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History of the 

Worshipflil Company of Pewterers 

of the City of London. 

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• • • 

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The Worshipful Company 
of Pewterers 




Juthr of " S'dodtrn History of th City of London," etc. 

Volume I. 


'Bhdes, East & 'Blades, 

Vr inters, 

2), v4bcburcb Lane, London, E,C. 









Che object of this work, compiled at the request of the 

^ Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 

P Worshipful Company of Pewterers and printed at 

:^ their direction, is to exhibit the history of the Company 

' from the records now or formerly in their possession. 

The materials for this purpose are fortunately abundant. The Company 

exercised control over one of the most important industries in the 

country, and they were consequently fostered and controlled by more 

Royal Charters and legislative enactments than were the great majority 

of the City Companies. The Company's records are well preserved, and 

nearly continuous from an early date, although Pewterers' Hall has, 

unfortunately, more than once been destroyed by fire. 

In the following pages the records tell their own tale, every line 
of them has been read, and it is believed that every fact material to the 
history of the Company and its trade has been extracted in faithful 
reproduction from the originals. Superfluous comment has been 
avoided, and Information from printed sources very sparingly intro- 
duced in order to do justice to this immense wealth of material. The 
arrangement is strictly chronological, and it is hoped that the illustrative 
remarks are introduced sufficiently to present a connected story. The 
exhaustive index will largely supply the defects inevitably attaching 
to the chronological method. The advantages of such a plan far outweigh 

ii Introduction. 

its defects. Besides the gradual unfolding of the Company's history 
from its infancy to the period of its fullest development, sharp con- 
trasts are afforded by comparing its condition at different periods, and 
points of less importance but yet possessing interest in themselves, may 
also be traced, such as variations in orthography, style, and methods 
of minuting and keeping accounts. 

In one respect alone the records are disappointing. They do not 
include any register of makers' marks, nor do the Accounts contain 
receipts for registration fees. It is probable, therefore, that this registra- 
tion was of the simplest character, and consisted merely of impressing 
the maker's mark upon the "touch-plates" at Pewterers' Hall. Most 
of the early marks are very small, and contain only the maker's 
initials, thus making it impossible to identify the mark with certainty, 
although the list of members of the Company extends back to the 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

The earliest information of importance respecting the Company is 
found in their Ordinances for the year 1348, in the middle of the long 
reign of Edward III. The Company is described as the Craft of 
Pewterers, and the Ordinances deal exclusively with matters relating to 
the trade. In the ancient oath, which bears every evidence of being at 
least as old as these Ordinances, there is associated with the Craft the 
Brotherhood of the Assumption of Our Lady. The main object of the 
regulations of 1348 was to enforce a high standard of quality and 
workmanship upon makers of English pewter, a reputation for which 
it has ever since been the great aim of the Company to maintain. 
Another early Ordinance for the regulation of the trade was approved 
by the Court of Aldermen on the 30th of March, 1438. This was 
followed, six years later, by an Order of the Common Council grant- 
ing the Company the right to purchase one-fourth part of all the tin 
brought up for sale to London. 

In 145 1, the series of Audit Books begins, and opens to us a mine 
of valuable information. The Accounts were extremely simple at this 

Introduction. iii 

early period, the receipts consisting chiefly of fees paid for admission to 
the Craft, fines, payments for quarterage, and gifts and bequests. The 
total receipts for 145 1-2 were 39/. 4^. iirf. The payments amounted 
to 46^. iirf., and included money given to alms-men, expenses of 
attendance in the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs' Processions to Westminster, 
and of attendance at the Grey Friars on their annual election day, which 
was the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. The Hall of an- 
other great monastery, that of the Austin Friars, was used with its oflFices 
for the great annual feast, and for the ordinary business of the Fellowship. 

The need of State protection and authority was soon felt, to enable 
the governing body to supervise with effect all matters connected with 
the trade, the concerns of its members, and the control or prohibition 
of foreign imports. Both Parliament and the King himself were ap- 
proached with a view of obtaining such powers in 146 1-2, soon after 
Edward IV's accession to the throne. The usual methods of promoting 
legislation in those days, namely, by handsome gifts to high officers 
of State and their subordinate officials, were freely employed by the 
Pewterers, but, as it appears, without much success until 1473. In 
this year, the thirteenth of his reign, Edward IV granted the Company 
their first charter, containing licence to Peter Bishop, William Large 
and Thomas Langtoft, the then Master and Wardens of the Craft, to 
found to the honour of God and of the Virgin Mary, a fraternity or per- 
petual guild of one Master, two Wardens, and Commonalty of the 
Mistery of Pewterers. 

Besides the legal benefits of incorporation thus secured, the Company 
was granted the important right of search for false wares, not only within 
the City and suburbs, but throughout all England, and the King's officers 
were enjoined to give them every assistance for this purpose. These 
extended powers resulted in the addition to the ranks of the Company 
of many country pewterers, who were hospitably entertained when their 
business brought them to London. The Company took its part with the 
other Guilds in the various municipal duties and ceremonials, as well as 

A 2 

iv Introduction. 

by contributing their full quota in all contributions of money or men re- 
quired by various monarchs from the City of London. A confirmatory 
Charter was granted to them by Edward IV on 14th April, 1478. 

The Company now took measures to provide themselves with a 
Hall, and after inspecting various sites, selected that on which the Hall 
now stands in Lime Street. The building appears to have been com- 
menced in 1475, but was not finished till twenty years later. From the 
description of its various apartments found in the Inventories, it was a 
building well worthy of the Company, and attached to it was a garden 
with vinery and bowling green. The Company were their own builders, 
employing the necessary workmen and labourers, and purchasing the 
materials required. The services of Simon Burlingham were engaged 
as master-builder or architect, and the Beadle of the Company, among 
his other duties, would seem to have acted as Clerk of the Works. 
When the Hall was finished, the Company ceased to hold their meetings 
at the Friaries. The annual religious service was transferred in 1495-6 
from the Grey Friars to the Church of All-Hallows, Lombard Street, and 
the annual banquet and other festivities now took place at the Hall, 
where the business of the Company was also transacted, thus no longer 
necessitating the use of apartments at the Austin Friars. 

The Yeomanry, or Freemen, had a separate organisation of their 
own, under a Master and three Wardens chosen from the Livery of the 
Company. With this was united, as in the Company itself, a religious 
association. It was known as the Fraternity of St. Michael the 
Archangel, the annual festival of which was also held in the Church 
of All-Hallows, Lombard Street. 

In 1503-4 the Company succeeded 'in procuring an important Act 
of Parliament giving them much- needed powers for the suppression of 
abuses in the trade, one of its clauses providing that all Pewterers should 
put their mark or " touch " upon their goods. This statute, with some 
amending and confirmatory Acts, continued, for the next three centuries, 
to be the Company's principal instrument of authority, and was as such 

Introduction. v 

reprinted and widely distributed so late as the year 1741. The Charter of 
Edward IV was confirmed by Henry VII in 1504-5, and by other Charters 
of inspeximus granted by Henry VIII, Philip and Mary, and Queen 
Elizabeth. An important general Act was also passed in the year 1503-4, 
forbidding any of the Companies to make ordinances or bye-laws until 
their draft had been approved by certain high officers of state on behalf 
of the Crown. The Pewterers' Company accordingly submitted their 
bye-laws for confirmation in 1522. This important document embraces 
the whole constitution of the Company, including its trade control and 
internal organisation. 

It is impossible to allude to more than a few of the points of interest 
in which the period covered by this Volume abounds. The Company pos- 
sessed a grant of arms in 1473, the date of their incorporation, as appears 
from their seal. The grant was confirmed by Thomas Benolt, Clarencieux 
King of Arms, on 26th May, 1533. This document is well preserved, but 
' the earlier grant or grants have unfortunately disappeared. The alteration 
in the religious observances of the Company at the Reformation are of 
much interest, and are illustrated by the entries in the accounts preceding 
and following the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1537-8. Some of the 
accounts are very beautifiilly written, especially those for the years 155 1- 
1569, when Edmund Browne, a very skilful penman, was Clerk of the 

The minutes of the Court of Assistants commence in 1551, and 
from this date a much clearer view of the history and proceedings of the 
Company is obtainable. In 1557, for the first time, a member of the 
Pewterefs' Company held the office of Lord Mayor. This was Sir 
Thomas Curtis, whose family- had long been connected with the Com- 
pany, and who served as SheriflT in 1 546. Presents were made both to 
Alderman Curtis and Alderman John Catcher, towards furnishing their 
houses when they served the office of SheriflT. 

Loans were required by the Crown from an early period, and 
the method of assessing that of 1558 for Queen Mary caused much 

vi Introduction. 

discontent. Personal service was also demanded both (i) for pageants, 
when a deputation well-dressed and well-mounted attended on horseback, 
and whifflers were furnished from the Yeomanry to keep the streets clear 
from the crowd ; and (2) for the wars, when detachments drawn from the 
Yeomanry were fitted out by the Company fully equipped with clothing 
and arms. A store of armour was kept at the Hall, and the services of 
an Armourer employed to keep it in good condition. 

The Court of Assistants appears to have had its origin in 1560, when 
all past Masters and Wardens were appointed to sit with the Master and 
Wardens to give their advice. A severe Plague visitation occurred in 
1563, when the Company's searches had to be abandoned. 

In 1 564, a Code of Ordinances is entered in a book presented by 
William Curtis, an influential member of the Company. It is interesting 
to compare these provisions with the earlier Bye-Laws of 1522. The 
long roll of the Company's charters is explained by the pressure put upon 
them to procure a renewal of their " Corporation " at the beginning of ' 
each new reign. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth they were served 
with a Quo Warranto to compel them to renew their charter. In 1575, the 
Company was again threatened with a writ of Quo Warranto from the Queen, 
which they sought to avert by a timely gift from their funds. They were, 
however, burdened with heavy legal costs in conducting their defence. 

The Company employed any balance in their hands in the purchase 
of tin, which they sold to their members at a slight profit. A Christmas 
gift of money was made in 1564 to the Lord Mayor. This afterwards 
became an annual present of two, three or four pounds. Similar presents 
were made to the Speaker and great Officers of State when the Com- 
pany were seeking legislative powers or protection. 

The term Livery first appears in use about 1564, taking the place of 
the olden term " Clothing," by which the higher class of members were 
distinguished. The Liveryman's fine in 1568 was twenty shillings, besides 
his spoon. The Company thus became possessed of a goodly show of 
plate. Freedom by Redemption first occurs under that name in 1587. 

Introduction. vii 

The Company were often asked by noblemen and others to 
admit various persons to their membership on favourable terms. In 
1586 the famous Sir Walter Raleigh asked such a favour on behalf 
of one Isaac Tucker. Many instances occur of the admission to the 
Brotherhood of persons not connected with the trade. Among these 
were Lord William Howard, the Lord Chamberlain; Mr. Stukeley, 
who, with his wife, was a benefactor to the Company; and an eccle- 
siastic, Sir Peter Warryson, who was in due course nominated for 
the office of Warden. 

Both journeymen and apprentices were kept strictly under their 
master's surveillance, and were not allowed to be away on Sunday until 
after Evensong, and then not to engage in unlawful sports. Apprentices 
were to be bound for at least seven years, and often for longer terms, 
extending to nine or ten years. Apprentices and even journeymen were 
punished by whipping for various offences. This was usually inflicted 
in the Hall and in open Court. Members of the Company were 
forbidden to go to law with each other, and the minute books are 
largely taken up with the settlement of disputes and adjudication upon 
complaints among members, or among masters and their workmen 
and apprentices. The disputants were often sentenced to dine or sup 
together, accompanied by their wives. 

Fines for bad metal or workmanship were impartially inflicted upon 
all, not excepting the Master and Wardens. If money could not be 
obtained, the Company distrained on tools, ware, or even dress and 
livery gown. A frequent punishment was an order to the offender to 
alter his " touch." He was sometimes sentenced, if a liveryman, to be 
deprived of his hood, thus losing the privileges of the livery. 

The prices of food and other necessaries are fully illustrated from 
the Audit Books, and the accounts for the years when the Hall 
was building give interesting information as to the cost of labour 
and materials. 

viii Introduction. 

Besides their annual religious festival in August, on the day of the 
Assumption, the Company attended the Lord Mayor at St. Paul's many 
times during the year. The religious services almost wholly disappeared 
after the Reformation ; the obits survived only in their charitable pro- 
vision for the poor. 

The Hall was a real centre of the craftsmen's daily life. They were 
to attend in cleanly apparel and without their aprons. Amusements were 
allowed, but games of chance, e.g^., shove-groat, strictly forbidden. The 
Hall was let out foi weddings and dinners to outsiders, and furnished 
a source of income to the Company. An Italian exhibited here a 
wonderful castle in 1570. Attached to the Hall was a bowling-alley 
and a fine garden with an arbour, vine, and rose trees. 

The annual election banquet was attended by all, including the 
poorest of the Yeomanry, with their wives also. After the dinner was 
a pageant for which "play pence" were collected. A sword-player's 
services were sometimes engaged. The Quarter-Day dinners were 
attended only by the Livery. The Yeomanry had their own festival 
at Michaelmas. A curious light is thrown on the election customs 
by an entry, on page 267, forbidding the members or their wives to 
go to the newly-elected master's house, unless specially invited. Burials 
were attended by the members of the Company, and were generally 
followed by a feast. 

The trade regulations were very numerous and strictly enforced. 
Great trouble was occasioned to the Company by tinkers and hawkers, 
whom they found it very hard to suppress. Tin was forbidden to be 
bought or sold without clofF (rough metal), nor with more than a due 
proportion of " peak." 

The suspected metal seized by the Company in their searches was 
brought to the Hall, where vats, melting bellows, and other appliances 
were kept for testing its quality. If found to be below standard it was 
mostly forfeited, and sold as inferior or " lay " metal to the Master and 


Introduction. ix 

Wardens for the time being, who were privileged to buy it. The amount 
realised was divided equally between the Crown and the Company. All 
bad ware or metal was marked with the Broad Arrow-head. Gilding 
pewter was strictly prohibited, as was also the letting out of new vessels 
to hire. The selling price of pewter ware at shops, as well as at fairs and 
markets, was also fixed by the Company. 

The matters dealt with in Volume II will be treated of in the 
Introduction to that Volume. 

The following is the plan adopted in the preparation of the 
work. The year is taken according to the modern reckoning from 
January ist to December 31st, instead of from March 25 th, the old 
New Year's Day; each year therefore, previous to the reformation of 
the Calendar in 175a, has a double date. Thus the year 145 1-2 com- 
prises ist January-24th March, 1451, and 25th March-3ist December, 
1452. Complete extracts from the records are indicated by printing the 
first word or words in heavy type, shorter extracts being shown by 
quotation-marks. The events and transactions of each year, taken (after 
1550) chiefly from the Court Minute Books, are in strict chronological 
sequence, an entry without date being of the date of that immediately 
preceding it. Following the last entry in December are the extracts 
from the Audit Books for the year. These accounts run from Michaelmas 
to Michaelmas, and so begin and end three months earlier than the yearly 
period covered by the rest of the entries. Whilst the Court Minute 
Books and the Audit Books form the main sources of information, 
valuable and interesting facts are occasionally supplied by the Yeomanry 
Accounts, the Book of Inventories, the Tin Ledgers, and other records. 
These occasional entries are inserted in proper order of date, and the 
source from which they are taken is specified in every instance. 




ELECTION GARLANDS - - - - - pp. 2, 30, 34. 


FACSIMILE OF EDWARD IV's FIRST CHARTER, 14.73 - to face p. 52 




GRANT OF ARMS, 1533 - - - - - to face p. 126 





to face p. 238 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 

th Ctdff or f«ffo2J6((iy« 

E materials for a history of the Pewterers' Company are 

ortunately abundant, and lie for the most part in the 

-ompany's own possession. They include a roll of 

ccounts known as Audit Books, complete from the year 

45 1 to the present day, lists of liverymen from the same 

date. Orders of Court beginning in 1551, Yeomanry accounts from 1495, 

and a long and well-preserved series of Charters granted by various 

sovereigns from Edward III to Anne. Among the more ancient books 

is a volume of ordinances which seems to have been known as the Jury 

Book (for swearing officials and new members), and was presented to the 

Craft by Robert Chamberlain and Cicely his wife in 1463, as the 

following entry on folio 9b shows: — 

{§t hit had in mynde that Robert Chamburlayn Citezen and peuterer 
of london and Cecile his wyfe jafe jjis boke in to J?e Crafte of peuterers 
in the worschep of god and ]?e assumpcon of oure lady to be prayde 
fore euer ppetually. The xj day of august in the 3ere of oure lorde rfi. 
cccclxiij. Andin the^jirdejereofthe reigne of kyng Edward thefoureth. 
Also ]?e sayde Roberd & Cecile jafe on J?e sayde day iij Garlondis vnto 
pe worship & chesyng of ]?e wardeynes of J?e sayde Craft & on ther of ys 
I Garneshit w' syluer and j?e armes of J)e Craft Jjer on. 

2 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

1348. In this ancient volume are the original ordinances drawn up 
by the men of the Craft in 1348 and submitted to the Mayor and 
Aldermen for their approval. The draft was approved and ordered to be 
entered on the City books. Here, in Letter Book F folio 155, the 
document duly appears in Latin and Norman French according to the 
ancient custom of the City, and an English translation is given by 

Election Chaplet, or Garland, given by Roberl and Cicely Chamberlain in 1463. 

Mr. H. T, Riley in his " Memorials of London." * The copy preserved 
in the Company's records is chosen for printing as the more interesting 
version, being a quaint specimen of early English, and hitherto unknown. 

drdinaunces of the crafte of pewtreres entird m the boke of fF, 
the Civ. lef To the maire and aldermen of the cite of london 
praien the goode folke makers of peauter vessel of the saide cite that 
ye please the state and pointes of her crafte to tender & vppon the 
defawtes for the comun profite by gode discrecion to ordeine redresse 
& amende & to ordeine the pointes couenable by the peple that ben 
connyng m the saide crafte to be wel holdon and kepte. 

First for as moche os the crafte of peutereres is founded vppon 
certcine maters & metales as of brasse tyn & lede in pte of the wheche iij 

History of the Pewterers Company. 

pewterers to 
oversee and 
assay all 


lor fine 
pewter and 
for vessels 
of tin. 

tions for 



None to sell 
ware in the 
('iiy before 
it is assayed 
by the 

None to 
send ware 
out of the 
City for sale 
until it be 
first assayed. 

metals they make vessel that is to saie pottes salers dysshes platers and othir 
thinges by good folke be spoken wheche werkes aske certeine medles & 
alayes aftir the maner of the uessels be spoken which thinges can not be 
made witAoute goode auisement of the peuterere experte and kunnynge in 
the crafte. Therevppon the crafte goode folk of the crafte praien that 
it be ordeined that iij or iiij moste trew & cunnyng of the crafte be 
chosen to ouersee the alayes and werkes aforsaide. And bi thaire 
examinac/on and asay amendement to be made where the defaute is 
hastely vppon the dede and if any be rebel ayenst the wardeins or 
assaiours )>an the defaute and the name of the trespassour rebelle to be 
sente to the maire and to be iuged in the presence of the goode folke of 
the Crafte that have take the defaute. 

And be it vnderstonde that al maner vessells of peauter as disshes 
Saucers platers Chargeours pottes square Cruettes square Crismatories 
and othir thinges that they make square or Cistils that they be made of 
fyne peauter and the tnesure of Brasse to the tyn as moche as it wol 
receiue of his nature of the same and al othir thinges of the saide crafte 
that be wro5te as pottes rounde that perteine to the crafte to be wrou3te 
of tyn wftA an alay of lede to a resonable mesure and the mesure of the alay 
of an C tyn is xxvj. Ife. lede. and that is called vessells of tyn for euer. 

Also that non ente;-mete of the Crafte aforsaide but if he be sworne 
afore the goode folke of the crafte to wirke treuly aftir )>e pointes ordeined 
as he that hathe ben aprentice or othir wise treu workeman known and asaid 
among hem. And that non reseiue aprentice ayenst the vse of the Citee. 
And tho that be receyued to be enrolled aftir the vse of the same Cite. 

Also that non per^one ne estraunger wirk ne bere suche maner vessel 
of peauter \n )>e Cite to sel ne it put to sale afore the mater be assaid 
oppon perile of forfarture of the marchandice if the mater be sufFrable 
be the assais of the wardenis that merchandice to be solde for suche as it 
is and non othir wise. 

And that non of the saide craft wirk preueli \n hid placis vessells of 
lede nor of fals alay for to selle oute of the cite atte faires or markettes 
for esclaunder to the cite and harme and esclaunder of the goode folk 
of the saide crafte but be suche thiwges \>^ shulbe sent to sale oute of the 
cite by the wardeines of the craft asaide afore they be had out of the citee 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Penalties for 
and appren- 

Penalties for 
bad work- 

None to 
work at 

Penalties for 
above rules. 

No man to 
entice away 

by the wardeins of the craft to sale and )?' no man wirk in the saide Craft 
but he wol answere for his wirk oppon the asaie of his werk \n whos 
handes someuer it be foiinde And if ani be take henforwarde bering or 
carying suche ware5 ^^ ^^ ^^ i^ixxt market or elles where w/tAin this reame 
afore it be assaide : And therof be ateint afore the maire and aldermen 
be he punished bi theire discrec/on aftir his trespasse whan he is ateint 
atthe sute of the goode folke of his craft. 

Also if any apprentise or allowes be taken doinge harme to his 
master of xd. by wey of theft be wey there amendes made to the master 
bi hym or bi his plegges of the crafte & if he trespasse anothir tyme be 
he punishid bi the regard of the Craft. And if he trespas the iij. tyme 
be he put oute of the crafte. 

Also that the person of the saide Craft )?at is othir wise take wirkinge 
in the Craft )>an is aforesaide. And of that be found culpable bi the 
assaie atthe first defaute he shal lese )?e mater so wro3te. Atthe secwnd 
defaute he shal lese the mater and be punishid by the discrec/on of rfie 
maire and aldermen atthe iij tyme if he be taken trespassinge he shal be 
foringed of the crafte for euermore. 

Also the goode folk of the crafte ben acorded that non be so hardi 
to wirk by ny3t no werk of peauter be cause it is regarded amonge 
thaym that the vew of the night is not so profitable ne certen as is of the 
day to the com^wen profit. 

Also that any of the saide craft be take in defaute in any of the pointes 
aforesaide he shal pai atthe first defaute xl. d. and atthe secund defaut vj s. 
viij d. And atthe iij defaute to be done of him aftir the discrec/on of the 
maire and Aldermen and that of tho paymentis that one half be geuen to 
the chamber for to maintene the wardeines and that othir half to the 
wardeins of the craft for theire trauaile and expensis. 

Also that none of the crafte grete ne smale pwrloine othirs alowes 
ayenst thassente & wille of his first mastir afore he haue fulli serued his 
terme aftir the couenante by twene hem made & that the saide alows haue 
made agree w/tA his maister of the trespasses and mysprises to him don 
if he haue ani thmge trespassed ayenst hym by the discrec/ons of the 
wardeins of the crafte. And he that dothe ayenst this ordinance to be 
punisched aftir the discrec/on of the maire and aldermen. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 5 

Nonetotake Also that non of the craft grete ne smale be so hardi to receiue any 

a workman wirkeman of the craft but if he haue ben apprentise or be a goode 

who has not . , j i i_ -^ r !_• • ^ r ^u- j 

been ap- wirkeman and suche as may haue witncs of his maister or of othir goode 
prenticedor neighburghes to be of goode condic/ons. And may shew that wele and 
IS not other- xx^yj\y \^^ hathe serued his maister the tyme assigned by twene hem. 

wise com- ^ . 

petent. There were chosen and sworne to owerse and kepe the articles 

aforsaid that is to witte Stephen Ic straunge and John Syward peautrers. 

In the City books is the following further entry in a later hand. The 
original is in Latin, "^n Thursday next after the Feast of AUhallows 
[i November], in the 23rd year of the reign of King Edward the Third, 
etc. [1349], it was witnessed before Walter Turk, Mayor, and the 
Aldermen, that Stephen Lestraunge was dead, and that John Syward 
could not work; wherefore the reputable men of that trade chose 
Nicholas de Ludgate and Ernald Schipwaysshe, pewterers,' who were 
sworn to keep the articles aforesaid." 

The John Syward above mentioned was probably a near relative of 
Roger Syward, pewterer, whose will, dated i November, 1348, was enrolled 
in the Court of Husting, 20 July, 1349. He lived in the parish of 
Allhallows, Bread Street, and left his trade implements to any of his sons 
who was willing to follow his trade. [Cal. of Husting Wills, ed. Sharpe, 
i., 596.] 

The above interesting document shows that the Craft existed in 
an organised state in the reign of Edward III, the wardens being em- 
powered to receive one half the fines inflicted on offenders against the 
ordinances. The designation of " The Craft of Pewterers " is the earliest 
by which the Fellowship is described in the records;* with it was asso- 
ciated the Brotherhood of The Assumption of Our Lady, as appears 
from the following ancient oath preser\'ed in the " Jury Book " : — 

t <^e schuU kepe to 3owre powere well and trewly all the good rewlys 
of peutreres Crafte which ben enrolled in the Guyld halle of london and 

* The style or title of '* Craft of Pewterers " was retained (as appears from the headings of the annual 
audits) until 1528-9, when it was altered to "Craft or Mystery." In 1546-7, the " Mystery" usurps the 
place of the ** Craft," the style being; "Master of the Mistery of Pewterers and Wardens of the same 
Craft or Mystery/' The modem designation of "Company" appears casually in 1542-3, but was first 
formally adopted in 1569-70, when the style runs " Master of the Companye and Mysterye and Wardens 
of the same Crafte or Mysterie." The terms Mystery and Craft finally disappear in i6ii-r2, from which 
date the style is "The Company of Pewterers." 

t This oath is crossed through in the original. 

6 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

This ys alle j>e good counseles of the seyde Crafte and none of hem discoue but 

woyde cS: of if it be to the worschip of the Crafte and also ye shall worshep owre 

bretheren of the peutreres which ben j>e bretheren of oure lady and 
socoure and helpe in euy place so it be not hynderyng to 3owre selfe ne 
to 3oure worschep so helpe 30U god and holy dam [holy Lady] and by 
\>\s boke. kis j>e boke. 

Although these early ordinances make no mention of the religious 
Fraternity, the oath, which is probably equally ancient, shows that the 
Craft and Guild were indissolubly connected. The records show no 
trace of any separate organisation of the two institutions, the Master and 
Wardens presiding over botK the Guild and the Craft ; no evidence is 
available to determine which of the two associations is the more ancient, 
or whether they had a simultaneous origin. In 1348, the trade control, 
which had no doubt been exercised for some time previously in an informal 
manner, was put upon a legitimate basis by the above Ordinances. The 
regulations of chief importance are those providing for the assaying of all 
pewter wares and fixing a standard for each quality. Two classes of ware 
are described, viz.. Fine Pewter, which was a mixture of tin and brass in 
proportions not very clearly specified, being probably a trade secret ; and 
Vessels of Tin, the alloy for which consisted of 26 lbs. of lead to each 
cwt. of tin. 

These provisions, which head the earliest code of regulations of the 
Craft, were always most strictly enforced, and show the jealous care with 
which this ancient Guild secured and maintained the high reputation of 
English pewter for quality and workmanship. The remaining provisions 
are very similar to those which were in force in other guilds, but they all 
relate to trade management and are only incidentally concerned with the 
internal organisation of the Fellowship. The points comprised are the 
necessity for apprenticeship* or other technical training; penalties for theft 
and bad workmanship; and the prohibition of night work, of enticing 
away another's workmen, and of the employment of unskilled persons. 

135 1. The City records show that the Craft was not slow to use the 
powers which they now possessed for maintaining the credit of the trade. 

* It will be noticed that previous apprenticeship was not a necessary qualification for admission 
to the Guild. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 7 

^n Monday next after the Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul 
[29 June], in the 24th year of the reign of King Edward the Third, 
etc., 23 measures called **potels," and 20 saltcellars, of pewter, were 
brought before Walter Turk, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, by the men 
of the trade of Pewterers ; who said that the potels and saltcellars afore- 
said were false, and made of false metal by John de Hiltone, " peautrer," 
here present in court, in deceit of the people, and to the disgrace of the 
whole trade. And the said John de Hiltone acknowledged that he had 
made the vessels aforesaid; and that it might be known whether the same 
vessels were of good and befitting metal or not, order was given to 
William de Greyngham, serjeant to summon forthwith before the Mayor 
and Aldermen, Arnold de Shypwaysshe, Nicholas de Ludgate, John 
Syward, William de Uptone, John de Arlicheseye and William de 
Greschirche, Wardens of the Articles of the trade of Pewterers, that 
they might certify the Mayor and Aldermen, as to the genuineness or 
falsity of the make of the vessels aforesaid. Who being sworn, after 
viewing and examining the vessels aforesaid said upon oath, that the 
greater part of the metal of which the aforesaid potels and saltcellars 
were made was lead ; whereas to one hundredweight of 1 1 2 pounds of 
tin there ought to be added no more than 16 pounds of lead. It was 
therefore adjudged that the said vessels should be forfeited to the use of 

the Commonalty. 

Afterwards on the Thursday next after the Feast of the Exaltation 
of the Holy Cross [14 September] in the 26th year, the said vessels were 
sold for 19s. 8d. in the time of Andrew Aubrey, Mayor, as appears in the 
accounts of Thomas de Waldene, the Chamberlain, then next rendered. 
[Riley, Memorials^ pp. 259-260. Original in Latin.] 

'363 • The enforcement of honourable dealing in trade and work- 
manship was a common aim among all the Crafts, and formed the plea on 
which they sought for powers over their respective trades, whether from the 
Crown or from the Corporation. This policy was fostered and directed 
by the Crown and Parliament. A statute passed in 1363 enacted that 
" two of every craft shall be chosen to survey that none use other craft than 
the same which he has chosen." * An important order of somewhat similar 

* 37 Edw. Ill, cap. 6 ; Statutes of the Realm, i, 379. 


8 History of the Pewter ers' Company. 

purport, probably directed to the citizens by Edward III, is preserved in 
Liber Albus.f This precept was transmitted by the Lord Mayor to 
the various Crafts, and it is fortunately preserved in an early English 
dress at the end of the Jury Book. The document is undated in 
the Liber Albus, but the reference in the Company's ancient book to 
Letter Book G of the City records enables us to fix its date as of the 
same year, 1363. 

i^%\% folowyng is entred in )>e boke of G j^ leef cxxxv. Also it is 
ordeined j>at alle ^e craftes of ^e citee of london be trewly rewled and 
gouned euych in his degree in due maner. So j>t no falsnesse false 
werke ne disceite be found in no maner of )>c said Craftes, ffor j?e 
worsship of )>e good folk of )>e said Craftes, and for the coe pfite of |>e 
peple. that of euy Crafte be chosen and sworn, iiij. or vj. or mo. or 
fewer, as \>t Crafte shuU nede. the which folk so chosen and sworn shuU 
haue fiiU power of j>e mair for that wele and trewly to do and pfo'me. 
And if any of the said Craftes be rebell contrarious or destourbouse, 
that they mowe nat duely pfo'me her office arid of that he be atteinte that 
atte the first tyme he shal abide in prisone by x dayes and paie to |>e 
Comunaltee for his trespasse x s. and atte the secunde tyme he shall dwell 
in prisone by xx dayes and paye to )>e Comunaltee xx s. And atte the 
iij"*"* tyme he shall duell in prisone by xxx dayes and paie to the 
Comunaltee xxx s. and atte the iiij'** tyme he shall dwell in prisone by xl 
dayes and paie to the Comunaltee xl s. 

1438. The materials at disposal for this early period are necessarily 
scanty, and we have no information as to the progress of the Craft during 
the next seventy-five years. In 1438 the silence breaks, and an interesting 
insight is afforded into the affairs of the Craft. Elated by the privileges 
granted them in the time of Edward III, the worthy men of the 
Pewterers seem to have taken upon them to make further ordinances 
without the authority of the Mayor and Aldermen and against the "profit" 
of the City. For this they had to appear before the Court of Aldermen 
on 1 9th November, when, after being examined, they fully confessed their 
fault, and on the 27th February, their illegal ordinances were "adnuUed 
and utterly reiecte." A gleam of hope must have been vouchsafed them, 

f Translation by Riley, pp. 424-5. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 






New bill 



for on presenting themselves again with all due submission before the 
Court on the 20th March, a draft body of ordinances which they had 
prepared was approved. 

This document is duly entered in the City books, but is here 
transcribed, as in previous cases, from the Company's old Jury Book. 

dr^tnauncee of the said crafte of peautrers enterd in the boke of 
k. in the lef clxxiiij. Be it remembred that the xix day of novembre In 
the yere of the regne of kinge henry the sixt aftir the conquest the xvij 
there came afore Stephen Browne maire & aldermen of london the worthy 
men of the craft of peautrers and severally examinid of and oppon many 
ordenances made \n counsaile confessid that they hade made ordenances 
amongc hemself wftAout autorite of the maire the whiche by goode 
diligence and deliberacion examinid for as they were found ayenst the 
libertes of the cite and ayenst the comen profit and also witA out autorite 
were made therfore by the maire and aldermen in theire congregacfon held 
in the chambre of the Guyld halle of the cite of london the xxvij day of 
februeri al tho ordenances were adnuUed and utterly reiecte and 
afterwarde the xx day of marcA yn the yere abouesaide the wardeins of the 
saide craft putto the maire and aldermen abille wherof the tenor folowth 
the whiche bil aftir diligent examinacfon afore had by the saide maire 
and aldermen was approued. 

*To the fill honurable lordes and soueraynes maire and aldermen of 
the cite of london. Humbli besechen the goode folk of the craft of 
peautrers in the saide citee that wher as for the goode of the comen peple 
worship of this cite & honeste of the saide crafte \>t said besekers have 
certaine pointes and articles entird in the chamber of the saide citee in 
the boke of . AT. the lef. civ that it like vnto youre goode graces the 
said pointes and articles in forme as they of old tyme ben entird to accept 
ratifie & hem conferme and oner that by youre ful wise discrecrons to 
se and tendirly considir the pointes and articles here suinge writen and 
in that thei be goode and resonable hem to admitte for ferme sure and 
stable and hem graunt so to be entird in the chambre of the yelde halle 
aboue saide. 

• A marginal note in a later hand is as follows : — A High Title given to y« Mayor & Aldiren. 

9 % 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Every mem- 
ber of the 
Craft to 
attend when 


No person 
to take 
house, shop 
or standing 

holders of 
the Craft to 
pay i2d. 

None to sell 
or bargain 

Firstc for the treu observance of al the goode & commendable 
pointes articles & reules in the saide crafte that eu«y persone of j?e same 
crafte that holdeth open shop in the said Citee or in the suburbus of \>t 
same Citee whan and as often as he is warned by the mastirs of the said 
craft or by the bedel of the same craft that he come and be redy and 
attendant to the houre and place to hym assigned oppon peine of xij d 
that oone half alway to remaine to ]k vse of the saide chambre* or the 
said chambre yeld halle and that othir half to the vse of the company 
of the said craft. 

Also that no persone of the said craft hire procure ne put othir 
persone of the same craft out of his hous shop or stonding place in the 
cite of london nor in faires markettes nor in othir places out of this Citee 
nor mak no maner brogate [brokage] bi no mene persone pnue ne 
apperte for any suche shop hous stondinge place nor parcel of grounde 
and in especial in feires markettes and places oute of this Citee on lesse 
than the person that hathe ocupied it byfore tyme be dede or ells wol 
it yeld vp and leue it bi his fre wyl vppon peine of xl s to be diuidid 
in maner as it is abouesaide and that is often tymes as any person of the 
saide craft be founde and proued doinge the contrari of this article and 
ouer that to be iuged by the maires discrecion. 

Also that euery persone houshoulder of the saide craft that holdethe 
open shope by the strete side wftAin the saide Cite or in the suburbs 
therof from this tyme forward paie yerly to the relef of pouer men of 
the same Craft xij d to be disposid by the discrecions of the masters and 
goode men of the same crafte in tyme of necessite in peine of dowblinge 
to the chambre. 

Also where as heuy noise and greuous disclaunder is grouen 
through \>t makinge and vsinge of vnleful bargaynes of cheuisaunce for 
goddes cause and vnto )>e correcc/on & sauf kepinge of the honest & 
goode fame of the gode folk of the saide Craft and of al this honurable 
Cite in that in him is that no person of the saide Craft from this tyme 
forward selle ony Peauter vessel to cheuysaunce wittingeli oppon peine 
of xl d. the hundrethe to be paid by hym so made to be reced [received] 
and diuidid in maner and forme aboue declared. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 1 1 

None of the Also in eschewinge lettinge and cessinge of unleful sotiltees and 

mdf his comen hurtes that no person of the Craft from this tyme forward 
metal ashes nieltc his metal asshes in any othir place than only w/tA suche a 
except in person brothir of the same Craft and place conuenient as by the 
appointed, wardeins and sad men of the same Craft generally therto shal be named 

and asigned oppon peine of xijd. the hu74drej> as oft tymes as ony 
person of the said craft dothe the contrari to be reced and diuided in 
the forme abouesaid. 

It would have been interesting to compare these Ordinances with the 
first draft which the City annulled.. Their object was to secure a firmer 
control over the trade, and the machinery for this purpose helped to 
consolidate and extend the internal organisation of the Fellowship. The 
provision obliging every member of the Craft to attend personally when 
summoned by the *^ Masters *' is especially important, and it gives us the 
first notice of a " bedel " as a permanent official. Another enactment of 
value to the Craft was the power granted them to impose a yearly 
contribution upon all pewterers keeping open shop. 

Of the same date, 1438, there is in the Jury Book a curious table 
of regulations for the standard weights of all kinds of pewter vessels. 
Inferior quality and bad workmanship had been provided for in the 
Ordinances of 1348, and it now remained to deal with offenders whose 
wares failed to come up to the proper standard of weight. 

^9*6 folowinge is entird in the saide boke of . k. in the lef Clxxvj. 
For that diuers artificers of the craft of peautrers hidir vnto haue 
do to be forged & made vessel weinge lijter [lighter] or heuier \>2ji 
\>t\ out [ought] to wey )>erfore \>^X. in euery sorte of uessels to be 
made a comen certainte shalbe had in tyme comynge thece quantitees 
of weghtes ben limited and assigned in alle assises of the uessel vndir- 
stond vndirwriten. 

First the chargeours of j>e largest assise a doseine weinge iij 
quartrons of a C. the pece weinge vij li. Also next )>e grettist a dosen 
weyynge Ix 115. )>e pece v lb. Also the middil chargeours a dosen weyinge 
xxxixlb. \>t pece weinge iij lb and a quarter. Also |>e smale holow 
chargeours )>e dosen weinge xxxiij )>e pece ij lb and iij quarter. Also 
the platers of the largest assice |>e dosen weinge xxx lb. Also the platers 

1 2 History of the Pewterers Company. 


of the next assice the doseine xxvij lb. Also \>t middel platers a dosen i 

weinge xxiiij lb. Also \k smale myddyl platers a dosen weyinge xxij lb. 

Also the disshes a dosen weinge of the largest assice xviij lb. Also the 

myddil dishes a dosen weinge xiiijlb. Also \>t kinges dishes a dosen 

weinge xvj lb. Also the smale dishes a dosen weinge xij lb. Also the 

holow dishes a dosen weyinge xj lb. Also the smale holowe dishes a 

dosen weyyngc xlb. Also )>e sawcers of j?e largest assice a dosen 

weinge ixlb. Also the myddil a dosen weinge vijli. Also next the 

myddil saucers a dosen weinge vj lb. Also )>e smale saucers a dosen 

weinge iiij lb. Also xij of the grettest Galey disshes & Galey saucers 

a dosen weinge xij lb. Also xiiij dishes & xiiij saucers weinge of the 

next Galey mold of the smale dishes of Galy & Galy saucers weinge 

xij lb. Also the Cardinals hatte and saucers weinge a doseine xvlbi. 

Also xij florentyn disshes and xij florentyne saucers of the grettest assice 

weinge xiijlb. Also the next florentyne disshes and florentine saucers 

weinge xij lb. Also the smale holies a dosen weinge xiij lb. 

That ther be no conterfete |>at cometh out of lundon but it be 
wel & sufliciantly bete & that there be no cours ware analed by no man 
of \k franchice of london to be solde for counterfete in lundon or in the 
contrey for disceiuynge of j?e kinges peple from this tyme forward oppon 
j>e peine afqresaid. Also a square potel weinge iiij lb. Also a square 
Quart weyynge ij lb di. [a^ lbs.] Also a square pinte weinge a lb. di. 
[i^ lbs.] Also a doseine of plaine salers weinge xiijlb. Also a dosen 
of cowped salers weinge xiij lb. Also a dosen of counterfete salers weinge 
xiij lb. Also a dosen of plaine smale salers weinge ix lb. Also a dosen 
of smale counterfete salers weinge ixli. Also a dosen short salers weyinge 

The list of wares is curious, but is confined to dishes and plates, 
the description of which is presumably exhaustive. Pots and liquid 
measures were perhaps made by a special class of workmen; an early list 
of them is found in the Accounts for 1482-3, see p. 57. Spoons, little 
salts, and other small ware were made by poorer members of the trade. 

1444. The control over the trade now exercised by the general body 
of the pewterers was considerable, and the influence of the Craft was rapidly 
increasing. So far as the manufacture was concerned, an efficient oversight 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 



Wardens of 
the Mistery 
of Pewterers 
to have a 
fourth part 
of all the tin 
brought for 
sale to 

Wardens to 
have power 
to search 
and assay 
tin melted 
within the 

was insured, but power was wanting to deal with abuses connected with 
the raw material. Although tin was required for other trades, the 
pewterers were by far the largest consumers of it, and from the allegations 
in the following petition, it would seem that much fraud was practised by 
the merchants of the stanneries. To ensure a sufficinct supply of tin 
from the Cornish and Devonshire mines, and to prevent any tampering 
with its quality, were first necessities with the Overseers of the pewterers' 
industry. The Wardens of the Craft were fortunate in their eiForts to 
attain both these objects, as appears from the following entries in the 
City records (Letter Book K, foil. 219, 219 b). 

Qllemoran^um quod ad Comune concilium tentum die Veneris 
decimo die Julii Anno regni Regis Henrici sexti vicesimo secundo 
ordinatum fuit et concordatum per Thomam Catworth Maiorem et 
Aldermannos cum assensu Comunitatis quod Custodes Mistere de 
Peautrers pro se et hominibus dicte mistere in Comuni habebunt quartam 
partem tocius Stanni ducti ad Ciuitatem Londoniarum per terram siue 
per aquam de manibus ipsorum mercatorum stannum illud ad Ciuitatem 
deferentium pro tali precio sicut ceteris Ciuibus adtunc illud vendi 
contigerit omni fraude cessant etc. 

Comune consilium tentum die Mercurii vicesimo secundo die Julii 
Anno regni regis Henrici sexti vicesimo secundo. In isto comuni concilio 
porrecta fuit quedam supplicacio Maiori Aldermannis et Comunitati per 
custodes et ceteros Ciues de Mistera de Peautrers Cuius quidem suppli- 
cationis tenor sequitur in hec verba. 

To the Right honurables lord and souueraignes the Maire & 

Aldremen of the Citee of London and to j?e right wise and 

discrete Comons of the said Citee assembled in this present 


Mekely besechen the Wardeins and good men of the craft of 

Peautrers in London ; for as moche as at euery coynage made in thise 

dayes grete multitude of Tynne whiche is vntrewe and deceyuable is 

brought to this Citee and here is solde as dere as the best Tynne comyng 

to this said Citee, for as moche as no defaulte canne be perceyued therin 

tille it come to the myltyng Wherthrughe grete damages and hurtes daily 

growen and encrecen nat onely to youre said besechers but also to alle 

U History of the Pewter ers' Company. 

the Kinges lieges bying myltyng and wirkyng the same tynne. Wherfore 
please it your honurable lordship and wise discrecions tendrely to considre 
the premisses and in eschuyng of the damages and hurtes aforesaid to 
ordeigne and graunt that the Wardeins of the said craft which for the 
tyme shuUe be, haue auctoritee and power from tyme to tyme perpetually 
hereafter to serche and assaie alle tynne hereafter to be multe withinne the 
said Citee and the Fraunchise therof, And alle the tynne by theim to 
befounde deceyuable and vntrewe to take and areste to the vse of the 
Chambre of the Gildehalle of the said Citee as forfaite sauyng to the said 
Wardeins whiche for |>e time shuUe be, a resonable part by you to be 
Umited of euery forfaiture for thaire labour to be hadde in the serche 
aforesaid And this for the comon auaille and encrece and in wey of 
Petition Clue supplicacio per Comunitatem fiierat concessa et affirmata. Et 

granted and quia videbatur Maiori et Aldermannis quod dicta supplicacio tendit in 

promocionem iusticie et ex consequenti in sustentacionem prosperitatis rei 
publice ordinatum fuit quod dicta supplicacio execucioni demandetur in 
adiutorium solicitudinis et laboris Maioris qui pro tempore fiierit ad 
quem spectat in solidum misprisiones negligencias et defectus omnium 
misterarum corrigere infra Ciuitatem supradictam etc. 

145 ■• We have now reached a date when the long series of Accounts 
known as Audit Books begins ; and these documents afford another and 
most valuable source of information. The earliest Audit Book com- 
mences in the year 145 1. Prefixed to it are nine pages containing various 
memoranda of sums owing to the Craft and purchases made. They are 
interspersed with a transcript of the will and an inventory of the posses- 
sions of Thomas Cohed, who died in London on 19th July, 1425. 
These are of considerable antiquarian interest, and include the funeral 
expenses incurred by his executors. Cohed was probably a Pewterer and 
a benefactor to the Craft, but his relationship is not sufficiently clear 
to justify the transcript at length of these particulars. The following 
list of moulds purchased by the Craft is of interest, and occurs among 
the miscellaneous entries above referred to. 

%%t partys of xv moldys bowthe [bought] of hew Swan Tho paruys 
willfh prowde and Robard schaike, & Rychard ffelde John veysy 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


xix ii 



V ti g* 

xij ti d j g« 

• ixti 

V ti g" 




iiij ti d j g» 


iij ti d j g* 

. jtig'd 


vij ti 

V ti d g* 

ffetet j holow scharyder iiij parte ys . 
3fm j C plat molde iiij part ys 
3tm j C dysche molde iiij parte ys . 
3tm j C Sawsyrmolde iiij parte ys . 
3ttn j medyll plat molde iiij parte ys 
3tm j medyll dysche molde iiij part ys 
3ttn j medyll sawsyr molde iiij part ys 
3ttn j kyngs ys dysche molde iiij part ys 
3ttn j holow dysche molde iiij part ys 
3ttn j holow sawsyr molde iiij part ys 
3tm j Salydysche molde iiij part ys . 
3ttn j Saly sawsyr molde iiij part ys 
3tm j Salu boUe molde iiij part ys . 
3tm j qware boUe molde iiij part ys . 
3ttn j Trechor molde iiij part ys 

Sm* to" C. xviij ti j g* d 

Bowth of Robard schalke. 

A Gret fflorentyn dysche Alffyndell |>* weyth xiij ti j g* 

These moulds were valuable trade possessions and their ownership 
was often shared by several pewterers. The Wardens of the Craft 
probably made the above purchases in the interest of the brethren to 
whom they were lent on hire. 

145 1-2. In order to assist in forming as clear a view of the position 
of the Craft as can be obtained at this early period, a complete transcript of 
the earliest annual account is subjoined, and will be followed by extracts 
from succeeding accounts and other records illustrating the growth and 
development of the Craft, the changes in its religious observances, its muni- 
cipal functions and trade regulations, and the various aspects presented 
in these documents from time to time of its internal organisation. 

t^^% is the Accompt of John Grigge Maister of the Crafte of Peautrers 
of london, John Kendale and Stephen Annsell the Wardeins of the same 
Crafte, yoven and deliuered vp to piers Bysshop maister Robert Chamber- 
leyn and Willm Eyre wardeins new chosen for the yere suyng that is to sey 
fro the fest of Seint Michell the xxx** yere of the regne of kyng Henf the 
sixt vnto the fest of Seint Michell the xxxj'* yer which is by a hole yer 

1 6 History of the Pewter ers' Company. 

ffiret they accompten by hem resceiued yn the Coe Box by Willm 
Baker maister John Coldham and Willrh Crowde Wardeins |>eir 

Pdecessours xtixvsvijd 

3tm receiued of Morice Panton in ptie of paiement of xx s . xj s 

Sm* - xj ti vj s vij d. 

Entrees of Bretheren andffynes & ^uariag^ 

3tem receiued of John Dogowe Cornysshman to be made ffreman 

nj ti VJ s viij d 
3fem receiued of John Elme for A fFyne . . . . vj s viij d 

3tem receiued of diu se Bretheren and Sustren for quariage for an hole 
yere as shew5 by a Bille of hir names . . . . . Ivij s 

Sm* - vj li X s iiij d 

Yijles and Bequestes 
3tem receiued of the Executours of Nicolas Westwode by the hondes 

of Willm Brid ffoundo' xvj ti viij s 

3tem receiued of the bequest of Anneys lumley . . . . vti 

Sm*. - xxjti viijs. Sm* to5 Receiued - xxxixti iiijs xjd. 

Paiementes made by the seyd Accomptants 

Hfittst paied to the Almesman for a yere xxiiij s 

3tem paied to the Wexchaundeler for makyng of the wex atte iij 

tymes viij s ix d 

3tem paied for hyre of a Barge atte |>' goyng of the Shereves to 

Westmynster vs 

3fem paied for points for \>^ Baner clo)>es j d 

3tem yove to the Bargemen to drynke ij d 

3tem paied to fFrere Augustynes i j s 

3tem paied to Clerks the day of masse ij s 

3tem paied for makyng and peyntyng of Judas staves . . . ix d 

3tem paied for the Burying of Thomas lambe .... xvj d 

Sm* - xliij s j d 

Costes made yn the sute of Piers Welles Executours 

3tem paied for a pleint made yn the meyres Court . . . iiij d 

3tem paied to a Sergeaunt xij d 

3tem paied to Attorney xij d 

3tem spent vppon the Executours at wyne vj d 

Sm* ij s X d 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 1 7 

3fem paied for makyng writing and engrosyng vp of \yis acconipt xij d 

Sm** xij d Sm* to' paied xlvj s xj d 
And so remayneth yn the Box .... xxxvj ti xvij s 
wherof is clerely of the quar?age for this yere x s j d 

Dettours payde 

ffitet Willih Sarkeler to paie at Cristmas last by Piers Bysshop vj s viij d 

3fem Moryse Panton ix s 

3tem Robert Person for Entre . . . . . . vj s viij d 

3fem John Hull for an hundred of layed metall . . . . xx s 

Sm* xlij s iiij d 

Thinges deliuered for the vse of the seid Crafte 

fptef yn a bag diuse weightes of lede |>at is to sey xxviij ft xiiij ft 

• • • 11 • • • • 11 • • 11 ^ • 11 
vnj Id luj ft ij ft & j ft 

3tem a Bordcloth of dyapre conteynyng vij yerdes 

3fem a Bordcloth of dyapre conteynyng ix yerdes 

3tem a Bordcloth of dyapre conteynyng vj yerdes 

3tem a playn towaill conteynyng x yerdes 

3tem a pleyn towaill conteynyng viij yerds 

3fem a nop [another] pleyn towaill conteynyng viij yerds 

3fem a pleyn towaill conteynyng vij yerds 

3tem a pleyn towaill conteynyng vj yerdes 

Stem ij Baners of |>* Armes of |>* Crafte 

3tem a penon 

3fem viij Ban s w' lyly potts & straks for Trumpetts 

This been the names of hem that been sworn and no Brctheren 
in oure tyme. 

Thomas Tumour Rotit Castell Thomas Merlowe 

Piers Pynton Thomas of Grove Robt Dewc 

The accounts at this early period were very concisely kept and throw 
little light on the organisation of the Craft ; we must look to those of a 
later date for more detailed information. The large sum paid by the 
Cornishman, John Dogowe, for his freedom, shows that the Company's 
control* of the trade was widely exercised, and that its membership was at 

1 8 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

this time a highly-valued privilege. It is clear also from the receipt of 
quarterage from " Sustren '* as well as ** Bretheren " that women were ad- 
mitted, not only to the religious fellowship connected with the guild, but 
also to the craft, which included their contributions in its accounts. The 
mention of " freemen " and " brethren *' shows the existence at this early 
period of two classes of members. The freemen probably possessed only 
trade privileges and had little share in the government of the craft. The 
gifts and bequests for this year amounted to no less than 21/. 8 J., the 
total receipts for the year being 39/. 45. iirf. The payments include the 
hire of a barge to accompany the Sheriffs to Westminster, and two years 
later the charge of 10*. 8rf. first appears for a similar compliment paid to 
the Mayor. Of the great religious festival annually kept at this time at 
the Augustine Friars, but afterwards at the church of the Grey Friars, 
fuller particulars appear in subsequent years. 

Another characteristic function of the Company is shown in the 
payment of i\s. a year to an almsman, and the practice of attending at the 
funeral of a deceased brother is illustrated by the charge of i6rf. for the cost 
of burying Thomas Lambe. The minor duties of hospitality were duly 
observed in the payment of %d, for " drynke " to the bargemen and of 6rf. 
spent upon Piers Welles' executors for wine. The entry of John Hull's 
debt of 20 J. for a cwt. of lay metal refers to the Company's practice of 
melting down the pewter ware seized for bad workmanship or inferior qua- 
lity, and selling it to their members as "lay" or common pewter. The bag 
of leaden weights mentioned in the inventory accompanied the officers of 
the craft in their searches for false ware. The last item in the inventory 
is interesting as showing two of the devices or cognizances of the Com- 
pany, namely the lily-pots, assumed in honour of their patroness, the 
Virgin Mary, and the mysterious objects called strakes or strikes, which 
^re charges in the Pewterers' arms. They appear from a subsequent 
entry [see page 99) to have been ingots of tin. 

1452-3. 3t* paide to a Clerk of the Chauncery Y crested John 
Turno' and Willm Crowde for his reward in laboyng to serche 
for statuts & o\>\ thyngs to |>entent to labo;' to )>e plement for 
a charter for \>t Craft to haue serche thurgh England . v s. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 1 9 

The charter was not secured until 1473, after an expenditure of a 
large amount both of money and labour. Turnor and Crowde were 
both " bretheren," and the latter was an influential member of the Craft. 
What they had done to incur the penalty of an arrest does not appear. 

Jfm a penon of the Salutacion. [From inventory.] 

'455"<i« 3^^^ for a kylderkyn of threhalpeny ale . . . xx d. 
3fem for the masse doon at Greyfrers on our lady day . ij s. viij d. 

The annual charges paid to the two great religious houses of the Grey 
Friars and the Augustine or Austin Friars are not intelligible at first sight, 
but a careful examination of the Accounts from 145 1 to 1492 gives the fol- 
lowing result. The Craft rented certain premises at Austin Friars at an 
annual payment of 2^., afterwards increased to 3*. 4^. The accommodation 
provided was the use of a great Hall for the great annual feast and for minor 
festive gatherings, apartments for elections, settlement of accounts, etc., and 
probably oflfices for the general use of the Craft and its governing body 
throughout the year. At the Grey Friars three religious meetings or 
*^ offryngs " took place each year, viz., at Christmas, Easter, and the Feast 
of the Assumption. The " braunch," kept clean and repaired from time to 
time at the expense of the Craft, was resplendent before the altar of* Our 
Lady with candles provided by the wax chandler, who allowed in his account 
for the " waste 'V of partly burnt candles returned to him. The music was 
provided by the Company of Parish Clerks and "syngyng" boys, and the 
priests and clerks officiating were duly rewarded. The solemn duty of 
caring for the souls of Royal patrons, deceased brethren and sisters, and 
pious benefactors, duly performed, the festive ceremonies followed at the 
sumptuous abode of the Austin Friars. The last year of meeting here was 
i486, when the Company took possession of their newly built Hall. 

3tem a licence vnder seal of the yifte Armes vnto the seide Crafte by an 
heraulte of Armes. [From inventory.] 

No trace of this early grant of arms exists. It is important to note 
that the Craft bore arms before their incorporation. 
1456-7. 3ftn receyued for takyng in of p'ntices . . .vs. 

This is the first mention of fees for inroUing apprentices, and such 
fees do not appear regularly in the accounts until the year 1487. The 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

custom of apprenticeship was however well established, if not quite 
compulsory, at this time, as appears from the list of names on the 
next few pages. 

3fm paid to maist' Rog' Clerk of the yeldhall for seyng of )>e 
ordennces )>' )>e vj men of the Crafte made . . • vj s. viij d. 
See pages 7-8 where the Six men or Wardens of the Articles, in 

^ZS^y ^^ve their duties described, 

3fm paid for Syngrs at our lady masse at the Gray fFrerys . . iij s. 

3fm to haue in mynde of awarde made bytwene the felaship of )>e Crafte 
of Peaut'ers & John Turno! & Richard lawton of ^ same crafte 
by iiij men chosen by assent of bothe pties as for offence don to 
)>B same Crafte touching for the lyue [livery] which iiij men 
awarded )>at )>e said John Turno! & Ric' lawton shuld brynge in to 
)>e box for )>eir said offence xx. s. And )>ey woU not obeye it 
fFor )>e which & for o)>' disobeisance }p\ )>ey haue don to )>e 
maist' & wardeyns )>ey ben put out of \f said felaship. 

The roll of the members of the Company in this year's account 
and that of the following year contains three divisions: (i) "the brotlien 
)>at paien quartage." These are the Livery or Clothing. (2) " hem \f^ 
be no brotheren & paien quariage." These are the Freemen or Yeomanry 
who had obtained licence to set up in business or "open shop" for them- 
selves. (3) " Coueniit men & ApPntices." The " covenant men " are the 
Journeymen, but all of them were probably Freemen. It will be 
observed that the men whose names appear in the third class are 
attached to one or other of the "brotheren" whom they served as master. 

t^%t%t ben the names of the broth en of \>t, said Crafte |?at 
paien quartage 

Willm large 
John kendale 
Willm Crowde 
John Goodale 
Piers Bisshop 
Willm Eyre 
John Dogowe 

John Coldhm 
Rotit Chamberlayn 
Thomas Page 
Will*m Dere 
Thomas Dounton 
John Gugge )?e elder 
Stephen Aunsell 

John Cokonow 
John Parys 
Stephen Todde 
Thorns Gardyner 
John Pepond 
John lambard 
Willm Smalwode 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


John Veysy 
Nicholas Walker 
Morys Panton 
Thorns Smyth 
Richard fFelde 
John Martyn 
Rotit Hacche 

Hugh Swan 
John Whitehed 
Thorns launtot 
Piers Warbylton 
Thomas Grove 
Piers pynton 

Symond Drayton 
WiUm Wylby 
John Gugge \>t yong 
John Turno' 
Richard lawton 
John Bristowe 

John Gynger 

The names of hem ])^ be no brotheren & paien quariage 
Thomas Marler John Couper John Mylys 

Richard Halle 
RaufF Burnes Wif 
Watkyn Wardes Wif 
Roberde Dewee 

Richard kyrke 
William Randolf 
John Pecok 
Thomas Turno' 

Wyttm Blowfelde 
Roberde Seyke 
John Harrys 
Roberde Byllynge 

Thes ben the names of Coueniit men & Ap^ntices. 

John Gugge \>t elder < 

John Kendall < 

Piers Bisshop i 

Robert Parson 
John Bouer 
John Baron 
John fFrank 
' John Batte 
John Cambrigge 
John Hede 
Richard Halle 
John Burgeys 
WiUm Wode 

Ric Rowyn 
John Aleke 
Ri8 Brykley 
Ric Moresley 
Symond Thepler 
[ Thorns loth 

^ John lambe 
Willrh Baker 
John Armerer 
Thomas Cade 

Coueniit men 


Couennt men 

> Pntices 




History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Wa? Warde 

Ric lawton 

Wal? Waly 
John Turno' { Thorns Saltford 

Thorns Brevyll 

( Thorns Blak 
( John Sneylam 

r Robt fFoster 
Willm Benet 
Willm Hytton 

\ John Hill 

' Willm Sexteyn 
Thomas Barton 
Bartholomew Eyles 
Thorns Steynford 
Willm Bedyll 
John lawston 
leonard Otwey 

' Robt Squyer 
John Goodale ^ John fFodryngey 

[ John Gybon 

{ Thorns large 
} Willm Assh 

Harry Osbarn 
< Willm Richardson 
Robt of Cokton 


\ ^ntices 




Willm Crowde \ 

> ^ntices 


Willm large 



Stephen Auncell 


Willm Eyer 

John Parys 

I John Cleny 
( James Hylton 

( John Clerk 
Thorns Goodlak 
Thorns NycoU 
Ric BekyrstafF 

, Ric? Morys 


I Pntices 

I Pntices 



History of the Pewterers' Company. 


f Willm Trekill 
Steptin Tod \ WiUrh Elys 

[ John Chatnberlayn 

John pepond John Westerby 

( Rottt Smyth 
Morys Panton < Arnold Negerby 

Thorns Chalke 

Nicholas Walker 

( Rottt Mounteyn 
) John Broun 

Thorns Smyth 

Piers Pynton 

( Thorns Wynd 
< Thorns Bridbroke 
John Megyll 

^ John Wyttyng 
John Robynet 
John Edward 

John Cogens Harry 

' Harry Stapelherst 
Thorns Grove ^ John kynthorp 

Willm Cok 

Symond Drayton 

John Whitehed 

John lambard 

Thorns Turno' 

John Gugge the yong 

{ John Dymmeys 
I Adam Hyndeson 

J Wa? Marchall 
\ John Coke 

{ John Briche 
( John Hynde 

f Willm Symond 
1 Willm Lavynd 

( John Baker 
{ John 














( pntices 



History of the Pewterers Company. 

Willm Smalwod John Coldhm 

J Willm Wace 
( Thorns Bachiler 

Ri8 fFowle 

Willm Couper 


John Veysy 


Richard fFelde 
.John Warde 

Piers Warbylton 

Thorns launtot 

John pecok 

Thorns laurence 

Robt Hacche 

Willm Randolf 

John mylys 

Ri8 kyrke 

John Couper 

John Coldhm 

Rotit Chamttleyn 

Thorns page 

r Ri8 Esterby 
< John Wysbech 
\ Thorns Dunton 
Thomas Plomer 
John lechford 
Thorns Dunhih 
( John Colman 
-j John Gylmyn 
[ John Robynson 

John Kelefet 

Thorns Johnsonc 

John Barbo' 

Thorns Woo 

{ John Oakele 
i Wal? Haydon 

' Willm Chambteyn 
Thorns Gyues 
John Blakeney 
Thorns Smyth 
John Goddesman 
John Egermond 
John Cardenall 
John Byceter 

1^ Ric? ffissher 

f Ric Speryng 
I Willm vtle 


















I Pntices 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


Thorns Dounton 

Thorns Marler 

' John Grene 
Harry Kykesby 
Richard Moy 
Richard Trekyll 
Willrh Skynner 
Ri? fFelde 
Thorns Grove 
John Robard 
Thorns AHsaunder 
John Warner 
Willm Brydfeld 
John Dunton 
John Stowell 
John Barnet 
Richard laykot 
Piers Bisshop 
Willm Baker 
John Armorer 

^ Couennt 



JO y sey i j^^^ Coldhrhs Bnticf 

Richard Bacchawe ) ^ ^ 

Rottt Stradley 

Rotit Byllyng 

Harry loder 

Rottt Seke 

John Gyng 

John Want oth wise Bristowe 

Willm Wylby 

John Elmys 

Ric Ramsey 

John fFrost 

It is curious to note that Thomas Dounton, who has the largest 
number of workmen and apprentices, is described here and elsewhere as 
a Mercer. 

c 2 

26 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3f payde for the sele of the dede to the menoresse . . vj s. viij d. 
1458-9. 3fm fFor Borgon & Bryan & Whetnalle men off lawe fFor Y 

seeyng off Evedens bee twyxt my lady pryoras off menoras and 

vs xs. 

This religious house was the Abbey of the Minoresses of St. Mary 
of the order of St. Clare, from which the Minories takes its name. It 
was founded by Blanche, Queen of Navarre, consort of Edmund, Duke 
of Lancaster, in 1293. On its surrender at the Dissolution, the house 
was granted to Dr. Clerk, Bishop of Bath and Wells and Master of the 
Rolls. In 1552 the chief mansion, called the Minory House, was granted 
by Edward VI to Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, father of Lady Jane 
Grey. After passing through the possession of various other owners, it 
was appropriated for military stores and an armoury in connection with 
the Tower of London, and was ultimately separated into lesser tenements. 

(J^ee it to have in mynd off a dyner was i maade Bee robard 
chambyrleyn mastyr and Wyttm smalwood Stevyn tod wardeynys off 
peawtrers \f xxvj'* day off avgwst a""^ xxxvij** vn too )>* ffelaschypp off 
peawtrers crafft \f whych cost )>* Evne and \f day and \f morn viij ffi 
xxijd g*. Ther off ressceyvyd off alle )>* ffelasschyp off \f craft at )>' 
tym iiijti: xij*. xrf. And so \f seyd Robard chambyrleyn mastyr and 
Wyllih smalwod & stevyn tod Wardeyns Be at moor coste )>an they 
weer sessyd Be )>* ffelasschypp at ffryrs awstyn xxxviij s. 

It will be seen by other extracts from the accounts that the 
"dyner" here mentioned did not really last three days, but consisted of 
three repasts held in connection with the great annual religious festival 
of the Fellowship. These were the modest meal of buns and ale after 
Dirige on the eve of the Festival, the great feast after High Mass on the 
following day, and a breakfast on the day after the festival, which was 
probably attended only by the governing body assembled at a meeting 
to settle the accounts. The religious functions were held at the Grey 
Friars, and the festivities and business meetings at the Friars Austin. 

1459-60. 3t payde to viij men of the crafte for rydynge a3ens 
the kynge liij s. iiij d. 

Who was the royal personage mentioned in the above entry is not 
clear, but it was probably Richard Duke of York, father of Edward IV, 


History of the Pewterers Company. 27 

who had defeated the Lancastrians at the battle of Blore Heath. Gregory 
in his Chronicle* relates that the Duke sent for "trompeters and claryners 
to bryng hym to London, and there he gave them baners with the hole 
armys of Inglonde with owte any dyversyte, and commaundyd hys 
sworde to ben borne uppe ryghte be-fore hym ; and soo he rode forthe 
unto Lundon tylle he come to Westemyster to Kyng Harrys palys, and 
there he claymyde the crowne of Inglonde. And he kepte Kynge Harry 
there by fors and strengythe, tylle at the laste the kynge for fere of dethe 
grauntyd hym \k crowne." King Henry s fortunes were at a low ebb 
during the year 1459-60, which this account covers, and it seems most 
probable that the livery companies were sumnioned to attend his 
successful rival, who, as the above quotation shows, had assumed the 
title of king. 
1 460-1. 3fm payde to Thorn lotte and to John fFroste fore wachchynge 

att the Towre of london fore xxx** dayes eu y day vd • xij s. vj d. 

The position of the citizens at this period was not enviable. They 
were probably anxious to please both of the great contending parties. 
Besides being responsible for the defence of the City, which was especially 
liable to attack at London Bridge, they had to act in concert with the 
Governor of the Tower and furnish men for its defence in times of war 
and civil commotion. The Pewterers* Company furnished two men fully 
armed, whom they maintained for thirty days. The total contingent 
provided by the companies and the City probably reached 150 men. 
3fm payde of the Box monay to the viij men that rode a3enste the 

kynge eu*y man vj s viij d . . . . . . liij s. iiij d. 

This year again the King — probably Henry VI, whose fortunes had 
been restored by his intrepid consort, Queen Margaret — was received by 
the citizens on passing through London. 

3fm payde fore yowre Bedell ys gowne . . . . xij s. vj d. 
The Beadle of the Company was in those early times the most 
important of the paid officials. He attended the Master and Wardens 
in their " searches,*' and sometimes himself went on " search " by their 
direction. He lived in later times at the Hall, whilst the Clerk appears 

* Historical collections of a Citizen of London in the fifteenth century. Edited by James Gairdner, 
Camden Society. New Series, 17, p. 208. 

28 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

to have had only an office there. It was his duty to summon the 
brethren to all meetings, to pay the alms people, keep the Hall and 
premises in safe custody and good order, and to carry on under the 
direction of the Master and Wardens the trade relations which existed 
between the Company and its members, such as purchase of tin, hire of 
moulds, stamping of wares, etc. He also superintended the workmen in 
repairs to the property of the Fellowship, purchasing all materials, and 
acting as clerk of the works, if not as master builder. 

3fm payde for makynge of a byll to Cobbe for to pute yn the parlemente 
howse for the welle [weal] of all the fFelechype . . . iiij s. 

The Company were now actively prosecuting at Court legal powers 
for securing adequate authority over their own members and the trade 
at large. Then, as now, it was an expensive matter to approach 
Parliament, and at this period, besides the official fees and payments to 
their own counsel, certain other ** expenses *' by way of gift and enter- 
tainment to those who could forward the Company's interests frequently 
occur in the accounts, and helped to make a long and costly series of 
charges by the time that the charter of incorporation was obtained. 

1 461-2. 3fm paid on Alhalow evyn [31 Oct.] for bote hire to 
bryng certeyn men of the craft to Westmynsi & a yene w^ \f mair for 

to speke w' \f kyng vj d. 

3fm to men of Counsell and for a bill makyng to put into )>* plement 

and in expense done on such as shold put it vp . . xs. viij d. 
3fm geven to certeyn men at Cutlers halle to axe hem counsell of certeyn 

maters touchyng )>* comon wele, for to drynk . . . viij d. 

Instances of the good fellowship which existed between the Pewtercrs 
and other city companies frequently occur. The officers of the Cutlers' 
Company seem to have been held in high reputation for learning and 
skill in legal matters. 
3tm paid for brede & wyne at J?* myter in chepe whan certeyn men of 

the Craft were there and spake w' Robt Blont . . 4f9r xvj d. 
"iixa paid for makyng of a bille of ordinauncg of the Craft . ij s. iiij d, 

1462-3, 3ttn paid for j barge and j bote for to goo w^ the kyng to 
resceiue hym atte his comyng to the plement . • . • vj s. 

History of the Pewter ers' Coinpany. 29 

This was King Edward IV, who had received great help from the 
citizens, and was coming from Sheen to London by water. The Corpo- 
ration and the Guilds joined in giving him a stately and fitting welcome. 

(^emoranb' that in the tyme of the seid John kendall Master 
Thomas page and William Smalwode Wardeynes of the forseid Crafte 
of peautrers of the Citee of london by the advys and assent of all the 
hole fFeleshipp that oon Richard Moy was iFounde and proved opynly 
a theefFin robbyng of Rottt Chamberleyn peautrer Clene haue dismyssyd 
hym owte of the fFelesshipp for ever more. 

The above is an instance of the great powers which the companies 
possessed over individual citizens. The sentence upon Richard Moy 
practically involved a deprivation of all civil rights, since he could not 
carry on his trade as a Pewterer without being a member of the Company, 
and no other Company would admit him to its membership. 

1463-4. Following the list of newly admitted brethren who duly 
paid the entrance fee of 6^. 8rf. are the names of defaulters upon whom 
distress was levied. This list is headed " Stresses taken for entres," and 
the second entry is : 3fem of Thomas Dunton xvij countrefete platers 
weying xxxix lb beyng in the handes of Herry Staplehirst. 

3fem paid to John fFrost bedell for his wages of the hool yere . xxiiij s. 

3fem paid to certeyn of the felaship that wolde not dyne with the 
Mayre the day that he toke his charge . . . ij s. iiij d. 

The Companies gave their attendance to the mayor " at his going to 
Paules" seven times a year, viz. : on AUhallows day (i November), Christ- 
mas day, St. Stephen's day (26 December), St. John's day (27 December), 
New Year's day. Twelfth day, and Candlemas day (2 February). They 
also attended him when he took oath at Westminster on the morrow of St. 
Simon and St. Jude (29 October), and " had place at the mayor s feast in 
the Guildhall" in order of precedence. The Pewterers were fourteenth in 
order, and were represented by their wardens and five persons, for whom 
two messes were provided (Stow's Survey of London, 1603, p. 541). The 
above payment was a contribution from the Fellowship for providing a 
dinner for those members who were not invited to Guildhall, the rest of 
the cost was provided by Stewards chosen in rotation for the purpose. 

30 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3f«n paid to John Broke the Almes man for a quarter . xxd. 

3fem paid to Thomas Barton Almes man for an hool yere . vj s, viij d. 

In this year, 1463, the ancient record book of the Company containing 
their earliest ordinances, previously described as the Jury Book, was 
given by Robert Chamberlain and Cicely his wife, together with three 
election garlands. In the inventory following the accounts for 1463-4 
these chaplets are thus described. 
3fem iij Chaplettes of rede satyn with tassettf and on oon of them ij 

strakes and an Image of the assumpcion of oure lady of silu. 

Election Chaplcl, or Garland, given by Kobert and Cicely Chaml>erlayn in 1463. 

In the Jury Book also are found the most ancient oaths of the 
Fellowship. First is the oath of a Freeman of London administered by 
the Chamberlain at Guildhall, and this early form has great interest : 
t%t (bt>.i% of i%t Sreemen of i%t Cifg. 

^t shul swere that ye shul be goode & trew vnto oure souereyne 
lorde N kinge of ingelode and to his heires kynges obeysante and 
obedient vnto the mayre and to the ministres of this cite )je fraunchises 
and the customes therof ye shul maytene and the cite kepe harmeles in 
that that in yow is ye shal be contributari to al maner charges w'in this 
cyte as somones wacches contribucons taxes tallages and al othir charges 
berynge youre pte os anoj? freman shal ye shul coloure no foreines 
goode wher bi the kinge myghte lece his costumes or his avauntage 
ye shal know no foreyne to bey selle nor marchandice w' anothir foreine w'i 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 




nor hunt 






The poore 

this Citee ne the franchices therof but ye warne ]?e chambirleyne therof 
or su minis t re of the chaber ye shuUe enplede no frema oute of this Citee 
while ye mow haue ri3te & lawe here w'l ye shal take non aprentice but 
if he be fre borne and for no lesse tme than vij yere w^i the first yere ye 
shul do hi be eroUed & atthe tmes ende ye shul make hi fre if he haue wele 
& trewly serued yow ye shul also kepe the pes 1 youre owne pson ye shul 
know no gaderigges couenticles nor cospiracies made ayenste j?e peas 
but ye warne the Maire therof and lette hit to youre power al thes pointes 
ye shul wel and truli kepe acordinge to the laws ande customes of this 
Citee to youre power so helpe yowe god. 

Following the above oath are those prescribed for the brethren of the 
Fellowship and for the Master and Wardens. 

^$e of$e of ii^t feftc^tj) of ptniixaxn of fonbon. 

^ou SHALL swERE that you shall be faithefuU to oure souerayne 
lorde the kynge and to hys eyrys [*and successors] kyngs [*and queens] 
of yngelande and the peasse of the Cety you shall kepe to youre powre. 
You shall be good in- aberynge and obedyent to all laufull comaunde- 
ments of the master and wardens of the felyschep of pewterars for the 
tyme beinge and theire successours Master and wardens. And the 
counsell of the said crafte that is said here or in any other place 
consarvynge the wealle of the felyschep you shall kepe and not vttur 
to no strange parson nother within the Citie nor w'oute. You shall 
knowe no p iudyce nor hurt to be don to the felyshep but you shall 
lett yt to youre powre and geve warninge to the master and wardens 
therof. And all the good Rullys and ordenauncs of the saide crafte 
made or to be made by the master wardens and Comynalty of the 
said Crafte you shall kepe. And you shall come to all and to eiiy 
somons of the master and wardens lawfully warned by the bedyll in their 
name. And that you shall not worke preuely not apart with any parson 
excepte he be free of the same Crafte. And shalbe contributor to all 
charges within the said crafte nowe accustomed or here to fore hathe bene. 
You shall ayde and socoure the poore brotheren of the saide crafte 
to youre poure. In all thes thynges above rehersed and in all other 

* Additions in later hand. 

32 History of the Pewter ers' Company. 

that to the same Crafte belongs well and truly for the welle and worschep 
of the same Crafte you schall behaue you and kepe you soo god you 
helpe -|-and all saynts &c. 

$9^ ^i^t for f 9e matefer axib Satbene. 

^e shall swere that you shall be faythefull to oure souerayne lorde 
the kynge and to his ayris kyngs, and you shall well and onestly Intret 
your felyschepe, and Ryght do as well to the poure as to the ryche, and 
the profett of the felyschyp in that that you is, to youre power laufully 
and ryghtuously you shall mayntayne and incresse, and a trewe accounte 
therof make. And Just Jugys you shalbe vpon the complaynt of youre 
felyschep as well to the poure, as to the ryche. And no syngular profett 
do to youre owne parsons where thorowe the common profytt of the 
felyschep may be harmed or hurte, and all the good laufull ordenauncys 
and Rulys of the said ffelyschep that nowe be made or in tyme to come 
shall be made, yow shall kepe and mayntayne to your powre. Nor no 
man receyue in to the said felyschep w'oute the assent of the felyschep or 
the more parte of them. In these and all other thyngs that partayneth 
to your office to do, you shall well and trewly be haue you. So god be 
youre helpe and all sayntts. 

1464-5. 3fem paid to vj men for )?eir clothyng J?' rode ayenst 
]f quene at her Coronacion ....... xxxs. 

This was the Lady Elizabeth Grey, the widow of Sir John Grey, 
whom Edward IV had privately married in February. 

1465-6. The list of new liverymen for this year has the following 
quaint heading: — 

" $9e0e be the names that beth taken in to the ly very ]?is seid yere 
by the mayster and wardeyns and ]f thryfty men of \f crafte." 

QJe00e8l5tb in fFynis [fines]. ffirsteof Wittm Crowde for he cam 
nott Cristemas day and ]f twelthe day to Powlys . . . ij s. 

John Whytehed cam not to powlys )?* twelthe day . . . xij d. 
Richarde kyrke cam not to powlys ]?e xij* day . . . . xij d. 
3tm Richarde kyrke toke an axion on Roberde mownteyne w* oute leve 

of the maisi and \f wardeynes a ffyne . . • ^U s. iiij d. 

t The words following this sign are marked through in the original. 

History of the Pewterers Company. Z2> 

This heavy penalty shows what importance the Company attached 
to the article in their later ordinances forbidding their members to go 
to law with each other without first submitting their differences for 
adjudication to the Master and Wardens. 

3fm to )?* felshippe ]?' dyned not w' J?* meyre and \f sherevis iiij s. ij d. 

3fm for \f mendynge of )>• cheyne and scorynge of \f basen at J?* 
fFryres ..•.,..... viij d. 

3fm ij baners of \f Armys of \f Crafte and a penown w' Seynt mihell. 
[From the inventory.] 

Q^e h* remembrid that Peerse Bysshop Pewterer hath geve to J?* 
bretherhed of our lady thasompcion of pewtrers crafte in ]?* yere of ]?* 
maist and J?* Wardeynes of \f Acounte vij lb. iiij lb. ij lb. and a j lb. of 
brasse Selyd [weights].' [At foot of inventory.] 

The two following entries are remarkable specimens of composition. 
The first explains the refusal of the auditors to certify the accounts of the 
year because the balance had not been brought in. The second is an expul- 
sion from the craft of one Thomas Wynde, an unruly brother, it being pro- 
vided that he should only be re-admitted upon paying a new entrance fee. 

