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s>*sa,2i. s' 









two provincOK of Siani) ; Tauii^u ami iVonio 
in B. Buniia ; (*aliLiiiiiihjini. in the interior 
Iff Indu-C-hinn, nmro or less fabulous. 

1M4.— *'Now the Kinjr of Tartary was 

f:dleii u{K>n the city of /'rtjuiii with m«i ^reat 

in UTDiy as the like haa never lK*en setMi 

-ince Adam's time ; in this anny . . . 

wore Movon and twenty Kin^^s, nnder whom 

•nnrched 1,800,000 men . . . . with four 

..■oPB thouMand Khinoeenwcs " {Uondt'^Hirtirtht 

i/( oUenia mil bftdu). — /f'i*f. (on^. cap. 

I'ii.) in VoguHf \t. 149. 

(1560.— Hco quotation under LAOS. J 

1585. — "It in a vor>' fertile c»nintry, with 
'real fltoore of pnjuiiiioun : there are ele- 

.iiinta in groat numlwr and abadas, which 
.1 kind of benMt mu hi^ as two ^reat huN, 
•1 hath vppnn hiii snowt u little home." — 

''udooBL, ii. 311. 

1592. — "Wo wnt Cf>nini(Nlities to their 

'itr to barter for Amlier-^rcesc. and fur the 

■mee of Abath* whereof the Kinjre onejy 

ih the traffii{UO in hii* ha mis. Now thi> 

.bath is a ImmurI that hath one home 

It in her fi»rohoad, and is thou;;ht tt> hv 

■-> fenuUe Vnicome, and is highly rstconie<l 

all the MouruH in those jKirts as a mo>t 

loraigne rcmedio against ]M>vs<)n." — />{#*- 

inlrai^. ii. 5»I. 

iTM.— "The Abada, or RhimKvnM, is not 
India.* butrMielv in lU'Mi/uhr and I'tUiinr,'" 
'inteMeH, 88. '[ilak. Soc. ii. s.] 

X]fo in Hentjala wo fouml creat nimiK^rs 
'le beaats which in I^ntin are callcfl Uhin- 
■tea^ and of the Fortinu'alles Abadas."- 
28. [Hak. SiK-. i. W.] 

1006. — ". . . ovo iMirlaiio le loro nier- 
o per Tondcrlu u rinesi, ivirticiilar- 
4 . . . molti ctimi della Bada, detto 
onmte . . "—t'arlftd, p. IW. 

!• — "Bada, a Tory tierce animal, callcil 
«Jtber more common name lihtHt-c* rna. 
rdayi they brrjui^ht t4i the Kin^ Philip 
«w in glory, a Bada which was louir ai 
^d, haTing hin horn sawn utT, and lM.>in^ 
-d, for fear ho shouM hurt anylMKly. 
ilie name of Bada i"* one impisiMl liy 
lianH thoniselves ; In it a.-^siimini: that 

not uii thH W. ri>et'>t lit <)■•■ pHiininiilJi, 
ofifi raueciMlly by lh>' {'••ilii^'Mi-si'. t<«ir 





AN1( OF 


[" Wee have forbidden the severall Factoryes from wrighting words in 
this languadge and refrayned itt our selves, though in bookes of coppies 
we feare there are many which by wante of tyine for perusall we cannot 
rectefie or expresse."— Surat Factors to Court, Feb. 26, 1617 : I. O. Records : 
O. C. No. 460. (Evidently the Court had complained of a growmg use of 
" Hobson-Jobsons.")] 

" Ou5€ yap TravTWS t^i' avnljv Stacrcu^ci Sidvoiav fi€6€pfi7jv€v6ix€va ra 
ovofiara dW* ctTTt rtva, icat xa^ ckcuttov Wvos ISiiofiara, dSvvara eh 
dWo c^vos 8ta <fxt}vrjs crrjfjbaiV€<rdaL" — Iamblichus, De MystcriiSy vii. cap. v. 

i.e. "For it is by no means always the case that translated terms 
preserve the original conception ; indeed every nation has some idiomatic 
expressions which it is impossible to render perfectly in the language of 

"As well may we fetch words from the Ethiojnans, or East or West 
Indians, and thrust them into our Language, and bajitize all by the name of 
English^ as those which we daily take from the Latine oi Languages thereon 
dei^ending; and hence it cometh, (as by often experience is found) that 
some English-men discoursing together, others being present of our own 
Nation .... are not able to understand what the others say, notwith- 
standing they call it English that they speak." — R. V(ERSTEGAN), Restitution 
of Decayed Intelligence^ ed. 1673, p. 223. 

** Ctque novis facilis signatur cera figuris, 
Xec manet ut fuerat, nee formas servat easdem, 
Sed tamen ipsa eadem est ; VOCEM sic semper eandem 
Esse, sed in varias doceo migrai*e figuras." 

Ovid. Metamorph. xv. 169-172 (ada])!.)- 

"... TiUce this as a good f are-well draugid q/'Euglish-Indian liquor." — PURCIIAS, 
To the Reader {before Terrj^'s Relation of East India), ii. 1463 (misprintt*d 1161). 

"Nee dubitamus multa esse quae et nos praeterierint. Homines euini 
sumus, et occupati officiis; subsiciWsque temiwribus ista curamus.*' — C. 
Plinu Secundi, Eist. Kat. Praefalio, ad Vespasianum. 

** Haec, si displicui, fuerint solatia nobis : 

Haec fuerint nobis praemia. si placiii.*' 

Martlilis, Epigr. 11. xci, 









/ol 5-ct,olJ.5" 

i Nj > - ■' 

1 19C3 

[IfMtniim to Sir Gtarge Udny Yule^ CB., K.aSJ.] 

G. U. Y. 









H. Y. 


The objects and scope of this work are explained in the Intro- 
4luctory Eemarks which follow the Preface. Here it is desired to 
i-.iy a few words as to its history. 

Tlie book originated in a correspondence between the present 
writer, who was living at Palermo, and the late lamented Arthur 
I ir FIN ELL, of the Madras Civil Service, one of the most eminent of 
LiiKiern Indian scholars, who during the course of our communica- 
tions was filling judicial oflSces in Southern and Western India, 
• hieriy at Tanjore. We had then met only once — at the India 
Ubrary ; but he took a kindly interest in work that engaged me, 
and this led to an exchange of letters, which went on after his 
return to India. About 1872 — I cannot find his earliest reference 
t ► the subject — he mentioned that he was contemplating a vocabu- 
liry of Anglo- Indian words, and had made some collections with 
that view. In reply it was stated that I likewise had long been 
:.iking nolo of such words, and that a notion similar to his own also l>een at various times floating in my mind. And I pro- 
I<r*^d that we should combine our labours. 

I had not, in fact, the linguistic acquirements needful for 
. ..miug through such an undertaking alone; but I had gone 
:hrr>ugh an amount of reading that would largely help in instances 
an<I illustrations, and had also a strong natural taste for the kind 
•-•f work. 

This was the beginning of the portly double-columned edifice 
whi'.h now presents itself, the completion of which my friend has 
L'A lived to see. It was built up from our joint contributions till 
ha untimely death in 1882, and since then almost daily additions 
Lave continued to be made to the material and to the structure. 
The subjects indeed, had taken so comprehensive a shape, that it 
beoomiDg difficult to say where its limits lay, or why it should 


viii PREFACE. 

ever end, except for the old reason wliich had received such 
poignant illustration: Ars longa, vita brevis. And so it has 
been wound up at last. 

The work has been so long the companion of my horae subsi- 
civde^ a thread running through the joys and sorrows of so many 
years, in the search for material first, and then in their handling and 
adjustment to the edifice — for their careful building up has been 
part of my duty from the beginning, and the whole of the matter 
has, I suppose, been written and re-written with my own hand at 
least four times — and the work has been one of so much interest 
to dear friends, of whom not a few are no longer here to welcome 
its appearance in print,* that I can hardly speak of the work 
except as mine. 

Indeed, in bulk, nearly seven-eighths of it is so. But Burnell 
contributed so much of value, so much of the essential ; buying, in 
the search for illustration, numerous rare and costly books which 
were not otherwise accessible to him in India ; setting me, by his 
example, on lines of research with which I should have else pos- 
sibly remained unacquainted ; writing letters with such fulness, 
frequency, and interest on the details of the work up to the 
summer of his death ; that the measure of bulk in contribution i^ 
no gauge of his share in the result. 

In the Life of Frank Buckland occur some words in relation to 

the church-bells of Ross, in Herefordshire, which may with some 

aptness illustrate our mutual relation to the book : 

"It is said that the Man of Ross'* (John Kyrle) "was present at 
the casting of the tenor, or great bell, and that he took witli him an old 
silver tankard, which, after drinking claret and sherry, he threw in, and 
had cast with the bell." 

John Kyrle's was the most precious part of the metal run into the 
mould, but the shaping of the mould and the larger part of the 
material came from the labour of another hand. 

At an early period of our joint work Burnell sent me a fragment 
of an essay on the words which formed our subject, intended as the 
basis of an introduction. As it stands, this is too incomplete to 
print, but I have made use of it to some extent, and given some 
extracts from it in the Introduction now put forward.! 

• The dedication was sent for prens on 6th January ; on the ISth, G. U. Y. 
departed to his rest. 

t Throe of the mottoes that face the title were also sent by him. 


Tbe alternative title (ffobsan^obson) which has been given to 
tl^is buuk (not without the expressed assent of my collaborator), 
doubtless requires explanation. 

A valued friend of the present writer many years ago pub- 
li^hed a bo<>k, of great acumen and considerable originality, which 
be called Three Essays, with no Author's name ; and the result- 
in;: amount of circulation was such as might have been expected. 
It was remarked at the time by another friend that if the volume 
had lieen entitled A Book, by a Chap, it would have found a much 
Unrer body of readers. It seemed to me that A Glossary or A 
V*ytihi4nry would be equally imattractive, and that it ought to 
have an alternative title at least a little more characteristic. If 
the reader will turn to Hcbson-Johson in the Glossary itself, he 
will find that phrase, though now rare and moribund, to be a 
typical and delightful example of that class of Anglo-Indian 
nrfjfot which consists of Oriental words highly assimilated, perhaps 
by vulgar lips, to the English vernacular ; whilst it is the more 
tiled to our book, conveying, as it may, a veiled intimation of 
ilual authorship. At any rate, there it is ; and at this period my 
fer!:ng has come to be that such is the book's name, nor could it 
well have been anything else. 

\u Ci4rr}'ing through the work I have sought to supplement my 

• wTi .ietieiencies from the most competent sources to which friend- 
^^:|• affonJe<l access. Sir Joseph Hooker has most kindly 
-x.t:ain*r-«l almost every one of the proof-sheets for articles dealing 
with ["lants, correcting their errors, and enriching them with notes 

• f his "wn. Another friend, Professor Robertson Smith, has done 
th*:: lik»,* fi»r words of Semitic origin, and to him I owe a variety of 
iLitrrotin,: references to the words treated of, in regard to their 

-. :urr».-Dcc, under some cognate form, in the Scriptures. In the early 
j^irt of the l>ook the Rev. Gkorgb MouLE(now Bishop of Xingpo), 
th-en in Enj:l»ind, was good enough to revise those articles which 

• ft.- mh expressions used in China (not the first time that his 
j»rnercu.- aid had lH}en given to work of mine). Among other 
rn^-D^is who have l)een ever ready with assistance I may mention 
It Reixhold Rost, of the India Library; General Robert 
Mil uloax. R.K ; Sir George Birdwood, C.S.I. ; Major- 
General R II. Keatinge, V.C, C.S.I. ; Professor Terrien 
ti Ul CocPERll; and Mr. E Colborne IUber, at present 
Toasul-Oeneral in Corea. Dr. J. A. H. Murray, editor of the 


great English Dictionary, has also been most kind and courteous 
in the interchange of communications, a circumstance which will 
account for a few cases in which the passages cited in both works 
are the same. 

My first endeavour in preparing this work has been to make it 
accurate ; my next to make it — even though a Glossary — interest- 
ing. In a work intersecting so many fields, only a fool could 
imagine that he had not fallen into many mistakes; but these 
when pointed out, may be amended. If I have missed the other 
object of endeavour, I fear there is little to be hoped for from a 
second edition. 


5lh January 1886. 


Tffi twofold hope expressed in the closing sentence of Sir Henry 
Yule's Preface to the original Edition of this book has been amply 
jojatiiied. More recent research and discoveries have, of course, 
brr*ui:ht to light a good deal of information which was not 
acct^ssible to him, but the general accuracy of what he wrote 
lias never been seriously impugned — while those who have 
§tudie<i the pages of Hobson-Johson have agreed in classing it 
45 unique among similar works of reference, a volume which 
ocibines interest and amusement with instruction, in a manner 
wLich few other Dictionaries, if any, have done. 

In this edition of the Anglo-Indian Glossary the original text has 
1 ^rn rc'printe^l, any additions made by the Editor being marked 
\y si|uare brackets. No attempt has been made to extend the 
V cal'Tilar)', the new articles being either such as were accidentally 
\^!:*iitcd in the first edition, or a few relating to words which 
^'-triit:'! to correspond with the general scope of the work. Some 
riTW «|uotations have been added, and some of those included in 
:*.*- original edition have been verified and new references given. 
A:, itiiex to words occurring in the quotations has been prepared. 

1 have to acknowledge valuable fissistance from many friends. 

Mr W. W. Skeat has read the articles on Malay words, and has 

siirlied many notes. CoL Sir R. Temple has permitted me to 

'■^ ^veral of liis papers on Anglo-Indian words, and has kindly 

^-n: iiie advance sheets of that portion of the Analytical Index to 

\:x trst e«iition by Mr. C. PARTRIDGE, which is being published 

I- the Indian Antiquary. Mr. R S. Whitkway has given me 

Duoien^us extracts from Portuguese writers; Mr. W. Foster, 

.a-tAtions from unpublished records in the India Office; Mr. W. 

Ii^iXE, notes on the later Moghul period. For valuable sugges- 

ticns and information on disputed points I am indebted to Mr. 



H. Beveridge, Sir G. Birdwood, Mr. J. Brandt, Prof. E. G. 
Browne, Mr. M. Longworth Dames, Mr. G. E. Dampier, Mr. 
Donald Ferguson, Mr. C. T. Gardner, the late Mr. E. J. W. Gibb, 
Prof. H. A. Giles, Dr. G. A. Grierson, Mr. T. M. Horsfall, 
Mr. L. W. King, Mr. J. L. Myres, Mr. J. Platt, jun., Prof. G. 
U. Pope, Mr. V. A. Smith, Mr. C. H. Tawney, and Mr. J. Weir. 


nth November 1902. 



I »mcATi05 TO Sib George Ycle, C.B., K.C.S.I. ... v 

l^BXTxcE ......... vii 

i^RtTA. 1 TO S1C05D Edition xi 

l5Tm.tiCT*»RT Remarks ....... xv 

N'te A. to da . . . . . xxiii 

X't« B. ^ . . . XXV 

N'Ta T'Enk— in the Use of the Glossary — 

:Ai R«-gripiing Dates of Quotations ..... xxvi 

(V*) Regarding Tran^iliteration ...... xxvi 

Y: l: I.R TiTLE-s uF Books quoted in the Glossary . xxvii 

« vRRJ«JEM»A ......... xlviii 

'rLO>SARV 1 

IXI'EX .... 987 



Words of Iii<iian origin have been insinuating themselves into English 
rvcr >iiii e the end of the reign of Elizabeth and the beginning of that of 
Kiiu; Janic-s when such terms as caliw, chintz^ and gingham had already 
rtfr^ ttr*! a ItMlgineut in English warehouses and shops, and were lying in 
w.iit f.»r iiitrance into English literature. Such outlandish guests grew 
mi«rr Irt^iuent 120 years ago, when, soon aft^r the middle of last century, 
th- iiunilttrrs of Englishmen in the Indian ser\'ices, civil and military, 
«xjaii'ie<l with the great acquisition of dominion then made by the Company ; 
.III i ^*e niwt them in vastly greater <ibundance now. 

V. ^.ibularie-* nf Indian and other foreign words, in use among Euro- 

TTiii- in the East, have not unfrequently been printed. Several of the 

«li tni\eller.-» have attached the like to their narratives; whilst the pro- 

1 'ti*:'-i cxt itenit-nt «Teate<l in England, a hundred years since, by the 

m.|-a. hment of Hjistings and kindred matters, led to the publication 

• t "-.-Yt-nil gbjssarie.s as independent works ; and a good many others 

Li\.' l.-^ii ]»ublibhed in Liter days. At the end of this Introduction will 

^T f 'ill.! ;4 livt of t has*' which have come under my notice, and this might 

L' i- .'t-t )m- l.irp-ly adde<l to.* 

'M iii'-itrn (Jl'jssaries, such as have been the result of serious labour, 
*.'i, I nearly all, liave K»en of a kind purely technical, intended to facilitate 
ih. <'.iiij.n-iien>ion of official documents by tlie ex]>lanation of terms used 
■':\\i'- R«:vt-nue dej>artment, or in other branches of Indian administration. 
T:-- n»<M notable examples are (of brief and occasional character), the 
'»-'^N»r\ a{.|K.*uded to the famous Fifth Report of the Select Committee of 
l"lt»hi'h was compiled by Sir Charles Wilkins ; and (of a far more vast 
*"t ..n.|.rehen*ive sort), the late Professor Horace Hayman Wilson's Glossary 
■" J'i'h I.// tiutt lUftnue Trrms (4to, 1855) which leaves far behind every 
'th-r :irt. ni|.t in that kind.t 

TJut kind is however, not ours, as a momentary comparison of a page 

• t^'j in t-a- h <Jl«i»»arv would suttice to show. Our work indeed, in the 
i fi*: -'..jr-«.- "f its compilation, has gcme through some modification and 
♦-^•kvnjrht ••! "-ojie; but hardly such as in any degree to atl'ect its dis- 
-.3 lar rLiHM ter, in which something has been aimed at differing in form 
if'tu any Work kn^»wn to us. In its original conception it was intended 
''"J-4I with all that chi.vt df words which, not in general pertaining to the 
•-^liiialitur* of ad m in i."*! ration, recur constantly in the daily intercourse of 
*^ En;:li«'h in India, either as expressing ideas really not provided for by 

• Ve Not* A. tkl end of Introductiun. 

• h«/fe«aiir Wil«un'ii work may (lerhapa licar ro-editing, but can hordlv, fur its pur|K>ffe, 
^ K}Kf^ded. The Ute eminent Tolugu scholar, Mr. C. P. Brown, interleaved, with 

and addenda, a copy of Wilson, which U now in the India Library. I have 

P** ^hrti^h it, and borrowed a few notcm, with acknowledgment by the initiala C. P. B. 
<W aMcpttat of iai|«vT«ment doet not strike me an important. 



our mother-tongue, or supposed by the speakers (often quite erroneously) to 
express something not capable of just denotation by any English term. A 
certain percentage of such words have been carried to England by the 
constant reflux to their native shore of Anglo-Indians, who in some degree 
imbue with their notions and phraseology the circles from which they had 
gone forth. This effect has been still more promoted by the currency of a 
xtiSt mass of literature, of all qualities and for all ages, dealing with Indian 
subjects ; as well as by the regular appearance, for many years i>ast, of Indian 
correspondence in English newspapers, insomuch that a considerable number 
of the expressions in question have not only become familiar in sound to 
English ears, but have become naturalised in the English language, and are 
meeting with ample recognition in the great Dictionary edited by Dr. Murray 
at Oxford. 

Of words that seem to have been admitted to full franchise, we may give 
examples in curryj toddy^ veranda^ cheroot^ looty nabobj teapoy ^ sepoy ^ cowry ; and 
of others familiar enough to the English ear, though hardly yet received 
into citizenship, compound^ battay pucka^ chowry, baboOy mahout ^ aya^ nant<:h,* 
^Tst-chopy com]>etition-tra/^, griffinj &c. But beyond these two classes of 
words, received within the last century or so, and gradually, into half or 
whole recognition, there are a good many others, long since fully assimilated, 
which really originated in the adoption of an Indian word, or the modifica- 
tion of an Indian proper name. Such words are the three quoted at the 
1)eginning of these remarks, chintz, calico, gingham, also shawl, bamboo, pagoda, 
typhoon, monsoon, mandarin, 2>cilayiquin,j; &c., and I may mention among 
further examples which may perhaps surprise my readers, the names of three 
of the 1)oats of a man-of-war, viz. the cutter, the jolly-boat, and the dingy, as 
all (prol>ably) of Indian origin. J Even phrases of a different cliaracter — 
slang indeed, but slang generally supposed to be vernacular as well as vulgar 
— e.g. *that is the cheese* ;X or supposed to be vernacular and profane — e.g. 
*I don't care a dam*t — are in reality, however vulgar they may be, neither 
vernacular nor profane, but phrases turning upon innocent Hindustani 

We proposed also, in our Qlossary, to deal with a selection of those 
administrative terms, which are in such familiar and quotidian use as to 
form part of the common Anglo-Indian stock, and to trace all (so far as 
ix)ssible) to their true origin — a matter on which, in regard to many of the 
words, those who hourly use them are profoundly ignorant— and to follow 
them down by quotation fpom their earliest occurrence in literature. 

A particular class of words are those indigenous terms which have been 
adopted in scientific nomenclature, botanical and zoological. On these Mr. 
Bumell remarks : — 

"The first Indian botanical names were chiefly introduced by Garcia 
de Orta {CoHoq^iios, printed at GJoa in 1563X C. d'Acosta (Tractado, Burgos, 
1578), and Rhede van Drakenstein (Hortns Malabaricus, Amsterdam, 1682). 
The Malay names were chiefly introduced by Rumphius {Herbarium Am- 

* Nautchf it may be urged, is admitted to full franchise, being used by ao eminent 
a writer as Mr. Browning, fiut the fact that his use is entirely misuge^ seems to justify 
the classiticaUon in the text (see Gloss., s.t.]. A like remark applies to comjtottHd. See 
for the tremendous fiasco made in its intended use by a moet intelligent lady novelist, 
the last quotation s.v. in Oloss. 

t Oloss., s.v. (note p. d59, ool. a), contains quotations from the Vulgate of the passage 
in Canticles iii. 9, regarding King Solomon's /«rctf/i{jn of Lebanon cedar. I have to thank 
an old friend for pointing out that the word palanquin has, in this iwssage, received 
solemn sanction by its introduction into the Revised Version. 

X See these woras in Oloss. 


IbAnmiiR, completed Yiefore 1700, but not published till 1741). The Indian 
x»» I'igkml terms were chiefly due to Dr. F. Buchanan, at the beginning of 
thi« c^ntTirr. Most of the N. Indian botanical words were introduced by 
R'^i^ tirgh." 

I: hkn lieen already intimated that, as the work proceeded, its scope ex- 
;«&dril Pi'mewhat, and its authors found it expedient to introduce and trace 
tuiDT V'tfds r»f Asiatic origin which have disappeared from colloquial use, 

• f {•^rliji}rt ntrver entered it, but which occur in old writers on the East. 
W* al* ju'i|^l that it would add to the interest of the work, were we to 
sti'.-*riirAt<j and make out the |>e<ligree of a variety of geographical names 
vl; h anr or have l>een in familiar use in books on the Indies; take as 

• Villi} In* /ivffii'iy, Madras^ Gtutrdafui^ Malalxtr, Moluccas^ Zanzibar^ Pegu^ 
S'.nui.**"!. <,»*ii'A»n, Sfy<htUf$^ Ceylon^ Java, Ava^ Japan^ Doah^ Punjab, &c., 
'.' . ^<r^iniiZ these, like every other class of word, by quotations given in 

• Lr ii'»bifcrical series. 

Oihrr divagations still from the original project will prol)ably present 
^hrnu^lve* to thofle who turn over the pages of the work, in which we have 
*^a t-nipte<i to intniducc sundry subjects which may seem hardly to come 
«uhm th«r «<*oj»e of such a glossary. 

The w».rd3 with which we have to do, taking the most extensive view of 
T'.- tieli. an* in fact organic remains deposited under the various currents 
■ f ♦ \t« iiifluenre that have washed the shores of India during twenty 
♦-:i!an»rs and more. Rejecting that deri\'ation of eUpIiant* which would 
' uutrx it with the Ophir trade of Solomon, we find no existing Western 
>r i tri-«i>«lt; to that ej»isode of communication ; but the (^reek and Roman 
' •..:-:-r »- "f tin- lalvr c»'nturif8 has left its fossils on lM)th sides, testifying 

• '\i' in!«-r:'»iirse that once subsisted. AyaHochum, carhiiamg, camphitr^ 
' • ■•'. t.'sJ.\ riin/, }*'}'}*^i' (WTe/k, from Skt. pippali, Mong l>e]>piT'), ginger 

---.^Af, •••f under G\n*jfr\ lac, otgtus^ opal, maUibathrum or folium indicum, 
>'s , $:"^tr ( ji«x*f*' fn»m Skt. Mrknra, Prak. mkkara), rice (6pvia, but see ^.y.\ 
' r- |r--bi't.-« ff n.tme-s intn>duced fn>m India to the Greek and Roman 
"f ■•.'..!• ubih may K* adde<i a few terms of a difTereiit character, such as 
!-'«j— i#«i. 2ia^.«arrt (j^n/ »«<!/»#» ix, or Huddllist ascetics), fl''\o <ro'>a\ii'a koI (raxrafilya 

• •--• 'f t«-.iV. and i-hi.-lwini), the ffdyyapa (raft-s) of the Perij)lus (see Jangar 
". *i:'**A >; i»hii*t iliutini^ dntuivui, jK»rhaps kaftlra (Min,' *fa<r<rtrepos\ Avuffwri 

. -k. *ttr-d;Kor, projierly a different, though analogous animal pnMluct), 
. : I '.-rA I', w more, have remained in Indian literature as testimonv to the 

T '• :r».le and conquests of the Arabs l>oth brought foreign words to 
'.:. . i:.'i pi< ke*.i Up an<l carrie<l westward, in form more or less corrupted, 
■= ri- i liiduin orivniL, K>me of which have in one way or other Woonie part 

* ". ':• rr.ip' *.f all surotrding foreigners in the East. Among terms which 
*'■ :%:..\iAT rv«:iiis in the Anglo-Indian colloquial, but which ha<l, in some 
•.i> r '*th*T, f'.und their wav at an earl v dale into use on the shores of 

* M'-i.Vmne-'iii, we may instance baz4iar, cmee, hummaul, hrinfivU gi^^^lly 
•'4 «-#.?•. yni'. itutnimtit^ dciniun (<logHna, douane, &c.). Of others which are 

: i ;n nie*ii»-\-al literature, either West-Asiatic or European, and which 
•^ !. :jk\^ 1 pl.ire in Anglo-Indian or English vocabulary, we may mention 

• -^ ■."T-'s t-K'tnk^ ju,Hky jiigy, kincoh, kedgeree, fanam, cahy, banksJiall, mudiliar, 
vii^ rr>r«r*y. 

* -Kc Xhm vrrrl ID GUMS. 

* ^«« A. Wtthcr. to imiiam Antiqwtry, ii. 143 f<^/. Movt of the other Greek word*, 
*:-Ki hm xrmem io ^matknX, are Mtronomica] terms aerired frum books. 


The conquests and long occupation of the Portuguese, who by the year 
1540 had esta])lished themselves in all the chief ports of India and the East, 
have, as might have been expected, bequeathed a large numl>er of expressions 
to the European nations who have followed, and in great part superseded 
them. "We find instances of missionaries and others at an early date who 
had acquired a knowledge of Indian languages, but these were exceptional * 
The natives in contact with the Portuguese learned a l^astaixi variety of the 
language of the latter, which became the lingua franca of intercourse, not 
only between European and native, but occasionally between Europeans of 
diflferent nationalities. This Indo-Portuguese dialect continued to serve sucli 
purposes down to a late period in the last century, and has in some localities 
survived down nearly to our own day.t The number of people in India 
claiming to be of Portuguese descent was, in the 17th century, very large. 
Bernier, about 1660, says : — 

"For he (Sultan Shuja', Aurangzeb's brother) much courted all those 
Portugal Fathers, Missionaries, that are in that Province. . . . And they 
were indeed capable to serve him, it being certain that in the kingdom of 
Bengale there are to be found not less than eight or nine thousand families 
of Franguis^ PortugalSy and these either Natives or Mesticks." {Bernier^ E.T. 
of 1684, p. 27.) 

A. Hamilton, whose experience belonged chiefly to the end of the same 
century, though his book was not published till 1 727, states : — 

"Along the Sea-coasts the Portuguese have left a Vestige of their Language, 
tho' much corrupted, yet it is the Language that most Europeans learn first 
to qualify them for a general Converse with one another, as well as with the 
difi'erent inhabitants of India." {Preface^ p. xii.) 

Lockyer, who published 16 years before Hamilton, also says : — 

"This they (the Portugutze) may justly l)oa3t, they have established a 
kind of Lingua Franca in all the Sea Ports in India, of great use to other 
Europeans, who would find it diflicult in many places to be well understood 
without it." (An Account of the Trade in India, 1711, p. 286.) 

The early Lutheran Missionaries in the South, who went out for the 
S.P.C.K., all seem to have begim by learning Portuguese, and in their diaries 
speak of preaching occasionally in Portuguese. J The foundation of this 
lingua franca was the Portuguese of the beginning of the 16th century ; but 
it must have soon degenerated, for by the beginning of the last century 
it had lost nearly all trace of inflexion.! 

It may from these remarks be easily understood how a large numlxir of 

* Varthema, at the very beginning of the 16th century, shows some acquaintance 
with Malay&Iam, and introduces pieces of conversation in that language. Before tho 
end of the 16th century, printing had been introduced at other places besides Goa, 
and by the beginning of the 17th, several books in Indian languages had been printed 
at Goa, Cochin, and Anibalakkadu. — (A. B.) 

t " At Point de Galle, in 1860, I found it in common use, and also, somewhat later, 
at Calocut."— (A. B.) 

J See " Notices of Madras and Cuddalore, Ac, by tho earlier Missionaries." Longman, 
1858, ixwuw. See also Mannaly &c. in BooK-LlST, infra p. xxxix. Dr Carey, writing 
from Scrampore as late as 1800, says that the children of Europeans by native women, 
whether children of English, French, Dutch, or Danes, were all called Portuguese. 
SmiUts Lift of Carfi/y 152. 

§ See Note B. at end of Introductory Remarks. ** Mr. Beames remarked some time 
ago that most of the names of places in South India are greatlv disfigured in the forms 
used by Euroi>eans. This is because we have adopted the Portuguese orthography. 
Only in this way it can be explained how Kolladam has become Coleroon, Solauandalam, 
Curvhiandfly and Tuttukku(h, TtUicorin," (A. B.J Mr. Bumell was so impressed with 
the excessive corruption of ^. Indian names, that he would hardly ever williogly Tentare 
any explanation of them, considering the matter all too uncertain. 


c»r Anglo-Indian colloquialisms, even if eventually traceable to native 
loarces (and es|>ecially to Mahratti, or Dravidian originals) have come to 
OS through a Portuguese medium, and often bear traces of having passed 
through that alembic. Not a few of these are familiar all over India, but 
the number current in the South is larger still. Some other Portuguese 
¥«ids 9^sk\ though they can hardly be said to be recognized elements in the 
Anghv Indian colloquial, have been introduced either into Hindustani 
generally, or into that shade of it which is in use among natives in habitual 
contact with European.s. Of words which are essentially Portuguese, among 
Anglo-Indian colloquialisms, persistent or obsolete, we may quote goglet^ 
fram^ piantaiti^ must<r, caste, peon, padre, mistry or maistry, almyra, aya, cobra, 
mnnquito^ pfnnfret, cameez, palmyra, still in general use ; picotta, rolong, pial, 
f^t*$^ rrtar*7'«i, preserved in the South ; batel, brab, foras, cart, veUard in 
Boml«ay ; jt»$^ amipradort, linguist in the ports of China ; and among more 
or Ir« ol>s<>lete terms, Moor, for a Mahommedan, still surviving under the 
modified form Moorman, in Madras and Ceylon ; Gentoo, still partially kept 
uji, I U4ieve, at Madras in application to the Telugu language, m>ustees, castees, 
handtjit ('a tray *), Kittysol (*an umbrella,' and this survived ten years ago in 
the Calcutta customs tariff), cxispadore (*a spittoon 'X and covid (*a cubit or 
ell '). Words of native origin which bear the mark of having come to us 
thr^^ugh the Portuguese may be illustrated by such as palanquin, mandarin, 
wuing^Un (a small weight for pearls, &c.) monsoon, typhoon, mango, mangosteen, 
jark-fruit^ Kitf't^ rurry, cJiop, congee, coir, cutch, catamaran, cassanar, nabob, 
«f♦l</'I^»l^ ?-^</, areca, benzoin, corge, copra,* A few examples of Hindustani 
vonis U>rn»we<l from the Portuguese are chdbl (*a key*), bdola (*a port- 
Duntcau'), 6<//fJ (*a bucket'), martol (*a hammer'), tauliya (*a towel,' Port. 
totilKj)^ Mihnn ('Mwip'X bdmn (* plate' from Port, bacia), lildm and nlldm (*an 
iuction 'X, l»e.*iid«'?« a numWr of terms itsed by Lascars on board ship. 

The Dutch language has not contribute<l much to our store. The Dutch 
tnd thr Engli.«*h arrived in the Indies contemporaneously, and though lx)th 
inhffiteil fn»ru the Portuguese, we have not been the heirs of the Dutch to 
IDT gnrat extent, except in Ceylon, and even there Portuguese vocables had 
tlrcudy <»« rupie<l the collo<iuial ground. Petertilly, the word in general use 
m En^'Ii-h families for * parsley,' appears to In; Dutch. An example from 
Ceylon that <N<urs to memory is burgher. The Dutch admitted people of 
mixt descent t«> a kind of citizenship, and these were distinguished from 
the purr nativi-.^ by this term, which survives. Burgher in Bengal means *a 
rmfirr.* pn^j»»*rly b'lrrjti. A word B\)e\t and ]»ronounced in the same way had 
•fsun a curi'»u*ly different application in Madras, where it was a corruption 
(4 r.i<fwy»ir, the name given to a trilw in the Xilgherry hills ;— to say nothing 
i»fS'.tlind. wliere Burghers and Antiburghers were Northern irihes (vet uti 
iki^ ft M.v»g !) which have long l)een condensed into elements of the United 
l*rfc*byterian Cliunh ! 

Southern India has crintributed to the Angh>- Indian stock words that are 
in h. HI rly u.*^ aLs«i fn»m Calcutta to Peshawur (»<»me of them already not wi 
tndt-r an««th«r • leavage), e.g. bet^U mango, jack^ cheroot, mungooHe, jniriah, 
Wiu^ir'^y. ^||JL•, i^ttcharre, chatty, catechu, tope (*a grove'), curry, mulligatavmy, 
rm^t. M'tni"'^»j (a digging iwA) is familiar in cerUin branches of the 

idvimm] unuination given to many Indian word?*, when adontc*! into European 
«•. a« ia mttam^JuiH, uHtmdarin, Ac, must l>o attribute<i mainly to the Portu^uow ; but 
ttmaaoc be «ntir«lv due to tbera. For we find the na«al termination of Achln, m 
Mill Mwdin writert (»ee p. 3K and that of CVA<m iHjforo the Portujrueiie time («ec 
f^l&l vkOft tlM oooTcnioo of Pam, in Sumatra, int> /'curw, as the Portugue«« call 
k iiakiMly indicated in Um Bama of Marco Polo. 


service, owing to its having long had a place in the nomenclature of the 
Ordnance department. It is Tamil, manvitti, * earth-cutter.' Of some very 
familiar words the origin remains either dubious, or matter only for con- 
jecture. Examples are hackery (which arose apparently in Bombay), floricariy 

As to Hindustani words adopted into the Anglo-Indian colloquial the 
subject is almost too wide and loose for much remark. The habit of intro- 
ducing these in English conversation and writing seems to pre^'ail more 
largely in the Bengal Presidency than in any other, and es])ecially more than 
in Madras, where the variety of different vernaculars in use has tended to 
make their ac([uisition by the English less universal than is in the north 
that of Hindustani, which is so much easier to learn, and also to make the 
use in former days of Portuguese, and now of English, by natives in contact 
with foreigners, and of French about the French settlements, very much 
more common than it is elsewhere. It is this bad habit of interlarding 
English with Hindustani phrases which has so often excited the just wrath 
of high English officials, not accustomed to it from their youth, and which 
(e.g.) drew forth in orders the humorous indignation of Sir Charles Napier. 

One peculiarity in this use we may notice, which doubtless exemplifies 
some obscure linguistic law. Hindustani verbs which are thus used are 
habitually adopted into the quasi-English by converting the im]>erative into 
an infinitive. Thus to bunow, to lugow, to foozilow, to puckarow, to dumbcoWy 
to sumjow, and so on, almost ad libitum^ are formed as we have indicated.* 

It is curious to note that several of our most common adoptions are diie to 
what may be most especially called the Oordoo (Urdu) or *Camp' language, 
being terms which the hosts of Cliinghiz brought from the stei)pes of North 
Eastern Asia — e.g. "The old Bukshee is an awful bahadur, but he keeps a 
first-rate bobadiee." That is a sentence which might easily have passed 
without remark at an Anglo-Indian mess-table thirty years ago — perhaps 
might be heard still. Each of the outlandish terms embraced in it came from 
the depths of Mongolia in the thirteenth century. CJiick (in the sense of a 
cane-blind), daroga^ oordoo itself, are other examples. 

With the gradual assumption of administration after the middle of last 
century, we adopted into partial colloquial use an immense number of terms, 
very many of them Persian or Arabic, belonging to technicalities of revenue 
and other departments, and largely borrowed from our Mahommedan pre- 
decessors. Malay has contributed some of our most familiar expressions, 
owing partly to the ceaseless rovings among the Eastern coasts of the 
Portuguese, through whom a part of these reached us, and partly doubtless 
to the fact that our early dealings and the sites of our early factories lay 
much more on the shores of the Eastern Archipelago than on those of 
Continental India. Paddy, godown, compound, barMuill, rattan, durian, 
a-muck, prow, and cadjan, junk, crease, are some of these. It is true that 
several of them may be traced eventually to Indian originals, but it seems 
not the less certain that we got them through the Malay, just as we got words 
already indicated through the Portuguese. 

We used to have a very few words in French form, such as boutique and 
mort-de-chien. But these two are really distortions of Portuguese words. 

A few words from China have settled on the Indian shores and been 
adopted by Anglo- India, but most of them are, I think, names of fruits or 

* The first five examples will be found in Oloss. Bando, if imperatiTe of banSrnM, 
* to fabricate ' / iagOo of Icufd-nA, * to lay alongside,' &c. ; sumjh&o, of mmjkSrnMy * toi 
to understand,' &c. 


cdier prodacu which have been imported, such as loquot, leechee^ chow-chow^ 
cumquat, ^inaen^^ &c. and (receniXy) jinricJuhaw. For it must be noted that 
a Ci>a«id«*rable proportion of words much used in Chinese ports, and often 
aim bed to a Chinese ori^n, such as mandaririy junk, chopy pagoda^ and (as I 
belierr) tyykoon (though this is a word much debated) are not Chinese at all^ 
kmt words of Indian languages, or of MaUy, which have l>een precipitated in 
Chiurs^ waters during the flux and reflux of foreign trade. 

Within my own earliest memory Spanish dollars were current in England 

•t a ft|i«i*ifie<i Tahie if they bore a stamp from the English mint. And 

amiUrly there are certain English words, often obsolete in Europe, which 

h&Tr received in India currency with a special stamp of meaning ; whilst 

u *Ahtr cAAtA our language has formed in India new compounds applicable 

to new objects or shades of meaning. To one or other of these classes belong 

•m.*<Ty, bwntf, htmf^ interhpery rogue (-elephantX tiffiuy fnrlmighy elky roundel 

(*an umbrella,' oliaiolet*.*), puh-pathy earth-oily hog-deer y flying-foXy garden-house, 

nmtk-mt^ ik>r-uy<«frr, iron-woody long-draicer$y harking-deeTy cuxtard-appUy grass- 

tetter, kc. 

Oihtfr term5 again are corruptions, more or less violent, of Oriental words 
txri pl.rasfji which liave ]>ut on an English luask. Such are maundy fooVs 
rvi, bftirrr, a4y fcoy, belly-bandy Petiang-lawyery buckshaWy goddess (in the 
MaUv ivgiou, representing Malay gMUy 'a maiden'), compoundy college- 
pikctAuit, (hopper y tHmmer-hendy* eagle-woody jackass-coi\a\y bobbery y Upper Roger 
<i»*i m A corrvfipondence given by Dalr^^mple, for Ynva Rajoy the 'Young 
K-tw, '^•r Cicvir, of Indo-Cliinese monarchies), hle-cf-Bats (for Allahabad or 
Iftih'M'. aj the natives often call it), hobson-jobson (see Preface), St. John^s, 
Tuk li-t i»rf»»r name Los at least three applications. There is **St. John's" 
::. 'i..;»Ti', \u. .^iw^/fi, the landing-place of the Parsee immigration in tho 
J?'£i vt-ntury ; th'Te is another "St. John's" which is a corrui)ti()n of Shawj- 
'^«.'v/. the name of that inland off the southern coast of China whence the 
J^ir^in-i aririit sj»irit of Francis Xavier fled to a Wttor world : there is the 
CT^'.j'-.f "St. John*:j Wanda" near Singapore, the chief of which is properly 

Y^t .ipiin we have hybrids and corruptions of English fully accepted and 
*iftrl \» Hindustani by the natives with whom we have to do, such as 
« <fi's j»rf-iAn/A, hniiuh-paniy aptly rasldy tumlet (a tumbler), *7?7<w (* glass/ 
^ -i^ dniiking vessels of sorts), rail-ghdrl^ lumUr-ddry jaU-khilTiay bottU-khdtuh 
^t-fry-khihuty *ft omne ijucxl exit in' khdnuy including gijmkhdtiay a very 
aulf-rn c 'Uoiction (<i.v.), and many more. 

Tikiruj »»ur subject a-* a whole, however considerable the philologicil 
ifirT^ 4:ta<bin>» to it, there is no disputing the truth of a remark with 
•^ ii liumfUs frapuent of intended intnxluction concludes, and the appli- 
iJ-ni.! whitli ^"es l»eyond the limit of those words which can l>e coiLsidered 
^■^ :-jv« '.vcni*-*! a*» a'lditions to the English language': *' Considering the 
1 :ij: in^r-.urM.- with India, it is noteworthy that the additions which have 
•i> fcccnjv*! to the English languagi^ are, from the intellectual standjwint, of 
*• ::.:nn«i' value. Nearly all the borrowed words refer to material facts, 
flf t-. |petuliar ciL^ioms and stages of society, and, though a few of them 
hrz'sl illa-i'»nslothe penny-a-liner, they do not represent new ideas." 

It ;.« -lugular how often, in tracing to their origin wonis that come within 
tirt field of our research, we light upon an al>solute dilemma, or bifurcation, 
tr oa two or more sources of almost e<iual proUbility, and in themselves 

u in Um Bombay ordnaxKW nomeDclaturo for a largo umbrella. It repreeents 


entirely diverse. In such cases it may be that, though the use of the word 
originated from one of the sources, the existence of the other has invigorated 
that use, and contributed to its eventual diffusion. 

An example of this is &oy, in its application to a native servant To this 
application have contributed both the old English use of hoy (analogous to 
that of pueTj gar^on, Knahe) for a camp-servant, or for a slave, and the Hindi- 
Marathi hhoiy the name of a caste which has furnished palanquin and 
umbrella-bearers to many generations of Europeans in India. The habitual 
use of the word by the Portuguese, for many years before any English 
influence had touched the shores of India {e.g. bdy de sorahrero, bdy d^aguoay 
h&y de palanquy\ shows that the earliest source was the Indian one. 

Cooly, in ita application to a carrier of burdens, or performer of inferior 
labour, is another example. The most probable origin of this is from a nomen 
gentile, that of the Kalis, a hill-people of Guzerat and the Western GhaU 
(compare the origin of slave). But the matter is perplexed by other facts 
which it is difficult to connect with this. Thus, in S. India, there is a Tamil 
word kuli, in common use, signifying * daily hire or wages,' which H. H. 
Wilson regards as the true origin of the word which we call coaly. Again, 
l)Oth in Oriental and Osmali Turkish, kol is a word for a slave, and in the 
latter also there is kulehj *& male slave, a bondsman.* Khal is, in Tibetan 
also, a word for a slave or servant. 

Tank, for a reservoir of water, we are apt to derive without hesitation, 
from stagnuniy whence Sp. estanc, old Fr. estang, old Eng. and Lowland Scotch 
stanky Port, tanque, till we find that the word is regarded by the Portuguese 
themselves as Indian, and that there is excellent testimony to the existence 
of tdnkd in Guzerat and Rajputana as an indigenous word, and with a 
plausible Sanskrit etymology. 

Veranda has been confidently derived by some etymologists (among others 
l»y M. Defrdm^ry, a distinguished scholar) from the Pers. bardmada, ' a pro- 
jection,' a balcony ; an etymology which is indeed hardly a possible one, but 
has been treated by Mr. Beames (who was evidently unacquainted with the 
facta that do make it hardly possible) with inappropriate derison, he giving 
as the imquestionable original a Sanskrit word baraiida, * a portico.' On this 
Bumell has observed that the word does not belong to the older Sanskrit, 
but is only found in comparatively modem works. Be that as it may, it 
need not be doubted that the word veranda, as used in England and France, 
was imported from India, i.e. from the usage of Europeans in India ; but it 
is still more certain that either in the same sense, or in one closely allied, the 
word existed, quite independent of either Sanskrit or Persian, in Portuguese 
and Spanish, and the manner in which it occurs in the very earliest narrative 
of the Portuguese adventure to India {Roteiro do Viagem de Vasco da Gama, 
written by one of the expedition of 1497X confirmed by the H is jmno- Arabic 
vocabulary of Pedro de Alcala, printed in 1505, preclude the j)03sibility of 
its having been adopted by the Portuguese from intercourse with India. 

Mangrove, John Crawfurd tells us, has been adopted from the Malay 
manggi-manggi, apj)lied to trees of the genus Rhizophora. But we learn from 
Oviedo, writing early in the sixteenth century, that the name mangle was 
applied oy the natives of the Spanish Main to trees of the same, or a kindred 
genus, on the coast of S. America, which same mangle is undoubtedly the 
parent of the French manglier, and not improbably therefore of the English 
form mangrove.* 

* Mr. Skeat's Etym. hid. does not contain mangrove, [It will be found in his Oontim 
Etymological Diet. ed. 1901.] 



The words hearety male, colwil, partake of this kind of dual or doubtful 
anreKtnr. ad Diay be seen by reference to them in the Glossary. 

HrfoHf ojDc lading, a word sliould be said as to the orthography used in 
iht CrlusAarr. 

Ify intention has l>een to give the headings of the articles under the 

iwM ufiud of the popular, or, if you will, vulgar quasi>English spellings, 

vhiL< the Oriental words, from which the headings are derived or corrupted, 

ut irt forth under precise transliteration, the system of which is given in a 

foU..wing **Nota Bene," When using the words and names in the course of 

4ivur^ive elucidation, I fear I have not l)een consistent in sticking either 

Alra\4 Ut the |M>puLir or always to the scientific spelling, and I can the better 

«:s«irr-tAnd wliv a German critic of a lxx)k of mine, once upon a time, re- 

RiArkr*! ii|ion the fivxu schuxinktnde ynlinche Orthographie, Indeed it is 

•iJE'.ult, it never will for me be possible, in a lxK)k for popular use, to adhere 

lu ^ne system in this matter without the assumption of an ill-fitting and 

r'5»ul*i\v pedantry. Even in regard to Indian proper names, in which I 

Tice advi.«.ate<l adhesion, with a small numljer of exceptions, to scientific 

j-ft^i-i'D iu transliteration, 1 feel much more inclined than formerly to 

•Tt^jatlii-e with my friends Sir William Muir and General Maclagan, who 

UT^r il«ays favoiire^i a large and lil>eral recognition of popular spelling in 

*i'L names. An<l when 1 see other good and able friends following the 

*irt!iu. Will-o'-the-Wisp into such lx)gs as the use in English composition of 

"f'ff'* aii'l j'lntjaL, and tmtndah — nay, I have not only heard of ta//(, but 

ra-.^ rvrriitly .-♦-en it— instead of the good English words * sepoy,' and * jungle,' 

»r»:.U, .ni.l MMii^ni',' mv dread of i)edantic usjige Wcomes the greater.* 

K : til*- *|^-lhng of Muhratta^ Miihratti, I suj»iK)se I must apologize (though 

- * '"..r.j i-i to W s-iid fur it), Mnnifh't having e^itablished it^lf as orthodox. 




A;:*-. it^i t*> the Roteiro de Vatco 
Gtma H'^ [i'->k-li«t, \*. xliii.) i* a 
»* ...n if l.'V* I'tirtu^ieso words with 
r ••■rrL-»j««o«linir w,.rri in the Lingua 
' 'it. t.*-. in Malay ttLim. 

AH^tideH ti> the "^OJ^Lgp^ kc, (ill 

' (U la Boiilla3re le-Oous (IiiK>k-list, 

:h:j. I, i% an t-irjJtcatuiH dt j>htfif»rs 
i'hi f*i>u(itj^M>f f*i fklcrtmiiif an 
^' -IT'- 17 1. 

Krrtr* New Account (IV>>k-list, 
njT. hta an Imiex Krj>fanatory, in- 
'ZtS /*-.y*^ Sttw^s, yaiM^s of T^iih'jtf 
^'^^^^t f/ i'rrm fit {\'l (lO^c?). 

"ladiaa Voeabiilary. to which is 
'»«•! the Fttrms of Imiteachnient." 
-t.ckla;e. 17SS (pp. 1.%). 

5. *' An Indian Glossary, conBisting of 
some 'J'housand Wc)rd8 and F'orms com- 
monly used in the East Indies .... ex- 
tremely serviceable in as^istin^ Strangers 
to aopiire with Ea^^e and Quickness the 
Language of that Country." By T. T. 
Robarts, Lieut., Ac, of the 3rd Regt. 
Native Infantrv, E.L Printed for Mur- 
ray Ac Highley, 'Fleet Street, 1800. 12mo. 
(not paged). 

6. " A Dictionary of Mohammedan 
Law, Bengal Revenue Terms, Shanscrit, 
Hindoo, and other words used in the East 
Indies, with full explaiuitions, the leading 
won! used in each article Ivoing printed in 
a new Nustaluk Tyj>c," &c. By 8. 
RooBseau. Ix>ndon, 1802. Timo. (pp. 
lxiv.--^7). Also 2nd ed. 1805. 

* f^^Mnr? * '"f CHiurse i« not an Oriental word at all, except aa adopted frt^m us by 

■•vruliL. I call •'yA'.v. j*tn';/f^ and rrranday good English wonls ; and so I regard them, 

, ar sa ^'loA •• nlliffntor, or Awn-iVtiM^, or cam*^, or Jer»Mtlntt artichoke, or chn\>Ol. What 

*'4^ mj friend* think of tiioning thei«e in English liooks as alagartOf and kurticaiit 

ut mat, Mad ginuotf^ AXkd thnruttH f 



7. Olomary pre^red for the Fifth 
Report (see Book-list, p. zzxiv.), by Sir 
Qharles Wilkins. This is dated in the 
preface "E. I. House, 1813." The copy 
used is a Parliamentary reprint, dated 

8. The Folio compilation of the Bengal 
Begnlations, published in 1828-29, con- 
tains in each volume a Glossarial Index, 
based chiefly upon the Glossary of Sir C. 

9. In 1842 a preliminary "Glossary of 
Tw^^ji^Ti Terms, drawn up at the £. I. 
House bv Prof. H. H. mlaon, 4to, un- 
published, with a blank column on each 
page *'for Suggestions and Additions," 
was circulated in India, intended as a 
bctfis for a comprehensive official Glossary. 
In this one the words are entered in the 
vulgar spelling, as they occur in the docu- 

10. The only important result of the 
circulation of No. 9. was ** Supplement 
to the Glossary of Indian Terms, 
A— J." By H. M. Elliot, Esq., Bengal 
Civil Service. Agra, 1845. 8vo. (pp. 447). 

This remarkable work has been revised, 
re-arran^ed, and re-edited, with additions 
from Elliot's notes and other sources, by 
Mr. John Beames, of the Bengal Civil 
Service, under the title of ** Memoirs on 
the Folk-Lore and Distribntion of the 
Races of the North-Western Provinces of 
India, being an amplified edition of " (the 
above). 2 vols. 8vo. Trubner, 1869. 

11. To "Horley's Analytical Digest of 
all the Reported Cases Decided in the 
Supreme Courts of Judicature in India," 
Vol. I., 1850, there is appended a 
"Glossary of Native Terms used in the 
Text" (pp. 20). 

12. In "Wanderings of a Pilgrim" 
(Book-list, p. xlvi.), there is a Glossary of 
some considerable extent (pp. 10 in double 

13. "The Zillah Dictionary in the 
Roman character, explaining the Various 
Words used in Business in India." By 
Charles Philip Brown, of the Madras 
Civil Service, kc, Madras, 1852. Imp. 
8vo. (pp. 132). 

14. "A Glossary of Judicial and 
Rerenue Terms^ and of Useful Words 
occurring in Official Documents, relating to 
the Administration of the Government of 
British India, from the Arabic, Persian, 
Hindilst^nf, Sanskrit, Hindf, Bengal, 
Uriyit, Mai^thl, Guzar^thi, Tolugu, Kar- 
mtta, TiJimil, Ma\*al^m, and other lan- 
guages. By H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S., 
Bodon Professor, &c." London, 1855. 
4to. (pp. 585, besides copious Index). 

15. A useful folio Glossary published by 
Government at Calcutta between 1860 and 
1870, has been used by me and is ouoted in 
the present Gloss, as " Calcutta Glossary." 
But I have not been able to trace it again 
so as to give the proper title. 

16. Ceylonese Vocabulary. See Book- 
list, p. xxxi. 

17. "Kachahri Technicalities!, or A 
Glossary of Terms, Rural, Official, and 
General, in Daily Use in the Courts of 
Law, and in Illustration of the Tenures, 
Customs, Arts, and Manufactures of 
Hindustan." By Patrick Camegy, Com- 
missioner of Rai Bareli, Oudh. 8vo. 2nd 
ed. Allahabad, 1877 (pp. 361). 

18. "A Glossary of Indian Terms, 

containing man^ of the most important 
and Useful Indian Words Designed for 
the Use of Officers of Revenue and Judi> 
cial Practitioners and Students." Madras, 
1877. 8vo. (pp. 255). 

19. " A Glossary of Reference on Sub- 
jects connected with the Far East" 
(China and Japan). By H. A. Giles. 

Hong-Kong, 1878, 8vo. (pp. 182). 

20. ^'Glossarv of Vernacular Terms 
used in Official Corresjxjndence in the 
Province of Assam." Shillong, 1879. 

21. "Anglo-Indian Dictionary. A 

Glossary of such Indian Terms used in 
English, and such English or other non- 
Indian terras as have obtained sj^ecial 
meanings in India." By George Clifford 
Whitworth, Bombay Civil Service. 
London, 8vo, 1885 (pp. xv.--350). 

Also the following minor Glossaries con- 
tained in Books of Travel or History : — 

22. In "Cambridge's Account of the 
War in India," 1761 (Book-list, p. xxx.) *» 
23. In "Grose's Voyage," 1772 (Bo^.k- 
list, p. XXXV.); 24. In Carraccioli's '' Life 
of Clive" (Book-list, p. xxx.); 25. In 
"Bp. Heber's Narrative" (Book -list, 
p. xxxvi.); 26. In Herklot's "Qanoon-e- 
Islam (Book-list, p. XXXV.) ; [27. In 
•• Verelst's View of Bengal," 1772 ; 28. 
"The Malayan Words in English," by 
C. P. G. Scott, reprinted from the Journal 
of the American Oriental Stx^ioty : New 
Haven, 1897; 29. "Manual of the Ad- 
ministration of the Madras Presidency, " 
Vol. III. Glossary, Madras, 1893. The 
name of the author of this, the most valu- 
able book of the kind recently publii«hed 
in India, does not am)ear upon the title- 
page. It is believed to be the work of 
C. D. Macleane* 30. A useful Glossary of 
Malayalam words will be found in Logan, 
"Manual Of Malabar."] 




(Br A. C. BCRNKLL.) 

The |4ioiirtic cluuigefl of I ndo- Portuguese are few. F is substituted for p; 
kik lit atx-trbt \*anefl according to the race of the speaker.**** The vocabulary 
tfM, u rr|9irb the introduction of native Indian terms, from the same 

Gnxuinatically, this dialect is very singular : 

1. All tncm of crend«n are lout— f .^. 
» l«d «Mt /M*rr/ ( Mat. t 2}); iua nome 
i L a» : »« >av (Id. i. 25) ; tva jitMot 
1 a. U.) : •«ti «</Aw ( AeU, ix. 8) ; o <fi«ij 
In B. !•; « r'tf (Id. ii. 2); Air» ivz 
at MrH<... Id. ii.'18). 
1 htb* |-iurm!. # U nrely added ; gtne- 
^. the i't'jtf»] i« tbe HUM ma tlio tin- 

1 Tbt r«'citi«<' t* expreflMd by <2f, 
idi i« L'lt cuc&bined with the article^ 
f. n^t^, m' 4* M tr^i0n (Mat. u. 16) ; 
7«.iii- .. M^f*. j|d. ii. 19). 
(. Vtft «t«?:cute article is anchanged in 
-• f'i'^ : r— ■• tr HiM-ipnlifi (Acti«, ix. 

5. The proDouns ttill preeenre some 
inflexioiu: A*ar, mi; aotf, nditoirot; m/aAa, 
aoMof, Ac. ; /m, 0*, t^ooofrof / tua, to$' 
$as; £llf, ellOf elfotnn, eltu, sua, iuat, 
la, la. 

6. The Torb fabntantiTe is (pratent) 
Cmi, (past) fi'jMAa, and (flabiunotiTei teja. 

7. Verbs are ooniogated by adaing, for 
the ipresent, t^ to the only form, Ti&^the 
infinitive, which loses its final r. Thus, 
U/alla ; te/ase; te rt. The jMst is formed 
by adding ja—t.a, Ja /alia ; ja olKa, The 
future is formed by adding $er. To express 
the infinitire, p^r is added to the Portu- 
giicne infinitive deprived of its r. 

- r;r. itc'v. the tninjiLit«>r« of the Indo- Portuguese Xew ToHtuniout have, as 
-.* u |.K.:». *, I rv^-rred the Furtuguese orthography. 



(A.) The dates attached to quotations are not always quite consistent. In 
beginning the compilation, the dates given were those of the publication 
quoted ; but as the date of the composition, or of the use of the word in 
question, is often much earlier than the date of the book or the edition in 
which it appears, the system was changed, and, where possible, the date 
given is that of the actual use of the word. But obWous doubts may some- 
times rise on this point. 

The dates of publication of the works quoted will be found, if required, 
from the Book List, following this Nota ben€. 

(B.) The system of transliteration used is substantially the same as that 
modification of Sir William Jones's which is used in Shakespear's Hindustani 
Dictionary, But — 

The first of the three Sanskrit sibilants is expressed by (f), and, as in 
Wilson's Glossary, no distinction is marked between the Indian aspirated kj g, 
and the Arabic gutturals kh^ gh. ALso, in words transliterated from Arabic, 
the sixteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet is expressed by (t). This is the 
same type that is used for the cerebral Indian (t). Though it can hardly give 
rise to any confusion, it would have been better to mark them by distinct 
types. Tlie fact is, that it was wished at first to make as few demands as 
possible for distinct types, and, having begun so, change could not be made. 

Tlie fourth letter of the Arabic alphabet is in several cases represented 
by (th) when Arabic use is in question. In Hindustani it is pronounced as (s). 

Also, in some of Mr. Bumell's transliterations from S. Indian languages, 
he has used (r) for the peculiar Tamil hard (r), elsewhere (r), and (7) for the 
Tamil and Malay alam (k) when preceded and followed by a vowel. 



Relation d« lEgjpte. 

AMBteonV X0UT8.1.1 Mllangw A«ia- ^„ '■""■ 

lk«. A- d< D.^ de lhl»», f^o, tho SayT rindon^lSSo' 


lioing 1 
u . ,. , . . m . [All, Mn Meer Hassan, ObaerTatiniw ou lua 

.u"(;i^ 1?kh"F«Mh t!^^ Mii«ulmaun» Df iDdia. 2 vol*. London, 

f^°\^^r^- ^ ™'°'^"'' "'*''" [AlliS'e.. A. The City of Sun,hino. 
l«d«J._^-n,.. A Weekly Review, ftc. jiu^ B'!'^''Moni™ph"'Ib6 Silkaoth. 

)f«i«inu d. lu India. OrieMaU *™*- ' .D"?'™' A™V' """I .^^^ Archmo 

tto. Btuyoa, 1578. fiorentino. 4to. iironis, ittbJ. 

E. Hi^ Bcmm . Soc. Jao in Al«l«J™. l'lii"p. A.M. pe Engli.h in 

Oh«t.g«u™n. ftriMSra. WMtom India, Ac. 2ad cd. lUyiBed. 

~i;;4'^V^ndi'^"E'T' IT'Edw?;^ Al«We«, G. Be^hnj^ng dor Roy»n. 

Uinutwe, 16IM. tjlitsd for Has. Soc. '""■ *"""'"""'■ '">'"■ 

bj C. Uarkhuu. 2 roU. 1380. 
l^Bi. Fnnda. KaroM of nil Hinsmln, 

Kuta, and Aoinuls deKrilMd liy tfa* 

Ontk anlbon, Ac. (Being a Suppl. to 

DnUr'a Gmk Lexicon.) 
Uin. Claodii Ailiani, De Katun Aoi- 

MJioiB, UbriXVll. 
ik. ii»4-Akbui Tbe, by Abul Fad 

Anqnatil dn Parrou. Le ZcndnTsnta. 
3 Tain. Discoun Prelimitiaire, Ac. (in 
■.). 1771 

i>y Aoul fail ^nfp^ Chronicle of King ; 

V.J. i. ; (Tola. ii. and iii. tnui»lal«d by ,...*. „ _ 

Cd H.ii. JaiTett:<>k-utt*.18»l-94]. ArtaUuiot, S.r A. Memoir of Hi rT. 

n«!llS.o(U«r.n»inderdiMpi«nred M""'"' l,'"""'* '° ^- "' ■"' "'""'»". 

*l Mr. Bkchmaun- lamenled iTeath in '^ ^°''- '^1- 

!*;»; • depkmblo Iw to Oriental Arch. Port. Or. Archivu PiTtuguei 

>it«tar«. Oriental. A TBlunl.lo nnd interesting 

— r<»rw.). TTie «m«. &lil«i in the collocUon imblish^nl at Nova Goo. 185? 

Wftait] PeruD l<y H. Hlorhmann, *"'''- 

ItA. '.<i.4<.tU>. I'alcutta. n72. Both Aroltl*tO StorlCO lUllUlO. 

thH. were jTOitwi by the Asiatic Society The qiiotaliona ara Irom two nrtielea 

i< ti—yl in the Appeadict to the enrly volumes, 

"ts^i-t ii"»™'i:'-Is;;:;i '"■in "•i«'«" •" ■*■-"'• ^ »■ 

taWMDMlU, and tjunnuds relatlDg to Wmmp ■..nm il ( VmmBrrin 

S'^i^iS'.rsEiirrsni^i""- "r'po;^o.i" neirTtZ 

"* B*«-d«L. Calcutta. 18J«-,8. 11508, Ay.. Tom. II. m.-i. 


, , U'- Ton 
(2) Letters di (iiov. da Ei , . . 
IIMld. CknnoloBT r4 Andent Katiuiu la Vita di Emo, acritta da 

I.T. by Dr. C. K. ttecbku (Or. Traiul. suo ao (1530). App. Tom. III. 

*-" ■- Itn. 18*6. 



Arnold, Edwin. The Light of Asia (as told 
in Verse by an Indian Buddhist). 1879. 

Assemani, Joseph Simonius, Syrus Maro- 
nita. Bibliotheca Orientalis Clementino- 
Vaticana. 3 vols, in 4, folio. Romae, 

Ayeen Akbery. By this spelling are dis- 
tinguished quotations from the tr. of 
Francis Gladwin, first published at Cal- 
cutta in 1783. Most of the quotations 
are from the London edition, 2 toIs. 4to. 

Baber. Memoirs of 2^hir-ed-din Mu- 
hammed Baber, Emperor of Hindustan. 
. . . Translated partly by the late John 
Leyden, E8f|., M.D., partly by William 
Erskine, Esq., &c. London and Edinb., 
4to. 1826. 

Baboo and other Tales, descriptive of 
Society in India. Smith k Elder. 
London, 1834. (By Au^stus Prinsep, 
B.C.S., a brother of James and U. 
Thoby Prinsep.) 

Bacon, T. First Impressions of Hindustan. 
2 vols. 1837. 

Baden Powell. Punjab Handbook, vol. ii. 
Manufactures and Arts. Lahore, 1872. 

Bailey, Nathan. Diction. Britannicumy 
or a more Coranleat Universal Etymol. 
English Diet. ic. The whole Revis'd 
and Improved by N. B., 4>tX6\o70f. 
Folio. 1730. 

Baillie, N. B. E. Digest of Moohummudan 
Law applied by British Courts in India. 
2 vols. 1865-69. 

Baker, Mem. of Gen. Sir W. E., R.E., 
K.C.B. Privately printed. 1882. 

Balbi, Gasparo. Viaggio dell' Indie Ori- 
entali. 12mo. Venetia, 1590. 

BaldaeuB, P. Of this writer Bumell used 
the Dutch ed., Naauwkeurige Beschry- 
vinge van Malabar en Cboromandel, 

folio, 1672, and Ceylon, folio, 1672. 

I have iisod the German ed., contain- 
ing in one volume seriatim, Wahrhaf tige 
Ausfubrliche Beschreibung dcr beruhm- 
ten Ost-Indischen Kusten Malabar und 
Coromandel, als auch dor Insel Zeylon 
. . . benebst einer . . . Entdeckung 
der Abgiiterey der Ost-Indischen Hey- 
den. . . . Folio. Amsterdam, 1672. 

Baldelli-Boni. Storia del Milionc. 2 vols. 
Firenze, 1827. 

Baldwin, Capt. J. H. I^rge and Small 
Game of Bengal and the N.W. Pro- 
vinces of India. 1876. 

Balfour, Dr. E. Cyclopaedia of India. 
[3rd ed. London, 1885.] 

[Ball, J. D. ThingH Chinese, being Notes 
on various Subjects connected with 
China. 3rd ed. London, 1900. 

Ball, V. Jungle Life in India, or the 
Joumevs and Journals of an Indian 
Geologist. London, 1880.] 

Banarus, Narrative of Insurrection at, in 
1781. 4to. Calcutta, 1782. Reprinted 
at Roorkee, 1853. 

B&nsran Tree, The. A Poem. P 

private circulation. Calcutta, 

(The author was Lt.-Col. R. 

9th Lancers, who fell befo 

June 19, 1857.) 

Barbaro, losafa. Viaggio alia 1 
In RamunOj torn. ii. Also 
W. Thomas, Clerk of Council 
Edward VI., embraced in T 
Tana and Persia, Hak. Soc., V 
N.B. — It is impossible to 
from Lord Stanley of Alderl 
face whether this was a re 
printed from an unpublished & 

Barbier de M^ynard, Dictionnai] 

Hist, et Litter, de la Perse, 
trait . . . de Yaqout. Par C. 
Lai*ge 8vo. Paris, 1861. 

Barbosa. A Description of the > 
E. Africa and Malabar in the 1 
of the 16th century. By Du 
bosa. Transl. &c., by Hon. 
Stanley. Hak. Soc., 1866. 

Lisbon Ed. Livro de 

Barbosa. Being No. VII. in 
de Noticias para a Historia e C 
&c. Publ. pela Academia '. 
Sciencias, tomo ii. Lisboa, 18] 

Also in tom. ii. of Ramusii 

Barretto. Relation de la Proi 

Malabar. Fr. tr. 8vo. Paris 

Originally pub. in Italian. Ro 

Barros, Jono de. Decadas de J 
feitos que os Portuguezes fij 
Conquista e Descubrimento da.« 
Mares do Oriente. 

Most of the quotations are ta 
the edition in 12mo., Lisb< 
issued along with Couto in 24 i 

The first Decad was originall 
in 1552, the 2nd in 1553, the 3n 
the 4th as completed by La 
1613 (Barbosa-Machado, Bibl. 
pp. 606-607, as corrected by I 
Bihliogr, llist. Port. p. 169). 

In some of Bumell's quoti 
uses the 2nd ed. of Decs, i 
(1628), and the 1st ed. of Dec. i 
in these there is apparently nc 
into chapters, ana I have tr 
the references to the edition 
from which all my own quota 
made, whenever I could idei 
passages, having myself no cc 
access to the older editions. 

Barth, A. Lcs Religions do rind< 

Also English translation by 
Wood. Triibner's Or. Series. 

Bastlan, Adolf, Dr. Die Viilker < 
lichen Asion, Studien und Rei» 
Leipzig, 1866— Jena, 1871. 

Beale, liev. Samuel. Travels of ] 
and Sung-yun, Buddhist Pilgr 
China to India. Sm. 8vo. 18( 

Beames, John. Comparatiye On 
the Modem Aryan Languages 
&c. 3 vols. 8vo. 187^9. 

See also in Lid of OUmcuit 



l.t.-Col. A. View of the Origin 
and CoTMlact of the War with Tippoo 
SalUan. 4to. London, 1800. 

Capt. Sir E. NarratiTe of the 
Vorage of H.M.S. Samarang, during the 
Tears 184S-46, employed mnreying the 
lilaads of the Eastern Archipelago. 
2toU. London, 1846.] 

Mtov, H. W. Journal of a Political 
Mtmon to Afghanistan in 1857 under 
Major Luinflden. 8to. 1862. 

-The Races of AfiJrhanistan, being A 

Brief Account of the Princi{xil Nations 
hkhaUtintr that Country. Calcutta and 
Locxion, 1880.] 

Bdoa. Pi«rre, du Mans. Les ObMnrations 
d« llTjiieTr» Singularit^s et Choses 
memorahleft, trouu*^ en Grece, Asie, 
lad*^, Egypte, Arabie, Ac. Sm. 4to. 
Pkri». 1^. 

Bfil, PfcriptJTt Ethnology of, by Col. 
E. T. Dalton. Folio. Calcutta, 1872. 

Bwnil Awna^i^ or Literary Keepsake, 

OUtwuT. Calcutta, 1848. This 
«u I belirre an extended edition of De 
Rt-vario'A * Complete Monumental Regis- 
ter.' Calcutta, 1815. But I have not 
been aMe to recorer trace of the book. 

<iiivlamo. The Travels of, 
a£42-Wu ori^. Venice, 1572. Tr. anded. 
bT Admiral W. H. Smyth, Hak. Soc. 

nraitlo, J. Voyage to China, includ- 
lag a Visit to the Bombay PresidoDcy. 
2 Tola. London, 1850.] 

Piidre. S^ Gooroo Paramaritan. 

lltVKidfa, II. The District of Bakanpnj. 
tt^Hwtorj and Statistics. London, 1976.] 

IMaa and the History of the Dooar War. 
By :fargean Roaio, M.D. 1866. 

iM't OwmnA. The Political and Statist!- 
eal IIt«torT of (tuxerat, transl. from the 
Pervian ol Ali Mohammed Khan. Or. 
Tr. Fund. 8to. 1835. 

M. iMkella (now Mrs. Bishop). The 
ttaldiB Cbai lODaaa, and the Way 
Tkitiier. 1883. 

iWriiJapam. Unbeaten Tracks in J. by 
lAbeliaB. 2 Tola. 1880. 

(Sir) (veofge, C.S.I., M.D. The 
lAd3«trial ArU of India. 1880. 

— Report on The Old Records of the 
India Office, with Supplementary Note 
aad ApModioea. Second Reprint. 
LAdoo, 1891. 

— and Frwt«r. W. The First Letter 
Bix4 of the East India Company, 
l«n.l9. Loodoo, 1893.] 

ickv. IX-Col. V. Memoir of the British 
Anay ta lodia in 1817-19. 2 toIs. 

W. T. Tb« Fanna of British 
LofMion, 1888-91. 

▼ooabwlar eimelner 

lUdeiMarien, welche 

dar PhiBppiiiadMn In- 



seln eigenthiimlich rind. Druck von Dr. 
Karl Pickert in Leitmeritz. 1882. 

Blntean, Padre D. Raphael. Vocabulario 
Portuguez Latino, Aulico, Anatomico, 
Architectonico, (and so on to Zoologico) 
. . . Lisboa, 171221. 8 vols, folio, with 
2 vols, of Supplemento, 1727-28. 

Bocarro. Dec&da 13 da Historia da India, 
composta por Antonio B. (Published by 
the Koyal Academy of Lisbon). 1876. 

Bocarro. Detailed Report (Portuguese) 
upon the Portuguese Forts and Settle- 
ments in India, MS. transcript in India 
Office. 6oog. Dept. from B.M. Sloane 
MSS. No. 197, fol. 172 teqf/. Date 1644. 

Bocharti Hieroioicon. In vol. i. of Opera 
Omnia, 3 vols, folio. Lugd. Bat. 1712. 

Bock, Carl. Temples and Elephants. 1884. 

Bogle. See Markham'i Tibet. 

Boilean, A. H. E. (Bengal Engineers). 
Tour through the Western States of 
Bajwara in 1835. 4to. Calcutta, 1837. 

Boldenaele, Gulielmus de. Itinerarimn 
in the Thfsaurujt of Canitius^ 1604. v. 

?t. ii. p. 95, also in ed. of same by 
ia$nage, 1725, iv. 337 ; and by C. L. 
Grotefend in ZeiUchrifl dos Histor. 
Vereins fiir Niedor Sachsen, Jahrgang 
1852. Hannover, 1855. 

Bole PoDgiB, by H. M. Parker. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Bombay. A Description of the Port and 
Island of, and Hist. Account of the 
Transactions between the English and 
Portuguese concerning it, from the 
year 1661 to the present time. 12mo. 
Printed in the year 1724. 

[Bond, E. A. Speeches of the Manager and 
Counsel in the Trial of Warren Hastings. 
4 vols. London, 1859-61.] 

Bonnrsii, Gesta Dei der Francos. Folio, 
rlanoviae, 1611. 

Bontins, Jaeobi B. Hist. Natural ot Medio. 
Indiae Orientalis Libri Sex. Printed 
with Piao, q.v. 

[Bote, S. C. The Hindoos as they are : A 
Description of the Manners, Customs, 
and Inner Life of Hindoo Society in 
Bengal. Calcutta, 1881. 

Boaqnejo dos PossessOes, &c. See p. 809^. 

[Boawell, J. A. C. Manual of the Nellore 
District. Madras, 1887.] 

Botelho, Sim£o. Tomlx> do Estado da 
India. 1554. Forming a {Kirt of the 
iSnbiddioa, q.v. 

Bonrchier, Col. (Sir Oeorgo). Eight 
Months' Campaign against the Bengal 
Sepoy Army. 8vo. London, 1858. 

Bowring, Sir John. Tlio Kingdom and 
People of Biam. 2 vols. 8vo. 1857. 

Bojd, Hugh. The Indian Ol»server, with 

life, Lettens Ac. By L, D. Campbell. 

London, 1798. 
Brina, H. (^ities of Cfujarashtra ; their 

Topography and History Illustrated. 

4to. Bombay, 1849. 



Bfigg's Firishta. H. of the Rise of the 
Mahomedan Power in India. Trans- 
lated from the Orig. Persian of Mahomed 
Kasim Firishta. By John Briggs, Lieut- 
Ck>l. Madras Army. 4 vols. 8vo. 1829. 

[Brinckman, A. The Rifle in Cashmere : A 
Narrative of Shooting Expeditions. 
London, 1862.] 

Brooks, T. Weights, Measures, Exchanges, 
&c., in East India. Small 4to. 1752. 

Broome, Capt. Arthur. Hist, of the Rise 
and Progress of the Ben^^ Army. 8vo. 
1850. Only vol. i. published. 

Broufirhton, T. D. Letters written in a 
Mahratta Camp during the year 1809. 
4to. 1813. [New ed. London, 1892.] 

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[Buchanan, Dr. Francis (afterwards Hamil- 
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Burckhardt, J. L. See p. 315a. 

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[ The Book of the Thousand Nights 

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It is not certain who wrote this 
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Castanheda, Femao Lopez de. Histotia 

do descobrimento e conquista da Indit. 

The original edition appeared at 

Coimbra, 1651-1561 (in 8 t^ 4to and 

folio), and was repnnted at lisbon in 

. I 



ISC f* T.iU. am. 4to). This last ed. 
i« £«#<) in •{OijtAtions <»f the Port. text. 

• ^•Tanbeda «a« the first writer on 
fvl^r. *5air* {Barfn^mt Mnekailo^ Bihl. 
L'tf, 11. f.. 3l». See also Finant^r^^ 
iJf, ',"\ifj\m* U*st. I*urt., |»p. lt>5-167). 

Hi »rr.t t*> (^oa in 1628, and died in 
p. r .^*: in lity. 
OMUfttda. The Kirft Booke of the His- 
t* r« i the I>i!-<x>uerie and Conquest of 
tb« (1a«* Iodi.\«. . . . Tran>ld. into 
lxcli«h ' T N. I..ntchtield), (rentleinan. 
it. L.-J'lt'ti. 1>*J. 

The trari^lator bmi often altered the 
■fc.'.it^ I'f the Indian words, and his 
tur*: *. !• Terj- '.«j«iee, coni|«riug it with 
th# I -.r.»t<i t«xt of the Port, in the e<l. 
«f l*.t*. It :•» i-^tilc, however, that 
UtvhL* .! hoil the tin«t ed. of the first 
v.. & \Xf\) hefore him, whereas the 
t4. f 1«^$ i» a rri'rint (*f 15M. (A.B.). 

CUkA7 and th« Way Thither. By H. 
N i-r. Hak. !?^»c. 8to. 2 Tols. (Con- 
T~.v u- t {<tt^cd.) 1S66. 

K. K. .\ History of the Mo^ 
Irr^Lk-ry m India. Lundoo, 1826.] 

I. I.t. <;in. Sir Orfear. Reminil- 
"f ai. Indian OtticiaJ. $to. 1884. 

GtykaMt Yoeabolary. Li^t of Native 
W.ri« cuoimonly occurring in Official 
*. • rr..* J- 'ndeDce and other iKK'uments. 
lT:.r.-i »v t Her uf the (Jovemment. 

• .•_ - . Juno lv51*. 

Chasbcrlaia H. H. Thin^<i .Taiwanese, ! 
' •■.:*: N *.•. • "H Van*!!-* Suhjects cxm- 
T.'tN i "«*.•. h .Ki}*an. IJrd ed. I>>ndon, 

Chardat \ ;. j- en IVr***. Several edi- 
•t '.* *rt. , ;. It- i. e.'j. Amntertiani, 4 voU. 

*• . \:j: . • y La.vir". 10 voU. Svo. isii. 

Ghtnocki ii:-r. f Kaiine Architecturv. 

s f *.Kv East India Company 

i' .. ■. I'. ;a « •itU-e without date). 

lir. K.r ■:. >XAii. Ai«ervu sur le^ Mon- 
**.— I. .— e-.. &o. It*'. St. Petersbourg, 

N A. A Manu:il«<f Medical . hiris- 
;r.j'-..t I- r Indi-i. Calcuttiv, lJ>70,] 

W. A Dictionary of the Pali 
L*v.jjc. 1^7r». 
Chitty <> • The Ceylon Oaaetteer. C'ey- 

Chow ■•fiTii: S?!ccti«»ns fn»tn a Journal 
1 .■ . !:. :l.i. Aio.. \>\ Vis^xmntoss Falk- 
a ■ .'^ ■-. K?7. 

dt Leon. Tri^i > ff l*e«In». YA. bv 

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Bikandar Hima of Xi/ami. Ix)n- 

Cat^jo '* --riiro de rAmljaiwado E5i<a- 
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r-- >i.i-.-*». «ith iCuMian ver^iiin by 
I TrtLr';. >t. Petersburg, 18^1. 

tc. tv^y • f M^iy Jroniidex de, to 

ti^.* «.Art'<f Timour. K.T. by C 
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Cleffhom, 0r. Hoffh. Forests and Gardens 
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Coast of Coromandel : R^ulations for the 
Hon. Comp.'s Black Troops on the. 

CohamiTias, Tesoro de la Lengua Castellana 
o Espaftola, compvosto per el Lic^nciado 
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Cocks, Richard. Diarv of , Cape- 
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Collet, S. The Brahmo Year-Book. Brief 
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Churches of India. London, 1876 $e<iq. 

Collingwood, (.*. Rambles of a Naturalist 
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8yo. 1868. 

Colomb, ^^APt* R-N. Slave-catching in the 
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Competition-wallah, Letters of a (by G. 0. 

Trevelyan). 1864. 

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Conti, Xicolo. Sff Poggios ; also see India 
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[Cooper, T. T. The Mishmeo Hills, an 
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Cordiner, Rev. J. A. Description of Cey- 
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Correa, Gaspar, Lendas da India por. 
This most valuable, interesting, and 
detAi1e<l chn^nicle of Portuguese India 
was not publishe<l till in our own day it 
was issued bv the Royal Academy of 
IJsbon— 4 vols, in 7, in 4to, 18r>8-1864. 
The author went to India apparently 
with Jor>;e de Mello in 1512, and at an 
early diito l)ej;jin to make notes fur his 
history. The latest year that he men- 
tions as havinjr in it written a |Mirt of 
his hi>t<'ry in \It^\, The date of his 
death i^ n«»t known. 

M*v«t <'f the tjuotations from Corrcn, 
>>epun by Burnell and continued by me, 
are from this work publi««hed in LijiUm. 
Some an*, however, taken from "llio 
Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama and 
his Vicvn»yalty, from the Ixnidas da 
India of (ias|iar Ctirrea," by the Hon. 
E. J. Stanlov (now Ixml Stanley of 
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Coryat, T. Cmdities. Reprinted from 
the ed. of 1611. 3 vols. Svo. 1776. 



Couto, Diogo de. The edition of the De- 
Cflldaii da Asia quoted habitually is 
that of 1778 (see Barros). The 4th 
Decade (Couto's first) was published 
first in 1602, fol. ; the 5th, 1612 ; the 
6th, 1614 ; the 7th, 1616 ; the 8th, 1673 ; 
5 books of the 12th, Paris, 1645. The 
9th was first published in an edition 
issued in 1736 ; and 120 pp. of the 10th 
(when, is not clear). But the whole 
of the 10th, in ten books, is included in 
the publication of 1778. The 11th was 
lost, and a substitute by the editor is 
given in the ed. of 1778. Couto died 
10th Dec. 1616. 

Dialogo do Soldado Pratico (written 

in 1611, printed at Lisbon under the 
title Observa^Oes, &c., 1790). 

Cowley, Abraham. His Six Books of 
Plants. In Works, folio ed. of 1700. 

Crawford, John. DeBcriptive Diet, of the 
Indian Islands and adjacent countries. 
8vo. 1856. 

Malay Dictionaiy, A Grammar 

and Diet, of the Alalay Language. 
Vol. i. Dissertation and Grammar. 
Vol. ii. Dictionary. Loudon, 1852. 

Journal of an Embassy to Siam 

and Cochin China. 2nd ed. 2 vols. 
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[Crooke, W. The Popular Religion and 
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[ The Tril>es and Castes of the 

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Cuimingham, Capt. Joseph Davy, B.E. 
History of the Sikhs, from the Rise of 
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8vo. 2nd od. 1853. (1st ed. 1849.) 

Cunninghaxn, Major Alex., B.E. Ladak, 
Physical, Statistical, and Historical. 
8vo. 1854. 

Cunningham, M.-Oen., R.E., C.S.I, (the 
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Vol. xix., Calcutta, 1885. 

Cyclades, The. By J. Theodore Bent. 8vo. 

Dabistan, The ; or, School of Manners. 
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3 vols. Paris, 1843. 

D'Aconha, Dr. Gerson. Contributions to 
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Dalrymple, A. The Oriental BepcrtQfy 

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l i ^iniu^ iJTrilti, dA mi oMdanmo in 
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logical Sketch of the C*ity of Ooa. 8vo. 
Bombay, 1878. 

Forbes, A. Kinloch. See Bis 1U1&. 

[Forbes, Capt. C. J. F. S. British Burmah, 
and its l*eople, Ixiing Sketches of Native 
Manners, (.'ustoms, and Religion. Lon- 
don, 1878.] 

