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Full text of "History of Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley, Ohio"

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HISTORY 

^"^ OF 

YOUNGSTOWN 

AND ""1 

THE MAHONING VALLEY 

1 OHIO 



^ 



BY 
JOS. G. BUTLER, JR. 



VOLUME I 



PUBLISHERS 

AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

CHICAGO AND NEW YORK 

1921 

I 



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28^;* A 



CX>PYRIGHT 1921 

BY 

AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



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PREFACE 



?o 



In this work a conscientious effort has been made to present the his- 
tory of Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley in accurate, complete and 
chronological form. 

One hundred and twenty-five years ago this region was a dense 
wilderness. It lay beyond the frontiers of civilization and was known 
only to a few adventurous men who visited it occasionally for trading, 
hunting, or similar purposes, or perhaps traversed it in pursuit of sav- 
ages. This valley has since become one of the most populous and im- 
portant sections of the United States. 

The manner in which such a change was brought about, the people 
who . accomplished it and the conditions amid which they lived and 
worked, are described in these volumes. 

Writing local history is always a difficult and usually a thankless 
task. The historian has few dependable sources of information and en- 
counters the universal tendency of human nature to regard as most 
important that in which each individual is most deeply interested. Such 
sources of information as do exist are not infrequently inaccurate or 
highly colored by imagination. To ascertain the true facts requires 
painstaking investigation, which often discloses the frailty of human 
memory. The author has found his own memory, extending over a 
period of more than sixty years and usually dependable, proven inac- 
curate in a number of instances by such investigation. 
> • It is to be expected that not everyone who reads this history in the 

light of recollection or of previous records will be satisfied with its 
accuracy, or find therein recorded every detail which seems of impor- 
tance. The period covered and the number and variety of activities 
described necessarily excluded mere tradition and nonessentials. It has 
been written for the general public, which the author hopes will find it 
as complete and accurate as is humanly possible, considering the length 
of time with which it deals and the fragmentary nature of the docu- 
ments from which it has been compiled — chiefly meager records left by 
men no longer living. 

The biographical volumes contain principally sketches of men who 
are active in the various communities of the Mahoning Valley at this 
time, but with these will be found complete land accurate data concerning 
those whose lives and work have formed an important part in the history 
of the past. Every effort has been made to secure accuracy in these 
sketches, which contain much valuable information concerning the life 
and progress of this section. Few local biographical collections have been 
so complete. 

The preparation and publication of these volumes was undertaken 

iii 



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iv PREFACE 

solely in order that memory of the virtues and achievements of those 
to whom we owe the development of the Mahoning Valley might be 
rescued from oblivion and serve as an inspiration for those who are 
now upon the stage or who are yet to come upon it. Consciousness that 
this task has been accomplished, with such appreciation as it may receive 
from the public, is the only recompense the author desires or will re- 
ceive, as all the revenue derived from the sale of the history will be 
devoted to its publication. 

It is fitting that special acknowledgment be made of the assistance 
rendered by Mr. Raymond J. Kaylor and Mr. Albert A. Reilly, who have 
done much of the work involved in the assembling of the data and its 
arrangement. Without their energy, enthusiasm and professional skill, 
no history so complete and accurate would have been possible, especially 
in view of accidental injuries sustained by the author during the period 
of its preparation. 

Acknowledgment is also due to others who rendered valuable assist- 
ance by the loan of historical documents or illustrations, making avail- 
able sources of information that might otherwise have been overlooked. 
Among these are Mrs. Stanley Caspar, daughter of the late John M. 
Edwards, who had been for many years a tireless enthusiast in behalf 
of local history; Hon. W. T. Gibson, John Tod, Miss Louisa M. Ed- 
wards ; L. M. Stanley, editor of the Alliance Review ; William H. Baldwin, 
Joseph L. Wheeler, superintendent of the Reuben McMillan Library ; the 
Niles and Warren public libraries, chambers of commerce at Warren, Niles 
and Youngstown, Hon. B. F. Wirt, the Mahoning Valley Historical So- 
ciety, and many other persons and organizations. 

Col. F. M. Ritezel, editor of the Warren Chronicle, loaned numerous 
illustrations that could not have been otherwise obtained, and Henry A. 
Butler rendered valuable assistance in a number of ways. 

Publications from which valuable data was obtained include the 
Youngstown Vindicator, the Youngstown Telegram, the Warren Chron- 
icle, the Warren Tribune, "Williams' History of Trumbull and Mahon- 
ing Counties" (1882), Howe's "History of Ohio," Fischer's "Pennsyl- 
vania Germans," "Historical Collections of the Mahoning Valley," histories 
of the Youngstown Police and Fire Departments, and numerous others. 

The Author. 



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INTRODUCTORY 



Having been honored with a request that I write an introduction for 
this history, it has been my privilege to look over advance proofs. With- 
out claiming any particular ability as a literary critic, I believe that in 
these volumes the history of Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley has 
been presented in concise and readable form, with as much detail as is 
necessary or advisable in such a history. As to accuracy I am in a 
position to judge only from memory covering a part of the period with 
which the history deals, and some part in the activities which it describes. 
The name of the author is, however, sufficient assurance on this point 
and the reader will, I believe, find that the story has been told in an 
interesting way. 

It is a record in which every native of the Mahoning Valley may well 
take pride. The transformation of the forest into a fertile and pros- 
perous farming community, and later into one of the busiest and most 
progressive industrial areas in the world, was accomplished by strong 
and virtuous men and women, who came here in search of independence 
and the opportunity to make a home. Without such pioneers this task 
would have been impossible. It is well for us to pause occasionally to 
recall these forefathers of ours, honor their memory and emulate their 
virtues. 

But it is of the author rather than of his book that I prefer to speak 
in the limited space allotted, the more so because in looking over its 
pages I have found nothing to indicate the part played by him in the 
story he has told except occasional mention of his name in connection 
with numerous enterprises and a few personal reminiscences. There is 
nothing to tell what manner of man Mr. Butler is, what he has done in 
the development of this locality, or of the services he has rendered to 
the community through a long and busy life. Without some record of 
his activities a history of Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley would 
be incomplete. 

Joseph Green Butler, Jr., was born at Temperance Furnace, Mercer 
County, Pennsylvania, December 21, 1840. His parents were Joseph 
Green Butler and Temperance (Orwig) Butler. His childhood was spent 
about this little furnace, and his boyhood at Niles, where, at the age of 
thirteen, he entered the service of James Ward & Company as a clerk 
in their general store. He was later a bookkeeper in this store, and still 
later office manager at the iron mill. From 1863 until 1866 he was agent 
for Hale & Ayer in charge of their interests at Youngstown, and in the 
latter year became associated with David Tod, William Ward and Wil- 
liam Richards in the erection of a blast furnace at Girard. It will thus 
be seen that Mr. Butler was a successful ironmaster before many of 



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vi INTRODUCTORY 

those now prominent in that industry were born. In 1878 he formed an 
active connection with the Brier Hill Iron & Coal Company, a famous 
old concern which preceded the Brier Hill Steel Company. Mr. Butler 
has been continuously associated with these interests until the present 
time and he is still vice president of the Brier Hill Steel Company. He 
has been connected with the Tod family in these enterprises for three 
generations, and among his present business associates are sons and 
grandsons of men with whom he began his career. 

During the past fifty years Mr. Butler has had a prominent part in 
almost every enterprise of note in the Mahoning Valley. He helped to 
organize the first steel company in Youngstown, as well as many other 
local industrial corporations. He has been president of the Mahoning 
Valley Manufacturers' Association, the Bessemer Pig Iron Association, 
the American Pig Iron Association, the Youngstown Chamber of Com- 
merce and similar organizations, in all of which he rendered important 
service. For years he has been a director of the American Iron & Steel 
Institute, the Cleveland & Mahoning Valley Railroad, the Erie Railroad, 
and scores of other institutions which have had a part in the development 
of this region. 

In spite of these activities Mr. Butler has always found time to take 
an interest in movements of a public character, whether they were for 
the benefit of his community or for that of the country at large. He 
has been on terms of personal friendship with a number of presidents 
of the United States, statesmen of national reputation, and even notables 
in foreign lands. He has taken an active part in every presidential 
campaign since and including the election of Lincoln. Among iron and 
steel manufacturers in this country there are none whom he cannot call 
his friends. Throughout his life he has never been too busy to do what 
he thought should be done, and he has never started anything that he 
did not finish. Of special note among monuments to his energy and 
persistence are the National McKinley Birthplace Memorial at Niles and 
the splendid art gallery which he has erected for Youngstown. 

Not the least interesting of Mr. Butler's versatile work, if we con- 
sider the limited opportunities of his school days and the intensely prac- 
tical field in which his business success was achieved, are his literary 
efforts and his fine collection of pictures and books. For many years 
he has been almost the only conservator of local history, and he has 
been conspicuous in his desire to provide for the people opportunities 
for enjoyment of art and music. His generosity and desire to help 
others are better known to his friends than to the general public, al- 
though these qualities have won for him wide recognition as a genuine 
philanthropist. 

Probably the finest fruit of Mr. Butler's life is a multitude of ap- 
preciative and affectionate friends. Many men, through ability, indus- 
try and persistent effort, acquire wealth and reputation. It is only a 
few who are able to attain to these things in large degree and at the 
same time inspire universal esteem. When a man can accomplish all of 
these and, reaching a ripe old age, still preserve an indomitable spirit 



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INTRODUCTORY vii 

of youth, as Mr. Butler has done, he has encompassed about all that is 
really worth while in life. 

In this work, one of the many tasks which Mr. Butler has under- 
taken without desire or expectation of pecuniary reward, he has re- 
corded the activities of many men who deserve honor and gratitude from 
the generations for whose welfare their labors paved the way. Among 
them there are few whose lives are more worthy of honor or emulation 
than his own. 

J. A. Campbell. 



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CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 
Prehistoric Times and Peoples i 

CHAPTER II 
Indian Tribes and Times 8 

CHAPTER III 
Latin or Anglo-Saxon 20 

CHAPTER IV 
Early Land Grants and the Connecticut Western Reserve 24 

CHAPTER V 

The Connecticut Western Reserve — Sale, Survey and Settlement 
of Northeastern Ohio 31 

CHAPTER VI 
THE PIONEERS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS 

The People of the Mahoning Valley — Their Origin, National 
Characteristics, Religious Affiliations and Motives in Cod- 
ing Here ; 60 

CHAPTER VII 
THE FOUNDING OF YOUNGSTOWN IN 1797 

Its First Settlers and Its Early Growth — the McMahon-Captain 

George Tragedy — Youngstown to 1802 88 

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x CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VIII 

PIONEER DAYS OF THE WESTERN RESERVE 

Who the Pioneers Were and What They Did — Their Joys and 
Sorrows in Transforming a Wilderness 118 

CHAPTER IX 

THE WOMEN PIONEERS 

Heroic Wives and Mothers to Whom Present Civilization Owes a 
Great Debt — Something About Their Trials and Achieve- 
ments 154 

CHAPTER X 

YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1802 TO 1840 

The County Seat War of 1800 to 1810 — Youngstown and Trumbull 
County in the War of 1812 — Beginning of the Iron Industry 
in the Mahoning Valley — Inception and Construction of the 
Pennsylvania and Ohio Canals 158 

CHAPTER XI 

YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1840 TO 1865 

The Growth and Decline of the Pennsylvania & Ohio Canal — 
The Third County Seat War and the Creation of Mahoning 
County — The Beginning of Youngstown as a Manufacturing 
Center — The First Railroad — Youngstown in Civil War 
Days * 180 

CHAPTER XII 

YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1865 TO 1890 

Business Activity After the Civil War — The Abandonment of 
the Village Form of Government and the Incorporation of the 
City — The Successful Fight for the County Seat — City Ex- 
tension and Improvements 200 



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CONTENTS xi 

CHAPTER XIII 

YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1890 TO 1910 

Change in the Form of City Government — Beginning of the Steel 
Industry and the Panic of 1893 — Mill Creek Park Founding — 
Presidential Campaign of 1896 and Ending of the Panic — 
Spanish-American War Days — Depression of 1907 — Close of 
First Decade of Century 218 

CHAPTER XIV 

YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1910 TO 1920 

The Business Depression of 1913-15 — The Record-Breaking Flood 
of 1913 — Revival of Business Following the Outbreak of the 
World War — Grade Crossings Elimination Progress — Youngs- 
town of Today 238 

CHAPTER XV 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN YOUNGSTOWN 

Days of the "Town" Meeting — Incorporation of the Village and 
First Village Election — Youngstown as a City — History of 
the Police and Fire Departments 260 

CHAPTER XVI 

YOUNGSTOWN'S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 

Founding of First School in the Village and Township and 
Growth of School System — Institution or Public, or Union, 
Schools in 1851 — Origin and Growth of Parochial Schools — 
Private School System and Business Colleges 283 

CHAPTER XVII 

YOUNGSTOWN IN THE RELIGIOUS WORLD 

Story of the Early and the Later-Day Activities of the Various 
Denominations — History of the Founding of Individual 
Churches 302 



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xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XVIII 

YOUNGSTOWN IN THE PROFESSIONS 

One Hundred and Twenty Years of Medicine and Surgery — The 
Legal Profession in Early Days and Since the Organization 
of Mahoning County — Newspapers Past and Present — The 
Newer Professions 331 

CHAPTER XIX 

BUSINESS ACTIVITIES IN YOUNGSTOWN 

Wholesale and Retail Houses — The Automobile Business — 
Youngstown Banks — Building and Loan Companies — Public 
Utilities, Private and Municipal 354 

CHAPTER XX 

PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF YOUNGSTOWN 

Organizations that Exercise a Profound Influence for Higher 
Community Life — Fraternal and Beneficial Organizations — 
Historical and Old Fair Societies — Public Parks and Play- 
grounds 374 

CHAPTER XXI 

WARREN 

Founding of this Historic Western Reserve Settlement in the 
Closing Years of the Eighteenth Century — Winning of the 
County Seat and Battle and Fight to Retain It — Warren in 
Civil War Days — Warren in Modern Times 403 

CHAPTER XXII 

Warren in the Twentieth Century — A Story of Marvelous In- 
dustrial Development Wrought by Progressive Residents — 
Warren's Business, Educational, Religious and Political Life 
— History of Warren Township Outside City 434 



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CONTENTS xiii 

CHAPTER XXIII 

NILES 

Karly History of the Metropolis of Weathersfield Township — 
Heaton's Industries that Marked the Beginning of the City — 
Middle Day Industrial Activity — the Financial Crash of 1874 
— Modern Niles, a Growing and Busy Industrial City 471 



CHAPTER XXIV 

STRUTHERS 

Founding of Settlement That Has Developed Into an Enterpris- 
ing City — Early Days and Gradual Growth to Village and 
Twentieth Century Industrial Center — Struthers in a Busi- 
ness, Educational and Religious Way 494 

CHAPTER XXV 

GIRARD 

Story of the Liberty Township Metropolis and Connecting Link 
Between Youngstown and Upper Mahoning Valley Municipal- 
ities — Early Day Hamlet that Has Seen Growth of the Canal, 
Railroads and Industrial Works — Religious and Educational 
History — Girard Today, in a Business Way and Otherwise. .502 

CHAPTER XXVI 

LOWELLVILLE 

Lower Mahoning Valley Village One of the Oider Municipali- 
ties of Mahoning County — Rise to Prominence Comes with 
the Development of Iron and Coal Industries and Building 
of Canal — Church, School, Business and Civil History 511 



CHAPTER XXVII 

HUBBARD 

Story of the Settlement of the Township and Its Early Days — 
First Events — Rise of the Coal Industry, Founding of Hub- 
bard Village and Story of Its Activities — Church, School and 



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xiv CONTENTS 

Industrial History — Coalburg and Other Parts of Town- 
ship 518 

CHAPTER XXVIII 
EAST YOUNGSTOWN 

Story of the Development of the Infant Municipality of Ma- 
honing County — Remarkable Industrial Growth in Twenty 
Years — Early Days in East Youngstown — Municipality in 
1920 528 

CHAPTER XXIX 

SEBRING 

One of the Younger Municipalities of Mahoning County and 
One of the Most Prosperous — The Pottery Center of the Ma- 
honing Valley — Church, School and Political History of the 
Town 539 

CHAPTER XXX 

TOWNSHIPS OF MAHONING COUNTY 

Historical Sketches of the Fourteen Political Subdivisions of 
the County — Settlement and Pioneer Activities — Educa- 
tional and Religious Activities — Interesting Personalities — 
Villages of County 544 

CHAPTER XXXI 

TOWNSHIPS OF TRUMBULL COUNTY 

Story of the Settlement and Early Activities in the Pioneer 
County of Northeastern Ohio — Growth of the County During 
the Nineteenth Century — Agricultural, Religious and Edu- 
cational History — Village of the County 599 

CHAPTER XXXII 

INDUSTRY IN THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Its Humble Beginnings, Early Vicissitudes and Gradual Develop- 
ment Along Various Lines 651 







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CONTENTS xv 

CHAPTER XXXIII 

RECENT INDUSTRIAL GROWTH 

Conditions and Incidents Connected with the Tremendous De- 
velopment of the Iron and Steel Industries in the Mahoning 
Valley During the Last Twenty Years — Brief Sketches of 
the More Important Establishments of Today 697 

CHAPTER XXXIV 

TRANSPORTATION IN THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Indian Paths — Route Taken by First Settlers — The Mahoning 
as a Waterway — Development of Roads — The Ohio & Penn- 
sylvania Canal — Construction of Railroads — Trolley 
Lines 752 

CHAPTER XXXV 

ORE AND COAL MINING 

Mineral Deposits of the Mahoning Valley — Ore and Coal — 
Source of Native Ores and Distribution of Coal Seams — Their 
Discovery, Exploitation and Final Exhaustion 767 

CHAPTER XXXVI 

OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION 

Oil at First Made from Coal — Later Found in Several Parts of 
the Mahoning Valley — Gas Production 772 

CHAPTER XXXVII 

THE MAHONING VALLEY IN THE WORLD WAR 

Contributions of its People and its Industries to the Momentous 
Conflict of 1914-18 775 

CHAPTER XXXVIII 
Personal Reminiscences 810 



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INDEX 



Abbott, C. K., I, 628 

Abbott, C. S., I, 309, 449 

Abbott, David, I, 58, 106 

Abbott, John L„ III, 791 

Abraham, Simon, I, 174 

Acheson, N. B-, I, 339 

Ackman, J. M., I, 307 

Ackowanothia, speech of Delaware In- 
dian chief (1758), I, 14 

Ada (now Mary), furnace, erected 
(1845), Wilkes, Wilkinson & Com- 
pany, Lowellville, capacity twenty 
tons, I, 667 

Adams, Asael E., I, 241, 355, 359, 706 
723, 730, 733. 793; II, 1 

Adams, Asahel, Sr., I, 406, 440, 524 

Adams, Augustus, I, 634 

Adams, Comfort A., I, 462 

Adams, David A., I, 473 

Adams, D. J., I, 438 

Adams, Fred W., I, 433, 439; III, 582 

Adams, Mrs. F. W., I, 801 

Adams, G. H., I, 648 

Adams, Whittlesey, 1, 406; sketch of, I, 
459 

Adgate, Elias, I, 589 

Adgate, John H., I, 58, 405, 439, 466, 
618 

Adovasio, Louis, II, 366 

Aetna Foundry & Machine Company, 
1,744 

Aetna-Standard Iron and Steel Com- 
pany, I, 696 

African Methodist Episcopal Churches 
in Youngs town, I, 327 

Agriculture, as first permanent indus- 
try in the Mahoning Valley, I, 653- 
657; pioneer plowing and reaping, I, 
654; standard livestock and crops, I, 
655 

Ague, Frederick, I, 103 

Ahn, A. A., I, 508 

Aiken, E. F., I, 328 

Ainge, W. Ely, II, 300 

Akron, I, 420 

Akron Maderite Tire and Rubber 
Company, Newton Falls, I, 609 

Akron Manufacturing Company, I, 710 

Alan, J. S., I, 517 

Alber, R. J.. I, 541 

Albert Street Colored Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, Youngstown, I, 327 

Albright, A. E., I, 541, 542 
Albright, Mrs. Charles, I, 539 
Alcorn, Joseph L., Ill, 638 



Alderdice, George F., I, 714; III, 706 

Alderdice, Winslow, I, 679 

Alderman, Timothy, I, 614 

Alexander, David, I, 661 

Alexander, Fred H., II, 94 

Alexander, George W., II, 94 

Alexander, Robert, I, 174 

Alexander, Walter G., I, 444; II, 274 

Alford, Ruth, I, 619 

Alinskas, Felix, I, 313 

Allen, David A., Ill, 554 

Allen, Harvey, I, 620 

Allen, Walker, I, 517 

Allen, William, I, 570 

Allen, William H., Ill, 476 

Alliance Gas & Power Company, I, 543 

Allison, E. E:, I, 539 

Allison, Ralph H., I, 782; III, 457 

Alloway, George W., Ill, 709 

Allwardt, C. H., I. 639 

Alsand, Andrew P., I, 745 

Altdoerffer, C. M. L., II, 339 

Alton, Benjamin, I, 649 

Altshuler, M., I, 300 

Amales, N., I, 740 

American Belting Company, I, 749 

American Bridge Company, I, 674 

American Committee for Devastated 
France, I, 791 

American Iron & Steel Institute, I, 
690, 691 

American Jewish Relief Committee, I, 
790 

American Legion: Youngstown Post, 
I, 791, 796; Posts in Trumbull 
county, I, 801 

American Pig Iron Association, I, 815 

American Red Cross, I, 777, 784, 790; 
local service by, I, 788; Mahoning 
Chapter, I, 787; Trumbull county 
chapter, I, 796; Trumbull county 
auxiliaries, I, 797 

American Relief Administrator Euro- 
pean Children's Fund, I, 791 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Company, 
1,496 

American Sintering Company, Hub- 
bard Plant, I, 521 

American Steel Hoop Company, I, 673, 
684, 688, 696, 715 

American Tar Products Company, I, 
748 

American Tube & Iron Company, I, 
673 



xvn 



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XV111 



INDEX 



N, 



American Welding & Manufacturing 

Company, I, 746 
Amerikai-Magyar Hirlap, I, 349 
Amish, I, 72 
Amusements, I, 143 
Anna furnace, erected (1869), Struthers 

Iron Company, Struthers, capacity 

fifty-six tons, I, 495, 668, 732 
Anderson, Charles H., I, 522 
Anderson, David, I, 208, 577; III, 404 
Anderson, David F., I, 241; II, 291 
Anderson, George, I, 320 
Anderson, John A., Ill, 741 
Anderson, John U., I, 718; III, 403. 
Anderson, W. Noble, I, 343 
Anderson, William S., I, 208, 342, 371, 

578, 763; III, 705 
Andrews, Benjamin, I, 634 
Andrews, Chauncey H., 1, 193, 201, 208, 

212, 262, 346, 360, 477, 673, 683, 733 f 

763, 817; death of, I, 361, 733; III, 

529 
Andrews, Mrs. C. H., I, 379 
Andrews, C. H. & Company, I, 616 
Andrews, (C. H.) & (W. C), (1876): 

daily coal mining capacity 1,100 tons, 

1,769 
Andrews & Company's Stove Works, I, 

675 
Andrews & Hitchcock Iron Company, 

I, 699, 704, 730, 733 
Andrews & Hitchcock (1875): daily 

coal mining capacity 450 tons, I, 769 
Andrews Bros. & Company, I, 478, 673, 

683, 707, 708, 730 
Andrews, James, I, 605 
Andrews, Lawrence G., I, 673 
Andrews, Rollin C, III, 774 
Andrews, R. L., I, 371, 763 
Andrews, Upson A., I, 730; III, 479 
Andrews, Wallace C, I, 477, 673 
Andrews, Willard C, III, 773 
Andrews, William M., Ill, 479 
Anti-Tuberculosis League, I, 258 
Antonelli Marco, II, 81 
Antonelli, Thomas E., Ill, 681 
Apostolic Christian Assembly, Girard, 

1,509 
Applegate, James, I, 166, 605 
Applegate, Jesse, I, 523 
Arbuckle, Mrs. A. W., I, 787 
Architects of Youngstown, I, 344 
"Arks," early freight boats. I, 754 
Armenian and Syrian Relief Commit- 
tee, I, 790 
Arms, Bell & Company, I, 674 
Arms Brothers, I, 477 
Arms, F. O., I, 360 
Arms, Mrs. C. D., I, 379 
Arms, Myron I., I, 337, 378, 398, 684, 

725, 734; II, 1 
Arms, Mrs. Myron I., I, 337 
Arms, Myron II, I, 464, 744; II, 2 
Arms, Warner, III, 463 
Arms. Wilford P., I, 360, 726; II, 2 
Arms, Warner & Company (1876): 



daily coal mining capacity 80 tons, 
I, 769 

Arms, Wick & Company, I, 673 

Armstrong, Sylvester H., Ill, 414 

Arner, Caleb B., Ill, 456 

Arner, Joseph, I, 582 

Arner, Ray C, III, 544 

Arnold, Dan H., I, 276 

Arrel, George F., I, 342, 359; II, 312 

Arrel, John, I, 548 

Arrel, Margaret J., II, 72 

Arrel, William M., II, 72 

Arrel Limestone Company, I, 513 

Arrell, Grace T., I, 337 

Arter, Theodore J., II, 245 

Ashbaugh, Clarence V., I, 803 

Ashland blast furnace, I, 603 

Ashland Furnace No. 1, erected (1858), 
Jonathan Warner, Mineral Ridge, ca- 
pacity twenty- two tons, I, 668 

Ashland Furnace No. 2, erected (1862), 
Jonathan Warner, Mineral Ridge, ca- 
pacity twenty-one tons, I, 668 

Ashley, B. F., I, 314 

Asnhe Emeth (Jewish) Congregation, 
Youngstown, I, 324 

Ashtabula, I, 159 

Ashtabula County, I, 46; organized, I, 
149; formed, I, 161 

Ashtabula Historical and Philosophical 
Society, I. 44 

Ashtabula Turnpike, I. 755 

Ashtabula, Warren and East Liverpool 
Railroad, I, 423 

Ashtabula, Warren & East Liverpool 
Railroad Company, I, 760 

Ashtabula. Youngstown & Pittsburg 
Railroad! Company, I, 762 

Asper, Joel F., I, 426, 459 

Associated Bible Students, Youngs- 
town, I, 330 

Associated Presbyterian Church, Se- 
ceder Corners, I. 606 

Assumption of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary (Ruthenian Greek Catholic) 
Parish, Youngstown, I, 313 

Atkins, M. R., I, 552 

Atkins, Samuel J., I, 672 

Atkinson, John, III, 565 

Atlantic furnace, I, 707 

Atlantic & Great Western Company, I, 
193 

Atlantic & Great Western Railway, I, 
761 

At water, Caleb, I, 51 

Atwood, Ichabod, I, 557, 559 

Aubel, Samuel M., II, 343 

Aulbach, John, III, 669 

Augustine, Daniel, I, 568 

Austin, Benajah, I, 469 

Austin, Calvin, I, 58, 405, 437, 466 

Austin, Eliphalet, I, 58 

Austintown Center, I, 575 

Austintown Township, Mahoning 
county, I, 106, 574-5/7; schools and 
churches of, I, 576 

Avery, Frederick B., I, 310 



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INDEX 



xix 



Aviation Day, Youngstown, I, 338 
Ayers, Herbert C, I, 672 

Backenstos, Mrs. Charles, I, 786 

Backman, Morris, I, 719 

Bacon, Carson, I, 556 

Bacon, Enos, I, 626 

Bacon M., I, 627 

Bacon, Samuel, I, 626 

Badal, Samuel S., II, 27 

Badger, Henry L., I, 449 

Badger, Joseph, I, 123, 171, 303, 561, 
624, 626, 641, 645, 650 

Baechler, Samuel, I, 318 

Bailey, Clyde L., Ill, 565 

Bailey, Curtis L., Ill, 718 

Bailey, C. L., I, 782 

Bailey, James K., I, 207, 346 

Bailey, N. P., I, 448 

Bailey, Seth L., Ill, 564 

Baird, Charles A., I, 339; III, 498 

Baird, George A., I, 707 

Baird, S. J., I, 339 

Baird, W. J., I, 522 

Baker, E.J. L., 1,611 

Baker, Lawrence, I, 275 

Baker, Lewis, I, 589 

Baker, Mrs. R. S., I, 294 

Bakody, John, I, 509 

Bakody, Theophilus W., Ill, 632 

Bakody, William, II, 253 

Baldwin, Benjamin P„ II, 92 

Baldwin, Caleb, I, 58, 105, 115, 303, 559 

Baldwin Camp No. 2, Sons of Vet- 
erans, I, 394 

Baldwin, C. L., I, 574 

Baldwin, Dudley, I, 423, 760 

Baldwin, D. I., I, 192, 262 

Baldwin, Eli, I, 166, 572, 582; II, 86 

Baldwin, Frank L., I, 272; III, 459 

Baldwin, F. F., I, 628 

Baldwin, George, I, 201 

Baldwin, G. N., I, 739 

Baldwin, Jesse, I, 503; II, 87 

Baldwin, Jesse N., I, 479; II, 254 

Baldwin, L. S., I, 497 

Baldwin, Mrs. H. C, I, 465 

Baldwin, Timothy D., Ill, 807 

Baldwin, William H., I, 358, 384, 693; 
III, 785 

Ball, A. C, I, 737 

Ball, C. E., I, 327 

Balogh, Valentine, I, 313, 501 

Baltimore & Ohio system, I, 762 

Bandy, Lewis A., Ill, 435 

Bane, James M., Ill, 676 

Bane, Mary E., Ill, 677 

Bane, Thomas H., I, 319 

Bank buildings, I, 256 

Banks, Fred W., II, 124 

Banks of Niles, I, 480 

Banner, Robert J., Ill, 474 

Banning, A., I, 624 

Baptist Churches and Missions in 
Youngstown, I, 314-317; Warren, I, 
445; Girard, I, 508; Hubbard, I, 523; 
Canfield, I, 563; Hartford Center, I, 



624; Orangeville, I, 624; Vernon 
Center, I, 634; East Mecca, I, 637 

Barb, William, I, 638, 650 

Barber, Albert, I, 598 

Barber, John, I, 598 

Barclay, I, 645 

Barclay, Francis, I, 192, 262 

Barclay, William, I, 202, 262 

Bard, George P., I, 750; III, 711 

Bardwell, Andrew, I, 403 

Bardwell, Reuben, I, 403 

Barge canal for ore and coal, I, 253, 
765 

Barger, Frank, I, 598 

Barker, Clare H., II, 283 

Barnes, Elijah, I, 625 

Barnes, Mivert J., Ill, 459 

Barnett, James, I, 428 

Barney, J. C, I, 444 

Barnum, Eli, I, 620 

Barnum, Wayne T-, III, 800 

Barnum, William P., I, 342; III, 762 

Barr, William H., I, 365; III, 656 

Barrett Company, I, 748 

Barringer, Eben, I, 565 

Barry, John P., I, 241, 312; III, 537 

Barthofemew, Tamar, I, 616 

Bartlett, N. N., I, 615 

Bartlett, Roswell, I, 646 

Bartolette, E. C, I, 591 . 

Barton, G. M., I, 573 

Barstow, Joseph, I, 636 

Bascom, A. L., I, 627 

Bascom, G. M., I, 636 

Bascom, James, I, 646 

Base Hospital No. 31, I, 788, 802 

Bate, Herbert, III, 731 

Bate, W. C, I, 610 

Bate, W. G., Ill, 775 

Bates, A. V., I, 624 

Bates, F. E., I, 650 

Batman, L. G., I, 320 

Battles, John, I, 475 

Bauch, John, I, 454 

Baugh, F. B., I, 715; death of, I, 716 

Baugh, H. J., I, 716 

Baughman, Abraham, I, 638 

Baughman, Andrew, I, 638 

Baughman, Henry, I, 638 

Baum, George, I, 584 

Baumgardner, Charles, I, 543 

Baxter, Edward, I, 633 

Baxter, John, II, 96 

Bazetta Township; settlement and gen- 
eral description of, I, 626 

Beach, Liebus, I, 624 

Beadling, William E., Ill, 685 

Beal, William P., II, 145 

Bear, George W.. I, 493 

Beard, Alexander W., Ill, 738 

Beard, Henry, I, 589 

Beard, James, I, 610 

Beard, Ralph A., I, 342, 344 

Beardsley, Almus, II, 88 

Beardsley, Hiram J., I, 567; II, 87 

Beardsley, Philo A., II, 89 

Beardsley, Willis L., Ill, 440 



Digitized by 



Google 



I 



XX 



INDEX 



Beatty, Samuel, I, 195, 424 

Beatty, W. H., I, 542 

Beaver, John F., I, 423 

Beaver Township, I, 586-589: schools 

of, I, 588 
Beavertown, Mahoning County, I, 99 
Bechtel, Milton W., I, 799, 801; III, 

738 
Beck, Frank E., Ill, 729 < 

Beck, Joseph J., II, 59 
Becker, F. C, I, 63, 317, 579. 612 
Becker, Peter, I, 295, 312 
Becker, Rachael K., I, 785 
Bedell, Chester, III, 421 
Bedell, Isaac, III, 422 
Bedford township, Cuyahoga county, 

Bee'be, James E., II, 152 

Beecher, Walter A., I, 361, 395 

Beeghly, Leon A.. II, 192 

Beers, W. L., I, 328 

Begel, John, I, 515 

Beggiani, N. S., I, 313 

Beggs, Joseph, I, 568 

Beggs, Parteridge, II, 391 

Beight, Jonathan, I, 597 

Beight, William, II, 298 

Beil, E. H., I, 371 

Beil, Eva, I, 613 

Beil, John, II, 117 

Belden, David, I, 640 

Belden, H. C, I, 678 

Bell, David, I, 414 

Bell, Delos M., Ill, 781 

Bell, Ella, I, 799 

Bell, Ella M., I, 796 

Bell, Renick M., I, 726; II, 219 

Bellaire Steel Company, I, 696 

Belmont, August, I, 707 

Belmont Avenue Branch of Y. W. C. 
A. (Colored), I, 387 

Belmont Avenue Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Youngstown, I, 307 

Beloit (Smithfield Station), I, 593 

Belvidere, I, 585 

Beman, Rufus, I, 644 

Bench and Bar, pioneer laws of West- 
ern reserve, I, 106; Lawyers of Ma- 
honing county (See also Courts), I, 
340-343; first session of court in the 
Youngstown Courthouse, I, 342; 
lawyers of Trumbull county, I, 455- 
60; famous damage suit against Bris- 
tol township, I, 639; rolling mill case 
of Edwards v. Tyrrell, I, 670. 

Bender, A. F., I, 611 

Benedict, George B., Ill, 647 

Benedict, William F., Ill, 556 

Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks, Youngstown, I, 391 

Bennet, W. L., I, 509 

Bennett, F. M., I, 328 

Bennett, James H., I, 781 

Bennington, John M., Ill, 526 

Bentley, Adamson, I, 414, 445, 451 

Bentley, Anson G., II, 246 



Bentley, A. G. & Company, Niles, I, 

477, 480: failure of, I, 684 
Bentley, A. J., I, 486, 739, 800 
Bentley, Augusta Zug, I, 388 
Bentley, Frank F., I, 739; II, 246 
Bentley, Jeffrey, I, 622 
Bentley, Martin V., Ill, 513 
Bentley, Robert, I, 355, 382, 386, 398, 

512, 513, 706. 722, 723, 730, 731, 734. 

784, 789; III, 763 
Bentley, Mrs. Robert, I, 387, 784, 794 
Benton, John, I, 640 
Benton, Thomas, I, 593 
Benton Exchange, I, 593 
Bentzel, William, I, 597 
Bereny, Girard S., Ill, 476 
Berlin Center, I, 585 
Berlin storage basin, I, 233 
Berlin Township, I, 584-86; schools 

and churches of, I, 585 
Berry, Leonora, I, 311 
Bertillon system adopted, I, 277 
Bertolini, Arthur, II, 370 
Berwind, Edward J., I, 710 
Bessemer (village), I, 729 
Bessemer Coal & Coke Company, I, 

710 
Bessemer Iron Association, I, 690 
Bessemer Limestone Company, I, 513, 

727; its brick plant, I, 728 
Bessemer Limestone & Cement Com- 
pany, I, 513, 729 
Bessemer Pig Iron Association, I, 

814 
Best, David, I, 306 
Best, H. D., I, 500 
Betcher, L. A., I, 515 
Bethel United Evangelical Church, 

Loy's Corners, I, 509 
Bethlehem Church, Boardman Town- 
ship, I, 574 
Bethlehem Lutheran Church, I, 319 
Bettiker, William, I, 626 
Beymon, W. H., I, 316 
Bidwell, L. G., I, 644 
Bidwell, Riverius, I, 644 
Bierce, Frederick, sketch of, I, 461 
Bierman, Mrs. E. F., I, 785 
Big Mill, I, 672 
Biggers, James W., Ill, 586 
Biggert, F. C, I, 721 
Billings, Carolina, I, 623 
Billmer, Bessie J., I, 796 
Birchard, Matthew, I, 443, 455; sketch 

of, I, 456 
Birrell, A. G., I, 643 
Bishop, George S., I, 365, 545, 555 
Bishop, H. A., I, 750 
Bissel, John P., I, 115, 518, 567, 568, 

569 
Bissel, Joseph, I, 139, 569 
Bissell, Fitch, I, 462 
Bissell, Warren, I, 173 
Biwabik Mining Company, I, 712; Lake 

Superior region, I, 713 
Bixler, Harry Z., Ill, 798 
Black, Andrew E., I, 496 



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INDEX 



xxi 



Black band ore, Mineral Ridge, I, 665 

Blackburn, Leonard, I, 643 

Blacksnake Indians, I, 95 

Blackstone, Thomas G., I, 507, 601; II, 
14 

Blair, Harry M., I, 505 

Blase, W. L., I, 353 

Blase, Mrs. W. L., I, 353 

Blast furnaces (see ironmaking), I, 
658 

Bliss, William E, II, 186 

Bloch, Henry, I, 323 

Bloch, Samuel, I, 323 

Block Gas Mantle Company, I, 750 

Block Schoolhouse, Vienna township, 
I, 617 

Blockson, James B., I, 344 

Blockson, James E., I, 341 

Bloemker, R. W., I, 453 

Bloomfield Center, I, 648 

Bloomfield township; pioneers of, I, 
647; first marriage in, I, 647; first 
white child born in, I, 647; organiza- 
tion, villages, schools, churches, etc., 
I, 648 

Blott, E B., I, 505 

Blue, Herbert T., I, 563, 591 

Board of Charter Commissioners, I, 
266 

Board of City Commissioners abol- 
ished, I, 264 

Board of Trade Improvement Associa- 
tion, Newton Falls, I, 609 

Boardman, Charles, I, 572 

Boardman, Charles A., I, 304 

Boardman, David S., I, 571 

Boardman, Elijah, I, 571, 572 

Boardman, Henry M., I, 207 

Boardman, Homer, I, 571 

Boardman, Mabel, identified with the 
Red Cross, I, 572, 784 

Boardman, I, 309 

Boardman Center, I, 572, 573 

Boardman township, Mahoning county, 
I, 104, 106; First Episcopal church 
in county formed in, I, 308; history, 
571-74; early industries of, I, 572; 
schools of, I, 573; churches of, I, 
574 

Boardman Woods, I, 573 

Boards of City Commissioners, I, 269- 
272 

Boards of Public Safety, I, 272 

Boards of Public Service, I, 272 

Bode, George, II, 263 

Boddy, J. T., I, 330 

Boehme, Adolph J., II, 19 

Boehme, E. A., I, 317 

Boetticher, J. E., I, 601 

Boggess, Oscar, I, 327 

Boland, George, I, 517 

Bolin, Candace, III, 652 

Bolin, James, III, 652 

Bollinger, J. H., I, 600 

Bonnell, Annie, I, 378 

Bonnell, Henry O., I, 346, 689, 692, 
817; death of, I, 360; III, 587 



Bonnell, J. Fearnley, I, 723; III, 770 
Bonnell, John M., Ill, 770 
Bonnell, William, I, 182, 671 
Bonnell, William F., I, 396, 398 
Bonnell, William S., Ill, 769 
Bonnell, W. Scott, I, 360, 361, 730 
Bonnell, Woods & Jordan, I, 773 
Bonsall, Edward, I, 590 
Booker T. Washington Settlement, 

Youngstown, I, 330 
Boorn, Ernest C, III, 437 
Booth, Charles H., I, 398, 706, 721, 

726, 730, 731, 789; III, 724 
Booth, Mrs. C H., I, 337 
Booth, George B., I, 523; death of, I, 

Booth, Lloyd (the elder), I, 720; III, 

724 
Booth, Lloyd, I, 744; III, 767 
Booth (Lloyd) Company, I, 720, 721 
Booth, Millard & Company's foundry, 

I, 6/5 
Bordelis, James, I, 803 
Borrell, Joseph, I, 518 
Borton, T. E, I, 731 
Bossert, Lewis, II, 310 
Boster, E. Gordon, I, 643 
Boston, John K., I, 515 
Boswell, I, 592 
Bostwick, L. L, I, 565 
Bostwick, Shadrach, I, 305, 559 562; 

death of, I, 306 
Bostwick W. W., I 739 
Bostwick Steel Lath Company, I, 739 
Bosworth, Marcus, I, 611, 649 
Bothwell, J. Howard, II, 355 
Botsford, James L, I, 692, 828 
Bouton, Enoch, I, 303 
Bowen, Noah, I, 646 
Bowen, William, I, 440 
Bowen, William F., I, 438; III, 414 
Bower, H. H. I, 517 
Bowles, John, I, 630 
Bowles, Samuel, I, 580 
Bowman, Comfort C, II, 386 
Bowman, David, I, 589 
Bowman, Hugh, I, 584 
Bowman, Isaiah, I, 190 
Bowyer, Thomas, I, 649 
Boy Scouts Headquarters, I, 377 
Boy Scout movement, I, 780 
Boyd, Andrew, I, 605 
Boyd, Benjamin F., I, 740 
Boyd, E C, I, 623 
Boyd, E J., I, 439 
Boyd, F. R., I, 629 
Boyd, G. C, I, 576 
Boyd, James, death of, I, 447 
Boyd, M. C, I, 744 
Boyer, Guy S., I, 542 
Boyer, Joseph, I, 727 
Bovlan, J. D., I, 546 
Brace, Jonathan, I, 38, 42, 608, 619 
Braceville Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 798 
Braceville Center, I, 620 
Braceville Township: Pioneers of, I, 



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XX11 



INDEX 



619; organization and schools of, I, 
620: churches of, I, 621 

Brandel, C. O., Ill, 700 

Braden, D. W., I, 645 

Braden, George C, I, 435, 465, 799; II, 
358 

Braden, William, I, 391 

Bradford, Joshua, I, 620 

Bradley, James, I, 634 

Brainard, Asahel, I, 621 

Brainard, H. B., I, 565 

Brainard, Ira, I, 549 

Braman, Harry S., II, 197 

Brandon, Roy F., Ill, 635 

Brandyberry, M. D., I, 328 

Brant, Captain (Indian chief), I, 45 

Brant, John J., I, 706; II, 219 

Braun, A. E., I, 720 

Braunberns, Edward H., I, 440; III, 
464 

Bray C. W., I, 720 

Bray, Thomas J., I, 710; II, 132 

Breaden, Jeremiah, I, 570 

Brennan, James A., II, 366 

Brenner, Carl, III, 769 

Brenner, E. Alberta, I, 468 

Brenner, John, III, 643 

Brenner, John, III, 768 

Brenner, Judson, III, 643 

Brick, Robert, I, 42 

Brickley, William, I, 577 

Brickman, Andrew J., I, 575 

Brier Hill, I, 214; absorbed by Youngs- 
town, I, 263 

Brier Hill, coal, first shipment of, I. 
181 

Brier Hill coal; best in valley, I, 769 

Brier Hill Coal Company, Church Hill, 
I, 606 

Brier Hill Coke Company, I, 712 

Brier Hill Furnace No. 1 erected 
(1847), James Wood & Company, 
Youngstown, capacity, twenty-five 
tons, I, 667 

Brier Hill Iron Company, I, 711 

Brier Hill Iron & Coal Company, I, 
181, 193, 667, 699, 711, 712, 769 

Brier Hill Steel Company, I, 181, 479; 
Girard, I, 504; Youngstown, three 
furnaces, daily capacity, 500 tons, I, 
668; plant moved from Akron to 
Brier Hill, I, 710; name assumed I, 
711; acquisitions after 1912 incorpo- 
ration, I, 712; by-products and raw 
materials of, I, /13; first officers, I, 
714; subscriptions by to War Chest 
Fund, I, 792 

Brier Hill vein, I, 768 

Brigham, Lemuel, I, 190, 565 

Bright, Stanley, I, 629 

Brinker, Harry L., II, 24 

Brisbine, J. M., I, 520 

Bristol Center (See Bristolville), I, 638 

Bristol Township, I, 638; schools and 
churches of, I, 639 

Bristolville Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 797 



Bristolville Station, I, 638 
Brockett, Hervey, I, 488 
Brock way, I, 622 
Brockway, Aaron, I, 622, 633 
Brockway, Bion W., Ill, 695 
Brockway, Edward, I, 58, 621 
Brockway, O. P., I, 578 
Brockway, Roxy, I, 645 
Brockway, Titus, I, 59, 621, 622 
Brockway Methodist Episcopal 

Church, I, 624 
Brody Jacob G., Ill, 557 
Bromley, Stevens, I, 330 
Bronson, Alfred, I, 625 
Bronson, Tracy, I, 581 
Brookfield Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 798 
Brookfield Center, I, 614 
Brookfield Congregational Church, I, 

615 
Brookfield Grange, I, 615 
Brookfield Station, I, 614, 617 
Brookfield Township: early settlement 

and political organization, I, 614; 

schools and churches, I, 615 
Brooks, Charles, I, 60l 
Brooks, G. W., I, 334 
Brooks, J. J., I, 330 
Brooks, J. W., I, 441 
Brooks, Peter C, I, 647 
Brown, Arthur, I, 611. 
Brown, D. Web, I, 349 
Brown, Ebenezer N., Ill, 648 
Brown, Edmond L., I, 307, 360 
Brown, Edmond L., I, 692, II, 180 
Brown, Ensign N., I, 343; II, 227 
Brown, Ephraim, I, 150, 647 
Brown, Frank L., I, 271, 272; III, 710 
Brown, Frederick C, II, 223 
Brown, Frederick H., I, 304 
Brown, F. W., I, 451 
Brown, G. W., I, 583 
Brown, Harvey O., Ill, 562. 
Brown, Henrietta, I, 307 
Brown, Henrietta A., I, 376 
Brown, Henry, I, 103 
Brown, James, I, 511 
Brown, James E., Ill, 648 
Brown, John, a Western Reserve Man, 

I, 152 
Brown, John, Jr., I, 152 
Brown, Joseph H., I, 182, 360, 671; II, 

180 
Brown, J. A., I, 579 
Brown, Max, I, 324 
Brown, McPherson, I, 782, 799 
Brown, Nathaniel E., II, 69 
Brown, Richard, I, 182, 201, 202, 262, 

307, 337, 375, 376, 671, 817; III, 499 
Brown, Robert, I, 470 
Brown, Thomas, I, 182, 671 
Brown, Wesley, I, 329 
Brown William L., I, 348 
Brown, William O., II, 95 
Brown Memorial Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Youngstown, I, 308, 327 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX 



xxm 



Brown, Bonnell & Company, I, 182, 

495, 671, 672, 675, 707, 708, 724 
Brown Iron Works, I, 686 
Browne, P. H., I, 295, 312 
Brownlee Family, II, 385 
Brownlee, James, I, 152, 190, 565 
Brownlee, James A., II, 385 
Brownlee, Ray, I, 571 
Brownlee, William W., II, 204 
Brownlee, W. R., I, 566 
Brownlee Woods United Presbyterian 

Church, Youngstown, I, 322 
Bruce, George O., Ill, 710 
Bruce, John, I, 583 
Brunswick, Max, I, 387 
Brunswick, Max E., II, 378 
Brush, Perlee, I, 114, 283, 340, 524, 

550 
Bryson, Hugh, I, 653 
Bubb, C. C, I, 470 
Buchheit, Joseph, III, 714 
Buchwalter, Jay, I, 444: III, 524 
Buck, E. A., I, 579 
Buck, John A., II, 396 
Buckeye Building and Loan Company, 

Sebring, I, 541 
Buckeye Record, I, 350 
Buckley, Lewis P., I, 196, 424 
Budd, John, I, 626 
Buechner, W. H. f I, 781 
Buechner, W. L., I, 335 
Buehrle, Albert H., Ill, 491 
Buehrle, John, III, 490 
Buhl Steel Company, I, 696 
Bundy, Moses, I, 649 
Bunn, Fred S., I, 248; death of, I, 337 
Bunts, William C, I, 341, 344 
Burch, H. H., I, 328 
Burden, Albert J., I, 745 
Burden, David E., I, 342 
Burg Hill, I, 622, 633 
Burg Hill Station, I, 622 
Burgess, Harvey A., Ill, 465 
Burke, Mrs. James E., Ill, 666 
Burke, Peter J., II, 3 
Burkey, A. E., I, 343 
Burkholder, S. M., Ill, 478 
Burnett, E. P., coal mine, I, 520, 521 
Burnett, Henry, I, 151 
Burnett, Silas, I, 518 
Burnett, Stephen F., I, 192, 262, 266 
Burnett, William, It 518 
Burnett coal mine, I, 520 
Burnham, Jedediah, I, 643 
Burr, Timothy, I, 616 
Burrows, J. B„ I, 198, 427 
Burton, R. L., I, 593 
Burton, Thomp, I, 346, 350 
Bush, G. S„ I, 591 
Bushnell, Daniel, I, 624 
Bushnell, Eunice, I, 634 
Bushnell, Seth A., I, 425 
Bushnell, Sterling G., I, 624 
Bushnell, William, I, 166 
Business colleges, I, 301 
Business uncertainties of 1918-1920, I, 

248 



Butler, Albert N., II, 268 

Butler, B. M., I, 327 

Butler, Edward T., Ill, 552 

Butler, Henry A., I, 382, 784; III, 704 

Butler, Mrs. Henry A., I, 796 

Butler, Joseph G., Jr., I, V 

Butler, J. N., I, 438 

Butler Art Institute, I, 256, 379-382; 

description of building, I, 380 
Button, A. L., I, 718 
Butts, Addison E., Ill, 733 
Butzel, Henry M., I, 727 
Byard, Grant W., II, 269 
Byers, A. M., death of, I, 731 
Byers, A. M. Company, I, 504, 688, 

731 
Byers, A. M. Company, Girard, one 

furnace of 300 tons daily capacity, 

I, 668 
Byers, E. M., I, 732 
Byers, J. F?, I, 720, 732 
Byler, John T., I, 328 

Cabin-making, I, 126 

Cadwallader, Septimus, I, 618 

Cahn, L. H., I, 387 

Cahn, Mrs. L. H., I, 387 

Cailor, Frank E., I, 781; II, 297 

Caldwell, I, 99 

Caldwell, Belinda (Conner), III, 794 

Caldwell, Hugh, I, 510 

Caldwell, Hugh J., I, 444 

Caldwell, James, I, 844: III, 794 

Caldwell, James E., I, 754 

Caldwell, John, I, 38, 42 

Caldwell, J. A., I, 348 

Caldwell, J. M„ I, 563 

Caldwell, Mary, I, 769 

Caldwell, P. T., L 288 

Calhoun, Andrew, I, 577 

Calhoun, Samuel, I, 577 

Calibera, Joseph, I, S01 

Calla, I, 589 

Callahan, James, I, 589 

Callahan, William, I, 589 

Callender, Martha, I, 442 

Callow, John J., Ill, 667 

Calvary Baptist Church, Youngs- 
town (formerly Brier Hill), I, 314, 
316 

Calvin, Anthony B., I, 264: II, 359 

Calvin, Freeman W., Ill, 782 

Calvin, Henry R., Ill, 533 

Calvin, Jacob B., I, 591 

Calvin, James, I, 151, 319 

Calvin, John R., Ill, 783 

Calvin, Mrs. G. O., I, 785 

Cameron, George D., I, 706 

Camp, A. B., I, 504 

Camp, D. W., I, 678 

Camp Sherman Community House, I, 

Campaign of 1896, I, 223 

Campbell, Alexander, I, 319, 446, 451, 

523 
Campbell, Andrew, I, 555 
Campbell, Bales M„ 1, 264, 362 



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XXIV 



INDEX 



Campbell, Bruce, I, 596 

Campbell, Bruce R., I, 497 

Campbell (Bruce) Company, I, 773 

Campbell, B. M., I, 365 

Campbell, Charles, I, 556 

Campbell, Daniel, II, 201 

Campbell, D., I, 546, 567 

Campbell, George, I, 605; II, 110 

Campbell, George C, I, 739 

Campbell, George L., II, 110 

Campbell, J. A., I, 355, 604, 700 
706, 783, 789, 815; II, 4 

Campbell, J. Clyde, II, 237 

Campbell, Leroy D., II, 388 

Campbell, L. J., I, 733, 779, 796; II, 
338 

Campbell, L. L., I, 490, 780 

Campbell, Marie, I, 788 

Campbell, Neal, I, 311 

Campbell Mrs. Robert L., I, 786 

Campbell, W. C I 490 

Campbell Walter L., I, 212, 268, 346 

Campbell, Park, I, 499 

Camp field (see Can field) township, I, 
557 

Canada, named by the Iroquois, I, 22 

Canal boats described, I, 758 

Canfield, Edward G., I, 341, 344 

Canfield, Henry J., sketch of, I, 340 

Canfield, Judson, I, 556, 609; sketch of, 
I, 557; III, 457 

Canfield, J. W., I, 559 

Canfield, Samuel, I, 556 

Canfield, I, 117, 152, 159, 163, 184, 188, 
206, 308, 309, 341 ; first postmaster of, 
I. 114; anti-removal convention at, I, 
207; made seat of Mahoning county, 
I, 191; loses county seat to Youngs- 
town, I, 208; fights removal of 
county seat to Youngstown, I, 209; 
churches of, I, 561 

Canfield (Village), consolidated Can- 
field Village School District, I, 560; 
incorporation of, and present status, 
I, 565; its newspaper, I, 566; finan- 
cial institutions of, I, 567 

Canfield Township, Mahoning County, 
I, 106; original stockholders and sur- 
vey of, I, 556; first permanent set- 
tlers of, I, 557; first schools and 
Union School district, I, 559; politi- 
cal history, I, 563; discovery of coal 
oil in, I, 772 

Canfield Herald, I, 463 

Canfield High School, I, 561 

Cantwell, John F., I, 219, 264, 276 

Cantwell, John R, Sr., II, 39 

Captain George (Indian chief), I, 107, 
108, 109, 111 

Carabelli, Onorato, II, 388 

Carbon Limestone Company, I, 513, 
729 

Cardwell, Foster M., Ill, 560 

Carew, George J., I, 342, 385; III, 782 

Carey, C. E., I, 443 

Carlton, Francis I, 404 

Carlton John, I, 612 



Carman, W. C, I, 343 

Carnegie Company, McDonald, I, 604 

Carnegie mills, I, 232 

Carnegie Steel Company, Youngstown, 
I, 503, 672, 683, 692, 696; plant ab- 
sorbed by city I 266; starting of 
units of its Ohio works I, 714; 
changes in management of, I, 715; 
McDonald Mills of, I, 716; subscrip- 
tions by to War Chest Fund, I, 792 

Carnegie Steel Company, Youngstown, 
six furnaces, daily capacity 500 tons; 
Niles furnace, daily capacity, 150 
tons, I, 668 

Carney, Martin J., II, 379 

Carney, Michael C, I, 537 

Carney P. J., I, 529 

Carnick Brothers III, 490 

Carnick, Jacob, III, 490 

Carnick, Robert, III, 490 

Carroll, Reuben, I, 266 

Carroll, William L., II, 118 

Carson, George F., I, 601, 612; III, 
772 

Carson, George W., Ifl, 674 

Carson, Paul E., II, 158 

Carter, A. L., I, 601 

Carter, Erastus, I, 634 

Carter, P. L., I, 603, 604 

Carter, Thomas, I, 476, 684 

Carter, William B., II, 252 

Carter, William M., Ill, 559 

Cartier, Jacques, I, 21, 22 

Cartwright, Charles, I, 627 

Cartwright, James, I, 368, 627 

Cartwright, Samuel, I, 492 

Cartwright, McCurdy & Company, I, 
672, 675 

Cartwright-McCurdy Mill (now Lower 
Union Carnegie Steel Company), I, 
715 

Case, Asa, I, 644 

Case, A. B., I, 601 

Case, Leonard, I, 109, 162, 408, 413 

Case, Mary, I, 287 

Case, Meshach, I, 404 

Casement, John S., I, 195, 424 

Casey, J. J., I, 782 

Casey, William, I, 276 

Cash, H. L., I, 510 

Caskev, Herbert K., I. 383 

Cassidy, Henry, I, 274 

Cassidy, H. A., I, 569 

Casterline, Silas, I, 634 

Castle William (see Cotgreave build- 
ing), I, 414 

Cathplic Churches of Youngstown, I, 
311, 312, 313; Lowellville, I, 515 

Catholic Parochial Schools, I, 294 

Catholic Service League, I, 385 

Centenary A. M. E. Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 327 

Centennial state celebration, I, 232 

Center of the World, bridge, Brace- 
ville township, I, 621 

Central Bank and Trust Company, I, 
362 



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INDEX 



XXV 



Central Christian Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 320; Warren, I, 451; Hub- 
bard, L 523 

Central Savings and Loan Company, 
I, 364 

Central Square School, I, 288 

Central Union Telephone Company, 

I, 373 

Century Building, I, 256 

Chaffee, A. R., I, 424 

Chaffee, O. W., I, 727 

Chalker, James, I, 630 

Chalker, James, Jr., death of, I, 630 

Chalker, Newton, benefactor to South- 

ington Center, I, 631 
Chamberlain, B. B., I, 178, 420 
Chamberlin, Frank F., Ill, 781 
Chamberlin, Mrs. R. N., I, 786 
Chambers, John, I, 628 
Champion, Henry, I, 42 
Champion Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 797 
Champion Center, I, 629 
Champion Grange. I, 629 
Champion, Henry, I, 628 
Champion township: early settlers and 

organization of, I, 628; schools and 

churches of, I, 629 
Cham plain, I, 22 

Chandonne, August, I, 734; II, 116 
Chaney, Novetus H., I, 241, 290, 378; 

II, 351 

Chapman, Charles C, I, 275 

Chapman, Lettie, I, 623 

Charter Commission, I, 241 

Chase, H. B., I, 241 

Chase, Philander, I, 309 

Chelekis, George, III, 450 

Chesney, Samuel, I, 411, 440 

Chidester, Hezekiah, I, 582 

Chidester, William, I, 162, 413 

Chiefs of Police, I, 276, 277 

Children of Israel (Jewish) Congrega- 
tion, Youngstown, I, 323 

Childs, J. J., I, 444 

Chiropractors and Optometrists of Ma- 
honing Valley, I, 353 

Chirichigno, Gerard C, II, 234 

Christ, Abraham, I, 595 

Christ Church (Episcopal), Warren, I, 
448 

Christ English Lutheran Congrega- 
tion, Niles, I, 489 

Christian and Missionary Alliance, 
Youngstown, I, 330; Warren, I, 455 

Christian (Disciples of Christ) 
Churches, Youngstown, I, 319; 
Warren, I, 451; Girard, I, 508; Low- 
ellville, I, 515; Canfield, I, 563; Four 
Mile Run, 1, 577; North Jackson 
(Jackson Center), I, 579; Greenford, 
I, 591; Mineral Ridge, I, 603; New- 
ton Falls, I, 611; Brookfield, I, 615; 
Payne's Corners, I, 617; Braceville 
township, I, 621; Hartford Center, I, 
624; Fowler Township, I, 626; 
Champion, I, 629; Gwillington, I, 



631; Vernon Center, I, 634; East 
Mecca, I, 637; North Bristol, I, 639; 
Farmington Center, I, 641; Bloom- 
field Center, I, 649 

Christy, Matthias, I, 617 

Christy, Wade, I, 779 

Chryst, Charles C, II, 242 

Chubb, William A., I, 545; II, 84 

Chuey, Andrew, II, 42 

Chuey, John E., II, 42 

Chuey, Mary, II, 42 

Chuey, Michael B., II, 42 

Chuey, Stephen J., II, 42 

Chuey Brothers, II, 42 

Church, Catherine, I, 629 

Church, Jonathan, I, 59. 405, 440 

Church, John R., I, 566 

Church, John W., I, 341 

Church, Josiah, I, 405 

Church, Nathaniel, I, 556; leads party 
surveying Canfield township, I, 556 

Church Hill, I, 605 

Church Hill Coal Company, I, 606 

Church Hill Coal Company (1875): 
daily coal mining capacity 450 tons, 
1,770 

Church of Christ in Warren, I, 447; 
Sebring, I, 542 

Church of England Men, I, 68, 69 

Church of God congregation, New 
Springfield, I, 597 

Church of God and Saints of Christ, 
Youngstown, I, 330 

Church of the Brethren, Youngstown, 
I, 329 

Church of the Covenanters, Youngs- 
town, I, 328 

Churches, Youngstown, I, 302-330; 
Warren, I. 445-55; Niles, I, 487; 
Struthers, I, 500; Girard, I, 507; 
Lowellville, I, 514; Hubbard, I, 522; 
Sebring, I, 542; Canfield, I, 561; 
Jackson Township, I, 579; Milton 
Township, I, 581; Ellsworth Town- 
ship, I, 583; Berlin Township, I, 585; 
Springfield Township, I, 597; Lib- 
erty Township, I, 606; Lordstown 
Township, I, 613; Vienna Township, 
I, 617; Howland Township, I, 619; 
Braceville Township, I, 620, 621; 
Fowler Township, I, 625; Champion 
Township, I, 629; Southington 
Township, I, 631; Johnston Town- 
ship, I, 636; Bristol Township, I, 639 

Churchill, Amzi, I, 647 

Citizen- News Company, I, 349 

Citizen, The, I, 349 

Citizens Bank Company, Sebring, I, 
541 

Citizens Loan and Savings Association, 
Niles, I, 480 

Citizens Savings Bank, Warren, I, 438 

Citizens Savings Bank and the Warren 
Savings Bank Company, I, 438 

City Clerks, I, 267-273 

City Park, Warren, I, 469 



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XXVI 



INDEX 



City Rescue Mission, Youngstown, I, 
330 

City Trust and Savings Bank, I, 362 

Civil Government in Youngstown, I, 
260 

Civil War, participation of Mahoning 
Valley in, I, 194; toll of death in 
Youngstown village and township, 
I, 198; Warren and Trumbull coun- 
ty in, I, 424; Morgan's raid described, 
I, 818 

Civil war memorial, Southington, I, 
631 

Claiborne, Robert B„ I, 310 

Clapp, Carroll F., I, 740; III, 779 

Clapp, Warren I, 636 

Clarence Hyde Post No. 278, Ameri- 
can Legion, I, 801 

Clark, Mrs. Arner, I, 468 

Clark, A. M., I, 248, 784, 789 

Clark, Cecil, I, 650 

Clark, C. H., I, 339 

Clark, Colin R., I, 780, 788 

Clark, Edward R, I, 742; III, 494 

Clark, Isaac, I, 649 

Clark, Joseph, I, 649 

Clark, J. C, I, 384 

Clark, Lucy, I, 442 

Clark, Raymond, I, 536 

Clark, Silas C, I, 565 

Clark, S. L., I, 343 

Clark, Walter, I, 563 

Clark, William C, I, 443, 448 

Clarke, Ida M., I, 378, 784; III, 707 

Clarke, John H., I, 342, 348, 376; III, 
707 

Clarke, Talcott, I, 803 

Clarke, T. S., I, 719 

Clash, Mrs. R. F., I, 785 

Clay, Carl, III, 440 

Clay, Maurice C, III, 439 

Clay, W. C, I, 591 

Clearing of the land, I, 654 

Cleaveland, Camden, I, 105, 260 

Cleaveland, Moses, I, 10, 42, 43, 46, 49, 
50, 89; first experience with Indi- 
ans, I, 45, 49 

Clegg, Charles R., Ill, 807 

Clegg, George R., Ill, 507 

Clegg, Samuel B., I, 307; III, 806 

Cleland, J. M., I, 555 

Cleland, W. M., I, 626 

Clemens, Charles £., II, 361 

demons, Lester J., Ill, 666 

Clemson, W. P., I, 593 

Clendennen, David, I, 174, 494, 661 

Cleveland, Camden, I, 58, 117 

Cleveland, I, 48, 52, 56, 59, 159, 175; 
survey of commences, I, 50; in 1798, 
I, 54 

Cleveland township, Cuyahoga county 
(See Cleveland), I, 42, 53 

Cleveland & Mahoning Railroad, I, 
192, 423: sketch of, I, 760; completed, 
I, 761, 763 

Cliff, Ray Y., I, 736; III, 586 

Cliffe, C. S., I, 508 



Clingan, A. Lamoin, II, 105 

Clingan, F. F., I, 525 

Clingan, French, III, 531 

Clingan, Thomas O., II, 323 

Clinker, Christian, I, 586, 587 

Clinton, William, I, 616 

Close, F. A., I, 316 

Clothing, I, 155 

Clybourn, C. A., I, 639 

Clyde, E. V., 1, 353 

Coal: of the Mahoning Valley, I, 769; 
mines of Trumbull county in 1870 
and 1880, I, 770; status of Mahoning 
Valley mines in 1875, I, 770; mining 
of in Mahoning Valley, a past indus- 
try, I, 771 

Coal oil: discovery of, in Mahoning 
Valley, I, 772 

Coal strike of 1919, I, 250 

Coalburg village, I, 526-27 

Coale, William L., I, 439, 440, 797; III, 
545 

Cobb, Rollin A., I, 438, 748: III, 516 

Cobbledick, Melville W., II, 148 

Cobbs, Thomas L., Ill, 479 

Coblentz, John, I, 586, 587 

Coburn, Carrie, I, 498 

Cochran, Chauncey A., II, 224 

Cochran, Lucius E., I, 477, 673, 683, 
692; II, 224 

Codville, William, I, 447 

Coffee, Isaac E., I, 341 

Coit, Daniel L., I, 567 

Coit, Joseph, I, 582, 584 

Coitsville, Mahoning County, I, 106; 
(Village), founding of, I, 568 

Coitsville Center, I, 570 

Coitsville township, Mahoning county, 
I, 104: pioneers of, I, 567; organiza- 
tion of, with churches, I, 569; schools 
of, I, 570 

Coleman, W. M., I, 371 

Coleman, Shields & Company, I, 689 

Coler, Henry E., Ill, 637 

Coler, S. A., II, 203 

Collar, Aaron, I, 163, 414 

Colleran, James P., I, 364; II, 39 

Collier, Leo J., II, 68 

Collins, George, III, 792 

Collins, John, I, 618 

Collins, R. W., I, 571 

Collins, Robert, III, 793 

Collins, T. F., I, 555 

Colored Baptist Churches in Youngs- 
town, I, 316 

Colucci, Stephen, II, 151 

Columbiana Cooperage Company, I, 
541 

Commercial National Bank, I, 361 

Commission form of government 
(1891), I, 263 

Committee for Relief in Near East, I, 
791 

Common Pleas Court, I, 292 

Community Building, Newton Falls, I, 
610 



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j 



INDEX 



XXVll 



Community Corporation, Youngstown, 
I, 382 m 

Community Service Society, I, 377 

Community Social Hygienic Clinic, I, 
.258 

Community Welfare Missions, Youngs- 
town, I, 329 

Company D, Fifth Ohio National 
Guard, I, 433 

Company H, Fifth Regiment, Ohio 
National Guard, in Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, I, 227 

Conant, Philip B., I, 342 

Concord Baptist Church (see First 
Baptist Church), I, 411, 445 

Cone, Calvin, I, 161 

Congregational church, I, 79, 123; in 
Youngstown, I, 324; Can field, I. 561 ; 
Boardman Township, I, 574; Hart- 
ford Center, I, 624; Mineral Ridge, 
I, 603; Vernon Center, I, 634; East 
Mecca, I, 637; West Farmington, I, 
641; Farmington Center, I, 641; Gus- 
tavus Center, I, 645; Mesopotamia 
township, I, 650 

Conkling, Roscoe, I, 431 

Con Ian, James, I, 311, 452 

Connecticut: people of settle Wyom- 
ing Valley, I, 27; Ohio lands re- 
served in cessions to General Gov- 
ernment, I, 30 

Connecticut charter, I, 25, 26 

Connecticut Land Company organ- 
ized, I, 38, 49, 52, 55, 89, 90, 116, 
119; meetings of, at Hartford, I, 40; 
members of, I, 41; directors of, I, 
42; confirms Cleaveland T s Indian 
treaty, I, 46; total acreage in Wes- 
tern Reserve, I, 54; conveys to John 
Young site of Youngstown, I, 92; 
partition holdings in Western Re- 
serve, I, 102, 116 

Connecticut State Legislature, disposes 
of Western lands, I, 35 

Connecticut Western Reserve (see 
also Western Reserve), I, 30 

Connell, Thomas E., I, 781 

Conner, William G., I, 93 

Connor, John J., II, 301 

Connor, W. P., I, 334 

Conroy, Stephen S., II, 196 

Considine, J. L., I, 750 

Continental Supply Company, I, 706 

Conway, E. J., I, 452 

Cook, Alexander, I, 553 

Cook, Alfred C. II, 52 

Cook, A. J., I, 523 

Cook, Charles C, sketch of, I, 332 

Cook, Chauncey C, I, 583 

Cook, Mrs. Etta, I, 787 

Cook, Jacob, I, 565, 589 

Cook, Rebekah A., I, 491 

Cook, Thomas, I, 326 

Cooking, I, 155 

Coombs, M. E., I, 715, 716 

Coon, Jacob, I, 552 

Coopack, Aaron, I, 593 



Cooper, Dahl B., I, 342, 781; II, 243 

Cooper, Dave N., Ill, 497 

Cooper, David, I, 568 

Cooper, John A., II, 215 

Cooper, John G., II, 228 

Cooper, J. A. & D. P. Gear Company, 
I, 495 

Cooper, Samuel F., Youngstown's 
first superintendent of schools, I, 287 

Cooper, Mrs. Samuel 1\, 1, 287 

Cope, C. L., I, 563 

Cope, W. G., I, 545 

Copland, David, I, 746 

Corbin, William F., II, 287 

Corduroy bridges, I, 753 

Core, John, I, 303 

Core, Thomas, I, 615 

Corey, Ebenezer, I, 568 

Corey, Frank E., I, 610 

Cornelius, Ralph E., I, 358, 360, 731; II 
251 

Cornelius, William, I, 347 

Cornell, A. B., I, 288, 335, 395, 667 

Cornell, George B., II, 295 

Cornersburg Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Youngstown, I, 308 

Corns Iron Company, Liberty Town- 
ship, I, 676, 688 

Cortland, I, 626; village government, 
schools, churches, I, 627 

Cortland Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 797 

Cortland Christian Church, I, 627 

Cortland Herald, I, 627 

Cortland Savings and Banking Com- 
pany, I, 627 

Cortland Steel Tube Company, I, 627 

Cosel, William, II, 367 

Cotgreave, William, I, 414 

Cotgreave, William VV., I, 466 

Cotgreave Building, Warren, I, 414 

Cotton, Joshua T.. I, 171 

Council Rock, I, 92, 94, 400 

Councilmen of Youngstown, I, 267-274 

Countryman, H. I., I, 497 

County fair association organized, I, 
176, 656 

County Infirmary, Champion town- 
ship, I, 629 

County Jail in Quinby house, Warren, 
1,409 

County seat dispute, 1809-1810, I, 162; 
removal of (1840), I, 185 (see also 
Mahoning County, Youngstown), I, 
413, 414 

Coursen, W. M., I, 536, 570 

Courts, first court of general quarter 
session of the peace, I, 58; first court 
of Quarter Sessions, I, 260; Munici- 
pal Court created, I, 264; Criminal 
Court Judges, I, 272; Municipal 
Court Judges, I, 273; Probate Court 
of Mahoning County, I, 344; early 
meeting places for, I, 414 

Court House: first in Warren burned 
before completed, I, 413; that of 



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XXV111 



INDEX 



1815-16; Warren, I, 418; 1854, at 

Warren, I, 422 
Covenanters, I, 62 
Cover, J. B., I, 536 
Covington Street School, I, 288 
Cowden, Hugh T„ I, 555; II, 107 
Cowden, Isaac, I, 549 
Cowden, Smith, death of, I, 282 
Cowdery, Nelson A., II, 49 
Cowles, Betsy M. f I, 152 
Cowles, Giles, I, 648 
Cowles, Solomon, I, 630 
Cowley, Hugh, I, 276 
Cox, Jacob Dolson, I, 424, 444, 455, 
462; sketch of, I, 459; explains why 

Governor Tod was not renominated. 

I, 826 
Cox, L. M., I, 565 
Coy Brothers, III, 541 
Coy, Emerson W., Ill, 541 
Coy, Irvin W., Ill, 541 
Coy, Lewis D., Ill, 533 
Coy, Wesley H., Ill, 541 
Crab Creek, I, 215 
Cracraft, John W., I, 342 
Craft, A. N„ I, 307 
Craft, Frank W., Ill, 741 
Craft, M., I, 627 
Craig, Eugene F., Ill, 575 
Craig, John M., I, 432 
Craig, Kittie, I, 491 
Craig, R. J., I, 649 
Cramer, J. D., I, 521 
Crandall, Charles N., I, 307 
Crandall, Margaret, III, 608 
Crandall, Nelson, I, 711; II, 216 
Crandall Park, I, 402 
Crandon, E., I, 506 
Cratsley, Albert B., Ill, 417 
Cratsley, John, I, 626 
Cratsley, John C, I, 438; II, 317 
Craver, Alvin W., I, 264, 272, 273; 

II, 203 
Crawford, Alexander L., I, 722 
Crawford, Moses, I, 115 
Crawford, Alexander & Company, I, 

512 
Crawford & Howard, I, 193, 665 
Crebs, Christian, I, 587 
Creed, Edward W., II, 315 
Creed, Frank R., Ill, 492 
Creed, Glen R., I, 582 
Creighton, William R., I, 195, 424 
Creps, Sidney R., II, 46 
Crerar, John, I, 707 
Criminal Court Judges, I, 272-273 
Crippen, C. I., I, 351 
Crittenton Home for Unmarried 

Mothers, Youngstown, I, 258, 339 
Crocker, E. R. f I, 634 
Croninger, William, I, 628 
Crooks, William, I, 404, 440 
Crosby, Obed, I, 633, 634 
Cross, Cassius E., II, 210 
Cross, H. B., I, 745 
Cross, John S„ III, 625 
Crotty, D. B., I, 489 



Crouse, Jacob, I, 586, 587 
Crouse, Kollin, I, 544 
Crow, Charles, I, 492; II, 325 
Crow, Eugene, I, 532 
Crowell, Harriett, I, 647 

Cr £K tl l 9 J oh ?* l > 178 ' 420 ' W, 462, 

623, 671; sketch of, I, 458 
Crowther, Benjamin, III, 523 
Crowther, Charles E., Ill, 523 
Crowther, Edgar C, III, 523 
Crowther, John, I, 667 
Crowther, Joseph H., Ill, 524 
Crowther, Joseph J., Ill, 523 
Crowther, Joshua, III, 523 
Crum, Samuel, I, 613 
Crumbacher, John, I, 587 
Crutchley, G. R., I, 591 
Cullaton, M., I, 345 
Culler, Albert, I, 591 
Cullinan, Joseph S., I, 749 
Culp, S. B., I, 631 
Culp, Samuel D., Ill, 416 
Cummings, John, I, 638, 642 
Community Hall, East Youngstown, I, 

Cunningham, Jesse, II, 103 
Cunningham, J. S., I, 335. 375 
Cunningham, William, I, 614 
Cunningham, William H„ I, 537; II, 

30 
Currie, W. R., I, 326 
Curtis, Joel E., I, 614 
Curtis, Joseph, I, 619 
Curtis, Joseph W., I, 447 
Curtis, Myron S., II, 241 
Curtis, William B., Ill, 690 
Curtis, Zenas, I, 640 
Cushwa, Charles B., I, 742; II, 278 
Cuyahoga county organized, I, 149 

Dabney, J., I, 637 

Dabney, Nathaniel, I, 103, 112 

Daily Morning News, I, 350 

Daily News, I, 347 

Daily Times, I, 350 

Daily and Weekly Herald, I, 350 

Dalby, William A., Ill, 780 

Dalleske, Albert C, III, 562 

Dally, Charles, I, 405, 406, 676 

Dally, Isaac, I, 405 

Dally, John, I, 405 

Dalton, H. G., I, 706 

Dalzell, Clifton H., I, 229 

Dalzell, James J., I, 365; II, 60 

Damascus, I, 591 

Damascus Academy, I, 592 

Dame, F. L., I, 371 

Dana, Junius, I, 444 

Dana, Lynn B., I, 444; II, 170 

Dana, William D., I, 444 

Dana's Musical Institute, I, 444 

Danforth, Charles W., Ill, 770 

Dangerfield, James, I, 182, 671 

Daniels, Martin, I, 636 

Daniels, Samuel, I, 411 

Darley, William G., I, 442 

Darr, J. W., I, 505 



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J 



INDEX 



XXIX 



Darrow, D. R., III, 797 

Darrow Garden Co., The, III, 797 

Darrow, James G., Ill, 797 

Darrow, Nathan B., I, 617 

Darrow, Ralph H., I, 555; III, 797 

Daugherty, Bert G., II, 307 

Dave (Warren's famous horse), I, 133 

Daves, David, I, 324 

David, L. B., I, 637 

Davidson, Benjamin, I, 58, 59, 404, 405 

Davidson, Daniel A., II, 44 

Davidson, F. C, I, 322 

Davidson, George H., I, 574 

Davidson, Harry, I, 543 

Davidson, I. M., I, 323 

Davidson, James, I, 215, 607 

Davies, John L., I, 324 

Davies, William I., I, 241, 361; II, 292 

Davis, A. Lincoln. I, 320 

Davis, C. R., I, 621 

Davis, David E., I, 359, 723, 734 

Davis, Fred H., Ill, 543 

Davis, George Y., Ill, 434 

Davis, Harry L., Ill, 551 

Davis, Henry C, II, 321 

Davis, Henry W., Ill, 542 

Davis, J. Boyd, I, 490 

Davis, \ E., I, 749 

Davis, John R., I, 363, 376; III, 468 

Davis, John W., I, 344 

Davis, Joseph R., Ill, 577 

Davis, Ralph G., Ill, 468 

Davis, Samuel, I. 589 

Davis, Thomas G, III, 506 

Davis, Thomas L., Ill, 671 

Davis, Thomas W., I, 324 

Davis, W. J. T., I. 727 

Davis Mining and Manufacturing Com- 
pany, I, 576 

Davis, David, III, 506 

Davison, Benjamin, I, 439, 609 

Davison & McCleary, I, 678 

Daw, Lane, I, 317 

Dawson. H. Preston. II, 154 

Dawson, I. N., I, 440 

Dawson, Joseph, I, 636 

Dawson, Nancy, I, 636 

Dawson, William B., I, 341, 345, 349, 
566 

Day, George E., I, 706 

Day, William F., I, 554 

Dechend. Harry, I, 349 

Deerfield; Center of Mingoe Tribe, 
I, 12 

Deetrick, James W., II, 328 

Deetrick, J. Wilbert, I, 707, 710 

De Ford, Union C, I, 343; II, 293 

De Forest Sheet & Tin Plate Com- 
pany, I, 479, 709 

De Groodt, Sherman H., II, 146 

Dehn, William, I, 499 

Dehn, William, Jr., II, 109 

DeHoff, G. W., I, 576 

Deibel, Christopher, I, 363, 688; II, 
146 

Deibel, Christopher W., II, 146 

Deibel, Edward J., Ill, 484 



Deibel, Oscar G, II, 146 

DeLaney, Victor W., II, 60 

Delawares, I, 13, 14 

Delightful, I, 630 

Dellenbaugh, I, 593 

Delzell, O. V., I, 592 

Demingr, Mrs. Zell H., I, 463 

Demmil, George, I, 496 

Dempsey, Samuel, I, 474 

Denman, Walter R., I, 746 

Dennett, John L., I, 734; II, 189 

Dennig, C. A., I, 489 

Dennison, Florinda, II, 361 

Dennison, James H., II, 360 

Dennison, John, I, 605 

Dennison, John W., II, 192 

Dennison, Myron E., I, 358: II, 5 

Dennison, Mrs. M. E., I, 387 

Dennison, Samuel, I, 172 

DeNormandie, Frank L., II, 132 

Dent, F. R., I, 305 

Dentistry (dental surgery) in Youngs- 
town, I, 339 

Depane, Wilbur, I, 591 

Depew, Daniel, I, 581 

Derr, Daniel, I, 678 

De Soto, I, 21 

Detchin, Benjamin C, I, 803 

Detchon, A. O., Ill, 791 

Detchon, James B„ III, 804 

Detchon, Oswald, II, 339 

Detchon, Sarah S., II, 339 

Detweiler, Jacob, I, 586 

DeVaux, P. F., I, 631 

DeVenne, John, 111,511 

DeWolf, Joseph, I, 624, 633 

DeWolf, Ruhamah, I, 644 

Dickey, Fanny, I, 442 

Dickey, J. W., I, 217 

Dickey, James W., I, 263 

Dickey, Martha, I, 442, 443 

Dickey, Ray, I, 779 

Dickey, Raymond V., II, 213 

Dickhaut, Chester A., I, 349 

Dickinson, Mrs. C. W., I, 468 

Dickson, Alexander, III, 745 

Dickson, Harry J., Ill, 746 

Dickson, James M., Ill, 757 

Dickson, Rebecca, III, 757 

Dickson, William, I, 562 

Dickson, W. J., I, 565 

Diehl, Jefferson, III, 547 

Dietrich, Dale, II, 179 

Dill, G. M., I, 522 

Dill, S. J., I, 371 

Dilley, E. O., I, 460 

Dillon, A. H., I, 779 

Dilworth, I, 645 

Dimond, Robert W., II, 296 

Dingledy, John, II, 299 

Dingledy, William G, II, 247 

Directors of Public Safety, I, 273-274 

Directors of Public Service, I, 273-274 

Disciples of Christ (see Christian) 
Churches, I, 319 

Disciples (Christian) Churches, South- 
ington township, I, 631 



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XXX 



INDEX 



Diser, Oscar E., I, 537; III, 767 

Dittmar, M. T., I, 499 

Dixie, coal oil town, I, 773 

Dixon, James M., I, 208 

Doan, Nathaniel, I, 55 

Doane, C E., I, 743 

Dobbins, R. B., I, 334 

Dobson, R. T., I, 347 

Doddridge, Joseph, I, 67 

Doeright, G. A., I, 750, 751; II, 255 

Doeright, J. A., I, 750 

Dollar Savings Bank, Niles, I, 480 

Dollar Savings & Trust Company, 
Struthers, I, 497 

Dollar Savings and Trust Company, 
Youngstown, I, 358, 359 

Donald, John H., I, 190 

Donaldson, Andrew, I, 628 

Donnelly, Joseph, I, 343 

Dornan, William G., II, 293 

Double, William, III, 740 

Doubleday, Charles, I, 197, 427 

Doud, James, I, 117, 260, 557, 563 

Dougherty, Charles W., II, 367 

Dougherty & Brennan, II, 366 

Doughton, Frank, I, 520 

Doughton, Frank A., II, 169 

Doughton, John C, III, 528 

Doughton, Stephen, III, 527 

Douglas, Jacob M., I, 309 

Douglass, Robert, I, 500, 607 

Downer, Earl B., II, 376 

Downs, Herbert G., Ill, 707 

Downs, W. H., I, 629 

Draa, James, I, 492 

Drabkin, Samuel, II, 262 

Drake, Samuel D., II, 42 

Draper, John W., Ill, 778 

Dray, M. M., I, 645 

Drennen, William, I, 678 

Dress, I, 135 

Dressel, Evan C, I, 585 

Drissen,, Charles H., I, 525: II, 332 

Druhot, R. L., I, 585. 592, 594 

Dryos 'Mike, I, 555 

DuBois, G. W., I, 449 

Dubosh, Francis, I, 313 

DuChanois, Charles F., II, 137 

Dudley, George E., I, 307, 784, 789; 
III, 401 

Duesing, Herman, I, 264 

Duesing, Herman F., II, 214 

Dumars, James, I, 345, 462 

Duncan, I, 89, 99 

Duncan, James, I, 447, 500, 515, 607 

Dunkards Church, Springfield town- 
ship, I, 597 

Dunlap, Cyrus, I, 93 

Dunlap, E. G., I, 371 

Dunlap, Elton G., II, 171 

Dunlap, James, I, 613 

Dunnavant, William W., Ill, 472 

Dunstan, John, II, 328 

Durbin, Lorene, I, 533 

Durr, B. E., I, 586 

Durr, Michael, I, 589 

Durst, E. E., I, 629 



Durst, William, I, 628 

Dutterer, Frederick, I, 586 

Dutterer, Michael, I, 586 

Dutton, Charles, I, 115; sketch of, I, 

331 
Dutton, Charles C, I, 653 
Dwyer, P. C. N., I, 467 
Dyar, Ralph M., I, 727 
Dye, James E., Ill, 608 
Dyer, Lucius, I, 275 
Dyke, C. B., I, 294 
D. and M. Cord Tire Company, I, 470, 

746 

Eagle furnace, erected (1846), W. M. 
Philpot & Company, Youngstown, 
capacity twenty-eight tons, I, 181, 
665, 666, 667, 672 

Eagles, I, 256 

Earle, Jacob, I, 620 

Early, Addie B., Ill, 736 

Early, Lucy D., Ill, 734 

Eason, Beulah, I, 641 

East Alliances, I, 594 

East Federal Street, I, 257 

East Lewistown, I, 587 

East Mecca, I, 636, 637 

East Mecca Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 797 

East Ohio Gas Company, I, 373, 774 

East Youngstown, history of, I, 528- 
38; incorporated as village, I, 529; 
industrial riot at, I, 530-31; churches 
and social welfare activities, I, 533; 
schools of, I, 535; public affairs of, 
I, 536 

East Youngstown riot, I, 243 

Eastern Ohio, I, 125 , 

Eastlake, George B., II, 133 

Eaton, Daniel, I, 174, 494; sketch of, 
I, 602 

Eaton, James, I, 174 

Eaton, John W., I, 481; II, 114 

Ebert, Edgar P., I, 318 

Ebey, Samuel L., I, 490 

Ebinger, E. G., I, 525 

Eckert, Myron H., I, 353; II, 314 

Eckman, Ambrose, I, 502, 506; II, 183 

Eckman, John, I, 411 

Eckman Coal Company, II, 183 

Eden, Albert J„ I, 543, 594 

Eden Grange, I, 613 

Eddy, Ira, I, 649 

Education: first schools and teachers, 
I, 114; school code of 1825, I, 137: 
school facilities of Youngstown and 
Poland (1818), I, 176; Youngstown's 
first teacher, I, 283; school organiza- 
tion in village and township, I, 284; 
first Youngstown school house, I, 
284; second school house built in 
Youngstown (1826), I, 285; Union 
school system (1849), I, 286 Youngs- 
town's first board of Education 
and superintendent of Schools, I, 
287; Catholic parochial schools of 
Youngstown, I, 294-297; Evangelical 



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INDEX 



XXXI 



Lutheran parochial schools, 297-300; 
Hebrew schools, 300; business col- 
leges, 301; Warren's Schools, I, 442- 
44; Warren schools organized, I, 443; 
schools of Niles, I, 489; schools of 
Niles Union District, I, 490; Struth- 
ers School District, I, 497; Schools 
of Girard, I, 509; Lowelville Schools, 
I, «516; Hubbard township and vil- 
lage contest school control, I, 524; 
school system of township and vil- 
lage, I, 525; schools of East Youngs- 
town, I, 535; schools of Sebring, I, 
541; school system of Mahoning 
County, I, 545- schools of Poland, 
Township, I, 550; schools of Can- 
field township, I, 559; Canfield Vil- 
lage school district created, I, 560; 
schools of Coitsville Township, I, 
570; school of Boardman township, 
I, 573; schools of Austintown town- 
ship, I, 576; schools of Jackson 
Township, I, 578; schools of Milton 
Township, I, 581; schools of Ells- 
worth Township, I, 583; schools of 
Berlin township, I, 585; schools of 
Beaver Township, I, 587; schools of 
Springfield Township, I, 596; schools 
of Liberty Township, I, 607; schools 
of Lords town Township, I. 613: 
schools of Howland Township, I, 
619; schools of Braceville Township, 
I, 620; schools of Fowler Town- 
ship, I, 625; schools of Champion 
Township, I, 629; schools of South- 
ington Township, I, 631; schools of 
Vernon Township, I, 633; schools of 
Johnston Township, I, 635; schools 
of Bristol Township, I, 639 
Edwards, Benjamin W., I, 746; II, 282 
Edwards, Mrs. B. W., I, 468 
Edwards, C. Perry, I, 264 
Edwards, Edward R„ II, 329 
Edwards, John D., Ill, 750 
Edwards, John M., I, 91, 101, 263, 

341, 345, 395; III, 591 
Edwards, John S., I, 58, 105, 106, 111, 
162, 166, 167, 358, 410, 416, 649, 671; 
death of, I, 171; first lawyer on the 
Western Reserve; first resident of 
the Reserve elected to Congress, I, 
405; sketch of, I, 455 
Edwards, Joseph R., Ill, 633 
Edwards, J. Howard, I, 347; III, 657 
Edwards, Pierpont, I, 51, 405, 649 
Edwards, W. A., I, 348 
Edwards, William, I, 518 
Edwards, William F., I, 746; II, 241 
Edwards, William J., I, 456 
Edwards, William M., Ill, 515 
Egler, Andrew G., II, 157 
Ehle, J. H., I, 318 
Eib, Peter, I, 587 
Eich, M. L., I, 597 

Eighty-Eighth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try, Civil War, I, 197 



Eighty- Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try (Civil War), I, 196, 426 
Eighty-Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try (Civil War), I, 196, 426 

Eighty-Sixth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try (Civil War), I, 196, 426 

Elder, James F., Ill, 604 

Elder, John M., I, 480; II, 272 

Elder, S. J., I, 636 

Eldred, H. B., I, 143 

Eldredge, David, I, 52 

Electric Alloy Steel Company, I, 732 

Electric light first used in Youngs- 
town, I, 675 

Electric railway lines, in Mahoning 
and Shenango Valleys, I, 765 

Electricity introduced, I, 217 

Elizabeth Furnace, I, 475, 682 

Elks Club Building, I, 256 

Elliott, I, 99 

Elliott, Charles, I, 553 

Elliott, D. S., I, 345 

Elliott, Frank, III, 438 

Elliott, Frank K, I, 465 

Elliott, Richard J., I, 162, 413, 572 

Elliott, W. A., I, 611 

Ellis, J. H., I, 643 

Ellston, W. R., I, 637 

Ellsworth Center, I, 583, 584 

Ellsworth Station, I, 584 

Ellsworth township, Mahoning County, 
I, 106, 582-84; schools and churches 
of, I, 583 

Elser, R. E., I, 553, 597 

Elton, Albert, II, 386 

Elwinger, Harry H., I, 542 

Ely, Justin, I, 608 

Ely, William, 1, 51, 630, 631 

Emanuel Evangelical Lutheran Con- 
gregation, I, 454 

Emanuel (Jewish) Congregation, 
Youngstown, I, 323 

Emanuel Lutheran Church, New 
Springfield, I, 597 

Emery, Edward E., II, 261 

Emma Street Mission, Youngstown, 
1,330 

Empire Steel Company, I, 479, 712 

Engineers' Club, I, 351 

Enon Station, I, 761 

Ensign, Charles A., II, 373 

Ensign, J. N., I, 610 

Ensign, Seth I., I, 639 

Enterprise Iron Works, I, 672 

Episcopalians (see also Church of 
England Men), I, 68 

Episcopal Churches of Warren, I, 448 

Episcopal Diocese of Ohio organized, 
I, 309 

Episcopal Seminary, Warren, I, 442 

Epstein, Max, I, 746 

Epworth Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Youngstown, I, 307 

Equity Savings and Loan Company, 
I. 364 

Erb, Clarence F., Ill, 615 



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XXX11 



INDEX 



Erie Lodge, No. 3, Free and Accepted 
Masons, I, 465 

Erie Lodge, No. 47, Free and Accepted 
York Masons, I, 465 

Erie Railroad, I, 193, 423, 502, 761, 
763 

Erie Railroad Company plan offered 
for crossings elimination, I, 252 

Eries, crushed by the Iroquois, I, 9 

Erskine, George G., II, 100 

Erskine, Robert, II, 101 

Erwin, Robert, I, 415 

Escheldon, William, I, 803 

Eschliman, J. C, I, 576 

Estabrook, David R., Ill, 654, 

Estabrook, John B., I, 439; III, 654 

Estabrook Family, III, 654 

Estep, E. J., I, 341 

Euclid Township, Cuyahoga County, 
I, 42, 50, 53 

Evangelical Association, New Spring- 
field, I, 597; North Lima, I, 588; 
Liberty Township, I, 607 

Evangelical Church, West Austin- 
town, I, 576 

Evangelical Lutheran Church, North 
Lima, I, 588; Sebring, I, 542; Stru- 
thers, I, 501; Youngstown, I, 317 

Evangelical Lutheran Parochial 
Schools, I, 297 

Evanik, Thomas Z., I, 803 

Evans, Benjamin, II, 117 

Evans, Daniel H„ I, 304- 

Evans, David, I, 276 

Evans, D. J., I, 510 

Evans, Ernest, III, 515 

Evans, Joseph, II, 377 

Evans, J. Reid, I, 720 

Evans, Lionel, II, 53 

Evans, Mason, I, 346, 347, 361, 377, 
378, 398, 742; III, 750 

Evans, Mrs. Mason, I, 337 

Evans, Owen, I, 202, 262, 275, 276 

Evans, Richard L., I, 608 

Evans, Roger, I, 817 

Evans, Thomas, I, 324 

Evans, Thomas J., Ill, 603 

Evans, William T., Ill, 774 

Evans, W. L., I, 526 

Evening News, I, 346 

Evening Register, I, 346 

Everett, S. L., I, 348 

Evergreen Presbyterian Church, I, 
305 

Everitt, J. D., I, 634 

Ewalt, Jacob H., I, 439, 748; II, 228 

Ewalt, Robert W., II, 66 

Ewalt, Z. T., I, 619 

Ewing, Frank R., Ill, 410 

Ewing, George, I, 579, 581 

Ewing, George A., II, 393 

Ewing, Harry G., II, 14 

Ewing, Harvey R., I, 594; III, 399 

Ewing, J. Calvin, I, 344; III, 423 

Ewing, J. C, I, 517 

Ewing, James G., II, 13 

Ewing, James R., II, 397 



Ewing, John, I, 577, 578; III, 422 
Ewing, Samuel O., I, 517; II, 46 
Experimental Farm in Can field Town- 
ship, I, 656 
Eyler, George, I, 318 

Fair, William F., II, 27 

Falcon blast furnace, I, 182 

Falcon Bronze Company, I, 750 * 

Falcon furnace, I, 193, 475, 665, 671, 
724; erected (1856), Charles How- 
ard, Youngstown, capacity fifty tons, 
I, 668; erected (1859), James Ward 
& Company, Niles, capacity twenty- 
eight tons, I, 668 

Falcon Foundry and Machine Works, 
1,674 

Falcon Iron and Nail Company, I, 
476, 676, 682, 683, 684 

Falcon Mill, I, 478 

Falcon Steel Company, I, 479, 744 

Falcon Works, I, 477 

Fansler, John, I, 638 

Faris, Jacob M., II, 19 

Farley, J. T., I, 327 

Farmdale, I, 643 

Farmdale Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 798 

Farmers National Bank of Canfield, I, 
567 

Farmers' Savings and Loan Company 
of Canfield, F, 567 

Fannin gt on Center, I, 640 

Farmington Grange, I, 641 

Farmington township: early settlers 
and villages of, I, 640 

Farrell, Charles Y., Ill, 673 

Farrell, Frank C, II, 199 

Farrell, John E., II, 147 

Farrell, Lee R., Ill, 497 

Farrelly, John W., I, 526, III, 743 

Fassett, A. D., I, 349, 522 

Fatherless Children of France, I, 790 

Faunce, E. A., I, 627 

Faust, Charles F., I, 597 

Faust, Elias M., Ill, 486 

Federal Building, I, 256 

Federal Machine & Welder Company, 
I, 746 

Federal Savings and Loan Company, 
I, 364 

Federal Steel Company, I, 817 

Federal Street, Youngstown, I, 201 

Federated Churches of Greene Town- 
ship, I, 647 

Federation of Jewish Charities, I, 387 

Federation of Roumanian Jews, 
Youngstown, I, 330 

Fee, William A., II, 349 

Fehr, C. H., I, 325 

Felton, Susanna, I, 378 

Fenton, Thomas L., I, 581 

Fenton, William, I, 404 

Fenton, W. B., I, 735 

Fentzer, F. E., I, 621 

Ferguson, Edwin C, II, 169 

Ferguson, William, I, 190, 344; sketch 
of, I, 341 



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INDEX 



XXXlll 



Ferrando, Michael, III, 677 

Ferris, J. Arthur, II, 352 

Ferry, Leman, I, 647 

Fetzer, Philip, I, 587 

Fialla, Michael, I, 365 

Fifteenth Ohio Independent Battery, 

I, 198, 427 

Fifty-First Ohio Volunteer Infantry 

(Civil War), I, 196 
Fifty-Second Ohio Volunteer Infantry 

(Civil War), I, 196 
Filius, Charles, I, 740, 801 
Fillius, Charles, I, 439, 782; III, 793 
Fillius, George T., I, 799; III, 794 
Financial institutions of Girard, I, 504 
Finch, Albert R., II, 25 
Finney, Drayton J., I, 480, 481, 486; 

II, 106 

Finnical, Charles, I, 610 

Finnish Lutheran Congregation, I, 454 

Finsterwald, H. J., I, 625 

Fire department, I, 264, 278-282; chiefs 
of volunteers, I, 279-281 ; of full paid 
department, 279-282; full paid men 
displaces volunteers, I, 281; motor- 
ization of, I, 282 

Fire Lands, I, 32, 34, 37 

Firestone, F. A, I, 454 

First actual settlement on the Western 
Reserve (Youngstown), I, 89 

First agricultural fair in the Mahoning 
Valley, I, 654 

First Baptist Church, Sebring, I, 542 

First Baptist Church, Warren, I, 411, 
447 

First Baptist Church, Youngstown, I, 
314 

First bar iron manufactured in Ohio, 
I, 472, 660 

First blast furnace in Mahoning Val- 
ley, I, 471, 658 

First burial in Youngstown, I, 113 

First Catholic parish in Cleveland dio- 
cese, I, 311; in Youngstown, I, 311 

First Catholic services in Youngstown, 
I, 311 

First Christian Church, Hubbard 
Township, I, 523 

First Christian Church, Lordstown 
Center, I, 613 

First Christian' Church of Niles, I, 488 

First Christian Church, Youngstown, 
I, 319 

First church founded on the Western 
Reserve, I, 303 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, War- 
ren, I. 455 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, 
Youngstown, I, 328 

First clergyman of Youngstown, I, 
113 

First coal mine in the Mahoning Val- 
ley, I, 769 

First coal shipped from the Mahoning 
Valley, I, 769 

First Congregational Church, Newton 
Falls, I, 611 



First election, I, 261 

First finishing mill in Ohio, I, 182 

First finishing mill in the Mahoning 

Valley, I, 671 
First Grand Jury of Trumbull county, 

I, 58 
First grist mill at Warren, I, 406 
First hook and ladder company, I, 278 
First hotel keepers, I, 59 
First house built at Youngstown, I, 

97 
First law cases, I, 59 
First lawyer of Youngstown, I, 106 
First marriage ceremonies: on the 
Western Reserve, I, 114; in Youngs- 
town, I, 303; Ellsworth Township, 
I, 582; Berlin Township, I, 584; 
Brookfield Township, I, 614; Hart- 
ford Township, I, 622; Fowler 
Township, I, 625; Southington 
Township, I, 630; Vernon Town- 
ship, I, 633; Johnston Township, I, 
635; Farmington Township, I, 640 
First Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Warren, I, 450; Niles, I, 487; Girard, 
I, 507; Sebring, I, 542; Washing- 
tonville, I, 590 
First Methodist Protestant Church, 

Youngstown, I, 327 
First Methodist Episcopal Church (see 
Trinity M. E. Church) of Youngs- 
town, I, 306 
First mill built in Mahoning Valley, 

I, 102 
First National Bank of Girard, I, 

504 
F"irst National Bank, Newton Falls, 

I, 610 
First National Bank, Warren, I, 438 
First National Bank, Youngstown, I, 

358 
First National Bank and Dollar Sav- 
ings and Trust Company, I, 359 
First white child born on the Western 
Reserve, I, 55; Youngstown child of 
record, I, 112* of Warreji (after- 
wards Mrs. William Dutchin), I, 
405; Coitsville township, I, 567; 
Austintown township, I, 575; Jack- 
son township, I, 578; Ellsworth 
township, I, 582; Berlin township, 
I, 584; Brookfield township, I, 614; 
Vienna township, I, 616; Howland 
township, 1,618; Braceville township, 
I, 620; Hartford township, I, 622; 
Fowler township, I, 625; Champion 
township, I, 628; Southington town- 
ship, I, 630; Bristol township, I, 
638; Farmington township, I, 640 
First newspaper of the Western Re- 
serve, I, 415 
First Ohio Light Artillery, I, 428 . 
First Ohio narrow gauge railroad, I, 

762 
First permanent settlers in Western 
Reserve, I, 54 



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XXXIV 



INDEX 



First physician and surgeon, Youngs- 
town, I, 115 

First postal route to Youngstown, I, 
274 

First Presbyterian Church of Lowell- 
ville, I, 514 

First Presbyterian Church of Niles, 
I, 488 

First Presbyterian Church of Warren, 
I, 448 

First Presbyterian Church in Youngs- 
town, I, 303 

First Presbyterian Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 113 

First Primitive Methodist Church, 
Youngstown, I, 326 

First Reformed Church of Warren, I, 
453 

First Reformed Church, Youngstown, 
I, 325 

First religious ceremonies at Warren, 
I, 410 

First religious organization in Niles, 
I, 487 

First schoolmaster, I, 114 

First sermon delivered in Western 
Reserve, I, 113 

First session of court in the Youngs- 
town courthouse, I, 342 

First speigel iron made in America, 
I, 711 

First Spiritualistic Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 328 

First steam saw and grist mill in 
Mahoning Valley, I, 678 

First tavern in Warren licensed, I, 411 

First Trumbull County lawyer, I, 455 

First tube mill in the Mahoning Val- 
ley, I, 674 

First Unitarian Church, Youngstown, 
I, 327 

First United Presbyterian Congrega- 
tion, Youngstown (see Tabernacle 
United Presbyterian Church), I, 321 

Fish, Max, II, 58 

Fisher, George E., II, 30 

Fitch, Andrew, I, 190 

Fitch, Andrew G., I, 568 

Fitch, Cook, I, 559 

Fitch, David, I, 572 

Fitch, Edward E., I, 566 

Fitch, Frances, I, 785 

Fitch, Frank, III, 418 

Fitch, Jesse B., II, 82 

Fitch, John H., I, 359, 576; III, 806 

Fitch, J. H., Jr., I, 742 

Fitch, K. M., I, 438 

Fitch, Thomas, I, 583 

Fitch, William H., I, 306 

Fitch, Zalmon, I, 438, 559 

Fithian, Decker R., I, 532; III, 470 

Fithian, James B., II, 44 

Fithian, John A., II, 50 

Fitz Simons, Thomas G., Jr., II, 176 

Flad, Erie L., II, 153 

Fleming, A. O., I, 382 

Fleming, David, I, 462 



Fleming, Thornton, I, 306 

Flesher, J. W., I, 307 

Flick, Andrew, I, 563 

Flick, Bert, II, 18 

Flick, John, I, 563 

Flickinger. K. C, I, 598 

Flood of March, 1913, I, 239 

•Flora, Alexander N., I, 439, 718; III, 

405 
Florence, Carl, I, 586 
Flouring Mills: early ones and descrip- 
tion of, I, 657 
Flower, Edward, I, 803 
Flowers, Isaac, I, 614, 616 
Flowers, Isaac, Jr., I, 616 
Flowers, Lavinia, I, 616 
Floyd, Hiram B., I, 287 
Fly (Youngstown's famous bay mare), 

I, 133 
Flynn, Martin F., Ill, 784 
Flynn, William J., Ill, 649 
Fobes, H. J., I, 601 
Foley, Edna, I, 379 
Folsom, Nathan B., I, 714; III, 572 
Foote, Levi, I, 625 
Foote, Lydia, I, 625 
Force, Manning F., I, 196 
Forcier, Robert W., Ill, 768 
Ford, Arabella, I, 335 
Ford, Edward L., I, 692, 706, 714, 732; 

III, 508 
Ford, Mrs. Edward L., I, 310, 784 
Ford, F. C, I, 320 
Ford, Grace V., I, 444 
Ford, Harriett W., I, 385 
Ford, James R., I, 710 
Ford, John, I, 437 
Ford, John S., Ill, 763 
Ford, Mrs. John S., I, 387 
Ford, John W., I, 363, 382 , 
Ford, Josephine, I, 788 
Ford, Seabury, I, 148 
Ford, Tod, I, 739 
Fordyce, George L., I, 337, 355, 377, 

378; III, 496 
Forsyth, Nate H., II, 380 
Forsythe Scale Works, I, 675 
Foreign Legion, I, 779 
Fort Ancient, I, 3 
Fort Duquesne, I, 22, 23 
Fort Industry, treaty of, I, 33 
Fort Stanwix grant, I, 30 
Forty-First Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 

I, 425 
Forty-Second Ohio Volunteer Infantry 

(Garfield's regiment), I, 426 
Forward, Samuel, I, 470, 650 
Foster, William H., I, 398, 725, 726; 

III, 659 
Foster Memorial Presbyterian Church, 

1,305 
Fostoria Glass Company, I, 472, 479 
Fourteenth Ohio Independent Battery, 

I, 427 
Fourth of July (1800), at Warren, I, 

410 
Fout, George B., I, 533 



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INDEX 



XXXV 



Fowler, Abner, I, 624 

Fowler, Abner, Jr., I, 625 

Fowler, Charles C, I. 566 

Fowler, Charles N., I, 335; sketch of, 

I, 332 
Fowler, Chauncey R., I, 559 
Fowler, Dana B., I, 566 
Fowler, H. M., I, 566 
Fowler, Jonathan, I, 59, 106, 547, 548, 

549 
Fowler, Manning A., I, 426 
Fowler, Rachel B., the first white 

child born in Poland Township, I, 

548 
Fowler, Samuel, I, 624 
Fowler Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 798 
Fowler Center, I, 625 
Fowler Township; pioneers of, I, 624 

early settlers, villages, schools, and 

churches of, I, 625 
Fowler's, I, 549 
Frack, Sarah G., II, 326 
Frampton, David A., II, 123 
Frampton, Jay T., I, 650; 
Franche, Nicholas, I, 515 
Francis, John P., Ill, 505 
Francis, William C, III, 505 
Francis, William M., Ill, 505 
Franco, Victor, III, 560 
Frandsen, Lawrence, III, 728 
Frank, I. W., I, 721 
Frankle, Almon M., Ill, 511 
Frankle, Mrs. A. M., I, 387 
Franklin and Warren Road railroad, 

I, 762 
Fraser, Abner L., I, 310, 796 
Fraternal Societies of Girard, I, 506; 

Niles, I, 486 
Frazier, S. R., I, 321 
Freeh, John, II, 40 
Freeh, John Q, II, 195 
Frederick, Lyman B., I, 552; II, 202 
Frederick, Michael, I, 589 
Frederick, Roy E., I, 545; II, 202 
Fredericksburg, I, 581 
Free Church, Lowellville, I, 514 
Free Democrat, I, 345 
Free Methodist Church, Youngstown, 

I, 328 
Free Methodist Church, Sharline, I, 

569 
Free Press, I, 350 
Freed, James A., I, 394, 604 
Freeman, Francis, I, 411, 442, 466, 619 
Freeman, Ralph, I, 619 
Freeman, Robert, I, 620 
French, Brazilla, I, 591 
French, Elijah, I, 591 
French, George W., I, 707 
French, Shirley S., I. 726; II, 258 
French, Thomas, I, 591 
French; Established along Great Lakes 

and Mississippi Valley, I, 22 
French Pottery Company, I, 738 
French voyageurs, I, 54 
French and English War, end of, I, 16 



Frick, Henry C, I, 486 

Friedman, Henry, III, 610 

Friedman, Samuel L, I, 498; II, 348 

Friedrich, Fred G., II, 304 

Friends Church, Damascus, I, 592 

Frisbie, Lemuel, I, 630 

Frisby, Luther, I, 649, 650 

Fritchman, Emerson B., Ill, 580 

Front Street (Central) School, I, 286 

Froom, Harry A., Ill, 660 

Full Gospel Church, Youngstown, I, 

329 
Fuller, D. E., I, 316 
Fuller, Harvey, I, 182, 671 
Fuller, Howard, I, 634 
Fuller, Ira L., sketch of, I, 458 
Fullerton, C. S., I, 614 
Fullerton, John, I, 579 
Fulton. D. C, I, 322 
Funk, Frank W., I, 351; II, 364 
Furness, H. B., I, 444 

Gahris, W. I., Ill, 689 

Gailey, Robert, I, 384 

Gaither, Charles T., II, 142 

Galbraith, A. A., I, 517 

Galbreath, W. Wilson, I, 743; II, 223 

Gale, W. A., I, 626 

Galehouse, D. W., I, 545 

Gallagher, Charles E., II, 43 

Game drive (Medina county), I, 139 

Gamewell fire and police alarm system 

introduced, I, 276 
Gandy, Henry D., I, 614 
Gardner, John, I, 524 
Gardner, William, I, 721 
Garfield, I, 592 
Garfield, Abram J., Ill, 798 
Garfield, James A., I, 211, 426, 430, 455, 

Garghill, James P., Ill, 468 

Garlick, Henry M., I, 347, 358, 359, 
382, 720, 731, 734, 735; III, 399 

Garlick, R. G., I, 192, 262 

Garlick, Richard, I, 398, 706, 723, 750, 
764; II. 334 

Garlick, Theodatus, sketch of, I, 332 

Garrison, C. F., I, 731; II, 155 

Gary Dinners, as means of averting in- 
dustrial panic, I, 815 

Gas, manufacture of, I, 675 , 

Gas (natural), in Mahoning Valley, I, 
773 t 774 

Gaston, George, I, 522 

Gates, John W., I, 707 

Gates, Thomas, I, 25 

Gault, Andrew, I, 577 578, 579 

Gault, Gibson J., Ill, 403 

Gault, J. Ford, 1,579 

Gault, John, I, 579; III, 614 

Gault, Robert E., II, 396 

Gault, W. G., I, 345 

Geauga county formed, I, 149; created, 
I, 161 

Gee, Nicholas, I, 583 

Geesman, Wilbur H., Ill, 552 

Geiger, C. T., I, 574 



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XXXVI 



INDEX 



Geiger, Daniel A., I, 439, 746; III, 581 
Geiger, Fred L., Ill, 713 
Geitgey, Harry H., I, 364; III, 455 
General American Tank Car Corpora- 
tion, I, 746 
General Clay Forming Company, I, 

541, 738 
General Electric Company, I, 680 
General Fire Extinguisher Company, 

I, 744 
General Fireproofing Company, I, 725; 

subscriptions by to War Chest Fund, 

I, 792 
General Synod Lutherans, Lordstown, 

I, 613 
Gentz, Henry, I, 350 
Georges, Ferdinand, I, 25 
Gerenda, J. M., I, 313 
Gerenday, Ladislaus, I, 305 
Germans, I, 70, 71 
Gerringer, David, I, 587 
Gerrity, John, II, 175 
Gessner, George H., II, 289 
Geuss, Louis, I, 467 
Gibbons, B. F., I, 339 
Gibbons, Richard P., I, 312 
Gibbons, W. J., 1,295,311 
Gibson, George A., I, 308 
Gibson, James, sketch of, I, 105 
Gibson, Minnie, I, 377 
Gibson, R. D., I, 386 
Gibson, Samuel, I, 803 
Gibson, William T., I, 241, 264, 344, 

362, 376, 781; II, 344 
Giddings, Jonathan, I, 571 
Giddings, Joshua R., I, 152, 169, 455 
Giddings, Thomas, I, 633 
Giering, Charles C, II, 79 
Giering, Louis, II, 79 
Gifford, Charles A., II, 297 
Gilbert, A. S., I, 627 
Gilbert, David R., I, 440; III, 576 
Gilbert, Edgar A., I, 782; II, 354 
Gilbert, George B., II, 353 
Gilbert, Jacob, I, 586, 587 
Gilbert, Paul, I, 543 
Gilder, Lamont N., II, 43 
Gildersleeve, Obediah, I, 644 
Gilgen, Charles W., I, 517, 355 
Gillen, Austin P., I, 337; III, 408 
Gillen, Barney J., I, 441; III, 464 
Gillen, John J., II, 285 
Gillen, William W., Ill, 408 
Gillette, L. M., I, 353 
Gillmer, Gipson P., II, 57 
Gillmer, J. J., I, 440 . 
Gillmer, Thomas I., I, 460, 465; III, 

579 
Gilmer, E. W., I, 747 
Gilmer, T. H., I, 439, 747 
Gilson, Eleazar, I, 557, 753 
Gilson, Samuel, I, 114, 556, 754 
Gilson, Samuel W.» I, 341 
Gingery, John G., Ill, 640 
Gintert, William, I, 621 
Girard, I-, 163; history of, I, 502-510; 

industries of, I, 503; financial institu- 



tions of, I, 504; postal and corporate 
matters, I, 506; fraternal societies, I, 
506; schools of, I, 509; incorporated 
as village, I, 510; early industries at, 
I, 686 

Girard furnace, erected (1867), Girard 
Furnace Company, Girard, capacity 
fifty tons, I, 668 

Girard Board of Trade, I, 505 

Girard Community Corporation (for- 
merly Girard War Board), I, 505 

Girard Home Savings and Loan Com- 
pany, I, 505 , 

Girard Iron Company, I, 503, 686, 731 

Girard Public Library Association, I, 
506 

Girard Savings Bank, I, 504 

Girard Stove Works, I, 503 

Glass, Alexander, I, 710 

Glass, John, I, 587 

Glass, Mathias, I, 585, 586 

Glass, Willis W., I, 470; II, 165 

Glassco, George M., Ill, 466 

Gleason, John L., I, 507 

Glenn, Henry R., Ill, 626 

Glenwood Children's Home, I, 388, 389 

Glidden, Charles E., I, 342; sketch of. 
I, 459 

Globe Foundry and Machinery Com- 
pany, I, 476, 684 

Gloeckle, George, III, 714 

Gluck, Albert L., Ill, 751 

Gluck, George D., II, 298 

Gluck, Louis I, 359 

Goder, Peter, I, 587 

Goist, William H. O., Ill, 519 

Goldman, S., I, 324 

Goldsmith, W. B., II, 190 

Good, Jacob H., Ill, 562 

Good Hope Baptist Church (colored), 
Youngstown, I, 317 

Goode, Walter S., I, 320 

Goodrich, C. D., I, 506 

Goodridge, David J., Ill, 630 

Goodwillie, David, I, 500, 607 

Gordon, James B., II, 308 

Gordon, M. L., I, 455 

Gorham, Nathaniel, I, 647 

Gorman, Frederick L., Ill, 403 

Gorman, Leo G., Ill, 472 

Gorton, Robert E., I, 740; III, 436 

Goshen Center, I, 592 

Goshen Township, I, 591, 593; schools 
and churches of, I, 592 

Gosnell, Leonard J., I, 803 

Goucher, Mary H., II, 29 

"Governor Tod," first steam fire en- 
gine, I, 278, 281 . 

