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FROM 18B1 TO 1887 

M. M. FISHER, D. D. 

Lati Professor of Latin Language atui Literature and 

Acting President 



Professor of History and Literature 


Colambia, Mo. 


: .T C. 

Copyright, 1903 


John J. Rice, LL.D. 

7, 3; 



The History of Westminster College, written by the 
late M. M. Fisher, D. D., Senior Professor of the Latin Lan- 
guage and Literature at the Missouri State University, 
with a brief continuation from June, 1887, to June, 1903, 
by the Editor, is published by Mr. Sylvester J. Fisher, of 
St. Louis, Mo., with the hope that this rehearsal of the 
trials and triumphs of the College may excite in the hearts 
of Presbyterians a deeper interest in the welfare of the 
institution. Beyond bearing the expense of publication, 
Mr. Fisher assumes no responsibility; he has placed Dr. 
Fisher's manuscripts in the hands of the Editor, and has 
trusted to his skill and judgment the contents and their 
arrangement in this volume. With a view to the wider 
circulation of the History, the Editor has deemed it proper 
to reduce the size of the book by omitting parts of the 
manuscript, especially the sketches of the lives of men who 
have been prominent in the life of the College. In several 
instances, where two or three pages of manuscript have 
been omitted, a few words have been written to restore 
the connection. In the Continuation, the names of grad- 
uates and of the Trustees have not been given, as the 


iv Preface. 

annual catalogue places such information within the reach 
of all. nor has any record been made of the annual revival 
meetings of the Fulton church — a mother church, from 
which have gone many students who are now influential in 
the Synods. 

All of Dr. Fisher's manuscripts not included in this 
volume have been carefully preserved in the College 
Library; they contain much that is interesting; perhaps, 
years hence, some other friend of Christian education may 
place them, together with a fuller history of the period 
embraced in the Continuation, before the Presbyterian 

The Editor is under obligations, for assistance, to Dr. 
John Henry MacCracken ; for suggestions and data, to Rev. 
C. C. Hersman, D. D., LL. D., of Richmond, Va., Rev. A. 
A. Wallace, D. D., of Mexico, Mo., and Hon. C. O. Bishop, 
of St. Louis, Mo. 

As Dr. Fisher did not dedicate the History, the Editor 
has felt free to write the words found on the next page. 


O Mighty Men 

Of Pioneer Race, 

Building wiser than ye knew, 

None shall your fame efface! 

No name-marked turf? 

But Mem'ry lingers round, 

And generations then unborn 

Have learned to love the so\ind! 

Nor roll of muffled drum, 

Nor grass flutt'ring in the breeze, 

Shall e'er consign to forgetfulness 
The Names of such as These I 


From early manhood to middle life, God in his provi- 
dence placed me within the walls of Westminster College. 
This term of service, extending through a period of fifteen 
years, naturally gave me a familiarity with the history of 
our cherished Institution, possessed, perhaps, by no other 
member of the Synod of Missouri. All that is here at- 
tempted is to bring together in a more permanent form 
facts and documents which might, in a few years, be irre- 
coverably lost. The work has been done in the midst of 
the labors and cares of one who was, at the same time, 
pastor of a church and President of a College. Love for 
the College whose history is given and for the church that 
fosters it, and no desire for authorship, suggested a duty 
that has, during its performance, renewed a thousand hal- 
lowed associations. 

The sources of information are the record's of the 
Faculty, records of the Fulton church, records of the Board 
of Trustees, and the minutes of Synod published annually 
since the foundation of the College. Believing that I have 
written simply the opening chapter in the history of a Col- 

•Thifl preface is left unchanged, to show what Dr. Fisher intended 
to include in the History. — ^Editob. 


Preface. vii 

lege that is to be the Harvard or the Yale of the Missis- 
sippi valley, and a perpetual blessing to our beloved church, 
I bid Good Bye to what has been to me emphatically a 
labor of love. 

The preface above was written on the ninth of Novem- 
ber, 1872, when the writer was pastor of the Independence 
church and when the design was to publish the history 
from 1853 to 1870. For reasons which need not be given 
the publication was deferred. Within the last year the 
work has been carefully read from the first and the history 
brought down to the Commencement of 1886. From 1872 
to 1886 the Financial history has been written up as briefly 
as possible and yet enough has been done to set forth the 
leading facts. Down to 1872 everything accessible in the 
finances has been incorporated. 

At first the purpose was to include in the book sketches 
of the lives of deceased members of the Board. This, as 
far as possible, has been carried out and one of the pleas- 
ures attending the preparation of these pages has been the 
thought that I might help to perpetuate the memory of 
men who labored for the College and whose names deserve 
a place in the annals of the Church for all time. Some of 
the rarest treasures of the two Synods will be found in the 

It is proper to acknowledge special obligation to Presi- 
dent S. S. Laws, of the State University, who has done so 
much tQ make Westminster what she is, whose labors form 

viii Preface. 

a large part of this history and without whose assistance 
this attempt at preserving a satisfactory account of this 
enterprise would hardly have been possible ; to Rev. W. W. 
Robertson, D. D., so long President of the Board and who 
has kindly prepared several of the sketches of the lives of 
brethren once members of the Board; to Rev. C. C. Hers- 
man, D. D., now President, whose assistance has been of 
great value; to Rev. T. C. Smith, Stated Clerk of the 
Synod; to Rev. W. H. Marquess, pastor of the Fulton 
church ; to Dr. J. N. Lyle, Secretary of the Faculty ; to Mrs. 
J. D. Henderson for assistance on the life of her father. Dr. 
Rice; to Mrs. M. J. Hill, of Louisville, Ky., for the life of 
Dr. W. W. Hill ; to Dr. J. A. Quarles, whose life of Prof. 
Kemper has afforded such rich material; to Rev. L. P. 
Bowen, D. D., and many others whose names are men- 
tioned and the proper credit given when their contributions 
are found. 

Columbia, Missouri, February 14, 1887. 



Pint Picture of Westminster College xv 

M. M. Fisher, D. D xvi-1 

William S. Potts, D. D 8-9 

John A. Hockaday, LXi. D 32-33 

Joseph Charless, Esq 40-41 

S. S. Laws, D. D., LL. D 48-49 

Beunion Hall 112-113 

Prois. Van Doren, Majer, Kemper and Schenck 136-137 

View of Campus from the Northeast 160-161 

W. W. Robertson, D. D 176-177 

N. L. Rice, D. D 184-186 

Westminster Hall and Chapel 192-198 

John N. Lyle, Ph. D 200-201 

John H. Scott, Ph. D 208-209 

C. C. Hersman, D. D., LL. D 240-241 

John J. Rice, LL. D 248-249 

W. H. Marquess, D. D 272-273 

E. H. Marquess, A. M 280-281 

D. S. Gage, Ph. D 288-289 

L. L. Campbell, Ph. D 296-297 

W. J. Wright, D. D., LL. D 304-306 

Science HaU 312-313 

J. F. Cowan, D. D 320-321 

William Sausser 328-329 

E. C. Gordon, D. D 336-337 

John Henry MacCracken ,^ 343-344 

E. S. Wood, A. M 362-363 



Early History of Presbyterianism — ^Marion College — Resolutions of 
Synod, founding Westminster — Location — Charter — Fulton College — W. 
Van Doren, first Professor — ^Laying Comer Stone — Election of W. L. 
Breckenridge, D. D., President — ^Rev. S. S. Laws — ^T. D. Baird — W. L. 
Baird — First Annual Catalogue — ^Literary Societies — Commencement — 
Dr. Laws chosen President — ^Resignation of the Messrs. Baird — I. M. 
Hughes, M. M. Fisher, T. P. Barbour — ^Dr. Wayland*s proposition — Dr. 
McPheeters — Catalogue. 


Second Commencement — Summary of Students — Formative Period — 
M. M. Fisher, Professor of Ancient Languages — Election of Prof. Kem- 
per — ^Third Commencement — ^Hon. Edward Bates — Dr. Laws' Address — 
His letter to Mr. Le Bourgeois — ^President Laws, Agent — Prof. Kemper, 
Presidmt pro tern. — ^Hughes' resignation — ^Preparatory Department re- 
organized — ^The Schools of the College — ^Reports on the Organization — 
Peculiarities of the Organization — ^Professor Strong — Literary Standing 
of the Institution — ^Death of Mr. Charless — ^Action of Board at Char- 
less' death — ^Mrs. Le Bourgeois and the Charless Professorship— Dr» 
McPheeters' Letter — Election of Professor Mayer — Professor Henry's 
Letter — ^Prospects of the College — Students — Curriculum — ^Reports of 
Heads of Departments — ^Action of Synod at Columbia — Opening of 
the War — ^Latin Baccalaureate — Commencement of 1861 — Synopsis of 
Condition of the Institution — ^Unparalleled Success. 


Methods of College Qovemment — ^Dr. Nott — ^Dr. Laws' Method — 
Rumors of Disaffection — Investigation of the Board — ^The Three Ques- 


Contents. xi 

tions of Mr. Charless — ^President Laws' Answer — ^Paper Adopted by the 
Students — Dr. Anderson's Besolution — Col. Singleton's Resolution — ^Ac- 
tion of the Board on the Question of Government in 1858 — ^Purpose of 
the Chapter — ^Harmony of the Faculty — ^President Laws' Two Proposi- 
tions on Government — Action of the Board — Twenty-six College Regula- 
tions — ^Violation of two of the Laws — The Faculty Letter — Dr. Laws' 
Letter — ^Meeting of the Board at Mexico — ^Their Investigation of the 
Discipline of the College — ^Their Action — Resignation of President Laws — 
Dr. Laws as a Teacher— **The Old Faculty." 


The Endowment — Scholarship Plan — ^Agency of R. S. Symington 
and W. W. Robertson — President Laws Made Agent — Dr. Wayland's 
Proposition — ^Address of President Laws — "Potts Professorship" — Fi- 
nancial Report of 186»— The Faculty Notes— Debt of the Board— Finan- 
cial Report of 1861 — Money Borrowed from Permanent Fund — Business 
View of the Subject — ^Endowment Raised in six Years — ^Mr. Robertson, 
Agent — ^His visit to Dr. Way land and his Letter — ^President Laws' Re- 
port to Synod in 1858 — Report in 1860 on Pecuniary Condition — 
Extract of Report in 1861 — Increase in Endowment Prior to 1861. 


Professor Kemper's Resignation — ^Action of the Board in Reference 
to Professors Fisher, Strong, and Mayer — Question of Closing the Col- 
lege — Judge Woods' letter — Election of Professors Van Doren and 
Fisher-^Rev. J. P. Finley — ^Van Doren's Resignation — Professor Lyle's 
Election — ^Rev. A. V. C. Schenck — Paper of Students in Reference to M. 
M. Fisher — Paper of the Faculty — Sximmary of Students in 1863 — Small 
Salaries — Finle3r*s Resignation — Hersman Chosen Professor of Greek — 
Rev. J. W. Wallace — ^Dr. Montgomery, President — ^Resignation of 
Schenck, Hersman, and Lyle — Professor Scott — Scholarships — ^Dr. Mont- 
gomery's Resignation — ^Hersman Reelected. 


Judge Flood — Parchment Diploma — Fisher Chairman of the Fac- 
ulty—Students in 1867— C. H. Abbott, M. D.— Dr. Rice Elected Presi- 
dent — ^Fisher's Letter — ^Lyle, Professor of Physics — Rev. William Hers- 
man— Report of the Board in 1868 — Current Expenses— Professor J. J. 
Rice — ^Alumni Professorship — Inauguration of Dr. Rice — ^Report of the 

xii Contents. 

Board at Palmjrra — ^Resignation — Rev. J. M. Fans made Agent — Com- 
mencement of 1870 — Fisher's Resignation — ^Action of the Board— Pro- 
fessor George — Catalogue of 1870. 


Pecuniary Condition During the War — ^Want of Documents — ^Dr. 
Montgomery's Report in 1866 — Robertson Financial Agent — Scholarships 
—College Sold— Dr. Wayland's Gift— Mr. Robertson's Report in 1867— 
Wisconsin Land — ^The Debt— Finances in 1868 — ^Mr. Bredell's Resolutions 
— ^Major Nolley's Investigation of old Endowment — ^New Plan of Endow* 
ment — Earnest Efforts to Increase it — Out of Debt — ^Report of Board of 
Trust — ^Financial History. 


Election of Rev. B. Y. George — ^Appeal to the Churches — Commence- 
ment of 1872 — Sacrifices of the Faculty — Strug^es of the College — ^Res- 
ignation of Professor George — ^Letters from Dr. Rice — ^Dr. Rice's Salary 
Reduced — College Warrants — ^Dr. Rice's Resignation — ^His Letter — ^Action 
of the Board — ^Theological Training — Danville Seminary — J. J. Rice — 
Reelection of M. M. Fisher — Commencement of 1874 — Professor Thur- 
mond — ^Death of Dr. Wayland — ^Dr. Quarles Elected Financial Agent — 
Commencements of 1876 and 1876 — ^Dr. Montgomery — ^M. M. Fisher's 
Electicm to the University — ^His Letter — ^Action of the Board — ^Hersman 
President pro tem — J. C. Jones — ^Morrison Financial Agent — ^Memoirs of 
Dr. Coulter — ^Hersman made President — Jones Called to the Latin Chair 
— Jones' Letter — ^His Call to the University — ^Marquess Elected — Finan- 
cial Struggles — Death of Dr. Kerr — Commencement of 1884 — Hersman's 
Report — ^Hig Call to the Theological Seminary — John P. Finley, D. D. — 
Co-operation — Papers Pertaining Thereto— Dr. J. G. Reaser — ^Dr. G^lla- 
her — ^Biblical Instruction — Synod at Eiinsas City — Startling Providences 
— Commencement of 1886 — Contingent Fee — ^Professor Richmond — Re- 
port of Board of Trustees — ^Report of Standing Committee — ^Report of 
Board of Trust — ^Action of the Northern Synod — ^Action of the Southern 


Finances from 1872 to 1886 — Finances in 1879 — ^Report of 1873 — 
1874, Geological Specimens, Bonding the Debt — ^Exact Financial Condi- 

• • 

Contents. xiu 

tion in 1876 — ^The Le Bourgeois Notes — Debt of the College — Dr. Quarles 
made Agent — Income in 1876 — Robertson's Agency — Salaries Reduced — 
Various Meetings of the Board — Financial Status Examined Critically 
at Lexington in 1877 — Board's Report — ^Treasurer's Report — ^Report of 
Board of Trust — ^Action of Synod — Special Attention to the Condition of 
the College in 1878 — ^Annual Reports — ^Mrs. Le Bourgeois' Notes in 1870 
— ^The Jaccard Fund — Coulter's Autobiography — ^Reports — Bredell's 
Deed in 1880 — Gift of Miss Thompson — ^Morrison's Agency — Murray's 
Gift — ^Librai^ of Rev. Isaac Jones— Out of Debt in 1881 — Donation of 
Mrs. Mary C. McPheeters — ^Hersman and Jones — Papers before the Synod 
on Business and Finance — Outlook in 1882 Bright — W. S. Potts Profes- 
sorship — John Samuels Garth Scholarship — ^A Lad's Legacy — ^Full Re- 
ports made to Synod — Promising State of the Finances in 1883 — Reports 
of W. W. Robertson. W. G. Clark, and Isaac M. Veitch in 1884— Paper 
on the Relative Functions of the Board of Trustees and the Board of 
Trust — ^Legacy of C. Trigg Campbell — State of Investments — State of 
Endowment — Remarks — Business Managed with Utmost Care — ^Financial 
Ability of its Managers — Its Agents — St. Louis Presbyterian. 


President Hersman Resigns — Professor Evans — New Chapel — ^Dr. 
Reaser Resigns — President W. H. Marquess — Students Plant Trees — Dr. 
Cowan, Professor of Modem Languages — Commercial Course — Failure of 
CkM>peration — The Causes and Effects — Dr. Wright's Method — ^Professor 
Gage — Pres. Marquess' Heavy Burden — The Sausser Bequest — ^Dr. Gor- 
don, Professor of Biblical Instruction and President — ^Athletics — ^Death 
of Dr. Robertson — ^Resignation of Professor Lyle and Election of Profes- 
Bor Campbell — ^Literary Societies — ^Alumni Associations — ^Missouri Col- 
lege Union — ^Dr. Gordon Resigns — Co-education — President MacCracken 
—Curriculum — Science Building — Dr. Wright Resigns — Parker Labora- 
tory — The New A. B. — ^The Huggins Gift — ^Professor Wood Resigns — 
Athletic Work for Degree — ^Permanent Co-operation of Synods, North 
and South — ^Amendments to Charter — College Colors — Change in Seal — 
President MacCracken Resigns — ^Living Link League. 


The Funds in 1887 — Estimate of Endowment — Debt and how Con- 
tracted— McPheeters Gift — Finances, 1890— Debt in 1891— Mr. Dobyna. 

xiv Contents. 

Besigns Financial Agency — The Sauaser Estate — Its Income Anticipated 
— New Books of Account — ^Financial Statement, 1893 — ^Value of Denomi- 
national Colleges — ^Apparent Discrepancy Explained — Financial Exhibit, 
1804— Beceipts and Expenditures, 1896 and 1897— Building Fund— The 
Debt in 1897 — Change in Bible Course — Increase of Debt Stopped — Large 
Gifts — Beport of Building Committee — Beunion Hall — Endowment in 
1902 — ^Westminster's Position. 


M. U. FlSIIKn. D. D. 






HE first Protestants west of the Mis- 
sissippi were the Baptists. The 
circuit system of the Methodist 
church was extended across the 
river about the year 1806. The 
Cumberland Presbyterians had four 
or five ministers and a few churches 
at least as far back as 181 5. In De- 
cember, 1815, Rev. Salmon Giddings 
left Hartford and, making a journey of 1,200 miles in mid- 
winter, on horseback, reached St. Louis, April 6, 1816. On 
Sabbath, July 21, 1816, he administered the Lord's Supper 
to three or four persons, the first instance in which Presby- 
terians ever enjoyed this privilege west of the Father of 
Waters. On the second day of August, 1816, in Washing- 
CD 1 

2 History of Westminster College 

ton county, 80 miles from St. Louis, Mr. Giddings organ- 
ized the first Presbyterian church. The organization bore 
the name of the "Concord Church" and consisted of 30 
members. The first church in St. Louis, was organized in 
November, 1817, consisting of nine members. This was 
the first Protestant church in the city. In 1817, the Synod 
of Tennessee organized the Presbytery of Missouri. That 
Presbytery had few ministers, Salmon Giddings, Thomas 
Donnell, Timothy Flint and John Matthews, and also four 
churches. Concord, Bonhomme, Buffalo and St. Louis. It 
was bounded on the east by a meridian line drawn through 
the mouth of the Cumberland river and running north. The 
Presbytery therefore included a large part of Illinois and 
all Missouri. 

In 183 1, the Presbytery was divided into three, 
namely, Missouri, St. Louis and St. Charles. These three 
Presbyteries formed the Synod of Missouri in 1832. The 
Synod had 18 ministers and 23 churches and met in the 
city of St. Louis on the second day of October, 1832. Rev. 
Thomas Donnell preached the opening sermon. 

More than four years before the organization of the 
Synod, that is, in May, 1828, William S. Potts, then a licen- 
tiate, reached St. Louis. On the twenty-sixth of October 
following, he was ordained and installed pastor of the 
'Tirst Church." 

Early in the history of our beloved Church in Missouri, 
the attention of God's people had been turned to education. 
A College had been founded soon after the admission of 
Missouri into the Union, called "Marion College," an insti- 
tuition conducted on the Manual Labor System. About the 
close of the year 1834, Dr. Potts, who had served the First 
Church for six years, resigned the pastorate to accept the 
presidency of Marion College, which at that time bade fair 

From the Foundation to 1855 3 

to be a g^eat success. Marion College proved a failure, 
but its brief period of existence educated some of the most 
influential men in our Synod. 

In 1838, Dr. Potts returned to St. Louis and took 
charge of the "Second Church," an organization formed at 
the suggestion of Rev. Dr. Bullard, to meet the growing 
wants of the city. Dr. Potts remained with this church 
until his death in 1852. The reason for introducing thus 
early the name of that holy man of God, Dr. Potts, is his 
prominence in our Church in Missouri for almost a quarter 
of a century, connected with the fact that the first pro- 
fessorship ever endowed in our College was named in his 

From the very first the Synod felt the importance of 
having schools of the highest grade. Every year showed 
more vividly the necessity of action. There were several 
Presbyterian and local enterprises under the care of Presby- 
terians, but no College. All the other leading denomina- 
tions were at work, and each had an institution which 
claimed the attention and patronage of the whole body. 
Then, too, our people felt that the Presbyterian Church 
had been a veteran in the cause of education and had 
always claimed the right and acknowledged the duty of 
engaging zealously in the cause of denominational edu- 

On the eighteenth day of February, 1851, an Institu- 
tion, to be known as "Fulton College," was chartered by 
the officers and members of the Presbyterian church in Ful- 
ton. This College had at first no connection with either 
Presbytery or Synod; and yet, from the minutes of the 
first Board of Trustees, it is evident that they hoped that 
the time would soon come, when it would be adopted as 
the Synodical College. In prosecution of their purpose to 

4 History of Westminster College 

found in their midst a school of high order, on the thir- 
teenth of June, 1851, a committee appointed by the Board, 
purchased of Mr. H. I. Bailey a site for the new College. 
A frame building known as the "College House,*' stands 
on that site. Professor William VanDoren was unani- 
mously elected to take charge of the enterprise, at a salary 
of $800 per annum. This action of the Board was taken 
on the eighteenth of August, 1851. About the first of 
September of the same year, the "Missouri Telegraph," 
now the "Fulton Telegraph," announced th^t the "First 
session of Fulton College," would open on the first Mon- 
day of October following. The roll shows that during that 
session about 50 students were in attendance. The name 
of Rev. B. Y. George, afterwards Professor of Latin in 
Westminster College, appears on the first roll of Fulton 
College. Rev. W. W. Robertson, then in charge of the 
Fulton church and President of the Female Seminary, was 
appointed the first Financial Agent, on the eighteenth of 
August, before the opening of the first term. 

From the last date to the chartering of Westminster 
College, February 23, 1853, there are no recorded minutes 
of the Board of Trustees of Fulton College. The roll 
books, kept by Professor Van Doren and now in the hands 
of the writer, show that the number of students increased 
every session, and this remark is especially true of the more 
advanced class of young men. It is worth while before 
leaving this germ of our present College, to notice the 
energy with which the founders of that enterprise laid hold 
of the work before them. The College was chartered and 
in actual operation in a little over six months from the 
time the first movement was made. They felt that the 
cause of Presbyterianism in Missouri demanded a school 

From the Foundation to 1855 5 

of high order, and the Synod from that day to this has, 
as a body, approved their judgment. 

The Synod of Missouri in session at Potosi, October, 
1851, took the first action looking to the establishment of a 
Synodical College, as follows: 

Whereas, the interestB of religion and the wants of the 
Church imperiously demand, that there should be established 
at some eligible point within our bounds, a literary institution 
of high order, to be in the interest of the Presbyterian Church, 
subject to its control, and favored with its patronage and su- 
pervision : 

And whereas, the indications of providence suggest that the 
time has come to set about the work: Therefore, 

1. Resolved, That we rise up and build. 

2. Resolved, That Preston B. Reed, William Provines, John 
G. Miller, James Young, Edward M. Samuel, S. S. Watson, 
Hamilton R. Gamble, M. P. Cayce and James Sterritt be, and 
they are hereby appointed, commissioners, and empowered to se- 
lect and recommend a suitable site or sites, and report to the 
next meeting of Synod. 

3. Resolved, That said commissioners be requested to pro- 
ceed without delay. 

Some members of that Synod were so anxious to pro- 
ceed without delay in building up a Literary Institution, 
that they were in favor of giving the whole business into 
the hands of a committee with power to locate the College, 
determine the character of buildings and their cost, pro- 
ceed to erect them, and report to the next meeting of Synod. 
Rev. W. S. Potts, D. D., then pastor of the Second Presby- 
terian church in St. Louis, together with some others, 
wished to adopt a course more deliberate and cautious. 
While appreciating the importance of the work and in 
favor of going forward, they wished the committee em- 

6 History of Westminster College 

powered only to recommend a "suitable site or sites," at 
the next meeting of Synod. 

The Synod of 1852 met at Fulton. Four places, Rich- 
mond, Boonvillc, St. Charles and Fulton, were put in nomi- 
nation. The claims of each place were presented. The 
St. Louis Presbyterian, edited by Rev. E. T. Baird, D. D., 
and bearing date October, 1852, contains interesting in- 
formation on this point: 

The conmiittee made their report upon suitable sites, on Friday 

E. M. Samuel, Esq., from Liberty, made the opening speech in favor 
of locating the College at Richmond, in Ray county. He placed upon the 
table a sealed proposition from Ray county which, on being opened, was 
found to be an offer of $15,100 in money, a tract of ten acres of land, 
adjoining Richmond, with a building upon it valued at $2,000, and the 
privilege of purchasing seventy acres additional at $4,000; or, in case it 
should not be done. Major Boyoe, the chairman of the committee, pledged 
himself to raise $2,600 more, making in all $19,000; and with the assist- 
ance of the Presbytery of Upper Missouri, Ray county pledged herself 
further to raise $20,000 in scholarships. Colonel Samuel backed this 
proposition with a speech of unusual ability, as all the members of Synod 
whom we have seen unite in testifying. 

Preston B. Reed, Esq., of Fulton, supported the offer from Callaway 
county. Her proposition consisted of an offer of $15,391 in cash; to- 
gether with a clear deed of eighteen acres of land, including building now 
occupied by Fulton College, and a large two-story frame house not yet 
finished, all valued at $5,000, making her whole subscription $20,391; 
and pledged himself to raise $20,000 in scholarships. Major Reed's 
speech, in defense of this offer, is also spoken of as one of great power. 

Rev. Thomas A. Bracken, of Lexington, addressed Synod in favor of 
Richmond. He spoke of the great wealth of Upper Missouri, the im- 
mense fertility of its soil, and the laudable determination of its people to 
foster education. He contended that, if Richmond was not the geo- 
graphical center, it must eventually become the center of wealth and 
population in Missouri. 

Hon. John Q. Miller followed Mr. Bracken, and in a speech of great 
eloquence and beauty, argued in favor of postponing a decision imtil the 

From the Fotmdation to 1855 7 

next session of Sjnod, and of then locating at Boonville. If any propo- 
sition direct was made by the citizens of Boonville, we have not heard 
its nature. 

Mr. S. S. Watson next came forward with the proposition from St. 
Charles City, accompanying it with some very sensible remarks. The 
offer consisted of a tender, on the part of Major George C. Sibley, of ten 
acres of beautiful grounds of his property of Lindenwood, valued at 
$2,000, and a pledge on the part of Mr. Watson himself to raise the sum 
of $18,000, making in all $20,000. The Synod could require no better 
guarantee than Mr. Watson. 

After Mr. Watson sat down, Colonel Samuel made a second speech 
in behalf of Richmond, and was followed by Rev. J. B. Harbison, who 
spoke with much energy and zeal, also in behalf of the Richmond location. 

After a few remarks by Dr. Goodrich, all further debate was ar- 
rested by the previous question ; when the vote was taken, which resulted 
as follows: Fulton, 32; Richmond, 18; Boonville, 3; St. Charles, 3; 
non liquet, 1. 

And now, as the location is a settled matter, let all go to work in 
earnest^ to make a College worthy of the Synod, the Church and the 
Commonwealth. It will take united forces to do this. Let there be 
no division among us. * * We consider all those who went into the 
contest before Synod, as bound in honor to abide the judgment of that 
body; for what would be the propriety of a grave Synod deliberating 
for days in which one of these places should be the location of a Pres- 
byterian College, when a part or all of them had already determined 
that question for themselves. But besides — it will take all our re- 
sources to make such an instituion as we must have, if we do our duty. 
Money will not make it, nor large buildings, nor tracts of land. They 
are valuable and necessary. But besides all these, there must be such 
united and harmonious effort as will secure public confidence, obtain 
exalted talent, and concentrate a moral influence of sufficient power to 
make it arise and prosper. 

There were present in Synod fifty-seven members; of 
these, thirty-two voted for Fulton on the first calling of the 
roll. Before voting, prayer was offered for the blessing 
of Grod on the solemn duty that lay before them; and the 
action, when taken, was sealed with prayer. 

8 History of Westminster College 

The College being located at Fulton, the citizens of 
Callaway county proceeded without delay to fulfill the 
promise made to the Synod. There were in Callaway 
county at that time six Presbyterian churches, with an 
aggregate membership of about seven hundred, a number 
exceeded by no county in the State, except St. Louis. 

The name given to the Institution thus founded was 
Westminster, a name hallowed in the history of Presby- 
terianism. A charter was obtained from the Missouri 
Legislature in February, 1853. The Board of Trustees 
originally chartered consisted of eighteen members, divided 
by the Synod into six classes, and each class served six 
years from the time of its appointment by the Synod. The 
following eighteen persons are named in the charter as 
constituting the first Board : A. A. Ryley, M. D., Rev. W. 
W. Robertson, Rev. D. Coulter, Hon. P. B. Reed, J. White- 
side, Esq., Rev. A. V. C. Schenck, Hon. E. M. Samuel, 
Hon. J. G. Miller, Hamilton Smith, Esq., W. Provines, M. 
D., S. S. Watson, Esq., Rev. W. P. Cochran, Rev. J. F. 
Cowan, Hon. H. R. Gamble, Rev. S. J. P. Anderson, D. D., 
Joseph Charless, Esq., Rev. J. G. Fackler, and Rev. R. S. 
Symington. The names of these Trustees were to be put 
on record in the office of the Recorder of Callaway county 
and also the names of all trustees thereafter to be ap- 

The Board proceeded at once and, as it appears, with 
great energy, with the important trust committed to their 
hands. In March, 1853, the next month after the charter 
was obtained, William Van Doren, A. M., was chosen Pro- 
fessor in Westminster College and N. C. Kouns, Esq., As- 
sistant, for the next session. The first term of the Synod- 
ical College began on the first Monday in May, 1853, in 
buildings on the present College Campus. On the fourth 

Rbt. Wm. 8. POTTS, V. D. 

From the Foundation to 1855 9 

of July, 1853, the corner-stone of the present College edifice 
was laid, with appropriate ceremony by the Order of 
Masons. Under that stone are deposited the Holy Bible,^ 
the Confession of Faith, and a Copy of the Action of Synod 
establishing the College and pledging itself to its support. 
On that memorable Fourth of July, the Rev. N. L. Rice, 

D. D., delivered an address on the "Three Great Interests 
of Man: Christianity, Education and Liberty." It may be 
a fact worthy of remembrance that the corner-stone of that 
noble Institution, the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, of the State 
of Missouri, was laid on the same day. Fulton has seen 
few brighter days than that. The building for Westmins- 
ter* then begun, was completed in 1854, at a cost of over 

The Board of Trustees at their meeting in February, 
1854, proceeded to the election of a President for the Col- 
lege. Their choice fell unanimously on Rev. W. L. Breck- 
enridge, D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian church in 
Louisville, Ky. Dr. Breckenridge, soon after his election, 
visited Fulton and made himself acquainted with the condi- 
tion of the College and the plans of the Board. The result 
of his visit was so favorable that the President-elect re- 
ferred the matter to Presbytery. Rev. S. S. Laws and Rev. 

E. T. Baird, D. D., as the representatives of the Board, 
urged the claims of the College before the Presbytery of 
Louisville. That body, after hearing the case, voted to re- 
tain Dr. Breckenridge in his old charge. It is well enough 
to say that the tender attachment shown by the people for 
their beloved pastor had much to do with the decision 
finally reached. It is known to the writer, and he takes 

tThis Bible was given by Mrs. J. W. Wallace, whose five sons were 
afterwards students. 

*Now known as Westminster Hall. 

10 History of Westminster College 

the liberty of stating it, that the presidency was tendered, 
before the close of 1853, to Rev. N. L. Rice, D. D., a mem- 
ber of the Synod and pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
church in St. Louis. Dr. Rice did not entertain the propo- 
sition and the Board took no formal action. It will be seen 
that the trustees wished to secure the services of some one 
as president whose reputation was established throughout 
the church. At the same time (February, 1854), Professor 
Thomas D. Baird, of Baltimore, was elected to the Chair of 
Mathematics, and Rev. S. S. Laws, then pastor-elect of the 
church in Lexington, Mo., was called to the Chair of Nat- 
ural Science. Both of these gentlemen accepted. At the 
meeting of Synod in October, 1854, Dr. Breckenridge was 
again called to the Presidency, but notwithstanding the 
earnest solicitation of the Trustees, he felt constrained to 
decline. In the fall of 1854, Mr. W. L. Baird was invited 
to a Professorship in the Institution and accepted. At the 
same meeting, in October, 1854, at Boonville, the Board 
took such action as virtually displaced all the Professors 
from particular Chairs and directed them to divide the labor 
to be done among themselves. Out of this grew the sys- 
tem of presiding over the College in rotation, each one a 
week at a time. 

Before proceeding further in unfolding the growth of 
this Child of the Church, attention is called to several facts 
shown by the "First Annual Catalogue of Westminster Col- 
lege,** that of 1853-4. A glance at this Catalogue will show 
how soon and how rapidly this school of high order, be- 
came what it was designed to be by its friends, a real Col- 
lege, whose Curriculum of Studies would compare favor- 
ably with the best Institutions in the State. The Faculty 
then consisted of Prof. William Van Doren, A. M., Rev. 

From the Foundation to 1855 II 

Prof. Samuel S. Laws, A. M., Prof. Thomas D. Baird, A. 
M., Mr. James G. Smith, Tutor. 

The total number of students during the year was 1 14. 
About half of |hat number were pursuing a regular College 
course. The first Catalogue shows that the Philologic 
Society had already been organized and was occupying the 
hall that has been occupied and honored by its members 
for fifty years. This Hall, however, was not dedicated 
till the winter of 1855. The dedicatory address by Pro- 
fessor Fisher is on file in the Society. Times have changed 
so much that it is interesting to notice the statement in the 
first Catalogue that, "Boarding, including washing, fireis^ 
and lights, in Fulton, or within a reasonable distance, was 
$1.50 to $3.00 a week." The whole expense is laid down 
as being "somewhere between one hundred and one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars a year." 

The first Annual Commencement was in June, 1855. 
Westminster College then gave its first diploma to Mr. 
James G. Smith, the same who had acted as tutor — an excel- 
lent scholar and gifted young man — ^who afterwards entered 
the ministry in the Baptist church. That the first grad- 
uate chose to preach the Gospel may be regarded as an 
earnest of what God had in store for an Institution planted 
for his glory — an earnest of what that College, as we trust, 
will be to the latest generation, a fountain of genuine 
Christian education and a School of the Prophets. 

Mr. Smith was born in Fulton in 1830; he was or- 
dained to the full work of the ministry in June, 1859, and 
died the thirtieth of June, 1863. His end was peace. His 
body rests near the old homestead and near the College 
of which he was the first graduated son. 

The roll for the year 1854-5 shows a large increase in 
attendance over the previous year ; about one-fourth of the 

12 History of Westminster College 

students were members of the church. During the same 
period, another Literary Society was organized, the Phila- 
lethian, a noble Society, which with the parent Society, 
the Philologic, in its advantages to the students, is equiva- 
lent to a professorship. The Philalethian Hall was dedi- 
cated in December, 1855, by Professor I. M. Hughes, who 
delivered an address, taking as his theme the word 
*'Silence." That address is yet on file in the Archives of 
the Society. 

At this first Commencement, June, 1855, the Board 
elected to the presidency Rev. S. S. Laws, who had been 
a Professor in the College since the spring of 1854. Dr. 
Laws was then a young man, just entering fully on his 
career as a minister and instructor, and with his reputation 
still in the future. Upon the occasion of his election, two 
of the Professors, who had been his colleagues, Thomas 
D. and William Baird, resigned, leaving the College but 
two regular instructors. Rev. S. S. Laws and William Van 
Doren. Dr. Laws, President-elect, was directed to cor- 
respond with and, if possible, secure suitable persons to 
fill the vacancies. 

The scholastic year* of 1855-56, began in September. 
Mr. I. M. Hughes had been engaged as Principal of the 
Preparatory Department and entered upon his duties. Mr. 
T. P. Barbour, a graduate of Center College, Ky., was as- 
sistant in the same department. At the opening of this 
year, M. M. Fisher also began his connection with the In- 
stitution. The services of these instructors had been se- 
cured during vacation by Dr. Laws, acting by the authority 
of the Board, and their election was confirmed by the 
Trustees at their meeting in October following. 

'Generally when the word year occurs, the aoholaaiic year is meant, 
beginning in September and closing in June. 

From the Foundation to 1855 13 

In October of that year, 1855, the Synod met at Fulton 
and it was while that body was in session that Dr. Laws 
signified his acceptance of the presidency. He was, there- 
fore, the first President of Westminster College. The posi- 
tion was one demanding judgment, energy, scholarship, 
and devotion to a great work; and with what zeal, ability, 
and success the President discharged his duties, will be 
seen in the sequel and is already known to thousands in the 
Synod of Missouri. At this junction the whole nominal 
endowment of the Institution did not exceed $30,000 and 
almost all, if not all, of that was in the form of scholarships. 
It was at this time that the Board by resolution declared 
the Scholarships available. The Synod felt greatly en- 
couraged by these facts: i. The large number of stu- 
dents; 2. The verbal proposition of Dr. Wayland to give 
$20,000 ; 3. The acceptance of the presidency by Dr. Laws. 

While it may not properly belong to the subject in 
hand, the writer cannot pass one fact in connection with 
that meeting of Synod. On Sabbath night Dr. McPheeters, 
whose tried spirit has passed to the "Many Mansions," 
preached a most melting sermon from the text, "Come thou 
with us, and we will do thee good; for the Lord hath 
spoken good concerning Israel." That sermon was the be- 
ginning of one of the most extensive revivals ever seen in 
the Fulton church. Years have passed and yet the man- 
ner, the tone, the unutterable tenderness of the holy mes- 
senger, are as vivid as ever and will endure while memory 
lasts. How many stars the Master set in the crown of his 
servant that night, eternity alone can reveal. 

Several facts gathered from the First Annual Cata- 
logue have already been given, but it is believed that this 
chapter could not be brought to a more appropriate or 

14 History of Westminster CoUege 

satisfactory close than by inserting the Catalogue of 1853-4, 
in full. This will show just what the Institution was when 
it assumed the form of a College. 





Officers ai^d Students 











f ril8tCC8 



REV. JOHN G. FACKLER Jefferson City 

REV. ROBERT S. SYMINGTON Pleasant Hill, Cass Co. 

REV. JOHN F. COWAN Washington 


REV. S. J. P. ANDERSON, D. D St. Louis 


SAMUEL S. WATSON, Esq St. Charles 

REV. WM. P. COCHRAN Ralls County 


HON. JOHN G. MILLER Boonvillc 


HON. PRESTON B. REED, Tbeasureb Fulton 

t JAMES WHITESIDE, Esq., Secretary Fulton 

REV. A. V. C. SCHENCK Lexington 

•ALFRED A. RYLEY, M. D., President Fulton 


REV. DAVID COULTER New Bloomficld 

*Dead. tResigned. 

The Trustees may, at the first meeting of the Synod oi 
Missouri, be divided into six classes as near as may be; tlie 
seats of those of the first class to be vacated at the end of the 
second year, and so on to the sixth; vacancies to be filled by the 
Synod. But if no election is had, the members shall hold their 
seats as before, until an election is had. — Charter ^ sec. v. 

(8) 17 

faculty of Arts 

Rbv. Pbof. SAMUEL S. LAWS, A. M. 
Peof. THOMAS D. BAIRD, Esq., A. M. 
Mb. JAMES G. SMITH, Tutob. 

This was the corps of instructors during the last session, and 
the patrons of the Institution may coofidently rely on the Board 
of Trustees always securing the services of a sufficient number 
of competent instructors to take full charge of the studies of 
all the young men who may be committed to their care. It is 
expected that the Faculty will be considerably enlarged by 
the opening of the next session, so as to be in readiness to meet 
the wants of an increased number of students; and whatever 
delay there may be in effecting its full organization, will, in a 
measure, be owing to the settled purpose of the Board to en- 
trust the Institution to the hands of none but able men, whose 
character and scholarship will merit and command the pat- 
ronage of the community generally. 


frcparatory Departn^eqt, 

frisqarj Studies. 

Englisk, — Geoflraphy, Za/zx.— Grammar, Grtek. — Grammar. 

Arithmetic, Reader, 

History, Caesar, 

Grammar, Prose Composition, 

The Bible. Ovid, 


Sab-^resljipap Class. 

English,— kTic\tXi\. History, Latin.— Wx\gS\, Elementary / 

Ancient Geography, Cicero's Select Orations, Alfi^ebra. ( 

Exercises in Composition, Prose Comptosition. 

Reading and Declamation, Greek.— Qtzmmzx and Reader. 
The Bible. 

The plan of Westminster College embraces a Prepara- 
tory Department in connection with the College proper; but 
each will be fully organized within itself, and stand distinct 
from the other. By eouimining the course of studies laid 
down, it will be seen that it is the design to make the Pre- 
paratory Department, in fact, what it purports to be, a means 
not of giving a general course of popular education, but of 
preparing young men to enter the Freshman Class. The stu- 
dies necessary to a liberal and thorough English education, are 
distributed throughout the entire course. There is in the ele- 
gant and spacious building, which has just been completed, 
a large and excellent room, which will, during the present 
vacation, be fitted up for the accommodation of this depart- 
ment. The Faculty will, of course, exercise an immediate 
supervision over the studies, and the moral and religious train- 
ing of those in this Department^ as well as in the College 
proper, so as to secure to them such culture as will bo 
adapted to their ages and advancement. It should be partic- 
ularly observed, that thoroughness in these elementary studies 
is indispensable to success, and pleasure in the prosecution 
of the College course. 



Curriculan) of College Studies. 



Declamation and Composition. 

Historical Parts of the Old Testament, with Lectures, 
Expository and Practical, 

Qrecian and Roman Antiquities. 
Latin, — ^Livy. 

Greek, — ^Xenophon's Cyropedia, 

Mathematios. — ^Algebra. 


Ancient History, 

Declamation and Composition, 

Grecian and Roman Antiquities, 

Historical Parts of the Bible (0. T.) with Lectures, 
Expository and Practical. 
Latin. — ^Horace, (Odes and Epodes.) 
Greek. — Thucydides, 

Mathematics, — Geometry. 


History ( continued ) . 

Declamation and Composition, 

Latin, — ^Horace, (Satires and Epistles.) 
Greek, Homer's Iliad, (six books.) 

Testament, (Gospels) with Lectures, Expository and 
Mathematica. — ^Trigonometry, with its applications. 






Modern History, 

Elements of Criticism, 

Evidences of Christianity, 

Composition and Declamation. 
Latin, — Cicero de S^iectute et Amicitia, 

Tacitus (begun.) 
Oreek. — Select Orations of Demosthenes, 

Xenbphon's Memorabilia, 

Testament, (Grospels) with Lectures, etc 
Mathematics. — ^Analytical Geometry. 


Lectures on Ancient Literature, 

Composition and Declamation. 

Natural Theology, 

Mechanical Phfloeophy, 

Latin. — ^Tacitus, (continued.) 
Oreek. — Drama — ^Euripides, (Medea) 

Sophocles, (Edipus Tyrannus) 

Testament, (Acts) with Lectures, etc. 
Mathematics. — Differential and Integral Calculus. 


Mental Philosophy. 


Philosophy of History, 

Composition and Declamation. 


Latin, — Play of Terence, 

Oreek. — Plato contra Atheos, 

Longinus de Sublimitate, 

Testament, (Doctrinal Epistles) with Lectures, etc. 


8mI8R 0la8«. 


Original Orations, 

Moral and Political Philosophy, 

Political Economy, 

Butler's Analogy, 


Mineralogy and Geology. 
Latins— Cioero de Offidis. 
Oreek. — ^Aristotle, (Art of Poetry) 

Teetament, (Doctrinal Epistles) with Lectures, etc. 


The True, Beautiful and Good, {Cousin) 

Constitution U. S. 

Hebrew Commonwealth, 

LaUn, — ^Horace, (Art of Poetry.) 
Chreek, — ^Demosthenea de Corona. 

It has not been deemed necessary in all cases to name text 
books, as on some subjects it makes no material difference 
which of several authprs or editions has been used by those 
who may wish to enter advanced classes. Some trouble may 
be saved by observing that all the text books can be obtained 
in Fulton as cheaply aa eLsewhere. 


Tcrn^g of Adn^issioq 

Evert Student coming to this Institution will be admitted 
to that position to which his acquisitions, measured by this 
Curriculum as a standard, shall entitle him. But the real 
rather than the nominal attainments of applicants will be con- 
sidered in determining this point. In addition to these lit- 
erary qualifications, satisfactory evideeace of good moral char- 
acter, and, if from another institution, testimonials from its 
Faculty of good standing and honorable dismission, will be 
required. In no case will a student of irregular and dissolute 
habits be admitted, or, if unwittingly admitted, be allowed to 
remain. — It is of vital importance that students be present at 
the very opening of the sessions, for as the classes immediately 
enter upon their advanced studies, the loss of a few days is 
likely to cripple for a whole term. Tardiness at the commence- 
ment of a session often results in students falling back to a 
lower class, or in their becoming disheartened and giving up 
their studies. 

Sessions ai)d Yacatiops. 

The College year embraces forty weeks of study, divided 
into two equal sessions or terms, each consisting of twenty 
weeks. The first term begins the Thursday before the first 
Monday of September, and the second term succeeds imme- 
diately upon the termination of the first, without any inter- 
vening vacation, and closes the last Thursday of June. This 



arrangement will take effect next year. According to this 
arrangement, a long vacation will come during the hot months 
of July and August; and a recess will be given of about a 
week before New Year's day, and another of about the same 
length, sometime during the spring. 

For the present year, the first term will begin on Thurs- 
day, the twenty-sixth day of October, and the second term will 
follow it without any intervening vacation. 

It is absolutely necessary that the whole of the time thus 
set apart for study be faithfully and laboriously devoted to it, 
or the course of studies laid down above cannot be mastered. 
But a young man of average ability, by diligent and persever- 
ing application, will find himself encouraged and strengthened 
at the conclusion of each term, by having successfully and 
honorably j>erformed its prescribed task. Hence, the Faculty 
will expect to keep a coostantly watchful and impartial eye 
upon every student, to mark any irregularities and delinquen- 
cies, not merely to give a faithful report of the same, but to 
take occasion therefrom to give admonition and counsel, and 
to take such steps as will free them of those that are found 
to be incorrigible; and will not encourage nor permit any to 
suspend their studies for any cause, except sickness or some 
very peculiar and pressing exigency. Mental discipline and 
habits of study can be secured in no other way. 

There will be an examination of all the classes at the end 
of each tenn. Every student is required to be present at the 
examinations unless, for sufficient reasons, excused by the Fac- 
ulty. No student will be permitted to pass from a lower to a 
higher class until he shall have borne a satisfactory examina- 
tion upon the studies of the lower class. 


P]|ilologic Society. 

This Literary Society of respectable numbers and character 
is constituted of young men of the College, and secures to its 
members the advanta^s ordinarily arising from such associ- 
ations. Ample provisions are made in the new building for 
two halls with their respective library rooms. 


Tuition in the College each session $15 00 

Tuition in the Preparatory Department each session. . 12 00 
Contingent Expenses each session 76 

These hills are payable in advance, and no student tcill be 
permitted to take his place in cUiss-room until he ha^ pre- 
sented to the Faculty a receipt from the Treasurer, 

Boarding, including washing, fires and lights, in Fulton, 

or within a reasonable distance, a week $1.50 to 3.00 

Books and Stationery, a year, 5.00 to 10.00. 

The whole expenses, theppfore, will average somewhere 
between one hundred and one hundred and fifty dollars a year. 


It is one design of this catalogue to communicate such in- 
formation respecting this Institution as an intelligent person 
would desire in sending his son to it. 

Westminster College was founded by the synod of the Old 
School Presbyterian Church, of Missouri, and is under its 
special care and patronage. It is located in i^iilton, a healthy 
and pleasant village, of about twelve hundred inhabitants, the 
seat of Callaway county, twenty-four miles from the capital of 
the State, one hundred and twelve miles from Sv. Louis, by the 
stage, which runs daily and is about twenty-four hours on the 


way, and it is only fourteen miles from St. Auoert's Landing, 
on the Missouri River, from which point a hack runs for public 
accommodation. When the present system of railroads is com- 
pleted, this place, lyin^ at convenient distances from the North 
Missouri, and the Mississippi and Pacific Roads, on either hand, 
will be entirely accessible to all parts of the State. It is beauti- 
fully located, and blessed with a religious, moral and cultivated 
society, so that parents may be assured that their sons will here 
be exempt from many ruinous temptations, and be surrounded 
by many sacred influences. In addition to Westminster Col- 
lege, there are three other public institutions in this place 
^-one is Fulton Female Seminary, in successful operation, and 
the other two are the Deaf and I>umb and the Insane Asylums 
of the State, the buildings of which are upon a liberal scale, and 
in classic style, and refiect great credit upon the State. Although 
scarcely finished, these roomy and magnificent structures, under 
the care of able and efficient superintendents, are attracting 
much public attention, and bringing hither many visitors from 
all parts of the Commonwealth, whose munificence has founded 

The College edifice, whose comer stone was laid a year ago 
last fourth of July, upon which occasion Dr. Rice delivered his 
able address on "The Three Great Interests of Ma^*' is com- 
pletedy and will be occupied next session. It has an elegant col- 
onnade front of sixty feet, and a depth of about one hundred 
feet, and stands upon an elevated campus of twenty acres. The 
Synod has every reason to be gratified at the character of the 
structure, which has been so promptly erected. 

The main reliance for the endowment of this Institution is 
a scholarship plan, which has already been partially realized. 
According to this plan, any person, by the payment of one hun- 
dred dollars, ($100) or by the securing of this amount by deed 
of trust on unincumbered real estate, and subject to legal in- 
terest, secures a scholarship, which will entitle to a full course 
in the College, the purchaser or his sons, during his natural life, 
or until his youngest son is 21 years of age, or if he has but one 
son under this age, then, in addition to him, a nominee for any 
twelve years within twenty years after the scholarship is se- 
cured. If the purchaser has no son, or if his sons are already 
educated, he or his assignee may send a nominee for twenty 


years. Fifty dollars in addition to the above amount, ($150) 
will secure the tuition of another person, under the sanio con- 
ditions, and for the same time, in the Preparatory Department 
alone; and five hundred dollars ($500) will secure a pcrjietuai 
scholarship both in the Preparatorj' De|)artment and in the Col- 
lege proper. These scholarships are not transferable by pur- 
chasers who have sons under 21 years of a^ uneducated. If 
the purchaser die during the minority of his youngest son, the 
son or sons of said purchaser, but no other person shall enjoy 
the rights guaranteed to the parent. 

A considerable number of those scholarships have been 
taken, and it is expected that this plan will go into operation as 
soon as six hundred are secured, i. e., as $1()0 is considered the 
representative value of a scholarship, when sixty thousand dol- 
lars have been procured as above; and it is to be limited to 
twelve hundred scholarships, or to one hundred and twenty 
thousand dollars. In this way, excepting the perpetual scholar- 
ships, the endowment fund will ultimately be wholly unincum- 
bered. The principal is never to be touched, only the interest 
therefrom is to be used. 

But it should be especially observed that this plan is not 
exclusive of direct donations from the friends of the Institution, 
to any amount; nor of such bequests as may from time to time 
be made to it. Indeed, Westminster College presents to those 
who may have it in their power to do so, a peculiarly attractive 
opportunity to identify the influence of their own names, or of 
any worthy person with the great and lasting interests of edu- 
cation, by liberally endowing a professorship in it, or by fur- 
nishing it with good apparatus for the illustration of Experi- 
mental Philosophy, or by contributing either in money or books 
to its Library. But thouj Daniel, shut up the words, and seal 
the Iwok, even to the time of the end: — many shall run to and 
fro, and knowledge shall he increased. M^ people are destroyed 
for lack of knowledge. The liberal soul shall he made fat; and 
he that watereth shall he watered also himself. There is that 
scattereth, and yet inoreaseth; and there is that withholdeth 
more than is meet, hut it tendeth to poverty. Honor the Lord 
with thy suhstance and ivith the first fruits of all thine in- 
crease — so shall thy hams he filled with plenty, and thy pressers 
shall hurst out uMh new wine. 




LAWS, NOV. 1861. 

HE Second Annual Commencement of 
the college was on the twenty-sixth 
of June, 1856. The two Literary 
Societies celebrated jointly their 
first anniversary on Monday night 
preceding Commencement Day. 
Rev. S. J. P. Anderson, D. D., then 
pastor of the Central Presbyterian 
church in St. Louis, delivered the 
address, choosing for his subject "The Treasure in Words." 
The graduating class consisted of three members: Robert 
N. Baker, Jacob P. Broadwell, and Robert McPheeters. 
With this class graduated Hon. John A. Hockaday, who 
had taken the entire course except a part of the prescribed 
Greek, and was therefore the first scientific graduate of 
Westminster College. Mr. Hockaday has since received 
the honorary degree of A. M. from the Institution, an 
honor most richly deserved.* The number of students in 
attendance during the year was 120, representing five states. 

*Al8o the degree of LL. D. from Central Ollege, Mo. 


From 1855 to November, 1861 29 

The summary, taken from the Catalogue, shows that West- 
minster thus early was a living College, as all the regular 
classes were in existence and at work. 

Summary of students for the year ending June, 1856: 
Senior Class, 3; Junior Class, o; Sophomore Class, 4; 
Freshman Class, 7 ; Sub-Freshman Class, 20 ; Second Class, 
20; First Class, 32; Irregulars, 28; Total, 120. 

The First Class consisted of those beginning Latin, 
the Second, of those in the second, and the Sub-Freshman 
of those in the third, year of the Latin course. All students 
were required to study Latin three years and the Greek 
two years before entering the lowest class in College. This 
fact may account, at least in some degree, for the high 
standing our graduates took in the classics in every theolog- 
ical Seminary in which the College has ever been repre- 
sented.* It was at this meeting of the Board, June, 1856, 
that the Chair of Ancient Languages was assigned to M. 
M. Fisher; for, up to this time, all the Professors had been 
compelled to give instruction in different branches. This 
necessity grew out of the fact that, while the Curriculum 
was equal to that found in American Colleges of the first 
rank, there were only five members in the Faculty. These 
men did the work by teaching often six hours per day. The 
feeling is honestly entertained that the friends of West- 
minster College are not yet aware of the sacrifice and toil 
which have been for years shown in those halls. The labor 
involved in building up a true College is immeasurably 
gT^eater than even the most ardent friends of education, 
inexperienced in such work, believe. As an illustration of 
the statement that the Professors were expected to teach 

'Considering the somewhat chaotic condition in which educational 
matters had been, a great work had already been accomplished, and 
one rarely falling to the lot of any church in so short a time. 

30 History of Westminster College 

various subjects, it may be remarked, that in the first year 
of Mr. Laws' connection with the Institution, although the 
Professor of Natural Science, he was called upon to teach a 
class in Primary Geography and to give instruction to at 
least one boy in the Alphabet. Another illustration is 
found in the experience of the writer, who was called in one 
session to teach Elocution, Rhetoric, Algebra, Trigonome- 
try, Geology, Chemistry, Latin and Greek. This is suffi- 
cient to show that at an early day in our educational his- 
tory there was an imperative call for toil long continued 
and for study that was intense. This may be termed the 
formative period. Gradually this condition disappeared, 
and the Professors devoted their energies to the duties of 
a given department. 

At the meeting of the Board, in October, 1856, at Pal- 
myra, Professor F. T. Kemper, of Boonville, was elected 
to the Chair of Physical Science. Mr. Kemper was one 
of the most accomplished instructors in our country and 
one that stood second to no man in Missouri. In regard 
to this accession to the faculty, the following resolution 
was passed by Synod : 

"Eesolved, That we learn with much satisfaction of the election of 
Prof. F. T. Kemper, of Boonville, to a professorship in Westminster 
College, and of his acceptance of the same, and that this addition 
to the Faculty of a gentleman of eminent ability and experience as an 
educator, we see a new reason for commending the College to the 
prayers and liberal pecuniary support of the Church." 

Mr. Kemper at once discontinued his school in Boon- 
ville, sold his valuable property, and removed to Fulton, 
with the expectation of spending his days in building up 
this cherished College of the Presbyterian church in the 
west. A number of his pupils were so devoted to him 

From 1855 to November, 1861 31 

as to accompany him to his new field of labor, and thus 
continue at the feet of the instructor whose faithfulness 
had won their high regard and whose kindness had won 
their hearts. 

The Third Commencement took place on the fourth 
Thursday of June, 1857. The two Literary Societies were 
addressed by Hon. Edward Bates, of St. Louis, whose 
statue has been placed in one of the parks of the city which 
he honored during life, and near which his ashes have 
rested since death sealed forever on earth the fountain of 
his eloquence. Five young men received the degree of A. 
B., none of whom entered the ministry. This fact is 
noticed here, not to imply censure, but because it wps the 
only exception for years, and because one of the most 
ardent wishes of those devoted men that founded the Col- 
lege, was the raising up of a faithful and able ministry to 
supply the destitutions of the country. But there were 
other sources of encouragement. There had been in at- 
tendance during this year (1856-7) 154 students, repre- 
senting seven states. Of these, 38 were in the four Col- 
lege classes and 109 were engaged in the study of the Latin 
Language, showing that, at that date, there was no ten- 
dency on the part of our young men to neglect the study 
of the classic tongues. There was also special reason for 
gratitude in view of the thoroughness with which the 
studies were mastered bv the several classes. 

While it is not the design of these pages to give 
sketches of the lives of those who have come forth from 
the walls of Westminster College, yet the writer feels 
prompted to pause long enough to mention the name of the 
noble boy who received the honors of his class in 1857, 
and was the second of Westminster's dead. His name was 
William Henry Bailey, an only son. One year from the 

32 History of Westminster College 

day on which he received his diploma, he appeared for the 
last time in the chapel. The marks of the destroyer were 
already on his cheeks, and in the following autumn the 
Faculty and students were assembled in the cemetery to 
bid adieu to the valedictorian of 1857. Death gathered to 
his icy breast the student with all the laurels of College 
days. He sleeps near the College. 

Early in 1857, President Laws prepared an "Ad- 
dress on Behalf of Westminster College. No document 
that has ever been published gives such a full history of the 
Institution from the time the incipient steps were 
taken to found the College up to the period of which we are 
now writing. If it were our design to write in reference to 
the plans, purposes, endowment, and prospects of the Board 
at that time and to furnish to the reader all the facts that 
could be gathered, it would be impossible to do so in a 
manner more highly satisfactory than is done in the pages 
of this address. At this time the total assets of the Insti- 
tution were wholly inadequate to meet the growing de- 
mands of the College, which was now rapidly attracting 
the attention of the country. At this period therefore the 
great work before the Board was to raise an additional sum 
of $7S,ooo, and Dr. Laws' address was intended to be in- 
strumental in securing funds sufficient to place the enter- 
prise on a lasting basis. 

Before leaving the history clustering around the Third 
Annual Commencement, attention is drawn to an extract 
from a letter written near the close of 1856 by Professor 
Kemper. He says: "The scholarship of the students has 
surprised me much. The Sophomore class would do credit 
to the Senior class in most Institutions that I have visited 
in the West. . . . This is the most remarkable church- 
going community I have ever seen. The church which I 




From 1855 to November, 1861 33 

attended is crowded every Sabbath, and very respectably 
filled at the weekly prayer meeting. ... In a word, I 
do feel that God has signally honored this town and this 
Institution." This letter was written before Mr. Kemper 
became Professor in the College, and gives the impression 
made on his mind as to the character of the place. 

The fall session of 1857 opened with brighter prospects 
for the College than had been witnessed by any previous 
year. There was a large increase in the regfular classes, 
and the Synod began to feel that their hopes were in great 
part realized, and that an Institution was rapidly rising 
that might, under God, prove a blessing to coming genera- 
tions. A great part of this year was spent by President 
Laws in raising an endowment. In the prosecution of this 
work he visited the cities of the South and the East; but, 
while the kindest feelings were everywhere entertained in 
regard to the Presbyterian College farthest west, the visit 
resulted in no direct pecuniary benefit. It is due President 
Laws to say that the main interest he felt was in the inter- 
nal work, in the labors of the class room. He therefore 
felt, no doubt, that it was a hardship involving much self- 
denial to leave the cherished work of the class room to 
beccmie agent. But he obeyed the call of duty and went. 
Among other cities, he visited New Orleans, and while 
there he took occasion to address a letter to Mr. Le Bour- 
geois, calling his attention to the fact that one Professor- 
ship in Westminster College had been endowed and 
named after one of the most useful and honored men ever 
in Missouri, Rev. Dr. Potts, and suggesting how pleasant 
it would be to anticipate the people of the Synod in en- 
dowing another Chair and calling it after the name ol 
another of Missouri's honored sons, "The Charless Pro- 
fessorship." After Dr. Laws returned to Fulton, Mr. Le 


34 History of Westminster College 

Bourgeois pleasantly responded by enclosing a check for 
$200. Thus the matter ended at that time. What influence 
this may have had in bringing about what was done after- 
wards, the writer of course does not know, but at any rate 
it is an incident worth remembering. 

Dr. Laws' labors in Missouri were crowned, as will be 
seen in another chapter, with eminent success. While 
similar enterprises were aided by our brethren in other 
parts of the church, and often to a very large extent, West- 
minster was endowed and supported, as far as funds were 
concerned, excepting the Charless Professorship, by our 
own people in the Synod. The only pecuniary assistance 
received from abroad was in the darkest days of the war, 
when the salaries of the Professors were supplemented by 
the Presbyterian Board of Education, and the whole 
amount received was devoted to the purchase of new books 
for the library. The exact amount received was $450. 

While Dr. Laws was absent raising funds, the duties 
of President were discharged with signal ability by Pro- 
fessor Kemper, who first gave the College its enviable repu- 
tation, second to none, in imparting a thorough knowledge 
of the Greek Language. At the Commencement of 1858, 
there were five graduates, three of whom entered the min- 
istry in the Presbyterian church, and yet live to proclaim 
the unsearchable riches of Christ. 

As seen above. President Laws had been absent a large 
part of the year and, though present at the time, he insisted 
that Professor Kemper, who had borne the responsibilities 
of presiding officer durnig the year, should deliver the 
diplomas. This Professor Kemper did in his own impres- 
sive and characteristic way. His remarks are yet vivid in 
the minds of some then present. 

It was at this Commencement that the Board conferred 

From 1855 to November, 1861 35 

for the first time the honorary degree of D. D. That honor 
was conferred on the Rev. Samuel B. McPheeters, in re- 
gard to whom one of his Elders says, "He was more like 
Jesus in his character than any one I have ever known." 
His theological acquirements richly merited the title, but 
who shall fitly speak of the meekness, gentleness, long suf- 
fering and patience, shown during his last days at Mul- 
berry, Ky. ? 

At the meeting of the Board in 1858, Professor I. M. 
Hughes resigned his position as Principal of the Prepara- 
tory Department. It was at that time also that an import- 
ant change was made in the organization of the Institution. 
The original plan of the Trustees was to have a prepara- 
tory department in which all students below the Freshman 
class were to receive their training. Then all the Latin 
and Greek below the Freshman class belonged to the Prin- 
cipal of the Preparatory School. The following extract 
from the report of the Board of Trustees to the Synod in 
the fall of 1858, written by President Laws, will give an 
insight into the change in the internal organization and 
working of the College: 

Experience has led the Board to dispense with a Prepara- 
tory Department, as a separate organization, and to place the 
preparatory classes, as the College classes, under the care of the 
several regular professors. The professor of Mathematics, for 
example, has the classes below, as well as the ones above, the 
Freshman class; so the professor of Latin has charge of all 
who study Latin, from the Grammar up; in like manner the 
professor of Greek; so that the several departments sustain 
the relation to each other of associate schools; the English 
School, the Mathematical School, the Latin School, th,e Greek 
School, and the School of Mental and Moral Science, each com- 
plete in itself, and entirely under the control of its duly ap- 
pointed professor. * * * It is believed, in so far as there 

35 History of Westminster CoUege 

is anything peculifeiv in the organiaation of the College into 
diatinct schools associated for a common work, that the ad- 
vantages of the system adopted by the University of Virginia 
and other institutions, are appropriated, and many of the 
erils thereof are avoided by the completeness of each, and 
yet, reciprocal dependence of the whole, of the several depart- 
ments as oanstituting only one course, the whole of which must 
be pursued in order to receive the honors of the institution. 

At the time the report from which this extract is taken» 
was made to the Board, a request was made by that body- 
that the Faculty of the College should reduce to a written 
form the organization and adjustment of the relations of 
the several departments under their care. In response to 
this request, the members of the Faculty submitted a full 
report, each for his own department. These are given in 
full in the history of the College for i860. This exhibit was. 
made to correct any misrepresentations that might be 
abroad in the State, touching the internal organization of 
the College. 

Before leaving this subject, it is worth while to notice 
the fact that the principal features involved in this organi- 
zation have ever since been observed by the Professors. 
The Professor of Greek has charge of all the Greek classes,. 
so of the Professor of Latin and the rest, with the exception 
that the classes in Arithmetic are taught by the Professor 
of English' Language and Literature.* Having done away 
with the Preparatory Department but not with Preparatory 
classes, the Board at once introduced a new feature into the 
Institution. This was the English School, the object of 
which was to afford to the young men a course of thorough 
English instruction in the requisites for the College Curri- 
culum, or for business life. A reference to the Catalogue 

*'(Oiie or mora tutoxt assisted the professor of English. — ^EEditob.)^ 

From 1655 io November, 1861 37 

of i860 will show that the studies in this School were wdl 
selected from the beginning onward througfc the Junior 
class in College tproper.* The first incumbefit of this Chair 
was Professor Clark Strong, who had been educated at Yale 
College and had been engaged for a number of years in 
the public schools of St Louis. Through the experience 
and energy of Prcrfessor Strong, this School became one 
of the most important and desirable in the Coll^fe, so that 
at one time there were in its classes over seventy young 
men. Simple justice demands the statement that Professor 
Strong showed an appreciation of a true and devated Eng- 
lish education and a devotion to the studies of our own 
noble tongue seldom equalled in any section of our country. 
His motto seemed to be, "Make Classical English as pro- 
fitable in point of mental discipline as Classical Latin or 
Greek." The decline in sound English schcdarship is a 
source of deep sorrow to all lovers of true education. 

A strong temptation is presented here to enlarge on 
the organization of the College, and, while the temptation 
may be resisted in the main, some particulars demand at- 
tention. Westminster College was the first Institution in 
the west, if not in the whole country, that put the English 
School on a level with the classics, and insisted on a mas- 
terly knowledge of the noble English as a mental gymnastic 
inferior to no other. The Department of English, extend- 
ing through the course, stood out prominently in the organ- 
ization. A glance at the College, as it then stood, will re- 
veal the fact that it was admirably adapted to imparting 
a genuine, thorough, extensive, and symmetrical scholar- 
ship. This is proven to have been the opinion prevailing 
in Missouri very extensively by the letters from various 

*It is proper to state that the conception of this plan in regard 
to the chair of English originated with Dr. Laws. 

38 History of Westminster College 

quarters making inquiries as to the organization, the curric- 
ulum and mode of government. It is nothing more than 
just to say that in several respects, Westminster even then 
possessed not only a commanding, but moulding influence 
over the educational interests of the West. Dr. Chester, 
for many years Secretary of the Board of Education of the 
Presbyterian church, visited the College in the fall or win- 
ter of 1858, and, after seeing the different departments at 
work, gave it as his opinion that in system, thoroughness, 
and discipline, Westminster was superior to any Synodical 
College within the range of his acquaintance. This was a 
high compliment from a judge whose competence is univer- 
sally admitted. 

We have now reached in the history of the College the 
fall of 1858. This year proved to be one of the most event- 
ful in the annals of the Church in Missouri. The College 
opened with a larger number of students than ever before. 
The six associated schools were working harmoniously and 
successfully. God seemed to smile on the efforts of his 
people to found this cherished College. 

At the meeting of Synod at Cape Girardeau, in Oc- 
tober, 1858, 

Rev. 8. B. McPheeters, D. D., Chairman of the Committee 
to attend the Examinations of Westminater College, reported: 

That they attended to that duty, some part of the com- 
mittee being present at the examination of all the classes in the 
Institution. They further report that they paid special atten- 
tion to the method of instruction pursued in the various de- 
partments, and watched with interest its practical results. 

Your committee were impressed, throughout the examina- 
tion, with the manifest purpose of the Faculty to make it a fair 
and honest test of the actual attainments of each individual 
pupil. In the judgment of your committee, the method of in- 
struction pursued is eminently judicious and thorough, and the 

From 1855 to November, 1861 39 

result of it, as exhibited in the attainments of the students, 
highly satsfactory. The great body of the students acquitted 
themselves with honor, and reflected credit upon their instructors, 
while there were a few who showed that even the best instruction 
will not make scholars of the indolent and inattentive. It is 
worthy of remark, however, that the highest evidence of suc- 
cessful instruction, and the fewest number of failures to meet 
just expectation, was found in the more advanced classes. 
And while your committee do not design to draw invidious dis- 
tinctions, it is only an act of simple justice to mention with 
special commendation the Senior class; the examination sus- 
tained by this class would do honor to any Institution in the 

In conclusion, your committee would say that they returned 
from the discharge of their duty more than ever impressed with 
the high standard of scholarship in our Synodical College; 
with the vital importance of this Institution to our Church 
and State; and with the duty that rests upon us fully to endow 
all its Chairs, and thoroughly to sustain the Board of Trustees 
and the Faculty in making Westminster College what its found- 
ers intended it should be, a College of the very first grade. 

The above report was adopted. 

But in the midst of their successes, the Board were 
called to suffer a severe affliction in the assassination of 
Mr. Charless, of St. Louis, who had been one of the most 
devoted friends of the enterprise from the very first. Mr. 
Charless had arranged for a meeting of the friends of the 
College at Dr. Brookes' study for the next Monday. The 
object of that meeting was to devise means to complete 
the endowment. On the intervening Friday, he fell a vic- 
tim to the bullet of the assassin. At the meeting of the 
Board in June, the Trustees, of whom Mr. Charless was 
one, took action in reference to this sad event. Before 
quoting this minute permission is taken to refer to the fact 
that when Dr. Chester visited the West, as before alluded 

40 Hiitory of Westminster College 

to, h« was the guest, while in St. lyouis, of the lamented 
Charless. These two devoted men talked of the interests 
of the Redeemer's Kingdom together, and, among other sub- 
jects, of the Synodical College. Dr. Chester gave an ac- 
count of bis visit then and his favorable impression, and 
Mr. Charless expressed his deep and growing concern for 
this Child of the Church which he so deeply and truly loved. 
Let it be observed then, that one of the last interests that 
engaged Mr. Charless' attention was Westminster College. 
The Board adopted the following: 

Whereas in the myBterious providence of God, Joseph Charless, 
Esq., late of St. Louis, and an efficient member of this Board, has 
been sudd^ily removed from time by the hand of violence, having heeai 
shot down June 8, 1659, in the street in St. Louis in open day by the 
hands of a man named Thornton, for having borne a testimony to 
which the laws of his country and his conscience compelled him, in a 
case invoving the honesty of said Thornton, therefore 

Resolved 1st. That whilst we lament the death of Mr. Oharless 
as an eminent citizen, a devoted Christian, and a liberal friend of 
Westminster College, and every other good cause, and bow in submission 
to the inscrutable providence which has thus permitted his assassi- 
nation; yet we rejoice in the abundant testimony which he gave, living 
and dying, in regard to the truth and power of our holy religion. 

He died in full confidence of salvation through Jesus Christ, and 
with heartfelt commiseration and forgiveness for the cruel instru- 
ment of his painful death. 

Resolved 2d. That the sudden death of our brother is a most 
solemn call to each one of us to be up and doing, inasmuch as we are 
thus so strikingly reminded that we know not what a day may bring 

Resolved 3d. That we tender our sympathies to the afflicted fam- 
ily of our deceased, and much respected and dearly beloved brother. 

Resolved 4th. That these resolutioiis be spread on our minutes, 
and that a copy be furnished to the family of our recent fellow trustee 
and laborer in the Kingdom and patience of Jesus. 

From 1655 to November, 1861 41 

Although Mr. Charless did not live to see the purpose 
that lay so near his heart accomplished, yet his only 
daughter, Mrs. Le Bourgeois, as a most beautiful tribute of 
filial affection, endowed at once the Chair of Physical 
Science, thus fulfilling the cherished desire of a sainted 
father. The action of the Board taken at the time will 
more fully state the facts as to the endowment of the 
Charless Professorship : 

The committee appointed to report on the papers re- 
ceived from Rev. S. B. McPheeters, D. D., in relation to 
the endowment of the Chair of Physical Science, reported 
as follows: 

Editors' Note: — Joseph W. Thornton shot Mr. Charless during the 
forenoon of June 3, 1859. Mr. Charless died the following day. 
Great excttement prevailed in St. Louis, and an attempt was 
made to break into the jail for the purpose of lynching Thorn- 
ton. Mr. Charless was advised of this, and induced Dr. Joseph 
H. McDowell, a well-known citizen, to go to the jail and speak 
to the mob, as from him, requesting them to let the law take 
its course; then the mob dispersed. Thornton was indicted for 
murder on July 8, 1859, and tried the 19th and 20th of September. 
The plea was insanity, but the evidence was such that the court re- 
fused to submit it to the jury. A verdict of guilty was returned 
on September 20th; sentence of death was pronounced on the 28th 
and on November 11, 1859, Thornton was hanged in the yard of the jail. 
In 1854 or 1855, he had been in the employ of The Boatmen's Bank, of 
which Mr. Charless was an oflScer, and therefore a witness at the trial, 
when Thornton was tried for embezzlement. Though acquitted on 
some technicality, Thornton was unable to obtain emplo3rment, and 
became morose and attributed his troubles to Mr. Charless, alleging 
that Mr. Charless had sworn falsely at the trial. He evidently nerved 
himself for the assassination, and lay in wait for Mr. Charless. His 
demeanor at the time of the shooting was calm and unruffled; and, 
when seized by men who witnessed the act, he surrendered his pistol 
and demanded to be taken at once before a magistrate for trial. Mr. 
Charless' statement was that while he was walking leisurely along the 
street Thornton suddenly confronted him and without a word began 
shooting. The first shot caused Mr. Charless to fall, and the second 
shot was fired into his body as he lay helpless on the pavement. 

42 History of Westminster College 

The committee to whom were referred the papers relative to the 
endowment of the chair of Physical Science would report the following 
resolutions : 

1st. That the notes of Mr. and Mrs. Le Bourgeois tor twenty 
thousand dollars payable in four years, bearing ten per cent interest, 
payable semiannually, satisfactorily secure to this board the sum deemed 
necessary to endow the professorship of Physical Science. 

2d. That, in accordance with the purpose of the donor, and as 
a deserved and lasting tribute to the memory of our deceased brother, 
Joseph Charless, Esq., of St. Louis, late a member of this Board and 
a devoted friend of this College, who at the very time of his death 
was laboring to execute a scheme for the endowment of this very chair; 
the Board of Trustees of Westminster College do now and forever name 
the chair thus endowed by his only child and daughter, Mrs. £. E. 
Le Bourgeois, The Chailess Professorship of Physical Science, and the 
incumbent of it. The Charless Professor. 

3d. That whilst we bow in humble submission to the mysterious 
providence of Almighty God in the removal of our friend, and extend 
to his afflicted family our heartfelt sympathies, we would also express 
our lively appreciation of the filial affection and munificent generosity 
which have enabled us to transmit his memory to the future as a friend 
and patron of education and a good man, with a monument more be- 
coming and enduring than one of marble or of brass. 

4th. That we proceed without delay to secure a competent in- 
cumbent of the Charless Professorship of Physical Science. 

5th. That the letter of Dr. 8. B. McPheeters, which was received 
with the notes endowing the chair, be spread on our minutes and pub- 
lished, and that our thanks be extended to him for the attention which 
he has so kindly given to this business. 

Letter of Dr. McPheeters, referred to above: 

fit. Louis, June 24, 1869. 

To the Trustees of Westminster College: 

I herewith transmit to you the inclosed papers for twenty thousand 

From 1855 to November, 1861 43 

dollars to endow the Professorship of Physical Science in Westminster 
College. They have been drawn up and secured according to the in- 
struction of the Treasurer of your Board. 

This munificent gift is from the only daughter of the lamented 
Joseph Charless. It may not be improper for me to say that the en- 
dowment of this Chair was an object very near Mr. Charless' heart, 
and that he was actively engaged in plans to effect that cherished end 
when it pleased Grod so mysteriously to call him to his rest and reward. 
His daughter in this way purposes to express the sacred regard which 
she feels not only for the memory, but for every wish of her noble 

In view of these facts, I take the liberty of suggesting, what will 
doubtless meet with your hearty approval, that the Chair endowed be 
called 'The Charless Professorship of Physical Science," and if there 
be any incitement to virtue in the memory of the great and good, there 
is assuredly a bright future before the Institution that goes down to 
posterity associated with the names of such men as William S. Potts 
and Joseph Charless. May the young men of Westminster College ever 

follow them, as they followed Christ. 

Yours respectfully, 

Sam'l B. MoPheetebs. 

There is one item of great interest which can be intro- 
duced nowhere so appropriately as here. A short time be- 
fore Mr. Charless' death he and Mrs. Le Bourgeois, "the 
only daughter," referred to in Dr. McPheeters' letter, were 
walking home from Pine Street Church. On their way, the 
topic of conversation was Westminster College and its 
claims upon the church. No sooner did her father rest in 
the shades of Bellefontaine cemetery, than Mrs. Le Bour- 
geois took steps to carry out the wish of the parent so sud- 
denly and mysteriously called to the General Assembly and 
Church of the first born in Heaven. In accordance with a 
purpose theretofore already matured, Mr. Le Bourgeois 
waited on Dr. McPheeters and requested to be informed of 
the preliminaries necessary to be taken in order to avail 

44 History of Weetmingter CoUege 

themselves of the "privilege" of giving twenty thousand 
dollars to endow a Professorship. The information was 
imparted and at once the desire of the heart took a business 
shape, Mr. and Mrs. Le Bourgeois giving four notes for 
$5,000 each, bearing ten per cent iut^est payable semi- 
annually. It is proper to state, before passing from this 
subject, that the parties who availed themselves of this 
privilege, as they themselves termed it, lived at Lake Provi- 
dence in Louisiana. 

When the other schools were organized, there was no 
Professor of Physical Science, because there was no way 
of meeting the expense thus involved. This explains why 
that particular Chair claimed special attention at this 

At the Commencement of 1859, immediately after the 
Chair was endowed, the first Charless Professor was 
elected. The eminent gentleman chosen was Professor G. 
C. Swallow, author of the able Reports on the Geology of 
the State of Missouri and later in charge of the Agricultural 
College in Columbia. Professor Swallow declined the po- 
sition ; and, at the meeting of Synod in the Central Presby- 
terian church in St. Louis in October, 1859, the Board 
unanimously elected to the vacant Chair, Professor Alfred 
M. Mayer, of the University of Maryland. Mr. Mayer sig- 
nified his acceptance and entered upon the discharge of his 
duties the same year. He was thus the first incumbent of 
the Charless Professorship. Professor Mayer was recom- 
mended in the highest terms by Professor Henry of the 
Smithsonian Institute in Washington City. This recom- 
mendation decided the action of the Board. Professor 
Mayer has since received the title Ph. D. and has by origi- 
nal research achieved a European reputation. Professor 
Henry's letter : 

Frtm 1855 io November, 1861 4& 


WASHmoTON, D. C^ Sept. ISth, 1869. 