Forbes, Gordon S. Wild Life in Canara 
and Ganjam. 1885. 

Forbes, James. Oriental Memoirs. 4 vols, 
4to. 1813. [2nded. 2 vola. 1834.] 

Forbes, H. 0. A Naturalist's Wanderings 
in the Indian Archipelago. 1885. 

Forbes Watson's Nomenclature. A List of 
Indian Products, &c., by J. F. W., 
M.A., M.D., &c. Part II., largest 8vo. 

[ The Textile Manufactures and the 

Costumes of the People of India. Lon- 
don, 1866.] 

Forrest, Thomas. Voyage from Calcutta to 

the Hei^gni Archipelago, &o., by , 

Esq. 4to. London, 1792. 

Voyage to New GKiinea and the 

Moluccas from Balambangan, 1774-76. 
4to. 1779. 

Forster, George. Jonmey from Bengal to 
England. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1806. 
Original ed., Calcutta, 1790. 

Forsyth, Capt. J. Highlands of Central 
India, &c. 8vo. London, 1872. [2nd 
ed. London, 1899.] 

Forsyth, Sir T. Douglas. Report of bis 
Mission to Yarkund in 1878. 4to, 
Calcutta, 1875. 

[Foster. See Danyers, F. C. 

[F^mneis, E. B. Monograph on Cotton 
Manufacture in the Punjab. Lahoreu 

[Francis, Sir P. The Francis Letters, ed. 
by Beata Francis and Eliza Keary. 2 
vols. London, 1901.] 

Fraser, James Baillie. Journal of a Tour 
through Part of the Snowy Range of the 
Him&l& Mountains. 4to. 1820. 

[ The Persian Adventurer. 8 voU. 

London, 1830.] 

Frere, Miss M. Decoan Days, or Hindoo 

Fairy Legends current in S. India, 1868. 

Frescobaldi, Lionardo. "Vlacgi in Term 
Santa di L. F. ed. altri. nronse, 1862; 
very small. 

Friar Jordanns. See Jordanna. 

TrjWCt John, M.D. A New Account of 
East India and Persia, in 8 Letters; 
being 9 years Travels. Begun 1672, 
And Finished 1681. Folio. London, 

No work has been more serriceable in 
the compilation of the Glossary. 

Fnllarton, Col. View of English Interests 
in India. 1787. 

Oalland, Antoine. Journal nendant son 
S^jour k Constantinople, lo72-78. An- 
not^ par Ch. Schefer. 2 toIs. 8vo. 
Paris, 1881. 

(Hlvano, A. Discoveries of the World, 
with E.T. by Vioe-Admiral Bethone^ 
C.B. Hak. Soc., 1863. 

Garcia. Ck>Uoqnios dos Simples e DrogM 
e Cousas Medecinaes da India, e ssii de 
Algumas Fructas aohadas neUa • • • 



pcMCoa pelo IXmior Oftrda de Orta. 
Pbmeo <U1 Ba Jo£o r. 2. edidU>. 

(P»tBt«d iMariy pa^e for page with the 

cr%inal editkMi, which wu printed at 

Goa bj 4aAo de Eredem io 1563.) A 

nalv^ble book, full of (niriona 

and food aeoae. 

) Twamf. PkrtscuUrit^ de la Re- 
hpom Mnanlmane djma I'lnde. Paria, 

Im ma ladiaa. Br Phil. Bobinaon. 
a-Jed. 1878. 

Vmc« d'Ez^lonttion 
Ittdo-ClixDe. 2 Tob. 4to and two 

ScriptonuD AraboxD de 
B atw Indicia Loci et Opuacula Inedita. 

Herbert ▲. Chineae Sketchea. 1876. 

. <5W iUrf <>^ Glomaries, 

Captain Williani. The Mtwn of 
OtUni Bail, The Narratire of a 
iooraej throogh China and Eaatem 
T^bat to Bonnah. 2 Tola. 8to. 1880. 
(Coadcnaed ed., Loodoo, 1883.] 

R«T. G. R Mets. of Warren Haat- 
3Tola. 8to. 1841. 

by T. B. (Blount). Folio 
•d, 1«74- 

EiiM darch Siberien. 1773. 

•tdkike de ErwIU. KalJUia, Llode Men 
diaoale et J« Cathay, MS. orig. auto- 
rnt^ de. repruduit et tradnit par 
L JuMeo. 4to. Bruxelles, 1882. 

JL writtten in Tamil by 

P.Bi«rhi;llT. byBabingtoo. 4to. 1822. 

A. de. lomada do Arcebispo de 
(^ D. Frry Aleixo de Menezea . . . 
Qwado foy a« Serraa de Malabar, Ac. 
S». Uho, Cotmbra, 1606. 

C. E. The Fc»Ik-Sangi« of Southern 
bda. M»dr»«, 1871.1 

or the History of a 
Boifal (Uiyat. By the Her. Ul Behi^ri 
I^T. duamirah, Bengal. 2 toU. Lon- 
•ba. 15^74. 

Joomal of a Remdence 
a India. 4to. Edinburgh, 1812. 
Aa excellent book. 

, Jamca. The Sugar -Cane, a Poem 
s 4 booka, with ootea. 4to. 1764. 

■doslaBa. Roma, 1778. 
p. 41 7&. 

The, or Adrenturea of Qui 
Hi. by (^aix. 1816. 

One t4 th«M« would -be funny moun- 
taia»of dMSgeral, iM^ten by the auoceaa 
-d Or Hynta^ and aimilarly illustrated. 

Ooke w u rthy. Rural Life in Bengal. 
Lettan from an artiat in India to hia 
Sitar* in Eoglaod. [The author died in 
Okkntu, 18& ] LAfge 8to. 1860. 

Gea. Sir Horn. IncideDta in the 
<a|«7 War, 1857-d8. Loodoo, 1873. 

QraBt-Dnff, Mount-Stewart Elph. Notes of 
an Indian Journey. 1876. 

Onathed, Herrey. Letters written during 
the Siege of Delhi. 8vo. 1868. 

[Oribblo, J. D. B. Manual of CuddapAh* 
Madras, 1875. 

[Orienon, O. A. Bib&r Peasant Life. CaU 
cutta, 1885. 

[Grigg, H. B. Manual of the Nilagiri Die- 
tnct. Madra^ 1880.] 

OroaiMTeldt. Notes on the Malay Archi- 

Klago, kc. From Chinese sources, 
tavia, 1876. 

OroM, Mr. A Voyage to the East Indies, 
kc,kc. In 2 vols. A new edition. 1772, 
The first edition seems to hare been 
pub. in 1766. I have nerer seen it. 
rThe 1st ed., of which I possess a copy, 
IS dated 1757.] 

[QrowM, F. S. Mathurtf, a District Memoir. 
3rd ed. Allahabad, 1883.] 

Ouarrdro, Feman. Reladon Annual de 
laa ooaas que ban hecho loe Padres de la 
Comp. de J. ... en (1)600 y (1)601, 
traduzida de Portuguez par Colaco. 
8q. 8to. Valladolid, 1604. 

Gimdaxt, Dr. Malay&lam and English 
Dictionary. Mangalore, 1872. 

Haafher, M. J. Vojrages dans la P^ninsule 
Occid. de I'lnde et dans I'lle de Coilan. 
Trad, du Hollandois par M. J. 2 vols. 
8vo. Paris, 1811. 

[Hadi, S. M. A Monograph on Dyes and 
I^eing in the North- Western Provinces 
and Oudh. Allahabad, 1896.] 

Hadley. See under Moort, The, in the 

Haackel, Ernest. A Visit to Ceylon. E.T. 
by Clara Bell. 1883. 

Haex, David. Dictionarium Malaico-Lati- 
num et Latino-Malaicum. Romae, 1631. 

Hajji Baba of Ispahan. Ed. 1835 and 1851. 
Originally pubd. 1824. 2 vols. 

in England. Ed. in 1 vol. 1835 and 

1850. Originally pubd. 1828. 2 vols. 

Haklnyt. The references to this name are, 
with a very few exceptions, to the 
reprint, with many additions, in 5 vols. 
4to. 1807. 

Several of the additions ore from 
travellers subsetjuent to the time of 
Richard Hakluyt, which giveM an odd 
aspect to some of the quotations. 

Halhed, N. B. Coda of Gentoo Ijiws. 4to. 
London, 1776. 

Hall, FiU Edward. Modern English, 1873. 

Hamilton, Alexander, Cantain. A New 
Account of the Ea^t Inaien. 

The original publication (2 vols. 8vo.) 
was at tMinbuigh, 1727 ; again pub- 
lished, London, 1744. 1 fear the quota- 
tions are from both ; they diflFor to a 
small extent in the (logination. [Many 
of the references have now been checked 
with the edition of 1744.] 



Hamiltoii, Walter. Hlndnstan. Geographi- 
calf Statistical, and Historical Descrip- 
tion of Hindustan and the Adjacent 
CotintrieB. 2 toIs. 4ta London, 1820. 

Hamillir-Plilgltall, Joseph. Gesehiohte 
derGoldenen Horde. 8to. Pesth, 1840. 

Hanbniy and Flaekig«r. Pharmaoogra- 
phia: A Hist, of the Principal Drugs 
of Vegetable Oriffin. Imp. 8to. 1874. 
There has been al2nd ed. 

Hamray, Jonas. Hist. Ace of the British 
Trade orer the Caspian Sea, with a 
Journal of TniYelB, kc 4 toIs. 4to. 

[Haitsourt, Capt. A. F. P. The Himalayan 
Districts ot Kooloo, Lahoul, and Spiti. 
London, 1871.] 

Hardy, Rerd. Snence. Manual of Bnd- 
diiiam in its Modem Development. 

The title-page in my copy savs 1860, 
but it was first published in 185o. 

Harrington, J. H. Elementary Analyaii 
of the Laws and Regulations enacted by 
the O.O. in C. at FV»rt William. 3 toIr. 
folio. 1805-1817. 

MtMgj Martin. Euajni on the Sacred 
Language, Writings, and Religion of 
the Paras. 8to. 1878. 

Havart, Daniel, M.D. Op- en Ondei^gang 
van Coromandel. 4to. Amsterdam, 1693. 

Hawkins. The Hawkins' Voyages. Hak. 
Soc. Ed. by C. Markham. 1878. 

Heber, Bp. Reginald. NairatiYe of a 
Journey through the Upper Provinces 
of India. 3rd ed. 3 vols. 1878. 

But most of the quotations are from 
the edition of 1844 (Colonial and Home 
Library). 2 vols. Double columns. 

Hodges, Diary of Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
William, in Bengal, &c., 1681-1688. 

The earlier quotations are from a MS. 
transcription, by date ; the later, paged, 
from its sheets printed by the Hak. dOC. 
(still unpublished). [Issued in 2 vols., 
Hak. Soc. 1886.J 

Hehn, V. Knltoxpflansen und Hauathiers 
in ihren Ueberffang aus Asien nach 
Griechenland una lUUien so wie in das 
ubrige Europa. 4th ed. Berlin, 1883. 

Haiden, T. Vervaerlyke Schipbreuk, 1675. 

Herbert, Sir Thomas. Some Yeares 
Ihrayels into Divers Parts of Asia and 
Afrique. Revised and Enlaived by the 
Author. Folio, 1638. Also 3rd ed. 1666. 

Herklots, G. B. Qanoon-e-Itlam. 1832. 
2nd ed. Madras, 1863. 

Heylin, Peter. Cosmographie, in 4 Books 
(paged as sep. volumes), folio, 1652. 

Heyne, Benjamin. Tracts on India. 4to 

Hodges, William. Travels in India during 
the Years 1780-83. 4to. 1793. 

[Hoey, W. A Monograph on Trade and 
Manufactures in Northern India, 
Lucknow. 1880.] 

Hofbneister. TraTels. 1848. 

Holland, Philemon. The Historie of the 
Worid, commonly called The Natmll 
Historic of C. ranlTS Seevodft. . . . 
Tr. into English by P. H., Doctor in 
Physio. 2 v<ds. Folio. London, 1601. 

HolweU, J. Z. Interesting Hislorieal 
Events Relative to the Provinoe of 
Bengal and the Empire of Indostan, ke, 
PiirtL 2nded. 1766. Ptot IlTlTW. 

Hooker (Sir) Jos. Dalton. Himalayan 
Journals. Notes of a Naturalist, ke, 
2 vols. Ed. 1855. 

[Hoole, E. Madras, Mysore, and the South 
of India, or a Personal Narrative of a 
Mission to those Countries from 1820 
to 1828. London, 1844.] 

Horsbargb's India Directocj. Varioos 
editions have been used. 

Hoatman. Voyage. See BpielbsKKiii. I 
believe this is in the same oolleoooo. 

Hnc et (Hibet. BouTenirs d'on Voyags 
dans la Tartaric, le Thibet, et la ChiBe 

rndant les Ann^ 1844, 1845, et 1846. 
vols. 8vo. Paris 1850. [E.T. by W. 
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[Hngel, Baron Charles. Travels in Kadiinir 
and the Panjab, with notes by Major 
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[Hnghes, T. P. A Dictaooary of Irian. 
London, 1885.] 

Hnlsios. Collection of Voyages, 10O2-163B. 

Hnmljrlin. Private Mem. of the Empsicr. 
Tr. by Migor a Stewart. (Or. TIr. 
Fund.) 4to. 1832. 

Hnmboldi, W. von. Die Kawi Snacbe 
auf der Insel Java. 8 vols. 4to. Bsrliii^ 

Hnnter, W. W. Orissa. 2 vols. 8vo. 1872. 

H]rde, Thomas. Syntagma DiseertatioanB^ 
2 vols. 4to. Ozon., 1767. 

Hydnr Naik, Hist, of, hj Meer Hosnin 
AH Khan Kirmani. Trd. by Od. W. 
Miles. (Or. Tr. Fund). 8vo. 1842. 

[Ibbetson, D. C. J. Outlines of Fugsb 
Ethnography. Calcutta, 1883.] 

Ibn Baithar. Heil und Nahmngsnittri 
von Abu Mohammed AbdaUah . . . 
bekannt unter dem Namen Ebn BsHlMff. 
(Germ. Transl. by Dr. Jos. v. Sonthdmer). 
2 vols, large 8vo. Stuttgart, 1840. 

Ibn Batnta. Voyages d'lbn Batooteh, 
Texte Arabe, aooompeffntf d^ul» 
Traduction par C. De FrttMiy ei le 
Dr. B. R. Sanguinetti (SocUM As- 
atique). 4 vols. Paris, 185S-58. 

Ibn Khallikan's Bio^phical DiotioDary. 
Tr. from the Arabic by Baron MoGndon 
de Slane. 4 vols. 4to. Paris, 18IS71. 

India in the XVth Centozy. Being a OolL 
of Narratives of Voyages to Iiidiai te» 
Edited by R. H. Major, Bsq., F.aA. 
Hak. Soo. 1857. 

Indian Administration of Lord 
borough. Ed. by Lord Oo l o hs sts r . 




; T^ a Joanwl of 
4«o. Bombay, 1872, and 
tin DOW. 

8aa List <ff OUmariet. 

Bt H. F. TlioBuwoo. 

Opara. Fobo. 

A ToviM from Encland to 
7«ar llU^kc 4to. Loodoo, 



) 2Tob. 1884. 

Haadwark and 

of tba EaiMror, tr. by 

a Price (Or. Tr. Fond). 4to. 

MA. AicMokfte Mavrnte. STob-laive 

tviL PiVML 1^. 

A OoDaetloo of Docnmaots oo 
with eoaunaiit. by llioiDas 
Kiadall, Esq. Hak. 8oc. 185a 

P. <&J.K Ranun Indioamm 
3 voia. 12BIO. CokMiiae, 

1415^ 16. 

E. Tbe Ooolia. 1871. 

il BSrda. Tba Birds of India, being 
» Kttarml Hiat. of all tbe Birds known 
Is laAabit C<3otineotal India, Ac. Oal- 

1^ qooiatkns are from tbe Edition 
iwacd hr Major Godwin Aosten. 2 vols. 
f»JV CWcntta, 1877. 

**— ~*'* Tlie Mammals of India, 

A XaL Hiet of §Si the Animals known 
toi&lMbtt CVmttDental India. By T. C. 
•^vdoa, BorveoQ- Major Bladras Army. 
Loadoa, 1874. 

IMnn. D. Sketches of Field Sports as 
Wfewid by the Natires of India. 
Loadoa. 1822.] 

JttfiDt, Jean Sira de. ffist. da Baint 
Ink, Ac. Tnta et Trad, par M. NaUlis 
4t WullT. LafK« 8to. Paris, 1874. 

■eoL of the Ufa, Writings, and 
rs r Mww»Jan i» of gir WUUab. By 
laH Tfl^fammth. Orw. ed., 4to., 1801. 
Tkat <|aa«ad m—^ad ed. 8n>., 1807. 

Friar, MlraMlta Deeeripta 
c Uaa^ Hac 8oc. 186Sw 

^ lii. Mj'dk. Journal <»f the Indian Arcbi- 
•dtted by Logan. Singapore, 

?e*ero. •< 

iM7 mm 

^*'^^a t ^^^^^" 

bwribart. Hsi. Natnrelle, 
ITii iMJestiniiii ilii Tiriin Folio. 

AmoBttitatom Exoti- 

▼ • ... ASBlOTO 

a 8m. 4to. 

AbdalknxTMm, Mem. of, tr. by 
Gladwin. Calcutta, 1788. 

yjnliwih, A. A. Larga Game Shooting in 
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KiBBttir, John Maodonald. Geogr. Memoir 
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pripHiy, J. L. Beast and Man in India, 
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Kirohar, Athan. China Monumentis. Ac. 
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Prfcpah rick, Ool. Account of Nepanl, 
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Xlaproth, Jules, jfagarin Aiiatlqne. 
2 Tols. 8to. 1825. 

Robert. An Historical Relation of 
the Island of (kjUm in the East Indies, 
Ac Folio. London, 1681. 

Knxiilbaah, The (By J. B. Fraser). 8 rola. 

La Gron, M. V. Hiii. dn Chriitianiime 
des Indes. 12mo. A la Haye, 1724. 

La Roqn*. -Voyage to Arabia the Happy, 
Ac E.T. London, 1726. (French 
orig. London, 1715.) 

La BooMe, Dieftionnaira UniTanel du 
XIX* Si^le. 16 vols. 4to. 1864-1878. 

Lana'a Modani Egyptians, ed. 2 vols. 1856. 

Do., ed. 1 vol. 8vo. 1860. 

Arabian Nighta, 3 vols. 8va 1841. 

[Le Fann, H. Manual of tbe Salem District. 
2 vols. Madras, 1883.] 

Leland, C. G. Pidgin-Engliih Sing-song, 

16mo. 1876. 
[Leman, G. D. Manual of the Ganjam 

District. Madras, 1882.] 
Lnnhran^ de Cousas da India em 1525, 

forming the last part of Bubaidioa, q.v. 

Lattar to a Proprietor of the E. India 
Company. (Tract.) 1750. 

Letton of Bimnldn the Second on the Trial 
of Warren Hastings. London, 1791. 

Leiten firom Madraa during the years 1836- 

1839. By a Lady. [Julia Charlotte 

MaiUand.] 1843. 
Lettrea Edifiantea et Curieuses. 1 mI issue in 

34 RecueiU. 12mo. 1717 to 1774. 2nd 

do. re-arranged, 26 vols. 1780-1788. 
LevndaTins. Annales Sultanomm Oth- 

manidarum. Folio ed. 1650. 

An earlier ed. 4to. Francof. 1588, in 

the B. M., has autograph notes by Jos. 

Lewin, Lt.-Col. T. A Fly on the Wheel, 

or How I helped to Govern India. 8vo. 

1885. An excellent book. 
[ The Wild Races of Soutb-Eastem 

India. Loudon, 1870.] 
Lcjdon, Jobn. Poetical Itemains. with 

Memoirs of bis Life, by Rev. J. Morton. 

London, 1819. 
(Bumell has quoted fnxn a reprint at 

CalcutU of tbe Life, 1828.) 



Life in the Mofaeiil, by an Ex-Civilian. 
2 vols. 8vo. 1878. 

Light of Asia, or the Great Renunciation. 
Ajb told in verse by an Indian Buddhist. 
By Edwin Arnold. 1879. 

UndiajTSi Lives of The, or a Mem. of the 
House of Crawford and Balcarres. By 
Lord Lindsay. 3 vols. 8vo. 1849. 

Linachoten. Most of the quotations are 
from the old English version : John 
Hviffhen van Linschoten, his Discours 
of Voyages into Ye Easte and Weete 
Indies. Printed at London by lohn 
Wolfe, 1698 — either from the black-letter 
folio, or from the reprint for the Hak. 
See. (2 vols. 1885), edited by Mr. Bumell 
and Mr. P. Tiele. If not specified, they 
are from the former. 

The original Dutch is: j'ltinerarie 
Voyage of ter Schipvaert van Jan Huygen 
van Linschoten. To T'Amstelredam, 

Littrt, E. Diet, de la Langue Fran^aise. 
4 vols. 4to., 1873-74, and 1 vol. Suppt., 

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Lockjrer, Charles. An Account of the 
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[Logan, W. Malabar. 3 vols. Madras, 

Long, Rev. James. Selections from Un- 
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Lord. Display of two forraigne Sects in 
the East Indies. 1. A Discouerie of the 
Sect of the Banians. 2. The Religion 
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Lowe, Lieut. C. R. History of the Indian 
Navy. 2 vols. 8vo. 1877. 

Lnbbock, Sir John. Origin of Civilisation. 

Lnoena, P. Jofto de. Hist da Vida do 
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LndolphOB, Job. Historia Aethiopica 
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Lxiillier. Voyage du Sieur, aux Orandes 
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Lutfollah. Autobiog. of a Mahomedan 
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llacarine. Travels of the Patriarch. E.T. 
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McCrindle, J. W. Ancient India as described 
by Megasthenes and Arrian. 8vo. 1877. 

Transl. of the Perinlus Maris Ery- 

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M*Crindle, J. W. Ancient India as deeoribed 
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[ The Invasion of India by Alexander 

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Klusdonald, D., M.D. A Short Account of 
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Macsreffor, Col. (now Sir Charles). A 
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Maclreniie. Storms and Sunshine of a 
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Life in the Mission, the Camp, and 

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Kaokensie Collection. Desc. Catalogue 
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MacTiennan, J. F. An Inquiry into the 
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MafTeos, Joannes Petrus, E. B. J. His- 
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also Selectanim Epistolamm ex 

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Malaca Conqoistada pelo Grande Af. de 
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[New ed. 2 vols. 1829.] 

Life of Robert, Lord dive. 8 vols. 


Malcolm's Anecdotes of the Mamien and 
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tury. 4to. 1808. 



VoMTM Aod TrsYcb of J. A., 
»«o tb« B. iDdiea, E.T. 1669. FoUo. 

^ Kaikbam't Tibet. 

iBslrvei^Ao que aerue por 

Vm> Wmm Cmo5;aji, que Aprendem Ler, 

• rii— iffii rtamr nmm Escb<^aa Portu- 

qiM iio em India Oriental ; e 

lie na Coeta doe Malabaroe 

Coromandel. Anno 1713. 

( la Br. M neeoiD. No place or Printer. 

It ie a Pji^i<aetant work, no doubt of tbe 

I of the 8. P.O. 

It mqtama a prayer '*A ora^io por 
a IHnelnMima Companhia da Imiia 

•f tte 0#olflf7 of iBdU. Laive 
§vol 2 paru by Medlioott and Blanfoid. 
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Derie. Dictionnaire Etymologique 
Mote d'oriipne orientale. In the 
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Hist. Noaaelle et Crrierae dee 

— de Tunqnin et de Lao. Trad- 

deVltalieo. Paris, 1666. 

Secretonun Fidelium 
Sm Boafiniv*, of whoee work 
nfme tbe2nd part. 

C. R., C.a Trarels in Peni 
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— <l*Tijt>. Narr. of Emheaiiy of Ruy 
Gnuatle^ de C. to the Court of TimouV 
tlWa^t. Tra. and Ed. by C. R. M. 

Narratire of the liiraion of 

G. Bc^le to Tibet ; aod of the Journey 
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— A Memoir c^ the Indian Surreys, 
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El Veedor Lryu de. Deacripcion 
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i*^ T. fX IS.%. 

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BnW Mem. of hit Life and Writ- 
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HaTolaar door Multatuli (E. Douwes 
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This is a novel describing Society in 
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[Xajno, J. D. A Treatise on Hindu Law 
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Mondoia, Ptuire Juan Gonzales de. The 
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Ritos y Costumbres del Gran Reyno do 
la China (kc. ) . . . hecho y ordenado por 
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MUbnm, Wm. Oriental Coromorce, kc. 2 
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Minthon, John. The (tuido into the 
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Minto Life of Gilbert Elliot^ by Countea of 
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[Mnndy, Gen. G. C. Pen and Pencil 
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Munro, Su iigeon Gen. , C. B. Reminiecenoee 
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Hapier, General Sir Charles. Records of 
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[Neale, F. A. Narrative of a ReaideiiM at 
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[N.E.D. A New English Dictionary on 
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Qanoon-e-Islam. See Herklots. 

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[Baikes, C. Notes on the North 
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[Bijendralila Mitra, Indo-Aryac 
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Balei^h, Sir W. The Diaoourse of 
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Bamosio, G. B. Delle Nayig 
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few quotations from C. Federi 
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Bashidnddin, in Quatrem^re, Hiff 
Mongols de la Perse, par Rasch 
trad. &c., par M. Qnatremte 
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Bfts M&1&, or Hindoo Annals of 
vince of Ooozerat. By Alex. 
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Also a New Edition in on< 

Bates and Valuationn of Me: 
(Scotland). Published by the ' 
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Bavenshaw, J. H. Gaur, its B 
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Baver^. Major H. G. TabaULi 
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Bay, Mr. John. A Collection o 

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Historia Plantarum. Foli< 


Synopsis Methodica A 

Quadnipedum et Serpentini Gc 
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Baynal, Abb<^ W. F. Histoire PI 
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Europ^ens dans les deux Ind« 
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First English translation by 
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immense number of edittoiis < 
ginal, with modifications, and 
English version by the same J 
in vols. 1798. 


bnUHoMforUie Hon. OompuT'a TrMp 
fa Um Oout of ConoUB^ bT H. -Gen 
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MaalL Mmjor Juma. MBmoiT of a Hap 
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IrlT. By Pi 


Abo iDnwtitBW qootad (roni the 
Fraedt Tcrboo, tu. ;— 
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OS la VraT* Rei i "— nUtion, Ac. 4to. 
AMtanUm, 1S70. 
TW aatbcv n> th* firvt CbapUia at 

bf* Dftvlda. Baddhina. S.P.aK. Ko 

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UMnJ. FMUUdad* HlrtorioL (1685.) 

Pint pabliMbed rwently. 
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LcBdoo. 1S»7. 
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MtaMB Philip. *!. OudM. !■ My 

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(;raa( Manr. 1616-18. Ed. by W. 

Fostor. H»K. aoc 2 roll. ia».] 
I mN i* . T. An English and HiadooManee 

fc*ml MeUawUT' 12nio. Caletitu, 

words. Tha author hod his iaformntiaa 
frorn a Brahman tiamed P&dmatiAba 
IPadmaKObha), who kngw Dutch, and 
who gave him a Dutch translation of 
Bhartrihari's Satakas, which is printed 
at the and of the book. It is flie first 
tranalatioD from Saoskrit into an Euro, 
poan language (A.B.). 
Botolzo lU Tlafem de Vuco d« Ouna en 
■ccccicvii. 2a edicia. Liaboa, 1861. 
Thalat ed. waspoblwhediQlSSS. The 
work is inroribed to ALvaro Valho. See 
Figani^ra, Bibliog. Bin. Pmn. p. 15». 
(NotehjA.B.). "^ 

— — - ."i™- D« CMtro. 

EtooMat lAm. k. Tnnn U China. Sto. 
Pari^ 1878. 

'Bow, T. V. Haoual of Tanjore District. 
Hadras, 18S3.] 

BoflB. J. F.. H.D. An Vtnay on the An- 
tiquity of Hindoo Hedlciiu. 8vo. 1S37. 

lUustrationa of tha Botany and 

other branches of Nat. History of the 
Himaluu, and of the Floras of Oub- 
mere. 2 vols, folio. 1839. 

EtDbruk, Wilhalmus de. Itlnnmiliim ia 
BMoeil da VoyagM at de M^moirea de 
la 8oo. de G^raphio. Tom. iv. 1837. 

Kunphitia (Geo. Everanl Rumpht.l. Her- 
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Imaall, Patrick. An Acoount of Indian 
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loded to ed. of EnoUT*' Hlrt. 


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Ikdlk It&huil, The Oeognphial Works 

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Iklnilraiy, W. Noel. CklaniUr of Stata 
P*_pen. Eut India*. Vol. I., 1S«2 
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Vol. in.. 1878 (1622-1924); Vol. IV., 
1SB4 (I825-1629). An admirable worii. 

ianuw SatMB. Oaaohlohta dar Oat-Moa- 
loTan . . . Ton Ssanang asatun Chung- 
'"'"'""'"" ""jr Ordus. aiisdem Mongol . , . 

a English Chaplain 
— — tha religion of 

, _s Dutch Oiap. 

Mb R«r wu doing tba Kme at Puli- 
■fc Aa work of tba last is in every 
^r *aat>7 aaparior lo tba tonnar. It 
«aa vitttan at Bataria (sea p. 117). and, 
•ritr •» tto pob Hc a tt on altar U« death, 
^m» wf a (aw nl^iriDls of Indian 

> Bchmi 


Petenbui^, 1829. 
mdanon. Q. P. Thirteen Years amonff 

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agannana. Rst. Father. A daaoripUon 

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tto. Home. 1838. 



San Roman, Fny A. Hiftoria €kneral 
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Saiwtii, Lettere, contained in De Guber- 
iiAtia, q.v. 

8a^. Ray. The Saturday Review, London 
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Sehiltbarger, Johann. The Bondage and 
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Telfer, R.N. Hak. Soc. 1879. 

Sohontan, Wontar. Ooet-Indiache Voyagie, 
kc. t' Amsterdam, 1676. 

This is the Dutch original rendered 
in German as Walter SohtUsen, q.v. 

[Sehrader, 0. Prehistoric Antiquities of 
the Aryan Peoples. Tr. by F. B. 
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Scholien, Walter. Ost-Indische Keise- 
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See Bchonieii. 

Schuyler, Eugene. Tnrktitan. 2 vols. 
8vo. 1876. 

[Boott, J. G. and J. P. Hardiman. Gazetteer 
of Upper Burma and the Shan States. 
5 vols. Rangoon, 1900.] 

Serafton, Luke. Reflezions on the Govern- 
ment of Hindostan, with a Sketch of 
the Hist, of Bengal. 1770. 

Seely, Capt. J . B. The Wonden of Ellora. 

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8eir Mataqherin, or a View of Modem 
Times, being a History of India from the 
year 1118 to 1195 of the Uedjirah. 
From the Persian of Gholam Hussain 
Khan. 2 vols, in 3. 4to. Calcutta, 1789. 

Seton-KaiT, W. S., aud Hugh Sandeman. 
Selectiona from Calcutta Gazettes (1784- 
1828). 6 vols. 8vo. (The 4th and 5th 
by H. S.) Calcutta, 1864-1869. 

Shaw, Robert. Visitti to High Tartary, 
Yarkand, and Kdshghar, 1871. 

Shaw, Dr. T. Travels or Observations re- 
lating to several Parts of Barbuy and 
the Levant 2nd ed. 1757. (Orig. ed. 
is of 1738). 

ShelYocke's VoyajBre. A V. round the 
Worid, by the Way of the Great South 
Sea, Performed in the Years 1719, 20, 21, 
22. By C^pt. George S. London, 1726. 

Sherring, Revd., M.A. Hindu Tribes and 
C^tes. 3 vols. 4to. Calcutta, 1872-81. 

Sherwood, Mrs. Stories from the Church 
Catechism. Ed. 1873. This work was 
originally published altout 1817, but I 
cannot trace the exact date. It is almost 
unique as giving some view of the life of 
the non-commissioned ranks of a British 
regiment in India, though of course 
much is changed since its dute. 

Sherwood, Mrs., The life of, chiefly Auto- 
biographical. 1857. 

Shipp, John. Memoirs of the Extraordi- 
nary Military Career of . . . written by 
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:j vols. 8vo. 1830. 

Sihree, Revd. J. The Gnat Afttott 
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Sidi 'All. The Mohit, by 8. A. Ka{iii^D. 

Exts. translated by Joaeph t. Hammer, 
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Relation des Vo^ragea de, Domme 

ordinairement Katibi Roumi, tmd. sor 
' la version allemande de M. Dies par 
M. Moris in Journal Aiiaiiqw^ Ser. I. 
tom. ix. 


— The Travels and Adventures of the 
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Vamb<^ry. London, 1899.] 

SIgoli, Simone. '^aggio al Monte Sinai 
See FresoobaldL • 

Simidrin. See LeUen, 

[Skeat, W. W. Malay Msgio, beiag so 
Introduction to the Folklore and Popular 
Religion of the Malay Peniniula. Sva 
London, 1900. 

[Skinner, Capt T. Excursions in Indis, 
including a Walk over the Himalaya 
Motmtains to the Sources of the Jnmna 
and the Ganges, 2nd ed. 2 vole. 
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Skinner, Lt.-Col. James, Military Memoin 
of. Ed.byJ. B. Frsaer. 2 vols. 1861. 

Sleeman, Lt.-Col. (Sir Wm.). ITiniainiUM 
and Vocabularv of the Peculiar Langnsge 
of the Thugs. ' 8vo. Calcutta, im. 

Rambles and ReooUeotioiis of aa 

Indian Official. 2 vols, large 8vo. 1844. 
An excellent book. [New ed. in 2 vols., 
by y. A. Smith, in Constable's Oriental 
Miscellany. London, 1893.] 

[ A Journey through the Kingdom of 

Oudh in 1849-50. 2 vols. London, 186a.] 

Small, Rev. G. A Laskaxi Dictionary. 
12mo., 1882 (being an enlarged ed. of 
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Neither Mr. Winter Jones nor my 
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Ziegenbalg. See Propagation of the 



32 6. — ApoUo Bunder. Mr. S. M. Edwardes {Hidary 0/ JBomioy, T<nm 
and hlandy Censw Report, 1901, p. 17) derives this name from 
' Pallav Bandar,' * the Harbour of Clustering Shoots.' 

274 a. — Oroase. 1817. ** the Portuguese commander requested permisaioa 
to see the Cross which Janiere wore. . . . " — Rev, R. FeUowet^ 
History of Ceylon, chap. y. quoted in 9 ser. N. db Q. I. 85. 

276 b.'-For " Porus " read " Portus." 

380 h,—For " It is probable that what that geographer ..." read " It is 
probable from what ..." 

499 h, — The reference to Bao was accidentally omitted. The word is 
Peguan bd (pronounced hd-a), "a monastery." The qaotadoa 
from Sangermano (p. 88) runs : " There is not any Tillagei how- 
ever small, that has not one or more large wooden houses, which 
are a species of convent, by the Portuguese in India called BftO.* 

511 a^—For « Adawlvt " read " Adawlat." 

565 a. — Mr. Edwardes (op. cit. p. 5) derives Mazagong from SkL modya- 
grdma, " fish- village," due to " the pungent odour of th« fid^ 
which its earliest inhabitants caught, dried and ate." 

655 b.—For " Steven's " read " Stevens'." 

678 a.— Mr. Edwardes (op. cit. p. 15) derives Parell from padd, "the Tiee- 

Trumpet Flower " (Bignonia suaveolene). 

816 a.— For " shd-bdsh " read " shdh-bdsh." 

858 b.—Far " Sowar " read " Sonar, a goldsmith." 

920 6.— Tiflan add : 

1784. — "Each temperate day 

With health glides away, 

No Triffings * our forenoons profane." 

— Memoirs of Hhe Late War in Agitk, by ^n Offetrff 
Colonel Baillie^s Detachment, ii. Appendix, p. 898L 

1802. — " I suffered a very large library to be useless whence I 
might have extracted that which would have been of more senriee 
to me than running alK)ut to Tifins and noisy parties." — Metca^ 
U) J. JV. Slierer, in Kaye^ Life of Lord Metcalfe, I. 81. 

* [In note "Luncheons."] 






AHAT>A s^ A word used by old 

S{iiiush and Portuguese writers for a 

*rhin<iivn«fs' and aaopted by some of 

thr older English narrators. The 

'•ngin i'^ ;i little doubtful. If it were 

ivriiun that the wonl did not occur 

tuhrr than c, 1530-40, it would 

mfwA pn»)iably l>e an adoption from 

U»r M.iliy badak^ *a rhinoceros.' The 

vini L* uiti Ui«ed by Barros where he 

vv4iM pniliably have used it if he 

knirv it (m^ quotation under OANDA) ; 

iM wf have found no proof of its 

fArlirr ♦'iL'^tenw in the lanmiage of 

th' {VntnHula ; if this shouui l)e es- 

u>'h«hf^l »v sihould have to seek an 

Xrif^i' oripn in such a word as abadat, 

■iM, iVin. ahitin, <»f which one meaning' 

L* <r. /.(!«/) *a wihl animal.' The usual 

: •nil -tUuLi LH certainly somewhat in 

.«\ .jjr i}{ -lui h an origin. [Pnjf. Skeat 

••'1>\— tlwt thf <i in ahitda and similar 

)kku\<* repre.«**nts the Arabic 

•r.i»-. mhiih was comnumlv used in 

>I*ii>h and Portugu»v<* j>retixed to 

AnI:- and nther native words.] It 

».!! V ..{.^.-rvt-d that mon* than one 

<>.'ii rr> ii..ik>-s it the feuuile rhiuo- 

■*^-, AiA m lilt* ciict ionaries the wonl 

•• i-JMriin*-. But .Ml Barn IS makes 

'rtr,ij. [Mr W. W. Skeat suggests that 

■-' f-rrul** Wf^^ thf mon* iiangerous 

*i.i:*4L *fX thf om* m<ist fnnjuently 

L-t msth, JkA is tvrtiiinlv the ciwe 

■.th th** 'n^-JKlilf.] 

l.'-il • ■ !ll\ Qc« of Silver, C'<»|»|»er, Tiii, and 
Wd fpQi «lM.*nor (Tremt ({uantitioi* theruof 
*vt <>.<.tiiktijJl^ drmwiL, which thv Meivh- 
•eu cmmwi Away with Troufjn of Ele]>hantft 
«M Kkutficin— » (nn cajUtu de elejant<8 e 
liiMi f(« ki tnuwport into the Kingdouit of 
^f^am, hj u* called iiiam^ Pastiloco^ Siarody, 
'iMd^ in t«ifr.). rmi^i*, ^^'t'M, CoZamin- 
*■» imI other Prtrnncee .... "opinio 
MTV ee^ tlil in Cpgmn^ n. 40. The king- 
*■» MBed here are oiam (eee under 
ri. FHchalofc and SawatU (now 

two provinces of Siam) ; Taungu and Prome 
in B. Burma ; Calaminhara, in the interior 
of Indo-China, more or less fabulous. 

1544. — "Now the King of Tartary waa 
fallen upon the city of Pequin with so great 
an anuy as the like haa never been seen 
since Adam's time ; in this army . . . 
were seven and twenty Kings, under whom 
marched 1,800,000 men .... with four 
score thousand Rhinoceros^ " {dondepartirdo 
ctrni vitenta mil badas). — Ilnd. (ong. cap. 
cvii.) in Cogaiij p. 149. 

[1560. — See quotation under LAOS.] 

1585. — "It is a very fertile country, with 
great stoare of prouisioun ; there are ele- 
phants in great number and abadas, which 
IS a kind of be«ist so big as two great buls, 
and hath yppon his snowt a little home." — 
Metuioza, ii. 311. 

1592. — "We sent commodities to their 
king to barter for Amber-greese, and for the 
homes of Abath, whereof the Kinge onejy 
hath the traffique in his hands. Now this 
Abath is a beast that hath one home 
only in her forehead, and is thought to bo 
the female Vnicome, and is highly esteemed 
of all the Moores in those parts as a most 
sovoraigne rcmedio against poyson." — Bar- 
ker in Uakl. ii. 591. 

1598.— "The Abada, or Rhinoceros, is not 
in India,* but onely in Bengala and PcUane,** 
—LinschoteHy 88. [Hak. Soc. ii. 8.] 

" Wvo in Bengala we found groat numbers 
of the boasts which in I^atin are called Rhin- 
oceroteSy and of the Portingalles Abadas." — 
Ibid. 28. [Hak. Soc. i. 96.] 

c. 1606.—". . . ove nortano le loro mer- 
canae per vendcrlo a CMnesi, particolar- 
mente . . . molti comi dolla Bada, detto 
Rinoceronto . . "—Varlrtti, p. 199. 

1611.— "Bada, a very fierce animal, called 
by another more common name Rhimnxro*. 
In our days they brought to the King Philip 
![., now in glory, a Baida which was long at 
Madrid, having his horn sawn off, and being 
blinded, for fear he should hurt anybody. 
. . . The name of Bada is one imposed by 
the Indian.H thenu^olves ; but assuming that 

• t«., not on thp W. c<Mwt of the P«ninstila, 
callM Indxa tmpfcially by the IN^rtuguete. Bee 
under INDIA 



:ke in 1888. Heac« it is not 
il>k that it took its name from 
CliAmock, who neeiuA to have 
«d Om Company's service in 1668. 
a be went to &nga1 we have not 
alilc to a'Kertain. [Sue Diary of 
a, Mit«d by Sir H. Yule, ii., xcix. 
onie " Doimmentsry Memoirs of 
Chamock," which fonu jiart of 
Ixxv. (1888) of the Haklun Soc., 
oaaid to havi? "arrived iJi India 
as or 16M."] 

7.— "Ths ihip f'alcmt toga up the 
Ui Huffhlf, ur St leant to Cnaniiock." 
irt'i L^ter to KH. St. G«i. of 12th 
nbcr. Id A'oUm and Kxtradu, Madnw, 
So. 1.. p. 21; Mw&lH,)'. a. 
I. — "Chanod-Kaach lukth twn iihinK 
n»r uoc ID Cbaaock, und the Jower 
(I Ibe iMxiata rido .... you miut 
hchiw Jjrgom u nfcirsMaJd, keep the 
af^ i^wnr abcmrd until you uume up 
I Usw-Tree .... nnd Iheo .it4Mr over 

rtbe bnone. — r*' EngliA pdn, 55. 
■tailcken Tljailiuwk."— I af- 

c fiod < 

.m-uHiu to Utgli inuogiyj, 
then C«//«H«/, and Cn/eiila. 
nih>it«ndinti thew xulemn 
Ihe Dutch it wan judged 
'"* a detitohment uf tnx>|« 
■ "- •• -. and 

■ae'i BattcTf iifipimite 

•If Ihitfh atleniM in the tlo<«ly, in 
,--- " Hw old Tillii^re of Acbanock 
rtit*>r* mm nctiipieo."'— J/. (JraJuiui, 

• r Iwrn thil Mr. I'hamork built ■ 
>■!■ tlier*. and A Hnurishin^ haEar 
under hi< iatn>tiH|;c. hefure ths 
•«B1 ••' I'ali-ntiA biiid Iwen deter- 
<«L DaiTBckiiire ii at thii dsy 

am»A." — Tif Btujnl lAUvary, I'lilc. 

iUB. «. P. HrKdT, Maliy Odidr, 
•H in ntavly all thi; vi-niai*iilan 
lu fur Bi'id aiiil Malt reliNhcH. Ily 
]iain ii ii' ifM AH lh<- eiiiiivalcnt 
Kklra.' and it iii>iilied f> nil the 
.4 Cn»w and BWkwi-ll in that 
Wr have ad«)ited the won] 
1^ thr I^>rti4(nnv ; but it is not 
«t1>lr thai Wndcni X-<iati(-iiK<>t it 
»llv fnim the LAtin ocrlnrvi.— 
Pha. HU. Nat. xix. 19). 
L— "And tfc*]r praun ■ coDMrra of 
■lanim*) *ith aalt, and whan it ii 
iMri tkm tkar c^' AAai). and tUa 

are with 

1596. — Liiucbot«D in the Dutch gives tha 
won] ooirectly, but in tha Engli^E vermon 
(Hak. Soc. ii. 26) it ia printed Maclutr. 

[1612.—" Achar none to be had except one 
jar."-- Jiamxra, LeUeri, i. 230.] 

1616. — "0\u Jnrebaao't (JmibaiM) wife 
came and brought me a small jarr of Aehar 
for a present, deayrina me to eiskews her 
huxband in that he abconted bftiuelfe to 
take pbisik."— t'octf, i. 135. 

1623. — " And all theee preserved in a way 
that in really very good, which tiiey call 
acdao."-/'. rf*«a Kaa(,ii. 708. [Hak. Soc. 
ii. 327.] 

1653.— "Achar est m nom Indiatanm, 
uu Jndien, que si^ifle des maogues, ou 
ButnH fniitii oonlia avec de la moutarde, do 
Tail, dn sol, at du vinaigre ll I'lndianne." — 
De la Boul/a^-U-Qouz, 531. 

1687. — "Aobar I presume signiliei saui-o. 
They- make in the Eatt India, especially 
at fkaiH and I'igv, several torta of Acbar. as 
of the young lii|ia uf Barnboes, he. Bambo- 
Ad\ar and Mango-,-|cAar are most used." — 
Itampier, i. 391. 

1727.— "And the Soldiery, Finben. Pe... 
nanti-, and Hsndicmftx (of Uoa) feed on a 
little Rice hoilod in Water, with a little bit 
of italt tltih, or Atehaar, which is pickled 
Kruita or RooUi."— J. Ilamition, I. 252, 
[And we under KEDOEEEE.] 

1783.— We loam from Forrest that limes^ 
Halted for »ea-u»o against scurrj-, were umid 
by (ho Chnliat (Choollal, and were called 
atcbar ( I'ayagf l-i ilrr^i, 40). Thus the 

1768-71.- "When aroen it (the mango) is 
niatle into atUar; for this the kernel is 
Ukon out, and the ii)iaco filled in with 
llinger, pimento, and other a|iicy ingrodi. 
entx, after which it is |nckled in vinegar." 

Attiii, M.ikv AchA, Achih] 'a wooti- 
Ic-ih'). Til.- iiauu- applied liv ua to 
llie State and lowii at th« N.W. angl« 
r.f Sumatra, whiih wiw long, and 
f.s|>e<.'iul1y during the 16th and 17lh 
(■enliiriris tin- imat«'«t native i)ower im 
tliHt Island. Tlie ijn)i>er Malay naine 
■if Ihf pliue iniiiA^a. The I'rutugnise 
p-nrrally tallwi it Afhem (or frequently 
IJv theaJltiiviiinof tlii-gi-nitive prepoHi- 
ti'im, Ikirhem, .*> that Sir F. Oreville 
Ih;1()w niak.» two king>l'ims), Imt our 
Acheea iwiun to have lieen derivi-d 
fnmi nuiriners of llie l". U"!f or W. 
India, fur we find the name so given 
(AchlH) in tlK- Aln-i-Akbari. and in the 
(leog. Tallies of Sadik iKfahani. Tliifl 
form may have Wv» ^ii^^i^ed liy B 
jincliiis analiigy, siieh tt8 Orientals love, 



with Machin (Macheen). See also 
under LOOTY. 

1549. — '*Piratarum Aoenonun nee Deri- 
ciilum nee suapicio fuit," — S, Fr, Aav. 
EpUU, 337. 

1552. — *'But after Malaeca was founded, 
and especially at the time of our entry into 
India, the Kingdom of Paeem began to 
inereaso in power, and that of P^ir to 
diminish. And that neighbouring one of 
Aohem, which was then insignificant, is now 
the greatest of all." — Barros^ III. v. 8. 


^' Occupado tenhais na guerra infesta 
Ou do sanguinolento, 
Taprobanico * Achem, que ho mar 

Ou do Cambaico occulto imiguo nosso." 

CaniAeSy Ode prefixed to Garcia de Orta. 

c. 1569. — "Upon the headland towards 
the West is the Kingdom of AbbI, governed 
by a Moore King." — Couar Fredenke^ tr. in 
Iiakluyty ii. 355. 

c. 1590.— "The zabdd (civet), which ia 
brought from the harbour-town of Sumatra, 
from the territory of Achln, goes by the 
name of Sutnatra-zabddf and is by far the 

best." — AlTif i. 79. 

1597. — " do Pegu como do Da- 

chem." — King's Letter ^ in Ardi. Port. Or. 
fase. 3, 669. 

1599.— "The ilnnd of Sumatra, or Tapro- 
buna, is possessed by many Kynges, enemies 
to the Portugals ; the cheif is the Kinge of 
Daohem, who besieged them in Malacca. . . 
The Kinges of Acheyn and Tor (read Jor 
for Johore) are in lyke sort enemies to the 
Portugals. ''—*yir Fu/ke OrevilU to Sir F. 
Wulsingham (in Bruoty i. 125). 

[1615. — " It so proved that both Ponleema 
and (Tovernor of Tocoo was come hither for 
Acheln." — Foster ^ Letters^ iv. 3. 

1623.— "Acexn which is Sumatra."— P. 
delta VaUe, Uak. Soc. ii. 287.] 

c. 163r). — "Achln (a name equivalent in 
rhyme and metre to * M^hin ') is a well- 
known island in the Chinese Sea, near to 
the e<iuinoctial line." — ^iddik Is/ahdni (Or. 
Tr. F.), p. 2. 

1780.— "Archill." See (quotation under 

1820. — "In former days a great many 
junks iLHod U> frc«}uent Achin. This trade 
is now entirely at an end." — Craw/urdy JI. 
Ind. Arctt. iii. 182. 

ADAM'S APPLE. This name 
(Porno d^Adamo) is given at Goix to the 
fruit of the Alivuisops Elengiy Linn. (Bird- 
vi^ood) ; and in the 1635 ed. of Gerarde's 
Htrhall it is applied to the Plantjiin. 
J^ut in earlier days it was a])plied to a 
fruit of the Citron kiud. — (See Marco 

* ThiH alhxlef) to thi* miHtakf^n notion, as old as 
N. Cunti (c. 1440), tltat Sumatraa Tapro6an«. 

Polo, 2nd ed., i. 101 X and the follow- 
ing : 

c. 1580.— "In his hortis (of Cairo) ex ar- 
boribus vireecunt mala citria, aurantia, h- 
monia sylvestria et domestica poma a***^* 
vocata.' — Prosp. AlpinuSy i. 16. 

c. 1712. — "It is a kind of lime or citroD 
tree . . . it is called Pomiun ah^^i^ because 
it has on its rind the appearance of two bites, 
which the simplicity of the ancients imagined 
to be the vestiges of the impression which 
our forefather made upon the forbidd«i 
fruit. ..." BliUeaUy quoted by Tr. of ^^ 
qnerquey Hak. Soc. i. 100. The fruit has 
nothing to do with zamboa^ with which 
Bluteau and Mr. Birch connect it. See 

ADATI, s. A kind of piece-goods 
exported from Bengal. We do not 
know the proper form or etymolog}'. 
It may have been of half- width (from 
H. ddhdy *half '). [It may have been 
half the ordinary length, as the 
Salampore (Salempoory) was half the 
length of the cloth known in Madras 
as Funjum. (Madras Man. of Ad. iiL 
799). Also see Yule's note in Hedged 
Diary, ii. ccxl.] 

1726. — ^^Casseri (probably Kcuidri io 
Midnapur Dist.) supplies many TaffaUk^- 
las (Alleja, Shalee), Ginggangs, AUegiat, 
and Adathays, which are mostly made 
there." — Valentijuy v. 159. 

1813. — Among piece-goods of Bengal: 
"Addaties, Pieces 700" {i.e. pieces to the 
ton). — MilburHy ii. 221. 

ADAWLUT, 8. Ar.—R.-^'addlat, 

*a Court of Justice/ from W^ ^ doing 
justice.' Under the Mohammedan 
government there were 3 such courts, 
viz., NizdnuU 'Ad&lat, Dlicdni Ad&lAt» 
and Faujddri 'AdMat, so-called from 
the res]>ective titles of the officials 
who nominally presided over them. 
The first wjis the chief Criminal 
Court, the second a CiWl Court, the 
third a kind of Police Court. In 1793 
regular Court^j were established under 
the British Government, and then the 
aS udder Adawlut (Sadr ^Addlat) hecamt 
the chief Court of Appeal for each 
Presidencv, and its work was done by 
several fiuropean (CiNnlian) Judges. 
That Court was, on the criminal side, 
termed Nizamut Adawlaty and on the 
civil side Dewanny Ad. At Madns 
and Bomlmy, Foujdarry was the ijtjU 
adopted in lieu of N%zam%U. 'tok 
system ended in 1863, on the introduc- 
tion of the Penal Code, and the inatitOp 
tion of the High Courts on tUr 


foiling. (On the original the Supervisors were now styled ; 

and «>nfltitution of the Court* whilst Superior Courts (^S'tt^^Dtfuwnny, 

k lUporU 1812, p. 6.) Sudder Nizdmut Adawlnt) were 

: follows applies only to the established at the Presidency, to be 

Presidency, and to* the ad- under the superintendence of three 

fttion of justice under the "r ^o"r members of the Council of 

ivV Court* beyond the limits Fort William. 

l*nf#idency town. Brief pjir- In 1774 the Collectors were recalled. 

rwrding the history of the and native 'Amils (Aomil) appointed 

le Courts and those*^ Courts in their stead. Provincial Councils 

preec^lt^ them will l»e found ^'t^re set up for the divisions of 

niFBEHE COUBT. Ctilcutta, Burdwan, Dacca, Moor- 

shedabad, Dinagepore, and Patna, in 

..u.;i o..ri "...;i;*..«,. :« *u^, . aiuiiiiiistrawon oi civii justice, was 

I'lvil ana militarv, m thase ., ,„4.^j i * '^1*^1.1 

— , #. ti. .♦ 1 ^1,. *!>.,♦ « V ;, . vested, but exercised by the memljers 

rt*, to that inkIv. iJut no im- • . \.- ^ 

^, ._ * .1 ♦ 1 m rotation. 

' attempt was made to under- rrn^ . ^ r *i • *i. * • * j 

.i;p^.» ^ .•«;! ^ o,4«»;«;.*-..*;^, The state of things that existed 

»• air»-i*t detailed a<iministnition „^i .t • . ^1. 1.. 11 

ler n'venut' or iusti • » bv th ^^^^^ ^"^^ system was discreditable. 

*! f ti.. i?»* ,^ .« J^-„.!x*. .^ 'A.s Courts o\ Justice the provincial 

€*f the huroTK'an servants or r«^„_ -i 1 « i \ i • •* 

«•«...,. «,. kV,». ,;. • . ,j . Councils were onlv "colourable unita- 

niiianv. J>urli MuiK'niit^^ndeiui*, ♦; _„ * ^ 'i.- u 1 j 1 j- 4. 1 

i *♦!. «-<..;.?;♦-..♦; . , . tions of courts, which had aMicated 

of thf administration was ^\ - t *.• • e e *,\. • 

..-I ;...». .-;-.. »;.;*; « f their functions in favour of their own 

intfl in ihf prior aoouisitions of .,1 .^- * / *• \ iK j *i. 1 

,.,«..,. ..w ;.. *^ . 1 1 sul)ordinate (native) omcers, and thougli* 

iiivinv — viz., m the Zi'mindarv ♦! • ^1^ • • ^ ' • n i-^«. 

I .,.t ; ;,. ♦!, T-^. «♦.. f ,.\. their decisions were nominally subject 

l« uttii, HI the Iwentv-four ♦ ♦! /^ /^ 1 • * V« -i 

. .^ ..,wi ;.» ♦!. ru :. 1 1 > ^> t"** CTOvenior-General m Council, 

n.4s. and in tm* Chu<'klas ♦!.*,, n ♦ n «. 

tiie Ap]»ellate Court was even a more 

•^tJ l^ll.lll. 111 1 f vn/ . IMII 111 llll' 1 • . .• ] -1 J 1 

Ihr it w.L*.o,,n„«ll., 'aving at one .. me dcjKled appeal, 

.-...v ..f a R..Md..nt at tlu- the n- K.rt „f the head of the Khato, 

I /I 1 i\...i »^ .J tf "r native excheciuer, just as the 

♦•<ia»Md Durlmr, and of a i>_ -. • 1 n -t j' -i j ^.i 

• II... . ¥.. .; 1 iTovmcial Council decided them on 

ut latiia. Jii>tHf was ad- *i ^ r i.i n • i -^r r^- »«. 

_i . .1 XI 1 1 ^l'** r^*ix>rt. of the Cazis and Muftis."* 

iv«I i.\ tin- Mohammedan t,. \-T-n ♦! i* , »,. * i 1 

. . I , • I .. ,- . a: • 1 r 1" 1 "^ "^** Uoveniliient resolved 

undiT thf nativi' ottirials of .1 ,,/>,■ 1 /-, * • 1 j i. r 1.1 

^ j^^. tliat Civil Courts, independent of the 

' * *• '„ _ Pnivincial Councils, should lie esUib- 

l.,0, hun.iN-an oth.^rs wm- lished in the six divisions name<labove,t 

^1 III iht; distri.ts, umhr th.- ,.^,.1, „„,i^.r ^ civilian judge with the 

.f >«/-rrt*ir#, with |H.wrrs of title (»f Sui»tTintendent of the />««iw»i/ 

..^-r tl,». iiatiy... empl..y..d in >l,^„Mr^M<y whilst- to the Councils should 

r. tion nf th.- Hrxvini.- and tlu- ^^^]\ jn^rUin the trial of causi^s relating 

4ration of jinti.-.-, wbiU Lna ^„ ti,^. ,,„t,ii,. r^.vmue, t(» the demands 

V » lib ■.ni-norantlinnty mail ,,f zemindars uikmi their tenants, 

■7 *''r**/^««''''7»-'» •*< Mo«,r. ^,,,1 (,, Umndarv nuestions. The 

A and latiia. It w;t"» not till ai»]KNil fnmi the bistiict C\mrts still 

an later that, under exi)reHs ^iv to the (^overnor-Cieneml and his 

fn.m the Court of I)ir..rt<»rs,, as forming the Court. (»f.SVW/T 

-tiw. administration of the />,.,n„ ;,« v. ' but that this might W real, 

^ wa* undertaken bv the « judge was apiH.inted its head in the 

of th.- < om|«nys rovenanted , jH".rs*,„ of Sir Elijah Imin-v, the Chief 

\ y JVrir '^'/^l ^''*"''*^ ' Justice of the S'ui)reme Court, an ap- 

i! Ju-tio- (•y'>/"^<. ^'''»'*'""'?'it»oinlment which U-iame famous. For 

O wre t-^UbliMied in e;u h of |j wiLs n-presi-iit«-«l as a trans»ietion in- 

trirli^ then r.-.-..gni-*.-d. Then- tended to rompn>mise the acute dis- 

i^t I>i<rict Criminal Courts _ 

m Adatrlut) held bv Oaiee <>r . . . ... ^ , v- . . ^ 

under the ^ufienntendence, like j, .j^i. 

il Court, of the Colk-cturs, as, t tii^-o^^mx w<'n'iiior*«Hr<nit i78i touight^cii. 



ilm in Oejlon {adikdramcLj adikdr) the 
title of chief minister of the Candyan 
Kingsw See PATEL. 

1M4. — "Facta ocxnem et humAnum cum 
i*ti Q«nti prmebeaa, torn praeoertim magis- 
trmtibuii 60111110 et Praefectas Pagomm, quos 
AdifBrM Tocant."— ^. Fr. Xav. EpitU. 113. 

1583. — ** Mentre cbe noi erauamo in questa 
citti, !'■— liropo sh la mesEa notte aU' im- 
prdoiaa, mettendotii il faooo. Erano questi 
d'una citt^ uicina. Ion tana da S. Thom^, 
d'loe nannn i Fortogberi, un miglio, sotto 
U •oorta d'un kxro Capit&no, cbe risiede in 
dettacitta . . . et questo Capitano .^ da loro 
chiamato Adieuto.^— BoZ&t, f. 87. 

IWl.— "There are two wbo are the 
£reate«t and biffheHt ofRceni in the land. 
Tbey are called Adl^ian ; I may term 
tfaem Chief Jadges.'*— A'nox, 48. 

1?25. — ** Adigmar. This ia aa it were the 
««ruod kA the tHMmxtt."" — VaUntiJn (Ceylon), 
y'amtt o/ i(ficers, Ac, 9. 

1796.— "In Malal)ar esuite qg^di I'uffizio 
.... iDolti KAriatdrfT o minutri ; molti 
AdkifAli o minuttri d'un dintretto . . . " — 
frmj'aolim*, 237. 

1^08. — "The highest officers of State are 
the Adigmn or Prime Ministeni. They are 
two in Dumber. " — PereivoTs CtyUm^ 256. 

flSlO-17. — •* Announcing in letteni . . . . 
hi^ determination to exercii^e the office of 
jjcrr kaSkMX.'—Wilks, My tow, i. 264. 

lv(7._**Each amjKim or parish has now 
f«r^id«« the AdhikAri or man of authority, 
b'^tftriman. an accountant." — Logan, Man. of 
Mt'-'afair. i. 90.] 

ADJUTANT, a. A bird so called 
(ti'> doubt) fniiii it^( roniical re^inblance 
I" A huuian figure in a Htiff dre^ pacing 
•l-'wly on a {Kinidf -ground. It is the 
H. hnnjiUh or gignntic crane, and 
i»<f*uUr H^veuger of Bengal, the 
LefdcfttJtu ar^la of LiunaeiLS. The H. 
name ii* by f«»nie dictionaries derived 
fr>cu a jiUpjirwieil Skt. word hatUia-gila^ 
•l«toe-^malKm«*r.' The comixmnd, 
Liv«r\-er api»rr»|>riate, is not to W 
I'rtin'l in BtAithngk and Roth's great 
Ih<^i«inar>'. The bird is very well 
'ie-irnb^d by Aelian, under the name 
U K4^* which i» |ier)iatM a relic of the 
<ill j»nsNfrTe<l vemai'uiar one. It is 
'inmcT\}f*\ by am»thfr name, as one of 
thr peculiarities of India, by Sidtan 
Ik^«r. See FEUCAV. 

featbera known aa Marabou or 
CammnxJij feathers, and sold in Calcutta, 
an tW taQ-enweriM of this, and the Lfjit, 
aaotber and smaller specie* '* {/t^- 
TIm name wmrabout (from the Ar. 
*qaiet,' and thenoe 'a hermit,' 
the Port, wtmrmbmlo) eeemi to hare 
to th« bird in Africa on like 
~tD tlMi of adjutant in India. [Comer- 

colly, properly Kum&rkholi, is a town in the 
Nadiya District, Bengal. See Balfour^ Cyd. 
i. 1082.] 

c. A.D. 250.— ''And I hear that there is 
in India a bird Kilo, which is 3 times as 
bi^ as a bustard ; it has a mouth of a 
frightful size, and long legs, and it carrier 
a huge crop which looks like a leather bag ; 
it has a most dissonant voice, and whilst the 
rest of the plumage is ash-coloured, the tail- 
feathers are of a pale (or greenish) colour." — 
Aeiian, de Nat. Anim, xvi. 4. 

c. 1530.— "One of these (fowls) is the 
ding, which is a large bird. Each of its 
wings is the length of a man ; on its head 
and neck there is no hair. Something like 
a bag hangs from its neck ; its back is black, 
its breast white ; it frequently visits K&bul. 
One year they caught and brought me a 
ding, which became very tame. The flesh 
which they threw it, it never failed to catch 
in its beak, and swallowed without ceremony. 
On one occasion it swallowed a shoe well shod 
with iron ; on another occasion it swallowed 
a good -sized fowl right down, with its wings 
and feathers."— Ba&r, 321. 

1754. — ** In the evening excursions .... 
we had often observed an extraordinan' 
species of birds, called by the natives Argill 
or HargUl, a native of Bengal. They would 
majestically stalk along before us, and at 
first we took them for Indians naked. . . . 
The following are the exact marks and 
dimensions. . . . The wings extended 14 
feet and 10 inches. From the tip of the bill 
to the extremity of the claw it measured 7 
feet 6 inches. ... In the craw was a 
Terapin or land -tortoise, 10 inches long; 
and a large black male cat was found entire 
in its stomach." — Ives, 183-4. 

1798.— *' The next is the ^^reat Heron, the 
Argali or Adjutant, or Gigantic Crane of 
Latham. ... It is found also in Ouinea.'* 
—Pennant's View of Hindosian, ii. 156. 

1810. — "Every bird saving the vulture, 
the Adjutant (or argeelah^ and kite, retires 
to some shady sjwt." — Williamson, V. M. 
ii. 3. 

[1880.— Ball (JungU Life, 82) describes the 
" snake-stone " said to bo found in the head 
of the bird.] 

AFGHAN, n.T). ?.—ll^Afghdn. 
The most general name of the pre- 
dominant portion of the congeries of 
tribes bevf)nd the N.W. frontier of 
India, whose country is called from 
them Afghdnistdn. In England one 
often hears the country called Af- 
gunist'Ufi^ which is a mis|>r(muncia- 
tion painful to an Anglo- Indian ear, 
and even Afgann, which is a still 
more excruciating solecism. [The 
common local pronunciation of the 
name is Aoghdriy which accounts for 
some of the forms below. Bellcw 
insists on the distinction between the 


u tbj kinplom. Kajii of Mimir !| ] 

*'-»" or SAang ('tlii' naked , 

•. A nicmlHT iif a Unly of 
. uuriu^ t)i>- SikliH, Willi tjikf , 

n who ■■< witluniL tiiiiv, uUtiuI ' 
m). Ski. A ]irivativf. Anil Jk>r^ 
■ The AkaliH ntiiv Iw iviripIm) 
• WaluM-. i>f Si'khiMu. Th^v 
thi-ir lnnlv l«> Iwii" lH*n iiuiti- 
bv <;uni'<hiViDil liim«-lf, Iml 
> \rr>' ilriiititfuL CuiinitiKlMni'H 
4 th- -.nli-r i.i tW it wiu tin: 
.^ ..( thf MtnigKl'' ti. m-onnli' 
r •niritv Willi tlin aUniliiiiiiif iit 
w'wM ; t)i^ f-xmclrr- ..f ili.- Sikh 

Hi^lITJi'S^ 'Tl'irAkiii.-'^ihnw 
•ttlifn tiiiD tu ihK Mirllily ifiwrii' 
•wl •ilrrl «A thf iviUiiVd i>f llir 

D^Mnoitr in every nnk. Run- 
lagb fuuud tb«u very diflSuult 

tlwn till- sitt^ "t thi- niKriuiil I'lipitAl iif 
the kiii)^li>ni of Arakaii, u)> tlic vhIIi-v 
of the Arukaii or Kaladyiiv R. The 
iiaiim Alcyib had W'li applied, ]in>- 
l>a1>ly liy ihi- Portiiguejit', U> a ni>igh- 
Wniring villagi-, where Ihere stiiuil.-s 
ftliuiit 1^ iiiilca (mill the ]>re:)vnt town, 
a [tagixla I'tivering >iii alle)^-<l reliqiie of 
(lautanui (a iiiri'e iif Ihe lowiT jaw, nr 
<m in<lumti..n of l)u- tlmul). the iiame 
iif whidi iKi)(i><l>i, tiiki'ii frill II the 
•h'neriptiim lit ri-liiiiie, i.i Au-kiiail-dau, 
and lit this Akyib wii- iinilwhlv n 
.iirrHiitJoii. The pre.ieiK town and 
.aiitonnietit ocoiipy dry hind of very 
rei-i-iit foniiatioii, iind the hiKli ground 
on whivh the uit,''>iia *tnit<U tiiiwt have 
MtiKxl oil the Hhon- at no ilistuiit ilate, 
HH apiwars from the lindin); of a Knuill 
iinihor there alH.iil 1H35. The village 
ailjoining the ]>ap>dH tniisl then haw 
stood at the inoiith of the Anikail R., 
whi.h wa.f nimh freinient*-"! by the 
, Portugiiesi- and the Chiltjt({iing |KO[jle. 


ill the 16th and 17th centuries, and Laurence to the maine, we had Moeeding 

thus probably became kno^-n to them e^J ^^r,^L^^^ *"** Albooowt."- 

by a name taken from the Pagoda.— ^''*^» *° ^^- "' ^^• 

(From a note by Sir Arthur Phayre.) .,15^ -"^e met Ukewise with "hoaljof 

lOol Teninlp writes— "The onlv deri- AlbicOPM (so caUd from a piece of white 

L1.01. lempie ^ntes— ine only aen- ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^iart) and wHh 

vation which strikes me as plausible, is multitudes of Bonettoea, which are naiMd 

from the Agyattaw Phaya, near which, from their Goodness and Excellenoe fcr 

on the island of Sittw^, a Cantonment eating ; so that sometimes for more than 

was formed after the first Burmese war, Jwentv Days the whole Ship's ^OoiMany 

on the abandonment of Mrohaung or ^^J^^^ ^"^ ^^ *^^''' ^' -^^' 

Arakan town in 1826, on account of J. 1760.'-"The Albaoore i- another fteh 

sickness among the troops stationed ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ame kind as the Bonito . . 

there. The word Agyattaw is spelt from 60 to 90 pounds weight and upwaitL 

Akhyap-taw, whence probably the The name of this fish too is taken from the 

modem name/^ Portuguese, importing its white odoor.'* 

[1826.— "It (the despatch) at len^h — <^«w^ »• 5. 

arrived this day (3rd Dec. 1826), having at t» Am«/\a« m- 

taken two months in all to reach us, of ALBATBOSS, S. rhe great aea- 

which forty-five days were nyent in the bird (Dtomedea extdan^, L.), from the 

route from Akyab in Aracan.' —Craw/urd, Port, alcatraz, to which the forms used 

^«i, 289.] ^ Hawkins and Dampier, and by 

A v A ««▼ A ivvi T> A m-r mi^ • Flacourt (according to Marcel Devic) 

ALA-BLAZE PAN, s This name ^^^j approach. [AlcatroB Mn this 

IS given m the Boml>ay Presidency to sense altered to aZfe-, albe-, cJbatrm 

a tmned-copper stew-i)an, having a (perhaps with etymological reference 

cover, and stanles for straps, which is t^att^^^^ " white,'Uhellbatro88 being 

ciirried on the march by European ^Yixte ^j^j^^ ^.^^ ^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

soldiers, for the purpose of cooking ^^.D, s.v.] The Port, word pro- 

111 and eatinc out of. Out on picmcs j „^^^ ,^ pelican.' A reference 

a larger kind is frecjuently used, and ^ [^^^ j^^ter word in our Gloaaiy 

kept contmuallv going, as a kind of ^i, ^^^oy.^ another curious misapplica- 

imi-au-feu. [It has been suggested that ^j^^ d^,^^. ^^^ ^YibX alea^ in 

the word maybe a corr. of some French p^^t. means Hhe bucket of a PeraiMi 

or Port term- Ft. braisery Port 6ra2- wheel,' ♦ representing the Ar. oZ-toftU, 

etro, ^a fire-pan, braza, ^lot coals. ] ^^^i^j, is again fron? Kddc. He suj.. 

A-^-ws A ^^«««« * t J /. .1 poses that the pelican may have cot 

ALBACOBE, s. A kind of rather [hiTname in tlie same way that it 

Lirge sea-fish, of the Tunny genus ^ ^n^^ j^ ordinary Ar. saiJta, *a 

(Thynnus aWacora, Lowe, jHirhaps the water-carrier.' It has been iiinted 

«ime as Thynnus macropterus. Day) ; ^^^ , jy^ Murray, that the hleaina 

from the Port. aWacor or albecora ^f ^^:;^^ ^^ ^^^ earlier voyagers, e.^., 

The quotations from O^^ngton and ^j ^^^^ ^^ i^ ^^^ the DilmedM. 

Grose below refer it to albo, but the y^^^ ^^le Man-of-War (or Frigate) Biid 

word 18, from Its form, almost certainly (^pregatiis aquilus), Hawkms, at p. 

Arabic, though Dozy sjiys he has not 197 ^^ ^^e work quoted, describes, with- 

f()und the word in this sense in Arabic ^^^ naming, a bird which is evidenUy 

dictionarie.s which are x-ery defective ^.^e modem albatross. In the quoto- 

m the names of fishes (p. 61) The ^^^^ f^om Mocquet again, aicairw is 

word albacora 111 Sp. is applied to a applied to some smaller sea-bird. The 

large early kind of he, from Ar o/- ^g^ge from Shelvocke is that which 

[Hlkur, *i>rai;cox (Doz>0, Heb. bikknra, J^j^ted to Coleridge "The Ancient 

m Miuih vii. 1. — See Cobarrumas^ s. v. j^^ingr " 

Albacora. [The A^AM>. derives it from -,^. ',,-« q*u t\^ i^ 1 1 

. I 1 I *■* 1 1. -r J 1564. — "The 8th December we ankered 

Ar. al-buh-, *a voung camel, a heifer, by a smalllsland called Alcatn«a, wber«n 

whence Port. bacorOy *a young pig.' at our ffoing a shoare, we found nothing bat 

Also see Gray s note on Pyrara, 1. 9.] sea-birds, as we call them Ganeta, but by 

1579.-' rhcse (flving finh) have two ene- the Portugals caUed Al^taran^ who for 

mies, the one in the i^ea, the other in the aire. ^^^ ^^^^ ^7? ^}^ T'^ '^^^ **** ~** 

In the Hca the fish which is called Albocore, name- —Hawkins (Hak. Soc.), 15. 

lis big as a salmon." — iMter froni Goay by T, ^ ., ,, . . ^, ^ _, 

.K(«Sm, in UM. a. 683. ,„; t^cZ^X^^'^^^'^Sr^':^ 

159*2. — "In our passage over from S. pots of the aoria or Persian wheel 




ISfift.— **Tlfte <iolphlni and bonitoes are 
Kioadaa. and the aloUnroes the 
hawtea. and the flrinff fishes the same." 

\€0i. — ** The other foale called Alcfttrani 
^ m kiad c# Hawke that liueth by fishing, 
f «« vheii the Bnoitoa or Dolphines doe chaae 
th» fiyia^ fti^ Tnder the water .... this 
Alntnai Ajeth after them like a Hawke 
after a fvtnd^r-Daris (Uak. Soc.), 158. 

c I^Q^IO.— " Aleatns M>nt petis oiseaux 
oDuar estoumeaax.** — Moapirt^ Vay- 

ICn— "We met with thoee feathered 

Har^^cafvff* i4 the C^pe .... AlbetrOMM 

. . thej haue ^reat Badie<s yet not pro- 

^«lk«At« u> their WingSf which mete out 

t»iar th«r ieti^h/'— /"ryo-, 12. 

I4Bi>. - "They have seveml other Signs, 
vbcrek} to kxM'W when they are near it, 
f t)7 the Sea Fowl they meet at Sea, 
^ftaalij the kXpitTttmrn, a rery large 
^«f viBfred Bird, —hampitr, i. r>31. 

\7i^.- " We had not had the idght of one 
t^ *i 4L5 kind, <ince we were oume South- 
"•uri -4 the Streiirhts uf L^ Mair^ nor one 
•la-ivd, *xre|< a diflooasoUte black Alhi- 
INM. eh-.' aociiicDpanied as for several days, 
h<««tDC aU^it o^ a» if be had lost himself, 
til* B^t<^ (mv *ecnnd Captain) ohserring, 
- t* / hi.* melaTM-holy fitn, that this bird 
**» Lma\% h<-»verin^r near u.*, imagin'd from 
hii ?• ."jr. that It miffht be some ill omen. 
. But \mt xhiki .i.« it would, he after jiome 
attrcQpt*. at length shot the 
Tjct doubting (|«erhaps) that we 
•a-a'i lu»t- A fAJr wind after it. . . ." — 

irv* • . . . A vajst variety of i4ea-fowl, 
•tuijrr wbuh the m««rt remarkable are 
!A«r }''mryt**s thev are in size and sha}>e 
-i< » iT"*"*. but lOi^tead uf wings thev have 
«t»rr -?|»» like tin* .... their bilU are 
i»m i» ;ke !b<"<r • f an AlhitTOM, and thev 
<->? «_vi wxlk in an erect {Mwture. From 
*i» *i.| their white bellieo. Sir John Sar- 
tewv^A Ka/. vbimitically likened them to 
^::ti* i::^nrn *tandincr up in white apn»ns." 
-!**•# r.yojT*. Snh cd. (17MK p. &. 

!rS4 "An aJbatrOM, a sea-fowl, was 
^-^t f! th* <Af<* t.f (^lod Hope, which 
•■•**-•>-: 174 Iwi from wing to wing." — 

(! '^'.^.h did i-riMi an AJhatHMt ; 

Tis* r.vj^ the f<ig it came ; 
i» i t bad l*tm a Christian *>ul 

^* nailed It in (AkI'i* name." 

TKf A ncirnt Marinrr. 

• :*4\ ~ 

^Hstttat pL'ur •'amuser, los hommes 
rmsitnx tUt» albalnw, vasteit oiseaux des 

^ •samnt, inddeots oom|jagnons de 
U qanr« giMnaot ear lee goofTres amers." 

hmnitiair^^ L'Albatrot. 

ALCATIF, 8. This word for *a 
carpet' was much used in India in 
the 16th centur}', and is treated by 
some travellers as an Indian word. 
It is not however of Indian origin, 
but is an Arabic word (katify * a carpet 
with long pile') introduced into Pot- 
tugal through the Moors. 

c. 1540. — * 'There came aboard of Antonio 
de Faria more than 60 baUiSj and balloons, 
and jnanehuaa (q. q. v.) with awnings and 
flags of silk, and rich wXcmXMmm."— Pinto, 
ch. Ixviii. (orig.). 

1560. — "The whole tent was cut in a 
variety of arabesques, inlaid with coloured 
silk, and was carpeted with rich alcatifu." 

— TVarriro, I tin., c. xvii. 

1578. — "The windows of the streets by 
which the Viceroy passes shall be hung with 
carpets (alcatifadas), and the doors deco- 
rated with branches, and the whole adorned 
as richly aspossible." — Archiv. Port, OrieiU., 
fascic. li. 225. 

[1598.— "Great store of rich Tapestrie, 
which are called alcatiffu." — Linsehoten, 
Hak. Soc. i. 47.] 

1608-10.— "Quand elles vont k MSaUae on 
les porte en palan(]uin . . . . le dedans est 
d'vn grand tapis de Perse, qu'ils appellent 
AlcaUf . . . .—Pyrard, ii. 62 ; [Hak. Soc. 
ii. 102J. 

1648. — ". . . . many silk stuffs, such as 
satin, contenijs (Cnttanee) attelap (road 
atte/ojf), alegie .... omiis [H. orXiiJ, 'A 
woman's sheet '] of gold and silk for women's 
wear, gold alacatijYen . . . ." — Van 
TwUt, 50. 

1726. — "They know nought of chairs or 
tables. The small folks eat on a mat, and 
the rich on an Alcatief, or carpet, sitting 
with their feet under them, like our Tailors. * 

— Valentijn, v. Chororn, 55. 

ALGOBANAS, s. What word does 
Herbert aim at in the following ? [The 
Stanf. Diet, recards this as quite dis- 
tinct from Alcoran^ the Koran, or 
sacred l)ook of Mohammedans (for 
which see N.E.D. s.v.), and suggests 
Al-qorufiy *the bonis,' or al-qirdn, *the 

1665. — "Some (mosques) have their 
Alcorana't high, slender, round steeples 
or towers, most of which are terrasaed near 
the top, like the Standard in Cheapside, but 
twice the height."— i/<T6CT^ Travels, 3rd 
ed. 164. 

ALCOVE, s. This English word 
comes to us through the Sj>an. alcova 
and Fr. alcove (old Fr. aucube\ from 
Ar. al-tubbdh, applied first to a kind 
of tent (so in Iiei>r. Numbers xxv. 8) 
and then to a vaulted building or 
recess. An edifice of Saracenic con- 

ALDEA. \i 

struction at Palermo is still known 
as La Cuba; and another, a domed 
tomb, aa La GttboUt. Whatever be the 
true formation of the last word, it 
seems to have given iia, through the 
Italian, Cupola. [Not so in N.KD.] 

1733.— "Cabb^ commonly used for the 
vaulted tomb of maroJ-Au^' [AiUntUit.']— 
S/laa't TravtU, 6d. 1767, p. 40. 

ALDEA, s. A village ; also a villa. 
Fort, from the Ar. al-daia, 'a farm or 
villa.' Blut«au eiplains it as ' Povogio 
menor que lucar.' I^ne gives among 
other (uid vaned meanings of the Ar. 
word : 'An estate consisting of land or 
of land and a house, .... land yield- 
ing a revenue.' The word forma part 
of the name of many towns and villages 
in Spain and Portugal. 

1547.— "ThB GoTomor (of Bafaam) Dom 
Jodo de Castro, has piea and ei'es man; 
aldsaa aad other gmnU of land to Portu- 
guene who served and were wounded at the 
fortren of Dio, and to atben of long nervice. 
. . . "—SimSo Botdho, Uarlas 3. 

IsUnd, are pleasant Aldeaa, or villages and 
bamletd that . . . rtwann with people," — 
Valr«tiju, T. iMaJabar), 11. 

1(53.— "Lea prineipalefi de ees (jn'on ap- 
pello AldiM (tenue que les PortiiealH ont 
DiiH en usage dans I'lndo) autour de Pod- 
dich^ri et danH sa dependence sont . . ."— 
iJ-AHvillr. Kclmrdnirni/ns. 122. 

1780.- "The C.wst Wtwecn those i- filled 
with Aldees, or vilhigcs nf the Indiiina."- 
jMi^n, y. llirrt^nry, 5th otL, 110. 



[1S15.— "ThelndgeotUiBAl 
a invite me."— ^ir T. Jter, Smbofjf, Hak. 
toe. i. 72.] 

[1616.— "That the goods of the &«luh 
nay be freel; landed after dispatch in the 
Unttdiga."— /Wa-, LfUfra, iv. 79.] 

ALOUADA, n.p. The name of a 
reef near the entrance to the Bassein 
iiranch of the Irawadi R., on which a 
jplendid lighthouse was erected bv 
3apt. Alex. Fraser (now Lieut. -General 
Fraser, C.B.) of the Engineers, in 1861- 
J5. See some remarks and quotations 
under KEOKAIS. 

AXJOFAS, B. Port, 'seed-pearl.' 

□ohamivias says it is from At. al- 
iaiihar, 'jewel.' 

1782.-"I1 vnaussiuiieli 
Hidfrables. toflcti ijito Navn 
<|Ui aiiiartiunnent am Prii 
."iiimitnil, I'oifagr, i. 37. 

ot Port. 

ALEFFEE:, n.p. On the coast of 
Travaiiicire ; iiro]n'rly Aiappuli. [Mai. 
aUtpp\i2}ia, 'the broad river' — (Mad. 
Aifm. Man. Glotf. s.v.)]. 

[ALTANDICA, s. A riuiloin-hotisf 
and resort for fon-ign merchants in an 
orii-ntal jKirt. Tlie word I'ouien through 
tile Port, alfniidega, Sjmn. /iinrfnjo, Itil, 
fondaco, ¥t. fondeqiif ttr fondique,irtm\ 
Ar. al-fundnk, ' tin' inn,' and this from 
(Jk. viuiiottlov or TrarSaxt'mr, 'a pilgrim'^ 

(o. 1(110.— "The conveyance of them thono 
lo the albncUgne." — PyraTd drila Vail' 
Hak. Sac. i. 361.} 

1404.— "And trom tiiese baiars (a/«aaniui 
isaae certain gates into certain Rtreeta, irhera 
they sell many things, such as cluthi o( iiilk 
ind cotton, and irufa/a, and la/ilaiuu, and 
iilk, and pearl [idxofax)."-Clamjii, j luii. 
Icomp. JtfnrtAam, 81). 

1508.— "The aljofu- and pearls that (yuur 
Majesty) orders me to send you I caani« 
have as they have them in Ceylon and in 
Caille, which nre the sources of them: 1 
would buy tbem with roy blood, and »ith 
my money, which I have only from yoor 
giving. The Sinahaffs [tinaba/nt), porc^ala 
vases ( a-ret/Zaiuu). and wares <it that aurt 
are further off . If for my sins 1 atay here 
longer I will endoavoar to get everything. 
The slave girls that you order me to aend 

fou must be taken from priioa,* for the 
oathen women of thin country are black, 
and are miatresaas to everybody by the time 
they are ten yearn old."— Z-Hn-o/'A* Vietrof 
It. FmnciiieoiCAlau^daiotlu Siag, in Corm, 
i. 908-9. 