Gow, Henry, I, 346 ' "\ 

Graber, Samuel C, II, 271 * ' 

Grable, M. J., I, 611 - . - ': 

Grace African Methodist Episcopal 

1 Church, Warren. I, 455 

Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
Youngstown, I, 318, 328 

Grace furnace No. 1, erected (1859), 
Brier Hill Iron & Coal Company, 



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fNDEX 



xxxvtl 



Youngstown, capacity forty tons, I. 
668, 711 
Grace furnace No. 2, erected (1860), 
Brier Hill Iron Company, Youngs- 
town, capacity thirty-five tons, I, 668, 

Grace Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Youngstown, I, 307 
Grade crossings elimination, I, 251 
Graf, John H., I, 588 
Graham, Albert C, III, 573 
Graham, C. G., I, 610 
Graham, Michael, I, 555 
Graham, Richard N„ I, 371; II, 175 
Graham William R., I, 344; III, 754 
Graham, William T., I, 710 
Grand Lodge of Ohio, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons, I, 389, 466 
Graney, John J., I, 781 
Granger, Erastus, I, 403 
Granger, Gideon, I., 160, 412, 575, 577 
Granges in Mahoning County, I, 544 
Grant, Albert M., I, 385 
Grant, Hugh W., I, 337, 338, 355, 362, 

363, 793; III, 534 
Grant, Jesse R. (father of Ulysses S.), 

I, 175 
Grant, Roswell, I, 653 
Grant, Roswell M., I, 132, 142 
Grasselli Chemical Company, I, 748 
Gray, Ernest C, I, 647 
Gray, John E., Ill, 568 
Gray, Robert, I, 517 
Gray, Stephen, I, 539 
Gray, W. S., I, 287 
Greatrake, A., I, 446 
Greek Catholic Church, Youngstown, 

I, 313; Struthers, I, 501 
Greek Orthodox Congregations in 

Youngstown, I, 326 
Greek Orthodox Roumanian Church, 

Youngstown, I, 326 
Green Auxiliary, American Red Cross, 

I, 798 
Green, J. H., I, 610 
Green Township, I, 589-91, schools and 

churches of, I, 590; early industries, 

organization, etc., I, 646 
Greene, Gardiner, I, 645; first marriage 

in, I, 646; first white child born in, 

I, 646 
Greene Village, I, 188, 646 
Greenberg, Louis, II, 135 
Green ford, I, 589 
Greenford Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, I, 590 
Greenstein, Samuel, I, 455 
Greenville Mill, I, 715 
Greenwood, D., I, 524 
Greenwood, Ira, I, 618 
Greer, F. G., I, 339 
Gregg, E. E., I, 522 
Gregory, Edwin S., I, 292 
Gregory, J. I., I, 542 
Gremel, E. P., I. 300 
Gressle, C. W., I, 746 
Grey, R. A., I, 622 



Gridley, Nathaniel, I, 556 

Griffin, Maurice F., I, 248, 313, 338; 

II, 50 
Griffin, William, II, 153 
Griffing, A. C, I, 619 
Griffis, Merrill, I, 618 
Griffis, William, I, 618 
Griffith, A. W., I, 716 
Griffith, David F., I, 344; II, 172 
Griffith, H. E., I, 610. 
Griffith, L R., I, 641 
Griffith, I. T., I, 489 
Griffith, Lynn B., Ill, 460 
Griffith, Samuel C, I, 262 
Grimes, Mathew J., Ill, 749 
Grimm, E. A., I, 799, 801 
Grimm, Edward A., II, 167 
Grimm, J. C, I, 613 
Grimmesey, Orris R., I, 435, 465; III, 

498 
Grinnell, Russell, I, 59, 745 
Grise, Albert C, I, 598 
Grist Mills, I, 130, early in Mahoning 

Valley, I, 658 
Griswold, G. H., I, 644 
Griswold, Solomon, I, 58 
Griswold, Stanley, I, 571 
Griswold, Sylvester G., I, 403 
Griswold, Wells J., I, 789 
Griswold, Wells L., I, 293, 378, 382, 

789, 793; II, 245 
Griswold, William T., II, 383 
Grose, James H., I, 714, 715; II, 134 
Grossman, J. B., I, 323 
Ground clearing, I, 129 
Grove, Wendell, I, 575 
Grub, Harry A., I, 628 
Grubb, Ode J., I, 781, 789 
Guarnieri, Albert, II, 244 
Guarnieri, John C., Ill, 713 
Guarnieri, Lewis L., II, 244 
Guarnieri, Katheryn T., Ill, 713 
Guentner, A. L., II, 38 
Guggenheim, Harry, III, 447 
Guggenheim, M. U., I, 388 
Guggenheim, Mrs. M. U., I, 337, 387 
Guild, Lois, I, 649 
Guild, Otis, I, 649 
Guisler, Mrs. S. H., I, 786 
Gunder M. H., I, 586 
Gunder. Mrs. H. M., I, 787 
Gunn, Ann, I, 55 
Gunn, Elijah, I, 54 
Gust, J. R., I, 683 
Gustavus Academy I, 645 
Gustavus Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 798 
Gustavus Grange, I, 645 
Gustavus Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Gustavus Center, I, 645 
Gustavus township; early settlers of, 

I, 644; first white child born in, I, 

644 
Gustavus village, I, 188, 645 
Guthman, Irvin W., II, 173 
Guthman, Leo, I,. 353; III, 463 
Guthrie, James, I, 620 



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XXXV111 



INDEX 



Guthrie, W. F., I, 727 
Gutknecht, William J., Ill, 508 
Guttridge, James, II, 174 
Guy, Charles H., II, 65 

Hadley, Levi, I, 406, 676 

Hadley Woolen Mill, I, 677 

Hadsell, C. C. & Son, I, 627 

Haefke, Herman C, II, 155 

Hagan, Philip, I, 264, 817 

Haggart, G. S., I, 542 

Hahn William I, I, 589 

Haible, G. A., I, 619 

Haines, Selden, I, 341 

Hake, John J., II, 193 

Halfhill, Frank B. f II, 374 

Hall, Albert S., I, 197; death of, I, 426 

Hall, Arthur G., Ill, 777 

Hall, Barry B., I, 314 

Hall, Clement, I, 314 

Hall, Furnace, I, 707 

Hall, Gilbert B., Ill, 712 

Hall, Hiram A., I, 287, 288 

Hall, Jesse H., II, 334 

Hall, Jesse and Sons, I, 521, 676 

Hall Machine Works, I, 541 

Hall, T. K., I, 358 

Hall, William, I, 411 

Hall, William B., I, 784; III, 561 

Hall, W. H., I, 677 

Hall, Wyllys, I, 310 

Halliday, Jesse, I, 608 

Halls, Joseph A., II, 70 

Hamilton, Alexander, I, 147 

Hamilton David C, I, 529, 536; III, 

617 
Hamilton, Dorcas A., II, 73 
Hamilton, George E., I, 517; II, 73 
Hamilton, Harry C, II, 300 
Hamilton Homer, I, 201, 202, 262; II, 

301 
Hamilton, J. K., I, 334 
Hamilton, Manuel, I, 192, 262 
Hamilton, Homer & Company, I, 674 
Hammaker, W. E M I, 307 
Hamman, James J., I, 278 
Hammon, John, I, 638 
Hammond, Gerald F., II, 201 
Hamory, G. V., I, 532; III, 489 
Hand, Edward, I, 88 
Handel, Fred B., Ill, 430 
Handwork, R. E., I, 579 
Haney, George W., II, 158 
Hanford, William, I, 636 
Hanko, J. M., I, 305 
Hanley, Michael, I, 803 
Hanna, Howard M., Jr., I, 710 
Hanna, L. C, I, 707 
Hanna, Mark, I, 817 
Hanna, Mark A., I, 828 
Hannah furnace, I, 475, 682, 707 
Hannahs, Almira, I, 641 
Hannan, Michael C, III, 493 
Hannon, Matthew A., Ill, 558 
Hanson, J. B., I, 618 
Hapgood, George N. f I, 462; death of, 

I, 462 



Harber, Joseph, I, 319 

Hardesty, Thomas W., III. 616 

Hardesty, William T., I, 717; III, 602 

Harding, James S., II, 392 

Hardy, Thomas, I, 577 

Harkelrode, H. H., I, 579 

Harkness, Charles W., I, 692 

Harlow, Elizabeth, I, 389 

Harman, John, I, 587 

Harmon, Heman R., I, 426, 473, 603 

Harmon, John B., I, 460; III, 595 

Harmon, Julian, I, 443, 463, 464 

Harmon, Reuben, I, 471 

Harmon, Reuben, Jr., sketch of, I, 602 

Harned, Nathan, I, 303 

Harper, John, I, 628 

Harper, W. O., I, 317 

Harrington, Carrie, I, 799 

Harrington, C. A., I, 460 

Harrington, Deborah, I, 646 

Harrington, John, I, 645, 646 

Harrington, John T., I, 717, 718, 726, 

731 
Harrington, William, I, 645, 646 
Harris, Barnabas, I, 166, 568 
Harris, Mrs. E. C, I, 785 
Harris, S. D., I, 442 
Harris Automatic Press Company, I, 

479 
Harris, Blackford & Company, I, 673, 

683 
Harris and Blackford Mill, I, 476, 477 
Harrison, B. B., I, 508 
Harrison, Henry, I, 145 
Harrison, Joshua L., I, 309 
Harsh, Henry, I, 414 
Harsh, Jacob, I, 411 
Harshman, W. H., I, 633 
Hart, A. W., I, 610, 611 
Hart, Alvin W., Ill, 728 
Hart, Bert A., Ill, 776 
Hart, Charles, I, 707 
Hart, Charles W., Ill, 470 
Hart, F. S., I, 641 
Hart, Glen, I, 615 
Hart, Joseph, I, 644 
Hart, Seth, appointed superintendent 

of second surveying party, I, 51 
Hart, William, I, 42 
Hartenstein, Fred A., I, 273, 355, 364 
Hartenstein, Harry H., death of, I, 

277 
Hartford, A. W., I, 371 
Hartford Academic Institute, I, 623 
Hartford Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 797 
Hartford Center, I, 622 
Hartford colony, I, 26 
Hartford Company (coal oil producer), 

I, 772 
Hartford Grange, I, 623 
Hartford Methodist Episcopal Church, 

I, 624 
Hartford township, Mahoning County, 

I, 49; pioneers of, I, 621; villages of, 

I, 621; schools of, I, 623 
Hartsel, William, I, 344 



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INDEX 



XXXIX 



Hartshorn, Rolla P., I, 359, 398; II, 6 

Hartzell, Charles M., Ill, 475 

Hartzell, Emanuel, I, 387 

Hartzell, Ike M., Ill, 646 

Hartzell, Jesse M., Ill, 432 

Hartzell, John, I, 586 

Hartzell, John C, III, 580 

Hartzell, Roy L., I, 353 

Hartzell, Sol, I, 388 

Hartzell, Sol M M I, 782 

Harvey, James W., I, 514 

Harvey, Leon A., I, 328 

Harvey, M., I, 489 

Haseltine, Robert M., I, 661 

Haseltine, William B., I, 627 

Haselton, I, 94, 215; absorbed by 
Youngstown, I, 263 

Haselton furnace Xo. 1, erected (1867), 
Andrews & Bros., Youngstown, ca- 
pacity forty tons, I, 668 

Haselton furnace No. 2, erected 
(1868), Andrews & Bros., Youngs- 
town, capacity, sixty tons, I, 668 

Haskell, Moses, I, 613 

Hastings, J. R., I, 719 

Hatch, James, I, 630 

Hathaway, H. R., I, 642 

Haun, R. M., I, 492 

Hauser, Ed L., I, 504, 505; II, 191 

Hauser, Elizabeth J., I, 465 

Hawder, James, I., 99 

Hawk, Ernest E. f III, 503 

Hawk, Otis E., II, 322 

Hawkins, F. B., I, 353 

Hawkins, H. W., I, 533 

Hawkins, Lewis, I, 582 

Hawkins, W. O., I, 307 

Hawn, M. A., I, 586 

Hawn, Nathan, I, 587 

Haworth, Lester C, II, 367 

Hayden, Chester, I, 342, 553 

Hayden, J., I, 637 

Hayden, W. H., I, 365, 782 

Hayes, M. E., I, 781 

Hayes, Richard, I, 166, 416, 622, 624, 
634 

Hayes, Rutherford B., I, 196, 844 

Hayes, Titus, I, 103 

Hayford, C. P., I, 646 

Haynes, Clyde H., Ill, 573 

Hazen, I. R., I, 786 

Hazen, William B., I, 425 

Hazlett, Harry, I, 779 

Hazlett, John P., I, 739 

Heacock, Isaac B., Ill, 431 

Head, Jonathan, I, 347 

Headley, Joseph, I, 636 

Headley, J. W., I, 628 

Heasley, Henry, I, 182, 671 

Heasley, James E., II, 236 

Heaton, Daniel, I, 471, 549, 658, 660, 
661; III, 593 

Heaton, Isaac, I, 618, 662, 831; sketch 
of, I, 663 

Heaton, James, I, 471, 472, 473, 474, 
549, 618, 658, 662, 670, 681, 833; estab- 



lishes industries at Niles, I, 660; III, 

593, 656 
Heaton, John, I, 473, 662; III, 594 
Heaton, Maria E., Ill, 656 
Heaton, Warren, I, 473, 663, 681 ; death 

of, I, 475 
Heaton Brothers, I, 660; III, 593 
Heaton Family, I, 602 
Heaton & Robbins, I, 663, 681 
Hea ton's dam, I, 472 
Heaton's furnace, I, 473 
Heberding, John, I, 782 
Hebrew Congregation of Warren, I, 

455 
Hebrew Schools, I, 300 
Hebrew Welfare Association, I, 793 
Hebrews, I, 80 
Hebron Lodge No. 55, Independent 

Order of Odd Fellows, I, 390 
Heck, Solomon J., II, 78 
Heckert, Benton M., Ill, 623 
Hecklinger, George T., I, 440; II, 241 
Hedges, Shalor H., II, 149 
Heedy, Henry W., II, 68 
Heindel, Daniel A., II, 47 
Heindel, Norman, II, 252 
Heiner, John, I, 192, 262, 266 
Heinselman, David, I, 264 
Heintzleman, H., I, 574 
Hellenic Greek Orthodox Congrega- 
tion, I, 326 
Heller Bros. Company, I, 181 
Helman, David L., Ill, 574 
Helman, Wilhelmina, III, 574 
Heltzel, John N., Ill, 678 
Helz, Marie, I, 802 
Hemminghaus, C, I, 524 
Hempel,Roy, E., 111,524 
Henderson, Andrew M., I, 344; III, 

408 
Henderson, G. M., I, 307 
Henderson, James A., II, 125 
Henderson, John M., II, 239 
Henderson, William M., II, 353 
Henry, Charles F., II, 355 
Henry, F. J., I, 312 
Henry, John, I, 613 
Herbert, Henry, I, 610, 799 
Herbert, Paul J., 111,637 
Hercules Powder Company, I, 521, 729 
Herod. Percy L., I, 501 
Herold, J., I, 325 
Heron, William W., Ill, 715 
Herrick, Myron T., I, 483 
Heslep, James, I, 622 
Heslip, John, I, 321 
Hess, Lawrence J., II, 65 
Hesson, W. F., I, 561 
Hetrick, Cowden, I, 536 
Hetzel Form and Iron Company, I, 

609 
Hewitt, Abram S., I, 817 
Hewitt, Orris O., I, 739; II, 73 
Heywood, William H., II, 206 
Hezlep, George, I, 644 
Hezlep, James, I, 274 
Hezlep, John, I, 549 



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INDEX 



Hickock, Lemuel, I, 636 
Higby, Beecher P., II, 368 
Higgins, H. P., I, 646 
Higgins, Orin, I, 508 
Higginson, C. H., I, 326 
Higley, Brainard S., I, 266, 341 
Higley, Joseph N., I, 652; III, 426 
Hill, B. M., I, 293 
Hill, Jared, I, 634 
Hill, John ]., I, 498 
Hill, J. J., I, 497 
Hill, J. W., I, 613 
Hill, L. E., I, 588, 597 
Hill, Phineas, I, 92, 96, 100, 101, 114 
Hill, Roger, I, 685 
Hill & Medbury, I, 677 
Hilliard, Jesse A., Ill, 693 
Hillman, H. W., I, 639 
Hillman, James, I, 59, 89, 97, 102, 109, 
166, 171, 275, 284, 409, 602, 653, 754; 
meets Young party on site of 
Youngstown, I, 96; as a trader, I, 99; 
most prominent Youngstown pioneer, 
I, 100; constable of Youngstown 
township, I, 106 
Hillman Camp No. 10, Sons of Vet- 
erans, I, 394 
Hillman Street Christian Church, 

Youngstown, I, 320 
Hillman Street School, I, 288 
Hills, G. T., I, 353 
Himrod, David, I, 666 
Hirrirod, Vincent C, I, 667 
Himrod Avenue Baptist Church, 

Youngstown, I, 316 
Himrod Furnace Company, I, 667 
Himrod furnace No. 1, erected (1859), 
Himrod Furnace Company, Youngs- 
town, capacity thirty-five tons, I, 
193, 668 
Himrod furnace, No. 2, erected (1860), 
Himrod Furnace Company, Youngs- 
town, capacity thirty-five tons, I, 
"193, 668 
Himrod furnace, No. 3, erected (1868), 
Himrod Furnace Company, Youngs- 
town, capacity forty tons, I, 668 
Hinchman, Henry, I, 591 
Hinckley, Samuel, I, 614 
Hine, Ada G., II, 15 
Hine, Mrs. A. P., I, 786 
Hine, Bildad, I, 609 
Hine, C. D., I, 343, 398, 706 
Hine, Daniel, I, 634 . 
Hine, Daniel, Sr. f I, 635 
Hine, David, I, 560 
Hine, Elizabeth, I, 635 
Hine, Homer, I, 106, 162, 166, 173, 

653; sketch of, I, 340 
Hine, Homer H., I, 341 
Hine, Nancy, II, 15 
Hine, Samuel, Jr., I, 635 
Hine, Samuel K., I, 505, 732; III, 607 
Hinely, Samuel S., Ill, 617 
Hineman, John, I, 549 
Hines, Asa, I, 627 
Ilinkley, Samuel, I, 42, 51 



Hirshberg, Bernard, I, 377, 378; III, 

766 
Hirshberg, Mrs. Bernard, I, 387 
Historical Collections of the Mahoning 

Valley, 1876, I, 395 
Hitchcock, A., I, 616 
Hitchcock, Frank, I, 337, 355, 733, 781; 

II, 141 
Hitchcock, John, III, 475 
Hitchcock, Julia A., I, 374, 375 
Hitchcock, Peter, I, 455 
Hitchcock, Reuben, I, 423, 760 
Hitchcock, William J., I, 337; death 

of, I, 733; II, 141 
Hitchcock, William J., Jr., II, 142 
Hochadel, Joseph H., II, 185 
Hodges, J. M., I, 327 
Hoffman, Benjamin F., I, 341, 459 
Hoffman, Harry C, I, 365; II, 113 
Hoffman, Henry H., I, 481; II, 357 
Hoffmaster, Charlotte S., II, 28 
Hoffmaster, Jonas H., II, 28 
Hoffmaster, Lawrence P., II, 180 
Hogan, B. L., I, 492 
Hohloch, J. Fred, III, 751 
Hohn, Adam, I, 595 
Hoke, Ethan A., I, 587 
Hoke, George, I, 587 
Holaway, L. L., I, 479 

Holbrook, Daniel, I. 51 
Holbrook, Horace, I, 463 

Holcomb, John R., I, 275 
Holden, A. P., I, 631 

Hole, Israel P., I, 592 

Hole, Jacob, I, 592 

Holeton, Charles R., Sr., II, 319 

Holland, Benjamin, I, 175 

Holland Land Company, I, 398 

Holley, John M., I, 43 

Holliday, Jesse, I, 412, 580 

Holliday, J. Hugh, I, 327 

Hollingsworth, Elliott W., I, 192, 195, 
262, 424 

Hollingsworth, John F., I, 192, 262 

Hollister, Joshua, I, 556, 557 

Hollister, W. P., I, 562 

Holloway, Bert, I, 493 

Holloway, Harry H., II, 24 

Holloway, James W.. Ill, 788 

Holloway, Leonard, II, 187 

Holloway, William I, II, 24 

Holloway, W. T., I, 785 

Holly, George F., Ill, 501 

Holly, John M., I, 48 

Holmes, Alice D., I, 301 

Holmes, John, I, 327 

Holmes, Robert, I, 317 

Holmes, Uriel, I, 42, 103, 616, 621 

Holmes, Uriel, Jr., I, 51 

Holstein, Herman C, II, 139 

Holt, Otis, I, 353 

Holton, C. R., I, 605 

Holton, Napoleon B., II, 337 

Holy Name of Jesus (Slovak Catholic) 
Parish, Youngstown, I, 313 

Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Church 
(Slovak), Struthers, I, 501 



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INDEX 



xli 



Holy Trinity (Ruthenian Greek Cath- 
olic) Parish, Youngstown, I, 313 

Holzworth, William C, II, 34 

Home Building and Loan Company, 
I, 363 

Home for Aged Women, I, 389 

Home Savings & Loan Building, I, 
256 

Home Savings and Loan Company, 
Xiles, I, 480 

Home Savings and Loan Company of 
Youngstown, I, 364 (Struthers 
Branch), I, 497 

Homestead strike, I, 220 

Honterus Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Youngstown, I, 319 

Hood, Charles R., Ill, 699 

Hood, Thomas, I, 628 

Hooper, Mrs. George, I, 787 

Hooper, H. Russell, II, 161 

Hoover, Delbert E., Ill, 758 

Hoover, Guy, I, 579, 583 

Hope Mills, I, 511 

Hopewell (first blast furnace in Ma- 
honing Valley), I, 174 

Hopewell furnace, on Yellow Creek, 
I, 549 

Hopewell (rebuilt), furnace, I, 660 

Hopkins, George L., Ill, 566 

Hoppe, Henry H., Ill, 467 

Horch, Mike, I, 639 

Horn, McClellan, III, 651 

Horn, Roger, I, 555 

Hornberger, Melvin J., II, 259 

Home, Clair F., II, 110 

Home, Joseph K., II, 109 

Horner, William, I, 279 

Horse racing, great ice contest between 
Youngstown and Warren, I, 133 

Horth, Albert J., Jr., Ill, 485 

Horton, J. F., I, 522 

Horton, John M., I, 594, 737; III, 689 

Horton, M. B., I, 647 

Hosington, H. R., I, 448 

Hoskins, L. E., I, 603 

Hoskinson, C. E., I, 615 

Hosmer, Edward H., I, 274 

Hospitals of Youngstown, I, 337-339 

Hostetler, C. K., I, 329 

Hotchkiss, John, I, 736; III, 429 

Houck, George, I, 587 

Hough, John A., II, 153 

Houston, Andrew D., Ill, 660 

Houston, Archibald W., I, 707 

Houston, Hugh B., I, 499 

Houston, William, I, 569 

Hover, Ezekiel, I, 608, 609 

Howard, Charles, I, 193, 665, 724 

Howard, Charles C, III, 466 

Howard, Chester, I, 648 

Howard, Edward D., I, 345, 462 

Howard, Horton, I, 591 

Howard, Ida, I, 328 

Howard, L. U., I, 517 

Howe, Alfred F., II, 97 

Howe, Thomas, I, 647 

Hower, D. L., I, 600 



Howland, Joseph, I, 42, 618, 645 

Howland Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 798 

Howland Springs, I, 618 

Howland township, coextensive with 
city of Warren, I, 440; early settle- 
ment of, I, 618; schools and churches 
of, I, 619 

Hoyt, E. W., I, 440 

Hoyt, James H., I, 483 

Hubbard, Dwight, I, 288 

Hubbard, E. S., I, 192, 262 

Hubbard, Nehemiah, I, 518 

Hubbard, Paul H., Ill, 483 

Hubbard: History of, I, 518-20; 
founded on coal mines, I, 520; in- 
corporation of, decline and revival, 
I, 521; its Board of Trade, banks, 
churches, etc., I, 522; churches of, I, 
522; schools in, I, 524; new high 
school building, I, 525; public affairs 
of, I, 526 

Hubbard Banking Company, I, 522 

Hubbard Enterprise, I, 522 

Hubbard furnace No. 1, erected (1868), 
Andrews & Hitchcock, Hubbard, 
capacity fifty tons, I, 668 

Hubbard furnace No. 2, erected (1872), 
Andrews & Hitchcock, Hubbard, 
capacity sixty tons, I, 668 

Hubbard Post No. 51, American Le- 
gion, I, 802 

Hubbard Rolling Mill Company, I, 521 

Hubbard township, Trumbull county, 
I, 106; original owners of, I, 518; 
poineer settlers and industries of, I, 
519; civil organization and coal 
mines of, I, 520; schools in, I, 524; 
made into school district, I, 525 

Hubler, Jesse S., Ill, 638 

Hudnut Herbert, I, 304 

Hudson, I, 59 

Hudson, David, I, 58 

Hudson, J. F., I, 345 

Huett, H., I, 613 

Huge, C. F. W., I, 318 

Hughes, Alfred R., I, 371, 746, 799; 
III, 672 

Hughes, Catherine, III, 683 

Hughes, I. Lamont, I, 715, 716 

Hughes, James W., I, 585 

Hughes, Joseph, I, 440 

Hughes, Robert, I, 162, 413, 616 

Hughes Family, III, 683 

Hufin, George W., I, 448 

Hulin, L. U., I, 592 

Hull, E. K., I, 346 

Hull, Harold H., I, 344; II, 267 

Hull, Harold S., I, 735 

Hull, Jerome, I, 545, 590; II, 380 

Hull, R. E., I, 345, 346, 350 

Hull, William, surrenders Detroit, I, 
168 

Hum, D. L., I, 634 

Humason, Isaac, I, 616 

Humason, Joel, I, 616 

Humes, J. W., Ill, 728 



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jxlii 



INDEX 



Hummason, Jacob, I, 614 

Humphrey, Nathan O,, I, 459 

Hunsicker, Alvin, I, 735 

Hunsicker, J. D., I, 597 

Hunt, Charles R., I, 440 

Hunt, Floyd C, II, 83 

Hunt, Helen, I, 468 

Hunt, Henry M., II, 83 

Hunt, Seymour, I, 636 

Hunter, James, I, 306 

Hunter, John S., I, 511 

Huntington, Samuel, I, 106, 340, 466, 
605 

Huntington, Samuel, governor of Ohio, 
I, 148 

Huntley, O. A., I, 649 

Hurd, B. H., I, 633 

Hurd, Herman M., I, 710; III, 648 

Hurd, L. J., I, 633 

Hurd, Seth, I, 630 

Hurlbert, William G., I, 739; III, 518 

Hurlbert, William G., Jr., I, 739 

Hurlbert, W. H., I, 440 

Hurley, Joseph P., I, 312 

Hussey, Henry, I, 537 

Hutchings, William A., II, 181 

Hutchins, E. E., I, 262 

Hutchins, Francis E., I, 192, 341 

Hutchins, John I., 197, 286, 427; 
sketch of, I, 458 

Hutchins, Joseph, I, 443 

Hutchins, Samuel, I, 616 

Hutson, J. S., I, 447 

Hutton, H. L., I, 627 

Hutton, Lewis, III, 759 

Huxley, Jared, I, 208 

Huxley, Jared P., Ill, 446 

Huxley, J. P., I, 344 

Hvizdak, Andrew, I, 319 

Hyde, Washington, II, 230 

Hyde (Clarence) Post No. 278, Ameri- 
can Legion, I, 801 

Hyland, Michael F., Ill, 407 

Ice racing, I, 133-135 

Iddings, Louis J., I, 424 

Iddings, Louis M., I, 418 

Iddings, Richard, I, 121, 411, 442, 470 

Iddings, S. C, I, 439 

Iddings, Warren, sketch of, I, 460 

Iddings Park Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 798 

Ideal Grange, Johnston township, I, 
636 

Iden, O. R., I, 593 

Ilgenfritz, Carl A., Ill, 491 

Ilgenfritz, John, I, 598 

Illustrations: Council Rock in Lincoln 
Park, Youngstown, I, 12; Original 
Land Division in Ohio, I, 34; Map 
of Northwest Territory, I, 43; Map, 
Western Reserve, I, 52; John 
Young, Founder of Youngstown, I, 
93; James Hillman, I, 99; Original 
Town Plat of Youngstown, I, 104; 
Map showing development of Ohio 
counties, 1799, I, 113; Emigrating to 



New Connecticut, 1817-1818, I, 120; 
Type of pioneer home, I, 127; Map 
of Ohio counties in 1802, I, 165; 
Youngstown in 1830, I, 176; Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio canal scene at 
Sfpring Common Bridge, I, 183; 
Youngstown in 1846, I, 190; Long 
Youngstown's leading hotel, I, 194; 
West Federal Street scene in 1869, 
I, 203; Central Square in 1870, I, 
210; Wick Avenue in the 70s, I, 215; 
CTOup of buildings familiar in 
Youngstown a generation ago, I, 
224; Park Hotel, about 1895, I, 229; 
Scene in West Federal street during 
"Old Home Week," in June, 1908, 
I, 236; Scenes in Youngstown during 
the big flood of March, 1913, I, 240; 
Modern view of Central Square, I, 
247; Wick Avenue in 1920, I, 255; 
Group of Youngstown Public Build- 
ings, I, 265; Former City Marshals 
of Youngstown, I, 277; "No. 1" En- 
gine House as it looked thirty years 
ago, I, 280; The "Gov. Tod" Youngs- 
town's first steam engine, I, 280; 
Reuben McMillan, I, 289; Original 
Rayen School Building, I, 292; 
Group of Youngstown schools, I, 
299- Group of Youngstown churches, 
I, 315; Dr. Henry Manning, I, 333; 
Youngstown City Hospital, I, 336; 
St. Elizabeth's Hospital, I, 336; 
Upper Bridge and Milton Dam, 
6y 2 miles long, Source of Youngs- 
town Water Supply, I, 367; Market 
Street Viaduct, looking north, and 
Central Square and Viaduct, look- 
ing south, I, 369; Views in Mill 
Creek Park, Youngstown, I, 372; 
Butler Art Institute, I, 381; Young 
Women's Christian Association 
Building, I, 386; Home for Aged 
Women, I, 389; Views of Lake Gla- 
cier, Mill Creek Park, I, 392; 
Youngstown Country Club, I, 397; 
Youngstown Country Club, I, 399; 
Bridge and Falls. Mill Creek Park, 
I, 400; Views of Lincoln Park, I, 
401 ; One of the famous old hotels at 
Warren, I, 412; "Castle William," 
Warren, I, 415; Map of Warren in 
1816, I, 419; First Trumbull county 
courthouse, I, 421; General Emerson 
Opdyke, Commander of "Opdyke's 
Tigers," I, 425; An old-time view in 
Warren, I, 429; Second Trumbull 
county courthouse, I, 432; Views in 
Modern Warren, I, 436: Dana's 
Musical Institute, I, 443; First Bap- 
tist Church in Warren, I, 446; Tod 
Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, 
I, 450; St. Mary's Roman Catholic 
Church, Warren, I, 452; Trumbull 
County Courthouse, I, 457; Warren 
City Hospital, I, 461 ; Warren Public 
Library, I, 464; Warren Postoffice, 



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INDEX 



xliii 



I, 468; Monumental Park, Warren, 
I, 474; National McKinley Birth- 
place Memorial, Niles, I, 484; Niles 
High School, I, 491; Emergency 
Hospital of the Youngstown Sheet 
& Tube Company, at East Youngs- 
town, I, 534; Residence of O. H. 
Sebring. Sebring, I, 540; House at 
Can field erected entirely of black 
walnut, a building with an interest- 
ing history, I, 558; old courthouse 
at Canfield, I, 564; Chalker High 
School at Southington, I, 600; Sol- 
dier's Monument at Southington, I, 
632; Johnston Township Centralized 
School, I, 635; Celebrated Salt 
Springs in Weathersfield township, 
where salt was* made as early as 
1755, I, 652; the first blast furnace 
erected in the Mahoning Valley as 
it appears today, I, 659; Pioneer Pa- 
vilion, Mill Creek Park, I, 664; 
Ruins of Lock on Old Ohio and 
Pennsylvania Canal, I, 679; Great 
iron and steel plants of the Youngs- 
town district, I, 698; Works, Office 
and Laboratory of the Youngstown 
Sheet and Tube Company, I, 703; 
A Bessemer Steel converter in ac- 
tion, I, 708; Drawing Steel from 
Open-hearth furnace, I, 712; a Ma- 
honing Valley Blast furnace plant, 
I, 715; Charging an open-hearth 
furnace with molten iron, I, 719; 
Blooming mill in a Mahoning 
Valley Steel plant, I, 721; installa- 
tion of blowing engines at a modern 
blast furnace plant, I, 722' Bar Mill 
plant in the Mahoning Valley, I, 
725; the manufacture of lap-welded 
tubes in a Mahoning Valley Steel 
plant, I, 728; plant of the Republic 
Rubber Company, Youngstown, I, 
731; a by-product coke plant at a 
modern steel plant, I, 735; plant of 
the Saxon China Company, Sebring, 
I, 737; a Mahoning Valley nail fac- 
tory, I, 741; plant of the Trumbull 
Steel Company, I, 743; plant of the 
General Fire Extinguisher Company, 
Warren, I, 745; arrival of the stage 
coach at Warren in early days, I, 
756; scene on the old Pennsylvania 
& Ohio Canal, I, 759; night scene 
in the Mahoning Valley in War 
Time, I, 795; Warren G. Harding to 
Joseph G Butler, Jr., I, 840 

111 Cittadino Italo-Americano, I, 349 

Immaculate Conception School, I, 296 

Immaculate Conception (Catholic) 
Parish, Youngstown, I, 312 

Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Youngstown, I, 318 

Immanuel Lutheran School, I, 298 

Inberg, John, III, 712 

I. N. Dawson (Fire) Company, I, 
441 



Independence Lodge, No. 90, Knights 
of Pythias, I, 467 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Youngstown, I, 390 

Indians, I, 1, 8-19, 47; claims of Six 
Nations to Ohio lands, I, 45; last 
council of, at Council Rock, I, 94; 
clash with white men, I, 107-110; 
massacres, I, 141; murders by, I, 
142; of Mahoning Valley, I, 143; 
smallpox frightens from Northeast- 
ern Ohio (1810), I, 145; Trails of, 
through Mahoning Valley, I, 752 

Industrial depression of 1913-1915, I, 
241 

Industrial Printing Co., I, 347 

Industries: Early, of Niles, I, 472; 
first iron rolled in Mahoning Valley, 
I, 475; of Girard, I, 503; of Mahon- 
ing Valley (1785-1900), I, 651-96; 
early, at Youngstown, I, 653 

Influenza, I, 247 

Ingersoll, William, I, 572 

Ingersoll, W. M., I, 314 

Inglis, Thomas W., Ill, 796 

International Bible Students, Youngs- 
town, I, 330; Warren, I, 455; Niles, 
I, 489 

International Metal Lath Company, I, 
725 

Introduction, by James A. Campbell, V 

Irish, I, 75 

Irish, Arthur L., I, 731 

Ironmaking in Mahoning Valley, I, 
658-66; famous furnaces of the Ma- 
honing Valley, I, 665; furnaces 
erected in Mahoning Valley (1845- 
72) , I, 667, 668; Mahoning Valley 
furnace, now (1920) in operation, I, 
668; two remaining puddling fur- 
naces in Valley, I, 669, 

Iron ore first found in Mahoning Val- 
ley, I, 174 

Iron ores of Lake Superior supplant 
all others, I, 769 

Iron^working industry, I, 670-76; first 
tube mill in Mahoning Valley, I, 
674; Mahoning Valley rolling mills 
in 1880, I, 675 

Irons, Joseph M., Ill, 490 

Iron and Steel industries: stimulus of, 
by World War, I, 699; products of 
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 
and the Youngstown district com- 
pared, I, 700; before organization of 
United States Steel Corporation, I, 
816; fight for protective tariff, I, 
817; The Old Rolling Mills, I, 820; 
early blast furnace experience, I, 
827 

Iroquois Confederacy, I, 9, 10, 22, 23 

Irvin, William, I, 575 

Irwin, Clint, I, 637 

Irwin, Guy, I, 637 

Irwin, J. P., I, 562 

Isaly, Chester C, III, 509 

Isenberg, Benjamin R., II, 135 



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xlrv 



INDEX 



Israel, C. A., I, 594 

Israel Congregation, I, 300 

Italian Methodist Episcopal Mission, 

Youngstown, I, 308 
Ives, B. I., I, 450 
Izant, James R., I, 439 
Izant, Robert T., I, 439, 505; II, 276 
Izant, Sadee K., I, 799 
Izon, Alfred, I, 310 

Jackson, Alex, I, 448 

Jackson, David, I, 635 

Jackson, Charles J., II, 113 

Jackson, John, I, 635 

Jackson, J. L., I, 647 

Jackson, Sidney D. L., I, 344, 513; II, 

216 
Jackson Brothers coal mine, I, 520 
Jackson Center, I, 578 
Jackson township, Mahoning county, 

I, 106, 577-80; schools of, I, 577; 

churches of, I, 579 
Jacob, August C, II, 198 
Jacobs, Abraham D., I, 192, 262 
Jacobs, D. R., I, 526 
Jacobs, Isaac B., I, 608 
Jacobs, J. S„ Jr., I, 796 
Jacobs, Orrin, II, 250 
Jacobs, Nicholas, I, 319 
Jacobs, Robert H., II, 247 
Jacobs, T. A., I, 361 
Jagger, Daniel, I, 442 
James, John S., I, 615 
James Ward & Company, I, 475 
Jameson, B. P., I, 443 
Jamieson, J. M., I, 321 
Jamison, C. L., I, 732 
Jarvis, C. C, I, 610 
Jean, Irving, I, 536 
Jedele, G. H., Ill, 778 
Jeffers, W. II., I, 307 
Jefferson county, I, 56 
Jefferson county, part of new Con- 
necticut, I, 103 
Jeffersonian Republican party popular 

in the Western Reserve, I, 147 
Jeffries, William H., I, 773 
Jenkins, David G., I, 241, 342; II, 49 
Jenkins, G. W. W., I, 533 
Jenkins, Isaiah W., II, 212 
Jenkins, William, I, 363 
Jenkins, W. S., I, 307 
Jerusalem Lodge No. 19, Free and 

Accepted Masons, Hartford, I, 623 
Jester, E. A., I, 487 
Jesuits, I, 22 

Jewell, Freeman A., Ill, 758 
Jewell, M. T., I, 310 
Jewell, Robert, I, 621 
Jewell, Robert W., Ill, 757 
Jewell, R. H., I, 522 
Jewell, W. C, I, 634 
Jewett, George F. t I, 293 
Jewish Congregations in Youngstown, 

I, 322 
Jewish Infants Home, Columbus, I, 

388 



Jewish Social Service Bureau of 

Youngstown, I, 387 
Jobe, Joseph W., II, 327 
Johns, Theodore O., Ill, 558 
Johnson, Alfred, II, 37 

Johnson, Archibald, I, 117 
ohnson, Anna, I, 794 
Johnson, A. S., I, 353 
Johnson, George, I, 330 
Johnson, Floyd P., II, 144 
Johnson, Harry B., Ill, 732 
Johnson, Harry P., I, 470 
Johnson, John, I, 568, 569, 612 
Johnson, J. A., I, 729 
Johnson, Lena, I, 627 
Johnson, Monroe W., I, 344, 350 
Johnson, Moses C, I, 192, 262 
Johnson, Nils P., II, 35 
Johnson, Theodore A., I, 343 
Johnson, William, I, 506, 539 
Johnson, William H., II, 118 
Johnson, Y. P., I, 597 
Johnston Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 798 
Johnston Congregational Church, I, 

636 
Johnston, Edward, II, 309 
Johnston, James, I, 556, 581, 634 
Johnston, Joseph R., I, 342, 344, 346, 

578 
lohnston, Thomas W., I, 346, 347 
Johnston township: schools of, I, 635; 

pioneers of, I, 634; churches of, I, 

636 
Johnston village, I, 635 
Johnstown, L. M., I, 732 
Jones, Alexander H., I, 803 
Jones, Alva, I, 580 
Jones, Asa W., I, 208, 211, 344, 371, 395, 

622, 764 
Jones, Benjamin, I, 614 
Jones, B. B., I, 612, 613 
Jones, Caleb, I, 405 
Jones, David E., I. 506 
Jones, D. D., I, 608 
Jones, Edward, I, 404 
Jones, Mrs. Edward, I, 404 
Jones, E. F., I, 731 
Jones, E. Henry, II, 365 
Jones, George H., I, 747; III, 640 
Jones, Gomer J., II, 191 
Jones, Grant S., Ill, 402 
Jones, Howard W., Ill, 623 
Jones, Isaac, I, 621 
Jones, James B., I, 565, 566; III, 462 
Jones, Joseph E., Ill, 647 
Jones, Lucien L., II, 273 
Jones, L. W., I, 745 
Jones, M. P., I, 334 
Tones, O. B., I, 554 
Jones, Paul, I, 732 
Jones, Prior T., Ill, 461 
Jones, Rees B., I, 610 
Jones, Richard, Jr., I, 710; II, 340 
Jones, Thomas, I, 411, 445, 582 
Jones, Thomas B., Ill, 699 



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INDEX 



xlv 



Jones, Thomas G., I, 413, 414, 445, 

614, 619 
Jones, Thomas J., I, 162 
Jones, Thomas, Jr., I, 582 
Jones, W. B., I, 725 
Joyce, Kathryn, I, 802 
Judd, Asa G., Ill, 786 
Judson Memorial Baptist Church, I, 

501 
Julius, Anthony, I, 537 
Jupp, Alfred E., II, 159 
Justice, Isaac A., I, 207, 344, 559 
Justice, James, I, 190 

Kacziany, Geza, I, 305 

Kaercher, Henry F., Ill, 428 

Kahn, Albert, I, 727 

Kahn, Gustave, I, 727; II, 357 

Kahn, JuKus, I, 726, 727; III, 664 

Kale, Harry E., I, 582 

Kale, Lawrence W., II, 76 

Kamenetzky, Abraham, II, 245 

Kampana, I, 349 

Kane, E. J., I, 365 

Kane, Mkhael F., Ill, 743 

Kane, Patrick J., II, 33 

Kane, Thomas H., I, 727, 746; II, 259 

Kane, William A., I, 297 

Kanengeiser, F. R., I, 513, 729; III, 

461 
Katzman, Emmanuel, II, 69 
Kauffman, Edith B., I, 794 
Kauffman, Walter «., I, 674 
Kauffman, Walter L., I, 398; II, 236 
Kaufmann, Edward S., I, 750; II, 54 
Kaufmann, Otto, I, 388, 750; II, 54 
Kaulback, Edward D., II, 41 
Kautz, August V., I, 427 
Kay, John, I, 724 
Kay, Robert W., II, 384 
Kaylor, Raymond J., I, 784, 789; II, 319 
Kearney, Frank J., II, 327 
Kearns, Francis A., I, 305 
Kee, Ephraim, I, 646 
Kee, Ebenezer, I, 646 
Keenan, T. D., I, 594 
Keene, James P., II, 206 
Keich, Robert J., Ill, 549 
Keller, Peter W., I, 266 
Kelley, William, I, 803 
Kelley, Bernard B., I, 508 
Kelloff, R. D., I, 627 
Kellogg, D. D., I, 627 
Kelly, Henry M., I, 721; II, 36 
Kemble, Dustin, death of, I, 628 
Kemper, Jackson, I, 309 
Kendall, Simon, I, 403 
Kendig, J. M., I, 325, 563 
Keneaiy, William J., Ill, 721 
JCenilworth, I, 646 
Kennedy, A. W., I, 504 
Kennedy, C. K, I, 346 
Kennedy, C. H., I, 361, 793; III, 698 
Kennedy, Daniel G., I, 229 
Kennedy, D. R., I, 241 
Kennedy, G. B., I, 467 



Kennedy, James, I, 342, 613; III, 694 
Kennedy, James B., I, 342, 344, 361, 

398, 714; II, 253 
Kennedy, Julian, I, 692, 701, 711 
Kennedy, Lloyd B., I, 439; II, 334 
Kennedy, Patrick M., I, 363; II, 198 
Kennedy, Robert P., I, 427 
Kennedy, Samuel, I, 618 
Kennedy, Wayne, I, 510 
Kennedy & Company, I, 773 
Kennedy Oil Company, I, 596 
Kenny, J. R., I, 312 
Kent, Arad, I, 710 
Kenvin, Daniel, I, 781 
Kenworthy, R. A., I, 742 
Kepner, Ruth D., I, 444 
Ker, Severn P., I, 720; III, 514 
Kern, Edwin A., Ill, 465 
Kerr, D. W., I, 717 
Kerr, Harry M., I, 498 
Kerr, Harry W., Ill, 739 
Kerr, J. H., I, 629 
Kerr, Thomas, I, 346 
Kerr, W. Manning, I, 747; II, 248 
Kerr, William J., II, 273 
Kessler, Adolph, II, 371 
Kibler, W. M., I, 318 
Kidd, Edgar F., Ill, 451 
Kieffer, A. R., I, 449 
Kieling, Robert O., I, 298 
Kilcawley, William H., Ill, 732 
Kilpatrick, William B., II, 167 
Kimberly, Peter L., I, 707 
Kimberly, Zenas, I, 56 
Kimerle, Martin, II, 90 
Kimmel, Austin K., Ill, 736 
Kimmel, C. A., I, 383 
Kimmel, C. E., I 498 
Kimmel, Harry H., I, 571 
Kimmel, K. K., I, 555 
Kimmel, M. A., I, 551 , 555 
Kimmel, Philip, I, 103 
Kindig, Joseph, I, 591 
King, Asahel, I, 403 
King, Barker, I, 556 
King, David, I, 403 
King, Ebenezer, Jr., I, 403, 404, 405 
King, E. A., I, 619 
King. Fidelia, I, 403 
King, James, I, 642 
King, John H., I, 341 
King, Jonas E., II, 188 
King, Leicester, I, 286 
King, L. W., I, 344, 346, 347 
King, Marcus A., I, 342, 553 
King, M. V. B., I, 344 
King, Richard, I, 440 
King, U. G., I, 440 
King, Walter, I, 44a 
King, Gilbert & Warner Company, I, 

696 
Kingsbury, James, I, 54, 55, 58 
Kingsbury, Mrs. James, I, 55 
Kingsley, John, I, 625 
Kingsley, W. A., I, 725 
Kinkead, M. P., I, 312, 337 
Kinney, John, I, 508 



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xlvi 



INDEX 



Kinsman, Frederick, I, 423, 677, 760 
Kinsman, Frederick T., I, 424 
Kinsman, John, I, 58, 144, 642, 643; 

III, 502 
Kinsman, John, Sr., I, 437; death of, 

438 
Kinsman, Mary B., Ill, 502 
Kinsman, Thomas, III, 502 
Kinsman, I, 144, 643 
Kinsman Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 797 
Kinsman Academy, I, 643 
Kinsman Board of Trade, I, 643 
Kinsman Grange, I, 644 
Kinsman Journal, I, 643 
Kinsman township; schools and 

churches of, I, 643; early settlers 

and industries of. I, 642 
Kirby, E. A., I, 509, 510 
Kirby, John, I, 724; II, 224 
Kirchner, Frederick C, II, 126 
Kirk, Andrew, III, 569 
Kirk, Homer H., Ill, 801 
Kirk, John, I, 151, 319 
Kirk, Joseph B., Ill, 799 
Kirk, Natalie, III, 570 
Kirk, Renwick M., II, 199 
Kirk & Rockwell, I, 663 
Kirkbride, Benjamin F., Ill, 424 
Kirkbride, Robert F., Ill, 425 
Kirkbride, T. R, I, 603 
Kirtland, Charles N., Ill, 601 
Kirtland, C. F., I, 208 
Kirtland, Jared, I, 549 
Kirtland, Jared P., I, 166, 175, 549 
Kirtland, Martha F., Ill, 601 
Kirtland, Turhand, I, 58, 92, 103, 105, 

174, 309, 351, 437, 466, 494, 547, 548, 

553, 657, 753 
Kirtland, W. A., I, 593 
Kirtner, Roy A., I, 803 
Kisler, M. J., I, 614 
Kittanning Trail, I, 752 
Klein J. Allen, III, 535 
Kline, Charles H., Ill, 420 
Kline, Vincent, I, 310 
Kling, Fred E., II, 151 
Kling, Herman F., II, 268 
Kling, Herman V., Ill, 667 
Klingensmith, Charles B., II, 299 
Klingensmith, Edward F., Ill, 730 
Klingensmith, Frank, III, 730 
Klingensmith, John, III, 731 
Klingensmith, Samuel, I, 610 
Klingensmith, Samuel A., Ill, 638 
Klippert, Frederick, II, 279 
Klivans, Isadore, II, 115 
Klivans, Jacob, II, 115 
Klondike, I, 627 
Klooz, Edward E., Ill, 586 
Klumpp, J. F., I, 636 
Klute, John, I, 296; II, 360 
Knapp, Geraldine, I, 506 
Knapp, G. Ludwig, II, 385 
Knappenberger, Moses T., II, 330 
Knauf, Thomas L., Ill, 474 
Kneeland, Edward, I, 721 



Knell, Louis, II, 189 

Knesal, E. L., I, 598 

Knesal, Mrs. George E., I, 786 

Knesal, Morse, I, 598 

Knight, R. L., I, 330 

Knight, William, I, 341 

Knight, W. J., I, 577 

Knights and Ladies of the Maccabees, 

Youngstown, I, 391 
'Knights of Columbus, Youngstown, I, 

384; World War campaign of, I, 792 
Knights of Columbus Building, I, 256 
Knights of Pythias Building, I, 256 
Knights of Pythias, Youngstown, I, 391 
Knival, W. C, I, 615 
Knoblock, H. P., I, 740 
Knoblock, L. M., I, 740 
Knotts, George W., II, 37 
Knowles, G. W., I, 721 
Knowles, Homer C, I, 750; III, 747 
Knox, J. D., I, 461 
Knox, William L., I, 219 
Kolar, A., I, 313 
Konold, George F., Ill, 674 
Konold, Matthew J., Ill, 804 
Koonce, Charles Jr., I, 343, 344 
Kozelek, Francis, II, 140 
Kraffmiller, M. P., I, 746 
Krahl, R. E., I, 645 
Krajnak, Thomas, I, 537 
Kranz, a, I, 317, 325 
Kranz, William G., I, 720 
Kranz, W. H., I, 743 
Kratz, W. J., I, 318 
Krauter, Charles H., Ill, 525 
Krehl, Frederick, III, 419 
Krehl, John H., II, 65 
Krehl, J. Charles, I, 505; III, 420 
Krehl, Hauser & Company, I, 503 
Kreitler, C. F., I, 600 
Kreitler, W. E., I, 601 
Kreuzwieser, Philip, II, 131 
Krichbaum, George P., II, 372 
Kroeck, Louis, II, 156 
Kroeck, William, I, 577 
Krolik, Day, I, 727 
Krouse, A. W., I, 749 
Kuhns, John W., II, 260 
Kulchimsky, F., I, 533 
Kurz, Rudolf C, II, 235 
Kyle, Charles W., I, 507 ■ 
Kyle, Joshua, I, 115 
Kvle, W. H., I, 319 
Kyser, William, I, 444 

LaBelle. Fred A., I, 355 

Labor Advocate, I, 349 

Lacock, Abner, I, 178 

Lake, Benjamin H., I, 192, 275 

Lake county created, I, 149 

Lake Erie & Eastern Railroad, I, 256, 
764 

Lake Superior Nut & Washer Com- 
pany, I, 674 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Rail- 
road, I, 673 

Lalley, Walter R., Ill, 748 



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INDEX 



xlvii 



Lamb, Venice J., II, 39 

Lamb, William G., Ill, 578 

Lamphear, J. W., I, 319, 451, 563 

Lancaster, A. A., I, 325 

Lance, Calvin C, II, 37 

Land Grants: early, I, 24-29; in dis- 
pute northwest of the Ohio River, I, 
29; original, in Ohio, I, 34 

Landfear, F. C, I, 636, 645 

Lane, Asa, I, 628 

Lane, Benjamin F., Ill, 788 

Lane, Henry, Sr., I, 404, 440 

Lane, Henry,- Jr., I, 405, 406, 676 

Lane, Isaac, I, 628 

Lane, John, I, 109, 404, 609 

Lane, Sabina, I, 628 

Lane, Samuel, I, 487 

Lane, William F., II, 182 

Lansingville, I, 215 

Lansingville United Presbyterian 
Church, I, 322 

La n son, Clara, I, 583 

La Nuova Italia, I, 349 

Lamed, R. D., I, 627 

La Salle, I, 22, 88 

Lash, John F., I, 517 

Lasley, J. L., I, 444 

Last charcoal furnace in Mahoning 
Valley, I, 663 

Last distillery in Mahoning county, I, 
596 

Lathrop, Charles H., I, 288 

Lathrop, Daniel, I, 643 

Latimer, I, 635 

Lattau, Edward J., Ill, 748 

Law, Albert W., Ill, 737 

Law, William, I, 547, 548 

Lawrence, Charles H., Ill, 471 

Lawrence, Warren A., II, 289 

Lawrence, William, I, 426 

Lawrence Oil Company, I, 596, 773 

Lawrence Street Baptist Church. (see 
Wilson Avenue Baptist Church), 
Youngstown, I, 316 

Lawthers, William J., I, 268 

Lawton, Amos C, III, 776 

Lawton, Andrew, II, 91 

Lawton, Mrs. Henry P., I, 796 

Lawton, Mary P., II, 91 

Lawyers, (See also Bench and Bar) I, 
341 

Lazarus, L. M., I, 467 

Lea, A. O., I, 460 

Lea, Arden O., Ill, 407 

Lea, Marion D., Ill, 406 

Leach, B. F., I, 508 

Lear, B. Franklin, III, 456 

Leavitt, Enoch, I, 411, 469; sketch of, 
I, 460 

Leavitt, John, I, 58. 390, 404, 405, 410, 
411, 466; Warrens first regular tav- 
ern keeper, I, 412 

Leavitt, John Jr., I, 403, 469 

Leavitt, Samuel, I, 442, 469 

Leavittsburg, I, 469, 470 

Lebowitz, Mrs. H., I. 387 

Lee, Bernard F., I, 551, III, 520 



Lee, Charles F., II, 81 

Lee, Grace, III, 520 

Lee, John, I, 38 

Lee, J. F., I, 455 

Lee, Lief, II, 67 

Lee Academy, I, 552 

Leedy, W. Edgar, I, 352 

Leedy, William E., II, 83 

Leeming, W. J., I, 312; death of, 312 

Leet, Sherman E., II, 271 

Leffingwell, Jabez, I, 470 

Leffingwell, Phineas, I, 405, 470 

Leffingwell, R. D., I, 440 

Legal Profession: In Mahoning 

County, I, 340-344 
Leggett, Mortimer D., I, 342, 424, 443, 

459, 553 
Lehman, H. A., I, 545 
Lehnerd, A. N. P., I, 385 
Leighninger, Jesse H., II, 48 
Leish, Frank, III, 658 
Leman Ferry, I, 648 
Lenney, A. B., I, 629 
Leonard, William R., I, 363; II, 188 
LePage, L, W., I, 451 
Leslie, Henry G., I, 341, 344 
Leslie, John A., I, 555 
Leslie, Jonathan, I, 447 
Leslie, J. Edd, I, 350 
Lett, Glenn W., Ill, 517 
Levmson, Harry, III, 682 
Lewis, C. H., I, 747 
Lewis, John, I, 665, 685 
Lewis, John H., I, 342 
Lewis, Peleg, I, 613 
Lewis, Robert E., II, 158 
Ley man, Levi A., I, 592 
Liberty Associate Presbyterian Con- 
gregation, I, 607 
Liberty Bond campaigns in Mahoning 

County, I, 793 
Liberty Herald, I, 463 
Liberty Rural United Presbyterian 

Church, I, 607 
Liberty Theatre Building, I, 256 
Liberty township, Trumbull county, I, 

106, 502, 605-608; schools of, I, 509, 

607; churches of, I, 606 
Liberty Township Associate Church. 

I, 515 
Liberty Steel Company, I, 718 
Liberty United Presbyterian Church, 

I, 607 
Liberty & Vienna Railroad, I, 761 
Liddle, J. F., I, 647 
Liddle, Mark H., I, 567; II, 88 
Liebman, Alfred, I, 402; III, 485 
Life Underwriters' Association, I, 352 
Life Underwriters of Youngstown, I, 

352 
Liggett, William, II, 215 
Lillie, Francis M., II, 358 
Limoges China Company, I, 736 
Limoges China plant, I, 540 
Lincoln Farmers' Grange, I, 598 
Lincoln Park, Youngstown, I, 93, 400 
Lindeman, A. W., I, 298 



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xlviii 



INDEX 



Lindsay, Clarence D., Ill, 608 

Lindsay, Harrison W., Ill, 606 

Lindsay, John F., Ill, 601 

Linseman (A. G.), death of, I, 298 

Linville, J. R., I, 642 

Litman, John L., I, 615 

Little, Adam, I, 587 

Little Charles J., Ill, 627 

Little, Jessie B., I, 641 

Little R. A., I, 642 

Little, William, I, 565 

Little Mill, I, 672 

Livingston, Charles, III, 464 

Livingstone, D., I, 598 

Lloyd, James M., II, 337 

Lloyd, J. H., I, 316, 508 

Lloyd, William, I, 624, 626 

Lobaugh, Ben, I, 645 

Lobinger, Martin, II, 150 

Locke, William N., II, 286 

Logan, John A., I, 513, 743, 779; III, 
528 

Logan, John A. Jr., I, 730, 733; III, 
529 

Logan, Mrs. John A. Jr., I, 794 

Logan, Mary, I, 794 

Logan, Mary E., I, 396 

Logan, Mary S., I, 730 

Logan, M. S. t I, 513 

Logan, Mathew, I, 208, 267, 268; II, 
249 

Logan Rifles (See Company H, 5th 
Regt., O. N. G.), I, 227, 779 

Log rollings, I, 128 

Logue, James W., I, 321 

Loller, William H., I, 282 

Lomax, William J., I, 517; II, 103 

Long, Joseph W., Ill, 569 

Long, R. H., I, 454 

Longnecker, John E., II, 36 

Longstreet, L. L., I, 536 

Loomrs, Andrew W., I, 455 

Loomis, Luther, I, 403 

Lord, Samuel P., I, 612 

Lord, Samuel P., Jr., I, 612 

Lordstown Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 798 

Lordstown Center, I, 613 

Lordstown Educational Society, I, 613 

Lordstown township, Trumbull county, 
I, 49, 613; late settlement and organ- 
ization of, I, 612; schools and 
churches of, I, 613 

Lotozky, Paul, I, 326 

Lott, Lewis P., I, 466 

Loughridge, James M., I, 192, 262 

Loughridge, John, I, 151, 192, 262 

Louisiana Purchase, I, 23 

Loutzenhiser, Jacob, I, 622 
• Love, Elizabeth J., Ill, 443 

Love, Hugh A., Ill, 442 

Love, Thomas, I, 548 

Love, Wallace, I, 647 

Love, William, I, 554 

Lovelace, George, I, 406, 676 

Ldveland, Amos, I, 567 

Loveland, David, I, 661 



Loveless, Charles B., II, 270 
Loveless, William H., Ill, 557 
Lowellville: history of, I, 499, 511-17; 

limestone industry at, I, 513; 

churches of, I, 514; schools of, I, 516; 

incorporated as village, I, 517 
Lowellville Furnace, I, 512 
Lowellville Savings and Banking 

Company, I, 514 
Lowendorf, Sol, I, 481 
Lower dam, Warren, built, I, 406 
Lower Union Carnegie Steel Company 

(Cartwright-McCurdy Mill), I, 715 
Lower Union Mill, I, 673 
Lowery, Samuel, I, 616 
Low Grade Railroad, I, 763 
Loyal Colored Auxiliary, American 

Red Cross, I, 798 
Luce, Agnes M., Ill, 604 
Ludt, John, II, 368 
Lumbard, Victor G., I, 734, III, 722 
Lutheran Churches of Warren, I, 453 
Lutheran and Reformed Congregation, 

Newton Falls, I, 612 
Lutherans, I, 73 
Luse, Robert W., I, 615 
Lyden, Patrick A., Ill, 482 
Lynch, John, I, 551 
Lynn, E. R., I, 565 
Lynn, F. P., I, 566 
Lynn, Wallace A., I, 440; II, 241 
Lyon, Arthur M., Ill, 563 
Lyon, Harry O., II, 105 
Lyon, John H. C, III, 684 
Lyon, J. D., I, 720, 732 
Lyon Plat, I, 497, 499 
Lyon Plat Congregational Church, I, 

501 
Lytle, Henry G., II, 336 
Lytic, John, I, 322 
Lytle, Josephine, I, 465 
Lytle, William, I, 19 

Maag, William F., I, 348, 349, 350, 781; 
III, 694 

Maatala, Ever, I, 454 

Mace, Arthur E., Ill, 665 

MacCurdy, John, I, 332, 334, 335 

Mack, R W., I, 600 

Mackey, Ira B., Ill, 448 

Mackey, James, I, 174, 368, 765 

Mackey, John A., Ill, 622 

Mackey,. Walter S., Ill, 626 

Mackintosh, J. J., I, 597 

MacPhail, James, I, 508 

MacQueen, Walter F., I, 481, 492; III, 
707 

Madison township, Lake county, I, 42, 
53 

Madley, Violet, I, 491 

Maguire, John H., Ill, 402 

Magyar Evangelical Reformed Church, 
I, 305 

Mahnensmith, Peter, I, 613, 632 

Mahoning Academy, Canfield, I, 560 

Mahoning Avenue Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, Youngstown, I, 308 



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INDEX 



xlix 



Mahoning block coal, as blast furnace 
fuel, I, 66 

Mahoniner Chapter, American Red 
Cross in World War, I, 784-89 

Mahoning Chapter, Daughters of the 
American Revolution, I, 394 

Mahoning Coal Company, I, 526 

Mahoning Coal Company (1875): daily 
coal mining capacity 800 tons, I, 770 

Mahoning Company (coal oil pro- 
ducer), I, 772 

Mahoning Coal Railroad, I, 762 

Mahoning county, I, 49, 59; civil town- 
ship government formed, I, 116; or- 
ganized, 149; created, I, 189; first 
officers of, I, 190; seat of justice 
moves from Canfield to Youngstown, 
I, 208; records transferred from Can- 
field to Youngstown (1876), I, 211; 
only execution in, I, 212; new county 
buildings projected, I, 234; record of 
its "wet and dry" votes, I, 254; new 
buildings for, completed, I, 255; 
courts: first session in Mahoning 
county, I, 341; created, I, 422; gen- 
eral description of, I, 544; school 
system of, I, 545; created and Can- 
field made county seat, I, 565 

Mahoning County: oil field of, I, 773; 
draft boards in World War, I, 781 

Mahoning County Agricultural Soci- 
ety, I, 565 

Mahoning County Bank, I, 357 

Mahoning County Bar Association, I, 
343 

Mahoning County Fair, I, 565 

Mahoning County Farm Bureau, I, 
545 

Mahoning County Health District, I, 
546 

Mahoning County Law Library Asso- 
ciation, I, 343 

Mahoning County Medical Society, I, 
377 

Mahoning County News, I, 463, 566 

Mahoning County Normal School, I, 
561 

Mahoning County Optometric Society, 
I. 353 

Mahoning County Pomona Grange, I, 
544 

Mahoning County War Chest, appro- 
priations made from, I, 790 

Mahoning Courier, I, 349 

Mahoning Dispatch, I, 566 

Mahoning Division of the Erie Rail- 
road, I, 762 

Mahoning Golf Club, I, 396 

Mahoning Improvement Company, I, 
580 

Mahoning Index, I, 566 

Mahoning Institute of Art, I, 379, 380 

Mahoning Iron Company, I, 512 

Mahoning Lodge, No. 29, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, I, 466 

Mahoning Lodge No. 52, Knights of 
Pythias, I, 391 



Mahoning National Bank, I, 360 

Mahoning Oil Company, I, 596, 773 

Mahoning Paint & Oil Co., Ill, 634 

Mahoning Park, I, 470 

Mahoning Presbytery created, I, 304 

Mahoning Register, I, 345 

Mahoning Republican Sentinel, I, 345 

Mahoning River, I, 1 ; declared nav- 
igable stream, I, 125; ice racing on, 
I, 133; in Youngstown, I, 259 

Mahoning Savings and Trust Com- 
pany, I, 360 

Mahoning Sentinel, I, 345 

Mahoning United Presbyterian Church 
Lowellville, I, 515 

Mahoning Valley: physical features of, 
I, 1; Scotch-Irish of, I, 60; Church 
of England Men, I, 68; the Germans 
of, I, 70; the Irish of, I, 75, 77; the 
Welsh of, I, 78; Scotch and Hebrew 
of, I, 80; foreign born of, I, 82; 
statistics of foreign-born, I, 85; 
American-born of, I, 86; early trav- 
elers through, I, 88; temporary so- 
journers in, I, 89; occupied by Black- 
snake Indians, I, 95; first mijl built 
at Mill Creek Falls by Abram and 
Isaac Powers, I, 102; Youngstown 
civil and political center of, I, 117; 
Youngstown first settlement in, I, 
122; pioneer industries of, I, 136; 
Indians of, I, 143; women prisoners 
of, I, 154-157; diversion of immigra- 
tion to, I, 159; first blast furnaces 
of, I, 174; operation of Pennsylvania 
and Ohio canal through, I, 183; 
pioneer railroad in, I, 192; consoli- 
dation of its iron and steelplants, I, 
230; boom and collapse of 1907, 1, 235; 
strikes of September and November, 
1919, in, I, 249, 250, 251; transporta- 
tion facilities in, I, 368-373; inti- 
mately identified with William Mc- 
Kinley, I, 482; industries of 1755- 
1900, I, 651-96; last charcoal fur- 
nace in, I, 663; famous furnaces of, 
1, 665; furnaces erected in (1845- 
72), I, 667, 668; present active fur- 
naces of, I. 668; its two remaining 
puddling furnaces, I, 669; first 
tube mill in, I, 674; its rolling mills 
in 1880, I, 675; first steam saw and 
grist mill, I, 678; first rolling mill 
west of Pittsburgh, at Niles, I, 681; 
first brick furnace in, I, 687; iron 
manufacturers and products in 1889, 
I, 689; steel industries of, I, 690-96; 
iron and steel products of (1892- 
1918), I, 691; stimulus of its iron 
and steel industries by the World 
War, I, 699; Indian trails through, 
I, 752; early transportation through, 
I, 753* railroads of, I, 760; -electric 
lines in, I, 765; transportation by 
automobile and aeroplane, I, 766; 
coal of, I, 769; status of coal mines 
in 1875, I, 770; coal mining in, a 



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1 



INDEX 



past industry, I, 771; discovery of 
coal oil in, I, 772; natural gas in, I, 
773, 774; its participation in World 
War, I, 775-809 

Mahoning Valley Chiropractors Asso- 
ciation, I, 353 

Mahoning Valley Electric Railway 
Company, I, 369, 765 

Mahoning Valley Furnace, I, 662 

Mahoning Valley Historical Society, I, 
377, 395 

Mahoning Valley Iron Company. I, 
475, 673, 675, 682, 707 

Mahoning Valley Iron Manufacturers 
Association, I, 689, 690 

Mahoning Valley Medical Society, I, 
334 

Mahoning Valley Railway Company, 
1,370 

Mahoning Valley Steel Company, I, 
479. 736 

Mahoning Valley Street Railway Com- 
pany, I, 370 

Mahoning Valley Water Company, I, 

Mahoning Valley Water Company 
plant and system of East Youngs- 
town, I, 537 

Mahoning War Chest fund, I, 787, 
789, 790, 791, 792; sources of supply, 

I, 792 

Mahoning and Shenango Fair Associa- 
tion, I, 396 

Mahoning and Shenango Railway and 
Light Company, I, 370, 766 

Mails, transportation of, I, 753 

Maitland, A. S., I, 750 

Major Logan Camp No. 26, United 
Spanish War Veterans, I, 394 

Mafine, William A., I, 343, 378, 384; 

II. 31 

Malmsberry, John S., Ill, 550 
Maloney, John F., I, 524; II, 258 
Maloney, Michael J., Ill, 503 
Maloney, Simon J., II, 303 
Maltby, John, I, 276 
Manchester, Curtis A., Ill, 703 
Manchester, Hugh A., Ill, 702, 746 
Manchester, Josiah I., Ill, 480 
Manchester, J. I., I, 565 
Manchester, Leroy A., I, 343, 355, 382, 

733; III, 703 
Manchester, Robert A., Ill, 446 
Mango, Samuel P., Ill, 711 
Manley, Orville T., Ill, 500 
Mann, Samuel, I, 174 
Manning, Henry, I, 181, 182, 188, 284, 

285, 331, 358, 422, 671; III, 807 
Manning, Jabez P., I, 176, 284, 287 
Manning, John, I, 266 
Manning, William E., I, 384, 396, 706; 

II, 326 
Manning, W. J., I, 312 
Mannix, Ambrose B., II, 283 
Mansell, Walter, I, 451 
Mansell, Walter A., I, 801 
Manternach, J. C, I, 746 



March, Charles R., II, 295 

March, F. C, I, 439 ' 

March, Samuel Q., I, 521; death of, 

I, 522; II, 29 
March, William G., I, 562 
Margerum, George J., I, 358 
Maria furnace, I, 47$, 475, 662, 663, 665, 

681, 682 
Marietta, I, 32 
Mariner, Asa, I, 568 
Marion Heights Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Coitsville, I, 569 
Marion Heights Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Youngstown, I, 307 
Market Street viaduct, Youngstown, I, 

230 
Markstrom, Fred W., Ill, 612 
Marowitz, Max J., I, 803 
Marquard, Fred H., Ill, 670 
Marsh, John L., Ill, 527 
Marsh, W. G., I, 559 
Marshall, H. C, I, 711 
Marshall, Jefferson N., II, 21 
Marshall, John, I, 57 
Marshall, Van Emon, III, 631 
Marshall, William H., II, 212 
Marshall, William W., II, 354 
Marshals, village and city, I, 275-276 
Martin, Charles L., I, 312 
Martin, Charles W., I, 574 
Martin, George B., I, 710 
Martin, George F., I; 312 
Martin, George M., I, 383 
Martin, John, I, 638; III, 534 
Martin, Thomas, I, 638 
Martin, W. P., I, 594 
Martin Luther Church, Youngstown, 

I, 317 
Martin Luther School, I, 297 
Marvin, George U., I, 610 
Marvin, James, I, 444 
Marvin, Loraine, I, 287 
Mary furnace, I, 720, 723 " 
Masi, Gabriel, I, 537 
Mason, Ambrose, I, 474; II, 260 
Mason, Charles S., I, 605 
Mason, Frank H., II, 324 
Mason, Henry H., I, 492, 831 
Mason, Roswell M., I, 613 
Mason, Russell E., II, 315 
Mason, William B., II, 260 
Mason Block, I, 475 
Masonic Temple, I, 256 
Masons of Youngstown, I, 389, 390; 

Warren, I, 465 
Massasaugas, or "blacksnake" Indians 

(see also Mingoes) I, 11 
Masters, G. W., I, 439 
Masters, John, II, 318 
Master, John W., I, 439, 505 
Mastroianni, Frank, II, 369 
Masury, I, 615 
Mather, S. L., I, 718 
Mather, W. G., I, 718 
Mathers, Samuel, Jr., I, 584 
Mathews, Earl, I, 608 
Mathews, George, I, 537 



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INDEX 



Mathews, Isaac G. f II, 390 

Mathias, C. F. f I, 570 

Mattes, Frank, I, 610 

Matthews, Bruce, I, 362 

Matthews, Bruce S., II, 331 

Matthews, Charles W., II, 331 

Matthews, F. H., t, 672 

Matthews, Isaac, I, 642 

Matthews, James, I, 117, 60S 

Matthews, James A., I, 449 

Matthews, John, I, 642 

Matthews, Stanley, I, 196 

Matthews, William S., I, 335; II, 337 

Matthewson, Charles H., I, 674 

Matzenbaugh, T. A., I, 591 

Mauer, J. Frederick, I, 501 

Maurer, Perry M., I, 604 

Maurice, W. J., I, 517, 555 

Mauser, Louis K., Ill, 619 

Max, George, I, 440 

Max, George J., II, 269 

Maxwell, Samuel, I, 310 

May, John, I, 144 

May, J. M., I, 619 

Mayer, Elias, I, 746 

Mayer, Frederick, I, 325 

Mayers, A. J., I, 522 

Mayers, Benjamin, I, 520 

Mayers, T. J., I, 546, 552 

Mayhew, Meryle C, III, 412 

Maynard, F. H., I, 745 

Mayors of Youngstown, 1850-1920, I, 

266-273 
McAdoo, John S., I, 649 
McAleer, James R., I, 781 
McBerty, Z. A., I, 746 
McBerty & McCormick, I, 677 
McBride, Earl M., I, 352; III, 768 
McBride, J. D., I, 440 
McBride, Raymond A., I, 498 
McBride, Roscoe C, II, 333 
McCaffrey, Patrick, I, 312 
McCalmont, D. T., I, 542 
McCambridge, John D., Ill, 615 
McCamon, Samuel S., I, 594 
McCarthy, John J., I, 537 
McCartney, A. J., I, 219, 263 
McCartney, Harmon T., I, 402 
McCartney, James, III, 618 
McCartney, Joseph G., Ill, 618 
McCartney, William M., II, 317 
McCaskey, Melvin E., II, 119 
McCaughtry, Charles A., II, 185 
McCaufey, H. C, I, 322 
McCay, James (or McCoy), I, 105, 

769 
McClaskey, Joseph V., II, 129 
McCleary, Elmer T., II, 264 
McClain, D. H., I, 799 
McCleery, Abner H., Ill, 443 
McCleery, Alexander, I, 607 
McCleery, Samuel, III, 443 
McCleery Family, III, 443 
McCleland, W. A., I, 740 
McClellan, William, I, 605 
McClintock, Goldie, I, 498 
McCluer, Frank D., II, 280 
McClure, Charles W., I, 725; III, 749 



McClure, Edward W., I, 610; III, 727 

McClure, Samuel G., I, 347; II, 294 

McClure, William B., Ill, 570 

McClurg, I. H., I, 574 

McClurg, I, 625 

McCollum, Harvey, I, 575 

McCollum, John, sketch of, I, 575 

McCombs, John H., death of, I, 438 

McCombs, Robert, I, 554 

McCombs, William, I, 555, 562, 629 

McConnell, Carter C, I, 481; II, 325 

McConnell, D. R., I, 600 

McConnell, John, I, 549 

McConnell, Roy B., Ill, 652 

McConnell, R. M., I, 621 

McCook. Francis R., I, 804 

McCorkle, Archie A., I, 614; III, 761 

McCorkle, R. J., I, 481 

McCorkle, Robert L., I, 800-11, 231 

McCoy, Harry P., I, 364, 570; II, 126 

McCord & Kinney, I, 754 

McCreary, William, I, 722 

McCreary, W. H., I, 339 

McCreary & Bell, I, 512 

McCrone, Henry F., II, 210 

McCullough, Alfred, II, 177 

McCune, John H., I, 720 

McCurley, B. G., I, 601 

McCurdy, Donald, I, 440 

McCurdy, Robert, I, 202, 346, 376; 
death of, I, 358 

McCurdy, Sidney M., I, 535; III, 491 

McCurdy, William H., I, 672 

McCurdy Coal Company (1875): daily 
coal mining capacity 300 tons, I, 770 

McDermott, John L., II, 322 

McDonald, Edmund, Jr., Ill, 507 

McDonald, J. A., I, 322, 714 

McDonald, L. N., I, 715 

McDonald, L. P., I. 449 

McDonald, Thomas, T . 692, 714 

McDonald, Thomas C, III, 744 

McDonald, I, 604 

McDonald Mills, I, 716 

McDonald Mills, Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany, I, 504 

McDonough, Michael, death of, I, 282 

McDowell, R. J., I, 624 

McDowell, William W., I, 276; II, 381 

McElevey, Paul H., I, 359, 360, 402, 
735; III, 680 

McElevey, Sarah, I, 376 

McElrath, D. S., I, 624 

McEvey, Patrick, I, 817 

McEwen, James, I, 182, 192, 671 

McEwen, James H., Ill, 501 

McEwen, J. Harris, I, 378 

McEwen, J. H., I, 360 

McFadden, John, I, 275 

McFadden, W. S., I, 448 

McFarlin, James J., I, 504, 505; II, 
190 

McFarlin, Margery, I, 568 

McFarland, Samuel, I, 113 

McFate, William M., I, 718; III, 469 

McFetridge, John, I, 520 

McGann, F., I, 311 



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lii 



INDEX 



McGarry, John E., I, 536 
McGeehon, Thomas, I, 570 
McGibbon, J. T., I, 621 
McGovern, Francis, I, 312 
McGowan, John F., I, 350 
McGowan, M. M., I, 480 
McGuffey, Alexander, I, 568 
McGuffey, William, I, 570; author of 

school books, I, 568 
McGuigan, George, I f 347 
Mcintosh, H. L., I, 591 
McKay, F. M., I, 615 
McKay, George G., Ill, 748 
McKay, J. R., I, 363 
McKay, James M., I, 363, 545; III, 771 
McKay, Russell, I, 352 
McKay, Walter W., I, 461, 782; III, 

512 
McKay, William, I, 635 
McKee, George, I, 202, 267; first city. 

mayor, I, 262 
McKee, Mrs. Ella, I, 468 
McKee, Sylvester E., II, 75 
McKee, S. T., I, 330 
McKeever, Alexander, I, 554 
McKelvey, E. L., I, 355 
McKelvey, Elmer E., II, 187 
McKelvey, Emery L., II, 139 
McKelvey, George M., I, 337, 347, 361, 

627; II, 138 
McKelvey, Lucius B., II, 139 
McKelvey, G. M. Company, I, 256 
McKeown, Robert B., Ill, 778 
McKeown, William W., I, 346; III, 

682 
McKinley, William, I, 196, 225, 481, 

552, 817, 827, 828, 831, 833; a native 

of Niles, I, 478; house of birth, I, 

483; heroic marble statue of, I, 484; 

campaigns of 1896 and 1900, I, 838, 

847; assassination of, I, 838; II, 8 
McKinley, William, Sr., I, 475 
McKinley Birthplace Memorial, Niles, 

I, 481-86 
McKinley failure, I, 828 
McKinley Memorial Building, Niles, 

I, 480 
McKinley museum, I, 485 
McKinley Post, No. 76, American Le- 
gion, I, 802 
McKinley Savings and Loan Company: 

Bank on site of Wm. McKinley's 

birthplace. I, 481 
McKinley Tin Plate Mill, I, 684 
McKinnie, Alexander, I, 274 
McKinney, Charles C, III, 592 
McLain, F. D., I, 460 
McLain, Jane (Mrs. Daniel Sheehy), 

I, 101 
McLain, John G., I, 185, 463 
McLain, Thomas J., I, 458, 463 
McLain, W. H., I, 488 
McLaren, I., I, 619 
McLaughlin, A. O., I, 627 
McLean, M. W-, I, 744 
McLloyd, Louise, I 491 



McMahan, James, I, 449, 636; first na- 
tive white child of Boardman Town- 
ship I, 572 

McMahan, John, I, 571 

McMahon, John, I, 170 

McMahon, Joseph, I, 107, 110, 403; 
kills Captain George, I, 108; acquit- 
ted for killing Captain George, I, 
111; sketch of, I, 112; shoots Cap- 
tain George (Indian), I, 408; tried 
in court and acquitted, I, 408 

McMahon-Captain George tragedy, I, 
602 

McManus, Bernard, II, 229 

McMaster, Algernon S., I, 552, 553, 
597 

McMillan, Reuben, I, 374, 376, 395; 
death of, I, 288: III, 589 

McMillan (Reuben) Public Library, I, 
258, 374-379 

McMillen, Thomas, I, 624 

McMullen, Neil, I, 605 

McMullen, Samuel, I, 614 

McMullen, William, I, 614 

McMullin, Grant, III, 755 

McMurphy, A. T., I, 309 

McMurrav, James, III, 725 

McNab, Charles W., I, 279 

McNab, George E., I, 307; III, 764 

McNab, M. C, I, 343 

McNab, Seth, I, 496, 498, 499 

McNair, William, I, 667 

McNally, James J., I, 347 

McNamara, Francis W., Ill, 499 

McNamara, Thomas Jr., II, 51 

McNeilly, James P., II, 395 

McNutt, C. C, I, 440 

McNutt, Lloyd, I, 598 

McRoberts, John L., Ill, 756 

McVay, R H., I, 588 

McVean, Donald A., Ill, 611 

McVean, Edward A., II, 149 

McVean, John, II, 149 

McVey, John E., I, 517 

McVey, Thomas J., I, 537; III, 645 

Meacham, Jehiel, Jr., I, 644 

Meander furnace, I, 686 

Mears, Edward, I, 312, 337; III, 701 

Mecca Baptist Church, Warren, I, 447 

Mecca Grange, I, 637 

Mecca Oil Boom, I, 637 

Mecca township: Pioneers of, I, 636; 
schools and churches of, I, 637; coal 
oil springs in, I, 773 

Medbury, Asahel, I, 188, 274, 345, 422; 
sketch of, I, 813 

Medical Profession of Youngstown, I, 
331-335; early Mahoning county 
members of, I, 335; physicians and 
surgeons of Warren, I, 460-61 

Medicus, Charles H., II, 379 

Medicus, Otto, II, 379 

Meehan Boiler and Construction Com- 
pany, Lowellville, I, 279, 513 

Megown, M. J., I, 355 

Mehrten, E. H., I, 541 



Digitized by 



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INDEX 



liii 



Meiser, G. F. H., I, 298, 317, 318 

Meissner, Carl A.. I, 685; first indus- 
trial chemist in Valley, I, 711 

Meissner, E. J., I, 318 

Melvin, Charles P., Ill, 621 

Memorial Presbyterian Church, 
Youngstown, I, 304 

Mennonites, I, 72; of Bristol Town- 
ship, I, 639; Youngstown, I, 329 

Mentor, I, 159; in 1798, I, 54 

Mentor township, Lake county, I, 42, 
53 

Mentzer, Christopher, I, 586, 587, 595 

Mentzer, W. E., I, 589 

Mercer, John P., I, 279, 281 

Merchants Mercantile Company, I, 356 

Merritt, Ichabod, I, 646 

Merry, Charles, I, 621 

Merry, Harriet, I, 622 

Mesopotamia Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross," I, 798 

Mesopotamia Center, I, 650 

Mesopotamia Grange, I, 650 

Mesopotamia Township: early settlers 
of, I, 649; schools and churches of, 
I, 649; first wedding in, I, 649; 
first native white child in, I, 649 

Messick, W. H. f I, 639 

Metcalf, Cyrus, sketch of, I, 461 

Methodism in Youngstown, I, 305-308; 
in Jackson Township, I, 579 

Methodist Corners, I, 618 

Methodist Episcopal Churches of War- 
ren, I, 449; Struthers, I, 501; Low- 
ellville, I, 515; Hubbard, I, 522; Po- 
land, I, 553; Canfield, I, 562; Coits- 
ville, I, 569; Boardman Center, I, 
574; Rosemont, I, 583; Ellsworth 
Center, I, 583; Berlin Center, I, 586; 
Damascus, I, 592; Petersburg, I, 597; 
Mineral Ridge, I, 603; Ohltown, I, 
604; Church Hill, I, 607; Newton 
Falls, I, 611; Bailey's Corners, I, 
613; Lordstown Center, I, 613; 
Brookfield, I, 615; Vienna Center, I, 
618; Braceville township, I, 621; 
Fowler, I, 625; Cortland, I, 627; 
Champion, I, 629; Southington, I, 
632; Johnston, I, 636; West Mecca, 
I, 637; Bristolville, I, 639; Farming- 
ton. I. 641; Kinsman, I, 643; Bloom- 
field Center, I, 649; Mesopotamia 
township, I, 650 

Methodist Protestant Church of Lib- 
erty Township, Sodom, I, 607 

Mettler, F. W., I, 743 

Metts, Frank, I, 598 

Meub, Walter E., I, 706; III, 691 

Mexican War, Mahoning Valley's par- 
ticipation in, I, 191 

Meyer, I. Harry, I, 356 

Meyers, Emma G., I, 633 

Miami nation, I, 10, 13 

Michael, A. J., I, 293 

Middlefield, I, 59 

Middleswatch, Jacob, I, 616 



Middleton, John H., II, 257 

Middletown, E. J., I, 582 

Mill Creek Falls, I, 101 

Mill Creek Park, I, 222, 257, 398-400 

Mill creek stack, I, 664 

Millar, David, II, 293 

Miller, A. G., I, 627 

Miller, Carvey, death of, I, 271 

Miller, C. J., I, 350 

Miller, Charles N., Ill, 525 

Miller, Clifton W., II, 142 

Miller, Daniel, I, 595 

Miller, Edward, I, 598 

Miller, Edward G., Ill, 611 

Miller, E. E., I, 751 

Miller, Edwin F., I, 293 

Miller, Ephraim, I, 288 

Miller, George P., I, 552 

Miller, Gilbert O., I, 321 

Miller, G. R., I, 486 

Miller, I. B., I, 269 

Miller, James S., II. 305 

Miller, Jesse L., I, 318; II, 130 

Miller, John, I, 168, 470, 589, 749 

Miller, J. M., I, 316 

Miller, Louis, III, 497 

Miller, L. B., I, 270 

Miller, Markham B., II, 142 

Miller, Peter, I, 589 

Miller, Theobald, I, 617 

Miller, Thomas, I, 611 

Miller, Thomas W., II, 163 

Miller, Walter D., I, 594 

Milligan, H. C, I, 746 

Milligan, Lee B., II, 107 

Milliken, Andrew, I, 740 

Milliken, Boyd & Company, I, 741 

Millikin, Bert A., Ill, 668 

Millikin, Ray C, II, 356 

Millman, Dorothy B., I, 802 

Mills, Isaac, I, 42 

Mills, I, 131 

Milton Lake Reservoir, I, 582 

Milton, Mansfield, III, 480 

Milton- Xewton Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Pricetown, I, 612 

Milton reservoir, I, 243, 367, 586, 773 

Milton Township, I, 580-82; schools 
and churches of, I, 581 

Miner and Manufacturer, I, 350 

Mineral Ridge Iron and Coal Com- 
pany, I, 603 

Mineral Ridge Manufacturing Com- 
pany, I, 686 

Mineral Ridge (Village), I, 576, 603; 
coal deposits at, I, 685; furnaces at, 
I, 685; discovery of black band iron 
ore at, I, 768 

Minglin, Calvin, I, 525 

Mingoes, I, 13 

Minor, Champion, I, 557 

Minor, John, I, 58 

Minteer, William E., I, 500 

Mirfield, George E., II, 159 

Mitchell, James P., I, 613 

Mitchell, John S., II, 369 



Digitized by 



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liv 



INDEX 



Mitchell, J. W., I, 649 

Mitchell, Nathaniel, I, 521 

Mitchell, Osborne, III, 548 

Mitcheltree, John, I, 519 

Mittinger, George E., Ill, 493 

Mix, L. D., I, 450 

Modarelli, James M., Ill, 685 

Modeland, Emma S., I, 388 

Moff, Edwin G., Ill, 449 

Mogus, Joseph, I, 365 

Moherman, Frederick, I, 575 

Mohn, E. T., I, 307 

Monaghan, Nicholas F., I, 500, 515; II, 

99 
Monnsys, I, 14 
Monroe, Isaac G., II, 249 
Montani, Rocco A., II, 378 
Monteith, Daniel, I, 569 
Montgomery George M., II, 59 
Montgomery, Joseph, I, 192, 262 
Montgomery, Randall, I, 269; II, 175 
Montgomery, Robert, I, 174, 215, 337, 

371, 494, 550, 732, 740; locates second 

furnace on Yellow Creek, I, 660; 

death of, I, 811 
Montgomery, Mrs. Robert, sketch of, 

I, 812 
Montgomery, Clendennin & Company, 

I, 661 
Montgomery furnace, I, 175 
Monumental Park, I, 469 
Moody, Fred R., I, 307 
Moody, James, I, 572 
Moody, W. P., I, 498 
Moore, Alexander H., I, 341 
Moore, David T., Ill, 642 
Moore, D. C, I, 517 
Moore, Edmond H., I, 241, 270, 271, 

597; II, 251 
Moore, Edward, III, 697 
Moore, G. Webster, I, 627 
Moore, Henry R., Ill, 737 
Moore, Hugh, I, 192, 262, 275 
Moore, James, I, 311 
Moore, James B., II, 381 
Moore, Joseph F., II, 362 
Moore, Julia, III, 697 
Moore, Lurn E., II, 272 
Moore, Nathaniel, I, 556, 557, 634 
Moore, Sampson, I, 567 
Moore, Samuel, I, 596 
Moore, Thomas L., I, 274 
Moore, William G., I, 266, 341, 344, 

395; III, 697 
Moore, William H., I, 219, 264, 279; 

first chief of full paid fire depart- 
ment, I, 281 
Moore, William O., I, 568 
Moose Lodge Building, I, 256 
Moran, Francis T., II, 21 
Moran, Grandon, I, 470 
Moran, John I., I, 312 
Moravian Missions, I, 17, 18 
Moravians, I, 89 
Morgan, David J., II, 377 
Morgan, Evan L., Ill, 765 



Morgan, Hugh D., I, 400, II, 14 

Morgan, James G, III, 669 

Morgan, James W., Ill, 665 

Morgan, John, I, 38, 42 

Morgan, John B., I, 343, 344; III, 691 

Morgan, John H., raids across Ohio, 
I, 198 

Morgan, Lewis W., Ill, 765 

Morgan, Orlando, I, 463 

Morgan, Owen D., II, 237 

Morgan, Richard, I, 279 

Morgan, R. G, I, 316 

Morgan, Walter, I, 608 

Morgan Spring Company, I, 496, 702 

Mormonism, I, 124 

Morning Call, I, 350 

Morning Star, I, 350 

Morrall, Mary A., I, 491 

Morris, Anthony, I, 591 

Morris, Benjamin F., Ill, 438 

Morris, Dallas H., I, 353 

Morris, David, I, 665 

Morris, Elihu, I, 640 

Morris, Frank, I, 629 

Morris, F. A., I, 566 

Morris, Jacob, I, 446 

Morris, John E., I, 746 

Morris, M. D., I, 570 

Morris, W. G., I, 636 

Morris, William J., I, 706; II, 332 

Morris Plan Bank, Youngstown, I, 
357, 363 

Morris & Price (1875): daily coal min- 
ing capacity 150 tons, I, 770 

Morrison, John W., Ill, 552 

Morrison, John W., Sr., Ill, 603 

Morrow D. Blair, III, 495 

Morrow, Lee, III, 488 

Morse, Anna L., I, 377 y 378, 396 

Morse Bridge Works, I, 675 

Morton, S. R., I, 597 

Moseley, G J., I, 453 

Moseley, Rev., I, 782 

Moser, Delos K., I, 442, 467; II, 53 

Moser, George, I, 614 

Moser, George M., Ill 628 

Moses, Abner, I, 633 

Moses, John, I, 488 

Mossman, William, I, 619 

Mother Genevieve, I, 338 

Mother Geraldine, I, 338 

Mother Lawrence (Ursuline sister), I. 
295 

Mott, Edgar, I, 624 

Mougey, Helen, I, 794 

Moulton, E. F., I, 444, 464 

Mound Builders, I, 2-7 

Mount Nebo mine, Poland Township, 
I, 511 

Mount Olivet Reformed Church, 
North Lima, I, 587 

Mowen, Balzar, I, 587 

Moyer, Henry E., II, 63 

Moyer, Morris, II, 376 

Moyer, Mrs. Morris, I, 387 

Mulholland, Peter B., I, 343 



Digitized by 



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INDEX 



lv 



Mullally, Robert J., Ill, 578 

Mullane, Dan Jr., I, 352; II, 162 

Mumaw, D. W., I, 516, 517 

Municipal Contagion Hospital, Youngs- 
town, I, 339 

Municipal Court Judges, I, 273 

Municipal street railway commissioner, 
1,251 

Municipality of Youngstown, I, 266-283 

Munkelt, Frederick H., II, 236 

Munson, Jesse R., Ill, 752 

Muresan, Octavian, I, 455 

Murphy, E. J., 1,295,312 

Murphy, Richard W., I, 804 

Murphy, R. J., I, 489 , 

Murphy, Mrs. W. L., I, 786 

Murphy, W. L., I, 541, 542 

Murray, Dennis T., II, 194 

Murray, Edgar G., II, 196 

Murray, Elisha, I, 596 

Murray, James, I, 537 

Murray, John J., II, 229 

Murray, R. B., I, 343 

Murray, Thomas, Jr., II, 353 

Murray, W. P., I, 617 

Mushrush, Guy, I, 543 

Musser, Peter, I, 585, 595 

Musser's Mills, I, 595 

Myerovich, Max A., Ill, 627 

Myers, C. B., I, 718 

Myers, Charles, III, 714 

Myers, Fred D., I, 560, 576 

Myers, Henry, I, 595 

Myers, S. D., II, 121 

Myers, Walter E., I, 746 

Mygatt, Comfort S., I, 559 

Mygatt, C. S., I, 437 

Mygatt, George, I, 420, 440, 441 

Myres, Wendell D., Ill, 484 

Mystic Company (coal oil producer), 
I, 772 

My Walks and Talks with Volney 
Rogers, II, 207 

Nadenicek, Joseph, I, 305 

Naffziger, W. H., I, 590 

Nash, Elmer E., II, 279 

Nash, James M., I, 345, 346 

Nathan Hale Chapter, Sons of the 

American Revolution, I, 394 
National Banking Act, I, 438 
National Desertion Bureau, I, 388 
National League for Woman's Serv- 
ice, I, 790, 794 
National Steel Company, I, 673, 683, 

695, 696, 817 
National Tube Company, I, 674, 679 
Native coal exhausted, I, 669 
Native game animals, I, 137 
Native (blackband) ore, I, 685 
Native Iron ore, I, 667; nature and 
use of, I, 767; discoverer of, de- 
scription by scientists and iron manu- 
facturers, I, 768 
Nativity of Christ Russian Orthodox 
Church, I, 326 



Nea-To-Ka (see also Council Rock), 
I, 94 

Neckerman, William W., II, 61 

Neff, Calvin, II, 85 

Neff, C. H., II, 85 

Neff, John E., Ill, 419 

Neff, Roy J., Ill, 401 

Neff, R. J., I, 565 

Neidigh, Jacob, I, 587 

Neilson House, Y. W. C. A. Settle- 
ment, I, 386 

Nellis, A. A., I, 447 

Nelson, Abraham, I, 605 

Nelson, John, I, 605 

Nelson, J. R., sketch of, I, 461 

Nelson, P. A., I, 328 

Nelson, W. V., I, 517 

Neracher, William A., I, 745, 799; II, 
384 

Nesbit, Francis C, I, 341 

Nesbit, William, I, 569 

Nestor, James A., I, 529 

Nettleton, A. B., I, 427 

Neuman, L. E., I, 750 

New Albany, I, 589 

New Connecticut (see Western Re- 
serve), I, 119, 123, 124 

New County Advocate first Youngs- 
town newspaper, I, 185 m 

New England, second charter granted, 
I, 25 

New France, I, 22 

New Haven, settlement of, I, 26 

New Lisbon Coal Company (1875): 
daily coal mining capacity 150 tons, 
I, 770 

New Lyme, I, 163 

New Middletown, I, 596 

New Middletown School, I, 596 

New Springfield, I, 595 

New Star, I, 350 

New York Central Railroad, I, 763 

Newberry, L. S., I, 768 

Newberry, Rober, I, 619 

Newcomb, D. L., I, 649 

Newspapers of Youngstown, I, 344-350; 
Warren, I, 462; Niles, I, 481 

News-Letter, I, 463 

News-Register, I, 347 

Newton, Eben, I, 188, 191, 208, 340, 
561, 565, 611, 819 

Newton, Sheldon, I, 207 

Newton, Sheldon, I, 208 (representa- 
tive) 

Newton Falls, "Wonder City" of Ma- 
honing Valley, I, 188, 609; Board of 
Trade, I, 609 

Newton Falls Banks, Village corpora- 
tion, I, 610 

Newton Falls Boiler Works, 1, 609 

Newton Falls Branch American Red 
Cross, I, 797 

Newton Falls Herald, I, 610 

Newton Falls Savings and Loan As- 
sociation, I, 610 



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Ivi 



.INDEX 



Newton Steel Company, Newton Falls, 
I, 609, 742 

Newton Township, I, 608-9; schools 
and churches of, I, 611 

Niblock, James G., I, 275 

Nichols, Polly, I, 625 

Nichols, Roland A., I, 320 

Nicholson, C. F., I, 314 

Nicholson, Robert J., Ill, 683 

Niedermeier, Henry, II, 66 

Nielson, James, I, 673 

Niles (see also Heaton's furnace), I, 
471-93; platted by James and Warren 
Heaton, I, 473; "Nilestown" becomes 
"Niles," I, 475; fire brick plant, I, 
476; famous "scrip" abolished and 
revived, I, 476; its mills dismantled, 
I, 478; her industrial revival, I, 479; 
financial institutions, I, 480; her 
newspapers, I, 481; fraternal socie- 
ties of, I, 486; churches of, I, 487; 
schools of, I, 489; Union school dis- 
trict organized, I, 490; present 
schools, I, 490; as village and city, I, 
492; water works, I, 493; present 
status of, I, 663; early industries at, I, 
681-85; its Liberty Loan Subscrip- 
tions, I, 801; its community service, 
I, 830; early days in, I, 841 

Niles Baptist Church, I, 489 

Niles Board of Trade (see Niles 
Chamber of Commerce), I, 479 

Niles Boiler Works, I, 476, 684 

Niles Car Manufacturing Company, 
I, 479 

Niles Chamber of Commerce, I, 480 

Niles Firebrick Company, I, 738 

Niles Forge & Manufacturing Com- 
pany, I, 739 

Niles Iron Company, I, 477, 478, 676, 
683 

Niles Lumber Company, II, 94 

Niles Public Library, I, 486 

Niles Register, I, 474, 481 

.\iles Trust Company, I, 481 

Niles War Chest, I, 800 

Niles & Lisbon Branch of the Erie 
Railroad, I, 761 

Niles & New Lisbon Company, I, 761 

Nilestown (see Niles), I, 474, 475 

Nineteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry 
in the Civil War, I, 195, 424 

Ninth Ohio Independent Battery, I, 
427 

Nischwitz, W., I, 298 

Noffziger, W. H., I, 785 

Nold, John, I, 587 

Noll, Aaron, I, 325 

Noll, John, I, 751 

Norman, W. H., I, 634 

Norris, Ira, I, 345, 566 

Norris, Mrs. J. H., I, 539 

Norris, M. A. t I, 343 

Norris, Norman L., II, 128 

North, E. R-, I, 588 

North Benton, I, 593 



North Bloomfield, I, 648 

North Bloomfield Auxiliary, Ameri- 
can Red Cross, I, 798 

North Bristol, I, 638 

North Eastern Ohio Normal College, 
Canfield, I, 560 

North Lima, I, 586, 587 

North Lima Gas Company, I, 774 

Northfield township, Summit county, 

North Side United Presbyterian 
Church, Youngstown, I, 322 

Northwest Territory, I, 30; divided 
into counties, I, 32 

Northwest Warren Auxiliary, Ameri- 
can Red Cross, I, 798 

Norton, Horace, I, 630 

Norton, Jacob, I, 638 

Norton, Roderick, I, 630 

Norwood, Guy E., Ill, 649 

Noyes, James, I, 287 

Noyes, Joseph, I, 550, 649 

Nullmeyer, Frank H., II, 20 

Nurses Home, Youngstown City Hos- 
pital, I, 337 

Nutt, George S., I, 334 

Nutt, James, I, 630 

Nutt, James H., I, 219, 263; II, 171 

Nutwood Station, I, 625 

Nye, Roy, I, 650 

Oak Grove Park, I, 469 

Oak Hill Avenue A. M. E. Church, 

Youngstown, I, 327 
Oatley, Burke, I, 628 
Obendorfer, E. J., I, 363 
Obendorfer, Michael, II, 213 
Oberholtzer Mennonite Congregation, 

North Lima, I, 588 
Oberlin, I, 152 
OByrne, P. F., I, 500 
O'Callaghan, Eugene M., I, 295, 311, 

452, 489, 523 
O'Connor, Patrick T., I, 349 
O'Connor, Richard, I, 349 
O'Connor, William, I, 295, 311, 604 
Odd Fellows Temple, I, 256 
Odell, J. H.,.I, 348 
O'Dwyer, Patrick, I, 451 
Oesch, Frank L., I, 241, 344 
Ogburn,John T., I, 311 
Oglebay, Earl W., I, 710 
O'Herron, John, death of, I, 267 
Ohio becomes a state, I, 160 
Ohio Corrugating Company, I, 747 
Ohio Galvanizing & Manufacturing 

Companv, I, 739 
Ohio Independent Banking Act, I, 438 
Ohio Iron and Steel Company, I, 512, 
. 699, 722; subscriptions by to War 

Chest fund, I, 792 
Ohio League of Woman Voters, I, 465 
Ohio Leather , Company, I, 504, 733 
Ohio National Guard, I, 778 
Ohio National Guard Armory, I, 432 



Digitized by 



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INDEX 



lvii 



Ohio-Pennsylvania Electric Company, 
power plant at Lowellville, I, 512 

Ohio Republican, I, 345, 813 

Ohio State Archaelogical Society, I, 3 

Ohio State Telephone Company, I, 373 

Ohio State and Union Law College, 
I 342 

Ohio Steel Company, I, 220, 222, 692, 
694, 714 

Ohio Steel Products Company, I, 686 t 
742 

Ohio Structural Steel Company, New- 
ton Falls, I, 609 

Ohio Sun, I, 350 

Ohio Valley, Conflicts for possession 
of, I, 23 

Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Bloody 
Seventh), in the Civil War, I, 195 

Ohio Woman Suffrage Association, I, 
465 

Ohl, Edwin M., I, 707 

Ohl, Guy T., I, 343, 344 

Ohl, Henry, I, 575 

Ohl, Marie, 1, 623 

Ohl, Michael, I, 604, 685 

Ohlson, Carl G., Ill, 736 

Ohlton, I, 576 

Ohltown, I, 604 

Old Road, Hartford Township, I, 623 

Oles, George L., Ill, 508 

Olin, Erastus, I, 622 

Olive Branch, I, 185 

Olive branch and Literary Messenger, 
I, 187 

Olive Branch and New County Advo- 
cate, I, 344 

Oliver, George T., I, 741 

Oliver, G. F., I, 307 
•Oliver China Plant, I, 540 

Olney, Richard, I, 495 

Olson, Victor, II, 166 

Omick (Indian), hanged in Cleveland, 
I, 143, 170 

One Hundred and Eighty-Eighth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, I, 197 

One Hundred and Eighty-Fourth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, I, 197 

One Hundred and Fifth Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, I, 426 

One Hundred and Fifth Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, Civil War, I, 197 

One Hundred and Fifty-Fifth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, I, 197 

One Hundred and Ninety-Sixth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, I, 197, 426 

One Hundred and Seventy-First Vol- 
unteer Infantry (Trumbull's Own), 
I, 426 

One Hundred and Thirty-Fifth Field 
Artillery: Supply Company, I, 779 

One Hundred and Thirty-Fifth Ma- 
chine Gun Battalion: A. and B. Com- 
panies, in action in France and Bel- 
gium, I, 779 



One Hundred and Twenty-Fifth Ohio 

Volunteer Infantry ("Opdyke's 

Tigers'), I, 197, 426 
One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh 

Ohio Volunteer Infantry, I, 197 
Onions, Henry, II, 98 
Onions, Joseph H., II, 99 
Only hanging, Trumbull county, I, 421 
Onorato, Anthony, III, 606 
Opdyke, Emerson, I, 424, 425 
Oppenheimer, Jacob, I, 388 
Orangeville, I, 621, 622 
Orangeville Auxiliary, American Red 

Cross, I, 798 
Orangeville Methodist Episcopal 

Church, I, 624 
Ordinance of 1787, I, 32, 160 
Ormond, George K., I, 321 
Ormsby, Alexander N., Ill, 530 
Ormsby, John, III, 426 
Ormsby, Levi, I, 630 
O'Rourke, Daniel J., Ill, 751 
O'Rourke, John P., Ill, 680 
Orr, A. I., I, 493 
Orr, Fred M., II, 3 
Orr, Mrs. Fred M., I, 784, 788 
Orr, William, I, 577 
Orrin, Dunscom & Bristol, I, 684 
Ortt, E. L., I, 454 
Osborn, Gilbert, I, 630 
Osborn, Jacob, I, 611 
Osborn, Joshua, I, 630 
Osborn, R. A., I, 633 
Osborn, William M., I, 267 
Osborne, Elmer A., II, 172 
Osborne, Nicholas, I, 175 
Osmond, F. P., I, 329 
Oster, Harry, III, 639 
Ottawas, I, 13 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Church, Niles, 

I, 489 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel (Italian 

Catholic) Parish, Youngstown, I, 313 
Overseers of the poor, I, 117 
Oviatt, John, I, 166 
Oviatt, Samuel, Jr., I, 619 
Oviatt, Samuel, Sr., I, 620 
Oviatt, Stephen, I, 619 
Oviatt, T. D., I, 464 
Oviatt, William J., I, 620 
Owen, Perry B., Ill, 774 
Owen, Mrs. Perry B., I, 794 
Owens, William, I, 314 
Oyler, William G., I, 498 
Ozersky, Lena, I, 388 
Ozersky, Nathan, I, 323; II, 155 
Ozersky, Mrs. Nathan, I, 387 

Packard A. J., I, 395 

Packard, Garrett, I, 584 

Packard, James W., I, 680, 681; II, 

234 
Packard, Thomas, I, 756 



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lviii 



INDEX 



Packard, Warren, I, 677; II, 232 
Packard, William D., I, 469, 680; II, 

233 
Packard, W. H., I, 740 
Packard Family, II, 232 
Packard & Barnum Iron Company, 

1,678 
Packard Automobile, I, 680 
Packard Electric Company, I, 680, 740 
Packard Park, I, 469 
Paden, Robert M., I, 432 
Page, Benjamin, I, 448 
Page, R. H., I, 727 
Painesville, I, 59 
Painesville and Youngstown Railroad, 

I, 762 
Paisley, L. A., I, 350 
Palm, Jefferson, I, 459, 463 
Palm, S. B., I, 463 
Palmer, Caleb, I, 559, 633 
Palmer, Dennis, I, 616 
Palmer, Dennis C, I, 616 
Palmer, Elisha, I, 582 
Palmer, Henry, I, 607 
Palmer, J. H., I, 307 
Palmer, Ray S., I, 498 
Palmer, Warren H., Ill, 485 
Paltzorff, Nathan, I, 453 
Pangburn, Joseph, I, 556, 559 
Panic of 73 in Niles, I, 476 
Panics of 1873, I, 205; of 1893, 221, 478 
Papp, Alex, I, 314 
Paradise Evangelical Lutheran Church, 

Beaver Township, I, 588 
Pardee, David, I, 559 
Pardee, James G., Ill, 601 
Parish, Daniel C, II, 370 
Parish, Michael H., II, 370 
Parish Brothers, II, 370 
Park, Moses, I, 58 
Park, Servetus W., I, 439; II, 11 
Park & Falls line, I, 231 
Park & Falls Street Railway Company, 

I, 765 
Parker, Alfred G. S., II, 345 
Parker, A. W., I, 462 
Parker, Bertram G., I, 749; III, 710 
Parker, James E., I, 714; II, 324 
Parker, J. Howard, III, 701 
Parker, J. H., I, 359 
Parker, John H., Company, I, 483 
Parker, Laura M., II, 345 
Parker, William, II, 258 
Parkman, Robert D., I, 437 
Parkin, Joseph W., Ill, 711 
Parkman, Robert D., I, 437 
Parks, B. F., I, 314 
Parks, Edward, III, 455 
Parmelee, James, I, 692 
Parmelee & Sawyer, I, 720 
Parmelee, William E., I, 672 
Parrish, Henry, I, 314 
Parrock, Harry, II, 125 
Parrock, Thomas, I, 749; II, 304 
Parsons, Charles W., I 745 



Parsons, Cora, I, 789 

Parsons George, I, 438, 440, 441, 442; 
Warren's first mayor, I, 420; first 
Warren school teacher, I, 442 

Parsons, George A., Ill, 483 

Parsons, Samuel H., I, 89, 601; first 
purchaser of Western Reserve 
Lands, I, 32; sketch of, I, 33; his 
claim, I, 53; death of, I, 471 

Partridge, E., I, 645 

Partridge, S. W., I, 601 

Passarelli, Giovanni, II, 127 

Patmos, I, 592 

Patrick, Anthony, I, 614 

Patrick, H. E., I, 334, 782 

Patriotic Societies of Youngstown, I, 
394 

Pattengell, Ward F., Ill, 495 

Patterson, H. F., I, 501 

Patton, S. G., I, 546, 781 

Patton, Thomas, I, 348 

Patton, W. H., I, 348 

Pavilion Hotel (see Cotgreave Build- 
ing), I, 414 

Payne, Edward, I, 58 

Payne, J. H. P., I, 619 

Payne, Solomon, I, 617; III, 623 

Payne, W. B., I, 677 

Payne's Corners, I, 617 

Pearce, John.F., I, 499; II, 99 

Pearson, Sarah E., Youngstown's first 
librarian, I, 374, 375 

Pease, Calvin, I, 58, 106, 114, 117, 138, 
160, 260, 261, 340, 412, 455, 456; 
first Youngstown postmaster, I, 274 

Pease, Calvin, Jr., I, 462 

Pease, Seth, I, 43, 48, 51 

Peck, Abijah, I, 557 

Peck, Daniel W., II, 286 

Peerless Electric Company, I, 747 

Pelen, William, I 723 

Pelton Elias, I, 644 

Pelton, Ithemur, I, 644 

Pelton, Jesse, I, 633 

Pelton, Josiah, I, 633, 644 

Pendleberry, George, I, 492 

Pendleton, C. H., I, 314 

Penn, George W., I, 350 

Penn, William, grant to, I, 26 

I'ennamite wars, I, 27 

Pennington Mining Company, I, 713 

Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, I, 178, 
193, 495, 757-59; final abandonment 
of (1872), I, 184; opening of, I, 759 

Pennsylvania and Ohio ("Cross Cut") 
Canal, I, 418 

Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company, 
I, 368, 500; scope and operation of 
its system, I, 370; its East Youngs- 
town Lighting System, I, 537 

Pennsylvania Railroad Company, I, 762 

Pennsylvania Tank Car Company, I, 
750; Petroleum Station, Hubbard, I, 
521 

Pennsylvania Tank Line Company, I, 
750 



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INDEX 



lix 



Pentecostal Mission, Youngstown, I, 
330; Warren, I, 455 

Peoples Savings and Banking Com- 
pany, I, 359 

Peoples Saving Company, Warren, I, 
439 

■Peoples Trust and Savings Bank, East 
Youngstown, I, 532 

Perkins, A. A., I, 719 

Perkins, Enoch, I, 42, 619 

Perkins, F. C, I, 720 

Perkins, George R., II, 282 

Perkins, George T., I, 197, 426 

Perkins, Henry B., I, 424, 438; III, 
663 

Perkins, Jacob, I, 423, 443, 463, 760 

Perkins, Jacob, III, 664 

Perkins, John R., II, 373 

Perkins, Joseph, I, 42, 443 

Perkins, Simon, I, 58, 114, 166, 167, 
170, 415, 417, 437, 439, 438, 567, 582, 
646, 710; locates at Warren, I, 405 

Perkins, Simon, Jr., I, 418, 419 

Perkins Family, III, 662 

Perkins Hardware & Roofing Com- 
pany, II, 373 

Perry, Frank W., II, 348 

Perry, J. E., .1, 317 

Perry, Oliver H., I, 171 

Perry township, Lake county, I, 53 

Person, Oscar, I, 322 
vPeters, Dennis T., Ill, 610 

^Petersburg I, 595, 597 

Petersburg Milling Company, I, 595 

Petersen, Ludvig T., Ill, 488 

Peterson, Charles, I, 804 

Peterson, L. T., I, 731 

Peterson, S. J., I, 316 

Peterson, Mrs. S. J., I, 378 

Peterson, William H. t II, 129 

Peterson, W. S., I, 463 

Petillo, Anthony, I, 313 

Petroleum (see coal oil), I, 772 

Petroleum Iron Works Company, I, 
521, 749 

Petroleum Station, Hubbard, I, 521 

Pettinger, Nicholas, I, 553, 

Pew, Benjamin F., I, 476, 479; II, 257 

Pew, John O., I, 742 

Pew, N. L., I, 439 

Pew, Thomas, I, 613 

Pfau, Samuel A., I, 364; II, 64 

Pfeiffle, W. U., I, 738 

Phalanx, I, 620 

Phalanx Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 798 

Phelps, Archer L., Ill, 661 

Phelps, Mrs. A. L., I, 468 

Phelps, George, I, 166 

Phelps, Oliver, I, 42, 575, 577 

Phelps, Timothy, I, 403 

Phillips, Charles W., I, 804 

Phillips, George C, I, 347 

Phillips, H. W., I, 588 

Phillips, Joseph, I, 636 

Phillips, Louis, I, 287 



Phillips, Owen M., II, 156 

Phillips, Samuel, I, 636 

Phillips, Thomas M., II, 280 

Phillips, Thomas R., II, 102 

Phillips, Viola B., I, 379 

Phillips, William S., I, 608 

Phillips, W. P., I, 317 

Phillis, W. A., I, 801 

Philo, I. E., I, 323 

Philpot, William, I, 665 

Phoenix Company (coal oil producer), 
I, 772 • 

Phoenix furnace erected (1854), Craw- 
ford & Howard, Youngstown, ca- 
pacity forty tons, I, 182, 193, 665, 
667, 671, 724 

Phoenix Tube Company, I, 745 

Pickens, Frank M,, I, 802, 804 

Pierce, Charles M., Ill, 560 

Pierce, Edward, I, 628 

Pierce, L. W., I, 629 

Pierson, A. C, I, 523 

Pierson, C. A., I, 782 

Pierson, Mary, III, 753 

Pierson, W. W., I, 507; III, 471 

Pirn, J. G., I, 546 

Pine Hollow Park, I, 402 

Pioneer houses, I, 654 

Pioneer Reunions, I, 395 

Pioneer Times: when children stood 
at table, I, 810; wrestling in the early 
days, I, 811; recollections of the iron 
and steel business, I, 813; the old 
rolling mills, I, 820; school day 
recollections, I, 822; skating and rac- 
ing on the Mahoning, I, 823; old 
sports, I, 824; early blast furnace 
experience, I, 827; boots and boot- 
jacks, I, 829; community fishing, I, 
830; getting along without undertak- 
ers, I, 830; business eighty years ago, 
I, 831; doing without dentists, I, 
831; early days in Niles, I, 841; pio- 
neer women of the Western Reserve, 
I, 55 

Pitt, William H., I, 444 

Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Company, I, 762 

Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railroad, I, 761 

Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad, I, 761, 
763 

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad 
Young Men's Christian Association, 
East Youngstown, I, 531 

Pittsburg, Youngstown & Chicago, I, 
762 

Piatt, G. H., I, 643 

Piatt, Joseph, I, 308 

Pleas, Charles, I, 497 

Pleasant Grove, I, 573 

Plowing, I, 130 

Plymouth Congregational Church, 
Youngstown (see also Welsh Con- 
gregational), I, 324 

Podea, John, I, 326 



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lx 



INDEX 



Poesgate, Ada, I, 533 

Poland, I, 159, 163, 175, 185, 206, 308, 
309; first industries and stores of, I, 
549; decline of, I, 554; incorporation 
of, I, 555 

Poland Center School, I, 516 

Poland Country Club, I, 398 

Poland Club Realty Company, I, 398 

Poland Law School, I, 553 

Poland Methodist Church, I, 553 

Poland Presbyterian Church, I, 553 

Poland Seminary, I, 551, 553 

Poland Township, Mahoning county, 
I, 48, 90, 95, 106; first white native 
of, I, 494; first grist mill in, I, 494; 
history of, up to War of 1812, I, 546- 
50; survey and first settlement of 
(1798-99), I, 547; schools of, I, 550, 
551; in three wars, I, 554; incorpora- 
tion of, I, 555 

Poland Union School, I, 552 

Poland Union Seminary, I, 552 

Pollen, H. D., I, 498 

Police Department, Youngstown, I, 
264, 274-278 

Pollock, Monroe, II, 303 

Pollock, Porter, I, 725; III, 693 

Pollock, Robert A., 1, 723 

Pollock, Thomas, I, 724 

Pollock, William B., I, 711, 723, 725; 
III, 692 

Pollock, William B. Company, I, 667; 
pioneer builder of blast furnaces in 
the Mahoning Valley, I, 723; fur- 
naces erected and rebuilt by firm, I, 
724; incorporation and personnel of, 
I, 725; subscriptions by, to war chest 
fund, I, 792 

Pomeroy, Lucretia, I, 443 

Pomeroy, Ralph, I, 580 

Pond, Florence, I, 498 

Pond, W. H., I, 574 

Portage county, I, 149, 161 

Porter, Arthur E., I, 552 

Porter, Augustus, I, 43, 48, 50, 51 

Porter, A. W., I, 440 

Porter, Fred C, I, 228 

Porter, J. E., I, 613 

Porter, James F., I, 578, 610; III, 734 

Porter, William, I, 341 

Porterfield, William H., Ill, 641 

Port Independence, I, 47 

Post, J. H. f I. 627 

Post, L. E., I, 627 

Post, W. W., I, 627 

Postoffice Building, I, 256 

Postoffices: early, I, 754 

Pothour, David, III, 571 

Potter, Lyman, I, 440, 638 

Potter, William, I, 103 

Potts, A. D., I, 318 

Potts, C. G., I, 576 

Pow, Charles, III, 444 

Powell Pressed Steel Company, Hub- 
bard, I, 521 

Powers, Abram, I, 96, 101 



Powers, Fred, I, 522 

Powers, Frank W., Ill, 681 

Powers, James, I, 190, 191, 565 

Powers, J. A., I, 542 

Powers, J. W., I, 522 

Powers, Isaac, I, 96, 101, 182, 569, 
578, 636, 671 

Powers, Isaac D., I, 636 

Powers, Mrs. Franklin, I, 396 

Powers, Ridgeley J., I, 192, 262, 341, 
344 

Powers, William, I, 101, 395 

Powers (William) & Company, I, 526 

Powers & Arms, I, 526 

Powers Coal Company (1875): daily 
coal mining capacity, 300 tons, I, 770 

Powrie, Alexander B., II, 333 

Pratt, Joseph, I, 403 

Prentice, A. A., I, 517 

Presbrey, Frank I, 346 

Presbyterian churches, I, 302; Warren, 
I, 447; Struther's, I, 501; Girard, I, 
508; Hubbard, I, 523; Sebring, I, 
542; Canfield, I, 562; Coitsville, I, 
569; North Benton, I, 594; Peters- 
burg, I, 597; Mineral Ridge, I, 603; 
Brookfield Township, I, 615; Vi- 
enna Township, I, 617; Cortland, I, 
628; Champion, I, 629; Gustavus 
Center, I, 645 

Presbyterians, I, 76 

Presidential campaigns: Recollections 
of Joseph G. Butler, Jr., I, 834 

Presidents of Youngstown Council, I. 
267-273 

Press, W. C, I, 305 

Preston, H. L., I, 346, 347 

Pretsch, Raymond N., II, 136 

Price, George E., I, 804 

Price, Isaac H., Ill, 780 

Price, James, I, 175, 562 

Price, John, I, 608 

Price, Norman, I, 520 

Price, Robert, I, 581, 608 

Prier, G. Herbert, III, 789 

Pricetown (Price's Mills), I, 580 

Primitive Methodist Churches in 
Youngstown, I, 326; Niles, I, 489 

Pringle, John, I, 454 

Printz, Bert H., II, 297 

Prior, Thomas, I, 411 

Pritchard, William H., II, 93 

Probate Judges, I, 344 

Probert, David, I, 314, 316 

Probst, Albert, death of, I, 282 

Probst, Jacob. I, 578. 