Dbab Sib: — Your letter of August 2d, was received dur- 
ing my absence, and I now embrace the first opportunity after 
toy return to give you a i^ply. 

To obtain tiie rigiit kind of man for smch a poBitton m 
jtTBk mention, is by no means easy. • • • i would therefore 
advise you to elect a young man of known ability, and with as 
much experience and acquirement as possible. 

The only person of this character that I can fully recom- 
mend is Prof. Alfred M. Mayer, of the University of Maryland. 
He is ardently devoted to the study of physical science, and I 
can truly say that he is better groundea in its true prinoiple» 
than any young man with whom I am acquainted. • * • 

I am aware of the responsibility involved in recommend- 

ingy in such warm terms, a candidate for a Professorship in 

your institution, but I do it imhesitatingly in regard to Mr. 

Mayer, and I have no doubt if his life and health be spM'ed,. 

that he will do honor to himself, and credit to any Institution 

with which he may be connected. I have referred your letter 

to him and have received in return a reply, which, though in- 

t^ided only for my own eyes, I transmit to you. I also enclose 

a package of reconmiendations which please return to me after 

you have made such use of them as you may think fit. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Joseph Henby. 
To Rev. 8. S. Laws, Fulton, Mo. 

The graduating class of 1859 consisted of seven mem- 
Dcrs, the largest in the history of the College up to this 
time. Five of them entered the ministry. Two of them, 
James G. Bailey and John D. Kerr, are among Westmin- 
ster's dead. Professor George, once the able incumbent of 
the Chair of Latin, was a member of the class of that year^ 
and the valedictorian. 

46 History of Westminster CoUege 

Although the prospects of the College had hitherto 
been flattering, they were still more so in the fall of 1859. 
Every encouragement that a Board of Trustees and a 
Faculty could have, seemed to be granted. A reference to 
the minutes both of the Board and of the Faculty shows a 
year of entire harmony. The following summary from the 
Catalogue of i860 will show in what light the Institution 
was regarded at that date, as well as its unparalleled suc- 

Summary: Seniors, 12; Juniors, 14; Sophomores, 16; 
Freshmen, 19 ; Irregular Collegiate, 13 ; Sub-Freshmen, 19 ; 
First and Second Classes, 29; English Classes, 34; Total, 

States: Missouri, (31 counties.) 147; Kentucky, i; 
Indiana, i ; Ohio, i ; Illinois, i ; Iowa, i ; Arkansas, i ; Louis- 
iana, i; New Mexico, i; California, i; Total, 156. 

Several facts here revealed are worthy of note: i. The 
number of students was larger than ever before in the his- 
tory of the School. 2. Nine States and one Territory were 
represented by the young men. 3. The number in the 
four regular College classes was 61. 4. There were 12 
graduates, 5 more than any preceding year. An Institu- 
tion whose regular classes and whose alumni increase from 
year to year, has the greatest possible encouragement. Of 
the 12 graduates of i860, six entered the ministry, and one 
of them, C. C. Hersman, the valedictorian of his class, 
afterward became Professor of Greek, and President. In 
1887 Dr. Hersman resigned, to accept a professorship in 
the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C. 
Two years later he became President of The Southwestern 
University, at Clarksville, Tenn. (For some years (1903) 
he has been Professor of Greek and Hebrew Languages 
and Literature at Union Seminary, Richmond, Va.) 

From 1855 to November, 1861 47 

During the session of Synod in October, 1858, the fol- 
lowing resolution, offered by President Laws, was adopted : 

"Resolved, That the Faculty of the College be re- 
quested to reduce to a written form, the organization and 
adjustment of the relations of the several departments 
under their care, and also the rules and regulations under 
which they are conducted, and report to the Board at its 
next regular meeting." In response to this action the 
members of the Faculty presented their Reports to the 
Board, in person, at Commencement in i860. As these Re- 
ports contain an account of the internal organization, the 
method of instruction and government, the relations of the 
several departments to one another, and all the rules and 
regulations of the College, under which the Faculty acted, 
it is thought best to insert them in full. And every one, 
who desires to understand the working of the College under 
the Presidency of Dr. Laws, and more especially the cases 
of discipline to be noticed hereafter ife most earnestly ad- 
vised to give these Reports in the Catalogue of i860 a care- 
ful perusal. This perusal will bring to light the ideas on 
education which the Faculty entertained. 

liev. S. S. I.AIVS, LI,. D. 



The following reports of their several chairs by the incum- 
bent Professors, will give an intelligent insight into the internal 
organization and working of this College in the matters of in- 
struction and government. At the meeting of the Board during 
the sessions of Synod in October, 1858, the following resolution 
was adopted: 

"Resolved, That the Faculty of the College be requested to 
reduce to a written form, the organization and adjustment of 
the relations of the several departments under their care, and 
also the rules and regulations under which they are conducted, 
and report to the Board at its next regular meeting." 

And it was in response to this resolution that the members 
of the Faculty submitted in person to the Board at its last 
meeting, in June, 1860, their respective reports that follow and 
which were ordered to be published in the Catalogue. It was 
also ordered by the Board that hereafter each member of the 
Faculty present a report of his department at the regular meet- 
ing in June, of each year. 

These reports are presented in the order in which the 
Heads of the several Schools read them before the Board. 




To THE Board of Trustees of Westminster College. 

Gentlemen: — There is before me a resolution of the 
Board of Trustees, passed at its meeting in October, 1858, as 
follows : 

(4) 49 


"Resolved, That the Faculty of the College be requested 
to reduce to a written form, the organization and adjustment 
of the relations of the several departments under ti^eir care, 
and also the rules and r^rulations under which they are con- 
ducted, and report to the Board at its next regular meeting." 

My answer to the above resolution will embrace several 

I. My oonnexion with the College, Ain> icr afpoint- 
ICENT TO THE Depabtment I NOW FILL. In March, 1863, the 
following communication was placed in my hands: 

Fulton, Mo^ March 21, 1853. 

Dbab Sib: — ^The undersigned, 
a Committee of the Board of Trustees of Westminster College, 
have the pleasure of informing you, that at a. meeting of uie 
Board held in Fulton on the 19th of the present month, you 
were b^ a unanimous vote elected a Professor in said College. 
With the hope that no obstacle will interfere with your 
acceptance of the appointment, and with earnest prayer for 
your prosperity and the welfare of the College, 

We are with kind regards, 

YoUr obedient servants, 

A. V. 0. 8CHENCK, 


On the 23d of June, 1857, the chair of Mathematics was 
tendered me, through Mr. M. Q. Sin^fleton and Rev. S. S. Laws, 
Committee, which I agreed to fill, and have done so ever-since, 
according to the best of my ability. 

II. Reiatiors to otheb Depabticents. In the Catalogue 
of 1859, the several Departments are called ''Schools." This 
name was acceptable to the majority of the Faculty, and is 
perhaps the best that can be used, as it indicates the separate 
and independent character of each; and it here brings out 
clearly that feature prevalent in our best Colleges, that each 
attends to his own department, and meddles not with that 
which is imder the care of others; and also recognizes the 
grand principle that each one is responsible to the Board only 
for his efficiency and success. It has also relieved the Faculty 
of those troubles to which they were subject a few years since, 



from not having our duties specificany defined. Our present 
plan is to allow each Professor to determine what he shall 
assign to each class, and how much time shall be exacted. Awi^ 
although no noticeable evil has yet sprung up under this prac- 
tice, the Board will readily see that any one of us in his great 
enthusiasm for his favorite science or study, might desire to 
give it undue prominence to the crowding out of some other, 
which is just as important to give unity and symmetry to the 
course regarded as a whole, in the full development of the in- 
tellectual powers. But the wisdom of the Board is competent to 
control this matter. 

III. The Pbinciples bt which I have been oontbolled. 
1. — ^In my own recitation room, I have always regarded myself 
supreme as to the government of the class, so far indeed, if nec- 
essary, as to require the prompt withdrawal of any unruly mem- 
ber, and final exclusion from the room, unless there was a satis- 
factory adjustment of the difficulty. And I may as well re- 
mark just here, that I do not recall a single instance during 
the whole year past, of any infraction of any important regu- 
lation in my department^ and much less have I had any occa- 
sion to trouble the Faculty with any irregularity in my classes, 
nor found any difficulty in retaining those who had once en- 
tered them. The plan to secure this quiet and pleasant result 
has simply been a mild and persuasive manner, but a firm and 
decided course. 

2. — On all matters coming before the Faculty for consulta- 
tion, I have when called on, considered it a duty to express my 
opinion, and have been ready to give my vote. On the other 
hand, I have not been desirous of sharing, (as a matter of 
choice,) in the government of the College, and whenever the 
President has claimed the power in matters of discipline and 
government, I have acquiesced. 

3. — I have ever considered it my duty to use my personal 
exertions to preserve good order about the Collie, morning, 
noon, and night, and to encourage cheerful obedience to known 
rules and regulations. 



4. — I have ever been willing to take a proper share of the 
studies not belonging to any particular department, and to 
teach as many hours per day as any member of the Faculty. 

5. — ^In all matters not determined by the Board, I expect 
to do what I conscientiously, with all the light I have, believe 
to be right, trusting that as my past acts have been done for 
the good of the College generally, so the future win not mark 
any thing done for merely personal gratification, or selfish 
and sinister ends. 

IV. That the Board may have an entire view of my de- 
partment, their attention is called to what is taught in 


The course in Mathematics embraces the following subjects : 

1. — PuBE Mathematics. — Algebra^ (Geometry, Trigonome- 
try, Analytical Geometiy, Differential and Integral Calculus. 

2. — ^MiXED Mathematics. — ^Mensuration of Heights, Dis- 
tances, Surfaces and Solids; Surveying, Leveling, Navigation, 
Mechanics and Astronomy. 

The course occupies five years, and embraces five classes. 

To the firsts or Sub-Freshman Class, is taught Elemen- 
tary Algebra; a thorough knowledge of the signs, symbols, and 
elementary principles is acquired ; also, correct notions of equa- 
tions of the first and second degree, and of the Binomial 
Theorem with positive exponents. Progression, etc. Numerous 
problems, showing the practical application of the general prin- 
ciples are solved. 

The Freshman Class studies Plane, Solid and Spherical 
Geometry. Simultaneously, higher Algebra is taught, especially 
as a pure Science. Problems and Numerical Solutions are in- 
troduced only so far as is necessary to impart skill and ease 
in analyzing. The doctrine of negative quantities and expo- 
nents and of infinite terms, and Sturm's Theorem, are subjects 
of rigid mental discipline. 

The Sophomore Class begins with Logarithms, of which 
the nature^ properties, method of computation and use, are 



carefully elucidated. Plane, Analytical and Spherical Trig- 
onometiy, with the applications to mensuration, surreying, 
leveling and navigation, are thoroughly studied. This class 
has, also, field exercises in surveying, and instruction in plot- 
ting. Analytical Geometry receives attention the second ses- 
sion of this year ; its striking characteristics are shown, the dif- 
ference between it and Synthetical Geometry pointed out. The 
application of Algebra to Geometry, the discussion, analyti- 
cally, of the properties of the Conic Sections, Cycloid, etc., 
are strictly attended to. The Differential Calculus claims a 
part of the time of this class. After the usual discussions of 
various algebraic and transcendental fimctions of Maclaurin 
and Taylor's Theorem, etc., the doctrine of Mawima and 
Minima, and the theory of curves, are clearly exhibited, with 
their applications to many useful and practical examples. The 
logic, utility and philosophy of Mathematics, by recitations and 
lectures, are presented to this class. 

The Junior Class, after a thorough review of the Differ- 
ential Calculus, commences the Integral Calculus, analyzes the 
various formulae for integrating, and applies this branch of 
study to examples in the rectification, quadrature, etc., of 
curves, and the cubature of solids, etc. To this Class is pre- 
sented a syllabus of the whole science of Mathematics; and the 
divisions of the several parts and their relation to each other, 
are clearly presented to view. In the Mixed Mathematics, this 
class enters upon the study of Mechanics. It is taught prin- 
cipally in the analytic method, thus applying the principles so 
beautifully discussed in the Analytical Geometry and Calculus. 
The introduction of this method has frequently met with oppo- 
sition even in our oldest colleges, but it is believed it is a de- 
cided success in Westminster. The Professor of Mathematics 
has charge of the Senior Class in Astronomy. In addition to 
what are regarded as the ordinary topics of pursuit in this 
sublime science, the class is carefully drilled in Problems in 
Nautical Astronomy, and in demonstrating many of the most 
important propositions in Universal Gravitation. Special at- 



tention is given to the projection and calculation of eclipses 
and occultations. Lectures both written and oral are delivered 
to this class, on the Histoiy of Astronomy — its recent pro- 
gress — the planetary and stellar worlds, with many illustra- 
tions by diagrams and the Magic Lantern, and on the various 
systems from the Pythagorean down to the Newtonian. 

It is also contemplated to introduce Descriptive Geometiy 
and Engineering the coming year in this department. 

The text books heretofore used have been Davies' New 
Elementary Algebra^ Loomis' Course of Mathematics, Peck's 
Mechanics, Olmsted's Astronomy, and Loomis' Practical As- 
tronomy with frequent references to other works of standard 
merit. Hereafter constant reference will be made to Davies' 
Course of Mathematics, Hackley's Algebra and Trigonometry, 
Church's Analytical Geometry and Calculus, Courtenay's Cal- 
culus, and Pratt's Mechanical Philosophy, Bartlett's Analytical 
Mechanics and Spherical Astronomy, etc. 

To secure familiarity with the fundamental branches in 
this School, it has been determined to examine once a year, 
aU the classes in Arithmetic, Algebra, and Geometry. 

V. I feel that I should be regarded as wanting in atten- 
tion to the true interests of the class committed to my trust, 
if I should let this opportimity pass, without laying before the 
Board some pressing wants in this department. Annually we 
feel more and more the need of a good Theodolite, Sextant or 
Quadrant, and a set of large Globes. The Theodolite is of 
essential service in field and triangular Surveying, etc., etc., 
the Sextant in measuring angular distances of celestial ob- 
jects, and in assisting us in determining latitude and longitude, 
the time of day, etc. It is a hiuniliating fact, that whilst 
some of the classes have laboriously, but cheerfully, attended 
to Mathematical Astronomy and the computation of Eclipses, 
we have in this "first class" College, no instrument whereby 
we can determine our latitude and longitude, even approxi- 
mately. Our classes in Spherical Navigation and Astronomy 
cannot be taught with the highest degree of success without the 
aid of large Globes, say Malby of London's 36 inch. 




I do not therefore doubt, that the Board in its wisdom, 
will see, not only the propriety, but consistency and justice 
of providing us with these few instruments deemed so essential, 
as early as possible; for surely, if the department that has to 
do with the youngest and least appreciating class of students, 
''has been furnished with all the improvements for the highest 
success of teacher and pupil," the advantages to accrue to those 
most advanced in science and just about to leave us and enter 
upon active life, should not be overlooked. 

I have. Gentlemen of the Board of Trustees, the honor of 
being with due respect. 

Your humble and obedient seirant, 

Prof, Mathematics in WestminBter CoUege, 
Fulton, Mo., Jtme 26, 1860. 




Gentiaicen of the Boabd of Tbustees of Westhhtsteb COIr 

LE6E: — 

The following is the report of the 


The subjects of instruction in this department, are the 
Latin Language and Literature. The course requires seven 
years. There are seven classes, three of which are pursuing 
a preparatory course, and all of them are under the immediate 
and exclusive control of the regular Professor. 

The subjoined list will give a conspectus of the studies pur- 
sued, and the text books used, in this department. 

febst teas. 

Andrews' Latin Lessons. 

Andrews' and Stoddard's Latin Grammar. 




Andrews' Latin Reader. 

Amold'8 First and Second Latin Book. 


Andrews' Cesar. 

Virgil's Aeneid — Cooper. 

Arnold's First and Second Latin Book completed. 


Lincoln's Livy. 

Horace's Odes and Epodes — Schmitz and Zumpt. 

Arnold's Prose Composition begun. 

Classical Geography and Chronology — ^Eschenburg. 

Lectures on Mythology. 

History of the Middle Ages — ^Wilson. 


Horace's Satires and Epistles — Schmitz and Zumpt. 
Cicero's Select Orations — Schmitz and Zumpt. 
Tacitus' Germania — ^Tyler. 
Archaeology of Literature and Art — ^Eschenburg. 
History of Classical Literature — Eschenburg. 


Tacitus' Histories — ^Tyler's. 

Quintilian, or Cicero de Oratore — ^Kingsley's. 


Cicero de Officiis — ^Thacher's. 
Horace's Art of Poetry — Schmitz and Zumpt. 
Lectures on Latin Literature. 
It may be a matter of interest to state that while different 
editions are useful for reference, only those mentioned above 
are allowed to appear in the recitation room. 

The following works are recommended: Andrews' Latin 
Lexicon, Ramshom's Latin Synomymes, Long's Classical Atlas, 
Smith's Classical Dictionary, Becker's Gallus, and the Histori- 
cal works of Arnold and Liddell. 



To the student of language, a good Grammar is of all bo<^ 
the most important, and the foimdation of succesg must be 
laid in a thorough acquaintance with its principles. Through- 
out the entire course the classes are drilled in the Grammar, 
and a fixed portion of time is taken up in this way before com- 
mencing the ordinary reading lesson. When a student is called 
on to recite, he rises^ advances to a table, and reads from a 
book provided for the purpose. This method throws every one 
on his real scholarship. All the classes as high as the Junior, 
are required to conform to the same order of parsing, which 
is made both minute and fundamental. When a word is given 
out, the student is expected, without further delay, to tell all 
about it; if it be a verb, for instance, he is required to state 
the conjugation, to conjugate it and give the voice, mood, tense, 
number, person, agreement and the Rule by number; if an 
adjective he is required to state the declension, to decline it 
and give the gender, number, case, agreement, and the Rule — 
and BO of the other parts of speech. 

The method of teaching by lectures has been adopted to a 
limited extent; but in teaching language it is confidently be- 
lieved that the chief reliance must be placed in the system 
which requires the student to translate, analyze and explain 
the text, while the instructor corrects his errors and makes 
such explanations as may be necessary. 

This School combines the OllendorflSan system as found in 
First and Second Latin Book, and Andrews' Latin Exercises 
have been used preparatory to composition in both Prose and 
Verse. The Prose composition is begun in the Freshman year 
and continued till completed. It is felt that exercise in con- 
verting English into Latin, and practice in the Collocation of 
words and clauses and differences of idiom, are indispensably 
necessary to genuine scholarship. 

Of the two methods of pronunciation, the English and the 
Continental, the former has been adopted, thoroughly taught, 
and strictly adhered to. Conformity is required of all the 
students, whatever may have been the practice of the schools 
and academies from which they come. 



Each student is allowed a certain number of minutes to 
recite; and thus time is made, as far as possible, the standard 
of perfection. 

Every member of a class bears some part in the recitati<xi, 
and is graded accordingly. 

Should any one be absent part of a session, no allowance 
is made in the examination necessary to pass to a higher class. 

One-fifth of the time during the Freshman and Sophomore 
years has been devoted to Eschenburg's Classical Manual, em- 
bracing Geography, Chronology, Mythology, Antiquities, Arch- 
aeology of Literature and Art, and the History of Literatture. 
This subject has, the past session, been taught by lectures, 
as it will be in the future. 

Kiepert's Classical Maps have been used in teaching Ancient 
Geography, and also for illustration in the daily recitaticms. 

The reins of government in the Latin School, have always 
been held with a kind yet firm hand. Every young man and 
boy is expected to work faithfully and behave himself as a 
gentleman. Example is more powerful than precept. In ac- 
cordance with this truth, the belief is entertained that the 
beet and most effective way to teach the young to be courteous 
and polite, is by being so towards them. This plan is followed 
as far as possible with all. Whenever the conduct of a student 
renders it evident that he is not susceptible of government by 
kindness and appeal to the better principles of the heart, 
authority is at once promptly used. Perfect order is exacted 
of all. No communication is ever permitted in the class room. 
If, at any time, a student becomes negligent, he is immediately 
looked after and brought back to duty. 

The position of every pupil is determined by the Professor 
of Latin, in whose hands are all the regulations of this de- 

Whenever a student shows himself incapable of pursuing 
the studies of a given class he is at once placed where he can 
labor to advantage. 

Hereafter no one will be permitted to enter this depart- 



ment until he can bring a certificate of adequate scholarship 
from the Professor of the English School. As a general thing 
those succeed best in Latin who are best acquainted with their 
own language; while those ignorant of English are continually 
laboring under disadvantages. 

This is deemed the proper place to call the attention of 
the Board to the fact that the labor in this department requires 
six hours a day. During the last two years it has been found 
necessaiy to employ a tutor to instruct one of the lower classes. 

Very respectfully, 





To THE BOABD OST Tbustees OF Westminsteb Colubge: 

Gentlemen: — The incumbent of the chair of Greek, begs 
leave to submit the following report on the methods of 
instruction and government pursued in this department. 

As was stated in the last Catalogue, "the effort to combine 
the rigorous exactitude of the old grammatical drilling with 
the flexibility of the modem or Ollendorffian system," is spe- 
cially prominent. Much attention is given to written exercises. 
It is as true here as elsewhere, that "writing makes an exact 
man." This system has found its way into the Second (or 
Beginning,) and the Sub-Freshman Classes. Arnold's "Greek 
Prose Composition" has been finished during the past year by 
the Freshman and Sophomore Classes, and will hereafter be 
required of the Sub-Freshman class in connection with the 
Greek Header. 

There is another feature of the instruction here, which 
may be worth mentioning, and wh^ch has been introduced into 
the Freshman class and those below, with gratifying success. 
It consists in the Instructor's translating for the class a portion 



of the course, that they may thus prepare much longer lesscms, 
and so acquire a much wider acquaintance with classic authors 
than formerly. The reason of this practice will be obvious 
from a single remark. While a language is in one sense found 
in the Grammar and Lexicon, and while these are to be used 
with strict fidelity and accuracy, it is found in a far higher 
sense, in the authors themselves. In a word, it is supposed 
that even a dead language (which the Greek is not,) ought to 
be studied in view of the fact, that no man acquires effective 
use of his vernacular from grammars and dictionaries, but by 
speaking, reading, and composing. 

Greek haa never been a speciality in Westminster College 
till the past year. It was taught by different men, and he who 
was most responsible for this department, still found his atten- 
tion distracted by subjects properly belonging to other chairs. 
To turn the present division of labor to the highest use, it was 
thought best that the teacher of Greek should hear every lesson 
himself. Being thus without assistance, and the permanent 
interests of Greek scholarship in the Ck)llege requiring special 
labor with the lower classes, it has been impossible, this first 
year, to prepare a course of lectures on Greek Literature. This, 
however, is a favorite feature of the course aa now digested, 
and such preparation has been made for it, as the scant leisure 
of a laborious year has afforded. 

With regard to government, justice and kindness are ac- 
corded to students, and are made the basis of exactions, whidi 
some regard as unduly strict. But long experience has shown, 
that rigid requirements having somewhat the type of military 
discipline, are appreciated by good students, as conducing both 
to interest in study and to general enjoyment. An important 
means of securing good order in the recitation room, is to give 
students something to think of, and to require the undivided 
attention of the claas to the entire business of the hour. In 
proportion as thought is awakened, insubordination is felt to 
be unseemly. Disorder in this department, it is gratifying to 
say, is extremely rare, and without the solace of talents or 
attainments. For the success which has attended the discipline 



in the School of Greek, a due acknowledgment should be made 
to the sagacity and efficiency of the honored President of the 
College. The division of the work of instruction into distinct 
schools, has been made under his auspices, and has been found 
most satisfactory in practice. The respect which he commands 
in presiding over the general interests of the College, is felt in 
every department, while the independence and supremacy of 
each man in his own sphere, secure executive efficiency, and 
leave no reasonable occasion for collision with President or 





Arnold's First Greek Book; Bullion's Greek Grammar. 


Bullion's Greek Reader, and Arnold's Greek Prose Composition, 



Bullion's Greek Reader, and Arnold's Greek Prose Composition, 


Greek Reader, and Arnold's Prose Composition, finished. 
Anthon's Prosody. 



Xenophon's Anabasis, (Anthon's) ; Boise's Exercises. 


Johnson's Herodotus; Owen's Thucydides; Oral and Written 





Anthon'B Iliad. 


Xenophon's Memorabilia; the Oration of Demosthenes on the 
Crown, with Prelections once a week throughout the year; 
Oral and Written Exercises. 



Oedipus Rex, with Antigone or Medea; Choral Scanning. 


Plato against the Atheists. Lectures. General Review of the 
Ollendorfi&an Course throughout the year. 



Aristotle's Ehics, Rhetoric and Poetics with Lectures; Oral 
and Written Exercises. 


Longinus; Systematic Conspectus of the entire Greek Course. 

Professor Oreek Languor aaid Literature, 
June, 1860. 



GENTLEMEN: — ^The following report is respectfully sub- 
mitted for your consideration. It is hoped that it embraces a 
statement, su£Scient in detail of the plan and workings of the 



English School of Westminster College, to enable you to judge 
of its present condition and future prospects. 

A school of English, associated with those of Latin, Greek, 
and the higher Mathematics, meets some retarding influences. 
It has been said 'that novelty and greatness are the great com- 
manders of admiration," and this truth seems to be demon- 
strated, when we meet so many youths that are disposed to neg- 
lect their mother tongue and hasten on to the languages of 
Demosthenes and Cicero, which they count as ffreatneaa. It is 
natural for young men to catch the spirit of whatever is going 
on about them, whether it be good or bad, and it requires no 
little care to regulate their notions in regard to the study of 
Latin and Greek, and to satisfy them that thorough En^ish 
must be made the basis. 

This closes the fourth session since the organization of this 
school, and, though in a formative condition, yet it is believed 
that it meets, to a good degree, a crying necessity that is sound- 
ing forth from almost every college in the land. 

The following is a synopsis of the course recommended, and 
exhibits the distribution of studies, and also serves as a list 
of authors of text-books. 


Butler's English Grammar. 

McGuffey's Elements of Reading — sixth Reader. 

Parker and Watson's Speller. 

Eaton's Arithmetic. 

Stoddard's Intellectual Arithmetic. 

Pay son, Dunton & Scribner's Penmanship. 


Analysis and Parsing in Boyd's Milton. 
Quackenbos' English Composition. 
Stoddard's Intellectual Arithmetic. 
Double Entry Book-keeping. 
Warren's Geography. 
Willson's United States History. 





Wilson's Elements of Punctuation — first session. 
Everett's English Versification — second session. 


Caldwell's Elocution — ^flrst session. 

Hows' Shakespearian Reader — second session. 


Fowler's English Grammar — large work. 
Willson's Outlines — Modem History. 


Mills' English Literature. 

The attainments required for admission should not be less 
than the following: The elements of language aa found in 
spelling books, a ready pronunciation in Reading, Primary Geo- 
graphy, and the fundamentals of Arithmetic. 

The work of this School embraces a course of thorough in- 
struction in such subjects as are deemed essential to a high 
standard of English scholarship. 

Any candidate for admission who can stand an examination 
in all the studies of the first year, can be examined in any of the 
subjects of the second year, and, if found proficient, can substi- 
tute Latin for Analysis and Parsing, Algebra for Mental and 
Written Arithmetic, Fowler's Grammar for Quackenbos' Eng- 
lish Composition, or for competency in any subject, can select 
any equivalent, \vhich, in the judgment of the Faculty, may 
seem to meet the demands of his case. Such as are seeking 
nothing further than a business education will complete their 
course with the studies of the Sub-Freshman Year, which may 
be pursued during the second year. 

In teaching Orthography, the Oral and Written methods 
are combined, but the former is relied on mainly for improve- 
ment in Orthoepy and vocal development, both of which can be 
most advantageously appropriated to the subject of Elocution. 
When Orthography alone is the object, the mode of instruction 




is in accordance with the following facts, which are now very 
generally recognized; that the most expeditious and successful 
way of acquiring a knowledge of this subject is by the eye; 
that the definitions of words, as well as their Orthography, 
are most readily acquired by frequent exercises written from 
dictation; and that Orthoepy and Orthography ought to be 
taught hand in hand. The authors of our Text- Book have care- 
fully prepared the department of Orthoepy: the omission of 
silent letters, which appear in italics^ renders the work purely 
phonetic. There are few whose utterance is not marked by omis- 
sions and defects of elementary sounds, and the phonetic sys- 
tem, (without the phonetic alphabet,) is made the pupiPs 
standard with which to compare his defective enunciation. 
Vocal analysis of words reveals to him the surprising fact, that 
out of the forty-three elementary sounds, there are many that 
his organs have never reached — ^much less some of the difficult 
combinations, as in the words, proh^dat^ hegg'dst, pluck'dst. 

No branch of study takes a more important place than that 
of Reading. The first year is occupied in the Elementary prin- 
ciples, including a critical examination of rhetorical classifica- 
tions of sentences, and the laws of utterance. Memorizing the 
examples illustrative of principles, is made to assist greatly in 
reducing artificial speaking (reading) to a close resemblance 
to natural speaking. The imitative powers, vigorously applied 
in the practical work, are mainly depended upon for a correct 

Elocution is merely an expansion of the subject of reading 
as taught the class in the elements. Its principles are applied 
in the use of the Shakespearian Reader, which embraces only 
the most chaste and beautiful portions of the works of the great 
dramatist. This is made too critical an exercise for any but 
the most persevering. Twenty lines often occupy an hour of 
practice and remark. The thought and style of expression are 
critically examined, which seems to be the only way to arrive 
at a natural delivery, or for the student to perceive the full 
force of Elocutionary rules. It is believed that many parts of 




this subject are more readily acquired in one's efforts at the 
delivery of his own composition. 

Instruction in English Grammar is based upon analytical 
principles. Etymology having been completed, it becomes an 
important intellectual exercise. In the use of Boyd's Milton, 
the main features of study are syntactical parsing, clausal con- 
necticms and dependencies, analysis of syntactical forms, trac- 
ing the various chains of grammatical relation as taught by 
Prof. Wright, transposition of poetical language, and a critical 
examination of the diversity of language, by means of abridging 
clauses to phrases, or expanding words and phrases into clauses, 
and by means of other grammatical equivalents. The Scripture 
and classical allusions receive attention, with a view to culti- 
vate the student's taste for the great epic poem of our own 
language. It is designed to make Classical English as profit- 
able in point of mental discipline as Olassical Latin or Greek. 

The art of English Punctuation, though long neglected or 
imperfectly comprehended even by a majority of literary men, 
should be understood by all persons, whether pursuing a com- 
mon or liberal education. Our Text-Book embraces about 150 
pages of oral and written exercises to which rules are applied, 
and the amount of practical work that the student here finds, 
makes him a ready and accurate performer. His acquaintance 
with this branch of Grammar is an important auxiliary in pav- 
ing the way to the subject of rhetorical delivery. 

That the English Language ought to be made a study in 
Colleges as well as common schools, can scarcely be questioned. 
A distinguished English scholar asks, "Is there not in its mat- 
ter and in its forms; in its historical relations and elements; 
in its grammatical and logical structure; in its ordinary uses, 
whether by the lips or the pen, for the common purposes of 
life; in its esthetical applications to eloquence and poetry; in 
it, as a portraiture of the soul of the Anglo-Saxon race, enough 
to attract, and task, and reward the mind in the full maturity 
of its powers? Besides what it has in common with other lan- 
guages, is there not in it enough of inherent interest, enough 



of difficulty, enough of fruit in disciplinal influence and prac- 
tical knowledge to entitle it to a place in Colleges by the side 
of Classical languages as a part of a liberal education T" "The 
grammar of a language," says Locke, "is sometimes to be 
studied by a grown man." 

Fowler's large work is adapted to the highest wants of a 
student in the English Langauge, affording as it does, a knowl- 
edge of the history of its origin and development, besides ex- 
hibiting it in its various elements and forms, and in its rhe- 
torical and logical relations. It embraces the philosophy of 
Grammar and takes a wide range into the subject of English 

In the subjects of Modem History and English Literature 
the Text-Books are designed to be but an outline of the matter 
to be considered, while the arrangement of topics and the man- 
ner of treating them are made to meet the taste and talent of 
the student, and perhaps to serve as an aid to his abilities in 
public speaking. 

In teaching Arithmetic care is taken to adapt the instruc- 
tion to the wants of the business community, while due atten- 
tion is given to the more general work embraced in the science 
of numbers. The tendency of our Text-Book is to prepare the 
pupil for a successful course in the higher mathematics. 

Intellectual Arithmetic is made an important aid in the 
science of numbers, and an important means of developing and 
strengthening the reasoning powers. The discipline in this reci- 
tation is rigid in every particular. The use of the book during 
class exercise is entirely prohibited. Each question for solu- 
tion is read once and only once, if done slowly and distinctly, 
and then the student is required to reproduce and solve the 
question according to the most concise, but thorough methods 
of analysis. These methods, or forms of solution, are furnished 
by the Text-Book or instructor. If the student fails in a solu- 
tion, it is because "he fails to tell one thing at a time and 
that in its proper place," and experience has shown that a 
second trial of the same question, retards rather than quickens 



progress. The nature of this feature of the exercise, seems to 
be somewhat analagous to ^assware; mending broken pieces is 
of little use. The business is not mending but making; having 
the most clear and simple intellectual patterns to work by. 

Other requirements in connection with this recitation are 
an erect posture on the floor, and rigidly accurate language, 
both in regard to construction and articulation. In short a 
lesson in Intellectual Arithmetic is designed to be a lesson in 
grammar, elocution, rhetoric and logic, as well as a lesson in 
the science of numbers. Those who have given least atten- 
tion to this subject will be most likely to regard these remarks 
as extravagant. 

Warren's Geography is used, mainly because his classifi- 
cations approximate to an analysis of the subject. Prominent 
points of instruction are latitude and longitude, and the con- 
struction of maps, while topographical and political Geography 
are not forgotten. The first stage in map drawing is to per- 
form by imitation, the second, by diagrams, and a third might 
be by the field notes of the surveyor. Lessons in descriptive 
Geography are divided into topics, and the student exercises 
his own taste and judgment in the selection and arrangement 
of matter to be delivered upon each topic, and thus is obliged 
to look beyond his Text-Book for information. It is designed 
that this exercise shall have a happy bearing upon the stu- 
dent's powers in English Composition. Pelton's Outline Maps 
are used as an indispensable aid. 

The instruction of this School includes a complete course 
in Single and Double Entry Book-Keeping. The Professor hav- 
ing had experience in the counting-room, with reference to a 
thorough preparation for the work of qualifying young men 
for business, lays aside the text-book, and prepares the exer- 
cises in the same manner in which they will appear to them 
as they go forth to the counting-room of the merchant and 

The following books of reference are accessible in the study 
and recitation room of the English School. 

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Worcester's Dictionary, 




Lippincott's Geographical Dictionary, Blake's Universal Bio- 
graphical Dictionary, Roget's Thesaurus of English Words, 
Maunder's Universal History. 

In regard to government, young men are taught to respect 
themselves that they may respect the order and discipline in 
which they bear a part. The principal means of government 
are a well-furnished and orderly arranged room for study and 
recitation, a uniform firmness that enforces prompt obedience, 
a suitable amount of work assigned to secure diligence, and a 
kind and polite treatment in connection with every require- 
ment; and in most instances misconduct is found to blush and 
hide its head. The greater the exactitude in recitation exer- 
cises, the easier the reins of government are held over an entire 
department or body of students. While the government of 
this School is in charge of one man, the executive talent of 
the Faculty is often resorted to, especially in important cases 
of discipline. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Professor of English Language and Literature, 




Fulton, Mo^ June ISth, 1860. 
The Board of Trustees of Westminster College: 

Gentlemen: — Since my occupancy of the "Charless Pro- 
fessorship of Physical Science," I have after serious delibera- 
tion, decided on the following course and method of instruc- 
tion, which I respectfully submit to your consideration, to- 
gether with an account of the present condition of my depart- 

The instruction extends through the Junior and Senior 
years; and as all the divisions of Physical Science have to be 



brought forward, it has been my endeavor so to appropriate the 
student's time that each branch of Science shall receive such 
attention as is due to its importance. 

As the object of the instruction is to instil into the student 
the philosophy of the Science, or in other words, to make him 
see clearly the manner in which we arrive step by step at the 
knowledge of the laws of the phenomena of matter, and also to 
give him what is so difficult to convey to those not experiment- 
ally acquainted with nature, true and definite physical oonoep- 
tione, all the Junior year is appropriated to Physics, the study 
of which I am convinced, will ground them in the philosophy 
of the sciences, and gradually lead them from abstract or math- 
ematical considerations, to the clearest conceptions, not of what 
we may imagine, but of what really exists. 

Chemistry stands next in importance, and therefore its 
study occupies all the first term of the Senior year. 

The second term of the Senior year is devoted to Zoology, 
Botany, Geology including Mineralogy, and the concluding lec- 
tures on Physical Geography and General Physics. 

We thus go over the whole range of Physical Science, and if 
we consider the object of scientific study in College as above 
indicated, we give to each division the time which is its due. 

Listruction is given irrespective of any text-book, which 
method allows the teacher to adopt a plan which will bring all 
the lectures to form one harmonious whole; for whether they 
be on Physics or Chemistry, or Zoology, etc., they all tend 
toward the final considerations, in the concluding lectures, of 
the highest generalizations yet reached concerning matter, 
form and force; where we do away with all arbitrary divisions 
and look upon nature as a unit. 

This plan of teaching accords with the experience of the 
best instructors in this country, and, in fact, no other course 
could be adopted in teaching Physics, for no good general 
treatise on that subject in the English language. 

The best text-books are placed in the hands of the students, 
for reference in preparing for examinations and in working up 



their lecture notes, which they are obliged to take at each 

The following are the text-books which are used in the 
course of instruction. 

Peschel's Elements of Physics, Silliman's Principles of 
Chemistry, Gray's Botanical Text-Book, Agassiz and €U)uld's 
Zoology, Hitchcock's Elementary Geology. 

A proper spirit of criticism on whatever is brought for- 
ward is encouraged in the classes, and there can be no doubt 
that the more intimate relation between Professor and student, 
thus brought about, is mutually beneficial, and fosters a spirit 
of independent judgment, which is at the foundation of all true 

The grade of a student depends on his examinations and on 
the fidelity and accuracy with which his notes are kept. The 
note books are examined thoroughly at stated intervals, and 
when it is ascertained that a student does not keep notes, he is 
regarded as outside the class. 

It has been found from experience that in this method of 
teaching, the students are kept so busy that their gentlemanly 
presence is necessarily ensured. 

Physical Science being the knowledge of the laws of the 
phenomena of matter, it is of first importance to present to 
the student these phenomena in all their minute particulars, 
so that we may have the facts for co-ordination and induction, 
in order to arrive at the laws of the phenomena, or in other 
words, at a knowledge of true Science. These laws now serve 
as data, from which, with the aid of the logic of the mathe- 
matics, we deduce new circumstances in relation to the phe- 
nomena, which new circumstances, again call in the aid of in- 
struments for their proof, and for the further certainty of the 
truth of the law to which we were brought by induction. Hence 
the prime necessity of having accurate instruments and abund- 
ant diagrams, so that these phenomena may be presented to the 
student in all their purity, without distortion or adulteration; 
and if the student be in possession of this valuable matter, 



which possession can only be obtained by witnessing, (not read- 
ing about, ) these phenomena, he actually takes great interest in 
the subsequent gradual cautious process of induction, which is 
now brought forward for his consideration, and which ends in 
the unravelling of one of nature's laws. We should now show 
the most important and beautiful applications of this law 
to engineering, to the construction of machinery, and to the 
arts, etc. 

The means of illustration now in the College, are superior 
in accuracy and extent to any other similar collection in Mis- 
souri, and no important fundamental principle has been 
brought forward without illustration. This however, can at 
present only be accomplished by the expenditure of much time 
and labor on the part of the Professor, and will so continue 
for many years, unless $10,000 more can be procured for the 
purchase of instruments, diagrams, models, objects of Natural 
History, etc., etc. But although the appropriation of $500 a 
year, is small for such a purpose, I am encouraged to think, that 
with judicious expenditure of that sum, the department may be 
brought into that condition which will encourage others to come 
forward and assist in a good cause. 

I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 





PROF. 8. 8. LAW8. 

Gentlemen: — In presenting my report, it should be ob- 
served at the outset that it is necessarily much extended by 
matters of a general import. 



Your attention is first invited to a brief statement of the 
subjects taught in this department. 

As Physical Science deals with matter, so Metaphysical 
Science is primarily and specifically occupied with mind. The 
Physical and the Metaphysical Sciences, therefore, constitute 
the two grand divisions of general science; and it is the effort 
of the Schools respectively devoted to them, to ground the 
students thoroughly in the elements of both of these radically 
important departments of inquiry. 

The leading branches of Metaphysics and the manuals 
recommended are indicated in the following table. 

1. Psychology proper, which treats of the Powers of Cogni- 

tion, Feeling and Will. Hamilton's Metaphysics. 

2. Logic as the science of the formal laws of thought. 
Whately, Hamilton. 

3. Aesthetics. 

4. Ethics. Alexander and Havens' Moral Sciences. 

5. Political Science. Mansfield's Constitution of the United 
States, and Say's Political Economy. 

The branches of Sacred Literature brought before the at- 
tention of the classes, are 

1. The Evidences of the Divine Origin of Christianity. Al- 
exander's Evidences, and Whatedy's Lessons. 

2. The Analogy between the Natural Government of God on 

the one hand, and His Moral Government, and the King- 
dom of Christ, on the other. Sutler's Analogy. 

3. Natural Theology; tracing particularly the inferences war- 
ranted by Psychology as to the substantial entity of matter, 
mind and God: or the relation of Metaphysics proper to 
Natural Theology. Buchanan's Modem Atheism, Paley's 
Natural Theology. 

4. The Hebrew is taught to a select class, as an optional 
study. Tregelles' Heads of Hebrew Grammar, Reading 
Lessons and Lexicon. 

The above course of instruction is made to extend over 
the Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and Senior years: and is im- 



parted by Lectures with the help of manuals, or by text-books 
with the help of Lectures, — ^the two being so combined as to 
economize time and guarantee as perfect a mastery of the aiib- 
jecta taught as practicable. 

It is deemed worth while to recall, in this connection, the 
fact that this Chair has been entitled the Potta Profeeaorahip, 
in honor of the Rey. W. S. Potts, D. D., a pioneer of Protest- 
antism in Missouri, the President of Marion College, and then 
the Pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, St. Louis, for 
many years before his death; a man greatly beloved and rev- 
ered for his refined, elevated and consistent Christian char- 
acter, by all who knew him: and also the fact that the Pres- 
ident of the College is, ex officio, the Potts Professor; and has 
for his salary the interest at 8 per cent, on the twenty thou- 
sand dollars endowment of this Professorship. 

It affords me pleasure to join with my colleagues in 
laying before you, in a written form, the internal organiza- 
tion' of the College. The opportunity of doing so has been an- 
ticipated for several years, and this prompted me to pen the 
resolution imder which we at present act. And the perform- 
ance of this task is at present time the more gratifying, be^ 
cause of the completeness of the arrangements which we are 
enabled to exhibit, and which have been attained after much ex- 
perience and labor, as the best practicable to meet the exist- 
ing and prospective educational wants of this great and grow- 
ing State. Although the plan of the Institution is in some im- 
portant respects novel, being unlike any other college in the 
land, yet these features have been assumed as the wisest and 
most effective that could be devised to answer the peculiar 
demands of the field of labor in which we are placed. It is 
not, therefore, a theory in the abstract^ but one in actual and 
successful working condition, which has been yielding its fruits 
for years to the great satisfaction of the friends of Westminster 
and of the public generally, which it is our lot to present. A 
word may be proper here in explanation of the circumstances 
under which these arrangements have grown up. 



In the language of the Charter, which I myBelf wrote 
under the advice ol friends: 

Sec 4 — ^The Board may organize and conduct said College 
, in such manner, and under such regulations, as they may think 
best for the interests of the institution, prescribe the course of 
study, appoint and remove members of the Faculty and such 
other officers and agents as the interests of the College or the 
Board may require, determine their duties and salaries, and 
upon the recommendation of the Faculty, shall have full power 
to confer all such degrees as are conferred by similar institu- 
tions, and to grant diplomas attesting the same, and the Pres- 
ident of the College shall be, ex officio, President of the Board 
of Trustees. 

But as affecting the internal functions of instruction and 
government, the Board has never hitherto felt it necessary to 
do more than to appoint various gentlemen as members of the 
Faculty, either with or without designating thedr chairs, con- 
fiding to them as men of reliable fidelity and judgment, the work 
of digesting their several courses of study, and such regulations 
as they, in their respective relations, should deem necessary. 
For several years after the Board entered upon the work of 
building up this Institution, whether gentlemen were appointed 
Professors with or without any particular department of labor 
being assigned, it amounted to very much the same thing with 
them, for they were all regarded as standing in a common rela- 
tion to the whole of the work to be done ; and each man was ex- 
pected to take off his coat and take in hand his due proportion 
of the crude materials and work out of it the best result in his 
power. For example, turning away from a unanimous and cor- 
dial call to take charge of one of the most interesting, important 
and infiuential churches in the State of Missouri, and at a s&c- 
rifioe of $200 a year in salary, I accepted of my first appoint- 
ment from the Board as the Professor of Physical Science, and 
came at once to enter upon my work. But lo! during my first 
session's labors, I found it necessary to teach a class of one hit 
A B C's, another class of two urchins considerably less than ten 
years of age, MitcheH's Primary Geography; another, in the 
first elements of English Grammar; still another, the elements 



of Arithmetic; and in addition to all this fundamental toil, 
four hours a week, as a sort of dessert, were devoted to the sub- 
ject of Physical Science, which I was nominally appointed to 
teach. Surely it would have been somewhat difficult to take 
a lower seat in the synagogue than that was. This is pre- 
sented as an illustration, analogies to which could be adduced 
from the experience of others, of the undigested, miscellaneous, 
and confused state of things with which those of us had to 
deal, who stood at the beginnings of this work, and out of which, 
order, harmony, dignity of character and position, and power of 
influence, had to be brought as by the fiat of a new creatipn. 
This was the general state of things to which the action of the 
Board in Boonville, 1864, pointed, — "The Faculty were directed 
to arrange the recitations in both departments of the College 
at thedr discretion;*' and this state of things still continued 
wh.en, by a unanimous action of the trustees, the Presidency 
was tendered to myself. It was not strange that a young man 
just on the threshold of his public career, should neither desire 
nor feel inclined to accept an unsought position that several 
had declined, and that involved so much responsibility and 
peril, and which had little more than the shadow of an endow- 
ment to sustain it; but unanticipated circumstances determined 
my acceptance. Without recoimting details, it may be stated 
that although attention and effort were at once devoted to the 
work of completing the organization, and of distributing the 
appropriate labors among the several departments; yet, in the 
Providence of God, the pecuniary resources were never such as 
to secure the realization of tnis cherished aim, until within the 
past twelve months. Not until about the middle of the first 
session of the present year, were all the Schools laid down in 
the last catalogue and presented in the present reports, extrica- 
ted from the embarrassments arising from their incumbent Pro- 
fessors having to share of labors that did not properly belong 
to them, and made to assume their present complete individu- 
ality and independence. But all the appointments by the 
Board are at last not only rendered definite, but each member 




of the Faculty at present feels himself responsible to the Board 
only for the labors of his own department. This being the state 
of things finally reached, the past eight years, extending from 
1862 to 1860, may with propriety, in the future history of the Col- 
lege, be termed the period of formation and organization. That 
which has laid the foundation for this grand result, is the se- 
curing of an endowment adequate to warrant it and to guaran- 
tee the future. During this period, although troubles have been 
encountered, yet God has in a remarkable manner watched 
over the enterprise, and blessed it with great favor in the eyes 
of his own people and of the world. Altogether, it is believed 
that no parallel to its success is found in the history of Colleges 
in our country; and yet, it would be wholly to misunderstand 
the work in which we are engaged, to suppose that any thing 
more than a mere beoinnino has as yet been made. 

In bringing the institution to its present state of organi- 
zation, it has been assumed that its great design is to provide 
a thorough under-graduate course of instruction; and as a 
means of its successful prosecution, an appropriate government 
and discipline. This work of instruction is distributed among 
six departments or associated schools: I. The School of the 
English Language and Literature; II. The School of the Pure 
and Mixed Mathematics; III. The School of the Latin Lan- 
guage and Literature; IV. The School of the Greek Language 
and Literature; V. The School of Physical Science; and VI. 
The School of Metaphysics and Sacred Literature. Each of 
these Schools has its duly appointed Head or Professor, and is 
complete in itself, but so associated with the others, that all 
together form only one consistent and harmonious organic 
whole, just as the body having many members, each being com- 
plete in its place, but so related to the others that all form only 
one organic whole — one body. It is as Heads of these Schools 
or Departments or Westminster Collegei, that we submit these 
several reports. 

1. These reports reveal the fact that the Latin and Greek 
classics are neither discarded nor depreciated, but thoroughly 



incorporated and taught as an indispensable part of the pre- 
scribed course. The classes in Greek cover six, and in Latin 
seven years, and are trained in double translation from the 
first, in the use of the most approved methods and helps of the 
class room. And it is profoundly believed that for the cul- 
tivation of exact, extensive and finished scholarship, nothing 
in the shape of modem expedients should ever be allowed to 
trench upon or to relax the high claims of these time-honored 
studies.* The expediency of separating entirely chairs so dis- 
tinct as the Latin and Qreek, each having so much and such 
different labor, is obvious. 

2. Again, in the Mathematical Department, the disposi- 
tion shown in many quarters to slur over the most advanced 
and difficult studies, by making them optional, has not been 
yielded to; but the aim has been to carry young men through 
the entire course from the Arithmetic to the Calculus; and 
certainly the best of provisions should be made in this quarter 
by the Board. 

3. But the provisions for the English course are believed 
to claim special attention. The report very fully explains itself ; 
and yet a few words may be added with propriety. This Depart- 
ment stands upon an entire equality with the others in point 
of compensation, dignity, and authority. It is its province to 
open the eyes of the students upon the riches of their own lan- 
guage and literature, and then to go hand in hand with them to 
the end of their course. There is no such provision as this in 
any College in the Union, and nothing could surpass its import- 
ance in an institution situated as is Westminster. 

4. It will also be observed as a novel feature of our ar- 

*Thomas Jefferson, in his note on Virginia, written 1781, 
makes the following observation, which the influence of his 
name may commend to the attention of youth who aspire to in- 
fluence and distinction in this Republic: '*The learning of 
Greek and Latin, I am told, is going into disuse in Europe. I 
know not what their manners and occupation may call for, 
but it would be ill-judged in us to follow their example in this 




rangements, that whilst we have unusual provisions for the 
instruction of classes not so far advanced as the Freshman, yet 
theire is no Preparatory Department as a distinct organiza- 
tion and under a separate Principal. According to our plan, 
each School does the Preparatory work for itself. The Pro- 
fessor of Greek has charge of all the classes below as well as 
above the Freshman in Greek, from the one beginning the 
Grammar to the Senior; and hence it is that his course covers 
six years; two of these being preparatory to the Freshman 
class, and then four years in the usual College classes; and so 
the course in Latin extends over seven, in the Mathematics six, 
and and in the English studies seven years, ending with the 
Junior year. It is found that this plan of distribution sys- 
tematizes the labor of instruction in a very clear and complete 
manner. Much time and labor are economized by it, as stu- 
dents do not have to unlearn in the advanced portion of the 
course what was previously taught and learned wrong. They 
are started right by competent hands, and then continue stead- 
ily on their way; giving, perhaps, a little more labor at the 
first and much less at the end, and so equalizing the toil, but 
laying the foundations of a deeper and broader scholarship. 
When tutors and assistants are employed, each Professor has 
direct control of the labor done in connection with his Depart- 
ment, so as to have it entirely according to his own mind, and 
stands responsible to the board for it. Altogether, therefore, 
this feature of the organization of the College, is felt to be a 
simple and satisfactory solution of one of the most difficult 
problems that confronts the effort to secure thorough Collegiate 
training, in this State, where the provisions for imparting 
the elements of such a course are so sparse and imperfect. 

It is perhaps unnecessary that anything should be added 
respecting the Schools of Physical Science and of Metaphysics 
and Sacred Literature. 

5. A feature common to the several departments, in addi- 
tion to the judicious use of text-books, is the delivery of origi- 
nal lectures upon various branches of the course; some sub- 




jects being entirely taught by lectures, of which, the classes 
are required to take notes. The nature of the subjects taught, 
as well as the tastes and accomplishments of the Professor, 
have much to do in regulating this important matter. But it 
is believed that no man can be a faithful and thorough teacher 
in a servile adherence to text-books; as subjects and not books 
are the tilings to be mastered. 

6. It is likewise seen from these reports, that the length 
of time for which the entire course makes provision is eight 
years. Many persons not understanding and appreciating the 
time and patience nqcessary in the work of education, even in 
the case of their own children, are always in a hurry to get 
their sons through or out of school, and the compliance with 
this tendency on the part of educators to too great an extent, 
has engendered much evil. Unless there is a deficiency of in- 
tellect in those bom in Missouri, which the pride of parents as 
well as the honor of the State, would hardly allow us to admit, 
there can be no good reason assigned for the toleration of a 
lower grade of scholarship in a Ck)llege organized as is West- 
minster, than in the best institution in our land. If a yoimg 
man comes to us deficient in his English education, as scores 
do, it is not necessary for him to go away, or to be allowed to 
take up studies for which he is not prepared, as the English 
School has classes for his accommodation; if he has been badly 
taught in his mathematics, all the classes from Mental Arith- 
metic to the Calculus are accessible to him ; if his start in the 
Classics has been inferior, then he can be sent back to the very 
grammar, or to any point which his case may require, and 
climb up the highest round of the course. The reason then of 
the length of time covered by the course, is that it that it is 
so extensive and so complete. There can be no excuse here for 
advanced students being allowed to go ahead notwithstanding 
their deficiencies, as there may be in Colleges where there are 
no such provisions aa these which we have found it necessary 
to make in Westminster. Clean and accurate scholarship should 
be, and under this organization we have it in our power to 
make it in fact, the only condition of advancement. 




7. The course of study laid down assumes that there 
shall be at least nine months of actual study in each year, and 
seventeen hours of recitation a week; three hours a day, except 
Saturday and Sunday, and one on each of them; the lesson of 
Sunday morning, being in the Bible. Sometimes those not 
taking a full course are allowed to make up a ticket with less 
than seventeen hours of recitation a week, that they may have 
more than average time for advanced studies, for which they 
may not be well prepared. It is generally found to be the 
fact however, that those who go regularly through the course 
in its successive stages as laid down, excel those who select 
their studies irregularly; and complete the entire course, em- 
bracing the Languages and higher Mathematics, about as soon 
as those get through who take only a partial one by omitting 
them. Experience is decidedly on the side of the regular 
course, for all such as are competent to receive a good education. 

8. The flexibility of our arrangement is another of its 
virtues. If a student desires to enter only one of the Schools, 
he is at liberty to do so provided he take his due amount of 
labor. If any wish to study the English branches alone, to 
qualify themselves for business, or for teaching, they can do so; 
if they wish to study mathematics in any of its branches, so 
as to prepare, say for surveying, this can be done thoroughly 
in the School of Mathematics; if they wish to pursue only 
the Physical or Metaphysical Sciences, they can take them 
alone, and so of the others; or some studies may be selected 
from one, and some from others of the Departments, to suit the 
wishes and circumstances of the pupils. Moreover, the same 
flexibility is observable in regard to the prospective growth 
and enlargements of the College. As means and patronage in 
the future shall enable and demand, the Trustees will flnd it 
expedient to sub-divide the labor of these Schools, and to or- 
ganize new Schools,* which will be entirely practicable, with- 

♦The Trustees can establish a Normal, an Agricultural, a 
Medical, or a Law School, or a School of Theology, without in- 
terfering with the labor of the Faculty of Arts, or in any man- 
ner changing the existing arrangements and requirements for the 
under-graduate course. 




out any change in this fundamental arrangement. The time, too, 
may come when the Preparatory classes can be wisely dis- 
pensed with; but this will not be in our day. 

There are certain regulations of the nature of Ck)llege 
laws which should be particularly noted, as having been found 
effective in the maintenance of government and discipline. 

a. No student is admitted into any of the Schools unless 
he gives satisfactory evidence of a good moral character; nor 
into any of the classes without the scholarship required for 
them, by the prescribed course; and any young man, on with- 
drawing from the Institution, temporarily, or finally, is granted 
a letter of dismission, with every testimonial of character and 
scholarship to which he is entitled. 

h. Each Professor determines for himself, in the exercise 
of his own discretion, the admission of students into any of 
his classes, and thedr standing therein for conduct, industry 
and scholarship; and adopts such plans of instruction, and 
rules and regulations as in his own judgment are deemed best 
for the promotion of the work entrusted to his hands, being 
amenable only to the Board for the fidelity and success of his 
labors. This has ever been a ruling principle of action com- 
mon to all the Schools, and in no instance has there been any 
violation of it, as it is the thing that gives individuality and 
power to the several Heads of the departments. 

0. The programmes of recitation and grading are ad- 
justed by the Faculty on joint consultation and agreement, 
so as to enable each to share his proportion of the time of the 
classes and to exhibit with uniformity and in an aggregate 
and definite form, the results of his labors. 

d. The Faculty meet regularly every Friday afternoon, 
and at such other times as any member of the Faculty may 
have occasion for their doing so, to consult and to transact 
such business as may come before them. 

e. No constraint is employed as to the course a yoimg 
man shall pursue, but when he has once had his studies and his 
recitations for a given session assigned, he is not allowed to 



make anj change whatever, without the knowledge and approba- 
tion of the Professor in charge of the study which he wishes 
to change. If a student wishes to take only a partial course, he 
is at liberty to make a choice of any subjects for which he is 
prepared, and in which he can recite without a collision of 
hours; but those who are candidates for graduation and the 
honor of a degree and diploma, are not allowed to exercise any 
discretion, but are required to pursue the prescribed course in 
each of the foregoing Departments; as they are so adjusted as 
to constitute simply the imder-graduate course. 

f. As the Trustees do not confer the A. B. degree on any 
who have not completed the undergraduate course embraced in 
the plan of the Institution, the members of the Faculty give 
young men who take only a partial course, certificates testify- 
ing to the proficiency they may have attained in their several 

g. As a candidate for graduation is required to complete 
the entire course of these six Schools, it is necessary that he 
command the suffrage of every one of the Professors of them, in 
order to be recommended to the Board for graduation; so that 
a failure to graduate from any one oi the six Schools is neces- 
sarily a barrier to his receiving the honor of a degree as a grad- 
uate from the College. A graduate of the College is a gradu- 
ate of every one of these six Departments, as they are so or- 
ganized as to constitute but one course, — the under-graduate 

K Students are not allowed to absent themselves from 
the Institution without a previous permission irom some mem- 
ber of the Faculty, and no member of the Faculty excuses ex- 
cept from his own rolls; but it is usual to accept of a per- 
mission of absence thus obtained, as a sufficient excuse in all 
the departments. The President excuses from the chapel roll. 
Five unexcused absence marks during the same session, dis- 
count the grade for conduct 10 per cent, and notice is given 
in Chapel ; the next five incur also a notice to parents or guard- 
ians, and liability to removal at any time for negligence of 



duty. All absence marics whether excused or unexcused are 

t. All the students are required to attend the Chapel ser- 
vice every morning, conducted by members of the Faculty, each 
a week at a time, and a sermon or lecture Sabbath afternoon 
or night, by the President. Each student is assigned his num- 
ber on the seats in the Chapel, and is not allowed to change 
without permission, and is held responsible for the condition 
in which it is kept, note being taken of marking, spitting, or 
of any damage. Instead of calling the roll at the second service 
on Sabbath, Monitors are appointed from the several classes, 
and required to report on Monday morning the absentees. 

j. All excuses from the Chapel roll are required to be in 
writing; and no excuse will be received which would not be 
regarded sufficient for a negflect of any other College duty. 

k. When the students convene for worship, they are re- 
quired not to loiter about the building, but go at once to their 
numbers and there to be seated, and quiet; observing the same 
order as would be expected in a church. 

{. They are not allowed to be about the building, nor in 
the halls, nor in any of the rooms of the building, during rec- 
itation hours, unless engaged in recitation, or by the special 
permission of some member of the Faculty; and to prevent 
any disturbance of the classes at recitation, perfect quietness 
and order in all parts of the building are made necessary. 

m. The classes are required to make their transition from 
one recitation room to another, promptly and quietly, at the 
proper signal. 

n. No marking of the walls or defacing of the building 
or furniture in any way is allowed; and a student that does 
any damage is required to repair it. 

o. The students are expected to deport themselves as gen- 
tlemen, and to be respectful and courteous in their bearing to- 
wards each other and to the members of the Faculty. 

p. It is always assumed that young gentlemen are truth- 



ful, until the contrary appear. And when called on to do bo, 
they are required to give frankly and truthfully all the infor- 
mation in their possession, respecting any occurrence or mis- 
conduct affecting the good order of the institution. It is bei- 
lieved to be a bad principle and a dishonor to allow students 
to cloak each other's misdoing and that it tends directly to 
overturn all the moral restraints of order and discipline, and 
to train up corrupt citizens. This regulation in a College re- 
garding open and truthful information, holds the place of the 
grand jury in the community. The wrong doer must be known 
before he can be reformed by the exercise of forbearance and 
leniency as well as by admonition and justice. And if the prob- 
abilit^ies of detection are multiplied, the liability of being led 
astray is decreased in a corresponding ratio: and such a regula- 
tion can never be a terror to any but evil doers, the very ones 
whom it is desirable to deter from coming to the College, or 
from continuance in it^ or from misdemeanor whilst in it. Its 
operation must, therefore, be found to be exceedingly whole- 

q. No student is allowed to have or carry weapons, 
sword canes, pistols, and other than pen knives; and the send- 
ing or accepting of a challenge subjects to the highest penalty. 

r. False witnessing, uncleanness of person and conduct 
or language, and profanity are strictly forbidden. 

8. The drinking of intoxicating liquors, and not merely 
intoxication, is strictly prohibited; and the rigid and inflexible 
enforcement of this regulation is found to be indispensable. 

i. Card playing, betting and gambling in every form, are 

II. Attendance on circuses is not allowed; and attend- 
ance on shows, or any public entertainments, when forbidden, 
is an offense. 

r. The property and peace of the citizens are in no way 
to be disturbed. 

to. Students are allowed to board in respectable private 
families, and having selected their boarding house and re- 



ported the same, are not allowed to change unless by permission 
of a member of the Faculty. And it is required of them to 
conform to the household regulations as to meals, hours, wor- 
ship, etc., of the families in which they board. 

», Students are nerer allowed to be on the streets, nor 
in the storw, about town, except on business, whi(^ is to be 
promptly attended to; nor to be away from their own rooms, 
except at appropriate times for recreation in some inoffensive 
and honorable manner. 

y. Immoral and disorderly conduct, habitual neglect of 
regular duties, persistent disregard of even the smallest regu- 
lation, are sufficient reasons for the removal of any student 
from the institution; and, in general, a distinct public an- 
nouncement of any requirement which may be judged neces- 
sary or expedient, has always been considered a sufficient reason 
for requiring a prompt and respectful compliance. 

z. The gradations of penalty attaching to misconduct 
are private admonition; open admonition in class room; re- 
buke in the presence of the Faculty; rebuke in open chapel. in 
the presence of the students and Faculty; suspensions for 
various lengths of time; dismission;, and expulsion. Each 
Professor holds in his hands these means of deterring those 
under his care from the violation of the regulations of his de- 
partment; and in the exercise of his .own discretion, or by con- 
sultation with his 'colleagues, or by a reference of the case to 
their judgment, employs these means for the maintenance of 
order and discipline. The secret of the effectiveness of the gov- 
ernment of the College in the several departments, is found 
in the fact that each member of the Faculty is in his own School 
supreme. His respfmsibility and his power coincide; and in 
accordance with one of the wisest of political maxims, the 
means of maintaining order are proportioned to the end. In 
a word, it is not by a vote <^ his colleaguee, but in the exercise 
of his own discretion, sustained by the individual or united 
counsel or expressed jud^ent of the entire Faculty, that each 
Professor in the College conducts his department, holding him- 


self directly and only reeponsible to the Board of Trustees for 
the success with which he manages it. This is one method 
of maintaining government and discipline in a College, and is 
the one which has worked most effectively in Westminster. 

In the government of a College, as in the government of a 
State, no more and no other laws should be laid down than 
such as are believed to be necessary and best to secure the 
end for which it exists. And a single principle if possible 
should vitalize the whole. The end of a college course is the 
development and discipline of the student's whole complex 
nature; so that it is not enough that supervision be extended 
only to the performances of the recitation room; but it should 
also extend to the entire deportment and associations of those 
in this formative state. Every member of the Faculty, there- 
fore, feels himself to be the guardian of the unfolding charac- 
ter of every student under his care, and not simply the hearer 
of his recitations, much less a mere stem disciplinarian in case 
of his misconduct. One reason of our students forming such 
strong attachments for the institution is, that it is the mani- 
fested desire to cultivate habits of kind and free intercourse 
with them, and to influence them by appeals to the better prin- 
ciples of the heart, rather than by severe and disgraceful dis- 
cipline. If, however, the conduct of a student renders it evi- 
dent that he is not susceptible to such influence, he is, if possi- 
ble, without disgrace, returned to his friends, in the hope that 
under other circumstances he may yet form a character which 
will give promise of usefulness. 

Avoiding the folly of approving the old as necessarily the 
best under all circumstances, and of condenming the new as 
necessarily evil, and endeavoring to mark out a course de- 
manded by the peculiar exigencies and wants of the enterprise 
actually in hand, from the first of his administration, the 
President has pursued in his own department, and in his gen- 
eral relations to the students, the same principle of action 
as the other members of the Faculty. He and his colleegues 
are alike and only responsible to the Board of Trustees for 



the maimer in which they have exercised their discretionary 
powers in their relations to the administration of the govern- 
ment of the College.* The result is, that whilst Westminster 
has not in any of its Schools been governed by the vote of the 
Faculty, but in each and in its general interests by the discre- 


*Tbe followinfr extract from a communication to Synod in the fall of 18S8 
by Professors Fisher« Kemper, and Sirongr, which there was no occasion for 

E resenting, has occurred as suited to remove and to guard against misappre- 
ension on the point here involved. 

*'The relation of our President to the members of the Faculty has been 
ludicrously caricatured as his relation to the students. It has been supposed 
that we were a set of underlings, quietly doing the bidding of our superior— 
a set of tools in a grammar School, liable to be dismissed at the caprice of our 
Principal. Indeed, in regard to one of us, a teacher of nearly twenty years, 
the wonder has been expr essed that he too, characterized in past vearb by 
surly independence, should now 'bend the suppliant hinges of the knee' to 
President Laws. Now all this is the farthest conceivable ^om the truth. Our 
relations to our President are those of colleagues and of independent gentle^ 
men. And such stuff as this we should not bring up before a grave ecclesias- 
tical bodv, had it not in the hands of prejudice and malice, become potential 
against character and the interest of religion and learning. 

* * * * But to be more particular as to the relations of Presi- 
dent and Faculty. So far from being President Laws' tools, we think there 
is that in our position with respect to him and each other, which recognizes 
and fosters independence in a remarkable degree. Bach one of us, in his own 
department, is sovereign, so far as President Laws is concerned. So far as 
we come in contact with students, we have the same kind and the same 
measure of power that he has. We are certainly not embarrassed in any of 
our functions for want of power to secure respect and enforce discipline. We 
choose our own text-booln, and our own plans, and President Laws never 
thinlcs of entering our recitation room to dictate or inspect, any more than 
we assume to take a like course with him. He treats us as his colleagues, as 
his equals, as gentlemen. We claim and exercise the power to exclude from 
our classes any student whose incorrigible bad habits we deem to be incon* 
sistent with the best interesu of our classes, or who may persist in disrespect- 
ful words or acts towards an instructor. And not only in class room, but 
everywhere else, where our legitimate functions require the exertion of au- 
thority, we are untrammeled by the President. One of us, at least, has been a 
member of another College Faculty, and has been observant of the relations 
of Professors in the east and west, and he knows no College where there is a 
greater relative respectability in office or more real power in the hands of the 
rrofesson. • * • gm another cau^e will be found in 

the peculiar circumstances of the College when the President was appointed 
to office. The College had been without a head. The members of the Fac- 
ulty presided in rotation in the Faculty meetings for the term of one week. 
This scattered power was found to be unwieldy and onerous to the Profess- 
ors. An institution under such circumstances is in danger of being governed 
to death. Besides, there was at that time, little permanency in the chairs and 
a very crude division of labor. Things had not crystalized into order. The 
Presiaent took hold of this chaos, and neither Synod, nor Board, nor Faculty, 
thought of assisting him by any written code. He had the sagacity to see 
that the body wanted a single administrative head; and at least two members 
of the Board recollect, that on accepting his office he announced, that In all 
that related to the general government of the College, he would find it neces- 
sary to assume a special personal responsibility. Not knowing who would be 
his colleagues, there was the greater need of a centralization of oversight 
and discipline. *The tree may be judged by iu fruits.' " 



tionary power of each one in his place; there has been the moet 
perfect harmony and efficiency of action. In no instance, and 
the same I believe to be true of them also, has any course been 
adopted except upon the united approbation of my colleagues, 
with whose counsel I have been favored, and whose views I 
have often adopted as my own. The government of the Col- 
lege, therefore, up to this time, since my relation to it as its 
President, has been eminently one of unanimity. Nor has 
there during this whole period been a single case of expulsion 
from the College, (with one qualified exception,) nor from 
any of the departments; although there have been several cases 
of dismission, and a number of cases of reproof. It is true 
that this plan of action not only gives more power in his place 
to each member of the Faculty, but that it also requires a 
corresponding measure of wisdom and moral courage in each 
man to stand up and carry it into execution. There is no 
hiding of one man behind others, but there is a directness 
and effectiveness of action that carries its own reason and 
authority in it. And students feel that when they have to do 
with the individual Professors in their separate Schools as 
supreme therein, without any recourse of appeal or further 
trouble, the disposition to give trouble is quelled, and the unruly 
feel themselves held in the grasp of the strong arm of govern- 
ment. And Professors are saved from those heart-burnings 
and troubles that arise from differences among colleagues. If 
this plan require men of higher compet«[icy, then so much th') 
better for the College, as it is not for men, but men for it. 

When properly understood, it must be clearly seen that 
there is no such thing as republicanism in the government of 
a College. The power of government exercised by members 
of the Faculty, is in no sense, and in no way derived, either 
directly or indirectly, from the governed; nor is it responsible 
to them. This authority comes down from the Trustees, and 
not up from the students. Young men and boys do not come 
to College to govern it, but to learn and obey; just as the 
authority the head of a family exercises over his household is 
not derived from it, but from Gk>d, and is responsible to Him; 



and it is not the province of children and servants to rule 
therein, but to obey. This is the radical principle that should 
underlie the organization and the administration of the govern- 
ment of every Collega Hence, the spirit of docility, obedience, 
and respect which so generally characterizes our students. And 
as the highest possible liberty and freedom from restraint, 
are lodged in the individual student, compatible with the good 
of the whole, the great principle of a truly regulated and regu- 
lative freedom, on which the theory of our political govern- 
ment itself reposes, is practically inculcated. These are pro- 
found and vitalizing principles of action, which pervade the very 
atmosphere of Westminster, and control its movements as an 
agency in the work of education; and it is a disregard of them, 
t&at .too often renders Colleges the nurseries of disorder and 
misrule. He that, is to govern should first learn how to obey. 

We, the members of the Faculty of Westminster College, 
approve of the foregoing representation of the internal organiza- 
tion of the College, and of the government and discipline 
therein, as a true representation of the case as a matter of fact. 


In conclusion. Gentlemen, your attention is asked to what 
follows as supplementary to the foregoing report. 

When I assumed my present relations to Westminster Col- 
lege, having no code of regulations to aid or guide me in my 
course, my resolution was at once formed to assume the exer- 
cise of a broad discretionary power as the best means of giving 
unity and strength to the infant and struggling enterprise, 
with whose fate my own character was so much at stake. My 
line of action as set forth in the previous statement, was 
openly avowed before the Board of Trustees upon the occasion 


s — — — ■ 


of my acceptance of the Presidency of the College; and I had 
then for sometime been actually pursuing it. As to the wisdom 
and efficiency of that course, to say nothing of the action of the 
Board two years since, sustaining and approving it as wise 
and judicious, it may be safely left to speak for itself in the 
fruits which are seen in its success, and in the reputation of 
the College in this respect. But after the present result has 
been reached, the critical and difficult work of laying the per- 
manent foundation of this enterprise having been accomplished, 
it is my desire to be relieved of some of the responsibility 
which I have hitherto borne, in connection with this work. I 
would therefore propose, either — 

let. That the several schools remain as now organized and 
gDvemed/and that the general government and discipline out- 
side of tlie several schools, be removed from the, President and 
placed equally upon the several Professors, so that they and 
he shall be held equally responsible for it, the President being 
cmly. their Chairman in joint session, making it his only care 
to have all the business brought before the body conducted in 
a pailiamentary form, and suitable steps taken to carry their 
actions into execution; but there shall be no appeal from our 
decisions on matters of government and discipline; or — 

2nd. I propose that all else remain as it now is, but the 
responsibility of discipline involving suspension, dismission 
and expulsion from the College, be devolved on the Faculty in 
their joint capacity ;. our decisions not to be appealed from. 
Very respectfully submitted, S. S. LAWS. 

The unanimous action of the Board of Tnistees upon the 
previous reports: — 

''Whebeas, the members of the Faculty have presented re- 
ports setting forth the organization of their several depart- 
ments of instruction and government, exhibiting the internal 
working of the general government of the College, and of the 
system of the several schools as contained in the Catalogue of 



last year, with which system of instruction and government 
the Board is well pleased, therefore, 

Resolved, 1. That these reports be approved and sanctioned 
as setting forth the approved organization of the College; 
and also, 

2. Approving of the paper supplementary to the Presi- 
dent's report, that the second proposition made therein, relative 
to the general government of the College, be adopted." 

The following resolutions, offered by the Rev. Dr. Ander- 
son, were also unanimously adopted by the Board: 

Resolved, 1. That we take great pleasure in assuring the 
patrons and friends of the College of our confidence in the 
President and Professors now in office, and of our entire satis- 
faction with the instruction and government of the institution 
as now administered. 

2. That we consider the principles of discipline that are 
now in force, wise and suited to the wants of our College, and 
that the spirit in which they are applied is moderate and 
kindly, but at the same time sufficiently firm and efficient. 

3. That as a Board, we will give to the Faculty that we 
have placed in office, a cordial and generous support in carrying 
out the discipline and government of the institution as now 



As it has ever been the great object of this College to make 
the most ample provisions for such instruction as is adapted 
to the wants of the youth of this State, a course in Soientifio 
Agriculture has been distinctly recorded among its contemplated 
enlargements. Since the meeting of the Board, and without 
incurring expense for the coming year, a favorable opportunity, 
that win be appreciated by the public, has been presented for 
initiating this matter in Westminster. Prof. G. C. Swallow, 
the State Geologist, has engaged to deliver a course of Lectures 



in the CoHege, during the coming year, on the relations of 
Physical Science to Agriculture. This course will he free to all. 

It is earnestly hoped that the vast importance of this de- 
partment, will lead the friends of Westminster to make this a 
permanent arrangement, with such facilities as will enable the 
Institution to meet the growing demand for education in Scien- 
tific Agriculture. The Charless Professorship has been nobly 
and generously endowed; but in making anything like complete 
provisions for the wants of the Physical Sciences, forty or fifty 
thousand dollars additional, should be placed at the disposal 
of the Board. What nobler and better use can be made of 
money than its devotion to sustain and enlarge such an Insti- 
tution as Westminster College? 

It is profoundly believed that it is the true policy of our 
State, that Agricultural Schools should be opened in connection 
with our existing institutions; as much more effective and 
economical than the attempt to establish some one institution 
exclusively devoted to this fragment of a liberal education. 
Ten or twelve such departments connected with as many Col- 
leges, distributed all over this broad State, and propeily en- 
dowed and manned, would obviously do more and at less cost, 
than a single school. The same will hold true of Normal In- 
struction to raise up teachers. 


94 History of Westminster College 

It may not be amiss, before bidding adieu to this year, 
to remind the students of Westminster that the bell,* which 
has summoned them to prayers for years past, was hung 
there in December, 1859. There are many who will never 
forget its tones. The large lecture table, constructed for 
the convenience of the Charless Professor, that for years 
stood in front of the rostrum in the Chapel,^ came into ex- 
istence the same year. Possibly some of the old students 
might add to the incidents of the year 1859-60. 

The Synod in i860 met at Columbia. The College, in 
the period before the war, was in the zenith of its pros- 
perity. All the departments, as sketched in the Catalogue 
of the previous scholastic year, were in excellent working 
order; the Institution, notwithstanding any adverse in- 
fluences that may, at the time, have existed, had the con- 
fidence and affection of the whole church in Missouri, as 
is shown by the fact that during the third week of the 
session, minutes of the Board, in October, i860 — 149 stu- 
dents were in attendance; the regular classes were still 
larger than before ; about one third of the young men were 
members of the church and among them were about 20 
studying for the ministry. That the Board felt that they 
were signally blessed was proven by the following action 
taken at Columbia: 

"The Board never stood in a position marked by such 
high encouragement as at present ; for the greatly increased 

♦The bell presented to the College in 1859 was superior to any 
in Central Missouri; to those who were near, its tones were so soft and 
melodious that it was difficult to believe that they were heard distinctly 
at houses three miles away. That was a costly trick that was played 
when, one bitter winter night, in 1875, the bell was inverted and filled 
with water; the result was a ruined bell. The present bell was received 
in exchange for the pieces of the old one — for even the pieces were very 
valuable to the manufacturers. — ^Editor. 
tThe old chapel. 

From 1855 to November, 1861. 95 

patronage of Westminster College shows that our work in 
the field of education is becoming more and more appre- 

It would seem that from the very first God regarded 
with peculiar favor this enterprise of his people. Certainly 
no Synod in our whole Church has had more or greater 
reasons for thanking God than the Synod of Missouri. In 
the midst of the discouragements, surrounding us now, the 
recollections of what has been accomplished should 
strengthen and comfort every heart for the future. If 
God ever blessed and honored any College, that one is 
Westminster ; and the Board have again and again recorded 
their belief in this fact. 

It was in the winter of this year (1860-1) that the 
cases of discipline occurred which will be fully and care- 
fully noticed hereafter. And all the regulations and docu- 
ments, bearing on those cases of discipline, will be thrown 
together so as to give a connected view of the subject, this 
method being, all things considered, far the most easy, as 
well as most satisfactory. 

In the spring of 1861 the clouds of war began to hover 
over the land, causing every heart to tremble for the Ark 
of God, as far as its interests were connected with the 
Synod's College. The wave of trouble, beginning at the 
presidential election of the preceding November and rolling 
over the whole land, stirring society to its lowest depths, 
had dashed over the College also. Its influence was more 
clearly seen in a tendency among the young men to throw 
aside the restraints of wholesome government. But amid 
the most intense excitement pervading the whole nation, 
the regular exercises were continued and the students, with 
a few exceptions, were kept in their places and induced, 
under the influence of the Faculty, to give to their studies 

96 History of Westminster College 

a degree of attention which, under the circumstances, could 
hardly have been expected. Although the land almost 
trembled under the feet of thousands hurrying to the field 
of battle, but few of the students left before Commence- 
ment day. That the excitement was great, is shown by the 
statement that Professor Swallow, who had just begun 
a course of lectures on Agricultural Chemistry before the 
advanced classes of the College, was compelled to close his 
instructions because of military movements, causing great 
excitement in the whole State, taking place at no great dis- 
tance from his residence. 