(J^e it yn mende that the xxvij** day of Septembr ]?* Saterday before 
myhelmasse Day that we John Coldhm mayster Will Smalwode Necolas 
Waker Wardenys made ther A coinpt at fFrere Austynis the day & jyer 
a fFor seyde of soche goodis and tresur beyng yn ther handis that is to 
say XV ti and ]?e ou plus as it spisiffiyd in ther a coinpt w' otKer orlemynts 
[ornaments] as it aperith in \f seyde a coinpt In presense of All \f craft 
ther beyng And were [whereas] the seyde crafte wolde nauth exsepthe the 
seyde A coinpt by cause that the mony wasth nauth brouth yn beyng in 
the handis of John Kendall and John Parisch to ]?* Sm' lij & xij ti viijs vd 
it wasth A cordyt [accorded] that \f craft schulde go to gedyr And to thake 
ther Avische [advice] or serch the iij olde maystr and \t wardenys and 
\f iij newe mays! & wardenys this j don the seyd crafth a cordyd to gedyr 
and Witt Croude brouthz [brought] op thar verdyd [verdict] that \>^ iij* 
olde mays! & wardenys schulde kepe the seyde A coinp in ther handis 
on thil [until] \f monday iij* wakys [weeks] after mihelmasse day in the 
3yer a bowe seyde. 

34 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

(Jfeo the seyde day and yerne Thi Wynde in as mekyll [inasmuch] 
as he was Rebyll and wolde nathe be reulyd [ruled] by the good men of 
])' craft After the good Reulis of J?" seyde crafft the seyde good men 
dysmysyd the seyde Th? Wynde houth of ]>' craft op on his a mendement 
of hym selfe and nauth to be take in to J)° seyd crafft w' houth [without] 

Eleclinn Chaplet, or G.irlnnil, given l>y Roliert and Cicely Chamlierlayn in l/fii- 

\>' well of jj" seyde rnayst, and wardenys that now ben And her after shall 
ben And be all Jj' craft and p" seyde Thi Wynde to paye a newe hentry as 
)?* craffth shall will a corde. 
1467-8. ifittt payed to Robert Chamberleyn for the purchase of 

our lyvelode iiij ti. 

This would seem to have been a payment towards the expenses of 
the cliarter, which is often described as the " livelihood " of the Company. 
Chamberlain gave, on 2nd May, 8th Edward IV { 1468), to the Company 
as security for a debt of 80/., a mortgage of certain tenements and shops 
in the parish of " Our Lady of Colechurche of London," held on lease 
from the Prior and Convent of Chicksand, Bedfordshire, for a term 
of which 65}^ years were unexpired at the Lady Day preceding. The 
document is entered in the Jury Book, fol. 75 a. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. ^ 35 

1469-70. 3tm paid in expences on the harnessed [armoured] men 
wacchyng with the mayre . . . . . . ijs. ixd. 

3tm deliu ed oute for clothyng atte the kynges comyng inne . iij ti. 

This year the unfortunate Henry VI was again placed for a few 
months on the throne. He was released from the Tower on 5th October, 
1470, by the Earl of Warwick, and on 13 th October went to St. Paul's 
in state to return thanks for his restoration. 

1 47 1-2. 3tm payed unto \f pry or of cheksond for reragf and in owre 
tyme unto mydsoni in A'' rr Ed iiij'' xij° sm'' . . viij ti. v s. 

This payment was a quit rent for Chamberlain's property just 
referred to, the mortgage of which appears to have been foreclosed by 
the Company. The houses were in the Old Jewry, near the Poultry, 
perhaps at its south-west corner. The Priory of Chicksand in Bed- 
fordshire was a Priory of Gilbertine Canons and Nuns, founded circ. 
A.D. 1 150. 
3tm for costf & \>^ sewte of owre lyuelode rekon hit . Sm"*. vij. ti. iiij.s. 

1472-3. The whole of the "Discharge" or payments of this 
year's account is subjoined for comparison with that of the year 145 1, 
printed on pages 15-17. It will be seen that the total annual expendi- 
ture had increased nearly fourfold during these 21 years. 

^^ese bene the paiementf and necessary expnsis made by the said maister 
and wardeyns within the tyme of this accompte as folowith. 

fputet paide to the Priour of Chiksand for the quytrent of oure tenement 

for the hole yer by maisr Rog marchalle . . . .iij ti. 

3tm paide to John fFroste for his wagis this yer . . . xxiiij s. 

3tm paide to Thomas Gardyner oure Almesman . . vj s. viij d. 

3tm paide for botehire to westmynstr^ warde and homeward with the 
Shrifes .......... xxj d. 

3tm the same day for a brekefaste to the felauship . . . ij s. 

3fm the same day to the fFelauship in wyne at the hole buUe . xij d. 
3f m paide for botehire whan the mair wente to westmysi and to london- 

warde ayen ij s. vij d. 

3f m paide the same day for brekefaste to the fFelauship . . v s. ij d. 

36 History of the Pewterers' Company, 

3fm spente amonge the felauship at the gray freris in the plament 
tyme .......... xvj d. 

"Hxfi affter that an other tyme to the fFelauship at the mermayde x d. 

3tm at the Grayfreris to make up the oflryng there . . . xij d. 
3tm paide at the Mitr^ in Chepe to a scryvaner and for wyne . x d. 

3fm paide to the wexchaundeler for new wex & makyng therof 

viij s. xjd. ob. 
3tm paide to the fFrere Augustynes in money ... iij s. iiij d. 

3tm paide to Wittm Randell for makyng of the braunche . xij d. 

3fm for makyng clene of the same braunche .... iiij d. 

3tm they asken to be allowed for diuers exspencc and costs made up on 
dyuerse psones lerned and writyngs for the spede and purchacyng of the 
corporacon for the wele and worship of alle the crafFt and pfite of the 
same as by a bille of the peels more openly is shewed . s. xliij s. iiij d. 

^ixa paide for the ingrocyng and writyng of this Accompte . ij s. 

Sm tot of alle thise paiemente . . viij K. vj s. j d. ob. 

M** that Thomas Jakson Richard magson and Willm Chalke Wardyns 
of the Bretherhed of Saynt Mighell tharchaungell haue delyii ed the 
xiiij day of may a° rr E iiij" xiiij° Into the handes of oure Maistres 
Willm Crowde Thomas langtot Nicholas Walker and John Cardenall 
to the ayde and help of the Charge of o^ Corpacoii as a lone of the 
box of Saynt Mighell ....... xxx s. 

The cost of obtaining the Company's charter of incorporation 
(described in the records as the " livelihood " or " corporacion ") pressed 
heavily upon the funds, and the Yeomanry were called upon to help 
by a loan of thirty shillings from the common box of their fraternity, 
whose proper style, as given in the accounts of the Yeomanry, was the 
Fraternity of St. Michael the Archangel, kept or holden by the brothers 
of the craft or mystery of Pewterers within the City of London. The 
history of the Yeomanry and its Fraternity is of especial interest, and will 
be fully treated of in later pages. 

From ihe Company's first Charier, zoth January, 1473. 

€^t 'incoxpoxAie'b Com^an^. 

1 the grant of their first charter by King Edward IV 

the 20th January, 1473, '" '■'^^ thirteenth year of his 

gn, the Company of Pewterers entered upon its legal 

istence as a corporation. The charter is a finely writ- 

i document in Latin, still preserved in the Company's 

archives. It consists of a single vellum sheet 25 by 19 inches with a 

handsome floriated border and initial letter {see above). Licence is 

given to Peter Bushop, William Large and Thomas Langtofte, Freemen 

of the Mistery of Pewterers, to found to the honour of God and of the 

Virgin Mary, a Fraternity or perpetual Guild of one Master, two Wardens 

and Commonalty of the Freemen of the Mistery of Pewterers, dwelling 

within the City of London or the suburbs thereof, and of the Brothers 

38 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

and Sisters of the Freemen of the same Mistery, and of others who of 
their own pleasure are willing to be of the same Fraternity or Guild 
within the City of London. The said Master, Wardens and Commonalty 
shall form one corporate body, with power to acquire and hold lands, 
tenements, rents, services, &c., and shall have perpetual succession and a 
Common Seal, and power to plead and be impleaded. Power is granted 
to the Commonalty or Freemen of the Mistery, to elect whensoever they 
will and according to their own ordinance, one Master and two Wardens 
to carry on the business of the aforesaid Mistery, Fraternity, or Guild. 
The Master and Wardens are empowered to govern the said Mistery, 
and all men occupying the same, and all servants, stuffs, workmanships, 
and merchandizes belonging to it within the City and its suburbs, and to 
correct the defects according to their discretions. The Master, Wardens 
and Commonalty may make ordinances for the government of the 
Mistery as often as they please. The Master and Wardens may have a 
Search and government of all manner of workmanships and merchandizes 
belonging to the Mistery wrought and exposed to sale within the City and 
suburbs and in any other places throughout England, with power to 
correct defects. Further power is given to the Master and Wardens to 
seize and carry away as forfeited all deceitful and unjust workmanships 
and merchandizes, which in their searches they find exposed to sale 
wrought to deceive the people. Of such forfeitures, one moiety is to be 
converted to the use of the Crown, and the other moiety to the use of 
the Mistery, the offenders to be punished at the discretion of the Master 
and Wardens. All Mayors, Sheriffs, Bailiffs, Stewards and other officers 
whatsoever within the City and suburbs, and in other places where search 
is made, are strictly commanded to be overlooking, councelling, and 
assisting to the Master and Wardens, the Statute of Mortmain or any 
other statute, act, or ordinance to the contrary notwithstanding. In 
witness whereof King Edward the Fourth caused these his Letters to be 
made Patent. Witness himself at Westminster, the twentieth day of 
January, in the thirteenth year of his reign. [See facsimile illustration.] 

The powers granted under this charter enabled the Company to hold 
the trade in full control for the benefit of the public and also of the craft. 
The provision which enabled persons unconnected with the trade to 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 39 

become freemen with full privileges is worthy of note, as it strongly 
confirms the view previously put forth in these pages that the Fraternity 
was originally a semi-religious and social institution, its connection with 
the pewterer's craft being secondary and subsequent probably to the 
foundation of the guild. This careful reservation by royal charter of the 
rights of outsiders to membership of a Company of craftsmen points to 
a custom which must at least have been of long standing. 

1473-4. Following the heading of the account of this year is this 
entry " (31^ that Thomas Haryson stondyth for Solyst'." The Company 
were in the habit of engaging the services of a standing legal adviser, but 
he does not appear under the name of Solicitor except in this instance. 
The term may, however, have a different meaning here. Harrison figures 
next year as one of the principal Searchers in country parts. 

The receipts for this year include the amount of an assessment upon 
the " Howsholdars Brthern for the cost of the Corporacyn' of the Craft." 
There are 39 contributors of sums varying from 3/. to 2^., the total 
amount received being 31/. 6^. 

dteecesSib of Butsyd gentillma for the iij pecC of fauty tynne . xxx s. 

Mr. Butsyd is described in a later entry as Receiver of Cornwall. 
He appears to have been an agent for the Company, and may also have 
been an officer connected with the Stannaries. 
0fm DelyiPed vnto oure brethern )?at dyned nat at the Shyrvys for j?' 

brekfast ij s. 

0fm payd to Wyllm Suthfoke bedyll for the half yere . xij s. iiij d. 
0tm payd for iij vncf & di g? [3^ oz.] of Syluer for the Comen 

Sealle x s. v d. 

0tm payd for the gravy ng and makyng of the Seall . . vj s. viij d. 

The Seal is circular, i| inches in diameter, and now weighs 3^ ounces 
{see illustration on next page). It bears the arms of the Company, and on 
either side a lily-pot, with the inscription SIGILLV. FRATERNITATIS. 
MISTERE. DE. PEAVTERES. I. CE. LOD. This was the ancient 
device borne by the Craft, and was adopted in honour of their Patroness, 
the Virgin Mary. The price of silver is seen by the above entry to have 
been just below 35. an ounce. 

40 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3fm payd to Wyllih large for the Costs of the Corporacyon 

xlj ti. xviij s. viij d. 
Jfitt payd for the koffyn that j)' Corporacyon lyith in . . iiij s. 

This expenditure was for a box or chest for the new charter. 
3fm payd for the Rydyng of wyllth ChamWeyn to Chelmyford iiij days 

vs. Xj d. 

Ancienl Seal of the Company. 

This is the first recorded country search. The Chamberlayns were 
prominent members of the Craft. Robert Chamberlayn, perhaps the 
father of William, was entrusted with the monetary negotiations for 
procuring the Charter. He appears in the list of the Craftsmen in 1452 
(p. 24} as employing a large number of workmen and apprentices, was 
Upper Warden in 1452 and 1456, and Master in 1458 and 1466. He 
died probably in 1478. 

3fm payd to a Soper [supper] for a peauterere of Wellys and Covyntre 
& o]?' ......... ij s. viij d. 

The Company's control over their trade under their newly obtained 
Charter extended through all England. This brought them into 
contact with pewterers in distant parts of the country. The above 
entry shows that however strict the Company might be in conducting 
their search for false or unworkmanlike wares, they were not unmindful 
of the rites of hospitality. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 41 

Jtm payd for the makyng of gret boke w' ij klaspys . . . ij s. iiij d. 

3tm paid for the writyng of oure Corporacion in Engelysshe . ij s. vj d. 

3tm payd for a nother that Watts had in to the Westcontre in 
Engylyssh xvj d. 

These copies of the Charter were required as evidence of the right to 
search in places out of London. 

5tm paid to Stevyn Gierke for writyng of the Corporacion & ]?* frenshe 
in Y Jury boke xx d. 

0tm payd for the expencC and costis to Styrbyrg fayere iij hors 

XXX s. iij d. ot). 
Stourbridge, a hamlet of Cambridge, was famous for its annual fair 
on Michaelmas Eve, which lasted a fortnight. 

An ordinance of this date, but written in a later hand, is on the third 
leaf of the Audit Book which begins in 1530-1 : 

%txt foUowethe a statute and ordinaunce made the firste daie of 
October the yere of the raigne of oure soueraigne Lorde the Kinge the 
xiiij^l" by us witliam Crowde Maister of the ffraternitie or gilde of the 
free men of the Crafte of Pewterers w^**in the cittie of London and 
Nicholas walker and John Cardinall nowe wardens of the saide ffraternitie 
or gilde and by the cominaltie of the saide Crafte by there comon 
agremente and assente in manner and forme that ensueth. 

Where the moste gratious and Excellente prince Kinge Edwarde 
the iiij'^ by his letters pattent^ bearinge date the xx*^ daie of Januarie the 
xiij'** yere of moste noble raigne, hathe graunted and given licence to his 
beloued liege men Peirs Bishop, wlUiam Large and Thomas Langtofte 
free men of the Crafte of pewterers w'**in the cittie of London That 
they or anye of them mighte make, founde, and establishe, a fraternitie 
or gilde of a master and two wardens, and of the comynaltie of the 
fremen of the crafte afforesaide And the same fraternitie or gilde so 
made, founded, and established. The saide master, wardens and comynaltie 
amongest all other thinges to make ordinaunces and constitutions at there 
pleasure for the good rule and gouernaunce of the saide Crafte, vnder 
certen manners and forme in the saide tres pattentf specified The whiche 
fraternitie or gilde is by the saide Peirs, wiUiam Large and Thomas 


42 History of the Pewterers Company. 

made, founded and established in due forme after the EfFecte and vertue 
of the saide letters pattentf As in there dede therevpon made more 
plainlie maie Appere. Wherevpon we the saide nowe master wardens 
and cominaltie for the greate weale tranquillytie good rule and reste 
to be had in the saide Crafte, and to put awaie and amove debate, 
rancor, dissention and discorde hereafter happelye to be moved and had 
w*"** god forbitt, do make and ordeyne by vertue and aucthoritie of the 
saide tres pattent^. That the maister and wardens of the saide fraternitie 
or gilde for the tyme beinge and other tenne parsons of the worship- 
fiiUeste discretest wisest and vnwilfulleste fremen of the saide crafte 
chosen by vs that is to saie, AB: CD: EfF: GH: IK: have full 
power and aucthoritie to make all statutes ordinaunc^ and constitucions 
frome henceforthe concerninge the weale prosperitie and good rule and 
governaunce of the saide crafte, and to adde and demynishe in that 
behalfe after there wisdomes and discretions. And that all suche 
statute ordinaunces and constitucions so made by them be as good 
efFectuall and of as greate force and strengthe as they had ben made 
by vs the saide master, wardens and comynaltie, or by the master 
wardens and cominaltie of the saide fraternitie or gilde for the tyme 
beinge w'^'oute anye grudge or intervpcbn to be made in that partie. 
And he of the same crafte that as ofte attemptethe the contrarie 
forfeicte and paie to the master and wardens of the saide fraternitie 
or gilde for the tyme beinge to thuse of the same fraternitie or 
gilde for the tyme beinge to thuse of the same fraternitie or gilde 
vj s viij d and to paie the same w***oute delaie vpon paine of xx s 
ymediatlie when the saide forfeite of vjs viijd be asked by the saide 
m' and wardens of the saide fraternitie or gilde or by anye of them for 
the tyme beinge. Also we the saide m' wardens and cominaltie by the 
saide aucthoritie make and ordeyn y^ when it shall happen any of y* saide 
ten men hereafter to die or decease. That then y* maister & wardens 
of y* saide fraternitie or gilde for the tyme beinge, and those of the saide 
ten men that ouerliveth him or them that so dieth or deceaseth choose 
another or others of the saide crafte after ther discretion & wisdom 
in y* place of him or them that So happeneth to die or decease as is 
beforesaide. And if it happen hereafter the saide m' & wardens of the 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 43 

saide fraternitie or gilde or anye of them to be chosen of the saide 
nomber of ten parsons as is aforesaide chosen Then his or there laste 
pdecessor or predecessors in the saide office m*^ and wardens or anye 
of them not beinge of the said nomber of ten stande still in the saide 
nomber of xiij. So alwaies that the nomber of xiij be kepte, and that 
the maister and wardens of the saide fraternitie or gilde alwaies be 
iij of the saide nomber of xiij. 

1474-5. The accounts now show abundant evidence of the vigo- 
rous use which the Company made of the legal and extended right of 
search which they possessed under their new charter, both in London and 
the country, at the great fairs and at the shops of individual craftsmen. 

5fm res in the mothe of Noueb by \f hands of wyllm wilbey whan he 
Rode into northfok Suthfok & Essex to serch . . . v ti. 

Other searches made by Wilbey and others this year in the West 
Country, Yorkshire, Somersetshire, Derbyshire, and other districts, pro- 
duced receipts amounting to 1 5/. 7^. 36?. This probably represents one 
half of the value of the metal seized as fraudulent, the other moiety 
being the King's due. Besides the detection and seizure of dishonest 
wares these searches resulted in the enrolment of many country pewterers 
as brethren of the Company. 

3fm resceyvid of Raynold Chyrche belfoundare of Bury . vj s. viij d. 

5t Rs of John Brokyng brasyer of Braynford in pty for etres iij s. iiijd. 
5t Rs^ of Nycholas Hylton of Cambryge braysyare in pty fore entres x s. 
3t Rs of Lambard Snell brasyar in pty fore his enteres . . xx s. 

5t Rs of wyllih kerkeby brasyere of Cauntbury fore his hoUe enteres xx s. 

With the above entries are similar ones of the admission of many 
other country pewterers from Coventry, Leicester, Boston, Burford, 
Brentford, Nottingham, Cambridge, "Oxenford," Canterbury, Lincoln, 
Taunton, Exeter, Southampton, Salisbury, Winchester, Bristol, Chichester, 
Reading, etc. A list of thirty-two names follows the " Receipts " side of 
the account, and is headed " $9eu ben the brethren that ben of the 
Contre. Sworn to the kyng & Y Craft." The usual entry fee of 6s. 8rf. 
was at this time increased to a minimum of 10s. 

44 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

5tm paid vnto vmferey Sterkey Recordare for his advice fore )?* corpo- 
racyon . . . . . . . . . iij s. iiij d. 

5tm paid at \f Tavarn for owre brekfast w^ )?* Recordare . . xj d. 

The Recorder's advice was doubtless sought with reference to the 
confirmatory charter which the Company obtained or sought to obtain 
from the King. This instrument appears only on foil. 5b-6b of the second 
Audit Book, and immediately precedes the account for 1 530-1. It is 
granted by King Edward IV at Westminster, and dated 4th November 
in the 14th year of his reign. Its tenor is exactly similar to the later 
confirmatory charter of the same monarch granted on 14th April in his 
1 8th regnal year, 1478 {see p. 52). The present document is not signed, 
and may be only the draft of a charter which was never granted. 
Humphrey Starkey was elected Recorder in 147 1-2; he became Serjeant- 
at-Law in 1478, and Chief Baron in 1484. In i486 an obit for his soul 
and the soul of his wife Isabella was provided by Thomas Lok, of London, 
chaplain, citizen, and skinner. 

3t paid fore the Corporacyon writyng in Englysshe . . . xvj d. 
3t fore \f Corporacyon writyng in Englisshe w' the Relese of iiij 

dCdXld • • • • • • • • > > llO. 

Jt paid to John Tyllare fore the writyng of the Corporacyon in laten 
& Englisshe in the gret boke . . . . iij s. iiij d. 

The following entry throws some light upon the composition of 
" Fine Pewter" as described in the Ordinances of 1348. The proportion 
of brass to tin is the same as that of lead to tin for " Vessels of Tin," as 
the Lay metal ware is there termed, viz., 26 lbs. to the cwt. 

3tm for a quartorn wyght of tynne & vj ft di of Copure to make 
\t sayis [assays] of . . . . . . vj s. iiij d. 

The regulations prohibiting the sale of wares by hawkers or any 
other persons than duly authorised tradesmen at their own shops or 
standings in fairs or markets were strictly enforced, it being the interest 
of all the members of the Company, on whom the various charges of 
citizenship fell heavily, to assist the ofl[icers of the Company in putting 
down these practices. Giles Lakford, who came from Ipswich, proved a 
troublesome customer, resenting the Company's interference and taking 


History of the Pewterers' Co7npany. 45 

the law against them. In 1477-8 the Company had to pay 36^. 6^rf. "for 
Costes done atte yeppeswich for willia large," and in the following year 
the sum of 4/. o^. lorf. for Large's " condempnacon " with costs, towards 
which they borrowed 515. \d. from William Smalwode. 
5t fore the wachyng of gyllis lakford & o\f halkers [hawkers] at 
Bysshopis gate ........ xviij d. 

It does not appear that the Company had up to now possessed a 
Hall. They hired the Refectory of the Austin Friars for their festive 
gatherings and rented premises there for their official use. The 
Company having obtained a charter and common seal urgently felt 
the need of a Hall both for their dignity and convenience. It was a 
great undertaking to which they now put their hands, and of which the 
following entry records the first item of expenditure. Many years were 
to elapse before the assessments upon the members for the site, building, 
and furnishing of Pewterers' Hall ceased. The elaborate details which 
appear in the accounts show that the Company's determination was to 
erect a building worthy of their position among the other guilds. The 
site ultimately chosen was in Lime Street, although several members were 
deputed to examine sites in other parts of the city. 

3tm Spent by Willm Wylbey whan he went fore to Seke an halle viij d. 

Wylbey was the Senior Warden for this year. 
0tm whan a Serteyn of the fFelauchepe of \f Crafte were in Colmanstret 

fore to have ]?* syght of an halle fore bred, drynke & CoUis [coals] 

by Wylbey . . . . . . . . . iiij d. 

5f * fore the syght of \f place in lymstret . . . . ij d. 

3f* paid at \>^ place in lymstret whan \>^ Crafte were the [there?] fore the 

settyng of the kyngis money fore bred & alle . . . xv d. ob. 
3f* fore a testemonyall fore Butsyd in Cornwall . . . xij d. 
3tm fore a letere of attorney made to ]?* Resceyvere of Cornwall 

Thra Butsyd gentilman John lewis & to wyllm wattis . ij s. ij d. 
5f* fore a let? of Brethered to John Brokyng . . . . iiij d. 
5t* fore expencf don at the halle in lymestret whan ]?* kyng departid 

fore london in to fFraunce ward & the Crafte arrayd in barneys fore 

warre as oj?' Crafts were. ..... ij s. viij d. 

46 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

This was Edward IV's French expedition. The king landed at 
Calais in July, 1475, and demanded the crown of France, but agreed 
to a truce of seven years with Louis XI, who promised him a large 
pension. Edward returned to England on 28th September. The 
gathering of the Company to meet the king was at the site of 
their new Hall, which they had only just secured. The building 
was not finished till the year 1497, ^^^ ^ portion was ready for use 
in 1485-6. 
5f* paid fore John Tyllare fore to have hym oute of preson by the wylle 

of all jf Crafte . . . . . . . xv s. viiij d. 

5t* paid to a kepare of ludgat to bryng )?* said John tyllare to )?* halle iiij d. 

Ludgate was the debtors' prison of the City. Tyllar was probably 
the Company's clerk, as by a previous item in this year's accounts he was 
paid for writing the charter in Latin and English in the "gret boke." 
This would account for the large expenditure of i6s. "to have 
hym oute of preson." 

5tm payd fore the Costs of John Adames man of Lynne whan he browght 
word to the m' & wardens of certeyn halkars )?at )?* said John Adam 
desyrid to have a powere to sesse [cease, i.e., make to cease] theire 
goyng fro dore to dore & to be a brothire . . . xij d. 

3i^ to John mathewe rentgaderare fore the place in lymestret fore iij 
gi rent .......... xvs. 

From this it appears that the Pewterers at first rented the site of their 
Hall in Lime Street, and probably made use of the existing buildings, 
gradually replacing them with their new Hall, which was several years 
in building. 

(31^ expencis don by Willrii Wattis whan he rode in to the west 
Countre ........ xxvij s. vj d. ob. 

5tm fore a hors for xxxix days xiij s. iiij d. 

3fm fore his wagis for the said xxxix days whan forfautid xxx pecf 
tynne .......... xiijs. 

Other searches during this year were made by William Wilbey and 
William Watts into Norfolk, by William Wilbey and Thomas 
Haryson into Oxfordshire, Hampshire and Salisbury, by William Wilbey 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 47 

and William Watts into Yorkshire, by William Wilbey and Richard 
Magson into the Eastern Counties, and by William Wilbey and Robert 
Hache into Derbyshire and Somersetshire. 

3f * paid ij hors to Braynford w' wylbay and haryson for ]f halkere xvj d. 
0tm delyu'd an indent* of the Bayly of Chelmysford of certeyn vessell that 

he hathe in kepyng that is to say xij gret platis xxij midill platis xvj 

gret dysshis xviij midill dysshis xxviij saucis ]?at were forfautid. 
3fm an o]f bille indentid of Willrh Ruffe vnderbayly of beuerley of xij 

gret plai vj dos' dysshis ij dos' saucercf iiij dos' saltcellaris ]?' were 

0fm a bille in dentid of Richard Anable of bedford of lay metall Cast 

in platis & dysshis & sauc'is & saltcellars to the wyghte of iij g? of 

an c [f cwt.] forfautid. 

5fm delyued a box w' all the Evydence of oure Tenement that haynys 
dwelith in and of the hows that Robert ChamtSleyn dwelithin. 

The following is the first entry that relates to the marks used by the 
Company in their official examination of pewter vessels. As it was doubt- 
less the fate of all vessels marked with the broad arrow to be forfeited and 
melted down without delay, it is not probable that any example so marked 
is now procurable as a treasured specimen by the collector of old pewter. 

5f* delyud a ponchon of yrn [iron] w^ ]f brode arowe hede fore the 
forfet marke. 

5fm delyud the metall that was made aft the Rotme'ts [sic ? enrolments] 
wherby all th* holoware makars shuld temp there lay metall aft' in 
plats Endentid xvj ft d. 

(31^ that heraft folowith the parcellis of the Tynne )?at is drossy and hard. 

flljtef Resceyvid of a dowchman at hattis key ]f xxv day of may ]f xv 
yere of kyng Edward ]f iiij'^ iij pecf tynne weiyng vij C vj ti. 

Q^e6ces?ib of Henry Smyth Stokfysshmong^ the xx day of Juyn ]f yere 
a bouesaid ij pccf of hard Tynne weiyng iij*" iij g i. xxij ft. 

"Silk Resceyvid of Watkyn tokare iij devynysshe pec^. 

Q^esceeSi^ of John Whithed in lay metall half a C xij It 

(]^s of Thomas Goode in lay metall C iiij tt. 

48 History of the Pewterers' Company, 

(5e§ of Rob? Turner in fyri metall C x tt. 

(5^§ of Nycholas Tokare in hard tynne Ixx tt. 

QJs in vessell that kam fro Colchestere xxviij tt. 

(5^s of John a CoUeix v pyntt^ weiyng viji tt. 

feefte in )?* hands Robt hardyng Goldsmyth ij pecf Cornyssh tynne. 

fefte in ]f hands of willm GefFerey haburdasshare j devynyssh pece. 

fefte in )?* hands of Richard Chaury salt iij pec^ devynyssh tynne. 

feft in ]f hands of John Skowe StokfFysshmog' vj Cornyssh pecf. 

feft in ]f hands of John paris ij pece of Cornyssh tynne. 

fefte in \f hands oi]f bayly of Chelmysford in vessell C d [i^ cwt.]. 

feft in ]f hands of \f ShirefF of Southhampton ij cornyssh pecf. 

feft in ]f hands of \f bayly of Brygwai iij devynyssh pec^. 

1475-6. 3tm payde for costs at the popyshede [Pope's Head] 
whan the man of Couentre was there w' other of the felychip . iij s. vij d. 

3tm for dressyng of the same mete & for fFrewts . . . viij d. 

3tm payde for Costs whan Willm of lynne was made frema . viij d. 

3fm payde for a dyn' at vyncentys whan the man of Bristow was there 
w' dyu'se other of the fFelychip vij s. x d. 

John Vincent was the Junior Warden and Accountant this year. 
His senior colleague was John Whitehead, and their journeys on *• search" 
in various counties cost 9/. 6s, iirf,, realising in forfeited ware the sum 
of 11/. 15^. 8rf. 

5fm payde for a pyke & other fiysch at a dyra . . . xxij d. 

The repasts mentioned in the above entries for the entertainment of 
the Coventry man, William of Lynn, and the man of Bristol took place 
probably in the summer, judging from the fish and fruits which composed 
the bill of fare. The hospitality was doubtless intended to smooth the 
way of the Search officials when visiting those distant places. 

3tm for the hire of ij horse on may day to Chelmysford & so forthe to 
bery [Bury] to Thetford Newmarket Chambryg & to Bassyngbo'ne 
for to delyu the ware to a karyour [carrier] wich was forfet at 
Thetford by the space of x dayes for horse hire . vij s. vj d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 49 

3fm for a man ys wagis by the space of xxix dayes takyng euy 
day iiij d. ....... Sih ix s. viij d. 

The above payment was for assistance in the search. 

(31^ that the xix day of Decembr in the yere of the reygne of 
the kyng Edward the iiij'** the xvj'*** All the WorschupfuU hole body of 
the Craft of peauterers of this Worshipfiill Cite of london haue graunt 
& bounde them selfe & theyre successors hereaft"^ to cu to pay to the 
ffraternite & gylde of the same of euy dosen garnesch of rowgh vessel 
letyn to hyre aft*^ Cristmas day next comyng j d. to the mayntenaunce of 
the sayde ffraternite and that to be payde vpon eury man ys othe ons a 
qrtr vn to the maysf & wardeyns of the sayde Crafte for the Tyme beyng 
where of the sayde m & wardens vppon theyre othe they schall geue a 
trew a Count ons a yere vn to the felyship. 

This note throws light upon the relations between the Craft of 
Pewterers and its associated Fraternity or Gild. These two institutions 
clearly consisted at this period of the same body of persons acting in 
different capacities. The Master and Wardens of the Craft were the 
treasurers of the Fraternity, but the accounts were evidently kept separate 
from those of the Craft, although there is no indication of this in the 
Audit Books. 

1476-7. Jftti receyved of Robt Turnour for a fyne of late comyng 
to ]?* hall ......... xij d. 

3tm receyved of dyvers men of the Crafte for the Watche atte Saint 
petirs tyde . . . . . . . . . iij s. 

This was the Marching Watch, which was held on Midsummer Eve 
and resumed six days after, on the eve of St. Peter's Day, 29th June. 
On this day the old ten days' celebration of the great summer festival 
came to an end. The cressets carried by the Watch and the bonfires 
which were lighted, are undoubtedly relics of the sun worship (at the 
summer solstice) which came down from Saxon times. In 15 10, King 
Henry the Eighth came to the City to see the Watch, and was so pleased 
that he came again on the eve of St. Peter's Day. 

^pee bene the receyts of the sayd accomptants of the felasship from 
the fest of Cristemas the xvj yere of the Regne of kyng Edward the iiij'** 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

vnto the fest of midsomer next suyng as for money by the hole body of 
the Crafte graunted for the Worship of the sayde Crafte that is to sey 
of every doseyn Garnyssh for the fest vessell j d. as it appereth by 
the names here after folowing. 

ffirst John parys 

RoBt fforster 

. xxj d. 

Thomas heryson i 

ij s. iij d. 

RoBt Tumour . 

xij s. iiij d. 

William Sexteyn 


WilliJi Chalke . 

. XX d. 

John Whitehede 

. xij d. 

John Grene 

Piers Bysshop 

. vjd. 

William Assh 

. xix d. 

Willrh Crowde 

WiUm Watte 

• • • • « 

. mj d. 

Thomas langtofte 


Beatrice Eyre 

William Smalwode 

xviij d. 

Agnes Chalke 

• vj d. 

John Vyncent 

John Whityng . 

. vj d. 

William Wylby , 


Willm Elys 


John Coldham 

Draytons wyfe 

. vjd. 

William large 


henry Stapilhers 


Nicholas Walker . 

John Snaylam . 


John Cardynall 


John Coke 

\ • 

Stephen Todde 

William Whitmi 

an . xij d. 

Thomas Rysby 

John Robert 


Everard Newchirch 

Willm Randolf . 


Thomas Jakson 

xviij d. 

Thomas maryot 

Thomas Dunton 

. XV d. 

John pecok 

Thomas Gode 


John mylys 

Richard kyrke 


Richard Bolt . 

• • • • « 

. luj d. 

John Sawge . 

■ • ■ ■ 

. inj s. 

John Broun 

Walter Walssh 

John lecheford , 

Thomas Alisaundre 


Willm pecok 

. vij d. 

Thomas Nassh 

. XX d. 

Willm Chamber 

leyn . jd. 

Richard magson 

, xxiij d. 

John Cave 

• • • • « 

. mj d. 

RoBt mounteyn 

a _ _ 

Robert hurlond 

Sm of the fest vessell Iij s. v d. 
The sums paid by the members vary from i2j. \d. to irf., a large 
number of the brethren making no contribution. The list of pay- 
ments in the following year contains different contributors and widely 

History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 5 ^ 

differing amounts ; the heading varies as follows : "That is to say of et^y 
dos garnysshed of fFest vessell letten j d. by the hole body of the Craft 
Runted as it apperethe by the names here after fFolowyng." Amounts 
run from 5^. to ^d. "Sm* xjs. vd." 

A garnish of pewter consisted of twelve dishes, twelve plates, and 
twelve small platters. All the well-to-do members of the trade kept a 
stock of " feast vessels," which they lent on hire to noblemen and other 
wealthy persons, and to public bodies for use at great banquets. This 
was a source of considerable profit, the pewterers helping each other when 
an extraordinary demand was made upon their resources. At these great 
feasts a remarkably large quantity of pewter was employed. 

3fm expended atte montokks Barbour vpon dyvers of the felasship iiij d. 

3fm payed to the flSryer Augustines for easement of the halle for a 
yere iij s. iiij d. 

3fm payed for jaketts for the watchemen [on St. Peter's eve] . xvj s. 

3fm payed for Coles atte the friers the last wynter . . . iiij d. 

3fm payed atte Barthm' ffeyre in herryes sones bothe [Harrison's booth] 
vpon peawtrers of the Contre [no amount]. 

Thomas Harrison was the Upper Warden this year. 

1477-8. 3f m Receyued of Roftt Turno' for a fyne of late workyng vj d. 
3fm receyued of John Whitehed for a fyne for ware not sene . xij d. 
3f m Receyued of John Randesfeld Sergeaunt for his entrees . . xx s. 

3fm paide for a potte bought of the fflemmyng atte to' hill [Tower Hill] 
to prove his metell . . . . . . . . vj d. 

3fm paide for a Saler bought atte harbarugh fFayire to prove the metell iij d. 

3fm spent on Richard aprice atte tyme of the Serching of the 
fflemyng . . . . . . . . . iiij d. 

3fm paide for a litill blakke boke iij d. 

3fm paid Clifford Scrivere for to serch for oure evidences of the tentf in 
the Jury bitwene the Priour & COvent of Chiksand and vs xij d. 

3fm paide for oure dyner whan the may re had comaundid vs to |>* 
Count ,,..,..... iiij d. 

52 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3fm paide for oure bedde by ij nyghts ..... viij d. 

3fm paide to the Maires sgeaunt and entryng of the Suerties . xx d. 

3ffrt spent atte Mairemaide in bredstrete for a brekfast whan william large 

was fette out of the Counter ...... xvj d. 

It is not clear what the Master and Wardens had done to deserve to 
be sent by the Mayor to the Compter. Perhaps they had taken the law 
into their own hands in their dispute with the Prior of Chicksand about 
the house in the Jewry. It seems more probable, however, that the 
trouble arose through the Company's searches, unless the incident was a 
sequel to the dispute with Giles Lakford the hawker. William Large, the 
Senior Warden, lost no time after his release in setting out armed with 
the fullest authority for another round of country searches. 

3fm paide by william large for a patent w' a writte in the same comaund- 
yng the kyngs officers thurgh England to doo it to be pclamed wyn 
euych of theire Bayliwiks . . . . . xxxvj s. viij d. 

This is the second charter granted to the Company by King 
Edward IV on the 14th April, 1478, in the eighteenth year of his reign. 
The original is a Latin document, in the Company's possession. The 
King recites and confirms his previous charter of 1473 (-^^^ PP' 37""^)' 
and in addition, lays stringent commands upon all mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, 
stewards, and other officers whatsoever, to pubhsh, proclaim, and make 
known in their bailiwicks his letters patent and all the matters contained 
in them. These officials are also ordered to permit the Company to make 
free use of their right of search and to assist them in the same when 
3fm paide by william large for settyngforth of the Patent Sealed w^ grene 

wax and a grete boke the which hadde ben in the Yeldhall by \f 

space of ij yer' & a half ...... xls. 

3fm paide by Tfi Jakson and Ric magson for pclamyng the patent in 

Reigate & lewes . . . . . . . . xx d. 

The inventory for this year contains the following three entries : 
3fm a Cloth for the Ewry bord contenyng ij yerdes & half. 
Jfm delyu'ed a plate ^of lay metell Endented made after thenrolements 

whereby all the holow ware makers shuld temp their lay metell. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 53 

This was a standard kept at the Hall for the inferior quality of 
pewter known as "lay" metal. The term was probably employed to 
denote all pewter made with an alloy or "alay" of lead. {See the 
Ordinances of 1348, page 3.) 

3fm in Sadware fForfeited Ixj lb. 

Sadware may mean "sayed," /.e., assayed ware, which would be 
forfeited only on account of faulty workmanship. 

1478-9. 3tm receyued of Roftt Tumour that he was awarded by 
arbitrement to bryng in for certeyn offenses by hi done xxiij s. iiij d. 
to be depted [departed, f.e., divided] half to the Chambre of the Guyld- 
hall of London and )>' o\f half to the said crafte xj s. viij d. 

Robert Turnor was a very prosperous member of the Craft, judging 
from his contributions, but was constantly giving trouble by his misde- 
meanours. In 1487-8 it was found necessary to arrest him, and in 
1 49 1-2, when Warden, he was fined 40^. for a dispute with the Master 
and the other Warden. 

3fm paide for a pike given to Maistre William Donthorne )>* iiij'* day 
of rach a"* xix° xx d. 

William Dunthorn was the Common Clerk of the City at this time ; 
his name is preserved in "Liber Dunthorn," a compendium of City 
law which he prepared and presented to the Corporation, and which still 
remains amongst the City archives. 

3fm paide to John Armerers wiffe for half a q"rt wages endyng on Saynt 
Martynes day in wyni w' the grots [groats] gaderd atte Cristmasse 
a° xviij"* iij s. 

John Armurer was the Beadle of the Company. St. Martin's Day 
was nth November. 

3fm spent atte poppes hedd in lumbardstrete vppon the ffelauship 

xxiiij s. ix d. oti. 
1479-80. 3fm Receyved for iij quartrons & xiiij ft of fyne metall 

after xxvij s. the C. Sm* xxiij s. vij d. oft. lim for xlviij ft. of lay atte 

j d. oti. the lb Sm* vj s. The which metall was lefte in Smalwodes house 

that belonged to the Crafte xxix s. vij d. 

54 History of the Pewterers" Company. 

The price of fine metal, 275. per cwt., was nearly double that of 
"lay," which was only i^d. per ft, or 14.9. per cwt. 

(Sd^ that piers bysshop, Willm Smalwod, Thomas alysawdyr mad a 
ward by twexste willm welby and willm Sextyn for settyng a worke of John 
hamond beyng Sextyiv couand man that weby shold pay iiijs. iiijd. that is 
for to sey xx d. to crafte and xx d. to Sextyn toward his cost ou payd. 

3fm payde to the Bargemen for a barge and theire laboure with other 
costes whan my lady margaret went oversee . . . xij s. 

Margaret of Anjou, the Queen of Henry VI, was niece of Louis XI, 
King of France, and after the failure of the Lancastrian cause, was kept 
by Edward IV in honourable captivity at London, Windsor, and Walling- 
ford. After the alliance between Louis XI and Edward IV, established 
by the Treaty of Picquigny, she was ransomed by Louis on 2nd October, j 

1475, for 50,000 gold crowns. She left England for Rouen on i 

29th January, 1476, and spent the remainder of her days in France, 
where she died in 1482. 

1480-1. A collection was made from the brethren of the Company 
" toward the makyng of ij newe stremers to the vse of the Crafte." The 
contributions amounted to 3/. 5^. 8rf., and included 5^. 6rf. "receyved 
among the Bachelers or Yeomanry." 

In the list of payments of quarterage is the entry " of John Parys 
in fletestrete xij d." This is, unfortunately, almost the only instance which 
can be found of the addition of the place of business in the various lists of 
the brethren of the Company. 

3fm payed to an herode [herald] of Armes for shewyng of the Armes of 
the Crafte . . . . . . . . . vj d. 

3fm payed for a bundell of Resshes to ley in the barge . . ij d. 

Ope it Remembred that Wilham Smalwode hath yeven atte his owne 
ppre cost to the sayde Crafte a fayre Baner of the hole Armes of the 
same Crafte. 

This banner and two streamers were for decorating the barge in the 
water pageants and the Company's stand when they gave their attendance 
at processions. 


History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 


xvj s. 

viij s. 

xxxj s. viij d. 

vij d. 

xvj d. 

. ijs. ijd. 

xij d. 


t^^tt bene the payments mayde by the sayde mayster and wardeyns 
for the makyng of the sayde ij Stremers and other necessaries therto 

ffltef payed for Sarsynet for the sayde Stremers 
3f m payed for frenge to the same . 
3fm payed to the payntour for payntyng . 
3fm payed for bokeram to the sayde Stremers 
3fm payed to the peyntours wyfe for sowyng 
3fm payed for ij staves for the sayde Strems 
3fm payed for a cofyn [chest] for the sayde StrenJs 
3fm payed for ale . 

Sra iij li xj d. 

1481-2. 3fm Receyved of the iiij dayes men that were Arbitrours 
bytwene Willm Smalwode, Whitehede, and Jakson in the xj day of 
Marche the xxij yer of the Regne of kyng Edward the iiij'^ 

xxj s. viij d. 
This sum was the fine ordered by the " dayes men " or arbitrators 

to be paid to the Company by the party adjudged to be in the wrong. 

3f m payed the xx'* day of fFeverer in the xxi'* yer of kyng Edward iiij*** to 
Willm Crowde for the Rydyng ayens the kyng whan he come 
from be yonde the see and for ware that he hadde in the howse of 
Whitehede xvs. 

Edward IV again landed in France in consequence of the refusal of 
Louis XI to abide by the treaty of 1475. 

1482-3. 3fm bought xj peces of tyn weiyng xxxj C xiiij tt atte 
xxiiij s the C Sm* xxxvij ti. vij s. and poi solde to oon man iij pecf weiyng 
viij C iij g* xxvj tt atte xxvj s. iiij d. the C Sm* xj li. xvj s. vj d. 

3fm sold to an op man a pece weiyng iij C vij It atte xxvij s. the C Sm* 

Ulj Tl. IJ s. vuj d. 

3tm sold a pece of tyn weiyng ij C d C xxiij tt atte xxvij s. the C Sm* 

• • • « • • • • 

iij 11. xnj s. 

3fw sold a pece for redy money weiyng ij C viij tt atte xxv s. viij d. the 
C Sm* Iiij s. ij d. [Three other parcels follow.] 


56 History of the Pew t ever s' Company. 

3f m bought vj C of tyn atte xxij s. the C Sm* vj ti. xij s. Sold the same 
vj c for xxiij s the c. Sm* vj ti xviij s. 

the Encrease of all this tyn iiij ti. xiij d. 

This was a profitable way of investing the balance on the Company's 
yearly account, and a convenience to the brethren who purchased the tin 
of the Company. The practice previously was to lend on interest to 
members of the livery any sums that could be spared. The price charged 
for the tin as above varied from 23 j. to 27^. per cwt., the difference being 
doubtless due to varying quality and allowance for cash payment. 

3fm receved of John Wright for a fyne of late workyng . . xij d. 
ffltef paide for Cariage of xj pecf of tyn out of ffletestrete . ix d. 

This was probably from the house of John Paris. 

3fm spent on William West Rentgaderer to )>* said Prio' [of Chicksand] 
to ou'see [oversee] the Repacons of our house and to be fFrendely 

ixd. oti. 
3fm given to the said William a basyn ^c [price] . . . xij d. 

3f m paide to v men to Ride ayenst the kyng . . . . Is. 

Richard III having resolved to seize the throne was anxious to 
secure the support of the citizens of London. Dr. Ralph Shaw, the 
brother of Sir Edward Shaw, Lord Mayor, set forth the Protector's 
claim to the crown in a sermon at Paul's Cross, on Sunday, 22nd June, 
1483. The Duke of Buckingham addressed the citizens at Guildhall on 
24th June to the like effect, and induced them to join in a deputation of 
the Lords and Commons to Richard at Baynard's Castle on 26th June, 
to invite him to become king. The petition was received and the 
Protector, assuming the title of Richard III, rode in state as king to St. 
Paul's, " and was received there with great congratulation and acclamation 
of all the people." * 

3t paid in labouryng for the Restreynt of tyn in )>* pliament tyme ou 
[over] \f XV s. vj d. given toward )>* same . . xlvj s. ix d. 

Following the account for 1482-3 is the ensuing curious ordinance 
written in a hand as uncouth as the spelling and composition. It fixes 

* Parker*s Annals of England^ Oxford, 1856, ii, 93-4, 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 57 

the charge for workmanship of certain wares at 8*. the cwt. and of others 
at 7^. The 4^., 3^. and id. ware would seem to be articles sold at such 
prices per pound. 

%no\XK%. bi. vs. all. WirssipfuU householdders and okepeers 
[occupiers] of the CrafFte of pewtrers of the Cetee of london howe that 
the seyde householdders and okepeers was warned ther apon assemled 
afFore. Thomas, hareson. maister of the seyde CrafFte. and John vyncent. 
and Water Walsh Warddeynes. the xxx day of Januarij the fFhirste 
yere of )>* Reingne of kyng. Rechard th"" iij. In present of |>* seyde 
maisi and warddeynes and allso being there present. Wyttm smalwud. 
Wyllam sexteine. Wyllam Wylby. Steven Todd. Thomas Downton. 
Rechard macson Thomas Alisawnder Wyllam Elise. Wyllam Chalke. 
wyth J?* substans of )>* other parsones of \f seyde CrafFte stablysshed 
and euy parsone GreabuU that J?* wurkemanssip. of euy. C. \f^ is to sey. 
Normandy potts potell quarte and peingte and Trowped saler is sartyfied 
\f C. wurkemanssip. at viij s. and whoo ssoo eu [whosoever] be fFownde 
doing |>* contrary. fFynabyll. by \f dysscression of )>• maist & |>* 
warddeines of \>^ seyde. Craffte fFor \>^ yere being. And allso hit is 
sertefied by all \>^ hole asent that \f C. Wurkemassip of howssold potts, 
potell. quarte. and peingte. and mesure potts. Gallon, potell. quarte & 
peingte and halfe peingte. and stope potts, and salt saler of )>* iiij d. 
ware and. iij d. ware & ij d ware at. vij s. and so to be wurkemanly 
wroght. apon peyne aforsayde also, hit is sertefiede by all the hole asent 
of seyde maist and wardeines and \f fFelesip of \f seyde CrafFte \f^ no 
parsone nor parsones sshall not pay fFor \f C. wurkemanssip of Tanggard 
potts but affter \f Rate of viij s )>* C. apon peine aforsayde. Also hit is 
Grauntted \f same day at |>* fFreer Aussteynes in oure assimett [assembly] 
by all )>* fFelessip of \>^ seyde Craffte )>^ no parsone nor parsones shall not 
make nor do to make no maner of ware w^ noo. holoware. man. maker of 
\t contre. fFro this tyme fFor warde apon peyne of his fFhyne set by )>* 
dysscression of \f seyde maist' & wardeines. aforseid. And God saue 
kyng. Rechard. 


Another writer has put his pen through " Rechard " and inserted 
"the" before "kyng." 

B 2 

58 History of the Pewterers Company. 

1 483-4. The Company did not allow much grace for payment of 
arrears of quarterage or even of fines for opening shop. If payment was 
not forthcoming in money the goods of the delinquent were promptly 
seized. The list of payments of quarterage for this year contains the 
following : — 

TWgff am Watts xij d. St res for his quart rage ij pecis an erde dyssh a 

grete salt saler weing v ti and a quartern. 
TWgffam OlyfFe xij d. Stres for his Entres vj grete platers & x dysshis 

counifete weing xxxti. 
Q^oBat^ Thurlond. Stres fFor his Entres & a yere quart rage ij bras potts 

weing xxvj ti. 
3t payed fFor sarteyne of \f fFellesip whan )>* meire Receued \f kyng 

oute of the Weste Cuntre xxiij s. iiij d. 

This was the triumphal entry of Richard III into London on his 
return from suppressing the Duke of Buckingham's rebellion. More 
than 400 liverymen of the City Companies met him on horseback in 
gowns of murrey. The citizens presented the king with a petition boldly 
announcing their resolution not to live in future under the thraldom and 
oppression which they had suffered during the late king's reign. 

3t payed fFor the grene Clothe )>' s'uyth [serveth] fFor oure Courte 

uj s. uj d. 
1484-5. 3tm paide for bote hyre atte the Burying of the queue iij d. 

This was Anne, daughter of the Earl of Warwick, wife of Richard III. 
She died, after a lingering illness, on i6th March, 1485, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. Their only child, Edward, died the year before 
at the age of eleven years. 

m^ that John Paris Citezeine and peautrer of london deceassid 
vpon the xxvj day of Aprile in the first yer of the reigne of kyng 
Richard the iij** and his obitf" is kepte the xxvj day of Aprile yerely. 
[From Jury Book.] 

3fttt paide for Brede & Ale atte \>^ burying of maister Parys . v d. 

3f m paide to a prest atte the burying of the same maist parys . xij d. 

John Paris was the senior member of the Company and Master at 

the time of his death. His name is in the list of members of 1456-7, 

History of the Pewterers' Cofnpany. 59 

and he had been Master in 1467, 1476, and 1480. He lived in Fleet 
Street, and left a sum of 10/. to the Company, which was spent in 
purchasing a pall or hearse cloth of cloth of gold. 

3fm paide for the sight of a Cloth of gold . . . . iiij d. oft. 

3fm paide for the wrytyng of a By 11 of names of the watche . ij d. 

3f m paide for the Rydyng Clothyng Is. 

3fm paide for the Burying cloth of cloth of gold . . . iiij ti. 

3fm paide to Willm Sexteyn for the fynisshyng vp of the saide burying 
cloth .......... vj ti. 

1485-6. The accounts for this year are of exceptional interest, as 
they tell the story of the acquisition of the site of the Hall in Lime 
Street. For several centuries it has been believed that the site of the 
Hall with six tenements adjoining was given to the Pewterers' Company 
by William Smalwood, Master in 1469, 1477, 148 1 and i486, whose 
portrait hangs in the Court Room. Beneath the portrait, a reproduction 
of which serves as a frontispiece to the present volume, is an inscription 
stating that the Hall and tenements were bequeathed by Smalwood to 
the Company in 1487. The painting exhibits the costume of the 
early part of James the ist's reign, but whatever may be the date of the 
picture, that of the inscription cannot be earlier than the 1 7th century. 
The inscription has therefore no value as contemporary evidence, though 
the statement is literally correct. But the bequest involved no gift, the 
property having been previously conveyed to Smalwood, who was the 
new Master, with a view to its re-conveyance to the Company under 
his will. This is clearly evident from the documents of title in the 
Company's possession, an abstract of which will be found in the Appendix. 
The property was purchased by the Company from one Henry Nevyll 
for 120/. {see the first entry on page 62, where he is wrongly called 
Richard), and conveyed by him to trustees on their behalf. By these 
trustees it was transferred to Smalwood, who bequeathed it to the Com- 
pany. The formal conveyance to Smalwood took place in i486, but the 
Company obtained possession of the site in 1475, and began building 
the Hall, some of the apartments of which were sufficiently finished to 
allow of a dinner being provided there for the wives in i486. The 

6o History of ttte Pewterers' Company. 

garden was also elaborately laid out and provided with a well and vinery. 
In the entries transcribed below will be seen a full view of the whole 
transactions connected with this important purchase of the site for the 
Hall, including the price paid, 120/. — the substantial instalment of 80/. 
being paid on completing the agreement. At the head of the page is 
written in a somewhat later hand '* The purchas of the hall." The story 
is amusingly told by these entries : the care taken to obtain good advice 
both from Hawis and Moore, the men of law, and from the carpenter 
who was employed to act as surveyor, the entertainments judiciously 
provided for the principals and agents on both sides, and the anxiety to 
avoid the breaking off of what was certainly regarded as a good bargain 
for the Company are naively described. Although William Smalwood 
did not give the Hall or its site, he was yet a generous benefactor, as the 
next entry shows, contributing a large sum towards this great work. 

ffgtfif Receyuid off Willih Smalwode toward )>* byldyng of the Hall & 
ploure [parlour] vj ti. xiij s. iiij d. 

3t Ress of the bequest of M' John Parise be ]f handis of Roftt 
lytton xli. 

^^ee ben the namys off the )>' have grau*ntyd mone to )>* purchase of 
the hall. A list of 75 names and amounts follows, the contributions 
amounting to 45/. 6s. and varying from i id. to 20^. 

3t payd for a dyner at the mairis fest & feccyng in of the kyng to his 
coronac'on at thorns Nassh howse .... viij s. vj d. 

Henry VII was crowned on the 30th October, 1485. 

3 1 payd to willm large for almes be the space of a hole yere vj s. viij d. 

This was the influential member of the Company who was entrusted 
with the duty of procuring the charter of 1473, and had so much to do 
with the country searches and the prosecution of hawkers. 

3t spent on Ric nevell & vs wha we brak fyrst the bargayn of )>* place 

3 1 payd to ra more wha we poyntyd oure byll & to m hawis vj s. viij d. 
3tm payd to ra hawis & to ra moore wha )>** [t^hey] sawe oure evidecis 

first vj s. viij d. 

3 1 for brede & drynk at oure corny nicacOn • . . . iiij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 6 1 

3 1 paide at )>* salutacon w' nevell Brekyng )>• suerte of \f mat . ij d. 

3t paid at the secounde syght of oure evydencis or we durst do any 
thyng towchyng to make a bargayn . . . . vj s. viij d. 

3t paid to a carputer for fewyng of oure ground to be in suere of lenght 

& brede & buttyng to make oure evidecis suere . . viij d. 

3 1 paid at nevellis wha we wer at dener iiij d. 

3t payd at myghter [Mitre tavern] at after none . . . ij d. 

3t payd to ra hawis & maister moore in paternoster Rowe whan edmud 
sth^'phyns & a nodir ma of Cowncell wer ther w^ the sayd henrry 
nevell & lyke to have broke oure bargayn . . vj s. viij d. 

3t payd for oure pte in drynke ij d. 

3t payd to m' moore & m' hawis at powlis whan the old fFeffSs Schold 
knowlige afore the mayre and an aldrma the Delyiuy of ther 
astate to be enrollyd at \>^ hustyngys . . . vj s. viij d. 

3 1 spent at dire wha the old fFefFiif had done a fore the mayr . ij s. 

3t paied at \f popis hede & at \f myghter wha ra hawis & m moore & 
fox of the maires Courte delyuid oure dedis old & newe aft they 
were Enrollyd in the hustyngys beyng ther ra & wardens & m' willih 
Smalwode nowe ra & thoms Alysaunder . . . .vs. ob. 

3t paid in ther ^sence for ther last Reward to ra hawis & ra moore 

xnj s. mj d. 

3tm paide to fFox for the enroUyng of oure dede & for the wryting 

■ • • • • « 

mj s. VJ d. 
3 1 paid to pker [Parker] skrevener for wryting & conveying of oure dedis v s. 
3? payd at bull hede ........ iij d. 

3t payd for Box to put in all oure evydencys . . . . iij d. 

3t paid to a preest wha maistres pis [Paris] was buryede fFor his laboure 

This was the widow of John Paris above mentioned. 

3 1 paid for a quart coolis [^ cwt. of coals] vj d. 

3t payd for ij trene [wooden] disshis a doss trenchours and a borthen 
[burden or load] of Russhis iiij d. 

62 History of the Pewierers' Co^npany. 


gxx ^ .... 

Nevell in p' of payment of vj ti. be the handis of vs iiij ti. 

Hall. 3i for a rake & mone in drynke among the gardeners & for sorell 

iiij d. oft. 

3t for pchmyn [parchment] to wryte our peni mone & a bakq [bag] 

to put in the same mone . . . . . . iij d. 

These were the weekly " pennies " subscribed by each of the Brethren 
towards the support of the Hall. 

3t payd for brede & ale whan all the wyfis drank first at the hall xviij d. 
3 1 at )>' same tyme a galon of gode ale ij d. 

The following quaint and wordy order gives a curious insight 
into the methods of work in use among the trade and the position 
and duties of journeymen. 

3n the Tyme of Wyllam Smallwud maistyr of the CrafFete of 
Pewtrers and Water Walsh and Robarte Turno' Wardeynes of )>* same 
Craffte Assemlyd at our hall. The xiij day of desembir the ij yere 
of the Reingne of kyng Harry the vij*^ w^ all the hole fFelesipe of our 
seyde Craffte oute septe [except] Thomas nassh be cause of his Grete 
dysse Ese [disease] that he myghte not com to )>* seyde Asemytl In 
that Asemytt and Courte sso kepte befFore the seyde maister and 
Wardedeynes There it was opnyd and presentyd befFor the sayde 
Maister and Wardeynes And being there present Maist Sexten Maist 
hareson Wyllam Wylby Thomas Alysaunder Rechard Macson Thomas 
Jacson Wyllam Elyse by one Jhon Robarddys sum tyme prentyse w' 
Wyllam Crowde howe that the seyde Jhon Robarddis openyd by his 
Trouthe be fFore All the Craffte that he is A scot born by nature where 
apon the seyde Maister and Wardeynes wyth all the sent [assent] of \f 
fFelesip of our Craffte makyng this Rule fR)r \>^ seyde Jhon Robardys that 
he shall ffto the day Aboue seyde shall okepy in oure Craffte w' eu'y 
householdder In this mare [manner] of wurke To carste To sowde to 
fflote to shave To wype To holde the hoke to rowe or to plane And he 
the seyde Jhon to have flfor his day is labur ffto the fFeste of Myghalmas 
day to the Anunciaco of our lady iij d by the day and ffto the Anunciaco of 
our lady day to myghalmas day fFolowing affter iiij d. a day Also this is the 
Rule Grauntyd by the Maist' & the Wardeynes w^ |>* hole sent of All )>• 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 63 

fFelesip that the seyde Jhon Rabardes is Jurneyman a metyt [admitted] 
and that the seyde Jhon shall not fFor loue nor fFor fFavo' to o [one] man 
more than to anothir of the seyde CrafFete but as sone as he the seyd 
Jhon be warned in whate plase in Y Craffte y he wurkyth w' all 
that is an house holder to yeve him ys ij days warnyng be fFor the day 
that he be Redy to coin to his wurke yif this Rule be not kepte he 
Y make defFauute the maist and the Wardeynes fFor the yere being 
sshall corecte the fFauute yif hit be fFounde in the seyde Jhon Y ^^ ^^ 
not his dute he to be vnder the corexcion of \>^ seyde Maist' & Wardeynes 
Also hit is to vndestande the seyde Jhon Robardes is ssworn to be Trewe 
to Eu'y man in the Craffte th* he wurkyth w' all. And god save all \f 
gode doers of our Craffte. 

1486-7. dtecefis fFor Entres of the fForeyne Brethirne of the Cuntre. 

(j^eceus^ of Richard Sele Chepman in the paresshe of Abchyrche 

fFor his Entres as a fForeyne brother . . . . vj s. viij d. 

The "fForeyne Brethren," that is those living outside the City 
boundaries, paid the same entrance fee as the rest of the brethren of 
the Company, the fee being now reduced to the old amount of 6^. 8rf. 
Following Richard Sele the list includes four other chapmen and one 
brasier, residing in St. Giles in the Fields, Lewes, Suffolk, Canterbury, 
and Ware. 

The list of contributions of penny money for this year is headed 
" This be the parssellis fFolowing by all the gode doers of our Craffte 
Graunting by the weke to the sustetaco of our hall a peny." 

It appears that the colour chosen for the Company's livery cloth this 
year was violet. The usual dinners which followed the Company's 
attendance upon the Sheriffs and the Mayor at Westminster were held 
this year at the house of William Smallwood, one of the senior brethren, 
but at the Company's expense. 

3t payed fFor a paring shouyll [shovel] that Wyllam kyrke boght iij d. 

3t payed to the paressh preiste of Seint denyce is chyrche fFor ofFring 

fFor our hall ffro the Sonday befFore seint Benet is day to \f sum of 

xviij offring days in maist' sexteB is tyme and Thorns Jacson 

& T. nassh iij s. 

64 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

The Company having entered into possession of their Hall had now 
become parishioners of St. Dionis Backchurch, and became contributors 
to the parish assessments. 

31 payed fFor a ssupplygacO to \f meire fFor our fFeyrs [fairs] . xd. 

The expenses this year of the " dyrge of our brethyrne & ssysstyrs 
that is passte oute of this worlde" were for a " kyndyrkkyn of gode ale ij s." 
for " a chese x d." for " bun"ys vj d." and for " a Galon of Wyne fFor our 
sseyde potaco x d." The last item in the payments is 395. 30?. for 
carpenter's work upon a frame for the Company's vine. Walter Walsh, 
the Senior Warden and accountant, concludes his account as follows: — 
^9^Stng vnto you all my Gode and loving Brethyrn as Tuchyng of all 
this Cosste )?' is done fFor helpe and comfort of you and so all apon the 
seyde vyne I yevyde [gave] you all fFrely and God ys Blessing and 
myne. And God ssaue all the gode doers of our CrafFte. 

The expenses of laying out the garden and making a bowling 
alley, amounting to 21s., appear as an appendix to the account, with a 
further note by Walter Walsh, as follows : — ^^^Stng vnto you one of 
yo*^ syplyste [simplest] among yo" of this Cosste )?' I haue done to the 
ono' of God and of yo" all apon the seyde Gardeyne as fFrely I yevyd 
f g^ve] vnto you all And God is blessing and myne And God saue all the 
Comenalte of our CrafFte. 

1487-8. 3ftn receyued of John Here for a fyne for castyng of a 
pece of tyn of James ostwedde not freman .... iiij s. 

3fm of the same John for a fyne . . . . . . iiij d. 

3fttt receyued of William Pecke for rebukyng Rotit Turno*^ thelder 

than beyng Wardyne vj s. viij d. 

3fttt paide to John pares Scrivener for drawyng and writyng of ij Supplicacons 

to the kyng and fny lord Chaunceller . . . xiij s. iiijd. 
3tm paide for botehire whan we went to grenwicch to kyng. . iiij d. 

3fttt spent whan we went to lamehith [Lambeth] to my lord Chaun- 
celler . . . . . . . . . . ij d. ob. 

3fttt paide for makyng of a Supplicacon for the Comon house ij s. vj d. 

3f ttt paide to Thomas Bayne Gierke of the pliament house to spede oure 
billes to be redde . . . . . . . vj s. viij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 65 

3ftn paide to ra Kyngesmyll and Englethorp gentilmen of the temple 
for correctyng our bill and to be of our Counsell . vj s. viij d. 

3fm paide at diuse tymes for botehire to and froo Westra in the pliament 
tyme ijs. 

3fm paide for a garnysshe large vessell newe fascioned Counterfeit for 

Maist Speker of the pliament weiyng Ixxxij tt the tt iiij d. 

Sm* xxvij s. iiij d. 
The above eight entries give (ietails of " Costs )?* tyme of \f 

pliament," which amounted for the Session to lix s. ob. The Company 

were seeking parliamentary powers to suppress hawkers and pedlars, but 

did not succeed until 1504, when they procured the passing of a statute. 

The large gifts to Mr. Speaker, the Clerk of the Parliament, and other 

officials, " to spede oure billes " are not consonant with modern ideas. 

3tm paide for Clothyng ayenst the kyngs comyng to london . iij li. 

King Henry VII visited London on 3rd November, 1487, great 
preparations having been made by the citizens for his reception. 1 he 
Mayor and Aldermen attended him on horseback in scarlet cloaks, 
accompanied by a retinue of servants clad in medley at the City's cost. 
The Livery Companies were also represented by mounted horsemen in 
numbers varying, according to the position of each Company, from one 
to thirty. 

3^w paide in ernest for a Barge to haue receyued the quene from 

grenewicch the said barge aft taken from vs . . . iiij d. 

This was the coronation of the Queen (Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward IV), which took place a few weeks later, on the 25th November. 
The City presented her Majesty on the occasion with 1,000 marks. 

3f ttt paide for a wered latice sett in the galary of the hall . . iij s. 

3fttt for Cuttyng the herbes of the knot in the gardyne. . . ij d. 

The payment in the following year was \d. 

3fttt for the arrestyng of Robt Tumour thelder. . . . xij d. 

3fm ij Spones of the gifte of Wal? Walshe and Ka9yne his WifFe w* 

his nike [mark] & name on ^ ^^^ ^^'^ ^^ Y o^^^r Saynt Kateryne 
giltid weiyng ij vncf & di. 

66 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

This is the first entry concerning makers* " marks ** or " touches " 
which the books of the Company contain. 
3fm of the gifte of the same Walt a Standisshe of peaui a paire of 

golde balauncf and a sort [set] of Countres and a pen knyfFe. 

The set of counters was for the use of the Auditors in the 
examination of the accounts. Walsh was the Warden Accountant of the 
previous year, who expressed his goodwill to the Company in such 
homely terms. He also gave " ij diblis of Irne to set herbes and a peir 
of Sheres to clippe the knotts, together with a fourme of the length of 
ij fote and an half for the ende of the high table." 

3f ttt of the gifte of William Smalwodde a maser w' a brode bande silu and 
ougiltid w* a bose [boss] in the botom w* his Armes weiyng viij 
Mazer bowls were highly valued in former times. They had a deep 

rim of silver or silver gilt, and the boss at the bottom of the bowl was 

frequently a large gold or silver coin. 

The following interesting list of the Crafts in their order of precedence 
is in the Jury Book. The order varied from time to time, as some Crafts 
grew into importance and others decayed, following the fortunes of their 
several industries. This is seen in the small supplementary list, where 
the Fullers, Bakers and Carpenters gain precedence at the expense of the 
Barbers, Saddlers, Sheremen, and others. " Mr. Butler," in whose time 
the latter precedence prevailed, does not appear among the Members of 
the Company in the records, but died perhaps before 145 1, the date of the 
earliest Audit Book. He may perhaps have been an officer of the Com- 
pany or a City official. The Pewterers take precedence as 14th. 

^9^ order for goyng of euy Crafte in the tym of sr henry Colet 
beyng maire of this citi of london in the iij"** yer of our Sou ayn lord 
Kyng henry the vij'*" [The order follows the full lengths of the columns.] 
ffitrt meres lethersellars ffi-uterers 

Grossers hurers hatters 

Draps vpholders pattenmakers 

ffisshmong s Cordwaynners Gray taweyers 

Tayllors Joyners brasiers 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 








Scryvaiis [Scriveners] 








Talougchan d elers 




bochers [Butchers] 










Stacor»s [Stationers] 





















In m butlers tyme 















1488-9. 3fttt paide for sedes to sowe in the gardyne . . j d. 

3fm paide for herbes to set in the gardyne . . . . ij d. 

3fm paide for hopyng [hooping] of our verjuys barell . . iiij d. 

This barrel, tub, or vat, as it was variously called, was in constant 
need of repair, and was employed probably in testing the quality of 
oewter. It was sometimes repaired at the Yeomanry's expense, and may 
lave served for the general use of the Craft. 

3f m delyued to the same pson [parson of Seynt Deynyse] half a garnyssh 

of new fascioned Countfett weiyng xxxviij tt the it iiij d. 

Sm* xij s. viij d. 
The Company having, as we have seen, paid their proper assessment 

to St, Dionis Backchurch, in Fenchurch Street, added a handsome gift 

68 History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 

to the parson, whom no doubt they also entertained at their festive 
gatherings. He was probably Robert Myddylton, LL.D., the new holder 
of the benefice, to which he succeeded this year on the resignation of 
Robert Grettam, B.D. 

1489-90. 3fem paied for Barge hire and other expns in the same 

Barge atte feccyng of my lord p nee [Prince] . . . xv s. 
3tem paied for botehire from london to Grenewich & to london agayn vij d. 
3tm paied for makyng of a Supplicacon to be put to the kyng at 

Grenewiche ......... xiiij d. 

The palace of Greenwich, which was restored by Henry VII, as well 
as that of Richmond, became his favourite residence. 
3fem paied for the Copy of the new begonne ordinance for Tyn & 

metals ......... ij s. viij d. 

3fwt paied for gravy ng of a B and an R. in a spone of the yift of 

Thomas a Bery ........ ij d. 

The Book of Inventories begins this year. The first inventory 
which it contains is here printed in full, as it gives not only a list of the 
Company's possessions but a complete description of the earliest Hall 
with its many apartments and their furniture. The light thus thrown on 
the official and domestic concerns of the Company is interesting and 
cannot be obtained from any other source. The inventory was made to 
serve for several years by adding the acquisitions of each year. 

te^t^ t0 i%t 6oofie of i%t 3nuenfors of i%t goobgt^ fongg^ng 
fo i%t craffe of )>eSferar0 ^xi%\n i^t Ctit of feonbon. 

t[^^x% Inuentary apartenyng to the brethirhode of thassumpcion of 
our blessid lady of the Crafte of pewtrerf of London was made the V'^ 
yere of the Reingne of kyng Herry the vij'** Thomas Alysandyr than 
maisr. Water Walsh and John hyndsson than Wardens of the same 
brethirhode and crafte [1489-90]. 

Firste the corporacon of the same brethirhode and crafte vndir the 
kynges Seal in grene Wax lokyd in a cofyn with blake ledyr. 

It the Comyn Seall of the same brethirhode & Crafte w' the ymage of 
thassumpcon of our blessid lady grauyn therin of syluer. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 69 

It a patent w' a Wryte comaunding all the kynges officers hauyng 
gounance in eny Cite borowgh or towne within this the kynges 
Reame to doo the same patent to be proclamyd as offte and whan 
they or eny of them shalbe ther to Requyred. 

It a patente of the same in White Wex and ij othyr patentys in the 
handis of Robard Burnell of Couyntre & Willm Awbrey of Wellis. 

It certeyne Wrytyng^ vndir the Seall of the pryour and couente of 
Chiksande concernyng the tenement^ in the old Jury of London 
in a box clossid. 

It a Relese of Wittm Wylby and Stephen Tod pewtrers late infefFyd in 
the said tenement w' other deceased of all theyr Ryght tytyll and 
Interesse ther by them made vnto Thomas Alysaundir than maisr 
Thomas Jakson and John Caue than Wardenys of the same crafte & 
brethirhode and to their successors for euer more. 

It an Indentur made by John heynys drap of the same tenement^ of 

certeyn yeres. 
It boxis w' dyuerse euydences concernyng the pourch of the hall and 

tenement^ of the said brethirhode & crafte sete in lyme strete of 

Ii a Casked loked w' the Jure booke and certeyn Wrytyng^ a bag of 

ledir w* old rolment^ wrytyn in psement an White booke of pap 

Ryall and a lytyll blake booke. 

It a box w' xxiiij byllys of pap and iiij obligacons of dyus dettour in the 

It ij stremers a banS and ij bare clothis viij pynyons iij bare chaftes 

verneshid Rede. 
It a blak cofyr w' iij chapeletf of Rede Saten w' the ymage of our lady 

assumpcon of sylu and ij strakys of silu & ij lely pottys. 

It a punchon of Iron W' abrode arowe hede grauyn therin. 
It a plate of lay metall to assis lay metall. 
It a brasse pot Weyng iiij and x 11. 
to serch w' It in brasyn Weghtys a qrt Weghte xiiij li. Weght viij lb weight 

iiijli Weghte ijli Weghte with a bag caneuas [canvas]. It jib 

Weyght di lb & qr*. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Pareis & 


Snialwud & 


this said 
masser was 
putyd to 
other vse. 

The yiftys of such goodmen that be alyue and they that 

be paste ouie of this fVorlde. 

^It the yifte of John Pareis a clothe callyd an hers clothe of gold w' the 
tharmys of the crafte theron browdyred. 

It the said John Pareis and Agnes his Wyfe a Tabyll clothe of dyaper 
conteynyng in lengthe viij yard. 

i* It a Tabyll clothe of dyap departyd in tweyne contenyng ix yard and an 
Ewry clothe of dyaper halfe a shete of Canvas. 

It the yifte of Wittm Smallwud the xx yere of the Reing of kyng 
Edward iiij'** a bare clothe W' the hole armys of the crafte. 

Also Agnes the Wyfe of the seyd Wyllm Smalwud a spone of silu the 
ende therof wrethed with a wrethe gylte weyng an vnc a qf t and halfe. 

Also the seyd Willrh smalwud a masser w' a brode bande of siluer 
ougylte w' a bose of silu ougylte with his armys ennamelid ther on 
I weyng viij unc. 

It a coUett of the yeffte of modyr schalcke V yeres.* 

Smalwud & {^^^ ^^^ ^^7^ Willm smalwud yaue a brache of laton for v taps of wex to 
J sete in ono' of our blessid lady. 

Also the seyd Willm smalwud yaue ij brasyn weghtys callid ij halfe hundir. 

It the yifte of willm Sexten and Agnes his wyfe ij silu sponys with the 
endis* & ougylte weyng. 

It the yifte of margrete vyncente somtyme the wyfe of John vyncente 
pewtrer a siluer spone weyng. 

It the yifte of Elizabeth Sawier sherman and doghter to Willm Sexten 
pewtrer vj dyaper napkynnys. 

T fit the yifte of Water Walsh and Katryn his wyfe ij silu sponys the toon 
grauyn on the ende his marke and gilte the tothyr spone hauyng 
graue on the ende the ymage of seint katryn and gilte weyng ij 
vnc & an halfe. 
Also a standyssh of pewtyr w' a peyre of golddyn balans and a sorte of 
countyrs with a pen knife. 

* This entry is in a later hand. f "^^ mzxV is explained by the last entry on p. 75. 

agnes vx 

sexten & 
VX his 
* sic. 

walsh & 


Walsh & vx., 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 7 ^ 

Also ij dyblis of Iron and a peyre of shers & a fowrem of ij fote in length 
with his marke ther on. 

Also a grete Joyned forser peintyd w' the armys of the crafte and lokyd 
w' ij keys pryc viij s. 

Also payed for the Reperyng of the bolyng aley in his tyme beyng 
wardeyix with maisr Alixandir. 

Also the same tyme a book of pap for to wryte all this Inuentary of the 

JaksoiKSjvx It the yifte of Thomas Jakson pewtrer and katyne his wyfe a tabyll of 

cipyrs [cypress] content in length iij yards and a lytyll bord w* iiij fete. 
downton It the yifte of Thomas dowton pewtrer ij syluer sponys iche of them 

hauyng on the endis a postell [apostle] wroght and ouergilte weyng 

uj vnc; nj qri. 

It the yifte of Johane late the wyfe of the seyd thorns downton a tabyll 
clothe of dyap content vij yards & di. 
\\'ylby. If the yifte of Willm Wylby pewtrer a potell pot square. 

^ lyse. It the yifte Willm Elyse a Tankkard pot of potell. 

astelyn. It the yifte of laurens Ascelyne pewtrer a square quart pot. 
!nrgc iS: vx. l¥ the yifte of Willm large pewtrer and his wyfe a towell of dyap cont 

xvj yard rakyd with a dowbyll v and an 1 wroght with blak sylke. 
It the yifte of John Griffith a keupayne [coverpane] of fyne dyap. 
The wyfe of It the yifte of the wyfe of Thomas overy a sylu spone markyt 

Thomas t t» j u • O r lO 

^^.^,j.j w* a 1 and a b wemg an vnc of sylii. 

Item iij pottes called drynkyng Cruses made of the Serchmetell takyn 
in the craft. 

In the tyme of fVillik Sexten Roht Tumour 
thelder and laurence aslyn. 

^Vill* of willm Smalwode a gilt Cup weiyng xxvj ouncf 

Smalwode. » O i • • • n 

It of his Itra a braspot weiymg xxxvj lb. 

ivxecutc^s. j^,y a peire of Rakk^ and a spit of Iron weiyng xxxij lb. 

Itra poleyn wax in a CaRe weiyng vj li di q*r lasse. 

Itm ij bell Candilstikk^ of laton. 

72 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

laurencc Itm of laurence aslyn a silu spone w' an a tre on the bak & an Image of 
^^b'"' seint laurence giltid weiyg j one? qr. 

Itra a posnett of bras weiyng v lb. 

f- Itra ij platers and ij sausers of peaui weiyng v lb di taken of an hawker. 

-f-Itm in olde ledde Weighty forfeited ij quarternes ij fourteynes xxlb 
w* Rynge and xxij lb of smale weighty Sih cxiiij lb. 

Itra in Brasweightf sealid xiiij lb viij lb iiij lb & ij lb. 

Itra iij false hemes taken from hawkers provid false & forfeitid. 

Itra a peire of Tables to pley vpon of the gift of Thomas Alisaunder. 

Itra an other peire of tables of the gifte of Thomas Jakson. 

Itm a new ladder of xiij staves. 

In the iymt of Thomas yakson nf John Cave and 
fVillm pecok wardens. A^ dnti 1493^ 
ffirst a stone mort and a pestell of the gifte of Thorns Jakson. 
Itra a silu spone weiyng j ounce q*r raked w* J & k of the gift of John Cave. 
Itra an holowe basyn of peaut of the gift of willm pecok. 
Itm iij goblettf of a peaui of flaundres makyng. 
-^ Itm iij saltf ij of iiij d. & j of iij d. 
-|- Itm ij weightf of led weiyng both xv lb. 