Proctor, William F., II, 31 

Prohibition law repealed, I, 205 

Prohibition in Youngstown, I, 253 

Prohibition, Ohio and Youngstown 
enters ranks of, I, 255 

Prosecuting Attorneys, I, 344 

Prosperous Oil Company, I, 596, 773 

Prosser, Dillon, I, 507, 607 

Protestant Episcopal Church in Ma- 
honing County, Youngstown, I, 308 



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INDEX 



lxi 



Public Parks, I, 257 
Purdum, George R., II, 183 
Purinton, Nathan B., I, 448 
Putt, Earl B., II, 177 
Pyle, Henry, I, 589 
Pyle, S. G., I, 363 

Quigley, James, I, 414, 418, 442, 571 

Quigley, Robert, I, 474 

Quinby, Ephraim, I, 58, 103, 107, 108, 

405, 406, 407, 411, 439, 446, 469, 676; 

selects lands within the present 

Warren, I, 403; lays out Warren, I, 

410; III, 591 
Quinby, Samuel, I, 462 
Quinby, William, I, 462 
Quinn, James, I, 781 
Quinn, James A., I, 353 
Quinn, James J., I, 264 

Rach Foundry Company, I, 541 

Racing Club, I, 132 

Railroads: of the Mahoning Valley, I, 

423, 760-64; freight paid to, in 1889, 

by Valley industries, I, 689 
Railroad strike of 1894, I, 223 
Raisse, H. W., I, 241 
Ralston, Archie, I, 605 
Ralston, Chester F., I, 447 
Ramage, W. H., I, 351 
Ramley, Harry B., I, 432 
Ramsey, John, I, 605 
Rand, David J., II, 248 
Randall, C. A., I, 520 
Randall, David, I, 105, 643 
Raney, John D., I, 267 
Ranney, Rufus P., I, 443, 455, 458, 671 
Ranz, W. E., I, 334 
Rathbun, Clark, I, 614 
Ratliff, Robert W., I, 424, 427 
Ratliff, Robert W., sketch of, I, 458 
Rauch, John L., I, 598 
Rausch, Martin A., Ill, 738 
Ray, Frank H., II, 219 
Rayen, William, I, 115, 117, 166, 167, 

171, 188, 274, 291, 292, 358, 416, 437, 

653, 769; his personal appearance, I, 

811; III, 588 
Rayen School, I, 115, 288, 291 
Raymond, Liberty, I, 440 
Raymond Concrete Pile Company, I, 

748 
Ready, Arthur H„ III, 715 
Real Estate Dealers of Youngstown, 

I, 351 
Reaser, J. G., I, 562 
Rebhan, Susan M., I, 386, 387 
Recollects, I, 22 
Red Jacket (Indian chief), I, 45 
Reed, Charles G., I, 536; III, 513 
Reed, C. E., I, 294 
Reed, James, I, 582 
Reed, J. M., I, 532 
Reed, Lawrence, I, 591 
Reed, Philo E., sketch of, I, 458 
Reed, Phineas, I, 117, 261, 557 



Reeker, W. C, I, 470 

Reel, Harry M., II, 351 

Reel, Mrs. Jacob, I, 576 

Reel, Peter, I, 602 

Rees, Elias, III, 759 

Reese, A. D., I, 365 

Reese, John D., II, 182 

Reese, John N., II, 225 

Reese, William G., II, 71 

Reeves, Ebenezer, I, 642 

Reeves, George, I, 476, 684 . 

Reeves, Jeremiah, I, 476, 684 

Reeves, John, I, 446, 619 

Reeves, Samuel Q., I, 618 

Reeves, Stephen, I, 628 

Reeves, William, I, 327 

Reformed Church, I, 73; Youngstown, 

I, 325; Warren, I, 453; Struthers, I, 
501; North Jackson (Jackson Cen- 
ter), I, 579 

Reformed Lutheran Church, Peters- 
burg, I, 597; Southington, I, 632 

Regenstreich, Louis, II, 302 

Register and Tribune, I, 346 

Regie, Benjamin, I, 592 

Rehr, Victor E., I, 744 

Reichart, Daniel, I, 208 

Reichel, George V., I, 562 

Reid, O. L., I, 291 

Reid, S. C, I, 439 

Reid, H. C. & Company, I, 677 

Reiger, S. B M I, 560 

Reigler, Gordon A., I, 515 

Reihl, Charles W., I, 337, 359; III, 
764 

Reilly, Albert A., Ill, 742 

Reilly Charles M., I, 219, 263; III, 
742 

Reilly, Edgar J., Ill, 575 

Reilly, Thomas C, I, 282, 385 

Reilly, William C, I, 706; II, 286 

Reinhardt, Gustav A., II, 66 

Reinhold, F. P., I, 448, 782 

Reinmann, Alfred E., I, 362, 364, 793; 

II, 17 

Reis, George C, I, 682 

Remaley, Jay, I, 610 

Remington, Rob R., I, 542 

Renter. W., I, 325 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-Day Saints, Youngstown, 
I, 329 

Republic Iron & Steel Company, I, 
182, 183, 184, 385, 472, 475, 530, 671, 
673, 682, 724 

Republic Iron & Steel Company, 
Youngstown, six furnaces, daily ca- 
pacity, 500 tons, I, 668; Haselton 
plant, I, 673; general organization 
and management, I, 707; expansion 
of plant in 1900-17, I, 708; expansion 
of plant in 1909-19, I, 709; latest re- . 
port of its operations, I, 710; sub- 
scriptions by to War Chest Fund, I, 
792 

Republic Rubber Company, I, 730, 731 



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lxii 



INDEX 



Republic Rubber Corporation, sub- 
scriptions by to War Chest Fund, I, 
792 

Retail Merchants Board of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, I, 355 

Reuben McMillan Free Library Asso- 
ciation, I, 376 

Reuben McMillan Free Library, I, 258, 
374-379; branches of, I, 378; com- 
pleted, I, 255 

Reubens, Harry, I, 707 

Revelation 14 Mission, Youngstown, 
I, 330 

Rex, Henry, I, 499 

Reynolds, J. B., I, 353 

Reynolds, Thomas, II, 104 

Rhind, J. Massey, I, 378, 484 

Rhodes, Alvin E., Ill, 635 

Rice, Carl, I, 470 

Rice, Charles, I, 646 

Rice, Charles A., Ill, 495 

Rice, Clark, I, 646 

Rice, C. C, I, 770 

Rice, David, I, 646 

Rice, Ephraim, I, 646 

Rice, George S., I, 552 

Rice, Joseph, I, 630, 631 

Rice, Louis L., II, 261^ 

Rice, Myrtle L., I, 646 

Rice, Paul, I, 633 

Rice, Samuel W., Ill, 575 

Rice, Theron M., I, 341 

Rice, William, I, 182, 266, 671 

Rice, William O., I, 284 

Rice, French & Company, I, 685 

Richards, Albert N., Ill, 499 

Richards, D. H., I, 601 

Richards, Henry T., Ill, 801 

Richards, Herbert, I, 804 

Richards, Jules G., II, 33 

Richards, Nelson M., Ill, 624 

Richards, O. M., I, 799 

Richards, Samuel A, II, 32 

Richards, William, I, 678, 686, 687, 
688 

Richards & Evans Company, III, 624 

Richardson, H. A., I, 590 

Richey, W. L., I, 570 

Richfield, I, 59 

Richter, E. G., I, 298 

Richter, F. G., I, 317 

Rickert, E. L., I, 517 

Rickert, H. L., I, 545 

Ricksecker, Aaron W., I, 517; II, 28 

Ricksecker, C. W., I, 517, 570 

Rider, Henry F., II, 326 

Riddle, Samuel, I, 577, 578 

Riegel, Clarence H., I, 747; II, 329 

Riehl, C. A., I, 318 

Riggs, J. L., I, 617 

Riley, Charles T., II, 368 

Riley, John L., I, 565; III, 538 

Riley, W. R., I, 601 

Rinehart, B. T., I, 588 

Rinehart, Edward C, II, 345 

Ripley, Harvey, I, 582 



Ripley, Warren L., Ill, 451 

Ripley, William, I, 582 

Riss, Frank B., I, 555 

Ritchie, C. S., I, 749 

Ritchie, Edward W., I, 359: III, 525 

Ritezel, Franklin M., I, 432, 462, 782; 
III, 717 

Ritezel, William, I, 462; III, 717 

Ritter, J. R, William, III, 639 

Rivers of Mahoning Valley, I, 1 

Roads in Mahoning Valley, I, 753 

Robbins, David, II, 154 

Robbins, Elizabeth R., I, 663 

Robbins, George B., II, 104 

Robbins, H. J., I, 739 

Robbins, H. S., I, 610 

Robbins, Josiah, I, 115, 474, 754, 833 

Robbins, J. Jr. (1875): daily coal min- 
ing capacity 300 tons, I, /70 

Robbins, Noble T., II, 104 

Robbins, Thomas, I, 447, 562, 617, 645 

Robert, E. S., I, 488 

Roberts, A. T., I, 520 

Roberts, Frank A., I, 644; III, 733 

Roberts, F. C, I, 489 

Roberts, James B., Ill, 504 

Roberts, John, I, 440 

Roberts, Robert R., I, 796 

Roberts, S. D., I, 522 

Roberts, Thomas, I, 496 

Roberts, Thomas H., Ill, 482 

Roberts, W. J., I, 361, 793 

Robertson, John D., I, 796 

Robeson, Jacob, I, 474, 475, 833 

Robins, Homer G, II, 174 

Robinson, A E., I, 522, 525 

Robinson, Charles S., I, 400, 706; II, 
292 

Robinson, George F., sketch of, I, 342 

Robinson, H. M., I, 730 

Robinson, Thomas L., I, 360 

Rob i son, Perry, I, 499 

Robison, Perry M., I, 611 

Robison & Battles, I, 681 

Rochford, John T., II, 123 

Rock, T. F., I, 526 

Rockwell, Edward, I, 341 

Rodef Sholem (Jewish) Congregation, 
Youngstown, I, 322 

Rodgers, Henry, I, 166 

Rodgers, James S., I, 608 

Roe, H. H., I, 628 

Roe, Mark W., Ill, 744 

Rogers, II, 206 

Rogers, Bruce, II, 209 

Rogers, Disney, I, 342, 343, 344; II, 
207 

Rogers, Volney, I, 222, 399; II, 207 

Rohrbaugh, L. J., I, 588 

Roll, J. Clifford, I, 643 

Roller, Baltzer, I, 589 

Roller, Charles J., Ill, 441 

Roller, Ebenezer, I, 487 

Roller, Ernest I., Ill, 547 

Roller, Frank J., I, 517 

Roller, John, I, 589 



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INDEX 



briii 



Roller, Michael, I, 589 

Roller, William E., Ill, 413 

Roman Catholic Churches of Warren, 

1,451 
Romana Baptist Church, Warren, I, 

447 
Romanul. I, 349 
Rook, Samuel C, I, 276 
Root, Ephraim, I, 42, 616, 621 
Root, J. A., I, 643 
Rose, Charles H., Ill, 501 
Rose, E. G., I, 208 
Rose, E. R., I, 351 
Rose, Frank E., II, 145 
Rose, George E., I, 344; II, 266 
Rose, John, I, 636 
Rose, Simon, I, 59 
Rose County Option Law, I, 254 
Rosecrans, William S., I, 196 
Rosenberger, Edward W., Ill, 677 
Rosensteel, Howard, I, 492 
Rosensteel, John H., II, 321 
Rosenthal, Isaiah A., Ill, 789 
Rosemont, I, 584 
Ross, Fanny, I, 287 
Ross, J. W., I, 279 
Round, H. L., I, 355 
Rounds, L. J., I, 493 
Row, Peter, I, 636 
Rowe, John R., Ill, 800 
Rowland, John R., I, 361, 513, 793 
Rowles, R. W., I, 647 
Rownd, Harry L., I, 361, 398, 710, 784, 

789; II, 217 
Royal Grange, Kenilworth, I, 647 
Rudge, George, II, 33 
Rudge, George, Jr., II, 305 
Rudge, J. Edgar, II, 33 
Ruggles, Charles, I, 341 
Ruggles, Walter B., I, 308 
Ruhlman, John H., I, 371; death of, 

I, 764 
Ruhlman, John W-, I, 763 
Ruhlman, W. H., 371, 764 
Rukenbrod, Clement A., Ill, 613 
Rumanian Greek Orthodox Church, 

Warren, I, 455 
Rumel, S. F., I, 786 
Rummel, S. T., I, 597 
Rundschau, I, 350 
Runge, Carl, II, 111 
Runyon, W. C, I, 495, 732 
Rupert, J. H., I, 593 
Rural Community Improvement Club, 

1,497 
Rush, Charles L., I, 454, 612 
Rush, Isaac G., I, 208 
Rush, John, I, 115, 117; III, 567 
Russell, B. A., I, 649 
Russell, David A., II, 67 
Russell, John, I, 554 
Russell, Samuel R., I, 439; III, 469 
Russell, Thomas, I, 475, 681, 820, 821 
Russell, W. I 326 
Russia Mills, I, 476, 477, 478, 682, 

684 



Rutan, John, I, 628 
Rutan, William, I, 628 
Rutledge, W. A., I, 307 
Ryall, Wallace W., II, 119 
Ryan, Dennis, III, 666 
Ryan, Joseph E., I, 449 
Ryan, William D., I, 320 
Ryan, W. M., I, 523 
Ryswick, treaty of, I, 22 

Sacred Heart Parish, Youngstown, I, 

312 
Sadler, Lee, I, 636 
Sadler, L. A., I, 636 
Sager, Gabriel, I, 639 
Sager, Jacob, I, 638 
Sager, William, I, 638 
Salcini, O., I, 311 
Salmon, A. B., I, 450 
Salow, Ernest, III, 510 
Salt Manufacture, regular enterprise 

(1785), I, 651 
Salt Springs, I, 107, 601, 651 
Salt Spring tract, I, 32, 37, 89, 471, 

602 
Salvation Army in Youngstown, I, 329 
Salvation Army appropriation from 

War Chest Fund, I, 791 
Samartino, Felix, I, 517 
Sammtrtino, H., II, 372 
Samp, Edward J., I, 480 
Sample, Eugene, I, 571 
Sample Steel, I, 111 
Sampson, William J., II, 311 
Sanders, Jacob, I, 526 
Sanders, J. Reese, I, 317 
Sanderson, Elisha, I, 649 
Sanderson, Matthew D., I, 275 
Sanderson, Thomas W., I, 202. 211, 

262, 266, 341, 343, 344, 346, 347, 361 
Sanford, Alva, I, 490 
Sanford, B. A., I, 353 
Sanford, Lois, I, 615 
Santoro, Nicholas, I, 489, 604 
"Saratoga," Warren's first steam fire 

engine, I, 441 
Satler, C. E., I, 721 
Satterfield, James, I, 508, 523 
Saturday Night, I, 350 
Sauer, George L., I, 497; II, 349 
Sauer, John A., II, 104 
Sauerwein, John, I, 566 
Saulino, Ciro, III, 615 
Sauriotis, Stefanos, I, 326 
Sause, W. A., I, 251 
Sause, William L., Ill, 440 
Saw Mills, I, 657-658; give place to 

flouring mills, I, 658 
Sawdy, W. L., I, 644 
Sawyer, Harvey, I, 665 
Saxon China Company, I, 738 
Saxon Pottery, I, 540 
Saxton, William N., Ill, 745 
Sayer, C. G., I, 570 
Schafer, J. M., I, 542 
Schaff, Philip H., I, 363, 796, III, 472 



Digitized by 



Google 



lxiv 



INDEX 



Schaffeld, John T., I, 523 

Schaffer, Charles F., I, 536 

Schaffer, J. Franklin, I, 597 

Scheiddiger, H. W., I, 626 

Schellhase, F. J., I, 298, 318; III, 499 

Schiller, William B., I, 711, 727, 729 

Schilling, Jacob D., I, 727 

Schillinger, Jonathan, I, 207 

Schilling's Mills, I, 586 

Schley, Grant B., I, 707 

Schmidt, H. H., I, 318 

Schmidt, L., I, 330 

Schmidt,, R., I, 454 

Schout, James S., II, 296 

Schmiedendorf, Henry R., Ill, 612 

Schnurrenberger, Joseph H., Ill, 612 

Schnurrenberger, J., I, 207 

Schnurrenberger, Lyman, III, 443 

Schoenf elder, George, II, 111 

Schofield. Edward, I, 626, 627 

Scholl, William J., II, 262 

School Teachers in Youngstown town- 
ship, X. 287 

Schoonover, Charles L., Ill, 653 

Schultz, Walter, I, 804 

Schuster, George, I, 319 

Schwartz, I., I, 387 

Schwarz, Christian, II, 40 

Schwing and Knupp, I, 596 

Scienceville Methodist Episcopal 
Church, I, 569 

Scofield, Jonah, I, 557, 559 

Scotch, I, 80 

Scotch-English, I, 68 

Scotch-Irish, I, 60, 61, 63, 64, 66 

Scott, Alexander F., Ill, 636 

Scott, Cal, I, 610 

Scott, David J., II, 263 

Scott, James, I, 411, 412, 418 

Scott, L. D., I, 618 

Scott, Nehcmiah, I, 605 

Scott Robert, I, 612 

Scott, Robert A., Ill, 633 

Scott, Walter, I, 451, 563, 613 

Scoville, James M., II, 197 

Scullin, F. M., I, 489 

Seagrave, Austin R., I, 274, 345 

Searle, Roger, I, 309 

Sears, S. E., I, 451 

Sea ton, George, I, 287 

Sebring, Charles L., Ill, 690 

Sebring, C. L., I, 738 

Sebring, D. A., I, 738 

Sebring, Ellsworth H., I, 540, 737, 738; 
III, 689 

Sebring, Ellsworth M., I, 539 

Sebring, Frank A., I, 539, 540, 738, 
III, 687 

Sebring, Fred, I, 539 

Sebring, Fred E., I, 736 

Sebring, George E., I, 539 

Sebring, Oliver H., I, 539, 540, 541, 
736, 738: III, 688 

Sebring, William, I, 539 

Sebring Family III, 686 



Sebring: Its founders, the Sebrings, I, 
539; schools of, I, 541; churches and 
public affairs of, I, 542; platted, I, 
594 

Sebring (E. H.) China Company, I, 
737 

Sebring Cooperage Company, I, 541 

Sebring Land Company, I, 540 

Sebring Pottery Company, I, 540, 737 

Sebring Times, I, 541 

Sebring Tire and Rubber Company, I, 
541, 736 

Seceder Corners, I, 606 

Second Christian Church of Warren, 
I, 451 

Second Methodist Episcopal Church 
(see Belmont Avenue M. E. 
Church), I, 307 

Second National Bank Building, War- 
ren, I, 437, 438, 439 

Second National Bank, Youngstown, 
I, 358 

Second Ohio Independent Battery, I, 
427 

Second Ohio Heavy Artillery, I, 428 

Second Ohio Regiment (War of 1812), 
I, 166 

Second Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, I, 197, 
427 

Second Presbyterian Church of Niles, 
I, 488 

Second Presbyterian Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 304 

Second Primitive Methodist Church, 
Youngstown, I, 326 

Second (Spiritualist) Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 328 

Second LTnited Presbyterian Congre- 
gation, Youngstown, I, 321 

Sederland, Charles, III, 564 

Seeley, John W., I, 168, 420; sketch 
of, I, 460 

Seeley, Sylvanus, I, 460, 639 

Seely, Garrett, T., I, 371 

Seemann, Roy B., II, 41 

Seidner, C, I, 595 

Seidner, J. Ralph, III, 508 

Seift, John T., I, 384 

Seil, Harvey A., II, 178 

Seiple, Albert H., Ill, 708 

Selby, Thaddeus, I, 644 

Selective Service System, I, 777, 781, 
782 

Serpent (The), prehistoric mound, I, 
5 

Servis, Francis G., I, 341, 344 

Seventh Day Adventists, Youngs- 
town, I, 328 

Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry 
(Bloody Seventh), I, 424 

Severance, John L., I, 706 

Severance, W. E., I, 294 

Severe winter of 1917-18, I, 245 

Seward, Dudley, I, 427 

Sexton, James W., I, 494; II, 110 

Sexton, Stephen, I, 494 



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INDEX 



lxv 



Shacklefield, J. A., I, 306 

Shackleford, Gibbon C, II, 342 

Shade, George B., I, 612 

Shaffer, C. J., I, 639 

Shaffer, Charles M. t I, 350 

Shaffer, John W., II, 38 

Shaffer, O. P., I, 274, 346, 347, 348 

Shakey, Mark, I, 348 

Shara Tora (Jewish) Congregation, 
Youngstown, I, 323 

Sharman, Ralph R., I, 347, 398, 778; 
III, 751 

Sharon Iron Works, I, 707 

Sharon Steel Hoop Company, Lowell- 
ville, one furnace of 400 tons daily 
capacity, I, 668; organization, origi- 
nal operations and purchase of 
Youngstown Iron & Steel Company, 
I, 719; organized, I, 742; subscrip- 
tions by to War Chest Fund, I, 792 

Sharp, Alonzo G., I, 364; II, 260 

Sharp, B. F., I, 603 

Sharp, J. L., I, 555 

Shaw, John M., I, 362, 363 

Shawnees, I. 13 

Sheadle, J. H., I, 689 

Sheadle, O., I, 504 

Shearer, David, I, 596 

Shedd, Clark & Company, I, 672 

Sheehy, Catherine, I, 112 

Sheehy, Daniel, I, 92, 96, 100, 114, 127, 
162, 192, 215, 311, 410; II, 74 

Sheehy, Daniel, Jr., I, 636 

Sheehy, Roger, I. 215, 568 

Sheldon, Ebenezer, I, 58 

Sheldon, Eleazor, I, 411 

Sheldon, George R., I, 707 

Sheldon, Martin, I, 403 

Sheldon, Oliver, I, 403 

Sheldon, William E., I, 804 

Shenango Valley Steel Company, I, 
696 

Shepard, Theodore, I, 43 

Shepard, William, Jr., I, 51 

Sherbondy, J. A., I, 780 

Sherman, William C, II, 96 

Shields, James, I, 569 

Shiloh Baptist Church (colored) 
Struthers, I, 501 

Shiloh Baptist Church, Warren, I, 
447 

Shimp, H. S. D., I, 569 

Shipton, C. F., I, 571 

Shoaf, L. F., I, 346, 350 

Shoemaker, John, I, 595 

Shoffner, R. H., I, 577 

Short, George W., I, 720 

Shrader. C. J., I, 582 

Shriver, Charles E., II, 274 

Shultz, H., I, 454 

Siddall, Samuel, II, 382 

Siddle, Samuel, I, 680 

Sidley, A. R., I, 489 

Sieferts, John A., II, 150 

Siegfried, C. R., I, 747 

Sigle, Earl G., Ill, 671 



Sigler, G. L., I, 627 

Sigler, Samuel W., I, 612; II, 55 

Sifliman, J. M., I, 275, 278 

Silvestri, Gregoro, II, 392 

Simms, D. B., I, 314 

Simon, Abraham, I, 170, 573 

Simon, John, II, 127 

Simon, J. G., I, 750 

Simon, Paul A., I, 574 

Simon, Wade E., Ill, 488 

Simon, Wilbur C, III, 594 

Simonds, Gustavus B., Abraham Lin- 
coln's neighbor, I, 820 

Simon ton, Samuel C, II, 302 

Simpkins, Fred A., I, 394 

Sims, Florence, I, 385 

Sims, Sara I, 337 

Sinclair, Dwight, III, 522 

Sisters of the Humility of Mary, I, 
338 

Sittig, William H., II, 122 

"Six Nations" (See also Iroquois Con- 
federacy), I, 9, 23; claims of, to 
Ohio lands, I, 46 

Sixth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, I, 197, 
427 

Skaggs, J. C, I, 611 

Skinner, David, I, 556 

Skinner, Eugene W., II, 269 

Skinner James, I, 634 

Slater, Josiah W., II, 143 

Slave rescue, in Bloomfield township, 
I, 648 

Slemons, Maude, I, 525 

Sliffe, Helene, I, 491 

Sloan, Ida E., I, 486 

Sloan, U. W., I, 647 

Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
Youngstown, I, 319 

Slovak Presbyterian Church, I, 305 

Slovan Building & Loan Company, I, 
363, 365 

Small, G. G. f I, 721 

Smalley, S. M., I, 542 

Smalley, V. E., I, 345 

Smiley, W. H., I, 479 
•Smith, Al-Bert C, III, 719 

Smith, Albert W., II, 197 

Smith, Alfred, I, 368, 765 

Smith, Arthur, I, 610 

Smith, Augustus E., Ill, 467 

Smith, A. Powers, II, 36 

Smith, A., I, 447 

Smith, Charles, I, 423, 424, 440, 760 

Smith, Charles B., I, 445 

Smith, Charles W., I, 459 

Smith, Clate A, I, 391 

Smith, C, I, 579 

Smith, C. B., I, 736 

Smith, C. W., I, 455, 610 

Smith, Cornelia G„ II, 227 

Smith, Edward A., II, 226 

Smith, Edwin R., Ill, 696 

Smith, Electa, I, 633 

Smith, Ett S., II, 112 

Smith, E. R., I, 610 



Digitized by 



Google 



lxvi 



INDEX 



Smith, E. W., I, 647 

Smith, Fannie, I, 379 

Smith, Frank, I, 610 , 

Smith, Frank B., II, 130 

Smith, F. K., II, 226 

Smith, Gauger, I, 649 

Smith, George J., II, 250 

Smith, George M., II, 316 

Smith, G. E., I, 329 

Smith, Harry H., Ill, 604 

Smith, Harry S., II, 240 

Smith, Horace, I, 562 

Smith, H. G., I, 634 

Smith, H. W., II, 130 

Smith, Isaac J., I, 586; III, 428 

Smith, James, I, 593 

Smith, John D., I, 614 

Smith, John F., Ill, 604 

Smith, John L., Ill, 719 

Smith, John T., I, 451 

Smith, John W., Ill, 433 

Smith, Joseph, III, 745 

Smith, Justus, I, 414 

Smith, J. Craig, II, 35 

Smith, J. N., I, 621 

Smith, Karl J., II, 176 

Smith, Martin, I, 58, 624, 633 

Smith, Morris, I, 635 

Smith, Paul B. H., I, 517; II, 211 

Smith, Robert M., I, 481, 800; II, 94 

Smith, R., I, 446 

Smith, Walter G., II, 121 

Smith, William, I, 593 

Smith, William A., Ill, 433 

Smith, William T., Ill, 720 

Smith Family, III, 604 

Smith coal mine, I, 520 

Smiths Corners, I, 576 

Smith Township, I, 593-94; schools 
and churches of, I, 594 

Snell, Harold E., I, 796 

Snively, Howard, I, 633 

Snodes, I, 594 

Snodgrass, Charles H., Ill, 656 

Snodgrass, John A., I, 314 

Snyder, F. C, I, 454 

Snyder, George B., I, 274; II, 164 

Snyder, S. S., I, 501 

Sodom, I, 606 

Sofranec, Joseph, I, 353 

Soldiers' Memorial at Youngstown, I, 
843 

Solicitors of Youngstown, I, 267-273 

Soller, J. F. C, I, 318 

Sonnedecker, J., I, 559 

Sons of Liberty, I, 152 

Soule, Lyman T., I, 610 

South High School, I, 291, 293 

South Side Park, I, 402 

South Side Savings Bank, I, 362 

South Side Savings and Loan Com- 
pany, I, 365 

South Side United Presbyterian 
Church, Youngstown, I, 322 

Southington Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 798 



Southington Grange, I. 632 
Southington township: pioneers and 

organization of, I, 630; schools and 

churches of, I, 631 
Sowash, Thomas P., II, 394 
Spafford, Amos, I, 43, 51, 58, 94 
Soahr, S. K., I, 327 
Spanish-American War: Youngstown 

and Mahoning County in, I, 226; 

Trumbull County in, I, 432; loss of 

life in, I, 775 
Sparks, E. E., I, 607 
Sparrow Tavern, Poland, where Mc- 

Kinley enlisted in 1861, I, 549 
Spaulding, Rufus P., I, 455; sketch of, 

I, 457 
Speak, Ralph R., II, 243 
Speaker, W. E., I, 523 
Spear, Edward, I, 424, 427, 440, 677 
Spear, Horace W., Ill, 590 
Spear, William T., I, 455; sketch of, 

I, 459 
Speers, Henry, I, 410, 411, 445 
Speery, Alpheus, I, 649 
Speery, Hezekiah, I, 649 
Spencer, Elihu, I, 462 
Spencer, Samuel, I, 624 
Spencer & Company, I, 670 
Sperry, Elias, I, 649 
Sperry, Lucius, I, 649 
Spieth, .William O., II, 273 
Spievak, Joseph A., II, 128 
Spigler, George W., I, 229 
Spitzig, E. J., I, 313 
Spokane, I, 638 
Sponseller, Frederick, I, 587 
Spotted John (Indian Chief), I, 107, 

108 
Sprague, Gideon, I, 638 
Sprague, Otis, I, 462 
Spring, J. B.. I, 646 
Springfield Township, I, 594-98; oil 

wells of, I, 596; churches of, I, 597 
Sproull, E. Theodore, III, 409 
Squatters, I, 89 
Squire, John R.. II, 178 
Squirrels, as pests, I, 139 
St. Ann's (Catholic) Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 312 
St. Ann's Catholic Parish, Brier Hill, 

I, 312 
St. Ann's Parish School, I, 295 
St. Ann's Catholic Parish, Sebring, I, 

St. Anthonys (Italian Catholic) Par- 
ish, I, 313 

St. Anthony's School, I, 296 

St. Augustine's Episcopal Parish (col- 
ored) Youngstown, I, 311 

St. Casimir's (Polish Catholic) Church, 
Youngstown, I, 313 

St. Clair, Arthur, I, 32, 55, 58, 102; 
unpopular in the west, I, 146 

St. Columba's Catholic Church, I, 311 

Sts. Cyril and Methodious School, I, 
296 



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INDEX 



lxvii 



Sts. Cyril and Methodious (Slovak 
Catholic) Parish, Youngstown, I, 
313 

St. Edward's Catholic Parish, Youngs- 
town, I, 312 

St. Edward's School, I, 296 

St. Elizabeth's Hospital, I, 258 

St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Youngstown, 
I 33A 338 

St.' Elizabeth's (Slovak) School, I, 
297 

St. Francis (Lithuanian Catholic) Par- 
ish, Youngstown, I, 313 

St. James' Chapel, Youngstown, I, 
310 

St. James' Episcopal Church, Board- 
man Center, I, 574 

St. James Lutheran Mission, Youngs- 
town, I, 319 

St. James Parish (Episcopal), Board- 
man, I, 309 

St. John's Church (Hellenic Greek 
Orthodox), Youngstown, I, 326 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Con- 
gregation, Hubbard, I, 524 

St. John's Protestant Episcopal 
Church, Youngstown, I, 310 

St. John's (Ruthenian) Greek Ortho- 
dox Church, East Youngstown, I, 
533 

St. John's (Slovak Catholic) Parish, I, 
533 

St. Joseph's Catholic Parish, Youngs- 
town, I, 312 

St. Joseph's School, I, 295 

St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Niles, 
I. 489 

St. Luke's Lutheran Congregation, I, 
318 

St. Maroirs (Syro-Maronite Catholic) 
Parish, Youngstown, I, 313 

St. Mary's A. M. E. Zion Church, 
Youngstown, I, 327 

St. Mary's Catholic Parish, Weather- 
field Township, I, 604 

St. Mary's (Roumanian Greek Catho- 
lic) Parish, Youngstown, I, 314 

St. Mathias (Slovak Catholic) Parish, 
Youngstown, I, 313 

St. Matthews Episcopal Mission, Se- 
bring, I, 542 

St. Matthias School, I, 297 

St. Nicholas (Greek Catholic) School, 
I, 297 

St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Congre- 
gation, Youngstown, I, 326 

St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Church, 
Struthers, I, 500 

St. Nicholas (Ruthenian Greek Catho- 
lic) Parish, Youngstown, I, 314 

St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Hub- 
bard, I, 523 

St. Patrick's Parish, Youngstown, I, 
312 

St. Patrick's Parochial School, Hub- 
bard, I, 525 



St. Patrick's School, Youngstown, I, 
296 

St. ^Paul's Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Youngstown, I, 318 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Warren, 
1,453 

St. Paul's Mission (Episcopal), Stru- 
thers, I, 501 

St. Paul's Reformed Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 325 

St. Paul's School, I. 298 

St. Peter's Lutheran Church, New 
Springfield, I. 597 

Sts. Peter and Paul's (Croatian Cath- 
olic) Parish, Youngstown, I, 313 

Sts. Peter and Paul School, I, 296 

St. Rocco's Episcopal Parish, Youngs- 
town, I, 311 

St. Rose's Catholic Parochial School, 
Girard, I, 510 

St. Rose's Church (Catholic) Girard, 

I, 508 

St. Stanislaus' (Polish Catholic) Par- 
ish, Youngstown, I, 313 

St. Stanislaus School, I, 296 

St. Stephen "s Episcopal Church, Can- 
field, I, 562 

St. Stephen's Parochial School, Niles, 
1,492 

St. Stephen's Catholic Church, Niles, 
1,489 

Stacy, Lyman, I, 516; II, 222 

Stacy, Melvin, II, 223 

Stacv, Turhan, II, 222 

Stafford, H. H., I, 339 

Stafford, O. H., I, 574 

Stafford, Ward, I, 303 _ 

Stage coach lines, I, 755 

Stage lines and inns, I, 756 

Stage coaches, I, 132 

Stahl, Arless, I, 544 

Stallsmith, Emory, I, 586 

Stambaugh, Henry, I, 764 

Stambaugh, Harry, J., Sr., I, 731; II, 
22 

Stambaugh, H. H., I, 256, 337, 379, 714; 

II, 23 

Stambaugh Family, II, 22 
Stambaugh, John II, I, 207, 335, 337, 

360, 371, 382, 684, 711, 714, 732; II, 

23 
Stambaugh, John III, I, 764, 779; II, 

23 
Stambaugh, William F., II, 72 
Stambaugh Auditorium, I, 256 
Stambaugh, Tod & Company (1875): 

daily coal mining capacity 200 tons, 

I, 770 
Standard Table Oil Cloth Company, I, 

734 
Standard Tank Car and Construction 

Company, Masury, I, 615 
Standard Textile Products Company, 

I, 504, 734, 735 
Standish, Susan, I, 287 
Stanitz, Marie M., Ill, 615 



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lxviii 



INDEX 



Stanley, Alva J., II, 390 

Stanley, Edmund, I, 593 

Stanley, E. M., I, 736 

Stanley, James C, I, 593 

Stanley, Nathaniel, I, 580 

Stanley, Thomas, I, 593 

Stanley, Walter, I, 594 

Stanley Works, I, 748 

Stanton, Edwin M., I, 455 

Starkweather, E. B., I, 287 

State license law, I, 254 

State Line, I, 629 

State Militia organized, I, 415 

State Road, I, 630 

Stauffer, Abraham, I, 589 

Stauffer, M. H., Ill, 646 

Stauffer. R. B., II, 56 

Steck, Charles T., I, 449 

Steel industries: of Mahoning Valley, 
I, 690-96; production of Youngstown 
district (1892-1918), I, 691; first 
steel plant in Youngstown district, 
1,692 

Steel strike of 1919, I, 250 

Steele, Herbert M., I, 742; III, 697 

Steele, Samuel A., I, 269 

Steese, Rollin C, I, 513, 714, 731, 781, 
784; III, 743 

Steindler, Ed., I, 750 

Steiner, A. J., I, 588 

Sterling, Charles, I, 212 

Stephens, Coridon E., Ill, 716 

Stephens, Dexter B., II, 160 

Stephenson, Cyrus C, III, 522 

Stetzyuk, Basil, I, 313 

Steubenville, I, 103 

Stevens, Benjamin, I, 677; death of, I, 
449 

Stevens, C. E., I, 642 

Stevens, Hannah, I, 103 

Stevens, Harry M., II, 309 

Stevens, H. W., I, 480 

Stevens, Robert, I, 103 

Stevens, R. P., I, 371 

Stevens, William H., I, 481; II, 309 

Stevenson, F. M., I, 522 

Stevenson, Thomas J., I, 304 

Stevenson, W. B., I, 736, 737 

Stewart, Calvin R., I, 525; III, 725 

Stewart, Charles R.. Ill, 754 

Stewart G F., I, 601, 627 

Stewart, David C, III, 650 

Stewart, David H., II, 320 

Stewart, D. G., I, 571 

Stewart, Homer E., I, 396, 465 

Stewart, James J., I, 509 

Stewart, James R., II, 108 

Stewart, J. B., Jr., I, 371 

Stewart, T. Calvin, I, 488, 490 

Stewart, William, I, 303, 605, 607 

Stigleman, W. S., I, 346 

Stiles Henry Q., Ill, 456 

Stiles, Mrs. H. Q., I, 468 

Stiles, Tabitha, I, 55 

Stiles, William R., I, 438 

Stiles Timber Company, I, 680 



Stillwagon, Arthur P., Ill, 576 

Still wagon, Fred W., I, 438, 479, 504; 
11,290 

Stillwagon, Samuel H., Ill, 532 

Stilson, B. B., I, 555 

Stilson, George, I, 572 

Stipanovic, J. A., I, 313 

Stitle, William, I, 582 

Stitt, Walter C, I, 355, 400 

Stoddard, Richard M., I, 43 

Stone, Frederick T., II, 281 

Stone, Joseph, I, 571 

Stone, Roswell, I, 178; sketch of, I, 
456 

Stone & Webster Company, subscrip- 
tions by, to war chest fund, I, 792 

Storrs, Lemuel, I, 91. 92, 95, 644 

Storer, Richard, I, 103, 107, 403; kills 
Spotted John, I, 108 

Stough, Albert B., I, 498; II, 97 

Stough, Mrs. A. B., I, 786 

Stough, Henry, I, 563 

Stotler, James E., I, 507 

Stow, Harvey, I, 620 

Stow, Joshua. I, 43 

Stow, Orrie C, II, 308 

Stow Family, II, 307 

Stowe, Auren, I, 620 

Stratton, Aaron, I, 591 

Stratton, H. G., I, 424 

Stratton, Isaac, I, 592 

Stratton, Stacy, I, 591 

Stratton, William O., I, 488, 562, 629 

Street Improvements, I, 201, 213 

Street railway reforms, I, 251 

Streeter, Corydon B., I, 274 

Streeter, George M., II, 67 

Stringer, John E., I, 507 

Strock, Joseph, Sr., II, 163 

Stroh, J. Roscoe, III. 483 

Stroker, Francis, I, 488 

Strong, Ashley E., II, 389 

Strong, Sidney, I, 375 

Strong Enamel Company, I, 541, 738 

Stroup, I, 630 

Strouss, Clarence J., I, 363; III, 705 

Strouss, Isaac, II, 190 

Strouss Hirshberg Company, II, 190 

Struthers, Alexander, I, 4<M 

Struthers, Ebenezer, I, 494; first male 
child born in Poland township, I, 
548 

Struthers, Emma, I, 495 

Struthers, Drucilla, I, 495 

Struthers, John, I, 58, 105, 117, 166, 
174, 260, 494, 548, 550, 554, 555, 657, 
660 

Struthers, Thomas, I, 495, 732 

Struthers, William, 111,693 

Struthers, I, 105; history of, I. 494- 
501; founding of, I, 495; growth and 
village incorporation, I, 496; schools 
of, I, 497; parks of, I, 498; graduates 
from village to city, I, 499; churches 
of, I, 500 



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INPEX 



lxix 



Struthers Chamber of Commerce, I, 
497 

Struthers Furnace Company, I, 495 

Struthers Furnace Company, Struthers, 
one furnace of 500 tons daily capac- 
ity, I. 496, 668, 732 

Struthers Iron Company, I, 495 

Struthers Reading Circle, I, 499 

Struthers Savings and Banking Com- 
pany, I, 496 

Struthers Tribune, I, 497 

Stryker, Leonard W. S., I, 310 

Stuart, Samuel, I, 653 

Stull, John, I, 605 

Stull, John M., I, 459, 683 

Stull, S. L., I, 645 

Stull, Valentine, I, 605 

Sullivan, John J., I, 432, 504 

Sullivan, Warner H., II, 218 

Summers, Bert M., I, 351; III, 630 

Summers, John, I, 595 

Summers, Samuel, I, 495 

Summers, William, I, 495 

Summers Brothers Sheet Mill Plant, 
I, 496 

Summers Bros. & Company, I, 478, 689 

Summit county organized, I, 149 

Sunday Morning News, I, 346, 347, 350 

Susquehanna Company, I, 27 

Sutcliffe. Mrs. R., I, 328 

Sutherland. Alexander, I, 608 

Sutliff, Calvin, sketch of, I, 457 

Sutliff, Levi, III, 801 

Sutliff, Milton, I, 341, 455, 456 464 

Sutliff, M. A., I, 642 

Sutliff, Phebe T., Ill, 801 

Sutter, F. R., I, 454 

S wager, Henry, I, 605 

Swager, Isaac, I, 112 

Swager, Jacob, I, 605 

Swager. John, I, 103 

Swan, W. L., I, 448 

Swaney, A. D., I, 739 

Swaney, Archibald F., II, 262 

Swank, James M., I, 817 

Swan ton, George T., II, 266 

Swartswelter, Ernest E., Ill, 532 

Swazy, John, I, 103 

Swedish Baptist Church, Youngstown, 
I, 316 

Swedish Evangelical Luther Bethel 
Church, Youngstown, I, 319' 

Swedish Mission Church, Youngstown, 
I, 328 

Sweeney, Albert M., Ill, 783 

Swetland, Samuel, I, 638 

Swift, Zepheniah, I, 567 

Swisher, James G., II, 75 

Sykes, R. G., I, 479 

Sykes, Saxon, I, 190 

Sykes Metal Lath Company, I, 747 

Szymkiewicz, C, I, 313 

Tabernacle Baptist Church (colored), 
Youngstown, I, 317 



Tabernacle United Presbyterian 
Church, Youngstown, I, 321 

Taft, Orin, I, 640 

Taft, William H., I, 483 

Taggart, William G., II, 115 

Tait, John, I, 612 

Tait, Robert, I, 612 

Tamarack Swamp, Bloomneld town- 
ship, I, 647 

Tana, George, I, 537 

Tappan, Benjamin, I, 106, 111, 455 

Tayler, George, I, 443; death of, I, 438 

Tayler, Matthew B., I, 424; death of, 
I, 438 

Tayler, Robert W., I, 182, 192, 262, 
266, 341, 358, 671 

Taylor, Albert C, II, 288 

Taylor, B. J., I, 462, 464, 465 

Taylor, Ezra B., I, 431; sketch of, I, 
458 

Taylor, George J., I, 480 

Taylor, George M., II, 277 

Taylor, Hal K., I, 347 

Taylor, Halsey W., II, 240 

Taylor, Henry, I, 610 

Taylor, Isabel S., I, 801 

Taylor, James S., Ill, 572 

Taylor, J. Howard, II, 265 

Taylor, Jane, I, 287 

Taylor, John, I, 607 

Taylor, John F., I, 707 

Taylor, Ralph G., Ill, 473 

Taylor, Reginald V., I; 802, 804 

Taylor, Sylvester, I, 636 

Taylor, Thomas J., I, 449 

Taylor, Wade A., I, 481; III, 699 

Taylor, W. D., I, 353 

Teeter, Wilson, I, 589 

Teeters, Elisha, I, 589, 590 

Telegraph last boat on Pennsylvania 
& Ohio Canal, I, 760 

Temperance crusades, I, 204 • 

Temperance furnace, I, 827 

Templeton, D. D., I, 746 

Templin, John, I, 592 

Tenth Ohio Cavalry, I, 198 

Tenth Ohio Infantry, I, 779 

Terhanko, George, I, 537 

Theiss, C. F., I, 298 

Theobald, David, I, 323, 335, 336 

Third Baptist Church (colored), 
Youngstown, I, 316 

Third Brigade, War of 1812 (Trum- 
bull and Ashtabula counties), I, 166 

Third Reformed Church, Brownlee 
Woods, I, 326 

Thirty-Eighth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try, I, 425 

Thirty-Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try (Civil War), I, 196 

Thirty-Sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry 
(Civil War), I, 196 

Thirty-Seventh Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, Company I, (Civil War), 
I, 196 

Thoman, Henry, I, 587 



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lxx 



INDEX 



Thoman, L. D., I, 344, 348 
Thomas, Arthur R., I, 605 
Thomas, B. Frank, II, 218 
Thomas, Charles S., I, 481; II, 70 
Thomas, Clinton G., I, 714; III, 453., 
Thomas, D. C, I, 489 
Thomas, Evan E., Ill, 589 
Thomas, Evan J., II, 20 
Thomas, F. E., I, 736 
Thomas, Frank J., II, 96 
Thomas, Frank J., II, 186 
Thomas, George P., II, 114 
Thomas, Helen S., Ill, 693 
Thomas, Homer, I, 492; II, 341 
Thomas, Ira A., II, 95 
Thomas, John M., I, 739 
Thomas, John R., I, 476, 477, 683, 738; 

II. 217 

Thomas, John R., Ill, 805 

Thomas, J. A., I, 747 

Thomas, J. E., I, 480, 739 

Thomas, Roy, I, 588 

Thomas, R. L., I, 317 

Thomas, R. S., I, 444 

Thomas, Thomas C, II, 161 

Thomas, T. D., I, 493 

Thomas, Thomas E., I, 479, 481; III, 

806 
Thomas, T. J., I, 481 
Thomas, T. L\, I, 328 
Thomas, Warren, III, 473 
Thomas, William F., I, 479; II, 342 
Thomas, William G., Ill, 797 
Thomas. W. A., I, 398, 714, 736, 739; 

III. 698 

Thomas furnace, I, 696 
Thomas Steel Company, I, 479, 712 
Thompson, Alexander, I, 576 
Thompson, Alexis W., I, 707 
Thompson, Allen P., Ill, 559 
Thompson, Edward, I, 543 
Thompson, Edward D., II, 323 
Thompson, E. R., I, 462 
Thompson, George V., Ill, 510 
Thompson, Hiram F., I, 641 
Thompson, John G., I, 467 
Thompson, J. A., I, 356 
Thompson, J. B., I. 804 
Thompson, J. M., I, 305 
Thompson, Matthew, I, 403 
Thompson, X. \V. f I, 644 
Thompson, Philip J., I, 355; II, 5 
Thompson, Samuel, I, 781 
Thompson, Seth, I, 418 
Thompson, Seth, Sr., I, 622 
Thompson, V. C, I, 444 
Thorn, Henry, I. 612 
Thorn, John, I., 605 
Thorn, William, I, 612 
Thornton, Anson, III, 621 
Thornton, Carroll, I, 241, 273; II, 184; 

111,621 
Thornton, Mrs. Carroll, I, 784 
Thornton, Charles, III, 621 
Thornton, Jesse, III, 621 
Thornton, Mrs. Jessie, I, 309 



Thornton Brothers Company, III, 621 

Thoyer, F. D., I, 627 

Threshing, I, 130 

Thullen, Henry, I, 589 

Tidd, John, I, 602 

Tidd, Martin, I, 103 

Tiefel. George, I, 605 

Tiefel, John C, I, 782 

Timmer, Frank, I, 594 

Tinker, C. E., I, 610 

Tobias, Calvin, I, 557 

Tod, Butler & Company, I, 727 

Tod, David (War Governor of Ohio), 

I, 178, 181, 194, 278, 340, 342, 360, 378, 
423, 509, 667, 687, 710, 711, 714, 731, 
760, 764, 769, 784; death of, I, 349; 
plats town of Girard, I, 502; his re- 
fusal of a cabinet position, I, 825; 
III, 596 

Tod, Mrs. David, I, 337, 784, 789 

Tod, David, II, 221 

Tod, Frances B., II, 221 

Tod, Fred, I, 714: II, 221 

Tod, George, I, 58, 106, 111, 117, 161, 
163, 166, 168, 260, 337, 340, 390, 414, 
416, 437, 455, 466, 673, 711, 730; 

II, 220 

Tod, George, Jr., Ill, 414 

Tod. Henry, I, 358, 395, 711, 817; II, 

220 
Tod (H.) & Company. I, 687 
Tod, John, I, 337 t 398, 513, 714, 730, 

750, 793; II, 221 
Tod, Jonathan I., I, 581 
Tod, Sallie, I, 337 
Tod, William, II, 221 
Tod Family, II, 220 
Tod Avenue Methodist Episcopal 

Church, I, 451 
Tod Corps No. 2, Woman's Relief 

Corps, I, 394 
Tod Furnace (rebuilt Grace No. 1), I, 

181, 711, 712 
Tod Iron Company (1875): daily coal 

mining capacity 250 tons, I, 770 
Tod Post No. 29, Grand Army of the 

Republic, I, 394 
Tod (William) Company, I, 674, 721 
Tod (William), Engine Company's 

Works, I, 675 
Tolles. William R., I, 197 
Tonsmeier, E. S., I, 488 
Tope, Homer W., I, 318 
Topping, John A., I, 710, 815 
Topping, John R., I, 707 
Torrence, James, I, 506 
Tousley. Eli, I, 556 
Towne, Josiah, I, 448 
Townsend, C. C, I, 448 
Townsend, Daniel, I, 710 
Townsend, F., I. 653 
Townsend, G. T., I, 506 
Townships of Mahoning County, I, 

544 
Townships of Trumbull bounty, I, 

599 



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INDEX 



lxxi 



Tracy, Addison, I, 649 
Tracy, Linus, I, 649 
Tracy, Seth, I, 466, 649 
Tracey, Uriah, I, 567 
Transcendant Church, Warren, I, 455 
Transportation, I, 132, 177; early 
through Mahoning Valley, I, 753; 
by water, I, 754; railroad fails, Penn- 
sylvania & Ohio Canal projected, I, 
757; automobiles and aeroplanes, I, 
766 

Traser, F. W., I. 553 

Travis, Ernest W., II, 375 

Travis, William, I, 286 

Treat, G. G., I, 513, 729 

Treat, John, I, 611 

Treudley, Frederick A., I, 288 

Trew, Andrew, I, 603 

Trigg, Frank G., II, 162 

Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
Youngstown, I, 318 

Trinity Lutheran Church, Girard, I, 
507 

Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Youngstown, I, 306 

Tritt. William H., II, 194 

Triumph Church, Youngstown, I, 330 

Trout, J. H., I, 319 

Troxell, A. H., I, 633 

True American, I, 345 

Truesdale, Charles R., I, 342, 344 

Truesdale, Chase T., I, 362, 365, 781, 
793; II, 352 

Truesdale, John R., I, 356; III, 697 

Truesdale, Seth H., I, 555 

Truesdell, Alonzo, I, 440 

Truesdell & Hitchcock, I, 677 

Trumbull, Jonathan, I, 57; after whom 
Trumbull countv was named, I, 
406 

Trumbull Banking Company, Girard, 
I, 505 

Trumbull county, I, 49; county created, 
identical with Western Reserve, I, 
57;first officers of, I, 58; divided into 
civil townships, I, 59; created, I, 106, 
406: organized, I, 111; its early poli- 
tics, I, 148; (see also Connecticut 
Western Reserve), I, 148; identical 
with the Connecticut Western Re- 
serve (1800-1805), I, 149; created 
from Western Reserve, I, 160; as the 
mother of counties I, 161; two 
regiments for War of 1812, I, 165; 
east of the Cuyahoga River divided 
into eight civil townships, I, 260; 
Garfield campaign in 1880, I, 430; its 
pioneer bar, I, 455; general descrip- 
tion, I, 599; school system of, I, 600; 
its coal mines in 1870 and 1880, I, 
770; Fifth Regiment Ohio National 
Guard, Company D, I, 780; Trum- 
bull County Agricultural Society or- 
ganized, I, 423; World War, I, 780, 
781 



Trumbull County Bar Association, I, 
460 

Trumbull County Farm Bureau, I, 600 

Trumbull County Improvement Asso- 
ciation, I, 600 

Trumbull County Law Library Asso- 
ciation, I, 460 

Trumbull County Medical Associa- 
tion, I, 461 

Trumbull County Public Service Com- 
pany, Newton Falls plant, I, 610 

Trumbull County Whig, I, 463 

Trumbull Democrat, I, 462, 463 

Trumbull Electric Railroad Company, 
I, 369, 370 

Trumbull Iron ^Company, I, 679, 688 

Trumbull Library, I, 463 

Trumbull Manufacturing Company, I, 
677 

Trumbull Phalanx Company, I, 620 

Trumbull Riflemen (Company C, Nine- 
teenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry), I, 
424 

Trumbull Rural Associate, I, 463 

Trumbull Savings and Loan Company, 
Warren, I, 439 

Trumbull Savings and Loan Company. 
Girard, I, 505 

Trumbull Service Company, I, 442 

Trumbull Steel Company, I, 435, 676; 
original plant of, I, 717; expansion 
in 1916-19. I, 718 

Trump of Fame, first newspaper of 
the Western Reserve, I, 415, 416, 
462 

Truscon Steel Company, I, 726 t 727; 
subscriptions by, to war chest fund. 
I, 792 

Trustees. I, 117 

Tucker, Daniel, I, 636 

Tully, James, I, 605 

Tully, John B., I, 605 

Tupper, Reuben, I, 556 

Turnbull, Robert, I, 190, 578 

Turner, Carl S., I, 802 

Turner Edward H., II, 150 

Turner, George F., Ill, 619 

Turner, Harry B., I, 443; II, 284 

Turner, Karl, I, 804 

Turner, Virgil E., I, 569 

Turner. George & Son, I, 675 

Turnpikes of the early times, I, 755 

Tuscarawas, I, 13 

Tutter, Herbert V., I, 356; II, 264 

Tuttle, George M., I, 458, 460, 464 

Tylee, Alfred, I, 518 

Tylee, Samuel, I, 117, 166, 260, 465, 
466, 518, 520; III, 726 

Tylee, Sylvester, I, 518 

Tylee's Corners, I, 518 

Tyler, E. B., I, 195, 424 

Tyler, Joel W., I, 459 

Tyrrell, I, 625 

Tyrrell, Asahel, I, 670 

Tyrrell, O. A., I, 636 

Tyrrell, W. G., I, 626 



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lxxii 



INDEX 



Tyrrell's Corners, I, 625 

Twelfth Ohio Cavalry, I, 198 

Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, I, 
427 

Twentieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 
Company H, in the Civil War, I, 
196 

Twentieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, I, 
424 

Twenty-Third Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try, in the Civil War; officers who 
became famous, I, 196 

Twenty-Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try, I, 425 

Twenty-Fifth Ohio Independent Bat- 
tery, I, 428 

Twenty-Sixth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try, Company G (Civil War), I, 
196 

Twenty-Seventh Volunteer Infantry 
(Civil War), I, 196 

Twenty-Ninth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try, I, 425 

Ullman, Bert J., I, 385 

Ulrich, H. W., I, 227, 228, 522 

Umstead, John C, II, 360 

Underwood, Charles, I, 348 

Underwood, Lawrence H., II, 100 

Uniform municipal code enacted 
(1902), I, 231 

Union Church Building, Southington 
Center, I, 631 

Union Congregational-Presbyterian 
Church, Kinsman, I, 643 

Union Grange, Orangeville, I, 623 

Union Iron & Steel Company, I, 672, 
673, 679, 688, 696, 715 

Union National Bank, I, 438 

Union Safe Deposit Company I, 359 

Union Savings and Trust Company, 
Warren, I, 437, 438 

Union School System, I, 287; adopted 
in Warren, I, 442 

United Brethren Church of Warren, I, 
454; Woodworth, I, 574; Austintown 
Township, I, 577; East Lordstown, 
I, 613; Orangeville, I, 624; Fowler 
Township, I, 626; Cortland, I, 628; 
Champion, I, 629; Vernon Center, 
I, 634 

United Engineering & Foundry Com- 
pany, I, 674, 720; subscriptions by, 
to War Chest Fund, I, 792 

United Evangelical Churches of War- 
ren, I, 454; Delightful, I, 631 

United Presbyterian Churches in 
Youngstown, I, 320; Warren, I, 454; 
Struthers, I, 500; Sebring, I, 542; 
Poland, I, 554 

Union Presbyterian-Congregational 
Church, Ellsworth Center, I, 583 

U. S. Grant School, I, 291 

United States Steel Corporation, I, 
673, 696, 817; its welfare work in 
the Youngstown district, I, 717, 817 



United War Work Campaign, I, 791 
Universalist Church, Vernon Center. I, 

634 
Upper Union Mill, I, 673 
Upson, Daniel, I, 622 
Upton, Harriet T., I, 465, 797 
Ursuline Academy, I, 297 
Ursuline Sisters, I, 295 

Vahey, William H., Ill, 676 

Vallandigham, Charles L., I, 348 

Valley Mill, I, 707 

Van Alstine, Thomas B., I, 307, 362, 
364; III, 453 

Van Baalen, Isa, II, 120 

Van Cise, J. E., II, 374 

Van Gorder, F. S., I, 432, 462, 780, 
802, 

Van Gorder, George, I, 464 

Van Gorder, James L., I, 406, 411 

Van Gorder, J. R., sketch of, I, 461 

Van Gorder, Wesley B., Ill, 695 

Van Houter, S. P., I, 470 

Van Hyning, Giles, I, 207, 341, 344 

Van Hyning & Co., I, 567 

Van Kirk, J. W., I, 307 

Van Ness, J. J., I, 330 

Van Ness, Lou C, III, 723 

Van Ness, R. H., I, 522; III, 519 

Van Netten, John, I, 580 

Van Norden, Harold B., I, 802 

Van Wye, Frank C, II, 230 

Van Wye, Joseph W., Ill, 721 

Van Wye, Maria E., Ill, 650 

Van Wye, William, III, 650 

Van Wye, W. J., I, 600 

Varlaky, Alex, I, 313 

Varley, Herbert, I, 440 

Vascak, Joseph G., I, 365; II, 371 

Vaughan, Charles, death of, I, 282 

Vaughan, C. A., I, 345 

Vaughn, Edward H., II, 188 

Vautrot, Jules, Jr., II, 276 

Veach coal mine, I, 520 

Venable, David, I, 591 

Venen, W. J„ I, 328 

Veney, G. T., I, 649 

Vernon, I, 59 

Vernon Auxiliary, American Red 
Cross, I, 798 

Vernon Center, I, 633, 634 

Vernon-Hartford Methodist Episcopal 
Church, said to be the first on Wes- 
tern Reserve, I, 634 

Vernon-Hartford Methodist Episcopal 
Society, I, 624 

Vernon Township: early settlers and 
schools of, I, 633 

Veteran Volunteer Firemen's Associ- 
ation, I, 281 

Vetter, George J., I, 264 

Vienna Auxiliary, American Red Cross, 
I, 798 

Vienna Center (village), I, 617 

Vienna Coal Company, I, 616 



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Vienna Coal & Iron Company (1875): 

daily coal mining capacity, 600 tons, 

I, 770 
Vienna Township : early settlement and 

organization, I, 616; schools and 

churches of, I, 617 
Viers, Brice, I, 165 
Viets, David, I, 630 
Viets, Luke, I, 630 
Viets, M. G., I, 631 
Vincent, W. H., I, 321 
Vindicator, I, 348 

Vindicator Printing Company, I, 348 
Vinopal, Carl L., II, 160 
Virginia: first charter granted, I, 25 
Virginia Military Reserve, I, 30 
Visiting Nurse Association, Youngs- 
town, I, 258, 339, 388 
Voda, Aurel, I, 314 
Vogel, Emil F„ II, 61 
Voegelin, Charles F. N., I, 305 
Vogelberger, Frank, II, 148 
Vogelberger, Joseph, II, 372 
Voit, William S., I, 433 
Votaw, Samuel, I, 592 
Voyer, Louis L, I, 747; II, 330 
Wacker, Charles A., I, 707 
Waddell, Jacob D., I, 480, 736; II, 108 
Wade, B. F., I, 152, 197, 286, 427, 455 
Wadsworth, Elijah, I, 55, 165, 167, 

169, 171, 390, 411, 415, 557, 558, 571, 

753 
Wadsworth, John X., Ill, 609 
Wadsworth, Robert, I, 355, 793; III, 

507 
Wadsworth, W. R., I, 522 
Wadsworth, Elijah, I, 114 
Waggoner, Samuel C, II, 347 
Wagstaff, James W., II, 62 
Wakefield, E. B., I, 451 
Wakefield, John, I, 645 
Wakefield, Roy, I, 555 
Walcott, W. A., I, 465 
Waldeck, Frank H., I, 432 
Walker, Charles F., Ill, 680 
Walker, Delia M., Ill, 620 
Walker, H. D., I, 650 
Walker, H. W., I, 318 
Walker, Isaac, I, 554 
Walker, John, III, 634 
Walker, Robert H., I, 504, 606, 667 
Walker, Robert L., I, 828, 829 
Walker, Zebulon, I, 634 
Wall, Clinton J., II, 304 
Wallace, James, I, 190, 565, 595 
Wallace, Joseph, I, 282; III, 407 
Wallace, J. M., I, 321 
Wallace, R. H., I, 644 
Wallace, William, I, 438; death of, 

I, 796 
Wallace, W. Marcus, III, 643 
Waller, Chester C, II, 238 
Wallis, William C, II, 156 
Wallis, William J., I, 749; II, 62 
Walnut Street Baptist Church, 

Youngstown, I, 314 



Walsh, Tom, III, 635 

Walther, Harry C, II, 111. 

Wanamaker, Tillie, I, 787 

Wannamaker, Benjamin, I, 578 

Wannamaker, John, I, 627 

Wantz, Hugo, I, 537 

War of 1812, Ohio's part in, I, 164; 
state divided into four military divi- 
sions, I, 165; Nineteenth U. S. In- 
fantry Regiment from Ohio and 
Kentucky, I, 168; Ohio militiamen 
battle Indians, I, 168; Victory at Put- 
in-Bay, I, 171; Simon Perkins's re- 
port on Battle of the Peninsula, I, 
416 

Ward, Frank, I, 492 

Ward F. W. I 339 

Ward,' James^r., I, 681, 738, 820, 821, 
831, 833; death of, I, 476 

Ward, James, III, 592 

Ward, James Duncan, I, 812 

Ward, James D., death of, I, 813 

Ward, James, Jr., I, 476, 683, 686; as- 
sassination of (1864), I, 682 

Ward, Lizzie B., I, 683 

Ward, L. B., I, 676 

Ward, William, I, 475, 476, 682, 686, 
687, 820 

Ward, William C, I, 432, 747; III, 
437 

Ward, William H. B., I, 718, 782, 799; 
II, 275 

Ward failure, I, 477 

Ward furnace, erected (1870), Wm. 
Ward & Company, Niles, capacity 
twenty-six tons, I, 668, 683 

Ward Iron Company, I, 477, 676, 683, 
684 

Ward, James & Company, I, 475, 476, 
603, 665, 681, 682, 685, 813; makes 
an assignment, I, 477; failures of, I, 
683; writes as to value of black band 
ore, I, 768 

Ward, Kay & Company, I, 720 

Ward, L. B. & Company, I, 477, 683; 
failure of, I, 477, 684 

Ward Nail Company, Struthers, I, 496 

Ward, Margerum & Company, I, 720 

Ward, William & Company, I, 683 

Ware, William, I, 592 

Warhurst, George, I, 529 

Warne, John H., I, 725; II, 341 

Warner, Israel, I, 595 

Warner, Jonathan, I, 382, 717, 718; 

II, '278 

Warner, Jonathan, I, 603, 665, 686; 

III, 589 

Warner, Jonathan (1875): daily coal 

mining capacity 300 tons, I, 770 
Warner & Ormsby (1875): daily coal 

mining capacity 100 tons, I, 770 
Warnock, Fred J., II, 57 
Warnock, George C, II, 136 
Warren, Mrs. H. D., I, 468 
Warren, Moses, I, 43; after whom 
Warren was named, I, 404 



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lxxiv 



INDEX 



Warren, Moses, Jr., I, 51 
Warren, William H., II, 26 
Warren, I, 58, 59, 103, 106, 117, 123, 
159, 161, 175, 185; county seat of 
Trumbull, I, 57, 160; pioneer lawyers 
of. I, 106; first postmaster of, I, 114; 
celebrates opening of Pennsylvania 
and Ohio canal, I, 178; center of 
Legal Practice, I, 340; history of, to 
War of 1812, I, 403-415; Indians 
threaten village, I, 407; platted by 
Ephraim Quinby, I, 410; first school 
and first church in, I, 411; its con- 
test with Youngstown over the 
county seat (1801-1810), I, 413; 
metropolis of Western Reserve 
(1810), I, 414; in 1816, I, 418; Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio Canal completed, 
and village incorporation effected, I, 
420; county buildings of 1840, I, 421; 
its early fire department and fires, 
I, 422; street and sewerage improve- 
ments in, 1865-66, I, 428; becomes a 
city (1869), I, 429; famous Garfield 
rally in, I, 431; in the Twentieth 
Century, I, 433; great industrial 
growth in 1910-20, I, 435; financial 
institutions of, I, 437-39; village and 
city of, created, I, 440; fire depart- 
ment of, I, 441; schools of, I, 442- 
44; first religious services in, I, 445; 
churches of, I, 445-55; fraternal so- 
cieties of, I, 465-68; parks of, I, 469; 
grist mill, first, I, 676; its only blast 
furnace, I, 678; early industries at, 
I, 676-81; its first electric light, I, 
681 
Warren Automobile Club, I, 801 
Warren Board of Trade, I, 433, 465 
Warren Bible School Mission, I, 455 
Warren Chronicle, I, 415, 463 
Warren Church (Methodist Episcopal), 

I, 450 
Warren City Hospital, I, 461 
Warren City Tank & Boiler Company, 

I, 746 
Warren Constitution, I, 463 
Warren Council, No. 620, Knights of 

Columbus, I, 467 
Warren Electric Company, I, 681 
Warren furnace, erected (1870), Rich- 
ard & Sons, Warren, capacity, thirty 
tons, I, 668 
Warren Library Association, I, 463, 

464 
Warren Lodge, No. 295, Benevolent 

Protective Order of Elks, I, 467 
Warren Machine Works, I, 677 
Warren Military Bank School, I, 444 
Warren Public Library, I, 463 
Warren Record, I, 463 
Warren Rolling Mill, I, 430 
Warren Rotary Club, I, 801 
Warren Savings Bank Company, I, 438 
Warren School Association, I, 442 
Warren Township, Trumbull county, I, 



103; organized civilly, I, 411; Civil 

township,' I, 439, 469 
Warren Tribune, I, 463 
Warren Tube Company, I, 679 
Warrensville township, Cuyahoga 

county, I, 53 
Warrick, C. L., I, 611, 612 
"War-time" property (1915-1918), I, 

242 
Washington (Booker T.), Settlement, 

Youngstown, I, 330 
Washington County, I, 32 
Washingtonville, I, 589 
Washingtonville Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, I, 590 
Waterman, David, I, 556 
Waters, Lester, I, 644 
Watkins, James, I, 277; III, 412 
Watson, Albert, I, 440 
Watson, A. Phile, II, 363 
Watson, A. H., I, 743 
Watson, Thomas, I, 591 
Watson, Walter E., II, 225 
Watson, William, I, 511 
Watters, R. B., I, 593 
Watters, W. B., I, 593 
Watts, George W.. I, 710 
Wayman, J. M., I, 577 
Wayne, Anthony, I, 13, 145 
Wayne County, I, 32 
Wayside Mission, I, 304 
Weasner, Robert, III, 584 
Weatherby, Zebina, I, 411 
Weathersfield Township, Trumbull 

County, I, 471, 473, 601-605 
Weaver, Charles B., sketch of, I, 813 
Weaver. H. D., I, 736 
Weaver, Mrs. Pamela C. M. W., sketch 

of, I, 812 
Weaver, Thomas, III, 541 
Webb, Andrew, I, 572 
Webb, David, I, 635 
Webb, Edwin, I, 589 
Webb, John M., I, 345, 346, 348, 566; 

death of I 349 
Webb, Thomas D., I, 415, 419, 462; 

sketch of, I, 456 
Weber, Ambrose A., I, 453 
Webster, George A., II, 124 
Wechbacher, W. H., I, 627 
Weeks, John, I, 463, 566 
Weikert, Peter, I, 589 
Weil, Isadore S., II, 113 
Weinberger, Sol, III, 796 
Weisner, Floyd E., I, 582 
Weiss, Adolf, I, 610; III, 762 
Weitz, John J., II, 137 
Welch, Harry E., I, 248, 339, 362, 782; 

II, 365 
Welch, Roy M., II, 195 
Weldy, Jacob, I, 584 
Wells, Charles B., Ill, 766 
Wells, Jesse E., I, 779 
Wells, Samuel H., I, 168 
Wells, Thomas H., I, 184, 266, 346, 

512, 722; III, 670 



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INDEX 



lxxv 



Wells, Thomas H., Jr., Ill, 670 
Welsh, I, 78, 79 
Welsh, A. G., I, 598 
Welsh Baptist Society, I, 314 
Welsh Baptist Church, I, 524 
Welsh Congregational Church, Young- 
town, I, 324 
Welsh, Ezra C, I, 598; II, 77 
Welsh, Michael B., death of, I, 273 
Welsh Presbyterian Church, Youngs- 
town, I, 305 
Welsh Presbyterian Church of Niles, 

I, 488 
Welsh, William H., Ill, 574 
Wentz, A., I, 438 
Wentz, Charles E., Ill, 573 
West Austintown, I, 575, 576, 685 
West End Mission, Youngstown, I, 

330 
Wester, Ernest W., II, 72 
Wester, Louis & Sons, II, 72 
Wester, J. Walter, II, 72 
Westerber^, John P., I, 316 
Western Conduit Company, Youngs- 
town, I, 702 
Western Conduit & Manufacturing 

Company, Harvey, Illinois, I, 702 
Western Pennsylvania, I, 64 
Western Reserve, Survey of, author- 
ized (1786), I, 31; Connecticut's title 
to clouded, I, 32; grant of "Fire 
Lands*' to Revolutionary sufferers, I, 
33; Connecticut purchasers of, I, 
36; extent of unknown, I, 38; trus- 
tees of, I, 38; divided into shares, I, 
39; proprietors' terms of purchase, I, 
40; survey commenced under Moses 
Cleaveland, I, 42; trip of Cleaveland 
surveying party to, I, 44; Cleaveland 
surveying party lands at Port Inde- 
pendence, I, 4/; first settlement, I, 
48; surveyors commence work, I, 
48; delays in survey of, I, 50; second 
surveying party organized for, I, 
51; eastern part of, surveyed, I, 52; 
townships equalized, second draft of 
lands, I, 53; third and fourth draft of 
lands, total acreage in, I, 54; refuses 
allegiance to Federal Government, I, 
56; Connecticut cedes civil rights 
over to Federal Government (1800). 
I, 57; first justices of the peace in, 
I. 58; made part of Northwest Ter- 
ritory, I, 106: first mail routes and 
postmasters, I, 114; pioneer days of 
the, I, 118; usual routes from East 
to West, I, 119; method for appor- 
tioning land holdings, I, 122; its 
strict religious observances, I, 123; 
different state contributions, I, 124; 
politics of, I, 145, 148; intensely 
anti-slavery, I, 149; "underground 
stations in," I, 150; northern route 
to, abandoned for southern, I, 159; 
created into Trumbull county, I, 160; 
first resident of, elected to Congress, 



I, 171; revival of immigration (1818), 

I, 176; first government mail to, 

reaches Warren, I, 411 
Western Reserve Bank, Warren, first 

bank in Western Reserve, I, 414, 437; 

changed to First National Bank, I, 

438 
Western Reserve Bank Building, War- 
ren, I, 437 
Western Reserve Chronicle, I, 178, 

420, 462, 463 
Western Reserve Democrat, I, 463 
Western Reserve National Bank, I, 

439 
Western Reserve Seminary, West 

Farmington, I, 641 
Western Reserve Steel Company, I, 

712 
Western Reserve Transcript, I, 462, 463 
Western Star Lodge No. 21, Free and 

Accepted Masons, Canfield and 

Youngstown, I, 389 
West Farmington, I, 640, 641 
West Farmington Auxiliary, American 

Red Cross, I, 798 
West Federal Street, I, 257 
Westlake, Covington, I, 678; III, 479 
Westlake, C. & Company, I, 676 
Westlake Rolling Mills, I, 678 
Westlund, Emil, I, 319 
West Mecca, I, 637 
West Mecca Auxiliary, American 

Red Cross, I, 798 
Westminster Presbyterian Church, 

Youngstown, I, 304 
Westover, Lowell G., II, 347 
Westover, Roy, III, 613 
West Perm Oil Company, I, 596, 773 
West Side Community Auxiliary, 

American Red Cross, I, 798 
Westville, I, 593 
Westwood, Horace, I, 328 
Wetmore, Mrs. Phil, I, 785 
Wettach, E. D., I, 326 
Wharton, O. P., I, 348, 350 
Wheat, Murray C, I, 804 
Wheatlake, S. K., I, 328 
Wheeler, Aaron, I. 58 
Wheeler, Fred F., II, 17 
Wheeler, Joseph L., I, 379, 396; III, 

790 
Wheeler, Simeon, I, 617 
Whelan, R. E., I, 781 
Whelan, William J., sketch of, I. 334, 

335 
Wherry, J. I., I, 454 
Whiskey Rebellion, I, 64, 66 
White, A. P., I, 725, 726 
White, Charles, I, 440 
White, Charles F., I, 526 
White, Elijah, I, 608 
White, G. A., I, 718 
White, Henry, I, 304 
White, Herbert E., Ill, 561 
White, Homer C, III, 755 
White, Hugh, I, 90 



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lxxvi 



INDEX 



White, James, I, 462 
White, John A., Ill, 760 
White, John B., Ill, 504 
White, Philo, I, 91, 92, 95 
White, William G., I, 304 
Whitehead, Morgan T., Ill, 739 
Whiteleather, W. F., I, 593 
Whitenack, G. M., I, 304 
Whiteside, Frank P., Ill, 677 
Whiteside, James N., II, 299 
Whiteside, Thomas H., I, 339; II, 303 
Whitham, J. D., I, 514 
Whiting, H. R. t I, 308 
Whitla, J. P., I, 719 
Whitmarsh, W. T., I, 447 
Whitney, Aaron, I, 755 
Whittier, Diament, I, 614 
Whittlesey, Charles, I, 196, 425 
Whittlesey, Elisha, I, 106, 167, 191, 

340, 341, 466; sketch of, I, 559 
Whittlesey, William W., sketch of, I, 

341 
Whitslar, F. S., I, 339, 375 
Whitslar, Grant S., I, 338 
Wick, Caleb B., I, 182, 274, 358, 395, 

671, 673 
Wick, Charles J., I, 359 
Wick, Dennick M., I, 359; II, 258 
Wick, E. Mason, I, 348, 359; III, 668 
Wick, Frank P., Ill, 679 
Wick, Fred H., I, 723 
Wick, George D., 360, 706, 725; III, 

645 
Wick, Mrs. George D., I, 337, 387 
Wick, George D., Jr., Ill, 539 
Wick, Henry, I, 115, 182, 512, 653, 679, 

684, 692, 694, 722, 844; II, 51 
Wick, Henry, Jr., I, 671 
Wick, Henry K„ I, 395, 730; III, 691 
Wick, Hugh B., I, 182, 359, 671 
Wick, James L., II, 257 
Wick, James L., Jr., Ill, 679 
Wick, John C, I, 359, 376, 722, 730; 

III 484 
Wick, Mrs. John C, I, 379 
Wick, Louise, I, 788 
Wick, Myron C, I, 304, 336, 359, 673, 

692, 722; II, 7 
Wick, Paul, I, 182, 359, 671, 722, 744;' 

111,717 
Wick, Philip, I, 718, 723; II, 7 
Wick, Phoebe, I, 287 
Wick, Ralph J., I, 673 
Wick, William, I, 113, 115, 568; sketch 

of, I, 302; death of, I, 303 
Wick & Ridgeway Iron Company, I, 

673 
Wick, Arms & Company, I, 675 
Wick, Bentley & Company, I, 480 
Wick Bros. Trust Company, I, 360 
Wick National Bank, I, 359 
Wick Park, I, 402 
Wickham, H. Hugh, II, 251 
Wieland, Adam, I, 586 
Wier, William, I, 175 
Wilcox, Daniel, I, 640 



Wilcox, Elanson, I, 320 

Wilcox, H. J., I, 650 

Wilcox, Paul G., Ill, 553 

Wildman, C M., I, 628 

Wilhelm, Jacob, I, 589 

Wilkerson, Frederick D., Ill, 641 

Wilkerson, Mrs. Fred D., I, 337 

Wilkes, Wilkinson & Co., I, 181, 722 

Wilkin, Frank E., I, 371; II, 173 

Wilkin, R. C, I, 510 

Wilkins, Charles F., II, 52 

Wilkins, Charles M., I, 460 

Wilkins, C. L., I, 782 

Wilkinson, R. H., Jr., II, 25 

Wilkison, H. L., I, 740 

Wilkoff, D. J., I, 741 

Wilkoff, Isaac, II, 46 

Wilkoff, Leo S., II, 133 

Wilkoff, L. C, I, 741 

Wilkoff, Samuel, II, 45 

Wilkoff, William, I, 741; II, 48 

William McKinley Post No. 106, 

American Legion, I, 802 
Williams, Alfred A., II, 336 
Williams, Arthur H., II, 363 
Williams, Byron, I, 349 
Williams, B. Frank, III, 504 
Williams, Curtis C, I, 802; II, 284 
Williams, David, I, 610 
Williams, D. F., I, 355 
Williams, D. R., I, 782 
Williams, Frank A., I, 749; III, 406 
Williams, Frank B., I, 335, 346 
Williams, Fred, I, 492 
Williams, George J., I, 274 
Williams, Harry, I, 361, 363, 432, 793 
Williams, Harry M., I, 571 
Williams, Harry W., I, 517; III, 516 
Williams, H., I, 605 
Williams, James, I, 208 
Williams, John, I, 618; II, 364 
Williams, John I., I, 359, 672 
Williams, John, Jr., I, 710 
Williams, Joseph F., II, 396 
Williams, Martin L., II, 287 
Williams, Richard, I, 520 
Williams, Thomas C, III, 784 
Williams, Walter, I, 592 
Williams, Wesley, I, 579 
Williams, William, I, 276 
Williams, William A., II, 335 
Williams, William T., II, 34 
Williams, W. J., I, 508 
Williamson, David, I, 18 
Williamson, James D., I, 448 
Williamson, Joseph, I, 114 
Williamson, Joseph, II, 144 
Williamson, Joseph D., II, 144 
Williamson, Pyatt, II, 144 
Williamson, Warren P., I, 114; II, 144 
Williamson, Warren P., Jr., II, 144 
Willis, Frank B., I, 483 
Willo, John A., Ill, 796 
Willo, Michael, I, 365; III, 790 
Willoughby, John R., Ill, 658 



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INDEX 



lxxvii 



Willoughby township, Lake county, I, 

42, S3 
Wilmot, Randall, an eccentric of Brace- 

ville, I, 620 
Wilms, William, I, 731 
Wilson, I, 89, 99 
Wilson, Allen, III, 757 
Wilson, Caroline M., I, 462 
Wilson, Colwell P., I, 481, 739; II, 193 
Wilson, David M., I, 341 
Wilson, D. A., I, 524 
Wilson, Ellen S., II, 74 
Wilson, E. M., I, 344 
Wilson, George C, II, 74 ^ 
Wilson, Horace L., I, 499 
Wilson, Isaac, I, 585 
Wilson, James P., I, 241, 343, 378; II, 

346 
Wilson, Levi B., I, 304 
Wilson, William, I, 115. 638: II. 235 
Wilson, William G., Ill, 572 
Wilson, Woodrow, I, 483 
Wilson, W. G., I, 725 
Wilson Avenue Baptist Church, I, 316 
Wilson Avenue Methodist Episcopal 

Church (see Marion Heights M. E. 

Church), I, 307 
Wilson Manufacturing Company, I, 740 
Wiltsie, C. H., II, 17 
Windle, Henry J., Ill, 429 
Winfield, T. A., I, 479 
Winfield, William C, I, 748; II, 350 
Winfield Manufacturing Company, I, 

747 
Wing, Marcus T. C, I, 309 
Wingert, Willis, I, 577 
Winnagle, Roscoe S., Ill, 708 
Winsworth, John G. t I, 275 
Winter, Charles F., Ill, 747 
Winter, Robert McC, I, 352; III, 684 
Winters, Doctor, I, 446 
Winthrop, John, I, 25 
Wire, Clark H., I, 598 
Wire, L. V., I, 598 
Wirt, Benjamin F., I, 364; II, 306 
Wirt, Peter, I, 319 
Wirt, William, I, 201, 202 
Wirt, W. W., I, 574 
Wirt Family, II, 306 
Wise, R. D., I, 647 
Wise Coal Company (1875): daily coal 

mining capacity 250 tons, I, 770 
Wiseman, J. P., I, 639 
Wolcott, Alfred, I, 92, 96, 100, 114, 

351, 547, 638, 642 
Wolcott, Caroline, I, 640 
Wolcott, Erastus, I, 640 
Wolcott, Frederick, I, 571 
Wolcott, Isaac, I, 559 
Wolcott, Josiah, I, 640 
Wolcott, Lewis, I, 640 
Wolcott, Lucretia, I, 443 
Wolcott, L. C, I, 601 
Wolcott, Newton A., Ill, 539 
Wolcott. O. L., I, 464 
Wolcott, Theodore, I, 640 



Wolf, Emanuel, I, 388 

Wolf, Frederick N., I, 524 

Wolfcale, Howard F., Ill, 675 

Wolff, John K., II, 121 

Wolff, John K. & Sons, II, 121 

Wolff, Orin C, II, 122 

Wolff, Ralph A., II, 122 

Woltz, James M„ II, 63 

Wolves and Panthers, I, 138 

Wonders, A. E., I, 460 

Wood, Charles L., I, 677; III, 410 

Wood, James, I, 603, 686 

Wood, James & Company, I, 181 

Wood, William A., Mower & Reaper 

Works, I, 675 
Wood Street Plan, I, 253 
Woodard, Harvey J., I, 731; II, 73 
Woodbridge, John E., I, 1/5; sketch 

of, I, 334 
Woodbridge, Timothy, I, 332, 335, 395 
Woodbridge William, I, 274 
Woodford, Darius, III, 753 
Woodford, Isaac, I, 616 
Woodford, Marshall, I, 464; death of, 

I, 465 

Woodland Avenue Evangelical Luth- 
eran Congregation, Youngstown, I, 
318 
Woodman, Thaddeus F., I, 398 
Woodrow, William, I, 628 
Woodruff, Alfred E., I, 615 
Woodruff, Ephraim T., I, 637, 645 
Woodruff, John, I, 566; recollections 
of, I, 841; his tribute to McKinley, 
I 843 
Woodruff, J. A., I, 448 
Woodruff, Robert E., Ill, 452 
Woods, Daniel B., sketch of, I, 460 
Woods, Emil C, III, 526 
Woods, Thomas, I, 781 
Woods, William, I, 311 
Woods. J. R., I, 442, 460 
Woodside, Clifford M., Ill, 506 
Woodward, Thomas W., Ill, 772 
Woodward, T., I, 750 
Woodworth, Charles H., II, 147 
Woodworth, Lane & Company's Glass 

Roofing Works, I, 675 
Woodworth, Laurin D., I, 342 
Woodworth (Steamtown), I, 574, 587 
Woolf, A. J., I, 348 
Woolf, H. J., I, 586 • 
Woolf, Howard J., Ill, 423 
Woolfe, Henry G., I, 229 
Woolley Jeremiah R., I, 241, 264, 363; 

II, 255 

World War: Youngstown and Mahon- 
ing valley in, I, 244; The Mahoning 
Valley in, I, 775-809; Youngstown 
enlistment office opened for officers, 
I, 778; first units to enter Federal 
service, I, 779; military leaders from 
Mahoning and Trumbull counties, I, 
780; selective service system in Ma- 
honing and Trumbull counties, 1, 
781; operations of selective service 



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lxxviii 



INDEX 



boards in Mahoning Valley, I, 782; 
man and material power mobilized 
in Mahoning Valley, I, 783; humani- 
tarian work in Mahoning County, I, 
784; Mahoning war chest fund, I, 
790, 791, 792; Liberty Bond subscrip- 
tions in Mahoning County, I, 793; 
humanitarian work in Trumbull 
county, I, 796; Trumbull County 
War Chest, I, 799; Liberty Bond 
Campaigns in Trumbull county, I, 
800, 801 ; record of its dead from the 
Mahoning Valley, I, 802-805; general 
history of, I, 806-809 

Wormer, Charles, I, 507 

Wright, Ewing, I, 634 

Wright, E. G. I, 749 

Wright F. S., I, 607 . 

Wright, James, I, 553 

Wright, Leslie C, II, 143 

Wright, Thomas, I, 166 

Wrightnour, J. S., I, 447 

Wurtemberger,, Lewis O., I, 480; II, 
18 

Wyandots, I, 13 

Wyatt, Ezra, I, 166 

Wymer, Adam L., II, 356 

Wyoming Valley; quarrel over be- 
tween Pennsylvania and Connecticut, 
I. 27; court decides against Connec- 
ticut claims to, I, 28; massacre in, I, 
28 

Yager, Ensign, III, 700 

Yager, George, III, 400 

Yager, J. Mandus, III, 549 

Yale School, I, 300 

Yambert, Henry, I, 509 

Yankee Run, I, 615 

Yankee Run Oil and Gas Company, 
I, 615 

Yellow Creek, first iron ore found on, 
I, 174 

Yellow Creek Furnace, I, 472 

Yellow Creek Park, I, 498, 499 

Yellow Creek Massacre, I, 141 

Yengling, Ralph W., I, 337; II, 69 

Yeomans, Albert, I, 459 

Yerian, S. H. I, 318 

Yocum, Richard R., I, 325 

Yoder, John, I, 546; II, 79 

York, L. E., I, 592 

Young, Arthur G., II, 168 

Young, Mrs. A., I, 337 

Young, Charles C, I, 91 

Young, Garrettson, I, 341, 344 

Young, Henry, II, 313 

Young, John, I, 58, 90, 92, 96, 103, 104, 
117 403, 409, 627, 676; leads survey- 
ing party to site of Youngstown, I, 
95; property disputes with Daniel 
Sheehy, I, 100 

Young, John P., I, 741 

Young, Louis H., Ill, 453 

Young, Mrs. Robert P., I, 794 

Young, Wilber B., II, 168 



Young, William C, I, 112 

Young & Webb, I, 686 

Young Men's Christian Association, 
Youngstown, I, 256, 383; World War 
campaign of, I, 792 

Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, Youngstown, I, 256, 385 

Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, Warren, I, 467 

Youngstown, I, 56, 58, 89, 103, 159, 161, 
185, 189, 341 ; Council Rock, Lincoln 
Park, I, 12; in 1798, I, 54; John 
Young purchases site of Youngs- 
town, I, 90; founding of, I, 95; site 
of, I, 96; first log house built on 
site, I, 97; acquires name of Young's 
Town, I, 102; platted, present corpo- 
rate limits, I, 103; settlers refuse to 
recognize "Jefferson county," North- 
west territory, I, 103; pioneer law- 
yers of, I, 106; first recorded birth 
in, I, 112; first church in, I, 113; first 
brides of, I, 114; first industry of, 
I, 114; first postmaster of, I, 
114; land titles of 1800-1810, com- 
ing from John Young, I, 116; first 
settlement of Mahoning Valley, I, 
122; from 1802-1840, I, 158-179; why 
Warren defeated it in county seat 
fight, I, 160; settlers of, 1803-1810, I, 
175; school system developed (1818- 
1826), I, 176; first iron manufacturing 
in township, I, 177; on line of Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio Canal (1839), I, 
178; from 1840 to 1865. I, 180; its 
pioneer industry, I, 182; chartered 
as village (1848), I, 191; first village 
election and extension of limits, I, 
192; 1840-1860, I, 193: its part in the 
Civil war, I, 194; Civil war dead 
from, I, 198; from 1865 to 1890, I, 
200; seven years of growth (1866- 
1873), I. 201-206; street improve- 
ments, I, 201; city of the second 
class, I, 202; its fire department, I, 
203; its water works, I, 204; con- 
tests county seat with Canfield, I, 
206; county seat moved from Can- 
field to, I, 208; provides funds for 
county buildings, I, 209; finally gets 
county records, I, 211; courts sus- 
tain, in county seat contest with 
Canfield, I, 211; general sewer sys- 
tem, I, 212, 213; prolonged industrial 
strike, I, 214; petitions for corporate 
expansion, I, 216; its municipal limits 
extended (1889), I, 217; adopts com- 
mission form of government (1891), 
I, 219; from 1890 to 1910, I, 218-237; 
great strike of 1892, I, 220; boom of 
1899-1900, I, 229; in Spanish- Ameri- 
can war, I, 226; filtration plant in- 
stalled, I, 232; Berlin storage basin 
for water supply; I, 233; home com- 
ing week of June, 1908, I, 236; from 
1910 to 1920, I, 238; great flood of 



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INDEX 



lxxix 



March, 1913, I, 239; city made co- 
extensive with township, I, 241; 
water supply increased by comple- 
tion of Milton reservoir, I, 243; steel 
district created, I, 251; civic improve- 
ments (1918-1920), I, 251; general 
description of, I, 257; civil govern- 
ment in, I, 260; civil township of, I, 
260; village charter, and extension 
of limits, I, 261; first city (second 
class) government, I, 262; popula- 
tion, corporate extension (1870-1890), 
I, 263; Board of City Commissioners 
abolished, I, 264; spreads over 
Youngstown township and portions 
of Coitsville and Boardman town- 
ship (1913-1917), I, 266; pioneer in 
motorizing Fire Department, I, 282; 
resident householders of township 
(1826), I, 284; its first Board of Ed- 
ucation and System (1849), I, 287; 
its superintendents of schools, I, 288, 
290, 291; public grade schools of, 
I, 294; parochial schools, I, 294-300; 
business colleges, 1, 301 ; its churches; 
I, 302-330; Presbyterian, I, 302-305; 
Methodist Episcopal, I, 305-308; 
Protestant Episcopal, I, 308-311; Ro- 
man Catholic, I, 311-313; Greek 
Catholic, I, 313, 314; Baptist, I, 314- 
317; Evangelical Lutheran, I, 317- 
319; Christian, I, 319, 320; United 
Presbyterian, I, 320-322; Jewish, I, 
322-324; Congregational, I, 324, 325; 
Reformed, I, 325; primitive Metho- 
dist churches in, I, 326; miscel- 
laneous, I, 326-330; business ac- 
tivities in, I, 354-356; financial 
institutions of, I, 356-365; public 
utilities of, I, 365-373; electrification 
of, I, 369; public institutions of, I, 
374-389; Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, I, 256, 383, 792; Knights of 
Columbus, I, 384; Young Women's 
Christian Association, I, 256, 385; 
fraternal societies of, I, 389-395; fra- 
ternal societies which own buildings, 
I, 394; parks and playgrounds, I, 
398-402; early industries at, I, 653; 
first steel plant in operation, I, 692; 
transfer of Republic Iron & Steel 
Company's offices from Pittsburg to, 
I, 709; first street car line in, I, 765; 
Soldiers' Monument at, I, 843 

Youngstown & Southern Railway, I, 
371, 763 

Youngstown & Northern Railroad 
Company, I, 716 

Youngstown & Sharon Street Railway 
Company, I, 370 

Youngstown & Suburban Railway, I, 
371, 373, 764 

Youngstown Association of Credit 
r Men, I, 355 

Youngstown Board of Commerce 
(Board of Trade), I, 354 



Youngstown Boiler and Tank Com- 
pany, II, 205 

Youngstown Bridge Works, I, 674 

Youngstown Car Manufacturing Com- 
pany, I, 741 

Youngstown Carriage Works, I, 675 

Youngstown Chamber of Commerce 
volunteer infantry corps, I, 780 

Youngstown Citizens Savings Com- 
pany, I, 365 

Youngstown City Hospital opened, I, 
337 

Youngstown City Water Works, I, 
365-368 

Youngstown Clearing House Associa- 
tion, I, 363 

Youngstown Commercial, I, 350 

Youngstown Consolidated Gas and 
Electric Company, I, 370 

Youngstown Country Club, I, 396, 
398 

Youngstown Daily News, I, 347 

Youngstown Daily Vindicator, I, 813 

Youngstown Dental Society, I, 339 

Youngstown District, I, 691; welfare 
work in, I, 717 

Youngstown Evening Telegram, I, 
347 

Youngstown Filtration Plant, I, 366 

Youngstown Foundry & Machine 
Company, I, 749 

Youngstown Hebrew Institute, I, 300 

Youngstown Hospital, I, 258 

Youngstown Hospital Association, I, 
335 

Youngstown Iron and Steel Company, 
I, 719, 742; open hearth steel plant 
at Lowellville, I, 512 

Youngstown Iron and Steel Roofing 
Company, I, 742 

Youngstown Iron, Sheet & Tube Com- 
pany, Struthers, I, 496 

Youngstown Iron, Sheet & Tube Com- 
pany, Youngstown, I, 700 

Youngstown Journal, I, 349 

Youngstown Labor Record, I, 349 

Youngstown Library Association in- 
corporated, I, 375 

Youngstown Lodge No. 55, Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks, I, 
391 

Youngstown Manufacturing Company, 
Struthers, I, 496 

Youngstown Mill (now Upper Union 
Carnegie Steel Company), I, 715 

Youngstown Morris Plan Bank, I, 357, 
363 

Youngstown News-Register, I, 346 

Youngstown Park and Falls Street 
Railway Company, I, 370 

Youngstown Playground Association, 
I, 377 

Youngstown Post No. 15, American 
Legion, I, 394 

Youngstown Pressed Steel Companv, 
I, 719, 743 



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lxxx 



INDEX 



Youngstown Printing Company, I, 
347 

Youngstown Real Estate Exchange 
Board, I, 351 

Youngstown Retail Credit Men's As- 
sociation, I, 356 

Youngstown Retail Grocers and Meat 
Dealers Association, I, 356 

Youngstown Rolling Mill Company, I, 
671, 676 

Youngstown Savings and Banking 
Company, I, 362 

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company, 
I, 530, 533; Youngstown, four fur- 
naces, daily capacity 500 tons, I, 668; 
Hubbard, two furnaces, daily capaci- 
ty 350 tons, I, 521, 668; Ohio's lead- 
ing industrial corporation, I, 700; 
plant extensions of 1909-15, I, 702; 
expansion of plant in 1915-17, I, 703; 
expansion of plant in 1916-17, I, 704; 
its total products and by-products, 
I, 705; its personnel and subsidiaries, 
I, 706; subscriptions by, to War 
Chest Fund, I, 792 

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company 
Emergency Hospital, I, 531 

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company 
Hospital, East Youngstown, I, 535 

Youngstown Spike Works, I, 675 

Youngstown State Bank, I, 363 

Youngstown Steel Car Company, I, 
740, 741 

Youngstown Steel Castings Company, 
I, 749 



Youngstown Steel Company, I, 712, 

732 
Youngstown Street Railway Company, 

I, 369, 370, 765 
Youngstown Telegram, I, 345, 347 
Youngstown Town Pump, I, 825 
Youngstown Township, Mahoning 

county, I, 42, 53, 106, 114, 520;-map 

of (1797), I, 91 
Youngstown Tribune, I, 346 
Youngstown Trunk Manufacturing 

Company, Girard, I, 504 
Youngstown Vindicator, I, 347 
Youngstown Young Men's Christian 

Association, I, 256, 383, 791, 792 
Youngstownske Slovenske Noviny, I, 

349 

Zabel, William C, II, 374 
Zaffiro, Vincent, I, 308 
Zander, W. F., I, 325 
Zedaker, Marcellus W., II, 343 
Zellars, E. V., I, 320 
Zeller, William J., I, 503; II, 193 
Zeller, William H., I, 430, 505 
Zenk, Paul H., II, 157 
Zimmerman, John, I, 589 
Zimmerman, John S., M. D., II, 93 
Zimmerman, Lyman, III, 543 
Zinn, Elton P., II, 375 
Zion Lutheran Church, New Middle- 
town, I, 597 
Zipperer, Joseph J.. Ill, 720 
Zuercher, C. J., I, 517 



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Youngstown and the Mahoning 

Valley 



CHAPTER I 
PREHISTORIC TIMES AND PEOPLES 

A history of the Mahoning Valley must deal chiefly with compara- 
tively recent events. Until white men came here to dwell, about 120 
years ago, occurrences in this vicinity must be largely a matter of specu- 
lation. There is neither history nor reliable tradition concerning the 
inhabitants- of the vast territory north of the Ohio River and west of 
the Alleghany Mountains prior to that time. For at least 100 years 
before the coming of civilized men, there is reason to believe, the Ma- 
honing Valley was not permanently inhabited at all, at least not in the 
sense that term is usually applied; but was a sort of No Man's Land 
between savage tribes on the east and west, and between advancing 
European civilization and the already doomed and slowly receding 
Indians who had been its occupants. 

The region drained by the Mahoning River and its lower reaches, 
now known as the Big Beaver and Little Beaver rivers, was then, as it 
is now, a principal gateway between the East and West. This narrow 
area between the southern shore of Lake Erie and the Ohio, where that 
river receives the waters of the Beaver and then turns sharply south- 
ward on its way to the Father of Waters, affords access to those gaps 
in the Alleghanies through which this mighty range may be crossed with 
least effort from the valleys of the Potomac and the Susquehanna, as 
well as to the great table land into which the Appalachian ranges sub- 
side before crossing the northern border of Pennsylvania, a plain extend- 
ing from Lake Erie to the Hudson River and forms the only break 
in this mountain chain in its entire course from the Gulf of Mexico to 
the St. Lawrence. Through these gaps passed numerous trails over which 
Indian tribes moved backward and forward from time immemorial in 
pursuit of conquest or better hunting grounds. Through this area came, 
in flat-bottom boats down the Ohio, or in pack trains over the forest path- 
ways, the first white settlers to locate in this part of the world. Within 
it may now be found the lines of practically all the great transcontinental 
railroads of the United States. 

The Indians found in possession of the North American continent by 
Europeans were not its first inhabitants. They had been preceded, per- 
haps by many races, but certainly by one race which has left indubitable 
Vol. 1— 1 2 



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2 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

evidence of its existence. Whether the first inhabitants of America came 
from Europe or from Asia is a disputed question. There are facts sup- 
porting the theory that they were of Eastern origin and came here by way 
of the Behring Straits. The most widely accepted belief, however, is that 
the continent was first peopled by men who came here from Northwestern 
Europe, crossing the Atlantic over an isthmus which is supposed to have 
existed ages ago between the European and North American continents 
and to have subsided to form the shallow bed of the North Atlantic 
Ocean. Both of these theories are founded upon pure speculation. There 
is not a single positive fact to indicate whence came the first race of 
which we have definite knowledge, and which is generally known as the 
Mound Builders, the definite period of its existence, or what became of it. 
These interesting questions will probably remain forever unanswered, in 
spite of the industry of scholars and the imagination of writers. Con- 
cerning them there is neither history nor legend, and even nature, prone 
to make amends for the neglect of men by preserving the story of the 
ages in a more or less intelligible manner, sheds no light that might con- 
duct the historian through the gloom in which they are enveloped. 

The Mound Builders must have been a numerous and energetic race. 
They occupied at one time or another widely separated portions of this 
continent, a fact proven by their earthworks scattered from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific and from the Lakes to the Gulf. It is even possible that 
they were progenitors of the races found in South and Central America, 
since there is considerable similarity between the monuments of all these 
peoples. So far as the earthworks found in North America are con- 
cerned, there is reason to believe that they were erected by different 
races, or at least at widely separated periods. Those found within the 
present limits of Ohio indicate this dissimilarity of origin, and even give 
evidence of having been erected for widely different purposes. Those in 
the northern portion are generally lighter and less complicated in con- 
struction, and seem to have been intended for purposes entirely unsuited 
to those in the southern section of the state. 

Interesting as are these relics of a forgotten race, it is possible here 
to refer to them in only the briefest manner. Great as is the temptation 
to speculate upon their origin and to dilate upon the fascinating story 
they tell, this must be left to others whose efforts cover a wider field. 
Volume after volume has been written concerning these earthworks, the 
authors including students and investigators on both sides of the Atlantic 
who have devoted many years of patient study to an attempt to solve 
the problems presented by them. Those who have the time and inclina- 
tion to pursue the subject farther than it may be followed in this volume 
will have no difficulty in securing in any well stocked library abundant 
literature. Nor will they have any difficulty in finding plausible and 
scholarly arguments to support almost any theory they may care to adopt 
concerning these remarkable mounds. The subject is discussed in this 
chapter only because these numerous people at one time undoubtedly 
roamed over the Mahoning Valley, perhaps lived in it, and certainly had 
their most populous cities not far from this region. 

There are at least twelve thousand separate earthworks in Ohio that 
are unquestionably the remains of construction by the Mound Builders. 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 3 

They are divided into two classes, enclosures and mounds around which 
there were no walls. Of the enclosures, which first challenge attention 
because of their great size, the ingenuity shown in the design and loca- 
tion, and the tremendous labor that must have been involved in their 
erection, there are not so many as the mounds. These enclosures, how- 
ever, exist in all parts of the state. The majority of them are on high 
ground, but some may be found in valleys. Unquestionably they were 
intended chiefly for purposes of defense, although some of them may 
have been used in other ways. 

Of these walled areas the best known and fortunately the best pre- 
served, because it has been restored and cared for by the state and the 
Ohio State Archaelogical Society, is Fort Ancient. The following de- 
scription of this remarkable fortress is taken from the files of "The 
Portfolio," a magazine published in Philadelphia more than a century 
ago. It was printed before the decay of a century and the still more 
destructive operations of relic hunters and neighboring farmers had op- 
portunity to undo the kindly protection of nature, which had covered 
these ruins with a mantle of sod and trees, preserving them almost intact 
for centuries. The work of restoration has been guided largely by this 
early description, and has, it is believed, preserved the original outlines 
of Fort Ancient, although its appearance must have been very different 
when it was occupied by thousands of primitive people and was the 
metropolis of the race by which it was constructed. 

"The site of Fort Ancient is a rolling plateau overlooking the valley 
of the Little Miami, in central Warren County, Ohio. This plateau is 
cut off from the surrounding country on one side by the Little Miami 
River, on another by Randall Run, and on a third by Cowan Creek. On 
these sides of the work the descent is very abrupt, and in prehistoric 
times must have been almost perpendicular. The plateau extends into 
the angle formed by these streams in the form of a narrow, irregular 
bluff, at least three hundred feet higher than the surrounding valleys. 
This bluff is, in turn, almost cut off from the mainland by a deep ravine 
extending into it from the southwest, and beyond this ravine were erected 
two forts or enclosures, the first of which could be approached only over 
a very narrow neck, and the second only through the first. Around the 
entire bluff was built a continuous wall, its outlines conforming to those 
of the level surface and having a length of three and one-half miles. 

"This wall was constructed of earth taken from within it, and the 
excavation evidently formed a moat. In the wall were seventy-two 
openings, directly in front of each being a mound, so placed as to block 
the opening, or leave only narrow passageways around the elevation into 
the fort. The main entrance was long and narrow. It contained a much 
larger mound, and the passageways around this mound were long and 
intricate. In this entrance has been found an incredible quantity of 
human bones, perhaps those of assailants or defenders slain during at- 
tacks and buried on the spot. Besides this burial ground, the main north 
division of the fort, which was separated by a wall from the other por- 
tion, contains the largest cemetery found anywhere among the works of 
the Mound Builders. Outside the walls at various points -are found many 



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4 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

groups of skeletons, these suggesting the possibility that they also were 
those of enemies slain in an attempt to capture the fortification. Evi- 
dently Fort Ancient was the scene of many desperate conflicts, and it 
may have been the point where the Mound Builders made their last 
stand in the face of an invincible enemy." 

Surrounding this great enclosure were many once populous villages, 
probably located there so as to be in close proximity to the fort, to which 
their inhabitants may have fled when attacked by some other more war 
like people. It is generally believed that Fort Ancient was the principal 
metropolis of prehistoric times, and that here, surrounded by fertile 
valleys and depending for protection on its largest and strongest defense 
work, this ancient people perished, fighting for existence against the in- 
roads of a more skillful and warlike invader, much as did many other 
nations in history. 

More instructive, if less interesting to the imaginative reader, are the 
mounds, or structures not specially designed for defense. These exist 
in great numbers and in many sizes. They are especially numerous in 
the southwestern part of the Ohio Valley, although, as has been seen, 
they are to be found all over the region north of the Ohio River. Most 
of these were apparently tombs, although some of them were erected 
without doubt for other purposes, since they were never used for inter- 
ment of the dead. From these tombs and the village sites usually found 
in close proximity to them it is possible to secure data from which we 
may gain a reasonably accurate idea of the personal appearance, customs 
and habits of the Mound Builders. Like all primitive peoples, they 
believed stoutly in a future existence, and associated with it the desires 
and necessities of mortal life, supplying their dead, especially those of 
more than ordinary rank, with all sorts of foods and utensils for use in 
the life to come. Because of this we get from these burial mounds 
rather full information of how their builders lived, what they ate, what 
they wore, and how they armed themselves for offense and defense. 
This is the sum of their story, and this was preserved only by accident. 
They had no written language and have left no evidence that they com- 
municated their thoughts in any way other than by the spoken word, if 
we except the ruins which are supposed to have been signal towers so 
arranged that a succession of fires built upon them could have carried a 
message from one end of the Miami Valley to the other. 

The Mound Builders usually cremated their dead, so far as they could 
do so in open fires. They interred the bones in groups, except in the case 
of rulers or chiefs, who were buried singly. Around the bones of these 
was wrapped a coarse cloth, woven from grasses and the bark of trees. 
In the tombs were placed weapons, implements of war and utensils of 
all kinds. These were sometimes of copper, iron or gold, but usually 
of baked clay. It is evident that they worked the metals only by hammer- 
ing, and knew nothing of smelting ores, securing their iron from meteor- 
ites and their other metals from nuggets. Their weapons were usually 
made of flint, immense quantities of which they had quarried from Flint 
Ridge, between Newark and Zanesville. Some of metals and materials 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 5 

found in the tombs were not of local origin, however, but were evidently 
brought from long distances. 

Remains of the villages in which the Mound Builders lived, with ap- 
parently more permanence than that shown by the Indians, furnish one 
of the most fruitful sources of information concerning the habits and 
customs of this ancient people. These villages, the more populous of 
which are always found close to forts or walled enclosures, were clusters 
of tepees, with roofs made of bark or skins. Around these tepees are 
found burial pits and pits used for refuse and for the storage of food, 
and these furnish surprisingly clear evidence concerning family life. 
The food most frequently found consisted of practically the same 
grains, fruits and nuts which grow in this region today. They also show 
that the birds and animals then inhabiting this region survived the mis- 
chances of centuries far better than did the human beings, for they were 
much the same in species, size and appearance as those found here by 
the white settlers. From these village sites we learn that the dog was 
then a family institution, much as he is today, and that he strongly re- 
sembled — in his bones, at least, the Scotch collie. From things found 
on these sites it is evident also that the Mound Builders had games 
similar to quoits. There is nothing to indicate that they were convivial 
in their habits, special vessels indicating the use of wines or liquors not 
being found; but there is abundant evidence that they smoked tobacco 
and loved their pipes, just- as the devotees of nicotine among us do. 
They were also fond of ornaments and spent much labor and effort in 
securing these. 

Although a great proportion of the mounds explored were used 
exclusively for burial purposes, this was not the case with all of them. 
The burial mounds were usually mere heaps of earth, added to as the 
need for graves demanded, but many of the ancient earthworks have^ 
distinct forms, such as those of birds, or reptiles. It is probable that 
these were intended and used for religious ceremonies or religious 
symbols, some of them being also used for the interment of the priest- 
hood and ruling classes. The skeletons found in such mounds usually 
indicate a higher type of development, and the difference is so marked 
in some cases as to lead investigators to suspect that the Mound Builders 
may have been slave owners, or at least enslaved their conquered foes. 
The largest and most interesting of the non-sepultural mounds is 
that known as "The Serpent." This is located on a high and narrow 
bluff overlooking Brush Creek, in Adams County. It is thirteen hundred 
feet in length, twenty feet wide at the base, and ten feet high for most 
of its length. Its outlines are those of a snake stretched along the flat 
top of the bluff with its head to the west and its mouth opened as if to 
swallow a peculiar oval-shaped mound erected almost within the jaws. 
Up to this time explorations have developed absolutely no information 
concerning the purpose of this huge work beyond the fact that it was 
not used for burials. The natural conclusion is that it was a religious 
symbol. Both the trees on its surface and the geological conditions sur- 
rounding it indicate that this is probably the oldest of the known pre- 
historic mounds. 



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6 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

There is no way to ascertain accurately the period at which any of 
these mounds were erected, or of estimating with any certainty the 
length of time during which they were in use. From observations con- 
cerning the earth formations around them and from the age of trees 
growing on their summits, students of the question have fixed the time 
of their abandonment at five hundred to one thousand years before the 
advent of civilization. The mounds at Marietta were surveyed by settlers 
in 1788, and the trees growing on them at that time indicated growth of 
from 289 to 443 years. Perhaps these trees had succeeded others of 
similar or even greater age. It is, however, safe to estimate the age of 
these earthworks at not less than five hundred years, admitting that they 
may be much older. At some other points the measurement of trees is 
said to indicate that they have been growing for almost a thousand years, 
and in still other places remains of trees are found that would indicate 
even a greater age for the mounds on which they stood. 

As time goes on and additional information is accumulated concern- 
ing the monuments left by this ancient race, students and investigators 
become more and more inclined toward the belief that they were the 
progenitors of the American Indians. This is entirely within the range 
of possibilities, since, among people living as the Indians did, with no 
fixed habitations and no written language, subject to constant warfare 
with hostile neighbors and frequently losing their tribal distinctions, the 
disappearance of all tradition concerning ancestors a thousand years 
previous might easily be explained. A discussion of this question is 
not, however, within the province of this work and too much space has 
already been devoted to this fascinating subject. It must be dismissed 
with the observation that, whatever theory may finally be accepted to 
account for the origin and disappearance of the Mound Builders, the 
facts must remain merely a matter of opinion. We know that such a 
race once existed ; that it had gods and worshiped them ; homes and 
cherished them; vanities and indulged them; was without inclination or 
skill to record its story for future ages — and this is all we may know 
with certainty concerning these, probably the first human beings who 
trod the soil upon which we now live. Over their tombs, altars and 
fortresses trees have been growing for a thousand years. Over their 
history hangs, impenetrable, the gloom of ages unlighted by letters. 
Around their origin, as around their fate, cling the mystery and pathos 
usually associated in the imagination with things concerning which there 
are no known facts. 

Two elevations believed to have been erected by the Mound Builders 
are located along the upper Mahoning River, in Trumbull County, 
but they are small and have never been explored. Two more may be 
found within the limits of Mahoning County, near Sebring, but they 
are not in the Mahoning Valley. A small elevation resembling the pre- 
historic mounds exists in the northeastern section of Youngstown. This 
is supposed to have been erected by the Mound Builders, but no excava- 
tions have been made in it, and its right to be considered as one of their 
works seems somewhat questionable. 

Some curious and utterly inexplicable evidences of the presence of 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 7 

men other than American Indians have been found in various parts of 
the Mahoning Valley. While these are chiefly in the form of elevations 
or excavations in the earth, they are plainly not the work of Mound 
Builders, and must have been made by people who were here long after 
the Mound Builders left and yet long before the first settlers came. Near 
Orange vilie, in Hartford Township, Trumbull County, a locality strictly 
speaking not within the Mahoning Valley but practically a part of it, is 
a work known locally as "The Old Road." This is an earthen embank- 
ment apparently thrown up from excavations along either side for a 
distance of nearly half a mile. Its direction is straight northeast and 
southwest for most of the distance, but there are some curves. The first 
settlers found this embankment covered with forest of apparently the 
same age as that which surrounded it. Such excavations as have been 
made give no clue to the origin or purpose of this embankment. In the 
same locality the first settlers found numerous excavations which had 
evidently been made for wells, as some of them had been walled up 
with rough stones. These seemed, from the trees above them, to be of 
the same age as the embankment above referred to, and are equally 
without explanation. 

Near Austintown several evidences of activities such as the Indians 
were not known to engage in have been found. These are flat areas 
covered with stones, beneath which were several feet of flat stones 
set on edge in a way that must have required great labor as well as some 
skill and some specific purpose. The settlers found them when they came, 
and usually regarded them as Indian burying grounds, although the 
Indians have never been known to bury their dead in this manner else- 
where. It is unfortunate that none of these works has ever been ex- 
plored. 



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CHAPTER II 
INDIAN TRIBES AND TIMES 

Our positive knowledge concerning the prehistoric dwellers in the 
Mahoning Valley is, as we have seen in the preceding chapter, confined 
to the fact that they must have disappeared long before Europeans set 
foot upon this continent. From that time until the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, a period variously estimated at 500 to 1,000 years, 
there is neither history nor plausible tradition concerning the occupants 
of this region. These centuries are, strangely enough, wrapped in 
obscurity deeper even than that of those preceding them, for not even 
the speculation inspired by prehistoric mounds suggests their story. 

DeSoto's ill-starred expedition to and beyond the Mississippi, about 
1520, with the earliest explorations along the Atlantic coast, have left 
some definite information concerning the aborigines of the eastern and 
southern sections of the United States; but these chronicles, crude and 
unsatisfactory at their best, throw no light upon the situation west of 
the Alleghanies. The first adventurers into this region found savages 
who expressed neither knowledge nor curiosity concerning the ruined 
earthworks all about them, and apparently had no legends in regard to 
the people who had constructed these works. They were of the race 
found by Columbus and misnamed Indians, because he imagined them to 
be dwellers of the Indies, and were entirely similar to the savages al- 
ready well, if not favorably, known to the settlers on the Atlantic coast. 

Ethnologists have named this the Red Race and classified it into three 
groups under the names of Algonquin, Kuskhogean and Siouan. They 
assign the Algonquins to the region east of the Alleghanies from the 
Carolinas to Hudson's Bay; the Kuskhogeans to the Gulf coast, mainly 
east of the Mississippi, and the Sioux to the territory north of the 
Arkansas River and west of the Mississippi. With the last named group 
are usually included the tribes in the far Southwest and Southern 
California. In these groups were scores of tribes. Any attempt to name 
or locate these geographically would be foreign to our task and merely 
confusing, since they were constantly changing their tribal appellations, 
their places of abode and the extent of their dominions. It is fairly 
certain, however, that the Indians between the Lakes and the, Ohio, for 
centuries before white men entered this region, were of Algonquin stock, 
with perhaps an admixture of the Kuskhogean along the southern bor- 
der. What tribes were located in this neighborhood we shall presently 
see. ' 

Among the American Indians were a number of confederacies, gen- 
erally more or less temporary and usually formed only for the purpose 

8 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 9 

of defense. The most notable of these was the Iroquois Confederacy, 
which will be referred to with some particularity because it was destined 
to have a far reaching effect on the history of this country through be- 
coming a factor in the momentous decision as to whether the North 
American continent was to be developed under Latin influences, or 
whether it was to enjoy the more wholesome civilization of the Anglo 
Saxons. The Iroquois Confederacy was apparently in existence when 
the first European settlements were made on the Atlantic coast, and it 
continued unbroken and powerful until near the close of the French and 
English war, 1755-59. It was known as 'The Long House," from the 
long tepees in which its tribes dwelt, and also as the "Five Nations." The 
latter designation arose from the fact that it was originally composed of 
the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida and Mohawk tribes, occupying 
the great plain between the Lakes and the Hudson River. Later the 
Tuscarora nation was admitted to the confederacy, which was thence- 
forward known as "The Six Nations." 

This confederation was the most enduring, most powerful and most 
aggressive combination in the entire history of- the American Indians, 
and seems to have been equally well adapted for defense and offense, 
although its fame rests chiefly on its conquests. Much of what we know 
concerning this remarkable union of savages, which has even been said 
by some writers to have served as a model for the organization of the 
colonies, is obtained from the Jesuit "Relations," extensive, although 
somewhat fragmentary, writings of the French missionaries who labored 
for more than a century among its constituent tribes and strove with 
equal zeal for the glory of God and the aggrandizement of France, risk- 
ing their lives and enduring dangers and discomforts with courage and 
fortitude beyond the understanding of those who do not appreciate the 
lofty motives inspiring them. 