Many will remember that Commencement was scarcely 
over when the flash of the sabre was seen and the rattle 
of musketry heard in deadly conflict within two miles of 
the College campus. 

While the newspapers were filled with war and while 
people talked of almost nothing but war, the Commence- 
ment exercises were held as usual. Simple justice demands 
the statement that the halls of Westminster never wit- 
nessed a more thrilling day than the fourth Thursday of 
June, 1861. That the College did not go to pieces, that 
there was a Commencement at all, was due under God to 
the prudence of the President and Professors. It is a fact 
very remarkable that while the States throughout the length 
and breadth of the land were excited almost to frenzy, not 
a single one of the graduating class made more than a 
distant and passing allusion to it. This is the more to be 
wondered at, as the class had just gone over the Constitu- 
tion, where any of the vexed questions might have been 
sprung in an instant. 

The Senior Class at the opening of the year was the 
largest the College ever had, but was reduced, before the 
close of the session, by the discipline alluded to, to nine,. 

From 1855 to November, 1861. 97 

two of whom were officers in the first company of troops 
that ever left the borders of Callaway county in the late 
war. The Baccalaureate degrees on that occasion, as fre- 
quently since, were conferred by President Laws in Latin. 
In the following February his remarks were referred to 
as a treasonable document. The most plausible reason 
for such an impression was probably the fact that it was 
in an unknown tongue, for certainly there is no treasona- 
ble utterance in the paper, as the document and the facts 
will prove. The facts are these; two of the graduating 
class were in the first company that left Callaway county 
to join General Price. One of them, Mr. Mclntyre, was 
captain of the company and the other, Mr. Laurie, was 
lieutenant. These young men, of their own motion, left 
College a few days before the close of the session and 
were of course absent on Commencement day. But when 
the Faculty came to recommend the members of the Senior 
Class for the degree of A. B., they unanimously included 
Messrs. Mclntyre and Laurie, because they had completed 
the course, had stood the examination, and were students 
of irreproachable character and fine scholarship. The 
Executive Committee of the Board unanimously conferred 
the degrees thus recommended by the Faculty. In both 
the Faculty and the Committee were at least three strong 
Union men, a fact which indicates that all concerned felt 
that political questions had nothing to do with conferring 
literary degrees. Scholars may be interested in the inno- 
cent Latin that was thought to contain such dangerous 
sentiments. The circumstances under which the words 
were spoken were these : Seven of the graduates had just 
delivered their speeches. Two of the nine on whom the 
Board had conferred, de jure et de facto, the title A. B., 
were away, as has been said. The President held in his 

98 History of Westminster College 

hand at first nine diplomas and, after delivering seven of 
them, still had two left, and said: * * * "haec duo 
(diplomata) absentibus in agro tentoriis conferto, legato 
Josepho Scott Laurie et centurioni, Daniel Harrison Mc- 

According to the plan of the College, honors were 
conferred on the three members of the graduating class 
whose grades were highest. These honors were: First, 
the Valedictory; second, Greek Salutatory; third, Latin, 
Salutatory. All these honors have been but twice given — 
in i86i and 1864. 

Such was the terrible uncertainty that overhung the 
country at the time, that nearly, if not all, the friends of the 
College expected its doors to be closed. The Faculty ex- 
pected nothing else and the students shared the feeling. 
So commencement day, 1861, was, in no unmeaning sense, 
"a time for memory and for tears." The pupils of West- 
minster have always manifested a tender feeling for the 
institution and its Faculty, and this remark was never 
more true than in those dark days, still fresh in the 
memory of all. The Faculty of those days have never 
seen each other since; and but few, comparatively, of the 
one hundred and sixty students, then present, have ever 
returned to renew the hallowed memories of other days 
in the halls of Westminster. Though affection for our 
young men strongly prompts it, the object of this history 
forbids our tracing the footsteps of our pupils to their 
homes, or to the ranks of hostile armies ready for carnage. 
Suffice it to say that some of the noblest spirits that ever 

* . . . these two diplomas upon Lieutenant Joseph Scott Lau- 
rie and Captain Daniel Harrison Mclntyre, absent in the field crowded 
with tents. — ^Editor. 

From 1855 to November, 1861 99 

visited the College, took their flight from earth on the 
gory battle fields of their native land. 

This is the proper place to present a synopsis of the 
condition of the institution in the summer of i86i. As 
this is don^ let it be borne in mind that the Charter was 
obtained in February, 1853, a little over eight years before. 
At the time in question, the total assets of the College 
amounted to nearly $150,000; its number of students (one 
hundred and sixty) was exceeded by only two Colleges in 
connection with the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States; its Senior Class had increased from 
one in 1855 to fourteen in 1860-61 ; its number of regular 
students, in the four College classes, was about seventy, 
as shown by the roll book now in the writer's possession; 
almost a score of the alumni either had entered, or were 
preparing to enter the ministry; for an extensive course 
of study, well chosen, for discipline and thorough, honest 
mental drilling, it was doubtless the foremost institution 
in the West. It is a truth highly gratifying that in all 
the Law Schools and Theological Seminaries, the alumni 
were found to be equal in scholarship to the best grad- 
uates of the oldest and most richly endowed colleges of 
the east. In short, in mental culture, as well as in training 
young men for preaching the Gospel, the College was 
regarded by all as a success beyond the highest expecta- 
tions of its most devoted friends. In those days, educa- 
tional matters were in a formative state in Missouri, a 
fact which made Westminster a pioneer, in its earlier 
history, in a sense which has never been fully realized by 
many members of our own Church. Taking the facts 
which have now been mentioned, and they are a mere 
selection, we are warranted in saying that, if the war had 
shut forever the doors of our cherished College, West- 

100 History of Westminster College 

minster, viewed in the light of the years spent and the 
work done, had been a literary and financial success with- 
out a parallel in the history of similar enterprises in the 
United States. 

The following letter from Dr. McGill will show the 
standing of Westminster's graduates at Princeton: 

Thbolooigai. SBIONABYj 

Pbinceton, N. J., January 20, 1873. 
Rev. M. M. FiBHKB: 

Deab Sib — Dr. Green has referred your letter of No- 
vember last to me, and requests me to answer it; inasmuch as 
the various accomplishments of our students come into view 
more fully in my department than any other, perhaps. 

I have a very distinct recollection of the men you men- 
tion; "Cowan, George, Hersman, Fueller, and Slater." These 
were among our very best students every way. They came to us 
with more than ordinary scholarship, and discipline of mind, 
and completed their preparation here with eminent success. I 
could mention others, such as Quarles. Forman, etc., who are 
worthy of similar note and credit. 

Indeed, with scarcely an exception but one, the students 
from Westminster College, Mo., were every thing we could 
wish for, in culture, diligence, and success. There was no 
College represented here with a higher average of scholarship, 
or by better men, on the score of well regulated judgment and 
hearty for the work of the ministry. 

Very truly yours, 



HERE are entertained by those con- 
troling the institutions of learning 
in our country, two theories of Col- 
lege Government. According to one, 
the general government and disci- 
pline are in the hands of the Pres- 
ident, who, in the exercise of his 
own judgment, or on consultation 
with his colleagues, determines what course is to be pur- 
sued in any case that may arise. This is personal govern- 
ment. According to the other, this power is in the hands 
of the Faculty, composed of the President and Professors, 
who by vote determine any case that may be brought 
before them. This is Faculty government. The former of 
these methods, which may be regarded as less cumbersome, 
was adopted by Dr. Nott* in the remarkable success that 

•Notes — ^The same is true of the celebrated Dr.Thornwell while Presi- 
dent of Columbia College, South Carolina, one of the most noted Insti- 
tutions of the South. Dr. Nott gave to Union College about $000,000, 
and the writer is under the impression that the sum given was oondi- 
tioned on the continuance of Personal (Government in the College. 


102 History of Westminster College 

attended his presidency of nearly sixty years in Union 
College, at Schenectady, New York. This method of per- 
sonal government. President Laws adopted, in such a form, 
however, as did not in the least encroach on the preroga- 
tives of the other members of the Faculty in the control 
of their several departments. In accordance with a request 
of the Board made in the fall of 1858, the Faculty reduced 
to a written form the organization and adjustment of the 
relations of the several departments under their care and 
reported to the Board. This report is found in full in the 
Catalogue of i860 and may be seen by a reference to Chap- 
ter II. The relations of the departments are there so 
clearly set forth as to make any farther statements at this 
point unnecessary. 

During the year preceding the meeting of the Board 
in June, 1858, certain rumors sprang into existence of dis- 
satisfaction on the part of the students with the discipline 
as then administered in the College. Such a state of feel- 
ing had been produced in the Synod that the Board felt 
called upon to investigate the subject. This investigation 
and the results of it are so fully given in the proceedings 
of the Board at that time as to make any additional par- 
ticulars undesirable. It is proper to read the investigation 
of this subject, bearing in mind the fact that Mr. Laws had 
made the Board fully aware of his method of government 
before he accepted the presidency, in the fall of 1855. It 
is well enough to say that while President Laws did not 
state his method of government in his letter of acceptance, 
he did do so explicitly before the Board of Trustees as a 
body, and at the date given in the previous sentence. The 
writer bears testimony that this plan adopted by President 
Laws, the plan of personal government, was well known 

Government of the College 103 

from the first by those at all acquainted with the affairs 
of the College. 

At the meeting of the Board at Fulton, in June, 1858, the follow- 
ing questions were propounded by Mr. Joseph Charless: 1. ''How many 
students have been dismissed during the last year? By whom and for 
what causes? 2. How many are now here? 3. Can President Laws 
give any reason for the absence of so many?" 

As will be seen hereafter the President of the College chose to 
answer the first question in the presence of the other members of the 

President Laws answered the second question as follows: "There 
are about one hundred or something over, I believe, but do not know 
the exact number, as the roll is kept by Professor Van Doren." 

In answer to the third question, the President presented the fol- 
lowing paper adopted by the students. 

According to previous notice, the entire body of students of West- 
minster College assembled in the Chapel. On motion, Mr. John A. Mc- 
Afee was called to the Chair, and K. E. Dunn was appointed Secretary. 
The object of the meeting having been stated, on motion, a committee 
of five, consisting of Messrs. J. P. McAfee, R. E. Dium, C. B. Boyd, 
J. H. Wright, and J. F. Cowan, Jr., were appointed to draft resolutions 
e3q>ressive of the sense of the meeting. The Committee having retired 
for a short time, reported the following, which on motion was unani- 
mously adopted: 

"Whereas, we have knowledge that certain rumors have been afloat, 
not only in this place, but also in different portions of the State which 
are calculated to operate deleteriously to the interest of Westminster 
College, and, 

''Whereas, we as students feel deeply interested not only in its con- 
tinued prosperity and advancement, but also are intimately acquainted 
with the facts in the case, we therefore consider it our duty to meet 
these insidious reports by giving a plain and impartial statement of 
facts. We beg therefore to submit the following. It has been Indus- 

*That meeting of the students originated among themselves and the 
paper here quoted was adopted by the students without the Imowledge 
of President Laws. It was a purely voluntary matter on the part of 
the young men. They gave the action taken to the President, who saw 
proper to use it in answer to one of the questions. 

104 History of Westminster College 

trioiisly circulated that there has been great dissatisfaction on the part 
of the students with the discipline as well as with the instruction we 
have received and that on this account numbers have left the College in 
disgust, one report going so far as to affirm the dissolution and with- 
drawal of an entire class. We, on the contrary, have to state that to 
our personal knowledge as large a proportion of the Catalogue number 
of students as usual are now present at the close of the session, this 
number being over one hundred, of the one hundred and seventy enrolled 
during the entire year, and that there has been no rebellion against the 
government of the Institution, and that it is in safe and prudent hands, 
and that right and justice mark its administration, and that instead of 
having reason to complain, we should be, and are grateful for the firm 
and prudent, yet at the same time parental regimen under which we 
have pursued our studies. As to the nmior that numbers have with- 
drawn from the College dissatisfied, we have to say that of all who left 
there is but one who was actuated by any such feeling and he, we are 
informed, intended to return next term. 

"The absences now have been due to many unavoidable causes: hard 
study and the unfavorable spring impaired the health of some; others 
were called away by their business; others again, irregulars, remained 
with us as long as they intended from the first. 

"We then, students of Westminster College, state to the Faculty, the 
Board of Trustees and the public, that our confidence in our instructors 
is unimpaired and that we feel it a great privilege to attend the wise 
teachings of those who occupy the professional Chairs, believing them 
to be as able a corps of instructors as can be found in our whole western 
country. We feel especially called upon to vindicate the character and 
course of him in whose person is concentrated the authority and respon- 
sibility of the College discipline and against whom these malicious shafts 
have been particularly directed by those unfriendly to the Institution. 
In oiu: President we have found a gentleman strict in the enforcement 
of wise regulations, conciliatory to the best wishes of those under his 
rules, kind in all the relations we have sustained to him, most deeply 
versed in the wisdom of all ages and most capable of imparting knowl- 
edge in a clear and tangible form to those who have sat under his teach- 
ings; and in all things he has shown that prudence and clemency which 
have not only commanded our respect but won for him our high and 
lasting regard. 

'*The government has been mild and parental, the instructions have 

Government of the College. 105 

been valuable and varied, the Profeesors have been kind and courteous, 
harmony prevails between the Faculty and students, the Institution 
has been exceedingly and deservedly prosperous and for the truth of 
these statements we hereby give our assurances: Resolved, That the 
Secretary be instructed to furnish a copy of these proceedings to the 
Board of Trustees of this Institution, and also to the Editors of the 
Missouri Telegraph, and the St. Louis Presbyterian and that all the 
papers friendly to Westminster College and the cause of education gen- 
erally, be requested to copy the same." 

(Signed) JOHN A. McAFEE, 

R. E. DUNN, Chairman." 


All the members of the Faculty being present, the President an- 
swered the first question as follows: ''That one student has been dis- 
missed during the last year, 1867-8; he was dismissed by myself, after 
repeated consultation with my colleagues; the principal reason was 
habitual dissipation." 

This extract from the minutes sets forth the condition 
of the government and discipline of the College when that 
subject first claimed the attention of the Board. 

At the time when this matter came before them, a 
resolution was introduced before the Board by the Rev. 
Dr. Anderson, the object of which was to take the general 
government and discipline of the College from the hands 
of the President and place it in the hands of the Faculty, 
"composed of the President as presiding officer and the 
duly elected Professors."^ But after considerable discus- 
sion the following paper, presented by Mr. M. G. Singleton. 
Esq., was adopted by the Board, with two dissenting voices : 

*The question was: "How many students have been dismissed 
during the last year? By whom and for what causes?" 

tThe resolution offered by Dr. Anderson read as follows: 
"Whereas, it has come to the knowledge of this Board from state- 
ments made by the President that he claims and has exercised the 
power to control the general government and discipline of the College 

106 History of Westminster College 

'The Board having heard President Laws' answers 
to the questions of Mr. Charless and having heard state- 
ments from each member of the Faculty and feeling satis- 
fied that the government of the Institution has been wisely 
and judiciously administered, and as such we heartily 
approbate it and do not believe that any change is required/* 
Thus this subject rested in June, 1858. 

It is worthy of notice that Mr. Charless was present 
at that meeting and propounded the questions, which, 
together with the answers, have been given. It was his 
first appearance in the Board at their annual meeting in 
June. He was doubtless influenced^ in a great degree, to 
attend at the particular time by the reported state of affairs 
in the College. The vote on Col. Singleton's resolution 
stood as follows : 

"Ayes — S. S. Watson, J. F. Cowan, P. B. Reed, Joseph 
Charless, M. G. Singleton, Rufus Abbot. 

"Noes— S. J. P. Anderson, W. W. Robertson." 

(Records B. T. W. C, page 85.) 

Differences of opinion in regard to the discipline of 
the College appeared again in 1861 ; and the task now pro- 

and that this exercise of power is so completely irresponsible as that 
no appeal can be taken from it to the Faculty, or this Board; 

"And whereas, the Board learned from the same source tiiat there 
is no regular trial, no examination of witnesses, and no record of the 
reasons for each decision, — 

'Therefore resolved, that in the judgment of this Board the 
government of the Institution is properly in the hands of the Faculty, 
composed of the President as presiding officer, and the duly elected 
Professors; and that the decisions of the Faculty should be duly rec- 
orded with the reasons for the same, and that from these decisions an 
appeal lies to this Board, and from the Board to the Synod. 

'^Resolved, that the attention of the Synod be called to this question^ 
and that they be requested to pass some rule on the subject." — Editor. 

Government of the College 107 

posed by the writer for himself is to bring together, in as 
brief compass as possible, such facts and documents as 
may g^ve an impartial, clear, and truthful view of this 
matter. As it fell to the lot of the writer to vote in all 
these cases involving discipline, it seems to him both most 
modest and most just to rely mainly on documents at hand, 
only writing himself so much as may be necessary to give 
an intelligible connection to the different papers bearing 
upon the question. 

The mode of government adopted by the President has 
already been given. Of course reference is had to the 
method pursued by him from the date of his acceptance 
in 1855 to the change proposed by himself in i860. One 
word about Mr. Laws' method of College government is 
important just here. He chose to exercise over the general 
discipline of the Institution a personal control. Instead of 
deciding cases by a vote of the Faculty, his plan was to 
pass upon them himself, after consultation with members 
of the Faculty. The government he exercised was per- 
sonal and not Faculty government. At the same time, 
each Professor was in his own School supreme, holding 
himself directly and only responsible to the Board of Trus- 
tees for the success with which he managed it. Let it be 
understood that there existed among the gentlemen com- 
posing the Faculty the kindliest consultation and mutual 
good feeling. In fact, during the whole time covered by 
this method of control, there prevailed the most perfect 
harmony and efficiency of action. That this matter was 
thoroughly understood, entirely agreeable, and considered 
by those concerned highly desirable, is proven by the com- 
munication to the Synod in 1858, from three members of 
the Faculty, which may be found in the Catalogue of i860. 

This method of government, entered upon by Presi- 

108 History of Westminster College 

dent Laws at first, October, 1855, was endorsed by a large 
majority of the Board present at the annual meeting in June 
1858. It continued in' force until Commencement in i860. 
At that time the Faculty presented reports,* setting forth 
the organization of their several departments. At the same 
time Mr. Laws presented two propositions relative to the 
general government of the College. Here are the two 
propositions. They merit a careful notice: 

let. That the several schools remain as now organized 
and governed and that the general government and discipline 
outside of the several schools, be removed from the President 
and placed equally upon the several Professors, so that they 
and he shall be held equally responsible for it, the President 
being only their Chairman in joint session, making it his only 
care to have all the business brought before the body conducted 
in a parliamentary form, and suitable steps taken to carry their 
actions into execution; but there shall be no appeal from our 
decisions on matters of government and discipline; or — 

2nd. I propose that all else remain as it now is, but the 
responsibility of discipline involving suspension, dismission 
and expulsion from the College, be devolved on the Faculty in 
their joint capacity; our decisions not to be appealed from. 
Very respectfully submitted, S. S. LAWS. 

It is though best to insert here "the unanimous action 
of the Board of Trustees" on the reports and also their 
adoption of President Laws' second proposition. 

Whereas, the members of the Faculty have presented re- 
ports setting forth the organization of their several depart- 
ments of instruction and government, exhibiting the internal 
working of the gesieral government of the College, and of the 
system of the several schools as contained in the Catalogue of 
last year, with which system of instruction and government the 
Board is well pleased; therefore^ 

*See pages 60-91. 

Government of the College 109 

Resolved, 1. That these reports be approved and sanc- 
tioned as setting forth the approved organization of the Col- 
lege; and also, 

2. Approving of the paper supplementary to the Presi- 
'dent's report, that the second proposition made therein, relative 
to the general government of the Ck>llege, be adopted. 

The following resolutions, offered by the Rev. Dr. Anderson, 
were also unanimously adopted by the Board: 

Resolved, 1. That we take great pleasure in assuring the 
patrons and friends of the College of our confidence in the Presi- 
dent and Professors now in office,. and of our entire satisfaction 
with the instruction and government of the institution as now 

2. That we consider the principles of discipline that are 
now in force, wise and suited to the wants of our College, and 
that the spirit in which they are applied is moderate and kindly, 
but at the same time sufficiently firm and efficient. 

3. That as a Board, we will give to the Faculty that 
we have placed in office, a cordial and generous support in 
carrying out the discipline and government of the institution 
as now administered. 

A mere glance at President Laws' two propositions, 
will show that the Board adopted the one that retained 
things most nearly in the form in which they had been 

From this date, June, i860, all cases of discipline in- 
volving suspension, dismission or expulsion devolved on 
the Faculty in their joint capacity and their decisions were 
not to be appealed from. In the plan of the College 
referred to above and unanimously adopted by the Board, 
were twenty-six regulations of the nature of College laws. 
The whole difficulty in the cases of discipline arose from 
infringing, or non-compliance with, two of these rules, 
adopted by the Trustees for the guidance of the Faculty. 

110 History of Westminster CoUege 

These two rules, in the Catalogue of i860, arc lettered p. 
and s., and are as follows: 

p. It is always aasumed that young gentlemen are truth- 
tul, until the contrary appear. And when called on to do eo, 
they are required to give frankly and truthfully all the informa- 
tion in their poeseesion, respecting any occurrence or miscon- 
duct affecting the good order of the Institution. It is belieyed 
to he a bad principle and a dishonor to allow students to cloak 
each other's misdoing and that it tends directly to overturn all 
the moral restraints of order and discipline, and to train up 
corrupt citizens. This regulation in a Ck>llege regarding open 
and truthful information, holds the place of the grand jury in 
the community. The wrong doer must be known before he can 
be reformed by the exercise of forbearance and leniency as well 
as by admonition and justice. And if the probabilities of de- 
tection are multiplied, the liability of being led astray is de- 
creased in a corresponding ratio; and such a regulation can 
never be a terror to any but evil doers, the very ones whom it is 
desirable to deter from coming to the College, or from contin- 
uance in it, or from misdemeanor whilst in it. Its operation 
must, therefore, be found to be exceedingly wholesome. 

8. The drinking of intoxicating liquors, and not merely 
intoxication, is strictly prohibited; and the rigid and inflexible 
enforcement of this regulation is found to be indispensable. 

These rules had been administered during President 
Laws' personal government. There was nothing in them 
to create surprise. It was the continuance of rules since 
tested by experience, the only difference being in the mode 
of administration, that, formerly being personal govern- 
ment, but at the time in question. Faculty government. 

In the winter of 1860-61, eight students were, by a 
vote of the Faculty, dismissed : Two of them for drunken- 
ness ; two others for violating the law against drinking and 
also the law requiring students to give all the information 
in their possession, "when called on to do so ;" the remain- 

Government of the College 111 

ing four because they refused to answer any questions 
whatever as to the violation of the law against drinking, 
although they were charged with it by current report. 
With explicit rules for their direction and with clear viola- 
tions of these before them, the Faculty felt called on to act. 
This they did with decision and firmness, and in all cases 
by a unanimous vote. There were present, in all deliber- 
ations. President Laws and Professors Fisher, Kemper, 
Strong, and Mayer. Professor Van Doren was at the time 
confined to his room by sickness. 

The following letter of the Faculty to the patrons of 
the College, published in February, 1861, sets forth the 
whole subject with clearness and explains itself. Before 
quoting the letter, a pause is made to say that, while these 
cases of discipline were in the hands of the Faculty, or had 
already been issued by them, a petition was received from 
St. Louis, signed by several of the most prominent and 
excellent men of the Synod, asking that the whole matter 
be referred to the Board. That petition, while conceived 
doubtless in a christian spirit and well meant, had never- 
theless a tendency to stop conciliation between the Faculty 
and the students. 




estmmstev ©College* 





In order to secure a proper understanding of a position occupied 
by this College, for a number of years, and manifested in a recent 
exercise of discipline, it has been deemed worth our while to ask your 
attention to the two regulations, enacted by the Board of Trustees, 
which we, as a Faculty, have, in this instance, endeavored faithfully, 
impartially and prudently to enforce. 

It is proper that we should state, at the very threshold of what 
we have to say, that we now entertain, and have, in all we have done, 
been actuated by, none other than the kindest personal feelings towards 
all concerned; and by the sinoerest desire for the best interests of all 
entrusted to our care; and that we have felt pained at the neglect on 
the part of any, of what we regard their true duty and best interests. 
But it is no part of our purpose to say anything about individuals; 
and we hope, that no word may be used, to which any one can rea- 
sonably take exception. We feel assured, that a common understanding 
of the facts and principles of the case, will secure a satisfactory agree- 
ment of views. 

Among the laws recommended by the eocperience of the Faculty of 
the College — and we have, in the aggregate, over sixty years of exper- 
ience in the class-room as teachers and disciplinarians — and adopted by 
the Board of Trustees for its government, are the two to which your 
attention is invited; and which we consider among the most vital for 
the maintenance of order and good morals. They are lettered p. and s., 
on page 40 of the last Catalogue. The one against the use of intoxicat- 
ing liquors, stands thus: 

"The drinking of intoxicating liquors, and not merely intoxication, 
is strictly prohibited; and the rigid and inflexible enforcement of this 
regulation, is found to be indispensable." 

This law has met but little avowed opposition — ^none among the 
students, so far as we know; and scarcely any among others; so that 
its propriety and importance have been very generally acquiesced in. 
Moreover, time has revealed the necessity and duty of an honest and 
earnest effort to maintain it; and we believe that the moral sentimentL 

(8) 113 

114 History of Westminster College 

of the church and the public will support us in adhering to it. The 
history of Colleges in Europe and America, shows that the evil legis- 
lated against in this case, is their most blighting curse. It is an evil 
that spawns all others. The pure and sensitive poet Cowper, has 
embodied in his Tirocinium, or a Review of Schools, a caustic criticism 
upon the drinking and looseness of morals, tolerated in the Colleges 
and other public schools of England in his day, which led him to despair 
of their real utility to the nation, and to turn his anxious hopes to 
private instruction as alone safe and worthy of confidence. One passage 
may, with propriety, be quoted in this connection, and its instruction 
and warning will compensate for its length. 

"Would you your son should be a sot or dunce. 
Lascivious, headstrong, or all these at once; 
That in good time the stripling's finished taste 
For loose expense, and fashionable waste. 
Should prove your ruin, and his own at last; 
Train him in public with a mob of boys." 

"There waiter Dick, with Bacchanalian lays 
Shall win his heart, and have his drunken praise. 
His counselor and bosom-friend shall prove. 
And some street-pacing harlot his first love. 


Detain their adolescent charge too long; 
The management of tyros of eighteen 
Is difficult, their punishment obscene. 

"In little bosoms such achievements strike 

A kindred spark; they bum to do the like. 

Thus, half-accomplish'd ere he yet begin 

To show the peeping down upon his chin; 

And, as maturity of years comes on. 

Made just the adept that you design your son. 

To insure the perseverance of his course, 

And give your monstrous project all its force, 

Send nim to college. If he there be tamed. 

Or in one article of vice reclaimed, 

Whebe no beoabd of obd'nanoes is shown, 

Ob look'd fob now, the fault must be his own. 

Some sneaking virtue lurks in him, no doubt, 

Where neither strumpets' charms, nor deinkino-bout. 

Nor gambling practices, can find it out. 

Government of the College 115 

Such youths of spirit, and that spirit too, 

Ye nurseries of our boys, we owe to you; 

Though from ourselves the mischief more proceeds. 

For public schools 'tis public folly feeds. 

The slaves of custom and established mode, 

With packhorse constancy we keep the road. 

Crooked or straight, through quags or the road dells. 

True to the jingling of our leader's bells. 

To follow foolish precedents, and wink 

With both our eyes, is easier than to think; 

And such an age as ours balks no expense. 

Except of caution and of common sense; 

Else, sure, notorious fact, and proof so plain, 

Would turn our steps into a wiser train. 

I blame not those who, with what care they can, 

O'erwatch the numejrous and unruly clan; 

Or, if I blame, 'tis only that they dare 

Promise a work of which they must despair." 

The idea of the poet is, that unless a better state of morals could 
be maintained in the Colleges and public schools of his day, he re- 
garded them as nuisances. And we know that there is many a parent, 
who still trembles at the idea of sending his son from home to school. 

Now, in the organization of Westminster College, we have ap- 
pealed to the friends of learning, to its patrons, and to the Church of 
Grod that foimded it in sacrifices and prayers, to know whether we 
shall not be sustained in the etffort to preserve entire sobriety, and pure 
morals, among its students. And if a College of the Presbyterian 
Church, cannot occupy this high ground in the eyes of the community 
and in the confidence of its patrons, then we may feel like giving way 
to the sickening despair of any doing so. For, whatever it may be 
elsewhere, to allow drinking in moderation, among a body of students, 
or in any degree as a beverage, is flatly to license drunkenness with its 
train of vices; as no line can be drawn, nearly every sot regarding 
himself a moderate drinker. And as no head of a house fails to feel 
and assume his perfect right, to exclude from his family; whatever he 
judges and knows to be injurious to any of them— even though it be 
tea or coffee — so, a Board of Trustees, and a Faculty, must be justified 
before God and man, as the he&ds of a College family, in excluding 
from it, uncompromisingly, every indulgence and every practice, that 
threatens the good of every individual member of it and of the whole. 
And the patrons and friends of this College may rest assured, that 
under its present auspices, their sons will not knowingly, nor by con- 

116 History of Westminster CoUege 

nivance, be allowed to he, or to heoomef either drinkers, or drunkardB, 
here. We are conscientious in not being parties to the training of 
educated drunkards and tipplers; and we are confident that the church, 
and the calm moral sentiment of the community, will still gladly sus- 
tain us in this high moral position. All our Colleges, or at least those 
of the various Churches, should and can occupy this groimd. 

"If anxious only that their boys may leabn. 
While MOBALS languish a despised concern,'' — 

then these religious bodies may despair of the practicability of this 
position; and they had as well abandon their educational enterprises 
and leave the work and its morals to the State. When it shall appear, 
that a higher tone of morals cannot be kept alive in the institutions 
of the church, than where there is no such support, then, and not till 
then, will be furnished one of the strongest reasons for endorsing what, 
in the present state of things, cannot be regarded in any otheor light 
than as an illjudged, and illtimed and offensive fling, recently and gratu- 
itously made in this State, from a certain seat of learning, against the 
Colleges of the church, in these words: ''But there is nothing which 
justifies, in my mind, the narrow policy, of a school for Presbyterians, 
a school for Methodists, a College for Baptists." But the morals of 
the church are, after all, better than the morals of the world; and her 
Colleges may, therefore, safely venture to erect a higher standard of 
morals than might be thought practicable for others. At any rate, 
it is certain, that the plea for a stricter guardianship of the manners 
of youth, is one of the solid and radical arguments in support of the 
embarking of the church as she has done, in the business of education; 
and our law for sobriety is only an outgrowth of the fundamental idea 
of our College, as a child of the church of God. 

Now, the recent exercise of discipline in Westminster College, 
originated in a violation of our law against drinking intoxicating li- 
quors. We have had occasion to dismiss eight of our students ; but only 
two of them for downright and repeated drunkenness. It is proper, 
and just, to state, that the remaining Hw, it is believed, had not in- 
dulged to an extent that would, at the farthest, have involved more 
than a brief suspension. It was the violation of still another law to be 
considered, that issued the cases of these six in dismission. This state- 
ment is made to prevent, or to correct, any false impression, as to the 
position and character of these yoimg gentlemen; and none will defend 

Government of the College 117 

them quicker than we, against injustice or misrepresentation. More- 
over, we will repeat, that our purpose is not to discuss their cases or 
any others, but to avail ourselves of the occasion given, to set forth 
the general principles involved in our position, before the public, so 
as to satisfy the inquiries that may be made and the interest felt in 
regard to it. We desire not to misrepresent, and not to be misrepre- 
sented. And the questions here involved, affect the entire interests of 
education in this State, and throughout the coimtry. We have no 
inclination to hide our position, our principles, or our actions, as the 
Faculty of Westminster College, from the scrutiny of the public ; although 
we prefer reserve and retired quietness, and have no inclination to thrust 
ourselves, without occasion, upon the notice of any. 

It was in the examination of those two cases of drunkenness, that 
it came plainly to light that about twenty others had transgressed, not 
to excess, but still to such an extent as to disclose danger, and a culpa- 
ble neglect of duty, requiring notice and action. We had, in former 
days, expelled students for drunkenness, and had several times privately 
and publicly reproved drinking — and some of those once reproved, were 
among the offenders in this instance. Last year, public announcements 
were made, in connection with an exercise of discipline for drinking, 
that increased rigidness would be exercised this year. And at the open- 
ing of this session, great care was taken to place a copy of the laws 
in the hands of every student, as soon as he entered; and attention 
was several times called to them. And yet, those who were guilty of 
offenses against this law only, excepting the two spoken of as dismissed 
for intoxication, were merely reproved, or suspended for a short while. 
And what less could we have done, unless we were willing to be es- 
teemed triflers with the confidence of patrons; as reckless of our solemn 
and repeated asseverations ; and as disposed, after all, to make discipline 
for this class of offenses, a mockery and farce. None but those in our 
situation, could fully appreciate the necessity laid upon us; and no 
one, cognizant of all the circumstances, antecedent and concomitant, 
could fail to approve our course. — And it was perfectly certain that we 
were not likely to volunteer the unpleasant and thankless task of dis- 
cipline, had it not been forced upon us. No, our action was called 
for, cautiously, carefully and patiemtly taken, after repeated sittings; 
it was absolutely necessary and just such as we would feel solemnly 
hound to take again, however unpleasant, were a similar occasion for 
it repeated. We expect to vindicate before the public, by discipline and 

118 History of Westminster College 

otherwise, if necessary, our position, that the drinking of intoxicating 
liquor, and not merely intoxication^ is a disciplinary offense in the stu- 
dents of Westminster College; and we confidently expect parents and 
guardians to rejoice in the opportunity of sustaining at least one Col- 
lege, on this ground. And if offenses must come, who would not prefer 
the pains of correctivo and reformatory discipline, to the pains of ruin. 
And the evils that a few may incur, under this regulation, will be 
vastly more than counterbalanced by the good secured to others. And 
it is a proverb applicable here^ that a pennyweight of preventive is 
better than a pound-weight of cure. 

"From education, as the leading cause. 
The public character its color draws; 
Thence the prevailing manners take their cast. 
Extravagant or sober, loose or chaste," 

But this law against the use of intoxicating liquors, and almost 
eveiy other regulation of the College, would be useless and inoperative, 
did we not have some effective provision for getting at the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing hut the truth, respecting the deportment of 
the students, so far as the College laws extend over it. If we, as a 
Faculty, are placed in our position, as the guardians of the unfolding 
character of your sons, then we must have the means of knowing what 
is their course of conduct, to the extent that it falls within the pur- 
view of the rules of our School, or our assurances to you in sending your 
sons here, cannot be realized. We can not honestly assume the respon- 
sibility of guarding the morals and good behavior of your son, nor can 
we be justly held responsible for doing so, unless we have the ability 
to fully scrutinize his conduct in the light of truth. Our responsibility 
and our power must coincide; in accordance with one of the wisest 
political maxims, the means of maintaining orderly and upright con- 
duct must be proportioned to the end. Says the profound Alexander 
Hamilton, in discussing the powers of civil government in the Feder- 
alist: "What is a power but the ability or faculty of doing a thing? 
What is the ability to do a thing, but the power of employing the 
meane necessary to its execution?" The principle here enimciated is 
obvious to every reflecting mind; and one of the forms it has taken in 
the organization of Westminster College, is found in the regulation 
lettered p., on page 40 of the last catalogue; to- wit: 

"It is always assumed that young gentlemen are truthful until the 
contrary appear. And when called on to do so, they are required to give 

Government of the College 119 

franklj and truthfully all the information in their possession, respecting 
any occurrence or misconduct affecting the good order of the Institu- 
tion. It is believed to be a bad principle and a dishonor, to allow 
students to cloak each other's misdoing; and that it tends directly to 
overturn all moral restraints of order and discipline, and to train up 
corrupt citizens. This regulation in a Collie regarding open and 
truthful information, holds the place of the grand jury in the com- 
munity. The wrong-doer must be known before he can be reformed by 
the exercise of forbearance and leniency as well as by admonition and 
justice. And if the probabilities of detection are multiplied, the lia- 
bility of being led astray is decreased in a correspondng ratio, and such 
a regulation can never be a terror to any but evil doers, the very ones 
whom it is desirable to deter from coming to the College, or from con- 
tinuance in it, or from misdemeanor whilst in it. Its operation must, 
therefore, be found to be exceedingly wholesome." 

All schools of a disciplinary character, find some such regulation 
as this necessary; and when they blink an explicit avowal of it, they 
are compelled to resort to it in fact, or to patch up other and more 
objectionable methods of accomplishing the thing in view, if they pre- 
serve order. But the direct and explicit method of disposing of this 
matter is the simplest, most honorable, manly, and decidedly the best. 
Here, for example, is the explicit law of Yale College, touching the 
very point in hand. 

"XXI. Whenever a student shall be required by one of the Faculty 
to disclose his knowledge concerning any disobdeb, oftense ob offen- 
DEB against a law of the College, and shall refuse to make such dis- 
closure, he may be sent home or dismissed; and if any student shall 
menace a fellow student, or endeavor to bring him into contempt, be- 
cause he has testified, the student so acting shall be deemed to have 
committed an offense, and may be proceeded against by the Faculty, 
according to the aggravation of the case, even to expulsion." 

We quote from a recent edition of the laws; so that this regula- 
tion is not antiquated, but now in force. And when it is remembered 
that Yale, with the sin^e exception of Harvard, is the oldest College 
in America; that this law is backed by the experience of one hundred 
and sixty years; that many of the most distinguished men of our 
nation, South and North, have been numbered among the obedient sons 
of this venerable institution; such an example will not be lightly es- 
teemed; and no right minded person will attempt an evasion of the 
full force and value of the benefit, to which this weighty precedent 
entitles the corresponding law of Westminster. But the law is reason- 
able in itself, were there no precedent. 

120 History of Westminster College 

Let it not be overlooked, nor forgotten, then, that the precise thing 
which we require of our students is this: When anj disorder or offense 
against a law of the Ck)llege claims our attention as a Faculty; in 
order that we may know precisely the state of facts, so as to act justly, 
impartially and wisely towards any concerned, we require every stu- 
dent who is called into our presence, to give us, in our collective and 
official capacity, as the Faculty in charge of the sacred interests of this 
institution, a full and truthful answer to the inquiries then and there 
made of him, about the offense and the offenders in the case. This is 
the true character and the extent of the tcitnessing, which we do re- 
quire; and which, we feel constrained to believe, that every parent and 
guardian, who fully understands and appreciates our position, must 
say that we ought to require. The law is not simply one made for us 
by the Board, which we blindly and mechanically execute, but one 
foimded, as we regard it, in justice and in truth^ and indispensable to 
the full discharge of our duties. If boys do not want their misdoings 
made known, they must not be guilty of them. If students do not wish 
to testify to the disorderly conduct of their fellow students^ then they 
must not be a party to it, nor know of it. Any boy, or yoimg man, who 
is unwilling to have his deportment laid open to the eyes of the Faculty, 
to the extent that the laws of the College have claims upon it, has no 
business in the Ck)llege; for there can be no guarantee either of his 
not leading others astray, or of his not being led astray by others. 
Neither youth nor grown men, usually feel much concern about any but 
their evil deeds being kept in the dark. ''And this is the condemna- 
tion, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather 
than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one that doeth evil 
hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be 
reproved. But he that doeth truth, cometh to the light, that his deeds 
may be made manifest that they are wrought in God." — John 3, 19-21.— 
And as a matter of fact, experience shows that it is almost invariably 
only those who have more or less complicity with misconduct, or who 
insist on being unrestrained in that quarter, who have any morbid 
sensitiveness about obedience to this statute of testimony. It is not a 
terror, but a praise, to them that do well. And a College can very 
safely dispense with the presence of such as are not willing, whilst at 
College, to walk in the light; and also, with all such as assume to 
cloak disorderly conduct from the knowledge of the Faculty — ^there is 
never any temptation or occasion for concealing any other sort of con- 

Government of the College 121 

duct, and yet this is the very conduct that threatens the well-heing of 
every body of youth, and which there should be the most effective and 
direct means of rectifying. Experience is confirmatory of these state- 
ments. There is scarcely any parent or guardian to be found, who 
does not desire and expect us to know, or at least to have effective 
means of knowing the conduct of his son or ward, placed under our 
care; and feel safer on this account, in committing to us the trust. 
Youth, as well as the public, always respect most a school wheore strict 
regulations are enforced, and in their calm moments prefer, on th|it 
account, a position within its walls. The popularity and patronage of 
Westminster College in Missouri rest, in no small part, upon her repu- 
tation for having somewhat strict regulations actually enforced; but 
such a thing as a College too strict in its government and discipline, 
is probably not known in America; and all know, that know anything 
about the matter, that the danger is always in the opposite direction. 
But there is a connection between discipline and improvement in scholar- 
ship as well as character so surprisingly intimate, that none who are 
worthy of thedr business as educators can ignore it. This instructive 
thought is aptly expressed thus: 

''In colleges and halls in ancient days, 

When learning, virtue, piety, and truth. 

Were precious, and inculcated with care, 

There dwelt a saga calPd Discipline. His head 

Not yet by time completely silver'd o'er 

Bespoke him past the bounds of freakish youth, 

But strong for service still, and unimpaired. 

His eye was meek and gentle, and a smile 

Flayed on his lips; and in his speech was heard 

Paternal sweetness, dignity, and love. 

The occupation dearest to his heart 

Was to encourage goodness. He would stroke 

The head of modest and ingenuous worth. 

That blush,'d at its own praise; and press the youth 

Close to his side that pleased him. Learning grew 

Beneath his care^ a thriving vigorous, plant; 

The mind was well informed, the passions held 

Subordinate, and diligence was choice. 

If e'er it chanced, as sometimes chance it must, ! 

That one among so many overleap'd 

The limits of control, his gentle eye 

Grew stem, and darted a severe rebuke; 

His frown was full of terror, and his voice 

Shook the delinquent with such fits of awe 

122 History of Westmvnster College 

As left him not till penitence had won 

Lost favor back again, and closed the breach. 

But Discipline, a faithful servant long, 

Declined, at length, into the vale of years; 

A palsy struck his arm; his sparkling eye 

Was quenched in rheums of age; his voice, unstrung, 

Grew tremulous, and moved derision more 

Than reverence in perverse, rebellious youth. 

So colleges and halls neglected much 

Their good old friend; and Discipline at length, 

Cerlook'd and unemployed, fell sick and died. 

Then Study languished, Emulation slept. 

And Virtue fled. The schools became a scene 

Of solemn farce, where Ignorance in stilts. 

His cap well-lined with logic not his own, 

With parrot-tongue perform'd the scholar's part, 

Proceeding soon a graduated donee. 

Then compromise had place, and scrutiny 

Became stone blind; precedence went in truck, 

And he was competent whose purse was so. 

A dissolution of all bonds ensued; 

The curbs invented for the mulish mouth, 

Of headstrong youth were broken; bars and bolts 

Grew rusty by disuse; and massy gates 

Forgot their office, opening with a touch; 

Till gowns at length are found mere masquerade, 

The tasl'd cap and the snruoe band a jest, 

A mockery of the world." 

"Now blame we most the nurselings or the nurse? 
The children crook'd, and twisted, and deform'd. 
Through want of care; or her, whose winking eye 
And slumbering ositancy mars the brood? 
The nurse, no doubt. Regardless of her charge, 
She needs herself correction; needs to learn 
That it is dangerous sporting with the world, 
With things so sacred as a nation's trust, 
The nurture of her youth, her dearest pledge." 

But there are ceartain misconceptions of this College law, which 
students and their parents in some instances, take up, and which we- 
feel it to be our duty to rectify. It is very observable that the mis- 
understandings of parties and the misapplication of language, are 
among the most prolific sources of evil to society. The first of the 
sources of confusion and error in this case, is the confoimding of the 
witnessing which we require, with tattling and tale-hearing, which 

Government of the College 123 

we acorn quite as intensely as any of the students or their parents; — 
and it would be strange indeed, if we had so far lost our senses as 
not to do so. Tattling in a family is when children are permitted to 
carry their improper and injurious stories or complaints about others 
to their parents, whenever prompted by their feelings or fancies, in- 
dulging their own discretion as to when, where and what their com- 
munications shall be. Such a course must issue in gross violations of 
propriety and interminable bickerings; and hence whilst parents 
should always be ready to approve the right and reprove the wrong, 
this capricious and loose tattling and tale-bearing is always discoun- 
tenanced. But if something goes wrong in your family, and you call 
into your presence your children, and ask (say) your son, what he 
knows about the matter; were he reply to you that he was not going 
to tell on his brothers and sisters, what would you think of it? Is it 
not probable that any man that deserved the name of father, would 
in such a case, where he had a right and a reason to know the facta 
in fun, and yet they were withheld on such a plea, when he distinctly 
and repeatedly asked for them, take the starch out of his misguided 
boy in some appropriate way? Every man knows that he would and 
ought to listen to nothing in such a case, but the information which he 
demanded, and to which he is entitled. Now, did we, as a Faculty, 
or as individuals, encourage students to come to us with insidious and 
injurious tattungs about one another, making their own feelings or 
caprices, the criterion of so doing, anticipating that their personal 
whims would be gratified, and that undeserved favor would thereby be 
curried; tnen, there would be some ground for indignation that we 
should open our ears to insidious, partial and injurious representa- 
tions in any such way. No student would dare to approach us in 
this manner. But when the Faculty has under consideration some 
disorderly conduct, or a violation of a law of the College, and a stu- 
dent is called into our presence and asked for the knowledge he has in 
the case, it becomes a very different thing; and every principle of honor 
and duty dictates, that whenever, under such circumstances, a propeily 
constituted authority, entitled to the truth, calls for it, that it should 
be given manfully, frankly and fully, although it were as painful to 
do as plucking out an eye or cutting off a hand. How often would 
witnesses, when called on by a court to testify, gladly escape the un- 
pleasant duty. We all recollect the case of Mr. Gharless. A denial 
of this principle of action on which our requirement is based, would. 

124 History of Westminster College 

in its logical consequences, close up all civil and ecclesiastical courts, 
and lock the wheels of all goTemment. Many most sacred duties are 
not always agreeable to one's feelings. The grand jury is referred 
to in our law, not that this instance covers the whole case, but be- 
cause testimony is required before it in regard to others as the means 
of making out a bfll or indictment against them, and not, as in other 
cases, simply in the course of actual trial. Testimony is demanded 
in regard to those not on trial. The rule in regard to witnesses not 
criminating themselves, is utterly inapplicable and inappropriate in 
College government, and institutions never think of recognizing it. 
There are several alternatives; witnessing so as not to implicate one's 
self; so as not to implicate others; and a refusal to witness at all (as 
did four of those dismissed by us ; ) or a witnessing of the truth and the 
whole of it. And this last is the one that experience has found to be 
most practicable and effective; and no ingenuity can form a rule on 
any of the other alternatives, which will not prove abortive. The end 
has to be attained; and adopt what course we may, the rule of proced- 
ure will sometimes meet with more or less resistance. And as there 
are cases where men will go to jail, sooner than testify before a grand 
jury; so, occasionally students may prefer dismission to obedience in 
any form; but that would be a flimsy pretext for abolishing the law, 
in either casec 

It is equally aside from the real fact in the case, to imderstond 
or to represent us as requiring our students to act as common and 
promiscuous informers. This language expresses and arouses odium, 
and is wholly inapplicable to the witnessing which the College law in 
question requires. A common informer can only mean some odious 
character, who noses around and makes it his business habitually or 
occasionally when it serves his turn, to himt up information and to 
furnish it to those who desire it, for pay or favor. Now the intima- 
tion that we could be guilty of the meanness of engaging in such 
dirty traffic as this, would almost appear incredible. And we merely 
mention it in this connection, to put all on their guard, who might 
be liable to be misled into such a misconception and misnaming of 
the whole state of the case. 

But there is still another catchword, thoughtlessly and injuri- 
ously bandied about in connection with this requirement in our Colle- 
ges. It is said that this law makes students spies on each other. 
Nothing could be more false. Whatever a spy may be, it is certain 

Government of the College 125 

that we all detest the character. And if this is what our require- 
ment does, it deserves execration. But what do you mean by a spjt . 
What is the real character you always design to designate by that 
term? If you will only stop and analyze your feelings, it is easily de- 
tected. A spy is one who acts a double part; he appears in the garb^ 
of a friend, whereas, he is a concealed enemy; he insinuates himself 
into our confidence and yet secretly reports our unguarded words and 
acts to the enemy he is serving to enable him to gain an advantage 
over us. An illustration occurs in the life of Fenelon who flourished 
in the corrupt age of Louis XIV. For the reproach of human nature, 
as holy, and as good a man as he was, he had his enemies and revilers. 
They were mean enough to practice the shameful artifice of placing 
about him an ecclesiastic of noble birth, in the relation of his grand 
vicar, whom he had no ostensible reason for regarding in any other 
light than as his superior in office; whereas, he was in fact appointed 
to wutch him and to act toward him as a spy. But "subdued by the- 
purity and gentleness of spirit that he witnessed in Fenelon, he threw 
himself at his feet, confessed the unworthy part he had been led to 
act, and withdrew from the world, to conceal in retirement, his grief 
and his shame." 

The brethren of Joseph were terrified at the idea of their being 
regarded as "spies," or concealed enemies. Take the case of the young 
and accomplished Maj. Andre; when he was hailed by Paulding, Wil- 
liams and Van Wert, he produced a passport as an American, altho** 
he was at that time a commissioned officer of the British army, and 
had just bargained with the traitor Arnold, for the surrender of West 
Point into the hands of the enemy, for British gold and a brigadier's 
commission. But when his true character was detected, he was dis- 
gracefully hung as a spy. Now, as the Faculty are not the enemies 
but the best and truest friends of the students, and as the openly 
published law tears the mask oflf of the whole body of students so that 
each knows and is warned that any misconduct, of which his fellow 
students have knowledge, they are liable to be called on to give to the 
Faculty; to talk of our requirements as making spies of our students,, 
almost transcends our patience to reason about it. None should speak 
of it, or allow it to be spoken of, in any such language, as it is thought- 
lessly or willfully to pervert truth. The Savior himself met with 
some who tried to make him out a devil; and the best laws ever en- 

126 History of Westminster College 

acted have encountered conscientiouB opposition, becauBe of being mis- 
understood and misnamed. 

Understanding, then, that we reprobate quite as cordially as our 
students or patrons, such characters as tattlers or tale-hearera, common 
informers and spies, and that what we require is iMtnessing the truth, 
the whole truth and nothing but the truth in our presence as a Fac- 
ulty, and properly constituted authority entitled to know it, when we 
call for it respecting any occurrence or misconduct affecting the good 
order of the institution; we solemnly protest, in the name of truth, 
against all misrepresentations being made or received, that place us 
before the public in any other attitude, and tend to stir up feeling and 
odium which have no foundation in truth or in justice. 

It must be obvious, therefore, when the matter is properly under- 
atood, that every impulse of an intelligent and true sense of honor 
must, as it does always enlist our students on the side of obedience 
and order. Each one is his brother's keeper, and by this provision, 
however young or small, his presence is clothed with the dignity and 
moral restraint of the presence of the Faculty itself. Every student 
thus situated, feels himself fortified against the insidious approaches 
of temptation; and walled around with preventives against trans- 

From the nature of the case, this vitally important regulation 
cannot be made to obtrude too sensibly upon the attention of the stu- 
dents. This regulation has been asserted in this institution from the 
first; the only difference being that formerly its application was in 
the hands of the President, whereas it is now administered by the fac- 
ulty as a body; and no yoimg man has ever been allowed to set it at 
defiance. Last year, the son of a gentleman of this place, had the al- 
ternative distinctly submitted, either to comply or be dismissed; but 
he complied. And so in other cases. In connection with our investi- 
gations, many as good and as honorable young men as there are or 
ever have been in the College, have complied with this requirement 
without any haggling or parade about it. And before a case of avowed 
and persistent refusal occurred, one young man declined, and the same 
alternative, as in former instances, was presented, whereupon his diffi- 
culty disapproved. No such case ever occurred before as a positive 
and persistent refusal to comply; and we certainly could do nothing 
less, nor other, than dissolve our connection with such as could not, for 
any reason, acquiesce in the rules of the School. What we require of 

Government of the College 127 

some, we have a right to require of all, in the exercise of discretion 
and impartiality. There has been no quarrel, nor so far as we know, 
ill-will between the Faculty and the students. There was a transient 
excitement for a few dajrs, but the explanations and reasons suggested, 
quieted down all misimderstanding, and satisfied the students of the 
wisdom, honorableness, and necessity of this regulation. Not a stu- 
dent has left on account of it, or is likely to do so, so far as we know, 
imless it is a few intimately associated with the dismissed. As a 
large number of those affected are from a particular point, the im- 
pression was probably made there, that the disturbance and difficulty 
were far greater than the facts warranted. Everything is quiet; en- 
tirely orderly, and has been so, with the transient exception named. 
If there was any effort made to organize a rebellion on this score, it 
proved a failure. But those six who were dismissed, not on acooimt 
of intoxication, we would willingly welcome again to their places, as 
they are assured; giving them the benefit of any misunderstanding 
under which they might have acted, by waiving in this instance, the 
testimony affecting others, (and allowing each to make his own state- 
ment in regard to himself,) they giving a satisfactory assurance of a 
fun compliance in the future, and submitting to what any violations 
of the law against drinking would render proper. This would be hon- 
orable, and ought to be satisfactory, wo think, as it embraces a con- 
cession to them, not made to others, and requires of them only what is 
expected of all. If they do not choose, under guidance of their beet 
judgment, to resume their places upon these conditions, then we shall 
expect to bid them good-bye; and follow them with our best wishes, 
wherever they shall choose to go; regretting very much their mistaken 
and unwise course, as we think. We merely say, that obedience to 
the rules of the College is an indispensable condition of enjoying the 
benefit of our instructions. And whilst we do not make the laws of the 
College, yet on page 44 of the last Catalogue, it may be seen that 
there is no appeal from our decisions imder its laws. 

It seems scarcely necessary to observe, in addition to what has 
been already said, that no justifiable case of conscience can possibly be 
made out against obedience to a regulation so frank, manly, honorable 
and useful. Whenever a law requires anything which is in its own na- 
ture sinful f or contrary to the words of God, then death is preferable 
to obedience. Darius required of Daniel, that he should commit the 
sin of ceasing the worship of the true Cod; and he chose the Lion's 

128 History of Westminster College 

den, rather than submit. Nebuchadnezzar required of the three He- 
brew youth, the sin of idolatry; and they chose the furnace in prefer- 
ence. Peter and John were required, by the Sanhedrim, to commit the 
sin of closing their lips as preachers of righteousness ; and they too chose 
stripes and imprisonment. God was with all of them ; and also with all 
his martyrs who gave themselves to the wild beasts and the flames^ 
rather than commit the sin of obeying the decrees of the Emperors, 
that prohibited the worship of Christ, or required the sin of idolatry. 
But no one in his senses would say, that this College law requires any 
thing that is unscriptural or in its own nature sinful; and if not, then 
whether it should or should not be complied with, is purely a matter 
of expediency, the course to be pursued lying on the side of the great- 
est amount of good to all concerned, and of glory to God. And who 
can for a moment hesitate about a greater amount of good to the Col- 
lege and all connected with it, resulting from a careful and faithful 
observance of this regulation than from a neglect or violation of it. 
Whenever the path of duty lies across some disinclination, or pas- 
sion, or prejudice, or bosom sin, or wayward propensity, persons are 
very apt to get conscientiously torong, and to present the sad specta- 
cle of victims of error, and to entail sore evils on others. The nation 
is now eating the bitter fruits of a mere dislike to a provision to ren- 
der operative a specific clause of the Constitution, being erected into a 
plausible but erroneous and delusive pretext of conscientiousness in 
disobeying the sacred beihests of law. If our fathers, as honest men, 
could make this provision with imited consent, it is preposterous for 
their descendants of this degenerate age, to talk of being too good to 
keep it in good faith. We know not to what extent the lawless state 
of the country may explain what has occurred with us. But if a 
body of christian men can be conscientious in the enactment of this 
College law, as Trustees; and another body of christian men be con- 
scientious in its enforcement, as a Faculty, then, surely, a company of 
youth can and ought to be conscientious in its observance. Moreover, 
if one body of honorable men can enact such a law; and another body 
of honorable men administer it; then certainly there is the most violent 
presumption that it cannot be otherwise than honorable in a body of 
yoimg gentlemen to obey it. It is absurd, to make a case of con- 
science at one link of this chain and not at the others; and it is ridic- 
ulous to talk about obedience to any regulation degrading our students 
without its degrading the Board to make and the Faculty to enforce 

Government of the College 129 

it. And unless the patrons of this College should loose all confidence 
in the Faculty and Board, as bodies of honorable men, all fears may 
be dismissed in regard to our being so false to our trust, as to break 
down or weaken those principles of true honor and true manliness 
and moral honesty, which it is our aim to build up and strengthen. 

We are often gratified by the tokens of appreciation and thanks, 
which we receive from the patrons of Westminster. We will be par- 
doned for quoting part of a letter lately written by a gentleman upon 
learning of the brief suspension of his son, as indicative of the pater- 
nal virtues that encourage the educator in his delicate and trying 

Deab Sib: Your very kind letter of the inst., is to 

hand, and the matters therein referred to, I assure you, gives me much 
solicitude &c. I heartily approve the rules and discipline of your in- 
stitution, and without a rigid enforcement of them, you could not sus- 
tain the position which we all desire, however mortifying it is to me 
that * * should have overlooked for the moment my advice, 

as well as his duty to you. I neither wish or desire any exception in 
his favor, but confirm your action in his case, believing that you are 
pursuing a course intended only for his good. * * It does seem to 
me, the whole country, men and boys, are going stark mad with the 
excitement of the times, and I fear a much lower standard of morals 
will come from it. 

This is the strain in which the letter is written, and it breathes 
the air of a gentlemen and of a considerate father thoughout. It 
may not be improper to state, that this gentleman is not a member of 
any church, we believe; and that he had in his possession a cata- 
logue of the C!ollege; and that he had, we think, no greater reason to 
be satisfied than others. 

It is assumed, of course, that it is the right and the privilege of 
every student, in case he is wronged or injured in any way, to bring 
his case before any one, or all of us, to invoke our protection. And 
certainly none would expect us to fail to vindicate promptly any injury 
that one student should in any way venture to infiict upon another. 
Moreover, it is assumed that it is entirely within the line of propriety 
and duty, for students and citizens, who know of the bad and unwor- 
thy behavior of any youth connected with the College, to give those who 
are in charge of the Institution, such information as will enable us 
to remove or avert evil. This is but the part of all good members of 
every community; and a people who should fail to interest themselves 
in this way in our college community, would not be faithful to the 


130 History of Westminster CoUege 

solemn obligations which the presence of such an institution, in the 
providence of God imposes. And every Faculty should be confided 
in, as properly to be trusted with all such commimications prudently 
made. There is much neglect of duty in this regard, no doubt, in 
every community where a college is situated. But this is necessarily 
an optional matter, and is to be done wholly as a matter of choice. That, 
however, of which we speak, is a requiremeni ; the duty is enjoined 
and its performance exacted, as a means of enforcing order when a 
sense of duty and moral suasion have failed, as that is always the 
case when a resort has to be made to an exercise of discipline. 

It is when argument, exhortation and every milder means has 
failed, that the exercise of authority becomes our ultima ratio— our 
last resort. Our disposition has been, perhaps, to employ too much 
earnestness and solicitude, in urgent appeals that might avert the ne- 
cessity of this last resort. But we are, unfortunately, not always 
able to avoid it. Probably, however, no College in the country is blessed 
with better order generally; or less often reduced to the necessity of 
exercising authority. 

We leave these suggestions with you, imder the firm conviction that 
the faithful enforcement of the regulations to which your attention 
has been called, wui strengthen and confirm your confidence in the 
College. And we invoke your co-operation in maintaining the princi- 
ples of order and government, which, in the fear of €k)d, we are hon- 
estly endeavoring to administer for the true good of those under our 
instruction and care. And as we do not pretend to infallibility, con- 
sidering that even Moses, the meekest man on earth, sinned in resist- 
ing the rebelliousness of Israel, we feel it to be becoming in us, to ask 
that due allowance be made for what, at any time, may be deemed 
our errors, in our best endeavors to deal wisely with the errors of 
the youth you have entrusted to our guardianship. 

Very Respectfully, 

Your obedient servants, 

The Faculty 
Of Weatminster College. 

We, the undersigned members of the Board of Trustees of West- 
minster College, resident in Fulton, deem it proper to say that we 
cheerfully sustain the Faculty in the recent exercise of discipline. . 

R. Abbot, 
W. Pbovines, 
Fulton, Mo., Feb. 14, 1861. Edwin Cubd. 

Government of the College 131 

In the visit made to different institutions in the South 
and East, President Laws had gathered materials which 
were available all the time to the faculty in their delibera- 

The following letter addressed to college presidents in 
various parts of the United States, brought into the pos- 
session of the Faculty many valuable documents, in addi- 
tion to those they already had, furnishing extensive infor- 
mation, especially in regard to those laws involved in the 
recent discipline : 


Deab Sib: — We are desirous of collecting the Regulations and 
Laws of as many Colleges as possible between this and next June. 

1. The two points on which we particularly desire to gather as 
extensive information as possible, are, fibst. The position of Colleges 
in regard to the use of Intoxicating Liquors; and second, in regard 
to the requiring of Students to Give Intobmation before the Faculty 
respecting any (actual or supposed) disorder, offense, or offender 
against the Laws of the College. 

2. Will you please send a copy of your Regulations by mail at 
your earliest convenience. A stamp is enclosed. 

3. Any Pamphlet or Volume, or the title and way of obtaining it, 
on College Government, or specially touching these two points. 

4. If your Laws touching these points are not printed, will you 
do us the favor of writing them down, or having them copied and for- 
warded, and any expense will be be cheerfully paid in stamps or other- 

Your compliance with this request will do us a great service and 
place us imder great obligations — it may be of service to the immense in- 
terests of the struggling cause of Education in this great and growing 
State. Should the collection furnish materials sufficient, in adition 
to what we now have, they may be put in pamphlet form and sent to 
you. Any Document, Pamphlet or Volume, that you may send us will 
be promptly and carefully returned after examination, if desired, and 
all postage met. Any suggestion or information from you, respecting 
the experience and practice of Colleges in this or other countries, will 

132 History of Westminster College 

be thankfully received. I enclose an envelope, should it be agreeable to 

you to write. 

It is sincerely hoped that you will interest yourself sufficiently 

in this matter to render us as a College, the service requested; as it is 

our fortune in Missouri to have to pioneer some of the most delicate 

and difficult problems of C!ollege Government, we need in this matter, 

your fraternal co-operation. 

Please address, 

S. S. LAWS, 

Fulton^ Mo. 
[Fulton, Mo., March, 1861.] 

This drew forth from several of the most distinguished 
educators responses, bearing especially on the two laws 
exciting at the time most interest. 

It is a matter to be greatly regretted that the infor- 
mation thus collected was not put in pamphlet form and 
made accessible to those who are called on to solve prob- 
lems on College government, often most difficult and deli- 
cate. That whole correspondence, instead of weakening, 
strengthened the position of the Faculty. 

When the Synod met at Palmyra in 1861, at the stated 
time, there was not a quorum present, owing to the con- 
ditions in Missouri growing out of the war. Those present 
adjourned to meet in Mexico early in November. Pursuant 
to this adjournment, Synod met in Mexico. When the 
affairs of Westminster College came up, the number of the 
Trustees, which up to that time had been eighteen, was 
increased to twenty-four. These six additions having been 
made and the three vacancies occurring at that meeting of 
the Synod having been filled, the Board of Trustees held 
the usual annual session. A majority of the Board, as then 
constituted, were present. Preparatory to investigating 
the discipline of the College, the Board resolved. 


Government of the College 133 

That the entire minuteB of the faculty bearing upon certain cases 
of discipline be now read before the Board. After reading the records 
of the Faculty, a motion was made and seconded that the record be 

In reviewing the cases of discipline the following reso- 
lution was adopted : 

That in this discussion and the decision on the motion to approve 
the records of the Faculty, the record of the Faculty is accepted as 
authentic, so that the judgment of the Board is to be founded on the 
record as it here stands before us, the only point being whether the 
acts of discipline are to be approved as there recorded, it being assumed 
that the two laws of the College previously adopted by the Board 
under which the Faculty acted are not called in question. 

After a protracted and somewhat exciting debate the 
result was in these words : 

The Board of Trustees being called upon to express their view of 
the management of the college during the last year, as set forth in 
the records of the Faculty, do cheerfully bear their testimony to the 
fidelity of the Faculty and their earnest desire to maintain such dis- 
cipline in the College as would place the Institution on a high moral 
position; and it is with the profoundest regret that the Board feels 
constrained to express their disapproval of the manner in which disci- 
pline was exercised in some of the cases mentioned in the records of 
the Faculty; but in doing this we do not wish to be imderstood as 
forgetting in the slightest degree the great obligations that we are 
under to the Faculty, for their devotion to the interests of the College 
and for the integrity of their purpose in administering its govern- 
ment; nor would we pass upon them any disapproval that would in- 
jure their reputation and their usefulness in the high and noble profess- 
ion they have chosen. 

Ayes: S. J. P. Anderson, J. P. Finley, G. C. Swallow, W. W. Rob- 
ertson, I. Tate, D. H. Bishop, H. P. S. Willis, J. H. Brookes, A. P. 
Foreman and A. V. C. Schenck. Nays: J. A. Quailes, P. B. Reed, W. 
Provines and R. Abbott. Ayes 10, nays 4. 

Subsequently to this, it was provided by the Board 
that the four seniors that had been dismissed should be 

134 History of Westminster College 

graduated and also that the action of the Faculty in dis- 
missing two others who were not seniors should be re- 
versed. In other words, of the eight cases of dismission, 
the Board reversed all except the two that had been sent 
away for drunkenness. 

In reference to one of the two laws, on this occasion at 
Mexico, Dr. Anderson offered the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the law of Westminster Ck)llege requiring 
students "to give all the information in their possession, re- 
specting any occurrence or misconduct affecting the good order 
of the Institution" is hereby abolished, leaving the Faculty 
the rights given in the common law of C!olleges, to be exercised 
in such extreme cases as may seem to demand a resort to 
testimony so obnoxious to the feelings of our youth. 

This resolution was adopted. 

As a consequence of the result thus reached by the 
Trustees then in session, without leaving his seat, and 
using his hat for a writing desk. President Laws penned 
and presented his resignation : 

Oentlemen of the Board of Trustees of Westminster College: 

I hereby tender to you my resignation of the Presidency 
of Westminster College, reserving to myself the privilege and 
right of spreading on the minutes of the Board, at some future 
time, my reasons in full. Very truly, 

(Signed) S. S. Laws. 

The Board then made the minute here annexed: 

On motion the resignation was accepted and the request 
was granted. 

It was unanimously resolved that in accepting the res- 
ignation of President Laws, this Board bears cheerful testi- 
mony to his many sacrifices, his imtiring labors and his ability 
in presiding over our College in the dark and trying days of 
its infancy, and cordiaUy recommend him as a most competent 
and faithful instructor. 

Government of the College 135 

Whether the course pursued by the Board toward their 
Faculty was wise and just in view of all the circumstances, 
it is not for one who was a member of the Faculty con- 
cerned and voted in all the cases of discipline, to decide, at 
any rate when he undertakes to act the part of the historian. 
It is not here questioned that the Board, in the instance 
before us, as in all others, were influenced entirely by what 
they believed to be their conscientious duty in the premises. 
We now dismiss a subject that, for a time at least, brought 
clouds over the prospects of Westminster, clouds that were 
greatly intensified in their effects by the war that hung like 
a pall over the country. Just eleven years to a day have 
passed by since the meeting at Mexico, and the College, 
having survived the storms, is destined, we trust, each 
succeeding year to renew its strength for generations to 

It is with a feeling of sadness that the thought occurs 
that the name of Mr. Laws, so often repeated in these pages, 
now disappears, at least in his official capacity. President 
Laws' term of service covered a period of eight years, event- 
ful years for the College. Within that time his name 
became a household word in hundreds of families in Mis- 
souri. In scholarship, in teaching, in discipline, as well 
as in the pulpit, he has few equals, and no superiors in the 
Presbyterian church. This is not simply a tribute of affec- 
tion for the man, but of justice as well; a tribute felt to 
be true almost universally in the Synod to whose interests 
Mr. Laws devoted, in an official capacity, eight of the best 
years of his life. No man ever more fully intrenched him- 
self in the very hearts of his pupils, and this is singularly 
true of those who graduated during his presidency. No 
young man ever grappled with Metaphysics in his class- 

136 History of Westminster College 

room without feeling that he sat at the feet of one of the 
"sovereigns in the Republic of Letters." 

Before bidding adieu to this part of the history, 
memory brings up vividly the Faculty that then labored in 
the several departments of Westminster: 

REV. S. S. LAWS, A. M., 





REV. M. M. FISHER, A. M., 


F. T. KEMPER, A. M., 






Of his five Colleagues the writer but utters a senti- 
ment which a tender attachment and truth both dictate, 
when he says that they were noble men, ardently devoted 
to a noble profession. That they knew their duties may 
be learned from the reports of their respective departments 
already given. They were all professional teachers. One 
of them. Professor Kemper, still conducts with eminent 


Government of the College 137 

success his "Family School" at Boonville. He is a real, 
an able, a faithful and a successful instructor. God has 
given few such men to any Church. It would be pleasant 
to notice the present labors of the other members of what 
has been called "the Old Faculty," but the information is 
not at hand to do so. Should these men ever glance over 
these pages, let them be assured that their lives in the 
heart of that one of their number, whose fortune it is to 
write the history of days in which we all had a common 
responsibility and a common interest, a deep and abiding 
affection for them all. May we all meet again in the School 
above at the feet of the Great Teacher.^ 

NoTS. Since penning the lines just preceding, the writer 
has learned with much pleasure that A. M. Mayer, Ph. D., is 
now Professor of Physics, in Stephens Polytechnic Institute at . 
Hoboken, New Jersey. His Lecture Notes on Physics, first 
used at Westminster, have been published and stand deserv- 
edly very high. Dr. Mayer has one of the most desirable 
positions in the United States. It is also known that Professor 
Van Doren is still in California, devoting himself to teaching. 
In the absence of definite information, the writer can only hope 
that his labors in that field are crowned with success. 

"No western college has ever been blessed with four 
stronger men, at one time, than Westminster, when Laws, 
Kemper, Fisher, and Mayer taught together in her classic 
halls." — Life of Kemper, p. 216. 

tThese sentences in regard to the Faculty were written in 




NOVEMBER, 1861. 

ARLY in the year 1853 and immedi- 
ately after obtaining a Charter, the 
Board adopted the scholarship plan 
of endowment. This plan was mod- 
ified somewhat at different times, 
but the following copy, containing 
the leading features of the system as 
adopted, g^ves information which 
may be considered sufficiently explicit on this subject. 

Adopted Mabch 218t, 1853. 

Whebbas, It is highly important to the interests of Education and 
Religion that Westminster College be endowed with a permanent fund, 
affording an income, sufficient to secure the services of an able Fac- 
ulty, and that this fimd be so raised and secured that the persons con- 
tributing thereto may receive an equivalent return in instruction; 
therefore, the Trustees of said College do enact: 

First. That twelve hundred Scholarships of one hundred dollars 
each, be created and established in Westminster College. 

Second, Any person who shall pay the Board of Trustees of 


The Old Endowment 139 

Westminster College the sum of one hundred dollars, when six hun- 
dred rights have been purchased, shall be entitled to one scholarship 
in said College; Provided, that not less than six hundred, nor more 
than twelve hundred rights shall be sold. 

Third, Said rights of Scholarships shall entitle the person so 
paying the one hundred dollars, or the son or sons of said person, or 
his heirs or his nominee^ to the full course of instruction taught in said 
College, without charge for tuition from the time the same is paid or 
secured to be paid during the natural life of the purchaser and until 
the youngest son of said purchaser shall have attained the age of 
twenty-one years. 

Fourth. The scholar shall be the son or sons of the purchaser 
during said period; Provided, that the purchaser, if a male, may also 
receive a full course of instruction, and provided further, that pur- 
chasers who have but one son imder the age of twenty-one years may 
fill the sholarship with a nominee in addition to their son for twelve 
years, any time in twenty years from the time payment is made or 

Fifth, If the purchaser have no son, or if his, or her sons are 
already educated, he or she may, during the term of twenty years, from 
the time payment is made or secured, select a scholar or succession 
of scholars, who, on his or her recommendation, shall be entitled to 
said course of instruction, or they may assign such right and the 
assignee shall be entitled to send one scholar successively during the 
remainder of the said period. 

Sixth, All students in attendance on said rights of Scholarships 
shall be exempt from the charge for tuition, but liable to all other 
charges and subject to all the laws and discipline of the College re- 
quired to be observed by other students. 

Seventh, The money raised by the sale of the said rights of 
Scholarships shall be invested in State or United States government 
stocks, or by note, secured by deed of trust, on unincumbered real 
estate, in double the amoimt of the scholarship or scholarships taken, 
with power to sell on failure of payment of the interest annually 
after notice as directed by law in cases of sale of real estate under 
execution and the interest therefrom, shall be faithfully and only ap- 
plied to the payment of the salaries of the Faculty in said College. 
No part of the principal shall be otherwise expended than in the 
investment aforesaid. 

140 History of Westminster College 

Eighth. These rights of scholarships shall not be transferable by 
purchasers who have sons, except by those whose sons are already edu- 
cated or are no longer minors. If the purchaser die during the minority 
of the youngest son, the son or sons of said purchaser, but no other 
person, shall enjoy the rights guaranteed to the parent. 

Ninth. On the payment of said one hundred dollars to the Trustees 
of Westminster CoHege, or to their order, the purchaser shall receive 
the annexed certificate signed by the authorized Agent of the Board 
to which this act shall be appended. 

Tenth. Any person or persons who shall subscribe and pay the 
sum of five himdred dollars into the treasury of Westminster College, 
shall be entitled to a perpetual scholarship in said College and pre- 
paratory department. Said five hundred dollars shall count five in 
the number of scholarships, provided for by this act. 

Eleventh. Any person who shall pay the Trustees of Westminster 
College, the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars, shall be entitled 
to a scholarship in said College, which shall secure to said person 
tuition in the preparatory department in said College, in addition to 
that of College course on the same terms as above provided. Said 
scholarship shall count one and a half in the number of scholarships 
provided for in this act. 

At the meeting of Synod at Fulton in 1855, at which 
time Mr. Laws signified his acceptance of the presidency, 
the entire endowment, raised chiefly on the Scholarship 
plan, amounted to $30,000, raised through the agency of 
Rev. R. S. Symington and Rev. W. W. Robertson. 

In 1857, during the sessions of Synod at Louisiana, 
President Laws was made Financial Agent and entered 
without delay on the work of placing the College on a per- 
manent basis by raising the necessary funds. In January 
of the preceding year Dr. A. Wayland had proposed to give 
$20,000 to endow a Professorship in the Institution pro- 
vided the same sum could be raised from other sources. 
Securing the $40,000 thus involved, was regarded by many 
as solving the problem of the success of the College. With 

The Old Endowment 141 

this view of the case Mr. Laws, acting under the appoint- 
ment of the Board and with a view of realizing this sum, 
prepared and published an address in behalf of West- 
minster College, intended primarily to be used in the city 
of St. Louis. 

The following, showing educational conditions, is 
copied from this address*: 

There are two Conferences of the Methodist Church in Missouri, 
divided by the Missouri River, but both are united in founding a Col- 
lege at Fayette in Howard county. They have buildings in course of 
erection at a cost of $35,000, and over $60,000 have been obtained for 
endowment, which it is designed to carry to $100,000 before the insti- 
tution is opened. It is not their intention to distract their efforts 
by making St. Charles College, which has $25,000 endowment, in fact 
anything more than a respectable Academy, tributary to the central 
institution at Fayette. There is a respectable Academy in Marion 
county principally under the patronage of the Episcopal Church. 
The Baptists have been occupied for several years with ''William 
Jewell College," located at Liberty in Clay coimty. They recently 
reported "an endowment fimd of $32,500. To the fimd, add the value 
of the College building and ground it stands on, and we have about 
$65,000 that may be fairly estimated as what we have done. We 
have $17,600 to supply on our part and when we have raised the 
$50,000, we have the promise of $20,000 more from Brother McPher- 
son and some brethren at St. Louis." The institution in Randolph 
county is a local movement without endowment. The Campbellites 
have fixed on Canton in the Northeastern portion of the State, where 
they have erected a College edifice at a cost of some $30,000, and as 
much more has been raised for permanent endowment. The Cumber- 
land Presbyterians have their Synodical College at Chapel Hill, with 
$25,000 or $30,000 endowment and, in last year's Catalogue, a list of 
over eighty students in the Male Department. A Committee, ap- 
pointed to examine into the relations of the Synod to this College, 
recently reported, "we would urge the continuation of the present con- 

NoTE: — ^Dr. Fisher incorporated this address in his history. On 
account of its length, the editor omits it. 

142 History of Westminster College 

nection." The institution under their favor and patronage in Macon 
county is without endowment. The New School Presbyterians are 
engaged with Webster College in St. Louis county. It would have 
been strange indeed, if the Old School Presbyterians had not obtained 
a place in this list. And besides these denominational institutions, 
the "Masonic College" at Lexington is under the control and patron- 
age of the Grand Lodge, and the "Missouri University" was founded 
by the State itself and has an endowment of $100,000 in Bank Stock. 

The address gives the membership of the several de- 
nominations above named at from 20,000 to 30,000 each. 

In October, 1855, Dr. Wayland was a member of the 
Synod which met at Fulton. During the sessions of the 
Synod, he made a verbal proposition to give twenty thou- 
sand dollars to endow a Professorship. On the twentieth 
of January, 1856, the proposition was embodied in a writ- 
ten form. It was explicitly stated that the amount to be 
given or bequathed was a certain proportion of his prop- 
erty, which was represented as being worth about one 
hundred thousand dollars. 

Here is Dr. Wayland's letter to Rev. W. W. Robert- 
son, who was at the time President of the Board of Trus- 
tees and also Financial Agent. 

East Bend, Glabk County, Mo., January 20, 1856. 
Rev, W. W. Robert 8oni 

Deab Brotheb — Your letter of the I4th ult. is before me, and in 
answer to your saying that "you would be glad to hear that you (I) 
have consummated your noble and benevolent purpose of endowing a 
chair in Westminster," I have to say that I have had that subject under 
consideration for some time before I last visited Fulton. It is still 
before me; and I have laid it before, and consulted all my family, 
who seem not only willing but desirous that I should make the appro- 
priation provided it enures the great object of honoring God in bene- 
fiting our fellow creatures. Now, it is thought best to say at present 
that I will guarantee the sum of twenty thousand dollars, to be 
provided during my lifetime, or soon after my decease, to endow a 
Professorship in Westminster College, at Fulton, Missouri, provided 

The Old Endowment 143 

any other person or persons will secure a similar sum, to be applied 
for a similar purpose in the same College. 

Hoping that God may enable us all to do our duty, as we shall see 
that duty when we shall come to give up our last accoimt to him, 

I remain yours in Christian bonds, Abraham Watlaitd. 

P. S. Please present my kindest regard to all inquiring friends 
in your place and neighborhood. 

You are at liberty to use the foregoing letter in any way you and 
the friends may think will promote the glory of our Divine Master 
and benefit the children of men. A. Wayland. 

N. B. I wish it to be imderstood that if I give or bequeath as 
before stated, it is to be a certain proportion of my property; and if 
that proportion amoimt to more than $20,000, the overplus will also 
belong to the College; and if less, it is to be put to interest imtil it 
amounts to the sum necessary to endow a professorship. 

Abraham Wayiaitd. 