In the tyme of Thomas jfacson rrC jfohn hyndson &f 
Robt TwrmT the yon^. A"* dm 1494. 

ffirst the seid John hyndson and Robt Turno' paide for the stuff and 
makyng of the bench of brik vnder the vyne in the south ende of 
the gardyne x s. 

Itra of the gifte of John hyndson and Cicily late his wif a grete Chist 
bounde w* Iren callid a standard. 

Itra of the gifte of the seid Robt turnour a stope pot pond^ vj lb mkid 
w^ his owne marke. 

Itm a potell stope brought ynne at comaundid of the seid m' and wardens 
by Thomas Crosse. 

Itm a pynt pot for wyne. 


History of the Pew t ever s' Company. 73 

In the tyme of fVillm wilbeye rrf laurence aslyn and 

fFillm mabshall wardeyns. 

A Beme and a peire of scalis bought by theym. 

In the tyme of laurence aslyn m^ and fVill'k, marschal and John Thurghgood 

ivardeyns bigynnyng in the xiif^ yere &? endyng in 
the xiiif^ yere ofkyng henry the vif^. 

ffirst the high wyndowe next vnto the bay wyndowe glasid by laurence 

Itra the high wyndowe ou the high deyce glasid by willm smalwode & 
willm sexteyn. 

Itra the middill pane of the bay wyndowe glasid thurgh by Willm Welbey. 

Itra the second wyndowe to the bay wyndowe glasid by Willm marschal. 

Itra half of the third Wyndowe glasid by John Thurghgood. 

Itra the Wyndowe next vnto the Comptynghouse dore glasid by Thomas 

Itra the wyndowe next therto glasid by John Cave. 

Itra half the wyndowe next therto glasid by Thos Jacson and the other 

half therof by Willm Elise. 
Itra the hoole wyndowe next to the gardyne dore glasid by Robt 

Tumour yonger. 
Itm the other half of the iij"* wyndowe toward the northwest glasid by 

John AfFerton. 

Itra the oon half of the second pane and a quart in. the bay wyndowe 
glasid by Agnes Crowde wedowe. 

Itm the lower pte of the same panes glasid by Thomas malpas of 
fFeushm Peautrer. 

Itra the half of a hoole pane in the same bay wyndowe glasid by margret 

sometyme wif of John Vincent. 
The other half of the same pane glasid by willm Pecok. 

Itm the lower pte of the half pane of the same wyndowe toward the high 

deyce glasid by Thomas langtot. 
Itm the ou pte of the same half paine glasid by John Whityng. 

F 2 

74 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

lim in the ^lour. 

the wyndowe ou the hall dore glasid by Thomas ChamBteyn. 

Itm the bay wyndowe toward the ten*ntries glasid by roBt langtot. 

Itm in the end of the same bay wyndowe toward the North glasid by 

Willm lynne. 
Itm the next hoole pane thereto glasid by John magson. 
Itm the pane next therto glasid by Willm peck. 
Itn? the pane next therto glasid by Thomas Owtlawe. 
Itra the hoole pane next therto glasid by Robt Wodwose. 
Itra the whole pane next therto glasid by Ric talo*^ 
ItnJ half next therto glasid by John RoBtson. 
Itra the litill wyndowe in the Corner glasid by John hew. 
Itm in the Comptyng house. 
A wyndowe of iij panes glasid by John Aslyn. 
Itra other iij panes glasid by paule Alisaunder. 
Itra a joyned fourme there of the gifte of John Thurghgood. 

In the halle, 

vj joyned stoles given by Willm Baxster. 

Itra other vj joyned stoles given by John Baxster. 

Itra a fo'me given by John Browne. 

ItenJ a fo'me given by RoBt Elise. 

Itn? a fo'^me given by willm Crowe. 

Itra a fourme given by Willm Richmond. 

Itm a table given by Thomas pecok & Willm Jacson. 

Itra a table given by John South & piers Ciirteis. 

Itn? a table given by Willm Caleis & Willm huchyn. 

Itra halfF a table given by Thomas Vstthweyte. 

Itm half a table paid of the Crafty money. 

Itm pd for half a table a peire of grete trestillf given by John hudson. 

Itra a table cloth of diapre of x yerd^ long & ij yerdf brode of the gifte 
of a peautrers wif nameles god reward hir, 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 75 

In the tyme of fVillik fVelbeye maist Roht Tumour 
the yonger and fVillm Pecok wardeyns. 

ffirst of the Gifte of laurence aslyn and Robert Tumour aforeseid 
joyntly the Comptyng house is celid. 

Itrn willih Sexteyn hath given the Celyng of x yerd^ di in the plour. 

Itiii Willm Welbeye hath given the Celyng of x yerdf in the seid 

Itm Thomas Alisaunder John Cave Willm marschall John hyneford 
Willm Elise and willm Pecok ioyntly haue given the celyng of xxij 
yerde di in the same plour. 

Itra John Whityng John AfFerton John Thurghgood RoBt langtot 
Thomas Chambleyn Thomas Crosse Willm Pecke John magson 
and Thomas Pecok ioyntly haue gevyn the Celyng of the Residue 
of the same plo'. 

Itra Richard Taylour Willm Crowe RoBt Wodhouse piers Curteys willm 
Cales and John hennynghm these vj psones haue given toward^ the 
makyng of the ij long fomes in the seid plour vj s. and the Crafte 
iijs. sm* ixs. 

Itra the seid laurence aslyn hathe paide for the tymbre and werkemanship 
of the wydowe atte the steire heed into the plour and the Crafte pd 
for the yren werke and glasse of the same wyndowe. 

Itm a long spitte of yren of the gifte of Maistres Alisaunder. 

In this yere tynne was very scant & dere for C the C was sold for 
xxxiij s. iiij d. redy money. 

In the tyme of Thomas Alisaunder maister jfohn hyndson 
and Robert langtot wardeyns A^ do^ mt^imo ccccc. 

A Cup of siluer parcettf gilt of the gifte of the seid John hyndson 
weiyng ......... xvj vnc di. 

Itm vj drynkyng pottes w* coueryng^ pyi^^e callid stopes weiyng xij lb. 

T Itm viij saltes of fyne metell w'out couyngf weiyng vj lb made of such 
metallf as ben crossid vpon the heed bifore in this boke. 

76 History of the Pewierers' Company. 

In the tyme of willm Sexteyn maist and John wilson & 
John magson wardeyns A* do^ Triccccc &f iij. 

Rec of the biquest of willm wilbey j maser. 

ItiTi of the biquest of RoBt wodhouse j maser weyyg vj oz ij gownes & 
ij hoode sowld for xxxvij s xd. 

Rec of the biquest of the good veyfe ellys a tovell of dyap conteynyng 
xj erdys di. 

Rec of the byquest of John veylson a seyluer spon veyd v oz. 

Rec of the byquest of John veylson a stondyng Cope psell geylt xix dwt. 
[? oz.] iij grs. 

R a fFrokke of Canvas w'** a hodde of Canvas geuyn by Thorns fFowUe. 

In the tyme qflaurence Aslyn mr willm pecok and Thomas 
outlaive wardeyns A^ xocf [1504—5]. 

Receyued of the gifte of Thomas gode and Alice his wif a maser w* a 
brode band and above w' an ymage of our lady weiying xvj vnce q*. 

Itm in the same yere Rf of ix psones comyng into the Clothyng ix silii 

that is to sey of John Aslyn a spone weiyng an vnce & more. 

Itm of paule Alexander a spone weiyng an vnc & more. 

Itm of Willm Jacson a spone weiyng an vnce and more. 

Itm of John Baxster a spone weiyng an vnc & more. 

Itm of Thomas ofthwayte a spone weiyg an vnc and more. 

Itm of RoBt Elis^ a spone weiyng an vnc and more. 

Itm of Thomas vrswyk a spone weiyng an vnce & more. 

Itm of Nictlas langtot a spone weiyng an vnc & more. 

Itm of John Cook a spone weiyng an vnce and more. 

And it is ordeyned by the seid mr wardeyns and the hooUe Com- 
peigny of the seid crafte that from hensfurth euy psone at his comyng 
in to the seid Clothyng shall bryng in and delyu vnto the maister and 
wardeyns of the seid Crafte for the tyme beyng a siluer spone weiyng as 
aboue. And this acte to endur vnto the tyme that the halle shalbe 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 77 

stored of spones for as many psones as shalbe sett in the seid halle and 
plour and after that to be conuted [converted] to some other vse 
necessarie and bihofFiill. 

Itm Rf of the wif of Willm Sexteyn a salt siluer & pcell gilt weiyng 
xvij vncc di. 

I490~I« ^ita paide at the Popis hedde for brede and wyne for our 
Compeigny at the etyng of the venysion the which maister fFenne 
gave vs as it appereth by a bille therof . . . . x s. xj .d 

Neither Master Fenn nor Thomas a Bery (Account for 1489-90) were 
brethren of the Company. They were probably Cornishmen, and their 
gifts may have had to do with the Ordinance for tin of the previous year. 

3ttn paide for Ale whanne the Cornysshe men were at our halle . iij d. 

149 1-3. ^ita Rs of RoBt Spurreth for a qr? of the last yere that 
is to say a Chist in plegge for xvj d and in money . . xvj d. 

^ita Rs for a bras pot liyng in plegge solde for . . . x d. 

"iita RoBt Turno' thelder beyng wardeyne for a certen variaunce 
bitwixt hi and the m? & the other Warden as is welknowen. he 
to stand in favo' ageyn hath given of his frewill to the Crafte. xl s. 

"iim we bought xv pecf of tynne weiyng xliij*" g' xiiijtt at xxvj s viij d the 
C. And solde the same tynne ageyne for xxix s the C So gayned 
& encreacid therynne v ti xiiij d. 

"iim p"* to the grey freris for Reparacon of our braunch and light 
there by an holle yere. ....... vj s. 

3tt» p"* to the same ffreres for dirige and masse for the soules of our 

brethern and Susters decessid ij s. iiij d. 

3ttn p"* for brede ale and chese at our hall after dirige done . vs. ixd. 

m^ that Willm Smalwod Citesyn and peauterer of london deceased 
the xxvj*^ day of may the vij^** yere of kyng harry the vij*^ and his obite 
shalbe kepid betwixt the ffyst and xij** day of may in the parish chirch 
of Saynt mary wolnor in lumbardstrete of london yerely during vj yeres 
next folowyng after the said ffyst day of may the vij'^ yere aforesaid by 
the maisi wardeynes and craft of peautrers of london vpon payne of 
forfat of an obligacon of xl.s. [Jury Book.] 

78 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

1492-3. 3tm dely8ed to our Compeigny which dyned not at the 

ShirefFs vpon the morn after mighelmas day ... iij s. 

3ttn delyued to them that went not the maires dyix . . . viij s. 

3ttn p** for iiij new markyng Irons for holoweware men . . ij s. 

This mark must have been for the Company's official use, 
but no record of the device is to be found. 

By the death of WiUiam Smallwood, the Hall and other property in 
Lime Street came formally into the possession of the Company. His 
will appears by an endorsement thereon to be enrolled in the Husting 
Court of London, among the Pleas of Land, held on Monday next after 
the Feast of the Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr (nth July), in 
the eighth year of the reign of King Henry VII, 1493. 

3ttw p** for enrollyng the Testeht* of Willm smalwode concnyng our halle 
and tentf therby ffirst p** to maist moor for his Counsell iij s. iiij d. 

3tin p"* to a sgeaunt of the maires for his fee of pclamacion in the hustynge 


"ilixti p** to a Clerke of the maires for entryng of the same at the 
hustyngf xij d. 

3tw spent vpon diuse of our Compeigny labouryng for the same at 
iij tymes . . . . , . . . . ijs. viij d. 

"Sim paide to the Chamtteyne of london for the fyne of the enrolment vijti. 

1493-4. 3ttn p** toward the werkes of the Guyldhall . . x s. 

The total contributions of the Fellowships to the erection of the 
new Guildhall amounted to 313/. 16*. 8rf., of which the Pewterers gave 
in all 2/. The work was finished, and a final audit made in 1504. 

3t«t spent the iiij'** day of Nouembre vpon xij psones assigned by 
the hoole Compeigny to order certen pricf & ordniincf . xiij d. 

This may have been the germ of the Court of Assistants, no trace 
of which appears in the records at this early date. Compare a later entry 
at the end of the year 1534-5, p. 136. 

1495-6, "ilixti p* for a brekefast made to the Churchwardeyns of 
Alhalowen in lumbard strete xiiij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 79 

The Company left the Grey Friars for some reason which does not 
appear, and from about this date held their annual religious gathering at 
the Church of Allhallows, Lombard Street. 

3tm p** for drynke at GoMsmythes halle ij d. 

This is the first notice of the Goldsmiths' Company, with whom in 
somewhat later times the Pewterers had much relationship, not always of 
the most cordial character. 

3ttn p"* to the Chirchwardeys of Alhalowen for our masse . xx d. 

3t«t for dirige and masse of Requiem w'ynne the same chirch first to iij 
preests eche of hem viij d & to an o\f p est iiij d Sm ij s. iiij d. Itm to 
the Clerke and Sexteyn xij d. Itm for spicid brede x d. Itm for 
bonnys vj d. Itm for Ale ij s. j d. Itm for saffron Cloves & macf 
[maces] for the seid spicid brede iiij d. Itm for eggs and butter to 
the same brede iij d. Itm for Chese ix d. 

09(1^ that of the cxv ti viij s viij d oB, remaynyng in the box as appereth 
by the fote of the last Accompte taken out and delyued to John Asserton 
to pay for xv peces of tynne by hym bought the some of Ivij ti. xiiij s. x d. 
and solde the same tynne for Ixj ti xix s. & vij d. so gayned and encreaced 
iiij ti iiij s. ix d. of the which Ixj ti xixs and vij d is brought yn of Redy 
money xxxij ti xvij s. ix d. 

3tm an Indentur of Composicon for o' masse to be kepte w'ynne the pissh 
Chirch of Alhalowen in lumbardstrete. 

The Yeomanry Accounts begin this year. They unfortunately 
consist of only one volume, which extends from 1495 to 1635. This 
is not the first volume, for the opening account records a balance in 
hand received from the previous Wardens, and a contribution from the 
Yeomanry funds was made in 1472-3 by way of loan to the Company 
at large as stated on page 36. When the Yeomanry first began to exist 
as a separate body cannot be determined, but at this time (1495) they 
appear to have consisted of all the members of the Company who were 
not " Brethren," " Liverymen," " Masters," or '' of the Clothing," as the 
senior members of the Craft were variously called. Between this class 
and that of the Apprentices, the Yeomanry (who were also known as 
Freemen or Bachelors) occupied a middle place. They were members 

8o History of the Pewterers' Company. 

of the larger body, and shared nearly all the trade privileges which this 
involved, attended the annual election ceremonies and festival, as 
well as the quarterly assemblies of the Company. They were probably 
also consulted with the rest of the Fellowship by the Master and 
Wardens on occasions of special emergency, when matters affecting 
the interests of the trade were being considered. They included the 
smaller masters and journeymen, and their ranks were constantly 
reinforced by the apprentices who completed the term of their indentures 
and were admitted to the Freedom. On the other hand the senior 
Freemen were from time to time summoned to the ranks of the Livery, 
so that the number of the Yeomanry or Freemen remained pretty 
constant. Like the " Masters *' of the Craft, the Yeomanry formed 
themselves into a religious and social Fellowship, the "Fraternity of 
St. Michael the Archangel." They were governed by three Wardens, 
who were members of the Livery and chosen by that body. 

- The earliest account is for three years, 1495 to 1498, and the sub- 
sequent ones are for two years only, the Wardens being elected for this 
period, and presenting their accounts at the close of their term of office. 
The account printed below, that for 149 8- 15 00, contains more details than 
the earlier one with which the volume opens. It shows the organisation 
of the Fraternity to have been of a very simple character; the annual 
religious festival and social banquet, attendance at the burials of 
brethren, and pensions to the poor, comprise nearly all the ftinctions, 
which did not as yet include trade concerns. The subordination of the 
Yeomanry and their Fellowship to the general governing body of the 
Craft was complete. The Yeomanry employed the Clerk and Beadle 
as their own officers; and all its members also were required to attend 
their " Masters' " mass in addition to the duties which they owed to their 
own Fraternity. It will be seen from the later accounts that the powers 
of the Freemen's organisation grew considerably in the course of years, 
and it is to be regretted that none of its Minute Books have been 
preserved. The three following extracts are from the first Acccount, 
that for 1495-8. 

3tra paide for torches occupied at our maisters masse kepte at the chirch 
of Alhalowen in lumbard strete in the ij last yeres . iij s iiij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 8 1 

3tra p** to a clerke to goo w* vs and to write by the space of iij 

yeres . . . ijs. 

3tni p"^ for suynyg [sewing] the cloth togider for Hre to the same 

and hokes . . . . . . . . . iij s viij d. 

^$10 is thaccompte of John magson Robert Wodhouse and John 
Baxster Wardeyns of the ffraternite of seint mighell tharchaungell of 
Bachelers of the Crafte of Peautrers in the Citie of london dely ued vnto 
theire successours Thomas Crosse John Symson and Thomas Vstthwayte 
Wardeyns newe chosen that is to wite of all somes of money by them 
for the same frnitie aswele Receyued as paid from Cristmas in the 
xiiij'^ yere of the Reigne of kyng henr the vij'^ vnto the xij'** day of 
nouembre in the xvj^ yere of the same kyng. 

fFitsf the seid accomptaunt^ charge theym self^ w^ money by theym 
receyued in the box of the same ff rnite at their entres into their 
office sm . . . . . . . . . vj s ij d. 

3tni Receyued of the good Cave for wax at the buriyng of hir 
husbond xs 

3tra Rf of Roftt langtot for wax at buriyng of his wif sm xiij s viij d. 

3tm Rf of mr laurence Aslyn for wax at buriyg of Nicholas 
Clerk ......... iij s viij d. 

3tm Re of mr welbeye for wax atte buriyg of his wif and |unt . xiiij s. 

3tni Rf for qriagef the first yere xiiij s. 

3 1 for quariagf the second yere ...... xvjs. 

Sm tol Re is iij li xvij s vj d. 

^(Kx^ fis t^e 0eib acc^mef aunte 

ffitsf paid to the waxchaundeler for torches & tapers occupied at the 

buriyng of Brether and Susters here bifore named and for the masse 

of our lady ijs and for makyng of the braunch at ij tymes w* iiij lb 

of newe wax bought & put therto and also for the makyng of viij""* lb 
in torches and tapres occupied at the buriynge of John Cave and 

Edith langtot & maistres wilbeye more than our stok of wax at 

jd the lb Sm xxxiiijs. 

"iim paid for a chest w* ij lokkes and ij keies & for a sqre box iiijs iiijd. 

3tiS p^ for pap8 and Inke ij d. 

82 History of the Pew t ever s' Company. 

3tra p"* for lynyn Cloth for table clothes for the side tables in the 
halle xjsvd. 

3f m for hemyng of the same Clothes ij d. 

3fni for ij do| trenchers lefte in the halle ij d. 

3tni for the buriyng of Willm Wheteman . . . . xij d. 

3tra spent vpon our Compeigny at the buriyng of Nicholas Clerk ou the 
vj d given vs by maisi laurence iiij d. 

3tra p** for wasshyng of lynyn Clothes viij d. 

3tra in expens at makyng of our accopte . . . . xij d. 

sm to! paid is lij s xj d. 
So Rest in the box & brought in xxvj s ix d And all thingf conteyned 
in the Inuentarie afore writen. 

1496-7. The balance in hand received from the accountants of the 
previous year reached the large sum of 124/. 2^. 

This year a benevolence was contributed by the brethren towards 
"bieldyng of the halle." William Sexteyn gave 6/. 135. 4^., the other 
contributions ranged from 20^. to 12^., one member giving j\d. The 
total amount reached 20/. \y. lod. At the same time an agreement 
was made for regular subscriptions payable weekly or quarterly. These 
brought in an additional sum for the year of 13/. 16*. lorf. The 
"Hall" now being built was the Great Hall for feasts and general 
assemblies. The main building was finished in 1485-6, when the wives 
were entertained, and the garden was laid out. The inventory of 1490 
{see pp. 68-76) enumerates the various apartments. 

The payments include the greater part of the expenses for materials 
and workmanship in building the Hall. Great pains were taken to 
procure a good design, the best of materials were provided, and the 
workmen were liberally paid and encouraged by special gifts. A selec- 
tion of those items which appear to be of chief interest follows : — 

ifitBi Spent at Hafedasshers Halle to take a vewe . . ij d. 

3itn at Carpenters Halle for the same ij d. ot. 

3int at pappey for the same . . . . . . . ij d. 

This was a fraternity or brotherhood of St. Charity and St. John 
Evangelist called the Papey in the ward of Aldgate. It was founded 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 83 

in 1430, says Stow, for poor impotent priests and other brethren and 
sisters that should be admitted into the church of St. Augustine Papey 
in London Wall. This '* proper house/' as Stow calls it, ranked well 
among the sumptuous monastic buildings of ancient London, and from 
being specially selected for view by the Pewterers out of such a wealth 
of fine buildings must have possessed a magnificent hall. 

"iita spent at drawyng the note of the indentures bitwene the Carpent' 
& vs ij d. 

^ita spent at Hakeney w' the Carpeni to haue a vewe of the Deans 
roof there ......... xd. 

"iifti p** to Symon Birlyngham Carpeni in ernest of makyng of the Halle 
xl ti & j d. & for papir j d. Sm xl. ti & ij d. 

3ttn for a newe whelebargh [wheelbarrow] . . . . xijd. 

"iim p** for nailis for the hurdeyce at the heed walle . . . iiij d. 

3tm on the first monday of lent p** to vj werkemen & vij labourers vs. xd. 

3tw the second monday of clene lent p"* to iij werkemen & iiij 
labourers. . . . . . . . . . iijs. 

Similar payments follow for Tuesday and the other days of the week, 
also payments for the week beginning on the third Monday in Lent. 
Clean Lent is another term for Lent in allusion to the spiritual cleansing 
sought to be obtained in that season. 

"iita paide at Symon Birlynghms house for Ale . . ij d. 

"iitn given to his mayny [Meinie, i.e., people, workmen] . . iiij d. 

Simon Birlyngham seems to have filled the offices of architect and 
master builder, for which he received 40/. He was sent by the Company, 
no doubt in connection with the work of the new Hall, to Berwick, for 
which he received at his "Ridyng furth," 5/., and a similar sum "at 
his comyng home.'' The method of building is clearly shown in the 
accounts. All wages and materials were purchased by the Company. 
Simon Burlingham was superintending architect, and the beadle checked 
the workmen's time-sheets and purchased the materials under the direction 
of the Wardens, who paid the accounts in ready cash. The details of the 
expenditure are contained chiefly in the accounts of this and the next year. 

84 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

1497-8. The gifts of the brethren of the Company towards 
finishing the Hall amounted this year (the last in which they appear) to 
xiiij ti xj s. vij d. There was " Given also to the halle by these psones 
folowyng :" 

fFiret by a certeyn psone not named. . . . . . xij d. 

3<m by Thomas Howden taylour for the soulis of Thomas langtot & luce 

his wif to be had in remembraunce . . . . iij s. iiij d. 

3tin by John GrifFyn Squier of the kyngs household . vj s. viij d. 

3tw by Thomas malpas of fFeuhm [Feversham] Peautrer C of Shrof 
sold for ......... , xviijs. 

The payments for building the Hall occupy no less than sixteen 
pages of the account, and comprise five hundred and fifteen items. 
These are of much interest as showing on a wide scale the cost of wages 
and building materials at the close of the fifteenth century. A selection 
of the principal items is given in full, preceded by a condensed list of 
prices taken from the numerous details in the accounts of this and 
the previous year. 

Workmen. Daily wages of labourers 4^. or ^d. ; dauber and man 
grf. or iirf, ; tiler and man gr/. ; mason 7^. or 8rf. ; joiner 8rf.; carpenter 
(seven days) 3.9. \d.\ plumber, for casting lead i^. id. per cwt., for casting 
and working lead i*. 8rf. per cwt.; quenching lime (two men) 6rf. per day. 

Mdtertals. Asshelm stone 4d. per foot, pase stone 6rf. per foot; 
Wardens of the Masons, for metage, 8r/. ; pavior, for six loads of stone, 
7^.; water table stone 4j^rf. per foot, carriage of 82 feet larf., mason, for 
laying it, i%d. ; sand ^d. per load ; gravel 46?. per load ; 30 loads of earth 
lorf. ; 20 loads of rubbish and 5 loads of earth ij^rf. ; white sand, 
31 loads 14^. 6rf. ; bricks, 21 thousand 5/.; lime, per cwt., 5.9. 6d. to 6*.; 
white plaster, per bushel, iid. ; grey plaster, per bushel, 6d. and prf. ; old 
plaster, per load, i^. 6rf., carriage ^d. ; new plaster, per ton, with carriage, 
8^. 6d. ; load of billets to bren the plaster 2s. 'jd. ; faggots, per quartren, 
iod.\ tiles, per thousand, 5,v. 40?. to 6^. 6rf. ; roof tiles, per hundred, 5.9.; 
tile pins, 3 pecks 4rf., per bushel 4 J^rf. ; timber, 25 quarters 35. ^d. ; 2 short 
quarters %d.\ timber fillets each irf. ; planks, 4 for 6rf., 3 feet a penny; 
oak planks, 145 feet for 3^. iid.\ "lire'* board, 56 yards for 45. ; hire 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 85 

of 8 scaffold posts 8rf. ; evesboard, per yard irf. ; lattice, per foot 36?.; 
laths, per load 11^., per hundred 56?.; sap lath, per hundred j\d.\ "hert" 
laths, per hundred 5^. ; " spriggs,*' per thousand 6rf. ; new iron, per 
cwt. 125.; "brodds" for the smith, per score \d.\ great "brodds," per 
hundred lorf. ; lead, per cwt. 45.; solder, per lb. j\d.\ tenpenny nails, per 
hundred 8rf. and prf. ; sixpenny nails, per hundred 5^., tinned 8rf. ; five- 
penny nails, per hundred 4^., tinned, yrf. ; fourpenny nails, per hundred 
3^., tinned 6rf. ; threepenny nails, per hundred %d. ; twopenny nails, per 
hundred i}4d.; roof nails, per thousand yd.; tinned hinges, with hooks, 
per lb. i^rf. ; bolts, with forelocks, per \h. i}^d.; 3 new locks, with 
staples, 2 id.; "sodeletts*' for the Hall louvre, per foot id.; the car- 
penter, for 8 puncheons, 2s. ; carpenter, for chymney mantell, 2 tassells, 
and new pece over the well, 155.; a forme in the counting house 2s.; 
three forms in the Hall, ys. ; 6 fathom rope for the well yd. ; carrying the 
mantell of freestone 46?.; allowed to the carpenter for the dormond 
[dormer] in the Hall roof 146?.; to the plomer in ernest id.; to the 
Wardeyne of tilers for serch of tile 2d. 

3<m p** to Symon Birlynghm atte Reisyng of the halle the iiij'** day of 
octobre xti. 

This seems to have been the roofing. 
Jim p^ for xij peire of gloves ....... xviij d. 

These gloves were probably for the workmen, as the entry occurs 
between two payments to labourers. 
3itn spent at hakeney vpon^ diSse of the Crafte w' the Carpentar takyng 

there a vewe & sight of the halle . . . . . iij d. 

3int for a potte of tree [wood] standyng on the lovar [louvre] . xx d. 

3im p** to peynter brikman for xxj m* of Brik . . . . v ti. 

3itn for peyntyng the potte of tree on the lover 
3tm p^ for peyntyng of the Rose on the lover . 
3fm p** for Colours to peynt the halle Roof 
3fm p^ for glasyng of the lover 
3tin a stone of xj fote for the bay wyndowe 
Jim p** to the Smyth for v wite barres tynned for the high wyndowe in the 
hall weiyng xlvj ft the ft j d oB q* [i^rf. the ft.] vj s. vij d. oB, 

XX d. 

viij d. 

xiuj d. 

• • • • 

mj s. 
nij s. J d. OD. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3ftn xvj barres white tynned for the bay wyndowe weiyng C q* xiiij ft di 

[i cwt. I qr. i^yi lbs.] the tb j d oB q* [i^rf.] Sm* xxij s. vj d. oB. q*. 

3fm ij white barres for the wyndowe in the Comptyng House weiyng 

ij s. vij d. oB. 
Sm' iiij s. x d. 

Sm* ij s. 

iij d. oB. q*. 

iij d. 





vij d. 

vij d. 

vij d. 

viij d. 

fynysshyng of 


. ij s. vj d. 

xij d. 

xij d. 

. ij s. xj d. 

ixs. and iiijd. 

V d. 

xviij ft the ft j d oB q* Sm* 
3f m V C dl of Spaynyssh Spikyngs the C x d oB 

3fm iiij C of iiij d nailis tynned at vj d the C . 

^ita a dog of yren for the litle house weiyng iij ft 

3fm a Clamp by the kichyn dore 

3fm a lok to the Countyng house dore 

"iiim a lok to the grete dore 

^itti 2l lok for the bak dore 

3fm a lok for the plour dore 

"iirti a lok for the botry [buttery] dore 

3tm a lok for the pantry dore . 

3fm a lok for the larder-house dore . 

3fm p"* for vnderpynnyng the speres in the Halle 

^im p** the vj'* day of Aprile to Symon Birlynghm at 
the halle ....... 

3<tn a dormond in the pastry house stuff & werkmanship. 

"iixti lost in eschaunge of Romayn money 
3fm pd for colours to peynt the principal posts in the halle 
^itti for an awterstone of vij fote to the Ovens . 
"iita to the pavio' for pavyng of xviij taict;* & iij qrts 
"iitn for V dosen trenchers .... 
"iita for xxxiiij yerds of peyntid clothes in the Comptyng house xj s. iiij d. 
These tapestries would seem to have been more in place in the Hall. 
3tw for a bultyng [i.e. sifting] tubbe ..... xvj d. 

1498-9. The balance in hand at the beginning of this account had 
fallen to 6/. 15.9. prf. through the large outlay upon the Hall, and it did 
not amount to 40/. until ten years later. 

Q^eceeueb for quartags of brether. This is a very late instance of an 
ancient form of the plural of brother. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 87 

3fm p** for the dyner of our brethern not dynyng w' the maire ffftet for a 
ribbe of Brawne xj d. ^im for ij piggs xj d. Jifd for spicf ix d. ob 
& brede viij d. Srii ij s. iiij d. ol5. "Urn to the Chaundeler for salt 
and savce j d. ob. "Htn for floure water and a woman to dresse the 
mete v d. 

"iita p** for xiij fote di of flemysshe glasse ... iij s. iiij d. 

"iita for carvyng of the porch ij s. iiij d. 

Jfm for ix fote of Normandy glasse iij s. ix d. 

^ita for a newe cheyer xij d. 

This is the first mention of a chair, but a form appears in 1487-8 
among other furniture of the Hall. 

1500-1. "iitti Rs of the wardmote quest for the halle . iij s. iiij d. 

Uta of the glou [Glover] pursers . . . . . iij s. iiij d. 

The Company being now possessed of a spacious and sumptuous 
Hall were in a position to recoup themselves to some extent of the great 
cost incurred in its construction, by lending it out for occasional or 
periodical use. Their principal hirers were the Ward of Langbourn, the 
Coopers' Company, the Glovers' Company, and the Minstrels [? Musicians' 
Company], and the Hall was frequently let for weddings to brethren and 
strangers, the usual charge being 5*. A dancing master also soon comes 
on the scene as a tenant. 

3ttn for beef and knokils of veell xx d. 3fm for ij piggs xij d. "iim for 
ij gees xiiij d. 

1501-3. (S^ceeueb of M' John Serle Squyer for his obite to be kepte 
• in the Conuentuall Chirch of Bermondsey yerely vpon the day of 

his Anniusarie by the space of xl yeres next ensuyng after his decesse 

dispendig at euy such obite iij s iiij d . . vj li. xiij s. iiij d. 

He died four years afterwards. See forther particulars on page 98. 
iif^i receyued and brought in in gaynes of ij pecf of tynne bought 

w* Series money and more money therwith . . vij s. viij d. 

The new Hall being now finished, the funds of the Company were 
relieved from a heavy strain, and the practice of purchasing tin with surplus 
money was resumed. 

88 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3tm Rs of good folks of the Crafte of euy garnyssh of vessell leten to 
hire towards the werk of the kychyn of the guyldhalle liij s. iiij d. 

Stow gives the following particulars of this new work at the Guild- 
hall : — " The kitchens and other houses of office adjoining to this 
Guildhall were built of later time, to wit about the year 1501, by pro- 
curement of Sir John Shaa, goldsmith, mayor (who was the first that 
kept his feast there) ; towards the charges of which work the mayor had 
of the fellowships of the city, by their own agreement, certain sums of 
money ; as of the Mercers forty pounds, the Grocers twenty pounds, 
the Drapers thirty pounds, and so of the other fellowships through the 
city, as they were of power." In the final audit of the accounts which 
appears in the City records under the date of 13th November, 1504, 
[Repertory i, fol. 1 76] the contribution of the Pewterers' Company is set 
down as 405. 

"iira for piks iiij s. 

3ttw for fFresshe Codde and salt fisshe xd. 

3tm for Salt samon & fresshe heryng xiiij d. 

3ttn for lampurnes [? lampreys] v d. 

3fm for a sek of smale Colis [coals] ij d. oft. 

3tw p** to the Carpent for the Raile of our standyng next to the 
pagent in Cornehill ayenst the comyng of the princes [princess] 
from Spayne xij s. viij d. 

3tm pavyng after the Railis there taken vp . . . . xviij d. 

This was Katherine of Arragon, daughter of Ferdinand II and Isabella 
of Spain. She arrived at Plymouth on 2nd October, and was married to 
Arthur, eldest son of King Henry VII, on 14th November, 1501. 

^ita p** for a quarte of malevicyn and a quarte of red wyne sent to maister 
Priour of Chicksand ....... v d. 

3ttn spent at the Miter in Chepe vpon our Compeigny . . vij d. 
"iit^ Rs of diuse psones toward a newe bier cloth as it appeth by a 
bill xxvjs. ijd. [Yeomanry Accounts.] 

1503-3. 3ttn Rs of Thomas Pecok for our asshe metell xx s. 

3tttt for fynyng and meltyng of the same metell vij s. • Sm xxvij s. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 89 

"ilifti for blotefisshe [? bloater fish] and Samon . . . iij s. j d. 

3ftn for oistres . . . . . . . . ij d. 

3fm a pynt of wyne to seth the piks [seethe the pikes] . . j d. 

3fm p** at the quenes buriyng for xxxvj yerds of blankkett for vj 
gownes . . . ... . . . . xij s. 

3tttt for makyng of the same gownes ..... iij s. 

3fm for the makyng and wast of vj torches the same tyme . vij s. 

3ttn spent in our halle atte delyuyng of the gownes . . . ij d. ob. 

A similar sum for this purpose appears in the Yeomanry accounts. 
Elizabeth of York, Henry VII's Queen, died in February, 1503, her funeral 
being conducted with great pomp, in which the citizens took part. 

"iixa spent at the Cokk and the Sterre when our Compeigny were 
togider for Rot)t Tumours beme . . . . . iiij d. 

3ttn spent at the popes heed after the buriyng of moder Chalke . ij s. 

At the foot of the account for this year, 1502-3, following the balance 
of "redy money" in the box, is the entry 3fm in batry ware — xvij. ti vijs. 
Sm tot in the box withe the batry is xxxij li. xj s. jd. 

(^feo the seid Accomptauntf charge them w' money Reseyuid 
toward e a here [bier] cloth of dyirse psons whos namys herafter more 
playnly doth appere. 

This is from the Yeomanry accounts. The contributions amounted 
to 27^, 4^/., subscribed by twenty-six persons, in sums varying from \d. 
to 3^. 4^. The payments for making the pall were as follows. 

ffor ge poff cfot9. 

3fm for ij yerde & j qfter of clothe of golld at xvij s. x d. le yerd 

xls. & jd. 

3tm for iij yerds & of blac veluet at xj s. & j d. le yerd . xxxiij s. iij d. 

3fm for iiij myghells at iiij s. le pece [Figures of St. Michael] . xvj s. 

3ttn for strakys at ij s. le pece ....... viij s. 

3tm for xij flouers of golld at xix d. . . . xix s. 

3tm for V yerde & di qfter of blew bokeram at v d. le yerd . ij s. j d 

G 2 

90 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

"ilttti vij oncj & di of silk frenge of dyus colours at xiij d. le onc3 viij s. j d. 
Srh to^ . . . . . . . . . . vj li. ix s* ij d. 

The following interesting ordinances relating to the use of the pall, 
the annual religious meeting, and the accounts of the Yeomanry's 
Fraternity of St. Michael are also from the Yeomanry accounts. 

dr^inancie made the xxix day of november In the xx yere of the 
reyng of kyng henry the vij'** It was ordyned & astablysed by the adwyse 
of the master & wardeyns wyth all the hole body of the felaschip of 
peauterers wyth In the cyte of london that where a clothe called a poll 
clothe ordyned & made In the tyme of peter curteys Nycholas langtoft 
& Wyllm Jaxson then beyng wardeyns of the fraternite of seynt myghell 
the archangell for the brethern & sistern of the same fraternite as well for 
y* poure as the ryche payng ther dwetes to y* seid ffrat'nite. 

Prouided allwey that y* forseid clothe schall remayne with In the 
hall & that Willih kirk bedell or his Successours schall alwey be redy to 
bere forthe the seid clothe & he to haue for his laboure & for warnyng of 
the brethern iiij d. of the party that settyth hym a werk & if he or they 
be not able that then the bedell to be paid by the seid wardens & they to 
be aloued In ther accompt for the same. 

fForthermore it is inacted & agrede by the aforseid master & wardens 
w* the hole company that when & as often as any of the seid brethern 
beyng lawfully warned by the bedell Cum not to y* seid plase alynnted & 
at the oure assigned that then the party so absentyng hym self as ofte as 
he so doythe shall pay with ought fauer iiij d. to the encres & profyt of 
the seid fraternite. 

Moreou it was ordyned & agrede the day & yere afore namid by the 
aforseid master & wardens w' all the hole company that where of a gode 
& avncyent custom a masse for the brethern & sistern of the fraternite of 
seynt myghell the archangell kept In the freers augustyns In london on 
the sonday next after myghellms day shall allwey so be contynued & on 
the morow next enswyng the dyn' to be made if any that yere schall be 
& that with In the space of xiiij days next after the same day the seid 
wardeyns shall be redy & bryng In ther accompte apon payne of euyche 
of them to pay iij s. iiij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 91 

And also it is agrede that euy wardeyns for the tyme beyng shall as 
well bryng In ther bills of quarteregf & of all other reseitp & payment^ & 
of euy pcell of them as of all other thyngf conteynid In the Inventary 
apon payne afore seid. 

1503-4. 3fm p*" for vj quarters colis for the hoole yere . . ij s. iij d. 
3fm spent vpon the prio' of Chiksand at the Rose . vj d. 

3ftn delytied to Willih kirk for beryng of our buriyng cloth to 

thobite of Willm Wilbeye iiij d. 

Jfni for boylyng burnysshyng of ij Cuppes And mendyg of a vice and 

the knoppe xvj d. 

3fin p^ for iij Rolls and the Couyngs of damask w' the werkmanship. 

Um for ij lilly potts of siluer xij s. iiij d. 


1503-4 a most important statute, 19 Henry VII, c. 7, 
.ras passed by Parliament to limit the power of the 
Companies in making ordinances. A similar statute had 
leen made in 1437 (15 Henry VI, c. 6), ordering guilds and 
icorporate companies to have their charters duly recorded 
before justices of the peace, but had been very little regarded. The 
preamble states that these bodies oftentimes made unlawful and unreason- 
able ordinances "for their own profit and common damage to the people," 
and for remedy the Justices are empowered to revoke and repeal such 
ordinances; those attempting afterwards to enforce them being liable 
to a fine of 10/. for each offence. Henry VII's new statute enacted that 
" no masters wardens and fellowships of crafts or misteries or any of them, 
nor any rulers of gilds and ftaternities take upon them to make any acts 
or ordinances, but if the same acts be examined and approved by the 
Chancellor, Treasurer of England, and Chief Justices of either Bench, or 
three of them ; or before the Justices of Assizes in their circuit." The 
preamble alleges that " masters, wardens and people of gilds, fraternities 
and other companies corporate, dwelling in divers parts of the realm, 
oftentimes, by colour of rule and governance to them granted and 
confirmed by charters and letters patent of divers kings, make among 
themselves many unlawfiil and unreasonable ordinances as well in prices 
of wares as other things for their own singular profit and to the common 
hurt and damage of the people." A fijrther clause provided that " none 
of the same bodies corporate take upon them to make any acts or 

94 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

ordinances to restrain any person or persons to sue to the King's Highness 
or to any of his Courts, for due remedy to be had in their causes, nor 
put or execute any penalty or punishment upon any of them for any such 
suit, to be made upon pain of forfeiture of 40/." This enactment 
abolished the rule which had so long existed in this and other Companies 
that no member should sue in the king's courts without leave. 

3f m for money taken out . of the box and spent in the pliament tyme 
as it appereth by bills of the pcells therof . . . x ti xvij s. 

The expenditure in the above entry was incurred by the Company in 
procuring the passing an important statute to suppress hawking and the 
use of false weights. This Act, 19 Henry VII, cap. 6, immediately precedes 
on the statute book the more general one described above, which concerned 
all the companies; its importance justifies its being transcribed at length. 
It was, together with later statutes, reprinted by the Company as recently 
as r74i, and it contains the first compulsory enactment for the affixing of 
the makers' marks or "touches" upon all vessels of pewter made by them. 
The practice was, however, in use, though not compulsory, for many 
years previous to this Act. 

I^um6fg and lamentably shewen and complayn unto your most 
habundaunt g'ce your humble Subject^ the Pewetrers and Brasiers of 
yo' Citees of London and York, and all other placf of this your Realme, 
That Whereas many simple and evil disposed psons of this your Realme 
of Engeland, using the said Crafts, daily go about this your Reame from 
Village [to Village], from Towne [to Towne] and from Howse to Howse, as 
well in Woddes and Forest^ and in other placf to bye Peweter and brasse, 
and that knowyng theves and other pikars, that steale as well Peauter and 
brass belongyng to yo' Highnes and undre yo'' mark and to the Lordf 
spuell and temporell as to other yo' Subject^ of this your Realme [byyng] 
such stolen vessell unto theym in such hyde placf to sell, and it sell for 
litill or nought and abought they bryng it to pryve placf or into Corners 
of Citees or Townes and ther sell much part of hit to straungf, the 
which carys it ov the See by stelth ; also the seid p sons so goyng abowte, 
and dy vs others usyng the seid Craftys, use to make newe Vessell and 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 95 

myxith gode metell and badd togider and make it nought and sell theym 
for gode stuff wher in dede the stuff and metell therof is nought worth 
the fourth parte that it is sold for, to the greate hurte deseit and losses of 
your Subject^ ; Also dy vs psons usyng the seid Craftf have deceivable and 
untrewe Beames and Scales that one of theym wold stand even with xij tti 
weight at one end ayenst a quarter of a tti at the other end, to the synguler 
av°tage of theym self and greate deseite and losse of your seid Subject^ 
byers and sellers with theym ; For reformacion of the ^mysses it wold 
please your Highnes of your most habundaunt g*ce with thadvise of yo" 
Lordf squall and tempall and the Comons in this psent pliament assembled 
by thauctorite of the same to enacte and stablissh that no pson nor 
psons usyng the seid Craftez of Peweterers and Braseers from hensforth 
shall sell or chaunge eny Peweter or brasse newe or old at eny place or 
places within this your Realme, but only in opyn fayres or Markettf or 
in their owne duellyng Houses, but if they be desired by the seid byers 
of such ware, uppon payne of forfeicture to our Soveigne Lord the Kyng 
for evy such defaut xti. 

Also that by the same auctorite it may be enacted and establisshed 
that no pson nor psons, of what condicion or degree so ev he or they be 
of, firom hensforth within the seid Citees of London and Yorke or without, 
either cast or werk eny pewet vessell or brasse at eny place or placys w'yn 
this your Realme, but that it be as gode fyne metall as is the peweter and 
brasse caste & wroughte aft the pfite goodnes of the same withyn the Citie 
of London, and by the Statute of the same owght to be, uppon payne of 
forfeicture of all such Peuter and brasse so cast and wrought of worsse 
peauter or brasse then ought to be wrought in the same Citees, That oon 
half of evy such forfeicture to be to thuse of your Highnes, and that other 
half to the use of the fynders therof. Provided alwey that this forfeicture 
in no wise stretche ne extend to brasse or peauter beyng in the pOssion of 
eny pson other then the werkers of the same, or such as have the same 
to sell and beyng of the Craftf Maisterye. 

Also that it may be [by] the same auctorite be enacted and 
establisshed, that no mai^ of pson ne psons of what degree or condicion 
socv he or they be of from hensforth make no holowe wares of Peauter, 
that is to say Saltes and Ppttf that is made of Peweter called Ley Metell, 

. 96 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

but that it may be af ? the Assise of Peauter Ley Metell wrought within 
the Cite of London ; and that the makers of such wares shall marke the 
same wares with sevall markf of their owne to j^ entent that the 
[markers] of such wares shall avowe the same Wares by theym as is above- 
seid to be wrought, and that all and evy of such wares not sufficiently 
made and wrought and not marked in fourme aboveseid, founden in the 
possession of the same maker or seller to be forfeited, And if the same 
Ware be sold the seid maker to forfeicte the value of the same Waare so 
unlawefuUy wrought and sold, the oon half of the seid Waares or the 
moytie of the value therof to be to the use of your Highnes and the other 
half to be to the use of the fynder or fynders or Serchers therof. 

Also that it may be the same auctorite be enacted and establisshed, 
that if eny pson or psons heraf i usyng bying and sellyng of Peweter or 
brasse that heraf t occupie any deceyvable or fals Beames or weightez of 
the seid Waares, that evy suche pson or psons usyng and occupyng such 
deceyvable and untrewe Beames or weighty to forfeite xxs. the on half to 
the Kyng and the other half to the ptie that therfor shall sewe by accion 
of dette, And that in the seid accion no pteccion nor essoyn shalbe 
allowed : And also the seid ptie, so ofFendyng shall forfeicte his beame to 
hym that shall sease it; and if the seid offender or ofFendours be not 
sufficient to pay the seid some or somes by theym so forfeited, that 
then it shalbe lawefuU to the Mayres Baylifs, and other hede officers 
of such place or plac^ wher eny such offisndours shalbe founde, to put 
theym into the Stokkf and theym so to kepe till the next Market day next 
adjoynyng, and in that market place to put theym in the Pillory all the 
market tyme. 

And furthermore that it be lawefuU by the seid auctorite that the 
Maister and Wardens of the seid crafte of Pewetrers within evy Cite and 
Borowe of this Realme wher such Wardens ar, and wher no such 
Wardens ar the hed or Gouvnour of the same Citee or Borough, to 
appoynt ctene psons most expte in knowlege of the same to make serch 
within the seid Citees and Boroughes wher they duell ; And ov this the 
Justicez of Peas within evy Shire at their gercall Sessions holden at 
Mighelmas shall assigne and appoynt too ctayn psons havyng experiens 
therin to make serche in the ^mysses in evy part of that Shire, aswell 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 97 

within the fraunches as withowte savyng in Citees or Boroughs where 
Serchers be appoynted by the heddf or Gouvnours of the same ; And that 
of all such unlawefull Peweter or Brasse as the seid Sercho's shall fynde, the 
oon halfe to the use of your G*ce and the other half to the seid Serchours ; 
and that in the defaulte of the seid Maister and Wardeyns of the seid 
Occupacions not serchyng in fourme as is aforseid,and wherby that eny such 
unlawefull metell is caste or made or unlawefull weighty used, that then 
it shalbe lawefuU to eny pson or psons havyng sufficient connyng and 
knowelege in the seid occupacions, by oVsight of the Mayrez Baillifs or 
hed offics of the seid Citees and Boroughs, to serche all the seid placf 
and to put the seid auctorite and acte in execucion in fourme aforeseid. 
Provyded allwey that this ^sent acte contynue and endure till the next 
Parliament and no lenger. \The Statutes of the Realm, Vol. II, 1816, 
pp. 65 1-2.] 

1 504-5. 3ttn Red of thenquest of Wardemote for their easement in our 
halle .......... iij s. 

3f m Rs of the Coupers for their easment of the hall . . iij s. 

3fm Rs of ix of our brethern taken into Clothyng the xiiij'** day August 
whose names hereafter folowe of euy of theyme a siluer spone weiyng 
an onz and more 

3fm Rs for the kyngs pte and Oure of men in the Contrey in our ridyng 
aboute the land v ti. & xxij d. 

Under the Company's charter one half the value of all false wares 
seized was paid to the King, the other half being the property of the 
ffitrf taken out of the box for alman [all manner of] fFees gifts and expens 

for the confirmacion of our chartre & for a Ridyng patent vij ti. & x d. 

This charter, granted by King Henry VII on 19th March, in the 
20th year of his reign, is not now in the Company's possession. It 
recites and confirms the charter of 13 Edward IV. A copy is preserved 
at the Public Record Office (Exchequer 2. R. Memoranda, Mich. 
21 Henry VII, Roll 24). 

3fm p** for the kyngs pte of the money Receyued in the Contrey 

xix s. iij d. 

98 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

>5^5"^* quarterage of Brethern & Susters. Sir Robt Aslyn xij d. 

He heads the list until 15 15, when his name disappears. He may 
have been the Company's mass priest, or have joined the Company 
originally as a working member of the trade. In the accounts of 1 530-1, 
he appears as Sub-Dean of St. Paul's. There were several Astlyns on the 
roll of membership. 

3f m for the first yeres mynd of John Serle which must be contynved the 
space of xl yeres w*yn the Conuentuell Chirch of Bermondsey on the 
peyne of vs. euy yere in which it shal happen to be lefte vndone 
to be kepte yerely the xviij day of Nouembre as it appereth in the 
bigynnyng of the Jurie boke . . . . . iij s. iiij d. 

The entry in the Jury Book is as follows : — 

mb that John Serle esquyer decessid the xviij day of Nouembre in 
the xx^ yere of the Reigne of kyng henry the vij* the which John Serle 
gave to the Crafte of peautrers vj ti xiij s iiij d for his obite yerely to be 
kepte w'yn the monasterie of Bermondsey by the space of xl yeres next 
ensuyng after the seid xviij day of Nouembre expendyng at euy such 
obite iij s iiij d to be delyued to thabbot and Couent of the seid monasterie 
by the maister of the seid crafte or by oon of the Wardeyns or the bedill 
of the seid Crafte to bigynne the xviij day of Nouembre in the xxj yer of 
king henr the vij a® dnD rii v C and five. 

3fm receyuid of maister larans ashleyn for vj torchys for Roberd EUys 
Berying weying a C xv lb. Sm vj s. iij d. [Yeomanry accounts.] 

1506-7. 3fm p** to Willm Kirk our bedill for the hooUe yer 

xxxijs. viij d. 

3fm p** to Willm kirke for dressyng of our gardyn and Cuttyng of the 

vyne . . xij d. 

3fm p^ to pests and Clerks for masse and ryngyng of the bells iiij s. iiij d. 

1508-9. (l^dS^b for makyng of our standyng at coronacion of kyng x s. 

This was the Coronation of Henry VHI, which took place at West- 
minster on 24th June, 1509. The funeral of Henry VII in his Chapel 
at Westminster Abbey was on loth May. 

(|}aeeb for vj Tortchess at the kyngs berying for wast of ij" xij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Cofnpany. 99 

^dS^b for beryng & werkmanschep of the sayd torches ijs. viijd. 

uj s. viijd. 
3fm paide to the churche wyndowe glasyng of Seint dyones Bakchurche 

of london xiij s. iiij d. [Yeomanry accounts.] 

1509-10. The accounts for this period are very beautifully written, 
the initial letters being fine examples of the best writing of the day. 

3fm Rs of good men of the Craft toward ij garnesh & di of vessel in 
mettall lujt iiij tt. 

3fm Reseyved in money of good folke of the kraft toward our vessell 

xix s. ij d. 
This large sum must have purchased a very handsome service of 

pewter for the use of the Company in their Hall. In a marginal note is 

"y* facion is geven," an early instance of the curious transformation 

into the letter " y " of the old thorn letter " )>/' i.e. " th." 

3tm for a markyng Iren of the strake of Teyn & lellepott . . xvj d. 

This marking iron must have been for official use, and was probably 
employed to denote good quality, just as the broad arrow (aw/e, p. 47) 
was used for the forfeit mark. The entry is interesting from the light it 
throws on the nature of the " strakes " or " strikes,** which are charges 
in the Company*s coat of arms. From the description here given they 
would appear to be ingots of tin, although the object of piercing them in 
so many places and with such regularity is not at all clear. 

1510-11. ^t%tili^ of the mynstrells for kepyng ther dyner at 
our halle ij s. Also of the " inquest of wardmot,*' iij s. iiij d., and of the 
" Coupers " vj s. viij d. 

3fm Bought A Sertyn of lains Skynes Towed for gloves or pursses wher of 
brought in of cler gayne vj s. viij d. 

This mode of investing the year's balance was a new departure, and 
did not form a precedent. The warden accountant for the year was 
probably a judge of white leather, and took advantage of the state of the 
market for the benefit of the Company. To taw is defined as " to dress 
and prepare in white, as the skins of sheep, lambs, goats, and kids, for 
gloves, and the like, by imbuing them with alum, salt, and other 

lOO History of the Pewierers' Company. 

materials/' The investment may have been made through the Company 
of Glovers or Pursers, who rented Pewterers' Hall. See the accounts 
of 1500-1, p. 87. 

1511-13. Odeft. flirst for a masse kepte at Alhalou on our lady 
day & dirge at after Noon & mas on the mom payed to the pyssh prest 
viij d. To s' Herry vj d. to s" Willm iiij d; to s' Thorns iiij d. to belgraves 
prest iiij d. to warnars prest iiij d. to gollsborowe prest iiij d. to Roger 
lawdall iiij d. to the Clark iiij s. iiij d. Itm to the Sexteyn ij d. for Spice 
bonnes & kaks ij s. vj d. for a kelderkyn of ale ij s. Itm payed to the 
ChandiUar for werkmanschepe & Newe wexe for our branche at Alhallen 
viij s. for makyng Clenne of the branche viij d. Som xx s. x d. Itm payed 
for master Sexteyns obitte kepte at Saint bennet fenke vjs. viij d. Ilm 
payed for Series Obit kepte at Seint Saveours iijs. iiijd. 
3fm payed to m morgayn for makyng of a Suplcacion to my lord the 

maire ..,....,,. xij d. 
3fm payed to the Comon Cryar for berryng [bearing] vp a bill . iiij d. 
Jfm payed at the Dagar in Schepe whan we labort to y* maire ffor 

brekfast . . . . , , . vj d. 

The subject of the Company's Supplication to the Lord Mayor 
cannot be traced, but it was certainly not of great moment, as the 
expenditure amounted to less than 2*. 
1513-13. 008*^ for the confermacion our Corpacion and of the lettfer 

pattent & other copyes . . . . . vti.xviijs.xjd. 

This year the Charter was again confirmed by an Inspeximus of the 
new king, Henry VIII, on 24th January in the fourth year of his reign. 
The original is one of the most beautiful of the charters in the Company's 
possession, and is reproduced in the accompanying illustration. King 
Henry recites and confirms the Charter of 20 Henry VII. 

At the same time the Company procured an Act of Parliament 
(4Henry VIII, c. 7), confirming and extending the Act of 19 Henry VII, 
c. 6. The tenor of the Act is as follows : — 

Co the King our Sovereign Lord and the honorable Lords spiritual 
and temporal and the commons in this present Parliament assembled. 


History of the Pew t ever s' Company. loi 

For as much as a certain act was made and established in the Parliament 
holden at Westminster the 19*** year of the reign of the late most famous 
King Your Father Henry the ^IV^ whom God pardon concerning 
Pewterers and brasiers hawking and walking about the country and also 
concerning the false beams scales and weights "with a provision for castyng 
of fyne metall and of perfect goodness which acte was made to endure to 
the next parliament the tenour whereof hereafter ensueth. " That wher 
many symple and evyll disposed persons &c." \See Statute 19 Hen. VH, 
c. 6, printed on pp. 94-7.] 

Please it therfore your Grace and Wisdomes in so moche as the said 
Acte is thought good and pfitable that it be ordeyned and enacted and 
establisshed by the Lordes spiuall and temporall and the Comons in this 
Psent pliament assembled and by the auctoritie of the same that the said 
Acte may endure for eV. And ov^ that be it enacted by the said auctorite 
that if any untrue or deceyvable metall or workmanshipp of Tynn or 
Peauter be founde either in Platters Chargers, disshes, sawsers Potengers 
trenchers Basyns, flagons botellf pottf salsellers Goblettf spones Cruettf 
or candelstikkf, or any other suche Wares of Tynne or peauter wher so 
ev it be caste made or wrought within this Realme or with oute and 
brought to be sold withyn the same Realme, That than it shalbe lefuU 
to the Maire of the Citee of London and the Maisi' and Wardeyns of 
the Crafte of Peauterers of the said Citie for the tyme beyng and their 
deputies to have serche of the of the same withyn the said Citie of London 
and Subberbys of the same ; and that in all other Cities Borowes and 
Townes wher any Wardeyns be or shalbe, the Maires Baillifes or hede 
Officers and Wardeyns to have like auctorite. And wher noo Wardeyns 
be then the hede Officers or Govnours of the same Cities Borowes and 
Townes to appoynt Cf teyn psones moste expte and Connyng in knoulege 
of the same to make serche withyn the said Cities, Borowes and 
Townes wher they dwell ; And if any suche newe Wares wrought of tynne 
and peauter as is aforesaid be founde defectif and beyng in the possession 
of the Seller, that then the same psone or psones that putteth any suche 
newe Wares of peauter to sale shall forfeit the same Wares, the oon halfe 
to thuse of our Sovaign Lord the King and the other halfe to the 
Serchers or fynders of the same, f vyded alwaie that this Acte con&nyng 

I02 History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 

the forfaiture be not pjudiciall nor hurtftiU to any psone or psones havyng 
g'unte of our Sovayagn Lord the King or of any of his noble pgenitours 
by his tres patentes of such forfeiture but that they and e9y of them shall 
have and enjoye the same according to their former g'untes and liBties. 

3tm payed for mendyng a Syessyng of our weyghts called our standart ij s. 

(pageb to the yeman of the Chambr for sellyng [sealing] . . iiij d. 

3fm for mendyng of the Crucifex of the Jure book . . . xiiij d. 

3? p** for beryyng of kyrke ij s. j d. [Yeomanry accounts.] 

3? p** for makyg of the j dentters of the wexchandelers viij d. [Yeomanry 

1514-15. 3ttn rs of James Holand broker for on of the Tenements in 
the Jure for half a yer endyd at lamas after iiij Nobles by the yer 

xiij s. nij d. 
3fm rs of master botteler for the tother howse in the Jure calid the pykt 

hatche after fyfty Shelyngs by yer for half a yer endid at mydsora 

XXV s. 

The " pykt hatche " is a curious name for a house, and may mean 
a tenement " picked out '' in ornamental bands of colour. 

1515-16. 3tm rs for the hire of iij garnesh of our vessel in the hauU 
of the Couppars ij s. 

3fm payed for makyng of the branche & for iiij It a qf t & di put therto 
of newe wexe for vij judasses ij bought^ of Tembr mad be a juner 
& payntyng of the holy gost in Sylu Colour xvij s. iiij d. [Yeomanry 

1516-17. 3ttn payed for barge hire whan the pressonars whent to 
Westmenster and the Crafts also w' them . . vj s. viij d. 

This was the incident so well known as the Evil May Day, when the 
jealousy which had long been felt by the Londoners and their apprentices 
against foreign workmen broke out into scenes of terrible violence. On 
the I St May, 15 17, one John Lincoln, a broker, induced Dr. Bell, a canon 
of the Spital, to preach against the foreigners at the customary Easter 
sermon on Tuesday, 14th April. The trouble broke out on the May 
Day following, when the apprentices, journeymen and others, who had 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 103 

gone "a Maying,** attacked the foreigners and sacked their houses in 
Blanchappleton, near Fenchurch Street, and elsewhere. The riot assumed 
serious proportions, but was quelled by the Mayor, and 300 of the rioters 
were made prisoners. Lincoln and twelve others were hanged in Cheapside 
and various parts of the City, the fate of the rest being reserved, as the 
King suspected the City authorities of having connived at the outbreak. 
After much negotiation with Cardinal Wolsey, to whom Henry referred 
them, the Mayor and Aldermen, with the Companies clad in their best 
liveries, were ordered to attend the prisoners to Westminster Hall, where 
the King sat in great state to conduct their trial, on the 22nd May. The 
prisoners, men and women, who all appeared with halters round their 
necks, were pardoned by the King on the intercession of Queen Katherine 
and her sister Queens of France and Scotland. 

3fm for Ixxxxj fot of elmyn bord for the stayre and the pyp of the 
draught [drain pipe] ij s. iiij d. 

3fm payed to the glasyar for glaseyng of a wendowe in alhallow church 
conteynyng Ivj fot euy fot iiij d oti and xxd mor in all sora xj s. iiij d. 

This was a gift from the Company in graceftil acknowledgment of 
the bond existing between them and the church in which their religious 
duties were performed. The above payment must be taken with that of 
57^. for stained glass in the accounts for 15 18-19, which seems to refer to 
the same window. The " images ** there mentioned were no doubt those of 
the Assumption and St. Michael, and the arms those of the Company. 

1517-18. 3tm r§ of Thorns norfolke for a fyn for making of holowar 
warse then the Master & wardens w' the hooU com pay ny hathe 
ordenet it to be mad & agayn the good rewells of the crafte xl s. 

3fm for the gayness [gains] of the mony for the ocqupeyng to the Sm x s. 

This entry from the Yeomanry accounts shows that in a modest way 
they invested their small balance, possibly as part of the larger sum so 
dealt with by the Masters. The word " occupying *' signifies " use *' or 
" employment.'* 

1518-19. tL%t rents 1 fanchurche stret. 3fm r§ of John magson for the 
rent of the hows that he dothe dwell in geven to the crafte be in. 
gvattam prest for half a yer rent endit at Midsomer . xx s. 


I04 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

%t%t^0> of Thomas Norfolke for potts of messor ware not beyng lawful! 
messor ......... .xvs. ixd. 

These were probably pewter " measures " for wine or ale, found not 
to be of true capacity. 

3ftn of John Radysh for disse orderyng of hym self agaynst the master 
& wardence vs. 

x€ of men of the crafte toward the byldyng of the mynores . xj s. x d. 

Jftn glasyng of a wendowe at alhallow churche for the glase Images and 
the armes in the same wendowe ..... Ivij s. 

3ftn payed to master Gottame preste of pouls [priest of St Pauls] for 
the hows in fanchurche stret a quit rent for half a yer endyd at 
mydsomer xiij s. iiij d. 

Jfm payed toward the byldyng of the mynnores deliued to the chambrleyn 
oflondon ......... xls. 

There appears to have been a general collection throughout the City 
towards rebuilding the Convent of the Nuns of the Order of St. Clare, 
known as Minoresses, at Aldgate. The Company obtained lo^. lorf. by 
contributions from their members {see above), and made up the sum 
to 4w., which they paid to the Chamberlain at Guildhall. 

1519-20. of the rents in lymstret. 3ftn rs of the howse the medwyf 
dothe dwell for half yer vj s. viij d* 

QJif^ of herry clarke for dissobedyence agaynst the master & wardence xij d. 
Jfm rs of the same herry for revylyng of a broder of the clotheyng 
xvj d. 3tm rs of John care for coinyng to the stall of the sayd herry 
geveyng hym occacion of vngoodly words . . . iij s. iiij d. 

3ftn payed to lawrence bally for paveyng of xxiiij tasse . xj s. viij d. 

This is a term of superficial measure used in paving. 
3f^ Resseued of the gaynes of the bereyng of Rychard schettellworthe 

ij s. [Yeomanry accounts.] 

This 2^. was the excess of the sum left by the deceased or given by 
his friends for the burial over the amount actually spent by the Craft 

in tapers, &c. 

1520-1. 3ttn paid for iij tt & a haulf of tyne & all of peke . xvij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 105 

I can make nothing of this entry. If tin and peak are meant (and 
there is no other possible reading), their connection is most obscure. 

(I^eperacions in lymstret. Payd for a pewpece of a stawU . viij d. 

Jf paid to maister Gren Comyn sargaunt for his Cownsayll in our 

I52I-2. €f^Mi^ agaynce the empour cuinyng, 3t paid to a Carpnter 
for makyng the stondyng w' rayles and pauyng the same grounde 
ayenst the Comyng in of the Emprovre . . . xvij s. 

This was Charles V, Emperor of Germany and King of Spain, who 
was in close alliance with Henry against France, and had also, in 1520, 
paid a short visit to England. He arrived in May, and was accompanied 
by the citizens in great state to Bridewell Palace, which had been prepared 
for his reception. This visit proved a costly one for the City and country, 
as the Emperor persuaded Henry to join him in invading France. 

3t paid to the wachmen that wayched at mydssora . . ij s. viij d, 

3f paid fFor pwynts [points, f.e., bows or ribbons] to the same watch- 
men . ij d. 

3fm payed to the Wardence of the Jemeure [Yeomanry] of them 
borowed be our predisessors psell of twenty pownd lent to the brege 
masters iij ti. vj s. viij d. 

This was a time of famine and pestilence. The 20/. lent in 1520 to 
the Bridge Masters was part of 1,000/. subscribed by the Companies for 
the purchase of wheat to be stored at the Bridge House for relief of the 

3t we aske to be allowed of xxvs layde out appon serten molds 
remayneng in the haul! iFor them that wyll by them that ys to 
say a narro horded dysche molde weyng xxxviij tt di. 3t a narro 
bordid savcer molde weyng xvj tt di. 3t a vailed by the fyllet 
saucer molde weyng xvtt iij 4 Sih iij xtt. 3t iij payre of Clams 
of yron weyng xxxtt xxvs. 

1522. This year the Company prepared and submitted to the 
King's high officers their bye-laws or ordinances in compliance with the Act 

* History of the Tower Bridge and the Bridge House Trust, by C. Welch, 1894, pp. 96-ico. 

H % 

io6 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

of 19 Henry VII, c. 7. The preamble states that through the non-ability 
of the Company to make any new provision for the control of the trade 
or of their members, much unruliness had arisen. This document is 
transcribed from the Jury Book, where it appears without date, but it is 
clear from the City records that it is of the year 1522. A marginal note, 
written apparently by a Clerk of the Company late in the seventeenth 
century is as follows : — "Ordinances made pursuant to y* Statute of 19 
H. 7. No date to y" but as appears by the preamble they were made 
after y* demise of that King." The initial letter is finely illuminated. 

3n THEYRE MoosTE HUMBLE WYSSE. Shewen vnto youre good 
lordshipis the felowshipp of the poore crafte or misterye of pewterers 
within the Citie of london That where their predecessours diuerse tymes 
in the saide crafte or misterie before this tyme by reason of suche good 
ordenaunces and actes as haue bene made vsed and had amongf theym 
selff haue honestly and quietly lyved and kepte the charges of their 
householdes vnto nowe of late that the moste noble kynge oure late 
souuaigne lorde kynge henry the vij'^ by auctoritie of his parliament 
holden at westm in the xix'*" yere of his reigne hath by an acte then made 
for dyuerse resonable causes expressed in the saide acte restraigned all 
bodyes corporate from thexecucyon of suche ordenauncf and actes as 
they haue made amongf them selff for the welthes of their saide bodyes 
corporate and for the good contynuaunce of the same vnto suche tyme 
as the same ordenauncf and actes ben examyned and approved by the 
Chauncelour and Tresourer of Engelonde the chiefe Justice of etheir 
Benches or thre of them or before the Justicf of assises in their circuite 
or progresse in the Shere where suche actes ordenauncf be made vpon 
payne to forfaite x ti for euery tyme that the doo the contrarye, by 
occasion of whiche restraynte dyuerse and many of the saide crafte or 
misterye beinge vnreasonable parsones haue nowe of late fallen in to 
great e disobedience to the greate hurte and inquietenese of the good and 
obediente psones of the same crafte or mysterye. 

And also to the greate slaundere and rebuke of the saide crafte fFor 
remedye and reformacyon whereof youre saide Oratours in theyr moste 
humble wyse besechen youre good lordshipps that it maye please the s^mc 

fTor peautor 
truly niyxte 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 107 

of youre godly and charitable disposicion to take the payne to viewe see 
and consyder suche poore ordenaunces and actes as be vnder written 
whiche your said Oratours thynke and truste veraily well kepte shalbe a 
meane to brynge the saide crafte or mysterye in to their former astate of 
honestie quietnes and good obedience. 

And furthermore that it may pleas youre said good lordships to 
examyne and approve all the saide ordenaunce or actes or as manye of 
them as by youre high discrecyons shalbe thought good for the 
good contynuance of the said poore crafte and mistery. And they and 
all their successours whiche shalbe hereafter vse the said crafte or mystery 
within the saide Citie shall accordinge to theyr dueties pray to almighty 
god for the longe prosperous contynuance of your said good lordsWpps 
in thys lyfe And afterward for the welth of you' soules. 

PFiRSTE BE IT ORDEYNED that noo parsone of the crafte of Pewterers 
and sub of the Cytie of london or lybertyes of the same fromehensforth 
stauncyaii)e shall make or cause to be made eny maner vessell or other stuff 
wrouclit. ^^ pewter redy to be solde but only suche as shalbe truly myxte 
substancyally and workmanly wrought and so by the master and 
wardeyns of the saide crafte for the tyme beynge alowed and adiudged. 
And also that the said vessell and stuff shall be marked with the 
marke of the workman therof to thentente it may be knowen of 
whoos makynge the seide vessell or stuff is vpon payne to for- 
faite and paye for every pounde weight of all suche pewter so made 
redye to be solde as shall fortune to be founde vntrulye myxte or 
wrought or vnmarked oon peny the oon halfe therof allweys to be 
levyed and taken to thuse of the Mayre and Coialtie of the Citie of 
london and the other halfe to thuse of the wardeyns Coialtie of the saide 
crafte or mysterye of pewteres within the same cytie, 

♦ Infamye ^^p WHERE AS before thys tyme hath growen vnto the said crafte 

slaunder by gr^ate infamye and slaunder by occasion of vnlaufuU bargaynes touchynge 
bargaynes chcvysaunce of and for pewter vessell made by soom parsones of the same 
1 owchyngc ^^^^ fg^ ^j^^jf singuler profyte and aduauntage whiche neither regarded 
the honestie of the saide crafte nor it the highe displeasure of allmyghtye 

« Marked «¥oid'' in a Uter hand. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

The forfaite 
for chevi- 

The forfaite 
for enter- 
of any 

The forfaite 
for wares to 
be conveide 
or caried 
tyll they be 

god to the greate hevynes and inwarde sorowe of the good folkes of 
the same crafte. Wherfore be it ordeyned that fromhensforthe 
noo parsone of the saide crafte shall sell any pewter vessell to any 
parsone for chevysaunce wyttyngly vpon payne to forfaite for euery 
hundereth pounde weyght soo solde . vj.s. viij.d. the moytie whereof to 
halfe to thuse of the said wardeyns and Comynaltie of Peauterers. And 
the thother moyte to be to thuse of hym or them that can or woll 
laufuUy prove any suche bargayne made for chevysaunce. 

And where as op a late dayes soom parsones of the saide crafte 
not considerynge theyr duetyes to be had to the same crafte nor the good 
cotinuaunce therof haue for theyr singular aduauntage entertegned 
straungers borne oute of the kyng^ obesaunce and haue suiFered theym to 
See the previties of the myxture of theyr peutre by occasyon wherof greate 
domage hathe growen to the said crafte and more is lyke daily to doo to 
the greate hurte of the poore folkys of the same crafte yf remedy be not 
the sooner provyded. wherfore be it ordeneyed that no straunger beynge 
borne out of the kynge obesaunce shall here after haue any recourse in to 
any suche place belongynge to any parsone of the sayde crafte where as 
the said straunger shall or maye haue knowledge or syght of the saide 
myxture And who so euer of the said crafte that shall hereafter sufFre 
any suche straunger to haue recourse in to any suche place shall for 
euery tyme soo doynge duely proved forfaite xx.s. to bedevided the oon 
halfe therof to be to thuse of Maire and Coialtie the other halfe thereof 
to thuse of the wardeyns and cominaltie of the saide misterye. 

Also be it ordeyned. that no man enfraunchysed in the saide crafte 
shall here after delyuer nor cause to be delyuerid by way of bargayne or 
sale any parcell of ware made of pewter aboue oon hundreth weight to any 
parsone Englisshman or Straunger or elles pakke convey or cary or cause 
to be pakked conveyed or caried any msui suche wares to fayres or 
marketts to be solde before the master and wardeyns of the saide crafte 
for the tyme beinge or oon of them at the leste haue viewed seen and 
serched the saide wares to thentent the same wares shalbe good and 
substancyall in euery poynte soo that the kyngf Subiectys or other 
parsones byinge the said wares shall not be disceyved thereby vpon payne 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


The wares 
to be viewed 
by the 
mavSter and 
wardeyns or 
by oon of 

The pre- 
scntyngc of 

ffor takynge 
of appren- 
tycf straun- 


that euery parsone that dothe the contrarye probably knowen shall forfaite 
at euery tyme for euery hundereth weight iijs iiijd the moytie of of the 
saide forfaiture to be taken and levyed to thuse of the saide Maire and 
Coialtie and other moytie to thuse of the saide wardeyns and Comynaltie 
of peauteres. 

Provided allweye that the master and wardeyns of the saide 
crafte for the tyme beinge or oone of them at the leaste vpon a 
reasonable requeste to them or any of them by any parsone of the same 
crafte to be made shall come vyewe see and serche suche maner of 
wares as the owner entendeth to put sale or to sende or conveye 
to markette or fayres to be solde. And yf the saide wardeyns and 
eny of them refuse that to doo then the owner to vse hys libertie with 
his saide wares thys ordenaunce not withstondynge. 

Also be it ordeyned that noo psone of the saide crafte shall from- 
hensforth take eny to be apprentyce to be bounde vnto hym before suche 
tyme as the said apprentyce be presented to the wardens of the saide crafte 
for the tyme beinge or oon of theyme at the leaste by hym that shalbe his 
maister to thentent it maye be knowen whether the sayde apprentyce be 
free borne or hople of hys lymmes or not or haue eny other impedyment 
whiche sholde be thought to the same wardeyns reasonable that he shulde 
not be bounde. And that the master of that apprentyce shall within vj 
weekes next after the sayd presentemente and takynge of the sayde appren- 
tyce pay vnto the comen box of the saide crafte ij s towardys the reliefe 
and comforte of the coialtie of the saide crafte. And that whosoeuer of 
the saide crafte shall fortune to doo contrarye shall forfeite for euery tyme 
soo doinge iijs. iiij d. to be levyed to thuse of the saide wardeyns ande 
comynaltie of the saide crafte or mysterye. 

Also be it ordeyned that noo psone of the saide crafte receyve or take 
eny to be hys apprentyce excepte he be an Englysshemans soon borne or 
elles borne in wales Irelonde Cales or marches of the same or elles where 
vnder the kynge obesaunce vpon payne to forfaite x ti for euery apprentyce 
receyved or taken to the contrarye the mo)rte of which forfaiture to be 
taken to thuse of the sayde Maier and Comynaltie and the other moyte to 
thuse of the wardeyns and comynaltie of the saide crafte. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

ffor enty- 
cynge of 
or sarunte 
from hys 


^^' saruntf 
that maye 
sarwe wHn 
the same 

ffor takynge 
<S: rccey- 
vynge of 

*[A good 

Also be it ordeyned that noo psone enfraunchised in the saide 
crafte entyce or procure any apprentyce or saruaunte of eny other parsone 
of the said crafte to departe frome the seruyce of hys master afore the 
saide apprentyce or Sar&nte hath fiilly serued his terme of his apprenti- 
shode or saruyce vpon payne that euery parsone soo doynge and duely 
proved shall forfaite and paye xl s. to thuse of the saide wardeyns and 
cominaltye of the saide crafte. 

Also be it ordeyned that yf any parsone of the saide crafte whiche 
hathe sarued hys yeres of apprentyshode with any parsone of the same 
crafte and maye haue a sufFycient seruyce and reasonable wadge within 
the saide Citie of eny of the saide crafte and wyll not sarve but 
goo in to the contrey to seeke werke and sarvyce. And after that 
dothe come agayne in too the saide Citie to thentent to sarue that noo 
parsone of the saide crafte for the tyme beinge shall set hym oon werke 
vnto suche tyme as he have agreed and made a fyne with the master 
and wardeyns and assistauncf of the saide crafte for the tyme beinge for the 
same. And who soeuer that taketh eny suche parsone in to his sarvys 
contrarye to the acte shall forfaite and pay. xl. s. to be taken and levied 
to thuse of the saide wardeyns and coialtye of the saide crafte. 

And where as dyuerse occupacyons in the saide Citie haue amongf 
theym seliF^ dyuers good rules and orden*ncs concernynge the takynge of 
apprentycf to thetente the same apprentyCf shall not soo encrease in 
nowmber but that theyshulde be alwayes set in worke amonge theyr 
occupacyon whan they shall come oute of theyr termes of appretyshode 
and not be compelled for necessytie to seeke for theyr lyvyngf in other 
placys and to vse other occupacyons than they were brought vp in. 
And also where as dyuers psones of the saide crafte Peauterers of theyr 
coveteus myndys not regardyng the goode and honeste contynuaunce of 
the same crafte not regardinge the preferment and honestye lyvingf of the 
poore apprentice comynge out of their apprentyshoddes but rather woU 
doo thoose actes that shall brynge them to extreme povertye or 
elles to vse soome other vyle and laboriouse occupacyons after they 
haue sarved their termes of apprentyshodes haue of late dayes for their 

* In a later hand. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


The nowm- 
ber of ap- 
prLHtyccs to 
he taken. 

The tbrfaite 
lor hyerynge 
slioppys or 
stoiidyns at 
lay res or 



fort'aite for 
of any 
pewter but 
to a frenian 
or a broder 
f)f the same 

syngular profyttf and aduauntage taken in to theyr sarvyce soo many 
apprentice that the nowmber of the said crafte is soo encreased that con 
of theym is not able honestelye to lyve by a nother And soom that haue 
bene apprentice ^^^ spent theyr tymes of apprentyshode at thende of their 
termes haue been compelled for theyr lyvinge to vse other occupacyons 
bothe within the Cytie and without to theyr greatQ losse hurte sorowe and 
hynderaunce And also a Slaunder of the saide crafte. 

ppoR REMEDYE whereof be it ordeyned that noo psone of the same 
crafte beinge of the clothinge of the same crafte shall hereafter haue in 
saruyce as apprentice aboue the nowmber of three at oone tyme. And that 
noo parsone owt of the clothinge hereafter shall haue in hys saruice as 
apprentyce aboue the nowmber of two at oon tyme. And whosoeuer of the 
same crafte that doothe the contrarye to thys ordenaunce shall forfaite for 
euery tyme ofFendinge the same ordenaunce ten poundys the moytie 
of the saide forfaiture to be taken and levyed to thuse of the saide maire 
and coialtie and the other moytie to thuse of the saide wardeyns and 
Comynaltie of the saide crafte. 