During the first half of the seventeenth century the Iroquois at- 
tacked the Hurons, Neuters and other tribes on the northern shore of 
Lake Erie, driving them westward 1,000 miles and establishing 
dominion over their lands. They also made war on the New England 
tribes, the Delawares and the Adirondacks, bringing these tribes into 
more or less subjection. Their next conquest, with which this narrative 
is most concerned, was that of the Eries, a powerful tribe at one time 
master of the region between the Ohio River and Lake Erie. These 
Indians were called by the Jesuits the Riquerhonnons, by the French the 
Cats, and by the Iroquois the Erigas. The "Relations" tell us that in 
1655 they were utterly destroyed by the Iroquois, who descended on 
them in a flotilla of canoes, landing at Presque Isle, now the City of 
Erie. The Eries were driven to their last stand at the "Place of the 
Panther," some miles inland, at which they had a strong palisade. Al- 
though the Iroquois were armed with guns, which they had obtained 
from the Dutch and English, they were unable to make headway against 
the showers of poisoned arrows rained upon them until they brought 
inland their light canoes, carried these upturned over their heads and 
thus reached the palisade. Then they stood the canoes on end. mounted 
the cross bars and overcame the Erie defense. Most of the Eric braves 



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10 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

were slain, together with hundreds of their women and children. The 
men who escaped were driven into the forest and the other captives 
absorbed into the Iroquois tribes, a method these crafty Indians had 
of making good their losses in war. The other side of this story, as 
told by the Iroquois, is that the Eries had planned to destroy the Senecas, 
and that their plot was revealed by a Mohawk squaw who had been 
captured and married by an Erie brave. Acting on her information 
the Confederacy rallied its warriors and fell upon the Erie host as it 
approached the Seneca lands on the Genesee River, surprising and an- 
nihilating it. The victors are entitled to their statement, but their history 
lends probability to the tale of the Jesuits. It is certain that after this 
date the Eries disappeared from history as a nation, and the Confederacy 
claimed dominion over the lands they had occupied, including the region 
of the Mahoning River. Nor did this end its conquests in the West. 
Marching its warriors through the territory of the Eries in 1680, the 
Confederacy made a treaty with the Miami nation, on the Maumee 
River, took as guides a hundred Miami braves, and fell upon the Illini, 
or Illinois tribe, which occupied the Wabash. This furious onslaught 
destroyed the Illinois, leaving their villages filled with dead and in 
desolation such as moved to pity the French missionary Joliet, who came 
on the scene soon afterward and who has left as a record of this affair 
a masterpiece of tragic description. The Iroquois then returned to the 
Miamis, picked a quarrel with these Indians and drove them southward 
over the divide to their allies on the Big and Little Miamis. On their 
way back to the East, they attacked the Shawnees and other Indians 
along the Ohio, forcing them, with the Miamis, to appeal to the French 
for help, but failing to conquer them as they had conquered the Eries 
and the Illinois. In the meantime these fierce and rapid warriors had 
subjugated the Andastes, a tribe which occupied the banks of the 
Allegheny River and the territory east to the headwaters of the Susque- 
hanna. 

From this time onward fear of the Iroquois existed among the Ohio 
Indians. Without openly admitting domination of the Confederacy, 
they exercised constant care to avoid provoking these fierce and blood- 
thirsty warriors from the East. Consequently, the claim of the Iroquois 
to dominion over the lands between the Lakes and the Ohio, while never 
acknowledged by the native tribes, was respected by them to the extent 
that they never attempted to locate permanently on these lands, espe- 
cially that portion of them which later became the Connecticut Western 
Reserve. It is probable that they hunted over this section and perhaps 
occupied parts of it at various times, but evidently they had no per- 
manent villages farther east than the Muskingum or farther north than 
a few miles up that river. The fact that the Iroquois claims had a certain 
standing is proven by the treaty made with the Senecas and Mohawks 
at Buffalo, on June 23, 1796, wlien General Moses Cleaveland purchased 
from these tribes a title to the lands in the Western Reserve before he 
began to survey it. 

A further indication of the fear in which the Ohio Indians held the 
Iroquois was their hesitation and division at the outbreak of the French 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 11 

and English war. Some of these tribes favored the English, but the 
greater portion of them took no part at the beginning. The Delawares 
and Shawnees allied themselves rather indifferently with the British, 
certain chiefs in these tribes having warned Washington of the ambush 
at Braddock's Field. After the destruction of Braddock's army^ how- 
ever, the Indians on the Ohio and those farther west openly made cause 
with the French, because they then believed that the latter would be 
powerful enough to defend them against the Iroquois, who were allied 
with the English at the beginning of the struggle. Again, when Forbes 
approached the French fort at the confluence of the Allegheny and 
Monongahela and it looked as if the French were losing ground in the 
war, the Indians deserted De Ligneri, forcing him to burn Fort Duquesne 
and abandon that important post. In explanation of this wavering policy 
of the Delawares and Shawnees it should be remembered that the French 
and Iroquois were enemies from the time that Champlain first defeated 
the Mohawks on the banks of the lake to which he gave his name, killing 
several of their chiefs and frightening their warriors with his "fire 
sticks/' a weapon then unknown to the Indians. This was in 1615. and 
the French victory over the proud Mohawks was never forgiven. Even 
the Jesuits, who labored among the tribes of the Confederacy more 
ardently than anywhere else, were never able to make headway because 
of the enduring hatred of these tribes for everything reminding them of 
this humiliation. 

This matter has been referred to at some length because it sheds light 
on the absence of any regularly organized tribes in this rich section, 
where the fertility of the corn fields and the abundance of game and 
fish would naturally have led to permanent villages. The first white 
men to penetrate this region found here scattered bands of Indians whom 
they called Mingoes, although some of these bands were evidently not 
properly classified by that term. The Mingoes were adventurous indi- 
viduals and refugees from the Iroquois tribes, chiefly Senecas. They 
seem to have had no acknowledged tribal organization of their own, but to 
have banded together in this wilderness to escape the strict regulations 
that governed the confederated tribes. The other Indians found among 
them were probably remnants of various tribes who were permitted, 
because of their servility and lack of pugnacity, to reside in this region, 
perhaps as much because the corn patches cultivated by their squaws 
were convenient for the lazy Mingoes as because the latter were not 
sufficiently organized to drive them out. The conglomeration was not 
an attractive one, and the early settlers found these Indians cursed with 
all the vices of civilization, but without the virtues of the neighboring 
tribes. They were sometimes called Massasaugas, or "blacksnake" In- 
dians, because of their disposition to laziness and basking in the sun. 

Of the few bands that can be identified by the meagre accounts left 
of the first white adventurers into the Western Reserve, one was un- 
doubtedly composed of Caughnewagas, or Connewagas, a small tribe 
subjugated by the Iroquois farther north and located for a time on 
Upper Delaware. Others were remnants of the Andastes, and a few 
were of Delaware origin, although the Delawares of this section were 



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12 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

farther south and west at that time. It is notable that the name of any 
recognized tribe is not mentioned in such records of Northeastern Ohio 
as have been preserved, but they were referred to as Mingoes. Such 
of these Indians as were personally known to the traders were often 
given aames indicating their tribal origin, such as "Onondaga George." 
who figured in the first legally recognized murder in New Connecticut. 
It is significant also that the conversations and other communication 
with the Indians of this band were held in the Seneca language. 

The largest of these roving bands of Indians was located at Deerfield 
and contained about three hundred persons, many of whom were women 




Council Rock in Lincoln Park, Around Which Indian Legends 

Cluster 

The rent in this huge boulder is supposed to have been caused by a bolt 

of lightning during a council of Mahoning Valley Tribes 

and children. It had no tribal name other than that of Mingo. These 
Indians were devoutly hated by the first settlers, but it does not appear 
that they were greatly feared. They seem to have been lazy, thieving 
savages, prone to steal, especially when they could steal whisky. At 
some time the Mahoning Valley was undoubtedly occupied by populous 
Indian tribes, and numerous legends indicate that it was occasionally the 
scene of important councils. Such a legend is the story of Council Rock, 
a huge boulder still one of the curiosities of Lincoln Park, in the City 
of Youngstown. This legend 'has been embalmed in a painting in the 
Mahoning County Courthouse. According to tradition the Indians had 
gathered in this gorge, as was their annual custom, for a council and 
feast, when a violent storm occurred. Many trees were blown down 
and the rock was split by a terrific bolt of lightning, killing many of 
those who had taken refuge near it. This legend is supported by the 
fact that Council Rock has evidently been riven in twain by some great 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 13 

force, as well as by the fact that the earliest settlers here found that an 
unusually large Indian cornfield occupied the land along the river at 
the mouth of this gorge. The rock may have been rent by its own weight 
as it settled in its bed, and the cornfields may have been due to the fact 
that the land at that point was rich and easily cleared. At any rate, no 
Indian councils were held in this locality since white men were here to 
observe the facts. 

As to the Indians occupying lands other than the Mahoning Valley 
during the first half of the eighteenth century, there is considerable 
well authenticated information. They were numerous and belonged to 
well defined tribes. About the middle of that century troublous times 
among them began and from that time forward there was much shifting 
of locations, ending finally in their removal west of the Indian line 
established by General Anthony Wayne after the battle of Fallen Timbers 
and their rapid disappearance from this side of the Mississippi. At the 
beginning of the seventeenth century the Wyandots, formerly the 
Hurons and Neuters, occupied the western banks of the Sandusky and 
territory north and west of that river. They had been driven along 
the northern shore of the Lakes during the winter of 1609 by the fierce 
Iroquois, and later driven back again by the Sioux, finally crossing the 
Straits and settling in the locality named. With them were some of the 
Ottawas, relatives who had shared their misfortunes. The Miamis were 
located on the rivers of that name, having apparently come southward 
from the Maumee with the advent of the Wyandots. The Shawnees 
lived on the banks of the Ohio, from the Scioto eastward, and with them 
were many of the Delawares, already moving farther west from their 
temporary home on the Allegheny and Upper Ohio. On the Tuscarawas 
River were bands of the tribe bearing that name, and over the remainder 
of the state were scattered small villages composed of Indians whose 
tribal affiliations are uncertain. The Delawares, or what was left of 
this once lordly tribe, were located on the Allegheny, the Beaver and the 
Ohio as far west as the Muskingum, those on the latter river mingling 
with the Shawnees, who had originally come from the Virginias and 
were therefore of the same stock as the Delawares. There were some 
Mingoes scattered through the western portion of the state and along 
the Ohio, as at Mingo Town, where Washington found in 1770 a village 
which he described as having twenty cabins and being inhabited by 
seventy Indians, "all belonging to the Six Nations." 

Since there is a general impression, probably erroneous, that the 
Delawares were the principal occupants of the Mahoning Valley when 
it was first settled, it may be well here to give some additional information 
concerning this tribe and its movements since its history became well 
known. The Delawares were originally known as Lenni Lenape, and 
were one of the oldest and most honored of the Algonquin tribes when 
they first came into contact with the Quakers along the Delaware River 
in 1684. About 1700 these Indians were conquered by the Iroquois, and 
they then changed their name, adopting that of the river which had been 
named after a man from the Old World, thus reversing the usual pro- 
cedure in such matters. They had in the meantime, sold a vast tract of 



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14 YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

their lands to Penn, and when he bought from them and the Shawnees 
the valleys of the Delaware, Cumberland and Susquehanna, they began 
to feel the pressure of civilization and moved westward, locating on the 
headwaters of the Susquehanna and the Allegheny, some of them going 
as far west as the Beaver. At the treaty of Fort Stanwix, the Iroquois, 
who claimed dominion over the Delawares, again sold their lands to 
the English, and they were compelled to fare farther west a second time. 
In this migration they avoided the Mahoning Valley, as this land was 
claimed by the Iroquois, or Six Nations, and moved around the lower 
edge of the region, being anxious to avoid locating again on land that 
their old enemies could dispose of if they should see fit to do so. 

The Delawares were at this time divided into three groups, each of 
which was known by a tribal sign. These groups were the "Monnsys," 
or "Wolves;" the "Turkeys" and the "Turtles." 

The Monnsys were the last to leave the Allegheny, the Turkey 
group having gone earlier to the Beaver and the Turtles to the Mus- 
kingum. Later these tribes appear to have intermingled in a move 
farther westward, and we hear of them on the Miamis and even on the 
Wabash. But they never came north from the Ohio into the Maho- 
ning Valley unless it was on temporary visits during such times as the 
Iroquois were engaged elsewhere in war, or for short hunting expedi- 
tions. The Delawares were about the most docile of all the great Indian 
tribes. They made several treaties with the whites and, strangely enough, 
kept these treaties, one-sided as they were. Their story, while only a 
repetition of that of all the aboriginal tribes who melted away before the 
sturdy and rapacious pioneers, is more pathetic than usual, because the 
Delawares were at first less given to fierce and savage attacks on settlers, 
and they yielded their ground only with protests full of feeling and 
expressing a sense of their utter helplessness, as well as after they had 
tried very earnestly to arrange some sort of compromise by which they 
could retain their lands. A striking illustration of their plight is given 
by the situation in which they found themselves at the beginning of the 
French and Indian war, and the vacillating course they pursued during 
that momentous conflict. Between memories of the invasion by Eng- 
lish settlers of their hunting grounds, fear of the ancient conquerors 
of their race in the Confederacy, and distrust of the French policy, they 
were surrounded with difficulties beyond the power of the Indian mind 
to solve. This situation is graphically painted by Chief Ackowanothio, 
made to the English in 1758 and interpreted by Conrad Weiser. As 
printed in the Pennsylvania Archives this document was as follows: 

"Brethren, the English, you wonder at our joining with the French 
in the present war. Why can't you get sober once and think impartially? 
Does not the law of nations permit, or rather command us all, to stand 
upon our guard in order to preserve our lives and the lives of our wives 
and children, our property and liberty? Let me tell you that was our 
care; have a little patience! 

"I will tell you, brethren, your nation always showed an eagerness 
to settle our lands. Cunning as they were, they always encouraged a 
number of poor people to settle on our lands; we protested against it 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 15 

several times, but without any redress or help. We pitied the poor 
people ; we did not care to make use of force, and indeed some of these 
people were very good people, and as hospitable as we Indians and gave 
us share of what little they had, and gained our affection for the most 
part ; but after all we lost our hunting ground, for where one of these 
people settled, like pigeons, a thousand more would settle, so that we at 
last offered to sell it, and received some consideration for it: and so it 
went on until at last we jumped over the Alleghany Hills, and settled 
on the waters of Ohio. Here we tho't ourselves happy ! 

"We had plenty of game, a rich and large country that the Most 
High had created for the poor Indians and not for the white people. Oh 
how happy did we live here ! but alas ! not for long ! Oh your covetous- 
ness for land at the risque of so many poor souls, disturbed our peace 
again ! Who should have thought that that Great King Over the Water, 
whom you always recommended as a tender father of his people, I say, 
who should have thought that the Great King should have given away 
that land to a parcel of covetous gentlemen from Virginia, called the 
Ohio Company, who came immediately and offered to build forts among 
us, no doubt, to make themselves master of our lands and make slaves 
of us. To which we could not agree, notwithstanding their fair words. 
Onontio [the governor of Canada — Ed.], our Father, heard this with 
his own ears, went home and prepared, in his turn, to take our lands from 
us, as we, or some of us, suspected. He made a proclamation to us in 
the following manner: 

" 'Children, the King of England has given your lands on Ohio to a 
company of wicked men in Virginia, who, I hear, are preparing to come 
and take possession with a strong hand: be on your guard, don't let 
them make the" least settlement on the Ohio ; they will in a few years 
settle the whole; they are as numerous as muskeetos and nits in the 
woods; if they once get a fast hold, it will not be in your power to drive 
them away again ; if you think you can't keep them off, tell me so, and 
I will keep them off.' 

"Brethren, we never liked the French, but some of the Six Nations, 
in particular some of the Senecas, came with the French and took pos- 
session of the heads of Ohio; we did not like, and therefore sent several 
messages to them to turn about and go the way they came, to prevent 
mischief, but to no purpose. The French being numerous, and sup- 
ported by the aforesaid Senecas and other Indians, we were obliged to 
be still, and by their craftiness and presents, we were brought over to 
their side of the question ; but a greater number of us stood neuter. 

"Now, brethren, when that great General Braddock landed at Vir- 
ginia, with orders from the King of England, to drive away the French 
from Ohio, and take possession himself of that fine country for the 
English ; the French did let us know immediately, and told us : Children, 
now the time is come of which I have often told such an army is coming 
against you, to take your lands from you and make slaves of you. You 
know the Virginians; they all come with him. If you will stand your 
ground, I will fight with you for your lands, and I don't doubt we will 
conquer them. The French General's words, by the assistance of priests, 



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16 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

had great influence with the Indians on the Ohio, brought the Shawnees 
over in a body to them, they being wronged in Carolina and imprisoned, 
and had their chief hanged or put to death in a cruel manner. These 
Shawnees brought over the Dela wares tc their measures ; they, the Dela- 
wares, were drove from their lands, it being sold by the Mohawks, etc., 
to the New England people, and just then some of those Dela wares came 
to Wyomock, much incensed against the English and were easily brought 
over to the French and Shawnees. 

"Now Brethren, all this, with many other abuses we suffered from 
our Brethren the English, yet our heart is much afflicted; there remains 
sparks of love in it toward our Brethren, the English ; were we but sure 
that you will not take our lands on the Ohio, or the west side of the 
Alleghany Hills from us ; we can drive away the French when we please, 
they have even promised to go ofT when we pleased, provided we would 
not suffer the English to take possession of the lands, (for, as the French 
says) we can never drive you off, you are such a numerous people; and 
that makes us afraid of your army, which should not have come so nigh 
us, we don't know what to think of it. We sent messages of peace, you 
received them kindly, and you sent us messages of peace, we received 
them also kindly, and sent you back again more stronger words. Why 
did not your army stay at Rays Town, [at the eastern foot of the Alle- 
ghanies. — Ed.] 'till matters had been settled between us? We still 
suspect you covet our lands on the Ohio, for you have come against us; 
but we never heard as yet what you intended to do (after you drove 
away the French) with the forts and lands on the Ohio. 

"Brethren, one thing more sticks in our stomach, which is, that we 
cannot thoroughly believe that you are in earnest to make peace with us, 
for when we lived amongst you, as sometimes it would happen, that our 
young men stole a horse, killed a hog, or did some other mischief, you 
resented it very highly, we were imprisoned, &c. Now, we have killed 
and taken so many of your people, will you heartily forgive us and take 
no revenge on us? Now Brethren, consider all these things well, and 
be assured that we are heartily inclined to make a lasting peace with you." 

This remarkable speech was made after the Delawares, having tried 
in vain to choose the forces which seemed least likely to immediately de- 
stroy them, found themselves on the wrong side and with a heavy score 
to settle with the "English Father" because of their activities on behalf 
of the French. In pursuit of these activities and spurred, no doubt, by 
a sense of their wrongs at the hands of the encroaching settlers, they had 
made many raids, along with other tribes, into the Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania valleys. The expedition under General Forbes, which forced 
the destruction of Fort Duquesne and ended the pretensions of the 
French to control of the Ohio Valley, accomplished this result on Novem- 
ber 24, 1758. and practically ended the French and English war, although 
the fall of Quebec did not occur until the following year, Ackowanothio 
was trying to explain the shortcomings of his people and provide against 
punishment. He might as well have saved his breath, for the Delawares 
soon found their new home no safer than the old and before long had 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 17 

an even more relentless tide set against them in the form of colonial 
emigration to the Ohio after the Revolutionary war. 

After the war with France the English King, realizing that the ex- 
tension of the colonies westward was likely to create a new empire over 
which he could not maintain control, issued a decree forbidding settle- 
ments west of the headwaters of such rivers as emptied into the Atlantic, 
and even forbidding land purchases from the Indians east of the moun- 
tains without his royal consent. He was as powerless as the Indians 
to stay the westward tide of empire, however, and the settlers, feeling 
the need of more elbow room, finding the mild ideas of the Quakers little 
to their liking, and inflamed with cupidity by descriptions of the lands 
on both sides of the Ohio as a veritable Garden of Eden, swarmed over 
the trails from Virginia and Southern Pennsylvania, defying alike Indian 
tomahawk and regal scepter in order to preempt the banks of the Ohio. 
They traveled in strong parties and hunted the Indians relentlessly, 
building rude forts in their forests and appropriating their salt springs 
and corn fields wherever found. Of course the result was war to the 
knife, and the years between the fall of Quebec and the defeat of the 
Indian tribes by Wayne at Fallen Timbers, on the Maumee, were filled 
with tragedies for both Indians and settlers. 

It is impossible to look with anything except regret upon the story 
of these bloody years. Aside from the fact that their tragedies seem to 
have been generally avoidable, it is impossible to escape the* conviction 
_ that both Indians and whites were equally to blame, for the latter were as 
unchristian in their dealings with the Indians as the Indians were savage 
in their reprisals. It is some comfort to discover that the arbitrary in- 
vasion of their rights which drove the Indians to constantly harry with 
tomahawk and torch the advance of civilization was carried on chiefly 
by traders and adventurers, rather than by the pioneers, and that the 
sturdy men and women who laid the foundations of Ohio's greatness 
were generally anxious and willing to deal amicably, even if somewhat 
unfairly, with the original owners of the soil. Likewise the historian 
is relieved to find that the outrages against the Moravian Missions — an 
incident in the early history of Ohio that is usually passed over in silence 
or dwelt upon only briefly — were instigated and perpetrated by traders 
rather than settlers. Most of the adventurers whose acts of cruelty have 
stained the history of the Ohio Valley came from the Cavalier colonies 
and regarded the Indians as mere animals, an attitude which is explain- 
able only when it is compared with their later estimate of the Negroes. 
It was no fault of theirs either, that slavery was never legally established 
north of the Beautiful River, and that the soil of the Northwest Terri- 
tory was made free by the Ordinance of 1787. Nevertheless, not all of 
the traders and adventurers who were responsible alike for the massacre 
of the Moravian converts and the constant bloodshed between the In- 
dians and whites were from these colonies. Some of them came from 
Pennsylvania and were of stock that should have made such things im- 
possible. The Moravians were people of a simple creed. Most of their 
difficulties came from the fact they were conscientiously opposed to 
bearing arms and that they opposed the use of intoxicants among their 
Vol. 1—2 



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18 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

converts. The crafty traders, finding that these missions invariably de- 
stroyed the traffic in rum, lost no opportunity to assail the Moravians, 
undermining their influence with the Indians by treachery and even 
resorting to murder and arson against the missionaries and their converts. 

There is reason to believe that the Moravians had in their creed the 
sentiment and poetry that was needed to satisfy the longings of the 
mystical Indian mind, and that, had they been permitted to continue their 
work without hindrance, the Red Race might have been absorbed into the 
new civilization, instead of being destroyed by it; and thus the one un- 
lovely page in the history of this country might have been left unwritten. 

For the reason that the fate of the Moravian missions has not been 
given the attention it deserves, as well as that a few writers have pre- 
ferred to render injustice to these much wronged people rather than to 
record a story unpleasant to their readers, a short sketch of these missions 
and their devoted laborers, the only organized missionaries who sought to 
Christianize the Indians of the Ohio Valley, will be given. The sect 
originated in the Palatinate among the Bohemians and Bavarians three 
centuries ago, as the result of the people becoming disgusted with the 
fanaticism of church and state alike during that unhappy period. 
They first appeared in America at a settlement in South Carolina, but 
were speedily driven from it. Their next missions were on the Delaware, 
and they also labored among the Mohicans farther north. The Quakers 
never opposed them, but the fiery Scotch and Irish settlers of the Cumber- 
land Valley accused them of harboring unfriendly Indians and instigat- 
ing attacks on those settlements, for which reason they were forced to 
abandon their establishment at Bethlehem. Next they began work 
among the Delaware Indians at Goshgoshink, on the Allegheny, and 
later moved westward, establishing themselves near what is now Salem 
and on the Muskingum, where their settlements were known as Schoen- 
brun and Gnadenhutten. In this region they were along the direct route 
between Pittsburgh and Detroit, which was at that time, the troubled 
period about 1767, much traveled by lawless parties of both Indians and 
whites. After the outbreak of the Senecas and Shawnees which fol- 
lowed the murder of Logan's family by border ruffians, the Moravians 
moved to the Upper Sandusky, hoping to find a peaceful refuge where 
they could pursue their labors among the Indians, with whom they had 
become strongly intrenched. It was in this last refuge that the final 
disaster overtook them. On March 7, 1781, the little colony was visited 
by a band of whites under command of David Williamson. On the pre- 
tense that they had encouraged and harbored English and Indian raiding 
parties from Detroit during the Revolutionary war, the Moravian In- 
dians, with their chief Glichican, were disarmed and herded into two 
buildings. In these two structures the entire band, consisting of ninety- 
six men, women and children, were brutally shot to death and the build- 
ings burned. This foul deed was committed by border men led by a 
border ruffian and chiefly from along the Ohio River. It was without 
authority or excuse and is one of the most savage and inhuman incidents 
in the history of the Ohio Valley. After that, the Moravian leaders were 
discouraged and never re-established their missions among the Ohio In- 
dians. Some of their descendants and settlers who followed them West 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 19 

located on the Sandusky, where traces of their religion and customs may 
be found to this day. 

The close of the Revolutionary war gave renewed impetus to the 
settlement of the Ohio Valley, increased the troubles with the Indians, 
and brought about conditions that soon culminated in the practical ex- 
pulsion of the natives from all of the territory now included within the 
boundaries of Ohio. As soon as the independence of America was 
acknowledged, the new government adopted a stern policy against un- 
authorized settlements beyond the Ohio, but it was unable to restrain the 
impatience of its people, many of whom had acquired roving habits by 
service in the army and all of whom were filled with ambition to preempt 
fertile lands at a cost of little or nothing in money, even though at the 
risk of their lives. These adventurous spirits climbed the mountains on 
foot or in wagons and descended the Ohio in flat boats, fighting off 
parties of Indians on both sides of the river, and landing where -they 
saw fit. 

Settlements soon lined the banks of the Ohio and began to extend up 
the Muskingum, the Scioto and the two Miamis. Gen. William Lytle 
states that in 1780 one party of sixty-three flat boats, containing more 
than 1,000 persons, descended the Ohio to the point where Cincinnati 
now stands, landing some distance above the city more than 500 armed 
men, who attacked the Indians and put them to flight, following them 
into the forest four or five miles. Repeatedly troops were sent down 
from Pittsburgh to drive off the squatters, and in 1785, a number of those 
on the west side of the Ohio refused to move until forced to do so. Even 
at that these hardy, tenacious settlers returned to their lands as soon as 
the soldiers left. There were at this time scores of scattered houses along 
the Muskingum, the Scioto and Hockhocking. The Miamis were not 
invaded so freely, as the Indians there put up a desperate and long 
continued fight which small parties were unable to overcome. It was 
only after land grants had been regularly made and large colonies organ- 
ized that the fertile lands in what was then known as "the slaughter 
house of the Miamis" were appropriated and settled. 

Until almost at the close of the eighteenth century the Mahoning 
Valley was without settlers, even though it harbored few Indians, chiefly 
because Connecticut stoutly claimed the territory and squatters were 
deterred from invading it by the fear that they would have later to give 
up their lands or pay for them. One tract in the Mahoning Valley, very 
valuable because it contained salt springs and was a source of that scarce 
and desirable mineral used by both whites and Indians for many miles 
in every direction, was preempted, however, and the Government was 
later compelled to send soldiers to drive off the invaders and destroy 
their cabins. This tract was later acquired by General Parsons. 

Such were the conditions under which a large part of the State of 
Ohio was settled. They made the hard life of the unbroken forest still 
harder, and would have been sufficient to discourage occupation by any 
except people with the daring and determination which characterized 
those who finally conquered both nature and the Indians and laid in the 
wilderness the firm foundations of a state now among the most pros- 
perous, progressive and important in the Union. 



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CHAPTER III 
LATIN OR ANGLO-SAXON 

The title to all the lands of North America rested originally, so far 
as history goes, with the Indian tribes occupying them when Europeans 
first became aware that there was such a continent. Whether this title 
was morally any better than that acquired by the successors in owner- 
ship to these Indians may be questioned, for it was probably secured in 
much the same way. After all the moral law has never determined the 
ownership of any considerable portion of the earth's surface, so far as 
nations are concerned. The rule that "he shall take who hath the power, 
and he shall keep who can," has prevailed throughout history. Nor is 
there reason to expect that it will ever be otherwise, much as we may 
hope from the treaty of Versailles and the new code of international 
ethics, for the enforcement of which a League of Nations is proposed. 
It will be wise, therefore, to pass over the moral right of Europeans to 
occupy this part of the world and confine ourselves to a brief discussion 
of the more or less legal titles on which it was claimed by several nations 
when history began in the region northwest of the Ohio River. The 
principal reason for doing this is the fact that upon these claims and 
their enforcement depended the highly important question of whether the 
New World was to be developed under the influence of the Latin races, 
or whether it was to enjoy the broader, more virile and more enlightened 
rule of Anglo-Saxon civilization. 

If the right of possession depended purely upon discovery and pri- 
mary occupation, this vast territory would now undoubtedly belong to 
the Spaniards or the French, for the former were first to discover it and 
the latter first to occupy it. But the element of possession, strong in the 
law and even stronger where there is no law, was destined to give the 
North American continent to neither the Spanish nor the French, but to 
the English; while the fortunes of changing years have permitted the 
latter to retain possession of only a relatively unimportant part of the 
continent, in which is included none of the land they originally discovered 
or colonized. 

The first official promulgation of a title to North America was the 
famous bull issued by Pope Alexander VI, May, 1493, shortly after the 
return to Spain of Columbus from his first voyage to the New World. 
Pope Martin V had previously conferred upon Henry the Navigator, 
King of Portugal, all the land he could discover to the East along the 
coast of Africa, and when Columbus came back from his western voyage 
and reported a new land in that quarter peopled by savages who knew 
not Christianity, Pope Alexander was eager to encourage further ex- 

20 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 21 

plorations in that direction. Accordingly, he exercised the right then 
acknowledged as belonging to his high office to confer a title to undis- 
covered and unchristianized lands, wherever they might be, so long as 
they lay to the west, upon the Spanish King and Queen who had shown 
such commendable zeal in encouraging hazardous ventures of discovery. 
This papal bull, one of the most remarkable documents in history, took 
note of the activities of both Spain and Portugal, dividing the undis- 
covered portion of the earth between these two nations on a line "drawn 
through the Cape Verde Islands and extending from the Pole Arctic to 
the Pole Antarctic. ,, Its promulgation proves that the Pope was then 
regarded as having temporal jurisdiction over all the earth not already 
claimed by Christians, and also that the globular form of the earth was 
then regarded as an established fact. 

Later Henry the Navigator found that he had been given the poor 
end of the bargain, and on his protest the line of demarcation was moved 
westward "three hundred and seventy leagues/' by which Portugal was 
given title to the east coast of South America, but Spain was left in 
possession of all of North America, or rather in possession of the title 
to this continent. To make this possession an actual fact, De Soto was 
sent to Florida within the next quarter of a century. This remarkable 
expedition, which had for its ostensible purpose the discovery of the 
fountain of perpetual youth, was doubtless inspired by the knowledge on 
Spain's part that it would be necessary to speedily reinforce the pro- 
nunciamento of Pope Alexander with something that savored of actual 
possession. De Soto, fired by a zeal for religion and a spirit of romance 
that seem equally strange in these more practical days, began his wander- 
ings about 1520. There can be no doubt that he was the first white man 
who saw the majestic Mississippi. Nor is it questioned by any historian 
that he laid claim in the name of Spain to the entire region drained by 
this lordly stream, and did so with all the pomp and ceremony required 
by the customs of the time. Consequently, by decree of an accepted 
tribunal, as well as by right of discovery, the first European title to the 
lands in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys was vested in Spain. 

Unlike Portugal, France and England filed no formal protest against 
a decree that somewhat arbitrarily, it must be admitted, divided a world 
between two other nations. Nevertheless, both nations lost no time in 
joining the Spaniards in quest of whatever could be found beyond the 
Atlantic. On behalf of England, the Cabots crossed the ocean so 
close in the wake of Columbus that they were rivals for the honor of dis- 
covering America and skirted the eastern coast in search of the fabulous 
gold and silver mines supposed to exist there. They found an abundance 
of fish and a superabundance of forest, neither of which interested the 
English King, who needed money worse than usual to carry on his 
schemes of national aggrandizement and personal pleasure. He was dis- 
appointed and for more than a century no further effort was made by 
England to secure a foothold in the western world. 

About the same time that De Soto was carrying his silver and silken 
banners through the forests to and beyond the banks of the Father of 
Waters, Jacques Cartier, a Frenchman bold, was sailing up the St. 



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22 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Lawrence, stopping at every Indian village and every island long enough 
to give each the name of a saint and to take from the Indians their sur- 
plus furs. He did not forget to claim the St. Lawrence Valley and all 
the lands adjoining it in every direction for France. Cartier called this 
country Canada, having heard it given that name by the Iroquois Indians. 
As early as 1541, however, this slight oversight had been corrected, the 
country renamed "New France," and Sieur de Roberval made its gov- 
ernor as the viceroy of Francis I. 

From that time forward the French advanced their occupation of the 
wilderness by every means in their power. Their first adventurers were 
soon followed by the Jesuits and later by the Recollects, two orders of 
missionaries who labored long and faithfully among the Indians and 
who, as was the custom of those days, cherished the interests of their 
country only second to those of their church, and lost no opportunity 
to establish the claims of France to the lands they visited. The enter- 
prise of the French directly southward was checked by the hostility of 
the Iroquois Confederacy, which never forgave Champlain for the defeat 
of the Mohawks on the banks of the beautiful lake to which he gave his 
name, but farther west the missionaries were able to do much toward 
establishing friendly relations with the Indians. That these fearless and 
enterprising advance agents of civilization and religion never established 
missions in the region now known as Ohio is rather remarkable, espe- 
cially in view of the fact that La Salle undoubtedly was first among 
Europeans to sail a boat on the waters of "The Beautiful River." La 
Salle was a Recollect, and there was much rivalry between this order and 
that of the Jesuits, the latter being usually first on any promising field of 
endeavor. There is a possibility that the Jesuits, having learned from 
the Iroquois that Northeastern Ohio was disputed ground, avoided it. 
They visited the tribes in the northwestern portion at times, but never 
had a permanent mission among these Indians. 

As time went on the French established themselves, through missions 
and trading posts, at all important points on the lakes and gradually made 
their way into the interior, having at one time forts and trading posts on 
the Wabash and the Miamis. They also built Fort Duquesne, having 
driven away the small English party sent to that point to construct a 
fort. By the time English colonies had been firmly planted on the 
Atlantic coast and their first efforts westward began, the French were 
fairly well established in and stoutly claimed the Ohio Valley, which 
seemed destined to Gallic domination. The Spanish claims to the coast 
of the Mexican Gulf and the territory west of the Mississippi were not 
challenged, English settlements being made only as far south as the Caro- 
linas. 

The treaty of Ryswick, made in 1697 between France, England, 
Spain and other interested countries, gave to France full title to the 
Valley of the St. Lawrence and also to that of the Mississippi, Spain 
surrendering her splendid empire in North America, fading out of the 
picture and leaving the French and English to battle for supremacy of a 
continent. And battle for this supremacy they did most royally from 
that time forward. Both redoubled their efforts to occupy the Ohio 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 23 

Valley. The English had called a council of the Six Nations at Albany 
in 1684 to arrange some of the ever present difficulties with Indian 
tribes subject to the Iroquois, and while they were attending to this they 
adroitly purchased from the Six Nations title to the land occupied by the 
Delawares, Shawnees and other tribes along the Ohio. This title was 
of little value, of course, since it was hotly disputed by the Ohio Indians, 
but the transaction proves that the Iroquois claimed dominion in this 
region, as well as that the English feared the encroachments of the 
French even before the Spanish title was questioned. The sum paid for 
all this land was ten thousand English pounds, and it is interesting to 
note that the Iroquois insisted on so high a price because the sale in- 
cluded their lands in what is now Northeastern Ohio, from which they 
obtained much game and many excellent fruits. The contest of wits 
and war, in which the Europeans furnished most of the diplomacy and 
the Indians most of the fighting, went on without interruption until the 
fall of Fort DuQuesne, in 1758. This event was preceded, and was, in 
fact, brought about, by the defection of the Indians from the French 
cause, the Ohio tribes having discovered that the English were gaining 
in strength and, as usual, hurriedly transferred their allegiance to the 
side with the best prospect for victory. 

The fall of Fort DuQuesne practically ended the contest between 
England and France for control of the Ohio Valley. One year later 
Quebec was surrendered, and the following year Montreal was taken, the 
French, like the Spaniards, withdrawing from a magnificent empire 
which courage and enterprise had placed within their grasp, but which 
they had been unable to retain because of complications arising from less 
worthy ambitions of their rulers in the Old World. 

England's possession of the much coveted Ohio Valley was even more 
brief. Twenty years later her colonies had established their independence 
and forced her to reluctantly abandon her claim to all territory south of 
the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence. The Louisiana Purchase, in 
1803, completed the elimination of European control from all territory, 
within the present continental limits of the United States, except that 
of Alaska, Florida, some later disputed territory in the northwest, and 
that acquired following the Mexican War and by the admission of Texas 
to the Union. 

These mighty changes in the influences dominating development of 
the North American continent have not been equalled in their far-reach- 
ing effect on human welfare and progress during any similar period in 
the written history of men. They seem to have been arranged by a 
Providence seeking here a home for civilization of a new order which 
should point the way to old and decadent peoples and light in the name 
of liberty a torch destined to illumine the world. 



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CHAPTER IV 

EARLY LAND GRANTS AND THE CONNECTICUT WESTERN 

RESERVE 

We have seen with what complacency the Popes disposed of un- 
christian lands not even yet discovered, but this assumption of authority 
had later a healthy rival in the freedom with which the English Kings 
parcelled out vast areas on this continent before they had even guessed its 
limits or made the slightest inquiry into the value of that which they were 
giving away to favorites and members of their courts. 

The early English grants were usually defined by parallels of latitude, 
so far as the northern and southern limits were concerned. Their 
boundaries on the east frequently included "Islands in and about 
and adjacent thereto," and they extended westward to the "The 
Southern Sea," a name generally accepted as applying to the 
Pacific Ocean, because the Spanish had already discovered that ocean and 
mapped its eastern shores for a considerable distance. Some of these 
quaint documents indicate that the knowledge of the grantors did not 
extend more than a few miles from the Atlantic coast, and none of them 
manifest even a respectable degree of imagination concerning what 
was to be found west of the Alleghany Mountains. Neither are they 
notable for accuracy in point of latitudinal lines and most of them con- 
flict or overlap others, an evidence that the grantees usually asked for all 
they could possibly get and generally got all they asked for, even though 
part of it had been already given to other applicants. 

In ordinary legal procedure, the first grant of title is fundamental and 
all succeeding conveyances must rest upon and be confined within its 
limits. But in the case of kingly generosity with the lands of the Amer- 
ican Indian, this was not held to be good law, it being maintained that 
the king was superior to all laws and that it was his privilege to take 
away that which he had sold or given and bestow it upon another at his 
pleasure. As a result of this, and in consequence of the carelessness and 
ignorance of the English kings, nearly all the original land grants over- 
lapped, and much confusion was created. The Indians had little better 
idea of the sanctity of a land contract. They did not hesitate to sell the 
same territory over and over again to different buyers. There was much 
dispute among them as to the ownership of different sections of the land, 
and some of the tribes assumed authority to dispose of regions inhabited 
by other tribes which they claimed to have subjugated. From these con- 
ditions arose endless claims and counter claims, which occupied the atten- 
tion of state governments, courts and the national government well into 
the eighteenth century, caused more or less bloodshed and much hard 
feeling, and left a cloud upon titles for many years. 

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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 25 

The first charter granted was that of Virginia, which was approved 
by James I after the close of the war between Spain and England had 
left the latter country free to extend the area of its occupation in 
America. This charter is dated April, 1606, and conveyed to Sir Thomas 
Gates and others all the land within one hundred miles of the Atlantic 
coast between the thirty-fourth and forty-fifth degrees of latitude. A 
second charter enlarged the political privileges of this colony, and ex- 
tended its lands westward and northwestward indefinitely. A third, 
granted in March, 1612, extended its limits to include the Bermuda 
Islands and all of the territory between the thirty- fourth and forty-first 
degrees of latitude. The original Virginia charter, it will be seen, in- 
cluded practically all of New England, and the final document left about 
half of what is now Pennsylvania in the Virginia colony. 

The second charter was that of New England, which granted to Sir 
Ferdinand Georges and others "all that Circuit, Continent, Precincts and 
Limitts in America, lying and being in breadth from Fourty Degrees of 
\orthcrly Latitude, from the Equinoctiall Line, to Fourty-eight Degrees 
of said Northerly Latitude, and in Length by all the Breadth aforesaid 
throughout the Maine Land from Sea to Sea," at the same time stipu- 
lating that this territory should be known by the name of New England. 
This comprehensive grant included about one degree of the last grant 
madt to Virginia, and extended northward to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
as well as westward to the Pacific Ocean. This patent is dated November 
3-13, 1620, and was issued before the revocation of the Virginia charter, 
which it overlapped, the latter having been recalled in 1624. 

A bewildering succession of charters followed, but, as practically all 
of the northern portion of the continent had been disposed of, these were 
located within the confines of the grants already mentioned. Most of 
them were exceedingly hazy in their definitions. Since it is with the 
charter of Connecticut, out of which finally grew the Connecticut West- 
ern Reserve, that this chapter is principally concerned, we may pass over 
all of these, leaving to the reader who desires to explore the labyrinth 
of titles resulting from the other grants to pursue the subject at his 
pleasure. This may be done in great detail in McDonald's "Select Char- 
ters Illustrative of American History," as well as in many other works 
devoted to this subject. 

The original charter of Connecticut was granted by Charles II to 
John Winthrop and others, its date being April, 1662. Unlike many of 
the previous charters, it was meant to cover territory actually settled, 
and Winthrop was at the time governor of the colony of Connecticut. 
Further, the petition for this charter was made through the general court 
of the colony, which had its center at Hartford, and was, with New 
Haven and other settlements, a part of New England, occupying land 
conveyed under the original charter of 1620. 

After reciting as a reason for the grant that "by the severall Naviga- 
tions, discoveryes and successfull plantations of diverse of our loveing 
subjects of this our Realme of England, Severall Lands, Islands, Places, 
Colonies and Plantations have byn obtayned and setled in that part of 
the Continent of America called New England, and thereby the Trade 



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26 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

and Commerce there hath byn of late years much increased/' and stating 
that he had been informed by the petitioners that "the greatest part 
thereof was purchased and obtayned for great and valuable considera- 
tions, and some other part thereof gained by Conquest and with much 
difficulty, and att the onely endeavors, expence and Charge of them and 
their Associates," Charles proceeded to "Give, Graunt and Confirm unto 
the said Governor and Company and their Successors, All that part of 
our Dominions in Newe England in America bounded on the east by 
Norrogancett River, commonly called Norrogancett Bay, where the said 
river falleth into the Sea, and on the North by the lyne of the Massa- 
chusetts Plantation, and on the South by the Sea, and in longitude as the 
lyne of the Massachusetts Colony, runinge from East to West, (that is 
to say,) from the said Norrogancett Bay on the East to the South Sea on 
the West parte, with the Islands thereunto adjoyneinge." 

It will be seen that this charter included a majestic territory. Its dis- 
tances, so carelessly stated, proved to be veritably magnificent. It did not 
embrace the territory of New Netherlands, then in undisputed possession 
of the Dutch, and spared by a clause exempting lands held by any other 
Christian race or people, but it did cover a large part of the grant later 
made to William Penn under date of March 4-14, 1680, and also the land 
embraced in the colony of New Haven, which at that time was distinct 
and separate from the Hartford colony. It extended from the Atlantic 
to the ^Pacific, and took in territory from which ten splendid states have 
since been carved. There has been a general disposition to question the 
knowledge, as to its extent, of the king who gave away this magnificent 
territory, but it is certain that, even if he and his advisors did not know 
or care how much land was involved, others did, for the Plymouth Coun- 
cil, in resigning the grant made to it in 1635, dilated on the extent of 
territory being given up, saying that New England extended "from sea 
to sea, being near about three thousand miles in length." 

New Haven was settled by a distinct class of people, and for a time 
resisted amalgamation with the Hartford colony. The New Haven 
settlers were generally Presbyterians, being distinguished from the 
Puritans by the stubborn refusal of the latter to recognize the Church of 
England. New Haven people had given refuge to the murderers of 
Charles I and refused for some time to recognize Charles II. Rather 
than accept the new government they appealed to the Commissioners 
of the United Colonies and thus the matter stood when, in 1664, the 
English conquered the Dutch and wrested from them New Netherlands, 
which was promptly bestowed by the king upon his relative, the Duke 
of York. This movement in some manner helped to reconcile the New 
Haven people to a new arrangement and the union was effected. Con- 
necticut recognized fully the value of its charter, and resisted success- 
fully several attempts to have it annulled. When Andros demanded it 
in 1687 it was hidden, so says tradition, in the famous "Charter Oak," 
and remained there more than two years, being finally brought forth 
after Andros was deposed. 

A number of complications arose because of the sweeping claims of 
the Connecticut charter, some of which occupied the attention of various 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 27 

state and national tribunals for more than a hundred years. The most 
serious of these was that arising from the conflict between the Connecti- 
cut grant and the grant made to William Penn eighteen years later. It 
was from this conflict that the Pennamite wars arose, forming a chapter 
in history worthy of more than a passing glance. 

About the middle of the Eighteenth Century the people of Connecti- 
cut had readied such numbers and strength that they began to look for 
additional territory. Many of them were descended from families that 
had migrated from England to Scotland and later moved into the north 
of Ireland to occupy estates confiscated there by King James and Crom- 
well, for which tenants could not be secured except among people of a 
hardy and adventurous spirit. So it was natural that before long these 
people should find Connecticut, or Eastern Connecticut, bereft of the 
elbow room and excitement which they craved, and betake themselves 
westward to the unexplored territories of their state lying beyond the 
gap in it caused by the unfortunate occupation of the Dutch along the 
Hudson. 

Their first adventure in this direction took them to the Wyoming 
Valley. This historic valley is located in what is now Northeastern Penn- 
sylvania. It has been celebrated in song and story, and must have been 
at that time one of the most beautiful spots in the wilderness between the 
oceans. The present day visitor finds it a busy, dirty, coal mining dis- 
trict. Its hills, once crowned with lordly forests, are to a great extent 
bare of vegetation. Its streams, once sparkling clear in the sunlight and 
teeming with trout, are discolored or dried up. Its fertile plains are 
covered with mining villages and manufacturing towns. Had the canny 
New Englanders been able to guess that, in addition to the rich soil and 
natural beauties that captivated them in Wyoming, they would find there 
great deposits of anthracite coal, the stubborn fight they made to retain 
this blood-stained land would be more easily explainable. 

At any rate, about 1750 some of them visited this valley in search of 
ground for colonization. They at once organized the Susquehanna Com- 
pany and sent a party of settlers, who seized the corn fields of the Indians, 
drove them out, and built log cabins on the banks of the winding Susque- 
hanna. Soon the Penns discovered that there were squatters on the land 
they had been given by King Charles and had also purchased from sev- 
eral different tribes of Indians. Because their title was a private affair, 
they could not enlist the aid of the state to eject the intruders, but they 
made heroic efforts to do so, these efforts being known in history as the 
Pennamite wars. There were seven of these wars, in which the New 
Englanders were seven times expelled from the Wyoming Valley. At 
one time a project was well under way to erect this valley, only three 
miles wide and about twenty miles long, into a separate state. Finally, 
the Revolution came, and the people of both Connecticut and Pennsyl- 
vania abandoned their petty quarrel over the Wyoming Valley to lend 
patriotic aid to the national cause. The Susquehanna Company, an 
organization through which Connecticut sought to colonize the valley, 
was in possession at this time, and the region had a population of about 
6,000, most of which was destroyed when the Iroquois, under the 



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28 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

lead of the British, swept down on it and in one day, July 3, 1778, mas- 
sacred the small force of old men and boys defending it, together with the 
women and children, and burned every house within its confines. 

The quarrel over this historic parcel of ground was renewed vigor- 
ously after the Revolution, and finally, on the appeal of the Penns, was 
adjudicated by a court selected to try the issue, which met at Trenton 
November 12, 1782. This court was in session forty-one days and both 
sides were represented by the ablest counsel of the time. It was real- 
ized that upon the verdict of this court hung possession, not only of the 
Wyoming Valley, but also of a great part of Pennsylvania. The mo- 
mentous decision was filed in one of the shortest opinions on record, this 
being as follows : 

"The cause has been well' argued by the learned counsel on both sides. 

"The Court are now to pronounce their sentence or judgment. 

"We are unanimously of the opinion that Connecticut has no right to 
the lands in controversy. 

"We are also unanimously of the opinion that the jurisdiction and 
preemption of all the territory lying within the Charter of Pennsylvania, 
and now claimed by the State of Connecticut, do of right belong to the 
State of Pennsylvania." 
"Trenton, December 30, 1782." 

This decree was accepted without question by the State of Connecti- 
cut. It has not always been characteristic of the people of that state and 
their descendants to submit quietly to decisions adverse to their interests 
and opinions, as witness the rumpus which they started when the govern- 
ment first undertook to raise revenue by taxing whiskey in Pennsyl- 
vania; but it can be said of them that when they made a bargain, they 
usually kept it, and when, under any circumstance, the welfare and 
safety of the national government was at stake, they were always found 
supporting it with vigor and whatever sacrifice might be necessary. 

The decision was important, but the acquiescence of the parties to 
this controversy was even more so, because it was the first tribunal 
under which the new nation had essayed to settle disputes between the 
states, and a refusal to accept its decision would -have had far-reaching 
effect on the solidity of the infant government. There has always been 
great curiosity as to why such a momentous decree should have been 
made without a word of reason being given in its support. And there 
has always been a suspicion that before it was announced an under- 
standing was had that, if Connecticut surrendered her claims in Penn- 
sylvania, she would receive a certain recognition of these claims farther 
west. Of course this is no more than mere assumption. There is not 
word or line on record to establish any such a conclusion. But it will be 
seen that these western claims did receive recognition in the disposal of 
the Connecticut Western Reserve, a territory to which the state had 
certainly no more legal right than she had to the Valley of Wyoming. 

The second charter granted to Virginia defined the grant to that 
colony as extending southward and northward 200 miles from Point 
Comfort, and westward "up into the land, throughout from sea to sea, 
West and Northwest." These boundaries would have included a large 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VAULEY 29 

portion of what is now the State of Ohio. Little attention was paid by 
anyone to them, because they were supposed to have been changed by 
the third charter; but, in response to a request from the Colonial Con- 
gress shortly before the Declaration of Independence, Virginia had 
adopted, through a constitutional convention, a resolution which con- 
ceded the claims of Pennsylvania and Maryland in their boundary dis- 
putes with Virginia, and announced the formal boundaries of that state 
as those set forth in the second charter and the treaty between Great 
Britain and France in 1763. 

This at once raised the question of ownership of the vast region 
north of the Ohio River, and held up the adoption of the Articles of 
Confederation, by which it was proposed that all colonial boundaries 
should be fixed by Congress without consideration of the clause in the 
original grants extending them from sea to sea. The times were 
troublesome enough for the colonists without the injection of quarrels 
between the various members of the confederation over the extension of 
their domains. In 1779 Virginia opened a land office for entry of lands 
west of the Alleghany Mountains, and the organization of numerous 
companies designed to appropriate the lands in the Ohio and Mississippi 
Valleys was the immediate result. Other states followed Virginia's ex- 
ample, and it seemed for a time as if the cause of American freedom 
would be jeopardized by a division over the ownership of land which 
no state might eventually possess. Three years after Virginia's dis- 
turbing action Congress passed a resolution declaring all unoccupied 
lands to the west of well defined state boundaries to be public domain, 
belonging to the nation at large and not to be appropriated without pur- 
chase from the national government. Already a tide of squatter immi- 
gration had set in, and in 1779, Colonel Brodhead, then stationed at 
Pittsburgh, was directed to proceed down the Ohio and expel all squatters 
found on lands on either side of it. At the same time a memorandum 
was sent to Virginia requesting that state to prevent incursions by her 
people, or at least under her authority. The untimely effort to occupy 
this territory was even then making much trouble among the Indians 
and adding immeasurably to the trials of the young government, which 
was not sufficiently strong to make its voice heard above that of greed 
or love of adventure. Serious difficulty seemed likely to result from 
this situation when, during an adverse period of the war with Britain, 
New York passed a resolution surrendering to the national government 
any rights to territory west of her borders. She thus assumed the same 
position taken by Maryland, which had refused to sign the Articles of 
Confederation unless this course was adopted and had thereby been 
instrumental in securing from Congress the resolution above referred to. 
New York's title was based on purchase of Ohio Valley lands from the 
Six Nations, and was probably as good or better than that of Virginia, 
which claimed hers on a king's charter, even after it had been supplanted 
by another. 

Connecticut soon followed with proposals for the adjustment of her 
western claims, and Virginia also made overtures. The rights of neither 
state were taken seriously, however, and it was not expected that unless 



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30 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

they should recede from all claims to such territory as lay beyond their 
well defined borders, any agreement could be reached. At the same 
time all the propositions were laid before a committee appointed by 
Congress to consider the matter. This committee reported November 3, 
1 781, just after the surrender of Cornwallis, when the government felt 
itself strengthened to take a stand upon this vital question. The report 
accepted the proposition of New York and refused those of Connecticut 
and Virginia. The claims of the Walpole Company, a London cor- 
poration formed of Virginians, and also those of the Illinois and 
Wabash companies, all of which had been operating under royal grants 
issued before the Revolution began, were disallowed. At the same time 
the report recommended acceptance of the Fort Stanwix grant to 
Croghan, which had given him a large tract in the disputed territory in 
reward for his services in handling negotiations between the English and 
the Six Nations. It was generally supposed that this latter recom- 
mendation was intended to strengthen the New York title to the Ohio 
Valley lands against any British claims, as both were acquired in the 
same way, by purchase from the Iroquois. One after another the states 
having claims on land west of Pennsylvania and the Ohio River ceded 
these claims to the national government, until only Massachusetts and 
Connecticut remained. Maryland was first, New York second, Virginia 
third, this state reserving certain lands on the ground that compensation 
was justly due her for her part in subduing British posts, as well as 
insisting that if she did not have enough good land south of the Ohio 
to supply her soldier grants, the deficiency should be made up between 
the Miami and Scioto rivers. A deed of cession was properly executed 
by Virginia, March 1, 1784. Massachusetts surrendered her claims in 
April, 1785, and in 1786 Connecticut formally transferred to the na- 
tional government whatever right she had to the territory in the vast 
domain originally covered by her charter, reserving, however, from this 
cession a section of land extending from the Pennsylvania border west- 
ward 120 miles, and from the forty-first parallel of latitude north to 
Lake Erie. 

These reserved districts are both within the boundaries of Ohio and 
are known respectively as the Virginia Military Reserve and the Con- 
necticut Western Reserve, and in the latter tract lies all of the Ma- 
honing Valley except that portion eastward of the Pennsylvania state 
line. 

The act of assembly by which Connecticut finally abandoned her 
claim to all lands west of the Pennsylvania line except the Connecticut 
Western Reserve, was approved on September 14, 1786. but no formal 
action was taken as affecting her jurisdiction over the Western Reserve 
until May 30, 1800. 

The next step, taken by the United States in 1787, was the organi- 
zation of all lands north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania 
into the Northwest Territory. 



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CHAPTER V 

THE CONNECTICUT WESTERN RESERVE— SALE, SURVEY 
AND SETTLEMENT OF NORTHEASTERN OHIO 

In its cession of 1786, it will be noted, Connecticut retained its claim 
to one great section of western lands, while surrendering to the Federal 
Government its claim to title in, and jurisdiction over, "all other lands 
northwest of the Ohio River." This section held by Connecticut lay 
in the northern and extreme northeastern part of what is now the State 
of Ohio. It was a tract of approximately 5,700 square miles, bounded 
on the east by the Pennsylvania state line, on the south by latitude forty- 
one, on the west by a line running from latitude forty-one to the inter- 
national boundary — paralleling the Pennsylvania line and 120 miles west 
thereof — on the north by the international boundary. This was the 
Connecticut Western Reserve, so called because it was reserved when 
all else was given up. After 1786 it was the only stretch of American 
soil claimed by Connecticut outside the state's own boundaries. 

On its part, the Federal Government accepted Connecticut's relin- 
quishment of other western lands but did not acknowledge Connecticut's 
claim to this reserved area. The question of ownership of, and juris- 
diction over, this great section was merely left in suspense. Taught by 
previous losses, however, the value of occupation in fact, Connecticut 
hastened to establish its title to the Western Reserve by actual occu- 
pancy, and for this purpose a resolution was adopted by the State 
Assembly in October, 1786, authorizing the appointment of a committee 
of three persons to cause a survey to be made of the Western Reserve 
tract as far west as the Cuyahoga River, the Tuscarawas River, and 
the portage path between these two rivers, the committee also being 
authorized to negotiate a sale of these lands. It was provided that 
sales should be made at not less than fifty cents an acre, as we now 
compute money, and that townships six miles square should be laid out. 
Even at this early day the stress that Connecticut laid on religion 
and education was apparent. While it was provided that when one or 
more members of the sales committee should present a certificate of 
sale of any township the Legislature should make a grant of that town- 
ship, there was a stipulation that there should be reserved to the public 
500 acres in each township for the support of the Gospel and 500 acres 
for the support of the schools, and likewise a proviso that 240 acres 
should be reserved in each town, to grant, in fee simple, to the first 
minister of the Gospel who should settle in that town. This Con- 
necticut spirit and training was reflected throughout the settlement 
of the Reserve. Its pioneers were men of ample knowledge and many 

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32 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

of them men of higher education, capable not only of pioneering but of 
giving an intelligent report on any lands newly explored by them. They 
came, too, instilled with a deep, though perhaps severe, religious spirit. 

Prior to 1795 the only sale made under this legislative provision was 
to Gen. Samuel H. Parsons of Middletown, Connecticut, who, in 1788, 
purchased approximately 25,000 acres of land known as the Salt Spring 
tract, lying within what are now the townships of Jackson and Austin- 
town in Mahoning County and Weathersfield and Lordstown in Trum- 
bull County. The existence of the salt springs or salt lick, from which 
this tract takes its name, was known fully twenty years before the out- 
break of the Revolutionary war. From time immemorial it had been 
a favorite spot for the forest animals seeking the salt so necessary to 
life. It was used by Pennsylvania pioneers before and during the 
Revolution, works being erected there for the purpose of extracting 
salt from the water. Many a tedious journey probably was made from 
the older state to these springs, tedious not only because it was through 
a wilderness, but because the saline properties of the water were so 
slight that the returns were meager in comparison with the labor under- 
gone. Certain duties in connection with land claims undertaken by 
General Parsons in colonial times had undoubtedly given him a knowl- 
edge of the existence of these springs, and their presence probably in- 
fluenced the selection of this particular site. Otherwise he would 
scarcely have selected this inland spot when unlimited acres of lake 
front and lands in the valleys of the largest streams of the Reserve were 
his to choose from. It is likewise probable, however, that he did not 
intend to develop this salt lick solely in an industrial sense, but rather as 
an attraction for settlers, as the slight percentage of salt in the waters 
scarcely warranted the hope that the springs would yield large mineral 
returns. That he had made the purchase of the lands as an investment 
is further apparent from the fact that he proceeded to make sales of 
lands within the Salt Spring tract to individuals, although it happened 
that he was destined never to become an actual settler on the land 
himself. 

The description of the lands sold to General Parsons is given at the 
time of sale in terms of townships and ranges, although as a matter of 
fact no survey had yet been made, nor was any made during his life- 
time. The title to the Western Reserve area was clouded and rested 
only on Connecticut'^ reserved claim of 1786. a claim that was further 
jeopardized by the passage by Congress of the Ordinance of 1787, creat- 
ing the Northwest Territory of all lands northwest of the Ohio River, 
and the appointment in October, 1787, of a governor and other civil 
officers for this area. The Federal Government merely ignored the 
claim of Connecticut. The governor, Gen. Arthur St. Clair, divided 
the Northwest Territory into counties, including in Washington County, 
formed in 1788, all the Western Reserve area east of the Cuyahoga 
and Tuscarawas rivers, Marietta being named as the seat of govern- 
ment of this county. That part of the Reserve west of these rivers was 
later included in Wayne County, with the county seat at Detroit. That 
General Parsons and his heirs recognized the conflicting claims to West- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 33 

ern Reserve lands is apparent from the fact that his patent was recorded 
at Hartford, capital of Connecticut, again at Marietta when Wash- 
ington County was founded, and finally at Warren with the creation of 
Trumbull County. 

General Parsons was a leader of the New England bar long before 
his interest in western lands took him to the Ohio country. His 
acknowledged ability won him an appointment as one of the three 
judges appointed for the Northwest Territory in 1788 and his promo- 
lion to the rank of chief justice in 1789. In this latter year he left 
Marietta as a commissioner to adjust claims with the Indians on the 
Western Reserve. Following the conference he began his homeward 
journey in a canoe and was drowned in passing the falls of the Beaver 
River, on November 17, 1789. 

This single sale ended for the time being Connecticut's attempt to 
dispose of its western acres. The Western Reserve remained a wilder- 
ness visited only by traders, while the tide of emigration swept down 
the Ohio River and across the mountains from Virginia into Southern 
Ohio and Kentucky. Partly this was because of accessibility of the 
latter territory, and partly it was due to the publicity given it by sur- 
veyors and sojourners, and through other avenues. Finally it was due 
to the extremely doubtful title that Connecticut held and the serious 
question of whether Connecticut was not actually trying to sell some- 
thing that was part and parcel of the Northwest Territory. Therefore 
the land went unsold at 50 cents an acre when lands that were no 
better, and some that were worse, brought several times that amount 
farther south. 

In 1792 Connecticut receded momentarily from her position of land 
salesman to become land donor. Certain residents of Connecticut hav- 
ing suffered by British raids into that state during the Revolutionary 
war, the Legislature in the above year authorized the award to these 
sufferers, or their heirs, of a tract of 500,000 acres of Western Reserve 
lands lying west of the Cuyahoga River. As these losses were mainly 
from fire the grant became known as the "Fire Lands," and upwards 
of 2,000 Connecticut residents profited by the distribution, each 
in proportion to his losses. The "Fire Lands" included all the present 
Huron and Erie counties and the Township of Ruggles in Ashland 
County, except that the islands in Lake Erie were reserved. 

Why the fire sufferers were awarded the lands in the extreme western 
part of the Reserve instead of lands east of the Cuyahoga River is not 
made clear. The eastern lands were considered the more desirable and 
susceptible to earliest settlement. The territory west of the Cuyahoga 
was not merely far removed from the settlements in Pennsylvania, New 
York and the Ohio Valley, but Connecticut's right to award it to any- 
one was subject to very serious doubts. Not only was the land claimed 
by the United States, but the Indian title to it was not extinguished 
until thirteen years later, or in 1805, when the treaty of Fort Industry 
between the United States and the Indians was signed. Connecticut, 
in short, was giving away something that might be nothing at all in 
the end. 

Vol. 1—8 



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34 



YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 



As Connecticut never at any time lost faith in its tide to the Western 
Reserve this disputed question of ownership probably did not influence 
the selection of such far western lands for award to the fire sufferers. 
It is more likely that the canny New Englanders mixed a good percent- 
age of business with their philanthropy and believed that an early 
settlement of the western part of the Reserve would hurry the move- 
ment to the eastern part. It does not appear that the beneficiaries of 
the "Fire Lands'- grant were required to remove there themselves, but 




Original Land Division in Ohio 

if they did not care to emigrate to the Ohio country they were probably 
expected to make good land salesmen and vociferous promoters of a 
movement to people the Reserve. Given, without cost, some desirable 
land that might be sold at a profit, almost anyone would follow this 
course. 

If Connecticut had any such object in view the movement apparently 
failed of its purpose. For another three years the Western Reserve 
remained uninhabited and unknown to white men except venturesome 
traders and trappers. Then, in 1795, the State Legislature made another, 
and what proved to be a successful, effort to dispose of Connecticut's 
western lands, by passing a resolution reading as follows: 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VAIJLEY 35 

"Resolved, by this assembly, that a committee be appointed to re- 
ceive any proposals that may be made by any person or persons whether 
inhabitants of the United States, or others, for the purchase of the 
lands belonging to this state lying west of the west line of Pennsylvania 
as claimed by said state, and the said committee are hereby fully author- 
ized and empowered, in the name and behalf of this state, to negotiate 
with any such person or persons on the subject of any such proposals, 
and, also, to form and complete any contract or contracts for the sale 
of said lands, and to make and execute, under their hands and seals, the 
purchaser or purchasers, a deed or deeds duly authenticated, quitting 
in behalf of this state, all right, title, and interest, judicial and territorial, 
in and to the said lands, to him or them, and to his or their heirs, 
forever. 

"That before the executing (of) such deed or deeds the purchaser 
or purchasers shall give their personal note or bond, payable to the 
treasurer of this state, for the purchase money, carrying an interest of 
six per centum per annum payable annually, to commence from the 
date thereof^ or from such future period, not exceeding two years, 
from the date, as circumstances, in the opinion of the committee may 
require, and as may be agreed on between them and the said purchaser 
or purchasers ; with good and sufficient sureties, inhabitants of this state, 
or with a sufficient deposit of bank or other stock of the United States 
or of the particular states; which note or bond shall be taken payable 
at a period not more remote than five years from the date, or if by 
annual installments so that the last installment be payable within ten 
years from the date, either in specie or in six per cent, three per cent, 
or deferred stock of the United States, at the discretion of the com- 
mittee. 

"That if the committee shall find that it will be most beneficial to 
the state or its citizens to form several contracts for the sale of said 
lands, they shall not consummate any of the said contracts apart by 
themselves while the others lie in a train of negotiation only; but all 
the contracts which, taken together, shall comprise the whole quantity 
of the said lands shall *be consummated together, and the purchasers 
shall hold their respective parts or proportions as tenants in common 
of the whole tract or territory, and not in severalty. 

"That the said committee in whatever manner they shall find it best 
to sell the said lands, whether by an entire contract or by several con- 
tracts, shall in no case be at liberty to sell the whole quantity for a 
principal sum less than one million of dollars in specie, or if the day 
of payment be given, for a sum* of less value than one million dollars 
in specie with interest at six per cent per annum from the time of 
such sale." 

Also a further resolution was adopted at the same time providing 
that: 

"This assembly do hereby appoint John Treadwell, James Wads- 
worth, Marvin Wait, William Edmonds, Thomas Grosvenor, Aaron 
Austin, Elijah Hubbard and Sylvester Gilbert, esquires, a committee 
to negotiate a sale of the western lands belonging to this state lying west 



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36 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

of the west line of Pennsylvania, as claimed by said state, according to 
the resolve for that purpose, passed at the present session of the gen- 
eral assembly." 

These men, representing the eight counties of Connecticut, one from 
each county, set about to make disposition of the western lands in con- 
formity with the above resolution, which was adopted by the State Legis- 
lature on the second Thursday in May, 1795. 

Their task was not an easy one. Connecticut, it will be noted, did 
not guarantee to give undisputed title to the lands, offering only a quit 
claim to purchasers. Outside Connecticut the state's claim to the Ohio 
lands was treated lightly, even derisively, and the New Englanders 
with their sound business sense understood this drawback thoroughly. 
On the other hand there were some circumstances that made the time 
selected for the sale especially advantageous. Just as General St. 
Clair's defeat by the Indians near the Miami villages in 1791 had 
checked colonization of the West, so did General Anthony Wayne's defeat 
of the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in what is now North- 
western Ohio in 1794, encourage emigration to the West by removing 
the fear of Indian depredations. This was no slight consideration in 
the Ohio country in the closing decade of the eighteenth century, al- 
though there was little need of fear of the Indians of Northeastern 
Ohio at any time. They were a spiritless lot, treacherous, perhaps, but 
never a serious menace. Then too, emigration to the West and specula- 
tion in western lands were alike at their height in 1795, and even doubt- 
ful titles could not check these movements. 

Consequently there was no dearth of prospective purchasers on this 
occasion. The legislative committee did its work well and after negotia- 
tions that lasted through the summer finally reached an agreement on 
September 2, 1795, by which forty-eight persons agreed to purchase 
the Western Reserve for $1,200,000. This was an immense sum of 
money for that day, but then, as now, business was largely a matter of 
credit and there was no disposition to insist on a cash sale, or cash sales. 
Again exemplifying the staunch Connecticut belief in education, it was 
provided that the moneys derived from this sale of lands should con- 
stitute a fund, the interest of which should be used for support of Con- 
necticut schools. This fund, the principal of which has increased in 
size, is still being drawn upon for the purpose set forth so many decades 
of years ago. These forty-eight purchasers, some of whom acted in- 
dividually and some jointly, together with the amounts of their sub- 
scriptions, were: 

Joseph Howland and Daniel L. Coit $ 30461 

Elias Morgan and Daniel L. Coit 51,402 

Caleb Atwater 22,846 

Daniel Holbrook 8,750 

Joseph Williams 15,231 

William Law 10,500 

William Judd 16,250 

Elisha Hyde and Uriah Tracy 57A°o 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 37 

James Johnston $ 30,000 

Samuel Mather, jr 18,461 

Ephraim Kirby, Elijah Boardman and Urial Homes, jr 60,000 

Solomon Griswold 10,000 

Oliver Phelps and Gideon Granger, jr 80,000 

William Hart 30,462 

Henry Champion, 2nd 85,675 

Asher Miller 34,000 

Robert C. Johnson * 6o,coo 

Ephraim Root 42,000 

Nehemiah Hubbard, jr x 9»039 

Solomon Cowles 10,000 

Oliver Phelps 168,185 

Asahel Hathaway 12,000 

John Caldwell and Peleg Sanford 15,000 

Timothy Burr 15,231 

Luther Loomis and Ebenezer King, jr 44,318 

William Lyman, John Stoddard and David King 24,730 

Moses Cleveland * 32,600 

Samuel P. Lord 14,092 

Roger Newbury, Enoch Perkins and Jonathan Brace 38,000 

Ephraim Starr I 74 I 5 

Sylvanus Griswold 1,683 

Joseb Stocking and Joshua Stow 11 ,423 

Titus Street 22,846 

James Bull, Aaron Olmstead and John Wyles 30,000 

Pierpont Edwards 60,000 



$1,200,000 

The Western Reserve lands being as yet unsurveyed no deed could 
be given in acres, but as the purchase price of the entire tract was 
$1,200,000, the legislative committee of eight, on behalf of the state, 
made out deeds to each purchaser for as many twelve-hundrcd-thou- 
sandths in the undivided tract as he had subscribed dollars to the pur- 
chase price. These deeds are dated September 2, 1795. Apparently 
no cash consideration was given in return, the purchasers giving bonds 
with security instead. 

In this manner Connecticut disposed of her western lands other 
than the "Fire Lands." The purchasers included in their bargain the 
Parsons' Salt Spring tract, yet in making subsequent partition of their 
land cautiously reserved certain lands in event that they should have 
to make recognition of this claim. 

It was a most remarkable transaction; this disposition of a great 
area of land, larger in size than several individual states of the Union, 
to purchasers who were allied together merely by agreement, their 
organization not having even the dignity of an incorporated company ; 

* Properly Cleaveland, but throughout the records of the Connecticut Land 
Company the modern spelling is generally given. 



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38 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

a transaction all the more remarkable because it conveyed not merely 
the territorial but the "judicial" right, interest and title. Even the ex- 
tent of the Western Reserve was not known. It was presumed that it 
was approximately 4,000,000 acres, whereas it actually contained less 
than 3,000,000 acres, exclusive of the "Fire Lands." 

Three days after this sale was agreed upon, on September 5, 1795, 
the purchasers met at Hartford, Connecticut, and effected the organiza- 
tion of the Connecticut Land Company, by drawing up "Articles of 
Association and Agreement." These articles showed unusually good 
business judgment, a careful determination to provide for every con- 
tingency that should arise in the partition and settlement of this great 
western area, and a studied disposition to give the smallest purchaser 
just the same measure of justice in the award of the lands that the 
largest purchaser received. They read as follows: 

"I. It is agreed that the individuals concerned in the purchase made 
this day, of the Connecticut Western Reserve, shall be called the 
Connecticut Land Company. 

"II. It is agreed that the committee, appointed by the applicants 
for purchasing said Reserve, shall receive from the committee, of whom 
said purchase has been made, each deed which shall be executed to the 
purchaser; and in their hands shall retain said deed until the pro- 
prietors thereof shall execute a deed in trust to John Caldwell, Jonathan 
Brace and John Morgan, and the survivors of them, and the last sur- 
vivor of said three persons and his heirs forever, to hold in trust for 
such proprietor his share in said purchase, and to be disposed of as 
directed and agreed in the following articles. 

"III. It is agreed that seven persons shall be appointed by the 
company at a meeting to be holden this day at the house of John Lee. 
in Hartford, who shall be a board of directors for said company, and 
that said directors, or the majority thereof, shall have power, at the ex- 
pense of said company, to procure an extinguishment of the Indian 
title to said Reserve, if said title is not already extinguished, to survey 
the whole of said Reserve, and to lay the same out into townships con- 
taining sixteen thousand acres each; to fix on a township in which the 
first settlement shall be made; to survey that township into small lots, 
in such manner as they shall think proper, and to sell and dispose of 
said lots to actual settlers only: to erect in said township a saw-mill 
and grist-mill at the expense of said company; to lay out and sell five 
other townships of sixteen thousand acres each, to actual settlers only. 
And the said trustees shall execute deeds of such part or parts of said 
six townships as shall be sold by said directors to said purchasers, but in 
case there shall be any salt spring or springs, in said six townships, or 
in any or either of them, said directors shall not sell spring or springs ; 
but shall reserve the same, together with two thousand acres of land 
inclosing said spring or springs. Said directors shall also have power to 
extinguish, if possible, the Indian title, if any, to said Reserve, and to 
make all said surveys within two years from this date, and sooner if 
possible. And when said Indian title, if any, shall have been extinguished, 
and said surveys made, said trustees, or a majority thereof, shall con- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 39 

vey to each proprietor of said Reserve, or any member who shall agree, 
his or their proportion or right therein, in severalty, the mode of divid- 
ing said Reserve, however, to be in conformity to the orders and direc- 
tions of the major part of the proprietors assembled at any meeting of 
the proprietors convened, and holden according to the mode herein- 
after marked out. 

"IV. It is also agreed that said directors shall cause the persons 
employed by them in surveying said Reserve to keep a regular field 
book, describing minutely and accurately the situation, soil, waters, 
kinds of timber, and natural productions of each township surveyed by 
them, which book said directors shall cause to be kept in the office of 
the clerk of said directors, and the said book shall be open to the in- 
spection of each proprietor at all times. 

"V. It is agreed that said directors shall appoint a clerk, who shall 
keep a regular journal of all the votes and proceedings of said directors, 
and of the money disbursed by them for the use of the company; and 
said directors shall, once in a year, settle their accounts with the pro- 
prietors; and that all moneys, received by the directors for taxes and 
the sale of lands, shall be subject to the disposal and direction of the 
company. 

"VI. It is agreed that the trustees shall give certificates agreeable 
to the form hereinafter prescribed, to all the proprietors in the original 
purchase made from this state, and that the grantees from said state 
shall lodge with the trustees the names of the proprietors, for whom 
they respectively receive deeds, and the proportion of land to which 
said proprietors are entitled, a copy of which shall be lodged, by the 
trustees, with the clerk of the directors. It is further agreed that all 
transfers made by any proprietors shall be recorded in the book of the 
clerk of the directors, and no person claiming as an assignee shall be 
acknowledged as such unless his deed shall have been thus recorded. 

"VII. It is agreed, in order to enable said board of directors to 
perform and accomplish the business assigned them, that they shall be 
paid a tax, in the proportion of ten dollars on each of the shares of 
the company, to the clerk of the directors, to be at the disposal of said 
directors for the purpose aforesaid, which said tax shall be paid to said 
clerk on or before the sixth day of October next. 

"VIII. It is agreed that the whole of said Reserve shall be divided 
into four hundred shares, and the following shall be the mode of voting 
by the proprietors in their meetings: Every proprietor of one share 
shall have one vote, and every proprietor of more than one share shall 
have one vote for the first share, and then one vote for every two shares, 
till the number of forty shares, and then one vote for every five shares, 
provided that the question of the time of making a partition of the 
territory, every share shall be entitled to one vote. 

"IX. It is agreed that the aforesaid trustees shall, on receiving a 
deed from any purchaser, according to the tenor of these articles, give 
to such proprietors a certificate in the following words : 



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40 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

"'Connecticut Land Company 
" 'Hartford, September 5, 1795. 

"'This certifies that is entitled to the trust and benefit 

of twelve hundred thousandths of the Connecticut Western 

Reserve so called, as held by John Caldwell, Jonathan Brace, and John 
Morgan, trustees, in a deed of trust, dated the fifth day of September, 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, to hold said proportion or 

share to , the said , heirs, and assigns, according to 

the terms, conditions, covenants, and exceptions contained in the said 
deed of trust and in certain articles of agreement, entered into by the 
persons composing the Connecticut Land Company, which said share is 
transferable by assignment, under hand and seal, witnessed by two 
witnesses, and acknowledged before any justice of the peace in the 
state of Connecticut, or before a notary public or judge of the common 
pleas in any of the United States, and to be recorded by the clerk of 
the board of directors, which said certificate shall be complete evidence 
of such person of his right in said Reserve, and shall be recorded by 
the clerk of the directors in the book, which said clerk shall keep for 
the purpose of registering deeds.' 

"X. It is agreed that the first meeting of said company be at the 
state-house, in Hartford, on Tuesday, the sixth of October next, at 
two of the clock, in the afternoon, at which meeting the mode of making 
partition shall be determined by the major vote of the proprietors there 
present, taking such vote by the principle hereinbefore marked out. 
It is also agreed that in all meetings of the company the proprietors 
shall be admitted to vote in person or by their proper attorney, legally 
authorized ; and it is further agreed that there shall be a meeting of the 
company, at the state-house, in Hartford, at "two o'clock, in the after- 
noon, the Monday next before the second Thursday in October, 1796, 
and another meeting of said company, at the same place, at two o'clock, 
in the afternoon, the Tuesday next before the second Thursday in 
October, 1797, and that the said directors shall have power to call, 
occasionally, meetings, at such times as they think proper; but such 
meetings shall always be at Hartford, and said directors shall give 
notice in some one newspaper, in each county in Connecticut, where 
newspapers are published, of the time and place of holding said meet- 
ings, whether stated or occasional, by publishing such notification in 
such papers, under their hands, for three weeks successively, within 
six weeks next before the day of such meeting. 

"XI. And, whereas, some of the proprietors may choose that their 
proportions of said Reserve should be divided to them in one lot or 
location, it is agreed that in case one-third in value of the owners shall, 
after a survey of said Reserve in townships, signify to said directors 
or meeting a request that such third part be set off in manner aforesaid, 
that said directors may appoint three commissioners, who shall have 
power to divide the whole of said purchase into three parts, equal in 
value, according to quantity, quality, and situation ; and when said com- 
missioners shall have so divided said Reserve, and made a report in 
writing of their doings to said directors, describing precisely the bound- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 41 

aries of each part, the said directors shall call a meeting of said pro- 
prietors, giving the notice required by these articles ; and at such meeting 
the said three parts shall be numbered, and the number of each part 
shall be written on a separate piece of paper, and shall, in the presence 
of such meeting, be by the chairman of said meeting put into a box, 
and a person, appointed by said meeting for that purpose, shall draw 
out of said box one of said numbers, and the part designated by such 
number shall be aparted to such person or persons requesting such a 
severance, and the said trustees shall, upon receiving a written direction 
from said directors for that purpose, execute a deed to such person or 
persons accordingly; after which, each person or persons shall have no 
power to act in said company. 

"XII. It is agreed that the company shall have power, by a major 
vote, to raise money by a tax on the proprietors, to be apportioned 
equally to each proprietor, according to his interest; and, in case any 
proprietors shall neglect to pay his proportion of said taxes within 
fifty days, when the proprietor lives in the state; if out of the state, 
within one hundred and twenty days after the same shall have become 
payable; and, after the publication thereof in the newspapers of this 
state, in the manner provided for warning meetings, that the directors 
shall have power to dispose of so much of the interest of said delinquent 
proprietor in said Reserve as may be necessary to pay the tax so as 
aforesaid due and unsatisfied; and, in case any proprietor shall neglect 
to pay the tax of ten dollars upon a share, agreed to by these articles, 
within fifty days after the time of payment, so much of his share, as 
will raise his part of said tax, may be sold as aforesaid. 

"XIII. In case of the death of any one or more of the trustees, 
the company may appoint a successor to such deceased person or persons 
in said trust; and, upon such appointment being made, the surviving 
trustee or trustees shall pass a deed or deeds to such successor or suc- 
cessors, to hold the premises as co-trustees with the surviving trustees, 
in the same manner as the original trustees held the same. 

"XIV. It is agreed that the directors, in transacting the business 
of said company according to the articles aforesaid, shall be subject to 
the control of said company by a vote of at least three-fourths of the 
interest of said company." 

These articles are subscribed to by fifty-two members of the Con- 
necticut Land Company. The subscribers are identical with the pur- 
chasers of the Western Reserve tract, except that eight names appearing 
on the former document do not appear on the latter while the additional 
names of William M. Bliss, William Battle, Joseph C. Yates, Thaddeus 
Leavitt, Elisha Strong, Zepheniah Swift, Lemuel Storrs, Benajah Kent, 
Eliphalet Austin, Samuel Mather, Elijah White and Roger Newbury 
(for Justin Ely) are found on the second document. Even this list is 
incomplete, as certain signers are known to have represented share 
holders who are not among the signers. The whole number of persons 
included in the Connecticut Land Company is said to have been fifty- 
seven. William Hart was appointed moderator of this meeting of 



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42 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

September 5, 1795, and Enoch Perkins, clerk. Perkins was replaced 
the following spring by Ephraim Root who remained as clerk until the 
dissolution of the company after its work had been finished. The 
shareholders conveyed their interests to John Caldwell, Jonathan Brace 
and John Morgan, as provided in article two of the above agreement, 
and seven directors of the company were named as provided in article 
three, these appointees being Oliver Phelps, Henry Champion, 2nd, 
Moses Cleaveland, Samuel W. Johnson, Ephraim Kirby, Samuel 
Mather, jr., and Roger Newbury. Changes were made in the director 
ate at different times. 

Before the company still lay the immense task of preparing the 
Western Reserve for settlement, for it should be remembered that 
while many members of the company themselves proposed to emigrate 
to the western country, they had likewise made their investments for 
speculative purposes, and the land could not be sold in its wilderness 
state. The land company members were not in a position to sell, since 
their interests in the Western Reserve tract were still undivided and no 
division could be made until the ground had been surveyed. 

Toward this task the company first bent its energies. Arrange- 
ments were made for a survey to be conducted under the superintend- 
ency of Gen. Moses Cleaveland and at a meeting of the company on 
April 5, 1796, a committee comprising Oliver Phelps, Moses Cleave- 
land, Isaac Mills, Samuel Hinkley,* Henry Champion, William Hart 
and Uriel Holmes was named "to take into consideration making par- 
tition," of the Western Reserve. Joseph Howland, Joseph Perkins and 
Robert Brick were later added to this committee. On April 9, 1796, 
this committee reported back to a meeting of the company recommend- 
ing the election of a committee of "three or more judicious persons," 
to make a division of the Western Reserve. As this apportionment 
could not be made without an intimate knowledge of the ground it was 
also recommended that the committee "go upon said lands and view and 
explore the same," with a view to analyzing all natural advantages of 
each section so that division could be made equitably. With a splendid 
spirit of fairness it was proposed to follow a most intricate method of 
apportionment so that the most valuable, the medium, and the least 
valuable lands should be shared alike. The mode of making the division 
was prescribed by the committee of ten making this report. The equal- 
izing committee recommended was not named at this time as naturally 
there could be no division until a survey had been made. 

Six townships of the Reserve were to be left out of this division, 
the company having agreed in its articles of association that the direc- 
tors should survey one township into small lots and sell these lots to 
actual settlers, and likewise lay out and sell five other townships to 
actual settlers. The six townships subsequently selected are now known 
as Cleveland and Euclid in Cuyahoga County, Youngstown in Mahoning 
County, and Madison, Mentor and Willoughby in Lake County. It was 
under the terms of this provision that the directors made a sale to John 



* Given also as Hinckley. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 



43 



Young and others of the lands that were later to be the site of the city of 
Youngstown. This sale was made some time in 1796, the exact date 
not being obtainable. 

In May, 1796, the surveying party began its trip from Connecticut 
to the Western Reserve under command of Gen. Moses Cleaveland, as 
superintendent. The party numbered fifty-three persons in all, in- 




Map of Northwest Territory 

eluding one child. In addition to the superintendent there were Aug- 
ustus Porter, principal surveyor; Seth Pease, astronomer and surveyor; 
Moses Warren, John Milton Holley, Amos Spafford and Richard M. 
Stoddard, surveyors; Theodore Shepard, physician; Joshua Stow, com- 
missary; Joseph Tinker, principal boatman; Francis Gray, Joseph Mc- 
Intyre, Samuel Forbes, George Proudfoot, Amos Sawtel, Samuel Hun- 
gerford, Amos Barber, Asa Mason, Stephen Benton, Amzi Atwater, 



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44 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Samuel Agnew, Samuel Davenport, Michael Coffin, Shadrach Benham, 
William B. Hall, Elisha Ayers, Thomas Harris, George Gooding, Nor- 
man Wilcox, Timothy Dunham, Wareham Shepard, David Beard, 
Titus V. Munson, John Briant, Joseph Landon, Olney F. Rice, James 
Hamilton, James Halket, John Lock, Charles Parker, Ezekiel Morley, 
Nathaniel Doan, Stephen Burbank, Samuel Barnes, Luke Hanchet, 
Daniel Shulay, Job V. Stiles and Tabitha Stiles, Elijah Gunn and Ann 
Gunn and child. The two remaining members of the party were 
hunters and traders, Nathan Perry and Nathan Chapman by name, 
who were to furnish fresh meat for the party. 

The voyagers made the trip by the northern, or lake, route, assem- 
bling at Schenectady, New York, early in June, with their stores and flat 
boats, and thence proceeding by way of the Mohawk River, Wood 
Creek, Oneida Lake' and Oswego River to Lake Ontario and on to 
Buffalo. The cattle and horses, however, were driven overland from 
Schenectady through Canandaigua to Buffalo. At this time control of 
the lakes was in British hands, but an agreement had just been con- 
cluded by which Americans were permitted to use these waterways, so a 
stop was made at Fort Stanwix, New York, to procure the credentials 
that were necessary before they could pass Fort Oswego, which com- 
manded their path into Lake Ontario. The records of the Ashtabula 
Historical and Philosophical Society contain an account of this journey, 
which relates that at Fort Stanwix the Americans met Captain Cozzens, 
who had been sent by the British minister to announce that Jay's treaty 
permitting free navigation of the lakes was in force. Apparently this 
removed any complications, the pathway being made easier by the fact 
that Captain Cozzens accompanied the Americans to Fort Oswego. At 
Fort Oswego, however, a new difficulty arose. The British commander 
declared he had received no orders from his superior officer at Fort 
Niagara relative to free access to the lake and until such instructions 
were received the Americans must wait in idleness. Anticipating such 
a contingency the land company had given orders to Commissary Stow 
not to attempt to run by the fort without permission and the party was 
therefore under a double command to loiter. 

It was a most discouraging situation. There was an immense task 
ahead in laying out the western lands and only a few months in which 
to do it. Summer was approaching. There was sickness in the party 
due to the unhealthy spot at which it was encamped and there was the 
usual irritation and complaining that comes of idleness. Confronted by 
such an intolerable state of affairs the members of the party decided to 
resist both military and company edicts and risk the safety of the entire 
enterprise by passing Fort Oswego without permission. The boats were 
secreted in a small bay in the river four miles above the fort, where one 
of them was manned with double oars and, with Commissary Stow on 
board, pulled boldly past the fort. Believing that the commissary was 
en route to Fort Niagara to obtain the required permission from the 
commander there no resistance was offered by the Oswego garriscm, 
and the single boat proceeded to Sodus where a meeting place had been 
arranged. Deceived completely by this apparent surrender to orders 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 45 

the Fort Oswego garrison relaxed its vigilance and in the darkness the 
three remaining boats slipped past the fortification and out into Lake 
Ontario, as prearranged. But just when the ruse appeared to have 
succeeded a greater disaster loomed before them. Continuing the ac- 
count of the escape from British vigilance the narrative says: 

"At Sodus the fleet intended to make harbor. A sudden storm arose 
and overtook the three boats before they could reach Sodus. The 
darkness was intense; the storm became more and more violent, the 
situation was one of peril. Beacon-fires were built by the crew of the 
boat which had landed, but it was impossible for the rest of the boats 
to make the harbor. The situation of the agent at this moment was 
intensely painful. His companions were in a perilous situation, and it 
was out of his power to afford them any relief. They were but a short 
distance from a dangerous shore, and the next* biltow might dash their 
little bark in pieces. Besides, he had assumed the responsibility of 
running by the fort, and although successful in that attempt, yet if the 
boats were cast away or lost, the whole responsibility of the catastrophe 
would rest upon him. In this state of suspense and alarm, a man from 
one of the boats came running from the beach with the intelligence that 
all was lost. No anxiety could be greater or suffering more intense 
than that of the men on shore. They ran up and down the beach to 
see if it were not possible to render some assistance or gain some tidings 
from their companions. They found thrown upon the shore a gun 
and an oar, which they recognized as belonging to Captain Beard, who 
was in charge of one of the boats. This increased their alarm. The 
next moment, however, they met Captain Beard himself, and anxiously 
asked if all w^re lost. He replied that nothing was lost but a gun and 
an oar. No lives were lost. The boats sustained much injury, and one 
was so badly damaged it could not be repaired, and was abandoned." 

Substantially this story is correct, although it is probable the boats 
were dashed on the shore and that the great danger to the members of 
the party lay in the fact that they were exposed to the extreme likeli- 
hood of losing their lives and supplies alike in the angry surf, rather 
than in any inability to make harbor. One version says that Stow 
actually gave the boats up for lost and had gone to Irondequoit. 

General Cleaveland's commission from the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany provided that the party was "to enter into friendly negotiations 
with the natives who are on said land, or contiguous thereto, and may 
have pretended claim to the same," and barter with them for the sale 
of their claims. At Buffalo the superintendent had his first experience 
with the Indians, although the claim of the Mohawks and Senecas to 
lands in the Ohio country was certainly hazy. Their chief asset may, 
m fact, have been their reputation for bloodthirstiness, but they ap- 
pear to have been apprised of the coming of the Connecticut men, as 
they were waiting for conference, the renowned chiefs Captain Brant 
and Red Jacket being among the number. There were lengthy negotia- 
tions, suspended at least once by the chiefs that the Indians might get 
drunk, but on June 23d General Cleaveland finally offered the equivalent 
of $1,000 for the red men's title and good will, mostly good will. This 



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46 YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

was finaHy accepted with the additional provision that General Cleave- 
land would use his good offices to secure an annuity of $500 for the 
Indians, or, failing in this grant from the Government, he would insure 
an additional $1,500 from the land company. General Cleaveland also 
gave two beef cattle and one hundred gallons of whisky to the Indians 
and negotiations were happily closed. Considering the nature of the 
general's gift it is likely the Red Men celebrated the termination of the 
conference joyously, as getting drunk was a feature that the Indians 
considered a most important part of the ceremony and it was never 
neglected by them. • 

' It is indicative of the little regard that the State of Connecticut and 
the Connecticut Land Company had for the Federal Government's claim 
to the Western Reserve that General Cleaveland acted solely as repre- 
sentative of the company in making this agreement with the Indians 
and that there was no government agent present. 

While the land company and the Indians reached an adjustment 
easily enough the latter did not agree so well among themselves. The 
Mohawk Indians, who are said to have been residing then on the Grand 
River in Canada, appear to have claimed the lion's share of the treaty 
money, awarding but little to the Senecas and none to other tribes of 
the Six Nations. In January, 1797, the Connecticut Land Company 
accepted General Cleaveland's report of his treaty with the Indians, but 
a year later a report was made at a meeting of the land company that 
the Indians had appeared before the proprietors of the Connecticut Land 
Company and said a disagreement had arisen between the Mohawks 
and the Indians on the American side of the border over the distribu- 
tion of this money, and that trouble would ensue if the money were paid 
over to the Mohawks. The Indians asked that payment be withheld, 
and the land company readily agreed to this request, inasmuch as its 
own finances were not in good shape at that time. How the distribu- 
tion was finally made does not appear. 

It is creditable, however, to the Connecticut men that they strove 
earnestly to satisfy the Indian claims to the lands they sought to colonize 
and bargained openly for the Red Men's title. On the other hand, the 
Indians who promised at Buffalo that the white men should not be 
molested in their efforts to settle the Western Reserve kept their promise 
religiously. 

With perhaps one more stop at Presque Isle (now Erie) the sur- 
veying party moved onward and on Independence Day, July 4, 1796, 
landed at the mouth of Conneaut Creek, in what is now Ashtabula 
County. 

Two months had elapsed since they left Connecticut. It had been 
a journey fraught with even greater hardships, more dangers and far 
more delays than they had anticipated. But they had come to found a 
new land in the wilderness of what was then the West and there was 
unrestrained joy that the pilgrimage was ended. It was especially 
fitting that they landed on the birthday of the nation, not only because 
they were founding a new colony, too, but because they were Revolu- 
tionary war soldiers and the sons of Revolutionary war sol- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 47 

diers who had witnessed the birth of their own country but a 
few years before. That they had fenced with the British a few weeks 
earlier at Oswego and had outwitted them as Washington would have 
outwitted them, probably added considerable zest to this Independence 
Day celebration. At any rate they pledged their loyalty anew to Amer- 
ica, to their home state, to the new land that they were to conquer 
peaceably, and fired a salute from their small arms in honor of the day. 
They had reached the threshold of a great empire that had at that time 
not one solitary white inhabitant with a permanent abode, a land of 
magnificent forests, splendid streams and fertile soil. They hoped to 
make it a populated and prosperous land — as great perhaps as Con- 
necticut — a country where there would be not alone material pros- 
perity but also the learning and the religion that the promoters of the 
land company had wisely provided for. Their visions, of course, were 
wholly unable to comprehend a land that in a century and a quarter 
would have upwards of three millions of inhabitants, a land that would 
become great in agriculture as they planned, but whose farms would 
be dwarfed in wealth in comparison with the vast industrial richness of 
its cities. In their happiness they named their landing place Port In- 
dependence and, in clear water from the lake, and in whisky too, drank 
the following toasts: 

"The President of the United States. 

"The State of Connecticut. 

"The Connecticut Land Company. 

"May the Port of Independence and the fifty sons and daughters 
who have entered it this day be successful and prosperous. 

"May these sons and daughters multiply in sixteen years sixteen 
times fifty. 

"May every person have his bowsprit trimmed and ready to enter 
every port that opens." 

And probably a score or two of other toasts equally resolute and 
optimistic. 

However there was work ahead. On July 5th business was suspended 
only long enough to greet the Indians who came with friendly intent 
and made flowery speeches, presenting General Cleaveland with a pipe 
of peace. The general reciprocated by bestowing presents of wampum, 
silver trinkets and whisky to the value of $20. That the Con- 
necticut voyagers were supplied with such ample quantities of strong 
liquors may appear strange in this year when national prohibition be- 
came effective and alcoholic drinks were outlawed, but one cannot judge 
a past age by the present. Whisky was then one of the most common 
of commodities. It was the chief stock in trade of the white men who 
bargained with the Indians for furs, and while some of these traders 
were low-bred and vicious, many others were men of recognized stand- 
ing in their home communities. Whisky was an every-day article of use 
even in homes where the rigidly strict lives common to that day were 
lived. That the whisky of these olden days was a vastly superior article 
with none of the evil properties attached to it today is a pure myth. There 
were drunkards then as there are now, and there were men — and many 



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48 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

more women — who opposed the use of strong liquors in any form. 
The curse was not the less, except, perhaps, that alcohol was less potent 
for evil in the staunch minds and the iron constitutions of the fore- 
fathers of this prohibition state. 

On July 5 work was begun on the erection of a log house on the 
east bank of Conneaut Creek. It was a structure of no architectural 
pretensions, being intended as a storage place for supplies. On July 
7, Porter, Holley and Pease, surveyors, and five other men, left the 
headquarters at Conneaut Creek to seek the south line of the Reserve. 
With the project fairly under way General Cleaveland started for the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga River to lay out the township that was to mark 
the first settlement on the Western Reserve, the Conneaut settlement 
not being considered a permanent one. General Cleaveland reached his 
destination on July 22, 1796. He was accompanied by Commissary Stow, 
by Job Stiles and wife Tabitha, and perhaps by others. While in many 
respects the site did not look promising in its raw and primeval state, 
it appealed to the farseeing and sagacious General Cleaveland. After 
preliminary observations he journeyed to Conneaut Creek on August 
5, 1796, and from there sent word to the directors of the Connecticut 
Land Company that the choice of a place of beginning settlement was 
a wise one. He then returned to Cleveland to complete his work. When 
he left for Connecticut three months later General Cleaveland was 
destined never to return to. Ohio to locate, but he bequeathed his name 
to the settlement he founded — an embryo village that was intended to 
be the "capital" of New Connecticut and that was eventually to be- 
come the greatest city in Ohio. 

Meanwhile the surveying party under Pease, Holly and Porter jour- 
neyed southward. They experienced no difficulty in finding the Penn- 
sylvania line, which had been cleared some time before, and the work 
ahead of them therefore was that of making observations of the country 
and taking measurements to find the forty-first parallel of latitude, 
the southern line of the land purchase. By training and knowledge they 
were equipped for the former task as well as the latter and their in- 
spection was made carefully, as they were under pledge to make reports 
to the land company that would acquaint prospective purchasers with 
the nature of the Western Reserve country. These observations were 
faithfully made and truthfully reported. They speak of the excellent 
land, the clear and ample creeks and rivers and the wealth of chestnut, 
oak, maple, beach, whitewood, and walnut timber; but likewise make 
note of "abominable" swamp land, of miasmatic forests and of stony 
ridges. 

Working with comparative rapidity, considering that they were land 
observers as well as surveyors, the party reached the southeast corner 
of the Reserve on July 21, 1796. It was from this spot that their 
actual work of surveying the land purchase began. It is now the south- 
east corner of Poland Township, Mahoning County. As the Western 
Reserve, or "New Connecticut" was to include only lands lying north 
of the forty-first parallel of latitude it is reasonable to presume that 
the surveyors believed they had located the spot where this parallel 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 49 

intersects the Pennsylvania state line. In this they were mistaken, as 
they were some distance below the forty-first parallel — one-half mile 
it is generally estimated, and perhaps more. Later when the south line 
was surveyed to the extreme western end of the Reserve the southwest 
corner was located exactly on the forty-first parallel. This variation 
was destined to cause much controversy between the Federal Govern- 
ment and the Connecticut Land Company, a dispute that was finally 
terminated by the surrender of the contested ground to the land com- 
pany. This, it might be remarked, was the usual result when the Fed- 
eral Government and the people of Connecticut happened to want the 
same thing. 

On July 23, Warren and Spafford, with their assistants, arrived at 
the same spot and a marker was set up at the starting point of the 
survey. Range lines were run back to the lake, Holley running the first 
range, Spafford the second, Warren the third, and Pease and Porter 
the fourth. The range, or meridian, lines were five miles apart. Lines 
of latitude were then run, also five miles apart, thus dividing the land, 
as directed, into townships approximately five miles square. The sur- 
vey, however, was made with instruments far inferior to those in use 
1 today, it was made in haste because the summer was already far ad- 
vanced, there was no time for the surveyors to take correct observations 
or check up their work, and they labored under the extreme difficulties 
common to wilderness country. Because of these great drawbacks the 
work was done imperfectly; a circumstance that quite evident in 
the varying size of Trumbull County townships and the Reserve Town- 
ships of Mahoning County. It was intended that each of these should 
contain twenty-five square miles, or 16,000 acres, while as a matter 
of fact there is not one of the thirty-five townships in these two counties 
that contains exactly that area of ground. They range in size from 
14492 acres in the case of Lordstown Township. to 17,317 in the case 
of Hartford Township. The nearest approach to accurate measurement 
is in the case of Bloomfield Township with its 16,039 acres. 

Just how much time was required to run these first four rows of 
townships back to the lake does not appear, but the work probably was 
completed early in September. There was no time to return to the 
south base and begin a survey of additional townships, as it was neces- 
sary for the surveyors to adjourn to the mouth of the Cuyahoga River 
to plat the ground in that vicinity. Here they met Gen. Moses Cleave- 
land, who had picked the township in which the "first settlement ,, on 
the Reserve was to be made, as provided by Article III of the Con- 
necticut Land Company's articles of agreement and association, and 
proceeded to survey that township into "small lots," an undertaking 
ordered by the same article. The lots within the proposed village were 
to consist of two acres, lots immediately adjoining the village were 
to contain ten acres, and the remainder of the township was divided 
into 100-acre lots. These may not appear as "small" after all, 
but as a "lot" in the vernacular of the Connecticut Land Company was 
160 acres, the smallness of the Cleveland Township lots is easily under- 
stood. It is a tribute to the discretion and foresight of Cleaveland, also 
Vol. 1—4 



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50 YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

that he so shrewdly prepared for the expansion of the village. The 
Cleveland survey began in mid-September under direction of Augustus 
Porter with Peace and Spafford as assistants. 

Until late in October the surveying party remained at work on the 
northern part of the Reserve and then the trip back to Connecticut 
began. The explorers reached their homes a few weeks later, leaving 
at Cleveland Job Stiles and wife and Joseph Landon, and at Conneaut 
Creek Elijah Gunn and wife, their nephew, a boy of thirteen, and James 
Kingsbury and wife. Landon later returned to Connecticut, while 
Edward Paine arrived at Cleveland. Apparently these were the sole 
white residents of the Western Reserve in the winter of 1796-97. 

The Connecticut Land Company had now completed the first year of 
its existence and its affairs were in anything but a favorable shape. The 
articles of association and agreement adopted by the company had pro- 
vided that the survey of the Reserve should be "made within two years, 
or sooner, if possible/ 1 and yet with one-half that time expired the sur- 
vey had not been completed even in that part of the tract lying east of 
the Cuyahoga River. The south base line of the Reserve was 120 miles 
in length and yet but twenty miles of this had been run. Of the six- 
townships that were to be sold outright by the company to settlers only 
the two in the Cleveland neighborhood had been platted. 

It is not difficult to find the reason for this failure to complete the 
survey in the summer of 1796. The surveying party had met unex- 
pected delays in reaching the Reserve. Its members could not be ex- 
pected to have the same interest in hurrying the work that the land 
company members had, for General Cleaveland appears to have been the 
only person among the fifty-three members of the surveying party who 
was a shareholder in the land. The others were employes, working for 
a salary or a wage. On looking over the field they decided that their 
compensation was not enough and actually "struck" for better pay. 
General Cleaveland solved this tangle by setting aside the township now 
known as Euclid, in Cuyahoga County, to be sold to them at a nominal 
sum. They were working in a wilderness country. Rainfall has ever 
been abundant in Northeastern Ohio, and this meant that even in the 
uplands there was heavy shrubbery and foliage to impede the work. 
Some of the land was low-lying swamp that they had to struggle 
through. Cutting and slashing a way was laborious work, not alone 
because the timber and underbrush were thick, but because rainfall made 
the shrubbery heavy and watersoaked in wet weather, while the sun 
beat fiercely in dry weather. Clothing and shoes became torn, rent and 
worn, and there was opportunity for only the rudest kind of mending. 
The surveyors proclaimed loudly, and probably profanely, not only 
against the myriad of mosquitoes, but against the gigantic size of these 
insects. Dysentery and malaria attacked the workmen, pack-horses 
carrying supplies and food wandered away in the forests, and there was 
sometimes hunger and also a shortage of rum. Gases from the swamps 
hung heavy over the ground at some places and the malaria was at- 
tributed to this, for the disease-carrying propensities of the mosquito 
were then unknown. The surveying instruments were imperfect and the 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 51 

area to be covered was enormous. There were predatory animals, even 
wolves, about, but these do not appear to have inconvenienced the work- 
ers. Snakes were abundant in Northeastern Ohio then as they are now, 
and at that day even the rattlesnake and copper-head were common. 
There is no complaint, however, that these caused any apprehension on 
the part of the surveying party. On the contrary they may have been 
found useful. Commissary Stow is said to have had a liking for snake 
meat, while others of the party would eat it if food were scarce. Con- 
sidering all these handicaps, it is not surprising that the showing made 
was not great. It is rather surprising that so much was done. Yet the 
fact that not enough of the land had been surveyed to warrant a division 
of it among the shareholders prevented any such distribution when 
Daniel Holbrook, Moses Warren, Jr., William Shepard, Jr.*, Seth Pease 
and Amos Spafford were appointed on January 27, 1797, to apportion 
the land among the investors. 

The wrath of the protestants was too great, however, to be easily 
silenced. At a meeting of the land company on January 28, 1797, a 
committee was named "to enquire into causes which have occasioned the 
very great expense to which the land company have been subjected in 
the course of the year past, and also to enquire into the causes which 
prevented the surveyors and agents of the directors from completing the 
survey and location." This committee, consisting of Pierpont Edwards, 
Uriel Holmes, Jr., Caleb Atwater, William Ely and Samuel Hinkley, 
was ordered to make a report on February 22, 1797. 

It may be taken for granted that the shareholders were in anything 
but a pleasant mood at this time. They had risked a great deal on the 
western lands and had hoped for early profits. Instead they were paying 
interest to the state, were being assessed for expenses and were getting 
no revenues in return. They wanted an investigation, just as modern 
day folks would. Their anger appears to have been directed against 
General Cleaveland, head of the mission to the Reserve, with perhaps a 
minority of the blame falling on Augustus Porter, his chief surveyor. 
They had to be content to expend their wrath in this manner, however, 
as the investigators returned a report at the February meeting exonerat- 
ing the surveyors and finding that the delay was due to Indian troubles 
and "various causes." What these "various causes" were we have tried 
to outline above. The probing committee even recommended that Gen- 
eral Cleaveland be thanked for his very capable services in quieting the 
Indian titles. 

Whether it was because of this dissatisfaction or because they re- 
tired voluntarily, it is certain that Cleaveland and Porter were not in- 
cluded in the surveying party that started out in 1797 to complete the 
running of lines on the Reserve. Rev. Seth Hart was made superin- 
tendent of this second expedition, with Seth Pease as principal sur- 
veyor. Spafford, Stoddard and Warren also went along as surveyors, 
indicating that there could have been no great dissatisfaction with them, 
although Warren was accused by others in his party of being "indolent," 



* Given also as Shepperd and Shepherd. 



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52 



YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 



which may have meant after all that he was merely painstaking and 
deliberate and therefore less rapid in his work than some of his co- 
workers. 

This second surveying party reached Conneaut Creek on May 26. 
1797, and went on to Cleveland. There was another summer of hard 
work ahead and it began unpropitiously with the death of David El- 
dredge, one of the party, who was drowned on June 3 while attempting 
to ford the Grand River. The body was taken to Cleveland for burial, 
services being conducted by Reverend Hart, the superintendent. There 
was more sickness even this second summer than there had been the 
first, but in spite of this the work of surveying that part of the Reserve 
lying east of the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers was completed, and 




on October 22, 1797, the party reported at Conneaut ready for the trip 
home to Connecticut. They departed immediately. 

Everything was in readiness now for the partition of the eastern 
part of the Reserve, but the Connecticut Land Company members had 
not waited final reports before preparing to engage in the land business. 
In 1797 Connecticut was placarded with glowing circulars descriptive 
of the wonders of the promised land of "New Connecticut." To the 
skilled publicity agents of that day it was a veritable garden of Eden, 
with much stress laid upon the beauty of the country and the marvelous 
fertility of the soil and no emphasis at all on its mosquitoes or wilder- 
ness drawbacks. Outside Connecticut this publicity was treated with 
some ribaldry, but within Connecticut this appears to have had no ill 
effects. The canny Connecticut folk formed their own opinions and 
in general accepted the Ohio country at its face value. Flaming litera- 
ture of this sort was not new to them, as the Ohio Company had adver- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 53 

tised its lands in the Marietta vicinity in the same manner ten years 
earlier and ridicule had been helpful, rather than injurious, then, since 
it came mainly from the Tory, or loyalist British, element. 

On December 13, 1797, the equalizing committee appointed in the 
preceding January met at Canandaigua, New York, and drafted a re- 
port defining the manner in which the lands east of the Cuyahoga River 
were to be distributed among shareholders in accordance with the plan 
agreed upon on April 9, 1796. 

The Township of Cleveland, that was to be sold in small lots, the 
townships of Euclid in Cuyahoga County, Madison, Mentor and Wil- 
loughby in Lake County and Youngstown in Mahoning County (as these 
counties are now constituted), were omitted from the distribution, as 
was a tract of land to satisfy the General Parsons claim. Otherwise the 
surveyed lands of the Reserve were apportioned as follows, on January 

3i, 1798: 

The four best townships of the surveyed ground were cut up into 
an average of 100 lots to a township. As there were 400 of these shares 
and $1,200,000 capital, each shareholders drew one lot for each $3,000 
he had subscribed. The four townships thus divided are now known 
as Perry, in Lake County; Northfield, in Summit County; Bedford and 
Warrensville, in Cuyahoga County. 

The townships now known as Poland in Mahoning County; Hart- 
ford in Trumbull County; Pierpont, Monroe, Conneaut, Saybrook and 
Harpersfield in Ashtabula County; and Parkman in Geauga County, 
were then selected as the eight standard townships, and all remaining 
townships not assigned were to be raised to the value of these eight. 

To make this equalization the townships now known as Auburn, 
Newbury, Munson, Chardon, Bainbridge, Russell and Chester in Geauga 
County ; Concord and Kirtland in Lake County ; Springfield and Twins- 
burg in Summit County; Solon, Orange and Mayfield in Cuyahoga 
County, and fractional parts of the townships of Conneaut, Ashtabula, 
Saybrook, Geneva, Madison, fPainesville, Willoughby, Independence, 
Coventry and Portage were selected as the best townships next to the 
four divided into lots. 

These fourteen townships and ten parts of townships were then cut 
up into parcels and the ownership of these parcels was to fall to the 
men who drew the remaining townships of the Reserve, .being dis- 
tributed in such manner that each township would be brought up to the 
value of the eight standard townships given above. There were there- 
fore ninety-three equalized townships to be drawn for, so that an in- 
vestment of $12,903.23 entitled a shareholder to ownership of a full 
township. In the "Western Reserve Book of Drafts/' at the court- 
house at Warren is a complete record of the drawings for each town- 
ship. Among those participating in the distribution were many whose 
names were not given among the original members of the Connecticut 
Land Company, but who apparently became members by the purchase of 
shares before 1798. 

The second draft of Western Reserve lands was made in 1802 and 
was for the unsold remainder of the six townships set aside for direct 



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54 YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

sale and for the land in Weathersfield Township omitted in the first 
draft to satisfy the Parsons claim. The third draft was in 1807 and 
was for the townships west of the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers. 
The fourth draft was in 1809 anc * was for surplus lands and for notes 
given by purchasers of lands in the six townships that were sold out- 
right. 

The total acreage of land in the Western Reserve, according to fig- 
ures prepared by Judge Frederick Kinsman, follows: 

Connecticut Land Company lands east of the Cuyahoga 

River 2,002,970 acres 

Lands west of the Cuyahoga River, exclusive of surplus 

and islands 827,291 acres 

Surplus land (so called) 5,286 acres 

Islands 5,924 acres 

Total Connecticut Land Company lands 2,841,471 acres 

Parsons, or Salt Spring, tract 25,450 acres 

"Fire Lands" 500,000 acres 



Grand total of Connecticut Western Reserve lands 3,366,921 acres 

A Philadelphia company that had entered as a competitor of the 
Connecticut Land Company in bidding for the Western Reserve in 1795 
had been persuaded to accept instead all the surplus lands over 3,000,000 
acres. As the total acreage outside the "Fire Lands" was below this 
figure nothing came of this arrangement. 

To say that the Connecticut men were the first white persons to trod 
the soil of the Western Reserve would be a manifest error, of course. 
There were French voyageurs who probably passed through Northern 
Ohio more than 100 years before Connecticut offered the Reserve for 
sale. Pennsylvanians visited the Salt Spring tract before and during the 
Revolution, and traders threaded their way through the Ohio forests to 
and from the lakes and the Pennsylvania settlements. Yet when the 
eastern part of the Reserve was apportioned among Connecticut Land 
Company shareholders in January, 1798, the sole settlements were at 
Youngstown, Cleveland and Mentor. Youngstown had a population of 
ten families, and was the largest of the three villages. It was the 1798 
distributiori that opened the lands for general settlement. 

Perhaps the first actual permanent emigrants to the Western Reserve 
were James Kingsbury, wife, and one or more children, who reached 
Conneaut soon after the surveying party under General Cleaveland 
landed there on July 4, 1796. When the surveyors returned to Connecti- 
cut in the fall of that year the Kingsburys remained, occupying one of 
the cabins built by the surveying party. Elijah Gunn and wife occupied 
the other. In the fall Kingsbury found it necessary to go back to his old* 
home in New Hampshire, for what he believed would be a short stay. 
While there, however, he was taken ill and his return was long delayed. 
While absent his wife gave birth to a child. When able to travel Kings- 
bury started back anxiously to the Ohio country, but an early winter and 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 55 

a disabled horse delayed him and it was Christmas Eve when he reached 
home to find his family starving. Although still weak he started with a 
sled for Erie for provisions, and obtained but meager ones. During the 
winter, it is related, the cow that was a greatly needed possession of the 
Kingsbury family, died. With the mother ill-nourished and unable to 
give her child sustenance the death of the cow doomed the babe and it 
died of starvation. This was the fate of what was undoubtedly the first 
white child born on the Western Reserve. 

The Connecticut Land Company gave recognition to the three brave 
women who spent that first winter on the Western Reserve. On the com- 
pany's minutes, under date of January 29, 1798, we find it recorded that 
the company "gave to Tabitha Stiles, wife of Job Stiles, one city lot, one 
ten-acre lot and one 100-acre lot; to Ann Gunn, wife of Elijah Gunn, one 
100-acre lot; to James King* and wife, one 100-acre lot; to Nathaniel 
Doan, one city lot if he would stay as a blacksmith."! All these properties, 
of course, were located in Cleveland. The Stiles family had settled there 
in 1796 and later returned east. The Gunns went on from Conneaut to 
Cleveland early in 1797, and also returned east a few years afterwards. 
The Kingsbury s journeyed to Cleveland with the Reserve surveying party 
in the spring of 1797 an d remained on the Western Reserve. 

The difficulties of the Connecticut Land Company did not end, how- 
ever, with the distribution of the lands in the eastern part of the Reserve 
in the opening month of 1798. In a sense they had just begun, for tlyf 
grave questions of ownership of the Western Reserve and jurisdiction 
over that Reserve could no longer be avoided. The Federal Government 
had ignored Connecticut's claim; Connecticut had evaded any direct test 
of the Federal Government's claim. Now a situation had arisen under 
white man's rule almost identical with that which prevailed in what is 
now Northeastern Ohio under red man's rule. It was a "No Man's 
Land," claimed by several, actually owned by none. 

In ceding its other claims to the United States in 1786, Connecticut 
not only reserved ownership of the Western Reserve lands, but adhered 
as well to the right to govern those lands. It was apparently the intent 
that residents of the Reserve were to be subject to the government at 
Hartford, just as though the Ohio country were contiguous to Connecti- 
cut. But when the Northwest Territory was created under the Ordinance 
of 1787, all the present states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin were included within it, Connecticut's claim being ignored. In 
1788 Governor St. Clair included alt that part of the Western Reserve 
lying east of the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers in the County of 
Washington, Northwestern Territory, the county seat being at Marietta. 
In 1796 he included the western part of the Reserve in Wayne County, 
with the county seat at Detroit. To him Connecticut's claim merely did 
not exist at all. 

Being Connecticut men, it is but natural that the members of the 
Connecticut Land Company should have been in sympathy with the aims 



* While the name is given as King in the Connecticut Land Company's minutes, 
this is unquestionably an error. The grant was undoubtedly to James Kingsbury 
and wife. 



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56 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

of their mother state. Furthermore the success of their entire enterprise 
depended upon the maintenance of Connecticut's claim, for unless that 
claim were sustained then Connecticut could not sell the Western Re- 
serve lands and they could not buy them. By 1795, however, there was 
probably considerable doubt of Connecticut's ability to govern this great 
stretch of territory so far removed from the parent state, for in that 
year the Connecticut Land Company petitioned Congress to set up a terri- 
torial government in "New Connecticut." Congress apparently did not 
even dignify the petition with a hearing. In 1797 the land company re- 
verted to the original plan of jurisdiction by passing a resolution, on 
January 27th of that year, asking the Legislature of Connecticut to erect 
the Western Reserve into a county of the state of Connecticut, with suit- 
able laws to govern the territory for a limited time, the cost of administra- 
tion to fall on the land company proprietors. Connecticut was equally as 
coy* as the Federal Government. Being sound-minded, the Connecticut 
legislators knew that any such action would be illegal and inoperative, as 
it would be in direct contradiction of the Ordinance of 1787. Further- 
more it might precipitate an actual test of Connecticut's right to the 
Reserve, and Connecticut was not so certain of its title that a direct con- 
test was invited. 

Six months after the Connecticut Land Company appealed to the 
home state for the creation of a county government the Northwest 
Territory again tried to enforce its claim to jurisdiction over the Re- 
serve. This was in July, 1797, when Governor St. Clair created the 
county of Jefferson, with the county seat at Steubenville. In doing this 
he annexed to Jefferson County much of Washington County, including 
that part of the Western Reserve lying east of the Cuyahoga River. 

