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Full text of "The early political and military history of Burford. --"

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THE EARLY 

POLITICAL and MILITARY 

HISTORY OF BURFORD 




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(O LiiUl) DIKKCT CS). 

BY, 



M 



MAJOR K\ (TTIIIJKKTSON MI T IR. 
1913 

E.N TKIiKD AI nlililNi, TII Till- ACT OI I \ I: I I \ M I.N I , IN Till. N I. \l; X 
HrMiKKD .\M> TlllKTUN, \;\ } .. CUTHBEBTBOJ! Mill;, 

IN TIM i>l I II I. ii| Till. M 



LA CIE D IMPRIMERIE 

QUEBEC. 



NORTH YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY" 
MAIN 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



For a large part of the material dealing with the early Military 
History of Oxford County, we are indebted to Dr. A. G. Doughty, C. M. 
G. L. L. D. and his ever efficient, courteous and obliging staff of the 
Dominion Archives, Ottawa. Also to Mr. Pardoe, Librarian Ontario 
Legislature. To Colonel E. Cruikshank, F. R. S- C. To Lt. Col. C. S. 
Jones and staff of Crown Lands Department, Toronto. To L. Ilomfray 
Irving, Esq, Parliament Buildings, Toronto. 

To Dr. N. E- Dionne, F. R. S. C.. Quebec Legislature, to Rev. Mr. 
Garneau, Librarian, Laval University Quebec, and to all those relatives 
of the principle characters mentioned in this work who willingly supplied 
us with such information as they possessed. Our thanks are particularly 
due to Dr. Charles E- B. Duncombe of St. Thomas, Ont. a nephew of the 
late Dr. Charles Duncombe, of Burford. 

Quebec, January 4th 1913. 

R. CUTHBERTSON MUIR. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

CHAPTER I. The first Discoveries. Settlement. Original Inhabitants of 
Southern Ontario. How the lands were acquired and 
disposed of. The first attempts at cultivation 1 

CHAPTER II. Upper Canada s first Government. Officials appointed by 
Lieut. Governor Simcoe. Members of the Legislative As 
sembly, 1792179618001804 12 

CHAPTER III. The naming of the Township. Its early attractions. 

Burford, England. Its early history 19 

CHAPTER IV. The first surveys. Land grants in Burford Township. 

Parliaments from 1792 22 

CHAPTER V. Clergy Reserves. The Canada Company. Early Marriages. 

Revenue of Upper Canada 49 

CHAPTER VI. The Territorial divisions of Upper Canada. Districts and 

Counties 5 l 

CHAPTER VII. The formation, growth and development of Burford 

Township (.4 

CHAPTER VIII. The first roads and bridges and first Railway. Brock 
District council. 1842. Oxford County Council. 1850.. 
Burford Township Council. 1850 75 

CHAPTER IX. Personal Histories. The Clans Family. Henry Lester. 
The Whitehead Family. The Fowler Family. The Yeigh 
Family. Col. Henry Taylor. The J erley Family. Tne 

Muir Family ,S1 

CHAPTER X. Burford s Parliamentary Repre>cntatives. Sir Francis 
Hinks. Hon. Edmund I .urke Wood. Hon. \\illiam Pat 
terson. Hon. Arthur Sturgus Hardy loo 

CHAPTER XL The Union of Upper and Lower Canada. Post Offices and 
the Mails. Education. The Kings Representatives. ! .. 
N. P. B. Ry. Members of Parliament Upper Canada 
1831 . . loo 

CHAPTER XII. 1837. The Rising in Burford. Dr Chark-s Dimcombc. 

Members House of Assembly, 1837, The Arrests, Trials 
and Sentences, i .tirford and other prisoners. -Rebellion 
Losses Claims, I .rock District 117 

PART II 

CI I \PTKK I. 1798-1811.- The Firsl Militia. The First Canadian Militia. 

I .urford s First Militia Company. Colonel William David 
Smith.-- ColoiH l William Clans, bis commission as Lieute 
nant of Oxford County. First Regiment Oxford Militia 
The r.urfoni. Blenheim and Oxford Companies.- List of 
Officers and Men. Annual Returns. The appointment of 
Deputy Lieutenant. Captain Mallory s Resignation. . . 169 



VI 

PAGE 

CHAPTER II. 1812-14. Declaration of War. 1st Regiment Oxford Militia 
Service Roll. 1st Flank (Burford) Company. Burford 

during the War. The invasion of Burford. The Battle of 
Malcolm s Mills. The Further Career of Benajah Mallory. 215 

CHAPTER III. Muster Rolls and Pay Lists. Burford, Blenheim and Oxford 
Companies. Pay of New York State Militia. Detach 
ments at Long Point. Sustenance. Pensioneers, Brant 
and Oxford Counties 236 

CHAPTER IV. After the War. Confiscations of Lands. War Claims. . 263 

CHAPTER V. The Further History of the First Oxford. Otticers in 

-The reorganization in 1822. Thomas Horner ap 
pointed Colonel. The Middlesex and Gore Militia List 
of Officers 1st Oxford, 1829-36. The live Regiments 
formed in 1838, their Officers. Reorganization in 1846. 
The Burford and Oakland Battalion 267 

CHAPTER VI. Brant County Formed. Five Militia Battalions authorized. 

-The fifth (Burford and Oakland) Battalion. List of 

Officers. Capt. Robert C. Muir s Company I860. Strength 

of the Upper Canadian Sedentary Militia. Report of 

1862. The Service and Reserves Militia 281 

CHAPTER VII. The Regular Army. The Canadian Regulars. The First 

Canadian Cavalry. The Burford Cavalry, Infantry and 

iifles South Africa. Captain Allan Wallace Ellis 

The 38th Brant Battalion, "Dufferin Rifles". Ministers of 

Militia 297 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

The Oldest Church in Quebec 3 

The Old French Castle, Fort Niagara 4 

Fort Niagara, 1812 4 

The Oldest Church in Ontario 

St. Mark s Church, Niagara-on-the-Lake 

Navy Hall, Niagara-on-the-Lake 15 

Main Street, Burford, England 19 

Bur ford, England. From the Hill 21 

The Burford (England) Bridge 23 

The Grammar School, Burford, England 23 

The Episcopal Church, Burford, England 25 

King Street, Burford, Ontario 27 

The Old Mill. Burford, Ont 29 

Jail and Court House. Erected 1817 59 

The Old Mill Dam. Burford, Ontario 71 

The Congregational Church 73 

The Church of England. Erected 1850 75 

The Methodist Church 77 

The Glaus Residence 81 

Bishop Chas. H. Fowler 87 

Kevd. Thomas Whitehead 87 

Henry Lester 88 

Jacob Yeigh 88 

Robert G. Muir, J. P 95 

Lt. Col. Henry Taylor 95 

The Burford School 109 

The Burford School Ill 

Dr. Chas. Buncombe 123 

Old Powder Magazine. Erected 1796 209 

General Brown 229 

Sergt. Robert Balkwill 23 > 

Two Old Militia Men 277 

Lieut. Col. Charles S. Perley 281 

Capt. Willard M. Whitehead 281 

Dr. Chas. Buncombe 281 

Major R. C. Muir }<)9 

Officers 2nd. Regt. Cavalry, 1875. . 323 

2nd. Rest. Of Cavalry, 1883 325 

The Burford Cavalry Lines. 1883 327 

An X. C. (). of the Burford Cavalry 33 

Burford Cavalry Troop, 1885. . ." 331i 

Scrgt. Major W. K. Muir 335 

Major W. K. Muir 335 

C. Squadron, Camp Niagara. 1 1 HX) W 

Officers 2nd Dragons. I *)- Ml 

C. Squadron Armoury 345 

Capt. Edmund Yeigh .". 3> >3 

Capt. Stephen Wet more v 

Lieut. Rory Johnston .^,3 

Capt Allan D. Muir 3<o 

Capt. Alien Wallace Ellis ;<>7 

Lieut. Charles L. Daniel 367 



ERRATA. 



Page 8. 6th line from top-for "Subjests" read Subjects." 

Page 9. 14th line from bottom for "pnripal" read "principal." 

Page 10. 22nd line from top for "thereof" read "thtieof". 

Page 13. For "Eneas Shaw" read "Aeneas Shaw." 

Page 13. 10th line from bottom, for "boundry" read "boundary". 

Page 14. For "John Monroe," read "John Munroe." 

Page 16. For "Members of the secoond" read "Members of the Second." 

Page 31. 4th line from bottom, for "sixpense" read "six pence." 

Page 48. First line delete, "Hon. W. D. Smith," 2nd line Insert "Hon. W. D. Smith." 

Page 48. Foot note, for "from to House" read "from the House." 

Page 52. 1st line for "Padfied" read "Padrteld." 

Page 55. 13th line from top for "desirious" read "desirous." 

Page 69. 3rd paragraph, 2nd line for "Cemetary" read "Cemetery." 

Page 76. 4th paragraph, 2nd line for "or merchandise" read "of merchandise." 

Page 83. 3rd, line from top for "enobled" read "ennobled. " 

Page 84. 3rd line from bottom for " provinding" read "providing." 

Page 85. For "St. Catherines" read St. Catharines." 

Page 85. For "Baliff" read "Bailiff." 

Page 90. 6th line from bottom for "retarted" read retarded." 

Page 93. 6th line from top for "Brunskick" read "Brunswick." 

Page 93. 18th line from top for "removel" read "removal." 

Page 94. 7h line from top for "cenetary" read "cemetery." 

Page 94. 6th line from bottom for "wtih" read "with. 

Page 112. For Louis de Bonde" read "Louis de Buade." 

Page 227. 3rd line from top for "lonly" read "lonely." 

Page 235. For "communiacte" read "communicate." 

Page 276. For "Staff Officers 1837" read "Staff Officers 1851." 

Page 284. For "appointmnet" read "appointment." 

Page 284. For "Russel O. Goge" read "Russell (). Gage." 

Pagi- 285. Delete figure "9" before October 23. 

Page 298. 2nd line from bottom for "In 1835, the cnmbersone hand guns" read 

"In 1385, the cumbersome hand guns." 

Page 302. 6th line from top for "periodiaclly" read "periodically." 
Page 302. 7th line, delete word "taken" substitute "then." 
Page 302. After last line insert "as text books in al 1 the Military Academics in 

Europe, they are also." 

Page 303. Insert "The Active Militia Volunteer Corps were organized by the." 
Page 303. 9th line from bottom for "comprehensible" read "comprehensive." 
Page 312. l >th line from bottom for "enrolment" read "enrollment." 
Page 329. For "R. G. A. Laurd" read "R. G. A. I.uard." 

Page 329. 4th paragraph for "During the year" read "During the year 1889." 
Page 330. 7th line from bottom for "It was brought" read "It was thought." 
Page 333. 8th line from top for "Major Baldwin has asked" read "Major Baldwin 

had asked." 

Page 333. 4th line from bottom after "to" insert "an." 
Page 334. 3rd paragraph fourth line for "sorely" read "suMy." 
Page 336. 5th line from top for "on" read "of." 

Pii<je 27l 4tli,.")tli un I titli lines t roin bottom tor " K ;_ri>lt T ri;i<i 
1 age !>23. Photo - for " ( ama Niagara read "Camp Niagara ". 



The Early Political and Military History of 

Burford. 



Introduction. 



The township of Burford, the oldest municipality in the County of 
Brant, having long passed the first century of its existence, it is fitting 
that some authentic history or record be compiled before many of the inte 
resting accounts of the first struggle of the early pioneers, and the politica^ 
military and other events connected with the early settlement of the town 
ship, have been entirely forgotten ; or only occasionally spoken of, or 
remembered as misty traditions of the past, and finally pass into oblivion. 

It is with a view to preserve for future readers of this work who- 
may reside in the township, and others, who may take an interest in the 
Historical events, occurring during the lives of their Ancestors, that the 
writer has undertaken to set forth in this form, the various accounts,, 
statements and descriptions, gathered from old, rare and valuable docu 
ments relating to the early political divisions of the Province, the first 
surveys, the first settlement and to the first settlers of the Township. 
Many able and distinguished public men and prominent characters, whose 
names appear in our account of the early settlement days, and others 
connected in one way or another with the history of this municipality at 
subsequent periods, will be referred to as fully as space will permit. 

The writer lays claim to no literary ability, and has no intention of 
resorting to a verbose and tedious flow of intricate and complex synonyms, 
to describe, relate or place on record, events and occurrences which can 
be as well understood by a plain and unexaggerated statement of facts. 

Before taking up the local History and records connected with Bur- 
ford Township, we will first glance at the early discoveries on the Eastern 
part of this Continent, the first attempts to form settlements in New 
France, and refer briefly to the Indian inhabitants of this part of the 
Province, who were found in possession when first visited by the French 
Missionaries. 



BurforcTs Early Political History. 



Chapter I. 

THE FIRST DISCOVERIES SETTLEMENT ORIGINAL 
INHABITANTS OF SOUTHERN ONTARIO HOW THE 
LANDS WERE ACQUIRED AND DISPOSED OF THE 
FIRST ATTEMPS OF CULTIVATION. :: :: : :: 

Who first discovered this Continent is an event which has often been 
disputed by the most learned of historians. To Christopher Columbus 
and to the bold navigator whose name the double Continent bears, the 
credit has often been given, but to Biarne Bardson, a hardy Norse sea 
king, must be conceeded the claim of being the first European who set 
foot upon the Eastern Shores oi North America. 

In the year 986- Bardson was one of a number of Icelandic immi 
grants who had formed a settlement ui Greenland, and during the summer 
of 993^ he sailed or was carried by the ice and strong currents far to the 
South, and constantly in sight of land, which proved to be the coast of 
Labrador. 

Emboldened and encouraged by the reports of Bardson on his return 
to Greenland, Leif, another bold northern sea rover, set sail in the year 
1000 with a crew of some thirty men, determined to proceed South as far 
as it was possible to discover new countries in that direction. 

After a voyage of many weeks duration, having landed and passed 
several different appearing countries, to which they gave names, Leif 
arrived off the coast of a beautiful land, where vegetation appeared to 
be most luxuriant. Here he decided to remain, and having been well re 
ceived by the natives, he made some arrangements with a view of forming 
a settlement. 

A few years later, three ships with 160 men, conveying all sorts of 
domestic animals, provisions, seeds, etc, sailed from Greenland to streng 
then this settlement in the far South and lay the foundation of a colony, 
which later events have proved was founded at a point along the southern 
part of the present New England coast. Subsequent to this time, they 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



continued their voyages in a southerly direction, and penetrated as far 
South as Florida. The ultimate fate of these first settlers is unknown, 
but it is believed that when abandoned by their kinsfolk in the frozen 
North, they finally became incorporated with their Indian neighbors, or 
wandered into the far interior, as not a vestige of their settlement was 
visible to the first of that wave of European Home seekers and fortune 
hunters which has continued at flood tide for several hundred years and 
has remorselessly swept away the original inhabitants of a vast, beautiful 
and productive country, from the shores of the turbulent Atlantic to the 
calm waters of the great Pacific. 

In the re-discovery of this Continent, England, the Mother of future 
nations, was already alive to the advantage to be gained for the spread of 
her commerce to new countries. 

In the month of May 1497, three ships under Capt. John Cabot, a 
successful navigator, sailed from the Port of Bristol, under the patronage 
of King Henry VII. to discover new lands, and if possible a western pas 
sage to the Eastern shores of the Asiatic Countries. Cabot shaped his 
course straight West and after a passage of some five weeks duration, he- 
found in his path a large Island which he named St. Johns (now New 
foundland). On July 3rd the coast of Labrador was reached and here, 
more than a year in advance of the date on which Columbus first saw the 
mainland of America, Cabot and his officers went ashore and planted the 
ensign which was eventually to float over the larger half of the Continent. 
No settlements followed Cabot s discoveries, and no immediate benefit ac 
crued to England as a result of the voyage. The British Nation had yet to 
be wielded together by the inclusion of Scotland and Ireland, before the 
commencement of that period of peaceful acquisition and military conques 
combined, which was eventually to make the Anglo-Saxon Celtic races 
a world wide power and the greatest Empire that has yet been seen. 
1508 the French under Aubert, first visited the St Lawrence River, up 
which they sailed for a considerable distance. Twenty-seven years later 
the expedition under Jacques-Cartier entered the mouth of the great River 
of the north on the festival of St Lawrence, a circumstance which has 
made the name of this Saint famous. 

Cartier penetrated several hundred miles to the Indian town of Ho- 
chelaga, reports of which he had heard from the natives at every point 
along the River where his men had landed. 

It was not until some years later that any real attempt was made by 
the French to effect a permanent settlement in the Country now called 
New France. One of the first of the French Settlers was Abraham Mar 
tin, over whose lands passed the victorious army of Wolfe at a subsequent 
period. Eustache Martin, son of Abraham Martin and his wife Marga- 




The oldest Church in Quebec, 
Erected 1688. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



ret L Anglas, was the first white child born in Quebec, May 24th 1621, 
and about this period wheat was first sown in the new colony. 

The first system of settlement along the St. Lawrence River was by 
granting Seigniories to certain adventurous and enterprising characters, 
many of them of good but impoverished families. These Seigniors erec 
ted comfortable and well built stone Manoir houses which dotted the banks 
of the great River, and became the centre of settlement on their large 
estates. Under the feudal system, some 10,000,000. acres of land, extend 
ing from the Gulf to a point some 30 miles west of Montreal, was granted, 
anterior to the conquest in 1759. 

Under the British Rule, but three similar grants of any importance 
were made, viz : Murray Bay, Mount Murray and Shoalbred. By the 
old laws, the lands were held immediately from the King "en fief" on con 
dition of rendering fealty and homage on accession, and these lords of 
the Manor were bound to concede their possessions in lots of about 200 
acres to such of the peasantry as were known to be of good character and 
respectability. The lots all fronted on the River and were 38 rods wide 
and about 1000 deep- 

The tenancier or censetaires were bound to become actual settlers, to 
clear, within a certain period, a specific portion of land, to open and 
keep in condition the public road, to pay a nominal rental annually and 
present to the Seignior some article of provision. 

To the Seignior was delegated the power of holding courts and pre 
siding as Judges thereon with jurisdiction over all matters except murder 
or treason- 

The French laws relating to Succession and inheritance, gave to the 
eldest son, on the death of his father, one half of his father s landed esta 
tes, the other half of these estates were divided equally amongst the other 
children- 

The Seigniors were mostly men of good family, but of impoverished 
means, who hoped to better their fortunes in the New World. A good 
many discharged soldiers, time expired men from the Regular Regimeir 
were prevailed upon to settle under these conditions, and received lots of 
240 acres with a frontage on the River of about three acres by eighty in 
depth. A great thoroughfare was laid out along the Banks of the stream, 
upon which their domiciles were erected, and as population increased and 
the country grew older, subdivisions were made in the original lots, but 
always lengthways, as all wanted to live along the Road and near to the 
water. There also existed a strong communal feeling, and to-day the tra 
veller along the St. Lawrence Route is surprised to see upon both banks 
of the River, an almost continuous village of neat and comfortable homes, 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



crowned at regular intervals by the lofty spires and towers of imposing 
houses of worship. 

The total number of Seigniories granted was 175, in addition to which 
there were 33 grants called Fiefs, estates held on condition of fealty and 
homage, and certain rights payable by the grantee to the Lord of whom 
the fief is held. 

As already stated 10,000,000 acres of land were granted to these 
influential and favoured individuals, who at once assumed the position 
of a distinct class, with all the patronage of the colony at their command. 
Thus was created in New France, an established heriditary aristocracy 
of petty nobles, who hoped to perpetuate the same system of European 
vassalage from which many of the settlers had expected to escape from, in 
a country so vast, so new and so uninhabited. 

The French Government also granted to the various religious insti 
tutions over 2,000-000 acres of land and many special privileges. 

The first settlers of New France, as the country was then called, 
were largely Huguenots and up to the year 1627 the Government of the 
colony was vested in these French Protestants. After the advent of 
Cardinal Richelieu to power, and his assumption of office as Prime Mi 
nister of France, the Huguenots were removed from their positions, 
and all Legislative Authority placed in the hands of an irresponsible body 
called the "Company of One Hundred Associates". 

Two years later, that bold bucceneer, David Kerth, sailed up the St. 
Lawrence, under commission from Charles I, of England, to conquer the 
country. No effective opposition was offered by the settlers, and Quebec 
soon surrendered. From 1629 until 1632 the British flag waved over 
the Great Citadel- The treaty of St. Germains restored the country to 
France. One hundred and twenty seven years later came Wolfe and a 
second time, the Union Jack replaced the Fleur de Lis from the Citadel 
flagstaff, and here for more than one hundred and fifty years it has never 
ceased to wave, as the emblem of freedom and protection to all British 
subjects- 

The same year, an expedition, destined for the capture of Fort Nia 
gara, set sail from Osulega under the command of Gen. Prideaux, his 
force consisting of Regulars and Provincial Corps numbered 2200 men. 
At Niagara he was joined by Sir William Johnson with 1000 Indian War 
riors. During the seige Gen. Prideaux was killed by the premature burs 
ting of a defective shell. 

The French made a determined resistance, but after a seige of some 
three weeks surrendered to Sir. William Johnston, who had succeeded 
to the command on the death of General Prideaux. The survivors of 
the French Garrison consisted of 607 men and 11 officers. 




I 1 



I 

i 




The Old French Castle. Fort Niagara, 
Erected, 1726. Captured by the British, 1759, 




Fort Niagara. 1812. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



From the 25th. July 1759, until 1796, when the British evacuated the 
post, its possession gave the undisputed command of the carrying trade. 

The Original Inhabitants of Ontario. 

Who were the original inhabitants of this part of Ontario ? Nothing 
is known of their history previous to the arrival of the Recollet Mis 
sionary, Rev. Father Joseph Le Caron, in 1615. At this period, all the 
territory lying between the Niagara and the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers, 
was in the possession of an industrious and peaceable tribe of Indians, 
one of the principal branches of the great Huron family. Lying between 
the Hurons on the North and the fierce and warlike Troquois on the 
South and East, they kept the peace and traded for long with both nations. 
On this account they became known to the whites as the Neutrals- 

In the Neutral country were several large towns, and many villages, 
containing a population estimated to have numbered some sixty tl ousancl 
souls. One of the largest of these towns was situated in what is no\v the 
township of Brantford, the exact site of which is supposed to have been 
located in the vicinity of the farm on the west bank of the River occupied 
by the late Lieut Col. Hiram Dickie. 

After a prolonged and bloody struggle with the Iroquois, during 
which the Hurons had been almost annihilated, the remnant of the latter 
tribe migrated to the North, arid the Iroquois now resolved to make war 
on the peaceable Neutrals. An excuse was soon found to invade the 
country, and for two years, war, famine and pestilence raged throughout 
the length and breath of what is now Southern Ontario. 

The Iroquois had arrived to such a degree of power, by their num 
bers and their political and warlike qualities, as to hold all other tribes 
in perpetual dread of their inrods. This cruel and wanton destruction 
of the Attiwandaronk people occurred during the years 1651-2. The 
whole country was desolated and depopulated, towns and villages were 
burned and destroyed, women and children carried away into captivity. 
The once populous town of Angelorum, situated near the landing place, 
a couple of miles above the double fords of the river, presented a scene of 
ruin and desolation, naught remained but the charred and blackened ruins 
of the Council House and many circles of what had been substantial 
lodges. 

The great Trail which ran from Angelorum. along the base of the 
high hill and up the small valley to the higher table-lands, and entered the 
open country, across which it led, was now silent and deserted. 

The peaceful Attiwandarons who were noted for the manufacture 
of beautifully made flint arrow and spear heads, an industry carried on 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



almost exclusively by this nation, existed no more as a separate people. 
For years to follow only wandering bands of the savage Iroquois were 
to be met with, who found that the game and wild animals had increased 
in proportion to the decrease of population. There was no permanent 
occupation, of the country, but temporary hunting camps were formed a 
favorite spot being on the sandy ridge west of Burford village, lying bet 
ween the trail and the stream. In 1687 the French erected a small fort at 
the mouth of the Niagara River and the Iroquois withdrew entirely from 
French Territory, and in course of time the Missassaugas a clan of the 
Huron stock and some of the western tribes, took possession of the de 
serted country, and from the date of the conquest they lived together in 
peace and amity. 

Where once the smoke of the Indians wigwam rose peacefully from 
every river bank and every hillside in Southern Ontario, a new people and 
another race are to be found. An Indian of unmixed blood is now diffi 
cult to find in this Province. Whole nations have disappeared before the 
advance of what is called civilization- Many once powerful races and 
tribes are reduced to a miserable remnant driven ever further into the 
frozen North. All that remains to remind us of the primeval dwellers 
of the land, is the designation given by them to our great rivers and lakes : 
The lordly Ottawa, the mighty Niagara, the Erie, Huron and Ontario. 

"Still roll as they rolled that day 
But the Red Men, where are they ? " 

The time will soon come when, the Indian, like the countless herds 
of Buffalo, which as the waves of the Ocean, once covered the great plains 
of the West, shall as a race, have become extinct, and no living specimen 
of a pure Indian will be found. 

How the Lands were acquired. 

The first acquisition of lands in this Province from the Indians, 
appears to have taken place on the 3rd of April 1764, when the Seneca Na 
tion, who held the lands along the east side of the River Nia 
gara, and also claimed jurisdiction upon a strip two miles in width, lying 
along the west side, from the mouth of the River to the great cataract, a 
distance of some 14 miles, through their principal chiefs assembled at 
Johnson Hall, concluded an agreement with the Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs, to cede to His Majesty, and his successors forever, all their right 
and title to said lands, the Missassaugas however, claimed ownership over 
all lands lying on the west side, and it was found necessary in justice to 
this title, to arrange a further treaty which confirmed His Majesty s do 
minion. 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



On the 23rd of March 1784, Sir John Johnson was directed to purcha 
se from the Missassaugas the whole territory lying between Lakes Huron 
and Ontario. On May 22nd a meeting of the Massassaugas and the chiefs 
and warriors of the Six Nations and Delawares was held at Niagara, 
when Chief Pokquan, a Missassauga, informed the assembly that his na 
tion did not own all the land between the Three lakes, as that part lying 
south of the River La Trench (Thames) and west of Cat Fish Creek, 
which included all that territory within what is now the township of Sand 
wich of the west, and Yarmouth on the east, belonged to the Western tri 
bes the remainder however, which consisted of some 2,842,480 acres, the 
Missassaugas were willing to dispose of, and for the sum of eleven hun 
dred and eighty pounds, seven shillings, and four pence, they surrendered 
all their right and title to this vast tract of country. 

By the year 1790 more lands were wanted for prospective settlers 
and on the 19th day of May of that year, the aforesaid tract, about two 
million acres of land, bounded on the. South by Lake Erie, on the West 
by the Detroit River, on the North by River La Trench, and on the 
East by Cat Fish Creek, was ceded to the Crown by the Ottawas, Chip- 
pewas, Pottawatomies and Hurons, for a consideration of 1,200 pounds. 

In the year 1818 the Missassaugas of the River Credit and of Rice 
and Mud Lakes, surrendered some 2,600,000 acres for annuities of 522 
pounds to the former, and 740 pounds to the latter. This was followed 
by another surrender of 2,748,000 acres in 1819 by the Missassaugas of 
Alinwick, for which they were to receive an annuity of 642 pounds. 

In 1818, 1820 and 1825, the Chippewas of Lakes Huron and St. 
Clair, Chencel Ecarte and River Thames, signed away 2,800,000 acres 
of their hunting grounds, for annuities of 1,200, 1,100 and 150 pounds 
respectively. 

The first attempt to clear and cultivate the lands commenced in the 
Niagara District in 1781, when a number of Butler s Rangers were given 
permission, under certain restrictions, to settle on certain lots which 
they were to hold by permission from year to year, rent free, they were 
to receive seed grains and farming implements, but the produce of their 
farms, over and above their own consumption, was to be disposed of only 
to the officer commanding the fort, for the use of the troops. Among the 
earliest of these settlers were the Secords, Peter, James and John. In 
the year 1782 Peter and James set about preparing for the erection of a 
Grist Mill, to be located on the stream passing through the farm of IVter, 
the estimated cost was 500 pounds, a large sum in those days. Another 
of these early settlers was Michael Showers, a man whose name is well 
known in Burford, he, like the Secords, had come from Pennsylvania whe 
re they had located prior to the breaking out of the Revolutionary war. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



The uncertain tenure by which these settlers held their lands and 
improvements caused great discontent and uneasiness. 

On the 16th July 1783, instructions for the survey and grants to the 
loyalists had been approved and signed by the King- The surveyor Gene 
ral was directed to survey and lay out such lands as the Governor and 
Council should deem necessary and convenient for loyal subjests 
and disbanded soldiers, such lands were to be divided into seigniories or 
fiefs, in each seigniory a glebe was to be reserved and laid out to contain 
from 300 to 500 acres, the propriety of such seigniorie or fiefs to remain 
vested in the crown, the lands to be allotted as follows : 

To every head of a family 150 Acres 
To every single man 50 " 

To every N. C. Co. of forces reduced in the Province 200 " 

To every Private " " 100 " 

To every Person in their family 50 * 

All such lands to be held upon the same terms, acknowledgments 
and services as lands were held in the Province under the respective sei 
gniors holding and possessing seigniories or feifs therein, reserving from 
and after the expiration of ten years, from the admission of the respec 
tive tenants, a quit rent of one half penny per acre. 

Further instructions dated August 7th authorized the Governor Gene 
ral to allot to 

livery Field Officer 1000 Acres- 

i Captain 700 " 

Subaltern, Staff or Warrant Officer 500 " 

On Oct, 20th 1787, new regulations were established. These per 
mitted the Governor General to grant lands in free and common soccage. 
Provision was made for a reserve of five thousand acres in each township 
of 30,000. 

On 29th December an order in council was passed appointing Lieut. 
Col. Hunter, or other officers commanding the garrison at Fort Niagara, 
Lt. Col. Butler, Peter Ten Brock, Robert Hamilton, Benjamin Pawling, 
and Nathaniel Pettit a land board for the District of Nassau. 

On Feb. 17th 1789, rules and regulations for the conduct of the Land 
Office Dept. were adopted by the Executive Council, by which the dimen 
sions of an inland township were to be ten miles square, and those of a 
township, situated upon a navigable river of water, nine miles in front 
by twelve in depth. In an inland township the town was to be in the 
centre, one mile square, with town lots containing one acre each, parsona 
ge, jail and court house, work house, church yard, hospital, public squares, 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



market place, town park for a schoolmaster, and a town park for a Minis 
ter, the open area of half a mile around a town was to be reserved, the 
town parks were to join this reserve, all round, each containing twenty 
five acres. In other townships the town was to be laid out upon the lake 
or river with a similar reserve adjoining. 

These regulations were subsequently modified by an order in council 
of August 25th- It was directed that each board should observe the 
following order for providing spaces for the general convenience of the 
township. 

1st. One or more place or places for the public worship of God. 

2nd- A common burying ground, 

3rd. One parsonage house, 

4th. A common School house, 

5th. A town park for one minister, 

6th. A town park for one schoolmaster, common to the town, 

7th. A glebe for one minister, 

8th. A glebe for one schoolmaster, common to the town 

9th. The court or town house, 

10th. The prison, 

llth. The poor or work house, 

12th. A Market place. 

The Original Boundaries of Upper Canada. 

When the British Parliament passed the Act dividing the Province 
of Quebec into the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, it was deci 
ded to entirely do away with the old French feudal system of granting 
seigniories, but it was found that several grants had been in existence 
for some years West of the Ottawa, the pricipal ones being New Longueni! 
(25,000 acres) and Vaudreuil, in consequence of this, these grants re 
mained a part of Lower Canada preventing the full extension of the 
Ottawa River as the natural and geographical dividing line. 

W. Fadden, Geographer, to His Majesty King George Third and 
to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, writing in the year 1799, 
give us what is probably the most authentic description of the bounda 
ries of the new Province of Upper Canada. 

The Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, separated according to 
the following line of divisions, as set forth in His Majesty s Proclamation 
of the 18th. Day of November 1791. 

To commence at a stone boundary on the North bank of the Lake 
St Francis, at the cove west of 1 ointe An Bodet in the limit betweui 
the Township of Lancaster and the Seigniory of New l.ongueuil, run- 



10 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



ning along the said limit in the direction of North, 34 degrees west to the 
Westermost angle of said Seigniory of new Longueuil ; then along the 
North Western boundary of the Seignory of Vaudreuil, running north 
25 degrees East, until it strikes the Ottawa River ; to ascend the said 
river into the Lake Temiskaming, and from the head of the said lake by 
a line drawn due North, until it strikes the boundary line of Hudson s 
Bay, including all the Territory to the westward and southward of the 
said line, to the utmost extent of the country commonly called or known 
by the name of Canada. 

The Province of Upper Canada is bounded to the Eastward by the 
United States of America ; that is, by a line from the 45th degree of 
North Latitude, along the middle of the river Iroquois or Cataraqui, 
into Lake Ontario, through the middle thereof, until it strikes the commu 
nication by water between that lake and Lake Erie, thence along the 
middle of the communication unto Lake Erie ; through the middle of 
that lake, until it arrives at the water communication between it and 
Lake Huron, thence through the middle of Lake Huron, to the water 
communication between it and Lake Superior ; thence through Lake 
Superior northward, of the Isles Royale and Philipeaux, to the Long 
Lake, and the water communication between it and the Lake of the 
Woods ; thence through that Lake to the most North Western point 
thereor ; and from thence a due west line to the River Mississippi. To 
the westward, and to the northward, West of the Mississippi, its boun 
daries are indefinite the northern limits of Louisiana not being well known. 

To the northward, it is bounded by Hudsons Bay, as settled by the 
Treaty of Utrecht, in the 49th parallel of North Latitude extending due 
west indefinitely. 

How the Lands were disposed of. 

ACRES 

For support of Clergy $2,407,687 

" King s College Toronto 225,944. 

" Upper Canada College 63,642. 

Grammar Schools 258,330- 

To the Canada Company 2,484,413. 

" U. E. Loyalists 3,200,000. 

Six Nations Indians 694,910. 

Militia men 730,000. 

Discharged soldiers and sailors 450,000. 

Magistrates and Barristers 225,999- 

Executive Councillors & their friends 136,000. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 11 



Five Legislative Councillors 50,000. 

Clergyman as private property 36,900. 

Persons contracting to make surveys 264,000. 

Officers of the army and navy 92,526. 

Colonel Talbot 48,520. 

Heirs of General Brock 12,000. 

Dr. Mountain, a former Bishop at Quebec 12,000- 

11,391,872. 



CHAPTER II 

Upper Canada s First Government. 

EXECUTIVE 

Lieut. Governor. John Graves Simcoe 

Executive Councillors. Wm. Osgoode, appointed Chief Justice 

Peter Russell, 
Alexander Grant, 
James Baby, 
Wm. Robertson, who neglected his duties and 

in 1793 was replaced by Aeneas Shaw- 
Legislative Councillors. In addition to above 

Robert Hamilton, 
Richard Cartwright, 
John Munroe, 
Thomas Fraser, 
Richard Duncan, 

Osgoode, Russell, Grant and Robertson were nominated by the 
Imperial Government. Baby and Shaw, by Lieut, Governor Simcoe. 
The Legislative Councillors were selected on the 17th July 1792, at a 
meeting of the Executive Council held at Kingston. 

William Osgoode. 

Whose name is commemorated in this Province by being conferred 
upon a township in Dundas county, and given to the seats of law at the 
Provincial Capital was born in England in 1754. At the age of 15 
he entered Oxford College where he continued his studies until 1777. 
Having thoroughly mastered the English and International laws, he beca 
me an authority, and was appointed in 1791- Chief Justice in the New 
Colony of Upper Canada. His ability and integrity were so marked, that in 
1794 he was advanced to the same office in Lower Canada, where he com 
manded universal esteem and respect. In 1801 he resigned his office and 
returned to England where he died in 1824. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 13 



Members Simcoe s Government. 
Eneas Shaw. 

A Highland Scotchman of good family, entered the army at an 
early age as Ensign. Had commanded a company of the Queen s Ran 
gers, under Lieut. Col. Simcoe, during the Revolutionary war. When 
this famous corps was disbanded in 1783, Captain Shaw retired to New- 
Brunswick, where he received a land grant for his services- 
He joined Col. Simcoe in Quebec on the 4th March 1792, having 
made the entire journey overland on snow-shoes. The Lieut. Gov. of the 
New Province had invited Capt. Shaw to accompany him to Niagara and 
assist in completing the organization of the new corps of Queen s Ran 
gers. This was the first military body raised for service exclusively in the 
new Province. After their disbandment, Capt. Shaw was appointed 
Brigade-Major, U. C. Militia, promoted Colonel in 1808, Major Gen- 4th 
June 1811, Adjutant General of Militia 1812-15. Died in Toronto, 1815. 



James Baby. 

Eldest son of the Hon. Jacques D. Baby, a member of one of the 
most ancient and distinguished French Canadian families of Canada, 
was born in Detroit in 1763, where his father had been established for 
some years engaged in the fur trade, which then as now was a most profi 
table business. James was educated at the Seminary at Quebec, the 
oldest seat of learning in Canada. After a trip to Europe, he joined his 
father and assisted in building up an extensive commercial business. 

Their strong adherence and attachment to British institutions made 
it necessary for them to remove to the Canadian side of the river, after 
the peace of 1783, and when the next war broke out, it resulted in tluir 
losing all their lands and property within the boundry of the Michigan 
territory, and an entire cessation of their great fur trade. 

James Baby, now 49 years of age, was appointed Colonel of the 1st 
Regiment of Kent Militia, and during the war of 1812-14, commanded 
all the militia in the Western District. Shortly after the close of the war 
was appointed Inspector General. He also held the position of President 
of the Legislative Council. From 1S1(> he resided in Toronto, where his 
moral virtues won the respect and esteem of all classes. His integrity and 
honor were unquestioned. His death in 1833 at the age of 70, was a 
decided loss to the Province. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Alexander Grant. 

Second son of the Seventh Laird of Grant, Inverness-shire, Scotland 
was born in 1734 and was the oldest member of the Executive Council. 
Upon the death of Lieut Governor Hunter, on the 21st August 1805 the 

Honorable Alexander Grant became administrator until the arrival of 

Lt. Governor Gore. 

^Col. Jasper Gilkinson of Brantford was a grandson, his mother being 
the 7th daughter of Alexander Grant. 

Richard Duncan. 

Who had been appointed Judge of the Lunenburg District, by 
Lord Dorchester on the 24th July 1788, was extensively engaged in com 
mercial pursuits, but having met with serious reverses, he found it expe 
dient to leave the country without having assumed the duties of his last 
appointment. 

John Monroe. 

Born in Scotland in 1731, came to America in 1756 and settled in 
New York State. Commissioned Captain in a Loyalist Corps, and took 
an active part in the Revolutionary War. His property was confiscated 
in 1779. 

Honorable Peter Russell. 

The Honorable Peter Russell was bom in England and came to 
America after the breaking out of the Revolutionary War. From 1778 to 

: he acted as Secretary to the Commander-in-chief of the British 
Army in North America. He landed in Quebec 2nd. June 1792, succee 
ded Governor Simcoe as President of the Council from 1796 until 1799. 

He became possessed of large tracts of land in the Province, in addi 
tion to other properties he located some four thousand acres in the town 
ship of Norwich. He died in Toronto in 1808. 

Robert Hamilton. 

Was a son of the Rev. John Hamilton, and a relative of Col. Archi- 
amilton, commandant of the Queen s County, New York Militia 
About the year 1780 he established himself as a merchant at Niagara and 
Queenston. 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 15 

In 1788 an order in council was passed appointing him one of the 
land board for the District of Nassau. He was also appointed the First 
Judge for this District. He became one of the largest and most success 
ful merchants in the Province, and developed an unsatiable appetite for 
land. His holdings in Burford township amounted to several thousand 
acres. 

Officials appointed by Lieut. Governor Simcoe. 

Receiver General Peter Russell 

Surveyor General Wm. D. Smith 

Asst. Surveyor General Thos. Ridout 

Wm. Chewitt 

Attorney General John White 

Solicitor General R. I. D. Gray 

Clerk Executive Council John Small 

Civil Secretary Wm. Jarvis 

Clerk Legislative Council Peter Clark 

Supt- of Indian Affairs Col. John Butler 

Usher Black Rod John McGee 

Military Secretary Major Littlehales 

Provincial Aide-de-Camp Col. Thomas Talbot 

Members of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada. 

The Proclamation issued from Kingston on the 16th of July divided 
the Province into nineteen counties, from which sixteen members of the 
Legislative Assembly were to be elected by the people. The General 
Election for the Legislative Assembly was held in August 1792, and 
Parliament met on the 17th September at Newark. (Niagara). 

Counties 1792 to 1796 Names of Members 

Glengary 1st Riding Hugh Macdonell 

2nd John Macdonell speaker 

Stormont Jeremiah French 

Dundas Alexander Campbell 

Grenville Ephraitn Jones 

Leeds and Frontenac John White 

Addington & Ontario Joshua Booth 

Prince Edward & Adolphustown H Thilip Dorland 

Lennox r.stings & Northumberland Ila/dton Spencer 



16 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Durham York and 1st Lincoln 

2nd Lincoln 

Durham York and 3rd Lincoln 

4th Lincoln Norfolk 

Suffolk & Essex 

Kent (two members) 



Nathaniel Pettit 
Benjamin Pawling 
Isaac Swayzie 
Parshall Terry 
David Wm. Smith 
Wm. Maccomb & Francis 
Baby. 



*Philip Dorland being a Quaker refused to take the oath, and Peter 
Vanalstine was elected to fill his place. 

The above distribution of Seats indicates what parts of the Province 
was most thickly populated by the 25,000. inhabitants, which it was esti 
mated to contain at this period. 

Members of the secoond Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada 

1796 to 1800 



Glengarry 1st Riding 

2nd " . 
Stormont 
Dundas 
Grenville 

Leeds & Frontenac 
Addington & Ontario 

1799 " 1800 

Prince Edward Adolphus- 1796 1800 

town 

Lennox, Hastings & Northum 
berland 

Durham 1st Lincoln 
2nd Lincoln 
3rd Lincoln 
4th Lincoln & Essex 
Suffolk & Essex 
Kent (two members) 



Richard Wilkinson 
John Macdonell 
Robert I. D. Gray 

Thomas Fraser 

Edward Jessup 
Solomon Jones 
Christopher Robinson 
Wm. Fairfield 
David McGregor Rogers 

i 
Timothy Thompson 

Richard Beasley 
David Wm. Smith 
Samuel Street 
Benjamin Hardison 
John Cornwall 
Thomas Smith and Thomas 
McKee 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



17 



Members of the third Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada. 

Return of the names of the Members chosen to serve, in the House 
of Assembly in the Provincial Parliament for this Province, called to 
meet on May 28th 1801 by virtue of Writs of Election, issued by the 
order of His Excellency Peter Hunter, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor, 
bearing date the 9th day of July 1800, as appears by the said Writs duly 
returned into the office of Enrolments by the Returning Officers of the 
several Counties and Ridings, respectively as commanded. 



1800 to 1804 



COUNTIES & RDGS 



RETURNING OFFI 
CERS 



Glengarry and Prescott. Cornelius Munro. 



Stormont & Russell 
Dundas 
Grenville 
Leeds 
Frontenac 

Prince Edward, Lennox, 
and Addington 
Northumberland, Dur 
ham Simcoe and East 
Riding York 
West York 1st Riding 
Lincoln and Haldimand 
2nd 3rd & 4th Riding 
Lincoln 

Norfolk Oxford & Mid 
dlesex 
Kent 
Essex 



Jas- Anderson 
Cornelius Munro 
Thomas Fraser 
Jas. Brackenridge 
William Coffin 
Alex. Fisher 



REPRESENTATIVES 

Alex r Macdonell and 
Angus Macdonell 
Robt. L D. Gray 
Jacob Weager 
Samuel Sherwood 
Wm. Buell 
John Ferguson 

Timothy Thompson 



William Chewett Henry Allcock 



Abraham Nelles 
Jas. Clark 
Thomas Welsh 

Abraham Treddl 
Angus Mclntosh 



Robert Nelles and Ri 
chard Beasley 
Isaac Swayzie 

Hon. D. W. Smith 

Thomas McCrae 
Matthew Elliott and 
Thomas McKee 



18 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Members of the fourth Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada. 

ELECTION 1804 RETURNS COMPLETE 4th AUGUST 

1804 to 1808 
COUNTIES & RIDINGS REPRESENTATIVES 

Glengarry and Prescott Alexander Macdonell and M. B. 

Wilkinson 

Stormont and Russell Robt. I. D. Gray 

Dundas John Chrysler 

Grenville Samuel Sherwood 

Leeds Peter Howard 

Frontenac Allan McLean 

Lennox & Addington Thomas Borland 

Prince Edward Ebenezer Washburn 

Hastings & Northumberland David McGregor Rogers 

Durham, Simcoe, East Riding -andAngus Macdonell 
York 

West Riding of York, 1st LincolnSolomon Hill & Robert Nelles 
and Halidimand 

2nd 3rd 4th Riding of Lincoln Isaac Swayzie & Ralph Clench 

Norfolk Oxford and Middlesex Benajah Mallorv 
Kent John McGregor 

Essex Matthew Elliott and David Cowan 



Members of the sixth Legisktive Assembly of Upper Canada. 

McDonell, McMartin, Cameron, Jones, Howard, Casey, Robinson, 
Nellis, Secord, Nichol, Burwell (Norfolk, Oxford and Middlesex) Mc- 
Cormack, Cornwall, Van Koughnet, Crysler, Fraser, Cotter, McNab, 
Swayzie, Clench- 




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CHAPTER III 

The Naming of the Township. 1793. 

Its early attractions. Bur ford, England. Its early History. 

The origin of the name of the township and village of Burford has 
been long forgotten, in fact it is doubtful if any of the first settlers ever 
knew or cared how it originated. When the township was first sur 
veyed, it was like many others given a number, but when replaced by a 
name, it was called after the old town of Burford in Oxfordshire, En 
gland. Established under the Saxon regime, it was first known as Beor- 
ford, and after the Norman conquest, as Burgford. On old papers and 
on old trade tokens, the name is spelt Burgford. 

Burford, Oxon is situated in a beautiful section of country on the 
River Windousk, the waters of which have peculiar chemical properties, 
which has made the well known Wibney Blankets world famous. The 
Ford is now spanned by a substantial stone bridge of 14th Century time. 
Historical records state that in the year 685, an ecclesiastical synod was 
held by the Kings Ethelred and Bertwold. In 752 a battle was fought 
near the town between Ethelbald, King of Mercia, and Cuthbert, King 
of the West Saxons. After the conquest, the House of Normandy besto 
wed Burford on Robert, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I. 
John Wilmont, Earl of Rochester, received his education at Burford free 
school, founded in 1571. 

Burford Priory was restored a few years ago. Passing through seve 
ral hands, the original building, which included a church, came into those 
of Sir Lawrence Tanfield, created Chief Baron of the Exchequer by lames 
T. who honored him by a visit. 

Charles II. and XVilliam III. were also guests within its walls 

In a garden house, no longer in existance. was discovered the body 

of John Prior, Gent, murdered and found hidden in the Priory garden. 

The crime was credited by some, to the Fifth Earl of Abercorn, but he 

was acquitted by his peers and a gardener was hanged. 

Burford Grammar School, a picture of which is included in this work, 

is situated on Church Green, right opposite a row of ulmshouses founded 

by Richard, Earl of Warwick. 



20 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



The first name signed on the American Declaration of Independence, 
John Hancock, was a decendant of a family (Quakers) who left Burford 
through refusing to pay certain dues this latter fact is recorded in the 
town records. In 1649, owing to some real grievances, a Munity broke 
out in Cromwell s troops, a Cornet and a Corporal were shot before the 
eyes of their comrades against the walls of Burford Church, and discipline 
was again restored. This ancient Saxon town, around which clusters me 
mories of many interesting events, of which we have not space to deal, 
may now regard with feelings of pride, her Western namesake in the 
New World. To-day the Plains of Burford, famous since the days of 
the neutral nation, dotted with comfortable and beautiful homes, occu 
pied by a contented and prosperous community, who are the absolute 
owners of its broad and fertile acres, cannot now be excelled in any part 
of the world for health fulness, productiveness and general prosperity. 

To the first settlers the "Plains of Burford" presented a most invi 
ting and attractive aspect, but many of them estimated the value of these 
lands, as a farming proposition, from the quantity and variety of the tim 
ber found growing thereon. Sections of country thickly wooded with 
the Hard Maple, Beech and Hickory, appeared to them to contain the 
richest soil, an open country, dotted here and there with groves of the 
inferior black oak, and the softer woods, but mostly covered with short 
grass and bushes, must necessarily be of inferior value for the raising of 
grain and other crops, and the wise ones passed on, and laboured for the 
remainder of their lives in strenuous toil and daily battle with the huge 
giants of the forest, while men of more practical views and better judg 
ment as to the value of the soil, located on the Plains, and with very little 
labour in clearing, were soon the possessors of large fields of cultivated 
lands, which to-day, after more than one hundred years of continuous 
cropping, are as productive, with proper care and attention, as they proved 
to be to the first settlers. 

One Hundred and twenty years ago, the broad and fertile acres, now 
called the Township of Burford, was part of a vast wilderness, for the 
most part densely wooded with sugar Maple, beech, white pine, white, 
black, and red oak, chestnut, white and black ash, basswood, butternut, 
white and black ash, hickory, cedar, etc. The exception to the wooded 
tracts being the beautiful plains along the Eastern part of the Township. 

In the open spaces wild fruits, grapes, and berries grew in abundance, 
the forest teemed with the Canadian fur and other wild animals, the 
streams, which were then much larger than they are to-day, and remained 
at almost uniform depth throughout the year, were filled with fish, beaver, 
otter etc. 

The early settlers of Burford undoubtedly were obliged to undergo 
great hardships, as viewed from to-days standards of life ; but they had 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 21 

much to compensate them, in their isolation and in the absence of modern 
comforts and luxuries. 

This wilderness was then a game paradise ; wild turkey,, often figu 
red on the daily menu ; venison was a staple article of diet, while splendid 
black bear robes and coon skin caps and coats were obtainable, or at 
least material to make them, at the expenditure of a few cents for powder 
and ball. 

To-day how changed, .the vast wilderness once undisturbed by the 
noise and bustle of modern civilization, is covered yearly with waving 
fields of grain ; the forests have almost entirely disappeared, the wild ani 
mals, the game, entirely so, but in place of the former are found highly 
cultivated, and thrifty farms, beautiful homes with all modern conve 
niences, thriving villages, and what always indicates a prosperous commu 
nity, wealthy monetary institutions. 

We believe however, that there is to-day in this year of Grace 1912, 
many weary workers in our large towns and over crowded cities, where 
the increased cost of living has made life such a serious problem to many, 
who could gladly exchange their present position, for just what Bur ford 
could offer the settler, one hundred years ago- 

It is customary for the present generation of writers to express great 
sympathy for the early settlers of this country, but for our part we arc 
inclined to think, that if it were possible for the early pioneers to appear 
again on this earth, and remain long enough to study present conditions 
of life, not forgetting their old friend the tax collector, many of them 
would be disposed to sympathize with their descendants, whose cares and 
burdens had increased so enormously, and whose freedom had become 
so restricted. The old time simplicity of life and manners has given place 
to much that is extravagant and unnecessary in both private and public 
affairs, conditions as they exist to-day have a tendency to keep the poor 
man poor and in a state of practical bondage, and helps to make the rich 
man still richer. 



CHAPTER IV 



The first surveys, land grants in Burford Township. 



The first surveys of land in this Province was made by order of 
General Alured Clarke, Military Commander at Quebec and acting Go 
vernor, in 1781. Work commenced at the extreme western point of 
French settlement, the Seigniory of New Longueuil. Only base lines 
were run and temporary marks placed to indicate the corners of each 
Township. Three years later Major Samuel Holland, Surveyor Gene 
ral, who had fought under Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham, received 
instructions from Sir Frederic Haldimand, Governor of the Province of 
Quebec, to lay out additional townships along the St Lawrence River and 
the Shores of Lake Ontario, in preparations for the arrival of the Ameri 
can Loyalists and time expired men of several military corps. 

A great many of the assistants on Major Holland s staff were either 
ignorant or incompetent men 5 as most of the work was found by subse 
quent surveyors to have been done in such a careless and indifferent man 
ner as to require a great deal of labor to correct the errors. 

The dates on which the survey of the first Townships were completed 
are as follows : In 1783 Kingston, 1784 Elizabethtown, Earnestown, 
Fredericksburg, Adolphustown, Bertie. 1785 Leeds, 1786 Yonge, Rich 
mond, Marysburg, 1787 Landcaster, Charlottenburg, Cornwall Osna- 
bruck, Williamsburg, Matilda, Edwardsburg, Augusta, Pittsburg, Cam- 
den East, Ameliasburg, Sidney, Thurlow, Humberstown, Willoughby. 
1788 Roxborough, Landsdowne, Sophiasburg, Thorold, Crowland. 1790, 
Pelham. 

The first official act affecting the new Province of Upper Canada 
was the Proclamation of Lt. Col. John Graves Simcoe, issued from the 
Government House, Kingston, on July 16th 1792, forming the Province 
into 19 counties, all fronting along the St. Lawrence River, and the Lakes 
Erie and Ontario. All of these counties, with some alterations in their 
boundries, are in existance to-day, excepting the County of Suffolk, 
which was located between the Counties of Kent and Norfolk. In those 




The Burford (England) Bridge. 




The Grammar School. Burford, England. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 23 



days, the Lakes and Rivers were the natural if not the only highways, and 
byways of travel- and commerce. Up to the year 1783, the entire Euro 
pean population of Western Canada was not more than 2000, the country 
was a mere wilderness with only a fringe of settlers along the Niagara and 
Detroit Rivers. 

Soon after Col. Simcoe had established the seat of Government at 
the mouth of the Niagara, he set to work energetically to encourage set 
tlers and to open up the interior of the Country. His Surveyor, Gen. D. W- 
Smith, Asst, Surveyor. Generals, Thos Ridout, and Wm. Chewitt, were 
instructed to lay out a great military highway, running from the head of 
Lake Ontario, to a navigable point on the River De La Trench this he 
called Dundas Street, and the first surveys done on this line were the 
first surveys in connection with the Township of Burford. The line 
between Burford and Blenheim Township, being run by Deputy Surveyor 
Augustus Jones in 1793. He then penetrated along the Western Bound 
ary of the Indian Country, lying along the River Ouse, to the centre of 
the township, where the old "Indian Trail" ran through, between Lake 
Ontario and the head waters of the La Trenche, and here he ran the 7th 
and 8th concession lines, and no others. In 1793 this old Indian Trail 
was the only by-way approaching the nature of a road in the interior of 
the country, and when the present stone road was laid out in 1842, it 
followed very closely the old trail through the township. Anyone ac 
quainted with the local topography of this locality, can understand thnt 
the original inhabitants of the country, who knew every foot of the ground 
made a wise choice when establishing their trail between the great Lakes. 
The almost continuous swamp which traversed the lower part of the 
township from end to end, was until the last fifty or sixty years, frequently 
as impassable as a shallow lake, only at one point was it penetrated by 
land high and dry at all seasons of the year, and divided only by a small 
brook this was the sandy ridge which leaves the 7th Concession line at 
the west end of the present Village of Burford, and carried the trail West 
by North until at the West-town line, the 5th Concession line was reached. 
The surveyors ran the two concessions in 1793, as the direct result of Go 
vernor Simcoe s passage along the Indian Trail a few months previously. 
No further surveys were made in Burford until the year 1798. In that 
year, an act was passed by the Provincial Parliament, which now met a-t 
York, to establish the boundry lines of the different township of the Pro 
vince, and stone monuments were to be set up to mark the corners of lots. 
For wilfully defacing or removing such, the stern legislatures of those 
days considered that the only punishment to fit the crime, was the death pe 
nalty, and it was ordained that the condemned was to suffer death withoi i 
the benefit of the clergy, truly an appalling fate for what to-day would 
scarcely be considered a crime, but already in the older parts of the Pro- 



24 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



vince, the most bitter feuds had arisen over boundary disputes, ending 
in more than one instance, with fatal results. 

Also many of the Legislators and their friends who had received 
large tracts of lands as free gifts, which they held solely on speculation, 
did not propose to be deprived of a single foot of their holdings. It was 
however mostly owing to the faults and errors of the first surveyors, who 
in their wisdom thought it would be hundreds of years before the wilder 
ness would be inhabited or cleared, and that a few roads either way 
would not matter much. 

One of Col. John By s assistant engineers in the construction of the 
Rideau Canal, writing in 1829, makes the following reference to the work 
of these first surveyors : 

" All manner of people in Canada but the lawyers, lament the manner 
in which the Townships have been laid out and surveyed, the Surveyors 
have become perfectly ashamed of themselves. Let a law be passed as 
soon as possible, that the Townships be laid out according to their natural 
boundries let all concession lines be run according to the order of na 
ture ; and give all settlers deeds of their lands, that their descendants 
may know them thousands of years hence. How simple is this, and how 
willing would the proprietors of the lands in Canada be to pay for this 
survey. 

Concession lines what are they ? blazed marks now as the term goes, 
but in a few years, they will be ideal lines by fancy drawn. 

In vain then for the farmer to cry out, where is my boundary, the 
trees are cut down or consumed by the fires of the forest his property 
falls into chancery, and the lawyers, fatten on the clearing that took many 
a day of hard chopping. No river, no marsh, nor mountain bounds the 
property or the Townships, either at the East or the West or any other 
part of the compass. Instead of a tract of land laid out artificially, with 
out attending in any respect to the laws of nature, where the settler might 
build himself a hut on the banks of cooling stream or beneath the brow 
of a mountain, he is compelled to go to the wilds, to become food for mos 
quitoes, and when a father dies he leaves his- family behind him to the 
mercy of the lawyers of Canada Can this be science ? Can this be 
surveying ?" 

Another Act passed in 1798 was for the better division of the Pro 
vince, and it was now divided into Eight districts, 23 Counties, and 158 
Townships. One of the new districts was London and one of the new 
Counties was Oxford. Burford was to become a part of the new 
County of Oxford, and eventually London the headquarters for all mat 
ters pertaining to the Militia and to the affairs of law. Instructions were 



\ 




u 

II 

bo 
1 " 

It 

a . 
td 3 

<u 00 

H 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 25 



now given to John Stegman, Deputy Surveyor, to survey out the balance 
of the Township, He was informed in his instructions, that as Mr. Jones 
had run one or two concession lines, they must not be interfered with by 
Mr. Stegman. With a complete staff of assistants he now completed the 
survey of Burford Township, running through from end to end, the 2nd, 
3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th, 10th, llth, 12th, 13th, and 14th concession lines. 
The lots were laid out 29 chains 80 links wide, with an allowance for roads 
of one chain wide, between lots 6 and 7, 12 and 13, 18 and 19. Those 
were the days for obtaining large grands of land, somewhat like it is to 
day in our Great North- West every effort is made to hurry the settlement 
of the Country, some of the offers made out and accepted appear ridicu 
lous in this age whole Townships were granted to individuals who had 
agreed to opportionate the land out to "bona fide" settlers, or to survey 
out certain parts of it. Among the rest, one Dayton received a grant of 
the Township of Burford, on conditions of settlement, which he was 
unable to fulfil and the title was again vested in the Government. 

When settlement duties were not perfomed by the actual settler and 
in some cases by the absentee landholders, the lands granted by govern 
ment in consideration of such duties, were occasionally confiscated ar.d 
title was again vested in the Crown. Many of the first settlers, eager to 
secure as many acres as possible, acquired more of the soil than they were 
able to take care of, and through want of means or assistance failed to 
make the necessary clearings and build the specified amount of roadways. 
A few others abandoned their holdings and removed to other parts. 

All such lands were again regranted or sold at later dates. It would 
appear however that the estates, large and small, held by political favo 
rites, and others close to the Executive, were exempt from any regulation, 
restriction, or taxation of any nature whatsoever, and for very many 
years the actual owners were entirely unknown to the first Burford set 
tlers. 

At this period information of any kind regarding the doings of the 
Land Board was difficult to obtain- The bona fide settlers who came into 
Burford after the year 1799, was obliged to select a grant, sandwiched in 
between a Clergy or Crown Reserve and the lands of some absentee land 
speculator held from sale for an appreciation in value, which he expected 
would be brought about through the industrious exertions, of those who 
had to hew their homes out of the wilderness to clear the forest, and 
plant and raise the commodities on which himself and his family depended 
upon for their food and clothing. 

Land grants in Burford Township. 

The system of granting large tracts of land to favorites of the Exc- 



26 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



cative for real or imaginary services, which prevailed in its most extra 
vagant form, during the first twenty years of the history of this Province, 
was one that has always flourished in countries where the blessings of 
responsible government are unknown. For many years after the opening 
of the township for settlement, its development was retarded by the utter 
impossibility of the newly arrived immigrant, after he had made a selec 
tion, to secure any Land Warrant, any title or any authority to continue 
in possession of the wild lands, which he was ready to clear and improve. 
In many cases the owners were unknown, and it was impossible to ascer 
tain who they were or where they resided. The most prominent of these 
latter individuals was the Hon. Robert Hamilton, member of the Legis 
lative Council. On the 15th June 1799, he had presented a petition in 
person before the Hon. John Emsly, Chief Justice, and Hon. Aeneas Shaw 
in the Council Chamber at York, praying that Deeds might issue in Ins 
own name, for 3,700 acres in the Township of Burford, 6,150 acres in the 
township of Blenheim and 5,650 acres in the township of Oxford- It 
was recommended by the Committee that deeds be if sued to the petitio 
ner for the lands mentioned in the schedule, but from the records, it does 
not appear that the transfers were completed and registered before the 
month of December, 1802, when he became absolute owner of nearly 4,000 
acres in Burford, which with some, 9,650 acres of Crown Lands, an equal 
quantity of Clergy Reserves, 2000 acres to the Heirs of Tonadine Lawe, 
1200 to Jeremiah Powell, 800 acres to Mrs, Clench, 1000 acres to the 
Rev. Thomas Raddish and some smaller grants, never contributed a cent 
in taxes, until they finally passed into the hands of bona fide settlers, 1600 
acres of the Crown Reserves was granted to Kings College, the balance 
to the Canada Company. The Clergy Reserves were gradually disposed 
of. to the highest bidder up to the year 1865. 

George Lawe Jr, who inherited 2000 acres in Burford, as part of the 
Tonadine Lawe estate, belonged to a family of surveyors, who willingly 
accepted large tracts of country for their services in laying out new town 
ships. Thomas Powell was a member of this well known family of the 
early days. The Rev. Robert Raddish accepted generous land grants with 
all the avidity of a modern Real Estate Agent. His interest in the new 
Province of Upper Canada was more of a financial than a spiritual one. 
The life of a Missionary held no charms for one accustomed to the ease 
and emoluments of a well regulated Parish, and after acquiring title to a 
large estate in Upper Canada, he returned to live in the Old Country, 
much to the disappointment of those who had confidently counted upon 
his aid and assistance in uplifting the moral and intellectual tone of socie 
ty, such as is always found at first in new countries, not yet under the ju 
risdiction or influence of well regulated religious societies. 

A considerable part of the lands granted to George Lawe, Jr., and to 




c 
O 



. 

O tt 

S d 

M 

I 

oj o 
- 



be 

C 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 27 



Jeremiah Powell, appear to have been considered of so little value to 
these individuals, that having taken no steps to perform any settlement 
duties, or make any effective move towards taking possession, the govern 
ment at later dates regranted certain lots to other clairmants. Charles 
Burch was another individual who was granted large tracts in the North 
ern part of the township as well as in the Gore of Burford ; he however 
neglected the most of his holdings in Burford, and finally lost title to 
such lots. 

The "Burford Gore" surveyed in 1796 by Thomas Walsh, as a part 
of the Township of Townsend, was transferred to Burford on Jan. 1st 
1800. The first patents were granted in the year 1797. the first Grantee 
being Robert Pilkington, who secured 800 acres. In 1802 Finlay Mal 
colm and Edin Bebee located large tracts in both the "Gore" and the 
township proper. 

The first land Patents issued to any individual within the territory 
which now comprises the county of Brant, was therefore in the present 
Township of Oakland. As early as 1794 however, Location Tickets 
had been awarded to prospective settlers in the 1st, 7th and 8th Conces 
sions of Burford. 

Abraham Dayton, who received a grant of the township of Burford 
from Governor Simcoe, had been a resident of the State of New York, 
and was one of a religious sect, which through the influence of its leader, 
Jemima Wilkinson, had drawn together a considerable body of free thin 
kers, undecided characters, and disgruntled members of other Christian 
bodies. These followers of Jemima Wilkinson, were looked upon by the 
inhabitants who surroundered them, as a set of religious fanatics, and 
they decided at last, like the followers of Joseph Smith at a latter date, 
to seek out a "New Canaan", under the flag where all manner of religious 
beliefs are tolerated. 

The choice of an emissary was left to their leader, who deputed Abra 
ham Dayton, a man of considerable ability, to proceed to Canada, and in 
terview the Governor of the new Province, and propose the emigration 
of the whole body of worshippers, who desired to settle altogether and by 
themselves, somewhere in the interior of the country. 

Gov. Simcoe believing them to be Quakers, a society well known to 
him in the old country, as quiet, law abiding and peacable citizens, gave 
his assent to the proposition, and Dayton was authorized to proceed to the 
country lying west of the Indian lands along the River Ouse (Grand 
River). 

The promised land was found, in what is now the township of Bur- 
ford. The beautiful open park like plains which met his eye appealed to 
Dayton so strongly, that he wisely decided, after the grant had been made 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



under certain conditions, to cut loose from his old associates, and take 
up land m the township on his own account. 

He received Location Tickets for the lands he selected but did not live 
long to enjoy life in the country of his adoption. Abraham Dayton was 
an intelligent and estimable citizen, and his connection with the peculiai 
religious society, the infliction of whose presence Burford narrowly esca 
ped, which first brought him to Burford, was doubtless brought about by 
force of circumstances and the nature of his local surrounding 

Dayton was the father-in-law of Benajah Mallory the latter having 
earned before coming to Burford, and through his wife, he acquired title 
m 1/98, to the lots selected by Dayton. 

Notes of the Originals Land grants. 

The following will give some explanation regarding the first land 
ts, sales, etc and also some idea as to land values at the different pe- 
ds when the lots were obtained from the Crown. 

CONCESSION 1. 

One of the last Crown lots to be sold was the north half of lot No 
-homas J.Horner, on the 18th. October 1871, for the sum of eiriiy- 
seven pounds, ten shillings, or seventeen shillings six pence per acre 
Lot numbers 12 and 13 was first granted to John Smith, Jr. on 21st De 
cember 1902. 

Lot No. 15 to Janet Stenhofl, 25 Nov. 1802. 

William Slawson 17 May 1802. 
Jane Carles 17 May 1802- 
Bowes Slawson 17 May 1802. 
10 Charles Burch 17 May 1802. 



CONCESSION 2. 

Numbers 10 and 12 first Canted to Charles Burch, 17th. May 
> re-granted to John Secord 17th. May 1802 Lot No 
irst granted to George Lawe, Jr., 24th Oct, 1798. 

On the 1st. August 1846, James Eakins paid Fifteen shillings per 
acre for East half of Lot. No. 2 




a 

JS -a 
1 

x S 

2 .3 
ffl 

V 

Jfl 
H 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 29 



.. 



CONCESSION 3. 

Lot No. 3 First granted to Margaret Hurst, 10 Aug, 1801. 

7 Re-granted to Daniel Hazen, Jr. 24th. Dec. 1806. 
6 First granted to John Huff, 28th, Mar. 1807. 

8 First granted to Finlay Malcolm, and Edin Bebee 

17th. May 1808. 



CONCESSION No. 4. 

Lot No. 7 Re-granted to Mary Gates, 26th, January 1802. 

8 Re-granted to Finlay Malcom, 17th. May 1802. 

9 Re-granted to Daniel Secord, 7th, March 1804. 

1835. John and James Muir paid Fifteen shillings per acre for Lot 22 in 
the Second Concession, and G- W. Whitehead, 15 shillings per acre, 
for one half of lot No. 9 in the Fifth Concession. 

Thomas Wright, paid Sixteen shillings per acre, for Lot No. 17 
Tenth Concession, and Andrew Roswell, 22 shillings per acre, for 
Lot 10, 14 Concession. 

1837. Charles S. Perley, secured Lot No, 3 in the Fourth Concession, 
for Seven Shillings sixpence per acre, Eliakim Malcolm, Lot No, 
2 in the Fourteenth Concession, for Fifteen shillings per acre, and 
Gideon R, Inglis, One half of Lot 15, 13th Concession, for Eight 
shillings per acre. 



CONCESSION No. 5. 

Lot No. 6 First granted to Ralph Clench 23rd. Feb. 1803. 
9 First granted to Joseph Smith, 25th- Nov. 1802. 
16 In 1835 it appears that James Trimble and Nicholas 
Dowling, received title. 



CONCESSION No. 6. 

On the 19th. February, 1834 the South half of Lot 
No 12, was re-granted to Jacob Patrick. 

Lots No. 17 and 22, was first granted to Thomas Smith, in 1834-35 
and resold on July 18th, 1856, for the sum of Fif 
teen shillings per acre. 



30 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

- j , _ : : : : : m 

CONCESSION No. 7. 

Lot No. 2 purchased by John Haywood, 23rd, April 1856, brought 
Fifteen shillings per acre, and Lot No. 9 sold 6th. 
September, 1837 to Wm. McWilliams, Fifteen shil 
lings per acre. 

CONCESSION No. 8. 

On 13th. January 1829, a portion of Lot No. 10 
was first granted to Hannah Long. 

Lot No. 17, first granted to Michael Baron, 10th June 1801- 
Lot No. 21. first granted George Lawe, Jr, 24th. Oct. 1798- 
East Half of Lot No. 3, sold Wm. McWilliams 7th. March 1846, 
costing Sixteen shillings per acre. 

CONCESSION No. 9. 

Lot No. 9, a Clergy Reserve, was first leased to Jacob Yeigh for a 
term of years, and the sale of the north half to Bap 
tist Johnston, on 8th, February 1875, closed out the 
last acre of these lands in the township. 

CONCESSION No. 10. 

Lot No. 3, a Clergy Reserve, sold to Charles Eddy, 9th May, 1830 

for Twelve shillings Six pence per acre. 

Lot No. 17, also a Clergy Reserve, was sold 8th. May 1862, to William 
Thompson for Sixteen shillings per acre- 

The North half of Lot No. 22, another Clergy Reserve, sold June 

25th. 1850, to J. W- Wilsie, for Eleven Shillings 
and Three pence. 

Lot No. 24. to James Moore, 12th. February 1850, price Fifteen shil 
lings per acre. 

CONCESSION No. 11. 

The Hon. Robert Hamilton s title to the north half of Lot 15, appears 
to have lapsed, as it was re-granted by the govern 
ment to the Canada Company, 2nd. November 1832. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 31 



CONCESSION No. 12. 

Lot No. 3, first granted to William Smith, Junior, in 1831, became a 

clergy reserve, and was sold to Philip Flock July 

13th- 1844, for Twelve shillings Six pence per acre. 

CONCESSION No- 13. 

Lot No. 2, a Clergy Reserve, brought Twelve shillings Six pence per 

acre, the North half being sold to Joseph Moore, 
22nd, May 1831, and the south half to Alonzo Fos 
ter, 17th. Dec. 1840. 

CONCESSION No. 14. 

Lot No. 2, sold 4th, December 1840, for Fifteen shillings per acre, 
Fifty acres of lot No. 3, sold 5th. July 1853 for Se 
venteen Shillings sixpence per acre. 
Lot No. 10, a Clergy Reserve, was sold to William Anderson, 17th. 

December 1868, for Twenty-two shillings per acre. 
Other land sales made by the Crown were as follows : 
1830. West half of Lot No- 2, Seventh Concession to Daniel Southwick, 

price 15 shillings per acre. 

1834- Part of Lot No. 3 in the Seventh concession ; sold to Jacob Yeigh 

price Seventeen shillings Sixpense per acre-, the \vhole of lot No. 22-- 

in the Sixth concession, Thomas Smith, price 15 shillings per acre. 

The East half of Lot No. 2 Tenth Concession, to James Eakins, 1st. 

August 1846, price Fifteen shillings per acre. 



32 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Township of Burford. 



The first Individual owners. 



Concession No. 1 



Lot. No. 


Name of Patentee 




Descpt. 


Acres 


Date of Patent. 


1 


Peter Martin, 




s. y 2 


100 |June, 30, 1801. 


1 


And. Westbrook, 




N. y 2 


100 


Feb. 26, 1812. 


2 


John Johnson, 






200 


Nov. 6, 1857. 


3 


Sarah Ruggles, 




w. y 2 


100 


Jan. 22, 1833. 


3 


Elizabeth Clench, 




E. y 2 


100 


Aug. 9, 1838. 


4 


John Smith, Sr. 






200 


Dec. 31, 1806. 


5 


Solomon Lane, 






200 


April 19, 1805 


6 


John Eaton, 






200 


Oct. 31, 1810. 


7 


Jacob McKay, 






200 


Sept. 15, 1803. 


8 


Th. J. Horner, 


Crown Reserve, 


N. /a 


100 


Oct. 18, 1871. 


8 


Th. J. Horner, 


ii 


s. y a 


100 


Nov. 6, 1857. 


9 


Samuel Baker, 




200 |Mar. 13, 1805. 


10 


Comfort Davis, 






200 


Apr. 2, 1806. 


11 


James Smiley, 






200 


Dec. 1, 1798. 


12 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


May, 5, 1836 


13 


Sarah Follick, 







200 


Mar. 13, 1805. 


14 


James Mills, 






200 


Dec. 13, 1805. 


15 


Jacob Decou, 






200 


Mar. 6, 1805. 


16 


Fr. H. Pulham, 




s. y 2 


100 


Feb. 27, 1857. 


16 


J. G. Lindsay, 




N. y 2 


100 


Feb. 27, 1860. 


17 


Jane Losee, 






200 


Sept. 16, 1808. 


18 


Robert Fawcett, 


Crown Reserve, 


N. E. y 4 


50 


July, 26, 1852. 


18 


William Fawcett, 


<i (t 


N.w.y 4 


50 


July, 26, 1852. 


18 


John Thompson, 


" a 


s. y 2 


100 


Apr. 15, 1852. 


19 


Levy Atwell, 






200 Nov. 17, 1801 


20 


Ch. Burtch, Jr. 






200 


Oct. 1, 1803. 


21 


Canada Company, 


ii 


w. y 2 


100 


Feb. 27, 1837. 


21 


Canada Company, 


i< 


E. y 2 


100 


Apr. 24, 1833. 


22 


Adrien Marlet, 






200 


Nov. 26, 1803. 


23 


Canada Company, 


<i 


N. y 2 


100 


Nov. 2, 1832. 


23 


Canada Company, 


it 


s. y 2 


100 


Oct. 24, 1836. 


24 


Samuel Martin, 






200 


Sept. 5, 1801. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



33 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners. 



Concession No. 2 



Lot No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Patent, 


1 
2 
3 
3 


R. Jos. Kerr, 
R. Jos. Kerr, 
Chas. S. Perley, 
D. D. Prosser, 


[Crown Reserve, 


Pt. of E. , 


200 
200 
25 


21st, June 1806. 
21st, June, 1806. 
24th, June, 1853. 
1840 


3 
3 
4 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
10 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
17 
18 
19 
20 
20 
21 
22 
22 
22 
23 
24 
24 
24 


John Knill, 
Hon. G. Goodhue 
William Rose, 
John Crawford, 
Canada Company 
Sarah Johnson, 
Sarah Johnson, 
Mary Lafferty, 
Mary Lafferty, 
James Eakins, 
[ames Eakins, 
Man. Freeman, 
George Lawe, Jr. 
Susana Wolfe, 
A. Walterhouse, 
Joshua Ferris, 
Kings College, 
Hon. R. Hamilton, 
Ed. Harbin, 
Le. T. Hewitt, 
George Lawe, Jr, 
George Lawe, Jr, 
Canada Company, 
Canada Company, 
Hon. R. Hamilton, 
John Muir, 
James Muir, 
Daniel Kipp, 
Rev. T. Raddish, 
Rev. T. Raddish, 
John Garner, 
John Lewis, 


" <( 
< H 

K 

" u 

Clergy Reserve, 

" <f 

l( 

Crown Reserve, 
Clergy Reserve, 

< >s 

Crown Reserve, 


Clergy Reserve, 
" 

" 
i 


N. EK 

w. y 2 
N. y 2 
s. x 

E. y 2 

B,}ofw.j 

|w.of\v 

w. y 2 
E. y 2 

N. y 2 
s. y 2 

S.E. % 

s.w. % 
N. y 2 

s. ^ 
N. y 4 

C. pt. 


50 
100 
100 
100 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
100 
50 
50 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
100 
100 
200 
200 
100 
100 
200 
50 
50 
100 
200 
50 
50 
76 


13th, Sept. 1865. 
5th, Aug. 1863. 
9th, May, 1840. 
16th, June, 1840. 
27th, Nov. 1835. 
30th, June, 1801. 
20th, June, 1801. 
30th, June 1801. 
30th, June, 1801. 
1st, Aug. 1846. 
16th, Mar. 1850 
14th, July, 1854. 
24th, Oct. 1798. 
30th, Oct. 1806. 
17th, Oct. 1826. 
17th, May, 1802. 
3rd, Jan. 1828. 
1st, Dec. 1802. 
4th, Apr. 1864. 
26th, Jan. 1863. 
24th, Oct. 1798. 
24th, Oct. 1798. 
26th, Oct. 1836. 
27th, Nov. 1835. 
1st, Dec. 1802 
8th, Nov. 1835. 
8th, June, 1835. 
14th, Nov. 1860. 
31st, Dec. 1798 
31st, Dec. 1798. 
17th, May, 1802. 
Stli, May, 1840. 



34 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners- 



Concession No. 3 



0. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of latent. 




John D. Decou, 
S. Spencer Day, 
Charles Day, 
George Bray, 
John Fowler, 
Canada Company, 
Peter Trickey, 
Gideon Day, 
Jer. Powell, 
Jer. Powell, 
Daniel Perley, 
William Gow. 
George Law, Jr, 


i 

j 

Crown Reserve, 

Crown Reserve, 
Crown Reserve, 


w.p.Jofs. 
w.p.^ofs. 

N. /2 i 

1 

i 

s. y* 
N. y* 


200 
50 
50 
100 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 ( 
100 
100 
200 


8th, Aug. 1799. 
1st, Sept. 1862. 
1st, Feb. 1854. 
3rd July, 1860. 
30th, Jan. 1803. 
27th, Nov. 1835. 
23th, Sept. 1839. 
1st Mar. 1808. 
9th, Jan. 1798. 
?th, Jan. 1798. 
18th, Oct. 1856. 
10th, Oct. 1856. 
24th, Oct. 1798, 




Estate T. Lawe, 
Canada Company, 
Henry Beamer, 
John Mann, 
Garrett Egbert, 
Joshua Ferris, 
Joshua Ferris, 
John Gibson, 
Daniel Davis, 
Pat. Mac Gee, 
M. Eliz. Clench, 


Crown Reserve, 

j 

j 


S. End. 
N. End. 

N. y 2 
s. w. y 4 
s. E. y 4 


200 
200 
170 
30 
200 
200 
100 
50 
50 
200 
200 


17th, Feb. 1837. 
13th, May, 1805. 
7th, Nov 1821. 
25th, Jan. 1842. 
17th, May, 1802. 
17th, May, 1802. 
14th, Nov. 1853. 
15th, July, I860. 
15th, May, 1855. 
10th, July, 1801. 


1 


tt (* 


| 




200 


11 H " 




u tt " 


1 




200 


11 < 


1 



. 


Canada Company, 
A. Wintermute, 
Canada Company 
Canada Company 
Be. Wintermute, 


Crown Reserve, 
! Crown Reserve, 

i> a 
a < 


N. y* 
s. y* 


200 
200 
100 
100 
200 


24th. Dec. 1834. 
30th, June, 1801. 
1st, Oct. 1835. 
17th, Feb. 1837. 
|30th, June, 1801. 



Lot No. 

T 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

* 7 

8 

9 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

13 

14 

15 

16 

16 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

23 

24 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



35 



Township of Bur ford. 

Tha first Individual Ownsr*. 



Concession No. 4 



Lot No. 


Ntime of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Patent. 


1 


W. Reynolds, the 






200 


22nd, Oct. 1805. 




younger, 










2 
3 

4 


Ben. Mallory, 
Joseph Martin, 
Char. Perley, 


Clergy Reserve, 
Crown Lands 




200 
200 


16th, Oct. 1798. 
14th Feb. 1854 
1838 


4 
5 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
10 


Nath. Pettit, 
Canada Company, 
Canada Company, 
George Lawe, Jr, 
Jer. Powell, 
Jer. Powell 
George Lawe, Jr, 
Ch. Blanquiere & 
R. I. Carey, 


Crown Reserve, 

a it 

Clergy Reserve, 


N. y 2 
s. y 2 


200 
100 
100 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 


10th, June, 1801 
12th, Oct. 1841 . 
21st, Aug. 1835. 
24th, Oct, 1798. 
9th, Jan. 1798. 
9th, Jan. 1798. 
24th, Oct. 1798. 
8th, Nov. 1850. 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
17 
18 
18 


M. Hopkins, 
Levi Lawrence, 
Nathan Lawrence, 
George Lawe, Jr, 
Canada Company, 
George Lawe, Jr, 
Robert Wiggins, 
John Muir, 
Est. Silverthorn, 
Richard Fletcher, 


Crown Reserve, 

Clergy Reserve, 

it 


s. y 2 
s. y 2 


200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
100 
100 
200 


5th, Apr. 1804. 
24th, Apr. 1805. 
26th, Sept. 1805. 
24th, Oct. 1798. 
5th Nov. 1833. 
24th, Oct 1798. 
16th, Dec. 1848. 
23rd Feb. 1852. 
18th, Mar. 1828. 


19 


Richard Fletcher, 
Anne Spencer, 






200 


18th, Mar. 1828. 




H. Hixon and 












Et. Silverthorn as 












tenants in common 










20 
21 
22 
22 
23 
24 
24 


Canada Company, 
George Lawe, Jr, 
Allen Muir, 
Robt. C. Muir, 
Hannah Smith. 
Nancy Handy, 
Ben. Wintermute, 


Crown Reserve, 
Clergy Reserve, 


E. y 2 
w.y 2 

S. Pt. 

N. Pt. 


200 
200 
100 
100 
200 
46 
50 


Hth, Aug. 1835. 
24th, Oct 1798. 
7th, Nov. 1846. 
21st May, 1840. 
30th, June, 1801. 
15th, June, 1836. 
10th, July, 1801. 



36 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners. 



Concession No. 5 



Lot. No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt 


Acres. 


Date of Patent. 


1 


John Evans 






200 


20th, Jan. 1812. 


2 


Ben. Mallory, 






200 


16th, Oct. 1798 


3 


Justus Stevens, 






200 


28th, Feb. 1805. 


4 


Kings College, I Crown Reserve, 




200 


3rd Jan. 1828. 


5 


Anne Dugan, 




200 


17th May, 1802. 


6 


Canada Company, 


u tt 


N. y 2 \ 100 


19th Sept. 1838. 


6 


Canada Company, 


a n 


s. y 2 


100 


12th Oct. 1841. 


7 


Ter. Powell, 






200 


9th Jan. 1798. 


8 


. 

Jer. Powell, 






200 


9th Jan. 1798. 


8 


William Bennett 




N. y 2 


100 24th Mar. 1848. 


9 


Th. Bennett, | Clergy Reserve, 


s. y 2 


100 |6th Nov. 1857. 


9 


G. W. Whitehead, | 




100 1835. 


10 


Peter Hopkin, the | 




200 |5th Apr. 1804. 


11 


vounger. 
H. Graham, T. R. 






200 Il3th May, 1803. 


12 


Art. Rogers, 






200 10th Feb. 1806. 


13 


Cyrus Sovereign, 




N. y 2 


100 27th May, 1856. 


13 


Samuel Carter, Clergy Reserve, 


s. y* 


100 


1st May, 1831. 


14 


Samuel Hamel, 


N. y 2 


100 


17th May, 1802. 


14 


Isaac Gilbert. 


s. y 2 


100 |17th May, 1802. 


15 ! Issac Gilbert. 






200 17th May, 1802. 


16 


Peter & David 




N. y 2 


100 |llth Nov, 1858. 




Warboys, 






i 


16 


Thomas Hill, 


Clergy Reserve, 


s. y 2 


100 


llth Sept. 1861. 


17 


William Bowen, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


18 


Rubin Dayton, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


19 


Lewes Scribner, 







200 |17th May, 1802. 


20 


Ebez. Henry, 






200 


115th Oct. 1805. 


21 


Kings College, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


3rd Jan. 1828. 


22 


Abia Mallory, 200 


16th Oct. 1798. 


23 


Canada Company, 




N. y 2 


100 |8th Mar 1832. 


23 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 


s. y 2 


100 


24th Apr. 1833. 


24 


Ben. Mallory, 






200 


16th Oct. 1798. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



37 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owner*, 



Concession No. 6 



Lot No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Patent. 


1 


W. Douglas, now| 










Elizab. Reynolds, 






200 


2nd Mar. 1807. 


2 


Kings College, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


3rd Jan. 1828. 


3 


Jacob Patrick, 


Clergy Reserve, 


s. y 2 


100 


19th Feb. 1834. 


3 


Thorn. Fraser, 


> 


N.W.^4 


50 


4th Dec. 1848. 


3 


Wil. Daniel, 




N. E l / 4 


50 


2nd June, 1860. 


4 


Nath. Landon, 






200 


26th Sept. 1805. 


5 


Ben. Mallory, 






200 


16th Oct. 1798. 


6 


Ben. Mallory, 






200 


16th Oct. 1798. 


7 


Ben. Mallory, 






200 


16th Oct. 1798. 


8 


David Palmer, 






200 


14th, Mar, 1803 


9 


Joseph Smith, 






200 


25th Nov. 1802. 


10 


James Carter, 


Clergy Reserve, 


S. E. X 


50 


27th Sept. 1858. 


10 


ames Crysler, 


Clergy Reserve, 


S. W. V 4 


50 


5th July, 1860. 


10 |Geo. W. Holder, 


i 


N. W. J4 50 


5th Dec. 1859. 


10 J. Henderson, 





N. E. Y 4 \ 50 


29th Jan. 1864. 


11 Samuel Kenny, 




200 


18th Oct. 1798. 


12 


Asel Bearfs, 




1 200 


13th May, 1807. 


13 


Ephr. Bearfs, 




200 


13th Mar. 1829, 


14 


Sam. Carpenter, 




E. y 2 


100 


20th May, 1801. 


14 


Sebine Lake, 




N.W. Hi 50 


3rd Nov. 1835. 


14 


Eve Durham, 




s.w. y* 


50 


7th Mar. 1812 


15 


Canada Company, 




E. y 2 


100 


17th Feb. 1837! 


15 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 


w. y 2 


100 


1st Oct. 1835. 


16 


Edward Kerr, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


17 


L. T. Sovreeen, 


Clergy Reserve, 


N. y 2 


100 


22nd, Oct. 1860. 


18 


Mich. Huffman, 




w. y 2 


100 


4th Apr. 1825. 


18 


Margaret Acre, 




E. y 2 


100 


10th Apr. 1831. 


19 


Rob. S. Hughson, 






200 


16th Dec. 1828. 


20 


Canada Company, 




N. y 2 


100 


26th Oct. 1833. 


20 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 


s. y 2 


100 


21st Aug. 1835 


21 


Justus Mallory, 






200 


9th May. 1812 . 


22 


Mai. Mclntyre, 




w. y* 


100 


18th July, 1856. 


22 


John Stevenson, 


Clergy Reserve, 


E. y> 


100 


18th July, 1856, 


23 


Eleanor Smith, 




200 


30th Tune, 1801. 


24 


Eliz. Smith, 


1 


200 


30th June, 1801. 



38 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners. 



Concession No. 7 



Lot. No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Patent. 


1 


Anna Smith, 


200 


25th Nov. 1802. 


2 


John Heywood, 




E. y 2 


100 


23rd Aor 1856. 


2 


Daniel Southwick, Clergy Reserve, 


W. y* 100 [12th Dec. 1845. 




Richard Griffin, 


200 !17th Mav. 1802. 




Jr, Impound, 








3 


James, S. Boss, 




50 


1834. 


3 


Jacob Yeigh, 






50 


1834. 


4 


Kings College, | Crown Reserve, 




200 


3rd Tan. 1828. 


5 


John Fowler, 






200 ]30th" Jan. 1803. 


6 


John Eaton, 




200 |10th Mar. 1812. 


7 


Abraham Luce, 






200 7th Dec. 1807. 


8 IWil. Proudfoot, 




s. y 2 


100 


29th June, 1841- 


8 


Sto. Springsteen, 




N. y 2 


100 


6th Mar. 1804. 


9 


W. McWilliam, 


Clergy Reserve, 




200 


6th Sept. 1837. 




Trusteeto D. Bo- 












wen, 










10 


John Fowler, Jr, 






200 


18th Jan. 1816. 


11 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


28th May, 1830. 


12 1 Jacob Near, 






200 


7th Feb. 1812. 


13 Henry Near, Jr, 






200 


7th Feb. 1812. 


14 


Eve Durham, 






200 


7th Mars, 1802. 


15 


Eye Durham, 






200 


7th Alar. 1802. 


16 


Tim. Coakley, 




W. V 2 


100 


27th July, 1864. 


16 


Alex. Anderson, Clergy Reserve, 


E. y 2 100 


3rd Apr. 1865. 


17 


Joseph Smith, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


18 


Jacob Hainer, 




s. y 2 


100 


14th May, 1803. 


18 


Martin Moore, 




N. Y 4 


50 |29th Tulv. 1841. 


18 


Stephen Secord, 




N. U 


50 


10th Aug. 1801. 


19 


Stephen Secord, 






200 


10th Aug, 1801. 


20 


Ann Secord, 






200 


3rd June, 1808. 


21 


Canada Company, 




N. y 2 100 


12th Oct. 1841. 


21 


Canada Company, I Crown Reserve, 


s. y 2 100 


7th June, 1838. 


22 


Rev. T. Raddish, 




200 


31st Dec. 1798. 


23 


Canada Company, 




s. y 2 \ loo 


10th Oct. 1836 


23 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, N. y* 


100 


19th Sept, 1838. 


24 


Elizabeth Smith, 






200 


30th June, 1801. 


24 


Samuel Osmond, 






200 


20th Mar. 1807. 


24 


Benj. Thorton. 






200 


20th Mar. 1807. 


24 | Stephen Cook. 






200 


20th Mar. 1807. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



39 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners. 



Concession No. 8 



Lot No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Pateut. 


1 

2 
3 
3 
3 
4 


Mary Mar. Kerr, 
Mary Mar. Kerr, 
Wil. McWilliams, 
Willam Fowler, 
Thomas Perrin, 
Rev. T. Raddish, 


Crown Reserve, 


1 

E. y 2 

W. y 2 

w. y* 


200 
200 
100 
50 
50 
200 


21st June, 1806. 
21st June, 1806. 
7th Mar. 1846. 
6th Nov. 1857. 
i9th June, 1859. 
31st Dec. 1798. 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
9 
10 
10 
10 
11 
11 
12 
13 
13 
14 
15 
16 


King s College, 
George Ryerson, 
George Lawe, Jr, 
Henry Bowen, 
Sam. Carpenter, 
Stoa. Springsteen, 
Arch. Harley, 
Frederic Brown, 
Edward B. Myers, 
Hannah Long, 
Sebine Lake, 
Hannah Long, 
Hannah Long, 
Henry Near, 
Henry Near, Sr. 
Canada Company, 
Ira Bissell, 


Crown Reserve, 

Clergy Reserve, 
ii >< 

it >< 
Crown Reserve, 


s. / 2 
N. y 2 
s. x 

N. \ Of W. 

s. ^ of w 

w. y* 

E. 3/4 

E. % 
S..W.H 

s. y 2 


200 
200 
200 
200 
100 
100 
100 
50 
50 
50 
150 
200 
50 
150 
200 
200 
100 


3rd T an - 1828 - 
10th Dec. 1822. 
24th Oct. 1798. 
17th May, 1802. 
20th May, 1801. 
6th Mar. 1804. 
4th Dec. 1858. 
16th Jan. 1861. 
15th Aug. 1861. 
13th Jan. 1829. 
3rd Nov. 1835. 
13th Jan. 1829. 
13th Jan. 1829. 
llth Jan. 1816. 
llth Jan, 1816. 
12th Oct. 1841. 
24th Oct. 1798. 


16 
17 

18 


Wil. Vanderlip, 
Alex. McLish, 
David Secord, 


Clergy Reserve, 


N. y 2 
s. y 2 


100 
200 
100 


24th Oct. 1798. 
6th Sept, 1848. 
7th June, 1838. 


18 


Geo. Wintermute, 




N. y 2 


100 


13th May, 1801. 


19 
20 
21 
22 
22 
23 


Geo. Wintermute, 
Canada Company, 
Michael Baron, 
Noxon Cornwall, 
Edm. Woodrow, 
And Hansell, 


Crown Reserve, 
Clergy Reserve, 


s. y* 

E. y 2 
w. y 2 


200 
100 
200 
100 
100 
200 


13th May, 1801. 
27th Dec. 1834. 
10th June, 1801. 
4th Feb. 1847. 
8th Apr. 1852. 
19th Apr. 1805. 