Also be it ordeyned that noo parsone of the saide crafte shalbe 
any maner meane ffromhensforth hire oone other of the same crafte 
out of hys house or Shopp within the Citie of london or elles out 
from his stondynge place at fayres or marketts at any place within thys 
realme vpon payne to forfaite euery tyme soo doynge provably founde 
xl s. the moytie whereof to be levied and taken to thuse of the saide 
wardeyns and Comynaltie of peauterers and the other moytye to be 
levyed and taken to thuse of hym that shulde fynde hym grevid or 
take eny hurte by eny meanes of any thynge expressed or mencyoned 
in thys article. 

Also be it ordeyned that no parsone of the sayd crafte shall hereafter 
put or delyuer any maner of pewter to any parsone or parsones to be wrought 
bot oonly to a freman or brother of the same crafte vpon payne to forfaite 
at euy tyme that he soo doothe provably founde iij ti the moytie whereof to 
be levyed and taken to thuse of the saide Maire and Coialtye and the 
other moytie to thuse of the saide wardeyns and Cominaltie of Peauterers. 

* In a later hand. 


History of the Pewterers Company. 

The forfaite 
for oppro- 
brius and 
evyll & vn- 
wordy s. 

* [ffor 
any a one 
another in 
the Com- 

To serche 
fyve tymes 
in the yere. 

* [for oppro 
brius words 
in open 

Also be it ordeyned that noo parsone of the saide crafte shall from- 
hensforth rebuke or revyle in open places or audyens any other parsone of 
the same crafte with any obprobrious evill vncouenient or vngoodly wordis 
or accuse hym openly of any cryme to hys dishonestie or reproche excepte 
the accuser haue good and resonable cause soo to doo and can and will 
substancyaUy prove the same before the master and wardeyns with the 
assistaunces of the sayde crafte for the tyme beynge within xl dayes nexte 
after suche mysbehauor supposed vpon payne to forfaite at euery tyme soo 
ofFendynge xx s. to be taken to thuse of the saide wardeyns and Comyn- 
altie of Peauterres. 

And where as the master and wardeyns of the saide crafte for 
the tyme beinge haue and doo vse comonly to serche bothe weighty 
and wares belongynge to the saide crafte fyve tymes in the yere 
and oftener as vnto them shalbe thought necessarye to thentent the 
saide wares shulde kepe the true fynes and substancyall makynge and 
workmanshipp. And also the saide weighty their true weighty by 
occasion whereof soom light and evyll disposyd parsones of the saide 
crafte makynge vessell of Stuff not truly fyned nor myxte and also 
their vessell slyght and not substaucially wrought and therof by the 
master and wardeyns or soome of theym be founde giltye and also 
vsyng nor kepynge their true weighte ^^^ woU and doo mysorder often 
tymes theym selfF^ towardys the saide master and wardeyns in their wordys 
And also be disobedyent to theym in makynge theyr serches And also soom 
highe mynded and obstinate psones doothe mysvse hym selff in his wordf 
in suche courts as shall frome tyme to tyme be kepte amonge the saide 
crafte for coicacyon there to be had for the good order of the same crafte 
therfore be it ordered that euery parsone of the saide crafte whiche 
hereafter shall fortune to mysorder hym selfe by hys wordys or 
other wyse contrarye to Justyce and reason ayenste the saide master 
and wardeyns for the tyme beynge in makynge the sayde serches 
or in their saide courtf shall forfaite for euery tyme ofFendynge thys 
artycle and therof beynge convicte xiij s. iiij d. to be taken and levied 
to thuse of the sayde wardeyns and Coialtie of peauteres. 

* In a later hand. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


ffor laufulle 
by the 
wardeyns or 
the bedell. 

ffor Sueet 
or vexacyon 
w'in same 

ffor a oothc 
to be taken 
befor the 
or thassist- 

ffor re- . 
fusynge of 
any offyce 
when they 
be elected 

Also be it ordeyned that when so euer and often as any parsone of 
the saide crafte shalbe warned by the wardeyns or bedyll of the same 
crafte to come and appere at any certen houre and place if the parsone 
so warned come not accordynge to suche warnynge but make defaulte 
and noo resonable excuse for suche psone had that then and soo often the 
same parsone at euery tyme soo makynge defauke shall forfaite and paye 
xij d the same to be levied and taken to thuse of the wardeyns and 
Coialtie of the sayde mysterye. 

And also be it ordeyned that noon of the saide crafte shall hereafter 
suee or vex any other of the same crafte in any courte for any parsonall 
accyon or for any other cause where he maye haue hys reasonable remedye 
and redresse in the same accyon or cause by meanes of the master and 
wardeyns with the assistauncf of the saide crafte vpon payne to forfaite for 
euy tyme doynge the contrarye xx s. the moy tie whereof to thuse of the 
mayre and Coialtie and the other moytie to thuse of the sayde wardeyns 
and Comynaltie of the saide crafte. Soo that alwayes remedye and redresse 
be lauftiUye geven to the complaynte by the saide master and wardeyns 
within XV dayes nexte after the sute of the complaynte to theym made or 
elles the complaynte to be at hi* libertye thys ordeniice notwithstondynge. 

Also be it ordeyned that noo man of the saide crafte shall entromitte 
medele or occupye the same crafte within the saide Citie nor libertyes of 
the same vnto suche tyme as he be sworne before the wardeyns and some 
of the thassistaunce of the same crafte and hathe taken the same othe that 
hathe bene vsed and accustomed to be taken in the same crafte vpon 
payne that euery parsone doynge the contrarye shall forfaite xl s. the same 
to be taken and levyed to thuse of the saide wardeyns and Cominaltye 
of the saide crafte, 

FPURTHERMORE be it Ordeyned in case any parsone of the saide 
crafte shall fortune hereafter to be electe and chosen to eny oflyce 
within the saide crafte and after to refuse to excercyse the same 
offyce that then euy suche parsone so refiisynge shall forfaite fyve 
pounde the oon halfe to be levied and taken to thuse of the saide 
Maire and coialtie and the othe^ halfe to thuse of the saide wardeyns 
and Comynaltie of peauterres. 


History of the Pewterers Company. 

I 'For pay- 
ment of 


openynge of 

['ffor the 






ffor redyngc 
of thvs 

ffor gad cr- 
inge of 
for failures 
<S: other 
somes of 
m on eye. 

Also that euery housholder within the saide crafte that is a freman 
or a broder of the same crafte shall pay for hys quariage as hathe bene 
accustomed that is to say* xvj d. euery yere. 

Also that buy parsone of the saide crafte that woU kepe house and 
open his shoppe for hym selfe shall paye for his openynge of his Shoppe 
as hathe bene accustomed tyme oute of mynde that is to saye ^vj s viij d. 
FPURTHERMORE be it ordeyncd that the master and wardeyns of the said 
crafte or mysterye for the tyme beynge shall yerely before the feaste of 
Saynt michell tharkangell make a clere accompte for the tyme that they 
haue bene in their sayde offyces of and for suche thinge as by reason of 
their officf haue and myght haue comen vnto theyr handys vpon payne 
to forfaite for euery tyme that they shall make refusell therof agayne a 
reasonable requeste to theym to be made by their successours named to 
be wardeyns of the same crafte for the yere folowynge xiij s. iiij d. the 
same to be taken to thuse of the same wardeyns and cOialtie of the sayde 

Also be it ordeyned that fromhensforth for euer more the master 
and wardeyns for the tyme beynge of the said crafte shall oone tyme 
euery quarter in the yere at the leaste in the hall belongynge to the saide 
felowship called the peauteres hall redde or doo to be redde all the 
articles aboue saide to and before the mooste parte of the fFelowshipp of 
the saide crafte to thentent that noo parsone of the saide felowshipp shall 
pretende ignoraunce concernynge the saide articles vpon payne that euery 
of the saide master and wardeyns at euery quarter makynge any defaulte 
in thys behalfe shall forfaite to thuse of the wardeyns and Comynaltie of 
Peauteres vj s. viij d. 

Also be it ordeyned that all maner of forfaitures penalities Somes 
of money whiche shall fortune to be forfayted by force and vertue of 
suche ordenncf and articles as above be expressed shalbe levyed and 
gadered by the master and wardeyns of the saide crafte for the tyme 
beynge to the seuerall vses aforesaide. And yf any master wardeyne 

' In a later hand. 
'This amount is altered by a 17th century scribe above the line and in the margin to ij s. 

'This amount is similarly altered to iij s. iiij d. 
^This is written in a later hand. 

History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 



and fynys to 
l)e payd. 

[*To take 
a distress.l 

ffor brynge- 
yn^e in the 
of appren- 

or wardeyns of the saide crafte for the tyme beynge doo not hereafter 
weele and truly execute all and euery the saide ordenauncf aboue written 
accordynge to the tenure and efFecte of the same that then the sayde 
forfaitures penalyties or somes of money shalbe levied and taken vpon 
euery of the saide master and wardeyns for the tyme beinge to thuses a 
bove saide. 

Also for the parformaunck of all and singuler the ordenauncf 
before rehersed Be it ordeyned that euery parsone occupyenge 
the saide crafte of peauterers within the Citie of london or fraunchises 
of the same that ofFendith in any article of thordenauncf aforesaide 
of hys fi'owarde disposicyon or otherwyse refuse to pay his quarterage 
or eny other fyne forfaiture amercyament or penalitie afore saide or 
disobeye any article or ordenaunce herein expressed. That then it 
shalbe lieftiU to the Master and wardeyns of the same crafte for the 
tyme beinge at euery tyme that they shall fynde theym selff grevyd in 
any of the premyssys to enter in to the house of euy suche parsohe or 
parsones that ofFendyth as is above saide. And ther for the forfaiture in 
not parformynge any of the saide articles to take a distresse and the same 
dystresse soo taken liefijUy to here and cary a way and the same to 
deteigne and kepe vnto suche tyme as the parsone offendynge any of the 
saide articles hath payed hys forfaiture concernyng the same article. 

Also be it ordeyned that euy parsone of the saide mysterye havyng 
any apprentyce shall within oone monethe nexte after that he hath taken 
any suche apprentyce bringe in the oone parte of thendenture wherby the 
said apprentyce is bound e in to the hall of the saide company e to thentent 
the Master and wardeyns and the assistauncf of the same companye for 
the tyme being maye knowe howe and what tyme the saide apprentyce 
shulde c5me out of hys terme of yeres soo that a maye appere that noo 
man take any moo apprentycf then hys nowmber and he that doothe 
the contrary shall forfaite and paye xx s. for a fyne for euery tyme soo 
doynge to be devydid as is a fore saide that is to saye the oone halfe 
therof to be to thuse of the saide Maire and Comynaltie and the other 
halfe to be to thuse of the saide wardeyns and Comynaltye of the sayde 

* In a later hand. 

ii6 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

A feature of much interest in the above Ordinances is the increased 
stringency of the regulations for apprenticeship. Apprentices were to be 
presented to the Wardens before being bound, and none were to be 
accepted who were not of sufficient strength for work. They must be of 
English parentage. As the number of apprentices had unduly increased 
and not sufficient work could be found for them when they came out of 
their time, each liveryman was restricted to three and each freeman to 
two apprentices. 

1523-4. T3J9et of lat the Craft hath benne sore chargyd by the 
reason of lone oF the moneye for the kyngs Grace wher for the Master 
and Wardynce for that tym beyng was compellyd to laye the plat 
that wase in this howse to plege to make moneye and so deliued it 
to duse psons as appereth be dyuce bylls endentyd ther of amonge al 
other ther was layd out ij doseyn & vij spunes wherof ther was bylls in 
endenttyd in lyke wys the ptis that hade them to plege hath brought them 
to vs & deliued them clerly w' out any money payeyng for them & the 
bylls endenttyd brokyn thay lyst not be a knowen nor schall not be 
fFor vs but god reward them. 

The French invasion proved a costly matter, and the City was 
required to furnish the King with 100,000/. The Companies were called 
upon to surrender their plate, of which a valuation was made by Wolsey's 
order. It does not appear that the plate was actually taken to the Royal 
Mint at the Tower " there to be coyned " as was at first ordered, and the 
payment by the City was eventually reduced to 20,000/. Other loans 
were soon exacted by Wolsey until the citizens took courage to 
reftise the extortionate demands, and the King was compelled to call 
a Parliament. 

3ftn, to the wex chandyller for werkmachepe of vij tt j qrt and vj tt & di 
of newe wex put ther to at viij d the tt iiij s iiij d the workmanschep 
of the old vij tt & qrt vij d. 3ftn mor for ij half tt tapers to stond 

on the awter viij d vs. vij d. 

3ttn payed for paveyng in fanchurche stret at the howsyng geven by 
m gottam for iij lood of ston to pave w' the carage and all iiij s, 
3ftn a lod of gravell iiij d. 3tm for the paveyng of ix tasse & a 
half vs, iij d ixs.vijd. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 1 1 7 

3fm payed for ij skynnes of vellome for our Rolments to be wryttyn 
in ••........ . xvj d. 

3fm Reseyued of the be guest of willm Bennet for the fraternyte of the 
said batchelers deliued by the handf of his excecuturs ij spounes of 
Sylu on whos Soull god haue merci amen. [Yeomanry accounts.] 

William Bennett, described in the accounts for 1547-9 as " Wyllyam 
hulson alies bennytt," was a pewterer on Tower Hill. 

3ftn payed for fetcheyng of a bill out of the Sprituall court for our wex 
to m' longe viij d. [Yeomanry accounts.] 

^0 the Reseytf excedithe the payement^ of this Accompt whiche 
remayneth to our Successors John Scherwyn John Euad & cleiiiet 
kelyngworthe in money & plegs xvij li. iij s. vij d. wher of ther remayneth 
in the hande of the sayd clemet xs. the masters handf that was lent to 
the masters of the bregehows iij li. vj s. viij d. also that the masters had 
for the lone on steyn plegf as aperethe by a byll therof ix li. vj s. viij d. & 
in moneye iiij li. & iij d. [Yeomanry accounts.] 

f§t it Rememberd that ther remaynethe to our Successors iij torches 
weyng Ij lb. & j qh^ and iij lb. of weke and also in poUyn wex Ixxiiij lb. 
[Yeomanry accounts.] 

1524-5. QJenfs at tour hill. 3ttn r§ of the marynar for a hoU yers 
rent endyd at mydsom xs. 3ftn rs of the hows wylsons wyf dwelt in 
for iij qrt vij s. vj d. on qrt voyde, Jim rs of the hows the osteler 
dweh in xs, 3tfn rs of the hows that okys of the stewe keye dwelt in 
xviijs, 3ttn rs of brown the laborer for a yers rent xs. 3ftn r^ of 
Sampson for the garthyng [garden] rent for iij qrts v s. on qrt voyd 3ttn 
r s of the hacnayeman for a hoU yers rent v s. 3ttn r s of a wedowe for 
the hows next for a yers rent vs. 3ttn rs for the hows mather forest 
dwellyth in viij s. 3ftn for the hows that mad mawd dwellyth v s. 3ftn 
rs of father steven for holl yers rent xiiij s. viij d, iiij ti xviij s. ij d. 

The Company's Tower Hill tenants would seem from the above list 
to have been more numerous than profitable. Mad Mawd, the 
Hackneyman, and the widow paid much less than the rest of the tenants. 
They probably occupied smaller tenements. 

1 1 8 History of the Pewter ers' Company. 

1525-6. 3fm Deliued to the wax chandyller in old wex w^ iiij Imagf 
iiij angells and the pynnys or styks weyng all xxjtt. Jfm rs in newe wax 
V tapers iiij Imagf iiij angells w' the bolls and Symon xxv tt & di and 
mor ij tapers of ij tt Som of newe wex xxvij tt & di for the werkman of 
xxj tt euy tt j d. xxj d. and for vj tt & di of new out ryght e8y tt viij d. 
Sm iiij s. iiij d. for payntyng iij d vj s. iiij d. 

This was for the festival decoration of the Company's private altar 
at Allhallows, which must have made a brave show. It is not clear what 
" the four angels with the bowls and Symon " were. 

1526-7. ffifnnes. 3fm rs for a fyne for Salts vn markte xij d. 

3fm rs of wiUm aprise for a fyn for deliuyng vessell vn markyt w' his 
towch acordyng to the ordynance ..... vs. 

3ftn payed for a gardynar iij dayes viij d a day, . . . ij s. 

Jfm payed to a Carpenter for iij dayes di viij d. a day . . ij s. iiij d. 

The four following entries are from the Yeomanry accounts. 

Jtm payd for ij allmes torchys weyng xxxvj lb. Sm . . ix s. viij d. 

3ftn payd for makyng of the branche weyng xxxiij lb. di at a j d. a lb. 
warkema schyp . . . . . . ij s. ix d. oB. 

(J|lb put ther to in powUyn waxe xix lb. 

3fm payd for iiij treys to the same lyght xij d. 

1527-8. 3tm Reseyved of Ser Robrt Astlyn Subden of PouUs for to 
by howsyng to kep an obit for hym of xx s. by the yer . xl ti. 

3tfn R^ of the yong mens box of the Crafte toward the lonne for the 
brege hows to by Corne • . . . . vj ti. xiij s. iiij d. 

3ttn Reseyved of gaynce of Tynn bought withe the money reseyved of 
Ser Robrt astlyn Subdene of PouUs as is a for Sud [aforesaid] to 
the profFet of the crafte xxv s. 

3tm payed to the maires Sergeant for ij dayes to Serche a mong 
the habbardasshers iijs. iiijd. 3ftn for met & drynke for 
thos ij dayes for the Sergeant and the company that went w' 
hym iijs. iiijd yjs. viijd. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 1 1 9 

The Sergeant was an officer of the Lord Mayor who went with the 
Company during their Searches and had the power of arresting offenders.. 
He was retained by a yearly fee, and gave his attendance also at the 
Court meetings. 

Jf m for the carage of the Saltsellers that was take a monge the haberdashers 
to the yeld hall ij d. 

fhjt^f for makyng of the branche of wex co teynyng vij grete tapers 
w' lity pott^ and branchies with bowU^ of wex that is to say of the 
olde stocke of wex xxxij ti di and in newe wex xxxj di sm Ixiiij ti 
at peny the pownd wormanshipp Sm v s. iiij d. the newe wex v d. 
the pound sm xiij s. j d. oB. . . . . . xviij s. v d. oB. 

This and the four following entries are from the Yeomanry accounts. 

Jf payd for iiij deell^ that the tables wer made of and carage of them to 
thall [the hall] , xiij s. iij d. 

Jf payd to ij workemen that wrought and made the sayd tables for ix 
days worke xij s. 

Jf for ledgies glewe wex hespys and naylys for the said tables . ij s. iiij d. 
Jf for payntyng of the said tables vj s. viij d. 

1528-9. ^MW^tt [necessaries], Jfm payed for the boke of acts of 
parlment iiij d. Jf m for Skyn of pchement iiij d. Jf m for ynke & pap 
jd. oB. Jfm for the carage of the Salts fro the yeld haul! ijd. 

xj d. oB. 
(8t^ that ther is left in the hands of me lord of battells bally of forfy t 

mettall takyn at whye [Wye] fayre be the warden and Seche as rod w' hym 
C di & xiiij ft Jfm left in the hands of Port Ryves at maydston also of 
forfet mettall C j qr? v ft Jf m left in the hands of John Champneye of 
fevsame of forfett mettall C j qr?. . . . . iiij C xixlb. 

On the last folio of the first Audit book is the following curious 
note by the stationer: "Anno Domini 1530 Johan Gowgh stationer 
bond thys bok-thys tyme was moch to do for the word of god yet 
shal it euer endewer-cOtented ij s. And that yere dyed the sumptuous 
hye cardynal thomas wolse in leyceter the x day of Nouembre a gret 
psecui* CelU et terram [jicj trasibunt verba mea autem manebit verbu 

1 20 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Domini manet In etemu/' The Latin words are an ungrammatical 
jumble intended as a quotation of Matthew, xxiv, 35, followed by the 
Stationers' Company's Motto. 

1530-1. Among the pledges held this year by the Company for 
debts owing by members are the following: 

Jfm xij molds of PouU alysanders that lyethe for . . v li. iij s. iiij d. 

Jfm rest in Thorns Curtf hands for the sporyar [spurrier] . xx s. 

It may be well to transcribe the whole statement of the Company's 
receipts for rent during this year, as they give an interesting view of 
the rents paid at this period by different classes of tenants in the City 
of London. 

Q^enf in the Pultrye. ffirst Reseyued of John Wendyn Grosser [grocer] 
for a hoU yers Rent* of the hows he dothe dwell in endid at mid- 
somer v ft. Reseyued of John hardyng in the same Rents for a hoU 
yer at mydsomer xxvj s. & viij d. Rs of John bake' in the same 
Rents for a yer at mydsora xxvj s. viij d. . Sm vij ft. xiij s. iiij d. 

Jn Saint Denis [Dionis] P'ish. Jfm Reseyued of xvH. magson for a hoU 
yers Rent endid at mydsom xls. Jfm Rs of harmstrong for a 
hooU yer at mydsom xxx s iij ft. x s. 

%i^XMAtti. Jfm Rs of Ros wedow for a hoU yer at mydsomer xiij s. iiij d. 
Jf m Rs of howdyn wedow for a hoU yer xiij s. iiij d. Jfm Rs of fox 
Skynnar [skinner] for a hoU yer at mydsom xiij s. iiij d. Jfm Rs of 
the carl [carter] for a hooU yer endyd at mydsom xiij s. iiij d. Jfm 
of Watson the cordwynnare [cordwainer] for a hooU yer endyd at 
mydsora xiij s. iiij d. . . . . . iij ft. vj s. viij d. 

Q^enfe at crepilgat. Jfem Reseyued of Henry Capper for Rent of his 
Howse for a hooU yer endyd at mydsora viij s. Jfm Reseyued of John 
Huntlaye for a hoU yer endyng at mydsora viij s. Jf m Resey ved of 
John Hert for a holl yer at mydsora viij s. Jfm Reseyued of John 
Hunt for a holl yer at mydsora viijs. Jfm Reseyued of Robrt 
pemtirton for a holl yer at mydsora viij s. Jf m Rs of Willia stevence 
for a yer at mydsora vj s. viij d. . . . . xlvj s. viij d. 

Jf m Reseyued of Willm Jacket for a yer at mydsora x s. Jfm Reseud 
of esabeth honylowe for a holl yer at mydsora vj s. viij d. Jfm Rs? 

History of the Pewterers' Company, 1 2 1 

Willm Sampson for a yer at mydsora vj s. viij d. Jfm Rs of elysabeth 
bottell sone for a hoU yer vj s. viij d. Jfm Rs elyn hatfeld payed be 
pelborowe for a yer vj s. viij d. Jfm Reseyud of willm haynnes for 
ij howsses xxvj s. viij d. . . ... • iij t. iij s. iiij d. 

Sm of all the howlle Rents ys xx li. 

05$/ of Thorns curts in pt of xx s. for the sporyar . . . vs. 

Jfm Brought in this yer in money e of gay nee of Teyn bought and Sold 
agayne wt moneye of the crafte to the a vantage of the Som of xl s. 

In the list of payments of quarterage the Yeomanry are described 
as " yong men," 

^XfA payed for Barge hire whan the mayre went to westmenster to take 
his othe xij s. iiij d. Jfm payed to the barge men to drynk viij d. 
Jf m payed for the company that dynt at our haull xx s. Jfm payed 
for iiij quarters of colls ij s. 3f m for half a C of fagot xx d. 

xxxvj s. viij d. 

3fm payed at allhallow for mase on our lady day and dirge at ny3ght and 
mase on the morn to the pish prest viij d. Jtm to ij prests xij d. 
to the sexsteyn iiijd. to the clarke iijs. iiijd. Jfm to churche 
wardens for the ornamets xxd. Jfm for a kynderkyn of ale for 
dirge ij s. Jfm for a chese xiij d. oB. 3f m for Spice bred iij s. vj d. 

xiij s. vij d. oB. 

3fm payed to the ^or and covnt of Cheksand a rent out of the howsyng 
in the pultre p by the hands of Doctur freman for a holl yer endyng 
at mydsomer iij ti. 

Subden of •^^^ payed to sr RoBet Astlyn Subden of pouUs for an obit to be kept 

poulls for for m gottam for a holl yer endyng at mydsora . xxvj s. viij d. 

gottam j^^ payed to ra astlyn Subden a quitrent for a holl yer endyng at 

Subden for mydsom for an obit to be kept for hym . . . . xx s. 

hym Sclfc jf m payed to the Abote and covent of barmsay for an obit for Serell kept 

the xviij of nouemBr . . . . . . . iij s. iiij d. 

Jfm for cutyng of the vyn in the gartheyng vj d. and for drysyng of the 
herBe iiij d. and for Rods & poulls iij d. 3fm payed for drysing of 
the gartheyng x d xxiij d, 

X 2 

1 2 2 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Jfm payed be Thorns curte to m walshyngham for goyng w' vs to claron 
Sewe [Clarencieux] a crown of v s. Jf m payed to masters garters 
suand [servant] for goyng w* vs to on Alysander a paj^^ter w' his 
masters boke of armes to mend our banner xij d. Jf m payed to the 
sayd alysander for payntyng and makyng the Right armes vj s. viij d. 
Jfm to Richemond harot of armes to haue consell xij d. for drynk 
when we went about that bessynes atj d. . . . xiiij s. iij d. 

Jfm payed to Docraye the smythe for a keye for the colhowse dore iij d. 
Jfm for mendyng of a loke of the seller dor ij d. Jfm for a henge 
for the dore goyng in to the well weyng x tt xv d. Jf m for a henge 
and ij hoks for the wendow w' out crepilgat weyng v tt vij d. ob. Jf m 
for a garnet for the seller dore at hall iiij d. Jf m for ij happis and 
ij gogyns and wynche for the well weyng iiij tt di ix d. Jf m for a 
loke for the weket .of the great gat at the hauU ij d. Jfm for a nold 
henge for the wyndow at crepillgat ij d. Jf m for a hasp & a stapyll 

for a wyndowe j d. Jf m payed for a new boket for the well ij s. iiij d. 

vij s. xj d. oB. 

3fm payed for iiij bowmen for the maire at mydsom ij s. viij d. Jfm for 

poynts ij d. for a chefFe of arowyse [sheaf of arrows] xij d. iij s. xd. 

Jfm for hoppyng of a great tob of the hauU iiij d. Jfm for makyng clen 
of the harnese [armour] viij d. Jfm for washyng of the cotts [coats] 
iiij d. 3f m for mend of the bage to ber in the weyghts viij d. ij s. 

Ot^ that on Rotirt SkoUs deptyt out of citi w* wyf & goods at 
mydsom the yer of our lord god m'vxxxj w'out any lycence of 
the master and wardence of the crafte of pewterers or of the hoU 
company of the same. 

This is one of three memoranda, out of date, inserted on a blank 
page at the end of the accounts for 1496-7. 

1531-2. Jfm brought in the yer for the gayns of Teyn that was bought 
& sold agayn w' the crafts moneye the . . Sm xxxvj s. ij d. 

Charcrf Jfm payed to a gardenar for viij dayes and a half vj d. a daye iiij s. iij d. 

Jf m payed to the beditt for met & drynke for the gardnar ij s. ix d. 
Jfm payed to the same gardnar for a day & half viij d. a day xij d. 
3fm payed to a nother gardnare for ij days & half xix d. 3f m payed 

ill thf 
garth eyng 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 1^3 

a gardenar for settyng of herbes and sowynge seds x d. Jfm payed 
for herbis to set & seds to sowe ij s. oB. 3fm payed for poulls for 
the herbes & Roods to bynd w* ij s. ij d, . . xiiij s. vij d. oB. 

To a ^^^ payed for xxij fott of TemBr for the Raytts & posts vnder the Raytts 

( arjx nf frjr euy fott the pris ij d. iij s. viii d. 3fm sawyng of the same tembr 

gartiiu) ng a pece j d. oB. xiij d. oB. 3fm for v C of planch borde euy C ij s. x d. 

xiiij s. ij d. Jfm for half a C of quart bord the price therof xviij d. 
Jf m for ij carpenters for a day at viij d. a day a man xvj d. Jf m for ij 
carpenters for iij dayes werk and half iiijs, viijd. Jfm for a carpent for 
. on day viij d. 3f m for a carpen t ij dayes and a nother a day ij d. 
3tm for mendyng of the fot of the seller stayre iiij d. Jf m for v C of 
vj penne naytts & v penne naylls ij s. Jf m payed for drynke j d. 

Som of all chargs of the gartheyng xlix s. j d. oB. 

Repacions 3f tn payed for a half a C of planche bord & di C of qrt borde ij s. viijd. 

at rrcpiigate jfm payed for cc & XX fott of borde vj s. vj d. Jfm payed for iiij 

qrte ij d. a pece viij d. 3fm payed for ij jests xvj d. Jfm payed for 
vj C of vj pene naylls v d nayll & iiij pene naylls ij s. ij d. 3f m 
payed to carpenter for v dayes viij d. a day iij s. iiij d, Jfm payed 
for a lood of tell [tile] v s. iiij d. Jfm payed for v lood of lym x d. a 
lod iiij s. ij d. Jfm payed for ij lood of Sande xij d. Jfm payed for 
a C of lath viij d. & m" of Rof naylls iiij d. xij d. Jfm payed for tell 
pence [tile pins] iij d. & ij lod of lome viij d. xj d. Jfm for a C of 
lathe vij d. & for a m" & di of spryg ix d. xvj d. Jf m for a dawbber 
& his laborer for iiij dayes iiij s. iiij d. Jfm payed to a laborer to 
cary out Robysh for a daye v d. 3fm payed to a carter for carying 
a waye iiij load Robysh viij d. Jfm payed to a tellar & his laborer 
for ix dayes ix s. ix d. 3tm payed to a plomer for xix tt of Sawder 
viij s. ij d. Jfm payed for drynke and fyre for the plomer vij d. 
3f m payed for beryng of tell from the haull to crepilgat iij d. Jf m 
payed for a keye for a looke iij d. 

Sma liiij s. x d. 
Jfm payed the same day [20 Feb.] for dynnar for master & the wardens 
w* certeyn of the plement howse of our company . . vj s. vj d. 

i 24 History of the Pewterers Company. 

Jfm payed the same day [23 Feb.] for dynnar at the kjngs hede in 
fletstret for the kyngs atarnaye the kyngs Celister mr cromwell the 
master and wardens Royedon & mylls . . . . ixs. 

Jf m on seint mathewes even payed for dynnar at the kyngs hed in fletstret 
for the kyngs atornaye mr. Cromwell Sr Willm Polyet master northe 
mr Rowse mr and the wardens and mo of the company whan they 
had comyncacion for our booke cost . . . xxvj s. viij d. 

Jfm gave to me lord of the great Seall to be good to vs a hogghed of 
claryed wyne cost xl s. 

Jtm also mad a dynnar to hym to mr atorneye mr cromwell mr Riche 
mr. northe & geflbrd and a nother .... xiij s. iiij d. 

Som spend at parlment xj ti. xiiij s. j d. 

1532-3. Jfm Rs of Clement kelyngworth for settyng a fForen a wark by 
the space of vj weks contrary to the good rewells v s. Jf m Rs of the 
sayd clement for vngoodly words spokyn a gaynst Nicolas peke in 
opyn awdyence of peple v s. Jf m Rs of the sayd Nicolas peke for 
Revylyng of the sayd clement kelyngworthe in lykwyse v s. Jf m Rs 
of the wedowe lat pyes wyfF iiij d. Jfm Rs of Thorns fowU for 
Dissobedyence xx d. Jf m Rs of Walter maykyns for vngoodly 
wordys spokyn a gaynst Thorns fowst som tym his master xx d. Jfm 
Rs of V psons that com not to the place a poyntyt wan they warned 
by the bedyll that is to saye henry dark Thorns macham Willm 
hustwajrt John Wencelow John palm x d. . . xix s. vj d. 

^Xfsi payed for the Barge hire whan the maire went to westmenster to take 
his othe xvj s./ 3f m payed the ij stewards for the dynnar of them 
that-dynt not at the yeld hauU xxijs./ 3fm payed for wod & colls 
mj s. J d ij h ij s. J d. 

Jtm payed whan the quene was fette fro grenwytche to the Duke of 
norfolke bargeman for the barge xxij s./ Jfm payed to henry clarke 
that he layd out and spendyd on the Duks s vands after we had hired 
the barge or we coude haue it vj s. iiij d. 3f m payed for the barge- 
mance brekfast viij d. 3tm payed for a kenderkyn of ale ij s. Jf m 
for bred vj d. Jfm payed to the bargemen for a Reward ij s. Jfm to 
the bedyll to lambet to fetche barge ij d. Jfm payed to John abbot 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 125 

carpenter for makyng of our standyng in cornelle xj s.. 

ij ti uij s. vuj a. 

This large sum was spent by the Company as their part of the 

magnificent welcome given by the Corporation and all the Guilds to 

Henry's new Queen, Anne Boleyn, who passed through the City on the 

3 1 St May, the day before her Coronation at Westminster. Three pageants 

were prepared, and the Pewterers among the other Companies attended 

both in their barge on the river and in their " Standing " in Cornhill. 

Jf m payed for a tabill and p [pair] of trystell for the lyttell plor iiij s. 

3f m payed for a longe Junet forme of wayn skot for the same . ij s. 

Jf m payed for a carpet for the same tabyll ... iij s. iiij d. 

3f m payed for a crusyfex for the Jure booke . . . . iij s. 

Jfm payed to a glasyer for mendyng of the glas wyndows in the haull 

that wer broukyne & setyng them close . . . . vij s. vjd. 
Jfm payed to the coleturs [collectors] after xv & halfe . . x s. 

This was the Company's proportion of a general tax upon the City 
of one fifteenth and a-half. 
Jfw payed for iiij men to wayt on the maire at mydsora w* bowe and 

arowys ij s. viij d. & makyng of tha harnese cleh xx d. iiij s. iiij d. 

3f m payed for iiij barest men at mydsom ij to the maire & ij to m martyn 

sherefF ix s. iiij d. 

Jfm payed for a doss of tronchers was geven to ra northe . . iiij s. 

3<m payed for dynnar of viij psons the xvij'** of februari . . iiij s. 

3f m spent at broks apon abbot of taystoke . . . . ij s. 

Jfm payed for dynnar at hornnars for the m & vij psons moo . ij s. vj d. 

Jfm payed for a pottell of ipocryse for to geve To master Cromwell, and 

the kyngs atornaye xx d. 

3tm payed on sonday for bot hire for vs broke & eued to me lord 

chanceler iiij d. & spent at broks iiij d viij d. 

3fm payed on wedynsday from the duke of sofFolke to the court iij d. & 

from westmenster w* m northes dark to bryd well ij d. and after 

dynnar to the court & from y* court iiij d. . . . xd. 

3tm payed for a gowrnard [gurnet] for the duke of sofFolke ij s. viij d. and 

for a pyeke [pike] and an ell iiij s. viij d. • . . vij s. iiij d. 

1 26 History of the Pewierers' Company. 

Jfm payed to a man to here the same ^ent [present] . • vd. 

Jf m payed for a doss tronchers for my lord lattymer . . iiij s. 

Jfm payed to master northes dark for bott hire to fetche the leeg 

[league] betwen france & yngland iiij d. 

Jf m payed for a marche payne & v pyes of orengegs for the kyngs atornaye 
and m northe ........ iij s. viij d. 

A marchpain or march-pane was one of the triumphs of the cook's 
art in former times. It was a sweet cake or confection made of pistachio- 
nuts, almonds, sugar, &c. It was in high esteem in Shakespeare's 
time, as appears from the account of Queen Elizabeth's entertainment at 
Cambridge. It is said by Peck (Desiderata Curiosa, vol. ii, p. 29) that 
the University presented Sir William Cecil, their Chancellor, with two 
pairs of gloves, a march-pane, and two sugar-loaves. 

Oranges were a very scarce fruit in Henry VII I's reign, and an 

"orange pie" was a costly dish fit for presentation to a man in high 


ffor renew- ifttBt payed to ra Clarencious kyng of arme of the sowthe pertys of 

yng the arms yngland for to conferme our patent newe iij li. vj s. viij d. Jfm payed 

(raftc. for viij yerds of fyne blewe Sersnet iiijs. vjd. yerd xxxvj s. vj d. 

Jf m payed to gatts the paynter staynner for makyng of the ij stremers 

and the banner for staynyng and freng [fringe] w^ all mar» of werkman- 

shep to the same belongyng iijti. xiijs. iiijd. Jfm payed to his servands 

to drynke ijd. Jfm payed to a man to mak the banner staves longer 

xijd. Jfm payed to a sadiller to sennewe them glewe xvjd. Jfm payed 

for a case to put in our pattent of armes viij d. . viij ti. xix s. viij d. 

There was an earher Grant of Arms, of which few particulars are 

preserved. It is mentioned in the earliest Account, that of 145 1-2 

(p. 17), and in more detail in the inventory following the Account of 

1455-6 (p. 19). The arms engraved on the seal provided after the 

charter of incorporation was obtained, in 1473-4 (p. 39), are identical 

with those at present in use, but are flanked on either side by a lily-pot, 

the Company's old emblem. The present grant seems, therefore, to have 

been nothing more than a confirmation. It is beautifully written and 

illuminated, as will be seen in the fac-simile opposite. The text of the 

document is as follows: — 

Tor renew- 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 127 

^0 all present and to come which thise present letters shall see or 
here^ I Thomas Benolt ats Clarenciaux kyng of armes of the Sowth Est 
and west parties of this Realme of England from the Ryuer of Trent 
sowthwarde, sendith due humble Recomendacion and gretyng in oure 
lord god euerlastyng Equite willith and reason ordeynith that the 
vertuouse men and of honest occupacion be by their merit^ renumered 
& rewarded in this worlde & to be in ppertuall memorye for their good 
and vertuouse name and fame, and their successors after. theym for 
euermore, wherefore I the said Clarencyaux kyng of armes aforesaid 
consideryng the honest demeanour and 'good gouernaunce of the company 
mistery felawship and crafte of Pewterers of this noble citie of london 
hath been of olde tyme, and yett contynowed in good name and 
vertuouse fame, so that the said company and fFelawship haue ryght 
well de^ed to haue signes and tokens of armes gyuen and graunted 
to their said copeny, to be shewed att tymes and places conuenyent 
in the laude and praysyng of the said fielawship and company, And 
for as moche as Thomas Chamberleyne master of the said worshipfuU 
crafte and compeny of pewterers, John Roydon and John Keneston 
wardeyns of the same company of Pewterers aforesaid hath required 
and desired me the said kyng of armes to gyue and graunte vnto them 
Armes, vnder the Seale of myne armes, and in consideracion of their 
honeste and vertuouse disposicion the kynge oure souueraigne lorde 
pceyued to be in them dyd gyue and graunte vnto the said company 
their corporacion to vse their liberties among^ them selues. Wherfore 
they be the more worthy to haue tokens of honour and noblesse to their 
said crafte and fFelawship I the said kynge of armes consideryng their 
request to be Juste and reasonnable by auctoritie and power to myne 
office annexed confermed and graunted by the kyng^ Royall maiestie 
henry the eight by the grace of god kyng of Englond and of ffraunce 
Defensor of the fFeith and lorde of Irlande &c. by expresse word^ in his 
tres patent^ vnder his greate seale &c. I the said Clarenciaux kyng of 
armes aforesaid have gyuen graunted ordeyned and assigned vnto the said 
ifelawship crafte and company of pewterers the blason and armes folowyng. 
That is to say asure a chiueron gold betwene iij stryk^ siluer, vpon the 
chiueron three Roses gueules their stalky buddes and leues vert, as it 

128 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

aperith in this margent, and in their Stremer oure lady assumpcion powdred 
with lyllye pott^ and strykf with their worde accustomed. To haue and to 
holde to and for the said felawshippe crafte and compeny of pewterers, and 
their Successors for eumore, withoute any impediment lett or interupcion 
by any kyng of armes or any other psone. In wytnes wherof I the said 
Clarenciaux kyng of armes of the South Est and west parties in maner 
abouesaid hath signed these present^ lettres patent^ w^ myne owne hande, 
and sett ther vnto the Seale of myne armes, yeuen at london the xxvj day 
of maye in the yere of our lorde god mccccc^'xxxiij, and in the xxv yere 
of the Reign of our said souueraign lord kynge henry the eight. 

Clarencieux king of armes. 

The important object which the Company had in view in approaching 
Parliament this year {see pp. 123-6) is seen in the following Statute, 
25 Henry VIII, c. 9. It confirms the previous Acts, and confers many 
additional powers for preventing the importation of foreign pewter, which 
was threatening serious competition with the justly prized home manu- 
facture. The value to the Company of this wide-reaching Act is shown 
by their re-printing it in 1741, and explains the extraordinary efforts in 
the way of presents and payments to statesmen, oflicials, and subordinates 
which seem to have been necessary to procure it. 

Petition. Ja their most lamentable wise shown, and pitteously complain unto 
the Kings most Royal Majesty, and to this most high Court of Parlia- 
ment, the Kings most humble, poor, and obeysant Subjects, the Master, 
Wardens, and poor Fellowship of the Craft and Mystery of Pewterers, 
as well of the City of London, as of all other Places within this Realm 
of England ; That where the said Craft or Mystery before this hath 
been one of the best Handicrafts within this Realm, which hath not only 
grown and continued by mean of divers good Acts and Statutes made 
for the true Exercise of the same; whereof one was made in the 19th 
Year of the Kings most Renowned Father, whose Soul God pardon. 
And one other was made in the fourth Year of the Kings most victorious 
Reign, concerning the Crafts of Pewterers, and Brasiers ; of and for the 
truer making, mixing, and selling of good and true Pewter, and brasen 
Vessels. And also for exercising and using of true Weights and Beams, 

History of the Pewierers' Company. \ 29 

to be occupied by the Sellers of any such pewter or brasen Vessels, 
within this Realm, so that none of the Kings Subjects, nor any other 
Person, should (by any Sale of any false mixed brasen and pewter Vessel, 
or any untrue Weights) be deceived, as by the said Statutes more plainly 
doth appear. 

Which good Statutes duly put in Execution, hath caused the said 
Craft to increase, and multiply, to the great Profit and Utililty of a great 
Number of the Kings Subjects ; and the Commodity of Pewter Vessel 
much to be had in Reputation, in all strange Regions and Countreys, 
until now of late, divers evil disposed persons, being the Kings Subjects 
born, which have been Apprentices and brought up in the Exercise of 
the said Craft of Pewterers ; have now of late, for their singular Lucre, 
repaired into strange Regions and Countreys, and there do exercise the 
said Craft of Pewterers, teaching Strangers, not only the Cunning of 
mixing and forging of all Manner of Pewter Vessel, but also do teach 
all Things belonging to the said Craft of Pewterers ; by Means whereof, 
there is not only brought (daily into this Realm) out of strange Regions 
to be sold, great Number of Things made of Pewter, untruly mixed and 
made of Tin, wherewith the Kings Subjects be daily deceived, and the 
People of strange Countreys greatly instructed in the Cunning of the said 
Craft of Pewterers, in such wise that thereby not only a great Number 
and Quantity of Pewter Vessel, and other Things of Pewter, made in 
divers Sorts and Fashions, amounting to a great Value, which was daily 
and continually wont to be carried and conveyed out of this Realm, by 
Merchants, into strange Regions and Countreys, and there to be sold 
and vended. Whereby the Commodity of Tin made into Pewter Vessel, 
which hath been had in great Estimation ; as Things very necessary 
and commodious, and the Kings Customs thereby much advanced, 
is now utterly to cease and decay; and not to be esteemed as here- 
tofore hath been, but also the said Craft of Pewterers, which at this 
Day setteth and keepeth in Work and Occupation a great Number 
of People, shall be utterly undone. And a great Multitude of the 
Kings natural Subjects, thereby fall into Idleness, to the great Impo- 
verishment of this Realm ; if speedy Remedy for the Redress of the 
Premises be not provided. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Any manner 
of Pewter 
wrought out 
of thiij 
Realm to be 


Search and 

No strangers 
to be em- 

In tender Consideration whereof, and for Reformation of the 
Premises, it may please your Highness, by the Assent of the Lords 
spiritual and temporal, and the Commons in this present Parliament 
assembled, and by the Authority of the same, to Ordain and Enact, that 
no person or persons hereafter, at any Time now inhabiting, or which 
hereafter shall inhabit within this Realm, shall buy, or otherwise take by 
Exchange for other Wares, any Wares made, or hereafter to be made 
out of this Realm, of Tin, or mixt with Tin, as Platters, Dishes, Sawcers, 
Pots, Basins, Ewers, Flaggons, Goblets, Salts, Saltsellers, Spoons, or any 
other Thing made of Tin or Pewter as aforesaid ; whosoever it be, upon 
pain of Forfeiture of the same Ware, in whose Hands soever it may be 
found or taken : And also lawfiil Money currant in this Realm to the 
Value thereof. The one Half of the same Forfeiture to be to the Use 
of the Kings Highness, and the other Half to the Use of the Finders 
of the same. 

And ftirthermore be it Enacted, That it shall be lawftil for the 
Master and Wardens of the said Craft of Pewterers, as well within the 
City of London, as within every other City, Borough, and Town of this 
Realm where such Wardens be. And where no such Wardens be, to 
the Head Officer or Governour, Head Officers or Governours of the same 
City, Borough, or Town, for the time being, to appoint divers Persons 
most expert in Knowlege of the same, to make Search and Seizure, and 
to take into their Hands and possession all such Wares as hereafter shall 
be brought contrary to the true Intent and Effect of this present Act, in 
whose soever hands or possessions any such shall be found. 

And also be it Enacted by the Authority abovesaid. That no person 
or persons, occuppng the said Craft or Occupation of Pewterers, within 
this Realm, shall set on work, or retain in his or their Service, any person 
or persons, to be his or their Apprentice or Journey-man, being Strangers 
born out of this Realm ; upon pain to forfeit for every such Apprentice 
and Journey-man ten pounds Sterling. And that no Stranger, born out 
of this Realm, shall occupy, exercise, or use, from the Feast of Penticost 
next coming, the said Craft of Pewterers, nor work any manner of Vessel 
or other Ware aforesaid to be made of Tin or Pewter, within any place or 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


Not to 
exercise the 
Craft be- 
yond Sea. 


places of this Realm, upon pain of Forfeiture of Ten pounds Sterling, and 
also upon pain of Forfeiture of the same Pewter or Tin so wrought, in 
whose Hands soever it may be taken or found. 

And also be it Enacted by Authority aforesaid, That no person nor 
persons, being born within this Realm, occupying or exercising the said 
Craft of Pewterers, shall at any time hereafter resort to any strange 
Regions or Countries, there to use, teach or exercise the said Craft of 
Pewterers, upon pain to lose the Privilege and Benefit of an Englishman. 
And if in case any of the Kings Subjects at this present Time, being 
dwelling in any strange Country or Region, and there occupying the said 
Craft of Pewterers, do not repair into this Realm, within three Months 
next after Request and Warning to him be given, by Writing sealed with 
the common Seal of the Wardens of the said Craft within the said City 
of London, and here in this Realm continually from henceforth dwell 
and inhabit, that then and from henceforth he shall be taken and reputed 
as i)o Englishman, but shall stand and be from henceforth out of the 
Kings Protection. 

And forasmuch as sundry evil-disposed Persons which commonly 
be called Hawkers, by Authority of the Kings Letters Patents or Placard, 
do not only go about from place to place, within this Realm, using 
Buying and Selling of Brass and Pewter : And by colour and pretence of 
the same Licenses and Placards, use unlawful and deceivable Weights 
and Beams, but also do use to sell both Pewter and Brass which is not 
good, nor truely, nor lawfully mixt nor wrought, to the great Deceit of the 
Kings true liege People, contrary to the Form and Effect of the said 
good Act and Statute made in the said fourth Year of the Kings most 
Noble Reign. Be it therefore Enacted by Authority of this present 
Parliament, That all such Licenses and Placards heretofore had, made 
or granted to any such person or persons, contrary to the true Meaning, 
Form, and Effect of this Statute, shall be from henceforth by Authority 
of this present Parliament clearly void and of none Effect. And whereas 
in the said Act of Parliament, (concerning the Craft of Pewterers and 
Brasiers) made in the said fourth Year, for divers Causes and Con- 
siderations in the same contained, among other Things it is expressed, 


132 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

That no person or persons, using the said Craft of Pewterers or Brasiers, 
should from henceforth sell or change any Pewter or Brass, new or old, 
at any place or places within this Realm, but only in open Fairs and 
Markets, or in their own Dwelling-houses, but if they were desired by 
the Buyers of such Wares, upon pain of Forfeiture of every such 
Default 10/. 
Penalty on Forasmuch as the same Forfeiture is to the only Use of the Kings 

Highness, and that any Party, searching or finding the same, is not 
mtituled to have any Benefit thereby, it hath not been known that any 
person or persons have taken any pain to insearch or make any Inquiry 
thereof. By reason whereof, divers and many evil-disposed Persons, using 
Buying and Selling both of Brass and Pewter, and not regarding the said 
good Act, nor the said Penalty, daily go about from Village to Village, 
Town and Town, and from House to House, to sell such Pewter and 
Brass which is not good. And also use deceivable Weights and Beams, 
as they did before the making of the said Act, to the great Hurt and 
Deceit of the Kings true liege People and Subjects. Wherefore be it 
Enacted by the Authority abovesaid. That as well the Moiety of the said 
Forfeiture of Ten pounds, limited in the said Estate made in the said 
fourth Year, as also the Moiety of all other Forfeitures before expressed ; 
and every of them be and shall be to the Use of the Kings Highness, his 
Heirs and Successors, and the other Moiety of the same Forfeitures, and 
every of them, to the Use of him or them that shall seize, find, or present 
the said Forfeitures, or any of them, or that shall sue for the same in any 
competent Court or Courts within this Realm, by Action of Debt, Bill, 
Plaint or Information, wherein the Defendant shall in no wise be admitted 
to wage his Law, or any Protection or Essoin to any person or persons, 
which shall be impeached to have offended contrary to the Form and 
Effect of this Statute, shall be allowable. This Act to endure to the last 
Day of the next Parliament. 

ffot our ordinance 3fm payed for the confirmacion of our ordynance in 
expences first payed to m onleye to haue his counsell iiij s. viij d. 
3fm payed for brekfast at m broks whan we disyred hym to goo w* 
ra onleye to me lord chanceler xij d. 3fm payed for a horse for ra 
broke whan fi onleye Rood for vs to me lord Chanceler xxd I payed 

History of the P&wteHrs Company. 133 

for a nother horse for vrswyk viij d. 3f m gave to m onley for his 
labore the sam tym xx s. 3f m payed for horsmet iiij d. 3f m payed 
for our sopper xiij d. 3f m spend a nother tym whe we went to spek 
w* broke v d. 3f m the wardyn and vrswyk spendyd at stretforthe 
when they went to speke w^ m onleye iiij d. 3fm payed at broks for 
brekfast for my lord Chanslers servants & broug**' the wrytyng fro 
me lord & had it a gayn iij s. x d. 3f m payed for bott hire the 
same tyme ij d. oB. 3f m payed to hedlaye clarke of the chaml5»r of 
london to have his counsell xij d. 3f m spend on the sayd hedlaye 
at suyt in easchep for his brekfast xijd. 3fm gave to my lord 
Chanceler a garnesh of vessell weyng Ixxxviijtt iiijd. ob the it 
xxxiijs. to brekylbank for wrytyng vj s. viij d. to James stods for 
wryttyng in pchement vj s. viij d. . . . iiij ti. ij s. vj d. oB. 

3f m payed to Thorns curtf that he payed for lokyng the books for goyng 

on proceshcion xijd. 

3f m payed whan went graves end for barge up & down for iiij men xvj d. 

3fm payed for j qfts of fFagot & ij qhs of colls for to drys met [dress 
meat] whan mylls wyf was berryed xxj d. 

1533-4. 3tm p<r to vj harnese men for the mayres for the schyryfFs 
for mydsom & seynt peto s nyght xij s. 

3fm for iiij mens which went w'** the maire w' bowys at mydsom & seynt 
peto s [Peters] Evyn ij s. viij d. 

3fm for wasshyng and hemyng of the cotts for the bowemen . viij d. 

3tm ffor xvj straks of Tynne waying vij lb qrx at iiij d. oB the lb. 

ij s. viii d. 
This entry confirms the view previously expressed as to the meaning 

of the term " strakes " or " strikes.** They are shown to have been small 
objects, weighing only 75^ oz. each, either actually or in the average. 
The fact of their being bought by weight at 4^. per pound, strongly 
suggests that they were small blocks of tin in an unmanufactured state. 
3f m pd to harry basse grauo' ffor the new grauyng the sealle off causys xij s. 

This seal was made eighty years before. See p. 39. 

3fm per ffor a dynn' made for the kyngs attorney and mr speker 

xxx s. Yiij d. 

1 34 History of the Pewterers Company. 

3fm paid To mr selyster [solicitor] .... iiij ti. vj s. viij d. 
3f m for pyppyns and botthyer [boat hire] v d. 

3fm spent at broks taune and the bulles hedde in cheppe. ixd. 

3ffn for ij doss' Trenchars whiche was geuyn to the kyngs attorney 
waying xviij lb at vj d ix s. 

These trenchers were of better quaHty and workmanship than the 
garnish below, which cost only 45^rf. per lb. 

3fm fFor a pottell bottell geuyn to the kyngs Atto'^ney [A pottle is a liquid 
measure of 4 pints] ij s. iiij d. 

3fm fFor a holle garnysshe of vessell geven to the kyngs Attorney waying 
iVij xvj lb p's the lb iiij d. ob q xxxviij s. vj d. 

3fm pd for the breckefast^ at the Rosse at Westm"^ of the mr w' wardeyns 
mr baxto' mr Royden myllis everyd and me . . . xviij d. 

3ftn pd to the coke of the tempill for steyn metts whiche was spente at 
the kyngs hedde . '. iiij s. viij d. 

3fm pd to John haward wardeyn of the collage off petycannons of 
powlls for a holle yeres quytt rent endyng at mydsora for a nobbett 
to be kepte fFor mr gottame xxvj s. viij d. 

3fm pd to Wiitm Weyver %eaut [serjeant] for his holle yeres fee 
vj s. viij d. and for his attendance geuyng at o' hall for disobedyant 
psons xij d vij s. viij d. 

3f m pd fFor a malvissay vessell for Wat Tows . xiiij d. 

Arabic figures for the date heading are first used this year in the 
Yeomanry accounts. 

1534-5. 3fem paied for the dyner for theym that dyned not at Guylde 

hall xxxijs. 

3fem paied to the dromslawe . . . xx d. 

This performer is called a drumslade in the accounts of 1539-40. 
He accompanied the fifes or pipes on the Company's barge. 

^niftimin geven to my lorde maire of Newyeres day for his Newyeres 
gift njh. 

This continued for many years as an annual payment to the Lord 
Mayor from the Company " to be good unto them," 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


3fem payed to the wardeyns of the yoma ry of the money tha cam out of 

the chamlS iij ti. 

3fem for a quyre of paper ij d. oB. 

3fem wham went to enquere of the mar betwixt the yomanry and the 
clothyng xviij d. 

No mention of this dispute is found in the account book of the 
Yeomanry, but an entry in the City records {Repertory 9, fol. 96b.) 
gives the decision of the Court of Aldermen, dated 25th February, 
26 Henry VIII, as follows: Sot the matter yn varyance betwene the 
pewterers & the yomanry of the same It ys agreed that by the agrement 
of Master & Wardeyns of the same mystery no lourney man of the sayd 
occupacion that afore thys tyme hath bene apprentice withyn thys Cytie 
shalbe sufFred to be I dell but at all tymes hereafter accordyng as he 
shalbe hable shalbe sett on worke w' the Masters of the sayd Craft & 
have theyre wages well & truely payed accordyng to theyre dimerytes. 

3fem whan my lorde maire sat in our hall for wyne wafFars a potell of 
ypocras for brede ale and wood & coles . . . iiij s. x d. ob. 

Hippocras was a cordial composed of wine with an infusion of spices 
and other ingredients. 

Jfem paied to our ^decessours for the almosse of the yomanry viij s. iiij d. 

Jfem paied to sr harry hayward prest for iiij skynnes prce the skynne 

iiijd xvjd. 

Jfem for the lymyng [painting or illuminating] of the same . xvj d. 

Jf em for the writynge of the ordenn'c^ & the intetelyng of the articles 

xij s. 

Jfem for the byndyng of the same & the stuff pteynyng thereto 

3fem for writyng of the foure gospels 

3f em for ij gernards that we gave to my lorde maire 

Jfem for woodde to make a fyar .... 

Jf em for Rysshes the same tyme .... 

Jfem for a Galon of jrpocras 

3fem for a Galon & a potell of Cleret wyne 

XX d. 
viij d. 
nj s. J d. 

luj d. 

iij s luj a. 

1 36 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3fetn to the gardynS for makyng ot the gardyn. . . . x d. 

Jfem for drynke for the master & wardeyns at Guylde hall gate v d. 

3fem paied for brekyng of a lidde of a stone potte at a haBdasshers 
house .......... ij d. 

Jfem for caryeng a poore man out of the hall to the churche . iiij d. 

Jfem for a sheafe & xx" arrowes at ij s. the sheafe . . iiij s. viij d. 

A *' sheaf" is generally supposed to have contained 24 arrows, but 
this estimate does not agree with the above entry. 

3f em for feathryng of ij sheafe & iiij arrows & xij heddes . . xx d. 
3fem for iiij cases & iiij girdels at ten pens the case & girdelle . iij s. iiij d. 
3fetn to iiij bowmen in harneys for two nyghts watchyng . . ij s. viij d. 

3fem to iiij harnes men in complete harneys the which were sent to my 
lorde maire ......... viij s. 

3fem to two harnes men the which were set to mr Denam the Shirif 
from mr Roydon . . . . . . . . iiij s. 

3fem for pavyng of Iviij yards at ij d. a yerde at mr magsora and 
harmyngstrongs dores ix s. 

3f em vij lode of pavyng store price the lode xvj d. . • ix s. iiij d. 

3f em for two grattes of lede wayng vj li vj d. 

3f em for xvj li of plomars sodar at v d. li . . . . vj s. viij d. 

3f em for a sokette of lede wayng x li . . . . . x d. 

3f em to a carpenr for layeng of two pieces in the draught in the hall viij d. 

3f em for two bondell of poles & roddes to bynde the arbar . vj d. 

3f em for a bokette for the welle viij d. 

3fem to the carpenters for fyue rayles for the vyne . . . ij s. j d. 

3f em for drynke & brede for the mr wardeyns & thassistaunces iiij d. 

The "assistaunces" were probably the Past Masters of the Company, 
who afterwards developed into the Court of Assistants. 

Stem wee aske allowannce as our pdecessours did for our dynar of our 
lady day xxvj s. viij d. 

1535-6. Quit rents. 3fm payed to the abbot & covent Serls obet 
iij s. iiij d. "iixti payed to sr Rot3rt astlyn subden of powUs for a hpll 

History of the Pew t ever s' Company. 137 

yer endyd at mydsomer for his obet xx s. 3fm payed to the warden 
of peters comons at pouUs to kep an obet for master gottam for a 
hoU yer endyd at mydsomer xxvj s. viij d. 3fm payed to the master 
& brethern of seinte Thorns of akers a quit rent out the howsyng 
w'out crepylgat called Gregore ale for a hoU [year] endyd at 
michalmas . iij ti. iij s. iiij d. 

"Peters commons" is a curious illiterate rendering of Petty Canons. 

Jfm payed to thorowgood s'geand wan we Serche . . . xx d. 

3f m geven to my lord chanceler ij garnesh of vessell weyng vlij xij lb at 

iiij d. ob. q' a lb iij ti. viij s. ij d. 

3fm payed for brekfast when we Serche her in the citie for the ofFycer & 

vs . viij d. 

3fm gave vnto my lord the maire that he shuld be good to the craft as he 

hathe bene alwayes for his New yers gyft .... iij ti. 

3fm rf of on Niclas Rose a haberdasher for iiij dosf small salts vj goblets 

iiij dosf ston pot heds valued at vs. 

The haberdashers appear to have dealt largely in the smaller kinds 
of pewter ware. Frequent entries concerning their misdeeds appear in 
these records. 

3fm rs of Thorns arnold for the vj horses that was bought for the men to 
goo Northeward w' the kyng grace ... iij ti. xiij s. iiij d. 

3fm payed to James stods for wrytyng of a sublycacion to me lord the 

maire xij d. 

3fm for a quartron faggots x d. & iiij sakks of colls ij s . . ij s. x d. 

A formidable insurrection arose this year (1536) in Lincolnshire 
and Yorkshire, which was known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. It was 
occasioned by the popular indignation against the suppression of the 
smaller monasteries by an Act of Parliament passed in that year. The 
insurgents were joined by the Archbishop of York and several noblemen, 
and the Duke of Norfolk was sent against them with a hastily summoned 
army. This included a levy from the City of London of 250 armed 
men, 200 of them well horsed, which the Livery Companies were required 
by the Mayor to furnish within twenty-four hours. The Mercers were 

138 History of the Pewferers' Cofupany. 

to provide twenty men, the Grocers, Drapers, Merchant Taylors and 
Clothworkers, sixteen each. The other Companies were assessed 
according to their abihty to supply contingents varying from twelve to 
two, the quota demanded from the Pewterers being six horsemen. The 
rebels had seized York and Hull, and the Duke of Norfolk found it best 
to temporize with them, inducing them to disperse by the offer of a 
general pardon and the promise that Parliament should sit next year in 
the north to redress their grievances. The particulars that follow give 
an interesting picture of the varied duties which were laid upon the 
wardens of a City Company, including the purchase, grazing, and sale 
of horses at very short notice. 

^^t prepacion & settyng forthe of vj men w' hors & harnes to wayt on the 
kyngf grace northwarde. fptsf payed to m mednall for ij horsses 
pris iij li. 3fm payed to Nicolas gaskcon for a horse xxviij s. iiij d. 
3fm payed to Thorns arnold for a hors w' sadil & brydill xvj s. 3f m 
payed to John parker for a horse xx s. 3f m payed John Spragyn 
for a hors xiij s. iiij d vj li. xvij s. viij d. 

3f m payed for vj p of botts & vj p of spors . . . . xj s. x d. 

3f m payed for vj swerds & vj dagers xvj s. 

3fm payed for xxij'* yards of whit cotton for cotts price eiiy yard vj d. oB. 

xj s. xj d. 
3f m payed to a tayllor for makyng of vj cotts & for red clothe for crosses 

& armes of the citye ij s. vj d. 

3f m payed for hors meat afor the goyng out of Sadyors . . viij s. x d. 

3f m payed for the carage of vj p of harnes the whiche com fro nJ Jans 
to the hauU the [? which] he gave frely to serve the craft as pereth 
i a nother boke ij d 

3fm payed for vj doss poynts to harnes men w^ . . . xj d. 

3f m payed for iiij bowys viij s. iiij d. 

3f m payed for iij shutyng gloues & bowstryng . . . vj d. 

3f m payed for vj schef arowys to mak vp a schefF . . . vj d. 

Jtm payed for iij sadylls x s. 

3f m payed for mendyng of sadylls & streplethere . . . ij s. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 139 

3tm for mendyng of ij p of botts viij d. 

3tm payed mendyng of a sallet and for ale & for brass . . ij d. ob. 

3tm payed for schoyng of horsses vj d. ob. 

Jtm payed on ernest for ij horsses & had them not . . . viij d. 

3tm payed for bokkells lethere & Naylls for the harnese . . vij d. 

3tm payed for brekfast for the vj men xij d. 

3tm payed to the vj men whan the mvster was don . . vj s. 

3tm payed to the vj men ther prest moneye when they delyued to theyr 
Captayn euy on v s. vj d xxxiij s. 

3tm payed for sortyng of the harnes & mendyng of the same & hamesyng 
of the men xij d. 

Jtm payed for ther brekfast at arnolds viij d. 

Jtm payed to the vj men whan they com home agayn at my 
lord mairs comandment euy man xs. we to haue ther hors & 
harnes iijti. 

3tm paid for horsmet when they com home agayn for iiij dayes standyng 
at hard meat at arnolds vj s. vj d. 

Jtm payed for vj horse grasyng for iij dayes & ij nyghts . . ij s. 

3tm payed to the bedyll to carye the horsses to stretforth . ij d. 

3tm ther they wer at gres fro the xxiiij'** day of octobr to the xvj'*" day 
of NouemBr et^y weke vd. a horse .... viij s. iiij d. 

t>(ised Nicolas carter for vij dayes at hauU to mak clen the harnes bylls 
& hauberds & for mendyng of the harnes after they cam hom for 
bokkells lethers & hokks to hang the harnes vpon . . iij s. xj d. 

3tm payed for the brekfast of them that gave a tendance to see the men 
set forthe xviij d. 

3f m payed for makyng a nobligacion be twen arnold and for the sale of 
the horsses iij d. 

1537-8. 3fw payed to the waxchandiller for makyng of xiijit. of 
old wax ij d. a it. ij s. ij d. Jf m for ix it. di of newe wax at viij d. 
the it vj s. iiij d. 3tm for newe payntyng of iiij angells & iiij Rosses 
crowned ij s iiij d x s. x d. 

U^ History of the Pewterers^ Company. 

The rose was an emblem of the Company, and one of the charges 
in their armorial bearings. A crowned rose was used also for marking 
pewter, and may have been an official mark of the Company. 

3f m payed to the master and bretheren of Seint Thorns of acres a quitrent 
out of gregores ale [alley] w'out crepillgat . . xiij s. iiij d. 

This was the last payment made to this famous religious house 
before its suppression. 

From the inventory at foot of account. ^ni more in pewf 
belongyng to the hall iij bassons and iij yewars, iij ti^ [dozen] plattars, 
iij dd j dysche, iij dd ij sawcers, & vj v tt chargars bareld, xij iij tt chargars 
bareld, xij pottell potts, xiij quarte potts, xij pynte potts, xv small drynk- 
yng potts, wher of one was brockyn & vj salts. And more in new 
vessayll y' came from pecks xviij newfassyond plattars & iij newfassyond 

The last entry is crossed through, and following it is the note 
"delyuyd to Nycolas peake agayne." 

'53^-9. QJ^cegBei of the sayd inquest of the warde mote for syttyng 
and occupying of o' hall for the Cryste mas sceason . iij s. iiij d. 

Q^ecesSeb of xiiij psons of the sayd Compeny for comyng afte' the owre 
that thay war warned the Corte dey byfore mydsomer last paste at 
ij d. a pece vpp5 amedm€t ij s. iiij d. 

3f em for the hyre of a barge w* xij^** orys to westemynsto' . xvij s. viij d. 

3fem delyvord to nychoUas pecke and wyltam phyppys fFor a 
dyner at owre hall the same dey the mayre toke hys othe for 
the Rest of the Compeny whiche that dey dyned not at the 
yelde hall xxvs. 

t^%t charge of the purchase of o' howsce in fFanchorche strete of late 
Antony porters. 

Jfem payd to the sayd Antony portar for the purchase of the sayd 
howsce and gronde belongyng to the same . . . xxj ti. 

3fem to maysto' Chydley for hys devyssce of the wryttyngys for the 
assewrans of the sayd howssce vs. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 141 

3fem payd to bryght the skreveno' for the ingrosyng of scerten wryttyngs 
conscernyg the assurans of the sayd howsce a payre of indenturys a 
dede a reaiesce and ij oblygacions . . . . vj s. viij d. 

3fem payd to the Gierke of the stapyll to make scearche whethe' the sayd 
porter was by fore bownd in any stastute . . . . xij d. 

3f«m payd for drynke when we toke posscescyon . . . ij d. 

Sm xxj li. xij s. x d. 



€$e Q^eformation. 

sweeping religious measures of Henry VIII were now 

full progress. The suppression of the larger monasteries 

)n followed that of the smaller ones. The houses of the 

iars, Black, White, Grey and Augustinian surrendered 

the King, who also took possession of the great 

Hospitals, Priories, and other religious foundations. The Hospital of 

St. Thomas of Aeon or Acres, founded in honour of Thomas i Becket, 

was ultimately purchased by the Mercers' Company, who converted the 

buildings for use as their Hall and Chapel. Meanwhile the quit -rent for 

the property in Gregory Alley, formerly paid to that Hospital, was now 

paid by the Pewterers' Company to the King's rent gatherer. 

3tcm payd to thomas adam Renttegatherer for ow' sovereyn lorde the 

kynge of the suppreste londys of thomas beckett for a yerly quwytte- 

rent owte of gregorys alle w'owte Crepulgate dew at myghelmas laste 

paste xiij s. iiij d. 

J$e chargys a gaynst the Generall mustor holden the viij"' dey of may. 
3ietn payd for ij ellys and iij q" canvas for to make iiij payre of dublette 
sclevys for them that went to the mustor at vj d. the ell . xvj d. 
Jfm payd for xiij yardys of whytte Cotto for theyr cottys at vjd. the 

yarde agaynst the sayd muster vij s. 

Htm for makyng of the sayd cottys and redde Crossys at yj the pece 
agaynst the sayd mitsto' ij s. 

144 History of the Pewferers' Company. 

Henry having thrown off his allegiance to the Pope was threatened 
with a coalition against him of the Emperor and the French King. A 
general muster of all his male subjects throughout England and Wales 
between the ages of sixteen and sixty was accordingly summoned. The 
citizens of London met on the 8th of May, 1539, at Mile End, and 
consisted of three divisions of five thousand men each, exclusive of 
pioneers and other attendants. After marching through the City they 
were reviewed by the King and Queen at Westminster, and returned to 
the City by way of Holborn. 

Jfem payd for hopyng of the bultyng tubbe in the larder . . v d. 

3fem payd for iij g'* di of Red vellott for the new garnysshyng of the 
garlandys whyche the wardens be chosyn w" . . vij s. xj d. 

Stem payd to wyllam callaway goldsmyth for the workmanshyp of owre 
lady assumpcyon in sylver and gyldyng therof for the sayd 
garlandys •......•• ijs. 

1539-40. 3tem receued of masteris Myllys that she gaue to make the 
clothyng a dener at her husbands buryall xx s. Whiche xx s. the 
clothyng gaue towarde the charge goyng to Grenwhiche for the 
fecchyng in of the Ladye Anne of Clevelonde . . . xx s. 

Anne of Cleves, Henry*s new bride, landed at Dover on 27th 
December, 1539, and passed through London to her coronation at 
Westminster Abbey on 4th February following. The citizens accom- 
panied the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in their barges to Greenwich, 
whence the King and Queen were escorted from the Royal Palace with 
great pomp to Westminster. 

3fem receued of Edwarde meetcalf for that that hys wyf made a promyse 
in her wodohode to the master and wardens then beyng for the 
paymet of xxv s. the which Edwarde hathe agreed w^ the said master 
and wardens and assistaunce for a full payment and ende of the 
same xs. 

C^Mit at the receueng of The ladie Anne of Cleve londe. 3tem to the 
bargeman for the hyer of his barge withe x Orys [ten oars] xxj s. 

3fem paied for the hier of a drumslade and to a man w^ a pype ij s. viij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company, i45 

The other items for fitting up the barge on the occasion of 
this elaborate water pageant include "vj targetts at xvd. the pece," 
" xvj s. viij d. to the paynter for payntyng of ij olde Stremers banars and 
the viij baSs for trompeto's,*' & '* planche bords and raylles for to tryme 
the barge w' rayllis abowte." These boards were taken from the Hall to 
Lambeth, where the barge lay. The cost of " nayllis and taynterhockis 
[tenterhooks] to hang vp the clothis [draperies] aboute the barge" 
was ij d., and time ran so short that iiij d. was " payed for a bote to 
lambith to haste the Barge the mornyng that the ladie Anne came yn ." 

Stem payed to viij men that here cressetts and ij men [that] here baggs at 
viij d. the pece vj s. viij d. 

Stem payed for x greate strawen hattys . . . . . xv d. 

Stem payed to master Urswyke for the workmanship of the vpper parte 
of a stylletorie wayeng xiij lb. at j d. oB le pounde Srfi xix d. oB And 
for the workmanship of the nether parte of leede wayeng xxvij lb. at 
oB le pounde sm xiij d ob. The whiche stilletorie was geven to the 

3f em payed to a man to se the tonnys ffylde for waccheng three nyghts at 
viij d. the night ij s. 

The above entry appears under the heading of "Repacyons at 
Gregory Alley." 

1540-1. 3tem receued of Master Cvrtes for the estraung [stranger] that 
hathe his libertie to pase the tyme for hys pleasur in our hawU w' his 
company for the space of fyve Monethis paying after vs. for a 
monythe Sm xxv s. 

It would be interesting to have known the name of this **estraunger/' 
who seems to have hired the hall for the purpose of entertaining his 
friends. No public accommodation for such purpose was then available, as 
the taverns boasted no apartments of large size, nor could they be hired 
for exclusive use. There was a dancing master later, see page 149. 

Jtem payed to m' Alayne of the Chekker [Exchequer] for a write for 
Ix lb. of blacke lay and " lb. of bras by the InformacoQ of bellamy 
of Taunton and for bott hyer at ij tymes . • • • ij s. iij d. 

146 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

1541-2. 3n |)^mt0 receued of Jarvys Hylton for stondyng in Edmond 
Browars stondyng at Gravisende . . . . iij s. iiij d. 

This fine was imposed during the search at Gravesend Fair. Unfair 
practices towards brother tradesmen were strictly repressed. 

^0 the Clarke and his company for syngyng of mase and dirige iij s. iiij d. 

The payments for " our Lady day " at Allhallows usually included 
this large payment to the Clerk who was assisted in the musical portion 
of the service by his brethren of the Company of Parish Clerks. 

Jtem geuen to the speker of the pliament in reward xij frenche platters 
& xij disshis of pewter wayng Iiij lb. at v d. oB the lb. Sm xxiiij s. 

3n }>^mt6 p^ to the kyng for his subcide .... xxj s. x d. 

This is the earliest recorded instance of the Company's contribution 
to a royal subsidy. 

3fem p*^ to the kyngs prynter for pryntyng of a hundrethe of o' Actys 

vij s. vj d. 
Jtem spente the daye that y* master warden went to serche beyondsee 

warre in london ........ vj d. 

" Beyond sea ware " is a quaint expression for foreign pewter. 

Jtem p** for o' dera [dinner] and the maires officers in the Dager in Chepe 
when wee went to serche haberdasshers shopps in london . ij s. 

(^ni the sayd accowmpte we allowe to be good & parfet savyng 
only suche partyculars as we have crossyd owt & not allowyd. And 
ffiirthar we wyll that the sayde Rychard crostwayt Thorns fFowUe and harry 
clarke schall make a parfet & a iust accowmpte as well of ther Receytts as 
of ther payments fFor ther rydyng & goyng a bowte in serche for this yere 
by twene this & candellms next comynge. of th' that ys now come to ther 
hands and ffiirthar we awdyt th' all suche matfs as be in svet [suit] in the 
kyngs excheccar by ther Informacyon & not yet recoueryd schdl at all 
tymmys & from tyme to tyme as they may recou any some of money 
agaynst any parson for offendyng of the kyngs hyghnes stattuts consarnyng 
the craft of pewterars or any thyng havyng now in ther hands or here aft' 
schall have by vartu of ther serche w* in ther sayd yere shall bryng in all 
suche some or somys of money w* in the space of monthe after the 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 147 

Receyte ther of & make a yvste [just] accowmpte ther of and at ther 
accowmpte the sayd craft to allow them ther costs & chargs accordyng to 
ryght & good consyens, and wyche of them that ys fownde fawty and 
denyeth thus to do, to forfayt for euy peny doble that he schall so receyve 
or come to hys hands & not brynge in. 

Stem p^ for o' drynkyng at the bailie of the Savoies howse when the 
beame was tached at the copsmytthis howse . . . vj d. 

This entry is crossed through, not having been allowed at the audit, 
as explained in the entry above. The Savoy, formerly a palace and at this 
time a hospital, situated on the south of the Strand near Wellington Street, 
was a Royal manor, and as such had its own " bailie " or chief official. 

I543-3. (Jf0O we charge vs w* iij^> si [sterling] whiche was recoverd in 

the mayrs Corte to the vse of o' Cumpeny ffor scerten yerden 

? garden] pottys takyn by maysto' curtes then beyng maysto' wylla 

lustwhayt and Thomas machym wardens ... iij li. 

This is the earliest instance that I can find in the records of the 
introduction of the term "Company" in place of "Craft," "Mistery" 
or "Fraternity." {See note on page 5.) 

Jtem more gevoyn to the sayd maysto' maysson a threquarte fflagon 
pryce iijs. 

This fine flagon appears among several other gifts and payments 
amounting to 535. yd., incurred in obtaining the Company's final Act of con- 
firmation passed in the 33rd year of Henry VIII (c. 4). The Act recites 
the statute of 25 Hen. VIII, c. 9 {see pages 128-132), and proceeds thus : 

W9^c9 Act was appointed to endure only to the End of the next 
Parliament, then next following, and which Act was afterwards renewed in 
the Parliament holden at Westminster, the 28th Year of the Reign of 
our Sovereigh Lord, to endure until the end of the next Parliament then 
next following. And which Act was also renewed at the Parliament 
holden at Westminster, in the 31st and 32nd Years of our said Sovereign 
Lords Reign, to endure until the last Day of the next Parliament then 
next ensuing: Prayen therefore in this present Parliament our said 
Sovereign Lords true and obedient Subjects the Pcwtcrers of this his said 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 


made and 



i )eyond the 


Master and 
shall not be 
withstood in 
their Search 

Realm, and other the true Commons of the same, because the same Act 
is beneficial and necessary for the Common-wealth of this Realm : That 
it may be enacted by the King our said Sovereign Lord, the Lords 
spiritual and temporal, and the Commons in the present Parliament 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, for as much as the same 
Act, and every Thing therein contained, is good and beneficial to the 
Common-wealth of this Realm, and all and every the said Acts and 
Statutes, and all and every Article, Sentence, and Clause comprised in the 
same, may from henceforth stand and abide in as full Strength and Eflfect, 
for evermore from henceforth to endure, according to the Purport, 
Tenour and Effect of the same Act and Acts, as though the said Articles, 
Sentences and Clauses, were specially limited, recited, or declared in this 
present Act. And that no person nor persons, from henceforth buy or 
take to exchange, or otherwise take into or within this Realm, to the 
Intent to sell any such Things or Wares, above rehearsed, made or to be 
made out of this Realm, upon pain of like Forfeitures and Penalties, as 
are and were expressed in the said several Acts, the same Penalties and 
Forfeitures to be levied, as is before expressed. 

And that it may be further enacted by Authority aforesaid, that if 
any person or persons, do unlawfully withstand, interrupt, disturb, or let 
the Master and Wardens, or their Deputies of the said Craft of Pewterers, 
for the Time being, or the Head-Officer or Governour, Head-Officers or 
Governours of Cities, Towns and Boroughs, within this Realm, wherein 
no such Master and Wardens are, or shall be, or any of them, in searching, 
seizing, and taken into their Hands and Possessions such Wares as shall 
happen to be bought, or brought into this Realm contrary to the Purport 
and Effect of the said Statute, made in the said 25th Year of the Reign 
of our said Sovereign Lord, and then every such person and persons so 
offending, in letting, disturbing, or withstanding the said Seizure, or 
taking of such Wares as is aforesaid, shall loose and forfeit for every Time 
so doing, the Sum of five Pounds Sterling, the one Half whereof, shall 
be to the King's Use, and the other Half to him or them that will or shall 
sue for the same, by Action of Debt, Writ, Bill, Plaint, or Information in 
any the Kings Courts of Record, in which Action or Suit, no Protection, 
Privilege, nor Wager of Law, shall be allowed nor admitted. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 149 

The Act thus finally amended, gave the Company powers which 
remained in vigorous use for the next two centuries ; it was reprinted 
without alteration as their empowering statute in 1741. 

Jf em in stone pottys w' pewto' Covers of the beyonde the sey makyng 
:xxxiij takyn of Robert waddyngton. 