Action of the Board of Trustees of Westminster 'Col- 
lege on this proposition : 

Resolved, That this Board undertake to meet the proposi- 
tion of Dr. A. Wayland, as expressed in his letter of January 
20, 1856, and make it available to Westminster College; and 
that to effect this, the Rev. S. S. Laws be requested and author- 
ized to act in its behalf. 

Also the action of the Synod : 

Resolved, That the Synod highly approve the appointment 
of the Rev. S. S. Laws, the President, as an agent, to meet the 
proposition of Dr. Wayland, and complete the endowment of 
the Lttstitution, by carrying it, if possible, to one hundred 
thousand dollars, and that in effecting this object he be 
earnestly recommended to the Church and commimity gen- 
erally within the State of Missouri, and also in such parts of 
our coimtry as he may visit for this very important and in- 
teresting purpose, and that the papers of our Church be 
requested to publish this resolution. 

What has now been said, will explain the circumstances 

144 History of Westminster College 

under which President Laws was appointed to the Agency. 
From the action of the Synod it will be seen that they had 
in contemplation his visiting parts of the country, outside 
of our own State. 

As has been already said in Chapter II, President 
Laws spent the greater part of one year, the scholastic year 
of 1857-8, in raising funds for the permanent endowment. 
He succeeded in securing in that time over $22,000. The 
chair which the donation of Dr. Wayland was to endow, 
was to be called the Wayland Professorship. That 
$20,000 for the Wayland Professorship, was conditioned 
on raising the same amount from other sources. When 
President Laws began his work as Agent, a pastor of one 
of the St. Louis churches suggested that the conditional 
$20,000 should be appropriated to endowing a chair which 
should be called the Potts' Professorship. A brief state- 
ment from the address just given, will show how this mat- 
ter was first presented, especially to the people of St. 


"And hy it he, being dead, yet apeaketh." 

The chair which the donation of Dr. Wayland shall en- 
dow, is to be called the Wayland Professorship. There is 
every reason to believe that the conditional $20,000 will be soon 
obtained, and at the suggestion of the Pastor of one of our 
Churches in St. Louis, it is now proposed to name the chair 
which this sum shall endow, the Potts Professorship. The pe- 
culiar fitness of this suggestion, as giving honor to whom honor 
is due, is most obvious. Such a tribute of respect was never 
more richly due from a people to any man, than this from the 
Presbyterians of Missouri, to Dr. Potts. He was one of the 
pioneers of our Church West of the Mississippi, and consider- 
ing the thorough literary and religious education of youth 

The Old Endowment 145 

second only to the preaching of the Qospel, he warned against 
irreligious and yiciated instruction, and lent his personal 
efforts to sustain and encourage institutions of sound learning, 
as having a vital connection with the true interests of the 
church. The Synod of 185 1, which entered upon tne work of 
building up Westminster College, was the last one he ever 
attended, and he cordially approved of entering on this enter- 
prise and manifested the liveliest interest in everything per- 
taining to it. No expression of affectionate regard for his 
memory and character could be more agreeable, than this of 
identifying the sacredness and influence of his name with the 
last enterprise of our Church in Missouri, which he took an 
active and leading part in initiating. He, being dead, yet speak- 
eth. This tribute would be a peculiarly appropriate memorial 
of one, the bare mention of whose name wakes up the tenderest 
and purest affections in the heart of a multitude still living, 
who delight to call him their spiritual father and will, if re- 
ceived above, shine as stars in the bright crown of rejoicing 
which he has already received from the hands of the blessed 
Saviour, whom he so long and faithfully served within the 
bounds of this Synod. 

But as stated above, more than $20,000 were raised by 
the efforts of the President during the year. So the first 
chair was endowed and called, according to the suggestion 
already referred to, the Potts' Professorship. It is perhaps 
due to say that the name of Dr. Potts, in connection with 
the chair, really originated in the mind of President Laws 
himself, who, through the instrumentality of Dr. Potts, had 
been brought into the church. Ever since that time the 
President of the College has been the incumbent of the 
Potts' Professorship. The formal action of the Board took 
place at Fulton in June, 1858, and was in these words : 

Resolvedy That the chair of Mental and Moral Science be 
called the Potts Professorship, and the incumbent be called the 
Potts Professor, and that the funds raised for said chair be 
specially set apart for the support of said Professor. 

146 History of Westminster College 

This resolution was oflFered by Mr. Charless. 

In June, 1859, President Laws was ag^n appointed 
Agent. The success attending the eflForts to increase the 
endowment, may be seen from the annual report of the 
Board of Trustees made to the Synod in session at St. 
Louis, October, 1859. 


Amount of bonds and notes bearing 10 per cent 

interest $56,356.28 

Amount of bonds and notes bearing 8 per cent 

interest 24,097.50 

Amount of bonds and notes bearing six per cent 

interest 11,050.00 

Amount of bonds and notes maturing 3,155.00 

Amount of bonds and notes not ayailable 850.00 

Cash lent Contingent Fund 4,040.00 

Cash on hand 770.00 

Two Dwelling Houses, including repairs, and now 

under rent at $300 per annum 4,200.00 

448 4-100 acres of land (imimproved) in Clark 

coimty, conveyed by Dr. Wayland* 7,000.00 

College Building and 20 acres of ground, around 

same, valued at 25,000.00 



Arrears on salaries $2,925.89 

Orders of Executive Committee outstanding 1,900.53 

Cash borrowed of Martin Butler 1,000.00 

Cash borrowed from Permanent Fund 4,040.00 

Fulton, Missouri, October 1, 1859. 

Jambs S. Heitdebson, 

Treasurer Board of Trustees, W. C. 

'President Laws had the deed for this land recorded in Clark 
county, Missouri. The deed itself was deposited in the hands of Gk>v. 
Gamble in the city of St. Louis. 

The Old Endowment 147 

At the same meeting in St. Louis, "It was Resolved, 
That in view of the statement of the Treasurer of West- 
minster College, the Board of Trustees declare themselves 
possessed of the sum of $102,898.78, of permanent endow- 
ment fund." There were papers taken contingent in rais- 
ing $100,000. This explained the formal and public an- 
nouncement, just quoted that the condition had been met. 
The College building and campus, the land conveyed by 
Dr. Wayland, the notes not available and the cash on hand, 
were not included in the Permanent Fund. The endow- 
ment had increased, according to the report referred to 
above, during the year immediately preceding about $50,- 
000, of which $20,000, as has been previously stated in this 
history, "were the beautiful tribute of filial affection on the 
the part of an only, Mrs. Le Bourgeois, of Louisiana, 
endowing a Professorship in honor of a deceased father, 
Joseph Charless, Esq.," one of the earliest and most ardent 
friends of the College. Twenty-six thousand dollars were 
raised in Callaway county and largely from citizens of Ful- 
ton, whose contributions had been so liberal when the Insti- 
tution was located in their midst. In June, 1859, the mem- 
bers of the Faculty, six in number, had given notes for 
$1,000, to assist in raising the endowment. For this sum 
they were to have two perpetual scholarships in the Col- 
lege. Below is a sample of the Faculty notes. 


Pulton, June 28, 1859. 
When the Board of Trustees of Westminater College in session 
shall make and publish a declaration of the fact that they haye 
ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLARS in good available notes, 
bonds, and securities, as a productive fund held in trust for West- 
minster College, I promise to pay to the Board of Trustees of West- 
minster College the sum of One Thousand Dollarrs, as follows: One-fifth 

148 History of Westminster College 

thereof on the date of the publication of the aboye authorized dec- 
laration in the Fulton Telegraph or the St. Louis Presbyterian; and 
one-fifth thereof on the same date of each succeeding year until the 
whole of said sum shall be fully paid; with interest payable an- 
nually from the time the first installment is due and payable, on 
each unpaid installment at the rate of six per cent per annum, until 
the whole sum is fully paid, and all interest not paid annually to be 
counted as principal and bear interest at the same rate; Provided 
that no part of this note shall be payable unless the said One Hun- 
dred Thousand Dollars are raised and Twenty Thousand Dollars 
thereof be forever set apart and only and all the interest of the same 
be used exclusively and specifically for the benefit of the Potts Pro- 
fessorship of Metaphysics and Sacred Literature; and in like manner 
Fifteen Thousand Dollars be set apart severally for the Department 
of Pure and Mixed Mathematics; The Department of the Latin Lan- 
guage and Literature; The Department of the Greek Language and 
Literature; and the Department of The English Language and Lit- 
erature; and in the same manner Twenty Thousand Dollars be set 
apart for the Charless Professorship of Physical Sciences — thus dis- 
tributing the One Hundred Thousand Dollars among the six named 
school or Departments, to be held and the interest only to be used 
forever for their benefit respectively; and Provided further, that not 
less than eight per cent per annum on the principal set apart for 
each Department named be made available for its support, and that 
the said Board of Trustees after the publication of the above declara- 
tion, keep the current expenses of the College within its current in- 
come as near as may be; Provided further, that Fifteen Thousand 
Dollars be raised for the same purpose from citizens of Callaway 
county, Missouri, on or subsequent to June 1, 1859, and as part of the 
One Hundred Thousand Dollars. Provided also that this obligation 
is of force only bo long as I occupy my Professorship in said College. 

The indebtedness of the Board at this period in their 
history, as seen from the Treasurer's report, was nearly 
$io,ooo. This arose mainly from the fact that the Trus- 
tees were compelled, in projecting an enterprise on a lib- 
eral scale, to go beyond their visible means and draw upon 
the Permanent Fund to meet their current expenses, 

The Old Endowment 149 

trusting to Grod's providence for relief. That this method 
of meeting their expenses was regarded in a very serious 
light, may be seen from a communication of President 
Laws to the Board of Trustees in 1859, in which he says : 
"It is sincerely hoped that this debt, of comparatively 
small proportions, all things considered, and easily man- 
aged, if relief be given within a reasonable limit of time, 
may not be allowed, like a vampire, to drink up the heart's 
blood of the Institution, whilst its friends remain in a 
heedless slumber." 

"At the earliest practicable period, measures should be 
devised and pressed by all who feel an interest here to meet 
this existing and imperative want, which must inevitably 
paralyze our movements to a considerable degree until re- 
moved." It is but just to say that about one half of the 
above debt had accumulated when Mr. Laws accepted the 
Presidency, in 1855, at which time he became ex officio, 
President of the Board of Trustees. 

In November, 1861, "a committee consisting of D. H. 
Bishop, Isaac Tate, G. C. Swallow and Dr. Abbot, was ap- 
pointed to examine more minutely into the financial condi- 
tion of the College and report a statement to the Board." 
This Committee found the assets of the Institution to be 
as follows: 

Bills receivable $ 86,640 79 

Interest due and unpaid 12,937 40 

Productive real estate 4,200 00 

$103,778 19 

The value of the endowment at this time was of course 
greatly affected by the deplorable state of the country, and 
in fact the entire fund, according to the report of the Com- 

150 History of Westminster College 

mittee, "could only be regarded in the light of a suspended 
debt, which might prove eventually to be something or as 
likely to be worthless." The entire amount of the liabil- 
ities of the Board at the breaking out of the war was 
$19,984.16. The largest part of this debt, about two-thirds, 
was owing by the Contingent to the Permanent fund of the 
College. A quotation from the report of the Committee in 
186 1, is highly important, as showing the feeling of the 
Synod as to the management of the endowment fund : 

"And here your Committee would take occasion to ex- 
press our approval of the management of this fund by 
those having it in charge, regarding it prudent and wise." 
The minutes from year to year show that the Board were 
compelled to borrow from the permanent fund to meet ex- 
penses and to carry out the intentions of the Synod in 
founding the College. These same minutes show also that 
they regarded the increasing debt as a portentious evil de- 
manding a speedy remedy. Hence it is of the greatest 
moment to know that when a committee, appointed to ex- 
amine minutely into the financial condition, made their re- 
port, they felt called upon to express their approval of the 
prudence and wisdom that had marked the management of 
the trust committed to the Board for a noble purpose. 

This is the proper place to stop for a moment and fix 
attention on some points that ought to be clearly under- 

1. President Laws had devolved on him, not only the 
literary aflFairs of the College, but also, in large measure, 
the management of its financial interests, as he was, accord- 
ing to the first charter, ex officio, President of the Board 
of Trustees. 

2. The danger of borrowing from the permanent fund 
to meet current expenses, if danger there were, was seen 

The Old Endowment 151 

first by the President and pointed out by him in his com- 
munication to the Board at Synod in October, 1859, in St. 
Louis. He also strongly insisted on some way being de- 
vised by which the debt could be removed. 

3. Of the $19,984.16, the amount of liabilities at the 
opening of the war, only $12435.94, had been borrowed 
from the permanent fund, the rest being on salaries, or due 
Martin Butler, from whom money had been borrowed, in 
1855, to pay the Messrs. Baird. 

4. When a committee of business men came to exam- 
ine the whole question of the financial management, they 
pronounced that management "prudent and wise." That 
Committee consisted of Messrs. D. H. Bishop, Isaac Tate, 
G. C. Swallow and Dr. R. Abbot. The endorsement of 
such men in such matters is of the highest moment. 

The writer of these pages does not claim to be an ex- 
perienced business man, but as he was on the ground all 
the time, he thinks that he may be pardoned for expressing, 
what seems to him, the true view of borrowing from the 
permanent fund, up to the time when the business of the 
Board was declared in a state of suspension. Take the 
facts in the case. At the time referred to, the expense of 
sustaining the College was within the current income from 
tuition and interest. If there was any deficiency, it arose 
from the fact that the Board failed to gather in the interest 
as it matured. Notice too, that a large part of the interest, 
being on notes that were really self-renewing, on maturity 
became principal and bore a like interest as the principal. 
The using of funds to the extent of the interest matured, 
could not be considered as borrowing at all from the per- 
manent endowment. The case is clear thus far. But if the 
Board, from a failure to collect simple interest on maturity, 
had occasion to borrow money, it was certainly better to 

152 History of Westminster College 

borrow that money from itself than from any body else, 
for the whole property of the Board was available to make 
good its liabilities. Now, prior to the time when the funds 
of the Institution were declared to be in the condition of a 
suspended debt, no reliance could be more sure for meeting 
any obligation than the matured and maturing interest on 
solvent paper held on good men all over the State. In a 
word, as long as the amount borrowed from the permanent 
fund did not exceed the interest on sound notes, the Board 
acted on genuine business principles in borrowing from it- 
self. As a general fact, there was always more due than 
the contingent owed the permanent fund. When President 
Laws resigned, the amount due the endowment from con- 
tingent fund exceeded the interest actually due only about 
$38.71. Of course, the statements just now made could not 
apply to the funds when declared in the condition of a sus- 
pended debt. The writer therefore takes the liberty of say- 
ing that business men were compelled to say on business 
principles that the management had been "prudent and 

Before leaving this subject, it is worth while to notice 
and record the blessing of God on the efforts of his people 
in the Synod of Missouri to place on a solid basis this 
cherished College. In 1855, the endowment was set down 
(nominally) at $30,000; in 1861, a period embracing six 
years, the fund had mounted to more than $103,000. This 
shows an increase in the permanent endowment of more 
than $73,000, in six years. The total amount of resources re- 
ported by the Treasurer the first year of the war, was $147,- 
785.95. The College in its first endowment, as well as in 
other respects, was a success almost, if not entirely, with- 
out a parallel in the annals of the Presbyterian Church. 
This success was due largely to the indefatigable efforts of 

The Old Endowment 153 

President Laws, who from his election to a Professorship in 
1854 to his resignation in 1861, devoted himself to the in- 
terests of Westminster College with wonderful energy and 
extraordinary ability. 

This Chapter will be closed by giving the reports of the 
financial condition of the College from 1855 to 1861. These 
will be presented in their regular order. 

A careful examination of the records of the Board re- 
veals the fact that a statement of the financial condition 
was annually made both at the meeting of the Board in 
June and also during the session of Synod in October. But 
up to the year 1859, these fiscal reports were not copied 
into the record book kept by. the Trustees. In all proba- 
bility, some of these documents have been lost. At any 
rate the writer has been unable to find them. As a matter 
of fact however their presence is not necessary to a clear 
understanding of the endowment from year to year, for the 
main facts bearing on the case have been found in the 
minutes of Synod. The report of the Treasurer is uniformly 
given, but that embraces usually nothing more than the 
receipts and expenditures for the year. 

In 1854, Synod met at Boonville and during its session, 
the Board recommended the Synod to appoint "Rev. W. W. 
Robertson as a general agent for the College, with a salary 
of one thousand dollars, to be collected by the agent." On 
the eleventh of October, of the year following, Mr. Robert- 
son was again appointed agent by the Board and "the 
Executive Committee were authorized to employ an addi- 
tional agent." It was while Mr. Robertson was engaged in 
his work as agent, under the appointment of Synod, and 
of course prior to the meeting of Synod in 1855, that he 
visited the venerable A. Wayland, M. D. Dr. Wayland 
had just lost a son and had in mind a plan for using that 

154 History of Westminster College 

son's portion of his estate. Mr. Robertson called his at- 
tention to Westminster College, which, being a child of the 
Church, might be adopted instead of the child summoned 
home by the Great Head of the Church. This matter is 
best explained in Mr. Robertson's own words. Liberty is 
taken therefore to use part of a letter, which, though pri- 
vate originally, will be gladly read by others : 

Fulton, December 4, 1872. 
B&v. M, M, Fiaher: 

Deab Bbotheb. — ^Yours of the 27th ult. is just received. 
I hasten to reply to your inquiries. I was appointed Agent 
of Westminster College by the Synod at its meeting in Boon- 
ville, October, 1854, and served till the next meeting of Synod 
which convened at Fulton. 

The true history of the Wayland gift is as follows: Early 
in the summer of 1855, I was at the Doctor's house in prose- 
cuting my Agency. He had just lost a little son and he told 
me as he had given his son to the Lord, and as the Lord had 
taken his son to Himself instead of using him in His service 
on earth, he intended to give the child's portion to the Lord. 
His plan then was to build a church in his immediate neighbor- 
hood and to set apart a sufficient sum to support a minister 
from the interest thereon. Of course / was alive to the interest 
of our College, and his plan not appearing to me to be wise, I 
presented to him the objection to the plan he was digesting, 
and suggested Westminster as the benefici&ry of his B<m*B por- 
tion. I suggested also that in addition he should take a $500 
Scholarship so that he could educate one young man for the 
ministry, as I hoped, through many generations. This latter 
he immediately did and promised to take the other matter 
under prayerful consideration. He came to the Synod at Ful- 
ton in 1855 and announced that he had decided to make West- 
minster his heir, that is, to give for permanent endowment, a 
child's part of his estate. He estimated it $20,000. • • • • • 

Affectionately yours, 


The Old Endowment 155 

On the twenty-fourth of June, 1856, President Laws 
was requested to spend as much time as he might be able 
in raising funds as agent. The request was repeated at 
Synod in October, 1856. The records show that the Presi- 
dent was again made agent on the thirtieth of June, 1858. 
The general fact that he was agent has been noticed, but 
the minutes manifest the truth that the Board felt called 
on repeatedly to avail themselves of his services in this 
capacity. (Records B. T. W. C, pp. 60, 70* 76, 79, 91.) 

The State of the endowment early in the year 1857, 
may be gathered from the subjoined extract: 

2. Peotmiary Condition, — ^A statement as much in detail 
as there would be patience to peruse, may be taken from the 
same report: 

'The property of the Board consists of real estate^ notes 
and money. The real estate consisting of the College building, 
OTer twenty acres of ground and two dwelling houses, is esti- 
mated as worth $30,000. There is an annual income from the 
dwellings of $300. Of the notes, some $3,300 are given for the 
President and Professorship funds, and bear six per cent, in- 
terest. The Scholarship notes amount to about $28,000, and 
the most of these bear interest at six per cent, a few of them 
at ten per cent. Over $3,000 have been paid into the treasury 
and are vested at ten per cent. The income from tuition dur- 
ing the year, amounted to about $2,000. The liabilities of the 
Board are $5,508, almost the whole of which has arisen on the 
score of Professor's Salaries. This fact of itself is sufficient to 
show the need of speedily completing the endowment of the 

Since this statement was made over $2,000 in notes have 
been obtained, and perhaps $1,000 collected. The tuition for 
the year which will end in June, 1857, will amount to over 
$2,500. The avaihible resources of the Trustees this year will 

*(The records on pages 60 and 70 do not mention the President.- 

156 History of Westminster College 

be about $4,000, whereas the current expenses of the jear will 
be about as near $6,000. 

In view, therefore, of the general condition of Westminster 
College, there was good ground for a brief editorial in the 
St. Louis Presbyterian, Oct. 30, 1856, speaking of it as a 
''young and flourishing Institution," and saying, "Its success 
thus far has exceeded the anticipation of its most sanguine 
friends. It is only necessary now that the Presbyterians of 
Missouri, by their contributions, place it on a solid founda- 
tion. The necessity of this solid foundation is more pressing 
and critical than many of the friends of the College arc 

The report of 1858 contains many items outside of 
pecuniary matters, but the general interest attaching to 
them will be a sufficient apology for their being found here. 

To the Synod of Missouri, in Session at Cape Girardeau, October 15, 
1858, the Board of Trustees of Westminster College submits the 
following Report of the past year. 
The pecuniary condition of the Institution is indicated by the 

Treasurer's Statement here given: 

Fulton, Septembeb 1, 1858. 
To the Board of Truateea of Westminster College: 



Bonds and notes bearing 10 per cent, interest. .. .$15,363 25 

"6 " " 22,594 16 

" " no interest, (not due) 3,778 33 

" '" conditional, (to be renewed) 5,860 00 

" " not available 850 00 

Cash on hand 1,578 04 

" lent contingent fund, ( 10 per cent.) 1,540 00 

" expended on buildings, " 1,200 00 

Two dwelling-houses, (and other out-houses).... 3,000 00 
448 4-100 acres of land, (unimproved) in Clark 

county, conveyed by Dr. Wayland, valued at. . 7,000 00 

Total $62,753 78 

The Old Endowment 157 


Balance of salary due President Laws $2,351 00 

" " " Prof. VanDoren 1,018 77 

" Fisher 769 60 

" " " " Kemper 179 00 

" Hughes 51 12 

Cash due contingent fund, borrowed 1,540 00 

" " " expended on buildings.. 1,200 00 

" " " bor'wd to pay Profs. Baird 1,000 00 

Total $8,109 39 

Trects. Weatminater College, 

From an inspection of the above statement, it appears with ap- 
proximate accuracy, that the productive funds of the College amount 
to $50,181.35; from which an annual income matures of $3,918.11, or 
nearly 8 per cent.; $22,681.35 bearing 10 per cent, and say, $27,500 
bearing 6 per cent. The average income from tuition may be safely 
set down at $2,000, as it has exceeded that for several years, which 
will make that total income $5,018.11. 

The current expenses of the Board are: Salaries of the incumbent 
Professors, $5,100; interest on $3,740, borrowed at 10 per cent., $374; 
interest on $4,362.39, due Professors at 8 per cent., $348.99; incidental 
expenses, $500. Making total current expenses $6,322.99; which ex- 
ceeds total current income as above given, $404.88. 

The College appears, from this result, however, to have a current 
income nearer its current expenses than is found to be the fact in the 
actual working of things, owing mainly to the lack of regularity and 
promptness in the payment of the annual interest on the notes. Until 
the funds are fully paid in and concentrated in safe and productive in- 
vestments, their value to the institution is necessarily somewhat depre- 
ciated. But it can be stated with confidence, that the business of the 
Board has been brought into such a condition that the current income 
falls less than $1,000 short of the current expenses. 

In general, then, the college has a debt of over $8,000 without any 
funds for its liquidation; and this debt is grotoing about $1,000 a year. 
It is evident, therefore, that something should be speedily done to 
cancel existing liabilities, and to increase the productive permanent 
fund so as to cut off all accumulation of debt, and also to enable the 

158 History of Westminster College 

Board to make provision for the pressing wants of the existing De« 
partments and to make speedj arrangements to open on a liberal scale 
the department of Physical Science. After inquiry it has been reliably 
ascertained, that it would require to open in a satisfactory manner the 
Physical Science Department, from twenty-five to thirty thousand dol- 
lars ($25,000 to $30,000). And yet it is a pressing necessity, the lack 
of which is more and more felt daily as a great disadvantage. 

In view of all the facts in the case, therefore, it seems inevitable 
that we can neither progress nor remain stationary, but must retro- 
grade, unless liberal pecuniary aid is promptly extended. A corpora- 
tion with a debt overhanging it, and whose income does not meet its 
accruing liabilities, unless relief is afforded, must certainly be wound 
up sooner or later. The condition of things is not at all alarming 
under all the circumstances, but it is such as to arouse attention and 
to stimulate exertion. The debt would have been fully paid, and the 
funds also considerably increased before this Synod, no doubt, had not 
the extraordinary monetary pressure occurred, whose influence still 
greatly paralyzes the energies of the Board. The friends of the Col- 
lege should deem this an opportune occasion for making to it a freewill 
offering, as friends in need are friends indeed. And what better use 
can any servant of God in our midst make of his means than is here 
indicated? The financial condition of the college has been vastly im- 
proved in the last few years, and was never before as good as it is 
now, nor are there more than two colleges in this State in a more 
hopeful condition as to their funds, and none more so as to patronage, 
and these circumstances should inspire confidence. 

In regard to the internal condition of the college, it is decidedly 
superior to what it has been at any previous time. The number of 
students already enrolled for the present session is over 120; and the 
advanced classes are larger than ever before. To use an expression of 
a member of the Faculty, if the body of students were weighed, they 
would be found heavier than at any previous time in the history of 
the institution. This is a more favorable report in this respect than 
could have been reasonably expected, considering the business reverses 
and other disturbing influences of the past year. • • • • 

There is nothing claiming special notice in the religious condition 
of the students for the past year. The chapel service which has for 
some time been held on Sabbath in the college building, has been at- 
tended by numbers of citizens, so much so that we feel pressed for 


The Old Endowment 159 

room until our upper chapel is furnished. Meanwhile, as the church 
in town has been kindly tendered for this service, it is expected to 
occupy it again until the upper chapel is in readiness to be occupied. 
The college is very much in need of a large bell. There are a goodly 
number studying with the ministry in view. Three of the members 
of the last class that graduated are now in Princeton Seminary. 
There are the first fruits of our college for the ministry, as no candi- 
date was graduated in any previous class, but our first graduate is now 
a licentiate in the Baptist church. Unless Austin Ck)llege, Texas, be an 
exception, it is believed that no Synodical college west of the Missis- 
sippi ever before graduated a candidate for the ministry. 

We feel that our devout thanks are due to the great Head of the 
church for having been so manifestly our helper hitherto in this great 
work, and ask a special interest in the prayers of the members of 
Synod and of the churches under your care, in behalf of this so greatly 
needed and so highly successful enterprise. 

[Report of the Board to the Synod at the meeting in St. Louis, 
October 17, 1859, has already been given in full on page 146.] 

It toas Resolved, That in view of the statement of the Treasurer 
of Westminster College, the Board of Trustees declare themselves pos- 
sessed of the sum of $102,898.78 — one hundred and two thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-eight dollars a/nd seventy-eight cents of permanent 
endowment property. 

The estimate on which this resolution is based, does not embrace 
the valuation of the college building and campus, nor the land con- 
veyed by Dr. Wayland, as a realization in part of his proposition, nor 
the cash on hand, nor the notes not available. The land in Olark 
County is of course a part of the permanent endowment funds, but it is 
not counted, as it is uncertain when it may be rendered productive, 
although it is expected that a sale of that land may ere long be 
advantageously effected. 

It will be remembered that the assets of the College reported to 
the Synod last year were $62,753.78 — sixty-tijoo thousand seven hundred 
and fifty-three dollars and seventy-eight cents, making a difference in 
favor of the report this year, of $74,765.00. The explanation of this 
increase is found in some two or three items. The college building and 
campus were inadvertently omitted from the last report, whereas they 
are valued in the present one at $25,000. The permanent endowment 
fund has been increased during the past year about $50,000, of which 

160 History of Westminster College 

sum, twenty thousand dollars were, as has been before said, "the 
beautiful tribute of filial affection/' on the part of an only childj in 
endowing a Professorship in honor of her deceased father, Joseph 
Gharless, Esq., who was, from the first organization of our Synodical 
College, one of its trustees and most ardent friends; and twenty-sicf 
thousand dollars, ($26,000) were raised by the citizens of Callawaj 
county, but chiefiy from the citizens of Fulton, including the members 
of the Faculty, each of whom gave one thousand dollars. 

The aggregate income which matures on this permanent fund is 
$8,298.12— et^^t thousand two hundred and ninety-eight dollars and 
twelve cents; a general average of something over eight per cent. If 
we add to this the probable income from tuition and contingent fees, 
say $2,000 — two thousand dollars, the current annual income available 
for meeting current expenses foots up $10,298.12 — ten thousand and two 
hundred and ninety-eight dollars and twelve cents. The current expenses 
of the Board are the salaries of six Professors $8,200, the interest on 
the d^t $1,000; making $9,200, and leaving $1,098 as a working 
balance to cover contingencies. 

But this estimate of the current income has to be qualified by the 
circumstance, that from inattention and other causes, the call of the 
Treasurer each spring, especially for the interest due, is not as promptly 
and generally responded to as the business necessities of the College 
urgently require. If the neglect in this respect is to any considerable 
extent further indulged, the Board will be reduced to the necessity of 
pressing the collection of the principal as well as the interest, by 
drawing and negotiating checks on those indebted, to the amount of 
their arrears, or by some other practicable method. As a larger propor- 
tion of our studnts are on scholarships than ever before, it will at 
once be evident that the amount of income from tuition is thereby 
lessened, and the dependence 6f the College, on the interest of the notes 
and bonds, is made just so much the greater. The importance and abso- 
lute necessity of promptness in responding to the calls of the Treasurer 
would not be thus spoken of again, were it not vital to our existence 
and success, and had not occasion been given for doing so. 

The indebtedness of the College falls within $10,000. It will be 
remembered that the debt was reported to the Synod at St. Charles 
to be $5,550.60. So that about half of the present indebtedness was 
created at the outset, and before the College had a President. But the 
course adopted by the Board in projecting the enterprise on a liberal 

iimr-^' -■■ 

i3H ' f.'\. t'.^^ '-•■' 


0:f- -^ 

;. -M.mM 


The Old Endowment 161 

scale and entirely beyond its visible resources, trusting to Qod's proTi- 
denoe for the necessary relief, although it was hazardous, has never- 
theless worked out no doubt for the best; and Instead of there being 
the slightest ground of complaint on account of the debt, every one 
who looks at the matter understandingly must see the profoundest rea- 
son for gratitude, that so much has been accomplished in so short a 
time, without incurring greater liabilities. Indeed, it seems most rea- 
sonable that no act should ever be performed by this Synod with more 
cheerfulness than the speedy liquidation of this debt, and particularly 
BO, as the Board are now able to establish it as their settled policy, 
that the operations of the institution are hereafter to be kept within 
its maturing income, so that no further debt need be contracted. It 
is sincerely hoped that this debt of comparatively small proportions, 
all things considered, and easily managed if relief be given within a 
reasonable limit of time, may not be allowed like a vampire to drink 
up the heart's blood of the institution, whilst its friends remain in a 
heedless slumber. At the earliest practicable period, measures should 
be devised and pressed by all who feel an interest here, to meet this 
existing and imperative want, which must inevitably paralyze our 
movements to a considerable degree until removed. • • • • 

As to the attendance, there were on the 5th of October, 129 stu- 
dents — 12 seniors, 15 juniors, 13 sophomores, and 20 freshmen, giving 
a total of 60 regulars in the college classes; there being fewer in the 
primary English, and more in the regular classes than hitherto. The 
largest number of students ever before reported to the Synod, as in at- 
tendance the current season, was 120. Of the number now present, 
about 20 are preparing for the ministry, and several of these are 
Seniors. There are some fifty professors of religion. During the past 
year 17 were received into the church at one time. The general deport- 
ment of the body of young men is commendable. • • • • 

A retrospect of the providences of Crod toward this enterprise 
during the past year, mingles in our hearts the feelings of sorrow, 
and joy; and we feel that its abounding prosperity and usefulness 
should, more than ever before, enkindle the interests of the Synod, and 
all the churches, without whose wise, liberal, tender, and prayerful 
fostering care, no reasonable hope of its continued growth and success 
can be entertained; and should call forth our grateful acknowledgments 
to the Great Head of the Church. And it is of the last importance 
that none of us should feel that the work of endowment and com- 


162 History of Westminster College 

pletely establishing our Synodical College is accomplished, but that it 
has only just faiilj hegw^, A mere beginning, though a good beginning, 
has been made; as there are wants in great number and magnitude^ 
and of vital consequence, now pressing upon us, for which the liberality 
of the friends of the institution should provide without delay. The 
erection of a Hall with dormitory and table accommodations for about 
fifty students, is perhaps the most pressing want which is now felt 
in the management of the internal affairs of the institution. A de- 
partment of Normal Insiruction should be endowed and placed on a 
level with the other departments, that we may raise up and send out 
our quota of teachers, whose influence and labors will return well 
trained students to our classes; the institution that sends out the 
greatest number and best professional teachers will manifestly be re- 
warded for so doing by their reflex influence in sending back pupils. 
For completing the endowment of four of the existing departments, 
some five thousand doUara each, are needed. Our present edifice is 
becoming too contracted. As soon as possible a suitable building 
should be erected for the special accommodation of the Charless Pro- 
fessorship of Physical Science. The edifice at Cambridge with its 
fixtures, allotted to this purpose, cost fifty thousand dollars, but this 
of course transcends our present aspirations. The time will soon come 
when a large Chapel and a Library Hall will be indispensable. The 
claims of health and the importance of well developed and vigorous 
constitutions, call for the construction of a gymnasium with a system 
of Physical education and discipline under some proper manager, with- 
out delay. Moreover, special funds, whose income should be devoted 
to the improvement of the Library, the purchase of apparatus, the as- 
sistance of indigent students, and the defraying of the traveling expenses 
of the members of the Board, and of the examining committees, etc, 
ought to be provided. But the debt stands in the way of our making 
any enlargement or progress, with present resources. In fact, it is 
plain at a mere glance, that the Board ought to have another one 
hundred thousand dollars to place the College upon an equality with 
its present and urgent demands. And surely all those who may have 
ever felt it in their hearts to devise liberal things for Westminster Col- 
lege, should in view of its past, and of its flattering present, be in- 
spirited with unfaltering confldenoe in the promising character and 
worthiness of this object, and be stimulated to prompt and generous 
action. The foundation, it is believed, is now securely laid on which 

The Old Endowment 163 

to build securely for all time to come; and the opportunity is here en- 
joyed of sowing seed which shall yield its fruit in its season for the 
educational nourishment of generation after generation, for untold cen- 
turieSy under the blessing of God. 

Rev. J. H. Brookes, in behalf of the committee to attend 
the examinations of Westminster College reported : 

The Committee appointed by Synod to attend the annual 
commencement exercises of Westminster College submit the 
following Report: 

"Your committee know full well how common it is in 
reports of this kind to make statements on slight grounds, 
and to yield to the strong temptation which often arises from 
the nature of the case, to say complimentary things, which 
may have little to justify them. 

"We are, however, but giving utterance to the impression 
received by every one of your Committee, in saying that West- 
minster College will compare favorably with the very best 
Institutions of learning in our country. The members of the 
Committee have attended many examinations in Institutions 
of similar character, and unhesitatingly state, that in none of 
them have we felt better satisfied with the mode of instruction 
pursued, or with the evidences of proficiency exhibited by the 
students. Care, thoroughness, and enthusiasm, on the part of 
the Professors, and the natural responses to such a spirit, in 
diligence, independent thought, and zeal on the part of the 
pupils, were manifest in all the examinations which we at- 
tended. Of course this commendation is not to be bestowed 
upon every one of the students, for their are wide differences 
in the rank to which they are severally entitled, but as the 
result of the whole matter, in so far as your Committee were 
concerned, these two conclusions were promptly reached: (1) 
That Westminster College especially, in the largely increased 
facilities furnished by the liberal endowment of the chair of 
Physical Science, affords all the advantages necessary to secure 
a thorough and accomplished education. 

"(2) That the Institution, established now upon a firm 
basis, and giving high promise of usefulness in the cause of 

164 History of Westminster College 

learning and of our Redeemer's Kingdom, la worthy of their 
full confidence and cordial support, and warm sympathy, and 
earnest prayers of our church at large." 
The aboTe report was adopted. 

Report of the Board to Synod October 13, i860: 

To amount of Bonds and notes at interest $92,453 89 

To amount of Bonds and Notes not available 850 00 

To cash lent contingent Fund 7,094 39 

To cash on hand 450 00 

To two dwelling houses, including repairs and now under lease 

at $300 per anniun 4,200 00 

To 448 4-100 of land unimproved in Clark county conveyed 

by Dr. Wayland 7,000 00 

To Ck)llege buildings and 20 acres of ground around same, 

valued at 25,000 00 

Total $137,048 28 


By cash borrowed from Mr. Butler $1,000 00 

By cash borrowed from Permanent Fund 7,094 39 

Arrears of Salary and matured interest, say 5,000 00 

$13,094 39 
(Minutes of B. T. W. C, p. 109.) 

The subjoined extracts from the records of the Board 
are deemed ample for the year 1861. As elsewhere noticed, 
the Synod of that year met in November, at Mexico. (Rec- 
ords B. T. W. C, pp. 1 16-124.) 

As soon as the Board met it was: 

"Resolved to proceed to the inyestigation of the Report of the 
Ck>mmittee appointed in June, 1860, and continued in the fall of 1860, 
upon the financial condition of the College; and also a statement of 
the Treasurer dated Oct. 1, 1861. 

"After inquiries in reference to the above mentioned reports, a 
committee consisting of D. H. Bishop, Isaac Tate, G. C. Swallow and 

The Old Endowment 165 

Dr. Abbot was appointed to examine mon minutely into tlia flnanclal 
condition of tbe College and report a statement to the Board." 

The Treasurer's statement is as follows: 
To the Board of Tru9tee% of WetttninBter CoUege^Statememt of Ae- 

sources cmj Lialnlitiea: 


Bonds and Notes on hand $ 86,040 79 

Due from contingent fund 12,435 94 

Cash on hand 112 00 

Two dwelling houses, heretofore valued at 4,200 00 

448 4-100 acres of land, conveyed by Dr. Wayland at 7,000 00 

College building, including campus of 25 acres, heretofore 

valued at 25,000 00 

Interest due on Bonds and Notes 12,397 23 

Total $147,785 96 


By amount due on outstanding orders $ 1,258 00 

" " " Prest. Laws on salary 3,282 04 

» » » Prof. A. M. Mayer, do 1,241 46 

„ Prof. W. Van Doren, do 06 02 

" " " M. Butler 1,700 00 

" " " Permanent fund 12,435 94 

Total amount of Liabilities $19,984 06 

James S. Henderson, Treasurer. 
Fulton, Oct. 1, 1861. 

The Committee of which Mr. Bishop was chairman, reported what 
follows on this part of the business committed to them, viz.: 

This statement (of the Treasurer) is based chiefly upon the report 
of a former financial committee appointed by this board, which consists 
of (to use the language of that report) "an exhibit of the result of a 
careful inspection of the face of all the notes and bonds held as an 
endowment of the institution" — and as far as your committee can 
judge, is what it purports to be; for if we were not entirely satisfied, 
with the correctness and fairness of that exhibit^ and were dispoeed 
to go behind that exhibit, we have not the opportunity of doing so, 
but your committee feel entire confidence in the correctness (mainly) 

166 History of Westminster CoUege. 

of that exhibit. Tliis exhibit forms the principal item in the resouroes 
of the institution. Hie face of these notes or bills receivable is shown 
by the Treasurer, to be $86,640.79; interest due on the same and 
unpaid at the date of this report $12,937.43; Productiye real estate in 
the item of buildings $4,200.00, which we recapitulate as follows: 

Bills receivable $ 86,640 79 

Interest due and unpaid 12,937 40 

Productive real esUte 4,200 00 

Endowment fund $103,778 19 

Of the reliability of this fund your committee could do nothing 
more than give an opinion and if given would be unreliable; inasmuch 
aa the comimittee have no means of judging of the character of this 
fund which is not possessed by every member of the Board. The entire 
fund being affected by the present deplorable state of the country, can 
only be regarded in the light of a suspended debt, which may prove 
eventually something or as likely to be worthless. 

As to the liabilities of the Board your committee would report 
that the only items of present importance are such as are owing to 
persons who could if so disposed, resort to legal force for the collection 
of their claims, and for which the C!ollege property could be sold. 
These items are: 

To President Laws $3,283 04 

To Prof. Mayer 1,241 46 

To outstanding orders 1,258 11 

To Prof. Van Doren 78 89 

Amounting in the aggr^^ate to $5,860 49 

Deduct from this amt cash on hand 112 00 

Will leave an indebtedness of $5,758 49 

Which sum the Board will find it necessary to provide for. 

The debt owing to Mr. Butler estimated at $1,700 is in such a 
condition as will produce a willingness at least on the part of creditor 
to allow it to remain uncollected; but there are important reasons 
why this Board should make arrangements for its liquidation at the 
earliest practicable period. 

The entire amount of the liabilities of the Board as shown by the 
Treasurer's report is stated to be $19,984.16. The largest item in this 

The Old Endowment 167 

amount is one of $12,435.94, which is simply owing by the contingent 
to the permanent fund; or which could be at once liquidated, if the 
interest due on the bills receiyable held by the Board could be col- 
lected. (Hence the interest due which is about the same as this claim 
of the permanent on the contingent funds, is reckoned above as per- 
manent fund. The one offsetting the other.) 

And here your committee would take occasion to express our ap- 
pTX)yal of the management of this fund by those having it in* charge, 
regarding it prudent and wise. The debts owing by the Board are in 
the hands of a few persons and these creditors are of such a character 
aa would not be likely to press their claims in a manner calculated to 
harass or embarrass the Board. 

Finally, on this branch of the subject your committee would say 
that by the report made by the Board to the Synod of Missouri, in Oc- 
tober, 1859, the resources of the institution were stated to be. $102,898 78 

The Liabilities 9,866 42 

The Report to be made to the Synod at this date, October, 

1861, shows the resources of the Board to be $103,778 22 

Liabilities 7,648 22 

Showing an increase from October, 1859 to 1861, to be $879.44, and 
the liabilities of the Board diminished in the same length, of time 
$2,318.20. All of which your committee (basing their opinion on the 
data by which we have to be governed) we believe to be substantially 

This report was accepted and adopted and placed on the records 
of the Board. 

A glance at these reports will indicate clearly how the 
endowment increased from year to year and also its precise 
condition at the breaking out of the war in i86i. Rev. W. 
P. Cochran had been appointed agent at Columbia in Oc- 
tober, i860, but at Mexico, November 8, 1861, a letter was 
read from Mr. Cochran, "declining to act as agent for the 


DURING THE WAR, 1861-5. 

REVIOUS to the meeting at Mexico, 
November, 1861, the Board had 
made at least four attempts to ob- 
tain a quorum, but in every instance 
had failed. One of the most im- 
portant questions to be settled, was 
whether, in view of the state of the 
country caused by the war, they 
should endeavor to keep the doors of 
the Institution still open. President Laws had just re- 
isigned. Professor Kemper had resigned at Commencement 
in June preceding, at which time the Board adopted the 
minute that follows: 

In accepting the resignation of Professor F. T. Kemper, 
the Board of T. W. C. desire to express their appreciation of 
his moral worth as a Christian gentleman, his ripe scholarship 
and his untiring faithfulness as an instructor of youth. Prof. 
Kemper has been connected with the Westminster College since 
1856, and during the past four years has been at the head of 
the Greek School of the College. We can particularly recognize 
his many excellent qualifications as an Instructor, as mani- 
fested in his labors in this department, and his minute and 
accurate scholarship in the branches imder his charge. We 
also desire to express our regret that circumstances not to 
be controlled have led to the cessation of his connection with 

the Board. 


Dnring the War 169 

There were three other vacancies made by the Board, 
as shown by their records : 

On motion. Whereas, Profs. Fisher, Mayer and Strong 
have left Westminster College, owing to the exigencies of the 
times, and are not on the groimd: Therefore it is resolved, 
that their seyeral chairs are hereby declared vacant. 

In reference to Professor Fisher, justice demands the 
statement that his resignation had been in existence for 
weeks prior to the meeting in Mexico, that it was probably 
on the ground when the Board acted, but for reasons which 
were doubtless sufficient to the friend who had it in hand, 
it was not presented. As far then as the first of these 
three is concerned, he had not only written his resignation, 
but was serving at that date in another College in a distant 
State. The other two, Professors Mayer and Strong, had 
no notice of the meeting of the Board and no assurance 
whatever that the College would be kept open next year 
and were not therefore on the ground at the time. Let it 
be borne in mind that the Board did not have a meeting in 
June, 1861. The simple truth probably was that the mem- 
bers of the Faculty were not censurable for being away 
from the College, and that the Board meant no censure by 
their action. 

It was feared by some that if the exercises in the Col- 
lege were suspended, it would involve the loss of the en- 
dowment of the Institution. Mr. Laws earnestly favored 
closing the College, believing that such a course, consid- 
ering the exigencies of the times, the wisest as giving most 
promise of saving the funds of the Institution and also its 
reputation. This course was recommended to the Board 
on the eighth of November, 1861. Mr. Laws' was con- 
firmed in this view by legal gentlemen of eminent ability 

170 History of Westminster College. 

who had been consulted as to the probability of a forfeiture 
of charter and loss of endowment fund, if the exercises of 
the College should be discontinued. The subjoined legal 
opinion of Judge W. L. Wood, one of the ablest jurists in 
the State, will sufficiently set forth this important fact: 

Fulton, Oct. 7th, 1861. 

I have examined the Charter of Westminster CJollege, 
also the Act of the Trustees establishing Scholarships in said 
College, also the notes taken on sale of Scholarships, and do 
not hesitate to give it as my opinion, that the Synod and 
Trustees, may, if they deem it necessary to the interest and 
safety of the College property and endowment funds, suspend 
College operations temporarily, and while under the political 
and pecuniary troubles now existing in the State, without 
endangering the right of the corporation to its property and 
effects, and will not, by such suspension, furnish any legal 
groimds of defense against the coUecticm of Scholarship notes, 
or other notes. 

If to keep the College open through these most extraordi- 
nary times, will make it necessary to contract a heavy in- 
crease of debt, the ultimate effect must be the sale of the Col- 
lege property, as well as the destruction of the endowment 
funds, a result which all are alike interested in preventing. 

Given at the request of Mr. Laws, 
(Signed). Wm. L. Wood. 

This is believed to be the only important recommenda- 
tion ever made by President Laws to the Board during his 
presidency of it, which was rejected by that body. The 
record made then on the subject is: 

A motion was made to suspend the exercises of the Col- 
lege during the present year. The motion was laid on the 
table. On motion it was resolved, that the exercises of West- 
minster College be continued imder the charge of two Pro- 
fessors — ^the College to be opened on the first Monday in De- 
cember prox. The salary of each of the Professors was fixed 

During the War 171 

at five hundred dollars for the balance of the C!ollege year 
together with the use of a dwelling house. 

Prof. W. Van Doren and Rev. M. M. Fisher were unani- 
mously elected the Professors in the College, and in case 
either of them should decline serving, the executive committee 
is requested to endeavor to secure the services of Rev. J. P. 
Finley, or some other competent instructor. 

Professor Fisher declined the position and, according 
to the instructions of the Board, the Executive Committee 
at once called to the place Rev. J. P. Finley. Mr. Finley 
accepted. A circular was published, and the classes of 
Westminster resumed their duties under two instructors on 
the fifth of December, 1861. There was thus a suspension 
of the College for something over two months after the 
breaking out of the war. This was the only interruption 
during a war that closed all the other Institutions in the 
State, outside of St. Louis, to say nothing of other States, 
where educational establishments closed until peace was 
made in the spring of 1865. Westminster was peculiarly 
blessed in this respect, as in many others. 

In the latter part of the winter or early in the spring 
of 1862, Professor Van Doren was called to the charge of 
an enterprise in the State of California. He accepted the 
oflFer and immediately resigned his chair in Westminster 
and removed to Napa City, California. He was the first 
Professor elected in the Synodical College. His term of 
service extended from 1851 to 1862. Professor Van Doren 
always proved himself to be a faithful, laborious and con- 
scientious teacher. He was a man of gjeat purity of char- 
acter and one that had devoted a long life to one of the 
noblest callings that ever blessed the race. 

On the resignation of Professor Van Doren, the com- 
mittee elected to the vacant place, Professor J. N. Lyle, 

172 History of Westminster College 

who accepted. The ntamber of students this year was 
smaller than any other year since the College was char- 
tered. This of course grew largely out of the terrible times 
which then paralyzed everything. The wonder is that the 
classes could be induced to study at all. At Commence- 
ment there were two graduates, W. A. McLure and J. C. 

At the regular meeting in June, 1862, the Board de- 
termined to continue the College under three Professors. 
They confirmed the acts of the Committee, electing Pro- 
fessors Finley and Lyle. They fixed the salary of the for- 
mer at $750; of the latter at $600. They also appointed a 
committee to correspond in reference to a third instructor 
and a President. The Faculty issued a circular instead of 
a Catalogue. A survey of affairs in the summer of 1862, 
proves that the Board felt that, even in the midst of sur- 
rounding darkness, they had weighty reasons for encour- 

The Synod of 1862 met at Fulton and the Board held 
its annual meeting. The death of the lamented Cowan was 
announced. "Being dead he yet speaks." The Board 
elected two additional instructors, Rev. A. V. C. Schenck 
and J. H. Lathrop, LL. D., formerly President of the State 
University, at Columbia. Mr. Schenck was appointed to 
the Potts Professorship. Dr. Lathrop declined, and the 
Executive Committee unanimously tendered the position to 
M. M. Fisher, who accepted it and entered at once on his 
duties. His election was also unanimously requested by 
both the Faculty and the students, and confirmed by the 
Board in 1863. 

Editob's Non. — ^In the minutes of the Board of TniBtees, the only 
indications that were in progress are as follows: On page 138, Oct. 11. 
1862, the oath of office required by the convention of the State was 

During the War 173 

adminiBtered to all members of the Board; on page 144, "Resolved, that 
no Professor be allowed to occupy a chair in Westminster College who 
is not thoroughly loyal to the Government of the United States and of 
the State of Missouri;" on page 145, June 23, 1863, a resolution request- 
ing Professors and Tutors to inform the Board whether they have taken 
the oath; on page 156, a reply from Prof. Schenck, Secretary of the 
Faculty, that Professors Finley and Fisher have taken the oath; that 
Prof. Schenck did not know it was required, and that Prof. Lyle is not 
in Fulton. 

The scholastic year of 1862-3, was one of harmony and 
success. At the close of the year a Catalogue was issued, 
something which had not been done since the summer of 
i860. The Faculty then consisted of: Rev. J. P. Finley, 
Prof, of Greek; J. N. Lyle, Prof, of Physics and Mathematics; 
Rev. A. V. C. Schenck, Prof, of Metaphysics and Sacred 
Literature; Rev. M. M. Fisher, Prof, of Latin; J. H. Scott, 
Tutor in Mathematics. The Charless Chair of Science and 
the Chair of English were vacant. 

The number of students was 89, as seen from the sum- 
mary of that year: 

Summary: Seniors, 6; Juniors, 5; Sophomores, 11; 
Freshmen, 3; Sub- Freshmen, 4; Irregulars, 8; Latin Class, 
15; English Classes, 37; Total, 89. 

Considering the distressed state of the whole country, 
the regular classes were as large as could have been ex- 
pected. The College added six to the number of its grad- 
uated sons. An inspection of the Catalogue reveals the 
fact that the whole course of study was taught; and that 
course was extensive. This could be accomplished only by 
the Professors being willing to work often times six hours 
per day and performing a labor beyond their strength. 
This they did. In fact, working in the class nearly all day, 
has been common in Westminster from the beginning. 

174 History of Westminster College 

This explains why a few men have done what twice or 
three times their number accomplish in many other places. 
In those days salaries were small and work heavy. A sal- 
ary of $750 was small when flour was $16 per barrel, and 
other things in proportion. Many things remind those 
who then labored in Westminster of the widow's "barrel 
of meal." In the midst of the war God still blessed the 
College. Thus ended the ninth Commencement in the halls 
of the College. 

In October, 1863, Rev. J. W. Wallace was chosen Pro- 
fessor in the English School, which place he accepted, and 
at once took charge of that department. 

At the close of the year in June, 1864, Rev. J. P. Fin- 
ley resigned the Chair of Greek, which he had occupied 
since the fall of 1862, and accepted a call to the church in 
Palmyra, Mo.* His successor was Professor Hersman. 
At the same meeting of the Board, Rev. J. W. Wallace 
presented his resignation, which was accepted and he re- 
moved to his farm in Jackson county. At the same meet- 
ing, the Trustees elected to the presidency Rev. John Mont- 
gomery, D. D., then residing at Longwood in Pettis county. 
Dr. Montgomery was not at all inclined to accept but at 
the earnest and persistent solicitation of Hon. P. B. Reed 
and other members of the Board, he consented to accept 
the place for the first five months of the year, hoping that in 
the meantime the services of some other person could be 
procured and he be thus released. At the end of the five 

'Professor Finley was elected near the close of the year 1861 and 
entered on his duties, January 1, 1862. He taught Greek, Logic, and 
Political Economy. Prom July 15 to August 16, 1862, Mr. Finley acted 
as voluntary Agent, mainly in the counties of St. Charles and Clark, 
during which time he rendered valuable service to the College. His con- 
nection with the College ceased on the 28th of June, 1864. ^ere are 
many who will long remember Mr. Finley's genial disposition, his kind- 
ness, his faithfulness, his unswerving devotion to duty and principle. 

During the War 175 

months, Dr. Montgomery resigned, wishing to take charge 
of Pine Street Church in St. Louis, to which he had been 
invited. But the Board urged the necessities of the College 
so strongly that the President consented to remain till the 
end of the year. While Dr. Montgomery held the position 
of President, he also preached to the church in Fulton and 
acted as financial agent, an amount of work which would 
be burdensome to any man. Much of his time was spent 
in attempting to collect funds enough to meet the current 
expenses of the College. The condition of the country ren- 
dered collecting money, not only difficult, but in most cases, 
at least, impossible. 

In the early part of the winter of 1865, it became evi- 
dent both to the Board and to the Faculty, of whom there 
were then five, that it was impossible to obtain funds suffi- 
cient to meet expenses. The Faculty all felt that under all 
the circumstances, the best course was for a part of their 
number to resign, hoping that while the Board could not 
collect money to pay five, they might collect sufficient to 
meet the salaries of two or three. All the Faculty held 
themselves ready to retire, but after consultation, Profes- 
sors Schenck, Hersman and Lyle generously pleaded that 
they ought to be the ones permitted to resign. Accord- 
ingly, they tendered their resignations, leaving in the In- 
stitution Dr. Montgomery and Professor Fisher. The con- 
duct of those who retired shows the kind of spirit that pre- 
vailed in those days — a spirit of self-denial for the sake of the 
cause that lay near the hearts of those who remained and 
those who removed to other fields. Professor Schenck ac- 
cepted a charge in Pennsylvania; Professor Hersman was 
called to a Chair in Carroll College in the State of Wiscon- 
sin, and Professor Lyle was called to an important position 
in Carondelet, Mo. Dr. Montgomery and Professor Fisher 

176 History of Westminster College 

were thus all at once face to face with the work of five 
men. It was at this juncture that the £oard of Trustees, 
through their Committee, obtained the services of Professor 
J. H. Scott in the department of Mathematics. Mr. Scott 
was then in the last session of the Senior year, and although 
he made a sudden transition from the position of pupil to 
that of instructor, his success was all that could be wished 
for, either by himself or his friends. While it ought to 
have been mentioned before, attention is called to the fact 
that at Commencement in 1864, there were three graduates, 
Messrs. W. B. Dunn, P. B. Dunn, and I. Van Wert Schenck, 
the last a nephew of Rev. A. V. C. Schenck, so long con- 
nected with the Church in Missouri and much of the time 
in Institutions of learning. 

Before proceeding to another scholastic year, it is due 
to all concerned to say that the minutes of the Board, be- 
tween the Commencement of 1864 and that of 1865, do not 
give that information which is highly desirable and even 
necessary in order to state all the facts, which belong, just 
here, to the history of the College. For this year the 
writer has been compelled to draw largely on memory; 
and, if it should appear that a mistake has been made in 
any important particular, the correction may be expected 

At Commencement in June, 1865, Dr. Montgomery 
again resigned the presidency, but the Trustees refused to 
receive the resignation. Rev. W. W. Robertson was made 
financial agent, to fill a vacancy caused by the death of 
Hon. P. B. Reed, who had, since November, 1861, managed 
the monetary affairs of the College as local agent. Mr. 
Reed had from the first been one of the firmest supporters 
of the College and his loss was most deeply felt both in 
the Board and in the Church, When the location of the 


During the War 177 

Institution was before Synod he made the leading address 
in behalf of Fulton. 

A large part of the endowment consisted of scholar- 
ship notes. A majority of the students entered on these 
scholarships. The number that had entered thus during 
one session was found when the Synod met at St. Louis 
in 1865, to be 80. The result was that very little tuition 
came into the Treasury and it was with great difficulty that 
the current expenses could be met. This led the Synod to 
advise the Trustees to take steps looking toward doing 
away with the scholarships. As early as June, 1865, the 
following action on this subject, by the Board, is recorded: 

Whereas, we do not find the scholarship system to work 
well, and it has become desirable to call in the scholarships, as 
far as possible, it is hereby resolved, that the Financial Agent 
be authorized to solicit the friends of the Institution to give up 
their scholarships, and in collecting monies due on scholarship 
notes, he be empowered, in cases where he may deem it advis- 
able, to compromise the notes on the best terms possible for the 
interests of the Institution* 

During this year also Professor C. C. Hersman who, 
since his resignation, had occupied a Chair in Carroll Col- 
lege at Waukesha, Wis., was re-elected by the Committee 
and the choice unanimously confirmed by the Board in 
October, 1865. Professor John H. Scott was also unani- 
mously chosen to the Chair of Mathematics. Both these 
gentlemen conducted their departments with eminent satis- 
faction to all the friends of the College. They are both 
alumni of Westminster. In October of that year, Dr. Mont- 
gomery again pressed his resignation of the presidency, and 
it was accepted. Dr. Montgomery had so won the affec- 
tion of the Faculty, the students, and the Church to which 
he ministered, that his departure wsls deeply felt and most 
sincerely regretted. 



HE resignation of Rev. John Mont- 
gomery, D. D., mentioned in the last 
chapter, left but three instructors, 
M. M. Fisher, C. C. Hersman, and 
J. H. Scott.* The labor to be per- 
formed demanded another. Conse- 
quently the Executive Committee 
procured the services of Judge Jos- 
eph Flood, in the English School, 
and he entered upon his duties late in the fall of 1865. 

Up to the spring of 1866, the diplomas of the College 
had been written on paper, with the promise that when a 
plate should be procured, each graduate should have a 
parchment diploma. The committee appointed M. M. 
Fisher to write the diplomas and have the plate prepared. 
This was done before Commencement, 1866, at a cost of 
$100 for the plate and one dollar for each copy furnished. 

^At their meeting in June preceding, the Board had elected to the 
charge of the English Department, Rev. Jno. A. McAfee, D. D., at that 
date in charge of Watson Seminary, at Ashley in Pike County, Mo., 
who later was President of Park College, an institution which he 
was chiefly instrumental in founding. Mr. McAfee declined. 



From 1865 to 1870 179 

At first fifty were ordered, so that all the Alumni might 
realize the promise made in former years. By order of the 
Board, the names of the members of the Faculty were 
transferred from the old diplomas to the new ones. This 
fact is certified on the parchment by the President of the 
Board, who at that time, June, i866, is believed to have 
been Rev. Dr. Brookes. Some of the graduates preferred 
taking their diplomas without signatures, hoping to obtain 
the autographs of those who were Professors at the date 
of their graduation. 

The Commencement of i866 was held on the fourth 
Thursday in June. There were two graduates, Leo Baier 
and William C. Dyer, both of whom entered the ministry 
in the Presb)rterian church. During the sessions of S)mod 
at Boonville in October, i866, Mr. N. D. Thurmond was 
made assistant in the English department, where he served 
until the close of the year, at which time he took the con- 
trol of an important enterprise in another county. It was 
at that meeting also that the Board made Professor Fisher 
permanent Chairman of the Faculty, "defining his powers 
in this position to be, not only that of presiding in all meet- 
ings of the Faculty, but the right to direct and control all 
matters of a general character connected with the manage- 
ment of the College." A reference to the Catalogue of 
1867 shows one remarkable fact, that during the year there 
had been present 160 students. This number has never 
been exceeded in the history of the College. When we re- 
member that the country had just been through a war of 
such giant proportions as have seldom been equaled in the 
history of the world, this statement is not a little remark- 
able. That the Board regarded the year as one of unusual 
prosperity is established by their action in June, while 

180 History of Westminster College 

exercises attending Commencement were in progress. Here 
is what the facts justified them in saying: 

The Reports of the Faculty placed in our hands exhibit a 
condition of remarkable prosperity and advancement in every 
Department in College, a perfect harmony in the views and op- 
erations of the Professors, a cheerful subordination on the part 
of the students and the kindest feeling and warmest attachment 
existing between the teachers and pupils. We record with 
gratitude the evidence of God's presence and blessing in the 
deep religious interest exhibited among the students. In an- 
swer to prayer, God has poured out his Spirit and revived his 
work, turning many from darkness to light and inclining the 
hearts of others, to respect and attend to God's precious word. 

The prosperity of the College, the harmony of the 
Faculty, the out-pouring of the Holy Spirit and the con- 
version of sinners are all here brought prominently to view. 
There were two graduates, Joseph N. Cook and Joseph C. 
Watkins. Both of these gentlemen devoted themselves to 
teaching, in which their efforts have been attended with no 
ordinary success. Both of them, too, have chosen to give 
their energies to the noble work of education in their native 
State, Missouri. 

In June, 1867, Judge Flood, who had been for two years 
in charge of the English School, resigned. This resigna- 
tion merits more than a mere passing notice. Professor 
Flood, though a devoted member of the Baptist Commun- 
ion, labored for the interests of Westminster College with 
as much zeal as any man in the Faculty. His purity of 
heart, his unswerving regard to duty, under all circum- 
stances, his self-denying devotion to his calling, his whole- 
hearted sympathy in every thing believed to be for the 
good of the Institution, and the earnestness of his voice as 
he led the devotional exercises in the Chapel have left an 

From 1865 to 1870 181 

impression on the minds of those who had the fortune to be 
his colleagues, which time can never efface. This sentence, 
it can without hesitation be affirmed, will be heartily en- 
dorsed by every one who labored with Judge Flood from 
the fall of 1865 to the Commencement of 1867. 

That there might be in the Faculty a clear understand- 
ing of their relations to one another, and that the students 
might understand distinctly their relations to the several 
members of the Faculty, the Board at the meeting men- 
tioned above, put on record the minute here given : 

Inasmuch as a partial change has been made in the Fac- 
ulty, and for a clear understanding on the part of the students 
as to the relation they sustain to the Professors, and on the 
part of the Professors as to the relation they sustain to the 
students, and each other. 

1. The Board reaffirms the appointment of ProfeBSor 
Fisher, as Chairman of the Faculty, defining his powers in this 
position to be not only that of presiding in all meetings of the 
Faculty, but the right to direct and control all matters of a 
general character connected with the management of the College. 

2. Reaffirms the power of each Professor to direct and 
control all matters connected with his own classes. 

3. Reaffirms the parity of the Professors in the Faculty. 
No measures of discipline, in any of its gradations, as given in 
the present regulation of the Board being valid, unless exam- 
ined and decided in and by the Faculty. 

The scholastic year of 1867-8 opened on the first Mon- 
day in September. Professors Flood and Thurmond, who 
had performed the labor required in the English Depart- 
ment, had retired leaving at the beginning of this year, but 
three Professors. Acting under the authority of the Exe- 
cutive Committee, Professors Hersman and Scott, by a per- 
sonal visit to his residence at Linn in Osage county, were 
successful in obtaining the services of C. H. Abbot, M. D., 

182 History of Westminster College 

an Alumnus of the College, as Professor in the English 
School. Dr. Abbot had assigned to him also the classes in 
Physical Science. 

During this year Rev. N. L. Rice, D. D., who had re- 
signed the pastorate of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian 
Church in the city of New York, which position he had held 
after leaving the Theological Seminary in Chicago, visited 
his relatives and friends in the city of St. Louis, where he 
had labored with such eminent success as pastor of the 
Second Church. It was while in St. Louis, that friends of 
the College conceived the idea that he might be induced to 
accept the presidency of the College. The condition of af- 
fairs was such as to call for the election of some man whose 
reputation, already established throughout the land, would 
assist in raising an endowment, upon which all felt that 
the perpetuity and success of the enterprise depended. It 
was deeply felt that no man in the Church could do more, 
under the circumstances, than Dr. Rice. It was a critical 
moment, and the Board and the Faculty all felt that the 
utmost endeavors should be used to induce him to enter- 
tain a proposition to become President. The feeling of the 
Faculty may be gathered from the following letter from 
Professor Fisher, Chairman of the Faculty, to Rev. Dr. 
Brookes. This letter shows that the Faculty understood 
the critical juncture of affairs and also that they had a 
great interest, and even an intense anxiety, in Dr. Rice's 

Fulton, February 24, 1808. 
My Dear Brother — 

Your letter of the 18th inst. has been received. The move- 

ment of which you speak meets with my hearty concurrence. 

There is no man in the Church, who, at this critical juncture of 

affairs, can be of more real service to this Institution than Dr. 

From 1865 to 1870 183 

Eice. My earnest hope is that in the providence of Qod it may 
be true that he has "come to the Kingdom for such a time as 

The friends of the College will consult its interests by 
using their utmost endeavors to induce him to lay hold and 
help us to build up an Institution that will be a perpetuity. 

Dr. Rice's presence here • • • would ultimately se- 
cure an adequate endowment, increase the number of the stu- 
dents, and give us a national reputation. This is the 13th 
year of my connection with Westminster and nothing since 
the breaking out of the war has ever occurred that threw so 
much light along the path of this child of our beloved Church 
as the proposition now before the Board. 

Allow me to say further that Dr. Rice, if he consents to 

. come, may expect such a welcome from us as is due such a man 

and also coimt on the hearty and constant co-operation of the 

members of the Faculty. 

As ever, your friend, 

(Signed) M. M. Fishes. 

A special meeting of the Board was called on the tenth 
of March, 1868. This meeting was in Dr. Brookes' study 
in St. Louis and had been called with reference to the 
election of a President. Dr. Rice was unanimously chosen, 
to the gjeat gratification of his many friends and, it might 
be added, of the whole Synod. The Church in Missouri 
rejoiced for two reasons: i. They were anxious to have 
the man whose name had become a synonym for success 
once more among them; 2. They earnestly felt that his 
presence would insure the success of the College. A 
glance at the first chapter will recall the fact that Dr. Rice 
had delivered the address when the corner-stone was laid 
and had also had a tender of the Presidency soon after that 
address was delivered. 

The year closed on the twenty-fifth of June, 1868. 
There had been in attendance that year 124 students. At 

184 History of Westminster College 

this Commencement two young men graduated. Dr. Ab- 
bot, whose election has been noticed, resigned and re- 
sumed the practice of his profession. Professor Lyle, who, 
since leaving Missouri, had been a Professor in Marietta 
College, Ohio, was elected to the Chair of Physical Science. 
At this meeting of the Board, Professor Fisher, feeling that 
he needed recreation from long confinement in class room, 
presented his resignation. The Board did not receive it 
but generously granted leave of absence for a year, con- 
tinuing the salary $1,500, and giving $500 in addition, to 
meet traveling expenses. Rev. W. M. Hersman, a former 
student of Westminster, but an Alumnus of Centre Col- 
lege, Ky., was chosen to fill the Chair of Latin while Pro- 
fessor Fisher was absent. Mr. Hersman consented to 
serve. When the session opened in September, the Com- 
mittee induced Professor Fisher to resume his duties, in- 
stead of taking rest. Rev. Mr. Hersman, who had agreed 
to fill the Latin Chair during Dr. Fisher's absence, pro- 
posed to take charge of the Chair of English Literature, 
provided the plan submitted by him should be adopted by 
the Trustees. The plan proposed was adopted and Mr. 
Hersman entered on the duties of the Chair named. 

At the Commencement in June, 1868, the Board were 
made officially acquainted with the fact that Dr. Rice had 
declined becoming President. But some of the Board were 
still hopeful that he could be prevailed on to accept. 
Among those who urged more persistent efforts to get Dr. 
Rice, was Mr. T. B. Nesbit, who had always proved him- 
self one of the firmest and most self-denying friends the 
College ever had. The result was that the Trustees de- 
termined to make another attempt to induce Dr. Rice to 
come. The position tendered was that of President of the 


From 1865 to 1870 185 

College and Professor of Theology. Providence favored 
the Board, and they had the gratification of receiving an 
affirmative answer to their last proposal. The acceptance 
of such a man at such a time inspired the whole Synod 
with renewed confidence. They began once more to en- 
tertain the idea that an endowment could be raised. Dr. 
Rice entered on his duties early in the fall of i868. The 
precise condition of the Institution in all respects cannot 
be given in a mor^ satisfactory way than by quoting from 
the minutes of Synod at St. Joseph, in October, i868. The 
advantages of Theological training in Westminster are first 
noticed in these reports: 

A. P. Forman, D. D., Chairman of the Committee on Theological 
Education, presented a report, which was amended and adopted, and ia 
M follows: 

"Your Committee do not deem it necessary to make an elaborate 
report on the subject of ministerial education, owing to the fact that 
the Board of Trustees of Westminster CoUege have elected Rev. N. L. 
Rioe^ D. D., President of said Institution, and have requested him to 
give special attention to the instruction in Theology of any of our 
young men who may desire to enter the ministry. 

"We are fully satisfied that our theological students should be 
trained, as far as possible, here on the field where they are to Engage 
in labor. They will thus be kept in full sympathy with us, and be the 
better acquainted with the character of the work they will be called 
to perform. 

"Furthermore, we believe that young men, expecting to become 
ambassadors of the Lord Jesus Christ, should receive some portion of 
their training from those who are actually engaged in the great work 
of the ministry. 

**The art of expounding God's word with simplicity, and the pecul- 
iar tact that is required in pastoral visitations, can much more readily 
be acquired from successful pastors than from theological professors, 
who have for years been withdrawn from the practical work of the 

"We therefore recommend the adoption of the following resolutionB: 

186 History of Westminster College 

'Tlesolved, 1. That we urge upon our Presbyteries and Sessions to 
give special attention to the work of encouraging pious young men of 
promise to devote themselves to the work of the ministry. 

**Resolved, 2. That we counsel the Presbyteries and Sessions to 
use all proper influence to prevail upon young men having the ministry 
in view to pursue their Collegiate course at Westminster College. 

"Resolved, 3. Thaw we approve of the action of the Board of Trus- 
tees in requesting the President of the College to spend a portion of 
his time in giving theological instruction; and we do hereby express 
the hope that our young men having the ministry in view will pursue 
their theological course with Dr. Rice." 

The Synod will see that the Faculty of our College is complete, 
according to the present plan of instruction. The Synod will also per- 
ceive that the expense of sustaining the College is correspondingly in- 
creased. The Board has devised a plan contemplating an endowment 
of a special fund'of not less than one hundred thousand dollars. Can 
this be raised? We answer emphatically it can. There is wealth 
enough in the Presbyterian church of this State to raise five times this 
much, and at the same time greatly increase the contributions hitherto 
made to all the other branches of benevolence. There are few in our 
Church but can give five or ten dollars, others can give fifty, others their 
hundreds and thousands. Did the Presbyterians in this State realize 
the truth that 'The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof," — ^that 
'they are not their own, but are bought with a price even with the 
precious blood of Jesus Christ," — our College would be amply endowed 
in less than a month. 

The Board need not remind the Synod that on the prosperity of our 
College depends the prosperity of our Church in the State. We must 
educate our own sons, or we lose them in a great measure to the woric 
in our Church at home. Let every Minister and Elder here present, 
and those who are absent, determine, in view of the greatness and im- 
portance of the work now before us, to do what they can to give as Qod 
has prospered them, and turn the attention of all the churches to this 
great and good work, and we predict, that the announcement will be 
made at the next regular meeting of our Synod, that Westminster Col- 
l^;e is fully and amply endowed for all present purposes. 

The Board is endeavoring to as great extent as possible to rid the 
College of a mountain weight that has been pressing upon it from the 
beginning, — ^the scholarship system. Thus far we have been successful 

From 1865 to 1870 187 

beyond that we dared to hope. Many who have taken scholarships, and 
paid for them, cheerfully gave them up; others who have not paid for 
the scholarship, pay a portion and surrender their right to the scholar- 

The Board are gratified to state that the students of the College 
shared largely in the revival enjoyed in the Pulton church, in a meeting 
commencing on the last Thursday of February, the day of prayer for 
colleges and academies, and the youth of the land. Some eight or ten 
young men connected with the College, were hopefully converted, and 
united with our Church. 

The report of the Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College 
was amended and adopted, as follows: 

**The Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College recom- 
mend the adoption of the following action: 

"Resolved, 1. That the Synod returns its devout thanks to the 
Head of the Church, that he has enabled the Board to fill every chair 
of our College with men standing in the very front of their profession, — 
men who would be a credit to the oldest and most influential institutions 
in the land. 

"Resolved, 2. That we rejoice in the continued favor of our 
Heavenly Father in sending His Holy Spirit with reviving power again 
upon the College during the past year. 

"Resolved, 3. That we return our thanks to the Faculty for their 
arduous, faithful, and successful labors during the past term. 

"Resolved, 4. That we feel it due, not only to God and His Church 
and the great cause of Christian education, but also to those men who 
have consecrated to this work such commanding talents and such tire- 
less efforts, that the ministers and churches connected with our Synod 
should come faithfully to their help in building up our beloved Col- 

"Resolved, 6. That we most urgently call upon every minister, 
elder, deacon, and member of the church within our bounds, to co-op- 
erate to the full extent of his ability in the efforts made for the en- 
dowment of our College. 

"Resolved, 6. That in addition to the endeavors made for the per- 
manent endowment, we urge upon every congregation in the State to 
gather a contribution for the current expenses of the College, affording 
an opportunity to very member of the church to give as Gk)d has blessed 
him. i 

188 History of Westminster College 

"Resolved, 7. That we further. urge upon every congregati(Hi in 
the State to establish, if practicable, within its bounds, a parochial 
school, where our children can be thoroughly and religiously taught, 
and prepared for entrance to the College. 

''Resolved, 8. That every minister within our bounds be and hereby 
18 directed to present the claims of Westminster College to his people 
on the Sabbath following the last Thursday of February, and to report 
his attention to the duty here required at the next meeting of 

''Resolved, 9. That the Secretary of the Board of Trustees pub- 
lish the foregoing resolution in the Missouri Presbyterian before that 
time, and, that the Ruling Elders in all of our vacant churches are 
directed to take up collections in their respective congregations. 

"J. A. QUAfiLES^ 

"Benj. Y. Geobok, 
"W. C. Bean.'' 

Dr. Rice was present at the Synod, in i868, and ad- 
dressed the body in behalf of the College. The minutes 
also show that he was requested to preach at the next 
meeting of the Synod on the subject, "What Constitutes 
a Call to the Ministry?" 

The sixth resolution offered by the Committee on the 
affairs of the College reveals a very important fact, that 
all the congregations in the Synod were called upon to raise 
collections to assist in meeting the current expenses. This, 
according to the impressions of the writer, had never been 
done at any other time in the history of the Institution. 
The endowment had been reduced, in ways before men- 
tioned, to such a degree that no other course was left but 
this direct call on the churches. The report of the Board 
to the Synod in 1867 states that the Contingent owed the 
Permanent Fund $30,000. Over $12,000 of this had been 
used by the Board before President Laws resigned. The 
remaining $17,000 had been used since the breaking out of 
the war. This will be more fully understood by referring 
to the chapters on the endowment. 

From 1865 to 1870 189 

At Commencement in 1869, Professor Wm. M. Hers- 
man resigned, because he felt called to devote himself to the 
higher work of preaching the Gospel. The Board elected 
to the chair thus made vacant Mr. J. J. Rice, the son of Rev. 
N. L. Rice, D. D. Professor Rice accepted and has, ever 
since the fall of 1869, served in the Department of English 
Language and Literature. 

In June, 1869, ^^^ Alumni, at their annual meeting, 
determined to attempt the endowment of a Professorship 
in the College. The Board by a formal action granted them 
the privilege of naming the chair which should thus be 
endowed by those who had been students in the Institution. 
How much has been raised for this purpose is unknown to 
the writer but his earnest hope is that the effort may be 

It was at Commencement of this year that the Board 
resolved to make arrangements for the formal inauguration 
of Dr. Rice as President. Rev. Dr. Farris and D. H. 
Bishop, Esqs., were appointed a Committee of Arrange- 
ment on the occasion. The time fixed by the Board was 
"Wednesday after the first Monday in September," 1869. 
The speakers selected, in addition to Dr. Rice, were Rev. 
J. H. Brooks, D. D., Rev. A. P. Forman, D. D., Rev. J. A. 
Quarles, Hon. J. A. Hockaday, C. O. Bishop, Esqs., and 
Professor M. M. Fisher. The exercises were held in the 
chapel, one in the morning at 11 o'clock and the other at 
night. The speakers in the morning were, Hon. J. A. 
Hockadajr, Rev. J. A. Quarles and Rev. A. P. Forman, D. 
D. ; the addresses at night were by M. M. Fisher, Rev. J. 
H. Brooks, D. D., and the President, Rev. N. L. Rice, D. 
D., in the order in which their names are given. Of course 
the centre of interest was the address of Dr. Rice, which 

190 History of Westminster College 

was what every one would expect from the speaker. The 
plan at the time was to have the speeches published. This, 
however, has never been done. Dr. Rice is the only Pres- 
idnet who has ever been formally inducted into office in 

The minutes of the Board show that in 1855 the Exec- 
utive Committee were instructed to make arrangements 
necessary to the installation of Dr. Laws as President, but 
the formalities, as far as records and recollections both go, 
were omitted. His acceptance occurred in the midst of a 
session when he was hard at work and he seems to have 
felt no concern about a formal induction into this office. 

Dr. Rice entered upon his duties in September, 1868. 
When the year closed in 1869, in June, it was not at all 
determined by Dr. Rice that he would continue in the Col- 
lege. The Board had given him assurances that every 
effort would be used to raise an endowment. Their min- 
utes show this very clearly, but up to the Commencement 
of 1869, comparatively little had been done towards secur- 
ing a permanent fund. Dr. Rice had in his hands, at the 
same moment, a call from a church in Chicago. The ques- 
tion was "How is the College to live without adequate 
support?" The President-elect did not see where the sup- 
port was to come from. Just here the remark is dropped 
that the Board did not take advantage of the enthusiasm 
created by Dr. Rice's coming to press the endowment. 
This ought to have been done. For one the writer has 
always been impressed with the idea that much might have 
been done that was not done, when Dr. Rice came to Ful- 
ton. The hearts of the people of the Synod were inspired 
anew with confidence, and that was the time to work. Dr. 

*Dr. MacCracken was inaugurated in 1899. 

From 1865 to 1870 191 

Rice was wise enough to see this and feel it too. It was 
not until the exercises attending Commencement were 
nearly over that Dr. Rice consented to remain at Fulton, 
instead of going to Chicago. That consent was obtained, 
after a searching examination of the finances and repeated 
and solemn assurances on the part of the Board, as to their 
determination to enter at once and vigorously, in the work 
of raising the endowment. These statements would have 
come in more naturally before the inauguration, but it was 
not until that occasion was passing under review that the 
facts just given came so vividly into mind. 