[1605.-" As it (the idol) was loo deformed, 
tho^ made hands for it ot the small pearis 
which we call 'pearls by the ounce.'"— 
TavrraiT, cd. Bair. ii. 228.] 

A T.T. ATT ATI An , n.p. 'Hiis name, 
which was givmi in the time of Akhar 
to the "td Hindu Priiyfig or Priig 
(PBAAO) has Wen aiibjected U> a \-ariety 
of (Mirrupt pronunciations, both Euro- 
pean and native. Iliahdbdz is a> not 
unecinimon native form, converted 
> /sti 


milling: : 

■a xilk .Lith .j y»nl 

..f «a 

n niiiiiiii): in iii<- li-u^-ti ciiiiit 

/iirf«../'.m»/f* l-uimb //.inW- 
»). [I'latt» ill hi^ IliTid. Di.t. 
,W(Jl... •■akin.inf .Inil. wi.vrn..t 
lA t)■^-.l'l »• 'L- I- |>n^'iit lilt' 

t.t. I- rvMi-mlv H^ . 

All tSI-m. m Silk Fabrift, Wt) 
f Ihr ilrrivaliiiii fp<m A<eh<i ot 
k ui4 «v- it wa» |>ri>l«><lv inlro- 

\t% Xhr jfiyitkanrl ha.-* hislori'-iil 
i;i'.ii- with Agro, whrn- alirtn- in 

tt'.P. It U iiiiiniiftu-Iinwl. "This 
'liffer- from the J)oripa in hiiviii){ 
-4Anti«l tetluiv, H-hcrva^ the 
I L> dcncmllv fliiii-'V. Th>- 
■» M* firtirrally rv<l, or hli 

■bite M.ripu'.'' In > 

of the 

■ DIIC »«>. Ill l"illir i>l IMC 

m DiArii^tA of ihi^ Paiijah variuUH 
€l itacy (wtum goodii are 

Alimlifc and in im n rule nuLnufactured in 
thuir iJwn hoiuws, fmm 'i to 'JO throada of 
oilk Ining let in with tb« cc>ttuD ; the silk ns 
w«ll MA the tiitlon in liroiwht from Pcnhuirur 
nnd »iiun at bonni."~Sl-Xair'> Reinrrt o~ 

ALLIOATOB, s. Thi- is the usual 
Anglo- Indian term f<ir lln' great lacer- 
tiiii' aiiLiihiliia uf ihe riveni. It wa.s 
I a|i]>ari'nU)' in origin a comiption, im- 
' |i<irt<nl fnuii S. AniiTica, of tlie Spxniali 
'[ iiT til Uniaiit) (from L«l. litcrrla), 'a 
I li»inl.' Thf "Smiiniarviittlie WwiUni 
j Imlie.*" hy Pieln* Martin; d'An(;hpria, 
aH givun ill llaiiiu-iii), recounting the 
; liiHl viiya^ of Culuniliiia, Huyit that, in a 
I certain river, "tliey mnietiniea en- 
I counterwi thone iriKiKlilea which they 
ji'all Id(Mti; thtiv! make away when 
they si'e thi' Christian!*, and in making 
I away thi-y U-avv Ifhinil th«iii an odour 
i murv fragrant tliau niuitk." (Bam. iii. 




f. 17 v.). Oviedo, on auother page of 
the same volume, calls them ** liagarti 
o dragoni " (f. 62). 

Bluteau gives "Lagaxto, Grocodilo" 
and adds : '^ In the Oriente Cona uistado 
(Part I. f. 823) you will find a descrip- 
tion of the Crocodile under the name 
of Lagarto" 

One often, in Anglo-Indian conversa- 
tion, used to meet with the endeavour 
to distinguish the two well-known 
species of the Ganges as Crocodile and 
Alligator, but this, like other applica- 
tions of popular and general terms to 
mark scientific distinctions, involves 
fallacy, as in the cases of 'panther, 
leopard,' * camel, dromedarv',' 'attorney, 
solicitor,' and so forth. Tlie two kinds 
of Gangetic crocodile were known to 
Aelian (c. 250 A.D.), who writes : " It 
(the Ganges) breeds two kinds of 
crocodiles ; one of these is not at all 
hurtful, while the other is the most 
voracious and cruel eater of flesh ; and 
these have a homj- prominence on the 
toi> of the nostril. Tliese latter are 
used as ministers of vengeance upon 
eWl-doers ; for those convicted of the 
greatest crimes are cast to them ; and 
they require no executioner." 

1493. — " In a small adjacent LHlnnd . . . 
our men saw an enormous kind of lizard 
(laffarto muy ffixittde)^ which thev said vras 
AS large round as a calf, and with a tail as 
long as a lance .... but bulky as it was, 
it got into the sea, so that they could not 
cateh it." — Letter of Dr. Cfianca, in Select 
Letters of Columbus by Major, Hak. Soc. 
2nd ed., 43. 

1539. — *' All along this River, that was not 
very broad, there were a nunil>or of Lizards 
(lagartos), which might more properly be 
called Serpents .... with ttcnles U]X>n their 

l)ackH, and mouths two foot wide 

there be of them that will sometimes get 
upon an «-1nift.ri^ft .... and overturn it 
with their tails, swallowing up the men 
whole, without dismembering of them." — 
Pinto, in Cogan's tr. 17 {orig. cap. xiv.). 

ir>r)2. — '* .... a<]uatic animals such as 
.... very great lizards (la^^artos), which 
in form and nature are just the crocodiles of 
the Nile." — Barros, I. iii. 8. 

1568. — "In this River wo killed a mon- 
strous LagartO, or Crocodile ... he was 
23 foote by the nile, headed like a hogge. 
.... " — lob Uortop^ in Hakl. iii. 580. 

1579. — " We found here many good 

commodities l>csides ala^urtoes, 

munckeyes, and the like." — />mAv, World 
Kncomjxiss*xl, Hak. S<k'. 112. 

1591. — "In this place I have seen vcrj' 
great water aligartof (which we call in 
English crocodiles), seven yards long." — 

Master Auionie Kniveif in Furehag. !▼. 

1593.— "In this River (of Guayaqnill) and 
all the Rivers of this Coast, are great abiui- 
dance of Alanrtoee .... persons of credit 
have certified to me that as small fishes in 
other Rivers abound in acoales, so the 

Alagartoes in this " — Sir Biehard 

Hawkins, in PiirchaSf iv. 14(X). 

c. 1593.— 

" And in his needy shop a tortoise hang, 
An alligator stuff*d, and other skins 
Of ill-shaped fishes. . ." — 

Romen d' Juliet, v. 1. 

1595. — " Vpon this river there were g^reat 

store of fowle but for lagmxtot it 

exceeded, for there were thou.sands of those 
vgly serpents ; and the people called it for 
the abundance of them, the riuer of Lanr- 
t08 in their language." — Raleigh, Thebia- 
circerie of Ouiana, in Haki, iv. 137. 

1596. — "Once he would needs defend a 
rat to be animal rcUiotude .... becaose 
she eate and gnawd his bookes .... And 
the more to confirme it, becamto everie one 
laught at him .... the next rat he seas'd 
on hoe made an anatomic of, and read a 
lecture of 3 daves long uiion everie ardre 
or musckle, and after hanged her over his 
head in his studio in stead of an apothe- 
carie's crocodile or dride Alligator, "—r. 
Nashe's * Have vnth you, to Saffnm. Waldu* 
Repr. in J. Payne Collier's Mue, Tracts, 
p. 72. 

1610.— "These Blackes . . . told me the 
River was full of Ali^tas, and if I saw anr 
I must fight with him, else he would kiu 
me."— />. MidUton, in Purchas, i. 244. 

1613. — " .... mais avante .... por 
distancia do 2 legoas, esta o fermoso ryo de 
Cassam de la^^arthOB o croc^xlillos. "—©»>- 
dijih^ de Eredia, 10. 

1673.— "The River was full of Aligllon 
or Crocodiles, which lay Itasking in the 8an 
in the Mud on the River's side."- fV^w, 55. 

1727. — "I was cleaning a vessel .... 
and had Stages fitted for my Peonle to 
stand on ... . and we wore ploguea with 
five or six Alleg^tors, which wanted to he 
on tho Stage."— .4. Hamilton, ii. 133. 

" . . . . else that sea-like Stream 

(Whence TraflSc pours her btiunties on 

Dread Alligators would alone possess." 

Oraiiufer, Bk. ii. 

1881.— "The Hooghly alone has never 
been so full of sharks and aUigaion as 
now. We have it on undoubted authority 
that within the past two months over a 
hundred i>eople have fallen victims to these 
hn\tQn.''—PUmeer Mail, July 10th. 

ALLIGATOB-PEAB, s. Thefniit 
of the Launis perseoy Lin., Persra 
gratissinui, Gaertn. The name as here 
given is an extravagant, and that of 
avocato or avogaio a more modentcii 




on of aguacaU or ah%uicail (see 
which spears to have been the 
MJSkt in Central America, still 
ig there. The Quichna name is 
hich is UBed as well as aguacaU 
i de Leon, and also by Joseph 
ita. Grainger {SvLoarcaney Bk. 
\ it "rich tabbaca^ which he 
^the Indian name of the avocato, 
ttvft^oio, or as the English 
Iv call it, alligatar pear. The 
'^ in S. America call it Agwuale^ 
ler that name it is described by 
In French it is called avocat. 
aise which Grainger, as quoted 
"liberally l)estows" on this 
s, if we niight judge from the 
ns ot-casionally met with in 
absurd. With' lilieral pepper 
: there may Ik? a remote sugges- 
f marn>w : but that is all. 
it is hardly a fruit in the 
X senHe. Its common sea name 
dshipman's butter' [or * sub- 
butter *] i:* suggestive of its 
or demerits. 

gh common and naturalised 
K»at the W. Indies and E. 
i tropical S. America, its actual 
country' is unknown. Its 
• lion into the Eastern world 
iparatiTely recent ; not older 
c middle of 18th century. Had 
I worth eating it would have 
img In? fore. 

iO.—** There are other fruit* l)elong- 
iM oountr}', mich a* fragrant pines 
ftfitAtns auiny exeollent gwirtu, 
I. agnaratts. and other fruiu<."— 
AAm. 16. 

-*'Th© PaJta. in a great tree, and 
I fairr leafe. which hath a fruite like 
t |«anv( ; within it hath a great 
nd all the resit xn m>ft meate, so aM 
*T are full rii«e, they are, a« it were, 
ftbrl hare a aelioate ta^tc." — Jittfph 
tti, ZV>. 


igmMtuX n-* Itr-ut i* Vrntis Friend 
h IndifM r<'M«M CVjikiueMt doth ex- 

iTract lieaf the Agnacata bearx : 
•rnit in fa«hi<m of an Egg appoam, 
tnch a white and «pemiy Juice it 
rprcMtnU moist Ufe':* first Prin- 

CmcUy, Of Planus, v. 

— "Tbi« Ttk^rftg^ i^ an exceeding 
t liiaad, abuanding in all manner 
a. wmdtk aa FiiM-apploft .... Albs- 
pMffv, MammM. *—Capi. Sharpe^ in 
r, i». 

1685.— ''The ATOgato Pear-tree is as big 
as most Pear-trees . . . and the Fruit as 
big as a large Lemon. . . . The Substance 
in the inside is green, or a little yellowish, 
and soft as Butter. . . "—Dampier, i. 203. 

1736.— "ATOgato, ^tm. . . . This fruit 
itself has no taste, but when mixt with 
sugar and lemon juice gives a wholesome 
and tasty flavour." — Zeidler'a Lexicon^ s.v. 


" And thou green aYOCato, charm of sense, 
Thy ripen 'd marrow liberally bestows't." 

Orainger^ Bk. I. 

1830.— "The ayocada, with its Brob- 
dignag pear, as Urge as a purser's lantern." 
—Tom Ci-ingle, ed. 1863, 40. 

[1861.— "There is a well-known West 
Indian fruit which wo call an aTOCado or 
alligator pear.**— TVtor, Anahuac, 227.] 

1870. — "The aguacate or Alligator 
pear." — Squier^ Honduras^ 142. 

1873.— "Thus the fruit of the PersM 
gratissima was called Ahucatl* by the 
ancient Mexicans ; the Spaniards corrupted 
it to ayocado, and our sailors still further to 
' Alligator pears.* "—BtlVs Nicaragua, 107. 


* aligol, from 'tf /i * lofty, excellent,' Skt. 
goloy a troop ; a nondescript word used 
for "irregular foot in the Maratha 
service, without discipline or regular 
amis. According to some they are so 
named from charing in a dense mass 
and invoking 'Ah, the son-in-law of 
Mohammed, being chiefly Moham- 
medans." — ( Wilson.) 

1796.— "The Nezibs (Mnjeeb) are mat<:h- 
lockmon, and according to their different 
casts are called Allegoles or Kohillas ; they 
are indifferently formed of Hindoos 
and Musselraans, armed with the country 
Bandf>ok (btindook), to which the ingenuity 
of De Boigne hiid added a Bayonet." — 
ir. //. Tonr, A letter on the Maratta People, 
I». fiO. 

1804.— " Alleeffole, A sort of cha>*en light 
infantry of the Kohilla PatanM : sometimes 
the term am)earM to be applied to troops 
Nupposed to t>e used generally for desperate 
service." — Fraser, Military Memoira of 
Ski nit rr^ ii. 71 note, 75, 76. 

1817.— "The Allygoois an.swer nearly 
the same description. ' — Blacker, Mem, of 
Ojperatiims in Inditt, p. 22.] 

AIiMADTA, s. This is a word 
' introduced into Portuguese from 
Moorish Ar. al-ma^dlya. Properly it 
meaiLS * a raft ' (s**e Dozy, s.v.). But it 
is generally used by the writers on 
India for a canoe, or the like small 
native boat. 







PlantAtiifu the gulden and the green, 
MaUya's nectar'd mangosteen ; 
PnoMS of Bokhmra, and sweet nuU 
FfTPiD the far grvTea of Samarkand." 

Moore f Lalla Hookh, 

r, H. H. a/pfn, used in 
Bonil'av. A common pin, from Port. 
aijin€u''{Panjah X. d' Q,, ii. 117). 

.4. A wet nurse ; used in 
MAilnis Bouilmy, China and Ja|>an. 
It ijii l^trt. ama (comp. German and 
Swc^ii^ amme). 

l!?39. — '*. ... A nort of good-natured 
h<i<iMkee{*er-h'lce bodies, who talk only of 
ajahn aod **"***■ and bad nightu, and 
faflihieii, and the advantages of Hodgson's 
aJe while they are nurnng : seeming in short 
dm tied t4> ' suckling f(x>ls and chronicling 
•4Ball be«r.'" — /setters from Mad rag ^ 294. 
al** p. 106. 


.s. This is a P. word 
{'mntfri) for a Howdah, and the word 
'•tur* in Colt*hrr>oke's letters, Imt is 
«j'.iit«' tinu^ual n<»w. Gladwin defines 
Anuxrf^ jk» **an umhrella over the 
H"wdrb'' {lud^x to Ayetn, i.). The 
(rit|»-r application i.s t^) a canopied 
«m«iAh, Mich as is still itsed hy native 

[c. I'VJl. — •' Aurcngzelie felt that he might 
wctcrr t<» ^hiit his brother up in a covered 
jk kind of clo!«ed titter in which 
ti xrv carrie«l on elephant*." — Bemier 
.«id. f ' mjLfaU^K tK».) 

I. 1«*K;. -Mhi the day that the King 
•«.: ip the Mountain of Pire-ptmjaU . . . 
Wtnc ft'llifwed by a lf>ng row of elephantii, 
«!■« •hi«*h «al the Women in Mikdembfrs 
a»i EmbftrjB . . . ."-BcmUr, E.T. 130 
[•d. *' *^.i/./'. 1071- 

ir>».- "The Kiij.ih'i* Smtanff was very 
fr%x*i *a«l •rif^rb. He hail twenty elo- 
{^AAf*. »:th n' hi y cmbniidcnxl ambaXTehl, 
t^ «L> ^ ''f tb«rm moiintcsl by his sirdars, 
— ^«elf ndlr^; uijon the laryrest, put in 
tks c«r*trr. -.'^ktmmrr. Mn». i. lf»7. 

irw» "Many ^.f the lar^eMt Ceylon and 
cthrr Iiv^TTfuiy Klef^nts bore ambdrii 
GK wLirh a I the chiefs and nobles rode, 
gwj ^w d with matrniticencc, and adomed 
wrtft the n'h«*t jewcb*." -/.i/r o/ Coffbrooke, 

'.«^ AmMMTJ. a cano|He<l ^eat for an 

»«^tiA£i!. An i>|it.'n one i« called Houui or 
limmdn. - ina. '•/ iyurtU ujtcd la K JhHUm^ 
Sui, «d. 1\. 

KC. - " .% rt/yaJ tiger which was started 
a baauaif a Lar^e ci/ver for game, spn&ng 
iy» «b far iati> the omlMUTy or state howdiih, i 
a vttek :$ajab I>owlah was seated, &.« Ui 
dnubt of a fatal issue." — 
riffcMiii Uriemi. FUid SporU, 15. 

AMBABBEH, s. Dekh. Hind, and 
Mahr. ambdrdy ambdri [Skt. amla-vdt- 
ikd]y the plant Hibiscus cannabinuSy 
affording a useful fibre. 

AMBOYNA, n.p. A famous island 
in the Molucca Sea, belonging to the 
Dutch. The native form of the name 
is Ambon [which according to Marsden 
means * dew ']. 

[1605. — "He hath sent hither his forces 
which hath expelled all the Portingalls out 
of the fforts they here hould att Ambweno 
and Tj'dore." — Birdwoody First Letter Booky 

AMEEN, s. The word is Ar. amin, 
meaning *a trustworthy person,' and 
then an in8i)ector, intendant, &c. In 
India it lias several uses as applied to 
native officials employed under the 
Civil Courts, but nearly all reducible 
to the definition of fide-commissarius. 
Thus an ameen may be employed by 
a Court to investigate accounts con- 
nected with a suit, to prosecute local 
encjuiries of any kind bearing on a 
suit, to sell or to deliver over posses- 
sion of immovable property, to carry 
out legal process as a bailiff, &c. The 
name is also applied to native assis- 
tants in the duties of land -survey. 
But Si'e Sudder Ameen (SUDDEB). 

[1616.— *' He declared his office of Amin 
ro(|uired him to hear and determine differ- 
ences."— iPcw^^r, Letters y iv. 351.] 

1817.— *' Native officers called aumeens 
were sent to collect accounts, and to obtain 
information in the districta. The first 
incidents that occurred were complaints 
against these aumeenB for injurious treat- 
ment of the inhabitants. . . ." — Mill. HisLy 
ed. 1840, iv. 12. 

1861.— "Ben^allee dewans, once pure, 
are converted mto demons ; Ameens, once 
harmless, become tigers ; magistrates, sup- 
jMised to l>e just, are converted into op- 
presisop*. "— Peterson, Speech for Prosecution 
in yU hurfHtn ca^e. 

1878. -"The Ameen employed in making 
the partition of an csUite.' —/-.»/« in the 
Mo/uMily i. 206. 

188*2. — "A missionarj- .... might, on the 
other hand, 1h) bn)ught to a .ntandstill when 
asked to explain all the tenn?* used by an 
amin ttr valuator who had been sent to fix 
the judiciiil rents."- Nn^y. Hev., Dec. 80, 
p. 866. 

AMEER, s. Ar. Amir (root amr^ 
*comman<linff,' and so) *a commander, 
chief, or lonl,' and, in Ar. application, 
any kind t)f chief from the Amiru* l- 
miminhXy *the Amir of the Faithful* 

- ]T. 

■1 lll'lbll 

I hi-^torv 
Mi.\.' in 

n-j- T-.i 
<-:»7 ill Ihr ]ii:4<<rv <>f 
::; -1.- .4 Ih.^ (ltt.14>lli 
!':}.- Rkj4 of Hurnur ntii amiirk nl 
■ .' '-■•'in of Sbuh Jiihiiii, fiiiliiiB in 
-..- n>.« at Ih- Ktn|--r>ir, liiit killing 

■'1! him»lf. Xipiiii, ill iW 18th mi- 
'-■n. Kyu Sinttti. «!"» uf Murwur, Ihitv 
■>p«)t nMnttmrnl acnirutl thf Tiil|iuni 
[flar of Hyd«i»l»i, Bijnr Kliiiii, who 
tM ant ki ilenund from the lUjput 
inbuc iwl a tiridr. A Bhalti una a 

1KHI1 iiHiiii' HiHi jiiaciu:!' ungiimuii 

ill C'liiititii-iitrtl hidui. ThiTc in iiiiitrHl 
n ()iltic:iiltv as tu ihi- (Itrivutirm here 
indioati-il,' ill tW fiut thiit lh<^ amueo 
iir nmoHfhi uf EumtMiin wTiti'rn on 
Mnlalmr sm-tiih by no iiii'.dlh crluw 
enough |o amiirJckail, whilst ll ih »■> 
rlrMc to t)i>' Malay ilmuk; and oil 
this fiirtlitT tight inay \f h<i)>e<l for. 

of MHUIxir 'iiinl thi- amnck ninniTii 
of the Miiliiy (H-niiuiihi is ilearly 
!-)iown 1>v (111- luuwiigp frum Corrra 
given UI..W. (Mr \VTiit,wav adda- 
"Goiiv™ (1606) in his loniada (ch. 9, 
Bk. ii.) iii>|ilii-!j till' word I 

t.> lertain Hindus whom lie saw in | 1539.-" ... The Tywnt (o «ejr ^e**i 

S. Mshtar ne.r Qnilon, wh™. dnty i^-ileSt >« ■"7»«. ■J°?J™^ 

it .« » defend the Syrian S^'S'S! SJ.''"/JS^',^ 

until their lives. Then! lire reasons {mig. cap. xyii.) ia Coga^. p. W. 

fur thinking tbat tlie worthy iiriest j 

got hold of the stury i)E a cock and | , 

a bull ; lint in any ul-u; the Hindus 

referred to were really Jiiiigadas."] 1531, saya: ' 

* Vm^™^!; h«, indeed ...jgeeted E'Ci^TilSrJ'l'Ziri;'',^, 

that the word antoucAi was derived ,agi,{ they abavoil their h«ds (thii ii ■ 

from tlie Skt. anwkahga, ' thut canuut guperatitiumi nmctico of thoss vho despiw 

Im Uiosed ' ; and this n-onld K- vurv life, |ie..iilo whom they call in Inilia AmM- 

tonsisteilt with several of the luiasages «») »"'' betook therojwlves to thair mojque 

*er, », ,h.ll ,,n,«, i„ wliielTlte ■"■, '>-ZtfJZ, UTh" .'S.'-'S 

idea of Wing 'liuiiiid liy a vow »„ exaroplo of this resolution, the 0»ptiiiu 

underlies ilia cUuduL't of the perHOns ordered a. grunt tiro to he nude, and cut 

to whom the term was aii]>liciililo l>otli into it his wifo, unA a little son th*t he had, 

in Malalar and in tlie AreIiii>elago. *""! »" hi» household and his goods, in f«r 

But amJuhya is n. ivord Hnkiio^-iTto ^^l^^'^^'^n^L^^iH^h^ likl ll.AtZ. 

,,,_.•'. , . 1 . P0iue9n<m. OthorH did the like, and tjien 

Mftlayalani, in anch a Bense at least. {w fell a|«n the ?ortiigue«.-Dec. IV. 

We liave Seen a-muck derived tnmi iv. 13. 
the At. a^mai, 'fatuous' [(e.g. Ball, c. l.Wl.— In war liotween the Kings of 

Jungle Life, 358).] But this is etv- lidieut and tVwhin (1503) two princes of 

luolom- of the kind which scorns Cochin wore killed. A number ot thcM 

liiirf.,™ deJiperodoea who have lioen iipoken lA id 

™ '" 1 L 1 .1 II the nuotatiouH wore kille.!. . . , "Butwnw 

Tlu- pl.ra.'.j has )M*n thormiglily ^J;,,^ „ho were >iot killed, and the. 

nntnrallsea in Kngland sinit: the <laya .ont in shame, not to have died BTeivii« 

of Drj-den and Pinie. [The eArliest their lords .... tlmte were mura Oui 

iiHotati(mfor"ruuiiingnmHnt" in the «», who all, aaurdinit to their cuitom, 

S.E.D. is from Mimeff (1672).! fhi.vcd off all their hnir, even to *he VT 

, . . ^ 'J , brows, and eniliroced eui.-h other and their 

c. 1430.— NkmIo Coiiti, si«nking ot the friends utid relatione, a-n men about to 

greater iKlandsof the Archi|vlnguundertho „u|r„ rtoath. In this caw they are m 

name <.t the Tw.. Juvaw, doen n.rt u«j the nuuJmen— known as MDOnoos— and count 

word, bnt descriliBHafonnof theiimclico; — themselves as alruady anmne Lhe dwd. 

■• Hoiniride if hero a jest, and g™» with- Those mon disi^rsed, sookiog whererer they 

ont punishment. I>el>ti>rH ore made over to nii„ht fln.i ,ncn of Calicut, and am»mr the« 

their creHitors m slnrc* ; and soiue of these, t^oy nishod tearless, killing and slaying till 

Iirufcmiu; death t" sUveri-, will with Ani«a thov were slain. And somo of them, aboul 

swiHil^ nu-h ™, stabbniK all whom they fnll twenty, rwikonSng more highly of their 

in with irf luM strength than themselves, honour, donired to turn their death to better 
until thuy meet duiith at the hands ut h ~~ 

iinu iiiriru than n matvli for ttiem. ' ^^^ 

null), thoen-dibini then HUe in Onirt for thu rf„ the k-..^ „-. .» .. .,^~.^-. ~^— 

■lesil man's dolit."— In /lufui i"« Che XVlK yu,( thoy were amOuCM, the city gai-e tlw 

<•'- ■'"■ alarm, aud the King sent his servants to 

l;"im.-"Therc are mio-.c •>! them (.la- slay them a* they slew others. But thet 

viinesu) who it they fall ill "f any severe like dcsiionito men playvil the devil (/on*) 

illness vow to CkI thai if they remain in ifuiftrums) lieforv they were slain, and kilkd 

hu:ilth lliey will oT their own 'aceonl seek many |i«<i|ile, with women and childmi. 

another more hommrulile ilcnth forhUscr- AihI Ave of tbcin got together to a wood 

vice, Bn<l as soon as they get well thoy take near the oily, which thoy haunl«t for ■ 

a datrger in their hands, and gu out into good while after, makiii); robberies and 

the streetx anil kill aji many |>enions IIS they doing much mischief, until the whole if 

meet, Isith men, wonten. nml children, in thorn were killed." — Otthi, i. 364-5. 
nK'h wiiH' that they go like nuiil dogs, kill- r,,u! ...■ph.' Kiiu? of CiwkU 

'S^l'^' '"rr ""'"■'■ '"l^.^ZT"' ""b " irrJ^ "-^r ^ gc;:;tmen- which 

Amnco. An I as s-m as thev see them ^ ,, ,^ AmocoU, and some w calM 

Iwgin th» work, they ery .m , -mying Amuco. fy^,,.; . thoseti^rta of men «rt<»m net 

^neo, inonlerthjit ».-ii.le ijuiy fc.k« imre y,^;^ ^^^ anything, «. that it may b. fcr 

of thi^i-i4ves, and they k.l them with the b..r.onr of their King."-Jf. Cliw/W- 

diiggeraiid spear thrusts.' Vt«rto«<, Ilafc rf„-fa, in /'«nJ«*, ii. 1708. [8m ZdfM, 

Sue. lill. This passage suoms to Bhi)W that ,, u„i.i ; f>a t 

thi. woni urn..* niiW have l»cn ci«nmoiilv '*''"'■ ^•''<*". '■ ^^-^ 

used iu .Malay nnnitrieii Ivforo the arrival l.'\S4.— "Their forces (in CochinI ooorf* 

of the Portuguese there, <--. lull. in a kind ot aoldien who«i Vbttf Ml 





, m-h<i arc iimier « >>ilii;.ition t4) dio 
inff'<« |i)ea.''iire. nnd nil wildiers who 
.«« thtrir Kinp ur their ^cncml lie 
il« ftliliiratiiin. And of Kiich the 
iko* II «c in iinrent (".isvs. svndiniij: 
die tiirhtintr." Ix-ttor nf F. StiAselti 
nso' /., <id. 1». nf Tuj^'unv, in J^ 

tiM, \:a. 

I.— "TTn-rt: an' *«nc rtl*> wh«> are 
inoochi .... who Iwinp wearv of 
vl thvm^Avi^* in thi' w;iv witli a 

in thfir h:ind<. which they tiill a 
:•) kill .'i^i ni.iiiv an thvy nivcto with, 
L}*«i\ ki!] thfin : ami this thcv 

the ]'-iK< aniT'T tlifV iMnivivo, as 
t' mvn." - 'i'. JUiif'i in Purchas^ ii. 

IV I «.uti». "TK'akiiiir of the Java- 
'Thiv :ir»' I lnv:iln»ii» njcn. and of 
tm.rfc-ti-.:i f-r ulntovorotrmc'o 

■ i?«-r«-l tlit'Mi thfv make theni-iolvcs 

■ jn '-rdtr t^' ji? "siti-fartit'n ihtTcof. 
'• 1 -]"-ar r lU int.- tin- -toniach of 

- n«- Ki- »>ii!ii -till jirt-*.- f«»rwar<l 
f.-.»r *..'\ hi- u"'t at hi- fin.'." -IffC. 

In 1-i'thi.T |i;i-5-aji- <»'». vii. 11) 

:T' >|t-;tk- iif thf amoucos of 

; •■•! ii- Ik- 1 1. 1 Vallr »lin'«i lK."lt>w. 

\'I. ini. *» ho ih-M-rilii-* hi«w-. 

■ ;»-i*.' --I Tin- Kiiii: of I'inicnta. in 

i.:n tji. l*-.r: ijut.*-t'. " ntrarly 1000 

.!.■:•- tK- iii-<-'vf> amoucot ^^ith the 

r-n.t T '■■•. o>h.k\iii»' their heads nii 

■ Tii -■.»•■ I rinj *'_\ tlieir ]>.i;r<*<l.i ti» 

:.i Kr:»"- iK-.itli. 

K-J- !■• • i LT'-'it-n- <U' niih'i-ia de la 

.. Ki\t- -I h: 1 1.1 1) lii:i» II fiien<>^ 

I Adaccm. ^>-- t>«l<> I - ni)") pan 

nJi-.-r. I." N". It'f/itin, Ids- 


\ . ■ !.• ■ * \- . j :'.t.i «l«- AmOCOB. 
• •T' •:. •:" !• JmPi v« !ijr ;i in'irir 
• V\'. .1. t .1 1 -id'"" 

Viceroy ^^ h it i- tin* im-ai.iMj^ 

, . - -I !•; 17'."»'. 

If . ■•.?. r \ 111'- j« •: 1-1--! •■• i-nlii 
BlOCaS ^-« -''t • '.'I'-i- •■>> -t-i'litiiii n-i 
■ — .♦« "J . • ■ » >- ?r;>.iii? ir. it . TiHii'iiu 

* ir.Vr--:* ;. ./»'i.-ir. Tf'*.^'furu.«. 

T> ■ ._-^ •■* ■ Vi'.j- :i; I". U- ;i» 
•.. •• \ •.»•■• L'r«it 1 1 ii"t t.i kill 

.• f tJ.*- ' I|»**ltt.- f iitl.ifk. Iii.r \rt ti» 

- ~.^r-"* wKi ri ^i-r IT Ti..i\ L*" . . . 
»h • fc.:r»«,'d- 111 i-f tin* -lain *-t 

* •:•.,• "i.:! ■! *•- l"i'iM'l t»i a^'-nire 

* '.Y.^ I -Ti:! Uti- ih'*tnii-ti'«n "f the 
. • .% I. if iiff«lf'i!. t.i {ii-n-h ill the 

T7it- irn«!«"r the kiiur'" diirnit_\ 

•.•■*r |«-i|>ir. the l-iiiffer |<i'ri<Ni l.i-t* 

^l><n t«- ftihiMi* rv^'eiiiTt.- .... thi« 

V BH-th**! <■/ rv\eii(;« i« tvmiu«i 

Amooo. and ho they my that the Axnooo 
of the S'linori liu«tj« one day : the Amoco of 
the kinp of CWhin lasts a life- time ; and «o 
of others."—/'. deU<i VaVe, ii. 745 [Hak. 
S»x:., ii. .'-iSO ^.]. 

]ft48. — "Derribro ce« }iaIii(8adoH n'ostoit 
caoh^ un (XM|iiin do Ilantamois qui ostoit 
revenu de la Mcciiue ot jouoit \ MoqiUl 
. . . . il court jwir les rue« et tue t<.>UH ceux 
• pi'il rencontre. . . . " — Tarernirr, V. drjt 
Ihtht, ///•. iii. ch. '21 [Ya\. Ilaff, ii. 1361 ho<i.]. 

1(>.'»9. — " I saw in this month of Kebruarj' 
at Ritnvia the hreasts torn with rcd-h<it 
toners off a Vilack Indian by the executioner ; 
and after this he was broken on the wheel 
from below u]>wanls. This was liccause 
throug'h the evil habit of eating opium 
(aceonlinp to the frmlless custom of the 
lndian>() he had liecome mad and raised 
the cry of Anu-le (mi-*!*. f»»r Amock) . . . 
in which mad state ho had slain five i>cr- 
si»ns. . . . l*his was the third Amock- 
crycr whom I saw during that visit to 
R'itiina (a few months) bn>ken on the wheel 

fur munlor." 

* « • • « 

"Such a murderer and Amock- 

runner has sometimes the fame of lioiu); an 
invincible hen> liecause he has so manfully 
re|iul'<0(l all who tried to seize him. ...... 

.S» the Netherlands (tovcrnment is com}>elled 
when such an Amock-runner is taken alive 
to iiuni<^h him ina lerriticmanner."- •^VaHer 
St'/tulyns (tHt-Indiitch*' Hfinr-Iicsrhrethtnu/ 
((rcrman ed.), Amstcnlam, 167tJ, i»p. lO-'iO 
and '^27. 

1*J72. —'* Kvcrv community (of the Malaliar 
( 'h ri "it in nsV every c-hurch has its i>wn 
Amonchi. which .... arc fieople who 

take an oath to protect witli their own lives 
the jicr«ons and I'lacc* put umlor their 
-.ifi'iruanl. fn»m all and every harm." — /*. 
I't'oitZ" yf'irui, 1 l.'i. 

••If the IViui'o i-» *«lain the amouchi, 
wlio :tn* n'lmeniM-*. wmilfl avonL'o him 
de-|'*.rately. If he Ik? injured they put on 
fi-»tivi' ntiinent. take leave of their jwinMits 
anil with tiro and -wnnl in hand inv.-ide the 
hii-tiUr territory, burning' everv dwt-llinL'. ancl 
•^1:1 vintr man. wuman. and child. ><|i;iriiiL' none, 
until they thein^elvi-^ fall.*" M-V/. •^J7-**. 

1^7'^. •".Vnd th«'V (the ^Iohamnledan'<) 
an- hanily r(-<'tnnnt-d fr<>m rtinninu' & muck 
fwhi'li i-i til kill wlii»ev.-r thi-\ nii-»-t. till they 
Ih- -l.ijn theiii«ii'lvex). e-|nTial!y if they have 

> n at //-•«/'/i' [Hadgee] a I'llLTimai^o to 

>|i-c»-.»."- Fn/t-r, i»l. 

ITi'^r. -I>rydi'n a-'«ailin(; Hnrni-t : 

•■ I'n-inpt til a-.a'jlt. :ind <-ar»'li---. uf ilefence, 
Invulnenible in hi- inipndrni-e. 
He dan--' the \V..rlil ; and ea;.'i-riif :i name, 
He thrn-t<< aUnit ami jiiotlc* int>i f.imo. 
Froiitle-K* an<l s;itire-pn>iif. he Mi»nr' the 

And ruiH an Indian Muck at all ho 

nu'et«i. " 

77if" Hind ttiid //■•■ f'lintfirr. line U-177. 

ir,«J«*. "'111. ...I- thtt run the-e a rt> called 
Amouki. and thf di'inir of it /iuHuiny a 
Huck. "— '>r III y /••/(. 'S\7. 




1712.—" Amoaoo (Termo da India) val o 
mesmo que homem determinado e apostado 
que despreza a vida e nao teme a morte." 
— BltUeattf 8.V. 

1727. — "I answered him that I could no 
longer bear their Insults, and, if I had not 
Permission in three Days, I would mn a 
Mnok (which is a mad Custom among the 
Mallayas when they become desperate)." — 
A, Bamiltotiy ii. 231. 

" Satire's my weapon, but I'm too discreet 
To mn a muck, and tilt at all I meet." 
Pope, Im, of Horacty B. ii. Sat. i. 69. 

1768-71. — "These acts of indiscriminate 
murder are called by us mnckB, because 
the perpetrators of them, during their 
frenzy, continually cry out amok, amok, 
which signifies kkU^ kilf. . ." — Stavorinus, 
i. 291. 

1783.— At Bencoolen in this year (1760)— 
"the Count (d'Estaing) afraid of an in- 
surrection among the Buggesses .... 
invited several to the Fort, and when 
these had entered the Wicket was shut 
upon them ; in attempting to disarm them, 
they mangamoedf that is ran a muck ; they 
drew their cresses, killed one or two French- 
men, wounded oUiers, and at last suffered 
themselves, for supporting this point of 
honour." — Forrest's voy<ige to Mergui, 77. 

1784. — " It is not to be controverted that 
these desperate acts of indiscriminate 
murder, called by us mucks, and by the 
natives mongamo^ do actually take place, 
and frequently too, in some parts of the 
east (in Java in particular)." — Marsden, II, 
of Sumatra, 239. 

1788. — "We are determined to run a 
muck rather than suffer ourselves to be 
forced away by these Hollanders." — Mem, of 
a Malayan, Family, 66. 

1798. — " At Batavia, if an officer take one 
of these amoks, or mohawks, as thoy have 
l)een called by an easy corruption, his 
reward i.s very considerable ; but if ho kill 
them, nothing is added to his usual pay. . ." 
— Translator vf Stavorinns, i. ^M. 

1803.— "We cannot help thinking, that 
one day or another, when they are more 
full of opium than uj<uu1, they (the Malays) 
will run a muck from Ca|)e Comorin to the 
Caspian."— .s'yrfn^ Smith, Works, 3rd ed., 
iii. 6. 

1846.— "On the 8th July, 1846, Sunan, a 
resjwctable Malay house-builder in Pcnang, 
ran amok .... killed an old Hindu woman, 
a Klin^, a Chinese l)oy, and a Kling girl 
about three years old .... and woundwi two 
Hindus, three Klings, and two Chinese, of 
whom only two survived. ... On the trial 
Sunan declared he did not know what he was 
alK>ut, and i>ersistod in this at the place of 
execution. . . . The amok took place on the 
8th, the trial on the 13th, and the execution 
on the 15th July, — all within 8 days." — J. 
I ltd. ArcJi., vol. iii. 460-61. 

1849. — "A man sitting quietly among his 
friends and relatives, will without provoca- 
tion suddenly start up, weapon in hand, and 

slay all within his reach. . . . Next day 
when interrogated .... the answer has 
invariably been, "The Devil entered into 
me, my eyes were darkened, I did not know 
what I was about." I have receiired the 
same re^ly on at least 20 different omunniw ; 
on examination of these monomaniacs, I have 
generally found them labouring under sooie 
gastric disease, or troublesome nicer. . . . 
The Bugis, whether from revenge or dtsesse, 
are by far the most addicted to run amok. 
I should think three-fourths oi all the esses 
I have seen have been by persons of thb 
nation."— 2>r T, Oxley, in /. Ind. ArdUp,, 
iii. 532. 

[1869. — " Macassar is the most oelebrstsd 
place in the East for 'running a muck."* 
—Wallace, Malay Archip, (ed. 189(jy, 
p. 134.] 

[1870. — For a full account of many csies 
in India, see Chet-ers, Med, Jurispnidenee, 
p. 781 seqq.] 

1873.— "They (the English) .... ersTs 
governors who, not having bound themselves 
beforehand to 'run amuck,' may give the 
land some chance of repose." — JSlaehooofs 
Magazine, June, p. 759. 

1875.— "On being struck the Malay st 
once stabbed Arshad with a triss ; the bkxxi 
of the people who had witnessed the deed 
was aroused, thev ran amcdk, attacked Mr 
Birch, who was bathing in a floating bath 
close to the shore, stabbed and killed him.** 
— Sir W, D, Jervois to the E. of Oamarroo, 
Nov. 16, 1875. 

1876. — "Twice over, while we were wend- 
ing our way up the steep hill in Galata, it 
was our luck to see a Turk 'ran a muflik* 
. . . . nine times out of ten this fremjii 
feigned, but not always, as for instanos in 
the case where a priest took to ronning <• 
m}u:h on an Austrian Llovd's boat on the 
Black Sea, and after killing one at two 
passengers, and wounding others, was ooIt 
stopped by repeated shots from the Captain s 
pistol."— j^ar/7^. Fire Years in Bidgaria, 
540-41. • *^ 

1877.— The Times of February 11th msn- 
tions a fatal muck run b^ a Spanish ssikr, 
Manuel Alves, at the Sailors' Home, Iiver> 
pool ; and the Oitrland Time* of India (81ft 
August) another run by a sepoy at Meerut 

1879. — "Running a-muck does not 
to be confined to the Malays. At Ravenos, 
on Monday, when the streets were fuD cf 
people colobrating the festa of St John ths 
Baptist, a maniac rushed out, snatched up s 
kmfe from a butcher's stall and fell npoo 

everyone he came across before bs 

was captured he wounded more or Ism 
seriously 11 persons, among whom was cos 
little child."— /'a// MiUl Oauiie, July 1. 

,, "Captain Shaw mentioned . . . 
that he had known as many as 40 peopls 
being injured bv a single 'amok' runiMr. 
When the cry '^amokt amok I' is raised, 
people fly to the right and left ior shelter, 
for after the blinded madman's Iris has ooos 
*dnmk blood,' his fur^ beoomes ungoven- 
able, his sole desire is to kill ; he stittss 




ban and thare ; he stabs fugitiyes in the 
back, hifl Iru drim blood, he rashes on yet 
■art wildly, Uood and murder in his coarse ; 
there are shrieks and groans, his bloodshot 
e^ start from their sockets, his frenzy 
fives him lumataral strength ; then all of a 
saddea he drofis, shot through the heart, or 
from sodden ezhaustioo, clutching his 
Uoody tr%»:—MUi Bird, Ooldm Chermmnt, 

AHAOONDA, s. This word for a 
gr«at python, or boa, is of very* obscure 
(rriffin. It is now applied in scientific 
tnolcgr as the specific name of a great 
S. American water-snake. Cuvier has 
"'L'Anacondo {Boa tcytaU et murina, 
L — Boa aqvaiiea. Prince Max.)," (R^gne 
Aniwuil, 182d, ii. 78). Again, in the 
Official Report prepared by the Bra- 
zilian Government lor the Philadelphia 
Exhibition of 1876, we find : "Of the 
fpmu5 Boa .... we may mention the 
.... Mtmriu or sueuriuba (B. anacondaX 
whose skins are used for boots and 
Ahijes and other purposes." And as 
th« nibiect was engaging our attention 
wt PBtA the following in the St James' 
fUattU tA April 3, 1882:— "A very 
nnpleasant account L« given by a Bra- 
zilian paper, the Voz do Povo of 
IHamantinii, of the proceedings of a 
Lu^ wat«>r-9nake called the gucuruyUj 
which is to be found in some of the 
nrer? of Brazil. ... A slave, with 
ffnoe c<»uipanions was fishing i^nth 
a dK in the river, when he was 
f-jddenly *«ri2e<i by a suturvwt, who 
node an etfurt with his hinder coils 
to carry off at the same time another 
i4 the fi»hiug pjirty." We had 
aaturally ^upf»rifie<i the name to \ye 
S. Amt'rican, and its S. American 
rharart«-r was rathtr corn)l)orated by 
«<:r finding in Ramusio's versicm of 
P»rtrT> Mart ire crAngheria such 8. 
AfiMTinui name:* as Anacauchoa .and 
Anmentma, Seriouit doubt was how- 
ever thn>wn on the American origin 
of the word when we found tnat 
Mr H. W. Bates entirely disWlieved 
X and when we failed to trace the 
uune in anv older l>ooks alx)Ut S. 

In fart the oldest authority that we 
Ls«^ mrt with, the famous John Ray, 
dirtxifertly assigns the name, and tie 
wTMit to which the name properly 
Muitfcd, to Cevlon. This occurs in 
kii Sfmcfau Sidkodiea Animalium 
i^mairmpmmm H SerjmUini OtnerU, 
LoimL 1608. In this ne gives a Cata- 

logue of Indian Serpents, which he 
had received from his friend Dr 
Tancred Robinson, and which the 
latter had noted e Museo Leyderm, 
No. 8 in this list runs as follows : — 

**8. Serpens Indicus BubalintiSy 
ATifti*ATidft.ia. Zeylonensibus, id est 
Bubalorum aliorumque jumentorum 
membra conterens," p. 332. 

The following passage from St 
Jerome, giving an etymology, ri^ht 
or wrong, of the word hoa, which 
our naturalists now limit to certain 
^eat serpents of America, but which 
IS often popularly applied to the 
pythons of E. Asia, shows a remark- 
aole analogy to Ray's explanation of 
the name AruuMndata : — 

c. A.D. 395-400. — '*Si quidem draco mirae 
magmtudinis, quos gentili sermone Boas 
Tocant, ab eo quod tarn grandes sint ut boves 
glutire soUant^ omnem late vastabat pro- 
vincianij et non solum armenta et pecudes 
sed agncolas quoque et pastores tractos ad 
»e vi spiritufl absorbebat." — In Vita Scti, 
Hilarionis Eremitae^ Opera Scti. Ens. 
Hieron. Venetiis, 1767, ii. col. 35. 

Ray adds that on this No. 8 should 
be read what D. Cleyerus has said in 
the Ephem, German. An 12. obser. 7, 
entitled : De Serpente magno Jndiae 
Orientalis Urobubalum deglutiente. The 
serpent in (question was 25 feet long. 
Ray quotes in abridgment the descrip- 
tion of its treatment of the buffalo ; 
how, if the resistance is great, the 
victim is dragged to a tree, and com- 
pressed against it ; how the noise of 
the crashing l)ones is heard as far 
as a cannon : how the crushed car- 
cass is covered with saliva, etc. It 
is adde^ that the country people (ap- 
jiarently this is in Amboyna) regard 
this great serpent as most desirable 

The following are extracts from 
Cleyer*s paper, which is, more fuUy 
cited. Miscellanea Curiosa, sive Ephime- 
ridum Medico- Physicarum GAmani- 
rarum Academiae Naturae Curiosorum^ 
Dec. ii. — Annus Secundus, Anni 
MDCLX XXIII. Noriml)ergae. Anno 
MDCLXXXIV. pp. 18-20. It is 
illustrated by a formidable but in- 
accurate picture showing the serpent 
seizing an ox (not a buffalo) by the 
muzzle, with huge teeth. He tells 
how he dissected a great snake that 
he bought from a huntsman in which 
he found a whole stag of middle 
age, entire in skin and every part ; 




and another which contained a wild 
goat with great horns, likewise quite 
entire ; and a third which had 
swallowed a porcupjine armed with 
all his " sagittif eris aculeis." In 
Ambovna a woman great with child 
had been swallowed by such a 
serj)ent. . . . 

'*Quod si animal quoddam robustius reni- 
tatur, ut spiris anguinis enecari non possit, 
serpens creoris cum animali oonvolutionibus 
caud& suA proximam arborem in auxilium et 
robur corporis arripit eamque circumdat, 
(|uo oo fortius ot valentius gyris suis animal 
comprimere, suffocare, ot demum onecare 
}K>ssit . . . ." 

" Factum est hoc modo, ut (quod ex fide 
dignissimis habeo) in Regno Aracan .... 
tiilis vasti cor{)oris anguis prope fiumen 
quoddam, cum Uro-bubalo, sive sylvestri 
bubalo aut uro .... immani spoctaculo 
congredi visus fuerit, eumque dicto modo 
Occident ; quo conflictu et plusquam hostili 
amplexu fragor ossium in bubalo comminu- 
torum ad distantiam tormenti bellici majoris 
.... a spectatoribus sat ominus stantibus 
cxaudiri potuit. ..." 

The natives said these preat snakes 
had poisonous fangs. Cleyer 
could not find, but he l>elieves the 
teeth to l)e in some degree venomous, 
for a servant of his scratched his hand 
on one of them. It swelled, greatly 
infbimed, and produced fever and 
delirium : 

"Nee prius coflsabant symptomata, quam 
Serpentinus lapis (see SNAKE -STONE) 
<[uam Patrea Jesuitao hie comjtonunt, vulneri 
adaptjitus omne vonenum extraherot, et 
ubitiuc symptomata convenientibus antidotis 
essent proHigata." 

Again, in 1768, we find in the Scots 
Mwjazirif, App. j). 673, but (i noted 
from "London pap. Aug. 1768, and 
signed by R. Eamn^ a ]>rofessed eye- 
witness, a story with the following 
heading: "De^Tij)tion of the Ana- 
conda, a monstrous species of serj.)ent. 
In a letter from an English gentleman, 
manv vears resident in the Island 

of Ceylon in the East Indie^s 

The Oeylonese seem to knt)w the 
creature well : they call it Anaconda, 
and talked of editing its fleiih Avhen 
they caught it." He describes it-s 
seizing and disjK)sing of an enormous 
**tyger." The serpent darts on the 
"tyger" Innw a tree, attacking first 
with a bite, then partially crushing 
and dragging it to the tree . . . . 
"winding his body round both the 
t yger and the tree with all his violence, 
till the ril)S and other bones began 

to give way .... each giving a loud 
crack when it burst .... the poor 
creature all this time was living, and 
at every loud crash of its bones gave 
a houl, not loud, yet piteous enough 
to pierce the crudest heart." 

Then the serpent drags away its 
victim, covers it with slaver, swallows 
it, etc. The whole thing is very 
cleverly told, but is evidently a ro- 
mance founded on the description by 
"D. Cleverus,'' which is (juoted by 
Ray. There are no tigers m Ceylon. 
In* fact, "R. Edwin" lias de^'eloped 
the Romance of the Anaconda out 
of the description of D. Cleyerus, 
exactly as "Mynheer Forsch" some 
years later developed the Romance 
of the Upas out of the older stories 
of the poison tree of Macassar. Indeed, 
when we find "Dr Andrew Clever" 
mentioned among the early relators 
of these latter stories, the suspicion 
l)ecomes strong that both romancefi 
had the same author, and that "R 
Edwin" was also the true author of 
the wonderful story told under the 
name of Foersch. (See further under 

In Percival's Ceylon HBOS) we read: 
" Before I arrived in the island I had 
heard many stories of a monstrous 
snake^ so vast in size as to devour 
tigers and butt'aloes, and so daring as 
even to attack the elephant " (p. 303). 
Also, in Pridham's Ceylon and its 
Depeyidencies (1849, ii. 750-51): 
"Piin1)era or Anaconda is of tlie 
genus Python, Cuvier, and is knovin 
in English as the rock-snake." 
Emerson Tennent (Ceylo7i, 4th ed., 
1860, i. 196) says : "The great python 
(the M>o?i' iiH it is commonly desig- 
nated by Euro])eans, the 'anaconda' 
of Eastern story) which is supposed to 
crush the boneji of an elej>hant, and to 
swallow a tiger " .... It mav l)e sus- 
])ected that the letter of "R.* Edwin" 
was the foundation of all or most of 
the stories alluded to in these piis- 
sages. Still we have the authority 
of Ray's friend that Anaconda, or 
rather Anacondam^ was at Leyden 
ap])lied as a name to a 
specimen of this pvthon. The only 
inteq)retation of tliis that "^-e can 
offer is Tamil dnai-kondra {dnosik- 
k6nHa\ "which killed an elepbant"; 
an appellative, but not a name. We 
have no authority for the applicatioii 
of this appellative to a snake, thongli 




:lir i«iitsi4g<nt «|U<»t4^ from Percival, 
Widiiaiii, and Teuiifnt are all sug- 
vv<i\v of surh sUtrit^s ^"d the inter- 
jTrUitinn of the name aiuicondnia given 
t-< 1U\ : ^ ISubalorum . . . membra 
• •TiTrnms," i.H at luist ((uit« analomnis 
.!• Hi ajijH-llHtive. It may he aade<l 
:}i:tt in Malay aiULkaildasigniti('.s **one 
rhit is wrll-)*ini,'* whii-h <h)e.s nut help 
■>. . . [Mr Skt-at is nnahh* to trace the 
H- ni in Malay, and rejiH.'t.s the deriva- 
U'i\ fpnii tniahmda given al>ove. A 
III 'Fr Tilausihle explanation is that 
^■.\u hy Mr I). Ffrpii»*<m (8 Ser. 
.V. •! V- X"- 123), wh(» dmvfs ana- 

■ Mi7ii.i iriiiii SinghaU-.'*e Hefiahirufayd 
'.••wr, lightning'; knnda^ *stem, 

*:;:.L') uhi« h i?* a name for the whip- 
'..ih- {Piiittenta ni;/r^ri.2'i;M), the name 

■ i!i'- MibiUt-r r»-iitih.* l»eing hy a 
'iij'i* r innsffm**! to the gn*ater. 

:" !• ;it Irtist a riirious coincidence 

■ •• •V'J^v (1670) in his " JfrMrif)ti(m 
• •'■ Afrv-^nk I*h:i" (p. 090), givts : 
A^'ih^tuUf^ a Si»rt <»f small snake.s," 

h i;- thr Mal.-igiL'iv Aunkautlifif^ *a 

>'*. -"Hiv "kin- of anacondas ofTercHi 
^i:«:k<>k I'MOitf fn«rii the northern pro- 

■ "• •^. //. */. A'lM /, in J. It. <»'. Sttc.. XXX. 


AKAHAS. -. Til.- I>ine-ap]»lc(/l7m. 
' ;»i Mfjr«i, Lindl. ; lirouuhn Amiuna^ 
\- y. \ ibitivi- of thi* hot n'gions of 
M-;:i. .iTid Panama. It al»ounded, as 

> i''Hl plant, in llisjianiola and 

■ 'Ji- >l.inds ai-rording to <)vi»'(h>. 
• f'r.i/i] .V'r««i, or ]M'rhaps Snntn^ 

.•■■-• *}|.' I*. -rtJigi I fs** i-I »!'//»".< or Atiowiz. 
. ■..• :>i!!..- ha-. \\«- I"fli»*vi", a<'i omitiinif*! 
"' irv,!i ^vhitli-r-n'^iT, I'Xi'cpt to 
.^.•^•iiiri, :• h.i- inivi-Ui**! from its 

■ •: - .u Ai:i»'ri' a. A ]»in»' was hroiiglit 
: ■•. - T • I'JmiI.- v., a- ivlat«'d hv J. 
I'A -'i J*-!'\*. Th«- j»lant i> stated 

r.i\.- i»-i-ii nr-t, in KiinvjH-, iidti- 
.•"i a* I^\dtii .lU.ii! l«;r><» (/). In 

K'^\tr,i It tir-T truitfd at Uif-limond, 
". S.r M. I^-*k»'rV giirdm, in 1712.* 

? • .■-- d.ffii-i'in in tin* K;lM wa** i-arly 

■ 1 r^p; i. T*» '»!!»• who ha"* s«*i'n thi' 
.:. :r*«l- I'f H r*"* •'•\frfd with ]»im*- 
■.-; "• n tIm- !<*]iiid> .idjoiiiiiig Sing:i- 

:• r-. •f th- ir pp«f«i-i«»n in a sft-mingly 

» '.1 -•*it«- in fhr \iilli'y-« of thi* KiL'tia 

.*.:r% on th»- •■at-t^-rn 1m triers of 

* TW ffa^ihjA CV^T- *t»tt-4 OH th^ antiionty tit 
"• Picmri* MML th«t tb«> |iiii^ wan IfToii^'ht into 
l-^^sA by ib^ brl of INirtlaiMl, in IWu. (fW 
'wyt AnL. Kh f»L. xix. IOC) 

Bengal, it is liard to conceive of this 
fniit as intnxiuced in modem times 
from another hemisphere. But, as in 
the case of toliaoco, the name lie- 
\*Tayeth its true origin, whilst the 
large natural family of plants to which 
it iiehmgs is exclusively Americaiu 
Tlie names given by Oviedo, probably 
those of Hispaniola, are laiaina as a 
general name, and Boniana and Aiagua 
for two species. Pine-a])])les used t^) 
coHt a pardao (a coin difficult U> 
determine the value of in those days) 
when tirst introduced in Malal>ar, says 
Linschot^n, but "now there are so 
many gn)wn in the country, that 
they are good cheape" (91); [Hak. 
Soc. ii. 191 Athanasius Kirchcr, m the 
middle of the 17t.h century, spefiks of 
the anana* as produced in great abun- 
dance in the Chinese i)roA'ince8 of 
Canton, Kiangsu and luhkien. In 
Ibn Muhamnuid Wali's H. of the Cati- 
qufM of AmnHy Avritt^n in 1662, the 
pine-a]mles of that region are com- 
mende(f for size and flavour. In the 
last years (jf the ]»receding century 
Carletti (1599) aln.*ady commends the 
fXct'Uent amnia/f of Malacca. But even 
some 20 or 30 years earlier the fruit 
was gn»wn ]»rofusi!ly in W. Indi^i, as 
we h*arn from Chr. d'Acosta (1578). 
And we know from the Aln that (alnmt 
1590) the ananas was habitually served 
at the tabh* of Aklvir, the ])rice oi 
one I>eing reckcmed at only 4 cf/<7ax, 
or iV of a nqwe ; whilst A kl Kir's son 
Jahangir states that tlu* fruit canu* 
from the Si^a-jHTts in the jxMst'iision 
of the I*— (See Ahi, i. 66-68.) 
In Africa too, this royal fruit has 
snrwul, carrying tin* American namr 
along with it. "The Manfinu/i t or 
pin»*-a]»ph*," .says Burt4>n, "grows 
luxuriantly as far as 3 marches from 
tin* ciKist (of ZfmziKir). It is never 

(J.Rji.ts. xxix. 35). On the He Ste 
Marie, of Madag:i.«'ar, it givw in the 
first half of the 17th ccnturv as mana$te. 
{Flncourt, 29). 

Abul Fa^l, in the Ahi^ menticms 

that the fruit was also railed kathnl-i- 

Ptfarl^ or * travel jack-fruit,' "l>ecaU8«» 

voung ]»lants ])Ut into a ve.ssel may 

: \h* taken on travels and will yield 

I fruit'*." This si*ems a nons^Mh-^ical pre- 

I t Jf in li-n> A Siuhili ]nvflx. .Sm BUek't Camp. 
. Grammar, 18^. 

cultivated, nor have its oualities as 
I a fibrous plant Ihmmi nis«overe<l." 




Paxtconia apparently Pegu) is made to 
say : " they have pine-apples, oranges, 
chestnuts, melons, but small and green, 
white sandal- wood and camphor. 

We cannot believe tliat in either 
place ,the object intended was the 
Ananas, which has carried that 
American name with it round the 
world. Whatever the Assyrian 
representation was intended for, 
Conti seems to have stated, in the 
words pimt^ hahent (as it runs in 
Poggio's Latin) merely that they had 
pine-trees. We do not understand on 
what ground the translator introduced 
pine-apples. If indeed any fruit was 
meant, it might liave been that of the 
screw-pine, which though not eaten 
might jHirhaps have been seen in the 
1»azars of Pegu, as it is used for sarnie 
economical purj>oses. But pinus does 
not mean a fruit at all. ' Pine-cones ' 
even would have been expressed by 

innfos or the like. [A reference to Mr 
J. W. King was thus answered : " The 
identitv of the tree with the date-i)alm 
is, I Y>elieve, acknowledged by all 
natumlLsts who have studied the trees 
on the Assyrian monuments, and the 
*cone^' held by the winged figures 
have obviously some coimection \\ith 
tlie trees. I think it was Prof. Tylor 
of Oxford (see Academy^ June 8, 1886, 
p. 283) who first identified the cere- 
mony with the fertilization of the 
»alm, and there is much to l)e said for 
lis suggestion. The dat^.-jialm was of 
very preat use to the Babylonians and 
Assvrians, for it furnished them with 
foocl, drink, and building materials, 
and this fact would explain the 
frecjuent re])etition on the Assvrian 
monuments of the ceremony of fer- 
tilisation. On the other hand, there 
is no evidence, so far Jis I know, that 
the pine-apple was extensively grown 
in Assyria. Also see Ma^pfro, Daxmi 
of Civ. 556 seq. ; on the us*; of the j)ine- 
cone in Greece, Frasi'.r, PaMsanin^^, iii. 

A small island oft' the W. of 
India, a little S. of Carwar, which is 
the su)>ject of frequent and intere-sting 
mention in the earlv narratives. The 
name is inter]>ret^Ml bv Malavalim as 
afiju-dlni, * Five Islands,' and if this is 
<'orrcct iKilongs to the whole group. 
This may, lH)wever, l)e only an en- 


deavour to interpret an old name, 
which is perhaps traceable in *Atyt^u9 
yrfffoi of Ftolemv. It is a remarkable 
example of the slovenliness of English 

Professional map>making that feith 
ohnston's Ryyal Atlas map of India 
contains no indication of tnis famous 
island. [The Times Atlas and 
Constable's Hand Atlas also ignore it.] 
It has, iHitween land surveys and sea- 
charts, l)een omitted altogetner by the 
compilers. But it is plain enough in 
the Admiralty charts ; and the vmy Mr 
Birch speaks of it in his translation of 
AllKKpierque as an "Indian seaport, 
no longer marked bn the maj>s," is odd 
(ii. 168). 

c. 1345. — Ibn Batuta gives no nitme, but 
Anjediva is certainly the island of which h« 
thus speaks : " We left behind us the island 
(of Sindabur or Goa), passinsr close to it, 
and cast anchor by a small island near the 
mainland, where there was a temple^ with 
a grove and a reservoir of water. When we 
had landed on this little island we found 
there a Jogi leaning against the wall of a 
Biidl-ftAnah or house of idols." — Ibn Batutii, 
iv. 63. 

The like may be said of the Roteiro 
of V. da Gama's voyage, which likewise 

?^ves no name, but descrilyes in wonder- 
ul correspondence with Ibn Batuta; 
as does Correa, even to the Jogi, still 
there after 150 vears I 

1498.— "So the CaptainMajor ordered 
Nicolas Coello to go in an armed boat, and 
see whore the water was ; and he found in 
the same island a building, a church of great 
ashlar- work, which had i»een destroyed by 
the Moors, as the country tKH>plc said, only 
the chapel had been covered with straw, and 
they used to make their prayers to three 
black stones in the midst of the body of the 
chapel. Moreover they found, just bevond 
the church, a tanf/ne of wrought asnlar, 
in which we took as much water as we 
wanted ; and at the top of the whole island 
stood a great tanquf of the doiith <rf 4 
fathoms, and moreover wo found in front 
of the church a l>each where we careened 
the ship.'' — Roteiro^ 95. 

ir)10. — "1 quitted this i»lace, and went to 
another island which Is called AniediTa. . . 
There is an excellent port l)etween the island 
and the mainland, and verv go<.>d water is 
found in the said island." — Varth'fna^ 120. 

c. l.'i.Vi. — '*Dom Francesco do Almeidft 
arriving at the Island of AnchediVE, tbo 
first thing he did was to send Joao Homem 
vf\i\i letters to the factors of Caoanor, 
Cochin, and CoulSo. . . ."—Rctmut, I. Tiii.9. 

c. 1561. — " They went and put in at AlM* 
diva, where they enjoyed themselves moSi ; 
there were good water springs, and tbeM 
was in the upper part of the island a ' '^ 




baiJt with KtoiM, with very good water, 
Ukd much wuod ; . . . there were no in- 
bahitantA, only a begffar man whom thoy 
imlM Jvgwede* . . . .' — dnrtay Hak. Soc. 

ir/T.— •* In Junuar}', 1664, my Lord 
(Mariborua^h) went hock to En^i^Iana .... 
And left Sir Abniham with the retit, to pastH 
the westerly SioiiMionis in some Port on the 
i4*jit, iHit' beint? unaciiuainted, choHe a 
deMoUtc Ikland calle<l Asjadwa, to winter 
ftt. . . . Here they Mtaycd from April to 
«H.-t<4'*r, in which time they buried above 
•JUU *i their Men."— -4. Jiamiiton, i. 182. 
At }•. "XiA the name in printed more correctly 

ANDAMAN, ii.P. The name of a 

jH^iup mi iMaiiiU in tne Biiy of Bengal, 

xuhaitiie^l \*y trilv.s of a negrito race, 

aiid Ti'iu ]i.-irtially iMTU]ae<l a>? a convict 

•^tilfTiit-nt under the Government of 

lii'liL The name (though ]>erlm])s 

•••*.iir»-lv indiialed hv H4»lemv — see 

H. V. Ill J'.lUi.S, 1881, p. G65) first 

•i'|nMr» di-tinrtly in the Ar. narmtives 

•i th.- *Jih it-ntury. [The Ar. dual 

' -n-j > Slid to U* fn»ni Agnmitae^ the 

NUUy niiii*' of the al»origines.] The 

]-M>t4-iit fliarg** of canniuili.'<m seem.s 

f'Lt\»- U-t-n unf(mnde<l. fS'e E. H. 

31iii. "'* thir Abfjrinintd InnafntnnU of 

''^ Ah*hini*i7i IdnnoA^ Intit>. xiii. 45.] 

A.D. ."Ol.-- •■ Bey<»nd are two islands 
::r.dr«i >iv .t *«a' called AnHlmlti l*he 

:-iUie« •/ the*e ij«le^ devour men alive; 

t.^icir L'tr i< I'Lwk. thoir hair wmjUy ; their 
• •li.t' r.jn(.e iiid eye* have '44>nivthint; fright- 

f <' Ui :^l•m . . . . they fi^o uakc<i, .and have 

• ' f«*t- HefnttiiH df* ytf^igtjty Ac. 

xmj itstmn^-ii, i. **. 

'•. Vrl**. The*<' i-tland^ are mcntiime<i in 
Vjt ,Tr»t T.mj'Te lemple-in!<cTiption (11th 
'■•r,*. I a.* ri*f iff »■'•♦, • l.-«lanil4 of Impurity,' 
'r.SA-'itc^l '"V lanniUiIs. 

'. \'£rl " Angmmmftiw i** a very laiye 
f» T>M« |-ii*»i»le are without a Kinjf and 
\rt . li'tA'.'T*. .unl are n^i W-tter tlum wild 
»art/» . thoy are a nH»*t I'ruel irenem- 

••*L xr.i f-jf e\i*rvl»f<lv that they can catch 
•* • t - f '.birtr"'*:!"--.V<»n'* /*»»/o, Bk. 

f. li-TO - ■• . . . leaving? on hi* ritrht hand 
*:. i-^ryi called AniJinaiiia. which meaiLt 
*..*.' -.•ju^i "i <H>!d. the circumference of 

• ■:^K L* ^M* mile*. The inhabitants are 
- -^i**'« N" traveller* ttuich here unless 
:r«ra t-. 'i» «• by t>ad meat her. for when 
iiJLr:. Uk^v kr*r t^ 'fit to iiiecefl ami devoured 
*i tt/tMt tn^l <AVi»|^eK.' -f'oHti, in India in 

i y «>*! . ?. 

: 1!K6. — ••Ik* Niciilair «ino a Pej?" < 
'^a cmleaa d I«r>I« infinite, delle i{uali m(»Ite 

• «r- hafailate da fccnte •eluafrfHA. e chiamansi 
#AaiAiBBa . . . . e le |«r distrratia 

(lOMta laole <{uak:ho itaue. come 
na loamiia atcuni». 

che tutti ^li amazzano, e maneiano." — Ceaart 
de* Federici'j in Ramusioy iii. 391. 

1727. — "The Islandii opposite the Coast 
of Tanarrrifi are the A«rtATnM.w. They lie 
about 80 leagues off, and are surrounded 
by many dangerous Banks and Rocks ; they 
are all inhabited with CanibaUj who are so 
fearless that they will swim off to a Boat 
if she approach near the shore, and attack 
her with their wooden Weapons . . . ," — 
-I. Jlamiltotiy ii. 65. 

ANDOB, s. Port. *a litter,' and 
usod in tlie old Port. ^Titers for a 

Salankin. It was evidently a kind of 
luncheel or Dandy, t.«. a slung 
hammock ratlier than a palankin. But 
still, fus so oft4?n is the case, comes in 
another word to create peqjlexity. 
For andas is, in Port., a bier or a littery 
ap]>earing in Bluteau as a genuine 
Port, word, and the use of which hv 
the writer of the Roteiro quoted 
below shows that it is so indeed. And 
in defining Andor the same lexico- 

Odier says : ** A j)ortable vehicle in 
iii, in those regions where they do 
not use beasts, as in Malabar and 
elst»where. It is a kind of contrivance 
like an uncovered Atidasy which men 
l)ear on their shoulders, &c. . . . 
Among us Andor is a machine with 
four arms in which images or reliques 
of the siiints are l>ome in processions." 
This last term is not, as we ha<l 
ima^int*<l an old Port. word. It is 
In<lian, in fact Sanskrit, hindola, Si 
swing, a swinging cradle or hammock,' 
whence also Malir. hindoldy and H. 
liiwjoUl or fuuKJold, It occurs, as will 
1h' seen, in the old Ar. work al)out 
Indian wonders, publL^^hed bv MM. 
Van der Lith and Marcel Devic. [To 
this Mr Skeat adds tliat in Malay 
andor means *a bulfalo-sledge for 
carting rice,' &c. It would ap^iear to 
be the same iL-* the Port, word, though 
it is hard to sjiy which is the original. J 

1013. — **Ixj mdme m'a cont^ quli S^- 
rendtb. les rois et ceux nui se comjwrtent a 
la fav<*n des rois, se font porter dans 1e 
handoul {h<tndu/) qui est semblablo ^ uue 
liti^re. soutenu sur les cjxuiles de ouelques 
pi«;t4«iis," -Kf'tdh WjfUh-a/ Hind, p. 118. 

149**.- "After two days had pa-ssed he 
(the Catual [Cotwal]) came to the factory 
in an andOT which men carried on their 
nhoulders, and these (»m^«#r<) consist of prreat 
canes which are (wnt overhead and arched, 
an<l from these are hung certain cloths of a 
half fathom wide, and a fathom and a half 
long, and at the ends are pieces of wood to 
bear the cloth which hangs from the cane ; 
anil laid over the cloth there is a great 




mattrass of the same size, and this all made 
of silk-stuff wrought with gold-thread, and 
with many decorations and fringes and 
tassels ; whilst the ends of the cane are 
mounted with silver, all ver>' gorgeous, 
and rich, like the lords who travel so." — 
CV/Tca, i. 102. 

1498. — "Alii trouveram ao capitam mor 
humas andas d'omeens em que os onrrados, 
custumam em a quella terra d'andar, e 
jiilguns mercadores se as quorem ter pagam 
iK>r ello a elrey certa cousa." — lioteiroy pp. 
i4-55. I.e. "There they brought for the 
Captain- Major certain andas, borne b^ men, 
in which the persons of distinction in that 
country are accustomed to travel, and if 
any merchants desire to have the same they 
pay to the King for this a certain amount. ' 

1505. — *'I1 Re se f a portaro in vna Barra 
ijualo chiamono Andora porta ta da homini." i 
— Italian, rergion of Jktm ManuePi Letter to i 
the K. of Castille. (Buniell's Reprint) p. 12. ; 

1552. — "The Moors all were on foot, and 1 
their Captain was a valiant Turk, who as 
being their Captain, for the honour of the 
thing was carried in an Andor on the 
HhoiOders of 4 men, from which he gave his 
orders as if he were on horselwick." — Barrot, 
II. vi. viii. 

[1574.— See quotation under PUNDIT.] 

1623. — Delia Valle describes three kinds 
of shoulder-borne vehicles in use at Croa: 
<1) reti or nets, which were evidently the 
wimple hammock, muncheel or dandy ; (2j 
the andor; and (3) the iialankin. "Ana 
those two, the palankins and the andon, 
also differ from one another, for in the 
andor the cane which sustains it is, as it is 
in the rrt/, straight ; whereas in the {>alankin, 
for the greater convenience of the inmate, 
and to give more ixKMn for raisimif his head, 
the cane is arched iipwani like this, Q. 
For this purjKise the canes are l)ent when 
they are small and tender. .\ud those 
vehicles are the most connnodious and 
honourable that have the curved canes, for 
.MUch canes, of gcKHl qiiiility and strength to 
bejir the weight, are not nunien>iLs ; so they 
sell for 100 or 120 pardaos each, or al>out 
60 of our i»»dir—r. detUi Vallf, ii. 610. 

c. 1760. —"Of the same nature as iiahm- 
keens, but of a iliffercnt name, are what 
they call andolas .... the«e arc much 
chea))er, and less esteemed.** --<//>';«*', i. I.').'*. 

ANDBUM, s. Mabiyfil. omlnim. 
The form of liy<lnKvU* roiunion in S. 
India. It wjis first dti?wrilK*(l by 
Kaenipfer, in his iJera*^ LeydiMi, 1694. 
— (See also bis AmofnitdO's Kxnticne^ 
Fa.soic. iii. j)j). f)57 '<^7<2') 

ANOELY-WOOD, s. Tani. anjilh, j 
<»r anjidhiiuiram; arti>rar)m$ hirituta • 
l-Ani. [in Malabar also known as Iifnee ' 
(iiyini) (Loyan, i. 39)]. A wimmI of ffieat , 
value on the W. (Nwust, for shipl miming, ; 
liouse-buiUliug, &o. ! 

c. 1550. — ** In the most eminent parti of 
it (Siam) are thick Forests of Angvlm wood, 
whereof thousands of ships might be made.'* 
— Pinioj in Cogan^ p. 28d ; see alao p. 84. 

1598. — "There are in India other wonder 
full and thicke troM, whereof Shippei am 
made : there are trees by Cochiin, tnat an 
called Angelina, whereof certaine aeatee or 
skiff es called Tones [Doney] are made .... 
it is so strong and hard a woode that Iron in 
tract of time would bee consumed thereby 
by reason of the hardness of the woode.**— 
Lintchoten, ch. 58 [Hak. Soc. ii. 56]. 

1644. — "Another thing which this pi^ 
vince of Mallavar produces, in alwipdanos 
and of excellent quality, is timber, par- 
ticularly that called AngeUm, which is most 
durable, lasting many years, insomuch that 
even if you desire to build a great number 
of ships, or vessels of any kind .... yoa 
may make them all in a year." — B*j<xum^ 
MS. f. 315. 

ANGEN€K), n.p. A ])lace on the 
Travancore coast, tlie site of an old 
English Factory ; ])roperly said to W 
A fijU'tefi^u^ A nch ut^nnuy Malayal ; 
the trivial meaning of which would 
l)e "five cocoa-nuts." Tliis name cives 
rise to tlie marvelloiLs rhapsody oi the 
once famous Abhe Rayiial, regarding 
"St^^rne's Eliza," of wliich we quote 
l)elow a few sentences from the 3( 
pages of close ])rint which it fills. 

1711. — " . . . Anjengo is a small Fort be- 
longing to the Engh'jJi Ka*t India Cvmpanf, 
There are about 40 Soldiers to defend it . . . 
most of whom are Touize*, or mungrel Portu- 
guese." — Ijttrl'tfery 199. 

1782.— **Territoire d'An^inga; tu n'es 
rien : mais tu as donn^ naisstmce k Elim. 
Un jour, ce.H entropAts . . . ne subsisteroat 
plus . . . mais si mes eerits ont nuelqne 
dur^>, le nom d'Anlinga restcm aans le 
nii^moire des hommes . . . Anjinga, c'est 
a Tinfluence de ton heurcux chmat qu'elle 
dovoit, sans doutc, cet accord preeqn'in- 
conipatible de volupt^ et de d^cence qui 
accoraiNignoit toute sa )>ersonne, ct qui se 
m^loit k tons ses mouvements, Ac, Ac.**— 
IIijU. !*h:iiMtphitinr (1(* Deux Ind''8y ii. r2-7S. 

ANIOXJT, s. Used in tlie irrigation 
of the Madras Presidencv for the dam 
constructed acniss a river to fill and 
regulate the supj^ly of the channeln 
dniwn off from it ; the cardinal work 
in fact of the great irrigation systenu*. 
The word, which has of late yean* 
become familiar all over India, i« 
the Tam. comj). (huai-hittu^ ^Dinui- 

1776.— '* Sir — We have received your 
letter of the 24th. 1 f the Kajah pleaaee to so 
to the Anacntk to see the repair of the bank, 
we can have no objection, but it will not be 

It TOD 1110111(1 lesTe the nr- 
MT—LMtr fixm CmtKil at 
JL-Oal. Harpar, Comm. &t 

/. Papen, ml, *to, i. 836. 
th* cnltiretioa of the TsDJare 
in, hj mli ths turreft asd 
' HigiiMen employed id that 
Mod altof^her oo a nipplj of 

Oaaierr. wbicb oui ooly he 
•ping Uie Anient and baalu 
hiok it necewar; to repeat to 
t of the 4th July, 177T, on the 
• repair*."— />iap. of Court vf 
. 21at. a« ameoded by Bd. of 
rtr, ir. KM. 

s ABBlcnt if no doubt a 
A'u. whsthor the work of 
er aoyl-ody elw 

IfiSS.—" Anil ia not a medicinal Bubrtanoe 

bat an article of trade, »a ts have do need 
lo apeak thereof . . . . The beat is pore and 
:1ear of earth, and the nireat teat ii to bora 

uid if it flcnta theo they reckon it ffood." — 
(iarria. I. 25 t. 

1583.—" Nsal. the ohurle 70 duckats, and 
a cburle is 27 rottlea and a half of Aleppo." 
-Mr /uAh Neabm, in Bail. ii. 378. 

and to put ut 

which dotl 

Hail. ii. 391 

e. 1610.- 

lutl where it enter* the towD 
(tone dsm oalled Kificher'K 
L^aw. Ma-t. i./S-dem, ii. 32.] 

3 bleiis Tiolotte. doat il n 
■'en trouue cju'Il Cambore el Suratte." — 
!-gnud it Laml, ii. 156 ; [Hak. 8oc. ii. 246i 

[1614.-" I have 30 fardeUi Anil Gerea." 
>"u»ln-, Z-rfdr., ii. 1*0. Here Ucr« is probably 
H. HTri (from jar, *the root*), the crop tn 
indigo growing from the ntumps of the 
plants left from the former year.] 

1622.— "E conforms a dita psnta as 
diapacharf o dituasilecanella."— In Arrhie. 
fori. Oriett., fasc. 2, 240. 

1838.- "Lo» Butroa marchnndiaes, qoe 

niJ again Ifiiig I hi; 
iir of indigu ia India, from 
>i. ' liliic' The venuujular 
utcr HrugaM) won) apiK'ars 
.f • native tBtiriial drania 
'The MiriDr of liidi(i[c» 
\uuofu. ill C^K'UtU ill lt»I, 
n with a miur e^Ubre^ and 
no whi<h diwrt^littil tli^ 
- uukliovili >iii<r 111.- A^ys 

Z.!" U n I'lir.!.-* for an lii- 
[wid liU Fa.l..r} is ".WW- 

«i(u Veai'iicci. in hin letter 
ol f'Bpe Vi-plu ti> I...rMmi <ti 
» de^ Medici, rei.n^iiid hin 
the P<^ucr<>e>e heel tr^m, 
(1* amootc other IhioK" linnitlht 
uzia," the fanner a mAnift-iit 
cmir for aai/.-~ln IhiMrll. 
-•'.'V- 1™- 
krtnina'a ("fee \iM uf Malaliu 

lor (i.e. flmting : aee 'larria 

' . . . /..mamiiaui-X.- 

Id litkM CUItrii^i, ii. 393. 
kad of anTll in otke* whicli 
lada, SSSlangaa."- ^<nAn>Jt(ia, 

1W8. — ". . . . and a good quantity of 
Anil, which, after the place where moat of 
it ia got, i» called Vhirdua Indigo." — I'oji 
Twi'ji, 14. Sharkej ur Sirkej, 5 m. from 
Ahmcdfllnd, ■■Cir.|iiei Indigo" (1621) 

••.Sfmur" 'of Forbii'tOr. ,1/m. 2nd od. ii. 
•JOi]. The Dutch, about 1620, eatabiiahed a 
factory there on account «( the indigo. 
.Many of the .Sultana of (l.iienkt were buried 
there (S(ai.»-.'>i>i. iii. 109). Some oooount 
of the "riarkhej Jtou." or Mauaolea, ia 
given in H. Bngga Cli'- .•/ t/ojantMrv 
(Bomlaiv. 1849, pp. 274, f/-/.). ['- Indigo of 
Bbm (Itinna) Hi^lMe" jlHOD). iMnim, 
Ijllrri; i. 28 ; " Indicii, of liiher, here worth 
viij' the pouiide Hrrrhit/'—IHrtiiaiid, LetUr 
n.«i: 287.] 
1IJ53.— " Indio ert un mot Portugais^ 

vient ilea I odea Orientaloa. qui eat de 
ciintralnDde en Kmnce. laa Tunis et !<■ 
An>)>ea lanonimentHU.'-/V la thultafC-U. 


neigh I Kill rh' 

1 or Tndig...". 

■IterHier (ed. 

imHabi^i, 283.) 

ANKA, .-^ Pnii^rly H. 'Ina, anah, 
tlie leth part nf a ni{ii!f. The t«rm 
Ivlon^ [d tht! Moliaiiiiiiedaii monetary 
svHtvin (BUTEE). Theiv is no coin of 
one anna only, so that ii 


especially in regard to coptrcetury 

itiua a cum:H{Kinding frac- 
y Kind of property, ■ ' 




shares in land, or sliares in a specula- 
tion. Thus a one-anna share is tV of 
such right, or a share of ^ in the 
speculation ; a four-anna is J, and 
so on. In some parts of India the 
term is used as subdivision {^t) of 
the current land measure. Thus, 
in Saugor, the anna = \Q rti^tU, and 
is itself A o^ a kancha (Elliot, 
Gloss. 8. v.). The term is also some- 
times applied collocjuially to persons 
of mixt parentage. 'Such a one has 
at least 2 anTuw of dark blood,* or 
* cotfee-colour.' This may l)e compared 
with the Scotch expression tliat a 
jiei-son of deficient mtellect 'wants 
twoi)ence in the shilling.* 

1708._«'Pro\nded . . . that a debt due 
from Sir Edward Littleton ... of 80,407 
Rupees uud Eight Axuuu Money of Bengal^ 
with Interest and Damages to the said 
English Company shall still remain to 
them. . ." — Ktirl of Godot nhin*s Atoard be- 
tween the Old and the New E. I. C-o., in 
Chartrrs, &c., p. 358. 

1727. — "The current money in Surat: 
Bitter Almonds go 32 to a Pice : 

1 Aiin06 is .... 4 Pice. 
1 Kui^ce 16 Annoes. 

♦ • ♦ ♦ ♦ 

In Bengal their Accounts are kept in Pice : 

12 to an Annoo. 

16 AnnoeB to a Rupee." 

A. Jlamiltoitj ii. Api>. pp. 5, 8. 

ANT, WHITE, s. The insect 
{Temus hellicosxLs of naturalists) not 
proi)erly an ant, of whost* destructive 
powers there are in India so many 
disagreeable ex|>eriences, and so many 
marvellous stories. The phnuse was 
]>erha])S t^iken up by the En^jlish 
from the Port./or7/iiV/(M6mnc/w«, wliich 
is in Blut^vxu's Diet. (1713, iv. 175). 
But indeed exactly the same expres- 
sion is ustni in tJie 14th centurv by 
our medieval authority. It is, we 
l>eliev(% a fart tbat these insect-s have 
l)een I'stablished at Uwhelle in France, 
for a b>n«^ ju-riod, and more recently 
at St. Helena. They exist also at the 
C(mvent (jf Mt. Sinai, and a sjHJcies 
in Queensland. 

A.D. c. 2r»0. —It Hocms pn>lxible that 
Aelian speaks of White Ant<«. — **But the 
Indian ants construct a kind of heajHid-up 
dwellings, and those not in depreHse<l or tUit 
iKwitions cjisily liable to Ikj tiooded, hut in 
lofty an<l elevated ixwitions. . ." — />« Nat, 
Animal, xvi. cap. lo. 

c. 1*V2S. — "E<t ctiam unum genus 
parvissiinanim formirarnm sicut lana 
albarnm, <|uanun durities dontium tanta 

est quod etiam ligna rodunt et renat 
lapidum ; et quotquot breyiter inveniiint 
siccum super terram, et pannos laoeos, et 
bombycinos laniant ; et faciunt ad modom 
muri crustam unam de arenA minutiarim^, 
itaquod sol non possit eas tangere; et nc 
remanent ooopertae ; verum Mt quod fd 
oontingat illam crustam fran^, et aolem 
eas timgere, miam citius monuntor. — Fr. 
Jordanusy p. 53. 