I543-4. 3fem Receyued the xx'* day of marche a° p dicto of the 
straunger that kept the Dawnsyng in the Halle . . . x s. 

Jfem paide for botehire for the maister and myself and the Bedell to & 
ffrom lamehith on thursday in Easter weke whan we went to hire a 
barge vd. 

3fem paid more to a plomer for newe castyng of CC a g*" & vij lb. leade 

for a gutter in the Costardmongers hows in fFanchirche strete 

ij s. iij d. oB. 
ffirsf paide to Olymden Carpenter fFor the fFram of the vyne and settyng 

vp of the same . . . . . . . Iviij s. viij d. 

^9^ Charges of the Settyng fForth of Ten men to the kynges armye. 
3n}>rtmi6 paid for ix yardes of yelowe karsey at xvj d. the yarde Srh xij s. 

3f em paid for xj yards of brode blewe price the yarde iij s. & iiij d. 

xl s. iiij d. 
3tem paid for a yarde of white a yarde of Black and a yarde of Redde 

iij s, X d. 
3tem paid for xvij yards of blewe karsey at xix d. the yarde xxvij s. jd. 

3tem paide for iiij yardes of blek karsey at xv d. the yarde . v s. 

3tem for iiij yards white karsey at xiij d. the yarde . . iiij s. viij d. 

3tem paide for iij yards of Rede karsey iiij s, 

3tm for chaungeing of vj yards karsey • . . . . viij d. 

3tm paid for vj yards of rede karsey at xviij d. the yarde. Sm . ix s. 

3tem paid for v yards & iij quarters of yelowe for the alteryng of cots 
& hose ......... vij s. viij d. 

3tm paid for a yarde of blewe and a yarde of yelowe for the man that 
went awey . . . . . . . . . ij s. vij d. 

3tem paid for x hatts vj s. viij d. 

3tem paid fFor the chaunging of vj hatts xxj d. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3f em paid for xxv yards of white ffustian . . • . xiiij s. vij d. 

3fem paid more for ij yards dD ffustian for a dublet for bym that come in 

the stede of the man that went awey .... xvij d. 

3fem paid for makyng of iiij Cots of my lorde prevy sealls lyuey 

vj s. viij d. 

Jtm for makyng of six Cots of the duke of NorfFolks lyuey. Sm 

vj s. vj d. 
3fm for makyng of xj dubletts & lynyng of x gorgetts . . vij s. 
3tem paid for the lynyng & makyng of vj paire of hosen . vj s. 

3tem for makyng & lynyng iiij paire of hose of my lorde prevey sealls 
slop fFacion . . . v s. iiij d. 

3tem for makyng & Translatyng of vj cots . . . . vij s. 

3tem for the Translatyng of vj paire of hosen for my lorde of norfFolk & 

my lorde prevye seall .... 
3tm for xij ells Canvas ..... 

3tm paid for viij billes 

3tem for ij bowes 

3tem another bowe for the Bowe that was broken 

3tem for brasers shotyng gloves & stryngs 

3tem for iij barneys & iij saletts 

3tm for ij cases for arrowes 

3tem for fFederyng ij shefF arrowes . 

3tem paid for a groos of poynts 

3tem for ij daggers .... 

3tm for another dagger for richard phillip 

3tm for a dagger for the litell Bowman 

3ttn for a dagger for william Browne 

3tm for a dagger for John lowe 

3tem for a dagger for John lane 

3tm for a dagger for x^ofer neelson . 

3tem for a dagger for Thomas Grene 

3tm more for a dagger & a swerde , 

• • • • • • • ji 

. uj s. uij a. 

iiij s. vj d. ob. 
ix s. iiij d. 
ij s. xd. 
XV d. 


XX s. 

xiij d. 

• • • • • • ji 
ij s. UIJ a. 

viij d. 





viij d. 
viij d. 

XX d. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 

Jfm for vj suerde girdells 

Jfm for iiij chapes for swerdes 

3fm paid viij swerdes ....... 

3fm for makyng clene of x gorgetts .... 

3fm paid more for oon swerde for not brown . 

3fem paid to the x men after Trinitie sonday to drynke . 

3tem paid for botehire the next day .... 

3tm paid fFor drynke on Trinitie sonday .... 

3tem paid for a swerde whiche was Broken 

3tm paid more to the same ten men on corpus xpi Even . 

3tm laide oute for prest money to x men at ij s. vj d. a man 

3tem for brede & drynke for the same soulders 

3tem more for a dagger & a gird ell 


viij d. 
xviij d. 

• • • • • • • ^m 

nj s. iiy a. 

• • • • ^^L 


nj s. uij a. 

XXV s. 



3tem to James fflent which mr vsthwayte brought whiche maister 
usthwayte shall pay in . . . . . . . xij d. 

Sin to^* XV ti. X s. V d. oB. 

These preparations were necessitated by the renewal of Henry VIIFs 
quarrel with France. 

I544-5. 3tem Receavyd of Mas? Aleyne skynnere at the beryall of 
Mistrys Taylor hys mother to thewse of o' halle . xxxj s. viij d. 

tL^t Charges of the settyng forthe of xxij men to the kyngs armye at 
iij Sondry tymes. 

3ttn payde for a pece of fryse of xxxvij yards long . . . j li. iij s. 
3tm payde for a harnys to Robarte Taylor prise . . . ixs. vj d. 
3tm payde for ij pare of slevys of Mayle by Machim . . iij s. iiij d. 
3tm payde to John Day for a hole almare Revett a sallat one pare of 
splents a pare of Bregenders ..... viij s. viij d. 

Almayne rivets were overlapping plates of armour to protect the lower 
parts of the body. They were held together by rivets moving in slits to 
allow of freer motion. The word " Almayne " was the mediaeval name for 
Germany, where this armour was made. A " salade " or " sallett " was a 
light helmet, with or without a visor, chiefly used by foot soldiers. 

152 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3fm payde to John day for Another Alman Revett prise . . vij s, 

3f m payde for ij lether Jorkyns ij s. iiij d. 

3f m payde for the makyng of x cotes vs. viij d. 

3fm payde for the mendyng of the harnys . . . . j s. ij d. 

1545-6. 3tm Resceyvid for vj brasse potts sold weyng cvij lb. at 
xvj s. the c xvij s. 

3fm Resceyvid for rten Course pewter mettell whiche remayned in the 
hall weyng di C vj lb. at ij d. ob the j lb. . . . xiij s. j d. oB- 

3tm Resceyvid of Clement kellyngworthe for old spones weyng vij lb. 
at ij d. ob the j lb xvij d. oB. 

3ttn Resceyvid for xxxiij stone potts sold to dyus of the company 
at j d. le pese ij s. ix d. 

3tm Resceyvid for xlij bottells of stone sold to dyus of the Company 
at ij d. le pese . . . . . . . . . vij s. 

These were pewter-lidded pots and bottles which had been forfeited, 
with the other ware mentioned, for bad workmanship or quality. 

3tm Resceyvid of henry Clerke for a fiyne because he came after the ower 
appoynted when mr hawkyns was buryad . . . . xij d. 

t^^t xv'*** for the Cundytts that be newe made. [A payment of 6^. 8rf. 
for the " first " fifteenth, and a similar payment for the " second."] 

These were probably the Conduits for distributing the water newly 
conveyed from Hampstead in 1543 and from Hoxton in 1546. Stow 
states that conduits were erected in Lothbury and in Coleman Street in 
1546. In 1589 a fifteenth was granted by the Common Council for 
cleansing the River Fleet. 

3tm payd to a paynter for payntyng of xxvij yeards of clothe 
whiche was the old paynted clothes that did hang in the Coun- 
tynghouse and for vj yeards of clothe more to pforme the sayd 
hangyngs vij s. iiij d. 

3tm payd to a Glasier for makyng the pewterers armys in ascochyn in 
one of the hall wyndows & for settyng in of ix quarells in the 
wyndowes where the Glasse was brokyn . . , , xx d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 153 

1546-7. 3tm p^ for a dynner at the pewterers Hall for m' shryue 
[Sheriff] certayne alderman and the hole crafte of the crafts free 
gyfte to m' Shryue the same daye vij li. 

Thomas Curtis, Sheriff of London in 1546, was Master in the 
previous year, and was re-elected to that office for the year of his 
Shrievalty. A full account of this eminent member of the Company 
will be found on a later page. 

3tm delyuered for a dynner at the hall for the Rest of the company that 
dyned there withe all them that had byne Wardens wyfs. xviij s. vd. 

Jf m payde to Elderbeeks wyf for dressynge of the dynner at the mayers 
fFeaste . xijd. 

3tm payde at dyrige and masse on owre ladye daye, to the Curate viij d., 
to the Decon vj d., to ij condutf viij d., to ij prestf viij d., to the 
Sexton iiijd. Jtm to the dark for syngynge the highe masse in 
pryckesonge and for his dyrige and masse of Requyem iij s. iiij d. 
3fm p^ to the churche wardens for the occupyinge of they re 
Ornament e xx d. 3tm p"* for spyce Breade iij s. vj d. 3tm p"* for a 
chese xj d. 3tm p"* for a kylderkyn of good ale ij s. 3tm for ij half 
pownde tapers viij d. ..... . xiiij s. xjd. 

This is the last record of the religious celebration at AUhallows, 
Lombard Street, on " our Lady daye Assumpcion " with the full ritual 
of pre-Reformation times. Compare with the above the details of the 
service held in 1548-9. 

3tm payde more for a xv'** & half agaynst the crownacion of the kyngs 
maiestye xs. 

King Edward VI was crowned at Westminster, 20th February, 1547. 

3ttn p^ for cressyt lyght and for cresset berers and men to beare the bags 

w* lyght on mydsomer euyn and sainte Peters Euyn for m' shryue 

viij s. iiij d. 

(H^ffolBancee thys yere. 3tm we aske allowaunce for the dyni? on owre 
lady daye assumpcion for that that the may re of london my lorde 
Chefe Baron & other dyned the)rre that daye by the graunte of the 
hole clothynge "ij tt. 

"iim pd for wryttynge and Ingrossynge of this accompte . . vs. 

L 2 

154 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

The accounts for this year and those of the twenty-two years next follow- 
ing are written in a beautiful hand by Edmund Browne, who was Clerk to the 
Company from 155 1 or earlier until his death in 1568-9. His skilfiil 
penmanship was a labour of love, and the initial "T" of each account is 
beautifully drawn and embellished in the later years with humorous devices 
and elaborate flourishes. After Browne's death, this artistic excellence 
disappears. For ingrossing each yearly account at this time, the Clerk 
received 5^.; this was increased later to 6^. 8rf., and in 1570, 10^. was paid. 
The Clerk's yearly salary was 20^., and his other emoluments included fees 
for preparing legal deeds, the roll of members, and other documents. 

1547-8* (5^ of a Spanyarde for kepyng Daunsyng in y* Hall for iij 
months .......... xvs. 

An entry two years later gives the name of the Spaniard as 
Jesper. In this and the previous year's accounts first appears (except 
for a casual margin use in 1509-10, which may not have been con- 
temporary) the form " y* " in imitation of the old English " Y " which 
dropped out of use at the end of the 15 th century. The older 
letter was used in various words and syllables, as in "J?V' "J?is," &c., 
but its later equivalent was used only in the word "yV* and came 
down to quite modern times as a convenient and rapid way of writing 
this much used word. 

3fm spent at the Ale howse by the Hall Amonge the wardens & dyuers 
of the company y* xxvij daye July iij d. 

3tm the therde daye of August spent at y* ale howse . . ij d. 

3fm spent at an ale howse at yelde Hall when m' Curteyes prentyce was 
made free ......... iij d. 

The above three entries were disallowed by the auditors. 

Jfm p** to y* beadle for half a thowsand of brycke the xxj daye of 
flfebruary ......... iiij s. 

This outlay was for repairs to the Company's property. Among 
his various duties the Beadle also carried out those of Clerk of the Works 
or Master builder. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 155 

3f m Spente at the iij tonnes at newgate market When the m" mr HeyfForde 
mr Ponder & goodma Rewe after theyre beynge at the speker of the 
plyament the xxvij daye of novemBr .... viij d. 

3fm to the Mase Bearer of the plyment . . . . vj s. viij d. 

Jtm to the Porter of the common [Commons] howse . . xij d. 

Jtm to the Inner porter of the common howse . . . iiij d. 

Jfm p** for viij mens Brekefast at westmynster That ys to saye mr 
warwycke mr Wylkynson & Curteys w* thyre company . xviij d. 

Jf m pd to the Clarke of the plyament vs. 

Jtm pd to his clarke for a Reawarde xij d. 

3fm pd to mr Baker speker of the plyament ij quarte potts gylt which 
we Recey ved of mr Rowlande . . . . . . xx s. 

Costs of the lawe done In london for y* Defence of Rewe 

Edward Rewe was a rebeUious liveryman. In the list of payments 
of quarterage for this and the next year he is a defaulter, but paid his 
dues once more in 1549. The points in contention are not stated, but 
they probably related to the obit of Lawrence Astlyn, whose will was 
brought in evidence. The proceedings took place first before the Court 
of Lord Mayor and Aldermen, who delegated four Aldermen to hold an 
enquiry at Pewterers* Hall. Afterwards the Master and Wardens were 
summoned to Saddlers* Hall to appear before Commissioners who were 
charged to enquire into the dispute. Their decision is not recorded, but 
Rewe afterwards became reconciled to the Company. 

3fm p^ to a pursyuaunt that belonged to the Vysyters at Sadlers Hall y* 
xxvj daye of Ap'ell iij s. iiij d. 

3tm p** to my lorde chefFe Barnes [Lord Chief Baron*s] Clarke for 
Redyng & takynge of yo' names the xxvj daye of Ap'ell xvj d. 

3ttn spent at the Sadlers Hall when the maysters & wardens went to the 
vysyters ijd. 

3ttn p"^ to Robert xpofFer one of my Lorde mayres Clarke for Drawyng 
o' Answere to thartycles Dyrected vnto vs by the comysoners 
towching owre Hall & pvsing o*" evydence . . . vs. 

1 56 History of the Pewierers" Company. 

Jfm p"* to hym more for his paynes for Drawynge of an Answere to 
Rewes byll & for cerchyng the boke of the tre G as towchyng 
Rebelyons in companyes vj s. viij d. 

The " Letter Books " are a series of volumes preserved among the 
City records. They extend in date from the eariy part of Edward I's 
reign almost to the end of that of James 11. "Boke G" is the seventh 
in the series, the eariier volumes of which contain the proceedings of both 
the Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. 

Jf m spent at yelde hall gate iij d. 

This appears to have been at the entrance to Guildhall in Cateaton 
Street, now Gresham Street, St. Lawrence Jewry Church being at the 
west corner and perhaps the " ale house " at the east. There were two 
taverns in Guildhall Yard, and each is described on the tradesman's 
token issued by its proprietor as at Guildhall Gate. Thomas Ailay of 
the Three Tuns (the Vintners' Company's Arms) issued a halfpenny 
token in 1665; of the White Lion at Guildhall Gate two tokens exist, 
one issued by W. C. before the Great Fire of 1666, the other in 1669 by 
Robert Peete. 

(^feo be yt rememberyd that all the crfts moulds be browght home 
from m' Curtys house to the hall & certyn harnys that is to say a payer 
of wambrats, a payer of polrons & a payer of vpper parts of legge harnys 
& also XX s, iiij d. of money for the dett of barnard belamy of taunton 
whych he receyuyd of m' grymys. 

1548-9. Charge for maister lawrence Ashlyn at abchurche. Jfm 
p** amonge the pore people of the same pishe in almes . . ij s. vj d. 
3f m p^ to the bedyll for his paynys ..... iiij d. 

The charges at this obit for the preceding year amounted to 95. lorf., 
and included payments to the priests and clerks for dirige and mass, for 
ringing, wax, and other expenses, including gifts to the poor. The poor 
still received their gifts and the beadle his payments, amounting together 
to 2^. lorf., the balance of 7^. being paid to the King's rent gatherer. A 
hand with extended index finger points to these entries in this year's 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 157 

C9ar90 at alhallowes in lumberd strete the sonday before o' ladydaye 
thassuptio. Jtm pd to the Curat of the sayde churche for takyng 
paynes at the comunyon iiij d. Jtm p*^ to the clarke for hym & other 
syngers at the comunion iij s. iiij d. 3tm p^ to the churchwardens for 
Ocupyinge of theyre Ornaments xx d vs. iiij d. 

This is the first record of the annual religious festival on election day 
in Reformation times, and its baldness must have afforded a striking 
contrast to the splendour of the older ceremonial ; even the modest meal 
of buns and spiced ale disappears. 

3n ifm\% p^ for the Renewynge and confirmacon of owre Corporacion 
and also of o*" Readyng [riding] patent . . vij li xiij s. iiij d. 

This was the usual charter of inspeximus. The original, granted by 
King Edward VI on 26 November, 1548, being the second year of his 
reign, is in the Company's possession. 

3fm p^ for a markynge Iron of the. flowre delyce to amarked stone potts 
w* . . xd. 

It does not appear to have been the practice of the Company to mark 
all pewter ware, but rather to oblige the maker to put his own mark on 
every article. Why the lids of stone pots should have had a special 
mark, that of the fieur de lys, is not clear. 

Jfm pd for ye wryttyng of the othe of the crafte in text hande in the 
crucyfyx boke viij d. 

"iim p^ for woode & cole at the tyme that sr Martyn bowes knight Sat in 
the Hall at Edwarde Rues Request at dyir se [divers] tymes for the 
tryall & profFe of o' saye of layemettall .... xiiij d. 

Sir Martin Bowes was the Court goldsmith and a principal member 
and great benefactor of the Goldsmiths' Company. His portrait by 
Holbein is in their Hall. 

Jf m pd to Stephyn Rowland for a payre of saye stones for the hall ij s. 

"iiti^ pd for a Gebbet of woode to hang the golde ballans [balance] on 

xviij d. 
These payments were for appliances required by the Company's 
officers to assay pewter at the Hall. 


History of the Pewterers^ Company. 

City of / 
London. \ 

Rents of 
tions within 
the City of 

3tm pd to cosynton one of the mayres Sargeaunts for beynge o' 

earner & geuynge attendaunts for the hole yeare for his fFee 

vj s. viij d. 

A return of the payments made by the Company for obits or 
chantries from funds left to the Company by deceased members is 
found this year in the records of the Augmentation Office. The result 
was, as we have seen, that the obits were abolished, and the amounts paid 
to the chantry priests were henceforth paid by the Company to the 
Crown ; whilst such sums as were directed by the testators or founders 
to be applied to the relief of the poor, education and other purposes, 
were left in the hands of the Company, who continued to apply them 
to such uses. 

<B;rc9equer. (Stinisfere' (^eeounfe. 1-2 Edw. VI. Roll 31. 

Lands &c. temporal and spiritual in the hands of the Crown. 

Accounts of all and singular the Bailiffs Farmers and other Officers 
and Ministers of all and singular the lordships manors lands and posses- 
sions as well temporal as spiritual whatsoever being in the hand of the 
Lord the King by virtue and authority of a certain Act of the Parliament 
holden upon prorogation at Westminster the fourth day of February in 
the twenty-seventh year of the late King Henry the Eighth and there 
continued until the fourteenth day of April then next ensuing thereof 
published ordained and provided within the government and survey of 
the Court of Augmentations and Revenues of the King's Crown there, 
namely, from the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel in the first year 
of the reign of the Lord now King Edward the Sixth by the grace of 
God King of England France and Ireland Defender of the Faith and of 
the Church of England and Ireland in Earth the Supreme Head until 
the same Feast of Saint Michael then next ensuing in the second year 
of the same Lord the King, to wit, for one entire year. 

Account of Edward Mildemay gentleman Collector of the Rents 
there for half a year ended at the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel 
in the second year of the reign of King Edward the Sixth. 

None because the first Account for the Lord the King. 

Sum — none. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


nf Gold- 
smiths of 

of the 
of the 

But hb renders Account op — 66^. 8rf. for a certain Rent received 

from the Wardens of the Company of Goldsmiths London etc. 

And op — 4J. \\d. of Rent received from the Wardens of the Com- 
pany aforesaid for a certain obit founded in the Church of Saint Mary 
Abchurche issuing out of their lands and tenements which were formerly 
of Laurence Astelyn at 9^. i orf. by the year due for half a year ended at 
the feast aforesaid Op 6^. 8rf- of Rent paid to the late College of Aeon 
at 13*. \d. by the year due for half a year ended at the feast of Saint 
Michael the Archangel this year he does not answer Because the said 
Rent is charged among the possessions of the said late College within 
the City of London as appears in the said Account But he answers 
POR — \os. of Rent received from the Wardens aforesaid for a certain 
obit founded at Sabbysforde in the County of Hertford issuing out of 
their lands and tenements at 205. by the year due for half a year ended 
at the feast aforesaid And of — 13^. 4^. received from the same Wardens 
for a certain obit founded in the Cathedral Church of Saint Paul for the 
soul of John Gotehame at 26^. 8rf. by the year due for half a year ended 

at the feast aforesaid. 

Sum — 28^. 3^. 

In their accounts for 1547-9 the Yeomanry is for the last time styled 
a fraternity. The heading of the ensuing accounts is in the following 
style: — "^9^0 is the Acomte of vs Symond Ponder thomas kychyne 
John powell thomas wyddous wardens of the yomenry of pewterers wyth 
in the cytty of london maide & dellyveryd &c." The heading of the 
account for 1498-1500 is printed on p. 81. 

3fm payde fFor makynge a new Sestorne of leade weynge iiij C q^ viij lb 
as aperes by the plomars by 11 ..... xxvij s. xd. 
Jf m payde fFor a Coke to the Same sestorne . . . . v s. vj d. 
3tm payde fFor the stole and the cover to the Same sestorne . iij s. vj d. 
Jfm payde fFor hynges nayles & tampion to the Same sestorne . xij d. 

The above four entries are in the Yeomanry accounts. 

1549-50. Jfm Rs of John Mathewe for breakyng an order made by 
the Maister wardens and ascystaunts by his concent for a voydynge 
.... betwene Thomas Clarke and hym at fFayres . iij s. iiij d. 

i6o History of the Pewterers' Company, 

Jfm pd for ij newe horsse Shewes vj d. 

Jtm pd for ij payre of Spurres xij d. 

Charge of the Purchase of the Obbyts and Quyt Rents of the 
kynge, w* other Necessary payments as folowithe: 

3fm pd to my Lorde Treasorer by my Lorde Mayors comaundement for 
the Purchase of vij s. a yeare yerely for m' Ashlyns obbyt, And more 
xiij s. iiij d. for a yearly quyt Rent payde owt of gregory AUye. And 
more vj s. viij d. payd to the Petycannons of Poules for kepynge an 
Nobbyt at Sappysford for Ser Robert Ashlyn Sm xxvij s. by yere, 
which cost the Sm of xxvij li. 

Jfm p** more by my Lorde Mayors coinaundm€t towarde the Drawyng 
& wrytyng of the Patent for o' parte ... iiij s. iiij d. 

Jfm p** to m' blackwall the towne Clarke for Assuraunce & for Drawynge 
and Wryttynge therof for the sayde Obbytts and Quyt Rents 
as yt aperyth in the dede viij s. 

Jfm pd to M' Hewys the kyngs Surveyo' to haue his lawful! fFavor that 
we might not be ouer Charged for a Rewarde . . iij s. iiij d. 

The payment by the Companies to the Augmentation Office every 
half-year as a rent charge all sums which they had been wont to pay for 
the maintenance of obits lasted but a short time. A year afterwards, the 
Government found itself in urgent need of money, and resolved to sell 
chantry lands to the annual value of 5,000/. In this 5,000/. were included 
the 1,000/. annually due from the City Companies, and accordingly they 
now received an intimation from the Council that they were expected to 
redeem these rents by the payment of 20,000/., and that within eight 
days. The Companies dared not resist, and as they had no large sum of 
money at their disposal wherewith to meet the demand, they had to sell a 
good deal of the property remaining to them, in order to raise the 
requisite sum. The simultaneous throwing of so much land upon the 
market, compelled some of the Companies to accept rather low prices. 
But on the whole, the Companies made a satisfactory bargain for them- 
selves. The sum of the rents sacrificed by the eleven Companies, for 
which we have the requisite information, was 601/. 14J. 6rf., and the rents 
recovered, 628/. 4*. lorf. The total amount which the Government finally 

History of the Pewterers' Company. i6i 

accepted from all the London Companies was about 1 8,700/. ; in return 
for which it handed over the right, not apparently to the whole of the 
rent charges, but to an amount calculated on the basis of twenty years' 
purchase. These can hardly be regarded as extortionate terms, seeing 
that twenty years' purchase was the ordinary price of land. The letters 
patent conveying the re-grant to the Companies were signed in July, 1550, 
and the title of the Companies, and of all other purchasers of chantry 
lands, was confirmed by subsequent statute. [Ashley's English Economic 
History^ Vol. I, part 2, pp. 153-4.] 

(f}afenf Qfoff. 4 Edw. VI. part 7, m. 15 (43). 

Grant of Rents late of the Pewterers' Company. 

For Augustin Hynde and others — Of a Grant to them and 
their heirs. 

Thb King to all to whom etc. Greeting Know ye that we 
for the sum of Eighteen thousand seven hundred and forty four pounds 
eleven shillings and two pence of lawful money of England paid to the 
hands of the Treasurer of our Court of Augmentations and Revenues of 
our Crown to our use by our beloved Augustine Hynde and Richard 
Turke Citizens and Aldermen of the City of London and William 
Blackwell gentleman Common Clerk of the same City whereof we 
acknowledge ourselves to be fiiUy satisfied and paid and the same 
Augustine Richard and William their heirs executors and administrators 
to be thereof acquitted and discharged by these presents of our especial 
grace and of our certain knowledge and mere motion and also with the 
advice of our Council have given and granted and by these presents do 
give and grant to the aforesaid Augustine Hynde Richard Turke and 
William Blakewell All that our rent and annuity [and so forth]. 


And all that our rent annuity and yearly sum of seven shillings 
issuing out of messuages and tenements of the [Master] Wardens and 
Commonalty of the Mystery of the Pewterers of the City of London 
situate and being in Gregorye Alleye without Crepulgate London within 
the parish of Saint Giles without Crepulgate London which said yearly 
sum rent or annuity the same Master Wardens and Commonalty lately 

1 62 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

paid and used to pay yearly for the anniversary of Laurence Astelyne in 
the church of Saint Mary Abchurche London And all that our rent 
annuity and yearly sum of thirteen shillings and four pence by the year 
issuing out of the same messuages and tenements in Gregorye AUeye 
aforesaid which said yearly sum rent or annuity the same Master 
Wardens and Commonalty lately paid and used to pay yearly to the 
Master and Brethren of the lately dissolved College of Aeon in London 
And all that our rent annuity and yearly sum of six shillings and eight 
pence by the year issuing out of the messuage called the Pewterers hall 
of the same Master Wardens and Commonalty and out of five tenements 
to the same messuage adjacent and appertaining situate and being in the 
street of Lyme-strete within the parish of Saint Dionis London which 
said yearly sum rent or annuity the same Master Wardens and Com- 
monalty lately paid and used to pay yearly for the anniversary of Robert 
Astelyne in the parish church of Shapford in our county of Hertford 
And all that our rent [and so forth]. # # # # # 

All and singular which aforesaid several yearly rents sums of 
money annuities and yearly sums above expressed and specified now 
amount in the whole to the clear yearly value of nine hundred and thirty 
nine pounds two shillings five pence and one halfpenny To have hold 
and enjoy all and singular the aforesaid several yearly rents annuities 
sums of money and yearly sums and other all and singular the premises 
above expressed and specified with all and singular and every their 
appurtenances to the aforesaid Augustine Hynde Richard Turke and 
William Blackwell their heirs and assigns for ever to the proper use and 
behoof of them the said Augustine Richard and William their heirs and 
assigns for ever without in any wise rendering paying or making account 
rent service tenure or any other thing therefor or for any part thereof to 
us our heirs or successors Any law statute act ordinance use custom 
provision proclamation or restraint to the contrary thereof had made 
published ordained or provided or any other thing cause or matter what- 
soever to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding And we will 
and by these presents do firmly enjoin and command as well the 
Chancellor and General Surveyors and our Council of our said Court of 
Augmentations and Revenues of our Crown as all Receivers Auditors 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 1 63 

and other Officers or Ministers of us our heirs and successors whomsoever 
for the time being that they and every of them upon the sole demon- 
stration of these our letters patent or the inrolment of the same without 
other writ or warrant from us our heirs or successors in any wise to be 
obtained or sued forth shall make and from time to time shall cause to 
be made to the aforesaid Augustine Hynde Richard Turke and William 
Blackwell their heirs and assigns full entire and due allowance and 
manifest discharge from all and singular the aforesaid several yearly rents 
and sums of money above expressed and specified and from every parcel 
thereof And these our letters patent or the inrolment of the same shall 
be yearly and from time to time as well to the said Chancellor and 
General Surveyors [and] our Council of our said Court of Augmentations 
and Revenues of our Crown as to all Receivers Auditors and other 
Officers and Ministers of us our heirs and successors whomsoever for 
the time being sufficient warrant and discharge in this behalf And 
MOREOVER of our more ample grace we give and by these presents do 
grant to the aforesaid Augustine Hynde Richard Turke and William 
Blackwell all the issues revenues profits and arrearages of all and singular 
the aforesaid rents annuities and yearly sums above expressed and 
specified and of every of them arising or growing from the feast of 
Saint Michael the Archangel last past until now To have to the same 
Augustine Hynde Richard Turke and William Blackwell without ac- 
count or any other thing to us our heirs or successors in any wise 
to be rendered paid or done We will also and by these presents 
do grant to the aforesaid Augustine Hynde Richard Turke and 
William Blackwell that they may have and shall have these our letters 
patent duly made and sealed under our Great Seal of England without 
fine or fee great or small to us in our Hanaper or elsewhere to our 
use therefor in any wise to be rendered paid or made Although 
express mention etc. In witness whereof etc. Witness the King 

at Leighes the fourth day of July. 

By the King himself. 

Jfitt pd more to the Clarke of the mearsers [Mercers] too pvse ouer owre 
corporacion by my lord Mayers comaundement and for drawyng 
owt the efFecte therof ....... ijs. 

1 64 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

^^ namys of them that gave napry to the hall in 

mi a** tercio Rs E vj** mence January fFyrst m' curtes gave 

, I^T^ ^ a playne table clothe for the hye table a dA [dozen] 

^^l^~" of playne napkyns markyd w' hys m'ke & a towell of 

lYlm cambryck. [Book of Inventories. The mark of Alderman 

\^^ Curtis here shown is copied from the margin of the 

The inventory of the Company's goods in 1550 is here transcribed 
from the Book of Inventories for comparison with that of the previous 
century, printed at pages 68-76. 

^^XB is the Inuentori made by vs Wittm Hustwayte John Deye 
and Thomas Woodowce m' and Wardens of the fFelowship of Pewterers 
the xv'** daye of septembr In the fFourth yeare of the Raigne of o' 
Soueraigne Lorde Edwarde the Syxte by the Grace of god of Englande 
fFraunce and Irelande kynge Defendour of the faithe and of the Churche 
of Englande and Irelande in yearthe the Supreme hed. 

In the countynge howse. 
Jn p^xaiz in Syluer Spones . xxj. 

Jfitt in Garland e of Red veluet ...... iij. 

Jfm vpon the sayde Garland^ a pendaunt of Syluer and gylte of an Image 
of o' lady ij Scochyns of Syluer enanyueld w' the Armes of the 
Crafte and ij lylly pott^ of Syluer & iiij strak^ of syluer waing all 

Jfitt a Common Seale of Syluer w' the Armes of the Crafte Grauen 

therin weyng 
Jf itt a Table of Waynscot w' a payre of Tressellf 

Jfm a Carpet lyinge vpon the sayde Table .... j. 

Jfm iij Joyned formes wherof one Couered w' a Clothe Olde . iij. 

Jfitt in Chesty one blacke chesty couered w' lether and bounde w^ Iron 
A cheste of Waynscote for Napery, and a lytle cheste paynted 
w' the Armes of the Crafte iij. 

Jfm a lytle newe forme and a chest of waynscot ... ij. 

Jfm in Pottell Pott^ xij. 

Jfm in Quarte pottf xiij. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 





Jfm in stope Pynt^ xi 

Jtm in Nuf half pynte xin 

Jfm in Sake Syllers w*owt Couers 

Jtw in Sake Sellers w* cou whiche was had of mr blackwall 

5tm iij basons & iij yores [ewers] 

5tm in iiij li Chargers barrelled xi 

5tm in Platters 

Jtw in dysshes iij***^ 

Jfitt in Sawcers iij***^ 

Jfm in V lb chargars vj 


Jtm in iiij li Charger mouldy brode bordered 

Jfm in Newe fasshion Hatt Mould e 

Jfm in Spyce Plate Mouldy . 

Jfm in Narrowe bordered dyshe Mouldy . 

Jfm in Narrowe borderyd Sawcer Moulde ..... 11 

5tm a Readyng Patent w* the kyng^ brode Seale of yelowe waxe in 

Rownde lether boxe 

Jfm a Lether Case w' Patent of the Armes of the Crafte . 

Jtm the laste confirmacon of the Corporacon of the Crafte Sealed w' grene 

waxe in a lether Cace 
5tm in Rowlys of wryttyng^ bounde in bundett^ of the Sute for Actf of 

plyament lying in the baye wyndowe 
Jtw a longe boxe of waynscott to put banners in 

Jfitt a Table of Pewter w' euery mans Marke therein 

Jfitt in Streamers of Sylke of o' lady 

Jfm in banners of the olde Armes of y* craft 

Jfm in olde Stremers of Saynt Mighell . 

5tm in other Small Stremers . 

Jtw in Trompet banners of Sylke vii 

Jtm in Jurye bokes 

Jfm in Greate horded bokf of the Accomptf of the wardens 

(i) The oldest of the existing Touch-plates is ten$p. Charles I. 


1 66 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3fm this present boke of Inuentoryes wrytten on gyftf of good 
people beynge of the gyfte of waiter walshe whose name ys wryt- 
ten t heron ......... j. 

Jfm in lytle bok^ w' blacke Couering^ ..... ij. 

3fm in Tables wherin ys wryttyn the Othe of this Citie and of the Crafte 
and the Names of the hole Clothyng of the sayde Crafte . ij. 

3fm in Markyng Irones w' the badge Or mark^ of the Crafte . ij. 

Jfm a standyshe of Pewter & a sandboxe of Pewter. 

Jfm an olde boxe or Casket w' iij Corporacons Sealed w' grene waxe the 
one of Edward the iiij'** and the other of kynge henry the vij'** and 
the therde of kynge henry the viij'*" w' iiij Patent^ Sealed w* yelowe 
waxe w' a Coppy of a Patent Sealed w* Red waxe graunted out by 
the crafte viij. 

yeare of kynge 

. ij bookf 

the countynge 

• ■ • 

iiij"*"* & vj. 


3fm a whyte boxe w' dyuerse wrytyng^ . 

3tw a boke of Act^ of Parlyamentf made in the xxviij'** 
Henry the viij*** ...... 

3t the ordynancf of the craft 

3tm in Hangynge of Paynted worke Hangyng abowte 
howse ........ 

Jim in wooden Trenshers ..... 

3tm a jebet for golde ballande .... 

3t a payre of saye stonys & a payre of gold baland^ 

'iim Dyap Table Clothes 
3fm playne Table Clothes 
3tm Dyap Towell^ . 
3tm Dpap Napkyns 
3tm Playne Napkyns 
3tm olde Hand Towell^ of Dyap 

3tin a Cupborde Clothe wrought w* sylke of Neadleworke of the gyfte 
of Wittm hustwait j. 

3f playne towell^ wherof ther is oon fyne & two corse . . iij. 



iiij^^ vj pece. 


History of the Pewterers Company. 



• • • 

• • • • 


In the had. 
Jtm in longe Tables .... 

Jfm in Tresselle 

Jtw in longe formes .... 
Jtm in Shorte formes .... 
5tm in Joyned Stoles .... 
Jfm in Scocshyns of the kyngf Armes and the Armes of the Crafte xviij. 

Jtm in longe fote pacf iiij. 

Jfm Shorte fote stoUys ........ xix. 

Jfm in Hangyngf abowt the hall j pec. 

Jfitt ij Scowchyns of the gyfte of Robert Taylo' one w* o' lady Assump- 
tyon & j w' y* kyngf armes ij. 

In the buttry and ij sellers, 
Jfm a lytle bred-chest w' a couer 
Jfm a lytle Awmbery .... 
3tm a lytle Ale Jestf & for beare 

In the Pantry. 
Jfm a greate cheste bounde w' Iron & a cord 

In the kytchyn. 
Jfitt a greate brasse pott weying 
3fitt in lesse brasse pott^ ij weyinge 
3fitt in lytle pannes of brasse . 
3fm a greate brasse pann weyinge 
3fm in spytte square and Rounde 
3tm a greate Gredyron weying 
3<w a dryppyng pann waying . 
3tm a payre of Iron Rackf waying 
3fitt a grene sawce morter of stone w' a pestle 
3tin an Iron Couer for the ouyns mouth . 
"iira a Dressyng borde w^ tressettf . 
3tm a cestorn of lede for watt' 


• • ■ ■ 



Ixxxxv U. 
iij qrt xx li. 

xxxiij li. 

• • * • 

ix li. 




1 68 

History of the Pewterers Company. 


abowte the 

Jfm a latten coUynder .... 
Jfm a latten skemer [skimmer] and a ladell. 

In the larder hawse. 
3fm a boultyng Pype to boult meale in 



the hall. 

In the Parlo 

3fm in longe Tables ........ iiij. 

Jtm in Tressett^ ......... vj. 

Jfw in Joyned formes ........ iij. 

Jfm a Carpenters forme ........ j. 

Jfm in longe banner staues ....... iij. 

In the Garret ouer the Parlour. 

Jfm in Small Iron beames w' Scales of lether and w'owt Scales which were 

forfyted . . xv. 

Jfm a quarter waight of brasse ...... j. 

Jfm a waight of brasse of xiiij li. 

Jfm a waight of brasse of viij li. 

3fm a waight of brasse of iiij li. 

3fm a waight of brasse of ij li 

3i^ in half pound waight e of brasse ij. 

3i^ in quarter brassen waight^ ij. 

3tm in half C waight e of leade [This entry is crossed through.] ij. 

3tm a lether bage to Carry waight^ in when Search ys made . j. 

3itn a fyer bason of latten weying vj li. 

3tin in Cresette viij. 

3i^ a hearse Cloth of Cloth of Golde j. 

3i^ a boxe for the sayde hearsse Clothe and lynnyn Clothe to laye yt in 
3tin in whyte Cotton Cotes for bowe men 
3<m in Strawen Hattf for Cresset berrers . 
3itn in Canuas ffrockf w' hood^ 

3fm in tressettf 

3titt in olde Tymbr for a bey wyndow 

3im a Complet Harneys lackynge a showlder Plate 



• ■ • • 


ij pece 

iiij pecf . 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Jf m in Aprons of Male . . 

Jfm in Gorgettf of Male 

Jfitt Almen Reuetf [Almaine rivets] as backe & brest^ vij 
vij payre of Splyntf 

5tm a nother payre of Splynts. 

Jfm a payre of bregynders. 

Jfm iiij scoUf & x Sallett^ 

Jtm in swordf .... 

Jfm in Daggers .... 

Jfm in Gorgettf .... 

Jfm a payre of Canuas sleues . 

3fitt a payre of Gauntlytf 

Jfitt in olde legg Harneys 

Jfm in shoulder pecf 

Jfitt in bowes .... 

Jfm in Sheue of Arrowes 

Jfitt in new Cotes .... 

Jtm a mowlde for gonnys [later addition] 

Jfitt in lether botes for horssmen 

3tin iij Gonnes and three Homes 

3fin in bylle vj and in Halberdf iij . 

Jtm a longe byll w* a long poynt 

Jfm Gerdles for sword ^ . 

Jfm spurres ..... 

Jfitt in Empty Casis for Arrowes 

Jfitt a greate block w^ fete to scowr harneys 

Jfm a Skrene ..... 

Jfm in Lytle banner staues 

3fm in lether Jerkyns [later addition] 

3t ther is two pecf of payntyd cloths that dyd hange in the hall 

In the Inner Yarde. 

^im 2L bockct to the well w' an Iron Chayne and a corde. 


• • • 



payre and 
for vij men. 





xiiij pecf . 

« • • • 



■ • • ■ 



• ■ 




ij pair. 



be neth ij. 

M 2 

I70 History of the Pewterers' Company, 

1551. In 155 1 the minute books begin. They were first styled 
an " accompt " of " playnts and defaults," then of " complaints and acts," 
and later still of " all acts and things " done during the year. At the 
beginning of each yearly record is a general heading, the first (for the 
year 155 1) being as follows: the page is much mutilated. 

^9w ys the accompt of [the] playntf and defaltf done of the hole 
felowship of ... . the yeare of Robert Taylo' maister, John [Royston, 
Nycholas] Crostwayte Wardens whiche ys for the space of one ho[le 
yeare begynnyng] at the feaste of Saynte Michaell the Archaungell In 
the [yeare of owre] lorde god a mV^^lj And Endyng at the sayde feaste 
.... As more playnly heareafter appearythe. 

^fuf taken at sturbrydg fayre by m' Hustwayte and Wittm baker. 

Jn (f)^mi6 George quyntyn a Brasse pott weyinge xiij Hi di John Warren 
of Walden ij Brasse morters stopped w' leade weying xvj Hi John 
Watson a Lytle morter of Brasse weying v li . . xxxiiij lli di. 

3fm pd for the half therof for the kyngf parte to Richarde Brasye, 
Wittm Sherwoode and John merse, Offycers apoynted for the mayo' 
of Cambrydg and the vnyuersyte [university] theare iiij s. iiij d. 

3fm John Vmble of Berry ij myddyll plattf and a sawser weying iij lli 
qrt , John Warren iij Saltf weyng j lli qrter, John Watson a dysh 
and viij sawcers weyinge iij lli iij q*rters. Jfw taken in owt Landysh 
Saltf with ij Lyddf weying ij lli & a di of dyuerse mens Sm xUi. 
.... mote ij bottellf one of Lether and the .... her glasse 

wyssed w* pewter of m' ... at Newgate. 3f m ij other bottellf of glasse 

Couered w' blacke Lether wyssed w* pewter of the goodf of Randall 

Hankey dweling in the poultery. 

Jfm which iiij bottellf the foresayde Richard Brasye & his parteners hath 
ij of them and the other ij Remaynyng for the Crafte. 
(St^ agreed w^ the sayde Richarde Brasye Will in Sherwood and John 

merse for o' parte of the forfayture of the last yeare in An*" 155 1 that ys 

to saye for the half. 

(St^- that this accompt was audyt the xxj'** daye of decemBr An** quinto 

RRs E. vj'* by Wittm hustwayte, John dey, Wittm haynes and Edward 

Rewe, So that we the sayde audytours do fynd by neclygence of mr. 

History of the Pewterers' Company, 171 

Richard Crostwayte, Clement kyllyngworth & Stephyn Rowlanson late 
m', & wardens of the sayde felowship for mony which remayned in the 
crafts boxe after two Seuerall fFalls made by ij Seuerall ProclymacDns of 
the sayde mony the one half of vti xd, which mony ys but at this 
present daye, Is. vd. [Foot of Account for 1 550-1.] 

f^i the same court [23 rd October] m" peckf waytf ys determyned 
to be forfet that ys to saye an viij Hi for vij Hi waite a x Hi for viij Hi wayte 
a iiij Hi w' a Ryng a iij lli Wayte a ij IH wayte that ys ij li & a di and a 
vij li wayte that ys vij Hi iij qrters. 

1551-2. ®t a Courte holden the fyrst daye of ap'ell yt was agreed 
that Robert West shall delyuer betwene this and Easter next comyng xxij U 
wrought in tankerd pottf to mr Crostwaytes house one of the wardens, 
and ij s for workmanship. 

3fm p** for half a garnysh of new ffrenche vesseH w^ doble ffyHyts and 
gravyd and a dosyn of Spanysh trenchers which was gevyn vnto 
my lady baker m' Spekers wyf which vesseH was bought of the mr 
of the Company waying xl ti & di at x d. the ft. Sm xxxiij s. xd. 
Sir John Baker, knight of the shire for the county of Hunting- 
don was Speaker of the House of Commons in Edward VFs first 
Parliament, 1547. 

3tm pd for a dynner at westmynster for the mr. and wardens and the 
Secretory vnto bysshop hoper and certayne other . . ij s. ij d. 

John Hooper, the martyr bishop of Gloucester, was appointed to that 
see in 1550, and held the bishopric of Worcester in commendam in 1552. 
He was deprived by Queen Mary in 1553, and perished at the stake in 
Gloucester on 9 February, 1555. 

dii a Courte holden the xj^** daye of Ap'ell yt was agreed betwene 
John Cutler and RoBrt Web be for a prynt and wheale and all that 
longeth therto whiche prynt the sayde Cutler bought of George Spragyns 
and hath Clerly solde yt to the sayde Robert Webbe for the some of xl s. 
which the sayde Robert ys agrede to paye vpon maye euyn next comyng 
And also the sayde Robert shall Suffer the sayde John to occupy the 
sayde prynt for the space of two yeares next ensuyng after this sayde 
daye before Rehersed. 

172 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

(^t a Courte holden the tenth daye of maye yt was agreed by the m' 
wardens and assystaunce to geue vnto one Robert Torners sonne whose 
name ys peter torner which some tyme dwelled in mylkstreate beynge fFre 
of owre Company of pewterers, which nowe dwellyth in Northfock by occa- 
syon he had Sute in the lawe in the Easter terme and of necessyte lackyng 
of help desyred the Charyte of the Company Wherfore the m"^ Wardens 
and assystaunce hath geuyn hym owt of the Craftf boxe iiij s. iiij d. 

Q^ecesue^ of Richard Selby vij half pynt pottf which be forfeyted 
And yt ys agrede that he shall geue to John burnam the waight in 
mettell of one pot and as moch money as he was payde for the workman- 
ship And also to geue vnto Anthony Cacher the waight of ij pottf & also 
for the workmanship q"^ them And yf he be euer taken w' suche lyke 
faute to be presented to the mayo"^ & benshe. 

f^i a Courte holden the xxj' daye of June Thomas hassill Com- 
playned and sayde that harry martyn had called hym knaue in the open 
streate and harry martyn complayned and sayde that Thomas hassill 
sholde owe hym for a pownde of Tynne and also call hym Jack a napes 
and prating Jack. Wherfore yt was agreed that the sayde partys from 
hensforth sholde be lovers and fFrendf and to paye xij d. apece toward^ 
the RelefFe of the poure people of the Crafte and iiij d. apece to drynk 
to gether before the m' wardens and assystaunce and ij d. apece to the 
beadle And which of them that fyrst doth offend after this tyme to paye 
XX s. a pece according to o" Ordenaunce w^out Redempcion. 

(^f a Courte holden the xiij'^ day of August A° 1551 yt was agreed 
at the same Courte by the hole Assistaunce that for Certayne Saltf which 
were made of laye mettall of dyv erse mens which ought to haue byne 
made of fyne mettall to be broken forthw* and the owners to haue theyre 
mettall agayne and the makers therof to beare the one half of the losse of 
workmanship and the owners therof that bought them to beare the other 
half of the workmanship And ffrom hensforth what so euer they be that 
makyth any saltf other then iiijs. salts and iijs. Salts and chopnets greate 
and small after the olde fashion that then they shalbe forfeyted And that 
no man make no Saltf of any new fashyon w'out yt be allowed and 
adiuged by the m' and wardens Except yt be of fyne mettell The 
makers of theyse Saltf be theyse men that folowe 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 173 

Richard Pryer John Dobbyns 

Richard Selby John slack 

Lawrence Norfock Thomas Awger. 

(^f the same Court [23 September 155 1] yt was agreed that the 
howse should beare the one half of the m' and wardens chargf at 
strbrydg fayre & they the other half. 

^$66 ys to be hadd in Remembrance and gevynge you o' successors 
to vnderstonde that of the almesmen of our sayd company whose names 
here af? foUowythe wee have not getheryd of any of them ether for there 
quarteraygf or dynners but have frely sufFeryd them to enioy the RelefFe 
whiche they R^ of the howse whysshyng all other whiche in our Romes 
here after followe to supporte & maynetayne the lyke that the pore men 
may e8 here af ? be dyschargyd of there quarterayge and have there 
dynners frelye. 

This and the following entry are from the Yeomanry accounts. 
Jfm payde to the mr and wardens toward^ the sewyte yn the plyment 

howse then beyng mr mr taylor as yt dothe apere by a byll of 

Nycolas croswayt^ hande then beyng nether warden vj li. xiij s. iiij d. 

T2^was agreed [i6th December] by the hole asystaunce that the 
howse shold beare the one half of the mony gevyn to the poure at Saynt 
Bartholemews and the company of all the hole crafte the other half And 
the Assystaunce to be newe Seased for the payment therof By theyse 
men that folowe That ys to saye m' Deye m' Cacher and Stephin Rowland 
And the yemandry to be Seased by theyse men that folow that ys to saye 
Wittm Curtys and Allyn gardener And CoUectours to gether the same 
Wittm Myllf and Richard pryer. 

1552-3. d^i a Courte holden the xix'*" daye of January. Yt was 
agreed betwene m" peck and George stockmede for Certayne ShrofFe 
that her husband ought to m' fflecton which was iij q*rters ix li di which 
amount)rth after xxxvj s. the C to xxx s. ij d. Whearvpon the m' and 
wardens w' the assystaunce haue ended the same So that the sayde m" 
peck shall paye forthwith xxs. And so to be cleare of all matters 
betwene her sayd housband and the sayde m' fflecton ffrom the 
begynnyng of the world vnto the daye of making herof. 

174 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

d^i the same Court [22nd February] Richard Willrnson brought in 
his flFyne being xl s. for the keping a man named Symond bradshaw w** 
went abrode in the Countree to seke work & when he cam agayne the 
sayd Richard set hym a worke vnknowne to the m' and wardens, and for 
that yt was his fFyrst fautte the m' & wardens w* the asystaunce forgave 
hym for xij d w*"^ he pd to the craftf box & ij d to the beadle & ij to the 
clarck of the hall & yf he weare taken w' the lyk fFaute to paye the whole 
w*out fFavor. 

(&i the same Court [15th March] yt was agreed that none of the 
Company should nother bye nor sell for no kynd of ware w' Stephyn 
Callye of Westmynster from this daye forward vntyll yt should be farther 
determyned by the m' and wardens vppon payne & penaltye of xl s. w'out 

d^i the same court [13th April] harry tompson was before the m' & 
wardens & assystaunce & there confessed that he had bought of Thomas 
holden vj gobbytf of mettall Sm waying iiij li v li xj li some more & some 
less at vj d. the j li. 

d^i the same Court Thomas holden confessed that he had bought 
w4n this xij monethes of John Smyth xl tymes sometyme vj ti v li xij ti 
some more some les always molten in a pan & bought yt for v d. & v d. 
qr the pound. 

d^i the same Court Robert wilkynson confessed that Willm slack 
hath bought of one willm fFremlyn sertayne of the kingf vessell & the sayd 
wylkynson hath bought of the sayd ffremlyn three dysshes two platters 
barrell bordered the platters viij d. a pece & the disshes vj d. a pece. 

d^t a Court holden the same daye [8th June] yt was agreed that yf 
any be taken to sother any wares with softe payle but only one kynd of 
payle being hard & substancyall such as shalbe made w* tyne & peke & 
w* no other kynd of mettall. Yf any such wares be other wise payled & 
yt be taken shalbe forfeyted And the makers therof to forfayte as moche 
in mony as the ware ys worth besydf the ware. 

d^i the same Court yt was agreed that all those that 1yd stone 
pottf shoulde set their own marck on the in syde of the 1yd & to bring 
in all such stone pottf in to the hall wherby they maye be vewed yf 

History of the Pewterers' Company, i75 

they be workmanly wrought & so be markyd w^ the marck of the hall 
on the owt syde of the Lyd. Also euery one that makyth such stone 
pottf shall make anew marck such one as the m*^ & wardens shalbe pleasid 
w'all whereby they maye be known from this daye forward Theise pottf 
to be brought in wekly vpon the satterdaye and yf the satterdaye be holly 
daye then to bring them in vpon the ffrydaye And loke who doth the 
contrary shall forfayte for euery stone pott so duely provyd iiij d. in mony 
over and besydf the forfayte of all such pottf as be not brought in 
according to this artycle. 

Another version of this order inscribed in the Jury Book orders the 
maker's mark as well as that of the Craft to be placed outside the lid. 

(^f the same Court [8th June] yt was agreed that none of the hole 
Company of the Craft shall sey [assay] nor bye no tynne for no stranger 
nor Englyshman Except yt be for one of the Company being a ffreman 
of the same Craft or for his owne vse & occupying vpon payne to forfayte 
for every pece of tynne so sayde duly provid xx s, to be levyd & taken 
for the Releif of the pore of the sayd Craft. 

(^f the same Courte [5 th September] yt was agreed that mighell 
DofFelde sholde losse iiij pottf w*"** was taken at Saynt Albones for being 
vij graynes worsse then ffyne & some viij some more & some lesse And 
yf he be taken w' the Lyk fFaute agayne to be banysshed Clene out of 
the Craft forthw' w'out any fFavor to the which greament the sayd 
DofFelde hathe here vnder set to his hand. 

3fm Rs of mr Carye mr [Master] for the chaunge of a hatmolde. 

This seems to refer to the ware known as the Cardinal's hat, but 
whether the term refers to the shape of the vessels or a device which they 
bore I cannot say. 

3fm pd to mr Hewet for patrons [patterns] of cloth for them that cam in 
to the lyvery iiij s. iiij d. 

Jfm pd to the Carpenter for makyng o' standing agaynst the crownacon 
& for all things longing to yt xxxiiij s. 

This was the coronation of Queen Mary, which took place on 
I St October, 1553, ^^ ^^ beginning of the Mayoralty of Sir Thomas 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

White. The Queen passed through the City on her way from the 
Tower to Westminster, and the City presented her with the accustomed 
gift of one thousand marks. 

1553 and in A° p'mo Regine marie The xxviij day of January 
M** Sartayn sogyars [certain soldiers] sent forthe of the Cety of london 
and delyu yd to y* lorde mayre of london at ledynhall the day & yere a 
bowe wryttyn to wayght appon the Duke of norfolke leftenant to staye 
sartayn rebellyons at Rochest' in kent y' ys [to] saye Syr Thorns Wyat 
knyght, Syr george harpar knyght, Syr harry Isley knyght, mr Radston. 

1553 in A® p'^mo Regine marie The second day of fFebruary M"* 
Sartayn sogyars made forthe to wayght appon the mayre and the lorde 
wyttm haward lorde admerall of England to kepe london brege & the 
cety at wyche tyme Syr Thorns Wyat and dyu s rebellyous came & lay 
in southewarke from satt'day at aft'non till tuesday the mornyng aft' 
beyng schroftuesday. 

gunnars tij. 

John Jengley 
Robart wylkynson 
Rychard harryson 

lawrans holstock 
John barker 
George lawe 
John powell 
Rychard crosse 
Robart borne 

bylle men xiij. 

bowe men iiij. 
Rychard wyllmson 
Thorns awgar 
RawfFe mollynars 
Rychard borne 

Thorns wolschere 
harry Tomson 
Wyllm slacke 
Stephyne baro 
Rychard selbye 
Rychard kyng 

Rychard androwys. 

London Bridge suffered siege early in 1554, during the rebellion of 
Sir Thomas Wyatt. He arrived in Southwark at the head of the City 
Trained Bands (whom by pretences he had induced to desert to him) on 
the 3rd February. Meeting with no opposition in Southwark, he 
destroyed the Bishop of Winchester's Palace, and laid two pieces of 
ordnance at the Bridge foot. He found everything well prepared for his 

History of the Pewterers' Company, 177 

reception. Sir Thomas White, the Lord Mayor, had been assisted by 
Lord William Howard, as Lieutenant of the City ; Queen Mary remaining 
meantime at Guildhall. The drawbridge at London Bridge was cut 
down and thrown into the river, the bridge gates shut, ramparts and 
fortifications raised round them, and ordnance planted to defend them. 
The Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, well armed for the conflict, had ordered 
all persons to shut their shops and windows and to stand ready 
harnessed at their doors, prepared for any event that might occur. After 
reporting to his followers the active measures of the citizens, Wyatt 
decided, upon consultation, to withdraw his forces to Kingston, and 
crossing the Thames there to enter the City from the West. He entered 
London on the 7th February, but after a sharp engagement, was compelled 
to surrender at Temple Bar, and was executed on the nth April on 
Tower Hill. 

1553-4. f^i the same Court [12th January] Thomas hassill lost a 
platter fFor lack of workmanship. 

(Jf a Court holden the same daye [26th February] by the m*^ 
Wardens and assystaunce the m' Mayster kyllyngworthe of his good- 
nes hath graunted to goo to the plyament at his owne proper Costf to 
Sue for the behofe of the hole Company So that yf he doo obtayne his 
purpose, the hole assystaunce hath promysed to paye hym his costf and 
chargf for the Sute therof And yf the plyament be kept at Oxforde 
then the sayde assystaunce hath promysed to fynd hym a man & horsse 
to wayte vpon hym at theyr owne proper costf . 

(^feo [7th May] the sayde Robert hethe was contented to be set 
a worke by the Company at iiij d. a daye meate & drynk. 

(Jt the same Courte [29th May] allyn gardener lost ij spanysh 
trenchers w^** was forfayte. 

($f0o yt ys fFarther agreed [14th July] by theise psonnes afor- 
sayd that who so ever speakyth any more of the Seasyng that late 
was for the payment of the xxxli to the quens ma** shall paye 
for every tyme xxs. to be devyded amongs the pore of the sayd 
Craft w'out Redemcbn. 

178 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

(^i the same Courte [3rd September] the m' Wardens and assyst- 
aunce w' the hole clothing hath graunted that John Curtys sholde haue 
fFor markyng of every dosyn of stone pottf whosesoever brought them to 
marck one fFarthing. 

d^i the same Courte [13th October] yt was agreed by the m' 
Wardens and assystaunce that John Robson sholde brynge in his 
pawne which was xxs. for sothering otherwise then ys apoynted by 
the^ Craft And also yt was agreed that m' makyns warden m' Rowland, 
m' baker John gery and Edwarde Reo shold over se all wares w* in the 
Crafte to se so what sother they vse and so to brynge Reporte ac- 
cordyngly by the tryall of the same and if they fynd any faute the 
m' wardens & asystaunce to determyne the same. 

d^i the same Court [7th November] Thomas DofFelde brought in 
Alman Revet that ys to saye a backe a Brest a payre of splyntf a sallet 
& a gorget fFor his harnys that was lost by wyat [i.e. Wyatt's Rebellion]. 

a^i a Courte holden the same daye [i6th November] by the m' 
& wardens and mr Rowlandson harry Wright promysed to serve the 
sayde mr Rowlanson from this daye vntyll mighelmas next Comynge 
and to haue every daye that he workyth v d. to be payde hym monethly 
And yf he absent hymself from his sayde worck & be found at any 
vnlawfuU game as dising bowling & Carding or any other such vnlawfull 
games Then the sayde m' & wardens shall w'out favo' bryng the sayd harry 
wright before the lorde mayo' of London & there declar all his demeano' to 
the vttermost & so the matter shalbe holy put to the sayd Lorde mayo" 
order Provyded alwayes that the sayde harry wright vpon the sondayes & 
other holly dayes after devyne svice ys done shall take his pastyme in the 
fFeildf w' his bowe Also the sayde harry dothe promys vnto the m' m' daye 
for monye whiche he owithe hym being the sm of xix s. ij d. to be payde 
XX d. amoneth of his wagf aforesayde and to paye the sayde m*^ Rowland 
other XX d. a moneth of his sayde wagf for mony he ow' vnto hym. 

a^i the same Courte [8th December] John powell payde for certayne 
mettall vntrewly myxt to the boxe ij s. & iiij d. betwene the bedle & the 
Clarcke, And yf he be taken w* the lyke fFaute agayne shall paye xli 
w'out favo' besydf farther ponyshment. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


3tm Rs of a pewterer of brystowe for spyce plat molde waying xxvj lb at 
viij d. y* pound xvij s. iiij d. 

The following entries show that the soldiers raised by the Company 
had to pay for their own arms ; it also shows the weapons used by the 
gunners, bowmen and bill men. The men were members of the 
Yeomanry of the Company, citizen soldiers, who left the workman's 
bench to go to the wars, and returned to their occupation when their 
services were no longer required. 

3fm Rs of barker for his daggar vj d. 

3f m Rs of Willm Slack for his sword & dagger . . . ij s. 

3tm Rs of Thomas awgar for his sword & dagger . . xviij d. 

3tm Rs of Richard Kyng for his sword & dagger ... iij s. 

3tm Rs of John Powell for his dagger vj d. 

3tin Rs of Richard borne for his dagger xij d. 

3tm Rs of Raphe muUener for his dagger . . . . iiij d. 

3ttn Rs of John Yngley for his sword & dager ... iij s. 

3tm Rs of the bill of Seasement for the Queues mony that was gathered 
of ye copany ....... xxxiij li xj s. viij d. 

3tm Rs of the benevolence of ye company toward y* plyament iij li xvjs. 

Sm xxxviij li. xviij s. x d. 

3tw pd fFor Carying of the fFrame that we stand in the lower end of Corn- 
wall [Cornhill] when the Queue went to the Crownacion queue 
Marye vj d. 

3tm pd for X Red night caps vs. 

3tm pd for ij scotyshcaps for y* bowmen xvj d. 

C^dtge of the xx'* men in Harnes that kept the Cyttye agaynst 
Wyat the Rebellyon as fFolowith [A few selected entries.] 

3tm pd for a lyvery Bowe ....... ij s. 

3fm pd for a pound of matchis v d. 

3tin pd for iiij tytche boxis xij d. 

3tin pd for V swords at iij s. apece xv s. 

3fm pd to harry empson for his dagger xij d. 

i8o History of the Pewterers' Cotnpany. 

3fm pd to Thomas Awgar for his bow ij s. iiij d. 

3f m pd to Robert Wilkynson for his sword . . . . ij s. 

3f m pd to the CoUectours for a xv'** & a half for the Cy ttye for pagents x s. 

I554-5. i6e iiij*** day of flche A vewe made for Repacyons to 
be done by willth vmbyll o'' Tenaunt at gregory ally at CrepuU gate 
betwene this and mydsomer next in payne of forfayture his obligacyon. 
fFyrst he must Rype & poynt all the hole howses through w' tylyng. To 
amend the wallf which be broken in all the howsys where nede ys. To 
newe cast the ptye gutter betwene the whyte hynd & vs. 

G)tf the same Courte [31st May] before the m' & wardens & 
assystaunce Stephyn Cawood of westmynster desyred the good willf of 
the m' wardens & assystaunce towardf the brynging of hym as a brother 
amongf them, So yt was determynd to be ordered the next court daye 
being the quarter daye at mydsomer And so he to haue an Answere of 
all the hole Companys good willf therin. 

^f the same Court yt was agreed that m' heytwayte & m' Baker 
shoulde be dayse men betweene m^ Clarck & Thomas gylberd for cert ay ne 
mowlds w^ ys in variens betwene them, So they are contentyd to abyde 
their award w'out any farther Sute. 

f^i a Courte holden the same daye [19th June] by the m' wardens & 
assystaunce & most pt of the hole clothing yt was agreed that John 
Sandye shoulde be o' ofFycer in the mayo™ Court & he to haue for his 
fFee as others haue had in tymes past. 

^f the same Courte yt was agreed that the m' m' daye shoulde haue 
the next advoydaunce of anye of the howses belongyng to the hall in 
Lymestreate for his |vaunt Robert Sommers or for any frend of his they 
doyng as other men wyll doo. 

(^f the same Courte [ist July] was most parte of the hole felowshp 
of pewterers and there was agreed as folow That ys to saye that none of 
the sayde Crafte shall bye anye Leade of Tylers, Laborers, Masons, 
boyes, nor of women Nor of none such as shall seme to be a Suspect 
pson except they can fynde good & suffycyent warrant for the same And 
that the byers therof will make answere for the same psonnes so Sellyng 
the sayde Leade, Also yt ys farther agreed that no man of the sayde com- 

History of the Pewterers' Company. i8i 

pany shall by no pewt' Leade, or any other kynde of mettall of no suspect 
pson or psonnes at their stallf or ellf wheare before vj of the clock in the 
mornynge nor after vj of the clock at night in the Sommer Season And 
not before viij of the Clock in the mornynge nor after foure of the Clock 
in the after none in the Wynter Season And yf yt be provyde that any of 
the Company do the contrarye, and that the sayde pewter or Leade or 
other mettall shoulde chaunce to be founde stoUen That then the byers 
therof offending in this artycle shold not only at the discressyon of the 
m' wardens & assystaunce for the tyme beinge be dismyssyd from the 
companye neu [never] to occupye the same agayne But also shall 
stand to suche ponyshment of the Lord the mayo' of London and the 
Aldermen of the same as they shall think mete for the same And that 
none of the sayde companye shalbe excusyd by his wif or servauntf nor 
none other suche lyk excuse. 

(^i the same Courte [4th September] allyn dawson complayned 
of Thoins Hassyll for that he ought his predecessour certayne monye 
whiche was agreed by the m' wardens & assystaunce as fFolow' that ys 
to saye the sayde Hassell shall paye for ix*^ qrt of tynne bettyng & 
fflotinge at iiij s. viij d. the C amotf to xliij s. ij d. also to paye towardf the 
Reperacions of his pytt & all his tolys v s. More for iij half C waightf 
xiij s. iiij d. Sm of all ys iij li xviij d. wherof he hathe payde xl s. So 
Rest to be payde to the forenamyd allyn dawson xxj s. vj d. To be 
payde forthw* this present daye w' any farther delaye. 

ffgnes [6th December] for naughty workmanship & not touching 
their ware. Willm Readman vj bow pottf vj d. hugh wadelow ij 
CoUeckf ij d. [and sixteen others.] 

(^i the same Courte [8th December] Thomas mason by the m' 
wardens an asystaunce ys forgeven for ever duringe his povertye his 
quarterage yerely due vnto the Clothing So that he shall paye yearely 
to the yemandrye iiij d. for his qrterag. 

3fm Rs for all the weddyngs whiche hathe bynne kepte in the hall this 
yeare being v in noBr x s. 

3f m Rs of Robert heathe an Alman Revet That ys to saye a back and 
a brest a payre of splynts and a sallet. 

1 82 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3fm pd for a C di [i^ hundred] of Nayle .... viij d. 
3f m pd for cuttyng of v shores [? saws] & basys . . . vs. 

^W^XMXii^ of Almas men. [Yeomanry accounts.] 
Here follow the names of seven men receiving pensions of 6s. 8rf. per 
annum, and two men receiving 5^. per annum, the total annual payments 
amounting to 4/. 13^. ^d. Arabic figures are first used in this year's date. 

3f m p** for a tableclothe of damaske worck coni vij yardf di for the highe 
table at v s. the yarde amo** xxxvij s. vj d. 

3fm p** for makinge of the same & seting in the marck of the Hall 

[Yeomanry accounts.] ij s. vj d. 

1555-6. aii the same Courte [17th January] George hudson was 
sent to the ward for that he made his laye worsse then the m' saye by 
vij & viij graynes of pfyt goodnes And yt was agreed that he sholde put 
in suertyes to the m*^ wardens & asystaunce for the pfyt workyng of 
iiij** iiij li And also yf yt maye be found that any suche ware sholde be 
found in the handf of the company of his making to make yt good at all 
tymes And farther to put in suertyes for his trewe workmanship & 
myxture of mettall hereafter Or ellf to not to occupye any more for 

(^f the same Courte flSrank the glassyer and Willm Curtys com- 
playned agaynst Thomas holden for that he solde suspecious Gobbetf 
of Leade & other pecf of suspect Leade. The sayd holden confessed 
that he hath certayne waightf to the nomBr of xlli wch he sayth he 
hath melted & cannot tell of whome he bought them & he melt them 
sayth he for that no man wolde bye no waightf fFarther he sayth that he 
hath solde to the goodman fFrank at iij sondry tymes iij C & odweight 
w*"** parte of that was cast in gobbettf vppon the ground some of iij qrters 
of a C & some in plate Leade. 

(Jf a Courte holden the xxvij daye of marche At the same Courte 
yt was agreed that Richard mannyng sholde paye vnto Thomas mason 
the Sm of iij s. iiij d. for that the sayd mannyng dyd not acording to his 
bond made betwene them delyuer certayne vessell w"* the company of 
mynsterellf shold haue occupyed wherby the sayde mason was dryven to 
hyer vessell in another place wch was vj garnysh and payed vj d. for every 

History of the Pewterers Company. 183 

garnysh and viij d. for Caryage besyds the damage the said mason was 
dryven vnto And yf the sayd mannyng do breake in the lyk case agayne 
he shall stand to the order of the m' & wardens & assystaunce for the 
tyme being what they shall adward for the same. 

(^i the same Courte [27th March] Ellis kelsey some tyme |vaunt 
and app'^ntyc w' mr Cacher & after ^Ved w* m"" Thomas hassyll & after w' 
m' hustwayte and after w' Richard Waight ffrom the w*"^ Richard he 
hath picked certayne tynne manyfestly provyd afore the m' wardens & 
asystaunce Wherfore the sayde Ellis ys quyte dismyssed for occuping in 
the crafte of pewterers for ever. 

^f the same Courte [3rd June] the m' wardens and asystaunce in the 
name of the Lorde mayor of the Cyte gave comandm' to all the hole com- 
pany to provyde every man for hym and his howsholde suche convenyent 
Corne as he or they sholde think mete in tyme at ij s. iiij d. the Busshell. 

(^i the same Courte [8th July] yt was agreed that Robert Wylkynson 
shall not after Mighelmas daye next comyng worke prevely in his back- 
howse but openly in a shop to the sight of all men comyng therbye vpon 
payne & forfayture for the contrary doinge to fyne xx s. to the company 
for every tyme that he ys taken w'all. 

(^i the same Courte [21st August] yt was agreed for certayne 
monye & mettall that John Waryng owith vnto m"^ heytwayte the 
Sm in monye iij li. xiij s. ix d. oft and in olde laye mettall xlij li. 
iij q^ters wherof m*^ heytwayte must allowe for fyne mettall weinge 
xvij li And more the sayde Warryng owith for the hyer of xiiij garnyshe 
& ij doss of Rowe vessell over and besyds ther ys lost of the sayd vessell 
one dyshe weing ij li The sayd Warryng haue promysed payment befor 
the m' wardens & asystaunce & to come even with the sayde m' heytwayt 
befor & on this syde viij dayes after myghelmas daye next comyng w'out 
any farther delaye And the sayde Warryng haue promysed to paye vnto the 
handf of John Curtys for the debt that he owith vnto John hickf the 
Sm of iiij s. in monye and xxj li of fyne mettall w4n iij dayes after the 
Natyvyte of o' ladye next comyng w'out any farther delaye and for a more 
Wytnes of both theise promyses here vnder he hath set to his marck. 
[The " marck " is a Maltese cross with a pellet or dot in each angle.] 


184 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

(^f the same Court [4th September] Ser peter Waryson was taken 
in Emongst the company to be a brother & he hathe payde for his 
quarterage xij d. 

^t the same Courte [i8th September] yt was agreed by the 
m*^ wardens and asystaunce that m' heytwayte m' Ponder m' kylling- 
worth Jarvis hilton and Willih Lamkyn shall from the fFeaste of 
Saynte Mychaell the archaungell next comyng vnto the same fFeast 
of Saynt mighell come Twelmoneth then next folowang that ys to 
saye for one hole yeare. Searche throughowt all this Realme of Englande 
(London and gravisende & tenne mylles abowt london only except) 
And they to paye Clerelye to the hall the Sm of Twelue poundf To be 
payde at the fFeaste of all Sayntf next comyng, And fFarther yt ys agreed 
that the sayde ptyes aforesayde at theire owne proper costf and charge 
shall beare and paye all manner of Enformasions, penaltis Somes of 
monye & other charge what so ever yt be due or to be due to the king 
& quens ma'f for all manner of ware or wares & other thingf that by 
them shall chaunce to be taken seased and forfayted So that they the 
sayde partyes shall save & kepe harmeles all the hole crafte for all 
manner of matters concernyng the Seasuer aforesayde And what so ever 
they shall happen to sease or take as forfayt to be only to the sayde ptyes, 
they answering the king & quens ma'f partf at all tymes In Wytnes 
wherof the ptyes aforesayde to this present agrement haue put to their 
handf yeouen the daye aboue wrytten A"* 1556 And farther the sayd 
partyes shall paye the one half of the wrytting & sealing of another 
Reading patent & the howse shall beare the other half 

p me mighell heytwayt 
be me symond ponder 
be me Jarvis hilton 
be me wyllyam lamkyn. 

(Jf the same Court [25th September] yt was agreed by the m' 
Wardens and assystauntf that John Curtis the beadle shal haue to 
his owne proper vse all the weddingf that shalbe kept in the hall 
yerely as his predecessours haue had in tymes past to make the best 
he can of them. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 185 

(Jf the same Courte [ 1 7th October] it is agreed by the m' wardens 
& assystaunce and the hole clothing that who so ever was chosen steward 
and assocyate w'*" John mathew sholde haue his charge borne by the 
craftf boxe over and aboue the xl s. w""** hath byne accustomed to be 
geven to the stewardf for this yeare. 

a^i the same Courte my Lorde the mayo' sent by comission to 
the companye for the Sm of xl li. to be geven to brydwell or the com- 
panyes answere therin to the wch the companye answered that they are 
contentyd to paye their monye of benyvolence wch they do geve frely 
wekely in their severall pishes where they dwell And for that m' Alderman 
Curtis is taken from them who was wont alwayes to bear the one half of 
suche payment^ they ar not able to paye such a Sm but desyrethe to 
haue a leser Sm of them to be had. 

(^f the same Courte [ 1 2th November] it was agreed by the m' wardens 
and assystaunce that no pson being of the clothing shall from hensforthe 
have as aprenticf aboue the NomBr of two at one tyme And that no 
pson owt of the yemandry shall have as aprentice aboue the NomBr of 
one at one tyme and who so ever shall happen to do contrary to this 
article shall forfayte and paye x li for fyne according to the Ordenaunce 
Provyded alwayes and it is agreed that every man shall enioye those 
pnticf that he hathe before the making of this ordenaunce. 

(Jf the same Courte [ist December] yt was agreed by the m'' 

wardens assystaunce and the most pte of the hole clothinge that 

no pson of the companye shalbye any Cornysh tynne or devonshere 

An Ordar tynne w'out he do take ij li for the Clof of every pece of Cornysh 

to by no tynne And to take one pound for the Clof of every pece of devon 

w'owte tynne And who so ever byeth any suche tynne contrary to this 

cloffe. article shall paye for every pece of Cornyshe tynne in the name of a 

fFyne to the Craftf boxe tenne shillingf And for every pece of devon 

tynne so bought contrary to this artycle vs. w'out any favour. 

(Jf the same Courte [12th December] it was agreed that Willm 
MuUyns and Richarde hudson sholde haue the Releif of the yemadrs 
boxe as folow'** that is to saye betwene them the porcion of one man 
w^** is vj s. viij d. a yere so that the yemandry shall have the nomBr of 

N 2 

1 86 History of the Peivterers Company. 

viij psons and when any do fall then they shall have vj s. viij d. a 
yere either of them and they shalbe payd now at Chrismas next 
comyng for the first quarter that is to saye x d. apece and so quarterly 
vntill any do fall. 

(^f the same Courte [24th December] it was agreed by the 
m' wardens and assystaunce that the hole Clothing and certayne of 
the yemandry shoulde be seased for the payment of xli. towardf the 
payment of xxvli. geven to brydewell and the howse to paye xvli. 
And when so ever there sholde Remayne clere to the craftf boxe xx li. 
and the howse owt of debt then the ptyes so seased sholde haue their 
mony agayne owt of the Craftf boxe so that the howse then sholde bear 
the hole Sm of xxv li. 

3fm pd to the Collectours in fFarthingward [? Farringdon] for a Subzedye 
for o' hall as doth appeare by a byll of their owne hands, due to the 
Quene in Maye last Sm ...... xxvij s. 

3f m pd for an Ell & a quarter of Camerick for yo'' ansigne . v s. viij d. 

3f m pd for Gylding of the same ansigne . . . . . xxx s. 

3f m pd for the one half of the Charge of another Readinge patente. Sm 

xvj s. viij d. 
3tm pd for iiij paire of flfrize Slappes [for military equipment] . viij s. 

Q^eperaciong done uppon o' landf in fFanchurche streate vpon the 
howse called the iij tonnes & patrick kewes howse. 

3tm pd to the Carpenter for xx C of lathe at x d. the C. Sm xvj s. viij d. 

3tm pd for xlix fote of Evis [eaves] Borde . . ij s. 

3tm pd for ij Rafters of a xj fote apece xx d. 

3tm pd for a puncheon of vj fote ...... viij d. 

"iixa pd to the Carpenter for half a dayes work ... vj d. 

3ftn pd to ye Iremonger for nayles as yt apearyth by his byll of pcells 

xxj s. viij d. 

3tm pd to the Tylemaker for vj m^ tyle at xj s. the m^ Sm .iij li vj s. 
3tm pd to lyman for ij C iiij lode of lyme .... xvj s. 

3tm pd for xvj Ruf [roof] tyle xvj d. 

3^tn pd for iij busshells di [3^ bushels] of tyle pynnes ij s. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 187 

3tm pd for a ti of Candell ij d. 

3tm pd for viij lode of Sande at viij d. the lode . . .vs. iiij d. 

3tm pd to the plumer for Casting of a gutter weinge xxxv ti di viij d 

3tm pd to the mr Tyler for xxvij dayes work at xij d. the daye xxvij s. 

3ttit pd to his laborers for xxiiij dayes apece at viij d. the daye apece 

xxxij s. 

3tm pd for Caryage awaye of xij lode of Rubbyshe . . iiij s. 

3tm pd for wrytting and engrosing of this accompte Sm . vj s. viij d. 

(^feo we fynde in the hands of mr ponder for certayne bottells and 
mettall taken on bartylmew daye w""*" was praysed at xxxvij s. ij d. the 
one half thereof due to the queue & the other half to the howse wch 
as yet ys vncompted for w^** ys. . . . . xviij s. vij d. 

The Inventory for this year has in addition to a "Banner of the olde 
armes of the craft,*' " One Ansigne of sylke w* the newe Armes of the 
Crafte.*' [Book of Inventories.] The costs of making this new banner 
or ensign, amounting to 35^. 8rf., are set out on the previous page. 

3tm viij Banners of harts heds & Roses in the myds ij of Silke & ij of 
Clothe, and iiij small pendaunts w' harts heds of the gyfte of m" 
ashlyn. [Book of Inventories.] 

1556-7. — (Jt the same Courte [15th January] the m' wardens and 
assystaunce for matter in varyence betwene m' hustwayt & Robert west w*^** 
was for certayne monye the sayde west ought vnto the sayde m' hustwayte 
dyd ordayne that the sayde west shoulde vpon twesdaye next comyng 
worke a q^terne waight of tankerd pottf & so being wrought to delyuer 
them Imedyatly vnto the sayd m' hustwayte and Rf the waight in olde 
mettall and to be payd for the workmanship of the monye he ow'** him 
w*^** is viij s. vij d. & so from thence forth to work every fortnight of tankerd 
pottf a q^terne waight vntill the sayd viij s. vij d. be payd. 