The Synod of 1869 met at Palmyra. Liberty is again 
taken to incorporate in this history four papers brought 
before this Synod. As every one may see, these docu- 
ments are designed to make the members of the Synod 
acquainted with what has been the history of their Col- 
lege since the last regular meeting. The report of the 
Board shows that there was at that date a Theological 
Class of SIX pursuing their studies under Dr. Rice. It will 
of course be borne in mind that the President gave instruc- 
tion in Metaphysics and Sacred Literature and also in 
Theology. At that time Professor Hersman filled the chair 
of New Testament Greek and Professor Fisher that of 
Hebrew. This indicates the fact that the College Pro- 
fessors rendered Dr. Rice any assistance in their power, 
in the instruction of young men preparing for the ministry. 
After Dr. Fisher resigned Professor George imparted in- 
struction in the Hebrew language. 

The Committee on Examination reported, and the report was ac- 
~^epted and adopted. It is as follows: 

"As a member of the Committee appointed by Synod to attend 
the examinations in Westminster College, I beg leave to report, that, 

192 History of Westminster College 

in connection with Brother Quarles, I performed the duty assigned me, 
which had in it more of privilege than of duty. 

'The exercises that I attended gave me unmingled satisfaction, and 
made me, which is saying a good deal^ prouder than ever of my alma 
mater. In regard to the ability as instructors, of Dr. Rice, the Presi- 
dent, and of my own beloved and honored teacher. Dr. Fisher, I feel 
that it would be presumption in me to express to this Synod a judg- 
ment. And the highest that I could say for the others Professors, I 
say most cordially and with all confidence^ that the results of a year's 
work, brought out in the examinations, proves them well worthy to 
be associated with such men. 

'The students had evidently been, as a body, faithful and diligent, 

and there was manifest among them great moral earnestness, and In 

many a tone of deep religious feeling. 

"October 16, 1869. 

"Bkwj. Y. Oborgk." 

The Board of Trustees reported as follows: 

"The Board of Trustees of Westminster College beg leave to submit 
the following report — 

"The Seventeenth Annual Session closed the twenty-fourth of last 
June. During the College year there were ninety-three students in 
attendance. This was a smaller number than at any session for several 
years past. This was, no doubt, in consequence of the previous session 
closing with the probability that the next session would open without 
a President, and with only two or three Professors. We are gratified 
to be able to state that the present session has opened with most flat^ 
tering prospects.* Over one hundred have been already matriculated — 
besides, there is a class of six in the Theological department. 

• •••• ••• 

"In their last report the Board made the following statement. 
The Synod will see that the Faculty of our College is complete, accord- 
ing to the present plan of instruction. The Synod will also perceive that 
the expense of sustaining the College is correspondingly increased.' The 
Synod by resolution urged 'upon every congregation in the State to 
gather a contribution for the current expenses of the College, affording 
an opporttmity to every members of the church to give as God has 
blessed him.' The following churches responded, viz.: 

•Number for the year, 117. 


From 1865 to 1870 193 

Walnut Street church $1,000 00 

Stewartsville church 11 46 

Maline Creek church 16 10 

Des Moines church 20 00 

St. Charles church 26 00 

Kansas City church 76 00 

First church, St. Joseph 208 60 

Crooked River church 16 00 

Prairie church, Lafayette county 35 50 

Bellevue church 6 35 

Big Creek church 11 40 

Miami church 15 35 

Liberty church 11 00 

Jerseyville church. Illinois 26 60 

Brazeau church 10 00 

A friend to Westminster 1 00 

Potosi church 20 00 

Memphis church 25 35 

Dover church 6 00 

Mount Olivet church 8 Oa 

Auxvasse church 20 00 

First church, Lexington 85 00 

Independence church 33 00 

Bonhomme church 20 00 

Concord church 27 85 

White Cloud church 22 16 

Columbia church 16 46 

Farmington church 40 00 

Fulton church 361 00 

Making total contributed $2,171 05 

''It will be seen from the above that only twenty-eight churches of 

the one hundred and twenty under the care of the Synod, responded to 

the Synod's urgent resolve. Had all the other churches responded in 

proportion to these twenty-eight, the amount given to aid our CoHege 

in the daricest hour of its existence would haTe been more than sufS- 

cient to have met all the enrrent expenses of the year. Instead of 

this, the College closed the last year with a d«bt of eighteen hundred 

194 History of Westminster College 

dollars. This must be met. And the Board look to the Synod to 
devise ways to meet this indebtedness. The tuition fees of the cur- 
rent year, with the interest accruing from the endowment fund thxu 
far obtained, will barely meet the expenses of the year. 

'The Board, at the meeting in June last, raised the salary of the 
Professors of Greek, Mathematics, Natural Science and the English 
Departments, from one thousand dollars to twelve hundred dollars 
eadi. The Board present to the Synod the amended plan, as a part of 
their report, for the permanent endowment of the College, in which it 
will be noted that the Synod at this meeting is expected to appoint five 
responsible, competent business men, residing in or near the city of 
St. Louis, to be denominated, The Board of Trust of Westminster 
Ck>llege Endowment Fund of the Synod of Missouri.' 


"1. The funds which may be raised for this endowment shall be 
held by a Board of Trust, composed of five members, who shall be 
elected at the next annual stated meeting of the Synod of Missouri, and 
shall retain their office during the faithful discharge of its duties, or 
during the pleasure of the said Synod. All vacancies occurring in said 
Board of Trust shall be filled by said Synod at the meeting following 
the occurrence of said vacancies. 

"2. The Synod named in the foregoing clause is the body which 
met in the city of Lexington, October 9, 18C7; in the city of St. 
Joseph, October 13, 1868; and adjourned to meet in Palmyra on the 
second Wednesday of October, 1869. 

"3. The Board of Trust shall be cabled "The Board of Trust of 
the Westminster College Endowment Fund of the Synod of Missouri, 
which met at Lexington, Missouri, October 9, 1867.' 

''4. This Board shall consist of five responsible, competent business 
men, residing in or near the city of St. Louis, and they must all be 
eonnected, in good and regular standing, with one or other of the 

*This was during Dr. Rice's administration, and the gist of the mat- 
ter win be found in section 7. As borrowing from the permanent fund 
ceased, the annually increasing debt of the College began to be more ap- 
parent than when borrowing had been permitted. Some friends of the 
College failed to imderstand why it was thus. — Editor. 

From 1865 to 1870 195 

Presbyterian churches under the care and control of the said Synod 
of Missouri above described. 

"6. Until this said Board of Trust shall be chosen by the said 
Synod of Missouri, at its next stated meeting in Palmyra, the following 
named persons, to-wit: Edward Bredell^ Isaac Tate, W. W. Robertson, 
David H. Bishop, and Kobert P. Farris, shall act as a Oommittee of 
Trustees in accordance with a resolution of the Board of Trustees of said 
College at a meeting held in St. Louis on the 24th day of February, 
1869, and the above named persons shall be authorized and empowered 
to receive all funds that may be raised for the College, and to turn over 
the same to the Board of Trust when said Board shall be elected by the 

"6. Said Board of Trust shall invest the funds of said endowment 
upon real estate securities at as high legal rates of interest as they can 
procure, and payable semi-annually; said securities to be by deeds of 
trust upon such real estate; and such real estate, so pledged as security, 
must, also, always be, in value, double the amount of money secured 

"7. In no case shall said Board of Trust diminish the permanent 
fund for the endowment of the College, or use it to any extent in meet- 
ing the contingent expenses of the Institution, or employ it for any pur- 
pose except to invest it, for the benefit of said institution; but only the 
interest thereof shall be used. 

"8. The Treasurer of the Board of Trust shall remit at least once 
every month to the Treasure^r of the Board of Trustees the proceeds of 
the endowment that may be in his hands. 

"9. Said endowment fimd shall be raised by subscription. Sub- 
scriptions of amounts below one hundred dollars may be payable in 
three annual installments; of amotmts above one hundred and less than 
five hundred dollars, in five annual installments; and of amounts above 
five hundred dollars, in ten annual installments ; all of the notes bearing 
interest, from date, at 8 per cent, per annum, payable semi-annually. 

"10. Until the aforesaid Board of Trust shall be appointed by the 
Synod of Missouri aforesaid, at its next stated meeting, and shall be in- 
corporated under the laws of the State of Missouri, and regularly or- 
ganized, the subscription notes shall be made payable to the order of 
David H. Bishop, in trust for the Treasurer of the Board of Trust, as 
herein before provided. 

"11. The instruction to be imparted from the Theological Chair, as 

196 History of Westminster College 

provided for by the Synod of Missouri at its meeting in Lexington, Oe- 
tober, 1867, shall be in conformity with the Westminster Confession of 
Faith and Catechisms as interpreted by the Old School Presbyterian 
Church, in the United States, and consistent with the views of the 
exclusively spiritual character and functions of the Church, and of the 
Presbyterian system of government, which are held by the above-men- 
tioned Synod of Missouri. 

"The Board are happy to say to Synod that encouraging success has 
attended our efforts to raise the Permanent Endowment. We have 
sixty thousand dollars in cash notes, bearing eight per cent per annum, 
besides about eight thousand five hundred dollars, not bearing interest. 
Six thousand of this is to be appropriated for the payment of an old 
debt. Neither the Board nor the Synod will be satisfied with a leas 
Permanent Endowment than one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
With this amount, our College will take its place among the best Col- 
leges of the land. And we hope to be able to state to the Synod at its 
next meeting that this sum has been raised. Religious services were 
held in connection with the day of prayer for Colleges. Five or six 
young men connected with the College, were hopefully converted and 
united with our Church. The Board would further state that the term 
of service of the following Trustees expires at this meeting of Synod, 
via.: M. Baker, G. C. Swallow, R. P. Farris and A. P. Forman. 

"W. W. Robertson, Chairman." 

The report was accepted and adopted. 

The Committee on Westminster College and Parochial Schools re- 
ported, and the report was accepted and adopted. It is as follows : 

'The committee appointed to bring in a report upon the affairs of 
Westminster College and the importance of establishing Parochial 
Schools, respectfully submit the following report: 

"1. We desire to record our thanksgiving to God for the great favor 
shown to our beloved College during the past year, as exhibited in the 
large increase that has been made in the Endowment Fund. 

"2. We rejoice to learn from the remarks of the President of the 
Board, made on the floor of this Synod, that the number of students at 
the beginning of the present College year is greater than it has been at 
the commencement of any preceding year, and that their deportment 
and studiousness are worthy of high commendation. 

"3. It is a source of special gratification to our hearts, calling for 

From 1865 to 1870 197 

oontinvied praise to the Qratt Head of the Qiurch, that a T%eological 
class of promising yotiog men has already been formed, and that others, 
now pursuing their literary course, will in doe time, as we trust, go 
forth to preach the unsearchable riches of Ohrist. 

''4. Dr. Kiee haying informed Synod that he had proeured the M- 
sistance of Professors Fisher and Hersman in imparting a knowledge of 
the Hebrew and Greek languages to students preparing for the ministry, 
we cordially approve his course, and feel safe in asserting that, with, re- 
spect both to the Literary and Theological Departments, Westminster 
offers advantages to young men that can not be surpassed by any Insti- 
tution of learning in the land. 

**6. In view of the signal mercies displayed to the College in the 
past, and the bright promise of still greater prosperity in the future, we 
recognize our obligation to labor unitedly and earnestly for the comple- 
tion of the Endowment, and hereby exhort our people to devise liberal 
things for this most important interest. 

"6. We direct the Faculty to receive into the College the sons of 
ministers, and students who have the ministry in view, free of charge. 

"7. The Synod testifies against all systems of education which ex- 
clude the Word of God and sound religious instruction, and to avoid the 
dangers to which such systems must inevitably expose the youth of the 
country, we recommend to our Churches the establishment of Parochial 
Schools where this is practicable, and where these schools can not be at 
once maintained, we urge them to exercise the most watchful and zeal- 
ous care in relation to the religious character of the teachers who have * 
charge of their children." 

The Committee on Ways and Means to devise means to defray the 
contingent expenses of Westminster College reported and the report was 
accepted and adopted. It is as follows: 


"The Synod at its meeting last year passed the following action: 
" 'Resolved : That in addition to the endeavors made for the perma- 
nent endowment of the College, we urge upon every congregation in the ' 
State to gather contributions for the current expenses of the College, 
affording an opportunity to every member of the church to give as God 
has blessed him.' 

198 History of Westminster College 

"Only twenty-eight of our 120 churches complied with this instruc- 
tion, and in consequence of this failure the amount obtained fell short 
of what was needed for the expenses of the College by $1,800. The 
Gommittee therefore recommends (1.) that Synod repeat its order that 
oollections be taken up in all the churches for this object during the 
ooming year on the Sabbath following the last Thursday of February, or 
as near to that date as may suit the churches, and (2.) that to those 
churches which failed to contribute last year, the Stated Clerk send a 
letter containing this action and reminding them of their failure. 


''B. Y. Gbobge, 


At Palmyra, during the sessions of the Synod Rev. 
W. W. Robertson resigned the office of Financial Agent, 
a position which he had held at different times in the his- 
tory of the College. In view of this resignation, the Board 
put on record the following minute: 

Inasmuch as Key. W. W. Robertson is now about to retire 
from the duties of Financial Agent of Westminster College, the 
Board of Trustees express their sincere thanks to Bro. Robert- 
eon for the great, long continued, and very efficient services 
which he has rendered to the College from the earliest period of 
its existence. 

This resolution does no more than simple justice to 
Mr. Robertson when it speaks of his "great, long continued, 
and efficient services." The writer remembers well the 
promptness with which salaries were met, in the trying 
days that followed the close of the war. Mr. Robertson 
was certainly an ardent, hopeful, and persevering friend 
of Westminster College. His name had appeared on the 
Board of Trustees ever since the College was chartered in 
February, 1853. He was President of the Board of Trus- 
tees for many years. He was present at Potosi, when the 


From 1865 to 1870 199 

Synod, in 185 1, "Resolved to rise and build." The writer 
is under the impression that Mr. Robertson never was 
absent from any regular meeting of the Trustees — from 
their first recorded meeting in Fulton, on the eighteenth 
day of March, 1853. These facts speak for themselves. 

After the resignation of Rev. W. W. Robertson, which 
took place on the sixteenth of October, 1869, the Board 
chose as Financial Agent, Rev. J. M. Farris, a member of 
the Synod of Northern Illinois. Mr. Farris began his 
labors for raising permanent funds, on the "Amended Plan 
for the Special Endowment of Westminster College, at 
Fulton, Missouri." This plan has been given. 

With what success Mr. Farris prosecuted his work, will 
be seen in the chapter on the endowment. It is perhaps 
enough to say here that he proved himself to be a faithful, 
judicious, persevering, and successful Agent. The College 
could not have secured a better business man to take charge 
of its pecuniary interests. 

At the annual meeting in June, 1870, "the Board re- 
quested the Faculty to visit the churches, during the vaca- 
tion, in behalf of the College, and to solicit contributions 
to defray their traveling expenses, and the current expense 
debt of the Institution." 

"Rev. R. S. Symington was appointed to act as Agent 
for the College, soliciting patronage and money, until the 
meeting of the Synod. Messrs. Bowen and Parks, even- 
gelists, were requested to render the same service when- 
ever practicable." The idea contained in these resolutions 
is of great importance to the College. The time has come 
when College men, at least in the West, must use personal 
influence in increasing the number of students. If the 
Faculty and friends of the institutions could visit the dif- 

200 History of Westminster College 

ferent churches in the Synod and become acquainted with 
the people and talk of our educational interests, it would 
have a great influence in building up our only Institution 
in Missouri. Other denominations canvass closely and 
thoroughly, and consequently their numbers are larger. 
It is very greatly to be desired that the time may soon come 
when every Presbyterian in the State shall feel identified 
with the College which was planted by the prayers and 
efforts of some of the best men ever in any church.* 

The indebtedness of the College, June, i87o, was 
$3,337. The Chairman of the Board was authorized to bor- 
row enough to pay the Professors. 

The Financial Agent, Rev. J. M. Farris, made a report, 
as did also Rev. James A. Quarles, who had been engaged 
in raising the endowment within the bounds of Lafayette 
Presbytery, That these reports were in the highest degree 
encouraging is manifest from the two resolutions which 
follow : 

1. The Board of Trustees has heard the report of the 
Financial Agent, Bev. J. M. Farris, -with great gratification, not 
only on account of the resulte which it makes known, but on 
account of the ability with which it has been prepared and the 
remarkable clearness with which it presents the Financial Con- 
dition of the College, and the Board hereby orders the publica- 
tion in the 0. S. Presbyterian and the Fulton Telegraph of an 
abstract of said report. 

*0n one or more occasions the Synod requested the Board of Trus- 
tees to send the members of the Faculty among the people, as suggested 
by our historian. On June 2, 1897, we find the Board reports (p. 188) 
"That the way is not clear to comply with the instructions of the Synod 
with reference to using all the Protessors during their months of vaca- 
tion in soliciting students, but we recommend that the matter be left to 
the President and Executive Committee so that they may employ such 
members of the Faculty as they may deem wise." — Editor. 


From 1865 to 1870 201 

2. The Board thaxikfully appreciating tl^e eameat, volun- 
tary and unpaid labors of Eev. J. A. Quarles, and grateful to 
God for the very great succesB which attended them* hereby 
orders the publication of his Beport in the papers abore men- 

At the Commencement, June i6, 1870, the Board con- 
ferred the degree of A. B. on Messrs. Hodge Forman, F. 
S. Newland, W. S. Duncan, and O. S. Thompson. The 
honorary degree of A. M., was conferred on S. J. Fisher, 
Esq., of Kansas City, Missouri, and J. H. Cordell, Esq., of 
Marshall, Missouri. It was at the same Commencement 
that the Board conferred for the first time the honorary 
degree of LL. D. The recipients of the title were Rev. B. 
M. Palmer, D. D., of New Orleans, and Rev. S. S. Laws, 
of New York City. The following account of that Com- 
mencement is taken from the Fulton Telegraph, bearing 
date, June 17, 1870: 


The closing exercises of Westminster have been of unusual interest 
this year, so far as they have gone. Rev. S. S. Laws, former President 
of the Institution, addressed the Society of Religious Inquiry on Sunday 
night. The weather was unfavorable, but the audience was immense, bo 
much so, that all available standing room was occupied. People looked 
forward to the speech with an interest never before manifested in Ful- 
ton. Citizens came fifteen miles to hear Mr. Laws, and this was due 
doubtless both to the reputation of the man and the history of the past. 
The address was a masterly efiTort, and involved questions of metaphysics 
and theology of the very highest importance. These questions were 

handled in a manner that would have done honor to the first thinkers of 
the age. The great subject was the infiuence or importance of religious 
truth in education, a subject certainly quite appropriate to the Society 
that invited the speaker. ♦ • ♦ ♦ 

Wednesday night the two literary societies were addressed by Rev. 
B. M. Palmer, D. D., of New Orleans. This 8i)eech had been looked to 

202 History of Westminster College 

with an interest unequalled on any occasion of the kind in this or any 
other College within our acquaintance. Nearly two hours before the 
time set, people were making for the chapel to secure seats. The chapel 
was packed, and still many could not get standing room. The speaker 
unfolded the elements of a massive ch;aracter, which were truth, will, 
faith and self-abnegation. The exordium was eloquent, as it ought to 
have been to precede such a speech. The orator, for such he truly ia, 
held his audience chained from the opening sentence. Without note or 
stand, the ideas came forth, dressed in sentences, each in itself grand, 
beautiful and complete. We had heard much of Dr. Palmer as an or- 
ator, but he surprised our expectations. The hour was a brilliant one, 
and an honor to the entire State. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The Commencement was at 10 o'clock yesterday. There were two 
in the class, Messrs. Foreman and Newland. They acquitted themselves 
like me&, proving an honor to their friends and the College. The fol- 
lowing is a programme of the exercises: 

Oration— "Show Thyself a Man," F. S. Newland, Hannibal, Mo. 

Oration — ^"The Voice of Sorrow," Hodge Foreman, Sidney, Mo. 

Conferring degrees by Bev. N. L. Rice, D. D. 

While the exercises attending the close of this year 
were in progress, Professor Fisher requested the Board to 
grant him leave of absence for a year and to take his salary 
and employ some one in his place for that time. The reason 
urged for the leave of absence was close confinement to 
the class room for fifteen years and some of those years had 
been dark and struggling years of war. In answer to the 
request, "It was resolved that in the judgment of the Board, 
the College would suflfer materially by the absence of Pro- 
fessor Fisher at the present time, and they respectfully 
request him to forego his intention." 

Professor Fisher still felt that under the circumstances 
surrounding him, it would be best for a time at least to cease 
from his labors as instructor, and on the twenty-first of 
July, 1870, wrote to Rev. Dr. Farris, Secretary of the Board, 
as follows: 

From 1865 to 1870 203 

Rev. R. P. Farris, D. D: 

Dear Brother: — I address you as the Secretary of the Board of 
Trustees of Westminster College. After long and painful consideration 
of the question of dut^ I have made up my mind to resign my place in 
this Institution, and I hereby tender my resignation. For twenty years, 
five as a student and fifteen as an instructor, I have been in College; 
and now, a due regard to my health, I might say to my life — and to 
those depending on me, demands the step now taken. 

My devotion to this Institution has become a part of my very nature 
and my present fixed determination has cost me a long and severe strug- 
^e; but I feel that I am right. Allow me to say that I do not resign 
in order to enter more important fields, though for support, I may ac- 
cept some position that will enable me to do some good whilst the Heeded 
recreation is also obtained. 

At Commencement I promised Dr. Brookes not to say anything about 
leaving till fall, as he thought the knowledge of my going away might 
diminish the number of students, if known before the opening of the 
term. This resignation will not be mentioned by me to anybody except 
the officers of the Board, who certainly ought to know the facts in order 
to make the necessary provision. 

In severing the tie that binds me to Westminster College it affords 
me pleasure to say that I go with the most profound regard for the 
Board, and the most tender feeling toward the members of the Faculty, 
and with real affection for the students. 

It gives me special pain to leave Dr. Rice, whom I love as a father, 
and whose great soul and immurmuring devotion to duty, under all 
circumstances, have kindled in my heart a veneration for him never felt 
for any other man. 

But I did not sit down to write a letter, but a resignation. My 
earnest desire is that the Board will take steps to at once fill the place 
or to dispose of the labor it involves. My attention will be immediately 
turned towards arrangements of personal importance to myself. 

Thanking the Board for their uniform kindness and with ardent 
prayers for the success of Westminster College, 

I am truly your friend, 

M. M. FiSHEB. 

Dr. Fisher's resignation was accepted and Rev. J. F. 
Cowan and Mr. W. W. Tuttle were appointed to prepare 

204 ■ History of Westminster College 

a proper expression of the feelings of the Board. They 
reported the following which was adopted: 

Hie Board in saying that it aoeepts with borrow and deep regnt 
the resignation of Dr. Fisher, earnestly desires that neitlter he nor oth- 
ers who may see the statement shall regard it as a meaningless utter- 
ance, but shall accept it as a true expression of the feeling of the mem- 
bers of the Board. 

In his acquaintance with the Latin language and literature, in his 
aptness to impart his knowledge to the student, in his power to inspire 
the student, in hig admirable governmental tact in the dass-room, it is 
our firm conviction that Dr. Fisher has no superior in the land. We 
can not hope to have the work devolving on the Latin chair more faith- 
fully, more ably, more thoroughly and efficiently done than it has beea 
done by him. 

The devotion which Dr. Fisher has shown to the College in genoul 
calls for an expression of gratitude from the Board, and it does not 
hesitate to say that there were times in the dark days of the past — yea, 
even whole years when the College could not with safety have been 
deprived of his labors. During those years of trial, though but poorly 
requited for his services by the Board, because of its poverty, he nobly 
stood at his post and the Board feels that much of the debt of gratitude 
which the Synod of Missouri owes, in the fact that Westminster has been 
brought through its trials to its present high position, is due under God 
to Dr. Fisher. 

If it were the province of the Board it might go on to speak of Dr. 
Fisher as a Christian gentleman, furnishing the students a model to 
which they would do well to assimilate. 

It must speak of him as an able and eloquent minister of the Gospel, 
and of the valuable work he has done as a minister among the stu- 
dents. Each member of the Board might give expression to his feeling 
of personal regard and warm friendship-— and a number of the members 
of the Board, once students in his class-room, could speak of their deep 
affection. But these matters are perhaps aside from the official relations 
which have existed between Dr. Fisher and the Board, and in response 
to his 'good bye,' it gives him its best wishes and its prayers for his 
health, for his success in ministerial work, and its imhesitating com- 
mendation to any Institution which hereafter may be in want of a Pro- 
fessor of the Latin language and literature. 

From 1865 to 1870 205 

Professor Fisher's connection with Westminster Col- 
lege ceased on the 8th of September, 1870, he having, with 
the exception of a few months in the early part of the war, 
served the Board since the first day of September, 1855- 
In that time he was called to fill at different times the 
chairs of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Physical Science, and Met- 
aphysics and Sacred Literature. The writer must be per- 
mitted to say that he knows no harder work than building 
up a new college in the West, and especially when such 
college is pressed for funds. Before leaving the College, 
Professor Fisher had the pleasure of recommending to the 
Board, as his successor. Rev. B. Y. George, then pastor of 
the church at Columbia, and an alumnus of Westminster. 
Mr. George was unanimously elected Professor of the Latin 
Language and Literature. 



Part I, From November, i86x, to October, 187a. 

O give a full and satisfactory and con- 
nected history of the endowment 
while the war lasted is simply im- 
possible and will not be attempted. 
The difficulties in the case are seen 
at once to arise from the terrible 
conflict through which the country 
was passing. This latter statement 
needs some qualification, for some 
part of the trouble in telling the facts about the endowment, 
springs from verbal reports made during this period (1861- 
i87o) to the Board and received by them, as shown by their 
own records. What these reports were, nobody can tell. 
Again; some of the written financial statements have not 
been preserved. The minutes say that such documents 
were presented, but where they now are, the writer at 
least can not tell, neither does he attach blame to. any one 
else. But he does take the liberty of saying, what every 
business man knows to be true, that such papers ought to be 
presented annually and then carefully put to record. 


Financial 207 

In the fall of 1861, Hon. P. B. Reed was made Agent 
and served in that capacity till his death in the summer of 
1864, Rev. J. P. Finley, acted as Agent in vacation in 
1862. A former statement is that Mr. Finley acted vol- 
untarily but a careful searching of the minutes of the 
Trustees proves that he was appointed by that body and 
the report of his work accepted. For the years 1862, 1863, 
1864, no written statement as to the real condition of the 
funds is anywhere found.* But in a lengthy paper pre- 
sented to the Board in June, 1863, by Professor Finley, he 
says, "You will observe that the income from tuition dur- 
ing the year is very small, only $425.50. This arises from 
the fact that of the eighty-nine students in attendance dur- 
ing the year, but fourteen paid full tuition, and of these 
fourteen, but one was in the regular College classes.*'^ 
This state of things was certainly sufficiently alarming as 

*From pace 131, of the Minutes of the Board, June 24, 1862, we 
learn that Dr. K. Abbott reported that the Executive Committee had been 
unable to comply with Rule VII, because many of the notes were scat- 
tered through the State and could not be seen and registered in time for 
this meeting. Rule VII (p. 128), reads: 'The Committee shall make a 
complete entry of all the notes, bonds, and other papers of the Board in 
some permanent book," etc. In October, 1862 (p. 137), the time of the 
Committee is extended. In June, 1863 (pp. 157-161), appears the item- 
ized report of the Treasurer, showing separately collections of principal 
and interest, and giving the names of makers of notes^ but does not state 
the face of the notes and credits, or whether there are other notes upon 
which no collections had been made. Evidently the Board had a "per- 
manent book." On October 17, 1863 (p. 164), the "Treasurer was in- 
structed to draw no further from the permanent fund to meet the ex- 
penses of the College." In June, 1864 (p. 170), "the Committee on 
permanent fund reported that all money not secured by scholarships 
may be borrowed by the Board from itself to liquidate debts." On June 
27, 1866 (p. 188), W. W. Tuttle presented a report in regard to the loss 
of a ledger containing the College accoimts, requiring the preparation of 
a new one, etc. — ^Editor. 

t Prof. Finley*s report says : "We have endeavored to be as careful 
as possible about issuing on scholarships; still some scholarships have 
been issued on which the interest has not been paid for several years." 
— (Editor.) 

208 History of Westminster College 

to the working of the scholarship system. In 1864, the 
Board authorized the Agent "to solicit friends of the In- 
stitution to give up their scholarships," and in collecting 
money due on scholarship notes, he was further authorized 
"to compromise the notes on the best terms possible for 
the interests of the Institution." (Records pp. 15, 174.) 

Dr. Montgomery served as President from the summer 
of 1864 to the fall of 1865. A part of the time, subsequent 
to the death of Mr. Reed, he spent in th€ financial agency. 
At the time when Dr. Montgomery's resignation was 
received, October, 1865, ^^ presented a long written report 
of the pecuniary condition of the College. That report was 
never recorded, neither is it now known where the papers 
are. The writer, however, very distinctly rememBers that 
Dr. Montgomery divided the notes of the College into good, 
doubtful, and worthless. The sums embraced under each 
division, would give just what is wanted here, but on this 
memory fails. After returning on one occasion from his 
agency. Dr. Montgomery made the significant remark that 
he would not collect the endowment for it. This state- 
ment was made after he had made vigorous efforts to col- 
lect funds to meet the expenses of the College. This 
remark was of course in reference mainly to scholarship 
notes, which, like some vampire, had been sticking the life 
blood of the College since 1861. 

June 22, 1865, Rev. W. W. Robertson was appointed 
Financial Agent for the State of Missouri and was author- 
ized, in connection with the Executive Committee, to em- 
ploy an assistant Financial Agent for St. Louis county. 
At the 'same meeting, June 22, 1865, ^''- Montgomery was 
appointed Agent to visit the East in behalf of the College 
interests. In connection with these appointments two 

Fmcmcial 209 

very significant and important actions were taken by the 
Board : A committee, appointed at a previous meeting to 
solicit $i,ooo from the Board of Education, was continued. 
It was resolved to pay the College debts with the first 
money in the treasury, beginning with the "Butler debt." 
(Records, p. 176.) These acts reveal, what many know to 
have been the case, that the College was very greatly 
pressed for money. There never was an hour when the 
financial skies were darker over Westminster. The Board 
had again and again resolved not to use the permanent 
funds to meet current demands, but they were compelled 
to draw on the endowment, or close doors of the College. 
These were the alternatives before the Trustes. It ought 
to be clearly understood that the Board tried their utmost 
to preserve their endowment and that when permanent 
funds were used, that use was invariably authorized by the 
Trustees. Every one will recognize this as but just to the 
Agents whose duty brought them in direct contact with the 
money of the Institution. The use of the Permanent Funds 
lay with the Trustees, as their minutes from time to time 
will show. 

The Synod of 1865 met in St. Louis, in Dr. Brookes' 
church. Mr. Robertson was chosen Financial Agent, as 
also at the previous meeting in June, and directed by the 
Board to spend "his entire time in the field and usfe his best 
efforts to settle up the scholarship notes, getting the relin- 
quishment of all the scholarships in his power. Also that 
he collect all the funds for the College he can." This again 
proves that the Board were in earnest in getting rid of the 
scholarships. The history of the endowment during the 
war has now been given as far as that is possible from docu- 
ments which have so far been accessible. The report of 

the Treasurer, Judge James S. Henderson, appears in fulli 

210 History of Westminster College 

at the dose of each year and is uniformly received by the 
Board. These documents contain nothing but receipts and 
expenditures for the year. 

The S)mod in 1861, met at Boonville. Such was the 
straitened condition of the College at that time, that Mr. 
Robertson, the Financial Agent, was instructed by the 
Board to negotiate a loan of $500 for six or twelve months, 
to meet the Board's indebtedness to certain parties who 
had advanced means to pay the current expenses of the 
Institution. This sum was borrowed and the payment 
thereof secured by a de id of trust on the College property, 
namely, "the land on which are the College buildings." 
(Records, p. 191.) The result was that the College property 
was sold under that deed of trust and bought by Mr. H. M. 
Anderson, acting as the agent of Edward Bredell, Esq., of 
St. Louis. 

The Board held at this date, 1866, about one thousand 
two hundred acres of land in Wisconsin, which land had 
been deeded to the Trustees by Col. M. G. Singleton, in 
payment of money borrowed before the war. June 25, 
1867, "the Financial Agent was directed to put the lands 
belonging to the College, in Wisconsin, into market as soon 
as possible." October 10, 1867, at Lexington, the Board 
took the following final action on Dr. Wayland'g gift : 

Dr. A. Wayland, according to an arrangement made be- 
tween himself and the Board of Trustees in June, 1867, hav- 
ing put into the hands of the Board a deed to one hundred and 
sixty acres of land lying in Clark county, Mo., the Board took 
the following action: 

WhereaSy Dr. A. Wayland, by an article of agreement be- 
tween himself and the Board of Trustees, dated July 9, 1857, 
conveyed to the Board four hundred and forty-eight and four 
himdredths acres of land lying in Clark coimty, Mo., and in 

Fincmcial 211 

addition thereto^ the one-fifth of all the real estate belonging to 
him at his death ; and, 

Whereaa, The Board of Trustees, at its meeting in June, 
1867, agreed with Dr. Wayland to accept a deed to one hundred 
and sixty acres of land lying in Clark county, Mo., in lieu of the 
one-fifth part of the real estate, as mentioned in the agreement 
of date July 9, 1857; and, 

WKereaSf Dr. A. Wayland has now put into the hands of 
the Board of Trustees a deed to said one hundred and sioftj^ 
acres of land, this deed dated August 17, 1867. 

Therefore, Resolved, That Dr. A. Wayland is now released 
from all his obligation contained in his said agreement, dated 
July 9, 1867. 

It appears from the action of the Board just recited, 
that Dr. Wayland conveyed to the College in toto, six hun- 
dred and eight and four-hundredths acres of land, both 
tracts deeded being in Clark county, Missouri. How much 
has been realized from this gift, the writer is unable to say. 
The venerable man, who thus made the College his heir, 
still lives, (1872), at the advanced age of more than four 
score years. His sons and grandsons have been pupils in 
Westminster College. 

The following extract from Mr. Robertson's report to 
the Board during the sessions of the Synod at Lexington 
in 1867, will give as clear a view as possible of the financial 
condition at that date : 

Since my appointment in June, 1865, I have collected and 
paid to the Treasurer of the Board, twelve thousand nine him- 
dred and twenty-three dollars and twenty cents ($12,923.20). 
There are about three thousand dollars ($3,000) in process of 
collection by law, which I think will soon be paid. Besides 
the Charless Professorship endowment, of which, by a late agree- 
ment of the Board of Trustees, five thousand dollars ($5,000) 
wei^ due November 1, 1867, and ten thousand will be due April 
1, 1868, all bearing interest at the rate of eight per cent from 

212 History of Westminster College 

maturity till paid. There are also due the College in aolyent 
notes given to endow the Potts Professorship, and for scholar- 
ships, about thirty thousand dollars, making an income from 
interest on said endowments about four thousand dollars. 

The tuition per ten months may be estimated at, say six 
hundred dollars. There is now due on solvent notes about two 
thousand dollars. The interest due and that which will be due 
the first of June, 1868, if all paid, will be sufficient to pay the 
salaries of the Professors and incidental expenses. 

Mr. Robertson also mentions in his report the twelve 
hundred acres of land in Wisconsin, which he thought 
"could not be sold for more than four or five thousand dol- 
lars." He also mentions the land donated by Dr. Wayland 
in Clark county. On the twelfth of October, 1867, the 
Board held over eighteen hundred acres of land, part of it 
in Wisconsin and the rest in Missouri. The report of 1867 
closes thus : 

Your Agent succeeded in borrowing five thousand dollars, 
according to the order of the Board at its meeting in Boonville, 
October 10, 1866, and a mortgage was given according to said 

The Incidental Fund is indebted to the Permanent Fund 
about thirty thousand dollars which indebtedness was con- 
tracted during the administration of President Laws.* [Rec- 
ords B. T., pp. 202, 203.] 

The following paper in relation to perpetual scholar- 
ships was adopted at Lexington, October 12, 1867 • 

Whereas, The Board of Tnisteee are satisfied that the 
Perpetual Scholarships owned in Westminster College are a 
burthen to the College, and that their continuance would be 
detrimental to the true interests of the Institution; and 

*The whole debt at the opening of the war seems to have been 
$19,984.06 (Get., 1861). See page 235. President Laws resigned in 
November, 1861. 

Financial 213 

whereas, the principal imns by many who siibflcrib«d nmain 
unpaid, in whole or in part; therefore, 

Resolved and ordered, That all persona who own such 
scholarships, the principal of whose subscription remains un- 
paid, in whole or in part, may, at their option, on full payment 
of all interest and on the surrender of their certificate, as well 
as their right to scholarships, be entitled to demand and have 
the return and surrender of their scholarship note, or other ob- 
ligation given for the same. 

And all Agents of the College are requested to act accord- 

In reference to the temporary scholarships, it was 

Resolvedy That the Financial Agent be directed to make 
any compromises or arrangement, which may seem to him to 
be for the best interests of the College, to induce those who hold 
temporary scholarships to surrender and relinquish said schol- 

This action practically disposed of scholarships in 
Westminster College. A very sagacious College man once 
remarked that "money was the root of all colleges ;" and he 
might as truthfully have said that the scholarship plan is 
not the way to raise that money. The history of any Col- 
lege thus endowed will prove that it is not wise. In a word, 
the whole plan is not only unsafe but highly dangerous. 
It is like Pandora's Box in all evil, but unlike it in the fact 
that when all the evils have revealed themselves there is 
no hope left behind. 

On the twenty-fourth of June, 1868, Mr. Robertson 
reported that in pursuance of the action of the Board he 
had succeeded in cancelling about forty scholarships. His 
report contains the following items on the pecuniary condi- 
tion at that date : 

214 History of Westminster College 

Scholarships that are worthless "about" $17,000 

Available Permanent Fund, including Charless Profes- 
sorship "about" 33,000 

Doubtful, some $3,000 or 4,000 

Due on Chailess Professorship 1,600 

Due on solvent notes 2,000 

The report shows that the land remained substantially 
as it was the year before. (Record B. T., p. 209.) 

The Board on the twenty-third of February, 1869, held 
a special meeting in the study of the Walnut Street church, 
in St. Louis. A paper offered by Mr. Bredell was adopted. 
The leading parts are as follows : 

In view of the fact that a full exhibit of the financial con- 
dition of Westminster College has not been made to the Synod 
of Missouri for several years, and as it it proposed to make an 
effort to endow said College more fully, it is important that its 
true financial condition should be known at this juncture, 

Resolved, That a Committee of two be appointed to take 
possession of all the books, papers, notes, accoimts, evidences 
of debt, etc., and to make, or cause to be made, a full exhibit 
of the assets of the College, showing the actual value of the 
same. Said Committee are hereby authorized to command the 
services of Rev. W. W. Robertson, the Financial Agent of the 
College, to collect from present and former officers of said Col- 
lege, all accoimts, books, and evidences of debt for said Com- 
mittee, and to be present with them and aid them in making 
such exhibit. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

ResoVoed, Also, That the Treasurer, or Financial Agent, 
render annually to the Synod, a Balance Sheet, containing a 
summary of all the accounts on the books, whicU statement 
shall be filed and preserved by Stated Clerk of Synod. [Rec- 
ords B. T., pp. 219-220.] 

The Committee of two consisted of Messrs. D. H. 
Bishop and E. Bredell. These gentlemen, in carrying out 

Financial 215 

the instructions of the Board, availed themselves of the 
services of Major Daniel Nolley, of Fulton. Major Nolley, 
after a careful investigation of the whole subject, reported 
the available funds in the old endowment to be thirty-five 
thousand dollars. This included the twenty thousand, 
given to endow the Charless chair of Physical Science. 
This investigation by Major Nolley, acting under the Com- 
mittee, was made in the spring of 1869. Thus the financial 
history has been given as thoroughly as possible, from the 
fall of 1861 to the adoption of the "Plan of Endowment" on 
the twenty-fourth of February, 1869. It may be an unsat- 
isfactory history from the scarcity of documents and the 
times over which it extends. But for neither of these is 
the writer responsible. In fact, the history is so meagre 
for eight or nine years, that the writer is influenced to 
commit it to the publisher only because those on whose 
judgments he relies, think that it ought to be embraced in 
the History of the College. After an honest trial the writer 
is compelled to adopt Dr. Montgomery's remark' : "No liv- 
ing man can write the history of the endowment during 
the war." 

Part II— The New Endowment 

On the twenty-fourth day of February, 1869, the 
Board adopted a plan to raise a new endowment for the 
College. Of the old endowment, the largest sum thought 
to be available was $35,000. The plan adopted was put into 
operation at once and with what success will be seen here- 
A verbatim copy of the plan has already been recorded. 

216 History of Westminster College 

The result of the effort at raising a new permanent 
fund, given at Fulton in June, 1869, was as follows : 

Raised bj Rev. J. A. Quarles, in Lafayette Presbytery. .$ 7,084 

Raised in St. Louis, in negotiable notes 40,000 

Raised by W. W. Robertson, in cash and notes 10,400 


This amount had been raised since February preced- 
ing. This sum added to the $30,000, which was what was 
considered certain on the former endowment, made the 
permanent fund in June, 1869, $87,484. The friends of the 
College never did address themselves more earnestly or 
successfully to the work than in the spring and summer of 
1869. The churches in St. Louis were thoroughly can- 
vassed, and it may be said that the canvass was universal 
among the members of the churches connected with the 
Synod in that city. Dr. Brookes' church gave about $30,000. 
While they were engaged in the work of raising money in 
the city, a woman in indigent circumstances put down 
one hundred dollars toward the endowment. Afterwards 
when the Agent went around taking the notes and receiving 
the amounts subscribed, he had difficulty in finding the 
residence of the one whose generous christian heart had 
prompted her to cast into the Treasury of the Lord. After 
a considerable search, she was found — and found hard at 
work over the wash-tub— washing to secure the money to 
pay the $100 given to the Synodical College. The name of 
this cheerful giver has never been known by the writer, 
but he must be allowed to express his profound respect 
for all such persons. The Lord looks on the heart. This 
incident is related to show that the effort in St. Louis was 
an exhaustive one and that it resulted in raising all that the 
churches there felt able to contribute. The labors of Rev. 

Fmmcial 217 

J. A. Quarles, a graduate of the College, were greatly 
blessed in his Presbytery in the way of increasing the en- 
dowment and enkindling an interest in the College. What 
has now been said will prove that the Synod was in earnest 
in endeavoring to place their Institution on a sure basis. 

The Financial Agent, in his report to the Board on 
the twenty-fourth of June, 1869, closes with these words: 
"The College will commence its next session free of debt." 

The amended plan first appears on the minutes at 
Palmyra, October 14, 1869. This has already been g^ven. 
(See p. 197.) At that date also, Rev. W. W. Robertson 
retired from the Agency. He was made Agent first by the 
Synod in 1854, then appointed for one year by the Board 
in 1855 and lastly appointed by the Board in June, 1865, 
and, being reappointed each succeeding year, served until 
the meeting of the Synod in Palmyra, October, 1869. He 
was thus called to serve the College in raising both the old 
endowment and the new. 

Rev. J. M. Farris, of the Synod of Northern Illinois, 
was made Agent at the meeting at Palmyra, in 1869. He 
served the Institution in that capacity for two years and 
that with remarkable success. His work consisted largely 
in getting into a safe and profitable business state the funds 
of the College. 

The subjoined report of the President of the Board of 
Trust, made to the Synod, at Columbia, in October, 1872, 
shows the result of the eflforts made 1869-1872 and gives 
the condition of the new endowment at the time. 

The President of the Board of Troflt of the Synod of MiBsourl, 
made the following report: 

Report of the "Board of Tmat of the Bynod of MieeowriJ* Beeeipte, 
ISwpeiiditurea and InveatmentSt from Ifovemher I, 1868, to Oetoher 1» 
1872, inclusive: 

218 History of Westminster College 

Endowment $32,820 72 

Interest 16^36 91 

Current Ezpenaes 8 ,707 06 

Total $57,304 69 


Bemitted and paid to Treasurer of Board of Trus- 
tees of Westminster College, for Professors' 
Salaries, etc — 

In 1869 $1,000 00 

In 1870 6,450 00 

In 1871 7,831 00 

In 1872 3,396 08 

$18,677 08 

Salary and Expenses of Agent, 1869-72 $ 4,056 37 

Stationery, Books, Postage, and other office ex- 
penses 86 85 

Expenses incident to obtaining Incorporation.... 36 75 
Exchanges paid. Interest refunded, and mutilated 

currency 45 88 

Interest paid on Trustees' Note to C. B. Singldxm 40 00 

Printing 119 00 

Insurance on College Buildings 279 70 

Taxes on Wisconsin lands 522 04 

Total 23.863 67 

Balance $33,500 92 

The above balance is composed of — 

(1) Notev secured by Deeds of Trust $28,800 00 

(2) Bonds of Counties in Missouri^ received 

for Subscriptions 500 00 

(3) Cash, of which — 

a. Endowment $3,520 72 

b. Interest and Current Exp... 680 00 

$ 4,200 72 

$33,500 72 

Since the first of October, a further investment of $1,500 has been 
made, secured by Deed of Trusty reducing amount of cash applicable 
to Endowment to $2,020.72. 

Fincmcidl 219 

Reference is made to accompanying papers for information con- 
cerning the inyestments made, and the estimated assets applicable to 
Endowment. Respectfully submitted, 

S. W. BABBE8, 

Treasurer Board of Trust. 
St. Louis, October 4, 1872. 



Of Bates of Interest on Notes and Bonds held hy the Board of Trust 

of the Synod of Missouri, 

1. Notes at 8 per cent $ 6,000 00 

Bonds at same 200 00 

$ 6,200 00 

2. Notes at 9 per cent $ 7,600 00 

Bonds at same 100 00 

$ 7,600 00 

3. Notes at 10 per cent $16,300 00 

Bonds at same 200 00 

$16,600 00 

Total Notes and Bonds $29,300 00 



Of Assets of all kinds applicable to the Endowment Fund of Wett- 

minster College, 

1. Notes and Bonds in hands of the Board of Trust of the 

Synod of Missouri, per statement A $29,300 00 

2. Subscription Notes in the hands of the Agent, for col- 
lection — 

a. 6 per cent Notes $ 300 00 

b. 8 per cent Notes 19,410 39 

c. 10 per cent Notes 4,036 60 

$23,746 89 

3. Charless obligations of Mrs. LeBourgeois, of which the 
Interest is regularly paid at 8 per cent per annum $20,000 00 

4. Estimated amount of Notes bearing interest in hands of 

Rev. J. A. Quarles, or W. J. McCausland, for collection. 8,000 00 

220 History of Westminster CoUege 

6* Btmdry Notes, to-wfts 

Symington Notes * $250 00 

Cowan Notes 100 00 

Wayiand Notes (unknown) 350 00 

0. Cash in hands of Treasurer of Board of Trust 3,620 72 

Total $84,916 61 

The above combined statement has reference only to 
interest bearing endowment. Besides this amount, the 
Board of Trust holds; one lot given by Dr. Brookes, one 
lot given by Mrs. Gibson and a contingent note for $5,000 
gfiven by T. B. Nesbit, Esq., of Fulton, Mo. The note g^ven 
by Mr. Nesbit draws no interest, till he sells a farm, as 
stipulated in the note itself. In regard to the matter. Rev. 
J. M. Farris, in a letter dated November 8, 1872, says : "If 
we had the Nesbit note, and the two lots sold, and the 
money loaned out, it would increase the endowment to 
about $90,000; that is — ^provided there are $8,000 yet un- 
paid in your presbytery." The Presbytery meant is 

On the 14th of June, 1870, "Messrs. Nesbit, Robertson, 
and Tuttle were appointed a committee to prepare a Fi- 
nancial History of the College, and report to the Board at 
the next meeting of Synod." Mr. Robertson had been at 
various times financial agent, and the other two gentle- 
men were business men and were of course accustomed 
to such work as this history involves. If the committee, 
named in the extract above ever reported it does not appear 
on the records. 


FROM JUNE 1870 to JUNE 1886. 

N the fall of i87o, Rev. B. Y. George 
was elected to the chair of Latin 
vacated by M. M. Fisher and entered 
at once on the discharge of his 
duties. His term of service lasted 
till April, 1873, when he resigned, 
his resignation being greatly influ- 
enced by the financial embarrass- 
ment of the College. The writer re- 
members Mr. George when he entered the Freshman Class 
at Westminster at the age of twelve years, graduating at 
the age of sixteen with the honors of his class. After a 
full course at Princeton Theological Seminary, he became 
pastor of the church at Columbia, Mo. ; this charge he re- 
signed to accept the chair at Fulton. After leaving Westminster, 
he was pastor in St. Louis and also at Cairo, 111. He is now 
pastor of the church at Lewistown, Illinois. 

Mr. George is an accomplished scholar, an able theo- 
logian, a clear, concise, and faithful preacher, a most devoted 
and successful pastor, and a humble, warm-hearted, grow- 
ing Christian. Dr. McGill, in a letter already given, men- 
tions him as one zmong Westminster's Alumni noted for 


222 History of Westminster College 

his scholarship while at Princeton. May he long be spared 
to the cause he loves so dearly and serves so well. 

During the meeting of Synod at Kansas City, Mo., in 
October, 1870, action was taken inviting the co-operation of 
the other Synod in support of the College. 

In 1871, in the midst of the financial struggles through 
which the institution has passed, an appeal was made to the 
churches to raise two dollars per member to relieve the 
Board, at least in part, from their embarrassment.* The 
exact amount raised is not at hand, but it is well known 
that the matter did not receive the universal attention of 
the churches in the Synod. At the Commencement of 
1871, there were three graduates. 

In June, 1872, two young men received diplomas, one 
of whom was Rev. A. W. Nesbit, son of Hon. Thomas B. 
Nesbit, one of the most faithful friends Westminster ever 
has had and one of the purest and best men who have ever 
honored the State. His kindness and devotion to the Col- 
lege and his friends can never be forgotten. At the same time 
the Faculty relinquished three hundred dollars of the small 
salaries then paid them in order to help the College to 
which they have ever shown a most heroic devotion. Dr. 
Rice, the President, for the same reason, relinquished five 
hundred dollars of his salary. The Faculty then consisted 
of N. L. Rice, C. C. Hersman, J. N. Lyle, J. H. Scott, J. J. 
Rice, and B. Y. George. In view of this sacrifice on the 
part of the Faculty, the following action was taken : 

Resolyed, That in accepting the relinquishment of a part 
of the salary of the members of the Faculty, as offered in the 

*Many friends could not understand this financial embarrassment. 
Many of the scholarships were still in use; and as soon as borrowing 
from permanent funds ceased, it became difficult to meet expenses. More- 
over the Charless Fimd was not productive. 

From 1870 to 1886 223 

commumcation from them, the Board does bo only through a 
hard necessity, though it is believed a temporary one, and it 
hereby expresses its appreciation of the large liberality of the 
members of the Faculty and its admiration of the unselfish deyo- 
tion to the interests of the College. 

At the meeting of the Board in Dr. Brookes' study in 
April, 1873, the terrible necessities of the institution were 
fully discussed. Two plans were named — the first was to 
close the doors of the College ; the other was to reduce the 
number of the Faculty. Rev. B. Y. George, resigned the 
chair of Latin, as has already been stated. At this unusual 
meeting, called at the request of the Faculty, two com- 
munications were received from Dr. N. L. Rice, President 
of the College. These letters of Dr. Rice set forth the con- 
dition of aflfairs at that time so clearly, so fully and so 
forcibly, as to make an)rthing additional unnecessary. 

Pulton, Missoubi, Afsil 11, 1873. 
To the Board of Trustees of Weetminster College i 

Bbethben: — ^Ab the Faculty have requested a meeting of your 
body at an unusual time, it is due to you that we state the purposes 
for which we have thought a meeting important. This can be done in 
a few words. 

1. The members of the Faculty have received no part of their 
salaries for the present year, which is now near its close. They are 
aware that strictly speaking the salaries of the five x'rofessors are not 
due till the end of the year, but heretofore they have been accustomed 
to receive at least part of their salaries during the session. The worst 
of the matter however is that none of them know whether at the aid 
of the year there will be funds to pay them. This uncertainty leaves 
them in very embarrassed circumstances, dependent as they are upon 
their salaries for the support of themselves and families. 

2. The Faculty have been led to apprehend that the embarrassed 
state of the finances of the Ck)llege must either close its doors at the end 
of the present College year, or render it necessary to reduce the ntunber 
of instructors^ In this state of the case, they have not known whether 

224 History of Westmmster College 

to publish a Catalogue or what announcement to make. If either the 
College 18 to be closed or the number of instructors to be reduced it is 
of great importance to them to be informed as soon as possible, that 
they may make their arrangements for the future. 

3. Apparatus worth about $600 was purchased for the College, 
some twelve or eighteen months since. This apparatus was made 
necessary by the adoption of the Scientific course. Several individuals — 
four of them members of the Faculty — gave their note for the amount. 
About $100 have been paid on the note and the principal and accruing 
interest amount to between $400 and $600. The holders of the note 
want the money. It would be a great accommodation to those who 
have become responsible for the amount, if the Board could devise a 
way to pay it. 

'The Faculty hope to hear from the Board on these points at their 
earliest convenience. 

The Faculty recommended to the Board, Mr. James E. Powell, for 
the degree of A. B. Mr. Powell is obliged to leave before the end of 
the session but has passed his examination and would like to have his 
Diploma now. On behalf of the Faculty, 

N. L. Rice. 

The second communication from Dr. Rice is as follows: 

April 11, 1873. 
Rev. Db. Bbooexs: 

Deab Bbotheb: — Inclosed I send you a statement from the Fac- 
ulty which please lay before the Board of Trustees. 

I further authorize and request you on my own behalf to make 
the Board the following propositions: 

1. In view of the present state of the Finances of the College, 
I propose, on condition that the Board pay me at the end of the pres- 
ent College year to make a discount of twenty per cent, i. e., I will 
accept Two Thousand Dollars instead of Twenty-five Hundred, for the 
present year. 

2. For the next year if Funds do not come into the Treasury of 
the College from the other Synod, I will accept as my salary Eighteen 
Hundred Dollars. 

I make these offers to enable the Board to make arrangements 
to continue the regular work of the College without interruption. 


N. L. Rice. 

From 1870 to 1886 225 

After a careful examination of the whole subject it 
was the sense of the Board that the only practicable way 
of carrying on the College was to bring the expenditures 
within the income. This was done by accepting the resig- 
nation of Prof. George and combining the chairs of Latin 
and Greek, and further by reducing the salary of the Presi- 
dent to eighteen hundred dollars "until a brighter day shall 
dawn upon us." The records show that Dr. Rice's proposi- 
tion to reduce his salary from twenty-five hundred to eigh- 
teen hundred dollars was most gratefully appreciated by the 
Board for the spirit of generous self-sacrifice which it ex- 
hibited. By a resolution of the Board the chairs of Eng- 
lish Literature and Mental and Moral Science were united. 
This action was afterwards reconsidered. It is obvious that 
the amount of work involved was simply impossible for any 
one man. 

During these trying days the Faculty were frequently 
paid in College warrants, and during the Commencement 
in 1873 ^ committee of the Board was appointed to negoti- 
ate these warrants in case the members of the Faculty 
should be unable to dispose of them at their face value, it 
being understood that the Trustees would make good any loss 
sustained in making the negotiation. This item is mentioned 
to show, how in a thousand instances, both the Board and 
the Faculty have shown their devotion to a noble work. 

We have now reached the point where the eminent 
President, Dr. Rice, chose to terminate his connection with 
an institution which he had served during six of the most 
trying years of its history. His self-sacrifice, his faithful- 
ness, his grand preaching, the revivals of religion while he 
was .in office, can never be forgotten. It would perhaps be 
impossible to state the condition of affairs at the time oi 

226 History of Westminster College 

his resignation more clearly than by giving Dr. Rice's paper 
in full. 

Fulton, June 17, 1874. 
To the Board of Trustees of Westminster College; 

Deab Bbethbei?:-^! beg leave to tender to you my resignation of 
the presidency of Westminster Ck)llege. I have filled this important 
office to the best of my ability, during the last six years. During this 
entire period my relations to the Board and to the members of the 
Faculty, have been of the most pleasant character. I desire that the 
termination of my connection with the College shall be with the kindest 
feelings. Perhaps it is due both to the Board and to .myself to say a 
few things in relation to the affairs of the College so far as they have 
appertained to my office and to state the reasons why I now offer my 

1. I am happy to know that in spite of obstacles, the pecimiary 
condition of the College has considerably improved, since I accepted the 
Presidency. I found on inquiry into its condition, first, that the Col- 
lege had lost most of its endowment by the war — ^having indeed very 
little left, and, secondly, that about half of the students were on schol- 
arships, of course paying no tuition. The institution now is almost 
wholly relieved of the incubus of scholarships, and has, I believe, an 
endowment of about $85,000. Its endowment would have been much 
larger, had the funds pledged in order to induce me to accept the Pres- 
idency been paid in. Besides, the imsettled condition of the Synod ae 
to its ecclesiastical relations, has for more than four years, greatly hin- 
dered the success of efforts to increase its funds. 

2. The number of students from year to year, though small, haa 
been quite as large, I believe, as we could reasonably have expected* 
The unsettle condition of the System of Labor in Missouri has pre- 
vented many who desired to attend College, from doing so. The al- 
most unprecedented scarcity of money has been another obstacle. The 
isolated condition of the Synod has prevented the College from drawing 
students from other states, and the comparative weakness of the Synod 
in the membership of its churches has given it but a very limited field 
from which to draw them in the State. Besides, the College has neces- 
sarily come into competition with the State institutions, which possess 
the great attraction of educating free of all charge. Every denomina- 
tional institution in the State is suffering from this cause. 

From 1870 to 1886 227 

3. The standard of morals in the College has been high and has 
improved every year, since my connection with it. Long experience and 
observation have made me acquainted with the standard of morals in 
our best colleges, and I affirm that in no college with which I have 
been acquainted, has the standard of morals been so high. This is 
especially true of the past year. During each year of my connection 
with the College, there have been from time to time interesting conver- 
sions among the students. But during the session now closing, Qod has 
in mercy given us a great blessing. One of the most powerful revivals 
I ever witnessed had its beginning in the prayer meeting in the College 
and spread through the entire community. 

4. The College has maintained a very high standard of scholarship, 
and its students and graduates, I believe, have been able to take rank 
with those of any college, east or west. 

I now propose to terminate these labors, which for the most part 
have been very pleasant — not because of any difficulty of working cor- 
dially with the Synod in its present ecclesiastical connection.* I op- 
posed the forming of that connection as, in my judgment inexpedient) 
not because I differ in principle with my Southern brethren. My 
views on this subject have been published, therefore I need only refer 
to them. 

Nor do I resign on account of the pecuniary embarrassment of the 
College. I have voluntarily given up a considerable part of my salary 
and would willingly do the same again. But I think it probable that 
some of the friends of the College desire for one reason or another, that 
there shall be a change in the administration of the College. I waa 
not a candidate for the office. It was urged upon me. So far as my 
personal interests are concerned I have no desire to continue in it. 
In view of all the circumstances, then, I deem it advisable to hand 
you my resignation. 

Praying that God may greatly bless the College in years to come, 

as in years past, I am 

Truly yours in Christ, 

N. L. Rice. 

*The Synod had become connected with what is popularly known as 
the Southern Presbyterian church. — Editor. 

228 History of Westminster College 

The Committee appointed to report in regard to what 
action the Board should take in view of the tendered resig- 
nation of Dr. Rice reported as follows : 

Whereas the yenerable President of Westminster College, 
Rev. N. L. Rice, D. D., has tendered to the Board of Trus- 
tees his resignation of the office of President. 

Resolved, 1st, That the resignation of Dr. Rice be accepted. 

Resolved, 2nd, That the Board would express their appre- 
ciation of the ability and fidelity with which Dr. Rice has dis- 
charged the duties of the office and especially of the excellence 
and value of the instructions he has given to his classes; and 
that they regret the circiunstances which separate them from 
one go highly esteemed and so sincerely beloved and who has 
been the honored instrument in the hands of God for accom- 
plishing so great a work, during his long life, for the interests 
of the church and the glory of its divine Head. 

Resolved, 3rd, That should Dr. Rice in the Providence of 
God continue to reside in this community (as we hope he may) 
he is hereby requested to furnish such instruction in the Col- 
lege classes on Moral Philosophy, as shall be convenient to him- 
self and at such times as may be arranged with the Faculty 
in connection with the charge of the Theological class to which 
he has been appointed by the Synod of Missouri; and further 
that the Board regret that the income of the College is so lim- 
ited that a liberal and definite compensation can not be offered 
Dr. Rice for such services, but in the ervent of a sufficient in- 
come in the funds of the College such compensation shall be 

Dr. Rice had been appointed by the Synod to take 
charge of a Theological class in connection with his Aca- 
demic work in the College. When he resigned his friends 
hoped he might spend the remainder of his days in a com- 
munity where he was so tenderly loved, and in view of this 
fact the Board requested him to give such instruction in 
mental and moral science as might be consistent with his 

From 1870 to 1886 229 

other labors, promising such compensation ai the funds of 
the Institution might allow. Dr. Rice* accepted a chair in 
Danville Theological Seminary and entered on his labors in 
the fall of 1874, though his family continued to reside in 
Fulton. In an address made in the Chapel the night after 
his resignation he remarked, in speaking of Fulton, "A bet- 
ter people I never lived among in my life." This remark- 
able man made the address when the corner-stone of the 
College was laid ; the presidency about the same time was 
offered to him ; a quarter of a century after laying the cor- 
ner-stone he accepted the presidency; and when called to 
his reward his body was brought from Kentucky to Fulton 
to rest till the resurrection. 

When his father resigned. Prof. Jno. J. Rice, who has 
been so eminently successful in the Chair of English Litera- 
ture, also offered his resignation. A committee of the Board 
was instructed to confer with Prof. Rice, and if possible, 
induce him to withdraw his resignation. This he consented 
to do, greatly to the satisfaction of the Trustees, the stu- 
dents, and the citizens of the place. Prof. Rice has inherited 
many of the traits of his father and is deservedly one of 
the most popular and efficient teachers in Missouri. He is 
peculiarly fitted for the Chair he occupies. 

On the retirement of Dr. Rice, M. M. Fisher, who, 
since his resignation in 1870, had been pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church in Independence, Mo., and also President of 
Independence Female College, was elected to the Chair of 
Latin and to the position of President pro tempore. Prof. 
Fisher at the same time held an offer of a chair in Central 
University^ at Richmond, Ky., an Institution which has 

*Dr. Rice was also called to the pastorate of the Presbyteriaa 
church of Fulton. He died June 11, 1877. 

tMerged with Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, in 1900. 

230 History of Westminter College 

been signally blessed from the beginning. Through the 
influence of friends, and swayed largely by the hallowed 
associations of the past, he accepted the position at West- 
minster at a salary of $1,500, instead of going to the Uni- 
versity at a much larger salary. In connection with his 
College duties. Prof. Fisher became stated supply of the 
Church in Fulton. His associate was Rev. W. W. Hill, D. 
D., at that time President of the Synodical Female College. 
This relation lasted for three years, and while the double 
position of teacher and preacher involved entirely too 
much work for one man, still those three years are remem- 
bered with special pleasure. The Faculty were all that 
noble Christian men could be, and we have never had an 
associate whose name is more aflfectionately remembered 
than that of Dr. Hill. 

The graduating class at Commencement in 1874 con- 
sisted of ten members, four receiving the degree of A. B., 
and six that of B. S. Then, the College had two courses, the 
old-fashioned College course, the best of all courses, as 
proven by the experience of centuries, and the Scientific 
course. For general culture, no training has ever been 
found superior to what is ordinarily termed the A. B. course. 
No people know this better than Presbyterians. 

The Synod of 1874 met at Mexico and during its ses- 
sions the Board directed the Faculty to secure the services 
of Prof. N. D. Thurmond to take charge of a Preparatory 
School to be taught in what had been called for thirty years 
"the lower chapel." Prof. Thurmond accepted the posi- 
tion and entered on his duties in the winter of 1874-5. This 
gentleman is a most finished teacher and while he has 
proven to be an able and successful lawyer and a good 
legislator, we still entertain the belief that the class room 
has been deprived of one of its brightest ornaments. The 

From 1870 to 1886 231 

financial condition of the College led to Prof. Thurmond's 
resignation in 1876, after a most flattering success lasting 
two years. Since that date his time has been devoted to 
the practice of the law. He was a member of the General 
Assembly of the State in the years 1885 and 1889, and made 
an honorable record. He resides at Fulton and, like all 
her graduates sons, is a firm friend of his Alma Mater. 

It was at the meeting of the Board in connection with 
the Commencement of 1875 that the death of Abram Way- 
land, M. D., was announced. In some respects, no name, 
for thirty years past has been more intimately associated 
with the College than that of this venerable and godly 
man. We remember him as being a member of the Synod 
of 1855 at Fulton when he determined to give Westminster 
a child's part of his estate. He was also a member of the 
S3mod at Lexington in i867, when in conversation with 
some of his brethren, he remarked: "I suppose my time 
is almost out ;" meaning that "the time of his departure was 
at hand." He was at that time about four score years old. 
One prominent feature at an afternoon session of the 
Synod was an address by Dr. B. T. Lacy giving an account 
of a visit he had made to Dr. S. B. McPheeters just before 
his death. While Dr. Lacy was most touchingly describ- 
ing his last interview with that man of God, Dr. Wayland 
wept like a child. His mind dwelt especially on the un- 
wavering childlike faith of Dr. McPheeters in the midst 
of his intense sufferings. Dr. Wayland died old and full 
of days. What he did for the College, his adopted child, 
has already appeared in these pages. The resolutions 
passed by the Board at his death are found in subsequent pages. 

In October, 1875, ^^^ Trustees at a meeting in Sedalia 
during the sessions of Synod unanimously elected Rev. Jas. 
A. Quarles, D. D., its Financial agent to raise $12,000 to 

232 History of Westminster College 

cancel the debt of the College and $15,000 to endow the 
Qiair of Metaphysics and Sacred Literature. Dr. Quarles 
was also unanimously elected to fill the Chair named as 
soon as the funds mentioned could be raised. This election 
impressed Dr. Quarles favorably but he declined giving at 
that time a definite answer. The minutes of the Board do 
not so state but the writer is under the impression that Dr. 
Quarles declined the position thus tendered. 

At the Commencement of 1875, ^^e degree of A. B. w^as 
conferred on J. T. Estill and Geo. W. Walltrall, and the 
degree of B. S. on Thomas B. Buckner. 

The graduating class of 1876 consisted of six members, 
Messrs. W. W. Palmer, Jno. W. Perry, Robt. M. White, 
G. M. Caldwell, Geo. W. Staley and J. Sire Green. The 
degree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred on the first three 
and that of Bachelor of Science on the last three. Parch- 
ment diplomas were for the first time g^ven to the Bache- 
lors of Science, as the plate under the instructions of the 
Board had been obtained since the Commencement of 1875. 
Each student paid $5 for his diploma, to meet the expense 
of the plate. 

In February, 1877, Rev. Dr. Quarles was again made 
agent. He accepted the place and entered on his work 
but, for reasons which seemed satisfactory to all concerned, 
he resigned in June following and the resignation was ac- 
cepted. One reason doubtless for giving up the agency 
was the oflFer of a position which opened a wide field of 
usefulness — a field too in which Dr. Quarles, as a teacher 
of girls, won a reputation of which any man might be 
proud. Dr. W. W. Hill once remarked that it was easier 
to find a man who could command a hundred thousand men 
in battle than to find one who could make a good president 
for a Female College. Dr. Quarles did succeed at Lexing- 

From 1870 to 1886 233 

ton, Mo., and we predict that the greatest work of his life 
will be done at Lexington, Va.* In her darkest hours 
Westminster always turned to him, as will be seen in many 
parts of this book, and he will be none the less a friend now 
that Providence has cast his lot in another Synod. 

On the resignation of Dr. Quarles, Dr. Jno. Mont- 
gomery was chosen agent, a position he had so energeti- 
cally and successfully filled before. This oflFer Dr. Mont- 
gomery felt constrained to decline. We shall never forget 
the delightful days spent with Dr. Montgomery in the Halls 
of Westminster when war darkened all the land. There 
was a time when three of us undertook to teach the whole 
curriculum; and, while we may not have done the work, 
we did do our best and won the approval of our brethren. 

Three were added to the Alumni in the summer of 1877. 

In July, 1877, M. M. Fisher was called to the Chair of 
Latin in the State University, then under the presidency of 
Dr. S. S. Laws, who had been Westminster's first president. 
This call Prof. Fisher chose to accept; and it is simple 
justice to himself that his feeling in separating from the 
College he had served so long should be known, especially 
in view of the fact that his leaving a Church College and 
going to a State Institution has sometimes been criticised 
among his own people. His heart is as warm to-day to- 
wards Westminster as ever in the past, and his loyalty to 
the Church of his fathers is as true among the students of 
the State University as among the classes of Westminster. 
He misses the frequent communion of the brethren that 
marked other days and longs for attendance at the Church 
courts and always remembers his own people, but still finds 
a magnificent field for Christian work among the hundreds 

*Dr. Quarles for many years has been a member of the Faculty of 
Washingtcm-Lee University. 

234 History of Westminster College 

who throng the University Halls, scores of whom are met 
in the Bible class on Sabbath. Few know as well as he 
does that Westminster has no firmer friend in Missouri to- 
day than Dr. Laws. In the heart of no man who ever 
taught at Westminster have the students of that Institu- 
tion a warmer place than in the heart of Dr. Laws. The 
writer knows whereof he affirms. Prof. Fisher's thoughts 
on leaving the College for the University may be seen in 
his letter which is as follows: 

FUI.TOW, MissouBi, June 27, 1877. 
To the Board of Trustees of Westminster College: 

Dear Bbethren: — On the morning of the Commencement day, I in- 
timated the possibility and even the probability of a change in my relar 
tion to our College. On the morning of June 27, my resignation 'wslb 
placed in the hands of the President of the Board. 

Almost twenty-two years have passed since I was first assigned a 
place in the Synodical College and nineteen of these years have been 
earnestly and I may be permitted to say, enthusiastically devoted to 
the interests of our Institution. It would not be at all surprising to find 
in my heart a very tender affection for this school which has been so 
honored of God in years past. Words can not fully express my at- 
tachment for the noble men in the Faculty to whom common labors and 
anxieties have bound me daily with stronger cords; for the students; 
the church; the people; and all in any way connected with our work. 
In a word, Westminster has been the object to which all the energies 
of my mind and heart have been given for over a score of years. 

As I leave these halls, it is due to you and simple justice to myself 
that you should know something of the motives which, have influenced 
me in my resignation. You all know the struggles and perils through 
which the College has passed. You know its present embarrassed con- 
dition financially; you know and I know, that the Board of Trus- 
tees have done all that men can do, to foster, guard and build up 
every interest of this child of the Church. The earnest heart-endeavors 
of the Board need only to be known to place them where they deserve 
to stand in the estimation of the Synod. The internal state of thA 
College is all that could be desired, but as far as money is oonoemed» 

From 1870 to 1886 235 

we have reached a point where decisive, unanimous, and immediate 
action is absolutely necessary to the continuance of the Institution aa 
a College. The Synod must be brought face to face with stubborn facta 
and that too, as quickly as possible. The question to be solved is a 
financial question. 

One solution has for a year past forced itself upon my mind, as 
some members of the Board distinctly remember. That solution is: 
Get a president of the College who has financial ability and let him as 
quickly as possible take the matter in hand. In our present condition 
this is a necessity and the only hope, and my decision has been greatly 
strengthened by the fact that the brethren in different parts of the 
Synod have come to the same conclusion. But with your present cur- 
rent expenditure, you have no means to do what in my judgment, must 
be done. From my standpoint, therefore, the best thing I could do for 
the College was to resign, and let the Board use my salary, supple- 
mented in any way they might be able, in securing a suitable man to 
occupy the most vital position that has ever occurred in the history 
of the Synod. The life of the Synod depends largely on the College, the 
life of the College on more means, and these again on the right man. 
This, my deliberate and prayerful conclusion, reached months ago, will 
give the Board gome light on the resignation before them. 

With the deepest solicitude for the College, allow me to suggest to 
the Board to look out among the tribes of Israel for a presiding officer, 
let him be found where he may, so he be the right man. Such a course 
will inspire the Faculty with^ confidence in the perpetuity of West- 
minster, and better men than they can not be found anywhere; it will 
inspire the Synod and the whole church, and the means to endow the 
College can be obtained. 

In bidding you good-bye, permit me to say again, that it is my 
abiding conviction that the Board are doing all within their power to 
build up the Institution. I share in their troubles and anxieties, and 
pray that God may guide to what is best. 

Wherever God may cast my lot, I shall always look back to this 
College as a place of hallowed memories and a spot where a score of the 
best years of my life have been spent. 

With great respect. 

Yours very truly, 

M. M. FiSHEB. 

236 History of Westminster College 

Prof. Fisher's resignation was received and the Board 
took the following action. 

Dr. Hill and Dr. Kerr, Committee on the Resignation of Dr. M. M. 
Fisher, reported the following paper which was adopted: 

"In severing their connection with Dr. M. M. Fisher as a ProfeBSor 
of this Institution, the Board would express their profound regret that 
he deems it his duty to leave a post which he has so long and so faith- 
fully and so ably filled, and their doep sense of the great value of his 
services to the College and of the loss which the College and the com- 
mimity must sustain in parting with him. He carries with him into 
hjs new field of labor the sincere affection of all the Board and their 
earnest wish that he may be blessed in his labors to promote the oauae 
of education and of sound learning wherever God may cast his lot." 

On the resignation of Prof. Fisher, Dr. C. C. Hersman 
was made Professor of Latin and Greek and also President 
pro-tem., which position he held until he was made perma- 
nent President in 1881. 

At Commencement in 1878, Prof. J. C. Jones,^ an Alum- 
nus of Westminster, was elected Assistant Professor of 
Ancient Languages, and at once accepted the place and en- 
tered on his duties. That the Board made a wise choice 
might be shown by an appeal to every student who has 
ever recited to Prof. Jones. In a Chair of Language, he is 
the right man in the right place and is destined to honor 
the State of his adoption. The graduating class of that 
year consisted of four men, viz.: Jno. Gaines Miller, B. S.; 
H. B. Barks, Jno. C. Wallace, and F. L. Ferguson, A. B.* 

There were in the graduating class of 1879 ^ve mem- 
bers, viz. : Jno. C. Jones, O. T. Scott, Jas. G. Trimble, who 
received the degree of A. B., and M. G. Tate and Jno. H. 
Douglass who had conferred on them the degree of B. S. 

tNow Professor of Latin and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sci- 
ence at the University of Missouri. 

*I>ied in 1903, while vice-president of the Board of Trustees. 


From 1870 to 1886. 237 

On the fifth of June, 1879, Rev. Robt. Morrison was 
elected Financial Agent of the College and entered soon 
after upon his work. At the succeeding Commencement 
Mr. Morrison made a report showing that he had raised 
$4,521.08 for the endowment by solicitation among the peo- 
ple and $460 by the sale of the autobiography of Rev. 
David Coulter, D. D. This volume had been issued after 
Dr. Coulter's death by his widow, who was a daughter of 
Gabriel Parker, who for many years was an elder in the 
Columbia Church. Mrs. Coulter* published the Memoirs 
of her husband at her own expense, and, from the first, 
donated all the proceeds to the funds of the College. Dr. 
Coulter was an ardent friend of the College and of every 
good work ; and his name will long be held in remembrance 
by the Synod of Missouri. He sleeps in the cemetery at 

This brings us down to the Commencement of 1880, a 
quarter of a century from the time when Westminster, at 
the hand of Dr. Laws, handed her first diploma to Jas. G. 
Smith. The class of 1880 numbered six, three of whom, 
W. B. Tate, W. E. Garvin, and J. T. Vaughn received the 
degree of Bachelor of Science; the remaining three, C. H. 
Wallace, T. B. Wallace, and E. W. Grant, that of Bachelor 
of Arts. 

The Catalogue of 1880-1 shows that 119 had been in 
attendance and that five were graduated. Prof. C. C. Hers- 
man had for three years been Acting-President and had 
achieved a signal success in the estimation of the students, 
the Board, and the entire Synod. In June, 1881, this ac- 
complished scholar was unanimously elected President at 
a salary of $1,500. Dr. Hersman is an Alumnus of West- 

*Died at Columbia, Missouri, 1899. 

238 History of Westminster College 

minster, and in his election to the presidency, the College 
honored herself while honoring her son. He had for some 
years been Professor of both Latin and Greek. When 
chosen President he resigned the Chair of Latin and re- 
tained only the Greek, a Chair in which he has a most 
enviable reputation. Prof. J. C. Jones, who had for three 
years been Assistant Professor of Latin and Greek, was 
promoted to the Latin Chair. In this case again the Board 
wisely chose one of their own sons, greatly to the gratifica- 
tion of all concerned. 

On the twelfth of May, 1882, Prof. Jones resigned the 
Chair of Latin. His reasons for this step may be learned 
from the communication sent to the Board and here given : 

To the Board of Trustees of Westminster OoUeffe: 

GENTLEMEN: — Sinoe my graduation I have most earnestly 
desired to supplement my course here by a course of greater 
or less length at the Johns Hopkins University. Through the 
kindness of a friend I am now able to gratify this desire, and 
theirefore resign, to take effect at the close of the present ses- 
sion, the chair of Latin to which you elected me one year ago. 
During my term of service here as Tutor, as Assistant 
Professor, and as Professor^ I have tried to discharge my duties 
with faithfulness and zeal, and my relations to the Board and 
the Faculty have always been of the most pleasant character. 
For many reasons I am sorry to sever my connection with the 
College; but I feel that by this step I can secure greater effi- 
ciency in my chosen profession and open up for myself a wider 
field of usefulness, while at th^ same time I know that my 
place can be easily filled, and thus the strength of the College 

will be in no wise impaired. 

Very truly, 

J. C. Jones. 
Fulton, Missouri, May 12, 1882. 

The resignation was accepted. Soon after severing his 
connection with Westminster, Professor Jones was chosen 

From 1870 to 1886 239 

Assistant Profeosor of Languages in the State University, 
which position he accepted, and entered on his duties 
in January, 1883, at the opening of the second semester. 
He had previously, in accordance with his purpose, as 
given in his letter to the Board, spent some months at Johns 
Hopkins University, devoting his time to special lines of 
work. Prof. Jones had been a student under Prof. Fisher 
at Westminster and their relations at the University were 
of the happiest character. 

At the close of the College year, in the summer of 
1882, E. H. Marquess, A. M., of West Virginia, was called 
to the Chair of Latin, a place which he has ever since most 
admirably filled. He is a brother of Rev. W. H. Marquess, 
an Alumnus of the College, then the pastor of the Church 
at Fulton where he was most wonderfully blest in his min- 
istry. Prof. Marquess is a nephew of Rev. M. D. Hoge, D. D., 
of Richmond, Va. 

The graduating class of 1882 contained five members. 

The financial pressure during the year 1882-3 was most 
intensely felt by the Faculty, so much so that they even 
apprehended that it might be necessary to dispose of prop- 
erty to meet the demands made upon them. This arose 
from the smallness of the salaries — a sad reality that some- 
times forced them to incur debt to live. No man who has 
never been in a similar position can tell what those heroic 
and scholarly men have borne for the College. Their ser- 
vices are worth twice or three times the salary paid them. 
Surely, surely the Presbyterians of Missouri will not allow 
this state of things to continue, especially since the Lord 
has put the remedy in their hands and called them to apply 
it. (Rec, p. 12, New Book.) 