This was the situation when the movement for a general settlement 
of the Western Reserve began in 1798, following the division of land 
among the company shareholders. It was a condition of divided allegi- 
ance — and yet no allegiance — that lasted for two and one-half years. 
Once the Federal Government's Northwest Territory claim to jurisdic- 
tion was advanced — but only once. This was in 1798 when Jefferson 
County sent Zenas Kimberly, its taxing officer, to the Western Reserve 
to assess taxes. He was met with jeers and laughter and retired in dis- 
comfiture. His visit was profitable in experience but wholly profitless 
financially. Again in 1799, when the first election was held in the North- 
west Territory, Jefferson County chose a representative in the territorial 
legislature, but Western Reserve residents seem to have had no part in 
the election. 

This chaotic state of affairs could not last indefinitely, of course. It 
was well enough between 1786 and 1796 when there were no permanent 
white residents on the Western Reserve; it was well enough even in 
1796 and 1797 when the Reserve was an unsettled land except for the 
tiny villages of Youngstown and Cleveland. But with the partitioning 
of the land in the opening month of 1798 immigration began in earnest, 
and the roads to the Western Reserve were much traveled highways in 
1798 and 1799. Appeals to Connecticut to set up some kind of govern- 
ment were futile; appeals to the Federal Government to introduce gov- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 57 

ernriient other than that of the Northwest Territory, which held nominal 
jurisdiction over the Reserve, were even more futile. 

Meanwhile the Western Reserve lived without law or overlordship, 
a most vexatious situation. There was perhaps little need of criminal 
law, of courts, or of the exercise of police powers. The unique manner 
in which Western Reserve lands were taken up precluded lawlessness. 
The dissolute, the refugees from justice, the restless outlaws who 
swarm to frontier communities were missing, for the Western Reserve 
settlers had bought their land before they came to the Ohio country, or 
came here prepared to purchase ground and build homes. They were 
adventurers of course, for only adventurers pierce the wilds and assume 
the burdens of the frontiersman, but they were adventurers of the best 
type. With the growth of the villages they set up their own forms of 
law and order and these sufficed. 

But without legal officers there could be no transfers of property, no 
enforced collection of property payments or other debts, no legal ex- 
change of land ownership. And even the title granted by the State of 
Connecticut to the Connecticut Land Company — the basis on which all 
land titles in the Reserve rested — was still in jeopardy. The situation 
was so grave in fact that even the Federal Government could ignore it 
no longer and, in April, 1800, Congress granted a hearing to Connecticut, 
its representative being the great John Marshall, afterwards chief justice 
of the Supreme Court of the United States. The magnificent argument 
he made on Connecticut's claim finally resulted in a proposal to the state 
that the United States would quit claim all right to ownership of the 
land in the Western Reserve if Connecticut would cede to the Federal 
Government the right of jurisdiction over that land. This agreement 
was accepted and was ratified on May 30, 1800. 

Thus ended one of the most unique contests in American history. 
It was a bloodless struggle, differing in this respect from the similar con- 
test over Connecticut's claims in Pennsylvania. The chief asset of the 
Connecticut people was a typical New England determination in the 
face of odds — a Yankee unwillingness to surrender anything they had 
once gotten hold of. Ostensibly it was a compromise — yet it is notice- 
able that Connecticut compromised by keeping the lands it wanted and 
surrendering a jurisdiction that it already refused to exercise and prob- 
ably realized was untenable. The Connecticut Land Company and the 
purchasers of land from that company retained their lands, obtained 
clear titles to them and accepted a jurisdiction that could not be very 
objectionable, while the Federal Government received in return a con- 
cession of jurisdiction that it might have enforced anyway. 

The Western Reserve having passed definitely to the jurisdiction of 
the Northwest Territory, Governor St. Clair, on July 10, 1800, erected 
this area into a new county under the name of Trumbull. Trumbull 
County, named after Governor Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, was 
identical in boundaries with the Reserve. The county seat was fixed at 
Warren, a decision that caused much joy at Warren and much rage at 
Youngstown when it was made known. It is not improbable that Cleve- 
land, too, aspired to this honor, although it was then a community of less 



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58 YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

importance than Youngstown or Warren. As officers of the new coun- 
ty, Governor St. Clair named John Young, Turhand Kirtland, Camden 
Cleveland, James Kingsbury and Eliphalet Austin, justices of the peace 
and quorum; John Leavitt, judge of probate and justice of the peace; 
Solomon Griswold, Martin Smith, John Struthers, Caleb Baldwin, Cal- 
vin Austin, Edward Brockway, John Kinsman. Benjamin Davidson,* 
Ephraim Quinby, Ebenezer Sheldon, David Hudson, Aaron Wheeler, 
Amos Spafford, Moses Park and John Minor, justices of the peace; 
David Abbott, sheriff; Calvin Pease, clerk; John Hart Adgate, coroner; 
John S. Edwards, recorder. 

The justices were the sole law dispensers of the county, those being 
designated as the "quorum" taking a higher rank while the remainder 
were associate justices. They met four times a year, hence were known 
as "the court of quarter sessions." By direction of the governor the 
sheriff summoned the court to meet at Warren on August 25, 1800. The 
court assembled as directed on that day, the spot where the first session 
was held being described as "a bower of native trees standing between 
two large corn cribs." As it was the custom of the early days to roof 
over the space between two corn cribs and use this enclosure as a wagon- 
shed, it is not impossible that the judges at least had some sort of shelter 
other than the trees and sky, although historians adhere closely to the 
open-air court room version. Regardless of this, the fact remains that 
when the court of quarter sessions opened that day at Warren civil gov- 
ernment actually began on the Western Reserve. 

In a session that lasted five days the foundation was laid for law and 
order in the new County of Trumbull. A synopsis of the record of the 
session, in the handwriting of Judge Pease — for all the justices bore this 
title — follows : 

"Trumbull County } 

August Term, 1800 f 

"Court of general quarter session of the peace begun and holden at 
Warren, within and for said County of Trumbull, on the fourth Monday 
of August, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and of the inde- 
pendence of the United States the twenty-fifth. Present, John Young, 
Turhand Kirtland, Camden Cleveland, James Kingsbury, and Eliphalet 
Austin, esquires, justices of the quorum, and others, their associates, jus- 
tices of the peace, holding said court. 

"The following persons were returned and appeared on the grand 
jury, and were empanneled and sworn, namely: Simon Persons, fore- 
man ; Benjamin Stowe, Samuel Menough, Hawley Tanner, Charles Daly, 
Ebenezer King, William Cecil, John Hart Adgate, Henry Lane, Jonathan 
Church, Jeremia Wilcox, John Partridge Bissell, Isaac Palmer, George 
Phelps, Samuel Quinby, and Moses Park. 

"The court appointed George Tod, Esq., to prosecute the pleas of the 
United States, for the present session, who took the oath of office. 

"The court appointed Amos Spafford, Esq.. David Hudson, Esq., 
Simon Perkins, John Minor, Esq., Aaron Wheeler, Esq., Edward Payne, 



* Or Davison. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 59 

Esq., and Benjamin Davidson, Esq., a committee to divide the County of 
Trumbull into townships, to describe the limits and boundaries of each 
township and to make report to the court thereof." 

The townships spoken of in the last provision were to be civil 
townships, in contradistinction to the surveyors' townships already laid 
out. The committee divided the county into eight townships, known as 
Youngstown, Warren, Hudson, Vernon, Richfield, Middlefield, Paines- 
ville and Cleveland. All the territory in the present Mahoning and Trum- 
bull counties was included in the townships of Youngstown, Warren, 
Vernon and Middlefield, except of course the lower or most southerly 
tier of townships of the present Mahoning County. These, it must be 
'understood, were never part of the Western Reserve. Provision was 
made for a county jail — which permitted a prisoner to wander about out 
of doors within certain areas while he behaved himself — while constables 
were named to enforce law and order. Those picked for the lower town- 
ships of the county were James Hillman, Youngstown ; Jonathan Church, 
Warren ; Titus Brockway, Vernon ; Simon Rose and Ruf us Grinell, Mid- 
dlefield. Ephraim Quinby was recommended to the governor as "a fit 
person to keep a publick house of entertainment in the town of Warren,'' 
and Jonathan Fowler was recommended for a similar responsibility in 
Youngstown. At this court also came up initial consideration of one of 
the famed cases in the history of Mahoning and Trumbull counties, that 
of the "United States vs. Richard Storer," on a charge of murdering 
Spotted John, an Indian, and the "United States vs. Joseph McMahon," 
on a charge of killing Captain George. 

On the second Tuesday in October, 1800, the Western Reserve fur- 
ther emphasized its readiness to become a part of the Northwest Terri- 
tory by holding an election to name a Trumbull County member of the 
territorial legislature. The election was held in Warren and was by viva 
voce vote. In this vast district, now constituting thirteen Ohio counties 
and parts of counties, but forty-two votes were cast and the election par- 
took of the nature of a frolic rather than a serious political contest. Ed- 
ward Paine polled thirty-eight of the forty-two votes and took his seat 
in 1 801, remaining in the territorial legislature as the representative of 
Trumbull County until the Ohio state government came into being in 
1803. Since that day the history of the Western Reserve has been linked 
indissolubly with the history of Ohio. 



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CHAPTER VI 

THE PIONEERS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS 

The People of the Mahoning Valley — Their Origin, National 
Characteristics, Religious Affiliations and Motives in Com- 
ing Here 

The early settlers of the Western Reserve were principally of New 
England stock, although not all of them came directly from New Eng- 
land. They were of many different nationalities and almost as many 
different creeds, but those most numerous were Scotch-Irish and Presby- 
terians. Later these pioneers were joined or succeeded by people of 
almost every nation and religious belief, as we shall see in the course of 
a brief discussion of the subject, without which no history of the Mahon- 
ing Valley would be complete, and in which an effort will be made to 
treat of the various groups in the order of their arrival here in con- 
siderable numbers. 

The Scotch-Irish 

The Scotch-Irish are so called from the fact that they are descended 
from people who migrated to Ireland in the Seventeenth century and later 
in order to occupy estates confiscated from native owners in the northern 
part of that country during the religious persecutions under Queen Eliza- 
beth and James I of England, who was also King of Scotland, with 
the title of James VI. Writers and orators of Gaelic blood are some- 
times inclined to dispute the right of these people to the name of Irish. 
As a matter of fact, there is still less reason to call them Scotch, for most 
of the original emigrants to Ireland for the purpose mentioned came 
from the border lands between Scotland and England, and were really 
neither Scotch nor Irish, but a mixture of Scotch and English. Later, 
under Cromwell, persecution of the Irish in Ulster was renewed, and 
most of the estates confiscated at that time were leased to Englishmen, a 
considerable number of these lessees being members of the Established 
Church, although some of them were dissenters of one kind or another. 

During the succeeding generations there was naturally a considerable 
admixture of Irish blood among the immigrants, many of these marrying 
into Irish families whose lesser zeal for their religion or greater diplo- 
macy had prevented them from sharing the fate of their original neigh- 
bors. Eventually much of the population of Ulster, which is the most 
northern province of Ireland, came to be of this mixed blood, in which 
Irish characteristics seem to predominate, although to this day in certain 

60 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 61 

of its counties there is a native population as determined as ever to 
maintain its original religious and political entity. This blending of 
these peoples, or rather of the most enterprising and daring elements 
among these peoples, has created a type in which is exemplified the 
intellectuality and idealism of the Irish, the stubborn determination of 
the English, and the intense practicality of the Scotch. This union of 
qualities so essential to a dominant civilization has had much to do 
with government and progress in all parts of the English-speaking world, 
although its most marked achievements have been in new lands, where, 
as in the early times of America, enormous difficulties had to be sur- 
mounted and tasks accomplished that would not have been even under- 
taken by people of any other type. 

The first striking result of the inbreeding of these three great peoples 
was the improvement of agriculture and the stimulation of manufactures 
in the north of Ireland. This aroused jealousy and brought about inter- 
ference from the English government during the reign of William III, 
conditions which were responsible, in part at least, for the transplanting 
of Scotch-Irish blood to the colonies of the New World. There were 
ether causes for this, however. 

Separation of the English ecclesiastical system from the Roman 
communion was followed by the rise of a number of religious sects or 
groups, and in time the people of England were divided into four great 
parties more or less accurately defined in a religious and political way. 
Most of the clergy and people had quietly accepted the change., which 
affected only a portion of, their belief and disturbed but slightly the 
ancient forms. Those who opposed the new order of things were in- 
spired by various motives. Some of them believed that the change did 
not go far enough; others that it went too far. All dissenters came in 
for their share of persecution, which at that time was repugnant to 
neither churches nor kings, especially if, as often happened, they were 
associated in the business of regulating society; and the vigor with 
which it was carried on was measured largely by the vociferousness of 
the objectors. As might have been expected, the dissenters were only 
made more determined by persecution, which has always been the seed 
of religious fervor. 

Calvinism had made great headway in the north of England and in 
Scotland. Among the Highlanders it developed its most ultra form — a 
form in which its modern prototype, Presbyterianism, would scarcely 
be recognized as related to it. The Scotch were violently opposed to 
the Established religion, as well as more or less disaffected on political 
grounds, and they suffered the heavy hand of the Church and State in 
corresponding degree. Many different methods were adopted to break 
down their resistance, the most effective, according to contemporaneous 
writers, being the confiscation of property and the imposition of fines. 
A few Presbyterians, chiefly the more wealthy, yielded far enough to 
save their wealth, but the majority defied all efforts to bring them under 
the influence of the state church. They scorned with unutterable con- 
tempt those who subscribed to the test oath, harbored their outlawed 
preachers and listened to them by the hour in Highland glen and on 



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62 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

wind swept moor, at the same time battling the "Established Kirk" 
with mighty argument and also with what physical force they could con- 
trive, until they finally wore out king and clergy and compelled a com- 
promise. 

The most violent and picturesque of these dissenters were known 
as Covenanters, but they were little more determined to have their own 
way than were the Lowlanders, although the latter, having more to 
lose and being more easily reached, sought more diligently to avoid the 
loss of their "warldly gear" by a pretended submission. These Low- 
landers, from whom were descended many of those who later came to 
be known as Scotch-Irish, were trained for generations in a school 
which admirably fitted them for the adventures which they later en- 
countered in Ireland and which their descendants were to meet in the 
colonies. They had not only the persecution of England to make them 
strong, as persecution always makes men strong; but they had also the 
ever-present menace of Highland bands to make them watchful and to 
instill into them the skill to defend their own. Perhaps it might also 
be said that they had the example of these upland clans to teach them 
the notions concerning the rights of property later displayed in their 
dealings with the American Indians. Perhaps, too, they had inherited 
some of the qualities that compelled the ancient Romans to build a stone 
wall across England as the only method of keeping their remote fore- 
fathers, the Scots and Picts, within bounds. At any rate, these border 
Scotchmen had for generations to stand guard over their possessions 
in fear of raids from the Highlands in which cattle, grain and other 
movables were the the object of the raiders. While they were watching 
their hard-earned substance, they spent much time in earnest disputa- 
tion over the abstruse and metaphysical doctrines of Oilvinism, for 
any proper participation in which a goodly knowledge of the Scriptures 
was deemed absolutely essential. Studying the Bible by candle-light 
and enlarging upon its texts at their frugal meals and at their work, 
they acquired the love of learning and the keenness of intellect which 
we have seen displayed by their descendants. And, in their long and 
stubborn fight for the right to believe as they saw fit, we may be able 
to trace a cause of the intense love of liberty and stern determination to 
have their own way that has always marked them in this country, 
although they might well have inherited some of this from the Irish 
whose blood was intermingled with their own after leaving their native 
land. 

It was perfectly natural that when James sought for volunteers in 
the neither safe nor pleasant task of occupying estates from which he 
had expelled their rightful owners in Ireland, he should find them most 
readily among these border people, who neither loved him nor feared 
danger, and who naturally sought to profit by an adventure that, in 
those days, seemed legitimate and to them was even an opportunity to 
serve the Lord. It must be kept in mind that at this adolescent stage of 
the human mind religion was a vital thing and could without hesitation 
advance ideas that would not be either safe or easy of promulgation in 
these later days. Men did not then, as they did in the simpler times 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 63 

of the Middle Ages, walk in the veritable presence of their own in- 
dividual conception of the Creator; but religious belief was a much 
more potent thing than ordinarily it is at present, and it could drape 
strange fancies and not entirely righteous policies in a garment of 
justice and godliness almost as successfully as in the days when the 
Israelites, in obedience to heavenly direction, slew the Moabites, ap- 
propriated their vineyards and enslaved their virgins. No sincere relig- 
ious conviction is hard to understand, for the wandering of the human 
intellect in search of truth will ever form the most remarkable and most 
interesting chapter of human history; but that ancient faith could and 
did influence men to actions such as are often attributed to its prompt- 
ings seems strange in these later days, when the world has come to 
know that the purpose of all religions is to make men better, as well as 
that human nature, rather than religious teaching, has been responsible 
for the crimes and wrongs which have stained the fair name of all 
creeds in all ages. 

At the time the emigration of the Scotch-Irish to America began 
they were being made uncomfortable in Ireland by a combination of 
circumstances, chief among which was the accession to the English 
throne of CharlesA This monarch regarded all dissenters alike, and 
visited upon the Presbyterians the same sort of persecution which had 
formerly been reserved for his Catholic subjects, but in slightly less 
brutal form. His successor, William III, authorized restrictions on the 
industries at Belfast and repressed the flourishing industry of agri- 
culture in ways that were unendurable, at the same time reviving the 
political disabilities among the people of Ulster, as well as among the 
Catholic population of the south and west. 

Fleeing from Ireland to escape persecution was already no novelty, 
and the more sturdy and independent of the Scotch-Irish began to seek 
in the New World the independence and freedom denied them across 
the seas. . It may have been that the first of them passed by the colony 
of Massachusetts because they did not entirely trust the Puritans in 
their protestations of desires similar to their own, and they may have 
been influenced by the fact that Connecticut was further west and 
nearer the frontier. The most plausible explanation, however, is that 
the Scotch-Irish did not care to locate where they could not dominate 
affairs. At any rate, they gathered chiefly at New Haven, and soon 
were in absolute control there, in spite of some opposition they met from ' 
the original settlers of that colony, who were non-conformists from the 
neighborhood of London. Neither did they mix with the other settlers 
of New England to any great extent, although some of them eventually 
did locate in Massachusetts. The greater portion of the overflow went 
westward, settling in the Pennsylvania colony, and later spreading to 
Maryland and Virginia. There is evidence that these hardy pioneers 
did not greatly care who was located in any portion of the country on 
which they set their hearts, so long as they were given a free hand ; and 
they did not hesitate to become residents of any colony, if there were no 
vigorous objections made to their presence. In Pennsylvania they were 
sorely at variance with the peaceful Quakers, who welcomed them grudg- 



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64 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

ingly because of their disposition to quarrel with the Indians, as well as 
because they were not at all backward in expressing contempt for people 
who expected to get through life without an occasional fight. Like- 
wise in Maryland, where Catholics predominated, they took advantage 
of the assurance of religious freedom $nd became so strong that one 
of their leaders, named Green, was appointed to the governorship by 
the proprietor. This was probably arranged by Lord Baltimore in hope 
to prevent trouble with the English government, but it shows the aggres- 
siveness of the Scotch-Irish pioneers and their disposition to rule things 
where they chose to live. 

The Scotch-Irish who came first to Penn's colony did not remain 
among the Quakers and Germans who had already established them- 
selves at Philadelphia and in the eastern portion, but continued west- 
ward, many of them locating first in the Cumberland and Susquehanna 
valleys. They drove the Indians from this fertile region in short order 
by their determined and heroic methods, and even made war upon the 
luckless savages in the territory around Bethlehem and along the head- 
waters of the Susquehanna. It is a matter of record that a party of 
these settlers at one time raided an Indian village called Conestoga, in 
Lancaster County, killing all of its population except thirteen braves 
who happened to be away on a hunting expedition. These absent In- 
dians were gathered up by the sheriff of Lancaster County when they 
returned, and placed in jail to protect them from the "Paxton Boys," 
as the Cumberland raiders were known. The sheriff, who was a Quaker, 
hastily secured a company of English soldiers to guard the jail. In 
spite of these precautions, the "Paxton Boys" slipped into Lancaster 
one night, captured the jail and slew the Indian prisoners. 

Demand by the Quaker government that the participants in this 
performance be punished resulted in the Cumberland settlers organizing 
and marching on Philadelphia, where a large number of Moravian 
Indians had been gathered to save their lives. This was rather too 
much for even the peaceful Quakers, who stationed themselves in force 
at Germantown, prepared to make it hot for the invaders. Although 
the Scotch-Irish wisely desisted at this show of spirit, they did not 
retire until they had drawn up and presented to the governor a lengthy 
memorial demanding that the men charged with the affair at Lancaster 
be tried by their own neighbors, as well as that the Quakers be com- 
pelled to help them exterminate the Indians, whom they accused of 
plotting against the settlers and carrying on treasonable relations with 
the French. Among these hardy and pugnacious pioneers was one man 
whose descendants are well known among the people of this valley and 
point with pride to the fact that their ancestors were among the first 
to settle here. This man, Capt. James Gibson, drew the memorial 
referred to, and its language indicates that he was both a scholar and a 
man of strong convicions. 

An even more interesting incident illustrating how Caledonian pru- 
dence sometimes tempered Celtic audacity is furnished by the episode 
known as the "Whiskey Rebellion." This occurred in 1794, at which 
time the population of Western Pennsylvania, outside of the villages 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 65 

at least, was almost entirely Scotch-Irish, and because they have been 
censured not a little for their part in it, perhaps a few words on this 
subject will not be out of place here. 

Pennsylvania had early adopted an excise law, being among the 
first states to take this plan of raising revenue. No general attempt 
had been made to enforce it west of the Mountains, however, and the 
business of "moonshining," as it is now called, was regarded as legitimate, 
stills being established on all of the more prosperous farms, just as 
cider mills are at present. The reason for this lay, not alone in the 
fondness of the Scotch-Irish pioneer for distilled spirits, but also in 
the fact that in making such spirits he found about the only method 
then possible of turning his grain into money, since the roads over the 
mountains were so bad that it could not be hauled on them and the 
population so scattered that there was no market in any other direction. 

When Congress passed an excise law it looked to these pioneers 
like a deliberate stroke against their prosperity *by the national govern- 
ment. The wars associated with the French Revolution had made the 
eastern farmers prosperous, and the whisky tax came just at a time 
when the hard conditions surrounding the pioneers were emphasized 
by this condition. When it was found that the objectionable law was 
to be enforced, the Western Pennsylvania pioneers terrorized the col- 
lectors with tar and feathers, and even captured the house of General 
Nevelle, the excise commissioner. For some reason not entirely plain, 
they blamed their troubles on the people of Pittsburgh, then a collection 
of log houses containing a small fort and a few stores and having a 
population of about 1,200 people. The Scotch-Irish farmers regarded 
this town as sort of Sodom, and announced that it was to be burned. 
They actually, about the beginning of August, 1794, after the trouble 
had been going on for four years, gathered at Braddock's Field, as the 
city of Braddock was then known, preparatory to attacking Pittsburgh. 
Documents regarding this affair place the number of malcontents in this 
gathering at 5,400, although it seems hardly possible that so many men 
could have participated in it at that early date. The people of Pittsburgh 
felt that in the face of such a force the small garrison kept there by the 
Government could do nothing, so they set about to placate the unwel- 
come visitors and dissuade them from their purpose by showing them 
that the city was not merely a nest of luxury and a den of vice. The 
entire force at Braddock became guests of the little municipality for one 
day, drinking about all the whisky and eating up about all the pro- 
vender the frightened inhabitants could gather; but the warlike farmers 
finally went away without burning the town. 

This demonstration aroused the National Government, which had 
been temporizing with the situation, and an army of 15,000 men was 
raised, a special commission being at the same time dispatched to West- 
ern Pennsylvania to effect a peaceful settlement, if possible. The com- 
mission could make no headway, so the army was started westward 
from Philadelphia over the old Forbes Road, by which the Scotch-Irish 
had first penetrated west of the mountains. They h^ard it was coming, 
and, as they had done when the doughty Quakers shouldered their guns, 



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66 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

they took off their hunting shirts, unbound the red handkerchiefs from 
around their heads and went back to their farms. Except in a clash 
which occurred the day previous to the capture of General Nevelle's 
house, in which one man was killed and five wounded, no blood was 
rhed in the "Whiskey Rebellion. ,, It was an incident in which the 
Scotch-Irish pioneers presented a striking resemblance to the Indians 
whom they had driven from that locality, with the other settlers occupy- 
ing the position formerly held by themselves. Particularly did the method 
of saving Pittsburgh resemble that sometimes used in dealing with the 
savages when the latter were too strong to be handled in a less gentle 
manner. 

Reference has been made in the chapter dealing with early land 
grants and titles to the long and stubborn fight which the Connecticut 
pioneers made for the Wyoming Valley. Much more might be written 
concerning the history made by them in Pennsylvania, from which 
colony many of them came to the Mahoning Valley. It will be sufficient, 
however, to say that as civilization advanced and the land in the East 
became occupied they moved westward over the mountains, settling in 
considerable numbers in Westmoreland, Washington, Indiana and other 
western counties in Pennsylvania, many of them remaining there only 
until opportunity for further adventure presented itself in the settle- 
ments along the Ohio and in the Western Reserve. Not a great many 
of these people went to the Ohio river settlements, however, the greater 
portion striking northward after they reached the confluence of the 
Beaver and Ohio rivers. They should not, therefore, be connected with 
the wrongs that were perpetrated against the Indians by some of the 
group which came mainly from Virginia and was so relentless and merci- 
less in its dealings with the natives as to deserve from them the name 
of "The Long Knives/' In the Western Reserve the Indians may not 
have had much consideration at the hands of the early settlers, but they 
were not forcibly dispossessed of their lands without compensation, or 
hunted with dogs and guns like wild animals, as was the case in many 
other localities. 

In their lives, their customs, their habits of thought and their actions, 
the early Scotch-Irish pioneers constituted an incident in American his- 
tory which should be better preserved. It is difficult to reconcile parts 
of the story with what we know of the descendants of these people. 
Energy, shrewdness, courage and patriotism seem to be their only char- 
acteristics surviving. The original pioneers were great drinkers, con- 
suming whisky of their own manufacture in amazing quantities, a prac- 
tice common among all the settlers. They were rough-spoken and often 
had little conception of the delicacy which now surrounds intercourse 
between the sexes. They were equally fond of fights or frolics, admired 
physical courage and strength above all other qualities, and scorned 
weakness and love of ease in either men or women. They danced, 
played cards and were prone to rough practical jokes. Fierce partisans 
in politics and religion, they seem to have gotten along well with neigh- 
bors who did not agree with them on either of these subjects, so long 
as such neighbors were of their own hardy, industrious and courageous 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 67 

type. They would walk or ride all day to a gathering in order to dance 
and drink all night, and at daylight start back to their clearing and 
grubbing. But they would go just as far to meeting, at which the prin- 
cipal attraction was a long sermon dealing with the exceeding slender- 
ness of their chances for salvation ; and there is every reason to believe 
that they returned just as cheerfully from these services, frequently 
held in the open air and with their guns stacked close by, to take up 
again without fear or complaint a life which would seem to us an in- 
tolerable round of danger, privation and toil. 

Their rough and ready qualities and, as we are now accustomed to 
look at such things, unwholesome habits, did not keep the Scotch-Irish 
from being excellent citizens. They were the very type needed for the 
arduous task of subduing the wilderness, and they did it as they did 
other things, most thoroughly and as speedily as was possible. They 
never failed to provide schools for their children, and they were real 
Americans. Then, as now, no call of their country went unheeded, and 
the alacrity with which they were wont to respond jto summons for 
military service provokes the suspicion that, in addition to being patri- 
otic, they were fond of a fight. This, as we have seen, would be quite 
natural, even if their entire existence had not been made up, especially 
during the forty years between Braddock's defeat and the victory of 
General Wayne at Fallen Timbers, of a constant vigil against the 
savages. , 

Next to their unwavering patriotism and their sturdy independence, 
which, as we have seen, occasionally conflicted so as to bring about 
strange situations, the most admirable characteristic of the early settlers 
was their love of knowledge and the respect in which they held intellec- 
tual development. It is to this, a disposition rather remarkable among 
people who had descended directly from the times when education was 
scorned as a sign of weakness, and reading and writing regarded as ac- 
complishments fit only for clergymen and clerks, that succeeding genera- 
tions owe the splendid facilities for education existing here at this time. 
These pioneers provided for their children better opportunities than 
they had themselves in the way of schools ; but they did even more than 
this. They instilled into these children a desire for knowledge and 
esteem for mental culture which seems to be lacking in these later days, 
and without which no real education is possible. 

The passing years have dimmed the picture of these doughty pioneers. 
Except as it has been preserved in very limited writings, such as those of 
Rev. Joseph Doddridge, who spent much of his life among them preach- 
ing the gospel, it has been almost forgotten. We are accustomed to find 
in their descendants, their characteristics so much refined and modified 
that we are apt to forget what manner of men were these, who came 
uninvited to the wilderness and stayed there until it blossomed as the 
rose, in spite of loneliness, poverty, wild beasts and treacherous savages ; 
leaving to us when they fared farther on to new frontiers, or laid them 
peacefully down to sleep in the valley they had conquered, a heritage 
of all that is good in both mental and material things. 



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68 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 
The Church of England Men 

Less numerous but scarcely less important than the Scotch-Irish in 
the Mahoning Valley's early history were the settlers of English or 
Scotch-English origin, almost all of them Episcopalians or, as they were 
generally known in those days, "Church of England Men." Many of 
these established themselves in Youngstown and Warren soon after 
these places were founded, the latter town and its vicinity for some 
reason having attracted the larger number. These men and their de- 
scendants may claim some of the most illustrious names in local history 
and have had a large part in developing the wealth as well as in promot- 
ing the progress of the Mahoning Valley. 

Considering the fact that on the other side of the sea these two 
groups represented the persecutor and the persecuted, the English and 
Scotch-Irish seem to have mingled in the Western Reserve with remark- 
able amity and good feeling. This was due, in part at least, to the fact 
that both the Episcopalians and the Presbyterians were represented 
here by those whose manner of living and whose close contact with na- 
ture and love of adventure widened their mental and spiritual horizons 
and discouraged pettiness of mind, without which religious animosity 
cannot well exist. Had it been otherwise the two groups could hardly 
have dwelt together in peace and striven with unanimity for the things 
they accomplished. 

Many of the English settlers came from New England, of course, 
and a few direct from England; but the larger number were immi- 
grants from the Pennsylvania and Virginia colonies. Those who came 
from the first-named state were probably induced to move farther west 
because they did not receive a very cordial welcome among the follow- 
ers of Penn. The Quakers were the most advanced and most liberal of 
all the sects while they were in England, but when they reached this 
country, like many others, they promptly forgot some of the principles 
for which they were most vociferous while suffering persecution in their 
native land. Because of this, the Episcopalians had reason to complain 
of their treatment at Philadelphia, and when the Quakers imprisoned 
those who petitioned for the establishment of a chapel in that city in 
1695, they committed the only concrete offense against religious liberty 
recorded in their whole history. Perhaps we should not judge the mild 
and thoroughly honest Quakers too severely in this matter. The Episco- 
palian communion, or the government which was at its head, had treated 
them badly in England ; the times were such as to encourage suspicion, 
and the flower of freedom of conscience had only begun to open its 
petals. Moreover, the energy, better education and greater aggressive- 
ness of the Episcopalians, unhampered by any of the restrictions which 
Quaker customs threw around the members of that sect, soon gave the 
newcomers a decided advantage, and they threatened to eclipse the orig- 
inal settlers of the colony in the direction of its affairs. Unwilling to 
endure restrictions that were placed about their activities in Philadelphia, 
many of the Church of England Men came farther west, and to this 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 69 

fact the Mahoning Valley owes not a few of its most energetic and use- 
ful pioneers. 

Ihe Episcopalians who came here were mainly of the "Low Church" 
group, and this fact helped them to secure a welcome among the Pres- 
byterians, since they cherished none of the ancient ritual and symbols 
that offended the Calvinistic mind. It is worth noting that this fact 
had a gTeat deal to do with the situation just described in Philadelphia, 
for it led many of the more progressive of the rising generation among 
the Quakers to desert their old faith and join the Episcopalian com- 
munion, in which they found fewer of the restrictions that have always 
been so difficult of acceptance by youth. It is a matter of record that 
the Church of England men in America are good mixers, and their 
disposition to let others alone in the practice of religion has always been 
to their advantage. Many of them among the early settlers here were 
but slightly attached to any creed, and not a few of them were as much 
Unitarians as anything else. 

In the Mahoning Valley, as elsewhere, the Church of England peo- 
ple seem to have been troubled less by severity of conscience than those 
of most other creeds. Their spiritual convictions are more gentle and 
their manner of living more liberal. They have always shown a devo- 
tion to education, music, and the arts unequalled among other groups. 
And they have always tended, in practice and in principle, toward the 
development of wealth and aristocracy. It is true that they left largely 
to the harder and sterner Scotch-Irish the rough work of taming the 
Indians and conquering the forests, but they were not a whit behind 
these in devotion to education and the welfare of any community of 
which they were a part. 

Even the most cursory investigation shows that these people and 
their descendants have done at least their share in the development of 
the Mahoning Valley, and more than their share in giving it a place in 
history. They have usually become wealthy rather by making money 
than by saving it, in which they differ from some other groups. Their 
names will be found associated with many of the industrial enterprises 
that opened to the people of this locality opportunity for wealth, and 
with practically all of those which have made for the kindlier things in 
life and a greater development of the spiritual and artistic. 

Nor have the Church of England rnen been outdistanced by any 
other group in the matter of patriotism and public service, at least so 
far as the Mahoning Valley is concerned. They were accused of Tory 
proclivities during the Revolution, but that accusation came from the 
attitude of the more wealthy and aristocratic of those residing in Phila- 
delphia, and it was perfectly natural that they, having maintained all 
their ties with the mother country and having no memory of religious 
grievances against her, should be less enthusiastic for the cause of liberty 
than their poorer and long suffering neighbors. Outside of Phila- 
delphia, the allegation that Episcopalians were likely to- prove Tories if 
their skins were scratched was seldom made and was never just. His- 
tory establishes the fact that, during the Revolution and since that time, 
from this group of people have come many of our greatest statesmen 



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70 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

and purest patriots, and it has contributed more than its share, consider- 
ing its numerical strength, to the development and upbuilding of our 
national greatness. 

The Germans 

The next group to claim attention, because its arrival followed close 
upon that of the Episcopalian English, is that containing the Germans. 
The majority of those settling in the Mahoning Valley belonged to the 
two German state churches — Lutheran and Reformed — although there 
came later quite a number affiliated with one or more of the almost num- 
berless sects into which the Germans divided after the Reformation. 
Perhaps the most interesting, if not most important, group of all is 
formed of those who are best known as "Pennsylvania Germans," or, 
as they usually call themselves, "Pennsylvania Deutsch." 

The Pennsylvania Germans and their descendants form one of the 
most remarkable elements in the population of the United States, as 
well as of the Mahoning Valley. One reason for this is their wide dis- 
tribution and their solid prosperity. Another is the stubborn resistance 
they at first offered to the influence of new surroundings and the ten- 
acity with which they clung to their language and the customs of their 
forefathers. Unless it be the Swedes, now a very important part of the 
population in certain localities, but not very numerous in this section, 
the Germans showed less inclination to education and more desire to 
live together in separate communities than any other portion of our 
pioneer population. Everywhere they were marked by the sternest of 
thrift, lack of interest in education and contempt for things that, to the 
American mind, are necessary to make life worth living. The contrast 
between their content with solitude, their devotion to labor, their econ- 
omy and the introspective tendency of their minds, and the character- 
istics shown by the Celtic and Latin races is remarkable. 

Very much of this is due, no doubt, to the fact that these people 
are descended from ancestors who had through centuries been intimate- 
ly acquainted with life in its most cheerless aspect. Generations of them 
were bred in poverty, hardship and oppression, as well as in the sombre 
climate of northern and central Europe. Such conditions seem to have 
created in the German mind a mysticism and fatalism entirely foreign 
to the people of countries where cold and mists and swamps are less 
conspicuous, and the problem of existence not so difficult to solve. The 
mere preservation of life was for many of the German peasantry at that 
time a serious task, and for many of their descendants in this country 
it still seemed, under happier conditions, a problem demanding first and 
most earnest consideration, with the result that they were inclined to 
give but little attention to the refinements and pleasures that are usually 
accepted among Americans as necessary to comfort and enjoyment, as 
well as to progress. This moroseness in the German mentality was doubt- 
less accentuated in the early immigrants by the political conditions from 
which they fled, because the Lower Palatinate and adjacent regions had 
been for ioo years the plaything of despots and fanatics, whose highest 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 71 

conception of human life was its usefulness in armies or its suscepti- 
bility to suffering from persecution. 

The Germans began to come to America in or about 1682, and for the 
next twenty years their immigration was comparatively small, being 
estimated by some historians at less than 200 families, all of whom settled 
in Eastern Pennsylvania, for the most part at Germantown, near the City 
of Philadelphia. Among these early arrivals were both Dutch from 
Holland, and Germans from the Upper Palatinate. They came on the 
invitation of William Penn, who was half Dutch, his mother being a 
native of Holland. All of these were members of the group of sects 
known as "Pietists." The later and more numerous arrivals were chiefly 
from the Lower Palatinate, and with them were some Swiss with Ger- 
man leanings and characteristics, acquired from their neighbors across 
the Rhine. They were primarily moved to seek the New World by the 
persecution they endured because of their belief and, particularly, be- 
cause this belief frowned upon the bearing of arms, a fact which made 
them seem of small use to the rulers of that day. The immediate influ- 
ence bringing Germans to America early in 1700 was, however, a series 
of pamphlets prepared in England and distributed in the Palatinate and 
along the Rhine under the direction of Queen Anne, of England, whose 
counsellors desired to people their colonial possessions with any sort of 
immigrants that could be obtained, so long as they were Protestants and 
not in sympathy with the Spanish government. These pamphlets were 
known as the "Golden Books/' because the title was printed in gold. 
Some of them are in the possession of German families in America to 
this day. 

These early Germans, whose hardships and wrongs during their jour- 
ney from the Rhine to the Delaware were almost unbelievable, may be 
generally classified in two groups, the church people and the sects. The 
former were members of the Lutheran or the Reformed churches, both 
recognized in Germany at that time. The sects were composed of those 
who, refusing to accept the doctrines of the regular churches, followed 
the teachings of many preachers, each of whom seemed to have some one 
distinguishing idea concerning manner of life, dress or thought sufficient 
to separate his followers from those of any other leader. They all 
showed more or less evidence of being an extreme development of the 
monastic cult so generally in favor in the latter part of the Middle Ages, 
and were, perhaps, a survival of that idea. These Pietist sects included 
the Tunkers (or Dunkards), Schwenkf elders, Amish, United Brethren, 
Labadists, New Born, New Mooners, Zion's Breuder, Ronsdorfer, In- 
spired, Quietist, Gichtelians, Depellians, Mountain Men. River Brethren. 
Brinser Brethren, several divisions of Mennonites, and many others 
whose names, to say nothing of their peculiar doctrines, are seldom heard 
now. Closely allied to them in origin and other ways were the Moravians, 
whose pathetic story has been told in the chapter dealing with the Indians. 
In general these were all mystics, entertaining some special form of 
belief, the central pillar of which was an insistence on simplicity carried 
to a point at which simplicity became complexity. To the introspective 
German mind, with its tenacious adherence to any idea that finds lodg- 



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72 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

ment in it, each sect offered something that made a special appeal to its 
believers, even if it did seem ridiculous to those of other creeds. 

Aside from the two regular churches, the two sects now strongest are 
the Mennonites and Dunkards, both of which have small but flourishing 
organizations in the Mahoning Valley. The Amish have probably sur- 
vived the trials of time with the third most numerous communion. Sev- 
eral communities of these people may be found in Geauga County and in 
other parts of Ohio, and in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, near the 
state line. 

The Mennonites allege that they originated with descendants of 
the Waldenses, an ancient sect for centuries persecuted as heretics be- 
cause they did not believe in infant baptism and held other doctrines 
unorthodox. This claim is disputed by some writers, who associate the 
Mennonites with the Anabaptists. The Mennonites should be the best 
authority, however, and their origin is of less importance than their 
peculiar beliefs and customs, which have persisted with little variation 
to this day. Their first known leader was Simon Menno, an insurgent 
priest, who dated about 1540. Their chief belief is in what they call 
"the inward light," a form of grace extended through the coming of 
Christ to all the world. They are opposed to dogma and ritual, as are 
the Quakers, and they were organized by Simon Menno much in the 
same way and for much the same reasons that George Fox, a century 
later, organized the Quakers. They fraternized naturally with the latter, 
and in the early days their volunteer preachers — they would have none 
of hired ministers — frequently exchanged meeting places with the fol- 
lowers of Penn. Sometimes the Mennonites were called German Quak- 
ers, because of a marked similarity of dress and customs. The Men- 
nonites, whatever else they may have neglected, have just claim to the 
honor of being the first organization, civil or religious, to suggest the 
abolition of Negro slavery, and the quaintly worded petition which mem- 
bers of their sect sent to the Quakers in Philadelphia in 1688 upon the 
subject is unimpeachable evidence of this fact. 

The Amish resembled the Mennonites in many ways, cherishing 
among them the custom of washing one another's feet, and similar prac- 
tices of the Mennonites. These sects differed only in some minor beliefs 
and in their customs, some of which were astonishing, to say the least. 
One of the quaint doctrine of the Amish held that it is wrong and vain- 
glorious to wear buttons on clothing, and some of them still depend 
entirely upon hooks and eyes to perform the function of those useful 
and, to most of the world, perfectly harmless contrivances. Many of 
the Mennonites, Amish, Brethren and others of this group will not at- 
tend elections, hold office, make oath or bear arms, some of them, at 
least, basing their refusal to vote on the ground that the American Con- 
stitution does not specifically recognize Christianity. A great deal of 
the trouble experienced by the military authorities from conscientious 
objectors during the recent war with Germany came from members of 
these sects. It proved a most perplexing problem, and was only partially 
solved by the decision to compel service from them as from other citi- 
zens, but to limit this as far as possible to such tasks as would not 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 73 

violate their religious scruples. Nevertheless, the members of the vari- 
ous sects were excellent people in many very important respects, and 
it seems a pity that some of their qualities and beliefs could not hav** 
been combined with those that more ordinarily distinguish American 
citizenship. 

Besides the Lutherans, the Reformed Church people, and the ad- 
herents of the various sects, who seem to have been 'numbered in the 
German element of the population up to the middle of the last century 
in about the order in which they have been named, there were many 
Catholics among the early immigrants from the Rhine lands, and even % 
more of them among the Germans who came to America later. These 
Catholic German immigrants first settled chiefly in Pennsylvania, where 
they were given the same welcome extended by the Quakers to the sects. 
They usually gathered in groups and displayed much the same tendency 
as the others to retain their language, customs and ideals. Like the 
Lutherans and the Reformed element, however, they did not evince the 
contempt for education shown by the Pietist group, and there are in 
this country numerous schools and colleges established by their religious 
orders a century ago which are still in flourishing condition. If these 
schools, which were model institutions in many respects, had any fault, 
it was the disposition to accent the study of German and to exalt Ger- 
man ideals. 

Interesting as it might be, it is useless to speculate at length on rea- 
sons for the disposition so generally shown by Germans in America to 
retain their language and customs. Nor is it possible to present any 
convincing justification of the remarkable reverence in which they seem 
to have held the institutions and ideals of their native land, especially 
when it is known that most of them fled from it in search of liberty and 
opportunity which it had denied to them and to their forefathers. The 
pitiless exposure of the German system by- the World war, with its 
astounding revelations concerning the attitude of the modern German 
mind upon questions fundamental to Christianity and humanity, increase 
our wonder that these people should have desired to perpetuate their 
recollections of Germany even in a strange country, where love of native 
land always furnishes a certain compensation for lack of friends and 
familiar customs. 

The logical explanation seems to be that the Germany loved and 
revered by the German Americans before the war was not the Germany 
overwhelmed by the united might of an outraged world in 1918; but 
another Germany — a Germany filled with memories of poverty and op- 
pression perhaps, but also with those of industry, music, love of home 
and kindred, faith in God and humanity — a Germany untouched by the 
brutal hand of a Bismarck, undeceived by the insane egotism of a Ho- 
henzollern, — a Fatherland in which no pagan cult had yet replaced the 
gentle doctrines of the Man of Galilee and no cold philosophy had de- 
throned human fellowship or destroyed the hope of a better life to come. 

It was from such a Germany as this that the immigrants arriving 
here before the middle of the last century came, and it was natural that 
they should cherish a certain degree of reverence and affection for the 



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74 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Fatherland as they had known it, passing such sentiments along to their 
children. The German is not one who forgets easily, but when he has 
made up his mind he seldom hesitates. There was undoubtedly among 
the citizenship of this country bearing German names much sympathy 
with the Fatherland in the recent great war until the United States be- 
came involved; but from that time on this element of our population 
sustained its full portion of the burden and exhibited its full share of 
the loyalty and united effort required for the exhibition of military 
power with which America astonished the world. 

Penn's colony was the gateway for a very large part of the pioneer 
population of America, and nearly all the element known as Pennsyl- 
vania Deutsch came through the Quaker colony. The other German 
immigration was somewhat scattered,, but most of it arrived by the same 
route. Gradually the Germans spread westward, occupying the choicest 
lands as they went. The Scotch-Irish and English were no match for 
these people as farmers, and they frequently took up tracts that the 
former had abandoned as unprofitable and soon made them blossom like 
the rose. 

Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, one of the finest farming regions in 
the world, was at one time occupied entirely by Pennsylvania Deutsch, 
and they are still exceedingly numerous there. Easton, Allentown and 
Reading were also their strongholds. After the Revolution, the Hes- 
sians captured at Trenton, who had been confined in a stockade near 
the present City of Reading, were released and nearly all of them settled 
there permanently. The Pennsylvania Deutsch came westward after 
the pioneers. They had no taste for fighting the Indians, and left that 
to others. Thousands of them are located within the limits of Ohio, 
and hundreds of the most prosperous and useful citizens of the Ma- 
honing Valley are descended from this source. It was with them, or 
immediately following them, that the Quakers came to this region, and 
the same sympathy existing between the two groups farther east con- 
tinued here. 

Americans of German birth or ancestry are proverbial for large 
families, solid prosperity and patient industry. They are frugal, plain 
and sensible in their habits and must be recognized as one of the very 
best elements in our citizenship. They have contributed liberally to the 
roster of men who have attained fame in the professions, and not a few 
statesmen and soldiers of prominence bear German names. Most of 
those who have become noted in public life were not of the group re- 
ferred to as sects, but belonged to the other divisions distinct from the 
Pietists. A goodly number of those who have shed lustre on the pro- 
fessions, as well as of those who have contributed in a large way to 
industrial and commercial development in the Mahoning Valley will be 
found to have emigrated direct from Germany, most of them coming 
within the last seventy-five years. 

In the communities along the Mahoning River, as well as throughout 
the Western Reserve, are now thousands of men and women who trace 
their origin to Germany, but who manifest few of the traits exhibited 
by the earliest immigrants from the Rhine. They have abandoned the 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 75 

besetting sin of the Pennsylvania German and no longer insist that their 
children shall shun education or preserve the German language and 
customs. They are progressive, energetic and persistent, and most of 
them are comparatively well-to-do. In many respects they are our very 
best citizens. 

The Irish 

Next in chronological order, and one of the most numerous and in- 
teresting of the racial or national groups of which our cosmopolitan 
population was originally made up is that best referred to by the term 
Irish, by which is meant people originating in Ireland and being of 
Celtic, or native Irish blood. The native Irish are sometimes referred 
to as Gaelic, but this term is perhaps more correctly applied to the High- 
land Scotch, who, while doubtless of similar ancient origin, lack many 
characteristics of the inhabitants of the South of Ireland, and differ 
from them in many ways. The latter are probably more Celtic than 
Gaelic, and are certainly more Irish than either. In few countries has 
the native blood been mixed with that of strangers so often and so free- 
ly as in Ireland, and in few have the primitive characteristics of the peo- 
ple been so faithfully preserved. The original inhabitants of Ireland were 
not likely of Celtic origin, although they have preserved better than any 
other people the traits supposed to have been implanted by that myste- 
rious race, which, emerging from the forests of Western Asia and South- 
eastern Europe before the Christian era, swept over what was then the 
Western World. The original Celtic tongue is best preserved there, and 
scholars generally believe that the Gaelic of the Highland Scojch, the 
Manx and the Welsh languages are corruptions of the Erse, or ancient 
Irish. Be that as it may, the Irish have survived the incursions of the 
Normans, Saxons and Danes, with the persecution of centuries by the 
English, and retained their ancient traits. To this day they cherish the 
mysticism of the Druids, the chivalry and purity of morals inculcated 
by St. Patrick, the gaiety of the French and with this a hospitality and 
generosity all their own. They have the same distaste for authority that 
dethroned their petty kings and the same yearning for liberty that led 
them to follow Brian Boru. In a country so long denied the privilege of 
schools it is surprising to find a people so keen of intellect. In a land 
that has endured so much poverty, famine, persecution and wrong, we 
are astonished to find so many light hearts. It is strange to see a people 
whose battles have all been lost, so universally inclined to military service 
and so careless as to what banner they serve, so long as it is not British. 

Ireland's position at this time, much as it may interest many people 
in the Mahoning Valley, cannot be touched upon here ; but it may be safd 
that no other people has been able to preserve for so long a period its 
racial characteristics and its national entity in the face of efforts to 
destroy both which must rank as the most brutal and persistent the 
world has ever seen. 

Celtic, or native, Irish predominate strongly in the three southern 
provinces of Ireland and form a vigorous and pugnacious minority in 



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76 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Ulster, predominating numerically in five of the nine counties in that 
province. The natives of the South of Ireland are Catholics in belief, 
farmers by occupation, everlasting protestants in politics, light-hearted, 
hospitable, sociable and idealistic by nature. Like the Scotch-Irish, 
they are eloquent and courageous defenders of their personal and politi- 
cal rights, lovers of excitement and adventure, and not averse to physical 
combat. Like these also, but in much greater numbers, they have been 
led to seek the new world by oppression and tyranny, causes which had 
operated to drive Irishmen out of Ireland for hundreds of years before 
the first colony was settled in America. 

The most marked difference between these two groups lies in the 
fact that the Celtic Irish are not generally pioneers. No one has ever 
accused them of lack of courage, but they are by nature too gregarious, 
too fond of human companionship, too much enamored of mental excite- 
ment and to little inclined toward the silence and loneliness of forest and 
prairie efficiently to conquer the wilds. Most of them who came to 
America have remained in the cities or found occupation in enterprises 
employing large bodies of men, such as the building of canals and rail- 
roads, or the operation of mines and steel mills, although in the eastern 
states may be found numerous agricultural settlements in which people 
of Irish extraction still predominate. 

In discussing this trait of the Irish character, which has subjected it 
to much criticism by those not particularly eager to do it justice, Irish 
writers point out that emigrants from Erin have been induced to stay in 
towns and cities, not so much by a love for the occupations of policemen 
and politicians, as by a desire to rear their families within reach of a 
church pf their own communion. The Irishman is usually a Catholic, 
and the Catholic is taught to regard his faith as a gift from God, to be 
cherished at any cost. At the time when Irish emigration into this coun- 
try was at its height there were few Catholic priests or churches on the 
frontiers, and this argument may be sound. The more plausible ex- 
planation, however, seems to be the natural hospitality and sociability of 
the Irish, their love of company and their distaste for solitude. It mat- 
tered little to them if labor was hard or pay small if they could mingle 
with others at their work and spend their leisure in entertaining or being 
entertained by their neighbors and friends. 

The first immigration from the south and west of Ireland began 
about the time the Presbyterians of Ulster set out in the same direction. 
After Cromwell's bloody campaign, which followed the execution of 
Charles in 1649, 40,000 Irish soldiers were deported and forced to serve 
in European armies, no provision being made for their wives and chil- 
dren. These were later sent by Cromwell's commissioners to America 
and the West Indies with funds raised by private subscription, and they 
were the first Irish to cross the sea, although many others had been driven 
into England, Wales, France and other European countries. The fate 
of these involuntary emigrants, all of whom were women and children, 
is unknownTalthough in the Barbadoe Islands a tribe of negroes speak- 
ing the Gaelic tongue may hint at its pathetic horror. The earliest 
immigration records show that in 1729 the number of emigrants from 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 77 

Ireland was 5,655, some of these, of course, being Scotch-Irish. The 
famine of 1762 caused many more South of Ireland people to come to 
America, and from that time forward there was a constant voluntary or 
involuntary migration from that afflicted country. 

The Irish reaching America during this period came practically as 
slaves, and they had but little opportunity until the Revolution, when 
their native courage and their detestation of England made them con- 
spicuous as soldiers and adherents of the Revolutionary cause. At least 
six signers of the Declaration of Independence were Irish, and- at least 
two of these were from the Soulh of Ireland. After the Revolution 
there was a distinct change in the attitude of the American people to- 
ward these immigrants, and more of them came as the years passed, the 
number arriving by 1846 being estimated at 2,000,000. In 1847, tne 
most terrible of all the famines in Ireland occurred, and the uprising of 
1848 followed. These caused immigration to America on an immense 
scale, which continued for forty years, bringing a vast number of men, 
women and children from the South of Ireland to our shores, where they 
always found a welcome and usually in time were able to lift them- 
selves from the deplhs of poverty into comparative comfort. 

While there were a number of natives of Ireland here at the earliest 
period of settlement in the Mahoning Valley, at least one of these being 
an emigrant from the South of Ireland, immigrants native to that sec- 
tion first began to arrive in large numbers about 1839-40, at which time 
the construction of the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal and the opening of 
coal mines furnished employment for what were then regarded as large 
bodies of men. Few of these new arrivals came direct from Ireland. 
Most of them had spent some time in Pennsylvania, either at what were 
then called "public works" or at iron works or coal mines. They were 
very poor. Many of them could net read or write, owing to the fact 
that political conditions in Ireland prevented the maintaining of schools 
other than those conducted beneath the hedges. Most of these men 
were without families, but as quickly as they could accumulate sufficient 
funds, they sent for wives and children and frequently for parents and 
other relatives. The first large group to reach the Mahoning Valley 
located at Brier Hill, and found employment in the mining of coal and 
the operation of blast furnaces. The building of a railroad some time 
later, and the extension of the canal made work for many more. 

When the manufacture of iron on a larger scale began in the Ma- 
honing Valley, a few years later, labor for that industry was recruited 
largely from this same source. Many of the men employed in this field 
also came from Pennsylvania, where they had spent some years at 
Pittsburgh or Johnstown. 

A peculiar circumstance brought to light by investigation of this sub- 
ject is the fact that a great many of the Irish who came to Youngstown 
after the Civil war emigrated, not from Ireland, but from England and 
Wales, their parents or grandparents having been forced to leave Ireland 
and seek refuge elsewhere — probably at the nearest point where they 
could find a welcome of any sort. There was a marked difference be- 
tween these later arrivals and those who came earlier. The first comers 



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78 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

were practically all laborers, without skill or means of any kind, while 
those who came after 1861, at which time there was a decided revival 
in the iron industry, were mainly skilled laborers. They also showed the 
advantage of the better conditions existing in England and Wales in the 
fact that they all had the rudiments of an education, and among them 
were many men of wide information and considerable native eloquence. 

The Welsh 

So far as arrival in the Mahoning Valley in any considerable num- 
bers is concerned, the Welsh are entitled to fifth place in this discussion. 
In regard to their appearance in this country, however, they have a posi- 
tion among the earliest immigrants. For the first twenty years after the 
founding of Philadelphia in 1682, they seem to have been the most 
numerous of all the immigrants whom Penn was able to induce to try 
their own, and thus improve his, fortunes in the New World. 

Although few names giving evidence of Welsh origin appear among 
the records of the first few years of civilization in the Mahoning Valley, 
it is probable that, as in the case of the Irish, there were some adventur- 
ous Welshmen among those who first came here. James and Daniel 
Heaton, brother, probably of Welsh extraction, built the first blast fur- 
nace in the Mahoning Valley about 1803 or 1804. 

The Welsh are among the purest surviving specimens of the ancient 
Briton stock. Their language is certainly of Celtic origin, or at least 
largely influenced by Celtic additions, however, and it is probable that, 
like the Irish, they are really a Celtic people, rather than a Briton race. 
This language is closely related to both Irish and Gaelic, and is generally 
classed as Cymric Celtic, to distinguish it from the Gaelic or Gadhelic 
(northern) branch of that tongue. The Welsh were never conquered 
by invaders, although they were attacked by both the Normans and 
Saxons and driven into the mountainous country they now occupy, 
whither the continental marauders either could not or did not care to 
follow them. 

It is entirely natural that the Welsh in America have always shown 
a marked preference for mountainous land. Their first settlement in 
Penn's colony was a hilly district containing 40,000 acres and lying west 
of the Schuylkill River, on which they established a government inde- 
pendent of that set up by Penn and relinquished their idea of a Welsh 
barony there with considerable reluctance after the state was organized. 

Perhaps more than any other of the groups with which we have dealt 
except the Germans, the Welsh are inclined to cling to their ancient 
language and customs. They have gathered in large communities in 
many states, and in numerous of these Welsh is still spoken exclusively. 
One of the largest and most prosperous of these communities was lo- 
cated in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, a mountainous region in which 
they settled about the close of the eighteenth century, naming the coun- 
ty for their native land and establishing there a center from which many 
famous Welshmen have gone forth. 

As might have been expected, the Welsh people coming to this coun- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 79 

try previous to 1700 were nearly all Quakers. A considerable number 
of them were of that faith in their native land, and these were used to 
being dealt with no more gently than was the custom with dissenters. 
Penn squght to establish in his wilderness empire a home for all Quak- 
ers, no 1 matter what their race, and he brought the first-comers from 
Wales. Among these, however, were some Baptists and a few members 
of the Episcopal Church. Later arrivals represented numerous of the 
Protestant churches, the majority being Congregationalists. In politics 
they were divided, most of them, however, being Republicans, especially 
since the Civil war, in which they proved themselves remarkably good 
soldiers and did much to strengthen the Union cause. 

Unlike the other groups mentioned up to this time, most of the 
Welsh in the Mahoning Valley, where they form a numerous and im- 
portant element in the population, did not come from eastern and earlier 
settlements, but direct from Wales. They seem to have been attracted 
here in large numbers about 1854 by the opening of coal mines and the 
erection of iron works, and the first groups located at Niles and Mineral 
Ridge. Later their numbers were increased materially by iron workers 
who found employment at Warren, Niles and Youngstown. In this 
locality few of the Welsh people have engaged in farming, although they 
are very successful in that occupation. Here they have attained much 
prominence in the iron and steel industries, in politics and in other pur- 
suits. They are remarkably fond of music and inclined, even up to this 
time, to cherish their national melodies much as they do their language 
and customs, although they have never permitted this trait to interfere 
with their advancement. The Welsh have a very honorable record in 
the service of this country, both during the War of 18 12 and since that 
time. 

The chief characteristic of people of Welsh nativity or descent is a 
disposition to remain where they have established homes. Many of 
them are still to be found in the locality where the earliest group to 
reach America were first located, although they have long since lost con- 
trol of that section and become to a great extent absorbed in the other 
races which flowed in upon them on this, the natural highway between 
the East and West. In other colonies or groups they have undergone 
much the same experience, seldom migrating and usually amalgamating 
with their neighbors. They are a decidedly thrifty race, marked by 
exceeding diplomacy and inclined to industry and frugality, even after 
they have accumulated a competence. In religion they are generally 
regarded dogmatic and less liberal than the Episcopalians, and in poli- 
tics they are energetic partisans. No other people indulge in a greater 
pride of race, and few others display a greater interest in public affairs. 
They make excellent mechanics, good farmers and valuable citizens, 
and have attained marked success in the industrial field and in the learned 
professions. No other race in America has exhibited the same devotion 
to vocal music or attained the same eminence in the development of that 
form of art. If the descendants of people who came from W r ales were 
to be suddenly removed from the life of the Mahoning Valley, one of 
its most valuable and interesting elements would disappear with them. 



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80 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

The Scotch 

Next in order following the Welsh, reference should be made to the 
Scotch, although all that has been said concerning the Scotch-Irish ap- 
plies to them. These Caledonians differ from the Scotch-Irish, how- 
ever, in one important respect. They are not pioneers by nature, and 
comparatively few of them came to America at the same time that their 
close relatives, the Scotch-Irish, emigrated. Scattered along the Mahon- 
ing Valley there are many Scotch people, or rather people of purely 
Scotch extraction, and names indicating this origin are quite common 
in the long list of those who have had a part in the development of in- 
dustries here, including the agricultural industry. They are also found 
among the professions. Like the Welsh, the Scotch are inclined to be 
clannish and to preserve their recollections of the land from which their 
forefathers came, and like the Welsh, there are still in this part of Ohio 
enough of them to hold an annual gathering in large numbers at which 
bagpipes, Highland dances and Scotch amusements are the principal 
attractions. They have equalled the Welsh in keenness of intellect and 
accomplishment in letters, and outdistanced them in the domain of in- 
dustry so far as marked executive ability is concerned. The Scotch are, 
as might be supposed, almost universally Presbyterians or United Pres- 
byterians. 

The Hebrews 

People of the Hebrew race form an important part in the popula- 
tion of the Mahoning Valley, their number at this time being variously 
estimated at from 5,000 to 6,000. As everywhere else in the world, the 
Hebrews in the Mahoning Valley are chiefly merchants, although a 
goodly number of them have entered the professions of law and 
medicine. They have come here from every part of the world, local 
Jews including about every kind and class of Hebrew in existence, 
each of which is commonly recognized by the prefix of the nationality 
from which it or its ancestors in the Old World came, such as German, 
Polish, Russian, Roumainian, etc. Many of the older and more pros- 
perous Jews adhere to the ancient beliefs and customs of the race with 
a fidelity that commands admiration in these days of changing creeds. 

The Jews are and have been the most generally maligned and least 
understood of all the peoples in the world. No other race, not even 
the Irish, has suffered so long and so bitterly from persecution, the 
greater part of which has been inspired by jealousy of Jewish talent for 
acquiring wealth, although it has often had for its excuse the scarcely 
less defensible plea of religious fervor. Long ages of this persecution 
have bred in the Hebrew qualities that enable him to dominate in many 
lines of endeavor where he has for his competitors races which have 
less persistently and less patiently cultivated the virtues of self-denial 
and self-control. 

To the student of human nature and human affairs there is no other 
race so interesting as the Semitic, which, from the very beginning of 
recorded things, was the chief custodian of human progress and of the 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 81 

spiritual advancement of men. To appreciate the Jewish people it is 
necessary to look back over the ages, a survey for which there is neither 
room nor an excuse in this work, but if those who read it would make 
such an excursion into the dim and distant past, they would acquire 
therefrom a much better opinion of the Jew, who has still in large de- 
gree the same qualities that made his prophets for thousands of years 
the divinely appointed or at least self -constituted intermediary between 
the inscrutable Architect of the great scheme of things and the race of 
men climbing slowly and with infinite patience upward toward the light. 
They would find also in his seemingly arbitrary customs and religious 
teachings the seed of human progress — progress that to a less extent 
than usual carries in itself the germs of its own decay. 

The Jews of the Mahoning Valley are, as has been said, liberal in 
their views; but they are, as elsewhere, intensely loyal to the traditions 
of their race and no more inclined than those found elsewhere to inter- 
marry with Gentiles. Practically all of them came here poor and clothed 
in humility. Many of them are now among our most prosperous citi- 
zens. Difficult as it may be for some of us to lay aside the prejudice 
which ages have woven about these people, we must admit that they 
make excellent citizens, especially when success raises them above con- 
ditions in which necessity urges their national trait of acquisitiveness 
to its utmost. When poor the Jew is a most uncomfortable competitor, 
penurious and grasping, his energy and indefatigable industry making 
life a nightmare for those who must keep pace with him. He has the 
faculty of adapting himself and his manner of life to his condition and 
environment in a remarkable degree. When he has amassed wealth he 
is a prince in hospitality, a spendthrift in indulgence, and a most liberal 
giver to every worthy cause. And through it all he is a lover of educa- 
tion, art, music and the refinements of life, little as this might be sus- 
pected from the manner in which he has lived in days of poverty. The 
Jewish intellect has no superior in point of keenness, and has produced 
some of the greatest scholars and philosophers. 

There are those who may find it hard to accept this description of 
the Hebrew character, but such persons have known it only in the rivalry 
of business pursuits, or have been deprived of the opportunity to esti- 
mate it fairly by the unchristian and uncharitable attitude maintained 
by most of the world toward this indefatigable people which, having 
no land of its own for twenty centuries, has left an indelible mark upon 
the civilization of every nation under the sun. 

The local Hebrew element has been characterized by excellent citi- 
zenship. It is beginning to widen out and abandon the exclusive pursuit 
of trade for participation in industry and the learned professions. In 
point of liberality on behalf of public movements deserving support, of 
patriotic effort in times of stress, and of the conscientious performance 
of civic duty, it is entitled to rank with the best. 

The Later Immigrants 

Having dealt with the Scotch-Irish, the English, the Germans, the 
Irish, the Welsh and the Jews, the elements of local population existing 



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82 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

here in considerable numbers until a period quite recent have been dis- 
cussed, perhaps at a length that has taxed the patience of the reader. It 
remains to shed some light upon what has become the most numerous, if 
not the most important or interesting group in the population of the 
Mahoning Valley — the people commonly referred to among us as "for- 
eigners." 

It may be said at the beginning that races and types included in this 
classification are so numerous and their relation so complex that any 
attempt to deal with these at length would inevitably become tiresome 
and just as surely exceed the limits of the space which can be devoted 
to this chapter. Nevertheless, since these people of foreign birth are 
not only a most important part of our population, as viewed from an 
industrial standpoint, but also constitute a problem demanding the best 
thought of those who sincerely desire to serve their community and 
their country, it may be well to follow the subject somewhat farther 
than indulgence of the author's desire for brevity would make possible. 

The present foreign-born population of the Mahoning Valley has 
been recruited largely from Southern and Southeastern Europe, and is 
composed almost entirely of the Latin and Slavonic races, although, as 
will be seen, it actually embraces almost every race on earth and con- 
tains representatives of every nationality under the sun. This popula- 
tion first began to arrive in this country in any considerable numbers 
shortly after the Civil war. The era of expansion following that strug- 
gle, with the enormous advance in wages and the demand for labor to 
carry out the extensive programs of railroad and industrial extension, 
led to an organized effort to secure labor abroad. This was also inspired 
to a certain extent by the peculiar effect which long service in the armies 
and the considerable depletion of American manhood in the war had 
upon the normal labor supply. It is said that in the years immediately 
following the Civil war there were a million tramps in America. This 
is probably an exaggeration, but it is certain that many men who had 
spent years in the excitement of that conflict never returned to their 
original occupations and at its close the country was filled with wander- 
ers unable or unwilling to resume the tasks they had laid down at its 
beginning. To fill the needs of the country for labor railroads and other 
industries began to import men from central and southern Europe, and 
the flood of immigration of this character, once started, continued with 
little interruption for fifty years, or until the breaking out of the World 
war, in 1914. 

The first of these people to come were Italians, and they were 
rapidly followed by Hungarians. In a few years large numbers of 
French, Germans, Sicilians, Russians, Poles, Swedes, Lithuanians, Bo- 
hemians, Czechs, Slovaks, Greeks, Belgians, Serbians, Austrians, Bul- 
garians, and even a few Turks, Arabians, Syrians and Armen : ans ar- 
rived in America. With these natives of Continental Europe and 
Western Asia came also not a few Irish, English and Scotch, although 
by the term "foreigner" we have come to mean those who do not speak 
English. 

These people were induced to leave the Old World by a number of 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 83 

influences, chief among which was their weariness of the eternal struggle 
for existence in crowded countries, lack of opportunity, and a belief 
in America as a land of opportunity. In this they were not unlike 
the early settlers who conquered the wilderness and gave to mankind a 
haven of opportunity and a refuge from political oppression; but there 
the resemblance ceases, at least to a great extent. These central and 
southern Europeans were of an entirely different type. They were al- 
most all peasants and farmers by occupation in their native lands, but 
when they reached America few of them except among the Swedes 
sought opportunity on the land. The greater number were dazzled by 
the wages offered for labor in coal mines, on railroads and in steel and 
iron centers, and around these they gathered in great numbers. Used 
to the most meagre fare and accustomed to living conditions far below 
American standards, they herded together in droves, living on little or 
nothing and hoarding most of their earnings. 

They were the unfortunate victims of the ancient system of despotism 
which had through centuries erected barriers of class which those in "the 
lower strata of existence had no hope of ever being able to pass. Taken 
as a whole, these people formed a most striking evidence of the frightful 
iniquity of long continued political injustice and emphasized the calamity 
which overtakes a nation that permits the powers of government to pass 
from the hands of its people into those of a ruling class. Physically, 
mentally and in every other way, these immigrants were typical of the 
conditions under which they had been bred. Finding the problem of 
mere physical existence all that they could solve, they had never mounted 
to spiritual heights or learned to yearn for the better things that, with 
liberty and opportunity, men of any race may soon acquire for them- 
selves and for their children. 

We have seen how the early emigrants to the New World were often 
without property or education, but the lack of these qualities was coun- 
terbalanced by strength and a courageous determination to achieve per- 
sonal and political independence. The English, Irish, Scotch and Welsh 
were scarcely landed until they made it evident that they meant to have 
a hand in the government and, in turn, to make themselves a permanent 
part of the new nation coming into birth. On the other hand, the immi- 
grants from the south of Europe, if the same may not be said to be in 
some degree true of those from the whole of the continent, took little 
interest in the politics of their new land, many of them openly professing 
a purpose to remain in this country only until such time as they could 
accumulate enough wealth to overcome the poverty from which they 
had fled, and then return to the political serfdom of their native countries, 
content to live in more or less ease and luxury without the aspirations 
for liberty which formed the undying motives of the immigrants from 
other lands. 

Perhaps this is only another illustration of the damning effect of 
despotism endured through long centuries, but there is reason to believe 
that it is in part due to an inherent difference in the Latin and Anglo- 
Saxon characters. At any rate, the immediate effect of the tremendous 
immigration from Southern and Central Europe has been to introduce a 



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84 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

new and complex problem into our western civilization — a problem which 
has not yet been entirely solved, although it bids fair to reach a solution 
in due time. The worst feature of this problem has been the tendency 
of these people to congregate in large numbers at industrial centers, to 
which they are attracted by high wages and the growing lack of "common 
labor, and at which they are inclined to perpetuate the incongruous cus- 
toms, languages and standards of living brought with them from the 
Old World. Where they are gathered in large numbers they are likely 
to be left almost entirely to themselves, and the fact that a considerable 
percentage of them are men without families, or who have left their 
families behind them, tends to accentuate the rather low standard of 
morals to be expected among them. The churches to which they owe 
allegiance exercised a tremendous influence over them in Europe, but 
these lose their power for good to a great extent here because they are 
compelled to seek financial support among adherents accustomed to 
enjoy the ministrations of religion at the expense of the state and there- 
fore to regard churches as unnecessary burdens. Added to this is the 
fact that the severing of home ties and the journey across the seas has 
a tendency to overturn former conceptions of duty, loosen the bonds 
which held these immigrants to such standards of life as they may have 
had, and make them more than ordinarily susceptible to unsound social 
and political propaganda, which reacts strongly upon their experience 
with government in the Old World. 

At this particular time the upheaval which has occurred in Europe 
furnishes a further tendency to disturbance among the foreign-born 
people of this country, and adds not a little to the task they find in ac- 
commodating themselves to American ideals and American principles. 
All this applies only to those born on foreign shores and gathered in large 
communities. It is very different with the immigrants from the European 
Continent who come to America to settle on farms. They are excellent 
agriculturists and, when engaged in that occupation, rapidly develop into 
good citizens. All through the country, and especially in the eastern 
states, where they could not form agricultural communities of their own, 
but have been compelled to locate on farms among Americans, they have 
mixed with the population to such an extent that their foreign origin 
is almost entirely forgotten. 

In spite of the unfortunate facts mentioned above, much that is good 
can be said of these people, even where they are gathered together and 
form so important a part of the population as they do in the Mahoning 
Valley. They are industrious and frugal, amenable to instruction and 
eager to improve their condition. Those who establish homes are ambi- 
tious for their children, especially in the important matter of education, 
and these children make excellent progress in the schools, where an in- 
herited capacity for effort and self-denial gives them a marked advantage. 
This is particularly fortunate in view of the large families usually found 
among these immigrants, who seem to have preserved better than Amer- 
icans the original idea of the purpose of marriage, and who still, like the 
pioneers, esteem children as an asset. It seems possible that within half a 
century these people will form the most important part of the population 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 85* 

of this valley, not. only from the standpoint of numbers, but from every 
other standpoint, and it is therefore gratifying to observe the progress 
they are making toward American citizenship, as well as the painstaking 
effort of industrial corporations to instill among them the principles and 
practice of Americanism. 

At the time this work is written no figures worthy of consideration 
can be obtained as to the number of foreign-born residents in the Ma- 
honing Valley. The census of 1910 is of little or no value, owing to the 
great development and the number of arrivals while the census figures 
for 1920 are not yet available. It can be said, however, that more 
than half of the men employed in the great iron and steel industries 
of this valley were born in Europe. The following figures, furnished by 
the most important of these local industries from its employment records 
in May, 1920, throw light, not only upon the relative number of people 
of foreign birth employed in this locality, but also upon the amazing num- 
ber of nationalities represented by them. During the World war this 
company had on its payrolls an even greater variety of race and nation- 
ality, and at that time it is probable that there were in the Mahoning Val- 
ley representatives of every recognized nation on earth. 

Nationality Number Nationality Number 

American 3.573 Canadian 14 

Slovak 1,105 Hollander 2 

Italian 775 Norwegian 5 

Roumanian 843 French 6 

Horwat-Croatian 794 Syrian 3 

Greek 419 Danish 2 

Polish 630 Saxon 17 

Hungarian 634 Swiss 3 

Colored < . 436 Albanian 2 

Russian 215 Belgian . 1 

Austrian 155 Arabian 30 

Servian 197 Salvadorian 4 

Bulgarian 131 Argentine 1 

English 120 Persian 2 

German 36 Luxemberger 1 

Irish 95 Abyssinian 1 

Lithuanian 76 Kriner 12 

Swedish 70 Ruthenian 5 

Spanish 21 West India 1 

Welsh 51 Ukranian 35 

Scotch 31 South American 1 

Bohemian 19 East India 4 

The above classifications are not strictly accurate, either in an 
ethnological or a national sense, but as they are most familiar in this 
locality it has been thought best to give them here. 

Although, as has been stated, a majority of the people, who have 
come to the Mahoning Valley from Eastern and Southern Europe dur- 



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86 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

ing recent years are industrious workmen and marked by the virtues of 
economy and thrift, conditions following the European war emphasized 
the fact that their communities furnish a fertile field for the revolution- 
ary propaganda which gained such headway in Russia and other parts 
of Continental Europe during that struggle. Investigations made by 
the Secret Service Department of the United States Government during 
1919 disclosed the existence at East Youngstown of a regularly organ- 
ized society with purposes similar to those of the revolutionary elements 
in Russia, and more than 200 persons of foreign birth were arrested and 
examined here during that period. The strike in the steel industry oc- 
curring on September 22, 1919, seemed to bear out the suspicion that 
this element was expected to align itself with revolutionary plans, also, 
since this difficulty was confined almost entirely to this portion of the 
industrial population. With the elimination of dangerous leaders, how- 
ever, the radical tendency instilled among these people by organized 
propagandists seems likely to fail of its purpose, and indications at this 
time point to the gradual decline of insidious doctrines imported from 
abroad and sown among them. A more energetic effort to Americanize 
this large foreign population has been one of the benefits of this mani- 
festation. 

An incident of the war period, resulting from shortage of labor due 
to mobilization as well as later to radical tendencies developing among 
laborers of foreign birth, was the large number of colored people who 
came to the Mahoning Valley. Previous to this time there had been 
comparatively few negroes employed in the great industrial plants. 

People from Other American Communities 

Finally, a most important portion of the population of the Mahoning 
Valley not referred to in the foregoing is composed of people who came 
after 1870, at which time the industrial progress of the locality became 
marked. These people could probably find their origin in all of the 
groups discussed in this chapter, but nearly all of them were American- 
born and many of them able to trace their ancestry on American soil 
back to the Revolution. They were of all political parties and all re- 
ligions. They came to the communities along the Mahoning River in 
search of opportunity, found it, and remained to become excellent citi- 
zens, with a just pride in their new hfcme and full sense of their duty to 
their communities. 

No estimate of the number of this group can be made, but it must 
have been large, for the tremendous growth of population after 1870 is 
not accounted for by natural increase or by immigration from foreign 
lands. These people cannot claim the honor of descent from Mahoning 
Valley pioneers. Most of them would not prefer to do so, for they have 
pride in their own ancestors. They are as much a part of the commu- 
nity, however, as those whose forefathers preceded them, and have con- 
tributed to its later growth and prosperity in proportion equal to any. 
They may be found in all occupations, and the new blood and new ideas 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 87 

they brought have often appeared to great advantage. Forming a homo- 
geneous, harmonious part of the various communities, they have all done 
their part, and if they are mentioned last in this discussion, it is not be- 
cause they have been least among the elements contributing to prosper- 
ity and progress in the Mahoning Valley. 



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CHAPTER VII 

THE FOUNDING OF YOUNGSTOWN IN 1797 

Its First Settlers and Its Early Growth — the McMahon-Captain 
George Tragedy — Youngstown to 1802 

One hundred and twenty-three years ago, when John Young and his 
intrepid followers encamped on the banks of the Mahoning River, their 
campfire signalized the beginning of the permanent occupation of the 
spot that is now the City of Youngstown. To them goes this honor, for 
history reckons as the founders of any community those who first come 
to make their homes therein, not those who have come, tarried and then 
have journeyed on or retraced their steps. 

Before the advent of these hardy founders of Youngstown, however, 
the Mahoning Valley was known to men of the white race. La Salle is 
credited with being the first white man to penetrate into what is now 
the State of Ohio. But before him there were those mysterious persons 
who have left their record of habitation here in strange mounds and 
fortifications, and who may have been of the white race. And the West- 
ern Reserve bears testimony to the presence of perhaps another white 
people ; a people skilled in the art of making almost modern implements 
and who left traces of an occupancy that must have antedated even that 
of the most daring of the French explorers. In 1838 a tree was cut 
down in Canfield Township that showed, seven inches from its heart, 
distinct marks of the use of a sharp ax. Over these bruises was the tree 
growth of 160 years. Toward the middle of the seventeenth century a 
skilled axman had hewn this tree nearly to its center. Trees bearing 
similar marks are found in other parts of the Western Reserve. Who 
these stout-muscled woodsmen were has never been fathomed. 

While La Salle and his followers navigated the Ohio River as early 
as 1676, and ten years later unfurled the first sail on Lake Erie, it is not 
likely that their explorations brought them to the Mahoning Valley. 
Nor did Celeron, Colonel Bouquet, Lord Dunmore's men or the venture- 
some Virginians of the early days come so far northward. Yet as early 
as 1755 the salt springs in what is now 'Weathersfield Township were 
recorded on Lewis Evans* map, and before the Revolution Pennsyl- 
vanians from Washington and Westmoreland counties drove their 
canoes or flat boats up the Mahoning to the salt springs to extract this 
necessary product from the saline water by the process of evaporation. 
Ground was cleared and cabins erected there by the salt makers, but this 
industry appears to have been abandoned during the Revolution. In 
1778 General Edward Hand, in command at Pittsburgh, followed the 

88 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 89 

Mahoning Valley, at the head of a body of soldiers, en route to capture 
British stores believed to be cached along the Cuyahoga River. Mor- 
avians encamped temporarily along the Cuyahoga as early as 1786, and 
in 1756 there was a French trading cabin on that stream. Duncan & 
Wilson, of Pittsburgh, traders, employed men who made trips over 
the route that led from Pittsburgh to the mouth of the Cuyahoga by way 
of the Mahoning Valley ten years or more before Youngstown was 
founded. In 1786 one of their employes, a storekeeper in charge of the 
company's cabin at the salt springs, was murdered by the Indians. In 
1786, too, Col. James Hillman built a cabin at the mouth of the Cuy- 
ahoga for Duncan & Wilson and the Mahoning Valley was a familiar 
spot to him a decade before he located here. To other Pennsylvania 
traders, trappers and hunters the Mahoning Valley region was also well 
known. 

General Samuel H. Parsons, who, in 1788, purchased the Salt Spring 
tract from Connecticut, was not unfamiliar with this territory. It was 
in 1789, after he had been west of the Cuyahoga River negotiating a 
treaty with the Wyandot Indians, that this jurist-soldier-pioneer lost 
his life at the falls of the Big Beaver River after he had passed along 
the Mahoning in his canoe in an attempt to prove that this stream was 
navigable. Then, too, there were restless, and frequently shiftless, 
"squatters" who had pre-empted lands in the Mahoning Valley in the 
closing decades of the eighteenth century and were living here in com- 
fortable isolation when the Connecticut Land Company's surveyors and 
the earliest of the pioneers who had purchased their titles from the State 
of Connecticut reached here in 1796-97. 

Chance or good judgment — just which, no one can say — dictated 
that Youngstown should be the first actual settlement on the Western 
Reserve. It is an honor Youngstown fairly holds, as the village laid out 
at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in 1796 by Gen. Moses Cleaveland 
was not settled at that time by men who came as permanent residents. 

In providing for the distribution of the lands of the Connecticut 
Land Comp&ny the members of that company prudently decided that six 
townships of the Western Reserve should be sold outright, in whole or 
in part, to actual settlers. With considerable foresight they knew that 
the survey and apportionment of the Reserve would entail considerable 
expense before any revenues would be returned. The immediate sale 
of the six townships was proposed to insure earlier returns, and, in 
keeping with instructions given them, the directors of the Connecticut 
Land Company made the six-township selection some time in 1796. 
Five of the townships chosen border on Lake Erie and it is reasonable to 
conclude that this influenced their selection. 

Just why township two of range two — now known as the City of 
Youngstown — should have been selected as the sixth, is unexplained. 
Surveyors in the employ of the Connecticut Land Company who ran the 
lines in southeastern part of the Reserve in the summer of 1796, speak 
of encamping on the banks of the Mahoning, and from two white men, 
traders or salt makers, whom they met there, they learned that "about 
twelve miles below the Pennsylvania line on Big Beaver River there was 



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90 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

an excellent set of mills, and farther on, or about twenty-five miles be- 
low the Pennsylvania line, there was a town being built where provisions 
of all kinds could be procured, and carried thence up the river into the 
heart of the Connecticut Reserve." This favorable location is some- 
times accepted as influencing the Connecticut Land Company to select 
township two, range two, as one of the desirable townships that might 
be offered for immediate sale. This deduction is wholly incorrect, in- 
asmuch as the surveyors' report referred to territory within township 
one, range one, of the Reserve, now known as Poland Township. If 
proximity to the Town of Beaver had influenced the directors Poland 
Township, and not Youngstown Township, would have been offered for 
sale. It could not have been the coal afterwards found in Youngstown 
Township that made this sub-division appear especially desirable as 
little heed appears to have been given this valued product. It could not 
have been bodies of lean iron ore, as there is no record that their 
presence was known when the sale was made. It could not have been 
the falls of Mill Creek — valuable as they would be in an age when the 
gristmill and sawmill were the most necessary of all industries — for the 
presence of these falls was apparently unknown to the Connecticut Land 
Company prior to the settlement of the township. 

It is merely a matter of record that the directors of the land com- 
pany — or someone else — selected this especial spot out of the entire 
Reserve east of the Cuyahoga River — and chose so well that after a 
lapse of a century and a quarter the sub-division they offered for imme- 
diate sale is the site of the richest city in the entire Western Reserve 
outside the spot at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River that was unerringly 
chosen while it was yet in a wilderness state as the location for the me- 
tropolis of New Connecticut. 

In fixing the date for the actual settlement of Youngstown history 
and tradition conflict, as they have done on many another occasion. 
Tradition, and, to some extent, even written history, records that it was 
in the early summer of 1796 that John Young and his party of settlers 
reached their western acres to remain permanently, but the entire pre- 
ponderance of evidence indicates that it was actually a year later when 
permanent settlement was made. 

The exact date at which John Young purchased from the Connecticut 
Land Company the tract of land that now bears his name, and the cir- 
cumstances surrounding that purchase, are unanswered questions. 
Young was not a member of the Connecticut Land Company, nor even 
a resident of the State of Connecticut. Born at Petersborough, New 
Hampshire, on March 8, 1763, John Young emigrated to Whitestown, 
or Whitesboro, New York, about 1780. There, in June, 1792, he was 
married to Mary Stone White, the youngest daughter of Judge Hugh 
White, the founder of Whitestown. Judge White was a New England- 
er, of English descent, who had removed from Middletown, Connecti- 
cut, to the wilderness of New York State, having purchased a tract of 
land there large enough to provide a good farm for each of his eight 
children. Four years after his marriage, or in 1796, Young caught the 
prevailing fever for westward migration and. while not a Connecticut 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 91 

man, it was natural that his footsteps should have been directed toward 
the Western Reserve. 

There were several considerations that probably influenced Young 
in his decision. These settlements of Eastern and Central New York 
State were made up largely of New England people and there was a 
close association between them and their neighbors across the line in 
Connecticut and adjoining states. The purchase made by the Connecti- 
cut Land Company was probably known to New York State settlers 
soon after it was negotiated and further interest and enthusiasm must 
have been awakened by the westward journey of the land company's 
surveying party in the spring of 1796, for this party passed Whitestown 
in making its way slowly up the Mohawk, poling the clumsy batteaux 
or flat boats against the river's current. Furthermore a direct connec- 
tion is established between Young and the Connecticut Land Company 
when it is understood that Young did not act alone in making the pur- 
chase of township two, range two, of the Western Reserve, but was 
joined in this purchase by his brother-in-law, Philo White, and by 
Lemuel Storrs, of Middletown, Connecticut, who was one of the orig- 
inal members of the Connecticut Land Company and a signer of the 
articles of association and agreement of the company on September 5, 

1795. 

The original contract between Young, White and Storrs on one hand 
and the Connecticut Land Company on the other cannot be found and 
undoubtedly was destroyed. In a letter to John M. Edwards, read at a 
meeting of pioneers of the Mahoning Valley on September io, 1875, 
Charles C. Young, of Brooklyn, New York, son of John Young, says 
that, "after my father's death in 1825, and my mother's sale of her home 
farm a few years later, the old .tin case containing the Ohio title, deeds, 
surveys, maps, etc., was mislaid and finally lost. * * * A small 
package has, however, come to me from which I will select a few and 
send you." 

Only one of these documents throws any light on the purchase made 
from the Connecticut Land Company, and this one document is not the 
original contract for the land purchase. It is merely a map of the town- 
ship divided into lots. On one of these lots, which includes about one- 
third of the entire township, on the east side, is an entry reading : 

"Five thousand, five hundred acres disposed of to Hill, Sheehy and 
others, by contract with John Young, on which they are to settle with 
seventeen families." 

On the margin of the map is the following entry: 

"This may certify that we, being equally interested in township two 
in the second range in the Connecticut Reserve, do agree to the above 
sale of the five thousand, five hundred acres to the actual settlers as 
above, and do likewise agree to the division of the remainder in the 
manner to which our names are annexed in the above sketch. 

"Middletown, January 30, 1797." 

The names of those signing the agreement are cut off but they were 
undoubtedly John Young, Philo White and Lemuel Storrs*. 

Annexed to this map is a conveyance from Philo White to John 



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92 YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Young of White's interest in the land. This conveyance is dated Febru- 
ary 9, 1797, the consideration paid by Young to White being $1,050. 
There is no record of the conveyance of Storrs' interest to Young but it 
is apparent that this was executed about the same time, and with their 
release White and Storrs pass out of existence insofar as Youngstown 
and the Mahoning Valley are concerned. Their interest appears to have 
been merely that of investors anyway. It is not likely that either one of 
them ever visited the Western Reserve, and that they did not expect to 
locate here is apparent from the fact that they were at all times silent 
partners in the transaction. In the letter above quoted Charles C. Young 
touches on this by saying that 

" * * * It appears that my mother's brother, Philo White, of 
Whitestown, New York, together with Lemuel Storrs, of Middletown, 
Connecticut, a lawyer by profession, * * * were at first equally 
interested with my father in the purchase; that a private company- 
article was entered into between them in regard to it, but the contract 
was made by my father alone with the Connecticut Land Company, to 
whom only they executed their deed for the township * * * that 
the date of the contract must have been in 1796, if not in 1795, to give 
time for the survey, inspection, and location of the land, which my 
father, as a practical surveyor, zvould hardly have thought of buying 
without; and then for the sale to Sheehy and division of the balance on 
paper, for which preliminary surveys must have been made, all before 
January, 1797, and February 9, 1797, the date of White's conveyance 
back to my father of all his interest therein." 

Thus, on February 9, 1797, John Young became sole owner of the 
yet unnamed township in the Connecticut Western Reserve, his claim of 
course being subject to the purchases made by Daniel Sheehy, Phineas 
Hill, "and others." These sales, including as they did, about one-third 
of the township, did not figure in the negotiations between Young and 
the Connecticut Land Company, so that title was to be delivered to him 
alone. At this time Young was a purchaser only by land contract. The 
actual conveyance of the deed for township two, range two of the West- 
ern Reserve from the Connecticut Land Company to Young was not 
made until April 9, 1800. This conveyance shows that John Young pur- 
chased the 15,560 acres of land in the township — now practically identi- 
cal with the City of Youngstown — for a consideration of $16,085.16. 
Young at that time executed a mortgage on the township to the Con- 
necticut Land Company for the purchase price, or part of that price. 
The negotiations between Young and the Connecticut Land Company 
were conducted during the year 1798 to 1800 by Turhand Kirtland, 
agent for the land company. 

While the actual settlement of Youngstown Township was not made 
in 1796, John Young and his party, including Alfred Wolcott and Dahiel 
Sheehy. made a preliminary trip here that year. Pioneer tradition tells 
of such a visit, and this tradition is supported by the statement of 
Young's son. given above, that "he (Young) would hardly have thought 
of buying without a survey, inspection and location of the land." 

Further corroboration is found in the legend that surrounds Council 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 



93 



Rock, an immense granite boulder that attracts the attention of passers- 
by in Lincoln Park, in the East End of the city. The legend of Council 
Rock was set down in print almost twenty-five years ago by William G. 
Conner, a pioneer resident of the Dry Run Valley, of which Lincoln 
Park is a part. 

In his story Mr. Conner relates that while on a hunting trip in a 
sparsely settled section of Illinois in 1865 he met a veteran trapper, 




John Young, Founder of Youngstown 
(Courtesy of Hitchcock Bros.) 

Cyrus Dunlap by name, who showed a familiarity with the Dry Run 
Valley. In explanation of this Dunlap, then a white-haired man of 
eighty-five years, told his auditor that he was a boy of sixteen years 
residing in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, when a surveying party 
headed by Alfred Wolcott passed through Fayette County in the sum- 
mer of 1796, en route to survey and inspect township two, range two, of 
the Connecticut Reserve for John Young. Dunlap was eager to accom- 
pany the surveyors, and when permission to do so was refused by his 
parents he and a boy companion stole away from home two days after 
the surveyors had gone on, and overtook Wolcott's party. The lads 



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94 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

journeyed on to the Reserve with the surveyors and spent the summer 
of 1796 helping the men who were laying out John Young's township. 
On completing the work about December 1, Dunlap said, the surveyors 
went back East, his boy companion returned home, but Dunlap himself 
had become enamored of the free life of the wilds and remained behind,, 
only to move ever westward as civilization overtook him. 

The old trapper's assurance that this survey took place in 1796 and 
that the surveying party returned to the East before winter set in con- 
firms the belief that an initial visit was made here a year before settle- 
ment was begun. His insistence that the Connecticut Land Company's 
surveyors were running the meridian lines of the Reserve in this local- 
ity at the same time confirms his story, since it is known that township- 
two, range two, was run by Amos Spafford and his assistants in late 
July or early August, 1796. It is possible, however, that John Young 
himself did not actually accompany the surveyors on the first trip as the 
story of the old trapper, handed down through Mr. Conner, speaks of 
Alfred Wolcott being in charge of the surveying party. 

The Council Rock legend is a fascinating one in its entirety. Con- 
tinuing his tale, the white-haired old trapper told Mr. Conner that dur- 
ing the progress of the survey in 1796 Wolcott and members of his 
party found two French-Canadian trappers encamped in the Valley of 
Dry Run, having built for themselves a rude cabin within what is now 
Lincoln Park. These French-Canadians assured Dunlap that the east- 
ern part of Youngstown was once a favorite place of residence, or meet- 
ing place, for the Indians and that a large area of ground in what is now 
Haselton was devoted to growing corn. Three times a year the Indians 
came from East and West to hold seasonal celebrations and feasts, their 
gathering place being about a large rock that stood on the hill above 
Dry Run. This great boulder was known as Nea-To-Ka, or Council 
Rock. 

In the year 1755 there was especial cause for rejoicing. On July g, 
1755, the French and Indians had overwhelmed the British forces under 
General Braddock near the spot where Pittsburgh now stands and ad- 
ministered a defeat that the Indians believed would forever prevent the 
white men crossing the Alleghany Mountains into the hunting grounds 
of the Indians. The day of the autumnal feast, about September 20, 
1755, found 3,500 Indians of the Seneca, Shawnee, Mingo and Dela- 
ware tribes assembled at Nea-To-Ka to celebrate this victory. The corn 
crop was heavy and game was plentiful. The white dog had been 
roasted and the savages were engaged in the feast when a violent wind 
storm suddenly descended on the assemblage. Its path was but 200 
yards wide, but in this area, the trees were laid low as with an ax, and 
in falling they crashed down on the tepees killing squaws and children. 
In the midst of the storm one single flash of lightning struck in the 
middle of the party of feasting braves, splitting the great rock about 
which they were gathered and killing four of the chiefs. Fearful that 
the Great Spirit was displeased with them the savages biiried their dead 
— 300 in number — and hurried away. This was the last Indian council 
ever held at Council Rock. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 95 

The fantastic story of the old trapper is curiously corroborated by 
several circumstances. When the white men first came here the Ma- 
honing Valley was a No-Man's-Land, inhabited only by a spiritless band 
known as the Blacksnake Indians. The whites found a tract of ground 
in the eastern part of the township overgrown with underbrush but that 
had apparently been tilled many years before. When excavations were 
made for the foundation of the original Haselton blast furnace fifty 
years ago skeletons were dug up that indicated that this spot had at 
some time been an Indian graveyard, although mystery surrounded the 
time and the circumstances of the burials. And finally Council Rock yet 
stands in Lincoln Park bearing a ragged scar where one end of the great 
boulder was cleaved off generations ago by some mighty act of nature. 

This digression into the story of Council Rock will perhaps be for- 
given by the reader. To return to John Young and the founding of 
Youngstown, it is virtually certain, therefore, that Young, or his rep- 
resentatives, visited here in the summer of 1796, and it is highly prob- 
able that township two, range two, was selected as one of the six town- 
ships of the Reserve to be sold outright to bona fide settlers after John 
Young himself had made the selection, the directors of the Connecticut 
Land Company agreeing with the choice made rather than dictating it. 

There are many reasons why a man with Young's keen judgment 
would have made this selection. The Mahoning River was a good sized 
stream and this would have a natural attraction to a prospective settler 
and land dealer. Township two of range two was the nearest available 
land to the settlement at Beavertown except for the township now known 
as Poland,, and it had the advantage over the latter of a wide river 
valley, Poland Township having only a limited area in the river valley 
between the hills. That the commodious valley would have appealed to 
John Young after he had inspected it himself or it had been viewed for 
him by competent representatives is apparent from the fact tihat he later 
pursued a course opposite to that followed by other settlement founders 
on the Reserve when he laid out his village in the river valley. The tend- 
ency at that time was to build on the hills, a not unnatural movement 
since the swamp lands of the lower levels were looked upon askance by 
the early settlers while the good drainage of the high ground had a 
decided appeal. In defying precedent as he did Young showed the same 
canny judgment that distinguished all his actions. 

When John Young, or his representatives, visited the site of his 
future town in 1796 their stay could not have been for more than three 
or four months. That Young was in Connecticut during the winter of 
1796-97 is certified to by his dealings there with Philo White and Lemuel 
Storrs in February of that year and his sales, made in conjunction with 
White and Storrs, to Sheehy and Hill, on January 30, 1797, at Middle- 
town, Connecticut. But with the survey of the township completed by 
the Connecticut Land Company — and probably by Young's own sur- 
veyors — and with Young given sole ownership early in 1797 of the 
western lands that he had contracted for, the stage was set for the settle- 
ment and occupation of the wilderness territory. 

It was in the spring of 1797 that John Young and party started out 



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96 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

from^New York State, or perhaps from Connecticut^ to the Western 
Reserve. Just how many were in this party is not known, nor is there 
any record of the trip of 500 miles or more through the almost pathless 
wilds. It is merely known that he was accompanied by Alfred Wolcott, 
his surveyor, and by Daniel Sheehy and Phineas Hill, the two sub-pur- 
chasers mentioned before. That there were others is probable. Unlike 
the Connecticut Land Company surveying parties that traveled over 
the northern route along Lakes Ontario and Erie, John Young and his 
party chose the southern route through Pennsylvania, crossing the 
Alleghany Mountains and following the slight paths through the river 
valleys to Pittsburgh. That they had the full equipment of supplies is 
probable but it is unlikely that they were encumbered with any pioneer 
wagons or even horses. In June the party had reached Beavertown, 
then a thriving village, but the outpost of the wilderness. Here they 
stopped with Abram Powers, and on resuming their journey up the 
Beaver and Mahoning Rivers were accompanied by his son, Isaac 
Powers. 

The party was now nearing its destination. Its members had under- 
gone hardships and privations but these the sturdy pioneersmen accepted 
as necessities; so much so that they never went to the trouble of leaving 
any printed records of their long trip. Tradition records, however, that 
it was on June 25, 1797, that John Young and his party reached their 
goal and encamped on the banks of the Mahoning River preparatory to 
laying out a town in the wilderness country. 

The sojourners from the east had reached a pleasing land here in 
the wilds. Except for the two or three cabins at the mouth of the Cuy- 
ahoga River that scarcely deserved to be dignified with the title of a 
settlement, the Western Reserve was unclaimed land, untenanted by 
white men and almost untenanted by Indians. To the north and west 
there, was only the far-away village of Detroit ; to the south there was 
forested silence to the outposts of the Marietta colony. Wearied of 
their long journey and reaching their destination amid balmy days it is 
probable the pioneers were ready for a rest, but there was work for 
them to do. They had come to found a new state. 

Scarcely had they encamped in their new surroundings, however, be- 
fore an event occurred that influenced greatly the work of the embryo 
settlers. But a day or two after their arrival Col. James Hillman 
journeyed down the Mahoning River in his canoe after a trading expedi- 
tion among the Indians, intent on reaching his home at Beavertown for 
Independence Day. Passing what is now the site of Youngstown he 
noticed smoke issuing from a camp on the river bank. The trained eye 
of the woodsman told him that this was not the smoke of an Indian 
encampment, and curious to know who were the white men who had 
ventured into this country Colonel Hillman drew ashore and there 
greeted John Young and his companions. The meeting was a mutually 
pleasing one, and, if we are to accept traditional version of the pioneers 
concerning it, even one that partook of the nature of a celebration. 
Says this version: 

"The cargo of Mr. Hillman (meaning the wares he had carried 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 97 

northward to trade to the Indians for furs) was not entirely disposed of, 
there remaining among other things some whisky, the price of which 
was to the Indians one dollar a quart in the currency of the country — a 
deerskin being the legal tender for one dollar and a doeskin half a dollar. 
Mr. Young proposed purchasing a quart, and having a frolic during the 
evening on its contents, and insisted upon paying Hillman his customary 
price for it. Hillman urged that inasmuch as they were strangers in the 
country, and just arrived upon his territory, civility required him to 
furnish the means of entertainment. He, however, yielded to Mr. 
Young, who immediately took the deerskin he had spread for his bed 
(the only one he had) and paid for his quart of whisky. His descend- 
ants in the State of New York, in relating the hardships of their an- 
cestors, have not forgotten that Judge Young traded his bed for a quart 
of whisky." 

Which legend may, and may not, be true, but inasmuch as John 
Young's descendants are credited with telling it jokingly, and in view of 
the fact that it was published in Ohio historical memoirs before the 
death of Colonel Hillman, its truth appears to be fairly well established. 

Other versions of this meeting credit Hillman with being encamped 
on the Mahoning when Young's party arrived, and with hiring out at 
Beavertown to guide Young and his companions to their newly acquired 
lands, but the version above given is unquestionably the correct one. 

The meeting was a fortunate one. In reaching a decision relative to 
the establishment of their town the advice of Colonel Hillman was in- 
valuable to the settlers, and, appreciating this, he remained with them 
for two or three days. By this time a fast friendship had resulted and 
Colonel Hillman persuaded the party to accompany him to Beavertown 
for the July Fourth celebration. The day was observed with fitting 
ceremony, and in return Young persuaded Hillman to return with him 
to the Reserve and assist in the founding of the settlement that Young 
had planned. A woodsman by nature, who had kept consistently on the 
frontier, Hillman willingly consented. Reaching the site of Youngs- 
town once again early in July, 1797, Hillman assisted the settlers in 
building a log house, the first habitation of a white man that marked the 
spot that is now a great city. According to the testimony of early set- 
tlers this house stood on the east bank of the Mahoning River, near what 
is now Spring Common and about where the stone retaining wall of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad is today located. At this time, or shortly there- 
after, Hillman's wife accompanied him to Young's settlement. 

It is hardly necessary to say that these pioneers of Youngstown and 
the Mahoning Valley were of that rugged, restless type never afraid 
to wrest a new home from the wilderness. When John Young came 
to the Western Reserve in 1797 he left behind at Whitestown, New 
York, a wife and two children, John and George. It was 1799 before 
he had prepared a home that 'he believed suitable for them. In that year 
Young brought his wife and family to the new settlement, and here two 
more children were born to them, William C, in November, 1799, and 
Mary, in February, 1802. In 1803 the mother found the trials of fron- 
Tol. 1—7 



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98 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VADLEY 

tier life too great for her, and John Young, in deference to her wishes, 
returned with his family to Whitestown 

Young visited the settlement on several occasions thereafter, the 
last time in 1814, but never again became a resident here. In its early 
days his family thus passed out of the active history of the city ; there- 
fore no descendant of John Young today resides in the great community 
that bears his name. Young died at Whitestown, in April, 1825, aged 
sixty-two years. His widow survived him fourteen years,, passing away 
in September, 1839, at sixty-seven years of age. His character was such 
that he was a man who always commanded respect and in the first years 
of the settlement was one whose advice was much sought. 

For the growth of the struggling settlement, however, John Young, 
who left at such an early date, is perhaps entitled to less credit than is 
due to those who came with him and remained to fight the battles of the 
pioneers, to the hardy men and women settlers who came in the first 
dozen years of the existence of Youngstown, and above all to Col. James 
Hillman, guide, counsellor, protector, earliest of pioneers, friend to 
white man and Indian alike, and custodian of law and order in the early 
and struggling days of the settlement. 

James Hillman was born in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, 
on October 27, 1762. While a boy he enlisted as a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war. According to Roswell M. Grant, who, when a youth, lived 
for some time with Colonel Hillman and his wife, Hillman was captured 
at the battle of Yorktown but escaped after he had whipped a British 
officer. Following the war he resided for a short while with his father, 
whose name was also James Hillman, who had located on the Ohio 
River three miles below Pittsburgh. Again in 1784 he was a soldier 
under General Harmar in the Indian wars and was discharged at Fort 
Mcintosh, at Beavertown, in August, 1785, when the treaty with the 
Indians was made there. 

Hillman was married in 1786, his courtship and marriage being con- 
ducted in the same dashing way that he had fought the British and the 
Indians. According to Mr. Grant, Hillman met his wife-to-be at a corn- 
husking, and after dancing with her several times proposed marriage. 
The proposal being acceptable and there being a justice of the peace 
present, they were married on the spot, a wedding in haste that apparently 
disproved the old adage, as their marriage tie was severed only after sixty- 
two years, when the pioneer died at Youngstown on November 12, 1848. 
He was survived seven years by his wife, her death taking place on August 
7, 1855, at the age of eighty-three years. That she was a worthy mate of 
the old pioneer and capable of bearing the hardships of early day life is 
vouched for by the chronicler above quoted who avers that he was often 
assured by both Colonel Hillman and his wife that the latter never owned 
a pair of shoes or stockings until after her marriage. Hillman and his 
wife were childless. 

Hillman is described by a contemporary as a man about five feet 
eight inches in height, broad shouldered and possessed of great physical 
strength, due to a naturally rugged constitution and a life in the out- 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 



99 



doors. Hillman and his wife were Methodists in religion and Mrs. Hill- 
man was accounted a great beauty in her day. 

Having taken on the responsibility of married life, Hillman settled 
down to a steady occupation. In the spring of 1786 the firm of Duncan 
& Wilson of Pittsburgh entered into a contract with Caldwell & Elliott, 
of Detroit, to deliver a quantity of flour and bacon at the mouth of the 




Colonel James Hillman 
(Courtesy of Hitchcock Bros.) 

Cuyahoga River to a man named James Hawder, who had put up a tent 
there for receiving the supplies. In May, 1786, Hillman hired out to 
Duncan & Wilson as a packhorseman to deliver these supplies. At the 
mouth of the Cuyahc^a the purchasers had a small sailboat in which to 
carry the supplies to Detroit. There Hillman and his party built a rude 
cabin of logs, on the east side of the Cuyahoga. 

During the year 1786 Hillman is said to have made six trips to the 
Cuyahoga, his outfit consisting of ten men and ninety horses. The route 
lay along the Mahoning River past what is now the City of Youngstown* 
thence past the salt spring and northwestward to tfhe Cuyahoga. In 
1788 Hillman settled at Beavertown as agent for Duncan and Wilson* 



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100 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VAULEY 

and remained there for two or three years when he again located near 
Pittsburgh and became an independent trader with the Indians and served 
also as a guide up the Beaver and Mahoning rivers. Remaining at this 
work until 1797, Hillman acquired not only a thorough knowledge of the 
country, but became likewise familiar with the characteristics and the 
language of the Indians, whidh, together with the confidence that the 
Indians reposed in him and their knowledge of his fearlessness, proved 
most valuable to the white people in later years. 

In the new settlement Hillman became immediately a leader. When 
Trumbull County was organized in 1800 he was made constable of 
Youngstown Township and later served as tax collector, justice of the 
peace, tavern keeper in the village, sheriff of Trumbull County and 
member of the legislature from that county in the session of 1814-15. 
During the War of 1812 he served as a volunteer under Col. William 
Rayen. Not only in actual term of residence but in leadership, .Col. 
James Hillman was the first citizen of Youngstown in its youthful days. 

Alfred Wolcott, Young's surveyor, was instrumental in founding 
the pioneer settlement but did not remain to witness its growth. On 
February 11, 1800, he was married to Mercy Gilson, daughter pf a 
pioneer family of Canfield, but a short while later returned to the East. 
Phineas Hill, one of the original purchasers from John Young, likewise 
was but. a temporary resident. Like Wolcott, Hill married while resid- 
ing at Youngstown but a few years later removed elsewhere. 

Daniel Sheehy was born in Tipperary County, Ireland, in 1759. He 
was given a classical education, having been destined for the law or the 
priesthood, but early in life left his native land to carve out a fortune 
in the New* World. His decision was hastened by the fact that he was 
an outspoken enemy of the British government, and, impulsive in tem- 
perament, plunged wholeheartedly into the movement for Irish freedom. 
With two of his near relatives executed for opposing British domina- 
tion and his own life certain to be forfeited if he remained in Ireland, 
. Sheehy came to America and enlisted in the Revolutionary Army. 

Serving until the end of the Revolution, Sheehy located in Connecti- 
cut or New York State and met John Young at Albany, New York, in 
1796. Sheehy had $2,000 in gold which he wished to invest in land and 
he accepted John Young's proposal to emigrate to the Western Reserve. 
He contracted with Young for 1,000 acres of land, a contract that later 
caused difficulty between Sheehy and Young. Not having a title himself 
until 1800, Young could not give title at that time to sub- purchasers and 
Sheehy alleged that in 1799 Young made a second sale of part of 
Sheehy's land at an advance of 50 cents an acre. To prove his rights 
Sheehy was forced to make two trips to Connecticut, both of these being 
made afoot through the wilderness in the dead of winter. An adjust- 
ment was finally reached by which Sheehy retained title to 400 acres of 
land but relinquished his claim to another 600 acres. 

For threatening Young's life during this controversy Sheehy was 
arrested and fined $25, but that their differences were later settled ami- 
cably is apparent from the fact that . Sheehy's second son was named 
after the founder of 'the city. According to one account this was a 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 101 

feminine wile adopted by Sheehy's wife, and really brought about the 
adjustment of the dispute instead of following it. This pioneer woman 
was born at Ligonier, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, in 1775, a 
daughter of Robert McLain, an early settler of Central Pennsylvania. 
Having accompanied Hillman, Young and the others to Beavertown to 
celebrate the Fourth of July, 1797, Sheehy there met Jane McLain and 
later he journeyed to Beavertown on horseback for the wedding cere- 
mony. Sheehy died at Youngstown on January 20, 1834, and his widow 
in 1856, leaving numerous descendants here. 

Isaac Powers was the youthful member of the Young party. He 
western-bound emigrants at Beavertown. Powers apparently had 
was but twenty years of age in the spring of 1797 when he joined the 
visited what is now known as the Mahoning Valley prior to this and his 
father, Abram Powers, had been here several times, usually on hunt- 
ing trips, although on one occasion, in 1778, he had headed a party of 
white men from the Ligonier Valley of Western Pennsylvania who had 
come here in pursuit of a band of murderous Indians. 

Knowing the county so well Abram Powers agreed to purchase some 
of Judge Young's lands, and Isaac Powers was sent along with the 
Young party to make the selection. He also acted as assistant to the 
surveyors. On his arrival here the younger Powers selected 600 acres of 
land for his father, 200 acres of this lying in the south part of the town- 
ship, across the river from Sheehy's land, while the remaining 400 acres 
lay west of the Mahoning River in the northern part of the township. 
Subsequently the younger man purchased land from Young on his own 
account. Abram Powers came here soon after the land purchase had 
been made for him. 

Isaac Powers was married to Leah Frazier of Poland in 1801 and 
died in Youngstown in 1861, at eighty-three years, the last survivor of 
the founders of Youngstown. 

Powers was a substantial citizen and left a numerous posterity. It 
is to one of his sons, William Powers, and to John M. Edwards, that a 
great measure of the credit must go for collecting and preserving in later 
years much of the data relating to the founding of Youngstown and its 
early history, without which the story of the city might be forever lost. 
Their work, and the work of those who labored with them, was under- 
taken at a time when there were still survivors of the days of the pio- 
neers living in Youngstown, men and women who have long since passed 
away and whose voices are now silent. 

Little work was done in Young's settlement in 1797. The first house, 
mention of which has been made, was occupied by James Hillman and 
wife, while cabins were built for the remainder of the party. One Sun- 
day morning in August, 1797, Isaac Powers and Phineas Hill left their 
cabin on an exploring trip, and after proceeding from the tiny settle- 
ment for some distance up the Mahoning River came to a large creek 
that they decided to follow. A trip of two miles or more brought them 
to the falls of Mill Creek, they being the first of the settlers to gaze upon 
this cataract. As sawmills and gristmills were the most important in- 
dustries in any community at that day, and as a fall of water was 



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102 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

essential to their operation, the explorers immediately realized the value 
of this great supply of water. Powers had already selected the land 
on which he proposed to locate, so Hill immediately chose this site, and 
on his return opened negotiations with Young for the purchase ot the 
ground on which the falls was located. His anxiety awakened a curios- 
ity in Young and the latter refused to sell until he had determined for 
himself just what made this ground so especially attractive. 

Hill then told of the existence of the falls, and Young consented to 
the sale, with the provision that Hill was "to erect a sawmill and some- 
thing that would grind corn, within eighteen months." Under contract 
with Hill, Abram Powers and his son Isaac, assisted by John Noggle, 
then erected a combination sawmill and gristmill at the falls. While this 
contract was taken in 1797 it was probably the next year, or perhaps 
even as late as the year 1799, that the work was completed, as the men 
were compelled to quarry the stone and fell the trees to get materia! for 
the structure. "Raising" a mill was somewhat of a ceremony in those 
days, and as there were not enough workmen in the settlement to carry 
on the work Abram Powers sent to Darlington, Pennsylvania, for men 
to complete the crew. This mill was probably what was contracted for, 
"something that would grind corn," and was not an adequate grist mill, 
since Youngstown lacked this facility for some years after its founding. 
This structure later gave way to a more pretentious mill built on the 
same site. The mill finally erected is still standing at the falls but has 
long since fallen into disuse for the purpose for which it was originally 
intended. The building eventually put up passed some years later into 
the ownership of German Lanterman and the mill and the picturesque 
falls were given his name. The latter still retains the title of Lanter- 
man's Falls. 

In 1798 the partitioning of the Connecticut Land Company's hold- 
ings in the Western Reserve made possible the settlement of all the 
Reserve east of the Cuyahoga River, yet the tiny settlement increased 
but little in size during that year. New cabins, of course, were built. 
James Hillman and wife, who had occupied the first structure of this 
kind, purchased a' farm on the west bank of the Mahoning River and 
removed to their new holdings. And the settlement had acquired a 
definite name. When purchased by John Young it was merely township 
two, range two, of the Connecticut Reserve, but automatically it became 
Young's township, or Young's town, the designation being naturally 
blended into Youngstown. This appellation, it should be understood, did 
not apply merely to the collection of primitive homes, that marked the 
early site of Youngstown. In the early days "town" was merely a con- 
traction of township, on the Western Reserve, and Young's town there- 
fore applied to the entire township. It was many years later, in fact, 
when Youngstown became an actually incorporated municipality aside 
from the township of the same name. 

In the first three years of its existence the township occupied the 
peculiar status of a settled subdivision without a legal government of 
any kind. To the Federal Government, however, the settlement was 
in the Northwest Territory, and in 1797 Governor Arthur St. Clair of 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 103 

the territory included all the Reserve east of the Cuyahoga River in 
the newly created Jefferson County, with the county seat at Steuben- 
ville. To the settlers Youngstown was part of New Connecticut, and 
under the jurisdiction of old Connecticut. When Jefferson County at- 
tempted to assess taxes against them in 1798 the tax collector sent here 
was beset with ridicule. The one experience in attempting to govern 
from Steubenville was sufficient. The settlers paid no taxes and had no 
law except their own home-made law — which, it might be observed, was 
sufficient in a community of men who had come to make homes for them- 
selves. 

Settlements were made in four nearby townships in this year 1798, 
pioneers building their cabins in Canfield, Liberty, Vernon and Brook- 
field. John Young built a cabin at what is now the site of the city of 
Warren in 1798 but does not appear to have had any intention of settling 
there, the building being probably a storage place for grain he had raised 
on a few acres of cleared ground up the river from Youngstown. 
Ephraim Quinby and Richard Storer came on from Washington County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1798, and made the first purchases of land in Warren 
Township, but it was the following year before they began the actual 
settlement. 

Meanwhile Youngstown acquired new residents until the records 
give it a population of ten families in 1798. Nathaniel Dabney, a native 
of Boston, located here in 1797 on land he had purchased prior to com- 
ing to the Western Reserve. The same year he was married to Miss 
Mary Keifer of Pennsylvania. Titus Hayes, Uriah Holmes and Henry 
Brown are recorded as having come to Youngstown in 1797 or 1798, 
and in the latter year we find among the settlers, Martin Tidd, the par- 
ents of Philip Kimmel, and also Robert and Hannah Stevens, John 
Swager, William Potter, John Swazy and Frederick Ague. 

In this year, too, John Young achieved his ambition of laying out an 
embryo village in the heart of his township. In this work he was for- 
tunate in having the assistance of Turhand Kirtland, agent for the Con- 
necticut Land Company, who had contracted to open a road through the 
wilds from Grand River to Youngstown. On August 3, 1798, Kirtland 
reached Youngstown and, with John Young, laid out the new town. 

The town plat describes Federal Street as 100 feet in width and 
i>75 2 feet in length, beginning at a corner post in front of Caleb Bald- 
win's house a little west of his well, and running east through the middle 
of the plat and through the public square. Two streets paralleling 
Federal are provided for, known as North Street and South Street, now 
Wood Street and Front Street. North and South streets are described, 
the entire tract providing for 100 lots of which two were set aside as 
burying ground. These two lots later became the sites of the old court- 
house and the Elks' Club, both being at Wick Avenue and Wood Street 
and now destined to be lost to the mapmakers entirely with the comple- 
tion of the grade crossings elimination work. Adjoining the town, lots 
of a few acres each were laid out while the remainder of the township 
was set aside for farms. Today Youngstown includes within its cor- 
porate limits the entire township of Youngstown and overlaps into 



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104 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Boardman and Coitsville townships. The town plat was not recorded 
until August 19, 1802, and, as we have explained before, was not an 
incorporated municipality. 

The marks by which the original village were described are long 
since lost to sight but even to the present generation the limits of John 
Young's town are easy to visualize. It began a few hundred yards west 
of Hazel Street and ended just east of Walnut Street, the two points 




ytaoa. 



Street. 



66Jeet 



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/ocjeet t*rule. 