(Jt a Courte holden the same daye [30th Jan.] it was agreed by the 
m' wardens and assystaunce That if any man of the felowship do from 
hensforthe make or cause to be made prevely or apte [aperte, i.e. openly] 
any measure pottf comonly called taverne pottf of any lease measure 
then by the standerd apoynted for the same pottf that then the pson so 

1 88 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

making any suche pottf lesse then measure shall paye for making defalt 
therof to the craftf boxe Tenne poundf And if the pson so making 
Defalt be not able to paye the sayd fyne of x" then the m' wardens and 
assystaunce shall so Sue the same pson that he shall stand on the pillarye 
thre lawfuU market dayes according to the order of the Cytie for suche 
ofenders w^hout any favo' therin to be shewed. 

(^f the same Courte [13th March] John Cutler payde for a fyne of ij 
brasse pottf wch weare taken forfayte at gravisend ffayre waying xxxij Hi 
wch pottf weare falsly myxed And it was agreed that he sholde haue the 
mettall agayne when the pottf weare broken for this tyme. 

(Jf the same Court yt was agreed by the m' wardens and assystaunce 
and the hole companye that no pson of the sayde companye shall 
from hensforth make or cause to be made any Eare Disshes fflower 
delicf [fleurs de lis] or any other manner of Eares except suche eares be 
cast in the mowlde to gether w^ the body of suche disshes so made and 
not to be sothered to the body as heretofore they have done And 
whosoever doth make any suche disshes contrary to this article shall paye 
& forfayte for every dosyn dishes so made & therof being convict 
iij s. iiij d. w'**ot favor. 

(^t a Courte holden the same daye [5th May] Robert west was sent 
to the warde for making of fFalse measure pottf by the comaundement of 
my Lorde the Mayo'. 

(^f the same Courte yt was agreed by the m' wardens and assystaunce 
that harry Ractlyf sholde haue Lycence to goo into yorkeshere to his 
brother and there to Remayne for ever if he will so that he do not 
ocupy the crafte of pewterers as by due prof therof maye be had in 
wrytting & set to the m' & wardens for the tyme being and that it was 
also agreed that he sholde haue owt of the craftf boxe towardf his 
charge to bring hym thether ij s. 

f^i the same Courte [14th May] the m' gave leve vnto Thomas 
Duffilde to goo in to the contre to se his mother and there to Remayne 
at his pleasuer so that he be at london agayne w'4n xiiij dayes after his 
depture towardf his Jorney. 

History of the Pewterers' Company, 


f§t yt Remembered that all manner of Lymbeckf is made of 
fFyne and the burnyng ys of leye and the knop of the stillf is fyllyd 
w' leade. 

(^f the same Courte [14th June] it was agreed by the m' wardens & 
assystaunce that all suche psons as had any pottf made by Robert west 
they sholde as well bryng a bill of such waight as also the losse sustayned 
by the same. 

m" ashlyn takerd potf weing xlvj li lost .... viij s. iiij d. 

James bayne xvj li waight ij s. viij d. 

Nicholas Torner iiij**j lli lost . ix s. iij d. 

Thomas Elyot Cxx lli lost ....... xvj s. j d. 

Wittm Readman xxxix ** di lost . vij s. vj d. 

Robert Bakehowse ix li di lost ....... ij s. 

Wittm Myllf j C q^ xij lli lost ...... xxvij s. iij d. 

Thomas hassill xl li lost vj s. 

RoCrt grave xxviij lli Lost iiij s. iiij d. 

John harvy xxxij li tankerd lost . . . .vs. viijd. 

Wittm Hooton iiij**iiij li lost . . . . . . . ix s. vj d. 

(Jf the same Courte it was agreed by the m' wardens and 
assystaunce that Robert west shoulde quyte be dismissed owt and 
fFrom the ocupying the Crafte & mistery of pewterers & that none of the 
same company shall nother by nor sell w' hym from hensforthe for ever 
vpon payne & forfayture of x li. 

(Jt the same Courte [14th August] all the hole assystauncf dyd agree 

that Richard Wittmson shoulde have warnyng to advoyde ow' of his 

howse betwene this and Chrismas next w'**out any farther delaye for that 

he wolde not come & apeare at the warnyng of the m' & wardens by 

vertue of a Commission sent vnto them by the lorde mayo' for the 

apoynting of xx men to wayte vpon the quene but when the sayd 

wittmsom was warned wolde not be found but kept his howse and not be 


Odb that yt was agreed by the m' wardens and assystaunce that harry 

Tompson shoulde haue the Vewe and markinge of all stone pott^ and he 

I90 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

shoulde marke none but those that be substancyally wrought And for 
his paynes taking in the same he shoulde haue his howse Rent ffree vntill 
farther order were taken beginnyng at mighelmas next & so forward. 

59e xix'** daye of August being the same daye that m' Clarck was 
buryed. fFynes for late comyng to dirige mr baker iiij d. [and six 
others.] ffynes for late comyng to masse, mr myllf ijd. [and 
four others.] Thomas hassill for missing both at dirige & masse ij s. 

(^f a Courte holden the same daye [22nd September] it was agreed by 
the m' wardens and assystaunce that Thomas NicoUf shoulde be chosen 
as warden for the yemandry for and in the name of his m' John Burnam 
for that he is owt of towne vpon this condicon folowing that is to saye if 
the sayde John Burnam come agayne afore the yemandryes feast be past 
or afore the m' & wardens of the yemandry geve vp their accompt and 
do well and trewly paye vnto the sayde Thomas NichoU^ all such monye 
as he shall happen to laye out betwene this and that tyme abowt the 
necessary busynes of the sayde wardenship That then the sayde thomas 
NicoUf shall peaceably & quyetly goo forthe of the same office as 
thoughe he had never be chosen to jrt And if it happen the sayd burnam 
do not come home by the tyme aforesayd or otherwise do not paye the 
said NicoUf his monye as ys aforesayde Then the said Thomas Nicollf 
shall enioye the sayde office of wardenship for hymself and never herafter 
to be elect or chosen or otherwise troubled neither for the office of m' 
nor yet wardens of the yemandrye agayne. 

Olonng that is gathered for a gift to sr Thomas Curtis knight and 
lorde mayo' of london fyshmonger & before shreif of London pewterer 
for the Srh of xli. and the Rest geven to the howse. 

bridewell, mony geven. 

m' cacher x s. v s. 

in' crostwayt 



m' myllf 

vj s. viij d. 


m' Carye 

vj s. viij d. 

vj s. viij d. 

m' hustwayt 



m' killingworth 


gevyn to the howse 

History of the Pewterers' Company, 191 


mony geven. 

m' daye 

• • ■ • 

mj s. 


tn" Clarck 



m'' Roy St on 

vj s. viij d. 

vj s. viij d. 

m' heytwayt 


m' wodowce 

nj s. mj d. 

nj s. mj d. 

m' baker 

■ • • • 
inj s. 

nj s. mj d. 

m' ponder 

vj s. viij d. 

IIJ s. UIJ d. 

Ric pryer 

XX d. 


Jarvis hilton 


m' Rowland 

nj s. mj d. 

• • • • • 1 

ij s. vnj d. 

m' makyns 

nj s. mj d. 

John gerye 


geven to y* howsse 

Edward Reo 


he lent to brydwell v s. wyche he wold not geve to my lorde mayre. 
Thomas whitbe ij s. 

Wittm Curtis x s. 

gevyn to y* howse fFrelye the order before wryten to be voyde. 


Richard Scot 


Will haynes 


Thomas allyn 

vj s. viij d. 

John benston 


Thomas hassill 

vj s. viij d. 

Allyn gardener 


John mathewe 


mrs. ashlyn 


John harvy 




XX s. 

Of the which monye m' warden myllf layd owt for the mony that 
was geven to brydewell the Sm of v li. v s. to be payd agayn by the howse 
at & before shrove sondaye next comynge A° 1557. 

192 History of the Pewterers' Company, 

(^t the same Court [5th October] the m' of the yemandry com- 
playned agaynst Robert maryner for that he wolde not goo w'** them to the 
offering of Stephin gartons daughter & gaue the said m' apbrobrious 
wordf yet vpon entreat of the m' the m' & wardens and assistaunce for 
gaue hym. 

(^t the said Court the m' of the yemandry complayned agaynst 
ffirauncf folyot for that he mysvsed hym self toward^ the porter that 
kept the gate on o' Lady daye the assumpcon being yo' dynner daye 
the said folyot throwed a great brickstone agaynst the gate & disquyeted 
all the whole company Yet vpon entreat of the assistaunce & the said 
m' of the yemandrye he was forgeuen. 

(^t a Court then holden [21st October] yt was agreed for mater in 
varyaunce betwene harry Normand & Wittm abdye for all manner of 
Reconyngf Sutf quarellf striff and debates from the beginnyng of the 
worlde vnto this daye that the said harry shall paye vnto the said Willm 
abdye in monye forthwith ijs. & so to be lous & frend^. Provided 
alwayes that the obligacon of xxxvj s. wch is in the hand^ of the said 
hary normand payable by xs. a quarter the first payment due at 
hoUandtid next shall stand in effect acording to the teno' therof. 

(^t the same Courte there was a newe marck devised by the m' 
wardens and assistaunce for Robert west w"^ was a W. f. and he denyed 
yt & wold not haue yt. 

(^t the same Courte [loth December] my lorde of Burgaveny com- 
playned agaynst John bowlting for certayne lymbeckf wch was fawtie 
solde vnto hym Yt was agreed that the said bowlting shall content 
his m' m' baker for one newe Lymbeck and he shall make another 
substancially & delyuer hit to his said m^ & so to be marked w'** the mark 
of m' Baker & then delyuered by m' baker to my lord. 

(^f the same yt was agreed that John burnam sholde be Banysshed 
the company for ever. 

3f m Rs of water makyngs for a Beame x s. 

3fm Rs of mr killingworthe mr heytwayte mr ponder Jarvis hilton and 
Wittm lamkyn for their lycence in going throughowt England to 
serche xijli. 

History of the Pewterers' Company, 193 

3fm pd to Edmund browne o' Clarck for the wrytting of the Indenture 

of Coumaunts [? covenants] and the Lycence of the whole crafte 

betwene vs and mr killingworth and the rest that went to searche 

vj s. viij d. 
Jtttt pd for pecking of a grene sawce morter . . . . ij d. 

3fm pd for ij plates for the Oven mouthes and for one of them was there 
geven by the smith an newe trevet to be put into yt and so we payd 
for the workmanship and the over waight of Iron . v s. viij d. 

3fm pd for making of one Newe spyt and for mendinge of iiij olde & 
mending of a grediron ....... xviij d. 

3fm pd for iiij new bills . . . . . . . iij s. viij d. 

3tm pd for dressing of a swerde & a payre of Hilts & a newe scaberd xij d. 

3fm pd for a newe sheve of arrowes and Repayring of other iij sheves & 
for mending of their Casis . . . . . . v s. x d. 

3fm pd for mending of iij gonnes ...... xiiij d. 

3tm pd for half a pound of gonne powder . vj d. 

3fm pd for nuking clene of x swords & for vj new scaberds iiij s. ijd. 

3f m pd for a quarter of doble tenpenny nayle and half a C single x penny 
nayle & ij Joynts ........ xiiij d. 

3fm pd for a Rope for the well viij d. 

3fm pd to brydewell owt of the crafts boxe . . . . xv ti. 

3tm pd for o' dynner at billingsgate when the tankerd potts were broken ij s. 

C9atS6 in setting forthe of Tenne men agaynst the french king by 
Commission of my lord mayo'. [Three selected items follow.] 

3tm pd for their barge hyer to gravisend . . xx d. 

3tm pd for XXX yards of white cotton at vij d. ob the yarde and a quarter 
of Red at xj d. Sih of bothe is xix s. viij d. wherof there was cut owt 
iij yards for one cote and the rest delyir ed agayne to the drap whiche 
was losse for every yarde ob amounts to xiij d. ob and for the iij yards 
Remayning at vij d. ob the yard amounts to xxij d. ob Sm iij s. xj d. 

3tm pd for making of the same Cote ..... iiij d. 
C ^MiB in setting forthe of xx men whiche weare appoynted to serve 
the Quens ma*' by my lord mayo" comysson. [A total of 59^. 8rf,] 

194 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

These levies were for the disastrous war with France, into which 
Queen Mary was led by her consort Philip. 

3fm pd to iij gonners that is to saye Ric harrisson Raphe muUyners and 
Nicholas Browne at my Lord the mayo" comaundement . x s. 

OElong lent by certayne of the companye & payde in to the hands of 
m"" Cacher Stephin Rowlanson and Wittm Haynes towards the payment of 
XXV ti. whiche was geven fFrelye towards the ffurnyture of Bry dewell the 
xv**" of DeceBr Anno 1556, And must be payde agayne according to the 
grement of all the hole clothing at the chargs of the howse in manner 
& forme folowing that is to saye when soever there shoulde Remayne 
clere in the crafts boxe xx li. and the howse owt of debt, then the pties 
hearafter folowing who by estymacion haue payd suche somes as is 
lymyted vpon theire heds shall be payde their monye agayne. 

The Book of Inventories contains a transcript of the will of Michael 
Heythwayte, citizen and Pewterer, of which he made the Company 
overseers, with a gift of 40/. and 40^. yearly, to the Master and Wardens 
during the minority of his heirs. He lived in the parish of St. Bennet 
Fink, and died in 1557. Preceding this document is a Latin deed of 
feofment from Mr. Heythwayte to Edward Catcher and Nicholas Crosth- 
waite, on behalf of the Company, of a house at Eltham in Kent, the 
Three Kings at Aldgate, and a house at London Stone, in the parish of 
St. Swithin. 

An important Act of Common Council passed on 27th September, 
1555 (2 and 3 Philip and Mary), regulating the custom of apprenticeship, 
is entered in a book of ordinances of the Ironmongers' Company. It 
provides that no person should be admitted to the freedom of the City 
(and so be enabled to set up in business) before reaching the age of twenty- 
four, nor were apprentices to be taken for fewer years than such as would 
bring them to that age on coming out of their time. The reason that is 
alleged is the great poverty lately arisen within the City, of which " one 
of the chiefest occasions," it is said, "is by reason of the over hastie 
marriages and over sone setting up of housholdes of and by the youth 
and young folkes of the sayde citie, which hath commonly used, and yet 
do, to marry themselves as sone as ever thay come oute of theyr appren- 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 195 

tishode, be thaye never so young and unskilful, yea and often tymes many 
of them so poore that they scantly have of their proper goodeyes 
wherewith to buye theire marriage apparel and to furnyshe ther houses 
with implementes and other thinges necessary, for the exercise of ther 
occupations." Nicholl's Ironmongers Company^ 7^""73* Nearly a year 
later, on the 15th September, 1556 (3 and 4 Philip and Mary), an order of 
the Common Council limiting the number of apprentices was assented to 
by several of the Companies, chiefly those belonging to the minor crafts. 
"This day the Wardeyns of the Founders Compy,Pastelers,Bowyers, Tylers, 
Fletchers, Blaksmyths, Spurryers, Joyners, Weavers and Cordweyners, 
Coryers, Plomers, Paynters, Masons, Armurers, Cutlers, & Pewterers, dyd 
here appere, and were very well contentyd and agreable to stande to the 
order of this Corte for the apoyntyng of the nombre of the Apprentices 
that ev'ry Householder of ev'ry of there fealowshippes shall receave and 
keepe at once, and by cause of the sayd Wardens of the Founders and 
others confessed that they had certayn Ordenances for the same eflfect 
already, they have this day seven-nyght to bring in their Bookes thereof, 
and as for the reasidue as yeat not having such Ordenances the Corte 
agreyd to call theym agayne shortly." City Records^ Repertory 13% 
fol. 426b. 

1557-8. — (^t a Court holden that daye [i8th June] by the m^ 
wardens assistaunce & most parte of all the whole company of pewterers yt 
was agreed that no psonne from hensforth shall make any tankerd pottf or 
hoped pottf but they shall sother the same w'** fyne mettall in all plac^ 
saving only the setting in of the bottam and who so ever shalbe taken 
doing contrary to this article shall forfayte all suche pottf from mydsomer 
next folowing forward^. 

(^f a Court holden the same daye by the m^ wardens and assistaunce 
Stephin barowe complayned of AJlyn dawson for taking awaye his 
standinge at kingstone fayre So yt was agreed the said allyn dawson to 
laye downe his fyne for the same who so did yet the mr wardens & 
assistaunce for that he shewed hymself gentill toke no more of hym for 
this tyme but xij d. the one half Stephin barowe had & the howse the 
bother half w"^** was vj d. 

196 History of the Pewterers' Company, 

(^f the same Courte John sawnderson brought in his fyne for going 
in to the Countree to worke w^** was no monye but spones & the mr 
wardens & assystaunce was good vnto hym for this tyme & toke but 
a dosin of spones for his offence & if he be taken w'** the lyke faut 
herafter he shall paye his whole fyne w'^out favo'. Also yt was agreed 
he shoulde paye for openyng his shop forthw^ iij s. iiij d. 

d^i the same Courte yt was agreed that Peter Rigsby svaunt w'** 
Edward Rewe shoulde for amendf paye vnto John Cutler for that he 
pulled of his bearde ij s. betwene this and midsomer next and if any of 
them do one mocke or scorn the other or otherwise make any ofence 
the first offender shall paye xx s. 

(^i the same Court [26th June] John Cutler complayned agaynst 
George basker for mony he ow'** hym beinge iiij s. iiij d. yt was agreed 
that the said Basker shall from this daye forward wekely 1yd vj stone pottf 
w""** comyth to x d. vntill the said mony be paid. 

(^i a Courte holdenthe same daye [ist July] by the m' wardens and 
assistaunce yt was agreed (for certayne varyaunce betwene Thomas fisher 
and wittm Jones for the service of Richard bigg whiche was hyred by 
fisher to serve wekely w'** hym one weke and another weke w'*" Jones) it is 
agreed that the said Richard Biggf shall forthw*** worke wekely for the 
space of iij wekf to gether Immedyatly after this daye w*^ Wittm Jones 
and after that iij wekf ended to worke w*** thomas fisher one weke and 
w'*" the said Jones another weke and so to contenewe w'^ bothe pties vntill 
mighelmas next and then the said biggf to be at his libertie. 

^Je first of Julye Anno 1558. Also yt is ordered and agreed that 
no man of the sayde Crafte shall sell no rough vessell to no parson for any 
mony or other wise vpon Payne and forfayture of all the sayde vessell so 
solde the one moyetie wherof to be to hym or them that canne fynd the 
same and the other moitie to be to the use of the maister and wardens 
and Cominaltie of the sayd mistery. [Jury Book.] 

(^i a Court holden [5th August] by the m' wardens and assistaunce 
Yt was agreed that John Taylo' shoulde be Receyued agayne as a 
Brother of the company but if ever he goo owt in to the Countree to worke 
agayne he shalbe clene dismyssed & neu [never] be Receyued agayne. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. i97 

(^f a Courte holden the same daye [2nd September] yt was agreed 
by the m' wardens and assistaunce that m"" Millf and Wittm Curtis shoulde 
goo to sturbridge fayer & there serche and that that they take sholde 
Remayne to the howse and they shall haue for their paynes toward^ their 
charge the Sm of x s. 

(^t a Courte holden [22nd September] by the m' wardens and the 
whole Clothinge yt was agreed that Thomas armestronge shoulde be 
dismyssed owt of the company and from hensforth taken as no brother 
of the companye for that he will not com contributer to all maner of 
Chargf and beare office accordinge to o^ Ordenaunce. 

Ware taken and seasid by m' Millf warden and Wittm Curtis 
apoynted to goo to serche at sturbridge as folowith 

A fayre at Saynt albones 
taken of George bate of alesbery a sawc' . . . di tti. 

vj chopnetf of Laye . . . . . . . . iij tti di 

Taken at sturbridg fayer 
of harry Ractlyf a iij tti platter not marked iij d. & he marched in com- 
pany w'** a french woman 
of Thomas Lessy victualler vij platers xj dishes Ruf of Laye poz [poids, 

i.e. weight] ......... xl tti 

(^f a Courte holden the saide xix'** daye of octobr it was agreed by 
the m"" wardens and assistaunce that no pson of the same Company shall 
take any aprentice but the Clarck shall make theire Indentures and who- 
soever that dothe put theire Indentures to make to any other pson they 
shall paye vnto the Clarcke his duetie although he make them not w*=** is 
viij d for every payre. 

Wiffm lBairs0onwho cam in by Redemconwas sworne[4th November]. 

This is an early instance of the use of the term Redemption. 

(^f the same Courte [loth December] Thomas hassill laid downe 
vj s. viij d. for that he ware not his Lyvery gowne at the Mayors fFeaste 
but the m' wardens and assystaure agreed shoulde haue it agayne for this 
tyme and if he be taken w'** the lyke faute agayne he shall paye doble as 
the m' & wardens shall se cause. 

Q^ic^ar^ eeffie hathe promysed [loth December] to bring in a spone 
of an oz or better betwene this and Chrismas even next and delyuer the 

198 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

same vnto m' warden Curtis handf or vj s. viij d. in monye or ettf to 
advoyde the wearing of his hood & not be taken as one of the clothing. 
— \Rough Minutes, 21.] 

^t the same Courte [30th December] yt was agreed by the m' wardens 
and assystaunce and the hole Lyvery that the m' and wardens shall not 
Lycense any to set vp or open his shop, vnto such tyme as the pson 
that comyth owt of his yeares do come before the m' wardens and 
assystaunce and bring his m' w*** hym to make report of his behavo", 
substaunce, and what workman he is so that he may be knowne whether 
he be worthy to set vp or not. 

^Je Chargs of the Tenne harness men whiche weare Charged to 
\sic\ serued the king A° Quarto & Quinto Regis et Rigine Philipi et 
Marie the forth of January Anno 1557. ["^^ ^y '^ ^ ^* y ^-1 

3f m for vj charge boxis v d. 

3f m for V shoting gloves . . xx d. 

3fm for gerdles iij . . . . . . . . ij s. 

3fm for ij pay re of shewes xij d. 

3fm pd to the Beadle for his chargf going to Qinborough \sic\ to delyuer 

them to the capetayn ....... viij s. xd. 

^^t Charg(^ of the xx men whiche went to serue the Quene at 
Callyce set out the xiiij'** of Jam? y Anno 1557 of the w*"** x went owt. 

3fm pd for ij armyng swords vs. 

The total sum paid was 3/. 18*. 

3fm pd for newe Russhes for the plo' . xij d. 

3fm pd for a lytle Iron ladle to make sayes [assays] . ij d. 

Clement Killingworth, Citizen and Pewterer, who died 22nd Novem- 
ber, 1558, left to the Company certain contingent benefits arising from 
a wharf and tenements in the parish of St. Mary Somerset. The bequest 
was subject to default of issue to the testator's son, and no benefit seems 
to have resulted to the Company. Killingworth lived at the sign of 
the White Horse, the tenancy of which after his death passed to his 
apprentice Richard Thompson. His will is transcribed in the Book of 
Inventories, and in the Inventory of 1556 are the following entries: — 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 199 

3r the Last will & testament of m' killingworth. OCl^ that m' 
Killingworthe hathe his wyll dely vered agayne the vj daye of September 
1558 by the m' & wardens that tyme being. 

The following ordinance is from the Jury Book : — 

^$e therde daye of marche Anno 1558 in the tyme of m' Royson 
m' Willm Baker and willm Curtis wardens. Also be it ordeyned that no 
parson of the sayde felowship shall reuile slaunder or Taunte one another 
before the maister and wardens beinge other settinge in their courtes or 
any other places with vnhonest or vnsemely wordes or Comunicacon or 
at any time speke more then shall become hym or them ouerthwartly 
and frowardly to the disquietting of the felowship by meanes therof 
therebe partes taken and the good orders of the felowship hyndered by 
suche vnsemely demeanours. Therfore it is ordered and agreed that he 
or they that shall hereafter offend in any poynte as is aforesayde and 
therof founde fFawty by the sayde maister and wardens and assistance or 
the moste parte of them shall forfayte and paye for euery tyme so 
offending iij s. iiij d. to the vse of the coiiion boxe of the sayde felowship. 

(^nb further if any parson of the sayde ffelowship hereafter of an 
obstynate mynd will not be ordered and Judged for their offences by the 
sayde m' and wardens and assystance or the most parte of them but will 
obstinately and wilfully stand in his owne singuler openion and quelybeth 
contrary to reason and honesty and further do attempt to haue his 
remedy in other places to the greate slaunder and disquiettinge of the 
sayde ffelowship. Therfore it is ordered and agreed that he that so doth 
shalbe Banisshed owt of the felowship and company. And except he 
Reconsile hym self to the sayde m' and wardens and assistance or the 
most part of them within xl dayes then next ensuing and to paye such 
fyne as shalbe Judged by the sayde maister wardens and assystance 
withowt grutching. Or ell^ to be Banisshed the company for euer. And 
all his partakers and mayntayners beinge proued euery of them shall 
forfayte and paye for euery tyme offending to the vse of the coiiion box 
of the sayde felowship xx s. 

^n^ further that no parson of the assystance or clothing of the sayde 
felowship do at any courte heareafter Rise from the tabull or owt of his 

200 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

place when any mater shall be in debating as hath byn done in tymes 
past for some hath Rissen and gon theyre waye before they vnderstode 
what the matter ment to the greate disquietting of the rest of the 
felowship. Wherfore it is ordered and agreed that who so euer riseth 
from the TabuU or owt of his place in the Courte tyme withowt the 
lycens of the maister and wardens or one of them shall forfayte and paye 
for euery tyme so offending ij s. to the vse aforesayde. 

(^n^ further it is ordered and agreed that no parson of the sayde 
felowship shall interrupt one another in telling of his tale before the maister 
and wardens setting in theire Courtes or presume to speake in another mans 
tale Till he hath tolde his tale to an end and that there speake but one 
man at once. And who so euer and as many as doth offend to the 
contrary shall paye for euery tyme to the poore mens Box one pennye. 

1558-9, — (^t the same Courte [17th March] Wilfred Bakehowse 
dweling in Biasing Lane is amyted to be a brother of the Company. 
Willm Graye spone maker in frydaye streate is also amytted a brother 
of the company. 

(^t a Courte then holden [31st March] yt was agreed by the m*^ 
wardens and assystaunce that Robert west sholde bringe in his wif vpon 
fFrydaye next to reconsile her self to m"^ Cacher and others of the 
Company for her naughty mysdemeano' of her tonge toward^ them. 

Z^omM Curfie aprentice w'** s? Thomas Curtis sworne [7th April]. 

^i the same Courte [7th May] yt was agreed that no man sholde 
by any Tynne of Allyn the Taylo' in bucklers bury after this daye. 

^^t names of all those that gaue Towardf the Reparacons of the 
newe Glassy nge of the newe Parlo^ 

A list of twenty-three contributors follows, the gifts being "a 
wyndowe " or '^ xij d." 

^^eiee men folowing is elected [7th July] to take order for Prenticf 
and to wey Indiferently the state of the whole companye who is able to 
mayntayne and kepe prentic^ and who is not. M*^ warden Baker and 
m*^ warden Curtis M'' hustwayte, m*^ Cacher M' Rowlandson Edwarde 
Rewe John Gery Richard Scot. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 201 

(^t the same Court [4th August] yt was agreed by the m^ wardens 
& asystaunce that from this tyme forward yt shall not be leafull that the 
m' and wardens of theire owne myndf shall not geue leaue to any man of 
the companye lybertie to Set vp, but the pson that Requyreth to set vp 
shall be sene by the assystaunce & his m' that he served w'^ all to declare 
his honestie and behavo"" & also to bringe in a sample of his worke and so 
to be sene vewed and adjudged by the m"" wardens & assystaunce and they 
to geue theire verdyt whether the ptaye be a mete man to set vp or not. 
— [^Rough Minutes^ 21.] 

Sir Peter Warryson received the second highest number of votes in 
the election of junior warden. 

(^t the same courte [3 1 st August] y t was agreed by the m' wardens 
and assystaunce w'** the whole consent and agrement of the whole clothinge 
and yemandry yt was ordered that every man and wif that comyth to the 
yemandries dynner sholde paye x\j d. And every Jorneyman that hath a 
wif and do come to dynner shall paye xvj d. And every lone man beinge 
a howsholder that comyth to dynner shall paye xij d. and every Jorney- 
man having no wif and comyth to dynner shall paye viij d. And if any 
pore man being not able to paye his charge concernyng the same dynner 
shall be remyted yf he come not vpon Lycence And acording to the olde 
order every man that hath bynne maryed w'^'in the same ij yeares shall 
geve his cocke or ettf paye xij d. in mony over & besidf the paying for 
his dynner. And also every man in the company shall paye as they haue 
done in tymes past j d. toward^ the playe and a j d. for his offering And 
every man that promyseth to come to dynner & come not shall paye his 
whole duetie as if they cam. Provided alwayes that none bringe his gest 
w*** him w^^'owt he paye for his dynner as moch as he paith for hymself 
and that they bring no childerne w'** them passing one & no more. 

^^t names of them that gaue fyne mettall toward^ the making of 
pewter Trenchers & other thynge m"" alderman Curtis viij Hi. m*^ Peter 
warison xUi. & 37 others. 

^^t names of them that went to the muster before the Quenes 
ma'** in Julie last past A° 1559 beinge xxvij men as folow'** Gonners 5, 
Halberdf 12, Pikemen 10. 

o 1 

202 History of the Pewterers' Company, 

^9e bill of Seasement for the Charge ^^ ^he said xxvij men gathered 
of the company. For the Clothing the sums vary from \d, to i^., for 
the yeomanry from \d. to 8rf. The total sum amounts to 31J. id. 

^itip%iXi fiaro9$e paid [26th September] in the name of a fyne for 
that he solde certayne ware les then the price xij d. [and it is ordered that he 
should paye Anthony Smyth for that he laid a wager his mony agayne. — 
Rough Minutes^ 

QJe of Richard Scot for that he cam not to Saynt Martyns to goo in y* 
barge the same daye the Mayre toke his othe . . . iiij d. 

®f a Courte holden the same daye [27th November] it was ordayned 
and agreed by the mr Wardens and asystaunce and the hole Clothinge 
that ffrom hensforthe there shall none of the yemandry come to the 
accompte of the yemandrye the sondaye after saynt katherins daye but 
only suche as be howsholders and others as shalbe thought mete by the 
discression of the m' and Wardens of the yemandrye w'^ the consent 
of the m' & Wardens of the Clothinge and that every man that 
dothe come to the geving vp of the same accompt shall paye for his 
supper iiij d. a pece. 

(^i the same Courte yt was agreed that Harry tompson sholde haue 
no more the vewe nor making of stone pott^ nor that from hensforth the 
marke of the Hall shold^ pas vpon the stone pott^ lyddf But that all 
makers of stone pot lydd^ sholde make them substauncyally & workman ly 
according to theire samples Remayning in the hall by the said makers 
brought in and frely geven to the hall and whosoever do make any worsse 
lyde then those are yt shalbe leafuU for the m^ and wardens from hensforth 
to breake the same lydd^ and the pottf that shalbe found fawtye either in 
the lyddf or Jawmes in whose hand^ so ever they may be founde, and the 
makers therof to make them good agayne eyther to haberdasshers or 
others And that from hensforth the makers of stone pott lydd^ shall set 
theire marcke on the inside of the Lyddf . 

OEl^ [5th December] That Thomas allyn gave v s. for a Recreason for 
beinge at the Buryall of his wif the same daye in monye xxvj s. viij d. 
Wherof vj s. viij d. was spent the same daye m"" alderman Curtis was 
buryed at the Castle in newe fyshstreate and the Rest which was xx s. it 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 203 

was agreed by the whole clothing that Wittm Curtis sholde haue toward e 
the payment of the debt due to hym to be payde as maye apeare by the 
fote of his accompte. 

®t the same Courte [8th December] John strange bounde hymself 
as a Covenaunt |vaunt with Raphe MuUyners and to serve hym from 
this daye forthwarde one whole yeare and to haue wekely ij s. when he 
workethe, and every broken weke to haue for his dayes worke every daye 
when he worketh iiij d. and so throughowt the yeare. 

(^f the same Courte [15th December] John Norton bound hymself a 
couenaunt |vaunt with Raphe MuUyners and to serve hym from this daye 
forward one whole yere and to haue for his wagf ij s. a weke bothe broken 
and whole, Christmas weke and Easter weke only except. 

(^f the same Courte [19th December] John Russell bound hymself as 
a Couenaunt |vaunte w'** Robert Tymme and hath Taken a j d. to sarue 
hym a whole yeare and to begyn at Candelmas next comynge and to haue 
for his wagf iij li for his yeares wage ^o be payde quarterly xv s. and his 
maister hath made clere w*** hym tyll CandeliSs. 

3tm Rs of dyverse of the lyvery for fynes for late comyng to the buryall 
of Richard prier . . . . . . . . xij d. 

3tm Rs of dyverse of the lyvery for fynes for late comynge to the buryall 
of harvies wedow ........ xiiij d. 

3fm Rs of hughe wadelowe and John bowltinge for a fyne for that they 
were at varyence . . . . . . . . xij d. 

3fm Rs for iij statute Bokes ....... vj d. 

3fm Rs of John Bussbye my lorde mayre yeman . . . xij d. 

3fm Rs of John Jackson for John hare his aprentice . . ij s. 

[Note in margin] i^t same John hare is quyt dismyssed for his 
picking and bribing the xxv*^ daye of June 1563. 

3fttt pd to wittm Lowton, and wittm Readman stewards to make a dynner 
for the rest of the company that dyned not at yelde hall xxvj s. viij d. 

3tttt pd to the pson [at abchurch] for dirige and masse viijd. and to iij other 
prests xij d. To the clarck viijd. for ringing, for ij half pound tapers 
xd, "iita to the ni' of the Craft for being at dirige and masse vj d. and 

204 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

to the ij wardens viijd., and to ij other of the lyvery for their offering 
ijd. 3fm to the Beadle for warnyng of them iiij d. 3tm pd to the m"^ 
and wardens and ij other of the lyvery to drink xijd. Sni . vs. xd. 

3tm pd to the Curat [at alhallowes in Lumbertstreate] for taking paynes at 
the Comunion xij d. 3tm pd to the Clarcke and other singers at the 
Comnon iij s. iiij d. 3fm pd to the Churchwardens for occupyinge of 
theire Ornaments xx d. 3fm pd to a precher for his paynes at the 
same Comunyon iij s. iiij d. the sexton iiij d. Sm . . ij s. viij d. 

3tm paide for the Quenes parte of ware taken at sturbridge Saynt albons 
& croyden fair Sm . . . . . . . . xs. xjd. 

3tm pd for a xv**" graunted to Quene Mary for owre hall . vj s. viij d. 

3tm pd for ij xv*** graunted agaynst the Crownacon of Quene Elyzabeth 

xnj s. nij d. 
Queen Elizabeth succeeded to the throne on the death of her sister, 
17th November, 1558. The Queen, who was staying at Hatfield, soon 
(24th November) removed to the Charterhouse, being escorted thither 
through the City by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs. On 
2 1 St November the Common Council voted two fifteenths for the cus- 
tomary gift to be presented to Her Majesty on passing through London 
to her coronation. 

3tm pd for a xv*^ graunted by Coiiion councell for Billets vj s. viij d. 

*itv^ pd to m' osborne for a Superzedius for the discharge of the wardens 

the last yeare of a rest owt of the Exchequyer . . . ij s. vj d. 
3tm pd for Carying of o' standing at the Comyng in of Quene Elyzabeth 

the xxix day of Novembr Anno 1558 . . . . vj d. 

This was the state entry of the new Queen into her City of London 
on the way to the Tower, amidst universal acclamation from the citizens 
of all classes. The Queen was attended by the Lord Mayor, Recorder, 
and principal citizens from Charterhouse Gate, through Barbican, 
Cripplegate, and London Wall to Bishopsgate "and so with Lordes, 
Knightes, and Gentlewomen richly apparelled [they] brought hir to the 
Tower of London." The Livery Companies, as usual on these occasions, 
lined the greater part of the route, each Company in proper precedence 
attending in its stand. 

History of the Pewterers' Company, 205 

3fm pd to the Carpenter for setting vp the standing . . . ij s. 

3fm pd for bringing of yt home iiij d. 

3fm pd for the hyer of a Barge at the Quenes comyng to the Tower by 
water ......... xxiij s. iiij d. 

3tm pd for iiij staves for y* wyflars ...... viij d. 

3tm pd for Carying owt of o' standing agaynst the Crownacon of the 
Quene and for bringing of yt home ..... xvj d. 

EHzabeth was crowned at Westminster on 15th January, 1558-9. 
The ceremony was preceded by two great receptions of their new 
Sovereign on the part of the citizens. On the 1 2th the Queen proceeded 
by water from Whitehall to the Tower, attended by the Lord Mayor and 
Corporation and all the Crafts of the City in their barges ; and on the 
14th the Coronation procession passed through the City by land from 
the Tower to Westminster. 

3tm pd for wryting the names of the Clothing in a newe order in a table 

nj s. mj d. 

3f m pd for a C of fFaggot to laye in the hall for store agaynst wynter vj s. ij d. 

3fm pd more for the playe then was gathered of the Companye as 

apearith by a bill . . • . . . . . iij s. j d. 

3fm pd for dyverse charge of xxvij men w*"*" went to muster at grenewitch 
on saynt peters daye as maye apeare .... xxxj s. iiij d. 

This famous military display seems to have been held not on St. 
Peter's Day (29th June) but in July, as recorded in the Court minutes 
at the foot of page 201. Stow in his Chronicles gives the date as the 
second of July, and describes the scene as follows : — " The Citizens of 
London had a muster afore the Queenes Maiestie at Greenwich in the 
Parke, of fourteene hundred men, whereof eyght hundred were Pikemen, 
all in fine Corselets, foure hundred Haquebuts in shirtes of mayle with 
morians, and two hundred Halberters in almanriuets, which were furnished 
and set forth by the companyes of the Citie of London : they had to 
euery hundred two wifFelers, richly apparelled, and twelue wardens of the 
best companyes riding in coates of blacke Veluet to conduct them with 
drommes and fifes, and sixe Ensignes, all in Jerkins of white Bridges 

2o6 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

[Bruges] Satten, cutte and lined with blacke Sarsenet, with cappes, hosen, 
and skarfes according: the Captaynes Robert Constable, and Mayster 
Saunders, brought them in battayle ray afore the Queene, euen as they 
should haue fought, which made a goodly shewe before hir Maiestie, the 
Emperoures and French Kings Embassadours being present." 
3fitt pd for the payntinge of the olde plo' wyndowes and for ij newe pecf 

payntinge for the new plo' xl s. 

3fm pd to the beadle for gathering of the mony w'"" was geven of certayn 

of the company towards them that went to muster , . xij d 
3fm pd for a dog of Iron for the Chimney in the plo' weinge Ij H at 

ijd. obatt xs. vijd. 

3fn* pd to ffranke the Glassyer for takinge downe and seting of all the 

glasse as maye apeare by his billon the East side of the hall xxjs. viijd. 



ign of 0fii[a6et9. 

ITH the commencement of Queen Elizabeth's reign, 
the Pewterers' Company lost one of their most pro- 
minent members, Alderman Sir Thomas Curtis. Of 
this worthy alderman, whose leading position in the 
Corporation must have made him a valuable friend 
to the Company, a full biographical notice is gi%'en in a later chapter, 

'559^0. QJt' [i2th January] that m' stukeley dyd geue to the 
company for a Recreasion for beinge at the buryall of m' Alderman 
Curtis who depted on mondayat night beinge the xxvij daye of novembr 
and was buryed the vij daye of decembr Being Wedinsdaye 1559 xls. 
whiche was agreed y' Wittm Curtis sholde haue in ptie of payment of the 
mony the Crafte owith hym. 

C5« Bodye of the said m' alderman Curtis lyeth Buryed in the 
Churche of Saynt Deonis on the left hand where the highe Aulter stonde 
on whose soule and all Christen Soules Jhus haue mercy amen. 

(5f the same Courte John Smythe Sometyme aprentice w* Geffery 
Mathewe was comytted to warde by the m' wardens and assystaunce for 
that he had promysed to ser\e a certayne tyme w'** John Cutler as maye 
apeare the last yeare and after his promys w"'in ij dayes after went to 
maydstone and wrought there w'*" a Tynkerd and made hym mowlds 
And beinge Suspected to come and Entice mens |vauntf and prenticf 
to be obstynate agaynst there maisters as before tyme he hath donne. 

2o8 History of the Pewterers Company. 

fFurther the xix daye of January 1559 the saide Smyth was Com- 
mytted to Brydewell for his obstenacy for that he wolde not submyt hym 
self But Rather worsse when he cam owt of the Counter then he was when 
he went in. The saide John Smyth was Releassed owt of Brydewell the 
xxiiij daye of January and dyd submyt hymself and desired the company 
of fForgeuenes kneling vpon his knees in the ^sens of the m"" and wardens 
and assystaunce and parte of the clothinge and yemandry howsholders 
and Jorneymen never to ofFende agayne and if he doo to be Banyshed 
the company for ever. 

^9e same daye [3 1 January] m' Thomas stukeley Esquyer was taken 
in to be one of the Company and was sworne to be a trewe Pewterer 
according to the order And the same daye he was made ffree of the 
Pewterers at the Guilde Hall by the Chamberlayne in the Presence of the 
m' m' Wittm Hustwayte John Gerye warden John daye Edwarde Cacher 
Wittm Haynes and wittm Mittf . 

Besides the above minute, the following entry is in the Audit Book 
at the end of the account for 1558-9. 

(SI' Thomas Stuckley esquyer was made ffree in the tyme of 
m' Wittm Hustwayte, m' of the mistery of Pewterers, Water makyns and 
John Gery Wardens the daye and yeare as maye apeare as folowith. 

f§t it Remembred that the last daye of January in the yeare of o' 
Lorde god a thowsand fFyve houndreth fyftye and Nyne, and in the 
Second yeare of the Raigne of o' Soveraigne Lady Elyzabeth By the 
grace of god Quene of England fFraunce and Ireland, defendo' of the 
faythe &c. Yt was condissendend and agreed and [at] a Courte holden 
the same daye by the m' Wardens and assystaunce of the fFelowship of 
Pewterers yt was consented and concluded that m*^ Thomas Stucley 
Esquyer shoulde be taken in as a brother of the saide felowship and 
thervpon the same day was made ffree of the same ffelowship at the 
Guyldehall, And for that the saide companye bare suche good will vnto 
the saide m' Thomas stucley and Anne his wif, they the saide m" 
Thomas stucley and Anne his wif dyd ffreely geve of theyre owne meare 
gifte vnto the saide Company, one certayne Indenture of Lease of 
twoo Tenement^ Set lyinge and beinge in the pishe of Saynt Deonis 

History of the Pewterers Company. 209 

Backchurch in London in the streate called fFanchurch streate in Lang- 
borne Warde w*"^ saide twoo Ten*tf were lately graunted by the same 
Indenture of Lease, with the assent of one m' Thomas Vrswicke late m' 
of the saide fFelowship of Pewterers John Sherwyn and John daye then 
wardens, w^ the consent of the Bodye of the saide felowship to the 
late worshipfull S' Thomas Curtis knight and alderman of London 
decessed as by the same case more playnly apeareth Which saide 
lease the saide m' Thomas Stucley And Anne his wif w'^ one assent 
consent will and agrement by theire deade bearing date the xv'** daye 
of marche next ensuynge the date herof, dyd ffreely geve as aforesaide 
to the sayde company for none other entent and purpose But only 
of there good will and as theyre owne prop gifte for the lyke good will 
that they beare to the saide felowship. 

Mr. Thomas Stukeley, of whom some biographical particulars are 
given in a later chapter, married Alderman Curtis's grand-daughter Anne, 
the daughter of his only son Thomas who predeceased him. 

QJi'^ Water Makyns dyed the same daye [8th March] beinge fry day 
on whose Soule god haue mercy And the monday after there was a 
dynner kept at the hall of his gifte being xl s. And the same monday 
there was Eleccon for a newe Warden and yt fell owt soo that m' Crost- 
wayte had the most Prickf as afterwarde more playnly apeareth. 

^f the same Courte [i8th March] John Jackson complayned 
agaynst John Powell for that he solde hym aprentice for xx'i of mettall 
and the same aprentice dwellith nowe w'** a Hossyer. 

^t a Courte then [ist April] holden by the m' wardens and the 
assystaunce yt was agreed that Thomas Curtis sholde be lycensed to set 
vp and open Shop. 

^f the same Courte yt was agreed that John Bowntinge sholde paye 
in the name of a fFyne for Selling of certayne pecf of v^essell doble turned 
fylyted for vij d. ob the pound to the olde duches of SufFolke at easter 
last past that is to saye vj great Platters doble fFyllyted and v fF mydell 
platers doble fiUitted iij s. iiij d. wherof the beadle had for his paynes iiij d, 
3o rest clerc to the crafte iij s. 

2IO History of the Pewterers Company. 

tL^t x*** daye of Apriell. The names of the xx men and ij wiflers w*"^ 
brought in the Quenes matf withe the same daye by the Comaundem* of 
my lord Mayo' who had xij d. apece. 

The list consists of 4 Gonners, 6 Bowmen, 10 Pickemen [pikemen], 
the two Wardens of the Yeomanry who served as WhifBers, George 
Baskertone sword player, and William Thomas an attendant. 

(JJl^ that the same daye [4th May] GefFery Mathewe wolde be at his 
owne lybertie for the workmanship of hoUowwares and the Morrowe after 
he was contentid to worke for ix s. a C taverne pott^ for x s. the C stopes 
and for xj s. the C new fasshon &c vntill farther order was taken. 

tL%t XXV daye of Maye the Names of the fFyve men that was set 
forthe for Soldyars in the Quenes ships and delyuered to | Thomas 
Woodowce knight theire Capetayne vpon Tower hill by Comaundem' of 
the lord mayo' in the quenes name by presept. 

These troops were required to repel the French invasion of Scotland. 
A force of nine hundred soldiers was demanded of the City in April, 
1560, two hundred and fifty seamen in May. and two hundred more 
soldiers in June. These were furnished by the Livery Companies by 
allotment, in accordance with their respective ability and standing. 

(J3|t^ m' Richard champyon alderman dyd paye vnto the Company 
[28th May] for the Enterest of L U lent to Quene Marye the Sm of 
V li xj s. \j d. and yt was agreed by the hole company that lent the same 
that yt sholde be flfreely gevyn to the hall to bryng them owt of debt. 

This was the Company's quota of a loan of 20,000/. raised by 
Queen Mary in March, 1558, eight months before her death. Interest 
was guaranteed at twelve per cent., and the Crown lands were pledged 
as security for repayment. Each member of the Company was assessed 
to contribute to the loan, and was therefore entitled to share in the 
distribution of the first year's interest. They, however, unanimously 
decided to give the interest to the Company, which was at this time in 
debt. The method of assessment occasionally gave rise to discontent, as 
in 1554. On the 14th July in that year (see p. 177) it was ordered that 
" who so ever speakyth any more of the seasyng " should be fined 20^. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 2 1 1 

^f the same Courte [19th June] yt was agreed by the m' wardens 
& assystaunce and the most part of all the whole fFelowship as well of the 
yemandry as of the Clothing, that no pson doo fFrom hensforth in his 
shop or in any other place eyther in selling or Chepnyng of his ware do 
saye that his ware is better then any others of the company by a j d. ob 
or qf in a pound more or les he shall forfayte and paye for a fFyne if it 
maye be Justly & duely provid xx s. to the boxe w'**owt fFavor. 

This regulation, though doubtless found necessary, merely reinforces 
a long established rule of the Company. A high standard of trade 
honesty was set up and strictly maintained, no favour being shown to 
any of the brethren, however high his position in the Guild. 

^t the same Court yt was agreed that if any of the yemandrye 
do from hensforth slack them self^ to wayt vpon the m' and wardens 
of the yemandry eyther to ofFering^ or buryall^ or any other tyme 
when they shalbe warned by any of them or the beadle in theyre 
name they shall forfayte and paye for every tyme offending vj d. 
w***owt any favo' and that yt shalbe leafuU for the beadle for the 
none payment of the said vj d. to take a dystres from the howse of 
the offender and to bryng to the Pewterers hall and then to be ordered 
by the m' and wardens of the clothinge Provyded alwayes that if 
any pson be owt of towne or ellf being Sicke vpon good profe yt 
shalbe a lawfuU Scuse Or ellf all excusus to be layd apart Also yt 
is agreed that the yemandry shall come in clenly apell and w'**owt 
theyre aprons And shall not vse to playe at any vnlawfuU games in 
the hall as at shove grote or any such lyke vpon payne to forfayte and 
paye for every tyme offending xij d. 

The Yeomanry had doubtless one or more apartments in Pewterers' 
Hall set aside for their own use, and here some supervision over the 
rough recreations of the journeymen became necessary. The " unlaw- 
fulness" of shove-groat and other games was probably owing to their 
gambling character. 

^f the same Courte yt was agreed that the m' and Wardens of the 
ffelowship and theire Successours sholde firom hensforth kepe theire 

1 1 2 History of the Pewterers Company. 

foure quarter dynners in the Hall belonging to the said fFelowship and 
that all the whole clothing shoulde paye for theire dynner at every of 
the quarter dynners vj d. a pece. 

%i the same Courte yt was agreed that no Jorneyman ^Vinge by 
the yeare shall departe fFrom the fvice of his m' withowt he geve his 
maister half a yeares warnyng And he that dothe serve but for half a 
yere shall not departe w'**owt a quarter of a yere warnynge and he that 
(fvith by the weke shall not departe w***owt a wekf warnyng And who so 
ever do offend in this article shall forfayt and pay for a fyne xx s. And 
that if any pson of the felowship do Happen to set aworke any suche 
Jorneyman as shall departe contrary to this article before he do pfytly 
know that he is clere from his m*^ he cam from, he shall paye lykewise in 
the name of a fFyne xx s. 

tL%t byll of Seasement for I'i lent for wheate. M' Thomas Stewkely 
was seased at iij ti & he wold pay none. [The list contains 59 entries.] 
Sm to'* Lli Receyued of m*^ Chamberlayne the xxv daye of decembr in 
ptie of payment of the said Sm of Lli the sm of xij'i xs. [9th July.] 

^f the same Courte [3rd August] yt was agreed for all manner of 
matters & varyauncf depending betwene Thorns Curtis and Thomas 
Hassill for fving straungers of ware and other matters The said Thomas 
Curtis shall byd Wittm Curtis and his wif and thomas Hassill and his wif 
to a supper home to his howse and there to be mery to gethers and so to 
be lovers and fFrend^ from hensforthe, and that the said supper shalbe 
betwene this and bartylmewtyd next comyng Or ell^ the said Thomas 
Curtis shall paye in the name of fFyne to the crafty boxe in monye xx s. 

%i the same Courte [i8th September] yt was agreed that if any 
pson that doth vse to goo to markyt^ or fFayres w*** any wares he shall sell 
for no les then for a ob in a pound more then y* pryce doth goo at 
London, vnles that there be in the same markyt or fFayre any Countree- 
men that sellith for lyke pryce as is at london vpon payne to fForfayt for 
a fFyne fFor every tyme being duely provid xx s. 

%i the same Courte Robert Somers paid for a fFyne for the lyke 
ofFence and for bying tynne w*owt ClofFe vs. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 2 1 3 

The term " clufF" is used in the trade at the present day to denote 
rough or scrap metal. 

^feo it was agreed [6th December] that the said Thomas wolshere 
shall paye in the name of fyne for his approbrious word^ toward^ the 
same [Richard] Scot saying he played the Scot^ part and had a Scottf 
hart xvj d. 

Richard Scot, the other party to this quarrel, was fined 10*. for 
calling Wilshire "begerly knave." 

^n order [i6th December] for the new Eleccion of the m*" and 
wardens that is to saye the m' shall have his ij Prick^ at his lybertie and 
if it happen to be prick for Prick the m' shall Call the assystaunce agayne 
for the same officer and then vpone the voyce of the most parte of the 
assystaunce the same psonne to beare the ofFyce. 

Wittm Readman Thomas allyn Wittm Baker 

Thomas Elyot John Gerye Nicholas crostwayt 

Wittm Loughton Wittm Curtis m' Rowlandson 

John mathewe Wittm Myllf Edward Reo 

^n order for the new Eleccon of the m' and wardens that is to saye 
the m*^ shall haue his ij Prick^ at his lybertye and if yt happen to be prick 
for Prick looke who is the elderman shall have the office. 

Richarde Selby Thomas whitbe Wittm hustwayte 

Robert chawnor John Royston Richard walling' 

Stephin Calye Edward Cacher Thomas Hassill 

Lawrence ashlyn Wittm Haynes Richard Scot 

Allyn gardener m' daye 

Nicholas turner m'' woodowce 

^i the same Court it was agreed that all those psones wch haue 
bynne m' and wardens shalbe of the assystaunce and set in Court^ for all 
manner of matters debating in the Pewterers Hall w'^ the m' and wardens. 

This was an important step in the constitution of a permanent Court 
of Assistants, which in later times became the chief ruling power, at the 
expense of the authority of the Master and Wardens on the one hand, 
and that of the Livery on the other. 

^ 1 4 History of the Pew t ever s Cmnpany. 

%i the same Court yt was agreed that who so ever be m^ this yeare 
shall not be maister the next yeare that is to saye no man shalbe m"^ ij 
yeares to gether. 

^f a Court [20 December] then holden the Lorde mayo' S' wittm 
Chester sent to the hall a proclamacon for the wearing of aparell emonge 
the Company. Wherfore yt was agreed that theise psonnes folowing 
shoulde haue the oversight rule and goverment of the company for the 
observing of the said pclamacion according to the Teno" of the same. 

John Gerye Wittm Readman John Bowlting 

Thomas allyn Anthony smythe John Robson 

%i the same Court there was deputies chosen for the m' and 
wardens to supply theire Roomes [places] at all tymes when the m' and 
wardens was absent aswell to make answere to the Lorde mayo' as also 
in other matters within the hall that is to saye 

fFor the m' m' Cacher 

fFor the vpp' warden m' baker 

fFor the vnderwarden m' Rowlandson. 

^f the same Court [23rd December] m' Crostwayte asked alowaunce 
of iiij h xviij s. iij d. w^** was lost in the fall of the mony So the hole 
assystaunce graunted hym to haue the occupying of the mony w*"*" 
Remayned vpon his said accompt vntill mighelmas next comyng to 
bring in the hole Sm for the same. 

3fm in markinge Irons of the armes of the Crafte lying in the Red 

chest iiij. (Book of Inventories, 3, 31a.) 
3fm Rs for xiiij wedings and dynners kepte in o' Hall this yeare xlvs. iiijd. 

3fm pd to XXX pore men and women in the same pishe [St. Mary 
Abchurch] in Almas ij s. vj d. and to o' beadle iiij d. Sm . ij s. x d. 

This is the form which the simple religious service at Mr. Ashlyn's 
obsequies now assumes in the Audit Book. 

3fm pd to mr Lutley one of the Chauncery for Renuynge of o' Corpora- 
con as maye apeare by a bill of pticulers therof . viij" xvs. iiij d. 

3fm pd for the Coppye of a wryt called acowaranto [Quo warranto] to 
compell us to Renue o' Corporacon . . . . • ij s. vj d. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 2 1 5 

These entries throw light upon the way in which the Companies 
obtained, or rather were forced to procure a renewal of their charters at the 
beginning of a new reign. Queen Elizabeth*s charter of inspeximus, which 
added nothing to the existing privileges and regulations of the Company 
but was only confirmatory, was granted on the 20th November, 1559, in 
the second year of her reign. The initial letter E of this charter, con- 
taining the portrait of the Queen, is reproduced on page 206. 

3f m pd for the Copie of a tre of ministracon w*^** mr stukeley toke owt for 
mr Alderman Curtis xij d. 

3fm pd to mr Stukcly for ij payre of greate Melting bellowes for the 
Jtjiaii . . . • • . • . . • vs« 

3fm pd for the Change of iij dosin Sawcers p5z xvj lb. [poids, i.e. weight] 


"itxa pd for bringing vp of a hogshed to the hall to make ij watering 
tubbes and for cutting of the same hogshed, and hoping [hooping] 
of a greate fFat [vat] vj d. 

^Je Chargs of the xx men made owt by the Lorde Mayo" com- 
maundement the x^** daye of apryell 1560 and to geue attend*unce to 
fFetche in the Queues ma'^ withe to westra 

"iixa pd vnto George Baskertone sword player . . . . xij d. 

This was for the men's entertainment after breakfast. 
"ilixa pd the same daye for theire brekefast for a salt ffyshe and a half xvj d. 

3fm pd for ij tti of butter x d. 

Jfm pd for ij Cheynes of Salmond ...... viij d. 

Jfm pd for ij white staves for the wiflers . • . . . . iij d. 

Jfm pd for iiij swords and iiij daggers .... xiij s. vj d. 

There are in all twenty entries, and the total cost of their repast 
and outfit amounts to Ivij s. x d. oti. 

C^M%^ of V men set forthe at the Crafts charge the xxv daye of 
Maye for Soldyers to the Queues ma*^ [Majesty's] shippes as may 
apeare in the Boke of fifaut^ 

3fm pd for laces to hang the gonne powder boxis abowt their necks vj d. 
3fm pd for v Red scotish Cappes . . . . . . v s. viij d. 

Jfm pd for theire Prest pence v d. 

2i6 History of the Peivterers Company. 

"itxti pd to iiij of them for conduct mony ..... iiij s. 

"iifti pd for theire meate and drynk for ij dayes to kepe them to gether 

IJ s. iiij d. OD. 
There are 19 entries, and the expenditure was Ivij s. iij d. ob. 

The Company was further required on 7th July, 1560, to furnish 
two men to serve in Scotland, and paid \o^d. to "dyverse of the yemandry" 
for prest pence to keep themselves in readiness for such service. 

"iixa more I aske alowaunce owt of xxvj s. viij d. wch I do charge myself 
in the Receipt for the buryall of m" allyn for that was spent at a 
dynner at the Castle in newe fFyshstreat when Sr Thomas Curtis 
was buryed ........ vjs. viijd. 

One of the obligations of Guild membership from the earliest times 
was to attend the funeral of deceased brethren, absence without legitimate 
excuse being punished by fine. The simple refreshments served on 
these occasions, at the obsequies, in later times took the form of 
elaborate funeral feasts, payments for which, generally accompanied 
by gifts to the poor, were frequently provided by wealthy persons 
in their wills. The feast at the funeral of Sir Thomas Curtis having 
cost more than the sum of \os. furnished by Mr. Stukeley, his executor, 
the Wardens provided the difference by curtailing the funeral feast of 
Mrs. Allen to the extent of 6s. Sd. 

Nicholas Crosthwaite, the outgoing warden-accountant, was allowed 
twelve months (till the following Michaelmas) to pay the balance of 
61. 6s. yd. remaining in his hands. 

nS^icf tyme of the said payment was grauntid hym for that he sholde 
beare the fall of the said vj li vj s. vij d. being in his hands at the daye 
of the proclymacbn being the xxvij of Septembr 1560 which dyd amount 
vnto after the rate of v s. and xij s. the pounde to an uncertayne Sm. 

(31^ that this accompt was awdyt the xxij daye of Decembr in 
Anno Dili 1560 and in the therd yere of the Raigne of o' Soveraigne lady 
Queue Elyzabethe, by us Wittm Baker, Wittm Mills, Nicholas Turn And 
Richard Scot. So that we fynde by the neclygence of m' Hustwayte, 
Nicholas Crostwayte and John Gery warden theise pcells folowing. 

3n p'mis the whgle Receipts to lytle cast by . . . . xij d. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 217 

'iim where it is acustome that every weding that is kept in the hall ought 
to paye iij s. iiij d. we fynd to lytle by . . . . xvj d. 

The above sums were paid into the next account. Then follow five 
quarterage payments, and the Audit concludes as follows : — 

Jfm we fynd that they aske more fyer more y*° ordenary . • x s. 

1560-1. ^i the same Court [i8th January] m' Crostwayte made 
Ernest Sute [earnest suit] and laboure to Chaunge his Coppye to the 
Vynteners Whervpon ) t was agreed by the m' wardens and assystaunce in 
manner & forme folowing that is to saye the saide m' Crostwayte shall 
forthwith paye vnto the crafty boxe for the good willf of the Company for 
his depture Eight pounds of good and lawful! mony of England And shall 
paye or provide to be paid w***in xx dayes after his dicesse other viij 
poundf and for the sure paym' therof shall make an obligacon to the 
Company And fFarther the said m' crostwayte shall quyt geve over the 
occupying of pewterers crafte before the fFeaste of Saynt John Baptist next 
comyng Provided always that the same m' Crostwayt shalbe a brother of 
the said Company and be Contrybutor to all manner of charge in the saide 
Company of pewterers as a brother and fFreman of the said company 
should or ought to doo during his naturall lyf to the which said agrementf 
the said m' Crostwayte hath set his hand and haue paid the ffirst Eight 
poundf as is aforesaid in the psence of theise psonnes folowing 

By me Nicholas crostwayt. 

Here follow the names of the Master, Wardens, and seven of the 
Court of Assistants. 

^f the same Court it was agreed by the m*^ wardens and assystaunce 
and the most part of all the whole company that foure honest men 
of the Company shall haue the bying of all suche bargaynes of tynne 
as hereafter shalbe by any manner of meanes come to any of the 
company by Brokership or any other shiftf the ptie shall send the 
broker or other ptie to one of the said foure and they by theire 
good advise shall make bargayne for the same in the name of the 
whole Company and that the same tynne so by them bargayned shalbe 
brought to the hall to thentent that every man that will haue any 
therof shall haue suche porcion as shalbe thought by the m' wardens 


History of the Pewterers Cmnpany. 

and assistaunce Provided alwayes that none of the said iiij men shall do no 
manner of act or act^ that shalbe preiudiciall to the said bargaynes or other- 
wise for theire owne lucer or gayne shall take the bargayne into their owne 
handf vpon payne of fforfayture of tennc poundf for every suche ofFens 
And also it is agreed that if any suche tynne shall happen to be bought by 
the iiij men in mann aforesaid that no pson of the said Company shall 
bye no pece of tynne but of the same tynne so bought vntill that be all 
gone vpon forfayture of xl s for every pece so bought. 

Theise iiij men be apoynted as folow**" 

m' Warden Rco m' Lawrens Ashlyn 

Thomas Elyot Thomas Burton 

They to haue emongf them vpon every pece of tynne so by them bought as 

is aforesaid for theire paynestaking in that behalf iiijd. [Rough Minutes 21.] 

% precept sent [ist April] by S' wittm Chester knight Lord mayo' of 
London for the lone of ffiftie pound^ to the chambrlayn for to by whete 156 1. 

tL^t byll of Seasment for the same w** was apoynted that m' haynes 
and m' Reo wardens m' Royston and m' curtis shoulde be Seasours for 
the Clothing and Robert Tymne and Symond hawclif for the yemandry. 
Collectours to gather the same Lawrence ashlyn and Wittm Readma 
BonyfFace fFoster and Thomas Curtis. 

m' daye 

xxiij s. 

• • • • « 

uij d. 

Richard Scot 



m' haynes 



Thomas allyn 


xl s. 

m' Reo 


XX s. 

Thomas hassill 



m' hustwayt . 



allyn gardener 

xxvj s. 

viij d. 

m' Cacher . 

1 • 


John mathewe 

xxij s 

■ * V • m 

. mj d. 

m' Roy stone. 

xxvj s. 

viij d. 

Laurence ashlyn , 

xxvj s. 

viij d. 

m' Crostwayt 

1 . 

XX s. 

m' nogaye 

XX s. 

m' Rowlandson 

> . 


Thomas Elyot 


m' Woodowce 

> • 


wittm Lowton 

XXX s. 

m' Baker 

» . 


Robert chawner 

XX s. 

m' Millf 

* . 


Stephin Calie. 

XX s. 

Wittm Curtis 

• . 


Wittm Read man 

XXX s. 

John Gerye . 

. xxvj s. 

viij d. 

Richard wallenger 


Nicholas TurS 

. • 


Richard Selbye 

xiij s 

». uij d. 

Thomas Whitbee 


■ ■ • • « 

. \\\\ d. 

Sra XXXV li. V s. 

History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 


The yemandry. 

Robert Cropwell . 

XX s. 

Symond hawclif , 


Richard mannyng. 


John Jackson 


John Sherwyn 

vj s. viij d. 

Roger palmer 

vj s. viij d. 

Richard wiitmson . 

vj s. viij d. 

John holstock 


John bowlting 

xnj s. uij d. 

Richard harrysson 


Anthony Smyth 

XX s. 

Robert newes 

XUJ s. UIJ d. 

Thomas burton 

xuj s. nij d. 

Wittm meare 


Thomas Curtis 


Hugh wadelow 


Thomas Nicoitf 

XX s. 

Richard Sares 


Roger fFarthing . 

XX s. 

Robert somers 

vj s. viij d. 

John Barker 

XUJ s. inj d« 

Robert wilkynson 

V s. 

Thomas woodowo 

t vj s. viij d. 

pcyvall glasker 


Stephin Barrowe 


Wittm Glover 


AUyn Dawson 


Roger Isaack 


Raphe mullyners 

XUJ s. UIJ d . 

Wittm hartlif 

V s. 

Bonyface fFoster 

vj s. viij d. 

Richard tompson . 

vj s. viij d. 

Sm XV li. uj s. UIJ d. 

%i the same Court [9th May] yt was agreed by the m' wardens 
and assystaunce that where there was certayn varyauncf betwene Robert 
wilkynson and Thomas Empson his Comnaunt ^vaunt Yt was agreed as 
folow'** that is to saye the saide Thomas shall serve his maister all such 
|vis which he ought to seme by his Comnaunt and after his saide terme he 
shall serue one Sevennight more for the tyme he hath bynne absent. Also 
the same Thomas shall lye within his m" howse and be there every night 
by ix of the Clock at the farthest And if the saide Thomas do absent 
hymself hereafter he shall serve doble as moche as he dothe absent hym- 
self and farther pay suche fyne as the m' and wardens shall adwarde. 

(^i the same Courte yt was agreed that the saide Robert wilkynson 
shoulde pay in the name of a fyne for Provoking the same Thomas to 
serue before he was clere from his former m' ij s. 

^nb the same Court yt was agreed that the saide Robert wilkynson 
shoulde set the said Thomas Empson fFast by the heeles if he absent 


History of the Pewterers' Cotnpany. 

An order 
about the 

All the 
Assistants to 
be sumoned 
to Court & 
nothing to 
be done un- 
less S Ass"' 
present y' 
have been 
Ma' or 

f)ecimo nono die Julii 1561 Whereas at this present there is greate 
varyence stryf and Controversie depending Emongf the maister wardens 
and assystaunce of the Company of Pewterers for the Eleccon of the 
m' and wardens of the saide Company as apeareth by Complaynt 
lately made by the saide Company and assystauntf of the same, for 
the appeasing of all which varyencf stryff and Controversies as haue 
heretofore growne or hearafter maye growe Emongf them, And to 
thentent to haue vnytie and quyetnes ever fFrom hensforth betwixt them 
and m' and wardens and company to be Contynued, I S' Wittm Chester 
knight Lorde mayo*^ of the Citie of London vppon good Consideracon 
and deliberacon there vppon doo order determyne and ffinally decree in 
the same matter as hereafter Enssueth ffirst that the m' of the saide 
Company shalbe the first that shall prick at the Eleccon of the maister 
and wardens and shall haue but one Prick as others haue Onles yt be in 
matter of doubt as prick for prick vpon an Equalytie Then the sayde 
m' to haue one Prick more w*"** makith twayne and to be at his lybertie 
to set his last prick vpon which it shall please hym for the advoyding of 
Controversie And putting owt of doubt the same Eleccon And if it 
fortune that there be one prick more of the one partye then of the other 
then the Eleccon to be cleare of ytself. And in such case the m' shall 
haue no moo Prick^ then other haue lest he should set his last Prick with 
the ffirst. And so make evyn Prick for prick so many for as many and 
then take vpon hym to make officer whome he pleasith withowt the 
Consent of the assystaunce or moost part of them which wolde make 
greate Confucyon in the Eleccon and disquyetnes in the Company And 
also that those psonnes whiche receyue the Eleccon shall forthw'** declare 
and Present the same vnto the m' wardens and assystaunt^ setting at the 
Bourde that yt may be knowne vnto them all the names of those that 
shalbe maister and wardens for the yeare Ensuing And fFarther when any 
Courte shalbe holden at the Common hall of the saide Company that the 
m' and wardens shall Cause the whole assystauntf to be warned, and that 
the saide m' and wardens of themselff shall not passe any matter touching 
or concernyng the Estate of the sayde Company Onles there be viij'** of 
thassystentf present at the leaste which assystent^ to be suche as haue 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


The xMa' & 
Wdns to be 
sworn be- 
fore y* Court 
of Ass'\ 

A debate 
upon y*" 
how many 
should be a 
(Jourt Ther- 
fore tis set- 
tled v' 6 
besides y" 
ma' & wdns 
shall be a 

byn m' or Wardens of the Company according too the Aunsient custome 
heretofore vsed And ffynally that at the Entering of the newe m" and 
Wardens that they shalbe sworne in the hall Before the assystentf therof 
as other worshipfull Companyes doo vse 

By me WilJm Chester mayo' 
m' cacher m' nycholas turnare wardene 

m' Woodowce p me W" baker 

p me wyllm Curttys p me edward Reoo 

p me John gery by me steuen Rowlandson 

Wittm millf warden [Jury Book.] 

^Je ix'^ daye of August anno 1562 [1561] At a Court then holden 
the assystaunce being assembled to gether w4n o' hall emongf other 
Comunicacon toke in hande to plede vppon the therde article of the 
decree aforesaide touching the article for the passinge of any matter 
concerning the state of the Company w'owt viij psonnes of the 
assystaunce besid^ the m' & wardens Yt was agreed by the m' wardens 
and assystaunce that Edward Reo warden, m' John Roystone and 
John Gerie shoulde goo agayne to the lorde mayo' to knowe his trewe 
meaning therof for that it was taken emong^ the assystaunce that 
except viij psonnes besides the m' and wardens shoulde holde Courte 
the Court shoulde be voyde. And so they went to the Lorde mayo' and 
he saide his meaninge was that there shoulde be viij psonnes besides 
the m' and wardens But not w^standing he decreed that if it shoulde 
soe happen that there was not viij of the assystaunce besides the m' and 
wardens at the Courte being lawfully warned that Sixe of the assystaunce 
besides the m' & wardens shoulde passe the matter aswell as if there were 
viij of the assystaunce besides the m' and wardens and more 

by me John Royston p me John gery p me edwarde Reo. [Jury 

^ Remembraunce [30th August, 1561] that the m' and wardens 
do the next Courte daye make mocyon that anordenaunce maye be 
made that no pson at any tyme do set any ware or make shewe any 
farther then vpon his owne stall or ground although yt be at fayre 
tyme. [Rough Minutes 21.] 

222 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

This is another instance of the strict practice of the Company in 
permitting no member of the trade to get an unfair advantage over 
another in the sale or display of his goods. 

The old (Jnno dm. 1561, xxj*' die octofer. Yt was ordayned and decreed the 

Master to day and yeare abouesaide by the right honorable S' wiitm Chester knight 
new^^Master "^^de mayor of the Citie of london that Edwarde Cacher then beinge Maister 
& Wardens, of the mistery shall at the geuynge vp of his accompt for the yere past 

before the assistaunce of the sayde Company in their hall called the 
pewterers hall doo to be sworne the newe Elect named to be maister and 
wardens of the Pewterers for the yeare next ensuinge, and the saide Edward 
shall geue them their Othe. And so yerely from tyme to tyme the olde 
maister to geue the newe maister and wardens their othe accordinge to the 
good and laudable custome of other worshipful! companies in london. 
Which saide ordennce by Comaundement of the saide lorde mayo' was 
regestered and writen in this booke for better remembraunce to be 
obserued. [Jury Book.] 

(Jt the same Court [7th November] Wittm Lowton Complayned 
agaynst AUyn Gardener for that he |ved [served] the sadlers Hall of 
Rowe [rough] vessell and the said Sadlers did owe vnto the saide lowton 
certayn mony for the hyer of vessell . Wherfore it was ordered and agreed 
that neyther the saide Allyn Gardener nor any other of the Company 
shall not serve the saide Company from hensforth any Roughe vessell 
vntill suche tyme the saide Lowton be first paide his moony. 

Whilst the Company strictly enforced their regulations for securing 
honest dealing by its members both with each other and with the public, 
they showed themselves equally zealous in defending the rights of 
individual members. The measures they adopted against the Saddlers' 
Company for an alleged breach of contract proved no doubt effectual. 

(Jt the same Court yt was agreed by the m' wardens and assistaunce 
that ffrom hensforthe no Jornyman shall goo to any offerings but duely 
to wayt vppon their m' vppon the Sondayes and hallydaies vntill Even- 
song be donne, and then vppon lycens to goo where honestie shall 
require as to shooting and suche lyke. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 223 

This minute and that of the 9th May above (page 219), give a 
curious picture of the domestic relations existing between the employers 
and their workmen. It appears that not only the apprentice, but the non- 
householder journeyman also were kept in the strictest discipline. Each 
lived in his master's house and had to accompany him and his family to 
church on Sunday and holydays, both in the morning and afternoon. He 
was not to absent himself on the plea of attending " offerings," but was free 
to amuse himself as he pleased during the after part of the day. 
Finsbury and Islington fields for archery, and the Thames, with its 
aquatic sports, were the favourite resorts for recreation. This policy 
was more generally enforced some fifty years later by the "Book of Sports," 
as James I's "Declaration" of 16 18 is usually called. It permitted the 
use of lawful sports on Sunday after church time, but to those only who 
had attended Divine Service. Among the lawful sports were dancing, 
leaping, archery, and setting-up maypoles ; whilst bear-baiting, bowling, 
and interludes were declared unlaufuL The "Book of Sports" was 
publicly burnt under the Commonwealth on loth May, 1643. 

d^i the same Court [loth December] it was agreed by the m' 
wardens and the hole Clothing that Browne the Clarck shoulde haue an 
offering yerely at Christmas of all the howsholders that is to saye of the 
Clothing ij d. apece or more at their pleasuers . and of the yemandry j d. 
apece and more at their will and pleasuer. So that none of the clothing 
geue vnder ij d. and the yemandry not vnder j d. 

d^i the same Court it was also agreed that firauncf Barnard shoulde 
be the Cooke and serue the Company aswell the Clothing as the 
yemandry and not to be put owt so long as he vseth hymself lyke an 
honest man and will serue as good chepe as another man . And the same 
ffrauncf promysed that he wolde serue the company all their quarter 
dayes ffrank and firee so that he maye haue the Benyfit in fving all the 
weding^ that may or shalbe kept in the Hall. 

The Halls of the various Companies were found very useful for the 
more important social festivities, and contributed to increase the income 
of the Companies. The Pewterers paid their cook for his services by 
granting him a monopoly as caterer to wedding parties hiring the Hall. 

224 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

In the list of payments of "Quarterage for the yemandrye" is 
this entry : 

3tm Rs' of John Bushe [no amount] forgevyn bycause he sarvythe at 
y* fFeast day. 

Bush was the Carver, and in recompense for his services, the office 
being no sinecure, was exempted from paying his Quarterage of \id. 

3fm lent vnto browne [the Clerk] upon his bill at the comaundement of 
the assystaunce when his wif was brought a bed . . xx s. 

3fm we aske alowaunce towardes the maisters fFeaste and as it was agreed 
by the whole Clothing at a Court holden the xix'** daye of June 
1561 ......... hijs. nij d. 

This was for the Election dinner on the feast of the Assumption, 
15th August; the amount previously allowed was 26^. 8rf. 

1561-2. (Jt a Court holden the same daye [30th January] m' 
nogayes mettall being afore pvsed [perused] and ouer sene by m' 
Rowlandson, m' Baker John Gerye Edwarde Reo and GefFery mathewe 
where they fFounde as fFolow*** that is to saye the Best mettall worsse then 
fFyne by ij graynes the Second worsse by iiij graynes The therde worsse then 
fFyne by v graines and a half and Beareth in Peke after xij li the C as now 
it is and to make yt laye it will beare in peke but xxiiij tti the C Wherfore 
it was ordered and agreed that the said Thomas nogaye shoulde content 
and paye vnto m' Curtis for all suche mettall as was fFound flawty in his 
handf fForthw'** toward^ his losse ix s. and they to be lovers and fFrend^ . 
And yt was also agreed that the same nogaye shoulde pay in the name 
of a fFyne to the Crafty boxe for the same mettall and others remaynyng 
in the Hall ij s. and so for this tyme to haue his mettall agayne and if he 
be taken w'*" the Lyke fFawt to paye the hole fFyne w*^owt fFavo' Besid^ 
the losse of all suche fFawty mettall. 

(Jf a Court holden the same daye [27th February] it was agreed by 
the m' wardens and assystaunce that the Beadle shoulde haue xij d. of 
every of the Company for his paynes taking if he were desired to warne 
the whole company either for offerings Buriall^ and for other warnings 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 225 

Except it be at the Comaundement of the m' for the tyme being or the 
wardens for the Crafty busines. And also it is agreed that the Beadles wif 
shoulde haue yerely for wasshing the craftf napery vj s. viij d. 

(Jt the same Court [8th May] yt was agreed that the whole 
companye shoulde sell for ix d. and ix d. oB viij d. laye and no mony to 
be abated neither to chapmen nor others. [Rough Minutes 21.] 

This order made a uniform selling price for "lay," or inferior, 
pewter compulsory upon the whole Company. The trade price, or price 
among themselves, being 8rf. per lb., the retail price to the pubUc must 
not exceed or be less than from 9^. to gj^rf. 

Olb that the xxviij' daye of maye 1562 the Lorde Wiitm Howarde 
came to the Hall and went vp into the newe plo' who there toke 
his othe as other pewterers haue done and kissed the Booke and ffrom 
thens went to the guilde Hall and was made fFree of ower Company 
the same daye. 

The Company were proud of their new member. Lord William 
Howard, who was Lord Chamberlain. When he attended their feast 
{see nth July below) an extra allowance was made to the Master and 
Wardens for the entertainment. Lord Howard died in January, 1572-3. 

d^i the same Court [20th June] yt was agreed by the whole 
Company that ffrom this day forwarde none of the Company shall haue 
adoo with Nicholas Rodes neither to bye nor sell w'^ hym nor yet 
borowe nor lende by any manner of meanes nor to take hym as a 
Brother of the felowship and who so ever that shall offend to the 
Contrary hereof shall paye in the name of a fFyne Tenne pound^ w'^owt 
any fFavo*^ being duly provid . The same Rodes was disfranchesid 
for that he Contrary to his othe and lyke no trewe pewterer w** was 
never heretofore sene did in the sight of straungers myxed tynne and 
leade together, and made of good Tynne fFalse tynne to the great 
deceyuing of the Quens matf people as well in this Realme as other 
fForren parties to the great slaunder of all the pewterers in London. 

d^i the same Court yt was also agreed by the whole clothing and 
Company that ffrom this daye fforwarde none of the Crafte should haue 

226 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

adoo w Robert Sotners neither to bye nor sell nor yet to borowe nor 
lende to hym by any manner of meanes not to take him agayne as 
a 'Brother vppon payne and fForfaytur of Tenne pounds . The causis 
wherfore he was disfranchesid was for theise cawses folowing 

ffirst for going abowt lyke a hawker and prowling others mens bargaynes 

of the Company owt of their handf. 
Itm for procuring awaye the customers from m' daye who was his m'. 

Itm for keping a boye contrary to the orders of the howse and agaynst 
the maisters comaundement and for mocking the m' when he sent 
for hym saing he had put hym awaye and kept hym still. 