24 
24 


Nancy Handy, 
George Hansell, 


Crown Lands 


N. y 2 
s. y* 


100 
100 


20th May, 1840. 
6th Apr. 1805. 



40 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners. 



Concession No. 9 



Lot No. 


( Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Patente. 


1 


Cath. Lampman, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


2 


Mattias Smith, 




N. w. y 4 


50 


19th June, 1865. 


2 


Adbell Eady, 


Clergy Reserve, 


N. E. y 4 


50 


12th Feb. 1869. 


3 


John Widener, 






200 


29th Feb. 1804. 


4 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


18th July, 1831. 


5 


Elijah Philps, 






200 


30th Apr. 1804. 


6 


Elijah Philps, 






200 


30th Apr. 1804. 


7 


Hon. R. Hamil 




S. E. y 4 


50 


1st Dec. 1802. 




ton, Transfer, 










7 


Peter Lampman, 




S. W. y 4 


50 


7th Jan. 1804. 


7 


George Keefer, 


N. y 2 


100 


6th Mar. 1804. 


8 


Peter Lampman, 


\ 


200 


7th Jan. 1804. 


9 


Jacob Yeigh, Lea 






200 


1830. 




sed from Clergy, 










9 


Will. Clement, 


Clergy Reserve, 


s. y 2 


100 


16th June. 1870. 


9 


Bapt. Johnsotn, 





N. y 2 


100 


8th Feb. 1875. 


10 


Hon. R. Hamil 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 




ton, Transfer, 










11 


King s College, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


3rd Jan. 1828. 


12 


Hon. R. Hamil 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 




ton, 










13 


Fr. Williams, 






200 


10th Aug. 1801. 


14 


Jon. Smith, 






200 


10th Aug. 1801. 


15 


J. Smith of Bertie, 






200 


10th Aug. 1801. 


16 


Jesse Taylor, 


Clergy Reserve, 


s E.. y 4 


50 


15th Dec. 1838. 


16 


Robert Hoy, 


<> 


s. w. y 4 


50 


5th Mar. 1859. 


16 


Robert Hoy, 





N.W. y 4 


50 


8th Apr. 1859. 


17 


Pas. Terry, 






200 


10th June, 1801. 


18 


Hanna Sypes, 




N. y 2 


100 


10th Aug. 1801. 


18 


Jonas Sypes, 




s. y 2 


100 


10th Aug. 1801. 


19 


Hen. Fowling, Sr, 




N. ft 


100 


3rd Nov. 1830. 


19 


Hen. Fowling, 




c. y 4 


50 


24th June, 1831. 


19 


Peter Fero, 




s. y 4 


50 


10th Aug. 1801. 


20 


Hen. Fowling, Sr, 






200 


3rd Nov. 1830. 


21 


Canada Company, 




S. 54 


100 


26th Dec. 1829. 


21 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 


N. y* 


100 


24th Dec. 1834. 


22 


Hon. R. Hamil 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 




ton, 










23 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


8th Mar. 1832. 


24 


George Hansell, 




N. y 2 


100 


6th Apr. 1805. 


24 


Martin Moore, 




s. * 


100 


7th May, 1842. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



41 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owner*. 



Concession No. 10 



Lot No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres 


Date of Patent. 


1 


John Hill, Sr, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


2 


John Hill, Sr, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


3 


Charles Eddy, 


Clergy Reserves, 




200 


8th May, 1830. 


4 


Rev. T. Raddish, 






200 


31st Dec. 1798. 


5 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserves, 




200 


28th Dec. 1830. 


6 


Elijah Philps, 






200 


30th Apr. 1804. 


7 


rlon. R. Hamilton. 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 


8 


Annie Collard, 






200 


18th May, 1831. 


9 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 


10 


Mary Clement, 


Clergy Reserves, 




200 


10th Oct. 1856. 




Margaret Clement, 












and Mary Jane 












Biggar, 










11 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec 1802. 


12 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 




Transfer, 










13 


Peter Weaver, 






200 


9th Oct. 1816. 


14 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 


15 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserves, 


N. A 


100 


2nd Nov. 1832. 


15 


Canada Company, 


u a 


s. y 2 


100 


21st Aug. 1835. 


16 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 


17 


Wil. Thompson, 


Clergy Reserves, 




200 


8th May, 1862. 


17 


Thomas Wright, 






200 


1835. 


18 


Peter Fero, 




vv y* 


100 


10th AUP. 1801. 


18 


David Bearis, 




F 

J-v. , _ 


100 |10th Aug. 1801. 


19 


Peter Fero, 






200 


10th Aug 1801. 


20 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserves, 




200 


8th July, 1829 


21 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 


22 


J. W. Wilsie, 


Clergy Reserve 


N. y* 


100 |25th June, 1853. 


22 


Jeremiah Moore, 





S. V* 


100 


23rd Feb. 1852. 


23 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 


24 Jarnes Moore, | 


f 150 


12th Feb. 1850. 



42 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners. 



Concession No 11. 



Lot No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt 


Acres. 


Date of Patent. 


1 |Eliz. Havens, 




200 i22nd June, l" o. 


Elias Zimmerman. 




s y 2 


100 


10th June, 1862. 


2 


R. Zimmerman, &| Clergy Reserve, 


N. y 2 


100 


10th Oct. 1856. 




others, 








3 


Albert Ryckman, 






200 


llth Feb. 1812. 


4 


Canada Company, 


Crqwn Reserve, 


200 


18th July, 1830. 


5 


Francis Goring, 




200 


8th Sept. 1828. 


6 


Francis Goring, 






200 


8th Sept. 1828. 


7 


Hon. R. Hamilton. 






200 


26th Mar. 1804. 


8 I George Keefer, 






200 


6th Mar. 1804. 


| William Johnson & 










9 


Bapt. Johnson, Jr, 1 Clergy Reserve, 




200 




10 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


26th Mar. 1804 


11 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


12th Oct. 1841. 


12 


Marg. Detrick, 






200 


21st Nov. 1817. 


13 


Jacob Detrick, Jr, 






200 


21st Nov. 1817. 


14 


Jacob Detrick, 






200 


7th May, 1822. 


IS 


Philip Shaver, 




s. y, 


100 


18th Mars. 1816. 


15 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 




N. y. 


100 


1st Dec. 1802. 


16 


George Ward, 






100 


1837 


16 


John Fidlin, 




N. y 2 


100 


18th Dec. 1860. 


16 


Stephen Coombe, (Clergy Reserve, 


S. X 


100 


5th July, 1860. 


17 


Thomas Lane & 






200 16th Mar. 1804. 




others, 










18 


Tacob Hainer, 




w. y* 


100 


14th May, 1803. 


18 


Thomas Hainer, 




E. y 2 


100 


6th Mar. 1804. 


19 


George Hainer, 






200 


13th May, 1803. 


20 


Stephen Hainer, 






200 


22nd June, 1816. 


21 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


17th June, 1840 


22 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 [1st Dec 1802. 


23 


Canada Company,! Crown Reserve, 




200 5th Nov 1833. 


24 


Hon. R. Hamilton,) 




200 |lst Dec. 1802. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



43 



Township of Burfofi. 

The first Individual Ownei 8. 



Concession No. 12 



Lot No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


AcreB. 


Date of Patent. 


1 1 Sarah Eddy, 






200 |22nd Aug. 1806. 


2 


Phoebe Lee, 






200 |lst Aug. 1809. 


3 


Philip Flock, 


Clergy Reserve, 




200 13th July, 1844. 


3 


Wm. Smith, 






200 


1831. 


4 


Thomas Powell, 






200 


9th Jan. 1798. 


5 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, i 


200 


9th July, 1829. 


6 


Francis Goring, 






200 


8th Sept. 1828. 


7 


R. Launsbury, 




200 


6th Apr. 1804. 


8 


Thomas Powell, 




200 


9th Jan. 1798 


9 


Thomas Powell, 


200 


9th Jan. 1798. 


10 


Daniel Smith, 


Clergy Reserve, 


200 




11 


Catherine Long, 






200 


14th May, 1803. 


12 


Elias Long, 






200 


13th May, 1803. 


13 


Margaret May, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


14 


Nancy May, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


15 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


12th Oct. 1841. 


16 


Mary Shaver, 






200 


18th Mar. 1816. 


17 Alex. Douglas, 


Clergy Reserve, 


N. y 2 100 


16th June, 1854. 


17 


John T. Muir, 


u ( 


s. x 


100 


18th Jan. 1875. 


18 


Abraham Nellis, 






200 


22nd, July, 1803. 


19 


Felter Coyle, 






200 


26th Feb. 1808 


20 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


12th Oct. 1841 . 


21 


Thomas Powell, 






200 


9th Jan. 1798. 


22 i David Ghent, 


Clergy Reserve, 


s. y 2 


100 


25th June, 1858. 


22 


Jam. Robinson, 


a tt 


N. V 2 


100 


15th Mar. 1864. 


23 


Ar. Cunningham, 






200 


13th June, 1801. 


24 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 



44 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners. 



Concession No. 13 



Lot No. 


ame o f Patentee. 




Descps. 


Acres. 


Date of Patent. 


1 


Try. Chapman, 






200 


22nd Aug. 1806. 


2 


Joseph Moore, 




N. y 2 


100 


22nd May, 1831. 


2 


Alonzo Foster, 


Clergy Reserve, 


s. y 2 


100 


17th Dec. 1840. 


3 


Hanna Armstead, 






200 


8th Nov 1806. 


4 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


9th July, 1829. 


5 


Andrew Herron, 






200 


10th Aug. 1801. 


6 


Andrew Herron, 






200 


10th Aug. 1801. 


7 


Hon. R. Hamilton, 






200 


1st Dec. 1802. 


8 


John Wees, 






200 


13th May, 1803. 


9 


J. H. Bowman, 


Clergy Reserve, 


w. y 2 


100 


27th Sept 1860. 


9 


Wil. A. Whitney, 




E. y 2 


100 


26th Nov. 1860. 


10 


Isaac Fairchild, 






200 


7th Feb. 1807. 


11 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


28th Jan. 1841. 


12 


Robert Berrie, 






200 


16th Aug. 1835. 


13 


J. Honsinger, Sr, 




w. y 2 


100 


17th May, 1802. 


13 


Robert Berrie, 




E. y 2 


100 


16th Aug 1845. 


14 


Juliana Fick, 




E. y 2 


100 


13th Feb. 1830. 


14 


Robert Marsh, 




w. y 2 


100 


18th Jan. 1850. 


15 


Rob. Hughson, 




w. y 2 


100 


16th Dec. 1828. 


15 


G. R. Ingles, 




E. y* 


100 


4th Dec. 1840. 


16 


J. B. Willits, 




N. y 2 


100 


6th Aug. 1863. 


16 


T. B. Willits, 


! S. 54 


100 


6th Nov. 1860. 


16 


C. Winegardner, 






100 


1837. 


17 


Thomas Powell, 






200 


9th Jan. 1798 


18 


Abraham Nellis, 






200 


22nd July, 1803. 


19 


Daniel Lawrence, 






200 


14th May, 1803. 


20 


J. Honsigner, Jr, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


21 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


12th Oct. 1841. 


22 


Arc. Cunningham, 






200 


13th June, 1801. 


23 


Canada Company, 




s. y 2 


100 


24th Dec. 1834. 


23 


Canada Company, 


Crown Reserve, 


N. y 2 


100 


12th Oct. 1841. 


24 


Ach. Cunningham, ] 




200 


13th June, 1801. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



45 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners. 



Concession No. 14 



Lot No. 


Name of Patentee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Patent, 


1 | William Hare, 






200 


14th Feb. 1810. 


2 


Find. Malcolm, 






200 


4th Dec. 1840. 


3 


John Moore, 




s. y* 


50 


1839. 


3 


A. B. Kent, 




c. YI 


50 


5th July, 1853. 


3 


T. Roswell. 




S. 5/2 


100 


26th May, 1860. 


3 IP. T. Smith. 




N. 54 


50 


24th Jan. 1854. 


4 


John Bowman, 






200 


28th May, 1817. 


5 


Canada Company, Crown Reserve, 




200 


26th Dec 1829. 


6 


Ruben Green, 






200 


llth May, 1811. 


7 


Gil. Storms, 




E. y* 


100 




7 IHenrv Daw. 




w. y* 


100 


3rd May, 1803. 


8 


John Wees, 






200 


13th May, 1803. 


9 


A. Manwell, 






200 


12th Mar. 180.3. 


10 


Wil. Anderson, 


Clergy Reserve, 




200 


17th Dec. 1868. 


10 


An. Roswell, 






200 


1835. 


11 


Ele. Thompson, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


12 


Mary Smith, 






200 


30th June, 1801. 


13 


John Kelley, 






200 


9th Oct. 1811. 


14 


Mary Durham, 






200 


15th Sept. 1803. 


15 


King s College, 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


3rd Jan. 1828. 


16 


Thomas Powell, 






200 


9th Jan. 1798. 


17 


Thomas Ward, 




S W. Y 4 


50 


26th Dec. 1863. 


17 


H. Coonkrite, 




N. w. y* 


50 


22nd Apr. 1863. 


17 
18 


Char. Hedgers, 
Abra. Nellis, 


Clergy Reserve, 


E. 5/2 


100 
200 


14th Nov. 1853. 
22nd July, 1803. 


19 


W. Reed, Sr. 






200 


13thMay, 1803 


20 


Canada Company, 






200 


llth May, 1837. 


21 


.\r. Cunningham, 






200 


3rd June, 1801. 


22 
23 


Ellen Kenney, 
Ar. Cunningham, 


Clergy Reserve, 




200 
200 


16th Nov. 1838. 
23rd June, 1801. 


24 


Ar. Cunningham, 






200 


23rd June, 1801. 



46 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Township of Burford. 

The first Individual Owners, 

Burford Gore. (Oakland) 



Concession No. 1 



Lot No. 


Name of Grantees. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Patent. 


1 


Finlay Malcolm, 






200 17th May, 1802. 


2 


Elia. Malcolm, 


Clergy Reserve, 




200 |13th Apr. 1860. 


3 


Jane Corlis, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


4 


J. Fowler, King s 


Crown Reserve, 




200 


3rd Jan. 1828. 




College, 










5 


Mord. Sayles, 






200 


2nd Aug. 1806. 


6 


Mord. Sayles, 






200 


2nd Aug. 1806. 


8 


Bow. Slawson, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


7 


Wm. Slawson, 






200 


13th May, 1802. 


9 


Daniel Secord, 






100 


16th Nov. 1858 


9 


David Secord, 


Clergy Reserve, 




100 


16th Nov. 1858 


10 


Char. Burch, 






200 


17th May, 1802. 


11 


N. Bodine, King s 


Crown Reserve, 


200 


3rd Jan. 1828. 


! College. 


| 








12 


John Smith, Jr, 






200 


21st Dec. 1802. 


13 


John Smith, Jr, 






200 


21st Dec. 1802. 


14 


John Smith, Jr, 




w.# 


100 


21st Dec. 1802. 


14 


Wm. Lotteridge, 




E. y 2 


100 


27th May, 1809. 


IS 


Janet Stenhoof, 






200 


25th Nov. 1802. 


16 


John Heaton, 


Clergy Reserve, 




119 


15th Dec . 1856. 



Concession No. 2 



1 


Findlay Malcolm, 


2 


Robert Pilkington, 


3 


Matt. Messecar, 


3 


Israel. W. Powell, 


4 


Mord. Sayles, 


5 


King s College, 


6 


Edin Bebee, 


7 


Edin Bebee, 


8 


Edin Bebee, 


9 


John Secord, 


10 


Tho. Robinson, 


10 


Wm .Darby, 


11 


Charles Burch, 


12 


Charles Burch, 


13 


Charles Burch, 


14 


Charles Burch, 


Concession No. 3 


1 


R. Pilkington, 


2 


Abdel Eddy, 


3 


Margaret Hurst, 


4 


King s College, 




Leased to W. 




Green, 


5 


G. McMullen, 





200 


21st Dec. 


1802. 




200 


21st Dec. 


1802. 


W.# 


100 


21st Dec. 


1802. 


E. y 2 


100 


27th May, 


1809. 




200 


25th Nov. 


1802. 




119 


15th Dec . 


1856. 




200 


17th May, 


1802. 




200 


22nd May, 


1797. 


E. y 2 


100 


30th Apr. 


1840. 


w. y 2 


100 


5th Dec. 


1843. 




200 


2nd Aug. 


1806. 




200 


3rd Jan. 


1828. 




200 


17th May, 


1802. 




200 


17th May, 


1802. 




200 


17th May, 


1802. 




200 


17th May, 


1802. 


E. y 2 


100 


1st May, 


1845. 


w. y 2 


100 


19th Jan. 


1852. 




550 


17th May, 


1802. 



Clergy Reserve, 



E. y 2 



1 200 


22nd May, 


1797. 


200 


12th Jan. 


1844. 


200 


12th Aug. 


1801. 


200 


3rd Jan. 


1833. 


100 


24th Feb. 


1843. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



47 



Lob No. 


Name of Grantee. 




Descpt. 


Acres. 


Date of Patent. 


5 
6 
7 
8 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 


Moses Baldwill, 
John Huffe, 
D. Haze, ]r, 
Eden Bebee, 
Finlay Malcolm, 
Ar. McEwen, 
Daniel Secord, 
King s College, 
Daniel Secord, 


Crown Reserve, 


W. yt 

s. y 2 
N. y* 


100 
200 
200 
100 
100 
200 
154 
84 
! 16 


8th Apr. 1839. 
28th Mar. 1807. 
24th Dec. 1806. 
17th May, 1802. 
17th May, 1802. 
10th Mar 1869. 
7th Mar. 1804. 
3rd Jan. 1828. 
7th May , 1804. 



Concession No. 4 



1 


R. Pilkington, 


2 


R. Pilkington, 


3 


Malcolm Brown, 


3 


Char. Chapin, 


4 


Bulah Millard, 


5 


King s College, 


6 


Deborah Sayles, 


7 


Mary Gates, 


8 


Finlay Malcolm, 


9 


Daniel Secord, 


Concession No. 5 


1 


M. A. Myers, 


2 


Charles Perley, 


2 


Jacob Mott, 


3 


John Wray, 


4 


King s College, 


5 


Bulah Millard, 


6 


Ralph Clench, 



Clergy Reserve, 
Crown Reserve, 





200 


22nd May, 


1797 




200 


22nd May, 


1797" 


N. y* 


100 


3rd June. 


1856 . 


s. y 2 


100 


16th Dec. 


1864. 




200 


22nd May, 


1797 




200 


3rd Jan. 


1828". 


1 


200 


20th June, 


1807. 




170 


26th Jan. 


1802. 




100 


7th May . 


1802. 


All 14 |7th May, 


1804. 



Clergy Reserve, 
Crown Reserve, 



I ALL 



200 



200 

188 

100 

12 



22nd May 1797. 



22nd May 1797. 

13th June , 1852. 

22nd May, 1797 

23rd Feb. 1803. 



Concession No. 6 



1 & 2 
3 & 4 



M. A. Myers, 
Joseph Smith, 



ALL , 300 
65 



22nd May, 
8th Jan. 



1797. 
1858. 



48 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Provincial Parliaments, from Sept. 1 st, 1 792 until the Act of Union 



No. Commencing . 



Ending. 



Burfnrd s Representative. 



1. 


Sept. 17th. 


1792 to June 1st. 


1797. 


Hon. W.D. Smith, 


2 


June 1st. 


1797 " May 28th 


1801. 




3 


May 28th. 


1801 


Feb. 1st. 


1805. 


Hon. W.D. Smith, 


4. 


Feb. 1st. 


1805 


Feb. 2nd 


1809 


Benajah Mallory. 


5. 


Feb. 2nd. 


1809 


July 27th. 


1812 


Benajah Mallory. 


6. 


July 27th. 


1812 


Feb. 4th. 


1817. 


Malhon Burwell. 


7. 


Feb. 21st 


1817 


Jan. 31st. 


1821 


Malhon Burwell. 


8. 


Jan. 31st. 


1821 


Jan. 13th. 


1825. 


Thomas Horner. 


9. 


Jan. 13th. 


1825 


Jan. 8th. 


1829. 


Thomas Horner. Chs. Ingersoll. 


10. 


Jan. 8th 


1829 


Jan. 7th. 


1831. 


Thomas Horner, Finlay Malcolm. 


11. 


Jan. 7th. 


1831 


Jan. 15th. 


1835. 


Chas. Duncombe. Thomas Horner. 


12. 


Jan. 15th 


1835 


Nov. 8th. 


1836. 


Chas. Duncombe. Robert Alway. 


13. 


Nov. 8th, 


1836 


Act of Uni. 


1841. 


Chas. Duncombe 


1. 


1st. April, 


1841 


Dec. 9th. 


1843. 


Francis Hinks 


2. 


Dec. 9th. 


1844 


July 28th. 


1847. 


Robt. Riddell. 


3. 


Jan. 24th. 


1848 


Aug. 30th. 


1851. 


Francis Hinks. 


4. 


Dec. 24th. 


1851 


June 22nd. 


1854. 


Herbert Biggar. 


5. 


Aug. 10th. 


1854 


June 10th. 


1857. 


Herbert Biggar. 


6. 


Jan. 13th. 


1858 


May 18th. 


1861 


David Christie. 


7. 


July 15th. 


1861 


May 12th. 


1863. 


David Christie. 


8. 


July 3rd. 


1863 


July 1st. 


1867. 


E. B. Wood. 



*When Charles Duncombe was expelled from to House, R. H. Hunter was 
elected to fill his place. 

Confederation Act passed July 1st, 1867. 



Dominion Parliaments. 



1. Nov. 1st 

2. March 5th. 

3. March 26th. 

4. Feb. 13th. 

5. Feb. 18th. 

6. Apr. 13th. 

7. Apr. 29th. 



1867 to July 8th. 



18/3 
1874 
1879 
1883 
1887 
1891 


Jan. 2nd. 
Aug. 17th. 
May 18th. 
Jan. 15th. 
Feb. 3rd. 
Apr. 4th. 



Majority. 

1872 Hon. E. B. Wood 167. 

1874. Wm. Patterson 262. 

1878. Wm. Patterson 444. 

1882. Wm. Patterson 196. 

1887. Archibald Harley 777. 

1891. Hon. Sir R. Cartwright. . . . 1122. 

1896. Hon. Sir R. Cartwright., 734. 



Provincial Parliaments, Province of Ontario from Confederation. 



1. 
2- 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



1867 
1872 
1875 
1880 
1884 
1887 
1891 
1895 
1899 



to 



1871 
1874 
1879 
1883 
1886 
1890 
1894 
1898 
1902 



Hon. E. B. Wood. 
A. S. Hardy. 
Hon. A. S. Hardy- 



. . 



CHAPTER V. 
Clergy Reserves. 

THE CANADA COMPANY EARLY MARRIAGES REVE 
NUE OF UPPER CANADA. :: :: :: :; 

What were the Clergy Reserves ? When did they originate ? What 
was the final disposition made of them ? and why were they the cause of 
the bitterest political and sectarian strife. They are but few men living 
to-day in Bur ford who is able to supply this information, the majority of 
the present inhabitants have probably never heard the subject alluded to ; 
yet for nearly half a century it was a burning question with the tax-payers 
of the township. They were the cause of great hardship and injustice to 
many industrious settlers, they hindered the growth of the province and 
the development of its resources, and was the chief cause of the irritation 
and discontent which led up to the events of 1837. 

The thirty-six section of the Act of 1791, made provision for reser 
ving out of all grants of public lands, past as well as future, and emolu 
ments arising from the lands so appropriated were to be applicable solely, 
to the maintenance and support of a Protestant Clergy. The endowment 
of Rectories were also provided for- 

These Reserves instead of being located in large blocks were scat 
tered all through the townships, in lots of 200 acres lying between and 
surrounded by the lots of actual settlers, who by their labors in clearing 
and developing the country enchanced the value of these reserves without 
any outlay by the interested parties. They greatly increased the difficul 
ties of the early settlers in road making, preventing direct communication 
and intercourse. 

The Provisions of the Act were intended to establish and make perma 
nent in Upper Canada a State endowed and State supported church, with 
out any consideration whatever as to the religious beliefs of the majority 
of the future inhabitants of the Province. 

The words "Protestant Clergy" was interpreted by those in power to 
mean, "Clergy of the Church of England", and in carrying out the provi 
sions of the Act the benefits obtained were applied solely to the Clergy of 
that body. 



50 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

This soon led to a strong protest from the adherents of the Church 
of Scotland, who claimed that the term "Protestant Clergy" was appli 
cable to their Clergy as the State Church of Scotland, which had been 
acknowledged as such since 1707, it was urged on the other hand that the 
term "Clergy ", was commonly used in reference to Ministers of the esta 
blished Church of England only, and had never been officially applied to 
designate ministers of the Church of Scotland. For many years the 
claims of the Church of Scotland remained unsettled, in 1819 the question 
was submitted by Earl Bathurst to the law Officers of the Crown in 
England which was given out on the 15th. November 1819, as follows : 
We are of opinion that through the provisions made by 31 Geo. III,, 
chap. 31, for the support of maintaining of a Protestant Clergy are not 
confined solely to the clergy of the Church of England, but may be exten 
ded also to the clergy of the Church of Scotland, if there be any such 
settled in Canada (as appears to have been admitted in the debate upon the 
passing of the Act) yet they do not extend to the Dissenting ministers,, 
since, we think, the term "Protestant clergy" can apply only to Protestant 
clergy recognized and established by law." 

It was not until the following year that this authoritive opinion of 
the crown officials was communicated to Lieut. Governor Maitland, but 
it was suppressed and concealed and was not known in Canada for many 
years thereafter. 

In 1823 petitions addressed to the King, Lords and Commons by 
Doctor. Strachan, on behalf of the Upper Canada Clergy Reserves corpo 
ration, was transmitted to Earl Bathurst. The Petitioners professed to 
be seriously alarmed, not only for the rights of the Church of England, 
but for the cause of religion itself, they claimed that the powers and pri 
vileges of an Established Church in Canada belonged only to the Church 
of England and could not include the Church of Scotland, they conside 
red that the setting up of new and rival establishments in Canada would 
result in disloyalty and would effect the stability of the State. 

It has always been a favored method of attack against their oppo 
nents, by those enjoying exclusive privileges at the expense of the State. 
to hint at disloyalty, there was not the slightest foundation or the shadow 
of an excuse, for any such an insinuation regarding the conduct or bea 
ring of the dissenting bodies at that period. 

In 1826, another petition was forwarded to the King but it produced 
no immediate results. The Imperial Government however, at last deci 
ded that some pecuniary aid be granted to other societies than that of the 
Church of England, but from other sources than the proceeds of the Clergy 
Reserves. An annual allowance of 750. each, to be taken from the monies 
received from the Canada Company, were granted to the Church of Scot- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 51 

land and the Roman Catholic Church. These payments were first made 
in 1827. 

Kings College chartered in 1827 with an endowment of 225,000 acres 
of land, a part of which was located in the township of Burford, was 
designed to place the higher branches of education in the Province under 
the control of one religious body, the president was to be a clergyman of 
the Church of England ; the council consisting of the Chancellor, Presi 
dent and seven other members were to be members of the Church of 
England and none were to receive the degrees of D. D- but members of 
that body. 

According to a return presented in the year 1833, 1160 acres had 
been set apart for the clergy of the Church of Scotland, 400 acres for the 
Roman Catholic Church, 22345 for the Clergy of the Church of England 
and none for any other denomination. 

An event occured in 1836 which caused the most intense surprise and 
indignation, the Governor in Council created and endowed Forty-fo <.; 
rectories, to each was assigned an average of nearly 370 acres, this Act 
aroused the other religious bodies as nothing in the past had done, and 
they joined together to try by a united protest to prevent any further such 
grants, and to bring about the entire separation of Church from State. 

The Imperial Act of 1841 gave Three fourths of the further pro 
ceeds of the Clergy Reserves, to the Clergy of the Churches of England, 
Scotland, and nothing to any other Church, the remaining one fourth was 
left at the disposal of the Executive for religious purposes- It \va ar 
ranged that small allowances should be made to other churches. 

In 1853 another Act was passed by the Imperial Parliament permit 
ting the Canadian authorities to make a final settlement of the question, but 
provision was made that the Legislature should not cancel, suspend or 
reduce any of the yearly salaries or allowances which had already been 
given to the clergy of the two denominations recognized by law as esta 
blished churches, or to any other religious denominations of Christians to 
which the faith of the crown was pledged, during the natural lives of the 
parties now receiving the same. 

The Act which finally alienated the Clergy Reserves from religious 
to secular purposes, was passed by the Canadian Parliament in the year 
1854. The sum of $1,113,770, was set aside for the clergy of the Church 
of England, nearly half a million to those of the Church of Scotland, and 
about $100,000. to the Roman Catholic Clergy. The Methodist Church 
received $39,083 in settlement of all of its claims. 

The Clergy of the Church of England decided to give their money 
to the Church, in exchange for an annuity during their lives. The final 
arrangements were made in the year 1855, at which period, the Revd James 



52 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD ___ 

Padfied, of Burford, was 52 years of age, his annual stipend of 121, 
13S, 4d was figured to be worth $6,678., based on an average calculation 
of expectation of life for a continuation to nineteen years. 

In consideration of the said commutation money to be paid to the 
said Church Society, the said Church Society covenanted and agreed with 
the said Clergymen to pay them the annual sum of 100 Ibs, by equal pay 
ments, on the first days of January and July in each and every year, so 
long as they continued to do duty in Holy Orders from the Diocese. 

The Canada Company. 

This huge land monopoly, so well known to the early settlers of Bur- 
ford Township, as well as to those in many other parts of this Province, 
was incorporated by Royal Charter in the year 1826. It was formed for 
the purpose of acquiring extensive tracts of crown lands and clergy reser 
ves, and by contract with His Majesty s Government, they secured various 
blocks of lands, mostly situated in the Western parts of Upper Canada, to 
the extent of 2,484,313 acres the largest block known as the Huron tract, 
consisting of 1,000,000 acres of Virgin forest, fronted for fifty to sixty 
miles along the shores of Lake Huron, the remaining 1,484, 313- acres 
was held in scattered tracts of from 200 to 40,000 acres. For this enor 
mous territory this association of land speculators was to pay to the Pro 
vincial Government, in sixteen annual payments, a total sum of 295,000. 
pounds, or about 2s. 5d. per acre- 

Nearly two and one half million acres of the public domain was thus 
locked up in the hands of a greedy clique of absentees, who posed as a 
paternal and beneficient institution, that offered the poor settler greater 
advantage than he could procure from the government of the day. 

In the Spring of 1827, the company commenced operations at Guelph 
Their exertions being mainly directed to a settlement of their holdings in 
the Huron tract. Their lands in Burford, the first of which they received 
Patents for in 1836, and the last in 1841, amounting to some 5000 acres, 
were located in every concession in the municipality except the second 
concession. 

The company, it was soon evident, were in no hurry to dispose of 
their valuable lots in Burford, they paid no taxes, the improvements being 
made by resident settlers, the increased demand for homesteads from the 
large influx of new settlers, the steady appreciation in value of lands, and 
the prospect of the opening of a great highway by the government through 
the centre of the township was sufficient reason in the minds of the 
management for the exorbitant prices which they at first demanded, and 
when sales did commence, the delays and difficulties encountered, was 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 53 

the cause of much worry and dissatisfaction. It was a day of rejoicing 
when the last foot of land held by the Canada Company in Burford Town 
ship, passed into the hands of a "bona fide" settler . 

The following form of conveyance was in use by the Company. 

We, the Canada Company, incorporated under and by virtue of an 
act made and passed in the sixth year of the reign of His Majesty King 
George the Fourth, entitled an act to enable His Majesty to grant, to a 
company to be incorporated by charter, to be called "The Canada Com 
pany" certain lands in the Province of Upper Canada, and to invest the 
said company with certain powers and privileges, and for other purposes 
relating thereon- In consideration of the sum of to us paid^ the hereby 
grant and release to all our right, title and interest to and in the same 
and every part thereof to have and to hold unto the said and his heirs 
forever. 

From the annual payments made by the Canada Company, the fol 
lowing sums were paid to the Executive : 

To the Lieutenant-Governor 3,000. pounds. 

" " Chief Justice 1,500 

" " Two Pusine Judges 1,800. 

" " Five Executive Councillors 500. 

" " Surveyor General 300. 

" " Receiver-General 300. 

" " Secy, and Register 300. 

" " Attorney-General 300. 

" " Clerk of Crown & Council 200. 

" " Solicitor-General 100. 

The annual report of the Canada Company for the year 1850 repor 
ted sales of 274,997 acres, for a sum of $166,167. It would appear also 
that no less than 87,000 acres were leased on the twelve year instalment 
plan, and some 429,000 acres on ten years leases- The revenue derived 
from these leases was the principal source of profit to the company, as 
many of the lessees received very little consideration when they were be 
hindhand in payments, through circumstances beyond their control. 

Up to this period, over 50,000. acres of leased land had been resu 
med by the company, nearly all of which had been re-disposed of at a 
greatly enchanced value. Of course all the improvements made by the 
settler during his term was lost to him completely. The following is a 
copy of the notice sent to these unfortunate settlers : 



54 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Notice to Canada Company s lessees. 

The Canada Company take this opportunity to again call your serious 
attention to the condition of the lease issued to you, particularly to 
the convenant which requires after all others are fulfilled, that you 
should on or before the expiration of the term of ten years, pay the 
amount of purchase money mentioned in the lease, if you desire to 
exercise the right reserved to you. If you do not punctually do this, 
all your rights, and interests in the property will become absolutely 
terminated. If you cannot yourself furnish the requisite money, we 
would urge you to find some person who would advance the required 
money or purchase your improvements, so that you may receive the 
benefit of them ; but you must take care that no transfer is attempted 
without the Company s consent, and that it must be completed before 
the expiration of the term of lease." 

Early Marriages. 

Previous to the year 1793, the great majority of marriages hereto 
fore contracted in the Province of Upper Canada were, according to the 
law of the land illegal ; and the children of such marriages illegitimate, 
only such marriages as had been perfomed by a clergyman of the Church 
of England was held to be in accordance with the statutes then in force. 
The children from all other marriages, most of which had been conducted 
by Military Officers and civil Officials, could not legally inherit the pro 
perty of their parents. For the relief of such parties, to make valid all 
marriages heretofore irregularly contracted, and to provide for the future 
solemnization of marriage, a Bill was introducted during the second ses 
sion of the first Parliament of Upper Canada which met at Newark, on 
Friday June 14th, 1793. After the usual procedure and discussions his 
Excellency, Lieutenant Governor Simcoe accented to the Bill. The prin 
ciple features of this important measure were as follows : 

"Whereas many marriages have been contracted in this Province at 
a time when it was impossible to observe the forms prescribed by law for 
the solemnization thereof, by reason that there was no Protestant parson 
or minister duly ordained, residing, in any part of the said Province, nor 
any consecrated Protestant church or chapel within the same, and whereas 
the parties having contracted such marriages, and their issue may there 
fore be subjected to various disabilities, in order to quiet the minds of 
such persons and to provide for the future solemnization of marriage 
within this Province, be it enacted and declared by the King s Most Excel 
lent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Coun- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 55 

cil and Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada, that the marriage 
and marriages of the persons, not being under any canonical disqualifica 
tion to contract matrimony, that have been publicly contracted before any 
magistrate or commanding officer of a post, or adjutant, or surgeon of a 
regiment, acting as chaplain, or any other person, in any public office or 
employment, before the passing of this Act, shall be confirmed and consi 
dered to all intents and purposes as good and valid in law, and that the 
parties who have contracted such marriages, and the issue thereof, may 
become severally entitled to all the rights and benefits, and subject to 
all the obligations arising from marriage and consanguinity in as full 
and ample a manner as if the said marriages had respectively been solem 
nized according to law." 

"And be further enacted, that in order to enable those persons who 
may be desirious of preserving the testimony of such marriage, and of 
the birth of their children, it shall and may be lawful at any time, within 
three years from the passing of this Act, contracting matrimony as afo 
resaid, shall reside, at the request of either of said parties, to adminster 
to each an oath that they were married on a certain day, and that there is 
now living issue of the marriage. This attestation to be subscribed to 
by the parties and certified by the magistrate. The Clerk of the Peace 
recorded these certificates in a register for the purpose, which thereafter 
was considered sufficient evidence of such matters." 

It was further enacted, "That until there shall be five parsons or 
ministers of the Church of England, doing duty in their respective parishes 
in any one district," persons "desirous of intermarrying with each other, 
,and neither of them living within the distance of eighteen miles of any 
minister of the Church of England, may apply to any neighbouring Jus 
tice of the Peace", who should affix in some public place, a notice, for 
which he should received one shilling and no more. The purport of the 
notice was that A. B. and C. D. were desirous of getting married, and 
there being no parson within eighteen miles, if any person knew any just 
reason why they should not be married, should give notice thereof to such 
magistrate. After which a form of the Church of England was to be fol 
lowed, but should a minister reside within eighteen miles of either parties, 
the marriage was null and void. 

The exclusive position which it was intended the English Church 
should occupy, as the state endowed Church of Upper Canada, was diffi 
cult to maintain, as before long, the majority of the inhabitants were mem 
bers of other religious societies. In the year 1798 there were but three 
clergymen of the Church of England in the Province and most of the mar 
riages contracted by Protestants were performed by Magi>trau-s. Among 
the Scotch Roman Catholics settled in the Eastern part of the Province 



56 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



there does not appear to have ever been any questions raised, as to the 
rights of Bishop McDonell and his Clergy to unite the members of their 
congregations in marriage, according to the rules and regulations of their 
Church. 

In the year 1798 an amendment to the marriage Act was passed, 
which provided that, it should be lawful for the ministers of any congre 
gation or religious community of persons, professing to be members of 
the Church of Scotland, or Lutherans, or Calvanists to marry according 
to the rights of such church, and it was necessary that one of the persons 
to be married should have been a member of the particular church six 
months before the marriage. 

This privilege was grudgingly granted by the Legislative Council 
under certain vexations and annoying conditions. The clergyman must 
prove his ordination, and was obliged to appear at quarter sessions before 
an assembly of six magistrates, with certain members of his congregation, 
as witnesses of his standing ; and it was optional with the bench of Ma 
gistrate whether they should grant or refuse him a certificate of his office 
entitling him to perform the marriage ceremony. Having received the 
necessary permission, he was obliged to publicly notify his congregation 
of the intended marriage, upon three Sundays preceding the consumma 
tion of same- 

On the 27th June, 1799, during the third session of the second PL- 
liament, held at York, Mr. Thompson member for Lennox, Hastings, and 
Northumberland, seconded by Mr. Rogers, member for Prince Edward, 
moved for leave to bring in the following day a Bill for the relief of *he 
persons commonly called Methodists, and the question being put, was 
carried in the negative, the Mover and Seconder being the only members 
voting, yea. 

In the year 1818 an Act was passed, making valid the marriages of 
those who had neglected to preserve the testimony of their marriage. 
In 1814 the Government had appointed an Official at York authorized to 
issue marriage licenses, previous to this a few had been issued direct by 
the Government. 

In the year 1823 the Methodist body made another attempt to secure 
recognition, and the house passed a Bill permitting Ministers of that deno 
mination to solemnize marriage, but the Bill was thrown out by the Le 
gislative Council. A great authority has said "The only just motive for 
imposing any restraint upon men on account of their religious beliefs is 
the safety of the state, but experience teaches that the public safety is 
more often in danger than benefited by these restraints. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 57 

In the year 1828 an Act was passed permitting dissentient bodies 
for the first time to hold land upon which to build a place of worship, but 
they were not permitted to hold more than five acres. 

In 1831 there was further legislation to confirm marriages contracted 
before any Justice of the Peace, Magistrate or commanding officer of a 
post minister or clergyman. It was also enacted that it should be lawful 
for Ministers of the Church of Scotland, Lutherans, Congregationalists, 
Baptists, Independents, Methodists, Menonists, Tunkers, or Moravians, 
to solemnize matrimony. 

In 1810 the Six ministers of the Church of England stationed in 
Upper Canada each received One Hundred pounds per annum from the 
Government, and 50 pounds from the society for propagating the Gospel 
in foreign parts. In 1819 the number of clergymen had increased to ten 
and in 1823 to Sixteen- The nearest to Burford at this period was the 
Revd. R. Leeming, stationed at Ancaster. 

Revenue of Upper Canada. 

During the first year of Lieut. Gov. Simcoe s administration, there 
was practically no revenue to meet the current expenditure- After con 
siderable correspondence with the Home Government, Commissioners 
were appointed, who met at Montreal on the 18th. day of February 1795, 
when an agreement was made which was to continue and be in force until 
the end of the year 1796. By this agreement the Province of Lower Ca 
nada was to settle all claims and demands of Upper Canada, which the 
latter had on account of duties levied upon Wines during the two prece 
ding years, to the amount of 333,4,2. 

The Province of Upper Canada agreed not to impose any duties on 
goods imported into Lower Canada, and passing into Upper Canada and 
was to allow Lower Canada to impose such duties as was reasonable and 
necessary. The Province of Upper Canada to receive annually one-eight 
of the net proceeds of such revenues. For the year 1795 Upper Cana 
da s share amounted to 1205,2,10- In 1796 the amount received appears 
to have been only 1040. 

At this period no taxes were collected, but a revenue was raised from 
licenses issued to tavern and shop keepers, who sold Wines and spii ituous 
liquors, peddlars and auctioneers. A tavern license cost 16s, per year, 
increased in 1793 to 20s. 

In the year 1831 there were 340 Inn keepers who paid for their license 
Three to Ten Pounds or a total of 3,643. Shop keepers licensed to sell spi 
rituous liquors paid a total of 1,505, Hawkers and peddlers on foot paid 
Five Pounds annually, those who travelled with one horse Ten pounds, 



58 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



two horses fifteen pounds, total amount received from this source 520, 
collectors allowance 26, net 494, this was levied on 41 foot peddlers, 30 
one horse peddler, and one two horse peddler. 

There were 23 auctioneers who paid 5 annually for a license, toge 
ther with a duty on sales. 

Lands were now taxed at the rate of One penny in the Pound, ac 
cording to the assessed value fixed by law. Every acre of arable, pastu 
re or meadow land was valued at 1, uncultivated land 4s, town lots 50. 




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CHAPTER VI. 
The Territorial Divisions of Upper Canada. 

Districts and Counties 

To provide for the proper administration of justice, and the preser 
vation of law and order, in that part of the Province of Quebec lying West 
of the Ottawa River and the last Seigniorial grants, Lord Dorchester, 
Governor General, issued a proclamation, dated at the Government House, 
Quebec, July 24th 1788 dividing this Territory into four Districts as 
follows : Lunenburg, lying between the Ottawa and Gananoque Rivers, 
Mecklenburg, between the Gananoque and the Trent Nassau, from the 
Trent to a line extending from Long Point in a northerly direction, and 
Hesse which embraced the remaining part of Canadian Territory, extend 
ing westerly to the headwaters of the Mississippi. To each district was 
appointed a Judge and a Sheriff. At this period there were no commissio 
ners of the law, no members of the bench, or civil officials for local self 
government. 

Four of the most prominent merchants residing in the new Districts 
were selected as Judges, in the persons of Richard Duncan, who was 
appointed Judge of Lunenburg, Richard Cartwright, Judge of Mecklen 
burg Robert Hamilton, Judge of Nassau William Robertson, Judge 
of Hesse. Previous to this date, 1788, the country had been ruled by 
Military law. The power of the Judges was practically absolute in his 
own district. From his decisions there was no appeal, except at a cost far 
beyond the means of the most wealthy litigant. 

It appears to have been customary after the accession of the House 
of Hanover to frequently apply Dutch names to various places in the new 
Colonies. Later on, they were mostly abolished, and replaced by good 
old English names. After the division of the Province of Quebec, in the 
year 1791, into the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, one of the 
first acts of Lieutenant Governor Simcoe was to abolish the foreign names 
of the four districts and replace them by the Eastern, the Midland, the 
Home and the Western. On the same date, July 16th 1792, these dis 
tricts were divided into 19 counties. 



60 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



List of Counties established by Proclamatiou dated July 16th. 1792. 

Glengarry Addington Lincoln 

Stormont Lennox York 

Dundas Prince Edward Norfolk 

Grenville Hastings Suffolk * 

Leeds Northumberland Kent 

Frontenac Durham Essex 
Ontario 

15 Suffolk county was abolished in 1796 and the territory which it co 
vered formed a part of the county of Middlesex, established in that year. 
Ontario county was also abolished, but in the year 1849, when a new 
county was formed from the Eastern part of the county of York, the 
name was revived. 

No alteration was made in the Limits of the four Districts. In the 
year 1796 the District of Johnston was formed from parts of the Eastern 
and Midland. By the year 1798 the population of Upper Canada had 
increased to about 50,000 souls, and Parliament made several alterations 
and additions in the territorial divisions of the Province, providing for 
the establishment of eight Districts, twenty-three counties and one hun 
dred and fifty-eight townships. The Districts were the Eastern, John 
ston, Midland, Newcastle, Home, Niagara, London, Western. The divi 
sions of the London District was not practically completed however, until 
the year 1801. 

The system of Districts was one well suited to the wants of a new 
country like Upper Canada. The population of the counties were too 
small to warrant the erection of jails and courthouses. There were Dis 
trict courts, but no County Courts. The Court House and jails belonged 
to the Districts, the Magistrates had jurisdiction throughout the whole 
District. 

Composition of Districts, 

Eastern District was composed of Five Counties viz : Glengarry, Stor 
mont, Prescott, Dundas, Russell. 

Johnston District, Counties of Grenville, Leeds, Carleton. 
Midland District, Counties of Lennox & Addington, Hastings, Prince 
Edward. 

Newcastle District, Counties of Northumberland, Durham. 
Home District, Counties of Y O rk, Simcoe. 
Niagara District, Counties of Lincoln, Haldimand. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 61 



District of London, Counties of Norfolk, Oxford (Townships of Burford, 

Blenheim, Blandford, Dereham, Norwich, Oxford) Middlesex. 
Western District, Kent, Essex. 

By the year 1816 population in the Home and Niagara Districts had 
increased to such numbers as warranted the formation of a new District, 
composed of a portion of each of the Districts mentioned- The new District 
was named after Lieut. Governor Gore, and Hamilton became the District 
town. In the same year the Ottawa District was formed from the North 
ern part of the Eastern District. Two new Counties were also formed 
this year, viz ; Wentworth and Halton. 

In 1821 the District of Bathurst was formed, and the County of La 
nark in 1825. 

The Districts now numbered Eleven, their composition being as fol 
lows : 



Eastern, Counties of Glengarry, Stormont, Dundas. 

Ottawa, Counties of Prescott & Russell. 

Johnston, Counties of Leeds & Grenville. 

Bathurst, Counties of Carleton & Lanark. 

Midland, Counties of Frontenac, Addington, Prince Edward & Hastings. 

Home, Counties of York, Simcoe. 

Newcastle, Counties of Northumberland, Durham- 

Gore, Counties of Halton, Wentworth. 

Niagara, County of Lincoln- 

London, Counties of Norfolk, Oxford, Middlesex. 

Western, Counties of Essex, Kent. 



During the second session of the 13th and last Provincial Parliament 
of Upper Canada, an Act was passed providing that as soon as a good and 
sufficient jail and Court House should be erected in the town of W r ood- 
stock for the security of prisoners, and accommodation of the courts, it 
should be lawful for the Governor General to declare by proclamation, 
the Township of, Burford, Blandford, Blenheim, Dereham, Nissouri, 
Norwich, Oakland. Oxford, Zorra and the town of Woodstock, a separate 
and distinct District by the name of the District of Brock. 

The above conditions having been complied with, such proclamation 
was issued and became effective from November 30th. 1839. 

As population increased and the country became more settled 
further divisions were made. In 1842 the Province was divided 
into Twenty Districts, the addition to the last list were as follows : 



62 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Brock^ Colborne, Dalhousie, Huron, Prince Edward, Simcoe, Talbot, 
Victoria, Wellington. The County of Huron had been formed in 
1841, the County of Perth in 1847 ; and the counties of Peterboro, 
Ontario, Peel, Waterloo and Welland in 1849. In the year last 
mentioned, Districts, in many cases having practically the same 
boundaries as the single county of which they then consisted, were 
abolished, and from that date all Officials have been known as ser 
vants of the Counties instead of officials of the Districts. 

The Act substituting Counties for Districts was passed on the 
30th of May 1849, and came into force on and after the 1st. day of 
January 1850- In 1850 the county of Lambton was formed and in 
1851 the Counties of Victoria, Wellington, and Elgin. On the 2nd 
of August 1851 an Act was passed to make certain alterations in the 
Territorial divisions of Upper Canada, for Judicial, Municipal and 
other purposes. By this Act it was provided that on and after the 
1st January 1852, a new county, to be known as the county of Brant, 
should be formed, consisting of the Townships of Brantford, Onon- 
daga, Tuscarora, Oakland, South Dumfries and Burford, the Village 
of Paris, and the Town of Brantford. 



District Town 



When Woodstock became the District town it contained some- 
1,000 inhabitants and Burford township about 2300. The town site 
was first marked out by Lieut. Gov. Simcoe in 1794 and called Ox 
ford. Woodstock was surveyed and laid out in 1833. 

The Township of Oakland was first surveyed in 1796 by Deputy 
Surveyor, Thomas Walsh and was known as the "Townsend Gore". 
In 1798 it was transferred to the township of Burford and was call 
ed the "Gore of Burford" until the year 1821, when the Provincial 
Parliament passed an Act on the 14th of April, forming the Gore 
into a separate Township, to be known as the Township of Oakland, 
and it was further provided that the said Township of Oakland, and 
Townships of Nissouri and Zora, be added to the County of Oxford, 
and that a gore of land on the east side of the Township of Norwich 
be attached to that township. 

* 

When Brantford became the capital of the new county of Brant, 
it contained about 4,000 souls, the population of Burford numbered 
4433. The original town site of Brantford consisted of 807 acres, 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 63 



which was surrended by the Indians on April 19th, 1830. As soon 
as the survey was completed the lots were sold by auction at an upset 
price of Ten pounds per lot, and as much more as the purchaser saw 
fit to bid. In 1833 the population numbered 347, in 1835, 875 ; in 
1836, 1100. By the year 1850 the population had increased to 3200. 
In 1847 Brantford was incorporated as a town. 

Brant County was formed from parts of Three counties, South 
Dumfries from Halton County, Brantford, Tuscarora and Onon- 
daga from Wentworth County, and Burford and Oakland from Ox 
ford County. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE FORMATION GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 
OF BURFORD TOWNSHIP. :: :: : = 

On the afternoon of February 10th, 1793, Colonel John Graves 
Simcoe, Lieutenant Governor of the new Province of Upper Canada, 
with several of his officers, crossed the Western boundary line of 
the Indian country and entered the plains of what is now a part of 
Burford Township. They were accompanied by chief Joseph Brant 
and a number of his warriors, as escort, who had conducted the party 
from "Brant s Ford" along the old "Indian Trail", which ran to the 
Thames and thence on to Delaware Village. 

Governor Simcoe was on his way to Detroit, then a British Post, 
and having reached the camp of some Indian hunters, situated at 
the Western end of the present village of Burford, the night of Mon 
day February 10th was passed comfortably by the distinguished 
travellers. The Lieutenant Governor and his Surveyor General, 
William David Smith, one of his most trusted lieutenants, were 
much impressed with the appearance of this part of the country 
and earnestly discussed the necessity of making improvements to 
the trail, for the passage of immigrants, and their effects, who were 
expected soon to arrive in large numbers, to settle in the Western 
District. 

After the return of the Lieutenant Governor to Newark, plans 
were prepared for the immediate construction of the great Military 
highway, called after Sir Henry Dundas, Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, to be extended from the Western extremity of Lake 
Ontario, in a straight line West, and early in the Spring Augustus 
Jones, Deputy Surveyor, was directed to run the line and lay out the 
work, and also to mark the corners of townships. 

The first Township blocked out West of the Indian country and 
South of this highway was called Burford. During the Summer a 
considerable body of the "Queen Rangers" were busily engaged 
felling the trees, levelling the ground, filling up ravines and build 
ing small bridges, by the Fall most of the work, as far as the Grand 
River was completed. Augustus Jones had also ran the Seventh 



^ THE HISTORY OF BUFORD 65 

and Eight Concession lines, which permitted settlers to locate with 
some degree of certaintly as to the lots they would receive, it hap- 
ened thus that settlement along the Dundas line and the lower part 
of the Seventh line, began about the same time, and also in the South 
East corner of the township, which was comparatively easy of access 
from the landing on the River Ouse, up which boats were able to 
navigate for forty to fifty miles. 

When Mr. John Stegman completed the survey of the Town 
ship in 1798, the population numbered about One hundred souls, 
and the deeds for the lands, for which some of them had waited for 
several years, were at last issued. 

For many years after this period the increase in population con 
tinued at a very slow rate and the development of the township at a 
still slower pace. The large quantity of land granted by the Exe 
cutive, after the departure of Governor Simcoe, to favorites of the 
Government and apparently many generous grants to themselves, 
in addition to the clergy reserves and Crown lands, had locked up 
from settlement, thousands of acres of desirable lands. 

Before proceeding further it will not be out of place to refer 
here to the men who first surveyed out the Township. Augustus 
Jones was among the first arrivals at Niagara and was engaged in 
surveying in that locality several years previous to the creation of 
this Province. He was of Welsh descent, his grandfather having 
immigrated to America previous to the American Revolution and 
settled on the Hudson River. He studied civil engineering in New- 
York City, where he received his credentials as a competent land 
surveyor. He was engaged for many years in laying out new town 
ships and employed many Indians in the work, he became proficient 
in the Indian tongue and very friendly with the Indian Chiefs. 
In 1798 he married a young Indian lady, daughter of the famous 
Mohawk warrior Terrihoga- Peter Jones the Indian Wesleyan 
missionary, born at Burlington in 1802, was the issue of this mar 
riage. 

John Stegman had been an Officer in a Hessian Regiment, com 
manded by Major General DeLoos, his corps was one of the first to 
arrive in America on the breaking out of the Revolutionary War 
and he served during the whole period of the contest, when the dis- 
bandment was carried out in 1783, he removed to Canada, where he 
was granted land and received his appointment as a Provincial land 
Surveyor. 

The first authentic census of the population of Burford was 
furnished by Thomas Welsh, Clerk of the Peace, from his office 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Charlottsville. in the year 1803. Bur ford and Blenheim was group 
ed together and contained 179 Males, and 157 Females, Total 336- 
According to the figures which gives the population of each Town- 
shipship separately a few years later, Burford s proportion in 1803 
would be about 250. The following year (1804) the two townships 
had increased their population to 202 Males and 172 Females, Total 
374, of this number there were six Males and five Females over 
60 years, 10 Males and 8 Females over Fifty and under Sixty, 86 
Males (Militia Men) and 72 Females over 16 and under Fifty, 25 
Males and 27 Females over Ten and under Sixteen, and 75 Males 
and 60 Females under 10 years of age. In the year 1805 there was 
a further increase in the population, the figures being 396 Males and 
300 Females,. At this period Burford and Blenheim contributed in 
taxes 11,16,3. No measure of "self government was permitted to 
the municipalities for many years to come, after the year 1801 when 
Burford was transferred from the home to the.. London district, all 
the work of assessment, collection of taxes, and distribution of 
funds w r as carried out by the district Officers. One of the first 
appointments was that of Thomas Homer as Register of the County. 
Among the first magistrates appointed for the London District, were 
George C. Salmon, James Mitchell, and Thomas Bowlby. George 
C. Salmon, was also a Commissioner of Customs for the District, as 
well as Francis L. Welsh, and George B. Askin. George Ryerson 
was collector of customs at Turkey point and also Inspector of Li 
censes. James Mitchell appointed Judge of the District Court and 
John B. Askin, Clerk of the District Court and Clerk of the Peace, 
John Harris Treasurer. Judge James Mitchell was also Inspector 
of shops, stills and tavern licenses, Henry Van Allen Inspector of 
Beef, Pork, etc. Board of Education John Rolph, J. B. Askin, 
James Mitchell, and George C. Salmon. 

Trustees of Schools, the Archdeacon of York } Ex- Officio, 
(was a Trustee in all Districts) Malhon Burwell, John Bostwick, 
Joseph Ryerson, James Mitchell, John Rolph, John Harris. 

With the Advent of the war with the United States in 1812, 
and during its continuation, the population of Burford decreased 
nearly 100 souls, settlement and development was at a stand-still, 
money, was plentiful, and for the first time cash was paid for all 
and every commodity furnished for the use of the troops. At the 
close of the conflict however } the township found itself swept clean 
of supplies and a great scarcity of stock prevailed. The farmers 
could not obtain sufficient seed to supply their requirements, money 
soon became scarce, in fact, disappeared entirely and for many years 



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Ancient Implement used in the 
Eighteenth Century. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 67 



after, trade was carried on by barter or exchange of goods, invaria 
bly the most unsatisfactory manner of transacting business. 

Wheat was the first crop put on new lands followed by Indian 
Corn, Rye, Oats, Peas, Flax, etc- Plaster of Paris was being used 
already at this period on the plains for clover. The ordinary crop 
was Three tons per acre. New land on the plains was let out for the 
halfs, the person taking it to be at half the expense of clearing, fen 
cing, ploughing, and harvesting. The crop was divided in the sheaf. 
On improved lands, if the owner found teams, implements, board 
and lodgings, the workmen received one third of the crop divided 
in the sheaf. 

Burford in J817 

By the year of 1817 Burford Township contained about 100* 
dwellings, and the white population then consisted of some 550 souls, 
As yet there were no churches, but two Itinerant Methodist preach 
ers made regular Sunday rounds, and religious services were held 
in tha homes of the settlers. One medical practitioner attended to 
the call of the few who required his assistance. Two primitive log 
schools completed the Township s educational establishments, and 
the school boy of those days frequently carried a gun to and from his 
studies for protection from the wild animals, which were abundant. 
There were but two Inns in the Township, three Grist Mills and four 
Saw Mills were in full operation, and must have proved of inestima 
ble advantage to the early settlers- 

The first public meeting of the inhabitants of the Township of 
Burford and its Gore, of which we have any record, was held in 
the village of Burford on the 5th of December 1817, and was pre 
sided over by Lt. Col. William D. Bowen, one of the first military 
men who had settled in Burford. This meeting was called to ga 
ther information regarding the resources of the Township, and to 
submit reasons which in their opinion, affected its prosperity, and 
growth. The unanimous opinion arrived at, was that these were 
greatly retarded from the quantities of land granted to non-residents, 
and the great number of reserved lots, these reserves being scat 
tered all over the Township, not only precluded the compact settle 
ment of the same, but materially affected the settlement in general, 
as the purchaser of a lot, if he is not so fortunate as to procure one 
handy to the roads already made, is under the necessity of making 
them through perhaps several Reserves, and the lands belonging to 



68 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



people that reside in other parts of the world, thereby enchancing 
their value at a great individual expense. They considered that good 
English farmers, mechanics and labourers, if they could obtain 
lands in the Township, and all the Crown and a proportion of the 
clergy reserves, sold or given to actual settlers, it would be an object 
of great importance to the further improvement and growth of this 
Township. The quantity of land for sale within the Township was 
unknown, and the owners of the soil generally unknown. 

On improved lands, if the owner found teams, implements, 
board and lodgings, the workman received one third of the crop divi 
ded in the Sheaf. Horses were valued at $100. cows $30. to $35., 
sheep $3. to $4. 

There were four blacksmiths in the Township who manufactu 
red axes, hoes, forks and many other useful articles. Their charge 
for shoeing a horse was twelve shillings and six pence. An axe 
cost the same price, a scythe eight shillings and nine pence. In 
Burford Village were two tailors, who charged twenty seven shillings 
and six pence for making a coat, and ten shillings for pantaloons, 
Two shoe-makers, who charged three shillings and nine pence for 
making a pair of shoes, where the leather was furnished, and five 
skilled carpenters who received ten shillings per day, and board. 
Common labourers received thirty five pounds per annum, or for 
the Winter month, two pounds per month, and during the Summer, 
three pounds, fifteen shillings per month, during Harvest, the rate 
was five shillings per day- The cost of clearing and fencing five 
acres of wild land, was estimated at eighteen pounds and fifteen 
shillings. The average yield of wheat per acre was twenty-two 
bushels Price of wool per pound, two shillings and six pence, Price 
of butter, one shilling, price of cheese, one shilling. 

The best lands at this period, were valued, in the vicinity of 
Burford Village at from five to ten shillings per acre- 

The Government Regulations governing the granting of land, 
to new settlers, in the year 1817, provided for a free gift of 50 acres 
If he desired larger quantities, it was procurable under certain res 
trictions and upon payment of certain fees up to 1200 acres. He 
was obliged to clear five acres on each hundred granted to him, open 
a road in front of his lot, and build a log house of certain dimen 
sions, and these duties, if perfomed within eighteen months, after 
his location ticket had been issued, entitled him to a deed from the 
Government. The fees exacted were as follows : For 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 69 

Acres 

100 4-4 4^ 

200 889 

300 12131^ 

400 16176 

500 21- - 110^ 

600 25 6 3 

700 291011^ 

800 3315 

900 37 94^ 

1000 42 3 9 

1100 46 8-- \y 2 

1200 5012 6 

These sums were payable in three equal instalments, the first on 
the receipt of the location ticket, which was always obtained as soon 
as the Government had determined on the quantity of land to which 
the applicant was entitled. The second on filing a certificate of 
settlement duty, and a third, on receipt of the fiat for a patent. 

There were but few villages between York and Amherstburg, a 
distance of 326 miles, Dundas, Burford and Ancaster, were the only 
places which from the multitude of their inhabitants were consi 
dered as villages, and the whole population of the three together did 
not exceed 600 souls. 

The first houses erected in Burford village were located in the 
West end, between the old Cemetary and its present Western boun 
dary. The townships educational establishments numbered two, 
one of which was located in the village of Burford and was opened 
in the year 1807. There were two stores, two taverns, three grist 
mills, four saw mills, one fulling mill, one carding machine, the 
cost of carding was Six pence per pound. 

Early Hotels. 

The accommodation provided for guests at the public houses in 
Upper Canada was of the most meager description. An early tra 
veller who made the journey from London to York on foot, passing 
through Burford in the year 1820 has left the following account of 
the accommodation furnished him at this period- 

"At Eight o clock in the evening, I arrived at Dogge s tavern, 
where I put up for the night. Taverns in the country parts of 



70 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Upper Canada consist for the most part of small log houses, with 
three apartments, a kitchen, a bed-chamber and a bar room. The 
bar room is alike the coffee room, the dram shop and the counting- 
house. The kitchen is the scullery, the dining-room, and drawing- 
room, and the bed-chamber commonly contains four or five beds, 
clean and plain, with cotton sheets and linsey-woolsey coverlets, but 
having neither posts nor curtains- The other accoutrements of this 
apartment are two or three chairs, and a portable looking-glass, so 
small that a Lilliputian might put it in his waistcoat pocket ; and, 
so far from returning a correct representation of the objects which 
it reflects, that if you look at yourself in it length-wise, it will double 
the longitude of your visage, and if breadthwise, it will equally aug 
ment the latitude. Such is the furniture of a Canadian bed-room." 
In this sort of apartment do men, women, and children indiscrima- 
tely seek repose from the fatigue of travelling- 

On entering one of these taverns and asking for a single bed, 
you are told that your chance of getting one depends entirely on the 
number of travellers who way want accommodations for the night ; 
and if you obtain possession of a bed by promising to receive a com 
panion when required, it is impossible to say what sort of a compa 
nion may come : So that, instead of hoping for the best, one is led 
into the commission of a sort of practical bull, to which, however 
who regard their own personal convenience are equally liable, whe 
ther they be English or Irish, by keeping awake for the purpose 
of receiving an intruder while no intruder comes to be received ; 
and thus we are sometimes deprived of a night s rest, without any 
advantage. 

I remember once being compelled to take a bed on these condi 
tions, because I could not otherwise procure it. I retired early 
to rest ; and after contending a short time with my apprehensions 
of some ineligible bed-fellow, I dropped asleep. About midnight, 
I was awakened by the chattering of five buxom girls, who had just 
entered the room and were beginning to undress themselves. Per 
ceiving that there were only four beds in the apartment, a double- 
bedded room ! each of which was already occupied by one person, 
I set it down as certain that I should have one, if -not two, of these 
ladies. Under this impression, I raised up my head, and desired to 
be informed which of them intended me the honour of her company. 

"Don t be alarmed, Sir !" cried one of them. "We shall not 
trouble you nor your bed- "A look is quite sufficient !" 

I suppose I must have discovered signs of fear, and probably 
looked horribly enough ; for the idea of three in a bed was rather a 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 71 

formidable affair. This, however, was the first time in my life 
that I owed the luxury of a single-bed, or any other luxury, to my 
looks. Until then I had always conceived, that my face was one of 
those every-day faces which neither excite admiration nor create 
alarm, but which, like the crow that is vainly set up in a corn-field, 
in the judicial capacity of a terror to evil doers, is only observed 
by the passing world as adding one to the number of its species. My 
prospect of good fortune was speedily confirmed, by the sight of a 
large bed arranged on the floor, in which the five young ladies com 
posed themselves to rest. In the course of my short life, I had 
witnessed much of the delightful loquacity of the fair sex ; but I 
was greatly astonished, when, after a brief interval of silence, these 
females resumed their conversation with redoubled energy. The 
tone of their voices indeed was less clear than before, and their 
sentences rather short and abrupt. They spoke principally in mo 
nosyllables ; and from the great stress which they laid on particular 
words, I was led to suppose they were engaged on the discussion of 
some topic of vital importance. But I could derive no benefit from 
their conversation ; for it was carried on in a language which I did 
not understand ; but which, from the abundance of gutturals that 
it contained, was most probably German- I was kept awake for a 
considerable time by their interesting confab, but arose in the mor 
ning too early to hear the termination of the debate, yet early 
enough to discover, that ladies speak German when they snore aloud. 
I have already said, that, in the bed-chambers of Canadian 
hotels, you are not supplied with wash stand or any of the para 
phernalia of the dressing-table. But, lest I should be hereafter ac 
cused of disseminating erroneous or garbled statements, it may be 
as well to inform you, that, on descending from your bed-room and 
walking outside the door, you will find something in the shape of a 
pig-trough, supplied with water, in this you may wash if you please, 
after you have dressed, or before, if you have any disposition to walk 
out in your morning-gown- 

In addition to these comforts of a Canadian hotel, and as an 
example of others too numerous to mention. I may be allowed to 
say, if you have a horse, you are obliged, not merely to see him fed 
and cleaned, but to feed him and clean him yourself, or else allow 
him to remain hungry and dirty ; and this, too, must be done with a 
good grace, or you will be assailed by the combined anathemas of 
the landlord and the windy clamour of his lady. 

It is vain to expect any sort of attention from the proprietors 
of hotels in the country parts of either Canada or the United States. 



72 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



If you ask the landlord ever so politely for any accommodation to 
which you may feel yourself inclined, he will sullenly desire you 
to have patience and wait till he is more at leisure ; and as to the 
young girls, who are usually found in these situations, they are, to 
use the language of Lieut. Hall, a shade sulkier than the men. Do 
you enquire of the damsels for refreshment ? The odds are, that you 
will be answered by a monosyllabic grunt, or some such delicate 
phrase as, "Mother, the man wants to eat !" 



Crops. Prices. 



The growing of hemp was strongly advocated, flax was culti 
vated by nearly every farmer for domestic use, as they were obliged 
to manufacture nearly all their own clothing, there being scarcely 
any market for their produce, They were unable to export any of 
thier crops at this period owing to the duties imposed in England, 
and having no money to pay for the necessities of life, they were 
compelled to get along with what they could furnish from their own 
labours. It is on record that not enough could be obtained from the 
distillers for a bushel of wheat to pay for the cost of production. The 
Hessian Fly was much in evidence and added to the difficulties ex 
perienced by the agriculturalists. The orchards produced abundant 
crops of apples which sold for Is, 3d, per Sixty pounds, and when 
manufactured into cider Ten Shillings per barrel of Thirty-two gal 
lons. Ordinary labourers were paid Thirty-five pounds per annum, if 
engaged for the Summer months only 3,15,0 per month, during Har 
vest Five Shillings per day. The cost of clearing and fencing an 
acre of wild land was reckoned at 3,15,0, a horse was worth from 
Fifteen to Twenty pounds, a cow Six pounds an Ox Ten pounds, 
Sheep 0,12,6d. 

In 1833 the population of the township numbered 1302, 150 of 
whom resided in the village. The London District contained 33, 
225 souls and the population of the province had grown to the num 
ber of 256,544. Hamilton had now become an important market 
where "Cash for Wheat", and other products of the soil was the in 
ducement which caused the Burford farmer to team his produce to 
that enterprising village. The current prices were, for Wheat, per 60 
pounds, Seven shillings. Flour, per 100 pounds, Three dollars. 
Oats per Bushels, 0,2,6d. Beef per One hundred pounds, Five Dol 
lars. Pork per One hundred pounds, Four to Five Dollars. Butter per 




The Congregational Church, Burford, Ont. 
Erected 1839. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 73 

pound, One shilling, to One shilling Four pence, all payable in Uni 
ted States currency. 

In 1836, the population of the township had increased to 14H, 
London District to 41,130, and the Province to 346,165. Burford 
had of cultivated acres 7,480, the total assessment was 20,640 
Pounds. 

When Woodstock became the district Capital in 1840, Burford 
township contained some 2300 souls, there was in operation one 
grist and nine saw mills, the rateable property had an assessed value 
of $180,000. There are probably still living in Burford some 
few who can remember the magnificient pine forests which thickly 
covered a good part of the first five Northern concessions, and a 
large tract of the centre of the Township. Growing timber in 
those days had practically no value, the bare cost of cutting, hau 
lage and manufacture, was alone, considered as the basis of apprai 
sal. Four Dollars per thousand was a fair price for the best grades 
of pine lumber, of a quality which it is now impossible to obtain in 
more northerly latitudes. 

As the country continued to develop and expand, Hamilton on 
the East and London in the West became flourishing towns, while 
prosperous villages like Brantford and Woodstock had out grown 
Burford and were fast becoming centres of manufacturing industry, 
Numerous hamlets had sprung up along the Ancient Indian trail, 
over which passed to and fro, all the heavy traffic of trade and com 
merce, so necessary to the advance of modern civilization- Large 
strings of heavily laden wagons, transporting all that a country im 
ports and exports, travellers on horse back, on foot, and in all sorts 
or crude conveyances, was a daily sight, which the inhabitants of 
Burford and Sydenham greatly enjoyed. The arrival and departure 
of the semi-weekly stage coach with Her Majesty s mail, and a 
varied assortment of foreign travellers, created more excitement 
and more interest, than do to-day the Express trains, which have 
replaced the old methods of travel. 

In the year 1835 the Revd. James Hall, a missionary of the 
English Congregational Church arrived in Burford, where he found 
a number who had been connected with that Society in the Old 
Country. He decided to locate in the village, and continued his la 
bors for several years. In 1839 a handsome church was erected under 
his auspices, which at first was opened to the members of all reli 
gious bodies, this was the first Church erected in the township. The 
Reverend James Hall resigned the pastorate in 1844 and was suc 
ceeded by the Revd. W. F. Clark. 



74 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

It was at this period that some new arrivals in the village at 
tempted to change the name by which it had been known since the 
beginning of the century. Like many other fussy individuals affected 
with over-officiousness and chronic unrest of mind, who are con 
tinually trying to change the names of the old streets and land marks. 
These new residents introduced the name Claremont^ and for several 
years the village existed under the burden of both the old and the 
new designations, which was a continual source of worry to Bur- 
ford s Post Master. In addition to Burfords one church, the Village 
contained two stores, one Inn, one cabinet-maker, one waggon-maker, 
two blacksmiths, one tailor, one shoemaker and one Physician. 

In the year 1833, Eliakim Malcolm was appointed magistrate, 
and in 1835, the first magistrates residing in the township of Burford, 
in the persons of George W. Whitehead, and John Weir, were 
commissioned Justices of the Peace on June 12th. After the for 
mation of the Brock District, commissions were re-issued to the two 
Burford Magistrates already mentioned. 

In 1842, when the second commissions, were issued the name of 
John Weir was omitted, and those of Lawrence Daniels, Ransford 
Rounds, John Eddy and Henry Homer were added. These changes 
signified a change of government, and when the third commission 
for the District of Brock appeared on February 14th, 1846, after the 
Tories had been returned to power, the name of Henry Homer was 
omitted and that of Charles Perley added. In 1849, Henry Horner 
w as again appointed as well as George W. Whitehead, Ransford 
Rounds, Francis Malcolm, Charles Perley, John Eddy, Lawrence 
Daniel, Alonzo Foster, and Robert C- Muir. 




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CHAPTER VIII 

The first Roads and Bridges, and first Railway. 

During the second session of the First Provincial Parliament, which 
met at Niagara 31st- May 1793, the Fourth Act passed was to regulate 
the laying out and keeping in repair the public highways and roads. Roads 
were not to be less than thirty, nor more than sixty feet wide. 

In 1808, Parliament granted 1600 towards the construction of roads 
and bridges. In 1809, 250 was appropriated for a bridge across the 
Grand River. During the next session, which met at York on 1st. Fe 
bruary 1810, 2,000 was granted for roads and bridges, and 250 addi 
tional for a Bridge across the Grand River. Further grants were made 
by Government, but nothing had been done for many years towards the 
improvement of the road through the centre of the township. 

After the introduction of the stage coach and when the traffic between 
the East and West had grown to enormous proportions, it was found ne 
cessary to make some improvement in the road from Sydenham West in 
order to encourage a continuation of throught traffic, which had become 
very renumerative to the stores and taverns along the line of travel. To 
avoid the long steep hill at Paris, the freighters much preferred the south 
ern trail, to Dundas street, and to such dimensions had travel and transpor 
tation grown, that there were at this period no less than twelve taverns on 
the highways between the two town lines. A road had been laid out along 
the centre of the fifth concession from Sydenham West, which became 
known as the stage road, but after the construction of the plank road it lost 
its importance and became a mere byway of the township. 

The Plank Road when completed was one of the best highways ever 
constructed in Canada and has always continued to be one of the most im 
portant in the Province. Operations commenced in 1842, under the direc 
tion of the Provincial Board of Works. Colonel Gzowski. the famous 
Polish Refugee, was Engineer-in-Chief. His Deputies were authorized to 
provide for a first class roadway, graded up to a width of thirty-two feet. 
Material to grade the road-bed, where it ran through level country, was 
taken from the sides, leaving shallow ditches eight feet wide and two 
feet in depth, and for the high grades across the low spots, the heavy 
cuttings furnished an abundant supply of soil and gravel. 



76 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

The late Robert C. Muir received the contract for constructing the 
road through Burford and across Oxford to its intersection with Dundas 
Street. 

After the grading was completed preparations were made to cover 
the centre of the road-bed to a width of sixteen feet with three inch Pine 
plank, resting on six 3 x 8 pine sleepers^ which were imbedded in the earth 
to a depth of six inches. Heavy wrought iron six and seven inch spikes, of 
the very best quality } were used to secure the planks to the sleepers- 

The driving of the last spike opened to traffic, what was probably the 
finest piece of road ever constructed in Canada. Immediately there was 
an enormous increase in travel. The first railway between Hamilton 
and London, was yet ten years away and all the trade, commerce and traf 
fic between the two cities flowed backwards and forward through the 
centre of the township, adding much to the growth and general prosperity 
of the village in particular and the township in general, and to the satis 
faction of the twelve inn-keepers located along the line- 

Two of the most prominent teamsters were Foote and Rowland, who 
transported large quantities or merchandise over the new road. The wear 
and tear caused by the immense loads continually passing up and down, 
soon made it necessary to effect repairs, and in the course of a couple of 
years it became evident to the government, that as a permanent road-bed, 
wood was a failure. 

It was then found necessary to commence removing the plank and 
replace them by a heavy coat of gravel and broken stone, extending when 
passing through the villages, to the full width of road way. In some spots 
both sleepers and the partly worn planks were covered over, and up to a 
recent period some of these were visible a short distance west of Cath- 
cart, still in a good state of preservation. 

A telegraph line had been erected adding to the importance of the 
"Stone Road" as it was now called, and Burford village had become a 
prosperous place, with an energetic and progressive community. Prosperity 
continued until the opening of the Great Western Railway in 1853, when 
traffic almost entirely ceased and travel gradually fell off. 

The Great Western Railway. 

This line was first called the London and Gore Railway and was 
chartered in 1834. It was capitalized at 150.000, divided into Six thou 
sand shares of 25 each. The County of Oxford having subscribed for 
stock to the extent of 25,000, the Warden of the county became, Ex- 
Officio, one of the directors. 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



The surveys were not completed until the year 1847, when construc 
tion work commenced, but owing to financial difficulties, the work was 
suspended until the year 1850 when construction was resumed. 

The length of the London and Brantford Stone Road was 57^ miles, 
and the total cost 49360,12,9. A return in 1849 gave the gross re 
venue as 2873 pounds, and the expense for collection and repairs 1056 
pounds ; leaving a net revenue of 1817 pounds. 

On the 15th. October 1850, this road, within the limits of the county 
of Oxford, was sold to the Ingersoll and Brantford Joint Stock Com 
pany, for $24,000, but in consequence of the failure of the Company, was 
resumed by the Government, and on the 1st- September 1859, was resold 
to the Ingersoll and Woodstock Gravel Road Company 5 for $800.00 which 
was paid in full. 

The Hamilton and Brantford road, including the Brantford bridge,, 
was sold 15th- October 1850, to the Brantford Road Company for $108, 
400. Up to October 1853, the Company paid the Government, on ac 
count of principal and interest, $26,849, and then ceased paying altogether. 

When the plank road was opened through Burford, Paris Village 
was deprived of a great deal of traffic, and in 1849 great exertions were 
made towards turning the tide of trade back again along the Dundas lire- 
A company was formed with a capital of $50,000, for the purpose of gra 
velling and planking this road from Dundas to Woodstock, but without 
the aid of this, Paris secured the new railway, and with it the hope of be 
coming a more important trade centre than Brantford. Their hopes 
were justified when an excellent grain market was established with the 
opening of the railway. After the construction of the Canal at Brantford, 
the latter place had also become a good grain market, while Burford expe 
rienced a serious set back, which continued for some years. 

After the Government had disposed of the Stone Road ; the new 
owners established two Tolls in the township, one just West of Burford 
village and the other half a mile East of Sydenham. In 1860 the toll road, 
as it was now designated, was purchased by Robert C. Muir, who opened a 
gravel pit on his estate East of the Village, where the English Church 
Parsonage now stands. In ISfo, tin- road again changed owners when 
Mr. Muir disposed of his interests to Mr. Lovejoy, Proprietor of the Stone 
Road through Brantford township, outside of Brantford town limits. 

By the year 1875, great improvements had been made in the town 
ships side roads and concession lines, this had resulted in a continuous 
falling off in travel along the Toll road, and the owner at last ceased enti 
rely to make any repairs or improvements- It soon showed signs of ne 
glect and certain parts became so bad, it was found necessary to call on the 



78 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



proper authorities to inspect its condition, this resulted m the road being 
condemned when it passed into the hands of the Township Council. Ex 
cepting the bridges, it has since been kept up by statute labor and in the 
village by direct taxation. 

Brock District Council. 

For fifty years following the creation of the Province of Upper Cana 
da no municipality was permitted any voice in the regulation or control 
if its local affairs- From 1792 up to the year 1842, officials ap 
pointed by the Government, assessed the land owners, levied taxes, collec 
ted the licenses and through this mediaeval system the Executive con- 
trolled the expenditure of all monies down to the last cent- This con 
tinuous sapping of the resources of municipalities like Burford, resulted 
in a state of affairs entirely opposed to the progress and developement 

the township. 

In 1842 the first measure of relief was put in operation by permitt 
the districts to form an elective body to be called "District Councils". 
The Governor however, still retained the power to appoint the Warden, 
Treasurer and Clerk, the Officers, we may call them, of the elective bod 
Council meetings were not to exceed six days- 

Each Township having not more than three hundred Freehold 
were entitled to one representative at the Council Board, if more than three 
hundred they were entitled to elect two Councillors. The Brock District 
Council lasted for eight years. Burf ord s two an Oakland s one .epr 
sentative during this period were as follows : 

Burford Ransford Rounds 1842 to 1849. 

JohnKelley 1842 " 1843. 

George C. Ward 1844 " 1846. 

George W. Whitehead 1848. 

Lawrence Daniel 

Oakland John Eddy 1842 

Eliakim Malcolm 1844 

County Officials 1849. 

Warden : Benjamin VanNorman 
Treasurer : H. C- Barwick 
Clerk : Thomas S. Shenston 

In 1849, Districts were abolished and the first Oxford County Coun 
cil was formed in 1850. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 79 



Oxford County Council. 

The Act which abolished Districts and substituted Counties therefore, 
did not alter the Territorial limits over which the District Council had 
previously governed- The new County Councils however were composed 
of the Reeves and Deputy Reeves from the various Townships, Burford 
being represented by Ransford Rounds and Charles S. Perley, who were 
elected in 1850. The same year Burford s share of taxes, to be collected 
towards the support, and to be under the sole control of the council, was 
280,14,8. 

Burford Township Council. 

The first meeting of Burford s First Township Council, under the 
Municipal Act of 1849, was held at the Inn of Henry Dorman (later 
known as Vanderlips) Sydenham, on the 21st. day of June 1850, when 
the following members answered to their names : Ransford Rounds, 
Charles S. Perley, Robert C. Muir, Isaac Brock Henry and Charles Hed- 
gers. 

The Council first proceeded to elect a Reeve and Deputy Reeve 
in the persons of Ransford Rounds and Charles S. Perley respectively. 
George, G. Ward, who had represented Burford in the District Council 
during the years 1844-5-6, was appointed Clerk, he was soon succeeded 
by Douglas Stevenson. In 1854, Robert Hunter was appointed, the lat 
ter served for one year and was succeeded by Alonzo Foster, who for 
many years, was Burford s well known and respected township clerk. 

The late John Catton was appointed Treasurer and served for many 
years as the Custodian of the Townships money chest. In 1852, Joseph 
D. Clement was elected the first Warden of the new county of Brant he 
was succeeded by Eliakim Malcolm, who served during the years 1853-4. 

A List of Burford Families who were Landowners in 1859. 
A B B C 

Allen Bonney Burtis Collins 

Armstrong Brooks Beckham Charles 

Brown Barker Cokeley 

B Ballard Burch Clement 

Bennett Bloodsworth Coon 

Beemer Boyd Conkwright 

Bailey Bowman Carter 



80 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



c 


H 


M 


S 


Chrysler 
Catton 


Hearn 
Hess 


Merritt 
Messecar 


Showers 
Siple 




Haney 


Milmine 


Skinner 


D 


Henry 


Murray 


Stuart 




Hixon 


Monatt 


Sebbick 


Day 


Hersee 


Meadows 


Silverthorn 


j 
Dutcher 




Moore 


Secord 


Darnley 
Doran 


J 


Mclrvine 


Smith 
Shellington 


Daniels 


Jull 


N 


Sims 




Johnson 




Shaver 


E 




Neil 


Swayze 




K 


Neff 


Stephenson 


Eakins 








Eaton 


Kipp 






Eddy 
Enwhistle 

-i-A 4 1 


Kennedy 
Kelley 


Oliver 


Thompson 
Trimble 


Elliot 


L 


Oles 


Taylor 


E 






Terryberry 


- * 


Lee 


P 


Tansley 


Ferguson 
Eorce 


Lawrence 
Landon 


Perley 


Townsend 


Earrington 
Eowler 
Ereeland 
Elock 


Latimore 
Lloyd-Jones 
Lester 
Lumsden 


Peffers 
Parnell 
Powle 
Pottruff 


Virtue 
VanHorn 


Eoreman 


Lymburner 


Patterson 






Lewis 


Poole 




ft 




Potter 




VJ 


". M 




Weir 






R 


Warbois 


Glover 
Griffiths 
Gage 


Moritt 
Muir 
McConnell 


JL\ 

Reid 
Russel 


Winskell 
Wilson 
Watson 




Millar 


Rutherford 


Willis 




Maclntyre 


Ross 


Winegarden 


Howey 
Harris 


McWilliams 
Marshall 


Reade 
Rixon 


Y 


Hunt 
Henderson 
Harley 


Morris 
Malcolm 
Mclnally 


Rathburn 
Ryder 
Robinson 


Young 


Hainer 


Miles 


Rand 




Hanmer 


Morrey 


Roswell 




Howell 


Metcalf 


Rush 






C 
O 



M 

1C 



41 
U 

c 

V 

TJ 



OH 

w 

3 



oo 



T3 

4) 

4-* 

o 

V 

V 



(0 

a 



CHAPTER IX 
Personal Histories, 

THE GLAUS FAMILY. 

We are indebted to a grand daughter of Col. William Claus, now re 
siding with her husband, Major William Evans, in the ancestral home of 
her grandfather, at Niagara-on-the-Lake, for a copy of his commission as 
Lieutenant of Oxford County. The extensive grounds covered with the 
shade of enormous trees, are full of historical interest. Many of these 
trees were of large dimensions as long ago as one hundred years, today 
the grounds are practically the same in appearance, and when viewing the 
place, one can easily imagine many of the interesting events which hap 
pened here in the early days of this Province. The "Treaty Tree", a huge 
oak, situated on the slope at the back of the grounds, under which the 
Indians annually pitched their tents, to receive the payments and provi 
sions due them, is still in a healthy state of preservation. Measurements 
made by the writer, gave a circumference of twenty-one feet, at a point 
six feet above the ground. Under its spreading branches a Regiment of 
Horse might find shade and shelter. 

In the shallow ravine stands a giant Balm of Gilead, the largest to be 
found in the Province. Near the entrance stands the "Guardian Tree", 
a branch of which remorselessly swept from his horse, an American Of 
ficer who, immediately after the landing at old Fort George in the Fall of 
1813, had started at break neck speed across the common, with the inten 
tion of seizing Col. Claus military chest, which generally contained a large 
amount of specie. The fall dislocated his neck, and his remains were 
interred beneath this tree. 

Near the North East Corner there stood, up to a few years ago, the 
famous Execution tree, about which clustered many gruesome tales of 
retribution sternly and relentlessly meeted out to marauding individuals, 
by the ex-members of Col. John Butler s Rangers. 

Hundreds of lead bullets were found embedded in the remains cf 
this tree, against which prisoners condemned to be shot had been bound. 

In the centre of the grounds stands the substantial old house erected 
by Col. William Claus in 1817, to replace the one destroyed by the Ameri- 



82 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

cans in 1812. Here Col. Claus frequently entertained the leading men 
of the Province, and lived in princely style. Many of the prominent In 
dian chiefs residing in the United States, who had in their youth, known 
his Grandfather, Sir William Johnson, and also his father Col- Daniel 
Claus, were often received as visitors, and given advice and council in 
their own tongue. 

In rear of the residence, on the slope of the ravine, is still to be seen 
the old Root house or "Pitt". Stories of the use to which this spot was 
put, during the occupation of Niagara by the American invaders, after 
the burning of the town, rival in atrocity those of the black hole of Cal 
cutta. 

We had hoped to present our readers with a photo of Col. William 
Claus, but owing to the natural reluctance of his relatives to part with so 
valuable and precious a souvenir, even for a short time, and to the fact 
that it is the only one in existance, the writer was content to inspect the 
features of Oxford s first Lieutenant of the County, and also of his fa 
ther Col- Daniel Claus. 

These beautifully executed hand painted miniatures are richly mounted, 
and never fade like the ordinary card photograph, every detail is there 
fore as clear and distinct as when executed 125 years ago. The photo of 
William Claus, was taken just after his appointment as a Lieutenant in 
the 60th Rifles. A handsome youth of fair complexion, he appears to have 
inherited all the good looks of his distinguished mother, his long curling 
hair falling to his shoulders in the fashion of those days, gave him rather 
an effeminate appearance, but the calm clear look of the eye and the lofty 
bearing is one to inspire confidence. His scarlet coat is of frock pattern, 
unbottoned at the top to show the high stand up linen collar and long 
flowing voluminous cravat. The photo of Col. Daniel Claus is that of a 
man about forty-five years of age, of medium stature, his features are 
of a severe and determined cast and somewhat sharply cut, long dark 
hair parted in the centre and turned up in rolls over his ears in curious 
fashion. His whole appearance indicates a man of very methodical ha 
bits, and one who would exact obedience and promptitude from his su 
bordinates. 

No native of Canada can claim more distinguished decent than Ma 
dame William Evans, daughter of Warren Claus, and grand-daughter 
of Col. William Claus. In the year 1494 the Claus, or Klaus, family were 
established in Klausenberg, Hungary, as Lords of the Manor, and pro- 
prieters of large estates in the surrounding country. At the time of the 
Reformation they sided with the Lutherans, and between the Roman Ca 
tholics on one hand and the Turks on the other, they gradually lost all 
their property and were compelled to leave the Country. The two elder 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 83 

brothers, John and George, removed to Austria where they settled, while 
the two younger brothers settled in Germany. 

John and Georges were enobled by the Austrian Ernperor for dis 
tinguished services to the Empire, and their direct male descendants are 
entitled to use the title "VON" before their names. 

The Patent of Nobility (now in the possession of Madame Evans) 
is beautifully engraved on thick parchment, still in a wonderful state of 
preservation, considering its great age, size 24 x 36 inches. In the centre, 
in orange and blue, the Glaus colors, is the coat of arms, size 4 l / 2 x Stf 
inches. 

This Patent of Austrian Nobility, after reciting the high esteem in 
which the recipients are held, and their merit and great services, conclu 
des as follows : 

"Given and Done at Vienna, Austria, on the twenty-seventh day of 
January, in the Sixteen Hundred and Eighth year after the Nativity of 
Christ, our only Moderator, Redeemer and dear Lord and Saviour." 

In course of time the elder brother removed to Germany. Col. Daniel 
Claus was the eldest son of this branch of the family. In 1747, Daniel 
was sent by his father, an extensive manufacturer of Wines, to America, 
with a view to establishing stations for the exchange of his wines, for 
Cotton and tobacco. In Albany he met Sir William Johnson, the great 
Colonial magnate and overlord of the Mohawk Valley. Accepting the invi 
tation of the latter to accompany him on his return to Johnson Hall, he 
was introduced to Sir William s accomplished daughters, and immediately 
formed an attachment for the elder, Nancy. After their marriage, he be 
came a British subject, and one of his father-in-law s chief assistants. 
Having settled on a portion of the great Johnson estate, Daniel Claus soon 
became^ active in the life of the colony, and was Colonel in the Militia of 
what was then "New- York Province", and also received from the British 
War Office a commission as Captain in the 60th or "Royal Americans." 
Colonel D. Claus was in England on the breaking out of the Revolu 
tionary War, and returned to America intending to go to Jamaica to re 
join his Regiment. On his arrival in New- York City he found instruc 
tions awaiting him from Lord George Germaine, to remain in America 
and help to organize a corps of Loyal Americans. He did as he was 
ordered, and on this account he lost his lands. 

In 1777 he was appointed by Sir Frederick Haldimand, at the urgent 
request of the Indians, an additional superinu-ndant of affairs for Canada 
From 1777 to 1789, he resided in the City of Montreal. In 1782 he had 
tendered his resignation in order to proceed to England, and personally 
lay his claims for compensation, to cover his losses during the Revolutio 
nary War, before the Government. His resignation was not accepted 



84 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



until 1784, as no suitable person could be found to take his place. Col. 
Claus remained in England until the time of his death, which occured at 
Cardiff, Wales, in November 1787. 

His remains were interred beneath the altar of the Cathedral in that 
City, with great impressiveness and solemnity. 

Memorial of Catherine Claus 

To the Right Hon. Carl Bathurst Knight of the Garter, one of His 
Majesty s principal Secretarys of the State for the Colonies, etc, etc., 

The memorial of Catherine Claus, Widow of the late Honorable 
William Claus. 

Humbly Sheweth that your memoralists husband, the late Wm. Claus 
was the son of a Loyalist who at the sacrifice of very valuable property, 
adhered to the Royal Standard in the American War and that after ser 
ving His Majesty 17 years in the Royal York Regiment and the 60th Royal 
American Regiment of Foot, he was appointed in 1799 Deputy Supt. 
General and Deputy Inspector General of the Indian affairs in North Ame 
rica, and subsequently a member of the Legislative and Executive Councils 
of Upper Canada. The duties of which offices he discharged until the pe 
riod of his decease, which event took place on the 11 Nov. 1826, that 
although the Indian Department is accounted a military department and 
is under the control of the Commander of the Forces, and that the Garri 
son allowances assigned to the situation held by your Memorialists late 
Husband are those of a Lt. Col., yet there is no regular scale of Pensions 
appointed to Widows of Officers services therein, although several such 
have received special relief from His Majesty s bounty. 

Your memorialist therefore begs to submit to your Lordship s consi 
deration her present situation and the great losses sustained by her late 
Husband and his family, from their adherence to the British Standard as 
before recited. 

