' 
value elected the Gk)vemor, Lieutenant-Grovernor and 
Senators ; while owners of freeholds of twenty pounds 
in value, etc., were entitled to vote for Assembly- 

The Second Convention convened in Poughkeep- 
sie June 17th, 1788, pursuant to an act of L^^- 
ture, to consider the Federal Constitution. On 
July 26th the convention ratified it by a vote of 
thirty to twenty-seven, seven not voting. The 
following were the delegates from Westchester, 
all of whom showed their good sense by voting to 
ratify : 

Thaddens Crane. Lewis Morris. 

Bichan) Hatfield. Lott W. Saris. 

Philip Livingston. PhUip Van Cortlandt. 

The Third Convention is that of 1801, which was 
held at Albany October Idth to 27th, pursuant to an act 
passed April 6th of that year, to settle the contro- 
versy which had arisen regarding the relative powers 
of the GU)vernor and Council of Appointment respect- 
ing nominations for office, and to consider the expe- 
diency of altering the Constitution in regard to the 
number of Senators and Atoemblymen, with power 
to reduce and limit the same. The Convention 
unanimously decided that the Council of Appoint- 
ment had equal powers of nomination with the Gov- 
ernor; fixed the number of Senators at thirty-two 
and the Assemblymen at one hundred, to be increased 
after each census, at the rate of two yearly, until they 
reached the number of one hundred and &tty. 

D^tefftUei from TTastdbeiCsr Oovmlif. 
Thomas Ferris. Pierre Tan Cortlandt, Jr. 

Israel Honeywell. Ebeneaer White. 

Jonathan G. Tompkins. 

The Fourth Convention was held in Albany Aug- 
ust 28 to November 10, 1821. The question of a Con- 
vention for the Revision of the Constitution was sub- 
mitted to the people. It was carried by a very large 
majority. The burning questions of the day were 
about the Councils of Revision and Appointment. 
The former was objected to as exercising its veto 
power contrary to the ideas for which the colonists 
contended, and as being beyond the reach of the peo- 



pie ; aod the latter, because it had assumed judicial 
authority. The Constitution of 1821 was ratified by 
the people February, 1822. The vote was put into 
the hands of all white male citizens, yirtually without 
condition. The Councils of Revision and Appoint- 
ment were abolished. Appointments, for the most 
part, were made by the Governor, by and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate. The number of elec- 
tive officers was increased. 

Meffotet from Wettduaier County. 
Pet«r A J«7.i Peter J. Monro. 

Jonathan Ward. 

The Fifth Convention met, pursuant to the vote of 
the people and an act of the Legislature, at Albany, 
June 1, 1846, and continued in session until October 
9th of the same year. The new Constitution was rati- 
fied by the popular vote November 3, 1846. Judicial 
officers were made elective. Members of Assembly 
in each county had been hitherto elected on a general 
ticket The third Constitution of 1846 directed the 
Boards of Supervisors to divide their counties into 
Assembly Districts. ^ 

Ddegak$ from Wmkhtaier Ckmntjf. 
John Hunter, t Aaron Ward. 

The Sixth Convention, convened in the same man- 
ner as the preceding, met in the Assembly Cham- 
ber, in Albany, June 4, 1867, and adjourned, wie die, 
February 28, 1868. It consisted of thirty-two dele- 
gates at large and four from each Senatorial District. 
Only the judiciary article was ratified. 

DelegaUt from the NitUk Senatorial Dittriot,* 
Bobert Cochran. ^ William H. Morria. 

Abraham B. Conger. Abraham B. Tappan. 

The Constitutional Commission.— The Gover- 
nor was empowered,* by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate, to appoint thirty-two persons, four 
from each judicial district, as a commission to frame 
into amendments several provisions contained in the 
rejected Constitution of 1867. The commission began 
its work in Albany December 4, 1872, and completed 
it March 15, 1873. Most of the amendments pro- 
posed were submitted to and ratified by the people. 

M'^Hbera of <k« Oommistton, Second Jndieial DldrM.^ 
Jno. J. Armstrong. Odle Close. 

Erastna Brooka. Bei\J. D. Silliman. 

State Legislatuee.— The Legislature of the 
State of New York is composed of the Senate and As- 
sembly, the members of both bodies elected by the 
people. Viva voce voting was done away with by the 
act of February 13, 1787, and since that the ballot has 
been used in elections. 

Senate.— Under the Constitution of 1777 the 

1 Mr. Jay did not sign the Gonititution. 

* Did not dgn the engroaMd Constitution. 

> Putnam, Eockland and Westchester for the Ninth Senatorial Dis- 
« Uws, 1872, ch. 884. 

* Westchester Ck>ant7 belongs to the Second District. 

Senate consisted of twenty-four members, apportioned 
among the four districts, which bore the designations 
Southern, Middle, Eastern and Western. The Conven- 
tion of 1801 increased the number of Senators to 
thirty-two, and the State was divided into eight dis- 
tricts. Since the adoption of the Constitution of 
1846 there have been thirty -two districts, each entitled 
to one member. The term of office is two years ; under 
the Constitution of 1777 it was four. Westchester 
County has belonged, successively, to the Southern, 
First, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and Twelfth. 

IMt ofBe«idmU»of We$toheater Ootmty who have Bepretented Ou varUnu iXs- 
lrict$ to which it hat hdonged im the Senate. 
Names. Tears in the Senate. 

Ben|. Brandreth 1860-61, 1868-69. 

William Oauldwell 1868-71. 

Darius Crosby 1815-18. 

Samuel Haight 1797-1800. 

Richard Hatfleld 1796-1802. 

John Hunter 1823, 1886-43. 

Sir James Jay 1778,1781-82. 

PhUip Livingston 1790-93, '96, '98. 

Allen McDonald 1832-36. 

Lewis Morris 1777-90. 

Richard Morris '. . . .1778-79. 

Henry C. Nelson 1882-84. 

WillUm Nelson 1824-27. 

Ebeneaer Purdy 1801-6. 

WUliam Robertson .1844-16. 

Hezekiah D. Robertson 1860-63. 

William H. Robertson 1864-65,1872-81. 

Edmund O. Sutberiand 1866-67. 

Thomas Thomas 1806-8. 

John Townsend 1820-22. 

Philip Van Cortlandt 1791-94. 

Pierre Van Cortlandt . 1777. 

Jonathan Ward 1807-10. 

Stephen Ward 1780^. 

Assembly. — Assemblymen are elected annually. 
Originally the Assembly consisted of seventy mem- 
bers. The Constitution of 1821 fixed the number 
permanently at one hundred and twenty-eight. Prior 
to the adoption of the Constitution of 1846 all the 
members of Assembly were elected on a general 
ticket ; since then the counties have been divided 
into districts. The representation from this county 
has varied from six in 1777 to two in 1836. At the 
present time it is entitled to three. 

Uet of Member* of ylaMmUy J^om Weetcheeter ComUy^ 1777-1885. 
1777 to 1847. 
Names. Tears in Assembly. 

WUUam Adams. 1798-W. 

Jeremiah Anderson 1826. 

Joseph H. Anderson 1833-34. 

Bei^amin Barker 1807. 

John Barker 1796-98. 

Wlllinm Barker 1809-10, 1812-14, 1818-19. 

Francis Barrette 1838. 

James E. Beers 1847. 

Joseph Benedict 1778-79. 

Thomas Bowne 1795. 

Aaron Brown 1829-30. 

Joseph Brown 1789-90. 

Nehemiah Brown, Jr 1823-24. 

Ebenezer S. Burling 1784-86. 

Joseph Carpenter 1796-97. 

Joseph T. Carpenter 1841-42. 

George Comb 18oo. 



L AntboDj Ck>tMtont 1846. 

St. John Constftnt 1823, '31. 

Thaddens Crane 1777-79, 1788-89, 1820. 

DitfinsGnMby 1811-12. 

Edwin Cnaby 1834-36. 

Nicholas Cniger 1838. 

Lawrence Davenport 1820-30. 

Nathaniel DeleTan 1781-82. 

Samuel Drake 1777-81, *86, '88. 

BeiUamin Ferris 1808, *24. 

Samuel B. Ferris 1830-10. 

Andrew Findlay 1843-44. 

John Fisher 1827-28. 

William Fisher 1836-37. 

Peter Fleming 1701. 

Joel Frost 1806, *08. 

John W. Frost 1832. 

NUes Frost 1824. 

AbUah Gilbert 1770-86, *88, *91, 1800-6. 

Bobert Graham 17n-78, 1800-1. 

James Gnion 1810-2U 

Samuel Haight 1782-84, 1780-02. 

Mordecai Hale 1706-07. 

Richard Hatfield 1704. 

John R. Hayward 1846. 

Samuel L. Holmes 1843. 

Israel HoneyweU, Jr 1777-70. 

Israel Honeywell 1708-00. 

PhiUp Honeywell ..... .1806. 

Jonathan Horton 1788-01. 

Joseph Hunt 1822. 

BeiUamin Isaacs 1807, 1814-16, *18. 

John Lawrence 1782-83. 

EUJahLee 1708-00. 

Tbomas R. Lee 1745. 

Philip Livingston 1788-80. 

Ebeneser Lockwood 1778-70, 1784-88. 

Ears Lockwood 1806. 

Horatio Lockwood 1833-36, 1841-42. 

Ears Marshall 1846-47. 

Seth Marvin 1807. 

Abraham Miller 1808, 1811-14, 1816-17, 1820-21. 

Zebedlah Mills 1777-84. 

Bemardus Montross 1837. 

Nathaniel Montitm 1827-28. 

Gonvemeur Morris 1777-78. 

Richard Y. Morris 1814. 

Peter J. Munro 1814-16. 

Thomas Murphy 1831. 

William Nelson 1820-21. 

EliasNewman 1702-04, '06. 

Abraham Odell 1800-6, 1807-10. 

Jacob Odell 1811-12. 

Ocias Osbnm 1808. 

Prince W. Paddock 1836-36. 

William Paulding 1770-80. 

Philip Pell, Jr 1770-81,1784-86. 

Bbeneaer Purdy 1779-80, 1782-86, '87, '01, '92, '05. 

WUUam Requa 1814-16, 1818-10. 

Nathan RockweU 1780-82, 1787-1800. 

Joseph Scofleld 1825-37. 

Walter Seaman 1788-00. 

Roger Skinner 1810. 

Abel Smith 1704-06, 1798-1802, 1829-30. 

John H. Smith 1826. 

Thomas Smith 1822-23, '32. 

Joseph Strang 1780-81, 1787-88. 

Joseph Strang 1839-40. 

Charles Teed 1796-1800. 

Thomas Thomas 178C-88, 1792-93, 1800-4. 

Enoch Thompson 1822. 

Caleb Tompkins 1804-6. 

Jonathan O. Tompkins .... 1780-88, 1791-92. 

John Townsend 1816-17. 

Joeeph Travis 1802-6. 

James Turk 1828. 

Philip Van Cortlandt 1788-90. 

Pierre Van Cortiandt, Jr . . .1702,1704-05. 

Aaron Vark 1831. 

Stephen Ward 1778. 

Israd H. Watson 1832-8S. 

Sbeneaar White 1794-06. 

Ebeneser White, Jr 1816-17. 

John White 1814. 

James WUey 1826. 

Gharies Wright 1844. 

Samuel Toungs 1706, 1800-10. 

1848 to 1886. 
District Name. Years in Assembly. 

2. Albert Badeau 1872. 

2. Mtnd W. Bartlett 1871. 

2. Theodore H. Benedict 1861. 

1. Orrin A. Bills 1866. 

2. David Ogden Bradley 1870, 'Sa 

3. George A. Brandreth 1864, '66, '66w 

1. Daniel Clark Briggs 1861. 

3. Benjamin F. Gamp 1861. 

2. William H. Gatlln 1880-82. 

1. William GauldweU 1874. 

2. Eli Curtis 1856. 

3. Chauncey M. Depew 1862, '63. 

1. Amell F. Dickinson 1867. 

I. Claiborne Ferris 1869. 

1. George C. Finch 1863. 

1. George H. Forster 1876. 

1. Franklin W. Gilley 1864. 

2. Newberry D. Halsted 1862. 

2. Abraham Hatfield 1852. 

1. WUlIam Herring 1873. 

John Hoag 1883. 

8. Frost Horton .... • 1868. 

3. Gaylord B. HubbeU 1860, '60. 

1. Daniel Hunt 1856. 

2. Lawrence D. Huntington 1866. 

8. James W. Husted 1860-78, '81, '84, '86. 

Samuel W. Johnson 1883-86. 

Edwin R. Keyen 1882, '83. 

2. Harvey Kidd 1840. 

2. Edward D. Lawrence 1869, '7a 

1. BlUahLee 1864. 

2. Alsop H. Lockwood 1864, '65. 

1. George W. Lyon 1852. 

2. Jesse Lyon 1860. 

2. John E. Marshall 1863. 

Charles P. McClelland 1885. 

1. William J. McDermott 1861. 

1. William T. B. MUllken 1860. 

2. William F. Moller 1877, 78, '81. 

1. James J. Mooney 1870. 

3. Henry C. Nelson 1868. 

1. WUllam W. Niles 1872. 

2. JacobOdell 1868, '64. 

2. N. Holmes Odell 1860, '61. 

Norton P. Otis 1884. 

2. JaredV. Peck 1848. 

2. George J. Penfleld . . • 1867, '68. 

1. Ambrose H. Purdy 1877, '78. 

1. Samuel M. Purdy 1867, '68. 

George W. Robertson 1882. 

1. William H. Robertson 1849, *50. 

2. Charles M. Schieffelin 1875, '76. 

G. Hilton Scribner 1871. 

2. James S. See 1869. 

1. Dennis R. Schiel 1875. 

1. Abnun R. Str»ng 186C. 

2. Edmund G. Sunderland 1867, '58. 

I. Pierre C. Tallman 1862, '63, '65. 

1. Abram B. Tappen 1858. 

3. David W. Travis 1867, '79, '80. 

1. R. M. Underbill 1848. 

1. Augustus Van Curtlandt 1850. 

2. Frederick W. Waterbury 1865. 

1. James Lee Welis 1870. 

2. Amhei»t Wight, Jr 1873,74. 




CJONTINENTAL Ck>NORES8. — Originally these del^ates 
were chosen hy the Provincial Congress. The Articles 
of Confederation and Perpetual Union adopted by the 
Continental Congress, November 15, 1777, directed the 
appointment annually of delegates by the State Leg- 
islaturee. The number from each State was not to be 
less than two or more than seven. This State 
osually sent five, occasionally six. The votes in Con- 
gress were by States. 

Name. Tean in Oontioental GungrMi. 

GoQTeriMiir Morrto 1777, 78. 

Lewifl Morrtoi 1776. 

PhiUp Pell 1788. 

Besidbnts of Westchestee County who have 
Represented their District in Congress.— This 
county originally was divided ; the northern tier hf 
towns formed, with Dutchess County, one district, 
while the remainder was, with New York, in another. 
Later it formed with Richmond a district. Since 
then it has been in the following districts: Third, 
Fourth, Seventh, Ninth, Tenth and Twelfth. The 
term of ofiSce is two years. -^^ 

Name. Tean in Moose of RepreaeDtatlvet. 

JoMph H. Anderaon 1843-47. 

Joel Frost 182»-25. 

John B. HaaklDt 1867-61. 

Winiam NelK>o 1847-61. 

N. Holmes Odell 1876-77. 

Jared V. Peck 1863-66. 

ClarksoD N. Potter 1869, 1876, 1877-79. 

WUliam Radford 1863-67. 

WnUam H. Bobertoon 1867-69. 

Cbleb Tompkins 1817-21. 

Philip VanOortlandt 1793-1809. 

Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr 1811-W. 

Aaron Ward 1826,1829,1831,1837,1841,1843 

Jonathan Waid 1816-17. 

Colonial Supreme Court Justices.— Appoint- 
ment vested in the Governor ; the term of office, his 

Chief Ju4tieei. 
Name. Appointed. 

Joseph Dndley May 16, 1691. 

WilUam Smith NoTember 11, 1692. 

SIspben Tan Cortlandt October 30, 1700. 

Abfmham De Psyster January 21, 1701. 

William Atwood August 5, 1701. 

Winiam Smith June 9, 1702. 

John Bridges April 6, 1703. 

Eoger MompesBon July 16, 1704. 

Lewis Morris March IS, 1716. 

iames de Lancey Aognst 21, 1733. 

Benjamin Pratt November 11, 1761. 

Bantel Horsemandeu March 16, 1763. 

AmoeiaU <fr Pui$it4 Judg^ of Colonial Supreme CowL 


• Johnson May 15, 1G91. 

WUham Smith May 15, 1691. 

Stephen Van Cortlandt May 15, 1691. 

William Plnhome May 15, 1691. 

WUliam Plnhome April 3, 1693. 

Chidley Brooke April 3, 1693. 

John Lawrsnoe April 3, 1693. 

> Signer of the DeclarsUon of Independence. 

John Guest June, 1698. 

Abrsham De Peyster October 4, 1698. 

Robert Walters Augnst5, 1701. 

John Bridges June 14, 1702. 

Robert Milward April 6, 1708. 

Thomas Wenham April 6, 1708. 

James De Lancey June 24, 1731. 

Frederick Philipse June 24, 1731. 

Frederick Philipse August 21, 1783. 

Daniel Horaemanden January 24, 1736. 

John Chambers July 30, 1761. 

Daniel Horsemanden July 28, 1763. 

David Jones November 21, 1768. 

Daniel Horsemanden March 26, 1762. 

David Jones March 31, 1762. 

David Jones March 16, 1763. 

William Smith, the elder March 16, 1763. 

Robert R. Livingston March 16, 1763. 

George D. Ludlow December 14, 1769. 

Thomss Jones September 29, 1773. 

Whitehead Hicks February 14, 1776. 

State Supreme Court.— Under the Constitution 
of 1777 appointment was vested in the Council of 
Appointment, and the term was during good behav- 
ior or until sixty years of age. Under that of 1821 the 
Governor appointed with the advice and consent 
of the Senate. The term remained the same. The 
Constitution of 1846 made the office elective and the 
term eight years. The amendment to the judiciary 
article adopted November, 1869, lengthened the term 
to fourteen years. 

Chief Ju$Uom of As State Svipreme OowrL 
Name. Appointed. 

John Jay Maj 8, 1777. 

Richard Morris October 23, in9. 

Robert Tates September 28, 1790. 

John Lansing, Jr February 15, 1798. 

Morgan Lewis October 28, 1801. 

James Kent July 2, 1804. 

Smith Thompson February 3, 1814. 

Ambrose Spencer February 29, 1819. 

John Savage January 29, 1823. 

Samuel Nelson August 31, 1831. 

Greene C. Brouson Mart-h 5, 1845. 

Samuel Beardsley June 28, 1847. 

A$$ociaU or Pmene Ju8lice$ of the State Supreme CourL 
Name. Appointed. 

Robert Tates May 8. 1777. 

John SlosB Hobart May 8, 1777. 

John Lansing, Jr September 28, 1790. 

Morgan Lewis December 24, 1792. 

Egbert Benson January 29, 1794. 

James Kent Februsi^ 6, 1798. 

John Cosine August 9, 1798. 

Jacob Radcliff December 27, 1798. 

Broclcholst Livingston January 8, 1802. 

Smith Thompson January 8, 1802. 

Ambrose Spencer February 3, 1804. 

Daniel D. Tompkins July 2, 1804. 

William W. Van Ness June 9, 1807. 

Joseph C. Yates February 8, 1808. 

Jonas Piatt February 23, 1814. 

John Woodworth March 27, 1819. 

Jacob Sunderland January 28, 1823. 

William L. Marcy January 21, 1829. 

Samuel Nelson February 1, 1831. 

Greene C. Bronson January 6, 1836. 

Esek Cowen August 31, 18:16. 

Samuel Beardsley February 20, 1844. 

Freeborn G. Jewett March 5, 1845. 

Frederick Whittlesey June 30, 1847. 

Thomas McKlssock July 1, 1847. 



CireuU Jmdget {Second OrcuU), 
IJame. Appointed. 

Samuel R. Betts April 21, 1823. 

James Emott February 21, 1827. 

Charles H. Buggies March 9, 1831. 

Selah B. Strong March 27, 1M6. 

Seward Barculo April 4^ 1846. 

JutUce$ o/Sufiretite Court {Second DMrid). 
Name. Elected. 

Selah B. Strong June 7, 1847. 

wmiam T. McCown June 7, 1847. 

Kathan B. Morse June 7, 1847. 

Seward Barcnlo June 7, 1847. 

John W. Brown November 6, 1849. 

Selah B. Strong November 9, 1861. 

William Rockwell November 8, 1868. 

Gilbert Dean June 26, 1854. 

James Emott NoTember 6, 1865. 

Lucien Birdseye August 13, 1856. 

John W. Brown November 3, 1867. 

John A. Lott November 3, 1867. 

William W. Scrugham November 8, 1869. 

William Fullerton August 30. 1867. 

Stephen W. Fullerton November 6, 1867. 

John A. Lott November 6, 1861. 

>. Joseph F Barnard November 3, 1863. 

Jasper W. Gilbert , . . November 7, 1866?^ 

Abraham B. Tappen November 5, 1867. 

Calvin K. Pratt November 2, 1869. 

Jackson 0. Dykman November 2, 1875. 

County Judges.— The Court of CommoD Pleaa 
was erected by the act of 1691. It was compoeed of 
one judge and three justices, who were appointed by 
the Gk>vernor and held office during his pleasure. In 
1702 the judge was assisted by two or more justices. 
Under the first Constitution there was one judge and 
several assistant judges. The act of March 27, 1818/ 
abolished the office of assistant judge and limited the 
number of judges to five. Under the State govern- 
ment the appointment was at first vested in the Coun- 
cil of Appointment, and the office was held during 
their pleasure. Later, the (Governor, with the advice 
and consent of the Senate, appointed the county 
judges, and the term was five years. The Constitution 
of 1846 made the office elective and the term four 
years. The amendmentof 1869 extended it to six years. 

Juigee of the Court of Common Pleae and Countff Court {Colonialj. 

Name. Appointed. 

Galeb Heathcote 1695. 

WillUm Willett 1721. 

Frederick Phtlipee » November 2, 1735. 

Ssrmuel Purdy January 22, 1762. 

John Thomas May 8, 1766. 

SinU Oon$iUution$ of 1777 and 1821. 

Name. Appointed. 

Lewis Morris i May 8, I7n. 

Robert Graham February 17, 1778. 

Stephen Ward May 6, 1784. 

Ebeneser Lock wood • ... March 1ft, 1791. 

Jonathan O. Tompkins February 16, 1793. 

Ebenezer Purdy February 23, 1797. 

Jonathan O. Tompkins 1798. 

ElUah L«e January 20, 1802. 

John Watts March 29, 1802. 

Caleb Tompkini June 8, 1807. 

WillUm Jay June 7, 1820. 

Caleb Tompkins February 10, 18i3. 

Robert S. Hart March 27, 1846. 

Albert L«>ckwood June, 1847. 

1 Appointed by ordinance of Provincial Convention. 

Conetiimtion o/ 1846. 
Name. Elected. 

John W. Mills November, 1851. 

William H. Robertson November, 1856. 

Robert Cochran November, 1887. 

Silas D.QUrord November, 1871. 

Isaac N. Mills< November, 1883. 

Subrogates. — The authority to grant prohates was 
vested in the Governor as the representative of the 
King, and he was the ordinary of the Prerogative 
Court. All wills relating to estates in New York, 
Orange, Richmond, Westchester and Kings Counties 
were to be proved in New York. In the towns under 
the Duke's Laws the constables, overseers and justices 
took charge of the estates of intestates. Under the 
act of November 11, 1692, this duty was performed 
by two freeholders appointed or elected for the pur- 
pose. Surrogates were appointed by the colonial 
Governor at a very early date — for Westchester County 
as early as 1730. They had very limited powers. 
Since the organization of the State the surrogates 
have been vested with the authority to grant pro- 
bates, subject to appeal to the Court of Probates. 
Counties where the population exceeds forty thousand 
may be authorized by the Legislature to elect such an 
officer. Otherwise the county judge acts as such. 
The office was filled by appointment of the Council of 
Appointment ; later by the Governor and Senate. Un- 
der the Constitution of 1846 it became elective. The 
term was at first during the pleasure of the appoint- 
ing power. From 1821 to 1846 they were appointed 
for four years. Since the office became elective the 
term has been six years. ^^ 

Colonial Surrogaiet of Weeleheeter County. 
Name. Appointed. 

Gilbert Willet 1730. 

John Barton Febmary 9, 175i. 

Caleb Fowler Jnne 10, 1761. 

David Daton June 9, 1766. 

Surrogatet of Weslekewter County under the Conttitutiom of 1777 mtd ItfL 
Name. Appointed. 

Richard Hatfield March 23, 1778. 

Philip Pell, Jr March 18, 1787. 

Samuel Toungs October 81, 1800. 

Edward Thomas Janoaiy 28, ISOl 

Samuel Yonngi Fefaraaiy 19, 180V. 

Exra Lockwood March 10, 1808. 

Samuel Toungs February 16^ ISia 

Ezra Lockwood February 12, 181L 

Samuel Youngs Mardi 19, 1818. 

Henry White March 16, 1816. 

Samuel Youngs July 8, 1819. 

Sbeneier White, Jr February 17, 18ZL 

Jonathan Ward March 28, 1888. 

Alexander H. Wells February 7. 1840. 

Frederick J. Coffin May 1, 1844. 

Surrogatea of Weetchester County under the OonaUtuiton 0/1846. 
Name. Elected. 

Lewi* C. Piatt June, 1847. 

Bobert H. Coles November, 1855. 

Silas D.GlflTord February 5, 1861 

John W. Mills November, 1868. 

Owen T. Coffin* November, 1870. 

* Present incumbent. 
' Present incumbent 



District Attorneys. — By the act of February 
12, 1796, the State was divided into seven districts* 
each of which had an attorney, called assistant at- 
torney-general. The Assistant Attorney-General be- 
came, in 1801, district attorney. By the act of 
April 1818, each county became a district, and had 
its own district attorney. Under the Constitu- 
tion of 1777 the Council of Appointment filled the 
office during pleasure; that of 1821 vested the ap- 
pointment in the Court of Sessions, while under the 
preRent one the office is elective. 

Didrid i4ttonuf*— FM Dkbriet ^^Act of 1796. 
Name. Appointed. 

Nfttbaaiel Lawrence February 16, 1796. 

Cbdwallader D. Golden January 16, 1798. 

Aol of IWl* 
Name. Appointed. 

Sichani Biker Angost 19, 1801. 

Cadwallader D. Golden Febmaiy 18, 1810. 

Richard Biker February 19, 1811. 

Barent Gardenier March 6, 1813. 

Thomas 8. Letter April 8, 1816. 

Name. Appointed. 

Robert P. Lee June 12, 1818. 

Aaron Ward July 8, 1819. 

Wmiam Netoon February 21, 1822. 

Richard R. Yoris September 27, 1844. 

William W. Scrugham June, 1847. 

Edward Wells November, 1856. 

William H. Pemberton November, 1859. 

Pelham L. McGlelan November, 1862. 

John S. Bates November, 1865. 

Jkckson O. Dykeman November, 1868. 

Daniel C. Briggs November, 1871 . 

Robert Cochran November, 1874. 

Nelson H. Baker^ November, 1877. 


Sheriffs. — During the colonial period the sheriff 
were appointed annually by the Gk>vemor, usually in 
the month of October. The Constitution of 1777 
vested the appointment in the Council of Appoint- 
ment. The term was one year, and no person could 
hold the office for more than four successive years. 
The Constitution of 1821 made the office elective and 
the term three years. No sheriff is eligible for re- 
election for the next succeeding term. 

Colonial— York$Mre. 
Name. Appointed. 

WiUiam Wells March 11, 1665. 

Robert Goe 1669. 

John Manning September 7, 1671. 

Sylvester Salisbury December 9, 1674. 

PhiUp WeUs July, 1675. 

Thomas Willett July 1, 1676. 

Richard Betts 1678. 

John Tonng 1680. 

Wmlchttter Ooumiy. 
Name. Appointed. 

Bei\|amin GoUier November 9, 1688. 

Thomas Slatham December 14, 1689. 

BsAjamin OolHer March 21, 1691. 

1 rtrst District included Kings, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk and West- 
cherter Counties. 

*FirM District included Kings, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk, Weetches- 
ttr until 1816, and New York untU 1815. 

'lach oOTinty became a district. 

< Present Incumbent. 

John Shute October, 1698. 

Edmund Ward October, 1699. 

Jeremiah Fowler October, 1700. 

Isaac Dunham October, 1701. 

Roger Barton October, 1702. 

Israel Honeywell, Jr October, 1709. 

Gilbert WiUet. October, 1723. 

Jacobus Van Dyck October, 1727. 

Gilbert WiUet October, 1730. 

Nicholas Cooper October, 1733. 

Isaac Willet October, 1737. 

Lewis Graham October, 1767. 

John De Lancey October, 1769. 

James De Lancey June 27, 1770. 

StaU—Omatitmtion qf 1777. 
Name. Appointed. 

John Thomas, Jr May 8, 1777. 

John Thomas January 6, 1778. 

Jesse Hunt March 29, 1781. 

John Thomas March 8, 1785. 

Philip Pell March 13, 1787. 

Thomas Thomas March 22, 1788. 

Samuel Haight February 21, 1792. 

EUas Newman March 1, 1796. 

William Barker March 26, 1799. 

Jonathan Ward * . . . February 17, 1802. 

Daniel Delevan March 19, 1806. 

.roseph Hatfield March 23, 1807. 

St. John Constant March 10, 1808. 

Elijah Ward February 16, 1810. 

St. John Constant February 12, 1811. 

Lyman Cook February 26, 1812. 

Zabud June March 16, 1815. 

Lyman Cook February 25, 1818. 

Ward B. Howard . Februaiy 14, 1821. 

ConttUutioiu of 1821 and 1846. 
Name. Elected. 

John Townsend November, 1822. 

Allan McDonald November, 1825. 

David D. Webbers November, 1828. 

Aaron Brown November, 1831. 

Joseph H. Anderson November, 1834. 

Amos T. Hatfield November, 1837. 

Joseph Lyon November, 1840. 

William H. Briggs November, 1843. 

JamesM. Bates November, 1846. 

Bei^amin D. Miller '. . November, 1649. 

Alsop H. Lookwood November, 1852. 

Daniel H. Little November, 1855. 

WiUiam Bleakley, Jr November, 1858. 

Lieman B. Tripp November, 1861. 

Darius Lyon November, 1864. 

John Busdng November, 1867. 

Robert F. Brundage November, 1870. 

Ziba Carpenter November, 1873. 

Robert F. Brundage November, 1876. 

James C. Courter November, 1879. 

Stephen D. Horton* November, 1882. 

County Clerks.— "The County Clerk, during the 
colonial period, was constituted by his commission 
clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, Clerk of the 
Peace and Clerk of the Sessions of the Peace in his 
county. Under the first State Constitution, it was 
his duty to keep the County Records and act as 
Clerk of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas and 
Clerk of the Oyer and Terminer. County Clerks are 
now likewise Clerks of the Supreme Court in their 
respective counties." • During the colonial period 
appointment was vested in the Governor ; under the 

6 Present incpmbent. 

« Civil List of State of New York, 1880, p. 384. 



first Constitution of 1777, in the Council of Appoint- 
ment; since then the ofl5ce has been elective and the 
term three years. 

Name. Appointed. 

John Rider Maj II, l6tA. 

Joseph Lee September 13,1684. 

Edward Collier 1688. 

Joseph Lee March U, 1691. 

Benjamin Ck)Ilier October 17, 1698. 

John aapp October 4, 1707. 

Daniel Clark 1711. 

William ForBter 1722. 

Bei^amin Nlcoll May 14, 1746. 

John Barstow April 23, 1760. • 

State ComtiMioH 0/ nn. 
Name. Appointed. 

John Barstow May 8, 1777. 

Bichard Hatfield September 22, 1777. 

Thomas Ffrris January 29, 1802. 

ElUah Crawford March 10, 1806. 

Thomas Ferris February 16, 1810. 

Eiyah Crawford February 12, 1811. 

Thomas Ferris Marrh 19, 1813. 

Elijah Crawford March 16, 1816. 

William Requa .' June 8, 1820. 

Nehemlah S. Bates February 17, 1821. 

ConUUutioiu qf 1821 oiid 1846. 
Name. Elected. 

Nehemlah S. Bates NoTf>mber, 1822. 

Nathaniel Bayles Norember, 1828. 

John H. Smith November, 1834. 

Chauncey Smith December 7, 1839. 

Charles A. Purdy November, 1840. 

Munson I. Lockwood November, 1843. 

Roberts. Oakley November, 1849. 

John P. Jenkins November, 1855. 

Hiram P. Rowell November, 1868. 

Chauncey M. Depew i May 25, 1867. 

WlllUm W. Plerson « July 22, 1867. 

J. Malcolm Smith November, 1867. 

John M. Rowell November, 1876. 

James F. D. Crane * November, 1882. 

County Treasurers. — During the colonial period 
the treasurers from J 701 to 1703 were elected by the 
justices of the peace in the Court of General or Spe- 
cial Sessions; from 1703 to 1846 by the supervisors. 
The Constitution of 1846 made the office elective and 
the term three years. 

Name. Elected. 

Ellsha Horton November, 1848. 

Robert Palmer November, 1851. 

Lleman B. Tripp November, 1854. 

Henry Wllletts November, 1857. 

Gilbert S. Lyon < November 25, 1866. 

N. Holmes Odell November, 1872. 

George W. Davids November, 1876. 

David Cromwell » November, 1878. 

County Superintendents of Common Schools. 
— The Boards of Supervisors were directed, by the act 
of April 17, 1843, to appoint County Superintendents 
of Common Schools. The office was abolished March 
13, 1847. 

Samuel L. Holmes. John Hobbs. 

1 Appointed vicf Rowell, deceased. 

* .\ppolnted tfiee Depew, who failed to qualify. 
*Preflent Incumbent. 

4 Appointed vice Wllletts, resigned. 

* Prpeent Incumbent. 

School Commissioners.— " Prior to 1857 School 
Commissioners were appointed by the Boards of Su- 
pervisors. Since that year they have been elected on 
a separate ballot. The first election under the act 
creating the office (chapter 179, Laws of 1856) was 
held in November, 1859. Term, three years."* 


A. G. Reynolds. 

Frranklin W. Gilley. 

Jared H. Horton. 

Joseph H. Palmer. 

Theodore Kent. 

Joseph F. Wood. 

William Miller. 

Jared SanfonLT 


Samuel U. Berrian 

George W. Smith. 

William G. Weston 

Isaac D. Yermllye. 

Theodore B. Stevens. 

Abel T. Stewart. 

James B. Lockwood.« 

Third DitirieL 

James W. Husted. 

Isaac C. Wright 

John 8. Bates. 

Edward N. BarrtiCt. 

Henry White. 

putt B. H. Sawyer. 

Heciy A. Wells. 

James F.WilUama. 


Joseph Barrett. 













. 33,131 



1830 .... . 
























I860.. . ; . . 


















LIKT or SUPKBTXaOBt,^ 177S-1787. 

Wmiam DaTU Phlllpsbnrgh. 

William Sutton Mamaroneck. 

Ebeneneser Lockwood Poundridge. 

James Holmes . Bedford. 

Stephen Ward. East Chester. 

Abljah Gilbert Salem. 

Richard Willis. . . . New RocheUe. 

William Barker. Scandale. 

David Daton North Osat]«. 

Robert Graham. Whit« Plains. 

James Van Cortlandt Tonken. 

Pierre Van Ck)rtlaudt Manor of Oortlandt. 


WiUiam Barker Scarsdale. 

Samuel Haviland. Rye. 

James Van Cortlandt Yonkers. 

James Pell Pelham. 

James Holmes Bedford. 

James Ferris Westchester. 

Morriit Morrisania. 

• Civil List, 1880, p. 398. 

7 Present incumbent 

^ Present incumbent 

» Appointed vice Sawyer, deceased. 

10 Present Incumbent 

" Census of North Castle, Bedford, Poundridge, Salem, Manor of Cort- 
landt, Ryck's Patent 

1* Towns of Morrimnla, West Farms and KIng*s,Bridge annexed to New 
York City by chap. 613 of laws of 1873. 

" Records of Board of Supervisors. 



AbUah Gilbert Salem. 

WUliMn Dftvifl PhiUpaburgh. 

DftTid DatoD North Castle. 

Stephen Ward East Chester. 

WlUlam SnttoQ. MamaroDeck. 

EbeQezer Lockwuod. Poundridge. 


Pierre Van Cortlandt Manor of Cortlandt. 

James Cronkhite Byok's Patent. 

Bobert Onibaiu White Plains. 

Pierre Van Cortlandt ........ Cortlandt Manor. 

James Holmes. Bedford, 

Samnel Hariland Bye. 

D«Tid Daton North Castle. 

James Ferris Westchester. 

William Sutton Mamaroneck. 

Kbenexer Lockwood. Poundridge. 

William Daris. Phllipsburgh. 

William Barker Scandale. 

James Cronkhite Byck's Patent. 

Bobert Graham White Plains. 

Stephen Ward East Chester. 


Samuel Haviland. James Van Cortlandt. 

William Darls. William Barker. 

Pierre Van Cortlandt n>enezer Lockwood. 

Stephen Ward. Lewis W. Donald. 

Joseph Drake. James Pell. 

Samuel Pnrdy. AblJah Gilbert. 

James Horton. David Daton. 


Ebeneser Lockwood. Jacob Pnrdy. 

Joseph Strang. AbUah Gilbert 
Israel Lyon. 

January 5, 1779. 

Ebeneser Lockwood. Israel Lyon. 

Joseph Strang. Ab^ah Gilbert 

Jacob Pnrdy. 

Febrwurv 19, 1779. 

Jacob Purdy. Israel Lyon. 

Joseph Paulding. AbUah Gilbert 

March 18, 1779. 
n»enezer Lockwood. Joseph Paulding. 

Joseph Strang. Jacob Purdy. 

Israel Lyon. 

itfay 13, 1780. 

Samuel Haight Manor of Cortlandt. 

Jacob Purdy North CasUe. 

Israel Loon Bedford. 

William Dancber Poundridge. 

Abijah Gilbert Salem. 

Odaim 9, 1780. 

Israel Lyon. Bedford. 

William Dancher Poundridge. 

John Van Tassel Byck's Patent. 


Samuel Haight Manor of Cortlandt. 

Ab^ah Gilbert Salem. 

Samuel Haight Manor of Cortlandt. 

Israel Lyon Bedford 

William Ifancher Poundridge. 

AbiJah Gilbert Salem. 

January 28, 1782. 

Zebediah Mills Bedford. 

Samuel Haight Manor of Cortlandt. 

Ebenezer Lockwood Poundndge. 

AbUah Gilbert Salem. 

May 29, 1782. 

Peter Fleming Bedford. 

Ebenezer Lockwood Poundridge. 

James Cronkhite Byck^s Patent 

AbUah Gilbert Salem. 

Samnel Haight Manor of Cortlandt 


Ebenezer Lockwood. Poundridge. 

Joseph Strang. Manor of Cortlandt.] ^ «, 

Peter Fleming Bedford. 

AbUeh OUbert Salem. 

James Cronkhite : ■ • • I^yck'" Patent 


John Thomas. Bye. 

William Paulding Philipsburgh. 

Jonathan G. Tompkins Manor of Scarsdale. 

Joseph Strang. ... • Manor of Cortlandt. 

Thaddeus Crane Town of Upper Salem. 

Benjamin Stevenson New BocheUe. 

Israel Honeywell Yonkers. 

WUliam Miller Harrison's Precinct. 

Ebenezer Lockwood. Poundridge. 

Ebeneser £. Burling East Chester. 

Abel Smith. North Castle. 

Daniel Horton White Plains. 

Gilbert Budd ...» Mamaroneck. 

Abiiah Gilbert Salem. 

Peter Fleming Town of Bedford. 


Abel Smith Precinct of North Castle. 

Thomas Hunt Borough Town ofWestchester 

William Paulding Manor of Philipsburgh. 

Jonathan G. Tompkins Manor of Scarsdale. 

Thaddeus Crane Town of Upper Salem. 

WUliam. Miller. Harrison's Precinct 

Joseph Strang Manor of Van Cortlandt. 

Ebeneser Lockwood Precinct of Poundridge. 

Gilbert Budd Town of Mamaroneck. 

Ebenezer S. Burling Town of East Chester. 

Daniel Horton Precinct of White Plains. 

Israel Honeywell Yonkers. 

John Thomas Town of Bye. 

Philip Pell Manor of Pelham. 

Bei^amin Stevenson Town of New BocheUe. 

William Morris Manor of Morrisania. 

Ab^ah Gilbert Town of Lower Salem. 

JuM 28, 1785. 

Gilbert Budd Mamaroneck. 

William Davis Manor of PhiUpsburgh. 

Jonathan G. Tompkins. Manor of Scarsdale. 

Joseph Strang Manor of Cortlandt 

Ebenezer Lockwood Poundridge. 

Peter Fleming Bedford. 

Abraham Leggett Westchester. 

Daniel Horton White Plains. 

Abel Smith North CasUe. 

James Cronkhite Byck's Patent 

James Hunt East Chester. 

William Miller Harrison's Prednct. 

Jesse Hunt Bye. 

AbUah Gilbert Salem. 

October 4, 1786. 

Jeese Hunt Town of Bye. 

Benjamin Stevenson Town of New Bochelle. 

WiUiam Davis Manor of Philipsburgh. 

Daniel Hunt White Plains. 

Lewis Morris Manor of Morrisania. 

Philip PeU Manor of Pelham. 

Thaddeus Crane Town of Uppor Salem. 

Peter Fleming Town of Bedford. 

Abraham Leggett Town of Westchester. 

James Cronkhite Byck's Patent. 

Jonathan G. Tompkins Manor of Scarsdale. 

Joseph Strang Manor of Cortlandt 

Abel Smith District of North Ctotle. 

Ebenezer Lockwood District of Poundridge. 

James Hunt Town of East Chester. 

William Miller Harrison's Precinct 

Abynh Gilbert Town of Lowo- Salem. 



Mav 9, 1786. 

William Morris . . . . . 

Lake Hunt 

Jamee Hunt 

Gilbert Budd 

Jease Hunt 

William MlUer . . . . . 
Jonathan G. Tompkins 
Abrabun Guion . . . 

Philip PeU 

Daniel Horton .... 