The year closing in June, 1883, had been an extraordi- 
narily successful one internally for the College. One hun- 

240 History of Westminster College 

dred and thirty-six students had been enrolled. The out- 
look in all directions except money was most hopeful. The 
examinations this year were all in writing. The graduat- 
ing class numbered five members. 

The death of E. M. Kerr, M. D., a graduate of the Col- 
lege and a member of the Board, was announced during the 
exercises attending Commencement. Dr. Kerr was rapidly 
rising to eminence in his profession, blessed as he was with 
peculiar fitness for the calling which he had chosen. The 
action of the Board was in these words : 

The Board records with deep sorrow the death of Dr. Edwin 
M. Kerr, one of the most valuable and valued memberB. Effi- 
cient in his work, thoughtful and wise in his suggestions, and 
zealously devoted to the interests of the Ck>Uege, he had com- 
manded our confidence and regard. His career as an alumnus 
has been an honor, and his labors as a Trustee have been a 
great service to the Institution. We would bear this testimony 
to his fidelity and energy, and express our sense of great loss 
at his decease. And we would assure his family of the sin- 
cere sympathy of this Board in their overwhelming sorrow. 

The Twenty-ninth Commencement came in June, 1884, 
when six graduates received their diplomas. The condi- 
tion and wants of the College at this time, as well as the 
feelings of the Faculty, are so clearly and forcibly set forth 
in Dr. Hersman's annual report to the Trustees in June, 
1884, that we feel warranted in making a somewhat lengfthy 
extract from it. This extract will show that while the 
Faculty appreciated most keenly their wants they were not 
unreasonably expensive in their suggestions. The whole 
history of Westminster will show that the incumbents of 
those Chairs have always kept their requests for help from 
the Church in supporting its own College within the bounds 
of the severest moderation. 

. UKRSMAN, L>. D., LL. 11. 


From 1870 to 1886 241 

Dr. Hersman's report really belongs to the year clos- 
ing in June, i886, but inasmuch as it is eminently true at 
this time in the history of the College, it is allowed to re- 
tain the place in which we first copied it. 

We would call the attention of the Board to the absolute neceesity 
of making some effort to secure a better building and more endowment. 
Of the better colleges in and around Missouri we are behind them all. 
At Fayette they have repaired the old building and erected a new chapel 
at a cost of about $28,000 and have a gymnasium besides a President's 
house. At Springfield "The Stone Chapel" recently built is said to be 
a very handsome edifice and all the accommodations commodious and 
neat. At Richmond, Kentucky, $100,000 was raised in a few weeks. 
At Clarksville, Tennessee, all the professorships are endowed, and self- 
supporting except that of Theology; and an earnest effort is now being 
made to raise funds enough to endow this. We mention this to show 
that Presbyterians and other denominations all around us are going 
ahead, and we are standing still. Surely there must be some large- 
hearted Presbyterians who would erect a chapel or some oth»er building 
in memory of a deceased child or in love to Christ. We must soon do 
something on a large scale or be left hopelessly behind. We can not 
much longer maintain our hold upon the youth of Missouri, without 
more attractive buildings and more endowment. Would it not be well 
to get Mr. Bell to draw a plan for a chapel to cost from $7,000 to 
$10,000 and submit it to some man of wealth, or a plan for the re-ar- 
rangement of the whole building at a cost of from $30,000 to $40,000? 
The entire building will soon need a new roof. If Mr. Bell would draw 
fiuch a plan without cost in case we could not raise the money, per- 
haps the plan itself might stimulate some to take hold and help us. 
This may not be the time to raise money, but we must soon make an 
effort or lose our hold on the youth. They will be drawn to Institu- 
tions where everything is more attractive, and the facilities better. 

Hoping and praying that God may raise up friends for us in this 
hour of our need, we remain your obedient servants. 

In 1885, Dr. Hersman was called to a Chair in the 

Theological Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina. The 

serious light in which this was regarded may be learned 

242 History of Westminster College 

from the action taken by the Board at its meetings in June 
of that year. 

The Board of Trustees of Westminster College, having 
learned that Rev. Dr. Hersman has received a call to a Pro- 
fessorship in the Theological Seminary of Columbia, South, 
Carolina, hereby expresses the earnest hope that he will de- 
cline the invitation; and we also gratefully record our high 
appreciation of his ezceedin^y able and self-denying servioes 
which we regard as indispensable to the best interests of the 
institution in the future. 

The paper, passed during the meeting of Synod at 
Kansas City, showed that the whole Church were pro- 
foundly interested in retaining Dr. Hersman in his position 
as head of the College. Most happily for the Institution, 
Dr. Hersman declined the call to the Columbia, S. C, Semi- 
nary, and remained in his place. This call reminds the 
Synods that they have men in their Halls of learning who 
are appreciated elsewhere, as well as at home, and that to 
retain such men Westminster must have the active atten- 
tion of Presbyterian people. In Dr. Hersman's call to 
South Carolina, we see the endorsement of the whole Church, 
in at least five Synods, given to Westminster's scholarship. 

Some time in 1883 negotiations in regard to co-opera- 
tion by the two Synods in support and control of the Col- 
lege were renewed, and the following extracts from the 
minutes of their meetings in October, 1884, indicate that 
both were deeply interested and were agreed that Christian 
education in Missouri demanded a joint effort. In order to 
avoid confusing titles, the "Southern Synod" and "Northern 
Synod" are used: 


October, 1884: Kev. S. S. Campbell, D. D., chairman of the com- 
mittee appointed at the last meeting of the Synod to confer with a 

From 1870 to 1886 243 

similar committee of the Northern Synod of Missouri, sabmitted a re- 
port which was accepted, and, on motion, was taken under consideration 
9eriaiim. • • • • Each item haying been considered and adopted, 
the report was adopted as a whole, wanting three votes of being unan- 
imous, and the Stated Clerk was directed to inform the other Synod 
of this action immediately. 

The report is as follows: 

"Your Committee to confer with a similar committee of the North- 
em Synod of this State in regard to co-operation in the support and 
management of Westminster College, would report that the Committees 
came together in St. Louis, on January 17, 1884, and after organization 
by the election of the Chairman of the Committee, as chairman, and 
Befv. Dr. Wallace, of Hannibal, as Secretary of the joint Committee, 
the following paper was adopted by an unanimous vote as the basis of 
the contemplated co-operation, viz.: 

''I. To secure and maintain the desired co-operation, it is essen- 
tial that there be entire mutual confidence, that hearty support be 
given to the plan adopted, and that neither party entertain a thought 
of superior self-advantage. 

"II. To establish this confidence and to insure this support, the 
arrangement made must be equitable beyond question, and must clearly 
recognize the equality of the parties. 

"III. As a basis of co-operation, the joint Committee would re- 
commend to their respective Synods: 

"1. An equal joint use and occupancy of the College by the two 
Synods, by the appointment of an equal number of Trustees from each 


"2. This joint use and occupancy shall in no wise prejudice the legal 
rights of the Synod now having possession of the College. 

"3. Neither party shall withdraw from this arrangement, without 
giving to the otner at least twelve months' notice prior thereunto. 

"4. Any additional endowment raised by the Northern Synod, to be 
by it invested, and to remain under its exclusive control, the income 
only to be used for the College; unless said Synod elect to transfer 
the amount so raised to the "Board of Trust." 

"IV. As to the Trustees from the Northern Synod, it is agreed 
that they shall be nominated by said Synod, and, upon such nomina- 
tion, elected by the Southern Synod. 

"V. Should the above plan be adopted, the conmuttees earnestly 

244 History of Westminster College 

reeommend to their respective Synods that arrangements be made to 
carry it into immediate effect. 

"All of which is respectfully submitted, 

**RiOH S. Campbell." 

St. Chabucs, Missouri, Octtobeb 24, 1884. 
Rev. T. C. Smith;, 

Stated Clerk of Synod of Missouri: 

I>EAB Bbotheb: — ^The Synod of Missouri in session in 

Kansas City, October 23, imanimously and cordially adopted the 

basis of co-operation presented by the joint committees of the 

two Synods, touching the management of Westminster College. 

A conmiittee was appointed to embody the sense of the Synod 

and to nominate Trustees, and their report, as adopted by the 

Synod, I herewith enclose. 

Yours truly, 


Secretary of the Committee of the Synod. 

The Committee to whom was referred the matter with 
reference to Westminster College would report, recom- 

1st. That a committee of one from each Presbytery be a{^inted 
to confer with a similar committee from the other Synod, should such 
be appointed, to arrange with reference to the details of the co-opera- 
tion approved by the Synods. 

2nd. That in case the basis of co-operation is carried into execu- 
tion, this Synod deems it advisable to establish a professorship in West- 
minster College, and imtil a permanent endowment shall be secured for 
such a professorship the Synod recommends that the support of the pro- 
fessor be provided through the Board of Aid for Schools and Colleges 
by contributions from our churches. 

3rd. In order to carry this out systematically the Committee 
would recommend the following apportionment, viz.: Presbytery of St. 
Louis, $600; Presbytery of Osage, $200; Presbytery of Ozark, $100; 
Presbytery of Platte, $150; Presbytery of Palmyra, $150. 

4th. Synod hereby overtures this acticm to the Presbyteries 
lor their approraL 

From 1870 U> 1886 245 

5ih. The following pereons are nominated for the Board of Tma- 
tees: Rev. J. H. Brooks, D. D., Edward Bredell, Rev. T. D. Wal- 
lace, Rev. S. J. Niccolls, D. D., Rev. C. L. Thompson, D. D.> Rev, Henry 
Bullard, D. D., Ermine Case, Jr., Esq., Joseph Jackson, Esq,, W. 0. 
Wilson, Esq. 

6th. The Stated Clerk is directed to transmit this action, together 
with the previous action of Synod to the Synod of the SouUiem 
church, with the assurance that our action was taken unanimously and 

Considered seriatim, and adopted by the Synod of Missouri in ses- 
sion in Kansas City, October 23, 1884. 


Secretary of the Committee of the Synod. 


Mexioo, Missouri, February 12, 1885. 
The Synod of Missouri met in the Presbyterian church in Mexioo, 
Missouri, on Thursday, February 12, 1885, at 2:30 p. m., according to 
the following call : 

Rev. B. H. Charles, Moderator of the Synod i 

Deab Sib: — ^We, the undersigned, request you to call a meeting 
of the Synod of Missouri at such time and place as may be most con- 
venient to all concerned, to take action in regard to co-operation of our 
Northern brethren in Westminster College, to- wit: To accept the resig- 
nations of certain members of the Board of Trustees of Westminster Col- 
lege, and to elect certain others who have been nominated to that office 
by the Synod of Missouri (North) to carry out the plan of co-opera- 
tion as passed by both Synods. 

A. W. Nksbit, 

R. S. Campbell 
R. Q. Bbanb:, 
J. M. Chaitet, 
G. L. Letbubn, 
H. B. BouDE, 
J. A. Cbeighton« 
C. 0. Hebsican« 

W. H. MABQUB88, 

Joa T. Bbowk. 

246 History of Westminster College 

Fulton, Missousi, January 24, 1886. 
To the Members of the Synod of Missouri: 

Deab Bbethben: — In accordance with the above request, I hereby 
call a meeting of our Synod to be held at Mexico, Missouri, on Thursday, 
February 12, 1885, at 2:30 p. m., to consider the above business. 

B. H. Charles, Moderator. 

The Moderator on taking the chair, called the Synod to order, and 
constituted its session with prayer. 

Rev. W. H. Marquess was chosen temporary Clerk. 

The Moderator then read the call, and gave reasons for its issue, and 
citations from the digest bearing upon its constitutionality. 

The following members were foimd to be present: Presbytery of 
Lafayette — ^Rev. G. L. Leyburn; Presbytery of Missouri — Ministers, B. 
H. Charles, D. D., Thos. Gallaher, D. D., H. P. S. Willis, Franc Mitchell, 
W H. Marquess; Elders, Robert Brown, Mezieo church; Joseph T. 
Brown, Fulton; J. C. Miller, Keytesville; J. S. Thomas, Union Chapel; 
E. 8. Buckner, Auxvasse; Palmyra — Rev. C. C. Hersman, D. D., and 
Rev. W. 8. Trimble; Upper Missouri— Rev. R. S. Campbell, D. D., and 
Rev. H. B. Boude, D. D. 

The Moderator announced the resignation of the following members 
of the Board of Trustees of Westminster College, viz.: R. M. Baker, 
O. W. Oauss, A. N. Schuster, J. Barbee, R. 8. Campbell, G. W. Smith, 
J. E. Hutton, J. C. Miller, W. H. Marquess. 

On motion, the resignations were accepted. 

A commimication was received from the Stated Clerk of the Synod 
of Missouri (North), stating that that body had, in accordance with the 
plan of co-operation between the tWo Synods, nominated for Trustees of 
Westminster College, the following gentlemen: Rev. James H. Brookes, 
D. D., Edward Bredell, Rev. T. D. Wallace, Rev. S. J. NiccoUs, D. D., 
Rev. C. L. Thompson, D. D., Rev. Henry Bullard, D. D., Ermine Case, 
Jr., Joseph Jackson, W. C. Wilson. 

The following members from the Presbytery of St Louis appeared 
and gave satisfactory reasons for tardiness, viz.: Rev. R. G. Brank, D. 
D., Rev. T. C. Smith, T. M. Barron, Elder from the Central church and 
J. E. Stonebraker, Elder from the First church of St. Charles. 

On motion, the Synod then proceeded to the election of Trustees of 
Westminster College to take the places of those members of the Board 
whose resignations have just been accepted. Whereupon, the nomlna- 

From 1870 to 1886 247 

tions made by the other Synod were accepted, and severally elected in 

order as follows: 

Edward Bredell, Esq., in place of R. N. Baker 

Ermine Case, Jr., in place of Rev. 0. W. Gkiuss 

Rev. T. D. Wallace, in place of A. N. Schuster 

Rev. S. J. NiccoUs, D. D., in place of . . . .Rev. Joshua Barbee 
Rev. J. H. Brookes, D. D., in place of Rev. R. S. Oampbell, D. D. 

Rev. C. L. Thompson, D. D., in place of G. W. Smith 

Rev. Henry Bullard, D. D., in place of J. E. Hutton 

Joseph Jackson, in place of Rev. W. H. Marquess 

W. C. Wilson, in place of J. C. Miller 

The Stated Clerk was directed to notify the Stated Clerk of the 

Northern Synod of the above action. 

The minutes were read and approved. And on moti(m, the Synod 

adjourned. Closed with prayer by Dr. Campbell. 

B. H. Chables, Moderator. 

W. H. Mabqitess, Temporary Clerk. 
T. C. Smith, Stated Clerk. 

As carrying out the plan of co-operation adopted by the 
two Synods, in June, 1885, Rev. J. P. Finley, D. D., was 
chosen to the Chair of Metaphysics and Sacred Literature. 
This appointment Dr. Finley at once declined by telegram. 

At the same meeting a most important paper was 
passed — one which did the Presbyterian heart of both 
Synods good then, and is doing good still. We see and feel 
in this co-operation the triumph of Presbyterian education 
in Missouri. With co-operation in the right spirit, our suc- 
cess is assured; without it, the College can never be what 
it ought to be. This is the deliberate conviction of multi- 
tudes. Here is the paper : 

The Board of Trustees of Westminster College respect- 
fully requests the two Synods of Missouri to take earnest and 
decisive action in the interests of the Institution. In view of 
the happy co-operation of the two Synods in its support it is 
important to call the attention of all our Presbyterian peo- 

248 History of Westminster College 

pie in the State to the history, the usefuhiess and the need of 
the College; and to this end it is suggested that the Synods 
order the accompanying circular, herewith appended, to be 
read from the pulpits of all our churches as well as published 
in the St. Louis Presbyterian and Evangelist; and further 
that a collection be taken on the last Lord's Day of October, 
1885, for the benefit of our cherished Institution. 

The brief history alluded to in this extract was written 
by Rev. W. H. Marquess and used. The action of the 
Board, its results, its whole spirit, were in the right di- 
rection, and we earnestly hope that such spirit, such action 
and such effort will be perpetuated. The brief history of 
the College was prepared by Rev. W. H. Marquess, one of 
the working friends of his Alma Mater. 

The thirtieth Commencement, in June, 1885, added six 
to the roll of Westminster's graduated sons. In July the 
Board unanimously elected to the Chair of Mental and 
Moral Science, Rev. J. G. Reaser, D. D., a teacher of large 
experience, and a preacher whose praise is in all the 
Churches which have had the privilege of hearing from his 
lips the way of life. This scholar had experience in teach- 
ing in different Institutions, and among them the Theologi- 
cal Seminary at Danville, Ky. Dr. Reaser accepted the 
responsible post to which he was called and his eminent 
success has given the highest and strongest endorsement 
to the action of his brethren. This is the first election 
under the plan of co-operation and we speak the mind of 
both Synods in saying that so far God has signally blessed 
the united effort to build up in Missouri a Presbyterian 
College. The Faculty work together as brethfen and the 
Church, with united voice, utters a joyous amen to this 
union of hearts, union of hands, union of means, union of 
prayer, union of final victory for our College. 



From 1870 to 1886 249 

Sometime during the summer of 1885, the Executive 
Committee, acting under the authority of Board, secured 
the services of Rev. Thomas Gallaher, D. D., a graduate of 
the College, in the Preparatory English School of the Col- 
lege. Dr. Gallaher had charge of that School for one year 
and labored faithfully and successfully in his classes. 
While teaching Dr. Gallaher supplied one or more 
churches. The writer is under the impression that he 
preached every Sabbath of the whole year. In addition to 
teaching and preaching, he found time to contribute to the 
papers, articles on the subject of Baptism, and perhaps other 
points of controversy in his domain of theology. His work 
on baptism manifests great research. He handles his 
theme con amore. No one in the Church in the State has 
taken more pains to be thoroughly instructed in the bap- 
tism question than Dr. Gallaher. In these efforts he has 
not failed. He is the son of Rev. Allen Gallaher and 
nephew of Rev. Jas. Gallaher, a writer, and minister of 
great power, distinctly remembered by the generation just 
passing away. He now devotes his whole time to the min- 

In 1885, the Board resolved to overture the Synods 
to consider the propriety of establishing a Chair of Biblical 
Instruction in connection with the College for the purpose 
of conducting the students through a somewhat thorough 
course of scriptural study. 

That the idea embraced here will be carried out there 
is no question. It is simply impossible to fail to see its 
importance. Will not some one grasp the opportunity to 
endow this Chair? In the early days of the College, the 
students were divided into classes and received Bible train- 

250 History of Westminster College 

ing every Sabbath.* The thought now before us is a dif- 
ferent one — a better one — a vital one. 

No more appropriate close to the year 1885 can be de- 
sired than is furnished by the Committee in the affairs of 
Westminster College in their report to Synod at Kansas 
City in October of that year. This paper contains the 
sense of Synod in reference to Dr. Hersman's leaving the 
College, alluded to in a preceding page. The paper is given 
entire : 

The committee to which was referred the thirty-third annual report 
of the Board of Trustees of Westminster College, expresses thie gratifi- 
cation of the Synod in the increasing success and usefulness of this In- 
stitution of learning, so dear to the Presbyterians of Missouri. The 
Synod is profoundly sensible of the importance of a sound religious 
education of our yoimg men as essential to the progress, and even the 
existence of the Presbyterian church in Missouri. At a time when a 
rapid inmiigration of varied national and religious character, much 
of it pregnant with influences hostile not alone to our Church, but the 
foundations of all religious faith, is pouring into our State, we are 
emphatically reminded that at the peril of their eternal interests we 
must deeply impress the truths of the Christian religion upon the minds 
of our youth. The efficiency in this direction of our Synodical Col- 
lege, has been exceedingly gratifying to the Presbyterian church in 
Missouri, and at such a jimcture we can not afford to lose one element 
of its influence. It is, then, with the deepest concern that the Synod 
has heard of the possible removal of Rev. C. C. Hersman, D. D., the 
President of the College, from his post to a different work. The Synod 
would here record its estimation of Professor Hersman's invaluable 
services, in the wholesome spiritual influences his Christian example and 
instruction have exerted upon our young men, in the high scholarship 
and thoroughness of the classical training he has imparted; in the con- 
fidence and satisfaction it has given us to have such a custodian to 
whom we might entrust the high interests of our yoimg men, and in 
the patience, resolve and Christian self-denial that have held him so 

*For many years, each Professor devoted the first hour on Mondays 
to this work, and every student was in a Bible class. — ^Editor. 

From 1870 to 1886 251 

faithfuHy at his post of duty through a protracted and arduous time of 
effort. We testify our gratitude that Dr. Hersman has under God been 
enabled in this service to effect so much for the cause of our Lord, and 
as we record our opposition to his removal, do authorize the Board of 
Trustees to use its influence to secure our wishes, and do pledge our- 
selves earnestly to sustain the Board in making such pecuniary pro- 
vision for his comfort as may be deemed necessary. 

(1) To this end the Synod recommends that a general statement 
of the history and necessities of the College be laid before all the con- 
gregations in the Synod by our ministers and elders, and that the 
fourth Sabbath in October be appointed, or in case of failure, some 
Sabbath in November, for a collection for its assistance, in all our 
churches, and in addition, that special efforts be made to secure from 
benevolent members of our congregations, contributions amounting to 
$25 or more. 

(2) The Synod approves of the establishment of a chair of Bibli- 
cal Instruction in the College. Under a State system of education, 
which refuses all responsibility for Scripture instruction, a peculiar 
obligation presses the Church to provide her youth, with the opportuni- 
ties of a wide and thorough Biblical training. The Synod expresses 
her sincere desire that the Board of Trustees will use every effort to 
provide for such necessities, and pledges her moral and pecuniary sup- 

(3) We appreciate the kindness and generosity of the late Mr. 0. 
Trigg Campbell, of Lafayette county, Missouri, in devising, and his 
heirs, Messrs. George A. Campbell, and L. S. Campbell, and Mrs. Sallie 
Harmon, in consenting to the bequest of their brother, which has placed 
at the disposal of the Board of Trustees the interest of a fimd designed 
to sustain students for the work of the ministry. 

(4) The Synod recognizes the activity and consecration of the 
Professors in moulding the religious character, and cultivating the 
spiritual interests of the students. 

(6) It is further directed by the Synod that the Examining Com- 
mittee, at their convenience, visit the College and personally inspect the 
work done in the several departments assigned to their special care. 

(6) The Synod takes occasion to express its gratification in the 
co-operation in the interests of the College, on thp part of the Synod 
of Missouri, in connection with the General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian church in the United States of America, and the election and 

252 History of Westminster College 

installation of Dr. Reaser, Professor of Mental and Moral Science in 
the College, and the improyed organization of the preparatory depart- 
ment under the management of Rev. Thos. Gallaher, D. D. 

(7) We recommend th(e election of Hon. Ermine Case, Jr., Rev. 
J. H. Brookes, D. D., Mr. E. Bredell, and Rev. W. H. Marquess, to fill 
vacancies in the Board occurring by reason of the expiration of the 
term of office of the four ministers of the Board indicated in their re- 

(8) The reports of the Board of Trust have been examined, and 
is commended. 

The Synod rejoices to learn that a gracious revival meeting waa 
held in the church at Fulton, during th^ year 1885, and that twenty 
of the students of the College were hopefully converted. 

R. G. BBAIfK, 

D. I. Caldwell, 


In this report several items challenge attention: i. 
The hearty and unanimous opposition on the part of the 
Synod to Dr. Hersman's leaving the College and the pledge 
to make such pecuniary provision as might be necessary 
to retain him; 2. The Synod's approval of the establish- 
ment of a Chair of Biblical instruction and giving a pledge 
of moral and pecuniary support; 3. Special gratification 
was expressed at the co-operation of the other Synod in the 
interests of the College and also at the election of Rev. Dr. 
Reaser to the Chair of Mental and Moral Philosophy. No 
report ever made before the Synod of Missouri is more 
cheering and hopeful than this. This is true when all the 
items of the paper are considered, without giving emphasis 
to the three just named. 

The year 1885-6 was marked by one mysterious and 
Startling providence. Two young men, brothers, named 
Quisenberry, students in the College at the time, were 
burned up at night, together with their home. Their 

From 1870 to 1886 253 

mother was in the building and escaped, but so badly 
burned that she was taken up dead near where the build- 
ing stood. The cause of the fire is yet unknown and mys- 
tery shrouds the whole case. The mother moved to Fulton 
to educate her sons who were devotedly pious and most 
tenderly attached to their surviving parent, whose pious 
example and good works will long be remembered in that 

The last Commencement of Westminster in June, i886» 
honored eight young men with diplomas. The year was 
one of hard work, of the utmost harmony among the Fac- 
ulty, as well as between them and the students, and a year 
to be remembered by reason of God's blessing on a College 
that has been visited by revivals of religion almost, if not 
entirely, without a parallel in the history of American In- 
stitutions of learning. 

In view of the embarrassed condition of the College 
the Board thought it advisable to raise the contingent fee 
to $20 a session. 

Prof. J. D. Blanton was elected Principal of the Pre- 
paratory English School. In case he should decline, the 
Executive Committee were empowered to secure the ser- 
vices of some other competent man for the place. Prof. 
Blanton accepted the Presidency of Elizabeth AuU Semi- 
nary, Lexington, Mo., a position left vacant by the call of 
Dr. J. A. Quarles to a Chair in Washington-Lee University, 
Lexington, Va. The Committee succeeded in securing the 
services of Prof. C. F. Richmond, an accomplished and effi- 
cient instructor. As schools are now organized in Mis- 
souri, Prof. Richmond filled a most important position and 
one without which the Institution could not accomplish its 
full measure of work. That School for English preparation 
must be kept up till the Church is blessed with preparatory 

254 History of Westminster College 

Schools, a fact that may not be realized for a generation. 
The English branches are not only the bread and butter 
studies of our youth, but they are also the only real founda- 
tion on which to build an exalted scholarship. 

When about to close the last chapter in the history of 
the College, we felt some degree of anxiety as to what the 
last words should be. Fortunately at the right moment we 
received from the excellent stated clerk of the Synod the 
minutes of the last meeting at Farmington. On opening to 
these minutes the eye fell at once on the words which best of 
all became the dosing words of Westminster's history for 
the present (Jan. 4, 1887). These papers, which shall be 
giveh in their regular order, give facts, present the wants, 
set forth the endowment, as it now stands, so clearly and 
state reasons for prompt and energetic action so forcibly, that 
we most earnestly hope they may reach the eye and heart of 
every Presbyterian in Missouri. 

The Board of Trustees of Westminster College beg leave to submit 

the following Annual Report: 

• •••• ••• 

The forty-fourth annual session closed on the third day of June, 
last. The number of students in attendance was one himdred and 
thirty (130). 

We hope the co-operatiye Synods will be able to devise some plan 
by which twenty or thirty thousand dollars in the near future may be 
obtained to enlarge and repair the present College building, and also to 
increase the present endowment fimd by adding $75,000 or $100,000. 
If the proper man can be had to take the field as agent, we feel assured 
that this amount can be raised within the next twelve months. What- 
ever plan the Synods may adopt, we beg them to remember that we read 
of the "acts" of the apostle, not of their resolutions — if they resolved 
they also executed. 

The co-operation of the two Synods has thus worked most happily. 
Dr. J. O. Keaser, the ir'rofessor of Metaphysics and Sacred Literature, 
fills the chair with honor to himself and with acceptability and profit 
to the classes under his instruction. 

From 1870 to 1886 255 

We would be more than gratified if our brethie^i of the Northern 
Synod would send ub and support one or two more as able and accept- 

We must make our College the college of the West, or at least equal 
in every respect to any other. We think it proper to record in this 
report, the sad affliction which befell our family of students, and in- 
deed our entire community on thfe night of the first of March last. 
Oliver P. and John F. Quisenberry, two of our most devoted and prom- 
ising yoimg men, during the progress of a precious revival of religion, 
attended church in the forepart of this never-to-be-forgotten night. 
When they returned home, they doubtless sat up late preparing their 
lessons for the next day. After midnight the house was discovered to 
be on fire. The widowed mother and her two sons perished before help 
could reach them. Thus they were suddenly released from further 
study and from the joys and sorrows of this life. The assurance that 
the mother and her boys were prepared for the change, greatly relieved 
our deep sorrow. 

The religious condition of the College the last session was very 
much as it has been for several years past. The students were orderly, 
studious and devout as a rule. The Young Men's XDhristian Association 
faithfully prosecuted its customary work, and eight or ten yoimg men 
made public profession of faith in Christ. It is a cause of devout grat- 
itude to God, that the eight yoimg men who graduated, are without 
exception, members of the churchy and quite active and earnest Chris- 
tians. Four of these are now studying theology, and, we trust, will 
soon be active and successful ministers of Christ. 

For many years, we have not graduated a man who had not con- 
eecrated himself to the work of the Master. Wh^ can estimate the 
blessings to the Church and to the world, resulting from the influence and 
Christian labor of these devoted young men during their appointed stay 
on the earth T 

Westminster has now in College fourteen young men studying for 
the ministry; also eleven in theological seminaries, and three pursuing 
their studies in private. 

The Treasurer's report for the year ending Jime 1, 1886, gives the 
amoimt received during the year, $8,960.85, which with balance on hand 
June 1, 1885, of $1,565.08, makes a total of $10,525.93, leaving in the 
treasury June 1, 1886, $2,627.73. In the above sum there are included 

256 History of Westminster College 

of Permanent Fund, $1,675, and of interest on Educational Fund, 
$638.10, leaving for Contingent Fund, $8,212.83. For an itemized state- 
ment of Treasurer's report, see Minutes of Board of Trustees. 

From September 30, 1885, to September 30, 1886, the treasurer has 
received the following amounts, viz. : 

From C. L. Thompson, Treasurer of Board of Trust $3,311 00 

From C. L. Thompson, Interest on Jaccard Fund 337 22 

From Trigg Campbell estate ( Principal) 460 00 

From Interest on same estate 158 63 

From Interest on John S. Garth, Educational Fund 18 37 

From Interest on Mrs. M. A. Culver, Fund 12 00 

Endowment paid in and reloaned 1,1 10 00 

Rent for cottage on College ground 150 00 

Dr. H. Bullard, for improvements on College Building 16 00 

J. Waller, for improvements on College Building 100 00 

Contingent fee for ten months 2,045 00 

Diplomas 30 00 

Interest on Notes and Bonds 467 50 

$8,214 72 

Take from this amount, for Permanent Fund, $1,570, for interest 
on Educational Fund, $526.22, and $115 for Building Fund, there are 
left for current expenses, $6,003.50. 

From this showing the Synod will see again the absolute necessity 
of devising ways and means to meet the increasing expenses of the Col- 

This for the present year will be about as follows, viz. : 

President's Salary $1,500 00 

Four Professors, $1,200 each 4,800 00 

Professor for Preparatory School 600 00 

Janitor 150 00 

Incidentals 250 00 

$7,300 00 

The following Memorial of 'the Committee appointed by the Board 
of Trustees of Westminster College, was presented, received, and re- 
ferred to the Standing Committee on ihe Affairs of the College. 

From 1870 to 1886 257 

To the Moderator and Members of the Synod of Missouri; 

The Board of Trustees of Westminster Ck>llege, at its annual meet- 
ing last June, instructed the imdersigned to lay before jou a memorial 
with reference to the needs of this institution. It is needless to re- 
count the struggles through which our College has reached her present 
standing, or to rehearse the achievements in scholarly training and 
widespread influence which have made her a center of light and blessing 
for all our churches. It is sufficient to say that in the providence of God, 
we are to-day in control of a Presbyterian school that holds high rank 
as a seat of learning, and can be made to contribute powerfully to the 
future strength and prosperity of the Church. There is no question of 
the past usefulness and present value of the College. 

The question that to-day confronts your Board of Trustees is, how 
shall this usefulness be maintained and increased? 

In order that Westminster may continue to hold its high rank, it 
must be more liberally endowed and more fully equipped. We must 
keep step with other institutions that are making handsome additions 
to their buildings and their permanent funds. We must increase the 
number of our departments, and offer educational facilities as ample and 
attractive as may be found in other schools of the West. 

We must lighten the burdens of our professors and afford them more 
leisure for those private studies, without which no scholar can keep 
abreast of the times. 

The Board of Trustees, through its committee, would therefore re- 
spectfully and earnestly call your attention to the following imperative 
needs of the Institution: 

1. We need an immediate increase of our general endowment fund. 
It is to our shame that men of scholarship and ability should be kept 
on meagre and insufficient salaries. 

2. We need additional buildings. The present edifice ought to be 
re-constructed in some more modem and tasteful form. 

3. A new building should be erected to serve the purpose of a 
chapel and library. Our present chapel is entirely too small, and should 
be converted into recitation rooms. It should be our aim to secure 
for some time to come, an annually increasing number of students. The 
attendance for some years past has averaged about one hundred and 
thirty; and were one hundred and eighty or two hundred to matriculate, 
it would be difficulty almost impossible to accommodate them in our 


258 History of Westmuister College 

present building. The class rooms are too small, and have often been 
so crowded as to cause discomfort. 

Gould not some man of wealth be induced to erect a handacmie hall 
to bear his name or the name of some beloved friend 7 

4. We need the creation and endowment of additional chairs. 

(a) A grammar school or academy should be endowed. 

(5) A chair of English Biblical instruction would be in line of 
our work as a Presbyterian school, and would add vastly to the piety 
and usefulness of our yotmg men. 

(c) There should be a chair of language for instruction in French, 
Spanish, and German. No modem college is considered complete with- 
out this. And the incumbent of the chair might give lessons in Hebrew 
to young men studying for the ministry; and to meet the wishes of our 
Theological Seminaries — that this language should be made an optional 
college study. 

{d) We need additions to our scientific apparatus and our library. 

It is the desire of the board to lay before you for consideration 
these various needs. But the most important matters for the present^ 
are to increase the endowment fund, the erection of buildings, and the 
permanent endoi^-ment of the chair held by Dr. Reaser and supported 
by the Northern Synod. We ought to raise one hundred thousand dol- 
lars and begin the work without delay. The Southern Synod should in- 
crease the funds for the support of the present professorships. The 
Northern Synod should at once endow the chair now under its control, 
and create at least one other professorship. And both Synods should 
unite in the erection of buildings that will be a lasting honor and b^iefit 
to our Presbyterian Church. We are sure that united and hearty ac- 
tion in this direction on the part of the two Synods, would quicken the 
slumbering liberality of men within our State, and would arouse Pres- 
byterians in wealthier regions to come generously to our relief. 

We humbly and earnestly pray these venerable Synods to consider 
these grave matters, and take such measures as may secure the long 
prosperity and wide influence of our college under the blessing of the 
Great Head of the Church. 

In a communication to be placed before two such intelligent bodies, 
a recapitulation of the reasons for prompt and en^r^tic action seems 
almost superfluous. 

1. But we beg to remind the Church that it is unwise to send our 
candidates for the ministry to spend seven years of their early manhood 

From 1870 to 1886 259 

at iiiBtitutions in the far East. Habits and attachments are formed, 
and such temptations to locate in the wealthier and more prosperous 
parts of the country are offered, that many of them never return to the 
comparatively destitute West. 

2. It is of the greatest importance th^,t our sons shall be edu- 
cated by Christians, at institutions where the spirit of Christianity per- 
vades the very atmosphere. An infidel or atheist or agnostic teacher, 
however careful in his utterances, can not fail to make deep impression 
upon the young men under their charge. 

3. Prompt and vigorous action should be taken, because so far as 
we are informed, this is the first practical attempt at co-operation that 
has been inaugurated by the Churches; and the eyes not only of Pres- 
byterians are upon us, but other Churches, and the Christian world will 
watch the outcome of the experiment with deep concern. 

Should this first attempt at co-operation fail, further effort to co- 
operate in what may legitimately be undertaken by the two Churches in 
other localities, will be discouraged, and the faith of the world in the 
reality of the fraternity of Christians will be sadly shaken. 

Viewed in this light, the co-operation of the two Synods of Mis- 
souri in support of Westminster College is not exclusively a Missouri 
affair. It becomes a matter of importance to Presbyterians everywhere, 
and calls for their contributions, their encouragement, and their earnest 
prayer for its success. 

In further compliance with the duties imposed upon us by the 
Board of Trustees, we ask the Synods to name a day for a special col- 
lection in all the churches in the State, to meet the current expenses of 
the College for the present scholastic year, which we regret to say ex- 
ceeded its income for the year ending June, 1886. And that there may 
uniformity in this movement, we suggest that the matter be placed in 
charge of a special committee appointed upon the part of each Synod. 

Henby Bullabd, 
W. S. Trimble, 
T. D. Waixace, 
Jno. a. Hockaday, 
Com. of Board of Trustees. 

Also the following communication was received and re- 
ferred to the same committee. 

260 History of Westminster College 

St. Chablsb, Mo., Oct. 18, 1886. 
Rev, Tho8, 0. Smith, 8. 0,i 

Dear Brother: — In the action of our Synod touching the interests 
of Westminster College, the hope was expressed that the Board of 
Trustees or your Synod might see the way clear to put Rev. W. H. Mar- 
quess into the field as Financial Agent in order to secure the neoessaiy 
funds for the repair of the College building and an additional endow- 

Should such an appointment be made, you may assure your Synod 
of the hearty oo-operation of the members of our Synod. 

I am yours truly, 

ROBEBT IBWIN. Stated Clerk. 

The annual report of the Board of Trust of Westmin- 
ster College was received and referred to the Standing Com- 
mittee on the affairs of the College. It is as follows : 

Last balance $ 1,141 40 

Bills Receivable: 

L. k J. F. Yancey $ 200 00 

P. Brady 100 00 

L. Kranter 100 00 

P. Baggot 7,000 00 

M. P. Keevley 10,000 00 

T. B. Dyer 3,000 00 

A. S. Eyerefct 350 00 

20,760 00 


Merchants National Bank 925 00 

Bey. J. A. Quarles 27 65 

952 65 

Potts Professorship: 

8. T. Ruffner 12 50 

W. M. Hoge 50 00 

L. D. Wharton 15 60 

Isaac Taylor 25 00 

T. S. McChesney 30 00 

8. T. Ruffner 12 50 

Jos. B&rbee 100 00 

245 60 

From 1870 to 1886 261 


On bins receivable 4,041 66 

On Potts Professorship 171 66 

On Jaccard Fund 337 22 

4,660 S3 

Total Receipts $27,639 98 


BiUs Receivable I 

J. R. Daugherty $ 1,382 04 

T. J. & P. W. Lyman 10,000 00 

J. M. Vimont 3,600 00 

T. B. Dyer 7,000 00 

$21,882 04 

Trustees : 

Col'n from J. P. Taylor 26 00 

26 00 

E. Curd, Treas 2,981 78 

Jaccard Fund 337 22 

8,319 00 


Insurance, 3- Year Policies 226 00 

Sundry Expenses 69 21 

C. L. Thompson 460 00 

744 21 

$26,970 26 

Balance in Bank $1,669 73 

Endowment $1,146 16 

Interest 624 68 

$1,669 73 

We, the undersigned, at the request and appointment of thje Board 
of Trust, have examined the report of the Secretary and Treasurer, show- 
ing the receipts and expenditures of the Endowment Fund for the past 
year, and find the same correct, with vouchers for expenditures up to 
September 30, 1886. 

John W. Booth. 

Jas. MoQ. Doucbula. 

262 History of Westminster College 


Notes, Bonds and Cash as above $ 61,881 38 

Ck>llege Building and grounds 26,000 00 

Subscriptions, say 2,000 00 

Jaccard Fund 6,620 39 

Potts Professorship 1,890 00 

$96,391 77 

Respectfully Submitted, 

C. L. Thompson, Sec'y and Treas. 

More than a quarter of a century has passed since our 
first connection with Westminster College as a teacher. In 
all these years, and they have been years of sunshine and 
sorrow, we have never read with a richer pleasure any- 
thing concerning the College than we have those papers 
just quoted. If anything had been necessary to complete 
an exquisite thankfulness, it must have been supplied by 
the two papers passed by the two Synods at their meetings 
in October, i886, one at Fulton and the other at Farming- 
ton. Most gladly we copy these documents in toto and joy- 
fully make them the capstone to the history of Westmin- 
ster College. 

The following communication from the Northern Synod of Missouri 
was presented by the Stated Clerk, which, on being read and reeeiyed, 
was referred to a committee to be appointed, consisting of one Minister 
and one Ruling Elder from each of the Presbyteries: 

^Stated Clerk of the Synod of Missouri: 

Deab Bbotheb: — ^I have the honor of transmitting to you the fol- 
lowing action of our Synod at its recent meeting held in Fulton. The 
paper was passed by a standing and unanimous vote. 

Yours truly, Bobebt Ibwht, Stated Clerk. 

From 1870 to 1886 263 

Action of the Synod of Missouri i 

It has come to the knowledge of this Synod that many brethren 
belonging to the Synod in connection with the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States, are under a misapprehension 
with regard to the position of this body touching the spiritual and non- 
political character of the Church, and also touching the rights of indi- 
viduals under the Constitution of the Church. Owing to this misappre- 
hension, and to the continued separation of the two Synods, many of the 
congregations on both sides are greatly weakened, our educational insti- 
tutions are partially paralyzed and all of our interests are seriously 
crippled. With the hope of healing forever the breach between us, we 
once more affectionately extend the hand of fellowship to our separated 
brethren and cheerfully reffirm the action unanimously taken by this 
Synod in 1873, as follows: 

''(1.) We affirm the spiritual character of the Church as sepa- 
rated from the kingdoms of this world, and, haying no other Head but 
the Lord Jesus Christ, as entitled to speak only where He has spoken, 
aud to legislate only where He has legislated; we also recognize the 
rights of conscience, and the right of respectful protest on the part of 
the humblest member of the Presbyterian household of faith, and declare 
the obligation of all our judicatories to be subject to the authority and 
to follow the doctrines of our ecclesiastical Constitution. 

"(2) We distinctly and particularly affirm our belief in the fol- 
lowing principles and statements foimd in our Standards, to-wit: 
"Synods and councils are to handle or conclude nothing but that which 
is ecclesiastical, and are not to intermeddle with civil affairs which con- 
cern the commonwealth, unless by way of humble petition in cases ex- 
traordinary, or by way of advice for the satisfaction of conscience^ if 
they be thereunto required by the civil Magistrate." (Confession of 
Faith, Chap. 31, Sec. 4) : 'That God alone is Lord of the conscience, 
and hath left it free from the doctrine and commandments of men, 
which are in anything contrary to His Word, or beside it in matters of 
faith or worship." 'That all church power whether exercised by the 
body in general, or in the way of representation by delegated authority, 
is only ministerial or declarative; that is to say, that the Holy Script- 
ures are the only rule of faith and practice, that no church judicatory 
ought to pretend to make laws to bind the conscience in virtue of their 
own authority, and that all their decisions should be founded upon the 
revealed will of God." (Form of Government, Chap. 1, Sees. \, 7,) and 

264 History of Westminster College 

that "process against a gospel minister should always be entered before 
the Presbytery of which he is a member." (Book of Dis., Chap. 5, 
Sec. 2.) 

"(3.) In order to give the strongest possible ground of confidence 
to those of our brethren in the other Synod, who desire organic union 
with us, we do hereby expr^s confidence in the soundness of doctrincb 
and in the Christian character of these brethren, and can not doubt that 
a more intimate communion would lead to the speedy removal of the 
barriers that now separate those of like precious faith, and to increased 
mutual affection and esteem." 

Synod then resumed the consideration of the report of the Com- 
mittee on the Communication from the Northern Synod, and after 
prayer by the Moderator, the report was further discussed, amended, 
and adopted, as follows: 

'"The committee to whom were referred a communication from the 
Synod of Missouri, General Assembly, U. S. A., and other papers, re- 
spectfully report unanimously: 

"In response to the communication from the other Synod, embody- 
ing their action of 1873 — ^which was never addressed to us, and which 
is now officially before us for the first time — 

"Resolved, 1. We imfeignedly rejoice that our brethren of the other 
Synod have affirmed, so distinctly and clearly, the principles for which 
we have contended since the painful separation twenty years ago. 

"Resolved, 2. That, in the same spirit of Christian candor, we ex- 
press the conviction that, so far as the two Synods are concerned, and 
yet with no purpose to forestall the action of the Assembly to which our 
allegiance is unaltered and to which it belongs 'to correspond with other 
Churches,' the barrier arising out of difference of interpretation of the 
Confession of Faith, Form of Govenmient, and Rules of Discipline, is 
removed by this distinct affirmation. 

"Resolved, 3. That, should the General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church, U. S. A., approve and adopt this enunciation of its Synod, 
we most earnestly desire that it may seem good to our Assembly to rec- 
ognize as satisfactory such proclamation of oneness with us as to the 
nature and province of the Church as a spiritual and non-political body, 
called out from the world to witness for Christ and His inunutable truth. 

"R^olved, 4. That, the hindrance referred to having been thus re- 
moved, it is our ardent desire that there be imification of our common 

From 1870 to 1886 265 

Presbyterianism, by the erection of three or more Provincial Assemblies 
and a Triennial General Assembly, or by such other arrangement as 
may insure harmonious working and the greatest efficiency. 

"Resolved, 6. That a copy of this paper be forwarded to the Stated 
Clerk of the other Synod whose assurances of Christian affection are 
hereby cordially reciprocated. Respectfully submitted, 

R. P. FAEIS, J. H. Al£X^NDBB, 

A. W. Nesbit, G. M. Frawcisoo, 

W. H. Mabquess, R. L. Todd, 



R. S. CAJdPBELL, C. £. Mn.TJ3i, 



FINANCIAL— From 187a to i886. 

ROM 1853 to the Commencement of 
1872 the financial history of the Col- 
lege has been most carefully g^ven, 
embracing as it does, all the facts 
to be gathered from all existing rec- 
ords, from documents which have 
never been recorded in permanent 
form, and in some instances from the 
memory of those most intimately ac- 
quainted with the struggles of the Institution from the be- 
ginning. The Records of the Trustees and the minutes of 
Synod contain all facts of vital importance. 

The perils and struggles of the College from 1872 to 
1886 are familiar to all who have been at all interested in a 
spirit of self-sacrifice and of heroic devotion without a par- 
allel in the experience of American Schools. To enter into 
a detailed account of everything that has been done to 
keep our heads above water is unnecessary and would per- 
haps benefit no one. The history for these years, as far as 
given, shall be in the words of official papers prepared by 
those in the field of conflict and who saw and felt and 
worked. These documents ought to be known and read 


Financial— 1872-1886 267 

by every man who calls himself a Presbyterian in Missouri. 
Neither is it necessary to give all these reports, for the 
clouds that lowered one year came the next, or rather, to 
state the case more truthfully, never cleared away. 

Attention is invited to the report of 1879, niade to the 
Synod at Boonville seven years after the one given at Co- 
lumbia* in i872. With perfect reverence and painful truth- 
fulness these may be called seven years of famine. The 
self-denial in money and the lofty success of the Faculty in 
scholarship have been already described. 

Since writing what has just been read it has been sug- 
gested that a brief notice of what has been termed the seven 
years of famine might in days to come be of service. Lead- 
ing items -only need claim attention and often those shall 
be in the words of documents put to record. The report of 
1879 will be found therefore in the proper order. 

The minutes of Synod for 1873 show but few items of 
interest in addition to previous years, as will be seen from 
the clippings printed below. For the condition of the 
finances in 1872, consult Chapter VII. 

The affairs of Westminster College being the order of the day, 
were taken up. The report of the Board of Trustees was presented and 
reoeiyed, and is as follows: 

The number of students in the College during" the last year was less 
than at any previous year in its history. The falling off of tuition 
money and the difficulty of collecting the interest of endowmeait com- 
pelled the diminishing of the salary of the President and the uniting of 
the Latin and Greek chairs under one professor. 

The College opens the present year with an increased number of 
students, and in this respect its prospects are better than last year. 
Still, something must be done in the way of putting the College in a 
better financial condition, or a further reduction of the number of the 
Faculty will be made necessary. 

•See full report for 1872, Chapter VII. 

268 History of Westminster College 


Of Assets of all kinds appUoahle to the Endowment Fund of Wet^min- 

ster College, 

1. Notes and Bonds in hands of the Board of 

Trust $36,000 00 

2. Subscription Notes in hands of Agent and 

others for collection 26,970 94 

3. Charless obligations paying 8 per cent per 

annum 20,000 00 

4. Cash in hands of Treasurer ^456 27 

Total $86,427 21 

Respectfully submitted, S. W. Babbeb, 

Treasurer of Board of Tru9t. 

These reports were referred to a special committee, ccmsisting of 
Dr. Fisher« Rev. L. P. Bowen and Elder Chas. Welling. 

An account of the Old School Presbyterian printing office against 
the Synod was allowed^ and the Treasurer ordered to pay it. 

Rey. J. F. Cowan, from the committee of examination at Westmin- 
ster College, made the following report, which was approved: 

I report to Synod that I attended the examinations four days of the 
six — ^no other member being in attendance, and hence the form of this 

These examinations were the first I have attended since leaving the 
College class-room, fifteen years ago. The hearing of these examina- 
tions made me feel that the advantages of students attending the College 
now are in many respects greatly superior to those oflTered then. Students 
in Dr. Rice's classes showed great familiarity with the truths of mental 
and moral science, and that they have been posted fully both as to ancient 
and modem forms of error. Prof. Rice's instruction in English Litera- 
ture is invaluable in the college course, filling a void formerly pain- 
fully felt. Professors Scott and Lyle exhibited the best skill in giving 
instruction to the students in their departments; the method of written 
examination in the class-room of Prof. Lyle being especially commend- 
able. Prof. Hersman's examination oi his classes served to convince 

FinonaoZ-1872-1886 269 

the member of the examining committee that said member's own knowl- 
edge of that language was very superficial. It is a matter of great re- 
gret that one so fully competent to fill the Latin chair as Prof. George 
should be lost to the College through lack of funds. 



An examination of the fiscal reports show that the 
business aspects of the College had changed very little in 
the summer of 1874. The Board determined to confine ex- 
penses strictly to the employment of five professors whose 
aggregate salaries should be $6,360. 

The exact condition may be gathered from the report of 
a committee given below : 

Amount expected from Board of Trust for the scho- 
lastic year 1874-5 $ 6,364 60 

Tuition fees for same year 1,900 00 


Total anticipated income $7,264 60 

Outlay for above year: 
Salaries of Professors $ 6,360 00 

Interest on Notes in Bank for $3,567 992 70 

Contingent Funds 500 00 

Total current expenditure $7,852 70 

Deducting the expected income 7,254 60 

We have a deficit for the year of $598 10 

The Board resolved to fund the debt at ten per cent 
and to take immediate steps to raise the deficit as shown in 
the estimate of the Committee. The Faculty were re- 
quested to travel during vacation and solicit funds to meet 
the deficit and to increase the endowment. Their necessary 
traveling expenses were to be paid by the Trustees. 

In October, 1874, "the Board accepted the oflFer of Prof. 

270 History of Westminster College 

G. C. Swallow of three hundred Geological specimens in 
payment of a note of $200, and appointed Prof. J. N. Lyle 
to select the specimens." These specimens are now in the 
Museum and are of great value. 

From the report of the Treasurer of the Board of 
Trust, Mr. S. W. Barbee, we glean these facts in regard to 
the endowment in 1875. 

I. Notes for various reasons considered bad $10,550 00 

Notes considered good ultimately 14,600 00 

Total 26,150 00 

The above does not include a note on T. B. Nbsbit, Esq., for 
II. 1. Notes good $ 14,600 00 

2. Invested in R. E. securities 36,000 00 

3. Mrs. Le Bourgeois notes 20,000 00 

4. Bonds 200 00 

5. Cash in hand 4,100 00 

Add to this Co. Bonds suspended 300 00 

Notes considered bad 10,550 00 

Total, good and bad $85,760 00 

Mr. Barbee in the same report stated that the Board 
might rely on $5,000 a year and perhaps something more^ 
for current expenses. 

In June, 1875, Judge Hunton made a report to the 
Board in regard to the notes of Mrs. Le Bourgeois, endow- 
ing the "Charless Professorship." These notes had been 
lost, or stolen. The leading points in Judge Hunton's paper 
are these: i. At first four notes were given by Mrs. Le 
Bourgeois to the College ; 2. In 1866 these notes were sur- 
rendered and four others given by Mrs. Charless as agent 
for Mrs. Le Bourgeois; 3. These notes were placed in the 
hands of Rev. W. W. Robertson, D. D., and were lost some 

Ftfkwctai-1872.1886 271 

time in the year 1868; 4. Four other notes were executed 
by Mrs. Le Bourgeois in place of notes lost or stolen; 5. 
The Board covenanted and promised Mrs. Le Bourgeois to 
"save her from all liability in the said notes so alleged to be 
lost or stolen." See Records of tfte Board, pp. 299, 300. 

In the summer of 1875, the debt of the College as near 
as can be gathered from data accessible was $11,000. 

The Board determined to appoint three agents to solicit 
funds to meet the entire indebtedness of the College, agree- 
ing to pay their salaries, which were to be fixed, out of 
moneys they severally raised. While in session at Sedalia 
in October, 1875, I^r. J. A. Quarles, was elected agent to 
raise $12,000 to cancel the debt and $15,000 to endow the 
Chair of Sacred Literature and Metaphysics. This matter 
is treated more fully in the preceding chapter. 

In view of the fact that the main points of interest have 
been given year by year, there need be but little said as to 
the financial status in 1876. 

The Treasurer's report shows that he had received 
from all sources during the year $7,563.05. 

During the year closing in June, 1876, Dr. Robertson 
had acted as agent and had received in cash $2,079.20 and 
in notes $470. He declined to receive more than $200 of 
the salary promised him, thus contributing at least $300 
of his salary to the College. 

June 15, 1876, Prof. Thurmond resigned because he 
felt "it was impossible for the Board to meet their engage- 
ments to the Professors" "and to relieve them of any em- 
barrassment." No other comment is necessary on the finan- 
cial clouds of that year. The Faculty were requested to 
secure, if possible in vacation, a contribution of one dollar 
a member from all the Churches in the Synod. Dr. Rob- 
ertson was continued as agent. The debt, of course, re- 

272 History of Westminster College 

mained as it was in 1875. I^ October of the same year Dr. 
Jno. Montgomery was elected financial agent but declined 
to serve. Notice was also given to the Faculty that their 
salaries for the year beginning in September, 1877, would 
be reduced $200 each. 

A committee was appointed to correspond with Dr. 
Quarles, with a view to securing his services as financial 

Again in February, 1877, the Board met. Within a 
few months the Board had four meetings and the lack of 
funds was the burden of all of them. At this meeting a 
letter was received from Dr. Quarles laying down two prop- 
ositions and stating the conditions on which he would ac- 
cept the agency. One of those propositions made by Dr. 
Quarles was accepted and he was unanimously elected 
agent, greatly to the gratification of all the friends of the 
College. In February the Board raised the contingent fee 
to $10. Thus matters stood in the winter of 1877. 

Let it be observed that the writer gives only the lead- 
ing facts and not an exhaustive history and this is par- 
ticularly true of the years 1873-4-5-6. A complete history 
could not possibly answer any great purpose. 

The attention paid to the College in the fall of 1877, 
when the Synod met at Lexington, has never been sur- 
passed in earnestness and fullness and anxiety, in the whole 
history of the Institution. We bespeak for these admirable 
papers the care which they really demand. Almost the 
entire reports are here incorporated. 

The annual report of the Board of Trustees of Westminster College 
was presented by Rev. W. W. Robertson, which was received and referred 
to the Committee on the affairs of the College : The number of students 
was 127. 



W. II. MAUyLKBS. D. D. I.L. 



Fin<mcial-1872-18S6 273 

The Board, according to the expresBed wish of the Synod, used 
their utmost effort to induce Rev. John Montgomery to labor in the be- 
half of the College as Financial Agent. He felt he was not, in his then 
state of health, adequate to the work, and declined the position urgently 
offered. The Board then sought to secure the services of Rev. James A. 
Quarles in this work. He accepted the call. Entered zealously upon 
the field of labor. Was succeeding to the entire satisfaction of the 
Board, when he became discouraged and turned aside to other employ- 
ment in the Master's vineyard. Next, efforts were made to obtain the 
services of Rev. W. H. Clagett. He felt his calling was in another di- 
rection, especially to preach the Gospel. The Synod will perceive that 
there has been no Financial Agent in the field during the last year, ex- 
cept the few weeks that Bro. Quarles was employed. 

In the last Annual Report of the Board, the following statement 
was made: "The Synod will see from this exhibit, that the expenses of 
the College are largely above the income. It is evident that such 
financiering, continued any length of time, will prove ruinous. What 
shall be done? Shall the Board make still further ratrenchment, or 
will the Synod provide some way to increase the endowment, so that 
we can have an even balance sheet at the end of each year? When we 
consider the vast amount of good accomplished in the past, the bright- 
ening prospects of the present, or the innumerable bleesings to the 
Church, and to the world, flowing from the continued prosperity of our 
cherished Westminster, in the future, we surely can not hesitate. We 
can not go back without proving recreant to the trust imposed upon us 
as a Synod, by the Great Head of the Churdu He commanded the 
Israelites \mder greater stress than we are : 'Go forward.' " The Synod, 
after mature deliberation, unanimously made the record, "It is pro- 
posed, in order to meet the present exigencies of the College, that the 
sum of two thousand dollars be apportioned among our Presbyteries, 
according to their several ability, and by each of them to their churches 
in the same manner, to be collected as soon as possible, and applied as 
the Board of Trustees may direct." The Board waited anxiously sev- 
eral months to see the result of the action of the Synod, but no relief 
came therefrom. To prevent a further increase of the debt, one or two 
things must be done— either reduce the number of Professors, or reduce 
their salary. To resort to either alternative was by no means pleasant. 
The Board, after free and full and painful discussion of the whole mat- 
ter, and after conference with several of the Professors, especially with 


274 History of Westminster College 

Dr. Fisher, resolved to do the latter. The salary of one Professor was 
reduced to twelve hundred dollars, and that of each of tbe other four to 
one thousand dollars. This action was taken the 28th of December, 
1876, to take effect at the beginning of the next scholastic year. 

The one thing now to be accomplished and that speedily, is the pay- 
ment of the debt of the College. 

Can not the Synod, before its adjournment, raise the amount? 
This much may with certainty, be said, that if every member of Synod 
will enter upon the work, with a determination not to cease effort till 
the debt is paid, the entire amount would be raised in less than a 
month from this day. Brethren, shall we thus work together until this 
end is accomplished? The Board of Trustees, who have struggled with 
untold difficulties, beseechingly ask this much. The Faculty, who, in 
years of doubt and trial, have stood at the helm and the oars, with a 
self-sacrifice known only to themselves, expect this much. Does not Qod, 
who has so graciously blessed our College from its very b^;inning, com- 
mand His servants to go forward and do this much? 

Rev. Nathan I. Rice, D. D., in an address delivered at the laying of 
the comer-stone of Westminster College, said: — ^**The immediate design 
of this institution will be to impart thorough instruction in the arts 
and sciences. Yet its name, and the character of the body by which it 
is founded, give assurance that Christianity will not only be a welcome 
guest, but the ruling spirit within its walls. It will aim to give a thor- 
ough Christian education; and only such an education can qualify men 
for the discharge of the duties of life, and for the enjoyment of the 
higher degree of freedom. Only such an education can sustain and per- 
petuate our free institutions." 

Dr. Alfred A. Ryley, the first President of the Board of Trustees, 
in an address on the same occasion, said: ''We are here fixing the 
-seat of science, and erecting hereupon a habitation for her to dwell in, 
from whence she shall send forth her sons into the bosom of society 
to gladden and to bless. The founding and building up an institution 
of learning, fraught as it is with results full of interest to future gen- 
erations — ^the rearing of a temple in which shall be erected an altar 
whereupon shall perpetually bum the fire of immutable truth, whose 
light shall expose error and false philosophy, and lead to correct prin- 
ciples in morals and science, is an event of no small moment." Is not 

FtnanctoZ-1872-1886 275 

the history of our WestminBter, so far, a realization of the dedarations 
of these early friends of our College T All over our State, and in other 
Western States, are to be found her s<ms living out the principles of 
truth they learned within her walls — lights they are in the world. Can 
we afford to pull down the altar thai erected and quench the fire which 
has been burning so brightly for a quarter of a century? Our College 
was built in faith, and much prayer has been offered for its perpetuity, 
and for it to send forth, from year to year, streams that shall bless 
and gladden our Zion. It will stand as long as God has woric for it to 
do. He has thus far upheld it marvelously. Its future is with Him. 
But if it were suspended to-morrow, what it has accomplished for 
Church and State would more than a hundred fold repay for all the 
toil, and anxiety, and money given to it in the past. But 'See are not 
of them who draw back." The Board confidently believe that deliver- 
ance will come. Yea, that Grod will honor our Synod by giving our 
people a willing mind to do, and to labor, and to contribute their money 
in sufficient abimdanoe to place our College in the front rank of similar 
institutions in the land, and make it a source of blessings to future 
generations. This is a period in the history of nations full of fearful 
excitement. The whole social compact is being shaken to its founda- 
tion. Westminster must do her part in staying the floods of desolation 
sweeping over our country. 

The Treasurer of the Board, Mr. Edwin Curd, reported at our last 
annual meeting the following amounts received and paid out: 

Balance on hand June 18, 1876 $ 739 20 

Amount received at different times during the year ending 

Juno 21, 1877 4,100 00 

From W. W. Robertson, agent 751 86 

From Rev. J. A. Quarles, agent 244 60 

Tuition session 47 105 00 

Tuition session 48 ' 1,270 00 

TuiUon session 49 1,012 00 

For diplomas 20 00 

$ 8,242 65 


Amoimt paid out on warrants $ 7,934 08 

Cash on hand June 20, 1877 308 57 

$ 8,242 65 

276 History of Westminster College 

For an itemized statement of the Treasurer, the Synod is referred 
to his report to the Board, dated June 20, 1877, and reoorded in their 
minutes on pages 336-338. 

On the 20th of February, 1877, the Board resolved to adopt the plan 
of free tuition, with a contingent fee of ten dollars per session of five 
months, giving the holders of scholarships credit by one-half the amount 
of contingent fee. This plan was adopted, because, first, the Board be- 
lieved the number of students would be increased thereby; and, second, 
that there would be no falling off of income. The number previously 
admitted free of tuition, by order of the Synod, and upon scholarships, 
reduced the paying students to about one-fourth the whole number ad- 
mitted. Thus far the plan works well, or at least brings no loss to the 

Hereafter, by order of the Board, the scholastic year will commence 
the first Monday in September, and close the first Thursday in June, of 
each year. There will be no vacation or recess during the session, ex- 
cept Christmas and New Year's Days.* 

The Board would respectfully recommend to Synod to pass an 
order limiting the Board of Trustees in their expenditures hereafter to 
the income of the College from its various sources of supply. 


President Board of Trustees Westminster College. 

The undersigned, at the request of the Board of Trust, have exam- 
ined the report of the Secretary and Treasurer, showing the receipts 
and disbursements of the fund for the past year, and find the same cor- 
rect with accompanying vouchers. 

ISAAO M. Veitch, 

C. L. Thompson, 


Statement of investment of Notes and Bonds in hands of the Board 
of Trust, September 30, 1876: 

Notee bearing 8 per cent interest $ 15,800 00 

Bonds 200 00 

$16,000 00 

Notes bearing 9 per cent interest 15,500 00 

Bonds 100 00 

15,600 00 

*Thia failed, though the Faculty attempted to enforce it. 

FtnanaaZ-1872-1886 277 

Notes bearing 10 per cent interest 1,600 00 

Bonds 200 00 

1,700 00 

Notes not bearing interest 1,235 92 

Certificate Boatmen's Savings 4,250 00 

$38,785 92 
Estimate of the state of the endowment: 

Notes and bonds on hand $ 38,785 92 

Cash 253 00 

Obligation of Mrs. Le Bourgeois 20,000 00 

CJoUege buildings 6,000 00 

Jennings Station lot 1,000 00 

Other St. Louis county lots 800 00 

Subscriptions supposed good 10,000 00 

76,838 92 

The Committee on the Affairs of of Westminster College would re- 
spectfully submit the following report: 

Too great praise can not be given our excellent Faculty for the 
ability, zeal and self denial which they have shown in the year just 
gone, as in many others that preceded it. It is a ground of sorrow 
that such men should be allowed to labor for the pittance which they 

The resignation of Prof. Fisher, so long and so prominently con- 
nected with the College, is an occasion not only for sorrow, but also for 
the expression of our very high regard for h^ as a scholar, a teacher, 
and a Christian gentleman. 

It is with profound gratitude that we refer to the great prosperity 
of the College during the past year, as evidenced by the large number 
of students in attendance, and especially by the work of grace in which 
a goodly number were sharers. 

While it is a matter of regret that we are compelled to reduce the 
number of our professors, the arrangement, made by the Board of Trus- 
tees, for the employment of competent tutors, is to be conmiended. 

We call special attention to the fact that the present annual report 
of the Board of Trustees is accompanied by a partial report of the re- 
ceipts and disbursements, and refers to the minutes of the Board in 
which the same is given in detail, as examined and approved by an 
auditing committee of the Board. 

278 History of Westminster College 

This is to be commended. It is probable, however, that the Synod 
would be still better pleased were the detailed exhibit of the Treasorer 
made a regular part of the report of the Board. 

The policy of dispensing with the regular charge for tuition and 
increasing the contingent fee to ten dollars per term is to be approved 
as an experiment. 

The most important fact in the present condition of the College 
is its debt. This now amounts in round numbers, as we learn from 
the President of the Board of Trustees, to ten thousand dollars. We 
regret that we are not able to give the exact amount. This debt con- 
sists partly of a note in bank, bearing ten per cent Interest, for thirty- 
five hundred ollars. It has been renewed for several years, but the 
interest is paid up to the last date. There are, in addition to this note^ 
some sixty-five hundred dollars in College warrants, issued by the 
Board for the salary of the professors. These warrants bear ten per 
cent interest. To meet this debt, which represents the obligations of 
the Synod to its hard-worked and poorly-paid Faculty, is the question 
of the hour. Every dollar of income, from contingent fees and interest 
on the permanent endowment, is needed to meet the current expenses 
of the Institution. What shall be done? 

1. The suggestion made by the Board of Trustees, in their present 
annual report, should be heeded, so that the Board may understand it 
to be the Synod's will that the expenses of the College shall be rigidly 
limited to its income. In this way, no addition will be made to the 

2. The plan suggested by Prof. Lyle should be universally adopted 
and energetically worked. That plan should be modified, however^ so 
as to include subscriptions of smaller sums than fifty dollars. The 
Session of every church within the Synod should be earnestly urged to 
select some suitable person to solicit these subscriptions in its own con- 

In this connection, we venture to suggest that the attention of the 
Board of Trust be called to the salary of its secretary and treasurer. 
In our present straits, we would ask whether some competent person 
can not be secured to discharge these duties without expense to the 
College. If a salaried officer is to be employed, we suggest that he 
should be put under a bond approved by the Board of Trust for the 
faithful discharge of his duties. 

We would suggest to the Board whether it would not be wise to 

Finmcial-lS72-lS86 279 

amend their by-lawB in such a manner as to allow investments upon 
real estate outside of the city of St. Louis. 

There is another matter of vital importance to the interests of 
the College; it is the condition of the endowment fund. The immense 
shrinkage of values all over the country is well known. This has 
amounted to an average reduction of at least one half. This fact calls 
attention to the loans made by the Board of Trust upon real estate 
security in St. Louis. We have nearly forty thousand dollars in- 
vested. We suggest that the Synod direct the Board of Trust to cause 
an immediate investigation to be made by real estate experts, as to the 
present condition of these investments, and to publish, for the informa- 
tion of the Synod, the general results of this investigation, that the 
Synod may know how much of these investments is good; how much 
doubtful; and how much, if any, lost. 

We would further suggest that the Board of Trust be asked to 
examine the Wisconsin lands, with a view to learn their present value 
and the propriety of disposing of th^em. 

The College now owns about seventy thousand dollars of reputed 
assets, besides the buildings and the Wisconsin lands. This is utterly 
inadequate to enable us to meet the wants of such an institution. It 
should be kept before our people that we need, at once, to raise this 
sum to at least one hundred thousand dollars. 

It would be impossible to present the financial condi- 
tion more impressively than by quoting documents which 
came before the Synod at St. Joseph. A careful reading 
of these will be a revelation to the Presbyterian Church of 
Missouri, as to the difficulties through which their College 
has come. 

Thursday, 2 o'clock, p. m. 

The Synod was called to order, and the report of the Board of 
Trustees of Westminster College was read« and referred to the Com- 
mittee on the Affairs of Westminster College. It is as follows: 

The twenty-sixth annual session of Westminster College ended tha 
sixth day of Jime last. There were one hundred and eight students in 
attendance during the year. The senior class numbered four. 

280 History of Westminster College 

It is but due to the Faculty that the Board bear testimony to thtf 
earnest and faithful manner in which thej have discharged their duty 
in their several chairs of instruction. We find in the Treasurer's re- 
port for the year ending first of June, 1878, the following items which 
we present in this report for the information of the Synod. Total 
amount received is as follows: 

Balance on hand Jime 20, 1877 $ 308 57 

For diplomas 21 00 

Tuition for sessions 45, 46, 48, 49 178 76 

Interest received from Treasurer of Board of Trust 4,200 00 

Contingent fees for sessions 50 and 51 1,576 00 

Subscription from Miss Jane Thompson 60 00 

Subscription from a member of Pine street church 2 00 

Subscription from Geo. W. Staley 26 00 

Subscription from D. P. Ryley 60 00 

Subscription from Mrs. Eliza Richtens 6 00 

Subscription from Rev. J. A. Quarles 6 15 

Subscription from Rev. W. W. Robertson 170 75 

$6,502 28 


Incidental Expenses $ 408 23 

Interest paid on warrants outstanding 668 63 

Old warrants paid off 1,766 00 

Professors' salaries 2,760 00 

Tutors* salaries 360 00 

Janitor's salary 100 00 

Balance on hand 560 46 

Total $6,692 22 

The Synod from this exhibit will see that all expenses for the year 
ending June 1, 1878, were fully met, also that seventeen hundred and 
sixty- five dollars ($1,765) were paid on the old debt, and six hundred 
and sixty eight dollars and fifty-three cents ($668.53) interest, making 
whole amount paid on debt two thousand four hundred and thirty- 
three dollars and fifty-three cents ($2,433.53). 

The Synod will remember that the corps of Professors is one leea 
than in several preceding years, and also that the salary of each profes- 
sor is two hundred dollars less than formerly, thus enabling the Board to 

Financial— 1872-18S6 281 

paj the above amount on the debt of the College. In the above showing 
the amount paid Professors on salary is two thousand seven hundred 
And fifty dollars ($2,760), whereas the salary for the year is four 
thousand dollars. By a late act of the Board, the College year begins 
the first Monday in September instead of the first of Jime. and the 
aalary of the Professors is to be paid quarterly. One of the Professors 
did not present his warrant for two hundred and fifty dollars ($250) in 
time to have its payment mentioned in the report of the Treasurer. 
This has since been paid, as also the balance of one thousand dollars 
($1,000) due on salary of Professors. 

From the first of June to the first of September the following sums 
have been received by the Treasurer of the Board: 

For diplomas $ 10 00 


on by Rev. J. W. Wallace 60 00 

on by Mrs. J. W. Wallace 60 00 

on by J. McCoy 6 00 

on by Wm. McCoy 10 00 

on by E. Gates 2 60 

on by R. Wilson 2 60 

on by Jno. S. Crawford 50 00 

on by James F. Crawford 10 00 

on by R. S. McKee 20 25 

on by Rev. O. W. Gauss 12 50 

on by Rev. David Coulter, D. D 60 00 

on by L. Daugherty 26 00 

on by Mrs. S. Gattings 25 00 

on by J. A. Denning 12 50 

Total $335 26 

Since the last meeting of the Synod the Board has paid to Pro- 
fessors and tutors, for incidental expenses, and on interest and old war- 
rants, the sum of seven thousand eight hundred and forty-two dollars 
and twenty-two cents ($7,842.22). 

The whole amount of present indebtedness is eleven thousand eight 
hundred and eighty-six dollars and twenty cents ($11,886.20). To meet 
this the Board has two hundred and thirty acres of good tillable land 
in dHarke county. This land in former years was estimated to be worth 
thirty-five hundred dollars. It could not be sold at the present time 
for more than two thousand dollars. The Board has also in notes and 

282 History of Westminster College 

good subscriptions five hundred and thirty dollars. If the land could 
be sold for two thousand dollars and the notes and subscriptions were 
collected, there would be two thousand five hundred and thirty dollars 
to meet the indebtedness. There would still be a debt of nine thousand 
three hundred and fifty-six dollars and twenty cents ($9,356.20). 

The plan adopted by the Synod at its meeting in Lexington last year 
to raise ten thousand dollars for the liquidation of the debt of the 
College, has not been a success. This is owing principally, no doubt» 
to the great stringency in money matters, and the absence of an agent 
or agents to present the subject to the churches and friends of the 
Ck)llege. The Board at its regular meeting in June last resolved to 
continue the effort to raise ten thousand dollars, extending the time 
for its completion. Notice is called to the fact, that quite a niunber 
who subscribed to the plan adopted, have paid the whole or a part of 
their subscription, thus aiding very much in our time of need. 

In a letter dated September 13th, from the Secretary of the Board 
of Trust, Mr. C. L. Thompson, in answer to inquiriee, th^ following 
statements are made: 'Total interest due and not paid last January 
was $10,968.37. The endowment fund due at same time, exclusive of 
the Gharless endowment, was $29,170.21. This, you will understand, 
does not include the loans made by the Board of Trust; only the sub- 
scription notes. There is not much change at this date, except to add 
the interest due." The Board realizes the necessity of having one 
agent or more specially commissioned to collect these notes with interest 
due, and to solicit subscriptions to pay the debt, and to increase the 


W. W. ROBEBTSON, President. 

Elder I. M. Veitch presented the annual report of the Board of 
Trust, which was received, and referred to the Conunittee on the Af- 
fairs of Westminster College. It is as follows: 

Report of the Board of Trust of the Synod of Missouri, of receipts 
and disbursements for the year ending September 30, 1878: 

Gash balance $ 470 39 

Bills Receivable (Endowments) $16,134 97 

Endowments Collected 739 28 

Boatman's Certificate 4,250 00 

Boone county Bond 200 00 

Financial— 1872 to 1886 283 

Callaway county Bond 100 00 

Interest Account 4,596 17 26,020 42 

Inyestment $26,490 81 

Loans on Real Estate $20,760 00 

Callaway county Bond 60 00 

Cash belonging to this Fund 877 26 

$21,677 26 


Remitted E. Curd, Treasurer $ 4,100 00 

Insurance (voucher attached to Policy) . 37 60 

Taxes ^ 85 63 

Paid Treasurer (C. L. T.) 300 00 

Loss on Callaway county Bond 26 72 

Petty Expenses 36 80 

Cash belonging to Expense Account 227 91 

4,813 66 26,490 81 

Total balance $1,106 16 

The undersigned, at the request of the "Board of Trust," have ex- 
amined the report of the Secretary and Treasurer, showing the receipts 
and expenditures of the fund for the past year, and find the same cor- 
rect, with accompanying vouchers. 

Isaac M. Veitch, 

WlIXIAM G. Clabk, 
J. H. Wkab. 

Statement of investment of Notes and Bonds in heuids of the 
"Board of Trust," September 30, 1878. 

Notes bearing 8 per cent interest $32,060 00 

Notes bearing 9 per cent interest 1,500 00 

Notes bearing 10 per cent interest 6,280 95 

D. H. Bishop's Note 4,000 00 

Morgan county Bonds, 10 per cent 200 00 

Callaway county Bonds, 6 per cent 50 00 

$43,080 95 

Estimate of the state of the Endowment. 

Notes and Bonds (less Mr. Bishop's Note) ....$39,080 95 

Obligation of Mrs. Le Bourgeois 20,000 00 

284 History of Westminster College 

Ck>llege Building represented by Mr. Bredell's Note. 6,000 00 

Probable value of Bishop's property 1,000 00 

Probable value of property in St. Louis 800 00 

Cash belonging: to this Fund 877 25 

Subscriptions supposed good 10.000 00 

$77,768 20 
• ••••••• 

In regard to the literary department your committee found it in 
a most encouraging condition, indicating that the Institution, in the 
midst of all its pecuniary embarrassments, is still growing in useful- 

There has also been referred to your committee the Annual Report of 
the Board of Trustees of said Coll^sfe, furnishing an exhibit of the re- 
ceipts and disbursements of said College for the past year; also of its 
present financial condition. Your committee would call attention to the 
fact that the expenses of said College during the past year have been 
materially reduced; as also has been the College debt, and we deem the 
careful management of the financial affairs of said Institution during 
the past year, on the part of the Board of Trustees, well worthy of 

Your committee find that there is a present indebtedness resting 
upon the Institution of $11,886.20; that there are certain assets under 
their control which may be relied upon ultimately to reduce said indebt- 
edness to about $9,356, leaving this amount still to be provided for by 
the action of this Synod. 

In suggesting a plan by which this indebtedness may be met, your 
committee would call attention to the fact that the Synod, at its last 
session, appointed a committee consisting of one member from each 
Presbytery, who were urged to do all in their power to secure the 
necessary amount in their respective Presbyteries for the extinguishnmt 
of the College debt; as yet there has been no report from this commit- 

Your committee recommend that a new committee to consist of 

three members in each Presbytery, be appointed over this matter, and 
that it be made a standing committee, with a chairman whose busi- 
ness it shall be to keep the attention of the committee drawn to this 
matter, and to have it called up at each meeting of the Presbyteries, 
and of the Synod, till the debt be extinguished. 

That the three members of this conmiittee in each Presbytery be 

Financial— 1872 to 1886 285 

a committee with its own chairman, and with power to direct this 
matter in their own Presbytery; that the apportionment of the debt 
be made among the Presbyteries as follows: 


St. Louis $2,500 00 $260 00 

Missouri 2,600 00 260 00 

Upper Missouri 2,000 00 200 00 

Palmyra 1,600 00 150 00 

Potosi 1,000 00 100 00 

LaFayette 2,000 00 200 00 

Each committee shall make an apportionment of the sum due from 
its Presbytery among the churches of said Presbytery, and use all pos- 
sible diligence, by personal effort as they are able, and by correspondence, 
as the matter may require, to collect these amounts; and any expenses 
that may be necessarily incurred shall be paid from the amounts col- 

Your committee recommend that this be continued till the debt 
is extinguished, and that in the meanwhile, the collections be applied, 
as far as necessary, to the payment of the accruing interest. All of 
which is respectfully submitted. 


A. D. Madeiba, 


J. V. Barks, 
J. T. Bboww, 


G. C. Heabd. 
♦ ♦♦#♦♦•♦ 

The order of the day was then taken up, viz., the report of the 
Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College. The report was con- 
sidered seriatim, and after discussion and amendment was adopted. It 

is as follows: 

"Your Committee to whom was referred the 'Affairs of Westminster 
College,* submit the following report: There have been two papers re- 
ferred to the Committee. The first, an overture from the Presbytery of 
Lafayatte, pledging itself for its proportion of the interest upon the 
College debt, until such time as may be deemed practicable for the liqui- 
dation of said debt; asking also that the Synod would direct that a 
full and detailed exhibit of said debt be prepared and published, also. 

286 History of Westminster College 

that the Synod use proper means to secure the oo>operation of the 
other Synod in the support of the Collie. Your Committee recom- 
mend the approval of this overture. They find that such an exhibit 
of the indebtedness of the CoHege as is called for in said overture has 
been made to this Synod at its present session, and they recommend 
that it be published in the Synodical paper. 

''As to the matter of securing the co-operation of the other Synod 
in the support of the Ck>llege, inasmuch as there has been a committee 
appointed over this matter, and as yet no final report has been made 
by said committee, we suggest that it would be well that the said com- 
mittee be continued." 