Your Memorialist further begs leave to submit to your Lordship s, 
that her late Husband s daughter Catherine Geale is the widow of an Of 
ficer who served His Majesty 6 years in the 41st Regiment, and subse 
quently 5 years in the Government Office of this Province, and that she 
also, by the decease of your Memorialists late Husband, is left with a 
family of 4 children entirely destitute. Wherefore your Memorialist 
relying on your Lordship s humane consideration and on the liberality 
which so pre-eminently distinguish the British Government in provinding 
for the families of her departed servants, ventures to hope your Lordship 
will bring her case under the favourable notice of His Majesty, in order 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 85 



that some relief can be extended to her, and further to pray that whatever 
allowance it may graciously please His Majesty to assign her, may after 
your Memorialists death, be allowed to decend to the said Catherine Geale, 
in consideration of the services of her late Husband and Father. 
And your Memorialist as in duty bound will ever pray, etc. 

Niagara, Upper Canada. (Signed) Catherine CLAUS, 

April 1827. 

Henry Lester. 

Quartermaster Sergt- Henry Lester, born in Bennington, Vermont, 
Sept. 30th 1787, was the eldest son of Guy Lester by his wife Cynitha 
Lawrence, the former was a native of New London, and the latter of 
Lisbon, Connecticut. At the age of 15 years, Henry was bound out to a 
certain Fuller for a term of seven years. 

Having acquired a good knowledge of the manufacture of cloths, 
but a decided dislike against his employer, who was a harsh master, and 
being of too independent and enterprising a disposition to remain longer 
in what he considered a state of bondage, Henry made up his mind to 
immigrate to Canada, and left without the formality of bidding adieu to 
the Fuller, who doubtless vented his rage on the remaining apprentices. 

Having made his way to the place then called "Shipmans Corners", 
which is now St. Catherines, he started there the first woolen mill 
in Upper Canada. 

In 1810, he disposed of his interests in the woolen mill, removed to 
the Village of Burford and located on lot Number Four, Sixth concession, 
now known as the Andrew Miller Farm. 

In 1811, he married Selena Fowler, and in the same year enlisted in 
the 1st Regiment, Oxford Militia, and at the commencement of the war, 
in 1812, was appointed Quartermaster Sergeant- During that conflict 
his services were invaluable in securing supplies, not only for the Oxford 
Militia, but for other troops engaged from time to time in the London 
District. 

Although one of the non-combatant staff, Sergeant Lester took part 
in more than one engagement, and at the memorable battle of "Lundy s 
Lane", the commanding Officer of one of the companies being unfit for 
duty, he took charge, and led his men during the fight. 

After the war he was appointed Baliff and High Constable for the 
Township, and held that position up to the year 1850. 

His death on March 27th, 1876, removed one of the last of the old 
veterans of 1812, of whom it may be written, "There were men in those 



86 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

days". The late John Lester was the only son of Henry Lester, the 
former also left an only son, Mr. Henry A. Lester, who is the present ow 
ner of the Homestead known as "Veteran Farm", and is one of Burford s 
most successful and enterprising farmers and stockmen. 

The Whitehead Family. 

One of the most prominent and best known of Burford s First Fa 
milies, the Whiteheads were distinguished for half a century for their 
leadership in all Religious, Military and Civil matters connected with the 
Township. Of English descent, several members of the family were 
settled in the American colonies previous to the Revolutionary War. Ben 
jamin, a Captain in the New York Militia and another of the same name 
a Magistrate, James emigrated to New Brunswick in 1783 and received 
a grant of land for his adherence to the King s cause- 

The Rev. Thomas Whitehead, born 1763, with his three sons, George 
W., Willard M. and Thomas C. emigrated from New Brunswick to Bur- 
ford a short time previous to the War of 1812. First as an Itinerant Me 
thodist preacher, for many years before the erection of the first house of 
worship, Thomas Whitehead travelled regularly through the district mi 
nistering to the spiritual wants of the early settlers of all denominations. 
Meetings were held in the homes of those having the largest rooms, and 
during the warm season in the open air, whence arose those good old 
devout institutions, "Camp Meetings." e 

One of the fathers of the Methodist denomination, the Rev- Thomas 
Whitehead watched and assisted in its growth, from a few scattered fol 
lowers, to one of the largest and most influential religious bodies in the 
Province, and in the year 1840, when nearly 80 years of age, he was elec 
ted first President of the Conference. His death occurred at the home of 
his son in Burford in January 1846, at the venerable age of 83. 

George M. the eldest son, inherited all the military instincts of his 
ancestors, and during the better part of his life was connected with the 
Canadian Militia, his first appointment having been made in 1812 as En 
sign in the Lincoln Militia. George M. was Superintendent of the Town 
ship Public Schools during the years 1844-5-6 and member of the District 
Council for the years 1847-8-9, appointed Commissioner of the Peace for 
Brock District February 27th. l840-9, and one of the first Justices of the 
Peace in 1850 for the County of Oxford, and Warden for one term. 

In 1824, he was appointed Postmaster and opened his Office in the 
West end of the village, he appears to have been the first individual offi 
cially appointed to this position in the Township, but since the year 1819 
there had been a Post Office in Burford Village. 




Rt, Rev Bishop Charles H. Fowler 




Rev. Thomas Whitehead, 

First President, 
Methodist Conference. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 87 

After his removal to Woodstock in 1850, he took an active part iri 
all the Civil, Municipal and Commercial matters relating to the growth 
of that enterprising town. He died in 1868. The particulars of his mi 
litary career will be found in the second part of this work, as well as that 
of his brother Willard M. The latter, Burford s Second Postmaster, 
and Clerk of the Division Court, also the first official authorized to issue 
Marriage Licenses, was appointed to these positions in the year 1844, and 
during his thirteen years term of office, his services to the public gave 
universal satisfaction, and his position as Captain of the Burford Militia, 
made him one of the most prominent residents in the active life of the 
village and municipality. Having resigned his appointments, he removed 
to Brantford in 1862, and from there to Chicago in 1879 He died in the 
latter city in the year 1879. 

A magnificent oil painting of Willard M. Whitehead now in the pos 
session of his daughter, Mrs. Geo- A. Chrysler of Brantford, was the 
first work done in Canada by the gifted English artist, Robert Whale, 
and this portrait was awarded the first prize at the Provincial Exhibition 
held in Toronto in 1857. 

Thomas C, the third son, died in Sept. 1837, at the early age of 24. 
His remains were interred in the old Burford cemetary, and lie near those 
of the "First President". 

The Fowler Family. 

Among the first to acquire lands and settle in the new township of 
Burford were the Fowlers, John and William, with their families who 
emigrated from New Brunswick in the year 1798. Of English descent, 
the Fowlers had first settled in the central part of the colony of New York, 
about the year 1770, and during the Revolutionary War the family sided 
with the Royalists. Caleb was an officer in the Loyal American Regi 
ment, another Caleb of Westchester County, N. Y. was a captain in a 
Loyalists Corps. The lands of both were confiscated by the American 
Congress, and at the close of the war they retired to New Brunswick on 
half pay, and received grants in that province to compensate them for 
their losses. George, another member of this family was a noted Loya 
list, and William, father of William first mentioned was also a Captain, 
in the Loyal Americans. 

John Sr. and John Jr. were among the first to be enrolled as members 
of Captain Mallory s Militia Company in the year 1798. At the Election 
for the return of members to represent the County of Oxford in the 12th 
Provincial Parliament, held in the Village of Ingersoll on the 6th day of 
October 1834, Charles Duncombe, one of the successful candidates was 



88 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

seconded by Oraha Fowler, one of his staunchest supporters, and in all 
the events leading up to the insurrection of 1837, Horatio Fowler was a 
prominent character. In 1856 ,when most of the grievances complained 
of had been removed, another member of this family, the late Caleb Po 
well Fowler, was gazetted Ensign in the 5th Brant Battalion, promoted 
Lieutenant April 2nd 1857 and Captain October 23rd, 1862. One of the 
most prominent members of this family was the Right Rev. Chas- H. Fow 
ler, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, who was born in Burford 
in 1837, and died at his home in New York City on March 20th, 1910, in 
the 77th year of his age. Bishop Fowler, who was an authority on all theo 
logical matters, was noted for his ready replies and witty sayings. On 
one occasion, during an important meeting of the Clergy and laity, one of 
the latter, who was displeased with a ruling of the Bishop who presided, 
suddenly sprang to his feet and shouted : "Deliver me from the snare 
of the Fowler", before he had time to go further, the Bishop smilingly 
completed the Psalm, "and from the noisome pestilence." 

The present head of the family is Giles H., well known throughout 
the Province as one of Burford s most successful business men. He 
represents a family Avhose name appears frequently and prominently in 
these records, and one whose members have resided continuously in the 
municipality since the very beginning of its history. 

For the photo of Bishop Fowler we are indebted to Mr. James P. 
Fowler, one of the efficient, obliging and courteous staff of the Buffalo 
Historical Society. This gentleman is also a well known officer of the 
New York State Militia. 

The Yeigh Family. 

The name of Yeigh is written largely across the pages of the old re 
cords in the Government Archives, detailing the stirring times and memo 
rable events occurring during the first sixty years of the last century. No 
family in the Township occupy a more prominent position in its early 
military and political history. 

In the early part of the year 1800, John Yeigh with his wife Mary 
Magdalene, his four sons, Jacob, John, Adam and Henry and daughter 
Eve, set out from their old home in Pennsylvania for the wilds of Upper 
Canada, the journey was made by wagon drawn by four fine horses. After 
a period of some thirty days journey the travellers arrived in Burford, the 
Yeighs like nearly all of the other first settlers came in from the East and 
like them passed over the fertile plains of Burford, as being too poor to 
be worthy of consideration- 
John Yeigh and his family settled on Lot No. 8, Con- six, which he 
purchased shortly afterwards from Ensign David Parmer. After erect- 




Q. M. Sergt. Henry Lester. 
A veteran of 1812. 




Jacob Yeigh, 
A veteran of 1812. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 89 

ing a home, and a partial clearing had been made, John Yeigh, who had 
learned the trade of a potter, started the first manufactury, for furnishing 
household utensils, in the County, his customers coming from far and near 
to supply their wants. The remains of this primitive industry are still 
visible on the north side of the stone road about a mile west of the village- 
Jacob Yeigh, whose portrait appears at the head of this sketch, with 
his father and brother John, immediately became members of Captain 
Mallory s Militia Company. 

Jacob who was born in 1784, was just 16 years of age when he became 
a member of Burford s first Militia Company, and as soon as Adam 
reached this age he was also enrolled, and was one of the first men who 
voluteered for service in Captain White s Flank Company, in which, he 
was appointed Sergeant. He served throughout the war and took part in 
several engagements, notably the capture of "Detroit" and "Lundys Lane", 
he was one of the few who was rewarded by a medal. Jacob Yeigh had 
been commissioned Lieutenant in the First Oxford, and also took part in 
the War, he was present under Colonel Bostwick at the engagement of 
Malcolm s Mill. 

Considering the active part taken by Jacob and Adam Yeigh during 
the War 1812-15 and their services in assisting the regular troops parti 
cipating in that conflict, who were occasionally stationed in Burford, it can 
not be asserted that they were Rebels at heart, when in 1837 they orga 
nized a Company and followed Doctor Duncombe to Scotland, they were 
certainly Rebels against the abuses which then prevailed in the Province, 
but in those day, all, who were not humble and obedient followers of 
the political hierarchy, were suspected of heresies at variance with the op 
pressive system then in vogue. 

Jacob Yeigh was twice married, first to Mary Lossing, daughter of 
Peter Lossing, who settled in the Township of Norwich in the year 1809. 
After her death he married Isabella Daniels (sister of the late Lawrence 
Daniels, Esquire) and widow of Jonathan Stevens, who was a son of 
Justus Stevens, one of the first settlers in Burford. Jacob Yeigh died in 
the year 1863, he had lived to see his only son Edmund commissioned an 
Officer of the Queen s Militia, when he was appointed Ensign to the 5th 
Brant Battalion in 1856, Edmund Yeigh s part in the organization of the 
Burford Infantry Company in 1866 will be found in another part of this 
work. 

Under Captain Edmund Yeigh, the Burford Infantry Company, in 
their splendid Scarlet uniforms, reached a very high state of effiency, the 
rank and file were of just the right material to produce the best class of 
Infantry men and at that period there was plenty of such material in 
Burford. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



The Yeigh family are at present represented by Mr. Henry Yeigh, a 
well known business man of Brantford who is also prominent in Chuuch 
work and Mr. Frank Yeigh of Toronto, the well known and talented Ca 
nadian writer, whose many works are read from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
The latter was for many years private Secretary to the Hono 
rable A. S. Hardy, he is an Ex. President of Toronto Young Liberal As 
sociation, and some years ago was proposed by several leading journals to 
succeed W- T. R. Preston as Reform Organizer. 

Col. Henry Taylor. 

Born in the City of Dublin, Ireland, on the 4th day of November, 
1818, the late Henry Taylor, when but a youth of 16 years, immigrated 
to America, and finally arrived in Burford, when it contained a population 
of some 700 souls. 

In 1834 he settled on lot No. 21, concession 5, which has remained in 
possession of the family from that date to the present day. 

This lot was one of those originally granted to the Chancellor, Pre 
sident, and scholars of Kings College, and it had remained in its original 
state, until acquired by the young settler from Ireland. 

The lands in that part of the Township were densely wooded with 
giant sugar maples and other hardwoods, and to clear the forest and pre 
pare the ground for cultivation, required not only determination and 
great energy, but a robust constitution. Henry Taylor like the great ma 
jority of Burford s first settlers was blessed with unfailing good health, 
and to an eminent degree, possesed all the characteristics necessary to 
encounter difficulties successfully, and succeed where weaker 
men have failed. 

Three years after his arrival, the dissatisfaction with the Executives 
tyrannous methods of ruling the province culminated in the rising of 1837. 

In the following year when certain of the leaders who had escaped to 
the United States and identified themselves with American Filibusters, 
had lost the sympathy of the great majority of the Reformers, who were as 
much opposed to separation from the Mother country and to interference 
from foreign aggressors, as they were to the blighting system which had 
so long retarted the growth of the country. 

The Burford Militia were being re-organized as the 4th Oxford, and 
the subject of this sketch having now attained the age of Twenty, and his 
name being returned on the Militia Rolls, was one of the first to voluteer, 
when Lt. Col. Geo. M. Whitehead ordered a part of the Regiment on 
duty. From this time until the practical abolition of the Sedentary Mi- 



THE HISTORY OFJJURFORD 91 

lita in 1863, Henry Taylor was closely identified with the Military His 
tory of the Township and always took the greatest interest in his Company 
and his Regiment. 

In 1856, on the organization of the 5th Brant Militia, he was appoint 
ed Lieutenant and the following year promoted Captain. When the forma 
tion of a Service Battalion was dropped, Captain Taylor was promoted 
Major in the new Reserve Militia^ January 29th, 1869, and in 1882 he 
succeeded Charles S. Perley in the command, with the rank of Lieut. Col. 
Since the latter date no further appointments have been made to the Se 
dentary Militia in Burford. 

Lieut- Col. Taylor served for a number of years as a member of the 
Council, was Deputy Reeve from 1857 to 1860. 

After the formation of the County of Brant he was commissioned a 
Justice of the Peace. 

He married in 1849, his union being blessed by two sons, David H. 
who died in 1893, and Fred W., Burford s present popular Reeve and 
the head of the family since the death of his father, which occurred on 
January 3rd, 1900. 



A Partial List of Captain Taylor s Militia 
Company, in 1860. 

Oliver Treanor Jonah Howey 

John Dorman Timothy Cockley 

Thomas Anson Stephen Sullivan 

Henry Reed John Wetheral 

Stephen Rambo Henry Bennett 

Christopher Fear George Cope 

Alanson Wooden Thomas Carruthers 

Peter Thompson John Lunnon 

Hamilton Shaver John Wallace 

David Conkwright William Blair 

William Poole Joseph Poole 

William Foreman Alex Poole 

Thomas Wilson Samuel Osmond 
John Hanmer 



92 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 




The Perley Family. 



The members of this family trace their descent back to that Allan Ap. 
Perley, whose crest appears at the head of this article, and who left his 
native Wales in the year 1630 and settled in Boxford in the state of Mas 
sachusetts, where many of the name still reside. 

In the year 1760, Israel Perley left Massachusetts and settled at Mau- 
gerville on the St. John River, and was the founder of the New Bruns 
wick branch of the family. Since their settlement in that Province the 
Perleys have filled many positions of trust and responsibility. 

The subject of this sketch, Charles Strange Perley was born at Mau- 
gerville, in the Province of New Brunswick, April llth, 1796.His mater 
nal grandfather was Ephraim Tisdale of Freetown, Mass-, who left his 
home in 1775 and went to New York. During the war, while on a voyage 
to St- Augustine, he abandoned his vessel at sea, to avoid capture, and 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 93 

gained the shore in safety. Nearly destitute of money he accomplished 
an over land journey to New York, a distance by the route which he travel 
led of 1500 miles. In 1783 he embarked at New York, with other Loya 
lists, for New Brunswick, in the ship "Brothers" commanded by Captain 
Walker, and on the passage his wife gave birth to a son, who was named 
after the master of the ship. During his residence in New Brunskick, 
Ephraim Tisdale was prominent in Civil and Military affairs, he died in 
1816 leaving a family of Eight sons and Four daughters. 

In the year 1801, Charles S. Perley, then a child of seven years of 
age, with his mother and uncle Joseph Tisdale, came to Upper Canada and 
settled at Vittoria in the county of Norfolk. During the war of 1812, as a 
youth of but Sixteen years of age, he was present at several engagements, 
and was one of the very few taking any part in that great conflict, who 
lived long enough to enjoy the pension finally granted to survivors by 
the Government. 

After his marriage to the daughter of Colonel McCall of Norfolk, he 
settled in Ancaster where he resided fo r seven years. 

On his removel to Burford, Charles Strange Perley acquired exten 
sive tracts of land and soon became prominent in the political and military 
life of the township. Surrounded by his family of five sons -and five daugh 
ters, his beautifully situated home estate was for long one of the social 
centers of the county. A staunch supporter of the constitued order of Go 
vernment, with inherited convictions of the strongest kind against what 
he considered the revolutionary tendency of the majority of his neigh 
bours, and a firm belief in the political doctrine, held at this period by 
many of the descendants of the loyalists, that they were entitled to more 
consideration than the ordinary settler, had caused many hot arguments, 
prior to the events of 1837. Charles S. Perley was the first resident of 
Burford who learned of Mackenzie s defeat. He had been summoned to 
Hamilton to report on the political situation in Burford, and while there 
he met Colonel Allan McNabb, just returned from Toronto, who verbally 
authorized him to raise a company of Militia and oppose the Rebels. He 
was first commissioned captain 23rd April, 1838, and was one of the mem 
bers of the Court Martial which met in London during the month of 
January 1839, and which sentenced the unfortunate Joshua Guillam Doan 
to suffer the extreme penalty of the law. 

In 1840, he was appointed Magistrate for the District of Brock and 
for many years he balanced the scales of justice evenly between the nume 
rous litigants of those days. 

Charles S- Perley, was Burford s first Reeve, after it became part of 
the County of Brant he acted in that capacity until the year 1855, the fol 
lowing year he was elected Deputy Reeve. He lived to see the sons 



94 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



of those he called Rebels and others who were friends and sympathizers 
of Dr. Duncombe, gazetted valued Officers of his own corps, the old 5th. 
Brant. 

Colonel Perley was twice married^ his second wife, who survived 
him was the daughter of Sheriff Rapelgie of Norfolk County. He died 
on Sunday the 19th January 1879 } at the ripe old age of 82 years nine 
months and eight days. His remains were interred in the Cemetary atta 
ched to Trinity Church, Burford. 

The Muir Family. (Contributed) 

This family claim kin to the house of of Colstoun, Dumfrieshire, 
Scotland, founded in the reign of Malcolm (Ceanmohr), by Charles 
LeBrun, a famous French Warrior noble, who arrived in Scotland to visit 
relatives sometime during the latter part of the Eleventh Century. Ha 
ving entered the service of the Scottish King, he was granted estates in 
Dumfrieshire, and established his seat at Colstoun Park. His son Wal- 
terus LeBrun flourished during the early part of the Twelfth Century. 

In 1296, Sir David LeBrun was one of the Scottish Barons who swore 
fealty at Berwick. Richard, another prominent member of the family, 
was one of the principle Noblemen who headed a conspiracy connected 
with the Charters. 

During the fifteenth century the prefix to the name was dropped and 
gradually the remainder was changed to Broun, and this way of spelling 
it finally adopted. 

Sir William Broun in the reign of James the First, was Warder of 
the West Border and commanded the Scots in a battle fought against the 
English. A younger brother of the last named, for services rendered at 
this engagement, was granted considerable tracts of waste lands, called 
Moors or Muir s. 

In course of time the descendants of George the younger brother 
became known as the people of the Muir s and the name originated thus. 

John Muir, founder of the Canadian branch of the family, was born 
in Ayshire, Scotland, 1770. Having received the benefit of several years 
education at one of the excellent schools, which already existed in Sco 
tland, he entered the employ of a rich manufacturer of cloth goods and the 
famous Paisley shawls in the town of that name. Having thoroughly 
learned the process of manufacturer, he now established himself in bu 
siness on his own account, and at the age of 28, married Anna Winnett, 
daughter of Major Winnett of H. M. 13th. Regiment of Foot, an officer 
who fought with distinction during the early Wars of the Nineteenth 
Century. 




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___ THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 95 

After the cessation of the Napoleonic Wars, trade was in a very 
depressed state, money became scarce, and a great deal of discontent exis 
ted throughout Scotland, many were immigrating to the Colonies in the 
hope of improving their fortunes in new countries, where every man was 
welcomed. 

In the month of April, 1818, John Muir, with his family of five sons 
and two daughters, took passage in a large sailing ship bound for the port 
of Quebec, Canada. After a stormy passage of forty days they reached 
their destination and transhipped to a small steamboat, running between 
Quebec and Montreal. Nearly three days was consumed in the passage 
to the latter city, as the boat proceeded on her way only during daylight. 
From Montreal passengers and freight were transferred overland by 
wagons to Lachine, here flat bottom scows known as Durham boats were 
taken. These crafts were propelled up stream by stalwart rowers. 

Having arrived at Brockville, the party disembarked and were trans 
ported overland by ox teams to their final destination Perth, then a small, 
village, which two years previously had been set apart as the Capital of 
the new Bathurst District. 

At this period a large number of Scotch families had commenced 
settlement in Lanark Township, and after looking over the ground, John 
Muir with his elder sons and son-in-law Matthew Virtue, who had ac 
companied them from Scotland, secured a large tract of land in the town 
ship mentioned, and here they located for a period of some twelve years. 

Finding this section of country unsuitable for successful agriculture, 
the Muirs and their relatives removed to Burford in 1830, and settled in 
the North Western part of the township, when that section was an almost 
unbroken forest, with bears and wolves as frequent visitors- 

The casual visitor in viewing this part of the country at the present 
time, can scarcely realize that these lands were once covered by a thick 
growth of enormous trees ; to remove them root and branch entailed an 
immense amount of laborious toil. . 

The late Robert C. Muir, fourth son of John Muir, turned his at 
tention to the acquisition and disposal of the new lands, and during the 
next twenty years following his arrival in Burford, he dealt extensively 
in Crown Reserves, Canada Company and other lands. In 1842, when 
the Provincial Board of Works commenced the construction of the Lon 
don and Hamilton Plank road, he secured the contract for a large section, 
and had associated with him in the direction of the undertaking, his bro 
ther, the late Allan Muir, father of Mr. John Muir, of Brantforcl. On 
the successful completion of this important highway, he was pressed by 
the department to undertake similar contracts in distant parts of the Pro 
vince but declined in order to take part in the construction of the new 



96 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Hamilton and London Railway, which at that period was expected to run 
through the township. He built the section of Railway between Paris 
and Woodstock, he also erected a bridge over the Grand River at Brant- 
ford, when the previous one has been swept away by one of the periodical 
Spring floods. 

Mr. Muir was one of the first to propose the construction of the Rail 
way , from Brantford to Tillsonburg, and with Henry Cox and the late 
Edmund Yeigh, formed the Burford Committee, who carried the granting 
of a bonus in aid of the enterprise to a successful issue. 

When the first Burford Township Council was organized in 1850, 
he was elected a member, and in 1852, was appointed Magistrate, being 
one of the first appointed in the new county of Brant. He was an exten 
sive traveller, having crossed the Atlantic thirteen times, and also the Paci 
fic and Indian Oceans, in a Tour around the world. 

In 1870, when proceeding to the Port of London in the large clipper 
ship "Blue Jacket", on which he had secured passage from the Port of 
Lyttleton, New Zealand, when 1,000 miles from Cape Horn, the vessel 
caught fire, the crew and passengers were forced to take to the boats. 
The boat, twenty-seven feet in length, in which Mr- Muir was in, headed 
for the Falkland Islands seven hundred miles distant. After a perilous 
voyage of 500 miles towards the Islands, they were picked up by the Dutch 
bark "Prymont" and finally landed in Cork, Ireland. 

Mr. Muir was always intensely loyal and patriotic and inherited all 
the Military instincts of his ancestors. 

He was a life long Reformer, but one of independent views. Al 
though a friend and supporter of Dr. Charles Duncombe, during the lat- 
ters term as Oxford s representative in the Provincial House of Assem 
bly, he was strongly opposed to armed insurrection, and refused to consi 
der such a course as the only remedy left to remove the abuses from 
which the country was suffering. 

Neither Mr. Muir nor any other member of the Burford Militia was 
ever called upon to take any prominent part in the suppression of the 
revolt, the few who were called out, performed a certain amount of patrol 
and escort duty, but when Duncombe s force dispersed and dissolved, 
the Rebellion in this section of the Province was ended for good. 

The chief incident in Mr. Muir s connection with the Rebellion 
period, occured during the month of January 1838. In company wtih one 
of his brothers they had left their home in the western part of the town 
ship, and were proceeding to Brantford to transact some business, both 
being mounted on horseback. When descending the long hill known as 
McKnights, about three miles west of the town, they met a sleigh load of 
armed men under command of a regular officer, who ordered the two 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 97 

travellers from Burford to halt and give an account of themselves. Ha 
ving satisfied the officer s curiosity as to their undoubted loyalty to the 
Queen (nothing being said about loyalty to the Government ) j Mr. Muir 
and his brother were requested to turn about and accompany the party 
to assist in the capture of a number of desperate Rebels, who were stated 
to be concealed in a house on the road running towards Paris. 

The day was bitterly cold ; the side road was filled with drifted snow 
from a recent storm, making progress extremely slow. Late in the after 
noon the detachment arrived in the vicinity of the expected capture, when 
the officer halted and sent forward an unarmed scout, as an ordinary way 
farer, as it was thought that if the supposed part of Rebels caught sight 
of a body of armed men, they would either disperse rapidly or have time 
to make an effective resistance. A code of signals being arranged, the 
scout approached the house, where everything appeared quiet and peaceful, 
a dog in the yard wagged a cordial welcome, the front door opened and 
the woman of the house invited the supposed traveller to enter. Finding 
a comfortable fire he proceeded to warm himself and appears to have 
forgotten all about his signal duties- The officer at last became impa 
tient and decided to advance without further delay. Arms were prepared 
and the house surrounded without any hostile demonstration from the 
interior or any appearance of the scout. The men were now ordered to 
rush the fort, rescue the scout and capture the rebels, but they found 
hospitality where they had expected to meet with resistance. The man of 
the house however, who was the only man to be found on the premises, 
was taken prisoner and carried to Brantford. 

On their return journey, which was made after dark, the two mounted 
men were ordered to act as front and rear guards, but no rescue was 
atttempted and the officer with his armed party and his prisoner arrived 
safely at Brantford. 

Mr- Muir and his brother were detained on duty until after the ap 
pearance of the prisoner before the Magistrates, who sentenced him to the 
jail in Hamilton, where he was confined for a space of time and then 
liberated. 

During the year 1838, a detachment of troops were stationed for a 
short time in Sydenham, and a number of residents were unjustly arrested 
and brought before the Commanding Officer, who made his Head-quar 
ters in the red brick house on the north side of the stone road, about a 
mile west of the village. Mr. Muir, knowing that the accused were enti 
rely innocent of the charges which had been made through personal spite 
and prejudice, appeared on their behalf and succeeded in having these 
innocent men discharged, the officer being a man of discernment and 
intelligence. 



98 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

In 1856, when the Fifth Brant Battalion was organized, under Lieut- 
Colonel Charles S. Perley, Robert C. Muir accepted a commission as Lieu 
tenant, the following year he was promoted Captain and organized No. 3 
Company, which became one of the most efficient in the regiment. 

During one of Mr. Muir s trips to Scotland he met and married Mar 
garet E. Thwaites, daughter of Captain Adjutant Thwaites of the Ayr 
shire Regiment, who predeceased him some six years. Mr- Muir who 
was born in the year 1807 was at his death, on 10th. March 1905, the oldest 
Justice of the Peace in the county of Brant. 

Their five sons have all been prominently connected with the active 
Militia. John T. the eldest (now deceased) was for two years, from 
1873, a Non-commissioned Officer of the Burford Infantry Company, and 
became a member of the Burford Cavalry in 1875. Three years later, 
he entered the Civil service, as Ontario Immigration Agent at Toronto, 
when that office was abolished he was promoted Burser of the Govern 
ment Asylum at Orillia- 

William Kelso, now Major commanding the Burford squadron of 
the 25th. Brant Dragoons, is now the oldest Cavalryman in Brant Coun 
ty 5 and one of the oldest in the Province, still on the active list, he has 
served continuously since the year 1877, and carries the Long Service 
Medal and Decoration. Major Muir, is next in line for the command of 
the Regiment. 

Robert Cuthbertson, joined N. 5 (Burford) Company 38th. Battalion, 
in 1874, and attended the Camp of instruction held during the month of 
September of that year on the Fair Grounds, Brantford, also the large 
camp at Niagara, which included the Queen s Own Rifles, and 10th Royals, 
the following June. 

In 1877, transferred to the Burford Troop of Cavalry, under Captain 
Marshall, appointed Sergeant 1883, attached to Royal School of Gunnery, 
Kingston, granted first class Grade B. Certificate, June 1st 1884. 

Commissioned Lieutenant July 1884, promoted Captain 4th. May 

1898, Major 6th. February 1902, Toronto Cavalry School First class Cer 
tificate March 1898, Long Service Decoration 1902, R. O. 18th. Sep 
tember 1902, Retired 1907. 

Matthew Ford, member of the University Company, Queen s Own 
Rifles during the early eighties. Graduated 1888 B. A., Captain Dufferin 
Rifles of Canada, 1896, transferred to 2nd. Dragoons 28th. January 1899, 
with rank of Second Lieutenant, promoted Lieutenant 21st. December 

1899, Captain "C" Squadron, 18th. September 1902, Major commanding 
"C" Squadron 1911, Lieutenant Colonel commanding 25th-, Brant Dra 
goons 1912. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 99 



Allan D. Muir, joined Burford Troop of Cavalry 1881, appointed 
Trumpeter, 1883, Trumpet Major 2nd. Regiment of Cavalry, resigned 
in 1892. Commissioned Second Lieutenant No. 3 Company, 22nd. Batta 
lion, February 1896. Promoted Captain June 15th. 1896, resigned 1901- 
Appointed Paymaster 25th. Brant Dragoons, from 5th. April 1909. 



CHAPTER X 
Burford s Parliamentary Representatives. 

SIR FRANCIS HINCKS 

Sir Francis Hincks was born in the City of Cork, in the year 1807- 
He was the fifth and youngest son of Dr. Hincks, of the family of Hincks, 
of Breckenbrough, in Yorkshire, which traces its origin to William Hincks, 
an Alderman of Chester in 1341. Dr. Hincks settled in Cork in the 
year 1791, as Minister of a Presbyterian Congregation. 

He published a number of educational works and was distinguished 
for his success in the instruction of youth. In 1815, he became connected 
with the classical school of Fermoy and in 1821 removed to Bedfast, ha 
ving been appointed head classical master of the Royal Institution in that 
city. Francis received a first class education, as it was intended that he 
should take up a professional career, but in 1823 he became connected 
with a large commercial house which sent him to the West Indies in the 
year 1830. 

After visiting the principal islands he came to Canada and was so 
favourably impressed with the country, that he decided to make it his futu 
re home. He returned to Ireland in 1831, and the following year having 
married, he sailed again for America and settled in Toronto, where a few 
years later he commenced publication of the "Examiner" Newspaper, 
which at one time had a large circulation throughout Oxford County. 

Through his writings Mr. Hincks became well known to the readers 
of his paper, and his strong and able advocacy of the reforms so ardently 
desired by the electors, had made him popular before he was personally 
known to the Liberals of Oxford- 

At the Convention held in Woodstock, during the Winter of 1841, to 
select a candidate to represent the county in the new Parliament of the 
two Canadas, several names were proposed, but eventually all withdrew 
in favor of Mr. Hincks, who was strongly supported by the Burford dele 
gation. 

The election was held in Woodstock, from the 15th. March 1841. The 
Poll was opened all week for the accommodation of the voters, who were 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 101 

obliged to come from all parts of the county, Hincks was returned by 
the narrow majority of 31 over his opponent, Peter Carrol, Surveyor 
of Oxford, who was a son-in-law of Admiral Vansittart. 

After Parliament met, Mr. Hincks was selected to fill the position of 
Inspector General, an appointment somewhat similiar to that of Finance 
Minister, this neecessitated a new election, which was held 14th. July 1842. 
In this contest the Honorable Francis Hincks was opposed by John Arms 
trong of Zora, on the third day, the votes being overwhelmnly in favor of 
the Inspector General, Mr. Armstrong withdrew- 

This the first Parliament of the United Provinces of Upper and Lo 
wer Canada, passed a new Election Law, which contained provisions that 
had long been sought for by the Electors, instead of as heretofore, only one 
Poll for the whole county, there would be one opened in each Township. 

Nomination for the second Parliament was held in Woodstock, on 
the 18th. day of October 1844, Hincks was opposed by Robert Riddell, one 
of the strongest and most popular men of his party. Riddell, was elected 
by a majority of 22 votes. Burford township Polled 204 votes, 104 of 
which were for Hincks. Of Oaklands total of 48 votes, 34 were for 
Hincks. 

Nominations for the third Parliament was held in Woodstock on 
21st. December 1848, Sir Francis Hincks was again the candidate of the 
Reformers and Peter Carrol of the Tories, Mr. Hincks carried this elec 
tion with the handsome majority of 335 votes. The total vote of Burford 
Township was 225, of which 123 were for Hincks. Of Oakland 60 votes, 
40 were for Hinks. 

On the 15th. day of November 1851, nominations to elect a member 
for the fourth Parliament, was again held at Woodstock. The candida 
tes selected were the Honorable Francis Hincks and John G. Vansittart, 
son of Admiral Vansittart. The total vote polled was 2519, of which 
Hincks received 1299, Burford s vote was 350, or 192 for Hincks, and 158 
for Carrol. Oakland gave 67 votes for Hincks and 15 for Vansittart. 

In 1851, Mr. Hincks was named Prime Minister by the Governor 
General. In 1852 he visited England jn the interest of the proposed Grand 
Trunk Railway, his proposition to the Canadian Parliament to spend 
$16,000,000 in furtherance of this project was considered by many to be 
beyond the financial powers of the country. 

He retired from political life in 1855, when he was appointed Gover 
nor of the Windward Islands. After his return to Canada, having 
resigned his post, he re-entered Parliament in 1866, as member for Ren 
frew- 

In 1873, when Sir Francis Hincks offered himself as candidate of the 
Conservative party, for the South Riding of Brant, for the second Domi 
nion election, he made a personal call on many of the old and prominent 



102 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Liberals in the Township of Burford, who had supported him during the 
days of his early political career, soliciting their support on account of 
his past services to the country. After his defeat, by the rising young po 
litician, William Patterson ) he was elected for Vancouver, but did not 
remain long in Parliament, having many other important matters to occu 
py his time. He was President of the Confederation Life Insurance Com 
pany ; and a Member of the Council of the Royal Colonial Institute. His 
greatest Canadian work was the construction of the Grand Trunk Rail 
way. He was created C. B. and K. C. M. G. During the smallpox epi 
demic, Sir Francis, one of the most able and brilliant of Canada s public 
men, fell a victim to the scourge. 

Hon. Edmund Burke Wood. (Big Thundtr i.) 

Burford township, as part of the counties of Oxford and Brant, has 
at different periods been represented in Parliament by some extraordinary 
men, among the best known of these was the original "Big Thunder", 
one of the most powerful debaters that has ever appeared in the political 
arena of Canada. His advent into public life was the result of an acci 
dent. Having lost the lower part of his left arm while engaged in thresh 
ing at an early age, he entered college and proved to be an apt and bril 
liant scholar. 

He now studied law, and established himself in Brantford, where for 
long, he was the leading Council. When the first Executive of the new 
Province of Ontario was formed in 1867, with John Sandfield Macdonald 
as Premier, E- B. Wood became one of his colleagues, in what was called 
the coalition or Patent combination Government. At the general and lo 
cal elections held that year. "Vote for Wood. In both houses * was the 
motto of his supporters. He was opposed by Messrs. Leeming and 
Biggar, the George Brown Liberal Candidates, but was triumphantly elec 
ted over both his opponents, having received the solid Conservative vote, 
as well as the support of a large section of Reformers. 

The Hon. E. B. Wood thus had the unique distinction of not only 
representing the South Riding of Brant, in both the Federal and Local 
Houses of Parliament, but of being the first of the Ridings representa 
tives in the new Dominion and Provincial Legislatures. 

His first great speech in the House of Commons created a sensation, 
his thunderous voice, leonine appearance and dominant personality, swayed 
his audience to a remarkable degree. It was after this occasion that a 
prominent Toronto Journal formerly a supporter, but now an opponent, 
in a special editorial referred to E. B. Wood as "Big Thunder", the great 
chief from the wilds of South Brant, who comes roaring, ramping, raging 
down to the great Council House, on the Banks of the Ottawa. 



^ == _ THE H^STORY^OF BURFORD 103 

The last appearance of the Hon. E. B. Wood on the public platform 
in Burford Township, was in the village of Harley, where he had been in 
vited by the committee, having the matter in charge, to address the voters, 
on the question of granting an adequate bonus in aid of the proposed 
Brantford, Norfolk and Port Burwell Railway. His convincing argu 
ments were listened to with the greatest of attention, and helped to carry 
the vote in favor of the grant of $30,000, which the Township subscribed 
to this enterprise. 

Subsequently appointed Chief Justice of Manitoba, not as important 
a position then as now, his great abilities and services to his Country 
would have entitled him to a better post in his native Province. 

The Hon. William Patterson, (rig Thunder \\.) 

This gifted son or South Brant, previous to the year 1872, was prac 
tically unknown to the Burford Electorate. The unanimous choice of 
the Reform convention, met to choose a candidate for the General Elec 
tions held that year, William Patterson, then a young man of great busi 
ness ability, entered into the contest with a vim and determination that 
could only mean success. His first address in the township was deli 
vered in the large public Hall, then standing at the corner of King and 
William Streets. One of the most fluent and rapid speakers who had ever 
addressed a. Burford audience, in powerful tones, with a clear and concise 
statement of the new Dominion s Political situation, he presented his views 
in such a sincere and convincing manner, and submitted to the electors 
such an astonishing array of facts and figures, and displayed so great a 
grasp and so clear a view, of all the important political questions of the 
day, as to inspire his followers with more energy and vigor, than they had 
shown for some years. 

The same evening, Mr. Alfred Watts, the Conservative candidate, a 
well known and respected commercial man of Brantford, supported by 
some able speakers, addressed his friends in the schoolhouse. This gen 
tleman shortly afterwards retired in favor of Sir Francis Hinks, the able 
Finance Minister, who after a long period, again besought the support of 
his old friends in Burford. His past services to the Reform party and to 
the Province, and his distinguished career, did appeal to a few, but the 
great mass of the Reformers were for Patterson. They felt the swing of 
victory in the air, and wtih a large majority, William Patterson gained 
his first, and one of the greatest victories of the contest. 

Sir Francis Hinks, who had succeeded Sir John Rose as Finance 
Minister in 1870, on his retirement from the governorship of the Wind 
ward Isles, secured a seat in Vancouver, B. C., but shortly afterwards re 
signed from the Ministry. 



104 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



At this period members received as indemnity the princely sum of 
six hundred dollars ($600.), but in 1873, the allowance was increased to 
one thousand dollars (1,000-), with this amount, the members were, 
for the time being, well satisfied. From the year 1872, until the end of 
1911, a period of nearly forty years, William Patterson has been a pv/.er 
in the House of Commons, and from 1896 he stood high in the Councils 
of the Nation. His services to his country have been invaluable, and the 
handsome and commodious Armory in Burford, is a lasting monument to 
his willingness and ability to serve his constitutents. 

Hon. Arthur Sturgus Hardy. (Little Thunder.) 

The name of Arthur Sturgus Hardy (Little Thunder) will long be 
remembered, not only in his native county, but throughout the Province 
of Ontario. Political meetings were never dull when A. S. Hardy was 
on the list of speakers. His audiences, friends and opponents alike, were 
kept in good humor by frequent witty sparkling allusions, which never 
failed to have the desired effect upon the minds of his hearers. 

Gifted with a wonderful voice of great penetration and power, an 
unrivaled delivery and enunciation and great personal magnetism, his 
equal at repartee, and when necessary stinging replies, which always 
found their mark, has never been known in the County of Brant. 

A brilliant, able and learned jurist, he gave up a large and lucrative 
practice, to serve his Province, for a fraction of the yearly income he could 
have secured in the pursuit of his personal affairs. From beginning to end, 
Arthur S. Hardy had an absolutely clean record. No political leader of 
the past generation laboured a greater length of time, or with greater 
energy, for the benefit and to the advantage of this Province. He sacri 
ficed the accumulation of a fortune, had he followed the pursuit of his pro 
fession, to give the best part of his life towards the upbuilding of a grow 
ing country. 

One of the most memorable of his many Burford meetings, was 
that held in Barnea Hall, during the season that a certain shortlived 
society, contrived to struggle out a precarious existance of a few months. 
The most ridiculous stories and pernicious insinuations had been indus 
triously and persistantly circulated throughout the rural districts- More 
than one life long Reformer had apparently grown lukewarm supporters 
of their party, and on this occasion, when the Hon. A. S. Hardy opened 
his address, he faced the most serious looking audience he had yet seen, 
outside the four walls of a church. 

The speaker lost no time in approaching the subject, which he instinct 
ively knew was uppermost in the minds of his hearers. In tones almost 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 105 



dramatic, he alluded to "Strange whisperings up and down the back con 
cession lines" and then proceeded to expose the silly and preposterous 
tales, which like the mists had floated over the country side, the dark 
hints of dangerous conspiracies, and foul plots of the G. Fawkes Order, 
were shown to have originated only in the shallow pate and befuddled 
brain of the circulating medium. The fog of doubt and suspicion was 
lifted and peace again settled over the land. 

The retirement of the Honorable A- S. Hardy from public life, has 
tened by the precarious state of his health, was greatly regretted by his 
colleagues and his thousands of friends in Brant County. He possessed 
to a remarquable degree, that rare quality, so often found wanting in pu 
blic men, of not only creating, but holding the life long support of his 
friends and admirers. He was a man who never forgot his friends, what 
more need be said. 



CHAPTER XI 
The Union of Upper and Lower Canada. 

BROCK DISTRICT AND OXFORD COUNTY COUNCILS 
POST OFFICES AND THE MAILS. 

The Act of Union, sanctioned by the Queen, July 23rd. 1840, become 
effective February 10th. 1841, and was entitled, an Act to re-unite the 
Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. The third Clause provided, 
that for the United Province, there be one Legislative Council and one 
Assembly. That in the United Legislative Assembly the Provinces before 
called Upper and Lower Canada, should be represented by an equal num 
ber of members- 
Provision was further made, that the Counties of Halton, Northum 
berland and Lincoln should be divided into two ridings, each to have one 
member. That every other county o r riding in Upper Canada, entitled 
to, representation, after the passing of the Act, should have one member. 
That the City of Toronto should have two members, and the Towns of 
Kingston, Brockville, Hamilton, Cornwall, Niagara, London and Bytown, 
each one. 

The First Parliament of United Canada met at Kingston, June 14th, 
1841, and was restricted to eighty-four members, equally divided between 
the two former Provinces, this gave Canada West, as the former Province 
of Upper Canada was now called, forty-two members, in place of the fifty- 
eight previously elected. 

At this period the population of Lower Canada was 661,380 and 
Upper Canada 465,357. 

When Lord Sydenham organized the first government, after the 
Union, Kingston was selected as the capital, but, excepting the views of 
the inhabitants of the town and its neighbourhood, this location was found 
to be unsatisfactory. On November 23rd, 1843, it was moved by Robert 
Baldwin and seconded by Louis Lafontaine, the two reform leaders of the 
day, that the seat of Government be removed to Montreal. The Gover 
nor General, Sir Charles Metcalf, was in favor of the proposal, but is was 
opposed in both houses by the Upper Canadian Tories, the resolution ho 
wever was adopted, and acted upon as soon as practicable. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 107 



In the Spring of 1844, when Montreal had a population of 40,000 
souls, until the Fall of 1849, it was the seat of the Government of United 
Canada, which existed from February 10th, 1841, to July 1st- 1867. 



Post Offices and the Mails. 

In the year 1851, the Honorable James Morris, a member of the 
Tactic MacDonald Government, was appointed the first Canadian Post- 
Master General. For many years after the formation of this Province 
the service was administered by the British Post Office Department, and 
the net proceeds, after defraying the expenses in the conveyance of the 
mails, etc, were remitted to the General Post Office, London. 

The first Post Office established in the County of Oxford, was opened 
at the village of Burford, in the year 1819. Colonel W, D. Bowen consen 
ted to act as Postmaster, but there was no official appointment. It was 
necessary however that the monthly mail should be received by someone 
in the village having the confidence of the community, and where the let 
ters and papers, addressed to parties throughout all the London District, 
could be found, when a journey was made to Burford for that purpose. 
On the death of Colonel Bowen in the year 1821, he was succeeded as 
Postmaster by Wm. VanAllen, his son-in-law, the duties of the Burford 
Postmaster however at this period was extremely light. In the year 1822 
the whole amount of prepaid letters was 8s, 10>^d, and for his services 
during that year, the Postmaster received 1, 10s. 

At this period there were no postage stamps used in Upper Canada, 
the letters being marked or initialed with pen and ink by the official in 

charge- 
In 1824, George W. Whitehead was appointed Postmaster, this is the 
first official appointment, effecting the Burford Post Office, which can 
now be found in the Dominion Archives. In 1844, G. W. Whitehead was 
succeeded by his brother, Williard M. 

Burford continued to be the only Post Office in the Township until 
the year 1851, when a Post Office was established at New Durham, on 
6th. June, and Jessie Schooley appointed Post-Mistress. 

The next in the Township was opened at Kelvin on 1st. October 
1854, John Kelly, Postmaster- 

On January 1st. 1856, the Sydenham (Cathcart) P. O. was establish 
ed with Isaac L. Lawrence as Postmaster. The Harley Post Office was 
opened in April 1859, J. C. McClellan, Postmaster. 

The first Post Office established in Oxford Township was opened 
originally under the name "Oxford", apparently in 1822, the name was 
subsequently changed in 1852 to Ingersoll. Other Post Offices in this 
Township were established as follows : Woodstock 1835, T. S- Shortt, 



108 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Postmaster- Beach ville 1836, W. Merigold Postmaster. Oxford Centre 
1853, James F. Chapman Postmaster. Sweaburg 1857, re-opened 1st 
June 1862 with J. H. Hill as Postmaster. Eastwood 1st- February 1855, 
H. Vansittart as Postmaster. Vandecar 1st. June 1863, Thomas H. 
Arnell Postmaster. 

The oldest Post Office in the County of Brant, excluding Burford, 
was opened at "Brant s Ford" in the year 1825, following this the Mohawk 
Post Office was established in 1836, A. Cook Postmaster. 

In 1853, Cainsville and Newport, J. D. Dresser and Thaddeus Smith 
Postmasters. The Mount Venron Post Office was established 6th. Octo 
ber 185 1 ; Thomas Perrin Postmaster. Falkland 1st. June 1862, Martin 
Stally Postmaster. 

In the year 1831, the Post Office receipts in Upper Canada were, for 
letters, 9870, Newspapers etc, 790, Rates of Postage were exceedingly 
high compared to those of the present day. 

For any distance under and not exceeding 60 miles 4^d. 

Above 60 and not over 100 miles 7d- 

Above 100 and not over 200 miles 9d. 

And 2 pence for each additional 100 miles. 

Letters for United States were to be prepaid to the line. 

Letters for Europe, to go by way of Quebec, to be prepaid to that 
place, and those to go by the Halifax route were to be prepaid to 
Halifax. 

In 1837, there were 152 Post Offices in Upper Canada. In 1851 
Postage was reduced to 5 cents per half ounce on letters, and postage 
stamps adopted for the first time. 

Postage Stamps were first produced in England in 1837, after every 
possible obstacle had been thrown in the way of the inventor ? Sir Rowland 
Hill. Previous to their introduction and use, letters were frequently 
mailed "collect", transport charges, which in some cases were as high as 
50cents, was collected from the recipient. 

From 1824, until 1857, when Willard M. Whitehead resigned his 
position as Postmaster, the office was located in a small building on the 
northeast corner of the Whitehead farm, which consisted of the north 
half of Lot 6 in the Seventh Concession. 

In 1857, when Adjutant John Catton was appointed Postmaster, he 
remove the office to a small frame building adjoining the hotel, then 
situated on King Street East, just below the general store of Lowney and 
Kirkland. 

About the year 1870, the Burford Post Office was again moved to 
King Street West, and located in the small frame shop, formerly occupied 
by Mr. Jones as a shoe store. When Mr- John Catton retired, after a 




o 

4 * 

CO O 

" 



3 
Ou 

D 
jfl 

H 



03 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 109 

period of some thirty years service, the present incumbent, Henry Cox, 
Esquire, was appointed Postmaster, and the Office was moved to the Gene 
ral store, operated by that successful merchant for many years, on the 
corner of King Street and Maple Avenue. 

Education. 

In the year 1806, an Act was passed to establish Public Schools in 
every District of the Province. The sum of 800. was appropriated to 
provide for the payment of a salary of 100, to each of the eight School 
masters, to be appointed in the eight Districts. In the London District 
the appointment was given to James Mitchell, a native of England and a 
man of good education- 

In 1816, the Government of Sir Francis Gore passed an Act, granting 
6000 for the support of common Schools. This grant was divided up 
between the ten existing Districts, according to population. The Midland 
District receiving the largest share, a sum of 1000, and Ottawa, the smal 
lest, 200. London Disrtict s proportion was 600. 

In 1844, the 20 Districts, into which the Province was then divided, 
received a total grant of 19999,19,5. The Home District, now the most 
populous, received 2952,9,3. and Huron, the most sparsely populated 
257,3,8, London District s share was 1325,6,4. 

James Mitchell was succeeded as District Schoolmaster, about 1820, 
by E. Chadwick. The first London District School Board consisted of 
the following members : John Rolph, J. B. Askin, James Mitchell and 
George C- Salmon, Trustees Archdeacon of York, ex officio, Malhon Bur- 
well, John Bostwick, Joseph Ryerson, James Mitchell, John Rolph and 
John Harris. 

Burfords first school was opened in the year 1808, Marvel White, 
Schoolmaster, eight years later another school was established in the 
township. 

George W. Whitehead was the first Superintendant of Township 
Schools. Appointed in 1844, and re-appointed in 1845-6. He was suc 
ceeded by Rev. Wm. Hay- This position was abolished in 1852. 

In 1849, Burfords seventeen schools received from the Legislative 
School Grant 998,,6. The total annual salary of Burfords teachers 
was 702. 

In 1850, Upper Canadas 3476 common School teachers, received an 
average salary of 52,4., with board. In 1851, 55,12, for males, and for 
females, 31,10 in 1850, and 33,,10. in 1851.. During the latter year, 
3/8 first, 1,272 second, and l } 547 third class certificates were given to can 
didates. 



110 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



District Common Schools, 1810. 

SCHOOL RULES 

I. The Master to commence the labors of the day by a short prayer. 

II- School to commence each day at 9 o clock of forenoon, and five 
hours at least to be taught during the day except on Saturday. 

III. Diligence and civility to be cherished and encouraged by rewards 
judiciously distributed, to consist of little pictures and books, accord 
ing to the age of the scholars. 

IV. Cleanliness and good order to be indispensible, and corporal pu 
nishment seldom necessary except for bad habits learned at home 
lieing, disobedience, obstinancy and perverseness. These sometimes 
require chastisement. Gentleness even in these cases would do better 
with most children. 

V. All other offences in children arising chiefly from liveliness and 
unattention are better corrected by shame, such as gaudy caps, pla 
cing culprits by themselves, not admitting any to play with them for 
a day or days, detaining after school hours, or permitted to pla\ in the 
afternoon, and by ridicule. 

VI. The master must keep a regular catalogue of his scholars, and mark 
any day they are absent. 

VII. The forenoon of Wednesday and Saturday to be set apart for reli 
gious instruction, to render it agreeable, the scholars to be furnished 
with at least ten copies Barrows questions in the New Testament, and 
the teacher to have one copy of the Key to these questions for his 
own use- 

The teacher should likewise have a copy of Murrays Power of 
Religion on the mind, Watkin s Scripture Biography, and Blair s 
Class Book, the said lessons of which are well calculated to improve 
Religious feeling. These books are confined to no religious denomi 
nation and do not prevent the Master from teaching such catechism 
as the children may adopt. 

VII. Every day to close with reading publicly a few verses from the 
New Testament, proceeding regularly through the gospels. 

IX. The afternoon of Wednesday and of Saturday to be allowed for 
play. 

X. A copy of the Rules to be affixed in a conspicuous place in the 
school-room, and to be read publicly to the scholars every Monday 
morning by the teacher. 




CO 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 111 



A literal copy of the Rules and Regulations adopted by the School 
Trustees of School Section No. 14, in the Township of Nissouri, Oxford 
in the year 1852. 

"Thou shalt not lie thou shalt not swear thou shalt not speak a smut 
ty or blagard talk thou shalt not steal thy neighbour s dinner his ink or 
handle his books or anything that is his- 

No whispering no laughing no leaving seats with liberty nor meedle 
with books slates pens nor ink without liberty no quareling no lying no 
fitting no swearing stealing nor telling tales out of School no disputing 
no bad language no pushing each other in the mud or in the dich on the 
road home. 

Any children coming without proper books their parents to be no to 
fyed by a letter if not punctually attended to shall be liable to be dismissed 
from School. 

(Signed) HENRY B. NICHOLS, 
JOHN BROOK. 



The Kings Representatives, New France. 

LIST OF FRENCH GOVERNORS 

YEAR NAMES 

1540 Jean Francois de la Rocque, Sieur de Roberval. 

1598 Le Marquis de la Rocque 

1599 Chauvin of Rouen 

1602 Commander DeChastes, Governor of Dieppe 

1604 Pierre de Gua, Sieur DeMonts Gene of Pons. 

1612 Charles De Bourbon Count De Soissons. 

1616 The Prince De Conde, who had been appointed, sold the office 

for 11,000 crowns to The Duke De Montmorency, High 

Admiral of the Fleet who delegated all the duties of the 

office to Samuel De Champlain. 
1625 Henry De Levy, Due De Ventedour. 
1629 Louis Kirkt, Installed himself as English Governor, he treated 

the citizens with kindness and supplied the pressing wants 

of the people. 

In 1632 Kirkt resigned Quebec into the hands of the French, 

a Treaty of Peace having been effected. 



112 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



1632 Samuel De Champlain (appointed Governor). 

1635 M. De Montigny, Knight of Malta. 

1647 Louis D Ailleboust. 

1651 M. DeLauzon 

1658 Viscount D Argenson. 

1661 Baron D Avaugour. 

1663 The Chevalier De Saffray Mesey 

1665 Le Marquis De Tracy. 

1667 Daniel De Remi, Seigneur De Courcelles. 

1672 Louis De Bonde, Count De Frontenac. 

1682 M. Lefebvre De La Barre. 

1685 Marquis De Dennonville (A Colonel of Dragoons). 

1689 The Count De Frontenac resumed office. 

1698 Le Chevalier De Cillieres. 

1703 The Marquis De Vaudreuil. 

1726 The Marquis De Beauharnais. 

1746 The Marquis De La Jonquiere. 

1747 Count De La Galissonniere- 

1749 The Marquis De La Jonquiere, who had been a prisoner since 
1746. 

1752 Baron De Longueuil, administered the Province until the arrival 
of the new Governor, The Marquis Du Quesne De Mame- 
ville, a Captain of the Royal Marines. 

1755 The Marquis De Vaudreuil De Cavagnal, General of Louisiana, 
son of former General of that name, surrendered Canada 
to the English, Sept. 8th. 1760. When quitting the country 
Vaudreuil said, "With these beautiful and vast countries, 
France loses 70,000 inhabitants of a rare quality, a race of 
people unequalled for their docility, bravery and loyalty." 

Quebec. 

LIST OF ENGLISH GOVERNORS. 

1760 General Sir Jeffery Amherst. 

1763 General Murray. 

1766 Brigadier General Sir. Guy Carleton. 

1778 General Haldimand. 

1785 Lieut. General Hamilton, Pro Tem. 

1786 Colonel Hope. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 113 

with the title and functions of Governor General of all the 
British Porvinces in North America. 

1792 Lord Dorchester having obtained leave to visit England trans 

ferred his functions for the time to Major General Alured 
Clarke- 

1793 Lord Dorchester again resumes office. 
1795 General Prescott. 



Upper Canada. 

LIST OF LIEUTENANT GOVERNORS. 

1792 Colonel John Graves Simcoe. 

1796 The Honorable Peter Russell, appointed President. 

1799 Lieut. General Peter Hunter- 

1805 The Honorable A. Grant, President. 

1806 Francis Gore. 

1811 Major General Sir Isaac Brock, President. 

1812 Major General Sir R. H. Sheaffe, President. 

1813 Major General Baron, de Rottenbury, President. 
1813 Lieut. General Sir. Gordon Drummond, K. C. B. 
1815 Lieut. General Sir. George Murray, Bart. 

1815 Major General F. P. Robinson, K. C. B. 

1815 Sir. Francis Gore resumes office, Sept. 25th. 1815. 

1817 Hon. Samuel Smith, Administrator. 

1818 Major General Sir. P. Maintland K. C. B. 
1820 Honorable Samuel Smith, Administrator. 

1820 Major General Sir P. Maitland, K. C. B. resumes office, June 

30th. 

1828 Major General Sir- John Colborne 

1834 Sir. Francis Bond Head, Bart. 

1838 Sir. George Arthur. 

1839 Lord Sydenham. 

Canada West 

1841 Sir. Charles Bagot. 

1843 Sir. Charles Metcalf 

1845 The Earl of Cathcart. 

1847 The Earl of Elgin 

1854 Sir- Edmond Head. 

1861 Viscount Monk. 



114 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Province of Ontario. 

1867 Major General H. W. Stisted. 

1868 Hon. W- P. Rowland. 
1873 Hon. John W. Crawford. 
1875 Hon. D. A. MacDonald. 
1880 Hon. John B. Robinson- 
1888 Sir. Alexander Cambell. 
1892 Hon. George A. Kirkpatrick. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



115 



B., N. & P. B. RAILWAY 



THE NEW SHORT ROUTE 



Shortest- Quickest- 
Cheapest. 

FOR SHIPPERS. 

For all Freight going East over the CA 
NADA SONTHERN, for all points on this 
Line,and for Hamilton, Torontoand theEast 



Mark and get receipt Via B., 
N. & P. B. Railway. 



Order all Goods from East. 

Via BRANTFORO and B., N. & P. B. Ry. 

Send for a List of MONTREAL, QUEBEC, 

LIVERPOOL, GLASGOW, LONDON 

NEW- YORK & BOSTON RATES 



We make connection at Brantford 

with the GRAND TRUNK and GREAT 
WESTERN RAILWAYS, and with Water 
Route from Hamilton. At Norwich with 
P. D & L. H. RAILWAYS or all points 
North and South, and Water Route from 
Montreal. Address, 

(over) I. T. TORRE Y, Gen Fr t. Agent- 



It rait t (or d, Norfolk and Port 
JBtir\veli:Kailnay. 

TIME TABLE 



WEST 



EAST 



No 3 


No 2 


STATIONS 


No.l 


No 3 




P. M. 




A.M. 






5.30 


Dept Brantford.Arr. 


9.25 






5.50 


*Mount Pleasant 


9.00 






6.15 


Burford 


8,40 






6.40 


Harley 


8.15 






6.55 


*New Durham 


8.00 






7.15 


NORWICH 


7.40 






7.20 


P.D A L.H.Ry. Crossing 


7.35 






7.30 


Mid. Town lineNorwich 


7.15 






7.45 


*Springford 


7.05 






8.10 


C. S. Ry. Crossing 


640 






8.20 


Arr TILSONBURGDep 


6.30 





* Trains stop only when signalled, or to 
let off passengers 

Train No. I makes close connections with 
the Grent Western Railway for Hamilton. 
Toronto Suspetsion Bridge, and the East, 
and with Grand Trunk Railway both East 
and West. 

Train No. 2 leaves Brantford immedia 
tely on arrival of 5.10 p. m. Express on 
Great Western, and trains from both east 
and west on Grand Trunk Railways. 

This arrangement gives passengers the 
priuilegeof spending nearly Shoursin Brant 
ford, returning to Tilsonburg the same eve 
ning. 

At Tilsonburg making a connection with 
Canada Southern Railway for the transfer 
of passengers and Freight, both east and 

west. 

(over) I. T. TORRE Y, Ticket Agent. 



Fac-simile first Time Table B. N. & P B. Ry. 

Issued 1879. 



il6 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD^ 



Members of Parliament of Upper Canada 1831. 

GLEN GARY Alex. McMartin and Alexander Fraser. 

STORMONT Archd. McLean and P. Vankoughnet. 

DUN DAS. John Cook and Peter Shaver. 

GRENVILLE. Richard D. Fraser & Edward Jessup. 

LEEDS. William Buell, jr. and Matt. M. Howard- 

BROCKVILLE. Henry Jones 

CARLETON. John Bower Lewis. 

LANARK- William Morris. 

FRONTENAC. Hugh. C. Thompson and John Campbell. 

KINGSTON, (Town). Christopher A. Hagerman- 

OXFORD. Chas. Ingersoll and Chas. Duncombe- 

KENT. William Berczy. 

5 SEX. William Elliott and Jean B. Macon. 

WENT WORTH. John Willson and Allan N. McNab. 

HASTINGS Reuben White and Jas. H. Samson. 

LENNON & ADDINGTON Marshall S. Bidwell and Peter Perry. 

NORTHUMBERLAND James Lyon and Archibald McDonald. 

DURHAM. John Brown and George S. Boulton. 

YORK (Town). William Bostford Jarvis. 

YORK, (County). Jesse Ketchum & William L. Mackenzie. 

SIMCOE. William B. Robinson. 

MIDDLESEX. Mahlon Burwell and Roswell Mount. 

NORFOLK. Duncan McCall and Wm. Willson. 

HALTON Wm. Chisholm and James Crooks- 

NIAGARA, (Town). Henry J. Boulton. 

LINCOLN. Robt. Randal, John Clark, William Crooks, and 

tholomew C. Beardsley. 
HALDIMAND John Brant. 



CHAPTER XII 
J837. 

"When all the people in any country, unanimously repudiate a bad law, there is no 
"possibility of executing it," "therefore, I say, "The laws in question are 
"already abrogated." PAPINEAU. 

"A Nation never can Rebel, those only are Rebels who resist the will of the people." 
DUNCOMBE. 

The year 1837 will ever be memorable in the History of Burford 
Township. After long years of fruitless and hopeless struggle against 
the arbitrary and oppressive system of Government, centered in the hands 
of a small clique of imperious Plutocrats, a political hierarchy, who con 
trolled all and every appointment, from the Executive office down to the 
smallest local position, who continually and systematically blocked every 
effort of the people to secure some amelioration from the burdensome and 
tyrannical exactions, to which they had so long been obliged to submit, 
the fighting leader of the Reformers had at last decided, that the only pos 
sible way, to shake of these "Old men of the Sea", was to make a display 
of armed resistance, as every means had at last been completely exhausted, 
no concessions whatever could be gained by peaceful and constitutional 
methods. 

In 1828 the Reformers had swept the Province and Twenty-one Bills 
passed by the House had been thrown out by the Legislative council, who 
still controlled both the Executive and Legislative Council, although, 
in a decided miniority in the Assembly. 

MacKenzie had hoped to accomplish by a " coup de maitre", the com 
plete overthrow of his opponents. He had gradually persuaded, by plau 
sible and forcible arguments, his more careful lieutenants, to assist him in 
carrying out his plans. 

For a long time they had peacefully agitated for a constitutional over 
throw of the persons in control of the Government. They were denied 
the right of free speech, a free press, and the right to organize to bring 
about political changes. 

Dr. Charles Buncombe was serving his Second term as Oxford s Re 
presentative in the Assembly, he was a man who was popular with all 



118 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

classes of the community, even with the few in his Riding politically oppo 
sed to him, he was looked upon socially as a friend to all ,his benevolence 
and generosity were often extended unasked, to the needy and destitute, 
his disposition was kindly and friendly ? a gentleman by birth and breeding, 
as well as by inclination, such a man was by instinct naturally opposed to 
war and bloodshed, but having passed his word to his leader, and in the 
belief that the "Rising" would be so overwhelmnly against the existing 
state of affairs, as to effect a bloodless Revolution and a consequent chan 
ge in the system of Government against which, on behalf of the people 
who had elected him, he had so long and faithfully worked, Dr. Duncombe 
at last reluctantly began to prepare for any eventualities which might arise- 
The Township was seething with unrest and discontent, the great majo 
rity of the taxpayers had become exasperated and greatly enbittered 
against the autocratic rule, of a small body of men, who were determined 
to maintain, strengthen, and perpetuate an hereditary caste of absolute 
rulers. Dr. Duncombe might have entered, he would have been welcomed, 
into the sacred fold of this exclusive coterie, who had grown to believe, 
that the high seats and all the emoluments of office were theirs by Divine 
right, and not by the will of the people. He was not to be influenced by 
the Shibboleth of his opponents, the word "Treason", an ancient word, a 
fetish, used in all ages to daunt and terrify the Reformers, who might seek 
to introduce some religious toleration, or some political improvements in 
the old order of things, which would result in a measure of responsible 
government whereby the condition of the masses would be bettered. 

Dr. Duncombe never preached separation from the Mother country 
to his constituents, the Reformers of Burford in 1837 did not want sepa 
ration, they had no desire to set up a government that would cut loose 
from the countries which gave most of them birth, or to identify themsel 
ves with foreign aggressors. 

The Township s Representative at this period was atso their medical 
adviser, for long he was the only physician in this part of the country- 
Dr. Duncombe was not only immensely popular in the community where 
he lived, but had many influential friends throughout the Province and 
was looked up to and highly respected by his fellow members- Consi 
dering all these facts, it can be understood what an influence this popular 
physician exercised, among the farmers of Burford. 

While the great majority of the Electors of Burford were a unit, in 
their bitter hostility to the Executive, they were not now in accord, as to 
the means by which the aims and ends they had in view were to be accom 
plished, they were however, united in their determination to secure a larger 
measure of liberty, but the more moderate inclined were opposed to armed 
insurrection. While they deeply resented the airs of superiority assumed 
by the improvished gentlemen, who filled every small office in the coun- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 119 

try, who hoped to perpetuate a system of office inheritance succession ; 
they could not stamp out that deep seated feeling of loyalty to the Crown, 
inherited from their ancestors, and which had clung to them in the back 
woods of Canada- As is always the case, when movements of great im 
portance are contemplated, there were divided councils. These moderates 
deicded to remain passive if an insurrection was precipitated by the most 
violent and impetuous of the leaders, none of whom were military men., 
their loyalty and their peaceful attitude however, did not save them from 
the unjust suspicious of certain officials, who after the dispersal of Dun- 
combe s army, vented their personal animosity upon the heads of some 
of their innocent neighbors. 

Means of communication in 1837, were only to be made by Courier, 
the news of MacKenzie s engagement near Toronto did not reach Burford 
for five or six days, heavy rains had fallen making the roads almost im 
passable, light frosts succeeded the rain, which formed a thin crust over 
the deep mud and made travelling on the highway a most difficult matter. 
As soon however, as the news was received by General Buncombe, he 
intructed Captain Yeigh to call out his men, secure all arms they could 
find and march to Scotland, the place previously selected for concentra 
tion, he then hastened to Norwich, when express riders were sent out to 
call together his followers, and here, as previously arranged, he was 
joined by two bodies from Yarmouth and Bayham, under the command 
of Robert Anderson, Joshua Doan and Henry Fisher. From Norwich 
they marched to Scotland and encamped on a piece of ground suitable for 
defence. Immediately after this, rumors of MacKenzie s defeat and 
the approach of Colonel McNabb, with a large body of men, were received, 
news also arrived of the march of Colonel Askins and Bostvvick from Lon 
don with 250 men, and of another detachment coming upon them from 
Simcoe. 

Had General Buncombe acted promptly in this emergency, instead of 
permitting time to be wasted by useless discussions, he could easily have 
met and defeated either of the two latter detachments and thus delayed 
the inevitable end, which however would have happened sooner or later. 

It was at last decided, that as they were possessed of no equipment 
or material for an extended campaign, and were but badly armed, the most 
servicable weapons being flint-lock muskets, shot guns, and in many cases 
pikes and swords of ancient pattern, it would be better for them to disperse 
and return to their homes. 

Cajtain Jacob Yeigh s contingent had left Burford late in the after- 
non of Becember 13th, and this decision was arrived at twenty-four 
hours later, they therefore immediately sought their homes where they re 
mained quietly until brought before the Magistrates. General Buncombe 



120 THE_HISTORY_OF BURFORD 

accompanied the main body of his troops on their retreat to Norwich, 
where the remnant of his army soon dissolved. 

Colonel McNabb reached Scotland on the 15th, when the first arrests 
in the London Districts were made, many who, if not implicated, were 
at least in strong sympathy with the Rebels, now came forward, hoping 
to escape suspicion, and offered to join MacNabb s force in pursuit of the 
retreating Rebels, large numbers however, were arrested and brought 
before the great McNabb, who appeared to feel some pity for these unfor 
tunate men. After a severe admonishment, most of them were by his 
orders, liberated on Parole, the only protest coming, sad to say, from a 
few of their own neighbours. The most prominent cases however, could 
not be passed over so lightly and the list of prisoners, copied from the 
original documents, will give our readers the names of those who suffered 
long months of dreary imprisonment, mental pain and distress of mind, 
owing of the uncertainly of their fate. On the 16th, McNabb marched his 
force to Norwich, where he found everything quiet, further arrests were 
made but General Duncombe had vanished, emissaries of the authorities 
were however on his track and every avenue of escape was patrolled 
and carefully watched; to aid in his capture hand-bills were struck off, 
offering a reward of 500 pounds for his seizure and sown broad-cast 
through the London and Western Districts, Duncombe however found 
friends in his adversity and succeeded in making good his escape, as set 
forth in the valuable and interesting account, given us by his daughter Mrs 
Tufford. 

A copy of the hand bill offering a reward for the capture of Dr. Dun 
combe and others, is an exact duplicate, being photographed from one of 
the original bills, the only one known to be in existence, now deposited in 
the Dominion Archives. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 121 




PROCLAMATION. 



REWARD. 

By Command of His Excellency the 
Lieutenant Governor. 

A REWARD is hereby offered, of 

Five Hundted Pounds, 

To any one who will apprehend and deliver up to Justice 

CHARLES BUNCOMBE; 

And a Reward of Two Hundred and Fifty Pounds to any 
one who will apprehend and deliver up to Justice, ELIAKIM 
MALCOLM ; or FINLAY MALCOLM ; or ROBERT ALWAY ; 
and a Reward of One Hundred Pounds, to any one who will 
apprehend and deliver up to Justice, - ANDERSON, (said to 
be a Captain in the Rebel Forces) ; or JOSHUA DOAN. 

All the above persons are known to have been traitorously 
in arms against their Sovereign ; and to entitle the party appre 
hending either of them to the Reward, he must be delivered to 
the Civil Power, At Hamilton, Niagara, London, or Toronto. 

GOD SAVE THE QUEEN. 

16th December, 1837. 



R. STANTON, Printer to the QUEEN S Most Excellent Majesty. 



122 ^ THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Burford s fifth Parliamentary Representative. 
Dr. Charles Duncombe. 

Dr. Charles Duncombe, of distinguished English descent, was born 
in Stratford, Connecticut, on the 28th. July 1791, and came to St. Thomas, 
Upper Canada, in the year 1820. His grandfather had immigrated from 
England to Boston about the year 1730. Charles graduated at Fairfield 
Medical College, Philadelphia. After he located in St. Thomas, his aged 
father Thomas Duncombe, his mother Rhoda Trees Duncombe, and his 
youngest brother Dr- David Duncombe followed him to Canada and they 
were joined, upon the death of the father in 1822, by the second brother 
also a Doctor. 

In 1828, Dr. Charles removed to Bur ford, and Dr. David to Water- 
ford. Dr. Charles was already well known in Burford in his professio 
nal capacity, his practice extended throughout the whole Western District, 
he had charge of nearly all the important cases, and soon began to invest 
in lands, large tracts of which he acquired in the Eastern part of the 
Township. He was prominent in all movements for the general impro 
vement of his adopted country. 

Our present system of education in Ontario was recommended to 
Parliament by him, also the Banking system, the first charter for a Medical 
School in Canada was granted to him and the late Dr- Rolph, he founded 
the Masonic Lodge, "Old 44", and was the first in Canada to go to En 
gland and get the 32nd degree in Masonry. 

Dr. Duncombe was first elected to parliament in 1830, and again in 
1834 for Oxford. His brother, the late Dr. David Duncombe, the represen 
ted Norfolk during the same period. 

Dr. Charles has been described by those who knew him well as a 
tall, handsome man, of dignified appearance, his photograph at the .head 
of this article was taken in Sacramento, where he had located after the 
close of the Rebellion. After his death in that city a handsome Monu 
ment was erected by his friends over his grave, on the back of which is 
engraved in Capitals, C. D. "A Friend of Liberty." 

Mrs- E. J- Tufford, in her interesting harrative, mentions the death of 
her only brother who was killed by an accident. His remains were in 
terred in the North west corner of the old burying ground on King Street, 
West. 

The stone erected to his memory, by his sorrowing father, gives the 
date of his death, August 18th, 1836, and his age 14 years, 2 months. 

The present head of the family in Canada is Charles E. B. Duncombe, 
a prominent and well known physician of the City of St. Thomas, Ontario, 
who is a son of the late Dr- D. Duncombe above mentioned. 




Dr Charles Duncombe 
M. P. P. for Oxford, 1830 7. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 123 

Dr. Duncombe s correspondence with Lord Glenelg. 

At a meeting of influential Reformers, held at Thos. Elliott s tavern 
in the City of Toronto, on the evening of Wednesday, the 30th day of 
November, 1836. 

James E. Small, Esq. in the Chair. 

Mr. J. H. Price seconded by Mr- F. Hincks moves that it be resol 
ved : That the thanks of the Reformers be tendered to Dr. Charles Dun- 
combe for the readiness with which he accepted, and the fidelity with 
which he has executed the trust of representing in their behalf, to the 
Right Honorable Lord Glenelg the condition of this country Carried. 

Mr. James Lesslie, seconded by Dr. O Grady, moves that it be resol 
ved secondly, that Dr. Duncombe be requested to furnish the meeting for 
the information of their fellow Reformers in the Province with an ac 
count of his proceedings in England. Carried. 

Mr. Dool seconded by Mr- Ketchum moves that whereas Dr. Dun- 
combe having afforded full informatoin on his proceedings in England, 
and read his correspondence with Lord Glenelg and others, be it resolved 
that this meeting do highly approve of the course pursued by Dr. Dun- 
combe as the agent of the Reformers of this Province in England, and 
that the manner in which he conducted his correspondence with the Colo 
nial Secretary is equally creditable to his zeal an ability and satisfactory 
to this Meeting : Carried. 

Mr. J. H. Price seconded by Mr. Alderman Harper moves, that a 
public dinner be given to Dr- C. Duncombe by the Reformers of this city 
as a mark of their esteem and respect and of the unqualified approbation 
of his exertions while on a mission to London to protect the rights and 
priviliges of the inhabitants of Upper Canada, and that Messrs. Hincks 
and Lesslie be a Committee to make the necessary arrangements. Carried. 



(Signed) JAMES E. SMALL. 

Chairman. 

(A true copy) 
Jm. ELLIOTT, 
Secretary. 



124 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

_ Sketch of the life of Dr. Chas. E. Duncombe, by his eldest 

daughter Mrs. E. J. Tufford. Paris, Ontario. 

New- York, August 24th. 1909. 

The following History was written by Mrs. E- J. Tufford at Paris, 
Ont. when she was over eighty years of age, and in the year 1898 or 1899. 

The manuscript has been copied word for word as faithfully as pos- 
sible ? but in a few instances it was so irregular and feeble, it was very 
difficult to make out the correct spelling of names and places. The 
abrupt ending is no doubt due to her great age and increasing feebleness. 

Copy made in the office of Mr. H. K. T. Wright, No, 428 Lexington 
Ave., N. Y- City. Grandson of Mrs E. J. Tufford and great-grandson of 
Dr. Chas. E. Duncombe. 

A short sketch of the life and times of Dr. Charles Duncombe, 
by his eldest daughter, Eliza J, Tufford. 

Just before the Revolutionary War closed, Mr. Duncombe,- grand 
father of Dr. Chas. Duncombe, and near relative of the late Lord Fever - 
sham, came from London, Eng- with four sons and two daughters, and 
settled in Stratford, Ct. his eldest son Thomas married Rhoda Tyrill, 
daughter of Sir Roger Tyrill and grand daughter of Jas, 2nd of Eng. 
May 19th 1771. Her father came to America before the Revolutionary 
War, and was engaged in the war on the side of the patriots, but after a 
hard fought battle, he, with other tired men laid down in the fort to rest, 
when a spent cannon ball came through a port hole and took off his head. 
The eldest son of Thos. and Rhoda Duncombe, Charles, the subject of 
this sketch was born in Stratford, Ct.. 28th of July 1792. At that time 
the United States was in such an unsettled state the opportunities for get 
ting an education were very limited. There were very few school books, 
and everything necessary for school work was scarce. I have heard my 
father say that he and his brothers often practiced arithmetic and studied 
in the evening by the light from the pine knots. My grandmother being 
highly elucated, as she was born and educated in Scotland, she educated 
her family of three sons and two daughters. Her two eldest sons Charles 
and Elijah E. taught school, as soon as they by patience and perseverance 
were thought competent by my grand-mother. My grand-father s time 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 125 



was fully occupied in loooking after the wants of the family, as provisions 
were scarce and had to be brought from long distances and no other way 
but to shoulder the load and he had to carry it himself. I recollect hearing 
my Uncle Elijah E. Buncombe say he never could bear to eat mutton, as 
when a child he saw his father carrying a black sheep- We realize that 
there must have been a scarcity of horses and oxen after a struggle of 
seven years war. My father studied medicine while teaching school. At 
the age of twenty-one he married a daughter of a wealthy German far 
mer who was opposed very much to the school-master, as the hardy far 
mer thought every man should labor with his hands, as mind labor by those 
farmers was not considered work. As soon as my father, Chas. Dun- 
combe finished the study of medicine and received his diploma from the 
city of New York he came to Canada in 1820. He stopped in Burford 
and made many friends who were anxious for him to settle there, but he 
was anxious to prospect further west before settling. He-then returned 
to Middleburgh, Schorie Co., for his wife and family of three daughtters. 
His eldest sister Huldah and youngest brother, David, came to Canada 
with him, they stopped to rest in Burford, as travelling by wagons was 
very tiresome, as soon as rested, they proceeded as fa r west as near where 
London now stands. They stopped for a short time with a farmer, a 
widower, who not long after married my Aunt Huldah. My father sett 
led for a couple of years a mile from the forest where London is now. 
He then moved to St. Thomas ; his father came to visit us and being 
pleased with that part of the country, taught school for a couple of years 
when he was suddenly taken ill, and died in spasms, while my father was 
away attending patients, which he had all the way from Burford to St. 
Thomas. His brother David had been studying medicine with him for 
some time, but was not experienced enough to relieve his father Or save 
his life- There was no other physician near, He died in the Autumn of 
1823. The next year my father Dr. C. Duncombe and his brother-in-law 
Shenick with his wife, drove by sleigh back to Delaware Co., N. Y- for 
my grand mother Mrs. Rhoda Duncombe and her youngest daughter 
Rhoda Eliza. They had sleighing and good roads all that distance about 
500 miles. They were glad when they arrived at home again. Both 
of my uncles Elijah E. and David studied medicine with my father who 
was the only surgeon and thorough practioner in the country from Ha 
milton to Windsor. My uncles had to go to Geneva, N. Y. to finish their 
college course and get their diplomas. My uncle Elijah settled in St. Tho 
mas for life and was successful in his practice- His genial disposition 
won for him a host of friends. My uncle David settled near Waterford, 
where he was very successful in his profession. Since his death his 
eldest son Dr. A- C. Duncombe is successfuly representing his father in 
Waterford, and two other sons Trueman and Charles are practising in 



126 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



St. Thomas. My father s practice kept his time fully occupied, his 
scientific surgery and practice was eulogized far and near. 

I recollect one case in particular, he was sent for from Oxford to 
attend a child of Mr. Niles suffering from a piece of egg shell lodged in 
her throat, he succeeded by inserting a tube in the childs throat, in loca 
ting the shell and removing it. The child soon recovered. At Ingersoll 
at a training of the military and cavalry, by a sudden start of a horse, a 
rider s neck was dislocated. My father tried an experiment by giving 
the man s neck a sudden jar the contrary way, which proved successful in 
saving the man s life. My father s practice was very laborious on ac 
count of the terrible state of the roads, especially in the Spring and Au 
tumn. There was not any public conveyance, except stages without 
springs and often without covering. The mode of travel was mostly on 
horse-back. In 1828 I accompanied my father on horse-back from St. 
Thomas to where my Aunt Shenick lived. After resting there we started 
on our journey east, the most unpleasant part of the journey was our 
being obliged to ride through seven miles of pine woods after dark- I 
begged my father to stay over night and not attempt to go through, as it 
was getting dark, but he was anxious to get through to Mr. Niles to see 
his child patient. He said that as my horse was accustomed to the road, 
and that was the first trip his horse had made, I must go ahead and not 
only go ahead but sing. I thought how can I sing in such a place. I pre 
sume I made a poor attempt as I was in constant fear. My father had to 
dismount to feel for the road, as there \vas a road that led down to tnt 
River Thames quite out of the way. Frequently our horses were fright 
ened by the wild animals running through the woods and cracking the 
limbs of the trees. We arrived safely at our destination and I can assure 
you that the lights from the houses was a welcome harbinger as we emer 
ged from the dense woods, and we were soon welcomed by our friends. 
The next day we started from Norwich and it being a long ride we dis 
mounted on the way to rest and let our horses eat the grass that was so 
tempting to them. The man, Mr. Stover who sent to St. Thomas for my 
father had a sick wife who was suffering from carbuncles and was in great 
distress. We remained there three days when the lady was relieved and 
recovering. From Norwich we rode to Burford and visited Col .Geo. W. 
Whitehead, an old friend of my father s, where I remained while my 
father returned for the remainder of his family and settled in Burford. 
In 1831 election was held at Martin s old stand. My father and Chas. 
Ingersoll were elected M. P. They were opposed by Esqs. Thos. Horner 
and . As both of the newly elected members of par 

liament s Christian names were Charles, the Scotch with the bag pipes, 
played "Who ll be king but Charlie" while the sturdy yeoman were parad 
ing the two elected members on their shoulders in chairs up and down thp 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 127 

streets. I think they had more pleasant times at elections those days than 
they do now. In 1832 my father was sent by the government to Cleveland, 
Ohio to examine the working of the steam dredge in use ; then he re 
turned with a model which was approved for the benefit of the Welland 
Canal, of which my father, in company with W. H. Merrit and others were 
commissioners. Soon after my father entered parliament, he saw that a 
large portion of Canada s lands were set apart for the benefit of the En 
glish Church, which he thought too one sided, and that other denomina 
tions should share equally with them, but when the scheme was spoken 
of to other denominations, they refused state aid- They said as the labo 
rer is worthy of his hire according the Bible, they could only accept vo 
luntary contributions. The Reformers then passed a law secularizing the 
clergy reserves for the benefit of education. The \2th Parliament : The 
Election was held at Ingersoll on the 6th day of October 1834. when my 
father and Thos. Horner were elected- This parliament only held two 
Sessions and was disssolved by Sir Francis Bond head. The thirteenth 
Parliament held in Martin s old stand in the fall of 1836, when my father 
and Robt. Alway were elected. In the summer of 1836 my father was 
sent by the Reformers to the home Government to explain the grievances 
of the Reformers, as the family compact had gotten so unscrupulous in 
their management of affairs and robbing Reformers, where there was a 
chance, for instance my father bought the Indian s right and improve 
ments to 1000 acres of land, and expected to pay the government and get 
the patent, but as my father could not conscienciously vote for a Tory 
speaker, the government took the land from him and gave it to a favorite,. 
Mr. Shade. This was one of the grievances he complained of. He re 
ceived a letter from Lord Glenelg deprecating such conduct by any go 
vernment. The Reformers in Toronto showed their appreciation of his 
successful mission in their behalf by giving him a complimentary dinner. 
His mission was so successful that on his return, an open rupture took 
place the 7th day of December 1837. My only brother, fourteen years of 
age was killed by the fall off a horse he was riding and breaking his neck. 
It seemend so sad as my father was in England and we were ignorant of 
his whereabouts, but "God moves in a mysterious way." We could soon 
understand why he was taken, as it was only necessary to know a man 
was a Reformer to arrest him and lock him up. My husband was arrested 
as he was Buncombe s son-in-law. He had gone over to Burford, to see 
if he could be of any service to my mother, as my father had been com 
pelled by his friends to leave here in the night. A friend knew that my 
husband was trying to comfort my mother, so he called at the house, and 
told him he had better leave or he would be arrested, as McNabb was 
cnroute, and would make short work of offenders. He said he was not 
afraid as he had done nothing. He and a young man Statts were tied 



128 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

and put in a wagon on the 17th day of December without an overcoat or 
any comfort- What had they done ? Why they were Reformers. They 
were taken to Scotland and sat all night in a bar room on a bench. The 
next day he was taken to Brantford, had another night on a bench and 
from there was taken to Hamilton where they were kept in close confine 
ment for nine months. They had plenty of company for it was only 
necessary to be known to be a Reformer, then you would be arrested. 
There was a conservative gentleman who told me that if my father had met 
McNab s army at Scotland instead of retreating to Norwich, that half 
of his army would have turned over to my father, as they knew if they 
were discovered they would be arrested, as many of their friends had been ) 
but they to save themselves joined McNab. My father retreated to Nor- 
* wich where they assembled in the Quaker meeting house. He told his 
friends to disperse and he would do the best he could for himself. Many 
of them called him a coward and he said in that instance cowardice was 
the better part of valor. Though many of them rebelled he said it would 
be rashness to act otherwise. How could they cope with regular soldiers 
those farmers who hardly ever fired a gun. As they had not been guiltv 
of any offense against the government, they would not be molested, but 
many of the farmers were arrested and sent to Hamilton Jail, as I can 
testify for I drove there nearly every week with provisions for my hus 
band. In the meantime my father escaped from Norwich in Quaker 
dress he tied his horse to a tree and he tried to cross the millpond, but the 
ice broke and let him in and he got wet. He then made his way to the 
nearest house not knowing but it was his foes, but they took him and he 
slept between the man and his wife. He met a company of the faithful 
going out to meet him, but thanks to a loving Father he went along re 
joicing. He proceeded to Dorchester to a Mr. Putman s hotel, an old 
and tried friend. He had not been long in his room upstairs when he 
heard a company of Indians invading the house, saying they were in 
search of Duncombe and would have him (They wanted the $1800. 
reward offered by the government for him) little thinking he was in the 
house. From there my father went to a friend, (Douglas s) and stayed 
over night, the next night the house was burned. From this place he 
went to his sister s, which appeared like a miracle, as the roads, especially 
cross roads, were guarded by one or two companies of soldiers- He 
stayed with his sister until she dressed him in woman s attire, then a friend 
of his took his sister in a comfortable sleigh, and called for my father with 
his knitting, the child calling him Aunt Nancy. Strange to say they 
were not stopped on their way to Windsor where the gentleman drove in 
the face of the soldiers and guards to a hotel and asked to stay over night. 
The hotel-keeper said it would be impossible to keep them as court was 
sitting. A company of soldiers was guarding the lines, so he drove to 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 129 

the different hotels but received the same answer. "Well, he said, if you 
cannot keep us perhaps you could send a boy to show us across the ice 
as the other side is our destination." He soon found a boy who piloted 
them partly across. He then told the boy he could tell the Loyal Cana 
dians that he had piloted Duncombe across to Uncle Sam s land. As my 
father was known far and near as well by his political standing as by the 
profession of medicine, he found friends on the other side of the line 
ready and willing to render him all the assistance necessary. In the mean 
time, the iron hearted Geo. Arthur was carrying everything with a high 
hand especially in the murder of Lount and Matthews. After my fa 
ther disbanded his army of friends, and telling them they could not be 
arrested, as they had done nothing more than meeting, they had not bur 
ned or destroyed property or injured any person, but the family compact 
had everything their own way, as they had in bringing about the rebellion 
of 37, and in the same or similar way, the conservative Government 
brought about the north-west rebellion. Any one who is not prejudiced 
can see and know that if the Indians and half breeds had been fairly dealt 
with and not starved for the gain of officials there would not have been 
any trouble then. The prisoners were kept in Hamilton until Court sat 
in the Spring when they were tried. In the meantime Lord Durham had 
been sent out by the Home Government to investigate matters and arrived 
about this time. As soon as Court was over, I went to Sir Allen McNabb 
to find out the intention of the government with regard to the prisoners. 
We sat on his verandah, and he said, "You go to the jail and make out a 
statement of what your husband has done," I said, all they proved against 
him was that he was going over to try and help my mother. He asked 
a neighbor who had always been friendly to lend him his gun, Well, Sir 
Allen said, "Go and bring me a statement in the morning and if they 
could catch Duncombe and McKenzie they would string them up and let 
the rest go- I went the next morning and found him very polite, inviting 
me into his library, he said, "What a pity Dr. Duncombe was on the wrong 
side in politics, he would or could have been one of the first men in the 
country. I ll give you a letter to the officials at Toronto-" I went to To 
ronto and presented the letters without any benefit. I went to see Sir. 
Geo- Arthur, the Governor and all I could get him to say was, "you had 
ought to have taught your husband better". As Lord Durham was en 
camped on the lawn not far from the Government House, I tried to see 
him but he was just embarking for Niagara. I proceeded to Lockport. 
where I knew my father was. He wrote a petition for the magistrates 
to sign, if they would, and not one of them hesitated to sign it. I wrote 
to Lord Durham as soon as I could the situation. I received an answer 
by return mail telling me to go and bring my husband home which I was 
not long in doing. In the beginning of the fuss, Capt. Graham of Wood- 



130 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

stock with a party called at our place to search the house- I told him I 
had no objections. He searched but he was so upholstered with pistols 
that nearly every move he made he d drop one. I suppose he was well 
paid for his time and trouble. He took two horses from our stable, one he 
had kept until my husband was released and \vent for it. The other 
horse belonged to my husband s brother and through the kindness of Mr. 
W- F. Coleman it was returned. I shall never forget Mr. Coleman for 
his disinterested kindness at that time. He got his brother-in-law to stay 
with me and my family every night until my husband s brother came and 
stayed until my husband returned. 



Members of the House of Assembly. 

1837. 

Glengary, McDonell, Chisholm. 4 Ridings of York, Morrison, Me. 

Stormont, McLean, McDonell. Intosh, Gibson Thompson. 

Cornwall, Jarvis. Toronto, Draper. 

Prescott, Hotham, Kearnes. Simcoe, Robinson, Wickins. 

Russell, McKay, Niagara, Richardson. 

Carleton, Lewis, Mallock. 4 Ridings of Lincoln, Woodruff, Ry. 

Lanark, Powell, Cameron. kert, McMicking, Thorburn. 

Dnudas, Cook, Shaver. Hamilton, Ferric. 

Grenville, Norton, Wells. Wentworth, McNab, Aikman. 

Leeds, Gowan, Jones- Halton, Chisholm, Shade. 

Brockville, Sherwood- Norfolk, Rolph, Duncombe. 

Kingston, Hagerman. Haldimand, Merritt. 

Frontenac, Mattewson, Marks. Oxford, Duncombe, Alway. 

Prince Edward, Bockus, Armstrong Middlesex, Parke, Moore- 

Lenox & Addington, Cartwright London, Burwell- 

Detlor. Kent, McCrae, Cornwall. 

Hastings, Manahan, Murney. Essex, Prince, Caldwell. 

Northumberland, Ruttan, McDonell Huron, Dunlop. 
Durham, Elliott, Boulton. 

Analysis. 22 counties return 2 members each, 44 

3 1 " 3 

8 Ridings, 1 " 8 

1 City, 1 1 

6 Towns, 1 " 6 

62 



On .December 15th, 1837, the day following the dispersal of the forces 
under Dr. Duncombe at Scotland, the following arrests were made : 

Henry Winegarden, Yeoman. 