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SecLrcL'TrviLH' 




Street 


\ 


% 




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S 


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Original Town Plat of Youngstown as Laid Out by John Young 

in 1798 
This drawing was made from the original map about 1880 and gives the 
names by which the streets were then known. North Market Street is 
now Wick Avenue, and Wick Street is now Commerce Street. 

where Federal Street narrowed being the eastern and western extremi- 
ties of the town. It is rather singular that while this history is being 
written (in the summer of 191 9) workmen are engaged in widening 
West Federal Street and removing the last visible sign of the limits of 
Young's original town in that direction. That John Young had the 
vision to provide for a public thoroughfare 100 feet in width through 
the heart of his village is an act of wisdom for which Youngstown will 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 105 

be indebted to him forever. It is highly regrettable that his successors 
did not have the same foresight as the village expanded. In providing 
for a public square the old pioneer likewise showed judgment that 
proved to be a blessing. 

Turhand Kirtland, the early day surveyor who acted for Young in 
running out the new town, likewise had land interests here. While en- 
gaged in this survey he disposed of two lots and a mill site near the 
mouth of Yellow Creek, to John Struthers, this land being located in 
Poland Township in what is now the city of Struthers. Judge Kirtland 
was a prominent figure of pioneer days, being state senator from Trum- 
bull County in the session of 1814-15 and for many years justice of the 
peace, obtaining his title as an associate justice of the court of quarter 
sessions. 

In the two years following the location of the village more hardy 
pioneers came to make Youngstown their home. In the spring of 1799 
James McCay (or McCoy), a native of Maryland, emigrated to Youngs- 
town with John S. Edwards. McCay resided here for three or four 
years and achieved considerable prominence, but later removed to New 
Orleans. In 1829, however, he returned to Youngstown where he be- 
came a substantial citizen. John S. Edwards located in Warren and 
later was destined to exercise a great influence on the Western Reserve. 
Camden Cleaveland located in Youngstown between 1798 and 1800. 

No more typical example of hardy pioneer can be found than Capt. 
James Gibson who also made Youngstown his home in 1799. Born in 
Ireland in 1740, Captain Gibson came to America while still a boy and 
eventually located in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Indian fighter 
and captain of company in the Revolutionary war, Gibson saw all the 
hardships of life on the frontier, but with courage undiminished we find 
him at fifty-nine years of age, and with a wife and large family, selling 
out his farm in Cumberland County and coming over the mountains to 
New Connecticut. The trip was made in wagons, and in passing through 
Youngstown Gibson's attention was attracted to a profusely flowing 
spring in the eastern part of the township. The objective of the family 
was Warren, but after reaching that locality Captain Gibson responded 
to the lure of the clear spring. Returning to Youngstown he purchased 
300 acres of land surrounding this natural water supply and erected 
thereon a pioneer cabin. The city has now built itself up about the Gib- 
son farm but the original homesite is still in the possession of the family, 
and Gibson's Spring down along Poland Avenue is one of the familiar 
spots of the city. As the father of four boys and six girls, Captain 
Gibson became the . progenitor of a family that is numerous and prom- 
inent in Youngstown today. 

In 1799 or 1800 came David Randall and Caleb Baldwin, the lat- 
ter a native of New Jersey and later resident of Washington County, 
Pennsylvania, Revolutionary war soldier, farmer, tavern keeper, a jus- 
tice of the first court established for Trumbull County and man of 
prominence and influence. Married to Elizabeth Pitney in New Jersey, 
Caleb Baldwin and wife were the parents of twelve children and left 
many descendants in Mahoning County. 



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106 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Early in 1800, George Tod, native of Connecticut, Yale graduate, 
and practicing lawyer in his home state, visited Youngstown with a view 
to locating here. The location meeting his . expectations he brought his 
family to Youngstown the following year. As the first lawyer to settle 
here he was destined to become a most influential figure in the upbuild- 
ing of Youngstown and the Western Reserve. He served successively 
as prosecuting attorney of Trumbull County, secretary of the Northwest 
Territory, township clerk of Youngstown, state senator from Trumbull 
County, judge of the common pleas and supreme courts and president 
judge of the latter court. In the later years of his life Judge Tod turned 
to the care of his farm at Brier Hill. He stood out prominently in the 
pioneer days, not only as a public official but as a citizen, and his mantle 
was worthily assumed after his death by his son, the late Governor 
David Tod. 

When George Tod was admitted to the practice of law in Ohio, at 
a special court held at Warren on September 17, 1800, fellow counsellors 
admitted with him were Calvin Pease of Youngstown and John S. 
Edwards, Benjahiin Tappan and David Abbott of Warren. Elisha 
Whittlesey, Homer Hine and Samuel Huntington also rank with Judge 
Tod among the pioneer lawyers of Youngstown. 

Previous to 1800 Youngstown, and indeed the entire Western Re- 
serve, offered but a limited field for members of the bar. Legally this 
territory was a No-Man's-Land, without courts or means of prosecuting 
either criminal or civil suits. The residents did not know whether they 
were under the jurisdiction of Connecticut or of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, but happily, about the time of the arrival of George Tod, this 
vexatious situation came to an end. The agreement reached between 
Connecticut and the Federal Government in the spring of 1800 made 
the Western Reserve definitely a part of the Northwest Territory under 
the jurisdiction of Governor St. Clair. His proclamation of July 10, 
1800, created the county of Trumbull out of the Western Reserve, the 
county seat being Warren, and John Young, Camden Cleveland and 
Caleb Baldwin of Youngstown were numbered among the judges of the 
first court of quarter sessions and common pleas named by the governor. 

The opening of this first court at Warren on August 25, 1800, was a 
gala occasion for the entire eastern part of the Reserve and from all 
the townships the hardy pioneers came on horseback for the memorable 
event. The court appointed George Tod prosecuting attorney of Trum- 
bull County, named James Hillman constable of Youngstown Township 
and granted a license to Jonathan Fowler to keep "a publick house of 
entertainment/' at Youngstown, this institution being of course a tavern, 
or pioneer hotel, and actually located at Poland. The "township" over 
which James Hillman was named first custodian of the law did not in- 
clude merely the surveyor's township known as Youngstown. It was an 
artificially created civil township embracing Poland, Boardman, Can- 
field, Ellsworth, Coitsville, Youngstown, Austintown and Jackson town- 
ships in what is now Mahoning County and Liberty and Hubbard town- 
ships in Trumbull County, ten townships in all, embracing a territory of 
approximately 250 square miles. It is needless to say that Colonel Hill- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 107 

man not only patrolled this district capably but that he had no hesitation 
at taking in additional territory when the occasion demanded. The 
veteran woodsman who spent much of his life in pathless forests in- 
habited by wild animals and Indians was not concerned about distances. 

At a succeeding term of the court, in May, 1801, the county was 
divided into districts for the purposes of collecting territorial taxes on 
land and was also divided into two election districts. The lower districts 
included the civil townships of Youngstown, Warren, Hudson and 
Vernon, elections being held at the home of Ephraim Quinby at Warren. 

But if there had been no need of courts and constables heretofore, 
an incident occurred during the summer of 1800 that showed the neces- 
sity for some lawful protection for the settlement. This incident is also 
notable because it was the one occasion when the white settlers, not 
only of Youngstown but of the other settlements in the Mahoning 
Valley, faced that horror of frontier life — trouble with the Indians. 

For three years the settlers had been unmolested, and, on their part, 
if they had little respect or liking for the red men, they at least did not 
molest the aborigines. On Sunday, July 20, 1800, however, an armed 
clash came between white man and native that resulted in the killing 
of Captain George and Spotted John, two of the Indians, by Joseph 
McMahon and Richard Storer, white men. The white men charged that 
the direct cause of the outbreak that brought these two deaths was 
that the Indians had threatened the lives of McMahon's wife and chil- 
dren during his absence. The Indians charged that the ill-feeling went 
back still further and was traceable to that fruitful source of trouble 
on many another occasion — whisky. 

According to this version the Indians had gathered in mid-July at 
an old Indian camping ground near the Salt Spring, in what is now 
Weathersfield township, and an outcome of their reunion was a drunken 
frolic in which they were joined by white men. McMahon, who lived 
on ground near the Salt Spring that was owned by Richard Storer, was 
one of this party. When the Indians' supply of whisky, which they had 
shared with the white men, was exhausted, the whites sent to Warren 
and obtained a new supply, but refused to reciprocate by inviting the 
Indians to join with them in consuming it. The result was a natural 
feeling of resentment. 

Whether the white men were guilty of this or not, it is certain that 
McMahon's family became an object of persecution on the part of the 
Indians. That they were selected as especial target for the red men's 
spite appears to have been due also to their isolated position, some dis- 
tance removed from neighboring settlers, since the McMahon family 
was living at that time in an old cabin that had been abandoned by the 
early salt makers. Terrified by the threats against her life and the 
lives of her children, Mrs. McMahon gathered her children together and 
hastened to Storer's house, her husband being employed at that time 
by Storer. McMahon and Storer returned to the spring with them and 
remonstrated with the Indians, who promised to molest the family no 
further. This was on Thursday, July 17. Friday when McMahon re- 
fumed to Storer's to work the Indians reappeared at the McMahon 



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108 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

cabin and renewed their threats, even going to the extent of striking 
one of the children on the head with a tomahawk. 

On Saturday the terrified mother again started to Storer's with her 
children, but on her way met her husband. Accompanying his family 
to the Storer home, McMahon told his story, and in anger he and .Storer 
at first decided to inflict private vengeance on the red men. On debat- 
ing the matter, however, they resolved to seek the counsel of Captain 
Ephraim Quinby of Warren, a man of judicial mind and calm reasoning 
powers. 

Quinby proposed a council with the Indians in the hope that he 
would be able to exact a promise from them that McMahon's family 
would be left unmolested. While it was his intention to deal peaceably 
with the natives, he mustered all the available men in Warren as a pre- 
caution, and with his armed force started on Sunday, July 20, for the 
Indian encampment. Reaching a ravine a short distance from the camp 
Quinby counseled the remainder of the party to halt until he had 
counseled alone with the Indians. 

Encountering the Indians Captain Quinby asked the cause of the 
trouble between McMahon and the red men. Captain George, who 
spoke English, dismissed the difficulty lightly. "Oh, Joe damn fool," 
the Indian assured Quinby. "The Indians don't want to hurt him or 
his family. They drank up all the Indians' whisky and then wouldn't 
let the Indians have any of theirs. They were a little mad but don't 
care any more about it. They (McMahon and his family) can come 
back and live as long as they like. The Indians won't hurt them." 
Feeling satisfied that the trouble had been adjusted Captain Quinby 
started back to join his party. 

In the meantime, however, Quinby's followers had left the ravine 
and reached the high ground on which the Indians were located. On 
meeting Quinby all the other members of the party halted to hear the 
outcome of the conference, but McMahon passed on toward the Indian 
camp and failed to stop when Quinby called to him to do so. While 
Quinby was relating his conversation with Captain George he and the 
remaining members of the party ascended the hill until they were in 
plain view of the Indians. McMahon and two boys of the party, 
Thomas Fenton and Peter Carlton, who had meanwhile hurried on, 
were already at the Indian camp. 

McMahon saluted Captain George with "Are you for peace? Yes- 
terday you had your men, now I have mine." Captain George, who 
was lolling at the foot of a tree, sprang to his feet, seized a tomahawk 
which was sticking in the tree and was swinging it when McMahon 
whipped his rifle to his shoulder and fired. Captain George fell dead. 
Turning to the white men McMahon commanded that they shoot. The 
Indians had by this time seized their guns and taken refuge behind 
trees. Several shots were fired from each side but the morning was 
damp and thfe guns missed fire. Spotted John had shielded himself 
behind a tree, with his squaw and papooses, and aimed at Storer. 
Storer fired, killing the Indian, the same ball grazing the squaw's neck 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 109 

and injuring two of her children, a boy and a girl, all four of the Indians 
being in the direct path of the missile.* 

The news of the clash between the Indians and the whites caused a 
panic in the settlements along the Mahoning. The settlers had little 
fear of the Indians encamped hereabouts but the knowledge that the 
red men had departed hastily in the direction of the Indian villages at 
Sandusky created uneasiness as the natives on the western part of the 
Reserve were more warlike in character. McMahon was placed under 
arrest and hurried to Fort Mcintosh, at Beavertown, where the nearest 
jail was located, while Storer evaded a like fate by escaping to the 
woods. The following day Mrs. Storer and her children started for 
their former home in Washington County, Pennsylvania. 

It was at this juncture that the coolness, courage, woodmanship and 
knowledge of the Indians possessed by Colonel James Hillman saved 
the settlers from a possible visitation of red man's vengeance. Hillman 
had not yet been named constable of Youngstown township and had 
no authority other than the natural bravery of a hardy frontiersman 
who was respected by the Indians. Hurrying to Warren on Monday, 
Colonel Hillman learned that the Indians had taken the trail to San- 
dusky, and on the same evening he started alone through the wilderness 
to overtake the red men and offer them friendship. Hillman appears 
to have had little sympathy with McMahon and Storer, believing the 
killings to have been unnecessary and unjustifiable. 

Hillman overtook the Indians on Wednesday morning and found 
them at first suspicious and hostile but finally succeeded in making 



* The version of the McMahon story which credits the Indians with a promise 
to molest the McMahon family no further is the generally accepted one. It is given 
full credit by Leonard Case in his manuscripts. According to another version, 
however, Quinby had left John Lane in command of his men in the ravine and had 
instructed Lane that if he (Quinby) did not return in a half hour Lane would be 
justified in believing that the Indians had killed him and should march on and 
battle with the Indians. Quinby not returning at the appointed time, Lane and his 
men, all of them armed, emerged from the ravine and found Quinby and Captain 
George in conversation. Quinby informed his party that the Indians had threatened 
to kill McMahon and Storer, having a grievance against the latter because he had 
punished the red men for stealing his whisky. 

The white men reached the camp with McMahon and Storer in the lead. 
Captain George grasped his tomahawk, and flourishing it in the air walked up to 
McMahon, saying, "If you kill me, I will lie here — if I kill you, you will lie there," 
and then ordered his men to prime their guns. The different versions of the killing 
of Captain George and Spotted John agree thereafter. 

Dealing with occurrences after the killings, one account relates that, "The 
whole Warren party then hurried away at a quick pace, while the Indians were 
terror-stricken but remained to bury their dead," while another version assures us 
that, "After the killing, the Indians fled with horrid yells ; the whites hotly pursued 
them for some distance, firing as fast as possible, yet without effect. * * * The 
party then gave up the pursuit and returned and buried the dead Indians." 

That the white men showed this latter consideration seems improbable. 

Judge Kirtland, a most reliable and fair-minded man, records in his diary that 
on July 23, 1800, he was in Youngstown on a business trip, adding that, "I found 
that Joseph McMahon and the people of Warren had killed two Indians at Salt 
Spring, on Sunday, 20th, in a hasty and inconsiderate manner; that they had sent 
after a number (of Indians) that had gone off, in order to hold a conference and 
settle the unhappy and unprovoked breach they had made on the Indians." 

Judge Kirtland's impatient comment indicates that he believed the white men 
were at least seeking trouble, even if they did not actually start it. 



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110 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

known his mission. Yielding to Hillman's diplomacy the Indians con- 
ferred with him, but were deaf to persuasion when he asked them to 
return and make an immediate peace with the white men. Even prom- 
ises that McMahon and Storer would be tried, and offers of money, 
were futile. The Indians would not be dissuaded from their purpose 
of going to Sandusky and holding a council with their chiefs there. 

"You will hold a council there, light the war torch, rally all the 
warriors throughout the forest, and with savage barbarity come and 
attempt a massacre of all your friends, the whites, throughout the 
Northwest Territory," Hillman is credited with bluntly telling the In- 
dians. They disclaimed any possibility of such treachery, declaring 
they would lay the case before the council, "and within fourteen days 
four or five of their number would return with instructions on what 
terms peace could be restored/' 

Hillman returned to the settlements with this message. His failure 
to persuade the Indians to return with him is said to have been accepted 
by the settlers as a sign that a general massacre was possible, and some 
versions of the McMahon affair credit the whites with having repaired 
to Ephraim Quinby's cabin at Warren where they garrisoned them- 
selves to repel the red men's attack. That all the settlers thus fortified 
themselves at Warren while awaiting the Indian messengers is improb- 
able, although it is likely that at Youngstown and Warren the whites 
suffered dread and anxiety and worked with their rifles near at hand. 

Within a week the Indian delegation had returned with the message 
from their chiefs at Sandusky, and in keeping with their agreement 
met the white men in conference at Youngstown on July 30, 1800. Ten 
red men represented the natives while almost all the whites in fhe 
Mahoning Valley assembled to learn the result of the council. Colonel 
Hillman, John Young, Ephraim Quinby, Judge Calvin Pease and Sam- 
uel Huntington, the latter afterward governor of Ohio, were spokes- 
men for the white men, with Hillman as the chief representative of the 
settlers. The Indians asked that McMahon be turned over to them to 
be taken to Sandusky and tried by Indian tribal law. If found guilty 
he was to be punished according to the red man's code. Apparently 
there was less resentment toward Storer, as his victim, Spotted John, 
was an outcast Indian and not a favorite among his own people while 
Captain George was highly regarded. 

The Indians were told that this settlement was impossible as Mc- 
Mahon had been arrested by the white men and was now at Fort Mc- 
intosh, out of reach of the settlers of Youngstown and Warren. The 
red men were assured, however, that McMahon would be given a fair 
trial by white man's law and that he would be punished if guilty. The 
Indians finally accepted this decision. While tradition generally makes 
it appear that the council held at Youngstown on that July day more 
than a century ago was long and protracted and marked by impassioned 
speeches on both sides, Judge Kirtland, who was present, dismisses it 
briefly. In his diary he says : 

"Wednesday, July 30, 1800, I went to Youngstown (from his home 
at Poland) to attend the conference with the Indians on account of the 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 111 

murder of two of their men at Salt Spring, on Sunday, 20th, by Joseph 
McMahon and Storer. We assembled, about three hundred whites and 
ten Indians, had a very friendly talk, and agreed to make peace and 
live as friends." 

Meanwhile Trumbull County of the Northwest Territory had been 
organized by proclamation of Governor St. Clair on July 10, 1800, with 
the county seat at Warren, and the way was open to redeem the promise 
made to the Indians that the slayers would be given a legal trial. Late 
in July or early in August the governor appointed a court of quarter 
session and common pleas for the county at the first session of this 
court, held at Warren, on August 25, 1800, George Tod was appointed 
prosecuting attorney for the county, bills of indictment for murder were 
brought against McMahon and Storer, and Benjamin Davidson, John 
Bentley, John Lane, James Hillman, Ephraim Quinby and William Hall 
were required to file a $500 bond each as material witnesses in the case. 

By proclamation of Governor St. Clair a special session of court was 
held at Warren to try McMahon. The prisoner was brought from Fort 
Mcintosh under guard of twenty-five troops from Pittsburgh and placed 
on trial on Thursday, September 18, 1800, with George Tod as prose- 
cutor and Benjamin Tappan, John S. Edwards and Steel Sample, the 
latter of Pittsburgh, as counsel for the prisoner. 

The trial attracted not alone all the settlers from up and down the 
river but from most remote points. Great uneasiness prevailed and 
nerves were strained to the utmost for there was still fear of an out- 
break on the part of the Indians, or even an outburst from McMahon's 
friends. Friday was devoted to taking testimony and Saturday, Sep- 
tember 20, the jury brought in a verdict of not guilty. According to 
published versions of the trial testimony was introduced in McMahon's 
defense that he had retreated a step or two before firing on Captain 
George and that Captain George had met with the challenge that 
"If you kill me, I will lie here — if I kill you, you shall lie there." Ac- 
cording to the testimony of a white girl who had been a prisoner among 
the Indians and understood their language and customs, this meant that 
if Captain George were killed the Indians would consider that he had 
been slain in a fair fight and feel no hostility toward McMahon, while 
on the other hand the whites should ask no restitution if McMahon 
were slain. 

For some strange reason, it is generally accepted that the McMahon 
trial took place at Youngstown. This error is probably due to the fact that 
the McMahon trial has been confused with a trial held at Youngstown 
in 1804, when an Indian was arraigned for killing a white man at these 
same Salt Springs. The McMahon trial was held at Warren. 

Pioneers, in fact, were wont to relate incidents relating to the re- 
moval of McMahon from Fort Mcintosh to Warren by way of Youngs- 
town. According to these stories McMahon was not only accompanied 
by a guard of soldiers but, further to impress the Indians, his hands 
were bound with hickory thongs. 

"Dp they hurt, Joe? If they do we'll take them off," was one assur- 



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112 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

ance given McMahon while the prisoner was passing through here en 
route to the trial. 

McMahon signified that they were no incumbrance, and it is likely 
that they were not. \ 

While it has often been intimated that McMahon's trial was not fair 
to the Indians there seems little evidence to sustain this view. McMahon 
was undoubtedly guilty of over-aggression in interfering with what 
promised to be a peaceful solution of the difficulty between the whites 
and the Indians, but it is equally true that he actually fired in self- 
defense. Storer, apparently was still absent at the time of the trial, al- 
though he subsequently returned to Warren. 

Little is known of McMahon's life after his acquittal. According to 
popular tradition he served in the War of 1812, was wounded in the 
Battle of the Peninsula in September of that year, and while returning 
home through the wilderness after being given a disability discharge 
was slain by the Indians. Although this story is generally accepted it 
is subject to serious doubt. A man of somewhat similar name served 
in a Trumbull County company in this war, but the company roster 
gives the name as "John McMahon" and Brigadier General Simon Per- 
kins lists a "John McMahon" among the wounded in the peninsula fight. 
And finally a "John McMahon" or "John McMahan" of Jackson Town- 
ship served as a Trumbull County soldier in the War of 1812 and, ac- 
cording to his descendants, was wounded and slain in the mariner 
recorded above. 

While the outcome of the McMahon trial was a complete victory for 
the white men, the result was accepted without protest by the Indians. 
They had given their word that they would abide by the verdict and the 
promise was kept. The red men returned to Youngstown and never 
constituted a menace thereafter, although there were occasional individual 
quarrels between white men and aborigines. 

Meanwhile the settlement grew slowly but steadily and life settled 
down to the established and ordained routine of work and frontier 
pleasures, of births, marriages and deaths, of welcoming new immigrants 
and of churchgoing. 

While there have been various claims as to the identity of the first 
white child born in Youngstown, the first that can be found recorded 
in written annals was a daughter, Betsey Dabney, born to Nathaniel 
Dabney and wife in 1798. She was married to Ransly Curtis of Farm- 
ington in 18 18. Betsey Dabney was not the first white child born on 
the Western Reserve, however. The story of the birth and tragic death 
of the first white native of the Reserve is told in the preceding chapter 
of this volume. Other records of early births in Youngstown show that 
a daughter, Catherine Sheehy, was born to Daniel Sheehy and Jane 
McLain Sheehy on February 17, 1799, this child later becoming the 
wife of Neal Campbell. William C. Young, son of John Young and 
wife, was born here on November 25, 1799. Prior to 1800 a son, Isaac 
Swager, was born to Jotm Swager and wife, and daughters were born 
to Phineas Hill and wife and Robert and Hannah Stevens. 

For two years the settlers here had existed without religious services, 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 113 

but on September i, 1799, the first clergyman appeared in the person 
of Rev. William Wick, who held services and preached a sermon in 
Youngstown on that day. This was probably the first sermon ever 
delivered to an audience of white residents on the Western Reserve, as 
well as being the first in Youngstown. Reverend Wick was but a visitor 
here on that occasion, having been ordained but a few days before. 
From 1799 to 1801 he was pastor of the churches at Hopewell and 
Neshannock, in Washington County, Pennsylvania, but in 1801 he 
returned to Youngstown to become pastor of the Presbyterian congre- 
gation that had been organized here the year before. In 1801, or 1802. 




r«OHlO COONTICS 



'_ Map Showing Development of Ohio Counties — 1799 

■r ' 
the Presbyterian Society erected the first meeting house for religious 
services in Youngstown, this building being a log structure that stood 
at Wick Avenue and Wood Street, on the southeast corner of the 
present Rayen School lot, and directly across the street from the present 
First Presbyterian Church, whose progenitor it was. The First Presby- 
terian congregation was therefore the pioneer church organization of 
Youngstown. 

The first burial here took place in 1799, when Samuel McFarland, 
a native of Worcester, Massachusetts, and a teacher of vocal music, 
was interred in the old burying ground on the west side of Wick Avenue. 
His death took place on September 20, 1799, at twenty-eight years of 
age. The entire population of the township turned out to attend the 
funeral ceremonies. 

Naturally there is lively interest concerning the first marriage in 
Youngstown. There is a tradition that the Rev. Seth Hart, sur- 

Vol. 1—8 



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114 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

veyor for the Connecticut Land Company, performed a marriage cere- 
mony at Cleveland in 1797, but if this wedding took place it is not 
recorded. In Youngstown marriages began almost with the life of the 
settlement, Daniel Sheehy, Phineas Hill and Alfred Wolcott having 
taken brides within two years of their arrival here. As there was neither 
clergyman nor magistrate at Youngstown, however, these marriages 
took place at Beaver Town, Pennsylvania. The first wedding ceremony 
in Youngstown, and the first on the Western Reserve of which there is 
any record, was performed on November 3, 1800, when Rebecca Rush 
and Stephen Baldwin were married by the Rev. William Wick. 

With the growth of family life came the need of educating the 
young. Coming from a part of the country where great stress was laid 
upon education, the settlers did not long neglect this important duty, 
but looked about for a meaps^of giving them at least the rudiments of 
learning. The first school was not a pretentious affair but was ample 
for that day. This school building was a log structure of one room, 
erected on the southwest corner of the Public Square about the year 
1802, or perhaps a year later. The first schoolmaster was Perlee Brush, 
afterwards a Trumbull County lawyer. At this school some of the 
men and women who were afterward prominent in Youngstown life 
received their early schooling. j 

The first industrial ^laut. in the viltage of Youngstown proper was 
launched about this time by Caleb Plumb, a miller and millwright from 
New York, who erected a sawmill and gristmill on the Mahoning River. 
The site selected by him has been used for flour mill purposes ever 
since, being the location on which the Baldwin mill just south of the 
Spring Common bridge now stands. 

Youngstown, too, had increased sufficiently in importance by 1801 
that it craved better communications with the outside world, something 
k seriously lacked, since the day of the steam railroad had not yet. 
arrived, there was not even stage communication with the East, and 
the nearest postoffice was at Pittsburgh. In that year Gen. Elijah 
Wadsworth of Canfield succeeded in having a mail route established 
for easterly towns of Trumbull County, the route beginning at Pitts- 
burgh and passing through Beavertown, Georgetown, Canfield, and 
Youngstown to Warren, a distance of eighty-six miles. Eleazer Gilson 
contracted to carry the mail for two years, one delivery each two weeks, 
for $3.50 a mile, counting the distance one way. The route was actually 
traveled most of the time by his son, Samuel Gilson, the trip being made 
frequently on foot, we are assured. Calvin Pease was named post- 
master at Youngstown, General Wadsworth at Canfield and Simon 
Perkins at Warren. 

Youngstown township had by this time attained a population of 
perhaps 200 to 300 and was attracting settlers with a fair degree of 
rapidity. In 1798 or 1800 Joseph Williamson bought land in the south 
part of the township and built a cabin thereon. He farmed in a small 
way, and "here five generations of the Williamson family have been 
born. Warren P. Williamson is of the fourth generation, and his 
residence at Warren Avenue and Market Street is located on the old 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 115 

Williamson farm. In 1800 Joshua Kyle came here from Westmoreland 
County, Pennsylvania, and settled on lands he had bought along Mill 
Creek, and in 1800, or perhaps previously, William Wilson and his 
wife, Temperance Wilson, came here from Maryland. In 1801 Dr. 
Charles Dutton, perhaps the first physician and surgeon, emigrated from 
Connecticut to Youngstown, and Moses Crawford, of Mifflin County, 
Pennsylvania, a cabinet maker by trade and the first undertaker in the 
village, located here. In 1801, or at an earlier date, Josiah Robbins, 
John Rush and John Bissell purchased lands in Youngstown Township 
and became permanent residents here. 

Among the settlers who located here in 1802 there were two who 
were destined to have a profound influence on the community, o'Ae'of 
these William Rayen, the other Henry .Wick. Rayen, known to the 
pioneers as Judge Rayen and Colonel Rayen, since he held both titles, 
was a Maryland man and a merchant by profession. Here in Youngs- 
town he was a man of amazingly numerous activities, serving during 
a useful business life of more than fifty years as a keeper of a public 
house, merchant, postmaster, township treasurer, township clerk, colonel 
in the War of 181 2, justice of the peace, judge of the court of common 
pleas, member of the state board of public works, organizer and first 
president of the first bank in Mahoning County, farmer, canal builder 
and railroad builder. Dying childless, in* 1854, he left no heirs to bear 
his name, but in his bequest for the founding of Rayen School he left 
a legacy that will forever preserve his memory in Youngstown. 

Henry Wick, who arrived here at the same time as Colonel Rayen, 
was not the first of his name to locate in Youngstown. His brother, 
Rev. William Wick, had located here a year earlier and his father- 
in-law, Caleb Baldwin, preceded him to Youngstown by three years. 
Henry Wick, too, was a merchant by profession and engaged in the 
mercantile trade immediately after arriving here from Washington 
County, Pennsylvania. Early in 1802 he purchased the square now 
bounded by Federal, Hazel, Wood and Phelps streets, and thirty-seven 
acres of land outside the village for a consideration of $235. the pur- 
chase being made from John Young. On the village land he erected 
a store room and residence and embarked in trade. 

These were not the only settlers in Youngstown Township, how- 
ever, in the first five years of its existence. There is no complete record 
of the pioneers of that day, but the records of resident taxpayers filed 
by the tax collectors of 1801 and 1803 show the names of John Ague, 
Lineas Brainard, William Burr, Samuel Calhoun.. Alexander Clarke, 
James Caldwell, Joseph Carr, Christopher Coleman, Aaron Qarke, 
Thomas Dice, James Davidson, John Dennick, Nathaniel G. Dabney, 
John Duncan, Thomas Farrell, Michael Fitzgerald, James Gibson, James 
Hillman, Henry Hull, Samuel Hayden, Joshua Kyle, John Kyle, Thomas 
Kirkpatrick, Andrew Kirkpatrick, Moses Latta, John Musgrove, James 
McCoy, John MoCrary, John McDowell, John McWilliams, Daniel 
McCartney, Jesse Newport, Jeremiah Norris, Isaac Powers, Philip Kim- 
met, David Randall, Josiah Robbins, Caleb Baldwin, Benjamin Ross, 
John Rush, William Rayen, John Swager, Robert -M. Scott, Matthew 



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116 YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Scott, Daniel Sheehy, Robert Stevens, John Swager, Henry Swager, 
Sefford Thompson, George Tod, Henry Wick, Joseph Williamson, James 
Wilson, Joseph Wilson, Alfred Wolcott, John Young, Henry Brown, 
Aaron Clarke, Samuel H. Duncan, William Potter, Martin Tidd, John P. 
Bissell, Samuel Bryson, Michael Crammer, Samuel Davenport, Andrew 
Donaldson and Daniel Gray. 

The first contracts for the purchase of land from John Young were 
made in 1796, prior to his removal to the Western Reserve and direct 
purchases from Young's holdings continued until 1844, or almost twenty 
years after his death. Until he had received the deed to the township 
from the Connecticut Land Company in 1800, however, he could not 
give title to land buyers, but among those who received titles for land in 
Youngstown Township directly from Young between 1800 and 1810 
we find the following: 

1800 — Benjamin Applegate, Henry Champion, Lemuel Storrs. 

180 i — John McDowell, et al., Abraham Powers, Abner Lacock, James 
Gibson, Thomas Kirkpatrick, James Applegate, Isaac Powers, John 
Kinsman, Benjamin Dilworth. 

1 8O2 — John McMahon, Aaron Clark, Robert M. Scott, et al., Andrew 
Willock, Jeremiah Sturgeon, James Matthews, William Cecil, Joseph 
Eddy, Matthew Scott, Christopher Martin, George Tod, William Rayen, 
Hannah Stevens, Caleb Baldwin, Henry Wick, Nathaniel Dabney, Henry 
Brown, Robert Campbell, John McGonigal, Andrew Donaldson, Wil- 
liam Potter, Samuel Huntington, James Alexander, Josiah Robbins, Isa- 
bella Menough, Samuel Menough, Henry Hull, Samuel Calhoun, Robert 
Stevens, William Thorn, James White. 

1803 — William Rawland, John P. Bissell, Hugh Bryson, Ephraim 
Quinby, William Wilson, James Davison (or Davidson), John Farizena. 

1804 — Sarah Randall, Samuel Hayden, Benjamin Ross, Isaac Kim- 
mel, Turhand Kirtland, John Rush, Samuel. Bryson, Caleb Plumb. 

1805 — David Parkhurst, James Hillman, Robert Kyle, John Sher- 
rodle. t 

1806 — Abraham Kline, John Burkhart. 

1807 — Jane Sheehy, John Stewart, John Young Sheehy, George 
Hays, Elijah Wadsworth, Home Hine* 

1808— John Gibson. 

1809 — Richard Holland. 

1810 — William Stewart, Christopher Erwin, William Smith. 

Many of these purchasers, of course, had actually contracted for 
their lands at an earlier date than the year in which the transfer was 
made, some of these contracts being made as early as 1796, while there 
were more in 1797 and even a greater number in 1798 and 1799. Also 
many settlers here purchased from original settlers even prior to 1810, 
although they do not figure in the direct transactions with John Young. 
In the transfers are also found a number of titles re-transferred by 
Young to the Connecticut Land Company* 

By 1802, in fact, Youngstown had become such a sizeable settle- 
ment and the northern townships of what is now Mahoning County 
had become so well populated that the court of common pleas and 
quarter sessions, at its February meeting of that year, ordered that a 



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YOUNGSTOWX AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 117 

township government be formed. The Village of Youngstown was 
the place selected for this first township, or town, meeting. 

The civil township referred to here was not identical with the single 
township of which the Village of Youngstown was the center. As we 
have explained before, it included the townships of Austintown, Coits- 
ville, Youngstown, Jackson, Poland, Boardman, Canfield, Ellsworth, 
Hubbard and Liberty. On April 5, 1802, residents of these townships, 
or their representatives, met at the public house conducted by Judge 
Rayen at Youngstown and organized in conformity with the order of 
the court. John Young presided as chairman of the meeting and George 
Tod acted as clerk. The record of the meeting, in the handwriting of 
Judge Tod, shows that the following business was transacted: 

"Voted, that there be five Trustees chosen. Accordingly, James 
Doud, John Struthers, Camden Cleveland, Samuel Tylee and Calvin 
Pease were duly elected. 

"Voted, that there be three overseers of the poor chosen. Accord- 
ingly, Archibald Johnson, James Matthews and John Rush were duly 
elected. 

"Thomas Kirkpatrick and Samuel Minough were duly elected fence 
viewers. 

"James Hillman and Homer Hine were elected appraisers of houses. 

"George Tod was chosen lister of taxable property. 

"William Chapman, Michael Seamore, James Wilson, Benjamin 
Ross, William Dunlap, Amos Loveland, John Davidson, William Service 
and Thomas Packard were elected supervisors of highways. 

"Calvin Pease and Phineas Reed were elected constables. 

"Voted, that the next stated town-meeting be held at the house now 
occupied by William Rayen, aforesaid. 

"The meeting then adjourned without day. 

"George Tod, Town Clerk." 

The trustees, of course, constituted the important township body. 
They met at the home of William Rayen on April 18, 1802, and the 
meetings of these first trustees and their successors were generally held 
at the same place for the next ten years, Judge Rayen being the town- 
ship clerk from 1805 to 181 3. 

Youngstown had now reached a position of considerable importance 
and prominence in the new State of Ohio. Its only rivals on the Western 
Reserve were Warren and Canfield, as Cleveland was not yet a serious 
contender for the position of metropolis and trade center of what had 
been New Connecticut. At Burton, Harpersfield. Mentor, Poland, Ver- 
non and in other scattering settlements between the Mahoning Valley 
and the lake, there were prosperous communities, but the center of 
activities was at the first settlement in the valley. Its importance can 
perhaps be gauged by the fact that the major share of the offices at this 
first town meeting went to Youngstown Township. Of the five trustees, 
two, Calvin Pease and Camden Cleveland, were Youngstown men, while 
John Struthers was from Poland, James Doud from Canfield and Sam- 
uel Tylee from Hubbard. From the lake to the southern boundary of 
the Reserve Youngstown held first rank iri the estimation of the pioneers. 



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CHAPTER VIII 

PIONEER DAYS OF THE WESTERN RESERVE 

Who the Pioneers Were and What They Did — Their Joys and 
Sorrows in Transforming a Wilderness 

The resident of Youngstown, or of any other part of the Mahoning 
Valley, today, finds it almost impossible to visualize this country in the 
pioneer days of a century to a century and a quarter ago. In the mind, 
one cannot transpose the miles of industries, the villages and towns as 
well as the cities, and the improved highways that stretch web-like across 
the country, into a forested and almost silent wilderness. What manner 
of people then, were they who came into a virgin country and made it 
into a home for millions of prosperous people? Who were they, whence 
did they come, by what process of alchemy did they accomplish this 
marvel ? 

To know the early story of Youngstown, of the Mahoning Valley, 
or of the Western Reserve, one must go back to the farms, the villages 
and the little cities of the East; preferably back to Connecticut, from 
whence the Reserve largely drew its strength. For almost two hundred 
years the Atlantic seaboard had been settled, this populated area stretch- 
ing from rugged Maine to balmy Georgia. The immigrants from the 
old world had multiplied by more immigration and by births, for those 
were days of large families. They had thrown off the British yoke and 
had become a free people. But in New England the land was not kind, 
and a living was wrought from the soil by hard labor alone. The lands, 
too, were limited in area, and rising generations longed for a field in 
which they would not be cramped for space. Land owning and home 
ownership was a passion with these people. Agriculture was America's 
great industry in the eighteenth century and in the opening years of the 
nineteenth century, and land was the one great investment. From New 
England ambitious young men worked westward into Central New York 
State, from other Atlantic coast states and from Eastern Pennsylvania 
they crossed the mountains into Western Pennsylvania, and from the 
South Atlantic states they emigrated to Kentucky and Tennessee. But 
ever the movement continued westward. 

"^That Connecticut should have been so instrumental in settling t}ie 
Western 'Reserve was but natural. The Connecticut folk were thrifty — 
thrifty, to parsimompusness if anything — and in seeking an outlet for 
hoarded dollars it ;was but natural that a half hundred or more of them 
should have fTasped.Jbe opportunity of purchasing the millions of acres 
of -western lanjds/ to- which Connecticut claimed., not only tjtle but the 
fight of jurisdiction. That Cormecticut bjdders should have been given 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 119 

the preference when the sale was made was but natural, too, for the 
government of Connecticut meant to make the territory beyond the 
Pennsylvania line part of the old home state, or at least to insure that 
it would be sold to purchasers in sympathy with Connecticut's claim 
to title to the ground. There was the knowledge, too, that these Con- 
necticut people were as honest and trustworthy in keeping a bargain 
as they were shrewd in driving one. 

The Connecticut Land Company's members were, in fact, the shrewd- 
est of tradesmen, and, with their purchase ratified, they lost not a 
moment in awakening interest in the lands they had for sale. Their 
home state and adjoining states were liberally placarded and circularized 
in 1797 with advertisements relating to the wonders of New Connecticut. 
To the unencumbered and ambitious youth; to the young man and wife 
about to make their start in the world, to the elders of the family who 
were dissatisfied with the inhospitable soil of New England or who 
were willing to sacrifice comfort and old associations for the sake of their 
children; to the wealth seekers and to those who had an inherited 
instinct for land but no hope of gratifying that instinct at home in the 
old settled parts of the East, this literature had a distinct appeal. 

They read, pondered, debated, and decided to go. The few, of 
many, belongings were sold and lands in the Western Reserve were 
bought or contracted for, or perhaps the prospective home builder went 
forth with his jgold tucked away in his belt, prepared to buy if the West 
came up to his expectations. The scanty goods to be taken along were 
packed into a canvas-covered wagon, drawn by two or four oxen, of 
horses, or perhaps by mixed teams of oxen and horses. A few head 
of cattle were perhaps driven ahead on foot. As likely as not, the trip 
was made on horseback, without the accompaniment of wagons, or even 
on foot, for many of these homeseekers of one hundred years or more 
ago made this weary trip without either wagon or mount. It is recorded 
that even women with babes in their arms walked the entire distance. 

It was a toilsome journey, yet one that was repeated year after year 
for more than a century as civilization moved ever westward, until the 
land between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans had been finally bridged 
with settlements. Emigration across the Rockies after Civil War days 
did not differ greatly from emigration across the Alleganies three- 
quarters of a century earlier. 

Frequently several of these canvas-topped wagons started out to- 
gether ; more frequently wagon trains were made up as the emigrants 
met along the road. Crossing the Alleghanies was the most wearisome 
as well as the most dangerous part of the journey, yet the southern 
route through Pennsylvania was usually selected in preference to the 
trip by way of New York State. In the opening years of the Nineteenth 
century there was but one highway, f ronj . the East, the road leading 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. It professed. to be a turnpike, but 
the term was most flattering as applied to it. "The roads over the Alle- 
ghanies to Pittsburgh were rude, steep, and dangerous, and some of the 
more precipitous slopes were strewn with the carcasses of wagons, 
horses, carts and oxen, which had been shipwrecked in their perilous 



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120 YOUNGSTOVVN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 







Emigrating to New Connecticut, 1817-1818. 

From an engraving in Peter Parky t Rwllectiont 

This Picture Entitled "Emigrants Westward Bound" is from 
"Peter Parley's Recollections," and Shows the Manner in which 
Most of the Pioneer Families Made the Long Journey from 
Eastern Points to the Western Reserve. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 121 

descent/' writes one chronicler of the hardships of the pioneers. "The 
scenes on the road — of families gathered at night in miserable sheds, 
called taverns, mothers frying, children crying, fathers swearing — were 
a mingled tragedy and comedy of errors." 

Richard Iddings, of Warren, who made the trip over the mountains 
in 1809, or a dozen years after the earliest of the pioneers, wrote in 
later years the story of his trip. 

"We (Iddings and his bride of a few weeks) started from Reading, 
Pennsylvania, for Ohio, in a two-horse sleigh, with our household" 
furniture, for which there was plenty of room. When we reached the 
top of the Alleghany Mountains the snow was four feet deep; but we 
learned there was no snow at the foot of the mountains, nor westward 
to Ohio. Therefore we went to the house of an uncle to my wife, who 
resided in Fayette County, some twelve miles from Brownsville. Leav- 
ing my wife, the sleigh, and one horse, I proceeded to Warren on horse- 
back. Here I hired a canoe, and, engaging Henry Harsh to assist me, 
I went down the Mahoning and Beaver rivers to Beavertown, and up 
the Ohio and Monongahela to Brownsville. Taking my wife and a few 
household fixings on board, we floated down to Pittsburgh, where I 
purchased a barrel of flour and went on to Warren. The weather was 
quite cold, and the settlers few and scattering. Some nights we lodged 
in houses near the river, and sometimes on its banks, without shelter. 
Sometimes we had plenty to eat, and sometimes we went without food 
for a whole day. We were two days getting over the falls of the Beaver 
River. Mr. Harsh and myself were most of the time in the water 
(frequently up to our waists), pulling up the empty canoe, while my 
wife sat on the shore watching the goods which we had landed. At 
the mill 'dams 011 the Mahoning the same process was repeated. We 
reached Warren on the 20th day of April, having been twenty-one days 
coming from Brownsville. ,, 

Yet the liomeseekers went on. Only the fainthearted turned back. 
That they persevered was due to the natural willingness of human be- 
ings to undergo hardships, disappointments, and disillusionments when 
there is hope of gain in the end. These New Englanders were bred 
to the soil and accustomed to hardy, outdoor life, yet they came from a 
settled country where the cruder hardships of the frontier had dis- 
appeared, so that even to them this was a new and rude life. 

A private carriage across the Alleghanies — affected by a few — was 
considered a badge of aristocracy. In the East such conveyance earned 
deference, but on the road to the Ohio country its presence was often 
resented. Such a vehicle was in fact often crowded off the road by 
the wagoners. Later there sprang up professional wagoners who trans- 
ported westward bound settlers from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh in 
great wagons capable of carrying three to four tons, or even more. 
These wagoners charged by the pound, and one early day emigrant 
records that members of the family were weighed along with household 
goods, for mothers and children were taken on board the wagons while 
the father of the family journeyed along on horseback, or even afoot. 

To the Western. Reserve the road lay along the Ohio River from 



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122 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Pittsburgh, up the Beaver River past the Town of Beaver, and thence 
south of the Mahoning River to Youngstown, whence the settlers radiated 
to the various parts of the Reserve. From Maryland the journey was 
made through Somerset, Fayette and Westmoreland counties to Pitts- 
burgh and thence along the Beaver River path. Some early day 
pioneers from New England even chose this route through Maryland 
and Southern Pennsylvania in preference to negotiating the mountains 
of Central Pennsylvania. 

Circumstances, of course, varied with different parties of pioneers. 
Sometimes a band of young men made the journey from the East to 
the Reserve, or to other parts of Ohio, on horseback, with light hearts 
and song and story and a careless disregard of all hardships. In gen- 
eral, however, the route the pioneers followed, the motives that actuated 
them, the procedure they pursued in leaving their old homes, the hard- 
ships they underwent on the road, were much the same in every party 
that made the trip to the Western Reserve in the first quarter of a 
century or more of its existence. There were compensations, even on 
the way West, that offset, but did not balance, the hardships. . It was 
a free life, the emigrants were accompanied by neighbors or were going 
to join old neighbors, and there was exhilaration and excitement in the 
journey to the western wilds. 

Unlike the process followed in most newly opened country, the settle- 
ment of the Western Reserve was not a gradual movement onward a 
few miles farther each year. The method selected for apportioning the 
Connecticut Land Company's holdings was responsible for this. Each 
stockholder drew his allotment of land, and it was to his interest to move 
thereon at once, or to procure settlers to move thereon. The settlement, 
therefore, of the townships of the Reserve — east of the Cuyahoga 
River at least — was dependent on the eagerness of the land owner to 
take possession of his ground, or on his ability to sell it to bonafide 
settlers. This explains why settlements were made at random in what 
are now interior townships of Geauga, Ashtabula, or Portage counties, 
when the next human habitation might be miles away. Originally it 
had been expected that the extreme northern townships of the Reserve 
would be settled first, but circumstances changed this program. The 
inhospitable winds of Lake Erie chilled the enthusiasm of many a 
settler who hurriedly moved southward, although often settling, curiously 
enough, along the high watershed between the lake and the Mahoning 
Valley where the snow piles up in winter to depths unknown along the 
lake and where the thermometer registers lower than in any other part 
of Ohio. This high ground was also preferred for the sensible reason 
that it was free of the swamps that then marked a great deal of North- 
eastern. Ohio. 

*.•• Regardless of their ultimate destination, however, the preference 
shown by the early homeseekers for the route from the East that lay 
through Pennsylvania * made Youngstown the center* from which all 
the colonists began th^* final Jeg of their journey to their new" homes. 
Youngstown was the -first settlement m th« Mahoning Hi ver valley 
across the Pennsylvania, lifls, it "was- the first settlement founded on the 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 123 

Western Reserve, and, except for Warren, the most important village 
on the Reserve. Back in their eastern homes the settlers directed their 
steps toward Youngstown, and probably three-fourths of the newcomers 
to the Reserve halted here to adjust their affairs preparatory to moving 
on to their new homes. 

The name, "New Connecticut," that was selected for Northeastern 
Ohio before the jurisdiction of the federal government and the North- 
west Territory over this great territory was acknowledged, would not 
have been a misnomer, for the Western Reserve was almost a trans- 
planted Connecticut. Connecticut blood was overwhelmingly in the 
majority. The settlers were of that Scotch, Irish and English stock that 
had helped colonize the Atlantic coast, win freedom for the colonies 
in the Revolution, and extend American jurisdiction westward. In 
temperament they were serious, and yet lovers of pleasure — lovers at 
times even of dancing and other unorthodox pastimes. In religion they 
were Congregational, or Presbyterian, for in their home state of Con- 
necticut the Congregational church was almost akin to the state church 
until the political revolution of 1818, each person there being taxed for 
its support unless he professed adherence to some other denomination. 
They were the type of men who had written freedom of conscience into 
the constitution of the United States, and yet in practice they were often 
intolerant of the religious beliefs of all dissenters. In this, however, 
they had no monopoly, as intolerance of all kinds was the rule rather 
than the exception in that day. 

They followed the rigid New England observance of the Sabbath 
Day, to extremes we would think today. One Western Reserve settler, 
we are assured, was arrested and fined in the early days for hunting 
on the Sabbath, although he had merely hurried forth with his rifle and 
slain a marauding bear that was making way with one of his hogs. The 
offender, it is related, thereupon joined the Mormon church, an organ- 
ization that may have faults but that does not fine a man for protecting 
his stock, even on the day of rest. 

This story, in itself, of course, is open -to question, but that the 
New Englanders came here with their strict religious ideas is not to be 
doubted. Yet, as is customary in a new country, religion naturally suf- 
fered by removal of its adherents from accustomed surroundings and 
accustomed influences. Rev. Joseph Badger, pioneer missionary for 
the Presbyterian church on the Western Reserve, sometimes expressed 
discouragement at the irreligion into which settlers and their children 
had fallen. They were painfully indifferent to church, he said, and in 
literature Voltaire sometimes vied with the Bible. 

It is doubtful, however, if there have b$en many newly settled parts 
of this country where churchgoing persisted as it did on the Western 
Reserve. If Voltaire was read it is not surprising, for the opening days 
of the nineteenth century witnessed, an era when atheism, w^s for a 
time fashionable and^affectejd by those who .believed themselves .super- 
e^dqw^dc intellectually. The West saw far less of this than the r East. 

This Connecticut atmosphere on the Western Reserve was also 
emphasized. by comparison. In the .Cincini^uti neighborhood New, Jersey 



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124 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

natives predominated. In Southern Ohio were the Virginians and 
Kentuckians who had crossed the Blue Ridge to the West. They were 
English in descent and Episcopalian in religion, less strict in their ways 
than the Connecticut men. South of Trumbull County was the "Seven 
Ranges, ,, peopled by Pennsylvanians of Quaker and "Pennsylvania 
Dutch" stock. In the Marietta settlements New Englanders were in the 
majority, but Massachusetts men vied with Connecticut natives there in 
representation, and both around Marietta and in the land peopled by 
the Pennsylvanians the Virginia element was strong. The convention 
at Chillicothe that gave Ohio its first state constitution in 1802 was a 
gathering dominated by men of Virginia blood. 

It should not be understood, of course, that the Western Reserve 
was peopled by natives of Connecticut alone. Next to Connecticut, the 
chief contribution came from Pennsylvania, Washington and West- 
moreland counties being drawn upon heavily. Outside a limited emigra- 
tion from Massachusetts there was little New England blood other than 
that of the Connecticut folks. New York was well represented and 
New Jersey and Maryland in a lesser degree, while few Virginians or 
Kentuckians came so far northward. From the old world too came 
emigrants from England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and Germany. War- 
ren, long the seat of justice for the Western Reserve and the most New 
England in character of any of the larger communities on the Reserve, 
was founded by Pennsylvanians, while religious denominations other 
than the Presbyterian flourished here even at an early day. It will prob- 
ably be surprising to know that Lake and Portage counties were once 
strongholds of Mormonism. 

One hundred years has altered the character of the population in 
the cities of the Western Reserve, but in all of them the "Scotch-Irish" 
Connecticut strain is still strong and influential, while many rural town- 
sTiips of Northeastern Ohio are today more thoroughly New England 
in strain than New England itself is. More than fifty years after the 
Western Reserve was settled William Dean Howells was struck by the 
contrast between the Pennsylvania and Virginia people of his native 
county of Belmont, on the one hand, and the New England character- 
istics of the people of Ashtabula County, where he located just prior 
to the Civil war, on the other. Howe, the historian, says of the people 
of the Reserve: 

"When the Reserve was surveyed in 1796 by General Cleaveland 
there were but two families on the entire lake shore region of Northern 
Ohio. By the close of the year 1800 there were thirty-two settlements 
on the Reserve, though no organization of the government had been 
established. But the pioneers were a people who had been trained in 
the principles and practices of civil order, and these were transplanted 
to their new homes. In New Connecticut there was little of the law- 
lessness which so often characterized the people of a new country. In 
many instances a township organization was completed and a minister 
chosen before the pioneers left home. Thus they planted the institu- 
tions of old Connecticut in their new wilderness home. 

"The pioneers who first broke the ground here accomplished a work 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 125 

unlike that which will fall to the lot of any succeeding generation. The 
hardships they endured, the obstacles they encountered, the life they 
led, the peculiar qualities they needed in their undertakings, and the 
traits of character developed by their work stand alone in our history. 

"These pioneers knew well the three great forces which constitute 
the strength and glory of a free government are — the family, the school 
and the church. These three they planted here, and they nourished and 
cherished them with an energy and devotion scarcely equaled in any 
other quarter of the world." 

This is the type of venturesome homeseekers who crossed the Alle- 
ghany Mountains and came up the Mahoning River to the Connecticut 
Reserve in the closing years of the eighteenth century and the opening 
years of the nineteenth. Although pioneers by inheritance, the change 
was not a slight one for them. Most of them came from country that 
was fairly well settled, to find the land to which they had emigrated 
one of dense and almost impassable forests, covered with a growth of 
oak, elm, hickory, maple, walnut, butternut, basswood, locust, cucumber, 
beech, buckeye, and birch timber, and even trees of other varieties. 

Eastern Ohio is a favored land in one respect at least. Lying between 
mountains and plains, it has none of the harsh, though sometimes beau- 
tiful, ruggedness of the former and none of the flat monotony of the 
plains, or the prairie lands that begin in Western Ohio and extend on- 
ward to the Rocky Mountains. There were few open spots here when 
the first white settlers arrived. Forest fires were not common in Indian 
days for the red man seldom shows that criminal recklessness in the 
Woods that too often distinguishes the white man. There were fires of 
this kind occasionally, of course, but a new growth of timber supplanted 
whatever was destroyed. It was small foliage and underbrush that gen- 
erally suffered on such occasions, and brush grows rapidly in this land 
of plentiful rainfall. 

Forests today are valuable merely because they are forests, but in 
pioneer days deep timber meant only back-breaking work for the set- 
tlers. Not only must the ground be cleared before crops could be raised, 
but heavy foliage had other disadvantages. The trees and undergrowth 
shut out the warmth of thte sun, winter snows lingered long in the spring 
and moisture remained long in the ground even after the winter snows 
had melted. Winter came early too, for the frost was a frequent visitor 
when the sun had little chance to penetrate through the trees. The rain- 
fall and the melting snows found their way slowly to the streams, and 
in consequence the rivers and creeks of the Western Reserve were 
uniformly higher a hundred years ago than they are now, while floods 
were infrequent. In 1806 the Ohio Legislature declared the Mahoning 
River a navigable stream to Newton Township in Trumbull County. 
In 1829 it was declared navigable to Warren, as the clearing of the 
timber in the meantime had reduced the volume of the river to that 
extent. Flat boats were poled up the stream from Beavertown to War- 
ren without difficulty except at the shoals. Technically the Mahoning is 
still a navigable stream for part of its course; a pleasant fiction that 
fools no one. 



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126 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Swamp land .was frequent, even m this rolling country between Lake 
Erie and the Ohio River, providing breeding places for the malaria- 
carrying mosquitoes. "Fever and ague" was a common ill, and a dis- 
heartening and distressing one to the pioneers. This affliction, in fact, 
disappeared in Ohio only in comparatively recent years, with the reclam- 
ation of the swamps, the draining of farm lands and the installation 
of sewerage systems in the cities. 

To the early settlers the raising of crops, primarily corn, was an 
utmost necessity. Game might furnish meat, but grains were essential 
to the welfare of the white man and wild meat palls on all but savages 
and half-civilized persons. The forests were an enemy to soil-tilling, 
and the forests, therefore, had to go. 

The first requirement of a pioneer, however, was a home, and the 
first work undertaken by him was the clearing of an acre or two of land 
and the construction of a cabin for himself and his family. These 
pioneer cabins, crude as they were, represented a great amount of labor. 

"Raising" a cabin was also quite a ceremony in its day. Obviously 
it was work that one* man could not do alone, so that this construction, 
or "raising" was a task that enlisted the services of every man within 
call. Usually the number was great enough that one of the party was 
made leader, or perhaps automatically filled this place by reason of ex-r 
perience or especial skill. 

Under his direction smaller trees were cut down, or small-sized logs 
selected if the occupant-to-be of the cabin had already cleared the 
ground, and these were cut into proper lengths for the walls of the 
building. Heavy flat stones were placed at each corner of the proposed 
structure and logs of somewhat heavier weight were laid on these, one 
at each side of the building. These were notched at intervals of three 
or four feet and smaller timbers fitted into these notches, joining the 
two logs together. These were the joists to support the floor. The 
logs to form the sides and the front and: the rear of the cabin were then 
raided one upon another to a height of eight or nine feet, when another 
row of supports were laid across for the upper floor of the cabin. These 
logs, of course, were notched at the corners of the cabin to fit into each 
other. One or two more logs made sufficient space for this small second 
story of the building. The primitive architects could not hope to bring 
the logs together even by notching, so the space between the tiers in 
the walls of the cabin were filled with mortar made from clay. 

Clean grained trees were split for puncheons and clapboards out of 
which the floor and roof of the building was made. The puncheons for 
the floor were split to perhaps three inches in thickness and one -side 
was hewn flat with a broad ax. Perhaps even both sides were dressed this 
way. The roof and ceiling were made of clapboards, a form of pioneer 
lumber resembling barrel staves before they are dressed, but split longer 
and wider. The roof was weighted down with logs. 

With an ax the rough logs were dressed down inside and an opening 
cut in one end of the cabin for a fire place, while a second opening per- 
haps j6 feet high and 4 feet wide was cut in one side of the building 
for a door. The door was made of the same material as the floor. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 127 

Oftentimes a door was not an immediate adjunct, a quilt or the dressed 
hide of an animal serving instead while the weather was mild. One 
window at least was cut in the walls. To complete this, glass was a 
distinct luxury. A few of the pioneers brought window glass with them 
from the East, but only the more fastidious or the most affluent at- 
tempted this. Usually paper treated with lard or bear's grease sufficed. 
Reinforced with narrow laths and properly oiled, this form of window 
pane resisted the rain fairly well and gave a soft, mellow light to the 
interior of the cabin. The chimney for the great fireplace was built on 
the outside of the cabin, being made of split lath or puncheons, well 
mortared. Nails were almost unknown, of course, as they were made by 
blacksmiths who hammered them out, one nail at a time. Wooden pins 
were substituted whenever necessary. The settler seldom aspired to 




Type of Pioneer Home 
This drawing, made many years ago from a description by an old settler, 
illustrates the cabin erected by Daniel Sheehy, who came here with John 
Young in 1798 and built the cabin in that year or the year following. 

more than a one-room cabin at first. When a second room was added 
this was in reality but another cabin separated from the parent building 
by a corridor, or hallway, perhaps six feet in length. Here the saddles, 
tools and both farm and household implements were hung or stored. 

With the advent of a sawmill better homes were possible. Some- 
times these were frame buildings; at other times they were log cabins 
but built of squared Jogs instead of the rounded ones. 

The interior of the cabin boasted only the plainest necessities, and 
these of home construction, unless a small table had been brought along 
from the East with the scant household belongings. 

Bedsteads were made of round poles for the sides and puncheons 
for the bottom, the poles being driven into the sides of the cabin be- 
tween the logs or supported on blocks. A mattress made of straw, husks 
or leaves sufficed and the skins of wild animals constituted the covering 
until something v better was available. 

Shelves were made of clapboards set on wooden pegs that had been 



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128 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

driven in between the logs. Dishes were of wooden, pewter, or earthen- 
ware. For. cooking, a spider and a ''Dutch" oven were generally used. 
Cooking utensils varied, of course, with the circumstances of the home 
maker, but one pot, a kettle and a frying pan were indispensable. Home 
made stools and benches were the chief articles of household furniture 
aside from the table and bed, split bottom chairs being a luxury not 
possible for all pioneers. Food was coarse and limited in variety, corn 
being the great staple, as even wheat was often impossible to obtain. 

For heat there was only the great fireplace with its stone fire chamber 
to protect the wooden structure of the building and its great fore log 
and crackling smaller logs. Often this fire furnished the only light too, 
as candles, that very primitive form of illumination, were unobtainable. 
Blazing pine knots too were used at times. There was perhaps little 
need of lighting as books were few in those days and reading was a 
pleasure almost denied. 

The cabin, of course, housed a spinning wheel and perhaps even a 
loom if one were fortunate. If there was a baby to rock a well rounded 
log was cut into a four-foot length and hollowed out to form a primitive 
cradle. ,\ 

With his home built and his family installed therein, the next work 
of the pioneer Was to clear off the forests. Creating grain fields in this 
manner was a wjprk of years, although an energetic worker sometimes 
cleared off eight for ten acres in a single season. 

In clearing off the timber much of the chopping was done in winter. 
The trees were razed one at a time with a trusty ax if the homemaker 
were working alone, the underbrush was cut and piled, the dead timber 
perhaps fired on the spot, while the timber fitted for rails was felled 
and cut into lengths and hauled to the place where the fences were to be 
built. The remaining timber was cut into lengths suitable for hauling; 
the rail timber was split and the zig-zag fence that is now disappearing 
from the landscape was built. 

When the warm days of summer had dried out the brush and logs 
sufficiently, the brush was fired and the logs hauled by oxen, or horses, 
into heaps and burned, the smoke of the burning timber blending with 
the Indian Summer haze. These "log rollings" were conducted in much 
the same manner as "raisings." Usually the space to be "rolled" was 
divided between two parties, each in charge of a captain, who in turn 
divided his men into gangs, placing with each a man specially skilled in 
piling the logs. There was great rivalry between these main parties 
as to which could finish first, and they worked with great energy. Piling 
the logs in such a way that they would burn up was a highly skilled 
business. One man could direct tHe building of a heap so that it would 
burn completely up, while another, less skillfully arranged would burn 
only partially, leaving large half -burned timbers which were difficult to 
handle. The victor in the log-rolling contest won his laurels as much by 
the skill with which his heaps were piled as in the amount of land 
cleared. After the logs were rolled, they were usually permitted to lie 
for some time to still further dry, and then fired. From time to time 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 129 

they were "stirred" during the burning, and this was also a job always 
entrusted to a man familiar with the work, as it required skill. 

"Log rollings" were always accompanied by apple butter boilings, 
quiltings and carpet rag sewings at which the girls applied themselves 
while the men piled the timbers. The women, too, prepared the hearty 
food for the workers. These "log rollings" were social events in their 
nature as well as hard labor and therefore never lacked for men. Even 
the shirkers were on hand — usually among the earliest arrivals — for 
generous quantities of wmsky were always provided for a "rolling" or 
a "raising" and the liquid was dispensed openhandedly. Affairs of this 
kind, in fact, were popular and were common in the early days when 
settlements were of sufficient size to permit a large body of men to 
congregate for mutual assistance. 

This waste of timber may appear now to have been wanton but at 
that day it was an absolute necessity. Without fields there could be no 
crops, with the trees standing undisturbed there could be no fields, and 
burning the timber was the only recourse for the settler. A market for 
lumber did not exist outside the immediate neighborhood and logs were 
too plentiful to justify hauling them more than a short distance to the 
sawmill. Much of the work of burning off the logs and brush was done 
at night to economize on time, and the light of these woods fires illum- 
inated the pioneer settlements in a day when candles were a luxury. 

When cleared ground was not an immediate necessity the scheme of 
killing the trees by "girdling" them was sometimes resorted to. This 
process saved much labor, but it had its inconveniences too and was not 
a generally accepted method of forest clearing. 

"Slashing" timber, still a third method of destruction, was the work 
of an artisan. It was a scheme that could be employed only when the 
wind was from the right quarter and other considerations were favor- 
able. The "slasher" first surveyed with his eye the tract of ground 
that had to be cleared or estimated the extent of the tract that he be- 
lieved himself able to clear. With his ax he then chopped each tree on 
the tract part way through, and, reaching the end of the area, selected 
the tree that was to begin the holocaust. This was felled by sturdy 
blows. In falling it struck the tree next in line and started that one 
toppling. The weakened trees responded in turn to the crashing timber, 
the entire strip gradually succumbing with a fearful roar. An expert, 
it is said, could clear an acre a day in this manner, whereas a single ax- 
man attacking one tree at a time required nearly a month to lay bare the 
same area. But it was a work that required skill and judgment beyond 
that of an ordinary chopper. 

The pioneer's barn was a necessary adjunct, of course, just as neces- 
sary as his house. It might be said in fact that it was even more of 
a necessity, for life on the frontier was absolutely dependent on draft 
animals and live stock and these had to be cared for to the best of the set- 
tler's ability. The early barn was built of logs, too, and was as large as 
the circumstances of the pioneer farmer would permit. "Barn raisings" 
were events that ranked with "log rollings" and "house raisings" in the 
life'of the early day residents of the Western Reserve. 

Vol. 1—9 



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130 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

With the trees and underbrush cut and destroyed the ground was 
considered ready for grain growing, although pioneer agriculture was 
even then carried on under wearisome disadvantages since the fields 
were merely stump-filled areas after all. In corn planting the ground 
was raised with a hoe, the seed thrown in and the ground stamped back 
into shape. Wheat was sown in harrow scraped soil and the seed car- 
ried beneath the surface by the teeth. Grass and clover were sown with 
the wheat, to come up after the grain had been harvested, and cut with 
scythes as winter feed for the stock. Wheat was cut with a sickle, the 
cradle coming into use in later years and harvesting machinery at a 
still later period. Threshing was done with a flail, that implement so 
cumbersome to the uninitiated and yet an effectual instrument in the 
hands of an expert. Sometimes the grain was tramped out by horses 
on the barn floors, as in Biblical days. 

Plowing, of course, was not possible in the clearings at first as the 
stumps and the green roots were successful barriers. The original plows, 
when it became possible to resort to these, were made with wooden 
mold boards and iron plow points. All labor was manual. Even the 
simplest of labor-saving agricultural implements were unknown to the 
pioneers. 

Clearing the fields of stumps was a labor of vears. Smaller ones 
were rooted, dug or pulled out, but for the larger ones the only means 
of relief was to wait until time had rotted them or until they had been 
slowly burned away. Many summers might pass before the field was 
cleared of roots and converted into a clean grain field or meadow. Oxen 
were the chief beasts of burden and plodded along before the plow or 
hitched to the great wide-wheeled wagons of the pioneers. 

As corn was the great staple, a generation of great Ohio men and 
women were raised on corn pone, dodgers, johnnycake and mush and 
milk. Meat was not as plentiful as one might believe. There was un- 
limited game in the forests in the early days, but white men and women 
did not care for a steady diet of wild meat. Cattle, the chief stock ani- 
mal, grazed in the forests. Hogs, when a settler was fortunate enough 
to own any, also ran wild in the woods and sometimes lived luxuriously 
and without human care for months at a time. They were subject, how- 
ever, to depredations from predatory beasts. Sheep raising came into 
fashion only after the country was fairly well settled. They were beset 
even more than hogs by the beasts of prey and raising sheep was often- 
times a profitless work. Home made Yankee cheese helped vary the 
diet in the early days of the Reserve. Soap was made from ashes and 
fats, maple sugar and wild honey were substitutes for cane sugar, and 
salt, now the cheapest of all food commodities, and yet one of the most 
necessary, was scarce, and often sold at $6 to $8 a bushel. 

Grist mills were the one great essential industry in pioneer settle- 
ments. Settlers might clear the ground with a grubbing hoe and erect 
habitations with the aid of the ax and trowel alone, thus living in a fair 
degree of comfort while waiting for a sawmill to come into being; but 
every settlement and every individual settler felt the crying need of a 
mill where he might take his corn and wheat to be ground. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 131 

Mill sites were snapped up quickly along the streams, and yet grist 
mills were not always available for the settlers. Sometimes, indeed, 
corn was carried many miles on horseback to be ground, and trips of 
even thirty, forty, or fifty miles were often made through the woods to 
the nearest store for even the plainest of provisions. One of the first 
grist mills on the Reserve was that built at Lanterman's Falls in Youngs- 
town, and thi§ was not available until several years after the settlement 
had been founded and then did not fill all the requirements of the set- 
tlers. 

Lacking mills to grind the corn, however, the settler's family was 
not wholly deprived of the meal for making cornpone or mush. They 
might be handicapped severely, but they were too resourceful to sit down 
and pine for the unattainable. Women of the family resorted to the 
corn grater when nothing else was available, this instrument being pure- 
ly a homemade affair and not unlike a huge modern nutmeg grater. In 
making it, one side of an old tin bucket was commandeered, holes were 
punched in this that left the raw projections outward, and the grater 
was nailed to a board for use. Another device was made on the prin- 
ciple of a pharmacist's mortar and pestle, a stump being hollowed out, the 
shelled corn fed therein and the grain pulverized with a crude pestle. 
Sometimes a sapling at a proper distance from the stump was requi- 
sitioned for service. It was bent over and the pestle attached and 
worked up and down, the advantage being that the sapling gave that 
perpendicular play to the pestle that would otherwise have to be fur- 
nished by main strength. This was a man's work, one may be sure, 
although much of the labor of preparing grains and meats for food was 
done by the pioneer women, who truly underwent even greater hard- 
ships than the men. 

The commonest substitute, however, when a grist mill was lacking, 
was the "hand mill/' which was a miniature grist mill right in the home. 
These devices varied in construction, but one pioneer leaves a descrip- 
tion of one of these mills that will suffice for all. 

"The stones in a hand mill," he says, "were of common sandstone 
grit, four inches thick and twenty inches in diameter. The runner was 
turned by hand, with a pole set in the top of it, near the verge. The 
upper end of the pole went into another hole inserted into a board, and 
nailed on the under side of the joist, immediately over the hole in the 
verge of the runner. One person turned the stone and another .person 
fed the corn into the eye with his hands. It was very hard work and the 
operators alternately changed places." 

The unceasing toil required of the pioneers in wresting a living from 
the soil and in rearing a family can be judged by the fact that the writer 
of the above reminiscence assures us that, "it took the hard labor of two 
hours to supply flour enough for one person for a single day." Since 
families in pioneer days were uniformly large, grinding meal for them 
by the handmill process was almost a continuous process. 

Potatoes were a crop generally plentiful after the first year or two, 
and figured largely in the diet of the pioneers. Pastries were luxuries 
denied the habitants of the wilderness. 



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132 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

These early days, of course, were not wholly devoid of diversions, 
although there was little except what was self-created. Debating clubs 
for the men where ponderous subjects, chiefly scientific and political, 
were discussed, were organized in the Western Reserve whenever a 
settlement had grown to sufficient proportions. This tendency was 
marked in Northeastern Ohio because the settlers were, as a rule, of 
better education than the average of pioneers. Dances, singing school 
and churchgoing were events looked forward to with pleasure. Militia 
mustering day each year was a period of intense interest to the pioneers 
of the Reserve, for the martial spirit ran high here and war was always 
a possibility. Independence Day was the one great holiday of the year, 
and unrestrained twisting of the lion's tail featured the program, for 
the anti-British feeling kindled by the Revolutionary war was fanned 
into renewed flames by the War of 1812, and it ran higher in the West 
than in the East, because American ownership of lands west of Penn- 
sylvania was never fully acknowledged until after this second war and 
the country was harassed constantly in the meantime by British-inspired 
Indians. Home diversions consisted mostly of work, for the women 
spun and wove in those days, making not only their own clothes but 
the clothes of the men folks too. Rags also were worked into warm 
quilts to replace the skins of animals first used for bedding. 

Log "rollings," house "raisings" and similar gatherings when a mill 
or a barn was to be put up were hard work but always partook of the 
nature of a holiday. Needles clicked and tongues clattered to the ac- 
companiment of the smell of cooking viands, coarse yet tempting to 
these outdoor workers. There was ample to eat, and to drink too. A 
dance in the evening always terminated these events, despite the stem 
religious scruples of these New Englanders. Rough puncheon floors 
were not especially adapted to dancing, yet they constituted no great 
impediment to the "square" dancing of those days, and to the accom- 
paniment of violin, or even a good whistler in the absence of a musical 
instrument, men and maids joined hilariously in the scamper-down, 
double shuffle, western swing and the half moon. 

Men and their wives, lads and their sweethearts, traveled horseback, 
one horse usually sufficing for a twain. This in fact was the only means 
of transportation, aside from farm wagons and sleighs, for the early 
settlers. Stage coaches came into being on the Western Reserve only in 
1824, when a stage route was established between Ashtabula and Wells- 
ville, on the Ohio River, by way of Youngstown and Warren, with daily 
service. This line at first actually ran only to Poland. The running 
time between Ashtabula and the Ohio River was twenty hours. The 
stage driver was an exalted being then, and it might be added that he 
remained an envied figure, around whom romance clustered, until the 
recent years when the railroad and the motor vehicle ended his career in 
his last stand in the far West. The canal came fifteen years after the 
stage coach and the railroad at a still later date. 

Horse racing in the summer and sleighing in the winter were royal 
sports. In his reminiscences, Roswell M. Grant tells of the existence of 
a club of Trumbull County blades in the early days much given to both 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 133 

of these sports. In this club were numbered Judge George Tod, Judge 
William Rayen, John E. Woodbridge and Col. James Hillman, of 
Youngstown; Gen. Elijah Wadsworth and Comfort Mygatt, of Can- 
field; Simon Perkins and Calvin Pease, of Warren; Doctor Tylor, of 
Tylortown, and Robert Montgomery and David Clendennen, of Coits- 
ville. When the Mahoning River froze over the challenge would go 
forth for a race on the ice from Youngstown to Warren. They would 
start in their two-horse sleighs, all abreast, for the winding trip of 
fifteen miles, the Mahoning River being passable then for sleighs all 
along its lower course. The men in the last sleigh to reach the destina- 
tion of the party were assessed for dinner for all the party. 

As interesting evidence of the changes that have come with the 
passing years is the fact that the Mahoning River now never freezes be- 
tween Warren and its mouth, on account of the waters being pumped so 
many times through the steel plants and used so frequently for cooling 
purposes that their temperature never goes below 40 degrees, even in the 
coldest weather, while in the summer the temperature is so high that 
for long distances in the neighborhood of the steel mills, the boys cannot 
even swim in it. 

It is not so many years ago that ice cutting was a winter industry on 
the Mahoning River in Youngstown. It is scarcely twenty years since 
thousands of skaters glided on the ice from Baldwin's dam northward 
and when swimming and even fishing in the backwater of this dam were 
still possible, but all this is gone today, and it is hard even to imagine a 
day when bobsledding from Youngstown to Warren was a pastime. 

From the same authority we get a thrilling account as well of one 
of the horse races of pioneer times. The stakes were a county seat, 
$1,000 and about everything else in sight. 

The race took place during the heat of the contest between Youngs- 
town and Warren for the honor of being the county seat of Trumbull 
County, and occurred at some time prior to 1810. Warren, in addition 
to boasting of superiority to Youngstown in other ways, announced that 
it also had a horse that could outrun anything in the village down the river. 
Judge Tod accepted the challenge on behalf of Youngstown and to up- 
hold the honor of his home town selected a bay mare named Fly, the 
property of Colonel Hillman. Tod took charge of the horse personally 
and curried and trained it to perfection. Warren had enough confidence 
in its horse, Dave by name, to wager $500 on the outcome and Tod 
covered this1>et. 

The course selected for the race was along the main highway that 
followed the river valley — now Federal Street — and the stretch to be 
covered extended from Judge Raven's residence in the western part of 
the village to Crab Creek in the eastern part, a distance of approxi- 
mately a mile. On the day of the great contest Warren and Youngs- 
town alike suspended work and turned out en masse. Those who were 
in favor of fixing the county seat at Youngstown ranged themselves on 
the south side of the highway while Warren boosters lined up on the 
north side. "They bet what money they had, then bet their watches, 



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134 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

penknives, coats, bats, vests and shoes," says the scrupulous chronicler 
of the event, who was an attendant himself. His description continues : 

"Alexander Walker rode Fly, and under his tutelage the Youngs- 
town horse forged ahead in passing Henry Wick's store. At Hugh 
Bryson's store Dave came alongside, but the spurt was unavailing as 
Walker plied his whip and gave a few Indian warwhoops and Fly shot 
ahead once more. Dave's chance vanished then and there, for Fly 
reached Crab Creek six lengths ahead. In fact Fly had entered so 
thoroughly into the spirit of the affair by this time that she refused to 
stop at all and was brought up only at Daniel Sheehy's cabin, a mile be- 
yond the goal." 

Youngstown was richer that night in money, glory, penknives and 
clothes, but somehow the courthouse was built at Warren. 

Horse racing hJas not diminished greatly in popularity in a hundred 
years, and sleighing is still a common outdoor joy on the Western Re- 
serve, although the motor driven vehicle has cut into both pleasures. In 
the olden days, however, sleigh racing was a sport of first magnitude. 
One such contest — preserved in Ohio history because it probably out- 
ranked anything of its kind ever held before or since — occurred after 
the Reserve had been fairly well settled, or in the winter of 1855-56, to 
be exact. 

In that year there was a sleighing season of 100 days in Northern 
Ohio. During the height of this season farmers in Solon Township, 
Cuyahoga County, organized a party that traveled to Akron in seven 
four-horse sleighs, and to signalize their trip carried a good sized Amer- 
ican flag with the regulation number of stars and stripes, also giving oral 
demonstration in true American fashion to the fact that they were out 
for a lark. 

Whether it was intended as a challenge or not is uncertain, but the 
people of neighboring townships, villages and towns accepted it as such. 
The farmers of Twinsburg Township -ref used to remain quiescent under 
the defi; instead they mustered a party in fourteen sleighs drawn by 
four horses each and the flag was surrendered to them. Solon Town- 
ship folks were not so easily vanquished, however. Appearing at Twins- 
burg with thirty-eight four-horse sleighs they easily won back the lost 
banner. 

The competition was now on in earnest, but it was converted into a 
rival county, instead of township, affair, with Cuyahoga, Medina and 
Summit counties competing. On March 14, 1856, they rallied at Rich- 
field, Summit County, for what was supposed to be the final muster, and 
so keen had become the rivalry that Medina County appeared with 144 
sleighs, Cuyahoga County with 151 and Summit County with 171, each 
sleigh being a four-horse affair, a total of 466 sleighs, drawn by 1,864 
horses. Naturally these were the commodious old bob-sleighs, and with 
their liberal seating capacity no less than 6,500 persons engaged directly 
in the contest. Brass bands enlivened the occasion and hundreds of non- 
participants came to witness the grand roundup, for work was generally 
suspended far and wide over the Western Reserve to witness this re- 
markable spectacle. In fact the contest was so unique that newspaper 



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YOUNdSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 135 

readers throughout the entire United States followed it closely, and even 
in Europe it was commented on by Old World people who marveled at 
the strange ways of the Americans. 

But the rivalry was not yet over by any means. Medina County 
folks were much chagrined. They not only had not captured the flag, 
but they had finished up in last place in the procession. This was a dis- 
grace that sturdy Medina County farmers could not endure. Four days 
later, on March 18th, they appeared at Akron with 182 four-horse sleighs 
and one sleigh drawn by four mules, and claimed the flag. In fact they 
did more than this. They brought along brass bands and banners galore 
and made their appearance with cheers that almost shook the earth. Far 
from being jealous, Akron declared a general holiday and gave the 
visitors a welcome with the firing of cannon and the ringing of bells. 
They won back the flag and kept it. "No accidents occurred and no 
one got drunk/' records Capt. Milton P. Peirce, the chronicler of this 
remarkable event. 

Women's pleasures were more limited than men's, but women were 
just as earnestly concerned about dress 100 years ago as they are today, 
all preachments to the contrary notwithstanding. Their tastes were as 
fully developed as those of their great-granddaughters; necessity merely 
modified fashions in their wearing apparel. A patch of flax was planted 
each year, and when the harvest was ready was pulled, dried, bleached 
and hackled. Whten properly beaten into a tow it was spun by the 
women. Cotton was imported in its raw state and had to be picked, 
carded and spun like flax. Cotton, flax and wool alike were spun or 
woven into cloths, flannels and blankets, while some portions of the 
yarns were dyed madder red, indigo blue and more modest colors for 
weaving into plaids for wear or for bed coverings. The women made 
their own clothing, and likewise the clothing for the men folks and the 
children, until opportunity or affluence brought them "store" clothes. 
For summer clothing cotton was mixed with the flax, for winter wear 
wool was used for the mixture. "Fine coats, boots, and hats were then 
unknown; the settlers used to go to meeting, the best of them, in their 
shirt sleeves, in the summer with clean shirts of their own manufacture, 
(the women's manufacture, rather) ; and many a time I hav^ seen our 
most respectable farmers make their appearance on Sunday barefoot," 
wrote one Youngstown pioneer in his reminiscences of early days here. 
"And often," he adds, "I have seen our ladies carry their shoes and 
stockings for miles, going barefoot until within sight of the church, and 
then put them on, feeling that they could not afford to wear such luxu- 
ries on the road." 

Which is a rather convincing refutation in itself of the oft-repeated 
assertion that pioneer women set no great store on dress. We would 
admire them less if we believed they were careless in this respect. 

Every day clothing was much plainer, of course, than the Sunday 
dress. Men's trousers, or "pantaloons," were made of deerskin tanned 
by hand. They were not altogether comfortable articles of wearing 
apparel. In wet weather they would stretch and become sloppy ; in dry 
weather they shrank and became stiff and hard. It is recorded that a 



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136 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

pair of these trousers could stand up unassisted when thoroughly dried 
out. Coonskin caps were common, too, among the earliest of the 
pioneers. 

The women with their humming spinning wheels and thudding looms 
were the real manufacturers of the early days. Aside from these home 
workshops* manufacturing was almost non-existent on the Western 
Reserve in the first half century of its existence, agriculture being the 
one great industry. The United States, in fact, was not a manufactur- 
ing country for many years after its founding, and it appeared to make 
no great effort to become one. The American policy was rather to be- 
come the great shipping nation of the world, and energies were devoted 
to acquiring ship tonnage to haul the world's goods, instead of making 
the goods to ship. 

This ambition was successfully attained and American clipper-built 
ships became famed throughout the world. Yet it was a shortsighted 
policy for American raw materials were hauled to Europe, made into 
manufactured products, and then brought back and sold to Americans 
at fat profits for foreign manufacturers. • The mistake that America was 
making in pursuing this course was made even more serious by the fact 
that the Jeffersonian party that was in power in the first quarter of the 
nineteenth century opposed any extension of either naval or land de- 
fense, so that American merchant ships could expect little or no protec- 
tion in event of war. 

The War of 1812 came on and closed the seas. Unable to get manu- 
factured goods from abroad Americans were forced to turn to making 
their own goods. Under the spur of necessity manufacturing plants 
sprung up along the Atlantic seaboard and America flourished indus- 
trially. The stupidity of England in educating Americans into the 
knowledge that they could get along without British-made goods was on 
a par with the course that Germany obstinately followed just 100 years 
later in making Americans realize that they did not need German chemi- 
cals, dyes and other commodities as they had been led to believe. 

Unfortunately America did not grasp the opportunity fully. The 
peace of 181 5 came on, the seas were reopened and foreign goods be- 
gan to flpw in at prices that America could not duplicate. The fires of 
industry here died down and manufacturing almost ceased until the tariff 
bill of 1824 was passed. This measure of 1824 was framed with the 
double purpose of raising funds to pay off the war debt and to revive 
the languishing manufactures of the country, and its effect was soon 
seen in a moderate increase in the number of blast furnaces, woolen 
mills and similar establishments in this part of the country. 

Here on the Western Reserve, however, manufacturing was negligi- 
ble until well along toward the middle of the nineteenth century. Saw- 
mills began to dot the landscape soon after the arrival of the settlers but 
they were local in their patronage and made no attempt to turn out any- 
thing but rough lumber. The grist mills were patronized only by resi- 
dents of the immediate neighborhood. The first attempt to make iron 
in the Mahoning Valley was about 1803, but the tiny furnaces here at the 
opening of the War of 181 2 had to suspend when their workmen enlisted 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 137 

or were drafted for service in that conflict. A carding and cloth dress- 
ing plant, an ax works and a woolen factory were built along Mill Creek 
but these gradually passed out of existence. The possibilities of the 
Mahoning Valley as a great manufacturing district were not foreseen. 
Making a living was probably a great enough problem, for in the early 
days there was little money in circulation in the West, business being 
confined almost entirely to barter. 

Education, on which these transplanted New Englanders prided 
themselves, was carried on only under the greatest difficulties. Presum- 
ably the state was to assist and foster a -school system, but in other 
parts of Ohio less store was placed in education so that there was liltle 
real effort made in this direction until after the school code of 1825 was 
enacted. Prior to that education was left largely to local fancy, and 
in no other part of Ohio did the people acquit themselves as well as in 
the Western Reserve. 

The soil being their chief reliance the settlers naturally turned to it 
industriously. The ground on the Western Reserve was generally fer- 
tile, but, as we have shown, required herculean efforts to reduce it from 
forests to fields, and even w r hen the clearing had been made for grain 
fields there was wild animal life to contend with, the denizens of the 
forests having a liking for domestic grains and barnyard stock. Because 
of its forested areas the Reserve was rich in animal life, not only in 
number but in varieties. The buffalo once ranged over the territory that 
is now the State of Ohio, but if its habitat ever extended to this north- 
eastern area this great animal had disappeared before the advent of the 
white man. Birds and animals of all other kinds were found here, how- 
ever, in great profusion, and were freely hunted in the early days, some- 
times for sport, but more often merely for the bounties, for the meat and 
furs, and even in reprisal for depredations committed. 

The elk, the largest of native game animals, was not plentiful, but 
deer, bears, wolves, panthers, wildcats, gray foxes, squirrels and the 
fur-bearing beaver and otter, together with the small mammals that are 
still existent — the raccoon, opossum, skunk, mink and similar animals — 
were abundant. Wild turkeys and other game birds were indigenous and 
ducks and geese and acquatic fowls of all kinds came in countless num- 
bers. 

The black bear did not long survive the coming of the white man. 
His meat was much sought, his fur made fine robes, and he was accused 
of robbing the pioneers' hog pens, although in this respect the bear is 
often blamed for the sins of fellow animals. The bear is a herbiverous 
animal and lives comfortably without meat if there is none easily avail- 
able. The deer held on for many years, until the '30s or later, in what 
is now Mahoning County, being driven gradually into the swamp lands 
and finally exterminated. In Northwestern Ohio they were found until 
just before the Civil war, and it is rather remarkable that they are now 
reappearing in Eastern Ohio, coming from Pennsylvania and West Vir- 
ginia where rigid protection has caused them to multiply. 

Wolves and panthers, especially the former, were obnoxiously plenti- 
ful. Being unfit for human food they were not molested by the Indians, 



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138 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

and therefore they not only multiplied rapidly but were unusually bold. 
They were deadly enemies to the cattle, hogs, sheep and horses of the 
white man just as they had been to the deer and smaller wild animals of 
Indian days. While a good word must be said for the bear, the indict- 
ment against wolves and panthers, or "catamounts,*' is well founded 
— and the earliest settlers were hard put to save their stock from the 
depredations of these marauders. So well was this recognized that the 
first territorial legislature of the Northwest Territory passed a law in 
1800 requiring county officers to offer bounties for the killing of wolves. 
In accordance with this act we find a record of the court of quarter ses- 
sions of Trumbull County of the May, i8oi ; term, reading: 

"Ordered by the court that the sum of two dollars shall be paid out 
of the treasury of the county as a reward for each and every wild wolf, 
of the age of six months and upwards, that shall be killed within this 
county, to the person killing the same ; and the sum of one dollar for each 
and every wolf under six months, that shall be killed in this county, to 
the person killing the same ; under the restrictions and regulations of an 
act entitled, 'An act to encourage the killing of wolves.' 

"Calvin Pease, Clerk." 

This law was directed against the wolf alone because he was bolder 
than the panther, the latter leaving the fastness of the forest only under 
the spur of great hunger. In 1805 the State Legislature took cognizance 
also of the depredations of beasts of prey, properly including the panther 
with the wolf. An act passed in this year ordered county authorities to 
offer bounties for the killing of these animals, providing that for wolves 
and panthers less than six months old the bounty was to be not more 
than $3 nor less than 50 cents, and for the scalps of animals more than 
six months old the bounty was to be not more than $4 nor less than $1. 

Since a dollar in real money, and not mere barter, was a valued pos- 
session in those days, this law was vigorously enforced and very con- 
scientiously observed. The panther disappeared rapidly before the cam- 
paign waged against him, but the crafty wolf hung on for many years 
and was found on the Western Reserve in the '40s or '50s. Even yet an 
occasional wolf is killed in Ohio. 

While tradition of pioneer days on the Western Reserve and in every 
other locality is replete with stories of attacks made on human beings 
by ravenous wolves and panthers, it is extremely doubtful if there is an 
authentic instance on record of any human being undergoing an attack 
from an animal of either of these species. If wounded and cornered, a 
wolf, a panther, or almost any being will fight back, but animals seldom, 
or never, attack humans.' Wolves and panthers will follow man at 
times, but they are often actuated by the hope of killing an accompany- 
ing dog or horse, or perhaps are attracted by the scent of fresh meat be- 
ing carried by the person followed. At times they have even less incen- 
tive — being buoyed up merely by the hope "that something will turn up." 
The bear is even more grossly maligned in this respect, nursery rhymes 
to the contrary notwithstanding. The American black bear never delib- 
erately attacks a human being. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 139 

Squirrels were pronounced the greatest pest of all. They were 
charged — and the evidence is strong against them — with raiding grain 
fields in a most demoralizing fashion. So general, in fact, was the dam- 
age done by them that the State Legislature was appealed to, and hit 
upon an effective method for curbing the inroads of these busy and 
destructive little rodents. At the legislative session of 1807-08 an act 
was passed requiring that every male person of military age . should 
annually turn in to the clerk of the township in which he resided at least 
100 squirrel scalps, for which a receipt was to be given. If he turned in 
less than that number, or none at all, he was required to pay 3 cents a 
scalp for each scalp below the required number. If he turned in more 
than this number he was given a receipt for the excess, and this excess 
was credited on his next year's quota or he was given a bonus of 3 cents 
a scalp. The fines assessed against those failing to comply with the law 
were divided among those who turned in the excess scalps. 

Naturally everyone complied with this law, since it gave an oppor- 
tunity of making some money or at least saving some. Great or- 
ganized squirrel hunts were sometimes conducted to make a season's 
killing all at once. In one of these early Ohio roundups a total of 20,000 
squirrel scalps were turned in while many more of the little animals were 
probably slain and not accounted for. The slaughter appears shameful 
now in the days of strict game law enforcement but it appears to have 
been necessary at that time — or at least the farmers believed it was 
necessary. 

Coitsville Township gave a unique demonstration of the operation of 
the law against squirrels. On the township records may be found the 
following entry : 

"At a meeting of Wm. Huston, Joseph Jackson, and Wm. Stewart, 
trustees for the Township of Coitsville, at the dwelling house of Joseph 
Bissel, of said town, on April 27, 1808, ordered that every person sub- 
ject to pay a county tax, according to the act passed by the General 
Assembly of the State of Ohio, December 24, 1807, to kill ten squirrels, 
and in addition to the ten squirrels, each person to kill two squirrels for 
each cow and four for each horse, and if a person has but one cow she is 
exempt. 

"Joseph Bissel, Township Clerk." 

The relation between cows, horses and squirrels is not explained but 
is perhaps easily understood. The crusade against the squirrels was 
begun because of the charge that they were inveterate grain destroyers, 
and the Coitsville trustees probably believed that those who kept stock 
that subsisted upon grain should be charged with the duty of protecting 
that grain. The final sentence in the trustees' edict should not be ac- 
cepted as an indication that the cows were required by law to engage in 
squirrel-killing expeditions themselves. The exemption was for the 
cow's owner, not for the cow. 

A game drive of startling proportions is described by Captain Peirce, 
the Medina County authority previously quoted. This great hunt oc- 
curred in Medina County on December 24, 18 18, and was projected by 



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140 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

New England settlers in one of the townships of that county, who had 
attempted to follow the sheep-raising industry to which they had been 
accustomed and had been thwarted repeatedly in their efforts by the 
depredations of wolves. 

Weeks were consumed in arranging the hunt. As the second war 
with Great Britain had ended less than four years previously and the 
law required every able-bodied man between eighteen and forty-five to 
own a musket, there was an abundance of weapons, even though many 
of the settlers did not care for hunting as a sport. Yet there were not 
enough to go around the 6oq men and boys who assembled, and some 
of the hunters carried axes, hatches, butcher knives, home made lances 
and even clubs. 

The hunting ground was to include the entire township of Hinckley. 
Surveyors blazed a line of trees in a circle half a mile around in the 
center of the township. The hunters lined up around the entire town- 
ship and when the word to go ahead was given they moved in on all 
sides, with horn blowing and great clatter, until the blazed circle was 
reached. The frightened animals had meanwhile retreated to the area 
within this circle. At another signal the dogs that had been brought 
along were released and they soon drove the wild animals from cover. 
The deer that tried to break between the lines were killed, and 
when all the outer animals in sight were slain the circle of hunters 
moved on in and mowed down the game. The hunt began at daylight 
and lasted until later afternoon. Refreshments, both eatables and drink- 
ables, had been sent for and several hundred of the hunters camped out 
for the night. An enumeration of the game collected showed seventeen 
wolves, twenty-one bears and 300 deer, with a few wild turkeys, foxes 
and raccoons. Whether the Medina County sheep dwelt in safety there- 
after the chronicler does not say, although it is not apparent that they 
profited greatly since the fruits of the hunt were mostly deer, and deer 
do not harm live stock. 

Rattlesnakes were common in the swamps and among the rocks of 
Mahoning County and adjoining counties in the early days, but they 
were small and not very venomous. They appear to have awakened no 
fear on the part of the settlers. 

According to the early settlers, rabbits and red • foxes were not 
known here when the whitemen came, making their appearance only 
about 181 5, when Mahoning County was fairly well settled. This, if the 
pioneers were not mistaken, offers curious proof of the strange pre- 
dilection these animals show for the presence of human beings. It is a 
fact, of course, that the rabbit thrives in settled communities while the 
red fox is perhaps more numerous in Ohio today than he was 100 years 
ago, but it has never been generally accepted that these animals shun 
completely the unpopulated wilds. 

During the many years that the settlement of the United States was 
under way, trouble with the Indians was the bane of the frontiersman's 
life. Scarcely thirty years have now elapsed since the red man definitely 
gave up the struggle against the encroachments of the pale faced 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 141 

strangers who moved ever westward, driving the Indians ahead and 
converting the game-filled forests and prairies into tilled farm lands. 

Ohio was no exception to this rule. As a fighting man the Indian 
has been highly overestimated by tradition, since he seldom possessed 
the courage that has been imputed to him, but in bitter opposition to 
the spread of white man's rule few Indians have excelled those who 
peopled Ohio in the closing years of the eighteenth century and the open- 
ing years of the nineteenth. The Shawnees, the Ottawas, the Miamis, 
the Wyandots (of the Huron tribe) and the Dela wares were as blood- 
thirsty as the Sioux or the Pawnees or any other of the "horse" Indians 
of the plains west of the Mississippi. Tecumseh, probably the ablest 
and the most remarkable Indian that ever lived, was a Shawnee, born 
within the present State of Ohio. 

In Southern Ohio and in Northwestern Ohio the red men contested 
for the ground that they believed theirs by right of ownership. The 
land was not won until lonely settlers, and even entire families at times, 
had fallen before the Indian's tomahawk, and Crawford and St. Clair 
found that even organized bodies of white men could fail in battle against 
the crafty children of the forest. Pioneers often related to their chil- 
dren in after years the stories of the anxious days spent in blockhouses 
when men, women and children of a struggling settlement had assembled 
to ward off an expected assault from the painted red men. As a rule the 
savages feared an open fight. Their killings were almost invariably 
cowardly; they fought only when they outnumbered the enemy. To 
run from an enemy incurred no disgrace on the part of an Indian. 

On the side of the white man, however, the record is far from clean. 
Too many of them considered the Indians merely a species of "varmint," 
like the wolf or the panther ; something that should be exterminated. And 
they had no compunctions whatever about the methods used in exter- 
minating them. The story of the founding of Ohio is stained with sev- 
eral foul crimes perpetrated by white men against the natives. 

One of these was the Yellow Creek massacre of April 30, 1774, a 
wholly indefensible act on the part of the white men. This slaughter 
occurred on Yellow Creek in what is now Muskingum County, and its 
victims were Mingo Indians whose entire village was wiped out by the 
whites under the command of John Greathouse. Among the victims 
was the family of Logan, noted Indian chief and friend of the white 
men, who became thereafter one of their bitter enemies. The massacre 
appears to have been the work of whisky-crazed men rather than a move- 
ment in retaliation for any actual wrongs. Even more brutal was the 
Gnadenhutten massacre of March 7, 1781, described in a previous chap- 
ter, when more than ninety Christian Moravian Indians were murdered 
by ruffians. 

Because of its character as a sort of no-man's-land the Western Re- 
serve, or at least that part of it east of the Cuyahoga River, was free from 
the worst of Indian troubles. The natives here were a spiritless lot; 
their presence was tolerated by the Iroquois claimants to the ground 
merely because they were considered too impotent to be treated as rivals. 
In the Mahoning Valley and adjacent places they resented the intrusion 



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142 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

of the whites, but only in a weak way. They had a wholesome respect 
for the white man, and the white man had little fear of them. Sometimes 
they stalked silently into white men's cabins and made themselves at 
home ; again they annoyed women and children in the absence of the men 
of the family, but usually they went no further than threats that they 
never meant to fulfill. At times they showed an actual fondness for the 
white children and even brought gifts to the settlers. Ugly actions on 
their part could be traced as often as not to indulgence in white man's 
whisky. Colonel Hillman was highly regarded and feared as well by the 
red men, and for some years after the settlement of Youngstown Town- 
ship parties of Indians came down the Mahoning River frequently in 
canoes and camped in the orchard on his farm, just above where the 
Baltimore & Ohio passenger station now stands. The red men often 
invoked the advice of Colonel Hillman in their disputes and complexities. 

The McMahon affair was the one serious break in relations between 
the white men and the red men in the Mahoning Valley,, but it was not the 
sole quarrel between the races here. In his reminiscences of early days 
in Youngstown, Roswell M. Grant tells of other incidents in the life of 
Colonel Hillman dealing with this racial strife. 

One of these concerns a murder committed at the ill-fated Salt Spring 
tract in Weathersfield Township in 1804. Even at this date there was no 
permanent settlement at the spring but settlers from the entire Mahoning 
Valley and even from across the line in Pennsylvania came up the trail 
to make salt, carrying their evaporating kettles on horseback and camping 
in the old cabins at the spring while at work. Usually these saltmakers 
traveled in parties, but on one occasion in the above year one man passed 
through Youngstown by himself en route to the spring. Two weeks later 
Colonel Hillman was riding by the spring when his dog began to bark 
and scratch at the ground, showing strange excitement that indicated he 
had found something aside from the mere hiding place of a wild animal. 
Colonel Hillman investigated and uncovered the body of a man buried 
about one foot deep and covered with brush. 

A large body of Indians who had been about Youngstown, Canfield 
and Ellsworth but a few weeks previously had disappeared, and as it was 
reasonably presumed that they knew the circumstances of the murder 
Colonel Hillman was deputized to round them up. He started out alone 
and near old Chillicothe overtook the party and told them they had to 
return to Youngstown and answer for the crime. After a day's delibera- 
tion they agreed to do this, the chief having admitted in the meantime that 
one of his men had committed the murder. The Indian, the chief said, 
had stopped at the saltmaker's cabin and the latter had given the red man 
a drink of whisky from a jug he had in his possession. The Indian de- 
manded more whisky, and when this was refused killed the saltmaker and 
took the jug of liquor. Digging a hole with knife and tomahawk, he 
buried the body and drew brush over the spot to conceal the grave. Fear- 
ing the consequences of the crime the entire party of Indians then hurried 
away. 

Colonel Hillman brought the Indians back to Youngstown and the 
murderer was arraigned, the trial taking place on the bluff overlooking the 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 143 

Mahoning River south of Spring Common. Simon Perkins officiated as 
judge with George Tod as prosecutor and Calvin Pease as counsel for the 
defense. The Indian was acquitted, although the chief was required to 
give security for the good conduct of his men in the future. 

In 1806 a killing at Deerfield attracted even greater attention. A band 
of Indians, variously described as Mohawks, Senecas and Onondagas, 
who had come westward on a hunting trip, camped near this settlement 
and John Nickshaw, one of the band, traded horses with John Diver, a 
Deerfield settler. The Indian, believing that Diver had overreached him 
in the trade, later demanded his horse back, but Diver refused to annul 
the bargain. 

The Indians received this refusal sullenly. At a subsequent gather- 
ing at the home of Daniel Diver, a brother of John Diver, or at the home 
of Judge Lewis Day, they attempted to lure John Diver from the house, 
but instead attracted Daniel Diver, who was treacherously shot by John 
Mohawk, one of the band, the shot destroying the sight of both eyes. 

Colonel Hillman, according to the narrator, was sent for and joined 
the party of Deerfield men who started in pursuit of the murderous band. 
That Colonel Hillman went alone on this mission, as Mr. Grant says, is 
improbable, but that he accompanied the pursuers is very likely as his 
services were widely sought on such occasions. The Indians were over- 
taken just west of the Cuyahoga River and Nickshaw was shot in resist- 
ing the whites, while Mohawk escaped. The remaining Indians were 
brought back to Warren and placed under guard but were subsequently 
released, as Nickshaw and Mohawk were the guiltiest of the party. 

Omick, or "Old Omick," said to be a Chippewa, was an Indian of 
more or less note in the Mahoning Valley in the first decade of the nine- 
teenth century and was generally disliked by the whites. He had, or was 
credited with having, an ugly and troublesome disposition. Omick was 
the father of a young brave who rejoiced in the name of Devil Poc-con, 
although sometimes derisively called "Tom Jefferson," from the fact that 
he had made a trip to Washington during Jefferson's administration. 
Devil Poc-con and two other Indians killed two white trappers, Buell and 
Gibbs by name, at Pipe Creek, and for this crime Devil Poc-con was tried 
by white man's law and condemned to be hanged. Death by hanging is a 
penalty that is rare in the history of the Indian people, and on this oc- 
casion Devil Poc-con's tribesmen are said to have offered to shoot him to 
prevent the disgrace of having him die on the gallows. Poc-con was 
equally hostile to dying at the end of a rope. The white men were inexor- 
able, however, and on June 26, 181 2, he was hanged on the Public Square 
at Cleveland, having been given a liberal supply of whisky beforehand, 
it is said, to prevent resistance that might excite the congregated Indians 
to reprisals. 

From notes gathered during a period of many years in the early days 
of the Reserve, Rev. H. B. Eldred, once resident pastor of Kinsman, 
gives an insight into life among the Indians of the Mahoning Valley for 
the first few years after the coming of the white man. 

The Indians that came into the settlements of what was then Trum- 
bull County, he says, were from different bands. The Senecas from 



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144 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

New York State came here only to hunt, other Indians came from the 
vicinity of Sandusky and the Delawares came from Tuscarawas County. 
Also bands came from Canada, among these being the Chippewas, later 
known as the O jib ways, and some who were called the Massasaugas. 

Although there were no permanent resident Indians in the vicinity 
of Kinsman, small straggling bands frequently visited the settlement for 
the purpose of hunting and trapping and also to trade at John Kinsman's 
store. Furs, skins* and various articles of their manufacture, such as 
baskets, wooden trays, ladles, curiously worked moccasins, maple sugar, 
and various trinkets were the commodities in which they dealt. They 
also brought in native fruits — June-berries, strawberries, raspberries, 
whortle-berries, haws, plums and crabapples, to exchange for milk, flour, 
meal bread — always wanting equal measure, no matter what was brought 
or what was asked in return. Calico, blankets, powder and lead, flints, 
whisky, tobacco, skins and some little finery, such as beads and the like, 
comprised their purchases at the store. Some of the Indians were sharp 
at driving a bargain. Many could talk broken English, and often showed 
themselves good judges of the character of those with whom they dealt. 
They were jealous of their rights, and shy of those white men in whom 
they lacked confidence. 

The Indians were generally friendly, withal, and gave the settlers 
but little trouble, even when intoxicated. Their drunken revels, how- 
ever, were not infrequent. They had some religious beliefs that seem 
to have been held in common by all members of their race. They be- 
lieved in the Great Spirit, who was good; also in an evil state and a 
future state. Dancing was one of their religious ceremonies. Efforts 
to Christianize the Indians of the Western Reserve were unsuccessful; 
and in truth there was no great disposition on the part of the white men 
to perform this service. 

Col. John May, of Connecticut, who visited the Ohio country even 
before the Western Reserve was settled, expresses in his diary the gen- 
eral opinion that the white men entertained of the Indians. He describes 
a visit of a band of red men to the settlement where he was temporarily 
located, as follows: 

"I was introduced to Old Pipes, chief of the Delaware nation, and 
his suite, dressed and acting like the offspring of Satan. They did not 
stay long before they went to their camp in the woods. I went to bed "at 
12 but got little rest. The Indians made one of their hellish pow-wows, 
which lasted till the hour of rising. I have no doubt psalmody had its 
origin in Heaven; but my faith is just as strong that the music of these 
savages was first taught in a place the exact opposite. About 2 o'clock 
I got some sleep, when I supoose the damnable music ceased." 

Settlers who located in some of the more remote parts of the Reserve 
and who, coming from a settled country in Connecticut, were unprepared 
for the privations of the first winter of pioneer life in the wilderness, 
found the Indians Good Samaritans in time of need but prone to become 
overfriendly after too long an acquaintance. 

"The Indians rendered valuable aid to us during our first winter/' 
one settler writes, "sharing with us game taken during their hunting 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 145 

expeditions and .bringing much elk, deer and bear meat, for which they 
wished no compensation. In some respects, however, they did not prove 
to be agreeable neighbors. They were accustomed to practice all sorts 
of unceremonious liberties. They pulled the latchstring and walked in 
the door unannounced, either in the day or the night, whenever they 
chose, stretching themselves at full length on the floor in front of the 
fire, or helping themselves to food. It was no unusual thing to have 
three or four loafing there uninvited. We managed to live in peace and 
friendly relations with them, however. When they were under the in- 
fluence of liquor they were treacherous and disagreeable. On one oc- 
casion we found our cabin filled with drunken Indians when we returned 
home, the women having fled in terror and taken refuge in a cave." 

Pioneer history is filled with stories of white children carried away 
into captivity by the Indians. Sometimes these were returned many 
years later, sometimes they were never Jheard of again. When taken in 
extreme youth they usually acquired Indian ways and had no desire to 
accept the place among white men that belonged to them. 

After the advent of the white man, however, the life of the Indians 
was short on that part of the Reserve east of the Cuyahoga River. In 
the first dozen years after the apportioning of the eastern townships by 
the Connecticut Land Company settlers came in with a fair degree of 
rapidity and the consequent conversion of forest land into tilled farms 
was fatal to nomadic life. The defeat the Indians suffered at the hands 
of Gen. Anthony Wayne at the battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 gave 
them a wholesome respect for the white men, although it likewise left 
them embittered. They remained on in Northeastern Ohio in diminish- 
ing numbers until about 1810, when smallpox broke out in the Indian 
camps, killing many of the inhabitants. The Indians accepted this afflic- 
tion as a visitation from the Great Spirit who was displeased with them 
because they had not removed to western lands allotted to them by the 
whites. Needless to say, the whites fostered this superstition. 

Shortly afterward the Indians incurred the dislike of the white 
men by allying themselves with the British in the War of 181 2. They 
were not in good favor in Ohio afterward. Their defeat at Tippecanoe 
by Gen. William Henry Harrison, in 181 1, broke their spirit still further. 
After 1812 few red men were found on the eastern part of the Reserve, 
although small bands occasionally visited here as late as 1820. In 
Western Ohio they remained until 1840 or later. 

The years that saw the settlement and the early development of the 
Western Reserve were years of great political rivalry and Ohio was in 
the midst of all political warfare then, just as it is now. Politically the 
early residents of the Reserve were naturally predisposed toward the 
Federalist party, or the party of Alexander Hamilton and the early 
Adams. New England was the stronghold of Federalism, and Con- 
necticut was perhaps the most Federalistic of even these New England 
states. The creed of this, the home state of so many of the Western 
Reserve pioneers, was ultra-conservative. Its policy, as one authority 
says, "was to avoid notoriety and public attitudes; to secure privileges 
without attracting needless notice ; to act as intensely and as vigorously 
Vol. 1— 10 



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146 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

as possible when action seemed necessary and promising; but to say 
as little as possible, and evade as much as possible, when open resistance 
was evident folly.* In other words. Connecticut used cold reason in- 
stead of moving with enthusiasm, and frowned on impulsiveness. 

In the Revolutionary war Connecticut was intensely loyal and un- 
compromisingly for resistance. Tories received little consideration. In 
the War of 1812 Connecticut was lukewarm. From the organization of 
the state in 1776 until 1818 the state was governed uninterruptedly by 
the Federalists, and the members of this party had little patience with 
the Democratic-Republican followers of Thomas Jefferson, whom they 
looked upon as mentally inferior persons, advocates of governmental 
destruction, and little better than infidels in religion. On their side the 
Democrats hated the Federalists with equally devout fervor, for this was 
an era of political as well as religious intolerance. 

With the major share of its immigration coming from Connecticut 
it would naturally be presumed that Federalism would be similarly in- 
trenched on the Western Reserve, but this does not happen to have been 
the case. In its early days the Reserve was inclined toward the party 
of Jefferson, now known as the Democratic Party. 

Several circumstances contributed to this reversal of sentiment. It 
so happened that among the Connecticut men who came to the Reserve 
were some who were staunch Democrats and left their home state just 
because of its Federalistic control. Party feeling ran so high at this 
time that an ardent party man was often made uncomfortable in a 
neighborhood dominated by his political opponents, and on his own part 
many a party man emigrated rather than reside among fellow beings 
whom he believed were politically depraved, if not actually dishonest. 
There were Pennsylvanians and New Yorkers and New Jersey and 
Maryland men among the emigrants who were not influenced by Con- 
necticut's conservatism or who were Democrats by tradition. Some, in 
fact, may have become Democrats through resentment at Connecticut 
domination. The settlers were mostly young men, too, and the Demo- 
cratic party — then known as the Republican Party — appealed to youth, 
while the conservative Federalist party drew men of more mature years 
and calmer judgment. 

The customary American procedure of blaming the party that hap- 
pens to be in power for all real or fancied injustices also influenced 
political sentiment on the Reserve. St. Clair, governor of the North- 
west Territory, was an appointee of the Federalistic administrations of 
Washington and Adams, and St. Clair was generally unpopular through- 
out the entire West. This dislike appears to have been engendered by 
an unfortunate temperament on the part of Governor St. Clair, rather 
than by any actual wrongful offenses on his part. He was a non-resident 
governor; something intolerable to the American mind. He was an 
easterner in thought and by instinct; with little sympathy with the 
aspirations of western pioneers and no understanding of them at all. 
He acted on the principle that he was governing for the administration 



* Johnson's, Connecticut. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 147 

at Washington, rather than governing merely in conjunction with the 
residents of the territory. He was a brave but unfortunate soldier in a 
day when successful fighting men were much esteemed. The low regard 
in which St. Clair was held was exemplified in the session of the first 
Territorial Legislature, that of 1799-1800, when he was beaten for dele- 
gate to Congress by the sturdy, bluff old Gen. William Henry Harrison, 
who understood the westerners thoroughly and was their idol. St. Clair 
did not make these self-reliant pioneers incline toward Federalism by 
any means. 

Perhaps the chief influence, however, in alienating the Western Re- 
serve from the Federalist party was its general tendency to consider the 
western pioneers as mere wards of the government, or unlettered per- 
sons incapable of governing themselves, and the accompanying disposi- 
tion to confine the United States to the original thirteen colonies. It 
was the same mistake that England made in trying to govern those self- 
same colonies. The Jefferson party, on the other hand, was for expan- 
sion and local self government. 

One who was a lifelong disciple of Alexander Hamilton and had 
little patience with the Jeffersonians, says : 

"The Jeffersonian Republican party did very much that was evil, and 
it adopted governmental principles of such utter folly that the party 
itself was obliged immediately to abandon them when it undertook to 
carry on the government of the United States, and only clung to them 
long enough to cause serious and lasting damage to the country ; but on 
the vital question of the West, and its territorial expansion, the Jeffer- 
sonian party was, on the whole, emphatically right, and its opponents, the 
Federalists, emphatically wrong. The Jeffersonians believed in the ac- 
quisition of territory in the West, and the Federalists did not. The 
Jeffersonians believed that the Westerners should be allowed to govern 
themselves precisely as other citizens of the United States did, and 
should be given their full share in the management of national affairs. 
Too many Federalists failed to see that these positions were the only 
proper ones. In consequence, notwithstanding all their manifold short- 
comings, the Jeffersonians, and not the Federalists, were those to whom 
the West owed most. 

"Whether the Westerners governed themselves as wisely as they 
should mattered little. The essential point was that they had to be given 
the right of self-government. They could not be kept in pupilage. Like 
other Americans, they had to be left to sink or swim according to the 
measure of their own capacities * * * Many of the Federalists 
saw this, and to many of them, the Adamses, for instance, and Jay and 
Pinckney, the West owed more than it did to most of the Republican 
(Democratic) statesmen; but as a whole, the attitude of the Federalists, 
especialy in the northeast (New England) toward the West was un- 
generous and improper, while the Jeffersonians, with all their unwisdom 
and demagogy, were nevertheless the western champions." * 

It was but natural, therefore, that even the Western Reserve should 



* Roosevelt, Winning of the West. 



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148 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

have inclined toward the party of Jefferson. Outside the Reserve, Ohio, 
after its organization, was even more Democratic. The Democrats who 
framed the state constitution at Chillicothe in 1802 showed their deter- 
mination to place all authority in the hands of the people by declining 
to give the governor the veto power. For 100 years thereafter Ohio held 
to this curious rule. Oddly enough, however, the men who drafted the 
Chillicothe document declared that constitution ratified without referring 
it to the people of the state at all. 

These combined circumstances swung Trumbull County away from 
Federalism. The county gave a majority to the Democratic-Republican 
candidate for governor at each election from the formation of the state 
dates for this office, as the so-called federalist who carried the county in 
until 1822. In fact the Federalists usually did not even put forth candi- 
dates for this office, as the so-called Federalist who carried the county in 
1830, who were also given majorities in Trumbull County, were anti- 
Jackson Democrats rather than Federalists. The latter party virtually 
passed out of existence after the War of 1812, due to its mistaken atti- 
tude toward that war. Ohio as a state was consistently Democratic in all 
presidential elections from its organization to 1836 when it gave its vote 
to William Henry Harrison, the Whig candidate, although it supported 
Henry Clay in 1824 when he was the anti-Jackson candidate. 

The one governor Trumbull County furnished to Ohio in the early 
days was Samuel Huntington, a Democrat, who served from 1809 to 181 1. 
He was for a short while a resident of Youngstown but was a Cleveland 
man when elected, Cleveland then being in Trumbull County. With this 
exception Northeastern Ohio gave no governor to the state in the first 
forty-five years of its existence, or until Seabury Ford of Geauga 
County was elected on the Whig ticket in 1848. 

Renewed immigration from Connecticut following the New England 
drouth of 1817-18 and the political revolution that turned Connecticut 
over to the Democrats in the latter year, probably accounts for the anti- 
Democratic majority recorded in 1822. When Trumbull County swung 
away from the Democratic party in that year, however, the parting was 
final. It remained anti- Jackson, Whig and abolitionist until the forma- 
tion of the Republican party when it went wholeheartedly over to this 
new organization. The remainder of the Western Reserve followed the 
same course, with lesser fervor in the case of some counties but even 
greater fervor in the case of others, until Northeastern Ohio became 
famed throughout the entire United States for the stunning Republican 
majorities it rolled up. It is only with the last decade that the strength 
of Republicanism has been shaken here, and this has been due in part 
to the growth of independent voting. Republican majorities have fallen 
off or have been wiped out, but a similar condition exists in Northwest- 
ern Ohio — always the stronghold of the Democratic party in this state — 
just as Northeastern Ohio was the bulwark of Republicanism — where 
Democratic majorities have shown a similar slump. 

In local politics party lines were not so closely drawn in the early 
days of the Western Reserve. This was due, perhaps, to the fact that 
county seat contests and similar struggles were often given precedence 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 149 

over partisanship. Men of high type were invariably selected to repre- 
sent Trumbull Courlty. In the first Legislature of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, that of 1799-1801, Trumbull County was unrepresented because 
the people here did not acknowledge territorial jurisdiction. In the sec- 
ond Territorial Legislature they were represented by Gen. Edward 
Paine, after whom Painesville was named. Samuel Huntington and 
David Abbott were Trumbull County members of the Chillicothe con- 
vention of 1802 that drafted the constitution under which the State of 
Ohio came into existence. Among the Trumbull County men who sat 
in the early Ohio Legislatures — from 1803 to 1820 — were Samuel Hunt- 
ington, Benjamin Tappan, George Tod, Calvin Cone, Calvin Pease, 
Daniel Eaton, Turhand Kirtland, John W. Seeley and Eli Baldwin in 
the State Senate, and Ephraim Quinby, Aaron Wheeler, David Abbott, 
Homer Hine, Amos Spafford, James Kingsbury, James Montgomery, 
John W. Seeley, Richard J. Elliott, Robert Hughes, Thomas G. Jones, 
Aaron Collar, Samuel Bryson, Samuel Brown, Benjamin Ross, Samuel 
Leavitt, James Hillman, John P. Bissel, Wilson Elliott, William W. 
Cotgreave, Henry Lane, Eli Baldwin, Edward Scofield and Dr. Henry 
Manning in the House of Representatives. 