William Hadley . . . . 
Jonathan Horton . . 
James Cronkbite . . . 
Joseph Strang .... 
Zebediab Mills . ... 
Ebenezer Lockwood . 
Hachaliah Brown . . . 
AbUah Gilbert .... 

. Manor of Morrisania. 

. Town of Westchester. 

. To^'n of East Chester. 

. Town of Mamaroneck. 

. Town of Bje. 

. Harrison's Precinct. 

. Manor of Scarsdale. 

. Town of New Rochelle. 

. Manor of Pelham. 

. Precinct of White Plains. 

. Precinct of North Castle. 

. Precinct of Yonkera. 

. Manor of Pbilipsborgh. 

. Byck's Patent. 

. Manor of Tan Cortlandt. 

. Town of Bedford. 

. Parish of Poundridge. 

. Town of Upper Salem. 

. Town of Lower Salem. 


JesM Hunt Town of Bye. 

GUbert Bndd Town of Mamaroneck. 

Abraham Guion Town of New Bochelle. 

Philip PeU Manor of Pelham. 

Jamee Hunt Town of Kast Chester. 

William Hadley Precinct of Yonkers. 

Jonathan Horton Manor of Phillpsburgh. 

Jonathan O.Tompkins Manor of Scarsdale. 

Daniel Horton Precinct of White Plains. 

William Miller Harrison's Precinct. 

Abel Smith Precinct of North Castle. 

Zebedlah Mills Town of Bedford. 

Joseph Strang Manor of Cortlandt 

James Cronkhlte Ryck's Patent. 

Ebeneier Lockwood Precinct of Poundridge. 

HschaUah Brottn Town of Upper Salem. 

AbUah Gilbert Town of Lower Salem. 

Lftke Hunt Town of Westchester. 


GUbert Budd Mamaroneck. 

Theododus Barton New Rochelle. 

PhUip PeU Manor of Pelham. 

Jonathan G. Tompkins Manor of Scarsdale. 

WlUlam Miller Harrison's Prednct. 

Bichaid Hatfield White Plains. 

DaTid Hunt Yonkera. 

Isaac Bequa BUnor of PhUIpsburgh. 

AbelSmith North Castte. 

Joseph Strang Manor of Cortlandt. 

Jonathan Ferris Ryck'a Patent. 

Zebedlah Mills Bedford. 

Ebeneaer Lockwood Poundridge. 

AbUah Gilbert Lower Salem. 

Stephen Ward East Chester. 

Iirael UnderhiU Westchester. 

BtfprsMNloiJM in O>ngr0$»-I4th DittrieL 
WiUiam G. Stahlnecker, Yonkers. (District composed of Westchester 
County and Twenty-third and Twentyfouith Wards of New York 

^^•^ iSkiie B«Mtar-im DiUrict. 

Henry C. Nelson, Sing Sing. (Senatorial district composed of West- 
Chester and Rockland Counties.) 

Mtmbtn of A$$etfHbJif. 

First District. Charies P. McCleUand, Dobbe Ferry. (District composed 
of Greenburgh, Mount Pleasant and Yonkera.) 

Second District, Norman A. Lawlor, Mount Vernon. (District com- 
posed of East Chester. Harrison, Mamaroneck, New RocheUe, North 
CasUe. PeUiam, Bye, Scarsdale, West Chester and White Plains.) 

Third District, James W. Husted, Peekskill. (District composed of 
Bedfoid, CortUnd, Lewlsboro, New CasUe, North Salem, Ossining, 
Poundridge, Somera and Yorktown.) 

Owen T. Coffin, Peekskill ; Clerk of Surrogate's Court, WlUiam M. 
Skinner, White Plains; Record Clerk, Benoni P. Piatt. White Plains, 
Special Clerk, Ellas P. Purdy. White Plains. 

Supreme Court SUuographer. 
D. C. McEwen, Tribune Building, room 77, New York aty. 

County Judge, 
Isaac N. Mills, Mount Yemon. 

Ju»tice9 of Semioni, 
Stephen BlUings, Verplanck's ; John H. Baxter, Peekskill. 

Hanrey Husted, White Plains. 

A. B. Stainach, White Plains. 

Dietriot AUomeif. 
Nelson H. Baker, Sing Sing ; Aaristant District Attorney, David Veiw 

PUnck, White Plains. 

County CUrk. 

John M. Dlgney, Yonkera ; Deputy County CTerk, FrankUn Couch, 
PeekskiU ; Record (Herk, M. James Mooney, Yonkers. 

County IVMMHrer. 

David Cromwell, White Plains; Deputy County Treasurer, ThomM 

R. Hodge, Mount Vernon. 


Joseph 0. Miller, New CasUe ; Deputy Register, B. Frank Palmer, 

Mamaroneck ; Searcher, Benjamin S. Dick, White Plains. 

John Dufly, White PUins; Under Sheriff, WUUam Ryan, Rye ; JaBer 
and Deputy Sheriff, Frank G. Shirmer, White Plains ; Cerk and DeptHy 
Sheriff, (Jharies E. Johnson, Mount Vernon ; Deputy Sheriffs : John C. 
Verplanck, White Plains ; Stephen A. MarBhaU,Port Chester; Alfnd 
Lawrence, Tarrytown ; WUliam H. Sommers, Mamaroneck ; Eraitus R. 
Finch, Purdy 's Station; John T. McGrath, Yonkera; Jam«s Mabie, 
PeekskiU ; Mark Skennion, West Chester. 

Stenographer to Grand Jury. 
Warren C. Brown, Tarrytown. 

Court Orier. 
James E. (3ampbeU, White Plains. 

Harold T. Kinch, PleasantvIUe. 

Chaplaine to Oounin Almekouae, 
Rev. Lawrence H. Van Dyke, Rev. Patrick Egan, TarrytowD. 
Phyeiciam to Ooumlig AhnAouee. 

Dr. N. C. Husted, Tarrytown ; Dr. B. B. Oootont, . 

Wa(dbfiMm OourlrHouee. 
Alexander Jones, White Plains. 

Janilor Oowri-Bouee. 
Thomas Zimmerman, White Plains. 

Keeper Cowniy AUnihamee. 
Charles Fisher, East Tarrytown. 

Keeper PeUuan Bridge. 

Edward J. Mitchell, Yonkera; Leonard D. Tice, Mount Vernon ; Hi- 
jah Purdy, White Plains ; George H. Sutton, Sing Sing. 
SuperintendenU of the Poor. 
Aaron F. Read, Armonk ; James E. Hoyt, Katonah. 

School Oommieebmere. 
Jared Sandford, Mount Vernon ; James B. Lockwood, Wblts PWm; 
John W. Littel, PeekskiU. 

Loan Oommieeionen. 
Isaac B. Noxon, Sing Sing ; Jonathan Vail, Yonksra. 

David BUxtard. 



Town Clerk: 

Bedford T. Elwood Garpentar, B. 

Cortlandt William H. Pierce, K. 

East Chester John Bowden, D. 

Greenbnrgh Frank Wiley, D. 

Harrison Charles C. Haviland. 

LewisboTo Frederic Howe, R. 

Mamaroneck William H. Lange, D. 

Mount Pleasant J. Benedict See, D. 

Nev Castle ElUah Croasnuin, D. 

New Rochelle James Consadine, D. 

North Castle William H. Creemer, B. 

North Salem Samnel B. Clark, B. 

Onlning Henry Austin, B. 

Pelham . ■ .* • • ^omas K. Alorrill. 

Poundridge William Jones, B. 

Bye Purdy G. Sands, D. 

Scarsdale Peter H. Dobbe, D. 

Somers Jacob W. Tompkins, B. 

Westchester Alexander Devlin, D. 

White Plains i . . . Francis H. Hessels, B. 

Tonkers William H. Doty, B. 

Yorktown Theodore T. Tompkins, R. 

Lid of Superviton. 

Towns. Names. Politics. 

Bedford Timothy C. Adams Bep. 

Cortlandt ..... William Mabie Dem. 

last Chester .... David Quackinbush Dem. 

Greenbnrgh .... John Bewon Dem. 

Harrison George T. Burling Bep. 

Lewisboro* .... John C. Holmes Rep. 

Mamaroneck . . . Mathias Banta Dem. 

Mt. Pleasant . . . Moses W. Taylor Dem. 

New Caatle .... Francis M. Carpenter Bep. 

New Bocbelle . • . Henry D. Phelps Bep. 

NorthSalem .... Odel Close Rep. 

North Castle .... Joseph B. See Bep. 

Osrtnlng ... . Gilbert M. Todd . . . • Dem. 

Pelham Sherman S. Pell Dem. 

Poundridge .... Miles Adams Dem. 

Bye William Byan Dem. 

Scarsdale Chuuncey T. Secor Dem. 

Soinera James P. Teed Bep. 

West Chester . . . Daniel J. McGrory Dem. 

White Plains . . . Lewis C. Piatt Dem. 

Tonkera Jacob Bead Dem. 

Torktown William James Horton Dem. 

Democxmts 14 ; Bepublicans 8. 




Thb town of Scarsdale is in its general outline 
rbomboidal, the long diameter running nearly due 
north and south and extending from a point about a 
mile south of the county court-house in White Plains 
in a southerly direction for two miles. The shorter 
diameter runs nearly due west from Scarsdale Station, 

on the New York and Harlem Railroad, for about a 
mile and three-quarters, until it meets "Branch 
Brook," a small stream forming part of the western 
boundary of the township. The area of the town is 
about six thousand acres, and the general regularity 
of its outline is broken just west of the southern angle 
by a projecting portion of the town of New Rochelle, 
nearly a mile in length and ranging from one-half to 
one-quarter of a mile in breadth. The town is bounded 
on the northeast by White Plains and a small part of 
Mamaroneck ; on the southeast, by Mamaroneck and 
New Rochelle ; on the southwest by New Rochelle 
and East Chester and on its entire northwest border 
by Greenburjfh. In the centre of the town rises the 
Hutchinson River, which flows in a southerly direction, 
and on the east, another stream, the " Shelldrake," — 
or as it appears on the old records, " Branch Brook," — 
both flowing into the Sound, the latter being a tribu- 
tary of the Mamaroneck River. 

Along the northwest border of the town flows the 
river Bronx or Brunx, into which empty several smaller 
streams which drain the western portion of the town. 
The Bronx lies entirely within the township of Green - 
burgh, Scarsdale extending only to its eastern bank. 

In its general topography the township is rolling 
country, though the eastern portion is comparatively 
high land, while the western portion forms one slope 
of the valley of the Bronx. The aspect of the town is 
relieved from monotony by many gentle undulations, 
frequent small ponds and streams and many tracts of 
wooded land. In former times the eastern angle of 
the town was heavily wooded and was known as the 
" Saxton Forest," from Wm. Saxton, whose name ap- 
pears on a map of the town bearing the date 1779 as 
proprietor of a saw-mill in this locality. Although 
this forest once covered from twelve to fourteen hun- 
dred acres, most of it has been cleared, and, except for 
a few inconsiderable portions, the *' Saxton Forest " 
remains only in name. Bolton, in his history of the 
county, says : " The most prominent features of Scars- 
dale, however, are the extensive tracts of woodland 
which completely cover its wild and romantic hills on 
the west, displaying themselves to great advantage 
from every part of the surrounding country. The 
Scuvton Forest^ which forms a large portion of this 
woody district, abounds with foxes, rabbits and other 
wild game, and retains much of its ancient grandeur." 
This description, however, is incorrect, for although 
the eastern bank of the Bronx is wooded almost con- 
tinuously throughout its course along the border of 
the town, these portions of woodland never formed 
part of the Saxton Forest, which was on the far eastern 
side of the town. The brooks were formerly well 
stocked with trout and small fish, and the woods 
abounded in game,— the name " Fox Meadows " ap- 
parently having been given from the abundance of 
these animals, — ^but now there are few fishes in the 
streams and only an occasional rabbit or quail in the 



The Bronx, though unnavigable, was formerly a 
stream of some magnitude, furnishing water-power for 
a saw and grist-mill, which stood from before the days 
of the Revolution until the Rebellion near Scarsdale 
Station, but now fully one-half of the volume of water 
has been diverted to the new aqueduct or pipe-line 
which skirts the town on the Green burgh bank of the 
river, contributing to the water supply of the city of 
New York. The general character of the soil of the 
town is light and sandy loam, but in former years there 
were many acres of swamp and marsh, most of which 
ha.4 now been drained and improved, furnishing large 
tracts of rich black loam. Only about half of the 
acreage of the town is under actual cultivation, the 
remainder consisting of meadow, pasture and wood- 
land. The ownership of the town, according to the 
last State census (1875), is divided among ninety-four 
proprietors, few of whom hold over fifty acres. There 
is no farming on a large scale, the greater part of the 
farm product being devoted to home consumption. 

The facts in relation to the first settlement of the 
part of Westchester now included in Scarsdale town- 
ship are very meagre. It appears, however, that the 
town was once part of a large tract ceded by the In- 
dian owners to one John Richbell, a native of England, 
about whom little is known. This tract formed part 
of the Indian district of " Quaroppas," then occupied 
by the Mohegans or Mohicans. This was in the year 
1660, and Richbell was probably the first white man to 
settle in the town. For this purchase Richbell re- 
ceived a grant and confirmation from Francis Lovelace, 
Governor of New York, in 1668, and it had already 
been confirmed by the government of New Nether- 
lands in 1662. In his patent Richbell received possess- 
ion of "the three necks bounded on the east by 
Mamaroneck River, and on the west by Stony Brook, 
together with the land lying north of these bounds, 
twenty miles into the woods." Hence, afterward* 
arose the question as to the ownership of Quaroppas, 
in the time of Colonel Heathcote. Thirty -six years 
after this, Richbell's widow, Anne, granted to Caleb 
Heathcote, of New York, the right to purchase por- 
tions of the land included in the above mentioned 
purchase from the Indians. In 1701 the sale was con- 
cluded between RichbelPs widow and Colonel Heath- 
cote, the deed dating from March 30th of that 
year, and being signed by four Indians, — ^Patthunck, 
Beaupo, Kohawney and Wapetuck, representing the 
Mohegan tribe, and by a corresponding number of 

In this deed, which is still in the possession of the 
descendants of Colonel Heathcote, the said Indians, 
" for and in consideration of a certain sum of good 
and lawful money," — ^the amount of which is not 
stated, — sold to Colonel Heathcote, free of all encum- 
brance or limitation, *' a certain tract of land lying 
and being in the county of Westchester, bounded as 
follows : To begin on the west side, at the southern- 
most end of a ridge known by the name of RichbelPs 

or Horse's ridge, at a great rock and so to run a 
Northwest line to Bronck's River and on the Eastern- 
most side with Mamaroneck River and from the head 
thereof to Bronck's River." This he and his assigns 
were to hold forever, and the Indians faithfully per- 
formed their part of the contract, for there is no 
record of the settlers being molested by them in any 
way. This tract, together with the other large pur- 
chases of Colonel Heathcote — an exception being 
made of White Plains, to which Colonel Heathcote 
had a claim which he afterwards raised — was, on March 
21, 1701, by royal patent of William III., John 
Nanfan, Lieutenant-Oovernor of the province, sub- 
scribing to it, erected into the " Lordship and Manor 
of Scarsdale," to be holden by Colonel Heathcote of 
the King in free and common soccage, " Paying 
therefore yearly and every year forever at our city 
of New York, . . . five pounds current money of 
New York upon the Nativity of our Lord." By the 
terms of the royal patent, the lord of the manor was 
permitted at his pleasure to hold ''one court-leet and 
one court-baron," all fines and assessments going to 
himself, and it was furthermore granted that " ye 
tenants of him, ye said Caleb Heathcoate, within ye 
said manor, shall and may at all times hereafter meet 
together and choose assessors within ye manor afore- 
said," according to the laws prescribed by the General 
Assembly of the province for cities and towns, " for 
defraying the public charge of each respective city, 
town and county aforesaid, and all such sums of 
money so assessed and levied, to collect and dispose 
of for such use as any act or acts as the said Oeneral 
Assembly shall exhibit or appoint, to have, hold, pos- 
sess and enjoy all and singular the said Lorship and 
Manor of Scarsdale and premises, with all and every 
of their appurtenances, unto the said Caleb Heathcote, 
his heirs and assigns forever." ^ 

The entire Indian history of Scarsdale, so far as it 
is known, is summed up in the account of the trans- 
actions of Richbell and Colonel Heathcote with the 
Indian proprietors. There is no account of any dis- 
turbance from them since the town was settled, nor 
are there any Indian remains of any account, nothing 
more than a few arrow-heads and similar relicn having 
been found to mark the former proprietorship of this 

Town Statistics.— The first recorded census of 
the town was taken in 1712, the inhabitants numbering 
12, of whom but 5 were white. The next figures 
are for 1740, when the population had increased so 
rapidly that there was a total of 255 persons. During 
the next fifty years the population remained almost 
stationary, the census of 1790 giving a total of 281 
persons ; this was lowered within the next ten years, 
and in 1800 the inhabitants numbered 258. Of Uiese, 
224 were whites — 107 being males, 117 females— and 

1 A sketch of Colonel Heathcote if inserted in Mr. De Lancej's chapter 
on the ** Manors In Westchester Ck>unty," in this Tolnnw. 



the remainder were colored, of whom 24 were slayes. 
In 1810 the population was 259 and in 1814, 292. 
The next ensuing United States census, in 1820, gives 
the population as 329, including 42 colored. The 
State census of 1825 shows a decrease of 8 persons, 
the total in 1830 being again slightly reduced, the 
returns showing 317 inhabitants. In 1835 the num- 
ber of the inhabitants was the same as in 1820, being 
329. Of these, 162 were males and 167 females, among 
these being included 39 colored persons. The num- 
ber of births this year was 10, and of deaths there 
were 4. It is interesting to note that up to this 
time, a constant rivalry had been going on be- 
tween Pelham and Scarsdale in point of popula- 
tion. In 1790 Pelham was the smallest town in the 
county in this respect, and from then to 1835 the vary- 
ing populations of the two towns put first one and 
then the other ahead in the census reports. Finally, 
in the census for this year Pelham took the prec- 
edence, and Scarsdale has ever since remained the 
smallest town in the county in respect to its popula- 
tion. Within the next five years the number of 
inhabitants fell ofi* greatly, and in 1840 but a total of 
255 was recorded — a smaller number than any re- 
corded in the censuses of the last hundred years. In 
1845 the number had again reached a higher limit 
than ever before, and 345 inhabitants, including 33 
colored, were recorded on the census books. Of these, 

170 were males and 175 females. The families of the 
town numbered 57, with 297 natives of the United 
States. The foreign born numbered 44, of whom 
26 remained aliens. In 1850 the population had 
risen by one, while the next five years saw a rise 
of over a hundred, the census of 1855 showing a pop- 
ulation of 445, including 28 colored. Of these 205 
were males and 240 females; the total of foreign born 
was 123, of whom 87 were aliens. The families num- 
bered 74, and of the total 322 were native bom, 
301 being bom in the State and 285 in the county. 
There were 286 single and 138 married persons, 10 
widowers and eleven widows. During the period 
from 1855 to 1865 the population was again in- 
creased by more than a hundred persons, reaching 
the figure of 557, of whom 22 were colored. There 
were 256 males and 301 females, the foreign born 
numbering 156. There were 91 fiimilies, of whose 
members 401 were natives of the United States, 377 
of New York State and 237 of Westchester County. 

As respects their civil condition, 352 were single, 

171 married, 11 were widowers and 23 widows. In 
1875 the population had dropped to 529, including a 
colored population of 35. The foreign born numbered 
131 and the natives 398, of whom 344 were natives of 
the State, and 226 of the county. The males in the 
town numbered 244 and the females 285 and their civil 
condition was : single 346, married 153, widowers 13, 
widows 17, the number of families in the town being 91. 

In respect to the finances of the town, the first 
record in relation to them is dated 1788, and is 

entered in the book of town records. It reads thus — 
" This may certify that on the 9th day of December, 
1788, William Fisher, Collector of the Town of Scars- 
dale for the year 1788, produced a receipt firom John- 
athan G. Tompkins, in behalf of Abyah Gilbert, 
County Treasurer, for the sum of ten pounds, twelve 
Shillings and six pence, to bring the Town's propor- 
tion of money towards the Completion of the Court- 
House. Bearing date of October 4th, 1788. Entered 
by Benj. Cornell, clerk." 

The taxes for the previous year, 1787, had amounted 
to £61 35«. 1(2., but there is no record of the valuation 
upon which those taxes were assessed. In 1875 the 
town valuation amounted to $588,850, and the town 
debt was $29,109, of which 13689 had been contracted 
on the account of war bonds and bounties, and $25,500 
for roads. 

In 1880 the town valuation was $620,084, of which 
$560,284 was real and $53,800 personal property. Thirty 
years ago there were in the town sixty- two dwelling- 
houses, valued at $84,550. Ten years after, in 1865, 
the dwellings numbered eighty-four and their valua- 
tion was put at $163,910. The next ten years wit- 
nessed a decrease in the number of the dwellings, but 
at the same time more than a doubling of the valua- 
tions. Thus the number of houses was seventy -seven, 
while their valuation was $438,230. It is hard to 
understand this apparent conflict of the returns under 
any other supposition than that the figures given by 
the census takers in respect to values are entirely 
erroneous. The owners of land in 1855 numbered 
forty-five ; in 1865, sixty-one ; and in 1875, eighty- 

In regard to a problem which has agitated many a 
town deeply, the care of the poor, Scarsdale has had 
little anxiety. The number of paupers has been inva- 
riably small and the poor tax correspondingly low. 
Apparently this was greatest in the early days of the 
county, when Scarsdale's proportion of the poor tax 
amounted to £28 10s, This was in 1789. In 1785 
overseers of the poor had been chosen for the first 
time, and the positions were afterwards filled at each 
annual election. In succeeding years the amount 
raised by the town for the support of the poor was 
much diminished, $25 being voted for this object 
in 1800, and $35 in 1804. This amount reached $100 
in 1818, $130 the next year and $150 in 1822, but in 
the intervening years it was much less. Of late years 
the amount has been hardly noticeable, $50 being 
voted in 1876, while in 1882 the overseers of the poor 
were limited in their expenditures for the benefit of 
vagrants and tramps for that year to $15. 

Slavery. — It is of considerable interest to note the 
conditions in which slavery has existed in the town, 
our first information dating back to 1712. This was 
eleven years after the formation of the Manor of 
Scarsdale ; so it is probable that the figures apply to 
the whole manor, and not to the town in its present 
extent. At this date the inhabitants numbered only 



twelve, of whom four were whites, all being males 
and over ten years of age ; the remaining eight were 
slaves, of whom two were females over sixteen years 
of age, two males under sixteen and the remaining 
four males over sixteen. 

Our next information is forty-three years later, and 
is gained from a " list of slaves taken April ye 5th, 
1755, by Joseph Sutton, Cap*"." This information 
is, of necessity, inaccurate, as the names given are 
chosen from a list including inhabitants of other 
places beside Scarsdale, to which some of them may 
belong, although these names are all familiar in Scars- 
dale, — David Barker, que male slave; Richard Palmer^ 
one female slave ; Jonathan Cornell, one male and 
one female slave ; Jonathan Griffin, one male and one 
female slave; Richard Cornell, two males and one 
female slave ; Richard Cornell, Jr., one male and one 
female slave; Benjamin Griffin, one female; and Wil' 
liam Griffin, one male and three females, giving a total 
of sixteen. Thus, in nearly half a century the num- 
ber of slaves in the town (or manor) had but just 
doubled. In the town records are many interesting 
records of inquiries in accordance with the law into 
the age and condition of certain slaves, to determine 
whether they should support themselves or rely on 
the town. The following bears the date of August 
10, 1791 : *' To all whom it may concern, this certifies 
that a negro man named Prime and a negro woman 
named Bell, belonging to Ferris Cornell, of the town 
of Scarsdale, in Westchester County, appears to us to 
be under the age of fifty years, and of sufficient abil- 
ity to provide for themselves." This is signed by 
Jonathan Griffin Tompkins and Benjamin Cornell, 
poor masters. In another such document, dated three 
years later, a negro woman named " Sibb," the property 
of Abigail Cornell, was adjudged capable of maintaining 
herself without the assistance of the town. Accord- 
ing to the census of 1800, the total number of slaves in 
the town, which then only included Scarsdale proper, 
was twenty-four, showing even a smaller ratio of 
increase than before for the half-century, while there 
were at the same time in the town twenty free 
colored persons. 

About this time, 1799, the Legislature took steps 
for the gradual abolition of slavery, and shortly after- 
wards the following document appears in the town 
records, followed by others of a similar nature: "I, 
Bartholomew Ward, of the town of Scarsdale, County 
of Westchester, farmer, in conformity to an Act of 
legislature of the State of New York, entitled An 
Act for the gradual abolition of slavery, do hereby 
certify to the town clerk of said town that I am now 
possessed of a female negro child named Doroty, 
being now of the age of five days, and bom of a slave 
since the fourth of July, 1799. Bartholomew Ward, 
Scarsdale, October 27, 1801 ." From this time onward 
the slaves in the town slowly diminished until, in 1820, 
there remained but seven, while the free colored pop- 
ulation numbered thirty-five souls. This was nearly 

the end of slavery in the town, and in 1835 not a 
slave remained. 

INDUSTRIES. — Although Scarsdale has never con- 
tributed largely to the supply of the markets, the 
chiefindustriesof the town have always been agri- 
cultural. There are no statistics in relation to agri- 
cultural products in the early days of the town, but 
from the records of the town-meetings we may in- 
fer — from the number of times the animals are men- 
tioned — that much of the farm live-stock consisted of 
swine, and also that they caused considerable trouble. 
The following one of many instances sufficiently in- 
dicates: ''Also it is the vote of this town-meet- 
ing that it shall be lawful, if any hogs are found on 
the highway not ringed or snouted, to drive them to 
pound, and the owner of said hogs shall pay the 
poundage." This appears on the minutes of the 
meeting of April 6, 1784, and was followed by many 
similar votes, as well as others in respect to the fenc- 
ing of the roads to guard against the straying of 
swine. In the town-meeting of 1790 it was voted 
that all fences must be four feet six inches high and 
that they were ** not to exceed six inches under the 
bottom rail, except well underpined with stones, nor 
to exceed six inches betwix rails until it comes to 
the fift rail." Even as late as 1837 we find that the 
office of " Hog Howard" was continued, the duties of 
the office presumably relating to the management of 
roving swine. By the State census of 1835 there 
were 3039 acres of improved land in the town and 
on the farms were 472 neat cattle, 84 horses, 624 
sheep and 464 hogs. This is all we know of the agri- 
cultural interests of the town until 1845, the census 
for this year giving full and interesting particulars. 
The improved land aggregated 4391 acres, the inhabit- 
ants numbering 341 at this time. The acreage de- 
voted to the principal products, together with the 
amount of the crops, was as follows : Buckwheat, 75 
acres, 784 bushels; com, 229 acres, 8200 bushels; 
oats, 186 acres, 4495 bushels; rye, 119 acres, 1452 
bushels ; potatoes, 104 acres, 5265 bushels. The same 
year 262 yards of homespun cloth were made and the 
dairy products amounted to 18,635 pounds of butter. 
The live-stock on farms consisted of 78 horses, 420 
neat cattle, 416 swine, 386 sheep, yielding 730 pounds 
of wool. No returns are given in respect to the value 
of farm stock or of farm produce, but the latter, 
so far as the outside market is concerned, was proba- 
bly inconsiderable, most being devoted to home con- 

In 1855, when the next State census was taken, the 
population numbered 445, of whom 45 were land- 
owners. The value of farms was estimated at $427,140 
and the acreage of the town waa classed thus : Im- 
proved, 2801 acres ; unimproved, 1132 acres ; pasture, 
977 acres ; and meadow-lands, 786 acres. The yield of 
hay was 1225 tons. The amount of the principal 
crops was as follows : Com, 5982 bushels ; oats, 2376 
bushels; wheat, 1054 bushels; potatoes, 2080 bush- 



els; turnips, 1395 bushels. The dairy products 
were : 17,339 pounds of butter and 19,540 gallons of 
milk, the latter being exclusive of that consumed at 
home ; 435 pounds of honey were gathered this year, 
and poultry were sold to the value of $1853. The 
farm stock consisted of 116 horses, 375 neat cattle (in- 
cluding 213 milch cows and 68 working cattle), 325 
swine and 261 sheep, yielding 636 pounds of wool. 

The census for 1865, some of the statistics, however, 
referring to the previous year, gives the following 
figures : The population amounted to 557 persons, of 
whom 61 were land-owners. The farm valuation was 
$712,800, and the acreage divided thus: Improved, 
3168 acres; unimproved, 948 acres; pasture, 1264 
acres ; meadow, 993 acres. The yield of the princi- 
cipal crops was as follows : Hay, 1436 tons ; com, 
6435 bushels ; oats, 4898 bushels ; rye, 1850 bushels ; 
potatoes, 7872 bushels; turnips, 2570 bushels. In 
the orchards were 5512 apple-trees, giving a yield of 
13,663 busheU, and the cider product aggregated 450 
barrels. The honey gathered amounted to 730 
pounds, and the value of poultry and eggs sold was 
11325. The dairy product was : Butter made, 12,143 
pounds, and milk sold, 2800 gallons. The live-stock 
consisted of 142 horses, 322 neat cattle (including 190 
milch cows and 60 working oxen), 219 swine (199 
being slaughtered and yielding 32,440 pounds of pork), 
and 214 sheep giving a clip of 363 pounds. 

The last State census, that of 1875, gives the follow- 
ing statistics, which, in general, show a falling ofi from 
previous figures. The population was 529, of whom 
94 were land-owners. The farm9 of the town were 
put at a valuation of $630,500, and the acreage was 
described, thus : Improved, 2566 acres ; unimproved, 
875 acres; woodland, 531 acres; pasture, 503 acres; 
and meadow, 1207 acres. The crops were as fol- 
lows : Hay, 1635 tons ; corn, 5145 bushels ; oat», 2490 
bushels; rye, 2668 bushels; potatoes, 5275 bushels. 
The apple orchards contained 9950 treeis and yielded 
37,975 bushels of fruit. Grapes were produced to the 
amount of 6375 pounds. The value of poultry and 
eggs sold was $3358, and the dairy product was 9790 
pounds of butter made and 4925 gallons of milk sold. 
The live-stock consisted of 131 horses, 259 neat cattle 
(including 149 milch cows), 177 swine (140 slaugh- 
tered and yielding 28,360 pounds pork), and 67 sheep 
giving a clip of 321 pounds. The gross receipts from 
farm produce during the previous year amounted to 

Although these figures are the latest official returns 
in regard to the agricultural interests of the town, it 
is very probable that the decrease in farm products 
mentioned for 1875 has been continued with little in- 
terruption ever since, and that the capital invested in 
farming in the town is not as large as in former years. 

The figures in relation to the raising of sheep show 
the most marked decline. In 1835 there were six 
hundred and twenty-four sheep owned in the town, 
but in the ensuing ten years the number had de- 

creased to three hundred and eighty-six. It is very 
probable that before the first-mentioned date the num- 
ber was even greater; but the decrease has been 
steady, and at the present date the industry is 
practically extinct. The principal reason for this 
has been the havoc made by stray dogs. No exact 
figures are to be had in relation to their depre- 
dations among the flocks until the year 1874, when 
they killed at least twelve sheep. By 1884 they had 
thinned down the flocks so that they were but a small 
fraction of their original size, and in that year 
twenty sheep fell victims to them, thus practically 
putting an end to this branch of farming. 

The following extracts relate to the number and 
size of the farms existing at the time of the last State 
census : The farms in the town aggregated forty ; of 
these, two contained from three to ten acres, two 
from ten to twenty acres, five from twenty to fifty 
acres, eighteen from fifty to one hundred acres and 
thirteen from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 

Manufactures and Otheb Enterprises. — 
Manufacturing has always occupied a very secondary 
place in Scarsdale, but little capital being devoted to it 
and almost all capital going to farming. Just above 
and a short distance to the west of Scarsdale Station, on 
the Bronx Biver, and within the limits of the Popham 
estate, are the ruins of a gris^mill and its dam. This 
was built prior to the Bevolutionary War and was used 
as a grist and saw-mill, a dam about fifteen feet high 
intercepting the river at this point and Airnishing 
good water-power. This belonged to the estate of the 
Honorable Richard Morris, whose house was not far 
distant, and one Crawford by name was employed as 
miller. Here was the timber sawn out of which the 
Morris house and several others of the old mansions 
were built, but the mill has not survived as long as 
they. For many years it was put to its original pur- 
poses, but some time previous to the War of the Re- 
bellion it was used for the manufacture of axles, and 
in 1862 it was converted into a manufactory of shoddy. 
As no mention appears to have been made of it in 
either the town records or census reports its output in 
either capacity was probably not great. Within a year 
from this time, in 1863, it took fire and was burned to 
the ground and has never since been rebuilt. 

Nothing but a few ruins and several fragments of 
machinery remain to mark the site of this venerable 
mill, which was probably one of the first in the 
county. The dam, also. Has almost entirely disap- 
peared, having slowly fallen into ruin. 

The building now known as " The Scarsdale Opera- 
House," but formerly the "Fox Meadow Chapel," 
was originally used as a carriage factory, but only for 
a comparatively short time, as in 1856 the building 
was added, together with the neighboring property, to 
the Fox Meadow estate and converted into a chapel. 
There are no figures to show the extent of the manu- 
facturing interest carried on here, but it was doubt- 



less of very limited proportions. Almost opposite 
this building, and about four hundred rods to the north 
of it, on the bank of the Bronx River, formerly stood 
a powder-mill, the property of a German named Hau- 
bold. This was erected about the year 1847, when 
the Hudson River Railroad was in process of con- 
struction, and furnished much powder for this work. 
Near the main building stood a magazine and a 
cooper-shop and other outbuildings. Although the 
manufacture of powder was successfully carried on 
here for a time, it was finally abandoned, as the works 
were ruined by several destructive explosions. Both 
the magazine and the cooper-shop were thus destroyed 
at difierent times, and although the mill has been 
partially repaired and used for other purposes, no- 
thing remains of either cooper-shop or magazine. 

About the year 1880 this property came into the 
hands of Mr. Leggo, who has erected several small 
buildings there and started an establishment for the 
manufacture of lithographic stones and plates, which 
is now most success^lly carried on. 

Political History.— The present township of 
Scarsdale was organized on the 7th of March, 1788, 
but previous to this meetings had been annually held 
for the election of town officers, under the acts of the 
L^'slature as early as 1783, and before that even, by 
the terms of the royal patent granted to Colonel 
Heathcote, though no records are extant so far as we 
know of meetings or proceedings of the town prior 
to the latter date. The first entry in the town records 
is as follows, given verbatim : 

** By order of the Council of Appointment, by the Act of the Leglslatnre, 
Inlitled an Act to proTide for the temporal goTemment of the Southern 
parts of the State, whenever the enemy shall abandon or be dispossessed 
of the same, and antil the Legislature can be convened, — Passed Oct. 23d, 
1779. And by virtue of direction, Jesse Hunt, Esq., Sheriff of Westches- 
ter County, Appointinfr Jonathan Griffin Tompkins, Thomas Cornell 
and Stephen Cornell to Superintend the town*meeting att the Manner 
of ^caradale, on the 22d Deer., 1783, then and there to choose town officers 
until the next annual meeting. The town met on the said day at the 
house of Jonathan Griffin, near the usual place of holding said meetings ; 
then and there the Inhabitants proceed to choose town officers by a ma- 
jority of votes,— Bei^amin Cornell, clerk ; Jonathan G. Tompkins, 
supervisor ; Stephen Cornell and Thomas Cornell, assessors ; Israel Her- 
riott, constable and collector ; Ferris Cornell and Samuel Fisher, over- 
seen of highway ; Ferris Cornell, pounder ; John Compton and Thomas 
Oomell, fence and damage viewers. Extracted from the Original by 
Beivfamln Cornell, clerk." 

The second meeting was held on the 6th of April, 
1784, '^att the School house in Said Manner, near 
Capt. Jonathan Griffin's," this probably being the 
usual place for the town-meetings to be held, referred 
to in the minutes of the previous year. In 1785 the 
offices of overseers of the poor were instituted, John 
Barker and Francis Secor being the first incumbents. 
In the town-meeting of 1789 it was enacted that the 
"Fence and Damage Viewers*' should receive for 
their services at the rate of six shillings per diem, 
this being the first mention of any remuneration for 
town officers. The next year three " Commissioners 
of Highways " were chosen in addition to the other 
officers, Jonathan G. Tompkins, John Barker and 

John Cornell being selected to fill the positions. In 
1792, nine years after the first recorded town-meeting, 
the following officers were chosen : Caleb Tompkins, 
town clerk ; Jonathan G. Tompkins, supervisor ; J. 
G. Tompkins, John Barker, John Cornell and Wil- 
liam Popham, c6mmissioners of highways; William 
Popham and Jonathan G. Tompkins, poor masters ; 
Elijah Cudney, constable and collector ; John Barker, 
Caleb Tompkins and Thomas Cornell, assessors; 
Benjamin Underbill and Caleb Angevine, overseers 
of highways; Ferris Cornell and Elijah Purdy, Jr., 
fence and damage viewers; and Bartholomew Griffin, 
pounder. Up to this year Jonathan G. Tompkins 
and Benjamin Cornell had held the offices of super- 
visor and town clerk respectively since the first meet- 
ing. On April 5, 1796, commissioners of schools were 
chosen for the first time, as before mentioned. In 1801 
and for several succeeding years Caleb Tompkins was 
chosen to the offices both of supervisor and of town 
clerk, thus being created a precedent which was fre- 
quently followed in subsequent town elections. In 
1809 he was succeeded as town clerk by his brother 
Enoch, and held no local office of importance until 
1822, when he was for the third time chosen super- 
visor, and that year Enoch Tompkins was succeeded 
in the town clerkship by Richard M. Popham. In 
1823 William A. Popham held his first town office, 
that of school commissioner, and in 1825 he was 
chosen town qlerk to succeed his brother Richard, hold- 
ing the office for the next five years. In 1829 we find 
that the meeting was held on April 7th at " the house 
of James Varian, Innkeeper in said town," now known 
as the " Wayside Cottflge." In 1830 the town clerk 
was Samuel Tompkins, and he was in turn succeeded, 
in 1831, by Caleb Tompkins, of a younger generation 
than the former one of that name. In 1832 the first 
mention is made of the election of justices of the 
peace in town-meeting, the following being chosen : 
Nathaniel Brown, Elijah Purdy and John Bennett 
Jr., and in 1835 the first tax was laid upon the owners 
of dogs. For the next succeeding years the ofllce of 
town clerk was held by the following persons : 1838, 
Francis Losee ; 1839-40, Caleb Tompkins; 1841-42, 
G^eorge B. Varian ; and 1843, Elias A. Travise. In 
1848 the town-meeting was held for the first time in 
the "Fox Meadow" school-house, which had re- 
placed the old building which had been burned early 
in the century. 

In 1860 the following were chosen officers of the 
town : Francis Secor, supervisor (for the tenth time) ; 
James F. Palmer, town clerk ; David Underbill, as- 
sessor ; Elijah Tompkins, James F. Palmer, Lawrence 
Dobbs and Elias G. Drake, path masters ; James Wil- 
letts, James D. McCabe and Elias G. Drake, pound 
masters ; James Willetts, commissioner of highways ; 
James F. Palmer, justice of peace; Richard Palmer, 
and Lawrence Dobbs, overseers of the poor; Richard 
Palmer, James Willetts and Jonathan G. Tompkins, 
inspectors of elections ; Orrin A. Weed, constable 



and collector ; and William H. Boda, constable. At 
the next town-meeting it was voted " that the Rail 
Road depot, the School-Houae and the apple tree 

near and West of house, in the town of Scarsdale, 

be and hereby are designated as proper places for 
posting legal notices." 

Daring the years of the Rebellion a number of 
measures were passed in relation to the encourage- 
ment of volunteering and the payment of substitutes. 
In September, 1863, it was voted to pay three hun- 
dred dollars each to those citizens that were con- 
scripted or to their substitutes, and early in the 
next year it was voted to raise thirty-two hun- 
dred dollars for this purpose, this amount being 
afterward raised to four thousand dollars. In Janu- 
ary, 1865, at a special meeting of the town, it was 
voted that seven hundred dollars should be paid for 
each substitute or volunteer, of which, in the case of 
substitutes, the town provided six hundred dollars 
and the person conscripted the remainder. 

In 1867 an attempt was made to change the south- 
em boundary of the town so as to include a part of 
the township of East Cheater, but this was unsuccess- 
ful, and, although subsequent attempts to obtain this 
have been made, the boundary of the town remains 
onchanged. The next year the place of meeting was 
changed from the " Fox Meadow School-House " to 
the residence of James F. Palmer, near the centre of 
the town, on the Mamaroneck road, and this contin- 
ued to be used for town-meetings, and, after 1872, for 
general elections, until the town voted, in 1879, to 
occupy the basement of the new school-house for 
town uses, which has since been known as the " Town 

In 1870 the following town-ofl5cers were elected: 
Francis Secor, supervisor ; James F. Palmer, town 
clerk; Benjamin Archer, Francis Secor, John Read 
and Elias G. Drake, pound masters; Oliver A. Hyatt, 
assessor ; Elijah S. Tompkins, commissioner of high- 
ways; Alexander Taylor, collector; Robert C. Pop- 
ham and Hiram K. Benedict, justices of peace; 
Benj. Archer and Gilbert Ward, overseers of poor ; 
Alexander Taylor, Stephen Disbrow and John For- 
kle, constables ; and Peter M. Dobbs and James F. 
Palmer, inspectors of election. In 1870 and the next 
succeeding years the town was obliged to put itself 
under a great burden of debt on account of the so- 
called improvements in the post road. Extensive 
and unnecessary alterations were made then under 
the management of the " ring " which was then in 
power in New York, and the debt of the town was 
thereby largely increased. In 1872 it was voted to 
raise four thousand and sixty-five dollars to pay 
principal and interest on the town road bonds, thus 
reducing the town indebtedness in part, and also to 
raise $669.30 to pay principal and interest on the town 
bounty bonds issued during the war. The next few 
years were very quiet in respect to the history of the 
town, the building of the new school-house being the 

chief object of interest. In 1880 the town met for 
the first time in the basement of this building, in ac- 
cordance with the vote of the preceding year, and 
the following oflScers were chosen : Oliver A. Hyatt, 
supervisor ; Gilbert W. Dobbs, town clerk ; Charles 
Carpenter, assessor; George J. Willetts, commis- 
sioner of highways; John G. Sweet, collector; 
Chauncey T. Secor, Charles GriflSn and Lewis C. 
Popham, justices of the peace ; George H. Morse, 
Daniel Dows, John McNulty and William Drewry, 
constables ; John H. Carpenter and Charles V. Mc- 
Nulty, inspectors of election ; Lawrence Dobbs and 
Charles GriflSn, overseers of poor; Francis Secor 
and Isaac Lepugy, town auditors, and C. Bayard 
Fish and Benj. J. Carpenter, commissioners of excise. 