Abraham Vanduzen Surgeon in the Insurrectionary Forces. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 131 



Johj Tufford Yeoman. 

Peter Coon Blacksmith. 

Alonzo Foster Yeoman. 

John C. Uline Tanner, 

and Charles P. Walbrith Labourer. 

The first name petitioned, under provisions of the act in first Victoria 
(C. 10) and was pardoned on finding security to keep the peace and be of 
good behaviour for three years, and was released on June 6th, 1838. 

Dr. Vanduzen, described in the charge as a Medical Quack, was re 
leased on March 20th, 1838, without any bill having been found against 
him. 

John Tufford was tried by Civil Court, found guilty, and sentenced 
to death, afterwards pardoned, on finding security to keep the peace for 
three years- 
Peter Coon and Alonzo Foster were released on March 21st 1838, 
without trial, no bill having been found against them- 

John C. Uline, tried by Civil Court and acquitted ; verdict, not guilty 
released March 31st, 1838. 

Charles P .Walbraith, tried by Civil Court, found guilty, and senten 
ced to death, afterwards commuted to transportation for life. He escaped 
from jail, and fled to the United States. 

On the 16th December 1837, the above arrests were followed by 
tho.se of Peter Landon and Joseph Beemer. The former was released on 
March 15th, 1838, no bill being found against him. 

Joseph Beemer was released March 20th, 1838, without trial, beiii 
admitted to bail to keep the peace for one year. 

Adam Winegarden, arrested December 17th, 1837^ petitioned, pardo 
ned on finding security to keep the peace and be of good behaviour for 
three years. Released June 6th, 1838. 

William and Lord Wellington Winegarden arrested Dec. 21st, 1837, 
were released on June 6th, 1838, without trial, being both pardoned on 
finding security to keep the peace and be of good behaviour for three 
years. 

John Vanorman, inn-keeper, arrested Dec. 23rd, 1837, was released 
on bail Feb. 20th, 1838 and absconded. 

On the same day, December 23rd, the following arrests were made : 

* 

John Malcolm, and Isaac B. Malcolm, yeomen 
Finlay Malcolm late M- P- P. 

vSolomon Lossing Magistrate 

Ephraim Cook Physician 

Elhs Snider and Adam Yeigh Yeomen 



132 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



John Malcolm was released March 10th, 1838, not tried, the bill 
against him being ignored. 

Isaac B. Malcolm, released June 6th, 1838, petitioned, and pardoned 
on finding security to keep the peace and be of good behaviour for three 
years. 

Finlay Malcolm and Norman Malcolm were released March 31st, 
1838, under trial by Civil Court, were found not guilty of charges pre 
ferred and acquitted. 

Solomon Lossing, released April 3rd, 1838, was also acquitted after 

trial by Civil Court. 

Elias Snider was found guilty after trial by Civil Court, but pardoned 
on rinding security to keep the peace and be of good behaviour for three 
years. Released October 1838. 

Robert Alway, one of the sitting members for the County of Oxford 
arrested December 25th, 1837, was released on March 28th, 1838, the 
charges against him were insufficient for trial, and he was discharged on 
bail. 

Michael Showers, arrested January 2nd, 1838, was released March 
17th, 1838, the bill against him being ignored, and the case discharged by 
proclamation. 

George Rouse, arrested January 2nd, 1838, tried by -Civil Court, no 
bill found, released from jail March 31st, 1838. 

Peter Malcolm, arrested January 3rd, 1838, was found guilty after 
trial by Civil Court, but pardoned on finding security to keep the peace 
and be of good behaviour for three years. 

John Kelly, arrested in December 1837, also petitioned and was par 
doned. 

Paul Bedford, arrested December 1837, petitioned, but was found 
guilty, and transported for life to Van Diemans Land. 

The bill against Robert Kelly was ignored by the Grand Jury and 
he was discharged on bail. 

Caleb Kipp, Stephen H. Secord, Abraham Sackrider and Jacob 

Lester, yeomen, who were arrested on December 21st, 1837, were dis 
charged on April 6th, 1838, and the last mentioned on July 15th 1838. 
Adam Yeigh, Yeoman, Dec. 23rd. 1837, March 31st. 1838, civil court ac 
quitted. 

Robert Alway, M. P. P. Dec. 25th. 1837, March 28th, not tried, discharged 
on bail. 

Malcolm, Laborer, July 23rd. 1838, July31st. 1838, not tried 
dismissed by Magistrate. 

Ephraim Cook, Physician, Dec. 23rd. 1837, Civil Court, guilty, banished 
from the Province for life. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 133 



Names of persons against whom indictments were found for High 
Treason, but who left the Province : 

Charles Buncombe, M. P- P- 

James Dennis Yeoman 

Eliakim Malcolm 

Peter Delong 

James Malcolm 

Elisha Hall 

John Van Norman Inn-keeper. 

Persons arrested. 

Home District 422 

Niagara 

Gore 90 

London 163 

Western 

Persons who have absconded 61 

Recapitulation. 

Indictments against parties who absconded 7. 

Petitioners under the statute admitting their guilt. 14. 

Acquitted 17. 

Convicted 10. 

Bills ignored 3. Total 51. 

Toronto 31st Aug. 1388. 



The Case of Horatio Fowler. 

Information of Peter Carrol against Horatio Fou lcr. 

Feb. 5th, 1838- 
London District, 

to wit. 

Peter Carrol of Oxford in said District, Esq. maketh oath and saith, 
that Horatio Fowler of Burford, Yeoman, acknowledges before this 
Deponent as a Magistrate, that he had been in arms with Doctor Dun- 



134 THE HISTORY OF BURFOREr 

combe at Oakland, that he went backwards and forwards several times to 
give people information, and induce them to raise, and this Deponent 
further saith that he has reason to believe that the said H. Fowler has 
been an influential and leading character among the rebels, during the late 
disturbances. 

(Signed) Peter Carrol. 

Sworn before me at London in said London District this 5th day of 
Feb. 1838. L. LAURASON, J. P. 



Horatio Fowler s Examination. 

Horatio Fowler examined says : 

He resides in Burford, that he went and joined Duncombe s party, 
was backwards and forwards several times to give people information. 
Was induced by Dr. Duncombe to go. Last saw Dr. Duncombe in Oak 
land, which place he left for home, this was the night Duncombe retreated 
on to Norwich, prisoner stayed at home that night, the next day went into 
Norwich but was surprised to find Duncombe s party all dispersed. Stop 
ped in Norwich until after Col. McNabb arrived, returned to Burford and 
was arrested at, his mothers. He took a pistol with" him, but when he 
found all had left Norwich, he threw it away- 
Taken and acknowledged before me this 22nd day of December 1837- 

(Signed) Peter Carrol, J. P. 
(Signed) James Ingersoll, J. P. 



The complaint which caused the arrest of Adam Yeigh. 

District of Gore. 

To Wit : 

The information of John Finlay of the Township of Brantford in 
the said District, Yeoman, made upon oath before Wm. Holmes, Esq, 
one of Her Majesty s Justices assigned to keep the peace within the said 
District. Who saith, that yesterday the 13th, day of present month, 
Adam Yeigh of the Township of Burford in the London District, Yeoman, 
and George Rouse of the same place, Yeoman, came to the dwellinghouse 
of him, the said John Finlay, at the township of Brantford aforesaid, and 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD _ 135 

then and there demanded of him that he should deliver up to them the pos 
session of any Fire Arms he might have in his possession, and the said 
Adam Yeigh and Geo. Rouse were armed with guns, and were attended 
by several other armed men, to said John Finlay unknown, and that the 
said parties took possession of a bayonet and scabbard, which were depo 
sited in his shoemaker s shop, and carried the same away without the con 
sent of him, the said John Finlay who prayeth that the said Adam Yeigh 
and George Rouse, with such others of the said party, may be apprehen 
ded and required to answer the above complaint. 

(Signed) John Finlay. 

Sworn before me at Brantford, the fourteenth day of December 1837. 

(Signed) W .M. Holmes, J. P. 



The trials for treason, Gore district. 

The Queen against Adam Yeigh. 

Adam Yeigh committed by James Racey and Wm. Holmes Esqrs-, 

charged with unlawfully taking fire arms and being in arms against the 
Government, no witnesses names on that charge were on oath- 
Witness : 
Geo. Palmer, 
John Finlay, 
William Crammer, 
John Adams. 

Evidence of John Finlay. 

On the afternoon that Col. McNabb s army was at Brantford, a party 
of eight persons, armed, came to witness house, asked for his gun 
Yeigh, Rouse and Marlott were of the party. They did not particularly 
state what the gun was wanted for, but as witness was well satisfied that 
they belonged to Buncombe s party, he did not ask any questions. Marlott 
said they could protect him, and he must give up his gun, he refused and 
they threatened, and at last they found an old musket and bayonet. The 
musket was a bad one, so they only took away the bayonet. 



(1) Samuel Marlott of Dumfries, sworn by John Finlay as being one of the 
party, is now in prison at Hamilton on this complaint. 



136 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Evidence of Geo. Palmer. 

Yeigh Rouse and I believe with another person, on the day last 
named, came to witness s house, and asked for his gun. He refused to 
lend it to them, they threatened to take it, but as he placed himself in the 
doorway and refused to permit them to enter, they desisted from attemp 
ting to use force believe them to belong to Buncombe s party ; but not 
leaving home much cannot positively state that they do. 

Evidence of William Crammer. 

Was present at Finlay s house when the party of eight came there 
and corroborates the statement of Finlay. 

Evidence of John Adams. 

Met a party of 11 or 14 persons on the road near Vanorman s Tavern 
Adam Yeigh and Uline were with them, Uline had a gun witness con 
versed with them and they said they were going to collect arms to take 
to Duncombe s army Witness gave warning to W. Palmer and W. Hoai- 
fe and recommended them to secure their guns, if they had any, 



Gore District. 



Evidence of John Adams of the Township of Brantford in the said 
District, Tanner and Currier. 

States that he has been for sometime residing, say since the latter part 
of September, at the Inn of John Masury, that on one day last week he 
saw several persons come from Dumfries to Vanorman s Inn, understood 
that they were going to join the assembled persons at Scotland or Oak 
land. I saw at the Inn, A. Yeigh, Uline and Vanalstine, and understood 
from them they were going to Oakland to take up arms and muster 
against the Government Understood from John Vanorman that he want 
ed to go over to Scotland, does not know whether Vanorman conveyed 
the news of the approach of Col. McNabb s army, does not know whether 
Vanorman went over on that morning to Scotland^ heard Vanorman say, 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 137 



upon his asking the question, by witness, that he has not been over to 
Scotland but cannot say whether it was before or after McNabb s army 
had marched up to Scotland, Uline was the only one of the party who had 
a gun. 

(Signed) John Adams. 

Sworn before me at Brantford on the twenty first day of December, 

1837. 

(Signed) James Racey, J. P. 
(Signed) Robt. Richardson, J. P. 



The Information of Geo. Palmer. 

Geo. Palmer of the Township of Brantford, Miller being duly sworn 
deposeth and saith, that the day before Buncombe s army begun to collect 
at Scotland, a party of four men came to deponent s house, consisting of 
Adam Yeigh, Jacob Yeigh, George Rouse and Leonard Uline, and asked 
to borrow deponent s firearms, deponent said he would not lend them to 
anybody, they replied they would take them by force, deponent said that 
would be impossible as he had concealed them. The party then left the 
Mill, where deponent was, and walked towards his dwelling house with 
the intention of entering and searching it for arms. Deponent placed 
himself before them in the doorway and said, "The first man that attempts 
to enter the house he would knock him down, the party then went away 
some distance when two of them returned and said, that they had been 
instructed to examine deponent s house peaceably, therefore requested 
to be permitted to enter to look in, on deponents letting them do so and 
forebearing to touch anything belonging to him. They did so and went 
away without obtaining any guns. Rouse, one of the party, said depo 
nent was right in refusing to give up any guns, and he would have done 
the same thing himself. 

(Signed) George Palmer- 

Sworn before me at Brantford, this 6th day of March, 1838. 

(Signed) Wm. Holmes, J. P. 



138 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Brantford magistrates to the Vice Chancellor, 

Brantford 25th Dec. 1837. 



Sir : 



We beg to inform you in accordance with his Excellency s notice of 
the llth inst. that we have as magistrates of the Gore District committed 
to prison at Hamilton, a number of persons who have been in arms and 
been otherwise concerned in the late Insurrection in the London District. 

We have in our possession various documents, relating to the charges 
against the persons above mentioned, and should be glad to know how 
they are to be disposed of. We are sir, 

To His Honor, Your most obedient servants, 

Robt. S. JAMESON, (Signed) Jam. WINNETT, J. P. 
Vice Chancellor, (Signed) JAMES RACEY, J. P. 

Toronto. (Signed) Wm. HOLMES, J- P. 



Deposition of Chas. S. Perley about Duncombe. 

Charles S. Perley of the Township of Burford, London District, says, 
that there is a body of men under arms, under the command of Doctor 
Duncombe, in Norwich, supposed to be in number of from 100 to 200 men, 
and that there is also another body in Oakland, in the village of Scotland, 
under the command of Eliakim Malcolm, in number of from 60 to 70 
men. Abisha Rand of the Township of Burford saw all the men under 
Malcolm, he thinks, young Case was among them. Joseph Smith of 
Oakland, told Perley, that he, Smith, had joined Malcolm s party, John 
Kelly, one of Malcolm s party, is an officer in the Militia, and a commis 
sioner of the Court of Request. 

Dated at Hamilton 10th. December, 1837. 

(Signed) CHARLES PERLEY, 

(Signed) J. N. DERNIE, J. P. 
Taken in presence of : 
Edmond Ritchie, J. P- 
Elijah Secord, J. P. 
Col. Lord, 
Major Lord, and Wm. B. Vanevry, J- P. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 139 

The deposition of Peter Coon 

Gore District. 
To wit. 

Peter Coon of the Township of Burford, in the London District, 
Blacksmith, being duly sworn, deposeth and saith, that for about a fort 
night past frequent meetings have taken place in the neighbourhood of 
his residence. Isaac Malcolm and Eliakim Malcolm, of the Township of 
Oakland j were particularly active and industrious in calling these mee 
tings, and inducing people to attend them, that at some of these meetings, 
violent speeches were made by Eliakim Malcolm and Doctor Chas. Dun- 
combe, and one McGuire a School Master, who advised the people to arm 
themselves and fight against the Government, and said they would lead 
and assist them. 

Has seen Doctor Charles Duncombe armed with a sword, and the 
said McGuire armed with a gun. He also has frequently seen these three, 
so armed, drilling and training men, some armed and some without arms. 
He has also seen George Case, of the Town of Hamilton, armed, and he 
appeared to be acting in concert with the leaders before mentioned, has 
heard the Malcolms say, that Geo. Case was of their party, and that they 
considered him a very efficient person, who would do them good service. 
Has also understood, that a person of the name of Matthews, an auctioneer 
from Brantford, was in company with Case, aiding and assisting the 

rebels. 

Deponent further swears, that on Sunday last, McGuire, the school 
master, and James Malcolm came to him and required him to manufacture 
a lot of Pikes, for the purpose of arming some of the rebels who had no 
other arms. He objected to doing so, and they returned on Monday last 
and insisted on his making pikes for them, and threatened if he did not 
do so, they would put their martial law in force against him. They re 
quired fifty, and he was compelled to proceed to work and made upwards 
of 20. On Tuesday evening following Doctor Duncombe came to his 
neighbourhood with about 180 men, Duncombe and the principal part of 
his men being armed, Duncombe sent a message to him, that he must make 
pikes or do any other work they required him to do, and charge the same 
to the party- George Case was in company with Duncombe and his party 
at that time he was told. James Malcolm gave orders, that everyone 
should throw his house open and give lodging to- the men under arms. 
Some of them lodged in Deponent s house. Eliakim Malcolm and McGui 
re told desponent, that they would plunder everyone who would not turn 
out with them, in order to procure provisions, arms and other necessities, 



140 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



he knows, that they did take a quantity of arms from a person or persons 
at Waterford- He has heard Eliakim Malcolm and others of the party, 
say, that they had pills for the Lieut., Gov., Sir F. B. Head, and that they 
would shoot him if they could get a chance. Has heard Eliakim and 
James Malcolm and McGuire state, that if they could succeed they wo .iM 
establish an independant Government, without any connection with the 
Queen or the Mother Country, Great Britain. After it was known that 
a battle had taken place near Toronto, he had heard Eliakim Malcolm and 
McGuire say, that MacKenzie was doing well, and that they had acted 
and would act in concert with them, or words to that effect. 

The Rebels heard on Tuesday that Col. McNabb was coming up with 
a body of armed men to oppose them. On Tuesday morning George Case 
and Matthews came in from Norwich, and when they heard that an army 
was coming against them, they went back to Norwich and returned again 
the same evening with Buncombe and his men. On Wednesday evening 
the Rebels forces in his neighborhood amounted in all to about 200 men. 
On Wednesday evening the Rebels, amounting in all to about 400, left 
deponent s neighborhood in a body and in tolerably good order. On Thurs 
day morning Col. McNabb s men came to his neighborhood. He was 
called out to take care of Capt. Servos horse, which had been shot. 
Shortly after that deponent was taken prisoner, as he was told for making 
the pikes already referred to- 

his 

PETER + COON. 

mark. 
Sworn before us at Hamilton this 17th day of Dec. 1837- 

(Signed) Colin C. FERRIE, J. P. 
(Signed) W. B. VAN VERY, J. P. 



The case of Abraham Sackrider. 

Witness I. W. Tallant. 
Taken voluntary before 
me this 16th day of Dec- 
1837. Andrew Drew. J. P. 

Lewis Jacques of the Township of Norwich, said District of London, 
Yeoman, who being duly sworn upon the holy EvangelistS 5 deposeth and 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 141 



saith, that on Saturday and Monday last the deponent saw Abraham Sack- 
rided armed, in company with about two hundred armed men, under the 
command of James Dennis and Paul Beford, that he has heard Sackrider 
several times shout for "Jackson" and "damn the King", has heard him 
say "damn the Tories", we will make an end of them" meaning the loyal 
subjects of the Queen, that said Sackrider has often threatened deponent 
if he, deponent, did not keep a civil tongue in his head, that he would 
put deponent out of the way meaning as he, deponent firmly believes, that 
he will put him, deponent, to death. 

(Signed) LEWIS JACQUES. 

Sworn at the Township of Norwich in the London District, 16th day 
Dec. 1837, before me, Andrew Drew, J. P. 

The admission of Abraham Sackrider of the Township of Norwich 
charged with High Treason. 

I admit that I did join the rebels under Chas. Duncombe, and that I 
suffered myself to be persuaded to join them by Chas. Duncombe, and 
James Dennis, my brother-in-law, who was a captain of the rebels. Chas- 
Duncombe told me that he was going to take the country and make it 
independent The officers held council at the house of David Hagerman, 
in the village of Sodom, and elected Chas. Duncombe as their General. . . 
Hagerman is still in town, heard Calvin Austin say so this morning and 
was afraid he would be taken. I am sorry for what I have done, and as 
I have a large family I hope my error will be pardoned. 

(Signed) ABRAHAM SACKRIDER. 

Witness, I. W. Tallant, 
taken voluntary before me 
this 16th day of Dec- 1837. 
Andrew Drew, J. P. 

Abraham Sackrider s side of the story. 

London District, 

To wit) 

The deposition of Abraham Sackrider, late of Warwick in said Dis 
trict, Yeoman, taken on oath by Lawrence Laurason, Esq., who deposeth 
and saith, that he had business at London and went down there, found 
Duncombe s men collected at the meeting-house near Sodom. 



142 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



He was told that a Methodist preacher of the name of Bird was going 
to preach to Buncombe s men ; this was on a Monday, as deponent believes 
and between the 10th and 20th of December. Deponent went to the Me 
thodist meeting-house and heard Bird preach, cannot recollect what Bird 
said exactly, but the chief object of his sermon appeared to be to encoura 
ge the people to take up arms and fight for their freedom. 

Deponent never saw this preacher before, has heard that he had 
preached at Sodom, once or twice before. 

After meeting, Dr. Duncombe came to deponent and endeavoured to 
persuade him to go along. Deponent s brother-in-law, James Dennis, who 
was a Captain in Duncombe s army, also endeavoured to persuade him. 

They took him to the Inn and gave him something to drink and when 
deponent was in liquor, they got him into a baggage waggon and took him 
to Oakland. 

Duncombe threatened to lay waste deponent s property, if he did not go. 
After deponent got to Oakland^ he was put under guard until the men 
were formed, when he was so plcaed that he could not get away. He 
afterwards concerted a plan to escape, with John Hughes, to the British 
at Simcoe, but was prevented carrying it into effect, in consequence of the 
retreat to Norwich. 

Deponent also states that David Wilson, who is brother to Dr. Wil 
son, came to deponent a day or so before he went to Sodom and told de 
ponent, that then was the time for the people to turn out and take arms, 
said W 7 ilson went round through the neighbourhood urging the people to 
take up arms. 

Said Wilson has since told deponent that the reason of his not going 
to Oakland, was in consequence of his having cut his foot with an axe., 
David Wilson was in Norwich when deponent left. Dr. Duncombe and a 
man of the name of Fowler put up at David Wilson s, at the time he went 
round to urge the people to turn out- 

Deponent further saith, that William Childers furnished a rifle to a 
coloured man of the name of William Taylor, and urged him to go 
join Duncombe. 

Deponent also saith, that he has lately heard, that James Dennis and 
Hiram Brentley, who was an Ensign in Duncombe s army, are now con 
cealed, not far from his place. 

Deponent saith, that when the party were assembled at Norwich, 
before they started for Oakland, he saw Solomon Lossing, Esq. on the 
ground talking to Duncombe and his men, who were armed. Lossing 
seemed in good spirits and was talking and joking with them. At this 
time Duncombe was armed with a sword, pistols and deponent thinks, a 
dirk. Deponent is acquainted with John Kelly. On their way to Oakland, 
Dr Duncombe, Matthews, James Dennis and others, stopped at 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD^ 143 

Kelly s and took tea. Kelly was favourable to the party and wished them 
success. He supplied them with some apples, heard him say that he 
would not go himself but that his two sons should go. Deponent has since 
heard John Kelly say, that he considered his living under the laws of this 
country as being in a bad state of bondage and that he wished himself 
free. 

(Signed) ABRAHAM SACKRIDER- 

Sworn before me at London 
in said District, this 27th day 
of January, 1838. 
LAWRENCE LAURASON, J. P. 



Evidence of Francis Glover taken 16th March, 1838. 

About the 10th. Dec- last he saw Dr- Charles Duncombe at Oakland 
in the London District, making a speech to about 300 persons (he thinks) 
and they were mostly armed- Eliakim Malcolm acted as an officer among 
them, also James Malcolm, whom they called a Lieut., also Finlay Mal 
colm of Bayham was called a Lieut., John Kelly of Burford was also 
there. This complainant does not remember that John Kelly was under 
arms, but the following persons were, Thomas Silverthorn of Windham, 
Yeoman, Richard Silverthorn of Burford, Yeoman, Lewis Stenhoff of 
Oakland, Yeoman, Jacob Beemer of Oakland, deponent does not remem 
ber his bearing arms, Finlay Malcolm, the elder, was there encouraging 
the men into the ranks as volunteers. 



Extract of the deposition of James Boyle of Oakland, carpenter, 
taken 9th March 1838 before Wm. Holmes Esq., J. P. 

That at the times the Rebels were assembled at Scotland, he was 
employed the whole time there building a blacksmith shop for Peter Coon. 
In the course of that time deponent saw there under-mentioned persons, 
who were of the Rebel party, viz : 

1 Miilip Henry, who acted as an officer, Abraham Yamluzen, who is a 
doctor and acted as surgeon to the Rebel forces, as deponent was informed. 
Joseph Smith, who was there frequently, Peter Coon } a blacksmith and 
Thomas Whalon, his journeyman, who were employed making pikes for 
Rebels, knew them to make 28 pikes : 



144 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Alonzo Foster was there, who resided at that place, with Geo- Mal 
colm, John Heap was seen there frequently, but not taking an active part, 
Chas. P. Walbraith, (or Walbrod), was seen there very often, was an 
officer and acted as drill Sergt. of the Oakland Company. Peter Landon 
was often seen under drill, Oliver Edmonds of Windham was frequently 
there, but never saw him take any active part. Joseph Beemer, who kept 
the tavern at Scotland, was very active all the time, was Landlord with his 
son Jacob Beemer. 

(Signed) W. H. DRAPER, Solicitor Gen- 



Trie meeting in Oakland, Dec. 7th 1837. 

(Organisation of the Oakland Company}. 

Deposition of John Kelly. 

Extract from the deposition of John Kelly of Burford, in the District 
of London, on the 18th of Dec. 1837, before Richard Richardson and 
others, Justices of the Peace. 

On Thurstday the 7th day of Dec. inst. a public meeting was held at 
Joseph Beemer s Inn in Oakland. 

Malcolm and McGuire asked for Volunteers to join Malcolm s com 
pany, to assist McKenzie s party at Toronto- About half the persons pre 
sent voluteered. They were generally armed. James Malcolm was cho 
sen captain, Eliakim Malcolm, Lieut., and William McGuire Ensign. The 
names of those volunteered, as far as deponent recollects, were : James 
Oswald, John Kelly, Jr. Granville Kelly, Jacob Beemer, etc. etc- etc. etc. 
they remained under arms, and kept their headquarters there and were 
on duty as soldiers. 



Evidence of James Glover. 

Extract of the deposition of James Glover of Burford, in the Dis 
trict of London, Yeoman, taken on the 16th. March, 1838, before James 
Racey, Esq. J. P. 

That, in the early part of the month of December last past, he was at 
Scotland in the Township of Oakland in the London District, that he was 
there several times, that he saw the following persons under arms and 
drilling : Jacob Beemer of Oakland. Inn Keeper, John Kelly, Jr. Gran 
ville Kelly, James Oswald, William McGwire, Oliver Edmunds, Peter 
Landon, etc. etc- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 145 



Some particulars of the the Norwich Company. 

Caleb Tompkins of Norwich, says the following were leading persons 
at the declaration of Buncombe s Independence. 

Paul Bedford (Capt.) 

Hart (Lieut.) Lives in what they call Dutch Settlement. 
James Dennis (Capt( North West Part of Norwich. 
Elias Snider (Lieut.) Was Lieut, sent messenger to Yarmouth. 
Daniel Bedford (Lieut.) 

King Emigh. Gave the Rebels 14 or 15 fat hogs. 
O. B. Clark. Was commissary and pressed Caleb Tompkins waggon 

and took their names down. 
Peter Delong. Duncombe was quartered at his house, and had a 

strong guard over himself. 

Albert Delong. Son of David, was sent on express by Duncombe. 
David Wilson. Was sent to the North of Norwich on Express. 
Luke Peasely- Leading man. 
Jacob Kelley. Went with his team to Scotland to convey Duncom- 

bes men and provisions. 
O. B. Clarke. Gave powder and lead to the Rebels and put it in the 

waggon- 
James Clarke. Did the same. 
Garret Delaney. Inn Keeper at London, wanted Caleb to take all 

the provisions he could to the Rebels. 



Burford prisoners sent to London Jail. 

Roll of the state prisoners in custody of Wm. Higgins, June 9th. 1838. 

Nathaniel Doe. 

Horatio Fowler 

Finlay Malcolm etc. etc. etc. etc. 

Received from Wm. Higgins the above named prisoners this llth 
June, 1838. 

( Signed ) ALLAN MACDONELL, 
Sheriff London Dist. 



146 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Petition of the BurfoH Prisoners in London Jail, 

London, May 26th. 1838. 

The petitions of certain prisoners confined in the London jail under 
the charge of Treason, most humbly showeth, that your petitioners have 
lain in this place of confinement, many of them for the space of five 
months, during which time sickness had carried off one of our number, 
and brought many so low that their lives were despaired of, and on their 
convalescence they are left in that state of weakness, as to make it appre 
hensive, that they never will attain that health they once enjoyed, that 
many of them have large families, varying from nine children downwards, 
who have during the above space of time been suffering for the want of 
necessary assistance and support of their fathers and husbands- 

(Signed) Nathaniel Doe, Horatio Fowler, etc. etc. etc. etc. 



Let it be done. 

Fiat Proclamation calling upon certain persons indicted for High 
Treason in the London District, who have absconded, to surrender or be 

outlawed. 

Attorney General s Office, 

Toronto, 22nd Oct. 1838. 

Let a proclamation issue (in the same form as in the Home District) 
calling for the return of the following persons indicated for High Trea 
son, at the special session of the Over and Terminer, held at the town of 
London in the District of London, on the 9th day of April in the year of 
Her Majesty s Reign, and who have fled from this Province or remain 
concealed therein, that is to say : 

Charles Buncombe, late of the Township of Bur ford, in the District 

of London, Esq. 

James Dennis, late of the Township of Norwich, in the District of 

London, Yeoman. 

Eliakim Malcolm, late of the Township of Oakland, in the District 

of London, Yeoman. 

Peter Delong, late of the Township of Norwich, in the District of 
London, Yeoman. 

Orsimus B. Clarke, late of the Township of Norwich, in the District 
of London- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 147 

Lyman Davis, late of the Township of Malahide, in the District of 
London. 

Henry Fisher, late of the Township of Bayham, in the District of 
London, Yeoman. 

James Malcolm, late of the Township of Oakland, in the District 
of London, Yeoman. 

Pelham C. Teeple, late of the Township of Oxford West, in the Dis 
trict of London, Yeoman. 

Norris Humphrey, late of the Township of Bayham, in the District 
of London, Merchant. 

Jesse Pauling, late of the Township of Bayham, in the District of 
London, Innkeeper- 
Joel P. Doan, late of the Township of Yarmouth, in the District of 
London, Tanner. 

Joshua G. Doan, late of the Township of Yarmouth, in the District, 
of London, Tanner. 

John Talbot, late of the Township of Yarmouth, in the District 
of London, Gentleman. 

Samuel Edison, the youngest, late of the Township of Bayham, in 
the District of London, Inn Keeper. 

Abraham Sutton, late of the Township of Norwich, in the District 
of London, Yeoman. 

Moses Chapman Nickerson, late of the Township of Woodhouse, in 
the District of Talbot, Yeoman. 

Geo. Lauton, late of the Township of Yarmouth, in the District of 
London, Yeoman. 

John Massacre, late of the Township of Townsend, in the District of 
Talbot, Yeoman. 

EHsha Hall, late of the Township of Oxford West, in the District 
of London, Yeoman. 

Solomon Hawes, late of the Township of Yarmouth, in the District 
of London, Yeoman. 

(Signed) W- H. HAGGERMAN, 

To the Sec y. of the Province. Atty. General. 



148 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



List of Prisoners received into the Goal of the district of Gore 

upon charges of insurrection and treason, from the 

1 5th December, 1837 to the 8th August, 1 838. 

John Tufford- (Dr. Duncombe s son-in-law) from United States^ recei 
ved in goal Dec. 16th 1837 Civil Court, Sentenced, to be han 
ged, respited until her Majesty s pleasures are known. 

Alonzo Foster. From United States, from 15th Dec. 1837 to March 20th 
1838, no bill found, discharged by proclamation. 

John P. Uline. Tanner and Currier, Dec. 15th 1837 to March 31st 1838, 
Civil Court, Verdict, Not Guilty. 

Peter Landon. 16th Dec. 1837, to March 15th 1838, no bill found, dis 
charged by proclamation. 

John Malcolm. Yeoman, 23rd Dec- 1837 to March 10th 1838, no bill 
found, discharged by proclamation. 

Isaac B. Malcolm. Yeoman, 23rd Dec. 1837 to June 6th 1838 Petitioned 
Bailed to keep the peace three years. 

Norman Malcolm. 23rd Dec- 1837 to March 31st 1838. Not Guilty 
Acquitted. 

Adam Yeigh. Yeoman, 23rd Dec. 1837 to March 31st 1838. No Bill 
found, discharged by the court. 

Michael Showers Yeoman, 23rd 1838 to March 17th 1838. No Bill 
found, discharged by Proclamation. 

George Rouse. Labourer, Jan. 2nd 1838 to March 31st 1838. No Bill 

found, discharged by the court- 
Peter Malcolm. Yeoman, Jan. 3rd 1838, to be hanged, respited until Her 
Majesty s pleasure be known. 

Horatio Fowler. June llth 1838 to June 21st 1838. Petitioned, taken 
to Toronto. 

Finlay Malcolm. Jan llth 1838 to June 21st 1838, Petitioned, taken to 

to Toronto- 
Charles Malcolm. July 12th 1838 taken to Niagara. 

George Malcolm. July 12th 1838 taken to Niagara. 



Memorandum, 

Names and quality or station of several persons arrested in Upper 
Canada and placed in confinement, in the prison in Toronto and other 
placed in the Province, on a charge of Insurrection and High Treason. 

Caleb Kipp, arrested 17th Dec. 1837, banished from the Province for 
life. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 149 

Jacob Lester, arrested 1st July 1837, discharged by the Magistrate, 
15th July 1837. 

Isaac L. Smith, arrested 13th July 1838, discharged by Magistrate 
20th July 1838. 



Persons against whom indictments were found for the crime of High 
Treason, but who absconded and are called upon to surrender themselves 
by the 17th day of February next or be outlawed. 

Charles Duncombe. 
EHakim Malcolm- 
James Malcolm. 

Prisoners in the district of Gore who have petitioned. 

Adam, William and Henry Winegarden Pardoned. 

Isaac Brock Malcolm Pardoned. 

Peter Malcolm To be transported for life. 

John Tufford To be transported for live- 



Charged with having been in arms in open rebellion. 

Witnesses : 

W. H. Pringle 
Calvin Lyons 
Peter Coon 
Elisha Raines 
James Church 
Benjamin Baily Jr. 
V. R. Douglass 
Wm. Kingston. 

Prisoners. 

John Malcolm Committed by W. Richardson J. P. 

IsaacMalcolm " " " " 

Finlay Malcolm " " " " " 

Norman Malcolm " " " " " 

Peter Malcolm " W. Holmes J. P. and J. Racey J.P. 

Michael Showers " James Racey, J. I . 



150 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Adam Yeigh Comitted by J. Racey J- P. and W. Holmes J.P. 

John Tufford " James Winnett, James Racey and 

Wm. Holmes, Justice of the Peace. 

Horatio Fowler was first arrested on the 21st December 1837, and 
brought before Magistrates James Ingersoll and Peter Carrol, at Wood 
stock, on the following day, who committed him to London Jail. After 
Petitioning he was transferred to Hamilton in the month of June 1838, 
and in October was pardoned, on giving security to keep the peace and be 
of good behavior for three years. 

JFinlay Malcolm Jr. was first arrested Dec- 15th 1837 and sent to the 
Toronto Jail for trial in the month of June 1838, he having been confined 
in the meantime in the Jail at London. In October 1838 he petitioned, 
under 1st Viet. Chap. 10, but was found guilty of High Treason and was 
sentenced to be transported to Van Dieman s Land and banished for a 
period of fourten years. 

Copy of Panel of Petit Jurors summoned to serve at the Court of Oyer 
and Terminer and Goal delivery, in and for the District of Gore, com 
mencing Tuesday 8th, March, 1838. 

NAMES. RESIDENCE. OCCUPATION. 

Edward Battersly Brantford Gentleman 

Thos. Coleman 

Wm. C. Ross Merchant 

Geo. M. Richardson 



Abraham K. Smith 
Wm. Kirby 
Robert Sproul 
Albert Buckwell 
Wm. Ewing 
Francis Hunter 
James Muirhead 
Rollo Badger 



Gentleman 

Yeoman 

Merchant 



Yeoman 
Gentleman 



James Henry Merchant 

Names of persons against whom indictments have been found for 
High Treason at Hamilton, in the Gore District. 

Duncan McPhederain Ephraim Cook Elias Snider 

Robt. Laing W M. Thompson Chas. P. Walbraith 

Charles Chapin Wm. Lyons Malcolm Brown 

Adam Yeigh Philip Henry John Leonard Uhne 

James Benham Samuel Marlett Calvin Syman 

Stephen Smith James Burchard Oliver Smith 

Wm. Armstrong George Roberts James Parkinson 

Robt. Elliott James Peters John Tufford 

Hiram Dowlan Horatio Hills Finlay Malcolm 

Nathan Town Isaac Brock Malcolm Adam Winegarden 

Norman Malcolm Wm. Winegarden Peter Malcolm 
Lord Well. Winegarden 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



151 



Schedule of indictmens against persons charged with state offences, 
in the District of London, at the special commission 9th. April 1838. 



NAMES. 

Charles Buncombe 
James Dennis 
Eliakim Malcolm 
Peter Belong 
Orismies B. Clark 
Edward Carmen 
Andrew W. Clure 
Robert Cavanagh 
Uriah Emmons 
James Coleman 
Ben Page 
Jonathan Steete 
John B. Brown 
John Moore 
Caleb Kipp 
Isaac Moore 
Bennis Cavanagh 
Lyman Bavis 
Robt. Franey 
Stephen Brunger 
Patrick Milady 
Lewis Morton 
James Colville 
Amos Bradshawe 
W. M. Toaltes 
Charles Lawrence 
Alex. Milady 
Harvey Bryant 
Samuel Sands 
Andrew Connors 
Moses Cook 
Losee Benon 
Wm. Cheeseman 
John Medcalf 
Nelson Leach 
James Bell 
Joseph Bowers, Jr. 
Robt. Cook 
Elias Moore 



Finlay Malcolm 
Ezekiel Mumes 
Nath. Boe 
Henry Fisher 
Nath. Bown 
Wm. Webb 
John Hammill 
Henry Winegarden 
Willard Sherman 
Solomon Lossing 
Robt. Armstrong. 



OFFENCE 



RESULT 



REMARKS 



High Treason Absconded 



Petitioned 



it 
ti 
n 
H 

ii 



11 

11 
ii 
ii 

ii 
ii 

ii 
ii 



It 

a 



Treason 



High Treason 



Acquitted 

Convicted 

Petitioned 

Absconded 

Petitioned 

Absconded 

Petitioned 



Convicted 
Petitioned 



Recommended to 
Mercy 



Not tried, put off 
in consequence of 
witness absconded. 
Petitioned 



Absconded 
Convicted 



Petitioned 
Acquitted 



Recommended to 
Mercy. 



Bill Ignored 



152 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



The Oxford Militia. 



Sir : 



Adjutant Generals Office, 

Toronto, 2nd Jan., 1838. 



I have to request you will select 50 men ready at hand, of the Regi 
ment under your command, to hold themselves at a moment s warning, on 
service- 

This force (then in readiness to move) will defer making any move 
ment until further instructions are received from this Office, unless upon 
an emergency, as would render such a measure absolutely imperative. 

I have etc. etc. 

(Signed) RICHARD BULLOCK, A. G. 
To the Officer Commanding Oxford Regiment. 



Sir : 



Adjutant Generals Office, 

Toronto, 16th March, 1838. 



With reference to your letter dated the 8th inst. and its enclosures, 
I beg to acquaint you that no further supply of arms can be spared at 
present for the use of the militia in the county of Oxford. 



Col. I. Chisholm, 

A. Q. M. General, 
Hamilton. 



I have etc. etc. 

(Signed) RICHARD BULLOCK, A. G. 



Sir : 



Adjutant Generals Office, 

Toronto, 21st April, 1838. 



Your letter of 10th ult, has been referred to the Barrack Master, iii 
whose charge the arms were, previous to their last consignment, I now 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 153 

send you a copy of his last reply, requesting that the matter may be further 
investigated and the result made known to this Office. 

The investigation of the matter should proceed in combination with 
the other Officers who have received defective supplies. 

I have etc. etc. 
(Signed) RICHARD BULLOCK, A. G. 

Lt. Col- Whitehead, 

Com. 4th Oxford. 



W. H. Draper, Sol. General, further writes to J. Joseph, Esq. 

Secty. Governor General, 

Toronto 24th March 1838. 

I take the liberty of offering here observation on the general charac 
ter of the cases against different individuals. 

The case of Sol. Lossing is peculiar, he was a magistrate, was in re 
peated conversation with Buncombe and other rebel leaders while actually 
in arms. From his own declaration, he furnished them with provisions- 
The evidence is very strong to show that he was cognizant of their plans 
before they took up arms. He received a letter from Duncombe inviting 
him to come to their meeting and he replied that he would attend if he 
could, he held communication with the Rebels after this. The Jury 
had before them a bill of High Treason and misprision and found the 
former. 

I have only to remark that the following are the names of those im 
plicated and from among whom (if convicted) a selection should be 
made for capital punishment. Horatio Hills, Wm. Lyons, Findlay Mal 
colm, Peter Malcolm, Elias Snider, John Tufford, (a son-in-law of Chas. 
Duncombe) and Chas- P. Walbraith. 

Perhaps at London within the District where he lived, his conduct 
may be more thoroughly scrutinized. 

The only witnesses who ardently deposeth against him have ; as I 
am informed by the magistrate, left the county. I have, etc. etc. etc. 

(Signed) WM. H. DRAPER. 
Solicitor General. 



154 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Wm. Draper to J. Joseph. 

Hamilton 19th March 1838. 
Sir : 

I have the honor to transmit to you herewith, a list of prisoners 
against whom indictments for high treason have been found, and have 
to request that you will submit the same to the consideration of His Ex 
cellency, the Lieut. Governor, that the necessary order in council may 
be transmitted authorizing the trial of these prisoners or such of them as 
His Excellency may think fit. 

The Court will sit on Monday the 29th inst. for the trial of the pri 
soners, and it is therefore necessary, that the Order in Council should be 
made in sufficient time to enable the court to proceed. There may be 
possibly three or four more cases but certainly not more than that number. 

I regret to say that many prisoners have been confined on charges so 
indifferently supported by evidence, as to make it appear a hardship that 
they have not been much sooner relased. I have among others dischar 
ged from custody Abraham Vanduzen, mentioned in my letter of the llth 
inst. to Lieut. Col. Strachan, not finding evidence to warrant any indict 
ment. Nor have I been able to collect sufficient evidence to enable me 
to prepare an indictment against Robert Alway, for wich reason I re 
commend his being bailed. Perhaps at London within the District where 
he lived, his conduct may be more thoroughly scrutinized. 

The only witnesses who ardently deposeth against him, have, as I 
am informed by the magistrate, left the county. I have etc. etc. 

(Signed) Wm. H. DRAPER. 



Sir : 



J. R. Riddle J. P. to J. Joseph, Secretary. 

Woodstock, 12th January 1838. 



From the tenor of the Papers and correspondence of Elisha Hall, 
forwarded to Col. McNabb by the Hon. P. B. De Blanquiere, by whom 
they were seized and examined, I am told by him that they were of such 
a nature as could prove him to have been the very chief of conspiracy in 
this part of the Province (not ever inferior to Dr- Duncombe himself) 
while they exhibited sentiments of so brutal and malignant a nature as to 
make it highly desirable that he should be secured if possible. I have 
every reason to believe from the state of illness in which Elisha Hall was, 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

when he escaped from custody at Ingersoll about a fortnight ago, that he 
is still in hiding in or about the Township of Norwich, and that it would 
be highly expedient, that a reward equal to that offered for Dr. Buncombe 
be offered also for Elisha Hall. Embodying also in the proclamation the 
announcement of punishment that awaits all those who may harbour or 
know of his concealment. A sufficient number of copies should be sent 
up here for circulation, in the disaffected townships of Duncombe s coun 
ty, and not pressing this upon his Excellency. I would hope that the 
recapture of the individual would be ensured, from the operation at one 
and the same time, of the reward and the fear of punishment, I have the 

honour to be, dear Sir", 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. R. RIDDLE, J. P. 
London, District. 

p. s. if the reward were allowed to those whose information should 

lead to the apprehension, as well as to the actual apprehension, it would 

make the matter sure. 

R. R. 

To J. Joseph, Esq., 

Secretary to the Lieut. Gov- 



Elisha Hall to Dr. Duncombe. 

Oxford Dec. 6th. 1837. 



Dear Doctor. 



I saw a letter of yours which stated that the Reformers had taken 
Toronto, but can learn no particulars. James Ingersoll looks a little down, 
but C. Marygold shows fright, times will soon grow squally, I very much 
fear. I wish my wife was a healthy woman, I would leave the country 
to-morrow, I have seen one war and do not want to see another. I feel 
no inclination to lift a finger and hope you will not. The Tories asked 
me if I would fight, I told them "No". I think I will rent the place that I 
live on and go out of the Province if the times come as troublesome as 
I anticipate. I think it is a premature squall of little Mr. McKenzie s, 
who is like Philip Graham, Esq, of Woodstock, they both do any cause 
which they espouse more harm than ten more do it good, if you should 



156 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

pass this way I wish you to call as my wife is sometimes out of health. 

Now do you think the Clergy Reserve question will be settled if they 
go fighting. I have got a sawmill myself begun and hope I will be able 
to rent it before the times become too rough, as I shall be able to rent to 
better advantage, if I should conclude to quit the sod, which I am deter 
mined to do if a Civil War commences, for a Civil War is dreadful of all 
wars I think the Indians will be encouraged by the Government, and I 
now have too much trouble raising my family to have them scalped. The 
old women are frightened out of their wits on this account. I dare not 
go a mile from home for fear of news of Toronto, and I may not be pre 
sent to hear it first- Mr. Ingersoll tells that he can get no private letters 
at all, which is certainly very singular. I should think he would get lots 
of them. 

So no more at present, I remain, 

Yours respectfully, 
(Signed) ELISHA HALL. 



Recommending a nsw Postmaster at Norwich. 
Col, John Askin to, 

London, 25th Dec. 1837. 
My dear Sir : 

Whilst I was in Norwich with Col. McNabb on the 17 inst, having 
heard that Ephraim Cook, Postmaster at that place, had decamped with 
Dr. Duncombe, under the apprehension of being punished for having joi 
ned the Rebels, I took upon myself to write Col. McNabb, requesting that 
he would take upon himself the appointment of a person to take charge 
of the Post Office there, subject to the approval of the Post Master Gene 
ral, and recommended the appointment of Mr. Wallace, a merchant at 
London, as that office must necessarily be left exposed to the management 
of persons who might be doing mischief. Ephraim is taken and now in 
goal here. 

This breakout of the Rebels has shown that many persons have pro 
ved themselves unworthy the confidence of the Government, as in the 
case of Eliakim Malcolm and John Kelly, commissioners of the Court of 
Request, Division No, who were amongst the Rebels, Kelly is taken- 
There also is the case of Solomon Lossing, a Magistrate, who must have 
known all their proceedings and gave no information to the Executive 
of the subject : 






THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 157 

Amongst the prisoners here are : 

Elias Moore, M. P. P. in the County of Middlesex. 

EHas Snider, Lieut, in Capt. James Dennis Co- 

Finlay Malcolm, son of Daniel Malcolm of Bayham Capt. in the Rebel 
Army. 

Paul Bedford of Norwich, also a Capt. in Duncombe s Army. 

Edward Carman, Adjt, with a party of riflemen from Yarmouth, who 
joined the Rebel Army. 

Ephraim Cook, Surgeon, accompanying Duncombe s army, late Post 
master in Norwich. 

I am my dear Sir, 

Very faithfully yours, 

(Signed) J. B. ASKIN. 



Charles Duncombe to,. 



Burford Oct. 24th 1837. 
My dear Sir : 

Your favor of the 17th inst, has this moment come to hand, in which 
you say that the time has come when reformers ought to be on the alert 
in forming political unions and in arranging for our common safety. I 
heartily concur with you, that it is high time for the reformers to be up 
and doing. When Sir Francis Head declares, that the British Govern 
ment never intended any such absurdity, as giving us the British consti 
tution, (of course we are to continue to be governed by the Oligarchy at 
Toronto) and when the doors of the colonial office are closed against re 
formers, or republicans as Sir Francis (tauntingly styles us) because we 
are guilty of the crime of appearing to Her Majesty s government with 
our complaints, and when we see this Province under the dynasty of a 
foreign governor and an Orange Oligarcy, retrograding in one year as 
much as it has advanced in five. The only interest our oppressors have in 
the Province being the plunder they can amass and carry away with them. 
I think anyone not wilfully blind, not interested in the continuance of the 
abuses, must see that while this baneful denomination continues, we have 
not the slightest chance for prosperity, and that if we will be governed 
we must govern ourselves- Our oppressors have shown us more clearly 
than ever before, that their great object is to make the rich richer and 



158 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



the poor poorer, for if the people should become wealthy they would be 
come intelligent and unwilling slaves, my maxim has always been, educate 
the people, this can be done only upon a few matters upon politics, we 
may do much by the assembling ourselves together and having political 
lectures, by the forming of young political unions, publishing periodicals 
and encouraging the circulation of reform newspapers, this can best be 
done by union, and by one devoting the few pence we save from our grog 
bills to the purchase of correct information upon the subject of our own 
affairs, and the time formerly spent in drinking, to reading and reflecting. 
I shall be most happy to meet with you at any time after next week, as I 
have heard that there is to be a reform meeting in Oakland one day next 
week, but have not heard what day, and I must (God willing) be there. 
I have just received a note from our trusty friend Hall, upon the same 
subject and he mentions no time. I hope when you appoint the time you 
will let me know, as the time has come when we are to decide whether we 
will be bondsmen or slaves. The reformers of Westminster have done 
nobly, your name I see amongst the immortal patriots who fear the op 
pressors iron rod, thank God we are strong in the justice of our cause and 
although we may suffer for a time we shall assuredly in the end prevail. 
"A Nation never can rebel" those only are rebels who resist the will of 
the people, from them, the people, emanates all legitimate Constitutional 
Government. I highly approve the plan both you and Mr. Hall propose, 
and shall be much obliged by your letting me know when the meeting is to 
be, and I shall endeavor to be with you. God prosper the right and every 
man come prepared to defend himself." 

I am dear Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) CHARLES BUNCOMBE. 



Sir Allan McNab to Capt. Kerr. 

Hamilton, 2nd July 1838 . 



My Dear Sir : 



Having received the commands of his Excellency the Major General 
commanding ; to call out the Militia immediately, I have the honor to re 
quest that you will forthwith call out the force of Indian Warriors under 
your c<?*nmand to proceed to the London District. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 159 

Your are authorized to keep any number of teams for their conveyan 
ce that you may find necessary. 

The present emergency appears to be greater than any which has 
previously taken place and in the event of your passing through Hamilton 
on your way, I will inform you of some of the particulars- 

I remain, my dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) ALLAN N. McNAB 

Col. Com. Gore District. 

His Excellency particularly requires that the warriors should proceed 
with you at their head- The Governor will be here today at 11 o clock. 

(Signed) A. N. McN. 



Hamilton, July 6th 1838. 
District order 

% 

Col. Sir Allan Napier McNabb has great pleasure in announcing to 
the Militia of the Gore District that he has received the commands of his 
Excellency the Major General commanding, to express to both Officers 
and men, the high estimation, which his Excellency entertains of their 
zeal and activity in answering their country s call, and to tender to them 
his thanks for the services they have so promptly rendered in assisting to 
supress the late Rebellion. His Excellency knowing how very important 
their attendance upon their domestic concerns must be, permits them at 
once to return to their farms. 

In taking leave of his brother militiamen, the Col. only desires further 
to express his own feelings of pride and gratification in finding that on a 
few hours notice, and at the present inconvenient season of the year, a 
small section of the Gore District has furnished a body of nearly 1200 
men, ready and anxious to move to any part of the Province where their 
services might be required. 



160 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Col. C, Foster A. A. G. to his excellency Sir. G. Arthur. 

Toronto, May 28th. 1838. 
Sir : 

As the proceedings of the Refugee Rebels from this Province, and of 
their sympathizing friends in the United States } having assumed a more 
serious character, I consider it my duty to lay before your Excellency, 
such information on the subject as has reached me during your recent 
tour of Inspection at Kingston. 

Your Excellency was well aware before your departure from To 
ronto, of the Meetings of those persons at Lockport, Buffalo, etc- These 
meetings continue to be held nightly, and not one is permitted to be pre 
sent at any of them, except such as have previously enrolled and sworn 
in as associates of the cause. There is a committe formed whose duty 
it is to provide employment for strangers coming from a distance, who, 
as they arrive are attached to Companies, and are furnished it is said, with 
a portion of black crepe, to be worn when required, round the hat and one 
arm, as a distinguishing badge of their party. They still arrogate to 
themselves the denomination of "Patriots" and under such misnomer, 
declare their determination to possess themselves of Upper Canada in 
spite of every effort of their Government. 

From the exclusive privacy of their Meetings, it is almost impossible 
to procure proper intelligence of the intentions, yet it seems sufficiently 
well understood that they propose to make a series of simultaneous attacks 
on this Province, along its whole lines of the Frontier from Fort Gratiot 
to Ogdensburgh. These views, it is supposed, cannot be carried into effect 
until their organization is more complete, but as Meetings and trainings 
have sometime since been resumed at Detroit, Toledo, Monroe, Cleveland, 
etc, to the Westward, at Buffalo, Lockport etc, on the Niagara Frontier, 
at Rochester etc, on Lake Ontario, and at Ogdensburg, French Creek etc, 
on the River St. Lawrence, it is calculated that their evil designs may be 
commenced in the beginning of the next month if not at any earlier period. 
It is stated that there are already not less than 5,000 distributed about 
Cleveland and the other places before mentioned in that neighborhood, 
that there are at Buffalo, Lockport and the surrounding country at least 
14,000, On the borders of Lake Ontario, with Rochester as their point of 
assembly, 5000, At French Creek, on the line of the St. Lawrence, the 
numbers have not been stated. As Dr. Duncombe is with them, Port 
Stanley, Port Dover, and other harbors on Lake Erie, in the neighborhood 
of which a vast number of disaffected inhabitants reside, will no doubt be 
early attacked, but their principal object appears at present, to be Toron- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 161 

to. There will be no difficulty in their procuring abundance of transport 
on Lake Erie, as there are fifty Steamers that sail from the Port of De 
troit alone and at least a dozen pass Amherstburg daily. On Lake On 
tario, it is stated that they have already engaged two of their four stea 
mers for their purposes- A few days since, at a very early hour in the 
morning, it is said that 400 or 500 men embarked on board a large steam 
boat at Detroit and proceeded towards Lake Huron. Should this party 
make a successful attack on Penetanguishene, there is but a subalterns 
detachment at that place to dispute their endeavour to join their disaffec 
ted friends in the neighborhood of New-Market, Lloyd-Town etc. 

As the Incorporated Corps of Militia Volunteers have already been 
very much reduced in numbers, and as the services of them all will expire 
at the end of the ensuing month, I must not omit drawing to your Excel 
lency s observation, how ill prepared the Province will be to resist any 
serious attempts against it. I declare that I never felt the least particle 
of uneasiness concerning the result of the late invasion of the country, 
I felt confident in a successful termination of our endeavours to maintain 
the integrity of this portion of Her Majesty s Dominion s I now however, 
candidly confess that I feel much apprehension for its peace and security, 
arising out of the extended scale to which the projects of the Refugees 
and their associates have been carried, and this, too, not through the means 
of the dregs of Society alone, but through the extensive countenance and 
ample pecuniary assistance, of what may be termed the better orders of 
the community and also the total inability of the American Government to 
restrain the outrageous conduct of its citizens. 

Under all these circumstances, I trust I shall not be considered pre 
sumptuous, in placing before your Excellency s notice, the inadequacy of 
the small number of the Queen s Troops which will be left in the Province 
for its protection, if a sufficient force cannot be spared from Lower Ca 
nada, that a considerable number, a corps of Militia Volunteers, be imme 
diately enlisted and brought into a state of discipline, so as to enable them 
to act with efficiency in concert with the Queen s Troops } in the event of 
affairs assuming the serious character expected. 

I have the honor to be Sir, 

Your Excellency s most obedient humble Servant, 
( Signed ) C. FOSTER. 

Asst Adjt. Genl. 

His Excellency Major General Sir. George Arthur K. C. H. etc. 



162 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

One of the most pathetic looking documents to be found among the 
valuable and interesting collection in the Dominion Archives, is ,!>e ori 
ginal of the following, it was written on plain foolscap paper, and bears 
every appearance of having been hastily prepared, and forwarded to the 
Executive, as t last appeal to save the lives of the unfortunate prisoners. 
The Document was folded twice and bound with narrow tape, which like 
the paper is now faded and yellow with age, it still adheres to the large 
and crude daub of red sealing wax, which held it in place arid secured the 
contents, the whole appearance of this old petition is suggestive of the 
sighs and tears of the despairing wives and families, praying for the re 
lease and return of their natural protectors. 

On business Involving Life and Death. 

To His Excellency, 

Sir. Geo. Arthur K- C. B., 

Lieut. Gov. of the Province of Upper Canada. 

Toronto. 

Brantford, April 10th. 1838. 

It may be necessary for the information of His Excellency the Lieut. 
Gov- to remark, that those signatures on the right hand column, on both 
sides on the first sheets of the enclosed petition, above the Red Mark, are, 
with the exception of I. K. Smith, G. W. Whitehead and A. Cameron, 
Jurors, and those marked with an astrick namely, A. K. Smith, John 
Thorner, John Layton, John Ruckman, John Fuller, Frederick Ashbo- 
rough, James Henry, William Kirby, and Francis Hunter, sat as Jurors 
on the trial of the prisoners. 

Mr. Brockman of this town, another of the Jurors, not being at home, 
signature could not be obtained, and the other two Jurors lived to remotely 
from here, to render an appointment with them practicable, within a short 
time. Almost the whole of the names on both sides of the other sheets 
are signatures of individuals of good standing and respectability, six 
being Clergymen, two of which are Church of England and six Magis 
trates namely, William Holmes, G- W. Whitehead, Wm. Richardson, 
Thomas Coleman, S. W. Muirhead, and it is believed Hiram Capron, Esq, 
and it is thought that the whole of those signatures which are affixed to 
the enclosed petition, are men who are noted for their loyalty, and steady 
adherents of the laws and constitutions of the Empire, and many of them 
took a very active part in the suppression of the late Rebellion. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 163 

Rebellion Losses Claims, Brock District. 

In 1849, during the second Session of the Third Parliament, an Act 
was passed, to idemnify Canadians for losses, sustained by them during the 
insurrection of 1837-8. 

The provisions of the Bill authorized the payment of a sum, not 
exceeding 400,000 dollars, being the amount recommended by the Com 
missioner, who had investigated the claims, payment to be made only to 
those who had not participated. The bill was sanctioned by Lord Elgin 
on the 26th. April, and was productive of riots and outrages, which cul 
minated in the burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal- 

In 1845, John Harris, Robert Arnold, and Roger R^llo Hunter, had 
been appointed Commissioners for the purpose of investigating all claims 
and demands against the Government for losses, injuries or otherwise, 
arising out of the late Rebellion. They met in the Court House, Wood 
stock, on Friday 5th December, 1845. 

All interested parties had been summoned to attend with papers and 
witnesses, to prove and substantiate their claims. 

The following is a list of persons, to whom sums were awarded, as 
idemnification for losses, in the insurrection and invasion of the Western 
part of the Province. 

NAMES. t s d 

Lewis Charles 11. 5. 
Nathan B Fowler 17. 10 
Joseph N. Smith 7. 10. 
John Weir 10. 14. 8. 
John Milmine 3. 0! 0. 
Joseph Smith 3. 0. o 
William Wilson 3. 15. 0. 
Eliakim Malcolm 10. 0. 
Joseph Beemer 15. 0. 0. 
Francis Glover 6. 16. 3. 
Horace Foster 10. 0. 0. 
Alonzo Foster 10. 0. 0. 
Geo. Malcolm 16. 3 0. 
John Malcolm 12. 2. 6. 
James Malcolm 13. 0. 0. 
Peter Malcolm 8. 18. l! 
Chas. Eddy, by his Attorney Cons 
tant Eddy. 8. 18. 1. 
Levi Nelson Dutcher 2. 10. 
William Doyle 19. 11 3* 
Bradford G. Tisdale 13. 17. 
W. H. Serpell 3. 0. 0. 
Chas. Strange Parley 27. 0. 
Jacob Yeigh 10. 0. 0. 
Lewis Mott 1. 0. 0. 
Wm. B. Long 10. 0. 0. 
Comfort Sage 2. 10 
Wm. B. Smith 3. 0. 0. 
Israel L. Smith 2. 0. 
Henry Smith 1. 5. Q. 






PART II 



The First One Hundred Years. 



of 



BURFORD S MILITARY HISTORY 



1 798 - 1 898 



Introduction to Military Records. 



History informs us that the life of all States, Commonwealths or 
Nations, begins and ends with and by Military Conquest. When the 
defensive forces of any country, however small or however large, are 
permitted to become disorganized and ineffective, through the neglect 
and indifference of those who as the governing power are responsible 
for their strength and efficiency, their further existance as a separate 
state, or as an integral part of a nation, becomes imperilled, na 
tional credit is affected and that assurance of stability, required to give 
confidence to the manufacturing commercial and agricultural classes, so 
necessary in the minds of the inhabitants, which is absolutely essential to 
its further growth and development, is gradually lost and brings about a 
feeling of unrest, dissatisfaction and loss of national pride, which makes 
them an easy prey to the grasping, selfish demands of better armed and 
better prepared neighbors. 

The Spirit of Conquest, that unsatisfied desire for the lands and ter 
ritory occupied by others, that determination to secure the trade and com 
merce controlled by competitors, with all the primitive, combative and ac 
quisitive instincts of man, are just as strong and unquenchable to-day as 
for ages past. 

This part of Canada was acquired by Force of Arms, notwithstanding 
the determined resistance of the French Canadian Militia, and by Force 
of Arms this country has, at two different periods, kept the Flag flying 
and compelled the invaders to retire. 

Canada is so situated, there can be but two kinds of Military Force 
available for defence, a militia and an organization of Volunteers. In 
the event of an Invasion the first is the force on which, as in the past we 
must rely in case of any prolonged struggle. Our Voluneters are able 
to meet and check the first rush of a numerally stronger army, but a na 
tional militia is essentially necessary to the growing requirements of the 
Dominion. A small force of regulars are requisite and needful, but 
nothing approaching a standing army, however employed, should under 
present conditions be tolerated- 

Since the advent of the Volunteers the Canadian Sedentary Militia 
have become almost forgotten, through the neglect and indifference of 



168 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

the Militia Department as well as the people. To-day they are entirely 
unknown to the present generation, yet they have a history to be proud 
of, and one in which the first Militia men of Burford acted a brave and 
honorable part. It was owing to the prolonged and determined resis 
tance offered by the Canadian Sedentary and Emboided Militia during 
the war of 1812-14, that this Colony was saved to the Crown. 

In all countries, where no attempt is made to maintain a large stand 
ing army, the Militia men in time of War, has invariably proved their 
superiority over the paid hirelings of the aggressor, if properly armed 
and taught how to shoot straight. The importance of such a body cannot 
be over estimated, as the man who fights for his home, and in defence of 
his family, will suffer greater hardships and carry on a more prolonged 
and determined resistance^ than any force of professional soldiers. 

After the year 1863, the Canadian Sedentary Militia practically 
ceased to exist, and since that date, the personal consciousness of indivi 
dual responsibility, to provide for the safety of the state, has become 
greatly weakened and gradually replaced by a feeling of apathy and indif 
ference, which the longer it exists is the more difficult to overcome. 

A nation like Canada which is rich and defenceless, might speedily fall a 
victim to the greed of powerful and warlike countries, excuses are never 
found wanting for an attack upon countries so situated. 

We are strongly of the opinion that the time has arrived, when a 
"National Militia" composed of all the able bodied men in Canada, from 
18 to 50 years of age, should be organized, armed, taught how to shoot, 
and drilled periodically for six days at their Company s Headquarters- 
This force might be divided into four classes, the first class to be available 
to provide the full quota of men wanted, to bring the Volunteer units up 
to full strength, if not enough men offered their services voluntary. 

Some such regulations as proposed^ was enacted in 1867, and is still 
on the statute books, but certain sections of this act may be classed with 
the dead languages, as they appear to have become entirely obsolete and 
unoperative. Just why the Active Force should not be recruited up to 
full strength, either by voluntary enlistment or the ballot, as provided for 
in the Act mentioned, we are at a loss to understand. 



CHAPTER I. 



1798 1811. 

THE FIRST MILITIA. THE FIRST CANADIAN MILITIA, 
BURFORD S FIRST MILITIA COMPANY. COLONEL 

WILLIAM DAVID SMITH. COLONEL WILLIAM GLAUS, 
HIS COMMISSION AS LIEUTENANT OF OXFORD COUNTY. 
FIRST REGIMENT OXFORD MILITIA, THE BURFORD, 
BLENHEIM AND OXFORD COMPANIES. LIST OF 

OFFICERS AND MEN. ANNUAL RETURNS. THE AP 
POINTMENT OF DEPUTY LIEUTENANT, CAPTAIN 
MALLORY S RESIGNATION. 

The Militia dates its origin long before there is any trace to be found 
of a standing army. 

The Saxon Fyrd, or National Militia, was established by King Alfred, 
about the year 878, they fought bravely against the Danes and other 
Northern Sea Rovers. 

Before the Norman conquest established the feudal system, the sum 
mons of the Saxon Kings, to attend the "General Muster", was obeyed 
without question by all Freeholders in England. This force was muste 
red by the principal men of the counties, under the supreme command 
of the King. The obligation to render military and Civil service rested 
on all land owning freemen, between the ages of 16 and 60. Failure to 
appear was punishable by fine and forfeiture of land. 

As a Military force, their duties were to repel invasion and defend 
the realm, as a civil force, to aid in the suppression of riot and the appre 
hension of criminals. 

Service could not be required beyond the limits of the county for civil 
purposes, or beyond the limits of the kingdom for any purpose. In 1181 
additional regulations were enacted, and in 1285 provision was made for 
the organization of a strong body of cavalry, to be called the "Feudal Le 
vy", which continued to exist up to the year 1661, when it was replaced by 
the establishment of a regular force- Previous to this date, expeditio 
nary forces, required for the purpose of warfare, were obtained by the 
hiring of Mercenaries, and troops raised by contract with the Feudatory 
Nobles. 



170 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

In the days of the Armada, the celebrated Train Bands, in the towns 
and cities, reached a high state of efficiency, they were an important factor 
in the success of the Parlimentary forces during the Civil War. These 
latter organizations are better known to present readers, through a peru 
sal of the exploits of that famous Ancient London citizen, Capt. John 
Gilpin. 

Train Bands of the City of London continued to exist until the year 
1794, when they were organized into a Militia Force. 

Lord Lieutenants appear to have been first mentioned about the year 
1550. Their powers were considerable. The chief Command over the 
Militia was delegated to them- The Act of 1662, gave power to the Lieu 
tenants, to summons, arm, and lead the Militia, and for this purpose to 
form it into companies and regiments. The Lieutenants could inflict a 
fine of five shillings or twenty days imprisonment for neglect of minor 
duties, or a fine of twenty pounds and in default three months imprison 
ment. 

The Lieutenants were appointed by the Crown, and to them were 
delegated the power to grant commissions, subject to a right of appoint 
ment and dismissal, reserved to the Crown. 

During the Reign of Charles II, the first Scotch Militia Act was 
passed, but more than one hundred years elapsed before it was acted upon, 
In 1797, after some alterations had been made in the Bill, Militia Corps 
throughout Scotland were organized. 

In 1715, the Irish Militia were first established, only Protestants 
were eligible, in 1802, this unjust disability was removed. The Lord- 
Lieutenants continue to exist until the present day, but in 1870, their 
powers and privileges were greatly curtailed. In the year 1793 all the 
Militia acts were consolidated. 

During the campaign in Holland, under Sir Ralph Abercrombie, 
15,712 Militia men volunteered and served throughout the war. 

During the reign of George II, the British Militia were suffering 
from one of those periods of disintegration and disorganization, which 
marks at regular intervals, the history of all armed bodies of men, whose 
efficiency as a fighting force is subject, to the caprice and vacillating 
policy, of weak men and weaker governments, which frequently jeopar 
dize the safety of the state by criminal negligence, the result of indiffe 
rence and a fallacious belief in the advent of a new era of prolonged 
peace and good-will, engendered by the valiant and warlike deeds of a 
past generation. 

In the year 1757, for the good of the Empire, stronger men were in 
power, and a thorough reorganization of the militia was determined on. 
The act passed in that year reads as follows : 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 171 

"Whereas a well ordered and well disciplined militia is essentially 
necessary to the safety, peace and prosperity of this kingdom, and whereas 
the laws now in being- for the regulation of the militia are defective and 
ineffectual, etc. That on and after the 1st May 1757, the Kink will appoint 
Lord Lieutenants, who are empowered to assemble and arm the Militia, 
appoint Deputies and grant commissions in their respective counties, to 
the proper number of officers, submitting their names to the King, within 
one month after appointment. The Lord Lieutenants to have the chief 
command in their respective counties, and all those already appointed 
including Deputy Lieutenants were to stand good-" 

In 1759 the British Militia were armed as follows : 
Short Musquets, with Bayonets, scabbards, wood rammers and tan 
ned leather slings. Cartouche boxes with belts and frogs, small hangers 
with brass hilts, scabbards and tanned leather waist belts, brushes and 
wires, iron wiping rods. 

Pay of Militia. \ 760. 

per diem 

Lieut. Col 7/0 

Major 5/0 

Captain 8/4 

Lieutenant 4/2 

Ensign 3/0 

Sergts 1/0 

Corporals 0/8 

Privates 0/6 

Were also allowed about same amount for sustenance. 

It is quite evident from the above schedule of pay, that the Captains 
renumeration, was in accordance with the work preformed, and not accor 
ding to rank; 

The Militia, since its reorganization in 1757, has been embodied on 
numerous occasions, notably during the war with America, from 1778 to 
1783. In 1854, during the Crimean War, and the Indian Mutiny in 1857, 
the last occasion being during the late war in South Africa- 
Form of Officers Commissions in 1759. 

George the Second, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, 
France, Ireland, Defender of the Faith etc., 
To our Trusty and well-beloved. 



172 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Greeting ; We do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be 

to the Militia Battalion of Foot, for our City of York, 

and County of our same city, commanded by our Trusty and well-beloved 
William Thornton, Esq. 

You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the Duty of 

by doing all, and every manner of things thereinto 

belonging. 

And you are to observe and follow such orders and directions from 
time to time, as you shall received from our Lieutenant of the West Ri 
ding, of our said county of York, or any other your superior officer, 
according to the acts of Parliaments, in this case made and provided. 

Given at our Court at St. James, the thirteenth day of February 1759, 
in the thirty second year of our reign. "By His Majesty s command." 

(Signed) HOLDERNESS. 



The Canadian Militia. 

The first Militia Company raised in Canada, is said to have been 
organized in 1649, in the City founded by Champlain, when the white 
inhabitants numbered about 1000. The French, having become brothers 
of the Hurons, naturally were looked upon as enemies by the Iroquois, 
and to defend their Colony against the sudden attacks of the latter, a 
body of 50 men were enrolled, and on many occasions they saved the 
inhabitants from annihilation. 

By an edict published in the year 1663, the King of France establish 
ed a superior council at Quebec, to whom he delegated the power to orga 
nize and keep up a body of sedentary militia, administer justice, maintain 
order and regulate commerce. 

The members of this body were the Bishop, the Governor, and the 
Royal Intendant who acted as presiding officer at all regular meetings of 
the council. To aid and assist these functionaries in the discharge of 
their duties, they appointed an Attorney General, a chief clerk and five 
councillors. This council regulated all the public affairs of the colony up 
to the time of the conquest. 

The first French Regulars to arrive in Quebec were the Regiment de 
Carrigan, who landed in June 1665. 

As the population of the Colony continued to grow, there was a cor 
responding increase in the Militia. 

In the year 1674, when the British threatened an invasion, the Count 
cle Frontenac thoroughly reorganized the sedentary militia, forming them 
into fairly well equipped Battalions, with full compliments of Staff Offi- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 173 



cers. So well was this work carried out, that no further changes were 
made, until the Capitulation of Montreal, on the 18th Sept- 1760. When 
their services were required, each Militia man, under an escort, was 
brought before an Officer, called the Town Major, who furnished him 
with a Flint Lock Musket, a Cloak, a breach clout, a cotton shirt, a cap, 
a pair of leggings, a pair of moccasins and a heavy blanket. 

Of 7520 effectives, the total strength of the French Army at Quebec, 
on the 13th Sept. 1759, 3900 were Canadian Militia, 1200 Colony troops 
and but 2420 French Regulars. It will thus be seen that scarcely a third 
of the defensive force, which so long held the army of Wolfe at bay, were 
professional soldiers, and to the repulse of the British at the Beauport 
Shoals, the credit must be conceeded, to the desperate resistance, and the 
unerring marksmanship, of the Militia-men. 

It was only a few years later, in 1764, or one year after the cession, 
of Canada to the British Crown, that this same Militia, in answer to an 
appeal from the new authorities, promptly organized and furnished a 
splendid body of 600 men, who helped to resist the Indian invasion under 
Pontiac. 

After Canada became a part of the King s Dominions, the first act 
for regulating the Militia, under the changed conditions, was ordained and 
enacted, on the 23rd of April, 1787, at the City of Quebec, by the Gover 
nor, Sir Guy Carleton and Legislative Council of the Province, consti 
tuted and appointed by His Majesty, under the 12th Clause of an Act, 
passed by the Imperial Parliament in 1774, for making more effectual 
provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec, which Act ves 
ted said Council with power to make ordinances for the peace, welfare, 
and good Government of the Province, with the consent of His Majesty s 
Governor. Another ordinance, to explain and amend the foregoing, was 
added on the 30th April, 1787. 

By the 33rd. Section of another Act of the Parliament of Great Bri 
tain, commonly called the Constitutionel Act, passed in the year 1791, for 
repealing certain parts of the aforesaid Act of 1774, and establishing a 
new Legislative authority in the Canadas. All Laws, statutes, and ordi 
nances, in force, on the day fixed for commencement of said act, were 
continued in force, except in so far as same are expressly varied or re 
pealed by this Act, or in so far as the same shall or may hereafter be re 
pealed or varied, under the new Legislative authority thereby established 
in the Province- 
Here we have the basis of all the Acts and Ordinances relating to the 
Sedentary Militia in the new Province of Upper Canada, formed out of 
the Western part of His Majesty s Province of Quebec. 

It was in conformity to this Act of 1787, that the First Militia were 
organized the following year, in the new district of Nassau. The first 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



townships laid out by surveyor Rockwell Frey and his assistant, Augustus 
Jones, now contained a sufficient population, to provide six hundred men, 
who came within the requirements of the Militia Act. On Oct. 12th 1789, 
a general muster was held at the twelve mile creek in Humberstone, and 
further annual and semi-annual parades were held ; under the supervi 
sion of the Military Authorities at Quebec, up to the year 1792. From 
this date, Col. John Graves Simcoe, assumed the sole control and direc 
tion of the New Provincial Militia, provision for the reorganization of 
which was provided for, by an act passed during the second session of 
the first Provincial Parliament of Upper Canada. 

At the first Session of the first Provincial Parliament of this Pro 
vince, but eight statues were passed, none of which referred to the Militia. 
The first act, of the thirteen passed during the second Session, was for 
the better regulation of the Militia. 

On Thursday, June 6th, 1793 Mr. Hazelton Spencer, member for 
Lennox, introducted a Bill for the better regulation of the Militia of this 
Province. On Wednesday, June 12th, the Bill was read a second time, 
on Friday June 14th, the House in Committee went into the consideration 
of the said Bill. On Monday June 17th, the House in Committee resumed 
the consideration of the Bill, and the speaker in due time announced that 
the Committee had agreed to the same, with amendments, and the Bill 
being read as amended was ordered to be engrossed. 

This the first Militia Act, passed by the first Provincial Parliament, 
made provision for the appointment, by the Lieut. Governor, of officers 
to be designated, "Lieutenants of the County," to whom he delegated the 
authority to appoint a resident Deputy, and all officers and Magistrates in 
the County. 

It was further provided, that every male inhabitant, from the age of 
16 to 50, was considered a Militia man, he was liable to a fine of $4.00, if 
he did not enlist at the proper time, and Officers and Non-C. O- who did 
not join the regiments at the time the militia assembled paid a fine, the 
former of eight dollars and the latter of two dollars. In time of peace 
Quakers, Menonists and Tunkers paid, for exemption from service, 
twenty shillings per year, and during the war five pounds. 

Out of these fines and ransoms the Adjutant General of the Militia 
received his pay. In 1794, an additional act was passed by which, in time 
of war, obligation to carry arms in defence of the country did not cease 
before, the age of sixty, and that in consequence Quakers and other sects, 
who enjoyed an exemption from Military service, should pay for their 
immunity up to that age. 

To assist the Lieut. Governor in the organization and framing of sui 
table rules and regulations, for the enlistment, service, and disciplining of 
the Force, he appointed an Adjutant General, in the person of Capt. Hugh 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 175 



Macdonell, one of the famous four Macdonell brothers of Glengarry. 
Formerly a Lieutenant in the King s Royal Regiment of the Colony of 
New York, he had served in that Corps, during all the Revolutionary War 
period, and was a thoroughly efficient, capable and experienced soldier. 

The Militia system, founded by Upper Canada first Adjutant Gene 
ra^ is the basis of that at present in use- The fund appointed by law for 
the payment of his salary of eighty pounds per annum, not proving suffi 
cient, he made petition to the House on June 13th, 1799, for payment of 
twenty-one months salary, due him in June 1797, but it was not until 
the 1st July 1800, that the House voted the amount in arrears on the date 
mentioned, from which we infer, that at this period the Provincial Exche 
quer was not overburdened with specie. 

Hazleton Spencer was a man well qualified to take charge of the 
passing of Upper Canada s First Militia Act. Like Hugh Macdonell, he 
had served for a number of years as Lieutenant in the Kings Royal Re 
giment. In 1794 he was appointed Major in the 2nd. Batt. Royal Cana 
dian Volunteers, and from 1793 until his death on 6th Feb. 1813, he held 
the office of "Lieutenant" of the County of Lennox. Also Colonel of the 
1st Regiment Lennox Militia from the year 1794. This corps was one 
of the first in the New province to complete their organization, and like 
several others, consisted of both Horse and Foot provision having been 
made for one company of mounted men ( called "Dragoons", but which 
were practically "Mounted Infantry". 

The most important of these Militia Acts was passed at York in 
January 1808, when provision was made to raise and train the Militia and 
a salary of 200 per annum was granted to an Adjt. General of Militia- 

In the following year provision was made for quartering and billeting 
the Militia, as well as Imperial Troops when necessary. Householders 
were to furnish them with house room, fire, and cooking utensils. In case 
of invasion Magistrates were empowered, on the request of an officer, to 
issue a warrant giving them power to impress Carriages, Horses and 
Oxen. 

Every male inhabitant from 16 to 50, excepting those physically unfit 
and members of those Sects known as Quakers, Tunkers and Menonists, 
were enrolled and obliged to assemble at the Call of the Captain, at least 
twice a year. Each man was obliged to provide himself with a servicea 
ble musket, fusil or gun, and at least six rounds of ammunition but as the 
returns show us, the latter provision was not strictly carried out. 

The Militia of each County was commanded by an Officer, called the 
Lieutenant, in imitation of the Lord Lieutenants of the English Shires. 
These Officials, first appointed by Lieut. Governor Simcoe, were active 
in the discharge of their duties up to the year 1812, after the War the 
title became obsolete, as most of the County Lieutenants, at that date, 



176 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



received other appointments at the breaking out of the conflict, and local 
men were appointed to command the Militia Regiment, with the title of 
Lieut. Colonel 

In the year 1795, Arms were for the first time issued to the Upper 
Canadian Militia, several thousand muskets being distributed, by order 
of Lt. Governor Simcoe, to the various Militia Captains. There arms 
were mostly left in the hands of the Militia men and by the year 1812 
scarcely one could be found. 

Burford s First Militia Company. 

The existence of this ancient and honorable body of Militia men has 
long been forgotten- Other companies of Militia and Volunteers have 
succeeded them, as the townships representatives in the defensive forces 
of the Country, but none of the long list are more worthy of remembrance, 
than the men, who first met together on the 4th day of June, 1799, 
and under Captain Benajah Mallory, paraded on the Village Green ", 
to honor the King and incidentally acquire some knowledge of the du 
ties of a soldier, as set forth in Upper Canada s first Drill Book. 

Elijah Mudge, the Drummer, and Samuel Kenny, Fifer, the latter 
a famous musician of the first settlement days, headed the company, 
sixty-four strong, on their marches and counter marches across the 
Common (or as Captain Mallory in his official despatches dearly loved 
to call it, "The Common Parade Ground"). I his ground was situated 
in the Western part of the village, near the old Cemetery but on the op 
posite side of the road, and here, from the four quarters of the Town 
ship, there met annually on the King s Birthday, June 4th, and at such 
other times as the Commanding officer saw fit to assemble his men, all 
the male inhabitants, between the ages of eighteen and fifty, not medi 
cally unfit, to perform the duties imposed on them by the Militia Acts 
then in force. 

Capt. Benajah Mallory, one of the most extraordinary characters 
connected with the early history of this province, was one of the first 
settlers in the Township of Burford, and one of the first to receive 
land Patents. The owner of some 1400 acres, in different sections of 
the Township, he resided in a commodious log dwelling, erected on the 
south east corner of his home state of 600 acres, on a portion of which 
now stands many of the modern homes belonging to the Village of 
Burford. 

Mallory had early cultivated a good understanding with the Indian 
Chiefs and hunters, located on the Banks of the River Ouse, and these 
friendships were of lasting benefit to him in various ways and on many 
occasions. He had also not neglected to bring himself before the no- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 177 



tice of the Executive and Legislative Councillors at l^wark, and from 
all we can learn with favorable results to himself. At this period Be- 
najah Mallory was known far and wide, as the wealthiest and most 
prominent resident of this township, and he stood well in the estimation 
of those who held the direction and control of all public affairs in their 
hands. For these reasons when Benajah Mallory received a commis 
sion as Captain, from the hands of Colonel William David Smith, Lieut, 
for the County of York, in the year 1798, he was considered as a good 
friend of the existing order of things and one on whom the Govern 
ment could count in all future emergencies. How far these hopes were 
justified, and what were some of the principle reasons, which caused 
Captain Mallory to forswear his allegiance to the King, and to his 
adopted Country, will be seen as we proceed with these records. 

Mallory had followed his father-in-law, Abraham Dayton, to Bur- 
ford. After the death of the latter, his mother-in-law met and married 
Colonel Stone, of Gananoque and removed to that place, where she lived 
to an old age. 

William David Smith, formerly an officer in H. M. 5th. Regiment 
of Foot, had just been appointed to command the new Militia corps, 
established in the year 1798, with Headquarters at York, to be designa 
ted the First York Regiment of Militia. Burford was still a part of 
the Home District, and was to furnish a company for this corps. 

Wheeler Douglas, a name probably remembered by a few of the 
oldest inhabitants, was commissioned Lieutenant, and shortly afterwards 
David Farmer received the appointment of Ensign. 

Wheeler Douglas was born in New York State, 1750, and came to 
Upper Canada in the year 1798. Brought up to the milling trade, he 
selected a mill site on Whitemans Creek, lying within the Indian Reser 
vation- He succeeded in securing a lease, through the friendship of 
Joseph Brant, for a tract of 500 acres, and here he erected one of the 
first mills in the district. He removed from this locality in 1802 died 
in 1829, aged 79 years. 

David Farmer was the owner of Lot No- 10, in the Sixth Concession- 
On 17th June 1803, he, having his domicile in Blenheim township, dis 
posed of all his right, title and interest in the said Lot, to John Yeigh, 
for the sum of 250 pounds, 10 shillings. 

The Service Roll of Burford s First Militia company, is one of the 
most interesting and valuable presented in this work, not only is it one 
of the oldest in the Province, in existence to-day, but it contains the 
names of men who acted a prominent part in the war if 1812, and during 
the Rebellion period- 
Many years have passed away, since these citizen soldiers of Bur- 
ford Township answered the last Roll Call, the names of many are long 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



forgotten, the Fufils and Flint-lock Musquets with which they were 
armed, and the homemade Uniforms, are now only to be found in the 
possession of a very few ? as family heirlooms, or as valued curiosities, 
but it is to be hoped the Military men of to-day and of future genera 
tions, may profit by the example and self denial, displayed on many 
occasions, by the township s first Militia. 

It is worthy of note to mention here, that the descendants of two 
of the families, appearing on Burford s First Service Roll ; have always 
been identified with the Township s Militia and Volunteer Companies, 
Troops and Squadrons. For a period of One hundred and fourteen 
years, the Secords and Edys have been prominent members of these 
various military bodies, which would indicate, that the military instinct 
is largely an inherited one. Others of Burford s first families, such 
as the Fowlers, Yeighs Muir s and Malcolms have at various periods 
been closely identified with the Burford Militia, while the descendants 
of others, residing in different parts of the country, have been known 
for generations as Military men. 



Service roil of Burford s first militia company, 
completed in the year J800. 



RANK 



NAMES 



Capt. Benajah Mallory 

Lieut. \\"heeler Douglass 

Ensign. David Farmer 

Orderly Sergt James Smiley 
Sergt. Nathaniel Saunders 

Ephraim Munson 
Corporal John Fowler. Jr. 

George Reynolds 
Charles Burch 

Drummer Elijah Mudge 

Fifer Samuel Kennedy 

Private William Landon 

William Reynolds, Jr. 
C. Saunders 
John Reynolds 
John Galbraith 
Samuel Martin 
Silas Martin 
Samuel Baker 
Joseph Baker 
Josiah F. Dean 
Josiah Dean 
Artemus Rogers 
Thomas Watson 
Benjamin Doyle 
Henry Doyle 
" John Doyle 



RANK NAMES 



John \Vells. 
James Rounds. 
Joseph Wells. 
Ahram Rounds. 
Ruben Dayton. 
Isaac Willts. 
Justus Stevens. 
Ord Allen 
David Lord. 
John Evans. 
Ahner Matthews. 
John Fowler, Sr. 
John Yeigh, Jr. 
John Yeigh, Sr. 
Jacob Yeigh. 
Willard Sage. 
Findlay Malcolm, Sr. 
Findlay Malcolm, Jr. 
John Malcolm. 
Thomas Sayless. 
Hagai Westbrooke 
Charles Burch, Sr. 
John Secord. 
Charles Matthews. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 179 



John Moore John Woodley. 

John Eaton, Sr. Neal Brown. 

Daniel Eaton Stephen Butler. 

E!am Eaton Charles Eddy. 
Jacob Decou John Ball. 

John Galloway Abram Decou. 

Levi Lawrence Henry Gaits. 

Sibbens Gardner Roswell Stephens. 



Trie First Lieutenant of York County. 

William David Smith, appointed the first Lieutenant of York Coun 
ty, was one of the most capable, clever and best qualified of Simcoe s 
men, and was closely associated with the first Lieutenant Governor in 
all his projects and undertakings, for the early settlement and develope- 
ment of the new Province of Upper Canada. 

He was the son of Lieut-Col. John Smith, commander of the Fifth 
Regiment of Foot, and was born in England, in the year 1764. At the 
age of fifteen he received an appointment as Ensign in his father s 
Regiment. 

In 1787 the Fifth Foot were ordered to Canada, and for a time were 
quartered at Quebec and Montreal. In 1790, the regiment was stationed 
in Fort Detroit ; and here Ensign Smith displayed great zeal and ability 
in many civil as well as military duties. In the month of June, 1792, 
the Fifth Foot were ordered to Fort Niagara. This strong military 
Post at the mouth of the Niagara River was still in possession of the 
British Government. 

When Commander Simcoe arrived at his new capital, on the 26th 
July, 1792, among the first to welcome him was the commander of the 
Post across the river. and his son, Lieut. D. W. Smith, who had their 
residence in Newark- Lieut. Smith soon became a great favorite of 
the King s representative, and at the early age of twenty-eight was ap 
pointed Upper Canada s first Surveyor General. He became a member 
of he executive Council and of the first three Upper Canadian Parlia 
ments. Speaker of the House from 7th. June 1797. 

The Fifth Foot evacuated Fort Niagara in 1796, when the Fortress 
was handed over to the United States Government. The Regiment pro 
ceeded to Quebec and in the following year returned to England. Sur 
veyor General Smith, who had in the meantime been promoted Captain, 
2nd. September 1795, resigned from the Corps, having decided to make 
his permanent home in Canada, his father having died in 1795. 

In 1796 he became Deputy Lieutenant for the County of Lincoln, 
and Colonel of the Lincoln Militia on the 7th June 1797, Lieutenant of 
the County of York, and Colonel 1st. York Regiment of Militia 1798. 



180 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



From this on he had a most distinguished career- He studied law and 
became Deputy Judge Advocate, was appointed one of the Trustees for 
the Six Nations, and speaker of the House of Assembly during the 
second and third Parliaments. His public services were rewarded by the 
British Government, when by order of the King, he received the honor 
of a Baronetcy in 1821. 

Upon his death in 1837, universal regret was expressed by all par 
ties in Upper Canada. Colonel Simcoe with that great sagacity and keen 
penetration of character, more often evidenced by clever men at the 
head of great commercial and industrial enterprises, in the choice of 
their subordinates, had early recognized in William David Smith, those 
great abilities, which were to be of so much assistance to him, as well 
as to successsive Lieutenant Governors of this Province. A gallant 
soldier, an able administrator, a learned jurist, and an accomplished 
gentleman. The County of York has reason to be proud of its first 
commander of Militia, and the County of Oxford of its first represen 
tative in the Provincial Parliament. 



The First Regiment Oxford Militia. 

By the Act passed in 1798 to provide for altering the Territorial 
Divisions of Upper Canada, Burford was to become part of the new 
County of Oxford. The provisions of this Act however, as regards 
Burford, were not carried out until the year 1801, when the Township 
was officially transferred from the immense county of York, in the 
Home District, to Oxford County in the London District. London at 
this period was but a name, many years were still to elapse before it 
was to become the District Capital. 

The Burford Militia Company were now severed from the First 
York, and until the following year were the only Militia Company, 
which had so far been organized in the County of Oxford. 

To arrange for an increase in the force, and provide for its orga 
nization and control, Lieut. Governor Peter Hunter, after some delay, 
selected an Ex, Officer of H. M. 60th Regiment of Foot, Colonel Wil 
liam Claus of Niagara ; D. S. G. and D- I. G. of Indian affairs, to 
command the new corps, with the title of "Lieutenant of the County 
of Oxford." Colonel Clause was authorized to raise Four Companies, 
to be formed into a Regiment, to be designated the "First Regiment 
Oxford Militia." 

For a copy of Col. Claus Commission we are indebted to his grand 
daughter, Madam Evans, who with her husband, Major W. H. Evans, 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 181 



occupy the ancestral Canadian home of the Clans family at Niagara- 
on-the-Lake. 

Major Evans is now a grey haired veteran of the Fenian Raid, and 
is the "beau ideal" of an old soldier. As a youth he first saw active 
service in the Italian Wars, under the famous General, "Garibaldi", 
taking part in many fierce engagements during that memorable cam 
paign. For many years he was in charge of the Government stores 
and property at Niagara, and no more careful, efficient or faithful offi 
cial has ever served his country, in this or any other capacity. 



Col. William Claus. 

Col. William Claus, appointed Lieutenant of the county of Oxford 
in 1802, was the eldest son of Col. Daniel Claus, a prominent Loyalist 
of Tyron County New York. 

In July, 1762 Daniel Claus, then a captain in the militia, had mar 
ried Nancy the eldest daughter of Sir William Johnson. The ceremo 
ny was performed with great pomp and display at Johnson Hall, the 
great Baronial seat of the Johnson family, erected on the banks of the 
Mohawk^ in a beautiful and commanding situation. 

Sir W T illiam Johnson the decendent of an ancient and honorable 
family of County Down Ireland, came to America in the year 1738, 
when but 23 years of age, at the invitation of his uncle Sir Peter War 
ren, and extensive land owner in the Mohawk Valley. To these lands 
young Johnson was sent, to act as his uncle s overseer and manager. 

He was soon on intimate terms with his Indian neighbours, and in 
course of time he succeeded, beyond all other men, in winning their 
confidence and affections, and having learned to speak the Mohawk 
tongue fluently ; he was in 1746, adopted into the Mohawk tribe and 
made a war chief of the Confederacy. 

The same year Gen. Clinton appointed him to the rank of Colonel. 
In 1755, he was promoted Major General, and also appointed by Gen- 
Braddock, Superintendant of Indian affairs. 

He was created a Baronet in 1755, and in the following year re 
ceived a commission, direct from the Imperial Government, appoinfin.; 
him Colonial agent and sole superintendent of all the affairs of the Six 
Nations, and other Northern Indians. The enumeration mentioned 
was an annual payment of six hundred pounds. 

Sir William Johnson became immensely wealthy, and the owner 
of over one hundred thousand acres of the choicest lands in the Mo 
hawk Valley. He dispensed favors with a lavish liana, and his prin 
cely hospitality was constantly extended to both Whites and Indians. 



182 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Col. Daniel Clau s resided nearby, on a part of the Johnson estate, and 
was closely associated with his father-in-law in the administration of 
all Military and Indian affairs. 

In this environment, young William Claus, born 7th. Sept. 1765, 
grew up and early developed a taste for a military life. The death of 
his grandfather, with whom he was a great favorite, occurred in 1774. 
Col. Daniel Claus, who had acted as his father-in-law s Deputy for many 
years ; previous to the death of Sir. William Johnson, was bequeathed 
several valuable properties in Albany, as well as some five thousand 
acres of the Johnson estate. 