Trumbull County remained identical with the Connecticut Western 
Reserve from its organization in 1800 until 1805 when Geauga County 
was formed from within it. Portage County was organized in 1807, 
Cuyahoga in 1810, Ashtabula was created in 1807 and organized in 181 1, 
Lake County in 181 1 and the counties west of the Cuyahoga River at a 
later date. Summit and Mahoning, the two most important counties in 
Northeastern Ohio outside Cuyahoga County, were among the last to 
come into existence, the former being organized from Medina and Stark 
counties in 1840 and the latter from Trumbull and Columbiana counties 
in 1846. 

As might be expected from the character of its population, the West- 
ern Reserve was intensely anti-slavery. It is doubtful indeed if any sec- 
tion of the United States contributed more to abolishing serfdom in the 
United States than this northeastern corner of Ohio. In the first half 
of the eighteenth century when the question of slavery or freedom 
agitated the entire country this neighborhood was anathema to be- 
lievers in slavery. They frankly believed that the Western Reserve 
harbored and bred the country's most uncompromising opponents of their 
system, and their belief was fully justified. 

There was no quarrel over slavery or no slavery in Ohio as the 
constitution of 1787 prohibited human slavery forever in the Northwest 
Territory or in the states that should be carved from it. But the New 
Englanders who came here inherited and brought with them disbelief in 
slavery anywhere. Some of them, even in the earliest days, were open 
enemies of this system, while even those less severe in their opinions 
had no sympathy with it. Dislike ripened into open enmity as the slave 
question became more and more paramount until Western Reserve resi- 
dents became contemptuous of both law and court decisions that blindly 
attempted to stem agitation or settle the slavery question by compromise. 

Even in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, when anti-slavery 



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150 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

sentiment even in the North was confined to opposition to its extension, 
the people of Northeastern Ohio were more advanced in their opposition 
and did not hesitate to act in flat violation of the supposed rights of 
slaveholders by assisting in the escape of fugitive slaves. 

On one such occasion, in 1823, a negro, his wife and two children, 
who had escaped from their master in Virginia and had made their way 
northward into Trumbull County on foot, were observed passing through 
the Village of Bloomfield, en route to Ashtabula whence they hoped to 
escape into Canada. It was naturally presumed that they were run- 
aways, but among such a sympathetic people they were not molested. At 
dark the same eyening the owner of the slaves, his son and a third man 
reached the village and made inquiries concerning their chattels. Being 
assured that the fugitives were but a short distance ahead, and being 
tired frc>m hard, riding, the pursuers decided td f remain over night and 
resume the pursuit in the morning. Charging the landlord to call them 
without fail at an early hour, they retired. 

Thd accommodating innkeeper thereupon gave' orders that there was 
to be absolute quiet in the tavern the following morning and that no one 
was to stir until called by the proprietor himself. The word was then 
passed about that the slave hunters were in town and that,' unless 
thwarted, they would overtake the runaways the following morning, an 
announcement that occasioned great consternation. The inhabitants 
determined that the hunt was going to be unsuccessful and, under the 
leadership of Ephraim Brown, a party of villagers started out after dark 
in a covered wagon, drawn by a team, to overtake and hide the fleeing 
family. The runaways were discovered secreted at a home a dozen miles 
ntirth of BloQmfield attd tjhe rescuers met a hostile reception, being mis- 
taken at first for slave huhters. On satisfying the home owner of their 
good intentions, however* and acquainting him with the danger that the 
negroes were in, he JQincjd iii^heir plans for the escape. The fugitives 
were carried to a farnt'thaf l bb'asted a barn standing some distance back- 
from the toad. Here th^yW^Ve secreted. 

Air ;Meatnwhile there fr&s'wratli 1 in tble Bloomfield inn. The slave owner 
afrd his aides had fod#4 'Hding/a good antidote for insomnia and in the 
"tlissftil stillness ]of*tHe ^drjilng slumbered on until long after the sun 
had risen. Wh£n tlity awoke and realized what hour it was the storm 
broke. ' ' ' ° J \ , 

The landlord was profuse iti his apologies, but found himself beset 
'With many annoyances in his desire to make up for lost time by speeding 
the slave hunters onward. He dressed hurriedly down to his boots, but 
one of these w^s found dnty after a lengthy search. When he reached 
the barn with his 1 guests- the tarn was locked and the key had been left 
at the tavemV At the tavern the. key was not in its accustomed place 
and it was found only after a long httrit When the horses were led out 
each lacked a shoe, aJthbUgh the Virginians swore mightily that the 
animals had been well' shod the night before. At the blacksmith shop 
the faithful smithy was for once derelict. Instead of being at his forge 
he was absent and no one knew his whereabouts. There was another 
search, and, when found, the smith lacked his accustomed skill. There 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 151 

was not a shoe or a nail in stock, although the thrifty blacksmiths of 
those days usually kept a good supply made ahead. It was unusually 
tedious work for the smith to forge shoes and nail them on. Hours 
after the time at which they had hoped to resume their search, the slave 
hunters finally got under way. 

At noon the pursuers passed the barn in Southern Ashtabula County 
where their prey was hidden. When they were a safe distance along 
the road the wagon and its inmates drove from the barn and the negroes 
were taken back to Bloomfield where they were led into a deep wood and 
secreted in a rude hut that had been hastily erected that morning by the 
villagers. They were provided with food and assured of their safety. 

Three days later the slave hunters again put up at the Bloomfield 
tavern on their return journey. They had given up the search. But at 
Bloomfield they were arrested on a charge of running past a lollgate on 
the pike just north of Warren. On passing the gate they had intended 
to take the state road to Painesville, and were passed with the payment 
of half fare on making this representation. The road to Bloomfield, 
which they subsequently followed, required full fare, so that the hunters 
were guilty of misrepresentation, although not intentionally so. They 
were refused food for their horses, they were arrested for hitching 
their steeds to a sign post after they had been refused stall place at the 
village stable, and were fined $25 and costs. Altogether it was neither 
a fruitful nor an enjoyable trip for the Virginians. 

Assisting runaway slaves was at that time not an offense against the 
law as it was in later years, except that a slave was considered property, 
and helping a black man to escape was helping to deprive a man of his 
property. It was incidents of this kind, however, that brought into ex- 
istence the "Underground Railroad," that strange system by means of 
which black fugitives were hurried along from the Mason and Dixon 
Jine to the Canadian border and freedom. The name, of course, was 
descriptive of the methods used, as there was neither a railroad nor an 
underground route of any kind- for the use of the blacks. Slaves who 
were fortunate enough to escape from their masters were merely carried 
along under cover of darkness from one "station" to the next , until 
finally they had reached Canada. These "stations," it might be ex- 
plained, were the homes of persons inimical to slavery, or secret hiding 
places known only to these persons. 

The "Underground Railroad" was largely an Ohio organization, fts 
members were lawbreakers after the Fugitive Slave law was passed, but 
they were proud of their lawlessness ; just as their descendants today are 
proud of the work of their ancestors. And the Western Reserve was a 
haven for fugitives, for the slave who reached Northeastern Ohio could 
feel almost certain that he would never be returned to servitude. 

One of these "underground" stations was located at Yourigstown, 
runaway slaves generally reaching here b£ way of Salem, a famous 
station for refugees. Others tame by way of Poland. Those prominent 
in managing the Youngstown fetation were John Loughridge, leader of 
the movement; Henry Burnett, •James Calvin, John Kirk and Doctor 
Bane. 



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152 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

In North and South alike the Reserve was famed, or damned, accord- 
ing to one's views, for its hatred of human slavery and its support of 
the doctrine of abolition. In Congress Joshua R. Giddings and Benjamin 
F. Wade thundered against the system that made chattels of human 
beings, and their denunciation forced recognition of the evils of the 
system. On the Reserve Betsy M. Cowles aroused the indifferent and 
has sometimes been credited with doing more than was done by any 
man to spread the doctrine of abolition. John Brown was a Western 
Reserve man, and a vigorous opponent of slavery while a resident of 
Portage and Summit counties, even before he started on the anti-slavery 
mission that cost him his life. 

After Brown's ill-fated raid on the arsenal at Harper's Ferry his 
son, John Brown, Jr., was ordered before the United States Senate to 
give evidence. When he ignored this summons the sergeant-at-arms of 
the Senate was ordered to arrest him. Fearing that he, and Brown's 
other sons, would be taken by force an armed organization known as the 
"Sons of Liberty" was formed on the Reserve to resist by force any 
attempt to arrest the Browns. Later the organization was expanded to 
act politically in the overthrow of slavery. In the decade before the 
Civil war the Western Reserve was the scene of mass meetings arranged 
by these liberators at which fiery bolts were hurled against the slave 
system. 

Oberlin was a hotbed of abolition. It was Oberlin that opened to 
the negro the opportunity for education, and it was Oberlin that trained 
the lecturers who swarmed forth and aroused Ohio against slavery. 

Judge James Brownlee, of Poland, cattle dealer for a score of years 
before the Civil war, attended one of these abolition mass meetings, 
held at Canfield. Although he was known to be personally opposed to 
slavery, Judge Brownlee's presence was a surprise to the abolitionists, as 
he was a staunch Whig in politics and the Whig party had pursued a 
course that was something between advocacy of slavery and straddling 
the question. It was this spineless policy, incidentally, that sent the Whig 
party to its political grave. 

The Canfield gathering had been called to protest against the passage 
of the Fugitive Slave law, and the resolutions committee of the as- 
semblage was wrestling with the phraseology of the motion that should 
go before the meeting condemning this proposed law. Judge Brownlee 
drew up a resolution so drastic that even the resolutions committee 
feared to father it. He then introduced it personally. The resolution 
read: 

"Resolved: That come life, come death, come fine or imprisonment, 
we will neither aid nor abet the capture of a fugitive slave, but on the 
contrary will harbor and feed, clothe and assist, and give him a practical 
God-speed toward liberty." 

The resolution was adopted unanimously and amid enthusiasm. It 
was no idle boast. The Fugitive Slave law was passed ; it was made a 
serious offense to assist a runaway black man; but the people of the 
Western Reserve scorned both the law and the government dominated 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 153 

by the slave owners. It made the abolitionists more outspoken in their 
sentiments; it made abolitionists out of the indifferent. 

These are the men and women who first settled the Western Reserve, 
the Mahoning Valley, and Youngstown; who made a wilderness into a 
home for millions; who singlemindedly went ahead in spite of obstacles 
and discouragements. With them life was largely toil, yet they had 
their joys and diversions too. They had the virtues of frontiersmen and 
many of their vices, too, although the Western Reserve had less of un- 
couthness and lawlessness than most newly settled countries. Their 
chief fault, perhaps, was narrowness and intolerance, but they were 
strong in their own convictions and willing to suffer for them. And they 
were the trail blazers for the twentieth century residents of Youngstown 
and Northeastern Ohio who have all the advantages and comforts that 
they lacked — and have those advantages and comforts because these 
pioneers were willing to forego them for the sake of posterity. 



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CHAPTER IX 

THE WOMEN PIONEERS 

Heroic Wives and Mothers to Whom Present Civilization Owes a 
Great Debt — Something About Their Trials and Achieve- 
ments. 

The reader has probably obtained in preceding pages some concep- 
tion of the part played by women who c&me to the Mahoning Valley 
with husbands or families and helped to conquer the wilderness. It is, 
however, fitting that some space should be devoted to a story of these 
women, and perhaps an understanding of their trials may be of value 
to us who, without a thought of them, enjoy comforts, conveniences and 
prosperity created largely by men who inherited from them courage, 
energy and industry in superlative degree. Incidentally this story may 
help us to realize that the world is growing better morally, physically 
and mentally, in spite of the tendency of those whose memories of the 
earlier days are influenced by the spice which youth gives to life and 
who are sometimes inclined to insist that the old times were the best. 

Most of women among the earliest arrivals in the Mahoning Valley 
were brides. Many of them came from homes in the East where, if 
they did not enjoy the comforts and refinements of the present age, they 
at least had those of a substantial and progressive civilization, including 
social pleasures, companionship congenial to them and no hardships ex- 
cept those imposed by the industry which characterized women of all 
classes in the early days of the republic. A surprising number of these 
women were daughters of men prominent in the life of their com- 
munities and able to give them the advantages of education. Such wom- 
en were sought out by energetic and hardy men who had left the eastern 
states as much through a desire for adventure and a vision of a great 
new country in which they could attain wealth and political prominence 
as for any other reason. Of course the greater number were women who 
had been born on the outposts of civilization, but this did not make their 
lot an enviable one, although it doubtless helped to make life easier for 
them than for their sisters more tenderly reared and less accustomed to 
hardship. 

Then as now woman was the home maker, but the term was under- 
stood among the pioneers in a much more literal sense than that in which 
we are accustomed to use it. She was expected to provide not only the 
atmosphere of the home, to bear and rear the children and attend to the 
domestic duties generally as they are known among us; but it was cus- 
tomary and usually necessary for her to do many other things now done 
by men or by the complicated machinery of modern community life. The 

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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 155 

pioneer woman often helped her husband in the fields, She always 
planted and cultivated the garden, milked the cows, made the clothing 
and prepared the household food. Not infrequently she planted the flax ' 
or sheared the sheep, prepared the raw material and spun it into yarn, 
wove it into cloth, coloring and finishing this to provide the garments 
worn by herself and her family. All these things were done with appli- 
ances of the crudest sort, and they must have required infinite patience, 
almost inexhaustible energy and tireless industry. 

Cooking was done over an open fireplace provided with a crane, on 
which pots and kettles could be hung so that they would swing outward. 
In addition to the kettles, the utensils consisted of a few cast iron pans 
or skillets, like the pots unbelievably heavy and inconvenient. Bread 
was baked in what was known as a reflector, if the family was unusu- 
ally well to do. Otherwise the baking facilities were confined to a 
"Dutch Oven," which was a heavy cast iron pot having four legs, be- 
neath which hot coals were raked from the fireplace, these being removed 
and replaced as often as necessary. This cooking went on continually, 
and while it was in progress the housewife kept herself from idleness by 
making butter in a hand churn, manufacturing soap, washing the family 
clothing, perhaps at a nearby stream, weeding the garden, feeding the 
stock, cutting wood for the fireplace, and a few other duties that per- 
mitted frequent trips to the fire to see how her boiling, roasting and bak- 
ing was coming on. 

The task of providing clothing was probably the most difficult one 
confronting these women, for their housekeeping was comparatively 
simple and from this they obtained occasional brief respite. But the 
spinning went on forever. Preparing the linen thread or the wool yarn 
for weaving was a task requiring infinite patience. The spinning was 
at first done by walking back arid forth beforfe a large wheel, the low 
spinning wheel being a later invention. Many a housewife walked miles 
and miles each evening spinning, while her husband and children slept. 
One pioneer took the trouble to count the steps made by his helpmeet and 
has left a record for the benefit of future generations. He figured that 
the distance traveled back and forth before the spinning wheel in a single 
evening was more than eight miles. Another of these pioneers has 
stated that he could never remember a day on which his mother was not 
the first up in the morning and the last to retire at night. 

The fact is that spinning and knitting in those days was regarded by 
women generally as a form of recreation. They carried it on while en- 
tertaining their company, traveling to and from church, and whenever, 
for any reason, they gathered together, as at a funeral or a wedding. 
The swain in those days sat idly by and admired the lady of his choice 
while she walked back and forth before the wheel or worked her nimble 
fingers unceasingly with the needles, and he probably saw nothing wrong 
in the fact that his contribution to the task was occasionally holding his 
hands spread so that she could wind upon them yarn to form a skein. 

Labor hard and incessant was not the only trial of these pioneer 
women. Their husbands were much given to drinking at "raisings" 
and similar gatherings and this, we are told, was the cause of much un- 



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156 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

happiness for wives. These men were rough, hardy customers, with 
little tenderness in their natures and still less inclination to display such 
feelings, so that woman, then as now eager for evidence of affection, 
seldom saw much sign of it in her spouse. She worried, also, over the 
chances that beset her children, who could not be kept in sight at all 
times and were often temporarily lost in the woods. 

These woods surrounded the pioneer homes, shut off the women 
from companionship of neighbors and added to their loneliness and help- 
lessness in times of peculiar trial, such as sickness, birth and death. At 
such times they helped one another most unselfishly, a woman often 
leaving her own brood alone to mount a horse behind some badly worried 
neighbor and ride to the assistance of his wife. This loneliness and lack 
of sympathetic companionship is the trial most bitterly complained of 
by the pioneer women who have recorded their experiences. Next to 
this they seem to have felt the impossibility of adorning themselves most 
keenly. Considering that treacherous Indians, scarcity of food, lack of 
medical attendance and almost universal affliction from "fever and ague," 
were part of their lot, it might not seem that the scarcity of ribbons and 
silks should have been a serious matter. Nevertheless it was. 

Women then as now delighted in those things that make them at- 
tractive to the eye, and to have their facilities in this direction confined 
to what they could make with their own hands was a genuine hardship. 
In spite of their multifarious duties they generally found time to pay 
some attention to their personal appearance and the efforts they made 
in the direction of beautifying themselves were often almost pathetic. 
Not only were they usually limited to cloth they could make themselves, 
but for colors they had to depend on what they could make in the way 
of dyes from barks and berries. They could fashion their own dresses 
and bonnets, but they could not make shoes. Not all of these women 
were able to get shoes after those they brought with them had worn out, 
but those who possessed such luxuries guarded them with great care. 
They frequently walked barefoot to meeting, carrying their shoes to the 
church door in order to save these precious belongings. All women in 
those days could ride and those who were fortunate enough to have 
horses traveled in that way, frequently, however, without a saddle. The 
business of making a living was so urgent that the horses used on the 
new farms were seldom available for visiting or church-going, even if the 
pioneer's wife had not been even more urgently occupied than were the 
horses. 

Living in an atmosphere and amid conditions of this kind, the pioneer 
women were very different from their more fortunate sisters of later 
date. They were naturally masterful, at least in some ways; but their 
attitude toward their men folk was humble, because it was thought at 
that time that a woman's part was to obey and the ordinary husband 
regarded himself as deserving of much attention from his wife. The 
men gloried in maintaining discipline in their homes, a process which 
was not always confined to the children, although these felt it most 
severely. The harsh and often unreasoning exercise of paternal author- 
ity must have been a source of trial to the women of those days. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 157 

In spite of all this, the lives of these women were not without their 
compensations. Most of the needs and desires of modern life are really 
fictitious, and they were probably as happy without elaborate homes and 
gowns as present day women are with these things. They were chiefly 
occupied with serious matters, but were sustained by high hopes and 
strong convictions. They gave much for others and in the giving found 
the rarest and truest form of pleasure. They all seem to have had hopes 
and ambitions for their children beyond those of modern days, and these 
were realized, for among the children of these pioneers were many men 
and women who accomplished much for themselves and for their country. 

Certainly the trials of pioneering were not confined to men and it 
seems entirely probable that women had to bear the heaviest of its bur- 
dens. To these women is due the largest measure of admiration and 
honor of which we are capable, together with the gratitude of the present 
generation for many things that, without their sacrifices, could not have 
been. They not only made possible the settlement of the wilderness, 
but they planted in it the seeds of morality, religion and progress. With- 
out their influence in the early development of the Mahoning Valley 
the finest and most enduring features would be missing from its modern 
life. 



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CHAPTER X 

YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1802 TO 1840 

The County Seat War of 1800 to 1810— Youngstown and Trumbull 
County in the War of 1812 — Beginning of the Iron Industry 
in the Mahoning Valley — Inception and Construction of the 
Pennsylvania and Ohio Canals. 

Probably every American city and hamlet has aspired at one time or 
another to attain the rank of county seat. Only one municipality in a 
county can hold this distinction, but each municipality wants to be that 
one. Youngstown, at its founding, was no exception to this rule; yet 
it was more than seventy-five years after this ambition first sprouted here 
before it was actually realized. 

The plans of the State of Connecticut for the government of its 
western lands were at all times indefinite, since the first concern of the 
state was to profit on the sale of the land. When the Connecticut Land 
Company purchased the Western Reserve, the State of Connecticut 
ceded to its jurisdictional rights as well as title to the ground, and the 
land company proposed to set up a state of "New Connecticut." It is 
wholly probable that old Connecticut was agreeable to this plan. It may 
have been even instrumental in proposing it, as there was close harmony 
between the land company members and the government of their home 
state. 

The instruction to the directors of the Connecticut Land Company 
provided, among other things, for the survey and partition into small 
lots of the township that was to mark the first settlement on the Re- 
serve, the intent being that this town should be the capital of the proposed 
state. The township at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River — later the 
City of Cleveland — was, as we have seen, selected as the site of this 
initial settlement and capital. Thus far the land company, its directors 
and its agents could arbitrarily guide the destinies of New Connecticut. 
It so happened, however, that their power ended with the fiat that the 
town laid out at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River should be platted into 
lots, and equipped with a sawmill and grist mill to attract prospective 
settlers. Circumstances that the land company and its directors could 
not control placed a veto on the remainder of the program. 

Moses Cleaveland's town became the first settlement in name only. 
The immigrants from Connecticut and other states failed to heed the 
schedule mapped out for them — that the northern townships of the 
Reserve should be settled first. The lake winds were hostile, and the 
marshy ground along the lake shore was less promising than the high 

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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 159 

ground farther to the south. Then, too, the route from Connecticut and 
Eastern New York that brought the settlers to the mouths of Conneaut 
Creek and the Cuyahoga River was abandoned for the southern route by 
way of Pittsburgh and Beaver and thence up along the Mahoning River. 
The valley of this stream became the gateway to the Reserve, and here 
many of those settlers who had not previously purchased land, remained. 
It was Youngstown, Warren, Canfield and Poland, therefore, that de- 
veloped into healthy villages in the first three years of white occupation, 
while Cleveland, Mentor and Ashtabula, on the shore of Lake Erie, 
lagged behind. 

As early as 1798, when Youngstown was the only settlement on the 
southern part of the Reserve, the need of civil government became ap- 
parent, and this need was emphasized a year later when several of the 
nearby townships had been settled. The project for the creation of a 
new state had by this time been virtually abandoned, and an appeal to 
Connecticut to erect the Reserve into a county of old Connecticut was 
ignored; leaving no alternative except an admission that the Northwest 
Territory possessed legal jurisdiction over the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany's holdings. It was considered inevitable that when an agreement 
was reached on this point that the Reserve should be created into a 
county of the Northwest Territory. 

Even before the settlement was arrived at in the spring of 1800 that 
separated the Western Reserve entirely from old Connecticut, the rival 
villages of the Reserve had catalogued their respective claims to the 
privilege of being the seat of government for the anticipated new county. 
There was considerably more than civic pride in this ambition. The 
county seat would be the virtual capital of a commonwealth larger than 
several of the individual eastern states, and business and growth of 
population would center about the seat of justice. This meant increased 
land values and was certain to result in the establishment of a pre- 
eminence that it would be difficult for any other community to overcome. 
It is not surprising then that there was discussion of a courthouse in 
John Young's town even before the first street was laid out therein, or 
that Warren, Canfield and Poland were talking county seat about the 
time the first pioneer cabins were being put up. 

The diversion of immigration to the Mahoning Valley had practically 
eliminated Cleveland and other lake settlements from serious considera- 
tion for county seat honors. It was recognized that the seat of govern- 
ment would be fixed in one of the southeastern townships, and the dis- 
cussion of the previous year or two grew into intense rivalry when the 
news reached the Reserve in the spring of 1800 that the jurisdiction of 
the Northwest Territory had been acknowledged and that the way was 
open for the creation of a new county. 

The contest was astonishingly short. As news traveled slowly in 
those days it was probably in June, 1800, when the announcement of this 
agreement reached the settlements. The governor of the territory was 
vested with authority to create new counties and designate county seats 
merely by his own official decree, and rival towns prepared to press their 
claims. Youngstown had every apparent advantage. It was the oldest 



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160 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

and the largest settlement, the commercial center of the southern part 
of the Reserve, the place where new settlers adjusted their land titles 
after their arrival from the East, and the first port of call for immi- 
grants. Yet before Youngstown's campaign was fairly under way 
Governor St. Clair had issued his proclamation of July 10, 1800, creating 
the Western Reserve into the County of Trumbull and fixing the county 
seat at Warren. 

There was wrath in Youngstown at this announcement, and another 
score was marked up against the already unpopular St. Clair. Youngs- 
town condemned and denounced, berated the governor for his precipitate 
action and even questioned the arbitrary power that he had exercised. 
But all this was fruitless. The decree stood and the county government 
was organized at Warren within a few weeks, Youngstown being given 
a sop in a number of appointments to county offices. 

Actually, the respective qualification possessed by each of the towns 
that were rival for the county seat had little to do with the selection. 
Then — as is often the case now — secret maneuvering and wirepulling 
were far more potent factors in public life than legitimate business and 
geographical considerations. Political methods were much the same a 
century and a quarter ago as they are now. Even the famed Ordinance 
of 1787 — magnificent document that it is — was lobbied through Con- 
gress, and in its original form lacked the provision against human slav- 
ery. It was the protest of the Connecticut men who made up the Ohio 
Company, and their threat to withdraw from their contemplated pur- 
chase of Ohio lands from the Federal Government that forced the adop- 
tion of an anti-slavery clause. 

In the initial contest for the Trumbull County county seat Warren 
won because Warren residents had the car of the Federal Government 
and of the territorial governor. They were canny business men, these 
Warrenites. They had anticipated the erection of a new county and 
had done much of their campaigning beforehand. Calvin Pease is cred- 
ited with having exerted much of the influence in favor of Warren. 
Although a resident of Youngstown in 1800, Pease was a heavy land- 
owner at Warren, and his land would naturally benefit if Warren were 
projected into the front rank of Western Reserve towns. In addition 
to this, Pease was a brother-in-law to Gideon Granger, who possessed 
great political influence and was later postmaster-general. Granger him- 
self, in fact, was credited with being a landowner at Warren, and, in 
addition, several of the original members of the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany were investors in Warren Township lands by virtue of the draft 
of 1798, while Youngstown Township was owned by men outside the 
company and, in general, by men of less financial and political influence. 
The combination was too much for Youngstown to beat. 

With nothing else to do, Youngstown accepted the disappointment 
and Warren held secure, if grudgingly-admitted, title to the county 
seat for the next three years. In 1802, however, a convention sitting 
at Chillicothe adopted a constitution for a new state, to be formed out 
of the eastern part of the Northwestern Territory, and to be known as 
Ohio, and in 1803 Ohio came formally into existence with the election 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 161 

of a governor and a state legislature. This changed the complexion of 
the situation materially. The arbitrary power possessed by the terri- 
torial governor was not vested in the chief executive of the new state. 
The legislature, and not the governor, created counties and fixed county 
seats, and Youngstown eagerly revived the slumbering warfare by 
launching a movement to remove the county capital thence from Warren. 

At this time no actual court house existed at Warren but construc- 
tion of a county building was begun in 1802 and the structure was nearing 
completion when it burned down, in 1804. Since this left the rival 
towns on equal footing insofar as county buildings were concerned, 
Youngstown opened the removal war wholeheartedly. Warren was 
served with notice that Youngstown would permit no new county build- 
ings to be erected there. 

In the meantime the townships adjoining Youngstown had expe- 
rienced a comparatively rapid growth until the southeastern part of 
the county cast a great part of the county's vote. This resulted in the 
election of county commissioners favorable to Youngstown. The legis- 
lative delegation that had been almost monopolized by Warren in the 
first two years of statehood was lost to that town between 1804 and 
1806 by the election of George Tod to the State Senate and the distribu- 
tion of the two House members between Youngstown and Cleveland. 
One result of this later situation was the creation in 1805 of a great 
part of the c6unty northwest of Warren into the County of Geauga. 

The benefit of this sort of maneuvering was not lost on the people 
of the rival towns. Competition became keen in business, sports, socially 
and even in fights, but the political aspect was paramount. Party politics 
was laid aside in this day when party feeling ran high ; the chief quali- 
fication demanded of each candidate for office — especially of the candi- 
date for a legislative seat — being his sympathies for or against county 
seat removal, or county division. 

The Youngstown proposal was for the erection of three counties out 
of Trumbull County, Youngstown to be the county seat of the same 
county. 

The objection that Youngstown was too poorly situated geographic- 
ally to entitle it to consideration as a county seat received another blow 
in 1807 when Ashtabula and Portage counties were formed from Trum- 
bull County. This was partly offset, however, a year later when Warren 
won a geographical advantage by having the fiwe lower townships of 
Ashtabula County annexed to Trumbull. This legislation, enacted in 
spite of the fact that Trumbull County was represented in the lower 
house of the Legislature by two Youngstown partisans, threw Youngs- 
town still farther away from the geographical center of the county. 

By this time, however, the contest had grown so warm that a finish 
fight was apparently inevitable. Representation in the 1809-10 session 
of the Legislature was considered vital to the chances of the rival towns 
and the election of 1809 was waged solely on the county seat issue. 
Warren had an advantage, in that Senator Calvin Cone's two-year term 
did not expire until December, 1810, and Senator Cone, being a Gus- 
tavas man, would be inclined to favor Warren if he took sides at all 
Vol. 1— 11 



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162^ YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

in the* : fight. Members of the* lower hetiSe were elected for but one 
yearrafid' Youngstown prepared toVe-elect the two Youngstown parti- 
sans Vho had been elected in 1808, while Warren was determined to 
elect at least one Warren adherent. Youngstown people, who •had, in 
the me&ntime, Vj5r^v6nted th^ erection 6f any cotanty buildings at Warr^if, 
won 'decisively in this 1809 election by re-electing Robert Hughes and 
Richard J. Elliott to the lower house of the Legislature, also electing a 
county- commissioner favorable to ^Youngstown. . - - - i ^ 

Disrimyed at' this prospect/Warren decided ta protest the election 
oPHiighes, otP behalf of Thomas J. Jones, the defeated Warred candi- 
date'. Without the ballots of aliens, or alien-borti voters, it was believed 
that Jbhes would be the victor and Warren moved immediately to have 
this vote thrown out, a proposal that was unfair, since the voters; of 
a.Hefr^birtH- were English-speaking men, many of them property holders 
and slibfetahfial persons arid some of them Revolutionary war veterans. 
Yeit the protest wis allowed and & court composed of Leonard Case of 
Warten arid Wflliani ! Chidester of Carifield was appointed to take testi- 
mony on the alien vote, the testimony to be presented to the Legislature 
at the contest proceedings. Homer Hine was named to appear at the 
court as the legal representative of Youngstown while John S. Edwards 
was selected to represent Warren. 

The "court" strictly speaking, was not a court at all, but an investi- 
gating committee named to inquire into the merits of Warren's protest 
against the seating of Robert Hughes. It was a traveling committee, the 
two justices and the attorneys going about to the different townships 
of lower Trumbull County instead of summoning witnesses to appear 
at Warren or at any other central point. 

The first sitting of the justices was held at Hubbard. Not only the 
witnesses who had been summoned, but hundreds of partisans from up 
and down the Mahoning Valley were on hand, and there was intense 
rivalry and even hatred and rancor. * Daniel Sheehy led the alien-born 
voters, who protested vigorously at this attempt to deprive them of 
their franchise. In a savage stump speech, said to have been an hour 
and a half in length, Sheehy questioned the legality of the whole pro- 
ceeding, counselled the witnesses summoned to refuse to testify and 
invited direct rebellion against the court. He was silenced only by 
force, and then ridt until he had aroused the already angered partisans 
to fever heat. "Many of those summoned refused to testify until about 
to be arrested and sent to jail," Justice Case said. "Then they gave 
testimony. About one hundred depositions \yere taken." 

The following day the justices sat at Youngstown and the strife of 
the day before was duplicated/ and perhaps surpassed. Sheehy was 
iffore flamingly eloquent than ever and his followers more defiant. 
Threats had to siipplaht persuasion as a means of getting evidence, and 
even these were not successful until Sheehy had been arrested. He 
suffered no penalty — except that of enforced abstinence from speech- 
m£kihg— as it was generally realized that the entire 'investigation was 
dieted Against ' / YoungstbWn , s f claim to the county seat rather than 
ag&iri§t 'anybody's ri£ht? t'6' vote. And even the suppression of Sheehy 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 163 

dia^fiot still the storm/as thfe third day's sitting at Poland was equally 
boisterous. About 400 depositions in all were taken and Warren ad- 
herents Itelieved they had established Jones' clsfim to the contested legis- 
lative seat. ' 

But withal, Warren's preparations* and the subsequent riot-nfciting. 
investigation came to fraught as far as the seat in the assembly- was 
concerned. When the House of Representatives of the State Legis- 
lature met at Chillicothe on December 4, 1809, Jones' contest was duly 
filed by Representative Matthias Corwin, but the evidence *was con- 
sidered insufficient and Hughes was seated, a report of the committee 
on 'credentials recommending this disposition of the case being adopted 
by a vote of the House on December 14th. 

Apparently Youngstown used its victory to little advantage, as the* 
county seat was not removed- 'dttd there appears to have been little 
serious effort to have it transferred to Youngstown. Virtually this 
heated election ertfted the contest for the time being. * In 1810 the rivals 
compromised by electing George Tod of Youngstown to the State Sen- 
ate and Aaron Collar of Canfield and Thomas J. Jones— the defeated 
Warren candidate of 1809 — to the lower house of the Legislature. 

Partly this cessation of hostilities was due to the fact that Youngs- 
town sympathizers had become weary of the continued strife. Youngs- 
town, * by virtue of the greater vote in the lower townships of the 
county, was able to deprive Warren of representation in the Legis- 
lature, but aside from this Warren outgeneraled its chief rival in political* 
maheuvering. When Warrenites could elect no assemblymen they sent 
unofficial "commissioners," or lobbyists, to the capital, and these com- 
missioners guarded Warren's interests assiduously. Partly, too, the 
truce was foixed by the fact that other aspiring towns of Trumbull 
County became imbued with the belief that if there was going to be a 
peremiial county seat fight it might as well be a free-for-all. Canfield, 
Poland, Girard, New Lyme and other aspirants appeared in the field, 
each one eager to be the capital of Trumbull County, or of a brand new 
county, for erecting new counties was an annual legislative happening 
in these days. 

All ambitions alike were fruitless. The county seat remained Wat-' 
ren, and Youngstown temporarily laid aside its ambitions, although it 
nursed them until they were finally satisfied sixty-five years later. The 
five Ashtabula County townships that had been juggled around and 
used as pawns in successively promoting and blasting Youngstown's 
hopes were finally restored permanently to Ashtabula County, where } 
they belonged. The inhabitants of these townships were disgusted with 
the quarrel throughout its entire course. Judge Solomon Griswold ex- 
pressed their sentiments when he remonstrated that "They have ho 
privileges in either county and are sued in both." 

Perhaps the chief contributing cause to the armistice, however, was 
the need of uniting against a common enemy. It is characteristic of J 
Americans that however much they may quarrel among themselves they 
present a' stflid front in the face of foreign interference — a fact that J 
was testified to in a way that amazed the world in 1917-18. It was made 



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164 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

apparent in no less striking manner more than one hundred years prior 
to the World war. 

The war with England had presumably ended with the defeat of the 
invaders and the treaty of 1783 that acknowledged American independ- 
ence, but peace was theoretical rather than real. England kept none 
of the promises it made except those it had to keep. It did not abandon 
all its ambitions to ownership of American soil, and perhaps abandoned 
none of them. After 1783 the American colonists were subjected to 
petty attacks and annoyances from the late enemy, and were made the 
victims of more deadly persecutions in the shape of British-inspired 
Indian raids. Throughout the first decade of the nineteenth century 
it was generally accepted that another war with Britain was inevitable, 
and American resentment increased with the high-handed action taken 
by England in boarding American merchant ships and kidnapping Ameri- 
can citizens under the pretense that they were British deserters, the 
victims being impressed into service in the British navy. As early as 
1803 Americans had held indignation meetings and demanded war with 
England to avenge these insults, but President Jefferson was opposed to 
war and tried the ineffectual policy of non-intercourse instead. 

In 1810, however, war was admittedly no longer avoidable, although 
President Madison, who had been trained in the Jefferson school, imi- 
tated the weak policies of his preceptor by refusing to urge a declaration 
of war. Nominally the second war with England began in 1812; ac- 
tually it began in 181 1 with a sea victory of Americans over the British 
in May, and the stunning victory of William Henry Harrison over the 
Indians under Tecumseh at Tippecanoe on November 7th of the same 
year. The American belief that the Indian uprising was instigated by 
the British was confirmed after this battle when the shattered Indian 
forces retreated to Canada and joined the British. 

The War of 1812, as a whole, reflects no great credit on either of 
the American political parties of that era. The party of Jefferson was 
vacillating, and, in spite of years of warning, was wholly unprepared 
when war came. Madison was a statesman and a man of great popular- 
ity but was not a warmaker of the type of the rugged and virile Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison or Andrew Jackson. On the other hand, the 
Federalists of New England were hostile to the war fought under 
Democratic auspices, probably because their sea trade had been demoral- 
ized by Jefferson's policy of non-intercourse. Their resentment is easily 
understood but their lack of patriotism is none the less to be con- 
demned. 

With Ohio far removed from the seaboard it might be presumed 
that it would be free from the war's alarms, but the truth was the exact 
reverse. Its position as the frontier state made Ohio peculiarly suscep- 
tible to attack, since the Indians were allied with the British, the ambi- 
tion of the latter was to seize, and keep the West, and Detroit was the 
key not alone to the Northwest but the Great Lakes as well. Ohioans 
were well aware that war with England meant certain warfare within 
Ohio or the Northwest Territory and possibly invasion of Ohio by 
the enemy. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 165 

The need of armed defense was recognized in the Ohio constitution 
of 1802, that document providing for a state militia organization in 
which the major-generals and quartermaster-generals were to be ap- 
pointed, or elected, by joint ballot of both houses of the State Legis- 
lature, while officers of the line below this rank were to be elected by 
under-officers and privates. Provision was made that the captains and 
subalterns be elected by the enlisted men ; majors elected by the captains 
and subalterns; colonels elected by the majors, captains and subalterns; 
brigadier-generals elected by the commissioned officers of their respec- 
tive brigades. Commanding officers were to appoint their own staff 
officers. 




Map of Ohio Counties in 1802 



On January 7, 1804, at the second legislative session, Ohio was 
divided into four divisions with a major-general in command of each. 
For the Fourth Division, comprising Trumbull, Columbiana and Jef- 
ferson counties, Elijah Wadsworth of Canfield was named major-gen- 
eral and Brice Viers quartermaster-general. 

On April 6, 1804, General Wadsworth issued his first divisional 
order. This provided for the sub-division of the Fourth Division into 
two brigades with a total of five regiments. The First Brigade was to 
include all the militiamen of Trumbull County, this brigade to have two 
regiments. The Second Regiment of the brigade included the territory 
now included in the Townships of Poland, Boardman, Canfield, Ells- 
worth, Berlin, Coitsville, Youngstown, Austintown, Jackson and Milton 
in Mahoning County, Hubbard, Brookfield, Vienna, Liberty, Howland, 
Weathersfield, Warren, Lordstown, Braceville, Newton, Hartford, 



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166 YOUNGSTQWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Fowler, Bazetta, Champion and Fowler in Trumbull County, and parts 
of Summit and Portage counties as they are constituted tod^y. In the 
words of the commanding officer, the First Regiment was to include all 
that part of Trumbull County lying north of the line of township five,; 
the Second Regiment "All that part of the County of v Trumbull , lying 
south of the First Regiment." 

On May 7, 1804, regimental elections were held, the following junior 
officers being elected for the various companies of the Second Regiment : 

Captains — Homer Hine, Eli Baldwin, John Struthers, Barnabas Har- 
ris, George Tod, Samuel Ty lee, James Applegate, George Phelps, Wil- 
liam Bushnell, Henry Rodgers, Thomas Wright, Ezra Wyatt, John 
Oviatt. 

Lieutenants^— Aaron Collar, Josiah Walker, John Russell, James 
Lynn, Moses Latta, Edward Schofield, Henry Hickman, James Heaton, 
Daniel Humison, John Diver, William Chard, Gersham Judson, Aaron 
Norton. 

Ensigns* — Jacob Parkhurst, Nathaniel Blakesley, William Henry, 
James Struthers, Henry Hull, John Smith, John Elliott, John Ewalt, 
Ebenezer Coombs John Campbell, David . Moore, Thomas Kennedy, 
James Walker. 

The Second Regiment was further divided into two battalions, and 
by vote of the above officers Captains Applegate and Rjodgers were 
elected majors of these battalions. 1 r 

About 1808 the numbers of brigades in the Fourth Division was in- 
creased from two to four, the Third Brigade including Trumbull and 
Ashtabula counties. Brig.-Gen. Simon Perkins of Warren commanded 
this brigade. The numbers of regiments in the Third Brigade was fixed 
at three, commanded by Cols. James Hillman of Youngstown, John S. 
Edwards of Warren and Richard Hayes of Hartford! Each regiment 
numbered 500 men. In 1809 Colonel Hillman resigned, as he intended 
at that time to remove from Trumbull County, and William Rayen was 
elected regimental commander in his place. — - ^ 

Officially these regimental commanders w ere lieutenant-colonels, 
since the militia organization at that time did not provide for any 
colonelcies, but except in official communications they were known as 
colonels and exercised all the prerogatives and were charged with all 
the responsibilities of that rank. 

Militia training and mustering days were eventful occasions in pio- 
neer times in Ohio. As the Revolutionary war was scarcely a quarter 
of a century in the past and the likelihood of another war with England 
was always present the martial spirit ran high. It would be an exaggera- 
tion to say that the state militia of more than 100 years ago was a 
thoroughly trained and efficient body, but it did preserve the rudiments 
of military training, and skeleton, organizations were maintained at all 
times. 

. "Early in 1810 I attended a regimental muster in Youngstown," 
•wrote Jared Potter Kirtland in later years. "A war with Great Britain 



♦Corresponding to second lieutenant in the present army organization. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 167 

was anticipated, and the Indians on the frontier were committing depre- 
dations. A thorough military spirit pervaded the country, and a full 
.turnout of every able-bodied man was evident on the occasion. It was 
_a matter of surprise to see an apparent wilderness furnish some six or 
seven hundred soldiers. The. regiment formed with its right near 
Colonel Raven's residence, and marched to a vacant lot between Main 
Street and the Mahoning River, near the mouth of Mill Creek, and was 
there reviewed. Simon Perkins was brigadier-general; John Stark 
.Edwards, brigade major and inspector* William Rayen, colonel; George 

Tod, adjutant; John Shannon and — - McCbnnell, majors. No one, 

at that period, was disposed to evade his duties, and, two years after- 
wards, the efficiency and patriotism of that body of men were thoroughly 
tried and favorably tested." 

Events of 1811 swept away any existing doubt that war was a cer- 
tainty of the near future. The Federalists were still sullen and .the older 
followers of Jefferson and Madison were still dallying, ,but Harrison's 
victory and the rage of the Americans when their suspicions of an 
alliance between the Indians and the British were confirmed caused the 
war spirit to run higher. A new Congress was elected in which younger 
members of the Democratic-Republican party were in the majority and 
they were avowedly for war. lt 

That hostilities were foreseen is evident from the fact that on -Sep- 
tember 14, 181 1, Genera} Wad^worth, through Elisha Whittlesey, his 
.aide, addressed an order /to each of his four brigade commanders, read- 
ing- . .... 

• -Tarn directed by -the commandant bf the Fourth Division of the 
militia of this state to call your attention to the subject of making re- 
turrtof the brigade under your comrhari<I. : ' It is important that the- gov- 
ernment of this state and that of the United- States should kfiowat a 
tihie when war almost appears inevitable^ their actual strength. There 
is little* or rio doubt Jtmt that 'the weighty and important matters' which 
the President has to lay before Congress, by reason which : ft; is 'called 
to 'meet earlier than usual, relate to our differences with foreign powers. 
r "Should Congress deem it expedient to declare war against ©ne/or 
-both- 6f the belligerents, its attention must necessarily be drawn to ascer- 
tain the force they could compel to take the field. This information 
canned be derived from any other quarter than returns riiade from 
■ the several states, and their neglecting to make returns at the adjutant 
"general's office dries tip the source of information on this subject. 
* * -* The general expects from your attention and exertions, that 
a return of your brigade will be dtily made and transmitted to* 7 him, 
agreeable to the 27th. section of the militia law of the state. 

'■With esteem and regard I am your obedient and faithful servant. 
> - "Elisha Whittlesey, Aide-de-Camp." 

i; Jhe Vone or both" belligerents referred to probably means England 
and France since there were differences with both. 

In February, 1812, Congress passed an act increasing tjie strength 
of the ynited States army?. providing among other things for a regiment 



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168 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

of volunteers from Ohio and Kentucky. This regiment, of which 
Samuel H. Wells was commissioned colonel and John Miller lieutenant- 
colonel, was for regular army service. Each Ohio brigade was to con- 
tribute one company to this regiment. On April 28, 181 2, General Per- 
kins sent to each of his regimental commanders, Rayen, Edwards and 
Hayes, notification that each regiment of the Third Brigade would be 
expected to contribute twenty-three able bodied men if that number 
could be raised by voluntary enlistment, or thirteen if they were raised 
by draft, each company to give according to its strength. Two regi- 
ments returned volunteers while the draft was resorted to in a third. 
The final personnel of this company contributed by the Third Brigade 
is given as follows : 

Captain, John W. Seeley. 

Ensign, James Kerr. 

First Sergeant, Samuel Bills. 

Third Sergeant, Zadock Dowell. 

First Corporal, John Cherry. 

Privates, Asa Lane, Peter Lanterman, Miller Blackley, William 
Strader, Joseph Netterfield, William Crawford, James Chalpin, Robert 
Brewer, Nathaniel Stanley, Alexander Hayes, David Kiddle, William 
Martin, Conrad Knafe, James Anderson, John Strain, Matthew Dob- 
bins, Ezra Buell, Solomon Watrous, Peter Yatman, Urial Burnett, Hugh 
Markee, Amos Rathburn, David Fitch, Joseph Walker, Michael Crum- 
rine, Barnabas Slavin, Martin Tidd, Jr., Justin Fobes, William Meeker, 
James Mears, Aaron Scroggs, Andrew Markee, Jr., Ethen Newman, 
Daniel Fowler. 

This list is probably an incomplete one since it does not show the full 
strength demanded of the Third Brigade, and there are also doubtless 
inaccuracies in the spelling of some of the names as the record keepers 
of those days were careless in this respect. The regiment to which these 
men were assigned was known as the Nineteenth United States Infantry. 
George Tod, who had been brigade major and inspector on the staff of 
General Perkins, was named major of this Nineteenth Regiment on 
July 6, 1812. Subsequently he was made lieutenant-col onql of the 
Seventeenth United States Infantry. 

War was formally declared on June 18, 1812, and Ohio militiamen 
awaited orders to move. The war department plans, however, called 
for an initial attack by the regulars, under Gen. William Hull, com- 
mandant at Detroit, who was instructed to cross the river into Canada, 
seize Maiden and invade and hold up Upper Canada. Hull followed 
these instructions late in July, 1812, but hearing that Major General 
Brock with a force of British regulars was approaching and that the 
Indians were also preparing to make a descent on the Americans, he 
retreated to Detroit. Brock actually arrived at Maiden a few days later, 
and, crossing the river with a force of less than 1,500 men, demanded 
the surrender of Detroit. Hull ignominiously complied with this demand 
on August 14, 1812. 

The surrender meant something more than the giving up of a mere 
fort. It actually turned over American supplies, placed the British in 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 169 

possession of the key to the Northwest, virtually surrendered all Mich- 
igan to the British, and laid the frontier wide open to the attack of 
British and Indians alike. It was a stunning blow to the entire country ; 
while throughout Ohio and the Northwest the news of the surrender 
appalled the people. The protection they had depended upon was swept 
away at one blow. 

Without waiting for instruction from the war department, General 
Wadsworth hurriedly ordered the mobilization of the four brigades of 
his division, ordering them to report at Geveland preparatory to march- 
ing to Northwest Ohio to protect the frontier. Rumors, in fact, were in 
circulation within a few days after Hull's surrender that the British 
were approaching by way of Lake Erie, and as far east as Ashtabula 
County even civilians mobilized to repel the invaders. The probable basis 
for this scare was the return to Cleveland of boats bound from Detroit 
and carrying paroled men whom Hull had so basely surrendered. 

The regiments commanded by Colonels Rayen and Edwards were on 
their way to Cleveland almost immediately after the receipt of the news 
of Hull's surrender. Practically all Trumbull County had been mobi- 
lized, and at Cleveland it was actually necessary to send men home. 

General Wadsworth began immediately to bring order out of chaos. 
On August 26, 1812, he wrote that many troops had already arrived and 
that others were coming in continually from all quarters. "I expect in a 
few days to have sufficient force to repel any force that the enemy can 
at present bring against us," he said, "but I am destitute of everything 
needed for the use and support of an army. The troops are badly armed 
and clothed, with no provisions or camp equipage, or any means of pro- 
curing any. But the dangerous situation of the country obliges me to 
face every difficulty." 

The commanding general acted accordingly. Within a week he had 
dispatched a body of men under General Perkins to Camp Avery, on 
the Huron River in what is now Erie County. This was to t>e the 
headquarters of the Ohio troops guarding the frontier. Early in Sep- 
tember General Perkins reached Camp Avery with 400 to 500 troops. 
The regiment commanded by Colonel Rayen of Youngstown reached 
there about September 19th. 

The Ohio militiamen received their first taste of war within a few 
days. Lack of preparation on the part of the Federal Government made 
it necessary that the troops care pretty much for themselves in every 
way, and one of their tasks was to obtain provisions. A quantity of 
stores had been collected at Sandusky, just north of Camp Avery, to be 
forwarded to General Hull at Detroit, but with Hull's capitulation the 
stores were held, and with the arrival of the Ohio men they were avail- 
able for their use. It was in the attempt to bring these stores to camp, 
and also to obtain a quantity of wheat on the Ramsdale plantation — 
located on the peninsula north of Sandusky — that a battle took place 
with the Indians. 

From the Huron River west the country was beset with hostile red- 
skins so that the position of the militiamen was at all times dangerous. 
The news that the Indians were so close was brought to Camp Avery 
on September 28, 181 2. Joshua R. Giddings, then a youth but a member 



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rl70 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING W&LLEX 

of Captain Burnham's company in Perkins* brigade, wrote to later years: 
/'The news. found oujr bapd in a Hibst enfeebled state. The biHoiis 
fever had reduced the number of effective troops- until we were able to 
jnuster but two guards, consisting of two relieves; so. that each man 
in health was compelled to stand on his post one-fourth of the time. 
* * * At that time General Perkins was absent from Jthe camp. 
■ Colonel Hayes was dangerously ill of fever, and Major Frazier was 
absent at Sandusky, I think Major Shannon of Ybungstown was com- 
mander of the forces at Avery. Capt. Joshua T. Cotton of Austintowh 
was our senior officer. Lieutenant Ramsay and Lieutenant Bartholemew 
of Vienna accompanied the party." ;' 

The "party" referred to were the volunteers who went to reinforce 
the men who had gone for the provisions. They started on the evening 
Of September 28th and reached the peninsula shortly after sunrise. 
The engagement— actually two separate engagements— was fought with 
the 3 Indians that day, September 29, 181 2, at Ramsdale's plantation, 
resulting in the killing of six militiamen and the. wounding of ten, but 
achieving a victory nevertheless. In his report to General Wadsworth 
of the outcome .of the battle, General Perkins wrote: - 

."To the Commander at Cleveland: 

~ "I arrived at camp last evening, and found that the engagement on 
the Peninsula was less unfortunate than was at first apprehended. Our 
loss is six killed and ten wounded. The wounded are mostly very slight, 
and none I think, is mortal. 

"The names of the killed are, James S. Bills, Simon Blackman, 
Daniel Mingus, Abraham Simons, Ramsdale, Mason.* Wounded are 
Samuel Mann, Moses Eldridge, Jacob French, Samuel W. Tanner, John 
Carlton, John McMahon, Elias Sperry, James Jack, a Mr. Lee* ah 
inhabitant of this neighborhood, etc. Mr. Ramsdale also of this vicinity. 
Knowing the anxiety of the inhabitants at the eastward, 1 detain the 
"messenger no longer than 'to /write the above. ^ 

_' ' lL "j SiIMON PERKlks. 

*'P. S. — Our men fought well and the Indians suffered very cpnsfder- 
ably. ' : \ ... ■ . 

"Camp at Avery, Huron County, October 3, iJJi?.^ 

Abraham Simon, inferred tb in the list of killed, was from Board- 
man Township. He was scalpeH before his body was recovered, this 
act of savagery being charged up against Omick, the Ashtabula County 
Indian, whose son, Devil Poc-Con, had been hanged at Cleveland three 
months previously for the murder of tw6 white men. The "John Mc- 
Mahon" referred to was probably John McMahon, or McMahan, of 
Jackson Township, although his name has been confused in tradition with 
"Joseph McMahon, slayer of Captain George, the Indian, at the salt spring 
in Weathersfield Township in July, 1800. This odd tangle has been 
explained in a previous chapter. McMahon, or McMahan, was dis- 
charged for physical disability following his injury and died, or was 
killed by the Indians, While making his way home tfrrough the forests. , 

* Lieutenant Ramsdell sttid Alexander Mason. ••-- -^ ; ♦•- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY -171 

On September 5, 1812, the Federal Government called for 100,000 
men for regular army service, and on November 28th General Wadsworth 
notified the war department that he had sent three regiments under 
General Perkins to report to General William Henry Harrison, com- 
mander of the American forces in the Northwest. Having successfully 
completed the organization of the Fourth Division, placed it on a war 
footing, and turned it over to General Harrison, General Wadsworth 
returned home on November 28, 1812, and retired on December 20. He 
was at that time sixty-five years of age and a Revolutionary war veteran, 
but the services he rendered were invaluable despite his age. 

On February 24, 181 3, the year's enlistment of the Ohio troops 
expired and the 1,500 men under General Perkins were mustered out. 
Their term of service had been short but their work was successful. It 
was the rapid and willing movement of Ohioans and Kentuekians to 
Northwestern Ohio in the summer of 1812 that effectually checked any 
attempt of the British to invade the Western Reserve or Central Ohio, 
or to send their savage allies on such a mission. Within a few months, 
,m fact, all danger of an enemy invasion into Ohio was definitely ended 
with the magnificent victory at Put-in-Bay on September 10, 1813, when 
Oliver Hazard Perry drove the British, from Lake Erie, and the crush- 
ing defeat that William Henry Harrison, administered to the British and 
the Indians on fhe banks of the Thames Riv^r, in Upper Canada, on 
October 5, 1813. Harrison's victory on the Thames, Andrew Jackson's 
victory at New Orleans, and the splendid £tfid daring wprk of American 
seamen on the lakes and on the ocean were the outstanding features 
of the entire war. ^ ; 

It is regrettable that a complete roster of Youngstown and Trumbull 
County soldiers in the War of 1812 is not available, but such lists cannot 
be obtained since the records at Columbus were destroyed and tjiose 
at Washington were burned when the British sacked the national capitol 
building in 1814. Many soldiers from this neighborhood remained in 
the service, however, after their original enlistment expired in February, 
1813, and some were with, Harrison at the Battle of the Thames. Colo- 
nel Hillman is credited with being head wagonmaster under General 
Harrison, and Rev. Joseph Badger was postmaster, chaplain aiyi- nurse 
at Camp Avery. Col. John S. Edwards died. of fever in February, 
181 3, while returning from the Northwest. He had been elected to 
Congress but a few months previously, being the first resident of the 
Western Reserve to attain this honor. 

The sole available record appears to be a return of the draft from 
the First Regiment, Third Brigade, Fourth Division, made by Colonel 
Rayen on September 5, 181 2, a$ follows: 

First Company 

"commissioned officers 

Captain Joshua T. Cotton. 

Lieutenant George Monteith. - 

Ensign Jacob Erwin. 



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172 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Sergeant John Cotton. 
Sergeant John Myers. 
Sergeant George Wintermute. 
Sergeant Abraham Wintermute. 
Corporal John Carlton. 
Corporal Boardwin Robins. v 
Corporal John Russell. 
Corporal Jesse Graham. 

PRIVATES 

Henry Peter, Daniel Shatto, James Crooks, Matthew Guy, John 
McCollum, Henry Bronstetter, Robert Kerr, Henry Crum, Nicholas 
Vinnemons, William McCreary, Joseph Osborn, Adam Swazer, Henry 
Thorn, John Parkhurst, Samuel White, Seneca Carver, Jacob Hull, John 
White, John Musgrove, George Smith, John Hayes, Thomas McCreary, 
John McLaughlin, Michael Storm, John Truesdale, Francis Harvey, 
Anthony Whitterstay, Thomas Cummins, Jacob Parkhurst, Isaac Park- 
hurst, Samuel Calhoun, George Gilbert, Abraham Simon, Thomas Craft, 
Archibald Maurice, James Fitch, Henry Foose, Abraham Leach, Daniel 
Stewart, Joseph Carter, Isaac Fisher, Jacob Powers, Thomas Irwin, 
William Munn, Nathan Ague, Philip Kimmel, Abraham Hoover, Ben- 
jamin Roll, John McMahon. 

Second Company 

commissioned officers 

Captain Samuel Dennison. 
Lieutenant David A. Adams. 
Ensign William Swan. 

NON-COM MISSIONED OFFICERS 

Sergeant Amos Gray. 
Sergeant William Carlton. 
Corporal James Walton. 
Corporal Robert Stewart. 
Corporal Matthew I. Scott. 
Corporal David Ramsay. 

PRIVATES 

John Dunwoody, Ephraim Armitage, Samuel Ferguson, Conrad Mil- 
ler, Jacob Feight, Sr., Jacob Oswalt, James Eckman, Andrew Boyd, 
John Moore, David Kays, John Day, Robert Walker, Thomas Wilson, 
John Tulley, James Lynn, William Crawford, David W r ilson, David 
McConnell, David McClellan, Isaac Lyon, Samuel Mann, John Mc- 
Murry, William McMurry, William Bell, John Nelson, Peter Carlton, 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 173 

Jacob Feight, Jr., David Stewart, Joseph Baggs, William McKnight, 
Thomas Fowler, Sampson Moore, John Poynes, Jacob Bradon, Daniel 
Augustine, John Polly, John Yost. 

Third Company 

commissioned officers 

Captain Warren Bissell. 
Lieutenant Alexander Rayen. 
Ensign Nicholas McConnell. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Sergeant A. Stilson. 
Sergeant Asa Baldwin. 
Sergeant Parkus Woodrough. 
Sergeant Simon Stall. 
Corporal William Hamilton. 
Corporal Jacob Dice. 
Corporal Emanuel Hull. 
Corporal Isaac Blackman. 

PRIVATES 

David Noble, Aaron Dawson, David Conizer, Henry Rumbel, John 
Riddle, James Moody, Joseph Mearchant, John Buchannan, John Dick- 
son, John Moore, Joseph McGill, Philip McConnell, Richard McConnell, 
Robert Goucher, Thomas Combs, William Buchannan, William Reed, 
William Shields, Alexander Craze, David McCombs, George Mocker- 
man, John Dowler, Josiah Beardsley, John Murphy, Josiah Walker, 
John Earl, John Ross, John Cowden, John Brothers, Robert McGill, 
Reynolds Cowden, Samuel Love, William McGill, Walter Buchannan, 
William Cowden, John Zedaker, William Frankle. 

Captain Hine's Company 

commissioned officers 

Captain Homer Hine. 
Lieutenant Edmund P. Tanner, 
Ensign Thomas McCain. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Sergeant Julius Tanner. 
Sergeant Silas Johnson. 
Sergeant Daniel Fitch. 
Sergeant John Hutson. 
Corporal Christopher Rasor. 
Corporal Joseph Bruce. 
Corporal John McMullen. 



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174 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

PRIVATES 

Henry McKinney, John Turner, John Young, John Chubb, James 
McDonald, Jacob Shook, Samuel Green, Conrad Osborn, Benjamin 
Manchester, William Thomas, William Leonard, John Hill. William 
Steel, Robert McCreary, Nicholas Leonard, Henry Ripley, James Moore, 
George Leonard, Robert Cain, Henry Boyd, William McKinney, George 
Hester, Henry Hock, James Saseton, James Pollock, John McConnell, 
Arthur Anderson, Elijah Stevenson, Henry Stump, John McColly, 
Francis Henry, John McKee, James Jack, Garrett Packard. 

This, as has been pointed out, is not a complete roster of the men from 
the Mahoning Valley who served in the 1812-13 campaign or at a later 
date. There are, however, many familiar names in the above lists, 
while other names are scarcely recognizable because of manifest mis- 
spelling. Of the six men killed in the Peninsula battle, two, Abraham 
Simon and Samuel Mann, are recorded in the above companies, also 
three of the ten wounded, John Carlton, John McMahon and James Jack. 

The loss of the county seat and the demoralization caused by the 
war, that summoned so many of the able-bodied men from home and 
left those at home living under a nervous strain, were not the only 
adverse circumstances that impeded the growth of Youngstown in the 
first fifteen or twenty years of its existence. There were other, and 
varied, obstacles. Yet in spite of reverses the faith of the early settlers 
in their new home was never dispelled. 

As early as 1803 a start was made in an industry that was destined 
to become the very backbone of the growth and prosperity of the Ma- 
honing Valley, although Mahoning Valley residents, who leaned toward 
agriculture did not realize this. On August 31, 1803, Daniel and James 
Eaton (originally Heaton) contracted for rights to dig coal and make 
charcoal iron on the banks of Yellow Creek in Poland Township, and 
began there the erection of a diminutive iron furnace. Construction 
was begun probably in the same year the contract was made and the 
blast furnace was completed in 1804. The iron ore found along Yellow 
Creek was used for raw material and the timber in the surrounding 
forest was converted into charcoal. For the blast, according to an early 
description, "A square box was placed upright in a cistern of water 
communicating with a drain; the upper end was placed in communica- 
tion by a long pipe with a dam of water, another pipe extending from 
the side of the upright box into the blast stack." 

This pioneer stack was bravely named the "Hopewell/' but was 
hardly faithful to its name. In 1806 it met with competition when John 
Struthers and Robert Montgomery constructed a second furnace on 
Yellow Creek, a short distance below Eaton's stack. This was equipped 
with a blast made of fans driven by water wheels and was much more 
satisfactory than the Eaton primitive stack. In 1807 Montgomery, 
James Mackey, David Clendennen and Robert Alexander purchased the 
Hopewell furnace and all ore and other rights from Eaton, who held 
these from Turhand Kirtland. That it was the ore, water power and 
timber that they wanted rather than the pioneer furnace is evident from 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 175 

the fadt that they shut down*. th6 Hfcpewell stack. The Montgomery 
furnace was operated until r8l2 when the furnace h^nds were called 
to, war,.. J t was never put in blast again. -While" the Montgomery 
furnace had ampacity of but two and one^half to three tons per day 
and ihe Hopewett furnace probably less, to the Eatons, Struthers, Mont- 
gomery,. Mackey, 1 * Alexander and Clendennen may be properly credited, 
nevertheless* the .beginning of the great iron and steel industry of the 
Mahoning Valley-. :. :c 

.New settlers came to Trumbull County and the Western ReservS 
with a fair degree of rapidity in the first decade of the nineteenth 
century, biit Youngstown of course held only a percentage of these as 
permanent-residents. They were farmers as a x whole, these pioneers, 
and bettfecTon their scattered acres, Warren getting whatever advantage 
accruecf}from being the county capital. Among those who are recorded 
as settling in Youngstown between 1803 and 1810 are Nicholas Osborne 
and children — including married sons and their families — William Wier 
and family and the McKinney family in 1804, Benjamn and Rebeccah 
Holland in 1806, John E. Woodbridge and wife in 1807, James and 
Hannah Price in. 1809. Another resident of Youngstown from 1805 
to 1 816 was. Jesse R. Grant, then a mere boy. Left motherless in the 
former year, his father placed him in* the care of Judge George Tod 
and wife with whom he remained until able to strike out for himself 
in the world. Jesse Grant was the father of Ulysses S. Grant, Civil 
war commander-in-chief and president of the United States, who was 
born in Clermont County, Ohio, in 1822. 

This, of course, is only a partial list of the new settlers of that era. 
In 1810 Youngstown Township had attained a population of 773. War- 
ren led the list of Trumbull County townships with 875 inhabitants, 
while Poland was larger than Youngstown, having a population of 
837. Cleveland was the seventh settlement of the county in size at that 
time, having but 547 inhabitants. At the presidential election of 1812, 
however, Youngstown cast 76 votes, Warren 71 and Poland 52. 

Jared Potter Kirtland in describing Youngstown in 1810 says that 
it was, "A sparsely settled village of one street, the houses mostly 
log structures, a few frame buildings excepted; of the latter character 
was the dwelling house and store of Colonel Rayen." Dr. Henry Man- 
ning, who came to Youngstown in 181 1, describes "Colonel Rayen's 
tavern" in that year as "A two-story, white house, shingled on the sides 
instead of weather-boarding. There was a log house attached to it on 
the north, and a kitchen at the back built of round logs. Between the. 
log and the frame part was a wide hall, open at both ends, and wooden 
benches on the side for loungers/' Not a iriansion, perhaps, as we 
judge homes and hotels today, yet so noticeably superior to the average. 
Youngstown building at that time that it attracted instant attention 
And in a day when diversions for men were* largely confined to con- 
versation concerning crops and politics and debates dn the state of the 
nation it may be accepted as a fact that the "loungers" " benches were 
pretty well filled in the evenings and at odd hours of the day. 
! % Wet summer's in the .years 181b, 181 1 and 1812 discouraged many' 



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176 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

settlers of the Mahoning Valley as the excessive moisture resulted in 
poor crops. The war demoralized industry and ended the pioneer at- 
tempts at manufacturing. Money was scarce, even after hostilities had 
ceased in 1815 and "shinplasters" or common barter had to suffice. 
Actual "hard" money was unknown to many of the villagers. About 
1818, however, there was a revival of immigration from Connecticut 
from which Youngstown benefited along with the remainder of the 
Western Reserve. The famed cold summer of 1816 followed by scarcely 
more favorable growing weather in New England in the two succeeding 




Youngstown in 1830 

Drawn from a description about fifty years ago and printed in a Youngs- 
town Newspaper about 1880. This view shows West Federal Street from 
Central Square to Spring Common. The pond in the foreground was 
located on the north side of the Square. The large building nearby was 
erected by James McCay in 1829 and was used for a short time as a gen- 
eral store and later as a tavern. 

years directed the attention westward once more and wagon trains from 
Connecticut began to come with regularity. In 1818 the first complete 
school organization in the village was effected by agreement between 
Jabez P. Manning and subscribers — or parents of pupils — Manning be- 
ing the teacher at the school on the "Diamond." There were several 
other schools scattered throughout the township at this time, but Poland 
probably had better school facilities than Youngstown. Eight years 
later, in 1826, Youngstown was divided into seven school districts and 
an earnest attempt was made to promote education. About this time, 
too, in 1818 or 1819, the county fair first began to be held at Youngs- 
town, a county fair association being regularly organized. As farming 
was the mainstay of the Mahoning Valley these annual gatherings were 
affairs of note. The township, in fact, had prospered in the two or 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 177 

three years prior to 1820, for the census of that year gave Youngstown 
Township a population of 1,025. 

In 1826 another attempt was made to revive manufacturing in the 
Mahoning Valley when a blast furnace was built on Mill Creek by 
Daniel Eaton, James Eaton and other members of the Eaton family. 
This was the first iron manufacturing plant in Youngstown Township 
proper, and, like its predecessors in Poland Township, it was a charcoal 
furnace. Twenty years later the Mill Creek stack was rebuilt to use 
bituminous coal, but about the same time another stack, also equipped 
to use bituminous coal as fuel and having better transportation facilities, 
was built at Brier Hill, and the Mill Creek furnace went out of exist- 
ence. This latter was located within what is now Mill Creek Park. 

The question of transportation, had, in fact, begun to become a very 
live one even in the '20s, Youngstown people and other residents of the 
Mahoning Valley beginning to realize that any great growth was de- 
pendent upon manufacturing, and manufacturing was dependent upon 
good transportation and cheap transportation. Not that transportation 
had been neglected before this time. The Connecticut Land Company 
provided for the opening of the roads in the Western Reserve even 
before its settlement was begun, and in the first year of the existence 
of Youngstown a road was laid out from the Mahoning Valley to Lake 
Erie. For almost twenty years wagon roads of this kind were per- 
fectly satisfactory but with the growth of the State better facilities for 
commercial intercourse became necessary, and as this was an era of 
canals thoughts were naturally directed, toward inland waterways. As 
early as 1817 the project of connecting the Ohio River with Lake Erie 
by an artificial waterway was discussed and in 1820 a state board of 
canal commissioners was named. It was 1825, however, before an act 
was passed that resulted in the building of the first cross-state canal, 
and this waterway did not take in the Mahoning Valley, following in- 
stead the Cuyahoga River-Tuscarawas River route from -Cleveland, 
through Akron and thence southward to the Ohio River. 

The beneficial results of this waterway were plainly apparent. Cleve- 
land, that had lagged behind Youngstown and Warren in population 
for thirty years, grew rapidly to a city of more than 6,000 inhabitants 
while Mahoning Valley towns increased but little in size. A project 
for a lake-to-river canal by way of the Mahoning Valley that had been 
discussed as early as 1822 was immediately revived. 

Attention was diverted momentarily from this proposed improvement 
by a proposal for a railroad from the lake to the river, a project that 
was advanced as early as 1827. A charter was actually secured for this 
line, which was to run from Ashtabula County to Columbiana County, 
and the capital of the company was fixed at $1,000,000. It was a vainly 
ambitious scheme, however, and failed even before it was fairly under 
way. This was an Ashtabula County plan and interested Mahoning 
Valley residents but little. 

The Mahoning Valley canal project had its ups and downs. A char- 
ter was secured in Ohio in January, 1827, and in Pennsylvania in April 
of the same year, but political uncertainty thwarted any attempts at 



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178 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

actual work each time the movement was revived. The canal company 
was finally organized in 1835 but the panic of 1836-37 prevented what 
might have been a favorable start at that time; the same business de- 
pression also causing the suspension of work on a second projected 
railroad known as the Ashtabula, Warren and East Liverpool line. This 
movement, like that of its predecessor, was backed by Ashtabula County 
capital. 

Finally in 1838 business conditions had improved sufficiently to per- 
mit the canal project to become a reality. Work was begun that year 
on the Pennsylvania & Ohio canal that was to extend from the Ohio 
River by way of Beaver Creek up the Mahoning Valley to Warren and 
thence to Akron where a connection was to be made with the Ohio canal, 
giving a direct waterway from Pittsburgh to Cleveland by way of 
Youngstown. 

In May, 1839, the canal was completed from its southern terminus 
to Warren, and on May 23d a general holiday was declared in the Ma- 
honing Valley when the first boat reached the northern terminus of 
the canal. A newspaper account of the celebration says : 

"On Thursday last, May 23d, our citizens were greeted with the 
arrival of the boat from Beaver. The packet Ontario, Captain Bronson 
in charge, came into town in gallant style, amid the roar of cannon and 
the shouts and hearty cheers of our citizens. The boat was crowded 
by gentlemen from Pennsylvania and along the line, and accompanied 
by four excellent bands of music. On arriving at the foot of Main 
Street they were greeted by the- Warren band, and a procession formed 
which marched through the square to the front of Townes* hotel, where 
a neat and appropriate address was made to the passengers by John 
Crowell, Esq., mayor of the town, giving them a hearty welcome in the 
name of the town authorities and citizens, which was responded to by 
B. B. Chamberlain of Brighton. The rest of the day was past in 
hilarity, and on Friday the boat left for Beaver, carrying about forty 
citizens of Youngstown, who were delighted with the excursion." 

The Western Reserve Chronicle of May 28 reports the celebration 
fully andj freely. The "hilarity" may have been due to the fact that 
"wine flowed freely and spirited music was rendered by the band." 

In the afternoon a banquet was served at which Gen. J. W; Seely 
presided as toastmaster. The toasts responded to were: 

"Pennsylvania and Ohio." 

"The Pennsylvania & Ohio canal." 

"The Pennsylvania & Ohio Canal Company." 

"The officers of the canal company." 

"The engineers corps of the Pennsylvania & Ohio Canal." 

"The packet Ontario." 

"The owners and captain of the packet." 

"The Village of Warren." 

General Crowell offered another toast to the memory of Gen. Abner 
Lacock, the first president of the canal company; David Tod offered 
one to the memory of Gen. Roswell Stone and as a final breathtaker 
a toast was proposed to "The Triple Union — The Rivers of the South 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 179 

with the Lakes of the North ; the Cuyahoga with the Big Beaver ; West- 
ern Pennsylvania with Eastern Ohio; by the cross-cut canal, through 
Warren, the center of the Union. ,, 

The canal was completed to Akron late in 1839 and there was another 
jollification to signalize this event. 

It was a small undertaking, this canal, judged by twentieth century 
standards, and yet an immense one for that day. But two years before 
the first steam engine northwest of the Ohio River had been given its 
experimental run up near Toledo, almost ten years were to pass before 
a steam railroad traversed Ohio from northern to southern boundary, 
and it was not until fourteen years later that construction of the first 
railroad was begun in the Mahoning Valley. 



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CHAPTER XI 

YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1840 TO 1865 

The Growth and Decline of the Pennsylvania & Ohio Canal — 
The Third County Seat War and the Creation of Mahoning 
County — The Beginning of Youngstown as a Manufacturing 
Center — The First Railroad — Youngstown in Civil War Days. 

t 
The year 1840 might be said to be the beginning of a turning point 
in Youngstown's history. Almost a half century had now elapsed since 
the founding of the settlement and the coming of the white man to 
Youngstown Township. The earlier settlers who had come here as 
youthful, vigorous and ambitious men and women had grown to old 
age and had passed away or were living in quiet retirement. Others 
who had come as mere children were approaching the age of inactivity. 
The first born of Youngstown natives were nearing middle life. 

Youngstown, in short, had attained a ripe age, and yet it was but 
a drowsy village of less than one thousand inhabitants; the township 
numbered less than two thousand residents all told. Gradually the 
adjoining townships that had been included at first in the civil township 
of Youngstown for governmental purposes were organized separately, 
and the civil township of Youngstown became identical with the sur- 
veyed township that John Young had bought. Yet in 1840 the Village 
of Youngstown was merely the center of the township, and not a sepa- 
rately incorporated municipality. We may be assured there had been 
sentiment before this date looking toward incorporation, for small Ameri- 
can municipalities always take a pride in forming themselves into regu- 
larly organized villages or towns. Yet no serious movement in this 
direction had been undertaken, although separate school districts had 
been organized in the township many years before. 

In the '40s, however, circumstances awakened Youngstown to a re- 
alization of its possibilities. Transportation other than that possible 
on the rude wagon roads of the pioneers had at least become a reality. 
A dozen years before, as has been remarked, a railroad to connect 
Youngstown with the outer world had been discussed but necessarily 
this was a vain ambition, for railroad transportation was itself scarcely 
more than an experiment at that time. The opening of the Pennsylvania 
& Ohio canal in 1839-40 was the event that gave a medium for making 
Youngstown something more than an inland village and paved the way 
for the development of the entire Mahoning Valley. It was the first 
step toward transforming this district from an agricultural into a manu- 
facturing region, a movement that has been going on without cessation 
since that time. 

180 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 181 

As early as 1803, as we have seen, attempts had been made to man- 
ufacture iron in the Mahoning Valley. Successive works were built 
along Yellow Creek and along the Mahoning River in Weathersfield 
Township, and in 1826 the first blast furnace was built on Mill Creek. 
The pig iron produced by these stacks was used for foundry and domestic 
purposes and was largely for home consumption. In the same manner 
coal had been mined in limited quantities for a number of years, but 
coal mining was not looked upon as a commercial proposition until 
the late '30s. 

With the completion of the canal, however, an era of coal mining 
set in. David Tod, then a young man scarcely more than thirty-five 
years of age, saw the possibilities in the valley's coal supply and opened 
a mine on his farm in the northwestern part of the township. This 
land lay on a hillside sloping toward the river and because of the pro- 
fusion of briers that it supported the farm had been named "Brier Hill." 
The coal from this mine was tested for its qualifications as an engine 
fuel and, being found satisfactory, an extensive traffic in Brier Hill coal 
began, early shipments being made to Cleveland by way of the canal. 

This coal soon attained such an envious reputation that experiments 
were begun looking toward its use as a blast furnace fuel. Previous 
to this iron making had been carried on largely under the charcoal 
process, an expensive and not altogether satisfactory method. Coke 
had been substituted, but about 1842 Brier Hill block coal was found to 
be an excellent fuel, and in 1844 Wilkes, Wilkinson & Co., of Pitts- 
burgh, built a blast furnace at Lowellville for the manufacture of pig 
iron with the use of this bituminous coal. This site was selected be- 
cause of its proximity to the limestone supply of the lower Mahoning 
Valley. In 1846 or thereabouts the "Eagle" furnace was built north- 
west of the Village of Youngstown and almost on the line of the cor- 
poration limits established shortly afterward. The stack was erected 
on land purchased from Dr. Henry Manning and remained in existence 
until the early '8os, when it had become obsolete and was abandoned. 
The furnace site was taken over by Heller Bros. Co., as a location for 
their lumber yard. 

Like the Lowellville stack, the Eagle furnace used raw block coal 
instead of coke. This successful and continued use of coal as blast 
furnace fuel is unique in the history of the iron industry, Brier Hill 
coal being the first fuel of this kind ever mined that answered blast 
furnace purposes without being coked, or mixed with charcoal or coke. 

About 1847 James Wood & Co. built a second furnace in the Brier 
Hill neighborhood, the coal from this stack coming also from the Brier 
Hill mines. Limestone that is yet found in plentiful quantities below 
Lowellville was transported to Brier Hill by canal boat and native 
"black band" ore was the original basis for the high grade iron pro- 
duced. It was not until shortly before the Civil war that Lake Superior 
ores came into use in the Mahoning Valley. The Wood stack was pur- 
chased in 1861 by David Tod and later became the Tod furnace of the 
Brier Hill Iron & Coal Co. It was, it might be said, the nucleus of the 
present great plant of the Brier Hill Steel Co., a modern industrial estab- 



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182 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

lishment that is complete from ore mines to machinery for loading fin- 
ished iron and steel. 

Meanwhile the mining of coal was being engaged in on a larger 
scale. The '50s saw the opening of numerous banks and the period 
after the Civil war witnessed even greater activity. Iron manufacturing, 
too, expanded. In 1841 James Ward erected at Niles the first finishing 
mill in the Mahoning Valley or, indeed, in the State of Ohio. Its 
equipment consisted of puddle furnaces and finishing mills, and its 
product, of course, was bar iron. Five years later the first plant of a 
similar nature was erected at Youngstown. Originally this latter works, 
built to manufacture bar iron and sheets from puddled iron, was the 
property of the Youngstown Iron Co., the stockholders of this concern 
at the time of its incorporation in 1846 being Henry Manning, William 
Rice, Henry Heasley, Hugh B. Wick, Henry Wick, Caleb B. Wick, 
Paul Wick, James Dangerfield, Harvey Fuller, Robert W. Tayler, Isaac 
Powers and James McEwen. In 1854 it became the property of Joseph 
H. Brown, William Bonnell, Richard Brown and Thomas Brown, New 
Castle men, who reorganized the company and .gave it the name of 
Brown, Bonnell & Co. This pioneer industry of the village grew rapidly, 
and with the addition of the Phoenix and Falcon blast furnaces, became 
a complete rolling mill plant, manufacturing its own pig iron and semi- 
finished iron as well as the finished product. The blast furnaces at 
this plant passed out of existence many years ago. The puddling mills 
too, were eventually abandoned, but under Republic Iron & Steel Co. 
ownership the Brown-Bonnell works has expanded into one of the large 
finishing mill plants of the country. The present Bessemer plant of the 
same company is built partly on the site of the old Phoenix and Falcon 
furnaces. 

This transformation of Youngstown from a farming to a manu- 
facturing center started at a time when the entire country was beginning 
to awaken to the possibilities of manufacturing and then, as now, politi- 
cal circumstances had much to do with the success of industrial ventures. 
Industrial projects, like the canal and railroad ventures of the Ma- 
honing Valley suffered from the depression of 1837 that followed the 
gradual reduction in the protective tariff. The tariff act of 1842 re- 
vived manufacturing and for several years there was industrial activity, 
but the tariff walls were again lowered, the ultimate consequence being 
the panic of 1857. Youngstown's young industries were hit hard by this 
unfavorable circumstance, but they weathered the storm and grew in 
importance with the demand for iron that came after the outbreak of 
the Civil war. 

The part that the Pennsylvania & Ohio canal played in laying the 
foundation for industrial Youngstown is one that should never be for- 
gotten. Its years were comparatively few, for even while it was in the 
process of construction the building of a steam railroad was discussed 
and was a certainty of the near future. Yet for fifteen years it sufficed 
as the one medium of freight transportation in and out of Youngstown 
and for an equal length of time thereafter it was a humble auxiliary to 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 183 

the railroads. To the Mahoning Valley people of the '40s and the '50s 
it was a source of pride and a marvel of enterprise. 

From Pennsylvania the canal followed the north bank of the Ma- 
honing River through the villages of Lowellville and Struthers, on 
through Youngstown and thence to Girard, Niles, Warren and above, 
then digressing from the river valley to unite at Akron with the Ohio 
& Erie canal that gave it an outlet to Lake Erie. In its lower reaches 
the canal paralleled the river closely, but through Youngstown it 
followed a comparatively straight route, sometimes being within a 
short distance of this natural waterway and again a considerable distance 
removed, owing to the winding course followed by the river. The fall in 
the canal was necessarily slight so that within the present limits of the 




Ohio and Pennsylvania Canal Scene at Spring Common Bridge 

city there were but two locks, one of these being near the present site 
of the Haselion furnaces and the xither .about where the Lower Union 
plant of the Carnegie Steel Co. is located. 

The motive power, of course, was horses and mules, and the progress 
of the boats was slow, but this was an age of leisure. Limestone from 
the lower Mahoning Valley to the Youngstown furnaces, coal to Cleve- 
land, pig iron and iron ore comprised the bulk of its traffic, although 
glass, wheat, merchandise and many other articles of commerce were 
carried. At intervals this artificial waterway broadened out into wide 
"basins" where the canal boats were turned and freight loaded and un- 
loaded. These basins were hives of industry, or at least they appeared 
so to Youngstown people of the '40s and the '50s. One such basin was 
located at the lower end of the village in the neighborhood of the present 
Bessemer plant of the Republic Iron & Steel Co. and at the end of Basin 
Street, which thoroughfare takes its name from this circumstance. Here 



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184 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

the Jacobs' warehouse stood. Another basin was located just west of 
Spring Common, the warehouse here being originally conducted by 
Thomas H. Wells, although it changed management a number of times. 
A third basin was located almost in the heart of the village, or in the 
"flats" almost beneath the present Market Street viaduct, the site now 
being occupied by the Baltimore & Ohio railroad tracks and the offices of 
the Republic Iron & Steel Co. The warehouse at this latter basin, which 
also changed ownership several times, stood until a comparatively recent 
date. With the abandonment of the canal it became a woolen factory 
and at a still later date was converted into a station for the railroad 
that is now the Baltimore & Ohio. This huge, barnlike structure, 
notable chiefly for its ability to resist fire when modern, and more valu- 
able and ornamental buildings succumbed to flames, is easily remem- 
bered by even younger residents of Youngstown. 

Although built primarily for freight traffic the Pennsylvania & Ohio 
icanal was far from being an unimportant medium of passenger trans- 
portation for residents of the Mahoning Valley and for newcomers. For 
human freight the canal boasted sturdy "packets" of liberal capacity 
and painted a pleasing white. In appearance they far outshone the 
plain freight boats, and the arrival of the packet was awaited as eagerly 
as the approach of the daily passenger train is watched in modern 
villages of today. To ride within or on it was a dream of magnificence. 
The mad rush for gold to California in 1849 an d tne years immediately 
succeeding, and the wild movement of 1859, whose motto was "Pike's 
Peak or Bust," did not leave Youngstown untouched. The departure of 
more than one packet saw passengers carried away westward to begin the 
trek into the almost pathless lands beyond the Mississippi. Yet the 
Mahoning Valley itself was a new country and from the East there 
still came ambitious youths who were able to discard the saddle, the 
canoe and the wagon of the early pioneers and make the trip in all the 
glory of the shining packets. More than one resident of Youngstown 
today can recount his experiences as he reached the metropolis of the 
Mahoning Valley by this route. 

The coming of the railroad spelled the doom of the Pennsylvania & 
Ohio canal. With the arrival of the steam locomotive it became only 
a medium for slow freight and early degenerated into a mere assistant 
to the railroad. Even the ownership of the canal company eventually 
passed to the railroad companies. Its glories gone, it remained in use 
but steadily dwindling in importance until eventually it became only a 
medium for transporting limestone to the Youngstown furnaces. The 
final abandonment was witnessed in 1872, and even the arid channel 
and the rotting hulks of the old canal boats gradually disappeared with 
the construction of successive railroads over the canal bed, for its 
route had been wisely chosen. Today the ruins alone are a memory 
to even the middle aged. 

Naturally this industrial progress bred still further ambitions on 
the part of the Village of Youngstown. The canal gave it undisputed 
supremacy in the two lower tiers of townships of Trumbull County. 
That the village lay directly in the Mahoning River valley while Can- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 185 

field and Poland, its chief rivals, were inland villages, had not been 
heretofore a great advantage in itself since the Mahoning was a navi- 
gable stream in theory only. The canal, however, gave it means of 
transportation to the outside world, a facility that these other villages 
lacked. It felt that it had surpassed them. Likewise the canal caused 
Youngstown to chafe under the knowledge that it was after all more or 
less subservient to Warren while that village remained the capital of 
Trumbull County. Sooner or later this meant a renewal of the fight to 
make Youngstown a county seat town. The opportunity came in a 
not unusual manner, and fate ordained that it should be almost co- 
incident with the opening of the canal and the coal mines that were to 
furnish the basis for industrial Youngstown. 

The quarrel for county seat honors that had begun even before the 
proclamation was issued creating Trumbull County in 1800 had died 
out with the dawning of the War of 1812. A half dozen or more vil- 
lages had urged their claims, with Warren and Youngstown as the 
chief contenders. Warren's claim had been confirmed finally with the 
erection of county buildings, and for almost a third of a century the 
question had lain dormant. But in 1840 the courthouse at Warren had 
become an object of disrepute. It was a frame structure, small, built 
inexpensively, and had outlived both its usefulness and its good looks. 
It was creditable in appearance neither to Warren nor to Trumbull 
County and had even reached a stage when repairs would no longer 
suffice. A new county building was needed and Warren citizens began 
a movement looking toward the erection of a modern courthouse. 

The proposal was all that was needed to renew the county seat agi- 
tation in all its fury of more than a quarter of a century before. Rival 
towns met Warren's plans for a new courthouse with vigorous pro- 
tests against spending any more public funds for county buildings of 
any kind in that village. 

It will be pardonable here, perhaps, to digress long enough to chron- 
icle another event that is of importance in the history of Youngstown 
by remarking that the activity Youngstown had begun to display at 
this time brought into existence the first newspaper that the village 
boasted. Youngstown was not a pioneer in Trumbull County in this 
respect, since Warren had witnessed the establishment of a weekly 
journal thirty years earlier. It is surprising that Youngstown had been 
overlooked so long, for the optimistic journalist of that day needed 
but slight encouragement to launch a newspaper. Now the growing 
importance of Youngstown and the fact that it might become the capital 
of a new county added whatever incentive was needed, and the Olive 
Branch and New County Advocate was formally introduced to the 
public on Friday, August 25, 1843, w ^h J°^ n G. McLain as publisher. 
It was to be a weekly organ, issued each Friday. 

In his editorial announcement in the opening issue Mr. McLain says : 

"We have located ourselves in the beautiful thriving village of 
Youngstown, on the banks of the Mahoning on the Pennsylvania & 
Ohio canal. We come amongst you, fellow citizens, with our establish- 
ment, to make a home for ourselves and family, and we hope to do so 



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186 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

by honest industry and attention to business, while at the same time we 
feel that in doing so we can be useful to you, not only individually but 
collectively, and this in proportion to the circulation which you will aid 
in giving to the Olive Branch. 

"There are but few villages in Ohio of equal population, business 
and enterprise with this that have not their newspaper, and surely the 
people of this region will aid in sustaining us. 

«* * * Money! did we say? Well, we need many other things 
as much as money, so if you have no money let not that deter you, come 
ahead and patronize the Olive Branch; we will take almost anything 
you have for it, anything that we can eat, drink, wear or pay debts 
with." 

In his declaration of policies the editor announces that his paper 
stands for "Old Jeffersonian Principles," and that: 

"It will advocate the project of the erection of a new county, the 
county seat of which shall be located in this village. 

"It will strive to procure the reduction of the salaries of all our na- 
tional and state servants, with very few exceptions." 

This last-mentioned declaration of principles is a rather startling 
one, and was more popular by far with the taxpayers who paid those 
salaries than with the officeholders who drew the emoluments. It so 
happens, however, that this policy did not originate with the editor of 
this pioneer Youngstown newspaper, nor was he making a valiant fight 
singlehanded against supposed state and national extravagance. "Re- 
trenchment" was an active, burning issue in 1843. Paying taxes aroused 
ire then just as it does now, just as it had for generations before and 
just as it always will. There was a strong sentiment in favor of 
economy. Nor was the campaign ineffectual. At the next session of 
the Ohio Legislature after the Youngstown newspaper joined in the 
fray all state and county salaries and fees were slashed by legislative 
enactment. The governor's salary was cut to $1,000 a year, while the 
secretary of state had to get along with $500 per annum, with "no fees 
or perquisites allowed." In this respect at least the editor had gauged 
public sentiment correctly. 

The name selected, The Olive Branch and New County Advocate, 
was a high sounding one, as was common in the newspaper world of 
that day, yet a more meaningless title could not have been chosen. It 
was, as it had announced, a believer in Jeffersonian Democracy, and, 
far from extending the olive branch or spreading peace and good will, 
it saw little that was good in the Whigs and was emphatic in acquainting 
its readers with that fact. It was avowedly for President John Tyler 
for the Democratic nomination in 1844, and had little more respect for 
Van Buren, Cass and other Democratic presidential contenders than it 
had for the benighted Whigs. It was not at all favorable to David Tod 
for the Democratic gubernatorial nomination in 1844, although Tod was 
a Trumbull County man and the leading candidate, and it was unblush- 
ingly and savagely critical of its brother organ, the Trumbull Democrat, 
of Warren. 

Founded to advance Youngstown's claim to county seat honors it 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 187 

would naturally be expected to lead this fight, yet it appears to have 
forgotten the contest almost entirely after its initial announcement. 
While this struggle was at its height the Olive Branch devoted itself 
to national politics and foreign news — although it might be said in 
extenuation of this that it was but following a custom common to news- 
papers of that day. It was equally oblivious to the importance of local 
news happenings, few of these being found in its columns except when a 
prominent citizen died, and then the published eulogy and obituary was 
usually the contribution of a literary-minded friend of the deceased 
and not a product of the editor's pencil. From its files one may learn 
the Washington happenings of that day and acquire a working knowl- 
edge of affairs in England, France and Ireland, but the reader is left 
in doubt regarding occurrences in Youngstown except occasional refer- 
ences to the growing canal traffic. 

The Olive Branch assumed a neutral course in politics after Polk 
had been nominated for President and Tod for governor in 1844. About 
this time too it appears to have given up the county seat fight, or the 
pretension that it was a county seat advocate, for in September, 1844, 
it became the Olive Branch and Literary Messenger. In the final 
existing copy of the Olive Branch, issued on March 7, 1845, the editor 
"takes great pleasure" in announcing that Texas had been annexed to 
the United States and assured its readers that "President Polk was, we 
presume, undoubtedly inducted into office on Tuesday last. It is not 
known here who have been appointed his cabinet ministers." 

This slow transmission of news was unavoidable. The editor could 
not be assured that Polk had been inaugurated as required on March 4th 
until the Washington newspapers reached him by the slow and easy go- 
ing mail of that day. However, he exercised the newspaperman's pre- 
rogative of picking a slate of cabinet officers whom he "presumes" were 
appointed. 

All in all, the Olive Branch was an average American weekly news- 
paper of that day. It did little to help gain a county seat for Youngs- 
town but was a paper in which its publisher might take just pride 
otherwise. 

This little journey away from the county seat subject itself will be 
pardoned, we feel sure, because of the part this newspaper was pre- 
sumed to play in the struggle. To return to that subject, it is rather 
surprising to note that the healthy growth of Warren did not have the 
effect of thwarting any attempt to remove the county seat from Warren 
altogether. Such a move would have been an injustice to Warren and 
yet several of the projects for county division that arose at this time act- 
ually contemplated eliminating Warren altogether from consideration. 

Warren had the advantage of possession, which is alleged to be nine 
points of the law, but with this advantage was forced to accept the dis- 
advantage of being put on the defensive. It was her task to hold what 
she had against all rivals, while those rivals were actuated by a common 
desire to obtain what Warren had. This community of interest was 
favorable to the contenders. 

The election of 1843 was fought out with county division as the 



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188 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

issue and resulted in a victory for the lower tiers of townships in Trum- 
bull County. Eben Newton, of Canfield, represented Trumbull County 
in the Senate for a two-year term beginning in December, 1842, and at 
the election of 1843 Asahel Medbury, Democrat, and Dr. Henry Man- 
ning, Whig, both of Youngstown, were elected members of the lower 
house of the State Legislature. The rival political parties declared a 
truce and supported Youngstown men regardless of party. 

Legislative action on division was confidently expected at the as- 
sembly session that winter. Various plans were proposed for the erec- 
tion of new counties, one of these of course being a county of which 
Youngstown should be the capital. Greene and Gustavus, in the most 
northerly tier of Trumbull County townships, were contenders for the 
honor of being the county seat of still another new county. Canfield 
was Youngstown's most serious competitor for seat of justice of the 
county to be created from the lower townships of the county. Newton 
Falls had still another proposal. 

At a meeting of Newton Falls residents late in 1843 resolutions were 
adopted providing for the creation of three counties. 

The first of these counties was to be formed out of the townships 
of Hartsgrove, Rome, Cherry Valley, New Lyme, Andover, Windsor, 
Orwell, Colebrook, Wayne and Williamsfield in Ashtabula County, and 
Mesopotamia, Bloomfield, Greene, Gustavus, Kinsman and Vernon in 
Trumbull County. Gustavus and Greene would be permitted to contest 
for the seat of justice of this county. 

The second county was to be formed out of Mecca, Bazetta, How- 
land, Weathersfield, Austintown, Canfield, Boardman, Youngstown, 
Liberty, Vienna, Fowler, Johnston, Hartford, Brookfield, Hubbard, 
Coitsville and Poland, with the county seat at Youngstown. 

The third county — Trumbull by name — would consist of Farming- 
ton, Bristol, Southington, Champion, Braceville, Warren, Newton, 
Lordstown, Milton, Jackson, Berlin and Ellsworth townships in Trum- 
bull County and the townships of Windham, Palmyra, Nelson and Paris 
in Portage County, the county seat, of course, to be at Newton Falls. 
The Portage County townships, in fact, were added to give Newton 
Falls a central position. 

On behalf of Youngstown, Judge William Rayen and R. W. Tayler 
were eager contestants, along with the two members of the assembly. 
The Newton Falls proposal was adroitly put up to them by its propon- 
ents and they were urged to postpone action until there could be a 
better union of forces, instead of bringing Youngstown's proposal to 
a vote in the legislative session that was about to open. This proposal 
would leave Warren entirely out in the cold, but Youngstown people 
welcomed this prospect rather than hesitating at it. They had not yet 
forgiven Warren for its smooth work in 1800. Youngstown had gone 
too far, however, to consider any delay. In the words of R. W. Tayler, 
writing to Representative Asahel Medbury on December 14, 1843, "The 
proposition, if carried out, would suit us quite as well, but it is now too 
late to relax our efforts on account of it." 

With the opening of the Legislature in December, 1843, Youngstown 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 189 

therefore presented its plan for dividing Trumbull County by creating 
a new county out of the southern townships of Trumbull, the seat of 
government, of course, to be located at Youngstown. Warren, under its 
arrangement, apparently was to retain the county seat of Trumbull 
County. This arrangement, it would seem, should have been agreeable 
enough to Warren, but Warren was still opposed to any division, or at 
least to any that would remove it too far from the center of Trumbull 
County. Being without representation in the Legislature, it used the 
expedient it had employed thirty-five years before of sending lobbyists 
to head off partition. With Canfield thus eliminated, and Newton Falls, 
Gustavus and Greene not taken care of, Youngstown had much opposi- 
tion and not much help, and the struggle in the Legislature of 1843-44 
that had promised so much for Youngstown was lost. 

In the Legislature of 1844-45, Warren and the northern townships 
of Trumbull County controlled the representation in both houses of 
the State Legislature and county division again went by the board. 

In the Legislature of 1845-46, Youngstown was similarly without 
representation, and Canfield came forward with a new proposal. Much 
of the previous agitation for county division appears to have been 
limited to Trumbull County and territory north and west of it. The 
southern line of Trumbull County was the southern line of the Western 
Reserve as well, and the old Western Reserve spirit still persisted so 
strongly, in spite of almost a half century of growth and immigration, 
that the invasion of any other new territory in carving out proposed 
counties was apparently as unthinkable as the annexation of Pennsyl- 
vania townships would have been. Suggestions for seizing portions of 
Ashtabula and Portage counties were offered freely because these were 
Western Reserve counties, but other territory was inviolate. 

It was canny Canfield residents who shattered tradition by proposing 
to go outside the old Connecticut Western Reserve. From that village 
came the proposal, late in 1845, f° r the creation of a new county out of 
the ten lower townships of Trumbull County and the five upper, or 
northerly, townships of Columbiana County. It was a logical proposal. 
It left Warren sufficiently close to. the center of the remaining townships 
of Trumbull County that its claim to the right of retaining the county 
seat of that county could not be questioned. It would have been a good 
proposal even had Youngstown suggested it, but was especially strong 
from the Canfield viewpoint since it left Canfield in the exact geographi- 
cal center of the new county; this being always a strong argument in 
adjusting county seat claims. 

Warren had by this time come to recognize county division as inevi- 
table and finding that this Canfield plan would work to its advantage 
gave it strong support, with the result that the Legislature created the 
County of Mahoning on February 16, 1846, its limits being those set 
forth above and Canfield was named as the county seat. Youngstown 
for a third time had lost its fight, and another thirty years was to elapse 
before its ambition was finally attained. 

Defeat was not accepted by Youngstown with particularly good 
grace. The fight was still on, and Youngstown was reinforced by Greene 



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190 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

and Gustavus people who were petitioning for the creation of a new 
county to be known as Clay, while a movement was on foot for a 
county to be called Gilead. Just what Youngstown's designs were at 
this time is not clear, but Asahel Medbury and Dr. Manning were in 
Columbus during the winter of 1847-48 working in Youngstown's be- 
half. In a letter to Mr. Medbury from Judge William Rayen, dated 
January 7, 1848, he refers to both these county proposals, speaks of 
petitions being sent from Mahoning County, and expresses the holy 
indignatiqn of Youngstown people at their defeat two years before 
by saying: 

"I suppose you will have much said this winter on the subject of 
vested rights by the Warren and Canfield people. The Warren people 
need no more sympathy than the Canfield people, for when they got the 




Youngstown. (Drawn by Henry Hotoe in 1846.) 
Youngstown in 1846 

seat of justice made at Warren they got it by every kind of villainy, 
fraud and deception that probably could be practiced and contrary to 
the then known will of the very large majority of the citizens of what 
was then Trumbull County, and have retained it still, against the will 
of the people." 

This scathing arraignment refers of course to the original designa- 
tion of Warren as the Trumbull County seat in 1800. There can be 
no question of the judge's righteous wrath. 

Canfield had lost no time, however, in confirming her claim to being 
the seat of government of Mahoning County. Election of county officers 
was held almost immediately. The first county officials, who began 
their terms on March 1, 1846, were, sheriff, James Powers; auditor, 
Andrew Fitch; commissioners, Robert Turnbull, Isaiah Bowman and 
James Justice; treasurer, John H. Donald; recorder, Saxon Sykes; 
prosecuting attorney, William Ferguson. James Wallace of Spring- 
field, James Brownlee, of Poland, and Lemuel Brigham, of Ellsworth, 
were elected by the Legislature as acting associate justices and on March 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 191 

16, 1846, they convened in the office of Elisha Whittlesey, at Canfield, 
the oath being administered by Judge Eben Newton, the presiding judge 
of the district. On May nth, the court formally organized and opened 
its first session in the Methodist Episcopal Church at Canfield. 

In the act making Canfield the county seat that village was obligated 
to donate a lot and $5,000 toward suitable county buildings. Canfield 
carried out by private subscriptions all the terms imposed on it, and 
more. Judge Newton donated a lot to be used as a courthouse site, and 
$10,000 was subscribed for buildings, the work being done so expedi- 
tiously that the original county buildings were completed by the summer 
of 1848. 

In the thinly populated Mahoning County of 1846 there were fewer 
calls to duty on the part of officials than there are today, but the work 
was sometimes onerous, nevertheless. Forty years after he held the 
office of the first sheriff of Mahoning County, James Powers told of ex- 
periences that befell an early day officer of the law, saying: 

"There was no jail when I went into office, and whenever 1 had a 
prisoner the only way I could keep him safely was to drive a staple in 
the floor of my house in Canfield and chain him down. When court 
did not meet for some time the prisoners were placed in the Warren 
jail, and when ready for trial were brought back to my house and 
chained down until either sentenced to the penitentiary or released. In 
those days there were no railroads, and I had to drive all the prisoners 
sentenced to the penitentiary, and insane persons too, in carriages to 
Columbus, stopping at taverns along the road at night. It took three 
days to drive through, and it was not a pleasant business. I had a horse 
thief, named Eaton, once that everybody said would escape before reach- 
ing Columbus, as he was a dangerous character. I took a guard named 
Whittlesey along, and at night chained the two together and then to the 
bed and landed my man in the penitentiary all right. In those days the 
sheriff's office did not pay very much, in fact when I went out I was 
poorer than when I was elected." 

Except for this setback — the loss of the coveted county seat — the 
'40s were years of progress in Youngstown. The Mexican war in 
1846-47 had no ill effect. The militia training days of early Ohio were 
still an institution and, with war with our southern neighbor in prospect, 
military activities were redoubled. Youngstown and Mahoning County 
gave their full complement to the Ohio forces raised, although this was 
necessarily a small number, since fewer American troops were engaged 
in this- war than in any other in which the United States has ever taken 
part. Ohio's contribution was but 5,536 in all, yet it had a greater num- 
ber ready to respond if needed, and with this apparently small number 
Ohio led all northern states in the number of men it sent to battle Mexico. 

Flushed with its success over gaining the county seat, Canfield 
became an incorporated village. Perhaps because Youngstown realized 
that it lacked dignity in remaining a mere unincorporated settlement, but 
more likely because of its comparatively rapid growth, Youngstown also 
aspired to municipal honors and applied in 1848 for a village charter. 
The petition was granted in December, 1848, but it was a year and a 



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192 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

half later that the village was formally organized, the town limits being 
extended by the county commissioners before this was done. At this 
time, 1850, Youngstown Township had a population of 2,802. The 
village was not enumerated separately that year, but it is probable that 
the population was fully 1,500, or an increase of fully 100 per cent in 
the decade since 1840, which fact indicates the progress that Youngs- 
town had made industrially. 

The first village election was held on June 15, 1850, at the Union 
House, kept by W. H. Ross. The village officers elected were : Mayor, 
John Heiner; recorder, Robert W. Tayler; trustees, John Loughridge, 
Abraham D. Jacobs, Francis Barclay, Stephen F. Burnett and Manuel 
Hamilton. The village government formally organized on the evening 
of that day at the office of Ridgeley J. Powers. The trustees elected 
Benjamin H. Lake, village marshal ; James Richart, treasurer, and James 
McEwen, street commissioner. 

"In December, 1850, the Legislature recognized the extension of the 
village limits and a new form of government was instituted. At the 
election on April 7, 1851, R. W. Tayler was elected mayor; John F. 
Hollingsworth, police justice; Joseph Montgomery, assessor; Hugh 
Moore, marshal; and a board of five aldermen was elected, James M. 
Loughridge being named for the First Ward, Daniel Sheehy for the 
Second Ward, Moses C. Johnson for the Third Ward, E. W. Hollings- 
worth for the Fourth Ward and R. G. Garlick for the Fifth Ward. The 
aldermen elected Samuel C. Griffith borough superintendent ; D. I. Bald- 
win, treasurer; E. S. Hubbard, counsellor and attorney; F. E. Hutchins, 
clerk. 

At this time the legal title of the municipality was "borough" but 
shortly afterwards "village" was substituted. The high-sounding title of 
"alderman" gave way to "trustee," although in every way except officially 
the board of trustees was known as the "village council." 

Even before this time the growing importance of the coal and iron 
traffic had had its natural consequence in the revival of the plan for 
uniting Youngstown and other Mahoning Valley villages to the outer 
world by steam railroad. The canal was doing its work well, but when 
it was yet in its infancy the inadequacy of this means of transportation 
became apparent. The pioneer railroad on the valley had its inspiration 
largely at Warren, and on February 22, 1848, the books were opened for 
stock subscriptions. It was five years later before the promoters felt 
there was sufficient funds pledged to warrant the beginning of construc- 
tion work and this was but one of the many delays encountered. A tight 
money market, failure of eastern capital that had been counted upon, 
greater expenditures than were anticipated, and similar handicaps, caused 
postponements but never the abandonment of the project. By 1855 the 
road had been built as far as Girard, and for some time Youngstown pas- 
sengers had to go to this village to embark by rail. By 1856, however, 
the line was completed to Youngstown, terminating originally just west 
of Holmes Road, now Holmes Street, in an open field. Later the pas- 
senger depot for this line — the Cleveland & Mahoning Railroad — was 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 193 

built on the east side of Holmes Street where the Erie freight station 
now stands. 

The Cleveland & Mahoning line gradually acquired ownership of the 
Pennsylvania & Ohio Canal and the two transportation lines were oper- 
ated in conjunction. It was some years after this road had been com- 
pleted to Youngstown before there was rail communication with Pitts- 
burg and the canal continued to be useful. But the coal, the limestone 
and the merchandise westbound were hauled by the rail line, and graduT 
ally the freight to the east was carried the same way. The Cleveland & 
Mahoning carried its line to Hubbard by the construction of a branch 
road, double-tracked the line to Cleveland and, in 1863, was leased to 
the Atlantic & Great Western Company. Eventually it came under the 
control of the Erie railroad by lease. 

A more extended story of the construction, progress and develop- 
ment of this and other railroads in the Mahoning Valley will be found 
in a chapter on transportation. It was the era of railroad build- 
ing, however, that brought to the fore a man who did more than any 
other one person in Youngstown to further the progress, growth and 
importance of this city in the last half of the nineteenth century. We 
refer to the late Chauncey H. Andrews, merchant, innkeeper, coal oper- 
ator, iron manufacturer, the leader in railroad construction in the valley 
and public spirited citizen from the day of his arrival here until his 
death in 1893, whose activities are further detailed in a biographical 
sketch appearing in the second volume of this work. 

The decade between 1840 and 1850 may be said to have been one of 
the most important in the history of Youngstown. This assertion may 
appear to be overdrawn in view of the fact that at the end of this period 
Youngstown had, as we have explained, a population of not mere thaji 
1,500. Yet when one recalls that the growth in these ten years was equal 
to the growth in the entire life of the village prior to 1840, and that in 
this decade it first branched out into manufacturing, established trans- 
portation facilities with the outer world and became the undisputed 
metropolis of the Mahoning Valley, this is not too much to say. It *was 
the day when Youngstown had to decide whether it would spring ahead 
or remain stagnant, and Youngstown chose to advance. : ' 

The next decade — 1850 to i860 — was one of equally rapid' growth. 
The railroads, as we have shown, came to supplant the canal, the coal 
industry flourished more and more in Youngstown and* in adjoining 
villages, new blast furnaces were built by the Brier HiH Iron & Coal 
Company in 1859 and i860, the Phoenix furnace was built by Crawford 
& Howard in 1854, the Falcon furnace by Charles Howard in 1856, the 
Himrod furnace No. 1 in 1859 and the Himrod furnace No. 2 in i860. 
It was in the next decade or two that additional rolling mills came, but 
these blast furnaces gave Youngstown a decided industrial standing even 
before the Civil war. In i860 Youngstown Village had attained a popu- 
lation of 2,759 while the township as a whole had 5,377 inhabitants, 
almost three times its population of 1840. In 1857 the first banking 
house in the village was established by Wick Bros. & Co. 

This was the position of Youngstown when the struggle that has 



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194 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

gone down in history as the American Civil war burst forth. Like the 
entire Western Reserve, Youngstown was destined to have a great part 
in this fearful conflict. Here in Northeastern Ohio the anti-slavery 
movement might be said to have had its birth, and nowhere was the 
doctrine of state rights more bitterly opposed. To the south of Mahon- 
ing County there was secession sentiment, even in Ohio, but here on the 
Western Reserve the New England and Pennsylvania blood, with its 
accompanying strains from New York and New Jersey, imbibed little 
of the secession heresy. In the two decades between 1840 and i860 a 
heavy foreign immigration had modified the old American strain in 
the villages of the Mahoning Valley, but these immigrants were largely 
from England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland and Germany — men and women 













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This Structure, at West Federal Street and Spring Common, was 
Built in the Early Thirties and was for Many Years the Leading 
Hotel in Youngstown. 
The photograph was taken while the building was being razed, about 1910. 

who had come here to escape oppressive conditions in their native lands 
and who were by instinct ardent advocates of free labor and opponents 
of human slavery. 

It so happened that it was a Youngstown man — in reality a Mahon- 
ing Valley man, since his interests were such that the whole valley might 
claim him for a citizen — who was the leading figure in Ohio's participa- 
tion in the war. This was David Tod, "war governor" of Ohio. 

Serving as state senator from Trumbull County from 1838 to 1840, 
David Tod was a leading figure in the Democratic party while still a 
young man, and in 1844 was his party's nominee for governor. It was 
a "Whig year" in Ohio, and yet Tod lost the governorship by but 1,271 
votes in October, while the state was carried by Clay, the Whig candidate 
for President, a month later by 6,000. In 1846, when the Whig sentiment 
was even stronger, he lost by but 2,380. Fifteen years later, in 1861, the 
loyalists in Ohio were looking for a man who would fight secession with- 
out compromise — for events in the summer of 1861 were not favorable 
to the North and compromise talk was rife. The man, rather his politi- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 195 

cal faith, was considered and David Tod, a "War Democrat," was made 
the "Union" party's nominee. Loyalists of both old parties gave him sup- 
port and he won the governorship by a majority of 56,000. 

The confidence placed in Governor Tod was never regretted. He 
threw himself heartily into the Union cause. The first company re- 
cruited in Youngstown for service was raised largely at his expense, 
and in the troublous days of 1862 to 1864 he led in recruiting, in fighting 
disloyalty even at the risk of his life, and in pressing the Union cause. 
The darkest times of the Civil war merely spurred him on, instead of 
causing him to become discouraged. A biographical sketch and portrait 
of David Tod will be found in Volume II. 

From the farms, the factories and the stores the youth of Youngs- 
town and the Mahoning Valley sprang to the Union colors. The more 
adventurous, or those most easily loosed, answered the call at the very 
outbreak of the war. As the dread conflict dragged on and it became 
apparent that the two sections of the country were engaged in a strug- 
gle that would last for years instead of being but a summer holiday, more 
and more of the youths and mature men of Mahoning County and the 
entire Western Reserve donned the blue uniform. At home the women 
were not given the opportunities that fell to their daughters and grand- 
daughters more than fifty years later when America engaged in the 
world conflict, but they made opportunities nevertheless. They carried 
on the work that the men had laid down and, as is always the case in 
time of war, suffered the mental pangs of those who have given loved 
ones to the call of battle. 

Mahoning County youths served in numerous regiments, but it is 
denying no honor to any others to say that the infantry units that became 
most closely identified with this county in the Civil war were the Seventh, 
Nineteenth, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Sixth, One Hundred and Fifth and 
One Hundred and Twenty-Fifth Ohio Volunteer regiments. 

Many soldiers from Ohio saw their service in the Western Army 
rather than the Army of the Potomac, but the Seventh, the "Bloody 
Seventh," was not one of these, its service being on the battlefields of 
West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland and at Gettysburg. It was in April, 
1861, but a few days after President Lincoln answered the attack on Fort 
Sumter by calling for 75,000 men, that youths from Northeastern Ohio 
rendezvoused at Cleveland and were organized at Camp Taylor into the 
Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Company I was from Youngstown 
and a detachment of light artillery was from Mahoning and Trumbull 
counties. At Camp Dennison the regiment organized by electing E. B. 
Tyler of Ravenna, colonel; William R. Creighton, lieutenant-colonel; 
John S. Casement, major. This was a regiment of village youth, as dis- 
tinguished from the regiments of farmer boys, that helped make Ohio 
famous in the war. It was mustered out of service on July 8. 1864. 

Scarcely behind the Seventh in time of enlistment and not behind it 
in valor came the Nineteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, a regiment of 
which Companies B, C and G were made up largely of Mahoning and 
Trumbull county youths. The Nineteenth, originally under Samuel 
Beatty as colonel, Elliott W. Hollingsworth as lieutenant-colonel, and 



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196 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Lewis P. Buckley as major, is famed for its length of service. A three 
years regiment, it remained in the fight until November, 1865, or for 
4>4 years, serving in the Western army under Generals Sherman and 
Thomas. 

In the Twentieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company H was re- 
cruited in the Mahoning Valley in May, 1861, originally for three 
months' service. Later it enlisted for the full three years and actually 
served until June 18, 1865. Originally the Twentieth was under com- 
mand of Charles Whittlesey, as colonel, and Manning F. Force, as lieu- 
tenaiit-colonel. 

In the Twenty-Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry Mahoning County 
men served in several companies, notably Company E. This regiment 
was famous for the men in its membership who later became great 
American figures. Its first colonel was William S. Rosecrans, after- 
wards a major general and prominent in Democratic party circles, and 
its third colonel 'Rutherford B. Hayes, later to become a major general 
also and finally governor of Ohio and President of the United States. 
In it also were found Stanley Matthews, later United States senator 
from Ohio and justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and 
William McKinley, who enlisted from Poland, was promoted by grades 
from sergeant to major and for twenty-five years served in public life 
as member of Congress, governor of Ohio and President of the United 
States. Like Matthews and Hayes, William McKinley was a Republican^ 
The Twenty-Third Regiment served in the East and was mustered out 
on July 26, 1865. 

In the Twenty-Sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company G was 
organized in Mahoning County. Mustered in at Camp Chase in July, 
1861, it enlisted almost to a man at the expiration of its three years of 
service in 1864. It left its toll of dead on the bloody battlefields of 
Stone River and Chickamauga and was mustered out. on October 21, 
1865. 

In the Twenty-Seventh Ohio, Mahoning County was represented and 
four Youngstown soldiers made the supreme sacrifice, two of these at 
Vicksburg and two on the battlefields of Virginia. 

* The Thirty-Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry likewise was repre- 
sented in Mahoning County, also the Thirty- Sixth Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. 

In the Thirty-Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company I was 
partially recruited at Youngstown, the 'men in this regiment being largely 
of German birth and descent. 

Mahoning County names are found also in the Fifty-First Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry and the Fifty- Second Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

The Eighty-Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized in re- 
sponse to President Lincoln's call for volunteers to head off threatened 
raids from the South. Company B of this regiment was recruited at 
Youngstown and Company C from various parts of Mahoning and 
Trumbull counties. It was a three months' regiment and was mustered 
out at the expiration of the time for which it had enlisted. 

The Eighty-Sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was originally a three 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 197 

months' organization also, but subsequently a new regiment was formed 
for an additional six months of service. The Eighty-Sixth participated 
in the movement against Gen. John Morgan, the Confederate raider, and 
later saw service in Kentucky before being mustered out in January, 

1864. Company A of this regiment came from Mahoning County, while 
other companies were partially recruited here. 

Mahoning County was represented in the Eighty-Seventh Ohio Vol- 
unteer Infantry, a three months' organization. 

The Eighty-Eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized in June, 
1863, although it had existed in part in the First Battalion, Governor's 
Guards, Independent Volunteer Infantry, recruited in June, 1862, and 
used for guard duty. Company D of this regiment was from Mahoning 
County. It was mustered out in July, 1863, after the Morgan raid 
through Ohio had failed. 

The One Hundred and Fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was dis- 
tinctly a Northeastern Ohio regiment and one that saw service in the 
bitter fight for the control of Tennessee in 1863 and 1864. Mustered 
in in August, 1862, it remained in the service until August, 1865, its 
original commanders being Albert S. Hall, as colonel ; William R. Tolles, 
as lieutenant-colonel, and George T. Perkins, as major. Companies A 
and H of this regiment were from Mahoning County. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-Fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was 
organized in the fall of 1862 under Col. Emerson Opdyke and served 
in the Western Army, earning the name of "Opdyke's Tigers" for its 
ferocity in battle. Among its staff and line officers and in the ranks in 
Companies A, B and C were Mahoning County men. It was mustered 
out in 1865 at the close of the war. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was 
recruited largely from the Ohio National Guard and included the Forty- 
Fourth Battalion, a Mahoning County organization of four companies. 
Three of these subsequently became Companies B, D and G of the One 
Hundred and Fifty-Fifth while the fourth was distributed among other 
companies of the regiment. The One Hundred and Fifty-Fifth was 
mustered in on May 8, 1864, for three months' service. 