On the 11th of September, 1882, a town health 
board was organized for the first time, Charles Nord- 
quist, M.D., being chosen town physician and Francis 
Secor health officer. In 1883 Dr. Nordquist was 
again chosen town-physician and C. Bayard Fish re- 
placed Francis Secor as health officer. 

Although in the main, the local and general elec- 
tions of the town have been harmonious and unat- 
tended by undue friction, they have seldom failed to 
awaken interest, especially of late, and as a result a 
ftill vote has usually been polled, especially in presi- 
dential years. Our earliest ideas of the political lean- 
ings of the township are gathered fi*om the result of 
the elections for governor of the state in 1822 and 
1824. In the first mentioned year the election lasted 
for three days, but the vote polled was exceptionally 
small, aggregating but eighteen out of a population 
of more than three hundred persons. 1823 also 
proved to be an " off year," but six votes being polled 
in the election for members of the State legislature. 
In 1824 a total of twenty-eight was reached in the 
election for governor, De Witt Clinton receiving seven 
votes, Samuel Young nineteen, and Aaron and Steph- 
en Ward, each a single vote. Two years afterward 
the total fell to nineteen votes in the election for 
governor, Clinton receiving eleven and Rochester 
eight. In the election for governor in 1828 Van 
Buren received twenty-four and Thompson twenty 
votes, and the same year in the choice of presidential 
elctors Jacob Odell received twenty- four votes and 
John Odell twenty-one. In the next eighteen years 
the town-records are silent upon the subject of elec- 
tions, and it is not till 1846 that we have any further 
returns. In this year the town voted unanimously in 
favor of " No License," but by a vote ridiculously 
small, considering that the males of voting age 
numbered more than sixty, but sir votes were cast. 
That 80 little apparent interest was manifested in so 
important a question is explained by the fact that the 
town has always been opposed to liquor selling, — ^but 
one licensed inn having ever existed within the 
boundaries — so that there could have been no doubt 
as to the result and consequently the vote was light. 

During the next decade the population increased 



by one hundred and four souls, the number of votes 
rising to eighty-two in the same time. The next ten 
years saw the population again increased by more than 
one hundred souls, and the number of voters at the 
end of this period (1865) was one hundred and nine. 
In 1875 the total of voters had fallen to one hundred 
and three, but the population had likewise decreased 
by twenty-eight. 

In the general election of 1840 Scarsdale gave Van 
Buren a majority of eight, Harrison receiving twenty- 
five votes to his opponent's thirty-three. In the next 
presidential election Polk's majority over Clay was 
fifteen in Scarsdale. For the election of 1848 the 
returns are wanting, but in 1852 the town gave Scott 
twenty-four votes and Pierce twenty-nine. In 1856 
the vote of Scarsdale was as follows : Fremont 
twenty ; Fillmore, thirteen ; Buchanan, twenty-seven. 
In 1860 the town gave the Fusion candidates thirty- 
six votes against thirty-one for Lincoln and Ham- 
lin, and the same year, in the gubernatorial contest, 
gave Morgan thirty-one votes, Kelly thirty-five and 
Brady one. In 1864 the presidential vote of the 
town stood for McClellan fifty -two votes and Lin- 
coln thirty-nine. For the elections of 1868 the re- 
turns are more complete. For president. Grant, the 
Republican candidate, received forty-six votes against 
Seymour's forty-one. For governor, Griswold (Re- 
publican) received forty -five votes and Hofiinan 
(Democrat) forty-three. For Congress, Potter (Demo- 
crat) received forty-four votes and Haggerty (Repub- 
lican) forty-one. At the next general election the 
town went strongly Republican, giving Grant forty- 
eight votes for president against twenty-four for Gree- 
ley, and at the same time Dix (Republican) received 
fifty votes for governor and Kiernan but twenty-one. 
For congress Forman (Republican) received forty- 
seven votes and Cox (Democrat) twenty- four, and for 
Assembly Wright (Republican) received fifty-nine 
votes against eleven for Dusenberry (Democrat). In 
the election of 1876 Scarsdale gave Hayes sixty-four 
votes and Tilden fifty-three, and in 1880 Garfield re- 
ceived seventy-four votes, — the largest vote given 
in the town for any candidate, — and Hancock fifty- 
five. In the last general election, 1884, Scarsdale was 
greatly stirred by the questions at stake and the fight 
was very bitter, though without any andue manifesta- 
tion of feeling. In the end the scale was turned by 
the independent vote, Cleveland receiving a majority 
of three over Blaine. 

From the above it will be observed that Scarsdale 
has come out on the winning side in>all but three of 
the presidential contests there recorded, whence it has 
been said — as of many other towns also, however, — 
** As Scarsdale goes, so goes the country." 

Military History. — Although the scene of no 
battle or famous military exploit during the Revolu- 
tion, Scarsdale was situated in the midst of the 
tract known as the " Neutral Ground," which was the 
scene of many a dark and inhuman deed at the hands 

of the prowling " Cow Boys " or " Skinners," as the 
guerrilla bands of the Britbh ai^d Americans re- 
spectively, were called, and so the town of Scarsdale 
came in for a ftill share of their depredations. Many 
of the inhabitants were Tories. It is stated that only 
three families in the town were in favor of the patriot 
cause, and although this may not be strictly true, it 
sufficiently indicates the drift of feeling in the town- 
ship. What few patriots there were suffered severely 
for their patriotism. The Varian family, who occu- 
pied what is now known as " Wayside Cottage," after 
enduring for some time the importunate demands of 
the guerrillas fled to Connecticut for reftige, not re- 
turning till the end of the war ; while Caleb Tomp- 
kins was obliged to leave his home and flee for* his 
life, before the British. In the " Spy,*' Cooper treats 
of this time and locality with g^reat force and interest, 
but of less romantic and more matter-of-fact details 
there is great lack. In regard to the troops ftirnished 
by the town of Scarsdale, Baird in his '' History of 
Rye," says, " New York was required by the Conti- 
nental Congress to contribute h^ quota of three 
thousand men. Four regiments were raised in the 
province. The call for soldiers was promptly re- 
sponded to by this town (Rye). Three companies 
were formed, mostly within the limits of Rye, which 
as yet included Harrison and the White Plains. 
These companies were embraced in the 'Second 
Battalion of Westchester County.' The second com- 
pany included the men from Scarsdale, White Plains 
and Brown's Point. The number furnished by Scars- 
dale is unknown, but the name of James Verian 
(Varian) appears as first-lieutenant of the company. 
Of him, we find that during the war, he rendered ser- 
vice under the Colonial flag, and his possessions were 
despoiled by the human wolves infesting this part of 
Westchester County during the war, and who were 
known as * Skinners ' and * Cowboys.' For twenty 
years prior to his decease he was a helpless paralytic, 
caused by exposure in the patriotic cause.*' 

Michael Varian, a brother, likewise moved to 
Scarsdale in 1775 and took an active part on the 
patriotic side, but returned to New York at the close 
of the war. At one time during this troublesome 
period Judge Caleb Tompkins, who had rendered him- 
self obnoxious to the Royalists, and whose residence 
formerly occupied the site where now stands the house 
of Charles Butler, was obliged to gather together what 
he could of his household goods into an ox-cart and 
flee before the advance of the British. When he ar- 
rived at the swamp just northeast of the village of 
White Plains he was so closely pursued that he aban- 
doned his cattle, sending them on into the woods near 
Kensico, while he himself descended into the swamp 
and hid in the water, his head only above the surface. 
In this way he managed to escape from his pursuers 
and afterwards was able to return to his home. Scars- 
dale was the scene of the movements of the patriot 
and royal troops prior to the battle of White Plains, 



^ 1 



as well as again when the British were commanded 
by General Howe. 

It is said that the old Fish house was occupied by 
Sir William Howe for some time as his headquarters, 
and that near by are the graves of several of his 
officers who fell in service. It is probable that the 
British army w^as for some time within the limits of 
Scarsdale previous to the battle of White Plains, for 
they moved but slowly after their landing near New 
Rochelle. Speaking of this battle, Baird saye, 
'* Meanwhile the enemy had advanced from Scarsdale, 
and after a skirmish near the present village of Hart's 
Corners, a little more than a mile south of the lines, 
had arrived in view of the American forces." 

Still another account is as follows: On the 21st 
the British removed and encamped on New Rochelle 
Heights, north of the village and on both sides of the 
road leading to Scarsdale. This camp was broken up 
on the 25th, and the army moved forward to a position 
upon the high grounds of Scarsdale, on the site of 
the late John Bennet's farm, and there remained till 
the morning of the 28th of October. Then they 
moved from camp in two columns, the right under 
command of General Clinton and the left under that 
of General de Heister, and coming in sight of the 
Americans by 10 a.m., there followed the battle of 
White Plains. 

After this, Scarsdale was the scene of but few mili- 
tary movements, unless we except the uninterrupted 
ravines of the marauding parties, but in 1781 it is 
unimportantly mentioned in a letter from Captain 
Marquaod to Sir Henry Clinton, dated July 16th. 
He says : " Waterbury (a British Captain) re-inforced 
by some militia arrived the 13th, at Van Hart's, at 
Scarsdale, a district between White Plains and Ma- 
maroneck.'' At this time the whole county was more 
or less occupied by the British, who were watching the 
movements of Washington on the hilly country fur- 
ther north. A few relics relating to this period which 
are now in possession of Jamee McCabe, are some 
bullets and a cannon-ball found in the vicinity of his 
residence, as well as a silver ornament from the front 
of a cap — presumably that of a British officer. 

During the second war with England, or the War 
of 1812, Scarsdale varied its peaceful routine little if 
at all. It furnished the State, however, with its War 
Governor, Daniel D. Tompkins, who so thoroughly 
identified himself with his work that the history of 
these times in New York is the history of his own 
life. Besides Governor Tompkins, Scarsdale furnished 
the country with another brave man. Colonel Jona- 
than Varian, a son of the James Varian who fought 
so well in the Revolution. At one time the peace of 
the town was threatened, when it was announced that 
the British forces would attempt a landing at Mamaro- 
neck, and many volunteered to repel the threatened 
attack. Among them was William S. Popham, who 
died June 18, 1885. 

At the time of the outbreak of the Rebellion there 

were eighty-one persons in the town returned as liable 
for military duty, of whom twenty-four were members 
of various regiments of the National Guard as follows : 
belonging to the Seventh Regiment, three; to the 
Fifty-first, one ; to the Seventy-first, two ; and to the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Regiment, seventeen ; 
while one is enrolled quarter-master. There are no 
accurate records of the exact number volunteering 
from the town of Scarsdale, and of those sent as sub- 
stitutes or drafted, but the most reliable figures give 
the number credited to Scarsdale during the Rebellion 
as follows : Serving in the army, thirty-eight, and in 
the navy, eleven. Fourteen of those credited to the 
army were enlisted as follows: Fifty-first Infiuitry, 
one; Ninety-fifth Infantry, one; One Hundred And 
Thirty-fifth Infantry, four; One Hundred and 
Seventy- eighth Infantry, one ; Fifth Artillery, one ; 
Second Kansas Regiment, one ; Seventh Militia Regi- 
ment, one ; and Navy, one. But one citizen of Scars- 
dale died in the war, he being a member of the Sixth 

Churches. — ^According to Bolton, Scarsdale, under 
the Provincial government, constituted one of the 
seven districts of Rye parish in 1763, contributing 
twenty-five pounds four shillings and sixpence to the 
vestry tax and the poor of the parish. He further 
says: ''The parochial clergy appear to have offi- 
ciated here at a very early period, as the Rev. Robert 
Jenney, writing to the Bishop of London in 1724, 
says : * I officiate eight times per annum at Mamaro- 
neck for Scarsdale arid Fox's Meadows.' In 1727 
there were thirty persons in Scarsdale upon whom the 
parochial tax was levied. Mr. Wetmore, writing to the 
Gospel Society in 1744, observes : ' I have a consider- 
able congregation at the White Plains and Scarsdale, 
above seven miles west of the parish church, which I 
also attend once in two months." By tar the oldest 
religious organization actually settled in the town is 
the Society of Friends, who have had a meeting- 
house of their own here for more than a century, but 
their history is chiefly connected with Mamaroneck, 
where they held their first meeting in the county in 
1702. In six years they had built a meeting-house 
in Mamaroneck, and we find that a " monthly meet- 
ing " was appointed to be held there in April, 1725, 
by order of the ** Yearly Meeting " of Friends in 
Flushing, L. I., at that time the centre of the sect in 
the colonies. In 1728 the Mamaroneck meeting was 
constituted a '' Preparative " meeting, and in 1789 a 
new meeting-house was erected. The records in the 
possession of the Scarsdale meeting are very volu- 
minous, but scarcely refer to the Society as it exists 
here, being chiefly occupied with the past. The 
meeting-house was moved "to a central location" 
between the years 1768-1770, and thb probably refers 
to the first meeting-house in Scarsdale. This meet- 
ing-house dated from about this time, being set down 
on the site of the present structure upon a map " of 
the White Plains constituting part of Scarsdale," 



bearing the date 1779. Two buildings are now used 
by the Society — one by the Orthodox Friends and the 
other by the Hicksites, both being of comparatively 
recent construction, occupying the site of the former 
venerable structure. The house and church is a 
plain frame building of two stories, about forty feet 
square, with a porch in front into which open the 
doors. Both meeting-houses are quite unpretending, 
of the plainest type of architecture, and painted in 
quiet drab colors quite devoid of ornamentation. 
They stand in the far southeastern corner of the town, 
at the junction of Lincoln and Griffin Avenues, and 
are surrounded by a small grove of handsome trees. 
According to the census of 1845 the Society possessed 
two buildings valued at one thousand one hundred 
and fifty dollars, and twenty years later the value of 
the buildings and lot was put at three thousand dol- 
lars. At the latter date the seating capacity of the 
buildings was three hundred and eighty, and the 
usual attendance seventy persons. 

But while on the eastern side of the town the So- 
ciety of Friends was slowly growing and becoming 
firmly established, the western side, and in fact all 
the rest of the town, had no religious organization of 
any kind. At odd times the services of the Episcopal 
Church were held in private residences by visiting 
clergy, and an occasional visitation was made by the 
rectors of neighboring churches, but beyond this there 
was nothing. 

The Episcopal Church was incorporated September 
8, 1849, under the name and style of "The Rector, 
Church Wardens and Vestrymen of the Church of 
St. James the Less, in the township of Scarsdale,'* and 
steps were at once taken towards the building of a 
church edifice. Pending the completion of this, ser- 
vices were held for some months in the former resi- 
dence of Hon. Richard Morris, then occupied by 
William S. Popham, son of Major Popham of Revo- 
lutionary fame, at which the Rev. Dr. Morton, of 
Philadelphia, and others of the clergy officiated. 

The corner-stone of the first church was laid on the 
29th of June, 1860, by the Rt. Rev. W. R. Whit- 
tingham, D.D., bishop of Maryland. The conse- 
cration of the completed edifice took place on the 
28th of June, 1851, the services being conducted by 
the Rt. Rev. W. H. De Lancey, bishop of Western 
New York, acting in the disability of the bishop 
of New York. The first wedding in the new 
church was celebrated on the 27th of May, 1852, 
and the first confirmation service took place on the 
12th of September of the same year, seventeen per- 
sons receiving the rite. 

Owing to the small population of the parish the 
building of the church had been no easy task, but all 
gave as they could, and heartily seconded the eflforts 
of the original movers, and the result was the posses- 
sion of a church building that proved a great blessing 
to all. To quote from a sermon of the present rector 
of the parish. Rev. Francis Chase, which was deliv- 

ered the Sunday after the destruction of the church 
by fire: "Doubtless few churches have ever been 
erected into whose walls have been built more self- 
denial and sacrifice. Even children, I am told, used 
to go without their customary indulgences in order to 
have something to contribute toward the structure or 
its appropriate furniture. The poor gave freely of 
their labor, or else, to bring a money offering, de- 
prived themselves of things which they could ill have 
spared for any other cause. Seeing the goodwill and 
earnestness shown by the initiators of the enterprise^ 
others outside became interested, and came forward 
with gifts and helpful deeds, so that a great many 
persons not immediately connected with this church 
had a substantial investment in it." In June, 1850, 
the grounds immediately surrounding the church, to 
the amount of about three and a quarter acres, were 
conveyed to the parish by William H. Popham in the 
form of a lease for a thousand years upon the follow- 
ing terms : ^* Yielding and paying therefor unto the 
said party of the first part and his heirs yearly and 
every year during the said time hereby granted the 
yearly rent or sum of one silver dime, lawful money 
of the United States of America, on the Festival of 
St. Philip and St. James in each and every year ; and, 
also, the parties of the second part, or their successors 
in office, shall not at anytime during the continuance 
of the time hereby granted, let, underlet, assign, sell 
or convey the whole or any part of said premises to 
any person or persons, sole or corporate whatever, 
except the right or privilege of burial in said ground ; 
and upon the further condition that religious services 
in said church during said time shall be performed 
according to the form prescribed by the Book of 
Common Prayer, or the administration of the sacra- 
ments and other rites and ceremonies as prescribed in 
said book for the use of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States of America, and of the 
doctrine and discipline therein set forth, and the 
canons of said church by a duly and regularly or- 
dained minister of said Protestant Episcopal Church, 
or by one allowed by the canons of said church to 
officiate, or by a duly ordained minister of the Church 
of England as now by law Established, and none 
other; provided always, nevertheless, that if the rent 
above reserved shall not be demanded by, or paid to, 
the said party of the first part, or his heirs on or 
before the Feast of St. Andrew in every year, after 
the same shall have been due, that then said parties 
of the second part shall forever thereafter be dis- 
charged from the payment of the same." 

The church is situated upon a slight eminence, a 
quarter of a mile from the Bronx River and the Har- 
lem Railroad, and about the same distance from the 
old Boston turnpike, in a convenient location, while 
to the south and west of the building is the portion 
of the grounds set apart as the parish burying-place. 
Bolton gives the following concise and interesting de- 
scription of the first church edifice : " The style of 



the building is early English, or first pointed, accord- 
ing to Riskman's Nomenclature. It is constructed of 
native stone, with dressings of the white dolomitic 
marble, and consists of a nave, chancel, with sacristy 
attached, and porch. The nave, which is 50 feet by 
24 feet in the clear, with sittings for about 211, is di- 
Tided into four bays, the flank walls of which are 
pierced with couplets, excepting the first bay from the 
west end, on the south side, which contains a door 
leading to the porch. The roof is open, with rafters 
diagonally traced. The pulpit is in the northeast 
comer of the nave. A font of the largest size (2 feet 
6 inches across the bowl) stands in the southeast cor- 
ner of the nave. It is circular, supported on a cen- 
tral octagonal stem, surrounded by four detached pil- 
lars of white marble, and was presented by the sifters 
of the first rector of the parish. The seats are open and 
entirely free of any charge for rent or use — ^the church 
being supported by voluntary contributions at the 
offertory. The organ, presented by a member of* the 
vestry, is situated at the west end of the nave. The 
chancel, 20 feet by 16 feet, in the clear, is separated 
from the nave by the chancel arch. The choir is 
raised two steps above the nave and has two stalls on 
the south side. On the north it opens, by a door, into 
the sacristy. The sanctuary, elevated above the choir 
by two steps, is about 8 feet in depth, containing an 
altar 6 feet by three feet, on a foot pace, a credence- 
shelf on the south side and bishop's seat on the north. 
The chancel is lighted by a triplet of richly-stained 
glass, the middle lancet of which contains a cross 
within the Venca piscis ; the south, a dove and font ; 
and the north, a paten and chalice. The rest of the 
glass (excepting the west end of the nave, which is 
richly grisailed, and the southern windows of the 
chancel, which have colored borders) is plain enam- 
eled. The whole of the stained glass was manufac- 
tured by Mr. John Bolton, of Pelham. Over the cen- 
tral lancet, in the chancel, and in the middle of the 
west gable, are triangular, trifoliated lights, with col- 
ored glass." Frank Wills, of New York, was the 
architect, and the cost of the entire edifice is put by 
Mr. Bolton as about ^-^^ thousand dollars ; but this is 
probably too small, as much labor and material were 
contributed by individuals which are probably not 
included in the above estimate. The following de- 
scription of the communion service is likewise taken 
from Bolton's "History of Westchester:" "The 
communion service, presented on the day of consecra- 
tion, consists of the following articles: A flagon, in- 
scribed ' The blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all 
8ia ; ' two silver chalices, each having the following 
inscription: *I will receive the cup of Salvation;' a 
paten, with the legend ' I will offer unto Thee the 
Sacrifice of Thanksgiving ; ' and a silver alms-basin." 
The bishop's chair, bearing on the back the symbol 
of the episcopal office — the bishop's mitre — ^was the 
gift of the builder, Henry Cornell, while the altar- 
cloth and linen, as well as the service-books, were 

likewise presented by friends. The triplet, which 
lighted the chancel, was subsequently filled with 
beautiful, stained-glass windows, in memory of Miss 
Cornelia H. Guion. 

The central lancet contained a representation of the 
Saviour holding in his arms the Sacramental Loaf» 
The glass of the left lancet represented St. Philip, and 
that of the right, St. James the Less. The large bell, 
cast by Meneely, of Troy, was a present to the par- 
ish, and, as it was found to be too large for the small 
belfry at the summit of the west gable, it was put in 
position near the porch, upon the ground. On October 
15, 1864, William Sutley Lang, a resident of the par- 
ish, communicated to the vestry the offer of a chapel, 
to be attached to the church. This offer was promptly 
accepted, and the chapel, being a memorial of the 
lately-deceased wife of the donor, was erected shortly 
thereafter. The structure was to the north of the 
chancel and communicated directly with the sacristy. 
It was lighted by a couplet at the east end, facing 
which was the entrance-door and the reading-desk. 
In the north wall, and facing the entrance to the sac- 
risty, was cut a tablet to the memory of Susan Bailey 
Lang. This edifice contained sittings for about 
thirty- three persons, and was chiefly used for the 
Sunday-school and for week-day services. 

On the evening of Palm Sunday, April 2, 1882, the 
beautiful little church was almost totally destroyed 
by fire,— owing apparently to a defective flue,— and 
the chapel and almost all the furnishings were in- 
volved in the general destruction. The ruin was 
nearly complete, nothing but a small portion of the 
walls remaining. 

Fortunately, there was an insurance on the build- 
ing, and, although much difficulty and delay were 
experienced in settling matters with the insurance 
companies, who preferred to rebuild themselves rath- 
er than pay the insurance, work on a new church was 
finally begun, and ailer many months of anxrety and 
trouble the new building was completed, services 
being meanwhile held in private houses. 

The services of re-consecration took place on the 
4th of November, 1888, just nineteen months after the 
conflagration, and were conducted by the Right Rev. 
H. C. Potter, assistant bishop of New York, aided 
by several others of the clergy. Of these ceremonies 
the Churchman for November 17th has the following 
account : " This church was re-consecrated on Sun- 
day, November 4th, by the assistant bishop of the 
diocese, aided by the Rev. Francis Chase, rector ; the 
Rev. Dr. Olsen, a former rector; the Rev. W. W. 
Montgomery, of Mamaroneck ; the Rev. F. B. Van 
Kleeck, of White Plains ; and the Rev. Messrs. Forbes 
and Drisler. The church, repaired and rebuilt after 
the fire of last year, and adorned with many gifts 
from parishioners and friends, was bright and cheer- 
ful. A. large congregation was in attendance and the 
music, though simple, was perfect. The bishop de- 
livered the sermon, which was worthy to be heard in 



every quarter of the commonwealth. Three persons 
were con firmed. In the afternoon the Rev. Dr. Olsen 
preached to his former flock. It was a day to be long 
remembered in Scarsdale." 

In external appearance the new church is very like 
the first building, differing in no essential particular, 
although the workmanship in parts is inferior to that 
of the former. Within, also, the church is little 
changed, the arrangement and construction of chan- 
cel, nave, roof and windows being as before. The 
tone of the walls and woodwork is, however, much 
lighter than in the former building, while the stained 
glass is but a parody upon the beautiful chancel 
windows of the old church. The font has been almost 
exactly restored, and stands just outside of the chan- 
cel, on the right. The new furniture, consisting of 
altar, chancel-chair, double stall, reading desk, pulpit 
and brass lectern, is quite different in style from that 
which it replaces,but is handsome,and harmonizes well 
with the surroundings. It is the gifl of friends of the 
parish, in memory of Mrs. Valeria Baugess, a former 
parishioner, whose remains lie in the little church- 
yard. Other gifts include a full set of lesson-books, 
and pulpit-lamp, altar-cover, altar-vases and alms- 
basin, all in brass. The organ, — of one manual, — 
from the shops of Hood & Hastings, Boston, is very 
prettily decorated, and was purchased with the insur- 
ance money of the former organ, occupying the same 
position,— at the western end of the nave. The chap- 
el is nearly an exact counterpart of the one it re- 

Belonging to the church is a commodious rectory, 
situated on a pleasant spot nearly due north of the 
church, and about ^ve minutes' walk from it. 

Following is a list of all the rectors of Scarsdale : 

ElectioD or Acceptance of Gall. B«signatioD. 

January 31, 1850, Bot James F. Le Baron 
Aprill, 1851, Rer. WUliam M. Ol8en .... October 1, 1871. 
December 3, 1871, Bev. Stephen F. Holmes . . May 1, 1872. 

July 1, 1872, Rev. Henry Webbe AuRnrtSl, 1873. 

January 28, 1874, Bey. William A. Holbrook . . Octobers. 1877. 
February 1, 1879, Bev. Francis Chase. 

In 1853, two years after the consecration of the 
church, the following were the published statistics of 
the parish: Families, 20; souls, 116; baptisms, 4; 
communicants, 50. In 1855 the church building and 
lot were valued at $6500, and the seating capacity of 
the former was for 211 persons. The attendance was 
120 persons, and the communicants numbered 53. In 
1865 the valuation of the property had risen to $8000. 
There were 60 communicants and an average attend- 
ance of 40 persons. The following are the latest par- 
ish statistics: Families, 45; souls, 214; baptisms, 7; 
confirmations, 3; marriages, 3; burials, 6; commun- 
icants, 74; Sunday-school scholars, 44; teachers, 7. 
Total amount collected for all objects, $2555.02. 

The following were the original officers of the par- 
ish : William 8. Popham and Mark Spencer, church 
wardens ; Charles W. Carmer, William H. Popham, 

Francis McFarlan, Joshua Underbill, Edmund Lud- 
low, Samuel £. Lyon, Augustus Bleecker and Orrin 
Weed, vestrymen. The following are the present offi- 
cers of the parish, the senior wardenship being now 
vacant on account of the recent death of the Hononi- 
ble William S. Popham, who had held the office of 
senior church warden continuously since the founda- 
tion of the parish, viz. : Lewis C. Popham, church 
warden ; Alexander B. Crane, James Bleecker, Charles 
K. Fleming, Oliver A. Hyatt, S. Bayard Fish, Lewis 
B. Atterbury, Henry W. Bates and Cornelius B. 
Fish, vestrymen. 

The iuterments in the parish graveyard number 
one hundred and ten. To the southwest of the church 
are the vaults of the Bleecker, McFarlan and Pop- 
ham families, and in the last-named repose the re- 
mains of the late William Popham, of Revolutionary 
fame, and his son, William Sherbrooke Popham. 
In this churchyard lie the remains of several un- 
knoKirn persons who died within the town limits, and 
so were given burial here. The following curious 
epitaph,— the only peculiar one in the little burying- 
ground, — appears on the tombstone of James Bell. The 
stone was prepared by him and the lines were pre- 
sumably of his own composition, — 

'* All you friends who are gathered hereto weep. 
Behold the grave wherein [ deep ; 
Prepare for death while you are well, — 
You'll be entombed as well as BelL** 

At the northwest corner of the Fox Meadow estate, 
and within a few rods of Hartsdale Station, stands a 
small two-story frame structure formerly known as the 
" Fox Meadow Chapel." This building was first used as 
a carriage factory, but soon after the estate passed into 
the hands of Charles Butler, in 1856, it was converted 
into a private chapel under the above name. The 
first fioor contained seatings for about a hundred 
persons and at the south end of the room was a dais 
with a small pulpit. The second story was merely 
used as a loft. For many years the chapel was used 
by no organized society, but its pulpit was occupied, 
upon invitation, by various Presbyterian clergymen, 
among others, by the Rev. Drs. Lyman Abbott and 
Irenaeus Prime. At a later period the chapel was 
used by the Methodist Society of Hartsdale, who held 
there their Sunday-school and afternoon services,— 
their own church being inconveniently situated. 
This was continued until the building of a new church 
by the society rendered the use of the chapel un- 
necessary. Since then the chapel has not been used 
for religious purposes beyond the holding of an oc- 
casional prayer-meeting within its walls. For some 
time thereafter the upper floor was occupied by a 
local temperance club as its meeting-room, and ia 
1875 and again in 1882 the lower floor was used as a 
theatre for the presentation of amateur performances, 
under the name of the " Scarsdale Opera- House." 
The building is now arranged for such purposes, with 
a stage, etc., on the ground floor, the auditorium 



having a seating capacity for about one hundred and 
twenty-five persons. 

Aldiough, until the building of the Church of St. 
James the Less, Scarsdale had no place of worship 
besides the Friends' Meeting-House, services were 
held in the town for many years previous to that date. 
For this purpose use was made of the old "Fox 
Meadow" school-house, which formerly stood on 
Fish's Hill, the Methodists and Presbyterians holding 
services on alternate Sundays. The Rev. George 
Donovan, a clergyman of the former denomination, 
who contributed so much to the early success of the 
public school, often officiated here as pastor as well 
pedagogue. Again, during the Rebellion, when 
there appears to have been some interruption in the 
services at Fox Meadow Chapel, services were fre- 
quently held in the house of Dr. Bruen, on the former 
Cooper estate. 

Schools. — Although the early records of the Scars- 
dale public school have entirely disappeared, there ap- 
pears to have been such a school in existence at the end 
of the last century, for the town-meeting of 1784 was 
held "att the School-house in said Manner near Captain 
Jonathan Griffin's." The building here mentioned 
was probably the first one in the town and stood at 
the top of the steep bank to the west of the White 
Plains road, just north of the road to Hartsdale 
Station. Nothing now remains to mark the spot but 
a portion of the foundations, the building itself hav- 
ing been destroyed by fire early in the present 
century. In 1796 the offices of " Commissioners of 
Schools" were first instituted in the town, J. Barker, 
William Popham and Caleb Angevine being chosen to 
fill the position for the first year. 

In 1809 was built a new school-house to replace 
the one destroyed, and this still remains, but is now 
occupied as a dwelling. It formerly stood part way 
up Fish's Hill to the north of the roadway, but 
was moved many years ago to its present site, to 
the north side of the Hartsdale road. There is 
much of interest connected with this old school- 
house, though in itself it is quite unpretending. 
It is a small frame building of two stories, 
measuring about twenty-five by twenty feet in 
the ground plan, and unpainted. The school-room 
was on the ground floor and above was a loll. Soon 
after the erection of this building the school acquired 
considerable prominence from the scope of its curric- 
alum, and it is related that people living in New 
York sent their children to board in the town that 
they might enjoy the advantages of its public school. 
Thb prominence was largely due to the ability of the 
Bev. George Donovan, before mentioned, a graduate 
of Trinity College, Dublin, who, on becoming a 
resident of the town, in 1802, at once interested him- 
self in the school, and introduced there the study of 
the ancient languages, in addition to the common- 
school branches. In 1817 we find that he was elected 
*^ Inspector of Schools," his colleague being William 

Popham, their offices being in addition to the school 
commissioners before mentioned. During these early 
days of the century the school came to be known aa 
the " Scarsdale Academy," from the high grade of its 
instruction. Later on, however, when the conduct of 
the school passed into other hands, much of its 
reputatiou was lost, and it is stated that two of the 
old time pedagogues came to untimely ends from 
their fondness for strong drink. One was drowned, 
while intoxicated, in the deep spring on the west side 
of Dobb's Hill, just south of the site of the birth-place 
of Governor Tompkins and the other in a drunken 
frenzy committed suicide in a field nearly opposite the 
present school. This second building was known as the 
" Fox Meadow School-House " and we find it thus 
mentioned as a frequent place for holding town meet- 
ings. The State census of 1845 gives figures in relation 
to the school as follows, Value of building, one 
hundred dollars ; Number of pupils, 35 ; average at- 
tendance, 18. 

The present school records only cover a period of 
about twenty years, and are very brief. In 1870 the 
school trustees were Philip Waters, James McCabe 
and John Carpenter, Benjamin Palmer being clerk. 
In this year five hundred dollars was voted for the 
expenses of the school, and the teacher was Miss 
Eliza Algood, who occupied the position for a num- 
ber of years. 

In 1874 it was determined to erect a new and more 
suitable building for school purposes, and a thousand 
dollars was voted by the town for procuring the nec- 
essary land, while in the following year twenty-five 
hundred dollars was appropriated for the building 
itself and nine hundred for furnishing it suitably. The 
building committee consisted of Benjamin F. Butler,. 
Benjamin Carpenter, Peter Dobbs, James McCabe and 
John Read. The building was begun early in Feb- 
ruary of the centennial year, and was ready for occu- 
pancy the following September. In 1880 the school- 
tax amounted to $796.25, being assessed at the rate of 
$1.86 per thousand dollars. For that year the statistics 
were as follows : There were one hundred and twenty- 
six children in the school district between the ages of 
&ye and twenty-one, and sixty between the ages of 
eight and fourteen. School was held during forty- 
two weeks of the year. The trustees were John H^ 
Carpenter, Peter M. Dobbs and James D. McCabe^ 
Gilbert W. Dobbs being clerk. The teacher was Miss 
Ameigh. At this time the library contained one 
hundred and fifty volumes. 

The following are the statistics for 1884 : Trustees, 
David A. Weed, Benjamin J. Carpenter and F. W. 
Brooks ; Clerk, Gilbert W. Dobbs ; Teacher, Miss Mars- 
land ; number of weeks of school, forty-three ; children 
in district between the ages of five and twenty-one, 
one hundred and thirty-six ; between the ages of eight 
and fourteen, sixty-six. Books in library, two hun- 
dred and fifty. The school-tax for the year amounted to 
$841.25, being assessed at the rate of $1.92 per thousand.. 



The new school-house is situated at the junction of 
the old and new White Plains post roads, just at the 
foot of Fish's Hill, a little north of the BLartsdale road, 
and faces due west. It is about fifly by thirty feet on 
the ground plan, with two stories and a basement, the 
entrance to which is on the east. The latter is now 
U!<ed by the town as a place of meeting and for the 
holding of elections. In its external aspect the build- 
ing is very pleasing, the basement being of stone and 
the upper part frame, clapboarded, and a slate roof. 
The front gable is surmounted by a small open cupola, 
in which hangs the school bell. The building is 
neatly painted in a light shade of gray, with darker 
trimmings. The ground floor proper is occupied by 
a commodious and well-arranged school -room, fitted 
up with modern school furniture, and adjoining are 
the vestibule and cloak-rooms, the former opening 
upon a small porch. The loft above is unfurnished, 
but the basement is fitted up for the uses of the 
town with benches and a small dais at the west end 
of the room, the walls being finished in plaster. 

In this connection it is interesting to note that the 
percentage of illiteracy in the town has of late years 
been very low, as is evidenced by the following figures, 
taken from the State census reports : In 1865 it was 
1.10 per cent. ; in 1865, 1.07 per cent. ; and in 1875, 
1.51 per cent. 

Shortly after the erection of the Church of St. James 
the Less the organization of a parish school was 
undertaken, and the first notice of this is found in the 
report of the convention of New York for 1853, which 
says, '* A small building for the purposes of a Parochial 
School is now being builf This stood in a pleasant 
situation a few hundred yards to the northwest of the 
church, and on a private road leading through the 
Popham property to Scarsdale Station. The next 
year the convention records contain no report of the 
parish school, but in 1855 we find the following : 
*^ Daily Parish Schools, One, part free — Males, 6 ; 
Females, 11." * That year eighty dollars was contrib- 
uted by the church toward the parish school building. 
The next year the number of scholars had risen to 
twenty — males, fourteen ; females, six — ^and one hun- 
dred dollars was contributed by the parish towards the 
support of the school. Two years after, there were 
thirty scholars in the school — males, seventeen ; fe- 
males, thirteen — and the reports say of the school, 
** Teacher boarded free of charge ; otherwise self-sup- 
porting." In 1859 the number of scholars was largely 
increased, the average attendance being, males, twen- 
ty-five ; females, seventeen ; and the total number of 
those who had attended at least one quarter was sixty- 
four. The parish contribution towards the school 
this year was seventy-five dollars. The following 
year, 1860, is the last in which mention is made of 
the school in the convention reports, and it shows a 
great falling ofl* in the attendance, — namely : males, 
twenty ; females, ten. During the winter a night- 
school had been held for three months, which proba- 

bly accounts in some measure for the decrease. The 
attendance at the night-school aggregated twenty-one, 
thus giving a total of fifty-one scholars. The parish 
contribution had fallen to fifty dollars for this year. 
Shortly after this last report the school was given up, 
apparently from lack of support, and the school- 
building was used for other purposes. It was moved 
from its original situation to a position nearly adjoin- 
ing the rectory of the church, which was built 
in 1860. 

Of private schools there have been several in Scars- 
dale at difierent times, but none of them have been 
sufficiently successfiil to remain. The census report 
of 1845 makes brief mention of two private schools, 
but this is the only record that remains of them. 
Another was started about the year 1871, but proved 
unsuccessftil, and shortly after was closed. Thus the 
public school is the only one now in existence, but, 
owing to the excellence of its management, it leaves 
little to be desired by the townspeople. 

Leading Residents and Families. — Among all 
the natives of the town, past or present, no one has been 
more prominent in the history of the county than 
Daniel D. Tompkins,^ Governor of the State, and after- 
wards Vice-President of the nation. His ancestors 
were among the first to settle in the town, and they 
have at all times figured conspicuously in its history. 
It is said of him that he embodied in himself, besides 
the noble virtues, the more cojnmonplace, but none 
the less important ones of activity, energy and perse- 
verence, while his talents, no matter how tried, were 
always equal to an emergency. The reputation he 
gained at the bar and in the gubernatorial chair, was 
one of unflinching integrity combined with an un- 
common charm of manner and the greatest consider- 
ation for the feelings of all. His administration of 
the office of Gk)vemor^during the trying times of the 
second war with Great Britain was unimpeachable, 
whDe his generous and entirely unsolicited financial 
aid to the government was especially noteworthy. In 
the capacity of military commander he likewise suc- 
ceeded admirably, being especially thanked for his 
services by the President Gk)vernor Tompkins died 
on Staten Island June 11, 1825, and his remains aie 
interred in the vault of the Tompkins £unily, at 
St. Mark's " in the Bowerie," New York City. 

Jonathan Griffin Tompkins, father of the Gk)vemor, 
though not as distinguished in the history of the 
nation, was more identified than his son with the 
history of the town. But besides holding very many 
town offices, he was a member of the State Con- 
vention which adopted the Declaration of Independ- 
ence and the first Constitution of the State. Mr. 
Tompkins was one of the inspectors of the first town 
meeting held under the national government, and was 
chosen first supervisor of the town. This office he 

1 A full sketch of Vice-Preddtnt TompkiM luid his fisther uid brotken 
will be found in the fimt volume, in the chapter on the Bench and Bsr. 



held for ten yean, from 1783 to 1792, by annual re- 
election, besides other minor town offices. After the 
death of his adopted father Mr. Tompkins removed 
from the house where his son Daniel was born to the 
GrifSn homestead, now known as the Sedgwick house, 
on the northern crest of Dobb's Hill, and the old 
mansion was afterwards torn down. 

The Tompkins family were of English extraction, 
and emigrated from the north of England to Plym- 
outh, Mass., during the times of religious perse- 
cution. According to Bolton's narrative, from Plym- 
outh they went in turn to Concord, Mass., Fairfield, 
Conn., and East Chester, N. Y., and thence finally to 
iScarsdale. It is probable that the family was repre- 
sented in the town as early as the beginning of the 
last 'century, for as many as six generations have 
lived here. Of the sons of 
Jonathan G. Tompkins, 
several settled perma- 
nently within the town, 
and proved useful and 
worthy citizens. The first 
of these was Caleb, the 
oldest of the Oovernor's 
brothers, who was born in 
1759, and he left a son, J. 
G. Tompkins, Jr. The 
former held the offices of 
poor master, town clerk 
and supervisor in the 
town, being chosen to the 
last-named office at three 
diflerent times, while his 
son was twice elected su- 
pervisor. Another of the 
brothers, Enoch, born in 
1771, held this office for 
ten years continuously, 
besides at other times 
holding numerous minor 
offices. Another brother 
still, George Washington 
Tompkins, likewise made 
Scarsdale his home for a time, and here was born to 
him a son, Warren Tompkins, who afterwards took 
up his residence in White Plains. 

The Popham Family. — About one-half mile from 
the railroad depot at Scarsdale, and shadowed be- 
neath the branches of huge trees, whose leaves en- 
tirely obscure its inmates from the gaze of the curious, 
stands the ancient homestead of Chief Justice Richard 
Morris. It is one of the oldest houses in the 
county, and although it has from time to time been 
altered and extended in order to meet the require- 
ments of modern life, it still retains, in its sloping 
roof and ample chimney, a general appearance of antiq- 
uity. It is now in the possession of the Popham fam- 
ily, of whom we subjoin a sketch. 

The Pophams trace their English ancestry as far into 


the past as the beginning of the thirteenth century, 
when their records show that one Gilbert Popham, 
of the Manor of Popham, married Joan, a daughter 
of Robert Clarke, also of that manor. Members of 
the family held high offices during the reigns of 
Henry III. Edward III. and Henry TV, Sir John 
Popham, Knight, was lord chief justice in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and so popular had the family become that 
Charles I. made John Popham, one of its members, 
a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber upon the occasion 
of his coronation. The family was also represented 
at the coronation of Charles II. by Sir Francis Pop- 
ham, who was a Knight of the Bath. 