Through the influence of his family, William Claus was at the age 
of 22, appointed Lieutenant in the 60th. Regiment of Foot, promoted 
Captain in 1793, Lieut. Colonel in 1796- 

On 2nd. July 1796, Col. Win. Claus appointment as Deputy Supe- 
rintedent-General, and Deputy-Inspector General, in the Indian Depart 
ment of Upper Canada, was confirmed, he had for long held office in 
this Departmen^ his thorough knowledge of the Mohawk tongue, and 
his perfect acquaintace from boyhood with the Indian nation.,, their 
traits and habits, and his close association with those pastmasters in the 
successful management of Indian affairs, Sir John Johnson and Colo 
nel Daniel Claus, had easily led to his perferment and promotion to 
this important position. 

At the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, Col. Daniel Claus, 
like many of his neighbours, had removed his family to Niagara where 
they werre under the protection of the guns of that Fortress, their 
lands and the great Johnson estate in Tyron County, were confiscated 
by the Provincial Congress of New York, and in due time sold under 
the direction of the committee of that body having such matters in 
charge. 

In addition to his duties as Lieutenant of the County of Oxford, 
Col. William Claus continued very active in the affairs of the Indians, 
particularly as to any changes in the holdings of the lands granted to 
the Mohawks along the Grand River. 

Thayendanegea, who since the great Council held at Oswego in 
July 1777, was the acknowledged head- war-chief of the Iroquois Con 
federacy, became greatly embitterd against the Deputy Superintendent 
General, on account of some pecuniary affairs, connected with the sale 
or transfer of certain Indian lands. An attempt was made, stated to 
have been connived at by the Superintendent, by some members of the 
Confederacy residing in the United States to depose Thayendanegea from 
his Chieftainship. This illegal movement was easily frustrated, but 
Brant s hostility towards Colonel Claus continued to increase, and re 
sulted in considerable friction between the two. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



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184 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



In 1801, Col. Claus suffered a severe loss through the death of his 
mother, who as already stated was the eldest daughter of Sir William 
Johnson. In 1812 he was appointed Colonel in the 1st, Regiment Lin 
coln, Militia. District General Order, Niagara, 27th. June, 1812, The 
Hon ble Col. Claus will command the Militia, stationed between Niaga 
ra and Queenston, and Lieut. Col- Clarke from Queenston to Fort Erie. 

Officiated as one of the Pall Bearers at the Funeral of Major Gene 
ral Brock. Member of the Executive Council in 1818. Died at Nia 
gara llth. November, 1826. 



First Regiment Oxford Militia. 

Col. Claus was a Military man of considerable experience and as 
such he determined to proceed immediately with the organization of three 
new companies of Militia, which had been authorized by the Government 
some time previously, and also the formation of these four companies into 
a Regiment, to be designated the 

"FIRST REGIMENT OXFORD MILITIA". 

On the 24th. July, 1802, immediately after his appointment, he 
wrote to Captain Mallory, for full information regarding the local si 
tuation, at the sametime transmitting certain orders and instructions, 
which he desired should be promptly carried out. 

At this early period, His Majesty s Mail did not travel so speedily, 
as in the present age, seven or eight days was considered a reasonable, 
allowance of time ; for a letter from York or Niagara to reach the 
Tow r nship of Burford it was therefore, not until the beginning of the 
month of August that the first Official communication from Col. 
Claus was delivered into the hands of Capt. Mallory, the latter with 
commendable energy at once hastened to carry out the instructions re 
ceived. 

Captain Mallory had for long looked forward to the organization of 
a Regiment in the County of Oxford, and the day on which he hoped 
and expected to be promoted to the position of Deputy Lieut, of the 
county. As commanding Officer of the First Militia Company, more 
over, as representative of the County of Oxford in the Provincial Le 
gislature and as a man in the prime of life, who had already gained 
some practical knowledge and experience of the real duties of a soldier, 
his ambitious desires, cannot be depreciated, in fact, had he always re 
mained a faithful subject of the King, we could only praise his energy 
and commend his persistance, he might however have gained much 
more in the end if he had used different methods. It is not always 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORU 185 



well for the Military man to be too self assertive, to thrust himself too 
frequently to the front, or to offer advice unsolicited to his superior 
officers. It is not always the best man wins or the more efficient or 
deserving receives the appointment, political consideration as well as 
the personal likes and dislikes of those in whom vests the power of 
effecting promotion in the Canadian Militia, have always been more or 
less in evidence. 

The appointment of his Deputy, finally made by Col. Claus, was 
a good one, but his appointee was fated to feel, at a later date, that it 
was not only necessary to carry out military orders and instructions, 
but in matters politic to follow in the steps of his superiors and think 
as they thought. 

Captain Mallory having arranged matters in his mind to his entire 
satisfaction, forwarded the following reply to Col. Claus. 

Capt. Mallory to Col. Claus. 

Burford Aug. 18th. 1802. 
Sir : 

Agreeable to your order of 24th i"uly last, I have lost no time in 
attending to your commands respecting the divisions of the Militia for 
the County of Oxford, in particular the company I now command, I 
enclose to you the Officers commissions and those to be Commissioned, 
and the body of the men and names, etc., and as there are now four 
companies in the County of Oxford, by the return of trie Registry last 
month, it is likely part of my Company will fall within the limits of 
Capt. Homers Company. Agreeable to that arrangement my Ensign 
(David Farmer) will fall within his limits also, but as there is a va 
cancy now in my Company, of a Lieutenant, I wish him to have the post, 
as my Lieut (Wheeler Douglass) is removed out of the district and 
county, and is not expected here anymore to serve, I shall recommend 
Ensign for Lieut, in my Company, as he wishes to serve with me and is 
a capable man. I think he is worthy of promotion and have returned 
him accordingly, as the Post comes to him by Seniority, and as there is 
one Lieut, that was recommended to be Commissioned, moved out 
of the Province, by the name of Kellogg, I recommend Christopher 
Heartsough as Lieut, in his place, and one for Ensign that was returned 
last month, by the name of Canfield, he is eight or ten miles out of the 
way. I wish, if your Honor can be expedient to have a man by the 
name of Elisha Harkins commissioned in his place, as he is a capable 
man, and lives central, both of which I have returned these names in 



186 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



the list of Officers, which I hope may meet with your approbation. 

It will be impossible to make a division of the County of Oxford, 
that is to give the boundaries of every Captains Company, unless you 
were on the ground yourself, to see the local situations of the county 
yourself^ or a Deputy in the County, as the captains will make confu 
sion about it if they undertake to make the divisions themselves, as one 
may interfere on the other, and your letter did not authorize me to make 
any arrangements beyond the limits of my old company, I have pro 
ceeded accordingly, notwithstanding I have taken the liberty to make 
a better arrangement of the officers, and when the commissions are sent 
on I will if it is your request, make the divisions for the four compa 
nies, or sooner if you think it expedient. 

I have enclosed the names of all the subalterns officers in the coun 
ty, which will make it a little different from the other returns, on ac 
count of some officers being out of he District and out of the Province ; 
but I come to recommend some characters as not to be ashamed of them, 
when our Lord Lieut, of the county shall see fit to visit and meet on the 
"Grand Parade." I should think more fit to make the returns of every 
Captain s Company, when they are all commissioned, but I submit that 
to your better judgment. If you should see it expedient to give me 
rhe appointment of your Deputy, in the County of Oxford^ and com 
mand me accordingly, I shall endeavour to take the whole work upon 
myself, of the business respecting the Militia measures, subject to your 
orders. 

I wish to see the four companies together and have some opportu 
nity of gathering them for the manual exercise, and get them discipli 
ned in some measure before you meet with us, for I fear you will find 
some illiterate- 

Any further command that you may have for me, I shall be in 
readiness to attend to, I shall be very happy to hear from you after the 
reception of these returns, and have he honour to submit myself- 

Yours Humble Servant, 

To Col. Claus, (Signed) BENAJAH MALLORY. 

Lieut. Co. of Oxford. 



Copy of documents enclosed with above letter. 

A list of Officers commissioned by the Honourable D. Smith, Esq., 
Benajah Mallory^ Captain, 
Wheeler Douglass, Lieutenant. 
David Farmer, Ensign. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Officers I wish commissioned. In place of Kellogg, I can recom 
mend for Lieuts. Christopher Heartsough, and Elisha Harkins Jr. for 
Ensign, in place of Canfield, as the latter not being within a great dis 
tance of the Company I have named Elisha Harkins., and as my Lieu 
tenant is not exepected in the District again, I wish my Ensign to be 
commissioned for my Lieutenant, and John Eaton, Ensign, as he has a 
commission he wishes to serve as Ensign in my Company, which will 
arrange my Company as follows : 

Benajah Mallory, Captain. 

David Farmer, Lieutenant. 

John Eaton, Ensign, 

and there will be an Ensign lacking in Homers Company, for which 
I can with propriety recommend James Smiley for Ensign, on condition 
the above are commissioned, it will make the whole complete in the 
County of Oxford. 

If the within return meets with your approbation, the Officers will 
be completely arranged in the County of Oxford as follows :- 

CAPTAINS LIEUTENANTS ENSIGNS 

Benajah Mallory Christopher Heartsough John Eaton, 

Thomas Homer, Seth Putnam James Smiley, 

Thomas Ingersoll, Hugh Graham, Samuel Burdick, 

Hammond Lawrence. David Parmer, Elisha Harkins, Jr. 

And the several divisions for the companies can be ascertained any 
time when your Honor will appoint the Deputy in the County ) which 
I do think will vest in your power by the act of the Legislature, without 
recommending to Lieutenant Governor, but you can better determine 
by obsrving the act in 2nd. Parliament, if I mistake not. 

Your humble servant, 

(Signed) BENAJAH MALLORY, Capt. 



A careful perusal of these documents would indicate, that Captain 
Mallory had already assumed the office of Deputy Lieutenant of the 
County of Oxford, or at least felt assured that his appointment would 
soon follow, it would appear however that Col. Claus did not want as 
his representative a man, who in addition to sending the above list of 
names, went so far as to state that he wished them commissioned. He 
did not want a Deputy, who would presume to act as the read Lieute 
nant of the County, and expect him to issue commissions to subalterns, 
without having consulted the different Captains in the matter. His 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Deputy must be a man^ who would simply carry out instructions from, 
time to time, and offer suggestions only when asked for them, and then 
only in the humble and apologetic manner, so dear to the heart of mili 
tary superiors. 

Captain Mallory, like many company officers, even unto the pre 
sent day, knew infinitely, more of local conditions, than did the "Lieu 
tenant of the County", but this knowledge he failed to use discreetly, 
and in the end the dearest wish of his heart was frustrated, for he had 
hoped eventually to succeed Colonel Claus in the command of the mili 
tia in his county. The suggestions and requests made by Captain Mal 
lory were almost completely ignored, four years later David Farmer was 
still an Ensign, and the name of Wheeler Douglass, as Lieutenant of 
the Burford Militia Company, was annually being forwarded to head 
quarters by Colonel Claus, notwithstanding the fact, that the latter had 
during this interval, been a resident in another part of the Pro/ince, 
and had in consequence never attended any of the Muster Parades in 
the County. For a period of three years Colonel Claus appears to have 
hesitated and remained undecided, in the choice of his Deputy, while 
favouring Captain Thomas Horner of Blenheim, he did not wish to 
antagonize the counties representative in the house of Assembly, and 
he delayed an appointment, which in the best interests ot the Regiment, 
should have been made when he assumed the control of the County s 
Militia. It is difficult however to conceive any reason for his neglect 
to promote David Farmer to the Lieutenancy of the Burford Company, 
unless it was owing to the fact that both Captain Mallory and Captain 
Horner desired as their third officer-Ensign John Eaton. 

A statement of the population of Burford and Blenheim in the Dis 
trict of London, for the year ending 1st. March, 1803, gives us a 
return of 179 males and 157 females. 

The Organization of the 1st. Regiment Oxford Militia having been 
finally completed, the following gives its composition and the appoint 
ments made and confirmed by Colonel Claus- 

COMPANY CAPTAINS LIEUTENANTS ENSIGNS 

Burford Benajah Mallory Wheeler Douglass Sam Canfield 

Blenheim Thomas Horner Hugh Graham David Farmer 

Thomas Ingersoll Seth Putnam John Eaton 

1st. Oxford Hammond Lawrence Sykes Tousley Samuel Bur dick 

Burford Company limits, concessions 4 to 14 inclusive. 

Blenheim Company limits, Blenheim Township and the first three 
concessions of Burford. 

After the organization of the Blenheim Company. Captain Mallory 
lost a number of his best men, as the following compositions of the two 
companies will show. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



189 



Burford Company. 



Captain Benajah Mallory 

Lieut. Wheeler Douglas 

Ensign. David Farmer 

Sergt. Ephraim Munson 

John Fowler, Jr. 
George Reynolds 
Corporal Charles Burch 

William Reynolds, Jr. 
James Rounds 

Fifer Samuel Kenney 

Private John Evans 

Abner Matthews 
John Fowler, Sr 
John Yeigh, Sr 
John Yeigh, Jr 
Jacob Yeigh 
Willard Sage 
Finlay Malcolm, Sr 
Finlay Malcolm, Jr. 
John Malcolm 



Private 



it 
it 



John Reynolds 
John Wells 
Joseph Wells 
Abram Rounds 
Reuben Dayton 
Isaac Willet 
Justus Stephens 
Aaron Allen 
Neil, Brown 
David Lord 
Hagai Westbrook 
Charles Burch 
John Secord 
Thomas Matthews 
John Woodley 
Stephen Tuttle 
Charles Eddy 
John Galloway 
Henry Gates 
Thomas Sayles 



Blenheim Company, 



Captain 
Liemer.ant 
Ensign 
Serct 



Corporal 

ll 

l 

Private 



Thomas Horner 
Hugh Graham 
John Eaton 
James Smiley 
Abraham Mudge 
John Galbraith 
Samuel Martin 
Samuel Baker 
Josiah F. Dean 
Silas Martin 
Joseph Baker 
Thomas Watson 
Henry Doyle 
John Eaton, Sr 
Elam Eaton 
Abraham Decou 



Private 



If 
It 
It 
It 
II 
u 
tl 
u 



II 
n 



Abner Decou 
Sibbens Gardner 
Roswell Stevens 
Levi Lawrence 
Nathaniel Landon 
Ebenezer Landon 
William Landon 
Comfort Davis 
Daniel Davis 
Josiah Dean 
Artemus Rogers 
Benjamin Doyle 
John Doyle 
Daniel Eaton 

Osborne 

Gordon 

Cole 



Whereas in Captain Mallory s first returns he was able to show the 
strength of his Company as 64 N. C. O. and men, it was now reduced to 
a strength of 37, the Burford Company however was still the strongest in 
the Regiment, its members were physically speaking a superior class of 
men, hardy pioneers inured to toil and hardship, these early settlers of 
Burford could be relied upon to give a good account of themselves in 
the event of their services being required in actual warfare. The lands 
they owned and the place of residence of many of them can be found in 
the first part of this work. 

The further correspondence of the officers of the 1st. Regiment of 
Oxford Militia, would indicate, that the men of one hundred years ago 



190 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



were pretty much the same as they are to-day, where their personal inte 
rests are concerned, and that the Lieutenant of Oxford County jncoun- 
tered certain difficulties with his white Captains, as well as with his Indian 
Chiefs. 



Service Roll Captain Hammond Lawrence s Company, 1803. 



RANK 



Captain 
Lieut . 
Ensign. 
Sergt. 



Corporal 



Private 

M 



II 

- 


. 
-. 



NAMES 

Hammond Lawrence 
Sykes Tousley 
Samuel Canfield 
Isaac Burdick 
Robert W. Sweet 
Abram Canfield 
John McHames 
Archibald Burch 
Johnathan Wright 
Horatio Lewis 
Chester Rogers 
Asa Lewis 
Abner Lewis 
Sam Hall 
Caleb Piper 
Anthony Kilbourn 
David Curtis 
Emil Tousley 
Elisha Harkins, Sr. 



Private 

H 



.. 
ii 



Joshua Youngs 
Christopher Kerns 

Kerns 

Isaac A. Tufford 
Isaac Carrol 
Abram Carrol 
John Carrol, Sr 
John Carrol, Jr 
Jacob Carrol 
James Fuller 
Nicholas Brink 
Levi Babbit 
Levi Luddington 
Chas. Tousley 
Varnum Mather 
John B. Tree 
Zachariah Burch 
Daniel Lick 
Elisha Harkins, Jr 



Oxford, Sept. 5th. 1803- 

Muster .Rolls of Captain Thomas Ingersoll s Company 

Oxford Militia. 



Capt. Thomas Ingersoll. 

Lieut. Seth. Putnam. 

Ensign. Sam. Burdick. 

Sergt. Enoch Burdick. 

Nathan Lawrence. 
" Asa Putnam. 

Corporal Nehimiah Arnold 

Solomon Nicholas. 
" Chris. Hartsough. 

Private Edward Logan. 

Joel. Piper. 

Julius HitncocTc. 

Joseph Frost. 

James Graham. 

James Graham Jr. 
" Benjamin Loomis. 

Ichabod Hall. 



Private 



Wm. Herrick. 
Alex. Hoyes. 
Eleazer Scott. 
Joshua Moier. 
Erice Harris. 
Pierce Dean. 
Fred. Strafforcl. 
Dute Underwood. 
Barton Sweet. 
Eli Danforth. 
Ebenezer Cook. 
Freedom Burdick. 
Isaac Burdick. 
Caleb Burdick. 
Peter Taylor. 
Adolphus Taylor. 
Abel Kendal. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Captain Homer to Colonel Claus. 

Blenheim, Co. of Oxford, 
Sir : June 28th. 1803. 

Your orders of 10th. May last come to hand too late for a general 
meeting of the Militia on the 4th. May inst. The Captains called out 
their Companies on their own ground, in consequence of which I have 
not been able to procure the returns of the different companies until 
this day. 

I will lose no time in forwarding the same to Mr. St John, Cap 
tain Ingersoll informs me, that Lieut. Putnam has moved from the 
County into the Westerly District, his place in consequently vacant. 

I am Sir Your most obedient servant, 

(Signed) THOMAS HORXER. Capt. 

Oxford Militia. 



As indicated in the above letter, Col. Claus was now apparently 
asking Captain Homer to do the work of a Deputy, in requesting him 
to arrage for a concentration of the Regiment on the King s Birthday, 
and to forward him returns of the different companies, it is quite certain 
however, that if the communication which left Niagara on the l$th May 
had reached Captain Horner in time, his brother officer, Capt. Mallory. 
woulcf have quietly ignored any orders coming through one, whom we 
fully believe he rightly considered his junior. Capt- Mallory ? however, 
had not yet lost hope of securing the coveted appointment of Deputy 
Lieut, of the County, as his further correspondence will indicate. \Yhile 
he strongly resented any channel of communication, via the- commander 
of the Blenheim Company, he was careful not to show his real feelings 
towards Col. Claus, and what he regarded as gross injustice on the 
part of that ( )fficer. 

\VhiIe the first Militia men seldom paraded more than once a year, 
and that on the 4th. June, "The King s I .irthday", the Captains had the 
authority to call them out more frequently, if they considered it neces 
sary. Capt. Mallory had been left destitute of a Lieut, and now Capt. 
Horner claimed his Ensign, David runner, on the ground that he had 
his domicile in Blenheim, and in consequence should belong to this Com- 



192 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

pany, we fail however to see any good reason for this contention, inas 
much as a good number of Burford men were members of the Blen 
heim Company, were in fact necessary to give sufficient strength to 
complete a Company, it was only reasonable that Ensign Farmer should 
remain with his old Commander. Notwithstanding these discourage 
ments Capt- Mallory decided that as long as there was any hope of 
receiving promotion, he would not fail to keep himself and his Com 
pany to the front, and as an earnest of his zeal and efficiency, he had 
made a journey to Niagara, to interview the Lieut- of the County ; but 
apparently no definite or satisfactory answer had been given him, he 
now decided to again address Col. Claus- 

Burford Feb. 28th. 1804. 
Dear Sir : 

I have it in contemplation to call my company out soon on the Com 
mon Parade, for review exercises and other duties as the law directs, 
etc., etc. I gave your Honor information when I had the the pleasure 
of seeing you last, that I was destitute of an Ensign, I would wish that 
Ensign Farmer might be posted to my Company, to serve me in it as 
he is even 2nd, in my Company. He would wish to continue, which 
will be much more convenient for him, although he was listed for Hor- 
ners Company, yet he never served in it, nor I do not think he ever 
will, and as there must be a new Ensign appointed, perhaps it may be 
as well to commission one for Horner, as for me he has served under 
me now six years past, I will esteem it as a favour if you will please 
to let him continue, your honor will please to give me information the 
first opportunity, I wish to have an answer before I call the Company 
out. You must not send my letters to Horner, for I shall not get them 
if you do. 

I am your humble and most obedient servant, 

(Signed) B. MALLORY Capt. 
To Wm. Claus, 

Lieut of Oxford. 



The Burford Militia men were not to be called upon at this period 
as Capt. Mallory had intimated. Col. Claus vouched safed no reply. It 
is interesting to know just what Ensign Farmer s views were, regarding 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 193 

this controversy, as one of the most interested parties, as one whose 
services were sought after by both Capts. and as an efficient officer ; 
his views and desires were worthy of some consideration, and we think 
that his adherance to his old Commander was the proper course to take. 
He now addressed himself direct, to Col. Glaus as follows. 

Blenheim March 24th. 1804. 
Dear Sir : 

I take the liberty of writing you, wishing your decision concerning 
my situation in office, that is at present, I neither belong to Capt. Mallo- 
ry or Capt. Homers company of Militia. One of them said I belong 
to his company, and the other says his best. It is my desire to continue 
with the company (Mallory) which I have formerly served with. I 
wish therefore you would write whether and which company I shall 
annex myself to as Ensign- 



To Col. Clans, 

Niagara. 



I remain your most obedient servant 
(Signed) DAVID FARMER. 



Note (by Col. Claus) Farmer, Ensign, requests to be transfered 
to Capt. Mallorys Co. 

Capt. Horner s Lieut. Hugh Graham, had become practically unfit 
for duty and this doubtless was one reason why the former was so 
anxious to have Ensign Farmer posted to his Company. 



Lieut. Hugh Graham to Col. Glaus. 

Burford May 31st. 1804. 



Dear Sir : 



i am one of those who hold a commission under you as Lieutenant 
of a company of militia but a lame knee occasioned by a hurt I 
received some years ago, make it impossible for me to do the duty con 



194 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



joined on me by that commission, it is, therefore my wish that you 
would accept my resignation and give the appointment to one more fit 
for service, as I am really unfit. 

I am dear Sir, 

Your humble servant 

Wm. Claus, Esq, (Signed) HUGH GRAHAM. 

Lt. Co. of Oxford. 



During the Summer of 1804 Military matters remained quiet. The 
settlers were busily engaged clearing their lands and gathering their 
scanty crop. Capt. Mallory s time was mostly employed in directing 
the labours of a number of Indians, employed by him in the improve 
ment of his home estate, a portion of which is now included in Burford 
village. The annual returns for the year, which should have been made 
immediately after the 4th. June, had not been received by Col. Claus. 
Capt. Mallory had decided, after his experience of the previous year, 
to await some recognition from the Lieutenant of the County, and du 
ring the month of August he was pleased to receive a letter from Fort 
George, dated 10th of that month, asking for his returns, and requesting 
him to attend to some other matters. On receipt of this communica 
tion. Capt. Mallory expressed himself as follows : 



Captain Mallory to Col. Claus. 

Burford August 23rd. 1804. 



I was favoured with yours of the 10th. inst, and shall immediately 
attend to make my returns of the 4th. June last, though I hardly know 
in what manner to make them out- There is a great number of Hor- 
ner s Company trained in mine the last general muster, which I did not 
call upon, it seemed to be their choice as I was informed by them, he 
never called them together until the 4th- of June last, and then gave 
them but one days notice ; which I know to be the first time he ever 
called them out. I do understand he is about to resign, and intends to 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 195 



recommend in his place one Edward Watson, who is a very worthless 
person. The truth of the matter is, he is not in friendship with any 
other person about him, or any of he neighbours, but this Watson, and 
his men, neither officers nor Privates, will not serve under him, they 
are determined to pay their fines before they would expose and were 
you as much acquainted with his proceedings as his Company is, you 
would not blame them in the least, I shall attend to the other business 
without loss of time. 

I have the honor to be, 

% 

and remain your most hiynble and obedient servant. 
Col. Claus, Esq, (Signed) B. MALLORY. 

Lieut. Co. of Oxford. 



Returns of my Company of Militia 4th June 1804. 

Capt. Lieut. Ensign. Sergts. Corps. Drummers. Fifer. Rank & File. Arms. 

10133 1 1 52x 17 



(Signed) BENAJAH MALLORY Captain. 
To Wm. Glaus, Esq, 

Lieut. County of Oxford. 



A Return of Capt. Homer s Company of Militia in the 
County of Oxford, 4th June J804. 

Capt. Lieut. Ensign. Sergt. Corpl. Privates. 

Ill 3 3 34 

SERGTS. CORPOF ! 

Tames Smiley Allan Deeou 

Benj. Peak j anu , s |;. lkl . r 

James Fuller. Evemt .Mud . 

(Signed) THOMAS IK >RXER, Captain, 



196 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

A Field Return of Captain Lawrence s Company of Militia 
of the Township of Oxford for 1804. 

Captains. Lieuts. Ensigns. Sergts. Corps. Drummer. Fifer. Privates. 

11133 1 1 27 

(Signed) ROBERT \V. SWEET. 
Orderly Sergt. 



Return of the 1st Regiment Oxford Militia for J804. 

Col. Captains. Lieuts. Ensigns. Sergts. Corp. Drummer. Fifers. Privates. 
144 4 12 12 4 2 141 



A Return of Captain Thomas Ingersoll s Company of Oxford 

Militia, June 4th, J804. 

Captains. Lieuts. Ensign. Sergts. Corps. Drummers. Privates. 

1 1 133 2 28 

Oxford Aug. 20th. 1804. 
Honored Sir, 

I received yours informing me that you had not received the returns 
of my company, which I supposed had come to hand, soon after the 4th 
June last and this may certify, that the within is a true return of the com 
pany that I have the honor to command. With due respects I remain, 



Your humble servant, 
ToWm.Claus, Esq, THOMAS INGERSOLL, Capt. 



In the month of December 1804 Benajah Mallory left Burford to 
pass Christmass with friends in the United States, returning by way of 
Niagara to interview Col. Claus, but was unable to meet that officer, 
and therefore addressed him by mail. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 197 



Niagara Dec. 29th. 1804. 
Dear Sir, 

I have not received any direct command from you since last June, 
respecting my company of Militia. 

I made regular returns to you on the 4th June last, but I am 
sensible you did not receive them as they fell into bad hands and were de 
tained which I found sometime after, and on the 19th Nov. last I drew 
out my company on the Common Parade ground and should have made 
regular returns of the same, but I came from home sooner than 1 calcu 
lated, which rendered it inconvenient. At present our county is in a 
disorganized situation. Capt. Ingersoll s Lieut, had moved from there, 
and others is about applying for resignation. 

As it is now situated we have not authority to command our men 
no regular enrollment has ever taken place, I hape your honor will consider 
us and give directions accordingly I shall call at your home if possi 
ble before I leave town, which I expect will be Sunday evening or 
Monday morning, any command that you may have I shall attend to. 

I have the honor to be your most obedient and humble servant. 
To Col Claus- (Signed) B. MALLORY. 

This letter was penned and mailed on a Saturday morning, his 
time therefore in Niagara was limited, and he hoped before leaving to 
have the matter of the appointment of a Deputy cleared up, he was 
however still to be left in doubt, and departed for home without having 
been able to interview the Lord Lieut. A few days previous to this, 
Ensign Farmer, who was also very much dissastified with the military 
situation of this period, again wrote to Col. Claus. 



David Farmer to Col. Claus. 

Blenheim, Dec. 24th, 1904. 
Sir, 

It is with lite utmost diffidence I presume to trouble you with the 
following letter, but I hope your honour will overlook my present pre r 
sumption, Sir we have been taught in this part of the Country, that the 
militia law has not energy to compel the militia to do their duty, unless 



198 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

they are enrolled by the commanding- officer, or his deputy. It is my 
earnest wish that you would employ some person to enroll the Militia, 
as some of the men absolutely refuse to train, until they are enrolled. 
Capt. Homer has not called his Company together but once, since the 
new regulations took place, and he has frequently told the men, the law 
will not oblige them to do duty unless enrolled. 

I am with every sentiment of respect, 

Your very humble servant, 

To Col. Claus, (Signed) DAVID FARMER. 

Lieut. County of Oxford. 



Captain Ingersoll to Col- Claus, 

Oxford April 15th, 1805- 
Dear Sir, 

I received yours for picture of my Company, there is thirty three 
(33) men, including the non commissioned officers, there is no man in 
this town but is willing to bear arms- 

With due respect, I remain, 
Your humble servant, 

William Claus, Esq, (Signed) CHARLES INGERSOLL, Capt. 

Lieut. County of Oxford. 



Captain Mallory to Col. Claus. 

Burford, June 18th. 1805. 



Dear Sir : 



I enclose to you a picture of my company 4th June, which should 
have been to have waited on our Lord Lieut, on that day in the 
County of Oxford, but we have arranged the business as accurate as pos 
sible. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



199 



Hoping your honor will overlook all errors, etc, I have the honor 
to be 



Col. Claus. 



Your most obedient and humble servant, 



(Signed) B. MALLORY. 



Fort George. 



True Return of Capt Mallory s Company of Oxford Militia 

on the 4th June J805. 

Captain. Lieut. Ensign. Sergts. Corps. Drummer. Fifer. Rank & File. 
1113311 56 



On the 4th inst., I drew out my company of militia on the common 
parade, they generally appeared and gave attention to orders and per 
formed their duties as the law requires, and as good soldiers- 
Given under my hand at Burford in the County of Oxford this 
18th day of June, 1805- 



(Signed) BEXAJAH MALLORY.Capt. 



To the Hon. Wm. Claus, 



Lieut, of Oxford. 



Return of Capt. Hammond Lawrence s Company of Oxford 

Militia 4th June 1805. 

Capts. Lieuts. Ensigns. Sergts. Corporols. Drummers. Fifers. Privates. 

11133 1 1 42 



CAPTS. 

Hammond Lawrence. 
SERGTS. 

Isaac Burdick. 
Ahram Canlu-ld 
Jonathan Wright. 



LIEUTS. 
Sykcs TousVy. 



ENSIGNS. 
Samuel Canfield. 

CORPORALS. 

John McHames. 
Archibald lUirch. 
Danif : L ick. 



200 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



ABSENT WITH LEAVE. 

Archibald Burch. 
Robert Sweet. 
John McGill 
Isaac Carroll. 
John Carroll, Sr. 



ABSENT WITH LEAVF. 

Amos McHamcs. 
Abraham Carroll. 
Mordacai Gates. 



(Signed) SIKES TOUSLEY LIEUT 



Return of Capt. Thomas Ingersoll s Co. June 4th, J805. 

Capts. Lieuts. Ensign. Sergts. Corps. Privates. 

11 1 3 3 35 

A Return of the Company of Oxford Militia Commanded by 

Captain T. Homer, June 4th, J805. 



Capts. Lieuts. Ensign. 
1 

ABSENT without LEAVE. 

James Smiley. 
Abra. Mudge. 
Roswell Stevens. 
Silas Dean. 
Josiah T. Dean. 
Enoch Lester. 
Comfort Davis. 
Daniel Davis. 
Henry Doyle. 
Daniel Withorn. 
Elam Eaton. 



Sergts. Corps. Drummer. Privates. 

331 30 



Ephias L. Phelpps. 
Benj. Peak. 
Samuel Martin. 
Silas Martin. 
Calvin Martin. 
Josiah Dean. 
Isaac Kipp. 
Artemus Rogers. 
Nathan Buck. 
Nathan Buck, Jr. 
Archabald Burch. 



(Signed) THOMAS HORNER, Capt 



The first Oxford in J805. 

Annual return of the Militia of the County of Oxford, in the London 
District, Province of Upper Canada 4th June 1805. 



Captains 


Capts 


Lieuts. 


Ensigns 


Sgts. 


Corps 


Privates 


Drmrs 


Fifers 


Horner 
Mallory 
Ingersoll 
Lawrence 


1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 


3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 
3 


30 
34 
35 

42 


1 
1 

1 


1 
1 


Totals 


4 


3 


3 


12 


12 


141 


4 


2 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 201 



Name and rank of Officers. 

CAPTAINS. LIEUTENANTS. KX SIGNS. 

Thomas Homer 

Benajah Mallory Wheeler Douglas David Farmer 

Thomas Ingersoll Seth Putman Samuel Burdick 

Hammond Lawrence Sykes Tousley Samuel Canfield 

(Signed) Wm. CLAUS, 

Lieut. County of Oxford. 

The Regimental or commanding Officers returns are, or should be, 
made up and compiled from the returns of the Officers commanding 
companies, by reference to the returns sent in by Col. Clans for the 
year 1805, it will be noted that he has credited Burford with only 34 
Privates while Capt. Mallorys return gives us 56, fit for duty and who 
answered at Roll Call on the 4th June. Another peculiar fact is that 
Lieut- Wheeler Douglas and Seth Putnam, who had removed from the 
District several years previously, were still returned as being on the 
strength of the Regiment. 

The Blenheim Company appears to have become badly disorganized 
at this period, with only one officer, there must certainly have been 
something seriously w r rong with its interior economy, when out of a 
total strength of 37 non commissioned Officers and men, there were 
reported "Absent without leave, twenty two, such good men and true, 
as James Smiley, Comfort Sage, the Martins, Eatons and Burches, etc. 

Burford at the beginning of the last century, having more settlers 
than any other township in the county, furnished more men for the first 
Regiment Oxford Militia, in fact most of the rank and file of Capt. 
Horner s command were recruited from the Northern concession lines 
of this township, and the names of many appeared, sometimes in Mai- 
lory s, and sometimes in Horner s returns, this was another source of 
irritation to Capt. Mallory, and in one of his numerous communications 
to Col- Claus, he urgently desired him to designate without delay, ;he 
exact limits of his recruiting grounds, but the Lieutenant of the County, 
who resided mostly at Fort George, appears to have had little time to 
make a personal investigation along the back Concession lines and across 
the uncleared forest lots, as long as all the male inhabitants, between 
the ages of 18 and 50, were on the service rolls of the First Oxford, it 
mattered little to him in which company they were enrolled, however, 
in diplomatic fashion > he expressed a desire to receive a picture of the 
different commands, This was rather an astute move on the part of 
Col- Claus, it changed the current of his Officers thoughts, gave the 



202 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



men a new interest in their corps, and for a time there was a great 
brushing and scrubbing up of old fusils and flint locks. Col. Claus had 
expressed his intention of hanging these pictures in his quarters at Fort 
George, and they probably did hang there for some years, as the Compa 
nies were duly called together and lined up in front of a travelling pho 
tographic artist, who sub jested these first militia men to the most trying 
ordeal they had yet undergone. 

Doubtless Col. Claus shrewdly calculated, that these photos would 
give him a much more correct and accurate idea of the actual strength 
and composition of each company, than the annual returns received 
from the Captains. This Photo of the Burford Militia, taken on the 
4th day of June 1805 ; would have shown Col. Claus quite clearly two 
officers in semi military Uniform, armed with swords, and 64 Non-com 
missioned Officers and men. We suspect, however, that some of the 
militia men, reported absent by Capt. Homer, and who had been charter 
members of the Burford Company, were anxious to appear in this 
photo, and on this occasion at least, had determined to perform the 
annual drill with their old comrades. 

The militia law in force at this period "ad made provisions for the 
appointment of a resident deputy Lieutenant in each County, to assist 
the Lieutenant and carry out the rules and regulations, as applied to 
the organization and disciplining of a Regiment, and to represent such of 
the Lieutenants as did not reside within the limits of their counties. 

It would appear also that the militia men of a Regiment, should 
be enrolled in the presence of the Lieutenant or his Deputy, this regula 
tion it had so far been impossible to carry out. 

Had Col. Claus appointed, without delay, after he assumed office, 
a strong man as his deputy, it would have greatly added to the efficiencv 
of the 1st Oxford Militia, and prevented all the petty jealousy, between 
two good officers, which resulted in a state of affairs that should never 
l.ave existed. 

Col. Claus had at first given Capt. Mallory some right to expect the 
much coveted appointment of deputy, by requesting him to furnish in 
formation and perform duties, out-side of his own Company, and la! or 
on used the same course with Capt- Horner. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Capt. Mallory afterwards proved 
himself a bitter enemy to the country of his adoption, it cannot be denied, 
that he was a man well qualified for the position of deputy Lieutenant, 
or that he was not justified in thinking, that his seniority, his military 
knowledge, his wide acquaintance and his prominent standing in the 
community, did not entitle him to the appointment. Mallory was a man 
of considerable ability, a man of great determination, and as after events 
proved, a most desperate and skillful fighter, but like most every other 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 203 

clever man of prominence, who mixes in affairs public, he had his enemies. 

In the early part of the year 1805, an event occurred in Burford, of 
such an outrageous character, that \ve would gladly pass over it, but we 
believe it is necessary to give as full and complete a record as possible, of 
every event and occurrence that influenced the motives and actions of Be- 
najah Mallory, in his after career. 

In the early midnight hours of a Monday morning in the month 
of January, 1805, the Mallory household were suddenly awakened by 
the reports of fire arms, discharged through the windows of the house, 
upon investigation balls, slugs, and shot, were found imbedded in the 
walls, at different points within range of the windows. Mallory was 
no coward and having hastily dressed, and seized such weapons as he 
found convenient, sallied forth to defend his life and home but need 
less to say his murderous enemies had quickly decamped. 

This was too serious a matter to pass over, and as soon as the 
affair was brought to the attention of the Lieut. Governor, that func 
tionary took action. 



Council Chamber at York. 

9th. Feb., 1805. 

Present. 

The Hon. James Baby, Presiding Councillor. 
Peter Russell 
Aneas Shaw 
John McGill 
Read the following letter and draft of a proclamation. 

Lieut. Governors < ) ft ice- 

8th Feb., 1805- 
Sir : 

I am directed by the Lieut. Governor, to transmit to you the endor 
sed draft of a proclamation, respecting an attack lately made upon the 
house and person of lk-najah Mallory. of the township of Burford, 
in the District of London, and to signify to you, the Lieut. Governors 
orders, to summon the Kxecutive council to meet to-morrow, at such 



204 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



an hour as may as little as possible interfere with the duties of the Legis 
lative Council, to take the said proclamation into consideration and re 
port their opinion upon that subject to the Lieut. Governor, without loss 
of time. 

I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient and humble Servant, 

(Signed) JAMES GREEN, Secretary. 

Draft. 



Peter Hunter, Esq., Lieut. Governor of the Province of Upper 
Canada and Lieut. General commanding His Majesty s Forces in the 
Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. 

WHEREAS, 

The 28th day of Jan. last past, a most daring and wicked attac!. 
was made upon the house and person of Benajah Mallory of the Town 
ship of Burford. in the District of London, Esq., by certain evil and 
wicked disposed person or persons, as yet unknown^ in discharging fire 
arms through the windows of the said house, loaded with shot and ball, 
whereby the life of the said Benajah Mallory, then being therein, w T as 
in imminent hassard and danger- 

York, 9th Feb., 1805- 

In promoting the ends of public justice, the security of individuals 
and that such enormous crimes may not go unpunished. 

I, Peter Hunter, Esq.^ Lieut. Governor of the said Province, do by 
and with the advise and consent of the Executive Council thereof, here 
by offer a reward of four hundred dollars, to any person or persons, 
who shall make such discovery, and give such information, so that the 
perpetrator or perpetrators, of the said crime, shall be convicted of the 
same, and I do hereby further offer His Majesty s most gracious pardon 
to such person or persons as may be accessory or accessorys to the com 
mission of the said crime, and shall honestly and without fraud discover 
the principle, or principles, who hath ? or have committed the same. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 205 



Given under my hand and seal at arms at York, this 9th day of 
February, in the year of Our Lord 1805, and the 45th year of His Ma 
jesty s reign. 

The Board having duly consented to the foregoing reference, report 
as foHows. 

Report, 

York, 9th Feb., 1805. 

To His Excellency Peter Hunter, Esq., Lieut. Governor of Upper 
Canada, and Lieut. General commanding His Majestys Forces in the 
Province of Upper and Lower Canada. 

May it please your Excellency. 

The committee of the Executive Council, in accordance with your 
Excellency s order of reference, dated the 8th inst. ? has taken into its 
consideration the report of the attack, said to have been lately made upon 
the home and person of Benajah Mallory, Esq., and concurs in opinion, 
that so atrocious and wicked an attack, against the life of one of His 
Majestys subjects, calls for the interposition of the Government to en 
courage the discovery of the perpetrators and bring them to Justice, 
and is of the opinion that the Draft of the Proclamation laid before it, 
is proper to answer that end- 
Ail of which is humbly submitted. 

(Signed) J. BABY, President Counci!, 
Approved (Signed) PETER HUNTER, Lt. Gov. 

So far as can be learned, the reward offered was never earned. 
Capt. Mallory had his suspicious regarding the identity of the guilty 
parties, but the authors of such a dastardly outrage had taken good 
care to cover up their movements, and maintain secrecy regarding their 
murderous attack against the County s representative. 

The Resignation of Samuel and the Appointment of 

Enoch Burdick. 

On the 20th Feb., 1805, Ensign Samuel Burdick, of Capt. Inger- 
solls Company, had written to Col. Claus, asking to be relieved of his 
appointment, as his physical condition was such he felt himself incapa- 



206 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



ble of filling any place in the military line. His request having been 
granted, his place was filled by the promotion of Sergt. Enoch Burdick. 
We present here a copy of the latter s commission, which should prove 
interesting to our military readers, as a speciman of t ne wording and 
style of militia commissions issued over one hundred years ago, as com 
pared with their own. 

Officers Commission. 

By Wm. Claus, Esq., constituted and appointed by commission from 
his Excellency Peter Hunter, Lieut- Governor of the Province of Upper 
Canada, and Lieut. General commanding Lower Canada, Lieutenant of 
the County of Oxford. 

To Mr. Enoch Burdick, By virtue and in pursuance of an Act of 
the Legislative of the Province of Upper Canada, relating to r-iising 
and training of the militia within the said Province, I have constituted 
and appointed, and by these presents do constitute and appoint you, to 
be an Ensign in the Militia, raised in and within the said County of 
Oxford, and you are hereby commanded, to train and discipline, the 
persons armed and arranged, by virtue of said act, and you are to ob 
serve, and follow such orders and directions, from time to time as you 
shall receive from the Governor, Lieut. Governor, your Colonel, or any 
other superior Officer^ in persuance of the trust hereby reposed in you. 

Given under my hand and seal at Niagara, this 1st day of June, in 
the year of Our Lord, Eighteen hundred and five, and in the Forty 
Fifth year of the reign of Our Sovereign Lord, George III, by the 
Grace of God, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
King Defender of the Faith, etc. etc. 

(Signed) WILLIAM CLAUS, 

Lieut, of the County of Oxford. 



The following letter throws some further light upon the military 
affairs of the 1st Regiment Oxford Militia. During the year 1805, the 
constant friction between the commanding Officers of the Burford and 
Blenheim Companies was becoming more pronounced. Col. Claus was 
now directing Capt. Horner to perform duties, which the latter had no 
real authority to carry out. So far there had been no Regimental Parade. 
Col. Claus had instructed Capt. Horner to arrange for one on the 4tb 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 207 

June, but as the former was not to be present, it is easy to understand 
what would have happened, had the four companies met together and 
Capt- Homer assumed command, we think under the circumstances 
that Capt. Mallory perused the right course, in exercising his company 
on their own Parade Ground- 



Capt Horner to Col. Claus. 

Sir : 

Agreeable to your instructions of the 28th of April last, I gave im 
mediate orders to the commanding officers of militia in this county, to 
meet at the house of Samuel Canfiekl, of the Township of Oxford (on 
the 4th June then next ensuing) it being near the centre of the County. 
The two companies in that township were generally present, but am 
sorry to say that the chief part of my Company, with the Company of 
Burford, were kept back through the persuasion and earnest entreaty 
of Capt. Mallory and Ensign Farmer. Mr. Mallory also wrote to a 
Mr. Christopher Hartsough of Oxford, urging him to use his influence 
with the people of that township, to persuade them from attending, he 
even (in several instances) promised to pay their fines if any was im 
posed, alleging, that as the militia were not enrolled and the Lieut, of 
the County not present, they were under no obligation to obey the orders 
of any persons in the County, so says Sikes Tousley. Artemus Rogers 
in my company says, If the Lieutenant of the County prosecutes the 
people for non attendance at the militia meeting, they are determined 
to join together and prosecute him, the Lieut., for non attendance. 
(Mr. Watson is my informant). 

I am Sir, 

Your most obedient and humble servant. 

Win. Claus. Esq., (Signed.; THOMAS If >RX Kk t (/apt- 

Lieut. Co- of Oxford. < ) x f ()n [ Mjij t j a . 

\Ye have here Capt. Horner accu-in- Capt. Mallory of making the 
same statements to the men, as he, Capt. Horner, had been accused of 
by Ensign 1 armer. The report against I rivate Artcmus Rogers which 
was rather a serious charge, does not appear to have injured this militia 



208 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



man in the estimation of Col. Claus, as a couple of years later, when the 
strength of the Regiment was increased by the addition of another com 
pany, the Lieutenant of the Country appointed him to the position of 
Adjutant. 



1806. 



The returns of the 1st Oxford Militia for the yar 1806 were not 
forwarded until the 18th August, and were sent in by Capt. Horner, who 
had recently been appointed Deputy Lieut, of the County. The militia 
men, having been duly notified of the appointment, were ordered to 
muster on the 14th at Capt. Homer s Headquarters, for t ne purpose of 
being enrolled. From this it would appear that after the formation of 
a Regiment of Militia, the Captains had not the power, as under the pre 
sent regulations, to legally enroll their men and to have effect it should 
be carried out by the Lieut- or his regular Deputy. That the men were 
well aware of these facts is quite certain, but Capt. Mallorys popularity 
and the strong military spirit existing among the early ettlers of Bur- 
ford, was sufficient to cause the cheerful attendance of every member 
of the Burford Company at the annual Parades. 

After the promotion of Capt. Horner, Capt- Mallory ceased to take 
any further interest in the Militia and he requested to be relieved from 
the command of the Burford Company, Ensign Farmer also asked to 
be retired, and they were followed by Capts. Ingersoll and Lawrence. 
At the same time Col. Claus found it expedient to drop from his returns, 
the names of Lieuts. Wheeler Douglas and Seth Putnam, two officers 
who had, as already stated, removed from the district several years 
previously. 

The annual returns, compiled and returned by the newly appoint 
ment Deputy, show a considerable failing off in Officers Musicians 
and more particularly in the rank and file. 

Col. Claus now determined to reorganize the Regiment and increase 
its strength by the addition of another Company. The population was 
slowly growing, by the influx of new settlers, particularly into Oxford 
Township, and by the year 1807 the 1st Oxford consisted of five com 
panies. 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



209 



Return of the Militia of the County of Oxford, In the London 
District, Province of Upper Canada, 14th August, 1806. Commanded 
by Col. Wm. Glaus. 











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3 



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6 


Lieutenan 


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Sergeants 


Corporals. 


Drummer. 


Privates. 


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4 


1 


1 


12 


12 


1 129 



CAPTS. Horner Mallory Ingersoll Lawrence- 
LIEUTS. Sykes Tousley. ENSIGN Sam Canfield. 



Recommended to be : 



CAPTAINS. 

Edward Watson 
Sykes Tousley 
Sam. Canfield, Jr. 
Marvel White 



LIEUTENANTS. 

James Smiley 
Enoch Burclick 
Ichabod Hall 
John Secord 
Caleb Stafford 



ENSIGNS. 

Jos. Carrol, Jr. 
Julius Hitchcock 
Luther Hoskin 
Jacob Yeigh 



Marvel White, the first master of Burford s first Public School, 
was a half pay officer, who had recently come to reside in the Village! 
The Settlers were beginning to consider the advantages of some sort 
of an education for the new generation, which were now growing up 
In those early days, qualified teachers were unknown. The appointment 
School-Master rested with the Government and these positions 
were usually given to educated men, such as Marvel White, strict disci 
plinarians, if not brilliant teachers. Capt. Marvel White s Military know 
ledge was so much appreciated, that after the retirement of Capt. Mal 
lory, he was offered and accepted the command of the Burford Com 
panyJohn Secord being appointed Lieutenant, and Jacob Yeieh En 
sign. 

The name of Secord figures prominently in the early military annals 

of this Province, no less than ten members of this family took a promi- 

ent part as officers in the War of 1812, as well as others who fought 

:he ranks, and at the present time rhey have a representative in the 

Burford Cavalry in the person of Lieut. David Secord. 

The Yeighs are one of the very few "First Families" who to-day 
have direct representatives residing within the County of Brant. Coming 
from Pennsylvania in the early spring of the year 1800. John Yeigh 



210 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Sr. and his Three sons, John Jr., Jacob, and Adam, were immediately en 
rolled by Capt. Mallory. The military knowledge soon to be gained 
by Lt- Jacob and Sergt. Adam Yeigh, in assisting to defend the country 
of their adoption against the unprovoked attacks, and aggressive ac 
tions of their former countrymen, was to bring them into prominence 
and make them two of the principal figures during the troublesome times 
of 1837. 



Annual Return of the Militia of the County of Oxford, in the 

London District, Province of Upper Canada. 

4th June, 1807. 











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0> 



















d 

CO 












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1 





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DO 

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1 

6 


Lieutenai 


Ensigns. 


Adjutant 


C3 
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Sergeants 


Corporals 


Drummer 


Privates, 


5 


5 


6 


1 


6 


18 


18 


4 


160 



Names and Rank of Officers* 



CAPTAINS. 

Edward Watson 
Hammond Lawrence 
Sykes Tousley 
Samuel Canfield, Jr. 
Marvel White 

ADJUTANT 
Artemus Rogers 



LIEUTENANTS. 

James Smiley 
Ichabod Hall 
Enoch Burdick 
Caleb Stafford 
John Secord 



ENSIGNS. 



Joseph Baker 
Luther Hoskin 
Jules Hitchcock 
John Carroll, Jr. 
Jacob Yeigh 

QUARTER-MASTER 
Ruben Dayton 



These were the official returns, made up after the annual training 
day for the year 1807 and forwarded by the Deputy-Lieut. It is noticea 
ble that in the list of Officers, as now entered in the returns, the names 
of those of the Blenheim Company headed the list, and those of Bur- 
ford, which properly belonged there, were placed at the bottom^ but as a 
matter of fact, this return was quite incorrect, the names of the three 
Burford Officers mentioned had not yet been officially recognized. Capt. 
Mallory s resignation had been forwarded to the Lieut. Governor who 
appeared reluctant to grant it. The United States had already begun 
to manifest a most aggressive spirit towards Canada, and every man,. 



THE JH STORY OF BURFORD 211 

particularly every man who would make a good officer, was wanted 
for the defence of the country, that Capt. Mallory possessed both 
ability and leadership, was evident by his ascendancy over his fellow 
settlers, in their election of him to the Legislature. After events pro 
ved also, that although he fought in a bad cause, he rather sought than 
avoided the fighting line and was a leader in many dangerous expedi 
tions. 

As already intimated, the American Government were acting in a 
manner, which if persisted in, would threaten the peace of this Pro 
vince. Governor Tompkins of New York State was most active in 
equipping and reorganizing his tens of thousands of State Militia- The 
government of His Excellency Francis Gore took steps to ascertain to 
what extent the Militia men of Upper Canada could be depended upon, 
in case of invasion. The Lieutenants were directed to make a personal 
appeal, through their Officers, to every member of their Corps, and 
advise the result. In the month of September, 1807, Col. Glaus for 
warded orders to his Deputy, by Express rider, to call out the Oxford 
Militia and establish with certainty, what their attitude would be in 
case the Republic should decide to fight Great Britain by invading Ca 
nada. 

It must not be forgotten this procedure was deemed advisable, 
on account of the large proportion of the settlers who had immigrated 
from the United States, many of whom were known to entertain sen 
timents more favourable to Republican Institutions, than to the Laws 
of this Province, as administered by the Executive at that period. After 
events proved, that a considerable number acted the part of spies and 
informers, and joined the ranks of the enemy when they thought the 
invaders would be successful in crushing the Canadians, the majority 
however, of those residing in Oxford county, remained loyal to their 
adopted country and fought bravely in its defence- 

The Deputy Lieutenant, Capt. llorner, now instructed the Captains 
to assemble their men at Company Headquarters, on dates specified by 
him, at the same time advising them, that he would attend the musters 
and inspect the companies. 

His report to Col. Glaus gives the result of the spirit manifested 
by the Oxford Militia on this occasion. 



Blenheim, Nov. 10th, 1807. 
Sir : 

On receipt of your letter, I immediately gave orders to call out 
tia by companies, I attended myself at the Parade of four of 



212 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



the companies. They unanimously turned out, and offered their ser 
vices to the Governor, to combat with any enemy that shall disturb the 
repose of the Province. Capt. Watson s company also offered their 
services to a man. 

Capt. Mallory being very ill, I am verbally informed of their ser 
vices generally, but no return.. 

It is the request of the Militia personally, that you as their lawful offi 
cer, make this known to his Excellency the Governor, as soon as may be- 
Have had no opportunity to reply, or to forward this information to 
you before this. 

The Militia of the County are generally young and active, and 
might be of considerable advantage in case of emergency, but a great 
want of arms and ammunition prevail amongst them. 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir, your humble and obedient servant, 

To Wm. Claus Esq., . (Signed) THOMAS HORNER. 

Lieut. Col. of Oxford. 

This communication which was over a week in reaching Niagara, 
was at once forwarded to Lt. Governor Gore at York, with the follow 
ing note : 

Fort George, 19th November, 1807. 

Sir : .. 

I received a letter this morning from Thomas Horner, Esq., Deputy 
Lieut, of the County of Oxford, which I herewith enclose for your 
Excellency s information, and beg leave that it is with infinite pleasure 
that I have it in my power an offer of the Linemen of the Oxford 
Militia to your Excellency, although small, as will appear by the en 
closed list. 

I have the honour to be, 

with the highest respects, 

Your most humble servant, 

His Excellency Frances Gore, (Sgd.) Wm. CLAUS. 

Lieut- Governor. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 213 



Seventeen Officers and one hundred and sixty-five non-commission 
ed officers and men, was the number, whose services the Government 
was informed they could count on in Oxford County, in the event of an 
Invasion. 

Soon after this Capt- Mallory s resignation was accepted, as the 
outlook was more peaceful, and Capt. Marvel White assumed command 
of the Burford Militia. 

The 1st Oxford again preformed their annual training on the 4th 
June, 1808. During the summer, matters remained quiet, but as Win 
ter approached chere were persistant rumours that trouble was likely 
to ensue at any moment, and many of the settlers were seriously alarmed. 

Col. Claus had written his Deputy from Fort George on the 29th 
day of Novembe^ 1807, pointing out, that in case of any sudden call 
to arms, the eastern boundary of Burford was the most eligible point 
to arrange for as the rendez-vous. Capt. Horner appears to have thought 
it better to assemble parts of the corps at two separate points in the 
County, and this is what was done one year later, when in the month 
of December, 1808, another hurry call was sent out for the Militia to 
concentrate. The report of the Deputy-Lieutenant gives us the result 
of this gathering. 

Blenheim, January 1st, 1809. 
Sir, 

I received your letter of the 29th November on a sick bed, but 
immediately gave orders to assemble the Militia in two detachments, 
one in Oxford, and one in Burford, as being most convenient for the 
inhabitants. Those for Oxford met agreeable to the order and a por 
tion of one fourth volunteered their services. In Burford they also 
met and the whole volunteered their services, being unwilling to sepa 
rate or serve under other officers than their own. How far this will 
meet with your approbation, I know not. 

I have thought best to let them remain in this way, until I receive 
your further orders- Some families, alarmed at the news of war, have 
quit the province, which has reduced our numbers, our portion of one 
fourth is now 41. Although very unwell at the time I attended both 
places- 

I am your most obedient and humble servant, 

(Sgd.) THOMAS HORNER. 
\\ in. Claus, Esq., 

Lieutenant, County of Oxford. 



214 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Commanding Officers of Militia Regiments in Upper Canada 

in 1813. 



REGIMENT 



1st Regt 
2nd Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
2nd Regt. 
1st Regt. 
2nd Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
2nd Regt. 
3rd Regt. 
1st Regt. 
2nd Regt. 
3rd Regt. 
4th Regt. 
5th Regt. 
1st Regt. 
2nd Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
1st Regt. 
2nd Regt. 
1st Regt. 



Glengarry 
Glengarry 
Stormont 
Grenville 
Grenville 
Dundas 
Leeds 
Leeds 
Frontenac 
Aldington 
Prince Edward 
Lennox 
Hastings 
Northumberland 
Durham 
York 
York 
York 
Lincoln 
Lincoln 
Lincoln 
Lincoln 
Lincoln 
Norfolk 
Norfolk 
Oxford 
Kent 
Essex 
Essex 
Middlesex 



NAMES 

Lt. Col. Alexander McMillan 

Lt. Col. Alexander MacDonald 

Lt. Col. Hon. Neil McLean 

Col. Wm. Fraser 

Lt. Col. Stephen Burritt 

Lt. Col. Hon. Thomas Fraser 

Lt. Col. L. P. Sherwood 

Col. Joel Stone 

Col. Hon. Richard Cartwright 

Col. Wm. Johnston 

Col. Arch d McDonell 

Lt. Col. Wm. Crawford 

Col. John Ferguson 

Lt. Col. John Peters 

Lt. Col. Robert Baldwin 

Lt. Col. William Graham 

Lt. Col. Richard Beasley 

Lt. Col. William Chewett 

Col. Hon. Wm. Glaus 

Lt. Col. Thomas Clark 

Lt. Col. John Warren 

Major Jacob Tenbrock 

Lt. Col. Andrew Bradt 

Lt. Col. Joseph Ryerson 

Lt. Col. Robert Nichol 

Lt. Col. Henry Bostwick 

Col. Hon. Jacques Baby 

Col. Matthew Elliott 

Lt. Col. Baptiste Baby 

Col. Hon. Thos. Talbot 



DATE OF COM. 
2nd Jan., 1809. 

5th June, 1813. 



29th May, 1813. 
1st Nov. 1804. 
20th Tune, 1810. 



2nd Jan., 1809. 



16th April, 1813. 



llth Feb., 1812. 
12th Feb. 1812. 
27th June, 1812. 



CHAPTER II 
J812-J4. 

When the United States declared War against Great Britain on the 
18th June, 1812, the Regular troops in Upper Canada numbered but 
1658, of which not more than 1500 were available for active service- 
These Troops were distributed as follows : Fort George, Royal Artil 
lery, 80. Kingston 10th Royal Veteran Battalion 196, Royal Newfound 
land Regiment 368, Amherstburg 41st- Regiment 1014. 

In 1810 the Governor had declared, that in case of hostilities a 
force of Regulars, adequate for the defence of Canada, would co-operate 
with the Militia. 

At the commencement of July, 1812, when it became apparent that 
the Americans would attempt the invasion of Upper Canada, the Regu 
lar troops stationed in Lower Canada were moved to the West and the 
embodied Militia replaced them in the Garrisons of Montreal, Three 
Rivers and Quebec. 

During the month of May, before war was openly declared, Lower 
Canada had raised and equipped four Battalions of Active Militia, later 
increased to six battalions, composed of men who enlisted for service 
during the continuation of the war. But one similar corps was raised 
in Upper Canada namely, the Volunteer Incorporated Militia Battalion, 
commanded by Lt. Col. William Robinson, formerly Captain in the 8th. 
Regiment. The company officers of this corps were nearly all from 
the Sedentary Militia, Norfolk County having furnished three. 

Opposed to this small force was an effective and well equipped ar 
my of 175.000 men. 

From the 17th. June, 1812, a state of war existed between the 
United States and Great Britain and her dependencies, but it was some 
days later before this news was known in Burford. 

Major General Isaac Brock, now acting as Lieut. Governor, and 
Commander of His Majesty s Forces in this part of Upper Canada, 
decided to augment his small army by calling out a portion of each 
Militia Regiment. 

Residing in Norfolk County was a man of education and great 
ability, Robert Nichol who on the 12th February, 1812 had been appoint 



216 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



ed Lt-Col. commanding 2nd Regiment Norfolk Militia. Brock s sym 
pathies had been enlisted in his behalf, when four months previously 
the former had been hastily and forcibly brought before the Bar of 
the House to answer to some frivolous charges. One of the first ap 
pointments made by General Brock was the promotion of Lt-Col. Nichol 
to be Quartermaster General of Militia. 

The Fourth Session of the Fifth Provincial Parliament under the 
Presidency of General Brock, which met at York on the 3rd day of 
February, had passed an act to explain, amend and reduce to one Act 
of Parliament, the several laws, then in being, for the raising and trai 
ning of the Militia of this Province. By virtue of this Act, power was 
vested in the person administrating the Government for forming Flank 
Companies, to be taken indiscriminately from the Battalions, but this 
organization was limited to the end of the ensuing season. Gen. Brock 
however was not altogether satisfied with this arrangement and hesita 
ted at first to expend money upon a system, which would cease to ope 
rate before its utility and efficiency could be ascertained. However 
in the month of April a commencement was made, in the organization of 
the Flank Companies, so often mentioned in the operations on the Nia 
gara Frontier. 

On the 8th day of April, 1812, the General addressed a communi 
cation, dated from York, to the Commanding Officer of the 2nd Nor 
folk, which explains the procedure for the organization and equipment 
of this force, which he had estimated would number from 1800 to 2000 
men. 

"Being anxious at this important crisis to organize an armed force, 
with a view of meeting future exigencies, and to demonstrate by prac 
tical experiences the degree of facility with which the Militia may be 
trained for service, I have to request you to adopt immediate measures, 
.for forming and completing among such men as voluntarily offer to 
serve, two companies, not to exceed one captain, two subalterns, two 
sergeants, one drummer and thirty five rank and file each, in the regi 
ment under your command- 

You will have the goodness to recommend two captains, whom you 
conceive the best qualified, to undertake this important duty ; the nomi 
nating of subalterns is left to your discretion. 

Such other regiments, as are conveniently situated to receive mili 
tary instructions, shall have an opportunity afforded them of showing 
their ardour in the public service, which cannot fail of creating a lau 
dable emulation among the different corps. 

Assisted by your zeal, prudence and intelligence, I entertain the 
pleasing hope of meeting with very considerable success, and of being 
able to establish the sound policy of rendering permanent to the end of 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 217 



the present war, a mode of military instructions little burdensome to 
individuals, and every way calculated to secure a powerful internal 
defence against hostile aggression. 

Printed rules and regulations for your future guidance are herewith 
forwarded. The most simple and at the same time the most useful 
movements have been selected for the practice of the Militia. 

Experience has shown the absolute necessity of adopting every pos 
sible precaution, to preserve in a proper state, the arms issued to the 
Militia, and of guarding against the heavy defalcations which have 
heretofore occurred. 

You will make application to the Officer commanding at Fort 
Erie, for the number of arms and accoutrements wanting to complete 
the men actually engaged to serve in the flank companies, and that Offi 
cer will be instructed to comply with your requisition, upon your trans 
mitting to him duplicate receipts, one of which is to be forwarded to 
Headquarters, that you become responsible for the articles delivered to 
your order, at the same time the most liberal construction will be given 
to any representation accounting for such contingencies as are incidental 
to the service." 

Colonel Claus severs his connection with the J st Oxford. 

On the 27th day of June, 1812^ a District General Order was issued 
by authority of Gen. Brock, appointing the Hon. Col. Claus to command 
the Militia stationed between Niagara and Queenston. The same order 
promoted Lt-Col. Nichol, 2nd Norfolk Militia, to be Q. M. General 
Col. Claus was also appointed Col. of the 1st Regiment of Lincoln Mili 
tia, and to succeed him in command of the 1st Oxford, Gen. Brock had 
selected a clever young lawyer residing at Dover, Norfolk County. 
Henry Bostwick, appointed Lt-Col. in 1812, displayed great prudence, 
talent and energy in the discharge of his duties, and became conspi 
cuous on various occasions. Instructions, similar to those received by 
Lt-Col. Nichol, were given to Col. Bostwick and immediately upon his 
assuming command of the Oxford Militia he proceeded to thoroughly 
reorganize the Regiment and to place the fighting Flank Companies in 
such a state of efficiency ? as would enable them to take the field at a 
moment s notice. 

We should state here, that the Deputy Lieut, had some time pre 
viously been compelled to resign his position, owing to differences with 
the Governement, so that neither Capt. Horner or his aspiring rival, 
Capt. Mallory, had any connection with the Regiment when the hour 
of trial came- 



218 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



As now constituted, the 1st Regiment Oxford Militia, consisted of 
six Companies and twenty five Officers, as follows : 

War Establisment. 

1st Regiment Oxford Militia 1812-13-14. 



Engagements 



Detroit, Aug. 12th, 1812. 
Fort Erie, Nov. 28th, 1812. 
Lundy s Lane, July 25th, 1814. 
Malcolm Mills, 6th Nov. , 1814. 



RANK 

Lieut. Col. 
Major 
Adjutant 
Quartermaster 



Captain 
Lieutenant 



Captain 
Lieutenant 



Captain 
Lieutenant 



Captains 



Lieutenants 



Ensigns 



NAMES 

Henry Bostwick 

Sykes Tousley 

John Eakins 

Ensign Wm. McCarthy 

1st Flank Company. 

Marvel White 
Joseph Baker 
John Williams 

2nd Flank Company. 

John Carrol 

Bla Brewster Brigham 

William Botsford 

Rifle Company. 

Bla Brewster Brigham 
Abner Owen 

Battalion Companies 

John Secord 
John Malcolm 
David Curtis 
Edward Watson 
Ichabod Hall 
Jacob Yeigh 
Tames Harris 
William Teeple 
I^inlay Malcolm 

Abner Decou 
Henry Carroll 
Isaac Burdick 
Francis Carroll 
Daniel Brown 



DATE of COMMISSION. 

27th. June, 1812. 
19th. May, 1812. 



5th. Sept., 1807. 



Sth. Nov., 1812. 



11 July, 1812. 



14th. July, 1812. 



13th. July, 1812. 
llth July, 1812 
14th. July, 1812. 



Sykes Tousley, an able and distinguished soldier of the War, was 
promoted Major on the 19th May, 1812. Commanded the Flank Com- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 219 

panics in the London District. His first commission was as Lieut, 
in 1803, Capt. 1807. Received Prince Regent s Land Grant. 

Lt-Col. Bostwick was but 30 years of age, when appointed to the 
command of the 1st Oxford. He was placed on duty by a direct order 
from General Brock to Col. Talbot, and served throughout the War with 
both the Flank and Battalion Companies. After the War, he was one 
of the Permanent Board on Militia Pensions, created 24th May, 1816. 
He did not live long to enjoy this however, having died at Woodhouse 
on 27th July, 1816. 

Adjutant John Eakins fought at Detroit, with a detachment of the 
Oxford Militia, for which he received medal and clasp, also Prince Re 
gent s Land Grant. He was ordered on duty by Col. Talbot. 

Lieuts. Joseph Baker and John Williams, were afterwards trans 
ferred to Capt. John Carrol s Company, but Lieut. Williams served 
again in the Burford Company. Lieut. Williams Botsford also served 
under Capt. White. Later on both Baker and Botsford deserted and 
joined the enemy. 

According to the records, Capt. John Carrol was taken prisoner by 
the enemy and while held as such was killed by the fire of the Cana 
dian Militia. 

Lieut. Bla Brewster Brigham, was promoted Captain 5th Nov., 
1812. He had received permission to organize a Rifle Company, the 
members of which were composed of sharp-shooters, taken from the, 
Oxford and Middlesex Regiments. Capt. Brigham was present at 
Detroit with his Riflemen, and at the close of the War receive medal 
and clasp and Prince Regent s Land Grant. In 1834, Bla Brewster 
Brigham was placed in command of the 1st Oxford, with rank of 
Lieut. Col. and appointed a Magistrate. Promoted Col. Feb. 8th, 1838. 

The call for active service, 

In Sunday July 19th, Capt. White received orders from Headquar 
ters, to call out his men for active service. The Sergeants were obliged 
to warn the members, by calling on each one personally, no small labour 
in these early days of bad roads and a scattered population, the whole 
township at this period did not contain over 400 souls. 

Capt. Marvel White s Flank Company, was first assembled at Bur- 
ford Village on the morning of Tuesday, July 21st ind on that date 
faced the stern realities of a soldier s life. We present here the names 
of this, the first purely Volunteer Company organized in Burford. It 
must be remembered, that these men had come forward voluntarily 
and offered to serve against the enemy in any part of the Province. The 



220 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



names of this war time Militia Company, and the remuneration allowed 
their service, should prove interesting to present and future Mili 
tary readers of this work. 

Service Roll of the 1st. Flank Company of the 1st. Regiment of 
Oxford Militia, Burford, July 21st, 1812. 



RANK 

Captain 
Lieutenant 

(C 

Sergeant 
Private 

M 



H 

II 
it 
II 



NAMES 

Marvel White 
Joseph Baker 
John Williams 
Peter Martin 
Adam Yeigh 
Abram Rounds 
George Rouse 
Samuel Winkin 
Herman Barns 
Sam. Chappie 
George Lane 
Joseph Davis 
Isaac Kipp 
Ethan Burch 
Alanson Rease 
John David 
John Woodley 
John Green 
John Vollock 
John Emmons 



RANK 



NAMES 



Private 
u 



M 

(I 



Henry Pelton, Jr. 
Josiah Rouse 
Nathaniel Landon 
Gordon Chappie 
John Graham 
Elijah Mudge 
Jonathan Kipp 
Samuel Doyle 
Abraham Decou 
Robert Greason 
Jacob Stephen 
Josiah Brown 
Isaac Uptergrove 
Peter Shorfrith 
Henry Willsey. 



Before continuing the records of the further history of the 1st Regi- 

:ford Militia, some account, however short, of the services 

Officers and men of this famous old corps, during the War with 

United States, will help us to remember that they were soldiers not 

only m name but in reality. 

As already stated, Capt. White and his Company of two Lieuts. two 
>ergts, and 31 rank and file, commenced active service on the 21st. day of 

July, 1812. They remained in Burford until the 25th, and then set out on 

their march to Oxford, where they met Col. Bostwick, Major Tousley 

and Capt. Carrol with his 2nd. Flank Company. 

Col. Bostwick had received information, that a party of Americans 
tarted trouble in Delaware town and he now only awaited the arrival 

>f Lieut. W. H. Merritt, with a detachment of Niagara Dragoons, who had 
t the frontier on 28th July, passed through Burford on the 30th. and 

reached Oxford on the 31st. 

It is interesting to note here, that these Dragoons were the first 
mounted Militia men ever seen in Oxford County. During the war 
they, also Capt. Coleman s Troop of Provincial Dragoons, were the 
only bodies of Militia Calvalry which performed efficient active servi 
ce, a Mounted men, in the whole of Upper Canada- 

The Niagara Dragoons under Major Merritt and their successors, 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 221 



the Provincial Dragoons under Capt. W. H. Merritt, performed most 
distinguished service during the great conflict. At the time of their 
first meeting with the Burford Militia, Lieut. Merritt was but 19 years 
of age, a mere lad, but one endowed with the wisdom and foresight of 
an experienced soldier. 

Some sixty years later, the successors of Merritt s Niagara Dra 
goons and the first Burford Cavalry, were to form part of one of the 
first Cavalry Regiments organized in Canada and continue to be closely 
associated together for a period of some 37 years. 

To return to the movements of the Oxford Militia on the 31st July, 
1812. On the following day the Dragoons set out for Delaware and 
were followed at a slower pace by Col. Bostwick s Militia. 

Arriving at their destination, a number of prisoners were secured; 
the whole party then returned to Oxford. Lieut. Merritt with his 
mounted men now conveyed the prisoners to Burford, where he met 
Major P. L. Chambers, 41st Reg., Dep. Asst. Q. M. General, who had 
with him 40 regulars and 100 Militia. This Officer directed Lieut. 
Merritt to carry his prisoners to Fort George and deliver them to the 
Officer in charge of the Military Prisons. Major Chambers also re 
quested Lieut. Merritt to rejoin him again, as soon as possible, with as 
many of his Troop as could be spared. He was back in Burford with 
18 troopers within a few days. 

On the 9th August, they left Burford for Dover to meet General 
Brock. On the 10th. a detachment of the 1st Oxford started for Am- 
herstburg, to join the troops under General Brock. On Aug 14th. a 
District General Order was issued from Brock s Headquarters, Fort 
Amherstburg, forming the troops in the Western District into three 
Brigades. The first under Lt-Col. St. George, to consist of detach 
ments of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment and of the Kent and first 
and second Regiments Essex Militia. The second, under the command 
of Major Chambers, consisting of fifty men of the 41st Regiment, ani 
the whole of the detachments of York, Lincoln, Oxford and Norfolk 
Militia. The third Brigade, under the command of Major Tallon, to 
consist of the remainder of the 41st Regiment- At 3 o clock A. M. on 
the morning of the 16th August, 1812, Major Chambers Brigade cros 
sed the River, his Militia men being clothed in the cast off uniforms 
of the 41st Regiment which had been distributed to the former the pre 
vious day. This not only helped to deceive the enemy, as to the number 
of Regular soldiers opposed to them, but gave the Militia that feeling of 
"Esprit de corps" and pride in the service, which cannot be felt by the 
citizen soldier, unless properly clothed and equipped. 

In the attack on Fort Detroit, which followed the crossing of the 
British and Canadian troops to Michigan territory, the Militia men were 



222 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



well to the front and gave a good account of themselves, some of the 
1st. Oxford being among the first to enter the Fort on the 17th, after 
the capitulation of General Hull and his entire army. The following 
day they were ordered to return to Oxford, and for a short period 
were given leave of absence, to attend to the gathering of their crops. 

The next engagement of note, in which the 1st Oxford took part, 
was that at Fort Erie, Nov. 28th, 1812. A detachment was also pre 
sent, at that most famous battle of the War, "Lundys Lane," and were 
among those who were warmly thanked by Lieut. General Drummond 
for their services in that sanguinary struggle. Their part in the fight 
at Malcolms Mills will be found in a separate chapter. 



Militia General Order 

Headquarters Fort George 

26 August, 1812. 

Major General Brock has ever felt anxious to study the comforts 
and convenience of the Militia, but the conduct of the detachments 
which lately accompanied him to Detroit has, if possible, increased his 
anxiety on this subject. The present cessation of hostilities, enables 
him to dispense with the services of a large proportion of them, for a 
short period. Officers commanding, will grant permission to any num 
ber of the flank companies now doing duty, not exceeding four fifths 
of the whole to return to their homes, but the men will be particularly 
directed to hold themselves in readiness to return at a moment s notice. 

The Major General is pleased to direct, that a general inspection 
of the Regiments in the Home, Niagara and London Districts be imme 
diately made. Col. Talbot will inspect the different regiments in the 
London District- At these Inspections, every man liable to serve is 
expected to be present, and such as are absent are to be accounted for, 
under the following heads : 

First. Age and infirmity. 

Second. Quakers. 

Third. Absentees, distinguishing from what cause. 

It is expected that every individual, residing within the limits of a 

regiment, shall be accounted for. 

A regular roll of each Company will be prepared by the respective 
Captains and countersigned by the Officer commanding the Regiment. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 223 



On the night of the 12th November, 1813, Lt-Col. Bostwick, being 
on a visit to his family in Dover, led a party of the Norfolk Militia on an 
expedition down the Lake, for the purpose of intercepting and if possi 
ble capturing a party of armed marauders from Buffalo, who were 
reported to be plundering and making prisoners of the inhabitants. On 
the 13th they came in contact with the invaders and succeeded in sur 
rounding and making prisoners of most of the party, when it was 
found that a number of them were men who resided, or had formerly 
resided, in Norfolk. The prisoners were conveyed to Burlington, tried 
for high treason, convicted and eight of them were hanged on the 20th 
July, 1814. 

In the month of May, 1914, while on the march with his regiment 
to protect the magazines at Burlington, Col. Bostwick s house at Dover 
and all his moveable property, were destroyed by a party of the enemy, 
who had landed for the purpose of committing such depredations. 

Burford During the War. 

During the war ? Burford was a place of much importance, situated 
like Oxford on the great military highway between the Niagara and 
Detroit frontiers, these two villages were the only points of any impor 
tance in the interior of the Western part of the Province, detachments 
of various corps were frequently directed to concentrate at Burford, 
or to advance or retire to Burford. From here reinforcements could 
be dispatched to the West, to the East or to the South. To the North 
was one unbroken wilderness. 

Here on a Sunday morning a few days after the shameful and di 
sastrous defeat of Gen. Procter by the American Army under Harri 
son, there came a large and motley assemblage of Western Indians, 
Wyandotes, Delawares, Maravians, Munsies, Chippewa*, Hurons, San- 

and Musquakies, Shawanes and Hurons, with their wives and fa 
milies, in all about 1300 souls. The warriors to the number of one 
thousand fighting men had been induced by Gen. Procter to follow him 
in his retreat from Detroit, on the assurance that once under the guns 
of a mythical fort, which was supposed to exist somewhere on the banks 
of the Thames, their families would be in safety and a sure retreat for 
themselves would be at hand. 

Lt-Col. Matthew Elliott, a brave and distinguished officer, super- 
intendant of Indian Dq>t. . \mhersburg, was in command of the refu 
gees. On arriving in Burford the Indians made camp on the North 
side of the King s Highway, in what is now the Western part of the 
Village and adjacent to the Mill Stream. Col. Elliott now sent William 
Elliott, Lieut, in the Indian Dept. and Capt. 2nd FlanK Company, 1st 



224 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Essex Regiment, back to Delaware to meet the remainder of the In 
dians, some 700 in number, and on the 22nd Oct., 1813, he rejoined 
Col. Elliott, when the whole party, now numbering some 2000 souls, 
continued their retreat to Burlington. 

It is much to the credit of these Indians to state, that during their 
stay in Burford, no depredations or no excesses of any kind were com 
mitted by them upon the peaceable inhabitants or their property- Mat 
thew Elliott was also Col. of the 1st Regiment Essex Militia and repre 
sented Essex in the Provincial Legislature 1801-12. 

Most of the Military correspondence, sent out from Burford du 
ring the War, was dated from the home of Lieut. Jacob and Sergt 
Adam Yeigh. Here the many Officers of His Majesty s regular army 
or the Militia Officers on duty, were always sure of a warm welcome, 
when passing through or when stationed in Burford, and no members 
of the Burford Militia rendered more efficient or more effective service, 
nor did the members of any of the old families extend more cheerful 
aid or more generous hospitality than those of this family. It is well to 
remember these facts, when perusing the political records of this Town 
ship, during that period in its history when there was no political free 
dom in the land. 

In the month of March, 1814, Lt-General Drummond sent secret 
and confidential instructions to Major Gen. Riall, for directing ilu 
operations of his Division. In case of certain eventualities, he was 
advised to move the troops from Burlington and take a position at 
Burford, when the detachments, then at Long Point and Oxford, could 
fall back on them and the whole, with the Indians and Militia, form a 
corps of observation sufficient to keep the enemy s force in check and 
cover his rear. 

In any case he was instructed to station an officer and twenty men 
at Burford, to watch the road from Detroit and also to give notice of 
any advance from that direction to the Officer Commanding at Long 
Point, that his retreat might not be cut off by the enemy reaching the 
Grand River before him. 

In the month of April, 1814, a detachment of Capt. W. H. Merritt s 
Provincial Dragoons, under Lieut. Charles Ingersoll, were stationed in 
Burford. Forage was so scarce, it was with the greatest difficulty that 
a sufficient quantity could be procured for the Horses. Lieut. Inger- 
soll s Headquarters were at the Yeigh Home. While here he received 
word that Major Tousley had been made prisoner while at his home in 
Oxford, by a party of the enemy led by one Westbrook, a former resi 
dent of Delaware. This Westbrook was very active during the War 
in leading raiding parties to attack and plunder through all that part of 
the country West of Burford, in which he was well acquainted. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 225 



On the 30th Aug., 1814. Westbrook, with a following of nearly 
100 men, suddenly made their appearance at the homes of Capts. Hall, 
Carrol and Curtis, of the Oxford Militia, and carried them off in their 
retreat as prisoners of War ; a most outrageous proceeding contrary to 
all the usages of civilized warfare. Not content with that, the marau 
ders arrested all of the settlers they could find and threatened to carry 
them off also^ unless they made oath not to serve against the invaders. 

It is satisfactory to know, that these Officers of the 1st Oxford did 
not long remain in the hands of their captors. Lieut. Rapelje of the 
Norfolk Militia, had learned of their raid into Oxford and Middlesex 
and with a party of his men lay in wait for them near Delaware. 

With their prisoners and their plunder, the robbers were leisure 
ly persuing their way towards Detroit, not expecting any pursuit or 
attack from the harrassed Canadians and congratulating themselves on 
the success of their nefarious work, when without warning, their re 
treat was cut short by a well directed volley from Lieut. Rapelje s men. 
Without waiting to see what was the strength of the party opposed to 
them, the enemy at once hastily retreated towards Oxford leaving se 
veral dead upon the field and all their plunder, consisting of Horses, 
Cattle and provisions of various kinds. 

Capts. Hall and Curtis, after their rescue, returned to Oxford 
escorted by their friends- Capt. Carrol most unfortunately received a 
ball in the breast, fired by his rescuers at the first discharge of their 
muskets and shortly afterwards expired, greatly regretted for his many 
excellent qualities. By his untimely end, the 1st Oxford lost one of 
its best and most efficient officers and his country, a brave and gallant 
defender. 



The Invasion of Burford. 

It was on the 22nd of October, 1814, that a large party of mounted 
men set out from Detroit for the purpose of making an extended raid 
into the Province of Upper Canada, their man object was to devastate 
the country by destroying its resources and ultimately to paralyze any 
efforts which might be made against that place during the winter. This 
force which numbered over one thousand, was composed for the most 
part of an undisciplined horde of adventures from the frontiers of 
Kentucky and Ohio, who individually looked forward to a period of 
unlicensed rapine and plunder. There was also a party of American 
Indians and a few Michigan Militia, but the latter, to their honor be it 
said, on finding out the nature of the free-booting raid, all returned to 
their homes. 



226 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

They were under the command of an officer who had been one of 
Gen. Hull s Staff, at the surrender of Fort Detroit in 1812, viz : Col. 
McArthur, who now held the rank of Brigadier Gen. ? with him were 
Majors Todd and Dudley, Capts. Bradford and Rutland, and a Dr. 
Turner. At this period, all the country adjacent to Maiden and Sand 
wich was practically dominated by the American Army, congregated at 
Fort Detroit, but to prevent any news of the intended raid leaking out, 
the expedition was led north, and having circled Lake St. Claire, they 
reached Moravian Town on the 8th day out. They were all well moun 
ted and from here they swept eastward, reaching Oxford three days 

later. 

On their inarch the peaceable inhabitants were plundered of their 
stock and valuables, and on the slightest resistance their houses and 
barns were given to the flames, Meantime the Oxford Militia under 
Col. Bostwick had assembled at Burford Village and awaited the next 
move of the enemy. McArthur having arrived at Oxford, and finding 
no force to oppose his further advance, or to protect the inoffensive 
Canadians from the assaults and outrages of his ruthless band of bri 
gands and robbers, decided to make for Burlington, which his spies 
informed him was but weakly garrisoned. 

Learning of his intentions, and that the route of the raiders would 
be to the Grand River Ferry, through the Village of Burford, two men, 
residents of Oxford, named Jacob Wood and George Nichol, started 
at 3 a. m., on the morning of the 5th November, and three hours later 
they were in Burford and at once notified Col. Bostwick, who after 
consulting with his Officers, among whom were, Jacob Yeigh, John 
Secord, John and Findlay Malcolm, decided, that with the small force 
at his command, about 150 men, it was impossible to offer any effective 
resistance to the approaching troops of ruffianly bandits and they at 
once marched to Malcolm s Mills, to effect a junction with the Norfolk 
Militia under Col. Ryerson and there await further orders. 

Before leaving Oxford on the morning of the 5th Nov., McArthur 
learned of the departure of Wood and Nichol and what their object was. 
This information was imparted to him by a villainous informer and 
traitor named Bazely, who imagined that the province was now forever 
lost to Britain, and in addition to his betrayal of Wood* and Nichol, he 
gave the names of many of the loyal officers and prominent men, who 
were under arms and had served or were then serving in the Oxford 
Milivia. On securing this information, detachments were at once sent 
out to burn and destroy the homes and belongings of the two patriots and 
of these men who were but fighting for their homes and for their coun 
try. Such acts of barbarity and oppression were contrary to all the 
acts of civilized warfare and would never have been perpetrated by the 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 227 

regular soldiers of the U. S. Army. On leaving Oxford this horde of 
undisciplined partisans spread out over the country like a iliglit of lo 
custs, to pillage and devour the lonly settler along the side roads and 
bade concessions. Nearing Bur ford the invaders learned that Henry 
Lester ( Quarter Master Sergt. of the Oxford Militia, was absent with 
his corps and a large body made an unwelcome visit at his home and 
despoiled him of all his grain, roots and stock, but appear to have spa 
red his buildings. 

When the advance scouts of the raiders reached Burford Village, 
early in the afternoon of the 5th November, it can be imagined that 
the good people, hearing of the atrocities already perpetrated on the 
inhabitants, were in considerable fear and trepidation, this was the 
first time and was to be the last that the invader had planted his foot 
on the free soil of loyal Burford, their valiant defenders were absent, 
their homes unprotected, they were now at the mercy of this motley 
assembly of mounted raiders, who had left in their comse, a trail of 
pillage and devastation. The enemy were all mounted, mostly on Ca 
nadian horses, stolen from the inhabitants during their passage, their 
worn out and useless mounts having been discarded. There were many 
led horses, loaded with plunder of every description. 

The settlers of Burford had during the two proceeding years grown 
accustomed to the passage and the presence of Military bodies. The 
road from Brant s Ford to Oxford had, in anticipation of trouble with 
the U. S., and previous to the declaration of war, been greatly improved 
by the Government, with a view to its use as a military highway between 
the Detroit and Niagara frontiers. The frequent passage of bodies of 
British Cavalry and Infantry, and the proximity of the Oxford .Mili 
tia, had given the inhabitants such a feeling of security, that the pre 
sence of any armed force of the enemy so far in the interior, was but 
a remote possibility. McArthur, had seized the opportunity when the 
bulk of the British army were hotly engaged on the Niagara Frontier, 
in repelling the last desperate efforts of the American Army under 
General Brown to conquer the Province of Upper Canada. He deman 
ded to know the whereabouts of the Militia, who lie knew had been but 
a few hours previously stationed in Burford. On learning that they 
had gone south and after his men had seized all the obtainable stock 
and provisions, not secreted in the adjoining swamps by the thrifty house 
holders, McArthur gathered in his noisy, threatening, thciving rab 
ble, most of whom were dressed in their hunting outfits and equipped 
with scalping knives, tomahawks and long rifles, and started for the 
river, which was reached early on the following day. 

It had been McArthur s intention to cross the Grand River immedia 
tely and without regarding the Militia at Malcolm s Mills, but on his 



228 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD _ 

arrival at the river, he learned of the retreat of General Brown and 
the American Army, who had re-crossed the Niagara, he also found on 
the opposite shore an old acquaintance of his, Major A. C. Muir of the 
41st Regiment, with about 50 Militia and 50 Indians, the latter under 
Tyoninhakarawen, posted ready to dispute his passage. 

A scow used as a Ferry had, by the orders of Major Muir, been 
sunk to prevent its use by the enemy. This officer, who had prefor 
med many meritorious acts on the Detroit frontier during the two pro 
ceeding years, immediately opened fire on the Kentuckey Riflemen.-, 
Lt-Col. Smelt of the 103rd Regiment was on the way with 200 men of 
his corps to re-inforce Major Muir, also Lieut- Charlton with two six 
pounders, but did not arrive in time to take any part in the engagement. 
After a number of shots had been exchanged, McArthur decided not 
to attempt a crossing. He gave as an excuse that the River was in 
flood and that there was nothing available out of which to construct 

rafts. 

This seems but a poor excuse when we consider that in the early 
days, the Western cowboy, with his string of led horses and thousands 
upon thousands of cattle, yearly traversed the long trail from Mexico 
to the middle West, successfully swimming his herds of stock across 
the Rio Grande and all interveening rivers and streams, many of which 
were larger, deeper and swifter than our northern Grande. Had Brown s 
army been still on the Canadian side of the Niagara river, and no 
force prepared to oppose his crossing, the absence of the scow ferry 
or the heigth of the water, would not have prevented the raiders from 
attempting and completing a safe and successful passage. 

Having destroyed all the mills in the vicinity of the river, Mc 
Arthur now decided to move the main body of his force towards Oak 
land and engage the Militia concentrated at Malcolm s Mills. Leaving 
a part of his riflemen to engage the attention of the Militia and Indians 
and prevent them following after and harrassing his retreat, he sent 
another detachment down the river, to give the. impression that he in 
tended to make a crossing at a lower point. 

The Battle of Malcolm s Mills. 

Scarcely any of the Historical writers of the war of 1812-14, ever 
mention this engagement, and those who do give us little or no infor 
mation regarding it. It has been referred to as the "Races of Mal 
colm s Mills", and some have tried to throw ridicule on the actions of 
the militia and deride the efforts of the small band of undrilled, badly 
equipped Militia men, who boldly planted themselves in the path of the 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 229 

invaders, resolved to dispute the further passage of the most ruthless 
horde of devastating ruffians that ever entered a civilized country. Mc- 
Arthur hoped to surprise them, but through their scouts they were wi:!! 
aware of his approach. 

Entrenchments had been made on a slight elevation, on the west 
side of the creek and breast works thrown up. Behind these, the Mili 
tia quietly awaited the approach of the enemy. The first attack came 
from their rear and was made by the Indian allies of the American Ge 
neral, who had been ordered to make a circuit and draw the fire of the 
Canadians in that direction, while the main body would make a direct 
assault across the Creek and capture the garrison. The Canadian s 
made a determined resistence, and only after a hotly contested affair 
and the loss of several of their men and being out-numbered four to 
one, they at last decided on a retreat. 

It is much to their credit, that being surrounded by such a superior 
force and such and unscrupulous enemy, they did not surrender, but 
were able to effect their retreat with but a small loss. The American 
General claimed in his despatches, to have inflicted a loss on the Cana 
dians of one Captain and 17 Privates killed, nine Privates wounded 
and 3 Captains, 5 Subaltrans and 103 Privates made prisoners. We 
are satisfied that these figures existed largely in his imagination and 
were not verified by later developments. He admitted a loss of only 
one killed and six wounded- 

To give some idea of the desperate resistance made by the Cana 
dian Militia and the deadly accuracy of the Kentucky Riflemen, we will 
mention here the case of one of the Oxford Militia, who was left for 
dead on the field. It was found that no less than 17 balls had pierced 
his clothing, 7 of which had entered his body, but being of a robust 
constitution, he afterwards recovered but partly lost the use of his left 
arm. 

Early on the morning of the 7th McArthur continued his march 
and headed towards Port Dover, at which point he expected to receive 
re-inforcements. He had also expected them by the Grand River and 
the detachment already mentioned which penetrated through the Grand 
River swamp, in addition to their efforts to mislead the British troops, 
now hurrying forward, made diligent enquiry as to the arrival of any 
boats at the mouth of the river. 

Finding none had been heard of, the raiders now commenced their 
retreat towards Detroit, through Norfolk and by way of the Talbot 
Road, arriving at their headquarters on the 17th, having plundered and 
burned everything in their path. Residents of Norfolk and the Talbot 
settlement having suffered much more severely than those of Burford. 



230 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



The Troops engaged at Malcolm s Mills on the 6th November, 
. 1814, were as follows : 

1st Regiment of Middlesex Militia, under Major John Eakins. 

1st Regiment of Oxford Militia, under Lt. Col. Henry Bostwick. 

1st Regiment of Norfolk Militia, under Lt. Col. Joseph Ryerson, 
and Major Wm. D. Bowen, who became Lt. Col. of the 
1st Oxford in May, 1816. 

2nd Regiment Norfolk Militia, under Major Geo. D- Salmon, (the 
Lieut. Col. of this corps, Robt. Nichol, having been ap 
pointed quartermaster General by General Brock, at the 
commencement of the war, was elsewhere on Staff Duty.) 



The Further Career of Benajah Mallory. 

We will now take up the further career of Benajah Mallory, Bur- 
ford s First Militia Captain and Oxford s Second representative in the 
Provincial Legislature. After his failure to secure the appointment of 
Deputy Lieutenant of the County and his defeat by Malhon Burwell 
at the election in the Spring of 1812, he left Burford, a sorely disap 
pointed man, to visit and confer with his friend and adviser Joseph 
Willcocks at Niagara. 

When in the Legislature, Mallory had been closely associated with 
this individual, who in the House and in his journal, printed at Niagara, 
had for long been a bitter and unyeilding opponent of the Executive. 