Mahoning County was represented in the One Hundred and Eighty- 
Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, organized at Camp Chase in February, 

1865, the One Hundred and Eighty-Eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 
the One Hundred and Ninety-Sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, mustered 
in on March 25, 1865, in Companies A and K of the One Hundred 
and Twenty-Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, mustered in at Camp 
Chase on March 28, 1865, and One Hundred and Fifteenth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry. 

The Second Ohio Cavalry was recruited by B. F. Wade, of Jefferson, 
and John Hutcfoins, of Warren, and mustered into the service on October 
10, 1861, under Col. Charles Doubleday. Its record was a notable 
one before it was mustered out on September 11, 1865, after four years 
of service, first in Missouri and Arkansas, later in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee and finally in Virginia. Mahoning County was represented in this 
regiment, also in the Sixth Ohio Cavalry, mustered in at the same time 



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198 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

as the Second. The Sixth Ohio participated in the thickest of the fight- 
ing in Virginia and was mustered out in August, 1865. 

There were Mahoning County men in the Tenth Ohio Cavairy, and 
in the Twelfth Ohio Cavalry, a unit that was recruited in October, 1863, 
and mustered out in November, 1865, after seeing service in Kentucky 
and Tennessee. 

In artillery Mahoning County men were enrolled in the Fifteenth 
Ohio Independent Battery, organized in the fall of 1861 by Capt. J. B. 
Burrows and First Lieutenant Edward Spear, of the old Fourteenth 
Battery; in the Twenty-Second Ohio Independent Battery, and in the 
Twenty-Fifth Ohio Independent Battery, originally a part of the Second 
Ohio Cavalry. 

Youngstown was not brought into actual physical contact with the 
bloodshed of the Civil war. The border counties of the state were har- 
assed by the enemy lurking in West Virginia and Kentucky, but Ma- 
honing County was far removed from the battlefields. The anxiety, the 
cares and the sorrows of war were felt here, but the sound of battle 
was absent. The single instance when Youngstown felt the dread of 
an armed invasion was when Gen. John H. Morgan, the Confederate 
raider, made his daring dash across Ohio in the sumrner of 1863. 

Actually Morgan's forces were never a great menace to Ohio or 
its people, but the fear of his wrath was exaggerated. His name was 
dreaded beyond reason, for Morgan was not of the type of the murder- 
ous Quantrell. His invasion was nothing more than a reckless diversion, 
but when his rapid movement after he crossed the Indiana line into Ohio 
on July 13, 1863, was unchecked, panic seized the entire state. His 
original route lay far south of Mahoning County, but after he had failed 
in his attempt to cross the Ohio River and had turned northerly it is not 
surprising that sudden fear was aroused in Youngstown, for this village 
stood directly in his path. The people gathered to discuss the threatened 
attack and to prepare against it, for even at this time the strength of 
Morgan's scattered forces was wildly exaggerated. The tension was 
relieved only when the capture of Morgan and the remnant of his com- 
mand near Salineville, Columbiana County, on July 26, 1863, by a force 
under Major Ray, and after a fight in which thirty of Morgan's men 
were killed and fifty wounded. 

The toll of dead in Youngstown village and township in the Civil 
war was not small, considering the sparse population. A list of names, 
believed to be complete, appears on the soldiers' monument and shows 
the following who made the supreme sacrifice: 

"Surgeon-in-Chief Thomas J. Shannon, Lieutenant Joseph H. Ross, 
Lieutenant David Donovan, Captain William H. Ross, Lieutenant David 
McClelland, Lieutenant Samuel Piatt, Lieutenant James C. Morrow, 
Lieutenant Frederick Dennis, Lieutenant Henry M. Baldwin, Sergeant 
Andrew J. Kelley, Sergeant Robert McClelland, Sergeant John Mc- 
Fadden, Sergeant John A. Wood, Sergeant Joseph Fullerton, Sergeant 
James Cochran, Sergeant John Jennings, Sergeant Eli Fitch, Sergeant 
John Dunlap, Sergeant Lafayette McCoy, Sergeant William H. Craig, 
Sergeant N. W. King, Sergeant Richard Elliott, Sergeant John W. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 199 

Brothers, Corporal Daniel Cooper, Corporal Nicholas Krichbaum, Cor- 
poral Hiram Fifield, Corporal James E. Johnston, Joseph A. Truesdale, 
William Wakefield, James Bisp, Michael Campbell, George Fox, James 
P. Ray, William Waldorf, James L. Stevenson, Lemuel J. Cecil, Abram 
D. Crooks, Charles L. Cowden, Joseph B. Deeds, John D. Dicks, Jacob 
Muller, James C. Shoaff, John Shannon, Thomas D. Williams, David 
Williams, John Thomas, Isaac Davis, Charles Jacobs, Patrick Murphy, 
Samuel Vogan, Peter Allison, Isaac Rider, John Tagg, John Carney, 
Joseph Reese, Robert McAuley, Daniel Mitchell, James Evans, William 
Crum, James McEvey, John Llewellyn, David Williams, Luman Parme- 
lee, Con Dacy, William Brown, Samuel Birch, John Smith, Francis P. 
Jones, George Ague, Elias A. Crooks, James W. Bell, David Williams, 
Luther Leslie, David H. Edwards, Thomas Moore, John Lamb, Ignatius 
Reuter, Henry Loerer, Andrew Buchannan, Benjamin Kyle, Manly 
Partridge, William Borts, Robert Barrett, William Schieble, Milton D. 
Fellows, Hezlep Powers, John Boyle, James Williams, Henry Niblock, 
Michael McGinty, Albert Miller, Lawrence Kelly, Isaac Morris, Reuben 
B. Reep, John Stewart, William B. Price, John Thomas, John W. 
Powers, John C. Strealy, John Heiner, John Barber, Thomas Jones, 
Myron I. Arms, James C. Miller, Lawrence Baker, Manuel Leppard, 
Joel B. McCollum, Thomas Jacobs, Benjamin C. Cunningham, Alex- 
ander K. McClelland. ,, 

Industrially the Civil war had the same effect on the Village of 
Youngstown that the World war had more than a half century later. 
The unexpected seeming abandonment of sanity paralyzed industry, and 
dark days were added to dark days. Necessarily this feeling of panic 
was but temporary for the prosecution of the war demanded iron as the 
great war demanded steel. The industries here revived and more were 
built to supply the demand. Like all other wars, the Civil war was a 
war of supplies even as much as a war of men. The men who wore 
the Confederate colors were not less valiant than the Union men nor 
less devoted to their cause ; but their fight was hopeless without outside 
aid, for the North had the industries. And Youngstown's little indus- 
tries were not unimportant by any means. The close of the war in 
1865 found them enlarged and active. 



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CHAPTER XII 
YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1865 TO 1890 

Business Activity After the Civil War — The Abandonment of 
the Village Form of Government and the Incorporation of the 
City — The Successful Fight for the County Seat — City Ex- 
tension and Improvements. 

The return of peace in the spring and summer of 1865 saw the be- 
ginning of a new era in the United States. In the change that came 
about Youngstown was distinctly affected. 

Prior to i860 the movement westward had not been rapid. It had 
taken a century and a half or more for Americans in the seaboard 
states to see the possibilities of the region beyond the Alleghany Moun- 
tains or to respond to the call of a new country. In the six decades of 
the nineteenth century prior to the Civil war the land east of the Missis- 
sippi River had been fairly well settled and the prairie states west of 
that river were beginning to fill up with settlers. But the close of the 
war brought the great movement to the West. 

This was a logical consequence of the war. Thousands of young 
men returned to their homes on the farms and in the villages and towns 
of the East after an absence of months or years. They had been weaned 
away from home ties. They were restless and averse to settling down 
in the old routine. Life somewhere else might be more monotonous 
even than at home but at least it offered a change and war and absence 
from home had bred in them a spirit of adventure. It was this spirit 
that brought about the settlement of the great territory between the 
Kansas frontier and California. 

This meant unprecedented expansion that partook of the nature of 
a "boom." New villages and towns were being built, the construction 
of the first railroad across the continent was begun and more railroad 
projects were born on every hand. Some of these had a sound basis 
and some were pure products of imagination. But enough of the ex- 
pansion was real to create an era of prosperity. 

Youngstown profited by reason of the nature of its industries. Iron 
had gone to an unparalleled price during the Civil war and its price re- 
mained up after the close of hostilities. There was not only all this 
new building to be done but the country found it necessary to catch up 
on old building. For four years there had been destruction instead of 
construction. Wages were high and there was a heavy demand for all 
manufactured products and products of the soil. 

At this time — the close of the Civil war — Youngstown had a popula- 

200 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 201 

lion of about 4,000. It had grown but 1,300 in the five years since 
i860, but this in itself was a good record, since war days were not days 
of municipal growth. Its industries had prevented loss during the time 
of strife, and the westward movement that came on with the close of 
that period did not affect it greatly because western-bound emigrants were 
largely farmer youth going to a new country to take up government 
lands and become, proprietors of their own acres. 

Youngstown felt the spirit of the times, however, and with the re- 
moval of the dark war cloud began to bestir itself — to get out of the 
rut. Public spirited citizens believed the time had come when the 
municipality should discard the ways that had sufficed when Youngs- 
town was but a collection of houses along a single street. The village 
council of 1866 was in agreement with this belief and outlined a pro- 
gram of improvements that it believed to be in keeping with the dignity 
of a modern town. 

Federal Street was at this time hardly better than a country road. 
It was made up of humps and low spots; there was no pretense of 
pavement on either roadway or sidewalk. Other streets were in a similar 
condition, or worse. The village council believed not only that these 
conditions should be remedied but also that there was no reason for 
doing things by halves and in arranging to make Youngstown a more 
presentable municipality authorized the expenditure of $80,000 in im- 
provements, including the grading of Federal Street and the construc- 
tion of flagstone sidewalks along that thoroughfare. Other streets that 
were much traveled were also provided for in the program of civic 
betterment. 

This council consisted of C. H. Andrews, Richard Brown, William 
Wirt, Homer Hamilton and George Baldwin. "Their only object was to 
transform Youngstown from a mudhole to a decent place in which to 
live," one oldtime citizen who was a boy in those days assures us ; but the 
venturesome councilmen found that in carrying out their laudable ambi- 
tion they were going to meet the fate that often befalls farsighted persons. 
In that day $80,000 was an immense amount of money, and an immediate 
outcry went up against this reckless extravagance. 

Council was not dissuaded by mere protests of irate taxpayers — and 
probably of non-taxpayers as well — and it waved objections aside. The 
scandalized advocates of economy were not so easily dismissed, either, 
and attempted to do in a body what they had failed to do as individuals. 
A huge mass meeting of protest was arranged, and speakers — including 
even men of prominence — inveighed against this wanton waste. They 
and their forefathers had gotten along comfortably, they held, without 
stone sidewalks and level streets and such vanities and the generation 
then at its zenith could do the same, and should do the same instead 
of squandering money in such unseemly fashion. 

They were hardheaded men, however, these councilmen of 1866, and 
oratory and mass meetings were as unavailing as personal arraignments. 
The program of improvement was carried out. But their opponents 
had not played their last card yet, as the city fathers discovered when 
their terms of office were nearing a close. The tax savers made the 



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202 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

best of what they could not prevent, but determined to teach a lesson 
to future councilmen by bringing about the repudiation of the spend- 
thrifts. Sentiment was well divided by this time as to whether the 
municipal legislators had really been extravagant or were merely pro- 
gressive, so that the campaign of reprisal had a sound basis. There 
was a third element, however, that had not been counted upon. Many 
of the workmen in Youngstown at that time were unskilled men and 
the program of improvement had given them plenty of work and steady 
work. There was no ingratitude among them, and at the village election 
in April, 1867, they voted solidly for the re-election of Andrews, Brown, 
Wirt and Hamilton, and the four councilmen were named for another 
term by a two to one vote. Baldwin had not been a candidate for re- 
election. 

In June, 1867, a village census was taken and Youngstown was 
found to have 5,000 inhabitants, or enough to entitle it to the grade of 
a city of the second class. On petition of council Youngstown was 
advanced to this grade. On March 2, 1868, council passed an ordinance 
extending the municipal limits and ordering an election on the pro- 
posed extension in connection with the first city election. 

It is curious to note that this council, one more than ordinarily pro- 
gressive, was not altogether immune from mistakes of judgment. Among 
the ordinances it passed was one limiting the speed of railroad trains 
within the city to six miles an hour, a measure that was repealed in 1870. 

At the first city election, held on April 6, 1868, George McKee was 
elected mayor; Thomas W. Sanderson, city solicitor; Owen Evans, 
marshal ; C. H. Andrews, Homer Hamilton, Richard Rrown, Joseph G. 
Butler, Jr. and William Barclay, councilmen, and Robert McCurdy, 
treasurer. 

The first city administration followed well in the footsteps of its 
predecessor by outlining a program of improvements for the municipal- 
ity, and the two years between 1868 and 1870 were years of progress. 
Council also acted to give Youngstown better police protection than was 
afforded by a village marshal alone, and on August 4, 1868, authorized 
the mayor to appoint "one night policeman in each ward," with the 
proviso, however, that "each councilman select for his ward a suitable 
man to be appointed." Provision was also made for volunteer police- 
men, not more than fifty in number, to be appointed when needed and 
to serve without pay, showing that the possession of a badge of authority 
was in itself somewhat of a distinction at that day. In spite of this 
ordinance a night police force does not appear to have come into being 
until a year or two later. 

This prerogative of naming the policeman for his ward was one that 
the councilman of that time jealously guarded, as legislators generally do 
guard their patronage. A' few years later when a mayor overlooked 
this ward distribution of policemen — each new administration appointed 
an entirely new police force then — and named men without regard to 
geographical location the nominations were summarily rejected by coun- 
cil when presented for confirmation and the mayor was curtly instructed 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 203 

"to regard the provision for the distribution of policemen among wards." 
The chastened mayor did so without protest. 

Another respect in which the last village council of Youngstown had 
shown its progressiveness was by providing for the establishment of a 
fire department in Youngstown. For almost three-quarters of a century 
the village had gotten along by trusting to luck in event of fire. Volun- 
teers responded for the occasion and formed bucket brigades when there 
was a fire, the nearest pumps being the water supply unless the river or 
the canal happened to be available. On March 2, 1868, council author- 



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West Federal Street Scene in 1869, on the Occasion of an Ex- 
hibition by Blondin, the Most Celebrated Tight-rope Walker Ever 
Known. 

Close inspection will show the performer crossing the street on a rope 
stretched from Excelsior Hall to the building on the opposite side of the 
street. 

ized the expenditure of $10,000 for a fire engine, a procedure that was 
not followed, since the city council elected a month later increased the 
appropriation to $20,000 and provided for a volunteer fire department. 
With the appropriation the old "Governor Tod" engine was bought, 
accompanying equipment also being purchased and a department of 
sixty volunteers created. 

In 1870 Youngstown had attained a population of 8,075, the number 
of inhabitants almost tripling in the preceding ten years. One of the 
distinct improvements made about this time was the establishment of a 
city water works, a project that had been discussed for several years 
but that had been considered by some a rather ambitious undertaking 



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204 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

for Youngstown. The earliest legislation along this line was in the open- 
ing months of 1870 when a survey was made by the city engineer, on 
instructions from council, outlining the possibilities of a waterworks. 
It was a year later, or in May, 1871, that a favorable report was made 
and the Holly system recommended. On May 23, 1871, an ordinance 
was passed authorizing* the construction of a waterworks and providing 
for the creation of a board of waterworks trustees to build and manage 
this municipal utility. At the election on June 17, 1871, Freeman O. 
Arms was elected for the full three-year term, David Theobald for two 
years and William B. Pollock for one year. 

The board sold $110,000 worth of municipal bonds to. cover the cost 
of the improvement and the initial installation of pipe, and creditably 
supervised the work of putting up this first waterworks. The honor of 
being elected the long-term member of the first waterworks board was 
one that came justly to Freeman O. Arms, as he had been one of the 
pioneer- promoters of this improvement and had worked unceasingly to 
bring it about. 

Youngstown people of today probably do not know that prohibition 
— which has become a reality only in the last year — is not of recent 
birth here. Yet just fifty years ago Youngstown first took up this 
movement for abolishing intoxicating liquor, and in fact actually voted 
to abolish it. 

The period immediately after the Civil war was one of prosperity 
and plenteous work and in Youngstown and vicinity this brought on an 
era of hard drinking. The reaction naturally came in the "temperance 
crusades" that swept through Ohio at that time and included Youngs- 
town in their field. The "crusaders" were moral suasionists who re- 
versed the order of later years by appealing to the seller of drink rather 
than to the drunkard, and with considerable success in some instances. 
In Youngstown one set of temperance apostles adopted the liberal plan 
of reimbursing any saloonkeeper who agreed to quit the business, mend 
his ways of living and adopt a more respectable form of making a 
livelihood. He stood to gain salvation and suffer no financial loss, for 
his stock was appraised, bought out and dumped into the gutters. Faith 
in this most philanthropic method of making converts to the cause was 
shattered when one ingenious saloonkeeper who had reduced his stock 
to one barrel of whisky filled several other barrels with water, sold the 
entire stock to the reformers as high quality whisky and fell from grace 
again with cash in hand. The ceremony attending the disposal of this 
liquor was not a success. The temperance folks with their lack of 
acquaintance with high powered liquors might have been deceived but 
thirsty bystanders were not. Being trained to smell ^whisky at an aston- 
ishingly long range they quickly detected, and advertised, the fraud. 

The temperance move was on, however, and the modern system of 
legislative prohibition was substituted for moral suasion. Drinking and 
brawling had become so common that the leniency with which strong 
drink had always been accepted disappeared, and on May 17, 1870, an 
ordinance was passed prohibiting "ale, beer and porter houses or shops, 
and places of notorious or habitual resort for the purpose of tippling 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 205 

and intemperance/' in Youngstown, a distinctly prohibition measure. 
The ordinance was furnished with "teeth" as well, for violation of its 
provisions was punishable by "imprisonment and hard labor in the 
streets," a drastic penalty. To make certain that public sentiment backed 
the measure a referendum was ordered and on June 7, 1870, the electors 
of Youngstown voted 748 to 431 to uphold the ordinance. 

Apparently this pioneer prohibition law was unsatisfactory in some 
of its details, for a week after the referendum election it was repealed 
by council, and at the same time another ordinance with similar pro- 
visions although different wording, was enacted. This ordinance, passed 
June 14, 1870, was also shortlived. On August 9, 1870, it was repealed, 
but at the same meeting council passed still a third ordinance of similar 
import. 

A sincere effort was made to enforce this measure, but a combination 
of circumstances rendered the attempts futile. Among the first violators 
of the ordinance arrested was a saloonkeeper who had borne a reputa- 
tion far above that of many in the business and- there was much senti- 
ment averse to convicting him. This case was fought hard, Solicitor 
Arrel appearing for the city, and even the habeas corpus writ was re- 
sorted to to gain freedom for the accused man, a move that made it 
necessary to transport him to Canfield, then the county seat. Two 
trials resulted in disagreements on the part of the juries and the prosecu- 
tion was abandoned. 

The time was scarcely ripe for prohibition. Saloons, taverns, inns 
and drinking places were common then in city and country alike and 
inhibition of the sale of liquor was a revolutionary step. Repeated 
acquittals and drawn juries caused the prohibition ordinance to break 
down and go into oblivion. Drinking shops went their way unchal- 
lenged; in fact but a few months later, in May, 1871, council was forced 
to- call the policemen's attention harshly to the fact that the saloons 
should be closed on Sundays* a notice that was calmly ignored, as saloon- 
less Sundays were an institution that scarcely antedated prohibition in 
Youngstown. 

If Youngstown was content to slip back into the free and almost 
unlimited sale of drink, however, it progressed rapidly in other ways, 
in the several years following the Civil war. The expansion in the 
iron industry that began during that conflict increased rather than dimin- 
ished after its close. New rolling mills and blast furnaces were built 
and diversified industries located here. The population increased rapidly 
and new streets and new residence plats were opened almost weekly. 
Railroad transportation became more than adequate for the little city's 
needs and a street car line within the city — with horses as the motive 
power of course — was projected and finally built in 1874-75. 

Eight years after the war, however, prosperity received a check 
that is remembered by many and familiar to others through tradition, 
history and the stories of parents and grandparents. This reverse, the 
panic of 1873, was felt with unusual keenness in Youngstown, since it 
was an ironmaking city, and ironmaking centers and their successors, 
the steel centers, are always most bitterly stricken in times of depression. 



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206 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

In a sense this panic was perhaps the worst the country has ever wit- 
nessed. There were fewer persons to be affected and the great industrial 
centers of today were then unknown, but the prostration was complete 
and came with almost lightning-like rapidity. Not alone were the in- 
dustries shut down until the machinery acquired a coat of rust, but 
money, credit and even confidence almost disappeared. "Scrip" was 
often the only pay of those fortunate enough to get work; cash was 
almost an unknown quantity. The rural regions felt the depression 
almost as keenly as the cities and towns, for prices fell rapidly until 
labor brought almost no returns. Ghostlike smokestacks, idle men, 
relief societies that doled out bare necessities of life, want and hunger, 
displaced the prosperity of but a year before. 

The panic dragged wearily along for approximately six years. The 
first two years were ones of exceptional suffering, the next two showed 
progressive improvement and in the final two years the depression was 
felt even less keenly; but it was 1879 before the mills began to hum 
again with oldtime industrial activity. Those days are scarcely a mem- 
ory now, but were tragic then. 

With all its misfortune, however, this period brought one decided 
consolation to Youngstown. It witnessed the achievement of an ambi- 
tion that had been fostered by the community as a rough frontier settle- 
ment, agricultural village and industrial center for almost seventy-five 
years — the right to house the courthouse and other buildings that be- 
long to a county seat town. 

For almost twenty-five years, since 1848, the county-seat question 
had lain dormant, but in 1872 it again flared up with the vigor that 
had characterized the previous county seat wars in Mahoning and Trum- 
bull counties, and that has probably characterized county seat struggles 
everywhere. In this instance the desire to be the county seat was an 
irrepressible ambition on the part of Youngstown. It had grown from 
a village to a city of 10,000 population, overshadowing all the remainder 
of the county in population, while Canfield had remained a peaceful 
and beautiful country village with no asset other than that of a thriving 
farm trading center, except that it was the seat of justice of the county. 
It was generally realized that the great growth of the county in the 
future would be along the Mahoning River valley and that Youngstown 
would be the center of this growth. Inland villages like Canfield and 
Poland could not hope to compete with it. 

So much for mere population. In addition Youngstown was paying 
a great share of the county taxes and this percentage was increasing 
annually. A large part of the litigation arose there; it was there th^t 
most transfers of property were being made and most county business 
originated, not alone in the courts but in all county offices. A far greater 
number of people could be served, not only within Youngstown but 
outside of it as well, by removing the county seat to Youngstown. And 
the inconvenience of journeying to Canfield was daily becoming more 
intolerable. There was no railroad communication between Youngs- 
town and the geographical center except by a branch road that gave 
limited service and made the circuit by a most roundabout route. Wagon 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 207 

roads were more often employed, and at this day improved roads were 
unknown, while motor vehicles, of course, were still undreamed of. So 
many considerations influenced Youngstown, in fact, that the mere pride 
of possessing the county buildings had little to do with this last move- 
ment. Youngstown's business standing was so definitely fixed that it 
could not be advanced greatly merely by removing the county seat here. 

The project was discussed thoroughly in 1872, and early in 1873 a 
public meeting was called to discuss means for bringing about removal. 
At this gathering, held in Arms' hall, John Stambaugh presided as 
chairman while George Rudge, Sr., acted as secretary. Among those 
who advanced Youngstown's claim at the meeting and outlined plans 
for winning the county seat were A. W. Jones, Gen. Thomas W. San- 
derson, William Powers, Matthew Logan, David M. Wilson, Stam- 
baugh, Rudge and others. There was no division of opinion relative 
to the worthiness, and even necessity, of the movement. Questions of 
procedure only were discussed. 

The first requisite in bringing Youngstown's claim before the State 
Legislature was the election of a representative committed to removal. 
The meeting met this question by the adoption of a resolution proposing 
the election of a favorable representative regardless of political affilia- 
tions. A committee was also named to outline a plan of campaign for 
the removal. At a subsequent meeting this committee made a report 
setting forth the justice of the claims of Youngstown and surrounding 
territory, urged the abandonment of party lines and the selection, of a 
removal representative to the Legislature and recommended that Youngs- 
town city and township enter into an agreement to erect county buildings 
to a value of at least twice as great as the value of the Canfield buildings 
and also to donate a site for such buildings. 

On Saturday, June 30, 1873, a nominating mass convention was held 
in Excelsior Hall and a ticket selected that was made up of men pledged 
to the removal of the county seat. The candidates named were : Sheldon 
Newton of Boardman, representative in the Legislature; James K. 
Bailey of Coitsville, auditor; Isaac A. Justice of Youngstown, prosecut- 
ing attorney; Jonathan Schillinger of Springfield, commissioner; J. 
Schnurrenberger, of Green, infirmary director; Henry M. Boardman of 
Boardman, surveyor; Dr. Ewing of Milton, coroner. The ticket was 
made up partly of Republicans and partly of Democrats. It was repre- 
sentative, too, of the entire county and not merely of that part of it 
surrounding Youngstown. In addition to nominating a county ticket 
the convention adopted resolutions declaring in favor of removal under 
the state constitutional provision permitting county seat removal by a 
vote of a majority of the voters and setting forth Youngstown's claims 
by asserting that "The Township of Youngstown contains over one- 
third of the inhabitants, and pays nearly one-half the taxes of Mahoning 
County." 

Canfield, however, was not for a minute disposed to give up without 
a fight. If Youngstown could submerge party lines Canfield and its 
friends could do the same. On August 19, 1873, an anti-removal nom- 
inating convention was held at Canfield, presided over by Giles Van 



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208 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

Hyning, when the anti-removalists nominated a full county ticket, made 
up also of Democrats and Republicans, and adopted fiery resolutions, 
reading in part as follows: 

"Resolved, That we deprecate the issue forced upon us by the con- 
vention held at Youngstown; that said convention is directly and wholly 
responsible for rupturing long established and valued political associa- 
tions, for the probability of engineering local and neighborhood strife 
and division, the consequence of which will be to injure one portion of 
our citizens in the uncertain expectation of bettering them. 

"Resolved, That this convention, representing every township in 
the county, deny the truthfulness of the resolutions of the Youngstown 
convention of June 30th, they being a gross exaggeration and mis- 
representation of the facts, but on the contrary we claim the seat of 
government, being now centrally located, of convenient access irom all 
portions of the county, and having good and ample buildings for the 
accommodation of the public, the removal of it to one corner of the 
county largely for the benefit of a few capitalists, and to satisfy uneasy 
political agitation would be an act of gross injustice to the greater por* 
tion of the county." 

The wording of the resolution is perhaps ambiguous in spots, but 
the earnestness of the Canfield assemblage cannot be doubted for a 
moment. 

In selecting an anti-removal ticket the convention nominated C. F. 
Kirtland of Poland for representative; James M. Dixon of Jackson, 
auditor; Jared Huxley of Canfield, prosecuting attorney; James Wil- 
liams of Ellsworth, commissioner; Isaac G. Rush of Coitsville, infirmary 
director; Dr. E. G. Rose of Austintown, coroner; Daniel Reichart of 
Milton, surveyor. 

The county election, held in connection with the state election of 
October, 1873, resulted in the election of the "removal" ticket, an almost 
foregone conclusion. Victory did not come, however, until after a cam- 
paign that is remembered by old residents because of its heat. With 
the odds against her, Canfield fought to the last minute. 

At the succeeding session of the State Legislature Representative 
Newton offered the bill for the removal of the county seat of Mahoning 
County from "the town of Canfield to the city of Youngstown." The 
struggle was carried to the Legislature, Representative Newton being 
reinforced in his fight by C. H. Andrews, Mathew Logan and Asa W. 
Jones, who spent the greater part of the winter of 1&73-74 in Columbus, 
while Canfield was represented by David Anderson, Judge Eben New- 
ton, W. S. Anderson and others. The removal bill passed by a bare con- 
stitutional vote and only after Speaker Converse of the House of Repre- 
sentatives had cast the deciding vote in its favor. This measure, enacted 
on April 9, 1874, provided: 

"Section 1. That from and after taking effect of this section of the 
act, as hereinafter provided, the seat of justice in the county of Mahon- 
ing shall be removed from the town of Canfield to the city of Youngs- 
town in said county. 

"Section 2. That the foregoing section of this act shall take effect 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 209 

and be in force when, and so soon as, the same shall be adopted by a 
majority of all the electors in said Mahoning County voting at the next 
general election after the passage thereof, and when suitable buildings 
shall have been erected as hereinafter provided." 

Provision was made for the method of taking the referendum vote 
mentioned in the above section, and with respect to the obligation in- 
cumbent on Youngstown before.it could become a full fledged county 
seat, provided that: 

«* * * no thing in the act shall be so construed as to authorize 
the removal of the seat of justice to said city of Youngstown until the 
citizens of the city and township of Youngstown shall have donated a 
lot or lots of land in the city of Youngstown and of sufficient size and 
suitably located to accommodate the court-house, jail, and necessary 
offices for said county, and shall have erected thereon and completed 
thereon suitable buildings for court-house, jail, and all other offices and 
rooms necessary for the transaction of all public business for said coun- 
ty, at a cost of said buildings of not less than $100,000, and to the satis- 
faction and acceptance of the commissioners of saicj county, and all such 
buildings shall b£ completed within two years from the date of the elec- 
tion at which said act shg.ll be ratified; and saic^* commissioners shall not, 
nor shall any other authority 01 said county, levy any tax on the taxable 
property of said county for said lands or buildings; provided that the 
citizens of Youngstown may within two years build r$aid buildings and 
tender the same to the said commissioners." ^^ vr 

The provision against assessing any tax for the proposed improve- 
ments meant that it was left to Youngstown to secure a site for county 
buildings and erect such buildings by popular subscription alone. 
Youngstown readily accepted the challenge by calling a mass convention, 
at which a committee was n^mejd to solicit funds for the county build- 
ings arid arrange for the erection of the buildings, and another cbpiniit-- 
tee was named to manage the campaign by which a popular vote would 
be taken on removal. The soliciting committee went to work with a 
will and at a meeting held on August 10, 1874, reported that the required 
$100,000 had been subscribed for public buildings, but that the commit- 
tee desired to increase the amount to $200,000. 

Five months previously city council had authorized the mayor to 
convey to the building committee the two lots at Wick Avenue and Wood 
Street that had been used until a few years previously for a township 
cemetery and were still city property. The lots, said to have an actual 
value of $40,000, were transferred for a consideration of $10. 

The vote taken at the election in October, 1874, was heavily in favor 
of removal. Youngstown acted on this ratification of its step by letting 
contracts for the construction of a courthouse. 

Canfield, however, was not yet ready to submit. The Legislature 
had granted the prayer for removal and the voters had supported the 
act of the Legislature but, in the minds of Canfield adherents at least, 
there was a question of the legality of the whole procedure. The act 
of 1846 creating the County of Mahoning had provided that the county 
seat should be located "permanently" at Canfield. On the plea that this 



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210 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

meant that Canfield should be "forever" the seat of justice for Mahon- 
ing County, a petition was filed by Eben Newton and others in the Dis- 
trict Court enjoining the county commissioners against permitting the 
removal of the county seat. It was contended that this provision in the 
original act made the act of April 9, 1874, unconstitutional and that this 
measure and the subsequent referendum vote were alike of no avail. 

In the bill of particulars there were other arguments set forth against 
removal, of course. In fact the fight had grown so warm that argu- 
ments ranged all the way from the ponderous division of legal opinion 
over the meaning of the word "permanent" to the alleged contention of 




Central Square in 1870 

one Canfield individual that "the ccurt house couldn't be moved to 
Youngstown because they couldn't get it through the covered bridge at 
Lanterman's Falls," a most obvious conclusion. All in all, however, the 
last defense possible for Canfield was that it had been awarded the 
county seat for all time and could not be deprived of this honor. 

Youngstown, of course, met this argument by replving that the act 
of 1846 could not be construed in the way Canfield held since the Legis- 
lature would have exceeded its powers grossly in attempting to legislate 
in this manner. Such an attempt would be unconstitutional in itself, 
it was asserted, since it would have taken out of the hands of the Legis- 
lature the power of governing the state. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 211 

The suit was heard in the old courthouse at Canfield, with Gen. 
Thomas W. Sanderson, George F. Arrel, Asa W. Jones and Judge B. F. 
Hoffman representing Youngstown and Judge G. M. Tuttle and Judge 
F. G. Servis appearing on behalf of Canfield. 

Judge Conant decided in favor of Youngstown and the suit was ap- 
pealed to the District Court, which upheld Judge Conant. From the 
District Court the case was carried on to the Supreme Court of Ohio, 
where it was decided in 1876, three years after Youngstown had begun 
its fight. The courts ruled that the power to establish and remove coun- 
ty seats rests with the Legislature and cannot be parted with by any 
contract between the Legislature and any community. Furthermore the 
act of 1846 was not a specific contract and it would be an error to at- 
tempt to read a contract into it. With respect to the phrase "perma- 
nently established" the court held that this meant that Canfield should not 
be considered the permanent possessor of the county seat until it had 
complied with all the provision of the act of 1846 with relation to the 
donation of lands and buildings ; that previous to the fulfillment of such 
obligations Canfield was the county seat only provisionally. The plea 
that the word "permanently" meant "forever" was rejected and its use 
in the act of 1846 was interpreted to mean that the county seat had been 
established merely "as other county seats are established." 

Canfield carried the ,suit still farther, however, by appealing to the 
Supreme Court of the United States for redress. The case was not 
argued until 1879, when Gen. James A. Garfield appeared on behalf of 
Canfield and Gen. Thomas W. Sanderson for Youngstown. General 
Garfield based his argument on the plea that the section of the, act of 
1846 relating to the donation of land and buildings constituted, when 
complied with, a specific contract and that the constitution of the United 
States makes inviolate any contract between a sovereign state and its 
citizens. General Sanderson contended that the word "permanently," as 
used in the statutes, did not mean "forever," holding that "the phrase 
permanently established is a formula in long and frequent use in Ohio 
with respect to county seats established otherwise than temporarily. ,, 
The Supreme Court of the United States upheld the state courts and 
the struggle came definitely to an end. 

The original decisions of the lower courts had, in fact satisfied the 
people of Youngstown and the removal was brought about even before 
the decision of the State Supreme Court was rendered. The actual re- 
moval was a memorable ceremony. General Sanderson and Asa W. 
Jones were named a committee in charge of the transfer of the records 
and, with carriage and team, they led the procession of forty wagons 
that wound its way to Canfield one summer morning in 1876. The 
county commissioners awaited them at the old courthouse, accepted the 
deed to the new county property in Youngstown, and before noon the 
teams were back in Youngstown with the county records intact. 

Tradition has woven a fanciful story about this removal scene, 
alleging that the transfer of the records was made in the dead of night 
when watchful Canfield residents were taken off their guard. This is a 
pure myth. The transaction took place in broad daylight, it was known 



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212 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

in advance by everyone in Youngstown and Canfield that the removal 
was about to take place, and Canfield people merely stood aloof on the 
fateful day. 

One of the earliest trials held in the old Youngstown courthouse — a 
trial that was transferred from Canfield — was that of Charles Sterling 
for murder. The trial itself was a leading topic of discussion, and even 
controversy regarding the accused man's guilt or innocence, at that time 
and for many years thereafter, but is notable, today only because Sterling 
was the only person who ever suffered the death penalty in Mahoning 
County. Sterling was hanged in the jail yard here in 1877. Soon after- 
wards it was decreed that all executions should take place at Columbus. 

All leading citizens of Youngstown, and many who were not of great 
prominence, assisted in the long fight for county seat removal, but prob- 
ably the major share of the credit should go to C. H. Andrews, Youngs- 
town's foremost resident at that time. Andrews not only gave counsel 
and devoted time to the struggle but personally assumed the responsi- 
bility for heavy financial obligations entailed in the construction of the 
county buildings. There was an aftermath of this county seat fight in 
the political controversy as to whether the non-partisan plan of nominat- 
ing county candidates should be continued or abandoned after the county 
seat fight had been won. Andrews favored the use of the bi-partisan 
arrangement in 1875 arj d was opposed by Walter L. Campbell, after- 
wards mayor, and then editor of the Register and Tribune, the Repub- 
lican organ, who believed the non-partisan arrangement had served its 
purpose and should be dispensed with. 

Meanwhile Youngstown struggled through the dull period from 
1873 to l &79- Improvements went on, including the adoption of a plan 
for a general sewer system for the city, Youngstown up to this time hav- 
ing been backward in this respect, as indeed most American cities were. 
In 1879 a distinct improvement for the better was noted in business and 
by the summer of 1880 the city was enjoying prosperity of the kind that 
had been apparent for a few years after the war. Iron prices doubled 
arid tripled, the demand was heavy, work was plentiful and the distribu- 
tion of charity happily came to an end. 

In 1880 the decennial census showed that the city had attained a 
population of 15,435, a gain of 7,360 or more than 90 per cent for the 
ten-year period since 1870. This was an especially gratifying growth in 
view of the fact that much of this period had been a time of depression. 
To care for this increased growth the city was divided into seven wards, 
five having sufficed for the previous ten years. 

It may appear strange to realize that up to this time Youngstown had 
gotten along without many of the improvements that today are con- 
sidered just the barest of necessities, yet such was the case. Fifteen 
years before progressive councilmen had aroused the ire of old residents 
by proposing a program of betterment that included grading Federal 
Street and some of the other downtown streets, cutting away the humps 
that disfigured the main thoroughfare and laying sidewalks that would 
make it unnecessary to tramp through the mud and dust when engaged 
in a day's shopping. Having embarked on this forward-looking move- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 213 

ment Youngstown made good progress, but there was as yet not a paved 
street in the city. Federal Street was a wide and fairly level highway 
but wholly destitute of any surfacing except that provided by Mother 
Nature. It was a sea of mud much of the time, dust blown at other 
times and pleasant only between times. Drivers of vehicles were not 
averse to traversing the sidewalks at times, a clearly illegal proceeding 
but often almost a necessary one and one that was as often as not viewed 
with leniency. 

In 1882 council set about to remedy this defect by providing for 
the paving of Federal Street and Market Street, the latter improvement 
to include only a short section of the street to the south of Central 
Square and an even shorter section of North Market Street — for at that 
time Market Street extended to Wood Street, the change of name of 
these two blocks to Wick Avenue being of comparatively recent date. 

For East Federal Street and Market Street sheet asphalt was selected 
while provision was made for paving West Federal Street with Quincy 
granite. The latter was selected for its lasting qualities, as traffic was 
heaviest in West Federal Street and the use of sheet asphalt as a street 
paving was accepted with doubtful misgivings. Granite, or cobblestones, 
had been in use for some time in the construction of street crossings to 
keep pedestrians out of the worst of the mud in down town streets and 
its value was known and thoroughly appreciated. In fact so accustomed 
had Youngstowners become to cobblestone crosswalks that many were 
unable at first to conceive of a street crossing without them and there 
was much discussion as to how the cobblestones would fit in with the 
asphalt in the streets that were to be paved with that material. The 
suggestion that crossing the street on the asphalt itself would be a per- 
fectly safe procedure was received skeptically and was flouted by many 
until they had tried the experiment. 

As to the lasting qualities of a granite roadway Federal Street itself 
was a living witness. It was not until 1908, more than twenty-five years 
after this sort of pavement was laid, that it was finally replaced in West 
Federal Street by asphalt. The memory of this thoroughfare when it 
resembled a corduroy road is still fresh in the minds of even youthful 
residents of Youngstown, but happily the change was made before the 
motor vehicle came into common use. 

Another improvement made in the summer of 1882 was the construc- 
tion of the main sewer draining the territory on the north side of the 
river west of Crab Creek. Lateral sewers had been built previously but 
ended at the river bank with the result that there was little or no drain- 
age in seasons of low water. The mills along the river bank were 
affected by this condition just as mill operations have been affected in 
recent years by the repeated use of the river water, a condition that has 
been remedied to a great extent by the construction of the Milton storage 
reservoir that prevents the excessively low stage of water that prevailed 
for almost ten years prior to 1917. The main sewer emptying into the 
river at the mouth of Crab Creek drained all these lateral sewers and 
did away with the obnoxious condition that had prevailed for several 
years. 



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214 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

The construction of this sewer might not be worth recalling were 
it not for one curious fact. Previous to this time (1882), malaria had 
been the most common of all diseases in Youngstown, and diseases of 
different kinds were all too plentiful at that time In keeping with the 
spirit of that age this affliction was accepted as a most obnoxious evil 
but a necessary one. Youngstown had been buiit in a river valley and 
malaria was to be expected. Other communities had malaria and ac- 
cepted it with little regard to cause and no suspicion of the tiny mosquito 
that is blamed now, not for malaria alone but for many other ills. In 
every Youngstown home quinine was part of the household stock, as 
common as tea or coffee and used almost as frequently. Sometimes 
whisky accompanied it in the fight to ward off the "chills and fever," 
"fever and ague," or malaria under any other name, and sometimes it 
was taken without camouflage, but everyone took quinine. With the 
construction of the main drainage sewer, however, malaria disappeared 
entirely and almost instantly. For many years it has been almost an 
unknown disease in Youngstown. 

The improvements made during the year 1882 were hastened to com- 
pletion, perhaps, by strike of ironworkers in the summer of that year. 
This strike, mention of which is made in the industrial chapter of this 
history, was one of the most prolonged in the history of the city. It 
was the aftermath of the reign of prosperity that began in 1879 and con- 
tinued for two years or more, after which it began to show signs of 
recession, although there was no lessening of activity to the "panic" 
stage. Coming at this time, the demand for higher wages was unpro- 
pitious, and the result was a shutdown of the mills that lasted from 
June 1st until late in October. Many of the strikers remained idle dur- 
ing this time; but numbers of them secured work with the contractors 
engaged in the street paving and sewer construction jobs. 

The heavy percentage of gain in Youngstown's population in the 
decade between 1870 and 1880 was notable, not alone because it was 
made during a period of depression, but because the entire gain was 
made within the city limits as they stood in the former year. Before 
the city form of government was adopted in the spring of 1868 there 
had been a liberal extension, but for more than ten years thereafter 
Youngstown's boundaries remained unaltered. There was intermittent 
discussion of extension and various proposals suggested, but none of 
these reached the stage of legislative action. 

In 1880, however, even before the decennial census figures had been 
prepared, more serious proposals were made for a Greater Youngstown. 
At this time the city contained perhaps two-thirds of the residents of 
Youngstown Township, but many of those not within the corporation 
limits were really urban dwellers rather than agriculturalists. Brier 
Hill, originally only the Governor Tod homestead, had become a village 
of healthy proportions, or rather a village had sprung up about the old 
farm and to the east of it on which the name of the war governor's 
homestead was bestowed by common consent. The early industries 
there, among the very earliest of any considerable size in the valley, had 
been augmented until they employed many hundreds of men. Churches 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 215 

had been built, schools established and Brier Hill was made a postoffice. 
No attempt had been made to incorporate it or form a village govern- 
ment, probably from the fact that its ultimate inclusion in Youngstown 
was considered inevitable, but in every other respect it was an urban 
community. Between it and" Youngstown there was scarcely anything 
more than an invisible dividing line. 

The same might be said of the suburb of Haselton. This part of the 
township had been settled as early as the central part where John Young 
laid out his embryo village, Daniel Sheehy, James Davidson, Robert 
Montgomery and Roger Sheehy being early landowners there, while 
Abram Powers was the pioneer landowner just across the river in the 
Lansingville neighborhood. The construction of the canal attracted busi- 
ness to this settlement and the population grew with the addition of iron 
works. It was perhaps somewhat more remote from Youngstown than 




Wick Avenue in the '7 os 

Brier Hill was during the '6os and '70s, but, like the latter place, was a 
good sized village with its own schools, churches and postoffice. Across 
the river Lansingville had been built up, East Youngstown (not the 
present municipality but a small settlement farther up the river) was a 
neighbor, and in the northern part of the township was the thriving 
settlement of Crab Creek, at the forks where the Hubbard road branched 
off from the present Logan Avenue. Crab Creek had been the busi- 
ness center for a thriving coal mining district and was still a place of 
consequence and in fairly close communication with Youngstown by 
reason of its location on the main highway leading to Eastern Trumbull 
County. 

The extension movement took active form in- January, 1880, when, 
after Youngstown's limits had remained stationary for twelve years, a 
petition was filed with city council prajing for expansion. The petition 
was signed by 469 Youngstown residents, all of them substantial citizens, 



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216 YOUNGSTQWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

the number being greater than was necessary, although fewer than could 
have been secured had any serious opposition been anticipated. 

The petitioners proposed that the city limits be extended to take 
in the greater part of the township in the Crab Creek neighborhood, 
Brier Hill, Haselton, East Youngstown, Lansingville and considerable 
other outlying territory that had been built up, residents of which were 
Youngstown people in every way except officially. The petition was re- 
ceived by council and on February 18, 1880, the city engineer submitted 
a report providing for extension but omitting much of the territory that 
had been included by the citizen petitioners. The movement had met 
with not a little oppositiort from residents of the suburbs, and in the 
engineer's report Haselton, East Youngstown, Crab Creek and some of 
the unnamed but designated plats adjoining the city were ignored. It 
provided largely for a Brier Hill annexation. 

Council accepted this report in spite of the alterations made and 
passed the necessary annexation legislation. The ordinance was then 
submitted to the county commissioners of Mahoning County, as re- 
quired by law, but opposition had not yet ceased and protests from Brier 
Hill and from others affected were fruitful, for the commissioners handed 
dowh a decision on November 18, 1880, denying the prayer for annexa- 
it^on.^ The. ordinance was dismissed rather curtly, in fact, Without any 
official explanation and with the injunction that the petitioners be te- 
quireft to 'pay the costs of the, case. 

*- .The lirg'ent need bf city limits^ extension, was. so apparent that the 
action pf the coitittiissionefs caused not qnlV much surprise but severe 
criticisms as well. This was lost on the county officials, however, as they 
fcnade no attempt to rescind their action. 

For almost another decade Youngstown remained the chi'ef munici- 
pality within the township, but only one of several' municipalities after 
all. In township affairs it divided responsibilty wth Brier Hill and 
Haselton, and there was no unity of action among urban residents. Cer- 
tain governmental changes and civic improvements were delayed because 
of this situation, a condition that was unfortunate for the suburbs as 
well as for the city. 

The annexation movement naturally did not die with the adverse 
action of 1880. Various extension proposals were discussed almost 
perennially and extension petitions were drafted from time to time in an 
effort to reach an adjustment, each year seeing a revival of the agitation. 
The discussion was not all one-sided, of course, for there was a healthy 
opposition sentiment among the peoples who were to be absorbed and 
extension meetings were met with rival meetings of protest. As is al- 
ways the case when outlying territory is confronted with the prospect 
of being swallowed up by a larger municipality, there was objection to 
losing municipal identity and fear of increased tax rates and other sup- 
posed disadvantages. 

Toward the latter part of the '8os, however, the realization finally 
came that this progressive step could not be delayed any longer. The 
suburban residents were occupying the anomalous position of being 
Youngstown residents and yet not residing in Youngstown. A petition 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 217 

circulated early in 1889 received much support from outside the city as 
well as from within, and on April 8, 1889, after the situation had been 
thoroughly surveyed, council passed an ordinance extending the mu- 
nicipal limits to include Brier Hill, Haselton and the territory east to the 
Coitsville Township line, Lansingville, Crab Creek to a point just north 
of the Hubbard Road and considerable unnamed territory. This action 
was ratified by the county commissioners on November 24, 1889, and, 
except for certain measures necessary to make the annexation effective, 
the enlarged city became a realitv. 

It had been che first extension of the city limits in twenty-one years 
and, with the exception of small additions made from time to time to 
include outlying improved property, it was to be the last extension for 
another twenty-five years. In fact Youngstown diminished in area 
three years later when certain land within the city limits was restored to 
the township as an inducement to the Ohio Steel Company to build its 
proposed plant thereon. The motive, of course, was to give the com- 
pany the benefit of the lower tax rates of the township, and the agree- 
ment was made for a ten-year period. The bargain was lived up to 
religiously. 

This decade was one that also saw a number of other civic improve- 
ments. In common with other communities Youngstown received the 
benefit of the introduction of electricity, a commodity that it had gotten 
along without before, although unaware of course of the deprivation. 
Electric lights replaced the old gas lamps on the street corners and the 
familiar "lamp posts" passed into history. The horse car line, travers- 
ing only the main street, or Federal Street, from a point a short distance 
below Basin Street to the car barns at Jefferson Street in Brier Hill, 
gave way to that novelty of novelties, an electric car line. The horse 
car line had answered all purposes in its leisurely way, for the craze 
tor speed that we know today was absent then, although Americans of 
the '8os fondly believed they, too, were living a nerve-racking life. 
Youngstown people of that day were not afraid of a long walk to "town" 
on board sidewalks or through mud or dust. Having been brought up 
without luxuries, exercise-discouraging inventions and the soft ease of 
succeeding generations, they missed none of these things. But the dimin- 
utive car drawn by a jogging horse, which was helped on the grades 
by an extra horse or mule, went the way of the stage and the canal, 
although it is still of such recent date that even younger residents of 
Youngstown recall it more or less vividly. 

The annexation of 1889 was reflected in the census returns of 1890 
when Youngstown's population was officially given as 33,220. This 
increase of 17,785 over the 1880 population, or approximately 115 per 
cent, was not due entirely of course to the residents added by extension, 
as the old area of the city had been more closely built up. It placed 
Youngstown among the leading Ohio cities, however, giving it a rank 
beyond that of several municipalities that had once exceeded it in popula- 
tion and that had threatened to leave it far behind as the years went on. 



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CHAPTER XIII 
YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1890 TO 1910 

Change in the Form of City Government — Beginning of the Steel 
Industry and the Panic of 1893 — Mill Creek Park Founding — 
Presidential Campaign of 1896 and Ending of the Panic — 
Spanish-American War Days — Depression of 1907 — Closer of 
First Decade of Century. ] t , 

Youngstown had now rounded out almost a century of its existence 
as a habitation for white men. One hundred years before, it was a 
wilderness through which ran the old Indian trail from Pittsburg and 
Beavertown to Lake Erie, a trail that was followed by the red men, by 
venturesome hunters and trappers from Pennsylvania and by an occa- 
sional and restless explorer. The Mahoning River was merely a high- 
way for the canoes of the Indians and of traders like James Hillman. 
There were no permanent white inhabitants. Occasional "squatters" 
perhaps came and went; even the saltmakers from across the line in 
Pennsylvania had become fewer. But from the advent of the New 
Englanders and Pennsylvanians in 1797 the growth had been gradual; 
slight perhaps in the first fifty years of the existence of the village, but 
more rapid in the remaining years up to 1890, although even at the latter 
date, just thirty years ago, the population was 100,000 less than it is 
today. 

The natural increase within the city limits and the added population 
that came with the annexation of outlying territory made the existing 
form of municipal government not only unsatisfactory but wholly un- 
fitted for Youngstown by 1890. The administrative machinery that 
had sufficed for a city of 5,000 people was inadequate for a municipality 
of almost 35,000. The mayor was police judge as well as executive and 
was burdened with many responsibilities that should have been delegated 
to subordinates or boards. Council was an unpaid body charged with 
duties that did not properly belong to the legislative branch of a gov- 
ernment. The police force was still that of a village in its form of 
organization and hardly more than that of a village in size. At its head 
was the city marshal, elected for a two-year term by direct vote of the 
people. The remainder of the force was made up of patrolmen and 
roundsmen appointed by the mayor. This system of permitting a de- 
partment that was partly elective and partly appointive was not good in 
itself, and the bad features were heightened by the fact that it was 
almost purely a political organization. Each succeeding mayor named an 
entirely new force, and while it must be said in all fairness that the 

218 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 219 

different men who held the office of mayor, regardless of their own 
political affiliations, divided the appointments among various parties, the 
tendency was toward disruption. A place on the police force was con- 
sidered even more desirable then than now, influence had much to do 
with selection, and a good man might be ousted at the end of two years 
regardless of his worth. 

The same antiquated condition existed in the fire department. The 
volunteer system still prevailed, although as early as 1884 several paid 
firemen had been added to the department and shortly afterwards addi- 
tional provision was made • for paid men by guaranteeing "minute men" 
a wage of 50 cents an hour while on duty. The chief of the department 
was nominated annually by the firemen, subject to confirmation by city 
council, a most unscientific arrangement, but one that had been handed 
down from the days of thirty years before. In 1888 and 1889 two addi- 
tional fire stations had been built, making the equipment fairly adequate 
for the city, but leaving the fire fighting system still faulty. 

Progressive citizens realized full well the need for a more modern 
form of municipal government and public meetings and conferences were 
held and numerous suggestions made improving the situation. The dis- 
cussion finally resulted in the drafting of a measure providing a special 
form of government for Youngstown, opposition from other cities being 
allayed by making this measure apply only to cities whose population was 
not less than 33,000 or more than 34,000. This bill was passed by the 
State Legislature, at a special session, in February, 1891, provision being 
made that it go into effect following the city election in April of that 
year. The chief provision of this act was a section providing for the 
appointment of a board of city commissioners, four in number, who 
should be the administrative officers for the city. Those selected were 
J. W. Dickey, J. H. Nutt, C. M. Reilly and A. J. McCartney. 

This change was distinctly for the better since it provided for the 
proper discharge of many duties that had grown too burdensome for the 
mayor and the council. Council had previously, on March 10, 1891, 
abolished the elective office of city marshal and created the position of 
chief of police, to be appointed by the city commissioners. On their 
organization the board of commissioners reorganized the entire police 
department, naming John F. Cantwell as chief and selecting an adequate 
force of patrolmen, who were to remain in office during good behavior 
instead of being ousted every two years. A like change was made in 
the fire department. The old volunteer department, that had sufficed 
for more than fifteen years and that had acted as a supplement to the 
paid members of the department for another half dozen years, went out 
of existence. The system that permitted the firemen to choose their own 
chiefs was abolished and, acting under the authority given them by the 
new statute, the city commissioners announced the creation of an en- 
tirely new paid department, with William H. Moore as chief and William 
L. Knox as assistant chief. Fifteen firemen were named, the number 
being adequate for the three fire stations then in existence, although the 
force was increased rapidly within the next six years with the erection 



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220 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

of three additional stations. Like the policemen, the firemen were placed 
under civil service. 

The change of government withal was for the better, although there 
were some incongruities in the system devised. It gave satisfaction and 
did away with many of the obstructions in the pathway of progress. 

These opening years of the '90s were years of prosperity, or ''good 
times," but scarcely years of a "boom" nature. There was considerable 
labor unrest — a condition that is not a monopoly of today, as we might 
be led to believe — and business was being conducted on an unsafe founda- 
tion, even though it was solid enough outwardly. Today when all the 
country — and to some extent all the world — is rent with discussion and 
filled with wrath over constantly ascending prices of the necessities of 
life, not to speak of the luxuries, it is difficult to understand how similar 
unrest could be brought about by steadily decreasing prices, yet this was 
the situation thirty years ago. This reduction had been going on stead- 
ily since the panic days of 1873, and while its influence was felt most 
keenly among agriculturists, the effect was not the less disastrous, 
since a greater proportion of the American people was engaged in agri- 
culture then than now, and it is a mistake to assume that part of the 
people of the country can be prosperous while others are fighting a losing 
game. 

This unrest was responsible for numerous strikes among iron workers, 
most of these disturbances naturally affecting Youngstown. Unlike 
most commodities, the price of iron fluctuated greatly, a condition con- 
ducive to labor troubles, since labor's wage is affected by the selling 
price of the commodity produced. In 1892 this culminated in the most 
serious strike that had afflicted the city for ten years. It is still of such 
recent occurrence that it is recalled by many, resulting as it did in a sum- 
mer's idleness. 

In Youngstown the strike was accompanied by no serious disturb- 
ances, but other iron making centers were less fortunate. The Pittsburg 
district was the scene of especial strife, the antagonism between employ- 
ees and employers reaching its culmination at Homestead, where bloody 
rioting occurred following the attempt to import strikebreakers. Be- 
cause of this historic outbreak — approaching as it did almost the stage of 
civil war— the entire strike of the iron workers in 1892 has gone down 
in history as the "Homestead strike," although this was actually but one 
place where the deadlock was in effect. Taking it in its entirety the 
strike was fatal for the iron workers, since it stripped their union of 
much of its strength, a blow from which it has never recovered. 

Oddly enough, this year that saw the clouds gathering over Youngs- 
town and forecasting darkness that was to remain for several years be- 
cause of the poverty of the iron business on which Youngstown depended 
almost solely for support, saw also the first movement toward the in- 
troduction of the steel business here. That this is such a recent industry 
here may cause surprise, on the part of some, considering the magnitude 
of that industry today, yet it was in 1892 that the Ohio Steel Company 
was organized by Youngstown men to build a modest-sized plant for the 
manufacture of semi-finished steel alone. A location in the northwest- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 221 

em part of the city was selected and, as mentioned in the chapter pre- 
ceding this, this territory was detached from the city and returned to 
the township as an inducement toward the building of the proposed 
plant. Assessed as non-city property, the natural consequence would be 
lower taxes, and this was no small attraction at that time, when steel- 
making was more or less of a precarious enterprise in itself and the 
difficulties attending it were enhanced by the unsatisfactory business 
situation throughout the country. 

It was a year later, however, before the full effect of this unsound 
business structure was felt in Youngstown. The winter of 1892-93 had 
been a fairly active one and spring showed even greater activity; but 
appearances were most deceptive. There was a disagreement between 
iron manufacturers and their employes over the wage scale that expired 
on June 30, 1893, and the mills closed down on that date to remain 
closed until a settlement had been reached. This was an annual, or 
almost an annual, occurrence in Youngstown, however, so that, it pre- 
sented nothing alarming in itself, but before the summer was over a 
national crisis had supplanted the mere quarrel over an adjustment of 
the ironworkers' wage scale. Business became almost stagnant every- 
where, failures followed failures; the whole commercial structure of 
the country appeared to collapse. 

This depression, the "panic of '93," is something that scarcely needs 
recalling today, but future generations will find it hard to understand 
the suffering it entailed. Its effect, of course, was nationwide, but its 
consequences were felt with especial acuteness in iron and steel making 
centers, the localities that are most prosperous of all when prosperity 
abounds and the most cruelly afflicted of all when business activity van- 
ishes. 

For almost two years Youngstown not only stood still but went back- 
ward. Many who were more restless than the average under idleness 
sought work in other places where the effects of the panic were less 
keenly felt. This also was true of those whose home ties were such 
that they were able to make a change of residence. Probably the popula- 
tion decreased during this period, even when the natural increase from 
the birth rate is considered. Few of those who depended upon a daily 
wage for subsistence had sufficient funds to stand even a short siege of 
idleness, and the most thrifty, and even those of comfortable means, 
felt the pinch of poverty. Many families had to exist for a year or more 
with scarcely a dollar's income. The streets were at all times filled with 
idle men. "Soup houses," free lodging houses, and other agencies for 
distributing charity sprang up. Begging was common, although it is 
probably true that a great many who resorted to this were impostors 
who had the means to subsist, but whose penuriousness was stronger 
than their personal pride. Merchants carried many through the "'hard 
times," at immense sacrifice in many instances. The privations of those 
who shrank from charity or even friendly assistance or the publicity 
that comes of acknowledging poverty will never be known. Thousands 
of Youngstown residents of today can recall the want and the pinching 
economy never admitted then outside the household. Work and money 



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222 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

were commodities that almost ceased to exist, and lack of money meant 
not only scarcity of food but threadbare clothing and perhaps eviction 
into the streets, from whence, it must be said, there was generally a 
refuge offered in the home of a kindly neighbor. The one compensation 
was that the prices of all the necessities of life reached rock bottom 
at this time, and on a dollar a family might exist for several days. 

This is- not an overstatement of the case at all. It should not be 
understood that this actual poverty included everyone, for of course 
there were many whose means were comfortable enough to place them 
beyond want, although it is true that virtually no one made more than 
a bare living during the earlier years of the panic. Contributions to 
charity funds were liberal and helped relieve much of the distress. 

Industrially the chief salvation of the city at this time was probably 
the new steel plant. Steel was beginning to supplant iron because it 
answered many of the purposes for which iron had been used and could 
be made more cheaply. At a time when a bare margin of profit was all 
that was asked — and mills even ran at times at a loss just to afford work 
— steel mills profited by this situation. The local steel plant was placed 
in operation just about the time that the panic reached its most acute 
stage and gave work to hundreds of men, for much of the work required 
no skill that an iron maker did not possess. Experienced steel men for 
the more responsible positions had to be brought in of course, but these 
constituted a minority of the workmen employed. The Ohio Steel Com- 
pany's works was a small plant at its inception, as we measure steel 
works today, but one of healthy, size for Youngstown of that day. 

It might truly be said too that this disaster was responsible for one of 
the greatest blessings that had ever befallen Youngstown — the founding 
of Mill Creek Park. In a sense the park had been in existence before 
this, but it was a park in name only. It dates back to 1891, when Yolney 
Rogers, the father of this great breathing spot, secured legislation per- 
mitting the Township of Youngstown to issue bonds for acquiring the 
gorge of Mill Creek, a beauty spot some distance from the city limits. 
This was as far as Youngstown people interested themselves at that time 
— in fact it might be said that with the exception of Mr. Rogers few 
showed any interest at all. The gorge remained a tangled mass of 
woodland. 

The necessity of providing all the work possible for idle men be- 
came so great, however, that attention was naturally directed toward 
giving employment on public improvements. A program of this kind 
was not easy to outline with the city showing no growth and the plan 
of improving Mill Creek Park was seized upon. It was the one great 
undertaking possible at that time. 

Like its people, the city had little money. Paying current expenses 
was task enough in itself, but there was sufficient confidence in the 
future of Youngstown to make farsighted residents realize that it would 
recover from its paralysis and that banking on the future was not an 
uncertain game. Long term improvement bonds were therefore issued 
and the proceeds devoted to making an actual park out of Mill Creek 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 223 

Valley. These were township bonds, of course, as the park lay outside 
the city and was the property of the entire township. 

The work consisted of cutting roads and trails, removing under- 
brush, making picnic spots and converting a wilderness into a modern 
outing place, while preserving as much as possible of its virgin beauty. 
The money was doled out meagerly. At one time three days of work a 
week at a dollar a day was the allotment for a man of family. To the 
work begun in that dark winter of 1893-94 Youngstown owes a park 
that is today noted throughout the country. It was merely the beginning, 
of course, for Mill Creek Park has been undergoing improvement ever 
since, but its winding roads, its "rambles," its bridges and even Lake 
Cohasset and Pioneer pavilion are relics of panic days. 

Youngstown has gone through depressions since the ''panic of '93," 
but none of like severity. To the stagnant business conditions was added 
strikes among those who had opportunity to work, working conditions 
being more responsible for this than wage rates, although the latter were 
at lowest ebb. The* railroad strike that reached its culmination in Chi- 
cago came in the summer of 1894, and Youngstown witnessed two street 
railway strikes in the same year. The first of these, in the early spring, 
was attended with considerable rioting and destruction of street railway 
property, as public sentiment was largely with the strikers. In the second 
strike that came during the summer there was less favorable sentiment 
and the walkout was attended with none of the features that marked the 
first one. 

While the period of depression that began in 1893 actually lasted for 
six years, the first two years were the ones of most marked severity. 
In 1895 there came some change for the better. The iron works fur- 
nished at least intermittent work and the steel plant steadily increased 
the number of its employes. Smaller shops began working with part 
crews, and there was an improvement in railroad working conditions and 
in blast furnace operations. Unsettled political conditions probably had 
much to do with perpetuating the unfavorable business situation, for a 
presidential campaign was approaching, and "presidential years" were 
always years of business inactivity at that time. It is only in the last 
decade in fact that business has refused to mark time while a presiden- 
tial contest was being waged* 

The campaign of 1896 was one that deserves mention in any history, 
national, state or local, for it probably stands without a parallel. Poli- 
tics had been taken seriously in America up to this time — far more so 
than it is today — and there had never been any absence of party feeling. 
The ordinary voter prided himself on his party regularity and scorned 
alike the opposition party and its individual members. The "bolter," 
then the "mugwump," earned general condemnation without distinction 
as to whether his motives were of the very highest or the very lowest. 
The independent voter who decided the elections was a decidedly quiet 
individual, not alone through choice but through necessity. 

Periodically the partisans worked themselves into the frenzy that 
was perhaps better expressed in the famed torchlight parades of the '80s 
— during the Garfield-Hancock, Cleveland-Blaine and Harrison-Cleve- 



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224 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

land campaigns — than by any other means. Politics has never fur- 
nished anything more picturesque than these night processions of cheer- 
ing partisans, and perhaps never anything more conductive of grease and 
grime than the smoking open torches. Occasionally parades caused 
bitter clashes, and in the Hayes-Tilden and Cleveland-Blaine campaigns 
there were disputed counts that kept the election in doubt for months in 
the former instance and days in the latter. These contests might be 




Group of Buildings Familiar in Youngstown a Generation Ago 

That on the upper left is "Brier Hill," the old Governor Tod Home- 
stead. On the lower left is Baldwin's City Flouring Mill, still in opera- 
tion. On the right is the old Mahoning County Courthouse at Wood 
Street and Wick Avenue. 



likened to the one that developed after election day in the Wilson-Hughes 
campaign of 1916, except that the struggle in 1876 was more prolonged 
and more bitter. 

For rancor, bitterness, partisanship, enthusiasm, in fact for every 
element that can be introduced into a political contest, none of these 
equaled the McKinley-Bryan campaign of 1896. Even the election of 
i860, that had made the Civil war inevitable, was less savage. It is 
doubtful if ever there was the same degree of sincerity and the same 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 225 

unchangeable conviction on two sides to a presidential battle that victory 
for the other side meant disaster to the country. On the part of the 
Republicans the return of prosperity was promised with the election of 
McKinley and the revival of the protective tariff policy, while the good 
faith of the United States and its standing before the world hinged on 
the acceptance of the gold standard. The Democrats offered "free and 
unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio of sixteen to one" as the panacea 
for all industrial ills. 

The campaign was bitterly fought in Youngstown because of its iron 
industries and also because the Republican standard-bearer, William Mc- 
Kinley, was a product of the Mahoning Valley. Born at Niles, educated 
there and at Poland, representative of the Mahoning County district 
in Congress for many years and closely identified with so many men 
in Youngstown, it was but natural that a personal, as well as a partisan, 
interest was felt in him here. Yet it is typical of the fierce hatred of the 
campaign of that year that nowhere did he meet more violent opposition 
than in Youngstown, a situation all the more unusual from the fact that 
William McKinley was a man of remarkable magnetism and kindliness* 
of nature that made warm friends for him even among political oppo- 
nents and had brought him support in his campaigns for Congress and 
for the governorship of Ohio. 

Mr. McKinley did not visit Youngstown during the campaign, not 
did he make a tour of any other cities. Presidential candidates did not 
"stump" the country at that time, this practice being introduced by Mr. 
McKinley's opponent only in that year. Instead pilgrimages were made 
to the McKinley home at Canton where the republican candidate daily 
addressed immense throngs. The memorable excursion from Youngs- 
town, in October, 1896, when 3,000 enthusiasts went to Canton to greet 
the coming President, broke all records for the famed pilgrimages made 
to the McKinley home that year. 

Mr. Bryan, on the other hand, made a memorable visit here, a few 
weeks before election day. His sudden rise to fame, his personal mag- 
netism, his famed powers of oratory and the intenseness of feeling con- 
tributed toward making this a historic day in the annals of Mahoning 
County Democracy. The assemblage that greeted him was the greatest 
in the history of Youngstown up to that time and his ride up Federal 
Street from the Lake Shore station in an open carriage was a > veritable 
triumph. His speech was delivered from a temporary platform that 
adjoined the now-vanished Howells block on the northwest corner of 
Federal Street and the Central Square. But thirty-six years of age, and 
looking even more boyish, his appearance on that occasion leaves an im- 
pression indelibly imprinted on the memory of everyone present. 

The election came and went as elections do, culminating in the elec- 
tion of Mr. McKinley. This result was forecasted by the changing tide 
of sentiment in the closing days of the campaign, yet bitterness and 
enthusiasm perhaps increased rather than decreased, and remained until 
the count was made on election night. Yet it is an indication of the deep 
common sense of the American people, who are ever ready to accept 
die decision of the majority, that this most remarkable, and even violent, 



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226 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

campaign found the country standing in united ranks twenty-four hours, 
after the verdict had been rendered. 

The business recovery following the election was perhaps not as rapid 
as many had been led to believe it would be, yet 1897 found still a further 
improvement. There was a general feeling of confidence in the future 
that was more marked than it had been for more than a half dozen years 
and the acute depression of actual "panic" days disappeared. That the 
actual improvement was not greater caused a degree of unrest and dis- 
satisfaction, but this was expressed in sentiment and not by any outward 
manifestations. 

This was the year, too, when Youngstown rounded out a century of 
its existence, but the occasion passed almost without notice. Conditions 
perhaps were not such that gala celebrations were in order, or it may be 
that Youngstown was forgetful of its founders. Many of those who had 
served to make the pioneer reunions of the '70s and *8os such joyous 
gatherings had been laid to rest and their successors had allowed these 
gatherings to lapse. 

The following year was one that will always rank with 1861 and 
1917 in American history and in the history of Youngstown. It was a 
year that saw the dawn of war and, in thi5 instance, happily saw its end. 

The Cuban question had been a vexatious one for many years and 
became especially acute from 1895 onwards, for in that year the 
Cuban patriots launched a revolution of even greater proportions than 
any they had undertaken before. Spain had failed wholly in subduing 
the insurrection, and, falling short in warfare, had substituted cruelty. 
It had grossly mismanaged affairs in Cuba as it had in all its remaining 
possessions on the western hemisphere, blundering so much in fact that 
it had lost all its mainland holdings. Two years and more of fighting 
the Cuban insurgents had been fruitless when the old world nation 
adopted the scheme even more disastrous to its ambitions. 

Spanish rule had been obnoxious here at all times and the policy 
of "concentration" brought even more violent protest. It is possible that 
by the winter of 1897-98 even Spain saw the hopelessness of trying to 
maintain its rule over Cuba and was willing to abandon the task if a way 
could be found by which it could do so gracefully. The saner statesmen 
of that country were not blind to the growing resentment in the United 
States and the unyieldingness of the Cubans. 

The freedom of Cuba might have been attained by peaceful means if 
it had not been for that stunning disaster of February 15, 1898 — the 
destruction of the American battleship Maine in the harbor of Havana. 
In the minds of the American people the Spanish government was per- 
sonally charged with this outrage. That it was responsible has never 
been proven, and today may be seriously doubted, but if not the direct 
instigator of the crime it was indirectly responsible because of its own 
stupidity and arrogance. 

From this moment the country demanded war with Spain. It is 
doubtful if ever there was such unanimity of sentiment on the eve ot 
any armed conflict in which the United States has en<raged, or during the 
progress of that conflict. There were Tories in the Revolution, anti-war 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY' 227 

factions in the War of 1812, a decided opposition party in the Mexican 
war, "Copperheads" in the Civil war, and pacifists and disloyalists in 
the World war, but little opposition to the war with Spairi. It was con- 
fined, in fact, to those who were not the less determined to. uphold Amer- 
ican honor but believed this could be accomplished by peaceful means, as 
it is possible that it could have been. They were lost, however, in the 
clamor of an outraged people. Spain was given no time to retreat, if 
indeed she could have done so with even a vestige of pride left. 

Nor was the war spirit engendered by the fact that an easy American 
victory was foreseen. No one had any serious doubt of the outcome, 
but few expected the one-sided contest that actually developed. Wheth- 
er Spain was strong or weak was of less consequence in the American 
mind than that Spain had been temporized with long enough and that the 
Maine had to be avenged. "Remember the Maine!" was perhaps not a 
high-minded battle cry, but no one can deny that it was an effective one. 

The declaration of war on April 21, 1898, found Youngstown ready. 
For years a company of the Ohio National Guard had been maintained 
here. Originally it had been known as the "Iron Guards," but in the 
late '80s or the early '90s it became the "Logan Rifles." At the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American war, and for some years previously, it had 
been officially Company H, Fifth Regiment, Ohio National Guard, but 
by this formal title it was scarcely recognized while the designation 
"Logan Rifles" was familiar to everyone. 

Company H was not recruited to war strength at the outbreak of the 
war but there was no difficulty in filling the vacancies in the ranks. 
Muster and drill were begun immediately on the declaration of war, even 
before this pronouncement in fact, and not a moment too soon as the 
order to entrain for camp came on the evening of April 25th, just four 
days after hostilities had been ordered. The following day, April 26, 
1898, was a memorable day in Youngstown. It had had no counterpart 
since the early '60s; it was destined to have none for almost twenty 
years after 1898. Practically the entire city turned out to see the men in 
blue depart, business suspended and the streets within several blocks of 
the Erie station were thronged. So short had been the time that some 
who had enlisted in the few days following the declaration of "war 
marched away ununiformed. The actual number to depart that day was 
eighty-two, numbering the following officers, non-commissioned officers 
and enlisted men: 



Capt. James A. Freed 


Corp. F. V. Case 


J. O. Brownlee 


Lieut. H. W. Ulrich 


Corp. Charles Sharpe 


W. J. Crawford 


Sergt. Fred C. Porter 


Musician C. E. Frost 


S. S. Conroy 


Sergt. W. F. Keyser 


Privates — 


J. G. Dixon 


Sergt. F. W. Metz 


J. G. Allensworth 


C. H. Dafzell 


Sergt. R. F. Truman 


J. W. Bufka 


Aaron Davis 


Sergt. J. J. Cornell 


Bion Bliss 


George Merritt 


Sergt. G. W. Spigler 


Joseph Barber 


F. W. Pfund 


Corp. H. G. Woolfe 


Adolph Burkhart 


W. E. Phillips 


Corp. A. G. Resch 


Jas. C. Birmingham 


Frank Park 



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228 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 



Emery Semple 
Perry Simpson 
W. E. Simpson 
Henry StelJer 
A. W. Sprague 
R. W. Stambaugh 
I. I. Small ' 
J. E. Shaffer 
Stowe Milton 
A. W. Smith 
William Smoker 
Fred Simmons 
G. O Thompson 

A. W. Thullen 
F. G. Wiseman 
J. C. Wiseman 

B. L. Wiseman 



F. A. Wilson 
Dolph Welch 
M. B. Brown 
Wade Christy 
A. Uhlinger 
Peter Cummings 
R. T. Edwards 
S. E. Eyster 
C. C. Freeh 
S. Thestgarden 
P. J. Frey 
T. Greenwood 
N. R. Hamilton 
Hale Hamilton 
Paul Hamilton 
Thomas Howells 



J. R. Howells 
Elmer Haverstick 
Harry Jenkins 
Andrew Jackson 
William Kendall 
H. Kieling 
H. Kingsbacher 
J. M. Mansell 
J. O. Mahan 
Wade Matthews 
J. W. Robbins 
D. W. McFarland 
John McCartney 
J. R. McCluskey 
J. W. Perry 
j. M, McClure 



At Cleveland, where Company H was mustered in, it was joined by 
George Merritt, Fred Hill and Millard Stemple, privates. 

With the remainder of the Fifth Regiment, Company H entrained 
at Cleveland for Camp Bushnell, Columbus, and on May 21st left Camp 
Bushnell for Tampa, Florida, the embarkation point for Cuba. At 
Tampa the Fifth was assigned to the Seventh Army Corps under com- 
mand of Maj.-Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, a former Confederate leader, but 
now wearing the blue uniform. Here Company H was recruited to full 
war strength of 109 officers and men, Lieut. Harry W. Ulrich being 
named first lieutenant and Sergt. Fred C. Porter, second lieutenant. 

Shortly after going into camp at Tampa the Fifth Regiment was 
transferred to the Fifth Army Corps under Maj.-Gen. William T. Shat- 
ter and was ordered to embark .for Cuba. Because of damage to the 
transport to which it was assigned the Fifth did not sail for Cuba with 
the remainder of the corps, but was transferred once more, this time 
to the Fourth Army Corps under command of Maj.-Gen. J. J. Coppinger. 
The regiment then was ordered from Tampa to Camp Femandina, 
Florida, reaching there July 23d. 

Sanitary conditions had been poor at Tampa, and it was presumed 
that they would be better at Camp Fernandina. There was perhaps 
some improvement, but the new camp was wretched enough' at the best. 
The soldiers were cursed with poor sanitation, poor food and almost 
everything else that goes to make life miserable. On top of other in- 
tolerable conditions they were subjected to the blazing Florida heat to 
which they were unaccustomed. These hardships were not peculiar to 
the Ohio men of course. While the work of the American armed forces 
on land and sea alike in the Spanish- American war was so remarkable 
that it startled the world, it is doubtful if there were ever more miser- 
able arrangements made for the care of the men. "Murder" was the 
way the volunteers characterized their treatment, and no one disagreed 
with them. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 229 

Because of the poor sanitation an epidemic of typhoid fever broke 
out at Camp Fernandina and ravaged the camp. Two Youngstown men 
of Company H, Sergt. Henry G. Woolfe and Private Clifton H. Dalzell, 
succumbed to the disease and were brought home for burial. The fu- 
neral of the latter was the first war-time military funeral held in 
Youngstown for more than thirty years. 

On September 8, 1898, Company H was ordered to Cleveland in 
preparation for mustering out, as the war was virtually over. Final 
discharges were granted on November 5th and the boys returned to 
Youngstown the same evening, although while in camp at Cleveland two 
more of them, Sergt. George W. Spigler and Private Daniel G. Kennedy, 
died from typhoid fever contracted at Camp Fernandina. 

Youngstown and Mahoning County's activity in the Spanish-Amer- 
ican war was not limited of course to the men enumerated above. The 
call for volunteers brought out hundreds of more young men. Some of 




Park Hotel on Northeast Corner of Central Square About 1895 

these were assigned to fill the vacancies in Company H so that the com- 
plete roster of the company contains other names than those given. 
Scores of others were formally enlisted and training was begun for the 
additional companies that were to be raised in the city, while recruiting 
for other companies went on in almost every township of the county. 
Still more men signed up to go as soon as the call for additional troops 
came, while many enlisted in the regular army and in the navy. Aside 
from the "Logan Rifles," (Company H) however, none of these was 
called as the war lasted but a few brief months. 

The war, short as it was, was followed by the business revival that 
invariably comes in the wake of hostilities. The winter of 1898-99 wit- 
nessed more industrial activity in Youngstown than had been seen for 
six years, and in the spring of 1899 tne "boom" came on in earnest. 
Where there had been no work for five years before, little work two 
years before and nominal activity in the winter, there came in the spring 
an unprecedented demand for labor. Iron and steel doubled and tripled 



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230 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

in prices between the early months of year and fall and orders could not 
be filled. Production capacity was wholly inadequate. Wages advanced 
rapidly; time was too valuable to waste in even the annual wage scale 
controversy. This condition lasted for approximately a year, or on 
through the winter of 1899-1900 and the spring of the latter year. 

It was at this most opportune time, too, that the era of combinations 
in the iron and steel business began. Prior to this time all of the rolling 
mills in Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley were independent con- 
cerns, and even the blast furnaces had been largely independent, or mer- 
chant, stacks. Beginning late in 1898, however, consolidations became 
the rule until most of the plants in the Mahoning Valley except the 
blast furnaces were taken over by merger. It was then that the "trust" 
problem arose and these combinations began to be the subject of 
dispute on the part of those who believed they were instruments that 
would benefit the country by lessening production costs, eliminating 
waste and duplication of effort, stabilizing the market and doing away 
with demoralizing competition and those who saw in them nothing but 
evil. Whatever opinion one may hold, the benefit Youngstown derived 
from the iron and steel mergers of that day cannot be denied. It was 
selected for one of the spots where the manufacture of these most neces- 
sary commodities should be concentrated. Originally the "trust" mills 
were scattered throughout the entire country, since it was necessary to 
buy U P &°°d, bad and indifferent mills, but gradually the isolated and 
costly plants were abandoned or transferred to the principal steel mak- 
ing districts, and the manufacture of iron and steel was centered in the 
Mahoning Valley and in the Pittsburgh, Chicago and Birmingham dis- 
tricts. 

Modern Youngstown, in feet, might be said to have had its beginning 
about the year 1900. Previous to this its growth had been healthy, and 
comparatively rapid, too, as the figures of the succeeding decennial cen- 
suses will show, but in the last twenty years it has advanced more than 
rapidly. The baneful effects of the "panic of '93" are evident in these 
figures for 1900, as the enumeration that year gave Youngstown a 
population of 44,885, a gain of but 11,665 f° r the ten years since 1890. 
Considering the great number of newcomers into Youngstown during 
the prosperous year 1899, it is probable that the increase before that 
time was hardly more than the mere excess of births over deaths. 

An event of 1899 that had much to do with the spread of the city 
was the opening of the Market Street viaduct, a structure on which 
work was begun a year before. Previous to this Market Street bridge 
merely spanned the river. The railroad tracks on the north side of the 
stream were grade crossings, while on the south bank of the river the 
bridge landed at the foot of a deep bluff that marked the termination 
of that part of Market Street. The approach to the street above was 
by a circuitous route for vehicles, while a pedestrian might follow the 
same route or reach the top of the bluff by foot path. The railroad 
tracks on the south side of the river did not exist then, of course. 

The opening of the high level bridge and the construction of a car line 
from down town to Mill Creek Park in the neighborhood of Lanter- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 231 

man's Falls — or to a pleasure park built in 1899 a short distance from 
the falls— opened the south side to homeseekers. Street car service 
there before that time had been indifferent. In fact at one time the 
present Park & Falls line boasted but a single car, or enough service to 
keep the franchise from lapsing, and would have paid dividends on no 
more. But from 1899 on the growth was phenomenal. Instead of being 
the home of the few and isolated from the rest of the city it began to 
rival the district north of the river in importance and Market Street 
was gradually transformed from a country road to a busy business 
thoroughfare. 

The year 1900 saw much of the dullness usual to a presidential year. 
Business slackened up in the spring and there was little activity during 
the entire summer and early fall, the mills being shut down much of 
the time because of a wage scale disagreement, although this difficulty 
could perhaps have been ironed out had there been any demand for 
iron or steel products. This was merely a quiet season rather than a 
depression, however, and did not affect all plants in the same proportion. 

By the winter of 1900-01 business was back to its accustomed 
stride. The inactivity of the year before was gone, but the "boom" 
aspect of two years before was absent too, for steel production had 
caught up to consumption, not so much by the construction of new mills 
as by increased capacity in the old ones. Youngstown had benefited 
greatly, however, in the additions that had been made. This condition 
lasted on through 1902 and until the latter part of 1903. 

In 1903 Youngstown underwent a change in city government, the 
system that had been in effect for a dozen years being discarded. This 
was not voluntary on the part of the city but was forced by a supreme 
court decision that ruled out all special forms of municipal government 
in Ohio as illegal under the State Constitution. A uniform system be- 
came imperative and a new municipal code was enacted by the State 
Legislature at a special session called la^e in 1902, the change being 
ordered effective in 1903. 

By virtue of this code the terms of all elective city officials, including 
those elected in the spring of 1902 for two-year terms, were terminated 
and biennal municipal elections were provided for, to be held in April 
in odd-numbered years. The board of appointive city commissioners 
was abolished and an elective board of public service and an appointive 
board of public safety was created for municipalities of city grade. 
The number of councilmen to a ward was reduced from two to one and 
the number of wards cut down. Later the unwieldy board of education 
was reduced similarly in size. This form of government, although with 
important modifications, is still in effect in Youngstown even though 
special forms of government are now permissible in Ohio by virtue 
of amendments to the State Constitution adopted in 191 2. A number 
of cities have taken advantage of this provision but Youngstown has not. 

In 1903, also, Youngstown held a belated celebration in honor of its 
years. It had allowed the centennial of the municipality to pass almost 
unnoticed but made up for this by a centennial celebration, taking the 
nature, of a carnival and industrial parade, on July 3rd and 4th of this 



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232 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

year. The event seized upon for this municipal jollification was the one 
hundredth anniversary of the admission of Ohio to the rank of state- 
hood, perhaps a far fetched pretext for a celebration, but one that did 
not interfere with the success of the affair at all. 

The following year was one less favorable to business in Youngs- 
town. In fact 1904 was a year of low ebb in production, wages and 
trade in general. The slump was perhaps not unexpected with the quad- 
rennial election approaching, but began earlier than usual, in the fall of 
1903, to be exact, and the winter of 1903-04 was a quiet one. 

To the natural inactivity was added a serious labor disturbance, the 
strike at the local Carnegie mills that began on July 1, 1904, and lasted 
until well into the fall. It was characterized by perhaps more bitterness 
and rancor than any previous event of this kind in Youngstown, or per- 
haps any since. The dispute was one over union recognition, the fin- 
ishing mills of the Carnegie company being unionized prior to that time, 
and ended with the dissolution of the unions in the local plants of the 
company affected. There was more than the usual amount of disorder 
connected with this affair, this culminating in a double killing in Octo- 
ber. The strike virtually terminated shortly afterward, but it was many 
years before its echoes ceased, in fact it cannot be said that they have 
entirely ceased even now, fifteen years or more after the struggle was 
fought to such a bitter end. 

It was about this time that one of the modern improvements that 
proved to be a most vital one in Youngstown was made, the installation 
of a filtration plant. A city waterworks had been in existence for many 
years, a third of a century in fact, but the domestic water supply came 
from the river without undergoing any cleansing process whatever. 
This had been well enough when Youngstown was a small municipality, 
since the river was little contaminated by industrial plants and the chief 
source of contamination, the main sewer of the city, emptied into the 
stream far below the waterworks intake. With increased growth, how- 
ever, this use of the water in its raw state became not only obnoxious 
but positively dangerous. In the '90s Youngstown was subjected to 
much typhoid fever, the disease being in evidence at practically all limes 
and reaching the proportions of an epidemic at intervals, notably in 
1899. The need of a filtration plant was too apparent to be ignored. 
This scourge was attributed to the unhealthy water supply, and, as later 
results showed, probably rightly so. In addition to contamination that 
came from other sources offensive matter was carried here by floods 
that came almost annually. One of the most notable of these was early 
in 1904 when a winter thaw caused the river to rise with remarkable 
rapidity until the high water stage that had stood for perhaps twenty- 
five years was passed by a full six feet. This was the most pronounced 
case of high water in the history of the river locally until the great flood 
of 191 3, which shattered all records and will likely stand without a rival. 

The filtration plant was built in 1904 and opened in 1905, having an 
initial capacity for effectually treating 10,000,000 gallons of water 
per day. The benefits of the improvement were readily seen. As 
malaria had disappeared when the cause was removed almost twenty- 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 233 

five years before, typhoid disappeared after the installation of the 
filtration plant. In this instance relief is not complete of course, for 
the absolute elimination of this disease is not within the possibilities of 
today, but much of the typhoid here is contracted elsewhere, especially 
during the vacation season, and the epidemics of twenty years or more 
ago are unknown. Even with additional improvements made since the 
filtration plant was built Mahoning River water is far from palatable 
and not usually partaken of as a beverage when any other water supply 
is possible, but it is not as unhealthy as its taste and odor might indicate. 

Labor troubles disappeared and business revived following the elec- 
tion of 1904 and the next three years were prosperous ones here. The 
expansion was so favorable, in fact, that the question of a domestic 
water supply that had been agitated and settled as shown above was 
converted into a question of an industrial water supply. The Mahoning 
River was becoming inadequate to meet demands for mill purposes. For 
perhaps two-thirds of the year the flow sufficed, but during the heated 
months the river dwindled in proportions until it was a mere ribbon. 
The water was used many times over, but even the adoption of this 
subterfuge was unsatisfactory, while future growth was imperiled unless 
some way could be devised for maintaining the flow of the stream during 
the summer months when the supply was least and the demands greatest. 

The most feasible suggestion was for the creation of a storage basin 
far up the Mahoning River, where a great supply of water could be 
impounded in the season of plenty and released gradually during June, 
July and August, when needed. The usual method of piping or carry- 
ing the water by aqueduct was discarded, the theory being generally ac- 
cepted that the best results could be obtained by permitting the water 
to follow the natural course of the stream. 

This project was first seriously advanced about 1906, but ten years 
were destined to pass before the storage reservoir became a reality. A 
survey was made of the Mahoning River valley under private auspices 
on behalf of the city and a site eventually was selected in Berlin Town- 
ship, overlapping into Portage County, where approximately 10,000,- 
000,000 gallons of water could be impounded. This location, on an 
upper reach of the river, offered a natural site for a lake, as the river 
there flows through a gorge of considerable width in one of the beauty 
spots of Mahoning County. Options were taken on a great deal of 
the property by the city and on behalf of the city, but before all the 
necessary land could be obtained private interests intervened and gained 
control of sufficient of the necessary land to block the improvement 
unless their holdings were purchased at a greatly advanced price. 

The city chose to fight this movement, and also a furth?r movement 
backed by obstructionists that would have prevented the building of any 
storage reservoir. The latter attempt was fruitless, as the right to make 
this improvement was too apparent to be taken away. The struggle to 
gain control of all the needed land in the Berlin basin was more pro- 
longed, however. Under the existing law of the State, appropriation 
was impossible, but after a long fight a law was finally passed in 1909 
permitting appropriation proceedings on the part of municipality in 



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234 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

instances of this kind and the chief obstacle to the proposed improvement 
was removed. 

Even while this legal and legislative battle was on the plans of the 
municipality had been changed. The possibility that complete control 
of the Berlin basin might not be obtained caused additional surveys to 
be made in the river valley, and a second reservoir location was found 
in Milton Township, a short distance downstream, and north of the 
Berlin site. Another long series of negotiations was necessary before 
the needed land was secured in Milton Township and preparations made 
for reservoir construction. It was actually the spring of 1917 before 
the work was completed and the storage basin filled. 

The worth of the improvement was established almost immediately. 
Even today Youngstown's industrial water supply is inadequate in sum- 
mer because plant additions here have been far greater in the past decade 
than was anticipated. The water is objectionable during the hot weather, 
but without the Milton reservoir these industrial extensions would not 
have been possible, and even with them conditions are less aggravating 
than they were ten years ago. The abundance of water in the upper 
river has had the effect too of promoting the founding of industrial 
plants not only beyond Youngstown but even beyond Warren to Newton 
Falls. This situation is certain to work a hardship for Youngstown if 
such construction is continued unless additional provision is made for 
these up-river plants. 

Another improvement decided upon about the same time the storage 
reservoir was projected was the construction of a new courthouse for 
Mahoning County. The old building had served its purpose well. It 
had been one of the boasts of the city, the township and the county, a 
show place for visitors and a place photographed with much pride when 
views of Youngstown were asked for. But it had seen thirty years of 
life, in the course of which Mahoning County had increased in popula- 
tion from less than 20,000 to more than 100,000, while Youngstown 
had grown from 12,000 to almost 70,000. The old structure at Wick 
Avenue and Wood Street was yet dignified in appearance and not a 
building to be ashamed of by any means, but it was inadequate for 
county needs and not in keeping with a county as rich as Mahoning. 

The campaign for a new county building — or county buildings — was 
comparatively brief. The need was not disputed, there was surprisingly 
little opposition, and at the election in November, 1906, the proposal for 
the erection of county buildings to the value of $1,000,000 carried easily. 

Considerable time was consumed in deciding upon the site for these 
buildings and it was a year before the location in Market Street between 
Front and Boardman streets was selected. Another three years elapsed 
before the structures were completed and thrown open for occupancy 
and the work was not finished until after a regrettable scandal had 
been unearthed involving charges of soliciting bribes and graft, which 
were unfortunately sustained by evidence. The bribery exposure of 
1909, extending to certain good roads members as well as to members 
of the county building commission, constitutes one of the unsavory 
chapters in Mahoning County history. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 235 

These improvements, and many others were urged, and made neces- 
sary, because Youngstown was enjoying the most rapid growth it had 
ever experienced up to this time and business conditions were daily 
growing better. The year 1904 had been an inactive one, 1905 was com- 
fortably prosperous, 1906 was more than prosperous, while 1907 came 
in with a "boom" — and ended with a startling business collapse. 

Viewing this period with the hindsight that comes to everyone, while 
foresight comes to but a few, this disastrous ending of a period of pros- 
perity is not surprising. Prices had gone up rapidly, wages were ad- 
vancing, buying was the rule and it was not always conducted with good 
judgment and, worst of all, speculation was rife. In the industries, and 
even more in the operation of transportation companies, stock juggling 
was often the first consideration while giving service was secondary. An 
unnatural and unhealthy condition existed although only a few recog- 
nized this. 

In the light of the feverish conditions that have existed, not alone in 
the United States but throughout the world, in the last five years, or 
since 1915, the "boom" days of the early part of 1907 appear like days 
of comparative quiet, but judged by the days that had preceded them 
they were days of . unparalleled activity. Wealth and pleasure were 
pursued more diligently than they ever had been before and the short- 
sighted gambled heavily on the future. The breakdown came in late 
October and early November, and came with appalling suddenness. 
Where the steel mills had apparently been unable to fill orders but a 
few months before, they were shut down and left silent and almost 
tenantless. 

The "word "panic" was taboo at that time. The inactivity was re- 
ferred to as a "depression" alone, but today, a dozen years later, there 
is no disposition to gloss over the hardships of that period. In the 
Mahoning Valley the depression lasted approximately a year and a half, 
or until the spring of 1909, but the severe panic conditions lasted through 
only the first six months of this period. From November, 1907, until 
'May, 1908, thousands of idle men walked the streets, few of those em- 
ployed in the steel mills worked steadily, and thousands more of work- 
men who had been industrious, regularly employed men prior to that 
time earned scarcely a dollar during the entire winter and early spring. 

The latter seven or eight months of 1908 were dull but the strain at 
least had been removed and a return to prosperity was in sight. It 
might be said, too, that in spite of the panicky conditions existing in the 
Mahoning Valley, this district fared far better than other steel-making 
sections of the country. Not only was the collapse even more complete 
in the Pittsburgh, Birmingham and Chicago regions during the winter of 
1907-08, but the recovery in these districts was slower and at the close 
of 1908 they were probably not in better condition than Youngstown was 
in the spring of that year. By 1909 there was a complete return to 
normal conditions at least, although the feverish business activity that 
characterized the early part of 1907 did not reappear for several years 
more. 

If the "panic of 1907" produced less actual hardship than its pred- 



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236 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

ecessors, the depressions that began in 1873 an d i893> ft was not alone 
because it was shorter in duration but because the character of the city 
had changed. Youngstown had grown great enough and modern enough 
that considerable business remained even with the steel mills inactive, 
and a sight of a few thousand idle men on the streets was not as appall- 
ing as it had been fifteen years before. They represented a smaller per- 
centage of the population; the psychological effect was less marked. 

That the city had the desire and possessed the spirit to stage a gala 
celebration almost in the midst of this depression is evidence that the 
municipality as a whole was not downcast, and really looked for better 
days within a short time. This civic get-together event, held in June, 
1908, celebrated the anniversary of nothing in particular. It was pro- 




Scene in West Federal Street During "Old Home Week," 

in June, 1908 

moted by a few optimists who believed that the world had a good many 
years of existence ahead of it, that more prosperous times were not far 
in the distance, that the best way to shake off depression was to be gay. 
and that it was a good time to call attention to the fact that Youngstown 
was still very much of a city and not a municipality of the kind thaf 
would give up merely because it had been visited by adversity. The 
celebration was designated "Home Coming Week/' or "Old Home 
Week," to use a term more often employed, and it was an occasion into 
which everyone entered heartily. Shows, carnivals, parades, banquets 
and reunions of all sorts were held, the cornerstone of the new court- 
house was laid and Youngstown thoroughly enjoyed itself for one solid 
week. It would be a good experience to repeat. 

With the return of better times following the election of iqo8 and 
liquidation that undid some of the evil wrought by the speculation of 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 237 

two years before, Youngstown closed the first decade of the twentieth 
century with mild prosperity at least. Except for the panic it had not 
been a very eventful period. The character of the city had changed 
between 1900 and 1910, it had progressed from the stage of an average, 
medium-sized municipality to that of a large and modern one, and in 
a business sense had advanced even out of proportion to its population. 
Much of the old home-like atmosphere had disappeared. Previous to 
1900 a great percentage of the residents of Youngstown were of old 
families, or comparatively old families, who had much in common. 
Domestic immigration had been from nearby places or from districts 
much the same as Youngstown in character. Foreign immigration had 
been, as a rule, from the^ British Isles and northern Europe, most of the 
newcomers being English-speaking and entire bodies of them coming 
from the same district in the Old World. Immigration from Southern 
and Central Europe had begun as early as the '8os, but was compara- 
tively slight prior to 1900, and constituted but a small percentage of the 
population. Between 1900 and 1910, however, newcomers from this 
part of the Old World far outnumbered those of English speech. The 
native Americans who located here during that period came from widely 
scattered places and were free from traditions and prejudices alike. All 
this immigration was necessary, of course, if the city was to grow and 
progress and there was gain to offset every loss in the changing character 
of the city. The rapidity of this growth was shown in the census re- 
turns of 1910 that gave Youngstown a population of 79,066 within the 
corporate limits — a gain of 34,181 or 76 per cent in ten years. 



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CHAPTER XIV 

YOUNGSTOWN FROM 1910 TO 1920 

The Business Depression of 1913-15 — The Record-Breaking Flood 
of 1913 — Revival of Business Following the Outbreak of the 
World War — Grade Crossings Elimination Progress — Youngs- 
town of Today. 

We are accustomed to associate history with past and bygone days, 
bo that a record of the events of the last ten years may appear a recital 
of current events rather than historical happenings. Yet we are writing 
what we hope future generations will read. Whether we tell the story 
of Youngstown from 1910 to 1920 poorly or well, the fact still remains 
that this has been in many respects the most remarkable decade in the 
history of the world and Youngstown cannot have gone through that 
ten-year period without helping to make history for itself as well as 
for the nation. 

The opening years of this second decade of the twentieth century 
were peaceful enough and not especially eventful. There was neither 
unusual prosperity or especial adversity in this great steel making dis- 
trict. In this respect they were probably "normal" years, as we under- 
stood that term prior to 1914-15. The growth of the population to 
approximately 80,000 in 1910, and the changing character of the city 
and its people, spoken of in the preceding chapter, inspired public im- 
provements and the demand for still more public improvements. Even 
the presidential election of 191 2 caused scarcely a ripple. The usual 
momentary industrial depression was absent and the contest for the 
presidency that roused the country to fever heat when aspirants were 
struggling for the honor of being the nominees of the two major political 
parties subsided after the party conventions had been held. The schism 
in the Republican party made Democratic victory assured and the presi- 
dential campaign was one of the most listless in the history of the 
country, even the fiery Colonel Roosevelt failing to dispel the apathy 
except among his own ardent supporters. 

The year 1913, however, was one that could scarcely be called indiffer- 
ent or lacking in prominent events. If there were nothing else to recall 
it, it will be ever memorable, in personal recollection and in story, for 
its famed "Ohio flood." 

This, of course, was not a local event by any means. In fact Youngs- 
town felt this catastrophe only incidentally when compared with some 
other Ohio cities, even though property loss and loss in wages and 

238 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 239 

earnings here ran well into millions of dollars. The loss of life here 
happily was small, wherein Youngstown differed from some other Ohio 
localities that felt the effect .of the water demon with cruel severity. 

Death-dealing and property-destroying floods are usually traceable 
to four causes — the bursting of a dam that impounds a great body of 
water, a so-called cloudburst, a winter thaw or a spring freshet caused 
by warm rains and melting ice and snow. Except in great river valleys 
the two latter do not usually bring wholesale destruction. Youngstown 
has had many experiences with such floods; they were almost an an- 
nual spring occurrence in fact, and in several instances, notably in 1878 
and in 1904, the water had reached unusual heights and had done great 
damage. The flood of ipjg-r-which was peculiarly an Ohio disaster 
because it swept bvef- the entire State from northern, to southern and 
from eastern to western boundary, while other states were immune 
except for territory immediately adjoining Ohio — was unprecedented 
because there was no "cloudburst," while broken dams were an effect 
rather than a cause. It was attributable solely to an almost unceasing 
rain of four days and four nights, something akin to the Biblical deluge. 

The downpour began on Easter Sunday, March 23, 191 3, and for 
forty-eight hours was especially heavy. It was scarcely what would be 
termed violent at any time, even in these first two days, but was almost 
awe-inspiring in its fearful monotony. For another two days the rain 
fell in diminished quantities, but the downpour continued nevertheless. 
By Wednesday the flood had reached its crest, this and the preceding 
day being the ones of most marked suffering. 

Because the rainfall was deadly in its unceasing nature rather than 
in its severity, it was Monday evening before the situation became ac- 
tually alarming. On Sunday, Omaha had been visited by a fearful 
cyclone and the attention of Ohioans was directed toward this rather 
than toward their own homes on Monday; but by nightfall of that day 
the booming waters became a fearful reminder of the danger right at 
hand. Tuesday the flood had reached an unprecedented stage but it 
remained for another thirty-six hours to see the real damage done. 

Because Youngstown is located largely in hills, usually such a terror 
to residents of level lands, the homes of Youngstown people generally 
escaped direct contact with the flood. Dwellers in the river valley were 
driven out, even many who had seen numerous floods in the past and 
had escaped them being caught in this one. It was the industries that 
suffered worst. All of these located in the river valley were put hope- 
lessly out of operation, the water standing many feet deep in the mill 
buildings and covering the machinery, the furnaces and the roll trains. 
The railroads ceased to operate. The street railway system was com- 
pletely demoralized and any attempt to operate cars was useless. The 
upper parts of the city water works and filter plant buildings were 
mere islands in a great sea, and it was the irony of fate that in the face 
of an avalanche of water never equaled before and that probably never 
will be duplicated here, Youngstown was without a drop of city water. 
Only the wells and a few reserve supplies were left. With lighting 
plants shut down, householders had to resort to ancient oil lamps and 



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240 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

even more ancient candles. The Division Street bridge and the old 
West Side bridge went down in the wreckage, and at the new and com- 
paratively high Spring Common bridge the flood was within a few feet 




Scenes in Youngstown During the Big Flood of March, 1913 

The upper picture shows East Federal Street from a point below Watt 
Street to the East End Bridge. Lower view shows Mahoning Avenue 
from the B. & O. Railroad tracks. 

of the floor level, while all bridges were jammed hopelessly with debris 
until their safety was in doubt, and it was even feared that some of 
them might have to be blown away with dynamite to relieve the pressure. 
Rowboats plied their way blissfully up and down the lower end of East 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 241 

Federal Street from the junction of Himrod Avenue to a point well 
cibove Basin Street. The B. & O. and the old Pennsylvania passenger 
stations were submerged and the territory about the junction of Oak 
Hill and Mahoning avenues, which has always been a favorite target 
for floods, witnessed an inundation that made previous ones appear 
trivial. Residents of the east side and east end who reached their 
homes by way of Himrod and Wilson avenues were forced to detour 
to the Erie tracks in the rear of Federal Street, the roadbed here stand- 
ing a few inches above water, while west side traffic was possible by 
way of Market Street bridge only. The saloons were closed and na- 
tional guardsmen patrolled the street and the river banks. 

Wednesday night was one of ceaseless vigil and constant alarms. 
Before morning, however, a change became apparent in the temperature, 
and the drizzle Thursday was cold and penetrating. The waters had 
begun to fall before morning and by daylight it was known that the 
danger was past. 

Youngstown, and the Mahoning Valley, happily suffered no per- 
manent ill effects from this most remarkable flood. In some other sec- 
tions of the State many months elapsed before the damage was re- 
paired, but here normal 'conditions were restored within a comparatively 
few days. 

Another event of this year was the attempt to change the existing 
form of government in Youngstown. Agitation in favor of this move- 
ment began soon after the State Constitutional Convention of 191 2 had 
amended the basic law of the State to permit home rule for municipali- 
ties. A charter commission election was held on February 4, 1913, when 
a commission consisting of A. E. Adams. W. T. Gibson, J. P. Wilson. 
David G. Jenkins, W. I. Davies, D. F. Anderson, Carroll Thornton, 
Dr. N. H. Chaney, J. R. \.oolley, F. L. Oesch, D. R. Kennedy, Rev. 
J. P. Barry, H. W. Raisse, H. B. Chase and E. H. Moore was named 
to draft a new charter for the city. Protracted .sessions of this body 
were held, the work finally being completed early in June. On July 22d 
the charter was submitted to the electors for approval, but was voted 
down, and since that time no serious attempt has been made in Youngs- 
town to adopt a new form of government. 

In 1913, also, the first important extension of the city limits in almost 
twenty-five years took place. In April a councilmanic resolution provided 
that the city should be extended to take in the entire Township of 
Youngstown and on November 17, 191 3, this extension was granted 
by the county commissioners. All township offices ceased to exist and 
the old Township of Youngstown went out of existence. 

Early in this year there were indications that the comparative pros- 
perity of the preceding four years was threatened insofar as the Ma- 
honing Valley was concerned, and to some extent as far as the entire 
country was concerned. This fear became a reality in the fall of that 
ye&r, when a depression came and the steel business suffered its most 
decided slump in six years. Part-time work was the rule, and even 
part-time work at their regular occupations was denied many. The 



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242 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

expedient of giving employment by making public improvements was 
resorted to throughout the winter of this year. 

The depression continued throughout the spring and early summer 
of 1914, and early in August came the World war, a calamity that was 
to bathe the world in blood for more than four years. All America 
received the news of this disaster with amazement and even bewilder- 
ment, for Americans, did not have even the warning given European 
peoples who had been fearful for many years that such a happening 
might take place at some time. 

In view of the later "war-time" prosperity it is almost impossible to 
appreciate the baneful influence that the war had on industrial America 
in its earlier months. The United States was not a belligerent, and few 
believed in 1914 that it ever would be. The one outstanding fact, next 
to the horror of the affair, was the fact that war suddenly closed the 
markets of the world to American products and shut off from America 
many products it had gotten from the Old World, 

As a result the unfavorable business conditions of late 1913 and early 
1914 became more pronounced toward the end of the latter year. Work 
became even scarcer than it had been six month§ or a year before, and 
the public improvements program on the part of the city was extended. 
There was a wild, almost pitiable, demand for jobs as day laborers in 
the parks and streets and on the roads. The winter of 1914-15 was not 
exceeded as a winter of privations except by the winters of 1907-08, 
1893-94 and 1874-75. 

The year 191 4 was one also of many minor events, included in this 
number being the adoption of eastern standard time by Youngstown 
on May 1st, and the rise of the motor passenger vehicle, or " jitney bus," 
a craze that reached its height in the following years and declined al- 
most as fast as it had risen. 

That war meant a quickening of the wheels of industry instead of 
stilling them altogether became apparent early in 191 5. The Entente 
countries had found themselves almost unprepared for hostilities. Their 
men sprang to the defense of their homelands, but men cannot make 
war with bare hands, and the nations opposing the German alliance 
found themselves lacking in the essentials with which to make war and 
care for their armies. They turned to the United States as a source of 
supply, with the result that by the end of 1915 American industries of 
all kinds faced a demand for their products never before equaled. 

Food, chemicals and steel were the great needs of war-making nations 
in the world conflict. Without steel there could be no defense against 
the invader, and orders running into billions therefore poured into the 
United States from France, Great Britain, Italy, Russia and the smaller 
belligerents. The seas were comparatively open to the ships of the 
Entente countries. They were virtually closed to the Central countries, 
but these countries, especially Germany, were self-contained in tlje 
early period of the war. 

As a result of this demand from abroad a prosperity never before 
known followed in the wake of the depression that had lasted from late 
in 1913 to early in 191 5, a period of approximately eighteen months. 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 243 

The steel mills were crowded to capacity with orders at unprecedented 
prices, and wages advanced to an undreamed of figure, although not 
until after a strike that lasted but a few days and made up in intensity 
what it lacked in length, terminating as it did in the East Youngstown 
riot, an unfortunate occurrence that has been too often credited to 
Youngstown. 

This episode forms one of the most remarkable incidents in the 
industrial history of this country. It attracted wide attention and was 
the source of much sensational misinformation in the public press of 
other localities, which generally attributed the disturbance to dissatis- 
faction with conditions in the mills and located it at Youngstown, in 
spite of the fact that it "was merely a drunken orgy among workmen of 
foreign birth and occurred at East Youngstown. The trouble began 
with a strike by laborers in the steel mills which at first was not felt 
to be a serious matter. The steel companies were even then figuring 
on a wage advance announced later. January 7th was celebrated at 
East Youngstown as Christmas, and was a holiday, provoking, as 
usual, much bibulousness among the immigrants from Southern Europe. 
On the evening of that day a clash occurred between strikers and mill 
guards in which there was some shooting by both, and the mob which 
assembled left the mill gates and proceeded to loot and bum the business 
section of the town, paying attention first to saloons, of which there were 
altogether too many in operation. The rioting continued until mid- 
night, when it suddenly subsided, following a rumor that a regiment of 
the Ohio National Guard was on its way. The soldiers arrived at dawn 
of the following morning, but found the village in ruins and no other 
evidence of the previous night's disorder. Within a day or two the strike 
was over, the men going peacefully back to work; but it was a long 
time before the village recovered from its scars, and the litigation, re- 
sulting is still heard in the courts. 

The prosperity beginning early in 191 5 lasted throughout 19 16 and 
business increased in volume. America's right to trade with the world 
was preserved in spite of attempts of the shallow-minded and the anti- 
Americans to declare an embargo on the shipments to belligerents. 
Ostensibly this move was directed against all countries, although no one 
was seriously deceived by this plea, since the Central countries could not 
transport materials bought here to their ports. 

The presidential election of 191 6 had no effect whatever on business 
conditions. It was an election at the best in which party lines were 
not strictly drawn, and in which both political parties dodged the war 
issue, except that the Democrats craftily took all the advantage possible 
of the fact that the United States had thus far been kept out of the 
hostilities. 

This year, too, witnessed the completion of the Milton reservoir, 
ending a ten years' fight for an increased industrial water supply for 
Youngstown. By the spring of 1917 the great gorge in the river had 
been filled to its 10,000,000,000 gallons capacity. Youngstown's water 
supply is insufficient even today, but Milton reservoir has long since 
justified itself. 



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244 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

The year 1917 will ever be a memorable one, although it is now 
such a short distance in the past that to recall it does not appear so 
much like writing history as to referring to something that happened 
but yesterday. Even at the close of 1916 there was no general fear that 
the United States would have to become one of the belligerent nations; 
in fact the final month of that year saw a movement on foot that indi- 
cated peace between the nations then at war. Negotiations looking to- 
ward this were conducted through President Wilson. As they pro- 
gressed, however, their hopelessness became more apparent. Germany 
was ready to make terms on a compromise basis, expressing a willing- 
ness to surrender some of the ambitions that had inspired her when she 
brought on the war in 1914, but demanding a peace favorable to Ger- 
many and a peace founded on loot nevertheless. The Entente countries 
were not ready for this kind of a peace. In rejecting it they were right, 
although the manner of rejection was unfortunate. The mistake was 
made of overestimating the German weakness that inspired the peace 
move; the result being that the Allied refusal of German terms was 
tinged with a superciliousness that probably assisted the German war- 
makers materially in convincing the German people that they were fight- 
ing a war of defense against an enemy that was pledged to exterminate 
them. 

The German message of January 31, 1917, notifying the American 
government that unrestricted submarine warfare would become opera- 
tive on February 1 made war on the part of the United States inevitable. 
In effect it was a declaration of war in itself, since it provided for 
treating neutral and friendly shipping alike and was virtually a notifica- 
tion to the United States to keep off the high seas. The provision that 
certain American ships might cross the ocean at certain intervals, fol- 
lowing a certain lane of travel and under German supervision merely 
added insult to the declaration of hostility. No nation with an atom of 
self-respect could accept such a provision unless absolutely powerless. 
Probably Germany did not expect this arrangement to be accepted. Ger- 
man statesmen and militarists, in fact, had weighed carefully the question 
of whether the United States as a neutral could balance the scales in favor 
of the Allied nations and had decided negatively. History does not 
record a ^rnore egregious blunder than the Teutons thus made in under- 
estimating American strength, American energy, American adaptibility 
and American fighting capacity. 

The expose of the attempted German alliance with Mexico, the tor- 
pedoing of American ships throughout February and March, 1917, and 
other repeated acts of aggression led to the Congressional action of April 
6, 1917, declaring that a state of war existed with Germany. In Decem- 
ber, 1917, a similar declaration was adopted with respect to Austria- 
Hungary, although this action was only nominal, as the war against the 
entire Central alliance was in effect long before. 

In Youngstown, as in every other community, the war compelled a 
complete realignment of industrial and social conditions. Volunteering 
began here at once, in fact before a state of war was declared, and ad- 
ditional National Guard companies were added to the two already in 



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YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 245 

Youngstown. Many of the men in these two companies, together with 
men from a local field hospital, and other local outfits, had returned but 
v. few weeks before from the Mexican border where they had been 
called in the spring of 1916 when war with Mexico was threatened. This 
had been the second incident of this kind, in fact, since the two guard 
companies had been recruited to war strength in preparation for border 
service when the occupation of Vera Cruz, Mexico, took place in April, 
1914. On this former occasion, however, the anticipated call to arms 
had not come. 

The conscription, or draft, law, passed but a few weeks after the 
official opening of the war, systematized the recruiting of men for mili- 
tary service. Registration, the institution of physical examination, the 
actual drafting of eligibles, and in fact all war activities relating to the 
Mahoning Valley, are treated in another chapter of this work so that 
there is no need to go extensively into them here. Suffice to say, how- 
ever, that the movement of troops from Youngstown, and from all Ma- 
honing and Trumbull counties began in August, 1917, and continued 
without abatement until the day of the signing of the armistice fifteen 
months later. 

The calling of such an immense number of the youngest and most 
physically fit men worked a natural hardship industrially. America, 
like other nations, needed steel with which to fight and making steel was 
a work that was carried on only under the greatest of difficulties in the 
face of a progressively decreasing labor supply. Yet in spite of this all 
records for production were shattered, for the national spirit had been 
aroused and, with the exception of the selfish minority, country was 
placed first and self last. It was a time when most pleasures were fore- 
gone and social events that had become institutions were abandoned. 
In the winter of 1917-18 "speeding up" production and "tightening up 
the belt" in every other manner became the sole aim. It was an espe- 
cially unpropitious season for war, for this winter will go down in his- 
tory as probably the most severe in the history of the greater part of 
the United States. From the first day of December, 1917, until wel} 
along in February, 1918, the country suffered from an unbelievably 
cold wave. Zero weather and far worse prevailed day in and day out 
Those who remained at home suffered from frigid temperatures they 
had not known before and the men in the camps naturally underwent 
even greater hardships. Industry and transportation were sadly handi- 
capped by this most unfriendly weather, and to the cold wave was added 
a fuel shortage that permitted only part-time operation of even the 
essential steel industries during the period of greatest need. Complete 
suspension was made compulsory in some kinds of business, and other 
businesses were limited in output, in sales, or in days or hours of opera- 
tion. Even with the relieving of the coal shortage toward the close of 
the winter the problem of keeping the wheels of industry going increased 
rather than diminished as the labor supply steadily grew smaller. This 
was solved partially by the "work or fight" order that was a terror to 
idlers of all kinds and to those who lived by devious means. It per- 
mitted only the alternatives of working or going to war, or, if one were 



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246 YOUNGSTOWN AND THE MAHONING VALLEY 

beyond reasonable military age and yet ablebodied, the privilege of go- 
ing to jail was permitted. As a matter of fact there was not a great 
deal of vigilance required in enforcing this statute, or order, for the 
warning was generally sufficient. 

Food restrictions became necessary in the fall of 1917 and through- 
out the winter there was a general education of the country in the need 
of food conservation and in the way of conserving. Later, compulsion 
was resorted to and Americans were told what they might eat and what 
they might not eat, when they might eat and when they might not eat. 
Even the "white" bread to which they had become accustomed disap- 
peared and the use of meats and many other food products were re- 
stricted. 

It was a rather startling experience for people who live in the richest 
•and most productive as well as the most wasteful country in the world. 
Heretofore there had been no limitation whatever on what one might eat, 
drink or wear except the limitation placed by the state of one's pocket- 
book, and this was not serious when a little money would buy a com- 
paratively great deal. It is to the credit of the American people that 
they adapted themselves so readily to circumstances. There was grum- 
bling and evasion, of course, but as a whole whatever course was pre- 
scribed as a necessary one to help win the war was cheerfully followed. 
No one looks back with any feeling of regret that the "meatless" and 
"wheatless" and "gasolineless" days are gone, but they were accepted 
good naturedly at the time, even by the housewives who bore th$ brunt 
of the burden in trying to make substitutes take the place of food 
products to which they had been accustomed. 

The year 1918 was, in fact, solely a "war year." There was no 
other consideration that received much attention, until almost mid- 
November at least. Future generations will perhaps be unable to under- 
stand the wholehearted interest, and even fear, that gripped the Amer- 
ican people in that year when the war was actually drawing to a close, 
but it must be remembered that throughout the greater part of k>i8 the 
end of the war was something that appeared far off. Coincident with 
the terrific German drives of the spring the winning of the war seemed 
a matter of two, three, or even five years in the future. Early in the 
fall at least a year of hostilities was anticipated and when the second 
great registration of eligible men took place on September 12, 1918, it 
was taken for granted that these enrolled would be called into service. 
Scarcely a week before the armistice was signed, the end of hostilities 
was hardly expected before the spring of 1919. 

Only the signing of the armistice on November 11, 1918, relieved the 
tension, and the pent-up feelings of more than a year and a half were 
loosened on that occasion. For one day at least there was unrestrained 
joy — except on the part of those whose sons or brothers would never 
come back, and the many more who feared for the fate of the soldier 
members of their families, for the casualty lists were to come in for 
many days yet. 

The close of the war came at what was probably the