At the time of the civil war in England the 
family became divided, and Sir Francis, who was sixth 
in descent from the chief justice, rendered himself 
so obnoxious to Charles 
I. by his course at that 
time, that his son John, 
who was colonel in com- 
mand of a cavalry regi- 
ment, was forced to re- 
move into Ireland, where 
he purchased the estate 
of Bandon. Mindful of 
the family reverses, he 
named his oldest son Icha- 

John Popham, the son 
of Ichabod and father of 
William Popham, from 
whom are descended the 
family so long identi- 
fied with the history of 
Scarsdale, was a linen 
draper, of Cork, and was 
widely known for his 
learning, intelligence and 

His three children were 
James, William, and Eli- 
zabeth, who married the 
architect, John Cook. 
William Popham, the second child, married a daugh- 
ter of Rev. William Millet, a Presbyterian clergyman 
of Bandon, whose family numbered nineteen daughters 
and three sons. Of their children, Alexander, John 
and William, the last only, who was born at Bandon, 
September 19, 1752, came with his father to this 

He was but nine years of age at the time, and was 
left in the care of two maiden aunts living in New 
Jersey. By them he was entered at Princeton College, 
from which he graduated just as the Revolution was 
breaking out. Joining the Continental army, he 
almost immediately rendered himself famous by the 
capture of the notorious Captain Rugg and eighteen 
others at the battle of Long Island. As a reward for his 
bravery, he received a captaincy, which was subse- 



quently supplemented by a major's commission, in 
recognition of distinguished services rendered at the 
battles of White Plains and Brandy wine. 

At the close of the war Major Popham resided for 
a few years at Albany, New York, where he studied 
law. While there he met and became enamored of 
Miss Mary Morris, daughter of Chief Justice Rich- 
ard Morris, with whom, being forced by her father's 
hostility, he eloped. 

In 1804, having meanwhile effected a reconciliation 
with his father-in-law, he established a legal practice 
in New York City and became in time clerk of the 
Court of Exchequer. He retired in 1811 to his farm 
in Scarsdale, where he resided till the death of his 
wife, in 1886. His own death occurred in New 
York eleven years later, 
in 1847. 

While Major Popham 
was yet a young man his 
father, journeying a sec- 
ond time to this country, 
was taken sick upon the 
voyage and died. He was 
buried by his son at 
Perth Amboy, N. J. 

The major at the time 
of his death was presi- 
dent of the New York 
State Society of the Cin- 
cinnati. He was also its 
president-general by vir- 
tue of his right as oldest 
member. Upon the occa- 
sion of his decease his 
name received honorable 
mention in general orders 
and his loss was lamented 
by many who had been 
his warm friends and 

Major Popham left six 
children — Richard, Wil- 
liam S., John, Charles W., 
Sarah, wife of Leonard 
Bleecker, and Elizabeth. 

William Sherbrook Popham, the second child of 
this family, was born at Scarsdale, May 9, 1793. In 
1815 he entered the Bank of America as clerk, hav- 
ing previously served as a soldier in the War of 1812. 
In 1832 he established himaelf in the coal business 
in New York City, continuing the same till 1857, 
when he retired to the ancestral farm in Scarsdale. 
Here he led the life of a retiring and respected cit- 
izen. To his efforts was mainly due the organization 
of the Episcopal Church of St. James the Less, of 
which he was senior warden at the time of his death. 
He married Eliza, daughter of William Hill, of 
East Chester, and after her decease was united to her 
sister Jane. 


Mr. Popham closed a long life of quiet usefulness 
June 18, 1885, in the same room in which he was 
born more than ninety years before. His unassumed 
humility and his simplicity of manner charmed all 
with whom he came into contact, and made his loss 
both to his family and to the county in which he 
lived an irreparable one. 

He had eight children ; William Hill, Mary Morris, 
wife of Charles W. Carmer ; Alethia Hill, wife of 
Augustus Bleecker ; Laura Sherbrook, wife of Lewis 
C. Piatt, Esq., of White Plains; Gertrude, wife of 
Allen S. Campbell ; Richard Morris, Robert C. and 
Lewis C. Two of these, William Hill and Richard 
M., he survived. 
William Hill Popham, oldest child of William 
Sherbrook Popham, was 
bom at Scarsdale, Octo- 
ber 7, 1817. His educa- 
tion was partly obtained 
in the old town school of 
his native place and 
partly in New York City. 
His inclination led him 
at an early age to enter 
as a clerk the office of a 
firm in New York which 
was heavily interested in 
the iron trade. In 1857, 
however, upon his father's 
retirement, he took his 
business in charge and 
for some years conducted 
it successfully. He was 
finally induced by his 
father-in-law to enter the 
oil business with him, 
and in this he was en- 
gaged at the time of his 
death, June 27, 1880. 

While in the oil trade 
he was also associated 
with William C. Haxton, 
now vice-president of the 
Washington Life Insur- 
ance Company. 
Mr. Popham was a gentleman of peculiarly cordial 
disposition, and his genial manner made him many 
warm and enthusiastic friendships both in business 
and social life. 

He was a member and for the last ten years warden 
of the Episcopal Church of St. James the Less at 
Scarsdale, for which he gave the ground. At the 
time of his death he was a property holder in New 
York City and a director ofthe Mutual Life Insurance 
Company. He had also been a member of the 
Produce Exchange from its organization. Mr. 
Popham married Miss Sarah Spencer, daughter of 
Mark Spencer, of New York. 
Their children are Harriet Spencer, Mark Spencer, 





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Eliza Hill, William H. Jr., George Morris, Lewis T., 
Sallie and James Lenox. 

Lewis C. Popham, youngest child of Wm. Sher- 
brook Popham and brother of the preceding, was 
bom in the old homestead at Scarsdale, April 15, 
1833. Receiving his education at the well-known 
school of Rev. Dr. Harris, at White Plains, he joined 
his father in business, and in due time succeeded to 
it and the family estate. Beside carrying on his 
large business interests in New York City, he has 
been for the last sixteen years justice of the peace of 
the town of Scaridale. Like his brother, William H., 
Mr. Popham is of an exceedingly social disposition, 
and he is justly reckoned among the most popular 
citizens of Westchester County. He married Annie 
J., daughter of Alexander Flemming, of Bellows 
Falls, Vermont. Their children are Emma A., (wife 
of Cornelius B. Fish), Alice H., Annie F., Alexander 
F. and Louise C. 

Mr. Popham still resides in the old homestead, 
which was built by his grandfather Major Popham, in 
1783. It adjoins the Morris property and is rich in 
its collection of antiques, bric-a-brac and old paint- 
ings. A portion of the tea-set presented to Major 
Popham by General Washington is still in possession 
of the family. 

Another distinguished citizen of the town in the 
early days was the Hon. Richard Morris, son of the 
Hon. Lewis Morris, and father-in-law of M^jor Pop- 
ham, whom we have mentioned. He resided at the 
Morris homestead, now occupied by Mrs. William F. 
Popham, and owned considerable land in the 
vicinity, in which was included the former mill-seat 
on the Bronx River near Scarsdale Station. Mr. Morris 
was commissary or judge of the Court of Admiralty, 
as well as at one time chief justice of the State, and 
filled both these offices with much distinction. The 
Morris house stands on the eastern slope of the ridge, 
ninning parallel to the post-road on the west, and is a 
few hundred yards to the south of the Popham man- 
sion. Although more than a century and a half old, 
the house shows few signs of age, for though old-fash- 
ioned in appearance and construction, it still stands 
firmer and stancher than many a more modern build- 

The mansion was constructed about the middle of 
the last century by a man named Crawford, the ma- 
terial used being prepared at the old saw-mill hereto- 
fore mentioned. The frame is composed of oak and 
locust, with oaken joists, and is covered with cedar 
shingles put on with wrought-iron clinched nails. 
The mansion presents a very picturesque appearance 
with its low slanting roof and broad veranda run- 
ning along the eastern and southern sides. Being on 
the side of the hill, the house presents three Aill 
stories on the east and two on the west, and, with the 
Uwns and flower-beds which surround it makes a 
most pleasing picture. It is stated that here General 
Washington halted and lunched on the march to 

White Plains, some days previous to the engagement 
with the British at that place. Prominent among the 
families of the eastern side of the town in former 
years were the Secors, the Angevines, the Griffins and 
the Palmers. The first-named family has always 
figured prominently in the town's history. In 1809 
and for the next two years James Secor held the 
office of supervisor, while Francis Secor, lately de- 
ceased, of a generation later, held the same office at 
different periods for a term of twenty-nine years and 
extending from 1849 to 1878. Chauncey T. Secor, 
the present incumbent, son of the preceding, is now 
serving his third term in the same office. The family 
is supposed to be of French origin, and probably set- 
tled in the town some time prior to the Revolution, 
for the name " Secord " appears in documents re- 
lating to that period. The old Secor homestead, 
known as the " Hickories " is in the fax eastern side 
of the town. The Angevines, originally tenants 
under Colonel Heathcote, have almost disappeared 
from the town, and the Griffins, who formerly were 
scattered throughout the township, are almost en- 
tirely confined to the eastern part. Of the Palmer 
family, Richard served as supervisor of the town for 
thirteen years, between 1831 and 1837 and again from 
1839 to 1844, and James F. Palmer, besides holding 
other offices, was town clerk in 1860. In the house of 
the latter, on the Mamaroneck road and in a central 
location, town-meetings and elections were held for a 
number of years until the erection of the new school- 
house, and the occupation of its basement for town 

The Drakes, whose name has been associated with 
Scarsdale for over a century, are of English descent, 
and the first to emigrate to this country, according 
to Bolton*s account, was John Drake, who came to 
this continent early in the seventeenth century. On 
his death, he left several sons, one of whom, Samuel, 
settled in East Chester, and a grandson of the latter, 
also Samuel, was probably the first to settle in Scars- 
dale. The only record in connection with Scarsdale 
pertaining to this member of the family is that of 
his death, showing that Samuel Drake, son of Jo- 
seph Drake, of East Chester, ''died at the Fox Mead- 
ows in 1774, aged seventy-five years.'' The present 
head of the family in Scarsdale is the venerable 
Elias G. Drake, now in his eighty-sixth year, hav- 
ing been born just before the close of the last century, 
December 9, 1799. Mr. Drake is the great-grandson 
of Benjamin Drake, a brother of the Samuel just 
mentioned, and settled within the town about thirty 
years ago. Although of late years not taking an 
active part in town politics, he has figured in many 
of the older records as the holder of various offices 
in the town. 

Another of the prominent families of the town in 
former days were the Varians, of Huguenot descent, 
who occupied the house now known as the " Wayside 
Cottage " just north of the Popham estate. Of this 



&mily, the first of the name in this country was 
Isaac Yarian, who " appears as a butcher in the city 
of New York in the year 1720, located in the ' Old 
Slip ' market." He was admitted as a " freeman " of 
the city of New York January 23, 1733. In 1737-38 
he was a member of the military company of Cap- 
tain Cornelius Van Home. He accumulated consid- 
erable property and died at his residence in Bowery 
Lane, about the year 1800. He left five sons, of whom 
three — James, Richard and Michael — were ardent 
patriots and warmly espoused the Revolutionary cause. 
Of these, however, only James and Michael appear 
to have been identified with Scarsdale. In the " Book 
of the Varian Family " the following record is given 
of these members: ''James Varian, second son of 
Isaac, born in New York City, January 10, 1734 ; 
died Scarsdale, N. Y., December 11, 1800; was a 
butcher in New York until the capture of that city by 
the British during the War of the Revolution, at which 
time, in company with other patriots, he removed. 
He withdrew to a farm at Scarsdale, in the Neutral 
Ground, where he remained until his decease." Both 
he and his family were subsequently driven from 
their fiirm by the British, and took refuge in Danbury, 
Conn., whence they returned after the peace was pro- 
claimed. He married, February 26, 1759, Deborah 
Dibble, of Connecticut, by whom he had seven chil- 
dren, five of whom were born in Scarsdale. " Michael 
Varian, butcher, bom in New York City, December 
9, 1738, and was in that vocation for many years at 
that place. At the time of the Revolution (1775) he 
moved to Scarsdale, Westchester County, N. Y., but 
returned at the close of the struggle, in which he took 
an active part on the patriot side." He left two sons, 
but neither they nor their descendants were con- 
nected with this town. 

Of the family of James Varian, Jonathan, the 
eldest, was born in New York, November 13, 1763, 
and died February 14, 1824, being by occupation a 
drover. In 1811 he married into the Angevine family, 
and had four children, of whom one, Andrew J. Va- 
rian, served during the Rebellion as sergeant in the 
New York Volunteer Engineers. Jonathan Varian 
appears to have kept the old homestead as a tavern 
and inn from very early in the century until his death. 
His brother James was born in Scarsdale, Novem- 
ber 22, 1765, shortly after his parents settled in the 
town, and died December 26, 1841. He was engaged 
in transporting the Boston mail on the first stage of 
the route, — from New York to New Mil ford. Conn. 
This was performed in the old-fashioned four-horse 
mail-coaches, and a stop was made at the old Varian 
tavern. He married a daughter of John Cornell, by 
whom he had nine children. On the death of Jona- 
than, in 1824, the estate in Scarsdale appears to have 
been occupied by James, and after his death, in 1841, 
by his son, James, from whom it passed into the hands 
of Charles Butler in 1853. Another son, William A. 
Varian, is now living at Kings' Bridge, being a practic- 

ing surgeon, and in his possession is the old family 
Bible mentioned below. Of the remaining children 
of the original James Varian, three left descendants, 
one of them, Deborah, having married Caleb Tomp- 
kins, brother of GJovernor Tompkins, and for forty 
years county judge of Westchester County. 

Six of the ten town officers <:ho3en at the first 
election after the Revolution in the Manor of Scars- 
dale bore the name of Cornell^ — then the most numer- 
ous and one of the most respectable families in the 
manor; and some record should be made of them 
here. The Cornells of Scarsdale and vicinity were 
descended from Richard Cornell, a member of the 
Society of Friends, who came from Hempstead, in 
Queens County, to Scarsdale in 1727. But Richard 
Coraeirs grandfather, Thomas Cornell, more than 
eighty years before that date, had a plantation, long 
called ComelPs Neck, in what is now the town of 
Westchester. Thomas Cornell, of Corneirs Neck, 
was also an ancestor of the Westchester Willets, once 
a prominent family in the county and in the province 
— and also of the Woolseys, of Bedford and elsewhere, 
and therefore should be named here. Cornell's Neck 
was situated on the East River and was granted to 
Thomas Cornell in June, 1646, by the Dutch Oovernor, 
Kieft, who described it as running ** from the Kill of 
Broncks land, east southeast along the River." ' 

1 Prepared and inserted by the publishers. 

s Thomas CWnell, of Corneirs Neck, wu fh>m Ebbox, England, born 
abont 1595, and eiuigrnted to Boston about 1636. In interesting illustra- 
tions of the rigorous self- watchfulness of the infant Boston Oolony, then 
only eight yoam old, it was voted at town-meeting on the 20th of Au- 
gust, 1638, that "Thomas Cornell may buy brother William Balstone's 
house and become an inhabitant/* He was in Rhode Island in 1641, 
with Roger Williams, and came to New Amsterdam in 1642, with John 
Throckmorton, seeking shelter among the Dutch (h>m the rigonof Mass- 
achusetts orthodoxy. Throckmorton, for himself and thirty Are associ- 
ates, obtained in 1643, from GoTemor Kieft, the original grant of what 
is now, in abbreriation of his name, called Throgg's Neck, and he and 
Cornell, and some of their associates, immediately began settlements, for 
the Dutch records relato that in the massacre of October, 1643, the In- 
dians ** killed sereral persons belonging to the families of Mr. Throck- 
morton and of- Mr. Cornell." Probably the didn were servants, and 
Thomas Cornell and his family were then in New Amsterdam, where his 
eldest daughter, Sara, married, on the 1st of September, 1643, Thomas 
Willett, of Bristol, England, the ancestor of a distinguished family. 
William Willett, the eldest son of Thomas Willett and Sarah Cornell, 
was baptized in New Amsterdam on the 6th of July, 1644, and their 
second son, Thomas, on the 2Gth of November, 1645. Thomas Willett, 
the father, died about the time of the birth of his second son, and hit 
widow, Sara Cornell, in 1647, married Charles Bridges, well known In 
New Amsterdam, where the Datch translated his name into Carel Ver 
Brugge,and the Willett children were brought up In their stepfother's 
house. William, the elder, inherited Corneirs Neck through bis mother 
after the death of his grandfather, Thomas Cornell, but ultimately died 
without issue. Thomas, the younger son, became the distinguished Col- 
onel Thomas Willett, of Flushing— long prominent in colonial afhirs, 
and member of the Grovernor'n Council from 1600 to 1698, where he sat 
with Colonel Caleb Heathcote, Frederick Philips, Colonel Van Cortlandt 
and other magnates of the province. He was colonel of the Qusens 
County militia, then the most numerous regiment in the province, and 
was publicly thanked by the Governor, Lord Combury, In November, 
1704, that, on an alarm of an invasion by a French fleet, he had In ten 
hours brought a thousand men to within an hour's march of New York, 
Colonel Thomas Willett's cousin, Colonel John Cornell, of Rockaway, 
subsequently commanded the Queens County militia until his death. Id 
174 '\ After his brother's death, Colonel Thomas Willett, of Flushing 
inherited his grandfather's plantation of COTnelPs Neck, and in 1709 



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*ii4 lome others, appear on the tombstones in the family burial plot. Coeur de Lion. Richard long remained ja family name. 



Richard Cornell, grandson pf Thomas Cornell, of 
Comeira Neck, and eldest son of John and Mary 
(Russell) Cornell, of Cowneck, in Hempstead, was born 
about 1670, and died at Scarsdale in 1757. *He mar- 

coDTeyed it to hU eldett aon, William Willett, who had remored to the 
couDty of Wustchesterand made the Neck his home. He nt in the Pro- 
vincial Ajwmbly aa ODe of the repreMntativee of Wettcheeter CouDty, 
vith but brief intermioBioDi, flrom 1702 to hii death, in 1733, and wu ap- 
pointed *' Judge of the Gommuu Pleat intbe County '' in 1721. But this 
is not the place to pursue the history of the Willettsof Westcheator, far- 
ther than to show their descent from Thomas Cornell, of Corneirs Keck. 
The Neck has sometimes been called Willett*s Neck. 

Rebecca Cornell, a younger daughter of Thomas Cornell, was with her 
sifter Sara, in New Amsterdam, and there married, in 1647, George 
Woolaey, of Tarmonth, England, said to bare been of the family of Car- 
dinal Wookey ; and their deecendants are numerous in Westchester 
County and elsewhere, several having obtained eminence, one of them 
t»eing Theodore Dwight Woolsey, president of Yale College from 1846 to 

Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell UniTertlty, was born at West- 
chester Landing, between Comeirs Neck and Throgg's Neck, on the 11th 
of January, 1807, and was deecended from Thomas Cornell, of Cornell's 
Neck, through his son Samuel and grandson Stephen, who settled in 
Swansea, Massachusetts, where El^ah Cornell, the father of Eira, was 
bom in 1771. ElUah Cornell married Eunice Barnard, born in Dutchess 
County, but of a New Bedford family. He, however, had been but a 
short time in Westchester when his son Ezra was bom, and soon after 
removed to Tarrytown, and thence in 1819 to l>e Ruyter, so that neither 
Ezra Cornell nor his sou. Governor Alonzo B. Cornell, can be called West- 
chester County men. 

Thomas Cornell, of Coraeirs Neck, had eleven children— «ix sons 
(Thomas, Richard of Rockaway, William, Samuel, John of Cowneck and 
Joshua) and five daughters (Sarah, Ann, Rebecca, Elizabeth and Mary). 
Several of his children settled in the Eastern States, and he subsequently 
retoraed to Rhode Island and died there about 16^7. Two of his sons 
settled in Queens County. The first, Richard Comell, was in New Am- 
sterdam under the Dutch, and was one of the patentees of Flushing, In 
the first English charter of 1665 and was long justice of the peace there. 
He had an estate at Little Neck, and subsequently removed to Rockaway, 
where he died in 1694. He is hence usually distinguished as Richard 
Cornell, of Rockaway. He left a widow, Elizabeth, and five sons,— Rich- 
ard, William, Thomas, Jacob and John. His grandson, Thomas Cornell, 
long represented Queens County in the Provincial Assembly, sitting from 
1739 till his death, in 1764. A litUe later, Sarah Cornell, daughter of his 
grandson Samuel, married General Matthew Clarkson, of New York, and 
her sister, Hannah, married Herman Leroy, and their sister, Elizabeth, 
married William Bayard. One of the grandsons of Thomas Cornell, of 
the Provincial Assembly, was Whitehead Cornell, who represented 
Qaeens County in the State Assembly in 1788-98, and lived in dignity in 
the old homestead of his grandfather, while his elder and his younger 
brothers, who were Royalists in the Revolution and ofllcers in the British 
Army, were glad, after the war, to take refuge in Nova Scotia. One of 
Whitehead Comell's grandsons is John B. Cornell, now for many years 
the head of the well-known Iron-works of New York. 

John Cornell, of Cowneck, another son of Thomas Comell, of Cornell's 
Jfeck, and the ancestor of the Scarsdale Cornells, had been in Dartmouth, 
Massachusetts, perhaps also on the Penobecot, but came in 1676, with 
his wife, Mary Rnseell, and several small children, to Hempstead, under 
the protection of Governor Androe, having been driven, the records say, 
from his home in the East by the Indians. This was the date of King 
Philip's War. Governor Andros granted to John Cornell, in 1677, a tract 
of land on BLinhassett Bay, a couple of miles south of Sand's Point, on 
which he spent the remainder of his life, and on which some of his de- 
ecendants are still living. In a sheltered valley of bis grant, John Cor- 
nell set apart a burial plot, where are interred the remains of himself and 
of hii wife and of many of their descendants. His children were : 1. 
Richard of Scarsdale, bora 1670 ; married Hannah Thorne. 2. Joshua, 
married Sarah Thorne. 3. Mary, born 1679 ; married James Sands. 4. 
John, bora 1681 ; married Mary Starr. 5. Caleb, born 1683 ; married 
Eliubeth Ha^er. 6. Rebecca, married Starr. 

John of Cowneck, always wrote bis name Corn well, and many of his 
descendants still retain that form. The name of Richard of Rockaway 
was often written Comhlll, and these forms, as well as Cornwall, Cornell 
and «ome others, appear on the tombstones in the family burial plot. 

ried, in 1701, Hannah Thorne, of Flushing, and 
brought her and their ten children to Scarsdale in 1727. 
He early became a Friend, and most of his descend- 
ants have been of that faith. Friends had settled 
early in Scarsdale, and the " Mamaroneck Meeting- 
house" is now within the Scarsdale borders. Richard 
Cornell was a diligent and prosperous man, and his 
will, dated in 1756, divides among his children much 
land in Scarsdale, Mamaroneck, and New Rochelle, 
besides other property and slaves. For even Friends 
then held slaves, although influences were already at 
work which abolished slavery in the Society before the 
American declaration of the inalienable right to lib- 
erty in 1776, and even required Friends to continue 
to maintain the negroes who had grown old or infirm 
in their 8er\'ice. Richard Cornell, the patriarch of 


Of Scarsdale, ^E. 80, born 1761, died 1841. 

his family in Scarsdale, like the ancient patriarch, 
had a special regard for his ^'youngest son Benjamin," 
and his will, after providing him a competence, adds 
the special bequest, "to my son Benjamin, my 
Richard, Jr., the eldest son of the first Richard 

The early English name was written Coraewall. Two generations be- 
fore Thomas, ofC-oraeirsNeck, ** Richard Comewall, Citizen and Skynner 
Kit London '' (as it stands in his will), who died in 1685, left a portion of 
the wealth he had made in hides to found and endow "a ft«e grammar 
.Scholeln New Woodstock, the town where 1 was bom,*' and the school 
stands there yet, near the handsome church of Woodstock. Some of the 
English branches of the family still write the name Comewall. Rurke'a 
** Landed Gentry of Great Britain " gives two branches, the senior one 
writing Coraewall and the other Cornwall. Burke*s " Peerage and Bar- 
onetage *' adds a third branch, a family of Baronets in Hereford, who 
retain Comewall, and Burke traces the lineage of the whole family up 
through the Barons of Burford to Richard de Coraewall, son of Richard, 
Earl of Cornewall, second son of King John, younger brother of Richard 
Cwur de Lion. Richard long reiuaiued> family name. 



Coraell, of Scaredale, was born in 1708. He settled 
near his father and has had many descendants, es- 
teemed among their neighbors in Scarsdale and else- 
where. One of them, Thomas Cornell, now of Ron- 
dout, bom in White Plains in 1814, removed to Ulster 
County, where he was elected, in 1866, to the Fortieth 
Congress of the United States, and in 1880, to the 
Forty-seventh Congress, in each case a Republican 
elected by a large majority in a strongly Democratic 
district. He is president of the First National Bank 
of Rondout, of the Cornell Steamboat Company, etc., 
and has long been prominent in political and finan- 
cial circles.^ 

^ Tb« four ioni and six daut^tenof the flnt Bichaxd Oom«ll, of Scan- 
dale, were ae foUowi : 

L Mary, born at Oowneok, 1703, died 1762 ; married Ber. Henry 

II. Deborah, bom atCowneek, 1706, died 1772; married Matthew 

Franklin, a Quaker preacher, 
m. BIchard Oomell, Jr., bom 1706 ; married Mary Ferrii, and had 
Peter of Mamamneck, bora 1732, died 1766, married 1761. 
Sarah Haviland, bom 1734, died 1787, and had : 
First— Mary, bora 1763; married Nathan Palmer uad had 

many deecendantt. 
Second— Thomae ot Scaredale, bom 1764, died 1817. Hie 
name often appears among the town offloen of Scare- 
dale. He married, 1779, Hannah Lynch, bora 1762, died 
1818, and had: 

(1.) Peter, named after hif grandfkther, bora 1780; 
married Margaret Gedney, and had : 
(a.) JohnO., bom 1812, died 1834. 
(b.) Thomaa Oomell, of Bondout, bom 1814 ; 
married Catharine Ann Woodroancie 
— member of Gongreei etc., named in 
above text, 
(o.) Hannah, bora 1816. 
(d.) Nathaniel, bora 1818. 
(e.) Anthony, bera 1820. 
(/.) Elizabeth. 
ig.) Mary, born 1824. 
{h,) Charlotte, bora 1826. 
(<.) Margaret, bora 1828. 
(2.) Sarah, born 1782 ; nmrried John Batee and had 

many children. 
(3.) Heeter, bora 1787 ; married Timothy HarlUnd. 
(4.) Samuel, bora 1792, died 1823. 
(6.) Thomas Lynch Coraell, who changed his name 
to Thomas Wildey Cornell, bora 1802, di«d 
1884 ; married Kmeline Lawrence, of Tarry- 
town, and removed to Ulster County, where 
he acquired wealth and position. 
Third— Bichard, bora 1760; married Ist, Elizabeth Ange- 

Tine ; married 2d, Ann Purdy. 
Fourth— Ebenezer, bora 1761, died 1794 ; married Elizabeth 

Fifth— Hariland, bora 1764 ; married 1st, Mary Qale ; mar- 
ried 2d, Lavinia Storms — ^leftseTeral children. 
IT. Joseph, bora in Cowneck, 1708, died 1770 ; married, 1734, Phebe 
Ferris, daughter of Peter Ferris, and had : 
First— Joeeph, of Mamaroneck, who married Sarah Hadden 
and had : Susannah, bora 1757; married Newberry Fqwle r. 
Deborah, born 1760 ; married John Fowler. BIchard, 
bora 1762, died 1796. Jonathan, bora 1764, died 1834 ; 
married Ist, Lydia Carpenter ; married 2d, Jemima Acker, 
and left several children. Willett, bora 1770 ; married 
Mary Cocks, and had a number of descendants. 
Second — Hannah, born 1736 ; married Jamee Fowler. 
Third— Bicbard, bora 1738 ; died a child. 
Fourth— Sarah. 
Fifth — Mary, bora 1741 ; married Jonathan Merritt. 

The second son, Josi^ph, also left many descendants. 
The third son, John, lived to be sixty years old, but 
left no issue. The youngest son, Benjamin, above men- 
tioned, niarried in 1743, Abigail Stevenson, and, like 

Sixth— John, of Mamaroneck, bora 1743, died 1817 ; mar- 
ried Alice Williams, and left Isaac, bora 1767, died 1832, 
who married Sarah Bennett, and had a number of chil- 
dren ; and John L., bora 1781, who married 1st, Marga- 
ret WilUams; married 'id, Hannah Anderson, and left a 
Seventh — Ferris Cornell, bora 1748, whose name M^P**'" 
amoBC the officers of the manor. He mamed 1st, Aine 
Coraell ; married 2d, Hannah Quimby ; married 3d, 
Sarah Cox, and left Thomas I , bora 1779 ; married 1st, 
Amy Fisher ; married 2d, Ooliebna Wood, and had ser- 
eral chlklren— and Samuel, bora 178S ; married Martha 
Bonnett, and left a fkmlly. 
V. Hannah, bora 1711 ; married JoAna Qoimby. 
Yl. Phebe, bora 1716 ; marrted Ebenexer Hariland. 
Vn. John, bora 1717 ; died 1781, without issue. 
VIII. Rebecca, bora 1718 ; married Edward BorUng. 
IX. Elisabeth, bora 1720, died 1796 ; married 1st, Aaron Palmer; 

married 2d, Aaron Quimby. 
X. BeiUamin, bora 1723, died 1771 ; married 17th of 9th month, 
1742, Abigail Stephenson, daughter of Stephen Stephenson, 
ot Bye, and Jane Clement, of Flushing, his wife, and had : 
First— Hannah, born 1774 : married John Burllai^. 
Second— Jane, bora 1740 ; married Joeeph Oriffen. 
Third— Stephen Coraell, of Mamaroneck, bora 1749, died 
1802. His name also appears among the officers of the 
mantM' about the time of the Berolution, and later. He 
married Margaret Hariland, and had : 

1st William H., bora 1776, died 1856 ; married Dorcas 
Carpenter, daughter of Joseph Carpanter, of 
Harrison, who rep re s en ted the county in the New 
ToriE Legislature* in 1796-97. William H. Cor- 
nell lived near Mamaroneck Meeting-house, in 
Scarsdale, and had : 

(a.) Deborah, bora 1809 ; married Henry M. 

(&.) Mary, born 1812 ; married Jacob Miller. 
(e.) Stephen, bora 1816, died 1862 ; married 
Bachel Tompkins, and left William 
H., Jr., Charles W. and Albert. 
(d.) William, bora 1818 ; was supervisor in 
1845-62 ; mArrled let, 1842, Sarah The- 
all,who died, 1848, leaving: 1. Wil- 
liam T., born 1846 ; married Lucinda 

V. Bushmore and has three children : 
Lily Bushmore, born 1880. Florence 
S., bora 1883. Thomas B., bora 1885. 
He lives in Mamaroneck, and is cashier 
of the Union Bank in Wall Street. IL 
Edwin T., bora 1848 ; married Mary 
Bobinson. William Coraell married 
2d, Elizabeth Theall and has: m. 
Frank 9., bora 1857. IV. Frederick 
L., born 1860. V. Jflla Louise, and 

VI. Howard M., twins, bora 1863. 
2d. BIchard, born 1781, died 1798. 

3d. Stephen, bora 1786. died 1816 ; married Anna 

Titus, and left Bichard and Titus. 
4th. Deborah, married John Schurman. 
5th. Benjamin, bora 1788 ; married Sarah Titus. 
6th. Mary, married Henry Griffin. 
7th. Abigail. 

8th. Samuel, born 1796 ; married Hannah Cupento' 
and left Richard, Stephen 6., Henry, Bebecca, 
Jane and Elizabeth. 
Fourth— Deborah, born 17ftl ; married Willett Bromje. 
Fifth— Anne, born 1753 ; niarried Benjamin Haviland. 
Sixth— Phebe, bora 175.5 ; married John Oibbs. 
Seventh— Sarah, born 1765, died 1764. 
Eighth— Abigail, bora 1758. died 1834. 



his father, had ten children, three sons, — one of whom 
died in in&ncy, and seven daughters. His eldest son^ 
Stephen, of Mamaroneck, is now represented by his 
grandson, William, who was supervisor of Scarsdale in 
1845-46 and in 1862, and by William's son, William 
T. Cornell, of Mamaroneck, now cashier of the Union 
Bank in Wall Street. Benjamin gave to his youngest 
son, bom in 1761, his own name, again the " youngest 
son Benjamin," of his father, and specially bequeathed 
to him the old clock of his grandfather. The younger 
Benjamin also inherited the ample farm, and the an- 
cient low-beamed shingled house of his grandfather, 
in which he had been born ; but in the early part of 
the present century he built the " new house " on the 
Mamaroneck road, where he lived in dignity and ease 
until indorsements for his friends left him poor in 
his old age. His name appears in early manhood as 
town clerk, about the time of the Bevolution and for 
some years after, and then as supervisor. Like his father 
and his grandfather, he was in dress and manner a 
strict member of the Society of Friends, of high char- 
acter and fine personal appearance, nearly six feet 
io height, and bearing himself with grace and dignity. 
The only portrait of him is here copied from a pencil 
sketch, said to have been a good likeness at the time, 
made when he was eighty years old, in 1841, by his 

Ninth—BeiUamlD, born 1760, died 1760. 
Tenth— Bei^lMnin, born 1761, died 1841 ; married Ist, 10th 
of 3d month, 1783, Alice Sntton, daughter of William 
Sutton and Dorcas Clapp ; married 2d« on the 9th of 5th 
month, 1804, Pamelia Farrington, and had ten children, 
aa follows : 

Itt. John, bom 1783, died 1864 ; married Sarah 
Matthews; 2d, Mary Ann Porter, and had: 
William H., of Newtown, Eliiuibeth, Andrew 
J., Jetw, Arvln. Alice, Anna Maria, Sarah and 
Emily and John H. 
2d. Jesse, bom 1786, died 1805. 
3d. Jane, born 1787, died 18 ; married David Ar- 
4th. Silas, bom 1789, died at Rochester, 1864 ; mar- 
ried, 1815, Sarah Mott, born 1791, died 1872, 
daughter of Adam and Annie Mott, and had : 
Firrt — Thomas Clapp. of whom further 
mention is nuMle in our account of Ton- 
kers, bom 1819 ; married, 1850, Jane E. 
Bashford, bom 1829, daughter of John 
and Esther A. (Onion) Bashford, of 
Second — .Tame«i Mott, bora 1820, died IS'iS ; 
married Eliza Leavens, of Kingston, 
Third— Richard Mott, bora 1822, died 1823. 
Fourth — Anna Mott, bom 1824 ; married, 

1847. Aaron Bames, of White Plains. 
Fifth— Sarah Alice, bora 1830, died 1874 ; 
married, 1859, Ebenezer Wal bridge, of 
Toledo, and left Gariton H., Silas Cornell 
and Ebenexer Franklin Walbridge. 
6th. Phebe, bom 1791 ; married Stephen Underhiil. 
6th. Thomas, bom 1794, died 1797. 
7th. Dorcas, bora 1796, died 1878; married Joseph 

8th. Thomas Tom, bora 1807, died 1823. 
9th. Mary F., bora 1809, died 1874 ; married Ed- 
mund Field. 
10th. BeiUamin, born 1813, died 1814. 

grandson, Thomas C. Cornell, now of Yonkers, to 
whom the old gentleman then promised the inheritance 
of the family clock, which had now come down to him 
from his grandfather ; and the old clock, now, for at 
least five generations in the family, has been standing 
for the past twenty years in Mr. Cornell's house in 

The name of the Secor * family has been variously spelt 
Sicard, Secord and Secor. In 1690 Ambroise Sicard 
came to this country. He was a French Huguenot^ 
and was forced to the step in consequence of the per- 
secution to which he was subjected at home. He 
married Jennie Perron, and the first entry upon the 
records of the Huguenot Church in New York City 
(now the French Church Du St. Esprit) is that of the 
baptism of a daughter of Ambroise Sicard, the exile. 

Five children were named in his will, as follows : 
Ambroise, Daniel, Jacques or James, Marie, wife of 
Guillaume Landrian, and Silvie, wife of Francis 

Ambroise Sicard settled with his sons at New Ro- 
chelle, N. Y., and on the 9th of February, 1692, pur- 
chased one hundred and nine acres of land in that 
place from one Guillaume Le Count, for which he 
paid thirty -eight pistoles and eight shUlings, current 
money of New York, equal to about one hundred and 
fifty dollars in gold. 

It is from the second son, Daniel, that Francis Secor 
is descended. How many children Daniel had is not 
certain. James, his son, bom in 1700, married Mary 
A. Arvon in 1724, and had seven sons and three 
daughters. Their fourth child, Francis, was bom in 
1732. He purchased the present homestead at Scars- 
dale in 1775, the original deed of which is still in 
possession of the family. He married Sarah Horton 
in 1761, and had three sons and five daughters. His 
oldest son, Caleb, born in 1768, married Anna Tomp- 
kins, sister of Daniel D. Tompkins, Governor of New 
York in 1806. 

H« had one son and three daughters. The son 
Francis, subject of this sketch, who was also the oldest 
child, was bom June 5, 1810. He spent his early life 
upon the farm, from which, as a result of his labors, 
he accumulated a considerable property. He was a 
man of fixed and unswerving principle, quick to decide, 
and ever ready to pertbrm any labor to which his con- 
science pointed him as a duty. In 1849 he was elected 
supervisor of the town of Scarsdale, and the office re- 
mained in his hands for twenty-six years. 

For thirty years he was an active and consistent 
member of the Presbyterian Church of White Plains, 
and the confidence of his brethren in his integrity 
was manifested by their election of him to the elder- 
ship. Ten years afterward, when the church adopted 
the rotary system, he was re-elected, but two years 
previous to his death, feeling that his strength would 
not admit of a longer service, he declined the honor 

1 I^pared and inserted by the publisher!. 



which was for the third time proffered him. His 
death took place at his home, May 8, 1885. He was 
connected with all the laudable enterprises of Scars- 
dale and was lamented by a large circle of acquaint- 
ances and friends. 

His son, and only child, Chancey T. Secor, still lives 
at the old homestead and is its owner. He is a prom- 
inent Democrat, and was formerly justice of the peace 
in Scarsdale. For three years he has held the office 
of supervisor. 

The family from which Green Wright* is descended 
were early settlers in Putnam County, N. Y. His 
grandfather, Caleb Wright, a resident of Carmel, mar- 
ried Mary Cunningham. Their children were Sarah, 
wife of David Travvis; Polly, wife of Budd Sloat; 
Eunice A., wife of Newell Bayley ; Green, Stephen 
T. and Gilbert. Gilbert 

married Eliza, daughter of c ^ 

Solomon Wright, and they f 
were the parents of ten 
children — Green ; Eliza- 
beth, wife of Lewis Trav- 
vis ; David ; Jackson, who 
married Sarah A. Hall, 
and is now living at White 
Plains ; Susan, wife of 
A m pel i as You mans ; Zil- 
phia, wife of David Par- 
ent ; Simon, who married 
Eliza Hance, and resides 
in New York ; Pheda, 
wife of Nathaniel Spring- 
steel ; Amanda, 'wife of 
Fletcher Adams ; and 
Mary A., wife of Fields 
Hall, of Mount Pleasant. 

Green Wright was born 
in Carmel, Putnam Coun- 
ty, N. Y.. April 24, 1824. 
Until reaching his twen- l 
tieth year he remained at =" 
home with his father, who 
was a farmer and contrac- 
tor. Seeking a wider 
sphere, he then went to Morrisania and commenced 
business as a contractor, and followed it for many years 
w^ith great energy and success. In the prosecution of 
this pursuit he entered largely into the building of 
mason-work, grading streets, excavating rock and 
building sewers, having very extensive contracts with 
the Port Morris Company. A very large part of the 
grading of the streets of Morrisania was done by him. 
In 1854 he built the dam on Bronx River at West Farms, 
and, in addition to his public work, performed exten- 
sive contracts for private individuals, including im- 
provements on the estates of Colonel Richard M. 
Hoe, William Fox and many others. The grading 

> Prepared and iusertod by the publi^hera. 


of Third Avenue was one of the most important of his 
works. About 1861 he became connected with the 
Morrisania Steamboat Company, and was made a 
director in 1876. This company ran freight and pas- 
senger boats to Fulton Slip, and in 1881 he purchased 
the boats and organized the North and East River 
Steamboat Company the following year. Of this 
company he was elected president, and still holds the 
position. The new company runs three boats— the 
"Morrisania," " Harlem '* and "Shady Side"— and 
charters boats from other companies. 

Mr. Wright became an extensive owner of real 
estate in Morrisania at an early date, his city resi- 
dence being at One Hundred and Fiftieth Street and 
Westchester Avenue, where he owns twenty -three 
lots. He is the possessor of extensive tracts in other 

portions of the Twenty- 

^^ third Ward of New York. 

^^ His country residence is 

an extensive farm, east 
of the post road and near 
the north bounds of the 
town of Scarsdale. It is 
a part of the estate form- 
erly owned by Thomas 
Cornell, and the old Cor- 
nell mansion stood very 
near the site of the pre- 
sent elegant residence 
which was erected by 
Mr. Wright in 1878. For 
picturesque elegance this 
is excelled by few places 
in the county. As a man 
of business he is well 
known and respected 
throughout this section 
of country, and his skill 
and ability are attested 
by his success. 
^ ■ He married Elizabeth, 

^ j^ daughter of Moses Hall, 

^J^^o^^"*— '— ^^ Mount Pleasant. They 

""^^^^ have fi ve children — Moses 

G. (who married Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. M. D. C. 
Van Gasbeeck), Sarah A. (deceased), Gilbert A. (who 
married Louise, daughter of John Prophet), Etta 
and Alma. 

Solomon Wright, mentioned above, married Zilphia, 
daughter of Elisha Baldwin, whose family are very 
prominent in Putnam County. Their children were 
Baldwin, Eliza (who married Gilbert Wright). Mary, 
Emiline, Elisha, Cornell and William, who is now 
living in Putnam County. At the age of seventy, 
Solomon Wright, with three of his sons and one 
daughter, removed to Illinois and settled near Elgin. 
The Hall Family.— William Hall, whose ances- 
tors are said to have been of Dutch origin, was an old 
resident of Mount Pleasant, and a tenant of a farm in 



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the Manor of Phillipsburg, which he afterwards pur- 
chased. His son, Isaac Hall, who married Elizabeth 
Fields, was the father of Moses Fields, who married 
Mahala Fowler. Their children were Nathaniel F., 
Tamar J., Sarah A., Aaron, Daniel, Mary A. and 
Elizabeth, who married Green Wright, as mentioned 
above. The old homestead of the Hall family is now 
owned by Fields Hall (brother of Moses Hall), and 
his son Jackson is now of the fourth generation on 
the inheritance. 