It is stated that Willcocks tendered an offer of his services to the 
Government of Upper Canada, at the opening of hostilities, if so they 
were refused. It was not long before he was in communication with 
the Government of the State of New York, and eventually he was au 
thorized by the latter to organize and recruit in Upper Canada, for a 
corps to be called the "Canadian Volunteers", to be at the disposal of 
the United States for the Invasion of Canada. Willcocks was promi 
sed the command, with the rank of Lt-Colonel and the selection of his 
officers. This proposition he laid before Benajah Mallory, with the 
offer of a majority and a request for his assistance in gaining recruits 
in Oxford County. We believe that at first the proposal was repugnant 
to Mallory, he had still many warm friends among his old Militia men 
and as a large land owner in the Township of Burford, he had more 
than one interest at stake. 

Such a dangerous step on his part required grave consideration and 
he returned to Burford, but the events now transpiring, only had a ten- 
dencv to make him more discontented, too restless to remain inac- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 231 



tive, in the neighbourhood of his defeats, too irritated and incensed with 
his political opponents to make an offer of his military services and the 
request of an appointment to a suitable post, Benajah Mallory at last 
gave ear to the sinster advise of Willcocks ; and in the early part of 
the year 1813, he left Burford forever, to take service against the 
country of his adoption in that traitorous Corps known as the Canadian 
Volunteers, and to give him his due, there was, during the remainder 
of the war, no more desperate or able fighter in the service of the ene 
my, than the first commanding officer of the Burford Militia. 

When hostilities ceased he held the rank of Lt.-Col. and we believe 
that no officer in the United States forces better earned their promotion 
than Benajah Mallory. It seems most unfortunate that such a man, 
however much we must condemn his conduct, could not have been re 
tained in Burford, as a loyal and faithful subject of the King- 
No more able or efficient leader of the Burford Militia could have 
been found. We have no intention to endeavour in any way to excuse or 
palliate the treasonable course persued by the man, who was Burfords 
first citizen more than one hundred years ago, but we feel satisfied, 
that the frustration of all his military and political asp-rations and the 
murderous attack by personal enemies upon his home and person, al 
ready mentioned, were the causes which embittered his mind and in 
fluenced him in the reckless undertaking he now engaged in. 

One of his first exploits was in the month of November, 1813, 
when he suddenly appeared on the Eastern bank of the Grand River, 
in the heart of the Indian Country, with some 30 well armed followers. 
Mallory was well known to most of the chiefs, and was not molested 
by them in any way. He communicated his arrival to Buffalo and sent 
emmissairies to Burford and Blenheim, to try and secure recruits for 
his party, the residents upon whom these individuals called and the in 
ducements held out to seduce them for their allegiance, would make 
an interesting story if given in detail. As far however, as Burford 
was concerned the mission of Mallory s emmissaries proved a failure. 
We next hear of Mallory at the burning of Niagara, on the night 
of 10th. December, 1813. After this atrocious and dastardly act, com 
mitted by the orders of General McClure, Mallory s Corps were ordered 
to Buffalo, they had suffered severely during their recent raids into 
Canadian territory, and were reduced to about 60 men. 

General McClure now sent \Yillcocks on a mission to Governor 
Tompkins, and Mallory in command of his corps was ordered to Schlos- 
ser. Such a storm of indignation swept over the province after the 
burning of Niagara, on account of this wicked and cruel affair, which 
caused untold suffering and privation among the peaceable inhabitants, 
that Lt.-Gen. Drummond determined upon an act of retribution. No 



232 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

repudiation of General McClure s conduct having been tendered to the 
Commander-in-chief by the U. S. Government, a sufficient force of 
British and Canadian troops, under Major General Riall, were ordered 
to cross the River on the night of the 18th. Dec., 1813, and invade the 
enemy s country. The destruction of Lewiston and Buffalo followed, 
the country along the frontier being also devastated- 

An extract from a letter written by Genral McClure, to the Go 
vernor of the State of New York ? informs us of Major Mallory s mo 
vements at this time. 

Headquarters Buffalo, N. Y. 

20th December, 1813. 

Dear Sir : 

I am sorry to inform you that the enemy have invaded our country 
in great force on the night of the 18th inst, at Lewiston. I had a small 
detachment stationed there, consisting of about sixty men of Col. Grie 
ves Regiment and about forty Indians. The enemies allies appeared 
in great numbers and surrounded our people, some fought their way 
through, and those who have not come in I presume are cut to pieces. 
The enemy is said to be 3000 strong. 

Major Mallory being stationed at Schlosser, with Colonel Will- 
cocks corps of Canadian Volunteers, advanced to Lewiston. He attac 
ked their advanced guards and drove them in. I have not heard from 
him to-day, and have my fears of their being cut off. I have used every 
exertion in my power to call forth the Militia of the neighbouring 
counties, "en masse". About 400 Militia have arrived, but they are 
more engaged in taking care of their families and property, by carrying 
the into the interior, than helping us to fight, etc." 

From this report it would appear that Major Mallory was the only 
officer in the American forces, who had offered any effective resistance 
to the avenging troops under General Riall. Fears for his safety had 
been expressed by General McClure, but Mallory was not fated to fall 
in this conflict as he turned up in Buffalo the following day with the 
remnant of his Regiment. 

It is interesting to note here the attitude of the State troops at this 
period, as compared to their standing at the commencement of the war. 

On April 13th, 1812, the numbers of the several brigades and Regi 
ments of Infantry and Cavalry, in the state of New York, was officially 
reported as follows : 

Infantry Brigades 40- Regiments 160. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Cavalry Brigades 3. Regiments 10. 

To return to Major Mallory. In the Official report of the Briga 
dier General, sent to the United States Secretary of War from Buffalo, 
on the 22nd, December, detailing the operations on the Niagara fron 
tier, and the loss of Fort Niagara to the British, we take the following. 

"Major Mallory, who WLS stationed at Schlosser with about 40 (so 
called) Canadian Volunteers, advanced to Lewiston Heights and com 
pelled the advanced guard of the enemy to fall back to the foot of the 
Mountain. The Major is a meritorious officer, he fought the enemy 
two days and contested every inch of ground to the Tonawanda Creek. 
In these actions Lieut. Lowe 23rd. Regiment of the United States 
Army and eight of the Canadian Volunteers were killed." 

General McClure did not long remain in Buffalo, his conduct of 
the war was execrated by many prominent inhabitants of that Village 
and the adjoining Country. He had been mobbed when passing through 
the street, and according to his own account, he was greeted with cries 
of "Shoot him", "Shoot him" and several muskets were discharged in 
his direction. A resident of Erie, Pa, commenting on the destruction 
of Lewiston and other places by the British, in a letter to a friend in 
Pittsburg, concluded as follows : 

"This all arises from the wanton and abominable act of General 
McClure in burning Newark, after he and his Militia abandoned Fort 
George, and indeed it will give a new aspect to the war, which will no 
doubt be carried on after this, more to satiate the revengeful feeling of 
commanders and individuals, than to obtain any great national benefit 
from it." 

Major Mallory was left in Buffalo with instructions to report events 
to General McClure, who was now in Batavia. On the 24th, December, 
the former sent a despatch, stating that Buffalo was in great danger, 
as the British regulars and the Canadian Militia were concentrating 
their forces at Fort Erie. About this time the American General found 
it expedient to issue a statement, addressed to the Public, in which he 
endeavoured to excuse and justify his conduct of the war. Among 
other matters referred to, is the surprising statement, that he had paid 
four hundred dollars to twenty artillerists, stationed at Lewiston, for 
volunteering their services three weeks, but before the place was attac 
ked they nearly all deserted. 

He praises the services of Major Mallory and calls him an officer 
of geat merit, General McClure now decided to efface himself and 
repuested Major General Hall, an able officer, to assume command of 
the frontier. Hall arrived in Buffalo on the 25th, and found some 
2,000 men of various corps, but in a disorganized state and everything 
in confusion. A review was held on the 27th, among the corps taking 



234 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

part we find the Canadian Volunteers under Lt -Col. Mallory, to the 
number of 97. 

At midnight, on the 29th Dec., 1813, the long expected attack by 
the British took place, by morning the latter to the number of 965 Re 
gular, 50 Militia and 400 Indians, had effected a crossing and a gene 
ral engagement followed. Col. Mallory, with his corps of Canadian 
Volunteers, was placed on the right wing of the American army and 
found himself opposed to the left wing of the British ; composed of 
Regulars, Incorporated Militia and Indians. Mallory fought with his 
usual courage, but nothing could withstand the steady unflinching ad 
vance of the British, the desertion of a portion of the American Militia, 
when the battle opened^ had weakened the latter forces as well as their 
courage, but for sometime the ground was hotly contested and there 
were many individual acts of bravery recorded upon both sides. Major 
General Hall finally found it necessary to order a retreat, when with the 
remnant of his force, he moved his headquarters to Batavia, leaving 
Major Benajah Mallory in practical command of the Niagara Frontier. 

A high official, in a communication to the Governor of New York 
State at this period, makes the following reference to Mallory, which 
gives us some idea of the estimation in which he was held by his supe 
riors. 

"Colonels Davis and Brooks are good citizens but feeble men. Ma 
jor Mallory of the Canadian Volunteers, being more efficient, has in 
effect the command of our frontier." 

It was not for long however that Colonel Mallory was to retain 
this prominence, the success of a militia officer, or of an officer con 
nected with a partizan corps, is sure to arouse the jealousy of many 
officers connected with the regular army, men who in very many ins 
tances owe their position more to political influence than to any natural 
ability ? men who continually blame someone else for their own blun 
ders and defeats, and- are always found ready to claim the rewards due 
to others, when there is a success or a victory. 

By the machinations of some such individuals, Col. Mallory was 
soon superseded, and the authority upon which he was commissioned was 
questioned, the matter was brought before the Major General, and this 
officer now refused to recognize Colonel Mallory as an officer in the 
United States service, on the grounds that his commission had not 
emenated from the proper source, or been predicated upon any prior 
regular commission. 

The case was carried to Governor Tompkins, under whose autho- 
rithy the Canadian Volunteers had been organized, in due time the fol 
lowing reply was received by Lieut. Colonel Mallory. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 235 



Headquarters Williamsville, Feb. 19th, 1814. 
Lieut- Col. Mallory, 
Sir :- 

I have the honor to inform you, by direction of Major General 
Hall, that an answer, from His Excellency the Governor, had just been 
received, to the letter of the General requesting to be informed in what 
light he should consider appointments circumstanced as in yours and 
the officers of your corps," to which His Excellency has been pleased 
to reply in the following words : With respect to the brevet commis 
sions, of which you spoke in a former letter, I have written to General 
Wilkinson and he returns for answer, that they were given for a tem 
porary purpose and are not now to be regarded as giving their posses 
sors rank and pay." 

The General deemed it due to you and the officers of your corps, to 
communiacte thus early, the opinion which His Excellency, the Com- 
mander-in-Chief entertains of your rank and claims. 

I have the honor to be, etc. 

(Signed) GEO. HOSMER. 

After the close of the war, Mallory received a grant of land from 
the United States government, to compensate him for the loss of his 
estate in Burford and he became a permanent citizen of the United 
States. It is possible that subsequently he visited Burford and met 
some cf his old friends, if so the writer has no record of the event. 



CHAPTER III. 



MUSTER ROLLS AND PAY LISTS. BURFORD BLENHEIM 
AND OXFORD COMPANIES. PAY OF NEW YORK STATE 
MILITIA. DETACHMENTS AT LONG POINT. SUSTE 
NANCE. PENSIONEERS, BRANT AND OXFORD COUN 
TIES 



1 st Regiment Oxford Militia. 

Pay Lists and Muster Rolls of the 1st Flank Company of the 1st Regi 
ment, Oxford Militia, July 21st to July 24th, 1812, 4 days inclu 
sive. 



RANK 



NAMES 



Capt. 
Lieut. 

M 

Sergt. 

it 

Private 



H 

It 



X 
I, 

If 



Marvel White 
Joseph Baker 
John Williams 
Peter Martin 
Adam Yeigh 
Abraham Rounds 
Jas. Pelton, Jr. 
George Rouse 
Josiah Rouse 
Samuel Winkin 
Nathaniel Landon 
Herman Barns 
Gordon Chappie 
Sam Chappie 
John Graham 
George Lane 
Elijah Mudge 
Joseph Davis 
Jonathan Kipp 
Isaac Kipp 
Samuel Doyle 
Ethan Burch 
Abraham De Cou 
Alanson Rease 
Robert Greason 
John David 
Jacob Stephen 
John Woodley 
Josiah Brown 
John Green 



Rates of 

Pay Per 

Day 

L. S. D. 



0. 10. 6 
0. 6. 6 
0. 6. 6 
0. 16 
0. 16 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 
0. 6 



0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 



0. 0. 6 



Amounts due. 



L. S. D. 

2. 2. 
1. 6. 
1. 6. 
0. 5. 4 
0. 5. 4 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 
0. 2. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Private Isaac Uptergrove 

" John Vollock 

Peter Shorfrith 

" John Emmons 

" Henry Willsey 

Total for Non. Com- Officers & Privates. 



217 






0. 


6 


0. 


J. 





n. 


0. 


6 


0. 


2. 





0. 


0. 


6 


0. 


J. 





0. 


0. 


6 


0. 


J. 





0. 


0. 


6 


0. 


2. 


u 



3. 12. 8 



Sworn before me at Burfcrcl this I do hereby certify that the sum 

of 3.12.8 has been actually and bona 
fide received for by me and paid to 
the N. C. O. and Privates of this 
Company as above stated. 

(Sgd.) Marvel White, Captain. 



seventh Day of May, 1813. 
(Sgd.) Col. Thomas Talbot, J. P- 



In these distressful days, when the preservation of the Country 
depended largely upon the affection and loyalty of the settlers, it was 
not a question of renumeration with the early soldiers of Burford, the 
sentiment of patriotism was superior to every other consideration. With 
a population numbering but four hundred souls, the township provided 
a company of stalwart militia men, who voluntarily came forward to 
assist in the defence of their country, not for the paltry sum of six 
pence per day, about $3.75 per month, but from those motives of self 
protection and mutual co-operation which every good citizen feels com 
pelled to take, when his own or his neighbors house is invaded or expo 
sed to the unprovoked attacks of the burglar and the housebreaker. 

A comparison of the rates of pay prevailing in the Canadian Mili 
tia as compared with that granted to the New York State Militia. 



CANADIAN MILITIA 



U. S. MILITIA 



RANK 



Lieut-Col. 

Major 

Capt 

Lieut. 

Ensign. 

Sei 

Private 



PER DAY 
L. S. D. 

0. 14. 10 
0. 12. 
0. 10. 6 
0. 6. 6 
0. 5. 6 
0. 1. 4 
0. 0. 6 



RANK 



Col. 
U-CoL 

Major 

t. 

1 t l.i<-ut. 
1 l.ieut. 

Corporal 

Private 



PER MONTH 



$75.00 
60.00 
50.00 
40.00 
30.00 
25.00 
20.00 
11.00 
K).(K) 
8.00 



238 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



It is not quite clear why this first pay sheet of the Burford Compa 
ny was made out for four days only, the 4th day ending on a Friday, as 
the Company continued on active duty and all future pay sheets were 
made out monthly. 



Pay Lists and Muster Rolls of Capt. Marvel White s Burford Company 
of the 1st Oxford Militia, from July 25th, to August 24th, 1812, 
inclusive, 31 days. 



RANK NAMES 

Capt. Marvel White 

Lieut. William Bptsford 

John Williams 

Segrt. Peter Martin 

Adam Yeigh 

Private Abraham Rounds 

Henry Babcock 
James Pelton, Jr. 
George Reade 
Josiah Rouse 
Samuel Winkin 
Nathaniel Landon 
Herman Barns 
Gordon Chappie 
Samuel Chappie 
John Graham 
George Lane 
Elijah Mudge 
Joseph David 
Jonathan Kipp 
Isaac Kipp 
Samuel Doyle 
Ethan Burch 
Abraham De Cou 
Alanson Rease 
Robt. Greason 
John David 
John Woodley 
Josiah Brown 
John Green 
Peter Shorfrith 
John Vollock 
Isaac Uptergrove 
John Emmons 
Henry Willsey 

Total for Non. Com. Officers & Privates. 



DAYS 

31 
n 



u 

It 
u 
II 
u 

(( 
II 
It 
It 
It 
tl 
It 
II 
tl 
II 
It 
ti 



It 
It 
ie 
n 
ti 
it 



11 
11 
i 
n 
it 
n 
it 
n 



a 
it 
it 
i 
a 

IS 
20 
20 

31 
K 

20 



AMOUNT 

16. 5. 6 
10. 1. 6 
10. 1. 6 
2. 1. 4 
2. 1. 4 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 7. 6 
0. 10. 
0. 10. 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 10. 

26. 3. 2 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



239 



Sworn before me at Burford this 
seventh Day of May, 1813. 



I do hereby certify that the sum 
of 26.3.2 has been actually and 
bona fide received for by me and 
(Signed) Col. Thorn. Talbot, J. P. paid to the Non. Com. Officers and 

1 riyates of this Co. as above stated. 

(Signed) Marvel White, Capt, 
Com. above Coy. 



Muster Roll of a Detachment of the First Flank Company of the .Oxford 
Militia, from the 25th Nov. to the 24 Dec., 1812, both days inclu 
ded. 







PERIOD 




AMOUNT 


BANK 


NAMES 




Days 








FROM TO 




s d 


Lieut. 


Win. Bot-ford 


25th Nov. l i Dec. 


25 


8. 2. 6. 


* 


John Williams 


25th 


2fl 




25 


8. 2. (i. 16. 5. 0. 


Sergt. 


Peter Martin 


25th 


20 




26 


1. 14. 8. 


o 
II 


Edward Logan 


25th 


20 




26 


1. 14. 8. 


Private 


Henry Babcock 


2;5th 


*0 




26 


0. 13. o. 


11 


Jonah Brown 


25th 


20 




26 


0. 18.0, 






Ant hy Westhrook 


25th 


20 




26 


0. 13. 0. 






Godfrey Huffman 


25th 


20 




26 


0. J3 0. 






James Carrol 


25th 


20 




26 


II. 13. (I. 






Jonathan Graham 


25th 


20 




26 


o. 13 o. 






Peter Phillips 


25th 


20 




28 


(i. 1. !. 0. 







Henry Babcock 


25th 


24 


i 


81 


o. 15. 6 S. 15. 10. 



I hereby certify that the persons above named were doing duty for 
the period stated annexed to their names. 

(Signed) J011X WITJJAMS, 

Commanding Company. 



First Regiment of Oxford Militia, 



Musk-.- Roll of UK- Sivond Flank Company, under the command of 
Captain John Carrol, from the 21st, July to the 24th Day of July, 
1X12, 4 days inclusive. 



240 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



RANK 


NAMES 


AMOUNTS DUE 


Capt. 
Lieut. 
Sergt. 

|l 


John Carrol 
Wm. Botsford 
James Johnston 
Orme Marks 


2. 2. 10 
1. 6. 
1. 6. 

0. 5. 4 


Private 

tt 


Nathan Burch 
Edward Logan 


0. 5. 4 
0. 2. 





Caleb Burdick 


0. 2. 


it 


Henry Lewis 


0. 2. 


n 


Arch d Burch 


0. 2. 


a 


Dan l Shaw 


0. 2. 


n 


Sam l Lewis 


0. 2. 


ti 


Warner Dagert 


0. 2. 


it 


Adam Dodge 


0. 2. 


M 


Robert Clark 


0. 2. 





Isaac McNames 


0. 2. 


M 


Ethan Fuller 


0. 2. 


<> 


Dan l Carrol 


0. 2. 



a 


James James 
Wm. Underwood 


0. 2. 
0. 2. 





Godfrey Huffman 


0. 2. 





Jabez Thornton 


0. 2. 


M 


Garrit Stevens 


0. 2. 





Barn. Flanagan 


0. 2. 


M 


Sam l Sage 


0. 2. 


M 


Wm. Cartwright 


0. 2. 


u 


Hiram Baily 


0. 2. 


M 


Elijah Harris 


0. 2. 





Peter McNames 


0. 2. 


M 


Alva Ludington 


0. 2. 





John Sevins 


0. 2. 


<: 


James Allan 


0. 2. 


(1 


John Briant 


0. 2. 


<( 


David Graham 


0. 2. 


U 


Alanson Tousley 


0. 2. 





Comfort Sage 


0. 2. 


(( 


Dan l Burch 


0. 2. 





Arch d Hickly 


0. 2. 
0. 2. 



3. 16. 8 

Sworn before me at Burford the I do hereby certify that the sum 
7th day of May, 1813. of 3. 16. 8 has been actually and 

bona fide received for and paid to 

(Sgd.) Thomas Talbot, J. P. the Non Com. Officers, Drummers, 

Fifers, Private Men of this Com 
pany as above stated. 

(Signed) John Carrol, Captain. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



241 



Jst Regiment Oxford Militia, 

Capt. J. Carrols Company, from July 25th to Aug. 24th, 1812, 31 days 
inclusive. 



Capt. 
Lieut. 

Sergts. 

u 

Private 



u 
II 
II 



II 
u 

II 
II 



John Carrol 
Joseph Baker 
Trueman Johnson 
Comfort Marks 
Nathan Burch 
Edward Logan 
Caleb Burdick 
Henry Lewis 
Arch. Burch 
Daniel Shaw 
Sam Lewis 
Warner Dagert 
Adam Dodge 
Robert Clark 
Isaac McNames 
Ethan Fuller 
Daniel Carrol 
James James 
Wm. Underwood 
Godfrey Huffman 
Jabez Thornton 
Garrit Stevens 
Barn. Flanagan 
Samuel Sage 
Wm. Cartwright 
Hiram Baily 
Elijah Harris 
Peter McNames 
Alva Ludington 
John Sevins 
James Allan 
John Briant 
David Tousley 
Comfort Sage 
Daniel Burch 
Archibald Hickley 



Sworn before me at Willoughby the 
7th day of May, 1813. 



16. 5. 6 
10. 1. 6 
2. 1. 4 
2. 1. 4 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 

28. 18. 8 



(Signed) THOS. TALBOT, J. P. 

I do hereby certify that the sum of 28. 18. 8 has been actually and 
bona fide received for and paid to the Non. Com. Officers, Drummers, 
Fifers and Private Men of this Company as above stated. 



(Signed) JOHN CARROL, Capt. 



242 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



First Regiment of Oxford Militia. 

Pay Lists and Muster Rolls of Captain Carrol s Company, 23rd. Sept. 
to 24th. Oct. 1813, 30 days. 



RANK 

Lieut. 
ft 

Sergt. 



Privates 




M 
1C 



II 

t 



NAMES 

John Carrol, 
Joseph Baker, 
William Botsford, 
Peter Martin, 
Firman Johnson, 
Hiram De Cou, 
Hugh Malcolm, 
Elijah Mudge, 
Lewis Craw, 
Jonathan Graham, 
Edward Logan, 
Alanson B. Pear, 
James Carrol, 
Ira Allen, 
Josiah Brown, 
Noah Brown, 
Peter Malcolm, 
Jacob Lafter, 
Henry Babcock, 
John Malcolm, 
Isaac McNamara, 
Anthony Westbrook, 
Ben. Suchmore, 
Jacob Keeper, 
Abraham Rounds, 
George Reynolds, 
Stephen Uptergrove, 
Godfrey Huffman, 
Wm. Myers, 
Peter Philips, 



L. S. D. 

15. 15. 

9. 15. 

9. 15. 

2. 0. Q 

2. 0. 

2. 0. 

2. 0. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 

0. 15. 



Sworn before me at Woodhouse, I do hereby certify that the sum 
the 25th, day of Dec. 1813. of 18. 5. has been actually and 

bona fide received for and paid to 
N. C. O. and Private man Drum 
mers and Fifers of this company as 
above stated. 
(Sgd.) John Carrol, Captain, 

Com. the above company. 



Samuel Street, J. P. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 243 

-. . . _._ , _ - y 

First Regiment Oxford Militia. 

Muster Roll Captain John Carrol s Company, from 25th Oct. to 24th 
Nov., 1812, 31 days inclusive- 

RANK NAMES L. S. D. 

Capt. John Carrol 16. 5. 6 

Lieut. Wm. Botsford 10. 1. 6 

John Williams 10. 1. 6 

Sergts. Peter Martin 2. 1. 4 

Edward Logan 2. 1. 4 

Private Elijah Mudge 15 6 

Gbdfrey Hoffman 15. 6 

Lewis Carrol 15. 6 

James Carrol 15. 6 

Jacob Keefer 15 6 

Anth y Westbrook IS. 6 

Isaac McNames 15. 6 

Jonah Brown 15 6 

Peter Malcolm is! 6 

Peter Philips 15. 6 

William Meyers 15. 6 

Jonathan Graham 15. 6 

Henry Babcock 15. 6 

13. 8. 8 

Total for non-com. Officers, Drummers, Fifers and Privates of 
Capt. John Carrol s Company, 13. 8. 8. 

By order of the Commd g Officer do hereby certify that the sum of 
13. 8. 8 has been actually and bona fide received for and paid to the 
non Com. Officers, Drummers, Fifers and Private men of this com 
pany, as above stated. 

(Signed) JOHN CARROL, Capt. 

Comd g the above Company. 

Sworn before me at Willougby the 10th 
day of January, 1813. 

(Signed) SAMUEL STREET, J. P. 



First Regiment of Oxford Militia. 

Pay Lists and Muster Rolls of Captain Tolm Carrol s Company (Mon 
day) 25th. Oct. to 25th, Nov., 1813, 31 .lays inclusive. 



244 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



RANK 


NAMES 


L. S. D. 


Capt. 
u 


John Carrol 
Wm. Bostford 


16. 5. 6 
10. 1. 6 


Sergt. 

M 


John Williams, 
Peter Martin, 


10. 1. 6 
2. 1. 4 


Privates 


Edward Logan, 


2. 1. 4 


tt 


Elijah Mudge 


0. 15. 6 


u 


Godfrey Huffman 


0. 15. 6 





Lewis Carrol 


0. 15. 6 





Jacob Keefer 


0. 15. 6 


K 


Anthony Westbrooke 


0. 15. 6 


11 


Isaac McNamara 


0. 15. 6 


u 


Jonah Brown 


0. 15. 6 





Peter Malcolm 


0. 15. 6 





Peter Philips . 


0. 15. 6 


<( 


William Myers 


0. 15. 6 


M 
t. 


Jonathan Graham, 
Henry Babcock 


0. 15. 6 
0. 15. 6 



First Oxford Militia. 

i 

Pay Lists and Muster Rolls of Captain Edward Watson s Co., Oct. 22nd 
to Dec. 25th, 1812, 45 days. 



RANK 

Capt. 
Lieut. 

Sergt. 
a 

Private 



NAMES DAYS 

Edward Watson, 

Henry Carrol, 

Thomas Bollard, 

Daniel Hazen, 

Anthony Conkwright, 

Wm. Reynolds, 36 

E. Scott, 

John Youngs, 23 

John Talbot, 

James Fuller, 36 

Jacob Carrol, 

Daniel Harris, 

Calvin Martin, 

Luther Colley, 

Robert Grison, 

Thomas Fowler, 

Samuel Sage, 

Caleb Burdick, 

Jonathan Wright, 

W. M. Canfield, 37 

Jacob Wallick, 30 

Abner De Cou, U 

Charles Eddy, 

Simion Mabee, 23 



L. S. D. 

23. 12. 6 
11. 7. 6 
2. 5. 6 
2. 6. 8 
0. 18. 6 
0. 18. 
0. 12. 
0. 11. 6 
0. 11. 6 
0. 18. 
0. 9. 
0. 11. 6 
0. 9. 
0. 16. 
0. 17. 6 
0. 8. 6 
0. 18. 6 
0. 18. 6 
0. 19. 6 
0. 18. 6 
0. 15. 
0. 5. 6 
0. \ 6 
0. 11. 6 

53. 3. 8 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 245 

Sworn before me at Woodhouse I do hereby certify that the sum 
this 12th, day of Jan, 1813. o f 18. 7. 6. has been actually and 

bona fide received for and paid to 

(sgd.) Thomas Bowlby, J. P. N. C. O., and Private Men, Drum- 

menrs and Fifers of this company 
as above stated. 

(Sgd.) Edward Watson, Captain. 
Com. above Company. 



Muster Roll of a detachment of the 1st Regt. Oxford Militia, Com. by 
Capt. Ed. Watson from 25 Oct. to 2 Nov., 1813, inclusive, 9 days. 

Capt. E. Watson 12s 

Lieut. J. Williams 

Ensign A. Decou 4 g 

Sergt. Peter Martin 4. g 

Edward Logan 4 

Private Garrit Stephens 4. g 

Walter Brown 4 g 

Mathias Woodley 4] g 

Frederic Teeple 4 g 

John Philips 4] g 

Josiah Brown 4 g 

Charles Foashea 4 g 

Neal Brown 4 g 

Peter Malcolm 4 g 

Nathan Burch 4 g 

3. 9. 

Total amount for non commissioned Officers and Privates in Capt. 
Watson s Company, net pay 3. 9. 0. 
Certified 

(Sgd.) EDWARD WATSON, Capt. 
Thomas Talbot, 

Col. Com. Militia, 
London District. 



First Regiment of Oxford Militia, 

Capt. Edmund Watson s Company, Oct. 22th to Dec. 5th, 1813, 45 days 
inclusive. 



246 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 





RANK NAMES 


PERIOD 


No. of Days Amoun^ 


Capt. Edward Watson 
Lieut Henry Carroll 
Sergt. Thomas Dowland 
" Daniel Hazel O 
Private Anthony Cartwight O 
Wm. Reynolds 
" E. Scott 
John Youngs 


ct. 
c*. 
ct. 
ct. 

ct. 
i 


22 to 
22 " 
22 " 
24 " 

22 to 

(4 

ti 


Dec. 

Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 


25 

25 
24 
22 
27 
26 
24 
13 


45 
45 
34 
35 
37 
36 
24 
23 


23. 
11. 
2. 
2. 

0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 


12. 

7. 
5. 
6. 
18. 
18. 
12. 
11. 


6. 
6. 
4. 
8. 
6. 
0. 
0. 
6. 


John Talbot 





ii 




" 


23 


0. 


11. 


6. 


" James Fuller 


< 


it 




26 


36 


0. 


18. 


0. 


" I. Thornton 


t 


24 " 




13 


23 


0. 


11. 


6. 


" Jacob Carrol 


i 


22 " 




8 


18 


o. 


9. 


0. 


Dan l Harris 


< 


i 


< 


13 


23 


0. 


11. 


6. 


" Calvin Martin 


* 


it 


<t 


8 


18 


0. 


9. 


6. 


" Luther Colley 


1 


24 * 


< i 


24 


32 


0. 


16. 


0. 


" Robert Grisen 





" 


ii 


27 


35 


0. 


18. 


6, 


" Thomas Fowler 


1 


(t u 


ii 


9 


17 


0. 


8. 


6. 


Sam l Sage 


l 


22 " 


1 1 


27 


37 


0. 


18. 


6. 


" Caleb Burdick 


| 


" " 


" 


" 


37 


0. 


18. 


6. 


Jonah Wright " 


i< 


" 


" 


39 


0. 


19. 


6. 


" Wm Canfield 





<i 


27 


37 


0. 


18. 


6. 


Jacob Wallick Nov. 


6 " 


Dec. 


5 


30 


0. 


15. 


0. 


Abner De Cou 


20 " 


Nov 


30 


11 


0. 


5. 


6. 


Chs. Eady 


24 " 


> i 


30 


7 


0. 


3. 


6. 


" Simon Mabee Oct. 


22 " 


< i 


18 


28 


0. 


14. 


0. 


Total for N. C. O. and Privates . 










18. 


7. 


6. 



I do hereby certify that the sum of 18. 17. 6 has been actually 
and bona fide received for and paid to the Non Commissioned Officers 
and Private men of the Co. as above stated. 



Sworn before at Willoughby the 
12th day of Jan., 1814. 



(Sgd.) EDWARD WATSON, 
Commanding above Co. 



(Sgd.) THOS. BOWLBY, J. P. 



Muster Roll of Volunteers, from the 1st Regt. Oxford Militia, Com 
manded by Lieut. William Teeple, on the Expedition taking and 
conveying prisoners from Oxford to Burlington, by order of Ma 
jor S. Tousley, Commd g at Oxford, from 17 to the 23 December, 
1814, inclusive. 



RANK 

Lieut. 
Sergt. 
Private 



NAMES 

William Teeple 
Arch d Burch 
Alanson Tousley 
Leonard Cain 
Nathan Griffin 
Warner Daggat 
David Graham 



RATE 

1. 4 
6d 



AMOUNTS 

9. 4 

3. 6 

3. 6 

3. 6 

3. 6 

3. 6 

3. 6 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



247 



Edward Teeple 
Isaac McNamec 
James Harris 
Adam Dodge 
Daniel Carrol 
John Morrison 



3. 6 

3. 6 

3. 6 

3. 6 

3. 6 

3. 6 

5. 7. 10 



I hereby certify on honour, that all for whom Pay is charged herein, 
were on duty as above stated. 

I acknowledge to have received the sum of Five Pounds seven shil 
lings and ten Pence for the non, Com. Officers and Privates of my 
Company, as above stated. 

(Sgd.) WILLIAM TEEPLE, Lieut. 



Muster Roll of Capt. Curtis Company, from 25 Oct. to 24th Nov., 1813, 
31 days inclusive. 



Capt. 
Lieut. 

Sergt. 
n 

Private 



M 



I) 
H 
U 

n 

it 



M 



David Curtis 
Isaac Burdick 
Willard Sage_ 
Elisha Harrris 
Alanson Tousley 
Benj. T. Lomis 
Ashel Lewis 
Dan l Lick 
Calvin Martin 
John Young 
Peter McNames 
Isaac McNames 
George Carne 
Leonard Carne 
Elzear Scott 
Mun Moe 
Comfort Sage 
Adam Dodge 
Ww. Ranold 
Garrit Stevens 
Edward Teeple 
George Nicholas 
Wm. Scott 
Calf. Roderick 
Sam l Sage 
Ethan Fuller 



16. 5. 6 

10. 1. 6 

2. 1. 4 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 

0. 15. 6 



26. 7. 



12. 1. 



(Sgd.) DAVID CURTIS, Capt. 



Commanding above Company. 



248 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Muster Roll of Captain D. Curtis Company, from 8th Jan. to 24th Jan., 
1814 inclusive. 



Capt. 
Lieut. 


D. Curtis 17 days 
W. Teeple 
James Hairris 


10. 6. 
6. 6. 


8. 18. 4. 
5. 18. 4. 
5. 10. 4. 


Sergt. 


W. Brown 





1. 4. 


1. 


2. 8. 





H. Sayles 





" 


1. 


2.8. 


Private 


W. Reynolds 


" 


6d. 


0. 


Q iC! 

a. D. 


" 


E. Teeple 








0. 


8. 6. 


" 


W. Scott 


it 


* 


0. 


8. 6. 





H. Owens 


<i 


" 


0. 


8. 6. 


" 


S. Mabee 


i. 


ii 


0. 


8. 6. 


II 


Mun Moe 


ii 





0. 


8. 6. 


1 


G. Nichols 


It 





0. 


8 6. 


II 


Caleb Burdick 


1 


" 


0. 


8. 6. 


" 


Warner Degret 


14 


ii 


0. 


8.6. 


* 


A. Tousley 


(1 


I 


0. 


8. 6. 


II 


T. Dowling 


II 


11 


o. 


8. 6. 


l| 


Comfort Sage 


< 


H 


0. 


8. 6. 


K 


E. Scott 


K 


it 


0. 


8.6. 


II 


D. Harris 


II 


ii 


0, 


8. 6. 





B. Loomis 


II 


K 


0. 


8.6. 



I certify on honour that all for whom pay is charged herein,, were 
on duty as above stated. 

I acknowledge to have received the sum, of Eight pounds, twelve 
shillings and ten pence for the non com- officers and privates, as above 
stated. 

(Sgd.) DAVID CURTIS, Capt. 



1st Regiment Oxford .Militia. 

Lieut. B. B. Bringham s Rifle Company, 24 Oct to 24 Nov., 1812. 
RANK NAMES DAYS L S. D. 



Lieut. 
Sergt. 



Private 



B. B. Brigham 
Joseph House 
Senneca Allen 
Wm. Teeple 
James Tashlpid 
William Paritland 
Gideon Botswick 
Edward Teeple 
James Allan 
John Thompson 
John W. Clark 
Peter Vanater 
James Secord 
David L. Miller 
Abram Cartwright 
Samuel Mather 



32 
30 
32 
30 
32 
32 
32 
30 
30 
30 
28 
28 
28 
28 
29 
27 



10.8. 

2. 0. 

2. 2. 8 

2. 0. 

0. 16. 

0. 16. 

0. 16. 

0. 15. 

0. IS. 

0. 15. 

0. 14. 

0. 14. 

0. 14. 

0. 14. 

0. 14. 6 

0. 13. 6 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



249 



I certify that the sum of 12. 5. 8 has been actually and bona fide 
received for and paid to the Non. ; Com. Officers, Drummers, Fifers & 
Private men of this Company, as above stated. 

(Signed) B. B. BRIGHAM, 

Commanding the above Co. 

Sworn before me at Burford the 
22nd day of April, 1814. 

(Signed) Wm. D. BOWEN, J. P. 



Statement of pay of the Commissioned and Warrant officers of the 
Oxford Militia, from 25th Nov. to Dec. 24th, 1812- 



Capt. 
Lieut. 



Sergt. 



Private 



B. B. Brigham 
John Williams 
Abner Owen 
William Bostford 



25 Nov. to 24 Dec. 
25 " " 19 " 
25 " "24 " 
25 " " J9 " 



13. 17. 3. 

7. 1.0 

8. 9. 3. 
7. 1. 0. 

36. 8. ,7. 



NON. COM. OFFICERS AND PRIVATES. 



James Allan 
Joseph House 
William Teeple 



Asa Lane 
James Ward 
Peter Hiblin 
Wm. Johnson 
Wm. Gillis 
Freeman Johnson 
James Tashloid 
Wm. Cramble 
Tnos Fowler 
John Fowler 
Gideon Bostwick 
James Allan 
James Secord 
David L. Miller 
Obid Muster 



25 Nov. to 24 Dec. 



25 Nov. to 20 Dec. 
" 24 



11 
16 
24 
16 
16 

4 

8 

6 

8 
11 



30 days 


2. 0. 0. 


HO days 


2. 0. 0. 


30 days 


2. 0. 0. 




, 6. 0. 0. 


26 days 


0. 13. 0. Died 


30 davs 


0. 15. 0. In hospital 


30 days 


0. 15. 0. 


30 days 


0. 15. 0. 


30 days 


0. 15. o. In hospital 


17 days 


8. 6.) 




22 days 


11. 0. 




30 days 


15. 0. 




22 days 


11. 0. 




22 days 


11. 0. 


On 


10 days 
14 days 


5. 0. 

7. 0. 


Furlong 


12 days 


6. 0. 




14 days 


7. 0. 




17 days 


8. 6J 




/ 9. 13. 0. 



(Signed) B. BREWSTER BRIGHAM, Capt. 



250 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

First Regiment of Oxford and Middlesex Militia. 

Captain Bla Brewster Brighams Rifle Company s 25th Nov. to 25th D<. 
1814, 30 days inclusive. 

RANK NAMES L. s - D - 

Capt. B. B. Brigham, 15. 15. 

Lieut. Abner Owens, 

Sergt. Seneca Allan 2. 0. I 
Joseph House, 
Wm. Teeple, 

Private Asa Lane, 0. 15. C 

James Ward, 0. 15. C 

Peter Hibler, 0. 15. C 
Wm. Johnson, 

Wm. Gillis, 0. 15. C 
Trueman Johnson, 

James Tashloid, 0. 15. C 

Wm. Crandle, 0. 15. C 

Thomas Fowler, 0. 15. C 

Joseph Fowler, 0. 15. C 

Gideon Bostwick 0. 15. t 

James Allen, 0. 15. C 

James Secord, 0. 15. C 

David L. Miller, 0. 15. 

Obed Murten, 0. 15. 

42. 15. 



As will be observed, Capt. Carrol s Company contained a good 
number of Burford men^ the Malcolm family being particularly well 
represented. We have found also Militia men from Burford Town 
ship served in all the Companies and detachments of the 1st Oxford 
Regiment ; which were on active service during the War. It was at 
this period that Lieut. Joseph Baker s name disappeared from the ser 
vice Rolls of the Regiment. According to the records, this Officer de 
serted and joined the enemy. He appears to have drawn his month s 
pay, amounting to 9. 15. on Christmas Day, 1813, and then cleared 
out to celebrate his New Year among his new friends, whose emmissa- 
ries were active all through the Western part of this Province in endea 
vouring to seduce, corrupt and mislead loyal Canadians from their alle 
giance to the British Flag. 

From the 25th Oct. to the 25th Nov., 1813, only a part of Capt 
Carrol s Company were in the field. 



Lieut. Brigham s Rifle Company. 

Among those Militia Officers who greatly distinguished themselves 
during the War, was Bla Brewster Brigham who commenced active as 



THE HISTORY OF BURFQRD 251 

Lieut., under Capt. John Carrol. Being an expert Rifle shot he con 
ceived the idea of organizing an independent Company of sharp shoo 
ters, the same to form another unit of the 1st Oxford and a part of 
Col. Bostwick s command. Lieut. Brigham was present at the taking 
of Detroit, in Aug., 1812, received medal and clasp, also Prince Regent s 
Land Grant, for services during the War, was mentioned several times 
in dispatches, promoted Capt. 5th Nov., 1812, Lieut-Col, commanding 
1st Reg. Oxford Militia on 19th Nov., 1834, Magistrate 1833 and Col. 
on 8th Feb., 1838. 

When first organized, the Company of Riflemen was composed of 
the following members : 

Lieut. B. B. Brigham Private Jas. Tashloid Private Wm. Partiland 
Sergt. Seneca Allen " Gideon Bostwick Edward Teeple 

" Joseph House " James Allen John Thompson 

" William Treeple " John W. Clarke Peter Vanater 

Private James Secord " David L. Miller Abram Courtwright 

" Samuel Marthar 

% 
After Lieut- Brigham s promotion to a Captaincy, his Company 

was strengthened by the addition of a Lieutenant in the person of Ab- 
ner Owens and the following new members : 

Asa Lane Peter Hibber William Johnson 

William Gillis Trueman Johnson James Tashloid 

Wm. Crandle Thomas Fowler Joseph Fowler 
Obid Murten 



During the Winter of the year 1814, Captain Brigham was living 
quietly at his home in Delaware, taking a much needed rest, after an 
arduous and toilsome campaign. Active operations in the field had only 
terminated with the close of the year 1813 and a short season of rest, 
to recuperate their almost exhausted energies was most welcome. It 
was not thought probable that in the dead of Winter, the enemy would 
leave their comfortable quarters in Detroit, to molest the peaceable in 
habitants and no special precautions were taken to prevent a surprise. 
When therefore a considerable body of armed men appeared suddenly, 
in the Village of Delaware, and Capt. Brigham found his house sur 
rounded by American marauders, he was obliged to submit to capture 
at their hands. He was trussed up with cords and subjected to great 
indignities at the hands of his captors, who carried him off to Detroit 
as a valuable prize. 

When Lieut. General Drummond learned of the shameful and in 
human manner in which Capt. Brigham had been treated, he directed 
that Major General Riall send a flag of truce to the Officer commanding 



252 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

the United States forces at Detroit, to request that Capt. Brigham be 
relased and returned to his home, on the grounds that his capture and 
detention was contrary to all the customs and usages of War among ci 
vilized nations, and a plain intimation was given, that if such conduct 
on the part of the U. S. forces was persisted in, the most full and ample 
retaliation must unavoidably be the result, on the Detroit as well as 
every other point where an opportunity might offer. 

Major General Riall was further directed, to permit Capt. Rowe 
of the United States militia to return to his home, he having been cap 
tured some time previously by the Canadian forces, but not being in 
service at the time of his apprehension, his case was precisely the same 
as Capt. Brigham s and the Lieut. General had decided, in any case, to 
order his release. 

On receipt of these instructions, the Major General directed Lt-Col 
Alexander Stewart, Royal Scots, to select an officer to carry out the 
above orders. Lieut Jackson, Royal Scots, was selected for the ser 
vice. He at once proceeded to Detroit and delivered his papers to Lieut 
Col. H. Butler, the Officer commanding the United States forces in 
the Michigan territory. 

In his reply, directed to Major General Riall, Lt-Col. Butler at 
tempts to justify the capture and detention of his prisoner and refuses 
to set him at liberty, unless one Bladget, then a prisoner at York, be 
released and exchanged for Capt. Brigham. 

Some time after this, Capt. Brigham s release was effected and du 
ring the Summer and Fall of 1814, he was again on active service. 



Militia Officers Pay, 18J2-J4. 

Statement of the Pay of the Commissioned and Warrant Officers of 
the 1st Regiment of Oxford Militia, from 21 st July to 24th Sept., 
1812, inclusive. 

RANK NAMES Amounts Signatures 

L. S. D. 



U-Col. Henry Botswick 49. 2. 

Major Sykes Tousley 20. 19. 6 

Capt. Marvel White 16. 3. 

John Carrol 16. 5. 5y 2 

Lieut. Bla B. Brigham 16. 16. 9 

Wm. Botsford 

John Williams 9. 9. 9*/ 2 

Adjutant John Eakins 24. 11. 12 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 253 



All have signed Pay Sheets exepect Wm. Botsford. 

Statement of the Commissioned and Warrant Officers of One Company 
of the Oxford Militia from the 25th Sept- to the 24th Oct., 1812. 
30 days inclusive. 

RANK NAMES AMOUNT 

L. S. D. 

Capt. John Carrol 13. 17. 3 

Lieut. Joseph Baker 8. 9. 3 

William Botsford 8. 9. 3 

John Williams 8. 9. 3 



29. 5. 

Statement of the Commissioned and Warrant Officers of one Company 
of the Oxford Militia from the 25th day of Oct. to 24th Nov., 1812, 
31 days inclusive. 

RANK NAMES AMOUNT 

L. S. D. 

Capt. John Carrol 14. 6 6 

Lieut. Wm. Botsford 8. 14. 

John Williams 8. 14. 

" B. Brigham Brewester 9. 0. 



40. 16. 10 



Statement of the Pay of the Commissioned and Wrrant Officers of the 
1st Regiment of Oxford Militia, from 25th September to 24th Dec 
ember, 1812, inclusive. 

RANK NAMES AMOUNTS 

L. S. D. 



Lt-Col. Henry Botswick 67. 14. 

Capt. Edward Watson 20. 15. 

Lieut. Henry Carroll 9. 17. 5 l / 2 

Adjt. John Eakins 8. 18. 7 l / 3 

Statement of the Pay of the Commissioned and Warrant Officers of 
the 1st Regiment of Oxford Militia, from 25th October to 24th No 
vember, 1813, inclusive. 



254 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



RANK 


NAMES 


DAYS 


AMOUNT 








L. S. D. 


Lt-Col. 


Henry Botswick 


31 


23. 1. 4^ 


Capt. 


Do.vM Curtis 


31 


14. 6. S3/ 4 


* 


Edward Watson 


9 


4. 3. 2 


Lieut. 


John Williams 


9 


2. 11. ny 2 





Enoch Burdick 


31 


8. 16. 11^ 


Ensign 


Abner De Cou 


9 


2. 2. 2y 2 



55. 1. 



Certified Correct 



THOMAS TALBOT, J. P. 



Account of Money due to Officers of the London District Militia bet 
ween the 28th June, 1812 and the 24th December, 1814. 



Regiment RANK & NAMES 

1st Oxford. Capt. Ichabod Hall 
John Malcolm 

Bla B. Brigham 



COM. 

25th June, 1814. 

25th Oct., 1814. 

25th April, 1814. 

25th Oct., 1812. 

2Sth May, 1814. 



ENDING 

24th July, 1814. 
24th Nov., 1814. 
24th Nov., 1814. 
llth Jan., 1813. 
24th July, 1814. 



Muster Roll of three men of Capt. Carrol s Company of the Oxford 
Militia, from the 25th Sept. to the 24 Dec., 1812. doing duty on 
Board Gun Sloop for that period and discontinued on the Muster Roll 
of the Company. 



RANK 




NAME 


PERIOD 

FROM TO 


No. of 
Days 


Rate 


Amount 
, s - D - 


Sergt. 

Private 
(i 


Neil Marks 
John Graham 
Nat l Burch 


Sept. 

tl 

(i 


25 


Dec. 

it 

ti 


24 


91 
91 
91 


% 
6d 
6d 


6. 
2. 
2. 


1. 

6. 
6. 


4. 
6. 
6. 



;10. 19. 0. 



We the subscribers, Commissioned officers belonging; to the First Bat 
talion of the Oxford Militia, assembled at Long Point, do acknow 
ledge to have received the respective sums against our names ex 
pressed, being our net pay, between the 25 Oct. to the 24N ov-, 1813, 
incluisive. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



255 





RANK 


NAME 


PERIOD 

FROM TO 


No. of 
Days 


Amount 

8. D. 


Lt. Col. 

Capt. 

* t 

Lieut. 
Ensign 


H. Bostwick 
D. Curtis 
E. Watson 
J. Williams 
Isaac Burdick 
Abner Decou 


25 Oct. 24 Nov. 

4 1 . > 

" 2 Nov. 
it (< 

24 " 

<( O 


31 
31 
9 
9 
31 
9 
Total 


23. 
14. 

4. 
2. 

s! 

2. 


i j. iz 

A ~ /^2 

6. 2X 
3. 5 
11. 4^ 
16. 11^ 

2Q IZ 
^- /3 


/66. 


1. 6% 



Certified, 

(Signed) THOMAS TALBOT, 
Col. Com. Militia. 
London District. 



Militia General order. 

HEADQUARTERS, YORK. 



7 April, 1813. 



His Honor the Major General commanding, deeming it proper there 
should be a Militia force assembled for the protection of the Lake Erie 
frontier, One field officer, 2 captains, 3 subalterns, 4 sergeants and 80 
rank and file will be stationed at Turkey Point ; One captain 2 subal 
terns, 3 sergeants and 50 rank and file at Dover Mills ; and 1 subaltern, 
1 sergeant, 20 rank and file at Port Talbot. 

The under mentioned regiments will furnish this force in the fol 
lowing proportions, which will be relieved monthly. 

The 1st and 2nd Regiments of Norfolk Militia, each 

1 Captain, 2 subalterns, 2 sergeants, 50 rank and file 100 



1st REGIMENT OF OXFORD MILITIA. 



1 Captain, 1 subaltern, 2 sergeants, 30 rank and file.. 

1st REGIMENT OF MIDDLESEX. 

1 subaltern, 2 sergeants, 20 rank and file 



,30 



.20 



150 



256 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



His honor approves of Major Bo wen, 1st Regiment of Norfolk, for 
this service. 

By Order, 

(Signed) Aneas Shaw, 

Adjt- General, Militia. 



Estimate of Subsistence required by a division of Militia of the District 
of London, Assembled at Long Point, from the 25th Oct. to the 
24 th Nov., 1813, inclusive. 



Thomas Talbot 
Henry Bostwick 



1 Colonel 

1 Lieut. Col. 

2 Majors 
10 Captains 
12 Lieuts. 

1 Paymaster 
6 Ensigns 
16 Sergeants 
250 Privates 

1 Quartermaster 
1 Sergt. Major 



Deduct Income tax 20. 5. 9. 

The amount of the regulated stoppages 
for provisions to be received from of 
ficers, per statement annexed 6. 7. 9. 

Amount to be deducted 

Army Sterling 



DAYS 


KATE 






31 


17s 


26. 


7. 0. 


31 


17s 


16. 


7. 0. 


62 


16s 


49. 


12. 0. 


152 


10. 6. 


79. 


16. 9. 


133 


6. 6d. 


43. 


4. 6. 


31 


10 


15. 


10. 0. 


45 


5. 3. 


11. 


16. 3. 


203 


i. 4. 


13. 


10. 8. 


3,000[ 


6. 


75. 


0. 0. 


9 


6. 6. 


2. 


18. 6. 


9 


2. 


0. 


18. 0. 



344. 19. 11. 



26. 13- 6 



i 318. 6. 5 



I hereby certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the above 
estimate is correct in every particular. 



Long Point, 

15th Nov., 1813, 



(Signd) JOHN ROLPH, 

Acting Paymaster. 



We the Subscribers, commissioned Officers, belonging to the first Batta 
lion of the Oxford Militia, assembled at Long Point, do acknowledge 
to have received the respective sums against our names expressed, 
being our Net Pay, betwen the 25th September and 24th October, 
1813, inclusive. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



257 



p * 



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258 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



RANK NAMES PAY 

L. S. D. 

Lt-Col. H. Botswick 22. 6. 6 

Capt. E. Watson 13. 17. 2 

Lieut. J. Williams 8. 11. 3 

Ensign Abner Decou 7. 0. 



51. 15. 
Certified, 

(Signed) THOMAS TALBOT, 

Col. Com. Militia. London Dist. 



Sustenance Militia London District. 

Estimate of sums required for the Norfolk, Oxford and Middlesex 
Militia, and Kent Volunteers, from May 25th to June 24th, 1812. 

Amount of net pay 773. 16. \V 4 

1209 Rations at 2.- 12. 11. 10 

13,175 Rations at 0. 6 7. 6 

Income Tax 22. 



.1. 156. 16. 6. 



Estimate of sums required for the Norfolk, Oxford, Middlesex Mili 
tia, and Kent Volunteers, from June 25th to July 24th, 1812 inclusive. 

Amount of net pay 773. 16. 1J4 

1209 Rations at 2.- 12. 11. lO 1 /^ 

13,175 Rations at 0. 6 329. 7. 6 

Income Tax 22. - 10/ 2 



Transport Certificate. 

I certify that the bearer hereof, Isaac Burdick, has been employed 
with two yoke of Oxen and cart, conveying Prisoners and stores, with 
a detachment of Trops on their march to Amherstburg, for the space 
of five days. 

Delaware, Feb. 20th, 1813. 

(Sgd.) THOMAS WHITAN, 
7. 10. 

Cap. Nwf. Reg. Com. 
Oxford, August 27th, 1812. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 259 



Received of Wm. McCartney, for the use of the Indians in His 
Majesty s Service, provisions to the amount of Four Pounds, Seventeen 
Shillings N. Y. Currency, also whiskey for Four Shillings more. 

5. 1. (Sgd.) JOHN NORTON, 

On Service. 



Perth, December 1st, 1813. 

Received from Mr. Finlay Malcolm, 10 gallons of Whiskey for the. 
Detachment of Troops on their march to Dover- 

(Sgd.) ALEX. STEWART, 

Capt. Royal Scots. 



List of Names of Disabled Persons Admitted as Militia 

Pensioneers. 



NAMES 


RANK 


T> T^ f~^ T \ s T^ xym A.(jTI.OrC IN \* IIK^Ii 

REGIMENT 




Samuel Allen 


Teamster 


Oxford Slabbed by a mili 








tia man 


Sept. 17, 1812 


Arthur Sells 


Private 


" Facture of his arm 


Oct. 11, 1814 


f Elizabeth Johnson 
\ Trueman Johnson 


Sergt. 


Disease 


Dee. 10, 1812 


f Ruth Marks 
\ Cornelius Marks 


c 





Jan. 1, 1813 


J Mary Taylor 
\ Peter Taylor 


Private 





March 27, 1813 



John Malcolm s Flour Mill. 

Admitted by the Board 
of claims 6. 17. 6. G. G. C. 

I certify that Mr. John Malcolm of Burford Gore, provided 11 Bus 
hels of Wheat, which was floured at his Mill on the 5th and 6th. Novem 
ber last, for the use of the Militia assembled at that olace, at my parti- 



260 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

cular request, there being no Comt- stores there at the time ; which flour 
was taken and destroyed by the enemy, at the time they burned his Mill 
on the 7th November, 1814. 

(Signed) H. BOTSW1CK, U- Col. 

Com. Oxford Militia. 
Burford, 

26 March, 1815. 
6. 17. 6. 



1812. 



Government to 

Henry Botswick ( Di 



Admitted by the Board 
of Claims. 5. 0. 0. 



To 2 tons of hay furnished to Provincial Light Dragoons, in August 
1812, 5. 0. 0. Halifax Currency. 

(Signed) H. BOSTWICK- 



Admitted by the Board 
of Claims 1. 10^. C. G. C. 

4 

This may certify that Capt. Marvel White has furnished provisions 
and liquors to a party of Indians, under command of Captain Jack, on 
their way to Niagara, to amount of 10. 19. New York Currency. 

(Signed) H. Bostwick, 

Burford, Lt. Col. Commanding. Oxford Militia. 

31st. August 1812- 
1. 1. 



Endorsed on behalf of last certificate, received on the within re- 
teipt 9. 4. New York Currency. 

(Signed) M. WHITE. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 261 



Notice. 

President s Office, Upper Canada. 
Kingston, 24th March, 1814. 

His Honor the President has been pleased to appoint by commissions, 
bearing date this day, hte under mentioned gentlemen to be Commissio 
ner for carrying into effect the provisions of an act passed in the late 
sessions of the Legislature of this Province, entitled. "An act to em 
power His Majesty for a limited time to secure and detain such per 
sons as His Majesty shall suspect of a treasonable adherance to the ene 
my," in the several districts of this Province respectively, the Western 
District excepted, that is to say : 

For the District of London 
Thomas Talbot, 
Thomas Rolph, 
Robert Nichol, 
John Backhouse, 
Malhon Burwell, 
George C. Salmon and 
Thomas Bowlby } Esquires. 



Proclamation. 

By Lieutenant General Gordon Drummond, commanding His Ma 
jesty s forces in the Province of Upper Canada ,etc., etc., etc. 

A Proclamation. 

Whereas it is found necessary for the public safety that the most 
efficacious means should be used for supplying His Majesty s troops 
stationed in the Province with provisions and forage, which, though 
abounding in the Province, are withheld from the Commissariat and 
their agents, notwithstanding the most liberal prices have been offered 
for the same, I do therefore hereby declare that so far as relates to the 
procuring of provisions and forage for the said troops martial law shall 
be t n force therein and ordered to be acted upon accordingly. 

Given under my hand and seal at Kingston this twelfth day of 
April, one thousand eight hundred and fourteen- 

(Signed) GORDON DRUMMOND, Lt. General 



262 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Brant County Militia Pensioneers War 1812. 



POST OFFICE 
Brantford 

Burford 

Cains ville 



Harley 
Harrrisburg 
Langford 

u 

Mohawk 



Mount Vernon 
Oakland 



Paris 


Scotland 

M 



St. George 

Tuscarora 

>< 

if 

K 
M 
If 
M 



NAMES 

Peter Buck 
Ephraim Lowrey 
Charles Strange Perley 
Robert Carson 
Malchie Files 
Henry Lester 
Charles Vanevery 
John Oles 
Ben. Strowbridge 
Robert McAllister 
Asa Secord 
John M. Sturgis 
Stephen Landon 
John Beacham 
John Chambers 
John Pebrie 
James Cassada 
Ebenezer Wilson 
Dan. A. Freeland 
Charles Petit 
Philip Beemer 
Joshua Bonham 
Joseph Fraser 
James Givens 
Henry Silversmith 
John Tutlee 
Jacob Winey 
John S. Johnson 
Wm. Johnson 



MONTHLY 

$20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 



Oxford Militia Pensioneers War 18 \ 2. 



Beachvine 
Burgessville 
Drumbo 
Ingersoll 



Norwich 
Otterville 

ti 

tt 

Oxford Station 
(i 

Princeton 

Tillsonburg 

Woodstock 



Ira Fuller 
Richard Moote 
Finlay Cameron. 
Abraham Markle 
Weston Allen 
Brunton P. Brown 
Levi Burch 
Caleb Hopkins 
David Rice 
Comfort Sage 
Robert Collard 
J. Gill Woodrow 
Aaron Horning 
Thomas Piper 
Richard Taylor 
Edmund Woodrow 
Daniel Smith 
James Lounsberry 
Abraham Van Norman 
Sam. T. Clement 
John B. Tree 



20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 

20.00 



CHAPTER IV 



After the War. Confiscations of Lands, War Claims. 



On July 17th, 1815 ; a General Order was issued from the office of 
the Military Secretary, Kingston, notifying those concerned, that to each 
officer 200 acres, and to each soldier 100 acres of land would be awar 
ded, and that provisions for themselves and their families for one year, 
and implements and tools to those who had lost, or would require them 
on new land, would be furnished. 

The country between the Detroit and Niagara Rivers had been 
swept clean of supplies, time and again marauding parties from the 
United States, had made sudden raids into and through the country, 
burning and destroying what they could not carry away. Before the 
raid of the Kentuckians under McArthur a return of the resources of 



O x ford County, carefully compiled by the commissariat, gave the follo 
wing figures : 

Flour 407 cwt ; Wheat 2,798 Bushels ; Rye 983 ; Oats 1,861 ; Corn 
831 ; Peas 129. Cattle to fat 8 ; Oxen 278 ; Cowns 648 ; Young cat 
tle 623 ; Sheep 1,395 ; Hogs 1,050. Tons Hay 232 ; Horses 242. Wag 
gons 41 ; Sleigh 63. Acres of Wheat sown 872 ; Acres of Rye 132. 

After the War the Western part of the Province was in an exhaus 
ted condition, population had decreased, immigration had been checked, 
many had removed to the United States, large parts of the cleared lands 
were untilled. Grain and provisions were scarce, robbery and wanton 
destruction by bands of American raiders and the necessities of the Bri 
tish troops, had caused a great scarcity of stock and all products of the 
soil. Money which had circulated freely during the conflict, suddenly 
disappeared- Many of the settlers found they were deep in debt, out 
of which they were unable to extricate themselves and as a result, many 
lots in Burford and other townships changed hands. Abandoned and 
confiscated lands, in many cases, were regranted to Veterans of the 
war, who were able to establish their claims to the Prince Regents h: 
grant. 



264 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



The Confiscation of Lands. 

By an Act passed in March 14th, 1814, during the Third Session of 
the Sixth Provincial Parliament, which met at York on 15th. Feb. it 
was declared that persons, inhabitants of the United States, claiming 1 to 
be subjects of his Majesty, and renewing their allegiance as such by 
oath ,did solicit and receive grants of land from His Majesty, or became 
seized of lands by inheritance or otherwise within the Province, which 
persons since the declaration of war have voluntary withdrawn them 
selves from the said allegiance, and the defence of the said Province, 
since the first day of July 1812, or who may hereafter, during the pre 
sent war, voluntary withdraw themselves, from the Province into the 
said U. S. without license granted, under authority of the Governor, 
Lieutenant Governor or person administering the Government of this 
Province, shall be taken and considered to be aliens born, and incapable 
of holding lands within the Province. 

It was further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the Execu 
tive should have power to authorize any Sheriff, Coroner, or other per 
son in any District, to summon twelve good and lawful men as Jurors, 
to form a court of inquisition, to investigate upon the different cases, 
and report their finding to the proper authority, and after finding by 
such inquisition, His Majesty became seized of the lands so found to 
have been in the possession of such persons on the said first day of July. 
From such lands so confiscated, many of the Officers and soldiers who 
had served in the Canadian Militia were rewarded for their patriotic 
services. 

James Mitchell and George C- Salmon, were appointed commissio 
ners for the London District, to inquire into forfeited estates. Among 
those having landed property in Upper Canada, who did voluntarily 
withdraw from the province, without leave during the jate war where 
Jacob DeLong, Benj. DeLong, Silas Dean, Samuel Doyle, James James, 
Benajah Mallory, Josiah Dean, Ebenezer Decou. 

War Claims 1812-14. 

After the War, claims for losses sustained in various ways and for 
material and provisions of all descriptions furnished, were presented to 
the Commissioners appointed by the Government to deal with such mat 
ters. After many delays and disappointments, during which more than 
one of the claimants had died in straightened circumstances, and the 
fulfilment of sundry legal and other requirements, notice was given in 
the Official Gazette, that the Commissioners had awarded those whose 
names appeared, 25 % of their claims, the same to be paid forthwith. The 



___ THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 265 

Burford School, the only public building in the village, hud been used 
as a guard room and occasionally as officers headquarters, and what fuel 
there was on hand from time to time, had been consumed /or the bene 
fit of the State. 

On June 3rd, 1824, the Receiver General notified all claimants, 
that on the 24th instant, he would commence to pay claims, as awarded 
by the Commissioners, under the Provincial Statutes of George 4th. 
Every individual was required to produce an affidavit, sworn to before 
a Justice of the Peace, in proof of the legality of his claim. 

List of claimants residing in Burford Township and other clai 
mants connected with this history : 

NAMES AMOUNT AWARDED 25% 

L. S. D. I. S. D. 

Adam Yeigh 30. 0. 7. 10. 

John Yeigh 27. 15. 6. 18. 9 

Benjamin Wintermute 529. 1. 6 132. 5. 9 

Peter Wintermute 189. 7. 6 47. 6. 2 

John Winegarden 20. 0. 5. 0. 

George W. Whitehead 120. 0. 30. 0. 

Freeman Burdick 127. 6. 9 34. 16. 8 

Isaac Burdick 30. 15. 17. 13. 9 

Burford School 25. 0. 6. 5. 

Archibald Burch 165. 17. 41. 9. 5 

Malhon Burwell 656. 17. 176. 2. 6 

Capt. John Carrol 116. 3. 9 29 0. 11 

Colonel William Claus 1997. 5. 499. 6. 3 

William Bowen 29. 5. 7. 6. 3 

Henry Bowen 35. 4. 6 8. 16. 1 

John Fowler 44. 6. 6 11. 0. 1 

Robert Hamilton 694. 8. 173. 12. 

Henry Lester 23. 18. 9 5. 19. 8 

Finlay Malcolm 1450. 0. 362. 10. 

John Malcolm 155. 0. 38. 15. 

John Malcolm & Finlay Malcolm Jr. 328. 4. 8 90. 1. 2 

Henry Near 14. 10. 3. 12. 6 

Henry Bostwick 225. 0. 56. 5. 

Militia General Orders. 



Adjutant-General s Office, Work. 
April 21st, 1821. 

The Lieutenant Governor has great satisfaction in announcing to 
the Officers, non-commissioned officers and privates of the late incor 
porated battalion of militia, and to the militia of the province in gene 
ral, that he has received the following dispatch from his Majesty s Se 
cretary of State for the Colonies : 



266 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

DOWNING STREET, Jan. 1st, 1821. 
Sir, 

In reply to your letter to me of the 16th September last, I have the 
honour to acquaint you, that the necessary directions have been given 
for providing colours, intended to be presented to the incorporated mi 
litia of Upper Canada, having the word "NIAGARA" inscribed on them. 

I have the honour to be etc, etc. etc. 

> 

(Signed) BATHURST. 
By command of His Excellency 
the Lieutenant Governor. 

(Signed) N. COFFIN, Colonel, 

Adjt. General, Militia, Upper Canada. 



CHAPTER V 

The further history of the First Oxford- Officers of the First Re 
giment Oxford Militia 1817. The reorganization in 1822. Thomas 
Horner appointed Colonel. The Middlesex and Gore Militia. List of 
Officers 1829-36. The Five Regiments formed in 1838, their Officers. 
Re-organization in 1846. The Burford and Oakland Battalion. 

Officers of the First Regiment Oxford Militia, 1817. 



RANK 

Lt-Col. 

Major 
Captain 



Lieutenant 



Ensign 



Quartermaster 
Adjutant 



NAMES 

W. D. Bowen 

Sykes Tousley 

Marvel White 

Bla Brewster Brigham 

David Curtis 

John Malcolm 

AMES 
Henry Carrol 
Abner Owens 
Jacob Yeigh 
James Carrol 
Finlay Malcolm 
John Williams 
William Reynolds 
Abner Decou 
John Kelley 
George W. Whitehead 
Daniel Brown 
John Stephens 
William Lossing 
George Nicliol 
Hu^h Malcolm 
Henry Daniel 
Calvin Martin 
Wm. McCartney 
George W. Whitehead 



DATE of COMMISSION. 



1st. May, 
19th. May, 
5th. Sept., 
5th. Nov., 



12th. Feb., 



12th. Feb., 
4th. June, 
4th. June, 
4th. June, 

4th. June, 
4th. June, 
4th. June, 
4th. June, 
4th. June, 
4th. June, 
12th. Feb., 



1816. 
1812. 
1807. 
1812. 
1812. 
1813. 
1814. 
1817. 
1817. 
1812. 
1813. 
1813. 
1812. 
1817. 
1817. 
1817. 
1817. 
1812. 
1817. 
1817. 
1817. 
1817. 
1817. 
1817. 
1817. 



We have carefully traced the history of the Burford Militia, from 
the days when Benajah Mallory received his commission as Captain, 
from the hands of Col. William David Smith, until the year 1814 and a 
further perusal of these records will give our present and future mili 
tary readers, some information of the various changes which have taken 
place, during a period of more than one hundred years, and will, we 
hope, prove of interest to the descendants and their friends, of the old 



263 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Militia men of Burford and Oxford, who have, with very few excep 
tions, now answered the last "Roll Call". 

The First Regiment Oxford Militia, like many other Militia Corps, 
now enjoyed a long period of rest. The assessors annual returns gave 
the list of those subject to service, but more attention was given to re 
pairing the losses and effacing the ravages of war, than to the Annual 
Parades, the militia existed only on the Militia list. 

By the death of Lt-Col. Bostwick, at Woodhouse, 27th July, 1816, 
the First Oxford lost a gallant, highly efficient, and most popular offi 
cer. To succeed him, Major William Daniel Bowen, an excellent offi 
cer, and a Burford man, who had served through the war as second 
in command of the 1st. Regiment of Norfolk Militia, was appointed 
Lt. Col. 1st May, 1816. During the war his services as instructor pro 
ved invaluable to the Militia Officers in the District, he possessed a 
thorough knowledge of Company and Regimental drill. Captain Daniel 
Bowen, father of William Daniel Bowen, had seen service, during the 
Revolutionary War, but took no part in the war of 1812, he being then 
a man over 70 years of age. Statements have appeared in the Press, 
to the effect that the Bowens were British Officers, sent out to Canada 
during the war of 1812, such information is quite incorrect, they were 
both American born and never had any direct connection with the Bri 
tish Army. 

Willam Daniel Bowen was one of the first settlers of the Town 
ship. On the 17th. May, 1802, Lot No. 17, in the 5th. Concession, had 
been acquired by him, and later on a part of the Mallory estate. For 
merly a Lieutenant in the Indian Department, the Bowens were friends 
and adherents of the Johnson family, and accompanied Sir. John to 
Canada during the Revolutionary War. About the year 1728, they had 
removed from New England to Tryon County, Province of New York. 
The Bowens were all staunch loyalists. The death of Lieut- Col. Bowen 
in the year 1821, at the early age of 43, was felt as a personal loss by 
his many friends and acquaintances in Oxford and Norfolk Counties. 

The First Oxford under Colonel Horner. 

In the year 1822 the Government decided upon a thorough reorga 
nization of the Militia Regiments, a considerable increase in the strength 
was authorized, many new men were commissioned, and for the first 
time in the History of the Militia, all corps were placed under the com 
mand of a local officer having the full rank of Colonel. 

Marvel White had resigned his command and removed to the grow 
ing village of Woodstock. It was not until the year 1824, that a new 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 26 



commanding officer was appointed to the Burford Company, in the 
person of George W. Whitehead. 

Lieut. Col. Bowen was succeeded in the command of the First Ox 
ford by Thomas Horner, the one time Deputy Lieutenant of the County, 
whose military star was again in the ascendant. Having been elected 
a member of the Provincial Parliament in 1820, his political influence 
was sufficient to effect his appointment over the heads of two deserving 
officers, whose war record during the years 1812-13-14, entitled them to 
the first consideration, viz. Sykes Tousley, gazetted Major, 19th. May 
1812, and Bla Brewster Brigham, Captain, 5th. November 1812. An 
additional claim to promotion was the fact of their long and continuous 
connection with the first Oxford, in this instance, however, their servi 
ces and rights of Seniority did not count with the Officials in control 
of the Militia Department and on the 13th day of June, 1822, Thomas 
Homer was appointed to the command of the Regiment with the rank 
of "Colonel", a grade in the Canadian Sedentary Militia Corps here 
tofore closed to ordinary Colonial Militia Officers. Thomas Talbot, 
formerly Lieutenant Colonel of the 5th. Foot, did hold this rank in the 
1st. Middlesex, but he was an old and experienced Ex-Officer of His 
Majesty s Regular Army, and held the supreme command of all the 
Militia in the London District- 

To assist Colonel Horner in the discharge of his duties, an Ex-Ca 
valry Officer of considerable experience was selected to fill the posi 
tion of Lieutenant Colonel, by the appointment of Charles Ingersoll 
to this post on December 15th, 1823. The re-organization of the First 
Oxford was now under way, but that slow dilatory system, so well 
known and so disheartening to the exterprising and enthusiastic mili 
tary man, of doing nothing to-day of what can be put off until to-mor 
row, or for many days thereafter, was still in vogue at Headquarters 
and the various commissions to fill the establishments must be doled 
out by instalments, apparently in order to keep in suspense and impress 
the recipients with the trust eventually reposed in their loyalty and good 
will. 

The Regiment as now constituted consisted of eight companies, and 
in the month of January 1824, the vacancies were filled up. The offi 
cial list being as follows : 



270 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



List of Officers. 

First Regiment Oxford Militia, 1 824. 

RANK NAMES D. of A. 

Col. Thomas Homer 13th. June, 1822. 

Lt. Col. Chas ingersoll 15th. Dec, 1823. 

Major Sykes Tousley 19th. May, 1812. 

Capt. Bla Brewster Brigham 5th. Nov., 1812. 

Henry Carrol 12th. Feb., 1817. 

Geo. W. Whitehead 20th. Jan. 1824. 

John Kelly 21st. Jan, 1824. 

Daniel Brown, 22nd. Jan,, 1824. 

John Stephens 23rd. Jan, 1824. 

Robert Alway 24th. Jan, 1824 

J. H. Throckmorton 17th. Aug., 1818, 

James Carrol 19th. Jan, 1824 

Lieut. Wm. Reynolds 12th. Feb., 1817 

Geo. Nichols 19th. Jan, 1824 

Calvin Martin 20th. Jan, 1824 

Henry Daniel 21st. Jan, 1824. 

Hugh Malcolm 22nd. Jan, 1824. 

Thomas Ingersoll 23rd. Jan, 1824. 

Calvin McNie 24th. Jan, 1824. 

Alex. McGregor 26th. Jan, 1824. 

" William Lane 27th. Jan, 1824. 

Jacob Goble 28th. Jan, 1824. 

Ensign Peter Martin 12th. Feb., 1824. 

Joseph O Brien 20th. Jan, 1824. 

Joseph Woodrow 19th. Jan, 1824. 

Archibald Burch, 21st. Jan, 1824. 

James Ingersoll 22nd. Jan, 1824. 

William Underwood 23rd. Jan, 1824. 

Eli Withers 24th. Jan, 1824. 

Leonard Kern 27th. Jan, 1824. 

Silas Williams 28th. Jan, 1824. 

Q. Master Wm. McCartney 12th. Feb., 1824. 

+ Formerly a Sergeant in Capt. John Carrol s Flank Company. 



* 



Vice Curtis resigned 
Vice Ames deceased 
Vice Owen left country 
Vice Malcolm resigned 
to fill a vacancy 

Vice White resigned 

Vice Yeigh resigned 
Malcolm resigned 
Carrol promoted 
Whitehad promoted 

. Kelley promoted 

Williams left country. 



Capt. Geo. W. Whitehead s Company of Burford Militia was, nu 
merically and physically, one of the strongest and best in the Regiment, 
and in the long list of the Townships military units, they also had the 
distinction of having existed and paraded annually under three British 
Sovereigns. For a period of ten years, from 1824, until 1834, the Mus 
ter Parades were held regularly in Burford Village. 

In the year 1834, the 1st. Oxford again lost their commanding officer, 
the removal of Col. Horner by death, was felt to be a real loss to the coun 
ty, in the upbuilding of which he had taken so prominent a part, as a mili 
tary man, a politician and a magistrate from the earliest settlement days. 
His acquaintances were large and varied, friends praised and opponents 
admitted his strict integrity and the honesty of his convictions on public 
matters. To his enterprise and personal efforts were due the early deve 
lopment of Blenheim Township. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 271 



Last List of Officers. 

of the original First Regiment Oxford Militia, 1836. 

RANK NAMES DATE OF RANK 

Col. Bla Brewstesr Brigham 19th. Nov 1834 

Major William Brearly 19th. Nov., 1834. 

Capt. Henry Carrol 12th. Feb., 1817. 

J. H. Throckmorton 17th. Aug., 1818. 

James Carrol 19th. Jan 1824. 



Geo. W. Whitehead 20th 

John R. Kelley, 21st. Jan. 

Daniel Brown 22nd. Jan 

Robert Alway 24th. Jan 

Lieut. Wm. Reynolds 12th Feb 

Geo. Nichols 19th! Jan 

Calvin McNee 24th. Jan. 

\lex. McGregor 26th. Jan. 

Wm Lane 27th. Jan. 

Jacob Goble 28th. Jan. 

Adjutant Calvin Martin 20th Jan 

Ensign Peter Martin 12th. Feb. 

Joseph Woodrow 19th. Jan 

James O Brien 20th. Jan! 

Arch. Burch 21st. Jan. 

James Ingersoll 22nd. Jan 

Wm. Underwood 23rd. Jan 

Lenord Kern 27th. Jan. 

Silas Williams 28th. Jan. 

The Middlesex and Gore Militia. 



M 

H 



1824. 
1824. 



In carrying out the reorganization of the Upper Canadian Militia, 
authorized in 1822, a Militia General Order was issued from the office 
of the Adjutant General at York, dated 18th June, 1822, under authori-- 
ty from the Lieutenant Governor Sir P. Maitland, K. C. B., and signed 
by Colonel N. Coffin. This order divided the Middlesex Regiment of 
Militia, commanded by Colonel Thomas Talbot, into four Regiments. 

Lieut. Colonel Malhon Burwell was promoted Colonel commanding 
the Second Regiment. Lieut. Col. John Botswick, from the First Nor 
folk, was promoted to be Colonel commanding the Third Regiment and 
James Hamilton to be Colonel commanding the Fourth Regiment. 

Malhon Burwell, of English descent, was born in New Jersey and 
came into Upper Canada at a very early date. He was a thoroughly 
competent land surveyor and in 1811, was appointed Register for the 
County of Middlesex, succeeding the first Register, Thomas Horner, 
who had been appointed Register of land titles for the Counties of 
Oxford and Middlesex in 1800. 

Malhon Burwell had a long parliamentary career, he was first 
elected in 1812, having defeated Benajah Mallory in the contest for the 
counties of Oxford and Middlesex, he was re-elected in 1817, and for 



272 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Middlesex alone in 1820. Defeated in 1824, he was re-elected in 1830, 
he was again defeated in 1834, but in 1836, when the town of London 
became entitled to a representative, he became its first member. 

John Bostwick, was a son of the Revd- Gideon Botswick of Massa 
chusetts, and a brother of Lieut. Colonel Henry Botswick. In 1800, 
he was appointed high Constable and in 1805, succeeded his father-in- 
law Colonel Joseph Ryerson, as Sheriff of the London District. 

James Hamilton a brother of the Hon. Robert Hamilton, the great 
Queenston Merchant was one of the first business men who located 
in St. Thomas. In buying wheat from the farmers, in exchange for 
merchandise from his stores, both at his own prices, he soon amassed a 
comfortable fortune. He was appointed sheriff of the District and 
removed to the growing city of London. 

For a detailed account of Col. Thomas Talbot s career in Upper 
Canada, we would refer our readers to that valuable and interesting 
work "The Talbot Regime", by Judge C. O. Ermatinger of St. Thomas. 

The Gore Militia Appointments. 



On April the 2nd, 1822, James Crooks was appointed Colonel c 
manding First Gore Militia. 

James Racey, Lieut. Col. December 26th, 1823. 

William Kirby, Lieut., April 14th, 1823. 

John Findlay Lieut., April, 17th, 1823. 

Thomas Perrin, Ensign, June 15th, 1827. 

John Wilkes, Ensign, June 15th, 1827. 

4th. Gore Captain, Luke B. Spur, Dec. 2nd., 1823. 



Further Changes in the First Oxford. 



r < " 



On the year 1834 the Veteran soldier, Major Sykes Tousley, who 
had been connected continuously with the First Oxford since it first 
organization, retired from the service and Capt. Brewster Brigham 
was promoted to the command of the Regiment with the rank of Lt- 
Colonel, his commission bearing date November 19th, 1834. For seve 
ral years subsequent to these events no muster parades of the Militia 
were held in Oxford County. The political unrest, the loudly expressed 
discontent over the arbitrary actions of the Executive, in disdainfully 
ignoring the will of the people, as declared through their representatives 
in the House of Assembly, had raised suspicious in the minds of the 
political Hierarchy at Toronto, as to whether the majority of the rank 
and file of the men enrolled on the Militia Lists in Oxford Countv, 

J * 

would not be more inclined to follow the advice and instructions of 
their popular member, Dr. Duncombe, in the event of an attempt to gain 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 273 

: . ._ i . : : _. 

by force, what they could not obtain by constitutional means, a govern 
ment by the people and for the people, than to uphold a small clique of 
heriditary rulers, who clained the exclusive prerogative to govern the 
county by divine right of inheritance. 

The uprising of 1837 was not a revolution against the crown, or 
against the British connection " a United Empire", as it is called in the 
present day, but the natural outburst, the explosion of a quiet peace 
loving people of unusual intelligence, who had gradually become exas 
perated beyond all powers of forbearance. 

After years of toil and hard labor, in carving homes out of the wil 
derness, and at last with a majority of representatives in the House of 
Assembly j there still appeared no possibility of getting rid of the obno 
xious "System", maintained by the despotic Council, who seemed deter 
mined to ride the country to death, and retain in their own selfish and 
grasping hands and that of their descendants, the sole power to create 
and fill all civil and military appointments, and to remove instantly 
their appointees if they did not prove to be humble and obedient follow 



ers. 



Under such conditions it is not surprising that the First Oxford 
became disorganized, and for a time non-effective, as a matter of fact 
this old corps, for 34 years the pride of Oxford County, practically cea 
sed to exist ; under different conditions however and confined to a more 
limited space of territory Col. Brigham again appeared at the head of a 
militia corps. 

Oxfords Five Militia Regiments. 

In the early part of the year of 1838, provision was made for the 
organization of five separate and distinct corps of Militia within the 
confines of the county of Oxford, the recruiting ground of each Regi 
ment was distinctly specified. Most of the names submitted for ap 
pointments were recommended by Col. John B. Askin of London, a good, 
respectable Tory of the old school. 

The 1st. Regiment was given their old Commander, Bla Brewster 
Brigham, promoted Colonel 8th Feb., 1838. One Regiment was to be 
recruited in Burford and Oakland, but when the appointments were Ga 
zetted, it was found that the commandant and fifteen other officers were 
residents in another county, needless to state that the Militia men of the 
two townships looked coldly upon this inovation, there was no feeling 
against the commandant, an Ex- Officer of Her Majesty s Regular Ar 
my, who was well qualified to lead any military body, but it was thought, 
that there were plenty of intelligent and capable men within the county! 
to provide sufficient officers to complete the establishment. 



274 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



This corps however, while it lasted existed only on paper, and no 
muster parade of the rank and file ever took place, a portion however 
of one or two companies were on duty for a short period in 1838, 
under the orders of Lieut. Col. Geo. W. Whitehead, second in command 
of the 4th. Oxford. 



RANK 

Col. 
Lt. Col. 

Major 
Capt. 



Lieut. 



Ensign 
Surgeon 



First Regiment Oxford Militia 1 838. 

Former and Rank & Name DATE OF COM 



Lt. Col. Bla B. Brigham. 
Major William Brearly. 
Capt. James Carrol. 
Lieut. Wm. Reynolds. 

George Nichols 

Calvin Martin, 

Silas Williams. 

John Jacques. 

Thomas Wallace. 
Ensign. James O Brien. 

Joseph Woodrow. 

Leonord Kern. 

Charles Friend. 

Joseph Agger 

Alfred Breaely. 
John Geo. Bridges. 



Feb., 8th. 1838. 



Jan. 30th, 1838. 
March 18th, 1838. 



<c 



Promotions. 



Capt. 
u 

Lieut. 



. 
.. 



Ensign 






a 




Lieut. Joseph Woodrow. 12th, Aug. 1841. 

Joseph Agar. 
Ensign. Alfred Bearly 
Ensign. Alfred Brearly 

Philip Fall. 

Robert Stroud. 

Henry J. Hamskeigh 

George Wardell. 

John Carroll. 

Sam. Waller. ^ 

Joshua Corbin. 

Robert Cummings. 

Charles Austin. 

William Searles. 



Capt. 

ff 

Lieut. 



ti 

Ensign 



Lieut. Daniel Carrol. 
Robert Stroud. 
Ensign. Samuel Waller. 

Joshua H. Corbin. 
" Robert Cummings. 
Wm. Searles. 
William Grey. 
James Dagg. 
James Glover. 



25th. May, 1843. 



1C 

(I 

II 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



275 



Second Regiment Oxford Militia 1238. 

Limits Blenheim^ Blandford and Woodstock. 



RANK 

Col. 

Lt. Col. 
Major 
Capt, 



Lieut. 



Ensign 



M 

It 



11 

.. 



NAMES 

Alex. W. Light 
P. Graham 

C. Beale 
J. Gibson 
Ed. Deeds 
John Jackson 

D. Burns 

H. Chambers 
M. Johnston 
R. H. Place 
H. McGregor 
Elijah Nellis 
Win. Marygold 
J. Bouviere 
W. Light 
Wm. Carrol 
Robt. Deeds 
Henry Finckle 
H. de Lanquiere 
Philip Graham Jr. 
Wm. Dawson 
C. Beard 
F. Groves 
Geo. Cazlett 
Alex. Light 
Wm. Burch 
J. Reynolds 
Hugh Chambers 
Wm. Granton 
Walter Martin 
Didemus Burns 
Warren Snow 
Nelson Burdick 
George Alexander 



Date of Com. ALTERATIONS 

Jan. 19 , 1838.Resigned 29th Aug., 1839. 
Feb. 8, 
Apr, 23, " 
Jan. 19, 



Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Apr. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Tan. 



19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

25, 
23. 
23; 
23, 
23, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 
27, 
27, 
27, 
27, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 

19, 



Promot. Major 19 Feb. 1840. 



Prom. Capt. 19th Feb. 1840. 

Prom. Capt. 27th Jan., 1840 
Prom. Capt. 29th Jan., 1840. 



Prom. Lieut. 19th Feb., 1840. 



Adjutant. 



A. W. Light, appointed to command the 2nd, Regiment, was a half 
pay officer, he was formerly Lieutenant Colonel of H. M. 25th Regiment 
of Foot His son Theodore served three years in Spain, as a Captain, 
and was badly wounded there. Colonel Light resigned command of the 
Second Regiment, 29th. August, 1839. 



Promotions 2nd Regiment Oxford Militia. 

Commissions signed by His Excellency Charles T. Metcalf. 



RANK 
Capt. 



Former Rank and Name 

Lieut. Jacob Choato. 
Robert Heeds. 
Henry Finckle. 
Henry de Blanquere. 



Date of Commission. 
29 Jan, 1844. 



H 

it 



276 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Capt. 



u 

.: 
.. 



En gn 









Qr. Master 



Philip T. Graham. 
William Lawson. 
Ensign Wm. Grinton. 
Geo. Alexander. 
Walter Martin. 
Didemus Burns. 
Warren Snow. 
Nelson Burdick. 
John Stevens. 
John Hutch. 
Hamilon Burch. 
Fort. A. Graham. 
Rpbt. Light. 
Richard Impets. 
Jihn Muttleberry. 
John Cummings. 
Walter Jones. 



29 Jan.. 1844 



(Signed) RICHARD BULLOCK, 

Adjt. Gen. of Militia. 

Staff of ficers in 1837. 



Lt. Col. 

Major . 



James Carrol. 
William Light. 



May, 9th, 1851. 
May, 9th, 1851. 



Third Regiment Oxford Militia* 1838. 



Limits Township of Zorra. 



RANK 

Col 

Lt. Col. 

Major 
Capt. 



Lieut. 

H 



it 
U 



Ensign 



NAMES 

James Barwick 
P. de Blanquiere 
Robert Riddle 
Henry Vansitard 
David Bott 
J. Dobson 
Wm. MacKay 
R. MacDonald 
H. C. Barwick 
Alex. Murray 

Wm. McCauley 
J. Sutherland 
J. Watson 

T. Barwick 

W. Murray 

James Lewis 

Wm. Lapenotiere 

Robert Campbell 

Alex. Garden 

J. Griffith 

James McDonald 

Wm. Fraser, Jr. 

Wm> Campbell 

A. MacKay 

Wm. Lepenotiere 



Date of Com. 



ALTERATIONS. 



Jan. 


20, 


1838. 


Tan. 


20. 


si 


Jan. 


20, 


H 


Jan. 


20, 


(t 


Jan. 


20, 


tt 


Tan. 


20, 


tt 


Tan. 


20, 


i 


Sept. 


21, 


C 


Sept. 


21, 


t 


Tan. 


30, 


( 


Jan. 


20, 


t 


Jan. 


20, 




Jan. 


20, 


* 


Tan. 


20, 


I 


Sept. 


27, 


( 


Sept 


27, 


t 


Sept 


27, 


t 


Tan. 


30, 


1 


Jan. 


30, 




Tan. 


20, 




Jan. 


20, 




Sept 


27, 




Tan. 


30, 


( 


Jan. 


30, 




Jan. 


30, 





Prom. Lt. Col. 21 Sept. 1839. 



Quartermaster 




Two Old Militia, Men. 
Alex. Mclrvine, James Mclrvine. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



277 



Capt. 

M 

Lieut. 
Ensign 



i. 
.. 



Promotion List. 

Lieut. Alex. Murray 
Lieut. Wm. McCauley 
Ensign Wm. Fraser 

James S. Barwick 

Wm. Ross 
Sergt. Thomas Matthewson 

A. H. Fonquere 



30 Jan., 1839. 
27 Aug. 1839. 

23 June, 1841 

23 June, 1841 

23 June, 1841 

23 Feb., 1842 

23 Feb., 1842 



Limits : Townships of 
Burford and Oakland. 



List of Officers. 

fourth Regiment Oxford Militia, 8th Feb., 1838. 



RANK 

Col. 

Lt. Col. 
Major. 
Capt. 



Lieut. 



Ensign 



Adjt. 

Qr. Master 
Surgeon. 
Asst. Sur. 



RANK 
Capt. 



NAMES 

James Winnett. 
Geo. W. Whitehead. 
John Weir. 
Chas. S. Pearley. 
Z. Bailey. 
James Brown. 
John Moore. 
Augustus Malcolm. 
Caleb Merritt. 
Geo. McDonald 

A. Holston. 
Wm. D. Taylor. 
Wm. D Auhigney. 
Willard M. Whitehad. 
Chas. Patrick. 

J. W. Longbourne. 
Jacob Smith. 
Allen Cameron . 
Robert Weir. 
Wm. Utton. 
J. R. McDonell. 
Abraham Greney. 
William Kirby. 
Jeremiah Cowin. 

B. G. Tisdale. 

C. W. Ives. 
Wm. Smiley. 
Wm. D. Bowen. 
Samuel Dixon. 
Wm. Abbott. 
Peter Master. 
James Dinon. 



Date of Rank. 

28th, Feb., 1838. 
29th, Feb., 1838. 
28th, Feb., 1838. 
23rd Apr. 1838. 
23rd 



23rd 


4 l 


23rd 





23rd 


* 


23rd 


1 


23rd 




23rd 




-3rd 




23rd 




23rd 




23rd 





23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 
23rd 



H 

H 
< 



Promotions. 

Former Rank and Name. Date of Rank. 



RESIDENCE. 

Brantford. 
Burford. 



Brantford. 

M 

Burford. 

Brantford. 

Oakland. 

Brantford. 

Burford. 

Brantford. 

M 

Burford. . 

Brantford. 
H 

Burford. 



Brantford. 



Blenheim. 
Burford. 



Brantford. 

Oakland. 

Brantford. 



RESIDENCE. 



Lieut. Luke V. Spur. 12th, Aug. 1841. Out of District. 

Mattias Summerhorn " " " Burford 
Capt. Robt. Hunter " " 

Lieut. Will. M. \Vhitrlu-ad " 



II 



278 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Lieut. 

a 


Ensign Jeremiah Cowin 
Bradford G. Tisdale " 


" Blenheim. 
" Burford. 


u 


William Smiley 


" Blenheim. 


II 


Wm. D. Bowen 


" Burford. 


11 


James Eakins 


tl U 


(1 


W. F. Wallace 


(( 


tt 


A. Eddy 


(( <f 


Ensign 


Chas. H. Whitehead 


u i 


u 


James H. Underbill 


* t 


ii 


Paul Moore 


* t < 


u 


Wm. H. Serpell 


t( " * 


II 


Joseph Heywood, Jr. 


t( * 


u 


Henry Horner 


* 


II 


John Vivian 


*t f 



Commissions signed by His Excellency Chas. T. Metcalf. 
Col. James Winnett, formerly Major in Her Majesty s 68th. Regiment 
of Foot, was transferred to Rifle Brigade, 17th- March, 1841. 



Fifth Regiment of Oxford Militia. 1838. 

Limits Missouri, East, West and North Oxford. 



RANK 

Col. 
Lt. Col. 