The Board of Trustees of Westminster College submitted their 
Annual Report, which was received, and referred to the Committee on 
the Affairs of the College. It is as follows: 

The Board of Trustees of Westminster College beg leave to submit 
the following report: 

The twenty-seventh annual session ended the fifth of June, 1879. 
The number of students in attendance during the year was eighty-six 

We present the following synopsis of the report of the Treasurer 
for the year ending first of June, 1879, for the information of the 
Synod. Total amounts received from different sources during the year, 
are as follows: 

Balance on hand first of June, 1878 $ 550 46 

For Diplomas 10 00 

Subscriptions 348 33 

Rent for Farm in Clarke county 119 25 

From C. L. Thompson, Treasurer Board of Trust. 2,070 00 

From Rev. Rob't Morrison (Agent) 250 00 

S. T. Wilson (sale of lot in Macon City) 199 00 

Contingent Fees 1,285 75 

$4,832 79 


Professors' Salaries $ 3,474 00 

Incidental Expenses 286 42 

Principal and Interest on Debt 808 88 

Balance on hand June 1. 1879 263 48 

$ 4,832 99 

Financial— 1872 to 1886 287 

The Treasurer has received smce the date of his report the fol- 
lowing sums: 

Rev. R. G. Brank $ 10 00 

For Diplomas 25 00 

C. L. Thompson, Treasurer of the Board of Trust 1,650 00 

Prof. C. C. Hersman (interest on Note) 52 50 

Rev. Jackson Symth, D. D. (Armagh, Ireland, 26 pounds) . . 97 00 

Part Bequest of Mrs. Ann L. Craig 175 00 

Rev. Robert Morrison, Agent 175 00 

$2,184 50 
Making total receipts since report of the Board to Synod at 
its last meeting, $5,731.58. The Board has been able to meet all the 
expenses of the last session, ending September Ist, and also to pay prin- 
cipal and interest on old debt, $950.94. The Synod win perceive, thai 
the amount paid last year on the old debt was less by $1,482.59, than 
was paid the preceding year. This is owing to the fact that no in- 
terest hag been paid on the notes given to endow the Charless Professor- 
ship since April, 1878. • ♦ ♦ ♦ Previous to this date, a request 
had been made to the Board by Mrs. Charless, the mother of Mrs. Le- 
Bourgeois, that the not€« should be returned to her daughter, without 
further consideration or payment thereon. The request wag founded 
upon the fact, that Mrs. Le Bourgeois had met with losses in the depre- 
ciation of her landed estate, and consequently a depreciation of rents 
accruing therefrom; and also that the endowment of the Professorship 

made was a gift. 

• ••••••• 

The Board takes pleasure in the announcement, that Mrs. Eugene 
Jaccard, of St. Louis, lately deceased, bequeathed $5,000 to the Trus- 
tees of the College-^the interest of which is to be applied for the sup- 
port of young men preparing in said College for the ministry of the 
Gospel. ♦ • ♦ • The Board also elected Rev. Robert Morrison, 
agent of the College, to assist in raising in the several Presbyteries the 
apportionment made by the last Synod to pay the debt of the College; 
also, to collect the interest and principal of old notes, and to increase 
the endowment fund. He will report to Synod of work done up to 
the present time. The Board is much gratified to be able to report to 
Synod, that the College is doing better work for the church, and 
general education, than at any time since its organization. It is true 

288 History of Westminster College 

we have only five Professon but they are as good men and true, and as 
able in their several departments, as can be found in any College, east 
or west. Our alumni, in their several professions, are much over an 
average, and reflect honor upon their instructors and alma mater. If 
the Presbyteries, through their churches, would at once meet the appor- 
tionments made by the last Synod, we would be done with the cry of 
"old debt," and would be able to elect a President, and thus enable 
our College to go forward with enlarged facilities in the good work for 
which it was designed, and thus far, has creditably accomplished. Let 
all who have "a mind to the work," and we would hope that every mem- 
ber of the Synod and of our Church in Missouri, is thus minded, do 
what they can to place Westminster on an equal footing, financially^ 
with her sister colleges of the west. 

The report acknowleges the generosity of Mrs. Coul- 
ter* in giving the proceeds of the sale of Rev. Dr. Coulter's 
autobiography to the College, and gives in full the report 
of the Board of Trust, the material part of which is as follows : 

Btatement of Investments of Notes and Bonds in the hcmds of the Board 
of Trust on the Thirtieth of September, 1879 : 

Notes bearing 8 per cent interest $36,564 04 

Notes bearing 9 per cent interest 1,500 00 

Callaway County Bond, at 6 per cent 50 00 

Morgan County Bond, at 10 per cent 200 00 

Bishop's Note 3,273 36 

$41,687 89 

Estimate of the State of the Endowment-. 

Notes and Bonds as above $41,687 39 

Less Bishop's Note 3,273 35 

$38,314 04 

Obligation of Mrs. LeBourgeois 20,000 00 

College Buildings represented by Mr. Bredell's Note 6,000 09 

*Died at Columbia, Missouri, February 4. 1899. 

I'liur, II. s. <jagt:. 



Financial-1872 to 1886 289 

Real Estate, St. Louis, Brookes' lot 800 00 

Real Estate, St. Louis, Everett property 3,000 00 

3,800 00 

Merchants' Bank Stock 500 00 

Estimate value of Subscriptions supposed good. . . 10,000 00 

Cash belonging to this Fund 535 81 

$79,140 85 

Some things in the above paper demand more than a 
mere hasty reading: i. The condition of the Charless 
Professorship which claimed so much attention in the pre- 
vious pages of this book beginning with 1858. Let those 
interested trace the history of the notes, see in subsequent 
pages the result. 2. At the same meeting the bequest of 
Mrs. Eugene Jaccard, of St. Louis, was announced. The 
amount was $5,000, the interest of which was to be applied 
in educating men for the ministry. 3. The generous gift 
of Mrs. Mary Coulter, widow of Dr. David Coulter, who 
had been one of the best men and one of the ablest theolo- 
gians ever in the Synod. It ought to be known that Dr. 
Robertson threw into shape for publication the matter left 
by Dr. Coulter. The benefits that have accrued to the Col- 
lege so far, January, 1887, from the sale of these memorials, 
is about $1,000. 4. Let it be recorded, too, that the names 
of three women appear with heart and means to help the 
College : Mrs. Le Bourgeois, Mrs. Jaccard, and Mrs. Coul- 
ter. A letter just at hand says: "God bless the Marys,'* 
to which we respond with a hearty amen. A fourth name 
should be added, for Miss Jane Thompson, of Caledonia, 
had before this donated a farm. How the Marys have 
blessed the Church all along the centuries. There are 
others to be named yet. 

The following extracts will set forth the state of finan- 
ces in the fall of 1880: 

290 History of Westminster College 

It is with "pleasure the Board calls attention to the munificent gift 
of Mr. Geo. B. Murray, of Jacksonville, Illinois. Have we no men in 
our State like-minded? This was obtained through the agency of Key. 
R. P. Farris, who is ever watchful for the interest of our Ck>llege. 

The Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College at the last 
meeting of the Synod submitted the following statement and recommen- 
dation, which was adopted by the Synod: 

'Tapers have been referred to your Committee containing a corre- 
spondence between the Board of Trust, and Mrs. LeBourgeois and Mr. 
Bredell, in reference to the endowment of the Chailess Professorship, and 
the title to the College. From these papers it appears that the Board 
has agreed to relinquish to Mrs. LeBourgeois, her notes to the amount 
of $20,000, when she shall make a cash payment of $10,000, and when 
Mr. Bredell shall make a deed for the College property to the Board of 
Trust. Your Committee recommend that this action of the Board of 
Trust be ratified by the Synod." 

This action of the Board of Trust and the Synod was consummated 
soon after the adjournment of the Synod. The attention of the Synod 
is called to the fact, that by this action the College lost $10,000 of the 
endowment fund and $3,200 interest due on same. 

The Board would recommend to the Synod, to direct the Board of 
Trust to sell the Wisconsin lands at such prices as they may bring in the 
market. Hitherto they have been, and still are an annual expense to 
the College. A portion of the farm in Clarke county, donated four 
years ago by Miss Jane Thompson of Caledonia, Washington county, 
Missouri, has been sold for $1,000. Eighty acres yet remain imsold, 
for which we hope to realize six hundred and forty dollars ($640). 

The report of the Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College 
was then taken up, considered aeriatimy amended, and adopted. It is 
as follows: 

The indications of the prosperity of the College under the care of 
the Synod, are many and gratifying. The outlook in every direction 
is bright and encouraging, and such as calls for devout thankfulness to 

1. The Professors are all in their places, working with self-sac- 
rificing devotion in the cause to which they have given their lives. 

They have set up a high standard of education in the College, and 
as we learn from the report of the Committee on Examination, have 
achieved remarkable success in bringing the students up to their stan- 

Fmancial-~IS70 to 1886 291 

dard. The examinatianfl are deseribed as being all that iecmld be de- 
sired — showing not onlj great faithfulness and skill on the part -of 
the Faculty, but unusual diligence and proficiency on the part of the 

2. The increase in the number of the students in attendance on 
the College during the past year, has been very considerable, llie re- 
port of the Board of Trustees places it at more than ten per oent over 
the previous year, while the new year has opened with a still larger 
increase, showing that the College, founded and fostered by the prayers 
and contributions of our Church, is growing in public favor, and after 
all its trials and reverses is again coming to the front, an institution 
worthy of the patronage of all our people, and of which the Synod may 
well be proud. 

3. The financial condition of the College is very promising. During 
the past year, the debt on the College has been reduced from $14,000 
to less than $5,000. This gratifying result is due in part to the faithful 
labors of Rev. Robert Morrison, Agent of the College, in obtaining the 
collections of the churches for this cause, partly to certain profits real- 
ized on the previous generous gifts of Mrs. Mary Coulter and Mrs. Jane 
A. Thompson, and partly to the munifioent donation of $3,000 by Mr. 
George B. Murray, of Illinois. This change in the financial condition 
of the College is full of hope. The day is breaking, the shadows are 
fieeing away. 

4. The improved condition of the title of the Synod to the Col- 
lege property, is a matter of congratulation. The arrangements made 
by the Board of Trust with Mrs. LeBourgeois and Mr. Bredell, has re- 
sulted in the conveyance of the College property, by a clear and unen- 
cumbered title, to the Board of Trust. The arrangement it is true was 
attended with a loss of ten thousand dollars to the endowment fund 
and $3,200 interest on the same, but this loss, heavy as it is, is in some 
measure balanced by the complete title with which the property is now 
held by the Synod, and the consequent freedom from fear and anxiety 
in reference to the possible loss of the Institution itself. 

5. It is an encouraging indication, that a large number of books 
has been contributed by various persons to the College. Especially 
would the Committee make mention of the library of the late Rev. 
Isaac Jones, consisting of some two hundred volumes, which has been 
generously donated by his widow, Mrs. EUenore Jones. 

292 History of Westminster College 

In the report made to the Synod and in that of the Com- 
mittee of that body on the affairs of the College in the fall 
of 1880, several items merit notice: i. The surrender of 
Mrs. Le Bourgeois' notes for $20,000, on condition of a cash 
payment of $10,000, and the further condition that Mr. Bre- 
dell should make a deed for the College property to the 
Board of Trust. This arrangement involved a loss of 
$13,200. 2. "The day was breaking, the shadows were 
fleeing away." This arose from increased patronage, from 
the results of the labors of Rev. Robt. Morrison, as agent, 
from the gifts of Mrs. Coulter, Miss Jane A. Thompson, 
and also a gift of $3,000 by Mr. Geo. B. Murray, of Illinois. 
3. Some time during the year 1880, Mrs. Ellenore Jones 
widow of Rev. Isaac Jones, whose remains rest in the Co- 
lumbia cemetery, gave to the College library her husband's 
books numbering about 200 volumes. Mr. Jones was iden- 
tified with the early history of the Synod and his memory 
is cherished by the venerable men and women of the 
Church. The writer remembers him and his companion 
with great vividness. They gracefully grew old together 
and when the end came God's servant had nothing to do 
but die and thus enter the Church beyond. Mrs. Jones still 
lives, January, 1887, near Columbia. It is with pleasure 
that we rivet attention on the fact that Westminster has 
had friends among Presbyterians from the start in all the 
phases of our ecclesiastical history. So may it ever be. 
We are one in our interests. 4. The complete title held 
by the Synod to the College property was a source of great 
gratification to the Synod. The borrowing of the money 
in 1866 and the subsequent sale under the deed of trust 
have been given in a former chapter. 

An investigation of all the facts in the case will show 
that, both with reference to the Le Bourgeois notes and 


Financial— 1872 to 1886 293 

the sale of the College under the deed of trust, the Board 
acted judiciously and with what seemed the strictest re- 
gard for the best interests of the Church. 

We have now reached the year iSSi and feel perfectly 
safe in saying that no one can read the jubilant records 
made at the Synod of that year without being conscious 
that his blood leaps onward as it never did before in all the 
martyr history of this College. 

Out of debt ! A statement that could never have been 
made since the Board borrowed money from Martin Butler 
in the year 1855 ^^'1 *^hat hour. For more than a quarter 
of a century there had been a hand-to-hand struggle with 
debt and often for fifteen years past the bravest hearts were 
almost ready to yield. This result was reached through 
the toilsome and denying labors of Rev. Mr. Morrison, the 

Another fact worthy of special notice is that Mrs. Mary 
C. McPheeters of Paris, Mo., had left by will $6,000 to the 
permanent endowment. Another of the Marys that have 
stood by Westminster in her need. 

We take no common pleasure in calling attention to 
the fact that two of our old pupils. Dr. Hersman and Prof. 
Jones, par nobile fratrum, had been assigned to responsible 
positions— one to the presidency, the other to the Chair of 

The report of the Board of Trustees shows that the entire debt Ib 
paid, except two warrants, one of $346 and one of $145. The holder of 
this last, the Executive Committee has not been able to find. • • • 

The increased number of students from year to year is most en- 
couraging. At this time last year 102 had matriculated. This year, 
up to the sixth inst., 112 haye been enrolled. 

We have cause for devout thanksgiving to God for His blessing 
vouchsafed to our collegiate institutions during the last session, not 
only in a larger number of students in attendance in both — ^the liqui- 

294 History of Westminster CoUege 

dation of the debt of Westminster, and the large increase to the per- 
manent endowment — but even greater than these, even spiritual. The 
pastor of the church at Fulton commenced a meeting a few evenings 
preceding the day of prayer for colleges, and continued the services for 
four weeks. The Spirit's presence was manifest from the beginning — 
sixty-three united with our church; fourteen of these were students of 
Westminster, and twenty-five were pupils of the Synodical Female Col- 
lege. Who can estimate such a blessing to the church and to the world? 

The Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College submitted 
their report, which was received, and after some discussion, was adopted. 
It is as follows: 

The committee to whom were referred the several papers relating 
to our Synodical College, would respectfully report: 

The reports from the various agencies of our College come to us 
sounding cheering notes of triumph. Westminster greets the Synod in 
smiles. Prosperity seems to be dawning all along the horizon. The 
burden of debt has been rolled away — never more to be resumed. The 
number of students is increasing every year. The examinations con- 
tinue to show the best of teaching and the most gratifying results. As 
often in other days, the Holy Ghost has again descended upon this be- 
nign Institution, baptizing her classes from on high, and calling her 
sons to Christ. To-day we thank God for a Christian College, this 
strong arm of the Church, this brave bulwark against aggressive error, 
standing in the centre of our great field and dispensing its wholesome 
benefactions widely abroad. 

The promotion of two of Westminster's alumni, Rev. Chailes C. 
Heisman, D. D., to the Presidency, and Mr. John C. Jones to the Pro- 
fessorship of Latin and Literature, is gratifying to the Synod as well as 
arguring well for future efficiency. We are proud of our Faculty, 
these sons of Missouri, these covenant children of the Clvurch, who have 
■een the darker days of the College and are now privileged to behold the 
brighter dawning. 

A vote of thanks by the Synod is recommended — ^recognizing the 
great work of Eev. Robert Morrison, onerous, self-sacrificing, heroic, 
in his persistent stmggfie for cancelling the debt. We are glad that he 
shares the imiversal joy at last, and we pray that the Master he serves 
may rcfward him richly. 

While thus the prospects was widely bri^tening, God put it into 
the heart of Mrs. Maiy C. McPheeters to leave to this great cause the 

Fina^ncial'-1872 to 1886 295 

legacy of nearly siz thousand dollars. Now, too, from the Eugene Jae- 
card Scholarship, endowed by Mrs. Jaccard, has become available the 
annual income of nearly four hundred dollars $(392.42) for aiding 
worthy Westminster students on their way to the Gospel ministry. The 
Synod has not forgotten other gifts from their sisteirs in the past. He 
who knows so well how to accomplish His mighty purposes through 
the instrumentality of woman, seems to be wreathing her warm affec- 
tions about our College and jeweling the triumph of Westminster with 
the true hearts of noble women, living and dead. 

While the financial strength of the College has been increasing, it 
is pleasant to note the increasing care in economical administration and 
the reduction of expenses by the Board of Trust. 

The gift of books and other valuable helps from various donors, 
is also gratefully noted. While the minds of the generous are turning 
more and more to our beloved Institution, we will hope that the five 
or six huudred dollars for needed apparatus may soon be added for 
the efficient service of our scientific departments — supplied to the wait- 
ing hands of men who can use them so well. 

• ••••••• 

It is recommended that Revs. G. L. Leybum and C. W. Humphreys 
and Elder Jno. F. Phillips be the Examining Committee for the next 

The Board of Trust and the Board of Trustees are entitled to the 
commendation of the Synod for their careful and wise management 
of the great interests committed to their charge. These and the other 
friends of Westminster who have stood by her in her times of gloom and 
of danger, faithful ones who have labored and planned and given and 
hoped on when bravery was needed, we congratulate upon the cheering 
outlook. Their eternal crowns will not be less rediant because of the 
light which this beacon of the Lord shall continue to throw over the 

shores of time far out into the great eternity. 

L. P. BowsN» Chairman. 

Notes and Bonds in hands of the Board of Trust, Sept, 30, 1881. 

Notes bearing eight per cent interest ^ . $22,364 04 

Notes bearing seven per cent interest. 17,379 61 

Notes bearing lune per eent interest. « 4,700 00 

296 History of Westmmster College 

Callaway County Bond, six per cent 60 00 

Morgan County Bonds 200 00 

Merchants' Bank Certificate 150 00 

$44,843 65 


Notes and Bonds as above $44,843 65 

College Buildings 6,000 00 

City Real Estate 3,800 00 

Subscriptions, say 5,000 00 

Cash due this fund 5,968 25 

$66,611 90 

St. Louis, Oct. 1, 1881. 

• • • • • • 

Since my last annual report, I have collected from the Executor of 
Mrs. Jaccard, the sum of $6,620.39, which has been loaned on real estate 
securities at seven per cent per annum, and payable semi-annually, and 
made a special loan, under the following provisions of Mrs. Jaccard's 
will. The fund is to be known as the 


**To Westminster College at Fulton^ Mo,, (under the care of the 
Southern Presbyterian Church) I bequeath the sum of five thousand 
dollars ($6,000.00), the income of which shall be used to educate, clothe 
and support while being educated, young men who are preparing for the 
ministry at said College. The Trustees of said College shall name the 
beneficiary who shall receive the income from said sum while he con- 
tinues worthy during his Collegiate Course, and when any beneficiary 
shall graduate, die, abandon the College, or be deemed unworthy by a 
vote of the Board of Trustees, the said Board shall name a successor 
from time to time, and the Scholarship so endowed by me shall be called 
the Eugene Jacoard Scholarship, in honor of my beloved husband." 

The additional sum of $620.39 is by reason of a certain portion of 
her estate yielding more than expected, and this sum was the pro rata 
share due this fimd by reason thereof, as provided by her. 

To the Synod of Missouri: 

The Board of Trust, in addition to the financial exhibit herewith 
submitted, would also report, for your information, as follows: 

L. L, CAMl'BELL, Ph. D. 


Financial— 1872 to 1886 297 

In accordance with the recommendation of the last Synod, we have 
reduced the salary of the Secretary and Treasurer from $000 to $460 
per annum. 

Touching the recommendation of the Board of Trustees of West- 
minster College in their report to the last Synod, to direct the Board 
of Trust to sell the Wisconsin lands, we desire to say that, at that 
time, efforts were being made to dispose of these lands, and we have 
since continued the efforts to sell them, but without success. We shall 
continue these efforts without loss of time, and one of the Board 
will, during the present fall, visit the locality with the object of dis- 
posing of them if possible. Our earnest attention has been and will 
continue to be given to this matter. 

As stated in our financial exhibit, we have received from the Exec- 
utors of the Estate of Mrs. Jaccard the sum of $5,620.39, which we have 
set apart as a separate fund, the interest of which is to be used under 
the provisions of the bequest. This fund has been invested at seven per 
cent, and the first income therefrom will be received on the first of De- 
cember instant. It will devolve upon the Synod to direct how, and in 
what manner, we shall pay over the income of this fund, as it may ac- 
crue, to the beneficiaries thereof who may from time to time be named 
by the Board of Trustees of Westminster College. 

A comparison of the receipts and disbursements as herewith sub- 
mitted, with those of 1880, will show an increase of $578.60 in receipts, 
of income proper for the past year over the former year. At the same 
time it will be noticed that the expenditures proper have increased 
$251.68 over those of the year previous, which increased expenditures 
are in consequence of cost collecting endowments, and especially in 
our having paid during the year the taxes on Wisconsin lands for two 

During the past fiscal year loans to the amoimt of $15,420 have 
matured and been paid into the treasury. Of this amount $6,000 was 
paid only one day prior to the close of the year, and no opportunity 
has presented itself to reinvest it, and this mainly accounts for th^ 
unusually large cash balance remaining in the treasury uninvested at 
the date of the report. 

The aggregate of investments made during the year ending Septem- 
ber 3, is (exclusive of the Eugene Jaccard Scholarship Fund) $11,079.61^ 
but at a less rate of interest than we had hitherto obtained, it being 
impossible, after diligent efforts, to loan it at more than seven per cent. 

298 History of Westminster College 

It is doubtful if that rate of iBterest can be bereafter proeored on first 
claM inveatniexits, such as we seek for, and we shall probably be com- 
pelled to make some loans in the coming year at six per cent, as money 
seems abundant at that rate on good improved city real estate. 

The Board of Trust deems itself fortunate thus far, in obtainki£ & 
high rate of interest upon its loans. As seen by the list of inyestmenta^ 
we have out at interest $4,700 at nine per cent, $22^04.04 at eight per 
cent» and $17,379.61 at seven per cent. Yielding an average interest of 
about 7 3-4 per cent. 

Notwithstanding, however, the increase of expenses and the reduc- 
tion of interest during the past year, we have remitted to the Treasurer 
of the Ck>llege during the same time, $273 more than the previous year» 
and we therefore take courage for the labors of the year before us. 

Isaac M. Vkitch, Presid^t Board of Trust. 

When the Synod met in 1882, the outlook was still 
bright. God had visited His people in Fulton and left His 
benediction resting on the heads of the students in the Col- 
lege, as he had done so often before ; many of the Alumni 
had met at the thirtieth Commencement and had appointed 
a Committee to devise ways and means to raise $25,000 to 
endow the "William S. Potts Professorship." In this con- 
nection the "John Samuel Garth Scholarship" merits more 
than a mere passing notice. Some additions may very 
properly be made to what appeared before Synod, as the 
writer was almost an eye-witness of the unutterably sad 
scene. We have been permitted to open the pages of a 
scrap book kept by the mother of the departed boy. That 
book had been given by the mother to her son, as the first 
page shows. Strangely enough the pages are covered with 
items taken from different sources touching the death of 
the recipient himself. From this sacred treasury we lift 
for other eyes some mementoes. The first is believed to be 
from Rev. W. B. T. Wilkie, then pastor of the Church at 

Financial'-'1872 to 1886 29? 

From The Presbyterian. 

It will be in the memory of some of your readers tliat 
on the 24th of November laat (1881). Mr. and Mrs. Walter W. 
Garth, of Columbia, Mo., sustained a sad and heavy bereave- 
ment in the death by drowning of their oldest child, John Sam- 
uel Garth.* Johnnie was a noble, manly boy, the hope and pride 
of his parents and grandparents, and loved by all. Out of 
the mystery and the darkness, the goodness of Qod was very 
soon manifested. The father by means of it was led to Christ 
as his Savior and to a public confession of His name, as were 
many others at that time. 

At the time of his death, Johnnie had invested, as the 
result largely of his own work, the sum of nearly $150.00. 

This sum the bereaved parents resolved to dedicate to the 
service of Christ, and last week Dr. Robertson received a cbedc 
from Mr. Garth for $150.00 to be the nucleus of a fund or 
scholarship to aid young men at Westminster who may be pre- 
paring to serve God in the Ministry of His Son, Laua Deo. 

Now, are there not some of our Christian people who are 
able and willing to add to the amount, until it shall reach a 
sum sufficient for such a noble purpose? W. 

The minutes of Synod recorded in 1882 form the best 
history and are as follows: 

It will be noted that the receipts from all sources have fully met 
the current expenses. The College is out of debt, and it is the purpose 
of the Board that the expenses shall not exceed the income. But to 
make Westminster rank with other Colleges in the State, we must have 
an increased endowment. During the last year one individual gave to 
Central College, at Fayette, twenty-five thousand dollars. Another lib- 
eral hearted friend of Christian education, gave to Drury College, at 
Springfield, the munificent sum of forty-five thousand dollars. While 
we rejoice in the prosperity of these favored Institutions, we are hu- 
miliated at the fact that the Presbyterian people of God suffer their 
College, which is their life, to remain in poverty. The Mental and Moral 

•Aged 13. 

300 History of Westminster College 

Science and Sacred Literature are now distributed among thA different 
Professors, and while good work is done, yet it is not equal to what 
ought to be, nor to what would be done, if we had a Professor giving 
his entire time and energy to this important branch of study. 

The President of the Board presented the following additional 
port, which was read, accepted, and referred to the Committee on the 
Affairs of Westminster College: 

To the Synod of MiaaouH: 

The Board of Trust of the Synod of Missouri, in submitting the ac- 
companying financial statement, congratulate you upon the general pros- 
perous condition of the Endowment Fund, as exhibited by the statement. 

During the fiscal year ending September 30 last, loans to the amount 
of $4,000 have matured, and been paid into the Treasury, and we have 
loaned out during the same time the aggregate amoimt of $10,000. 

The total investments as shown by our report of 1881, was $44,- 
843.65, and the total invested now is $50,693.65, being an increase of 
$5,850 over the previous year. 

There is, however, it may be noted, a decrease of interest income for 
the year as compared with the former year, amounting to $379.74, 
which is partially attributable to loss of time consequent upon our not 
being able for a portion of the year, to make such loans as our judgment 
approved, and partly to interest on new loans not maturing within our 
fiscal year, but which will be received in the early portion of the cur- 
rent fiscal year. The decrease in this item is therefore more apparent 
than real, as the early maturing interest will be as available for the use 
of the College in the next few months as if it had been received in the 
latter portion of our fiscal year just closed. The amount remitted to 
the Treasurer of the Board of Trustees during the past year for interest 
on Endowment Fund Proper, was $3,269.40, and we show a balance of 
interest on hand of $279.84 in addition. 

The income from the Eugene Jaccard Fund up to September 30, it 
will be seen was $395.27, which was remitted to the Treasurer of the 
Board of Trustees, as per order of last Synod. 

The investments made during the year have been at seven per cent, 
which rate of interest it is now difficult to obtain on first-class loans on 
real estate. The present average rate of interest obtained, is about seven 
and one-half per cent. The Board of Trust will consider itself fortunate 

Financial— 1872 to 1886 301 

if the average of six and one-half per cent can be hereafter obtained on 
its investments. It is more than probable that six per cent will be the 
maximum of interest on loans made on good improved real estate for the 
future, and unless the Endowment is increased, the interest income must 
fall short of meeting the salaries of the Professors and the incidental 
expenses of the College. 

Since the last meeting of the Synod, considerable attention has been 
given to the efforts begun two years ago, to dispose of the Wisconsin 
lands. Our Secretary and Treasurer, by direction of the Board of Trust, 
visited a portion of these lands during the month of May last. He found 
them situated widely apart, in four different counties, and gathered 
some valuable information about them. Originally the College owned an 
undivided half interest in 2,400 acres in that State. Many years before 
the organization of the Board of Trust, some of these lands were sold, 
and others wisely allowed to be sold by the State for taxes, as they 
proved to be not worth paying taxes upon. Our predecessors have never 
furnished us with a satisfactory record or description or location of 
these lands. Their locations, quantities, and quality have now been, as 
we think, ascertained as well as possible by our Secretary and Treas- 
urer, and the result of his examination shows that as the "survival of 
the fittest," there were left 720 acres of land in Wisconsin belonging to 
the College, in May last, since which time we have sold eighty acres for 
$400, leaving unsold 640 acres, a good portion of which is represented as 
fair in quality, and from which we hope to realize their value, and our 
efforts are being given to that end. 

Respectfully submitted, 

IBAAO M. Veitch, 
Pres. Board of Trust of the Synod of Missouri. 

The Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College would re- 
spectfully report: 

From the reports of the Board of Trustees and of the Board of Trust, 
it would seem that the affairs of the College are in very excellent con- 
dition, and its prospects most encouraging. As evidence of this, and 
among the special reasons for gratitude and thanksgiving, may be men- 
tioned the larger attendance of students, the entire freedom from debt, 
the increase of investments by nearly $6,000, the effort inaugurated by 
the Alumni to endow an additional Chair, and the outpouring of God's 
Spirit, in which the students of Westminster largely shared. These are 

302 History of Westmm^^er College 

all tokeRB of good <w)iicfa may well enooimtge hb for the future to en- 
larged effort and increased exertion, and for which we may '^Pndoe Ood, 
from whom all blessingB flow.** 

The need for a larger endowment is Bpeeially emphaaiaed by the fkct 
of the probable decrease, during the next year, of the revenue of tiie 
College, caused by the smaller rate of interest paid on investnents. 
And the attention of the friends of the Ck>lle8e and of Ohristiafn Educa- 
tion, is called to this need. 

The effort of the Alunmi to endow a Ohair of Metaphysics and Sa- 
cred Literature, to bear the name of that Tenerated man of God, Wil- 
liam S. Potts, is highly approved, and this is also most heartily com- 
mended to the liberality of Clod's people. For "as a man thinketh so is 
he;" right thinking secures right doing^; soundness in the faith is es- 
-sential to the soundness of morals. 

Grateful mention is made of that special gift, coming from two be- 
reaved parents under sad and touching circumstances, and the hope is 
expressed that their earnest wish may be realised, and this memorial of 
their boy be speedily erected in the complete endowment of the "John 
"Samuel Garth Scholarship." 


Thos. Watson, 
O. W. Gauss, 
J. J. Johns, 
J. H. MgKamst. 

From the report of the President of the Board at Synod 
in 1883 : 

There has been added to the Permanent Fund during the last year 
something over eight thousand dollars, viz.: legacy by Miss Jane A. 
Thompson, $2,000; legacy by Mrs. Mary C. McPheeters, $6,650; note to 
Potts' Professorship, by Rev. J. M. Chancy, $50; lot of land sold in 

There will be four or five hundred dollars more from the legacy of 
Mrs. McPheeters when the estate is finally settled. 

This addition to our Permanent Fund encouraged the Board of Trus- 
tees, at their last meeting, to do an act of justice to our efficient and 
self-sacrificing Faculty. The addition of two hundred dollars ($200) 
was voted to the salary of each. 

Financial— 1872 to 1886 303 

Th« order of the day was then taken up, yiz.: the report of the 
Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College, which was considered, 
amended, and adopted, as follows: 

The Committee on the Affain of Westminster College respectfully 
report that the reports of the Board of Trustees of the Colllege, also the 
Board of Trust and the President of the Board of Trust, have heen 
placed in their hands. These papers have been carefully read and con- 
sidered. From them we learn that the College is in a very encouraging 
condition. There are sereral things which seem to call for special no- 

1. The increasing attendance of students upon the College from 
year to year, the attendance last year being in excess of eleven over the 
year previous, showing the growing popularity of the College among 
the Presbyterians of this State, and indeed the people generally. 

2. The promising state of the finances of the College — ^the College 
not only being entirely free from debt, but the receipts last year from 
an sources being sufficient to meet the current expenses of the College, 
and also to increase the endowment fund by more tlvan eight thousand 
dollars ($8,000). 

3. The state of religion in the College. This is a matter especially 
gratifying. During the lant year some eighteen students in attendance 
upon the College were hopefully converted. At this time more than 
one-half are professing Christians, and are organized as a Young Men's 
Christian Association, holding weekly prayer meetings, and having com- 
mittees in charge of various branches of Christian work. Besides, there 
are sixteen students in the College who have the ministry in view, and 
several others considering the question of giving themselves to the work. 
These are all tokens of good which not only call for special thanksgiving 
to God, but which should encourage us to more earnest prayer for His 
blessing, as well as renewed effort on our part to enlarge the endowment, 
and increase tne efficiency of the College in the future. 

Grateful mention is made of the fact that during the past year the 
College has received by legacy of Miss Jane A. Thompson, $2,000; also 
by legacy of Mrs. Mary C. McPheeters, $6,650; which amounts have 
been placed to the permanent fund of the College. 

The committee would take occasion also to congratulate the Synod, 
as well as to thank God for the action taken by this Synod during its 
present session, inviting the co-operation of the Northern Presbyterian 
Synod in this State, in the support and endowment of Westminster 

304 History of Westminster College 

College. We can not but hope, from the cordial manner in which thifl 
invitation has been responded to by that Synod in the appointment of a 
committee to confer with a similar committee of this Synod in relation 
to this matter, that not only the efficiency of the College may be greatly 
enlarged thereby, but that the harmony of the two Synods may be pro- 
moted, and all the interests of our common Presbyterianism in the State 
be conserved. 

The action of the Board of Trustees in supplementing the salaries 
of the Professors of the College by the addition of $200 to each is fully 
endorsed, and, the hope expressed that the funds of the College may be 
sufficient hereafter to make this increase of salary a permanent thing. 

R. 0. Bbaitk« Chairman. 

So little change had taken place in the financial condi- 
tion in October, 1884, that three extracts from the proceed- 
ings of the Synod will give all that could be desired. The 
first is from the President of the Board of Trustees, Rev. 
Dr. Robertson; the second from the report of the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trust, Wm. G. Clark, Esq., who had 
been elected to that position on the death of Isaac M. 
Veitch, so long and so favorably known in the business af- 
fairs of the Church; the third document in regard to the 
relative function of the Board of Trustees and the Board 
of Trust in managing the affairs of the College we copy 
in full. 

♦ • 

This, without any extras, leaves a very small margin, and shows 
an absolute necessity to increase the endowment. The College to-day is 
free from debt with a small balance in the treasury. But little has yet 
been done towards endowing the Potts Professorship. The Executive 
Committee was fortunate in securing the services of Rerv. James A. 
Quarles, D. D., for the short space of six weeks, to canvass in behalf of 
this Professorship, in LaFayette and Upper Missouri Presbyteries. 
Though the time employed was during the excessive heat of the sum- 
mer, yet the result was very gratifying — amoimting in cash and notes 
to $2,466 and $685 promised, but no notes given. The Board feels oon- 


Fin(mcial'-'1872 to 1886 305 

fldent that an active and otherwise suitable agent would in less than 
twelve months secure the whole amount, $26,000. The remainder of 
the bequest of Mrs. Mary C. McPheeters has been paid since the last 
meeting of Synod, which, added to previous payments, makes the sum 
total, $6,171.46. This is invested in notes and bonds which bear inter- 
est at the rate of 6 and 8 per cent. 

The Board of Trustees has also received thie sum of $160 donated 
by Mrs. Mary A. Culver, of Grayson, Clinton coimty, Missouri, the in- 
terest of which, by the terms of the gift, is to be applied to assist young 
men in Westminster studying for the ministry. Are there not many 
other sisters in the Church who will follow the example of this noble 
woman ? 

It is with great joy and gratitude that we refer to the religious 
condition of the College. The past year has been attended with great 
spiritual blessings. Three months of the College term had not passed 
before there was the manifested presence of the Holy Spirit among the 
students. Five confessed Christ and were received into the Fulton 
church. Their conversion waa due, under Grod, to the observance of the 
week of prayer for young men, appointed by the World's Committee of 
the Y. M. C. A. During the college year there were led to Christ not 
less than seventeen students of Westminster . 

The college Y. M. C. A. is doing a good work. Its weekly prayer 
meeting is attended by fifty to seventy students. Its monthly missionary 
meeting is turning the minds of the young to the great foreign enter- 
prise of the Church. 

The lives of the students, with few exceptions, are consistent and 

There were last ^ear seventeen candidates for the ministry, four 
completed their collegiate course in June and are now in the theological 
seminary. The present term has opened with twelve ministerial stu- 
dents on the ground. As an index to the religious life of the students, 
we mention the fact that they gave last year to the erection of the Ful- 
ton church building $138, to the Y. M. C. A. work $30, and to the gen- 
eral missionary work $18. The present year opens as hopefully as the 
last. Let our Synod make earnest and continued prayer to Qod for the 
outpouring of His Spirit upon these young lives, and especially let all 
the churches in our Synod observe with united supplication the usual 
concert of prayer for our young men in our institutions of learning, on 


306 History of Westminster College 

the lagt Thursday in February, yea, and for the. daughters too, and who 
may tdl the blwsmgB. whidi may follow? 

Eespectfully submitted, 
W. W. RoBsaKiaoN, Prest. Board of Tnuteea* 


*Note8 bearing eight per cent interest $ 1,914 04 

Notes bearing seven per cent interest 13,100 00 

Notes bearing six and one-half per cent interest. . . 6,000 00 

Notes bearing six per cent interest 37,379 61 

Callaway Coimty Bond 60 00 

'$58,443 «5 


Notes and Bonds as above $58,443 65 

College Buildings 6,000 00 

Subscriptions, say 3,500 00 

Cash belonging to this Fund 1,726 59 

$69,670 24 

Ruling Elder Robt. L. Todd, chairman of the committee appointed 
by the Synod at its last meeting, on the relative fimctions of the Board 
of Trust, and the Board of Trustees, of Westminster College, submitted 
a report, which was received and adopted. It is as follows: 

Your Committee, to which was committed the duty of "examining 
and reporting to the next Synod, in regard to the relative function of 
the Board of Trust, and the Board of Trustees, of Westminster College, 
in the management of the funds of the College, and special bequests to 
the same." — ^Minutes of Synod, p. 35— respectfully report: 

That by Act of the General Assembly of Feb. 23« 1853 — Sess. 
Acts 1852-3, p. 281— the 'Trustees of Westminster College" are em- 
powered "to hold by gift, grant, demise, deivise, or othterwise, any lands, 
tenements, hereditaments, moneys, rents, goods, or chattels, of what kind 
soever the same may be, which is or hereafter (may) be given, granted, 
devised, demised, to, or purchased by them for, and to the use of the 
aforesaid College, and may sell, or dispose of the same, or any part 
thereof, or lease, rent or improve in such manner as they shall think 
most conducive to the interest and prosperity of said College." We learn 
from the "Constitution of the Board of Trust," that in Oct., 1869^ the 

Fvnafwiai^l872 to 1886 S07 

Synod adopted an ^Amended Flas for the Spedal EndowmtBl of Weft- 
minster Conege at Fulton, Ma.»" under which the Board of Trust oame 
into being. This Board adopted a eonHHtwhien, organized, and was 
duly incorporated by tiie Circuit Court of St. Louis county, July 14, 
1871. Its constitution, it is alleged, was submitted to this Synod, and 
approved by it. We assume that this is a correct statement. Art. Ill 
of Sec. 17, of said Constitution defines the object of said Board of Trust 
to be, "To receive such sums of money or notes as have been, or may be 
given, devised, or in any manner donated to the said Synod of Mieaouri 
for the endowment of Westminster College," and to invest the same," etc; 

Sec. 2 of said Article III authorizes said Board to receive, etc., 
^uch sums of money as may be given, devised, or in any manner do- 
nated to the said Synod of Missouri for the education of young men in. 
said college," and for divers other purposes. Th|is is regarded as a suf- 
ficiently complete statement of the functions of this Board of Trust for 
the purpose under consideration. 

Mrs. Mary C. McPheeters, by her last will, devised the residue of 
her estate, after payment of debts, etc., "to the Board of Trustees .of 
Westminster College at Fulton, Mo., in trust for the use and benefit of 
said college, and to be used and applied as the said Board of Trustees 
in their best discretion shall think fit and best for the interests of said 
college." The sum realized from this bequest is now in the custody and 
management of the Board of Trustees of the college. It is claimed by 
the Board of Trust that this sum, and all other donations for the benefit 
of the college, should be entrusted to the management of that Board — 
which was intended to be the financial agent of the Synod; and that the 
Synod could not have intended to have two distinct and separate boards 
for the care and management of the funds donated for the use of the 
college. It will be observed that the function of the Board of Trust 
is confined to cases where donations or bequests are made to the Synod 
of Mieaouri, That Board has no implied powers, none beyond those 
conferred by its charter. The bequest of Mrs. McPheeters is directly 
and specifically to the Board of Trustees of Westminster College, and 
carefully directs that it "be used and applied as the said Board of Trus- 
tees in their best discretion shall think fit and best for the interests of 
said college." It is difficult to find language more apt to confer a specific 
power on the Board of Trustees and to require of that Board personal 
and discretionary administration of the trust. We think Mrs. McPheet^ 
ers' bequest is in the proper hands, and ought not and can not lawfully^ 

308 History of Westminster College. 

be entrusted to any other body than the Trusteee of the college, in whose 
hands the testator, and not the Synod, placed it. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ROBEBT L. Todd, 
Jno. p. Phiujps, 
Geo. L. Leybubn, 


Extract from the report of the President of the Board 
of Trustees made in October, 1885 : 

We can not afford to lose any of our professors, from cause of in- 
adequate salary. Necessity is upon us. We must go forward. Our 
president, Dr. C. C. Hersman, has received a call to a Professorship in 
the Columbia Theological Seminary, South, Carolina. We may lose his 
valuable services, imless Synod take some decisive measure to retain 
him in his present position. 

The Board of Trustees would reigard his removal to Colimibia, es- 
pecially at this time, as an irreparable loss to our College and to the 
cause of education in our State. 

The Secretary Rev. W. H. Marquess was requested to prepare a 
brief history of the College, and have the same printed in circular 
form. The following resolutions were imanimously adopted by the 
Board, viz.: 

"The Board of Trustees of Westminster College respectfully request 
the two Synods of Missouri to take earnest and decisive action in the 
interests of the Institution. 

"In view of the happy co-operation of the two Synods in its support^ 
it is important to call the attention of all our Presbyterian people in 
the State to the history, the usefulness, and the need of the CoHege; 
and to this end, it is suggested that the Synods order the circular, 
which will be printed and sent to eveiy minister in the State, to be read 
from the pulpits of all our churches, and further, that a collection be 
taken on the last day of October, 1885, for the benefit of our cherished 

'The Board also resolved to overture the two Synods to consider 
the propriety of establislving a chair of Biblical Instruction in cc»i- 
nection with the College, for the purpose of conducting the students 
through a somewhat thorough course of Scriptural study." 

Financial— 1872 to 1886 309 

The Board of Trustees has received notes not now due to the amount 
of $2,669.50, also one not delivered of $1,600, making $4,269.50, the 
interest of which is to be applied to assist young men students of West- 
minster College in their preparatory studies for the ministry. 

The history of this bequest is interesting and deserves further not- 
ice. Mr. C. Trigg Campbell, of LaFayette coimty, requested, on his 
death bed, that his estate should be invested in such a way that the in- 
terest, from year to year, should be used to aid young men preparing 
for the Gospel ministry. He died intestate; his property then belonged 
absolutely to his heirs. But they desired to carry out the wish of their 
deceased brother. 

Through the attention of tried friends of Westminster, the estate 
was turned to our College. The Board adopted the following minutes: 

Resolved, That the Board of Westminster College hereby accept the 
fund so generously donated to the College by Greo. A. Campbell, L. 8. 
Campbell and Mrs. Sallie Harmon, out of the estate of their deceased 
brother, C. Trigg Campbell, in obedience to his dying request, upon the 
terms set forth in the instrument of writing, transferring the funds and 
creating the trust prepared and adopted by the Board. 

Resolved, That the Board hereby expresses its appreciation of the 
liberal Christian spirit that prompted the gift upon the part of C. Trigg 
Campbell, as his dying legacy, and its further admiration and thank- 
fulness for the fidelity and liberal philanth;ropic spirit that controlled 
his surviving relatives in their surrender of so considerable sum, which 
the law of the State made absolutely their own, and of which the Col- 
lege could never have been the gratefiil recipient except through their 
voluntary liberality. 

• •••••• 

The following is from the report made in October, 
1885, by the President of the Board of Trust : 


Notes, Bonds and Cash as above $59,543 65 

Cash 1,141 40 

College Building 6,000 00 

Subscriptions, say: 8,000 00 

Jaccard Fund 5,620 39 

$76,306 44 

310 History of Westminster College 


Poiis^ Professorship: 

Amount of Caah and Notes sent me $ 2,285 00 

Less payments as per above 160 00 

$ 2,136 OO 

There are two or three remarks, which, in concluding 
this brief account of the finances for the last few years, 
seem to be appropriate. One is that Rev. W. W. Robert- 
son, D. D., has been President of the Board of Trustees for 
over a quarter of a century — a veteran soldier, always at 
his post at Presbytery, at Synod, at all the meetings of the 
Board, always in front where trouble seemed darkest. His 
history is familiar to us for thirty years past and his un- 
shrinking devotion to the Church in all its interests has 
called out the most sincere admiration. A friend in 1852, 
he is Still more a friend to the College in 1886, a period of 
thirty-four years. When he falls it will be at his post wiA 
head and heart towards the welfare of Zion. "Well done, 
good and faithful servant" is the sentence of the entire 
State. Much of the history of the endowment has been 
gleaned from his writings officially made to the Trustees, 
and indeed often parts, or even the whole of his reports, 
are quoted. This acknowledgment is thankfully made. In 
addition to this. Dr. Robertson deserves unqualified thanks 
for his pains in hunting up documents, which but for his 
intimate acquaintance with all matters connected with the 
Institution, might never have been accessible. 

Another remark is that in the whole career of the Col- 
lege, its business has been managed with the utmost care. 
This is true at all points in its history. At times a course 
may have been adopted which others might have thought 
was not the wisest and yet a calm survey of the whole 
ground will approve the plan carried out by the Board. 

Financial-^1872 to 1886 311 

Granting that errors were committed, what man in caring 
for his own property for a quarter of a century will not 
make mistakes? After a careful investigation of all the 
papers, a fair judgment will place the seal of approval on 
the acts of the Board of Trustees and the Board of Trust. 
In all cases the circumstances must be taken into the esti- 
mate placed upon what was done. Let it be noticed that 
the course pursued was wise and one that involved both 
time and labor. Annually the Board of Trustees through 
its chief officer reported to the Synod the whole condition 
of the Institution, showing what money had come into the 
hands of the Treasurer and how used. At the same time 
the President of the Board of Trust gave a full statement 
of money received and paid over to the Trustees for cur- 
rent expenses and also furnished the exact state of the en- 
dowment. Both of these reports were then given to a com- 
mittee which made a third report on the state of the Col- 
lege to the Synod. Thus the whole Synod three times 
yearly gave a large part of its time to the affairs of its Col- 
lege. And, what is more, the Board of Trust reports yearly 
the whole amount of funds received by it since its organiza- 
tion in 1868, and how those funds were disbursed. These 
facts may be seen in all the accounts g^ven annually to 
Synod of the pecuniary affairs of Westminster for the 
last seven years. It is to be remembered too that the 
Treasurer at Fulton annually in June made a detailed re- 
port to the Trustees of all moneys received by him within 
the year. When it is known that the College is free from 
debt the success of its business managers becomes a pro- 
nounced fact. No other Presbyterian College has ever had 
connected with it more men distinguished for financial tal- 
ent. In its earlier days we have Dr. S. S. Laws, known 
everywhere in America for his remarkable executive and 

312 History of Westminster CoUege 

financial ability, representing the Faculty; in the early days 
of the Board of Trust we have Rev. J. M. Paris, as an exam- 
ple of the many faithful agents who have been raised up in 
hours of need; in connection with the Board of Trust we 
may mention the names of Mr. Isaac M. Veitch and Mr. 
W. G. Clark, both of St. Louis. Others might with equal 
reason be named. God has g^ven to this Western College 
not only teaching talent but in the highest degree also 
financial wisdom in its councils. One blessing only re- 
mains — a spirit of liberality — among those who have the 
money to give. We have the teachers, men of mark; we 
have men to manage our funds, clear headed, experienced 
and true, now give the means and the year of jubilee begins. 
The last remark is to recall the names of at least 
some of the agents who have blessed us with their 
toilsome labors. Rev. J. M. Fans, of Illinois, Rev. L. 
P. Bowen, D. D., Rev. J. A. Quarles, D. D., Rev. Robt. Mor- 
rison,* Rev. W. W. Robertson, D. D., and others, within 
sixteen years past, have rendered most efficient aid to the 
College. Indeed without the timely success of some of these 
brethren, suspension would have been perhaps imperative. 
Among those to whom this Presbyterian Child is most in- 

*0n the north wall of the chapel is a marble tablet which reads 
as follows: 

"In commemoration of the eightieth birthday of Rev. Rob- 
ert Morrison, D. D., a distinguished Presbyterian minister, 
whose work freed this College from debt, insured its future, 
and won for him the gratitude of all its sons. Erected March 
16, 1902, in respect and affection by Missouri Beta of Phi 
Delta Theta, whidi fraternity he founded at Miami University, 

The Tcnerable man was present when the fraternity unveiled tha 
tablet and celebrated the occasion by appropriate addresses. A few 
months later, July 29, he entered into rest. — Editor. 


Finan€ial-'1872 to 1886 313 

debted stand its agents — men, who, when the harvest 
comes, will reap with the bravest or best, after this long 

There was one agency that deserves and shall receive 
all the thanks and recognition which these pages can give — 
that is, the St. Louis Presbyterian, edited by Dr. R. P. 
Farris, without whose constant, intelligent, and persistent 
service, all other efforts might have been unavailing. In 
the name of the body to which he belongs we tender the 
genuine thanks of every friend of Westminster College. 
After the plans of co-operation had taken effect, another 
paper, The St. Louis Evangelist, most generously advo- 
cated the claims of the College. We were blessed in these 
papers beyond what is commonly recognized. 

Editob's Note. — ^A word in regard to Rev. Dr. M. M. Fisher's 
life may not be inappropriate. When he resigned his chair at West- 
minster in 1870, he became pastor of the Presbyterian church at In- 
dependence, Missouri, and President of th^ Presbyterian College for 
Toung Ladies at that place. When he returned to Westminster in 
1874, he and Key. Dr. Hill were co-pastors of the Fulton Presbyterian 
church, alternating in preaching. During this time they conducted one 
of the most successful revival meetings. The editor well remembers Dr. 
Fisher at this time; over six feet two inches in height, slender and 
straight as an arrow, with black hair and piercing dark eyes and aqui- 
line features; he attracted attention in any assembly. He was most 
winning and attractive to young men, and his influence was almost as 
great outside of the class-room as in it. He was a linguist of ability, 
the master of several languages, and a most successful teacher of the 
Latin. A few years before his death, the Missouri University, in which 
he was senior Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, sup- 
plied his place for a year, permitting him to spend the time in Europe, 
most of it in Italy. We may imagine with what pleasure he lingered 
among the monuments of that great people whose language!, history and 
literature he had studied for so many years. He returned shortly before 
his life-long friend. Dr. Laws, resigned the presidency of the University. 
The Board of Curators manifested their esteem and confidence in Dr. 

314 History of Westminster College 

Fiaher by electing him to be Acting-President. He Bucceesfully met 
the responsibilities and difficulties of the situation; but this labor^ for 
eighteen months, added to his duties as Professor of Latin, proved, as 
we learn, fatal to a constitution that had never been robust. Nervous 
prostration resulted, and on the twentieth of February, 1891, he finished 
his coarse and entered into rest. While connected with the University, 
he was seldom in the pulpit, but he preached the Grospel faithfully every 
Sabbath in the lecture-room of the Presbyterian church to a large 
Bible class, composed chiefly of students. In 1894, when the congre- 
gation at Columbia erected its new church, these services were reoog- 
nissed by the building of a beautiful memorial chapel, to whieh con- 
tributions were made by many friends; but the larger part of the ex- 
pense was boxne by his brother. Sylvester J. Fisher, of St. Louis. In 
this chapel the Bible class still assembles every Sabbath, and ia 
taught by Hon. Walter Williams; it is said to be the largest in the 


FrcHn June, 1887 to 1903. 



R. Chas. C. Hersman resigned his posi- 
tion as Professor of Greek Language 
and Literature and President of the 
College, in June, 1887, to accept the 
Chair of "Hebrew, New Testament 
Literature and Exegesis" in the 
Theological Seminary at Columbia, 
S. C* His letter of resignation as- 
signed, as the chief cause of his 
leaving Westminster, that the double burden of the Profes- 
sorship and the Presidency which he had borne for some 
years threatened to impair his health. In this letter he 
recommended for the Chair of Greek, Prof. H. C. Evans, class 
'81, who for several years had been a successful and popu- 
lar teacher in the S3modical Female College. The attend- 

*Iii June, 1888, he became Chancellor of the Southwestern Pres- 
byterian University and also Professor of 'The Biblical Languages and 
literature;'* in May, 1891, he was called to be '^enry Young Professor 
of Biblical Literature and Interpretation of the New Testament^' in 
Union Theological Seminary, now located at Richmond, Virginia. 


316 History of Westminster College 

ance and the discipline, as well as the scholarship, had been 
so satisfactory during Dr. Hersman's administration that 
his resignation was received, by all connected with the Col- 
lege, with great reluctance. After the announcement of his 
determination to leave Missouri, he urged that an effort be 
made to enlarge the buildings. Though many additions 
had been made to the endowment, no building had been 
added during the life of the College; and in this respect 
Westminster was falling behind even the younger Colleges 
of the State. 

After a brief consultation, at which the local members 
of the Board, a few of the business men of Fulton, and the 
Faculty were present, a spirited effort was made to secure 
funds for a new Chapel and for necessary alterations in the 
original building, now known as Westminster HalL 
Within a month $10,000 was subscribed, chiefly by citizens 
of Fulton and Callaway County, and work was begun at 
once, the plans and specifications being the gift of Mr. M. 
Fred Bell. The new chapel has a seating capacity of 750; 
on after-thought, the second story was arranged for a gym- 
nasium, the equipment having been purchased with funds 
secured by the student-body. The old chapel, with which 
so many memories are associated, was divided into three 
large recitation rooms. As the roof of Westminster Hall 
could not be renewed with the money at the disposal of the 
Building Committee, a temporary roof of metal was placed 
over it. Necessarily there resulted an architectural incon- 
gruity; and that incongruity remains to this day, for with 
the many needs demanding attention and draining the 
sources of income, there has been no opportunity to expend 
any considerable sum merely for the gratification of the 
eye. In justice to the architect and to the Building Com- 
mittee, it should be known that the fund was exhausted 

From 1887 to 1903 317 

before the plan of the Chapel was executed, and that the 
gallery and ceiling were left in a condition unexpected by 
those who were conducting the work. Nevertheless, the 
new building proved a great benefit to Westminster. It 
should be noted, in this connection, that the College has 
always commanded the approval of the community in which 
it is located, and that its citizens have been very liberal, 
considering their resources, in their gifts to its endow- 
ment and equipment. 

In parting with Dr. Hersman, the Board of Trustees 
recorded the following minute : 

The Board accepts with profound regret the resignation of Presi- 
dent C. C. Hersman. If our arguments and entreaties could avail, 
he would still reconsider his determination to withdraw to another 
field of labor; but, since his final announcement that his purpose to go 
elsewhere is irrevocable, there is nothing left for us but to acquiesce 
most reluctantly in his wish to be released from further connection 
with Westminster College. We can not, however, permit him to retire 
without giving expression to our high esteem and affection for him as 
a Christian, as a gentleman, and as a Teacher. Through the many 
years, some of them years of darkness and trial, during which he has 
stood faithfully by our beloved Institution, he hs more and more en- 
deared himself to us, and constantly deepened our impression of his 
eminent ability and great fidelity in the performance of the work to 
which he has devoted his talents and attainments. 

He may be assured, therefore, that he takes with him the confi- 
dence and love of the members of this Board, without a single excep- 
tion; and our prayers will follow him that he may command in an 
equal degree the respect and regard of the brethren with whom his 
future lot is to be cast. It is our sincere desire that he may be able 
to fill as acceptably to them, as he has to us, the new sphere of 
usefulness upon which he will enter, and be crowned at last with the 
approval of our Lord and Master. 

At this same meeting of the Board, Rev. Dr. J. G. 
Reaser filed his resignation of the Professorship of Meta- 

318 Historp of Westminster College 

physics and Sacred Literature. The Board "voted not to accept 
the resignation, and appointed a committee to confer yriih 
him." The following letter to the committee was read tx> 
the Board. 

Ret. Db. Bbookss Aim Gkn. J. Hookaoat, 

Deab Burruiuuf:—- 1 hare anxiously and prayerfullj eon-^ 
tidered the matter of mj continued connection with Westmin- 
ster College. I can only see it in this way: The very houi; 
that the Board elects a President, my position slips from me. 
You need only consult the Catalogue to be satisfied that even 
the Board has no alternative. Were no other door open to 
me now, of course I would feel justified in remaining, though 
it might be but for a year or two. As it is, I Ivardly think you 
will consider me as acting otherwise than prudently in regard- 
ing the call to another field as the voice of God. 

I deeply regret the necessity which I feel to be laid upon 
me, and earnestly hope that no serious injury may result to 
Westminster, yet in all the circumstances I am constrained 
to insist upon the acceptance of my resignation by the Board. 

Yours with great respect, 

J. G. Reaseb. 

In the meantime the Board had elected a President, 
and had passed the following resolutions: i. Resolved that 
the office of Vice-President of the College be and the same 
is hereby created. The duties of the incumbent of this of- 
fice shall be to discharge the duties of the President in case 
of the absence or disability of the President. 2. Resolved 
that the Vice-President shall have charge of the Chair of 
Metaphysics in the Academic department of the College. 
The minutes further record that Rev. J. G. Reaser was 
elected by acclamation to the office of Vice-President, and 
Rev. Dr. Brookes and General Hockaday were appointed to 
wait upon him. This committee reported the following: 

From 1887 to 1903 819 

Fulton, MiB8onK». JcnfB; ^ 1887. 
MsssBS. Brookes aud Hogkadat, 

DBAS BBETHBCir: — ^Please conTey to thA Hon. Board of 
Trustees of Westminster College my appreciation of the confi- 
dence expressed by electing me to the Vice-Presidency of the 
Institution. I am sorry I can not see my way clear to accept 
the position thus offered me. 

Yours with sincere respect, 

J. G. 

Whereupon the Board accepted the resignation acwf 
adopted the following: "Resolved that we desire to ex- 
press to Dr. Reaser our entire satisfaction with the work 
he has so well and so faithfully done in the College, and 
our sincere regret that he feels it his duty to leave us." 

In explanation of Dr. Reaser's unwillingness to with- 
draw his resignation, it should be stated that "He had ac- 
cepted a position elsewhere and was not sure that he could 
be released." A few months later the position tendered 
to Dr. Reaser was filled by the election, by the Northern 
Synod, of Rev. William Janes Wright of Massachusetts. 
Dr. Wright was visiting the English and German Universi- 
ties at the time of his election; he began his labors at 
Westminster in January, i888. 

Urged by the friends of the College, Rev. William 
Hoge Marquess, the young and energetic pastor of the Ful- 
ton Presbyterian Church, reluctantly consented to serve as 
President and to take charge of the Bible Classes, in ad- 
dition to his labors as Pastor, thus affording the Board 
time in which to choose a President who could g^ve his 
whole time to the work. The labors of Mr. Marquess, both 
as President and as Pastor, were greatly blessed; and it 
was only after he and the Session of the Church had made a 
second request for his relief that the Board, a few years 
later, yielded and accepted his resignation. During his 

320 History of Westminster College 

administration which began in June, 1887, the number of 
students steadily increased, beginning with one hundred 
and sixteen, and at the close of his term of office there 
were one hundred and fifty names on the roll. Financial 
agents were put in the field, and in every respect the in- 
terests of the College were stimulated. The second of 
these agents, Rev. Wm. H. Clagett, soon collected, chiefly 
in Callaway county, sufficient funds to make a number of 
improvements in Westminster Hall, besides some additions 
to the endowment. Mr. Clagett had been a student of 
Theology at Westminster when N. L. Rice, D. D., was 
President. At the time he planned and led the students in 
a successful movement to beautify the campus; there was 
not a single tree in front of, or for some distance north of, 
the buildings, and very little grass could grow on the clay 
soil. During a two days* holiday,* given at the request 
of the students, they secured young trees from the near-by 
forests and planted them in holes, two by three, by two 
and one-half feet, filled with rich soil hauled from the banks 
of the Stinson — thus creating the beautiful grove that to- 
day renders the campus so attractive. With the exception 
of the extreme north end of the campus, there is not a tree 
on the ground that was not planted by a student. A well- 
known College President once told the writer that, so far 
as he had been able to learn, this is true of no other College 
Campus in the United States. The trees would have per- 
ished during the succeeding dry summer, had not Mr. 
Clagett collected money to have water hauled from the 
creek — for Fulton was without water works in those days — 
to keep life in them. From time to time, students of 1870 
and 1871 have returned for brief visits to their alma mater ; 


riK. J. v. COWAX. 







ii ; 

From 1887 to 1903 321 

many have been able to identify the trees they planted, and 
all have been gratified at beholding the splendid results 
of their labor of love. 

The man who displayed such energy in his youth had 
lost none of it in mature life, and it was a matter of regret 
to many that Mr. Clagett felt called upon to return to his 
work as an Evangelist, after serving the College for a brief 
but successful term. 

At the close of the first year of President Marquess' 
administration,* a most important department was added 
to the curriculum ; concerning this department, we copy the 
minutes of the Board of Trustees, June 6, i888: "That 
Rev. J. F. Cowan, D. D., be elected to the Chair of Modern 
Languages, arrangements having been made to meet the 
expenses of his work without additional cost to the Board." 
It was further recorded that the Board "approve the crea- 
tion of a Commercial Course and such re-arrangement of 
the present curriculum as the Faculty judge expedient." 

Prof. H. C. Evans having resigned the Chair of Greek 
Language and Literature, to accept the Presidency of The 
Synodical Female College, the Board placed on record the 
following: "The Board of Trustees learns with deepest 
regret of the resignation of Prof. Evans. Prof. Evans 
came to his position in possession of the fullest confidence 
of the Board, both as to his scholarship and ability to 
teach. His year's work has abundantly confirmed this con- 
fidence. The Board would fain have retained him, believ- 
ing the work of the Chair was in faithful hands, but as it 

•He had accepted the presidency for one year and was annually re- 
elected until he positively refused to serve longer. The Synod passed 
a resolution asking Mr. Marquess to take the field as financial agent to 
secure the endowment of the chair of Biblical Instruction, leaving his 

Sulpit to be supplied by the Presbytery of Missouri; but his church 
id not consent. 


322 History of Westminster College 

has seemed to be an imperative call of duty which led him to 
resign, we reluctantly accept his resignation and part with him 
with sincerest regret." 

Prof. Evans was succeeded by Prof. J. J. Anderson 
of Holland, Michigan, whose scholarship was endorsed by 
a number of eminent educators. On account of impaired 
health he resigned in 1890. 

In 1889 were issued the first certificates of proficiency 
in the work of the Commercial Course, the recipients being 
Mr. Clyde Smith of Sweet Springs and Mr. W. P. Robison 
of Callaway county. In regard to this brief course, it may 
be remarked that it has annually enrolled a number of 
students, many of whom are engaged in business; but in 
most instances association with students pursuing other 
courses has inspired the commercial men to one or more 
years of additional study, and some have pushed onward 
until degrees crowned their efforts. 

In this same year we find the records of the Board 
saddened by memorials of Rev. J. P. Finley, D. D., and 
Col. Isaac Tate. Both had loved Westminster and 
served it most efficiently, the first as a teacher, and the 
second as a member of the Board ever since its existence, 
never having failed to attend its meetings. Dr. Finley 
died at Brookfield, Missouri ; Col. Tate died at his home 
in Callaway county, aged eighty-one years. 

To the Synod of 1889, the President of the Board re- 
ported that Westminster had graduated forty students who 
entered the ministry, twenty of whom were on the roll of 
Synod. During the session of Synod disheartening news 
came in the form of a telegram from the Synod North 
saying that co-operation would be discontinued and that the 
reasons therefor would be sent by letter; this letter was 
received the next day and read, as follows: 

From 1887 to 1903 323 

UoLDVN, MissouBi^ October 17» 1889. 
To the Synod of Missouri in Session at Mearioo: 

Deab Bbethben: — ^The Synod of Missouri in session^ at Holden, 
resolved to discontinue, at the close of the currant year, co-operation be- 
tween the two Synods in support of Westminster College. 

In sending you official notice, in accordance with the termfl of co- 
operation between the two Synods with reference to the support of 
Westminster College, that we desire to terminate the existing co-operation 
one year from date, this Synod judges it due to you to set forth its 
reasons, inasmuch as it was through your kind and fraternal invita- 
tion that we entered into the proposed co-operation. 

Two reasons in brief have led us to take the present action. 
Pirst — ^There is so much dissatisfaction among our Presbyteries and 
churchcfi with the present system of raising the salary for the sup- 
port of a Professor that the Synod judges it unwise to continue it be- 
yond the current year. Nor is it possible, in view of the present reUu- 
tion of tl^e two Synods, with no assurance of re-union, to raise on 
our part a permanent endowment for a chair. In view of this, we as 
a Sjmod can not, in honor, assume to nominate directors for an in- 
stitution which we do not own and to which we do not contribute 
directly any financial support. 

Second — It was distinctly imderstood among us at the time this 
co-operation was undertaken, that our chief purpose in entering into it 
was, that through co-operation we might make some advance toward 
th^ Organic Union of the two Synods. Since the hope of this has been 
removed by the action of your assembly, the main incentive to continued 
co-operation in Westminster College has been taken away. We* deeply 
regret this, for we believe that the best interest of the cause of Christ 
and our common Presbyterianism demands the union of our Synods; 
but since we can not attain this result, we believe it best for all 
parties that the control of Westminster College shall be in your hands. 

The above is a correct copy of the action of the Synod of Missouri 
in Session at Holden, October 17, 1889. 

Yours respectfully, 

R. iBwnf, S. C. 

Tlie committee to whom this letter was referred re- 
ported the following, which was adopted: 

324 History of Westminster College 

The letter containing the notice of this Synod of the with- 
drawal of the Synod of Missouri (North) from co-operation 
in support of Westminster College having been referred to the 
Committee on the Affairs of Westminster College, we recom- 
mend that the fact of the given notice be recorded on the min- 
utes of the Synod, with the accompanying statement that this 
withdrawal has been caused, not by any unfratemal act, or by 
the failure of any promise made on the part of this Synod, but 
by the good pleasure of the Synod of Missouri (NorUi) in ac- 
cordance with the terms of co-operation agreed upon by the two 


R. Q. Bbai^ Chairman. 

Thus failed a second attempt at co-operation. The 
minutes of the Board of Trustees of the College, dated 
"Kansas City, Oct. 12, 1870," record the following: "A 
resolution was adopted that the Board suggest to Synod to 
invite the co-operation of the Assembly Synod* in sustain- 
ing the College." No other reference to the subject ap- 
pears in the minutes; but, if the writer's memory is cor- 
rect, Hon. Wm. Chrisman of Independence and Judge 
Breckenridge of St. Louis drew the legal papers necessary. 
Dr. N. L. Rice, then President of the College, was very anx- 
ious to secure co-operation and it was at his suggestion 
the action was proposed. From some cause unknown to 
the writer, no further steps were taken. The plan, how- 
ever, was probably the same as the one whose failure is 
here recorded. As the writer understands it, the plan failed 
to secure the approval of the business men of the Church 
North; it was proposed that the funds subscribed for en- 
dowment in that branch of the Church should be kept sepa- 
rate and only the jnterest should be paid into the College 
treasury; then, in case of cessation of cooperation, from 

*At that time the Southern Synod was not connected with any Qen- 
era! Asaembly. 

From 1887 to 1903 325 

any cause, the Church North could use the fund as a nu- 
cleus for the endowment of an institution of its own. This 
might have resulted in Presbyterians having two weak 
colleges on their hands; no subscriber to the endowment 
could know to which of two uses his money might be put. 
Moreover, co-operation was conditioned on the Synod 
North raising the salary of one Professor — something for 
which no machinery was provided and hence they were 
having difficulty in doing it, especially as some of the 
Presbyteries had local educational interests. 

From what has been recorded, the reader might con- 
clude, without the foregoing explanation, that the two 
Synods were becoming decidedly unfriendly. To further 
guard that point, we turn aside to note that at this same 
meeting of Synod the following was reported and adopted: 

The Committees on Co-operation of the two Synods (Mis- 
souri) met by mutual arrangement in the lecture-room of the 
Second Presbyterian church, Kansas City, October 14, 1889, 
at 7:30 p. m. * * * * ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ • 
The Committee after discussion and deliberation adopted the 
following: 1. That we recommend to our respective Synods, 
that they urge the Presbyteries under their care to put into 
practical operation the recommendations of the General As- 
semblies with reference to "Co-operation in the Home-field." 
♦♦♦♦*• And we further suggest that 
the Synods recommend (1) that where one Presbytery has an 
organization already and the place is not large enough to sup- 
port two Presbyterian churches, the other Presbytery refrain 
from planting a rival church •$ and (2) wherever there are now 
two churches (both or) either of which is not able to support 
a minister alone, the churches be united, and the majority of 
the united church determine the ecclesiastical relation of said 


• «••••«• 

R. O. Bbajtk, Chairman. 

326 History of Westminster College 

Before leaving this subject, it may be not improper to 
say that during the period of co-operation two of the most 
active members of the Board of Trustees were furnished 
by the Northern Synod ; Rev. Dr. Brooks of St. Louis and 
Rev. Henry Bullard, D. D., of St. Joseph, Mo.: the latter 
was always present at the meetings of the Board, and his 
wise counsel proved that during the interval he had given 
the affairs of the College thoughtful attention. 

The cessation of co-operation threatened to deprive 
the College of the services of Dr. Wright; but friends of 
the College, in both Northern and Southern Churches, 
promptly sent in subscriptions covering the amount of his 
salary, and he consented to remain. Dr. Wright was an 
enthusiast on the subject of thorough education. Though 
one of the best mathematicians in the State and a success- 
ful writer on that subject, he preferred the Metaphysics. 
On this subject he lectured to his classes and then held 
recitations on the lectures. Students accustomed to text- 
book work, finding that less effort on their part was re- 
quired, often failed to appreciate, until a later day, the 
excellence of his instruction. To illustrate: a graduate 
who returned to visit his Alma Mater after his course at a 
Theological Seminary, said to the writer: "I never knew 
how much I learned from Dr. Wright until I was associated 
in classes with the graduates of a number of colleges, and 
was complimented on being better posted than any of them 
in Psychology, Logic, and Metaphysics." 

The following year. Dr. Wright relieved President 
Marquess by taking charge of "Biblical Instruction," and 
Mr. Marquess reluctantly consented to serve another year. 
Daniel S. Gage, of the class '89, who was pursuing his theo- 
logical course at McCormick's Seminary, succeeded Prof. 
Anderson in the Chair of Greek. Mr. Gage had a number 

From 1887 to 1903 327 

of years' experience in teaching, and was especially pro- 
ficient in this department. His continued success proves 
that the Board made a wise selection. At this time the 
Board created the degree of Bachelor of Letters; to attain 
it students were to pursue the course required for A. B., 
with the exception that additional Latin was substituted 
for Calculus. 

In the minutes of the Board, Oct. 17, 1891, we find the 
following which indicates the anxiety of Dr. Marquess to 
lay aside a part of the burden he had so gallantly and so 
successfully borne : 

Besolved, That the President of the Board of Tnistees be 
requested to communicate to the Rev. W. H. Marquess the ac- 
tion of our Board accepting his resignation to take effect at the 
close of the present College session^ in Jime next, and to assure 
him in the name of the Board that we most highly appreciate 
the work he has done for the College in the past, and the per- 
sonal sacrifices he is making in continuing to serve the College 
during the remainder of the current session ; that while we shall 
do all that we can to lighten his labors, we earnestly hope he 
will still bear the College on his heart, and he will give what 
aid may be in his power to secure to the College a man worthy 
in everyway to succeed him. 

Resolved, That the Board of Trustees place upon record 
their appreciation of the action of the Elders of the Presby- 
terian church in declining to press at this time their determi- 
nation to insist upon a severance of the connection that haa 
heretofore existed between their Pastor and the College; that 
we earnestly hope and pray no serious detriment may result 
either to their church or their pastor by this generous response ; 
and we pledge ourselves that there shall be no further demands 
in this direction upon their generosity. 

But Providence dictated a continued demand on 
President Marquess; for in January, 1892, a letter an- 
nounced that Mr. William Sausser of Hannibal, Mo., had 

328 History of Westminster College 

died, leaving the bulk of his estate, valued at $i2$,ooo, to 
Westminster College, and had appointed the President of 
the College his executor. The bequest, which is said to 
be the largest ever made to an institution of learning in 
Missouri, was subject, however, to an annuity of $2,500 to 
Mrs. Sausser. Mr. Sausser was a native of Maryland, but 
had removed to Missouri in his youth and engaged in busi- 
ness, first at St. Louis and later at Hannibal. Not having 
any children living, he had for many years contemplated 
leaving his property in such form that it would benefit the 
children of others. In 1872, at the suggestion of Rev. Leo 
Baier, class *66, Mr. Sausser invited Dr. Rice, President of 
Westminster, to visit him and inform him of the needs and 
the prospects of Westminster. Mr. Sausser, as he after- 
wards told the writer, was then in poor health, and obtained 
a promise that Dr. Rice would preach his funeral sermon. 
He told Dr. Rice that he would leave Westminster $50,000. 
But Mr. Sausser outlived Dr. Rice many years, and the 
friends of the College supposed he had lost interest in 
Westminster, especially as it was known that many eflForts 
had been made to give his proposed benefaction other di- 
rections. Toward the close of his life, however, Mr. Saus- 
ser notified President Marquess that he had adhered to his 
intention to make Westminster his heir. 

The will provides that the income, after paying an 
annuity to Mrs. Sausser, shall be used to promote the edu- 
cation of ministers, both by furnishing instruction in such 
subjects as will be of special benefit to theological students 
and by providing scholarships for the benefit of candidates 
for the Presbyterian ministry. 

The Board of Trustees made the following record; 

The Board of Trustees of Westminster College recognissea 
God's Providence in the generous gift made to the Institution 




From 1887 to 1903 329 

by the last will and testament of the late William Sausser, of 
Hannibal, Missouri; and the Board hereby formally accepts the 
bequest, and pledges itself to the faithful administration of the 
trust imposed by the conditions of the will. 

The Board desires to place on record its high and grateful 
appreciation of this noble gift which will perpetuate the public 
spirit and the broad-minded regard of William Sausser for the 
development of our educational interests. The splendid gener- 
osity which prompted so large a gift and the profound concern 
manifested in the desire to secure the welfare of the Church of 
Christ by the thorough training of men for the Qospel ministry 
are worthy of the highest praise and afford occasion for the 
deepest gratitude to God. The Board expresses to the widow, 
Mrs. Adelaide Sausser^ its grateful recognition of her devotion 
to the Church and her large-hearted liberality in consenting 
to, and approving of, the will of her late husband; in her be- 
reavement may she be comforted by the sympathy of all the 
friends of Westminster and may she be sustained by the power 
of Divine Grace. At as early a date as possible the Board will 
proceed to organize such chairs of Instruction as may be 
proper under the terms of the will. Ordered that an engrossed 
copy of this paper be presented to Mrs. Adelaide Sausser by 
the Secretary. 

The hearts of the Synod were greatly rejoiced by this 
providential relief, sent at a time when the prospects of the 
College seemed to be darkened by the failure of co-opera- 
tion. The Board promptly proceeded even before the in- 
come was available to inaugurate the work provided for 
by Mr. Sausser's will. On May lo, 1892, the Chair of 
Biblical Instruction wate created and was filled by the 
election of Rev. E. C. Gordon, D. D., of Lexington, Mo., 
who was also elected Vice-President, leaving Dr. Marquess 
free to add the duties of executor of the will to his duties 
as pastor of the Fulton church. In May, 1894, Dr. Gordon 
was elected President and Dr. Marquess at last was re- 
lieved of one-half the burden that he had expected, when he 

330 History of Westminster College 

assumed it, to bear for not more than one year. For his 
eminently successful services to his Alma Mater, rendered for a 
merely nominal salary, while he was burdened vrith the 
pastorate of one of the largest churches in the Synod, Dr. 
Marquess is entitled to the lasting gratitude of the whole 
church in Missouri. He undertook the task at a most criti- 
cal point in the history of the College; with faith, energy, 
and enthusiasm he surmounted or removed every obstacle 
and did not relinquish the leadership until the clouds had dis- 
persed and the sky was bright with promise. During 
these years of Dr. Marquess' double labor, God signally 
blessed the Fulton church and it was never more useful 
or more prosperous. 

Under the guidance of President Gordon, who had been 
connected with Washington — Lee University while General 
Lee was president of that institution, the curriculum of 
study was remodeled and thorough courses in Ethics, the 
Bible, Church History, New Testament Greek, and Hebrew 
were added. Some of these, of course, were elective, but 
the greater part of the course in the Bible was obligatory. 
Dr. Gordon secured the services of Mr. E. P. Maule, of 
Kirkwpod, an expert gymnast, as instructor in Physical 
Culture, and added largely to the equipment of the gym- 
nasium ; the annual gymnastic exhibition and the Field Day 
became features in college life. Mr. Maule's chief atten- 
tion, however, was given to his work as a student. 

At the meeting of June 6, 1894, the Board of Trustees 
met under the shadow of the death of its venerable presi- 
dent, W. W. Robertson, D. D., of Fulton, who had entered 
into rest May 27, 1894. We find the following memorial, 
presented by Rev. Franc Mitchell, on the minutes : 

From 1887 to 1903 331 

The Board of Trustees of Westminster College convenes under the 
shadow of a great sorrow. Our number is broken. The venerable form 
so long familiar to our sight is absent, and will never again occupy 
the President's chair, as of yore. William Wallace Robertson is with 
his God. 

There is scarcely a human life anywhere so unnoted or so mean 
that it can pass away, nor leave on earth some aching hearts^ some 
tear-dimmed eyes. But the passing of such a life as this touches 
thousands, and there is a great mourning. To the boundary of our 
State, and beyond, the Church of God, is bereaved. A Prince and a 
mighty man is fallen in Israel^ and our heads are bowed amid a mul- 
titude who mourn. 

The work of a biographer, can not be fitly compressed in these few 
paragraphs, and yet some brief outline of the life's history and work 
may be allowed, that he who "though dead yet liveth" to our hearts, 
may still speak on his words of faith, and love, and consecration, to 
the generations that are following. 