Itm for procuring awaye a shoppe from Browne o' Clarck. 

Itm for fForstawling of a Brother of the company John Chester and 
taking a lease of the howse of the same Chester oii his hed. 

Itm for bying of olde mettall and selling it old as it was. 

Itm for discrying the previties of the Company saying he wolde geue 
more for olde mettall by ott in a pound for that yt was all Redy 
tempored w^ tynne glasse. 

The last offence in regard to " old metal " is curious. It could not 
be bought or sold ^* as it was," but had to be melted down first. The 
tempering with " tynne glass " was evidently a trade secret. 

d^i a Court holden the same daye [nth July] yt was agreed by the 
whole Clothing that the m' and wardens shoulde haue allowed Toward^ 
their ffestivall dynner over and aboue that w*"^ was graunted the last yeare 
owt of the Craftf Boxe the Sm of xxvj s. viij d. vppon Condic5n that if the 
Lorde Cheif Chaumferlayne come to dynner or promis to come to dynrc 
or that he send his gest^ . And if he come not nor send his gest^ then to 
haue no more alowaunce then was alowed the last yeare And so ffirom 
hensforth if the saide Lord chaumbrlayn come to dynner all other m' 
and wardens for the tyme being to haue the Lyke allowaunce. 

(Jf the same Court it was agreed vppon ConsideacOn of the Quenes 
ma*^ going a progresse and that m' warden mill^ was appoynted to be 
one to wayte vpon her grace the Principall dynre shoulde be kept the 
xxvij daye of this psent moneth of Julye next. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 227 

ffot the nether warden. This is the title given this year to the 
Junior Warden at the election on the 15th July. 

^9^8 haue awarded [loth August] by the order of the howse that 
the same Nicholas Rodes shalbe Receyued agayne in to be Company 
vppon his Submyssion vppon Condicion that he bring in to the howse 
for his ff^'^ne in monye v li at suche Convenyent tyme as the m' and 
wardens shall think mete And that there shalbe an order and note made 
of his Cryme and the same to be Reade every quarter daye and he to 
paye every qrter Contynually during his lyf to the Crafty Boxe for reading 
the same iiij d. The saide m' and wardens agreed that the said Rodes 
shoulde paye the saide v li in manner & forme folowing that is to saye 
quarterly vntill yt be paid And it ffarther agreed that there shall be 
nothing Reade qrterly as is aforesaid So that the same Rodes doo quietlye 
pay his moonye and also his iiij d. to the Boxe quarterly. 

(Jt the same Courte [9th October] Robert Backhowse paide in the 
name of a fiyne for that there was founde in his howse v platters Sothered 
with paile Contrary to o' ordenaunce xij d. 

^9e xviij*** daye of NouemBr 1562. ^9e bill of Seasment for the 
Lone of the ffyftie pounds to by whet. 

Sixty -two names follow with amounts varying from vs. to 
xls. This loan was refunded to the Company and repaid by the 
Company to its members, as appears by the following note at the 
foot of the list. 

Q^ececueb of m' ChamBrlayne by the hand^ of m' John whit 
alderma? the x'** daye of Septembr 1563. pd to the company by the 
handf of Thomas AUyn warden in A*" 1564. 

By his will, dated ist December, 1562, Edward Catcher, citizen 
and Pewterer, left twenty shillings to be distributed annually among 
five poor freemen, and ten shillings to the Company towards their 
quarter-day dinner. The above sum was a rent-charge upon four 
tenements which the testator occupied in his lifetime in the parish of 
St. Peter the Poor in Broad Street. The operative clause is transcribed 
in the Book of Inventories (3, 187-8). 

228 History of the Pewterers Company. 

(Jf a Court holden the same daye [3rd December] it was agreed by 
the m' wardens and assystaunce that fFrom hensforth the maister & 
wardens and their Successours shoulde haue toward^ the quarter dynners 
to be kept in the Hall for ever allowaunce owt of the landf in fFanchurch 
streate yearely fFortie shillings That is to saye Quarterly x s. And every 
one of the Company beinge of the Clothing that doth dyne at the same 
dynners to paye foure pence and not aboue. 

(^i the same Courte [loth December] it was agreed by the m' 

wardens and the whole Company vppon the Submyssion of Robert 

Somers and paying his fyne shoulde be taken in agayne to the Company 

vppon Condicon that he never doo any such acte as before he hath done 

but become a new man and not hereafter to stand to moch in his owne 

conceipt and if he bee found and taken w' the lyke fFaute agayne he 

shalbe Banisshed the Company for ever, and never be Receyued agayne, 

And So it was agreed he shoulde paye xxx s. in mannS and forme folowing 

that is to saye to the howse for his fyne xx s. and to Browne the Clarcke 

vj s. viij d. and to the Beadle iij s. iiij d. and so to haue his pawne agayne, 

to the w*"** order he hath set his hand t> u ^ c 

Robert bomers. 

%i the same Courte [i8th December] it was agreed that where 
Raphe newes owith vnto Wittm Readman the Sm of iijli. iiijs. vj d. in 
mony and xxxviij tti of fFyne mettall it is agreed that the same Raphe 
shoulde worke vnto the saide Readman wekely ij dosen of Earemasers 
to begyn the weke after xij'** day fFrank and fFree after xviij d. the do| 
vntill the saide iijli. iiijs. vjd. be paid And for the mettall to paye it 
agayn when the mony is Ronne owt. 

Earemasers were probably the small round shallow pans or porringers 
with two broad flat handles or " ears " extending from the rim on opposite 
sides. These handles often took the form of the Company's crest. 

(Jf the same Courte it was agreed by the m' wardens and assystaunce 
that harry flSick the mayors officer shoulde be ow' Sargeaunt ancj serve 
ower Hall and Supplye the Roome of John Sandye. 

The services of the Serjeant were required to accompany the Master 
and Wardens in their Searches at Fairs. It was also his duty to arrest oflTen- 
ders who were committed to prison, or summoned before the Lord Mayor. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 229 

The first three entries on the list of il^ttarferage for the clothing are : 

3tm Rs of the Right honorable lorde Wiitm Howarde. 

3tm Rs of m' Thomas stewkley Esquier. 

3fm R§ of m' Edwarde Cacher m' Wittm Mills and Nicholas Turner 

None of the above pay the usual larf. ; it was customary to relieve 
the Master and Wardens from this payment. 

3ftn pd for Russhes and strawing yerbes the xxviij'** daye of may thai 
daye the lorde Chaumbrleyn Cam to the hall to be sworne and was 
made fFree of o*^ Company . . . . . . vj d. 

3tm pd that daye for a pottell of Ipocresse . . . . ij s. iiij d. 

3fm pd the xiiij'** day of July for the last xv'** w*"*" was graunted to 
Pawles ......... vj s. viij d. 

The steeple of the Cathedral was destroyed by lightning in 1561, the 
fire threatening the safety of the adjoining locality. The damage to 
St. Paul's was considerable, and occasioned a large outlay for repairs. 

3fm pd to the m', mr Cacher for a garnysh of vessell which was geven 
to the lorde Chaumbrlayn poi^ [/.e., weight] Ivtlj di at ixd. the 
pounde . . . . . . . . . xlj s. vij d. ob. 

3fm pd to Sandy the mayors officer for fetching m' warden Curtis 
before my lord mayo*^ xij d. 

C9<^rs0 of Twelue soldyers which was delyuered at the grocers Hall 
the xx*^ daye of Septembr to serue the Quene at the charge off the 
Crafte 1562. 

3tm pd to xij men in Prest xij s. 

3tw pd for viij Corselets at xxvj s. vj d. the pece . . . x li. xij s. 
3tm pd for Earnest of the same Harnes . . . . . xij d. 

3tm pd for iij morres piks . . . . . . vj s. viij d. 

3fm pcf for a pece of Blewcloth of xxij yards to make Soldiers Cloks v li. 
3f m pd more for v yards of blewe at iiij s. x d. y* yard . xxiiij s. ij d. 
3fm pd for ix yards of Red at xxj d. the yard . . . .xvs. ix d. 

3fm pd for iiij lether Jerkins xv s. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3fm pd fo 
3fm pd fo 
3fm pd fo 
3fm pd fo 
3<m pd fo 
3<m pd fo 
3ttn pd fo 
3<m pd fo 
3fm pd fo 
3<m pd fo 
3tm pd fo 
3tm pd fo 
3tm pd fo 
3tm pd fo 
3<m pd fo 
3tm pd fo 
3tm pd fo 
3<m pd fo 
3<ni pd fo 
3ttn pd fo 

ij Red Cappes .... 

mending of iij Gonnes . 

making clene of vj payr of Harnesses 

ij Jacks of Stile [? Steelj 

iiij Black morryans 

ij fflaskes 

making of xij soldier Clokes . 

iiij dosin of poynts 

iij swords ..... 

ij Harkabushes .... 

mending of the spring of one of the gons 

a pound and a half of gonne powder 

iiij daggers ..... 

six swerde gerdles 


ij li of Candell .... 

dressing of swords and daggers 

lynyng of viij moryans . 

oile for the Harnes 

cariag of the Corselets to the captayns 
to bynd them together .... 

3fttt pd to the xij Soldyers for Conduct mony 

The above contingent, the Company's quota of 600 men demanded 
from the City by Elizabeth, were required for the war with France. 
The Queen had taken the side of the Huguenots, and had seized Havre 
as security for the surrender of Calais by the French. 

AUowaunCf this yeare. 

3<w I aske alowance towards o*^ fFestyvall dynra and for that we looked 
for the lorde chamBrlayn ...... iiij li. 

3tm more paid to the mr, mr Cacher for that he was thrise maister 
acording to the order xl s. 

howse and 

■ • • • • • « 

ij s. nij d. 

• • • 


• • ■ • 

IIIJ s. 

viij s. 

X s. viij d. 

ij s. ij d. 


viij d. 

iiij s. X d. 

xij s. vj d. 


XX d. 
iij s. viij d. 

. • • 




ij s. vj d. 

• • • • 

lUJ s. 


for Corde 

xlviij s. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 231 

3fm I aske alowaunce for xviij frenche crownes w*^** was paide owt of the 
mony Receyued of mr Reo vppon the fFoote of his accompt at 
vjs iiijd. the pece and paide owt for vjs. the pece so there was 
iiij d. lost in every cron vj s. 

3fm more they ought to paye Back of the alowaunce of the prencipall 
dynner for that the lorde Chambrlayne camm not nor no provision 
made for his Coming the Sm of ... . xxvj s. viij d. 

The above is a note made by the auditors at the foot of this account. 

3fm R^ for ij Silver spones w^^ was geven by Wittm Bennet, vj Silver 
spones and ij masers and one Silver spone of the gifte of mighell 
dufFelde weinge all xviij oz and a half solde the xix of July 1563 to 
Wittm fFeke goldsmith at iiij s. viij d. p oz. iiij li. vj s. iiij d. [Yeomanry 

3tm at Saynt katherins tyde Anno dni 1561 for ij dosen di of white 
Plates whereof one dof is w' doble Socket^ to hange abowt the hall 
vj s. ij d. [Yeomanry Accounts.] 

3fm pd for iij fFrames of waynscot for the iij long tables in the hall and 
one fframe for the table in the greate parlo' and for a back of 
waynscot there iiij li. xiij s. iiij d. [Yeomanry Accounts.] 

1562-3. %i a Court holden the same daye [4th January] it was 
agreed by the whole Body of the Company that there shoulde Sute be 
made in the plyament, And for all suche Charge as shall happen to be 

spent in the Sute thereof shoulde be at the Charge of the howse. And it was 
ffarther agreed that theise men folowinge shoulde be Suters in the same. 

The Clothing The yemandrie 

Wiitm Curtes warden Willm Hartwell 

Richard Scot warden [& 10 of the yeomanry.] 
[& 14 of the livery.] 

The duties of these " suitors " were probably to wait on the Speaker 
or attend before a Parliamentary Committee, and it is worthy of especial 
notice that the Yeomanry formed part, and almost an equal part, of the 

232 History of the Pewterers Company. 

^i the same Courte Stephin Calie complayned agaynst Richarde 
Harry sson for xvUi of fyne mettall which after the price of vj d. the 
pounde is vij s. vj d. the same Harrysson hathe promysed to paye vnto 
the said Stephin every weke ij dosen of Spones w* latten knobbes vntill the 
said mony were Ron owt. 

ffgnee of certayne of the Company [25th January] for that they 
cam not in their best Lyverie to M' Cachers buriall. 

A list of seven persons who were fined T2d. each. 

^^t bill of Seasment for the lone of L pound to bye whete the xxv 
daye of Januarye 1562. 

Then follow the names of 29 of the Clothing and 31 of the 
Yeomanry, with the sum contributed by each. At the foot is the 
following note: 

^9iff monye was Receyued the xxv'^ daye of fFebruary 1563 of 
m' John whit then being lord mayo' of london and paid too the Companye 
by m' AUyn warden and so this is quit discharged. 

^f was agreed [26th February] by the whole howse that there 
shoulde be taken of the Cornishe me VC [500] pecf of tyn after x li the 
C and to Receyue ij C at mydsomer coynage and at mighelmas Coynage. 
[Rough Minutes 21.] 

(^t the same Court [19th March] Robert west complayned agaynst 
m' hustwayte Saing he that he mysvsed and slaundered hym in the pallace 
of westmynster calling hym these fFalse knave and bad men look as they 
stood mark this man for he is a fFalse maker of measuer pott^ for where 
they shoulde be a quart he makith them a pynt and a half and goith 
abowt to deceyve you of yo*^ drink Yt was agreed at both their Request^ 
to trie their matter before the Lorde mayo' and the benche. 

^9^ Certificate [ist May] of the m' and wardens to the Quenes 
maiestf highe Seassours for the Citie of London 1563. 

^9e said Company maye dispend in howses and small TenSt^ by the 
yeare xvij li. x s. whereof is paide owt yearely in Quitrentf and the other 
alowaunce owt of the same Rent^ v li. ij s. xd. So rest xij 1. vij s. ij d. 


History of the Pewterers Company. 233 

Itm in Plate to the value of ix ti. 

And as for Juellf stocky of monie or mony in keping we haue none. 

And that o' Hall is indebted in dyverse Somes of monye vnto dyverse 
psones the Sm of fFortie pounds and more beseching yo"^ worships to 
consider it. 

An Older (^f ^jj^ same Court [nth June] yt was agreed by the m' wardens 

vemandries ^^^ assystaunce that in Consideracon of the great Excessyve pricf of 
victuall^ the greate Encrease of the Company that the hall is not able to 
holde them, and also that the Hall is in debt and lackith mony And also 
in Consideracon of the great Sute made vnto the said m' and wardens 
and assystaunce By the m' and wardens of the yemandrie for the none 
keping of the yemandries fFeast Yt is thought good that tlie saide maister 
and wardens of the Yemandrie shall paye to the Comon Boxe of the saide 
Company the Sm of viij li. lawfull mony of Englande That is to saye 
every of the saide m' and wardens xl s. And not to make any Sumptuous 
dynner Comonly callid the Yemandries fFeaste, And that the said m'' and 
wardens of the Yemandrie at their only cost charge shall provide meate 
and drink for the nombr of xxx psones of the best of the Yemandrie at 
the quarter dynner kepte in the hall by the m' next before mighelmas next 
comynge at the which dynner there shalbe Elect and chosen the newe 
maister and wardens of the Yemandrie to Succede the place for the twoo 
yeares next folowinge And fFarther it is agreed that every one of the 
yemandrie that shall dyne at the said dynner shall paye toward^ the wyne 
vj d. And that the olde m' and wardens shall according to the olde 
Custome and order geve vpp their acompt to the new m' and wardens the 
sondaye next after Saynt katherins daye And so lykewise the newe m' and 
wardens and their Successours shall also paye to the crafty Boxe the Sm 
of viij li. if they doo not kepe the yemandries feast that is to Saye every 
of the saide m' and wardens yerely during the terme of two yeares xxs. 
And also to prepare a dynner as is aforesaid in their latter yeare vpon the 
qrter daye nexte before mighelms when the newe m' & wardens shalbe 
chosen Spending at the said dynner the Sm of foure pound^ that is to saye 
every of the olde m' & wardens xx s. apece. And that every one of the 
Yemandrie shall paye yearely to the m' & wardens of the yemandrie for the 

234 History of the Pewterers Company. 

Releving of the poore men bretherne of the Company vj d. yearely and to be 
discharged of their offering pence and playe pence. And that all psons 
that haue maried within those two yeares shall paye to the m*^ & wardens 
of the yemandrie in the name of theire o o o o xij d. Provided alwaies that 
this order shall remayne in full fForce and strength as longe the m' 
wardens & assistaunce shall think mete & Convenyent Cause to the 
Contrary & no longer. 

This interesting order gives much information about the yeomanry 
and their feast, but many of the details are obscure. It had been the 
practice seemingly for the Yeomanry officials to invite the whole Company 
to their feast. The " playe pence " were the contributions of the Members 
towards the cost of the play after the banquet. 

(^f the same Court [9th October] it was agreed that none shoulde 
goo too Searche at gravisend this yeare by meanes of the Plague. 

The plague was now raging in London to such an extent that the 
ports of the Low Countries were closed to the importation of English 
cloth, our great national industry. 

The following extract from the Corporation Records {Letter Book T, 
fol. 137), contains an order passed by the Court of Aldermen in 1563 : — 

3o15i6 xxix"*" die Aprilis Anno Regni Regine Elizabeth Quinto. 
Itm yt was this daye orderyd by the Courte here that there shall no 
pewterer from hensforthe make eny other barred pottes of pewter but 
onely '* thirdendales *' and half thirdendales vppon payne of forfature of 
the same. And yt was also orderyd that the Keper of the standerd shall 
not seale eny other barryd pottes from hensforthe of eny other quantety 
or assise then ys above recytyd vppon payne of forfature of his seyd 

In this year [1563] was passed the famous Statute of Apprentices, 
5 Elizabeth, cap. IV. By this Act, no person was allowed to exercise a 
trade unless he had previously served a seven years' apprenticeship to it, 
though the restriction did not, of course, affect trades which were 
established in England after the passing of the statute. The enactment 
was found very burdensome, and, although it was held to apply only 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


by y* last 

to towns, it was repealed in 1814, on the recommendation of a committee 
of the House of Commons ; some reservations were, however, made " in 
favour of the customs and by-laws of the city of London and of other 
cities, and of corporations and companies lawfully constituted." 
3fm Rs for ix payre of knyves xviij d. 

These knives were remarkably cheap at id. each. Forks were not yet 
in use, which may account for the use of knives in pairs. 

3tm Rs for v small kettells weing xijK at vj d. y* iti . . vj s. 

3fm Rs the same of certayne of the clothing for fynes for that they cam not 
in the' best lyvery at the Buriall of mr. cacher as maye appeare vij s. 

Q^ecesueb of the mr and wardens of the yemandry that is to say Allyn 
Gardener, Robert Cropwell, John Sherwyne and Thomas burton 
acording to agrement at a Court holden the xj*** daye of June 1563. 
fFor they gaue to the crafts boxe in mony because they made not a 
dynner for the whole Company as hath bynne accustomed viij li. 

3fm Rs for xxxvij tti of fyne mettall which was taken fForfayte this yeare 
at vj d. the ti xviij s. vjd. 

3fm Rs for xl iti of ffirench laye w*"^ was sold for . . . xiij s. 
3fm geven to Thomas lowton soldyer w"^^ cam from fFraunce sore hurt by 

agrement of assist u*nce [/.e., of the Court of Assistants.] . v s. 

.3tm pd to John Scrocam tynkerde towards the losse of his iiij kettells 

w*^^ was taken forfayte agreed by the ass) staunce . . ij s. 

3fm pd for a boxe to put o*^ Ryding patent in . . . . iiij d. 
3tm pd to ij men that scorged m" priers man and for Rodf . vd. 

3ttn pd for breade and drink for the assistaunce at a Courte daye ij d. 
3tm pd for a draught of a supplicacore drawen at guylde hall agaynst 

west for the order of barpots . . . . . . xij d. 

3tm pd to the Joynner for setting to gether of iij olde scoshins and 

lethering of all x d. 

3tm pd to the Joyner for Carving the fflow" at the endf of vij scochins 

and for one newe Scochine vij s. iiij d. 

3tm pd to Robert Clarck paynter for payntinge & gildinge of viij Scochins 

w' sondry amies at xviij d. the pece . . . . xij s. 

236 History of the Peivterers' Company. 

3fm pd for a pottell pot a quart and a pynt pot of taverne ware to be 

standards in the howse weinge viij lb iij q*rt at iiij d. the pounde 

ij s. xj d. 

3fm pd to Bodam for Cutting of the vyne and for A white powle brushe 
to swepe the hall ........ xv d. 

3fm pd to the Carpenter for a Seller dore . . . . xx d. 

3tm pd for ij single quarters that made Cleates . . . vj d. 

3fm pd to mr. Grerye for a garnishe of vessell weing Lvij tti at viij d. the 
pound xls. iiijd., two do^ of trenchers xijs., vj Candellstickf xijs. 
whiche were geven to the lorde keper, and xij trenchers vj s. w*"** were 
geven to mr Philips. Sm of all is . . . . iij li xs. iiij d. 

C9<^tgf for the setting forthe of viij Soldyers by a Presept the xj*** 
day of July 1563, which were delyuered at Tower hill and so sent to 

The total cost was 12/. ii^. 7^/., and among the 32 entries is the 
following : — 

3fm pd to the Capetayne for his good will in the Exceptyng of ower men 
and harnes ......... xs. 

C%MW for xij soldyers which by presept sent from the mayo' the 
xxiij day of Julye was Comaunded to be in a Redines with their furnyture 
of Artillary within one houres warning, which soldyers being kept at the 
Crafte charge xiij dayes were then discharged and never went forthe. 
A^ 1563. 

3fm pd for a do| of gerdles wherof the soldiers Ran awaye w'^ ffyve 
of them .......... ix s. 

3ttH pd for xij arming sword^ at iij s. iiij d. a pece wherof the Soldiers 
ys Ronne away w* ij of them ...... xl s. 

3fw pd to V of the soldiers for their swerds and daggers to saue ower 
owne [to save our own] w*^in o' hall .... xiiij s. 

These troops were dispatched from Newhaven for the defence of 
Havre, which, as stated above, was held by Elizabeth. It was besieged 
by the French, and, after the garrison had been decimated by plague, it 
capitulated in July. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 237 

1563-4. %i 3, Court then holden [6th March] Robert Bakehouse 
Complayned against John holstock for that he Receyved in to his hand^ 
a mawnde wherin was ShrofFe weying xxxix li. Ittn in fFyne mettall xiij tti 
and also in Leade iiij C w'^ a Red clothe &c w""** the same holstocke 
contrary to right w'holdeth from the saide Backhowse being sent vnto 
hym Yt is agreed that the saide holstock shoulde delyver vnto the 
saide Backhowse the saide maunde w' all things therein, and they to 
stand to the Judgment by the man of the countree by whome yt was sent 
vpp, to whome the saide maund sholde aptayne and if it might be proved 
the saide mawnde was sent vpp vnto the saide holstock Then the saide 
Backhowse w'**in xxiiij houres shoulde delyuer the saide maund & all 
other things vnto the saide Holstock or ellf so moche monye as the value 

(S^i a Court then holden [7th April] Yt was agreed That wheare 
m' Cacher by his last will and Testament hathe geven to iFyve poremen 
of the saide Company a Certayne Almas That is to saye vnto every of the 
saide iFyve men xij d. every quarter and their dynnS or ellf vj d. in monye 
at the discression of the m' and wardens for the tyme being So the 
whole almas is to be taken owt of the Revenues of m' Cachers land^ 
vij s. vj d. a quarter it is Concluded that theise psonnes folowing shoulde 
Receyve the Benyfet of the saide almas to begynne at mydsomer next 

Robert Borne John Tugley 

Robert Rose Harry Ractlif. 

Richard King thelder 

a^i the same Court [15th April] Robert Bakehowse complayned 
agaynst John holstock for that he had not so moche mettall in the 
maunde as he ought to haue by v tfi of leade . ShrofFe v tti & one pounde 
of fFyne mettall and for that he demaunded the same holstock saide he 
wolde and were not for shame pull his fFoxe fFurred gowne over his eares. 
So it is agreed that both shoulde bring in their ffynes of xxs. apece fFor 
their approbrious wordf the one agaynst the other by fFrydaye next and 
then to be determyned. 

(^f the same Court [21st September] yt was agreed by the most 
part of all the fFelowshipp that every one of the Clothing shoulde haue 

238 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

but ij apprenticf at one tyme . And every one owt of the clothing to haue 
but one apprentice at one tyme . Provided alwaye that althose that haue 
bynne or shalbe m' and wardens being of the assystaunce shall haue three 
apprentice vpon condicon that they be Bound in an obligacon of x ti to 
set ij Jornymen on worck. 

^f the foresaide Courte [nth October] there was brought and 
delyuered intoo the handf of the m' and wardens a lytle standing Cupp 
w* a kever and a Goblet pcell gilt weying xxxviij 05 iij qrtr which was 
geven vnto the howse by S' peter warrisson Clarck. 

Sir Peter Warryson, clerk, was a clerical member of the Company, 
" Sir " being the ordinary prefix in use in olden times to denote a person 
in holy orders. He became a liveryman in 1555-6, his place on the roll 
being immediately after the Master and Wardens ; his name disappears 
from the list in 1564-5. Sir Peter could hardly have been the Chaplain, 
as he was put in nomination for the office of Junior Warden in 1558-9 
(p. 201). His admission must have been by redemption or by honorary 
grant. He left the Company a bequest of 4/. for a loving cup. 

3fm Rs for iij weddings kept in o' hall at vs. the pece and ij of the 

company at xx d. a pece Sm xviij s. iiij d. 

3fm Rs of S' Peter warrisson Clerck [for Quarterage] . . iiij s. 
3tm pd to Browne for writing o' newe boke of ordenncf . x s. 

3tm pd for Englisshing the Corparacon because the company wolde 
vnderstand the meaning thereof vj d. 

3tm pd for writting a newe table of the names of all the whole Lyvery 

uij s. vuj d. 
This is an early (if not the first) instance of the use of the term 

** livery," instead of " Clothing," to denote the higher grade of members 
of the Company. 

3tm pd for breade and drink for certayne of the assistAnce when they 
went to vewe the flfyning [refining] howse . . . vj d. 

This year the Company was presented with a second book of 
Ordinances. It is of paper, and only eight folios are used, the remainder 
being blank. At the beginning of the volume is the following inscription : 


History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 


The othe of 
the Bedle. 

The othe of 
the Clarck. 

^nno ©Hi 1564. In the tyme of maister Stephin Rowlandson 
John Grerye and Thomas AUyn then beinge m' and wardens of the 
mistery of pewterers this boke was made and was geuen by willm Curtes 
to write in the good orders of the Sayde Crafte. 

Beneath this heading and occupying the rest of the page is a 
coloured drawing of the Company's arms with two naked winged boys 
as supporters. Above the shield are the letters W. C, the initials of 
William Curtis, the donor of the book. 

Then follow the " Othe of the craft " and the Master's and Wardens 
oaths, which do not differ from the earlier forms printed on pages 31-2. 
After the Oaths are the Ordinances, which occupy six folios and include 
some of later date down to the year 1572. 

*B^tte shall sweare that youe shalbe faithfuU to o' soueraine lady the 
Queue and to her heires king^ and queues of England youe shalbe of 
good behauer and of good abearynge and obeydient to the maister and 
wardens for the tyme being and their Comaundem*f shall diligently and 
gladly doo. And youe shdbe good and gentill of behauio' to the whole 
felowshipp theire secret^ Councell^ ordenaunc^ and rules made or to be 
made by the saide m*" wardens and fFelowshipp youe shall kepe and not 
disclose to no parson w'out Comaundment of the saide maister and 
wardens Youe shall knowe no gatherings nor secret workings or euill 
demeanors which might be preiudice to the maister and wardens within 
their saide felowship but youe shall let it to yo' poure and geue the 
maister and wardens knowledge and warning thereof. Youe shall Enquire 
and present the names of all them that shalbegyn to set vp newe howses or 
open any shopp or shoppes within their saide yeare and the names of all 
prenticf that shalbe newe bounde in the saide yeare and the names of theire 
maisters to whome they are bounde vnto and to kepe a boke of all the 
names of the whole felowship aswell of Jornymen and prenticf as all howse- 
holders In theise and all other things that apartayneth to the office of a 
Beadle belonging to a company youe shall well and truely execute and 
behaue youe so god youe helpe and all Saynt^ and by this booke. 

^oue shall sweare that youe shalbe faithfiiU to o' soueraigne lady the 
Queue and to her heires and successors Kinge and Queues of England. 

An order for 
bying w^ 

240 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

Youe shalbe of good abearyng and obeydient to the maister and wardens 
for the tyme beinge Youe shalbe of good abearyng and obeydient to 
the maister and wardens for the tyme being and of good behauio' to all 
the hole felowship theire secret^ Councellf ordenaunc^ and rules made 
or to be made by the saide m' wardens and felowship youe shall kepe and 
not vtter nor disclose to no parson Youe shall knowe no p^iudice nor 
hurt towardf the m' wardens & felowship but youe shall let it to yo' poure 
and geue the m' and wardens knowledge and warnynge thereof. Youe 
shall vse yo' self Indifferently and truely to all the hole felowship in youer 
office of Clarckshipp So god youe helpe and all sayntf and by this booke. 

fpirsf it is agreed that it shall not be lawfuU for no couenant Seruant 
servantc- to buy nor sell any kynd of ware but only for his m" vse, nor that any 

man of the saide crafte shall sell nor buye with any Couenaunt Seruaunt 
or apprentice any ware except it be for his maisters vse vppon payne to 
forfaite euery tyme ofending aswell the buyer as the Seller xx s. the one 
moytie to hym or them that can proue the same and the other moitie 
to the Craftf boxe. 

Also it is farther agreed that who so euer of the saide felowship that 
of worde^ doth disclose any thinge that is spoken in the hall at any Courte amonge 

the felowshipe, the which maye be to the dishonestie or Reproche of the 
saide Company shall paye therefore being duely proued to the Crafty 
boxe XX s. 
An order for Also it is agreed that euery one of the saide felowship that makith 

wares ^and ^^^ warre- shall set his owne marke thereon. And that no man shall geue 
rouclies. for his proper marck or touch the Rose and crown w' tres [letters] nor other- 
wise but only to hym to whome it is geuen by the felowship. Nor that no 
man of the saide Crafte shall geue one anothers marck nother w' tres nor 
otherwise, but eueryone to geue a sondry marck such one as shalbe alowed 
by the maister and wardens for the tyme beinge vpon payne to forfaite 
and paye for euery tyme oiFendinge to the Craftf boxe xiij s. iiij d. 

^^^^^^H^^^^^ Also it is agreed that there shalbe foure Awdy tours Chosen euery 

yeare to awdit the Crafty accompt^ and they to parvse it and search it 
that it be parfect. And also to accompt it Correct it and allowe it So that 
they make an ende of the awdet therof between Mighelmas and Christmas 

An order for 

An order for 

An order for 
q'ter dyners. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 241 

yearely and if defaute be maide of fFenishinge thereof before Christmas 
yearely euery one of the saide Awdytours shall paye to the Crafty boxe 
vj s. viij d. a pece. 

Also it is agreed that from hensforth the maister and wardens for 
wardens the tyme beinge shall paye no quarterage for that yeare that theye are 

quarterage. in office. 

Also it is agreed that there shalbe yearely from hensforth for euer 
foure Quarter dynners that is to saye in euery quarter in the yeare at the 
Search daye a dynner And the same dynners alwais to be kepte in the 
hall belonginge to the saide felowship for the whole Clothinge, and 
euery one of the saide clothinge to paye for theire dynner vj d. a pece 
and not aboue. 

Also it is agreed that from hensforth that no maker of saltf shall 
make any saltf other then iiij s. and iij s. saltf and chopnetf greate and 
small after the olde fasshion of laye, but that they shalbe forfaited And 
that no man make no newe fasshion saltf withowt it be allowed by the 
maister and wardens for the tyme beinge Except it be fyne mettall vpon 
payne and forfaite of all such Saltf made to the contrary and true 
meaning hereof. 

Also it is agreed that if any of the saide Company be taken to Soder 

any ware with softe pale, but onely one kynde of paile beinge harde and 

substanciall such as shalbe made with Tynne and peke and w' no other 

2'' of tynne kynd of mettall, vpon payne and forfaite of all such ware as shalbe founde 

I lofpeake. otherwise paled And the makers of such ware to forfaite asmoch in 

monye as the ware is worth besides the forfaiture of the saide wares. 
An order lor ^^^ j^ jg agreed that none of the saide Company what so eu he be 

SviN'n"" 01 

1 ynne. shall Saye or bye any tynne for no straunger nor Englishman, Except it 

be for one of the Company beinge a freman of the same Crafte or for his 

owne vse and occupying vppon payne to forfaite for euery pece of tynne 
so sayed duely pued [proved] xx s. 

Also it is agreed that none of the saide Crafte shall buye any leade 
or other mettall of Tilers Laborers, Masons, Boyes nor of women, Nor of 
tyne of none such as shall seme to be a Suspect parson Except they can fynde 

*^ '"'^"^^^ good and Sufficient warrent for the same. And that the buyers therof 


An order tor 
sodcring of 

An ordrr for 
iiiivini' of 
li-ade or 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 

An order for 
bying and 
saying of 
'I'ynne with- 
owt Clofts. 

An order for 
the clarke 
for makyng 
of inden- 


An order for 
hosting of 

will make answere for the same parsons so selling the saide leade or other 
mettall. Also it is farther agreed that no man of the saide company 
shall buy no pewter leade or any other kynd of mettall of no Suspect 
par3on or parsons at their stallf or ellf wheare before Sixe of the Clock 
in the morning nor after Sixe of the Clock at night in the Somer season. 
And not before viij of the Clock in the mornynge nor after foure of the 
Clock in the after none in the wynter Season. And if yt be prouid that 
any of the Company, doo the Contrary and that the saide Pewter leade or 
other mettall shoulde chaunce to be founde stoUen That then the 
buyers thereof ofFendinge in this article should not only at the discression 
of the m' wardens and assystaunce for the tyme beinge be dysmissed 
from the company neuer to occupie the same agayne. But also shall stand 
to such ponishment of the lord mayo' of london and the Aldermen of the 
same as they shall thinke mete. And that none of the saide company 
shalbe excused by his wife or Serua"ntf nor none other such lyke excuse. 

Also it is agreed that no man of the saide Crafte shall buye any 
Cornish tynne or deuonshere tynne without he doo take twoo pound for 
the Clof of euery pece of cornish tynne And one pounde for the Clof 
of euery pece of deuon tynne. And who so euer buyeth anye such tynne 
Contrary to this order shall paye for euery pece of Cornish tynne to the 
Craftf boxe tenne shillingf. And for euery pece of deuoix tynne vs. 
without any fauor. 

Also it is agreed that the Clarck belonging to the saide company 
shoUMe haue the makinge of all the prenticf Indentures that shalbe 
made within the saide company, and who so euer doth put theire 
Indentures to any other parson from the Clarck shall paye the Clarck 
neuer the lesse for euery paire xij d. And also to paye such fyne as the 
maister and wardens shall think mete for the same. 

Also it is agreed that no parsonne of the said felowshippe doo 
from hensforth in his shoppe or in any other place eyther in selling or 
Chepeninge of his ware saye to any parson that his ware is better then 
any others of the Company by a peny ob or q' a pounde more or lesse. 
the partie so sayinge beinge duely proued shall forfaite and paye for 
euery tyme offending to the Craftf boxe xxs. without any fauor. 

History of the Pewterers" Company. 


An order for 

An order for 
them y*wold 
set vp. 

An order for 

Also it is agreed that no Jornyman saruyng by the yeare shall departe 
from the saruice of his maister w'owt he geue his m' half a yeares 
warnyng And he that sarueth by the half yeare shall not depart withowt 
a quarter of a year warnynge And he that sarueth by the weke shall not 
departe withoute a wekes warnynge And who so euer do ofFende contrary 
to this order shall forfaite and paye for a fyne xx s. And that if any parson 
of the felowship do set aworke any such Jornyman that doth departe 
contrary to this order before he doth parfetly knowe that he is clere from 
his m' he cam from he shall paye lykewise in the name of a fyne xx s. 

Also it is agreed by the whole Company that the m' and wardens 
shall not lycens any to set vp or kepe open Shopp vnto such tyme as the 
parson that wolde set vp do first come before the maister and wardens 
and the assistaunce and bringe his m' w'home he was prentice w* hym to 
make reporte of his behauor, what substance he is of and what workeman 
he is So that he maye be knowne whether he be worthy to set vp or not. 

Also it is agreed that no parson of the Crafte shall procure or labor 
by any maner of meanes either by Cookes or other parsons to Sinister or 
speake to any Company or Innes of Courte or any other Customers 
which any of the saide Company haue bynne accustomed to seme in 
tyme past either of wrought vessell or hiar of Rough vessell whereby he 
that haue sarued the saide Companis haftf Innes of Courtf and 
Customers be hindred and lose his Customers by such vnsemely pro- 
curing and means before such tyme as the parson which was wont to 
serue haue geuen over the saruing of such Customers And the matter 
examined before the m' and wardens for the tyme beinge, and farther if 
any of the saide Company do goo to any Tauerne alehowse or any other 
howse or howses desiring to haue the mendig of pottf or changinge of 
vessell before any other and so by suche euill demeanors others of the saide 
company be hindered of their Customers, Wherefore who so euer do 
procure any other from his customers by any meanes or waies beinge duely 
proued or goo from howse to howse as aforesaide shall forfaite and pay 
for a fyne for euery tyme offending this article xl s. 

Also it is agreed that no youngman of the felowship which hath 
bynne apprentice to the same crafte shall be made free nor sworn before 

Number of 


244 History of the Pewterers Cmnpany. 

the bokes of the Crafte be Searched whether his presentment be 
paide or not. And if he be not founde presented then his m' or 
suche as haue had his laste seruice shall paye his presentment before 
he be made ffree. 

Also it is agreed that no parson beinge of the Clothinge of the saide 
company shall haue as apprenticf aboue the nomber of twoo at one 
tyme. And that no parson beinge owt of the Clothinge shall haue aboue 
the nomber of one aprentice at one tyme. And who so euer shall happen 
too oiFend contrary to this ordenaunce shall forfaite and paye for euery 
tyme ofFendinge tenne poundf the one moitie wherof to be to the lorde 
mayo' and Chaumberlayne of London and the othe moitie to be to the 
m' and wardens and Cominaltie of the saide crafte Prouided alwaies and 
appn to be it is agreed that all such parsons as haue bynne m' and wardens of 

the saide company or hereafter shall be m' and wardens of the saide 
company coinonly called the assystaunce shall and maye lawfully 
haue three apprenticf at one tyme vppon condiccon that euery such 
parson hauing iij apprentif shalbe bounde to the maister and wardens for 
the tyme beinge in an obli^dcon of x li to set two Jornymen on worke yf 
there be any destitute or lackf worke beinge of the saide facultie that he 
that shalbe his maister ys of, And shalbe to hym appoynted by the 
maister and wardens for the tyme beinge Also that no parson beinge owt 
of the Clothinge shall take any aprentice vntill he haue lycence of the 
maister wardens and assystflnce to thentent that none shall haue aprentice 
but such as be able to kepe them And it shalbe leafuU for the m' and 
wardens that if any be not able to kepe his aprentice or vpon other 
reasonable cause shall take awaye the saide aprentice and put hym to some 
other of the company And it is agreed that he that hath but one 
aprentice shall take another w4n one yeare before his other haue serued 
his yeares so that he haue lycens of the maister wardens and assystance 
soo to doo. Alwais prouided that althose that haue more aprentices then 
is abouesaide before the making hereof shall enioye them and shall haue 
no more vntill they be worne owt, and they that haue but twoo aprenticf 
maye take another within half a yeare before any his other aprenticf haue 
serued their yeares And it is agreed that if any parson what so euer he be 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 245 

that shall heare after moue any matter which might sounde to the breache 
and vndoynge of this Article and Ordenaunce shall forfaite and paye x li 
to be deuided as is aforesaid &c. 

Also it is agreed and ordayned that euery Jornyman being a freman 
in the saide company shall hereafter waite vpon the maister and wardens 
of the yemandry at all ofFerynges as well as howsholders beinge lawfully 
warned by the beadle vpon payne to forfaite for euery tyme ofFendinge 
to the yemandris boxe hauing no reasonable excuse to the contrary vj d. 
And that the saide Jornymen assone as they breake vp from the said 
m' & wardens and companye doo straytewaye Repayre whome to their 
masters geuyng their due attendance as honest |untf [servants] ought to 
doo And not to goo to any Tauerne alehowse or such lyke vnsemely 
places, and who so euer maye be proued that goith to any such place 
beinge no howsholder or otherwise vse hym self vnreuerently vnhonestly 
or vnsemely emongf the Company in goinge to the saide oiFeryngf 
shall paye to the Craftf boxe for euery tyme oiFendynge vj s. viij d. 

# _ 

Also it is ordeyned and agreed That wheare the Company haue 
bynne in tymes past at excessyue chargf as well in setting owt of men 
and for furnyture of artillary as also in lending of mony for wheate and 
other thingf and more is lyke too doo to theire farther greate charge and 
Indympnitie, for y' there is no mony in the howse and the hall indebt and 
lackf repacons yt is therefore concluded y' euy howsholder kepyng howse 
or shop being a brother or free of the same company shall paye vnto y* 
Craftf boxe foure shilling^ by the yeare that is to saye euery quarter 
xij d. for the which saide iiij s. qjterly to be paide the saide company in 
tyme to come may be discharged for Setting owt men, lendyng of mony 
and such lyke chargf and of all Chargf that maye happen to be leuied 
of the saide company, Prouided alwaies that the saide quarterage shall 
contenue so longe to be paide as the whole Body of the Company shall 
thynke mete and conuenyent cause to y* contrary. 

Stone pot Also it is ordered and agreed that none of the saide felowship shall 

lydd or foote any stone pottf with pewter Excepte the same lyddf be 
substancially and workmanly wrought accordinge to example nowe 
Remayning in the hall And if any liddf be founde fawtie it shalbe 


246 History of the Pewterers Company. 

leafuU to the maister and wardens for the tyme being to breake the same 
liddf in whose handf so euer they maye be founde, and the makers to 
paye for euery lidd so found fawty a j d. to the Craftf boxe and shall 
make good the same pottf liddf substancially to the owners at their 
owne Chargf ouer and besides the iFyne. 

Quarts & Also it is ag?:eed that none of the felowship shall make any tankerd 

Pints. quartf nor tankerd pynt^ nor to sell of those kynd of pottf for any mony 

or otherwise but only the therdendale and half therdendale accordinge to 
the Lawes and constitucon of this Citie. [See Order of Court of 
Aldermen, 29th April, 1563, page 234.] And also the pot called the brode 
pynt And that no holowaremen shall make any pottf of Just quartf 
or pyntf for ale &; beare measure but only the stope pottell the greate 
stope quart and the greate stope pynt, and the greate pynt with the Brode 
Bottam the greate English pottell the greate English quarte and the greate 
English pynt and none other. And as for tauerne ware to make them 
according to the assice and as by exsample remaynyng in owre hall And 
who so euer ofTendeth to the contrary and true meanyng heareof shalbe 
comitted to the warde there to remayne vntill he haue paide xl s. for euery 
tyme offending the one moitie of which forfaiture to be to the ChaumBr- 
layne of london and the other moitie to the Crafty boxe. 

Old pewter. Also it is agreed that none of the saide company whatsoeuer he be 

shall sell at his stall or ellf wheare any olde vessell that haue byne 
chaunged or bought owtright for any mony vpon payne to forfaite and 
paye for euery tyme. offending to the Craftf boxe xl s. 

Also it ordeyned and agreed that no parson of the saide company 
shall serue in any mans howse as a scollian* to the yll fame and slaunder 
of the company neither in the lorde mayo" howse nor in the Shreuis nor 
other, nor yet to scow' or amend any uessell but at home at his owne 
dwellyng howse. And who so euer shall happen to do contrary to this 
ordenaunce shall forfaite and paye to the Craftf boxe for euery tyme 
offendynge xl s. 

Also it is agreed according to agrement made by the lorde mayo' 
and courte of aldermen the xxv'** day of January 1563 that there shalbe 

* This word is crossed out and "Labourer** written above in a later hand. 


History of the Pewterers' Company. 247 

made tankerd quartf and tankerd pyntf playne w* one hoope aboue and 
another hope at the fFoote and no other hoopes vpon those kynd pottf. 

An order for -^^^o it is ordered that all petty sawcers through out the whole Com- 

pany shalbe before Candelmas nexte called in & not vttered to be solde to 
any person or persons not vnder foure poundes weight the dosen or there- 
aboutf vpon payne of forfaiture of all suche saucers as from thenceforth 
shalbe made contrary to this Ordinaunce any other ordinaunce or prouiso 
heretofore made to the contrary hereof in any wise notwithstandinge. 

1564-5. (^i the same Court [26th January] the m' Shewed vnto 
all the assystaunce being then present That the honorable Richarde 
mallerie lorde mayo' of London dyd send for hym and the ij wardens to 
dynner emongf other Companyes . And they seing the saide other com- 
panies vppon their volantarie will^ in the name of all their whole comia Itie 
did gratifie the saide Lorde mayo' w* their good will^ in certayne Sms of 
monye . Whervppon the m' and wardens did also gratifie the saide Lorde 
mayo' in the name of the whole companye w* iiij Riallf of golde con- 
sidering his paynes in hearing their matters, wherfore yt is agreed by the 
assystaunce that the saide iiij Riallf of golde being xl s. shoulde be borne 
and discharged by the howse owt of the Crafty Boxe . Theise being at the 
same agrement Maister myllf mr Edwarde Reo and wittm Loton wardens 
m' Daye m' Rowlandson m' woodowce m' Curtes m' Gerie m' allyn 
m' Turner m' Scott. 

This was a Christmas gift. See the entry in the Accounts below, p. 250. 

^t a Courte holden the same daye [9th February] by the m' wardens 
& assystaunce yt was agreed that vppon Consideracora that m' warden had 
certayne mony in his handf Receyved vppon buriallf and such lyke 
casuall Receipt^ there shoulde bee a Shroving dynner made in the hall 
for the whole clothing wherevppon Thomas NicoUf and John Cacher 
were chosen steward^ for the same dynre. And it was also agreed that 
they shoulde haue owt of the Crafty Boxe more in mony tenne shilling^. 

Shrove-tide was the Carnival before Lent. 

(^t a Courte holden the same daye f 2nd August] by the m' wardens 
and assystaunce it was agreed that Nicholas Bodam the beadle shoulde 

248 History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 

haue from hensforth for his wagf and yearely Salarie the Sifi of fToure 
pounde And also to haue for wasshing the Crafty naperie yearely 
xiijs. iiijd. Also it was agreed that the saide N Bodam shall haue 
alowed at the maisters dynner a Boyled capon or a cock, half a goose 
half a pike half a pie half a Custerde a Rabbet a dishe of Sturgeon twoo 
caste of Breade and a gallond of drink, and lykewise shall haue the same 
alowaunce at the yemandries dynner also. 

($t the same Courte it was also agreed that Edmunde browne the 
Clarck, shall haue alowed hym at the m" Dynner half a goose, a Rabbet, 
half a custerde, a pastie, or a pie, twoo castf of Breade, and a gallond 
of ale, and to be amended at the m' and wardens discression, and lykewise 
shall haue the same alowaunce at the yemandries dynner also. 

(^t a Courte holden the same daye [29th August] by the m' wardens 
and assystaunce there was warning Greven to Richarde harrisson that ffrom 
hensforth he shoulde Gylde no more any Tynne Except it be a Tryfell 
to geue awaye to his ffrendf and well proved to be geven awaye. And in 
lyke manra Robert Somers hadd warning that he shoulde Gilde no more, 
which both pties haue made promis never to gilde any Tynne agayne, 
Except it be as is aforesaide for a Tryfell to geue awaye. 

An orcier for ^f a Courte holden the same daye [24th September] by the moost 

parte of all the whole Body of the Company it was agreed and ordayned 
that ffrom hensforth no mann of pson of the saide Company shall put 
owt to hier any manix of newe vessell being wrought ware to no pson 
vppon payne to fForfayte and paye for every tyme so lettinge owt to hier 
any such ware being wrought and duely proved to the Crafty Boxe ffyve 
poundf w'^owt any ffavo'. 

%t a Courte holden the same daye [nth October] for certayn wordf 
w*^^ John bowlting spake vnto m' Curtes it was agreed to be written for 
Remembru*nce to be determened the next Court daye w*^^ wordf was as 
folowith Sayth bowltinge I pceyue youe are a greate mayntayner of yo' 
brother, and I haue agood occasion to haue an Accon of maynten*nce 
agaynst youe, but youe haue ruled a greate while, I praye god youe haue 
not governed to longe and that the Company haue not occasion to Cur^sse 
youe for yo' goverment. 

sotting owt 
to hicT new- 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 249 

d^i the same Courte at the Ernest Request of John boultinge for his 
vnsemly wordf spoken to m' Curtes in the fFace of the whole Courte 
desired to haue an ende of the same matter, Yt was agreed that the saide 
boulting shoulde in the presence of all the company desire m' Curtes to 
be good vnto hym and that he is sorie for that he hathe saide, and that 
the saide bolting shoulde from hensforth take the saide m' Curtes for his 
better, and so euer hereafter to be lovers and ffrendf w** was donne and all 
for geuen. 

(^f a Courte holden the same daye [ 1 3th December] Wittm wood 
Complayned agaynst m' nogaye for that he w'holdethe a swage from hym 
and when the same wood cam for it the saide m' Nogaye called hym knave 
and saide he wolde beate hym from his Stall w^ a kegill Yt was agreed 
and order taken by the m' wardens and assystaunce that the saide m' 
nogaye shoulde paye vnto the saide wood forthwith for his swage so moche 
monye as he paide for the same w^ was xviij d. and so they are agreed. 

3tm Rs of Edwarde Dickinson for one quarter Rent for ow' howse called 

the Aungell in themistreat due at mydsomer Anno Dni 1565 

iiij li. XV s. 
3tm pd for the hier of my lorde howards Barge . . xxxvj s. viij d. 

Lord Howard was a honorary liveryman of the Company. See p. 225. 
3fm pd for iiij ellf of Blewe sarsnet to make ij Stremers . . xxxj s. 
3tm pd for vj yards di of grenecloth to make a carpet and xij Coshins xxix s. 

3tm pd to the Paynter for making and workmanshipp of the twoo Stremers, 
coUering [colouring] of the stremer StafFf and tryming the Cosshins 
[escutcheons] w* the Armes of the craft . . . iiij li. iij s. 

3tm pd for viij oz of ffirenge of yelowe and grene silke for o' Stremers 

ix s. iiij d. 
3tm pd for corde to staye the stremers in the barge and for goodman 

bodams botehier to lambethe iiij d. 

3fm pd for a hammer and a chesell and mending the Erode Arowhedd to 

saye the Tynne iij s. iiij d. 

3fm pd to a Screvener for writing ow' corparacon in pchment in 

Englishe , , , \iij s. 

250 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3f m pd for the helving of a Sledge to saye tynne w* all . . ij d. 

3fm pd and spent the xvij daye of novembr when we went to vewe a 
fyning howse . . . . . . . . . xviij d. 

3fm geven to the lorde mayo' at christmas as it was agreed by the 
assystaunce ......... xls. 

3fm pd for o' botehier and mr Cosworth to Westminster when we went 
to speake w* the lorde of loughborow .... viij d. 

3fm pd to Thomas nicolls and John Cacher towards the making of a 
Shroving dynner allowed by y* howse . . . . x s. 

3f m pd to m' Bromley for his councell concerning o' howse at Londonstone 

and for writing o' deedes for the same . . . xxvj s. viij d. 

3fm pd vnto xij Boyes at the taking of the possession . . xij d. 

The boys* services were engaged to "beat the bounds*' of the 
premises under the direction of the Company's Beadle. 

3fm pd vnto m' Alderman Champion the daye of in the way 

of lone to buye whete and Rie for the Citie . . . xxv li. 

3fm pd vnto Bonyface fFoster and Thomas Eveley for the purchase of 

ow' howse at londonstone wherein Richarde mannyng dwelleth 

xxxix li. 

3fm spent the xxvj daye of June at the white lyon at the guilde hall 
Court when we gaue o' attendaunce to haue o' deede enrolled of 
mannyng^ howse xiiij d. 

3n pmis we doo alowe vnto the saide m' and wardens for wood and cole 
more then the xvj s. alowed by the howse the Sm of vj s. viij d. by 
Reason of the greate fFrostf and long Setting in the hall abowt the 
crafts busines So that we fynde to moche demaunded for wood 
& cole . . . . • . . . • . V s. vj d, 

1565-6. ®f the same Courte [nth January] m' warden Allyn 
Complayned agaynst m' Loton John Swenerton water stokton and John 
malton for that they all geve his touche contrary to the ordenaunce. 

^f the same Courte [20th February] Raphe straye for that he occu- 
pieth not the craft hadd Lycence to take another prentis & hath pd ij s. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 2 5 1 

($i the same Courte [i8th March] John Cacher complayned 
agaynst John Jackson for procuring awaye the Sarving of the Drapers 
hall, w*"** the said Cacher hathe vsually Sarved. Also the saide Jackson dyd 
let them a grose of newe spones and a dof of newe Saltf . 

®f the same Courte [8th May] for matter in varience betwene 
Peter kilborne and Richarde warde for the Touche of the hamer and 
the crowne W^ of them shoulde geue it, it shalbe determyned the nexte 
Courte Daye. 

($i the same Courte [ 1 7th June] yt was agreed that Richarde warde 
shoulde geue the Toche of the hammer and the crowne for that his wif 
sometyme the wif of wittm hartwell did geue the same before, and that 
the saide Richarde warde shal^geue vnto peter kilborne Toward^ the 
graving of a newe marcke xij d. 

a^i the same Courte [17th August] yt was agreed by the whole 
assistaunce that ffirom hensforth there shoulde yerelye at the eleccon of 
the saide m' and wardens be chosen a Ren to' to gather the crafty Rentf 
and to paye all mann of charge going owt of the saide Rent^ belonging 
to the saide Companye, and the same Rento' alwaies when he is chosen 
to be one of the assistaunce and to set in Courtf. And the same 
Rento' for the tyme being shalbe Comptable vnto the young' warden 
and to make a Just accompt aswell of the Receipt^ as payment^ and to 
bring in the Remayne (if there ht any) alwais before mighelmas wherby 
the young' warden maye make vp his accompte. And for the yere next 
coming Thomas Eliot is chosen Rento'. 

This resolution was rescinded in December, 1569. ^ee page 263. 

($f a Courte holden the same daye [19th August] beinge the maisters 
dynner daye only for the matter in varience betwene John Mathewe and 
John Barker before the Company went to churche the saide John mathewe 
and John Barker in the presence of all the whole Clothinge hadd their 
hoodf Taken from them for their evill demeano' the one to the other 
at Chensforde [Chelmsford] fadre ; And so was dismissed of the 
clothinge yet they were bothe Contented to abyde the order and 
determynacon of the saide m', wardens and clothinge, wherevppon 

252 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

they were put aparte, and and vppon theyre gentill Submission and 
knowledging their offence. Yt was ordayned and agreed by the saide m' 
wardens and the rest of the clothinge that either of them shoulde paye in 
the name of a ffyne to the crafty Boxe ij s. vj d. apece, and to be restored 
to their hoodes and felowshipp of the clothing agayne, for this tyme. 

^f the same Courte yt was agreed by the whole clothinge that flfrom 
hensforth, if any of the clothing doo happen to mysvse themself^, the one 
to the other otherwise then lyke honest and Syvell men, or become 
dronkerdf, Brawlers or suche vnsemely demeano" to the infamie and 
slaunder of the Companye he or they that so vseth hymself and being 
thereof convict shalbe banished the clothinge and Company for euer. 

^ni it is farther agreed [4th September] that no pson in the 
Company shall sell any kynde of white ware to any other pson that dothe 
entend to Retaile the same agayne to the sellers knowledge except it be 
to a pewterer, vppon the lyke payne [of 5/.]. 

The term "white ware" seems to indicate pewter as opposed to 
the "yellow" metals, brass and latten. {See entry of 23rd September, 
1568, p. 259.) 

^i a Courte holden the same daye [loth October] by the whole 
Body of the Company wedowe Slack complayned agaynst John mearse 
for the Sra of xxs. w** he owith her. and he confessed the same, 
wherevppon m' Reo hath promysed to paye of the same forthwith vnto 
the saide wedowe v^ Wittm Readpan v* John Cacher v*. and Thomas 
Cacher v s. and so the wedowe is paide. And it is ordered and agreed 
that the saide John mearse shall worke vnto the saide pties so muche in 
workmanshipp of ware as their monie shall amount vnto at the will and 
pleasuer of the saide pties. 

d^i the same Courte [12th December] Gabriell hill, hughe colliers 
man, and Peter Tollerton m' Reos apprentis were bothe sent vnto warde 
for that they consettered to gether to haue Ronne awaye, and had 
Enbeaseled certayne patrons and Tooles of their maisters goodf. 

®f a Court holden the same daye [20th December] by the m' 
wardens and assistaunce there was agrement and order taken that from 

History of the Pewterers Co^npany. 253 

hensforthe there shoulde be geven to the Lord mayo' of London for the 
tyme beinge fFor Benyvolence in the name of all the whole Companye 
fFortie shilling^. Provided alwaies if the saide Lonle mayo' doo 
gratifie the m' and wardens w* a spone or any other thinge the same 
to be and Remayne vnto the Hall. And it is agreed that this order 
shall contenewe vntill the whole assistaunce shall think convenyent 
cause to the contrarie. 

3fm R§ fFor Certayne Tynne which m' Mills, m' Reo, and Wittm loton 
Did take the last yeare fForfFayte that is to saye ij fFalse Blocks of 
Tynne weyinge iiij C iij qj vj lb being praysed at ffiftie shillings 
the C amount^ vnto xij li. more ij other blocks of fFalse Tynne 
weying v C di viij tti praysed at xxxvij s. iiij d. the C amounte vnto 
X li V s. iiij d, Sra of Both amount^ vnto xxij li vs. iiij d. 

3fm r5 of the hands of Robert younge for the gifte and bequest 
of S' peter warrisson clerk toward^ the making of a Standing 
Cupp . . . : iiijli. 

3fm r9 the xxiij 4iiy of march 1^65 for vntoched ware . . ij s. 

3fm R9 the xvjj* daye of June for vntoched ware . . .iij s. iij d. 

C^dtge for setting owt of twoo Soldyers as maye appeare by a presept 
sent vnto the Conipkny from the lorde mayo' the xviij day of Julye 
Anno Dni 1566, the right honorable Richarde Champion then beinge 
Lorde mayo' which soldiers were sent to Ireland. Sm v^i iij s. viij d. 

^ifn pd the xxx daye of novembr to the praysers of the exchequer for 
their paynes taking in praysing the fForfayte Tynne . vj s. viij d. 

3fm pd to m' Alderman Rowe for the Benyvolence of the Company 
towardf the newe intended Bursse agreed at a Courte of assys- 
taunce xls. 

The Livery Companies liberally contributed to Sir Thomas Gresham's 
project for erecting a Burse or Exchange, as a meeting-place for London 
merchants. The building was opened by the Queen in 157 1. 

Jfm pd to the Bargemen to drinke because they did Rowe so lustelie at 
the clothingf desire iiij d. 

254 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

1566-7. ®t the same Courte [29th January] yt was agreed by 
the m' wardens and assistaunce that there shoulde be a dynner kept for 
the buriall of m' John Daye for the whole Clothing and their wiff to be 
made in o' hall the iiij'** daye of ffebruarie next and m" Daye hath geven 
towarde ^^ same dynner in monie iij li And it is agreed that the assis- 
tance and their wifFe shall paye xij d. a man and the rest of the clothinge 
xvj d. a man. So there is chosen steward^ for the same dynner Roger 
fFarthing and John Bowlting. 

®t the same Courte [21st February] Thomas NicoU^ payde in the 
name of a fFyne for that he came not to powles to wayte vppon the Lorde 
mayo' the three fFestyvall vsuall daies having lawful! warning and also for 
being absent at the buriall of m' Turner the Sra of iiij s. 

^aften [20th March] of a Tynkerde a beame of Latten made in 
Jemris called a Stomara. 

^aften [21st April] of Robert wright of the Bankf side, one Salt 
gilt, iiij white pecf, ij gilte pec^ and ij casters. 

^aften [same date] of Thomas glenton in Tow'streate iiij stone pott^ 
Lydded w* fflaunders Lidd^ . 

%M^tt ^alSemer was called before the Court [14th May] ffor that 
he hathe fFalslie and deceiptfullye wrought the knopps of xxvj* stilly and 
ffilled the same knopps w* leade contrarie to the true order of making of 
them . . . And for the Trespas that he nowe hathe done his marcke is 
taken from hym which heretofore was admitted hym, and that he nowe 
shall haue a marck w* a doble fF, for that this is not the first tyme that he 
hathe trespassed in the Companye. 

Q^ic^ar^e IBaste [shall pay] from hensforthe [5th June] yearely vnto 
the Company ij s. [for his * dueties '] that is to saye to the clothing xij d. 
vnto the yemandrie vj d. vnto the Beadle iiij d. and to the clarcke ij d. 

^f a Courte holden the same daye [ 1 8th June] by the m' wardens 
and assistaunce yt was agreed that there shoulde be geven a lycence vnder 
the Seale of the howse vnto Wittm marshall, Robert hewet and John 
Thomas of maydstone pewterers for the Execucoix and disabolishing all 
hawkers for any manner of mettall wHn kent and Sussex and ell^ wheare 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 255 

as they shall haue occasion, So that they be bounde vnto the companye 
in one hundrethe pounds that they shall not doo anything contrary to the 
lawes and Statutf of this Realme nor doo any other act whereby it might 
be hurtfuU vnto the Companye. 

^f the same Courte yt was agreed by the m' wafdens and assise 
taunce that Edwarde watson of newe castle shoulde be admitted in to 
the company and hathe paide all the dueties due vnto the companye for 
all things vntill mighelmas next w*^^ was xij s. that is to saye viij s. to the 
m" and iiij s. to the yemandrie. And father it is agreed that the saide 
watson shoulde haue a Testymoniall w* the Seale o£- the howse that he is 
a freeman and pewterer of london, and that o' trade is to buye and sell all 
mann of mettall. 

The claim " to buy and sell all manner of metal ** is a wide interpreta- 
tion of the Company's trade that would not commend itself to the 
Goldsmiths*, Armourers* and Braziers*, Ironmongers*, Blacksmiths*, and 
other Companies. 

%i a Courte holden the same daye [21st July] by the m', wardens 
and mooste parte of the whole felowshipp Yt was agreed that Edwarde 
Reo shall not from hensforthe betaken as one of tl^e assistaunce neither 
yet to haue his place as he hadd before but to be as a Brother of the 
Companye and that his marcke shalbe taken owt of the hall, and maister 
Grerie to haue his marcke set vpp In the same placec 

From this it appears that it was a privilege of the Assistants to have 
their " marks *' set up in the Hall. 

The following extract from the City Records is found in Letter 
Book V, fol 1 13. — ^(SHartie xxij**** die JuUi Anno nono (Elizabethae Reginae) 
predicto 3fem it was this day ordered by the coijrte here for diuerse 
good causes & consideracons especially movinge the same^ that the hole 
company and incorporacon of the pewterers of this Cyttye shall enter 
into bonde to the Chamberlyn of this Cyttye in the some of Dli vnder 
ther Comen Seale to be indorsed with condycon that if they or there 
successors doe not at any tyme hereafter make or cause to be made 
amonge themselves at there comen hall or any other place or places 
whatesoeuer any maner of lawe acte constitucon or ordynaunce contrary 

^56 History of the Pewterers^ Company. 

or repungnant to any clause article braunche or sentence of the Acte of 
parliament made Anno xix"** Henrici Septimi Capit. vij"** concernynge 
the makinge of statutes by bodies incorporate within any cyty Bourowghe 
or Towne corporate w4n this Realme nor lymytt shall or appoint a 
generaltie amonge themselves any maner of price or prices in certentie 
of eny manner of kinde or sorte of their vessells or other wares what- 
soeu whiche they doe comenlie vtter and . sell or put to sale but doe 
levie [allow] everie person and psons of ther said Conopanie at his and 
ther frewill and libertie to vtter and sell his goods and wares as he and 
they biers therof can reasonablie agree among them selves That then the 
said bonde to be voide and of none effecte. And the Wardeyns of the 
said Companie haue this daie Seuennight to be here again for the accom- 
plishement therof. \ 

%i a Courte holden the same daye [22nd September] it was agreed 
by the m*^ wardens and assistaunce, for that the assistaunce is worne awaye 
they haue taken in to their assistaunce, Robert chawno', Wittm Readman, 
Thomas Burton, and John Cachen 

(31^ there is Remayning in the howse of fynne forfayte mettall taken 
this yeare xxix li praised at v d. the pounde xij s, j d. more in Triffills & 
xiiij bottells done w* corse flaunders mettall xiiij tti at ij d. the pounde 
ij s. iiij d., more in flaunders mettall weing xxxiiij li at iij d. the pounde 
viij s. vj d., more a Tynkerdf beame xij d. Sra of all xxiij s. xj d. whereof 
the Queues mat'** is to be answered the one moitie. 

36n Rs of Nicholas bodam for one whole yeares Rent due at midsomer 
1567 xiijs. iiijd. 

^ Nicholas Bodam was the Company's Beadle, and from 1560 had been 
tenant of a house adjoining the Hall in Lime Street. 

C^dtfflf in the parlyament for the Bute agaynst the occuping of 
Stone pott^ agreed by the assistaunce. 

The total expense was 3/. 11^*9 of which at least 21^. was expended 
in gifts to the Speaker and others. 

• 3f m for half a C xxiiij foote of borde to make a newe dore going in to the 
yarde by the well in o' hall • . • • • iiij s. vj d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 257 

Charge at mydsomer for the watche according to a presept sent by the 
lorde mayo'. 

This was for the Marching Watch. The total payments amount 
to 18*. for cressets, straw-hats, escutcheons, and two gallons of "ale 
for the pore men.*' 

3tm pd for the charge of m' Reo and hughe Colliers prentic^ afBryde- 
well and in the Counter vj s. ij d. 

Bridewell was^the City prison for incorrigible apprentices. 

3fm pd to Shepperd the sponemaker for that was geuen hym of charitie 
toward^ the losse of his Spones ..... iiij s. 

3tm pd to the goldsmith for silver put to the Cupp w*"** S' peper [Sir 

Peter Warryson' 
quarter [2^ oz.] 

gaue to the hall for the knopp weing ij oz di a 
price xiij s. iiij d. 

3fm for making and gilding of the same knopp . . . x s. 

3fm for Graving & Enameling the armes of y* craft in y* same iij s. iiij d. 

3fm pd to Roger fFarthing over and aboue the Ivj s. iiij d. w*^^ was loste of 
m" Ashlins buriall to buye the damaske tableclothe and ij dof 
of damaske napkins xxx s. iiij d. 

3fin pd for a Case to put S' peters Cupp in . . . vj s. viij d, 

36n pd for mony spent by Thomas Elyot Renter-warden for ij tymes 
abowt the Reentrie made by hym for the Rent of the AungeU and 
for making a quittance ij s. vj d. 

3fm pd to Sargeaunt GefFerie for his Councell abowt the AungeU v s. 

3fm pd for the charge of Thomas Eliot & bodams going downe to 
Southflite to m' Sidley to tender his Rent for the aungell w^** he 
Refused to receyue ij s. iiij d. 

3fm pd for a potle and a pynt of Sack to put in to the botle w** was 
sent to m' Sidley xij d. 

C^arg^ layde owt for the answering of Edwarde Reo when he 
brought the Company before the Lorde mayo' 1567. 
3fm pd the xv of Julye for o' dynner at the bull hed in chepe 

that daye we went to guilde hall abowt m' Reos matter to appeare 

258 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

before the lorde mayo' and Court of aldermen where we sat from 
viij vntill xij of the clock wayting when we shoulde be call for and 
was not • . . . . . . . • iiij s. X d. 

3fm pd for o' dynner at the popes hedd in lomBrtstreat the xvij of July 

y' daye we being before the Courte of aldermen for E. Reos matter 

vj s. ij d. 

3fm pd for the acknowledg of a Recognisaunce where the m' wardens 
and iij of the assystaunce were bounde in xl K apece for to appere 
at every Court of aldermen vntill the matter were ended . xij s. 

3fm pd to mr Towne clarck for the Copie of Edwarde Reos bill of com- 
playnt & the coppie of o' Recognisaunce ... iij s. iiij d. 

3fm pd for o' dynner at the kingshed the xxij daye of Septembr w** daye 
Edward Reo and Somers was sent for to a court of assistaunce in 
o' hall vj s. 

The expenses of the controversy with Edward Reo, who was removed 
from the Court of Assistants (p. 255) and probably made complaint of this 
to the Court of Aldermen, amounted to rather more than four pounds. 
The statement consists of 14 items, including the five immediately above. 

1567-8. Ca6rieff ^)>encer is ly censed to open Shopp the xij* day 
of february 1567 and hath paid therefore iijs. iiijd. His m' Robt 
Hustwaith hath made Report of his substaunce xx mks. 

Another apprentice who was licensed at the same Court was reported 
to be worth 40 marks. 

(^a Courte holden the same day [i8th March] by the m' wardens 
and Assistentes Mabell Conewey dwelling in Horsehed Aley Saith about a 
fortnight ago that Roger Isad his man cam home to her house to one 
Mother Jone w'** a dosen of Sawcer^ The said Mabell demaunded of the 
said Isadf man May this woman go about to sell these Sawcer^ yea mary 
said the felowe my m' will warant her. The said Mother Jone saith she 
hath solde for the same Roger Isad about a vj dosen And for George 
Sarples and Thorns Jonson iij or iiij dosen a pece The Said Jone hathe 
solde and began to sell aboute a moneth ago these Sawcersf She p"^ for 
e&y dosen ij s. vj d. And sold them for ij s. viij d. And iij s. a dosen to her 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 259 

®f the same Courte [7th May] it was agreed that the Goodman 
Bodham shall haue no more libertie of the garden nor hall vntill the 
Company se farther Cause Nor that there shalbe no more weddings kept 
in the Hall. 

^i a Courte holden the same daye [17th June] by the m' wardens 
and Assistent^ it was agreed that Jo Atkeys should put away a Boy 
named Jo Jonson whom he hath bound by the statute of wynchester 
Betwene this and mychelmas next at the farthest. 

See p. 234 for the provisions of the Statute of Winchester. 

d^i a Courte holden the same day L7th August] by the ni' wardens 
and assistentf It was agreed That where there dothe lacke Assistentf to be 
associated w*^ The Assistent^ nowe and to Sit in Courtg It is ordered 
that it shalbe leafiill for The M' wardens and Assistentf to take in one of 
the younger Clothinge at their plesure to be vpper warden and to supply 
the rome thereof And to be taken as vpper warden for that ycre As well as 
one that hath ben warden hertofore Alwais Provided and it is agreed that 
when he hath supplied the whole yere of the Said wardenship He shall 
not go ne sitte in place before any other of the Company That haue byn 
warden before hym But in order as a younger wardg As hath heretofore 
byn don That is to say as a last chosen younger warden. 

^i the same Courte it was also agreed that if it chaunce any one 
man to be Chosen to be warden and haue not borne the office of M' nor 
warden of the yeomanry he shall pay suche fyne to the house as shalbe 
Judged by the M' wardens and Assistent^ for the same office. 

®f the same Courte [23rd September] it was agreed by the whole 
Company that there shoulde Be no spones made of Bras or latten or any 
yelow metall vppon payne that if any pson herafter be found that he doth 
make any suche spones shall forfeyt and pay for euy spone iij s. iiij d. 
The said Spones were lately Invented by John God And he hath con- 
fessed he hath made but iij dosen one dosen he hath solde to one at 
Algate And an other Stranger hath bought one other dosen And the 
third dosen the Goodman of the Castell in wood strete must haue them 
And if there be found any more of the same Godf makyng He shall pay 
for euy Spone iij s. iiij d. 

26o History of the Pewterers' Company. 

^t the same Courte [13th December] it was agreed to aunswere 
M' Aldeman Heyward Concerning the Sale of the Angell as foloweth 
ffirst he shall pay for the Companies Interest xliiij H And shall saue the 
Company harmles from M*^ Sydley and all other psons for any thinge 
that the Company shall happen to do Concerning the said Sale of their 
Interest of w""^ xliiij •» there must be paid by M' Sydley for quyt Rent, 

• • • • ■ • 

mj ti. . 

3n p^mxB pd for the hiar of a Barge to Westminster a drome player, 

8 d. ^ It d. 

Russhes and wifflynge StafF^ xxviij s. iiij d. 

3fm pd to Bodam for his paynes attendinge vppon the saide men as a 
wyfFeler xij d. 

This was at the Midsummer Watch. The duty of the wifflers was 
to clear the way as an advanced guard in front of the pageant. Bodam 
was the Company's Beadle. 

3fm pd at the guilde hall when the company was discharged of their 
Recognysaunce for m** Reos matter ij d. 

3f m pd for ij C di of nayles spent in the garret abowt the makinge of the 
wyndowes and the frame to hang vpp the harnes . . xij d. oB. 

3fw pd for viij ells of Canvas to hang abowt the frame of the harnes 
and ouer for dust vs. 

3fm pd for one morrispike . xvj d. 

3fm pd to Abraham hartwell Scoller of Cambridge toward^ the buying of 

his Bookes agreed by assistaunce • . . . . . xx s. 

3f m pd and layde in to the Queues ma'' lotterie . . xl s. 

The Corporation, the Livery Companies, and the Merchant Adven- 
turers' Company were invited to take part in this lottery. The scheme 
was new to the citizens, and its purpose was to raise money for the repair 
of harbours and for various public objects. 

3tm pd to John Sherwyn for the debt of Edward loton for the whiche 
all his Tooles lyeth in the hall vppon a Bill of Sale . . xv li. 

3tm pd to Abraham hartwell Scoller of Cambridge for one half yeares 
exebicion due at mydsomer 1568 • , • . • xs« 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 261 

3fm pd to a gardener for bynding vp the arber and Roses in the garden 
for one daye xvj.d. 

Jfm pd for half a yarde and half a qjtr & a naile of Redd Crymson velvet 
for the m' & wardens garland^ . . . . . xvj s. viij d, 

3fm pd to m' Tailebushe Goldsmithe for the making of the Armes of the 
crafte and the Scochins that be abowt the same Garlands and so 
the bide Scochins and pendaunts are altered . . . xviij s. 

3fm pd to m' Tybballs man of the Exchequier for his paynes taking for 
the Coming for the Quenes mony wch the howse doth owe and we 
had councell not paye it as yet by m' Secretory of the Counter xij d, 

3tm pd to m' Tyball Recey vo' of the Quenes mony in the Exchequier 

for mony due vnto the queue as maye appeare by his Quittaunce 

xj li, xvj s. iiij d. 

3tm more I aske alowaunce for the Bakinge of Custerdc and Tartes owt 
of the howse at the same [the Master's] dynner for that the Ovens 
were broken iiij s. 

Jtm pd to Nicholas bodam for liiij dayes takinge paynes abowt the saide 
worke over and above the L* [50^-] he owith to the howse agreed 
at the Courte of assistaunce x s. 

This payment was for superintending repairs to the Company's 
property. Bodam the Beadle, notwithstanding his somewhat varied 
sources of income, seems to have been constantly in low water, 

3fm more lent vnto bodam for that he ought the saide x s. for rent of his 
howse and so was w*owt monye, agreed by the saide Courte w** he 
nowe owith to the howse the Sm of . . . . xx s. 

I568-9. %i a Courte holden the first daye of Apriell 1569 in the 
Eleventh yeare of the Raigne of ow' Soveraigne Lady Queue Elizabeth etc? 
by the maister wardens assistaunce and moost parte of the whole clothinge 
yt was agreed and ordayned that all howsholders of the yemandde shall 
wayte vppon the maister & wardens of the yemandrie to all ofFeringf and 
buriatt^ as they haue done in tymes past, And whosoeuer shall happen to 
offend and doo not come when they are warned, w'owt a Reasonable excuse 
shall paye for euery time iiij d. And also yt is agreed that all Jorncymcn 

262 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

shall also wayte vppon the m' & wardens at all ofFeringf if they canne 
Convenyently goo vppon Lycence of theire maister Provided alwaies that 
all suche psonnes as haue the almas of the Company and be very pore men 
suche as the m' & wardens of the yemandrie shall thinke be not able to 
geue their offerings shall from tyme to tyme be Remytted for not goinge 
to offerings and buriatt^ so that the same pore men be alwaies from tyme 
to tyme nomynated and set downe herevnder what they are that be 
Remytted. [Yeohianry Accounts.] 

®t a Courte holden the same day [27th May] by the m' wardens 
and Assistentf George Hawkyn Citezen and Pewterer of London was 
Sworne and admitted to be Gierke of the Pewterer^ Hall. 

^f the same Courte [23rd June] it was agreed by the m' wardens 
and Assistent^ That these psons hervnder mentioned [14 names follow] 
shalbe taken into the Clothinge and euy man to pay besides his spone xx s. 
a pece toward^ the making of a window mete for the Clerke to sit and 
write at and to lay his Bookes. 

^f the same Courte [9th September] it was agreed that the 
yeomanries dynner shalbe Spared accoding to auncient Custome The 
monday next after michelmas daye. 

%i the same Courte [28th November], holden by the maister 
wardenes and assistance, their was brought vnto them a precepte, directed 
one the parte and behalfe of our soueraigne ladie the qwenes maiestie, 
from Allexaundre Avenon, lorde Maior of the citie of London, by vertue 
and aucthoritie wherof, their shoulde be sufficientlie fiirnyshed Twentye 
men, as expeditlie as might be possible, to be appointed and armed as 
Sowldiors into the Northe partes of this realme, againste the two re- 
bellious rebells, the Earles of Westmlande and Norththumberlande ; 
£ache of w*^** Souldiares to be apparelled in Jerkynes and gallye breeches 
of broade clothe of coloure watchet, and euerie one a Calliuer, w'*' flasket 
and tuchebox, a Morryan, a sworde, and a dagger, and xij d. a peece for 
their preste money ; where\'ppon, it was agreed by the saide m' wardens 
and assistance, that the whole companye shalbe sessed and to be levied 
the some of Ixti. that is to saye of the Clothinge xlti^ and of the 
yeomanrye xxti. 

History of the Pewterers' Co7npany. 263 

These twenty men were not immediately called out, but the Com- 
pany was ordered to store their arms and accoutrements at Pewterers' 
Hall, and have them in readiness for immediate use at one hour's notice 
after receipt of a further precept from the Lord Mayor. This precept 
came in on ist March, and the men were sent off to the North at a total 
cost to the Company of 78/. 165. 5^. The two earls raised a revolt 
against the Queen, and proclaimed their design of restoring the old 
religion. They overran the northern counties, but were speedily defeated 
by the Royal forces under the Earl of Sussex. 

®t a courte houlden the same daye [2nd December], it was agreed 
that m' Warden Mathewe for that m' Burton, who was Renter is deade, 
shall geather the rente for the companye as the Rentors haue done here- 
tofore : And finallie it was as then decreed that the younger wardeine 
from thensfourthe to doo the like, and that therebe no more Renters 

^f the same courte it was agreed, that if any of the companye 
shoulde be hereafter called to beare thoffice of the younger warden, and 
hathe neuer borne office in the yomandrie before, shall paye to the craftes 
boxe iiij li. 