1679. — '*But there is yet a far greater 
inconvenience in this Country, which pro- 
ceeds from the infinite number of nUtt 
EnunetB, which though they are but little, 
have teeth so sharp, that they will eat down 
a wooden Post in a short time. And if 
great care be not taken in the placee where 
you lock up your Bales of Silk, in fcmr and 
twenty hours they will eat through a Bale, 
as if it had been saw'd in two in the middle." 
— Tacernier's Tunquiny E. T., p. 11. 

1688. — '* Here are also abundance of Antt 
of several sorts, and Wood-lice, called by 
the English in the East Indies, White Anta. 
— Dampiery ii. 127. 

1713. — "On voit encore des fourmis de 
plusieurs esp^ces ; la plus pemicieuae est 
celle uue les Europ^ns out nomm€ fommi 
blancne." — Lettrt* Kdijianteny xii. 96. 

1727. — " He then began to form Projects 
how to clear Accounts with his Master's 
Creditors, without putting anything in their 
Pockets. The first was on 500 chests of 
Jajxtn Copper .... and they were brought 
into Account of Profit and Loss, for so modi 
eaten up by the White Ante.** — A . Hamificmy 
ii. 169. 

1751. — ". . . . concerning the Oiigan, we 
sent for the Kevd. Mr. Bellamy, who de- 
clared that when Mr. Frankland applied to 
him for it that he told him that it was not 
in his i)owcr to give it, but wished it was 
removeil from thence, as Mr. Pearson in- 
formed him it was eaten up by the White 
Ants."— /v. Will. Con*.y Aug. 12. In Long, 

1789.— "The White Ant U an insect 
greatly dreaded in every house ; and this is 
not to l)e wondered at^ as the devastatioo it 
occasions is almost incredible." — Mnmrf^ 
Narratiify 31. 

1876. — "The metal cases of his liaggage 
are (lis»greeably suggestive of White J^bAm^ 
and such omnivorous vermin." — *Sa/. RerieWy 
No. 1057, p. 6. 

APIL, s. Transfer of Eng. * Appeal' ; 
in genenil native use, in connection 
witli our Courts. 

1872.— "There is no Sindi, however wUd, 
that cannot now understand *■ Kasid ' (receipt) 
[Baseed] and 'AdH' (appeal)."— Birftw, 
»Sitid JUcisitedy i. 283. 

known wbarf at Bombay. A street Mif 
it is ciilled Apollo Street, and a gili 
of tbe Fort leading to it Hhe A|wlb 



c. 1690.— "Tbsre are Hne boreea bred h 
STery part of the country ; bnt tboae ol 
Cuhh eicall, being enuiU to Araba."— XtH. 
i. 133. 

1825.-" AmlM are eicoBaively Bcaree and 
dear ; and one which was sect for me to looli 
at, at a price of 800 rupees, wai a ikittiah, 
oat-leggsd thing."— feJwr, i. 189 (ed. 1344). 

c. 1844.— A local magistrato at Simla bod 
leturned from an unsuccesaful inTestigation, 
An acquaintance hailed him next da; : ' Sc 
I hear you came bacic r« infecti I ' ' Nc 
BOob thing,' waa the reply ; ' I came beclt on 

»iy 8"y Anb 1 ' 

". . . . the true blood-rojal of bia race. 
The silver Antb with bia purple Teios 
Tranaluaent, and hia Dostrilg caTsmed wide, 


owin^ to a badly.kept watch." — PiiUo, c«pl 

16G2.-"(;ptothe Cam of Nagnw . . . 
V. 1 in which ipaoB aiv thflH 

will be 100 leagues, i 
' t«i placH, Ch< 
apital of the kingdom s 

1568.— "Queito Re di Bubui ha il no 
atato in meno la ooeta, tra il Bagno di 
Beogala e quello di Pegb, ed 6 il ma«u« 
oemioo Che habbia 11 Re del Pegk "— Sntn 
lU' Frderiei, in Jtamiaio, iii. 398. 

1586.—". . . . Pasaiog b; ths Uaod td 
Sundiua, Porto grande, or the OoQUtiw of 
'Hppera, the Kingdom of Bsooo and Moga, 

;if«B)'. ■'. ■ ourcouTM wa«"8. and by'R 
"licTbroi -"- - '- "--■- ' " — -=-" 

Tht Sanyon JVee. lai^, 

ABAKAN, ABBACAN, D-p. Thia s"*^ 
ia an European forn), perhaps through "■ 1^ 
Malav [whi::h Mr Skeat has failed to 
trace], of Bakhaing, the name which 
the natives give ttieniselvea. Thia ia 
believed, by Sir Arthur Phayre [see 
Joum. Ai. Soc. Ben. xii. 24 Mqq,"] to 
be a corruption of the Skt. rdk- 
»ha*a, Pali riMhaio, i.e. 'ogre' or 
the like, a word applied by the 
early Buddhists to unconverted tribes 
with whom thcv came in contact. 
It is not impossible that the 'A|>vfp3 
of Ptolemy, which unquestionably 
represents Arakan, may disguise the 
name by which the country is atill 
known to foreigaera ; at least no trace 
of the name aa 'Silver-land' in old 
Indian Geography has yet been found. 
We may notice, without laying any 
stress upon it, that in Mr. Beal'a ac- 
count of early Chinese pilgrims to 
India, there twice occurs mention of 
an Indo-Chinese kingdom called 0-li- 
ki-lo, which transliterates fairly int« 
some name like Argyri, and 

~R. F^h^a m 

.00.— "To the S.E. of Bengal it a 
nuDtry called Arknng to wUch the 
r of Chittagoog properly beloqgi.''— 
U'iAvrr«,ed.mSO,ii.i. [Ed. JcotM, 
n. ilUJin ong. (i. 388} ArUuulff. 

[1590.-Ainaui. See H&CAO. 

[1608.-Kakhui«. Bee CHAMPA 

[c. lOea.-Aiacan. See PBOHE. 

[1659.— Anean. SeeTAIAFOIH.] 

1660.— " Despatches about thii time >r- 
rived from Hu'aizBm Khan, reportiitt hi< 
succeMire victoriea and the Sight of Shnji 
to the country of Pj^fch«Tig, leaTing Bengal 
nDdefonded-'-A-^r- ^A*", in Slial, ra. 

[o. !660.-"The Prince .... Mmt Ui 
eldest son. Sultan Banque, to the Eiw d 
Bmmi, or Moe.'—BeniUT (ed. OokMU), 

to peas any Cavalry by I^nd, no, lui M> 
much an any Infantry, from Bengali into 
"-W". because of the many chaonali ud 
riters upon the Frontiers ... be |th* 

e of that Rtek 
of all HaDkiad 

' their Bastwd-bt 

J. Ha)-30.. 
a ad o 

"Mari deincepa c 
ium 1t*<-h«nl HuTi 
(1, in fogffiiu, IM 

set.''- A". Ci. 

1516.— "Dontrofra terra del detto 
di Venoa, tenio tra 

regno di Gontili molto grande .... con- 
il regno di Btgala e col 

m Jtro 

[c. 1535.— ".^r^uam": See CAPELAN.] 
1M5.— ''Tho^ told mo that comino fnnn 
India in the 'hip of Jorge Manhoz (who wan 
a householder in Goa), towards the Port of 
Chatigaon in the kingdom of Bengal, they 
were wrecked upon the shoals of Bwsaou 

lurking in the Islands at the Uouths of th* 
Ganges, by the name of BMUuan."— 
Frgrr. 21S. (The word is misprfnted Ar- 
canterl; but see Fryer's Iitdex.) 

1726.-" It is called by some Portogiun 
Oirakui. by others among them AllkUaa, 
and by some again Bakmn (aftor its cuc^ 
and also Mog(BIllg:g)."—l'ain.(tf«, t, 1#J. 

1727.— "Aimckan has a ConTeniaDsy i< 
[t noble spacious Riyer."-^. ffiuUlM, 

ABBOL TBISTE, a. The tree sr 

shntb, so called by Port, writon,^ 
pears to l>e the Nydanthet arbor trU^ 
3T Arabian j/umine (N. O. Jaammm^ 
) native of the drier puts of IndiL 

ir6«r tndu, 
■ of IndiL 1 





name, which seeiiis more properly to 
belong to tlie splendid bird of the 
Malay Peninsula {Argusarnu giganUus^ 
Tem., Pavo argus, Lin.X is connisingly 
applied in Upper India to the Him&- 
layan homed pheasant Ceriomis (Spp. 
miyra^ and melanoctphala) from the 
round white eyes or spots which mark 
a great part of the bird's plumage. — 
See remark under MOONAUL. 

ABBAOK, BACK, s. This word 
is the Ar. ^arcJc, properly * perspira- 
tion,' and then, nrst the exudation 
or sap drawn from the date palm 
Carak aUtamar) ; secondly any strong 
arink, 'distilled spirit/ 'essence,* etc. 
But it has spread to very remot^i 
comers of Asia. Tlius it is used in 
the forms ariki and arhi in Mon^lia 
and Manchuria, for spirit distilled 
from grain. In India it is applied 
to a variety of common spirits ; in 
S. India to those distilled from the 
fermented sap of sundry palms ; in 
K. and N. India to the s]>irit distilled 
from uinc-molasses, and also to that 
from rice. The Turkish form of the 
word, r(/K, is applied to a spirit 
made from graj)e-skins ; and in Syria 
and EgA'j>t to a spirit flavoured with 
aniseea, made in tiie LeUimm. There 
is a popular or slang Fr. word, riquiqtii, 
for brandy, which a]>pears also to l>e 
derived from arnll (Marcel Dtivic). 
HumlK)ldt {Examen^ &c., ii. 300) wiys 
that the woifl first ap])eai's in Pigafett*i*s 
Voyage of Magellan ; l)Ut this is not 

c. 1420. — "At ever}' mm (|MMt-hoii8o) 
thoy give the travellers a sheep, a (2ro<wc, a 
fowl .... 'arak. . . r—Stmh HoLh's Km- 
hiufi to China, in N. k E., xiv. 396. 

1516. — ** And they htinfr cocoa-nut>«, 
hurraca (which 18 .something to drink) . . . ." 
-Barlxmtj Hak. Soc. .'iP. 

ir>18. — ** — que todos tw mantiinentoH asy 
do jjiio, conio vinhos, orracas, arrozcs, 
t:arno«, o jiescados." — In Arthir. Port. 
Orient. J 2, f>7. 

Ifi'il.— •' When these people saw the 
IN)liteness of the captain, thoy presentcil 
M)nie fish, and a vessel of {Kihn-wine, which 
thcv cull in their lanf^iiige nraca. ...**- 
Pitjafrtto, Hak. Soc. 72. 

1.^)44. ■--•'Manucli a cnice .... commendo 
lit plurimum invigilet duobtis illis Christian- 
oruni C'areunim iMigid, diligenter attendere 
.... nemo ix)tii Orraoae so inobriet . . . 
si ex hoc deinccpH tempore I^micali Orraoha 
IKjtetur. ipsos ad mihi siio gravi damno 
liiitnnw." -Sti. Fr. Xtfr. K/nWt., p. 111. 

li>54. — "And the ezdae on Um amyfmu 
made from palm-trees, of whioh there are 
three kinds, viz., CurOf which is aa it is 
drawn ; ovn^lUL which is pint oooe boiled 
{cozfdot qa. distilled f) ; tharaJb {xarao) whkb 
is boiled two or three times and is stronger 
than otrofpiiL^—S. Botelho, Tombo^ 50. 

1563.— "One kind (of oooo-palm) they 
keep to bear fruit, the other for the Mke of 
the fura, which is n'no tnosto; and this i^ien 
it has been distilled they call itmeMJ'— 
Garcia D'O., f. 67. (The word nrO, used 
here, is a very ancient importation from 
India, for Coemas (6th century) in his 
account of the coco-nut, confounding (H 
would seem) the milk with the toddy of that 
palm, says: "The Argellicn is at first foil 
of a very sweet water, which the Indians 
drink from the nut, using it instead of wine. 
This drink is odled rhoncomra, and v 
extremely pleasant." It is indeea possible 
that the rnonco here may already be the 
word amici). 

1605.— "A Chinee borne, but now turned 
lauan, who was our next neighbour .... 
and brewed Aracke which is a kind of hot 
drinke, that is vsod in most of these parts of 
the world, instead of Wine. . ." — £. Scott in 
Purchas, i. 173. 

1631. — ". . . . jocur .... apotaistiw 
maledicti AraOi non tantum in tempen- 
monto immutatum, sed etiam in substanti& 
mik comimpitur." — Jac. Bonti»*, lib. ii c^i. 
vii. p. 22. 

1687.— "Two iars of Aimdk (made of rioe 
as I judged) called by the Chinc:9e SamAM 
[Samidioo]. — /Atm./>»«r, i. 419. 

1719. — "We exchanged some «>f our 
for opium and some arniok. . . .**— /?oAm«m 
Cntme, Ht. II. 

1727.—" Mr Boucher had l>een 14 Montte 
soliciting to procure hisi Phirmaund ; but 
his rei>oated Fetitionfl .... had no Effect. 
But he had an Bnglithman^ one «Sm«i», for 
his Interpreter, who often took a large Dom 
of Airack. . . . Swan got pretty near the 
King (Aumngzeb) .... and criod with a 
?oud Voice in the Persian LAnguage that 
his Mafltor wanted Justice done him ** (sss 
DOAI).— .1. HamiUou, i. 97. 

Rack is n further corruption ; and iMk- 
punch is i^rhaiis not (jnite olwolete. 

1603.—" Wo taking the But-ends uf Pike* 
; and Halbcrtsand Foggot-sticlu, dimveth^ 
i into a Racke-house. - -A*. !<rftt, in Pmrd^ 

i. 184. 

I'lirchas alno has Vraoa and other Ion*; 
and at i. 648 there is mention of a strong 
kind of spirit called Baok-ostf (Malay Aj^^^ 
<fire'). See FOOL'S a^GK. 

1616.— "Some small quantitie of Was, 
but not common, is made among then ; thtf 
call it Baaok, distilled from Sugar aad a 
spicie Kindo of a Tree oalled U§n 
[Jaggwy]."— rfrry, in Purckat, U. 14701 

1622.-" We'll send him a jar of n* tf 
next conveyance.'* — Letter in 
iii. 40. 




>i»C —"Java hath b«en fatal tii manv of 

*' fj'^ruh. ('at mtich vhn'Uffh their uwn | 

■•.•i.:--- *ith Back.**— /'vrrX^u, IHlgrim- 

>4- - J>« . . . finally iiMstad ui*<>n 
urw » •« •» "f rmck pnnch. . . . Inat 
I.* . .' nek pnneh wu thv i-:iu«c uf all thif< 

■ at 

AUEHAIfc .. An old and inprnioiif ; 

• ■ ■ '■•j\ "1 '\x:^ \*fpl i". tirx uarulxA, \ 
.' ■ .- r-.!!v Ar.i^'ii . H\<lc dfriv*"* 


. '.f* kJulfi'ih, ^iiiiMiii tvm»ri%' 

<.:r.i r--l ::.:•■ t'lmiffth^ tin* form 0*"< ; 

•%k>-> .x^i .it ('i>iL'<untinoi»lf > 

'V.-.»T.:ti ['lA^rir, i. ICh^). iJut it is 

■i •• :•■• Ar. 4*tr-nl-^iuan^ *(loniu> 

.- • ;:, i- Ml' •! .11 'tat iiiti> fn»ni Ma>'- 

• !'\r]\ -h"m-. Tin- 'iM Ita]. form."* 
\'*^. ?. rf-j-iT. tV , '•rri>l«trit** tliis, ami 

■ *•: T'fi'r'- v.a. whirli i> rtMidi'D**! '■ 

• A" •> }•-::•• '\*- Al'.ila, iiuotfil l.y 
'».'.. .- «/•- ; r.n'»'i.— Sfv dWails in 

« ■ •* * A', ti*:- -iav in tho vwir of ' 

'-- •■'."'» Tl' !;h'-lf* \fi'*iaf) is :in nrxi'iial i 

*-:- • .1 ;■ mh«-rr ?h* Cirwk^ liuiWI thi'ir ! 

• v^'-^ - M^t •ti'*. :i. -l"^. Ami furniii 
-\' *: ' f .^ritj^-. " '.111 arxvnal of 

■ • ■ 

■ *::- . :v. ■ K«-?j t!i» ri- i- ;i very 

.- -'!..}.' tN J. i.k.: Dara^ana. 

■ ••-■*■ r* iTi i ■ :}ii r cnfi:* niKivr 

■ - ■•-:••. • i:. I ■rl»r->f rviKV;^«lf 

- ■ * • f' -*. ■ y !i.,i.ii- i.timi»ii :inil 

• ' ■• : •■" •T^* «'.»i r■^-. «.-ni«c*-ltiiw«i. 

.■— . - .1/. -'"i-'. !**.*•'. fifi'rrtif 

•■ ' t 'r' ■ 

"'- ■ •■ ■ ■ • .1 . Terahana 'Ifiix !'^'Ilf> 

A£T. EXTBOPEAN. WHhawh.anl ; 

•. »;!'i ■ .'']\, i/t l.iTf yfar.-* ivpir«i- 

- •• T.}'!-!: -'i liniitii :irt antl 

".* : -• -.■ : "'■% Til. .■ini.|.i\nji'nt nf 

,r.-'- ,: u rKii.i; i"i' hiir<>}>t'an 

■ *: : *!'«r Kiir"|H'an jvittiTn.'*. 

:. :,: ? "•:!• li |*tTtfrn> i.- U" 

■ ' :.*". .- «• i». iv .-•»• i'mui this, 

■A' '-T -!:11 nii'liT A-i.iti«' 

i — 

. 4 

.- • 

* s 

r .- 

• /•^■i* 

. T. * Tkit thu l!ifh:in<i 

u:*. i«- Tii.iki* thfiji"vi- 

: .:^ vi rj »•.;] i.i- !•« s»tiijv 

iiirt* -f In«ii:». :in'l it 

I* 7h.>y hnvo iiu'liimtiitn 

■kf. i th it '-••me of thfiD 

jT .k Ma.'«li*r) Tcrj" prvtty 

: .:u:tat<* m* well our work 

•.».f iJi:Ti-n'nt*e there* »f will 

rr.Mr lUrn^^, K. T., M- 

ABTIOHOKE, s. Tlie genealogy of 
thi« word ap]>ears to Ihj .somewhat as 
follows : Tlie Ar. w al-^anhtf (per- 
liajM connected with fianuh^ *roiigh- 
skinne<l') or al-khurghuf ; hence Sp. 
alcarchofil and It. carcioffo and arciocco^ 
Fr. urtichaut^ Eng. artiekoke. 

c. 1IW8. — "The Incenso (benzoin) tree i.-* 
^mall . . . . it8 branches are like those 
uf a thistle or an artichoke (al-khanliaf)." 
— ///M Matitta, iv. 240. Al-knanhaf in the 
published text, llie Hi^cllin^ with k iniitead 
of i-A is* liolieved to l>e correct (see /Vw*/, ».v. 

A/ainhoJa) ; [alwi we *V. A?. />. s. v. .1 r^>A<»l-*]. 

ABTAN, adj. Skt. Arya, * noble.' A 
tenn fn*<niently used to inrhide all tlie 
nues (lndi»-IVrsic, Greek, Roman, 
CVltic, Sclavonic, &c.) which siNMik 
languages Indoncint; to tht* same family 
iL-i ^Nlnsk^it. Mucn vogui* wjis given 
to lln* term by Pictet*8 jmblication of 
L»^M i>riqinrA Jndo-KurttjiefUfieif, oh Ifs 
AruoM Pn'mitifi (Paris, 1859^ and this 
writer w'cms almost to claim the luime 
in tliis S4'iis«* i'Ui his nwn (see (flotation 
Ih-Iow). Jhit it WiLs in usi* Inng In-fore 
th«' datt* of his lHM>k. Our first (quota- 
tion \< fntni liittcr, and tluTi' it has 
hanlly rfarlifd tin* full fxtont of a]»- 
pliiation. Ritti-r s*M'instohaviMlrriv«'d 
I hi* um* in thi.-* Kissigi* from IjiissiMiV 
Fmtapottnniii. The won) lias in gn*at 
nn-a-jurt' su|K'rs«*ded tin* i»ld«*r term 
Ittdo-fitrmtniu\\trn\HKH'(\ by F. Sblcgrl 
at the U'ginnmg of the l;u*t cimi- 
tury. The latter is however, still 
•M)metimes ust'd, and M. Hovdactjue, 
e>]H't ially, juvtVrs it. We mayol>.MTve 
here that the connertion whiih evi- 
dently exiMs iK'twcfU the s«'venil 
lauLTuages ila-v^iMl tngi'ilit-r as Aryan 
I an not U* repirflvd, as it was fonm-rly, 
;u< warranting an Jt^^su nipt inn t.f identity 
c»f rate in all the jK'«i|>b-^ wlio >}H'ak 

It may bf nf>te*l a>i < urimis that 
aniiing the Javanes*» (a jH-ii]ib' .-io remote 
in bbuKi fn»m what wi* understand bv 
Arvan\ the Wi>nl tfmn is mmmonlv 
u>«'d ;u5 an honnrary ]»rfti\ to the 
name*i of men (»f rank ; a >uivival <»f 
th>' aui ieiit Hindu influrni-*' on the 
civilisition of the i>land. 

Tlie i*arlie»it U"^' of Anjin in an 
ethnic s«'ns*» i«4 in the In*- ri|»!ion nn 
thf tninbiif Darius, in \>lii'li tin* king 
i-alU hini-'tdf an Aryan, an 1 •■! Aryan 
dfMi-nt, wbiKt Oiniu/.d i^ in the 
Mi'dian ver>ion styled, ^^I'**! of the 




B.O. o. 486.—" Adam Ddryamuh lOuhdya- 

ihiya txuarka P&rsa, Pdr- 

tahiyd putrOf Ariya, Alism chitra," %,e. " I 
(am) Darius, the Great ^in^, the King of 
Kiiifl«2 the Kin^ of all inhabited countries, 
the King of this great Earth far and near, 
the son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian, a 
Persian, an Arian, of Arian descent." — In 
Jtaiolifuon^s Herodotiu^ 3rd ed., iv. 250. 

"These Medes were called anciently by 
all people AtIimiw but when Med^ the 
Ck>lchian, came to them from Athens, they 
changed their name." — Herodot.^ vii. 62 

1835. — "Those eastern and proper Indians, 
whose territory, however, Alexander never 
touched by a long way, call themselves in 
the most ancient period Arians (Arier) 
{ManUf ii. 22, x. 45), a name coinciding 
with that of the ancient Medes." — Ritter, 
V. 458. 

1838. — See also Rittery viii. 17 seqq. ; and 
Potto's art. in Er»ch A Orueber*s Encyc, ii. 
18, 46. 

1850. — "The Axyan tribes in conquering 
India, urged by the Brahmans, made war 
against we Turanian demon-worship, but 
not always with complete success. — Dr, 
J. WilMn, in Life, 450. 

1851. — "We must rec^uest the patience of 
our readers whilst we give a short outline of 
the component members of the great Axian 
family. The first is the Sanskrit. . . . The 
second branch of the Arian family is the 
Persian. . . . There are other scions of the 
Arian stock which struck root in the soil of 
Asia, before the Arians reached the shores 
of Europe. . ."—(Pro/. Max MUUer) Edin- 
burgh Review, Oct. 1851, pp. 312-313. 

1853. — "Sur les sept premieres civilisa- 
tions, (}ui sont celles de 1 ancien monde, six 
appartiennent, en partie au moins, k la race 
arlane."— &o6(neau, JJe VInigaliUdes Race* 
HnmaineSy i. 364. 

1855. — " I believe that all who have lived 
in India will bear testimony .... that to 
natives of India, of whatever class or caste, 
Mussulman, Hindoo, or Parsoe, 'AlTan or 
Tamulian,' unless they have had a special 
training, our European paintings, prints, 
drawings, and photographs, plain or coloured, 
if the^ are landscai>es, are absolutely unin- 
telligible." — Vuie, Mission to Ava, 59 (publ. 

1858.—" The Aryan tribes— for that is the 
name they gave t|;»emselvc8, both in their 
old and new homos — brought with them 
institutions of a simplicity almost primitive." 
— Whitnrt/y ()r. A Ling. Studies, ii. 5. 

1861. — " Latin, again, with Greek, and the 
Celtic, the Teutonic, and Slavonic lan- 

§iingos, together likewise with the ancient 
ialects of India and Persia, must have 
jiprung from an earlier language, the mother 
of the whole Indo- European or Aliran family 
of speech."- /'ro/*. Max MiUler, Ijecturett, 1st 
Sor. 32. 

We also find the verb Aryanize : 
1858. — "Thus all India was brought under 

the sway, physical or intellectual and moral, 
of the alien race; it was thoroa^y 
Aiyaniied.'' — Whitney, u. «. 7. 

8. Arab, cuhnfy 
'noble,' applied to various gold ooins 
(in analogy with the old Knglidi 
* noble'), especially to the dindr of 
Egvpt, and to the Gold Mohnr of 
Inaia. — See XEBAFINE. 

c. 1550. — "There was also the sum of 
500,000 Falo^ aihrafies equal in the 
currency of Persia to 50,000 royal Irak 
tomSns."- iffm. of Bumayun, 125. A note 
suggests that Faiory, or Fieri, indicatei 

ASSAM, n.p. The name applied 
for the last three centuries or more to 
the great valley of the Brahmaputra 
River, from the emergence of its chief 
sources from the mountains till it 
enters the great plain of Bengal The 
name A»Am_9,TA sometimes AAdm is 
a form of Ahdm or A horn, a dynasty 
of Shan race, who entered the countiy 
in the middle aces, and long ruled it 
Assam politically is now a province 
embracing much more than tne name 
properly included. 

c. 1590.— "The dominions of the Bajah 
of Aaliam join to Kamroop ; he is a f«fT 
powerful prince, lives in gr^t state, au 
when he dies, his principal attendanta, botii 
male and female, are voluntarily boried alivt 
with his ooTpoe."—Oladvnn's Ayeen (td. 
1800) ii. 3 ; [Jarrett, trans, ii. 118]. 

1682.— "Ye Nabob was very biwy difr 
patching and vesting divers principal oAom 
sent with all possible diligence with reordti 
for their army, lately overthrown in AlkW 
and Sillet, two large plentiful ooontriai 8 
days' journey distant from this city (DaooaV* 
—Hedges, Dtary, Oct. 29th ; [Hak. See. L 48). 

1770.— "In the be^nning of the piu w t 
century, some Bramins of Bengal cairiMl 
their superstitions to A«if m where tbs 
people were so happy as to be g^ded tcMtj 
by the dictates of natural religioo.''— 
Raynal (tr. 1777) i. 420. 

1788.— "M. Chevalier, the late Gorenor 
of Chandemagore, by permissioD of the 
Eling, wont up as high as the capitiJ of 
Assam, about the year 1762."— iteMM^ri 
Mem., 3rd ed. p. 299. 

ASSEQAT, 8. An African throw- 
ing-spear. Dozy has shown that this 
is Berber zaghdya, with the Ar. article 
prefixed (p. 223). Those who use it 
often seem to take it for a S. African 
or Eastern word. So Qodinho de 
Eredia seems to use it as if Malaj 
(f. 21 v). [Mr Skeat remarks that tlie 
nearest word in Malay is idigi^ as- 





pU:ned by Klinkert ma * a short wooden 
lh^•wiI^;-t|war,' which is possibly that 
r»{*>rTcd to bj G. de Eredia.] 

c. 1270. — ^'llftere wmn the King fftandinff 
vRh yhimm * •xortiiui ' ((»r men <>f the guanl) 
br b» ade anned with JArelinii [nb lur atia- 
1 *T, — -tluxftkith of K. /oiiir» <^ A ragoiHy 

18^ i. 173. 
They h*Te a quantity of 

hicfa are a kind of light darta." 
y^irfyafSo primnroj 32. 

lAiCi--"Bat in (general they all came 
iRMd IB their faahiuo, aome with ***(p*f 
oc ftLjrld* and ochen with Ijows and 
<f3Jtn k4 arrow*." — Banxa, 1. iii. 1. 

• f 

I » _ 

H .3; «l« cacodo embracado, e de aagaia, 
■ ^.tro de arvo encurraacs e setta errada." 

CamHes^ i. 86. 
Kf itartoo: 

:AaL tarire on arm and aMSgrni in hand, 
taat, with hie bended bow, and renom'd 

IX. — ** I loro archibugi iiDno belli, e 
MlCi:. oi4De i nuntri, e le lance Hono fatte 
oc ajraac canne |iiene, e ft^rti, in ca{M) 
dc^le .juali mettooo m ferro, come uno di 
s«:i dell* Qovtri WMgaagOmr—Batbi, 111. 

Htt> -"Tbeee they n»e to make Instru- 
ar:*j 'i wherewith to tinh . . . . ao aluo to 
tu«t weaj-icjk, a.* Bi»w«<, Arrr>weH, A{x)ner8, 
^' Aas^iiikjai."— /Hjr. offtHinra^ frum the 
>-• 1. :a /'vrrA4U. ii. 9J7' 

>t^ . "[tiizknae^ royaiit iiuo nou» ne 
• :•■-, tit imjmer. iv^ doux homines .*ont vena 
^* 2d(«aDt Au(>r^« dc D4>u«, et ayanit en 
>^.r« Bam* tron Lancet tet* ou Aia^yw." — 

"^•. •* The ^..nJinArv fwKi of them> Cafren 


.» '.i- fle^h «rf thi* animal (the elephant), and 
•ktI ibvm with their Awngiii (in orig. 
HlflfliL whuh urv a kind nf jihort pike, 
*r* ».»«« i4. Virin*: an eleph^int t4> the ground 
un t:: tt."—Tat^Hwr (ed. Ai//), li. 161, 

•*S*<— "Lew autnr* ftn«t»s ofTcninvcjt (in 
•aiid- •jot I'an: et La fl^-he. le javclot ou 

m^Kf . . . r-ru.^su, V. i;fti(od. 1727). 

•^^!. •■.... enointran»n diez y nuoTe 
i-i'-n^ \mm^ armailirt c\*i\ dardiiA, y aia- 
PJM. w»: -xniAn ]••« Ar:tl>C5 vna.«* lan^a^ 
'•^ .*ti*» »JT* >&-itx.i/», y |*elfsipin con ello«." 
— ii\r*im^ if ia I'm^mt^, (.'<#ffi^#»//t«, 87. 

,«. * _ 

' \ -*r*. u. f.^ht, athir*t to (ilay, 
TV II •h.-hkv the drviuidl assegai, 
\r.:: r-^a with bliu'i arid frantic will 
*-*s a... wben few, vbtj^e force is >*kill." 

/juk//Ai^u, bv Zrf/. iknitfvni d* '■ 
HM^hff, fiwui, March 29. f 

ATAP. ADAP. s. Applit-il in the \ 
^^j'j-Ja%'anc»»r iv^uit-^ to any ]>alni- | 
fr&l§ iLVfl ill thatf-hiiii;, roninionly 
i '.hf«e lA the Nlpa (At/*! fruticam^ 
TVaab ). [^ (op, accf )rding t4 > M r Skeat, 
« ia» appliea to any rooting ; thiis 

tiles are called aJtap hatriy ' stone ato|M.'] 
The Nipa, '* although a wild plant, 
for it is so abundant that its culture 
is not necessary, it is remarkable that 
its name should be the same in all the 
languages from Sumatra to the Philip- 
pines." — (Crawfurdy Did. Ind. Arat. 
301). Atdp is Javanese for * thatch.' 

1672.— '*Atap or leares of Palm-trees 
. . . ."^Baidaeus, Ceylon, 164. 

1690. — ''Adapol (quae folia sunt sicca et 
votuBta) . . . ." — Aumphiiu, Herb. Amb. 
i. 14. 

1817. — "In the maritime districts, &tap 
or thatch is made .... from the leaves of 
the nipa." — Raffles, Java, i, 166; r2nd ed. 
i. 186]. 

1878.— "The unirersal roofing of a Perak 
house is Atti^l stretched orer bamboo rafters 
and rid^e-poles. This attap \a the dried leaf 
of the mpan palm, doubled over a small stick 
of bamboo, or niboM." — McNair, Perak, dx., 

ATLAS, s. An obsolete word for 
' satin,' from the Ar. cUlas^ used in that 
sense, literally * bare 'or *bald' (comp. 
the Ital. ram for * satin'). The word 
is still used in German. [The Draper' n 
Did. (s.v.) says that "a silk stuff 
wrought with threads of gold and 
silver, and knouTi by this name, was 
at one time imjiorted from India." 
Vusuf Ali {Mon. on Silk Fabrics, p. 
93) writes : *Mf//M is the Indian satin, 
but the term mtan (corrupted from the 
English) is also applied, and sometimes 
sptH-ialise*! to a thicker form of the 
fabric. This fabric is always sulv 
stantial, i.e. never so thin or netted 
as to l)e semi-transparent ; more of the 
weft showing on the upper surface 
than of the warp."] 

1284. — "Cette m6mo nuit par ordro du 
Sultan quinze centn de sett Mamlouks furent 
rev^tus de robes d 'atlas rouges brod^s. . .'* 
— Mahriti^ t. ii. pt. i. 69. 

,, "The Sultan Mas'ud clothed bis 
dogin with trappingR uf a^las of divers colours, 
and jHit bracelets ui>un them." — FaJthri, 
p. 68. 

15a'..— "Raso por »cda rasa."— Atlla, 
Vocahnlar Aniuujo of Fr. I*, d^ Alcahi. 

1673.— "They gt) Rich in Apiiarel, their 
Turhatff of (;i>ld, I>:muu«k'd Ciold Atlas Coats 
to their Heels, Silk, Ahijah or Cuttanoe 
breeches'."— /'Vvfr, 196. 

1683.— "I saw ye Taffatua and AtlassM 
in ye \VHrehou>«e, and gave directions con- 
cerning their several colours and stripes." — 
Hedges, Itiari/, May 6 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 85]. 

1689.— (Surat) "is renown'd for .... 
rich Silks, such ti* Atllliei .... and for 
Zarbafts [Zerbaft]. . . ."— Om^^aii, 218. 




4 thr burtiinie Ell I pi rv, and 

k^ 4»ftrti to that State itself. 

lie M l«»mm-ir«i, ai'c^tniiiig to 

i, fnmi the fumi Awa or Aittik 

the MalavK. T1i«* |jru]>«r 

f'liiu wan Kng-wa, or *the 

titK,' )«raiijie tht* city vths 

tr th** ripening of a laijioon 

Irawarii ; )»ut thi.s vran called, 

thf H<inii«tM-, II Miff |K>piilarly 

Thr MiMith.* Thf i-ity was 

A.X>, 13C4. Tilt- tirst Euni]»eaii 

Lr i'i thr luinif, sfi far ra we 

1. I44<i> ill tht* namitive of 

(•nti. .aid it a|»|N^r^ again (no 

•m <'"iitiV inffiriiiiition) in thi* 

■•rid -Map <»f Fni Maun) at 

■ H.inntf "^.-lilvd ii|i thl* river for 

■ f 4 ru(4)tb he arrived at a city 

« \hkn .til the «>th«;ni. i.-al\e<l Ata, 

n-usiftfrvoce »»f which i* l.^ railed." 

-. /h./«i iM rA< Xl'th t'ent. 11. 

Thrciiuntry (I'tJini) i.-* diittant 

nnwv t't land fn/in hm^ther called 

'.uu ^n>« nibie^ und many other 

b'Ctr-, - H*rr. di Sin. i<t*t\imo, u. h. 

I:, Vitr_v«.r;il ihi"* Kiturdmn nf 
•r.t fi- :» ,iii<>thi-r Kiiiirdoiii »»f 

• Tj: h r_fc« A Hh.» rt*«ideH in a 

• *r.'l ii'ffit cjty tiillvd Ara, s 
- • _\ fr ni thl- ^-A : a phu-o of riih 

.:. »M. h th«.r»* i.-* .1 jrrvAt trtde of 
■ •— . in-: -|iric!-rul'ii»^, whirh nrv 
-. thl- Ivjiwd'ini." -lUtr^m^i^ lv>. 

-The Kinjr «»f Ot4 haviii^r 

•■.• 1. ufa |<c«<|>>-v. with i-avalry. t<» 

-- if*"- nil. t. whith hf."* wiih 

iTil Ljt} of Ot4 or Anri, 

.-• '•■.murj«ii''l "Ti all !«ide* with 

tioii from Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali 

1538.—'*. . . . o qual veyo d'AmadaTa 
principall cidode do rcino."— In H. BoUlho, 
Tombtt, 228. 

1M6.— *'The greater the resiiitaDce they 
made, the more uf their bluod wan ipilt in 
their defeat, and when they took to fliffht, 
we gave them chano for the npace of hfuf n 
Icugtie. And it is my belief that a« f ar an 
the will of the officem and lancarys went, 
we Hhould not have halted on thiii side of 
]facUlT4 ; but an I miw that my people were 
much fatigued, and that the afoom were 
in f^reat numbers, 1 withdrew them and 
brought them back to the city.**— D. JoAo 
de Castro'H deiipatch to the City of Ooa 
resiiectimr the victory at Diu.— Correo, iv. 

1(M8.— ''The capital (of Guzerat) lies in 
the interior of the country and is named 
Hamfd-KuxU^ i.f, the (Mty of King Hanud 
who built it ; nowadayn they call it Awa- 
</ft/vir or Anuulabat.*'— Van Twittj 4. 

1673.— ''From AmidaTftd, small Birds, 
who, besidoH that they are snotted with 
white and Red n<» Inffger than Measles, the 
princi|)al C^horinter lieginning, the rest in 
Conxort, Fifty in a (*(m^e, make an admirable 
Clmrus." -/Vyr, 116. 

[1777.--". . . a few prenuntd now and then 
—china, whawlK. congou tea, aTEdaTatl, and 
Indian cnickerK." — The Sc/ntof for Srandnt^ 
V. i.] 

1813.—". . . . amadaTata, and other 
Ht^ngHtem are bn Might thither (Bomliay) 
from Surat and different countries." — Ftirbta, 
Or. Mfin. i. 47. [The 2nd ed. (i. 32) roadii 

[1832.— *' The hUah, known to many by 
the name of haTer-dewatt, is a beautiful 
little crcfiture, about one-third the tnze of 

- Am 

' ■ H HI 

• Ti ^i\ «ne* witn , ^ hedge-j^pam.w."— J/r« M^ Hatsan AH, 



Tfck* lily ATa i* •«nri<i.H!«irig 

• *n*- Dfciiy n<'t lra*t,-l bv Innd to 

:«■ si«< thl* iM j<*miittt'd by the 

:• ?.»■ liit t-avi.v*. i^n ai-i-«)unt *ti 

• • :. !-.c w.iy. nnd iti!^' ln-^-auso it 
•■r.- .«• jirtimcy on ai'omnt «»f the 

DA VAT, .-*. Iinpr»>|irrly fi»r 

Thf ii.iiu*' giwn tM a 

'\ httlf i>ig»'-liinl {Eft rf Ida 

L or *R*^1 Wax -Hill) 

• ;^'f; i:: Indui, but ■•riginally 
t - Kfir-itu* frt»ni Ahmadtifnid 

:»'. I wiij. b \]i*' luiiiK' i> i\ 
'l W»' al.-> tiiiii AbiiiaflaUld | 
*-{ by }i*uitivtt : a^ in old . 
^iT'tKid "in lb*' CaApian i-* ' 
«: Jy S^r'tra (•^'»* ipitttation ! 
^m >»'1*«w). [On«.» of tb»' 
^siKH tit the I'irrl U /«//, 
rK:h apjiear* iu the quota- j 

AVATAB, s. Ski. Amtdra, an 
iiK'arnation on earth of a divine Being. 
This word first apj>ear8 in B;ildaeus 
(1672) in the form Autaar {Afgwlerye, 
]». h2,\ which in the Ciennan version 
g»*n**nilly quoted in this lHM>k taki'S 
the rorrupter shajH* of Altar. 

[c. 1590.— "In the citv of Samlial \* a 
temple called Huri Mandal (the temple of 
Vishnu) belongincr to a Hmhman, from 
iimonf? wh^jM) doscendantjt the tenth aTatar 
will apL>oar at this* !<iiot."-M(4lM, tr. Jarrott, 
ii. 281.] 

16r2. — '* Bev den Bvnjancn haljen^ auch 
diew zehen Verwandlnmron den N'amen 
daait flio Altart hei<««.>n, und alsii hat Matn 
-I /Mr aH die.'wr en«te, guwiihret 2500 Jahr.** 
— Bafdwu.*, 472. 

1784.— **Tlie ten Aratin or descent* «»f 
the deity, in hii* capicity of l^reserrer." - 
Sir H'. 'Juhfs, in Asint. lies, (reprint) i. 


1812.— <* The Awatan of Vishnu, by 1810.— *'The female who attends a lady 

which are meant his dmcents upon earth, are while she is dressing, etc., is called an 

usually counted ten. . . ." — Maria Oraham, Ayah.**— Wiltianuon^ V. M. L 337. 

^^' 1826.— "The lieutenant's visits were now 

1821.— "The Irish Aratar. "-.Syron. less frequent than usual ; one day, however, 

1845.— "In Vishnu-land what Avatar ?" he came .... and on leaving the house I 

—Brovming, Dramatic Romances^ Works, observed him slip something, which I 

ed. 1870, iv. pp. 209, 210. doubted not was money, into the hand of 

1872.-". ... all which cannot blind us ^« ^^^ Z ^'TV*rJ!?°f5??i ^ iS^""" 

to the fact that the Master U merely another ^<^^^rang Han, 71 ; [ed. 1873, i. 99]. 

avatar of Dr Holmes himself."- &i/. Review, 1842.—" Here (at Simla) there is a great 

Dec. 14, p. 768. preponderence of Mahometans. I am told 

1873.-" He .... builds up a curious that the jmns produoBd absolute oonsteraa- 

History of Spiritualism, according to which ^}^^^ ™^*® ^^ ^®»'' countenanoee. One 

all matter is mediately or immediately the -^3^ ^J"?^ herself upon the ground man 

avatar of some InteUigence, not necessarily ^^'^y 9^ ^f^y^\ ' \' Lt^^J!?^ f!^ 

the highest. "-^codwny. May 15th, 1726. ^Jhimu and Cabul ; the 22nd (^dl) gnn- 

ifi-K tto 1 ' Ta- V J J which announced that all was finished — was 

f.i!f'^*~ ^ fi!*^vT*"'^^" what overcame the Mahometans.--/^ 

fold as numerous as those of Vishnu. -Ibtd,, jaienharough, in Indian Admimistratiam 2K. 

Apru Z4tn, p^4^i. rpj^^ ^^^^ ^^ written to the great Dake of 

AVERAGE, 8. Skeat derives this Wellington ! 

in all its senses from L. Latin averia, 1873.-" The white-robed ajyh flits in and 

used for cattle ; for his deduction of Za^L ^L^^nJ^^^nS^ i^i^^^'J^ ^ 

' ^ . 1 • -r^. various possessions, and tnitner we sooo 

nieamngs we must refer to his Die- retire. "-J^Vwr** Mag., June, i. 99. 

tionary. But it is worthy of considera- i879.-" He was exceedingly fond of hit 

tion whether average, m its special two children, and got for them servants ; » 

marine use for a proportionate contri- man to cook their dinner, and an ajah to 

bution towards losses of those whose *ake care of them."— ift«» Stokes, Indian 

goods are cast into the sea to save a ^^^ Tales, 7. 
shin, &c., is not directiv connected 
witn the Fr. avarie, which has quite 

that signification. And this last Q 
Dozy shows most plausibly to l)e from 

the;Ar. Wr spoilt merchandise' BABA, s. This is the word usuaDv 

[This is rejected })y the N.KD., which i^^d in Anglo-Indian families, bv 

concludes that the Ar auYfr is "merely i^f^ Europeans and natives, to tUt 

a inod. Arabic translation and adap- children-^teiT in the plural fof», 

tation of the Western term in Its latest j^^ ^ (%='folk'). the wotd n 

sense."] Note that many Euronean ^^t used bvthe natives among tlMOD- 

words of trade are from the Aral)ic ; g^i^^ j^ ^lie same way, at Lust not 

and that ai>aru; is in Dutch ayartj, habitually: and it would seem ai if 

overtj, or A«iw;.-(See Dozy, Ooster- ^^^^ ^.^^ j^ had influenced the me. 

''"^^•> The word bdbd is properly Tu*- 

AYAH, s. A native ladv's-maid or 'father' ; sometimes used to a child 

nurse-maid. The word * has been ^ » ^^m of endearment (or lotmo% 

adopted into mast of the Indian P?^ ^^ ^^^^ * ^"^ ^^^ ^^® P- '®*" 

vernaculars in the f onus dya or dyd, J^'^* * ^^^ ^^ y^"^ Father *). Commie 

but it is really Portuguese (f. aia, ^^^ Russian use of batuthka. [BM^ 

*a nursts or governess'; m. aio, *the ^ * common form of address to • 

govt-mor of a young noble'). [These ^akir, usually a member of one of 

again have bt-eii connected with L. ^"^ Musulman sects. And hence it H 

Latin nidus, Fr. aide, *a hi-lper.'] ^^^^ generally as a title of respect] 

1779.— " I wiw sitting in my own house in [1686.— "A Letter from the P^ttepoDt 

the compound, when the ijra tiimo down Bobba.** — Pringle, l>iary. Fori SL Gm, i». 

and told nio that her miritrvHM wanted a 92.] 

candle."— KitmuUjars eridencf, in the ca«e 1826.— "1 reached the hut of a 

of iirand v. FrancU. Kxt. in JCchoes of Old ... and reluctantly tapped at tlw 

Calcutta, 22r>. calling, * O Baba, liaharai.' "— /^ 

178*2.— (A Tabic of Wagc«) :— //ar/ [ed. 1873, i. 76]. 

''Consumah 10 (rui)ee8 a month). [1880.— "While Bnmiy BtlMlii ai 1h|% 

* * * * . * * ^^^ might at any time main a raid M 

Byah h."— India (Gazette, Mamma, who is doring orw a BOfVll on tti 

^'^- l''^* spider chair near tha mouth of tfat 




BtMkic*, tb* Ajab and Bearer dare not 
te«v fbiti cbai^.** — AherigK-Matkayt 

ftiSAOOOREB, a. H. BcfM^^ari, 
i^ vlute ^jp^ (or chalcedony ? ) of 
('tiahav. [For these stones see Forbes, 
"r Ma/L Snd ed. i. 3S3 : Tavfrnwr, ed. 
KiH L 68.] It is Apparently so called 
frm the patron saint or niartyr 
0/ :hr diflCnct containing the mines, 
iMlrf vhoae special protection the 
wumm place tnemselves before de- 
irrfidiog into the shafts. Tradition 
iUe^ that he was a prince of the 
fmi Ghori dmasty, wno was killed 
m A great haule in that region. But 
th:« prinoe will hardly be found in 


wI4 —"They aluo find in this town 
(Uawfaua in (»fiaermt) much chalcedony, 
vtxb tbej call babacvm. They mi^e 
Ni^ vith it. and other thingn which they 
abtiat them.**— AirioaL 07. 

I5&l-^-In thi« oiiuntry ((Juxerat) ia a 
ftHmm i4 BibtaMfl •^d camelians ; but 
^ Urt vt thm n lart are those coming from 
\k8UQ. '-.Sm/i .4/1 KapmddM, in J.A..S.B. 

'..>' —"By the command <>f his Majesty 
0'< vcwrbtii «if bAbl^rhflxl wore made, 
•'■ a were u*ed in wei^inif."— -liji, i. 35, 

>;« — '-tin the munmit standu the tomb 
*4 the tttalar aaint of the countrv, 
mat, til whom a deruiion » |iaid more 
w » dffity than a^* a naint. . . ."—Copland, 
nT' Lu. Sue. &>., i. aM. 

*H/.--AnMiiic ten kin<li« tif camc]ian.«i 
•l^idid IB H. Briig^'* '.Vrt^j of GHJardfMra 
•^ ^ai "lava Ckri Akik, a T;ined kind. "— 

n.p, Tliij* name is given 
of Perim, in the St. of 


fci :kr I. oi renm, in 
Btiv-liuindeL m the <iuotation fnjin 
Orji^oa. It m-Af* pn>Ui)ily EiiglLsh 
aa^ldiu: ■•uly. [Mr Whit** way |M)intd 
•<it !h%t thL* L- clrttrlr fMiii alhabo. 
*> r -rt. form ♦»f tht* Ar. woni. Jo&o 
> * -MSr.. in Ri*c«-jn» (1541 X p. ^ says : 
*!!:• <raj: i* <a]K-<l bv the neighlnmr- 
Ofc ^"pl^. ai» well i^ tli<.»^' who dwell 
c '^ ^trr^ of ihf Indian Ocean, 
A&iho. vhKh in Arabic signifies 

-<il. - " We attempting to wiirk up to 
^lifea' tmmvert, Jjrtun, i. 52.] 

•ill.-** There t* at the Babb a ship 

t* at the Babb 
IJ'^tbid. i. 111.] 

I«Ql-**TW BaJbba tn a imiall ialand 
lb the JUd .Sm. . . . Between thin 
the Iba Uad » a ^e PaMage. . .**— 

[1768. — " Yet they made no estimation of 
the currents without the Baba"; (note), 
"This is the common sailors' phrase for the 
Straits of Babelmandel."— Bracf, Travels to 
discover the Source 0/ the Nile, ed. 1790, 
Bk. i. cap. ii.] 

BASER, BHABIJB, s. H. hdbar, 
hhdbar. A name given to those dis- 
tricts of the N.W. Provinces which 
lie immediately under the Himalaya 
to the dry forest belt on the talus of 
the hills, at the lower edge of which 
the moisture comes to the surface and 
forms the wet forest belt called TaraL 
(See TEBAI-) The following extract 
trom the report of a lecture on Indian 
Forests is rather a happy example of 
the danger of ^*a little learning to a 
reporter : 

1877.— "Beyond that (the Tar&I) lay 
another district of about the same breadth, 
called in the natiTe dialect the Bahadar. 
That in fact was a great filter-bed of sand 
and vegetation." — London Morning Paper 
of 26<A Ua^, 

BABI-BOTJ^SA, s. Malay haJbi* 
(*h<>g') nwrt (*8tag'). The *Stag- 
hrjg,' a remarkable animal of the swine 
genus (Sia hohir\issa, L. ; Babirtissa 
alfuru*y F. CuvierX found in the island 
of Bourou, and some others of the I. 
Archipelago, but nowhere on conti- 
nental Asia. Yet it seems difficult 
to apply the description of Pliny 
l)elow, or the name and drawing given 
by Cosmas, U) any other animal. The 
4-homed swine of Aeliau w more pro- 
l»ably the African Wart-h<3g, called 
accordingly by F. Cuvier Phacochoerus 

c. A.D. 70. — "The wild bonw of India 
have two bowing fangfl or ta<«ke:< of a cubit 
length, fn^wing out of their mouth, and as 
many out of their foreheads like calves 
homes."— /»/t«y, viii. 52 (Uottand't Tr. 
i. 231). 

c. 250. ''Myti 6k Aii'wr iw 'JLidii,nriq, 
yUtvBoi ...,0s Trrp<£jce/>wf . " — Aelian, 
iJf Xat. Amim, zvii. 10. 

c. 545.— ••The Choirtlaphna ('Hog-staff*) 
I have both seen and eaten." — dttmas in- 
dicopUusteSy in Cnthay^ &o., p. clxxv. 

1555. — "There are W/jt aho with horneSy 
and parats which prattle much which they 
call mtru {hinj).**—OaiixiHo, Uiscovrries ^ 
the World, Uak. 80c. 120. 

* This word takm a ludicroan form iu Dawtpiar: 
" AU the Indians who ii|iake Malayan .... 
lookt on those ifMA^a* as a kind of Barbarians ; 
and upon any occasion of dislike, voakl oall them 
JeMy, that Is Hoes."— L 516. 




it hM a little nffged doth- 
n^ of bibol or milk-bush.**—.^ Z«a«a 

BABOOH, s. Thia, no doubt, comes 
u> OS throo^ the ItaL habuinoy but 
it is probable that the latter word is 
« corraption of Pen. maimun f'the 
ftospirioiis one^ and then applied by 
m-ay uf eaphemiiuu or irony to the 
bsliotm or monkey. It also occurs 
in ItaL under the more direct fonn 
of maimcne in gatto-maimoney *cat- 
niaukey,' or rather * monkey -cat.' [The 
S.K.IK leaves the origin of the word 
d'»tiUfuI, and dues not discuss this 
An)«*ng iither suggested derivations.] 


niLpTi. Twd ports of Canara often 
oMipird together in old narratives, 
I'll! which liave entirely disajipeared 
fr -tu modem maps and lx)oks of navi- 
^ion, inwmiuch that it is not tjiiite 
«ab> to indicate their precise i)osition. 
But it would seem thiit Bacanore, 
M^UyaL FaJbbiiuir, is the place (billed 
:q r^uuir^sse Bdrkitr, the Barcoor-pettah 
• f »>mr mapH, in lat. 13^ 28^'. This 
«4d th«r Mte of a verv old and ini- 

i«»rtaut city, "the capital of the Jain 
Luigt* of Tulava .... and sulise- 
uaentlv A stronghold of the Vijiyanagar 
Kajae>.'' — Imp. Unset. [Also see Stuart, 
Man. S. Canara, ii. 264.] 

Al-^t that Barrrhre is a Fort, cornij)- 
::<in <kf BasrAr [the Canarese ^cuortZru, 
*:h« town of tne wave<l-leaf tiff tree.* 
I Mmd. Adm. Man. GUmu^ h.v.).] It must 
SiAvt <<njd immediately lielow the 
'Bamlur Peak' of tlie Admiraltv 
« harts and was apiiarentlv identical 
miili, Mf near to, the place called 
N:r>*r in Sittt's Man of the Madras 
Pr»>idriicv, in aU)tit lat. 13' 65'. [See 
.SuATt, ihid. ii. 242. SenK)r is |H*rha])6 
Oh- Shitiir uf Mr Stuart (ihid. \k 243).] 

c. 133(1. - "Theoeo {fnim Hannaur) tho 
trmv^l«>ouDe Ui Btsarftr, a «mall city. . . 
-Akml/'iU, in midtmfiaUT, 184. 

c. 15l.\-"Th« ftnt town of .Miilailiftr 
*.aat we vvrit«(l waji Aba-8ar1lr, which in 
«fealt, Mtoaied uo a %nmX ef^tiuiry, and 
M«^ia4mr la oieo-BOt tn». . . . Two dayii 
aft«r fjor dbtjartniw fnim that town we 
<mv«d at PlteBir, whieh in larRe and 
atda&ad od an aetaary. One Mufi there 
tt ■>w<iami« uf augar-^sane, nuch an haff 
■> jaQfl ia HmU o(mntr>'."--/6n linUta^ 
«. 77*#B. 

•d maritiniaA 

XX diebus trannit." — Cowti, in Poggiua de 
Var, ForL ir. 

1501.— "Baoanat," for Baoanor, is named 
in Amerigo Vespucci's letter, giying an 
aocount of Da Gama's diaooTeries, first 
published by Baldelli Boni, II Milvmey 
pp. liii. »eqq. 

1516. — "Passing further forward .... 
along the coast, there are two little rivem 
on which stand two places, the one called 
Baoanor, and the other Braoalor, belong- 
ing to the kiqfifdom of Narsyngua and the 
province of Tolinate (TV/u-it^E^io, Tufuva or 
8. Canara). And in them is much good 
rice grown round about these places, and 
this is loaded in many foreign ships and in 
many of Malabar. . . ." — BarbosUy in Lisbon 
CoU. 294. 

C lOL*- 

1M8.— "The Port of the River of 
oalor pays 500 loads (of rice as tribute)." — 
Holelhoy Tambo, 246. 

1552. — "Having dispatched this vessel, 
he (V. da Gama) turned to follow his 
voyage, desiring to erect the padrOo (votive 
pillar) of which we have spoken ; and not 
finding a place that pleased him better, 
he erected one on certain islets joined (as 
it were) to the land, giving it the name of 
8ancta Maria, whence these islands are 
now called Saint Mary's Isles, standing 
between Baoanor and BaticaU, two notable 
plaoee on that coast."— ZM Barron, I. iv. 11. 

,, "... the city Onor, capital of the 
kingdom, BaticaU, Bendor, Bracslor, Ba- 
oanor. "—/Ji'rf. I. ix. 1. 

1726.—" In Barseloor or Basseloor have 
we still a factory ... a little south of 
Basseloor lies Baquanoor and the little 
River Vier."—rrt/««a>ii, v. (.Malabar) 6. 

1727.— "The next town to the Southward 
of Bataro/a [Batotll] is Barcolosr, standing 
on the Banks of a broad River about 4 Miles 
from tho Sea .... The Dutch have a 
Factory here, only to bring up Rice for their 
Garrisons .... Baooanoar an<i MolUu lie 
between Baroeloar and Mangaiori'y both 
liAving the benefit of Rivorn to export the 
large quantities of Rice that the Fields 
pnxiuce."— .4. HamiiUm, i. 284-5. [Molkftf 
w Mu/ti, see Stuart, op. cit. ii. 259.] 

1780.— "St Mary's Islands lie alonp the 
coast N. and S. as far as off tho river of 
Baoanor, or Callianpoor, l>«ing alraut 6 
leagues ... In lat. 13^ 50' N., 5 leagues 
from Bacantir, runs tho river Barsalor." — 
ItuHHM y. JHrtctoni, 5th ed. 105. 

1814.— "Barotlors, now frequently called 
(.'undajjore."— /ar6«, Or. Mem. iv. 109, 
nlwi see 113 ; [2nd ed. II. 464]. 

BAOKDOBB, s. H. hiig-dor (' bridle- 
cord ') ; a halter or leading rein. 

BA0K8EB. Sea H. Ulkti: nautical 
'ahack,' from which it has lieen fomisd 
I (BoAucky 


, — "Thmj mar timre it ■ Bhort- 
I JM&at, tba fafthi, bnatifally nude, 
no T«r7 tutotDilT <i«»ist«d id flae 
■ock.~— Jfut Bird, OtMn Cliertm- 

SL, ». H. M, Mahr. bail, from 
tiM, the Tree and Fruit of Aeglt 
tU» (Coma,), or ' Beimal Quince,' 
is wMnetimeB ualltfol aft^r thv 
[Jfamwi« iJ< Ben^uoia) given it 
trcu de Ort^ who first descrilx^ 
irtuefl of this fniit in tbo treat- 

k and have always been familiar 
lia. Yet they do not ap[*ar to 

atlracted serioiLi attentiiiu in 
XT till about the ^ear 1850. It 
^4iiall tt*e, a native of various 
uf India. The drie<i fruit i.t now 
t««l into England. — (See Hanbiiry 
7«riij-T, lie); flCaU, Eton. Did. 

a^.]. The shellr rind of thf 
m th<^ Punjab aiaA>: int^i curved 
laiieii for sle tu the Afghans. 

— -And u 1 knew tbat it way 
iNli u Ba^m, 1 e(ii|uir<!d of thixe 


the Tariffs till recently. \Bafia is at 

firesent the name appliea to a silk 
abric, (See quotation from Kimh/' 
AH below.) In Ben^l, Char^ta and 
Noakhali in the Chittagong Division 
were also noted for their cotton hafiai 
{Birdwood, Itiduttr. Arts, 349).] 

1598.— "Thore is made great rtora of 
CottoaLJnnenofdiuenturt . . . BoffatM." 
— AiueAoten, p. 18. [Hak. 3oc. i. 60.] 

[1605-6.— " /'oJEn JfoiH of the Biaeft 
Tolya. B»S»."~Binliaood, Fint Utter Book, 
73. We haye also" Black Baaatta."-/Ud. 

nfllO.-"B»fflit». the cecxe Ra. 100."— 
a.««rJ, IMUt', i. 72.] 

lfll2.~"Baftaa or nhite CalliorM, from 
twentto to fortie Royals the eorgt." — Cajil. 



1, .^m 

i y font 
a pliu fioea da t 

< de 


1. »od Iheif me ttal arifiJt 

It IK. «. W T.. ■££i. 
I. — "•>» jar iif Brla at ni. S per 
. -/Wt, Later,, ill. 41.) 
.—Jar. Bootiiu dcMrilwii the b«I an 

•Wa>»ia {i.'. B .iiiince), and sneaks 
pujp afi ^ond f(ir dyiVntery and Iho 
r immanem vryaJtmum. — Ijh. vi. 

.-■■Tlw Bill plant (trows to no 
r bMicbi than that of a man [this is 
r:^ all thorny .... the fruit in r~ 
rtaam. and natun i.f rind, rewml 
Vrmnatc. d'ptted i><rer the aurface a 
lark ipota e-jualty dutriliulul. . 
be fnut they nuke a docuctii>n. wh 
i^H&«KCtnus remedy Utr dyAentei 

"—MamUltlo, 128. 

ie6.'i.~"BaftBS est uu nom IndieQ <iui 
ni^ifio den toilea fort serr^ea de oottoo. 
leequelloa la pluspart Tiennent de Baroche, 
Tillo du Royaumo de Ouzerat. apparteimnt 
au Grand Mag<il."-Z>e la B. le Hoia, 515. 

1665.— "The Baftaa, or Oilicuts painted 
red, blue, and black, are auriod white t<> 
Agm and regard those citjet 
are nearest the places where the Indigo ia 
made that is iu"'d in aoViMiian." —Taveraiei; 
(E. T,)p. 127;(od. Ball,\.i.S\. 

1672.—" Bnack BaAaa, broad and 
narTt,w."-fn'"-, 86- 

1727.— "The Baraaeh Baftaa a[« famoim 
thmuabout all India, the oountry produoinir 
the l«at Cotton in the World. "-vl. HamUlo'<, 

i. 144 

n Iho C 

d Piec. 

-■-, . . tjQ tbi* plain you will see 
bM-tne, and on it <^^a hu; bril-fruit." 
.■^Aa, lojttt* Fairy T.i/a, 140. 

FTA. *. A kind of ualii'o, iniid.' 
iltv ai BanM'h ; fruin the )'en<. 
■Wi.v-n.' The old Ban-h (-.jfl.H 
(I hare liea^n linv goodH. Noiliiiig 
dirr than to find intelligible ei- 
uiO-i uf thr diatiurtioti lietween 
uDrPKLi vaHetieit of cotton KtiilTs 
rlr vipiirted from India lu l^un>pe 
a «ill grrmUr variety of naiiien ; 
laod trade being generally alike 
te. Baflaa howerer mrrived in 

Battalia, score, Ha. 30. 

[1900. -" Akin to the pot thani Is a fabric 
known oa Bafta (litemlly wo<en). produced 
in Benares ; body pure silk, with bttia in 

knii. and women'a aaijamat (Musulmaos)."- 
Y-umfAti. Mni^ on »ilt F-ihria, 97.) 

It Ls curious to find this word now 
cnrnnt on Lake Xvanzii. The burial 
of King'3 mother is sjniken of : 

1833.-"The chiefs half filled the nicoly- 
paildud coHin with bnfta (liluucbod calico) 
. . . after that tbo cor|Hu and thea the 
coffin was llllod up with more bttfU. . . ."— 
In (,'A. Jtfiuy. InV-lligntae. ».%., TJii. p. M3. 

BAHAB, s. Ar. hahar, Halayftl. 
bihdmm, from Skt. bhilm, 'a load.' A 
weight usml ill large ttadins trsna- 
actioiis ; it varied ninch in oifferent 
localities ; and though the name ia of 


[ognl's repertory, of Bahaujer 

'«r in one of the Urmn which 
ta of Chingiz Khan brought 
■ta from the Moii^l Stepjpen. 

ifongol senealogiea we find 
BaltOdHT, the father of Chingiz, 
aj more. Subutai BaltdduT, 
M gre*t soldiers of the Mongol 
ice M it to the conquest cif 
B Ronta, twice to that of 
n China. In Snnang Setzeii's 

annaia of the Mongols, as 
1 by 1. J. Schinitlt, the word 
n bagkatuT, whence in Ruaaian 

r of the Turtar domination, 
• 'a hero or cluimpion.' It 
ift«n in the old RuBBian epic 
in this M;n«e ; and is alau ap- 
3 liWni.'wm of the Bible. It 
1 a RuNiian chronicler as early 
hut in atiplication to Mongiil 
In Polish it is fmmd as £0- 
id in iliingnriaii as Afhir, — this 
If in fwt the popular Mongol 
latixn «f llaghaluT. In Turki 
< ritfiiin of the guttural extends 
jrlling. and the word Wcoiiira 
u- we find it in the Diets, of 
y and Pavet de Courteille. 
ihu the wiiril tAkes the 


:i)>r«ft*!d in Chin 

r- M fit-tu-U -.f the Kirghiz 
» Balyr; (he Alui-TaUric iw 
and rhe othrr diHlreu evHi 
ilJiwr. But the Niiigular hi.itorv 
■or>i i* not vet entirely VA'V 
Ylm MUSPHted that the wonl 
ed in Skt. hiuiga-dhiiTa (' happi- 
ia-WnK')4 fi"t ■'■« 1'^'' 
d Pr.f. A. Ivhiefn, 



w*- -tn'iigly nf !]]• 

til mv Rilhrr a ('irrupliriii 
:h dL-v-iniuUt i'lii «f the vnnwi- 
■f (hr Zend haglut-tmthra 'Stiti 
^nd thu.1 but another fonn 
uu.m.- X^TUi FK^nr, bv w]>i.-h 
Frr-iian- n-mlered ihe Chim-^M- 
n'X*I'plyi"'K '■ 


1280-90. — in an eoomitrio Panian poam 
puipowly stufTed with Mongol oxpnemom, 
written b; Porbahi Jimt in prtUM of 
Argban lOiiLn of Perda, of wbicb Hamnur 
fa>s giTen a OwnwD translation, ws haTs 
ths following ; — 

'> The Qreat Kaan nam« tbee hia VtrgK- 
BiUlcki [Great Secretarj], 

Smriog thoo art bitrtdii and ll*fc»Jl> to 

O Well-beloTed, the yarl^k [nnript] that 
thou doit uaue is obeved 

By Turk and Mongol, by PeniaD, Qrack, 
and Barbarian ! " 

Ottch. drr (Md. Horde, 461. 

c. 1400.— "I ordaiDsd that oTory Amear 
who should reduce a Kiogdom, or defeat 
■D army, should be eialtod by three things : 
by a title o( honour, by the T»gk [Yak's 
tail ■tandard], and by the A a^Mra [great 
kettle drum] ; and should be dignifled by 
the tiUe of fiahandnr."— T'mwvr'f /ajtidtEi, 
^ ; Me bI» ^291-293. 

1404.— "E olios le diieron q «quol era 
uno de Ion Taliatsa a BahadnrM q'eo el 
lioago del SoDorauiB."— C/iin>(i, g liiiii. 

„ " E el home 9 ante haxe e mas tjdo 
beue diien <|ue e* Bahadur, que diieii ellea 
Iwr homem rezio."— Do. g ciii. 

1407.— "The Prince mounted, escorted b)- 

abuut his p€ 

1.^36.— (As a proper name.!! " Itju^ ille 
potentiwrimui Kei Badur, Indiaa uniTeraae 
terror, a qiu> noaulli ref^nO Pon maximi 

iuHdain regit tenon utlirmaDt. . . ." — Latter 
■om y.uln ///. ./ J-oHMgal to Popa Paul 

Hnrdiv anv nntivp name occuni more 

dur Slmh, the warlike and powerful 
king uf Guxernt (1526-37), killed in 
n fniv which cliwi'd an interview with 
the Viceroy, Kuiio da Cunliu, ut Din. 

17M.— "The Kirgttir Tnrtart . . . an 
di Tided into three It'irdm, under the 
ItucerameDt of a Kian, That |inrt which 
liorders oq the RiLHwnn doniiniuns wiu under 
the authority nt Jean llteJt, whiwe name on 
I idl occaidnne wan hoDcitirod with the title of 
I Bat«r."— //cintmy. i. -,£ni. The name Jnin 
Her-i u pnilmbly L/.i" *' ' . ■ . . . 

Hnd* I 
Qxr\y I nil 

. II,K 




r*4 ».|Wl^. UliK ««).» Maloilin 

roiwiriif thuV 

1.1.1™ (. 

( ■..!:.» 



1 ■• a r»ul.U brt Ihit hr v,A thnv at 

Bahadn" [■ 

, <-|iv.. 



!». Hakolin. iiu.w ImpMlbl- : " oi.l 




r, 1«7*. rlL a*, eud Krm- 

We huve ^id lh:it the title BAandrr 
(IMuIdar) wiiH one bv which Hydei" 
Ali of MvMin- wiw ic.nimonly known 
ill his <iiiy. Thus in the two next 
quotations : 





load (of natiTe oaket) 
*dUer mA/' (8bMr- 
Udi, imd. Dvmed, Jieon. 386.] 

dUfn/ [ace. to Mr Skeat 
rd SUav is hiachan^ in 
m.] liie characteristic 
of the Indo-Chineae and 
cea, computed of prawns, 
i other small fish, allowed 
B a heap, and then niashed 
lit. [Mr Skeat says that 
if miC alwayis trrtdden out 
l] Man«rien calls it 'a 
caviaiv,' which u hardly 
viartr. It is the ngdjn 
i the Burmese, and tnUi 
iie«e, and is pn>l>ahly, as 
lay 5, the R4>iuan garum. 
. who has i^itnessed the 
|»nr}Kiring ngtlpi on the 
rin^*^ i-H ahiHJSt dl'^xised 
ith tht* Venetian Gasparo 
l\ who navs **he wouM 
.A deA«l dog, to sav nothing 
t " (f. 125r). But when 
ij«»- :.* .•il»'<«.'nt it iiiav l»e 


I'ur wriu^ it Balaehaun. 

.i-*j>rv i« famtiU'* for making 
"NiutY made •>{ dried Shrim{M, 
^ t. *n«i .1 Sca-»ee<i or (Jni**, 
1 :*o<l ^ii.-i»tA-D u{* U» the Con- 
.:•. k Mu^tanl." -A. JItimi/toN, 
<utw aiitb'ir. in !i)^e>ikin<; of 
r .ikc ^»\i«.x' J'ntfl- (44), which 
the T:U;un name. It apfivHrs 
• nt uDder the form f'mjc 

*^*****y . . . i-* o«t«eme<i a 
Ainitn^ the Malay;*, and L* by 
i Uj the ««»t of India. ... It 
,i i-a rure, and \^ extremely 
di«c*'AJ^^4; to i>er«in5 who are 
f*ii l*» It." — AiarjH^H'ji //. i»f" 

:«»il i/*W. It>*m*^. >jii>w. ji. 227) 
f ■ r BallachOB^, of which the 
v ti ■ which »rv added chillier, 
:zju-ind juice, kc. ] 

. hiM/ehMng—» .Malay pre- 
:: r«i:^he<l r»y Eur«>|van lovers 
»-! ^he«n*e. . "—Mi*f II* n1, 

lAUT, UM*d a."* n.p. ; P. 

. W. Mahr., &c., yX<l/, *a 

"tintry *aU»ve the fias8i*j\,' 

|wi.<tfie!» over the range of 

hirh we call the ** Western 

The mistaken idea tliat 
mountains ' causes Forbes 

to give a nonsensical explanation, cited 
l>elow. The expression may be illus- 
trated by the old Scotch phrases re- 
garding "l)elow and above the Pass" 
of so and so, implying Lowlands and 

c. 1562.— "All these things were brought 
by the Moors, who traded in pepper which 
they brooffht from the hills where it grew, 
by land in Bisnega, and Balaglta, and 
Cambay."— Coma, ed. Ld. Stanley, Hak. 
Soc. p. 344. 

1563.— <*/{. Let us get on horseback and 
go for a ride ; and as we eo you shall tell me. 
what is the meaning of JIvizamotha (HlWllA- 
luoo), for yon often speak to me of such a 

" O. I will tell you now that he is King in 
the Banlate (misprint for Balagate)^ whoso 
f ntherl have often attended medically, and 
the son himself sometimes. From mm I 
have received from time to time more than 
12,00()piazdaoa ; and he offered me a salary 
of 40,000 pardaos if I would risit him for so 
many months every year, but I would not 
acce|»t." — Oarria dr (JtUl, f. 33r. 

1598.— '* This high land on the toppo ii« 
very flatte and g<x>d to build upon, oUIed 
Balagatte.--ZiNJcA<rf«i, 20; [Hak. Soc. 
i. 65 ; of. i. 235]. 

,, *'Ballagate, that i^ to Hay, above the 
hill, for Bafia is alx>ve, and ffatr is a 
hill. . . r—lbul. 49; [Hak. Soc. i. 169]. 

1614.— "The coa.Ht of Coromandel, Bala- 
gatt or Telingana."— »N«i/*j»^«rry, i. 301. 

}666. — "Balagate c»t une de-t richer 
I*n»vinceM du Grand Mo(^ol. . . . Ello est 
au niidi de colle do C-andich." — Thrr^not^ 
V. 216. 

167.<.— '*. . . oiMjninjT the ways to Bali- 
gaot, that Merchant** might with «afe^y bring 
down their C^xxIm to Port."— /ry*^, 78. 

c. 1760.— "The Ball-a-gat Mountains, 
which are extremely high, and i4o called from 
Hal, mountain, and\7«", fl»t [IJ, liecause one 
IMvrt of them affords large and delicious 

I •lain.'* on their Hummit, little known to 
uuropeaa?." — <»rosr^ i. 231. 

Thi."* is nonsense, but the following 
are also al»surd misdescriptions : — 

I'KX'i.- ''Bala Ohant the higher or upper 
finut t)r (wkuMf, a range of mountain.^ .•<> called 
to distinguish them from the Payen Ghauts, 
the lower Ghauts or Passe:*."— />»W. of Wordt 
H^d in E. Ihdif*, 28. 

1813._" In jiorae mrts this tract is called 
the Balla-Qant, i»r high mountains ; to di**- 
tinguish them frtmi the lower Gaut, nearer 
the sea." '— /V6^*, Or. Mem. i. 206 ; [2nd cd. 
i. 119J. 

BALASOBB, n.i». A town and 
district of Orisaa ; the site of one of 
the earliest English factories in the 
"Bay," esUblLshKl in 1642, and then 
an important aeajiort ; supposed to be 





M* m cas* oom talor dM pumge, a parte 
> cb» «fi oeehi, el oor alletta, 
per «lo aoQ in prigkme 
md ua bftloOBt, 

« V» f^ eola a' nai di OQfla perf etU 

* •^mamamk a ■urar ooo tale de«k» 

* ^ Me flCeaeri, e 1 mio mal poee in oblk> : 
I eta u leiia, e 1 eat mio in Paradiio." 

/^Cnvre, AiW, Pie. ii. Canaone 4. 

144M&-**WlMn tbe King rite to do 
Jvtwa, I ii>iryt tliat be oumes into the 
lidHB* t^al looks into tbe PiasEa."— 
fMrvMT. S. T. iu 64 ; [ed. Ball, L 152]. 

IM?.— ** And be it furtber enacted. That 
m ike Wrcmt id all Hooeea, hereafter to be 
■wt ed m a&T each Streete ae by Act of 
i'^mmtm OwBctl ahall be declared to be 
Itek SUvttta. BaIcobIm Four Foot broad 
ei& Batk aftd Bare of Irrm . . . i^hall be 
"-Act 19 Oar. II., cap. 3, 
UL (Act for Rebuilding the City of 

* At M»n«toa hi» loring wife 
rra« tke teMnr »pMd 
Htr tendir biufaazM, wood 'ring much 
Te aee bow be did ride.'* 

' F<r fruv tb« U4x\ baloAliy. 
lUs^ truiBp«t. «baim and |Kaltery." 

'ader tower and bftloflny, 

Ei| Ard*n-w;all mzA (rallery, 

% yimi ry obaf^e ^be floated by, 

l^mA fttie between tbe iKiunei* high." 

T^'nuyaoA's Ijiuitf o/ SMaftttt. 

'■T* —"The buui«e« (in Turkijttan) are 
fiaenJy at bdt 'loe nU)r\\ tb<»ugh i«ometimefl 
'%ien :* kwnaJ] u(>|>er natm called f>afa-tKaiui 
•y. ienie, *PP**'t and lA^iiut, nx>m) whence 
*v fvt ovrWieOBT." — ScAmwf*r'» Tvrtistan. 

19N). — " i94/d MdA4 mean.« ' upi>er houjie,* 
piacr/ and i* applied t<> the room 
tbe arrhwmy by which the rkilppd 
Bicred. and from it, by the way, 
•i M r^v WTjrd • Baleoay.' "—MS. Joamal 
B fwm, o# r^iAtim If. J. (fill, R.E. 

lAIiOOH. BALLOON, &c., 8. A 

""•'i^r TMsrI funiierU' iwkI in varioiLM 
:an* "f tiie lufiir^ \\w liiuid of which 
'*• & lar^ taD'ir, or * dug-out.' Tlierv 

* X )ial^T. W"H imilytinWy a kind of 
**'7'. aLi'h > pnjl«i)>ly th** original. 
iV*- Lmki^i^ 'Aiii^/err, xiv. 26.] 

'-^ < '£ em^ArcaDdo-^e . . . partio, eo 
' "V wecmpaabaAdfi dcx cu doee baldw ate 
t hait l|«. . . .-—/'.Wo, ch. xiT. 

da terra para a armada 
e caJ* loaai cnuar rioKM. . 


1673.— ''The President commanded his 
own BalooQ (a Barge of State, of Two and 
Twenty Oars) to attend me."— /Vy<r, 70. 

1755.— ''The Burmas has now Eightv 
BaUongl, none of which as [rtc] ^reat Oons. 
— Letter from Ckipt, R. JaeJcsony m DairympU 
Or. Report, i. 1»5. 

1811. — "This is the simplest of all boats, 
and consists merely of the trunk of a tree 
hollowed out, to tbe extremities of which 
pieces of wood are applied, to represent a 
stem and prow ; the two sides are boards 
joined by rottins or small bambous without 
nails ; no iron whatsoever enters into their 
construction. . . . The i^Uwtna are used 
in the district of Chittagong." — iSo/r^M, iii. 

BALSOBA, BUSSOBA, &c., n.p. 
These old forms used to l>e familiar 
from their use in the popular version 
of the Arabian Nights alter Galland. 
The place is the sea-port city of Bcura 
at the mouth of the Shat-af-'Arab, or 
United Euphrates and Tigris. [Biirton 
(Ar, NighU, x. 1) writes BaaBorak,'] 

1298. — "There is also on tbe river as you 
gc) from Baudas to Kisi, a great citj called 
Bastra surrounded by woods in which now 
the best dates in the world." — Marco rato^ 
Bk. i. ch. 6. 

c. 1580.— "B&lsara, altrimente dettu 
Bastora, ^ una cittli posta neir Arabia, la 
(}uale al presente e signore^giata dal Turco 
. . , h citiJk di gran negocio di spetiarie, di 
<lroghe, e altre merci che uengono di OrmuR ; 
e abondante di dattoli, risi, egrani." — Balhl^ 

[1598.— "The town of Baliora; also 
Baisora."— £/M«-Ao<rH, Hak. Soc. i. 45.] 

" Prom Atropatia and the neighbouring 
Of Adiabene, Media, and the south 
Of Sufdona to Balsam's Haven. . ." 

Parad'ute Rfgainrdy iii. 

1747.— "He (the Prest. of Bombay) further 
advises us that they have wrote our Honble. 
Masteni of the Loss of MadrasH by way of 
BnsMTO, the 7th of Novemlwr."— />. Sf. 
IktriH CtmjfH.y 8th January 1746-7. MS. in 
India Office. 

[Also see CONGO.] 

BALTT, 8. H. hdln, *a bucket,* 
, [which PlattA very improl>ably con- 
I nects iiith Skt. win, * water'], is the 
Fort, balde. 

BALWAB, 8. This is the native 
i servant's form of *l>arber,' shai>ed by 
\ the * stri\'ing after meaning * as fxf /wfr, 
for bdlwdld, i.e. *capillariuv *hair-maii.' 
It often takes the further form b&l-bor, 
another factitious hybrid, shaped by 
P. Ukridan^ * to cut,' quasi ' hair-cutter.' 
But though now obsolete, there was 




also (see lK)th Meniruki and Vulltrs 8.v.) 
a Persian word hdrhdr^ for a l>arl>er or 
surgeon, from which came this Turkish 
term " Le 2^er6«r-l>achi, ({ui fait la barl)e 
au Pacha," which we find (c. 1674) in 
the Appendix to the journal of Antoine 
Galland, jmM. at Paris, 1881 (ii. 190). 
It looks as if this must have }>een an 
early loan from EurojH?. 

BAMBOO, s. Applied to many 
gigantic grasses, of which BambuM 
urundinacea and B. vulgaru are the 
most commonly cultivated ; but there 
are many other species of the same 
and allied ^nera in use ; natives of 
trojiical Asia, Africa, and America. 
This word, one of the commonest in 
Anglo-Indian daily use, and thoroughly 
naturalised in English, is of exceedingly 
obscure origin. According to Wilson 
it is Canarese Mnhu [or as the Madras 
Admin. Man. (Gloss, s.v.) writes it, 
hvmhu^ which is siiid to ])e "onoma- 
tojiaeic from the crackling and ex- 
plosions when they burn"]. Marsden 
inserts it in his dictionary as good 
Malay. Cniwfurd says it is certainly 
used on the west coast of Sumatra as 
a native word, but that it is elsewhere 
unknown to the Malay languages. The 
usual Malav word is huluh. He thinks 
it more likelv to have found its wav 
into English from Sumatra tlian from 
( 'anara. But there is evidence enough 
of its familiarity among the Portuguese 
In-fort' thf fiid of the 16th century to 
indicatt' xhv proUibility that we adopted 
the word, like so many others, through 
them. We l»elieve that the correct 
Canaivsi' word is hanvm. In the 16th 
ctMitury the form in the Concan api)ears 
to have lH*en mamhuy or at least it 
Wiis so rejnvsented by the Portuguese. 
Kiim])hius s<*ems to suggest a quaint 
imomato}H)na : " veliemcntissimos edunt 
ictus et sonitus, quum incendio com- 
buruntur, ((uando notum ejus nomen 
liambuy Bambu, facile exauditur." — 
(Herb. And), iv. 17.) [Mr. Skeat 
writes: "Although bnluh is the stan- 
dard Malay, and bavibu apparently 
liitHHluccd, I think bambu is tlie foriii 
u<**d in the low Javanese vernacular, 
which is quite a different language 
from high Javanese. Even in low 
.Favanes«s however, it may be a l>or- 
rowed word. It hK)ks curiously like 
a trade corruption of the common 
Malay w(>rd samambiLy which means 

the well-known * Malacca cane,' both 
the bamlKX) and the Malacca cane 
being articles of export. Klinkett 
says that the mmarnim is a kind of 
rattan, which was used as a walking- 
stick, and which was called the Malacca 
cane by the English. This Malacca 
cane and the rattan * bamboo cane' 
referred to by Sir H. Yule must surely 
be identical. Tlie fuller Malay name 
is actually rotan samambuj which i» 
given as the equivalent of Caiamns 


sheer), a siliceous concretion in the 
bamboo, in our first quotation seeiuft 
to show that bambu or manUm wu 
one of the words which the Portugaett 
inherited from an earlier use by Persian 
or Arab traders. But we naye not 
been successful in finding other proof 
of this. With reference to foubfcar- 
mambu Ritter says : ** That this drug 
(Tabashiry, as a product of the bamboo- 
cane, is to this day known in India by 
the name of Sacar Mambu is a thing 
which no one needs to be told" (ix. 834)l 
But in fact the name seems now entirely 

It is ])ossible that the Canarese word 
is a vernacular corruption, or develop- 
ment, of the Skt. va7ijfa [ot vambkal 
from the former of which comes the 
H. bdus. Bamboo does not occur, so 
far as we can find, in any of the earlier 
16th-centur}' lKX>ks, wliicli employ omiM 
or the like. 

In England the term bamboo-cane 
is habitually applied to a kind d 
walking - stick, which is formed not 
from any ItamlxK) but from a species 
of rattan. It may be noted that some 
30 to 35 years ago there existed along 
the high road Iwtween Putney Station 
and West Hill a garden fence of 
Immlxxxs of considerable extent; it 
oftvn attracted the attention of one 
of the present writers. 