About a half-mile from the northern limit of the 
town, and just west of the post road, among a group 
of trees, stands a pleasant old house dating from the 
end of the last century. This was formerly the resi- 
dence of George Washington Tompkins, a brother of 
Governor Tompkins, who built the mansion in 1799, 
and here was born his son, Warren Tompkins, after- 
ward a resident of White Plains. In 1802 the build- 
ing came into the possession of the Rev. George Don- 
ovan, elsewhere mentioned in connection with the 
public school. The homestead is now occupied by 
the venerable Mrs. McCabe, a daughter of the former, 
together with several of her family, — two daughters 
and a son, John D. McCabe, well known in the town. 
Mrs. McCabe has lived in the town, always occupjring 
her present residence, since 1802, and although now 
in her eighty-fifth year, is possessed of an excellent 
memory and relates many events of interest connected 
with the early history of the town. Mr. McCabe 
has for many years been prominent in the affairs of 
the town, especially in connection with the manage- 
ment of the school, of which he has for some years 
been commissioner, besides holding other offices. In 
the vicinity of this house have been found a few 
relics of the former Indian proprietors, — arrow-heads 
and the remains of their primitive utensils — as well 
as some relics of the Revolutionary War. 

About half a mile to the southeast of the McCabe 
mansion, and at the top of Fish's Hill, on the Mam- 
aroneck road, stands another building of an even 
earlier date, having been erected prior to the Revolu- 
tion. For a short time during this war it was occu- 
pied by General Sir William Howe as his headquar- 
ters, and near by are the graves of several of the 
British who died at this time. Since the war the 
house has been successively occupied by Captain De 
Kay, a Mr. Sherbrooke and the late William H. Fish. 
The first-named lived here in the early part of the 
century, and met with a tragic end at the old mill 
near the station. A lover of fishing, he was accus- 
tomed to pursue the sport in that neighborhood, and 
on the day of his death he had wandered to the old 
mill, and was sitting upon the dam with his pole, 
when, by some mischance, he fell from his position to 
the rocks below, dying shortly thereafter. After him 
came Mr. Sherbrooke, an eccentric old gentleman, 
whose constant companion in the ancient house was 
a fine large dog, who accompanied him everywhere. 
About the year 1850 the house passed into the hands 

of Mr. Fish, who made his home there until his deaths 
in 1875, and from that date till 1885 the mansion waa 
occupied by his widow and family — now, however, no 
longer residents of the town. 

On the crest of the hill just south of the school- 
house, and to the west of the old post road, stands 
the Sedgwick house, now the residence of Bernard 
Tone, but before the Revolution occupied by Jona- 
than Griffin, and celebrated as the place where wa» 
held the first town-meeting under the new govern- 
ment of the country in the year 1783. The house 
has been changed very much of late years, but still 
preserves in part its original shape and appearance. 
It stands very near to the road, surrounded by tall 
locusts and in the midst of pleasant lawns, presenting^ 
a picturesque appearance. Upon the death of Jona- 
than Griffin, Jonathan G. Tompkins, his adopted 
son and father of Daniel D. Tompkins, moved thither 
from his old mansion, which was subsequently torn 
down, and made it his home until his death, when it 
passed into the hands of the Sedgwick family. 

Just west of this, and within a stone's throw of it,, 
stands " Maplehurst," the residence of the late Ben- 
jamin F. Butler, originally part of Fox Meadow. 
The mansion, formerly known as the Travis house,, 
was built about the year 1840. The original building 
was enlarged shortly after it came into the hands of 
Mr. Butler, in 1868, and again in 1878, when a large 
octagonal extension was added. Mr. Butler was one 
of the comparatively new residents of the town, having 
made it his home in 1867, and the only town office 
held by him was that of member of the committee on 
the new school building. Directly adjoining thi& 
residence on the south is the lai^e estate of Charles 
Butler, an uncle of the preceding, known as the 
" Fox Meadows," which has so often been mentioned 
in the town's history. Mr. Butler first made the 
town his home in 1853, purchasing the original " Fox 
Meadows " from the heirs of Caleb Tompkins, and has 
since added largely to its extent by the purchase of 
the Travis farm on the north and part of the Varian 
farm on the south. 

Previous to this the Vail house, which stood in the 
midst of a locust grove about midway up the hill,, 
and celebrated as the birth-place of Gt)vernor Tomp- 
kins, had been entirely dismantled and nothing but 
the foundations now remain to mark the spot, and 
they are almost gone from sight. The old roadway,, 
however, still remains, now all grass-grown, and near 
it a small clear spring, — the scene of the death of one 
of the old-time school-masters. At the time of the 
purchase of the estate by Mr. Butler the residence of 
Caleb Tompkins stood on the rising ground, just west 
of the site of the old Vail house. This mansion was 
almost entirely remodeled and rebuilt in 1869, and 
little remains of the original structure. The present 
estate of " Fox Meadows" includes nearly four hun- 
dred acres, and extends from the post road to the 
Bronx, and from the Sedgwick property on the north 



to the Popham estates on the south. Much of the 
estate was swamp and marsh when Mr. Butler made 
his purchase, but nearly all has been reclaimed and 
the whole estate laid out and beautified with great 
taste. There are large lawns surrounded with many 
stately trees and for nearly a mile along the bank of 
the river Bronx stretch many acres of woodland, 
through which run several small tributary streamH, and 
a beautiful drive is thus afforded entirely within the lim- 
its of the estate. The " Fox Meadow Garden " occupies 
the low land facing the post road and is very pictur- 
esque, with its many long graperies and flower-beds 
and well-kept lawns and shrubberies. It is an inter- 
esting coincidence that the " Fox Meadows " should 
now be occupied by a brother of the late Hon. Ben- 
jamin F. Butler, Attorney-General of the United 
8tates under Presidents Jackson and Van Buren, who 
was one of Vice-President Tompkins' most intimate 
and valued friends. Just previous to the purchase of 
the estate, in 1858, the mansion of Caleb Tompkins 
was occupied by his son, Jonathan G. Tompkins, 
grandson of the former J. G. Tompkins, who, like his 
grandfather, was prominent in the town, occupying 
the office of supervisor during the years 1847 and 
1848. Adjoining the "Fox Meadows " on the south 
is the '' Locusts,'^ for almost a century the residence 
of the late William Sherbrooke Popham and his 
youngest son, Lewis C. Popham, who now occupies 
the homestead. The mansion was built in 1784 by 
William Popham, Sr., who made it his home, with 
the exception of a few years spent in the city of New 
York, until 1835, since which date his son and grand- 
son have resided here. The mansion stands a few 
rods west of the post road, in a small valley surround- 
ed by a grove of locusts, being a few hundred feet 
south of the Varian tavern. The edifice is one of the 
most picturesque in appearance and location of any 
in the town, and, although it has passed its century 
of existence, still stands almost unchanged, an excel- 
lent example of the thorough building of the last 
century. Both within and without the old mansion 
is charming in its suggestions of the early days of our 
national life, and with its near neighbors, the Varian 
and the Morris homesteads, forms a picture vividly 
remindful of the past. 

Adjacent to the Popham estate on the north, and ex- 
tending north along the old p«st road, as far as the 
southern line of the Tompkins farm, was, in former days, 
the property of the Varian family. The house, now 
known as the Wayside Cottage, is one of the oldest in 
the town, dating from a period prior to the Revolution, 
and, although considerable additions have of late 
years been made to it, the old part has changed 
in no essential particular. It stands in the shade of 
several handsome trees, close to the road, at the very 
southeast corner of the property, and was built and 
owned by a farmer, Haddon by name, from whom it 
passed into the hands of the Varians. During the 
Revolution it was occupied by James and Michael 

Varian, who, with their brothers, Richard and Isaac, 
were actively engaged on the patriot side. When the 
British army moved towards White Plains, in Octo- 
bef, 1776, from their landing near New Rochelle, the 
Varians, hoping to secure some of their possessions 
from plunder, removed a fi^vorite cow from her stable 
— on a level with the road and under the main roof- 
to the cellar for safe-keeping. When the British 
came up, those in search of plunder effected an en- 
trance into the house by hacking at the door with 
their sabres and afterward in the same way got into 
the cow-stable, only to find the cow gone. Tradition 
has it that at this moment the unfortunate cow 
"lowed," thus disclosing her hiding-place, but in 
point of fact, the cow, and the family Bible, which 
was likewise hid in the cellar, escaped observation 
and were preserved for their owners. It is an interest- 
ing fact that the sabre-marks of the British are still 
to be seen in the woodwork of both the front-door of 
the house and the door to the stable — vivid reminders 
of the depredations practiced in the Neutral Ground. 
After the war the house and estate passed into the 
hands of Colonel Jonathan Varian, who also brought 
credit upon the family by his services in the War of 
1812, and for many years he kept there an inn. Just 
south of the house stood a large barn, under which 
was driven the mail-coach, while the stop was made 
on its way to the city. This tavern was the favorite 
resort of the drovers, who, with their cattle, made 
there the last stop on their journey from the Ohio 
towns to New York City. Arriving at the Varian 
farm, they would turn their droves of several hundred 
head of cattle out to graze and themselves would rest 
at the tavern for several days, making their sales with 
the dealers, who would drive out from the city and 
select their purchases. Then, after this interval of 
rest, the cattle, much improved after their long march, 
would be driven directly to their various destinations 
by their new owners. The pastures of the tavern ex- 
tended to the north and west of the house, and until 
of late years the barns, in which were stored large 
quantities of fodder for the droves, stood, as of old, to 
the west of the tavern itself.* 

>The following extract from a letter In the New York Evening I\>§t for 
December 6, 1870, is of Intereet in connection with the Varian fiunily : 
** In the good keeping of Dr. William Varian, of Kingsbridge, New 
York City, is now, and has long been, the ancient^fiftmily Bible of his 
ancestors, the Varians of Westchester Gountj, New York, the proud lot 
of which was to be pfeeerred, uni^jurpd, through the War of the BeTO- 
lutlon, by being buried in the cellar of their dwelling-house, the old rwi- 
dence in the town of Scartdale, near the former Morris and Popham Es- 
tates, still standing, and occupied by a Varian. Although being much 
exposed (the family being patriotic) to the depredations of British sol- 
diers, and especially of the * cow-boys ' — those notorious brigands of the 
period, so well described in Cooper's * Spy * and Bolton^s ' History of 
Westchester County ''—this fitrm-house escaped both the torch uid their 
pillage, and the dark cellar at the dawn of peace, true to its trust, de- 
liTered up the remarkable volume as good as ever, to be the household 
companion of subsequent generations, whose names are registered there- 
in. This ancient EitgU$h Bible is a large folio, with thick embossed lids, 
fitted originally with clnsps, and bears the date 1715 on the title page, 
but not the name of the place where it was published. Strangely, too, 









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Just below the Varian cottage, and close by the 
roadside, stands an ancient mile-stone, dating many 
yean back, and being one of the few antiquities of 
the town. Its inscription, still quite l^ible, is as 

Miles to 
N. York. 

A short distance southwest of the Episcopal Church 
stands a spacious stone mansion, formerly the resi- 
dence of George Nelson, supervisor of the town in the 
year 1867, now occupied by Henry W. Bates. This 
mansion was built about a quarter of a century ago 
by the father of the Rev. Dr. Olssen, for many years 
rector of the parish, and is one of the two stone resi- 
dences in the town. The only other one is the former 
residence of the late Edward Nelson, brother of the 
preceding, and is now occupied by Charles P. Crane, 
a lawyer practicing in Nqw York City. The mansion 
is a spacious structure, with turreted tower on the 
southeast corner and broad verandas on the south 
and west, and stands among a number of handsome 
trees, on the north side of the back road to Scarsdalc 
Station, at some distance from the road. 

On the Mamaroneck road, about quarter of a mile 
beyond the Fish mansion, stands the residence of Dr. 
Alexander M. Bruen, built upon the site of what wau 
formerly known as " Cooper's Folly." The latter was 
at one time the residence of the famous novelist, Jas. 
Fenimore Cooper, who lived within the township for 
a few years, but never made it his permanent resi- 
dence. The above name was given to it by the towns- 
people, from the peculiar nature of its architecture 
and the wretchedness of the workmanship. In its 
general appearance it resembled the typical Swiss 
chalet, and the timber of which it was composed was 
80 unseasoned and so poorly put together that the 
house had to be taken down within a few years of its 
erection. The novelist resided here for about three 
years ailer the date of building the house, 1840, and 
upon his departure the property passed into the hands 
of Dr. Bruen, who, upon the same site as *' Cooper's 
Folly," built the present large mansion. Just north 
of this stood, till within a few years, a small, weather- 
beaten cottage of two stories and steep, pitched roof, 
where, it is reported. Cooper wrote the " Spy," his 
^ous novel, the scene of which is the "Neutral 
Ground" of the Revolution, of which Scarsdale formed 
a part About eight years ago this cottage was torn 
down to make way for the large and more pretentious 
dwelling which occupies a site close by, and is the 
rffiidence of Green Wright. 

But a few rods from Hartsdale Station, and just 
within the town limits, stands a peculiar mansion, 
which has long been an object of wonder to many, 
tod which is, perhiips, the most unique structure in 

tht iniMtnUiT« pictnrea, of which there are MTermI, are explained in the 
Doteh language." 

the town. This was built for a residence, by the pro- 
prietor of the powder-works before mentioned, about 
the year 1847, and is now occupied in connection with 
the lithographic works near by. The building is sit- 
uated on the steep hill-side in such a manner that, 
although it presents two stories in front, behind the 
roof barely comes above the top of the terrace. The • 
material is stone or brick, stuccoed and whitewashed. 
The building is of two full stories, nearly square in 
plan, with flat roof, on which is a square cupola, with 
a minaret surmounting the whole. The front is 
deeply recessed to form the porch or veranda, which 
is two stories and supported by large round pillars. 
On either side of the building the hillside is terraced 
and an avenue of shade-trees extends from the main 
road to the front door. Altogether the building 
closely approaches the Tuscan style of architecture 
and presents an appearance of much greater antiquity 
than really belongs to it. 

Nearly opposite " Fox Meadow Gardens," on the 
post road, stands the residence of Greorge Burgess, who, 
with his family, settled in the town about thirty years 
ago. This is an interesting old mansion, built in an 
old-fashioned, rambling style, and surrounded by 
shade-trees, while to the north and northeast extend 
the farm lands of the owner. Another interesting 
mansion is '* Rowsley," formerly the property of 
William B. Lang. This stands on the north side of 
the road which runs eastward from the post road from 
'' Drake's Corner," surrounded by handsome lawns 
and shaded by beautiful trees. The house is a 
long and roomy structure, but of only two stories, the 
upper of which is in the mansard roof. A wide veran- 
dah skirts the mansion on the east, south and part 
of the west side, and is covered with creeping plants 
and vines. One room in particular is especially in- 
teresting as being an exact counterpart of one of the 
rooms of the famous Clilny Palace in France. This 
room has a large tiled fireplace on the north, opposite 
the entrance, while on either side of the room are 
large windows filled with diamond-shaped panes. 
The floors, walls and raftered ceiling are of polished 
oak or similar wood, and, together with the mail-clad 
figures which stand on either side of the fireplace and 
the ancient furniture and hangings, they lend to the 
room a quaint appearance, very suggestive of past 

Early Mails and Traveling Facilities — 
Noted Localities, Etc. — At the b^inning of the 
present century the mail and traveling facilities of 
the town were of the most primitive kind. Of regular 
stage lines there were none, while the mail service 
was limited to a single trip each way during the 
week. The mail was carried to and fro in saddle-bags 
by an old man, Calhoun by name, mounted upon a 
small horse, the down trip being made on Wednes- 
day and the return on Friday. The route at this 
time was from New York City to Danbury, Conn. 
Thus the service remained until about 1810, when, in- 



stead of on horseback, the mail was transported in a 
small box- wagon with an arched canvas top, drawn 
by a single horse. This was in turn superseded by a 
more suitable conveyance drawn by a pair of horses, 
and finally this gave way to the regular old-fashioned 
mail-coach, with its four horses and the typical guard 
tooting upon his long horn. At this time the service 
had been increased to a trip each way every day, the 
coach going down to the city in the morning and re- 
turning at night, the route being from New York to 
North Castle, with a change of horses at White 
Plains. The stopping-place of the coach in Scarsdale 
was the Varian Tavern, where the coach drew up at 
the large barn which formerly stood just to the side of 
the tavern proper. In these early days of the repub- 
lic, private as well as public conveyances were few in 
the town, the respectable vehicles in Bcarsdale num- 
bering but three. These were in the possession, re- 
spectively, of the Popham, Tompkins and McCabe 
families, and the impression made by them upon the 
rustic minds of the population was not inconsiderable. 
The route of the mail-coach through the town lay 
along the old " Boston turnpike," or post road, which 
is about half a mile from the railroad and nearly par- 
allel with it. This has always been the main thor- 
oughfare of the town, and until its doubtful improve- 
ment at the hands of the Tweed ring of New York 
City, in 1872, it was a pleasant and well-shaded 
country road. In that year the road was broadened, 
leveled and straightened so as to retain little of its 
former attractiveness, but the past few years have 
done much to cover up the traces of the improving 
hands of thirteen years ago. At this time a short cut 
was made for the road around the foot of the hill 
on which were situated the Grifhn and Tompkins 
farms, and a portion of the old road was thus left, 
which runs over the hill and past the site of the 
birth-place of Grovernor Tompkins, the present resi- 
dence of Charles Butler, at the **Fox Meadows, 
" Maplehurst," formerly on the " Trayis " farm, and 
the old Griffin and Fisher homesteads, until it again 
joins with the main road at a point just north of the 
public school. 

The principal offshoots of this road are as follows : 
At the northern part of its course through the town, 
the Mamaroneck road, on which are the Fish and 
Bruen mansions, and from which turn ofl'the "Saxton 
Woods " road, running in a northeasterly direction ; 
and " Lincoln Avenue," on which, at almost the very 
limits of the town, stands the Friends' Meeting- 
House ; and at the southern part of its course, a 
road running to the eastward, past the Drake and 
Lang mansions ; and just south of this, the *^ Scarsdale 
depot road," running westward, on which are the old 
Morris homestead and, near by, the Church of St. 
James the Less. On this road and just opposite the 
Morris mansion took place in the time of the Revolu- 
tion the tragic event described in Bolton's history of 
the county. It seems that an officer of the French 

cavalry, accompanied by several companions, went 
one Sunday to the smithy of Gilbert Vincent to have 
his horse shod. A don of the smith, alone, was at the 
house, and he reftised to perform the work, partly 
from religious scruples and also on the ground of 
lacking the necessary fuel for the forge. The officer, 
thinking this merely a pretext, or that he was unwil- 
ling to do the enemy a service, provoked a quarrel 
with the young man, which ended in the death of 
young Vincent. To quote from Bolton : ** When his 
brother, Elijah Vincent, who belonged to De Lancey's 
refugee corps, heard of the outrage, he vowed revenge 
on the murderer, and the better to accomplish his 
purpose, determined to lay in wait and watch the 
French scouting-parties as they passed to and fro 
from Scarsdale to their encampment on the Green- 
burgh hills. For several nights he watched in vain, 
but at length the opportune moment for revenge ar- 
rived. It so happened that a party of the Duke of 
Lauzun's patrols were passing the very spot where 
Vincent lay concealed behind the bushes. He im- 
mediately rose and fired upon the unsuspecting com- 
pany, and a captain of the Hussars fell from his 
horse, mortally wounded." Vincent made his escape 
and finally went to Canada, where he died. 

Within a few feet of this spot, and at the bottom of 
a small valley, the road crosses a little stream. Here, 
on one side of the road, is a quicksand of unknown 
depth, which has remained until the present day, not- 
withstanding repeated attempts to fill it up, and into 
this unfortunate cattle have from time to time strayed 
and been rescued only with difficulty. 

On the road to New Rochelle, and just beyond 
"Casstle Cosy," formerly the residence of the late 
George M. Wheeler, there is another small brook, 
known as the " Hutchinson," a branch of the Ma- 
maroneck River, and this is spanned by a small 
wooden bridge. Just at this point the road is closely 
bordered on either side by dense thickets and small 
trees, making it rather a lonely spot, and the story io 
the town is that many years ago a pedlar was waylaid 
here one dismal night and murdered for his money. 
There seems to be no actual record of this deed of 
blood, but the bridge is known as the " Pedlar*d 
Bridge " from the circumstances of the story. 

Another legendary tale in which Scarsdale takes 
much pride is that, during the Revolution, one of the 
British generals, presumably Sir William Howe, 
hearing of the existence of the Bronx and imagining 
it to be navigable, ordered the commander of the 
fleet, then lying at New York, to sail up the river in 
time to participate in the battle of White Plains. As 
the depth of the river at no point in its course along 
the border of the town was much over three feet, the 
humor of the legend may be appreciated by all. The 
following poem, from the pen of William A. Butler, 
the poet, appeared in the Scarsdale Gleaner during 
the summer of 1875, and fitly expresses the state of 
the case: 



" After rucketa, and blae-llghts, and so forth, 

On the nfght of the glorious Fourth, 
At midnight I tliought I would go forth 

To the Bronx, fairest stream of the North ; 
There I met the old naval commander 

(Or his ghost), in a shocking bad hat. 
Who was ordered up here to meander 

With his fleet, and bis guns, and all that ; 
He stood where the water was wetteet — 

It almost came over his shoes — 
And he cried, ' my soul that regrettest 

The glory the Fates did refmie, 
What a noercy to all theeo Scarsdalers— 

That they in this stream couldn't lie ; 
For at once with my frigates and sailors 

I had blown their rebellion sky-high. 
When these shores, which I now have my eye on. 

Had been fuller of ' scars * than of ' dales,' 
And the unicorn here, and the lion, 

Would have roared and erected their tails. 
where this fine sylvan drapery, 

Or theee villas of wonderful shape. 
Or hothouse, or green-honte, or grapery, 

Had they once got a taste of my grape*! 
Because Washington pulled at their trigger 

They fancy 'twas up with our jig. 
But if only the Bronx had been bigger, 

Then hers had not been so big,' 
* Then, quoth I, * this old salt should be throttled, 

If his long yarn is false, as methinks, 
But if true then the Bronx should be bottled 
. To mix with Centennial drinks I " 

Another statement, presumably not a legend, in 
which Scarsdale can justly take great pride, and 
which is vouched for by excellent authority, is " that 
no Scarsdale-bom person was ever in jail or the poor- 
house." Considering that the town has had a corpo- 
rate existence of over a century, this indeed may be 
a source of just satisfaction to all the inhabitants. 

Scarsdale Station. — At the extreme southern 
portion of the western border of the town the tracks 
of the Harlem Railroad run within the town limits 
for about a quarter of a mile, and here, just where 
the road to Ashford and Dobbs Ferry crosses the 
line, is situated Scarsdale Station. The building is a 
frame structure of two stories, with a steep-pitched 
roof. On the lower floor is a large waiting-room, with 
ticket and poet-office adjoining, while beyond is a 
freight-room. The building has not been materially 
altered in its external appearance, for many years, 
but within it has been gradually improved from time 
to time. The station stands to the west of the line, 
and near by is the residence of the station-master, 
one of the celebrities of the town, who has held his 
position for more than twenty years. The Harlem 
Railroad was extended slowly from its original termi- 
nos at Harlem until it reached Tuckahoe, the station 
next below Scarsdale, and in 1847 it was finally 
pushed through to White Plains. At this time it 
was but a single track line, and there was no station 
within the town. In consideration, however, of the 
fact that the company had been given the land re- 
quired for its roadway through the Popham estate, a 
platform was built on the grounds of the family, just 
below the railroad bridge, and trains were stopped 
here on signal to receive or land members of the Pop- 

ham family. After a few years a signal station was 
established in nearly the present location and in the 
''sixties" the road was double-tracked as far as 
White Plains, and its course through the town slightly 

The distance by the railroad from New York to 
Scarsdale is eighteen miles, and not many years ago 
the running time of the " way " trains was a full 
hour. Of late years a slight improvement has been 
made in this respect, and the " way " time is now 
slightly over fifty minutes, while the "express" time 
is thirty-six minutes. In former days the service on 
the road was very limited, Scarsdale being ranked 
merely as a way station ; but in 1877, after strong 
efi'orts on the part of those citizens who did business 
in New York, Scarsdale was made a stopping-place 
for the morning exprcAS south and the evening ex- 
press north, while during the summer still another 
express stops here on each trip. Besides this, the 
way service has been improved in time and firequency, 
and of the fifteen trains that pass each way daily, 
thirteen stop at Scarsdale, of which two are express 
trains. The rate of fare was for many years exorbi- 
tant, being fifty-five cents for a single trip and no ex- 
cursion tickets issued ; but in 1878 a reduction of ten 
cents was made in the single fare ; excursion tickets 
were issued, good for three days, for eighty-five cents 
and within the last year the time of these has been 
extended to fifteen days. Commutation tickets, good 
for a year and allowing for two trips each week-day, 
are sold for sixty -five dollars. The number of com- 
muters from Scarsdale varies from fifteen to twenty- 
five, and there is, besides, a considerable number of 
transient passengers. As there are no manufacturing 
interests in the town, the freight traffic is entirely 
local, and although formerly a considerable quantity 
of milk was daily sent to the city over the line, the 
high freight charges have caused this to be diverted 
from the railroad, and it is now carried to the city by 
a daily wagon service. 

Recent Town History.— In the year 1878 the 
town was visited by the most severe wind and rain- 
storm ever known in the county, which, indeed, al- 
most amounted to a tornado. This occurred on the 
afternoon of Sunday, July 20th, and although lasting 
barely over four or five minutes, did a great amount 
of damage. The path of the storm lay almost directly 
from west to east, and although the houses in its track 
escaped with merely the loss of blinds and other trifling 
damage, many beautiful and valuable fruit and shade- 
trees were laid low. The scene in the path of the 
storm was almost indescribable, the sky being of a 
dark leaden hue, the atmosphere thick with torrents 
of rain and hail, and in the midst of this huge trees 
reeling and swirling round in the furious wind and 
then falling with a terrific crash of boughs, while in 
all directions were flying fragments of light timber 
and indeed of anything that lay in the storm's track. 
On the " Fox Meadow " farm alone over five hundred . 



fine trees were destroyed, while on other estates the 
damage, though less, was nevertheless considerable. 
The storm ceased about as suddenly as it had begun, 
and in a few minutes the afternoon sun shone glori- 
ously upon the dripping and tangled masses of debris 
that lay scattered everywhere in the path of the 

In the year 1882 an innovation occurred in the 
extension to Scarsdale of the lines of the West- 
chester Telephone Company from White Plains 
as centre. Up to 1885 the subscribers in the town 
numbered but five, but a new central oflSce for 
Hartsdale, Scarsdale and Tuckahoe has been started 
at the Hartsdale Station, with over twenty-five sub" 
scribers, most of them within the town of Scarsdale. 

It is only within late years, also, that Scarsdale 
has possessed telegraphic facilities. In 1881 the 
Western Union Telegraph Company established a 
testing station for their lines on the Scarsdale bank 
of the Bronx, within a stone's throw of Scarsdale 
Station. To this run nearly a hundred wires from all 
parts of the surrounding country and here is estab- 
lished a public telegraph office. 

Although so sparsely settled, Scarsdale has been 
visited by several severe fires, which have invariably 
run their course, the facilities for fighting them being 
entirely wanting. In 1863 the old mill which had 
stood for more than a century just above Scarsdale 
Station, on the Bronx, was totally destroyed by fire, 
nothing but the foundations and a few fragments of 
machinery remaining, and no attempts at rebuilding 
have since been made. In the fall of 1874 the resi- 
dence of Benjamin Carpenter, on the high ridge to the 
east of the post road, was set on fire by an 
incendiary, and in a short time was burned to the 
ground, together with numerous out-buildings and 
barns and some live-stock. Some years after this a 
house of considerable size, which stood close by 
Scarsdale Station, on the Popham estate, at one time 
the residence of Robert C. and afterward of his 
brother, Lewis C. Popham, was totally destroyed by 
fire, nothing but the chimneys and foundations re- 
maining to mark the dwelling once a familiar land- 

The last large conflagration in the town was the 
burning of the pretty little parish church of St. James 
the Less, which occurred on the evening of Palm Sun- 
day, 1882. Although the neighborhood was speedily 
aroused, all efforts to save the building proved un- 
availing, very little of value being saved of the in- 
side fittings, and soon only the walls and part of the 
little chapel remained of the church which was so 
dear to all the inhabitants of the neighboring country. 

Scarsdale Lawn Tennis Club. — ^The only organ- 
ization of a peculiarly social nature existing in the 
town is the Scarsdale Lawn Tennis Club, just enter- 
ing upon its third season. The club was organized 
early in the spring of 1883, and the first year had a 
membership of about twenty, — including honorary 

members. The club had two courts at " Fair View," 
the residence of Mr. Hamilton, where the membere 
met for practice every Saturday afternoon during the 
warm months. The season was marked by a handicap 
tournament open to all the members. In the spring 
of 1884 the club opened its season with a membership 
of nearly thirty, ladies being admitted to active 
membership. The club occupied four courts in Fox 
Meadow Gardens, which were put at their disposal hy 
Mr. Charles Butler. During the year two toarna- 
ments were held, open to members only, — the first, 
ladies' singles, and the second, doubles, of a lady and 
gentleman. The last season was inaugurated on the 
7th of June, at the Fox Meadow G^ardens, the number 
of courts having been increased to six and the mem- 
bership aggregating forty-four. The original officers 
of the club were: 

Thomas F. Bubgess. 


Jamks BuutrKKa, J&. 

The oflScers for 1885 were the following : 

Allkn M. Butlkr. 

Jambs Blbkckkk, Js. 

H. Gbamvillk Butlbr. 

The club meets for practice every Saturday after- 
noon, but the grounds are open for the use of members 
on any week-day. The routine business of the club is 
entrusted to a governing committee of seven members, 
including the oflScers ex-ofl5cio. Although of very 
recent origin, the Scarsdale Tennis Club now forms a 
prominent feature in the social life of the town, and 
the scene at the grounds on a bright Saturday after- 
noon is charming and full of interest. 

Amateur Newspaper. — Scarsdale has never been 
represented by a newspaper of its own except during 
a few months of the year 1885. In June of that year 
appeared the first .number of The Scarsdale Gleaner, a 
small four-page monthly, devoted to the interests of 
the town. This was entirely an amateur enterprbe. 
being printed as well as edited within the limits of the 
township. Although but a modest undertaking, the 
Oleaner proved a great success, the circulation amount- 
ing to more than two hundred copies, and the sub- 
scription list embracing many outside of the town. 
With its fifth number the paper was obliged to sus- 
pend publication, owing to circumstances beyond the 
control of the amateur editors, and so, aft^r a short 
but highly successful career, the only journalistic 
attempt on the part of the citizens of the town came 
to a conclusion. 





The settlement of the Huguenots at New Rochelle 
is believed to have been begun aa early as the year 
1686-87, by certain refugees from the town of La 
Rochelle, France. This was the year following the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes, by which unjust 
and impolitic act fifty thousand French families were 
driven from their homes to other countries. Many of 
them fled first to England, but subsequently found 
their way to America. Those who came first to New 
Rochelle were landed, it is thought, by an English 
vessel at Bonnefoy's Point, now Davenport's Neck. 
Their exact number is uncertain, but the names of 
some of the early settlers are found upon the town 
records, between the years 169o and 1710, and are as 
follows : 















Ooutant (i). 









Le Boux. 
L« VilUin. 
Le Couut. 

In the year 1710 the population of New Rochelle 
amounted to two hundred and sixty-one persons, 
inclading fifty -seven slaves. This enumeration is 
from a census of the town supposed to have been taken 
ia that year. * The Rev. L. J. Coutant, however, in 
his sketches of Huguenot New Rochelle, asserts that 
the total number of inhabitants at this time was three 
hundred and twenty-five. 

The same gentleman, who, in all that relates to the 
early history of this town is peculiarly well-informed, 
observes that " the two oldest individuals living in 
the town at that date, Mary Badeau and Frederick 
Schureman, were each eighty years old. The family 
name having the greatest number of representatives 
(sixteen) was that of Schureman. There were eleven 

'Sep reminiflcencea of New BocheUe by B«'V. Wiu. JTog^ue at the end 
of the chApt«r on " Pelham.** 
'See Boltoo'6 Hbt. vol. I. p. 670. 

of the name of Le Doof. The next most numerous 
family names were those of Guion, Bonnett, Sycard, 
Frederick, Neffveille and Angevine. Of the fifty-four 
family names existing in the town of New Rochelle 
when this census of 1710 was taken, only six at the 
present time survive. These are the Le Counts, Sea- 
cords, Badeaus, Renouds, Bonnetts and Ooutants. 
The rest, forty-eight in number, have all disappeared 
from the town, either by death or removal, or have 
been merged by marriage into other family names.'' 
Many portions of the Huguenot stock came to New 
Rochelle at a later period. 

There is a distinct and unbroken tradition, dating 
back much more than a hundred years, and handed 
down through several separate families, notably the 
Guions and Ooutants, that the first settlers of the 
town landed at Bonnefoy's Point. The fact is perhaps 
as well established as any other not a matter of writ- 
ten record. An excavation existed, and perhaps still 
exists, upon that point, which from time immemorial 
has been designated by those who should know, as the 
cellar of the first house ever built in New Rochelle. 

Huguenot Street, Xew BocheUe. 

All we can say is that there are those living now 
whose great-grandfathers might have helped to dig 
that cellar. Members of the Guion family have been 
known to assert that the first child born in the town 
was born in that house, and was a Guion. 

In the early division of the town, that part of it 
now known as Davenport's Neck is designated as 
Leisler's and Le Oount's Neck. It contains about 
two hundred acres. This neck subsequently became 
the property and residence of the Lespinard family, 
one of whom came to New Rochelle with the Hugue- 
nots in 1689. 

The Lespinard Cemeter>' is situated on the south 
side of the Neck and contains several memorials of 
this family. In 1786 this piece of land was pur- 
chased by Newbury Davenport, father of the late pro- 
prietors, Lawrence and Newbury Davenport. 

Bonnefoy's Point, situated on the northeast side of 
the Neck, has already been mentioned as the landing- 
place of the Huguenots, about 1689. A very differ- 
ent landing was made there on the 22d of October, 
1776. On the 18th a huge British fleet had landed rein- 



forcements for the army in New York. There were, in 
all, seventy-two sail, having on board four thousand 
Hessians, six thousand Waldeckers, two companies of 
chasseurs, two hundred English recruits and two 
thousand baggage horses. The most of these Ger- 
man troops were at once ordered to join Howe id his 
march to White Plains. The main body of his army 
had already crossed from Throg's Neck to PelPs 
Point, and on the 21st of October was encamped on 
the Heights, north of the village of New Rochelle, 
Howe's headquarters being at a house on the White 
Plains road, about one mile from the village. On 
the 22d General Knyphausen landed with the Second 
Division of German hirelings, on Bonnefoy's or Bauf- 
fet's Point. He encamped his troops the same day 
on the E. K. Collins place (now Larchmont Manor), 
and from there joined the main body in time for the 
battle of the 28th. The one was a landing of peace- 
ful and persecuted emigrants, seeking in America 
that religious freedom which was denied them in 
their native France ; the other, a disembarkation of 
German mercenaries, nearly a century later, to carry 
war, plunder and desolation to the homes and hearts 

running along in a tortuous course, as close to the creek 
as possible, from the northeastern part of Huguenot 
Street to the foot of Centre Street, and then to the 
line of boundary between New Rochelle and Pelham. 
This road was the way of approach to Bonnefoy'a 

The farms or lots were narrow and long, — in some 
places nearly, or quite a mile in length, and, for the 
most part, not more than one field wide. Some of 
these retain their original width and length to the 
present day, while a few have been subdivided, and 
others, perhaps, have been doubled, two into one. 
The road leading from North Street, by the way of 
the Coutant Cemetery to the Pelham boundary line, 
which it strikes at what was formerly known as " New- 
port's Corner," must have been opened at an early- 
period of the settlement of the town, perhaps simul- 
taneously with the opening of North Street, as it 
would seem to be the only road in those times north 
of Huguenot Street by which the town of E^st 
Chester could be reached. This road runs in a direct 
westerly course and was the location of several 
Huguenot families.^ 

JL'^ ^ 

Showing the old Episcopal church with the district whool -house. 

of the descendants of the Huguenots, the plunderers 
and the plundered being of the same religious faith. 
The village of New Rochelle was situated on a level 
tract of land, upon the line of the old Boston road, 
extending from a large pond, now drained, but for 
many years known as the Ice Pond or Crystal Lake, 
to a point near to where the Presbyterian Church 
now stands, being about one mile in extent and con- 
stituting what is known as Huguenot Street. The 
road was only roughly marked out at first, but avoid- 
ed the steep hill which had to be surmounted by the 
present Boston turnpike. 

In 1693 a road was opened at right angles to 
Huguenot Street, known as North Street, the same 
which now extends to Upper New Rochelle. 

Centre Street was the first road laid out in a direct 
line from Huguenot Street to the Salt Water, it is be- 
lieved, and it was on that part of Huguenot Street, 
between North and Centre, that the Huguenots 
erected their first dwellings. The land here is dry 
and level, and is said to be seventy feet above tide- 
water. Next to Centre, it is reasonable to suppose 
that the street now called " Cedar Avenue " was opened, 

The Huguenots " seem to have been an industri- 
ous add order-loving people." What their worldly 
circumstances were, might easily be inferred from the 
persecutions they had suffered and from the precipi- 
tate manner in which most of them had been com- 
pelled to abandon their homes and flee to foreign 
lands. Their means were small, and it was, no doubt, 
some years before the lands which they acquired 
were paid for ; and even when this was accomplished, 
by patient toil and frugal management, the problem 
still remained of how to extract a living from their 
small farms. That they found this a work of no 
small difficulty, we may conclude from the following 
letters, written shortly after their arrival. On the 
20th of September, 1689, they purchased fit)m John 
Pell a tract of about six thousand acres, the price 
for which was not far from one dollar an acre. 
This was divided into lots on the 20th of November, 
1693, by a surveyor ; each occupant paying his just 
proportion of the total value. The letters, taken from 

iThesestAtementsastoeftrly localities have been taken, by permis- 
sion, from an iutereBting skfttch of the first settlement of New Ruchelle, 
by the Ber. L. J. Contant 



the " Documentary History of the State of New 
York," * are as follows : 

" New KocHELLt 20th Oct, 169U. 
" Sir,— ••♦••♦«♦»♦♦ 

** Mr. Piiitun has dellvorcd mo thte day, an onler to be coinnmnicat«d 
to the a'd inhabitants (of Now Rochello), relative to the election and 
Domiuation of AneoflsorB, CollectofB and Commisaiunera, for Uyiug, ini- 
poring and roceiving Taxes for bin Mj^eatie'a service. The time la very 
iliort, since Ii is the twenty aoventh InHtant they miibt bo at W'cheeter, but 
they look foraonie forbearance and delay from your goodnes, in caae, 
notwithfltanding their diligence, they may not be able punctually to 
answpr. It ia not through any unwillingueas to exert themsclvee to 
meet it, but you know their btienglh aa well aa I. NotM ithatanding, 
d«8{Mte tlieir poverty and misery, tliey will never lack in Hubnii(«iou to 
the orden of his HiO*^y» t>^b f*'*' the public good and interoet. Thia 
they protest to me, and 1 pray you to be perauadod thei-cof. 1 am with 
respect, and pray Ood for your prosperity, 

•* Your very humblu aud very Obedient Servant, D. Bonrepas, 
poDtor of this French Colony. 

"Addreaa: a Monsieur de Leblar, Lieut Oouverneur pour le Roy 
D'Angleterre, du Fort William, a La Noie York." 

Grovernor Fletcher arrived in New York on the 
29th of August, 1692. To him, soon afterwards, prob- 
ably in 1693, the inhabitants of New Bochelie ad- 
dressed the following humble petition : ^ 

"To His Excellency, Col. Beujamin Fletcher, Governor in Cliief, and 
Captain General of ye Province of New York aud dependcnciea Ac. 

"The humble petition of ye inbabitauta of New Rochelle, Humbly 

"That your petitionera having been forced by the late poraecutiona in 
France toft iraake their country and estates, and flye to ye Protoataut 
Princea. Their Mi^jestyes, by their proclamation of ye 2&th of April, 
lt>89, did grant them an axiie in all their dominiona. with their Royal 1 
protection ; Wherefore they were invited to come and buy lauda in thia 
province, to the end that they might by their.Iabour help the neceaaityes 
of their families, aud did apend therein all their amall store, with the 
help of their Crienda, whereof they did borrow great auma of money, 
having l>eon compelled to sell for that purpose the thinga which are 
most necessary for their use. Wherefore your petitioners humbly pray 
that your Ehccellency may lie pleased to take their Qiae in Serious Con- 
sideration, aud out of charity and pity to grant them for some years 
vhat help and privilege your Excellency shall think Convenient, and 
jour petitioners in duty bound shall ever pray Ac. 

"Thauvkt Elsi Cotuoxbau." 

The patents of the towns of New Rochelle and Pel- 
ham are both of them ancient and curious documents, 
illostrative of the quaint orthography and prodigious 
legal verbiage of a past age. 