Major 



Capt. 



II 
II 
<1 
(I 
II 
ft 
ft 



Lieut. 



Ensign 



NAMES- 

W. Holcroft 
R. Hunter 
James Ingersoll 



Geo. Chambers 
Thos. Ingersoll 
G. W. Marsh 
Robt. Cameron 
Edward Burton 
W. Yale 
J. Daly 
J. Baker 
Thomas Peacock 
R. Garnett 
T. Holcroft 

C. Marygold 
David Canfield 
Ed. Haycock 
J. W. Marsh 
J. Stuart 
Alex Murray 

D. Cronk 

C. de Blanquiere 
Boyle Travers 
William Withers 
John Phalen 
Henry Crotty 
J. Dundas 

E. Marygold 
E. Mclntyre 
James Nichol 
Abraham Carrol 



Date of Com. 



REMARKS. 



Feb. 8, 
Feb. 8, 
Feb. 8, 



1838. 



Nov. 8, 


< 


Nov. 8, 


i 


Jan. 19, 


c 


Jan. 20, 


i 


Mar. 8, 


i 


Mar. 8, 


i 


Mar. 8, 


u 


Mar. 8, 


tl 


Jan. 31, 


II 


Jan. 31, 


tt 


Nov. 6, 


(I 


Nov. 6, 


tl 


Nov. 6, 


tl 


Nov. 6, 


1C 


Nov. 6, 


( 


Nov. 6, 


1C 


Nov. 6, 


ft 


Nov. 6, 


u 


Nov. 6, 


tt 


Nov. 6, 


tt 


Jan. 30, 


It 


Tan. 30, 


It 


Tan. 30, 


tl 


Nov. 8, 


II 


Nov. 8, 


II 


Nov. 8, 


11 


Nov. 8, 


It 


Nov. 8. 


It 



From 1st Oxford, promo 
ted Lieut. Col. 23rd Feb., 
1840. 
Prom. Major 4th May, 1840. 



Prom. Capt. 30th Jan., 1839. 
" Prom. Capt. 4th May, 1839. 
Prom. Capt. 4th May, 1840. 



" Prom. Capt. 30th Jan., 1839. 



" Prom. Lieut. 4th May, 1839. 



" Prom. Lieut. 4th May, 1840. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



279 



Ensign. 


G. W. Burton 


Nov. 8, 


Prom. Lieut. 4th 


May, 1840. 


a 


Henry Reynolds 


Nov. 8, 


1 Prom. Lieut. 27th 


May, 1840. 


ft 


L. R. Marsh 


Jan. 30, 


i 




II 


P. H. Bowman 


Jan. 30, 


t 




tt 


S. Eakins 


Nov. 8, 


i 







J. Barker 


Nov. 8, 


Adjutant. 





Cavalry. 



Capt. 

Lieut. 

Cornet 



Peter Carrol 
W. L. Carrol 
J. Reynolds 



Nov. 8, 1838 
Apr. 23, 1838 
Apr. 23, 1838 



For a considerable period after the Rebellion, the 4th Oxford remai 
ned in a dormant state, in fact the Regiment raised during that period, 
under Col. James Winnet, had become practically disbanded- Time 
must be given to heal old sores and soften the bitter antagonistic fee 
ling aroused in the country, by the events leading up to and subsequent 
to the insurrection. By the year 1846, further legislation was passed 
concerning the Militia and a reorganization of the 4th Oxford was au 
thorized. 

A selection was made from the ex-officers of the defunct corps of 
1838, and in due time the following appointments were gazetted : 



Forth Regiment Oxford Militia. 
To be Lieut. Col. Commanding, 



Montreal, December 2nd, 1846. 



Lieut. Col. Geo. W. Whitehead, 

(Sgd.) A. GUGY, Adjt. Gen. of Militia. 



Montreal, May 12th, 1847. 



4th Battalion Oxford Militia- 



To be Captains 

a H 

To be Lieutenant 
To be Ensign 



Charles S. Perley 
Caleb Meritt 
John Moore 
Willard M. Whitehead 
Bradford G. Tisdale 
William Bov/i-n 
Charles H. Whitehead 
James H. Underhill 
Paul Moore 
William H. Serpell. 

(Signed) PLOMER YONGE, Col. 

Adjt. Gen of Militia. 



80 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



George W. Whitehead had been connected with the Burford Mili 
tia since the days of Lieut. Col. Bowen and his promotion to the com 
mand of the new Battalion was well earned, as well as being his by right 
of seniority. During the ensuing few years the annual muster was held 
in Burford Village, (called Claremont at this period). A supply of flint 
lock muskets had been received, and with these the men paraded on the 
Common, on a portion of which the present Cavalry Armoury now stands. 
In 1850, Lieut. Col. Geo. W. Whitehead left Burford to reside in Wood- 
tock and when the township was separated from the county of Oxford, 
he resigned his commission and became interested in many commercial 
and other enterprises. . , 

The Battalion continued to exist in a state of somnolency and the 
annual Parades ceased .entirely. With improved laws and a largely 
increased immigration, the Province was expanding rapidly and a period 
of profound peace now existed. 




Lt.-Col, Chas. S. Parley 

Com. 5th Brant Militia 

1856 63 




Capt. Willard M. Whitehead 
Com Burford Militia Coy. 
1838-56 





Dr Charles Duncombe. 

at the age of 74. 
from The Talbot Regime (by per. 



CHAPTER VI. 

BRANT COUNTY FORMED. FIVE MILITIA BATTA 
LIONS AUTHORIZED. THE FIFTH (BURFORD AND 
OAKLAND) BATTALION. LIST OF OFFICERS. CAPT. 
ROBERT C. MUIR S COMPANY I860. TOTAL STRENGTH 
OF THE UPPER CANADIAN SEDENTARY MILITIA. THE 
REPORT OF 1862. THE SERVICE AND RESERVE MI 
LITIA. 

The act of 1851, altering the territorial divisions of Canada West, 
which became effective on the 1st. of January, 1852, had separated Bur- 
ford and Oakland from the County of Oxford, and made them a part 
of the new county of Brant. 

This readjustment of county lines at once severed the 4th Oxford 
from all their old military associates. To meet the changed conditions 
the Militia Department made provision for an establishment of six militia 
corps to be formed in the new county, the limits of No. 5 to be the town 
ships of Oakland and Burford, but no steps were taken to organize these 
Battalions until several years later and even then the process of organi 
zation was extremely slow, until the Government of the day was at last 
stirred into activity, with the advent of a great war in which the Empire 
was engaged. 

1 f 

In 1854 the British Garrisons in Canada were ordered to the Cri 
mea, the regular army having been reduced by a weak Government to a 
dangerous state of numeral efficiency. Nearly all .troops stationed in 
the colonies were recalled to strenghthen the deleted ranks of the Re 
gulars dispatched to the war and the government of Upper Canada set 
about the formation of a body of men to be called "Volunteer Militia", 
and also the reorganization of the sedentary militia, in which they were 
ably assisted by the Adjt. Gen. Baron de Rottenburg and his Deputies, 

The particulars of the initial organization of the Volunteer force will 
be found on another page of this work. 

A large increase in the strength and number of the sedentary Bat 
talions was determinated upon. The recently formed county of Brant 
was authorized to establish and maintain six Battalions of sedentary 
militia, each corps to be commanded by an officer with the rank of Lieut 



282 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Col., the highest grade in future permitted to any militia Regimental 
staff officer. 

Ex officers and militia men of prominence, accepting commissions, 
were required to provide themselves with uniforms and equipment, in 
conformity with dress regulations, as set forth in general orders. Brant 
Co. (G. O. of 12th. July 1855) was added to the 8th military district. 

The first official order concerning the fate of the Burford and Oak 
land Militia, which first as a part of the 1st. York Regiment, then as 
part of the 1st Oxford and later formed the 4th Oxford and had as 
such preserved a continuous existence since the beginning of the nine 
teenth century, was issued on the 29th Jan., 1852, as follows : 

Adjt. General s Office, 

Quebec, 29th Jan., 1852 

His Excellency the Governor General, 

Has been pleased to direct that the several Battalions, hereinafter 
mentioned, shall be composed of the Militia residing within the limits 
assigned to each respectively } and styled and numbered as follows. 

The 5th Battalion shall comprise, as a Battalion Division, the town 
ship of Burford and Oakland (late 4th Oxford). 

(Signed) D. MACDONELL, Lieut- Col., 

Dept. Adjt. Gen. of Militia, for U. C. 



Quebec, July 12, 1855. 
G. O. 

No. 8 Military District shall consist of Middlesex, Elgin, Oxford, 
Norfolk, Brant Co s and London City. 

District Headquarters London City. 

(Signed) DE ROTTENBURY Col., Adjt. Gen. of Militia- 
DONALD MACDONELL Dept. Adjt. Gen. of Militia, for U. C. 



M. D. No. 8 Toronto, Jan. 17th, 1856. 

5th Brant ^Battalion, 

To be Lieut.-Col. Capt. Chas- Strange Perley, laie 4th Batt Oxford. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 283 



M. D. No. 8 Toronto, March, 10th. 1856. 

5th Brant Battalion. 

i 

To be Capt., Capt. Caleb Merrit, from late 4th Oxford. 

Capt. Willard M. Whitehead, late 4th Oxford. 
Capt. Robert Hunter, late 4th Oxford. 
James Westmore, from New Brunswick Militia. 
Ensign Issac Brock Henry, from late 10th Gore. 
Robert Weir, Esq., 
" " " Charles Hedges, Esq., 
" " " Wm. M. Thompson, Esq., 

Abdel Eddy, Esq., 

" " Lieut., Ensign Wm. Henry Serpell, from late 4th Oxford. 
" " " Charles Perley, Gentleman. 
" " " Henry Taylor, Gentleman. 
Robt. C. Muir, Gentleman- 
" " " Eliakim Malcolm, Jr. Gentleman. 
" " Francis Fairchild, Gentleman. 

" Joseph Loney, Gentleman. 
" Wm. Cannady, Gentleman. 
Ensign- John Catton, Gentleman, appointed Adjutant. 

Capt. Willard M. Whitehad. 
" Joseph Miles, Gentleman. 
" " Russel O. Gage, Gentleman. 

Caleb. P. Fowler, Gentleman. 
" " Mathias Smith, Gentleman. 
" " David Beemer, Gentleman. 

Thomas Merritt, Gentleman- 
" " James Malcolm, the younger. 
" " Edmond Yeigh, Gentleman. 
" Adjt. Ensign John Catton, Gentleman. 
" Quarter Master, Alonzb Foster, Gentleman. 



ft 



ti 



G. O. Toronto, April 3rd, 18? 

5th Brant Battalion. 

To be Majors Capt. Caleb Merritt. 

Capt. Willard M. Whitehad. 



284 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Toronto, Oct. 21, 1856. 

5th Brant Battalion. 

Memo. 

The appointmnet of the following Gentleman to this Batt, in the 
G. O. of the 20th March last, has not taken place. Viz. Ensign Issac 
Brock Henry, Chas. Hedgers Aldel Eddy (to be Capts.) of Will. Canna- 
dy to be a Lieut, of Russel O. Goge to be an Ensign. 



Promotions. 

M. D. No. 8 Toronto, April, 2nd, 1857. 

5th BRANT BATT. 

To be Capts., Lieut. W. H. Serpell, 

Lieut. Chas. Perley, 

Lieut. Henry Taylor, 

Lieut. Robt. C. Muir, 

Lieut. Eliakim Malcolm, 
To be Lieuts., Ensign and Adjt. John Catton, 

Ensign Joseph Miles, 

Ensign Caleb P. Fowler, 

Ensign Mathias Smith, 

Ensign David Beemer, 

Ensign Thos. Merritt, 

Ensign James Malcolm, the younger 

Ensign Edmund Yeigh. 
To be Ensigns, William Rixon, Gentleman. 

Geo. Weir, Gentleman. 

Thos- Perley, Gentleman. 

Samuel Oles, Gentleman. 

Isaac T. Horner, Gentleman. 

Gideon Rider, Gentleman. 

Geo. Willets, Gentleman. 

John Rand, Gentleman. 

Isaac Malcolm, Gentleman. 

(Signed) BARON DE ROTTENBURY, Adjt.-Gen. of Militia. 



it if 

I ft 

II It 

if fC 

if f 

if 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 285 

M. D. No. 8 Toronto, April, 29th, 1858. 

5th Brant Batt. 

To be Capt, Lieut. Joseph Loney. 
" " Lieut., Ensign Wm. Rixon. 
" / Ensign, Neil Leffler. 

Isaac Merritt. 

Joseph Jackson. 

Wm. Wooden, Vice G. Oles left limits. 

James Lockhart, Vice J. Rand left limits. 

Surgeon Edward Hipkins, M. D. 

Vice Stimson left limits. 



M. D. No. 8 Quebec, 26th April, 1861. 

5th Brant Batt. 

To be Major, Capt- James Westmore Vice C. Meritt. 

who is permitted to retire retaining his rank. 
" " Capt., Capt. Jacob Bringham, late of 1st Batt. Oxford. 

Lieut, and Adjt. John Catton, retaining the Adjutancy. 
Lieut. Joseph Miles, Vice R. Hunter left limits. 
" " Lieuts., Ensign Geo. Weir. 

Ensign Thos. Perley. 
" " Ensigns, Samuel Oles, formerly of this Batt. 

Allen Perley, Vice J. Malcolm, who is permitted to retire 
retaining his commission. 



M. D. No. 8 Quebec, 9 Oct. 23rd, 1862. 

5th Brant Batt. 

To be Capt., Lieut. Caleb P. Fowler, Vice Loney left limits. 

Lieut., Ensign Wm. Hersee, formerly of the 7th Batt. Oxford. 
" Ensign, David Huffman, Vice J. Lockhart. 
" " " John P. Eddy, Vice Willets deceased. 



286 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Quebec, Jan. 23rd, 1863. 

5th Brant Batt. Drill Associations. 

A drill association is hereby authorized at Burford, under the com 
mand of Lt. Col. Chas. S. Perley, to be composed of the officers and N. 
C. O. of the 5th Brant Batt. 



M. D. No. 8 Quebec, Jan- 20th, 1863. 

5th Batt. Brant, Capt. Wm- Thompson is permitted to retire with 
the Honorary rank of Capt. 



5th Brant Battalion. 
Dress Regulations. Toronto, February 7, 1856. 

Frock coat blue, double breast with stand up collar, rounded off in 
front, cuffs and lapels all blue, two rows of buttons down the front, nine 
in each row at equal distances. On the left shoulder a crimson silk cord 
to retain the sash with a small button. 

Trousers, dark blue cloth with a scarlet welt down the outwaid 
seams during Autumn and Winter, and white lir>en during the summer. 

Forage cap blue cloth with black silk maple leaf lice, with the name 
of the Regiment and the number of the Battalion, thereof, worked in sil 
ver embroidery. The number to be one inch and a half long, sash crim 
son silk net, with fringe ends, united by a crimson runner, worn diago 
nally over the left shoulder, and the ends of the fringe not to hang below 
the bottom of the coat. 

Waist Belt, enameled white leather, worn over the coat, sword the 
same as perscribed in H. M. Army Field Officers to wear brass scab 
bards, Adjts. Steel scabbards, all other officers leather scabbards sword 
knot crimson and silver with buillon tassels. The lace and buttons worn 
on all militia uniforms to be Silver- 

Field Officers to have the distinction of their rank, crown and star 
for Colonel, crown for Lieut. Col. Star for Majors, embroidered in gold 
at each end of the collar. The collars of the other officers, to be plain. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



287 



Roll of number 4 Company of the Fifth Battalion of Brant 

Militia for the year i860. 

Limits of the Company. Parts 9th 10th llth and 12th Cons. 



RANK 



NAMES 



RANK 



NAMES 



Three Sergeants and three Corporals are by law 
allowed to each Company of Militia. 



Capt. 
Lieut. 
Ensign. 
Sergts. 



Privates 



1C 

.. 



1. 
u 
It 



-t C. Muir. 
Joseph Miles. 
Thomas Parley. 

Otter. 

John Little. 
Baptist Burton. 
John Millar. 
Elijah Millard. 
William Millar. 
Baptist Johnston. 
Elliot Miles. 
James McGuoin. 
Daniel McGee. 
Thomas Williams. 
James Wilson. 
James Smith. 
Hiram Smith. 
Mat O Hearn. 
George Wood. 
James Kent. 
John Hyland. 
Taylor Smith. 
Henry Lewis. 
James Conners. 
William Rush. 
Kobert Long. 
Robert Kelly. 
Jacob Moore. 
William Rickman. 
William Dwire. 
Abraham Johnston. 
John Dnnn. 
[ rank I loiter. 
John Layclon. 
David Haywood. 
Thiimas Marrrah. 
Michel O Neil. 
hnhra tn butcher. 

:i 1 I !. inner. 
James fO .yie. 
[o^ph P. Carter, 
Allan McCloud. 



Privates. 



H 
It 



II 
(I 
U 



it 

(I 



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K 



u 
II 
I. 



Edward Shellington. 
William H. P. Carter. 
William Kiff. 
James Clement. 
Georges Raylon. 
Hugh Stevenson. 
Russell Gage. 
James Ekworth. 
John Burkly. 
John Smith. 
Elias Zimmerman. 
Edward Doyle. 
Charles Rand. 
Philip Eadie. 
James Watson. 
Patrick McCartney. 
Paul Flock. 
Samuel Hilyard. 
Daniel Ronnie. 
Daniel Smith. 
Join; Bowman. 
William Brown. 
John Brown. 
William Ainsle. 
James Brown. 
George Shaver. 

John Mclrvine. 
John OHet. 
William Posel. 
Henry Postel. 
Thomas Derby. 
Chris. Soveroin. 
William H. 
J nines Doyle 
Smith Conkwright. 

les Kiuer. 
William Stuart. 
William ( .room. 
Thomas Cairns. 
John Clemtnt. 

\i liowell. 
Fraser. 



288 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



289 



Military District No. 8 
Brant County Militia for 1857. 







1st class. 


iiiul class. 












men, 18 to 40 


men, 18 to 40 


43 

a 























OB 


years. 


years. 


3 




Brant County Militia. 


Officers. 


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91 


^1 


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1st Batt. 


L. -Col 


William Muirhead. 


35 


12 


377 


1 


511 


3 


213 


1195 


2nd 


I 


James Wilkes. 


28 


9 


209 





181 





171 


561 


3rd 


i 


Thomas Perrin. 


28 


24 


249 


1 


205 


4 


161 


620 


4th 





Georges Stanton 


30 


11 


322 


1 


288 


2 


225 


768 


5th < 


1 


Charles S. Perley. 


35 


22 


336 


10 


316 


6 


251 


988 


6th 


i 


Mathias Wilson. 


23 






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1st Batt. 


L-Col 


Thomas Wallace- 


29 


14 


280 




270 




233 


783 


2nd 





James Carol, 


30 




230 




$50 




305 


1145 


3rd 




Henry Vansittart. 


4 














new. 


4th 




Arthur Fanier. 


1 














M 


5th 




James Ingersoll. 


29 




292 


2 


465 


4 


263 


1026 


6th 




Ben Van. Norman. 


24 














new. 


7th 




Edmund Deeds. 


35 




351 




368 


1 


207 


1037 



290 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



291 



Office of the Adjt. Gen. Toronto, 4th Feb. J858. 

Report of the Sedentary Militia of Upper Canada for the year 
1857, consists of 257 Battalions, an addition of 8 Battalions during 1857. 
Annual Reports received from 210 Battalions, to be received 47. 

Recapitulation of the Sedentary Militia of Upper Canada for 1857. 













No. of men 18 


No. of men 18 








a 


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g 




.2 




to 40 years. 


to 40 jears. 


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1st class. 


2nd class. 


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f 













1 


24 


3 


595 


426 


4126 


97 


4136 


79 


2846 


11264 


12288 


2 


27 


3 


747 


478 


4626 


19 


4383 


57 


3040 


12120 


13348 


3 


24 


3 


743 


572 


5438 


77 


6106 


99 


3472 


15192 


16510 


4 


22 


3 


612 


331 


5170 


90 


6168 


70 


3651 


15089 


16035 


5 


41 


3 


1061 


478 


7515 


149 


7791 


155 


4501 


20111 


21653 


6 


42 


3 


821 


260 


4962 


15 


6017 


45 


3692 


14731 


15815 


7 


26 


3 


787 


487 


6521 


151 


6015 


89 


4070 


17846 


1912Q 


8 


35 


3 


986 


630 


9053 


64 


10578 


100 


6026 


25821 


27443 


9 


16 


3 


360 


253 


2985 


28 


3123 


51 


2000 


8237 


8353 




257 


27 


6712 


3915 


50396 


690 


52287 


740 


332980 


140411 


151065 



Battalions organized and reports received 
Battalions organized and reports not received- 
Battalions organized in part reports not received. 
Battalions not organized reports not received. 

Total reports not received. 
Total Battalions. 

Staff Officers 27 

Batt. Officers. 6712 

Sergeants. 3915 

Men 1st. class 51086 

Men 2nd. class 56027 

Reserve Men. 33298 



210 

15 

9 

23 

47 
257 



Total all grades. 



151065 



292 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

D. MacDonell, Lt. Col. Dep. Adjt. Gen. of Militia for Upper 

Canada. 
Col Baron de Rottenbury C. B. Adjt. Gen. of Militia. 

Sedentary Militia of Lower Canada for 1857. 

No. of Military Districts. 10 

" " Battalions. 136 < _. 

" " Officers. 5380 % g 

" " Sergeants. 3871 G r ^ f 
" " Men Unmarried 1st Class (18 to 40). 30662 A 

" " Men Widowers without family 1st class. 495 -ff be 

" " Men Married 2nd class (18 to 40). 50641 8 Jc 

" " Men Widowers with ch. 2nd cl. (18 to 40) 794 o -| ^ 

" " Reserve men 40 to 60. 33340 ^ ^ 

f ^"^ ^ , 

Total. 125.329 <+ * 



The Report of 1862. 

In the early part of the year 1862, the Government appointed a 
commission to report a plan for the better organization of the depart 
ment of the Adjt. Gen. of Militia, the best means for reorganizing the 
Militia of the Province and to prepare a bill thereon. 

This committee was composed of Geo- Et. Cartier, John A. Mac- 
Donald, A. T. Gait, Allan N. McNabb, E. P. Tache, Col. D. Lysons, 
T. E. Campbell and A. Cameron. In their report, which was submitted 
at Quebec on March 16th, they recommended that the Province be di 
vided into such Military Districts as the Commander-in-Chief might 
from time to time direct. That each Military District be divided into 
Regimental divisions, that in order to facilitate the enrollment and rein 
forcement of an active force, each Regimental division be divided into 
Sedentary Battalions and sub-divided into Sedentary Company Divi 
sions. 

That each Regimental division should furnish one active and one 
reserve Battalion, to be taken as nearly as practicable, in equal propor 
tions from the male population of such divisions, between the ages of 
18 and 45. 

It was further recommended that the service men of each batta ion 
be the first for service, the Reserve men could only be required under 
extraordinairy circumstances, as it appearel ^.rom the census returns 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 293 

of 1851-2, in Canada West, there were 117,332 bachelors, between the 
ages of 18 and 40 years. 

To enforce a correct enrollment of the several classes of the Se 
dentary Militia, the Commissioners proposed that the commanding Offi 
cers of Battalions be instructed to direct the Company Officers and 
Sergeants of each Company, within the limits of the respective batta 
lions, to divide the labor of enrollment amongst them, as the business 
would be better performed, and much more correctly done than by 
requiring each militia man to appear before his Captain. 

One of the most important propositions was that relating to the 
armament of the Sedentary Militia, they recommended that arms and 
one hundred rounds of ammunition for each musquet, should be depo 
sited in the Armouries set apart for the Sedentary Militia, also they 
were impressed with the belief that great advantage would be derived 
in keeping in stores a certain number of Great Coats for the use of the 
Sedentary Militia, in case that force should be called into active ser 
vice. 



The Service and Reserve Militia. 

By the Militia General Order of 13th December, 1864, the Burford 
Sedentary Militia, which had preserved a continuous and almost un 
broken existence of 66 years, was practically abolished. The new 
organization provided for a select body of men in the county of Brant, 
795 strong, formed into one corps, to replace the Six Battalions of Se 
dentary Militia hertofore existing. Burford was to contribute 158 men, 
the remainder of the force was to be known as "Reserve Militia." All 
candidates for commissions in the "Service Militia", were required be 
fore appointment to obtain a certificate, as hereinafter mentioned, from 
the commandant of one of the schools of military instruction,, and no 
person was to be appointed or promoted to the rank of Field Officer in 
the " Service Militia", who did not obtain a first class certificate. 

First class certificates to be awarded to those candidates only, who 
proved themselves, to the satisfaction of the commandant of the school 
of Military Instruction, able to drill and handle a Battalion in the field, 
and who should have acquired a complete acquaintance with the inter 
nal economy of a battalion. 

Second class certificates to be given to those candidates who should 
prove themselves able to command a company at Battalion drill, and to 
drill a company at "Company Drill", and who should have acquired a com 
petent acquaintance with the internal economy of a company and the du 
ties of a company s officer. 



294 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



All candidates were required, before admission, to satisfy a Board 
of Officers of their competence for the position of a commissioned officer 
of the Militia. Travelling expenses going to and returning to their homes 
were allowed, and to those who obtained commissions, the sum of fifty 
dollars was paid. Candidates while attending the school were attached 
to the corps, which constituted the School of Instruction, for all purposes 
of drill and discipline. 

In theory only were the new regulations superior to the old order of 
things, it was found that those who qualified at the Military schools, young 
and ambitious men, had acquired a taste for military affairs, and that 
the Service Militia furnished too limited a field in which to display and 
keep bright their superior military knowledge, it would be also im 
practical to call out for drill and discipline for more than one or two 
days per year, the men of the new sedentary militia corps and the gra 
duates generally, were offered and accepted commissions in the regular 

Active Militia. 

The following list gives the names of Service Militia men from 

Brant County, who attended the Toronto Military School, with dates 
of their certificates of qualification : 

Andrew H. Baird, 1st. Class 2nd. June 1865. 

David Spence, 2nd 24th. June, 1864. 

Wm. G. McWilliams, 2nd 

George Bryce, 2nd 



>_ ^-"- AO ~ J ^ 7 /" 1 

Nicholas Murphy, 2nd 

Colborne Nellis, 2nd 

Aaron B. McWilliams, 2nd 

Samuel Wilcey Fear, 2nd 

Banfield Capron, 2nd 



I4th. July, 1864. 
I2th. Aug., 1864. 
4th. Nov., 1864. 
24th. Mar., 1865. 
6th. Apr. 1865. 
6th. Apr. 1865. 
20th. Apr., 1865. 



oaniiciu ^ctpiun, 7. > * -in^r 

Osborne Totten, 2nd 5th May, 1865. 

William Hewson, 2nd I9th. May 1865. 

Warren Totten, 2nd 28th. Sept., 865 

John F. O. Neil, 2nd 28th. Sept., I8fo. 

Edward H. Read, 2nd " 24th. Nov., 865 

Nathaniel Hunter, 2nd 24th. Nov., 1865. 



Service Militia. 

Quebec 8th. December, 1 864. 

His Excellency, the Commander in chief, is pleased to order the 
Organization of a service Battalion, from the several Regiments of Mi 
litia of this Province undermentioned, and that the Ballot shall be taken 
on Friday the 30th day of December instant., in manner prescribed by 
law, for the purpose of organizing such service Batts, respectively, 
according to the proportion of men to be furnished for each Batt, ^from 
each Township, City, Town or Incorporated Village, as follows, that is 
to say : 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 295 



Brantford Town, 176. 

Brantford Township, 194. 

Burford Township, 158 No. of service Batts, to be organized 

Oakland Township, 31 from each Regiment. 

Onondaga Township, 58 One- 

Paris Village, 67 

Dumfries Township South 111 

795 

Under the Militia General Order of the 13th December, 1864, a 
Ballot was ordered to take place on 30th of same month, and 48, 495 
men, the aggerate strength, was apportioned amongst the various Regi 
mental Divisions, and divided into 61 Regiments of Service Militia, 
consisting each of 795 men, Commissioned Officers and Privates- 
Privates. 

The total Number of Militia men in Upper Canada, as returned 
on the county Rolls in 1864 were : 

1st. Class 85,081. 

2nd. Class 130,553. 

Reserve men 54,489. 



Total 270,123. 



After an interval of some five years, the militia Department again 
turned its attention to the Sedentary bodies, now designated "Reser 
ve Militia." The South Riding of Brant was divided into two com 
pany divisions, each to be under the immediate command of a captain. 
On the 29th Jan. 1869, the following appointments were gazetted : 



Reserve Militia. 

Regimental Division of South Riding of Brant. 

To be Lieut. Col., Lieut. Col. Charles S. Perley, late 5th non service 

Battalion, Brant- 

To be Major. Major Thomas Racey, late 3rd non service Batta 

lion, Brant. 

To be Major, Captain Henry Taylor, late 5th non service Batta 

lion, Brant. 



296 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Ottawa, 2nd, March, 1869. 
General Order. 

Reserve Militia, 

Regimental Division South Riding of Brant. No. 1 Company Di 
vision, the southern 10 concessions of the township of Burford. 
To be Captain. Captain William Henry Serpell, from the first non- 
reserve Battalion. 

No. 2 Company Division. The four northern concessions of the 
township of Burford and that portion of the township of Brant for?., 
lying north of the northern Kerr line, and West of the Grand River, 
To be Captain. William Miles, late non-reserve Battalion. 



The Enrollment of 1869. 

Reserve Militia South Riding of Brant. 

1st. Class unmarried or widowers without children 18 to 29 years, 958 

2nd. Class unmarried or widowers without 30 to 44 years, 164 

3rd. Class married or widowers with children 18 to 44, 1530 

4th. Class all of and over 45 years of age but under 60, 771 

Total of all Classes 3423 

Additional Seamen Dominion Waters, 2 

Bona fide members of Volunteers, 239 



Lieut. Col. Charles S. Perley, the Veteran Militia officer, was nearly 
73 years of age when he received his appointment as Commanding Of 
ficer of the Reserve Militia of the South Riding of Brant. After his 
death in 1879, he was succeeded in the command by Major Henry Tay 
lor, commissioned Lieut. Col. in 1880. 

Since the date of their enrollment, the Reserve Militia have never 
been out or assembled for drill and discipline, and Lieut. Col. Taylor s 
appointment was the last made in connection with the organization. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE REGULAR ARMY. THE CANADIAN REGULARS. 
THE CANADIAN VOLUNTEERS. THE FIRST CANADIAN 
CAVALRY. THE BURFORD CAVALRY. INFANTRY AND 
RIFLES. SOUTH AFRICA. CAPTAIN ALLAN WALLACE 
ELLIS. THE MINISTERS OF MILITIA. 

The Military establishment, maintained by all nations at the pre 
sent time, are the product of centuries of experiment, invention and 
experience. 

Charles VII of France, was the first Sovereign to establish a stand 
ing Army. In 1444 he organized fifteen companies, each six hundred 
strong, and at their head placed the famous body of Scottish Archers 
and Scottish Men-at-Arms, which for long retained their place at the 
head of the Army list of France, as the trusted and valued Body Guards 
of the French Sovereigns. 

What might be called England s first efficient standing Army, was 
created by ordinance, issued on the 15th. February, 1645, which called 
for the organization of 22,000 men, to consist of twelve Regiments of 
foot, each divided into ten Companies of one hundred and twenty men 
each. Each Regiment was Officered by one Colonel, one Lieut. Colo 
nel, one Major, seven Captains, ten Lieutenants and ten Ensigns. One 
half the men carried pikes and the other half Musquets. Each Cap 
tain carried a pike, Lieutenants a partisan, and Ensigns a sword. 

The Cavalry consisted of eleven Regiments, divided into six Troops 
of one hundred men each, to each Regiment was alloted a Colonel, 
Lieut-Colonel, four Captains, six Lieutenants and six Cornets. The 
men wore iron helmets and cuirass, and carried a brace of pistols, as 
well as a sword. There were also ten Companies of Dragoons, each of 
one hundred men and three Officers. For the Military Train, two 
Regiments of Infantry and two Companies of Firelocks. 

By the year 1652, the new model army, which had become famous 
under Cromwell and his Generals, had grown until it amounted to thirty 
Regiments of Foot, eighteen of Horse, and one of Dragoons, in all 
about fifty thousand men, and had attained to a high state of efficiency. 

The British Army, as at present constituted, dates its origin from 
the restoration of the House of Stuart. The gradual disbandment of 



298 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



the new model army, had been carried out by General Monk, Colonel 
in Chief of the Coldstream Regiment. By January 1st, 1661 there 
remained only Monks own Regiment, which were asembled by order 
of the King on Tower Hill. Here in the presence of the highest military 
and civil officials, this corps, which was originally formed in 1650, 
grounded their arms, signifying their final disbandment. Having taken 
the oath to serve the King, their arms were taken up and they became the 
first Regiment of Foot Guards. 

The "Royal Scots", can claim the distinction of being the oldest 
regiment in the British Army, it has been styled "Pontius Pilate s Body 
Guards" on account of its claims to antiquity. The nucleus of this 
corps was formed in Scotland, centuries ago, and as an organized mi 
litary body they were famous throughout Europe as the Scottish Ar 
chers. Led by Sir James Hepburn they fought in 1625 under Gustavus 
Adolphus. 

The name of Sir James Hepburn, comes first in the British Army 
List, his colonelcy dating from 26th Jan. 1633. The Royal Scots howe 
ver, remained in the service of France until the year 1678, when they 
came to England. Their first commanding officer after becoming a 
part of the British Army was Colonel Sir Robert Douglas. 

In 1635, the Scottish Regiments in the employ of Sweden, merged 
together and passed into the service of France. 

In 1663, Troops of horse were first supplied with carbine, in ad 
dition to swords and pistols. 

The title of Captain was first introduced in the year 1355, and up 
to the year 1444 the second officer was known as the Petty Captain, 
this word became obsolete by the year 1563. The name of "Lieutenant" 
signified a high officer, and for long 1 was reserved to the King s Depu 
ties or Lord Lieutenants. After the year 1444, Ensign or Standard 
Bearer, was the designation of the third Officer of a Company of Foot. 
Sergeant, has been the title of the expert at drill since 1528. In the 
year 1587, the title of Colonel and Major and the word "Regiment", 
came into general use, and a little later the term "Infantry" was first 
used, this word, like most titles, terms and Military expressions, was 
derived from the French. 

Foot soldiers in France were first called Infanterie, of Fanterie 
in 1550. Officers with the title and duties of Colonel were first appointed 
in the French Army in 1524. 

Red coats were first worn in England by Henry s Body Guard in 
1544, and the English Army were for the first time clothed in Scarlet 
in the year 1645- 

In 1835, the cumbersone hand guns, then in use, were first fitted 
with a stock. Bows and Bills were in use up to the year 1569, when 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 2S9 



they were replaced by Pikes and Firearms. In 1663 Cavalry were 
supplied with Carbines, in addition to Sword and Pistol. In 1697 Match 
locks were substituted for Flintlocks, and two years later the "Socket 
Bayonet" was introduced. 

In 1688 the term Fusilier was adopted, to designate foot soldiers 
who carried the Fusil or Flintlock. The term "Fencibles" originated 
hundreds of years ago, and was a term applied to Corps of regular 
troops enlisted for home service during the War only. 

Medals were first issued by the French, in 1558. The first medals, 
ever issued by the English were for the victory of Dunbar, fought 
Sept. 3*,, 1650, when the troops of the new model army defeated the 
Scotts- 

In 1698 the British Army was reduced to seven thousand men, 
English establishment, and an Irish establishment of twelve thousand, 
the latter to be maintained at the expense of Ireland. The year 1701 
saw a large increase in the Army ( and a further increase was made in 
1703. Pikes were issued in the proportion of one to every five mus 
kets, but they were done away with in 1704, since which date "Pikes" 
were considered useless and Musquets and Bayonets issued to every 
man. The Musquet in use at this period carried sixteen bullets to the 
pound. 

The order of precedence in the British Army is as follows : 

1st. The Royal Horse Artillery, mounted or dismounted. 

2nd. The Regiments of Household Cavalry. 

3rd. The Cavalry of the Line. 

4th. The Royal Artillery. 

5th- The Royal Engineers. 

6th. The Military Train. 

7th. The Foot Guards. 

8th. The Infantry of the line according to their numbers. 

9th. The Depot Battalions. 



The Canadians Regulars-^ 

The Queens Rangers, whose organization was completed at Nia 
gara in 179?, for service exclusively in Upper Canada, and who served 
continuously throughout the Province until the Fall of 1802, when the\ 
were disbanded in Toronto, may be considered as the first Regular Ca 
nadian soldiers. 

In the year 1796 it was found necessary to organize another Corps 
for Active Service, the Queens Rangers not being able to provide a 



300 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



sufficient force to garrison the further Posts, which were being e^a- 
blished, as the country continued to grow. This new corps was the 
fir s t raised in Upper Canada and was designated " the Royal Canadian 
Regiment of Foot." 

John MacDonell, member for the Second Riding of Glengarry, was 
appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 2nd. Battalion. He Lad served 
during the Revolutionary War as an Officer in the 84th. Regiment, and 
also in Butler s Rangers- 

In 1812, the Volunteer Incorporated Militia Battalion was o-ga- 
nized, for service during the War. Lieut Colonel William Rolv.nson, 
formerly Captain in the 8th. Regiment, an able and efficient officer, 
was appointed to the command. 

The Royal Canadian Rifles, organized in 1841, was, like the Queens 
Rangers, recruited from the regular Regiments for service exclusively 
m Canada. They continued to garrison the Frontier Posts until he 
year 1870. 

With the rapid development of the Dominion of Canada, and the 
necessity of providing trained Officers for the forces of Active Militia, 
the Militia Department issued a General Order on the 20th October 
1871, authorizing the formation of two Batteries of Garrison Artillery, 
to be stationed in the Fortress at Quebec and the Tete du Pont Bar 
racks at Kingston. Here Cavalry and Infantry Instructors from the 
Imperial Army were attached for the benefit of Candidates, who de 
sired to qualify for Commissions in the different branches of the Ser 
vice. 

An Officer of the Royal Artillery, T. Bland Strange, was appoint 
ed to command B Battery with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, 
and another Imperial Officer, Captain French R. A., was appointed 
to the command of A. Battery. 

On December 21st, 1883, Sir. Adolphe Caron Minister of Militia, 
authorized the formation of one Troop of Cavalry, to be known as the 
"Cavalry School Corps", with Headquarters at Quebec until further 
orders. The following officers were appointed to the corps from date 
of organization. 

Captain and Brevet Lieut. Colonel, James F. Turnbull, from B. 
Troop of the Queens Own Canadian Hussars, to be Commandant- 

To be Lieutenant, Edward H. T. Reward, from the Gov. Gen. 
Body Guard, for Ontario. 

To be 2nd. Lieutenant, Francis Louis Lessard, llth. June 1884. 
The present Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry also date their 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 301 



organization from 21st. December 1883. The several units comprising 
this corps are stationed at various depots, where their services are 
invaluable, for instructional purposes, to the Officers of the Volunteer 
Force. 



The First Canadian Cavalry. 

The Militia Act of 1793, which provided for the organization of 
the Upper Canadian Militia made no arrangements for the establish 
ment of independent Troops of Cavalry. These early corps were partly 
modelled on the lines of Colonel Simcoe s old Regiment, the Queen s 
Rangers" which contained one or two units of cavalry. These units 
of the First Militia Regiments were numbered consecutively with the 
the companies of Foot and were practically Mounted Infantry. These 
Mounted Infantry Units were styled Dragoons and Light Dragoons. 

In 1812, there were ten of these troops in existence, one of which 
formed a part of the First York Regiment of Militia. This companv 
was organized at the breaking out of the War by John Button who was 
promoted Captain, but there is no mention of this unit taking any active 
part as Cavalry, in the operations on the frontier- 

In the early part of the month of June 1812, Major Thomas Mer- 
ritt, formerly Cornet of Cavalry in the- Queen s Rangers of Revolutio 
nary War fame, who had settled near Niagara and held the office of 
Sheriff of the District, was given authority to recruit for an indepen 
dent Troop of Cavalry, to be known as the "Niagara Light Dragoons." 
Major Merritt desired to form a Squadron of two or three troops but 
was unable to make satisfactory arrangements, however, the organiza 
tion of the Troop authorized was promptly carried out. Alexander 
Hamilton was appointed Captain, William Hamilton Merritt, Lieutenant, 
and Charles Ingersoll of Oxford, Quarter-Master, the latter was promo 
ted Cornet on the 24th. October 1812. After several months strenuous 
service they were disbanded in the month of February 1813. 

On the 3rd. March 1813 a Militia General Order granted permission 
to William Hamilton Merritt organize a new troop of Cavalry to In- 
designated "Provincial Dragoons", they are also known to History as the 
"Niagara Frontier Guides." Cornet Charles Ingersoll was promoted se 
cond in command of this Troop. They have already been referred to in 
a previous part of this work. 

The Canadian Light Dragoons authorized 21st. January and dis 
banded May 24th, 1815, were rai s cd in Montreal and took part in 
the engagement under Proctor at Moravian Town on (he 5th. October 
1S13, when the famous Indian Chieftain, Tecumseh, was killed. 



302 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

After the war all the embodied and sedentary Militia Troops were 
disbanded and became defunct. 

In 1822, eight years after the War, in a reorganization of the Mili 
tia, Captain Denison, grand father of Colonel George T. Denison the 
famous Cavalry man, raised the original troop of the Governor Gene 
ral s Body Guard, it was uniformed and drilled periodiaclly for fifteen 
years, and was in good shape in 1837, when it was taken put on active 
service. 

After the Rebellion all other corps were again disbanded but the 
Denisons determined to keep their Troop as a permanent institution 
and the sons of the Captain purchased uniforms and equipment, and 
kept up the troop drilling a few days every year until 1855, during this 
period up to 1853 there were no other cavalry in existence. 

In 1843 Denison s Cavalry escorted Lord Metcalf on his visit to 
Toronto, they also formed Lord Elgin s escort when that functionary 
was in Toronto in 1850-51. Lord Elgin was so pleased with the appea 
rance of the troop, that he asked Captain George Denison the Second, 
to raise another three troops and make a Regiment. Acting on this 
request Captain Denison met John Button^ Norman McLeod, and 
Sioughten Dennis, when each promised to raise a troop. These addi 
tional troops were organized in 1853. 

In 1855, when the active force was organized, Denison s trop was 
gazetted into the new force under Class A., and a joint troop was made 
of McLeods and Dennis troops as a second troop Class A, and Button s 
Troop was gazetted as Class B. There is no corps in Canada that ranks 
back as an effective organization further than the First Squadron of 
the Body Guards in 1822. 

Under the command of Colonel George T. Denison (George the 
Third) the Body Guards became famous during the Fenian Invasion, 
and under that clever officer reached a very high state of efficiency, 
in fact they were considered by no less an authority than Lord Wol- 
seley, to be more suitable for the erroneous duty of patrolling the Nia 
gara Frontier, work which continued for several months subsequent 
to the fight at Ridgeway, than any body of Regular Cavalry. 

The name of Denison and the term Cavalry may almost be said to 
be synonymous. It has always been a subject of speculation with the 
writer why the valuable and instructive Military works of Colonel G. 
T. Denison are not to be found in the curriculum of our Military schools 
of instruction, a part of the pupil s valued time could not be better oc 
cupied then in studying the important subjects so ably treated by this 
officer. The works are conspicuous only by their absence in the schools 
and the hands of the Canadian Cavalryman, yet they are to be found 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 303 



well known to the Cavalry branch of the service not only in the Euro 
pean Armies, but in those of China and Japan. 

In his interesting work "Story of a Soldiers Life", Britains great 
Field Marshal, Viscount Wolseley, in writing of his experience in Ca 
nada, refers to Colonel George T. Denison, as a born Cavalry leader, 
possessed of natural gifts strengthened by deep study, which have made 
him better fitted for high military command than ninety-five percent of 
the Army officers. He further remarks that Col. Denison would 
have been a Military leader of note in any army he joined, and that is 
much to be regretted that he did not adopt the army as a profession, had 
he done so he must have risen to eminence. 

Government of United Canada in the year 1855, the first corps to be 
gazetted being the first troop Frontenac Cavalry ^ with headquarters in 
the old Garrison City of Kingston, who were gazetted Sept. 20th. 1855, 
three months later two Troops were formed at Toronto and one in St. 
Catherines, two of these Troops were later on to be closely associated 
for many years with the Burford Cavalry. 



The Canadian Volunteers. 
Their Organization in 1855, 

On the 27th day of October in the year 1854, commissioners were 
appointed by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Province, for 
the purpose of investigating the state of the Militia of Canada, of re 
organizing the said Militia and of providing an efficient and economical 
system of public defence, and further to report on an improved system 
of Police for the better preservation of the public peace. 

The Commissioners appointed for this most important work were, 
Allan N. McNabb, E. P- Tache, T. Edmund Campbell and Col. George 
Frederick De Rottenberg, Assistant Q. M. Gen. in Canada. 

The report of the commissioners, a very able comprehensible and 
suitable plan, for the defensive Requirements of a young and growin^ 
country, was presented to the government for their consideration, on the 
10th day of February 1855, and after discussion was, with very little 
alteration, finally adopted, became law, and the organization of the first 
Volnnteer Militia commenced. 

The scheme proposed by the Commission, recommended the esta 
blishment of Volunteer Troops of Militia Cavalry, Field Batteries and 
Foot Companies of Artillery and Companies of Infantry, armed as Ri- 
epien. 



304 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

The force to consist of Sixteen Troops of Cavalry, Seven Field 
Batteries of Artillery, Five Foot Companies of Artillery 
and Fifty Companies of Riflemen. 
Amounting in round member s to 4047 of all arms. 

It was further recommended that, Cavalry Troops be armed with 
Sabres, and Pistols. That Field Batteries of Artillery be armed with 
2 (two) six pounder Guns and 2 (two) twelve Howitzers for each Batte 
ry, and that 8 (eight) Precussion Carbines be supplied to every Field 
Battery, also a sabre to every Gunner and Drummer. 

That the Foot Companies of Artillery be armed with Precussion 
Fusils and Bayonets, and that the Infantry Companies be armed with 
the best description of Minie Rifle and Bayonet, and that the whole of 
the accoutrements supplied to the Volunteer Force be of Brown leather 
which arms and accoutrements be provided free of expense to the Vo 
lunteer Force. 

The uniform to be prescribed by the Governor General, and that 
towards defraying the expenses of such uniform, a sum of two pounds 
(2) be granted to every non-commissioned officer and man on enrollment, 
and on duly providing such uniform. And that a further sum of two 
pounds (2) be granted to each Volunteer on the expiration of three 
years service, and a further sum of two pounds (2) on the completion 
of sev/en years service, and in case any Volunteer should retire from 
the service before the expiration of five years, that such individual be 
required, either to hand over the uniform, or to refund the sum of two 
pounds (2) to whatever person shall enter in his place. 

That the officers and men composing the Volunteer force be exemp 
ted from serving on Juries, and the horses of officers and men in Troops 
of cavalry and Field Batteries of Artillery, if duly enrolled, be exempted 
from execution, distress or assessment. 

The Officers and men comprising the Volunteer Force of Cavalry 
Infantry and Field Artillery, to be required to drill ten consecutive days 
every year, and the Field Batteries of Artillery, twenty days annually, 
ten days of which to be consecutive end to receive pay at rates hereby 
specified : 

S. D- 

Captains.... 10 8 

Lieutenants 7 6 

2nd. Lieutenants, Cornets or Ensigns 6 6 

Non Com. Officers and Privates. . . 50 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



305 



Staff. 

It was further recommended that a Field Officer of Militia to hold 
the rank of Colonel, be nominated to command the Militia in each Mili 
tary District, and that an Assistant Adjutant General of Militia, and an 
Assistant Q. M. G. of Militia be appointed to each District, with the rank 
of Majors of Militia, to act under the orders of the Colonel commanding 
the Districts. 



Report showing proposed localities for the Volunteer Force in Canada 
and the No. of Troops, Go s, etc, at each. 



CANADA West 


No. of 
Troops of 


No. of 
Field Batte 


No. of Cog. 
of Foot 


No. of Cos. 


No. of 


Localities. 


Cavalry. 


ries of 


Artillery. 


of Infantry 


men. 


1. Bytown. 




1 




2 


171 


2. Cornwall. 








I 


50 


3. Prescott. 


1 






1 


100 


4. Brockville. 








1 


50 


5. Kingston. 


1 


1 




1 


171 


6. Belleville. 








1 


50 


7. Napanee. 








1 


50 


8. Cobourg. 


1 






1 


100 


9. Port Hope. 








1 


50 


10. Toronto. 


1 


1 




2 


221 


11. Hamilton. 


1 


1 




1 


171 


12. St. Catharines. 


1 


I 




1 


100 


13. Niagara. 






1 




50 


14. Brantford. 








1 


50 


15. London. 


1 


1 




1 


171 


16. Chatham. 


1 






1 


100 


17. Amherstburg. 






1 




50 


18. Woodstock. 


1 






1 


100 


19. Paris. 








1 


l \J\f 

50 


20. Simcoe. 








1 


50 


21. Dunnville. 








1 


fiO 


22. Gait. 








1 


W 

50 


23. Guelph. 




- 




1 


v \f 

50 


24. Peterboro. 








1 


W 

50 


25. Penetanguishene. 








1 


v\J 

50 


26. Picton. 
27. Perth. 


1 






1 

1 


100 

"id 


28. Sandwich. 


1 






l. 

1 


\j\j 
inn 


29. Dundas. 






1 




1 w" 

SO 


30. Port Sarnia. 








1 


*J\J 

*o 


31. Barrie. 








1 


\J\J 

50 


Totai. C. W. 


1] 


6 


:; 


29 


2505 


Total. C. E. 


5 


2 


2 


21 


1542 


(irand Total. 


. 16 

1 


8 


5 


50 


4047 



306 



THE HISTORY OF EURFORD 



1. Quebec. 


1 


I 


I 


1 


221 

c. f\ 


2. Three Rivers. 








1 


50 


3. Sherbrooke. 


1 






1 


100 


4, Sorel. 








1 


50 


5. Berthier. 








1 


50 


6. St. John. 


1 






1 


100 

_ : . 


7. St. Hyacinthe 








1 


50 

r f\ 


8. Stantead. 








1 


50 


9. Chambly. 








1 


50 


10. Odel town. 








i 


50 


11. Henryville. 








1 


50 

r~ i 


12. Montreal. 


1 


1 




2 


221 


13. Coteau du Lac. 






1 




,10 


14. Nicolet. 








1 


50 


15. St. Marie. 


1 






1 


100 


16. St. Thomas. 








1 


50 


17. St. Ann. 








1 


50 


18. Riviere du Loup. 








1 


50 

ern 


19. Rimouski. 








1 


50 


20. Eboulments. 








1 


50 


21. Deschambault. 








1 


50 


Total 


5 


2 


2 


21 


1542 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



307 



Establishment Active Militia Upper Canada, Class A, 1856. 



Location. 




Com, Officer. 


Offi 
cers 


Men. 


City Ottawa. 


1st. Com. 


Capt. Patterson. 


3 


70 


City Ottawa. 


2nd. Com. 


Capt. Turgeon. 


3 


70 


Cornwall. 


1 Troop Cavalry. 


Major Dickinson. 


3 


50 


Williamsburg. 


1 Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Carman. 


3 


70 


Prescott. 


1 Co. Infantry. 


Lt. Col. Jessup 


3 


70 


Brockville. 


1 Co. Infantry. 


Major Smythe. 


3 


70 


Brockville. 


Batty. Artillery. 


Major Smythe. 


1 


20 


Kingston. 


Batty. Artillery. 


Lt. Col. Jackson. 


4 


71 


*t 


1 Troop Cavalry. 


Lt. Col. Strange. 


3 


50 


u 


1 Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Shaw. 


:i 


82 


n 


2nd. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. O Reilly. 


3 


70 


Napanee. 


1 Troop Cavalry. 


Capt. Sweetman. 


3 


50 


Picton. 


1 Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Webster. 


3 


60 


Brighton. 


1 Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Davidson. 


3 


60 


Cobourg. 


1 Troop Cavalry. 


Capt. Boulton. 


3 


50 


Cobourg. 


1 Co. Infantry. 


Major Ruttan. 


3 


70 


Toronto. 


1 Battery Artillery. 


Major Dennis. 


4 


71 





L Troop Foot Artillery. 


Capt. Denison. 


3 


50 


i< 


I Troop Cavalry. 


Lt. Denison. 


3 





a 


2nd. Troop Cavalry. 


Capt. McLeod. 


3 


50 


Brampton. 


L Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Wright. 


3 


70 


Barrie. 


L Co. Infantry. 


Lt. Col. Durie. 


3 


60 


Hamilton. 


L Field Battery. 


Major Booker. 


4 


71 


M 


, Troop Cavalry. 


Capt. Ryckman. 


3 


50 


II 


. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Gray. 


3 


70 


* 


2nd. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. MacDonell. 


3 


70 


Dundas. 


1 Co. Foot Artillery. 


Lt. Col. Notman. 


3 


50 


Guelph. 


[ Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Kingsmill. 


3 


75 


Gait. 


L Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Date. 


3 


70 


St. Catharines. 


[ Troop Cavalry. 


Capt. Bate. 


3 


50 


St. Catharines. 


[ Co. Infantry. 


Major Clarke. 


3 


70 


Paris. 


L Co. Infantry. 


Major MacCartney. 


:; 


70 


Woodstock. 


[ Co. inrantry. 


Capt. Clarke. 


3 


7d 


London. 


L Field Battery. 


Capt. Shanly. 


4 


71 


it 


i Troop Cavalry. 


Capt. Rivers. 


3 


50 


M 


L Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Barker. 


3 


70 


tt 


2nd. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Hammond. 


3 


70 


St. Thomas. 


[ Troop Cavalry. 


Capt. Bannerman. 


3 


50 


Chatham. 


L Co. Infantry. 


Capt. McCrea. 


3 


70 


Sarnia. 


I Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Vidal. 


3 


60 


Sandwich. 


i Troop Cavahy. 


Capt. Wiglc. 


3 


50 






CLASS B. 






Toronto. 


L Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Campbell. 


3 


70 


Toronto. 


1 Co. Highland. 


( jipt. Smith. 


3 


70 


Collingwood. 


. Co. Highland. 


Capt. Stephen. 


3 


70 


Hamilton. 


. Co. Highland. 


Capt. McCraig. 


3 


70 


Grimsby. 


. Troop Cavalry. 


Capt. Teeter. 


3 


50 


Grimsby. 


. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Randell. 


3 


60 


Port Dover. 


. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Riddcll. 


;; 


70 


Dunnvillc. 


. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Amsden. 


3 


(id 


London. 


. Co. Highland. 


Capt. Moffatt. 


3 


70 


St. Thomas. 


. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Stantmi. 


:{ 


70 


Kingston. 


. Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Mac Nee. 


:< 


82 


Kingston. 


1 Co. Highland. 


Capt. Mclntoch. 


3 


70 



308 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



CLASS B. (Continued.) 


Belleville. 
Markhara. 
Orillia. 


I Co. Infantry. 
1 Troop Cavalry. 
I Co. Infantry. 


Capt. Pontin. 
Capt. Button. 
Capt. O Brien. 


3 
3 
1 


70 
50 
50 



Estimate of the probable annual cost of pay and allowance 
to the volunteer Militia of Canada. 

Cavalry Troops. 



Officers and Men. 


Daily pay and allo 
wances. 


Pay and allowances 
20 days drill. 


Annual Cost. 




L. S. D. 


L. S D. 




1 Captain. 
1 Lieutenant. 


0. 10. 6. 

0. 7- 6. 


5. 5. 0. 
3. 15. 0. 




1 Comet. 


0. 6. tt. 


3. 5. 0. 




50 N. C. O. & Man at 
5S. 


12. 10. 0. 


125. 0. 0. 




Allowance 53 horses at 
5 S 


13. o. 


132. 10. 0. 




1 Drill Instructor. 


0. 7. 6. 


3. 15. 0. 






27. 7. 6. 


2;3. 10. 0. 


T, s fi 



16 Troops in C. E. and C. W. at 273. 10. 0. each. 

Field Batteries of Artillery. 



4984. 0. 0. 



1 Captain. 
2 1st. Lieuts. 


0. 10. 6. 
0. 15. 5. 


10. 10. 0. 
1.-) 0. 0. 




1 2nd " 


0. 6. 6. 


6. 10. 0, 




70 N. C. O." & Man. 


17. 10. 0. 


350. 0. 0. 




Allowance for 56 hor 
ses at 5 S. each. 


14. 0. 0, 


280. 0, 0, 




Allowance to Sergt. 
Maior. 




50. 0. 0. 


50. 0. 0. 


Total 


33. 2 0. 


712. 0. 0. 


.4984. 0. 0. 



7 Field Batteries in C- E and W. at 712. each. 

Foot Companies of Artillery and Co s of Infantry, 



1 Captain. 
1 Lieutenant- 
1 Ensign. 


0. 10. 

0. 7, 
0. 6. 


6. 
6. 
1. 


5. 5. 
3. 15. 
3. 5. 


5. 
0. 
0. 




50 N. C. O. and Men 
at 5. S. each. 


12. 10, 


0. 


125. 0. 


0. 




) Drill Instructor. 


0. 7. 


6. 


3. 15. 


0. 






14. 2. 


0. 


141. 0. 


0. 





55 Companies of Foot Artillery and Infantry in C. E. and W. at 
. 141. each. 



.7755. 0. 0. 




Major R. C. Muir, 

Com. Burford Cavalry. 

1898-1902. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



309 



Return of the Volunteer Force in Ontario. 

Ottawa 31st. Dec. 1867. 



13 Troops of Cavalry 

6 Field Batteries of Artillery 
19 Batteries of Garrison Artillery 

1 Naval Company 
41 Battalions, comprising 302 Cos. 
18 Independent Cos. 



Grand Trunk Ry. Brigade. 

5 Battalions comprising 
12 Batteries of Garrison Artillery 

1 Engineer Co. 
23 Cos. of Rifles 



Civil service Rifle Regiment, 6 Co. 

Total Vol. Force Officers & Men 

Quebec 

Ontario 

G. T. Ry Brigade 

Civil Service Rifle Reg. 



TOTAL 



648 Men 

479 Men 

1109 Men 

57 Men 

18010 Men 

1044 Men 



21347 



742 Men 

58 Men 

1358 Men 



2158 
338 



9911 

21347 

2158 

338 

33754 



The Burford Cavalry. 

J 866- \ 902. 

In compiling these records of the Burford Mounted Volunteers, 
from its organization in 1866, up to and including the year 1902, scarcely 
any documentary detail or official correspondence was available, prior to 
the year 1884, as no effort appears to have been made to preserve any such 
correspondence or commit to writing any systematic record of the services 
of what was first known officially as the Burford Troop of Cavalry, later 
on as No. 5 Troop of the 2nd. Regiment of Cavalry and subsequently as 
"C" Squadron^ 2nd. Dragoons. 



310 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

There may be some events related, which will perhaps be thought to 
belong more to a History of the Regiment, or the Militia Force generally, 
but many will be interested in reading some of the particulars of those 
days connected with the early organization of the Canadian Volunteer 
Army. 

The principal event which hastened the first organization of a Vo 
lunteer Militia force in United Canada and aroused the military autho 
rities to take measures for home defence was caused by the Crimean War- 
To encourage the local government in furtherance of the scheme, the 
home authorities forwarded a large number of Rifles and Carbines known 
as the Enfield and Spencer pattern. 

The Volunteer Militia Act of 1866 provided that the daily pay of 
Cavalry officers should be as follows : Lieut. Col. 1. 3. 0; Major 0.19-3 ; 
Captain 0. 14. 7 ; Lieut 0. 9. 0. Cornet 0. 8. 0. The Act of 1864 provided 
for three hours drill per day during sixteen days. Pay was to be allowed 
for horses at the rate of seventy five cents per hour, for each drill of three 
hours for the number of horses actually and necessarily present at each 
such drill for each Troop of Cavalry. 

Prior to the date on which the Burford Troop of Cavalry were offi 
cially organized, there had been for sometime in existence in Burford a 
body of Mounted men which may be rightly called a Volunteer Cavalry 
Troop, they were under the command of Captain Munger, who resided in 
the eastern end of the village. Captain Munger and his men provided 
their own uniforms, saddlery etc, and their services were given without 
any remuneration. 

The organization of this Troop, it would appear, had been unofficially 
authorized by the Minister of Militia, the Honorable Etienne Pascal Tache, 
but never confirmed by a General Order. Drills and instructions were 
given alternately in Burford, Bishopsgate and Mount Vernon, the latter 
place at that period was known as the "Checkered Sheds." The uniforms 
were dark blue and consisted of a short shell Jacket trimmed with Mo 
hair braid, trousers with one wide white stripe. Flat cap with \vhite 
band and straight leather peak. 

The principal event of interest which occured during the period of 
Captain Munger s command, was their attendance at the "Great Review", 
held in Brantford under General Napier, in which the Royal Canadian 
Regiment and a considerable number of Imperial Troops took part. Cap 
tain Munger s cavalry rendered efficient aid, in holding the lines and res 
training the immense crowds from encroaching on the Parade Ground, 
situated on the Sand Hills North of the city. 

Sometime during the year 1864, Captain Munger removed from B r- 
ford, and the organization practically ceased to exist. It had been expec 
ted that Munger s Troop would have been added to the strength of i.he 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 311 

Volunteer forces, under Class "B", but fortunately for this branch of the 
service, the old system of having two classes in the Cavalry, which was 
always of doubtful utility, was abolished, and the Cavalry Corps were nil 
placed upon the same footing. 

After the raid of 1866 and the battle, or skirmish at Ridgeway, the 
Government decided to largely increase the defensive forces of the coun 
try. An unofficial meeting of a number of the old members and others 
interested, among the most prominent of whom were William Marshall, 
Thomas Lloyd-Jones, D. G- Hanmer and William Serpell, was held in 
the General Stores of Loney & Kirkland, situated on the north-east corner 
of what is now known as King Street and Maple Avenue. To these men 
were chiefly due the credit for the formation of the First Regular Volun 
teer Cavalry in Burford, which has ever since maintained a Migh state of 
efficiency. 

Application was made to the Department at Ottawa, presided over by 
the Honorable John A. MacDonald, who was then Minister of Militia- 
Mr. T. Lloyd Jones, Secretary of the Committee, was authorized to corres 
pond with the Minister and had at least one personal interview with him 
on the matter. The result was in every way satisfactory, and shortly 
afterwards the following names, which had been selected by those inte 
rested, were forwarded to Headquarters for their consideration and con 
firmation : 

For Captain Jacob Bingham 
For Lieutenant W illiam Marshall 
For Cornet Thomas Lloyd- Jones 

The first official order, regarding the Burford Troop of Cavalry, 
signed by the Adjt. General, was issued from Ottawa on Sept. 7th, 1866. 

The Burford Troop of Cavalry, having been ordered to organize by 
the late Minister of Militia, and having provided themselves with equip 
ment, in consequence is placed on the list of the Volunteer Militia as a 
special case. 

To be Captain till further orders, Jacob Bingham^ Esq. 

The second order effecting the Troop was issued from Ottawa, De 
cember 14th, 1866. 

Burford Troop of Cavalry. 

To be Lieut, acting till further orders, William Marshall. 
To be Ensign, acting till further orders, Thomas Lloyd-Jo; 
The equipment mentioned in the first Order, whk h consisted of 
swords and saddles, were as mi-lit be expected cf var rns a<id 

patterns, this equipment, with the exception of that of the officers, was all 



312 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

g ^ ?" __ .__ ---~V. ~ .._ 

discarded almost immediately after, when the Government issued firs:, 
clothirg, and then arms and equipment, making a complete outfit for all 
the Non-commissioned Officer^ and Privates. 

on November 16th 1866, the first issue cf clothing was forwarled 
from Headquarters and shipped direct to Captain Bingham, Paris Sta 
tion, this issue consisted of 

Cloth Tunics (Hussar Pattern) 40 

Cloth Trousers (Hussar Pattern) 40 

Busbies (Hussar Pattern) 40 

Great Coats (Hussar Pattern) 40 

The Busbies were ornamented with Brass plate, Chain and straight 
white, horse hair plume. The Tunics were handsomely trimmed with 
Yellow Cords, and the Trousers with two white stripes. The Uniforms 
and Great Coats were dark blue in color, all of the very best material, 
and there is no doubt that the splendid appearance which the Cavalry 
made at this time had considerable to do with the large number of ap 
plications for membership always on file. White Belts, long swords 
and Spencer Carbines completed the equipment. 

At this period there were no Canadian Military Schools of Instruc 
tion, and the gentlemen selected for officers were required to proceed 
to Toronto, where they were attached to the 13th. Hussars, one of the 
crack Cavalry Corps of the British Army, who were then stationed in 
the old Fort Barrracks. 

Charles Weir of Cathcart, who had received the appointment of t 
Troop Sergeant, as well as most of the other non-commissioned officers, 
accompanied the officers to Toronto, as it was considered to be a matter 
of importance, at that time, to have only thoroughly qualified men to 
fill these positions- 
After some two months steady drills and studies, Certificates were 
granted, and in due course a General Order was issued confirming the 
officers in their rank. On his return home, Captain Bingham proceeded 
to complete the enrolment of his Troop up to a strength of 35 including 
N. C. O. and Privates. 

The men were frequently called together and evinced the greatest 
interest in making themselves acquainted with the various drills and 
movements necessary in the Cavalry branch of the service. 

Under Captain Bingham, the parades were held at both Bishops- 
gate and Burford Village, the men, many of whom resided at a consi 
derable distance, attended cheerfully at these meetings, and gave their 
time without any renumeration. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 313 

Referring to the G. O. of 14th. Dec. 1866, appointing Wm. Marshall 
as Lieutenant and T. Lloyd-Jones as Ensign, it is clear that the desi 
gnation of the 3rd. Officer as "Ensign" was a clerical error, the proper 
title at this period being Cornet. 

Some of the charter members of the force who at that time or later 
on were appointed non-commissioned Officers in the Troop, were Wil 
liam Henry Serpell, Sergeant Major, promoted in 1872 to be Quarter 
master of the new Second Regiment of Cavalry. Sergeants John Car- 
lyle, George Tisdale and Charles Weir. Corporals EH Eddy, Robert 
Shellington and Henry Marshall. Troopers D- G. Hanmer, Jacob Law 
rence, Ephraim Dutcher, Benjamin Haun, Benjamin Smith ) John Thomp 
son, Sherman Townsend, Henry Ballard, James Carlyle, George Clin 
ton Henry Aaron Me Williams, James McWilliams, Robert James, 
Francis Marshall and F. W. Miles. 

Captain Bingham, had formerly resided in Oxford County, where 
he had been an Officer in the First Battalion, Oxford Militia, after his 
removal to Bishopgate, he was gazetted Captain in the Fifth Brant Mili 
tia. For a number of years he carried on an extensive, business in Bi- 
shopsgate, as a manufacturer of Agricultural implements. The first crude 
mowers and reapers manufactured in Brant County, of fearful and won 
derful construction were turned out from his workshops. 



The First Camps of Exercise. 

The first camp of instruction, for the benefit of the Volunteer Militia, 
held in this Province was formed at Thorold, on August 17th, 1866, 
and continued until October 6th, 1866. The Regiments In attendance 
were changed weekly. During this period of time the total number of 
N. C. O. and men present amounted to 6,201 and 475 officers. The only 
Cavalry in attendance was the Cobourg Troop under Lieutenant Colo 
nel Boulton, three officers and forty-four N. C. O. and men, also a de 
tachment of one officer and eight men from Colonel Denison s Troop, 
the latter were present during the whole of Camp, the remainder being 
stationed in detachments at Chippewa, Black Creek, Fort Erie, Ridgeway 
and Port Robinson- 

On the 18th, September, 1868, the Militia Department decided to 
hold a Camp of Instruction at Toronto } for the benefit of the Cavalry 
and Artillery branches of the service. 

By G. O. No. 1, of that date, a Camp of Exercise was authorized 
to be held on 1st October next ensuing, composed of Field Batteries 
and Troops of Cavalry, for Volunteer Militia. The Commander-in- 



314 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Chief having appointed Colonel Anderson C. B., of the Royal Artillery, 
to command the Field Batteries, and Col. Jenyns C. B., 13th Hussars, 
to command the Troops of Cavalry there assembled. The experience 
gained at this Camp was of lasting benefit to the Troops of Cavalry 
present among whom were the Burford soldiers. This was the first 
occasion in the History of the Burford Troop on which they attended 
a Camp of Exercise. They were not again called away from home 
until the year 1871. During this interval the drills were performed in 
the Fall of the year at Troop Headquarters, the manoeuvres and tacti 
cal work being carried out on the estates of R. C. Muir, J. P. and 
Elisha Stuart. 

At this time, and for a number of years after, a great deal of 
attention was given to training the Volunteers how to shoot, the cons 
tant practic developed a very much higher average then has been made 
during the past twenty years. The targets first used were construc 
ted of wood and were placed against one of the large straw stacks always 
to be found on the Stuart farm. After every shot the "Flag-man" 
would appear from the back of the stack, plug the holes, and signal the 
result to the firing line. Later on an iron target was received from the 
Militia Department and this was erected on the southern end of a large 
field, the property of Squire Muir. All balls missing the target finding 
lodgement in the large trees in the "Winskel Grove". 

At the close of the Annual Drills, the usual inspection was held 
by a Staff Officer, this duty was carried out by Lieut. Col. Henry V. 
Villers, Brigade-Major, with Headquarters at Hamilton, who never 
failed to highly compliment the officers on the soldierlike and creditable 
manner in which the drills and manoeuvres were performed. 



The Field Day at Brantford. 

On the 18th day of September, 1869, the Burford Troop of Caval 
ry had their first experience in Brigade and Review Work. Assem 
bling at Burford early on the morning of that day, they marched to 
Brantford, when in company with the 38th. Battalion, consisting of 23 
Officers and 291 men, under the command, of Lt. Col. Patton, and 
four Companies of the 3rd, Batt, Grand Trunk Brigade, the latter under 
the command of Major Larmour, they formed up in Review Order on 
the Heights north of the city, where they were inspected by the Adju 
tant General, Colonel P- Robertson Ross. The Cavalry on this occasion 
were under command of Captain Bingham and made a splendid appea 
rance, they were highly complimented by the Adjutant General, who in 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 3*5 

his Official Report referred to the Troop as a splendid body of active 
young men especially well horsed. After a minute inspection, the men 
were supplied with blank ammunition, a regular Field Day followed, 
both Cavalry and Infantry skirmished, advancing and retiring and made 
occasional charges which greatly impressed the crowds of visitors. 

The Honorable George Etienne Cartier was now Minister of Mi- 
litia, and during his term of office the Volunteer militia particularly 
the Cavalry ; received very little encouragement. The period of Drill 
was reduced from 16 to 13 days, with permission to perform 
this by extra drills in 6 l / 2 days, this gave the men $1.00 per day, 
but the pay for the horses remained the same. Members of the 
Militia who resided at a distance from their Headquarters and were 
obliged to provide themselves with accommodation at the Hotels, received 
practically nothing for their time. In face of this and other discoura 
gements, such as rumors that the days of mounted men -were over in 
the Army, and that Cavalry was a useless branch of the service, the 
Burford Troop was always up to full strength with picked men. 

At the close of the year 1869, the Canadian Volunteer Militia num 
bered (on paper) as follows : 

Cavalry 1500 Officers & Men 

Garrison Artillery 3558 Officers & Men 

Field Batteries (10) 750 Officers & Men 42 Guns. 441 Hors. 

Engineers (4 Cos). 232 Officers & Men 

Naval Brigade (Halifax) 233 Officers & Men 

In f try and Rifles (73 Batts) 37,268 Officers Men 



TOTAL 43,541 



In the month of October, 1871, there assembled at Niagara-on-the 

Lake, for a period of 16 days Drill, three Squadrons of Cavalry, three 
Field Batteries, (twelve guns) and several Rural Corps of Infantry. 
In all, 4,753 men, the whole under the Command of Lt. Col. Duric. 

The Cavalry present, among whom where the Burford Troop, were 
given a taste of regimental drill, and the result pro\\<l SO satisfactory, 
that the Militia Department decided to form the various independent 
Cavalry Units into a Provincial Regiment, this scheme was carried out 
the following year. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Organizationfof the Second Regiment of Cavalry. 

After Confederation, in 1867, the new Dominion Government set 
about the reorganization of the various Provincial Corps of Volunteer 
Militia. It was decided to form the isolated rural Troops and Com 
panies into Regiments and Battalions. 

On February 6th, 1869, a General Order stated that the following 
Corps, enrolled under the Act 31 Vic, Chapter 40, respecting the Mili- 
Defence of the Dominion of Canada, as well as those organized 
prior to 1st October, 1868, which have within three months after the 
day on which the said Act came into force, regularly enrolled as Vo 
lunteer Militia, are hereby declared to be existing and are continued as 
such, subject to the Provisions of said Act- 

No. 3 Military District, Cavalry. 

Governor General Body Guard, Toronto, 

York Squadron (Oak Ridges and Markham Troops). 

St, Catherines Troop, Grimsby Troop, Burford Troop. 

This order fixed the status of the Cavalry in the new Canadian 
Army. 

By General Order of 10th May, 1872, the formation of a District 
Regiment of Cavalry composed of the following Troops was authorized 
in Military District No. 2, to be known as 

"THE 2nd. REGIMENT OF CAVALRY." 
with Headquarters at Oak Ridges. 

St. Catherines Troop as No 1 Troop 

Oak Ridges (1st Troop York Squadron) No 2 Troop 

Markham (2nd Troop York Squadron) No 3 Troop 

Grimsby as No 4 Troop 

Burford as No 5 Troop 

Queenston as No 6 Troop 

Barrie as No 7 Troop 

Welland as No 8 Troop 

Previous to the formation of the 2nd Regiment of Cavalry, only 
five of the eight Troops composing the new organization, were in exis- 
tance, but on the same date, 10th May, 1872, the Queenston Troop or 
Mounted Infantry were changed to a Troop of Cavalry, with the follow 
ing Officers : 

Captain Lieut. T. J. Brown, 

Lieutenant Ensign Alex. Servos, 

Cornet Sergt. Nelson Young, 



THE HISTORY OF BURFQRD 317 

Also on the above date, a Troop of Cavalry at Welland was au 
thorized, with the statement that Arms and the necessary Equipment 
would be furnished, when the Department of Militia and Defence were 
in a position to do so. 

The different Troops comprising the new Regiment were numbered 
according to seniority and the same plan was followed when making a 
selection of Regimental Staff Officers. 



Official Orders, authorizing formation of the Toronto, St- Cathe- 
i hies, Orimsby and Markham Cavalry. 

Troop Organization. 

Toronto, 27th December, 1855. 

No 5 Military District, Upper Canada. 

Two Troops Volunteer Militia Cavalry to be formed at Toronto, 
to be styled 1st and 2nd Troops of Volunteer Militia Cavalry of the 
County of York, with their Headquarters at Toronto. The following 
Officers are appointed to these Troops. Viz : 

First Troop. 

To be Captain, Capt. Robert B. Denison, from York Light Drag s. 

Lieutenant Lieut. Peter M. McCutchon, from York Light Drag s. 
Cornet, Cornet Geo. T. Denison, Jr, from York Light Drag s. 

Second Troop. 

Captain, Capt. Norman T- McLeod, from York Light Dragoons- 
Lieut., Capt. J. S. Dennis, from York Light Dragoons. 
" " Cornet, Ed. C. C. Foster, Gentleman, 



Quebec 27th, September, 1855. 

The formation of the following Corps are hereby authorized : Mili 
tary District No. 7. St. Catharines. 

One Troop of Cavalry to be styled the 1st Volunteer Militia Troop 
of Cavalry of St. Catharines. 

To be Captain, Lieut. Bate from St- Catharines (Sedentary) Troop 
of Cavalry. 



318 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Toronto, 13th. December, 1856. 
Military District No 7. 

One Volunteer Troop of Cavalry a tGrimsby, to be style^ the 1st. 
Volunteer Militia Troop of Cavalry of Grimsby. 
To be Captain, Conrad Teeter, 
To be Lieut., John Byam Cutler, 
To be Cornet, Andrew M. Pettit. 



Toronto, July 17th, 1856. 
Military District No 5. 

One Volunteer Troop of Cavalry at Markham, to be styled the 3rd. 
Troop of Volunteer Militia Cavalry of the County of York. 
To be Captain, \Vm. Button. 
To be Lieut. 
To be Cornet. 

DE ROTTENBURY Col 

Adjt. Gen. of Militia. 
DONALD MACDONELL, 

Dep. Adjt. Gen. of Militia. 

The York Light Dragoons, were a Corps of sedentary militia, reor 
ganized on 29th. Jan. 1852, on which date Robert B. Denison and Norman 
T. McLeod were gazetted Captains in that Corps. In after years when 
Capt. R. B. Denison became the head of the most important Military Dis 
trict in the Dominion of Canada, he always retained a warm interest in 
the Cavalry, and was on particularly friendly terms with the officers of 
the Burford Cavalry. 

The Denison family were undoubtedly the fathers of the Cavalry 
service in the Province of Upper Canada, and the fortunes of their Com 
mand and that of the 2nd. Regiment of Cavalry, were to be incorporated 
at different periods. 

On the 10th May, 1872, the same date on which the Regiment was 
organized, the following Staff \vere gazetted : 

Lieut-Col, commanding, Brevet Lt. Col. and Major Norman Torquil, 
McLeod, C. S. M. S., from 1st Squadron York Light Cavalry. 

Major, Brevet Lt. Col. and Capt. Wm. Button, C. S., from No. 3 (Mark- 
ham) Troop. 

Major, Capt: George Book, C. S., from No. 4 (Grimsby) Troop. 
Paymaster, Brevet-Major and Capt Currie V. B., from Queenston Moun 
ted Infantry Company. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 319 



Adjutant, with rank of Captain, Adjutant Silas \V. Spillette C. C. M. S. 

(formerly of 9th. Lancers ) ? from 19th. Battalion. 

Quarter master, with rank of Cornet, Sergt, Major \V. H. Serpell, C. S. 
Surgeon, J. Ackland De La Hooke, from 1st Sq. York Light Cavalry. 
Asst. Surgeon, Thos. Clarke, M- D. 

Veterinary, Charles Elliott, M. S., formerly Lieut. 36th. Battalion. 

No 7, Barrie Troop, does not appear to have ever joined the Regiment 
in Camp or perfected their organization, but for many years the Welland 
Troop continued to be referred to in all official orders as "No. 8." 



No. 8 Troop Welland Ottawa, 7th June 1872. 



To be Captain Wm. Buchner M. S. 

To be Lieut. Prov. Ruben House, 

To be Cornet, Prov. Hampden D. Willson. 



The June Camp of 1 872. 

Regulations for the Annual Drill of 1872. 

The Annual Drill for the Military year of 1872, will be carried out in 
the following manner : Camps of Exercise will be formed in every Mi 
litary District ; at which the Cavalry, Field Artillery and Infantry Corps 
will be concentrated in tactical Brigades and Divisions of the three Arms, 
for 16 days Drill and Manoeuvres. 

Officers, non-cornmissioners officers and men attending such camps, 
will be paid and supplied during the period as if called out for actual Ser 
vice. 

The Brigades and Divisions will be under the personal Command of 
the Deputy Adjutants General, commanding the Militia^ in Military Dis 
tricts, who accompanied by the permanent District Staff Officers, will 
encamp with the Troops during the whole period the Camps are in opera- 
tion^ in order to superintend the Drill and Target practice of Corps, carry 
out the supply and transport arrangements, as well as to take Military 
command and regulate all duties in Cam]). 

Military District No. 2. 

A Division composed as follows will be assembled in a Camp of 
Exercise on the Niagara Frontier at Niagara on 12th June : 



320 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Cavalry. 

No. 1 Troop, the Governor General s Body Guard and the 2nd. Re 
giment of Cavalry, 8 Troops, Lt. Col. McLeod. 

No. 1 Troop of the Governor General s Body Guard will be attached 
to the 2nd- Regiment of Cavalry for pay, rations, and discipline, during the 
period the Division is assembled. 



Field Artillery, 



Toronto Field Battery. 
Hamilton Field Battery. 
Welland Field Battery. 



1st, Infantry Brigade. 



2nd. Queens Own Rifles 

10th. Royals Infantry 

12th. York Infantry 

13th. Hamilton Infantry 

19th. Lincoln Infantry 



2nd, Infantry Brigade, 



20th. Halton Rifles 

31st. Gray Infantry 

34th. Ontario Infantry 

35th. Simcoe Infantry 

36th- Peel Infantry 



3rd, Infantry Brigade. 



37th. Haldimand Rifles 

38th. Brant Rifles 

39th. Norfolk Rifles 

44th. Welland Infantry 

77th. Went worth Infantry 



P. ROBERTSON ROSS Adit. Genera. . 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



321 



Division Staff. 

Quartermaster Gen. Lt-Col. R. B. Denison, 
Asst. Quartermaster Gen. Lt-Col. H- V. Villers. 

Troop Officers of the 2nd. Regiment of Cavalry 1872. 



No. 1, St. Catharines Troop. 
Captain, John Johnson Gregory. 
Lieut., Joseph Grobb, 
Cornet, Roland W. Gregory. 



No. 4, Grimsby Troop. 
Captain, William H. Patterson. 
Lieut., Robert B. Patterson. 
Cornet, Francis O. Burch. 



No. 2, Oak Ridges Troop. 
Captain, James Buclianan Baldwin, 
Lieut., James McConnell 
Cornet, William Morton. 



No. 5, Troop Burford. 
Captain, Jacob Bingham. 
Lieut., William Marshall. 
Cornet, Thomas Lloyd-Jones. 



No. 3, Markham Troop. 
Captain ( James Elliott, 
Lieut-, Francis Button. 
Cornet, John Reynolds Button. 



No. 6, Troop, Queenston. 
Captain, T- J. Brown. 
Lieut., Alex. Servos. 
Cornet, Nelson Young. 



No. 8, Troop, Welland. 
Captain, William Buchner. 
Lieut., prov. Reuben House. 
Cornet, prov. Hampden D. Wi! c O!i. 



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Queenston 
St. Catharines 
Oak Ridges 
Markham 
Grimsby 



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Captain Bingham s Retirement, 

Towards the latter part of Captain Bingham s command he had be 
come careless and indifferent regarding the efficiency of his Troop, the 



322 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

equipment being left mostly in the hands of the men, in some cases the 
Military Headstalls, Halters, Tie chains etc, were for a time in daily use 
by a few of the citizen soldiers in their peaceful pursuits. Captain Bing- 
ham s neglect for the safe keeping of the Government stores, and his ne 
gligence in the discipline of his men, was principally the result of business 
difficulties, which culminated in the loss of the greater part of his trade, 
owing to competition from stronger and better equipped concerns. Finding 
iis financial affairs in extricable confusion, he left suddenly for the Uni 
ted States, and Lieut. Wm. Marshall immediately assumed command. 

This Officer, who during his connection with the force proved him 
self to be an able, efficient and popular Cavalryman, issued a positive 
order to every member of the Troop to at once return to stores all Govern 
ment property in their possession, at the same time Constable Daniel Dunn 
was sent out to recover any equipment wherever found. 

After a considerable amount of work, Trooper Dunn gathered in 
nearly all the missing articles and was placed in charge of all Troop stores, 
a position he held for many years- Under his- care everything was kept 
in perfect order. Trooper Daniel Dunn was for long considered the most 
expert swordsman in the Regiment, a most loyal and enthusiastic soldier ; 
he was finally promoted to the rank of Regimental Quartermaster Ser 
geant. 

On the promotion of Lieut. \Ym. Marshall to the command of the 
Burford Cavalry, Cornet Thomas Lloyd Jones became Lieutenant and 
^ergeant Major Charles Weir was Pinpointed Cornet, the latter was suc 
ceeded as Sergeant Major by Jacob Lawrence, who had joined in 1866, 
the latter served continuously for some twenty-five years, and deserves 
special mention for his never failing courtesy and his tact with the men 
under his command. He was noted for his punctuality and as a member 
who never missed a Drill or a Camp. During the first camps of Exercise 
at Niagara his services were invaluable to his superior officers, to a large 
degree he possessed the instinct of always doing the right thing at the 
right time. 

Having reached the age limit, Sergeant Major Lawrence retired, after 
serving at the June Camp of 1891, and was succeeded by the Senior Ser 
geant, W. K. Muir. 

In the month of May 1875, Orders were issued for another large 
Camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake, but to further economize, pay would only 
be allowed for two Officers per Troop, and further, all Troops whose 
Headquarters were over forty miles distant, had the option of drilling at 
Troop Headquarters, or marching to Camp. 

A short time after this Order was issued, Lieut-Lloyd-Jones received 
a personal letter from the D. A. G., Lt-Col. R. B. Denison, in which he 
was offered a position on the Staff during the ensuing Camp, the accep- 




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. THE HISTORY QF BURFORD 8-23 

tance of which would permit Cornet Weir to take his place with the Troop 
and draw the usual pay. After consultation with Capt- Marshall, Lieut. 
Jones replied signifying his willingness to accept the position, and warmly 
thanked Col. Denison for his kind offer. 

Retirements Promotions, Appointments. 

On the 26th September, 1873, a General Order appeared in the Ca 
nada Gazette, confirming Lieut. Wm. Marshall in the Captaincy, and pro 
moting his subalterns. 

To be Captain, Lieut. Wm. Marshall C. S., Vice Bingham, left limits. 
To be Lieutenant, Cornet Thos. Lloyd-Jones, C. S. Vice Marshall pro 
moted. 

To be Cornet, Troop Sergt.-Major Charles Weir, C. S-, Vice Jones pro 
moted. 

On the 12th June, 1874, by General Order, the first Commanding 
Officer of the 2nd Regiment of Cavalry, Lt-Col. Norman Torquill Mc- 
Leod, who had previously sent in his resignation, was permitted to retire, 
retaining rank. This Officer had served for a considerable length of 
time in the York Dragoons, he was gazetted Captain of the Oak Ridges 
Troop on December 27th, 1855, Major in 1865, and Lieut. Colonel of the 
York Squadron in 1867. 

On the retirement of Lt. Col. McLeod, the command of the Regiment 
devolved on Major Wm. Button ; forrnerly in command of the Markham 
Troop. This Officer, however, did not long retain the honor, having sent 
in his resignation, by General Order of 18th. December 1874, he was per 
mitted to retire, retaining his Brevet Rank of Lt. Col. Major George 
Book C. S., formerly in command of the Grimsby Troop, now succeded 
to the command of the Regiment, but he, like Major Button, was never 
gazetted Lt. Colonel. 

Major Book having removed from the Province, a General Order 
was issued from Ottawa on 30th- May 1879. 

Captain and i .revet Major John J. Gregory C. C. of No. 1 Troop 
will, during the absence from l^gimental limits of Major Book, assume 
the command of the Regiment until further orders. 

During the Summer of 1879, there being no word of Major Book s 
return to Regimental limits, Captain John Johnston Gregory pressed for 
his promotion. On the 17th. October, 1879, the following G. O. was 
issued : 

Major George Book having left limits, his name is hereby removed 
from the List of Officers of the Active Militia. 

During the Fall of 1S(>7, John J. Gregory was attached to the 13tK 
Hussars, Toronto, for Drill and Instructions. Obtaining a first clas? 



324 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

certificate he was immediately gazetted Cornet to No. 1 St Catharines 
Troop. On 5th. April 1867, promoted Lieutenant, and in January 1870 
succeeded to the command of his Troop. 

2nd. Regiment of Cavalry Troop Commanders, 1879- 

No. 1 Troop, St Catharines, Capt. and Brevet Major, John J. Gregory. 

" 2 " Oak Ridges, Capt. McConnell. 

" 3 Markham, Capt. and Brevet Major, James Elliot. 

" 4 Grimsby, Capt. Patterson. 

" 5 Burford, Capt. Marshall. 

6 Queenston, Capt. Brown. 

" 8 Welland, Capt. Wm. Buchner- 

Establishments 385, Actual Strength 241. 



Why the Cavalry Drilled only Biennially during the Seventies. 

During the Seventies, a period of great Commercial depression pre 
vailed in Canada. The Government, who had first to provide for the 
North West Mounted Police, and the newly formed permanent Batteries 
in Kingston and Quebec, found very little money left to provide for the 
Drill of the Active Militia, taking for instance the year 1877, when L. R. 
Masson was Minister of Militia, we find that the 2nd. Regiment of Ca 
valry like many others, were not required to perform Annual Drill. 

The Militia Grant this year was less than one Million dollars, the 
exact amount being $931.956, from which deduct $300.356 for North 
West Mounted Police, $50.000 for Royal Military College, leaving some 
what more than half a million dollars, for Militia purposes proper, and 
the supply of all Warlike stores, clothing for the whole force and for the 
two Gunnery Schools, Rifles, Ammunition, Guns, Saddlery, Gun Powder, 
as well as Accoutrements and Equipment of every description that an 
Army requires, for the Drill Pay and incidental expenses attending on 
Drill and training. There remained only the meagre and insufficient sum 
of $155.000, a sum altogether inadequate to keep the 42.000 Volunteer Mi 
litia of Canada in a proper state of training and effectiveness. 

The following year, 1878, A. Campbell was appointed Minister of 
Militia and Defense- The Burford Troop was authorized to drill at 
Troop Headquarters. On the 27th Day of September 1879, it was inspec 
ted by the Brigade-Major, Lt-Col. H. V. Villiers, and found to be in a 
throughly efficient state. The horses were particularly good. The Ins 
pection was carried out on the farm of R. C. Muir J- P. 



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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 325 

On the previous day, Col. Villiers had inspected the Queenston Troop 
of Cavalry, under Capt. Brown, on Niagara Common, where they had 
performed six days drill. The remainder of the Troops of the Regiment, 
like Burford, carried out their drills at Troop Headquarters. 



The 2nd Commanding Officer of the 2nd Regiment 

of Cavalry. 

After the retirement of Lt-Col. McLeod on the 12th June 1874, the 
Regiment remained without any positive head, until the 8th June 1883, a 
period of about nine years- On the latter date a General Order was is 
sued. 

2nd. Regiment of Cavalry. 

To be Lt-Col. and Command the Regiment, Capt. and Brevet Major 
John Johnston Gregory, C. C. from No. 1 Troop ; Vice McLeod retired. 

It is interesting to note by the above order, that the Commanding 
Officer of No. 1 Troop, had the unusual experience of being promoted to 
the Colonelcy, without ever having being gazetted to the intermediate grai 
of Major ; although since the year 1879, he, as Senior Captain, had acted 
as Commanding Officer of the Regiment. 

During Colonel J. J. Gregory s tenure of Command, the Regiment 
met biennially on Niagara Camp Ground. At these Encampments the 
Cavalry were left entirely to themselves under the trees in Paradise Grove, 
except on Field Days or when Brigade Movements were being carried out. 

A leading future of the Cavalry Quarters was the heavy Regimental 
Guards that were maintained, from four to six Sentries were constantly 
to be seen on their Beats surrounding the Cavalry Camp Ground. This 
meant the employment of some twenty four Privates, one Sergeant, one 
Corporal, and one Trumpeter. This Guard which was later on almost 
entirely dispensed with, was the most exacting and disagreeable part of 
Camp Life. Many old members can doubtless recall the times, when 
they were called up every four hours, during their twenty four, to pace 
for two hours on their Beat. To be called up in the middle of a dark ,nd 
rainy night, from a sound sleep, by the inexorable Corporal of the Guard 
and hurried out to their Posts of Duty, was a taste of real soldering. In 
those days the Sergeant of the Guard was considered to rje a great man. 
The Corporal a very lucky man, while the Trumpeter would not exchange 
places v:ith the Colonel. 

Stable Duties were carried out at such times, and in such a manner, 
as best suited the time of the men and the ideas of the Troop Sergeant- 
Majors. After the first week in Camp, when the Regiment came together, 



326 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

a considerable part of its work consisted of wild gallops, from one end of 
the Common to the other, when these furious charges were made by the 
Regiment in line with drawn Sabres, the gallant Colonel in the lead, who 
no doubt had in mind the famous Charge of the Light Brigade," at the 

Battle of Balaclava. 



The sight of these charges were so inspiring, and made such an im 
pression on the Camp Commandant, Col. R. B. Denison, that he issued 
strict orders to the effect that the ground lying in front of old Fort Geor 
ge, and extending from the English Church to the Railway Cut, be left 
entirely for the use of the Cavalry. 



On the promotion of Capt. J. J. Gregory to the Command of :-.lie 
Regiment, the Militia Dept. decided to complete the Staff, and on 22nd. 
June 1883, a further General Order \vas issued. 

2nd. Regiment of Cavalry. 

To be Majors, Capt. and Brevet-Major James Elliott, C- C. from No. 3 
Troop, vice Button retired. Capt. Wm. Marshall C. C. 
from No. 5 Troop, vice Book left limits. 

Ottawa. 8th February, 1884. 

G. O. No. 5, 2nd. Regiment of Cavalry, No. 5 Troop Burford- To 
be Lieutenant. Sergeant Robert Cuthbertson Muir, C. C. vice Jones pro 
moted. Memo ; 2nd. Lt. Charles Weir having left limits, his name is 
hereby removed from the List of Officers of the Active Militia. 