1. 'yes.— "The iHX)ple from whom it (faia- 
jtltir) in frot call it mrar-manilniin . . * • 
liccaiLse tho canos of thnt plant are called 
by tho Indiaiiji mambn."— f/arcia, f. 194. 

1.578.— *' Some of thoHo (canen), Mpedally 
in Malalmr, aro found 8o laiige that Um 
}iooi>lo make Uiso of them as boats [emhfr- 
racion^s) not oiioninff thorn out, but catling 
one of tho canes right acroos and vuiag thi 
natural knotn to stop the ends, and io s 
couple of naked blacks ffo upon it . . . etek 
of tncm at his own end of tbt BmlM Oa 
orig. mdbu] (so they call it), being yn feUei 






en* m each hand .... 
of thw kind the folk 
tin^ with th«ir legs 
— C. ^cMte, Traetada, 296. 

aad iDAnir people on that riTer 

<ri make lue of these cmaes in 

to be aaf e from the nqmertnu 

ur f'aymfMm$ (m thej call them) 

in the riTer (which are in fact 

frrbcion* lizards) " [/oyorfof]. — 

are curioua an explaining, 
** jurtifj. (Itemaff, in what we 
a* one of his fipreatefit Iwuncea, 
rA Indian canes big enough to 

1V4. — " Ail the houses are made of canes, 
vkKh they cail Baabot, and bee oorered 
»nh 8(rmwe.- .>/WA. in HiU/. u. 391. 

1349. — **. . . a thicke reede as big as a 
aass k< f K» , which i< called Bambos." — 
/.»«A£*ni. M ; [Hak. Soc. i. 19f»]. 

I4QR^"Iat» multas pruducit arundines 
r — s. t^ioa^ Maahm Tocant."— /'n'sMi Fan 
/•ar. itim, Aai«/i« im Imdiam (Houtman's 
l'-«^L p. ». 

c IflO. — " Les Portugais et les Indions ne 
• o r u e n t ftf'int d autreK bostons |iour porter 
ITS*! fi*lan'{uinii I'U litieres. lis I'appellent 
t«.n.>jt Bftmboo. - /'vmn/, i. 237 ; [Hak. 
>* •- at*). 

'•Nlf*.— *'T>ic*«f tm.. kir^r^ {«if C^aniboja and 
^ iT.i L*»«- ncyther H<r*e!«, rM»r anv fiery 
-•vutetti* ; hut make um* onlv of \)owes, 
!>-. : % rerLfeim.' kind c^f pike, nuwle of a 
i: T*^ ««••! .ikt' r.ine«. callcHi Bambuc 
•t»■^. ..• rinn<liriir »tn»mf. though pliant 
o: • ::v> f'T V-*-. - //- M'th/'irt, 33. 

>-^ The-*. F«'rtji will iKjtter apfieare 

» 'I*- I>r;kiwht ih^TV'jf. herewith f«ent t<» 

■ * w r*h.:}«k. ir.t i«i»«-«l in a Bamboo." — 

'"-: -- Am* ns the ••ther tree* thore was 
w -r.=j«iv^- • quantity of bamb4, <>r very 
■irz* -i'liAS '.'an*-*, nnd all cluthod and 
:«T,-ri5.i »t«h r.fvttv »rrvt»n fuliatfo that went 
evr'.i^r i| ihrn. '-/'. rf^/ht ValU, ii. WO; 

• \*0^ - " « Vtt«.- n»ai-hiije e«t su>{iendue k 
tt# -C*-*^ >»UTv t^ie I'-ri ;ipiiei1o PambOVl." 
- ri>r *• ^ » li^'j. niii* <|>eHing recurs 
-v-'i^b ui J rhaptvr «le*<«.>ri>*in^ {talankins, 
"S»».tf* c.-wwhtrt. tho traveller writes 
•■» • ■• • 

Ct - " A Bambo. which in a long hollow 

".rr -- The «'ity \\tji\ tho' (Treat and 
i/>v:^'.^ I* ' r.i\ Vt'Lilt I'f Bambon can^t." 

- 4 tf-f*-T ■•. 11. 47. 

'.•C - -Wh^G I 'i^-ak of l^mUo huts, 
«iA\ (aMt an<i walls, wall- 
Lvi r%i*.ter*. t!i><r and thatch and the 
t±At t«*n'l tl»4*Di. arc all of iMunboo. 
^ tM*. rt m^'ht alm^i^ be said that among 
ta» bfi-.i^hiocae nAtx*ns the staff of life is 
• Biabta. Scalfdding and ladders, land- 
ftshm? aiiparmttis, irrigation- 
*aA sroufM. oar*, masts and jards. 

•pears and arrows, hats and helmets, bow, 
bow-strinff and quiver, oil-cans, water-stoupw 
and oooicing-pots, pipe-sticks, conduits, 
clothes-boxes, pan - boxes, dinner - trays, 
pickles, preserves, and melodious musical 
mstruments, torches, footballs, cordage, 
bellows, mats, paper, these are but a few 
of the articles that are made from the 
bamboo." — Yvie, Mun'cn to AvOy p. 153. 
To these may be added, from a cursory 
inspection of a collection in one of ^& 
museums at Kew, combs, mugs, sun-blinds, 
ca^es, g^tesque carvings, brushes, fans, 
shirts, sails, teapots, pipes and harps. 

Banil>oo6 are sometimes popularly 
distinguished (after a native idiom) 
as male and female ; the latter em- 
bracing all the common species with 
hollow stems, the former title being 
applied to a certain kind (in fact, a sp. 
of a distinct genus, Dendrocalamut 
strtciu»\ which has a solid or nearly 
solid core, and is much used for 
bludgeons (see LATTEE) and spear- 
shafta. It IS remarkable that this 
{lopular distinction by sex was known 
to Ctesias (c. B.C. 400) who says that 
the Indian reeds were divided into 
male and female., the male having no 

One of the present writers has seen 
(and }wirtaken of) rice cooked in a joint 
of IviiiiIkx), among the Khyens, a hill- 
i)e()ple of Arakan. And Mr Mark- 
nam mention.'* the .same practice as 
prevalent among the Chunchos and 
savage alK»rigine8 on the eastern slopes 
of the Andes {J. R. Geog. Soc. xxv. 
155). An endeavour was made in 
Pegu in 1855 to procure the largest 
obtainable bamlxx). It was a little 
over 10 inches in diameter. But 
Clusius states that he had seen two 
greiit {specimens in the University at 
Ley den, 30 feet Icmg and from 14 to 16 
inches in diameter. And E. Haeckel, 
in his Vigit to Cry Ion (1882X 8j)eaks 
(»f liamlKX)-stem8 at Peridenia, "each 
from a foot to two feet thick." 
We can obtain no corn >l)orat ion of 
anything apj)nxuhing 2 feet. — FSee 
Gniv's not^* on Pynird^ Hak. Soc. 
i. 330.] 

BAMO, n.p. Burm 
I Manmaw; in Chinese 
I market.' A town 

Ira^iv-adi, where one of 
! from Ciiina abuts on 
garded as the early 
Karens. [(AfcA/aAw, 
Qoidm Chsr., 103.)] 

. Bha-maWy Shan 
Nm-A'ai, *New- 
on the upjHjr 
the chief routes 
that river ; re- 
home of the 
Karens of iht 
The old Shan 



[1010.-"To thU PnrpoK look BndaU 
thsvr foort on the UsTna."— ^ T. Aor, 
Hak. Soc. i. 129.] 

1631.—". . . tlieM EuropMU hufausd 
in number, and erect«d large labataiitiil 
buildings, whicb they fortifled witli onnoM, 
miuketa, and other implsmenti of nr. In 
due coune a ooiuidenble piMxm Rrew Of, 
wbicb waa known b; Uie oame dt Fort if 
HflglL"— '^Mif Hai^'d, in ^ffM, TiL tL 

175S.-". . . 1« «tab1i»em«iti_ (onnfc 

rivibre. Ohd d«c Poito- 

Ke. 1 par tree ; ... he argaa that tha Bom. 
hny twldyKirawen are entitled to the privi- 
lege o( practising their trade frea of license, 
in cooeidemtion of the military serrices 
rendered by their anoostoni in garrisoning 
Bombay tawn and islaod, when the Dutch 
fleet adranced towardH it in 1670."— ri'no qf 
India {ilaO^, July 17t]i. 

BANSBJAH, a. Port, hajid^a, 'a 
silyer,' 'a tray to put presents on.' 
We hove seen the word used only in 
the following passagea : — 

1621.— -We and the Hollanders vent to 
rizet Semi Dono, and ws coHd bym a bottell 
of strong wnter, and an other of Spanish 
wine, with a, great box (or baiulajft) of sweet 
broad.*'— Cor*i-j Wary, ii. H3. 

[1717.— "Received the i'Ai™oi.tirf (see 
FnOUUH) frvm Captain Boddam in a 
buiJdAya cuuerod with a rich piece of Atlass 
(«e Ail-Afl).'— /r-rfffM, JOiay, Hak. Soc. 

1747.— "Making a small Cott (see COT) 
imd a mtUn B«n£ju for the Nabob .... 
(I'agodas) 4:3'.!: 21."— v4crt. Exffn* at 
Fart St. bat-id. Jany., MH. Rrcordt i*. Imiia 

c. 1760.— "|£rr'/] in large companies is 
broURbt in ready made up oo Japan chargers, 
which they coll from the Portuguese name, 
BuiddjaJia, something like our tea-boards." 
— (/n*-,T237. 

1766.— "To Monurbad Dowla Nabob— 

1 Pair PistoL- . 2)6 o' 
^ChinuBuulmin 172 12 9" 
— L<Td Cli.y'> iMrlar Ckarg^t, in Long, 433, 
Bandaik appenn- in the Jfa>t<'//a Vocabnlar 

.' It eorresponda 
Ii (see DOLLT). 

BANDEL, n.p. The name of the 
old PortugiieBe settlement in Bengal 
al>out a mile above Hoogly, where there 
still exists B monastery, said to be the 
oldest church in Bengal (see Imp. 
GauhiT). The name ie a Port, corrup- 
tion of bandar, 'the wharf; and in 
this shape the word was applied among 
tlie Portuguese to a variety of places. 
Tims in C'.,rrea, under 1641-42, we 
find mention of a rort in the Red 
Sea, near llie mouth, called Bandit 
rfo»Jlfaimw(*of the Pilots'). Chitta- 
cong is called Bandtl dt ChatigSo {t.g. 
Ill Bocarro, p. 444), corrcaimnding to 
llnndar Clidtadm in the Autohic^. of 
Jiihangir (i'Hiof, vi. 326). {In the 
l>iary ot Sir T. Koe (see l)elow) it ia 
api>lied to Ocmbroon], and in the 
following passage the original no doubt 
nins liandar-i-HUghlS oTHSglt-BaTidaT. 

gais, qu'ils 

t appel£ Bandel, en adoptant 

Ln de BauUr, qni sigTufie pott, 

kurdlini redoit k peu de dooee . . et 

doit k peu de i 
il eeC presqne contigii k Ugli en ramr 
—DAnTilU, Eclairriirmau, p. S4. 

1782.— "There are fire Eunpaan factiVKa 
wiUiin the swce of 20 miles, on the oppoaite 
bardu of the rirer Ganges in Bvngal ; 
Hooghly, orBandell, the Portngiieae Fna- 
dency ; ChiusurB, the Dutch ; CSkandena- 
gore, the French : 'Sirsmpore, the Duidi ; 
and Calcutta, the Knglish.^'— fV^'f Olvrw 
(loiu, Ac, p. SI. In /'rin'i Tratti, i. 

BANDICOOT, s. Corr. from the 
Teltsgu paTUirlajkku, lit. 'pifi-rat.' 
The name has spread all over India, 
as applied to the great rat called bj 
naturalists Mui malabarieiu (ShawL 
Mtu gigantevi (Hardwiuke), Jfws btutA- 
cota (Beuhstein), [Naoeia bandiala 
(Blanford, p. 426)J. The word is 
now used also in Queenaland, {and 
is the origin of the name of the 
famous Bmdigo gold-field (3 ser. N. i: (/. 
ix. 97)]. 

c. 1330.—" In Lessor India then be nos 
ists as big as foie><, and TenoDKnii aieesd- 
iag]y."— Friar JanlaKVt, Hak. Soc, 28. 

0. 1343.— "They imprison in Um dun- 
geons (of Dwaiglr, i./. Daulatibtd) then 
who havo been guilty of greatcrinMa. linn 
are in those dungooos enormous nla, bigger 
than cats. In fact, tliese latter animals roo 
away from them, and can't stand tgaiiiat 
them, for they would got the wont of it. 
So they are only caught by stratagem. 1 
have seen these rats at Dwaiglr, and mocb 
amaied I was ! "—/1,k Bat^Ux, it. 47. 

Frj-er sei 
the Moor : 

IS to exaggerate wone tl 
"For Vermin, the 

on Poultry."— /"ryfl-, 118. 

The following surjirisingly cunfoonds 
two entirely different animals : 

1766.— "The Bandicoot, or maak rat, i* 
another troublesome «"'■»«', raor* Iwlwd 
from its offensiTe smell than anytbbMT alM.' 
-il«nr.,, A'arratit/, 32. See lIDtfBtf. 




1979.- "i thMJl iMTOT fori^ mv first 
nffct here {<m th« Cooos ItlandB). Aa aoon 
M th* Sim kftd goo« down, and the moon 
naia. Thn—ndg qduq thionmndn of ratA, in 
«a* miukX to * faadlOOOi, appeared."— 
/WA,^, ^f^orf ■• B. BanMa,!^., u. 14. 

11Ml->**TImj <«ild dogs in QQeeniiliind) 
t ntfifd KaoptfDo when in numbers .... 
Kit iwaaU^ (««fcrred analler and more 
mdij U^mtamd prer, ae ratis baadiooots, 
aad pommiam, '^^BiadhtoodTM Mag., Jan., 
r « 

ilSK».~"In Ei^laod the Collector is to 
t* f>cad riding at anchor in the Bftndiooot 
< '»b. " — A Urtgk'MiKkaif, Twniy-one Days, 

BAHDIOOT, s. Tlie oollcxiuial 
mxDr in S. India of the fruit of 
H}hurm* €truUntu$y Tamil vendai-khdi, 
x,'. unrif*' fruit of the vendai, called 
m H. Nundi, See BEHDT. 

EAVDO! H. imperative hdndho, 
•!;- .-r n^akr fart.' '*Thi9 and prob- 
\'-\y '"th^-r Indian words have l>een 
=.uara2iM-«i in the docks on the Thames 
trwjnrntrd by Lascar crews. I have 
l-.iH A Li<n<ion lighter-man, in the 
V-. :iri* IXcks, thn»w a rope ashore 

■ 4n'<th«r Lf»n<ioner, calling out, 
Buido!'— Af.-'rVn. K^aiin^.) 

BA]n)Y. ^. A carriage, bullock- 
^r-"-4iv, bu^jrv, "T cart. This won! 
J .•lui in U»ih the S. and W. Presi- 
<i?? :•-, but IS unknown in Bengal, 
o: -L -h* N.W.P. It is the Tamil 
m»*i. T'-lug. fcfiwWi, *H cart or vehicle.' 
Tt' »^ r«i a..* iendi^ is al^) used in 
Ji-.-u -Mr .^k«-ai writes— "Klinkert 
ii^- Mfc^i hfndu 'a chaise or caleche,' 

■ '.I I J-AVr n«»t heanl the word in 
^a&dari M.ilay, th«»ugh Clifford and 
>wrt:. h*vr heudu^ *a kind of sedan- 
't4:r by nifn,' and the com- 
r.-'Ti'-r wt^pl tttndu "a s»»ilan-chair or 
' •■•:. whi-rh I have heard in Selangor. 
^ "i.r."- n Kiy* that ker^ta (i.e. krtta 
•*-^; .« usr^l t*> signifv any twi>- 
*":.^!-i TiKi'l** in Johor."^ 

T« V« w>I(i. an elog^ant new and 


^. CA.* .^ Bandy, with ctrpper raneK liue<l 
•^Ji V rrtm- lemther." — Monro* Caurin-^ 


S5C - "Xo wheel carria^^ can be ii5ed 
* ' 4sara. not «?T«>n a biiffalik-bandy." — 
'^m a .Vr r. ir.aro, in L«/>. i. 243. 

>1^— " N<«e l>ut open carriai^eii are used 
a'.4niea : we therefore went in bandit, or, 
<fc ftum Eoc^vh, g»g»." — Maria OraAam, 88. 

IfiB.-— ** Ttnae pcmns who hare not 

:hBen have the horsee of their 

or gisB, led by theee men. 

. . . Gigs and hackeries all go here (in 
Ceylon) by the name of bandy." — Hfber 
(ed. 1844), ii. 152. 

1829. — '* A mighty solemn old man, seated 
in an open bnndy (read bandy) (as a gig with 
a head that has an opening behind is oUled) 
at Madras." — Mem. of Col. Mountain, 2na 
ed. 84. 

I860.— "Bullock bandies, oorered with 
cajans met us." — TennenVa Ceylon, ii. 146. 

1862.—" At Coimbatore I bought a band^ 
or country cart of the simplest construction. ' 
—Marikam** Peru and India, 393. 

BANG, BHANG, s. H. bhdna, the* 
dried leaves and small stalks of hemp 
(i.^. Cannabis indiaiy, used to cause 
intoxication, either by smoking, or 
when eaten mixed up into a sweetmeat 
(see MAJOON). Hashish of the Aral)s 
is substantially the same ; Bird wood 
says it "consists of the tender top» 
of the plants after flowering." [Bhang^ 
is usually derived from okt. ohanga^ 
* breaking,' but Burton derives both 
it and the Ar. banj from the old Coptic 
Nibanjy "meaning a preparation of 
hemp ; and here it is easy to recognise 
the Homeric Nepenthe.^* 

"On the other hand, not a few apply the 
word to the henbane {hyoKyamu* nioer) ao 
much used in mediwral Europe. The KAniUs 
evidently means henbane, distinguishing it 
from Hashish ai harHfish, * rascal's gra-v,' i.e. 
the herb Pantagruelion. . . The use of Bhang 
doubtless dates from the dawn of civilisation, 
whoete earliest social pleasures would be in- 
ebriants. Herodotus (iv. c. 75) shows the 
Scythians burning the seeds (leaves and 
ca{if«ule8) in worshiu and becoming drunk 
u\nm the fumes, as no the S. African Bush- 
men of the present day." — (Arab, yightg, 
i. 6f).)] 

l.'ieS.— "The CTcat Sultan Badur told 
Martim Affonzo do Souza, for whom he had 
a great liking, and to whom he told all hi.<« 
secrets, that when in the niffht he had a 
desire to visit Portugal, and the Brazil, and 
Turkey, and Arabia, and Persia, all he had 
to do waM to eat a little bangne. . . ." — 
(warria, f. 2rt. 

1578. — "Bangae is a plant resembling 
hemp, or the Cannabis of the Latins . . . 
the Arabs call this Bancue * Axis'" {i.e. 
Hashish).— C. ^fo*fa, 360^1. 

1598. — "They have .... also many kinds 
of Drogues, as Amfion, or Onium, C^mfora, 
Bangne and Sandall Wooa." — Linschden, 
19rTHak. Soc. i. 61 ; also see ii. 115]. 

1606. — "0 mais de tSpo estava oheo de 
bangne." — Gouvea, 93. 

1^88. — " 11 se fit apporter vn petit cabinet 
d'or .... dont il tira deux layottee, et prit 
dans I'me de Vofion, ou opium, et dans 
Tautie du boigi, qui est vne certaine drogue 
ou poudre, dont ils se senient pour s'ezciter k 
la hiXTo^r—Mandelslo, Paris, 1669, 150. 




1685.—" I have two sorts of the Bftligue, 
which were sent from two several places of 
the East Indies ; thev both differ much from 
our Hemp, although they seem to differ 
most as to their magnitude." — Dr. Hans 
Sloane to Mr. Ray, in Ray's Correspondence, 
1848, p. 160. 

1673. — "Baiu^ (a pleasant intoxicating 
Seed mixed ^^^ Milk). . . ."—Fryer, 91. 

1711. — "Bang has likewise its Vertues 
attributed to it ; for being used as Tea, it 
inebriates, or exhilarates t^em according to 
the Quantity they take." — Lockyer, 61. 

1727. — "Before thejr engage in a Fight, 
they drink Bang, which is made of a Seed 
like Hemp-seed, that has an intoxicating 
Quality."—^. Hami/lon, i. 131. 

1763. — ' * Most of the troops, as is customary 
during the agitations of this festival, had 
eaten plentifully of bang. . . ." — Ormf, 
i. 194. 

1784. — ". . . it does not appear that the 
use of bank, an intoxicating weed which 
resembles the hemp of Europe. ... is 
considered even by the most rigid (Hindoo) 
a breach of the law." — O. Forsttr, Journey y 
ed. 1808, ii. 291. 

1789. — " A shop of Bang may be kept with 
a capital of no more than two shillings, or 
one rupee. It is only some mats stretched 
under some tree, where the Bangeras of the 
town^ that is, the vilest of mankind, assemble 
to dnnk Bang."— Note on Seir Mutaqherin, 
iii. 308. 

" The Hemp — with which we used to hang 
Our prison pets, yon felon gang, — 
In Eastern climes produces Bang, 

Esteemed a drug divine. 
As Hashish dressed, its magic powers 
Can lap us in Elyaian bowers ; 
But sweeter far our social hours. 

O'er a flask of rosy wine." 

Lord JVeaves. 

BANGED — is also used as a parti- 
ciple, for * stimulated by bang,^ e.g. 
hanged up to the eyes." 


BANGLE, s. H. hangrt or bangri. 
The original word properly means a 
ring of coloured gla&s worn on the 
w^rist by women ; [the cJiilri of N. 
India ;] but bangle is applied to any 
native ring-bracelet, ana also to an 
anklet or ring of any kind worn on 
the ankle or leg. Indian silver Ijangles 
on the wrist have recently come into 
common use among English girls. 

1803. — "To the rutwahl he gave a heavy 
pair of gold bangles, of which he consider- 
ably enhanced the value by putting them on 
his wrists with his own hands." — Journal of 
»Vir J. SichotlSj in note to Wellington l)r- 
spalches, ed. 1837, ii. 373. 

1809. — "BanglM, or bracelets." — Maria 
(ira/uun, 13. 

1810. — "Some wear ... a stoat silver 
ornament of the ring kind, called a tiaB|(le, 
or harrah [iard] on either wrist." — WUham- 
son, V. M. i.3(fc. 

1826.—" I am paid with the sOver tMmflM 
of my enemy, and his cash to booi.**— ^^Pm- 
durang Hari, 27 ; [ed. 1873, i. 36]. 

1873. — "Year after year he found some 
excuse for coming up to Sirmoori — now a 
proposal for a tax on banglM, now a scheme 
tor a new mode of Hindustani pronunciation.'' 
—The True Refwrvter, i. 24. 

BANGUN, s.— See BBOrjAUL. 

BANGUB, s. Hind, hdngwr. In 
Upper India this name is given to 
the higher parts of the plain country 
on which the towns stand — the older 
alluvium — in contradistinction to the 
khddar fKhAdir] or lower alluvium im- 
mediately bordering the great rivers, 
and forming the limit of their inunda- 
tion and modern divagations ; the 
khddar liaving been cut out from the 
bdngar by the river. Medlicott spells 
bhdngar (Man. of GeoL of India^ L 404). 

BANGT, BANGHY, &c s. H. fta- 

hangi, Mahr. bangiy Skt. vihahgamd, 
and vihangikd. 

a. A shoulder-yoke for carrying 
loads, the yoke or bansy resting on 
the shoulder, while the load is appor- 
tioned at either end in two equal 
weights^ and ^nerally hunff by ooids. 
The milkmaid's yoke is the nearest 
approach to a survival of the bangy- 
staff in England. Also such a yoKe 
with its pair of baskets or boxes. — 


b. Hence a parcel post, carried 
originally in this way, was called 
bangy or dawk-bangy, even when the 
primitive mode of transport had long 
f)ecome ol>solete. "A bangy parcel 
is a parcel received or sent by such 



"But I'll give them 2000, with BhaagM 
and Coolies, 
With elephants, camels, with hackeriei 
and doolies." 

LeUers of Simpkin the Second, p. 57. 

1803.— *' We take with us indeed, in as 
banghjrs, sufficient changes of linen." — 
Ld. Valeniia, i. 67. 

1810.—'* The htjirfwollak, thai is tli0 
l>earer who carries uie baagy, sopporki th* 
bamboo on his shoulder, so aa to «aiiipioiit 
the baskets sus^nded at MAh and* <— iW* 
liamson, V, M. i. 328. 




flMS.— ;•! 


bearers to carry 
I had four 
who are each obliged 
iA i^arry forty poand weight, in small 
vaaicn ur tin bozae, called pftamkM" — 
Tm^^i^'s anMBiA Carry, Good Old JJayf, 

c. :^+4.- -I win forward with thi« by 
Ummgf dAk a copy of Capt. Moresby's 
^cxnrv .4 the Red Sea."— .S«> f/. ArtMHr^ in 
/^ jdmtm. of Lard EflmtMrvmgk, p. 2Zl. 

\*T'.. - "The oAoers of his regiment . . . 
•QSM n bed u> buy the young people a set of 
ttiM kery. and a plated tea and coffee sorrice 
{t^A. .f Kj dawk iMmghiw ... at not 
asih mnjro than tXX) per cent, in adrance 
»< tb-" Ectf^ivh price."— n< True Hfformfr, 
V. IT 

RAVJ(X >. Though thid is a West- 
4fri a*x Ka^-Imliau tt^nii, it iiiay W 
v«rth while ti> intnxlucv the follom'ing 
•idrr friTRi of thr word : 

i:*4 - 

Pvrsrrt thy Alare* ti> load the choral dance 
T>- tike ' wild buwhaw't melancholy 
• Slid — '#' mi fcj^, ir. 

>rr A.«> /*fi*#*. ft>r exani|>l« of bftojonf 
ttii .V A.//f..r teller]. 

BANKSHALL, .s. a. A want- 
'-•>••» b. Thf ot!i<v of a HarUmr 
M*.-<.r «.r oth*-r Fort Auth(nntv. In 
':.• • mj* r *^\\^ thf wonl is stirt uakI 
■: > Iivii.t ; in B^^ngJil tht' latter \a 
■> nl> -••IL'<<- rvci^niii^t. at 
*:>'-*: ATi^l«»-Indi;iiL'* ; in Nurtbeni 
r.i:*:lH* w-'H i.-^ n(it in ua.*. As tht' 
' *. •:* ■•th'f stand"* on tht* ^rinJb* of 
H •jcIv. th»- naint* is, wt* l«elieve, 

•*•• A-rjrft'*! ;i«. havinfj !*«>nif in- 
>r-. !- r'lVr»n<f ti» thi** jxi^ition. 
Ar. * n A Ut#- »«»rk wv find a |>r«sitivt^ 
i*i tl«-i*iM«*, Imt ♦'ntirelv unfounded, 
'iTikT-iti-in '»t this kind, which we 

. . '^ i»-Ii.w. In Ja\*a the word ha^ 
. •:•- ;h< 4pplitati«>ii to the open hall 

• i-i'V**, *u|»|-'rt«Hl by wooden 
; -ir- with- -u w.ill.N whiih forms 
•*.:* • *\<rz\ pniu fly n-s^idenie. The 
• "i .- .■•-i in Sea Hindustani, in 
■ - • ::..• *.inAlr, and hungmil for a 

i.-^A*».«,,' i« in f;i*^t <me of the oldest 

•■-- * ri- takt-n up by foreign 

'*»>-» .ri Indiii. And its use not 

--.f y «^irT>-;i (r. 1561) but by Kintf 

^ ^ • I ^i4 k w ith the regularly -formed 

triiJtrsff* plural nf wiinls in ^ shows 

!y It WM Adopted by the 

even explain it, as is his usual practice 
with Indian terms. 

More than one serious etpnology 
has been suggested : — (1). Orawfurd 
takes it to be the Mala^ word hangMl^ 
defined W him in his Malay Diet, 
thus : " (J.) A shed ; a storehouse ; a 
workshop ; a porch ; a covered pas- 

Bsaffe" (see /. Ind, ArMp, iv. 182). 
Ir Skeat adds that it also means in 
alay *half-huskedjpaddy/and * fallen 
timber, of which tne outer layer has 
rotted and only the core remains.*] 
But it is probable that the Malay word, 
though marked by Crawfurd ("J.") 
as Javanese in origin, is a corruption 
of one of the two following : 

(2) Beng. bankaidloy from Skt. banik 
or vaniky 'trade,' and idla, 'a hall.' 
This is Wilson's etymology. 

^3). Skt. bhdnd4tidla, O&nar. hhan- 
dcudUy Malayal. pdndiidla, Tam. panda- 
Mlai or pandeucaidlai, 'a storehouse 
or magazine.^ 

It is difficult to decide which of the 
two last is the original word ; the 
prevalence of the second in S. India 
Ls an argument in its favour ; and the 
sul»stitution of g for d would l)e in 
acconknce with a phonetic practice of 
not uncoinnion occurrence. 


c 1345. — " For the bandar there is in 
every island (of the Maldives) a wooden 
building, which they call bajanfir [evi- 
dently fur Umjasdry i.e. Arabic spelling for 
fianfffi^r] where the Governor . . . collects 
all the goods, and there sells or barters 
them."— /ft» Batuta, iv. 120. 

[1520.— *' Collected in his bamgaMd" (in 
the Maldives). — Doc. da Torrtdo Tomboy 
p. 452.] 

1524. — A grant from K. John to the City 

of Goa, says: *'that henceforward even 

if no market rent in the city is collected 

fniro the bacao^, viz. Xho»o at which ore 

jH)ld honey, oil, butter, b^tre ^i'.^. betel), 

spices, and cloths, for permission to sell 

such things in the said bacaci*^ it is our 

pleasure that they shall sell them freely." 

A note says: ''Apparently the word should 

1m) imni^tu*^ or bancacaas, or fia^go^*^ 

I which then signified any place to sell things, 

■ but now particularly a w<Hiden house.— 

' Arekir. Poriug. Or.^ l^'asc. ii. 43. 


Indevd, Oorrea does not 

I 1561.—*' ... in the benga^aaa, in which 
I stand the goods ready for shipment.'* — 
I Cormr, j>s<£u, i. *2, 260. 

1610. — The form and use of the word have 
led P. Teixeira into a curious confosion (as 
it would seem) when, siioaking of foreigners 
at Ormus, he says : " nay muchos gentiles, 
Ban e anas [see BANTAll], BangiM^ y 
Cambayatys "—where the word io Italics 




iprobably representfl Bangalys^ ue, Bengalis 
(Rel, de Harmuz, 18). 

c. 1610. — *' Le facteur da Roy chrestien 

• des Maldiues tenoit sa banquesalle ou 
plustost cellier, sur le bord de la mer en 
risle de MaX4."—Pyrard de Laval, ed. 1679, 
i. 65 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 85 ; also see i. 267]. 

1613.— "The other settlement of Yler 
. . . with houses of wood thatched extends 
... to the fields of Tanjonpacer, where 
there is a hangiiiial or sentry's house without 
x>ther defense/' — Oodiiiko de Urtdia^ 6. 

1623.— "Bangsal, a shed (or bam), or 

• often also a roof without walls to sit under, 
sheltered from the rain or sun." — Oaspar 
IVUUns, Vocabularium, kc., ins' Graven- 
haage ; repr. Batavia, 1706. 

1734-5.— "Paid the H^tilmhull Merchants 
for the house poles, country reapers, &c., 
necessary for housebuilding." — In }Vheeler, 
iii. 148. 

1748.—*' A little below the town of Wampo 
. . . These people {compradore*) build a house 
for each ship. . . . They are called by us 
bankiallB. In these we deposit the rigging 
and yards of the vessel, chests, water-casks, 
and every thing that incommodes us aboard." 
— A Voyage to the E. Indies in 1747 and 
1748 (17'62), p. 294. It appears from this 
book (p. 118) that the place in Canton 
River was known as itftwlraall Island. 

1750-52.— "One of the first things on 
arriving here (Canton River) is to procure a 
bancsludl, that is, a great house, con- 
structed of bamboo and mats ... in which 
the stores of the ship are laid up." — A 
Voiioge, &c., by Of of Tareen ... in a series 
of letters to Dr LinnBeus, Transl. by J. R. 
Forster (with Osbeck's Voyage), 1771. 

1783. — "These people ((7Am/mm, &c., from 
India, at Achin) ... on their arrival im- 
mediately build, bv contract with the 
natives, houses of bamboo, like what in 
C^ina at Wampo is called bankshall, .very 
regular, on a convenient spot close to the 
river." — ForreM, V. to Jifrgui^ 41. 

1788. — "Banksaulfl — Storehouses for de- 
positing ships' stores in, while the ships are 
unlading and refitting." — Indian Vocab. 

1813.— "The East India Company for 
seventy years had a large banksaul, or 
warehouse, at Mirzcc, for the reception of 
the pepper and sandalwood purchased in 
the dominions of the Mysore Rajah." — 
Forhf*y Or. Afem. iv. 109. 

1817. — "The b&ngsal or mtndopo is a 
lai^e open hall, sup|x>rted by a double row 
of pillars, and covered with shingles, the 
interior being richly decorated with paint 
and gilding.' — Rafiety Java (2nd ed.), i. 93. 
The Javanese use, as in this passage, cor- 
responds to the meaning given in Jansz, 
Javanese Diet.: "Bai^nMlf Vorstelijko 
Zitploats " (Prince's Sitting-place). 


[1614.— "The custom house or bankiall 
at Masulpatam." — Fatter, LeUert, ii. 86.] 

1623.— "And on the Place by the sea 
there was the Cnstom-hoose, which the 
Persians in their language call Bodknl, a 
building of no gjeat size, with some open 
outer porticoes."— P. della VaUe, ii. 465. 

1673.—". . . Their Bank BdUa, cr 
Custom House Keys, where they laod, are 
Two ; but mean, and shut only with cnrdinary 
Gates at Night,"— Fryer, 27. 

1683. — "I came adiore in Capt. Goyer't 
Pinnace to ye Ranlnihall, about 7 milei 
from Beliaaore."— Hedges, Diary, Feb. 2; 
[Hak. Soc. i. 65]. 

1687. — "The Mayor and Aldermen, etc., 
do humbly request the Honourable President 
and Council would please to grant and 
assign over to the Corporation the petty 
dues of Banksall Tolls."— In Wheeler, i. 20ir. 

1727.—" Above it is the Duich H^^WiWii, 
a Place where their Ships ride when they 
cannot get further up for the too sw^ 
Currents."-^. Hamilton, ii. 6. 

1789. — "And that no one may plead 
ignomnce of this order, it is hereby directed 
tlbat it be placed constantly in view at the 
Banlnihall in the English and country 
languages."— /*roc/. against Slave-Trading in 
SeUm-Rarr, ii. 5. 

1878.— "The term *BankBoU' has alwa^ 
been a puzzle to the English in India. It is 
borrowed from the Dutch. The *SoU' is 
the Dutch or Danish 'Zoll,' the Engliah 
'Toll.' The BanksoU was then the place 
on the * bank ' where all tolls or duties were 
levied on landing goods."— TWftoy* WkteUr, 
Early Records of B. India, 1»S. (Quite 
erroneous, as already said ; and ZoU is not 

BANTAM, D.p. The province 
wliich forms the western extremity of 
Java, properly Bdntan. [Mr Skeat 
gives BarUari, Crawfurd, BarUdn.] It 
formed an independent kingdom al 
the lieginning of the 17th century, 
and then produced much pepper (no 
longer grown), which caustiKi it to lie 
greatly lre(juented by European traders. 
An English factory was establii^ed 
here in 1603, and continued till 1682, 
when the Dutch succeeded in expelling 
us as interlopers. 

[1615.— "They were all valued in mv 
invoice at Bantan."— Foa(<;r, Letters, iv. 98. J 

1727.— "The only Product of 
is Pepper, wherein it abounds so much, 
that they can export 10,000 Tuns par 
annum." — A. Hamilton, ii. 127. 

BANTAM FOWLS, s. Accordinff 
to Crawfurd, the dwarf poultry which 
we call by this name were impcnrtad 
from Japan, and received the nuM 
"not from the place that prodaoed 
them, but from that where oat 




fint found them. "~-(/>e«r. Did. 
am). The following evidently 
dcjcf ibea Bantams : 

'*TV«7 aU» eat certain oocks and 
id ion'a^, which are the nxe of a 
a. aod haTe feathered feet ; but 
, that I never naw ao pretty a 
btvmpbt a cock and hen with me 
CluuJ. aod then, Aiupecting they 
taken fmm me, I gare them to 
:lun father* belonging to the Madre 
-gmflk^ L 12Sr, 126. 
* ' Krjoi Siam are Itronght hither 
muur* IolLa with raffled Feet, well 
ith ispoj*. which haTe a ntrutting 
h thvfflu, the truest mettled in the 
-/Vw-r. 11«. 

-"Wiide cocki* and hens . . . 
r the floall tfort called ChamporfSy 
4 which we have had brought us 
Eiboja.** — H'dg*^ hiary, Hak. Sfx;. 

Irioks aa if they came from 

t(4- v.). 

volte il giomo ^ (251). See also Luillier 
below. The men of this class profess 
an extravagant respect for animal life ; 
but after Stanley brought home Dr. 
Livingstone's letters they l)ecame 
notorious as chief promoters of slave- 
trade in Eastern Africa. A. K. Forbes 
speaks of the mediaeval Wftnias at 
tlie Court of Anhilwara as "ecjuallv 
gallant in the iield ^with Raiputs), 
1 and wiser in council . . . already 
in profession puritans of ))eace, but 
not yet drainea enough of their tierv 
Kshatri bloo<i."— <iJ(f< Mdla, i. 240*; 
[ed. 1878, 184].) 

Bunya is the form in which vdntya 
ap})ears in the Anglo-Indian use of 
Bengal, with a different shade of mean- 
ing, and genenilly indicating a grain- 

151 <5. — "There are three qualities of thetto 
Gentiles, that is to say, some are called 
RazbutA . . . others are callod ll*t*<*w«^ 
and are roerchontH and trader;). " — BarfMtd, 

lAHYAH. ?•. a. A Hindu 
ind es^prr'iiilly of the ProWnce 51. 

r%U many of whirh cLiss have 1 1552.—". . . Among whom came cer- 

^«^n ^ttl*-d in Anibian ]>orts i tain men who are called Banaanes of 

iWii >.v thi-* iiaui»* ; but the the same heathen of the Kingdom of 

■ft-n ii'vhM bv .-arlv Imvelb-rs <'a«nl*"a • • • c-oming on \xxird the ship 

,' 'i . * • tf ♦!, . *>' >aMX) da iTama, and seeing m hw cabin 

>ru liidM t.» iK-n»OUS of I h^» j ,, image of Our UidyTt.> which our 

r*i!C^<.n p*ii»T;illv. b. In |Hwple did reverence, thoy also made adora- 
i il-» i* i- (or jHTnaiw nithtT tion with much more fervency. . . ." — 

!li' .4iiV :ijii»lifd to the native ' fi^irr>^, Dec., 1. liv. iv. c:ip. tJ. 

/ta' li'-i to lKHis«*si of bu.*iilu*.*<S , ir»55.— **We may mention that the in- 
f'^'Zi" in tilt' <?mi>lovment of habitant^* of (hizerat call the unbelievers 
V . f.Tl.-i.wTi .b.iiKT 'analfWToiw Banytns, whilst the inhabitants of Hindu- 

: w .>u.illy ..'illwi sircar). i„ j. as., l*" S. ix. 197-8. 

*.pi wv» ;i.ioi.ted fn.m J f/Mivi, i56:i._-/e. if the fruits were all as goo^i 

! n;.- !r.i.lin^' riL-*tc (in dujarati ^^^ this (mango) it would be no such great 

, %iii i(»iii«\< tr>m Skt. nuitter in the Banaanes, as you tell me, 

iii'-nb.iiit.' Thf ttTiiiinal ' not t<> eat flesh. And since I touch on 


t\ 1-- .1 l*.irtn;;ufsc addition 
fmiit'ttfuin, tintnii*inn^ i><fXj</'ir(), 
..*\ r-- t.ik'-ii tPMu tli«' ])lunil 
fMi«^it<. I* i- i»r»Kiblf, bow- 
r»*t '.h' l*-.rtui:n»'s«- found the 
..r-ii* -Il \i^' bv the .\nib 
S: il Ali, tbe Turki-^b Adini- 
- T :; i»r**« i.-^lv tbf Niiuf lorni, 
.J • :■» rbf Miiidu> f^*ner.illy ; 
r:.^ j---!it o| Sts-iiii .iU'l Paubu^ 

i-»:i lO-m»^» .iTid Juliet, jw given 

-. :* :u h:- Snt*^h (p. 101), we 

•••nii Jf'«ir»ry/M. V. F. 

M kf. I, wb'i i" «iuoi«^l lu'luw 

i a'A'X''^ tl"* il»'* I'ort ugue^•<* 

:.-<-■ Hill- hi- ft ^luzerat Ba^- 

-:»;*w- tb.-y wen^alwrty* washing 

'.>^" ... rhiAUiati rla Portu- 

f'l^im, |Kr U fretpienza e, c«ju 4Uale si lauano piu 

this matter, tell me, nrithee, who arc thef<e 
Banaanes . . . who au not eat flesh .'..." 
— ffttn-iit, f. 136. 

1608.— *'The (nmomour of the Towne of 
tSuMdrHr^ is a BaJUiyaXLt and ime of thoHo 
kind of )»eople that olisenie the I^aw of 
I'ythag«)nis." — Juh*-*^ in l*»rrhiUi, i. '2M., 

(1610.— "Banaanaa." See <{ notation under 

1623. — "One of these races of Indians is 
that of those which call themselves Vanu\y 
but who are cjiUeil, "iomewhat o»mii)tly by 
the Portuguese, and by all our other Franks, 
Banians; thcv are all, for the ni<Ht ixirt, 
traders and brokers."—/*. rf-'/Ai Wille^ i. 
486-7 ; [and see i. 78 Hak. Stx;.). 

1630.— ** A i»eoi»lc jjrosonte<i thcnijielveii 
to mine eyes, eloatho<i in linnen garmentu, 
somewhat low descending, of a gesiture and 
garbc, afl I may s:iv, mai<lenly and well 
nigh effeminate ; of a coimtenance shy, 
and somewhat estranged ; yet smiling out 
a gloeed and liaithful familiarity. ... I 




asked what manner of people these were, 
HO strangely notable, and notably strange. 
Reply was made that they were Banians." 

1665.— "In trade these n^«<*^«« are a 
thousand times worse than the Jewi ; more 
expert in all sorts of cunning tricks, and 
more maliciously mischievous in their re- 
venge."— rowTJiujr, E. T. ii. 68; [ed. Ball, 
i. 1^, and see i. 91]. 

c. 1666. — "Aussi chacun a son ^^"<^" 
dans les Indes, et il y a des personnes de 
quality qui leur confient tout ce qu'ils ont 
. . . .'"—Tkevenoty ▼. 166. This passage 
shows in anticipation the transition to the 
Calcutta use (b., below). 

1672.— "The inhabitants are called Gui- 
zeratts and Benyans."- £(c/<ia^«, 2. 

,, " It is the custom to say that to 
make one Bagnan (so they call the (Jentile 
Merchants) you need three Chinese, and to 
make one dninese three Hebrews." — P. F. 
VincfHZo di Man'cL, 114. 

1673.— "The Banyan follows the Soldier, 
though as contrary in Humour as the Anti- 
podes in the same Meridian are opposite to 
one another. ... In Cases of Trade they 
are not so hide-bound, giving their Con- 
sciences more Scope, and boggle at no 
Villainy for an Emolument." — Fryer, 193. 

1677.— "In their letter to Ft. St. George, 
15th March, the Court offer £20 reward to 
any of our servants or soldiers as shall bo 
able to Hpeak, write, and translate the 
l^wlaw language, and to learn their arith- 
metic." — In Madras Aotet and £xU., No. I. 
p. 18. 

1705. — " . . . ceux d^ premieres uastetf, 
comme les Baignana." — Luillier, 106. 

1813. — " . . . it will, I believe, be gener- 
ally allowed by those who have dealt much 
with Banians and merchants in the larger 
trading towns of India, that their moral 
character cannot be held in high estima- 
tion."— /Vftrx, Or. Mem, ii. 456. 

1877.— "Of the Haw?, Banyan, or trader- 
caste there iiro five groat families in this 
country." — linrtoUf Sind RertsiUd, ii. 281. 


1761.— "Wo ox|)ect and positively direct 
that if our servants employ Banians or black 
iieopio under them, thov shall bo accountable 
lor their conduct." — The Court of hiret-torXy 
in Limy^ 25-1. 

17(J4._*' R,M,hit:ou» and Ordert. That no 
MoonMhec, Linguist, Banian, or Writer, be 
allowed to any officer, cxcei)tiiig the Com- 
mander-in-Chief." — Ft. William Prttc., in 
lA>ny, :382. 

1775. — "We have reason to 8usi>ect that 
the intention was to make him (Nundcomar) 
Banjran to General Clavcring, to surround 
the Genenil and us with the Governor's 
creatures, and to keep us totally unac- 
qiuunto<l with the real state of the Govern- 
ment." — Minvt^ hi/ Cf a faring, Alonson, and 
Fraficijt^ Ft. WilliaMf 11th April. In Price's 
Trarts, ii. 138. 

1780.--" We are informed that the Juty 
Wallahs or Makers and VendcMV of Bengal 
Shoes in and about Calcutta . . . intend 
sending a Joint Petition to the Supreme 
Council ... on account of the great decsy 
of their Trade, entirely owing to the Luxury 
of the Bengalies, chiefly the Bangaaa (nV) 
and Sarcars, as there are scaroe any of 
them to be found who does not keep a 
Chariot, Phaeton, Buggy or Pallaaqmii, 
and some all four . . .^— In fftdty't Bemgal 
QazttU, June 24th. 

1783.—" Mr. Hastings' banniaa wbi^ after 
this auction, found possessed of temtoriet 
yielding a rent of £140,000 a year."— ilvriiv 
^V^cK on E. /. Bill, in Wrttingt, &c, iiL 

1786.— "The said Warren HastingB did 
permit and suffer his own banyan or prin- 
cipal black steward, named Ganto Baboo, to 
hold farms ... to the amount of 18 lacs 
of rupees per annum.'*— ^rt. ogH, SoMtinpf 
Burke, vii. 111. 

,, "A practice has gradually eiepi 
in among the H»w<aw and other rich 
men of Odcutta, of dressing some of their 
servants . . . nearly in the uniform of 
the Honourable Company's Sepoys and 
Lascars. . . ." — Notification, in Skon Karr, 
i. 122. 

1788.— "Banyan— A Gentoo servant em- 
ployed in the management of commerdsl 
affairs. Every English gentlenutn at Bmigal 
has a Banyan who either acts ot himself, or 
as the substitute of some great man or bLuk 
merchant." — Indian VocctLulary (Stockdale). 

1810. — "The same person frequently was 
banian to several European gentlemen ; all 
of whose concerns were of course aocuiatdy 
known to him, and thus became the subject 
of conversation at those meetings the !*•»<•»■ 
of Calcutta invariably held. . . ." — Wiltimm- 
Mut, V. AT. i. 189. 

1817. — "The Euro].>ean functionary . . . 
has first his bansran or native secretur."— 
Miff, Jlift. (ed. 1840), iii. 14. Mr. Mill doss 
not here accurately interjiret the word. 

(2). BANYAN, s. An undenhirt, 
originnlly of muslin, and so called as 
reaeinbliii^ tbe Inxiy gannent of the 
Hindus ; i)ut now commonly applied 
to under iKKly-clothing of elastic cotton, 
woollen, or silk web. The following 
({uotatioiLS illustrate tbe stages by 
which the word reached its present 
applicaticm. And they show that 
our ])redecea3ors in India used to 
ado})t tlie native or Baoyaxi costume 
in their hours of ease. C. P. Brown 
defines Banyan as "a loom dmnng- 
gown^ such as Hindu tradesmen wear.* 
ProUibly this may have been the 
original use ; but it is never so em- 
ployed in Northern India. 

1672.— "It is likewise oitleied tliat hiA 
Oflicers and Souldiers in the Fort shsll, hcA 





•'tor; *WMAth lAkv, and on erery day { 
',t-r. iKey o»cfti«e, w^ir*- KngiiMk op^irrt ; : 

'v«T«c«'t thv igAr\m i* inuait Iwouminf; oh 
• •. l:--r«. a-ij4 LiirTv«fa*adent to their |inifeM- i 

Smr H'. i^ mifkitrH''' » ShlHiling ijtdff^ | 
U «« *v 111. 4:^. I 

'.71* -■ T>iv (JA^iirn l;i.- it |in>ve<i, for hin ] 

-«* \\ 7«Arki«'^-. t«iiitf iin(Irt.'<«i«o<l and in hi"* 

«.!••:. I ii'i :t*«t kn-iw him) c-AOie <^tT 

I. s:« •"■%_ tr.-i Ml :i %'i'ry h^iiurhty mnnner 

■•'I it_ ■>■ xtf. -4 \'iiir •lUturUinit'. (tentlc- 

-Ir. ir*^/'r. iii. V/.*. 

.7*1 -> ' I «fxi :iri <K«I Starrer in thi-* 

•-■r-. ^-.i;!**" ;irri*i"l in <':ilctitbi in the 

-.- l^Jrt . . T^. •«-.■ were the iliiy*, whwii 

' ' r^irr. -• ; iit'i K "• iifti-jid ••/ Foniitnii ; 

... ..*— 1 -^r ir-ri. Mt-ijirtef'* of tho Touncii 

BasTAB Bbirt*. Long Dnwen (q.v.). 

' -:.,«.■«' COBg— ■<-''^]'' • ^'ith a Cose Hottiv 

,- ••: iid Arr»».*. *ii'l .i (nMi^rlet of Water 

,-: - ?•■- T »■■■■. -thiih thf Secretiry 

-^ . ' i' H%:. !■ fr»-. iviitiv Ofrivcrtc*! int4i 

' T . !:. 'H -ttt-r fp'iii H-trii-o Waljiile 

••• •..••.*. .if Ipi^vr <»H«H»ry. ciatod 

•- »rr., jr7l •'' • -'/*•»"•"* f«l., V. I7»i») 

■.■--^••- .t •«*. »t I^ipl St:uilt'y'?«, :it 

If* f •»•»«• (i-iriL-fr-, Mr. Storvr ami 

■ - tV ' r*. • -\ i«i-ri.- lrv«M.*<l "in bUliAlll 

■-<.*- » • •. r, ..'••k iTj'l hi'ii." It 

- ■ •- r- ■•■• J »■ ■ h k%t- f.jrthiT dflails 

.'.•- *'• !i w, rv. it may l»o 

• '- ::. -urn Bmnykn. ] 

» k. 

.-.i- r-:ir*. C'iinin<it;i\ 
M • .- . V.M. i. IV*.' 



BANYAN DAY. -. Tl.i^ .^ --a. 

* "- . . ,tr*^ ..I .1 li.iy nil 

• \ »; • 111- .i' u.l- .llltiWrtl ; 

•:- ■ ■: 'ii 'I i"t.iii'»ii» ,iUiVi' 
. - -— - • •'.. ].-\i ln-i "T" ••li'^-rvi* 
• r'^ * :: 1.: -It*. 

• '^. '.' .' h ' I' -'X Kedgeree. 

•■- * .- •» .; ■'- frt I i:j tht-M.' i».irt- 

• •-. - *«V •.'■•.. '". I .ir-' f'r\"'il !il 
•- • - ■ •■ i f'kjiii A't-tiTjuti-.v from 

• ■ ' •■»•«- ; : tK«-ru :i |vrft.vt IH**- 

•■ - :► :. ■•..•:■:, !.. :h'-L- Bannlan 

3%j« '.\\ «.i!i tli'-iii.*" - 

BANYAN nOHT. •. Tlm^ : 

•■ "^* .- ' '..■ • T*-:;:!-*--! i» ti-nncil 

. BftJUUIkB-Flfht f r It nvvtT ri -!.■.'< 

■ - ..:•* ■: '» ■''■-•. *J7.'». Sir 

r--» ,,• •.. ". .- th .• thi- i* :i {•lini^f 

BANYAN TBEE il-^* -Hij'ti'-ally 

BujUL - Tri- hi'iiiin H>»-Tiv«' 

• -J /••! . '. 'r Ficui ffiyftiUrtstM^ L-X 

the *^ Bonrrjdde" of Bernier (ed. Con- 
stahle^ ]>. 309).] The name api)i'Ars to 
lijive l)een first lie.stowed ])oiiularly on 
a f anions tree of this sjHH'ies growing 
nwir Gk>mbroon (n.v.), nnder which llie 
Itanyam or Hinan traders Mettled at 
that ]K)rt., had built a little |»agoda. 
S«» .s;iys Ta vernier Wlow. This 
original Ihunftin-iree Ls dej4cril)ed by 
P. della Valle (ii. 453X and bV 
Vah-ntijn (v. 202). P. della Valleys 
acfount (1622) i.s extremely inten^ting, 
but t(K» long for (^notation. He cM» 
it by the Pei-sian name, Ifil. The tn*e 
still .st^Kid, within half a mile of the 
En^lisli factory, in 1758, when it W}i8 
vi2iit4^d by Ivf.»s who <iuot^5 Tickeirs 
verfltM given l>elow. [Also see CUBEEB 

c. A.D. 70. — *• First and foremcwt, there is 
n Kitr-trco there (in India) which )>enrcth 
vcrj' fninll and slender figgos. The propertic 
of thi-* Tree, is to nlant and set it solfo with- 
out mans hclpc. r^>r it sprendeth ont with 
mightic annes, and the lowest water-l>onghufl 
underneath, do )>end so downeward to the 
vory earth, that they touch it againe, and 
lie u|M»ii it : whercl>y, within one years ^{tace 
they will take fa^t nM>t in the ground, and 
put f< Mirth a new Spring n>und al>out the 
NfothtT-treo : j*o as the.'*e hraunches, thus 
^niwii^r, Meenie like a tmile or Isjriler of 
arUiur* moxt (.■uri««U''lv .iml artiticiallv made," 
Jfci.'. 1*1 in It f Slit. UUturi^y by I'hiUfwin, 
Hulh.n,!^ i. 3rtO. 


'• . . . The giKKily Ixile l>cing got 
T«» rertain euhits' height. fn»m every side 
Thi* l»i»ughs define, which, taking root 

Spriui: »p new U)les, and these spring 

new, and newer, 
Till the whole tree iKxiome .a portions, 
Or an'he<l arl»our, ahle to receive 
.\ numeruUH troop." 

lU'i' Juh*iH', 2^ffif " y J ' 'jl TV/ ' ' ut I til . 

c. lrt.'»*), ■-•*(.'ct Arhre esti»it do nicmc 
L"» 'lue I'cluy ijui e-t a une licuc du 
liiiniliT. ct «|ui iias?<o {Miur une morveille ; 
m:!!- I Ian-* U"« Indes il y en a iiuantit*?. Ix.*«* 
l*fr*;ins rap|>ollfnt A"/. Ic. l*ortuir:«i'* Admr 
<f' ll"i*, ct lex;ii'< I'Arbre dee Ban!- 
anet ; ptm-i* ipie lc>« Kitiiiani.-<« ont fait ))Atir 
<ie!«sous une PagtMic aviv un carvan.seni 
acciMn)ifi{rne de jilu'iicur* j»ctit'« ♦•t.'ings |»our 
»e la ver. " - 7i/ ■■• /■!• /'T. I'. #/< /''T/f, liv. \. 
ch. "irt. (.\Ui >cc ed. IhilL ii. 11***. J 

c. Irt.V). **Near to the City of nrmtx wa>i 

a Banniane tree, Wxwc the onlv tree that 
grew in the Nl.-ind." To'-'rni*-}-, V.w^. Tr. i. 

c. l»i»>d. — '• Xou-* vinie> a cent ou cent 
cinipiante |4is de ce janlin. I'arhre H'lrrdanx 
toute M>n etendui-. On rap|>elle auAsi /»<t. 
ct arbre dee ^rf*"". et arbn d»* nuiH't 
. . . ." — 7Vi»^ »■'■#•#*/, V. 7tJ. 




*' The fig-tree, not that kind for fruit re- 
novni'd ; 
But such aR at this day, to Indians known, 
In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms 
Branching so broad and long, that in the 

The bended twigs take root, and daughters 

About the mother-tree, a pillar'd shade 
High over-arch 'd, and echoing walks be- 
tween." Paradisr Lost, ix. 1101. 

[Warton points out that Milton must have 
had in view a description of the Banyan- 
tree in Oerard't Herbai under the heading 
**of Uio arched Indian fig-tree."] 

1672.— " ifi<i«ruwfTrf of SurtU two Coursf*, 
i.e. a League, we pitched our Tent under 
a Tree that besides its Leafs, the Branches 
bear its own Roots, therefore called by the 
PortugaJn, Arbor df Raiz ; For the Adora- 
tion the BiinyaM pay it, the Bansran-Tree." 
—Fryer, 106. 

1691.— "About a (Dutch) mile from 
Gamron . . . stands a tree, heretofore 
described by Mandelslo and others. . . . 
Beside this tree is an idol temple where the 
Banyans do their worship." — Valentijuy 
v. 267-8. 

** The fair descendants of thy sacred bed 
Wide-branching o'er the Western World 

shall spread. 
Like the fam'd Banian Tree, whose pliant 

To earthward bending of itself takes root. 
Till like their mother plant ton thousand 

In verdant arches on the fertile land ; 
Beneath her shade the tawny Indians 

Or hunt at largo through the wide-echoing 


Tictflff KpUtIf from a Ladtf in 
JCfi(//and to a lAidy in, A cignun. 

1726.— "On the north side of the city 
(Surat) is there an uncommonly great Pichar 
or Wurinf/in * tree. . . The Portuguese call 
this tree AU>ero de laiz, i.^. Root-tree. . . . 
Under it is a small chai>ol built by a Hniyan. 
. . . Day and night lami>s are alight there, 
and Banyans constantly come in pilgrimage, 
to offer their prayers to this wiint.' — 
Valehtijnj iv, 14a. 

1771. — *'. . . iHjinjr employed to con- 
atnict a military work at the fort of Trip- 
lasoru (aftorwanls called Marsden's Bastion) 
it was necessary to cut down a banjran-tree 
which so incensed the bruhmans of that 

{)laoe, that they foumi means to poison 
lim " (i.f. Thomas Marsdcn of the Madras 
Engineers). — Mnn. of W. Martd^Uj 7-8. 

1809. — "Their greatest enemy (i.e. of the 
buildings) is the Banyan-Tree."— /W. Va- 

lentin, i. 396. 

* H'aHn^n is thi* Javanese iiame of asp. kindred 
to the banyan, Fic\u benjamina, L 


" In the midst an aged ^^*»*^*» grew. 
It was a goodly sight to see 

That venerable tree, 
For o'er the lawn, irregularly Bpceed, 
Fifty straight columns pn^ its krfty 

head ; 
And many a long depending shoot, 

•Seeking to i^ke its root, 
Straight like a plununet grew towards the 

Some on the lower boughs which croat 

their way. 
Fixing their bearded fibres, roimd and 

With many a ring and wild contortioQ 

wound ; 
Some to the passing wind at times, with 

Of gentle moticm swung ; 
Others of younger growth, anmored, were 

Like stone-drops from the cavern's fretted 


Southey, Curie, of* Kekanta, ziiL 51. 
[Southey takes his account from 
WilfiatMon, Orient, Field Sportt, 
u. 113.] 

" Dee ii^wi^w touffus, par les brameBsdoi€i» 
Depuis longtemps la langueor nous im- 
Court)^ par le midi, dont rardeur les 

lis ^tendent vers nous leurs ramssiu 

Casimir Delavignt, Le PtariOf in. 6. 

A note of the publishers on the preceding 
passage, in the edition of 18&5, is cuTertiog: 

"Un joumaliste allemand a socustf IL 
Casimir Delavigne d 'avoir pris poor un artire 
une secte religieuse de I'tnde. . . .*' T^ 
German journalist was wrong here, bat hs 
might have found plenty of matter for 
ridicule in the play. Thus the Brshnuot 
(men) are Akebar (!), Idamore (!!), ud 
£mp$ael (!!!); their women Niala (?), Zn^ 
(!), and JftWa (!!). 

1825.— "Near this village was the ftiMrt i 
banyan-tree which I had ever seen, litaaUj | 
a grove rising from a single primary ttes, i 
whose massive secondary trunks, with thtir 
straightness, orderly arrangement, sad 
evident connexion with the parent slock* 
gave the general effect of a vast vegelsbto 
organ. The first impression which I frit 
on coming under its shade was, * What s 
noble pl^e of worship ! ' " — Jtf«frer, it O 
(ed. 1844).. 

1834.— "Cast forth thy woid into tht 
everliving, overworking universe ; it it a 
seed-pain that cannot die ; unnoticed ti>> 
day, it will be found flourishing as a baayvi" 
groVe — (perhaps alas ! as a hemlock fbnit) 
after a thousand years." — Sartor ReaartMi, 

" ... its pendant branches, rooting in tht 
Yearn to the parent earth and grapptaC 





m uf> hn^ •tma» again, which ahoot- 
r forth 

M/wy ImuMrbcM. thene afjrain dwpatch 
ir <iiT* 'rwDtf herakl«, till a Ubynnth 

»<«« and branch commingling, 

: raUMdral, av^led and choired in 


Th^ BaajBB TItm, a Poem. 

'A familv tendi U) multi]ily fami- 

* .r^i It, till It liecumeA the centre of a 

y*pt &» thf iMUIjma tendii to Numnind 

wtih % f< n^ *ji itJ» own offwiring." — 

^ - " . . . de« baaymafl Doutomw par 

aticr* terrienne* ct di>nt 1«m brancnoK 
kctc^ cuirn^irvnt en touchant terre den 

:*, Tile H. name of 
m-vi'i%--|ir»'ad CprrMji Wallichii\ 
rr till- H. iiaiiif (*12-horn') 
• •!••':! t ukrii fnnii the iiuniWr 
nr« >*-iii-: .ip{>p>xiiiiately twelve, 
aini- :.<• u^* ftpplitni hy i<portsmen 
rii^al ••• th- liurnT'us I>vvaueeUu^ 

7' - " I *.n«>« i-f nil flvwh Oijual ti> thnt 
- :^«-i . Aiiil the ii#f<-»«. a i(|MX'it'« <if 
•i' Arrciii« *i ♦ hint'M? TiV«et, with the 
I f>-l •k^T of KiiJ«hnnr, art* 

EBEB'S BBIDOE. n.]'. T)ii> 
.r .- Ti.iTiw rorniption of an 
. ruiiM Th«* bridge in Madras 

1.- Barber"! Bridge, w;i> UuXi l>v 

•.•■»T it'kni**<l li.iinilton. Tlii> 

,-■1 'x 'h*' liativi*?; \i\U\ Afuhuton^ 

■ .-- • •! T iin«* th»- n.ini** .-l mhutou 

tj.'i w.lh till* T;iniilci//i'»ri/^/;<, 

..'.'I -» it "anu* !<• U- lallnl 

' ' ■'*;•.- S«*«* L* F'lnn, M'fn. 

. !' ..'. ii. 16ti. n..t.-.] 

CAH. -. This trim Ml 

:"'r;ti. itit-n i." di'ii\»^i \>y 

■•■\ M ir- »l IVvii', tpini Ar. 

A:, i •'N*' of tlu' ni«*aninp* 
'.••:» i-u "uiH* niivtTtur*- 
•: :!•• j-»ur IV-.tiulfnit lit 
Af»irt :r'»ni tlit* |M>ssiM.', 
, hi-t'-rv wli it'll this al- 

.j: r!i.i\ invnlw, it .M*eins 

i !'-r;ii^ I hi- usual iiiean- 

■: 1:* *an i»utwi»rk lH*f<»rv 

.- !r"in Ar. P. M'>-l:/i<fmi, 

T;i > ft y III. »li i^- w;u» sug- 

i^» Kt Tj^)\ %iiT> iip) hy one 

of the present writers,* and confimi< 
to his mind some years later, when ; 
going through the native town < 
Cawnpore, not long l>efore the Mutim 
he saw a brand-new double-towerec 
gateway, or gate-house, on the fact 
of which was tlie inscription in Persian 
chanK't^rs : *^i^M-if%<lna-i-Mahomme<i 
Bakhsh," or whatever was his name, 
1.^ ''Tlie Barbican of Mahommed 
Bakhih," [The N.E.D, sumests P. 
harhitr-khdnaK, * house on tne wall,* 
it Winji^ difficult to derive the Romanic 
forms in }Hir- from bdh-khdna,'] 

The editor of the Chron. of iC. James 
of Aragtm (1833, p. 423) says that 
harttarami in Spain means a second, 
outermost and lower wall ; %.§. a fausse- 
braye. And this agrees with facts in 
tliat work, and with the definition in 
Col>arnivias ; but not at all w^ith 
Joinville*s use, nor with V.-le-Duc*s 

c. 1250.— "Tuit le baron . . I'aoorderent 
4|ueenuntertre . . . f^ist Ten one fortereese 
qui fuKt bien gamie de gent, 8i qui se li Tiir 
fcifoient MaillieM . . cell tore fuHt einm como 
barbecane (orig. ^qu<ui aHtt^muntU*) do 

route."— Tho Med. Fr. tr. of William of 
Tifr*"^ tKl. /*au/ l*ari*^ i. l.'iS. 

(•.1*270. — '*. . . on condition of hi« at onco 
putting mu in iK>Hi«ci«!«ion of the albtirrana 
tower . . . and xhriuld be^ideii make hi.n 
Siinicfn.H cfin-xtnict u barbacana round the 
tower.*'— i/ti/«<ji of Artuj'tH^ um altove. 

i;J09. — •' Four retjuerro Ha gent plus {iauTe> 
ment, tist Ic roys fairo une barbaqoane do- 
vant le p^nt qui esttoit entre noA doufl os, en 
tel nianiere ({ue Ton pooit entror de dous ]iar^ 
en la barbaqoane k cheval." — JoincHU^ 
p. 16-2. 

lf»r»2. — *• Ixjuren^o de Brito ordered an 
iritrvnchment of great strength to l>o dug« in 
the fa.-<hion of a barbican (barbadl) outside 
the wall of the fort ... on account of a well, 
u Ht<»ne-<:af<t <ii.*«tiuit. . . "—liarntji, II. i. 5. 

c. 1S70. — ^* BiirlMitttH^. Defense ext^rieuro 
pn»t^eant une entree, et pcmiottant do 
r^unir un aj^er. grind norabre d'homines 
I»«>ur diiiiK>*er den sortioa on j>roteger une 
retrsiite.' — Vi*tU«l-f^-h*u\ II. d'an^ Fortf- 
r^«^, IWl. 

BABBIEBS, s. This is a tonu 
wliidi wius formorlv verv curn^nt in 
\\w. H^i>t, its the name of a kind of 
luiralysis, oftvn oociwuned by ex|Mi8ure 
to (hi 11"*. It iH'gjin with numbness 
and imiH'rfett conimand of the ]H)wer 
«»t iiu»venient, soinetiines afftNting 
the inu.«M-les of th«? neck and j)ower of 

• In a (;io*'*«ry of Military T«nn!». appended to 
f\^ijHrut\nn f'T OfirtT* 9ftht Army and Stmdenti tif 
Military Ilittory'li*lu\hnT\:h, Blackwood, 1861. 


articulation, and often followed by 
loss of appetite, emaciation, and deatn. 
It has olten l)een identified with Beii- 
'beri, and medical opinion seems to 
have come back to the view that the 
two 8LTe forms of one disorder, though 
this was not adhiitted by some older 
authors of the last century. The 
allegation of Lind and others, that 
the most frequent subjects of barbiers 
were Europeans of the lower class 
wlio, when in drink, went to sleep 
in the open air, must be contrasted 
with the general experience that beri- 
beri rarely attacks Euroi)eans. The 
name now seems obsolete. 

1673.— "Whence follows fluxes, Dpopey, 
Scurvy, Barbiem (which is an - enervating 
(xiVr) the whole Body, being neither able to 
iLse hands or Feet), Gout, Htone, Malignant 
and Putrid Fevers."— Fry«r, 68. 

1690. — "Another Distemper with which 
the Europeans are sometimes afflicted, is 
the Barbeen, or a deprivation of the Vse 
and Activity of their Limbs, whereby they 
are rendered unable to move either Hand or 
Foot,"— Omnifton, 350. 

1755. — (If the land wind blow on a person 
sleeping) "the consequence of this is always 
dangerous, as it seldom fails to bring on a 
tit of the Barbiers (ns it is called in this 
country), that is, a total deprivation of the 
use of the limb«." — /tr/», 77. 

[c. 1757. — " There was a disease common to 
the lower class of Europeans, called the 
Barbers, a s|>ecies of palsy, owing to ex- 
]Nwuro to the land winds after a nt of in- 
toxication." — In Carrtfj Gtxjd Old Ikuft^ 
ii. 266.] 

1768.— "The barbiers, a sjKJcies of imlIs^, 
is a disease must fretiueut in India. It dis- 
t resseH chiefly the lower class of Europeans, 
who when intoxicated with liquors fretiuently 
xleep in the oyten air, exposed to the land 
winds." — Lind on JJitnw* of Hot Climatf*^ 
260. (See BEBIBEBL) 

JciJni. The name of a .small silver coin 
current in W. India at the time of 
the Portugut^se occuiwition of (Joa, and 
afterwards valued at 40 rei^t (then 
al)out b^fl.). The name of the coin 
was api»ireiitly a Hurvival of a very 
old systt'iii of coinage-nomenclature. 
Kant i.*» an old Indian word, p*Tliaj>.s 
Dravidian in origin, indicating J of J 
of i, or l-64th j)art. It was aj>j)liea 

k or 1- 
tne htal 

to tne/i/f// (flee JEETUL) <>r 64tli mrt 
of the mediaeval Delhi .silver tattJca — 
this latter coin l»eing the j)rotolype 
in weight and position of the HuTiee, 
a.s the Kdnl therefore wji.<* of the mociern 
Anglo-Indian ])ice ( = 1 -64111 of a 

Rupee). There were in the currency 
of Mohammed Tughkk (1324-1351) 
of Delhi, aliquot jxarts of the tanhi^ 
DokdnU, Shasfy-kdnUy Haskt-kdtO*, Dualz- 
da-kdnli, and Shdnzda-kdntSj represent- 
ing, as the Persian numerals indicate, 
pieces of 2, 6, 8, 12, and 16 kdnu or 
jitaU. (See E, Thomasy Pathan King* 
of Delhty pp. 218-219.) Other frac- 
tional i>iecea were added by FIn« 
Shah, Mohanmied's son and succeflsor 
(see Id. 276 seqq. and quotation under 
c. 1360, l)elow). Some of these terms 
long survived, e.g. do-kdni in localities 
of Western and Southern India, and in 
Western India in the present case the 
bdrakdni or 12 hlnl^ a vernacular form 
of the dxcdzdct-hJnl of Mohammed 

1330. — "Thousands of men from wiouii 
quarters, who ixMaeased thou^)ands of theM 
copper coins . . . now brought them to the 
treasury, and received in exchange gold 
tankait and silver tankas (Tanga), Aeuk-finU 
and du-g&nljt^ which they carried to their 
\iomear—Tdrikh-i-F\roz-Shdki, in FJi»d, 
iii. 240-241. 

c. 1350— <* Sultan Firoz itwued wvenl 
varieties of coins. There was the gold toiUtt 
and the silver tanha. There were also dis- 
tinct coins of the respective value of 4S, :S, 
24, 12, 10, 8 and 6, and one jUnl^ known ait 
chihal-o-hatiht-gdnl, hiM-o-jianjgAnl, hisl-o- 
chahdr-gdnl, dirdzduh-gdHl^ diiA-gdni, kukt- 
gdnlj shdsh-tjdnlt and vat iUaf." — Ihkt, 

1510.— Barganym, in quotation fixn 
Corroa under Pardao. 

1554. — "E as turngtu hrancas que w reoe- 
l>cm doH foro«, f&o de 4 bazgaais a foM^o, 
e de 24 leaes o bargany. . . i.e. '' And tht 
white tangds that are received in inyment of 
land revenuas are at the rate of 4 bazplBlf 
to the tangity and of 24 /m/^ to Uic bai^guy.** 
— A. Surt-^z, in SubtiditMy p. 31. 

,, ^^ Statfm^nt of the R^tmv^s leAirA Cft^ 
King v»r Lord holds in the Island and Citff 

of (/{/Mi. 

" Item— The IsLinds of Ticoariff and 
Dicuty and that of Choriht, and JoMto, all of 
them, iNiy in land revenue {df fvro) aooord* 
inf^ to ancient custom 36,474 white tangmi, 
3 bargnanis, and 21 /«^ji, at the tale oC I 
bargoanis to the taHgna and 24 leaU to the 
barguanim, the same thing as 24 basarvtmt 
amoimtiuK to 14,006 iKvdoAvty 1 tdngva and 
47 ImU, making 4,201,916 { r^s. The Isle uf 
Tifoary (BalMtte) is the laiyeivt, and ia it 
Htands the city of Guoa ; the othent are mnek 
smaller and are annexed to it, they being all 
contiguous, (mly se|mrated by rivem.'*— 
BoUlhOy Tinnlnty ibid. pp. 46-7. 

1584.— "Tlicy vse also in Ooa amoQfrt 

the common sort to bargain for coala, ' 

lime and such like, at so many bir 

accounting 24 bamirwkim for one 


i:a rhker. 



m .', :xi«.re i« tk* «uch iui»nvy i<tain{ied." — 
^« •' i:. i§'tA . II. Ill : Ihiit it i.s copied 
'- -. '. ^1. . I ItaJLiR. f. 71'). 

\ •" 

H. fn»iii Y. fiifrtj'ir. 
■ I iFTvijiilar 'avalry who is 
■*:.•• "I h:- Tr'-»|» li'irH' and 

dynasty of Guzerat, the Qaikwars. (Se<? 


ir>.V2.— In BarroH, "Cidade de Barodar," 
IV. vi. 8. 

> !'•• 


1 1 

lAr»5.— "In a few dayn we arrived at 
litirQj; HTimo dnyn ufter ut BaloadTEf and 
. thun tntik the nxid t^iwards Cham^MiJs (read 
ii«.nu;il i»r.ii tii.t? (see | C^ci«yxi«ir/)."— .sVrfi 'A/i, p. 91. 

1- ♦'irh.T put in hy [ ltf06.~'*Thiitcity (fTiami»nel) may be a 
{M-rhM|t» a native day'^t jinimoy from Deboadora or Barodar, 

which we ci/mincinly call Verdora."— CW//>, 
IV. ix. G. 

- it- 

.. r»-^'i infill, who .su]>iili(:« 

ir:::- and n-eivej* the 

]-i\. .t!I<*win^ liiiii a re- 

r :. i.- Jii> htir-^* Imni the 
.^ ~ rvin- hv i-i. The P. 
r'\ iin'.tiis *a ]' Mid-taker,' 

;.:-.' Thf tMn>fer of 

[1611. — **We iire to ffo to Amadavur, 
C'ttmlmia mid Brothera. '—Fo 




■Fotttr^ Letter$, 
ii. 213 : also see iv. 197.] 

16:i8.— " 1^1 ville du Brodra e»t flitu^ dan'* 
lino iiluino .>«:i}i|onnonMe, Hur la {»etite riWeru 
de Pi'«rA»f, ii t rente (.W, on quinze lioucrf di> 
• . • ! : T . . li-a r . [ '* A i » on ii ng I Iiruit»h-(i . ' '— Afn ml^httt^ 130. 

r- :»i.!.ii:- n '»i « nnm-ctioius I 1813.— Brodenu in ForU$^ Or. Mnn., iii. 

- :* I l.i- lolL.Mrrs wouM 268 : [2nd ed. ii. 282, 389]. 

■ /a/'f''i ■I'Ni-i^'Tifd to liini. 18ri7. — "1lie town of Baioda, orifrinally 

. .- Ti'il'-u •'!-'« l>ii>u<'}it tlu'ir ' ii*irfintrit (or a liar leaf, i.^. leaf of the 

.-.'i fiiuii.iiifnt • ■ -''*<■'" "*''"^*» ^" shai»e). wa-i the first largo 
fOuiIMi . Ill . J J »een."--U/.i//. nf' Lnt/nffoA, 39. 

.. - i Ui.tu Mitli a littlf .' ^ » 

.■yni hors.'.s, and BABOS, n.p. A fort on the West. 

d.|.-i.dants uiH.n ^.^^^^^ ,^f Sumatra, from wliich tlie 

•I... «.i^ th.. .a^-, the ,.jj.^.^ ^^j^^^j ^,,. j^,„„.jtra oimplior, ^> 

hi^dily valued in Cliina, lon^ tnnk 
plait'. [The nanii* in standanl Malay 
IS, .innidiii^ to Mr Skt-at, JinrKit.] It 
is jH'rliiips idfiitiral witli tlie Ptinsfir 
or Fiitniiir nf tin* Middli' Aj^i'S, whi<.*li 
gavi' its nanii- tt) tin- Fntu'tirl laiiijihor, 
f.inj'nis aiiionj^ Orimtal writers, and 
whi«h l»v tlif |H'rjHi nation of a mii»- 
ifadiiiiji- Miiru stvltMi AT'/ >'.<// r/ramplior, 
vS:..'. (Set- CAMPHOR, .md Mnrro Polo, 
ind vd. ii, 282, 2>b s*q'l) Hif l>lace 
~ u\v K. I. ^''ifotiial 

, _ 

. - • w Ii Ii- i-i- \\a«. (.ilh'd, 
,' ■ . t, ^''t/.'f'ir (liti-rally, 
.■■'. J- : \, .i:;'i nTif riding 
- - '■i-T'- wa- a f.'initr 
• ' Ii'. Irn'/iif, lli*> 

;■;<:♦ i 

' .-. ..■ I !. *..i> '.■■? Tlif o:f«h 
••-■ • ■ - !•■' - •■•.■ iH.l..rij^ii,4» 
* • r. r •■■ -.iLi: j-nvilvkTcl 

\*^i,i? 1' 

* .i..«"i 


i hi- 
A'- ■-. \ . 11. p. f»7. 

-. Tin- ji"pular 

H - ; • ■> I • I < 1 • 't* r 

i> eallni Barrowse in 
/•'i/..r.«, ii. r»2, l.^»3. 

1727.- "Baroa i-* the next 

ilaco that 
1 ; - , •• 1 II .i^«'-iii«N in (iriltl, I'aiijithiro. and Ilon/uin. 

, b'.jt a'linit.'* fif Tin foroiirn fonnnerx-c." -.1. 
N- l^i: ; .,U. ,ali,.(l J£au.;.'fn... ii. IVX 

ii. 1 in Ihim* a\ Baikree. 

^trfczf -d«cr 


i ! -hit lark, like 

.• l-"':d«r. and may 

' - 1 iii;:l«-« wlii- li It 

\ ■! i\ aii i l-y ni^dit. 

\\.- I r,\ •■! a littlf 
-'. .1/.' '." //.//.. 

•-.- - I 

:• l"- :\\\\ i all»"d l-y 

.• : ' i«-r Kijjii-h writrr- 

:••:-: ii.iiui- f I'titdin^ to 

- '..f^rrrr-. ll'^ul^hn ; a larp- 

*f..iri:. whi»h h.i?» U*»'n sin'O 

.-.I'iMl of the Mahratta 

BABBACKPOBE, n.].. The aux 

iliarv Cantnimiriit mI" <\iirutia, from 
whirli it i" l-"^* m. diMaiil, I'.-taMi.-h-'d 
in 1772. lli-rr al-«t i< thr ••<»vintrv 
r»-sid«-ni»' ''t tin* (•••v»'rn'>r-(iriirial, 
l-i:ilt l-y Ijiifl Minli'. and mu. li 
lii*'|ui*ntfd in liiriiirr d.iv- lii-i'i»r»' tln^ miu'ral i"ii I" Simla ^vi- '-tal- 
li-hi'd. Tin- nam«' i> a hyhrid. 

BABBAMUHUL, n.]. 11. /;.'/"; 
77»ir/<.i//, *T\v..l\,- ♦■Mall-.'-': .m ol-i 
•le>i^'n:iti<'n <«t a larp* j'-irt nt what 
'\> nnw thi' di-triit «•! SaKin in thi- 
Madra- rn-.M-h-n-v. The iilentilh.i- 





1 •in<' Kuikfin (£./. Ktuiein), which wa8 
A !k«tiTe c<ifTuj»ti4in uf the old name 
AT KM MA (A-r 0061IIV). We cannot 

• i|Ujd thr i»ld Eiin»)ivan corruption 
/'o-«tf%. [It luf* Jieen 8UpiKj8Hi that 
thr turn** rrpn^^nts the Btsynga of 
Pt'-I'-njy ('^«i<7. ii. 4 : see M^CrindU in 
/*;4£. j4nr liii' 372) : l>ut {ibui. xxii. 20) 

• . ;. T*-inf»Ir drnies this on the grouna 
ir^i thr name Batttrln does not date 
*jtT^:*-T t>UB a>»imt 1780. According 

'hw «in«* authi>nty (ihid. xxii. 19), 
•t*- niMrm Bunnfifle name is Patfu^mj, 
' * 'rd: nary phonetics used for Putheny^ 
*:»: •jwlt f'KttH or Pu»im. He di.H- 
:-::•— ihr <At*-ment that the change of 
*i*jii»- w*.- nuidt- l»y Alanng])yva or 
A'nipm. Tlif Talaing pronunciation 
! !hr name b* /'♦w^m or ranim^ accord- 
irxr :•» di*lert.] 

' r^l . — *' IntanUf jiiiicintto era alU Congre- 
ffcc CM* ds Pro|«irandn che il Regno di Ava 
*m>m ftir'-rm onltiTAto nella fcde da' Sacerdoti 
«v< '.xn 4s enaa < 'oo^rrcfTAzioDe, c a' noetri 
<v«?iaf. h Rccni di BattlAin, .Martahan, e 

!^"1. — "* An inetfec-ttu'il attempt wa:* made 

• ••;<«i.<<NM And dt-fcftid Baiiicn t>y the Uitc 
■•-•.-;. -r LAviteruint. " -Sv't»'f. -V»AjriV/w, 16.] 

T^- f rrr Pcnaim ♦K.vur* in IkifrifiHjyfr, 
" * *^. H*i'rri.. \. I'jr :ind inntiat). 

!t /»ix:ni, "T pn»|»erly ll'iUim ; an 

• : •■«ii m iVrir, th»* «}ii«'f plact* of 

■ii'tn-t -*-'.all»-d. [S«*f B^rar 
•"•i." 17*;] 

BATARA, •*- Thin is a term a]>- 

■ -i T.. divniiti.«> in <»ld Javam-se in- 
-•.:?i-.n% i^.".. til** u«<** uf which was 
'• '' yi >\*-T til*' Ar<.hi|n'lag»». It wa.< 
r'-.'tri— i l«y W. v.»n Huniltoldt as 
Ut'T. fnni iht' Skt. tivattfni (see 
AT4TAB> ; 't*ut thi^^ (ifrivaiinn is now 
^^•^**'•i. Til*- wiini i* iij^mI among 
K I" <'hri*ti-ins in tli«' Philippim-s 

V i- -\ r:»iivni'Hi< witii MI«kI ; and 

- kjt'hf-i T*' th»* infant Jowm (///um- 

'••-^/r. IV«iAy/«ir). [Mr. Skeat {Malatf 

I'^jv-. «t6 ^/ ) dis»'n?<.'**s th** origin of 

• - % -rd, nnd pn*ft*r» tli** derivation 
-- •:• )\ Fi^rv and Wilkin, Skt. 
•»-'.Vf»Tj. ••■■rti. A full a'-coTUil «»f the 

■ .' 'iirx, ■ r .*^*.i I>yak g'^«^^" l»y Anli- 
■ - r. J. I'-rh.ini, >»ill U* found in 

r. 'x. .Vi.M^f of SinitmJt, 1. 168 *eqq.] 

BATAVXA, n.p. The famous 
iriil of ih#* I>ut<'h i-»s*»e,ssions in 

• ;' Iiidir« : •••rupying tn** site of the 
' *i nlj ni Jakatra, the H«»at of a 
Ja«x>9^ kiDiri^ni which amihined 

the present Dutch Provinces of Ban- 
tam, Buitenzorg, Krawang, and the 
Preanger Regencies. 