Briefly then sls to the salient facts: Dr. Robertson was of Scotch- 
Presbyterian descent, and was born in Danville, Kentucky, on the sixth 
of December, 1807. He was the only son of his father who was a life- 
long school teacher, from whom he also received his earlier education. 
In early life he gave his heart to Christ, and contrary to th/s wish of 
his father (at that time an unconverted man) determined to give hi» 
life to the ministry of the Word. With this purpose before him he 
manfully worked his way through college, taking two years of instruc- 
tion at Center College in Kentucky, and the remainder of his course at 
Miami University in Ohio. From the latter institution he was gradu- 
ated with honor in 1834, and was at once retained as an instructor in 
the halls of his Alma Mater, which position he held for six years, the 
while preparing himself by special studies, for the work which he had 
chosen. These he pursued under the direction of Rev. Dr. Bishop, whose 
daughter. Miss Mary A. Bishop, he had married in 1832. Soon after the 
close of this term of preparation, in the year 1841, he came to Missouri, 
and settled in Callaway county, beginning that long career of active 
usefulness, which has made his name a household word throughout the 
States and which continued without intermission from the time of his 
arrival, until within a very few months ago, when by reason of years 
he was compelled to leave to other hands the work into which he had 
thrown his whole soul. In the closing month of the past year God 

332 History of Westminster College 

called to her rest in Heaven the beloved wife who for more than half 
a century had been a helpmeet to his servant, and to whpse self-denials, 
cheerfulness, and prayer the world is indebted — God only knoweth how 
much — for the success of her husband's life. Since her departure the 
lonely heart of the survivor has patiently waited for its release, and the 
hold of life has grown more feeble till in the Sabbath noontide, of May 
27, while God's people were assembled for worship in the church below, 
his spirit joined the great Congregation in The Upper Sanctuary. 

The life of Dr. Robertson in Missouri may be best considered 
imder three heads, first, as a Pastor ; second, as an Evangelist, and, third, 
in its connection with Christian Education. 

In the technical sense, Dr. Robertson was never a pastor, yet his 
engagements with some of the churches, especially those of Fulton, and 
Concord, have displayed all the essential elements of the pastorate. 
As a preacher he was clear, earnest. Scriptural and fearless. He never 
cared, and therefore never tried, to preach what men would call a g^reat 
sermon. His aim was rather to awaken, to admonish, to strengthen the 
Spiritual life, to build up his hearers. In his personal contact he en- 
deared himself to all the people to such a degree that it was universally 
conceded that he could accomplish among them what would have been 
impossible to any other. Never himself a sectarian, he yet fully un- 
derstood the sectarianism of others and knew how to guard his people 
against the attacks, and guide them safely amid the snares, and deliver 
them from the wiles to which they were exposed from such sources, so 
that his churches steadily increased in numbers, in influence and use- 

Neither was Dr. Robertson what, in these days, we have learned 
to can an Evangelist, and yet he did the 'Svork of an EvangBlist.'* 
Probably no one in Missouri did it so extensively, or so well. Having 
the individual churches resting on hdm, together with other duties of 
whch we may speak presently, yet he never failed to find time to go 
to the help of brother ministers when called to assist at the harvest 
time of souls; and with faithful, watchful interest he was ever on the 
lookout for some neglected point where he might lay the foundation 
for a new church, or put new life into some discouraged and faltering 
band of believers. It was in such work as this, that as a preacher he 
displayed his peculiar power and stood forth unequaled in his day. 
With fearful clearness he set forth "the exceeding sinfulness of sin;" 
in words that burned their way into men's souls he told the terrors 

From 1887 to 1903 333 

of the broken law, and the agonizing woes of the lost; and followed 
all with so touching a pathos and sweet and winning a presentation 
of the love of God in Christ, that it seemed as if power not of man went 
forth from him to constrain men unto God. It is said that in services 
where he labored, in one year a thousand souls professed conversion to 
Christ; and in such labors he abounded for fifty years. 

With that which has been written most men might perhaps be more 
than content could it truly be said of them. But into the sum of Dr. 
Robertson's life another element, scarcely if at all, less blessed to the 
church and the world, than these— his influence in promoting Christian 
Education. As has been already related the first six years of his life 
in this State were too fully employed in establishing his church upon 
a sure footing, and in bearing the Bread of Life to the starved and 
destitute, to admit of anything else. But in 1849 he deemed that the 
time had come when Education would be invoked to sit and serve as 
the handmaid of Religion. In that year he introduced in the Pres- 
bytery of Missouri an overture to the Synod which proved to be the 
germ from which has developed the Synod's favorite child and strongest 
support — Westminster College. Nor was this all; believing then as in 
later years, that the education of girls should keep pace with that of 
the boys, in 1850, he himself opened a school for young ladies which 
he conducted successfully for many years, and which was but the fore- 
runner of the Synodical Female College. His plans for a school for 
young men ripened slowly, yet steadily he pressed them forward until 
in 1862, the Synod at last located the College, and in February, 1853, 
it received a charter from the State. Prominent among its Trustees 
from the first, appeared the name of W. W. Robertson, though he was 
not as has been very generally supposed. Chairman of the Board. That 
honor was at first bestowed upon Dr. A. A. Riley, but upon his death 
in 1854, Dr. Robertson was chosen to fin the vacant chair, a place 
which he has held without a rival for nearly forty years. To fully set 
forth his connection with this Institution would be to write a history 
of the College, from the beginning, with all its pupils, its trials, its 
struggfles and its triumphs — a work too vast and important alike for 
this pen and this occasion. For fifteen years, from 1854 to 1869, he 
was not only Chairman of the Board of Trustees, but also Financial 
Agent, accomplishing a work without which, the doors of the Institution 
must have been closed. In all thiese years and those that followed, his 
faith that God would bless and prosper this child of his love has never 

334 History of Westminster College 

wavered. In times when many strong hearts were ''failing them for 
fear^ his heart has ever heen full of eourage, his voice ever sounded a 
note of cheer. How the God in whom he trusted, has deliyered and 
hlessed, how again and again, He has hrougfat hack the sunshine after 
the cloudy day, stands in the histoiy of the College, a witness of his 
faithfulness — a stimulus to faith. 

Such then is the life, and these the works of him« whose loss wa 
mourn. No words we might place upon the record could fully express 
our appreciation of their value. We can only thank God that they are 
ours — a precious legacy — and pray that the mantle of so broad a use- 
fulness may fall upon other shoulders; and with bowed head give best 
expression of our deep sympathy for those who mourn him most, with 
silent tears. 

Editor's Note. — A memorial tablet placed in the Chapel, in 1892, 
reads as follows: "William Wallace Robertson, D. D., 1807-1894. Father 
of Presbyterianism in Central Missouri. President Westminster Board 
of Trustees 1854-1894. Prominent among the founders of this College. 
For forty years most devoted and imtiring in its service. Hero of 
faith. Wise master-builder. His works do follow him." 

Judge John A. Hockaday of Fulton was elected Presi- 
dent of the Board and has been re-elected annually. Judge 
Hockaday received his education at Westminster and has 
ever been its firm friend and a liberal contributor to its 
treasury. He received, some years ago, from Central Col- 
lege the degree of Doctor of Laws; it was most worthily 

In the summer of 1896, John Newton Lyle, Ph. D., who 
for so many years had labored in the department of Physi- 
cal Science successfully, though sadly hampered by the 
limited equipment, offered his resignation. Dr. Lyle's 
health had been so poor that his duties as instructor had 
become a burden ; during the last term of his service, his 
son, Rev. E. H. Lyle, of Colorado Springs, surrendered, for 
a time, his pastoral duties and came to Fulton to relieve 
his father of all class-work. Mr. Lyle, who is a graduate of 

From 1887 to 1903 335 

Westminster and has taken post-graduate work at Harvard, 
succeeded to the satisfaction of the students, the faculty, 
and the Board. Dr. J. N. Lyle came to the College in the 
dark war-days, and had served it most faithfully. A large 
part of his life was the life of Westminster, and the affection 
of many who were associated with him, as students and as 
instructors, have followed him to the new sphere of labor 
into which he entered after two years of complete rest. 
Dr. Lyle was succeeded by L. L. Campbell, Ph. D., an 
alumnus of Washington-Lee University, and at the time 
of his election a member of the faculty of the Presbyterian 
College of South Carolina. His services in the department 
of Science have proved most efficient. He began making 
a collection for the Museum, which has already become 
very valuable. 

The year 1898 marks an era in the life of the Literary 
Societies. These useful societies had been successful for 
many years ; the excellent training they gave had been ap- 
preciated by the student-body as well as by the faculty and 
the Trustees ; annual addresses of a high literary character 
had been delivered before the societies by some of the most 
eminent speakers of the day, and crowded audiences had 
greeted all their exhibitions and public exercises. But, for 
some reason unknown, the interest of the students lan- 
guished until the membership and the character of the exer- 
cises were reported to be far below what they had been in 
past years. At one time a number of earnest students with- 
drew and formed a third literary society. On motion of 
Rev. Franc Mitchell, the Board offered to the Philologic 
and the Philalethian Societies a prize of $25 for the best 
exhibition. At first each society occupied an evening, and 
the judges had to attend both exercises; later, the Board 
provided for a joint exhibition. The eflFect of the rivalry 

336 History of Westminster College 

soon became .perceptible ; gradually the societies regained 
both in membership and in pride, and their contest became 
one of the most interesting features of Commencement 
week. During this period we find on the minutes both of 
the Board and of the Synod evidence of the concern of both 
bodies for a revival of practice in forensic exercises. 

In 1897 the College received from Mr. and Mrs. Jacob 
Staley of Saline Co., a collection of moths made by their son 
who was an ardent student of this form of life. He is said 
to have been a youth of great promise, but death called 
him before he came to the maturity of his powers. This 
collection, which has been pronounced one of the choicest 
in the country, is carefully preserved in the museum. 

During Dr. Gordon's administration associations of 
Alumni were organized and began to use their influence 
to promote the growth and usefulness of their Alma Mater. 
B. H. Charles, Esq., class '85, finding that there were many 
ex-Westminster students in St. Louis, induced them to 
form that large and flourishing organization that has done 
so much for the College, and the fruit of whose plans is yet 
to mature. Similar associations were formed at Kansas 
City, Sedalia, Kennett, Mo., and Louisville, Ky. Under 
the direction of the General Association preparation of a 
General Catalogue has been in progress for some time. 
The Trustees having approved a plan presented by Mr. 
Charles, subscriptions to an Alumni fund, which is steadily- 
increasing, were secured. At the instance of Dr. Gordon, 
the Trustees placed a scholarship at the disposal of each 
association. The General Association, with the consent of 
Synod, began to nominate each year one of their number 
for membership in the Board of Trustees. Dr. J. G. Moore 
and S. J. Fisher, Esq., of St. Louis and E. W. Grant of Ful- 
ton having been so nominated, were elected by Synod. At 

. Dii. i:. V. (loniKix. 


From 1887 to 1903 337 

its meeting in 1902, after the union of the Synods in sup- 
port of the College, the association made no nomination, 
and referred the question of a continuance of the practice 
to the Synods. 

While Dr. Gordon was president Westminster became 
a member of the Missouri College Union, a body which 
Dr. Gordon assisted in organizing. This Union, then con- 
sisting of Washington University, Drury College,^Missouri 
University, Central, William Jewell, Missouri Valley, and 
Westminster Colleges, has been instrumental through the 
State Association of Teachers, in promoting education in 
the secondary and high schools, especially in partly closing 
the gap between the high schools and the Freshmen class 
of Colleges. One result of its efforts among colleges is 
seen in the increase of its membership. 

On December 23, 1897, Dr. Gordon, having deter- 
mined to re-enter the pastoral work and somewhat dis- 
couraged, perhaps, by the increasing debt and the slowness 
with which the church responded to his appeal for funds, 
resigned the presidency and accepted a call to the church 
at Lexington, Mo., which he had served so acceptably be- 
fore coming to Westminster. At the solicitation of the 
Board, Dr. Gordon continued his work in the class-room 
until June, going to Lexington every Saturday and return- 
ing on Monday. The Faculty were requested to elect one 
of their number to act as chairman until the Board could 
elect a president. They elected Dr. Gordon, but he de- 
clined ; Dr. Cowan refused to permit his name to be con- 
sidered and the office fell to John J. Rice, who held the 
Chair of History and Literature. 

At the meeting of the Board on June i, 1903, the fol- 
lowing minutes was adopted : 


338 History of Westminster College 

The Board takes pleasiire in placing upon record its ap- 
preciation of Dr. Qordon's services as Presidoit of the Col- 
lege and Professor of Bible Instruction. For six years he has 
gone in and out before the students and citizens of the com- 
munity, and his life has been an inspiration for good to all 
with whom he has associated. His courteous and gentlemanly 
conduct has elevated the tone of honor and true manliness amon^ 
the students; the superior teaching in the Bible Course, of 
which he was the Professor, has made an impression upon the 
minds and hearts of many who sat imder his instruction that 
time win not efface and the friiits of which will be seen many 
years to come. We ask that his life may be spared for a long 
period of time and that the blessing of God may rest upon him. 

The following also appeared of record. 

The Board learns with pleasure and pride from the report 
of the Acting-President that the students have imiformly re- 
spected the rules and little occasion for discipline has arisen 
during the past session. We commend our students upon their 
record made for decorum and deportment this term, and trust 
the enviable reputation made may be emulated in the future 
history of the College. It was ordered that the above be read 
to the students on Commencement Day. 

The Committee on Instruction for the past year was repre- 
sented by Rev. A. A. W^allace, who presented the following re- 
'port: "'As a member of the Committee on Instruction it waa 
my privilege to examine, in January, the examination papers 
from the various departments. These papers show the work 
done by the Faculty and students to be of a very high order. 
The high character of the work evidenced by these papers calls 
for the sincere praise of the Board and the friends of the Col- 

The Board established a Resident Master of Arts 
Course; provided for the acceptance of certificates from 
High Schools "for work done in them corresponding to 
Westminster's Academic work;" directed that "Washing- 

From 1887 to 1903 839 

ton's Birthday be observed hereafter;" ordered that "in- 
stead of two exhibitions, the Literary Societies hold a joint 
exhibition;" and granted two ladies, graduates of the 
Synodical Female College who desired to prepare them- 
selves to teach, permission to attend classes at Westmin- 
ster. This permission seemed to alarm some friends of the 
College, to whom it appeared to be the thin edge of the 
co-educational wedge. One of these ladies attended one 
year and then secured a position as teacher. Another con- 
tinued to attend for several years, and by vote of the Fac- 
ultry was granted a certificate of the work she had done. 
Later (1902-3) one or two attended for one year. Rhetori- 
cal exercises in chapel, which had been omitted for some 
years, were resumed. 

During the sixteen or eighteen months of the inter- 
regnum, the attendance and funds had not increased, and 
the members of the Board were fully aware of the import- 
ance of electing a president ; they held more than one meet- 
ing for the consideration of that subject, but they were in- 
clined to move with caution ; at one of their meetings they 
appointed a committee on correspondence with a view to 
obtaining a list of names from which a choice could be made. 
At a session held at Mexico, December 12, 1898, the acting 
president urged that no man hampered by class-room duties 
demanding his constant presence in Fulton, as had been 
the case with the former president and as was the case with 
the acting president, could succeed in meeting the present 
demands of a College in this State ; he hoped that the Board, 
when it elected a president, would take off these shackles 
and would clothe him with the power and responsibility 
a president ought to have. A committee of five was ap- 
pointed on the election of a president and the reorganiza- 
tion of th6 Faculty and the courses of study. It was pro- 

340 History of Westminster College 

vided that for the present the president (when chosen) 
should be relieved from all class-room duties, and should 
be charged with the administration of college affairs, in- 
cluding its finances. On March 27th, the committee sub- 
mitted its correspondence. The committee was continued 
with the power to consummate an election, if on inquiry 
they should be satisfied, the first choice of the Board beings 
Mr. John Henry MacCracken of New York. In May the 
committee reported the election and acceptance of Dr. 

Note. — Section 2, Chapter Vm, page 28, of the By-Laws waa 
amended by adding the following, conoeming the President: "He shall 
also represent the College personally, by voice and pen, seeking students 
and additional endowments as he may have time and opportunity. In 
connection with the Faculty he shall have general oversight of the in- 
struction and discipline of the College, examining in person, from time 
to time, the work done in the class-rooms, both by Professors and stu- 
dents, in lectures, recitations, and examinations, observing the course 
and methods of instruction and the proficiency of the students." Prof. 
Rice, who had been Chairman of the Faculty, having been re-elected by 
the Board at the meeting in March, was elected Vice-President. 

Mr. MacCracken is a graduate of the New York Uni- 
versity and the son of the able and successful Chancellor 
of that Institution. He completed his course for the de- 
gree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Halle- 
Wittenberg, Germany; at the time of his election he was 
Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the New York Uni- 
versity. He entered upon the duties of his office in Sep- 
tember, 1899. 

Dr. MacCracken's election attracted very general at- 
tention because he was said to be the youngest man in the 
United States, if not in the world, holding the presidency 
of an important College. His picture appeared, with this 

From 1887 to 1903 341 

Announcement, in magazines and newspapers, and elicited 
much comment. His youthful appearance, no doubt, caused 
many a misgiving in the ranks of the friends of the College ; 
and his very quiet and modest demeanor gave little assur- 
ance to the doubters. But he had been trained by a vet- 
eran, and before a year had elapsed he had turned doubt 
into enthusiastic confidence. For a time he quietly studied 
the field, and then as quietly went to work. He kept his 
own counsel ; when he left Fulton, the members of the Fac- 
ulty, including the writer, seldom knew whither he went or 
the date of his return. So far as we were informed, he had 
not begun his work, when on April 26, 1900, a little more 
than six months after he reached Fulton, the Board of 
Trustees was called to meet at Mexico "to consider the 
changes in the curriculum recommended by the Faculty 
and to take the necessary steps for the erection of a Science 
Building, etc." The President placed before the Board a 
list of contributors, showing sufficient to erect and equip a 
building at a cost of $20,000. Among the changes in the 
curriculum were the division of the Chair of History and 
Literature into the Department of English Language and 
Literature and the Department of History and Political 
Science, and the elective work in all departments was made 
more varied ; the requirement for the B. L. degree was in- 
creased from 54 to 64 hours ; the Academy was reorganized. 
At this meeting William Janes Wright, D. D., L. D.,* re- 
signed the Chair of Bible and Metaphysics, and the Board 
adopted the following minute : 

Resolved, That the Board of Trustees place on record their 
appreciation of the long and faithful services of Professor 
Wright in the chair of Metaphysics and Christian Apologetics, 

*Died at Fulton, in 1903, aged 72 years. 

342 History of Westminster College 

and of his earnest devotion to the College and its interests. 
In his retirement from the Faculty, the College will lose a 
Professor eminent, not only in general scholarship, but for dis- 
tinguished attainments in several departments of learning, as 
well as a man whose qualities as a christian j^ntleman have 
endeared him to his colleagues in the Faculty, the Board of 
Trustees, and the students of the College. The Board desire 
to express the hope that continued and enlarged usefulness may 
follow him in whatever occupation in life he may hereafter be 

The Board elected President MacCracken to the Saus- 
ser Chair of Philosophy and Christian Apologetics; and 
Profs. Gage and Rice were requested to render him assist- 
ance in the work in this department; Dr. Cowan was re- 
quested to add to his duties three hours of instruction in 
the Bible. 

At the Commencement, in June, 1900, for the second 
time in the history of Westminster, the President was 
formally inaugurated. By appointment of the Board of 
Trustees, Rev. J. F. Cannon, D. D., of St. Louis, delivered 
an address ; he was followed by Judge Hockaday, President 
of the Board, and then President MacCracken delivered his 
inaugural address, taking for his subject "The Place of 
Science in the College Curriculum." At this Commence- 
ment, after appropriate exercises, "ground was broken" for 
the new building, "Science Hall," by Mrs. Mary C. Parker, 
of St. Charles, Mo., who had contributed $5,000 toward its 
erection. Before Dr. MacCracken's election, Mr. S. J. 
Fisher, of St. Louis, who has been one of the most active 
and most practical friends of Westminster, had sought to 
interest Mrs. Parker, and had suggested that she endow a 
Laboratory in memory of her husband, the late Mr. Henry 
S. Parker. There was nothing definite, howevjer, until Dr. 
MacCracken took up the work and, at Mr. Fisher's request. 

From 1887 to 1903 343 

visited Mrs. Parker. A year later Mrs. Parker added 
$1,500 to her gift. The Chemical Laboratory bears the 
name of Henry S. Parker. In the following April, Science 
Hall was completed, and its laboratories and lecture rooms 
were supplied with every convenience for work in Physics, 
Chemistry, Biology, and Geology. Having secured addi- 
tional funds, Dr. MacCracken installed a steam-heating 
plant and conducted the heat to all of the apartments in 
Science Hall and Westminster Hall ; the gymnasium was 
equipped with new apparatus, and all modern conveniences. 
The rooms in Westminster Hall, formerly occupied by the 
Department of Science, were thrown together and supplied 
with desks for the Academy. The rooms in the rear were 
thrown t(%ether and the Library formerly inaccessible to 
students, was placed there under charge of Curators who 
kept it open for students during all college hours. 

The year 1901 is a very important period in the history 
of the College. The views of what constitutes a College 
education and what should be the requirements for degrees, 
as well as the distinctions in degree indicated by the 
nomenclature, had undergone a gradual change, the effect 
of which became perceptible at conservative Westminster 
in this year. "By unanimous vote of the Faculty, and with 
the approval of the Executive Committee, it was decided 
to offer but one degree, the degree of Bachelor of Arts, to 
all who complete any of the three courses of study offered 
by the College. This is in accordance with a usage which, 
for some time prevalent in certain Southern Colleges, is 
now rapidly spreading all over the country, and which has 
recently been adopted by Columbia, Cornell and the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

"It is based upon the theory, that the introduction of 
the elective system destroys the significance of the old A. 

344 History of Westminster College 

B. degree ; and that, inasmuch as the completion of the Col- 
lege course represents a liberal education rather than spe- 
cialization along particular lines, it is not important to have 
specialized baccalaureate degrees." (Records of Board, p. 
255). Among the institutions of this State that had made 
changes in the A. B. degree were mentioned Missouri State 
University, which decided, in 1900, not to require Greek for 
the A. B. degree. 

Many who agree with Dr. Fisher, that the old classical 
course is the best course for mental training, will disap- 
prove, perhaps, of this departure. We imagine that those 
who disagree with them might offer two answers: first, 
that those who object have not tried the new roads to the 
degree of Arts and are not well qualified to advi§e ; second, 
that, even supposing their objections well-founded, there 
are certain terms current in the educational market, and to 
that current use every College, willy-nilly, must conform. 
Our older scholars would shake their heads deprecatingly 
over that term "educational market ;" nevertheless, with the 
large number of American Colleges and the keen competi- 
tion in which they annually engage, the term will not ap- 
pear inappropriate to the College president of to-day. 

Gifts for the year, amounting to over $16,000, were an- 
nounced. Messrs. Louis and William Huggins, of St. Jos- 
eph, Missouri, subscribed $10,000, to be used either as endow- 
ment or for erecting a dormitory; in accordance with a 
previous action of the Board, providing that an existing 
Chair should be named for any person making a gift of that 
amount, the "Huggins Professorship of Mathematics and 
Astronomy" appeared in the annual catalogue. 

At the meeting of the Board, in June, 1901, we find 
recorded a tribute to the memory of Rev. Joshua Barbee, 
who as evangelist and pastor had spent a long and most 

Dit. .mux ii. macci{ai:ki:n. 

From 1887 to 1903 345 

useful life in the State. "He was- specially interested in 
Westminster College. Here his sons were educated. Here 
he gave his money, his time, his wisdom, in managing both 
men and affairs." And here we take occasion to remark 
that among the g^fts to Westminster that may be obscure 
here, none will shine brighter in the great hereafter than 
the unselfish labors of the members of its Boards of Trus- 
tees. Twice, and sometimes three or four times a year, the 
brethren charged by Synods with the care of this Institu- 
tion have journeyed, at their own expense, from distant 
homes to spend days or nights in devising ways and means 
to maintain it and to enlarge its usefulness. 

With the close of this College year, Professor Edward 
Strother Wood, A. M., terminated his fourteen years of 
faithful service as Principal of the Academy. The Board 
placed the following on record : "In accepting the resigna- 
tion of Prof. E. S. Wood who has for so many years taught 
in the Academic Department of the College, the Board 
places on record its appreciation of his devotion to his work 
and to the interests of the College, to the zeal, patience, and 
fidelity with which he has discharged his duties, to the 
good influence he has exercised over his students, and to 
the success which has crowned his work in teaching certain 
branches of learning to which he has devoted special at- 
tention." ***** 

Professor Wood had received a part of his education 
at Westminster, and had been a successful teacher in the 
public schools for a number of years before beginning his 
service in the College. For two or three years he served 
Westminster very successfully as Adjunct Professor of 
Physical Science. Professor Wood at once returned to 
work in the public schools, becoming Principal of the Ful- 
ton High School. He was succeeded at Westminster, for 

346 History of Westminster College 

one year, by Rev. Horace B. Banks, class '78, who in turn 
was succeeded by Rev. James Edgar Travis, class '94. 

In this year, for the first term, credit of one hour to- 
ward a degree was given for the completion of the course 
of instruction in the gymnasium ; the classes were in charge 
of Mr. Wm. G. Coxhead, of St. Louis, a most excellent in- 
structor ; it is due to Mr. Coxhead to say that, in addition to 
this work, he was a faithful and successful student; hence 
he refused offers to engage in similar work, at a larger salary, 
at other institutions. 

The most important event of the year was the suc- 
cessful completion of negotiations between the two Synods 
for co-operation in the ownership and support of the Col- 
lege — a form of co-operation that is in its nature perma- 
nent and which more than doubles the constituency of the 
College, both in numbers and in resources. In recording 
this re-union of hearts and hands in educational work, we 
take the liberty of incorporating the greater part of the 
October, 1901, Bulletin of Information, issued by the Presi- 
dent of the College, entitled "The Plan of Co-operation 
adopted by the Northern and Southern Synods of Missouri 
in behalf of Westminster College, with some account of the 
movement leading to it." 

Westminster College will hereafter represent the Synod of Mia- 
Bouri of the Northern Presbyterian church, as well as the Synod of 
Missouri of the Southern Presbyterian church, in the work of Christian 
Higher Education for Young men. 

The Southern Synod has offered in a most generous and fraternal 
manner to share with the Northern Synod on equal terms the manage- 
ment and control of Westminster; and the Northern Synod, without 
a dissenting voice, has accepted the offer in the same spirit in which it 
was made, and has entered into the new privil^es and responsibilities 
wth the greatest heartiness and cordiality. 

It is the earnest purpose and prayer of all partioipatiog in tliit 

From 1887 to 1903 347 

movement, that, henceforth, Westminster College shall know neithier 
North nor South, but, with the number of hear friends multiplied, and 
with enlarged facilities, shall go forward, to do in the future, a still 
greater work than in the past, in spreading knowledge, in teaching and 
training young men, in witnessing to the truth of God. 


The movement toward co-operation, which has reached its culmina- 
tion in the actions of the Synods this month, is not of recent origin. 

Westminster College was the child of the undivided Synod. The 
evil wrought by the dissensions in the church has nowheore, perhaps, 
been felt more keenly than at Westminster. The case of the Institution 
was similar to that of a strong, healthy, vigorous child with every 
promise of a splendid manhood, who is let fall by the nurse, and must 
henceforth, through no fault of its own, struggle through life crippled 
and deformed. Every day and every year, for a whole generation, those 
faithfully bearing the burden at Westminster have been reminded by 
their bitter needs of the loss of a large part of their former friends, 
and have looked forward to a time of reconciliation, as the time of 
promise, when the burden should be lightened. 

Each decade since the division in the Synod, has seen an effort to- 
ward the reunion of forces on behalf of the College. The first effort 
came to naught. The second effort resulted in a partial and temporary 
co-operation. The full and equal partnership entered into at this time, 
will, it is believed, last as long as the two Synods shall last. 


The beginnings of the present movement are to be fouAd in the 
decision of the Board of Trustees to seek a President from the Northern 
church, and in the resolutions subsequently adopted in May, 1899, by 
the Westminster Alumni Association, of St. Louis, petitioning the two 
Synods to take steps looking toward co-operation in education. 

The progress made in the year 1899, is set forth in the letter 
addressed by Judge Hockaday, President of the Board of Trustees, to 
the Northern Synod, and in the actions taken by that Synod at Han- 

348 History of Westminster CoUege 

The letter was as follows: 

FuLTOif, MI880UKI, October 21, 1899. 
The Bynod of MiBso^iri of the Preshjfterian Church m the United 8iate9 

of Amerioai 

Gentixmen: — On behalf of Westminster College permit me to call 
your attention to the action taken by the Synod of Missouri of the Pres- 
byterian church in the United States, at a meeting held at Boonyilley 
Missouri, October 10« 1899. 

In accordance with the unanimous recommendation of the Board 
of Trustees of Westminster College the standing rule of the Synod with 
regard to the election of Trustees was amended so as to read as follows: 
"No one shall be eligible for trusteeship except members of the Pres- 
byterian church in the United States and members of the Presbyterian 
church of the United States of America." 

In reply to an overture from the Presbytery of Upper Missouri 
asking that the Synod take steps looking toward co-operation between 
the Synods of the Northern and Southern churdies in the support and 
control of Westminster College, the following resolution was adopted: 

"In answer to the overture from the Presbytery of Upper Missouri, 
proposing an invitation to the Synod of Missouri, to co-operate in the 
conduct of Westminster College, we assure said Presbytery that, regret- 
ting the discontinuance by said Synod of such co-operation in former 
years, we would sincerely welcome its renewal and shall respond to any 
intimation by the other Synod of a desire to take part with us in pro- 
moting Christian education." 

We desire also to bring to your attention the following resolution 
adopted by the Westminster Alumni Association, of St. Louis, at its 
meeting held last spring: 

"Resolved, That in the judgment of this Association the time has 
come when co-operative effort on the part of the two l^jmods of this 
State in educational lines is necessary. And be it further 

"Resolved, That this Association respectfully requests the two Syn- 
ods at their next regular meetings to give this matter such considera- 
tion as it may in their judgment demand; and if its meets with their 
approval, that a committee of conference be appointed by eadi Synod 
to take the subject under further consideraticm." 

In view of these actions and of the widespread desire cherished in 
both branches of the church that a strong, well equipped college should 
be built up and maintained by the united support of Presbyterians in 

From 1887 to 1903. 349 

this State, we trust that you will take the matter of co-operation under 
consideration, and that you may see your way clear to take action com- 
mending Westminster College to the attention of your people, and en- 
dorsing the movement to secure additional endowment and equipment 
upon which the Trustees axe just entering. 

Very respectfully, 

John A. Hookaoay, 

President Board of Trustees Westminster College. 

The letter was referred to a special committee, of which Rev. Dr. 
S. J. Niccolls was chairman, and the report of that committee, which 
was unanimously adopted by a rising vote, was as follows: 


"This letter brings before the Synod a subject of the highest im- 
portance in which we, as Presbyterians, should have a profound interest* 
Westminster College is the only Synodical College established by Pres- 
byterians before our unhappy divisions. On account of its history and 
the work it has done for sound learning and Christian education, it 
has a special place in the affections of the Presbyterians of this State. 
We believe that its continuance and enlarged efficiency will be of the 
greatest advantage to our common Presbyterianism, as well as to the 
cause of higher education. It is to such colleges that we must espe- 
cially look for our future candidates for the ministry. The alumni of 
this College are already a great power for good in the church and many 
of them are in the ranks of our ministry. The action taken by the 
Synod of Missouri of the Presbyterian church in the United States, 
now having control of this Institution, is so generous and fraternal in 
spirit that it must awaken, we are confident, a kindred response on the 
part of this Synod. Your committee^ therefore would recommend the 
adoption of the following: 

"I. This Synod has learned with special pleasure of the action 
taken by the Synod of Missouri at the request of the Board of Trus- 
tees of Westminster College, and of th^ desire of that Synod for co- 
operation on the part of this Synod in promoting Christian education. 

"II. While we do not ask for any share in the control of the Col- 
lege, being perfectly satisfied that it is in wise and safe hands, such 
as should receive the confidence and support of all Presbyterians, we 
rejoice that the way has been so fraternally opened to our participation 

350 History of Westmmster College 

In the control, and declare our readiness to join in any seryice by which 
the efficieney of the Oollege ean be promoted. 

"III. We believe that our common interests would be greatly ad- 
vanced by the growing popularity of Westminster College as an educa- 
tional center for our young men. We, therefore, take pleasure in com- 
mending it to the patronage and support of all our churches and peo- 

"IV. With reference to the request from the Alumni Association, 
to appoint a committee of conference, this Synod declares its readi- 
ness to appoint a committee to take into consideration the whole sub- 
ject of collegiate education within the State of Missouri, to meet with 
a similar committee from the Synod of Missouri, Presbyterian churcb 
in the United States.'' 

Later in the session^ in order to advance the matter as much aa 
possible, on motion it was resolved that the Moderator should at that 
time "appoint a committee of seven to confer with a similar committee 
from the Southern Synod, should such a committee be appointed by 
them, on the subject of Christian Education in the State of Missouri." 
The following were appointed members of the committee: Revs. Frank 
W. Sneed, D. D., 8. J. Niccolls, D. D., C. B. McAfee, D. D., J. H, 
Malcolm, D. D., Harry 0. Scott, D. D., J. F. Hendy, D. D., and D. L. 


A year elapsed before a meeting of the Southern Synod was held; 
but in October, 1900, at a meeting in Mexico, the Southern Synod ap- 
pointed "a committee of seven to confer with a similar committee from 
the Northern Synod upon the subject of Christian Education in the 
State of Missouri, and to present to the Synod of 1901 such a plan of 
co-operation as they might agree upon." 

The members of the committee were Revs. John F. Cannon, D. D., 
E. C. Gordon, D. D., John F. Cowan, D. D., W. S. Trimble, Charles 
W. Latham, and Messrs. J. R. Moorehead and T. B. Campbell. 


An account of the proceedings of the two committees is given in 
the following report of the chairman of the committee of the Southern 
Synod, made to the Synod at its meeting in Fulton, October, 1901: 

"The committee appointed at the last meeting of the Synod to con- 
fer with a like committee from the Synod of Missouri, United States of 

From 1887 to 1903 351 

America, conoeming oo-oper&tion in the work of Christian Education 
respectfully submit the following report: 

"Your committee met in the Grand Avenue Presbyterian ehurch, of 
8t. Louis, February 21, 1901, all of the members being present except 
Dr. J. F. Cowan, and Mr. T. B. Campbell, who were unavoidably de- 
tained at their homes. After some discussion as to the best manner 
of approaching the committee of the other Synod, with whom there 
was an appointment for the afternoon, the following resolutions were 
adopted, viz.: 

** *I. That co-operation between the two Synods of Missouri in the 
work of Church and Christian Education is desirable if it can be ar- 
ranged on terms that are mutually satisfactory. 

*' *II. That in regard to Westminster College, as a proper basis 
of co-operation, we agree to recommend to our Synod to invite the 
Synod of Missouri, United States of America, to elect one-half of the 
members of the Board of Trustees. 

" 'III. That in order to make this basis of co-operation effective we 
agree to recommend to our Synod to seek such changes in the charter 
of the Board of Trustees of Westminster College as will authorize the 
Synod of Missouri, United States of America, to elect the number of 
trustees indicated in the preceding resolution. 

" *IV. That we desire to have the two Synods unite in a general 
scheme of Church and Christian Education; but before undertaking 
this we deem it desirable to have plans of co-operation in regard to 
Westminster College formulated and carried into effect.* 

"The committee then adjourned in order to meet immediately in 
joint session with the committee of the other Synod in the Washington 
and Compton Avenue church. 

"At this session the foregoing resolutions were submitted as ex- 
pressing the mind of our committee concerning the matter in hand. 
After discussion, the committee from the other Synod withdrew, and in 
separate session agreed upon the following resolution, viz.: 

" *I. That co-operation between the two Synods of Missouri in 
the work of education is desirable and imperative. 

" 'II. That the chairman be requested to inform the chairman of 
the committee of the Synod of Missouri, United States, that we heartily 
approve of the proposed recommendations submitted by them to ni 
with reference to co-operation in Westminster College. We recognize 
the generosity of the offer, and the fraternal regard and confidence eoc- 

352 History of Westminster College 

pressed in it. Furthermore, this committee will report to our Synod 
the terms of the proposition, and will recommend co-operation on the 
basis proposed. 

" 'III. In order to promote further co-operation in the cause of 
collegiate education among us, we will recommend to our Synod such 
changes in the charter of Lindenwood Female College as will place it 
under joint control on the same terms as those affecting Westminster 

"Your committee then withdrew into separate session, and after 
full consideration, unanimously agreed to recommend to this Synod to 
accept the offer of joint control of Lindenwood Female College on the 
terms specified. This action was reported to the other committee and 
the conference was then adjourned. 


"We, therefore, recommend the following action, viz.: 

"I. That this Synod offer to the Synod of Missouri, United States 
of America, the right of electing one half of the Board of Trustees of 
Westminster College; and, in case this offer should be accepted, that 
the Board of Trustees of Westminster be authorized and instructed to 
secure such changes in the charter of the Institution as shall allow said 
Synod legally to exercise this right." 

"II. In case the Synod of Missouri, United States of America^ 
should, in accordance with the suggestion of their conmiittee, offer to 
this Synod the right of joint control of Lindenwood Female College on 
the terms already indicated, we recommend that the offer be favorably 

The report of the Committee was unanimous as to the first recom- 
mendation, but one member of the committee dissented from the second 


On motion it was resolved to postpone action on the second recom- 
mendation until after the Northern Synod should have an opportunity 
to act upon it. The Synod, then, entered upon a discussion of the first 
recommendation, which after careful and prolonged deliberation, was 
adopted by a large majority. 

At the unanimous request of the Board of Trustees, the following 
resolution was then passed: 

' I 

From 1887 to 1903 353 

"Resolved, by the Synod of Missouri in connection with the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the Presbyterian church in the United States, that the 
Board of Trustees of Westminster College be authorized and directed, 
in case the Synod of Missouri in connection with the General Assem- 
bly of thfi Presbyterian church in the United States of America shall 
signify its readiness to co-operate in the support and control of the 
College on the terms hereinafter provided, to proceed in accordance with 
Section 1388 of Article XI, Chapter 12, of the Revised Statutes of the 
State of Missouri, to amend the charter of Westminster College as fol- 


"Section one of mid charter shall he amended so as to read in vyords 
and figures as follotoSf to-toit : 

" Tirst. An instAtutlon of learning is hereby authorized and estab- 
lished in or near the town of Fulton, Callaway county, to be known as 
Westminster College^ and in all its interests to be under the joint care 
and control of the Synod of Missouri in connection with the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian church in the United States, and of the 
Synod of Missouri in connection with the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian church in the United States of America. 

'Section three shall he amended so as to read as follows, to-vAt: 
'Third. The board of Trustees of Westminster College shall con- 
sist of twenty-four members, eight of whom shall be elected in October, 
1002, and a like number each year thereafter, in the manner hereinafter 
provided, for a term of three years. Nine members shall constitute a 
quorum of the Board. No person except a minister of one of the Synods 
having joint control of the College, or a member of a church in connec- 
tion with one of said Synods, shall be eligible to membership in said 
Board. Each of said Synods shall at its first meeting after this amend- 
ment goes into effect, whether the same be a regular, adjourned, or 
called meeting, elect, in such manner as said Synod may determine, four 
members of the Board of Trustees to serve until the meeting of such 
Synod in October, 1002, four to serve until the meeting in October, 1003, 
and four until the meeting in October, 1004, and as the respective 
terms of the persons so chosoi shall expire, the Synod by which they 
were elected, shall choose their successors for a term of three years, 
so that at the regular meeting; in October, 1002, and at the regular 
meeting in each year thereafter, four members of said Board of Trus- 

354 History of Westminster College 

fees shall be elected by each of said Synods, in soch manner ms it nuty 
direct, for a term of three years. Each trustee so diosen shall aua t e 
until his successor is elected and qualified, but shall be subject to remorml 
by the Synod electing him. Any Tacancy in the Board of Trustees shall 
be filled by the Synod which elected the person, whose death, resigna- 
tion, removal, refusal to serve, or other disability shall cause said 
vacancy. The present trustees shall continue in office until each of 
said Synods, after this amendment goes into effect^ shall elect the 
twelve trustees to be chosen by said Synods as herein provided, and 
immediately thereafter, the new Board of Trustees shall meet and or- 


On motion of the Chairman of the Committee of Conference a mem- 
orial to the Northern church was then adopted and is as follows: 
"The Synod of Missouri in connection ioith the Oeneral Assemhlj^ of the 

Presbyterian church in the United States, to the Synod of Missouri 

in connection vAth the Cfeneral Assembly of the Presbyterian church 

in the United States of America, Greeting : 

"Whereas, We believe that the work of Christian Education can 
be more successfully prosecuted within our bounds by a oo-operative 
effort between the two Synods of Missouri than by the single-handed 
efforts of each; 

"Whebkab, We have heard through a report from our Committee 
appointed to confer on this subject with a like Committee from your 
Body the plan of co-operation which was agreed upon by these commit- 
tees to be submitted for approval to their respective Synods, We there- 
fore make the following overture to your Venerable Body, viz.: 

"We invite you to assume an equal partnership with ourselyes in 
the administration and control of Westminster College, Fulton, Mis- 
souri, and, to this end, offer you the right of nominating and electing 
one-half of the members of the Board of Trustees of that Institution. 

"Should it be your pleasure to accept this offer, the Board of Trus- 
tees of Westminster College are authorized, and instructed to secure 
such changes in the charter of the Institution as shall allow you legally 
to exercise the contemplated right. 

"We enclose herewith for your examination a copy of the amend- 
ments that are proposed by the present Board of Trustees and approved 
by the Synod. 

From 1887 to 1903 355 

"As to the second recommendation of our Committee touching joint 
control of Lindenwood College, we have judged it wise to postpone its 
consideration until you shall have taken action on the suggestion of 
your Committee. 

'Traying that by the grace of the Holy Spirit, both of our Synods 
may be guided to devise and to do such things as shall be in harmony 
with our Master's mind and promotive of His glory, we remain. 

Your brethren in Christ, 

(Signed) William Hoqe Mabquess, 

Franc Mitchell, Stated Clerk. 

Fulton, Missoubi, October 11. 1901. 


The Northern Synod met in Jefferson City two weeks after the 
meeting of the Southern Synod. The memorial from the Southern 
Synod was presented along with the report of the Northern Committee 
of Conference, which after recounting the proceedings of the Committee, 
as already described in the report of the Southern Committee, unani- 
mously recommended action as follows: 

"I. Resolved, That the proposition made by the Synod of Mis- 
souri, United States, for joint control of Westminster College, on the 
terms above stated, be accepted. 

"n. Resolved, That we regard with favor the proposition for fur- 
ther co-operation in educational matters, but that action be deferred 
until such time as the Board of Trustees of Lindenwood College shall 
take the necessary action, and until after further conference as to details 
with the Synod of Missouri, U. S." 


The recommendations were taken up separately. After several 
stirring speeches, all breathing their heartiest spirit of good will, and 
of deep appreciation of the generous action of the Southern Synod, the 
first recommendation was imanimously adopted by a rising vote, and 
the Synod, impressed by the deep significance of the action, joined heart- 
ily in the hymn, '*Blest Be the Tie That Binds," which was followed by 
earnest prayer. 

The second recommendation was afterwards taken up, and passed 

356 History of Westminster College 


Application was made to the Circuit Court of Callaway county for 
the amendment of the charter, and this haying been granted December 
12, the two Synods held adjourned meetings, December 17, in St. Louis, 
to elect the members of the new Board. 

In the dark days of yore the Synod that founded West- 
minster was divided ; forty years were to roll their weary- 
round of struggle, of alternate success and failure, before 
the Church that created the College could devise a plan 
by which both branches could recognize its claims upon 
them and exercise their authority over it. Henceforth, 
Westminster, with a protection so powerful, will increase 
Its usefulness. There is much to do ; there are more to do 
It, Those who for forty years struggled so manfully to 
hold Westminster's banner aloft, who steadfastly resisted 
the temptation to lower its standards of scholarship in order 
that increased patronage might lighten their financial bur- 
den, rejoice that in the providence of God a powerful ally 
has come to their aid. Stimulated by what has been ac- 
complished, our brethren of the Northern Synod are cheer- 
fully shouldering their part of the burden. The cause of 
Christian education in Missouri, as well as in Kentucky, 
has received a mighty impulse, the effect of which will be 
felt for generations to come. The memorial of this re- 
union in education is "Re-union Hall," and as these words 
are penned its stately walls are rising from the highest point 
on the campus, a monument to the fraternal love of the 
Presbyterians of Missouri. 

With the record of the year 1902, our history draws to 
a close. 

At the meeting of the Board at St. Louis, in December, 
the following proposal from the students was received and 
approved : 

From 1887 to 1903 357 

WksncnrsTteB OolubcM, Dee. 6« 1002. 
To the Honorable Board of Trustees i 

QsNTLEicKN: — On Dec. 6, 1902, the student body of thd 
CoUege nnanimoiuly adopted the following resolution: 

"ReaoU}edf That by and with the consent and approval of 
the Faculty and the Board of Trustees of the College, the Col- 
lege colors shall be changed to true blue, the time-honored color 
of Presbyterianism. No change shall be made at any time ex- 
cept by the consent of the student body, IVunilty, and Board of 

On Dec 0, 1902, the Faculty of the College unanimously 
approved the above resolution. And now we, on behalf of the 
students, would most respectfully beg that you give the resolu- 
tion your consideration, and will trust you may see fit to ap- 
prove it. Very respectfully, 

John F. Cannon, Jn., 

R. S. Benoh« 

Jno. W. Cedqhton, 


And thus the white and gold, more beautiful for decora- 
tion, but less significant, gave place to the stronger color. 

Note :— On June 11, 1902, the Board directed that tti6 dftt# of fhe 
College Seal be changed from the year 1856 to to 18SS, the year of thi 
founding of the College. 

At the meeting held in St. Louis, February I2, 1903, 
President MacCracken submitted the following communi- 
cation : 

Fulton, Mo. Feb. 8. 1903. 
To tT^e Board of TruBteee of Weetmineier College: 

QsNtLEMEN: — I hereby tender my resignation as President of 
Westminster College, to take effect at the end of the present scholastic 
year, September 1, 1903. 

It is with great reluctance and regret that I feel myself compelled 
to sever the many bonds which bind me so closely to the College. A 
brief acquaintance of barely four years has been long enough to enlist 
my deepest sympathy and interest in its work. Coming to Ifissouri a 

358 History of Westminster College 

complete stranger, having never met even a single friend of the Institu- 
tion in person, it has been a great joy and satisfaction to me to make 
Westminster's cause my cause, and to place her prosperity and welfare 
as the first object of my desire and solicitude. Such strength and wis- 
dom as I h^ve had, have been spent unreservedly in her service. The 
cause has become very dear to me — I am of those who believe heartily 
in its future, and should be glad to watdi and work for its unceasing 

In laying down a work in which I am thus interested, I am in- 
fluenced by but a single consideration. When my father broke down 
in health last spring the physicians were of the opinion that his illness 
was due to overwork, and strongly advised him to relieve himself to 
some extent at least of the burden he was carrying. The trustees of 
New Yoik University, with his consent, therefore have arranged to pro- 
vide a new officer of administration to care for a part of the work form- 
erly devolving upon the Chancellor, and because of my familiarity with 
with the affairs of the University, have unanimously asked me to take 
the position, my father joining urgently in the request. The call comes 
to me, therefore, in the form of a filial obligation, and as such I feel I 
must accept it. 

In reaching this decision, however, I have not been unmindful of 
Westminster and my obligations to you. This year is not the first time 
that a return to New York has been urged upon me by friends of the 
University, but hitherto I have felt that a change in administration 
might perhaps seriously affect Westminster and Iver woric, and have 
therefore declined to consider it. I feel sure that this will not now be 
the case. 

The plan of co-operation has been put in effect, has been tested for 
more than a year, and so far as any of us can foresee there is no reason 
why it should not continue to work successfully. By the end of the 
year the new Residence Hall will have been completed and this building 
together with Science Hall and the Steam Plant, will have brought the 
material equipment of the College up to a point where it corresponds 
favorably with the amount of endowment, and will enable the College 
to enter upon the larger life which was suddenly made possible by the 
Sausser gift. 

The College has incurred no debt the last three years. Its attend- 
ance to-day is the largest for ten years. The Presbyterians of Missouri 
have greater faith and interest in the Institution than for many years. 

From 1887 to 1903 359 

With the new year it begins a new half century. The conditions are 
as favorable now, therefore, as we may expect them to be at any time 
in the near futura, for a new man to enter and take up the work. 

At a time when the prospect was dark, and many of the friends of 
the Institution almost discouraged, it was, perhaps, wise to make a 
somewhat desperate experiment of putting so young a man at the head 
of the Institution, but now that the prospect is brighter and the way 
cleared for a strong, vigorous advance, the College will profit in many 
ways, particularly, I believe, in attendance, by having at its head one 
of greater maturity and experience. I am sure, therefore, that a change 
of administration at thb time, need cause no serious injury to West- 

There will be the little waste, which always goes with a readjust- 
ment under such conditions, but this will doubtless be more than coun- 
ter-balanced by the impetus and fresh way of looking at things which 
a new man will bring with him. My term of service will have been as 
long as the term of servicei for which the American people think it good 
economy to elect a chief magistrate, and if the affairs of the government 
can be grasped quickly by a new incumbent every four years, surely the 
same should be true of a college. 

Finally, I desire to express my deep appreciation of the confidence 
cmd kindness you have shown me as trustees and of your readiness to 
share in any enterprise which promised to promote the best interests of 
the Institution. The relations between us have been so cordial, and my 
indebtedness to many of you personally is so heavy that it adds greatly 
to the reluctance with which I regard the severing of these ties. 

In view of the plain duty, however, calling me to accept this new 
work, and in view of the fact that conditions have so shaped themselves 
at Westminster, that the time seems opportune for a change of adminis- 
tration, I respectfully ask that this resignation be accepted, and that 
steps be taken at once to secure a successor, in order that the work of 
the College may suffer as little interruption as possible. 

Very respectfully yours, 

John Henby MaoC2a.gken. 

When Dr. MacCracken announced his resignation to 
the Faculty, with one accord they urged him to reconsider 
it; and the Student Body, on hearing of it, unanimously 

360 History of Westminster College 

urged him to remain. Similar resolutions evidenced the 
sentiment, both of the St. Louis Alumni Association and 
of the Trustees. Dr. MacCracken had proved that he had 
"an old head on young shoulders." Thoroughly posted in 
educational affairs, never quick or rash, courageous in nfeet- 
ing discouragement, ingenious and resourceful in the midst 
of perplexities, he was found equal to difficult situations 
that few men could have met successfully. He had won 
the confidence of the Presbyterians of Missouri and had 
inspired with enthusiastic hope the old students who loved 
their Alma Mater and longed to see her usefulness and her 
importance suitably recognized. What wonder that there 
was lament and protest when Westminster was about to 
lose her gallant young standard-bearer I 

At this meeting of the Board, Rev. Dr. Francis L. Fer- 
guson, class '78. presided. Before another meeting, while 
in the prime of manhood and usefulness, he was called to 
his reward. The flourishing Church in St. Louis that 
mourned his death is a monument to his long and faithful 

This year marks also an advance in missionary spirit 
at Westminster. For several years Dr. Campbell and 
others had sought to keep the students well-informed on 
the subject of missions and to get them to aid the great 
movement for the spread of the Gospel by their prayers and 
their contributions. These efforts were crowned by the 
formation of the Westminster Living Link League for the 
purpose of supporting a Westminster Alumnus in the for- 
eign field. Mr. A. B. Dodd, class '98, who had just con- 
cluded a post-gfraduate course at Princeton Theological 
Seminary, was chosen as the representative, and accepted 
the appointment. 

At the meetings of the Synods in the fall of 1902, an 

From 1887 to 1903 361 

invitation from the Fulton Church to meet in Fulton, to 
celebrate the semi-centennial of the College, the third week 
in October, was accepted. As we close this brief history 
of the first fifty years, the friends of the College are look- 
ing forward to this semi-centennial celebration, in which 
both Synods and the Alumni will join, as an occasion full 
of promise for a prosperous future. 



PACE forbids, even were it profitable, 
to give the financial history of the 
College as fully as has been done by 
Dr. Fisher for the years preceding 

The minutes of Synod, for Oc- 
tober, 1887, show that "The Board 
of Trustees has of Permanent Fund 
in notes well secured, and cash on 
hand to the amount of $6,915.95. Also of the Education 
Fund in notes to the amount of $5,063.50. All the above 
notes bear eight per cent, interest." The Board of Trustees 
had appointed Gen. Jno. A. Hockaday to visit the office of 
the Board of Trust, and secure full information relative 
to the funds, investments, and income of the College. Gen. 
Hockaday reported that "all the notes constituting the En- 
dowment Fund proper, with one exception, are secured by 
liens upon real estate in the city of St. Louis, and the ex- 
cepted one upon good personal security." He adds: "The 
Secretary and Treasurer of the Board of Trust represented 
all of said notes as solvent and unquestionably good assets, 
which your committee has every reason to believe to be 


Fina/ncial-1887-1903 363 

true." We also learn that the Ways and Means Commit- 
tee anticipated for the year ending June i, 1888, an income 
of $9,380, and expenses amounting to $10453, leaving a de- 
ficit of $1,073 to be covered by gifts or by increase in the 
number of students. The usual full report of the Board 
of Trust is given, including, first, receipts and disburse- 
ments for the year; second, for the whole period of the 
Board's existence; third, a statement of investments and 
rates of interest, and fourth, the following estimate of en- 
dowment : 

Notes, cash, etc $68,990 38* 

College buildings and grounds.. 35,000 00 

Subscriptions 1,500 00 

Potts Professorship 1,101 40 $106,591 78 

At Synod, in October, 1888, the number of students is 
reported as 116, an increase of 23 over the preceding ses- 
sion. The collection from the Churches (140 in number) 
is reported as only $128.10. The debt is reported as about 
$1,200. The Permanent Committee reports to the Synod 
that the debt is about $800 and regrets that it has no infor- 
mation as to how it was contracted. It recommends that 
"$i,ooo be apportioned among the Presbyteries, to be by 
them apportioned among the Churches, for the purpose of 
liquidating the debt," etc. The Board of Trust's "estimate 
of endowment" shows a slight decrease in the item of notes, 
bonds, and cash, reducing the total to $106,399.55. 

The minutes of Synod for 1889, report 118 students 
and the venerable President of the Board of Trustees calls 
attention to the $68,825.15 endowment in the hands of the 
Board of Trust. He says : "Of the above amount $5,620.39 

• 'Includes Jaccard Fund. 

364 History of Westminster College 

is the gift of Mrs. Eugene Jaccard, the interest of 
which is to be applied, according to the will of the donor, 
to aid young men preparing for the Gospel ministry. This 
deducted from the above, leaves the sum of $63,204.76, the 
interest of which is to meet current expenses. The gift ok 
Mrs. Mary C. McPheeters, of about $6/xx>^ shotdd be added 
to this ♦ * ♦. We then have belonging to the Perma- 
nent Fund $69,204.96."* He then estimates die faicome, ^ 
six per cent., at $4,200 and fees from students at $3,500, 
making a total of $7,700 income. Against this he places 
the necessary expenses, $8444.53— of which $7,100 pays the 
President and Faculty. He adds: ''From these figures it 
can easily be seen where comes in the debt fnmi year to 
year; our income is not equal to our necessary expenses." 

The Permanent Committee on the affairs of the Col- 
lege reports to Synod that there is ''an unavoidable deficit 
of about $750 and recommends that an agent be employ^ 
to increase this endowment" The Board of Trust esti- 
mates the endowment at $106455.97 — a slight increase over 
the previous report. 

For the year 1890, we find in the minutes of the Board 
of Trustees of the June meeting, that the Ways and Means 
Committee reported a probable income of $7,500 and a 
probable expenditure of $8,000. President Marquess' sal- 
ary, already nominal, was reduced, at his instance, to $25a 
Rev. W. R. Dobyns, the Financial Secretary, made a report 
of his work from January i. The following action was 
taken : "The Board has heard with pleasure the report of 
the Financial Secretary. We pledge him a hearty support 
and suggest that for the next three months he devote hitn- 
sclf chiefly to the work of canvassing for students." 

In June, 1891, the Elexcutive Committee reported to the 
Board that the expenditures have been $8,402.81 and that 

Financial-lSSl'lQOS 365 

the indebtedness to the Professors is $3,882.50, to meet 
which there is $1,300; and interest due from the Board of 
Trust and from notes in the hands of the Treasurer, $800 or 
$1,000. "The amount of $1,000 paid to the agent as his 
salary has added to our expenses that amount; this has 
thrown us behind with our Professors ; and the Board must 
either order us to make good this amount from money 
secured by the agent for endowment, or arrange some plan 
by which we can meet our obligations." On June 3, the 
Committee on Ways and Means submitted an estimate for 
the ensuing year: 

From the Board of Trust $ 3,600 00 

From Tuition 3,600 00 

Interest on notes in charge of Board of Trust 400 00 

Total income for the year $ 7,400 00 

Amount now due from Board of Trust 800 00 

Cash in hands of Treasurer of College 1,300 00 

Total $ 9,600 00 


Salaries of Professors $ 6,600 00 

Contingent Expenses 660 00 

Now due Professors on salaries , . . 3,882 60 

$ 11,332 60 
Deficiency , . , . .$1^32 60 

The deficiency arose from the payment of $1,832, to the 
agent. To restore that sum, it is recommended that, in 
obedience to the authority of Synod, given after the ap- 
pointment of such agent was made, at its last meeting, the 
amount be taken from collections made by the agent. The 
salaries of Dr. Wright and Dr. Cowan are reported to be 
secured by private subscription. The agent reported as 

366 History of Westminster College 

the result of his labors a total of $9,861.80 in cash, notes 
and promises, the latter amounting to $1,175. At this meet- 
ing, Mr. Dobyns resigned the agency and re-entered the 
pastoral work. 

At the meeting of the Board of Trustees, October 14, 
1891, Mr. C. L. Thompson, Treasurer of the Board of Trust, 
laid before the Board a number of notes that had no credits 
or upon which payments had ceased. The Treasurer of 
the Board of Trust and the Financial Agent, Rev. W. H. 
Qaggett, were authorized to investigate and take such action 
as they deemed best. 

The report to Synod in October, 1892, states that the 
endowment fund, which had been reported the year before 
as $74,211.32, has been increased $300, from the sale of 
Wisconsin land. The education fund is reported at $10,686. 
The Board of Trust's estimate of the endowment* is $106,- 
114.68. The estate bequeathed by Wm. Sausser, of Han- 
nibal, Mo., is reported to consist of notes, stocks, 
and bonds, "to the amount of some $74,000, and real estate 
estimated to be worth $45,000 to $50,000.*' Most of the real 
estate was productive. One note for $10,000 is reported 
doubtful. No income from the estate could be expected for 
two years. Nevertheless a professorship called for by the 
bequest had been filled. The report says of this bequest: 
"It is a noble expression of the confidence felt by a suc- 
cessful business man in the Synod and in the future use- 
fulness of the College. It is also his eloquent testimony 
to the value of the work done by the College in the past, 
and to the importance of increasing its means of usefulness 
in the future. It remains for other friends to emulate Mr. 
Sausser's munificence by furnishing the funds necessary to 
give the highest degree of efficiency to his bequest." 

^Including grounds and buildings. 

FinancuiI-1887-1903 367 

We leam from the minutes that in the preceding Jan- 
uary, Mr. Qagett had resigned as Financial Agent, and the 
position remained vacant. 

The eagerness of the Board to beg^n the work provided 
for by the bequest, by filling the Chair of Biblical Instruc- 
tion two years before there could be any income from the 
estate, thus adding heavily to an expense under which the 
College had been staggering, may be justified, perhaps, by 
their belief that gratitude for this signal blessing would 
so warm the hearts and open the purses of Presbyterians, 
that the deficit would easily be met. It never occurred to 
them that this splendid bequest might have exactly the 
opposite effect; that those who had helped bear the load 
in darker days might conclude that now the burden was 
lifted and there was no longer need to exert themselves. 
At any rate, we find the appeals of the Board and of Synod 
for contributions to meet the deficit were unsuccessful. On 
May 31, 1892, the record of the Board of Trustees gives 
the debt to the Professors as about $3,050.* The commit- 
tee appointed to raise funds for current expenses reported 
$1,125 of the desired $4,500. The Committee of Ways and 
Means estimated for the ensuing year the following : Sal- 
aries $10,300, janitor $300, incidental expense $1,600, total 
$12,200. This amounted to $2,100 more than the income, 
including the subscription. It was resolved to borrow 
$3,000, if necessary, using the securities held by the Board 
of Trustees as collateral; and to continue the committee 
to secure "subscriptions for current expenses for five years." 
A resolution was adopted to pay from funds collected by 

*At this date Prof. Marquess' books which were opened at later 
date show debt to Professors and Janitor, $4,202.46; debt for repairs 
and building, $1,839; Due for supplies, incidentals, etc., $172.70. 

368 History of Westminster College 

the two financial ageftts the deficit caused by payment of 
their salaries. 

The committee on the report of the Board of Trustees, 
reported to Synod, in October, 1893, commending "the new 
set of books, in which the various funds and accounts of 
the College are systematically kept." These books were 
kept by Prof. E. H. Marquess, who in addition to his labors 
as Professor of Latin Language and Literature, has kept 
a set of double-entry books and attended very largely to 
seeking loans for the Executive Committee and to the cor- 
respondence and other business involved in the manage- 
ment of the Sausser estate and other funds in the hands of 
the Board of Trustees. For this labor Prof. Marquess re- 
ceived a small additional salary. The cost of administra- 
tion was thus reduced to a comparatively trifling sum. The 
Board's report to Synod announced that the following pro- 
fessorships had been placed upon the Sausser foundation: 
Metaphysics and Christian Apologetics, Bibical History 
and Doctrine, and Biblical Lang^ag^es. The following is 
the financial statement in full: 

Receipts and Expenditures for the year ending June 1, 1893. 


From Interest . . , $ 4,294 (J6 

From Fees 4,392 00 

From Gifts 1,826 00 

Total receipts from outside sources $ 10,012 66 

Receipts from permanent endowment $ 8,069 94 

Receipts from bills payable 6,000 00 

Total $ 8,069 94 

Grand total receipU $18,682 60 

Financial-lSSl '1903 369 


On account, salaries 1891-92 $ 4,202 46 

On account, sundries 1891-92 313 99 

On account intefest, 1891-92 294 24 

On account, bills payable* 1,839 00 

Total on account, old debt $ 6,649 69 

On account, salaries 1892-93 ' 8,167 50 

On accoimt, sundries 1892-93 1,264 66 

On account interest, 1892-93 139 30 

Total on account current expenses 1892-93...$ 9,561 45 

On account, bills payable 1892-93 $ 12,500 00 

$18,711 14 

Balance against current fund 128 54 

If the sums paid for expenses contracted prior to Jime 1st, 1892, be 
subtracted from the amount given above, it will show that the expenses 
properly belonging to the year 1892-93 amount in all to $12,171.46, 
which represents the sum required to meet the annual expense of the 
College on its present basis. 


Permanent Endowment $ 75,221 31 

Suspended debt 1,106 00 

Due Professors and others 2,481 47 

Bnis payable 2,500 00 

Cash 128 54 

Total $81,436 32 


Bills receivable. Board of Trust $65,956 35 

Bills receivable, Board of Trustees 10,180 47 

Due by Sausser Estate 1,500 00 

•Debt on College. 

370 History of Westminster College 

Cash — permanent endowment 189 49 

Net debt 3,610 01 

ToUl $ 81,436 32 


Endoi/i-ment $ 10,685 89 

Interest 265 00 

W. H. Marquess, Agent 389 60 

$11,340 49 

Bills receivable, Board of Trust $ 5,620 39 

Bills receivable, Board of Trustees 4,792 60 

Bills receivable, private parties 266 00 

Cash — Endowment 272 90 

Cash — Beneficiary Fund 9 91 

Net debt 379 69 

$11,340 49 

Endowment $ 377 00 

Cash $ 377 00 

Dr. Marquess, the executor of Mr. Sausser's will, has informed the 
Board that there will be no revenues from the estate at the disposal of 
the Board during the year. After predicting a decrease of $800 or 
$1,000 in receipts from students' fees, the Board reports that to main- 
tain the high standard of instruction, and at the same time not antici- 
pate the Sausser revenues, "it will be necessary for our people to con- 
tribute during the next year or two the sum of $4,500. To raise this 
sum a committee of the Board, consisting of one from each Presbytery, 
has been appointed to solicit gifts to be paid until the revenues from the 
Sausser bequest are available. We regret to say that the response to 
this appeal, up to this time, has not been so satisfactory as we hpped.'^ 

Our courses of instruction, in extent and in the manner they are 
presented by the accomplished professors, who compose the Faculty, are 

Fi«a»ctaZ-1887-1903 371 

equal to those of any similar institution in the country ; and, we believe, 
superior to most. If we can maintain our present condition for two or 
three years, we shall be in a self-supporting condition. A failure to do 
this, either by curtailing our course of instruction or by anticipating 
the Sausser revenues, may seriously cripple the Institution, of which 
Synod may well be proud. In whatever way regarded, whether as a 
training school for ministers, or for teachers, or for business men, every 
dollar expended on the College has borne good and abundant fruit to the 
Church and to the State. We have every reason to hope and believe 
that this will be eminently true in the future. The tendency of the age 
is to secularize education and to divorce religion from the instruction 
given in our colleges and in all schools of lower rank. Every reflecting 
Christian man knows that this tendency, if allowed to run its course, 
will be ruinous to the religion and morals of the country. The main- 
tenance, therefore, of distinctly Christian schools and colleges is one of 
the supreme needs of the age. Next to the proclamation of the Gospel, 
it is indispensable to the future welfare of the Church. 

The quotation from the report of the Board of Trustees to Synod in 
1893, has been prolonged, not only in order that the reader may note 
the warning that is given, but that once more may be emphasized the re- 
lation of the Synod to the College and the reasons for its existence. On a 
former occasion, Synod pronounced it to be "the right arm of the 

Tlie report of the Board of Trust to Synod contains, as usual, the 
receipts and disbursements for the year, then the total receipts and dis- 
bursements during the existence of the Board, and the estimate of en- 
dowment in its hands, including Buildings and Grounds. The report 
shows that for the year $3,456.14 was sent to the College Treasurer and 
that the expenses of the Board of Trust were $483.03. The Board re- 
ports on hand: 

Bills receivable $68,666 67 

Cash 337 63 

Everett Note 464 04 

$69,468 34 
Less Jaccard Note 5,620 39 $63,847 95 

As the interest of the Jaccard Fund is used to aid candidates for 
the ministry, it is deducted, showing $63,847.95 belonging to the en- 
dowment, from the earnings of which college expenses may be paid. It 

372 History of Westminster College 

may be noted that the Board of Tnutees reports to Synod that thia item 
in the hands of the Board of Trust, is $65,956.35. Before aocoanting for 
the apparent discrepancy, we quote the Board of Trust's ^estimate of en- 

College Buildings, etc $ 35,000 00 

Notes, as above 68,666 67 

Subscriptions, Secretary 1,200 00 

Potts' Professorship 908 40 

Cksh 337 63 

Total $106,112 70 

Now, if the Jaccard note be subtracted, as it was^ from the $68,- 
666.67 of notes, the amount becomes $63,847.95. To this add subscrip- 
tions, Secretary, $1,200; Potts Professorship, $908.40, and the 
amount of $65,956.35, which the Board of Trustees charges to the Board 
of Trust, under the head of Bills Receivable, is obtained. The Auditing^ 
Ck)mmittee of Synod reports a diminution in the endowment in the hands 
of the Board of Trust of $10, as compared with the previous year. 

The committee on the report of the Board of Trustees commends 
the course of instruction and the new set of books of account^ and adds: 

'Third, that it is not the opinion of your committee that the Synod 
desires the Faculty to be diminished either in numbetrs or dficiency ; and 
further, in view of the fact that there will be no income from the Saus- 
ser estate for the coming school year, that it will be necessary to solicit 
funds as a gift from our people to meet current expenses ; therefore, 

"Resolved, That we recommend to our ministers and elders that 
they heartily support and aid the committee of Westminster College in 
privately soliciting funds for the support of the Colllege. 

''Fourth, we suggest that the Board of Trust in sending up their 
annual report to the Synod, they give us the 'simple transactions of 
their Board for the year, and disburden their report of the amounts re- 
ceived and sent to the College in previous years." 

The report of the Board of Trustees to Synod in 1894 
is given because for the first time the Sausser estate ap- 
pears : 

The receipts from all sources on account of current expenses and 
expenditures are reported as $15,642.69. After the itemized statement. 

Financial-1887-190S 373 

is given this explanation: "It will be observed that the receipts for cur- 
rent expenses, not counting money borrowed, were $8,524.81, and the ex- 
penditures, deducting the amounts paid on account of debt, were $12,- 
564.15. This large deficit amounting to $4,039.34, is due to the falling 
off of gifts, to the reduction in the number of students, and to the fail- 
ure of revenue from the Sausser fund, all of which were mentioned a 
year ago as possible, if not likely to take place; but thie deficit is offset 
by a charge on the Sausser fund, amounting to $3,468.75, leaving a net 
deficit for the year amounting to $570.59." 


Endowment $ 75,161 31 

Suspended debt 675 00 

Due Professors and others 2,376 55 

Bills payable 5,303 66 

Invested interest 67 00 

Cash overdrawn 1,364 22 

$84,047 74 

Bills receivable, Board of Trust $ 65,956 35 

Bills receivable, Board of Trustees 8,449 01 

Bills receivable, invested interest 67 00 

Due from Sausser Fund 3,468 75 

Cash 1,430 95 

Net debt 5,575 68 

$84,947 74 


Endowment $ 10,685 89 

Interest due 165 00 

W. H. Marquess, Agent 38 48 

Due general income T 40 00 $10,929 37 


Bills receivable. Board of Trust $ 6,620 39 

Bills receivable. Board of Trustees 5,064 60 

Bills receivable, individuals 165 00 

Cash, endowment 90 

Cash, income 4 78 

Net debt 73 70 

$10,929 87 

374 History of Westtmnster College 

The bulk of the Sausser estate was turned over to the College on May 
31, 1804. As there was not time to enter it on the books, it did not ap- 
pear in the report of the Executive Committee made to the Board in 
June, except as to a smaller sum previously received. The entire estate 
is now in our hands, and its value is estimated as follows : 

Real Estate $61,700 00 

Bills receivable 57,963 57 

Bonds 9 ,000 00 

Stocks 3,875 00 

Cash 2,314 32 

Total $124,862 89 

''A considerable amount of account interest is due; enough, if all or 
nearly all, can be collected, to pay what the fund owes to the general 
income account. A reasonable estimate gives $3,500 as the income from 
the estate during Mrs. Sausser's lifetime." It is estimated that $2,000 
in gifts win be necessary to bring the income up to expenses for the 
current year. 

These extracts from the reports rendered to Synod 
indicate to the reader the fullness of the information, as 
well as the careful attention to College affairs given by 
Synod at its annual meeting. Instead of burdening this 
volume further with such reports, the information neces- 
sary to understanding the financial situation is culled from 
the reports and given in a single paragraph. 

The report to Synod in 1895 gives net receipts from 
the Sausser endowment $5,098.86; the receipts from the 
general endowment were about $700 less, and for tuition 
fees $750 less, than had been expected. 

In 1896, the receipts from all sources were $15,564.62, 
and the expenditures were $255.45 less. There is reported 
a "Building and Endowment Fund" of $2456.23, and sub- 
scriptions* to the fund amounting to $5,500, most of which 
are regarded as good. 


Financial-1887'1903 375 

In 1897, the expenses exceeded the income over $3,000. 
Additions to the building fund of $372, are reported, mak- 
ing a total of $2,828,23, against which are charged expendi- 
tures of $385. 

In December, 1897, President Gordon resigned the 
presidency but, at the request of the Board, retained charge 
of his classes until the close of the year in June, 1898. John 
J. Rice, LL. D., Professor of History and Literature, be- 
came Chairman of the Faculty and Acting-President. At 
a meeting held at Mexico, Mo., on March 28, 1898, the Exec- 
utive Committee reported to the Board of Trustees that 
on May 31, 1897, the debt was $12,965.93 ; that the estimate 
of the Book-keeper and Assistant Secretary of the Board 
was that at the end of the current College year this would 
be increased to $13,902.99. That debt, except $2,500 bor- 
rowed, was due to endowment funds; that the Board had 
no means of replacing it except by reducing expenses be- 
low the present income or by increasing the number of stu- 
dents or by gifts; that the liberal estimate of the Book- 
keeper placed the income for the next year at $13,550. The 
Acting-President estimated that a saving of nearly $2,000 
might be made if the amount of required work in the Bible 
were diminished, and Dr. Wright would assume charge of 
the classes until otherwise provided for. The Board re- 
duced the Bible Course to six hours and made it obligatory 
only on candidates for the degrees of A. B. or B. L. ; it was 
further provided that the work begin in the Sophomore 
year. There had been some dissatisfaction among friends 
of the College, as well as among students, with the amount 
of work required in this department; and many had attrib- 
uted the gradual loss in attendance to this cause. Per- 
haps it was the thoroughness required, rather than the 
number of hours of recitation, that was displeasing. Dr. 

376 History of Westminster College 

Gordon was certainly an accomplished Bible scholar, and 
he insisted on good work in his department. It is pleasant 
to say that, as the years go by, from time to time we learn 
from some of those who were under his instruction that 
now they value highly what they did not then fully appre- 
ciate. The student who earned a degree in those years 
had a knowledge of Scripture that would have done credit 
to a young theologian. 

At Synod, a few months later, in 1898, the Standing 
Committee on the affairs of the College reported that the 
debt of the College had increased the previous year 
$1,988.72; that by curtailment in advertising, canvassing, 
and other directions, there was a prospect of saving $1,964 
during the current year, as compared with the past year; 
also that the Alumni were endeavoring to increase the en- 
dowment. The committee recommended that a President 
be secured as soon as possible, and that the Synod pledge 
itself to co-operate heartily in securing funds for his sup- 
port. The Board of Trust reported the endowment in its 
hands at $69,305.39. The Board of Trustees reported an 
expenditure for canvassing and advertising of $385, as 
against $649 the previous year. A slight reduction in the 
number of students was attributed to the war. The total 
number was 99; the previous year it was 102. The securi- 
ties in the safety vault of the Home Savings Bank of Fulton 
were examined and found to correspond with the record. 

Dr. MacCracken assumed the duties of President in 
September, 1899. At the previous June meeting of the 
Board, it was found that while the savings anticipated had 
been realized, there was an increase of debt, owing to unex- 
pected decrease in income from invested funds and from 
tuition fees, though the number of students was about the 
same; as the debt was $15,299, the Board resolved to take 

Financiai-1887.1903 377 

heroic measures and to contract no further debt; but two 
alternatives were left; either to reduce the number of the 
Faculty or to reduce the salaries. The salaries of Profes- 
sors, except those of the President and the Professor of 
Modern Languages, were made dependent upon the re- 
ceipts. Since that date there has been no increase in debt. 
The Building Fund was reduced to about $2,000 by the' 
transfer to current funds of a note, at the request of the 
donor, Judge Hockaday. About $3,000 had been secured 
by the Alumni Association. Both of these were available 
for building. The needs of the College, as it appeared to 
Dr. MacCracken and the Executive Committee were as fol- 
lows: Endowment of Chair in Science, $20,000; endow- 
ment of Chair in English, $20,000; Science Building and 
apparatus, $20,000; Gymnasium and Athletic Grounds, 
$15,000; repairs and equipment of College buildings, $2,500; 
books, $2,500 — making a total of $100,000. Of these the 
Science Building, the Dormitory, and the improvements of 
the older buildings have been secured. The list of con- 
tributors is not at hand, but among the large contributions 
the writer remembers three : $4,500 by Hon. H. S. Priest, 
$4,100 by B. F. Edwards, and $3,000 by John A. Holmes, 
all resident in St. Louis. 

In June, 1902, the Science Building Committee made 
its final report, showing a total of receipts and assets of 
$27,002.60, and vouchers for expenditures, $25,566.32. In 
October the report to Synod announced that two-thirds of 
the amount necessary for a dormitory had been secured; a 
few months later over $28,500 was available and work was 
begun. The endowment is reported as follows: 

♦Collected in 71 and 72. 

378 History of Westminster College 

In the hands of the Board of Trust $65,956.63* 

In the hands of the Board of Trustees 12,002 21 

$77,078 66 

Sausser Endowment 110,015 lO 

Educational Endowment 11,185 89 

There has been a slight diminution in the face value 
•of the Sausser estate. This is due to inability to realize^ 
owing to shrinkage in the value of the real estate at Hanni- 
bal, the estimated value of property, and also to the ex- 
penditures necessary in defending the suit brought by in- 
terested parties to set aside the will of Mr. Sausser. It 
was necessary to pay large fees to local attorneys and to 
gather evidence, though Hon. H. S. Priest, of St. Louis, 
who tiied the case in the lower and the higher courts and 
whose eminent services contributed largely to the success 
of the College, generously gave his services, refusing even 
to have his traveling expenses and hotel bills paid. Hon, 
C. W. Bates and B. H. Charles, Esq., of St. Louis, have 
also rendered valuable legal services to their Alma Mater 
without reward. In 1893, the Board, after legal advice^ 
conveyed to Mrs. Adelaide Sausser the home at Hannibal 
in which she and Mr. Sausser had spent so many years. 
Mrs. Sausser had nobly seconded her husband's philan- 
thropy by putting aside her legal claim to half of his estate. 

On more than one occasion she has given evidence of her 
abiding interest in the College by visiting it and by her 

At the Board meeting held at Mexico, June 26, 1903, 
the Committee on Needs and Endowments reported that 
they had "undertaken to secure $3,000 a year for current 
expenses and have sent a letter to each minister of both 
Synods urging co-operation, and requesting them to secure 

♦Collected in 1871-72. 

Financial-lSS7'1903 379 

collections in their Churches for this purpose." The ob- 
ject of the Committee is to restore the salaries to their 
normal figure." The Board tenders its thanks to Mr. S, 
J. Fisher, of St. Louis, for his generous offer to provide 
for the deficiency in the salary of one Professor until defi- 
nite and permanent arrangements can be made. The sum 
of $28,500 in assets and subscriptions is reported available 
for the building of the Dormitory, known as Reunion Hall. 
In concluding this brief account of the finances of 
Westminster, it is, perhaps, unnecessary to remind its 
friends that the steady fall in the rates of interest has prac- 
tically diminished the endowment. The writer can remem- 
ber when every dollar of it was securely invested at nine 
per cent per annum. Every year the competition in educa- 
tion in Missouri has increased ; the number of colleges, both 
real and nominal, is much larger than it was twenty-five 
years ago. But Westminster has not fallen behind in the 
race. In the words of our young President, "The place of West- 
minster among the thirty-nine Presbyterian Colleges and 
Universities of this country is no mean one. It ranks 
eleventh in point of age, fifteenth in male attendance, 
twenty-first in the amount invested in grounds and build- 
ings, thirteenth in amount of annual income and expendi- 
ture, and ninth in amount of permanent endowment. There 
are not more than twelve Presbyterian Colleges in the 
whole country which are as strong as Westminster is to- 
day. If we were to say that half of the four hundred odd 
colleges of the country ought to cease as colleges tomor- 
row, and we were to cut off the weaker half, Westminster 
would still be found well up in the list of the remaining 
two hundred." Westminster is one of the "small colleges,'' 
but we may well recall the words of the late Dr. Gray of 
"The Interior;" "It is said, 'The little colleges must go.' 

380 History of Westminster 'College 

Well, if they ever do go, which God forbid, they will take 
the brains and the consecration of the country along with 
them. They have furnished nearly the whole of it, up to 
date, and they are working right along at the same ratio. 
They are not going, any more than the churches or homes 
are going." 

If so much has been accomplished by one Synod, shall 
we fear for the future, when the re-union in education has 
more than doubled the numbers, the wealth, the prayers, 
that support Westminster! 

3 2044 038 457 420 


3 2044 038 457 420