The following is John Pell's grant of New Bochelie 
in 1689: 

" 7*0 aU ChrUtian people to whom this present writing shall come 
John Pell, proprietor of the Manor of Pelham, within the County of 
Weit Chester, in the proylnco of New York, within the dominion of 
New England, gentleman, and Rachel, bis wife, aendeth greeting in our 
Lord God everlasting. Know Yee that the said John Pell and Rachel, 
his wife, for and in consideration of the sum of sixteen hundred and 
•eventy-flve pounds and twenty-flve shillings sterling, current silver 
money of this province, to him in hand paid and secured to be paid at 
the or before the ensealing and the delivery thereof by Jacob Leisler, of 
the dty of New York, Merchant, the receipt whereof they, the said John 
Pell and Rachel, his wife, do thereby acknowledge themaelves to be fully 
■atiified and contented, and thereof, and of every part and parcel there- 
of do hereby freely and clearly acquit and Exhonerate and discharge the 
nid Jacob Leialer, hia heira, executors, administiators and every of 
them, by these presents have granted, bargained and sold, and by these 
presents do grant, bargain and sell unto the said Jacob Leisler, his heirs 
aod assignees, all the tract of land lying and being within said Manor of 
Pelham, containing six thousand acres of land and i<ls» one hundred 

» Doc. Hist. N. Y., vol. ii. p. 304. 
J Doc. Hirt. N. Y., vol Ul. p. 926. 

acres of land more, which the aafd John Pell and Rachel, hia wife, do 
freely give and grant for the French church, erected, or to be erected, by 
the inhabitants of the said tract of land, or by their assignees, being but- 
ted and bounded as herein is after expressed, beginning at the west side 
of a certain white oak tree, marked on all four sides, standing at high 
water mark at the south end of Hog Neck, by shoals, harbour and runs 
northwesterly through the great fresh meadow lying between the road 
and the Sound, and from the north side of the said meadow, to run 
from thence due north to Bronckes river, which Is the west division line 
between the said John Pell's land and the aforesaid tract, bounded on 
tlio soutli-eastorly by the Sound and Salt Water, and to run east-north- 
erly to a certain piece of salt meadow lying at the salt creek which run- 
neth up to Cedar Tree brook, or Gravelly brook, and is the bounds to 
Southern. Bounded on the east by a line that runs from said meadow 
nortli- westerly by marked trees, to a certain black oak tree standing » 
little below the road, marked on four sides, and from thence to run due 
north four miles and a half, more or lees, and from the north side of the 
said west line, ending at Broncke's river, and from thence to run east- 
erly till it meets with the north end of the said eastern meet bounds, to- 
gether with all and singular the islands and the islets before the said 
tract of land lying and being in the sound and salt water, with all 
the harbors, creeks, rivers, rivulets, runs, waters, lakes, meadows, 
ponds, marshes, salt and fresh, swamps, soils, timber, trees, pastures, 
feedings, enclosures, fields, quarries, mines, minerals (silver and gold 
mines only excepted), fishing, hunting, fowling, hawking and also the 
measnagea, houses, tenements, barns, mills, mill dams, aa they were at 
the time of the enaealing and delivery of the articles of agreement of 
sale for said land, bearing date the second day of July, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand six hundred and eighty seven. As relation being 
thereto had, doth more fully and at large appear, as also the reveraion 
and reversloni, remainder and remainders of a certain lott of land and 
meadow now in the tenure and occupation of John JeflTerd and Olive, his 
wife, being part of the aforesaid six thousand acres ef land, with all the 
privileges belonging thereto, or in any wise appertaining or therewith 
now used, occupied and eiijoyed, as all the right, title, interest, reversion, 
remainder, property, claime and demand whatsoever, of, in, and to the 
same, and any part thereof as hereafter expressed. 

" To have and to hold the aforesaid tract of land, with all other the 
above granted premiaea, unto Uie aaid Jacob Leisler, hia heirs and as- 
signs, for ever, to his and their own sole and proper use, boucfit 
and behoof, for ever yielding and paying unto the aaid John 
Pell, his heire and asaigna, lords of the said Manor of Pelham, to the aa- 
signa of him or them, or their or either of them, as an acknowledgment 
to the lords of the aaid Manor, one fat calf on every four and twentieth 
day of June, yearly and every year forever— if demanded. 

" The said John Pell and Rachel, hia wife, for themaelves, their heira, 
executors and administrators, respectively, do hereby covenant, promise 
and grant to and with the aaid Jacob Leisler, hia heirs and asaigneee, in 
manner and form following, that is to say, at the time of the ensealing 
hereof, they, the said John Pell and Rachel, his wife, do avouch them- 
aelvea to be true, sole and lawful owners of all the aferebargained prem- 
ises, and that they are lawfully seised of and in the same and every part 
thereof in their own proper right of a good and indefinable estate of in- 
heritance in fee simple, and have in themselves good right, full power 
and lawful authority to sell and dispose of the same as aforesaid ; and the 
said Jaoob Leisler, his heirs and assignees, shall and may from hence- 
forth and forever, peaceably, quietly, have, hold, occupy, posaesa and en- 
joy the above granted premises, -and every part and parcel thereof, free 
and clear without any charge or intimidation, caused, made, sufTerod or 
granted by aaid John Pell and Rachel, hia wife, or either of them, their 
or either of their heirs in estate, right, title, interest in law or equity, 
trust, charge or other molestation whatsoever. 

" And the said John Pell, and Rachel, his wife, for themselves respec- 
tively and for their reepecti ve heirs, do covenant, promiae and g^rant to war- 
rant and defend the above granted premises with their appurtenances and 
every part and parcel thereof, vnto the said Jacob Leisler, his heirs and 
assignees forever, against the lawful chances and demands. In witness 
whereof, the aaid John Pell and Rachel, hia wife, have hereunto aet 
their handa and aeals in New York, the twentieth day of September, In 
the flivt year of the reign of our sovereign lord aud lady, William and 
Mary, King and Queen of England, <!tc., &c., in the year of our Lord 
one thousand six hundred and eighty-nine. 

'•JoHK Pill. 
" The Mark of 
" Rachel— R— Pell. 

Leisler purchased the lands from Pell for the Hu- 



guenots, to whom he released them as rapidly as pos- 
sible during the year 1690, preceding the year in 
which he was executed on a charge of high treason. 
The township was surveyed and divided into lots or 
farms on the 20th of November, 1693, by Alexander 
Allaire, one of the purchasers from Leisler, and Cap- 
tain Bond, who was a surveyor. 

Military HiexoRY. — ^I'he town of NewRoehelle ap- 
pears to have suffered somewhat during the Revolu- 
tionary War, although by no means so severely as 
some other parts of the county : 

" On the I8th of October, 1776, tho Britisli nrmy cnmed to Pelham 
Point from Tbrog's Neck, and marching northerlj, encampe<l the same 
night on the high ground between Ilulchinson'n River (East Ciiester 
Creek) and New Rochelle village, where it remained till the 2l8t. On 
the 21i(t the Britivii removed and encamped on New Rochelle Heights, 
north of the village, and on both Hides of tho road lea<ling to ScHrsdale. 
During the march of the two armies towards White Plains, frequent 
skirmishes happened. General Sullivan attacked the vanguard of the 
British on their road from New Rochelle, and in the flght which on- 
sued, as well as in most of Uie other smaller engagements, the advantage 
was with the Americans. 

** But their greatest troubles befell the inhabitants after the battle at 
White Plains was over, and the British anny had retired to Dobbs 
Ferry ; for the whole region between tlie Sound and tho Hudson lUver 
was overrun and laid waste by a partisan warfare, and became, as it 
were, the battle-ground of the disaffected, and tho prey of both friend 
and foe. Scenes of cruelty and bloodshed, unknown in civilixod warfare, 
marked these predatory excursions from both lines, and in defense of their 
homes, the valiant sons of Westchester exhibited frequent instances of 
personal bravery unexcelled in ancient or modern times.** > 

The following incidents, related in Mr. Coutant's 
Historical Reminiscences, may serve as specimens of 
the annoyances and dangers to which the inhabitants 
occupying a position between two hostile armies were 
subjected. In many instances, no doubt they were ol 
a far more tragical character. 

In 1776, when a portion of Howe's army was en- 
camped upon the high land a few hundred yards east 
from the old Coutant homstead (upon which is now lo- 
cated the Coutant Cemetery), the surrounding country 
suffered much from the soldiery and camp followers. 
Of this kind of annoyance the premises and family of 
Isaac Coutant, by reason of their proximity to the 
army, had their full share. The fields were stripped 
of their fences for fuel, and the live-stock of every 
kind disappeared, while the granaries and barns were 
speedily emptied of their contents. But while the 
soldiery were engaged in this external department of 
plunder, the Hessian women ransacked the house 
from kitchen to garret in quest of food, clothing or 
any article that might seem of use to them. So fre- 
quent were their visits, and so importunate and im- 
perious their demands, that even the meat and vege- 
tables were taken from the pot in the process of cook- 
ing. At length Isaac Coutant was compelled to apply 
to General Knyphausen for protection, since his 
family were in danger of starvation. A stalwart High- 
lander from one of the Scotch regiments was detailed 
to guard the premises. Hardly had he entered upon 
this duty when one of these female harpies entered 

I Tompkins' address at White Plains, October 28, 1*845. 

the house, and, with meat-hook in hand, made her 
way, as usual, to the dinner-pot suspended over the 
fire. But as she stooped to raise the lid the Scotch- 
man dealt her a blow with the flat of his sword which 
materially interfered with her investigations, and 
when she arose in wrath and advanced upon him 
with the meat-hook (without giving the countersign) 
he dealt her another thwack with his broadsword 
which sent her staggering to the door, from which 
she retreated in the direction of the camp, hurling 
anathemas like Parthian arrows at the soldier, by 
which, however, as they were couched in an unknown 
tongue, he was not much dismayed. 

*' As tlie war progressed it assumed an aspect of increased and contin- 
nous peril. Kamilies living between the lines of the two hostile camps 
were constantly ox[)osed to plunder and violence. One night, as the 
family at the old (Coutant) homestead were sitting quietly around ths 
hearthstone, the doors were unceremoniously burst open by a company 
of these unscrupulous plunderers. Isaac Coutant, a man advanced in 
years, was by them greeted roughly. He and his sons were ordered out 
into the yard, and their money demanded at the point of the bayonet. 
What they had about them was given up. Suspecting him of having a 
concealed horde somewhere, they punched him in the l*aGk with their 
guns at full cock, to induce him to surrender it. Failing to discover 
what did not exist, they marched the young men across the fields to the 
north of the house, down to the border of a dense swamp, and tried by 
moans of threats nnd prumiiies to induce them to confess the locality of 
the supposed concealed treasure. The boys, however, were no wiser 
than their father with regard to this imaginary deiioeit ; so that, in the 
end, their captors seem to have become convinced of their mistake and 
allowed them to return home. The boys becoming, as may well be sup- 
posed, tired of this sort of thing, which was liable to happen at any hour 
of the day or night, sought concealment on such occasions under the 
floor of the old kitchen (a detached building, as was commonly tbe case 
in the days when slavery prt^vailed, and as may still be seen on the old 
Quintard honieHtead), which was elevatetl sufficiently above the ground 
to admit of a person crawling under and lying down bstween the huge 
oaken beams. After two or three years of lodgment in this strange 
dormitory, matters .becoming worse and worse, and fearing that they 
might be smoked out or burnt out, as animals are sometimes from their 
burrows, they were literally compelled to take to tho woods, where, in 
company with other young men of the neighborhood, they built a hut 
like an Indian wigwam in a siKrluded and unfrequented spot. This hut 
they thatched over with wattles and straw, in such wise as to make it 
water-tight, and thus had quite a safe and comfortable sleeping place. 

" The fieyeau Tavern, an old Huguenot landmark, was situated on 
North Street, directly opposite where the Paine Monument now stands. 
It was a popular place of resort for the young people during the Revolu- 
tionary War. Dancing and card-playing seem to have been the favorite 
amusements, in which they indulged at all hours of the night, at the 
imminent hazard of being caught by prowling bands of refugees and 
Skinners, who scoured the middle portion of Westchester County in onall 
squads, in quest of forage 'and indiscriminate plunder. An incident 
which took plsce at this tavern, and which was related to Mr. Coutant 
by his father, may serve to illustrate Uio character of some of the ex- 
periences of those days." 2 

A number of the young men of the neighborhood, 
who were convened there for amusement, found them- 
selves suddenly surrounded in the midst of their mer- 
riment by a troop of light horsemen from the British 

Several of the party made their escape from the 
house through the rear windows and fled across the 
fields to the woods. The rest were captured* and 
searched. As very little money was found upon them 
they were accused of having concealed it, and, as a 

8 Contant^s *' Bemlnlscences." 



punishmeDt, were lashed to the heels of the soldiers' 
horses and the animals spurred into violent action, 
•0 that the prisoners were dashed ahout at the peril of 
their limbs and lives. After this cruel treatment 
they were compelled to kneel down in the road and 
repeat after their brutal captors a profane burlesque 
on the Lord's Prayer. This ceremony ended, they 
were stripped of their coats, hats and shoes, and left 
to find their way home as best they could, or, if they 
preferred it, to return to their merriment in the tav- 

During the War of 1812 a panic took place among 
the militia who had been stationed upon Davenport's 
Neck as a guard against the possible landing of a 
force from the British men-of-war which were cruis- 
ing in the Sound. It was a false alarm, but their fright 
was such that they fled in every 
direction, taking refuge in the 
neighboring woods and swamps, 
and some of them failing to report 
themselves until many hours had 
elapsed. This was not a victory to 
be proud of, nor even a- masterly 
retreat, but when we recall the 
history in more modern times, ot 
the battle of Bull Run, we will not 
be too hard on the heroes of Daven- 
port's Neck. It requires time, dis- 
cipline and, above all, active ser- 
vice to make soldiers out of the raw 
material of farmers, mechanics and 
business men. The rout was not 
any more complete or disgraceful 
than at the battle of Camden, South 
• Carolina, where Gates' new levies 
ran so fast and so far, that some 
think they are running still. 

The Paine Farm and Monu- 
ment. — Writers upon the history 
of New Rochelle have usually re- 
ferred to the fact that the noted 
Thomas Paine lived here for some 
time, upon a farm bestowed upon 
him by the Legislature of the State of New York for his 
political services during the War of the Revolution. 
This farm, said to have consisted originally of about 
three hundred acres, was, at the commencement of 
hostilities, in the possession of one Frederic Deveau, 
called in the records of the Confiscation Act, Bevoe, 
by mistake, and styled '' Yeoman." As the name in- 
dicates, he was doubtless a descendant of the Hugue- 

At the close of the war, being a Tory, his property 
was confiscated and given to Paine. It was called by 
some "The Paine Farm " and by others " Mount Paine." 
Thomas Paine came to live upon his property in New 
Rochelle during the first years of the present century 
(1801-2). In his " Field-Book of the Revolution," 
Benson J. Lossing, in referring to this monument, 

speaks of the inscription, "Thomas Paine, Author of 
Common Sense," as though no other words had been 
placed there. If he had taken the trouble to examine 
more closely, he would have ascertained that his ad- 
mirers have placed extracts from his work, " The Age 
of Reason," in the rear. If (as has been stated by 
those who ought to know) the likeness of Paine 
placed by his admirers upon the monument is a good 
one, the one given by Mr. Liossing is not so, for there 
is very little resemblance of the one to the other. A 
part of the house in which Paine lived still remains 
intact, and is thought to be one of the most ancient 
dwellings in the town. • 

As he died on the 8th of June, 1809, in New York, 
Paine could only have lived in New Rochelle four or 
five years. He was buried in a corner of the Paine 


farm ; but in the year 1819 the remains were disin- 
terred by William Cobbett, and conveyed to England. 
I once met with an aged man, who informed me that 
he was living a small boy at the time, in a house almost 
directly opposite the place where Paine was buried. 
At a very early hour one morning, when going to the 
pasture to drive up the cows for milking, he dis- 
covered several men hard at work digging near the 
road. He was alarmed and watched them from a dis- 
tance. They placed something contained in a box, 
in a wagon, filled up the empty grave and drove 
rapidly away. That was the last of the mortal re- 
mains of the author of " Common Sense" ever seen 
in this country. What became of them is not known, 
and probably never will be. They are supposed, 
however, to have been taken by Cobbett to England. 



At a much later period a monument was erected 
near the spot and facing the road to White Plains. 

There, on the eastern side of the house, is the little 
sleeping-room, with its antique '* Franklin fire-place, 
over which the arch infidel warmed his shivering 
limbs before returning to his bed of straw/' During 
his abode here he was accustomed to make frequent 
excursions into the surrounding country, calling on the 
principal families and farmers of the neighborhoods 
of New Rochelle and East Chester, whose cellars in 
those days were well supplied with' hogsheads of good 
old cider, which they never failed to serve up in 
bountiful libations, to the great pleasure of their dis- 
tinguished visitor.* A late resident of New Rochelle 
stated that his grandfather once called on Mr. Paine 
to serve him with some legal paper or process. Upon 
discovering the nature of it, he was greeted with a 
perfect shower of imprecations from the aged, blear- 
eyed, little old man. But his wrath soon spent itself, 
and the visitor was invited in. They 
entered the sleeping-room above men- 
tioned. There was a fire burning in the 
Franklin fire-place. In the middle of the 
room stood a small pine table without a 
cloth or cover of any kind. Upon it were 
the remains of a loaf of rye bread, a pitcher 
of milk and a piece of butter, from which 
Mr. Paine had evidently recently made 
his frugal breakfast. Another visitor at 
another time found this table adorned 
with a cover of old newspapers. The 
Franklin stove has been removed from 
the place which it occupied for so many 
years, and is now (1885) exhibited as a 
curiosity in the show window of Messrs. 
Bell & Harmen, of New Rochelle. At the 
time of the interview above described Mr. 
Paine was clad in a most extraordinary- 
looking outer garment, being nothing less 
than a dressing-gown made out of an old 
army blanket. The house was originally 
a small wooden building, one and a half stories in 
height, with a kitchen attached to the south gable. 
The removal of the remains of Paine from their 
burial-place in New Rochelle had its effect, too, upon 
English literature, for it led to the famous but irrev- 
erent epigram of Byron, beginning, — 

"In digging up your bones, Tom Paine, 
Will Cobbett has done well," eto.x 

iCoutant's " Reminiscencee.** 

*Note by Mr. Coutan*,—" It la naturally supposed by many that the resi 
dence of Thomaa Paine in New Rochelle must have exerted an ii^uri 
OU8 influence upon the moral and religious character of the inhabitants, 
and the presence of a public monument to his memory is calculated to 
confirm this impresrion. In so far as this relates to the coutempories of 
Paine, the majority of whom at the time in New Rochelle were of Hu- 
^enot descent, it must be acknowledged that the author of the 'Age of 
Reason* was not entirely destitute of followers and admirers among 
them ; and it is possible, and even probable, that this evil influence 
might have become more extended aud pennanent than it ever has be- 

Other Huguenot Houses.— The dwelling upon 
Centre Street formerly owned and occupied by the 
late Mr. Samuel Davis, and still in good repair, al- 
though it has been much altered and added to, is un- 
doubtedly one of the oldest in the town. It was the 
residence for thirty years consecutively of the Rev. 
Theodosius Bartow, pastor of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church, who was settled in 1790, and died in New 
Rochelle, November 12, 1819. The venerable old 
tamarind tree at the east end of the house is said to 
have been planted by Mr. Bartow himself. The 
chimney jambs in this house, in the principal room, 
are ornamented with the Dutch titles inscribed with 
Scripture mottoes so much in vogue in the olden time. 
It is probable that Mr. Bartow was not the first occu- 
pant, and that the house dated from long before the 
Revolutionary War. 

The Piktard Mansion also has a pre-Revolu- 
tionary history ; and yet, notwithstanding its antlq- 


uity, it is one of the most desirable residences in New 
Rochelle. There are eleven rooms in the main build- 
come, but for the counteracting power exerted by the early Methodist 
Church, especially at Upper New Rochelle and along the entire extent 
of North Street. It Is a remarkable hct^ and might be regarded by 
some in the light of a q)ecial providence, that immediately subsequent to 
the death and burial of Paine in this neighborhood, and for over twenty 
years afterwards, the powerful appeals made to the hearts and consciences 
of the people by the early itinerant preachers of HethodiBm, as well 
as the combined efforts of the whole memberahip of that church, were 
attended with extraordinary results, producing a complete change in the 
religious views and feelings of the community, and dealing to infidelity 
of the Paine type a blow from which it has never recovered. Nor was 
this counteracting inflnence confined to the place where it originated, in 
the vicinity of the Paine monument, at Upper New Rochelle, but it 
spread to the adjacent towns of East Chester, Bfamaroneck and White 
Plains. In a word, so general and so popular was this religious reforma- 
tion in all the localities above referred to, thai, for a time, any man 
thereabouts who should have openly professed himself to be a disciple of 
Thomas Paine would have been (and in a few cases actually was) re- 
gnrded as a sort of a moral monster by the general community. This 



ing, with two wings attached, one occupied as a 
kitchen. The ceilings of all the rooms on the ground 
floor are fully ten feet in height, and there is an open 
fire-place in every room in the house, hut one. It 
stands almost directly opposite to the Presbyterian 

The front line of this old place, previous to the 
year 1800, extended through to Huguenot Street. The 
making of Main Street cut off from it a triangular 
piece of land, which, lying thus between the two 
streets, was given by the trustees of Lewis Pintard to 
the Presbyterian Church, in the year 1827, and forms 
part of the site of the present edifice. 

In digging a deep drain along that portion of Main 
Street in front of the church, in the spring of 1884, 
a copper coin was thrown up by the workmen from 
a depth of ten or eleven feet below the surface. How 
it came to be buried there is a matter of conjecture. 
It was in a good state of preservation. The head of 
George III., King of Great Britain, is faintly discern- 
ible. The date is almost obliterated, but seems to be 
1780 or 1790. 

On Mr. SimeoD Lester's Place, North Street, New Rocbelle. 

The grounds adjacent to the house consist of over 
twenty-three acres, and there is upon them one of the 
finest springs in the town of clear, cool water, the 
depth of which never varies at any season of the 
year. Coins issued before the Revolutionary War 
have been found there, while ploughing, but none of 
American origin. In the year 1884 an additional 
room was built over the front porch, and, while re- 
moving a part of the roof for this purpose, a number 
of papers and letters of Huguenot origin were discov- 
ered. The letters are addressed to Mr. Lewis Pintard, 
of New Rochelle, and some of the papers are in his 
own handwriting. There were also found a pointe<l 
shoe, of ancient make, and a small vial of olive oil, 
a few drops of which still adhered to the sides and 
bottom of the glass. One of these papers is a bill 
gainst John Pintard for " 7 Reemes of paper, and 1 
p'- Bukrom ; " dated " July 14th 1738 | £6 : 12 : 2." 

Another is a bill dated New York, January, 1774, — 

** Mr. Louii Pintard to Peter Goelet, Dr. 

** To Datls, hingee and otber hardware, £8 9«. Sd. 

tftatement ia In no respect exaggeratf^d. I am here speaking advisedly, 
and from my own personal knowledge of the state of things at that 
time.'"— VnpublUhed Manutcripi of Huguenot^ New KochtU^f. 

This is signed, "Paid: Peter Goelet." All the 
bills are in English currency and are dated before 
the Revolutionary War. They had remained 
there undisturbed behind the ceiling, where they had 
accidentally fallen, for the greater part, if not the 
whole, of a century. The penmanship of some of 
these documents is of a superior kind. The writing 
of all of them is quite legible, and, while the paper ia 
somewhat discolored by time, the ink is entirely un- 

It was not at first my purpose to print any of these 
old letters ; but, upon further consideration, I have de- 
cided to give a translation of the letter addressed to 
the French Church in New York, as a specimen of 
the very polite style of a French commercial corre- 
spondent of the last century, and also as showingt he 
communication which was kept up between the old 
French Huguenot Church in New York, and its sis- 
ter churches abroad. A copy of this letter may be 
found among the records of the French Church in 
New York (so Dr. Baird informs me) at the present 
time, — 

[•* Copy "] •* Amstebdam, Oct. 5th, 1764. 

*' Messrs. Vallad, Daniel Bonnet, Jaques des Brosses and others, heads 
of the French Church of New York. 
** Fearing that Mr. Daller may not he able to reach London in time to 
proceed thence to Falmouth and take advantage of the packet which 
should sail from thence for your place on the 13th inst., I think it my 
duty to communicate to you the preceding, which I have remitted to him 
and sent yesterday to the Texel in order that yon may be informed of 
the departure from this place of my friend Daller, whom I continue to 
recommend to yon as strongly as possible. He merits it in every re« 
spect. Meanwhile, I remain unchangeably and without any restriction 
whatever. Yours Ac.'* 

•• Nov. 6th, 1764. 

"Since the preceding, which I had the honor to write to you on Oc- 
tober 5th, which letter I ho, e will have reached you by the Packet that 
sailed from Falmouth, Oct. l.'tth, of which your pastor, Mr. Jacob Dal- 
ler could not take advantage, but has since embarked at London, in the 
ship Thomas and Waddcl, Capt Chambers, sailing directly for your city* 
and which sailed October 29th ; hoping ardently that you will have had 
the pleasure of seeing him in good health before the receipt of this let- 
ter, which I send to London, whence I flatter myself that it will be for- 
warded in time to go by the Packet, which ought to sail the 10th inst- 
Thia, Mr. Daller will tell you that he received fh>m Messrs. Chabanel and 
Whithoff, in London, as per his receipt of October 23d, 
£. «. d. 
[the sum of] 59 3 9 
Paid besides 4 for permits 

which it seems Capt. Chambers 

found it necesaary to procure 


Provisions in London 


negotiating 4^ 

sterling @ 37. 


'to which I add the amount I remitted you 
and postage on your letters and mine in 
London since March 28th, 1764, including 
several from Geneva, Switzerland Ac, 
Current money of Holland 






1 Florins. 



"Which I place to the debit of your account, and if I do not shortly 
advise you of my drafts on you, gentlemen, you will oblige me by remit- 
ting the amount, since I have but too frequently to make disbursements 
for my Bumerous friends on your place. Thus, instead of my making 
remittances to them, I have on the contrary to make drafts on them ; 
therefore oblige me by remitting the above sum in £100 sterling Draft on 
London, upon receipt of this, as, on reflection upon what I have stated 
to you, I will not draw upon yon. Gentlemen, for anything I received, 
only on October 27th, via. Rotterdam, your above mentioned package of 
July 16th. I sent the same evening the inclosure to the Church at Haar- 
lem. Mr. Magnet has acknowledged its receipt, and informed me that 
his church has written to ours, to the sexton of which I have myself Just 
remitted your inclosure. With it I enclosed all the letters of the Sienr 
Menanteau which you have taken the trouble to copy. I postponed 
until to-day the delivery of your communication to our Consistory, inas- 
much as the second meeting of that body io at present in session. I wish 
that, at last, there might be due reflection, and that I might have the 
satisfRction to communicate to you in my next an agreeable result. In 
this expectation, I continue beyond all expression. 

" Gentlemen, your very humble and very ol)edient servant, 

"Jacob Hkmry Ohabakbl." 

While none of these documents are of any special 
historical value, they show that the merchants of a 
century and a half ago were careful men. They used 
good stout paper, without ruling. Many of them 
wrote their own commercial letters in a clear and dis- 
tinct hand. There is no mistaking their signatures. 
The names of old Peter Goelet, Lewis Pintard and 
the others are their own, and well calculated to 
last another hundred years. 

The lapse of a hundred and fifty years (one of 
these letters is dated 1738), though passed in a garret, 
— ^has not obscured a word, nor obliterated a signa- 
ture. It will be observed, moreover, that fashions 
revolve in circles of a century or more. The ex- 
tremely sharp-pointed shoe which came to light with 
these papers, and from the same hiding-place — is the 
very same which has been fashionable in recent years, 
although from its small size and coarse make, it seems 
to have'.belonged to a female servant of those ancient 
days. But the inquiry arises; if this was the pattern 
of shoe worn by the servants ; did not those of the 
masters and mistresses of— say 1750-60 " come to the 
point "still more sharply? The oil found with the 
shoe may have been intended for " its lubrication," 
but &te willed it otherwise. 

The Huntington Homestead was perhaps the 
most venerable monument of Huguenot architecture 
in the town, and there were few, if any, older houses 
in the county. It is believed to have been built 
about the year 1690, by Alexander Allaire, one of the 
first settlers, who, as has been stated, landed at 
Bonnefoy*s Point. It was therefore well on towards 
the completion of its second century. It was con- 
structed of unhewn stone. Its situation " was highly 
picturesque commanding a view of the varied scenery 
of marsh, and creek, and wooded point ; and away to 
the eastward over the islets in the vicinity of Bonne- 
foy*s Point For a number of years past the wood- 
work of the interior had been decayed, and the house 
itself untenantable, until at length it was removed 
and replaced by a more modern structure. There can 
be little doubt that some houses built of wood, will 

outlast others built of stone, because the former can 
be more readily altered and adapted to modem ideas." 
But sooner or later all must go. 

" Out upon Time ! he will leave no more 
Of the things to come than the Uiings beton 1 
Out upon Time I who forever will leave 
But enough of the past for the future to grieve.** 

Religious Denominations. — ^There is abundant 
evidence, that the early settlers of New Bochelle 
loved and valued the Protestant religion, for adhering 
to which they had suffered so much. Like the New 
England Puritans, whose situation and circumstances 
their own almost exactly resembled,— they soon found 
means in despite of all difficulties to erect a place for 
Christian worship. It was a harder task to support a 
preacher. When they had a pastor, the sacrameot 
was administered four times a year. When without one 
they walked to New York for the sake of enjoying 
this privil^e. Tradition relates that they often set 
out for the city on communion Sundays at a very early 
hour, reached the old French Church in Pine Street 
in time for the service, and returned to their homes 
on the afternoon or evening of the same day, the dis- 
tance by the road to New York being fully twenty 

Meanwhile, the religious instruction of the children 
was not neglected. Sabbath-schools, as now con- 
ducted, were unknown ; but they were taught the 
catechism of their church, and often received script- 
ture lessons from the pictures upon the ancient Dutch 
tiles, which, in the better class of houses, ornamented 
the mantel-pieces and fire-places. Such were for- 
merly to be seen in the house where the writer of this 
sketch now resides, the old Pintard place. Unfor- 
tionately, in the progress of modern improvement t 
they have now mostly disappeared, like the old stone 
church on Huguenot Street, But they may still be 
found in the house for many years owned and occu- 
pied by the late Samuel Davis, which stands near by. 

The first church edifice was of wood, built in 1692. 
It stood a little west of the house now occupied by 
Mr. Stephen Carpenter, which is one of the most 
ancient dwellings in New Bochelle. The church 
fronted directly upon the old Boston post-road, — ^then 
the main street of the village, and was only a few 
yards distant from the triangular piece of ground 
which forms the site of the present Presbyterian 
Church. This church was burned in the year 1723, 
and afterwards rebuilt. This first church edifice was 
used by the Huguenots for many years aa a place of 
worship, and continued to be occupied as such by a 
number of them, who protested against the transfer of 
their church and church property to Episcopacy, as 
without authority of law, and contrary to the wishes 
of the people. Such is the view still held by many of 
their descendants, large numbers of whom are now 
members of other churches. The views of the Rev. 
Dr. Baird upon this subject, who is one of the highest 
authorities in this country upon all matters pertain- 



ing to Huguenot History, may be found, supported by 
documentary evidence (in the third volume of) his 
new work, (two volumes of which have just been 
issued from the press), *' The Huguenots in Amer- 
ica." Those of the Rev. L. J. Coutant, a descendant 
of the original settlers of New Eochelle, and who was 
personaUy acquainted wilhsome of the non-conform- 
ists are as follows : ^ It is reasonable to suppose, that 
a people so warmly and conscientiously attached to 
the principles and forms of a religion for which they 
had suffered exile, confiscation and almost every 
imaginable form of persecution, would not willingly 
submit to be transferred by law,' and to be swallowed 
up within the pale of a church, whose rites, ceremo- 
nies, form of government and mode of worship, were 
entirely dissimilar to their own. We are disposed to 
think, therefore, that the statement, ^ '* All hut two 
individucUs of Mr. Boudet's congregation unanimously 
conformed to the Church of England," is misleading 
and calculated to convey the impression, (which is 
certainly a false one) that the en^^'r^ body of the French 
settlers at New Rochelle, except two individuals gave 
their cheerful and willing assent to the change. This 
may be true, but it does not state the whole truth by 
any means. 

" Mr. Boadet's congregation may have formed, as we have seen that it 
did, but a small part of the whole French Colony at the time, and on the 
occasion referred to ; consisting no doubt of the oflBcials and principal 
men of the town, to whom had been committed in good faith the man. 
sgement of church matters, and the religious interests of the colony in 
generaL This class always has existed, and does still exist in all church 
establishments ; men, who by their pecuniary means and prominence in 
society, as well as by their official relations to the church and state, ex- 
erdse a controlling influence. But it is equally certain, that the acts 
and doings of this class of iteraons cannot always be held to represent the 
riews and wishes of a imyority of the people, or even the unaninums ap- 
proral of their own number, since even in the case we are considering, 
there were at least two diasenting voices. There were doubtless many 
more. But we have not now the means of ascertaining bow many more 
would have voted against this transfer (which carried with it the whole 
of their valuable church property, as was proved by the event), had they 
been allowed and encouraged to deposit their votes. That there would 
have been a condderable number of these protestants is probable, for 
this, among other rsasons. 

"John Coutant, who died in the year 1848, at the age of 96, informed 
me several years before his death, that there was considerable dissatis- 
faction among the Trench Hagenot families in New Bochelle, and many 
complaints of unfiitirness. in the course pursued by the conformi«ts in 
this transaction. By it. not only was their church property taken away 
from them, nnder the new charter or grant of Queen Anne, and their 
ancient form of wondiip abolished by the adoption of that establinhed in 
the English cfaureh ; but, as they could not conscientiously adopt the 
form of religious service and worship,— they [who decline to conforpi] 
were left without any place of worship, and deprived of the ministra- 
tions of their own chosen pastors." > 

Soon after this separation, a new church was built 
by those who had seceded from the French Huguenot 
to the Episcopal Church, in the autumn of the year 

This new edifice stood a little east of the present 
Episcopal Church. It was constructed of stone ; was 

'Contents anpublithed manuscript. 

* Sm Bolton. 

"The views of those who conformed were presented in Bolton^s His- 
tory, vol. I. p. 630. 

* Badeau*s Pen and Ink Sketdi. 

forty feet in length and thirty in breadth, and per- 
fectly plain within and without. The first pastor 
of the new Episcopal Church was the Rev. Daniel 
Boudet, who was ordained by the Bishop of London, 
a minister of the English Church and came to this 
country in 1686. He died in 1722. During an inter- 
val of two years, between his death and the appoint- 
ment of his successor, services were performed by the 
Rev. John Bartow, who seems to have had a pretty 
wide field for his labors, as he says in a letter still ex- 
tant, that he preached " in four towns; East Chester, 
Westchester, Yonkers and New Rochelle ; the last 
eight miles, Yonkers six miles and East Chester four 
miles from home ;" and " does other occasional of- 
fices." The horse of this rector, one would think, 
must have had a lively time and fairly earned his 
living, as there were then (1722) very few public con- 
veyances (if any) between these four towns. For his 
extra services to the New Rochelle Church during 
these two years, Mr. Bartow received from the En- 
glish Missionary Society the sum of ten pounds, the 
purchasing power of which, however, was more than 
double and perhaps three or four times what the same 
sum would be at the present time. 

Mr. Boudet was succeeded, in 1724, by the Rev. 
Pierre Stouppe, also a native of France, and ordained 
in 1723 by the Bishop of London. The conflict be- 
tween the two branches of the church — ^the French 
Huguenot and the Episcopal — was maintained with 
great severity during his pastorate, as appears from a 
letter of his to the Secretary of the English Mission- 
ary Society, dated 1725, in which he complains bit- 
terly and laments mourn ftilly over the unhealed 

He was followed upon his death, in 1760, by the 
Rev. Mr. Houdin, another Frenchman by birth, 
who was bred a Franciscan friar. Mr. Houdin 
died in 1776. The Rev. Theodotius Bartow was 
called to the church in 1790, they having been with- 
out a minister for fourteen years, during the troubles 
connected with the War of the Revolution. He con- 
tinued to serve the church until 1819 — nearly thirty 
years — but in June of that year resigned his charge. 

The list of ministers and rectors of the Episcopal 
Church in New Rochelle is as follows : 

Rev. David De Bonrepas, D.D 1689 

Bev. Daniel Boudet, A.M 1696 

Bev. Pierre Stouppe, A.M 1724 

Rev. Michael Houdin, A.M 1761 

Rev. Theodotius Bartow 1790 

Rev. Ravaud Kearny, A.M 1819 

Rev. Lewis P. Bayard, A.M 1821 

Rev. Lawson Carter, A.M 1827 

Rev. Thomas Winthrop, Cirt. D.D 1839 

Rev. Richard Tnistead Morgan, D.D • ... 1849 

Rev. John H. Watson 1874 

Rev. Chas F. Canedy, A.M 1876 

(Present Incumbent.] 

It appears from the records that those of the 
French Huguenots who were unwilling to conform to 
the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England, 



continued their connection with the old French 
Church, in New York City, and received Aeir pas- 
tors, when they had any, as missionary bishops from 
that body. This relation existed from the year of the 
separation (1709), until 1764, as is proved by the 
records, and probably much longer. But in February 
1808, a new church was incorporated, composed 
partly of the members of this ancient French Hu- 
guenot body, and partly of Presbyterians, but still 
with the title " The French Church in New Boch- 
elle." Matson Smith, John Reid, Thomas Carpen- 
ter, Robert Givan, Gideon Coggeshall and James 
Somerville being trustees. On the 30th of May, 1812, 
it became a Presbyterian church in name as well as 
in fact, and was received 
into the care of the Pres- 
bytery of New York. 
The first pastor of the 
French Church after the 
separation was the Rev. 
Jean Brumand de Mouli- 
nars. The first pastor of 
the New Presbyterian 
Church was Rev. Isaac 
Lewis, Jr., 1815, who was 
succeeded in turn by the 
following : 

B«T. EUJfth D. Wells . . . 1823 

BeT. J. D. Wickham . . . 1825 

Ber. G«orge 6t«bbiiu . . . 1828 

BeT. John Maiwn 1835 

BeT. Gormao D. Abbot . . 1837 

Ber. P. Snyder 1841 

Bev. Henry Martyn Scndder 1844 

B«T. ChuB. Hawley .... 1845 

BeT. Charles £. Lindsley . 1849 

Rev. James H. Taylor . . . 1850 

Bev. Erskine N. White . . 1802 

Bev. David Hopkins . . . . 18()U 

Bev. Edward R. Burkhalter 187(i 

Bev. Anthony R. Macoubley 1877 

Bev. R. Randall Hoes , 
Bev. William B. Walles 
(present incumbent). 


The first church edifice 
erected by the Presbyter- 
ians was built of wood, 
in the year 1815. In 1860 
it was removed, to make 

room for a new building. It was fitted for use as 
a parsonage, and presented to the trustees for that 
purpose by the late Albert Smith, M.D., of New 
Rochelle. The new church, built in 1860-61, is 
constructed of stone, and occupies nearly the same 
position as the old one. Its cost when completed 
was about seventeen thousand dollars. The church 
edifice of the Episcopalians (one of the finest 
structures of the kind in the county), is also of 
stone, and was built under the supervision of the 
celebrated architect, Upjohn. It stands a few rods to 
the west of the shop once occupied by the quaint old 
stone edifice built for their worship by the Huguenots 
in the year 1710, and which, if it had been allowed to 

remain would now be one of the greatest curiosities in 
the country. If anything had to be removed it should 
have been the road, and not the venerable old church 
of their forefathers. Upon the subject of this ancient 
edifice one of the descendants of those who built and 
worshiped in it, has the following feeling remarks : 

" The Second French Protestant Church edifice in 
New Rochelle was erected in 1710-11. It was situated 
a little to the eastward of the former church, on Hu- 
guenot Street (called in Queen Anne's charter The 
High Street), and just in front of the residence of the 
late Doctor Peter Moulton. Its ground dimensions 
were thirty by forty feet. The roof was in the form 
of a square pyramid. The body of the structure was 

of rough, unhewn stone, 
and pierced by arched 
windows. The entrance, 
which was on the south 
side, was also an arched 
doOr-way. It has been 
conjectured that its ex- 
ternal shape was modeled 
after the famous Hugue- 
not Temple of La Ro- 
chelle, in France. The 
interior arrangements 
were equally primitive 
and unadorned, — plain, 
unpainted, uncushioned, 
high-backed pews ! An 
elevatetl box pulpit, built 
against the face of the 
wall opposite to the door- 
way. The desk was sur- 
rounded by a plain rail- 
ing, which formed the 
chancel or altar, and fur- 
nished with a small com- 
munion table made of 
wood of the wild cherry 
(which survived the old 
church for many years 
and which I have seen). 
From its peculiar shape, 
this church was popularly 
known and is still remembered by some of our old- 
est inhabitants as * The Old Stone Jug,^ Alas, that 
this venerable relic of antiquity should now have 
to be numbered among the things that were I The 
changes incident to the lapse of years, and the van- 
dalism of progress, or rather, shall I say, the progress 
of vandalism? have so completely annihilated every 
vestige of the ancient structure, that even it* exact 
sKuatwii, like that of its predecessor, cannot be defi- 
nitely determined, but is more or less a matter of con- 
jecture. And why, we ask, could not the grasping, 
all-absorbing spirit of change and novelty which 
characterizes the age have spared to us this one, 
humble monument of the past, to build which, it is 

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said, that the men carried stones in their hands, and 
the women mortar in their aprons ? If for no other 
reason, it should have been suffered to remain that it 
might guard the sleeping dust of two of its earliest 
and most faithful pastors, Rev. Daniel Boudet and 
Pierre Stonppe, whose remains, together with those of 
the wife of the latter, were deposited beneath its floor. 
irony of Time and Fate 1 While the emblazoned 
images of these two good men, arrayed in iiill clerical 
costumes, are displayed in glowing colors upon the 
chancel windows of the present Oothic edifice, their 
bodies moulder beneath the stones and dust of the 
public highway, once by law and usage the burial- 
place of suicides I " ' 

The Methodist house of worship on Banks Street 
is a neat and commodious structure. The organiza- 
tion Lb the second of that name in the town, the first 
being at Upper New Rochelle. The Baptist Taber- 
nacle, at the comer of Main Street and Locust Ave- 
nue, is sufficient for the requirements of the growing 
congregation at present, but there is ample room 
upon the grounds for its enlargement whenever that 
may be found to be desirable. The Roman Catholics 
have a capacious house of worship of wood, and by 
far the largest congregation in the town, on Centre 
Street Besides these, there are a German Lutheran 
aad a German Methodist Church, making in all eight 
Protestant Churches and one Roman Catholic. At 
the present time (1884) all of these churches are fur- 
nished with pastors, and are in a flourishing condition, 
with a membership of nearly or quite one thousand. 