1619. — "On the day of the capture of 
Jakatra, SOth May 1619, it waa certainly 
time and place to speak of the (Governor- 
General s aUsatisfaction that the name of 
B&taTia had heen givep to the CoAtle."— 
VaJeHtijn, ir. 489. 

The Governor-Gleneral, Jan Pieter- 
sen Coen, who had taken Jakatra, 
desired U) have called the new fortress 
New Hoorn, innu his own Ijirth -place, 
Hoorn, on the Zuider Zee. 

c. 1649.—'' While I stay'd at B&Uvia, my 
Brother dy'd ; and it was prettv to consider 
what the I/ulrh made me pay for his Funeral." 
—Tarfrni^r (E.T.), i. 203. 

GALA, &c., n.p. BhatkcU. A place 
often named in the older narratives. 
It is on the coast of Canara, jiist.S. of 
Pigeon Island and Hog Island, in lat. 
13 59', and is not to 1)e confounded 
(sis it has lK^en) with BEITCUL. 

11328. — '* . . . there in al»o the King of 
Batigala. but he is of the Saracens."— 
Friar Jorttnim*^ p. 41. 

l.'ilO.— The "Bathecala, a very noble city 
«»f India," of Varthonm (119), though mis- 
phiced. must wo think Ix; this place and not 

ir»48. — "Trelado (/.'•. 'Copy ') do i'ontrat<. 
(]tiu o (rouemador (tracia de Soa fez com a 
Kaynha do Batecalaa iK>r nao aver Rocy u 
cla ruger <> Ileeyno.*'— in S. B<tlffho^ Tom1n>, 

ir»99. — ** . . . jwrt is jnibject ti> the Queeno 
of Baticola, who sclleth grroat store of (>epper 
to the Portugals at a towne calloil Onor. . ." 
—Sir FnHr (irfiilh to Sir Fr. Walsingham, 
in lirvr/s Annul*, i. Y£[\. 

1618.— "The fift of March we anchored at 

Batachala, shoutin^r three Pvo<.*cs to (rive 

! notice of our arriuall. . . " — Wm. //'>/v, in 

i Pnn'h4tjt, i. 657. See also .Sro*;M/»'//-v, ii. 

' p. 374. 

! [1624.— '* Wo had the wind still contrary, 

\ and having wiil'd three other le;iguef«, at the 

usual hour we ca.Ht anchor nc;ir the Hocks 

of BaticalA.*'— /'. df/la Vnllr, Hak. S<k;. ii. 


1727.— "The next Sea|>«>rt, t4> the .South- 
ward «>f OM/«ir, is Batacola, which hjus the 
.vjrfi'v/ii of a very large city. . . ."—-I. 
Hamilton, i. 282. 

[1785.— **B7te Koal." See quotation 
under DHOW. J 


A sort of IxKit used in Western India, 
■ Sind, and Bt^ngal. Port. 6*i^//, a word 

which (K'curs in the Rotnro de V. da 
; fhtnut, 91 [»f. PATTELLOj. 


[1686.— " AlK)ut four or five hundred 
houses burnt down with a ^reat number of 
their Bettilos, Boras and boats." — Hfdgex, 
JJiatyj Hak. Soc. ii. 55.] 

1888.— "The BotellA miw bo described 
as a Dow in miniature. . . It has invariably 
a square flat stem, and a long grab-like 
head." — Vavu^ll, in TniM, Bo, O*^. »Sw. 
vii. 98. 

ia57.— ''A Sindhi batt^la, caUed Rati- 
ntotiy under the Tindal Kasim, laden with 
dry fish, was about to proceed to Bombay." 
— ijMifuUdJi, 347. See also BurtuH, Suid 
Rrt^isited (1877), 32, 33. 

[1900. — "The Sheikh has some fine war- 
vessels, called batilB." — BeiUy Sotttittrgi 
Arabia, 8.] 

BATTA, 8. Two different words 
are thus expressed in Aiiglo- Indian 
colloauial, and in a manner con- 

a. H. hhata or hhlUl : an extra 
allowance made to officers, soldiers, or 
other jmblic servants, when in tlie 
field, or on other 8]H.*cial grounds ; 
also subsistence money to witnesses, 
]>risoners, and the like. Military Batta, 
originally an occasional allowance, as 
denned, grew to l>e a constant addition 
to the ]»av of officers in India, and 
constituted the chief mrt of the excess 
of Indian over Englisn military emolu- 
ments. The ([uestion of the right to hatta 
on several occasions created great agita- 
tion among the officers of the Indian 
army, and the measure of economv 
carried <.mt hv Lord William Bentinck 
when Clrovernor-General (G. O. of the 
Gov.-Gen. in Council, 29th November 
1828) in the reduction of full hattn to 
half htttta^ in the allowances received 
by all regimental officers serving at 
staticms within a certain distance of 
the Presidency in Bengal (viz. Barrack- 
IK>re, Dumdum, Berhamj)ore, and Dina- 
j)ore) caused an enduring bitterness 
.'igaiiLst that upright niler. 

It is difficult to arrive at the origin 
of this word. There are, however 
seveml Hindi words in rural use, such 
as hhdt^ hhantdy * advances made to 
plough nu»n without interest,' and 
hhattaj bhantdj *]>loughmen's wagt*s in 
kind,' with which it is p(jssibly con- 
nected. It has also Wen sugi^ted, 
without much ])rolMil)ility, that it may 
Ik^ allied to hihut^ 'much, excess,' an 
idea entering into the meaning of )M)th 
a and b. It is just ]Mxssible that the 
familiar military use of the term in 
India may have l»een influenced by 

72 BATTA. 

the existence of the Europi^n military 
term hdt or MUmdney. The latter is 
from hdt^ *a pack-saddle,' [Late Lat. 
ha8tum\ and implies an allowance for 
carrying Ixaggage in the field. It will 
be seen that one writer below seems 
to confound the two words. 

b. H. hattd and hdttd: agio, or 
difference in excliange, discount on 
coins not current, or of short weight . 
We may notice that Sir H. Elliot okn'S 
not recognize an al)Solute separation 
l>etween the two senses of Batta. His 
definition runs thus : " Difference of 
exchange ; anything extra ; an extni 
allowance ; discount on uncurrent, i»r 
short- weight coins ; usually called 
Batta. The word h&s been supp06e«l 
to l)e a corniption of BharUiy increasf, 
but it is a p\ire Hindi vocable, and is 
more usually applied to discount than 
to ])remium." — (Supj). Olost. IL 41.) 
[Platt.s, on the other hand, distinguishes 
the two words — Batta, Skt. vrtW/i, 
'turned,' or varta, 'livelihood' — "Ex- 
change, discount, diflference of ex- 
change, deduction, &c.," and BKattny 
Skt. bimkta 'allotted,' — "advances "to 
ploughmen without interest ; ploiigh- 
nmn? wages in kind."] It will lie 
seen that we have early Portuffwese 
instances of the woi-d apparently in 
l>oth senses. 

Tlie most prolyl >le explanation \a 
that the word (and I may add, the 
thing) originated in the Portuguese 
practice, and in the use of the Canarese 
word hhatta, Mahr, bhdt, ' rice 'in * the 
husk,' called by the Portuguese bate 
and bata, for a maintenance allowance. 

The word batty, for what is more 
generally called paddyy is or was 
commonly used by the English also 
in S. and W. India (see ZimcKotenj 
Luc^na and Fryer quoted s.v. Paddy, 
and Wilson^ 9 Glotsnry, s.v. Bhatia). 

The practice of giving a special 
allowance for marUvmentoi^egAn from 
a very early date in the Indian histor}* 
of the Portuguese, and it eWdently 
l>ecame a recognised augmentation t)f 
]Miy, corres|)onaing closely t« our battOj 
wlnlst the <iuotation from Botelho 
l»elow shows also that bata and m^tnti' 
mento were used, more or less iiiter- 
changeablv, for this allowance. The 
corres]X)n(lence with our Anglo-Indiaii 
batta went very far, and a case aingu- 
larly ] parallel to the discontent cauvd 
in the Indian army by the r«duotiua 




W'haUa to YvtAl-hatia Ls spoken 

VvrwtL (iv. 256). The manti- 

had licen paid all the year 

.. but the Governor, Martin 

i> dr Stmsa, in 1&42, ** desiring," 

:he hi^onan, "a i^-ay to curry 

r f«>r hiuM*lf, whilst going against 

«*i»|>Ie and sending his soul to 

CMpdert^ tliat in future the 

mmio should l>e pai d only dur- 

hr 6 nitinthfl of winter (i.^. of 

liny 9Mft}v»nX when the force was 

■Mire, and not for the other 6 

X* when they were on l)oard 

iTUwers, and received rations. 

rMUi-d great bitterness, perfectly 

«i»u« in dfpth and in expression 

at fnt<-rtained with regard to 

W. Bentinck and Sir John 

Ini, in 1829. Correa's utterance, 

>jU4 4r<l, illustratArs this, and a 

liiwt-r down he iidds : "And 

hr t«.-»k H^*ay from the trcxifw 

uilf of their mantimento (half 

^mttta^ in factX nnd whether he 

til or ill in that, he'll find in 

It world." — (Swalso ihid.y, 430). 

following quotations ilnistrate 

rtupirs*e jiractitf from an early 

•• The (."nptain-major . . . betweon 

Ami men-at-amiM, left 60 men (at 

, U* «h«ini the factt»r wa« t<> give 

;«j. and «v«r}' m<»nth a mt:(uio of 

>rmth, and Uy the ofRcerR when on 

2 *-r»:ntl*^. . . ."— O^rrvA, i. .Ti8. 

-I Id e*tahlijihini7 the Hettlcmont nt 

^•iiUci " .\nd the ("aptainn t(x>k 

aa>i<4r themMolveM, and fn>ni the 

I*, the chewt, (Mud the force each a 

* iD*«th for wan/imfHfo, with which 

tj jT«at!v refroi*hc<l themselTen. ..." 

"Ail the |iec#}>le who i«erTe<l in 
* vbrther by »«ft or by land, were 
heir !■&> for «ix nnmthH in advance, 
iTed nwtnthly fw# miziyi*>» <if 

^t^tu, K'mAi in hantf" (i>. they hiid 
^mamy.—n*d, u. 267. 

- - And for 'Iganiz^* (we FARA8H) 
v« a mi/oth frc the two and 4 tanf^w* 
lA. ' . . . — S. lUtt*lk**^ TomfMt, *£^i, 
!<u< t^inkjH thia i^ for /«i/^, i.r. fmdtitt. 
r« if •■* it i» ai»ed eiactly like batta 
i.tenaiK« muoey. A folkiwinir entry 

To tW oooatJilile 3H,ifiO rein a year, 
lb ia oumiNiaed maintenance (manti- 

-An «ijaniple of bat— fur rice will 
*t.. ■■OteAH. 

- folkwing f|Uot«tion Khf»ws hntiet 
thf) iiAEd at MadfAH in a way 

tliat also indicates the original identitv 
of htUty, *rice,' and batta, *extm 
allowance * : — 

1680.— "The Pfon* and Tanyan (see 
TAIiTAB) Hent in quest of two soldiers 
who had deserted from the garrison re- 
turned with answer that they oould not 
light of them, whereupon the Peons were 
turned out of service, but upon Verona's 
intercession were taken in again, and fined 
each one month's pay, and to repay the 
money paid them for Battae. . . ."— /V. St. 
Um, CoHsn., Feb. 10. In NoU» caul Exta, 
No. iii. p. 8. 

1707.—". . . that they would allow Batta 
or subsistence monev to all that should 
desert iw."— In Wh^Her^ ii. 63. 

1765. — " . . . orders were aooordinffly 
imucd . . . that on the 1st January, IToo, 
the double batta should cease. . . .*' — 
Canurioti* Ciirtj iv. 160. 

1789. — ". . . batta, or as it is termed 
in England, iA( and forage money, which 
is here, in the field, almost double the 
|)eace allowance." — Munrvt Narratiw, p. 97. 

1799. — "He would rather live on half- 
nay, in a garrison that could boast of a 
fives court, than vegetate on full batta, 
where there wa« none." — Life of Sir T, 
MunrOy i. 227. 

The following shows Batty used for 
rice in Boml>av : 

[1813. — Rice, or batty, is sown in Jime." 
—FifrbeMy Or. Mem. 2nd ed. i. 23.] 

1829.—" To thf Editor of the Bengal Hvr- 
Ixtrn. — Sir, — Is it understood that the Wives 
and daughters of officers on ha(f batta are 
included in the order to mourn for the 
Queen of Wirtemberg ; or will AaA^-moum> 
ing )m) considered sufficient for them?" — 
Letter in ul)ove, dated ir>th April 1829. 

1857.— "They have made me a K.C.B. 
I may confess to you that I would much 
rather have got a year's batta, because the 
latter would enable me to leave this ooimtr>' 
a year sooner." — Sir Hope O runty in Incidents 
of the Sepo)i War. 


lf,:^4._'«And gt)ld, if of 10 maUs or 24 
caratft, is worth 10 cnizados the taol . . . 
if of 9 uHitf*^ 9 cruuidoM ; and according t<» 
whatever the mate* may lie it is value<i : 
hut moreover it has itM batao, «'.<• its shri»f- 
foge {i^arrafagtini) or agio (aii6o) %*arying with 
the >«ca*»n." — .1. *Vm««, 40. 

1680. — "The payment or receipt of Batta 
or Vatiun u{M>n the exchange of Pollic*at 
for Madras iMigodiuH iirohibited, lioth ooines 
lieing of the same Matt and weight, u{ion 
fiain of forfeiture of 24 tiagodas for ever^* 
offence together with the loss of the Batta. ' 
—Ft. St. tiro. r.,iM,i., Feb. 10. In y>»trs 
and RxtM.y p. 17. 

1760.— "The NaU)h receives his revenues 
in the liooas of the current year only . . . 
and all liocai of a lower dat« being 




esteemed, like the coin of foreign provinces, 
only a merchandize, are bought and sold 
at a certain discount called oatta, which 
rises and falls like the price of other croods 
in the market. . . ." — Ft, Wm, Vans,, 
June 30, in Lor^, 216. 

1810. — ". . . he immediately tells master 
that the b&tta, Le. the exchange, is altered." 
— Wtllianuon, V, M. i. 203. 

BATTAS, BATAKS, &c. n.p. [the 
latter, according to Mr. Skeat, being 
the standard ^mlay name] ; a nation 
of Sumatra, noted especially for their 
singular canniljal institutions, com- 
bined with the jKJSsession of a \iTitten 
character of their own and some ap- 
pniach to literature. 

0. 1430. — ** In ejus insulae, a nam dicunt 
Bathecdi, parte, anthropophagi nabitant . . . 
ca]>ita humana in thesauris habent, quae 
ex hotitibus captis abscissa, esis camibus re- 
condunt, iisque utimtur pro nummis." — 
Contiy in Poggius^ /> Var. Fort, lib. iv. 

c. 1539.— *' This Embassador, that wa.s 
Brother-in-law to the King of Battas . . . 
brought him a rich I'rosent of Wood of 
Aloes, Calambaa, and five quintals of Ben- 
jamon in flowers." — Cogan's VintOj 15. 

c. 1555. — ''This Island of Sumatra is the 
first land wherein we know man's flesh to 
Ik) eaten by certaino people which Hue in 
the mountains, called Bacas (read Batas), 
who vse to gilde their teethe." — GalranOf 
Ditcoverie* of the Worlds Hak. Soc. 108. 

1586. — "Nel regno del Dacin sono alcuni 
luoghi, ne' ({uali s\ ritrouano ccrte genti, 
cbc mangiano lo creature humane, e tali 
genti, si chaimano Bataochi, e c^uando frit 
lon> i padri, o i madri sono vechhi, si accor- 
duno i vicimtti di raanginrli, c li mangiano." 
—('\ Hdlbiy f. 130. 

1613. — "In the woods of the interior 
dwelt Anthroftophagi, eaters of human 
flesh . . . and to the present day continues 
that abuse and evil custom among the 
Battas of Sumatra." — (Jodinho d^ hredUL^ 
f. 23r. 

[The fact that the Rittas are cannibals has 
recently been confirmed by Dr. Volz and H. 
von Autenrieth {fifinjr. Jour.j June 1898, 
p. 672.] 

BAWUSTTE, s. Corr. of hobgtny 
in I^ascar dialect {Roebuck), 

BAY, The, n.p. In the language of 
iho. old Com))any and its servants in 
tht^ 17th century, The Bay meant the 
Bay of Bengal, and their factories in 
that quarter. 

1683.— "And the Councell of the Bay i« 
as expressly distinguished from the Councell 
<»f Hugly, over which they have noo such 
jK)wcr." — In Jledgetf under Sept. 24. [Hak. 
Soc. i. 114.] 

1747. — " We have tiierefore laden on her 
1784 Bales . . . which we sincerely wish may 
arrive safe with You, as We do that thie 
Gentlemen at the Bay had according to oor 
rep^kted Requests, furnished ua with an 
earlier conveyance . . ." — Letter from Ft. , St, 
Ikividy 2nd May, to the Court (MS. in India 

BATA, s. H. baid [bapd], the 
Weaver-bird, as it is called in liooks 
of Nat. Hist., PUhxus bayoj Bhth 
(Fam. Fringillidae). This clever little 
bird is not only in its natural state the 
builder of those remarkable pendant 
nests which are such striking objects, 
hanging from eaves or ])alm-branches ; 
but it is also docile to a siiiffular 
d^ee in domestication, and is ofteu 
exhibited by itinerant natives as the 
performer of the most delightful 
tricks, as we have seen, and as \a 
detailed in a paper of Mr Bhlh'.s 
([uoted by Jerdon. "The usual pro- 
cedure is, when ladies are present, 
for the bird on a sign from it3 master 
to take a cardamom or sweatmeat in 
its bill, and dep)8it it l)etween a hid/i* 
lips. ... A miniature cannon is theii 
brought, which the bird loads with 
coarse grain;) of jxiwder one bv one . . . 
it next seizejj and skilfulW uses a 
small ramrod : and then ' takes a 
lighted match from its master, whidi 
it applies to the touch-hole." Another 
common performance is to scatter small 
beads on a sheet ; the bird is provided 
with a needle and thread, and pro- 
ceeds in the prettiest way t(» thread 
the l)eads successively. fThe quota- 
tion from Abul Fazl shows that these 
performances are as old as the time uf 
Akbar and pro1)ably older still.] 

[c. 1590.— "The baya is like a wild spar 
row but yellow. It is extremely intelligent, 
obedient and docile. It will take small ooint 
from the h^nd and bring them to its master, 
and will coroe to a call from a long distanoe. 
Its nests are so ingeniously constracted as to 
defy the rivalry of clever artilioen." — Au 
(trans. Jarrett), iii. 122.] 

1790.— "The young Hindu women of 
Ban^uras . . . wear very thin plates of gold, 
called t'uu's^ slightly fixed by way of orna- 
ment between the eyebrows ; and whfD 
they pass through the streets, it is no* 
uncommon for the youthful libertinat, who 
amuse themselves with training Bajft't» to 
give them a sign, which they undttstaad, 
and to send them to pluok the pMoet of 
gold from the foreheads of their mvhnmm,'* 
— AtiaL Hfsearcket, ii. 110. 

[1813. — Forbes g^vea a similar aoooimtof 
the nests and tricks of th« Baja.— Ofe^. Mm-t 

2nd ed. i. 33.] 




8. A Hindu danc- 
ing-girl. The word is especially used 
by French writers, from whom it has 
1»eeii sometimes l»orrowed as if it were 
a genuine Indian word, particularly 
characteristic of the persons in question. 
The word is in fact only a Qallicized 
fi »nn of the Portuguese batladetra, from 
fmiiittr^ to dance. Some 50 to 60 vears 
ap> there was a famous 1>allet called 
J^ tliru et la bayadere, and under 
this title Punch made one of the 
niirit famous hits of his early davs 
hv presenting a cartoon of Lord 
Ellrnltonmgh as the Bayadere danc- 
iiijr Wfore the idol of Sonnmth ; [also 

1513. — '* There i^hto came to the ground 
mxny <lAacing wocneo (mo/A/ru bftilaaairas) 
«ith their inirtramentfl of raudc, who make 
thrir UTinff by that biuine«s and these 
'laoced and tmng all the time of the ban- 
• ,uet . • ." — Ciirrmk, ii. 364. 

1528. — ** XLVII. The dancenand dancer- 
<r«c« ihayladoTM e bajladeiras) who come 
t.» t«rfonii at a Tillage shall first go and 
)«]-!• imi at the hou«e of the nrinci[^ man 
f the Tillage ** (r/aj«>tir, nee GAUM).— Frmi/ 
>*' "tnt eogtmwtndtm Oancar^n * LarrndortJt (U 
'•*t Ukm. dr Gva, in Artk. Port. Or., fawic. 5, 

I.VilS.— *'The heatheniith whore called 
BaUadOTa. whc* in a dancer."— jLinjtAo/^h, 
:t. [Hak. Sac. i. 2^]. 

15M». — "In hie ioone priniuro proiionitur 
/-^ BaDiadara, id cut mitatrix, quae in 
l-nMici* ludiii aliii«)ae nolennitatibtiM saltando 
•f«ctacalaiD eihihet."— /V Biy, Text to pi. 
Kit. in Tol. ii. (alno nee p. 90,* and toI. vii. 
-•> , etc. 

1. 1476.-" All the Bala^tiniw of Gom- 
'•n<un wcrv pruwnt to dance in their own 
R.aaaer aoonrding Uf ca<<tom."— 7a rrr miVt, 
^1 iW/, ± SSTi.] 

IT^—'^Surate ent renomm^ {Mir sew 
Bayadteaa. dont le rentable nom ewt Dft^- 
**^mt odui de Hrttratih-** «iue nouit leur 
•i«iw4M, Tient du 'm<»t BailadtiraSr qui 
■t^Tufie en Furtugai* Iktntfan.'" — SimiMTat, 

ITM. — "The name of BaUiader*, we 
&cT«r beard aptiiied to the dancing girlM ; 
«< «« bat in Kaynal, and ' War in Ama, 
tv an QfOa&t of ('olooel Baillie's Detach- 
ibeat :' It ia a ourrupt Fortugueiie word." — 
M«mr» Smrrmlit* of Litth'n iMtarJkmfnt, 356. 

1>3B. — **Thi* wa* the first specimen I 
hmd «MB at the southern Bayadere, who 
differ ceKmdmrm\Ay from the nAch girls of 
a>«tbeni India, being all in the serTice of 
different taoipAea, for which they are pur- 
chas«l jtrntm-'-ff'^f ii- 1^- 
r. im. — "On one occaioon a rumour 
lioodoo that a great succeMi had 
in Ihtfii Dj the perform- 
€i Hindoo daooera, called 
SDppoaed to be 

priestesses of a certain sect, and the London 
theatrical managers were at once on the 

Sii vive to secure the new attraction . . . 
[jy father had concluded the arrangement 
with the Bayaderes before his brother 
managers arriTed in Paris. Shortly after- 
wards, the Hindoo priestesses appeared at 
the Adelphi. They were utterly uninterest- 
ingjwholly unattractive. My father lost 
£^jOO by the speculation ; and in the family 
they were known as the * Buy-em-dears ' 
ever after." — Edmund Yates, HfcMectums, 
i. 29, 30 (1884). 


H. bepdri, and byopdrl (from Skt. 
vydpdrin) ; a trader^ and especially a 
petty trader or dealer. 

A friend long engaged in business 
in Calcutta (Mr J^ F. Ogjilvy, of 
Gillanders & Co.) communicates a 
letter from an intelligent Bengalee 
gentleman, illustrating the course of 
trade in country produce before it 
reaches the hands of the European 
shipper : 

1878. — '* . . . the enhanced rates . . . 
do not practioiUy benefit the producer in 
a marked, or even in a oorresponaing degree ; 
for the lion's share goes into the pockets 
of certain intermediate classes, who are the 
growth of the above system of busine^. 

'* Following the course of trade as it flows 
into Calcutta, we find that between the 
cultivators and the exporter these are : Ist. 
The Beroarree, or petty trader ; 2nd. The 
Aurut^tar;* and 3rd. The Mahajun, in- 
terested in the Calcutta trade. As soon as 
the crops are cut^ Bapparree appears upon 
the scene ; he visits village after village, 
and goes from homestead to homestead, 
buying there, or at the village marts, from 
the ryots ; he then takes his purchases to 
the A urut-doTf who is stationed at a centre 
of trade, and to whom he is perha{M under 
advances, and from the Anrut-dar the 
Calcutta Mahajun obtains his supplies . . . 
for eventual despatch to the capital. There 
is also a fourth class of dealers called 
Pkoreas, who buy from the Mahajun and 
sell to the European ex]xjrtor. Thu;t«, be- 
tween the cultivator and the shipiter there 
are so many middlemen, whiKso jvirticiiNition 
in the trade involves n multipliciition of 
profit*, which goes a fin*cat way towards en- 
nancing the price of commodities Iwfore 
they reach the shipixjr's htindA.*' —Letter 
from Baboo Xof/otiutn Ghotte. [Similar de- 
tails for Northern India will l>e found in 
Hoey, Mon. Trade and Mantifactvr*<t of 
Lucrncw, 59 «^/.] 

TIA7AAR, s. H. &c. From P. bdadr, 
apermanent market or strt?et of shops. 
Tne wonl has spremi wivstward into 


* AMrut-dar is Arhat-dOrf frau H. Arhaty 
* agency ' ; phorta^H. pharijfd, * a retailer.* 




Arabic, Tiirkisli, and, in special senses, 
into European lan^iages, and eastward 
into India, where it has generally been 
adopted into the vernaculars. Tlie 
popular pronunciation is hdxdr. In 
8. India and Ceylon the word is used 
for a single shop or stall kept by a 
native. The word seems to have come 
to S. Europe very early. F. Balducci 
Pegolotti, in his Mercantile Hand- 
lM)ok (c. 1340^ gives Bazaira as a 
Genoese worcl for ' market-place ' 
(CatJuiy, &c. ii. 286). The word is 
adopted into Malay as jtastlVy [or in 
the poems pamra\ 

1474.— Ambro»e Contarini writea of Kazan, 
that it is "walled like Como, and with ba- 
zars {hcLzzari) like it." — Ramusioy ii. f. 117. 

1478. — Joitafat Barbaro writes: "An Ar- 
menian Cho2A Mirech, a rich merchant in 
the bazar" {Itazan-o). — Ibid. f. lllr. 

1563.— ". . . bazar, as much as to say 
the place where things are sold." — 6'arnVi, 
f. 170. 

l.')64. — A privilege by Don Sebastian of 
Portugal gives authority " to sell garden pro- 
duce h'eely in the bazan {hazarts\, markets, 
and street (of (roa) without necessity for 
consent or license from the farmers of the 
garden produce, or from any other person 
whatsoever." — Arch. Port. Or.y fasc. 2, 167. 

c. 1566.— "La Pescaria delle Perle . . . 
si fa ogn' anno . . . e su la costa all' in 
contro piantano vna villa di case, e bazaxTi 
di jiagha.*' — Cemre de Jf'fdtricij in JiaviiuiOj 
iii. 390. 

1606.—". . . the Christians of the 
Bazar." — (wuumiy 29, 

1610.— " En la Ville de Cananor il y a vn 
1h;;iu murch^ tons les jours, qu'ils appelleut 
Basare."- /''//mrf/ df Lamf, i. 325; [Hak. 
Soc. i. 448]. ' 

[1615. — "To buy i)epi>er as cheap as wo 
c<»uld in the bUBser. ' — FostfTy LettfrSf 
iii. 114.] 

[ ,, "He forliad all the bezar to sell us 
victuals or else. . ." — I hid. iv. 80.] 

[1623.— *' They call it Bezari Kelan, that 
is the Great Merkat. . ."—P. delta Vailf, 
Hak. Soc. i. 96. (P. A'aMw, ' great *).] 

1638.— "Wo came into a BuBsar, or very 
faire Market i)lace." — W. Brvtouy in Hakl. 
v. 50. 

1666.— "Ia;s Bazardz ou Marches sont 
dans une gninde rue qui est au pi<5 de la 
niuntagne. * — Th^rruot, v. 18. 

1672.—". . . liCt us now pass the Pale 
to the Heathen Town (of Madras) only 
{•arted by a wide Parrade, which is used for 
a Buzzaror Mercate-place." — /Vycr, 38. 

[1826.—" The Kotwall went to the bazaar- 
master."— /'a/' rfwmw/ Han\ ed. 1873, p. 

1837.— "Lord, there is a honey bazar, 

repair thither." — Turnour'i tnuoal. of Maka- 
watito, 24. 

1878.— "This, remarked my handaoaie 
Greek friend from Vienna, is the finest 
wife-bazaar in this pert of Europe. . . . G<> 
a little way east of this, say to Botimania, 
and you will find wife-banar oompletely 
undisguised, the ladies .seated in their cm-- 
riages, the youths filing by, and paosii^ 
beK>re this or that beauty, to baraam witE 
papa about the dower, under ber rery 
nose." — FroMT** ^^' ^' **^' ^« P» Wi 
( Viennaj by M. D, Cvni«iy). 

BDELLIUM, s. This aromatic 
giim-resin has lieen identified with 
that of the Balmmodendron Mukul^ 
Hooker, inhabiting the dij r^ons of 
Arabia and Western India ; gu^l of 
Western India, and vioJtl in Arabic, 
called in P. bo-i-jahuddn (Jews' scent). 
What the Hebrew Idolah of the B. 
Phison was, which was rendered 
Mellium since the time of Josephus, 
remains very doubtful. Lassen has 
suggested musk as ]K)S8ib}e. But the 
argument is only this : that Dioeeorides 
says some called lidellium M^eXicor ; 
that fidStXKw ])erhaps represents Mad- 
dlaka, and though there is no such 
Skt. word as numdlaka^ there might lie 
maddrnka, because there is maddm^ 
which means soiue perfume, no one 
knows what ! {I-nd. Alterth. i. 892.) 
Dr. Royle says the Persian authoni 
descril)e the Bdellinm as being 
the i)roduct of the Doom palm (see 
Hitiau Medicine, j). 90). But this we 
imagine is due to some ambiguity in 
the sense of moH. [See the authorities 
quoted in Encycl. BihL 8.V. Bdftl- 
lium which still leave the question 
in some doubt.] 

c. A.D. 90. — "In exchange are exported 
from Barbarice (Indus Delta) oostos 
bdella. . . ."— /V»>/it*, ch. 39. 

0.1230.— "Bdallyfln. A Greek word which 
as some learned men think, means *Th9 
Lion'rt Repo8e.' This plant is the same m 
moki:'—Ebn B!-BiiithAr, i. 125, 

1612.— "Bdellium, the pund . . . xxs."— 
Rates and Valuatiouns {SeMind)^ p. 296. 

BEADALA, n.)). Formerly a port 
of some note for native craft on the 
Ramnad coast (Madura district) of th«^ 
Gulf of Manar, Vadaulay in the Atlas 
of India. Tlie proper name aeems to 
l)e Veddlaiy by which it is mentioned 
in Bishop Caldwell's Hitt, of TitmsMy 

(i>. 235), [and which is derived from 
Tarn, veduy ^ hunting' and oL *a 
luinyan-tree ' {Mad. Adm, MmtL wmL 




\K 953)]. The place was famous in the 
l^fftuguvifle HiRtory of India for a 
%i«'U»ry gained there by ^lartin Affonao 
i\r Souaa {Gapitdo M6r do Mar) over a 
>tn>ng land and nea force of the Zamor- 
iii, cumnkanded bv a famous Mahom- 
iii«<lan Captain, w)iom tlie Portuguese 
« 'illvd Pate Marcar, and the Tuhfat-al 
Muiahidiu calb 'Ali Ibrahim Misirkar, 
i:>tb February, 1538. Barn»s styles it 
***iur of the liejtt foucht 1»attle8 that 
•-\-«;r camt- off in India. This occurred 
tindrr the Wceroyalty of Nuno da 

< unha, nut of Ste]>hen da Qama, as the 
.illusion* in Canux*?* neem to indicate. 

< '.ii*tJiin Biirtiui lukn t4M> hastily identi- 
h^ HeadaUa with a place (»n the coast 

• I MalaliAr, a fact which has ]>erha])S 
l-T-n tbf cau'*e of this article (see 
l.tuuidM, Comnu*nt;iry, ]). 477). 

lSSi2.—** Martin Affon.<«o, with th» light 
^c«c, on which he Ymd not moro than 400 
-'I'liem. went nHtnd i'afic <.uin<»rin, bein^ 
a«uT that theenemv were at BeadaUl . . . ' 

Aim*, I>ec. IV., lir. \'iii. ca]!. 13. 

ir*?2.— **The <J«»vcmor, doiNirtiDi;^ from 

• • hiizi. oAKttMi a« far am C'aite Comoryn, 
•i i^Ievl that 4'a|ie. and mn for B«adali, 

• hifh i« a pbicc adjoinini; the SbfMln of 
ChilAO [Chilaw] . . ."— CW/v/i, iv. 324. 

.. Ii«70. >-"And aliout thin time Alee 
Irahun Miirk.-ir, and hi* bmther-in-luw 
K .a>e<r-Alee-Miirkar. Miiled out with 22 
»'r»hM in the direi'tion of Kacet, and arriving 

• •^ BCBtalah, they lande<l, leaving their 

»-r»T^ :i; anchor. . . . Hut destruction ovor- 

: "4 thriD At the arrival of the Kranki*, 

-S- cazDe u|ii>n them in their galliotA, 

.'tAckin*; and aiptu ring all their graVM. . . . 

\- « thi« ca|'ture by the Kmnkr* took place 

:. th« Utt«r I Art of the m«»nth of Sha>>an, 

■The i«»r J*« (end of Jnmuirv, l.'iSSj." — 

r *•**'*/ lfiv"iirt/*^i*, tr. by Rowlana"<on, 

• • • ^ 

■ L d«r»|*** jiinti* !i4> i^'alxi <'«»morini 
H in^ft fa^anha fox »4«.-lArecid.% 
\ fr>ta f4nD<.i|«il do Samoriro. 
V^* d««tnur o mundo nao duvida, 
iVac«ra cr> •> fiirtir do ferro e f<v*^ ; 
^A 41 \€t£ Baartill o martio j<igo." 

Hv Burton (but wh***** iiii.'H-omvp- 
-.' ri '4 tb»- bn-ality h.u* 1ht»* Hffrfti'd 
1 .- tnuL«Uti<>n) : 

* 'hco weif Mt^A rftu-ked the <'ai>c 'clept ('<»• 

ath of Fame by him im won ; 
t^ ■liiaHiiiit «i|ua«lftiQ of the Samorim 
«ho doahted imC to inm» the world ttnd«me, 
ha ifaMI J— tioy with nweof fire and >«teel : 
i'% Mlf hia marl^ yoke nhall feel." 

h^iM Iks 

UlC~''T«MAlftl« a prottv imimkMui vil- 
litoat^d IS milm eaut of 

Mutupetta, inhabited chiefly by Muaul- 
mans and Sh^^mCrs, the former carrying on 
a wood trade." — Aeruunt of Utr Prov. of 
Ramnady from Mackenzie OoUectioas in J. 
R. As, Soc. iii. 170. 

BEAR-TBEE, BAIB, &c. 8. H. 
ber^ Mahr. boroy in Ceuti'al Provinces 
boTf [Malay bedara or bidara ChinOy'] 
(Skt. hadara and vadiira) Zizyphusjuju- 
btty Lam. This is one of the most widely 
diffused tree^ in India, and is found 
wild from the Punjab to Burma, in all 
which region it is prolwibly native. It 
is cultivated from Queensland and 
China to Morocco and Guine^i. "Sir 
H. Elliot identities it with the lotus 
of the ancients, but although the large 
juicy product of the garden Zizyphtis 
is by no meaiLs Uid, yet^ as Madden 
(quaintly remarks, one mi^ht eat any 
quantity of it without risk of for- 
getting home and friends." — {Punjab 
Plants, 43.) 

1563. — " O. The name in C-anarese is f)oi\ 
and in the Docan bte, and the Malays call 
them cidarasy and they are better than ours ; 
yet not so good as thotie of Balagate .... 
which are very tasty." — (huria IM O., 33 

[1609. — "Here is also great quantity of 
gum-lack to be had, but is of the tree called 
Ber, and is in grain like unto red mastic." — 
Lkknrtrsy LfUrrgy i. 30.] 

BEABEB, s. The word has two 
nieauings in Anglo-Indian colKx^uial : 
a. A ]>alan<iuin-carrier ; b. (In the 
Bengal Pn\siaency) a domestic servant 
who has charge of his master's clothes, 
household furniture, and (often) of 
his ready money. The word in the 
latter meaning has been regarded as 
distinct in origin, and is stated by 
Wilson to l>e a c()rruj)tion of the, 
Bengali rehlrd from Skt. i*yavahOriy 
a (lomestic servant. There seems, 
however, t<» l)e no hudorieal evidence 
for such an origin, e.g. in any lia- 
bitual use of the term vt^hard, whilst 
as a matter of fact the domestic l>carer 
(or nrd/ir-bttirer^ as he is usiuilly style*! 
i»y his fellow-servant^s often even when 
he has no one under him) was in 
i^alcutUi, in the peiiultinmte generation 
when English gi'Utlemen still kept 
tkalankins, usually just what this 
literally implies, vi/. the head-man 
of a set of ]ialankin-)x*arers. And 
thn>ughout the Presidency the baarOT, 
or vaiet, still, as a rule, lielongs t4» 
the c^LHte of Kahdirit (see KUHA^ or 
|ialki-l Mirers. [Si*e BOY.] 



ga rde 

tma 1 

She J 





Hjites, are yet puroha«ed and drunk with 
pleasure." — Ooingtony 395. 

1784.— "London Porter and Pale Ale, 
lurht and excellent ... 150 Sicca Rs. per 
hhd. . . ."—In SdOR-Karry i. 39. 

1810.— "Porter, pale-ale and table-beer 
of gpreat strength, are often drank after 
meals." — Williamsnn, V, M, i. 122. 


" What are the luxuries they boast them 

The lolling couch, the joys of bottled 

From * Tltr. Cadet , a Poem in 6 parts, Ac. 
bv a late resident in the East.' This is a 
most lugubrious production, the author 
tinding nothing to his taste in India. In 
this respect it reads something like a cari- 
cature of "OakHeld," without the noble 
character and sentiment of that book. As 
the Rev. Hobart Gaunter, the author seems 
to have come to a less doleful view of things 
Indian, and for some years he wrote the 
letter- press of the "Oriental Annual." 

BEEB, GOUNTBT. At pre^nt, at 
least in Umnir India, tliis expression 
simply indicates ale made in India 
(see COUNTBY) as at Masfiri, Kasauli, 
and Ootacamnnd Breweries. But it 
formerly was (and in Madras perha]>8 
still is) ai)j)lied to ginger-Wer, or to 
a l)everage describea in some of the 
< [notations Wlow, which must have 
Ixfcome obsolet-e early in the last 
rt;ntury. A drink of this nature called 
Snyar-beer was the ordinary drink at 
Biitavia in the 17th c^jntury, and to 
its ust» some travellers JiscriUed the 
prevalent This is pro- 
t»;i))lv what is destrril>ed bv Jacob 
litmtius in the tirst tjuotaticm : 

IG^Jl.- There is a reci|Kj given for a beer 
nf this kind, "not ut all less good than 
Dutch Injcr. . . . Take n h(x»i)od cask of 
IV) aiMpfiOrae (0, fill with pure river water ; 
add 2lb. black Java sugar, 4(>z. tamarinds, 
«') lemouK cut up, cork well and put in a oixA 
place. After 14 hour^ it will lH>il as if on a 
fire," kc. —llint. Nat. ct MhI. Indiar Orient. ^ 
p. 8. We doubt the result antici{Xite(l. 

1 789. "They use a pleaMtint kind t)f drink, 
called Country-beer, with their victiuils ; 
which is c<jm|Mirted of t^xldv . . . i.)ortcr, 
and bn>wn-sugar ; is of a bnnk nature, but 
when coole<i with wiltjHitre and water, bo- 
cnmcf* a very refreshing draught." — Main-o, 
yarraticc^ 42. 

1810. — ''A tenijioniry iHJvenige, suited to 
the very hot weather, and called Cotintry- 
beer, is in nither tfeun-nl use, though water 
artiti<-ially c«K)led is commonly* drunk during 
the rejiasts." — WiUiainwn, I . M. ii. 122. 

BEEB-DBINKING. U]) U) aln^ut 
1860, and a little later, an ordinary 

exchange of courtesies at an Anglo- 
Indian dinner-table in the provinueS| 
especially a mess- table, was to ask a 
Kuest, perhaps many yards distant, to 
*^ drink l>eer^ with ' you ; in imitation 
of the English custom of drinking 
wine together, which })ecame obsolete 
somewhat earlier. In Western IndiSi 
when such an invitation was given at 
a mess-table^ two tumblers, holding 
half a lx)ttle each, were brought to 
the inviter, who carefully divided the 
bottle between the two, and then sent 
one to the ^lest whom he invited t^) 
drink with iiim. 

1848. — *'*Ue aint got distangy manners 
dammy,' Bragg observed to his first mate; 
'he wouldn't do at Govemment House, 
Roper, where his Lordship and Lady 
William was as kind to me . . . and asking 
me at dinner to take beer with him before 
the Commander-in-Chief himself . . .'"— 
Vanity Fair, IT. ch. xxii. 

1853.— "First one officer, and then 
another, asked him to drink beer at mesit, 
as a kind of tacit suspension of hostilities." 
—OakjUld, ii. r>2. 

BEETLEFAKEE, n.p. '*In soui«* 
old Voyages coins used at Mocha are rin 
called. The word is BaU-uUfakthn^ tlie 
'iFruit-market,' the name of a liaxar 
there." So C. P. Brown. The plaw 
is in fact the Coffee-mart of which 
Hodeida is the ]K>rt, from which it 
is alx)ut 30 m. aistant inland, and 4 
marches noith of Mocha. And thtf 
name is re>allv BnU-al-Faklh^ *The 
House of the bivine,* from the tomb 
of the Saint Ahmad Ibn Musa, which 
was the nucleus of the place.— {Setr 
Ritter, xii. 872 ; see also BEETLB- 
FACKIE, MiUmru, i. 96.) 

1690. — **(V>ffec . . . grows in abun- 
dance at Beetle-fackee . . . and •ftber 
imrts."— (>€./w<7to», 465. 

1710. — "They daily bring down coffee 
fn>m the mountain!) to Betolfiuiliy, whicli 
is not above 3 leagues off, where there i» 
a market for it every day of the week."— 
{Frt'Hch) Vo^fOQf to Arabia thf i/appw, JL T., 
London, 1726, p. 99. 

1770. - ** The tree that pnxluces the CdSvs 
grows in the territory of Betel-ftqui, a tuvu 
iHjlonging to Yemen. "—/?o¥«<»^ (tr. 1777>. 
i. 3r»2. 

BEGAB, BIOABBY, s. H. 6^7n, 
from P. ftryfify ' forced labour ' [he * witi- 
out^' flr</r (for kdr), 'one who works']; 
a i)crson pressed to carry a load, or w 
otncr work really or profeoBeoly for 
]mblic service. In some proriiwtf 



httfikr Iff tlie forced labour, and higiirl 
tlie prcaved man ; whilst in Kam&ta, 
6miri is the performance of the lowest 
village olfices without money payment, 
but with remuneration in grain or 
land {Wilmmy C. P. Bro^i^-n sa^s the 
word is ( *anare8e ; hut the P. origin is 
hardlv doubtfuL 

[1M9.—*' It happened that one day idxty 
Mgltffll went from the CVnnorin side towardu 
the fort kaded with ojrster-shelU."— CVuton- 
A^rfH. Rk. V. ch. 38.] 

[IS::^. — **The inhabitantii of the villages 
iX9 tourid to nipplv btgaiina who are work- 
men."— .4 rdUr. Port, Unent, Fasc. V. 
|K 12S.J 

[1S3&.-" Telling him that they fought 
!ike hen ** and worked (at building the fort) 
iikr Iqrsairja."— CofTTO, iii. 625. J 

1.V4. — ** .\nd to 4 beg gu aryna, who nenre 
%* « itvr carnem to the t^rtugueiH) and others 
i:; tht: •mhi intrenchment, \b leals a day to 
f*th. . . .'-S. Bculho, Timho, 78. 

l«7:i.--f;.oini, whither I took a V\\- 
fhraaffe. with one other of the Facton*, 
f -ur I'tviOi^ .-tnd Two Bl fgi ee i ia, or Porton* 
■c.y.' —Frjf^, 158. 

1?00.— "The toygaiij ayntern is not 
k«arahie: it mu.«t U* abolinhed entirely." — 
HW .*^M. i. 'i44. 

1*1.V -A*Uk\»iHS ImdinH Treat if t^ Ac., 
ojctdUb^ under thin year numen>UM tHHUuds 
im-ifi. m NffAl War, to Hill (*hiefi, stipu- 
utisv f«*r attendance when ret^uired with 
"kagmaa and fle|H>yA."— ii. 339 4i>7</. 

I^^X "The Malauna jicoplo were some 

tOM- ^A^k «>rdere«l Ut make a practicable 

rmri. >•■:! *.he\ flatly refui«ed ti> do anything 

4 *iie kind. •4u>'ini; th«y hjid nover done anv 

Vigftr iaU-ur. »nd did n«jt intend to do any. ' 

*gWA1t n.p. H. liihar. That 
:-".\iiit- 'if th»- Mft^il EiupirL' which ; 
.i\ • fi til- (^*s iniiiuHliatelv a)^>ve , 
hr:4r>il. y^'V- '^* i-jilltHJ, and still retains 
'i^ r^Uiir and « harart^T <if a province, ' 
.i»i»r t1;»- Lii*ut4'nant-Gowrnor of 
iirneaU And rinlinu-iii); t)i«' ten iiH)derii 
:.-?n.t- ».f Patitii, Si'iniii, <fava, Shuha- 
^i, Tirhut, Chaiiiijaran, t)ie S;iiital 
H4.-)euuA, Bhft^lpur, Mon^liyr, an(i 
P'-rnuh. Thf naiiir wjw taken from 
'h' {,\'i .iiy of Bill&r, and that d**- 
".vrt^ II • till** fnwn Wing the site of 
^ tuifii* YihAnt in Buddhist times. ' 
Utlir Ut'-r <Liy- t*f Mah(>iiiin«;iian rule 
'> thriv pnivi rices of IWngal, IWliar , 
"M OmMi Wfre under fine Sulmdar, i 
^UL th» Namali, who resided latterly ' 
-t Mnnhi'laldkii. 

kmo.— "iterkar of Balmr; containing 
viUhih. . ."— Ju (ir. JiorHi), U. 158.] 


[1676.— "Translate of a letter from Shaus- 
teth Caukne (Shaiata Khan) ... in answer 
to one from Wares Cawne, Great Chancellor 
of the ProYince of Beaira about the English. " 
—In Birdwood, Rep, 80]. 

The following is the first e^uunple 
we have noted of the occurrence of 
the three famous names in com- 
bination : 

1679. — *'0n perusal of several letters 
relating to the procuring of the Great 
Mofful's Phyrmaund for tra^e, custome free, 
in Uie Bay of Bengali, the Chief in Council 
at Hnglv IS ordered to procure the same, for 
the English to be Customs free in Bengal, 
Oriza and Bearra. . ,"—Ft, St, Geo, Cvm.^ 
20th Feb. in SuU* and ExU,, Ft. ii. p. 7. 

BEHUT, n.]). H. BeluiL One of 
the names, and in fjict the proper 
name, of the Punjab river which we 
now call Jelum (i.e, Jhllam) from a 
town on its 1>anks : the Hydoipes or 
Bidajupes of the ancients. Both Behat 
and tiie Greek name are corruptions, 
in different wavs, of the Skt. name 
Vitofta, Sidi 'All (p. 200) calls it 
the river of Bahra, Bahra or Bhera 
was a district on the river, and the 
town and tahsil still remaiTi, in 
Shahpur Dist. [It "is called by the 
natives of Kasmir, where it rises, 
the BedattOy which is but a slightly- 
altered form of its Skt. name, the 
Vitastfly which means * ^ide-spread.* " — 
McCrindU, Invtuiati of India, 93 feqq.] 

BYBAMPAXJT, s. P. bairam, bairamh 
The name of a kind of cotton stuff 
which ai»i>earH fre<iuentlv during the 
flourishing peri(Ki of t)ie exjKirt of 
these from India ; hut tlie exact 
character of which we have Ikhmi 
unable to ;LScertain. In earlier times, 
as ap]K'ars from the tii-st <iu(»tati(m, 
it was a very fine stuff, [hmm the 
<piotati(ui date<i 1609 K'low, they ap- 
iiear to have rt*stMnble<l the fine linen 
Known as "Holland" (fnr which stre 
/>nrprr'» IHrt. s.v.).] 

c. 1.3^1.'). — I bu Ikitutji tuontionn, among 
presents !«ent by Hultjm Muhoninictl Tu^hlak 
of I>elhi to the grwit Kiuin, "100 Muits of 
raiment eallud hairamlsrah, i,^. of a cotton 
stuff, which were of untxiuallexl lieauty, and 
were each worth 100 dinar* [ruiKX??*]."— iv. 2. 

[14J*8.— "20 piece;* «»f white j^tuff, rerv 
flne, with gi»ld umbniitltTy which they call 
Be3rramiea."--('"rfV(', Ibik. Soc. 1U7.] 

IMO.— •* Fiftv whiiH are laden eTery year 
in this place (bengaln) with o>tton and silk 




otofffl . . . that is to Ray bairam."— For- 
thema, 212. 

J 1513.—" And captured two Chaal ships 
en with \i/9lixtJnM.*'—Albw[uerqve, Cartat, 
p. 166.] 

1554. — "From this country come the 
muslins called Candaharians. and those of 
Daulatabad, BerQpatri, and Bainmi.'*— 
Sidi 'All, in J.A.S.B., v. 460. 

,, "And for 6 beirames for 6 sur- 
plices, which are given annually . . . 
which may be worth 7 pardaos." — S, Bo- 
telhoy Tonibo, 129. 

[1609.— "A sort of cloth called Byramy 
resembling Holland cloths." — DanoerSy 
Letters, i. 29.] 

[1610. — "Bearams white will vent better 
than the black."— /ft/rf. i. 75]. 

1615.— "10 pec. byrams nill (see AKILE) 
of 51 Rs. per corg. . . ." — Cocks* s Diary , 
i. 4. 

[1648.— "Beronis." Quotation from Van 
Twist, s. V. GINGHAM.] 

[c. 1700.— "50 blew byrampants" (read 
bsfraiimaats, 11. p^, *a length of cloth'). 
— In iVo^j and Queries, 7th Ser. ix. 29.] 

1727.— "Some Surat Baftaes dyed blue, 
and some BeramB dyed red, which are both 
coarse cotton cloth.' — A. Hamifton, ii. 125. 

1818. — "ByramB of sorts," among Surat 
piece-goods, m Milhum, i. 124. 

BEITCUL, n.p. We do not know 
how this name should l)e properly 
written. The place occupies the 
isthmus connecting Carwar Head in 
Canara with the land, and lies close 
to the Harbour of (^rwar, the inner 
part of which is Beitcul Cove. 

1711. — "Ships may ride secure from the 
So uth W est Monsoon at Batte Cove (qu. 
BATTECOLE ?), and the River is navigable 
for the largest, after they have once got in." 
— Lochyer, 272. 

1727.— "The Poriugueze have an Island 
called Anjediva [see ANCHEDIVA] . . . 
about two miles from Batcoal." — A. 
JlamiUon, i. 277. 

BELGAUM, n.]). A town and 
district of the Bombay Presidency, in 
the S. Mahratta country. The proper 
name is said to be Canarese yennu- 
(jrdmdy * Bamlx)0-To\ni.' [The name of 
a place of the same designaticm in the 
Vizagapatam district in ^ladras is said to 
be derived from 8kt. hiUi-grdma^ * cave- 
village.' — Mad. Admin. Mnn. Gloss, s.v.] 
The name occurs in De Barnis under 
the form "Cidade de Bilgan" (Dec. 
IV., liv. vii. c-iip 6). 

BENAMEE, adj. P.— H. be-ndrnt, 
• anonymous ' ; a terra sixicially applied 

to documents of transfer or ofcher oon- 
tract in which the name entered as 
that of one of the chief parties (e^. of 
a purchaser) is not that of the person 
really interested. Such transactions 
are for various reasons very common 
in India, especially in Bengal, and are 
not hy any means necessarily fradu- 
lent, though they have often l^een so. 
[" There prol)ably is no country in the 
world except India, where it would be 
necessary to write a chapter 'On the 
practice of putting property into a 
false name. — {Maynej Hindu Lav, 
373).] In ' the Indian Penal Code 
(Act XLV. of 1860X sections 421-428, 
*' on fraudulent deeds and dispositions 
of Property," appear to l>e especially 
directed against the dishonest use of 
this benamee system. 

It is alleged by C. P. Broi^Ti on the 
authority of a statement in the Friend 
of India (without specific reference) 
that the T)ro])er term is handml, adopted 
from sucn a phrase as hajidmi diti^l, 
'a transferable note of hand,' such 
notes commencing, ^ ba-ndm-t-fiUdna^* 
' to the name or address of ' (Aoraham 
Newlands). This is conceixTible, and 
probably true, but we have not the 
evidence, and it is opposed to all the 
authorities : and in any case the present 
form and interpretation of the term he- 
ndml lias become established. 

1854.— "It is very much the habit In 
India to make purchases in the name of 
others, and from whatever causes the pfBC- 
tice may have arisen, it has existed for a 
series of years : and these transactions are 
known as ' Benamee transactions * ; they 
are noticed at least as early as the yetr 
1778, in Mr. Justice Hyde's Notes.-— Ii. 
Justice Knight Bruce, in Moore's Reports of 
Cases on Appeal before the P. C, toL tL 
p. 72. 

"The presumption of the Hindoo law, 
in a joint undivided family, is that tht 
whole ]>ruperty of the family is joint eifcitt 
. . . where a purchase of real estat* ii 
made >)y a Hindoo in the name of one of hii 
sons, the presumption of the Hindoo law ii 
in favour of its being a benamee porchafS, 
and the burthen of proof lies on the party 
in whose name it was [turch&sed, to prov« 
that he was solely entitled.'* — Note hf CA« 
Editor ofahoce Vol., p. 63. 

1861.— "The decree Sale law is also out 
chief cause of that nuisance, the *rtHflTr— 
system. . . . It is a peculiar oontriTanoe fcr 
getting the l^enetits and credit of jMnoptrtjg 
and avoiding its charges and Itabuitiai. a 
consists in one man holding land, nmnfna"r 
for himself, but really in seorot tnut for 
another, and by ringing the ohai^pat be 
the two . . . relieving the land from 




mnj liability penunal to the 
-W. Mom^, Jam, iU 261, 

m u m A 

are neoenary 
be oifenoe in thw Mction (§ 410 
le). Fint a fraudulent inten- 
sondlj a falM j«tatement ax to 
ktaon. The mere fact that an 
laa been taken in the name 
ant really interested, will not 
Such . . . known in Bengal 
traaflacti* lOn . . . have no- 
il v fraudulent." — J. />. 
vik ti^ /Vm/i/ r,^^ MadroM 

B8, ii-l». The famous and 
I th** <tangi-3i. H. Bandras 
y*lnlnduti. Tlie {lopular 
nf*l«ig>' is fnnu the namefl 
iiiis i'arahd (iihxI. Barnd) 
hf f'»nnrr a riv**r of iionie 
ri-»rth and east of the cilv, 
:vul»-t now emhnicefi within 

• fn -ni ihr mythical founder, 
r\ This origin \a very 

T1i«* name, art that of n 

••^n (aMiirding to Dr. F. 

lur f*» San.-i-Tit literature 

\K Tin* Pfuddlii-it legt'uds 

:t \\\v.*\i lurtlitT K'uk, the 

.11 Th»ni vrry funiliar. 

' ■'. . . \yA the ErrenyiU 
: iT. -tn In'iian tnW\ uuitv with 
.1 • ■•... /.-ti-Att, iv.] 

r*i' K:r'.ir<l4-tn •>( l*'iftti-ni.<t-i^ 

• "if- i- 4<J'".' 't ill oiininxf. 
x.v '.if-ital ■I'lj'iiu* the <l:inirc?«. 

^ T>'^''-'J. lit /e'. Jl'indd. ii. 

If }. 11 £■•■ frum RJri on the 
< t iTiA'i*^-. in an (.•JWit4.Tlv direc- , 
;,•• t.i Aj'«lh. jit the Ai^tance \ 
r* . 'rn-r«.f t«« thetrrtsit Bvmirvs 
> -t 'A«. — .l'-/*-ni^i, in A7/m*/, 

i" .1 Liiye City, and 

• -i.t . the ni«*^t i«irt »if the 

.'•h'T "f Hrii-k i»r Stnne . . . 

i.-vt-Tiii n- V i* thiit the Street?* 

- « — T*' ••"■»■•'■, K. T.. ii. .VJ ; 

!'»•. H»- .ii*« u**-» the f«»nn.'« 

I. Il.ti. ii. ivj. -j-iT.]. 

>L£K, n. 

A M-tt lenient 

li«±LN, n.i*. .\ M-nienieni 
' «*.fck-t of S'liiMtiiu whirh 
•.•-i !•• Kii^'liitd, vi/. in. Ill 
:i. «':••!: it w-L* pivt-n i»ver 
.:; ri h.iii^^- f«»r MaliK'ca, 
i*> • f I^-ndi'ii. The name 
. !. • :' M tl.iy lUiftijhi^ilu, and 
■ M'tfujkituiiiu «*r ifV/fj[-if(i/^f)fi 
'T- <*};JiieM* p-tigraphiral 
■>f uhi'li the date IS not 
' Z'^, II. 56*i, note). The 

English factory at Bencoolen was from 
1714 called Fort Marlborough. 

1«V)1.— "Bancolu" is mentioned among 
the porta of the East Indies by Amerigo 
Vespucci in his letter quoted under BAG- 

1690. — *'We . , . were forced to bear 
away to Benoonli, another English Factory 
on the same Coast. ... It was two days 
before I went oshoar, and then I was im- 
]N>rtuned by the Govomour to stay ^ere, 
to \te Gunner of the Fort." — Dampier, i. 

1727.— '^Benoolon is an English colony, 
hut the Eurut>can inhabitants not very 
numeroiu." — A. Ilami/tuHt ii. 114. 

1788.— "It is nearly an etiual absurdity, 
though uiM>n a nmaller scale, to hare an 
establirthmcnt that conts nearly 40,000/. at 
Bmiooolen, to facilitate the purchase of one 
cargo of |K;|>[»er." — CurnwaltU^ i. S90. 

BENDAMEEB, n.p. Pers. Banda- 
nur. A ]M>pular name, at least auionff 
foreigners, of the River Kur (AraTui^ 
near Shiraz. l*n)perly sjH»aking, the 
wonl is the name of a (iam ronstiiicted 
across the river l»y the Amir Fana 
Khusruh, otherwise Ccilled Aded-ud- 
daulah, a j>rin<e of the Huweih family 
(a. I). 96.')), wliirh w;uj thence known 
in later days as the Jiaud-i-Amlr, "The 
Prince's Dam." Tlie work is mentioned 
in the <nM)g. Diet, of YakiU (c. 1220) 
under the name of Sikru Fantid-KliuH' 
rah Khnrruh and Kirdu Fannd Khitit- 
ruh (.see Barh. Meytianfy Dirt, dr la 
Perse^ 313, 480 >. Fryer rei>eats a 
rigmarole that lie heard aUnit the 
miniculous formation of the dam or 
bridge by Band Haimero (!) a proohet, 
"wherefore lK)th the Hridge ana the 
I*lain, JUS well jls the River, by Riteras 
is corruptlv called Bindamire " {Fnj^r^ 

o. llTfi. — '* And fnim thcn«o. a <iaics 
ioniov, yeonnctn a great bridge v|Hin the 
BynciainyT, which is a nottiblc great ryver. 
"nii." bridge thev siid Siilonion cau-ied t«> l>o 
made."— y>'«ir/-f/'r; (Old E. 'VX Hak. Soc. 


ItWl.— *• . . . havintr to jvi^s the Kur by 
a l«»nger way .icn»«.«< another briilijo oallc<l 
Bend* Emir, whi<'h i-* a-* nnu-h a*; t*> .-skv the 
Tio {fifftifnnt)^ or in other word.- the Brid^re, 
• if the Kniir, whieh i" twn le.igue^ distant 
fn»m Chehil niiiuir . . . and which is po 
calle<l after a certain Lniir Hamza the 
Ihlemite who Iniilt it. . . . Fra FiHppo 
Ferrari, in his CMH^'r.ij»hical Epit^mie, attri- 
butes the name i»f /i'n'1-niir t«» the ri%er. but 
he i-* wrtnur. f«'r ll'iti'vin- is the n.iiiie of the 
>»ridge and not of the river." — /*. d*Ha 
Van'', ii. 201. 




1686. — ** II est bon d'observer, vue le oom- 
mun Peuple appelle le Bend-Emir en cet en- 
droit (U> pulneuy c'ost & dire le Fleuve du 
Pont Neuf ; qn'on ne I'appelle par son nom 
de Band-Emir que proche de la Dianef qui 
lui a fait donner ce nom." — Ckarain (ed. 
1711)j ix. 45. 

1809. — " We proceeded three miles further, 
and crossing the River Bend-emir, entered 
the real plain of Merdasht." — Morier (First 
Journey), 124. See also (1811) 2nd Journey, 
pp. 73-74, whore there is a view of the Band- 

1813. ~" The river Bund Emeer, by some 
ancient Geographers called the Cyrus,^ takes 
its present name from a dyke (in Persian a 
buM) erected by the celebrated Ameer 
Azad-a-Doulah Delemi." — Macdonafd Kin- 
wfiV, Ofoff. Mem, oftJui Perfian Empire, 59. 

*' There's a bower of roses by Bendameer's 

And the nightingale sings round it all the 

day long." — Lalla Rvoih. 

1850.— "The water (of Lake Neyriz) . . . 
is almost entirely derived from the Kur 
(known to us as the Bond Amir River) ..." 
—Abbott, in J.R.G.S., xxv. 73. 

1878. — Wo do not know whether the 
Band-i-AmIr is identical with the quasi- 
sj'nonymous Pnl-i-KhUn by which CoL 
Macgregor crossed tho Kur on his way from 
Shiraz to Yezd. See his Khftnufan, i. 45. 

BENDAbA, s. a t«rin iised in the 
Malay countries as a title of one of 
the higher ministers of state — Malay 

bandaJulra, Jav. bendara, *Lord.' Tlie 
word enters into the niinieroius series 
of jmrely honorary' Javanese titles, 
and the etiquette in regard to it is 
verv (•oin]>licate<l. (See TijcUtrhr, v. 
Neilerl. Ivdu, vear viii. No. 12, 253 
srqq.). It would seem that the title 
is prtjperly htlmjdrtl^ 'a trwi-^urer,* and 
taken from the Skt. bhdijdOrirhf *a 
steward or treasurer.' Haex in liis 
Malay-Latin Dirt. givi?s BanMn\ 
*Oeconomus, quaestor, ex])enditor.' 
[Mr. Skeat writes that ('litlbrd derives 
it from Benda-hara-av, *a treasury,* 
which lie ag-ain derives from Malay 
benda, *a thing,' without exi>1aining 
hara^ while WilKiiisoii with more pro- 
kihiiity (tlasses it jls Skt.] 

1509. — **\Vhil.**t Sctjueini wa<» consulting 
with hi.s people over this ranttor, tho King 
sent hin Bendhara or Treasure-Master on 
Ixxird." — Va/entijHj v. SlfJ. 

L'hJP. — "There tho Bandara (B^vdara) of 
Mabuti, (who is as it were CTiief Justicor 
among the Mahometans), (o supmtio vn 
}imndo, na hunnt *• h** JMSt'n'n dia mmtro*) 

• "Tlie OrwkM call it tho Araxa^ Khoiidaiiur 
the A'«r." 

was present in person by the vxpnm caok' 
mandment of Ptdro de FaHa for to entartain 
him.** — Pinto (orig. cap. xiv.), in Coffon, p. 17. 

1552.— ''And as the B«ndazm was by 

nature a traitor and a tyrant, the counsel 
they gave him seemed good to him."— 
CoMtanJuda, ii. 359, also iii. 433. 

1561. — "EntAomanson . . . quediierque 
mat&n o sen bandara polo mao conselho que 
Ihe dove." — Correoy Lendat, ii. 225. 

J1610.— An official at the MaldiTes is 
led i?aiM-band8ry Taewiro%L, which Mr. 
Gray interprets— Singh. rw», 'gold,* tea- 
dkat-Oy 'treasury,' (haJrhtra, Skt., 'an idol.* 
— Pifrard de Laval, Hak. Soc. i. 58.] 

1613.— "This administration (of Blalaeoa) 
is provided for a three years* space with 
a governor . . . and with royal offioem of 
revenue and justice, and with the native 
Bandara in charge of the govemment ci 
the lower class of subjects and foreigners." 
— Oodinho de Eifdia, 6i». 

1631. — "There were in Malaca five prin- 
cipal officers of dignity . . . the second is 
Bendard, he is the superintendent of the 
executive {vendor da. /agenda) and governs 
the Kingdom : sometimes the Bendard bold* 
both officas, that of Puduca raja and of 
Bendari." — D\ilboqnen/tt^, Comwteniariet 
(orig.), 358-359. 

" O principal sogeito no govemo 
Do Mahomet, e privanca, era o 
Mogistrado supremo." 

Malaca Conqnijfyida, iii. 6. 

1726.— ""Bandarm or Adiun'ng at^ those 
who are at tho Court as Dukes, Counts, or 
even Princes of tho Royal House.** — Valaf 
tijn, (Ceylon), Names of Officers, dr., 8. 

1810.—" After tho Raja had amused him- 
self with their speaking, and was tired of it 
... tho bintara with the green ejet (for 
it is the custom that the eldest Dintua 
should have green shades before his ey«i» 
that ho may not bo dazded by the greatness 
of the Raja, and forget his duty) brovigiii 
the Itooks and pockets, and delivered thsD 
to the bintara with the black ba*u, fron 
whoso hands the Raja received them, oM 
by one, in order to present them to the 
youths." — A Mala if » account of a visit to 
Gov't. House, Calcutta, transl. by Dr. Laydea 
in Maria Uraham, p. 202. 

1S83.— " In most of the States the reigntaff 
prince has regular officers undor him, diin 
among whom . . . the Bandahara or ires* 
surer, who is tho first minister. . .** — SOm 
Birdy Thf Golden Ch^rxones^, 26. 

BENDY, BIND7, s. : also BANU- 
COY Oi- v.X the form in S. India ; H. 
btmuii, [bhendi], Dakh. l^^ndM^ Mihr. 
hhendd; also' in H. nJmiurdM; th» 
fruit of the plant Abelmotehui eaeuM*^ 
also HibiicuJt esc. It ia called in Anl^ | 
bilmirfcth (Lane, Mod. Egypi^ ed. IW* I 
i. 199 : [5th ed. i. 184 : Bmim^ Ar> I 


SifhU, si. fi7]X whence the iiicideru 
<jfv«k /•.wAfua, In Italy the v^etable 
i* ailed tonti id Grtd. The Latin 
name AhthmMAii* u from the Ai. 
Ub-iJ-atiuU, 'grain of musk' (fifmy'). 
mo.— "Tha bndr. oaUad id the Weat 
Indiaa afaw, is a pretty pUot nHmbling a 
buUTbock : the fruit u about the leDgth and 
IhkkDHi nf otH'n Suger . . . when boiled 
hueoftutdmucilagiixnu. "~Jfur^ UniMam, 

lilS.-'-Tba budA {Hihitn't rtntlnUiu) 
t>a ontritkHU orieotal TegelabU." — Foria, 
Ur. Jf... i. 3:2 ; [2iid ed. J. 22]. 

ia».— •' 1 noollect the Wert Indian OWreo 
. . . bmaa aoaie yean ago recommeTided 

kl«clj advertiaed, and aold at about 8a. the 
3 ea^er burticulturiita, 

the familiar 1 
at Bonlar t< 


Irf. the mince. Yet . . . 
latiDued to hg adTertiaad and 
.\W hy Sir a. 


Dalryinple's Collectton, which identifies 

it v-ith Chittogong, and it inay be con- 
lidered certain that Chittagoi^ was the 
place intended by the older writers (see 
yarthema and Oviti^ton). The former, 
u regards hia ^iaititig Banghelia^ deals 
in fiction— a tiling L-lear from internal 
evidence, and expreaslv alleged, by 
^he iudieioiis Garcia de Orta ; "As 
xj wliat you say of Ludovico Varto- 
nanu, I have spoken, both here and 
n Portugal, with men who knew him 
lere iu India, and they told me that 
le went about here in the garb of 
1 Moor, and then reverted to us, doing 
>enance for his sins ; and tliat the 
nan never went further than Calecut 
Hid Cochin."— CoUoqaiot, !. 30. 

c. 1250.— '■ Muhammad Bakhtiyir . . . 
'etumed ta Beh^. Ureat fear of him pre- 
vailed in the minds of the iafldels of the 
«rntories of lAkhnauti, Behar, Bang, 
ind K£mnlp."—TaUdH-i-yanr;, in Etliol, 
i. 307. 

BENDT-TBSE, ». This, ai/cordiiig 

U.- Sir U. Biitlwixid, is the Thapetia 

. joptlnMt, Lain. (IfoK. Emt. Did. vi. 

]<. IV. 4A »"fj.\ and gives a name to 

tW -Armfy Aanr' in Ib'iuley. (See 

.[>. The r^on of the 
i>ni^;bi l>clia and the distriote iin- 
u-^ial'-ly iiliovf it ; but often in 
Eii)Cli-h iL-^ witli a wide Bi)|ilication 
II- UiP wlii>le territorv uamsoned bv 
Ihe Beufcal annv. 'Tlai name does 
nnt aiiiaar, so far as we have been 
ablr to Itnnt. in auv Mahoniniedan 
<t VirMrra writing iiefore the latter 
]«n of the I3th ivnliiry. In the 
wliT \»n of ilut centurv the 
MakmiiiiMlan writen' generally eall 
Ibr |4in-inf e iMtknaol}, afttr th^ i-hlef 
(lit, )«t OF liHVf aU) the old form 
Be i w. fr'>in the iudigenoiui Vatiga. 
AlMdv. h'^wrver. in (he llth mitury 
«( faa\> it as Vangalant im the Inscrii'h 
tiiiB of the great Tanjore Pagiida. 
Tb* im Ihc oldest iKcum-nce that we 

The allep^ City «f Betuiala of Ihe 
IVftM|pnjK which Wftrcatly jieriileiMl 
pofimpbrra, jinilMblv origiiuttv*) with 
ihc Arab ciutom of giving an inijiiirlant 
twnpi city or KafioTt the name iif 
the nmMtiy in which it lay (cuinfiare 
iW atf ti JSofwiititn, under COEO- 
"■Tlfi) It lung kept a iilace in 
wifK lite laM oecumnce that we 
kavw of ii in • chart of 1743, in 

letter reading 

s nilijecL to Delhi 
n fi/Ziof, i. 72. 

o BijaUr (but 
ich from of old 
— AuAUmUtn, 

region alioundicg ii 
i«D no country in the world nhere 
inn are cheaper than in tUa ; but 
t in muggy. Hnd thonB who cmme from 
(huiuiun call it ' a hell full of good thingi.' " 
-/i« /i,Ui,liij IT. 211. (But the Emperor 
Vurungzebo in alleged to have ^^emphati- 
lally rtylod it the /'amditt i/f A'aiioiu." — 
<ote in .ScurariHw, i. 2B1.) 

c. 1S50.- 
■ .Stair JiitilK tkammd hania (itidH-i- 

ZlK j.iiii<<-i-/'dril Hi iu BasfUa mi 

rawud. " Hi^fit. 

' 8ugar nibbling arc all the i«rnjt« of Ind 
KruTU thin Porrian candy that trareta tu 
BtnfBl " (Tja. hi* own poemi). 

I4M.— "Bamfala: in this Kingdom are 
oany Moor*, and tow tliruitiaiu, and the 
(ing in a Mucir ... in thin land an 
ulhi^ and t-i1k vl.ithih and 

■ 40 d 
— ItU'in 

dt v. da ijaia. 

Kim Calici 
•nd ed. \<. 110. 

1506.— "A Baasalo, el buo Re t Moro. a 
i ae fa al tuno de' [Anni (!• guttun. . .' — 
L-.,i,.inf-. d: ''„■ Jfi— ^, 29. 

1510.— "Ws tiak the route towards the 
ity of BaBj^slU . . . one o( tbe_lwt 

Lbnt I had hi 

I. 2ia 


1B16.— " . , . tho Kingdom of B«linU, 
In »btch there are manytowiu. . . . Thoss 
of tho interior are inHabitod by Gentiles 
subject to the King of Bengali, who is & 
Moor ; and the senports are iolmbited hy 
Moon and G«ntJlefl, amongst vbom there ih 
much tjode and mnch snipping to many 
parts, because this sea is a gulf . . . 
and at it» inner extremity there is a verf 
great city inhabited by MoorB, which is 
called Bonnla, with a very good harbour." 
—Boriom, 178-9. 

0. 1590,— "Bimg«I«ll originally was called 
Bong ; it deriTed the additional al from that 
beina tlie oamo given to the mounds of earth 
which the ancient Rajahs caused to be raised 
in the low Lands, at the foot of the hills."— 
Ayem Aibi-y, tr. OladuiH, ii. i (ed. ISOO) ; 


1 Portogueae, Btngaia 

s Autho 

first Frontier City ; but Tr.ixeira, and gener- 
ally the I'ortHgKrtc WritoiH, reckon that as 
a City of B«aiftlA : and not only so, but 

6 lace tho City of Beagala it self . . . more 
Dutb than chitigam. Tho' I confess a late 
Fmek (Jeographer has put BfHgala into his 
Catalogue of imaginary Cities. . ."—thing- 

BENOAL, s. This waa also the 
designation of a kiud of piece-goods 
exported from that country to England, 
in the 17th century. But long before, 
among the Moora of Spain, a fine 
muslin seems to have 1ieen known as al- 
iangala, surviving in Spanish albmgala. 
(See Z>(wy tmd Eng. a. v.) [AVhat were 
called "Bengal Stripes were striped 
ginghams brought first from Bengal 
ana drat made in Great Britain at 
Paisley. {l)rawr'» Did. s. v.). So a 
{■artiuLilar kino of silk was known as 
" Benijal wound," Ijecaiiae it was " rolled 
ill the rude and artleas uianner imme- 
morially practised bv the natives of 
that country." (Afittura, in Wait, 
Ecen. IHct. vi. pt. 3, 185.) See 
Ar.£.2>. for examples of the, use of the 
word OS late as Lord Mauaulay.] 

I69«.-"TiB grantud that Bangali and 
Btain'd Calliixiei^ and other Eatt India 
Goods, do hinder tho Consumiition of Nor- 
wich ftnff "—J>ai-rHKiHi, An Etvii o« 

Ikr KuM Imlia Tnut.', 31. 

BEHaAI.A,H. This is or »-as also 
applJeil in Portuguese to a sort of tane 
earri<-<i in tlie anny by sergeants, &c. 

BEN0ALEE, u.p. A native of 
Bengal [Bftboo]. In the following 

15G2.— •• In the defence of the bridge iM 
three of the King's captains and Tnaa 
Bandom, to whose charge it was ooaunitted, 
a Btngaii (Bengala) by nation, ood a laaa 
sagacious and crafty in itiatagema rstlMT 
than a soldier (cavalheiro)." — Barm, IL, 

[161 0.—" Banga— lya." See quotolxa 
from Teiieira imdlrBANKSHALL.] 

A note to the iSriV Mitaiilurim qnatn 
a Hindustani proverb : tfl'^t*'* joM^tti, 
Kaihwirl tfpiri, i.e. 'The Bengalee is erer 
an entangler, the Cashmeeree witlMNit 

[In modem Anglo-Indian parlance 
the title is often applied in province* 
other than Bengal to officers from K. 
India. The following from Hadraa is 
a curious early instance of the same un 
of the word : — 

BENiaHTED, THE, adj. An epi- 
thet applied by the denizens of ue 
other Presidencies, in facetious dis- 
paragement to Madras. At HidrM 
itself "all Camatic fashion" i« an 
habitual expression anioiu; older 
English -speaking nalivea, which ap- 
pears to convey a smiUr ttm. 
(Bee KADBA8, HtTLL.) 

1860.—". . . to ya Londs of St Tboal 
It ys ane darke Londe, It thar dwaUen J« 
Cimmerians whereof speketh J^OOUnM 
PoeU in hys Obgaatta k to thn Dm tM 


— f rajmn.(« of Hit J. Ma H>,drHlf,fivma MS. 


kind of incenae, derived from the r««in 
of the Styrax benzoin, Dryander, in 
Sumatra, and from an undetermiMd 
species in Siam. It got from the 
Ai-ali traders the name lubda-JaKt, w. 
'Java Frankincense,' corrupted in tht 
Middle Ages into such fomis as we give> 
The first Bvllable of the Ambic tem 
was doulitlesH taken as an article— 
to btmjiai, whence hettgioi, betuom, ani 
BO forth. This etymolMy is girsn 
correctly by Ue Orta, and ^ Valentijn, 
and suggested by Barbooa in the q '~ 
tion below, Spanish forms are i 
mtnjui; Modem Port, brijoim, bi ' 
Ital. btlzuino, &c. The tenu 
Jdwi were api>lied by the Anba lo tk 
Malay countries generally f ' "~ 

y VAicnujn, 
il theqwila* 

I are imf'i 
H»t ti ii «Mi; 

3 remark that the use 
of the term Barfnen is by no means 
ixintined to French writers, aa a elauce 

,. le disease pre vailH endeniically 

m Ceyloii, and in PeniiiHular India in 
the coast-tracts, and up to 40 or 60 ni. 
inUnd ; also in Burma and the Malay 
region, invhidinc all tlie iHlanda, at 
least BO far as New Quinea, and also 
Japan, where it is Icnown as kalM: 
[see Ckamberlaai, Things Jnpanae, 3rd 
ed. p. 838 itgq.\ It is ven- prevalent 
in certain Madras Jails. The name has 
Wome soniewliat old-fashioned, hut it 
has recurred of lat« years, especially 
in hoB]iitaI reportH from Madras and 
fiuniia. It is frainently ejjideinic, 
kiid some of the Dutch physicians re- 
tard it as infections. Bee a [>ainj>hlet, 
Bari-Beri door J. A. Lodemjkt, ond- 
tSicUr mm Gaondheil bij htt Ned. In- 
<&<*« Lmer, Harderwijk, 1882. In 
this pamphlet it is stated that in 1879 
the total numlier of beri-btri patienla 
in the military hosjiitals of Nether- 
lands-India, aniounted to 9873, and 
the deaths among these to 1682. In 
the great military liospitais at Adiin 
tliere died of ben-beri lietween 1st 
November 1879, and 1st April 1880, 

kliourers.' These statistics show the 
extraordinary iirci-alence and fatality 
of the disHisc in the Archijielago. 
Dtitcli literature on the suhjeei is cun- 

Sir Qciirge Bird^'ood tells ns ihat 
during llie Persian Expedition of 1867 
he witnc»«jd beri-lirri of extraordinary 
virulence, enpecially among the Ea.<it 
African stokers on Iward the steauiers. 
The HutTerers lieuame droiraicallv dis- 
tended to a vast extent, and died in a 
few hours. 

In the sei'fmd iinotalion wuruy isevi- 
dcntly meant. Tliisseems Hindi allied 
liy ciiiiiea U) b<riheri lliough different 


being ill witb the malady of the b 

in order to get himMlf traatad." — (MiaJb 
di Smdla, f. 5S. 

1631.—". . . Cotutat frequenti ilknn 
luii, pr&ewrtim Itquorie tajpntr dicti, ooa 
nlum diairhaaw . . , Bed at panijti» 
Boibail dictam hinc tutam ooa.''— Jer. 
Boit-i, Dial. iv. See alao lib. ii. e^i. nL, 
and Lib. iii. p. 40. 

1S59.— '■There u al» anothor aidnwa 
which prevnilfl in Banda and Ceylon, and 
it called Barbell; i* ^ - -' — ■"- 

"The Indian and 
■raw from the green f 

indof paral^ 

The Portugune in the Meal 
suffer from another eioknem whtdi th* 
aatiTSK mil UaihM."—Ribcirv, t. 5t>. 

1720.— "Bareben (tenno da India). 
Huma Panil^in bastarde, ou entorpece- 


inUy dextc 


ilaint, aa tar a* I haic 
tbo iiUnd (Ceyhn), th* 

II in a lew A^^—U. 


uitled ti 

, the 

ellv . 

I legs « 

ch. -ii.] 

c. 1610.- "C'e nu fut ttw tmit, car ieua 
■ncor Dciite foaidiouiw makdic de l-imdi yue 
lea Portuaaiii appollont aatremont bamr 
ct los Hollnndaig •ruHmr."- Afuo/iirf, 2^^ . 

1613. — "And under the orders of the 
aaid (tent-rel Andr^ Fiirtado de Menitofa, 
the diKovorer de|>arted to the court of Giia, 

1835.— (On the Maldivea) " . . . tb> 
crow of the Toweln during the surrey . . . 
■ulfored moxtly from two dinaMI ; tb* 
Beri-beil which attacked the Indiana adj, 
and generally proTod fatal." — Timitg <M 
Ckr!ib.phrr, in Tr, R.,. tiny. Sor., vtA. i. 

1837.— "Empyroumatic oil called aPm 
Kiarum, from the Koedn of Cifatim nHkan 
{Ma/hnisw) dcwribed in Mr. Halcolman'* 
able priie Knay on tbo HiA. and Traatmeat 
of BerltMrl ... the mon etHoadMu 
remedy in that intractable comiilailit.'— 
Roi/I' OH Hindi Jffriinw, 4H. 

1880.— "A mnbidy much dreaded by thi 
Japanone, called Ktiitf. ... It eieitee ■ 
most lingular dread. It in onnMerad to be 
the rame di*aaiw n> that whioh. nikdar tti 
name of B«rlb«ri makei nioh haroe it 
timox on crowded jnih and barracks. "—Jfijr 
/t.Wf/n/Ki'i, i. 288. 

1882— "Baibi, a diaeaaa which oonrf* 
in great Hwelling of the abdotnan."— W*- 
m'Ktrill, V,MyAuJar, •. T. 

1&8.''>.— "Dr. Wallace Taylor, of OHka, 
JapHti. reiiorta important dutoorarNa te- 
upooting the origin of the diaoaae kno«tt 
nu b«ri-bai. He hna traced it to a nfoo- 
iKii)>ic spore Inrfcely developed in rise. He bH 
finally detected the name organinn in lb* 
earth of certain altuvinl and damp localilisa* 
—St. Jama't Uaitlli, Aug. »Ui. 

AUo aee Keport on Priana Adain. fa ft. 
Burma, for 1878, p. 36. 

very ancient iinportatitn 

VeflU it tuving litvn mippoaed that 

•»t. «hrn.c [MaUv haidHri am) 
1^ I'. I^Uuvr, au'l llrvck (JiipvUn. 
■Ml iKilut^ tiut tlic [inilialile 
[Uy ./ llir !•■', bwl wcnls l.y the 
■f>.NtK>D ul / and r. Another tntnD- 
^m ai-^irAnv lu hav>^ given Ptiilfiiiv 
'U»Mt.a Vf <f<'r the Wi-su-rii 
>h r- 1 -r^w Tiling ]in)Uhly the 
.- ynuliryri iiiiiiinlAin.-<. Id 
[wl iivii. 13. th« Kt;|it. has 
Oum, wh>-rF ihr Hebrew now \m» 
iJt, (aiK4)»T wiitil with t>rulKil>ly 
msf iiH-auiiig Iwing iKJuim (fDX 
•wr Ki-lt!fWHV in Eneyrt. Uibl. 
Btryl.l«.r Mnx MhIIw 
tnainl ..f rhu iHjnKil.le relation 
>»a Totrfiirwii aiiil ruiilta, 'a i'«t,' 
in "itinH'Iinu «ilh thin nWrves 
"■^ •h'lul'l. at all fvvnts, have 
.' tlir ■i.'^fiil InMin tliat the 
'rr .■( ati i'lt-nti* is niiinrtinies 
r ^tuui w« nipt»*-" — (/wrfi'i. lUiat 
M r-K* w 7^ ... S«7). This » a 1 
e vhi- h iiuuiv- artirlM in '.nr 
dniliiig witli I 


AV \- 


..It. and til.- P. Ml>i,i 
1^1 wldltionat illiisir 

r>-iiiark ijiiutFt). 
"BaiTb . . . fnmi I 


and ^ntlafolks uxl the King hftTg thajw 
leaTM jniared witb ouupbur and other 
unmattc ipicea, and duo miit with quick- 
limo. . . ."-Marco Foio. ii. 358. Ses ftl« 
,4«iimi.-jli, in /«(« IK JC V. t'o.(., p. 32. 