On 30th December the Court considered the case of Francis 
Bawdwyn who had several times robbed John Collier his master both 
of goods and money. Having confessed his guilt, he was whipped there 
and then in open court. 

The heading of the account for this year is subjoined as a specimen 
of the style then used. It may be compared with that for the year 
145 1-2, printed on page 15. 

^Jie is the accompte of m' William Mills Maister of the Misterie 
of Pewterers of the Citie of London Thomas Nogay and Robert Chawner 
wardens of the same Crafte or Mistery from the feaste of Saint Michaell 
tharchaungell In the yere of our Lorde God one thowsande fFyue 
hundrethe thre score and eighte vnto the said fFeaste of Saint Michaell 
the Archangell in the yere of our lorde god one thowsand fyue hundreth 
thre score and nyne And in the eleuenth yere of the R eigne of our 
souereigne lady Elizabeth by the grace of god Quene of England ffraunce 

264 History of the Pewterers' Co^npany. 

and Irland Defender of the fFaith &c That is to say for one whole yere 
complete And is for all Sms of money by us receyued had paid and 
deliuered with other Implemente as may appere by this accompte as 

3fm pd vnto the Goodwif Broune the xxj*^ day of May Towardc the 
Buriall of her Husband ....... x s. 

Goodwife Brown was the widow of the Company's excellent Clerk 
who died this year. 

1569-70. ®ni it was agreed [i6th March] that Hugh Colyers rose 
and crowne shalbe made lesser as m"* Haiselles is, by cause none hathe 
so greate, but the qwenes maiestie. 

(^i the same daie [14th April], Thomas wilshere complayned vppon 
Michell Thompson dwellinge at Sainte Mary Axe, for that he thretened 
him w'** approbrious wordes saienge thou art a knaue and I will dresse 
the like a knaue, w'** other thretninge wordes so that the saide wilshere 
saithe he is a fraide of his life, whervppon, it was agreed, that Thompson 
shulde be sent for the next courte daie. 

(^i a courte houlden the same daie [5th July], it was ordered and 
decreed, that for asmuche as m^ Hardinge paid for the weddinge of his 
maide kepte in this hauUe, the some of v s, that likewise the saide haule 
shalbe lett out for suche as shall marrye, beinge well adiudged of by the 
m' and wardaines for the tyme beinge, to be honeste and discrete, shall paie 
for the hier of the haule at euerie suche tyme v s.. And moreouer euerie 
suche persone so requiringe the saide haule, at euerie tyme shall paie to the 
Beadle, for his paines in that be halfe taken, the some of Twentie pence. 

^ni it is further agreed that whereas Thomas Smackergill was 
couenaunte servante w*** John Holstocke, that he shalbe sett at libertie, 
after he hath serued the said John Holstocke, duringe and vntill the laste 
daie of Awgust next ensuinge. So alwayes prouided that the said John 
Holstocke, do well and trulie paie him his waiges w*"** then shalbe due, 
fynde him meate drincke & all other thinges necessarye, and then the saide 
Thomas to paie his saide maister for all suche castinge mouldes as he 
heretofore hath rec of him. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 265 

3f was also agreed at the same courte [14th July], that Humfrie 
fFrauncis, pewterer of Abington, shall haue a license from the companye 
for one yere, to dele w^^ Hawkers accordinge to the lawes of this realme, 
that is to saie, Barkshere, Oxfordshere, Wilshere, and Glocest'shere, and 
to be bounde in C ti, to dele vprightly and trulie wherby the companye 
shall sustayne no reproche by his so dealinge. 

^i a courte houlden the same daie [ist August], RafFe Carter citizen 
and Salter of london was admitted our Clarke to endure so longe tyme, 
as he shall continue a faithfuU seruaunte vnto this companye: Vnto 
whome was deliuered the libell of the moneye, by vs put into the qwenes 
Maiesties Lottarie, the somer before, conteyninge the Juste some of xl s. 

George Hawkyn who succeeded Edmund Browne as Clerk held that 
office for little more than a year, and was succeeded in turn by Ralph 
Carter. The minutes and accounts for the next five years present a great 
contrast to those so beautifully kept by Browne. Ralph Carter's style is 
rambling and obscure, whilst his punctuation (here faithfully followed) 
is based on a system which was fortunately used only by its inventor. 
His troublesome penmanship and method of minuting continue to 
the year 1575. 

Z'^t matter requested [14th November] by Richarde Corbyn, for 
the some of Twentie shillinges, w*^** Arrettes wifF owed him : it is ordered, 
that hir apprentice shalbe solde, by thassente of the maister and wardeins, 
for hir mooste advauntage, and the monye redoundinge thereof to be 
clere discharge of the saide Corbynes dett. Prouided allwayes, that what 
surplusage of money, shall happen to surmounte ouer, and aboue the 
saide dette, by the sale of the saide apprentice, that euerye parte thereof 
shalbe whollye be to thonlie vse and behoufe of the same Arrettes wifF. 
any thinge to the contrarye not w'^ standinge. 

3f was the same daie [14th December], agreed, that noe persone ne 
persones, of this companie shall from hensfurthe vntill further ordre be 
herein taken, vtter or putto sale, eny pewter vessell, vnwroughte, of what 
sorte or manner soeuer they same be, to no persone, ne persones what- 
soeuer excepte it be to suche persone, and persones, as be free, citizens, 
and inhabytenge wl^in the citie of london. Nor colourablie caste, or melte 

s 2 

266 History of the Pewterers Company, 

any perselle of tynne, as propperlye the goodes, of eny man, not beinge 
a citizen, and dwellinge w*4n london, vppon payne and forfeiture in 
doinge the contrarie, for eu'ey hundred weighte, either putto sale, or 
melted (as aforesaide) tenne shillinges, the moyetie to the taker, thother 
to the companye. 

3fem paide to the churche wardeins of all Sainctes, in Lomberstreete 
vppon the daye of our feaste. as for vsinge the Ornamentes. of the 
same churche. xij d. 3fem paide to the Curate, and Clarke, of the 
saide Churche. vppon the same daye as for their accustomed 
dutis viij d. [Yeomanry accounts.] 

3fem receyued of the Collectors that ceassed generallie the clothinge (at 
firste tyme) towardes the charges of Twentie men, w^^ were sent into 
the Northe parts of this realme, against the two rebellious rebells, 
the Earles of Westmurlande, and Northumberlande . . xl ti 

Qllemorandumt there was delyuered vnto Wittm Pryor in oulde mettall 
(as the goodes of the hawle) remayninge in the Garret, these 
remembred percells, that is to saie, a Eleven stope pottell pottes, 
thirtene quartes potts, and in other olde laye mettall to asmuche 
as all sortes added togeathers.make the in weight one hundred and a 
quarter, w^** after iiij d. the pounde is iust . . . xlvj s. viij d. 

more (as then) there was deluyered him in oulde fyne mettalls (as goodes 
of the hawle) the iuste weighte of Ixij li w*"** after v d. the pounde 
amountethe to the some of .... . xxv s. x d. 

^feo there was delyuered him (as then) in Peake the iuste weight of 
twentie, eighte pound es, and so estymated worthe . . ij s. vj d. 

3fem reS the xvj of Thomas Hawkf, as for a fyne, for strickinge Tho. 
Mott ......... xiijs. iiijd» 

3n }>nmu6 paide to a draper, for asmuche Clothe of coloure Blewe, after 
fFyve shillinges the yarde, as apparalled the saide Twentie Souldiers, 
at firste tyme, : vnto the leaste of w*"** Jerkyns and slopps, there was 
two yardes and a halfe of london measures, all w*^*" saide Twentie 
persones so cloothed, amounted to , , . • viij li. vj s. viij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 267 

3f em paide to a draper at the seconde tyme, for fFourtene yardes of Clothe, 
(and of the same coUoure) as clothed the rest of those whose apparrell 
was aswell embrasceled as w'^ houlden, and given, all w** amounted 
to iij li. X s. 

Jfettt paide to sundrie Tailors, at first tyme for makinge the saide Jerkins, 
and gallie slopps at xxd. the peece & geven to the srvaunts to 
drink viij d xxxiiij s. 

3tem paide at firste tyme, for asmuche Inckell of coloure redde and blewe, as 
poyncted the saide Jerkins and Breeches the iuste some of xij s. iij d. 

3fem paide at the seconde tyme for the ynckle and ribon w** poyncted the 
Jerkins & slopps, then lackinge ij s. ix d. 

3fem paide for Eleuen Swordes, servinge for the saide supplie of men, 
wherof eighte coste iiij s. iiij d. the peece thother three, coste iij s. 
the peece xliij s. viij d. 

3fem paide the saide Souldiers, after sixe pence the daie, as for their 
sallarie and wages, that is to saie, from the firste daie of december, 
vntill the Thurtie daie of the same monthe . . xiiij li. xs. 

3fem paide vppon the xx'* daie of december, as was agreed in the little 
parloure, vnto xiiij Souldiers beinge Pewterers, ouer and aboue their 
wages .......... vs. 

Jfettt paide vnto m' Cunstable, and m' mellawes, who were appointed as 
graunde Capteynes, to haue the conducte of the said souldiers, at 
what tyme they departed from the citie of London . . x s. 

3f em we fynde Nicholas Boddam, is indepted to the howse. as appearethe 
vppon the pamphilet of the last accompt in Ann"* Dni? 1569 xxs. 

1 570-1. 3t was also agreed [21st June], & fFullie ordered, for 
vniformyties sake, that from hencefurthe it shoulde not be lawfuU, for none 
of the companye to goo home, to waite of the maister, & wardeins, euerie 
yere, to be ellected, and chosen, aboue the nomber of twelue persones, in one 
companye, of whiche saide nomber one of thassistaunce, to goe whome w'** 
either of the wardeins, soe yerelie to be chosen, : And fynallie that therebie 
none of the companies wives, doe enterprice to goe home, to the newe m' 
and wardeins howses, excepte they be willed or required there vnto. 

268 History of the Pewterers Company, 

^ }>rece}>fe was then receyued from the Lorde mayor, for sixc 
Cressettf, lightes, to be made readye againste Midsomer evon, and also 
apt men to the nomber of sixe to beare them, and to euerie to [two] 
Cressettes, one bagge bearer, as also a requeste for two discrete persones, 
to attende vppon the saide Cressett, bearers, called wyfflers, : all w*^** to be 
readie at Leadon haule, before the houre of ix of the clock. 

All the Companies took part in the great pageant of the Marching 
Watch, which was made ready at Leadenhall, where most of the 
"properties" of the City pageants were kept. 

(SHieftee ^aseeeff (beinge at this courte) [3rd August] was in 
daunger, to be fyned, for that she beinge complayned on was thoughte 
to haue boughte tenne peces of Tynn of m' Alderman Bonde, w^^'out 
ClofFe. contrarie to thordynaunce of this howse : and duelie examyned 
was founde to be in faulte, yet because of pleadinge ignoraunce, to 
thordinauncf she was pardoned of the saide offence. 

Q^oBerfe Coffjet, (as mallapearte, as Stollida quotidie) wolde nedes 
[5 th October] haue his pewter vessell restored to him againe, and not 
requested, to haue it againe, for that qd he, the matter obiected, againste 
me, is perdoned and ended, by the fynall determynation of my Lorde 
Maior, w'^ a nomber of other fflowtinge woordes, verrye vnsemeley, of so 
younge an ympe to be vttred, or spoken, in so graue, and worshipfull an 
Audyence: But yet perseueringe in his loftye stomache, departed in 
greate rage, from their present^ w'^'out eny leave takinge. 

This is a rich example of Ralph Carter's grandiloquent style of 

3tem receyued of the guifte of mystres Haynes, for and towardes a 
recreacion to be made emongeste the companie, at their pleasures, 
the some of . . . . . . . . . xx s. 

3fem receyued of a Jentleman. in Julie laste. for permytinge a deade Corpes. 
to stande in the hawle, duringe three houres, the some of xiij s. iiij d. 

3fem receyued of Roberte Prentice, as for a fyne, in that he packed and 
solde to Sturbridge fayre laste, as was crediblie enformed by m' 
Allen, asmuche wares, of all sortes, as he supposed, waied vij C, & for 

History of the Pewterers^ Company. 269 

that he was fyned. a marke of mony. this Accomptaunte, chargeth 
hym selfe to haue receyued of the saide Prentice, a goulde Ringe. 

for the said marke of mony xiij s. iiij d. 

3fem receyued of Roberte Collier, as for a fyne, of xx s. in that he con- 
tempteouslie, exclaymed to the L. Mayor of london, of m' w° Curtis, 
before he soughte his remedie at the m' & wardeins handes, asmuche 
pewter vessell as is in weighte Ixxxxiiij ti di . . . xx s. 

3fem receyued vppon the v'^ courte daie, of RaiFe Straye, for that he on 
the L. mayors feaste daie, had not on his lyuerie gowne . xij d. 

3f em receyued vppon the seconde q*' daie, of John Tucker, for that three 
Stills heades, were vntouched xij d. 

3tettt receyued vppon the. xiiij'** courte daie, of Edwarde Harper, (as for a 
fyne.) in that on Lamas daie [ist August] laste, he came to the guilde 
haule, w***Qut his lyveroye gowne . . . . . xij d. 

3tem receyued of John Chestar. for that he came to the guilde hawle, to 
the seconde ellection of the Shrive, of London, not havinge on his 
lyuerie gowne . . . . . . . . . vj d. 

3fettt vppon the xv'** courte daie, there was receyued of Ric Corbyn, for 
that he sette certeyne wares, on an other mans stawle, contrarie to 
order .......... xij d. 

3fem paide vppon the xxiijti daie of Januarye, laste. (beinge the daie, that 
the Qwenes Ma'" dyned at S' Thomas Gresshams) for carienge the 
fFrame. to the place where the companye then did stande. to attende 
her highnes commynge xxijti d. 

This was Queen Elizabeth's famous visit to the City, when Her 
Majesty honoured Sir Thomas Gresham by visiting his house, and 
afterwards proceeded in state to open the new Burse, which she ordered 
to be proclaimed as the Royal Exchange. 

3tem paied for ffire, the same mornynge. to warme those of the companie, 
w*^^ staled thothers commynge vj d. 

Jfem paide in the Evenynge of the same daie, for six stafFe Torches, w'^** 
were burnte in lightinge the qwenes highenes, throughe the citie, to 
hir courte, w** then was at Somsete place, w'**out temple barre of 
london .......... vj s. 

270 History of the Pewterers Company. 

3fem paide then for foure smale staves, servinge for those w*"*" were 
appoyncted, as wyfflers. to garde the companie from the thruste & 
violence of people . . . . . . . . xij d. 

The charges for the Midsummer Watch this year include "js. 6d. 
paid to nine Cresset bearers, and three " Bagge bearers " to attend on 
them ; 16^. 6rf. for 36 stone of Cresset light at 5^rf. the stone ; ^s. "jd. for 
9 straw hats; 4^. for lace to make "poynts" or bows for the hats; 
2^. 6(i for 12 "Skutchins" of the arms of the Company fixed upon 
the hats ; and 4^. for drink " expended vppon the saide nyne persones 
at their goinge out of the hawle." 

1571-2. %o%n Catcher, and maister Allen, then pr^te [13th March], 
semed, bo the, in countenaunce, and woordes, muche, to, myssevse, them 
selues, not onlie, to the maister, him selfe, but to thassistauncc, whose 
names, are herevnder appearinge. 

"ffirsfe maister Allen, (very superfluouslye) reappinge vppe, olde 
matters, when as the griefe, of his mynde, shoulde haue bene vttred, 
coulde saie nothinge, but that he was mysvsed, by maister Curtis, and 
beinge demaunded, wherein, the saide Curtis, myssvsed him. in faithe, 
quothe he, a nomber awayes ; quothe the m'. wherein one. whie, quothe 
the saide Allen, it is but foUie, for me, to prate, more, sithens ye be, all 
lyncked, togeathers, and therefore, w'** your greate god, (the said Curtis.) 
by whome, ye be whoUie ruled, I leave to trouble you, any further. 

^9e saide Maister Curtis, then, and there presente, earnesteley, 
required, the saide maister. Allen, (if eny faulte, on his parte had bene 
commytted.) towardes him. to forgive it, and he w*^all his harte, in like 
sorte, (as hartely. as he woulde, be forgiven, at godes handes,.) did then 
vtterley renounce, to owne any malice, or grudge, towardes him, the same 
m' Allen. 

^Xit> as for maister Catcher, he stouteley afFyrmed, that it was, but a 
foUie, for him, to vtter, his griefe, to eny of the saide maister wardeins, or 
assistaunce, for quothe he, hathe not Maister Curties, saide dyuers, tymes, 
to me, and in your hearinges, prate what I cann, doe what thowe canstes 
do. saie what thou wilte saie, for thowe arte like, to haue, no manner, of 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 271 

remedie here (w'** other vayne talke,) not thoughte mete, to be vttred, of 
so honeste a personage, muche les to trouble, this booke, w'** suche 
fryvelous speeche. 

The issue of this quarrel does not appear. "Master" William 
Curtis was the brother of Alderman Sir Thomas Curtis, and seems to have 
been at times somewhat unpopular with certain members of the Livery. 

3t was also, ordered [30th August], that from hensfurthe, for euer- 
more, theldeste man, of the clothinge, shall haue, in his kepinge, one of the 
keyes, of the redde chestes, and the vpper wardeine, thother, and thus 
orderlye, to contynue alwayes. 

^n> likewise, [loth December], that all pettie Sawsers, throughoute 
the whole companye, shalbe before Candlemas nexte, be called ynn, and 
not vttred, to be solde, to eny persone, or persones, not vnder fFoure 
poundes in weighte, the dossen, or thereaboutes, vppon payne, offforfei- 
ture, of all suche sawcers, as from thencefurthe, shalbe made contrarie to 
this ordynaunce . Any ordynaunce or provyso, heretofore made, to the 
contrarie hereof, in eny wise notw'^standinge. 

3fetn receyued of John Jacksone, as for a fyne, of not beinge this yeare, 
m' of the yeomanrie ....... iij ti. 

Every liveryman was obliged in turn to hold the offices of Warden 

and Master of the Yeomanry. The posts were burdensome and their 

duties no doubt trying. Constant requests occur to be excused from 

serving on payment of a fine. 

Jfetn receyued as for certeyne pewter vessells, in manno of vyces, of 
fflaunders makinge, w*"^ were founde, w'^'in the shoppe of John 
fFowell, haberdassher, vppon the xx'* daie of Maie laste, from whome 
was taken, & seised, to thuse of the Queues Ma'**, as forfaitc, by the 
lawes of this realme. eighte Glasse bottles, vysed w'^ forraine pewter 
three Smale pewter Tasters, two Smale Pottingers, and fourc saltf . 
valued in the whole at. ij s. Thone halfe whereof, to thuse of the 
Companie is readie mony . . . . . . xij d. 

3fettt paide vnto the Clarke, accordinge to an agremente had, & made at 
the laste Accompte daie, for & towardes a recompence of his trauailes, 
the yeare paste xxs. 

^7^ History of the Pewterers' Company, 

3t^ttt spente at the Dolphin, in fishestreete, vppon tlie eightene, daie of 
October laste, as for so muche given by Richard Mannynge, at the 
buriall of his wifFe, for and towardes a recreation, emongeste the 
whole Lyveorie . . . . . . . . xxs. 

Jfettt paide, to olde father Stokes, as for his paynes, trauaylinge, to the 
laste parlyamente, in furtheringe, a bill, for the reformacion to be had, 
of vnlawfuU measures ....... xxx s. 

^ttcafietf ensuethe, the perticuler charges, of furnisshinge ffiftie, and 
seven men, appoynted for a shewe, to be made before the qwenes Maiestie, 
at Grenewiche vppon Maie daie laste. 

3n fti^muB paide to Christofer Haddam as for twentie newe Callyvers, 

servinge for bullion shotte, beinge througlie furnished, aswell w'*' 

chargers, and rammers, as w'** Mouldes, faixes, & tuche boxes 

xuj h xij d. 

Other items, under the heads of Powder, Matches, Murryans, 
Sarsenet, Victualls, Swordes, and Wages, bring up the whole charge to 
42/. 1 8^. 3^. Musters of the citizens were frequently held in the presence 
of the Sovereign during the reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth. The 
Companies contributed their levies, all of whom were richly apparelled. 

3fem, paide vnto the Mayors officer, as for his paynes, attendinge vppon 
the m', and wardens, goinge into Bartholmewe fayre . . xij d. 

The following memoranda of receipts and payments are entered at 
the end of the Audit Book (29) for 1530-1572. 

(!^tv> 1553. the xx'*** daye of niche. (JJlonu gathered of the whole 
Company for the Advauncement and gyfte toward^ the payment of ij m* 
markf graunted enacted & agreed by the comen Councell of the Cyte of 
london fFor the Quenes highnes to mayntayne a garysson of men that her 
ma'* entendeth to kepe, neare the Cyttye of london, as well for the suerty 
of her Ryall psonne as for the savegard of the sayde Cyttye as by 
Comyssyon apearyth for the Sm of xxxti which was gevyn & gathered of 
theyse psonnes folowyng, An° Regni Dne Regine Marie &c p^mo m' kyng- 
worthe m', Mighell heytwayte & Willm Baker wardens. 

History of the Pewterers Company. 273 

The names and contributions follow, the latter amounting to 
33/. \\s. 8rf. Further particulars appear on pp. 176-7. The assessment 
gave rise to some dissatisfaction, which was peremptorily put down by 
an order of the Court of Assistants, printed at the bottom of p. 1 77. 

QJlonc geiien of the Company towardc the Charge and cost^ of the 
plyament, in the tyme of m*^ kyllyngworth, mr, Mighell heytwayte and 
Willm Baker wardens in An° 1554 as fFolow'**. 

The amount of this collection is 25^. 4^. {See p. 177.) 

1573-3. "ffitsfe, it was agreed, [i8th February] that a Bill shoulde 
be exibited, to my lorde wardeine of the Stannnerie for the reformacoix, 
of thabuses, dalie commytted* by the Connyers, of Tynneworkers, in the 
weste countrie. 

At a Court meeting held on the 16th October it was ordered that 
Lynch the Armourer should make and keep clean all the armour and 
weapons belonging to the Company, receiving in return xxvj s. viij d. as 
his yearly wages. 

3n w"^** charge, it was condicioned, that he shoulde as often, as nede- 
fuUie required, havinge powder founde, him, at the companies charge, 
blowe of, all the Callyvers, belonginge, to the saide companye, fynde, 
and provyde, all and almanner, of Buckels, latches, and other, Artilments, 
whatsoeuer, to all the Armor, and weapons, of the howse. [Also to be 
ready to cast aside his own business at the command of the Prince, or 
the Company, and be ready to do whatever was required of him.] 

At the Court meeting held on the same day a disagreement between 
Thomas Wansworth and John Boultihg was happily determined as follows. 

^n> for, amore conformytie, of a brotherlie love, betwene them, the 
saide John Bowltinge, at his charges, shall before the feaste of Christmas, 
nexte make a dynner, or supper, invytinge, and byddinge, the same 
Thomas Wanswoorthe, and his wiiFe, therevnto, and in conveniente tyme 
after, the saide Thomas, Wansworthe, to doo the like, not omyttinge 
therein, there good mother in lawe, and so to contynue thensfurthe, 
lovers, and freindes eche of them, to others, like as the bandes, of 
Mutuall charetie, willeth and requirethe. 

274 History of the Pewterers Company. 

The two following lists of contributions (/.) towards the cost of ceiling 
the Hall, and (/7.) towards the gift made to Alderman Curtis in his Shrie- 
valty, are at the end of Audit Book 29, which covers the years 1530- 15 72. 

We Seallyng of the hall. 

(JJli that m'' Thomas Curtys alderman made the Sealyng at the 
highe bourde of the hall of his owne proper cost^ and charge in the 
moneth of June in An*" 155 1. 

(JJli that m" ashlyn late the wif of waiter ashlyn made the Sealyng 
of the west syde of the hall of her owne proper cost^ & charge in the 
monethe of Maye An° 1552/ 

(JJli that the East syde of the hall was sealed at the costf and charge 
of the clothing as apearyth on the next syde folowyng. 

(JJli that the lower ende of the hall called the north side was Sealed 
at the costf and charge of m' Edwarde Cacher of his owne proper goods. 
And the Armes that is set vppon the same Seling was done at the Cost^ 
and charge of John Cacher his Sonne. 

Oli that the Armes at the highe bourde that is set in the Seling 
was donne at the prop costf and charge of m'' Wittm Curtes. 

(JJli that the Armes that is set in the Sealing on the west side of the 
hall was done at the prop costf and charge of lawrence Ashlyn. 

(JJli that the Armes that is set in the Sealing on the east side of the 
hall was done by certayne of the Companye that is to saye, m' Rowlandson 
m' Mille m' Gerie, m' AUyn, m"^ Loton, m' Hassill, and m' Gardener. 

(Stone gevyn Toward^ the Scelyng of theaste Syde of the hall in 
the tyme of m*^ Cary being m' of the Crafte, Henry Clarck and Mighell 
heytwayte Wardens in An° 1553. [The amount is 14/. i2rf.] 

^9e chargf of the foresayde Scelyng of the Easte Syde of the hall. 
3n {Kmie pd to Rypley JoyS for the Joyners work & sealyng of 

the East syde of y* hall in the tyme of m' Cary, m' Henry Clarck 

and Mighell heytwayte wardens . . . . . xj li. 

3fm pd to Jackson Carpenter for viij doble quarters iiij syngle quarters 
for nayles & for a dayes work for the Carpenter to Nayle behynd the 
sayd Scelyng to staye the Joyners worke .... vij s. ij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Cmnpany. 275 

3tm pd by m' heytwayte, to Wittih Baker of the Rest of the mony that 
Remayned of the benyvolence of the company gevyn towards the 
Sealyng .......... xxs. 

a^nb there dothe Remayne more of the same mony in m' heytwayt^ 
handf xxxiij s. x d. 

^ Q^ememBraunce of them of the felowshype of pewterers that gaue 
theyre benyvolence to m' Thomas Curtys shryue of London towarde his 
Charge ^'or takyng vpon hym to be shryue whyche mony was geuyne 
hym the xx daye of Octoftr in An° domini 1546 And in the xxxviij yeare 
of the Raigne of o"^ souveraigne lorde kynge Henry the viij'** kynge of 
England fFraunce and Irlande defensor of the fayth and of the Churche 
of Englande & Irlande the Supreme hed. [The contributions follow in 
sums varying from 3^. 4rf. to 40^., and make a total of 35/. 8.v.] 

niV9tc9^ was delyuered as folowithe. 

3f m paide to my lorde mayors stewarde towarde the charge of the mayors 
feaste By m' shryues commaundmente .... xxx t*. 

3fm p** for yo"^ Henchemans cote of blewe bryg^ [Bruges] satten & doblet 
of yelowe bryg^ satten and a pay re of y el owe hose lynyng^ & 
makynge . . . . . . . . . xx *• vj **• 

3fm pd for gerdles of red cades for xxxvj ofFycers at mydsomer iij *• 

3fm delyuered to m' Shryues owne handc in Redy monye iiij t>- liij *• vj ^• 

Sm XXXV '»• viij ** 

Q^e y' Remembred that the sayde craft gaue vnto the sayde m' shryue 
for his dyniiD the morowe after myghelmas daye whiche dynrc was 
kepte at the pewterers Hall whiche daye he was presented in the 
kyngs Exchecker vpon theyre fFree gyfte owte of the craftf boxe vij ' J 

For further particulars of this dinner see ante p. 153. 

1572-3. Item reccyued, of WiUiam Hues, pewterer. as for kepinge of 
his weddinge. in the saide hawle . . . . . ij s. 

3fem receyued, of mistres Hustewaite, as for hir husbandes benevolence 
given to the companie, of intente to be spente, emongeste them, 
ymmediatelie after his deceasse xx s. 

276 History of the Pewterers' Company, 

3fem receyued, of m' Curtis, vppon the tenthe, daie of December laste, as 
for a full discharge, of m' Sydleyes, obligation, conteyninge his dette, 
due to the companie, for releassinge of their, title & intreste, of and 
in the Aungell. in Thamys streate, the some of. xvj 1. xiij s. iiij d. 

3fem receyued, of Nicholas Jurdeine, citezen and Merchaunt taylor, of 
london, whome married the wife, of thafore named Roberte Hustwaite, 
as in parte, of paymente, of a more some, agreed to be paide by him, 
to thuse, of the companie, for acceptinge him as a Brother, to and 
emongeste them, from the saide companie of Merchaunttailors, the 
some of . . . . . . . . . . xli. 

3fem receyued, of an Ittallion. as for five weekes, vsinge, the Hawle, of the 
saide companies, by the sighte, of a mooste artifyciall, and warlike 
castle, neuer before seene iij li vj s. 

3fem receyued then, of Anthonie Smythe, as for his benevolence, to the 
companie, attendinge on the buriall, of his wife . • xx s. 

3fem receyued by verdicte, of xij men, in the courte of piepoulders, for 
Bartholomewe faire, as for a falce Beame, taken from, Thomas, kempe 
the belfounder in houndsditche, ouer, and aboue, the quenes maiesties 
parte, to the Lorde, of the fFee, then allowed . . . xxxviij s. 

A Court of Piepoudre [dusty foot] or Piepowder was held at every 
fair for speedy adjudication upon disputes and for punishment of offences. 
It received its name from the expeditious methods of its practice, judg- 
ment being pronounced whilst the dust was still on the feet of the suitors. 

3fem receyued, of Phillippe Deonise, in Barmesey Streete as for a five 
pounde weighte, two, two poundes waights, halfe a pounde weighte, 
and one quarter, of a pounde waighte, of leade, all w^** were to [too 
lighte, falce, ringed w^** yron, and vnsealed, contrarye to the lawes, of 
this realme, and beinge seazed, was furthw'^ tried in the courte of 
piepoulders, kepte for the saide faire tyme, to be mooste falce, and 
deceytefull, and the saide Phillipe deonise, therevppon, seinge presente 
daunger of condempnacion, by the sighte of Thomas Kempe, fainted 
in his Action, so w'** lamentable teares, fell to composition, and w'^ 
these Accomptauntf, and so w'** his freinde, became bounde to paie, 
for the same his greate deceite, in the saide five weights, at 
Michalmes foUowinge ...... iiij 1. xij s. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 


and exces- 
sive ex- 
penses, as 
ever was 
herde, or 

3fem paide vnto the Lorde Mayor, of london, as for a benevolence 
graunted him by consente of Thassistaunces . . . xl s. 

3f em paide vnto Nicholas Boddam, as for his paynes, agreed by the whole 
clothinge, in trauaylinge [i.e., labouring or working] aboute the 
prizes [prices], of wares, to be reduced into one rate . x s. 

The Beadle was a highly responsible officer, and entrusted with 
important duties. 

Jfem paide vnto one of Boddams sonns, as for a yeares exibicoU graunted 
to him, for and towardes his furtheraunce in learninge fulhe ended 
at Midsomer laste . . . . . . . vj s. viij d. 

Jfem paide for a proclamacion, tendinge to the reformacion, of the greate 
abuse, latelie practized by Apprentizes, in excesse of apparraile, the 
some of . . . . . . . . . . ij d. 

Stem paide vnto therle, of Bedfordes. Secretarie. as for his paines, in 
makinge certeyne letters, directed downe. into Devonsheire, and 
Cornewale, for reformacion to be had in, and aboute, the greate 
abuses dailie practized by the Tynners, in those partes . v s. 

3fem paide to the two Atturneyes, as for their iFees, makinge the declara- 
tions, w'** their reioynders, and iFees, due to the Judge, of the saide 
courte of piepoulders, in triall of the sixe actions, commensed againste 
the saide Thomas kempe, & Phillippe Deonise, as by a bill of par- 
ticulers, withe their handes subscribed, more playnlie appeareth xlv s. 

3fem paide to fFoster, the clarke of the saide courte, as well for thentringe, 
of the sixe Actions, as for councell, at the evydence givinge his fFecs, 
of ij s. the peece, for everie one of the plees entringe vppon recordc, 
and so after that rate, for euy yssue so taken and filinge vppc, w'^ the 
w^^'drawinge, of the Actions, the some of . . . . Ivj s. 

The indignant marginal note appears to be the comment of the 
3fem paide to Nicholas Boddam, in consideratioa of his paynes attend- 

inge vppon the saide workemen x s. 

The expenditure on these repairs amounted to 9/. 165. lorf., the 
Beadle acting as usual as superintending architect. 

278 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

3fem paide vnto m' George Heaton, Chamberlayne, of London, as in 
respecte of provision to be made, for all mannD of breade come, in this 
tyme of skarcitie, for repaymente whereof, these Accomptauntes haue 
accepted, the saide Chamberlayne, dettor, to be paide the companie, 
accordinge to thorder, of the righte honourable S"^ Lionell ducket 
knighte lorde Mayor of london, as in and by the saide bill obligatorie 
of his, more playnlie at large it dothe & maie appeare. xxij li. x s. 

3fem paide for breade, & drinke, at the three laste courte daies, the some 

V/A • • • • • • • • • • • VI vl ^ 

1573-4. ^ni for that, m' Jurdeine [loth September] packed, 
w*houte vewe made, of the m'' or wardeins, a sixe barrells of Pewter, sup- 
posed to be in euerie barrell, a three hundrethe weighte, in the hole, 
xviij ti and havinge laide, before him, the ordynaunces, of the howse, hee 
stubbernelie bad them doo, what they coulde, he woulde paye, no suche 
fyne: And therew^he, they forbadd him, to give from hensfurthe the 
Crowned bell, on suche wares, as he shoulde make wherebie to sell them 
againe. Excepte it weare for the vessell of the qweenes Maiesties howse 
onlie : He skoffingelie, answered them, that whatsoeuer, ordynaunces, they 
had, for that matter, he cared not a Rushe, for as he did vse yt, 
so woulde he, do still, and do they what they liste, or ells qd he, 
I will spende twentie poundes. But that you sir, meaninge the 
m"^ of the companye, [Mr. William Curtis] shall leave of, from 
givinge, the Rose and Crowne, w'** sonne beames, as nowe you doo . 
Well, qd the maister, for that matter I shall do well ynoughe, but 
see wheare you are nowe. What vsage, in wordes be these to your maister 
and wardeins. I care not, quothe the same Jurdeine, and seinge you do 
thus abuse me, I will laie downe my hoode and from hensfurthe neuer 
com emoungeste you, and yet will I kepe open shoppe, and give, the 
Crowned bell, in spite, of you all, and doo the beste, and wourste, you can, 
and therew'^ verie vnreverentlie before them all, did put on his cappe, flange 
awaye, as one that had bene madd, & in suche manner, departed he. 
"iitxti rcceyued, for five weddingf kepte in the hawle . . xxv s. 

Jfettt receyued of Nicholas Jurdeine, for a fyne, in beinge discharged, of 

the Stuardeshippe ....... xiij s. iiij d. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 279 

3f em receyued, of Thomas Wansworthe, for a fyne, of certeyne Stone pottf , 
of his makinge, verie vnworkemanlie handled, the some of. xij d. 

3f em receyued, of Richarde Mason, sonne of Tho. Mason, while he lived, 
citezen and Pewterer, of london, as for a ffyne, to be admytted, a free 
brother of this companie, whose exercise, all the daies, of his life, was, 
and yet is thoccupacore of a Cordewaynor, the some of xiij s. iiij d. 

3fem paide vnto the Curate there [All Saincts Lombard strete], at the 

tyme of these accomptantf greate dynner, xij d. To the Clarkes, of 

dutie iij s. iiij d. To the Churchewardeins, of the churche, xx d. To 

the Preacher, iij s. iiij d. To the Sexton, iiij d. and to the Beadle, of 

the companie, iiij d. so the totall some of all the saide particulers 
is . ixs. viijd. 

3tem paide vnto the Butler, for his paynes, the laste quarter daie, beinge 
also, thellection, of the newe maister, and wardeins . iij s. iiij d. 

3fem paide for makinge of two, paire of slopps [for soldiers] . xx d. 

Jfem paide, for iij peecf of lace, to garde them . . . xviij d. 

3fem paide for vj yardes, of blewe clothe, servinge for the reste, of their 
Breeches xiiij s. 

3tem paide for makinge, of two paire of breeches . . . xvj d. 

3fem paide, for the five, Coat^ makinge, at xvj d. the peece, vj s. viij d. 

3fem paide to m" Grenewood, the Harrolde, at armes, for a newe addicorJ, 
to be made, of the Armes, of the companie . . . iiij ti. 

^feo, we fynde, that the yearlie Annuytie, given by maister Catcher, 
deceassed, to five, poore men, of this companie, is dulie paide by 
these Accomptant^, amountinge to . . . . . xxxs. 

QllareoBeY, the younger, of these Accomptant^, craueth to be allowed, that 
money, wherewithe he standethe chargeth, to have receyued of the 
wardemoote Inqueste, of Langeborne warde and as yet not come, to 
his handes, amountinge to ..... . x s. 

3tem, he crauethe to be allowed that money, w*^*" he paide to thabove 
named Nicholas Boddam, (over & above thordenarie allowaunce, of 
the hawle) in that his wife, tooke greate payne, to white, & bleache, 
the Naprie of the companie, w*"** was greatelie spotted, amountinge 
\\j t'fttt***** ^ ^" 

28o History of the Pewterers' Company. 

The " allowances " claimed by the younger Warden of this year in 
his accounts did not all commend themselves to the auditors. Vouchers 
for the sums in question were perhaps not produced, or the amounts 
may have been accidentally omitted from the account. The auditors 
reserved the decision to the Court, who in the following minute dis- 
allowed, for reasons not stated, the items of lo^. for the Wardmote 
Inquest and lo^. paid to the wife of Boddam the Beadle. 

d^i a courte holden, on the sixte, daie of Maie, 1575, the matters in dis- 
pence, aforesaide, was agreed, that all suche of thabovesaide percettf, 
as was noted on the margent, shoulde be allowed him, & the reste, 
to beare himselfe, and so that money, w^^ he paide oute, for the 
companie, and the saide allowauncf, furth"*'** to be paide him, w*^^ 
amounted to . . . . . . . . xij li. x d. 

1574-5. Jf was ordered [5th August] that from hencefurthe, 
Roger Hawksforde, shall not make any moe wyne pottes, wherebie to 
sell, or vtter the same, of that molde, or fasshion, nowe at this presente 
daie, shewed, before the maister, Wardeins, and assistaunces, for that 
by their greate breadethe, in the mouthe, and shortenes, throughoute, 
there appearethe, a manifeste, deceite in measure, to all other the qweenes 
maiesties, subiectes, receyvinge wyne, by suche their saide curtailed, and 
vniuste measure. 

Jf was ordered [^3^^^ December], that from hensfurthe, for ever- 
more, none of the companie, shall caste any Mettall, into Strak^, wherebye 
to vtter, or put them, to sale, before, and vntill suche tyme, as the 
workeman, or owner, thereof, hathe cawsed them, to be searched, and 
seene, as other wares vsuallie are, and over that, for their better, and true 
tryall of workemanshippe the owner, or Worker of suche strakes, to 
sette, and fixe vppon euerie Strake, so to be caste, his propper Marke, or 
ells, to forfacte, and paie, for euerie pounde weigh te, wroughte or caste 
to the contrarie one pennye. 

Jfem receyued, of Richarde Parkins, for a fyne, in that he hired divers 
standing^, in Essex, w"^** were latelie Henerie Barrete deceassed, & 
purposed therbie to thruste, the widowe his wife, from them, con- 
trarie, to thorders, of the howse ij s. 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 281 

"iiwi receyued, of William Webbe, as for so muche receyued,by him, in waie 
of bribrye, at a Straungers hande, at Southampton, whome not longe 
before, did caste, and falcelie myxe, w^Mn the howse, of Agnes Hassell, 
the widdowe, a greate masse of Tynn, fashioned into Barrs, purposinge 
to transporte, the same, into the parte, of beyonde the seas, and he yet 
neuertheles, beinge putte in truste, & sent downe to viewe the same, 
moste vnhonestlie disclosed, these Accomptant^ intent^, to the 
Straunger, and w*^ thafore saide some of xl s., stopped his mouthe, 
w'^'out makinge eny relation, at his retourne, to these Accomptant^, 
of the matter, commytted to him xl s. 

Jfem receyued of Nicholas Barnsdale, for a fFj'ne, aswell, for his often 
absence, from the hawle, beinge dulie warned, as for other his com- 
tempteous vsage, towardes, the wardeins, of the yomanrie iij s. iiij d. 

Jf em receyued, of John God, for his abuse, & greate radge, had and vsed, to 
Richarde Parke, his Jorney man at an vndue howre, of the nighte vs. 

Jfetn receyued, of the same Richarde Parke, for his contempteous vsadge, 
in strikinge, his saide maister, & for takinge further wages, of him, 
then by the lawes, of this realme, he oughte, to doo . v s. 

"ilittti paide vnto the Beadle, that deade is, for his quarters w^es, due at 
Michaelmas laste xx s. 

Jfem paide vnto my Lorde Mayo", as for so muche given him by consente, 
of the companie iij li. 

Jf em given, by waie of remembraunce, to the three Barons, of thexchequer, 
sixe dozen of Trenchers, of fyne pewter, amountinge, to . xxx s. 

"iitf^ paide, to m' Loton, as for so muche, willed by the companies consente, 
to be paide, to the discharge, of suche rent, as poore Stephan Barrowe, 
oughte to Landlorde vj s. viij d. 

Jfem paide, to m' Sallowes, for a daie of ymparleaunce, at thend, of 
Easterterme, for RoBte Collier, answere .... viij d. 

Jfem paide, to the Clark, for engrosinge, into the Inventarye booke, of 
Edwarde Taylors, testamente xij d. 

We, thincke it not reasonable, that these Accomptantf, be allowed, 
that two Shillinge, w^ they saie, was loste, by an Angell, taken of John God, 
& his man, by waie of ffyne ij s. 

T % 

282 History of the Pewter ers' Co^npany. 

(^ott that any allowaunce, shalbe made them, for the some of xx s. w*^** 
they saie, was spent, by Thomas Hawkf, and Roberte Newes, in Jorneyinge, 
to ypswitche, vnles, the companie thinck, of it otherwise, for to what 
ende, that Jorney was made, or of any profFyte, that came of it, we knowe 
nothinge, as yet ......... xx s. 

'575"6* ^9^ greateste parte of the lyverie this daie [9th February] 
presente, fullie agreed that the Qweenes Ma**" writte, of Quo Warranto, 
latelie direaed to the SherifFj^ of London, for the seisure of the liberties, 
of the companie, shoulde furthew'^e, be agreed for, by some portion of 
money to be disbursed oute of the stocke of the howse and that by such 
easie meanes, as to the M' & wardeins, shalbe thoughte meete, & 

Olcte Henrye Langeshawe is founde fautye [27th June] for that 
he hathe made Certen Laie potte w'*" fFallce mettell And therevpon sholde 
haue byn Comitted to warde. Neverthelesse be Cause of his humble 
submyssion they haue ordered yf at anye tyme hereafter he be founde to 
do the like falcehoode agayne to be banished the Companye for eu. And 
also shall new alter his tuche w^*" he now hathe To w*'** agremente he 
hathe put his hande. 

Jf em receyued of Nicholas Jurdeine, for beinge discharged, of the maister- 
shippe, of the yomanrie ....... iij li. 

Jfem receyued of Richarde Bunynge, for that he bought a Gobbet of 
mettall, of John Russelle apprentice, named John Robert^ iij s. iiij d. 

Jn p'n? paide vppon the thirde, daie of October, laste, at Abchurche, in full 
accompHshement, of m^ Ashlins, obbytt . . . . ix s. x d. 

1576-7. (^f the same Courte [25th January] it was ordred that 
Richarde Gall shall supplye the Roome of Raphe Carter our late Clarke 

a^i the same Co'te [6th February] it was agreed that this hall shalbe 
Charged to paye the Churche for the Quartrige due and paieable to the 
pishe Churche of S' Deonys Backechurche fFrome henceforth for eu after 
and not the beadle to be Charged therew**" but to be paide by the m' and 
wardens frome tyme to tyme w'**oute fraude or guile in anye wise. 

History of the Pewierers' Company. 283 

Q}f also [27th February] of the same William Steven for lycence 
to open shop and for occupieinge an other mans touche . iij s. iiij d. 

Jfew it is agred at this Courte [20th June] that the Cooke and Butler 
shalbe paide there wages for servinge at the Quarters dinners at the 
Charges of this house And also that there shalbe xx s. yerelye allowed 
to the wardens for wood and Coles for the quarter dinners at the 
charges of this house And likewise that the wardens shalbe allowed 
towardes euye Quarter dinner xx s. at the Charges of this house. 

t^^t Co'te of beames and weightes was holden the xxj'^ Daie of 
October 1577. 

OV^ereae Thomas waterson and xpofer G^ennyns to the Discreditt and 
hinderaunce of this Companye haue vsed and Doe vse Comon skoweringe 
and other labors in the Lorde mayor the sherifFf and Aldermens houses 
w^hin the Cittie, It is ordered and agreed at this Courte for remedye and 
reformacon thereof That yf anye parson or parsons free of this Companye 
shall at anye tyme hereafter set on worke the saide waterson and Jennyns 
or any other free of the pewterers w*^*" shall vse comon skowringe in the 
Lorde maiors sherifFe^ or Aldermens houses of the cittie or shall buye 
or sell w^** the saide waterson Jennyns or anye other pson w** shall vse 
Comon scowringe as aforesaide shall for euye tyme oifendinge paye to 
thuse of the Comon Box of this companye fFortye shillings. 

Jfem receyued the xviij'** daie of September 1577 of John Catcher for a 
fyne awarded by my lord maio" for that the same John Catcher vpon 
stomacke did refuse to take vpon him the yonger wardenship after 
he was orderly elected, as it doth more at large appere in the booke 
of orders ......... vli. 

Jtew these Accomptauntf require to haue allowed vnto them towarde the 
firste two quarter dynners xx s. 

Jtem they aske allowaunce for midsomer, and michelmas Quarter dynners 
according to an order late made by the Company . . xl s. 

Jtem they aske allowaunce for the Cooke for midsom quarter by the said 
order .......... vj s. 

Jfem they demande allowaunce for the Cooke, ifor michelmas quarter 
being the election day according to the said order . . x s. 

284 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

1577-8. ^ (l^ote [19th February] of the Apparrell of Stephen 
Craske that was attached to thuse of the Companye and praysed by 
M' Tyndall and M' Carrington. 

3m|)nmi0 a liverye Gowne iiijtt 

Jf ew a mourninge Gowne and a hoode xxx s. 

Jf em a liverye hodde ....... iij s. iiij d. 

Jtem a Cape of Clothe garded w*** velvet and faced w^^ TafFata 

xlvj s. viij d. 
"iitm a Crippen of siluer and perle. 

Jfem a hankerchif wroughte w^^ Crimsen silke. 

Jfem a iacket of Satten ymbrodered. 

Jf is ordered and agreed at this Courte [31st July] That whereas 
at the laste searche made by the m' and wardens on the five and Twentyth 
daie of this ^nte moneth of Auguste there weare founde xv Chopnettf 
of laye but onelye of fyne mettell vpon paine to forfeite the same And to 
paie suche fyne as the m' wardens and Assistaunt^ shall Assesse for the 
same And- also that the saide Humfrye Baker shall allowe vnto euye of 
the saide pties the valew of there saide Chopnettf Taken at there shoppes. 

The above entry is fully transcribed, but is obviously incomplete. 

^ Sessement made the day of 1578 And in the xx^** 

yere of the raigne of oure souaigne Ladye Quene Elizabeth By the m' 
wardens and assistaunte of this Companye by vertue of diverse pceptf 
directed to vs from the Lorde maior this ^nte yere for the levieinge of 
Certen monye for the furnisheinge and trayninge vp of the nomber of xx^** 
hable and sufficiente parsons beinge Jurnemen appntices or others free of 
this Cittie beinge of Agilitie and honeste behauior betwene the age of xix® 
and xl yeres w** are fitt to be trayned for harqubushe shotte and to be of 
the nomber of those ij shotte lymited to be trayned vp this yere in the 
Cittie of London for the sluice of her ma^** and the defence of this realme. 

The expenditure on this levy as shown in the Accounts amounted 
to 29/. 35. 7^flf. Bromley, the Company*s new Beadle, took an active 
part in preparing and furnishing the little contingent. Among the items 
is Jf em for ij yardes of rebonde [ribbon] for bromlye vj. d. 

History of the Pewierers Company. 285 

^f this courte [13th October] there was Psented a bill from my 
lorde mayo' in the behalfe of Christofer Barker by the Coialtye of the 
saide companye to procure the sale of Somanye bibles as the companye 
had nede of, and demaunde beinge made there was no mane founde 
willinge to buye anye. 

This Bible was a reprint of the Genevan edition (first published in 
1560) and usually known as the "Breeches Bible." Barker was the 
Queen^s Printer. 

^f this Courte L24th NovemberJ Thomas Wansworthe for his 
disobedience and lewde wordes was dismissed of his hood and coinanded 
that he sholde not com in no Companye w'*" the liverye before he be sente 
for, and scoffed the m' and Assistauntt' when they dismissed him of his 
hood he saide he sholde be the les warmed by it this wynter. 

Jfem for a liverye gowne and a hoode iij li. 

The Livery gown taken from Craske {see above, 19th February) was 
" praysed '* at 4/. 

Q}^ of the Spanishe marchaunte for there yeres rente for the vse of oure 
hall then dewe ......... vj li. 

Jfem paide the xxix* daie of Januarye 1577 for a dynner at the Harrowe 

X s. viij d. 
Jfem paid to the Clarke of the Girdelors for a copie of their answer 

touching the wheat monye iiij d. 

1578-9. ^t this courte [27th April] it is agreed by the wholle liverye 
That whereas it was agreed by the common Councell of the Cittie of 
London the present ^sented vnto Duke Casemerus the valew whereof 
sholde be gathered of the Companyes of London vpon w"^ occasion 
there was from the mayor dated the xiiij^** of Aprill 1 5 79, a presepte 
sente vnto vs to Levye and gather amongest vs iiij I ^sentlye to be paide 
to the Chamberlen of London w^^ some of monye at this geSall court 
is agreed that it shalbe paide oute of the box of the house iiij li. 

Prince Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, who came on a visit 
to this country, was entertained by Sir Thomas Gresham at his house in 
Bishopsgate Street. 

286 History of the Pewterers Company, 

d^i this Courte [8th July] it was moved to the table whether they 
wolde take an augementacoix of the liverye and xv'**" psons gave there 
balle that there sholde be vj or ett^ viij taken vnto the liverye and thre 
gave the balle to the Contrarye. 

d^i this Courte [28th August] it is ordered that whereas M' Hawkf 
arrested John ifrauncf thappmice of m' ifoster for a debte of xliiij H of 
fyne mettell and xvj s. iiij d. in monye the matter beinge herde m' Hawkf 
was Contented to receive for euye pounde weighte of oulde fyne j ^i of New 
laye and for the xvj s. iiij d. xxxij li iij gt of new laye. 

OV^erae xpofer strange complaynede [3rd October] agaynst hys 
apprentyce Thomas hyxson for hys dysobedyence and vnduetyfulnes to hys 
m' and m" and befor the court was so vnreverent and wold not reconsyle hym 
self to hys m^ refusyng to sarve hym and to ask hym forgevenes for hys 
offences the court for hys ponyshment caused hym to be whypped in y* hall* 

d^i thys court [9th November] was presented abyll from my lord 
maior to make enquyery for certayne seditiouse bookes w^^ a pclamacyon 
pclaymed in September dyd tend vnto now thys secent pubI)rfycation of 
the same the court geveth respet vnto the company vntyll the next 
mornyng to bryng in such bookes as thay had and the next mornyng 
ther was brought one w^*" was presently geven to my lord maior. 

$f 60 at thys court [ 1 4th December] it is ordered that all the quar- 
tereges that Nicolas Roodes oweth aswell vnto the boxe of the lyvery as 
to the yeomandry shalbe forgeven hym and further herafter to paye only 
quarteryge to the yeomadry. 

3fm ifor strawyng yerbes when the aldermen shuld haue come vnto the 
hall .......... vj d. 

Jfm payed vnto mr chamberlayne vppon a precept graunted from my lord 
maior and comon councayle apresent vnto duke Cassymero iiij li. 

3tm payed to mr Sadler the cooke for the whole yere . xxij s. viij d. 
3fm payed to the to the butler for the whole yere . . iiij s. vj d. 

1579-80. (SHotoBet the whole company [26th March] agreed and 
and graunted of ther fre wyll to paye to the mayntenaunce of the house 
vppon every blok of tynne they melt iiijd. and every yere to chuse 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 287 

ij gathers of the sayed money and the sayed men shalbe countable to 
the audytors of the mrs accompt the w^** graunt was agred shuld be cept 
so long as ther shalbe agenerall agrement to cepe the pryce. 

^f thys courte [15th October] it is agreed that vppon consyderation 
that the L. maior of london cepeth no feast at the yeld hall and for that 
the stewardes are charged w'^ vj men the more w** shuld haue dyned 
at yeld hall it was ordered that the stewardes shuld haue xs more 
allowaunce : and no more herafter to be allowed. 

^t thys court [13th December] widdow wood complayneth agaynst 
John bachouse for xxxiij ti of mettall and iij s. iiij d. money he oweth 
here w*'*' amounteth all in money xxijs. w*"^ some of money John bachouse 
and thomas pooler pmyseth to paye mr warden wood weakly the woork- 
manshype of halfe agrose of spones at xd. the half grose vntyll such 
tyme it be wrought out and so long as John bachouse worketh w* 
thomas pooler thomas poler pmyseth to paye the debt. 

Jfm recevede off mr gardner fFor sufFeryng hys aprntic to occupy in the 

countre to hys owen vse and not freman of london . . xx s. 

3tm R^ of xiiij men taken into the lyvery to be employed in napery to the 

house or other necessaryes at the mr & wardens dyscressyon xiiij li. 
Jfm Rf of Rychard Wylkenson of frynsburry [for Quarterage] xij d. 
Jtm payed ifor iiij hoboyes [hautboyes] in the barge . . ix s. 

Jfm payed fFor a proclamation tuchyng bookes . . . iij d. 

Jfm payd fFor a pclamation for apparrell v'j d. 

Jfm spent at the castell in cornwell [? Cornhill] one the vew daye of our 

landes xij s. viij d. 

Jfm payed vnto mr sadler the coke fFor dressyng the great dynnar and 

for bakyng of custardes at hys house . . . xxiij s. viij d. 

Jfm paid vnto the coke fFor dressing the iiij q ter dynnars and the count 
[? Audit] dynnar xxviij s. 

Jtm fFor pryntyng of j C of statut bookes . • . xvj s. viij d. 

3fm fFor hemmyng and markyng of v dossen of napkynes . viij s. 

3tm more allowed mr hawkes for hys charge in shut lawe w^** a French 
man xls. 

288 History of the Pewierers Cotnpany. 

1 580- 1, ^t this court [17th March] it is ordered that none of 
the companye shall make any close stole pannes to sell to any vpholstar 
or any other man but that every one of the sayed close stole pannes shall 
wayghe vH the pece and that the maker of the sayed panes shall brynge 
every one of them befor they put them to sale vnto the bedell of the hall 
to haue the mark of the hall set one them and if in case any stole pannes 
shall herafter be found mad not marked w'** the tuch of the house and 
of lese wayght then v h the pece then the maker shall paye for every pane 
so found .......... xij d. 

This order for bringing goods to the Hall to be marked was contrary 
to the usual practice, and was perhaps especially made for this class 
of ware. The "touch" of the crowned rose could only be used by 
direct permission of the Company, and this may be what is meant by 
" the mark of the Hall/* 

% courte held the xxviij'** maye 158 1. Wher as order was taken by 
the whole companye for dyvers consyderations that for every pece of tyne 
that any of the company shuld melt they shuld paye for the relefle of 
the company iiij d. vppon every pece mr John norton and mr Rychard 
kynge were appoynted receuers of the same money and at thys court 
they brought in ther whole yeres accoumpt and payed vnto mr warden 
xvj ti j s. iiij d. as may apere by the pertyculars wrytten in other booke of 
Recaiptes and paymentes Rf xvj ti j s. iiij d. 

Q}c of humfry weetwood a fyne for buying ij blockes of cornysh tynne 
w***out cloth [clofF] XX s. 

Qfc of John god for a fyne melting a blocke of tyne in a plomers house 

ij s. vj d. 

Q}^ of dyvers yong men at a quarter daye for comynge to the hall in 

ther clokes vj s. ij d. 

3fm spent at our dynnar at bartelmewe fayer at the shype in old baylye 

XV s. vij d. 

3fm payed for a sygne of grygory alley and for the payntynge of it 

xj s. viij d. 

Jtm we [the Auditors] fynd the mr and wardens mr nogaye master mr 

Chawner & mr wood for brech of cartayne ordynaunces in ther tyme 

History of tJte Pew t ever s Company. 289 

the matter being put vnto vs to determyne we order that ech one of 
them shall paye or geue vnto the house xx s. a pece that is to saye 
thre poundes or the valew of thre poundes in any thyng as they 
shall thynke betwyxt thys and the fest St. John baptyst next 
comyng or els iij li of money. 

The Company was called upon this year to furnish a contingent of 
eleven soldiers for service in Ireland, the expense amounting to 13/. 55. yrf. 

1581-2. ^t this court [loth February] by the consent off the 
assystaunce the money in the red chest was geven vnto mr warden catcher 
& vnto mr warden gascar to be employed and they bought xxij € ij q^^* 
xxiij t neat wayght of tyne at Ivj s. the hundred and the sayed tynne was 
presently sold vnto mr thomas catcher at iiij s. in every hundred proffyt 
wheron the house was benefyed . . . . • iiij ti x s. vj d. 

^f0O at this court it is ordered that wheras ther was of dyvers 
money geven at ther death of oure brethern to make mery w'**all & also 
iij H w*^^ mr nogay mr chawner & mr wood wer adiuged to paye fFor 
breach of ane ordynaunce in ther tyme mad. to spend, the w*** monyes 
the company thowght good to make a shrovyng dynnar in pewterers hall 
and ther was farther graunted out off the house boxe x s. . x s. 

%i this court [15th March] it is ordered that none off the company 
shall 1yd any stone pottes to any man except he be a brother off the 
companye better cheape then ij s. the dossen and he that lyddeth better 
cheape shall paye iij s. iiij d. vnto the house for every dossen & the 
garnysh pottes at v s. the dossen. 

^feo at this court [12th November] it was graunted vnto herman 
Johnson beinge a brother of the company he doinge his dewty and 
sarvynge vs well & resonable to serve vs a barge at the maiors takynge 
his oweth, and because this yere he had mad provysion and the lord maior 
toke not his othe at westmnster the court gaue hyme a reward for his 
charge & paynes x s. 

The Lord Mayor of this year was Sir Thomas Blanke, a member of 
the Haberdashers' Company. 

2 90 History of the Pewierers Company. 

^f court beinge quarter daye held the v'^ of december 1582 It was 
ordered that none of the companye shuld put to make any spones but 
vnto a brother of the company and all the spone makers promysed in 
open court to worke a grose of spones for xx d. the grose. 

3fm payed also graunted at acourt vnto mr fene Rychard kyng george 
RoafFe & william allet mr & w'dens of the yeomandry to paye the 
coke for his work at ther yeomandries dynnar . . xxvj s. viij d. 

1583-3. ^f this court [12th April] it is agreed that none of the 
companye shall take any one to be his aprentys except he take the saide 
aprentys for the terme of ix yeres and he that doth contrary shall paye 
vnto the house xK this order is at the discretion of the m' and wardens. 

This order was modified at a Court held on 17th October as 
follows, " it is referred to the Master and Wardens and assystance to 
mytigat one yere of the aprentys accordyng as thay finde in yeares the 
prentys presented." 

^f this courte [nth June] ther was a comaundement from my 
L. Maior that the court of assistaunge should nomynat two of the 
discretest men of the companye and to present ther names presently 
before my Lord Maior to be assystant w'** others of other companyes 
tuchinge the sut betwen sir xpofer hatton and the cytty of london 
and the saied court did agre that Mr Curtys and M' Catcher shuld 
be presented. 

^f a Courte held the xij^*" of December 1583. At this court it is 
thought good to chuse xij men that is of the assystaunce iiij of the 
clothynge and iiij of the yomandry to syt and determyne as well of pryces 
of ware as also any other matter w*"^ they shall find necesary and Good 
for the company m' Bowltynge M' Jacson m' Wood m' Thomas Catcher 
Richard parkyns Baptist Hassell Thomas Elliot Robert Nyxon Ambrose 
Royston James Draper Nicolas CoUyar Thomas Cowes. 

Q^eceueb of dawrytye [Dorothy] bale for a whole yeres rent dew at 
Mydsomer last past xix s. viij d. 

3fm geven vnto mr Recorder for his newers [? New Years] guyft ij dossen 
of trenchers & iij payer of candelstykesw*=^ cost . xvij s. vj d. 

History of the Pewterers' Cofnpany. 29 ^ 

Charges in shut [suit] in lawe agaynst Anthony delyshey layed out 
by mr w'den maier M' Catcher, and m' gascar. 

These proceedings were taken against a pewterer at Hertford, who 
appears to have challenged the Company's authority. The bill of costs 
reached the large sum of 56/. 45. During the year the Company also 
spent 17/. 8^. in law charges in defending themselves against the writ 
of Quo Warranto. See the resolution agreed to at a meeting of the 
Livery on 9th February, 1575 (page 282). 

I583'4. d^i this court [21st February] it is ordered that Baptyst 
Hassell shall paye vnto Nicolas CoUiar xix d. the povnd for i£3-o of 
tyne glasse and so all matters tuchynge that bargayne to be quyt and 

^i this court [27th March] Nicholas CoUiar complayneth agaynst 
Baptyst Hassell for buying and saying [assaying] of tyne for strangers to 
the nomber of one hundred peces of M' Hoskyns at Butolwharfe. 

' d^i this court comandement was geuen vnto Roger Hawkesford 
not to take Richard Evans gryfFet being both a marryd man and 
a landloper Juged and the sayed Roger Hawkesford was content to 
part from hime And farther if the sayed Richard Evans gryffet do obtayne 
to be a freman of London then the court doth agre to accept hime a 
brother paying iijli vj s. viij d. and so Roger Hawkesford hath lycense to 
geue hime houserome betwyxt ths and Easter. 

^ff the whole boddy of the company at this quarter daye [i8th 
June] requested the M' and Wardens and assystance to make ane 
ordynaunce for thos as shall herafter crave lycense to set vp as thay shall 
best thinke Good. 

^f this court wheras a collection for the relefFe of Nantwych and 
that ther was gathered of the company the some of vj H of the w*"** money 
ther was geven to the releafFe of Nantwych iij li vj s. viij d. and farther 
ordered to geve vnto the yeomandryes boxe xxs. and xs. to be geven vnto 
Thomas flfreman a poore brother of ours to William Bromley to paye 
the surgyon towardes healyng his lege xs. to M' Gerye xs. and to the 
cUrke for his paynes in gatheryng of it iiij s. vj d. 

292 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

^f this [31st July] William Clarke late the aprentys of William 
Anderson is set over vnto Richard Charter and payed ij s. The court 
agreeth that yf euer feut be found w*^ W™ Clarke hauyng twyse byne set 
over to be well whypped. 

(Jte of Richard Randall [22nd September] for a fyne for ceping a 
forstallyng stall added to his shope at Bartellmew fayre the som of 
uj s. uij d. 

d^i this court [23rd October] Moryce Pellytorye somtymes aprentys 
of Roger Hawkesford but came to his fredome by redemption specyally 
at the sute of Sr Rowland Hayward and vppon consideration that we 
haue accepted the sayed Moryce he w'** his M' Roger Hawkesford haue 
promised before Bartelmewtyde next to make afayre pumpe in the hallyard 
as well for the kytchyne as for the yard substantiall to the prescrytion of 
M' Warden Catcher and any one other of the company as M' warden will 
take counsayle of ther vppon he is admitted a brother. 

d^i this court [nth November] Comaundement was geven by my 
Lord Maior that ther should be xxty appoynted w*"*" should w'** decent 
aparrell to goe met the Queues Magesty and that every one should haue 
ther sarvant attendyng vppon them w*** a staff torche the charge of y* sayed 
staff torche this court doth agre the house shall bear the charge therof. 

d^i this court it is ordered the court beyng a full court being x 
besydes the M' and Wardens that yf any brother of the company as well 
of the assystance as other wayes beyng lawfully warned by the Bedell in 
the M' and Wardens name to apeare at any court or in any other place 
to apeare to any sarvice of the company and the patye so warned do 
absent hime selfe without any lawfiill excuese that then the sayed partye 
shall pay a fyne to the house . . • • . . . xij d. 

d^i this court [27th November] wheras Morys Pellytory was 
admytted vnto the fredom by Redemption at the especyall sute of 
S' Rowland Hayward and vppon consideration to be admitted a brother 
amongest vs at a court held the xxiij*^ of October last the sayed Morrys 
agreed to make a pumpe of his owen charge in the hall yard and therfore 
admytted a brother wher vppon the sayed Morrys fyndyng the poumpe 
to be made wold turne hime to great charges he brought vnto the court 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 293 

a letter from S' Rowland Hayward wherin he requested the court for his 
sake to take fy ve markes to be payed by xiij s. iiij d. the yere whose 
request the court hath granted for the performance of the same as well 
Roger Hawkesford and Morrys Pellytorye haue set to ther handes and 
the first payment to be payed at crystmas next. 

Q}^ of John hyll for a fyne for his being absent in the countery xij yeres 
& now receued a brother agayne ..... xiiij s. 

Jfm payed vnto a trompetter sarvyng the barge . . . j s. 

Jfm we ask allowaunce payed vnto mr Curtys accordyng to ane 
ordynaunce mad havyng sondry tynies sar\'ed mr of the companye 
the some of v II. 

(SH? wheras the booke is charged mr curtys to haue Rf the some of 
fyve poundes accordynge to ane order made for his sarvyce of the 
mrshype, mr Curtys retorned vnto his successors of the sayed money the 
some off xliij s. 

1584-5. ^9e0 xvj men [chosen to serve the Queen as "trayned 
soldyars**] payed wages [17th April] vnto xvj others pewteres which 
sarved in their places xijd. a day meat and drinke Ther sarved for 
Andrew Bowyar John Johnson his aprentys 

fFor Robert Nixon Thomas Sharpe 

fFor Richard Ethell Thomas Downe his sarvant 

fifor Nicolas Turnar William Clarke 

fFor John Shawe John Bourman 

ffor Thomas Gaye John tiU 

fFor Humfry Kinge John Powell 

fFor Nicolas Colliar Peter Vincent 

fFor Thomas Eliot somtymes hime selfe (& somtymes his 

fFor Richard Glover his aprentys [sarvant) 

fFor James Draper his aprentys 

fFor Ambrose Royston his aprentys 

fFor Lewes Randall George Care 

fFor Thomas Cowes William Dickenson 

fFor Robert Sheppard James Hunters man 

fFor Thomas Woodhouse his aprentys 

294 History of the Pewterers' Co^npany. 

^f this court [29th July] ther was presented from my Lord Maior 
accoppie of tre dyrected from the counsayle to my Lord Maior the effect 
wherof was that my L Mayor should perswayd all his bretheren the 
aldermen to bring in ther adventur to the lotterye and also to perswad 
the Masters and wardens of all companyes to procure ther bretheren of 
ther companye to bryng in ther venturs also to the lottery wher vppon 
the yeomandry at the shew of the same comyssyon gaue ther consentes 
to pay xij d. the pece. 

^f this court [13th August] it is ordered that the election day 
shalbe cept the monday after bartelmew day [24th August] and that 
all the clothyng shall goe orderly to church to the sermant and that thay 
and ther wyues shall dyne at the hall and that thay shall paye man 
and wyfFe iij s. iiij d. the pece and the house shall pay vnto the M' and 
Wardens towardes charges xl s. and farther the court is contented that 
the next day after the M' and Wardens shall cepe ther quarter dynnar 
and that thay shall haue allowed them xx s. out of the house as hath 
byne accustomed at all quarters dayes and vj d. a pece for Wine and it 
is ordered that yf any of the clothyng be absent yet not w'^'standyng thay 
shall pay ther iij s. iiij d. 

^f this court [15th October] it is ordered by the consent of the 
whole company that herafter when ther shalbe any brother of the com- 
panye maryed that the party w"* shalbe married shall goe with the beddell 
at a convenient time throught the company and gather the good will of 
the yeomandry and he or they w^*" thay fynd not at ther houses to be 
warned to the hall the sayed sonday after before eyght of the cloke in the 
mornyng to bryng in ther ofFeryng and he that maketh default shall pay 
to the pore of the Company iiij d. w'^'out any favor we meane to the 
yeomandryes boxe. 

^f this court [31st December] it is agreed that the house shall 
purchase the conseled landes conseved of Sr xpofer Hatton at or after 
fyve yeares purchase and not to geue any more. 

The property in question was the Company's houses in Fenchurch 
Street. Compare the minute of nth June, r5 83 (p. 290), and see the 
Accounts for 1587-8 (p. 301). 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 295 

QJf off Andrew boyer w^** he wyllyngly gaue to haue a aprentys aboue 
nomber iijli. 

(jte off Rychard glover fFor havyng a prentis aboue his nomber liij s. iiij d. 

Qj€ off nicholas CoUyar fFor havyng ane aprentys above his nomber xxx s. 

3f m payed for xx'^ staf torges when we attended on her magesty xviij s. iiij d. 

3f m payed fFor xxvj els di of canvas at v s. the elle for xxvij els of hoUand 
at ij s. viij d. the ele and xxvij eles of hoUand at ij s. viij d. the ele 
amounteth all ....... xiijli. xvjs. vj d. 

3fm for workmanshype of the same into iiij table clothes ij longe towels 
& vj dossen of napkyns xxij s. 

3fm fFor iiij pykes xiijs. iiijd. 

3fw fFor moccadowe nay els & frynge to arme the sayed pykes . ij s. ix d. 

The above two items are included in the C^dt^es fFor musterynge 
of xvj soldyars. 

^0 we fynde in reddy money all thynges deducted xxxvti. iij s. iiij d. 
the v:^^ some of xxxv li. iij s. iiij d. was employed into tynne & the 
tynne sold vnto mr thomas catcher & to waiter hyll for xxxvij li. iij s. iiij d. 
to be payed at St James daye next comynge. 

3fw geven in charyty to the wyfFe ofF guilbart mason in his being in 
fiaunders vj s. viij d. [Yeomanry Accounts, 1585-7.] 

1585-6. d^i this Court [12th September] ther came a letter from 
Sr Water Rawleyghe in the behalfe of Isaake Tucker who desireth to be a 
brother of the Company marryinge M" scryvoner. It was agreed the 
sayed Isaake Tucker shall pay to the Companye for his comynge to be a 
brother amongest vs the some of xx'i of lawfiill money of Ingland or 
els not to be admytted any farther. 

^f this court [7th October] Morrys Pellitory was Jugged to paye 
to the house a fyne for Arestyng Thomas Gaye to the court of consience 
contrary to the ordynance of the house the some of v s. the w'^** money he 
promyseth to pay before Cristmas next. 


296 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

^i this court [15th December] ther was receved from Sr water 
Rawghley a second letter to be good vnto his sarvant Isaake Tucker the 
court vppon consideration of his lettar is contented to receve hime a 
brother paying xli reddy money or els not. 

3fm payed for the charges in settyng out of halfe a man for our partes & 
the Inholders the other half our charge came to . xxxj s. viij d. 

1586-7. d^i this court [20th January] Isaake Tucker at the 
earnyst sute of S' water Rawghley was receved into the felloshipe and 
company of vs the pewterers and was sworne and mad fre and also at the 
yeld haule the same daye vppon the consideration therof he payed vnto 
the house x ti. of good and lawfiiU money of Ingland this is to be noted 
that the court dyd myttygat his fyne at the sute of S"" water Rawghly his 
master or els he had payed accordyng to the fyrst determynation of a 
court held the x* of december last xx ti. 

^f this court [loth May] the controversye was hard betwyxt James 
Mathers and Lawrence wryght and the court fyndeth Lawrence wryght 
to owe vnto James xs. in money and comaundement was geven vnto 
James to restore to his Master the godderd mold a chapnet mold and a 
eare mold for the Godderd and xiiij ti. lacke a quarter of Mettall and a 
payre of shettes so far forth as Lawrence wryght doth proue that he had 
a payre lent hime by his dawghter the next quarter daye L wryghtes 
dawghter confesseth that she lent hime a payre of shetes of her fathers. 

d^i this court [14th June] it is determyned that all the makers of 
lattyn sponnes in London shalbe warned the next court day and that thay 
shalbe bound to make no more sponnes. 

See the order of 23rd September, 1568, p. 259. 

^f this court [4th August] comaundement was geven vnto the 
spovnmakers accordyng to ane ordynance hertofore made that yf any 
spone maker doth make any short lattyn spounes or of yallow mettall 
shall forfayt for every spone iij s. iiij d. as may appeare by the former 
order vpon w"* comaundement the spounmakers promysed to be obedyent 
to the same or els to be fyned whervppon they haue set to ther handes. 

d^i this court [25th September] beyng the court day it is ordered 
that wheras hertofore ther hath byne an order mad that he y* should be 

History of the Pewterers' Company, 297 

chosen M*^ of the companye after that he hath servyd the mastershipe too 
tymes of his owen charges that then allwayes after when he should be 
chosen Master the house should AUowe the sayed Master fyve poundes 
towardes his charges. At this court that order is vtterly mad frustrat 
and now w^** consent of the whole companye it is ordered that allwayes 
where any one haue sarvid the mastershipe too tymes of his owen charges 
that then in case the sayed Master w*'** hath sarved the mastershipe twyse 
of his owen charges alwayes after when he shalbe called to mastershipe 
agayne then the house shall beare allwayes the charges w** cometh to the 
masters part of y* election dynner. 

^f a court held the xxiiijth of October 1587 Wheras frome the 

XXV* of September in Ano 1573 as also frome the xv*** of february in the 

same yere 1573 the chamber of London by ther ij severall bylles haue 

byne endebted vnto vs the some of Ixxviij ti xv s. and vj d. of lawfuU 

money of Ingland for so much money lent them to be employed in corne 

to the vse of the comynalty of the cytty of london at this present the 

chamber doth call in our bylles and doth paye vnto vs in consideratyon 

of them both by the handes of Mr. Hewgh ofFeley of London Letherseller 

the some of xxxix'**ti vijs. vj afermyng to vs y^ M' wylford M' chauntaylor 

and M' squyer Crowner of London haue sertayne bylles of dyvers to sue 

in law men w** ar endebted to the chamber of London for part of the 

sayed money beyng payed to them by way of bargayne for corne who 

when the sayed M' wylford and M' squyer haue recovered we shall receue 

farther accordyng to the exportion of our debt wher vppon vnderneth is 

the coppy of thos ij bylles dd by the comaundement of my Lord Maior 

at the Rf, 39 ti 7 s. 6 d. 

The XV* day of february 1573. 

I George Heton Chamberlayne of the cytty of London doe owe 

vnto the wardens of the pewterers of the same cyttye the some of fyfty 

syxe poundes fyve shyllynges dysbursed by them by the way of lone to 

the handes of me the sayed Chamberlyne accordyng to the order of the 

L. Mayor and the court to be bestowed vppon wheat and Rye for the 

vse of the Cyttye and comynalty of the same witnes thys byll subscrybed 

by me thervnto set to the seale of my offyce of the chamber the day and 

yere aboue sayed By me George Heton Chamberlyne. 

298 History of the Pewterers' Company. 

The lyke wordes was dyrected in a byll dated the xxv*** of September 
1 5 73 for xxij ti X s. and also payed to the chamber w** amounteth to the 
some of 78 ti 15 s. od. 

3fm we charge our selves w' ij oblygations wherin John deane & John 
Shawe w^** ther shuertyes stand bound vnto the company for P^ 
poundes w** mone m' whit gaue to be lent vnto ij yonge men of our 
company IH. 

3fm we charge our selves w'^ thre bonndes wherin william Atmeyer John 
crose and nicolas cooke w*** ther shuertyes stand bound to the 
company for xx li w*'^ came from the successors of m*^ lotton to be 
lent to yonge men of our company xx •>. 

0^6 of John ClyfFe for his admyttaunce to be one of our companye who 
changed his coppye from the drapers . . . . xx '>. 

Qjir more proffyted by 22 C 2 q'*** of tynne at iiij s. a hundred profFyt the 
some of . . . . . . . . . . iiij t. xs. 

3fm payed vnto w" bromley graunted hyme at a court off Assystaunce 
to make hyme a gowne to wayght one m' sheryff this yere xl s. 

01^ ther is in the Red chest xx s. in gold off the guyft off m' John 
ClyfFe to be employed vppon some necessary thynge apertaynynge to the 
house, he payed it when he was taken into the Lyvery. 

ClyfFe's name appears as one of the four auditors of this year's 
accounts, although he had only been admitted a liveryman of the Com- 
pany a few months before. 

1587-8. ^f this court [8th March] Steven Medcalfe sergant 
trumpyter the sone of Edward Medcalfe was sworne and mad fre [by his 
father's coppye] and he payed accordyng to order ij s. vj d. 

^f this court [nth July] mr Anthonye wyshame esquyere was 
sworne a brother of our companye & was mad freman of the cytty of 


^feo mr thomas holford gentelman was sworne a brother of the 
company and mad freman. 

^f this court [aist September] it was graunted vnto mr thomas 
Allen to hauc the cepynge & the benyfyt of the bowlynge Alley 

History of the Pewterers' Company. 299 

Inconsyderation therof mr Allen was contented & pmysed in court to 
tome or cause to be turned at his charge the corne so often as ther 
shalbe [need]. 

The corn here mentioned was the store kept by the Company for public 
use, which required turning from time to time to keep it in good condition. 

^feo [14th October] James Mathers havynge byne fTound to haue 
mad Joyntes to his stone pottes of lea mettaU he was Imprysoned fFor 
his falshood but also payed a fyne vnto the house '. . iij s. iiij d. 

^i this court [ist November] it is ordered betwyxt mr wood and 
John bowyar that he shall worke vnto mr wood ij grose of sponnes 
aweeke at xviij d. the grose vntyll such tyme all his debt be wrought out 
and yf in case he fayleth then mr wood to be at his lyberty. 

($f60 at this court [15th November] ther was brought flfrO my L. 
Maior a precept that all the lyvery in ther best lyveres shuld in ther 
stand yng stand w'** all other company es to receue here maiestye who pre- 
tended & dyd come vnto pawles to here a sermon & to prase god for all 
hys mercyes & benyfyttes bestowed vppon her & the land. 

This was the national thanksgiving service at St. Paul's for the great 
victory over the Spanish Armada. 

($f60 it was agreed [12th December] that the money that was spent 
at the taverne the daye the quene came, to pawles shuld be payed out of 
the house stocke & ther was spent iiij ti iiij s. 

QJe off mr heugh ofFeley in part of payment of too bylles wherin the 
chamber of london stod debter vnto vs Ixxv li viij s. iiij d. w** was 
lent for the provision of come accordyng to my lord maior presept 
the some of xxxixli vijs. vjd. 

Off off mr. Anthony wysham esquyer mad by redemption . ij s. vj d. 

This is the first instance of the use of the term '^ redemption ** to 
denote the admission of a new member otherwise than by patrimony or 

dte off dyvers off the yeomandry as by ther ptycular names entred at the 
end of this booke towardes payment of fyfty poundes geven vnto mr 
John Catcher sheryfF & alderman towardes the repayryng of his 
howse ........ ix U. xiij s. iiij d.