The Beechwood Cemetery. — For many years 
the town of New Rochelle had felt the need of some 
better place for the burial of the dead, the growing 
population having no other facilities for this purpose 
than the private or denominational burying-grounds 
afforded. On the 30th of January, 1854, the Beech- 
wood Cemetery was incorporated upon land owned 
by the late Dr. Albert Smith, of New Rochelle. It 
was chiefly by Dr. Smith's energy and liberality that 
this new burial-place was opened to the public, he 
having contributed largely both of time and money 
to this object. The position is convenient and well 
adapted to the purpose designed, and it is now the 
principal place of interment, both for the town and 
the vicinity. 

Education. — For a long time after the settlement 
of the town the facilities for education, owing to the 
peculiar circumstances, were exceedingly limited. 
The clergy, as usual, were the principal teachers. 
" Our French ancestors,'' says the Rev. L. J. Coutant, 
in his valuable historicaL reminiscences of Huguenot 
New Rochelle, " who settled this town, and gave it 
the name which it now bears, about eighty-nine years 
before the Revolutionary War, received their educa- 
tion in the French language, and, consequently, dur- 
ing the greater part of the period above named 

1 Coutant*! Manuscript. 

(eighty-nine years), the rising generation was edu- 
cated in French. The writer's grandmother received 
her education in that tongue, and used to read her 
French Bible and prayer-book. They were not desti- 
tute of good scholars, who understood both French 
and English, and could converse fluently in both lan- 
guages. The education of their children in those 
times devolved chiefly upon the pastors of the French 
Protestant Church. David Bonrepas, their first min- 
ister, gave instruction to the young people in letters 
and religion." 

Daniel Boudet was an excellent scholar and edu- 
cator; his library it is said, consisted of over four 
hundred volumes, which for those times was large. 
Pierre Stouppe, his successor in the pastorate of the 
French Church, was a well educated man, and for 
many years kept a day and boarding-school for in- 
struction both in French and English. It is no 
trifling comment on his ability as a competent 
teacher, that the Hon. John Jay, subsequently Ameri- 
can minister to the court of France, and of Hugue- 
not descent, and General Schuyler, of Revolutionary 
fame, were among his pupils. Indeed, the general knowl- 
edge of letters, in so far at least as reading and writing 
are concerned, may be inferred from the fact that 
among a list of sixty names subscribed to a petition 
to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, in 
connection with the Church of England in 1743, only 
five individuals signed by making a cross. But alas, 
for poor human nature ! All the devotion of these 
people to their religion, and such learning as they 
could command, did not prevent them from perpetrat- 
ing an act of barbarism. In 1776 they burned to 
death a negro by the sentence of three of the magis- 
trates of the town, for the crime of murder. The re- 
volting details are given in Coutant's '^ Reminis- 
cences," with a minuteness and particularity that are 
sickening. Mr. Bolton , in his history, says : " In a 
portion of the Guion property once owned by the late 
George Case, Esq., nearly opposite the old Eels mansion, 
on North Street, the remains of a large bed of char- 
coal were discovered a few years since, marking the 
site of this summary execution." ' 

"Tradition* reveals to us the existence of two 
school-houses in the town of New Rochelle, used as 
such probably before the Revolution and during 
the closing years of the 18th Century. One was 
situated in the neighborhood of the old tollgate, 
and the other on North Street, opposite the resi- 
dence of Mr. Simeon Lester, and just in front of a 
high clump of rocks, which at this place divided the 
road into two parts, running around the rock on both 
aides, leaving a triangular space between them, and 
on this gore of land the school-house was built." 

The school-house in District No. 2 was on North 
Street, at the junction of this street with the road 

a Bolton, vol. i. p. 071. 

« Coutant's, " Reminisoencas.' 



from New Rochelle to East Chester. That in District 
No. 3 was at Cooper's Corners, on the east side of 
North Street. The interior of these primitive school- 
houses (1795-1796) is thus described by Mr. Cou- 
tant: — "The inside of these houses was of the crud- 
est and cheapest finish. As to the outside, they 
were small, unpainted ahanties, usually located on 
some surplus angle of the streets, or rocky land, unfit 
for cultivation, thus economizing ground, and mak- 
ing these barren spots, where no vegetation could 
grow, produce the precious fruits of education. 
The houses were ceiled round with unpainted boards, 
shrunken from their grooves ; consequently no venH- 
lators were needed I Their ' fixtures ' were extremely 
rude and simple, consisting for the most part of pine 
boards nailed up to the sides and ends of the room for 
desks, with sometimes a shelf underneath, on which 
to keep books and slates. They were furnished with 
seats of long oaken slabs, with legs driven into auger 
holes at each end, and all of the fixtures and fiirniture 
were curiously notched and carved into many fan- 
tastic forms and grotesque images by the busy jack- 
knives of the mischievous tyros. The school-room 
was sometimes warmed by a fire in an open fire-place; 
but mostly by a small cast-iron stove, set upon a pile 
of bricks in the middle of the room." 

The teachers were stem and severe in their methods 
of teaching, using the ferrule and birchen rod with 
great frequency and freedom. In those days flagel- 
lation was thought to be a fundamental part of educa- 
tion. Most of these teachers were imported from 
England and Ireland. They had left their own 
country in search of a wider field for the exercise of 
their great powers for stimulating the minds of their 
pupils by external applications. They found it here 
in America, and in carrying out their peculiar meth- 
ods they only followed the customs of their native 
land. But their path was not always a flowery one. 
The application of force to the inculcation of learning 
was sometimes attended with disastrous results to 
themselves. From this severity of discipline very 
unpleasant aflrays took place between the teacher 
and his scholars, ending occasionally in the expulsion 
of the teacher from the school-room. As to qualifi- 
cations, "If the teacher could make a good quill pen, 
and write with facility a neat and fair hand, and 
solve the sums and repeat the tables in DabolPs 
arithmetic, he was considered a competent teacher, 
and received a certificate entitling the school taught 
by him to receive its proportion of the public money." 
The reading-books were "The New Testament," " The 
Sequel," "The American Preceptor," and 'The Child's 
Instructor" for larger and more advanced scholars, 
and a few primers for small children. The scarcity of 
books rendered it necessary that the teachers of these 
primitive schools should be well versed in all the 
English branches which they had to teach. But 
grammar and geography were at that time not com- 
monly taught in the public schools. These ancient 

school-houses, schools and teachers were the pioneers 
of the extensive and wonderful common-school system 
of the days in which we live. They were but the 
stepping-stones, so to speak, of those magnificent 
temples of science and learning which have since 
sprung up in almost every part of our £Eivored land. 
As to those primitive structures in New Rochelle, 
they have vanished even from the recollection of most 
of the inhabitants. 

Every vestige of the two old Huguenot school- 
houses is swept away, and they live only in tradition. 
The only teacher who taught school in either house, 
within the recollection of the writer, was Andrew 
Dean, Esq., some of whose descendants are still liv- 
ing in New Rochelle.^ In the year 1857 three school- 
houses were built (under the act of 1795), dividing 
the town into as many districts. The first was on the 
corner of a lane leading to the old French burying- 
ground. It was on Huguenot Street, nearly in 
front of the present Episcopal Church. It was quite 
a stately school-house for those times, being about 
eighteen by thirty-two feet on the ground and two 
stories high. Its pre-eminence' in size and other con- 
siderations procured for it the name of " Academy." 
This school had quite a wide-spread reputation as a 
place of learning ; and some who received the rudi- 
ments of education here have subsequently obtained 
celebrity as professional men. Bishop De Lancey, 
whose parents resided at Mamaroneck, came down to 
this school. Daily the boy bishop might be seen, to 
the great wonderment of the other scholars, jogging 
along on horseback with his dinner-basket dangling 
at his elbow, to take his place among his fellow-stu- 
dents in the High School, at that time taught by a 
Mr. Fox. Some time between 1825 and 1827 this old 
hive of learning gave place to the school in Me 
chanics Street, which, in 1856-57, was exchanged for 
the building on Trinity Street, to which David Mil- 
ler, one of the teachers of the former school, be- 
queathed by will the sum of eighteen hundred dollara, 
which was invested in an addition to the Trinity 
Street brick school-house. 

Present Educational Facilities. — ^It is only 
within the last few years that any decided advance 
has been made in the public schools of this town at 
all commensurate with the requirements of the age 
and the wants of the people. The accidental burning 
(March 80, 1882) of the school-house on Trinity 
Street, built 1856-57, has led to the erection of a very 
superior building upon its site. This building was 
planned by the school board and erected under the 
supervision of Messrs. D. & J. Jardine, architects. 
The grounds are about three acres. Before entering 
upon the work, members of the board examined 
every school-house noted for superior advantages 
within their reach, their aim being to combine and 
concentrate the best elements from all in the building 

'Coutant's '* RemiDiacencefl.*' 















which they intended should be a model school-house 
in every respect. In this they have largely succeeded. 
The building is H-shaped, eighty-four feet front, 
one hundred and fifty feet deep. There are thirteen 
class-rooms, one library-room, one board-room, one 
principal's room, one assembly-room, fifty-four by 
ninety-three, with accommodations for about eight 
hundred pupils. There is an above-ground cellar, 
divided into play-rooms for wet weather, furnace, 
coal and store-rooms. 

The building is heated by steam from a fifty horse- 
power boiler. The system of ventilation is the 
" Gouge," and is working satisfactorily. There are 
five lines of hose, supplied with water from a tank in 
the top of the building, for the extinguishing of fires. 
The teachers are one principal, salary twenty-three 
hundred dollars ; twelve lady teachers at salaries from 
four hundred to seven hundred dollars. 

There are in the town two other schools— one pri- 
mary, West New Rochelle; one school for colored 
pupils, in Harrison Street — with one teacher for each 

LiBRABY AND Gymxasium. — It is impossible to 
conclude this sketch without some notice of the lib- 
eral benefactions of one of our citizens, Mr. Adrian 
Iselin, for the public benefit ; more especially as this 
is, so far as I am aware, the only instance of the kind 
in the entire history of the town.* Mr. Iselin has not 
only fitted up at his own expense a fine building, con- 
taining a reading-room, library and billiard-room for 
the instruction and amusement of the young people, 
but he has expended many thousands of dollars in 
the erection of a gymnasium for physical exercise, 
which, when complete, will be an ornament to the 
town, and ought greatly to promote the health and 
enjoyment of the inhabitants. This building is en- 
tirely unique, and has no rival, so far as I know, in 
this country; certainly not outside of the great 

I have been furnished by Mr. William Le Count, 
of New Rochelle, with an elaborate description of the 
gymnasium, which is here given (in a form slightly 
condensed) from his manuscript : — *' It is built of 
Calabar brick, and trimmed with blue stone and 
Philadelphia brick. The mason- work is of a superior 
quality. The arches over the windows and doors are 
a most attractive feature. Every brick exposed to 
view in these arches was specially chiseled and 
shaped on the premises, requiring a great amount of 
skill and labor to make this seemingly small part of 
the building. The roof is covered with red Akron 
tiles, which, on the main roof are flat, and on the 
towers and turrets corrugated, and ornamented with 
terra-cotta crestings and finials. The wood-work is 
of the best yellow and white pine and oak. The ex- 
treme length of the building is 114 feet; extreme 

^ Mr. Miller's gift of one thontand eight hundred dollars for education 
Bhoald not be forgotten. 

width, 56 feet. Every attention has been paid to 
drainage and ventilation. The entire outside surface, 
where it rests upon the ground, is covered with asphal- 
tum or damp-proof material, and the bottom of the 
excavation for the structure is covered with asphalt, 
laid upon a bed of cement concrete, and the whole 
covered with cement. The walls of the building are 
hollow, and every room is connected with ventilating 
tubes, which extend to the outside top of the walls. 
Two immense cisterns supply rain-water, which is 
passed through double filters before being used. 
Steam-heat is employed for warming and gas for 
lighting. The style of architecture is that of French 
military structures. The front corners are ornamented 
with two large towers, through one of which is the 
main entrance. In front of this entrance is a heavy 
balustrade of terra-cotta, surmounted by ornamental 
lamps. Over the main door is a panel of terra-cotta, 
containing a bas-relief representation of 'The Young 
Athletes.' There is a beautiful winding stair, of oak, 
which conducts from the base of one of the towers to 
the topmost story of the building. The floor of the 
entrance is laid in a Roman Mosaic of tiles, black, red 
and salmon color, three-quarters of an inch square. 
The gymnasium proper is a room forty by eighty feet, 
without a post or pillar resting upon the floor. Light 
but beautiful trusses, whichare self-supporting, sus- 
tain the heavy roof. The floor is of the choicest ver- 
tical grain yellow pine; the walls of buff" terra-cotta 
brick; ceilings, trusses and window-work of white 
and yellow pine, finished in their native color; the 
windows of French plate; the doors of polished oak ; 
trimmings and gas-fixtures of solid bronze, and pol- 
ished brass, made expressly for this building. The 
running track, which is elevated about eight and a 
half feet above the floor of the main room, extends 
entirely around the building, and is suspended from 
the roof. Behind it (at one end) there is a gallery 
for the accommodation of visitors. Under the floor of 
the main room is the bowling alley, one hundred by 
twenty feet. It is on the south side, and is fitted 
with four alleys, in the most approved modern style. 
This room, although below the surface of the ground, 
is most admirable lighted by a row of windows in 
amber-colored cathedral glass, in circular form and 
set in lead. On the opposite side of the building are 
the dressing-rooms, fitted up with lockers and all 
suitable modern conveniences. Beyond these are the 
boiler and fuel-rooms. A handsome iron fence sur- 
rounds the building in front. The entire sidewalk 
is flagged and curbed in a style equal to that of any 
of the public buildings in the large cities. The gym- 
nasium occupies a central position at the corner of 
two of the principal streets of the village. The in- 
tention of its founder is to have it a perfect gymna- 
sium. It will be furnished with everything required 
to make it so, and a competent professor will be ap- 
pointed to superintend and direct the exercises.'' 
On the whole, it may be safely pronounced to be 



one of the finest institutions of the kind in the United 
States, and it is hoped and believed that it will be 
practically free for the physical training and education 
of the people. 

The donor of these important gifts is one who does 
not covet notoriety. He is too modest to approve of 
any extended eulogy on account of the good he has 
done. Let him, therefore, enjoy the consciousness of 
having tried to benefit his fellow-men ; and let these 
two solid and useful structures stand in the midst of 
our village as the enduring memorials of his benev- 

Statistics of professions, trades and occupations in 
the town of New Rochelle : 

Agents (insurance and real estate) 





Carriage maken 

Master carpenters and builders . 




Average Sabbath attendance : 

Catholic (1) 

Protestant (8) 

Total . 





Average death rate, five years (1880-85) pr. cent .... 2.0024 

Druggists 3 

Dry-goods 2 

Engineers (civil) 2 

F<^ stores 4 

Grocers 10 

Hardware 3 

Harness 2 

Jewelers 3 

Livery stables * • 4 

Liquors and beer (licensed) 44 

** " (unlicensed) 12 

Lawyers 7 

Masons and stone-cutters 20 

Millinery and mantna-makers 12 

Ministers 11 

Newspapers 2 

Painters, house, sign and carriage 17 

Printers 7 

Population about 6500 

Physicians and surgeons 7 

Shoemakers . . .* 10 

Stoves and tinware 3 

Undertakers 3 

Veterinary surgeons 2 

A number of substantial brick buildings have been 
erected in the village during the past few years. The 
addition of any more structures of wood, as the popu- 
lation increases, is to be deplored and dreaded as a 
source of danger from fire. The town hall, which 
stands on the corner of Main and Mechanic Streets, 
no doubt fulfils to a certain extent the purposes for 
which it was erected. But it is totally destitute of 
all pretensions to architectural beauty. A much bet- 
ter and more convenient public building might have 
been erected for the same amount of money. The 

absence of a clock that strikes the hours upon its 
tower was an absurd blunder, and it is to be hoped 
that, at no distant day, the demands of the public 
will compel the erection of something more orna- 
mental and more suitable to the spirit of the age. 



In the northwestern portion of New Rochelle, and 
upon the old road leading to White Plains, stands the 
tasteful house of Mr. Simeon Lester. He is in his 
ninetieth year, but enjoys the best of health and the 
possession of a strong active mind. The family is of 
English origin, and descended from Sir Nicholas 
Leicester, a knight of the thirteenth century. Upon 
their emigration to New England early in the 
eighteenth century, the spelling of the name seems 
to have been changed from Leicester to Lester, and 
William, Mr. Lester's grandfather, who served under 
Colonel Ledyard at Croton Fort, wrote his name in 
this way. 

Though they had but lately left the mother country 
and were still bound to it by ties of noble blood, the 
Lesters did not hesitate to embark both their property 
and their lives in the struggle for American treedom. 
From fifteen to twenty of the family perished at the 
capture of Groton Fort. Their martial spirit de- 
scended upon the father of Mr. Simeon Lester, and 
though not in active service he was captain of the 
Grenadier Company of Norwich, Conn., where the 
subject of this sketch was born, April 16, 17%. 

He spent the early part of his life on his father's 
place, and became captain of the Norwich Light In- 
fantry Company. In 1820 he married Hannah Maria 
Brewster, who was bom at Preston, Conn., February 
6, 1795, and died at her home in New Rochelle June 
12, 1865. She was a descendant in the seventh gene- 
ration of Elder Brewster, who came to this country in 
the ** Mayflower." 

Five years after his marriage Mr. Lester, at the 
suggestion of his brother-in-law, moved with hb 
family from Norwich to New Rochelle, where he 
purchased the extensive farm, upon, which he now 
resides. The place has become famous as the previous 
home and property of Thomas Paine, it having been 
presented to him by the United States government His 
grave, the house in which he lived, and the monument 
raised to his memory are still standing upon it, and 
have not only, not been mutilated by Mr. Lester, as 


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was charged by the daily papen, but have been pre- 
served by him with special care. 

When Mr. Lester took possession of the property it 
was m^ely a rolling plain, thickly strewn with 
boalders. By unremitting toil he converted it into 
the highly fertile and splendidly improved property, 
whose appearance enchants the eye of the spectator. 
For many years Mr. Lester was obliged to rise from 
hb bed at midnight, collect the produce which be had 
forced the stony soil to yield and depart by one 
o^clock in the morning for No. 22 Bowery, and other 
stands in New York City, where he would await pur- 

It was his habit of industry and perseverance which 
made Mr. Lester the successful man he is, and now 
that he has attained financial prosperity, he rests io 
the consciousness of a life well spent. In 1825, upon 
his removal to New Bochelle, he presented his letter 
of membership, and was admitted to the Presbyterian 
Church, of which he has been an elder for sixty years, 
and superintendent of the Sabbath-school for thirty 
years. He has deeply interested himself in young 
men, and several who have attained sucess in business 
life attribute the habits which have gained it for them 
to the educating influence of their old friend. His 
only surviving child, David Brainard Lester, of the 
firm of Joseph Lester & Co., hatters at No. Broad- 
way. New York, is a resident of Brooklyn, and is a 
member of the Congregational Church. 

Some years ago Mr. Lester transferred his property 
to his son, Joseph W. Lester (deceased), and it is now 
in the possession of his daughter-in-law, with whom 
he resides. 

In proportion, as one differs from his fellows, so 
does he become famous. In such proportion only as 
his life benefits others, does he attain true greatness. 
Judged by these considerations Mr. Lester, whose 
Christian life has been wide in its influence, may look 
from his window in pity upon the monument of the 
man whose genius dazzled the world, rejoicing in his 
own possession of the milder quality. 

There were two children, — the oldest Esther and 
the second Jonathan, who was bom at Scarsdale,. 
September 11, 1816. While he was yet in infancy, 
his parents removed from Scarsdale to New Bochelle, 
and until his eighteenth year he was engaged in 
farming. At that time his poor health obliged him 
to give up the active work to which he had accus- 
tomed himself, and he did not resume it again till he 
was thirty. 

Mr. Carpenter's father then retired, and the whole 
working of the farm fell into his hands. For nearly 
forty years he has continued perseveringly at his 
labor, till at last, by dint of hard work and strict 
I integrity, he has amassed a fortune. Since the place 
came into his possession he has added to it the Hav- 
iland property, containing seventy-seven acres of 
good farming land, with a saw-mill upon it, which he 
continues to operate at this time. 

He married January 11, 1862, Miss Phila Jane 
Benedict at Scarsdale. There are no children. He 
is a member of the Society of Friends, and is a strong 
temperance advocate. In politics he was formerly a 
Whig, but is now a Republican. He lives at present 
in his newly-erected residence at New Bochelle, from 
which he continues to direct his large interests. 


Mr. Carpenter is of Welsh origin. Jonathan Car- 
penter, his grandfather, born September 7, 1749, was 
a son of Benedict Carpenter, who died June 22, 1791, 
and, because of British persecution during the Revo- 
lution, was forced to remove from Scarsdale to Long 
Island, where he married, on April 18, 1782, Miss 
Esther Coles. After peace was declared, he returned 
to Scarsdale, and took up his trade of a blacksmith. 
Jonathan Carpenter, Sr., had five children, the fourth 
of whom, Joseph Carpenter, was the father of the 
Jonathan who is the subject of this sketch. Joseph 
Carpenter, even before the War of the Rebellion, 
attained to wide celebrity because of his opposition 
to slavery. He was born at Scarsdale September 8, 
1798, and on September 15, 1814, he married Marga- 
ret W. Cornell, who was of French descent. 

W. W. EVAN8. 

Walton White Evans of " Sans-Souci " near New 
Rochelle was bom in 1817, at Sunderland, on the 
Raritan, N. J. He is descended from many of the 
leading colonial families of New York, New Jersey, 
Virginia and South Carolina. After spending, or as 
he says, wasting six of the most important years of 
his life in classic studies, he was invited by his old and 
much honored friend General Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
the patroon of Albany, to come to the polytechnic 
school the latter had founded at Troy. This suited 
his inclinations, as his tastes were for natural sci^ences 
and technical studies. Graduating from that school 
in 1836 and sharing the first honors with a friend, 
nephew of the patroon, he was again favored by Gen- 
eral Van Rensellaer, who as president of the canal 
board placed him in the engineer corps of the State 
canals, and so influenced and cared for his promotion 
that in three months he was elevated to a position, 
that under ordinary circumstances, he would have 
spent two years of hard work in reaching. Remain- 
ing on the State canals (that severe school of hydrau- 
lic engineering) for seven years, and there getting 
disciplined to industrious habits and love for work 
he left that service, entered on railway engineering 
and was actively employed in railway construction 
for some years. In 1850 he went to Chili, South 
America, to take a leading part in directing the con- 
struction of the first railway ever built south of the 
equator, remaining there for most of the next ten 
years. He directed the construction of several pub- 
lic works, among which were two railways for English 
companies of London, returning to the United States 



in 1860. He has daring a quarter of a century de- 
voted most of his time to professional labors as con- 
sulting and advising engineer to government work in 
Cuba and Peru, and to other public works in the 
Argentine Republic, Mexico, Central America, Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand and Russia. 

His zeal and energy have been devoted with much 
success to promoting American interests in foreign 
countries. In the early part of 1886 he was appointed 
on a commission with several English engineers to 
sit in London, and determine some engineering 
questions of great importance in connection with 
extensive and costly bridges to be built in Australia, 
but was unable to accept the honor. 

His aim has been to so elevate national character 
that Americans can with pride say when traveling, I 
am an American citizen, and find it all sufficient, as 
he says, he found it in Russia, as his trunks were 
never opened when he presented his passport and the 
officials saw the name of Wm. H. Seward on the docu- 


The life of Mr. Ferguson strikingly illustrates the 
working out of a great principle, namely, that strict 
attention to business, accompanied by industrious 
habits, thorough integrity, and a true appreciation of 
the smaller matters of life, will give its result, just 
what it has given us in his case — a sound financial 

Mr. Ferguson was born December 15, 1831, at 
Esopus, Ulster County, N. Y., where his father, 
James Ferguson, was engaged in building. For a 
short period he enjoyed the privilege of the public 
school in his native place, and when the family re- 
moved to Fairfax Court House, Va., he attended 
its local school. The circumstances of the family 
early compelled him to contribute his share toward 
the general support, which he did by helping his 
father in the building trade. 

At the age of nineteen he was visiting with a 
friend at New Rochelle, N. Y.. when he was offered a 
position as clerk in the store of Samuel Underbill, 
and it is' from the small beginning thus obtained that 
he has succeeded in developing the extensive busi- 
ness interests which to-day command his attention. 

For three years he remained with Mr. Underbill 
and then was induced by Mr. Vanderburg, of the 
firm of Geo. E. Vanderburg & Co., wholesale notion 
dealers in New York City, to enter their establish- 
ment as a salesman. 

But Mr. Underbill, trading in a small way behind 
his country counter, missed the active and energetic 
young clerk who had left him and finally, after two 
years had elapsed, offered him a partnership. Mr. 
Ferguson accepted the offer, and the firm began busi- 
ness in 1857, under the name of Underbill and 
Ferguson. The partnership expired by limitation 
in the spring of 1861. He then leased a property 

upon the Main Street, opposite the old store, and re- 
sumed business under the firm-name of Greo. Fergu- 
son & Co. After three years his partner retiring on 
account of ill health left Mr. Ferguson the sole pro- 

He finally purchased the leased property, improved 
and enlarged his store, and continued the business 
alone till the spring of 1875, when he formed a part- 
nership with a fnend doing business in New York 
City. A fire in a neighboring building one night in 
the autumn of 1875, consumed his store and about 
seventy-five thousand dollars worth of property, but 
with characteristic promptness he hired a vacant 
store, set men cleaning and scrubbing, and by sun- 
rise the next morning had a large sign posted up and 
j his clerks ready, books in hand, to take orders for 
immediate delivery. 

His prompt action at this time not only saved him 
much money but enabled dim to hold his trade till 
he could replace the destroyed building by the elegant 
brick one, which is at present devoted, with the ex- 
ception of a public hall occupying a portion of the 
second floor, to the purposes of his business. The 
property has a frontage of eighty-two feet on Biain 
and one hundred and forty upon Centre Street, and 
is probably the largest establishment of its kind in 
Westchester County. 

Ever since he started in business Mr. Ferguson 
has been gradually adding to his financial strength 
and is now in possession of a large amount of prop- 
erty in and about the village which has been the 
scene of his success. 

He married, February 3, 1856, Miss Julia F. Hud- 
son, and has one son and three daughters, two of 
whom are married. In politics he is a Republican, 
and has been since the organization of the party. 
Formerly he was village clerk and afterward was also 
town clerk of New Rochelle. At present he is a use- 
ful member of the board of education, for the duties 
of which office he continues to find time, even amid 
the press of private business. 


Mr. Brewster is descended from Elder William 
Brewster, who came to this country with the Puritans 
in the "Mayflower." His father was the celebrated phy- 
sician, Dr. Elisha Brewster, who moved from Norwich, 
Conn., to White Plains, N. Y., early in the century. 
Dr. Brewster married Mary Burling, of a family fam- 
ous in the Revolutionary history of Westchester 
County, and Joseph B. is the second of their nine 
: children. He was sent at the age of thirteen to a 
boarding-school at Jamaica, Long Island, and among 
his earliest recollections is that of crossing the East 
River in a sail ferry-boat. After spending one year 
at school he was obliged by the death of his &ther to 
return to New York. He entered the hat-store of his 
cousin, Joseph Brewster, where he continued as a 
clerk for nearly ten years, when he engaged in the 



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l»»«.» 1 '.'1 ironi I lie lndian» some w'me --• 



business on his own account at No. 57 Bowery, New 
York City. 

Mr. Brewster remained in this pursuit for forty- 
three years, steadily maintaining the while an integ- 
rity and fixedness of purpose which formed the 
ground-work of his financial success. He was at one 
time a large property-holder in New York, and the 
spot upon which the Oriental Bank stands was for- 
merly in his possession. In 1869 he retired from 
business, having meanwhile purchased from Charles 
Van Benscoten the beautiful residence at New Ro- 
chelle which he now occupies. 

Mr. Brewster is a director in the Westchester Fire 
Insurance Company. In 
politics he was formerly a 
Whig, but is now a stanch 
Bepublican. He was a 
member of the Lafayette 
Guards, and was with 
them at the reception of 
the distinguished French- 
man upon his second 
coming to this country, 
in 1824, when it was also 
his pleasure to shake the 
Marquis by the hand. He 
married Miss Sarah Ann 
Hutchinson, of Hugue- 
not descent, whose moth- 
er died in the ninety- 
third year of her age, 
at the residence of Mr. 
Brewster. Of their twelve 
children, five daughters 
and one son still survive. ». 

The son is a lieutenant in ^ 

the Twenty-second B^- ^ 

mentN. G.S.N. Y., and 
resides with his parents Joseph b. 

at New Rochelle. 

Mr. Brewster is a Quaker of the Orthodox branch, 
and though he is now over eighty years of age, he is 
foremost in every good word and work. 



Of New Bochelle. 

Pelham is situated to the southeast of New Ro- 
chelle. It has for its southern boundary Long Island 
Sound. A small stream, called by the Indians the 
Aqueanouncke, and by the English Hutchinson's 
River, separates it from East Chester. It appears to 
have been purchased from the Indians some time 

previous to the year 1666 by Thomas Pell, and by 
him called Pelham, an old English name composed 
of Pel (remote) and Ham (mansion). By Governor 
Nichols it was granted and confirmed, in 1666, ** To 
Thomas Pell. Esq., of Fairfield in Connecticut, to- 
gether with the island adjacent and all its privileges,'^ 
and erected into ^^an enfiranchiued township or 
manor " and secured to him and his heirs. 

The Pells are of English origin and a family of 
very old standing in the counties of Norfolk and 
Lincolnshire. Thomas Pell, commonly known as 
Lord Pell, the first proprietor of this township, ap- 
pears to have been an adherent of the popular party 

in the great struggle bet- 
ween the Parliament and 
the crown, called the En- 
glish Revolution. Hav- 
ing been identified with 
the Puritans under the 
protectorship of Crom- 
well, after the restoration 
of the monarchy, in 1660, 
he fled from the ven- 
geance of the Royalists 
into France. He after- 
wards removed to Onck- 
away, or Fairfield, in 
Connecticut, and from 
thence came to Pelham, 
where he purchased of 
the Indians the right to 
the soil. After his death, 
which happened about 
1680, the manorial pro- 
prietorship descended to 
John Pell, his nephew, 
son of the famous Dr. 
Pell, ambassador of Oli- 
ver Cromwell to the Swiss 
Cantons.' In 1691 the 
name of John Pell is found on the list of members 
returned by the sheriff to represent the county ot 
Westchester, New York.' 

The territory now within the limits of the town of 
Pelham was claimed both by the Dutch of New Am- 
sterdam and the colony of Connecticut. There can 
be no doubt that the Dutch were the first to discover 
and settle upon the island of Manhattan and the ter- 
ritory between the North and East Rivers. Both 
professed to have purchased their title from the Indi- 
ans. But we know what that meant in those days. 
The whites took what they wanted and paid the Indi- 
ans what they pleased. All transactions were with 
the chiefs, and the chiefs were not usually in a condi- 
tion, when the land was bought, to look out very 
carefully for tlieir side of the bargain. So it hap- 

iVanghan't '*Protectonite of Cromwell/ 
2 Smith's " Hiat. of New York," p. 72. 




pened that afterwards, when the Indians came to be 
dispodsessed of all their favorite resorts upon the 
shore, and driven back by the tide of white immigra- 
tion into the interior, and when they found, more- 
over, that they had received no just equivalent for 
their homes and hunting and fishing-grounds, there 
was trouble along the whole line. In all the Indian 
wars in which the aborigines were involved with the 
Puritans, the Dutch, and the Virginians, and which 
cost thousands of lives and an untold amount of suf- 
fering on both sides, it may fairly be doubted whether 
the Indians were in a single instance the aggressors. 
The Quakers of Pennsylvania, under William Penn, 
had no difficulty with them. The Indians in the 
British possessions of North America are and for 
almost a century have been peacefully disposed. 
But when Hendrick Hudson sailed in the " Half- 
Moon " up the river which bears his name, one of the 
very first acts of himself and crew was to make a 
wanton and unprovoked attack with firearms upon 
the inofiensive natives, whom curiosity had brought 
down to the shore. 

The general plan of our ancestors in those good old 
days, with regard to those whom they found in pos- 
session where they wanted to settle, was robbery and 
murder first; afterwards war, negotiation and then 
missionaries. This, too, with the exception of the 
missionaries, was the course pursued towards them 
by the redoubtable William Kieft, the Dutch Gov- 
ernor of New Amsterdam, about the year 1643. The 
Puritans in their treatment of the aborigines were 
often harsh and unjust. But they were men governed 
by certain religious ideas, and never did anything 
approaching in wanton wickedness the act of Kieft 
which led to the outbreak, in which Anne Hutchin- 
son lost her life, in Pelham in 164v^. 

In the year 1626 the munificent sum of twenty- 
four dollarrt had been originally paid to the Indians for 
the whole of New York Island— (twenty -two thousand 
acres) ; paid too, in *' beads and trinkets,'' on which, 
very likely, there was a large profit to the buyers. No 
doubt the Indians ought to have been satisfied ; but, 
strange to say, when they were crowded out, not only 
from the island, but from Staten Island, Long Island 
and the shores of the bay, the Hudson River and the 
Sound by the new settlers, they took it to heart in a way 
for which neither beads nor trinkets proved a solid con- 
solation. Hence came troubles and difSculties which, 
through the insane course of Oovernor Kieft, culmi- 
nated in his ordering a general attack to be made 
upon the neighboring tribes, at the very time when 
their distress and dissatisfaction had reached the 
highest point. Not only had the Dutch traders sold 
whiskey to the Indians in abundance, but firearms 
and ammunition as well. 

In the middle of the winter, when the river (Hud- 
son) was full of ice, and the savages were collected in 
their winter camps, a war-party from the powerful 
Mohawks at the north came sweeping down upon 

them, armed with the guns the Dutch had furnished, 
and drove before them far greater numbers— whole 
settlements indeed— of the Algonquins. This was the 
opportunity chosen by Kieft, to cross the river with 
his Dutch soldiers from Fort Amsterdam, make an 
attack upon the defenseless savages, peacefully sleep- 
ing in their wigwams, ''just at midnight, the winter's 
night being cold and still." " Eighty Indians were 
killed at Pavonia, Hoboken, and forty at Corlaer's 
Hook that night, with horrible barbarities that might 
have given the savages themselves a lesson in the art 
of torture." The consequence was, that " all about 
the lower river and the bay, and on Long Island, the 
Algonquin people rose furiously against the whites." 
The terrors of an Indian war broke forth with a sud- 
den ness which appalled the colonists, and every 
swamp and wood from the country of the Hacken- 
sacks, New Jersey, to the Connecticut seemed all at 
once to be swarming with hostile savages. The out- 
lying " bouweries" and plantations were laid waste, 
their men killed and their women and children made 
prisoners. After this there was a brief respite, 
fh>m March until midsummer. But the war broke 
out again in August with renewed fierceness among 
the tribes above the Hudson Highlands. By Septem- 
ber the conflict was raging with flill force. In the 
south a band of savages fell upon the quiet home of 
Anne Hutchinson, at Anne's Hoeck, Pelham Neck, 
and she, her son-in-law Collins, her son Francis and 
all the other members of her family, with one excep- 
tion, were killed. 

The youngest daughter, a little girl, was carried 
into captivity and lived for four years among the 
Indians. The sad fate of this woman has tinged with 
romance her whole history. She was not so bad as 
her enemies have painted her, nor was she, on the 
other hand, the mild and blameless saint, some recent 
historians have imagined. But she was a religious 
enthusiast ; a female theological polemic, armed with 
a tongue and a temper which made her no unequal 
match even for the stem and unyielding fathers of 
New England. In fact, the controversies which she 
raised, engendered such divisions among them as to 
threaten the safety of both church and State. Where- 
fore, by a decree of the General Court, she was ban- 
ished from the colony. She went to Connecticut, and 
afterwards to New York, where we find her in the 
summer of 1642, permission having been given to her 
by the Dutch authorities to settle at Pelham, in 
connection with other English families. Her portrait 
is thus drawn by an impartial historian. " She was a 
woman of superior intelligence, bright, witty, good 
at a fencing match of tongues, versed in Scripture 
and theological literature; never so happy as when 
descanting on her own views. Her temper was 
resolute; she ruled her weak husband, and had a 
taste for ruling: To be an influential centre of 
opinion was her ambition, which she took no trouble 
to conceal. She claimed to be " inspired," and that 



it had been *' revealed to her" that she would come to 
New England to be persecuted, but that God would 
ruin the colony for her sake. She narrowly escaped 
procuring the verification of her own prediction.*' * 

For a woman so couAtituted the change must have 
been great from the heated discussions at Boston to 
the unsettled wilderness around Pelham Bay. That 
name was not known, it is true, for many years after- 
wards. But the names " Annies Hoeck and Hutchiu- 
sons River '' still bear testimony to the presence and 
fate of this remarkable woman. It seems a strange 
providence that, after her troubled and stormy career, 
she should not have been permitted to pass the | 
evening of her days in peace, where no controversies, i 
theological or otherwise, and no religious opinions, ' 
orthodox or heterodox, Calvinistic or Arminian would | 
ever have disturbed the profound repose of the inhabi- 
tants, even could her life have been prolonged to the 
present day and hour.' 

In the year 1654, Thomas Pell bought of the In- 
dians (so he stated in his testimony before a Court of 
Assize, held in New York, September 29, 1665), the i 
title to the lands afterwards known as Pelham, 
Westchester and New Bochelle. This whole tract of 
land was originally included in the grant made by 
the Indians to the Dutch West India Company in the 
year 1640.' What Pell paid to the Indians for it does 
not clearly appear. Probably not so much as the 
Dutch had paid them twenty-eight years before for 
the whole of Manhattan Island— twenty- four dollars 
in beads and trinkets. " A valuable consideration " 
are Mr. Pell's own words, but as no specification is 
given, this phrase has little meaning. 

In the year 1666 PelFs title was confirmed by 
royal patent, issued by Richard Nicholls, as follows : 


*'6oTernor ander His Boyml Hlgbnesa the Dnke of York, of all his 

> Bryant's " Hi«t. of U. 8." 

<The folluwing appeared In the Netc York Dail^ THbunaof April 23, 1886 : 



" The skeletons which are being uneatthed at Coounanipaw Arenne 
and HalUday Street. Jeney City, are now beliered to bethoeeof Indiana. 
Twenty -eight had been excarated last ereniug. It was supposed at first 
that the place was the site of an ancient and forgotten buryiug-ground, 
bat some historical focts were discovered yesterday which throw light on 
the saUJect On the night of February 26, 1643, OoTemor Kieft, of New- 
Amsterdam, sent a company of Dutch soldiers across the river to what 
was then known as * Jahn de Dacher's Hoeclc,' with orders to extermin- 
ate a Tillage of Indians encamped there. The soldiers, so the story goes, 
eorprised the Indians and massacred nearly eveiy person in the TilUge. 
A few escaped and made their way back into the country, toward the 
present site of Newark. Trenches were dug and the bodies thrown into 
them indiscriminately. The scene of the butchery is now known as La- 
layette, and, after nearly two and a half centuries, one of the trenches has 
been opened. Crowds gathered around the place yesterday while the 
excavating was going on and looked at the skulls and bones. The num- 
ber of bodies can only be determined by means of the skulls, as the bones 
are all mixed together, and many of theui crumble at the touch into fine 
dut The best preserved portions of bodies are the teeth.'' 

The discovery of these bones at this time is certainly a marked coin- 
cidence. There can be little doubt that the conjecture as to their being 
the remains of the Indians slain near this spot in the attack made ujion 
them by Kieft is the true one. 

'See Bolton's "Hist. Westchester County," article New Rochelle. 

Territories in America. To all to whom these presents shall come, send- 
eth greeting : Whereat^ there is a certain Tract of Laud within this Got- 
emment upon the Main Bttoate, lying and being to the EaatwardoT 
West Chester bounds, bounded to the Westward with the river, called bj 
the Indians *Aqoeanonnck«,' commonly kitown by the Bngllah by the 
name of Hutchinson's river, which runnith into the Bay lying betwe^ 
Tbrogmorton's Neck and Ann Hook's Neck, commonly called Hntehla- 
soo's Bay, bounded on the east by a Imck called Cedar Tree Bro(^ or 
OraveUy Brook, on the South by the Sound which lieth between Long 
Inland and the main land, with all the islands in the Sound not alreadlj 
granted or otherwise disputed of^ lying before that tract of land ■» 
boanded, as is before expressed, and northward to ran into the woods 
about eight English miles in breadth, as the bounds to the Sound, wbiek 
said tract of land hath heretofore been purchased of the Indian propria- 
tors, and ample satisfaction given for the same. 

** Now Know r«. That by virtue of the Commission and authority lUito 
me given by His Boyal Highness, James, Duke of York, Ac., upon whom 
by lawful grant and patent ftrom His SiiOMty, the proprietary and gor- 
emment of that part of the main land, as well as of Long Island and aU 
the islands a^lMent, among other things is Settled, I have thought pro- 
per to give, grant, ctmfUiu and ratify, and, by these presents do gtra, 
gimnt, oonAnn A ratify unto Thomas Pell, of Onckway, aUa$ Fairfield, 
His Majesty's Colony of Connecticut, genUeman, bis heirs and assigiM, 
all the said tract of huai boanded as aforesaid, together with all the land* 
islands, se ab a y s, woods, meadiws, pastures, marches, lakes, waters, 
creeks, fishing, hawking, hunting and fowling, and all olher profits, 
conunoditiee, emolaments and hereditaments to the said tract of land and 
ishuids belonging with them, and every of their appurtenances, and of 
every part and parcel thereof; and that the said tract of land and prem- 
ises shall be forever after held, reputed, taken and be an enfranchised 
township, manor and place itself; and shall always, fh>m time to time, 
and at all times hereafter have, hold and ei^oy like and equal privileges 
and immunities with any town, enfkanchised place or manor within this 
government, and shall in no manner of way be sobordlnate or belongliig 
unto, have any dependance upon, or in any wise be under the rules, or- 
ders or directions of any riding, township or township place, or Jurisdic- 
tion, either upon the Main or opon Long Island, but shall in all cases, 
things and matters, be deemed, reputed, taken and held as an absolute, 
entire, eufhmchised township, manor and phM9e of itself in the govern- 
ment, and shall be ruled, ordered and directed in all matters as to gov- 
ernment accordingly, by the Governor and his Council and the 
general Courts of Assises; only always provided that the inhabit- 
ants of the said tract of land granted, as aforesaid shall be obliged 
to send forward to the next towns, all public packets and letters 
or hue and cries coming to this pUce or going fh>m it to any 
other of His Misjesty's Colonies ; to have and to hold the said tract of 
land and grant, with all and singular the appurtenances, premises, to- 
gether with the privileges. Immunities, f^nanchlses A advantages herein 
given and granted unto the said Thunas Pell, his heirs and asnigns, to 
the proper use and behoof at the said Thomas Pell for ever, firmly, 
freely A clearly, in as hirge and ample manner and form, and with soeh 
tvdl and absolute immunities and privileges as before is expressed, as if 
he had held the same immediately fhmi his Mi^esty the King of Eng- 
land, Ac, Ac, Ac, his successors as of the Manor of Bast Gieenwlch, in 
the County of Kent, In f^ee and common soccage, and by feal^, only 
yielding, rendering A paying yeaily A every year unto His Boyal 
Highness, the duty forever and his heirs, or to such Governor as sImUI, 
fkom time to time, be by him constituted and appointed, as an acknowl- 
edgment, one lamb, on the first day of May (if the lamb shall be de- 

** Given onder my hand and Seal at Fort James, in New York, on the 
Island of Manhattan, the SUth day of October, in the 18th year of the 
reign of our sovereign lord Charles the Second, by the grace of God, of 
England, Scothuid A Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, Ac, Ac, Ac. 
and in the year of our Lord God, 1666. 