1496.— Id Vuno da Oama'a Arfevv, p. SO, 
ths irurd lued ii alombir, i.t. ai-ta»Mi 
(Arab.) from ths Ski. tainbala. See al« 
.loxu, p. 139. lUw TEKBOOL.] 

IMO.— "Thill beUl n»mbleK the laaTea 
of the Bour orangH, and thoy are coiwlantly 
eating it." — Vaiiktma, p. 144. 

1618.-" We call thia twM IndUn leaf." • 
— SaHuw, 73. 

[1521.- 'B«ttn|orT«tt«l*)." Seeundor 

1&&2.— ". . . . at une ride of the bed 
■ . . uluid a man . ■ . who held in hb 
fo\A plate with leavBH of batall*. 

tand known by the PurtugiuHe waa 
MbIhIbt. and it cornea tu my rernembraDC* 
that ia Portugal thev uiied to upook of their 
cumins ""t to iKdia, but lu t^leout .... 
inMorouch Ihnt in all the namea that oixur, 
which are not I'urliuniene. are Mulalor. like 
brtM."-f;a,v;.i, f. %. 

lS8^-Tho tnuul. of Gufoi'da hy N. L. 
hu iMttU (f. 3S). and lUw vital* (f . 44). 

I.'^IS.— A Kiiig"» letter graiitB the rsTenuo 
fniiii Iwtul (batn) tii the loHhoi' and clergy 
• i (;.H.-In A,ch. fori. Dr., fa«.>. a. p. 38. 

181.'.. -.■■Ho «nt for t!,....-Siit.. t.. gire 

•e !■ imH el 

e pU 

-■ -: /■ i/.. uj-f. ii. ma.-. 

ll<^. - "lti»>Ta <> i ^I'XW."— 

ETSL. •- Tbf leaf of \hc Piptr 
L.. ■-h--»ri) With thif drird azecft- 
wh: h i- thrn^e iiii]irc'|>^rly .ailed 
•«:. a mi*»k* a.» old &a Frver— 
-*-r [. 401. 'hu>,.im. ft."., I.V 
l..-.:i«. of In.iia an.l llir Ind.^- 

the Cmmny, hinuwH 


Blttl* and 

lime nf 

<t4.T-fheU with a Ken 

.11 of Kut 

™ll«d ,4rn<.Y,i, like HI, ALorae. 

t bitex in 

the ni.n>tl 

amu, a»ltu the head. 


iA the tee 

h. fe i« 

all their 


— *> T. It. 

. in l:-rri 

f, i. .Wi ; 

[with «.m 

FW'>'< ud. 

(lUk. s«.)i. m]. 



'•h.m HK'nta 

B«t*l. .juiim Indi ot 


.n, hitWre 

t munden. 

rant. at.n 

et ad lal> 


videtur a 

iiteni OMe 




ft,,.,-, jr>i 

«^ !■'.(..- 

'( Mmi;3, 

ed. Amat. 

KTi, p. 87. 


They !««. I 

he greater 

art of the 

day in indolen™, occ 

,He,l ..nly 

with talk, 

- , -. — ^ - 'y "hich 

Tile Word i^ I meanii their liix and teeth are always 
' rtained."- /'. rf. fi-riMM Maria. ■£&. 

1S77.— The (V>iirt ot the ¥.. I. Va. In a 
letter to R. St. tieor^. Deo. l:^ dii- 
■pi.n.vo of allowing ''\a1«nliiie Nurae 20 
l{u,«,an,.mthf..r " - " - '— 

'. Tiru-r iJd = 'Kiin|>li 
•™ i-«i. «iii r<.iiim to UK through \ 
•• r- bttr, mA i,tU. P»wn (.[.v.) 
- '-r-.. iri-.i* Krnmllv iw-d I'v 
■n Aii»ti- Indian!.. In fornn-r 
• '.i^ brtri-iitt/ wax in S. hidin i 
t^'r-t ---i * "ioD"i«)lv of the I 

rent. -2 f.ff n <,-..k, 1 

f.n- BMUe, and -i for 

HBt eitraTiigant rate, 

whioh we ahall not all 

>w him or any other." 

—.VeM aHj Jilt:, N< 

i. p. 21. 

irff.-"i prv-wnl 

■d the (Iflicer that 

• >->litl.i (•«™«of 



wutwl on me to the 8ea-8ide (at Calicut) 
«ith & laqueeng for a taut of battl* to him 
and his oompaiiioiu."--^. HamilUn, i. 30fl. 

The name of a kind of niualin con- 
stantly mentioned in old tradlug-liBtfi 
and narratives. ThiH seeing to be a 
Sp. and Port, word btatilia or beaiilha, 
for ' a veil,' derived, according to 
Cobamivias, from "certain beatat, who 
invented or iised the like." Btala ia 
a reitjfteuM. ["The BetiUaia a certain 
kind of white E. 1. chintz made at 
Masulipataiii, and known under the 
name of Organdi." — Mad. Admm. Man. 
OUti. p. 233.] 

[156e.-A wore Byatmiai, which oere 
irurth 200 purdaoa."— C'orrai, iii. 476.] 

" Vcstida himuk comijK preciosa 

Tniida da dolgodB beatilha, 

Qae o corpo cryHtallino deiu Tor-se ; 

Quo tanto bem nan be para eaconder.H. " 
Cam/la, TJ. 21. 

UiW.—". . . this linnen ia of diTore 
sorts, and ie call«d tiersiDpura*, Csnaa, 
ComAAJ", Boattllliaa, Satoposvu, nod a 
thounuui such namea," — iimrAofni, 28 ; 
(Hftk. Soc. i. B5 ; and of. i. 5U]. 

1685.--To»iir.flniB, 3 piomi betMlaea." 

—In Whffla; i. 149. 

ITiT.— " Boforo AurvHgzti conquored 
Visiapvrr, IhiH country (Sundab) pniduced 
the tineiit BattMlaa or Huilins in lodia." 
—A. UaxiltoK, i. 264. 

[!788.-"Thore nre variouB kinds of 
muKlins liruught from the Ea>it IndioR, 
chiefly frum Bengal : Batellaa, Ac."— 
fhaal^s- Cy/., .juutai in 3 ear. SaUi A Q. 

BEWAUBIS, adj. P.-H. fc-wtfm, 
'witliont lieir.' Unclaimed, without 

BETPOOB, n.p. Properly Veppir, 
or Bijrpiir, [denvt'd from Malayal, 
veppu, 'di'poHit,' ur, 'villagt,' a place 
fiirnwd ljy thu receding of the aea, 
which has been turned into the Skt 
form Vtlywpvra, ' the town of th( 
Wind-go<l'], The terminal U)«-n ol 
the MatlruH Railway on the Alalabai 
coast. It stands north of the river 
whilst tlie railway station is on th( 
S. of the river— (see CHALIA). Tippoc 
^hib tried to niaku a great port ol 
Beypoor, and to call it Siillanpatnani 

[II ia one of the manv placeit whicl 
lave l>een siiggesled aa the site of Ojihii 


htre was a fort which the Dntch bad 
nade witb palms " (ed. BaU, i. S3&).] 

' CtuunaTfEoSamoHmmaiaaMitanoTB; 

Vii«o Rail da Bipnz, a da Taoor. . ." 


1727.—" About two Leuoaa to tha Booth- 
■ard of OileeiU, ii a floa Rivar callwl Bn- 
ure, capable to raceiva shipa of S or 100 
roDi."— .<1. HamiUon, i. 822. 

BEZOAB, s. This word bekn;^ 
not to the A.-Indian colloquial, bnt to 
Lhe language of old oriental trade and 
materia midica. The word is a cor- 
ruption of the P. name of the thinA 
pddzoAr, 'pellens venenum,' or pimla. 
The first form ia given by Meninski u 
the etymology of the word, and thw it 
accepted by Littrf [and the NSM-i 
The quotations of Littre from AmlmR 
Pari show that the word waa lued 
generically for 'an antidote,' and ia 
Uiis sense it is used habitually by Avi. 
cenna. No doubt the term came to na 
with so many others, from Arab medical 
writers, so much studied in the Hiddla 
Ages, and this accounts for the 1^ u 
Arabic has no p, and writea idMbr. 
But its usual application was, and i% 
limited to certain hard concntunt 
found in the bodies of animals, to vbidl 
antidotal virtues were ascribed, ni 
especially to one obtained from tbt 
stomach of a wild goat in the Pn^id 
province of Lar. Of this animal aad 
the btsoar an account is given in 
KaempfeHs Amoenitattt Exetictti ^f- 
398 teqq. The Baoar was someliinH 
called SlUike-Stoiie, and entmeoadf 
supposed to be found in the head oE 
a snake. It may have been called » 
really because, as Ilm Baithar ■i>f) 
such a atone was laid upon the btta <■ 
a venomous creature (and was faeliend^ 
to extract the poison. Moodeen Sberil^ 
in his Suppt. to the Indian Phama- 
cojiceia, says there are ^-arioua (mmt* 
in use (in native mat. fiitd.), ditfia* 

fiiiahed according to the animal jn- 
ucing them, as a goat-, camel-, SAt 
and snake -JMSHMir ; the last qnite ditfiact 
from SiULks-Stone (q.v.). 

[A false BeMwr atone gave occaaoB 
tor the estebliahment of one of lb( 
great distinctions in our Common I^ 
viz. between actions founded upon «<■■ 
tract, and those founded upon WTOip> 
ChandeloT v. Lojput waa decided ik mH 
(reported in S. OobL and in MK 
Leading Que*). The haad-BDta nw j 


ut Bold to the plaintiff a 
te ktDnned to be a Bezocti 
ieh proved not to be sa 
■ ^kinat hiiii, unleas he 
LU it was not a BewaT 
«nt«d it to be a BezosT 
iA by Qrm, Pyrard dt 
k>c ik 484).] 
M wTitaa pajar. 
IT thii citf (LAra) in a Hmall 
brad mtav onimBli of the 



m, ch. i 

abed* (I. ch. 46) calls the 
b—Mr comea hT^jeiWf/, which 
ladiaii word.) 

Killata Tiderim, 

in caUrit, jxtr fjxrilencr, 

Uictlj 'remedy <>f pouon or 
Btlw, which ■;• th« general 
■on, and jiA, ' remedy ' ; and 

r /, aixi H> tbey «y, irutcad 
imAst, and we with a little 
iptinn Banr."— /'. T'l^nni, 


Bn.t R 

-I oveo- kind I 

.W.'nA.. rf* /ir-rfm. lOr. 

• «laimi> the elyniulaey ju«t 

I'ernan* then cull thtii xtODe !~^ 
■ i-umpoiinil dl I'a anil &i- ^] 

I uiini.ll (Hofi-deer of 
"irt of L-hevTDtain or 

r. called 

BHAT, s. H. &c. Mdt (Skt Ma«a. 
a title of respect, probably connected 
with hhartri, ' a supporter or master % 
a man of a tribe of mixed descent, 
whose members are profeased genealo- 
^ts and poets ; a bard. These men 
in Rajputana and Ouzerat had also 
extraordinary privileges as the guar- 
antors of travellers, whom they accom- 
panied, against attack and robbery. See 
an account of tbem in Ftnbett Bdt 
Mdld, I. ix. &c., reprint 668 leqq.,- [for 
Bengal, Ri4le!i, Tnbet dh Cadet, I 101 
»eqq.; tor the N.W.P., Orooke, Tribu <t- 
Caita, ii. 20 ttqq. 

[1654. — "Bata." we quotation under 

c. 1555.—" Among the infidel B&oybiii in 
this country (Giuerat) there is s olass of 
lUrmti known as Btt*. These undertake 
to be guides to traders and other traTeUers 

the road by /taiUiili, i.t. Indian horeemen, 
coming to pillage them, the JSOI takes out 
his dagger, points it ftt his own breast, and 
sayH : ' 1 have become surety 1 If augbt 
befalx the caravan I must kill myself ! ' On 
these words the RishbiltB let the caravan 
pen uchflnned." — Sidi 'Ali, 95. 

[1023.— "Those who perform the office of 
Priests, whom they call Boti."— /*. delta 
Vallf. Hak. Soc. i. 80.] 

1775.— "The Hind'v rajahs and Mahretta 
chieftainx have generally a Bhant in the 
family, who attends them on public ooca- 
nions . . . BoundH their praise, and pro. 
claims their titles in hyperbolical and n|pl' 
rativo language . . . many of them have 
another mode of living ; they olTer them- 
selves as security lo the different govem- 
menlH fur payment uf their revoDUe, and 
the good behaviour of the Zemindar*, 
patels, and public fannera ; they also be- 
oomo guanint«es fur treaties between native 
princes, and the uerfomianco of bonds by 
mdividual™. "—/■«*■>, Or. M-m. ii. 89 ; [and 
ed. i. 377 : alB see ii. -258]. See TRAGI- 

1S10.— "India, like the nations of Europe, 
had ilKminstreUand poets, ooticoming whom 

Siva and Parvntty, the immortals 
hnustwl all the amusements then 
<ished for something new, when 
Hivs, wiping the drope of sweat from his 
brow, shook them to earth, upon which tha 
Bavta, or Bards, immediately sprang np." 
—Maria llnAam. leu. 

\»».--K 'Bbat' urEterdcametoadia 
gratuity, "-//-/.r. mi. 1W4, ii. 53. 

.. nee inhabitins the hills 

and forests of thu Vindhya, ^dwa, and 




of the N.- Western Deccan^ and believed 
to liave been the al)origines of Rajpu- 
taiia ; some have supposed them to be 
the *uXXtroi of Ptolemy. They are 
closely allied to the Coolies ((i. V.) of 
Quzerat, and are believed to belong to 
the Kolarian division of Indian al)ori- 
gines. But no distinct Bhil language 

1785.— "A most infernal yell suddenly 
itwued from the deep ravines. Our guides 
informed us that this was the noise always 
made by the Bheeli previous to an attack." 
—Forheg, Or. Mem, iii. 480. 

1825.— ^ All the Bheels whom we saw to- 
day were small, slender men, less broad- 
Khouldered . . . and with faces less Celtic 
than the Puharees of the Rajmahal. . . . 
Two of them had rude swords and shields, 
the remainder had all bows and arrows. " — 
Jlelter^ ed. 1844, ii. 75. 

ly s. A word used in Bengal 

— hhil : a marsh or lagoon ; same as 

{eel (q. V.) 

[1860. — "The natives distinguish a lake so 
formed by a change in a river s course 
from one of usual origin or shape b^ calling 
the former a Ihact — w^lst the latter is termed 
a Bheel."— C/mn/, Rural Lift in Bengali 35.] 

1879. — "Below Shouy-doung there used 
to be a big bheel, wherein 1 have shot a 
few duck, teal, and snij^e." — Pollok, Sport 
in B, BtirnuUif i. 26. 

BHEESTY, s. Tlie universal word 
in the Anglo-Indian households of 
N. India l()r the domestic ^torre- 
sponding to the sakkd of Eg}'pt) who 
supj)lies the family with water, carry- 
ing it in a muBSUck, (O-v-X ^i" goatskin, 
slung on his iMick. The word is P. 
hihisJiti, a |)erson of hihisht or ])aradiBe, 
though the application apjHiars to be 
j)eculiar to Hindustan. We have not 
l)een able to trace the historv of this 
t*?rm, which does not aj»parently occur 
in the Ain, even in the curious account 
of the way in which water was cooled 
and supplied in the Court of Akl>ar 
(]ilochmann^ tr. i. 55 Mqq.\ or in the 
old travellers, and is not given in 
MeniiLski's lexicon. Vullers gives it 
<mly as from Shakes]>e-ar'8 Hindustani 
Dirt. [The trade must Im* of ancient 
origin in India, as the leather l>ag 
is mentioned in the Veda and Manu 
(IFiUoTiy Big Veda, ii. 28; Imtitutes, 
ii. 79.) Hence Col. Temple (Ind. Ant., 
xi. 117) suggests that the word is 
Indian, and connects it with the 
Skt. rtVi, *to sprinkle.*] It is one 
of the line titles which Indian servants 

rejoice to bestow on one another, like 
Mehtar, Khalifa, &c The title in this 
case has some justification. No claas 
of men (as all Anglo-Indians will 
agree) is so diligent, so faithful, so 
unobtrusive, ana uncomplaining as 
that of the bOtiMU, And often in 
battle they have shown their coonge 
and fidebty in supplying water to 
the wounded in face of much ])eraoiial 

[c. 1660. — "Even the menials and canien 
of water belonging to that nation (the 
Path&ns) are high-spirited and war-Uke.'* 
— Bemier, ed. CongUuAe, 207.1 

1773.— **BhMSt6e, Waterman" (etc>- 
FergussoH, IMd, of the Hindogtan Lamgwage, 

1781. — "I have the happiness to infom 
you of the fall of Bijah Qorh on the M 
mst. with the loss of only 1 8e{K>y, 1 bttf^i 
and a cossy (? CkMsid) killed . . ."— Letur 
in India OazetU of Nov. 24th. 

1782.— (Table of Wages in CalcutU), 

Ck>n8ummah . .10 Rs. 

Kistmutdar . . . 6 „ 
Beaity . 5 „ 

India Gazette, Oct. 12. 

Five Rupees continued to be the standaid 
wage of a hikis/Ui for full 80 years after tbt 
date given. 

1810.—". . . If he carries the watff 
himself in the skin of a goat, prepared kr 
that purpose, he then receives the dedgw* 
tion of Bheeily."- Williamaon, WSTUOk 

1829.— " Dressing in a hurry, find tiM 
drunken bhaetty . . . has mistaken your 
boot for the goglet in which you otny 
your water on the line of march." — Cmf 
Miseriex, in John Hhippj ii. 149. N.B.— ^ 
never knew a drunken bheeMy, 

1878. — "Here comes a seal carryii^ a 
porpoise on its back. No ! it is only oar 
friend the bheesty." — In mtf Indian uiarioi, 


" Of all them black-faced crew, 
The fiuMt man I knew 
Was our regimental bhisti, Ganga Din.** 
Ii. Kipling^ Barrack-nHfM, Batlodt, 

p. 211 

BHIKTT, s. The iLsual CalcutU 
nam e for the fish Late* catoarifer. See 

[BHOOSA, s. H. Mahr. 2^M,&fciiia; 
the husks and straw of various kindi 
of com, 1>eaten up into chafT by ibe 
feet of the oxen on the threiihiitg- 
tl(X)r ; used as the common food w 
cattle all over India. 

[1829.— "Every commune ii 
with a ciroumvallation of thorns ... Mi 
the stacks of bhoot, or *chaff/ wkkh m 





xitcrTmla» ^ve it the iMipearanoe 
ctable foitifloation. Theflo bhoot 
Bractad to pfovido provender for 
in «ouity ndny aeaaoiu."— 7W, 
Icntta nB|)rintt i. 787.] 

IT, A. H. &r^ hKAt, hhata, Skt. 
^mufd, exiHtent,' tht> common 
th«* niultitudinoits ghostn and 
of varioiLs kinds iiy whom 
Un peasant is so constantly 

** All coofeming that it wm Buto, 
)eTil.-— /\ tU/ta IW/^ Hak. Soc. 

" The j^ftov!* started up, and cried 
h.h*mJk, arry arrtf/ Thin cry of 'a 
4rbed the ear;* uf the officer, who 
m Are into the tree, and that would 
down, if there." — Pandtirting Hariy 
i. 107.] 

FH8UL, n.p. Fro]»er1v liKas- 
ionslah^ the sumiitne of Si\*aji, 
idtT «»f tlif Mahratta empire. 
.iIhii the stiniaiiie of Parsoji 
frhiiji. the founders of the 
t <lyriaf«ty of Berar, though 
he Mme family as Sivaji. 

■•.Srva (;i, derive<l from an An- 
4* li Raiahis <>f the CaKt of the 
«. a Wariiko and Active Off- 
-frif^r, 171. 

— '* At thij« time two pargaHO*^ 
iSna and Sd|«, liocame the /(lyir of 
Sivajf became the manager. 

BIOHANA, s. Bedding of any 
kind. H. bichhdnd. 

1689.— "The Heat of the Day is spent in 
Rest and Sleeping . . . sometimes upon 
Cotts, and sometimes upon B6C>haiH»hi, 
which are thick Quilts." — OcingUniy 813. 

BIDBEE, BIDBY, s. H. Bidrt; 
the name applied to a kind of orna- 
mental metal-workf made in the 
Deccan, and deriving its name from 
the city of Bidar (or BedarX which 
was the chief place of manufacture. 
The work was, amongst natives, chiefly 
applied to hooka-i>ells, rose-water 
l)ottle8 and the like. The tenu has 
acquired vogue in England of late 
amongst amateurs of **art manu- 
facture." The ground of the work 
is pewter al loved ynili one-fourth 
copper : this is mlaid (or damascened) 
witn |>attemfl in silver ; and then the 
pewter ^mnd is hlackened. A sliort 
description of the manufacture is given 
by Dr. G. Smith in the Madras Lit, 
Soc. Joum., N.S. i. 81-84 ; P)y Sir 
(f. Birdwood, Imhist, ArtSy 163 Mqq,; 
Joum. Ind. Art, i. 41 ^9.] The ware 
was first descrl)ed by B. Heyne in 1813. 

BILABXJND7, s. H. hilabandh 
An account of the revenue settlement 
of a dLstrict, specifying the name of 

_^^ each mahal (estate^ the farmer of it, 

WA- difitinguii^hed in Wh trilio^for and the amount of the rent {WilMm). 
ad intelligence ; and for craft and | In the N.W.P. it usually means an 
**** !^^'*"^ .*>****T. **"_!*' ***® arrangement for securinff the payment 

of revenue (Elliot). C r. Brown say.s 
quoting Raikes (p. 109X that the word 
is hila-handly * hole-stopping,* viz. stoj)- 
piug those vents thn)ugh which the 
coin of the pn>prietor might ooze 
out. This, however, looks verv like 
a * striving after meaning/ and ^Vilson'>« 
▲CHABBA^s. U.hfuuf.!rhfnf. ;"p*>'tioii that it is a corruption of 
i rm.i appli.^1 to settlements ^hn-fxindi, from behn, »a share, ^i 
Jh rh^ viluge a. a community, , 4"<^ta, ls proUbly right, 
r.ii • l.iiiii*i and liabilitie.^ lieiiig i [18f»8.— "Thi?* transfer of rcMponsibility, 

ATUr^ A'A4ii, in A7/«V./, vii. 257. 

'• It w,\» at fir<t a inrticnlar tribe 
hy the family <»f BhOMeUh, 
t> -into \tKti the M>vereignty." — 
i','^! tM, iii. 214. 

. ■ . le Boniolo, lei MamtcM, 

[Till- banlly explains tlu 
if li.t-t .'!.< found in tiie N.W.P., 
mo'iM lie dittiirult to <lo 

so ■ 

mil* b dftail. In its iierhaps 
riini"n funii ea«*h man's nobling 
ii«^*urv of h\r interest in the 
i f Tf»fie i 'tive of the share to 
J* niay be entitled by ancestral 

linking together. l*he udjustmont thus made 
i* called the blUbundee."— >V/r»««»«, JoMm^if 
tkruMijh <PMdhy i. 208. J 

BILATUT, BHiLAIT, &c. n.p. 
EunijH?. The won I is ]>roi)erly Ar. 
IViUfytUy *a kingdom, a province,' 
\*ariously iLsed witii siH»cific denotation, 
as the Afghans term their own countf}' 




often by this name ; and in India 
acain it has come to l>e employed for 
distant Europe. In Sicily II Regno 
is used for the interior o^ the island, 
;is we use Mofiissil in India. Wildyat 
is the usual fonn in Boml)ay. 

TEE PANEE. Tlie adject, bildyati 
-or wiUlyatl is api)lied specifically to a 
variety of exotic articles, e.g. bildyati 
haingan (see BBINJATJLX ^p tlie tomato, 
and most esj)ecially bildyati pdnly 
*Euroi>t»an water,* the usual name for 
soda-water in Anglo-India. 

1885.—'* • But look at us Engliah,' I urged, 
'wo arc onlerod thou»and8 of miles away 
fn)in homo, and wo j?o without a murmur.' 
' Itis true, KhudawHh/f/ t^id Gunga Pursad, 
' but vou Mi/fl^ji drink English-water (soda- 
wator), and the strenpth of it enables you 
to l)car up under all fatiguoa and sorrows.' 
His idea (adds Mr. Knighton) was that the 
effervescing force of the soda-water, and 
the strength of it which drove out the cork 
so violently, gave strength to the drinker of 
it."— Tim^i of Jutiia Mail, Aug. 11, 1885. 

BILDAB, s. H. from P. beldar^ *a 
s])ade-wielder,' an excavator or digmng 
lalnnirer. Term usual in the Piujlic 
AVorks DcjMirtmcnt of UpiMsr India 
f(»r men employed in that way. 

" Ye Lyme is alio oute I Ye Masouns 

lounge alx)utc ! 
Ye Beldan have alio stnickc, and are 

smoaking atte their Eese I 
Ye Brickcs are alio done ! \'e Kyne are 

Skynne and Hone, 
And ye Thrwisurour has bolted ^ith xii 

thousand Ku|>eer«o I " 

}V //#>/«# tf an Ex^utiet Eiigineerr. 

name (lUduch or llilnch) ap])lied to the 
race inhabiting tlic regions west of the 
Lower Indus, and S.E. of Persia, called 
from tliem BiluchiaUJn ; they were 
dominant in Sind till the English 
cr)n<iuest in 1843. [Prof. Max Miiller 
(Ltdurat^ i. 97, note) identified the 
name with Skt. vdrchchi^ used in the 
s«*nse of the (Jieek fidp^apot for a 
despised foreigner.] 

A.n. tm.— "In the vear 3*2 11. 'Alxlulla 
bin "A 'mar bin R^ibi' invaded Kimnin and J 
i<^»k the capital Kuwic^hfr, w that the aid of ■ 
' the men of Kdj and Bal^ ' was solicited in | 
vain by the KirinitniH." — In EHI*tt^ i. 417. 

c. rJUO.— "He gave with him from Kanda- 
har and I*'ir. mighty Balochif, ser\ants. . . 
with unities nf many castes, horses, elephants, 
men. carriages, charioteers, and chanots." — 

The. Poem, of Vhand BardAL in Ind. AuLl 

c. 1211.— "In the detwrt of Khabu then 
was a body ... of Buluehis who robbed oo 
the highway. . . . Hiese people came oat 
and carried off all the preMnta and nuitia 
in his possession."— '6W, in Elliot, ii. 191 

1656.— "We proceeded to Gwfidir. a tnd. 
ing town. The people here are called 
ButU ; their prince was Malik Jalalnddln, 
son of Malik Dinar."— AV/.' 'Ah\ p. 73. 

[c. 1.^90. — "This tract is iiihalnted by an 
important Baloch trilx) called Kalmam."— 
A hi, trans. Jarrrt, ii. 337.] 

1613.— The BoloehM arc of Mahomet'i 
Relijpon. They dcale much in Camelii 
most of them robbers. . . ." — ^V. WkUtin^ 
toH, in Punhatt, i. 485. 

1648. — " Among the Machumatists next to 
the Pattans are the Blotias of greet 
strength" f? irtVa^I].- loa TtcUt, 58. 

1727. — "They were lodged in a ConifV** 
teray, when the BalloindlM came vitb 
about 300 to attack them ; but they had 
a brave warm Reception, and left four 
hkxire of their Number dead on the Spot, 
without the loss of one DttOh Man."— J. 
Hamilton J i. 107. 

ISU.—Milburu calls them BloadiM (Or. 
Com. i. 145). 

1844. — " Officers must not shoot Peacocks: 
if they do the BeloochM will shoot officcn 
— at least so they have threatened, and 
M.-G. Napier has not the slightest doobt 
but that they will keep their word. There 
are no wild peaciwka in iScinde, — they are 
all private proiwrty and sacred liirds, and 
no man has any right whatever to shook 
them." — (ifN. Ortbrs by Sir C. yapirr. 

BINKY-NABOB, s. TliLs tide 
occni"s in d<x-innent« rcganling Hvder 
and TipjK»o, r.g. in Gen. Stewart's desjK 
of 8th March 1799: '* Mohammed 
Hezz^L, the Binky NalK»li.'' * [Abo sec 
Wilhi^ Mysnor^ Madnis ivi»rint, ii. 346L] 
It is projierly iMnkJ-nainfo^ fi-oni Canuv 
ese briikl^ *lire,' and niean.s the Com- 
mandant of the Ailillerv. 

BIBD OF PABADI8E. Tlie name 
^iven to various iHNiiitiful hinb of the 
taniily Paradifeidae^ of which niaoT 
species are now known, inlmhiting N. 
Guinea and the smaller i.slands adjoin- 
ing it. I'he largest H])ecies was called 
by Linna.*us Pnradisaea apotia^ in alln- 
sion to the fahlc that these birds had 
no feet (the dried skins Uroiight for 
sale to the Moluccas haxiiig iLstuUj 
none attached to them). The name 
Mannvwle which Buffun adopted for 
these birds occurs in the fonn Afaii«- 
coduita in some of the following quoli- 
t ion s. 1 1 i s a corruption of the Ja^vMie 




*the Bird of the 
iich our popular term renders 
icient accuracy. [The Siamese 
*bird,' accoroiiig to Mr. Skeat, 
irhaps from manok.'] 

— **In majori Jets aria praecipaa 
mom Mdibua, instar palumm, pluma 
la obloQga, semper in arboribuB 
: earo noa editor, pellu et cauda 
prvtioMoree, qoibiis pro omamento 
iBtnr.** — N. CotUij in Poggiui de 
Fortmmopj lib. it. 

"The King* of the iMid (Moluocos) 
f a few years ago to believe in the 
ty of MMiia, taught by no other argu- 
1 thiKf that they had seen a moctt 

little bird, which never alighted 
ooDd or oo any other terrestrial 
t which they had sometimes seen 
xmx the ftky, that is to say, when 
d and fell to the g^^und. And the 
an traders who traffic in thoHO 
(ured them that this little bird was 
if ParadlM, and that Pantdi*^ was 

where the souls of the dead are ; 
his account the princes attached 
s U * the sect of the Machometans, 

prtimuied them many marvellous 
pLrding this place of souls. This 

they called by the name of Afanu- 
. ." — Letter of Marimilian of 
■ MU Sec. to the Emp. Cliarles V., 
A, i. f. ^Slr ; see also f. 352. 

— **Ho aJi«> (the K. of Bachian) 
hw the King of Spain two most 
dead l*irds. TheM) birds are as 
thmshes ; they have small heads, 
uk, teff* slender like a writing pen, 
n in length ; they have no wings, 
kd iif them long feathers of different 
ike flumes ; their tail is like that of 
h. All the feathers, except those 
agrv ( '). are of a dark colour ; they 
cacept when the wind blows. They 
Lat these blxdl rirm^ /rum tkr tnr**- 
mdisa, and they call them ^Mun 
hmrmmg-de^tUt^ same as Javanese 
ntnMn, #«/«nf] that is, dirine birds." 
aa, Bak. Soc. 143. 

**. . .in these Hands (Moluccas) 
4jod the liird, which the Portingales 
Mirvat d^ SJ, that is Foule of the 
t« Italians call it Mnmu entiiti/tu, and 
jL^ta i'aradi$mM, by us called Para- 
Im^ fi it ve beauty of their feathers 
mm al other birds: these binis are 
ae alive, but being dead they are 
^xx the Hand ; thev flie, as it is mid, 
itf> the 8unne. and keei>e themselucs 
:y ta the ayre . . . Utr they haue 
•«t nor wings, Init onely hea<l and 
vl the mrwt part tavle. . . ." — 
«. 36; (Hak. Scjc.i. fl8]. 

I paloe mares do Oriente 
tutaa ilbaa wfmlhadas 

• •6 

qua nio decern 


Camdtt, X. 132. 

Eng. shed by Burton : 

" Here see o'er oriental seas bespread 
infinite island-groups and alwhere 

strewed ♦ • ♦ • 
here dwell the golden fowls, whose home 

is air, 
and never earthward save in death may 

1645. — ". . . the male and female Manu- 
rodiaUu^ the male having a hollow in the 
back, in which 'tis reported the female both 
laves and hatches her eggs." — Ewltfn's Diary ^ 
4tii Feb. 

" The strangest long-wing'd hawk that flies, 
That like a Bird of Paradise, 
Or herald's martlet, has no legs . . . ." 

HudibnUy Ft. ii. cant. 3. 

1591. — " As for the story of the Manuco- 
diaia or Bird of Paradise, which in the 
former Age was generally received and ac- 
cepted for true, even by the Learned, it is 
now discovered to be a fable, and rejected 
and exploded by all men" {i.f. that it has 
no feet). — Jiaify Windom ofOtxi ManifexUdin, 
the Workt of the Gmition, ed. 1692; Ft. ii. 

1705.—'* The Birds of Paradioe are about 
the bigness of a Pidgoon. Thoy are of vary- 
\n^ C-olours, and are never found or seen 
alive ; neither is it known from whence they 
come . . . ." — Funnely in Dampier's Voyages^ 
iii. 266-7. 

1868. — "When seen in this attitude, the 
Bird of Paradise really deserves its name, 
and must be ranked as one of the most 
l>cautiful and wonderful of living things." — 
Wallacfy Jlatay Archip., 7th ed., 461. 

BIBDS* NESTS. The famous 
edible ne.stM, foriiuHl with mucus, by 
certain swift lets, Golbx-alia nidtfiray ajid 
C. litichi. Both have long Inieii known 
on the eiistern coasts of tlie I^. of Bengal, 
in the Malay Islands [and, according 
to Mr. SkeAt in the islands of the In- 
land Sea (Td^ Sap) at Singora]. The 
former is also now known to visit 
Darjeeling, the Assam Hills the 
Western Ghats, &c., an<l to breed on 
thr i>lets off Malaltiir and the C'oncan. 

BISOOBBA, s. H. hiskhoprd or 
biskhajmf. Tlie name ]M)]>nlarlv apjdied 
to a large lizard alleged, and commonly 
l>elieved, to be mortally vt-nomoits. It 
is verj' doubtfid whether there is any 
real lizard to which tliis name applies, 
and it may Uf taken jus certain that 
there is none in India with the «|nalities 
attributed. It is proltable that the 
name does carry to many the terrific 
character which the ingenious author 
of Tribe* on My Frontier alle^^es. But 
the name has nothing to do with either 


' Est aatam Uuigar 

no doubt bisli, (<l'V.) ' poison,' and the 
second is prol^ably khoprd, 'a shell or 
aknll.' [See /. L. Kipling, Bead and 
Man in India (p. 317), who rives tlie 
; as varanu$ draauna, 


and says that the name tntco&ra m 
aumetiines applied to the li/ard gener- 
ally known as the ghorpad, for which 
see aUANA.} 


ejua TJatorea vix raapirare ob 
atim qaeaat: neque h ob Tir. 
onltaram Itntemiit —*■'■**■ 
tompore, nne mKOifasto Titas ptMsolo VM 
ire pant. "—/■/■. DoralU and Ormibir, i 
Kinltrr, Chixa flliulrala, 65. It i* mnai 
to AM thaae intalligant Jemita nocgiam (I 
trae c&iue, bnt uospt tha Imncj id tka 
guida SB an additiooal oae ! 
(Il "Ia poitiB ■upjriaura da ortta on 

" d'ohalalMU pirtflMl 

that h 

But of a1! Ifae things on i 
r sting, tha palm bolongn b 



KlaproUi, Jfagatin Aiialipif, ii. 112. 

1812.—" Here bagiiu tha Elh—^hii k a 
Turlfish word mgaitying Small ... it 
odour of riiieA 



of any 

learned Society, i 

^ . , The awful 

dmdlinon of its bite odmi 
being supported by countlens authontio in- 
stances. . . Tha points on which evideooo 
is required nre — tinit, whether there is any 
such animni ; Micond, whethor, if it does 
exist, it i» n ^nnke with legs, or a liiard 
without thein."~7ViV» a« my FroHtirr, 
l>. 205. 

BISH, BIKE, &c^, n. H. from Skt 
viiha, 'poiam.' Tlie word hna several 
sjMH.'ilic applications, as (a) U> the 
jKiison of various species of aconite, 
jiarticnlarly Aroiiilum fero3\ otherwise 
niort specitirally i-allea in Skt. vatm- 
fiiU-ha-, 'ciilPs iinvel," ci>rruptcd into 
badmabk iir baehnOg, &c. But it is 
also applied (b) in the Hiiiiillaya to the 
etfect of the rarelit^ atinoNphere at 
great heighu nu the IknIv, an etrect 
which ihert! and invr Centml Awiii is 
attritiuU'd to {>nit*oiioiia enuinutions 
from the »ii1, or fnnn jitants ; a 
doLlrrine xiniewhat iiaiv*>ly accvpted liy 
Hwe in his fainoiis narrative. Tlie 
CVntral Awiiitiii (Tiirki) expre.ssion tor 
thi^isA'sA, '^nidl.' 

the hreathiiur ot hone and man, and 
especially of the former, beoDmaa affaetad.' 
—M!r lizH Ullak, in /. R. Ai.Soe.\.a». 

1S15.— "Many of the oooliaa, and avrand 
of the Menattes and Ohooritha ^apoya aad 
chuproseeg now lagged, and erer; ooa oob- 
ploined of the Ida or poisonad wind. I van 

I of the atmosphere from our gnat 
ation."— ^rcuir, yoariia' o^s Ttmr, tc^ 

\ p. 442. 

date Andnida, y 
rocDnUy Mourcroft had eiperieaceil in Vat 
region, wax cunflnned by Webb ; the BotiH 
thenuelTea felt it, and cstU it Ua U IBKW& 

l!>r4.— " Kntro Iim »inguliiri)«4 que 
msut do Klorentins mo imnutni, me fui: 
iHistcr vnQ nu-ino que les AmlieH nomment 
\lttk: liuiiielli) mu taaa. si granite chalour 

10 HcniHirit y niioir du feu. . ■ . Kile est 
ien iictite comme vn iwlit nnuona : lea 
itrw (u«/«n.f) font nommiSo tlaptllitt 
. .■—I'ifrrr Brhn, Vbin-ivtiont, dx.. 

jss Ihf flim&layn, jpoaking of the sii 
I of traTelloT* from the pouonoiu em 
ja.-*M ytiWfr, AiiTH., iii, 444. 

I'Hirfita un instant . . . on ss montnit ama 
inii^l^ un gai stilitil at l^er, qu'oa tarn- 
nuiit Tapenr paatilentlalle, et tout Is Boada 
jiamiMait nhattu ct Aiomingt . . . BiaBiM 
lea cbevaui ne retusont k portar laoa 
svatiers, ot chacun avanea a piad at k 
petits pns . . . tous lex Timge* bUmfaaao^ 
>n oent lo otiir H'afTadJT, et lea iambaa aa 
LuuTent plus functiunner . . . Una nactii 
do la troujie, par manure da pndaaM 
H'arri>ta . . . lo resto par pnideooa aurf 
^puiiia tous Ics atfiirtx |uur arriver juain'aB 
Iwut, et ns paH mourir asphyxia au mjh'aa 
do cot air charg^ d'acida carboniqiML" te... 
U„c et UahtL, ii. 211 : [B. T.. ii. lU). 

P*T»MrLTf*w, inij., lit. "In tbe 
name of (^"j a pious ejacnli" 
iisvd liy Mnhoinniedaiis at tha < 
iiienceinent of any undertaking, 
ordinary form runs — IH-'mnn 'I 
'r-ni^mOni 'r-ni^im, i.e. " In the bi 
of God, the (bmpaHaionat«, the Hi 
fid," in of Jen-iah origin, and !■ t 
at the ■ ' ■ ■ 



at tilt? time of ^ing into Itattle or 
«Uiight«*nng aniiiialH, the allusion to 
the attrilmtf <»f iiien.-v i.s <iiiutt4Hl. 

I15ar».-*-A* th«y were killed after the 
PbrtacTueHe manner without the bymiela, 
which they did n«»t nay <»ver thoni."— C'«/rrti, 
iii. 74A,] 

HUQOEB, n.j). Thesf and other 
itimiA stami fiir tlie name of the 
anrirtit city which was the ca])ital 
of tht- muKt im]M>rtant Hin<lii kingdom 
that «'xi.'44f<l in the iieninMula of nidia, 
during; the lat4T Middle Ages, ruled 
hv the Rilt/ft dvnoHtv. The place is 
unw known as Humpy (Ilam}/i\ and 
I* entirely in ruins. [The modern 
■amt* is r*imipt<Hl fr«>m Pampti^ that 
<»f the river near which it stood. 
(^•f*. Mwaorr, ii. 487. )1 It stands cai 
4he S. of the Tungahhadra K., 36 m. 
!#• th*- N.W. of Bellarv. Tlie name 
i« * ciimi|>tion of rV^iyrtM/i^/rini (City 
«f Vi^-toryX or Vidytuuujarti (('ity of 
imming), [the Utter and earlier name 
kriDg (hanged into the former (Ricr^ 
Ikd. i. 342, note).] Others Wlieve 
that the Utter name was a]>t»lie<l (mly 
aiiKr the |»U('e^ in the 13tn century, 
tweaaiif the M«t of a gn*iit revival of 
HiiidaL*«ii, under the famous Sayana 
Madhav^ wh«i wn>te commentaries on 
the VMa's an*! much liesides. Hoth the 
<ity and the kingvioni wert> commonly 
callt-d hv the earl V Portuguese Naninga 
<'»*■>, fnini Samnmlta (c 149()-lft08X 
Wh«i vas king at the time of their 
iM arrival. [Rice give> his dates as 
148b- ISOh.] 

c. liaO. — •*I*r»»fectii'* hinc cnt fintcul a 
wi milliAritMi)* trw^ntix. nd ci\*itntem 
«r*t}trm. i^fioiine BiaanagaUain, amhitu 
■tllMjrum •teiajrintii. i-tnii |>rneni|>t4W montcn 
Tat. '•»•/•, ill iU-jyii* c/*- Var. Fur- 

IMli. - " . . . tli»» chnrii*e« «if a muritime 
*'?«k*v had letl AVHl-vr-nirauk, the auth<ir 
• 4 thj* w-trk, til the city uf Bidjanagar. 
H* ■»« « \^mrt eitrvmely laive and thickly 
arri a Kinff fuM^eMin^f frrentnoMf* 
•rvcrvvnty \*\ the hiffhext dofrrce, whiwe 
esteodA fnun the frontier of 
ti* th«* e&treinity <»f the county 
*i IULt«nnUs -frnu the frrmticm iif Benfral 
tbthe vnTTTiOA \4 MalnUir."- .WidHrrtxzUik^ 
tLhdmxm XV. rrmt.r£^. 

c U70. — "The Hindu i*iiltan Kiiilum in 
a vtry pMrcffal prinoe. He iMMwoMWnt a 
aroiy, uid rutadoM tm a nMHintidn 
■ " — Athan. Nikitin^ in ImHia 

fitm Umm mountainJi 

inbmd, thoro \» a very great city, which 
is called Bijanagher. .*. ."—BctrboMtj 85. 

1611. — *'Lo Roy do Biinagar, qu'on 
aj>[)one aussi quelauefois lo Roy do Nar- 
nnffa, est puissant. — H V(/Z»W, It. des Ind^*^ 

BISON, s. The ])0])ular name, 
among Southern Anglo-Indian sports- 
men, of the great wild-ox called in 
Bengal gaur and gavidl {Gavaeus aaurus^ 
JerdJm) ; [Bos yaurusy Blanforal It 
inhahits sjiarsely all the Urge lorests 
of India, from near CaiHj Comorin to 
the foot of the Himalayas (at least 
in their EasU^ni portion), and from 
Malaltar t^) Teniisserim. 

1881. — **Once an unfortunate native 
superintendent or vuttari [Maiatry] was 
ixmnded to death by a savage and solitary 
biaon."— .*<a/y. Rrview, Sept. 10, p. 335. 

BLACAN-MATER n.P. Tliis is 
the name of an islana adjoining 
Singai)ore, which forms the l>eautifiil 
*New Harlxmr' of tliat jiort ; Malav 
hfUihinfi^ or hUtkting-mdti^ lit. 'Deacl- 
liiick island,' [of which, writes Mr. 
Sktvit, no siitisf actor}' explanation has 
l>een given. According to Dennys 
{Ditcr. IHct.^ 61 X "one expUnation is 
that the Southern, or as regards 
Singapore, hinder, face was so un- 
healthy that the Malays gave it a 
designaticm signifying hy oncmatopoea 
that death was to he found l)cliind 
its ridge"]. The island (Blacan-matt) 
apiN'ars in (me of the charts of Grodinho 
de Ennlia (1613) puhlLsht*d in his 
Mahtnt, &c. Hirusflels 1882X and 
though, from the excessive looseness 
of such old charts, the island sevnis 
too far fi-om Singa]X)re, we are sjitis- 
tie<l after careful com]>aris(m with the 
nifMiern charts that the island now so- 
callinl is intended. 

BLACK, fl. Adj. and sul)fttiintive 
denoting natives of India. OM- 
fashione<l, and heard, if Mill luainl, 
only from the h»wer clxss of Euro- 
iMNUis ; even in the hu^t genenition 
Its habitual urn*, wa-^ chiefly confined 
to thi^s and to old othcers of the 
Queen's Army. 

[1614.- '* The 5th ditto came in a «hip 
fn)in M«»lIacco with 28 Portu^aU and »J 
BlMda." -Fttttrr, I^ttn-f, ii. 31.] 

1676.— '•Wo do n»»t approve of your 
1 itendin^r any por»»ns u> 8t. llolena against 
their wilU. One of them you aent there 
make-* a fn'eat complaint, and we have 




ordered his liberty to return offuin if he 
desires it; for wo know not what effect 
it may have if complaints should be made 
to the King that wo send away the natives ; 
besides that it is against our inclination to 
buy an;^ blacks, and to transport them from 
their wives and children without their own 
consent." — Courtis Letter to Ft. Si. Geo., in 
Note* and Ext*. No. i. p. 12. 

1747.— "Vencatachlom, the Commanding 
Officer of the Black Military, having be- 
haved very commendably on several occa- 
sions against the French ; In consideration 
thereof Agreed that a Present be made him 
of Six hundred Rupees to buy a Horse, 
that it may encourage him to. act in like 
manner."— /v. St. Dartd Cons.^ Feb. 6. 
(MS. Record, in India Office). 

1750. — ** Having received information that 
some Blacks residing in this town wore 
dealing with the French for goods proper 
for the Europe market, we told them if we 
found any proof against any residing under 
your Honors' protection, that such should 
suffer our utmost displeasure." — Ft. Wui. 
Com. J Feb. 4, in Long, 2A. 

1753. — "John Wood, a free merchant, 
applies for a pass which, if refused him, he 
says *it will reduce a free merchant to the 
condition of a foreigner, or indeed of the 
meanest black fellow.' " — Ft. Wm. Cvns.y in 
Long, p. 41. 

1761. — ** You will also receive several 
private letters from Hastings and Sykes, 
which must convince me as Circumstances 
did me at the time, that the Dutch forces 
were not sent with a View only of defend- 
ing their own Settlements, but absolutely 
with a Design of disputing our Intluenco and 
FosscsidonK ; certain Ruin must have been 
the Consciiuonce to the East India Company. 
They were raising black Forces at Patna, 
Cossimbtizar, Chinsura, Ac, and were 
working Night and day to compleat a Field 
Artillery ... all these preparations 
previous to the commencement of Hos- 
tilities plainly prove the Dutch meant to 
act offensively not defensively." — ffofograph 
Letter from Clive (unj)ublishod) in the India 
Office Records. DcUrd Berkeley S^juare, 
and indorsed *'27th Deer. 1761." 

1762.— "The Black inhabitjint» send in a 
petition setting forth the great hardship 
they labour under in being rei]uired to sit 
as arbitrators in the Court of Cutcherr}-." — 
Ft. Wm. Conjf., in Lottg, 277. 

1782. — See (]uot4ition under Sepoy, from 

,, "... the 35th Regiment, commanded 
by Major Popham, which had lately Iwhaved 
in a mutinous manner . . . was broke with 
infamy. . . . The black officers with halters 
aliout their necks, and the sepoys stript of 
their coats and turbands were drummed out 
of the Cantonments." — India Gazette, March 

1787. — "As to yesterday's jxirticular 
charge, the thing that has made me most 
invctcrutc and unrelenting in it is only that 
it rclate<l to cniclty or oppression inflicted 

on two black ladies. . . ."—Lord Jf uUo, in 
Life, dtc, i. 128. 

1789.—" I have just learned from a Friend 
at the India House, y^ the object of Tnm** 
ambition at present is to be appointad to 
the Adauiet of Benares, w*^ is now held hj a 
Black named Alii Caun. Undentandoif 
that most of the Adaulets are now held faj 
Europeans, and as I am informed y^ it it the 
intention y^ the Europeans are to be so 
placed in future, I s^ bo vastly happy if 
without committing any injustioe yoa c* 

?lace young Treves in y^ sitimtk)ffi.'*---(7<0irnr 
'. oj Wales, to Lord Comwallis, in CC'f 
Corresp. ii. 29. 

1832-3.—" And be it further enacted thrt 
... in all captures which shall be made 
b^ H. M.'s Army, Royal Artillery, pro- 
vincial, black, or other troops. . . ."—Ad 
2 & 3 Will. IV., ch. 53, sec. 2. 

The phrase is in use among natiTM, 
we know not whether originating with 
thein, or adopted from the usage of 
the foreigner. But KcUa ddmi ' DladC 
man/ is often used by them in speak- 
ing to Europeans of other natives. A 
case in point is perhaps worth record- 
ing. A statue of Lord William 
Bentinck, on foot, and in bronaei 
stands in front of the Calcutta Towb 
Hall. Many years ago a native officer, j 
returning from duty at Calcutta U> 
Barrackpore, where nis regiment WM^ 
reported himself to his adjutant (horn I 
whom we had the story in later oays). 
' Anything new, Suba^ar, Sahib f ssn 
the Adjutant. ' Yes,' said the Sdbadir. 
Hhere Ls a fipire of the former Lora 
Sahib arrivea.' 'And what do m 
think of it r ' Siih^W said the S&btdir, 
^abhi hai kalfi admi kd set, jab jMli 
ho jatgd jab achchhd hogd / ' 1 1 iB nov 
just like a native — *a Urac flttl}' 
when tlie whitewash is applied it wiU 
be excellent.* 

In some few phrases the term hai 
1)ecome crystallised and semi-offidiL 
Thus the native dressers in a hospital 
were, and possibly still are, called 
Black Doctors. 

1787.— "The Sniigeon'samistantt 

Doctor take their station 100 peeee in tht 
rear, or in any place of Hecurity to wtiA 
the DooHm may readily carry the woondtd." 
—Regulations for the H. C.t Troops on At 
Coast of Coromandel, 

In the following the meaning i> 
special : 

1788.— '* For Sale. That anaU «** 
roomod Garden House, with abool Vft 
ffahs (see BEEOAH) of groond, on teiw 
leading from Cherioghee to fh* Bvyhf 
Ground, which formerly bejoofid la Hi 

HLArK A*'T. 



\ It is Tery (Hrirate, fnim the 

trees on the (j^muDd, uimI h.ivin^ 

fived cymNdcniMe odditiunj* ami 

w«II »dAptc«l fur a Black /ViwiVi/. 

to Mr. Camou."— /n Seton- 


X tif» tM'r?«.»ii Oioul'i 1»y reas<in 

K ACT. Tlii.'« wa> thtr naiiu* 

•-«iiuxii l>y the ii(in-«>tti<;iiil 

L^t m Iii'iui'to Alt XI., I83(>, 

a«liin I^Ln-litun*, wliirli lai'l 

IT civil pnM'ttHliiijf, «*xri*|»t«*<i 

■ jtiri.'«ii4 tinii III thf (Vmrt.s 
11 : Sii'i'lt-r IX'WaiinyAdawliit, 
'i <'iiy Ju*!^'*.-* (*ourt.>, IViini- 
l»T Aiiu-t-n-, S»iM«T Aiiirfii.^ 
tfiMtT:* ripiiit, or, in i>lhtT 
pl;iiv<i Kiinfi*«rari .««ul»j»*< ts <ui 
.th rk\(ivn< as to their sii I •]«•<■- 
\ il i^iiM^ to all the ( ViiniKiiiy's 
T;»lu*linjr tho>e un'ler S\Htive 
T>ii-^ A.l w:t<drjift»H| liy T. r.. 

then I^-p«lative MeinU*r 

O- ■■•V rn« ir-Ck'nenils < Vmin-il, 

jV? ijre.iT alniM* "'ii his head, 

^ '.I'Mil I'V tll»' ** Ilhel! 

■ |--:i..: '*• Hi iKi* EnnnM-aii- 
■ li^it:'.*''!Mi.i'.>« in ivpml 

an i •r:iiiiiial • harp-.'s \\i\> 
fiv.-.i:.-* Hi tin* latter 
■M .ill i"'.\r^ Willi tin- 
W it tliiTi' is Hill' li 

•':rTii:..4!'"- Till- TW'» i.iM-x. 

} ' 

T*.*- r: • 'jTf ■ f ?h«.' viirrility with 
^ A .-i> » I* .i--.i!!«-! hy :i hainif'it 
- ^*.^^ .• r- »■ I- hi- .iflvK-acy i^f tin 

tr\ v.r...wTi L- Thf Black Act. 
•r. ir-"* fp in Hriti.-h j»u}»je*.'t«» 
• r.. provir.i o-* th«"ir "ii* callr'l 
' ••"•^•if.j i.-:vi! .t|'|<«-:il4 U'ft>rt» th«' 
•■ .'T .\* «'.t! iTta. " Trrytiijtii.'t 
.-.-. I.. Jr. 1 ..•*l.. i. in*"*. 

CK BEEB. -. A U\.rip' 

■ : '\ -irly Tri>elK-r'< in Jajiiin. 

" '-I'lv ij. ■! a in.ih li«nii)r. l>r. 

..V*'*- It wa-* Knrn-hi, a 
.r-ii *'A-''' uMr^l ill tho ."«•rvi•■^■ 
.:.•■- iT-l:-. 


[BLACK JEWS, a term applied to 
the Jews of S. India ; wh» 2 ser. N. d' Q.^ 
iv. 4. 429 ; viii. 232, 418, 521 ; Loyati^ 
MaUibtir^ i. 246 ^^qq.] 

fii.sliion(*<l ex])re.s.sion, for Hinduatani 
and other vernamlars, which used to 
Ur I'oninion among officers and men of 
the Roval Arniv, hut was almost con- 
fined to them. 

1 Ml] Hilar Indian name of the eommon 
traneoliii of S.E. EunijK* and Western 
A.'*ia {FriinnilhiuA vuhjari*^ Stephens), 
iiotahle for its harsh «iuiu)i -articulate 
call, interpreted in various ]wirtH of the 
world into very dill'erent syllables. 
The rhvthm of the call is fairlv re- 
]>re.sente4l hy two of the imitations 
whirh come nean*st one another, viz. 
that pven l»y Sultan liiilnT (Persian) : 
"Sh'tr fh'tnnn^ diukntl:^ (' I'vii p»t milk 
and supir' !) and (Hind.) nne given hv 
Jenlnn : ' J.ahifin piw'r. tulruk ' (* (iarlir, 
nninn, and gingrr I) A iiiore pious om» 
is: Khmft't Uri kmhnt^ *(i(kI is thv 
Mrength!' Another mentioned l»y 
('apt. Rildwin is very like the truth : 
* lit- »iui«k, jMiy your <lel»ts I ' Hut |>er- 
haps the Greek inter]»retatiou recorded 
l»y .\thenaeus (ix. 3!)) i-^ lH'>t of all : 
rpit roit KaKOvpr^Oii kaKa 'Tliree-foM ills 
to the ill -doers I ' s«'f Marcn PoU\ Hk. i. 
oil. xviii. au'l note 1 ; [HurtoH, Ar. 
Sitjltts, iii. 234, iv. 17]. 


I •' 

-.• ■\r "f black b«er ' -^Wt, 

7K-BUCK, ?»- Th»- onlinary 
• >. - r I » .1 ; t ■ .1 n t vl' 'I H* {Atitih^h 

=. J- • i- !i r [.I . '-rrvii-fiyra^ Hlan- 
:.. :1.- i.irk hue of its Uu-k, 

• ^:.- h'.»i'\tT literally hlack. 

7>.« l*H"i"» rf^tnArk, Vm S«'|.- 

BLACK TOWN. n.j.. Still the 
Mipiilar liann- «»f the native ••ity of 
Nladnis, IL-* distingui«.li.d Ipmh the F(»rt 
and .•soutlnTn :»ulmrlis «Hiupi«*d hy the 
Kngli^h n*sident>, and the liaziirs 
whi'h supply their wants. The term 
JH also Um-'I at li^'iiiKiv. 

1673. — KryiT r-.iV,* thi- iiativo town of 
Mji'lras "the Ho:itheu Town,' and *'tho 
liidiiin Town." 

\7J7. -The Black Town («'f MAd^a^) 
il inha^nttMi hy tw''nf. ir.*, Mnhim'ttiu^^ and 
jHifiiiit (V^^M^ll".•. ... It WiL"* waHiHl in ti»- 
wanl-* tho I-in«l. wht'ii tJovcninr I 'it rule*! 
it."- .1. II*tin-!fun, i. Ii*i7. 

17»M». -•• Adjoiniiu: thi- k:'..»oi'« ff Kort St. 
<io«'fVf, t«» thr i4i-rihw.»ril. \* a l.nvo t<«wn 
eiimnionly r.illcd the Black Town, and 
whifh i- fortihiHl ^urtu-ioiitly ti> prevent any 
>iir!'ri'M* h> a l-nly t-f hi.»r*o.** — /A^Aw. p. 6. 




1780. — ** . . . Cadets upon thoir arrival in 
the country, many of whom . . . arc obliged 
to take up their residence in dirty punch- 
houses in the Black Town. . ." — Juunro's 
Narraticey 22. 

1782.— "When Mr. Haatings came to the 
government he added some new regulations 
. . . divided the black and white town 
(Calcutta) into 35 wards, and purchased the 
consent of the natives to go a little further 
off." — Pricfy *S<niif OhfttfrttUion*, Ax.y p. 60. 
In Tractty vol. i. 

[1813. — "The large bazar, or the street in 
the Black Town, (Bombay) . . . contained 
many good Asiatic houses." — Forltfn^ Or. 
Afrm.f 2nd ed., i. 96. Also see quotation 
(1809) under BOMBAY.] 

1827.— " Hartley hastened from the 
Black Town, more satisfied than before 
that some deceit watt about to l>e practised 
towards Menie Gniy."— Mealier Scotty The. 
JSurgfon's J)aM(^hffr, ch. xi. 

BLACK WOOD. The popular 
name for what is in England ternied 

* rose-wood'; ]»ro<lu('.ed chieflv by 

several ajKicie-** of Jhlbtnjmy and from 

which tlie celebrated carved fiirnitui'e 

of Bonilwiv is made. [The same name 

is applied to the Chinese elx)ny used 

in carving (Ball, Things Cldn^ae, Siti 

ed., 107).] (See 8I8S00.) 

[1615.— ''Her lading is Black Wood, I 
thmk ehony.''—Ci,ck*s J>iaryy Hak. Soc. i. 35. 

[1813.— "Black wood furniture becomes 
like hciitcd metal." — ForUjty Or. Mem.y 2nd 
ed., i. 106.] 

1879.— ( In Babylonia). *' In a mound to the 
south of the moss of city ruins Ciilled Jum- 
juma, Mr. Kassum discovered the remains 
of a rich hall or })alace . . . the cornices 
were of painted brick, and the roof of rich 
Indian \Aackwood."—At/unw^u»iy July 5, 22. 

BLANKS, s. The word is used for 

* whites * or 'Enrol H^ans^ (Port, branc/)) 
in the following, l»ut we know not if 
anywliere else in English : 

1718.— "The Hwithens ... too shy to 
venture into the Churches of the Blanks (so 
they call the ChrijJtiaiis), since these were 
generally adorned with fine cloaths and all 
manner of i>n»iui apjwrel."— (ZiVj/fw/ioA/ and 
Plutscitu), rrojhifififnm ofthf iJonjxfy dr. Pt. 
I., 3rd ed., p. 70. 

[BLATTY, adj. A corr. (yiwiUnjai}, 

* foreign' (see BILAYUT). A name 

applied to two plant,s in S. India, 
the Sotineratin acidfty and HydroUa 
nfylanica (si»e Mad. AdmiJi. Man. (Hoss. 
H. v.). In the old reconls it is a]>r»1ied 
to a kind of cloth. Owen {Narrattve, i. 
349) uses Blat iis a name for the land- 
wind in Ambia, of whidi the origin is 
IMirliaps the siine. 

[1610.— "Blatty.^ the corgo Rs. OW."- 
iJancergy I^ettcrxy i. 72.] 

BTiTMBFiB, s. Malayul. n7tm/n';H. 
belcimbu [or bilamhuy'\ Malay, lalimlnng 
or bfliiMng. Tlie fruit of Ar<rHioit 
hilimhi, L. Tlie genus was so called 
by Linnaius in honour of Averrhoes, 
tlie Arab commentjitor on Aristotle and 
A\'icenna. It embrace^j two species 
cultivated in India for their fruits; 
neither known in a wild state. See 
for the other CABAMBOLA. 

BLOOD-SUOKEB, s. A hamilesi 
lizard {Lacerta crigtata) is so called, 
l>ecause when e.\cited it changei* in 
colour (especially about the neck) fpoiu 
a dirty yellow or grey, to a dark red. 

1810. — **0n the mom, however, I di^ 
covered it to be a large lizard, termed a 
blood-sucker."— J/orfcm't Li/e of Lejfdt*'. 

[1813.— "The large Jieroor, or bujerta, 
commonly called the bloodsncker." — Forhtty 
Or. Mnn. i. 110 (2nd ed.).] 

BOBACHEE, s. A cook (male). 
Til is is an Anglo-Indian vulgansation 
of bainarcJil, a term originally brought, 
according to Hammer, by the horae« 
of Chingiz Khan into \^estem Ana. 
At the Mongol Court the Bawartki 
was a hi^h dignitary, *Lord Sewer* 
or the like (see namma's GMn 
Hordfy 235, 461). The late Prof. A 
Schiefner, howeyer, stated to us thtt 
he could not trace a Mongol oriflin 
for the word, which appears to be Or. 
Turki. [Platts deriyes it from P. 
fx'iwary * confidence.'] 

c. 1333.—" Chaque ^mir a un t&WwdUv, ft 

lorsr^ue la table a 6te droasCo, cet oSaer 
H'aMHied devant aon maltre . . . le hdwer^fw 
cou{>e la viande en petits moroeaax. Cm 
^enH-lk ixMs^lent uno g^ndc habilet^ pov 
d^ixjcer la viande." — Ibn, Batuta^ ii. 407. 

c. 1590.— B&wlurchI is the word uwd for 
cook in the original of the A\n. (BtockmaMm't 

Eng. Tr. i. 58). 

1810. — '*. . . the dripi>ing ... is retorMd 
to the meat by a bunch of feathem . . . tiid 
to the end of a short stick. This little nsat, 
clfanh/y and cheap dripping-ludle, axuwcn 
admirably ; it Iwing in the |K>frer of tbt 
babachy to baste any iiart with great pn- 
cision." — WUlidMAOHy V. M. i. 288. 


'* And every night and mominff 
The bobadiee shall kiU 
The sempiternal momrffkeej 
And we'll all have a grOl.** 

The Dawk Bmmgtihm^lBiL 




lAdna^ * Cook-house,' i.e. 
generally in a cottage de- 
om the residence of a Euro- 

'* In deftanoe uf all Bawnrchee- 
\m and reffulutiona."— Or. iiport 

ERY, 8. For the origin see 
r-BOB- A uoiije, a di8tur1>ance, 

'* And beat with their hand on the 
ikinff a certain noiMC, which wo 
i caD babara. Babare is a word 
of baba, * a child ' and are^ an ad- 
finjr 'to call.'"— OnVwte Conduit- 
. : Conqniftny i. div. i. soc. 8.] 

When the Umd struck up (my 
moch fri<rbtene<1, made boobary, 
ot in a hole and nearly pitcheid 
•- rt/CV. MouHtaii*, 2nd od., 106. 

But what M the meanini^: of all 

would call out Ah-baup-aree I "— From 
Report of Select Committee of H. of C, Ibid, 
pp. 9-10. 

1834.— "They both hastened to the spot, 
where the man lay senseless, and the ^ce 
bv his side muttering Bftpn b&pre." — The 
Babooy i. 48. 

•18d3-64. — "My men soon became aware 
of the unwelcome visitor, and raised the cry, 
* A bear, a bear ! ' 

"Ahi! bap-re-bap I Oh, my father! go 
and drive him away,' said a timorous vcHce 
from under a blanket close by." — Lt.-Cof. 
LewiH, A Fly on the Wlteel, 142. 

BOBBEBY-PACE, s. A pack of 
hounds of different breeds, or (oftener) 
of no breed at all, wherewith young 
officers hunt jackals or the like ; pre- 
sumably so called from the noise and 
distur))ance that such a pack are apt 
to raise. And hence a * scratch pack ' 
of any kind, as a * scratch matcn' at 
cricket, &c. (See a quotation under 

i« ujsed in *j»igeon English/ 
ip«e a (liinese origin is found 
:. 7-i-/>t*, ('antonw»e, *a noise.' 
I that there is a similar 
rord (see 7 ser. X. <{• Q.^ v. 
338, 416, 613) is rejected bv 

EB Y-BOB ! interj. The 
lian rollofpiial repre^'iitatirjii 
niitii exclamation of Hindus 
iirpri*** or grief — * B&p-rt ! or 
14^' *0 Father:* (we have 
friend from north of Twet»<l 
linar>- interjection was 'Mv 
dm<»ther !'). Hlumenrotli^s 
VonihuUtry gives Xarft/ = 
1, a* a vulgjir exrlamation of 

f'afitain <*<•««.• In^int; a^ain exam- 
f be harl any <»|i}irirtunity to nuike 
Wftf ixuMwminir the executiim 
-\r ' nM, he h:i<l ; that he kiiw tho 
'A Um immediate act «>f oxecu- 
hvTv wer»- H i.r 10,000 |ie«>iik' 

vb(* at the m«>ment the liaiuh ; 

"ff, dij^peried middenly, cr>'inir • 
rM I ' leitrintf n<»lmdy about tho j 

the Sheriff ami hiA attendantx. ; 

Kumfiean »{i«etAt(»n(. He ex' 
torn Ah-lMUqMUrM, to )m an ' 

r.f Che Mmek fieople, uivm the j 
• f anything very alarming, and I 
»rr in irreat pam.**— /ViVr* ^h// , 
itmrk^, I*. 5. In TrarU, vol. ii. 

n Hiadno was to see a house on 
rhr» a «niart tdap on the faee, 
la iMuin. cut his fini^vr, hoo two 
'AKiaif. or a ii|iam>w «h(it, he 

1878. — " ... on the mornings when the 
'bobbera' iMusk went out, of which Ifac- 
pherson was 'master,' and I 'whip,' we 
used to be up by 4 A.M."— /,(/< in the Mofut- 
til, i. 142. 

The following occurs in a letter re- 
ceived from an old Indian by one of 
the authors, some years ago : 

"What a Cabinet has put together! 

—a refnilar bobbery-pack." 

BOGOA TIGBIS, n.p. The name 
applied to the estuary of the Canton 
River. It appears to l»e an inaccurate 
reproduction of the Portuguese Boca 
do Tigre^ and that to l>e a rendering 
of the Chinese name Hu-men^ " Tiger 
Gate." Hence in the ."Hjcond quotation 
riV/nVt is supposed to l>e the name of 
the river. 

1747.—'* At 8 o'clock we imuuhkI the Bog of 
Tjmmt and at noon the Lyon's Tower. — 
.1 Vo$f. to th^ E. Indt^* !n 1747 <ind 1748. 

1770. -"The City of Canton is situated 
on the Imnk.s of the Tigris, a larg^ river. 
. . ."- Haynal (tr. 1771), ii. 2r>8. 

178*2. — ". . . . k sept lieucH do la boneho 
du Tigre, on api»or^nt la Tour du Lion." — 
St/HH^mt, yotjttij^y ii. 2lM. 

[1900.— "The launch was taken up the 
<':int^>n River and aUmdoncd near the Boooa 
TigrU (tho B<in:uo)." Th. Tim^s, '29 Oct.] 

BOCHA, H. H. W^J. A kind of 
chair-mlaiikin formerly in use in 
IVngiii, Init now ijuite forgotten. 

1810. — ** lijulif!* arc nsually conveyed about 
Calcutta . . . ill ii kind of ]ialan<inin oalled 




a bochah . . . l)ein^ a compound of our 
sedan chair with the oody of a chariot. . . . 
I should have observed that most of the 
gentlemen residing at Calcutta ride in bo- 
chaha.' — H'lV/iawjoM, V. M. i. 322. 

BOGUE, n.j). This name is ai)]>liefl 
by seamen to the narrows at the mouth 
o\ the C-anton River, and is a corrup- 
tion of Boca. (See BOGCA TIGRIS.) 

baulla. A kind of light accommoda- 
tion boat with a cabin, in \ise (m the 
Bengal rivers. We do not find the word 
in any of the dictionarie,s. Ive,s, in the 
middle of the 18th century, describes 
it as a boat very long, but so narrow 
that only one man could sit in the 
breadth, though it carried a nuiltitude 
of rowers. Tliis is not the character 
of the boat so willed now. [Buchanan 
Hamilton, writin*: about 1820, says: 
"The bhauliya is intAjnded for the 
same puqxKse, Hronveyance of ]>as- 
sengei-sj, and is aixnit tlie same size as 
the Pansi (see PAUNCHWAY). It is 
sharp at lx)th ends, rises at the ends 
less than the Pmisiy and hs tilt is 
placed in the middle^ the rowers stand- 
ing l>oth before and Ixjhind the place 
of accommodation of ])as8engers. On 
the Kasi, the Bhauliya is a large fishing- 
lx)at, carrying six or seven men." 
(Eastern India^ iii. 345.) Grant (Rural 
Life, p. 5) gives a drawing and des<;rip- 
tion of the modern lK>at.] 

17r>7.— "To get two bolias, ft Goordorc, 
and 87 dandies from the Nazir." — /rw, 157. 

1810. — *' On one side the picturesque boats 
of the natives, w-ith their floating huts; on 
the other the'bolios and pluasure-boats of 
the English."— J/rtr/a Oraham^ 142. 

1811.— "The extreme lightness of its con- 
struction gave it incredible .... speed. 
An example is cited of a Oovemor (renenil 
who in his Bawaleea ]>crf()rmod in 8 days 
the voyage from Lueknow to Calcutta, a 
distance of 400 marine leagues." — Smlritn*, 
iii. The drawing represents a very light 
skifT, with only a small kios<iue at the stem. 

1824.— ♦* Wo found two BholiahB. or largo 
row-boats, with convenient cabins. . . ." — 
H^hn-, i. 26. 

1834. — *' Rivers 's attentitm had been at- 
tracted by Hc*eing a large beauliah in the 
act of swinging to the ti<le." — T'/k llaUtOy 
i. 14. 

BOLT A, s. A turn of a rope ; sea 
H. from Port, volta (Roebuck). 

BOMBASA, n.]>. The Island of 
MomK'isa^ ofF the E. African (.'oiist, is 

so called in some old works. Bombdn 
is used in Persia for a negro slave; 
see quotation. 

1516. — " . . . another island, in whiefa 
there is a city of the Moors called Bombui, 
very large and l>eautiful." — Barhoaa, 11. See 
also CvloniaJ Papers under 1609, i. 188. 

1883.—'*. . . the Bomtwasi. or coal-bkck 
negro of the interior, being of much Ie« 
}rice, and usually only used as a oodc.**— 

///«, Modern Perttay 326. 


BOMBAY, n.p. It has been al- 
leged, often and positively (as in the 
quotations l)elow from Fryer and 
Grose), that this name is an English 
corruption from the Portuguese nom- 
bahia, ^good l»ay.' The grammar of 
the alleged etymon is bad, and the 
history is no l>etter ; for the name can 
l)e traced long Ixifore the Portuguese 
occupation, long before the arrii^ of 
the Portuguese in India. C. 1430, 
we find the islands of Mabini and 
Mumba-T>c\i, which united form the 
existing island of Bombay, lield, along 
with Salsette, by a Hindu Bil, who 
was tributary to the Mohammedan 
King of Guzerat. (See Rdg Mdld^iL 
350) ; [ed. 1878, p. 270} The same 
form reappears (1516) in Barboaa^ 
TQ.n&' Mayambu (p. 68), in the Etlado 
da India imder 1525, and (1563) in 
Garcia de Orta, who writes both Mom- 
Ipaim and Bombaim. The latter author, 
mentioning the excellence of the areca 
produced there, speaks of himself 
Having had a grant of the island 
from the King of Portucal (aee 
below). It is customarily called Bern- 
Ipaim on the earliest English Bopw 
coinage. (See under BUlfEE.) The 
shrine of the goddess MxaOM-Dt^ 
from whom the name is supposed to 
have l)een taken, stood on the Ea- 
planade till the middle of the 17th 
century, when it was removed to its 
present site in the middle of whai 
IS now the most fre<[uented part ol 
the native town. 

ir)07.— ''Sultan Mahommod Bigamh uf 
(Tuzerat having carried an army agaiut 
Chaiwal, in the year of the Hijra 913, in 
order to destroy the Eurai>eans, he effected 
his designs against the towns of Basai 
(see BAS8EIN) and Manbai, and retunied 
to his own capital. . . ." — Mimt-i-Ahmtdi 
(Bird's transl.), 214-15. 

1508.— "The Viceroy quittod Dabol, 
{lassing liy Ohaul, where he did not mn 
to go in/ to avoid delay, and muchand aX 
Bombaim. whence the people fled whm 
they siiw tlie fleet, and our men garriad off 

■MIT oom, and caught »ine blacks 
ttaj fcKmd hiding in 1 

roodif and of Bombiiyiii oi 

tkaw Ibay bxA avay tboM that wera good, 
aol killed th — - ■ 

■ of the befon. 15^4.- 

: (of Giueiat), called Tuoa- 


"Item Df MazBeuaa8S00/«(«i. 
of Hontttyin, T7,0O0 fidtm. 

I Moorish town, "Kctits o 

t«r7 ploauit. with man; ganleni ... a King of Canbaya in 1543, from liSS to 

town o( Twy (cnat Moocuh miwjuea, and 1548."— «. JloM/ui, Tomho, 139. 

Mpta of w,«hip of the Gentiles . . .it 1563.-". . . and bettor itjil U (thot the 

> lAeww a ""I***, but at little trade. - txaca.) of HomtNllm, an nrtate and JsUnd 

B«4e«. «. The name here 'PJ^n to «hich the King our Lord ha» gracioiuly 

cooihiiM. lo a <ainp»n onenlal faahion, K„„tod nio on perpetual leaee."*— Oaraa 

•k. u«. nt tlte adjoming town of Thana /M Orta. f. 91t. 

1>M TAMA) and Bombay. 


e llcimb>Tiii 'fe no Tusouio, yoor teoaiit at Bombklm, who has 

mt'ine mill Bi[uatrD brought thin basket of maTigoeq for you to 

I ij. iiii. ^ fedflAH. make a prefleut to the Governor ; arid he 

1 cinque parduH ... he will come here to put up." — Ibid. f. 134*. 

r. pardoue. 1M4.— " OoxZ/rfwa o/ Du Port of Mom- 

"Foj afocada a meiitro Dii^tio pelo dito bftjm. . . . The Viceroy Conde de Un- 

■viemador. p>ir mill iiuatio centos trinta hares sent the 8 wuncillon to fortily this 

diiis paidaca fD&i ■ ■ ■ } >i>j.' mij. jiardaos Bay, so that no European enemy should 

Bfc. — r««o do Rjlada da India, IW-lfll. Iw a.Ue to enter. These Ministers nsited 

the place, and wore of opinion that the 
width (< 

which he madi 

I each captain, of tl 
I and sailon and of tl 
amid flK^t'Slul help, ai 
<d th« IUUbb«r of musketeem, snd of oth' 
t»^. neb a. ■errant*. And nil taki 
'nnd in the wholt ""' "" 

island of __^^,, ^^, ^^_^ „„„=..«, «..w i~ K— t 
of the whole («con.inB even wider and more unc*- 

^ (of the entrance) being so great, 

Aiueiiahad. — rtermof, v. 40. 

Sm Kklien (A.w>J ifarmai), counting .■ "Do Bacaim i Bomtwllm iJ y ■ 

I I4s6 --'■- — ' "■-' "•" 

-^ ._! K«itli 

— -•— : aod some 2000 Aaldiers wl 
Matetw* and (;oa Canarines ; and 8000 

.. _. ....^"''"^ 

fii t^ RKht : "d "««g the« he "Bomhaim . . . rentures furthest 

>-n.»UOmii.keloen. («p..w- ^^ into the Sea. making the Month of 

,^«nlry H»m.n ■h'J««l'1 , spacious Bay, whence It ha<. it- Ety- 

^.L ''™ '™f"™l> •«"<"» uologyi Bombklm, quasi Awn Joy."— 

( the junks who wwe more ,^ ^^ 

IbBB 9UU : anj with married and nnicle ,.,. .,,,. .. , ... , „ 

wcOMO. aod people takin« ((oods and pro- , !87t>,- Since the present King of Bm- 

rt»«- lo -ITind menial «rrants. the ""j'-'^JT^ "l? ^"'*" ^ ' "JT^''^!^ 

-k4. t.«^h«w*. m.™ than 30,000 «ul-. I>«^ m PorUon the fsmous Port of Bombw 

^^ rw« iii ■»' ■ ^9y *»"" '«'*' Hilver, Copper, and 

l.'.'e. — " The NIc -A Bomfakr hns on the 
■n^ th* waters i>f the Ijav which is called 
atXtt iv and the i*bnd of Chaul ; on the 
X tlH bUnd nf SaImU ; in the ea.1 Kalsete 
•;«.' . and "B thr weft the Indian Ocean. 
TW land of ibis i«Und is vur>- low, and 
nntwd with CT«Bt and hcalllirill gniviwol 
tns. There i< murh itaiae. imd nbnnilnncc 
ti ntat and rice. Hml theru is nii mumory 
tA aB> •omly. \-iwa>liiT> it is called the 
vtand '4 lM-Vid« : a name pTen In it hy 

fmt pcfivhmTBl and enjoyment there."-- 
J 4r rm^rn, I'riwifirn I'.ttnni. p. 81. 

)U2.'". . . a saull utream oillcd Bal' 
whKk ra^ intii the Hay of BotnbAln. and 
w^ek B rinrdad at the demarcation be- 
tw^ Ito Kia|:d-« of fiuxurale and thu 

romiplloii spi 




1711.— Luckyor declares it to be im- large junkfl issuing from Batavia, then 

HOHsible, with all the Company's Strength under blockade. These were lawful 

and Art, to make Bombay "a Mart of great • ^^^^^ ^j^.|^ ^^^.j^ property, 

BusmeHH -P. 8.3. ^^^Q^ ^^ £600,000. But HavesW; 

n^^iiolifVys -.^ in the^orTd, ^m that such a capture would crite. gP«lt 

which distinction it received the denomi- difficulties and enibairassnienta in the 

nation of Bombay, by corruption from English trade at Canton, and he 

the Portu^iese Buoua-Jiahioy tnough now directed the release of this splendid 

ib^iially written by them Bombaim." — Groitet prize. 

'''^- , . (2) 30th June 1815, Lieut. Boyce in 

1770.-" \o man chose to settle ma the brig * Nautilus V180 tons, cairj-ing 

country so unhealthy as to sn\o nso to the . .^^ j^ ir^ _Ia 

proverb Tfuit at Bbmbav a //i«n'* t!ff. did t^in IS-pr. ttirroiiadea, and four 9-pra.) 

nut exo'td two moMo(fnar—J{aifnai(E. T., encountered the U.S. sloop-of- war* Pfea- 

1777), i. 389. cock ' (639 tons, carrying twenty 32-pr. 

1809.— "ITie largest pagoda in Bombay carromides, and two long 18-pr&). 

is in the Black Town. ... It is dedicated After lie had informed the Aniericui 

to Afomla Devee . . . who by her images ^f ^]^^ ratification of i>eace, Boyce MfU 

and attributes seems to be Parvati, the wife ,^,.^,,jptorilv ordered W haul down his 

of hiva. — JUana Urtuiam. 14. * i * i • i i j i ^ ^ 

colours, which he answered bv a flit 

BOMBAY BOX-WOEK. This T^TLrLtTXaVtir/illo^ 

>v«ll-known manufacture, consisting in j^ ^j^j^^ ^ ^^^ ,^j^ ^^^ lieutenwA 

the decoratum of lx>xe8, desks, &c., ^^ ^ T,,^ ^ ^ 

witli veneew <,f geometrical mosaic, j^^ ^.j^, ^^^j^Jf* j J^ 

somewhat after the fashion of Tun- q^ \j^^^ j , ^„) ^^j y,^ jo 

bridge ware,^ said t« have been intro- ,,j g^^d >>i,r to enjoy it. 

ductHl from bliiraz to Surat n.oi'c tlian ^^ J.^ „^^ ^J^ -j^,,,^ ^^^ jjj,^ 

a century ago, and some 30yeai-8 later j , j j, , j j ^ 

from Sural t« Boml«y. Th« veneers j^ieut. C. R! IXw (L 294X buthe 

are formed by cementing together hue erroneously states the^ pensioi to ]»«» 

triangular prisms of ebony, ivory, , ^j j ,^^ ^\^ q,^ 

creen-stained ivory, stages horn, and ^^^^ ..«.:, ^ . . 

tin, so that the section^ when sawn ^^780.-- The Hon. C^mpwiys ij^o«ir, 

^ f ^, • J i.A 1 Cannjar, with Lieut. Murry Commaiidar, 

across form the required pattern, and „f ^he Bombay Harinei, is ^ng to Afdn 

such tiiin sections are then atUiched (xir, see ACBSSEN) to meet tho Cerw sad 

to tlie j>anels of the l)OX with sti*ong the other Europe ship from MadnM, to 

rrhie P^^ ^^ board of them the St. Helena stora." 

^ * —llicky* B^ntjiil Oas^U, April 8th. 


BONITO, s. A fish {Thynnyuft^ 

BOMBAY MARINE. This was f«rny^ JDay) of the sauie faniily (&»». 

the title lx)rne fur iiianv years by the '^'^^^) ^? "jackerel and tuimy, wy 

nieritorioiLs hwt soniewb'it depressed ^^mmon m the Indian sea.s. The namo 

s«.rvice which in 1830 aaiuired tlie }« ?2'*^-» ?"^\ api»arently is the adj. 

style of the "Indian Navy," and on DOmtO, hue. 

30th April, 18G3, ceiised to exist. The c. 1610.— *'0n y pesche vne qtuntitf 

detadnnents of this for«:e which t<x>k admirable de gros ]>oi8sons, de sept oo hut 

mrt in the Cliina War (1841-42) were »<>rtes, qui «ont n&intmoins qiwjd de mmm 

Lnown to their brethren, of the Wal ^re^ ^^^^ l.t'^aT.^.'?!!^^^^ 

Navy, under the temptation of all it^ra- 137. 

tioii, Jis the" B< mil wy Buccaneers." In 1615.— "Bonitoea and albieorae am ia 

their earliest employment ag:iinst the colour, shape^ and taste moi^ Uka to 

pirates of Western India and the Mackerils, but prow to bo rery laige.**— 

Persian Gulf, tliey hml Uh-ii known as ^^'ry, in l^urchm, ii. 1464. 

"tlu* Grab Service." Hut, no matter c. 1620.— 

for these names, the historv of this '* How many sail of well-mann'd ahlpa 

Navy is full of brilliant actions and ' ^^^^'u?®^^^ *^* '^^"^ 

S4.,rvlccs. We will c^uote two ^^o\A,- R^JZTt^lH^^Th^ i^^^ 

examples ot i)ubln' virtue : i-^n tinn. «-u j^ v^^ *-u— 

/ix*^! T 1 loii 1 1 c. 1760.— "The fish undoabtodly taiM 

(1) III Julv 1811, a sipiadron under ; jt^ ^^^ f^om relishing so w«U to tho toito 

(.VmiiiKMlorc John Hayes took two of the Portujrucse . . . that they ctl H 

whkb tw then DKiled wv 1- 


«rrt. rmrf.V (./ (A< K.„flrf. ,./ Ultivx, .fit., 
//(li^/. ii. 6S0. 

c. 100(1 — "Capt. Saru has BonnM."— 
I'^Fckat. i. 37i. 