It is a peculiar fact to note, that although Cornet Charles Weir had 
left limits nearly ten years previously, no official notice was taken of his 
absence, and in the above order he was referred to, as 2nd- Lieut. To ex 
plain this matter to the readers of this History, it will be necessary to state 
that in the month of June 1874, the Militia Dept. decided to reduce the 
strength of the Active Militia Force to 30,000 Officers, non-com. Officers 
and men at the same time, a number of new Corps gazetted, but not yet 
equipped, were removed from the list of the Active Militia. 

Among this list were 7 Troops of cavalry. A General Order was 
also issued stating that the nominal strength of each Troop of Cavalry 
was not to exceed 40 officers and men- It was further stated that as va 
cancies for officers occurred, the strength of officers was to be reduced to 
2 per each Troop of Cavalry. 

Referring to the above order of 8th February, 1884, it will be noted 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 327 

that Charles Weir is referred to as 2nd. Lieut. We find from the Records 
that the title of the third Troop Officer, Cornet, was dropped in the year 
1880, and that of 2nd. Lieut, substituted. 

On 6th July, 1877, General Orders permitted Cornet and Quarter 
master, Wm. H. Serpell, to have the Honorary Rank of Lieut. 

On 20th July 1883, the following Memo appeared : "Quartermaster 
with the honorary rank of Lieut. Wm. H. Serpell, to have the honorary 
rank of Captain, from 6th July, 1882." 

To continue the Record of Capt. Serpell s services, he continued to 
act as Quartermaster until 30th June, 1887, when he was placed on the 
retired list retaining his honorary rank. 

Capt. Wm. H- Serpell is another old veteran who deserves special 
mention here from the fact of his long service in both the Sedentary and 
Active Militia. He was first gazetted Ensign in the 4th Batt. Oxford, on 
12th May, 1847. On 20th March 1856, he was gazetted the Senior Lieut, 
in the 3th Batt. Brant. On 2nd of April, 1857 promoted Captain, and on 
27th March, 1864, when the South Riding of Brant was formed into a 
Regimental Division, consisting of 2 Divisions, numbered 1 and 2, he was 
appointed the Capt. of No. 1, in what was called The Reserve Batt. Brant. 

Ottawa, 30th June, 1887. 

To be Quartermaster with honorary rank of Captain, 2nd, Lieut. 
James Sheppard S- C. from No. 6 Troop, vice honorary Captain Joshua 
U. Fowler, who is hereby permitted to retire retaining his honorary rank. 

When this Order appeared, the Officers of the Regiment were some 
what mystified, never having heard of or known any Quartermaster in 
connection with the 2nd. Regiment of Cavalry of the above name. After 
considerable inquiry had been made, it was found that a most unusual 
error had been made at Head Quarters, and to correct this mistake, there 
appeared on the 15th July 1887, this memo : 

2nd. Regiment of Cavalry. 

ERRATA : In No. 3 of G. O. (12) 30th June, 1887, read Wm. H. 
Serpell instead of Joshua U. Fowler. 

After the appointment of Quartermaster Sheppard, who resided in 
Queenston, it was found to be a decided advantage to the Regiment, when 
going into and returning from Camp, to have this officer living so near the 
Camp Ground. 

The Colonel s Impromptu Review. 

During the June Camp of 1883, just after the promotion of Lt-Col. 
Gregory to the Command of the Regiment, it had been arranged to hold 



328 THE HISTORY OF BURFOKD 



a Grand Review and "March Past" on the morning of the second day 
before Camp broke up. Visitors from Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catharines, 
Buffalo, and the adjacent country poured in to enjoy the spectacle, and 
there was a great cleaning up and furbishing of Steel Halter chains, and 
whitening of Belts for the occasion, but to the great disappointment of 
both soldiers and visitors, about 9 A- M., the hour set for Muster Parade, 
the rain commenced falling and as it showed no signs of letting up, the 
Order for the Review was cancelled and during the balance of the fore 
noon, the Cavalry passed their time entertaining their numerous visitors. 

About 1 o clock the sky cleared off and the various Corps in Camp 
paraded for Regimental Drill. Fort George was crowded with sight 
seers, and as usual the ground in front of the Historic old Earthworks 
was pre-empted by the 2nd. Regiment of Cavalry, who it should be stated, 
was the only Cavalry Corps in Camp. 

The Regiment, with its 7 Troops of clean, active looking men, pre 
sented a splendid appearance, and the Colonel decided in his mind, that 
the opportunity of gratifying the visitors with a Military Display, for 
showing off the Regiment to the best advantage, and to the satisfaction of 
the officers and men, was too good to be lost. He immediately communi 
cated with the Commanding Officers of several Infantry Regiments, whose 
men were casting longing eyes towards the Grand Stand, and it was arran 
ged that these Corps, with the Cavalry, should form in line, and march 
past to the music of the Massed Bands. 

The Cavalry being the first branch of the service and the proposition 
having come from the Colonel of the Cavalry, that Officer assumed com 
mand of the Brigade. Accompanied by several pro-tern aids and Staff 
Officers, Lt-Col. Gregory took Post at the Reviewing Point, when the 
Brigade wheeled into column and commenced the "March Past." 

The various Regimental Officers and men, with due formality salu 
ting the Reviewing Officer, who acknowledged the same with all the di 
gnity and impressiveness of an Inspector General. As a matter of fact, 
most of the visitors from a distance did not know the difference. 

During the performance of the various movements incidental to a 
March Past, the attention of the Camp Commandant, Lt-Col. Robt. B. 
Denison was drawn to the display taking place on the Common, after 
a lengthy survey of the movements through a powerful Field Glass, he 
decided not to interfere with the operations ; but for the future he decla 
red that, rain or shine, all such displays should be carried out ; at the time 
and dates set, under his own personal supervision. 




A Non Com. Officer ot the 
Burford Cavalry, 1887. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 329 



The Age Limit for Officers. 

Previous to the year 1883, there was practically no limit to the age 
at which an Officer was compelled to relinquish the Command of Troop 
or a Regiment, and as a result many Lieutenants and 2nd. Lieutenants, in 
certain Troops and Companies of a Regiment, found that after from ten 
to twenty years service, they were still where they started, while other 
Junior Officers who had perhaps joined only a few years previously, were 
through various circumstances quickly promoted from Cornet to Captain 
in their Troops. This state of affairs led to a great deal of grumbling, 
and remonstrances were frequently made to Brigade Office- As a partial 
remedy the Militia Dept. issued an order on 9th November 1883. 

With the view of maintaining the Active Militia in a state of efficien 
cy. Lt-Col s. who attain the age of 60 years, Majors the age of 55, Cap 
tains the age of 50, and Lieutenants the age of 45, may be placed on the 
retired list. This regulation will apply also to Regular Staff Officers, 
according to their relative rank. 

In the year 1884, Major General R. G. A. Laurd, then in command 
of the Canadian Militia ; at the June Camp of 1884, inspected the 2nd. Re 
giment of Cavalry. In his Annual Report, this clever and distinguished 
soldier recommended a new uniform for Cavalry, requiring neither pipe 
clay nor yellow washing. This was one of the most common sense re 
commendations ever made by a General Officer, and showed the Cavalry 
that his Inspection had not been a superficial one, and that his remarks 
were the result of close observation and an earnest desire to advance the 
interests of the Cavalrymen- This was also his last report before leaving 
Canada. 

During the year a reconstruction of the Cavalry Corps had been 
effected by transferring the Oak Ridges and Markham Troops from the 
2nd. Cavalry to the Gov. Gen. Body Guards, and making the latter a Re 
giment of 4 Troops. While this change did not effect the efficiency of 
the first named Corps, which had still 5 Troops, it very much improved 
that of the latter. 

Thus it happend that the York Cavalry, which had formerly been 
connected with Denison s Command, were after a period of some 28 years, 
as part of the 2nd. Regiment of Cavalry, to again become a part of their 
old Corps, and form the left wing of their new Regiment. 

Reporting on the change, the Dep. Adjt. Gen. under date of 10th Nov. 
1889, remarked as follows : 

The Inspection of this Corps (The Gov. Gen. B. G.) was made by 
me on 29th. June on the Garrison Common, Toronto, at the end of its 6 
clays Drill. The 2 Troops lately transferred from the 2nd- Reg. of Ca 
valry, were present in full strength and though a marked difference was 



330 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

apparent between them and the old Troops in point of cleanliness, I am 
satisfied that competition will in a very short time dispel and other simi 
lar defects. The augmentation of the Body Guards must of necessity 
bring about increased enthusiasm and efficiency, 

We will now dismiss from these records the Markham and Oak 
Ridges Troops of Cavalry. 

It was during this year of remarkable changes in the formation of 
the Regiment, that the old order of numbering by figures was done away 
with, and that of letters substituted, therefore. 

The Welland Troop had, since its organization in 1872, continued to 
be designated in all Official orders, as No. 8 Troop. On Aug. 30th, 1889 
it was last referred to as No. 8 Troop. General Orders stating that in 
future it be known as "E" Troop. No. 7 Troop (Barrie), so far as the 
Regiment was concerned, had practically never existed, and we are quite 
sure that many officers of the 2nd Regiment never knew or heard of the 
Barrie Troop. 

1889. 

Establishment 168. Actual Strength 168. 
Figures of Merit. 

A. Troop Capt. Gregory 16.29 . 

B. Troop Capt. Burch 17.25 

C. Troop Capt. Jones 26.18 

D. Troop Capt. Servos 26.00 

E. Troop Capt. Buchner 18.10 



The Adjutancy of trie 2nd, Regiment of Cavalry. 

As already stated in these Records, on the formation of the Regiment 
on 10th May 1872, Silas W- Spillette C. C. M. S. was appointed Adjutant. 
This Officer at the time, was serving as Adjutant of the 19th. Battalion, 
but had previously been an old Lancer Non-Com. Officer in the Regular 
Army. It was brought that an officer of his experience would be of 
great help in the interior economy of the new Regiment. 

It was found however, that his views and ideas on many points, like 
most old soldiers, were not adapted to a Volunteer Cavalry Corps in Ca 
nada, although a hard-working and enthusiastic officer, he was much in 
clined to argument, and made the fatal mistake of not being able to dis 
tinguish the proper difference between a regularly enlisted soldier, as 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 331 



well as the regular officers of the British Army, and the Canadian Vo 
lunteer. 

Unfortunately Adjt. Spillette had a good share of that prejudice, so 
common at that period in the minds of the old soldiers of the Imperial 
Army, viz, that Colonial Volunteers could not possibly become efficient 
soldiers , unless both Officers and Men follow? ^ exactly the same routine 
and the same discipline as in the Regular Army , where no man was sup 
posed to think or act for himself, in any emergency, but simply obey or 
ders and follow all the old Rules and Camp Regulations prevailent in 
older countries, and which were not at all suitable or advisable when ap 
plied to the Canadian Volunteer Militia, or in a new country like Canada, 
where the force sure to be called upon , to resist the first invasion of an 
enemy would be a purely voluntary one and not an army of profession; 1 .! 
soldiers. 

After a service of four years in the Second Regiment of Cavalry, 
Adjutant Spillette resigned , and four months later, on Sept, 8th. 1876, 
Cornet R. W. Gregory, from No. 1 Troop, was appointed Adjutant with 
the rank of Lieutenant, Adjt. Gregory remained in this position until 
June 8th. 1883, when, on the promotion of Captain John J. Gregory to the 
command of the Regiment , he was promoted Captain of No. 1 Troop 
(St. Catharines). During Lieut. R. W. Gregory term of office as Adju 
tant, he proved himself to be an able and efficient Officer for that position 
residing in the same locality as the Commanding Officer of the Regiment ; 
the necessary work, during the intervals between Camps, could be carried 
out promptly and satisfactory. 

After the retirement of Lieut. Gregory from the Adjutancy, no ap 
pointment was made to fill the vacancy created until a period of over thret 
years had elapsed. On Sept. 17th, 1886, Captain James Buchanan Bald 
win C. S., from retired list of Captains, who had previously been recom 
mended, was appointed to the position. Captain Baldwin was an old 
Cavalry man. During the Fenian Raid of 1866, he held the position of 
Cornet in the Gov. Gen. Body Guard, and accompanied his corps to the 
Niagara Frontier. Leaving Toronto on the morning of June 2nd. of that 
year. Cornet Baldwin s Troop under Lieut. Col. George T. Denison, 
crossed the Lake by steamer to Port Dalhousie and proceeded from there 
by rail to Port Robinson, from this point the Guards marched to Chip- 
pawa on the Niagara River- After a halt at this place they set out in 
the evening to overtake Col. Peacock, who was reported to be at Xew 
Germany , advancing to intercept the Fenians , who were working to 
wards Port Colborne. On overtaking Col. Peacock s Column the Ca 
valry were sent to the front, to form the Advance Guard, and at dusk 
came in contact with the enemy. 



332 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

After the retreat and expulsion of the Fenians from Canada, De- 
nison s Cavalry continued for several months to Patrol the Niagara 
Frontier, between Fort Erie and Suspension Bridge- At the Thorold 
Camp, held during the months of September and October, they were 
the only Cavalry in attendance during the full period of camp. This was 
chiefly owing to the high regard entertained by General Napier and 
Colonel Wolseley, for the great military talents displayed and the perfect 
topographical knowledge of the adjoining Country possessed by Lieut. 
Col. George T. Denison. 

Nearly five months of hard, active service in the performance of 
day and night Patrols , keeping a close watch on the River and other 
military duties, had made a Veteran of Cornet Baldwin while still a 
very young man , and the impression made on him was to be a lasting 
one. 

On March 5th, 1867, he was promoted to be Lieutenant, and in 
1872 succeeded Captain Armstrong in the command of the Troop. On 
April 24th, 1874 } Captain Baldwin was permitted to retire retaining 
rank. 

On the breaking out of the North West Rebellion in 1885, Dr. 
Baldwin immediately offered his service as Surgeon to Col. Denison , 
and received the appointment in his old Corps and in that capacity 
accompanied the Body Guards to the North West , where he remained 
during the Campaign , returning home again at the close of the Re 
bellion. 

This short account of the Military career of Captain Baldwin will 
give future readers of these Records some idea of the man who was 
now to accept the difficult and important position of Adjutant to the 
Second Dragoons. Ouside of a passing acquaintance with one or two, 
Captain Baldwin was personally unknown to the Officers of the 2nd. 
Dragoons, his advent at the first Camp, after his appointment, was 
awaited with much interest, scarcely anything was known of his past 
services , but the report that the late Surgeon of the Body Guards was 
to be our new Adjutant created considerable interest. At our first 
meeting at Niagara Camp grounds ; Captain Baldwin was found at 
his post , in advance of any of the Units of the Regiment, each Troop 
on its arrival was closely scanned and no doubt mentally compared with 
his old Corps. Right from the start Captain Baldwin made a good im 
pression upon both Officers and Men, and before long it was found 
that he was a decided acquisition to the Regiment, an enthusiastic and 
hard-working officer and a thorough gentleman, he made warm friends 
among all the Troop Officers , as there was never the slightest attempt 
on his part to boast of his past services, or harass or irritate Troop 
Officers by expecting them to do work which properly belonged to the 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 333 



Non. Corns. Of striking appearance, standing six feet six inches, and 
always faultlessly attired , his influence had a noticable effect in the 
improvement in dress and appearance of some of the officers , who 
had heretofore considered that most anything in the shape of a Uni 
form was good enough to appear in during Camp. On Nov. 17th 1896, 
Captain Baldwin received his Brevet Rank of Major. He continued 
to serve as Adjutant until the 20th. April, 1897, when he accepted the 
appointment of Paymaster Major Baldwin has asked for this change on 
account of advancing years and failing health, before however the month 
of June rolled round, Major Baldwin had answered the last Roll Call. 

The Fourth Adjutant of the Second Dragoons. 

Second Lieut. John Edgar Burch of the St. Anns Squadrons, was 
appointed Adjutant, from 20th. April, 1898. This young Officer had 
attended the Royal School of Cavalry during the Winter of 1898, where 
he secured a First class Certificate, and was awarded the highest points 
on nearly all subjects, both practical and written, the writer of these 
records, as it happened, was taking a course of study at the Cavalry 
School at the same time and writes from personal observation, to the 
writer. Lieut. Burch often expressed his desire to follow the career of a 
soldier , and take part in a great campaign, he little thought at the time 
how soon his wishes would be gratified, it is possible that his thoughts 
at this time ran more in the direction of war and all that it means, from 
the fact, that during his leisure moments he was greatly interested in 
reading, that famous account of the Battle of Waterloo, written by the 
celebrated author, Alexander Dumas. 

Adjt. Burch was present at the June Camp of 1898 and 1899, when 
he exhibited great ability and capacity in the performance of very erro 
neous duties. 

On the breaking out of the Boer War, he received an appointment as 
special officer to proceed to South Africa , he arrived there in company 
with the Canadian Mounted Rifles, and was taken on the strength, by 
the Commanding Officer, Col. F. L. Lessard, and was immediately placed 
in command of one of the Troops. 

It was while leading his men in a desperate charge on the Boer posi 
tion in one of the engagements near Pretoria, on Monday July 16th, 
1900, that a ball from the enemy brought to untimely end the Militarv 
career of our Adjutant at the early age of 26, had he lived and returned 
to Canada, his experience with the Army in South Africa would have 
been of immense benefit to the 2nd- Dragoons. 



334 THE HISTORY OF BURFCRD 



The Organization of "C" Squadron 2nd Dragoons 

By G. O. No. 43, the old organization was done away with and the 
old inclependant Troop formation changed for a full Squadron, to be 
commanded by an officer having the rank of Major. The promotion 
and confirmation of the Squadron officers, however were delayed and 
held back for several years, to the great injustice of every Squadron 
officer in the regiment. 

Why .was this ? Was it necessary to delay the promotions of offi 
cers who carried Long Service Medals and Decorations these several 
years^ until, in the course of time, a new Squadron, with a new man at its 
head, was gazetted the latter to the rank of Major, thus giving him 
seniority, before the indisputiable rights of the old Squadron officers were 
recognized. 

Were the latter inefficient or unqualified men, with no enterprise 
or justifiable ambition : or was there a man "Higher Up", whose sel 
fishness and obstinacy ; held back the promotions, One who was looking 
sorely to his own intrests. Oh No, certainly not, we must not entertain 
such heresies for a moment. 

Ottawa, May 2nd, 1898. 

The Reorganization of the 2nd. Dragoons on a basis of three Squa 
drons has been approved as follows : 

A Squadron to consist of the present "A" Troop, (St. Catharines) 
and "D" Queenston, with Headquarters at St. Catharines. "B" Squa 
dron to consist of the present "B" Troop (St. Anns) and "E" Troop, 
(Welland) with Headquarters at St. Anns- "C" Squadron to consist 
of the present "C Troop, (Burford) with Headquarters at Burford. 

To be Captain, Lieut. Robert Cuthbertson Muir ; Vice Jones, ap 
pointed Paymaster 4th May, 1898. 

To be Lieut, 2nd. Lieut John Zimmerman Fraser ; Vice Muir, pro 
moted, 4th May, 1898. 

To be 2nd- Lieut. Sergt. John Baulger Lloyd- Jones, Vice Fraser 
promoted and William Kelso Muir, gentleman, to complete establish 
ment. 

G. O. No. 94. 

2nd. Lieut. J. B. Lloyd- Jones, is transferred to "B" Squadron, with 
the rank of Lieut, 13th August, 1898- 

G. O. No. 19. 

To be 2nd. Lieut, provisionally, Captain M. F. Muir from the 38th 
Battalion ; Vice R. C. Muir promoted 28th Jan., 1899. 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 335 



To be supernumery 2nd. Lieut, provisionally, Sergt. H. H. Ross, 
28th January, 1899. 

G. Q. No. 134. 

To be Lieutenant, 2nd. Lieut, and Captain M. F. Muir to complete 
establishment, 21st, December, 1899. 

G. O. No. 55 Supernumery, 2nd. Lieut. H. H. Ross to be taken on 
the establishment ; Vice J. B. Lloyd-Jones transferred, 2nd. June, 1900. 
G. O. No. 37. 

To be Major, Robert Cuthbertson Muir, to complete establishment, 
6th February, 1902. To be Captain, Lieut. John Zimmerman Fraser, 
to complete establishment, 6th February, 1902. 

Toronto, April 14th, 1899. 

From the D. O. C. M. D. No. 2. 
To the O. Comdg. "C" Squadron 2nd. Dragoons. 
Instructions have been issued to O. C. "A" "B" "D" and "E" Troops 
to transfer, to complete the Equipment of your Squadron- 
The Arms etc. as shown on attached list 
You will please report to me, when all the articles have been received 

by you. 

(Sgd.) W. D. OTTER, Lt-Col. 

To Capt. R. C. Muir Com. M. D. No. 2. 

Com. "C" Squadron 
2nd Dragoons 
Burford- 

List of Arms, Equipments etc. to be transferred from Troops "A" 
"B" "D" and "E" to complete "C" Squadron. 

Sets Saddlery complete 

Arms, and Accoutrements complete 

Clothing 28. 

When the above communication was received by the Officer com 
manding "C" Squadron, he did not expect that the Troops, which had 
been ordered to contribute a part of their Equipment to supply his addi 
tional men, would select the best of their saddles and uniforms, and \ 
not greatly disappointed when about the 1st. May the goods arrived and 
with the exception of the lot from Si. Anns, which were apparentlv not a 
lected assortment of worn out articles, but a fair average of "B" Troops 
Kquipment, were found to be more like a lot of condemned stores than 
anything suitable for the new Squadron. 

It was fully expected that with the reorganization of the Regiment, 
new Saddlery of the improved pattern would be received, as the old 01 



336 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

had been in use continuously since the year 1866, in fact, some of them 
had been used previous to that by the G. G. B. G. Many of them were 
still in very good order, although most of the attachments were completely 
worn out. This Saddlery was of English make and had been all manu 
factured of the very best material and on perfect workmanship, or they 
never could have stood the hard service they had been accustomed to for 
over forty years, without any special care or attention. They were a 
most comfortable saddle for the rider and very easy on the horse, much 
more so than the new pattern saddle. The greatest improvement of the 
latter however, was the attachment, by which the sword was carried on 
the left side to balance the carbine. 

The Cavalry-man dismounted for work, with his carbine, was fatally 
impeded by a heavy sword, dangling round his legs, hanging from the 
waist by long slings, and it also greatly interfered with the free move 
ments of the body and added much to the fatigue of both officers and 
men in the saddle. 

It was not until the month of April 1900, that new Saddlery for 
"C" Squadron was forwarded to Burford ; at the same time orders 
were received to pack the old Saddlery for return to district Stores, 
Toronto. 

This was done some months later, in the meantime the officer 
commanding, made application for permission to have the old Saddlery 
disposed of by sale in Burford, where much better prices could have 
been realized than in Toronto. Lieut.-Col. Peters, "acting D. O. C., 
during Col. Otter s absence in South Africa, favored the idea, but the 
Department decided otherwise and when they were finally sold in To 
ronto, not more than about the value of the Bits and Headstalls was 
obtained for each complete set of Saddlery. The same may be stated 
of the Snider Carbines which were returned to Stores about the same 
time, having been replaced by the new Lee Enfield. Thousands of these 
Snider Carbines and Rifles were sold "En Bloc", for about $1.00 each, 
when two or three times that figure might have been realized, had the 
Militia Department disposed of them at Corps Headquarters. 



The June Camp of 1899. 

This was in many respects, the most memorable Camp of Instruc 
tion which had so far been assembled at Niagara. The Volunteers 
were worked early and late. The drills and parades were the easiest 
part of the days work, the Cavalry Brigade in particular were scarcely 
given time to eat their meals. A great effort was being made to convert 
the Canadian Volunteer into a finished soldier, during a short period 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 337 

of ten days. The hours of Drill were lengthened, Squadron Comman 
ders were obliged to perform the extra duties of Paymasters, and to 
attend long and irksome Stable Parades. Routine was the order of the 
day, officers and men worked and slept, rode and drilled, ate, drank, 
smoked and worked again to the sound of the bugles.. 

Major Gen. E. T. H. Hutton arrived in Camp of Friday, 10th June, 
and assumed command of the Division- The Cavalry Brigade, under 
Brigadier Lt-Col. F. L. Lessard, were camped in the open near the town, 
the hottest spot on the grounds. 

On Tuesday June 15th ( tactical manoeuvers were carried out on an 
extensive scale, the whole of the 1st Cavalry Brigade and the 2nd Divi 
sion taking part. The scene of operation covered all the country from 
Niagara to Queenstown Heights, between the River and the G. T. R. 
The force was divided into two armies called the Blue and Red, C. 
Squadron formed part of the attacking force. On Friday, June 16th, 
the whole force was reviewed by His Excellency the Gov. Gen. and the 
Minister of Militia, Sir F. W. Borden, large crowds of sight-seers were 
present to view the military display. After the March Past, the 2nd 
Dragoons were selected by the Brigadier, from the Cavalry Brigade, 
to give an exhibit of Horsemanship, the Regiment was formed in line 
of Squadron column, facing Fort George, at a distance of some five 
hundred yards from the outer earthworks, the heights, slopes and base 
of the Historic old Fort were packed with thousands of visitors, while 
hundreds of carriages and waggons were lined up at the sides for a 
considerable distance. 

The Staff and Squadron commanders were called out for consulta 
tion, and received orders to charge at the gallop, straight towards the 
Fort and when within a safe distance, to wheel outwards and return 
and reform. It happened that the curb bits had been discarded during 
the camj) and were not worn on this occasion, and once the Regiment 
\vas fairly started it seemed impossible to check or control the speed of 
the horses, as a result the space between the starting point and the crowd 
of sight-seers, as well as the camp staff, was covered in an incredible 
short period of time, and when the outer flanks of the wheeling Squa 
drons flew round to right and left, there was not the space of a man s 
hand between them and the front of the crowd of visitors. Needless 
to say that the visitors and most of the staff, who faced the tierce char: 
of 300 yelling shouting cavalry-men, waving drawn sabres, and the 
thunder of the charging hoofs on the hard ground, felt certain that tlu-y 
would be ridden over, and many of them made a mad run up the slope 
of the Fort 

After the regiment had reformed and no casualties were reported, 
the officers offered to repeat the performance but the Major General, 



333 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

who had faced the charge, decided it was a very close shave, which 
indeed it was, and not only vetoed any repetition but blamed the Com 
manding officer of the Regiment for what he called a reckless and dan 
gerous performance. Lt-Col. Gregory however, protested that he had 
only carried out the orders he had received. Never before, at Niagara, 
or at any other camp of Instruction in Canada, had Volunteer Cavalry 
attempted a similar preformance, and we feel safe in stating that never 
again will a similar charge be witnessed on Niagara Carnp Ground. It 
is doubtful if any other Volunteer Cavalry Corps in Canada, could have 
executed the charge 5 the wheel, when almost on top of the crowd, and 
the retirement without a serious disaster. 

During this camp, many rumours of the coming struggle in South 
Africa were in circulation. The Major General had intimated that the 
difficulties were not likely to be settled without the arbitrement of war, 
and in that event, that the services of Canadian troops were sure to be 
accepted. The Commanding officer of the 2nd Dragoons, after con- 
sulation with his officers, made a formal offer of the entire regiment 
for service, to continue for such time as the struggle should last. 

This offer was never accepted but later on the Regiment was asked 
to furnish some 30 men, to help fill the ranks of the first mounted Corps 
dispatched to South Africa, and one officer, Lt. J. E. Burch received 
an appointment as Special Service officer. 

The weather during the camp was extremely hot and dry. Many 
of the men were severely affected by swollen eyes, owing to the intense 
heat. 

Camp Commandant, Col. \Y. D. Otter. 

Chief Staff Officer, Lt. Col. F. H. Cotton. 

Cavalry Brigadier, Lt-Col. F. L. Lessard. 

Major, The Hon. L. Forestcue, 17 Lancers, A. A. G. for Cavalfy, 
President of Board to report on condition of old and new Saddlery. 



The Royal Visit to Canada, 1901. 

The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, (later The Prince 
and Princess of Wales) left England on Saturday March 16th, 1901, 
from Portsmouth, on the ship "Ophir". Gibraltar was the first point 
of call. On March 25th Malta was reached, passing through the Suez 
Canal, and across the Indian Ocean to Ceylon and Singapore. They 
landed at Melbourne, Australia on Monday May 5th. The Royal party 
said farewell to Australia at Freemantle on Friday July 26th, arriving 
at Durban, Natal, South Africa, on Tuesday Aug. 12th and at Cape 
Town on Aug. 19th. 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 339 

On August 23rd the "Ophir sailed from Cape Town for Canada, 
arriving at Quebec City on Monday Sept- 16th. After a tour through 
"Canada" to the Pacific Coast, The Royal Party on their way East arri 
ved in Toronto at 2 P. M. on Thursday October 10th. In their Cana 
dian Tour, they travelled more than seven thousand miles. 

The Royal Review, Toronto, October Uth, 190J. 

For some time previous to the date of the Royal Review, it was 
understood by the Officers of the 2nd. Dragoons 5 that this crack Regi 
ment of Cavalry would receive orders to attend, and the Commanding 
Officer conceived that it would be an opportune time to discard the his 
toric white belts, which had been worn ever since the organization in 
1866, and incidentally to insist on those officers who had not yet provi 
ded themselves with Full Dress Tunics, to do so without delay, and for 
all to provide themselves with Brown Leather Belts. On Sept. 8th the 
first Official Order was received : 

Brantford, Sept. 7th, 1901. 
Regimental Orders by 

Lt-Col. R. W. Gregory, 
Com. 2nd. Dragoons, 

Strength of Squadrons will be 55 Mounted men each. 

Officers of Regiment will adopt Brown Leather Belts, same style 
as now used, Cross Belt and Field Glass Pouch, Sword Belts and Sabre 
tache. Belts will be made at one place so as to be uniform. Any Offi 
cer who has the proper trimmings and wishes to use them, will forward 
at once to Adams Bros- 176 King St. East. Toronto, when the best 
arrangements as to price will be made. 

To Capt. R. C. Muir, By Order, 

Com. "C" Squadron, (Signed) C. W. BROOKS Lt, 

2nd. Dragoons, Act. Adgt. 

Toronto, Oct. 5th, 1901. 
Capt. R. C. Muir, 

Burford, Out. 

Dear Sir : 

Col. Otter sent the transport requisitions to St. Catharines last night, 
so I will not be able to send you yours until Monday. Include Major 



340 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD_ 

T. Lloyd-Jones and servant and Lieutenants Jones and Brooks and ser 
vants in your transport. 

As I wired you this morning, the Regt. goes on Wednesday instead 
of on Tuesday. You will require nose-bags but no heel-ropes. 

I have also arranged for 16 cots, mattresses and pillows and 6 wash 
and men, so no cooks or cooking utensils or knives or plates will be 
required. 

I have also arranged for 16 cots, mattrasses and pillows and 6 wash 
stands, for $16.00. Blankets will be issued but I think perhaps each 
Officer should bring extra blankets. We have to provide two waiters 
for the mess and I have written Major Jones to bring them from Brant- 
ford. Include them in your transport also I expect to be home on 
Monday or Tuesday. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) ROLAND W. GREGORY, Lt-Col. 

Comdg. 2nd- Dragoons. 



District Office, 

/ 

Toronto, 4th Oct. 1901. 
District Memo, 

Royal Review, 

Transport Detail 

O Comg. "C" Squadron, 2nd. Dragoons. 

"C : Squadron 2nd. Dragoons, will proceed to Toronto on Wed 
nesday, the 9th inst, leaving Burford at 9 A. M. by Special G. T. Ry., 
reporting to the Officer Commanding your Regiment at Exhibition 
Grounds^ immediately upon your arrival. 

Transport Requisition is herewith attached, which you will please 
sign and carefully fill in number in ink, before handing over t<? the 
Railway Authorities. 

Capt. Muir, (Sgd.) W. D- OTTER, Colonel, 

Comdg. "C" Squadron. D. O. C. M. D. No. 2. 

2nd. Dragoons. 



In accordance with above order, "C" Squadron entrained at Bur- 
ford station at 8 A. M. on the morning of October 9th, arriving at the 




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Exhibition Grounds about 1 P. M- The officers of the 2nd. Dragoons 
were quartered entirely by themselves in a seperate building, the men 
along with men of other corps in Machinery Hall, and the Horses in 
the Horse Sheds. 

On Thursday October 10th, a rehearsal of the Review and March 
Past was held during the morning, all the Troops in Camp taking part. 
At 2 P. M. The Royal Train arrived at North Toronto station, when the 
Royal Party detrained and were driven through the streets, which were 
lined with the Troops , to the City Hall, where the Civic Address was 
presented, and from the City Hall to the residence of the Lieut. Gov. 
The Cavalry were stationed at the street crossings, to prevent traffic and 
check the crowds. "C" Squadron being placed at the Yonge Street 
crossings in the vicinity of Queen Street. 

Friday October llth the Troops in Camp were joined by the To 
ronto Garrison, the whole being formed in Line in Review order, ex 
tending along the South side of the Exhibition Grounds and the Garri 
son Common facing North. The Duke of York, in Grenadiers Uniform, 
accompanied by his Staff Officers, Lieut The Duke of Roxburgh, Royal 
Horse Guards, M. V. O. A. D. C. Lt-Col. T. T. Byron, Royal Austra 
lian Artillery, A. D. C. Capt. Viscount Crichton, Royal Horse Guards, 
D. S. O. A. D. C., Capt. H. S. H. Prince Alexander of Teck K. C. V. O. 
7th Hussars, were convoyed by Col. W. D. Otter, in front and rear 
of the line ; the Duke of York making a close Inspection of the Cana 
dian Soldiers. 

Immediately after, the Duke and Staff took Post at the Reviewing 
point, and the March Past of the Division commenced. The Cavalry 
Brigade passing in Squadron column, the Officers salute being acknow 
ledged by the Duke of York in person. 

After passing the Grand Stand, the Cavalry Brigade formed Co 
lumn of fours and passed through the gate, on the West side of the 
Exhibition Grounds ; from here, after a circutuous march through 
Park-dale, they returned to their quarters by way of Strachan Ave. at 
the Eastern entrance, when preparations were made for returning home. 



342 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Muster Rod C Squadron Royal Review. 

RANK NAMES RANK NAMES 



Captain. 
Lieut. 



Sq. Sgt. 
Major. 
Sq, Q. M. 

Sergt. 
Troop Sergt. 



Corporal. 



Trumpeter. 
Private 



1 1 
it 



C( 

It 



II 
II 

II 



Muir R. C. 
Fraser. J Z. 
Muir. M. F. 
Muir. W. K. 
Ross. H, H. 

Hearne. G. M. 

Gavin Win. (Acting) 
EidyC F. 
Force B J. 
Taylor H. J. 
Force. H. 
.Palmer, A. 
Croome. A. 
Tipper. E A. 
Aver E. A. 
Agassiz. R. 
Brown. G. R. 
Brown, Wm 
Beemer. D, I, 
Blair. W. 
Beer. W. T. 
Cramer. R 
Clarke. R. 
Cole E. J. 
Devman. D. 
Dalton. R. 
Dalton D. 
Foree. H. 
Flanagan. Alex. 
Gardham. J. 
Handershot D. K. 
Hamilton. D. H. 
Johnston R J. 
Link. Arthur. 
Model Ian. J. 
McCannon J. 
Manuel Fred. 
McCombs. John 
Olivier M. 



Private. 



(I 
K 

4 

Ii 
1 < 



Reg Employ. 



41 
(I 
t( 
It 



Percell W. 
Patterson F H 
Patterson Wm. 
Pearson John 
Shuwcro^s J. H. 
Showers W. 
Sowrlen G. 0. 
Sinclair J. A. 
Storey F. 
Shellington W. 
Sinclair J. 
Stuart M. 
Tune Ed. 
Kenney E. 
Welsh Frank. 
Reid C. M. H. 
Lewis F, 
Beckon A. 
Wedge Arthur. 
Cavin John. 
Edge G. 
Briers Peter. 
Havers J. 
Piper F. 
Woodhouse E. 
House A. 



The Royal Escort, Hamilton, October J4th. 

At the close of the Royal Review, Col. W. D. Otter D- O. C. as 
well as the other staff Officers, commended very highly the appearance 
and steadiness of the 2nd Dragoons, particularly "C" Squadron, when 
marching past the Reviewing Post, in fact it was conceeded that U C" 
Squadron was one of the best, if not the best in the whole Cavalry 
Brigade, and their services were immediately in request to act as Es 
corts for the Duke and Duchess of York, and the Governor General, 
on their visit to the City of Hamilton, on the following Monday. 

As this was a decided compliment to the officers and men of "C" 
Squadron, the Officer Commanding same, after consulting his subal- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 343 



terns, and finding his men anxious to take pan, duly signified his wil 
lingness to furnish the required Escorts, but before leaving Toronto, 
asked for something more than verbal instructions. The following let 
ter was then received : 

Regimental Orders by Toronto, llth Oct. ! 

Lt-Col. R. W. Gregory 
Com. 2nd Dragoons 

Escort 1. "C" Squadron will supply two Escorts, consisting of one 
Subaltern, one Sergeant, and twelve Men each, at Hamilton 
on the 14th of October 1901. 

To Capt. R. C. Muir By Order 

Com. "C" Squadron (.Signed) W. D- BROOKS, Lt. 

Act. Adj. 2nd. Dg. 



In addition to the above order, Lt-Col. Gregory verbally stated to 
the officer Commanding "C" Squadron that, pay for 13th and 14th Oc 
tober would be allowed, and to make out Pay Sheets accordingly. 

"C" Squadron entrained at the Exhibition Grounds Platform at 
6 P. M. on Friday October llth, arriving at Burford about 9 P. 
During the run home, the following officers and men were selected to 
form the Escorts : 

ROYAL ESCORT RANK Gov. GKN. ESCORT 

RANK NAMES NAMES 

Lieutenant. Fraser, Jr hn Z. Lieutenant Muir, William K. 

Sergoant. Taylor. H. J. Sergeant Hearoe G.M (Sq S.M.) 

Corporal. Eddy, C. F (Sergt) Corporal lorce, B J (Sergt.) 

Trooper Palmer, A. C. (Corporal) Trooper Craddook, B (Corporal) 

Shawcross J. H. Force Henry 

Hendershett, D. L. Reid, C. U . H. 

" Flanagan, Alex. Force, Harry 

McClellan, John Sowden. (Jeo. O. 

* Gardham, J. Patterson V\ ,\\ 

Link, Arthur Croome, Arthur 

Clarke, R. Sinclair, Jtt. 

" Hamilton, D R. B er . W T - 

" Stuart, M. A. Dalton,R. 

Manuel, Fred Tipper, E. 

" Kinney, E. Edge, Geo. 

Cole, E. B. " Olliver, N. 



344 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



The Armoury. 

"C" Squadron, 2nd. Dragoons, 

Burford, Ont. Oct. 12th. 1901. 
Squadron Orders. 

Escort. 1. Lieut John Z. Fraser, with one Sergt, one Corporal and 
thirteen Men, will proceed to Hamilton by Grand Trunk 
Railway, on Monday the 14th. inst, leaving Burford at 7.30 
A. M. and returning at 4 O clock P. M. 

You will report at the Railway Station, Hamilton, at 
11.45 A. M. sharp, to act as escort for H. R. H. the Duke 
of Cornwall and York. 

In carrying out this important and distinguished duty 
you will be responsible for the safety of the Royal visitor 
and will exercise the utmost vigilance and care in the per 
formance thereof. 

By Order, 

(Sgd.) R. C. MUIR, Capt. 

Comdg. "C" Squad. 2nd. Dragoons. 

The Armoury. 

"C" Squadron 2nd Dragoons 



Burford Ont, Oct. 12th. 1901. 

Squadron Orders. 

E:rorr. 2. Lieut. W. K. Muir, with one Sergt, one Corporal and thir 
teen Men, will proceed to Hamilton by "Special" Grand 
Trunk Ry., on Monday the 14th, inst, leaving Burford at 
7.30 A. M. and returning at 4 O clock P. M. 

You will report at the Railway Station "Hamilton" \\ 
11-45 A. M. sharp, to act as Escort for His Excellency, The 
Rt. Hon. the Earl of Minto, G. C. M. G. Governor General 
of Canada. 

In carrying out this important and distinguished duty 




o 



s 

c O 

o 



o 

It 

r M 

u 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 345 

you will be responsible for the safety of His Excellency, and 
will exercise the utmost vigilance and care in the performan 
ce thereof. 

By Order 

(Signed) R. C. MUIR, Capt. 

Comdg. "C" Squadron. 



Burford Ont. Oct. 15th 1901. 
From O. C. Royal Escort 

To O. C. "C" Squadron 2nd. Dgns. 
"C" Squadron 2nd. Dragoons. 
Sir : 

Plaving been ordered to proceed with a detailed escort of one Ser 
geant, one Corporal,, and thirteen Men to the city of Hamilton on the 
14th. inst, to act as escort for their R. H. the Duke and Duchess of 
Cornwall and York, I beg leave to report. 

I proceeded by G. T. Ry. as per Transport Requisition from Burford 
to Hamilton and return, leaving Burford at 8.00 o clock A. M. and ar 
riving in Hamilton about 9.50 A. M. Returning we entrained at 6.30 
P. M. but owing to the lines being closed to all but the Royal Trains, 
were not able to leave till 9.30 P- M. Arriving in Burford at 11.30 
P. M. 

I, accompanied by a similar escort, for His Excellency The Rt. Hon. 
The Earl of Minto, G. C. M. G. Governor General of Canada, under 
command of Lieut. W. K. Muir. 

Owing to the absence of His Excellency, and by order of Major 
Forrester, Orderly, Officer, both escorts were united and placed under 
my command, the entire Detail, with the exception of six men, under 
Sergt. Eddy, who were detailed by me to act as escort To Her Excel 
lency, Lady Minto, being none too ample, in view of the swarming 
crowds which prevailed on the streets for the protection and safety of 
the Royal Visitor. 

I am pleased to report that the combined escorts performed their 
duty with satisfaction to myself, and credit to the corps to which they 
belong^ so much so, that His Royal Highness conveyed to me through 
His Secretary, Sir Arthur Bigge, His great pleasure in the efficient and 
soldierly manner in which they had performed their duties. 

I regret to report that more consideration was not shown for the 
comfort and welfare of my men and horses, by those in control, no 
refreshments having been provided till 4.30 P- M., though many of the 
men had been in the saddle earlier than 5.00 A. M. This, I was assured 



346 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



was an oversight, which you know is likely to occur in the bustle and 
excitement incident to a civic demonstration of this sort. 

Na Rations or Forage were provided, we being billoted at the Fran- 
klin House, and I left orders that a detailed bill of expenses be sent me, 
which I expect will be done, unless, the city should generously pay the 
bill. 

I attach a roll of the Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Men 
that composed the escorts, also my "marching" "In" and "Out" "Sta 
tes." 

I cannot close my report without expressing the gratitude of my 
Officers and Men at the kindness and courtesy shown them by the citi 
zens of Hamilton, more particularly those who catered to our wants 
at the Franklin House. 

I have the honor to be 

Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

JOHN Z. FRASER, Lieut. 

2nd. Dragoons. 



South Africa. 
The 2nd Dragoons Offer for Service. 

From the D. O. C. 
No. D. No. 2, 

To the Officer Commanding 
2nd. Dragoons. 

SERVICES OF 2nd. DRAGOONS S. AFRICA. 

I am directed from Head Quarters to forward for your informa 
tion, the undermentioned copy of the remarks of the Minister of Militia 
and the Gen. Officer Commanding, upon the subject named in the 
margin. 

1. The Major General Commanding desires, that Lt Col. Gregory, 
Commanding 2nd. Dragoons, be informed that his letter of the 20th June 
was submitted to The Honorable The Minister of Militia and Defence, 
for the information of the Gov. General in Council. 

2. The Major General Commanding has been desired by The Hon. 
The Minister, to inform Lt. Col. Gregory "that his offer has been re 
ceived with great satisfaction, as indicative of the zeal and loyalty of 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 347 



himself and his regiment, and that in the event of war his offer will 
receive careful consideration-" 

Remarks of Gen. Officer Commanding, his minutes to the Minister 

of Militia. 

3. "It will be noted that the whole of the Officers and seventy per 
cent of the Non. Corns, and Men have placed themselves at the dispo 
sal of the Government, in the event of their services being required. I 
would invite your attention to the good military and patriotic "spirit" 
which has been evinced by this regiment, whose example I am fully per 
suaded will be quickly followed by others, in the event of a war "Crisis" 
unhappily arising." 

Toronto, June 28th. 1899 By Order, 

By Order, (Sgd.) H. FOSTER, 

W. D. OTTER, Lt-Col. Chief Staff Officer. 



Correspondence. 

Capt. R. C- Muir, St. Catharines Oct. 12th., 1899. 

Burford, Ont. 

Dear Sir : 

It looks to me as if there would be a Canadian Contingent sent to 
South Africa. If they do > could you get from your Squadron, say 
from 10 to 20 young men of good physique, good horsemen and fairly 
good marksmen ? I see a number of Commanding Officers are offering 
a certain number and if I should be called upon for any I would like to 
be prepared to give an answer. I have nothing yet, but, am anticipa 
ting. 

Yours sincerely, 

ROLAND W. GREGORY, Lt-Col. 

Commanding 2nd. Dragoons. 

p. s. Send me the names of any men who would volunteer to go 
by Monday, if you can. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



Burford October 14th 1899 
Lt. Col. R. W. Gregory, 

St. Catherines, Ont. 
Dear Sir : 

Replying to yours of 12th. inst, re recruits for South African Con 
tingent, would say that there will be no difficulty in my furnishing wha 
tever quota of men are required from "C" Squadron in fact were the 
offer of the Regiment s services accepted as a whole, the Burford Squa 
dron could easily be recruited full strength. 



Yours truly, 



R. C. MUIR, Capt. 

Com. C. Squadron. 



St. Catharines, Dec. 19th 1899 
Capt. R. C- Muir, 

Burford, Ont. 

Dear Sir : 

If you have any men in your Squadron who desire to volunteer for 
services in South Africa with a Mounted Contingent, send me their na 
mes as soon as possible, as I fully expect to be called upon to supply a 
certain number of suitable men. I have received and forwarded offers 
from Dr. Warren, Capt. Stull and Lieut, and Adjt. J. E. Burch. I sent 
one in for myself on Saturday. 

Sincerely Yours, 

ROLAND W. GREGORY, Lt-Col. 

Comdg. 2nd. Dragoons. 



St. Catharines, Dec. 26th. 1899. 
Capt. R. C. Muir, 
.Burford, Ont. 

Dear Sir : 

I have just received orders to recruit ten men for Mounted Rifles. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 349 

I commence to-morrow, if you have any men of your Squadron who 
desire to join send them here. 

Yours truly, 

ROLAND W. GREGORY. 



Men s Application. 

Brantford, Dec. 20th. 1899. 
Capt. R. C. Muir, 

2nd. Dragoons. 

Sir : 

I suppose you will be considering me somewhat of a nuisance in 
writing you so often, that it is not necessary for you to judge. I am 
anxious to be enrolled in this Cavalry Contingent for service in the 
Transvaal- I have offered my services twice during the past six months 
and I beg you to accept and forward this my third application, hoping 
this will meet with your approval. 

I beg to remain, 

Yours respectfully, 

W. E. MOLASKEY, 

150 Darling Street, 

Brantford. 



54 Eagle Avenue, 

Brantford, 

Dec. 25th. 1899. 
Capt. R. C. Muir, 

Commanding C. Squadron. 
Dear Sir : 

Card received on Saturday. I have informed members of Brant- 
Troop your Memo, and you will have their application forthwith 
would like very much to go myself, but I see by Saturday s papers 



350 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



that married men s wives only get 16 Cents per day, and children 4 
cents, and as I have two children would only draw 24 cents per day, 
of course they could not possibly live on it. I would also have to 
enlist as Trooper which would come rather hard on me, who has been a 
X. C. O- for so many years. If you can solve this problem I am quite 
willing to Volunteer for South Africa and follow you as Squadron lea 
der. 

Yours truly, 

FRED W. KERR 

P. S. I understand the names are, Sergt. Major. 

Trooper Kerr. 

Molaskey. 

Mayo. 

May. 

Taylor. 



Brantford, Dec. 25th., 1899. 
Capt. R. C- Muir, 
2nd. Dragoons. 

Dear Sir : 

Having learned from Sergt. Major Kerr about the sending of men 
from the Second Dragoons for South Africa, I write to ask you to put 
down my name with Trooper E- Molaskey, our names and measure 
ments were sent in to Col. Gregory when the First Contingent was 
asked for, if there is any possible chance I want to go. I don t think 
we will have any trouble getting men. Do you know where we will be 
examined ? 

389 Colborne Street, Yours respectfully, 

Brantford. ELWOOD G. MAYOT. 



Capt. Muir, Brantford, Dec. 25th., 1899. 

Burford Dragoons, 
Burford Ont. 

Dear Sir : 

I am very desirous of becoming a member of the Second Canadian 
Contingent for South Africa. Having a brother in the First Contingent 
it is of interest to me and if you could hold forth any encouragement I 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 351 



would take pleasure in seeking an interview with you, and would consi 
der it a lifelong obligation- 

Yours very Truly, 

FRED BURGAR 



St. Catherines, Dec. 2Stu. 1910. 
MEMO. 

Dear Capt. Muir : 

The following men have been enrolled from your Squadron : H. J. 
Taylor, W. E. Molaskey, H. H. May. You will kindly give them their 
clothing and take a receipt, which will be accepted by Officer inspecting 
your stores. 

Yours truly, 

ROLAND W. GREGORY, Lt-Col. 

Comd ing 2nd. Dragoons. 



Brantford, Ont Jan. 1st. 1900. 
Capt. R. C. Muir, 
Burford, Ont. 

The following additional men have been taken on the strength of 
the New Contingent by Col. Gregory, Emerson Baldwin, Fred Burgar, 
George England, John Pilgrim. These men report that the Colonel 
orders them to report in uniform, at 7 P. M. this evening. 

Yours truly, 

M. F. MUIR, Lieut, and Capt. 

C. Squadron. 



St. Catherines, Jan. 29th. 1900- 
Dear Capt. Muir : 

I understand that the municipalities from which two of the men 
came who enlisted in the C. M. R. have insured their lives for $1.000. 



352 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



for one year. This is in the County of Welland and I expect the County 
Council of Lincoln will insure the lives of the men who enlisted from 
this County. 

There is an Agent named Houth, of I thing the Standard Life, who 
is taking the Policies out and they are charging $50.00 as a War risk 
in addition to the regular rate. It seems some of the Companies will 
not accept the risk. Re new Saddlery. I have a letter from the D- 
O. C. informing me, that the Saddlery intended for my Regiment was 
issuer to the C. M. R. and he had no idea when we would have a new 
issue. They took a number of sets from the G. G. B. B. also. You had 
better write me officially regarding the condition of your Saddlery 
with a request that it be repaire d as you desire and I will forward it- Your 
receipt from the men you furnished clothing will be sufficient 
on inspection of your clothing, and it is likely a new issue will be made 
to you on the strength of your receipts. I have not yet received the 
belts from Col. Whitley, but, I suppose they have not yet arrived from 
England. 

Sincerely Yours, 

ROLAND W. GREGORY, Lt-Col. 

2nd- Dragoons. 



The Canadian Mounted Contingent. 

On November 2nd 1899, His Excellency sent a cablegram to Mr. 
Chamberlain conveying an offer of a 2nd contingent from Canada. On 
Dec. 7th a reply was received declining offer. 

On December 16th Mr. Chamberlain telegraphed His Excellency 
signifying a willingness to accept further assistance. 

On December 20th provisional orders were issued for the organi 
zation of a Regiment of Mounted Rifles of three Squadrons in accor 
dance with the army establishment for a Cavalry Regiment 1898, of a 
total strength of 25 officers, 417 other ranks and 536 horses. 

On December 28th the provisional orders issued on 20th, were amen 
ded to provide for a regiment of mounted rifles of two battalions, to be 
designated 1st and 2nd Battalions the Canadian Mounted Rifles. 

Enrollment in the 1st Battalion was carried on and the troops were 
concentrated as hereunder : 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 353 



A. SQUADRON. 


Place of Enrollment 


Place of Concentration 


1st Troop 
2nd Troop 
2nd Troop 
3rd Troop 
3rd Troop 
3rd Troop 
4th Troop 
4th Troop 


Toronto 
Toronto 
St. Catharines 
Peterboro 
Ottawa 
Montreal 
London 
Kingston 


Toronto 
Toronto 
Toronto 
Montreal 
Montreal 
Montreal 
Toronto 
Toronto 


B. SQUADRON. 







1st Troop 
2nd Troop 
3rd Troop 
4th Troop 


Manitoba 
Manitoba 
Quebec 
Nova Scotia 


Winnipeg 
Winnipeg 
Quebec 
Halifax 



The second Battalion was recruited from the North West Terri 
tories. 



Casualities R. C. D. during service in South Africa. 
Killed in action or died of wounds received in action. 

Officers N. C. O. Privates. 
223 

Died of disease 

3 2 13 

v\ oundecl in action 

5 2 20 

Tot. 10 6 36 



Officers. 

The following is a list of the Officers appointed to Commissions, 
their appointments dating from December 29, 1899. The distributions 
of officers below are those first made, which were subject to change 
by the Commanding Officers after embarkation. 

1st. Battalion. 
Commanding Officer. 

Lessard, F. L. (Lieut-Col., Royal Canadian Dragoons.) 



354 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Major. 
(2nd. in Command,) 

Evans, T. D. B. (Major and temporary Lieut-Col. Royal Cana 
dian Dragoons.) 

4 A " Squadron. 
Commanding Squadron. 

Forester W. (Capt. Royal Canadian Dragoons.) 

Captain. 

Pearse C. St. A. (Capt. Royal Canadian Dragoons.) 

Lieutenants. 

1st. Troop, Elmsley J. H., (Lieut. Royal Canadian Dragoons-) 
2nd. Troop, Cockburn H. Z. C., (Capt. G. G. B- Guards.) 
3rd. Troops, Van Luven R. M., (Capt. 4th. Hussars.) 
4th. Troop, King A. H., (Major 1st. Hussars.) 

"B* Squadron* 
Commanding Squadron. 

Williams V. A. S., (Capt. Royal Canadian Dragoons.) 

Captain 

Greenwood H. S., (Lieut-Col. 3rd. Dragoons.) 

Lieutenants. 

1st. Troop, Van Straubenzee C. T., (Lieut. Royal Canadian Dra 
goons-) 

2nd. Troop, Young F. V., (2nd. Lieut. Manitoba Dragoons.) 
3rd. Troop, Turner R. E. W., (Capt. Q. O. C. Hussars.) 
4th. Troop, Borden H. L., (Major K- C. Hussars.) 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 355 



Adjutant. 

Nelles C. M., (Capt. Royal Canadian Dragoons.) 

Quartermaster. 

\Yynne J. H., (Capt. 2nd. Regiment C. /-V) 

Medical Officer. 

Duff H. R., (Surg.-Maj. 4th. Hussars.) 

Transport Officer. 

Harrison C. F., (Capt. 8th. Hussars.) 

Veterinary Officer. 
Hall W. B., (Vet. Major, Royal Canadian Dragoons ) 

Promotion since organization : 

Lieut. A. H. King, to be Captain, vice Pearse, deceased, from Oc 

r 17, 1900. 



Departure of "Milwaukee. 






The remainder of the 2nd contingent embarked on the Milwaukee 
on February 21- 

The following is the detail of the forces embarked : 

(a) 1st. Battalion, the Canadian Mounted Rifles : 17 officers, 
other ranks and 368 horses, being 2 officers short of the authorized 
establishment (Lieut.-Colonel Lessard and Major Forester who were in 
South Africa), also 7 horses. 

(b) "C" Battery, Canadian Brigade Division of Field Artillery: 
4 officers, 168 other ranks and 137 horses, being short of establishment 
1 officer (Captain Panet who was in South Africa), and 1 man. 

(c) Attached to 1st. Battalion, the Canadian Mounted Rifles De 
tachment of 2nd. Battalion, C. M. R., unable to embark on SS Pome 
ranian for want of accommodation : 1 office^ 37 other rank and 58 
horses. 

(d) For instructional purposes to replace officers of the Cana 
dian Militia in South Africa and appointed to the Canadian Mounted 
Rifles or Brigade Division of Field Artillery : Lieut.-Colonel W. D. 



356 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

Gordon, D. O. C. No. 5 Military District. Major T. L. Boulanger, 
commanding 1st. "Quebec" Field Battery. Lieut. J. E. Burch, 2nd. 
Dragoons. 

Organization. 

| 

When the regiment arrived at Cape Town, South Africa, it was 
styled the 1st Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles and had been raised 
as a special service regiment for duty in South Africa, the Royal Cana 
dian Dragoons forming a nucleus. 

It was therefore placed at a disadvantage to the Canadian Perma 
nent Artillery and Infantry, both of whom retained distinctive Royal 
titles. 

It was felt by all that the changing of the name of the corps, from 
that conferred by the Queen, to that of 1st Battalion Canadian Mounted 
Rifles, precluded the Regiment from wearing in the field the distinctive 
badge given them by Her Majesty, and from attaching to the regimen! 
the honours it would strive to earn in his campaign. 

The regiment desired to be allowed to feel that they were serving 
as members of a corps which Her Majesty had specially honored, but 
which had for the first time an opportunity of showing its devotion to 
Her Person and Empire. 

Col. Lessard therefore applied, that the Royal title be given back 
to the regiment, which was granted by the authorities- 



Arrival of SS. "Milwaukee. " 

The SS. Milwaukee arrived at Cape Town at 4 p. m. on the 21st. 
March, 1900, but owing to the rough weather prevailing the disembar 
kation of the regiment did not take place until 10 a. m. on the 26th. 
March, 1900. 

As soon as the regiment had disembarked it was ordered to camp at 
Green Point, Cape Town, and remained at the latter place until 1 p. m. 
on the 4th. April, 1900. 

Marching Orders. 

Th; regiment received orders to march on the 4th April from Cape 
Town t3 Stellenbosch, a distance of 33 miles. The march was accom 
plished in one and one-half days, arriving at Stellenbosch at 5 p. m. on 
the 5th- April. 

On July 16, the enemy made a strong attack on their line of out 
posts at Wittpoort, Dorsfontein, Koffyspruit and Oliphantsfontein. 

"B :l Squadron 1st C. M. R. were detailed to support the Mounted 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 357 

Infantry outposts, and "A" Squadron 1st C. M. R., formed part of a 
reserve of troops remaining in camp. 

This reserve, was eventually sent to the left of the position (Witt- 
poort) to strengthen their left flank, held by New Zealanders, which had 
been turned by the enemy. The 2nd Battalion C. M. R., under Col. 
Evans, were detailed from the reserve for this special work which they 
successfully did, and the Boer attack was frustrated on that flank. 

"B"Squadron, 1st Battalion C. M. R. was sent to the ridge on the 
right of Wittpoort, to support the Royal Irish Fusiliers, who were holding 
the Poort- 

It was here that ) on the advance being ordered, the following ca 
sualties occurred : 

Lieut. H. L. Borden, killed. 

Lieut. J. F. Burch, killed. 

No. 61, Pte. A. W. Brown, wounded. 
No. 175, Pte. L. N. R. Mulloy wounded. 



Headquarters, Belfast, Nov. 20, 1900. 

"Major General Smith-Dorrien cannot allow the Royal Canadian 
Dragoons and the left section, "D" Battery, Royal Canadian Artillery, 
and the Canadian Mounted Rifles, to leave his command en route for 
Canada without thanking them for the grand work they have performed 
for him in the Belfast Flying Column. 

In eight of the last nineteen days they have been engaged with the 
Boers, and have proved themselves splendidly brave and mobile moun 
ted troops, and it has afforded the Major General much pleasure to have 
been able to send through General tne Honourable N. Lyttelton to the 
Field Marshal Commanding-in-Chief, detailed accounts of their splen 
did feats of arms and to have been able to bring to the special notice 
of the Commander-in-Chief, five officers and seven non-commissioned 
officers and men for distinguished conduct in the field during these 
operations. 

In wishing them all "good-bye and good-luck" he has no words to 
express how great a loss they will be to the flying column. He can me 
rely say that he would choose no other mounted troops in the world 
before them if he had his choice, and he sincerely hopes the day m:.y 
come when he may have them again under his command. 

By Order, 

(Signed) F. \\ KLDON, Capt. 

C. S. < ). Smith-Dorrien s F(/rcc. 



358 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



From the above narrative it will be seen that the regiment marched 
1,700 miles and took part in the following engagements : 

April 22, 23, 24 Leeuw Kop- (Waterworks), 3 days fighting. 

May 3 Brandfort, 1 days fighting. 

May 4 Constantia, 1 clays fighting. 

May 5 Vett River, 1 days fighting. 

May 7 Virginia Siding, 1 days fighting. 

May 10 Verdis Verdrag, 1 days fighting. 

May 25 Viljeons Drift, 1 days fighting. 

May 27, 28 Klip R- verburg, 2 days fighting. 

May 30 Near Driefontein, 1 days fighting. 

June 3 Kalkhenvel, 1 days fighting. 

June 11, 12 Diamond Hills, 2 days fighting. 

June 18 -Loutspans Drift, 2 days fighting. 

July 6 Rietfontein (6), 1 days fighting. 

July 7 Olphansfontein, 1 days fighting. 

July 8, 9, 10 Rietfontein, 3 days fighting. 

July 12 Withpoort-Kofry spruit, 1 days fighting. 

July 16 \Yilhpoort-Doostfontein, 1 days fighting. 

July 23 Boschfontein, 1 days fighting. 

July 27- -Bankfontein, 1 days fighting. 

August 1 Buffelspruit, 1 days fighting- 

August 3 Dornkop, 1 days fighting. 

August 25, 26, 27 Belfast-Bergandal, 3 days fighting. 

October 1 Booschpoort, 1 days fighting. 

October 5 Weltefreden, 1 days fighting. 

November 2 Witkloof, 1 days fighting. 

November 6 Van \Yyks Ylei-Liliefontein, 2 days, fighting. 

November 13, 14, 15 Witpoort 

November 16, 17 Dulstroom, 5 days fighting. 



General Remarks. 

The Canadian horses were good ones and did very well, conside 
ring all the hardships they had to undergo and the heavy weights they 
had to carry. 

A few of them were still in the regiment when they left the front 
for home. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



359 



Disposition of Canadian Horses. 

Died at sea in transit from Canada to South Africa 

Died of exhaustion, killed in -action, or destroyed 194 

Rendered unfit for duty and left behind at different stations . . 123 
Sold to Imperial authorities on leaving South Africa as follows : 

Handed over to O. C. 5th Lancers 

Handed over to O. C. Remount Depot, Pretoria 11 

375 



Establishment R. C. D. 



Service Roll, No. 5 Troop, 2nd Regiment of Cavalry, June 1883. 



RANK 

Captain. 
Lieutenant, 
Sergt Major 


NAMES Date of 

ENROL. 

Lloyd-Jones, Thomas 1866 
Muir, Robert Cuthberson. 1877 
Lawrence Jacob 1866 


Sergeant. 


Dutchcr E W. 


1866 


c < 


Bawtinhimmer. W. 


1868 


Corporal. 


Fowler, (ieorge H. 


1 875 


t t 


Coucher Elijah 


1877 


, i 


Muir W. K. 


1877 


Trumpeter. 


Muir, A. I). 


1881 


Trooper. 


Caven, Robt. 


1883 




I 


Dunn, John. 


18H2 




1 


Dav, F. W. 


1883 




1 


Elliot. F. 


1881 




ft 


Fraser, John Z. 


1883 




( 


Fraser, G. W. 


1883 




1 


French, G. W. 


IS S3 




( 


(Jray, Reginald 


1883 







Geddv. Thomas 


188i 




1 


Hull. Thomas 


1877 


t 


Johnston, Baptist 


1878 


41 


Mellor, S. M. 


1883 



RANK NAMES mite of 

ENROL. 

Trooper, Messecar, Wm. 

Mclntyre,. Dug. 1881 

Rice. Henry, 1883 
Smith. C. 

Secord, James 1883 

Thompson, James 1881 

Tom, Mark U83 

Wooden, William 1883 

Whitaker, C. Is83 

Wedge, Jones 1881 

Cooks. Wooden, C. \. 1877 

Pettit, N. 1887 



STAFF 

Trumpet Major. Muir. Allan D. 
Sergt. Dunn, Daniel 1870 



Ottawa, May 2 .th, 1 ss:,. 

No. 5 Troop, Burford. 

To bo 2nd. Lieut., Sergt. John Zimmerman Fraser, C. C. 1st B, Vice 
Chas. Weir. 



360 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



No. 5. (BurfoH) Troop 2nd. Dragoons. 
List of Members Enrolled. 1885-97. 



Hunter, Joseph 
Henderson, A. 
Van Every, W. 
O Brien, W. 
Sherman, Albert. 
Brethour, Jos. 
French, Wm. 
Johnston, B. R. 
Swears, John. 
Milmine, Wm. 
Balkwill, Robert 
Kelly, Wm. 
Standing, David 
Merritt, C. L. 
Fowler, A. R. 
Hamilton, D. R. 
Disher, E. H. 
Fowler, W. 
Overholt, John 
Force, Nedas 
Lawrence, Henry 
Biggar, James 
Secord D. 
Church, Charles 
Elliott, E. S. 
Douglas, Harry 
Messecar, A. B. 
Howey, Calvin 
Howard, Joseph 
Morgan, G. 
Bawtinhimmer, I. 
Sillard, S. G. 
Litchfield, J. W. 
Swears, Frank R. 
Price, W. 
Johnston, John 
Tansley, Eve 
Pratt, Charles 
Smith, H. 
Gardham, J. 
Porter, J. W. 
Blair, J. 
Stuart, H. 
Day, F. 
McWilliams, A. 



White, A. 
Willoughby, F. 
Ketchie, J. C. 
Fowler, Fred 
Fowler George 
Hearn George M 
Philips, Wm. 
Baird, J. 
Chrysler, E. 
Goudy, Wm. 
Thomson, S. C. 
Comeford, W. 
Holmes, W. 
Robinson, E. 
Clement, J. W. 
Wiggans, R. 
Creighton, W r . 
Gillam, J. 
Cameron, George 
Cavin, S. 
VanHorne, W. 
Franklin, A. 
Oakley, H. 
Smith, D. M. 
Percell, D. 
Stewart, R. B. 
Mainwaring, A. 
Turner, Elmer 
Fowler, Alex. 
Brown, John 
Carder, H. 
Smith, H. 
Taylor, Wm. 
Ray, Walter 
Rathburn, C. 
Shellington, Wm. 
Ledger, Harry 
Williams, A. 
Chambers, M. 
Smith, Arthur 
Swain, Walter 
Woodhouse, E. 
Shaver, W. H. 
Smith, Dan 
Wooden, C. M. 



Mullen, V. 
Coventry, N. 
Moore, I. 
Martin, Peter 
Bennett. Charles 
.Elliott, H. 
Dodds, Samuel 
Lea, C. J. 
Shellington, C. E. 
Buckborough, C. 
Force, James N. 
Roberts, A. 
Kerr, John 
Martin, Mark. 
Maracle, Peter S. 
Maracle, Joseph 
Maracle, Peter 
Lickers, George 
Martin, Joseph 
Groat, Henry 
Martin, Fred 
Martin, George A. 
Martin, Charles 
Martin, Abraham 
Martin, Albert P. 
Holmes, W. 
Blayborough, W. J. 
Brown, Wm. 
Collins, Ben 
Cunningham, C. 
Force, Harry 
Terryberry, F. 
Vandusen, Harry 
Ledger, Harry 
Pinney, Wm. 
Rowe, A. 
Clarke, John C. 
Teeple, G. 
Martin, H. 
Lewis, Ed. 
Swain, Wm. 
Kerr, F. H. 
Elliott, H. 
Walker, R. 
Jarvis, S. 



Brown, R. 
French, G. W. 
Walcot, R. 
Sherman, Frank 
Shellington, James 
Eadie, R. 
Eddy, Chas. 
Kelly, Wm. 
Mclntyre, D. 
Moore, A. N. 
Stickless, John 
Lattimer, J. 
.lull, Wm. 
Ion, Thomas 
Force, Henry 
Porter, J. W. 
Brown, R. 
Lloyd-Jones, John 
Lawrence, H. 
Porter, Peter 
Stuart, Elisha 
Winter, H. 
Neff, Peter 
Croome, Arthur 
Wooden, A. 
Bauslaugh, J. W. 
Williams, A. 
Fyles, S. E. 
Roberts, A. 
Carder, P. 
Fowler, G. E. 
Chrysler, E. G. 
Aulseybrook, G. A. 
Collins, Ben 



Non-Com. Officers Promotion List 1 885-97, 

1889. Corporals, Mark Tom ; J. J. Dunn ; D. R. Hamilton ; Sergt. W. 
K. Muir. Regimental Sergt. Major, G. W. Fraser. 

1891. Corporals, G F. Eddy ; Chas. Pratt ; H. Smith ; Sergeants.. David 
Standing ; Veterinary Surgeon, J. W. Porter. 

1892. Troop Sergt-Major, W. K. Muir. 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



361 



1893. Corporals, W. N. Kelly ; G. W. Hearn ; F. W. Kerr ; Sergts. 

Chas. Pratt ; H. Smith ; Staff Sergeant, Robt. Balkwill- 
1895. Corporal C. M. Wooden ; Sergeant F. W- Kerr. 

1897. Troop Sergt.-Major F. W. Kerr. 

1898. Corporals, H. H. Ross ; H. Ledger. H. Lawrence ; E. Chrysler. 

Sergeants C. M. Wooden- 



C. Squadron 2nd. Dragoons. 
List of Members Enrolled. 1898-02. 



Eaton, Wm. 
Lee, Reg. 
Ross, H. H. 
Wooden, A. 
Carder, J. 
Tune, Ed. 
Clement, C. 
Cannel, C. 
Quinn, B. F. 
Shellington, B. S. 
Pentland, John 
McKeen, D. L. 
Syer, J. M. 
Radford, Chas. 
Johnson, K. 
Cavin, J. 
Shellington, B. F. 
Showers, Wm. 
Schofield, M. A. 
Taylor, C. D. 
VanEvery, Andrew, 
Wilson, J. M. 
McWilliams, Fred 
Mayot, E. G. 
Molaskey, W. E. 
Pierce, Wm. 
Pelton, Benson 
Pan Every, John 
Ramsay, C. F. 
Rutherford, J. H. 
Cramer, Robt. 
Palmer, Arch d 



Agassiz, R. 
Brown, Wm. 
Brown, F. A. 
Brooks, W. C. 
Chappin, C. D. Dr 
Durham, Geo. 
Force, J. N. 
Gowe, Thos. 
Barber, Jess 
Link, Horace 
Tune, Harry 
Martin, James 
Beer, W. T. 
Cornwell, A. 
Cornwell, H. 
Chrysler, O. 
Churchill, J. 
Craddock, E. 
Howes, A. 
McCombs, W. 
McCombs, J. 
Morns, H. J. 
Manuel, Fred 
McLees, M. 
Nicholas, Ira 
Pembleton, W. E. 
Reid, C. W. H. 
Silverthorne, J. 
Sowden, Geo. O. 
Sinclair, James 
Shawcross, J. H. 
Storey, F. 



White, H. 
Weaver, B. J. 
Wilson, L. G. 
Campbell, M. 
.Briers, Peter 
Kirkpatrick, E. A. 
Flanagan, A. 
Daniels, Geo. E. 
Burgis, G. 
Muir, Harry Ford 
Aver, E. S. 
Blair, N. 
Craddock, R. S. 
Derbyshire, Wm. 
Hendershot, D. L. 
Johnson, R. J. 
Link, H. 

McCammon, J. P. 
Persall, W. 
Tipper, E. A. 
Currie, J. 
Dalton, H. R. 
Gardham, J. 
Lewis, F. 
Link, Arthur 
Lonsbury, W. E. 
Pettit, H. 
Pierson, J. 
Sheppard, J. A. 
Walker, J. B. 
Widner, John W. 
Wilson, B. 



\Yilson, C. W. 
Wedge, A. 
Dennis, C. 
Armitage, W. 
Baskerville, A. B. 
Caperon. R. 
Elmes, A. T. 
Harris, E. R. 
Gillam, C. 
Moore, Harry 
Simpson, 
Sigman, S. A. 
Steeves, P. L. 
Breeden, J. N. 
Ritchie, R. 
Williams, J. J. 
Lane, W. 
Sherman, F. 
Sinclair, John A. 
Beemer, David 
Patterson, Wm. 
McLellan, John 
Drynan, David 
Coles, 1C. G. 
Welsh, Frank 
Patterson. F. H. 
Olliver, N. 
Kenney, E. 
Ker, Jno. 
Campbell, Geo. 
Pettit, Henry 



Non-Com. Offic Promotion List 1898-02. 

1898. Corporals, B. J. Force, H. A. Ledger ; Sergeant, Geo- M. Hearn. 

1899. Corporals, W. J. Blayborough, Elisha Stuart, J- A. Lattimore ; 

Sergeant, B. J. Force. 

1900. Corporals, A. 1 aimer, Chas. Wilson, E. D. Taylor, E. S- M:i 

Harry Force ; Sergeants, Klislia Stuart, Henry Force ; Q- M. 
Sergeant, II. A. Ledger ; S(|. Scrgt-Major. G. M. Hearn. 



362 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

1901. Corporals, E. Craddock, \Y. H. Brown ; Sergeant, H. J. Taylor. 

1902. Corporals, Ed. Tune, B. Pelton ; Sq. Sergt-Major, B. J. Force 

Sq. O. M. Sergt, Robert Balkwill. 



The Barford Infantry Company. 

During the summer of 1866, the Volunteer Force in Canada West 
was being largely augmented by the addition of new Troops of Cavalry, 
Batteries of Artillery and companies of Infantry and Rifles. For se 
veral months, a number of the most interested in the project had been 
working towards the formation of a Volunteer Company in Burford. 
The Minister of Militia, the Honorable John A. MacDonald, had been 
communicated with, and after some delay, the necessary authorization 
was given. 

In July, a largely attended meeting was held in Hearn s Hall, when 
stirring addresses were delivered by Edmund Yeigh^ late ensign in the 
5th Brant Militia, Claudius Byrne and others. There was no difficulty 
in securing the number of men required to fill the lists, as more offered 
than there was room for. The first officers were selected by those who 
agreed to serve in the Company, and on the 17th August, the Burford 
Volunteer Infantry Company was added to the strength of the Cana 
dian Volunteers. On the same date the officers were gazetted, as ac 
ting only, until further orders, as none of them were as yet in any way 
qualified to drill or instruct their men. 

Mr. Aaron B. McWilliams, a passed candidate from the Toronto 
Military School, was appointed as Instructor to drill and discipline the 
members, who cheerfully and willingly attended the daily parades held 
in the school grounds, from 7 P. M. 

In the month of September the belts and Sniders were received, 
and delivered to the new soldiers, from the old store of Benjamin Jones, 
situated where the Bank of Toronto now stands. In October, the clo 
thing, so anxiously looked for, which had left Ottawa on Sept. 13th, 
arrived in Paris, and was carted to Burford and distributed. This, the 
first issue of Government clothing ever sent into Burford, consisted of 
55 complete outfits of cloth Tunics, Trousers, Shakos and Great Coats. 

These uniforms, manufactured in England, were of the very best 
material, and the "Shakos", a most servicable head piece, far surpassed 
the helmet in durability, and was most comfortable to the wearer the 
only objection was the weight of the metal plate in front, which someti 
mes caused the "Shako" to tilt forward, with this slight defect remedied, 
the "Shako" has proved to be the best head piece ever invented for In- 
f..mtrv on active service. 




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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



363 



The first full dress parade of Burford s first Volunteer csmpary, 
forty-six years ago, was an event in the military history of the township, 
and many of their friends were present to admire them in the gorgeous 
historical scarlet of the British Army. The rank and tile were physi 
cally as fine a body of men as ever wore the uniform, and marched with 
the steadiness of veterans. The men who to-day are picked up any 
where, to help complete the ranks of many of the Rural Corps are of 
a class that would not have heen accepted in 186f>. 

We have been unable to secure a full list of the first member-- of 
the company, but the list here given shows the remarkable fact, that 
half a century ago, when Burford Village and its immediate vicini y, 
contained less than half the habitations which exist to-day, there were 
more men of the right class available for the Volunteer force, than can 
be found at the present time. 

Service Roll of the Burford Infantry Company. 

September 1866. 
RANK NAMES 



Captain 
Lieutenant 
Ensign 
Sergeant 



Corporal 

M 
II 

Private 



Ira Wooden 
Claudius Burns 
Edmund Yeigh 
Stephen Wetmore 
Gilbert French 
John Charles 
William Briers 
Elijah Whelpley 
Alfred Catton 
John Padfield 
Jesse Crysler 
Peter Hriers 
( , < irge Pad field 
Richard Rush 
!.evi Tillison 
Tohn Johnston 
George l.ane 
Henry Griffin 
Hiram Farrel 
Charles McCurdy 



Private 



a 
it 
it 
u 
tt 
It 
It 
It 
II 
II 



James Holder 
Judson Henderson 
John Bouey 
. \imus Honey 
Allan McCaskill 
John Whale 
George \\1iale 
James Sharpe 
Edward Crysler 
Ered Charles 
Bradley Van Home 
Hector Honey 
John Berry 
Joshua Tillison 
John Munroe 
Joseph Elleby 
Rory John<ton 
Robert 1 arrel 
\lion Singer 
Thomas E>\ 



In addition to the above, there are two members of the Burford 
Volunteer Company, who joined in lSf>S, who deserve special mention 
for their long and faithful service, which continued until the headquar 
ters of the company was transferred to Brantford in 1SS2. viz. Sergeants 
Angus Johnston and Joseph Hunter, both of whom served subsequently 
in the Burford Cavalry. 

Very few of the original members still survive, a larger proportion 
however are still living than of the charter members of the P.urfonl 



364 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



valry. Two of the first Non-Com. Officers, Sergt. John Charles and Cor 
poral John Padfield, still reside in the Village- The last surviving Offi 
cer, who was also one of the original members, in the person of Lieut. 
Rory Johnston, is still hale and hearty and apparently quite capable of 
several years more active service. Sergt. Gilbert French and Private 
Angus Bouey, volunteered for service in the Red River Expedition of 
1870, under Col Garnet Wolseley. 



Burford Volunteer Infantry Company. 

Ottawa 17th Aug., 1866. 

The following Volunteer Corps are hereby authorized- Officers 
acting until further orders, except those holding military school certificates 
whose appointments are temporary. 

An Infantry Company at Burford, County of Brant. 
To be Capt. Ira C. Wooden, 
Lieut. Claudius Byrne, 
Ensign Edmond Yeigh. 



ti it 
11 



G - - Ottawa, 9th Nov. 1866. 

38th, Brant Battalion. 
No. 6 Co. Burford. 

To be Capt. acting till further orders, Ensign Edmund Yeigh, Vice 
Wooden resigned. 



G - O. Ottawa, 14th Dec- 1866. 

38th, Brant Battalion of Infantry. 
No. 6 Co. Burford. 

To be Ensign acting till further orders, Stephen Wetmore, Vice 
Yeigh promoted. 



O. Ottawa, 6th March, 1868. 

38th, Brant Battalion. 
Certificates Infantrv : 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 365 



Lieut. Claudias Byrne, 26th, Feb. 1868, 2nd. Class. 
Lieut. Gilbert French, 26th, Feb. 1868, 2nd, Class. 
Above confirmed in rank this date. 



& * Ottawa, 16th July, 1869. 

38th, Brant Battalion. 
No. 6 Co. Burford. 

To be Captain, Lieut Claudias Byrne, M. S., Vice E. Yeigh, whose 
resignation is hereby accepted. 



G - - Ottawa, 10th Sept. 1869. 

No. 6 Co. Burford. 

38th, Brant Battalion. 

To be Lieut., Ensign Stephen Wetmore, Vice Byrne promoted. 
Ensign Gilbert French, Gentleman, M. S. Vice Wetmore pro 



moted. 



G - Ottawa, 28th May, 1875. 

38th, Brant Battalion. 
No. 6 Co. Burford. 

To be Captain. Lieut. Stephen Wetmore, V. B. Vice C. Byrne- who is 
hereby permitted to retire retaining rank. 

To be Lieutenant Ensign, Gilbert French, M. S. Vice Wetmore pro 
moted. 



G O> Ottawa, 17th Oct. 1879. 

38th, Brant Battalion. 
No. 5 Co. Burford. 

To be Lieutenant provisionally Sergeant Rory Johnston, Vice French 
who is hereby permitted to retire retaining rank. 



G- Ottawa, 17th Dec. 1880. 



38th, Brant Battalion. 
No. 5 Co. Burford. 



66 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



To be 2nd, Lieut, provisionally, Hospital Sergeant Charles L. Daniel. 
Vice French^ promoted. 



G. O. Ottawa, 1 1th May, 1883. 

38th, Brant Battalion. 
No. 5 Co. Burford. 

The headquarters of this company are hereby changed from Burford 
to Brantford, Captain Stephen Wetmore is hereby permitted to retire re 
taining rank and the resignation of Lieut. Rory Johnston is hereby accep 
ted. 2nd, Lieut. Charles L. Daniel, who had been transfered to No. 4 
Company resigned his commission 31st, Aug. 1883. 



1 he Burford Rifle Company. 

In the month of February 1896, Mr. Allan D- Muir, formerly Trum 
pet Major in the 2nd. Dragoons, accepted a commission as Second Lieu 
tenant in No. 3 Company, 22nd. Battalion, Oxford Rifles. After a course 
at Wolseley Barracks, London, where he was granted a first class cer 
tificate, a Militia General Order, issued June 5th, 1896, promoted him 
to the command of the Company with the rank of Captain. The Head 
quarters of No. 3 Company was now established in Burford Village, an 
excellent company was maintained here during the next five years, when 
Captain Muir resigned and the stores were transferred to Lieut. Louis 
La Pierre, who removed them to Paris- This officer was shortly after 
wards promoted Captain. 

The 22nd. Oxford Rifles may be considered as the successors of the 
long line of Oxford s Militia Corps, from the days of the original four 
companies commanded by Colonel William Claus. After an interval ot 
more than fifty years Burford had again furnished a Company to 
strengthen the Oxford Militia. 

The retirement of Captain Allan D. Muir was greatly regretted by 
the Commanding Officer of the Regiment, Lieut. Colonel J. C. Hegler, 
who used every effort to have Captain Muir change his mind, pointing 
out the possibility of his getting command of the Regiment before any 
great length of time. Captain Muir however, had always retained a 
preference for the Cavalry, and when the 25th. Brant Dragoons were 
organized he accepted the office of Paymaster of that fine Corps, a posi 
tion he is well qualified to fill. His last commission dates from 5th. 
April 1909. 




Capt. Allan D. Muir, 

Com. No. 3 Company. 

Oxford Rifles, 1896 - 1901. 





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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 367 

Captain Allan Wallace Ellis. 

The martial spirit is largely an inherited one, occasionly suppressed 
at times through force of circumstances it comes out periodically in cer 
tain families, who show a natural adaptation for the profession of arms. 

No family identified with the military history of Brant county, can 
claim a more continuous succession of "Wearers of the Sword", than 
the Ellis family. For generations back the names of various members 
are to be found in the Canadian Military records. 

Henry ElHs, founder of the Canadian branch of the lamily, and his 
friend, Captain Amos Sturgus, with their families, consisting of sixteen 
persons, left the Big Bend of the Susquahana River in Pennsylvania 
after the Revolutionary War, their destination being Canada, they cros 
sed the Niagara River at Black Rock in the month of October, 1808, and 
spent the first Winter at the Short Hills, known as the Upper settlement, 
from there they proceeded the following Spring westward, crossing the 
(rand River at Brants Fording place, now the City of Brantford (at 
that time there was not even a settlement there). From tnere they pro 
ceeded to what is now Mount Pleasant, Henry Ellis naming the place 
after an estate owned by. his family in Flintshire, Wales. 

These two families (Ellis & Sturgus) kased from Captain Joseph 
Bran 1 :, acting on behalf of the Indians, fo. a term of 999 years, the first 
400 acres of land thrown open for settlement by Captain Brant. 

These lands were part of a tract granted to the Six Nations and 
their heirs forever by proclamation dated at Quebec^ October 25, 1784, 
by order of General Haldimand, who was then Governor of the Province 
of Quebec. This grant consisted of 694,910 acres on the Grand River, 
six miles in depth on each side of the River, beginning at Lake Erie and 
extending to its source. This grant was confirmed by a patent issued by 
Lt. Governor Simcoe, bearing date January 14th, 1793. 

During the War of 1812, Allan Ellis, son of Henry Ellis served in the 
Militia and was at Queenston Heights and other engagements. 

In 1838 Allan Wallace Ellis, son of Allan Ellis, joined the Militia 
Cavalry Troop which was authorized to be raised in Brantford under 
Captain Welby. The Officers of this corps and the dates of their com 
mission were as follows : 

Capt. Thomas Earl Welby, 2nd. November 1838. 
Lieut. Wm. D Aubigny. 2nd. November 1838. 
Cornet. Jos. Kennedy Smith, 2nd November 1838. 

In 1856, when Brant county s Six Battalions of Militia were being 
organized, Allan Wallace Ellis was appointed Ensign in the Third Bat 
talion under Lieut. Col. Thomas Perrin, his commission being dated at 
Toronto 10th. February 1857, but giving him rank and precedence from 



368 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 



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THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 369 

18th. September, 1856. He was subsequently promoted Lieutenant, and 
during the Trent affair he applied for permission to raise a Volunteer 
Company in Mount Pleasant, authority to do so was granted by General 
Order, issued from Quebec, 30th. January 1863, which established one 
Volunteer Company of Infantry at Mount Pleasan^ to be Captain Allan 
Wallace Ellis, to be Lieutenant William E. Phelps, to be Ensign Robert 
Eadie, following this a second order appeared on 2nd, October 1863 
appointing Crosby Eaton Lieutenant, Vice Phelphs resigned. 

When the formation of the 38th. Brant Battalion of Infantry was 
authorized, with Headquarters at Brantford, on the 22nd September, 
1866, the Mount Pleasant Company, then in Camp at Thorold, became 
number four in the new Corps- 

In the Fourth generation, Mr. \V. Wallace Ellis, who as a boy had 
often watched his father s Company at their exercises in the old Drill 
Shed located on the village end of their property, served several years in 
number 2. Company Dufferin Rifles. At the present time they have a 
representative in the Volunteers in the person of H. H. Ellis, who is a 
Lieutenant in the 25th. Brant Dragoons under Lieutenant Colonel M. F. 
Muir. 

The photo at the head of this article gives the Military reader a 
good idea of the uniforms worn by the Infantry Officers of the Canadian 
Militia some fifty years ago. 



Organization of the 38th Brant Battalion. 

The operations during the short period of active service on the 
Niagara Frontier, in repelling the marauding Fenian invaders, had taught 
the Militia Department many important facts. Previous to this event 
there were but seven organized Battalions in the Province, the remain 
der of the force consisted of one hundred and eighty-six independant and 
isolated units, who performed their yearly drill at company headquarters 
and neither the officers or their men, were given the opportunity of acqui 
ring any knowledge of the tactics and movements of a battalion, or of 
larger bodies of troops in the field. 

Of the ten thousand men^ called out on the 1st and 2nd June, lSt> ., 
and the fourteen thousand who responded, it was, with one or two excep 
tions, the regularly organized battalions only, which were hastily despai 
died to the front, the exception being one or two rifle companies near the 
scene of operation, who were attached for duty. 

The one hundred and eighty six isolated and independent Kifle and 
Infantry companies, to be of any effective use during active service, must 
he controlled, manoeuvred and the nec<js>ary discipline and routine carried 
out, by uniting numbers of these military unit*- together, to form corps, 



370 THE HISTORY OF BURFORD 

called at this period "Battalions" and the necessary field officers, prefe 
rably men of experience, appointed, without which no regiment can be 
successfully led in the field. 

One of the first of the new Battalions to be organized was composed 
of all the existing or authorized rifle and infantry companies in the coun 
ty of Brant, one of the latter however, authorized with headquarters at 
Newport, failed to complete its organization and the Drumbo Rifle Com 
pany, authorized by General Order of 3rd. June, 1863, was added to the 
strength. 

The Paris Rifle Company, authorized by a G. O. dated June 26th, 
1856, was the oldest in the county and became number One Company of 
the new battalion. The Mount Pleasant Volunteer Infantry Company, 
authorized 30th. January, 1863, under Allan Wallace Ellis, Captain, Wm 
E. Phelphs as Lieutenant, Robert Eadie, Ensign, did not long remain a 
part of the 38th. Battalion. After the resignation of their first Officers 
this Company gradually became inefficient and was removed from the list 
of Volunteer Militia, in consequence of which No. 5 Company Brantfora 
became No. 4 and No. 6, Burford, became No. 5. 

The Regimental Staff Officers were selected, like the companies, 
according to seniority, Wm. Patton had been commissioned Captain of the 
Paris Rifle Company, May 20th, 1858., Captain \Villiam Grant, com 
manding the Second Rifle (Highland) Company Brantford, was the 
next ranking officer his commission dating from July 3rd, 1862, Captain 
Grant accepted the Paymastership, and Captain Hiram Dickie, comman 
ding No. One Rifle Company Brantford, was promoted Major. 



Camp Thorold. 

Some weeks previous to the organization of the 38th. Battalion, 
the Militia Department had established a Camp of Instruction at Tho 
rold, a number of provisional Battalions were formed out of the va 
rious units who, when attending this camp, were commanded by offi 
cers temporarily appointed. The Camp staff were as follows : Colo- 
rtel Garnet Wolseley, Commandant, Lieut. Col. Jarvis, Volunteer Militia, 
Brigade Major and Camp Quartermaster. (Major Page Wadsworth M. 
I- relieved Lieut, Col. Jarvis.) Lt. Col. Haultain, acting Aide-de-Camp. 
Major Alger, Volunteer Militia, Camp Paymaster. 

The Thorold Camp opened on the 20th day of August, 1866 and 
continued for seven weeks, the various corps called out serving conse 
cutively, as previously arranged. The several units, about to be formed 
into the 38th. Battalion, had received Orders to concentrate at Camp 
Thorold on Sept. 22nd, the same date on which the battalion was offi- 



THE HISTORY OF BURFORD . 371 



cially organized, six companies, comprising 20 officers, 46 Non-C. O. 
and 301 Privates, were present and performed their Drill under Lieut 
Colonel Patton, during the ensuing six days. The other corps in camp 
at the same time, were the 32nd Bruce, 4 Companies, under Lieut. Col. 
vSproat and a Provisional Battalion, consisting of the York, Caledonia, 
Dunnville, Oneida, Chippawa, and Virgil Companies, under Lt. Col. 
Davis. 

Under Lieut. Colonel Charles S. Jones, the 38th Brant Battalion, 
Dufferin Rifles of Canada reached a high state of efficiency. This cle 
ver young officer, who was in command of Xo. 2 Company, had been 
promoted Adjutant on 17th. December, 1880 and at the unanimous re 
quest of the officers of the Regiment he accepted the command, con 
firmed by G. O- 3rd June, 1881. 

Having decided to improve the standing of his corps, by the crea 
tion of a city Battalion, permission was granted by the Militia Depart 
ment on 15th. September, 1882, and on the same date the headquarters 
of the Paris Company was changed from Paris to Brantford, eight 
months later the headquarters of No. 5 (Bur ford) Company was also 
transferred to Brantford. 

With its splendid Brass and Bugle Bands, the Thrirty-eighth soon 
became one of the crack city corps of the Dominion. 

Since that period the high standard reached has been maintained 
with the aid of a long list of competent and capable officers, whose ta 
lents and ability, have been recognized upon more than one occasion. 

The present commanding officer, Lt. Col. Frank Howard, a vete 
ran of the North West Rebellion, was born and bred in Burford and 
received his education at Burford Public School. 



Canadian Ministers of Militia 

NAMES FROM TO 

Sir Etienne Paschal Tachc, 30th. March, 1864, 30th July. 1865 
Sir John A. Macdonald. 1865, 1867. 

Sir George Etienne Cartier, 1st. July, 1867, 20th May. 1873. 

Hon. Hmrh. McDonald, 1st, July, 1873. 4th Nov. 1873 

H<m. William Ross, 7th. Nov. 1873. 29th Sept. 1874 

Hon. William Berrian Vail. 3()th. Sept. 1874, 20th July. 1878. 

Hon. Alfred G. Jones, 21st. July, 1878, 19th October, 1878. 

Hon. Louis Fran. R. Masson ] hh. October, 1878, 15th January. 1880 

vSir A. Campbell K.C.M.G. Kith. Jan., 1880. 7th Nov., ISSil 

Sir T. Ad. Caron, K.C.M.G. 8th. Nov. 1X80, 24th Jan.. is<>2 

Sir MacKenzie Bowell, 25th. Jan.. 18>2. 4th Dec., ! 

Hon. J. Colc-br. Patterson, 5th. Dec., 1892. 25th March. 1895. 

Hon. Arthur Rupert Dickey, 26th. March, 1895. 15th January. lX ( o. 

Hon. Alphonse Desjardins. 16th. January, 1896. 30th April. l 8 ( >6 

Lt. Col. Hon. D. Tisdalc. Q.C. May, 1896. 12th July, 1896 

Lt. Col. Hon. 1- A\ . Borden, M.D. 13th. July. IS- i. 1911 

Col. Hon. Sam Hughes, 10th. Oct., 1"11.