** Richard Nicuolls." 

The above grant to Thomas Pell was confirmed to 
his successor and heir, John Pell, on the 20th day 
of October, 1687, by the then Oovernor of New York, 
Thomas Dongan, as follows : 

*' Thomas Dongan, Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief in and over 
the province of New Vorke, and the territories depending thereon, in 
America, under the Moet Sticred Majesty, Jamee the Second, by the grace 
of God, Klngv of Engluud, bcotlaud, Frunce and Irekuid, defender of the 
faith. Ac, — to all to whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : 



Whereai, Bichftrd Nioholk, Eeqr, Ute governor of this proTlnce, by hii 
certoioe deed in writing, under his hand and seal, bearing date the sixth 
day of October, in the ei^teenth year of the relgne of onr late sovereigne 
lord, Charles the Second, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, 
France and Ireland, King Sc defender of the faith, Ac, and in the year of 
oiftr Lord God one thousand six hundred sixty and six, did give, grant, 
confirm and Fattefjre, by rirtue of the commission and authoritye unto 
him given by his (then) royal highness, James, Duke of York, S^., (his 
now Mi^esty) upon whom* by lawful grant and pattent from his (then) 
Hajesty, the propriety and goremment of that part of the maine land, as 
well as Long Island, and all the Islands ac^ftcent Amongst other things 
was settled unto Thomas Pell, of Onkway, aiia$ Fairfield, in his M^os- 
ty's Oolony of (Connecticut, gentleman, all that certalne tract of land 
upon the maine land lying and being to the Eastward of Westchester 
bounds, bounded to westward with a river called, by the Indians, * Aqua- 
conounck,' commonly known to the English by the name of Hutchin- 
son's River, which runneth into the bay lying between Throgmorton's 
Neck and Anne flooke's Neck, commonly called Hutchinson's Bay, 
bounded on the east by a brooke called Cedar Tree Brooke, or Qravelly 
Brooke; on the South by the Sound, which lyeth between Long Island 
and the maine land, with all the islaiuis on the Sound not before that 
time granted or disspossed of, lying before that tract of land So bounded 
as is before expreast, and northward to runns into the woods about eight 
English miles, the breadth to be the same, as it Is along by the Sound, 
together with all the lands, islands, soyles, woods, meadows, pastures, mar* 
shes, lakes, creeks, waters, fishing, hawking, hunting and fowling, and all 
other proffltts. commodityes, heridetaments to the Said tract of land and 
islands belonging, with their and every of their appurtenances, and 
every part and parcel thereof ; and that the said tract of land and pre- 
mises should be forever thereafter held, deemed, reputed, taken and be 
an entire Infranchised towneshipp, manner and place of itself, and should 
always, fh>m time to time, and at all times thereafter, have, hold and 
enjoy like and equall priviledges and immunities with any towne. In- 
franchised place or manner within this government, Ac., shall II no 
manner or way be subordinate or belonging unto, have any dependance 
upon or in anywise, bounds or the rules under the direction of any rid- 
ing, or towne, or towneehlpps, place or Jurisdiction, either upon the maine 
or upon Longe Island, but should in all cases, things and matters be 
deemed, reputed, taken and held as an absolute, intire, infranchised 
towneshipp, manner and place of Itselfe in this government, and should 
be ruled, ordered and directed In all matters as to government, accord- 
ingly, by the govemour and Conncell and General Court of Assises, only 
provided, always, that the inhabitants in said tract of land, granted as 
aforesaid, should be obliged to send fTorwards to the next townes all pub- 
lick packquetts and letters, or hew and cryee coming U» New York or 
going fh>m thence to any other of his Mi^l^stl®*" OoUonys ; to have and 
to hold the said tract of land and Islands, with all and singular the ap- 
purtenances and premises, together with the priviledges, immunities, 
franchisee and advantages therein given and granted unto the said 
Thomas Pell, to the proper use and behoofe of the said Thomas Pell, his 
heiree and assignee forever, flTtaly, ffreely, clearely, in as large and ample 
manner and forme, and with such full and absolute immunities and 
priviledges as before Is expreest, as if he bad held the same immediately 
(from his Majesty the Kinge of England, Ac., and his suckoessors, as of 
the manner of East Greenwich, in the County of Kent, in firee and com- 
mon Bockage and by fealty, only yealdeing, rendering and payeing 
yearelyand every yeare unto his then royall highness the Duke of 
Yorke, and his heires, or to such governour or goveruours as from time to 
time should by him be constituted and appoynted, as an acknowledge- 
ment, one lambe on the first day of May, if the same shall be demanded 
as by the saiddeede iu writeing, and the entry thereof in the bookes of 
records in the secretarie*s office for ttie province aforesaid, may more fully 
and at large appeare. 

**Aitd tehertM^ John Pell, gentleman, nephew of the said Thomas Pell, 
to whom the lands. Islands and premises, with appurtenances, now by 
the lust will and testament of bim, the said Thomas Pell given and be- 
queathed, now is in the actual, peacable and quiett seazelng and posses- 
sion of all and singular the premisee, and hath made his humble request 
to mee, the said Thomas Dongan, that I would. In the behalfe of bis 
iSacred Majesty, his heirs and suckcessors, give and grant unto him, the 
said John Pell, a more full and flrme grant and confirmation of the 
above land and premises, with the appurtenances, under the seale of 
this his Mivjestles province: Now Know Yte, that I, the said Thomas 
Dongan, by virtue of the commission and authority unto me given by 
his said M%)es^, and power in me being and residing, in conslderatlun 
of the quitt-rent hereinafter reserved, and for divers, other good and 
lawfoll considerations me thereunto mouving, I have given, rattefled 

I and confirmed, and by these preaants doe hereby give, grant, ratefie and 
conflrme unto the said John Pell, his heirs and assigns forever, all the 
before mentioned and rented lands, islands and premises, with the 
hereditaments and annirtenancea, pririledges, imuneties, flhmncliises 
and advantages to the same belonging and a{q»ertaining, or in the said 
before mentioned deede In writing expreest, implyed or intended to be 
given and granted, and every part and parcell thecvof, together with all 
and Singular Messuages, tenements, bams, stables, orchards, gardent, 
lands, islands, mradows, inclosurea, arable, lands, feedeings, commous, 
woods, underwoods, soyles, quarreys, mines, minerally (royall min«s 
only excepted), waters, rivers, ponds, lakes, huuteing, haucking, fl ehiag, 
fTowleing, as alsoe all rents, services, wasts, strayea, royaltyes, liberties, 
pririledges. Jurisdictions, rights, members and appurtenances, and all 
other Immunityes, royaltyes, power of franchises, profitts, commodeties 
and heredatements whatsoever to the premises, or any part or parcell 
thereof, belonging or appertaining; and farther by vertue of the power 
and authority In mee being and redding, I doe here grant, rattefie and 
oonfirme, and the tract of land, isUnd and premises afwesaid are, by 
these presents, erected and constitute to be one lordship and manner, 
and the same shall fh)m henceforth be called the lordshipp &nd manner 
of Pelham ; and I doe hereby give and grant unto the said John Pell, 
his heirs and assigns, fftell power and authori^ at all times hereafter, in 
the said lordshipp and manner of Pelham aforesaid, one court leete and 
one court barron, to hold and keepe at such times, and so often yeariy as 
he and they shall see meete, and all sines, issues and amerciaments at 
the said court leete and court barron, to be holden and kept in the man- 
ner and lordship aforesaid, that are payable fh>m time to time, riiall 
happen to be due and payable by and from any the inhabitants of or 
within the said lordshipp and manner of Pelham abovesaid ; and also all 
and every the powers and authoritiea hereinbefore mentioned, for the 
holding and keepeing of the said court leete and court barron, ffrom 
time to time, and to award and Issue ferth the customary writs to be 
issued and awarded out of the said court leete and court barron, and the 
same to beare test and to be issued out in the name of the said John Pell, 
his hein and assignee, and the same court leete and court barron to be 
kept by the said John Pell, his heirs and asslgnes, or his or their 
steward, deputed or appoynted ; and I doe further hereby give and grant 
unto the said John Pell, hit heirs and assignee, full power to distraiue 
for all the rents and other sums of money payable by reason of the 
premises, and all other lawful remedys and meanes for the haveing, re> 
reiving, levying and ei^joylng the said premises and every part thereof, 
and all walfts, strayes, wreck's of the sease, deodandsand goods of ffelons 
happening and being within the said manner of Pelham, with the 
advowsonand right of patronage of all and every of the Church and 
Churches in the said manner, erected and to be erected— to have and to 
hold all and singular the said tract of btnd, islands and manner of Pel- 
ham, and all and singular the above granted or mentioned to be granted 
premises, with their rights, members. Jurisdictions, priviledges, hereda- 
ments and appurtenances, to the said John Pell, his heirs and aasignes, 
to the only proper use, benefltt and behoofe of the said John Pell, his 
heirs and asslgnes, forever ; to be holden of his Most Sacred Majestye, 
his heirs and successors, in ft«e and common soccago according to the 
tenure of East Greenwich, In the County of Kent, in his Mi^j^ye's 
kingdom of England, yielding, rendering and paying, therefore, yearly 
and every year forever, unto his said Mi^estye, his heirs and soccessors, 
or to such officer or officers as diall frcHn time to time he H^pointed to 
receive the same— twenty shillings, good and lawful money of this prov- 
ince, at the City of New York, on the five and twentyeth day of the 
month of March, In lieu and stead of all rents, services and demand 
whatsoever. In testimony whereof, I have signed theae presents 
with my handwriting, caused the seale of the province to be thereunto 
affixed, and have ordained that the same be entered upon record in the- 
secretary's office, the five and twentyeth day of October, in the third 
yeare of the Kinge Mi^^otyes reigne, and in the year of our Lord, od» 
thousand six hundred eighty and seven. 

"Thomas Dongak." 

In the year 1689, John Pell sold to the Huguenots 
of New Rochelle, through the agency of Governor 
Leisler,* a tract of land consisting of six thousand 

1 The fate of Leisler through whom this purchase was made is fully 
related in the contemporaneous history of those times. He took the 
lead in a popular movement, in 1688, against the constituted authori- 
ties, and assumed or was chosen by his partisans to the government. 
For this act, he was tried, found gpiilty of treason, and hung in chains,, 
on the 17th of May, 1691, on the spot now occupied by the City Hall 



one hundred acres, from the Manor of Pelham, for 
the sam of about one dollar per acre. The one hun- 
dred acres was a free gift to the French Huguenot 
Chorch, erected or to be erected by the inhabitants. 
The Manor of Pelham had originally contained nine 
thousand one hundred and sixty-six acres, so that 
nearly two-thirds of it now constitute the town of 
New Bochelle. 

The islands in the sound opposite Pelham, belong 
to that towD. These are Minneford's (now City 
Island) containing about two hundred and thirty 
acres ; Hunter's Island, two hundred and fifty acres ; 
and Hart Island, eighty -five acres. The heir of 
Thomas Pell to the Pelham Manor, was John Pell, 
his nephew, whose death, according to the inscription 
apon his monument, happened in the year 1700. He 
is said to have lost his life by the upsetting of a boat 
off City Island, in the autumn of that year. His 
eldest son, Thomas, succeeded to the inheritance, and 
died in 1739 at the Manor House, which stood not 
far from the present Barton dwelling. The subse- 
quent history of the Pell family may be found, given 
at length in Bolton's history. 

On the 18th of October, 1776, the British forces 
landed upon Pelham Neck, ten days previous to the 
battle of White Plains. They came from Throgmor- 
ton's, now Throg's Neck. They were met by the 
Americans and a heavy skirmish resulted. After 
some loas, the Americans fell back, and the British 
advanced towards New Bochelle. Though largely 
outnumbered, the retreat of the Americans was or- 
derly and their resistance obstinate. The loss on 
both sides was probably about equal. 

The owners of the islands along the Pelham shore 
suffered more severely from this invasion than those 
in the interior, because a portion of the British fleet 
was always anchored in the Sound, and boats were 
constantly landing to obtain supplies, which they 
often and perhaps intentionally forgot to pay 
for. One Benjamin Palmer, who lived upon City 
Island, after the war was over sent a petition to Gov- 
ernor Clinton, complaining loudly of his wrongs and 
grievances. He stated that he had been driven off 
the island, his stock destroyed, his effects plundered, 
his family taken prisoners, and, as a last indignity, 
the commander of the guard-ship "Scorpion " ordered 
him to cut his wood at a certain place and nowhere 
else, "upon penalty of having his house burned 
down." Mr. Palmer's case was not a peculiar one. 
These acts of petty tyranny were universal during 
the occupancy by the British of all parts of the coun- 
try. But in his case there was a special reason 
for the enemy's severity. He had ventured to write 
to General Howe a letter in vindication of the Amer- 

in New York City. At a lator periiKl, bis attainder was rovorsed, and 
his eatatos restored to bin (umily by Act of Parliament. The goueral 
Tordict uf history at tlie present time is, tliat be was innocent of tlie 
crituo fur which he was condemned and executed.— (See Bolton's, Ban- 
croft's and Bryant's Ilistorios.) 

icans. Our sympathies, even at this late hour, are 
elicited on behalf of Mr. Palmer and his fellow-suf- 
ferers. Their treatment was shameful and the con- 
duct of the British in inflicting such acts of oppres- 
sion upon private individuals, not in arms against 
them, was barbarous and indefensible. But inas- 
much as the petitioner afterwards removed to New 
York City with his family, and had besides, abun- 
dance of good company in his sufferings, and since 
his oppressors were finally defeated and driven from 
the country, and he, if present, might have witnessed 
the hauling down of their flag on the Battery, in New 
York, on the 25th of November, 1788, it seems that , 
Mr. Palmer might be content to call it square (with 
the British) and withdraw his petition. One hun- 
dred years have made a great change in the value of 
the " plantation " once held by him, and from which 
he was then driven, on City Island. If he owned it 
now, it would a great deal more than compensate him 
for all his losses in that war. The oyster business is 
now carried on largely there, with a capital of two 
hundred thousand dollars. The building of vessels — 
mostly pleasure yachts — has led to the establishment 
of a dock-yard, in which a number of men are em- 
ployed, and where some of the swiftest yachts in the 
country have been built. 

It was near City Island that a daring and success- 
ful enterprise was accomplished by a few of the 
Americans in the year 1777, being no less than the 
capture of a British gun-boat used as a guard-ship, 
and stationed at the mouth of East Chester Creek. 
The particulars, as related by one of the party engaged 
in the capture to an aged citizen of Pelham, now in 
his ninety-second year, and by him communicated to 
the writer, are as follows : 

"The guardsbip 'Scbuldam* was one of several vessels stationed by 
the British along the shores of the Sound, through whose instrumental- 
ity most of the hardships complained of by the Americans, such as 
those referred to in the petition of Beigamin Palmar, were inflicted. 
The officers and crews of these vessels often treated the inhabitants of 
the towns and villages along the shore with great severity. They 
were consequently regarded with no fHendly feelings by the oppreoed 
people, and plans for their capture were frequently discussed. 

"A party of whale-boatmen from Darien, Connecticut, were fortunate 
enough to carry such a design into execution. They conveyed their 
boat by hand across the Neck, and took possession of the market 
sloop which plied regularly between East Ghester and New York. 
From the master of this sloop they ascertained that on his weekly pas- 
sages to the city he was sometimes hailed fh)m the guardsbip, and re 
quested to sell them fresh provisions, such as eggs, chickens, vegetables, 
Ac.f for which, to insure their delivery, be was liberally paid. Th(»e 
Connecticut whale-boatmen, to the number of ten or twelve, armed, 
concealed themselves in the hold of the sloop. Their leader, however 
remained on deck, and forced the owner to lay his craft alongside the 
sloop, as if for the purpose of furnishing the usual supplies. It was 
early in the morning, before daylight, and the moment the two vessels 
touched, the boatmen rushed up from below, boarded the British vessel 
and took the crew prisoners before they were fairly awake. They then 
compelled some of the prisoners to help navigate the vessel, and mak* 
ing sail on the prize, ran her into the port of New London." 

There are two persons still living, one in Pelham 
who witnessed and the other in New Rochelle* who 

1 The Bound opposite New Bochelle and Pelham is a ticklish place, oven 



heard the sound of the cannonade between the Brit- 
ish men-of-war and the American gun-boats, which 
took place off New Rochelle and Pelham in the 
month of August, 1814. After the British had bom- 
barded Stonington (August 9th), two of their vessels, 
a frigate and a sloop-of war, made their appearance 
near Mamaroneck. The government, or perhaps the 
people of New York, had prepared a fleet of thirteen 
gun- boats, each armed with a thirty-two-pounder 
gun, for the protection of the harbors along the 
Sound. One sultry morning in August the ships of 
war moved down the Sound and attacked these gun- 
boats, which had been ordered to rendezvous near 
Huckleberry Island and along the shores of Long 
Island. The action continued at long range for about 
an hour, and was very exciting to the inhabitants in 
the vicinity. The militia of two or three of the towns 
had been ordered out, and every height and headland 
was thronged with spectators. It soon became evi- 
dent that the gun-boats were no match for the men- 
of war. Probably all that saved them from being 
sunk or captured was the superior familiarity of the 
Americans with the navigation of the Sound. Among 
so many rocks and reefs, the heavy war-vessels of 
the British were afraid to venture, and after a sharp 
but distant cannonade, in which but little damage 
was inflicted, the gun-boats withdrew in the direction 
of New York, and the ships of war returned to New 
London. It was in connection with this bloodless naval 
engagement that the panic broke out among the mili- 
tia on Davenport's Neck, an account of which is given 
in the history of New Rochelle. The Rev. Lewis J. Cou- 
tant,* then a boy often or twelve years, distinctly remem" 
bered to have heard the echoes of the cannonade up- 
on that sultry August morning, rolling and reverber- 
ating among the hills back of the town of New Ro- 
chelle. Mr. Peter Roosevelt, of Pelham, now in his 
ninety-second year, is understood to have witnessed the 
engagement from some convenient hill near the shore 
Hunter's Island, now the property of Mr. Iselin' 
was, in the year 1800, owned by a gentleman named 
Henderson, a Scotchman and a surgeon in the British 
army. It has changed hands many times and is 

for DRTlgatora well acquainted with the ohstructions abore and bolow 
tha surface. It is related that some years ago one of the Le Counts, who 
lived upon the shore in New Rorhello, near the Pelham line, and hwl 
b^n familiar with the navigation of the Sound in that vicinity from his 
youth, took a party of ftiendsout for a sail. The day was fine, the 
wind fair, and the paasengers were delighted until the boat, under full 
sail, ran plump upon a large flat rock about a foot under wat«r, near the 
mouth of Echo Bay. As the tide was falling, it became evident that 
their sail for the day was over. ^ Captain,'^ was the indignant remon- 
strance of the party, *' I thought you knew every rock in this Sound." 
•• I do," replied C«ptain L. C, "and this here is oiie of the worst." 

One of the Schuylors a'so, residing at Pelham, is said to have been thus 
upset while sailing in his boat near City Island. But, more lucky than 
the Pell who was drowned in the same manner, he was picked up by a 
puasing vessel while calmly floating, seated upon the bottom of his boat, 
and smoking his pipe, which he had managed in some way to keep 
lighted. Incredible as this may seem, it is nevortholoss a fact, as 1 have 
l>een assured, and old General Schuyler himsolf nevor did a cooler thing. 
Sir. Oouta'ut has died since Uie above was written. 

probably, upon the whole, the most desirable situa- 
tion for a residence along the shores of the Sound. It 
is sufficiently secluded, yet within easy reach of sev- 
eral railway stations. The land, about two hundred 
and fifty acres, is fertile and well timbered ; the fish- 
ing and bathing in the vicinity are excellent, and 
the view from the south side unsurpassed. The man- 
sion, constructed of stone, and supposed to have been 
erected by Mr. Hunter, is still a very fine one. If 
that ancient worthy, Thomas Pell, Esq., the original 
owner of this spot, had been informed by some pro- 
phetic revelation, that, in the year 1885, the city of New 
York would conclude to take possession of the whole 
of that part of Pelham "lying and being upon the 
waters of Long Island Sound," for a city park, propos- 
ing to issue bonds, run in debt and tax the inhabit- 
ants of both town and county to pay for the same, 
it may be safely presumed that he would have been 
an unbelieving Thomas. Yet it is well known, not 
only that such a plan has been devised, and that a 
bill for its accomplishment has passed the Legislature 
of the State of New York, but that there is a strong 
probability that the entire sea-front of Pelham will, 
in a few years, be within the corporate limits of 
the city.' 

The Pelham Bridge, over the mouth of East Ches- 
ter Creek, has long been famous for the size and 
quality of the fish taken in and around the waters of 
the bay and river. The fishing, it is true, is not 
now what it used to be, either there or in other parts 
of the Sound, having declined from causes which 
may be known to those who have made themselves 
familiar with the subject. Still, within the past 
twenty years, bass of large size and weighing from 
fifty to sixty pounds, have been taken with the hook 
in this vicinity. Black fish are still numerous around 
the rocks and reefs along the shore. But old fisher- 
men are unanimous in the assertion that there has 
been a steady falling off in both the number and size 
of the fish taken during the period of time men- 
tioned above.' 

3 The bill contemplates the appropriation of about four thousand acres 
of land in Westchester County for the erection of tliree parks : the Pel- 
ham Ray Park, the Bronx River Park and the Van OorUandt Park. 
The Pelham Park is to consist of about seventeen hundred acrea. 

* What the character of the fishing about Pelham Bay waft in the 
olden time may bo gathered from the following little poem, taken by 
Mr. Bolton from •• Wilson's American Ornithology," and well worthy of 
being preserved for its originality and beauty : 
" Fibhebman's Hymm. 
" The osprey sails above the Sound ; 

The geese are gone, the gulls are flying ; 
The herring shoals swarm thick around ; 

The nets are launched, the boats are plying. 
Yo ho, my hearts I let's seek the deep. 

Raise high the song, and cheerly wiali her, 
.Still m the bending net we sweep, 
C«u4l bleMS the fish hawk and the fislicr. 

" Slio i)ringw IIS fish, nIio brings \w Spring, 

(uhhI tinn***, fair weathar, waniitli and plenty ; 
Fine st«»re of shad, trout, herrings, ling, 
Sbceiwhcod and drum, and old wives dainty 



The wooden structure which once connected the 
Neck with the Westchester shore, and which was 
a toll-bridge, has been replaced by one of iron, which 
is free. It is said to have cost sixty thousand dollars. 
The ancient oak-tree under which the Indian sachems 
made the transfer of the Pelham Manor property to 
Thomas Pell, and a piece of which is in the writer's 
possession, stood until within twenty or thirty years 
past on the Bartow estate. The Indians received, it 
is said, as an equivalent for their deed of the land, 
sundry hogsheads of Jamaica rum. There is not far 
from this spot a singular freak of nature — a split 
rock, with a tree growing out of the crevice. This 
was a surprise to the writer, when, for the first time, 
be visited this r^on, nearly forty years ago. It 
stands on the cross-road between the Pelham and 
New York roads, and the oldest inhabitant has never 
seen it otherwise than it looks to-day. In the year 
1790 the population of Pelhau) was as follows : 

Free white males 46 

Under trixteen yean of age 31 

Females 84 

Slatfti 38 

Total 198» 

The interests of education in Pelham were greatly 
advanced when the school board of the town, a few 
years ago, erected in the First School District a new 

To ho, my hearts ! let's seek the deep, 

Ply every oar and cheerly wish her, 
Still as the bending net we sweep, 

God bless the flsh ha^k and the fisher. 

" Slie rears her young in yonder tree, 

She leaves her fidthfol mate to mind *em ; 
Like us, for fish she sails the sea. 

And plunging, shows us where to find 'em. 
To ho, my hearts, let's seek the deep, 

Ply every oar and cheerly wish her, 
While the slow bending net wo sweep, 

God bless the fish hawk and the fisher." 

The mao who wrote this hymn (whoever he was) was a close observer 
and lover of nature. He had music in his heart, and, it is to be hoped, 
fish in his basket, and could his name be discovered, deserves to have this 
FUier's Hymn inscribed on his monument. 

1 The writer, having been urged to introduce some observations in this 
place upon certain Indian graves in Pelham, made an attempt to find 
them, but failed to do so. Nor was he able to discover any public bury- 
ing-place at all in Pelham. The longevity of many of the ancient in- 
babifcanta was remarkable. The late Albert Boosevelt was alert and active 
until past his ninetieth year. His son Peter is now living in Pelham with 
unimpaired mental powers, in his ninety-second year. The Bev. Dr. 
William Hague, the distinguished author of the article upon Old Pel- 
ham and New BocheUe, subjoined to this chapter, appears like a 
sprightly genUeman of sixty years or thereabouts, whereas, if the 
records of history can be depended upon, he must be in the neighbor- 
hood of seventy-five or eighty. 

The Indian bnrylng-ground is said to have been situated upon the 
northwest side of Pell's Neck, but very few vestiges of it can now be seen. 
This is not wonderful, however, when we consider the changes which 
time produces, even among the living. There is scarcely a family of the 
ancient residents of Pelham which maintains its ancestral place and 
p oMM OM ri ons. The Pells have long been gone. The Schuylers have re- 
moved to another part of the town. The Roosevelt family have retained 
their bold upon the property near Hunter's Island for almost ninety years 
but must soon yield to the advancing tide, which flows not from the 
waters of the Sound, but from New Tork City. 

building at an expense of four thousand dollars. The 
architect was Mr. G. K. Eadford, of New York City* 
and the old school-house, which is still standing, 
bears testimony to the very decided improvement. 
The new edifice, as well as the one recently built in 
New Rochelle, is considered by competent judges a 
very fine structure, and both are among the best in 
the county in their interior arrangements and archi- 
tectural style and finish. For nearly forty years the 
Pelham Priory was a marked feature of the town. 
It is not too much to say that for a very long period 
this institution was among the foremost in this coun- 
try in the work of female education. The site chosen 
for the school by the Bev. Robert Bolton was unex- 
celled for beauty. It was an elevation commanding 
a wide view of Long Island Sound and the many 
islands adjacent to the Pelham shore. During the 
life-time of Miss Bolton it was justly celebrated for 
the thorough intellectual and moral training bestowed 
upon the young ladies who attended it, coming from 
every part of the United States and sometimes from 
foreign countries. Miss Nannette Anne Bolton was 
herself an enthusiast in the cause of Christian educa- 
tion. Under her watchful care nearly a thousand 
young girls were educated in such a manner as to 
prepare them thoroughly for the higher as well as for 
the ordinary duties of life. While by no means sec- 
tarian, the influence of the Priory was always decid- 
edly religious, and made itself felt, not only in the 
town of Pelham, but throughout a wide extent of the 
surrounding country. The decline of such a school, 
through the death of its principal founder and teacher, 
is much to be lamented. It is a loss to the county 
and State not entirely overestimated, and the more so 
that nothing has since arisen in the town or vicinity 
to take its place. 

Besides the Priory, Pelham is indebted to the Bol- 
ton family for the first, and for many years the only, 
Episcopal Church within its bounds — namely, Christ 
Church, of which the Rev. Charles Higbee is the 
present rector, and from whom the information con- 
tained in this sketch, with r^ard to the churches of 
the town, is derived. It is safe to say that without 
the persistent labors and sacrifices of this family, 
neither of these institutions — the church or the priory, 
both so potent for good to Pelham and the whole 
region around it — would ever have existed. * 

From this church two others have since sprung — 
Grace Church, on City Island, of which the Rev. Mr. 
Winsor is the present rector, and the Church of the 
Redeemer, at Pelhamville, whose rector is the Rev. 
Cornelius Winter Bolton, a son of the founder of the 
parent church and the Priory in Pelham. 

s No candid historian of the county of Westchester can &il to ac- 
knowledge his obligations to the labors of Mr. Robert Bolton In this 
field. Notwithstanding, his history has grave fkults. It is as fnll of ec- 
clesiastical bigotry as of research, and ought to be entitled, '* A History of 
Episcopacy in the County of Westchester." More than ten times the 
space accorded to all other denominations is given to this one, and the 
matter introdnoed Is often tediously minute, dry and uninteresting. 



It is to be hoped that the great debt which the town 
of Pelham owes and must forever owe to the members 
of the Bolton family will never be forgotten. Their 
names ought to be cherished along with that of the 
&ther and founder of the manor itself. 

The Pelham Manor and Huguenot Heights Asso- 
ciation is an incorporated company, formed about the 
year 1875, for the improvement of that part of the 
town lying between the station of the Harlem Branch 
of the New York and New Haven Railroad and the 
Boston turnpike road. The new village thus formed 
has grown rapidly, and is for many reasons a very de- 
sirable place of residence. It is easily accessible 
from the Pelhamville Station of the New Haven 
Railroad, so that a large number of trains upon both 
roads are available daily, and almost hourly. 

The Huguenot Memorial Chapel, a pretty Presby- 
terian Church, was built to accommodate the resi- 
dents of that denomination. It was opened for wor- 
ship on the 9th of July, 1876, under the pastoral care 
of the Rev. Charles E. Lord. The Rev. Daniel N. 
Freeland is the present pastor. 

As a place of residence, this part of Westchester 
County presents decided claims to public regard. The 
rapid growth of the city of New York, the rise of 
rents there and the pressure of the population on 
this account into the surrounding country, render it 
certain that the suburban towns and villages must 
ultimately and indeed speedily share in its prosperity. 
Several of them have already been absorbed within 
the city limits, and others must shortly follow. The 
valae of land has increased enormously within a few 
years, both upon the North and East River sides of 
the county, and there is also a steady growth in popu- 
lation. As an example of this increased value, land 
in the towns of New Rochelle and Pelham, which, in 
the year 1850, could be readily purchased for three 
hundred dollars per acre, cannot now be bought for 
ten times that sum. In such large towns as Yonkers 
the advance in price is proportionally greater. There 
is not probably in the entire country a section better 
adapted for improvement than the lower part of 
Westchester County. The soil is good, the scenery 
romantic, the climate salubrious, and the old historic 
associations are such as to lend an added interest to 
these material advantages. 

Some of the finest sites in the world for country- 
seats are to be found around the shores of Pelham 
Bay, the islands that dot the Sound, and, in fact, 
throughout the whole shore-line from Hell Gate to 
Connecticut. The same is true, to a greater or less 
extent, of the bays and headlands of the opposite 
Long Island shore. 

The enhanced value of the real estate in Pelham 
since the year 1800 may be inferred from a brief his- 
tory of one of the oldest residences in the town — 
that owned and occupied by the late Albert Roosevelt, 
merchant of New York, and his family. 

In the above-mentioned year Mr. Roosevelt pur- 

chased of Mr. Bailey a tract of two hundred and fifty 
acres of land upon the main shore, opposite Hunter's 
Island, and of which the Pelham Priory then formed 
a part, for twenty-five dollars an acre. 

Bailey had bought at the close of the war three 
hundred acres of land confiscated by the government 
because the owner had taken part with the British in 
the war. For this tract he paid five dollars and twenty 
cents an acre. Of this, he sold two hundred and fifty 
acres to Mr. Roosevelt at the above-mentioned price, 
twenty-five dollars. The Roosevelt place is one of 
those proposed to be taken for the new Pelham Bay 
Park. But the commissioners will find that the price 
has advanced considerably since the year 1800. The 
dwelling was erected in 1802. 

The Pelham Industry was established by Mrs. W 
S. Hoyt, daughter of the late Chief Justice Chase, 
and other ladies of Pelham, and was in successful 
operation for over two years. Its object, a benevo- 
lent one, was to afibrd to young persons of both 
sexes instruction in the decorative and industrial 
arts. Teachers were provided for the various depart- 
ments of drawing, decoration, designing, carving in 
wood, embroidery, tapestry, upholstery, carpentry, 
and joiner-work and working in metals. A depot 
was provided in the building for receiving orders for 
work and for the sale of articles manufactured. ^ 

The Country Club is one of the notable institutions 
of Pelham. In looking about for a suitable place for 
its establishment, the gentlemen who organized it 
made choice of one situated directly upon the Sound, 
and which was owned and occupied for many years 
by the family of the late Dr. Richard Morris. The 
grounds and the view to be seen from them are ad- 
mirably adapted to the purposes of such a club. It 
has a membership of about two hundred and fifty 
persons, and is in a flourishing condition. 

In the ample grounds and well-equipped club- 
house every means is provided for the comfort, con- 
venience and amusement of the members ; various 
athletic games and field sports are engaged in, while 
fishing, bathing and boating are afforded by the wa- 
ters of the Sound adjacent, and which wash the pict- 
uresque shores of the place. 

At David's Island religious services are held every 
Sunday evening at the military post, which is one of 
the depots of recruits for the United States army. 
It should seem that it is a position of sufilcient im- 
portance to secure the services of an army chaplain, 
as large numbers of soldiers are frequently gathered 
there, to be dispersed from time to time, as the needs 
of the government may demand, to all parts of the 
country. The Rev. Mr. Higbee, of Pelham, has for 
years conducted occasional services there. In the ab- 
sence of any clergyman, they are conducted by the 
surgeon of the station, Major A. A. Woodhull, or by 
Captain (now Colonel) Trotter. 

1 This iDfltitution, after a Tery snoceatfiil boginning, la, for rarions 
reasons, temporarily suspended. 



In closing this sketch of the history of Pelham, I 
am permitted, by the kindness of my friend, the Rev. 
Dr. William Hague, one of the most eminent minis- 
ters of the Baptist denomination in this country and 
a native of the town of Pelham, to subjoin his very 
interesting article, published in the American Maga- 
zine of History ^ and entitled " Old Pelham and New 

"old pelham and new rochelle." 
by bev. william hague. 

**It was my fortune to reTlait, recently, after a long interval of 
absence, two homes of my childhood, the birth home at Pelham, West- 
chester County, in the Tloinlty of New York, and the church home at 
New Rochelle, the town a4Joining, originaUy a part of Pelham, com- 
prised within the area of the manor by the royal charter of 16C6, in the 
reign of Charles II. That charter was granted to Thomas Pell, Esq., 
* Gentleman of the bed-chamber to King Charles L,' and afterwards, In 
1687, was granted anew and confirmed to his legally recognized heir, 
the only son of his brother, the first resident proprietor, * Lord John 
Pell,' according to the usage of address hereabouts in the seventeenth 

** The first ol^ect of interest that won attention within view from the 
railway station, two or three minutes' walk westward along the old his- 
toric 'King's Highway,* was the bcautifbl church edifice of stone, 
designated 'Trinity Church, of New Rochelle,* presenting itself to the 
eye of the inquiring visitor as the succeesor of the old ' French Church,* 
that hallowed that surrounding in the reign of Queen Ann. Having 
noticed, in a musing mood, the contrast between the showing of the 
rude, small, stony structure that I had first known in childhood as a 
house of worship, and that of the finely proportioned modem temple 
whose gracefU q>ire now casts its shadow over the old site, I turned 
my steps toward the church burial-ground, seeking the graves of my 
grandparents. Long-slumbering memories were aroused, first of all, by 
the sight of the marble that marked the grave of my grandmother- 
Sarah Pell, widow of Captainl William Bay ley— whose foneral serrice, 
ministered in the church-yard by her aged relative, the rector, Rev. 
Theodosins Bartow, I had attended with a large fiunily gathering in the 
month of March, 1819, being then eleven years of age. The form of the 
veDeiHble clergyman in his official robes at the grave, his bald head un- 
covered, despite the chill of a heavy snow-fall, is vividly remembered 
now as if it had figured in a scene of yesterday. 

*' Meanwhile, however, memory had let slip the date of my grand, 
fkther's departure, and I was desirous to regain it from the chiselled 
record at the head of the grave nearly adjoining. What a bewilder- 
ment! I could scarcely believe my eyes, as I read, 'Died March 3, 
1611.* It seemed altogether abnormal, that such minute remembrances 
of him as had been fiuniliar to me, scores of particulars pertaining to his 
indlTiduality, even the tones of his voice and his handicraft in making 
toys for my amusement, should have been thus long kept within the 
brmin as in a photographic or phonographic cabinet Tet thus it must 
haTO been, despite all seemings to the contrary, I said, soliloquising in 
the presence of the facts : at the age of three and a half, hereabouts, be- 
gan my outlook upon the world. Here I approximate the starting 
point of conscious thought; and this outlook over the life area of 
'three-score and ten'* discloses its varied scenes of light and shadow, 
from infancy to age, as one broad panoramic unity. 

"CMld memories, no doubt, are effective factors in shining 'the 
mak»>up ' of any personality. The image of my grandfather, associated 
as it is with the old homestead, and with his fiow of talk while occupy- 
ing his easy-chair upon the piazxa, where he was wont to ei\foy one of 
the finest of landscapes, taking within its sc<q)e Hunter's Island, Pelham 
Creek, the expanse of Long Island Sound, has never become dim ; so 
that he has ever represented to me the ideal ' grandpa ' of poetry or 
sonCf of fiction or gn4>hic art, as pictured by Sir Walter Scott or ' Peter 
Parley.* Thus has- he ever been to me in thought ' a living presence,' 

although the obtruding question as to the ponibllities of a baby brain 
will put itself over and over again like a mocking puzzle. 

" Despite the puzzle, the fact asserts itself. From the view-point oc- 
cupied at the time of this writing, March, 1882, looking back to the last 
sickness and to the funeral services at Pelham and New Rochelle, the 
succession of years and order of events are oleariy traced by memory and 
substantiated as a personal history. There is no break in the outline, 
although many things, thoughts, words, deeds may be missed fVom 'the 
filling up.* 

" But now, while occupying the old church-yard as a retrospective 
view-point, it seems noteworthy tiiat the first advent of death into the 
household, and this first funeral that shadowed the path of my young 
life, cannot be described without the Joining of two old town names, 
French and English, New Rochelle and Pelham. Thus, too, looking 
upon the head-stones that memorialize the many graves in this 'God's 
Acres,' as the old English called the consecrated burial-g^und, we 
notice the alterations or intermingling of English and French surnames, 
denoting the quick ftudon of English and French blood in the homes of 
the early settlers nearly two centuries ago. On the tomb-stones of the 
dead and on the door-sig^s of the living, the same old names present 
thenuelTes,— Pells, Bayleys, Bartows, Pinckneys, Sands, Hunts, Gulons, 
Le Counts, AUaires, Leroys, Coutants, Secors, Badeaus, Flandreaus, De 
Peysters, De Lanceys and others, signalizing the spontaneous union of 
Saxon and Celtic elements in the historic home-life and church-life of 
the colonial days. 

'* These first exiles fh>m France, seeking permanent homes and relig- 
ious liberty, though, to a great extent, 'spoiled of their goods,' realized 
actually the sentiment so well emphasized by Daniel Webster in ad- 
dressing the young Americans, namely, 'character is eopttoi,' being 
in the best sense, ' well to do,' free and inclined to contract fiemiily alli- 
ances from choice, taste and personal qualities rather than fhim consid- 
erations of mere expediency or goading necessity. Few and weak 
though they seemed, their place in history is as clearly defined as that of 
the ' ten thousand ' retreating Greeks whom Xenophon has immortal- 
ized, having been long ago distinguished as a part of that heroic ' fifty 
thousand * who fled ttom France to England about four years before the 
annulling of the edict of Nantes, signed by Henry IV. In 1598, for the 
protection of Protestants, and revoked by Louis XIV. in 1686 ; having 
been in force, nominally, though not really, nearly four-fifths of a 
century. Having emigrated fh>m EIngland to New York, some of them 
by way of the West Indies, particularly St. Christopher's and Martin- 
ique, they found the most beautiful lands of the vicinity chartered 
under English manorial proprietorship, whereby it was made easy for 
them to establish themselves in new aud permanent homes. All anti- 
pathies of blood or race melted away in the presence of a common 
Christianity. An area of six thousand acres, a part of the Manor of 
Pelham, was conveyed to their friend and agent, Jacob Leisler, mer- 
chant of New York, on acceptable terms, in 1689, surveyed and divided 
into lots or fitmns by Alexander Allaire and Captain Bond, in 1692 ; 
named New Rochelle In memory of the old fortress of Protestantism in 
France, and then the family life of the two people, by its own interior 
law of development, grew into a civil and social unity, ' compact to- 
gether,' under the sway of a common sentiment, as if all gloried in the 
same genealogical origin. 

" In this retrospective view of Bi-centennial history we can hardly 
trace the fortunes of rich domain so beautiful as was this broad, pictur- 
esque area of almost ten thousand acres, so near the rising metropolis, 
constituted by royal, ducal and colonial authority, under lawftil grant 
and patent of his mi^esty, Chwles II., and also of his sterner brother. 
King James II., 'an absolute, entire, enfhmchised township and place 
of itself, in no manner of way to be subordinate or under the rule of any 
riding, township, or place of Jurisdiction,' and then observe how ft was 
* willed ' at once by its firrt proprietor, Thomas Pell, into the possession 
of an English heir, his nephew, a young man, only twenty-five years of 
age, without being sympathetically alive to the import of the doubtful 
questioning put by the more advanced of the exiles. * What manner 
of man is this lord of the Manor? What have been his antecedents? 
Is his spirit akin to that of the intriguing, persecuting royal duke, 
James of York, now king, through whom, by special permission of his 
mi^esty, Charles II., the earlier charter of proprietorship was received ?* 
The inquiry was serious, the answer was encouraging. The young lord's 
biogn^hy was easily traced. His environment suggested cheerful proph- 
ecies, although his youthful years had been passed amid a general un-