. 1618.— "And tbeir is 300 b»M (or pogon 

iT«a." — rirvi'iij^rr, B. ii. pristen) havo alownncennd men Uj' nance for 

-Tlw <iptain iDfortnod >w he hnd '•"r to pray for his i«le. in Uia «roe wrto 

_ _..:_ .1 ." B ^- jj ij ffrati " munkes and Iryrea u» to doe amoiiBit 

the '^" Homan papbt™."— Cw<-/. Z;^r«, ii. 75; 

>l,ocalraed [i" i- "7, bow] ; booM (i. 143). 

1 duriott nil that time. [1S7S.— "It ia esdmat«d that there are in 
nuiul.»i 'if the luh Boanrtta >nm eluw to thu country tSiam) more than 200,000 prieeU 
hrr. u>d wen caiiehl for fuod ; hu romlicii called B<IIUM."-7'ci<n-ai>r, ed. Ball, ii. 'iKl.l 
IlKFrfur. that the A\y he -hould noit get 1727,-" ... or perhnpe mnlte him fadgB 
*.«!.i he alls.] the ».-«-toi."--Bn»«)eH, in a CA/wn boniM in his Cnlondar, under tho 
Jt»rM/./u TuK-. A-e.. under CVt. lU, 17,3. name of n Chriatian Saint."— ^. Hamilton, 

i. 253. 

BOHZE, ». A t*-nii Icinj; aimlied 17W-7.- 
I\ EurolH-ann iu Oliuatothv JlnadhisI " Alike to me encaw'd in Grecian bronu 
iltTRj, I'lit <>ri((i luting willi wirlv Koranur Vulgate, Veda, PrieetiOrBoM*." 
vL-it..n> lo J«|>an. lU oriKill is how- I'lnaiU of I.ilrraltir'. Slh ed., p. 835. 

rirT tmA <iuiie cl*ar. The Uliiiirw c. 1814.— 

/'•iit-anw. 'a ri'li|iiifUit perwm' i» in "While Vara deals in Mnndarina, Boiuaa, 

Jaiunnw io«> or '-wis^; l>ul Kiii.ppn „ '>"''^- , „. u ^ 

,.r,l.-r^ /.i-«^, *T.-a.lK-r of tl.r ti^,' '""^.£^';'■':^. "".'.' ^"'^^' H<"°-»™ 

* . -^ - , ■ , r, ■ T. 1 I luKred to theo. 

Jr-n. Ill JHTvitiem: 'to-zi llht Kfi. am .i. ly ir j n. 

.~/Ji.^ i. iil. HN.) «l*>Vlmtf., Zur ^- ■^-"' "'" ""'' ^'^ 

/.ui.4«t*.n.tWJAt«««.I871i>.48) [(i) BOEA, BOOBA. a. Beng. 

II «,» i* mrn that some of the ol.l ,jJi^ ^ ^j,,,! „( carpK«t used m 

's of Bangui. 

_**Miiftiii favuur ■me, and wiiiii- tin- 
■xL-r. «f th««j wmrtifl'. On thu oilier 
Kan-l, i'lixttM (fur Skt. randua, 'U* 

.Nrj-I r.. Ihe .K-rKV. «"'l n^ty liKht b,«t, r^,<ringo with "20 to 36 
H-'lp>-ti">lt.''liiiTH Ihf Jajmih-m- Uhiw- Owan, thew curry Sale Teeter and other 
'V*a:,'j tn-¥sil-]i- t" thi". (Kuam, g.ioda fnim Hiigly downewordu, and aoroa 
l''T4. ].. »0.> Tlir «i.i.- »<.rd. a.< trade t.< 1J.M-™ with salt ; they also wve 
*..m4h^ ..r /-IB*, i. ill Til.Mii MiniUrlv ^"' "■" '"?"- .!"',/- ".""l^ '*'"^ "P *"■ 
^r-l- (S^ •>«*-«'■. WW.. |,. 3«r,:,,'l"'"'«.v""ver. -/W.n.l.'i.] 
Tl . »..r-l fir-t .-.iir- in J..rp- Alvar.'/'.- ■ (a^ BOEA. c 

a>r. m 1 1.- I.t Irn. . -f Nl. hran. ■- f^,^ ,,, j,,^ Skt. iwiwiArtrt. 'a trader, 
Xj.«-r. i.ick-. in 1.1. Diary n-.- , „, „^„ „f „ii«irH.*^ fr„,„ wliiuh ar« 
1 f: .. :.i.i.r..i. limp bt^. foniit-d tin- nrdiiiarv H. wonU tyoftord, 

l-^>. ltir.lthe.-.«nn,.Hi«...'.iLir|m>i4e ,^„„jp,,,„„l ^ (JHj^mti form which 
-^ -'ui.irih.Tr |.^'^t""'wh,il.. th"y ™li ' '■"""•■' "-"^y "«"■■ '«W<I). Tlii« is W)li- 
I^UM.' /.rrf-r -I .•'I. y. X-<'"f. in ','"/'. Hniittd Iiy the ijuiitittioii fiiiiii NuriillAli 
■•*-^. L.':\i.-£^'. ' ' ' Vliiw, liiit it is tiiilqiiiti' •fitain. Dr. 

Ii-.;!, ■■■»>ut«unt cnim. ct increiiiU- ' Ji-hl. Wil.-.n («* Wlo«) ^iv.* au 
iifr oKliiBdunlur BdUdi. iiU malv n.- Amiiir diTLViklimi ulilrli \vu iiiLVr liwn 
I— .»«, *.■ [-MTTum- inlrr .M.-e ea .,mi,. „„nl,|,. to viTifv. (Thi-rf rilU !« no 

i-^.-.. pi^™ -"n""'':- -v.. h'-.X..,,.;. r,.„.^,„.^i,i,. ,i„„i,f ,)„„ ,i.i,, is iiircirrccl.] 

l^ \ . >n,.. .,1. ].A , ! ^,__,^^_ ^^ ^^.^^ ^.,_^^ _,, ,5,,,,^.^ j^.^ 

i':rB-il'.Mtii:;!;r'-«.?l'"r^:"''''"^-.« I" ai.r.-...t 

;>^-.- -n-i h...« ««.r«-< Ihen. ,i„ «-^l^ ""'1 'llffcTenl lu of life. 
.'.1. -.. many frinla <■( Iheir idi.l< wh-iiii 1, The Slii'rt ItulinlA, »lio uK es- 

*3^.rS. ' "' ■^"''"",.-.mgn-p...-i«S.i'.n.;ilurli«..|.«r.UjJM«. 

1»0. — TO. d-^rine d.- all .hoy -m- 1 >'^'\ I'l'";' "7" """■ '"^'i }""'!^,Ml 
MM.. -Ucb «• ID (Tuna «lle.l i.'.l. l.nt ! "I"' «'^'- ''.V tlu- naii.^, and are ii«»lly 
rak ■■ >i Upoa arr iMwl Boul.' - .1- ! 'h'volwi to tmdinR and money-lending. 




w oanM on, chiefly by Borah 
nf Goanrmtand Cutch."—Badffer, 
'arikemia, Hak. 8oc. xlix. 

BO, n.p. Tliis name, &s 
o the great Island in its en- 
taken ironk that of the capital 
he chief Malay State existing 
hen it Itecanie known to 
la, Brun/t Bum/, Brunai, or 
rtiU existing and known a^ 

* Id thift iflUnd mach camphor for 
aChered, and the Indians value it 
. . This iHland is called BoiiMy." 

'The two Ahips departed thence, 
n^ Mionmg roanv islands came on 
ooQtained much cinnamon of the 
I. And then again running among 
ods they came to the luand of 
rbero in the harbour they found 
UP hekxiffing to merchants from all 
aboat Malacca, who make a groat 
at BonMO."-0/rmi, ii. 631. 

*<'*ampbora fmm Brimao (mis- 
«t>faabiT for Bnmao) neare to 
Bonw/in Htfl/. ii. 412. 

are with white and 
rla, like checkers, such as Poling- 
.'— /Aiwrirr*, Ijftttrf, \. 7*2.] 

h called Bomalaya (terhape took 
■«>in this Ltland. 

"There in brimstone, pepi»cr, 
cam|»hor."— /AimvT*, LetUn^ \. 

n .^ttHjJfmrjf, i. 313 [and in Fotirr^ 
£4). it in wntten BlimMk. 

'The ffratt island of Bomeir or 
>e Unreal except f\ilifurnia in the 
^d."- -1. liiimJtuH^ ii. 44. 

•BODOB, or .BXJDUB, n.p. 
f of a great Buddhistic tnonii- 
ndian i h.inMt^T in tlie district 
in Java ; one of the nitMt re- 
in the world. It is a ({ 
J "tnntiin* <M'<*uj»ying the 
(tf a bill, wbirh np]iar(*ntly 
r run; «»f the building. It is 
tiUr in plan, t besiden, bowevcr, 
k" sii(-(€wiv»* j>n»je<;tions ; eacli 
♦• lAwnifiit, 406 fwt. Includ- 
iL-rruent, it risi'S in .six .succ<\s- 
A(«9s i*MT of tlieiii forming 
the «id«^ of wbirb an* 
with l<i*-rt*liffs, which Mr. 
I («^i would, if f xti>ndt^I 
:lf lin«*, i-over thret* niib*** of 
Tlier** rejtresiMit sivnes in th«' 
kkva Muni, M-eni'M fnnn the 
fit pre-«*xi.'«tenci'« of Siikya, 
mtntu of Buddhitttic groups. 
r fitrridiiTK the Rtnictun* W- 

conies circular, rising in three shallower 
.stages, bordered with small dagohas 
(72 in number), and a large dagoha 
crowns the whole. The 72 dagohas 
are hollow, built in a kind of stone 
lattice, and each contains, or has con- 
tained, within, a stone Buddha in the 
usual attitude. In niches of the corri- 
dors also are numerous Buddhas larger 
tlian life, and about 400 in number. 
Mr. Fergusson concludes from various 
data that this wonderful structure must 
diite from a.d. 660 to 800. 

This monument is not mcnticmed in 
Valentijn's great History of the Dutch 
Indies (1726X nor does it8 name ever 
seem to have reached Europe till Sir 
Stamford Raffles, the British Lieut- 
Governor of Java, ^^sited the district 
in January 1814. The structure was 
tlieii covered with soil and vegetation, 
even with trees of consideraole sisse. 
Raffles caused it to be cleared, and 
drawings and measurements to l)e 
made. His History of Java, and Craw- 
ford's HiM, of the hidian Archipelago, 
made it known to the world. The 
Dutch Government, in 1874, published 
a ^(rejit collection of illustrative plates, 
with a descriptive text. 

The meaning of the name by which 
this monument is known in the neigh- 
In airluxxl has l)een much del)ated. 
lUffles writei? it B&ro B6do [Hid. of 
Java, 2nd hI., ii. 30 seqq.]. rCrawfurd, 
Pfsrr. Diet. (8.V.X says : " lioro is, in 
Javanese, the name of a kind of fish- 
t rai», and hudor may possibly Imj a cor- 
rupt ion of the Sanscrit buaa, *old.'"l 
Tbe most prolmble inter|»retation, ana 
arceptt»d by Friedrich and other 
scholars of weight, is that of * Myriad 
Buddhas.* Tliis would l)c in some 
analog^' to anotber famous Buddhist 
monument in a ncighlxmring district, 
at Bnimbiinan, whicli is called Chandi 
Sewu, or tbe "Thousjiud Temples," 
though tbe numU'r has lu*iMi n»ally 

BOSH, s. and int^TJ. This is alleged 
to W tak»*n from the Turkish bosh^ 
»»iffnifying ** empty, vain, u.s»'b'srt, void 
of s»'n?«», meaning or utility" {Red- 
hoHSf'» 7>iW.). But w»» have not Wn 
able to tnuv it,** history or first appear- 
ance in Kiiglisb. [Acc«>rding to the 
.V. K. />. the wonl s4H-ms to havecome into 
us«» aK»ut 1834 under the influem'e of 
MMriiT'.-* n<»v«*l.s .•l//*'j«/ifl, Hajji Baha^ 




&C. For various s]>eculatioiLS on its 
origin see 5 »er. N, <t- Q, iii. 114, 173, 

[1843.— "The people flatter the Envoy 
into the lieliof that the tumult i^ Basil 
(nothing)." — Liuly <Sn/r, Journal^ 47. J 

swain. Lascar's H. (Roebuck). 

BOTICKEEB, s. Port, hotiqueiro. 
A shop or stall -keeper. (See 

l.W. — " Item, i>areceo que . . . cw boti- 
aueiros nuk> tenhao as buxlcai apertas nofl 
dia8 (le fcHta, koii2o deiiois la mesMi da 
ter^a." — Decree .*U of cWneil of Ooa, in 
Arckiv. Port. On'fnt.y fa^c. 4. 

1727. — *'. . . he past all over, and was 
forced to relieve the ixx^r Botiokeen or 
yhi»pkeoiH?n*, whf> l>efore could |>ay him 
Taxes."— J. J/aiHiftoHf i. 268. 

BO TBEE, s. The name given in 
( Vylon to tlie Pij>al tree (see PEEPUL) 
as reverencefl by the Buddhists ; Singh. 
bo-gdA. See in EnifTson Tennent 
(Geyhn^ ii. 632 seqq.\ a chronological 
series of notices of tlie l^)-tree from 
B.C. 288 to A.I). 1739. 

It57r>.— *'()f their (the Veddas') worship 
there is little to tell, except that like the 
( in^aleze, they set round the high trocH Bo- 
gas, which our i»eople call Pagnd-trf**^ with a 
j*tone buise and imt lami^ u|K>n it." — Ryklof 
Vitti Htifu», in \aUntijii (('eylon), 209. 

1681. — "I shall mention but one Tree 
more ax famous and highly net by as any of 
the rest, if not more ho, tho' it boar no 
fruit, the l»enetit consisting chiefly in the 
Holines-s of it. This tree they cjiU Bo- 
gahah ; we the ^AW-^f. ."— A'wa/-,' 18. 

BOTTLE-TBER s. Qu. Adnnsmiin 
ifujitata, or MMU)l«ib*y Its iLS)HH:t is 
somewhat suggestivt* (»f tlie name, hut 
we have not l»een able to juscertain. 
[It has also been suggested that it 
refei"s to the Babool, on which tlu* 
Baya, often luiilds its nest. "These 
are formed in a vcrv ingenious manner, 
by long gnuss woven togetlier in the 
sliajH* ol' a bottle." (Forhrs, (Jr. Mem.^ 
2n<l ed., i. 33.] 

1880. -*' I>K»k at this prisoner sluinl>ering 
[icjK'ufuIly under tho suggestive bottle- 
tree." - -Ati Jkitnt, IW. 

[BOUND-HEDGE, s. A corruption 
of honndiiry-hriUjtf^ and ajn^IiiHl in old 
military writers to tlie thick plant^a- 
tion of K'lmlHN) or ]>rirkly-]»ear which 
used to surround native forts. 

1792.— ''A B<mnd Hedgs, fonned of % 
wide belt of thorny plants (at Serinn- 
ixitam)."— Will's, UUoruxU SltUKf*, iii. 37.] 

BOUTIQIJE, s. A couiinon word 
in Ceylon and the Madras Presidency 
(to which it is now peculiar) for i 
small native shop or 1xx>tli : Fbit. 
buti4:a or hot^ca. From Bluteau fSuj^) 
it would seem that the use of teus 
was peculiar to Portuguese India. 

[1548.— Buticai. See quotation under 


1554. — ** . . . nas quaeii bntieat iui^;iimb 
]>ode vender aeniU) oa que no conoertam ooa 
o Rendeiro."— ^o^/Ao, Tomho do MMai0 dk 
India, 50. 

c. 1561.— "The MaUibam who noldintbt 
botecas. "-Corral, i. 2, 267. 

1739.— "That there are manv _ 
built clo8e under the Town-wall.'* — i 

on Fortfn*. of Fori .ST. Onurije. in If^Mlar. 
iii. 188. 

1742. — In a grant of thia date the 
appears aa Butteca.- <S<//r^'o»4/miii RMorit 
of ii. Arcitt hiMrict, ii. 114. 

1767.—" Mr. Russell, \\» Collector-Genanl, 
lx)gs leave to represent to the Buud tlukt of 
late vean the Street by the river ade . . . 
has been greatly encroached upoo bj a 
number of golahl, little straw huts, and 
bontiquea . ."—In Long, 501. 

1772. — " . . . a Bontiqiia merduuit 
having died the 12th inst., his widow wis 
desirous of being burnt with his body.'*-' 
Papers rtlating to E. I. Affair*, 1821, p. 288. 

1780.— "You must know that Mrs. Bm- 
I>eck ... is a great buyer of Baigaini, m 
that she will often go out to the Europe 
Shops and the Boutiquee, and lay oat 5 or 
600 liui^ees in articles that we have not the 
least occa.sion for." — India (rozeUe, Dec. 9. 

1782.—" For Sale at No. 18 of the ruM 
Botiqnes to the northward of Lvoa's Buikl- 
ings, where mutten (<i.v.) may be seen. . . ' 
India Oazrtte, Oct. 12. 

1834.— "The boutiqnee are ranged aloog 

lx>th sides of the street."- CAiefy, Oiylm 
Oazftt^r, 172. 

BOWLA, s. A portinanteaii. H. 
fnioUl, from Port, bauly and bahu, *a 


BOWLY, B0WB7, s. H. bM. 

and b(1ori, Malir. ftdwiWi. O. P. foown 
(Zilbih Diet. s.v.) says it is the Telega 
fnlvidi ; bdvl andf bdvitii, = * well.' Thii 
is ({ouhtless the same word, Imt in 
all its forms it is proliahly eonneded 
with Skt. wmi, * a liole," a well,' or 
with vc/m, * an oblong reservoir, a pool 
or lake/ There is also in Sin^^iiuBn 
voBvc^ * a lake or pond,' and in inscrip* 
t ions vaviya. Tliere is again Maldivil 

nniviw liOtrRY. 



urll,' M-hicli comes iie*ir the 
i forms iii<*ntioned below. A 
nd dt-eji rectangular well (or 
iig down to the q)ringsX fur- 
wit h a <lesfent to the water 
n< of litng flights of steps, and 
ly with landings and logaie 
travellers may rest in the 
This kind of stnu-ture, almost 

liive t>f creaturcM and tho graco of God,' 
Itut a Vavidee is mid to value 10 Kooas (or 
wells) l>ecaii8o the water w nrailahle to bipeds 
without the aid of a rope." — It. Drummond, 
/ffuftrtitwHX of finzemtteey <{v. 

IS'i.*).— "ThcjK) booleeB are singular con- 
trivunceH, and some of them oxtromelv 
handsome and striking. . . ." — Hthfr. ed. 
1844, ii. 37. 

1856.— "The wftv (Stinsk. icditeeH) ha a 

r to Wi^tt^ni and Central India, . ^"T?® edifice of a i.icture«,ne an^ stotely oh 

11 . -au : well a« i)eculiur cmiracter. Aiiovo the level 

wiaisioiLilly met with m „f ^j^^ '^rxyxxmX a row of four or five open 

m India al.**o, is a favourite j,ftvilions u« regular distancas from each 

of pri\at«' native muniticeiU'O, i other ... is alone visible. . . . The entrance 

ouch rhiftiv Wneath the level ' to the wftv is by one of the end i>avilion«." 

pnumd, is often made the , ;''^^'ir*^ ^^^ ^'*'?' *• ^'>7; [reprint 1878, 

of nxi^x elhitive aivhitecture. ^*', *',* .„ . * .,. ... 

e •!. ♦;. t ■«..^.i'...^...> a-t^ it. 18/b. — *' To iMsrsons not familiar with the 
.f the tiiieM siKH^imeiis are in , ^^ ^^^j^ ^^^j^j^^^^„^, ^l^^^^^^^^j^ 

I, wl«*rr other lorms oi tlie nmy gcem a strange perversion of ingenuity, 
p|iear to U- inr/o and itxHw. One hiit the grateful ctiolness of all subterranean 
iiifcst s]ilendid of these structures a))artment«, especially when accomixinied by 
at AsTirwa in the suburks of water, and the quiet gloom of these recesjjes, 
AUid, known as the Well of fully «,mpensato in the eyes of the Hindu 
I V ♦v u - 1 -u • f**"* the more attractive magnificence of tho 

nrMlie >urse) Hanr, built in ^^At^ Connequently the descending flights 
y .1 Udy of the household of of which we are now aiieaking, h;ive often 
Moh.Liiinied ]fi<;:ini (tliat famous Vkh^u more elaborate ana expensive piecea of 
• of (aiiilwiv' relebnited by architecture than any of thelmildings above- 

jrround found in their >'icinity."— /(rrjrMAiw/j, 
fndUiH and Ea*trrn Art-hitfCtur*'^ 136. 

- s»f under GAMBAYX at a 
f 3 lakhs of rujH»es. There 
fI.ilM»nite ntorlel of a great 
ti }mhni ill the Indian Museum 

BOXWALLAH, s. Hybrid H. 
Hnkan-{i.e. l>ox) %Cilld. A native itin- 

u... \. '.. ;.. ti... ...ii.,!,.!*., /.f erant i»edlar, or prtc^•may^ as he would 

n;&vr •M-eii in I he su bur its oi , ii i • o *A i i i 

^ «.i.^ J i.i\ ..v...>«'..twi i.. I Hi called 111 Scotland i»v an analocnnis 
(* ;ft r«';noar Mnii^ excavated in ,-,i ,. -i,* n a* 

.... V- tb.f ....x^^y^ ♦!.« term. The Horiculd selw cutlery, 

i;ij ••••»i- pNK iiiat covers llie , • i i i ^^ ^^ 

cheap nick-nacks, and small wares 
of all 

II kinds, chiefly Euro]Mtfin. In 
former days he w;is a welc<»me visitor 
to .>«ma11 stations and solitnry bunga- 
lows. The Bor& of l^milijiy is often 
a hunnlUl^ an<l the itox\rtihi in that 
retfion is commonly called Honi. (See 

It ^^lid to have U'eii made 

♦■xj-Mi-*- «if an an«estor of the 
: |ir'|iriftor ((.ouiit KiUichibile) 
\tt\ ]»-iip]e in a time of searcity. 

hi. - '' Tlit-rv w.i« iil«> a MJn, a name 
(fa the Inflian.'* de^igiuito a very 

• kir.'i *'i wvll, revetted with HUmu, x^fvn k. 
.Ti«itH| wi«h -to}"* for de<«cunt to the BOBA. ) 

bnn'k. S»iinr nf thc^c well"* have 

Diddiv .\u\ ti;i vaeh i«ide }i:iviIion^ of BOTf s. 

irf men .f tho ...uiitrv rival «ich . a. A servant. In S.ut hem India and 

I th<-.^a-t ration.. f -iK-h rcHervuirs ni China a native ]»ersonal stn-vant 

• .ir^- (ft Mip]>liu«l with water." I is so terme<l, and is habitually 
;.iiirM. IV. la. summoned with the vtM'ative *BoyI* 

■•T*i«r«. ». I- jin emiity Hjfiace within The sjime WiLS formerlv common in 
: r f Atfr*) Utwwn fbmhims i«lttco I jjjjij.^j,.,^ ,j,„l „t},^.r w. I. Islands. 

r.rr,«n.. I dirt^'ttKl a larjre wAin similar us,^^ .lie familiar ..f ;m^r (f.g, 

^•tr»et«.il iin It, ten ger. Iiv ton. In . , ... , . #.• -^ ^, ■ ' Tr- • 

r^»4r....f Hiiid.^tiin thev fCennn.inat*- »» «»»-* > "l^Jite Ihxit t.uzi puer V\n 

•r: hariru: i*t;iirci^-edownitwiin." /''*• H Kings V. 20K Ar. rmUxd^ 

r. M*ym,.. 'Wl. vai9dpior, gttrrvUj krum' (< lerm. K7ial»e) ; 

".\"r;»r a vilui^u ralUil Sevii!«vi' and tliis sime woni is use<i for a 

I Wt thr line ^.f nuireh t** r>keUh a ramjt.sirrvant in Shake.Mi>iNin», when» 

.Wc » uiMing . . . nn a n«ir jippnisurh pi„,.i,.,j sjivs : "Kill the PoyS and 

u-hif. o» tJmt kin.1 nhich the ruUivos >'*' '"KJP'K'- '■ .','•< <'M"^*ly ''«*"»'•'»? 

haai«« •* Bhoulto." - Furhes, Or. laws ol arms.' — rn-e also UroKH Atti. 

II. 102; {'Jad ed. i. 'M7\. ' Antiqiiitir.*^ i. 1S3, and Latin miotation 

^•••Wku-mdig«a well dcMrvcM the fn>m Xavier under Ckmicopoly. The 




word, however, came to Ije especially 
used for * Slave-l)oy,' and applied to 
slaves of any age. The Portuguese 
used mogo in the same way. In 
'Pigeon English* also 'servant' is 
Boy^ whilst 'boy' in our ordinary 
sense is discriminated as ^simdlo-boyl* 

b. A Palankin-l)earer. From tlu* 
name of the cast«, Telug. and Mala^al. 
bOyi^ Tain, bdvi, &c. Wilson gives 
bhiyi as H. and Mahr. ^Iso. The 
word is in use northward at least 
to the Nerbudda R. In the Konkan, 
people of this class are called Kah<ir 
ohul (see Ind. Ant. ii. 154, iii. 77). 
P. Paolino is therefore in error, as lu* 
often is, when he says that the word 
boy as applied by the English and 
other Europeans to the coolies or 
facchini who carry the doolj*, "has 
nothing to do with anv Indian lan- 
guage. In the fii-st ani third ([nota- 
tions (under b), the use is more like 
a, but any connect i<m with English at 
the dates seems impossible. 


1609.— "I boujrht of them a PortvgatI 
Boy (which tho Hollanders had given unto 
the King) . . . hee cost mee fortie-fivo 
Dollers." — Keeliufjy in Purchcu, i. 196. 

„ " My Boy Stephen Grovenor."— 
llawhiiif, in Punha*, 211. See alao 267, 296. 

1681.— "We had a hUwk boy my Father 
brought from Porto Nova to attend upon 
hinj, who seeing his Master to be a l*risoner 
in the hands of tho People of his own Com- 
plexioUf would not now obey hw Com- 
mand."— A'wor, 124. 

1696. — "Being informed where the Chief 
man of the Choultrj' lived, he (Dr. Brown) 
took his sword and pistol, and being follow^e<l 
by his boy with another pistol, and his horse 
koei)er. . . ." — In Wheder^ i. 300. 

1 784 . — " ElojieiL From his ma.<(ter\s HoiL«*e 
at Moida(>ore, a few days since, A Malay 
Slave Bcr^." — In Seton-Karrj i. 45 ; see also 
pp. 120, 179. 

1836.— "The real Indian ladies lie on a 
sofa, and if they dro[) their handkerchief, 
they just lower their voices and sav Boy I 
in a very gentle tone." — Utirr^ from Madras^ 

1866.— "Yes, Sahib, I (Oiristian Boy. 
Plenty p<x)jah do. Sunday time never no 
work i\o.''—Trfcthjan.^ The Dawk Bungalow^ 
p. 226. 

Also used by the French in the 
East : 

1872.— "Mon boy m'accomi)ftgniiit pour 
me servir ^ I'occasion de guide et d'intor- 
[ir^te."— /^>'. d*-* Df^vx Mnndfjt, xcviii. 957. 

1875.—'* lie was a faithful ser\*ant, or boy, 

as they are here called, about forty yean 
of age."— rAotMOA** Malacca^ 228. 

1876.— "A Portuguem B<^ . . . from 
Bombay." — Blachoood*t Mag.^ Nov., p. 578. 


1554. — (At Goa) "ali» to a xai^w, wHk 
6 peons {pidiet) and a mocadam with 6 toidi* 
bearers ((ochds)^ one umbrella boy (Am bdf 
do sombreiro ), two washermen (aiatiiatot), 9 
water-carriers (b6yB d'aarHou) all aeiring tht 
governor ... in all t^ pardaos and 4 
tangas annually, or 84,240 reis.*' — & Betdke, 
TombOy 57. 

[1563.— "And there are men who cuij 
this umbrella so dexterously to ward off tM 
sun, that although their master trots on hit 
horse, the sun does not touch any part of 
his body, and such men are called in Indis 
boi."— Bdmw, Dec. 3, Bk. x. ch. 9.] 

1591. — A proclamation of the Tioenj, 
Matthias d'Alboquerque, orders: "tbit do 
l)erson, of what quality or condition soever, 
shall go in a palanttHim without my expreii 
licence, save they oe over 60 years of sg«, 
to be first proved before the Auditor-Oeneiil 
of Police . . . and those who oontntvene 
this shall pay a penalty of 200 cnuados, and 
persona of mean estate the haU, the 
palanquys and their belongings to be for- 
feited, and the bois or moncos who csnj 
such paloMjuys shall be oonaemned to \m 
Majesty's galleys." — ^rrAi'r. Pari. OrinL, 
fasc. 3, 324. 

1608-10. — ". . . faisans les graass et 
obseruans le Sotxi^o k I'EspaffDole, aTsni 
tousiours leur boay qui porte Tear pansol, 
sans letjuel ils n't^ent sortir de logis, oa 
autrement on les estimeroit piearot et ndser* 
ables." — Mocquetf Voyagejt, w5. 

1610. — ". . . autres Gentils oui soot 
comme Crocheteurs et Porte-faiz, qalb 
app)ellent Boye, c'est a dire Bosnf poor 
ix>rter quelque prafit faiz que oe soH."— 
Pyrard de Ldvdl, ii. 27 ; THak. Soc. iL 44. 
On this Mr. Gray notes: "Pyrard's fsndfnl 
interpretation 'ox,' Port. bot\ may be dot 
either to himself or to some rnrtwnsn 
friend who would have his joke. It if 
repeated by Boullaye-dc-Gouz (p. ^1), wbo 
finds a parallel indignity in the use ol tht 
term muhu by the French gentr}* towards 
their chair-men."] 

1673.—" We might recite the Goolies . . . 
and PaUnkeen Bojni ; by the very Ueatbew 
esteemed a d^enerate Offspnng of tht 
Uolencwe* (see HALALCORE)."— JVyer, 31. 

1720.— "Boil. In Portuguese India aiv 
those who carry the A ndore* (see AHDOBK 
and in Salsete there is a village of thsn 
which pays its dues from the fish iriiiA 
they sell, buying it from the fishermsa of 
the shores." — BluUavi^ Diet, s.t. 

1755-60.—". . . Palanldn-boyi.*'— im» 

1778.— "B07B de pfUanqmtn^ 
OranuUica Indosiand (rort.^ RollM^ 88> 

1782.—". . . un bamboQ uqatf dam It 
milieu, qui tient au palanquin, and Mr 



let boat* dut|ucl sie OMttent 6 ou 6 porteurs 

17^.— "The boyv with Colonel Law- 
rcDoe*# palankeen having stragjp^led a little 
«<it c»f the line of march, were picked U|> b^ 
the Mtirattaj*/*— C<irAiori*o/», Lifr of Clict^ i. 

1801. — ** My fAUuHiuin hajn will be laid 
oo the road on Monday." — Wellington^ iii. 

1909. — **Mv hfgjm wore in high spirits, 
laoghing and nnging through the whole 
aight."— L</. VaUiUia, i. 826. 

1910. — ** The palankeen-bearent are called 
Bhite. and are remarkable for Htrength and 
•wiftnew.**— Jfcu-ia Graham^ 128. 


A buov. Sea H. 

{Rotburk), [Mr. vSkeat adds: "The 
VIaIhv won! is also hoya r)r hax-rop, 
whicii latter I cannot traci>."] 


•■orr. of the MaUival. Vdllunavar^ 
• Ruler.* 

[1!»87.—** Somewhere about 1694-95 . . . 
the KadattuniLd Raja, known to the early 
Enitrliffh ui the Boyaaore or Baomor of 
Ba^ia^rara, wan in wmi -independent ixmsch- 
mm, oi Kaduttanad, that ix, of the territory 
lying between the Mah^ and Kotta riverR.^' 
— I4^a, Mam. of Malabar, i. 345.] 

BEAR 9. The Palmyra Tree (see 
FAUfTBA) or Borasgiuf jlihtUiformis. 
The Fortuguew called this Palmeira 
bniTa ('m-ild' palmX whence the 
Engli.'^h ccirruption. The term is un- 
kDf»«rn in BengaU where the tree is 
calleri 'fan-palni,' * palmyra,' or by the 
H. tkame tdl or tdr. 

142S.— **The Uiok if* nuide after the 
Ca»lmin i4 thin cHintr>', i.e. not of paper 
vh^^ t» velddm tfr nerer mied, but of palm 
Uaven, riz. i4 the learej* of that which the 
F <-tia4rae«e call paJmnM bmiUk («>), or wild 
tmlm.- -/*. <U(la I'nlf", ii. 681 ; [Hak. Soc. 

<- l«i*S. — "Trtw lc« Malaliarf^ invent 
croubtf de gauche k droit tmr leu 
fcQilIe* dc9 Palmrrtu Bn.'Wn»."—Theeent>t, 
t Jfc. 

I<73.-" Another Tree called Brabb, 
bcatbed like the Cocoe, but the learen grow 
n<iad bke a Teaoock's Tail set upright."— 
rrwT. 76. 

17S6. — "Brmbb. mo called at Boml«v : 
/'«/«tf« r« the OAKt ; and Tall at Bengal." 
- /^. i». 

c. 1760L~**'niere are alwo here and there 
ut«np«r«*d a few brab-treea^ or rather wild 
mimtrmm Itbe word hrah being deriTed from 
■Elto, whMb m Portague«e aigniftes wild) 
tU dMf Bcu6t froiD that U the toddy." 

[1808.— See quotation under BAND ABEE.] 

1809.— "The Palmyra . . . here called 

the birab, furnishes the best loaves for 

thatching, and the dead ones serve for fuel.'* 

— Maria Graham, 5. 

MIN, s. In some pai'ts of India 
called Bahman; Snt. Brdhmana. 
This word now means a member of 
the priestly caste, but the original 
meaiung and use were diflferent. 
Haug. \Brdhma und die BraJi manerij 
pp. 8-11) traces the word to tlie root 
hrihy 'to increase,' and shows how it 
has come to have its present significa- 
tion. The older English form is 
Brachman, which comes to us through 
the Greek and Latin authors. 

c. B.('. 330.— •*. . . tCj¥ iv Ta^CKois 
<Twf>urr(av IScTp 8vo 4^rf<Tl, BpaxM^i^at dfJL^o- 
T4pov%t rbp fjukv Tp€(rp&r€pO¥ i^vfnjfUvoVy rbv 
8k P€UT€pov KOfiif-niv, auipoT^poit ^ aKoXov- 
$tlv fuiBrrrds . . ,"^ AristolnUua, quoted 
in Strabo, xv. c. 61. 

c. B.C. 300. — "''AXX171' 6k SialpeaiF xoui- 
rat Ttpl tGiv tpiXoad^ojv 90o y4ni ^xiaKoty, 
Cjv tovs fiky hpaxft'O.yas KaXet, rods W 
Vapfidwat l^apfidifasiy — From Megasthenes, 
in StraJbOj xv. c. 59. 

c. A.D. 150. — **But the evil stars have not 
forced the Brahmiiui to do evil and abomin- 
able things ; nor have the ^ood stars per- 
suaded the rest of the (Indians) to abstain 
from evil things." — Bard^mne*, in Cureton*t 
Spicilegium, 18. 

c. A.I). 600. — ** Bpax^ayet ; 'Ivdijc^ 
idp<n <ro<f>urraTO¥ oOf xal fipdxfMS KaXwkriP." 
Stephanus Byzantinus, 

1298.— Maroo Polo writes (pi.) Abraiaman 
or Abraiamin, which seems to represent an 
incorrect Ar. plural {e.g. AbrOhamhi) picked 
up from Arab sailors ; the correct Ar. plural 
is Bardhima, 

1444.— Poggio taking down the reminis- 
cences of Nicolo Conti writes Brammones. 

1555.— '* Among thene is ther a people 
called Bradimanaa, whiche (as Didimua 
their Kinge wrote unto Alexandre • • • ) 
live a pure and simple life, led with no 
likerous lustes of other mcnnes vanities." 
— \V. Watrtman, Fardle 0/ Faciouns. 

" BrahmanM b&o os sous religioMos, 
Nome antiguo, e de grande preeminenoia : 
OlNienram os preceitos tiSo famosoA 
Dlium, que primeiro poz nomo & sciencia." 

CanUfe*, vii. 40. 

1578._AoosU has Bragmen. 

1582.— "Castafieda, tr. by N. L.," has 

1630.— "The Braznaiiea . . . Ori^en,cap. 
13 k 15, affirmeth to bee descended from 
Abraham by Cheturah, who seated them- 






dvtinfnaualMd at a distance ; so that the 
vbole made a Terj formidable appearance." 
-U. t^Sadir Skak, in Uanway, hffj,] 

1788. — **BunUDBiM — a cloak to coyer one 
frooi th« rain."— /iu<. Vooab. (Stockdale). 

[Thi- w<»rd mrfrftl in now eoinmonly 
iwwi to dn«cribe thuee cn)})8 which are 
depcfiident on the annual rains, not 
OD artititia] irrigation. 

[ISOO. — ** The recent rain has improTed the 
* crops."— /*Km*^ Mail, 19th Feb.] 

^iHi wat«r; a Hpeciuien of genuine 
/Wii, i>. Gamp jargun, which hardly 
nrvd^ int<fq»retation. H. jwinJ, * water.' 
Williams' m (1810) has bmndy-shraub' 
pasmy ( V, M. ii. 123). 

il%M. — **rm sorry to see you gentlemen 
<inxikinff temadj-pawiiM, " says ho; *Mt 
PMV* the deuce with our young men in 
looia.''— Tikarivray, yeircameSy eh. i.] 

lf«W. — ** The temndy pawnM of the East, 
and the * nngatree ' of the West Indies, are 
ispptJv nt>w airD<«t thizu^s of the pant, or 
csist in u very nit Mlifieu form." — tfartn^, 
Tntyira,' Jtendettt^ 177. 

s. A brace. Sea dialect. 


[BKAS8-KN0CKER, s. A t^rm 
a(«filird to a r^ehauff/ or ^.Tving up 
«gasxi «*f y«sterdav'fl dinner or 8ut>per. 
It I* -wi^l to W /ound in a novel by 
Wiii»-t««l Rearle called Lihfiiy Hail. 
4A a [»in-e of Anglo-Indian slang ; and 
It i* Mipp(K«d Ut }ni a corruption of 
ktim iA'irui, H. V4ale ftKid'; see r> Hail, in order to give a name to the land 

imported from Pernambuco, which is 
derived from certain species of Ckusal- 
jiinia indigenous there. But it origin- 
ally applied to a dye-wood of the same 
genus which was imported from India, 
and which is now known in trade as 
Sappan (q.v.). [It is the andam or 
baJbkam of the Arabs (Burton, Ar. 
Nights, iii.* 49).] The history of the 
word is very curious. For when the 
name was applied to the newly dis- 
covered region in S. America, probably, 
iis Barros alleges, because it produced 
a dye-wood similar in character to the 
brsbzil of tlie East, the trade-name 
gradually became api>ropriated to the S. 
American product,, and was taken away 
from that of the E. Indies. See some 
further remarks in Marco Polo, 2nd ed., 
ii. 368-370 [and Kncycl. Bihl i. 120]. 

This is alluded to also by Camoes 
(x. 140) : 

** But hero whore Earth spreads wrider, ye 

shall claim 
realms by the ruddy Dye-toood made 

ronown'd ; 
these of the 'Sacred Cross* shall win 

the name : 
by your first Navy shall that world be 

found." Burton. 

The medieval forms of brazil were 
many ; in It^ilian it is generally verzi, 
verzino, or the like. 

1330.— "And here they bum the bnudl- 
wood (trrziuo) for fuel . . ." — Fr. Odoric, in 
Cathaif, &c., p. 77. 

1562.—'' . . . when it came to the 3d of 
May, and Pcdralvarcs was about to set 

♦r .V. ^ Q^ 34, 77.] 

thus newly discovered, he ordered a very 
great CroHM to bo hoisted at the top of a 
tree, after mass had been said at the foot 
of the tree, and it had l)een set up with the 
solemn bene<liction of the priests, and then 
he giive thu country the name of Sancla 
Cruz. . . . but as it was through the symbol 
of the CnMiy that the Devil lost his dominion 
over us . . . a.s soon as the red wood called 
Braiil began to arrive from that country, 
he wrought that that name should abiae 
in the mouth of the people, and that the 
name of Jlofif Crotun should bo lost, as if 
j the name of a wood for colouring cloth were 
< of more moment than that wood which 
I imbues all the sacraments with the tincture 
of salvation, which is the Blood of Jems 
liM --. . a t#»wn of the Moor*, well I Christ.'— /<am*i, 1. v. 2. 
• a:,rd. and Jittill uf f^jdtUHM and white- i554.-"The l»ar (Bahmr) of BraiU oon- 
-fc»t. which u calkd BiEva. . . . It IS a uins 20 fafa9olas (see FRAZALA). weighing 
•ri^^ 4 tfa<i«. which has already been j j^ j^ ^ ^j,,ir ^pe, and there is no pircrfoa (see 
ta-t/^-^cd by thm Pdrto^uese, with great | piCOTA)"-^. A'ws^s, 18. 
•Uvfctor frf tba inhalnUnto. ... — --,, ..w« »„«♦ ♦,. -.^ 

H. A word, iLsed only 
u thf Stuth, fnr cakes of dry cow- 
'i:ufL u.'^ ft!* fuel more or less all 
'^-f India. It i^ Tam. varatti, [or 
nrrWiJ, 'drird dung.' Various terms 
*f» ' unvni eljH* where, but in Uijper 
IzjKlia thf mrwt «:omnion is upUi. — (Vide 

n.p. A sea-port cm the 
cr«i*t of Africa, lal, 1' T N., 
Vj^. 44* 3*, pniperly 


1641. — "We went to see the Kasp-honse 

where the lusty knaves are compelled to 

«» _-- ■.., -„ . Ubour, and the rasping of BraiiU and Log- 

WEAllTrWDOIl, a. This name is • ^,ood is very hard lalK>ur."— /fiv/yii'f Dtary, 
rm appbed ia lnd» to the dye-wood ', August 119\, 




BEEECH-CANDY, u.p. A Icnality 
on the shore of Bombay Island tx> the 
north of MahilNir Hill. The true name, 
;i.s Dr. Murmv Mitchell tells me, is lie- 
lie ved to Ixj burj'khddiy Uhe Tower of 
the Creek/ 

BEIDOEMAN, s. AnfrlcSepoy H. 
hrijnidJi, denoting a military prisoner^ 
of which word it is a quaint corrup- 

EEE, BUNJABEEE, and so on. But 

the lirst form has Iwcome classical from 
its constant (X'currence in the Indian 
Desmtt^hes of Sir A. Welleslcy. The 
word is pro])erly H. banjdrd, and 
Wilson derives it from Skt. tawi}', 
trade,' kdra^ *doer.' It is possible that 
the form hrinjdrd may have Insen sug- 
gested by a supiKXsed connection witii 
the Pers. hirinj^ *rice.' (It is alleged 
in the IHd. of Worda used in the K, 
Jndie*^ 2nd i»d., 1805, to ])e derived from 
hrinjy * rice,' and am, * bring'!) The 
Brinjarru'H of the Deccan are dealers in 
grain and siilt, who move about, in 
numerous pirties with cattle, carrying 
t heirgoodsto di tie rent markets, and who 
in the days of the Deccan wars were the 
great resource of the commissariat, as 
they followed the armies with su])plies 
for sale. They tiilk a kind of Maliratt-a 
orHindijKitois. Most classes of Banjaras 
in the west ap])ejir to have a traditi(m 
«>f having tirst come, to the Deccan with 
Moghul camps as <.*ommissariat c^irriers. 
In a ]);im])]ilet called Some Acronnt of 
the Bunjarnih Ha.^^ }»y N. R. Cum her- 
bage, Diiitriti Sup. of Polirr^ Basein, 
Berar (Bomlmy, 1882 ; [North Induia 
N. rf? Q. iv. 103 «'v/7.]), the author 
alt^m])t.s to distinguish Ixjtween briny 
4ire*$ as 'grain-carriers,' and hunjarrahs^ 
from bunjdr^ * waste land ' (meaning 
Jnuijar or bdnjur). But this seems 
fanciful. In the N'.-W. Provinces the 
name is also in use, and is ap]»lied to 
a numerous triln* spread along the 
skirt of the Hi mala va from Hardwar 


to (jrorakhpur, some of whom are 
.<*?ttled, whilst the re-st move aWnit 
with tlicir cattle, sometimes transport- 
ing goods for hire, and sometimes 
iMrrj'ing grain, sjilt, lime, forest pro- 
<lucx;, or other merchandise for sjile. 
[Sec Crocke, Tribfs and Castes, i. 149 jv^^.] 
VaJDJ&ras, as tliey are railed alw^ut 
Boml)ay, usi'd to come down from 
I^jputuna and Central India, with 

large drcnes of cattle, laden withgRiiiu 
«S:c., taking Itack with them salt fm* 
the mast jMirt. These were not men- 
carriers, but the actual dealers, pa^-ing 
ready money, and they were onlerlv 
in conduct. 

c. 1505. — "As scarcity was felt in hi« 
camp (Sultan Sikandar Lodi's) in ocnue- 
iiuonco of the nun-arrival uf tho Bujaiai. 

1516.— "The Moon* and Gentilen of the 
cities and towns throuj^hout the oountrr 
iM)me to sot up their shops and cloths at 
Clieul . . . they V>ring the^e in ^reat 
caravans of domestic oxen, with pack». liko 
donkeys, and on the top of ihe^e lonfr white 
sacks placed croiuwisc, in which thev brine 
their goods ; and one man drives 90 <v 40 
Ijoastti before him." — Bturboga^ 71. 

15(>3.— ". . . This Kin^of Dely took th« 
Balagat from certain ver}' powerful gcntouH. 
whoso tribe are those whom we now call 
Venesaras, and from others dwelling in the 
country, who are called C«>//«u ; and lul these, 
C'olles, and Vetifzara»^ and Reisbutom liTt? 
by theft and robl)or\' to this da v." — Oarc*m 
/V O., f. \U. 

c. 1632.— "The very first step which 
Mohabut Khan [Khun Khunin] took in the 
Deccan, was to present the Funjarai of 
Hindostiin with elephants, horses, and 
cloths ; and he collected (by these ooo- 
ciliatory measures) ho many of them that 
he had one chief llunjiira at Agrah, another 
in (T<N)jrat, and another above the Ghatf, 
and established the advanced price of 10 mtv 
t>er ruiMM) (in his camp) to enable him t4» 
buy it cheai)er."— MS. Llfn ofMnhabul Kka* 
{Khan Kfianati\ in linggs* paper ijnoted 
below, 183. 

1638.—" 11 y a dans le Koyaume de Cm- 
ram vn certain {leuple qu'ils appollent Vmm- 
■an, tjui achettcnt le hied et le ris . . . 
[)our le reuendro dans Vlndustkan. . . . oo 
ils vont auoc des CaJffUa* ou C'oraitiiMM de 
cinq ou six, et quclque fois de nenf oa dii 
millo bcstes de somme. . . .** — MaadeU&, 

1793.— "Whilst the army halted on the 
23rd, accounts were received from Oiptain 
Kead . . . that his oonvoy of liilnjiiilw 
had l>een attacked by a btxly of horse.'*-' 
DIrttmj 2. 

1800.— "The BinJarriM I look upon id 
tho light of ttcrvants of the ]mblic, of whone 
grain 1 have a right to r^giulate the sale 
. . . always taking care that they have a 
proportionate advantage." — A, Wetfedetf. m 
Life of Sir T. Munn*, i. 264. 

„ "The Brinjazrias drop in br 
dejfrocs." — Welti ngton^ i. 175. 

1810. — " lmmc<liately facing lu a tra^ of 
Bzinjarees had taken up woir 
for tho niffht. These people travel 
one end of India to the other, 
salt, g:rain, assafoetido, almost as 
to an army as salt.*' — Maria ffrmft— , fl. 

— ■ »- -— ^«^w 


— "Wc met them i 
irti ur metchantii, 

(if UIMl, ladoD with VII 

be mt«ni>r wiunlr}'> to 
1 the iOB-wwt,"— >W 
[2Dd«d. 1. ll»:obi..«!. 
" Ao the [>oa3Ui in cJoi 
hie river, uul hiu iin lu 


nrjAUL, ^ Th,- 

tl>le i:Allr<l ill the W 
tint, and tuiitv ooiuiti 
e En^lifb iu Iti-iiKiil 
■MM 'iiriiii. 6R(n4i(>i) 

Wl iiii itieiiliiinMof 
B W vvll a^ in llK 

rlld » 


uu'l.-r nii. 

nil brinfiul If from 
•••>■■ -)iaH >*^-. 11 


of mtlan:Mnii, or, as Marcel 
's, " Latin dii lutaiiish:." It 
if tlie Skt. word were th« 
r all. Tliu H. baingan again 
lave liecn inodilied from tlie 
!n, [or, us PlatLs asserts, dim-t 
ike. wnga, vaiigana, ' tlie plant 
,'] and baitigan also througli 
I Save been the iiartiiit of tnn 
nffena, and so of all the other 

names except the English 
■J The Ital. niefa ituana i.i 
uurioiia of these corruptions, 
' the usual ulfort after niean- 

connecting itself with the 

indigestible reputation of 
able sji it Ls eaten in Ital}', 

a fact. Wlien cholera is 
is considered (e.g. in Sicily) 
ct of folly to eat the melan- 
lere is, however, 1)ehind this, 
m (exempli lied in the quota- 

Lan^t Mod. Empt. below) 

fthe badiitjdn nith madness, 
r. NighU, iii. 417.1 And it 
in that the old Aral) medical 
ve it a bad character as an 
diet. ThiLS Avicenna says 
iln generates iiielanclioly and 
ns. To Ihe N. 0. Sotatiaeeae 


• l>eloti 

rdliaflW-ncjimcd, with the 
to the Aivhipulago, pro- 
thu Portiigiiese, for the 
11 it berinjaUl. [On this Mr. 
xn : " The Malay form brinjal. 
Port., not berinjtild, is given 
-d and Swetteuham, but il 
eslabllihed as a Malav word, 
ost certaiiily the Eng. brinjaut 
Malay. It liiids no jilace in 
and Xhf native Malay word, 
the <mly word iLsed in pure 
r Malay, is Uron-f or trong. 
I hrriiijaUl, I lielicve, must 
i fnim the Islands if it reallv 

. tiriiic^l*, 

I^W, ■WTOH^ia, ItH 

y^. )4-lo«>, Fr*^n< 
. oAtvimi-tui), mflon 

iqH |.n;viu' i^lly bel 
, mUnyinr, athfronvu. 
. p. ¥i.) Littn-, w.- 
JW iarmitaitlt Homer 
pan 4* marrlU,' girii 
illMloulif de otJitri 

dI • kind of peach) 


Ind the 

PS rit : Kadiiihwi, Iwolroot, gar- 
■ grven und drj-, ^rcoa tntnarindii, 
afoAalingyiaf, ^in^er, oranffee, 
inder, mint, cabbaffe, i^ted 
brtnjelu. lemons, gaurdi, eil' 
mban, whicb artit-Lei none Duy 
lil excc].t the Rendeini of thu 
tomo oiiu who has got perraiiHion 
, . .■■-.T. Bae/ho, Tvpi^, 49, 
-"Trifoliam mioqua Tirem coi 
rt, mentbAm Judaa cnidam, . 




ufK>n tho Strand of diuers HortM of pro- 
uixionH, towit . . . Pallingeniet, cucumbers 
. . ." — .V. iJovHtOH^ iu PurchaSy i. 2S*8. 

161(J. — "It nccms to me to be one of 
those fruits which are called in ^(xxl Tuscan 
jfetroticittHif but wliich by tho Ijom bards are 
called melanxane, and by the vulgar at 
Rome marignani ; and if my memory docs 
not deceive Die, by the Neapolitans in their 
\mio\Aino1egnaHC.**--I\ della Vallr, i. 197. 

1673. — *'The (xurden . . . planted with 
Potiitoet), Vawmit, Btrenjawi, both hot 
plants . . "— Fryer y 104. 

1738.— "Then follow during the rest of 
the summer, ailabashas .... bedin-JftlUUl, 
and tomatas." — Shaw't Travelg^ 2ndod. 1757, 
p. 141. 

c. 1740.— "This man (Balaji Rao), who 
h:ui become nl>i«oIute in Hindtfstan as well 
at* in Decun, wuh fond of bread made of 
Badjrah ... he lived on raw Brin^^las, on 
unripe mangoes, and on raw rod jwppor." — 
S-ir Mtttaf/hfrin, iii. 229. 

1782. — Sonnemt write** B^iing^des. — 
i. 186. 

1783.— KorrcMt spells biinjallei ( l'. to Afer- 
<7Ki, 40) ; and (IMO) Williiuuson biringal 
( r. J/, i. VSi). ForlKjs (1813). bringal and 
berenjal {Or. Sfrm. i. 32 ) (in 2nd ed. i. 22, 
bongalj ii. fX) ; [in 2nd ud. i. :M8]. 

1810. — " I saw last night at least two 
sicres c<)verc<l with bxinjaal. a s{)ecics of 
Solanum."— J/f//'/tf Graham^ 24. 

lS2t5. — " A i»lato of j|k Niched eggs, fried in 
Migar and butter ; a dish of badflinjAllB, nlit 
in the niiddle ami >Hii]u<l in grejiso." — II<W^ 

littf^. ed. ih;j.'», p. ir»o. 

183;').- "The neighUmrs unanimously de- 
clareii that the husliaml was mad. . . . 
One cxi-laimud : "ITiere is nf» strength nor 
jH»wcT l»ut in (iinl I (hhI restore thee I ' 
Another s;ti(l : * Ii«iw siid I He was really 
:i worthy man.' A thinl rc>niarked : 
* Badin^^ailB are very abundant just now.*" 
-/miu^ M(kl. K(////itiaifif^ ed. 1860, 299. 

18()0.— '* Amongst other triumphs of the 
native cuisine wcru sonic singular, but by 
iin means ineii-gant rJttj'j* fi*irnrrt', briojall 
iMiik'il iind stuMtsl with siivoury muitM, but 
exhibiting riiKt and undressed fruit growing 
on the sjinie bninch."- T*niient')t Ctyfon^ ii. 
161. This dish is nu'iitinned in the SaiLskrit 
('(Mikery U«Kik. which |»as>c.s as by King 
Nala. It \f managed by wnipping ftart of 
tlif fruit in wet cloths whil>t the rest is 
lieiliL' CI Hiked. 

BROACH, n.p. lihariH-h, an ancient, 
and .'it ill siir\iving «:it y (if (lU/erat, on 
ilic Hivcr Ncrbiubla. 'J'lic original 
I'lrnis of the nanii* an* lihrigu-kmrh' 
ilifm^ an<l liharu-Kiwhchha^ wbicli 
t«»riii appears in tli»! Sunnar Tave Jn- 
Miiphnn No. ix., and this was written 
wiili fair correctness bv tbe (Jreck-s 
a> Hapirydfa and Ha/yy6<ri7. "Illit4?rate 
(iii/ciattcfs wtMiM in attempting to 

articulate Ehrteghoo-Ktiietra {Mc\ low 
the half iu eofile^eenre, ana call it 
Ikirigache.^ — Drummondj IUum. of Gvm- 

c. B.C. 20.— "And then lau^hin^. and 

stript naked, anointed and with his loin-ckdi 

I on, he leaped upon the Pyre* And tlus 

inscription was set upon hi^ tomb: Ar> 

' Mauochiaas the Indian from Baz^M AtfVMf 

■ renderea himseif immnrial afUr the kereiiimy 

\ CMjttam of tJit indiann lietk Kerr." — Sieohm 

I IfamoicenuSy in <Srm/x7, zv. 72. [Lumd 

takes the name ZarmanochSgas to l u p fM ent 

the Skt. SrdmaiUickar^j teacher of tbe 

Srdmantu, from which it would appear that 
he waa a Buddhist priest.] 

c. A.D. 80.— "On the right, at the rtrj 
mouth of the gulf, there {a a long and 
narrow strip of shoal. . . . And if one lu^ 
ceeds in getting into the gulf, still it is hard 
to hit the mouth of the river loading to 
Barygua, owing to the land being fo low 
. . . and when found it w dimcult to 
enter, owing to the shoals of the river mv 
the mouth. On this account there an it 
the entninces fishermen employed by the 
King ... to meet shiiis as far off mm 8y- 
niatrene, and by these they are piloted np 
to Barygaza."— /Vnyj/wx, 'sect. 43. Itlf 
very interesting to compare Uunbuigih with 
this ancient account. ** From tho MUids of 
Swallow to Bniach a crjntinned bank extendi 
along the shore, which at Broach river no- 
jects out about T) miles. . . . The tide oomM 
here . . . velocity 6 knota . . . naag 
nearly 30 feet. . . . On the north fide of tbt 
river, a great way u]>, the town of Bmck 
is situated ; vessels of conaidoraMe bunleB 
may pnwecd to this place, aa the chanDeli 
are dee^> in many jtlaces, but too intricate to 
Ik) navignte<l without a pilot." — Im^ 
IHrrcttirtf {in hint). 

c. 718. — Bartia is mentioned aa one of the 
[)Iaces against which Arab attacka were di- 
recteil.- See JCfliut, i. 441. 

c. 1300.- ". . .a river which lies bt- 
tween the Sarsut and Gangea . . . hai a 
S4>uth- westerly course till it falla into the 
sea near Bahrdch.'— .4/-^iriZni, in BUd, 
i. 49. 

A.D. 1.T21.—** After their blossed martyr- 
dom, which occurred on the Thunday befort 
Palm Sunday, in lluma of India, 1 faaptiNd 
alM)ut 90 itersons in a certain city called 
Parocco, lO da^*s' journey distant tbe^^ 
from . . ."—Fruir Jordanug, in fJUA^ 
&c., 226. 

l.'>f>2.— **A groat and rich ship Mid to 
Itelong to Meletjue Gupij, Lord uf MZtNkS** 
—Harrosj 11. w. 2. 

l.'i.'ir). — *• Sultan Ahme<l on hii pelt 
marche<l u))on Barfij."— <'^^» *'Af^% 85. 

[161.').— '*1t would be n c c ca a a ry to give 
credit unto two or three GaBaratta for i 
cloth t4i make a voyage to BllEIVH 
Fwter^ iMterSf iv. 94.J 

1617.— "We gave our heat ... a 
of hactar baxiMUlO to hia children to 



thn 2 otmUm," — Ooett't MHary, i. 330. 
\Batkmr here aeems to represent a port 
co an ec t ed with Bnmch, called in the A\n 
<iL*i4S) BkaukoraoT Bhakor ; Bayley givw 
JKaliiiBfc an a Tillage on the frontier of 

IflSSw—** Before the hour of complines 
. . . «• arrived at the city of Baroohi, 
«r Baloriir an they call it in Perrian, under 
the walb of which, on the south side, flows 
a n9vt called Nerbedk."— P. dtlla ValU, 
iL ae» ; [HakL Soc. i. 60]. 

W4S.— In Tm Twiu (p. 11), it is written 

n^^— *'Fn)fn Surat to Baioche, 22 
•aea." — rar^r-rnVr, ed Bail, i. 66.] 

1754.- -Bandar of BhrOoh."— (Bird's tr. 
k4\ Mu0iuAkwuuli, 115. 

mo. — ** I have the honour to enclose . . . 
|«{ier« which cr»ntain a detailed account of 
the . . . cai^ture uf Baioach."— WrlUng- 
<ja, iL ^89. 

BUCTK. V. To pnite, Xa chatter, to 
Ulk much and egotistically. H. haknd. 
[A kmek-^iek is a chiitterer.] 

IJIM.— *'And then ... ho hnckl with 
a <}airC stulibom determination that would 
to an American editor, or an Under Secre- 
tary of State with despair. He lielongs to 
tb« l2-fuuC-tif;er •school, so perhaps be can't 

BUCKAUL, s. Ar. H. fmlial^ 'a 
AopkcffKrr ;' a bunyti (4. v. under 
r). In Ar. it means ratlier a 
Ufaiand ' dealer. 

{e. IMQl — ** There is one cast of the 

mlled Bunik, niorv commonly termed 

i^nun ♦ riiiTt-tiant). The Persians 

tKrm **^^^*' . . ."— .iiM, tr. Jarrftt, 


\HH. - - ... 1 buccal of thi^ pUcc told 
« be «<>'iJ-l let me hiive 600 iMgs to- 
wMtr**9.~ — W't(*Hgt*tn, i. 196. 

I*^i. — "rt|>.Hi!d I find (AXT nci^hlvmr the 

■^pal ... at wh'ifiv rthop I uwd to spend 

swvsfoMntf all the* coiifier ro<»ney that I 

' f^kri'in fn>nj u»v f.itncr.'*— //<»|/V JSaAri, 

BUCKfiHAW, s. We have n<»t 
\^m ahle to identify the tish ho 

raUkvl, or the true form of tlie name. 
PerbafA* it u <ailv H. ttarhrhd^ Malir. 
kadifka (p. h^trhu Skt. mtmt\ Mhe 
TOdXiir **i Any • reaiture.' But the 
kfJOkAni Ihrt. jrivta* */ir>tt4sri— neixe 
|<««|actH» '1*» «jiiahiuer ftorte,' * little 
hah ii# aiiy kind. TliL«< is |terliaps 
t^ rrmX word ; hut it also may 
rvprcMAt hiyrkduM, The ]iractice of 
HiaaBnng the tuco-pahiiA with putrid 
Ml m itill nf«, an reftidentjt of the 
Govemnmit HiNue at Parell never 

forget. Tlie fish in iLse is refuse 
bummelo (u. v.). [The word is really 
tlie H. bactihudj a well-known edible 
fish which abounds in the Ganges 
and other N. Indian rivers. It is 
either the Psevdoutropius garua, or 
P. murius of Day, Pish. Ind.^ nas. 
474 or 471 ; Fan. Br. Ind. i. 141, 

1673. — **. . . Cocoe Nuts, for Oyl, which 
latter they dunging with (Bubaho) Fish, the 
Land-Breezes brought a poysonous SmeU on 
board Ship." — Fiyrr, 55. [Also see WKeelrr, 
Early Rec., 40.] 

1727.— ** The Air is somewhat unhealth- 
ful, which is chiefly imputed to their 
dunging their Cocoa-nut trees with Budc- 
shoe, a sort of small Fishes which their Seii 
alxjunds in." — .4. Hamilton^ i. 181. 

c. 1760. — '*. . . manure for the coco- 
nut-tree . . . consisting of the small fry 
of fish, and called by the country name of 
Buck«haw."-r/ro*r, i. 31. 

[ISSS.—^* Mdhjdr, rohu and batchwa arc 
found in the river Jummu" — (JazeUefv of Delhi 
District, 21.] 

BUGKSHAW, s. This is also ufHid 
iu Caches Diary (i. 63, 99) for some 
kind of Indian piece-goods, we know 
not what. [The word is not found 
in UHxlern list** of piece-goods. It 
is perhaps a corruption of Pera. biUrJiahy 
*a bundle,' used s]K»cially of clothes. 
Ta vernier (see l)elow) uses tlie word 
in its ordinary sense. 

[1614.—*' Percallo, BozahaM." — fW^r, 
L^ttrrxy ii. 88. 

11615.- "SO pieces Boxiha ginganiM**; 
** rer Puxahawi, double piece, at 9 nias."— 
I hid. iii. 156 ; iv. 50. 

[1665. — *' I went to lie down, my houchha 
beuig all the time iu the same place, half 
under the head of mv l>ed and half outside." 
— 7Vf»v,-/MVr, ed. Ball, ii. 166.] 

through P.—lLbaklishiJi. Bmmamauo, 
Trinkgeld, |H)urlK)ire ; we don't siUMii 
to have in England any exa<i. e<|uiva- 
lent for the word, though tlie thing 
is so general ; * something for (the 
driver) Is a j)Oor expi*es><ion ; tip \h 
accurate, but is slang ; gratuity is 
otticial or dictionary English. 

[ltJ25.— ••Bacaheeae (as they <ny in the 
Arabicke tongue) that is gnitis freely."— 
J'un/nu, ii. ia40[!*.B.D.]. 

1759.— "To Present**:— K. A. P. 

2 ISeces «.f flt»were<l Vclv«t 5:J2 7 
1 ditto of Hnmd (;U»th . . .^»0 
Bmia U* the Servant** . . fiO ** 
Cttft of KhfrrtitinmrMt to J*tggrt SM. In 
I Amy, 190. 



c. 1760. — ". . . Biude money."— /*rji, 61. 

1810. — ". . . each mile will coHt full one ! 
rupee {i.e, 2^. (v/.), besides viirioua little 
(litibuntements by way of buzeeB, or pre- 
sents, to every set of bearers." — WiUiain*ony 
r. M, ii. 23.1. 

1 823. — * • These ( -hristmaM-boxes are said to 
Iw un ancient custom hero, and I could 
almost fancy that our mime of 1h)j^ for this 
INirticular kind of present . . . ia a corrup- > 
tion of backBhish, a ^ift or gratuity, in ; 
Turki-*h, Persian, and Hindixwtjinee."— | 
Bribery i. 46. 

18.'>3.— "The relieved bearers opened the 
shutters, thrust in their torch, and their 
black heads, ami most unceremoniously de- ' 
mandcd buxeeB. ' IT. Arnold, OaMr'/d, i. 

BUGKTNE, s. H. hakdyan, the 
\VKt\t Melia stmjx'nnvem^ Roxb. (N. O. 
Meluueae). It liiw a ((Hisidenible re- 
M*mblaiRe to the nim tree (see NEEM) ; 
and ill Beiig-ali is <!alled mahd-nlm^ 
wbicli i.s also the Skt. name, inahd- 
fiimUi. It is sometimes erroneously 
called Per.»<ian Lilae. 

DHIST. Thei*e words are often 
written with a (jiiite erroneous i\s- 
sumption of precision Bhudda^ &c. 
All that we shall do here is to collect 
h^mie of the earlier mentioiLSof Buddha 
and the religion called by his name. 

c. 200. — ** EtVt 8i tCjv *\if5u>y oi toU 
Boi'Txa irtiOofitvoi irapayy4\fiaa-iv- i¥ 8i' 
inrcpiidXrjv fftnyorrp'Oi cis 0f6v TfTifii^Kaai." 
(IfintiiS Altjntiif/n'nn^, Stroinaton, Litter I. 
(Oxford od., W), i. y.'iO). 

c. 240. -''Wisdom and deeiis have always 
from time to time Iwen bnjujrht to mankind 
by the m<.'x>»en>rers of (1<h1. So in one a^e 
they hiivc l»een )>roupht to mankind by the 
mcssen^rer called Buddha to India, in another 
by Zaradusht tx» Persia, in another bv .Tesus 
to the West. Thcreu|K»n this revelation has 
come down, this jmiphecy in this last a^e, 
through me, MAnI, the messenijer of the 
(iod of tnith to Habvlonia." -The Hook of 
Mdnl, «illed Shil/nlrkdrt, quottwl by A f hi rani, 
in his Chrono/rMjit, tr. by Sjichau, p. 190. 

c. 400.- •* Apu<l (tynmoso[>histAs Indiae 
ijujisi per manus hujus ojnnionis auctoritas 
tniditur, (]Uo<l Baddkm princi()eni dofpnatis 
fonim, e l;itcre suo virpo peneniret. Nee 
hoc mirum de U'lrljaris, (|uum Minorvam 
i|U<»<iue de capiie .lovis, et Lilicnim {liitrem 
tie femore ejiis proc-reatf^, docta fmxit 
<Iraecia."— A'V. Jn-ow, Adt\ Joriuianmn, 
Lib. i. e<l. Vallarsii. ii. .'W)9. 

f. 440. — ". . . TrfviKavTayap t6 'FifiTc- 
noKX^ovs Tov 'wap"'K\\rj<Ti (fH\o<r6<f>ov duyfia, 
6td ToO Mavixo-iov x/w<^'''*tt»'t<r/i6i» vxfKfAvaro 
. . . toi'toi' 5^ TOV '^Ki'diavov fJLafirjTTii 
yivtrai Boi'Sdat, rplyrtpw Tfp^^ipffot #coXoi'- 

fiepos . . . K.T. X." (sec the aame matter 
from GrvryhiK (MfrfHyjt below). — Saeratii, 
Hist, Krcfes. Lib. I. cap. 22. 

c. 840. — '*An certe BraticmanoniiD seqne- 
mur opiniouem, ut qucmadmodum ill! aectM 
suae auctorem Bubdam, per TirgiiuB latu 
narrant exortum, ita noti Ohiutum fuint 
praedicemusK Vel ma^.o sic iiaacitur Da 
sapientia de \ir(rinis cerebri), quomodo Min- 
erva de Jovis vertice, tjim(|UAm Liber Biter 
de femore? I't Cbrirtticolam de ▼irgini» 
{Nirtu non solennis natuni, vel anctoritai 
Hocrae lectionis, sed KuperBtitio Oentilii, et 
commentji ]>erd(x:ejint fabuloaa.*' — RtvbramMi 
CvrhnensiK L. de yatiritatt Xfi.^ cap. in. in 
L. D'Arhen/, JSpin'(et/,'ttt», toiii. i. p. 54, Puia^ 

c. 870. — ''The ludiaiu* give in genenl 
the name of budd to anything oonnectid 
with their worship, or which fomu the 
object of their veneration. 5jo, an idol u 
called hudd."- BnCiduri, in EHiot, i. 128. 

c. 904.— '^Bud&saf wa^ the founder of 
the Sabaean Keligrion ... he preached to 
mankind renunciati(»n (of this world) and 
the intimate ct^ntemplation of the eaperior 
worlds. . . . There was to Ite road on the 
(^ate of the Naobihitr * at Bulkh an inserip* 
tion in the Persian tongiio of which thii » 
the interpretation : '■ llic wurdtf of BadiMf : 
In the courts of kin^s three things are 
needed, Sense, Patience, Wealth.* Belov 
had been written in Arabic: * ftnililif Ifek 
If a free man iKtsseftses any of the three, 
he will riee from the eourta <rf Kings.* "• 
Afas^udi, iv. 45 and 49. 

1000. — " . . . }tseudo-T>rophets came flbr^ 

ward, the number and nistory of whom H 

would be im{X)ssible to detail. . . . The lint 

. mentioned is BAdhljaf, who came fcwaid 

in Indw..**— A f hi rArtl^ Ckronoloffff, by Sadbav, 

p. 186. This name given to Buddha ie 

I specially interesting as showing a step nearBf 

' the true Bitdhifnitrti, the orifirin of the nemt 

, 'IbNio-a^, under which Buadha became a 

'• Saint of the Church, and aj« elucidatiiic 

I Prof. Max Miillor's ingenious suggeatkn oi 

' that origin (see Chijw, &c., iv. 184 ; seeako 

Academy, Sept. 1, 1883, p. 146). 

I c. 1030. — "A stone was foond there in 
; the temple of the gretit Bvdda on which aa 
' inscription . . . purporting that Uie teBBnpIe 
! had l>een founded 50,000 yeani ago. . . . — 
i .4/'n6/, in A7//<><, ii. 39. 

I c. 1060.— ' ' This madman then, BfaniB (alio 
called Scythianus) was by race a Bnehniiw 
and he had for his teacher Biidtti, focmeriy 
called Terobinthus, who having been broortt 

, up by Scythianus in the looming of ne 
Greeks bocamo a follower of the sect of 
Empcdocles (who said there were two fiist 
principles op{)Oscd to one another), and when 
he entered Persia declared that ho had bev 
l>om of a virgin, ami had l>ecn broogbt ip 
amon^ the hills . . . and this BoidM (aSee 
I'erebmthus) did perish, cnuhed hj taviBr 
clean spirit." — Oenrg. rW/rmtiji, BitL 

• Naobihar ^ Nava-Vihara (* New 

Mona8t«Ty') is still the name of a 
iiiR Balkh. 


Bonn ad., 455 (old ed. i. 259). This wonder- 
fal jumble, maizUj copied, as we see, from 
Socrmteii {mpra)^ weems to bring Buddha and 
ManeA U>gether. **Many of the ideas of 
ManichMam vera but fragments of Bud- 
dhwn."— A\ B. Caweil, in iSm/M'ji />iW. of 
Ckrut. Bms^. 

c 1190. — "Very grieved was Sarang Dova. 
Constantly be performed the wornhip of the 
.Irihant ; the Bnddhist religion he adopted ; 
be wore ou nword."—Tke Poem of Chand 
Rarda^ paraphr. by Bram^fy in Jnd. Ant. 
I. 271- 

1«10.— *'. . . Thia Prince is called in 
the histoneii of him by many names: his 
tnji^er name was DramA Rajo ; but that 
Ly which he has been known since they 
kare held him for a saint is the Budao, 
which i* as much as to sav *Sage' . . . 
aiKl to Xh\n name the Gentiles throughout 
ail loHdia hare dedicated great and superb 
fkgodaa."— Cbv/o, Dec. V., liv. vi. cap. 2. 

[1^5.— '* The image of Dibottet, with the 
budge ooIlcMMoor bras imadg (or rather idol!) 
m it.''-Cock»i Diary, i. 200.] 

c. 1W5.—** There is indee<l another, a 
••Tenth Sect, which is called Baat^, whence I 
do p r oc ee d 12 other different sects ; hut this I 
w taH 90 onmmoo as the others, the Votaries 
id it beixi^ hated and despised as a company 
cf irreligKNis and atheistical {icople, nor do 
tber live like the rest."— -fimiiVr, E. T., ii. I 
107 ; [ed. CimMahie. 1X^\. ' 

14B5. — ** Above all these they have one to , 
whom they pay much veneration, whom they 
eaJ BodB ; his figure is that of a man."— 
^•A^kTD, f . 40A. 

ir28.— "Before Clautama Bndhimi there 
have k««n known 26 BtdAunu — viz. :...." 
- VmirmtMjM, V. (Ceylon) 369. i 

17S3.- -"Edrisi m»us instruit de cettc 
t rn.««&*tACK«, en disant ({uo le Rahikar est , 
•ikcateur d« PiMfllfi I>es Bmhm^nos du ' 
Maiahar disvnt <{uo c'est Ic nom tjuo 
\ ishtna a pns dans une de ses apparitions, 
tt QO conikutt Vishtnu pour unu des Xnm 
f^iZKipalci* dirinit^ Indienncs. Suivant St. ' 
J<'r«%mc et St. IVmcnt d'Alexandric, Bndda \ 
'<u Bvtte est U* IvfrislatcMir des (tymno- \ 
.Si4iht*te« de I'lode. La secte des BluuiULni 
'AX :>axnanAems, qui Vi>t demeur^ la dominante 
•Iat^s ti'»u«i ies rviyauroes d'au delk du (ianf^e, 
% f &it de Bndda en cette nualit/^ wm objet 
4 wii^^Uf'Q. C'est la premiere des dirinit^ 
* tonrutaise* ou do (Vilan. selon Ribciro. 
^mujmim^^'**i*-nx (-^t- OAUTAMA), la grnnde 
idUc des Siamoas, eft («ireuxap{ici^ Putti." — 
ii AunlU, itrfatrrisarmntj, 75. What know- 
i«4C« aiwi a|*prebeniiion, on a subject then so 
^Jbmrxr^ im sbown by this great <ve<.>gmphcr ! 
<'«Mif«rr the prett^ntiiius ignorance of the 
4U#fcT A>*b^ Raynal in the quotations under 

1770. — "Ami iOg the deities of the socoml 
reader, particular bonciurs are fiaid to Bud- 
dss. who deaotaded upon earth to take upon 
hoHstf the oOoe of mediator between Uod 
\r— Raynal (tr. 1777), i. 91. 

are aoother sect of Japan, 
of elliifc Batfw was the founder. . . . The 

spirit of liudzoitm is dreadful. It breathes 
nothing but penitence^ excessive fear, and 
cruel severity." — Ibid, 1. 138. Raynal in the 
two preceding passages shows that he was 
not aware that the religions alluded to in 
Ceylon and in Japan were the same. 

1779. — "II y avoit alors dans ces parties 
de rindo, et principalement ^ In Cote de 
Coromandel et k Ceylan, un C*iilte dont on 
ignore absolument les Dogmes ; le Dieu 
oaoath, dont on ne connoit aujourd'hui, 
dans rindc i^ue le Nom et I'objot de ce 
CHilte ; mais il est tout-^-fait aboli, si ce 
n'est, qu'il se trouve encore cpolques families 
d'Indiens s^par^es et m^i)ns<5es des autros 
Castes, qui sont rest^s Hd^les k Baouth, 
et ({ui ne rcconnoissent pas la religion des 
Brames." — Vo^t^r de M. UeniU^ quoted by 
\V. Chambrrity m As. Rex. i. 170. 

1801. — "It is generally known that the 
religion of Bouddhou is the religion of the 
people of CeyioHj but no one is acquainted 
with its forms and precepts. I shall here 
relate what I have heard upon the subject." 
— M. JoiHi-^'lfr^ in A». Res. vii. 399. 

1806.—" . . . The head is covered with 
the cone that ever adorns the head of the 
Chinese deity Fo, who has been often sup- 
posed to bo the same as Boudah." — Scuty 
CaitJi ofikil»eUe, in Tr. Lit. i<oc. Bo. i. 50. 

1810.— "Among the Bhuddistt there are 
no distinct aistos." — Maria (Jraham, 89. 

It is remarkable how many poems 
on the subject of Buddha have aji- 
jH^Ared of late years. We have notea : 

1. Buddha, Epigche Dirhtung in 
Zwfifizig Ge^iingen, i.e. an Epic Poem in 
20 cant<xs (in ottava ri/mi). Von Joseph 
Vittor Widmann, Bern. 1869. 

2. TIu Story of Qaatama Bnddha 

and his Creed: An Epic by Richard 
Phillijxs Lcmgmans, 1871. This is 
also T)rinted in (K'taves, but ea<'h octave 
consists of 4 heroic couplets. 

3. Vamdttvdtta, a Buddhist Idyll; 
bv Dean Plumtre. Republished in 
ThingA Nnr and did, 1884. The 
subjei't is tlie story of the Courtesan 
of Mathuni (" Viisavadattri and U]mi- 
gui»Ui"X which is given in Burnoufs 
Introd. a PHuitoire du Buddhisme Indien, 
146-148 ; a touching story, even in itn 
origin*'^! crude form. 

It ojK*ns : 

" Where proud Hathoura rear* her hun- 
dred U>wors. ..." 

The Skt. Diet. giv«*s in(hH»d as an 
alternative McUhtira^ but Mathfkra w 
the usual name, wluMice Anglo-Ind. 


4. Tlie brilliant INhmu of Sir Edwin 
Arnold, callnl The Light of AticL, or the 
Grrat Henntuiation, being ih€ Life and 




Teaching of Qautama, Prince of Indid, 
and Founder of Buddhism, as told in 
verse by an Indian Buddhist, 1879. 

BUDQE-BUDGE, ii. p. A village 
on the Hooghly R., 15 ni. below 
Calcutta, where stood a fort which 
was captured by Clive when advancing 
on Calcutta t-o recapture it, in 
December, 1756. The Imperial Gazet- 
teer gives the true name as Baj-baj^ 
[but Hamilton writ-es Bhuja^bhuJ], 

1756.— "On tho 29th Decmifter, at six 
o'clock in tho niuming, the admiral bavinfr 
landed the Company's tr(K>ps tho evenin^r 
before at J/r(»/ayx)»/r, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Clive, cannonaded BOU- 
gee Bongee Fort, which was strong and 
Built of mud, and had a wet ditch round it." 

1757.— The Author of Memoir of thr Re. 
i>oiution In. B*-Hff(if ctills it Busbudgia ; 
(1763), Luke Scrufton Budge Boo^JM. 

BUDQEBOW, 8. A lumbering 
keelless l)arge, formerly much used 
l»y EuropejULS travelling on the Gan- 
getic rivei-8. Two- thirds of the length 
aft was occupied by cabins with 
Venetian windows. Wilson gives the 
word as IL and B. bajrd ; Shakespear 
givers H. bajrd and bajra, with an 
improl»able suggestion of derivation 
from bajarj 'hard or heavy.' Among 
Blochmann's extracts from Mahom- 
medan accounts of the conipiest of 
Assam we find, in a detail of Mir 
Jumla's fleet in his expedition of 
• 1662, mention of 4 bi^jras (J. As. Sor. 
Ben. xli. pt. i. 73). The same ex- 
tracts contain mention of war-sl(K)j>s 
called bachliaris ^pj). 57, 75, 81), but 
these last must be different. Bajra 
may ])08sibly have been applied in 
the sense of *thunder-lH)lt.' Tiiis may 
seem unsuited to the mmleru budgerow, 
but is not more so than the title of 
* lightning-darter' is to the modem 
Burkuncumze (qv.) ! W<>. remember 
how Joinville s;iys of the approach 
of the great g?dley of the ('ount of 
Jatbi : — "»SV7w6/o?7 que fovdre rhrist dea 
Hex." It is however perhaps more 
prolwble that fxfjnf may have been 
a variation of fMUfld. And this is 
especially suggested by the existvnce 
of the Portu^ue,»*e form jHijires^ and 
of the Ar. form hujiini (si.*e under 
BUOOALOW). Mr. P:(lye, Master Ship- 
wright of the Naval Yaifl in Trinco- 
malee, in a ]wiptM' on the Native Craft 
of India and Ceylon, s])eiiks of the 

Raggala or Badgvrow, as if he had 

been accustomed to hear the words 
used indiscriminately. (See J, R, A, S.^ 
vol. i. p. 12). [There is a drawing of 
a modern Budgerow in Orant^ Rwral 
Lifey p. 5.] 

c. 1570.— "Their l>arkes be light and 
armed with oares, like to Foistes . . . 
and they call these barkes Ffniiraff aod 
Patua« " (in Bengal).— CVeur Fredfrieke, E. T. 
in HalL ii. 358. 

1662. — (Blochmann'a Eirt;. as above). 

1705.—" . . . des Baaras qui aont de 

grands bateaux." — Luilli^^ 52. 

1723. — "Le lendemain nous pass&messur 
les Baiaras de la compagnie de France."— 
Lett. Edif. xiii. 269. 

1727. — ". . . in the erening to recreate 
themselves in Chaises or Plalanklna; . . . 
or by water in their Bndgaroea, whidi in 
a convenient Boat." — A. HamiUam^ ii. 12. 

1737.— "Charges, Budgrowa . . . Rs. 
281. 6. 3."— MS. ActttinffivM Ft. WiWam, 
in India Office. 

1780. — "A gentleman's Bogarow wai 
drove ashore near Chaun-panl Ckiut ..." 
—Hiciyg Bengal (HazHte, May 13th. 

1781.— "The bocits used by the natiTM 
for travelling, and also by toe Eunmeann. 
are the bn^gerowi, which both aafl and 
row." — HoeUfett, 39. 

1783. — ". . . his boat, which, though in 
Kashmire (it) was thought niagnilioent» woald 
not have been disgrac^ in the statioD of a 
Kitchen- tender to a Bengal Imdgvro. **—(/. 
ForiOery Joum^tf, ii. 10. 

1784. — " I shall not be at libertv to enter 
my budgerow till the end of July, and 
must be again at Calcnitta on the *^dA ot 
Octolier."— .St r ir. Joneji, in Mem. ii. 38. 

1785.— "Mr. Hastings went aboard hi* 
Budgerow, and proceeded down the river, 
as soon as the tide served, to embark for 
Europe on the Berrington." — In SeUm-EtUTy 
i. 86. 

1794. — " By order of tho €rovemor-GeiMnl 
in C-ouncil . . . will bo sold the Hoa*blt 
C-ompany's Budgerow, named the Sooa- 
mookhee* . . . the Budgerow lavs in the 
nullah opjxijnto to Chitiwre." — Una, ii. 114. 


" Upon the bosom of the tide 
Vessels of every fabric ride ; 
Tho fisher's skiff, tho light canoe, 

The Bujra broad, the Bhofia trim, 
Or PtNMU'i^jt that gallant swim. 
With favouring brooiw; — €>r dull and i«low 
Against the heady current go . . . ." 

//. //. Wi/sttH. in Benga/. AnnwUf 29. 

* Thin (^{pRnmitfcAi, * Chr> aottoma *) Ims 
tiiiuwl to lie the name of tli« Vieermr's riw ;. 
(prol)ably)tothiHdav. It was so in Loid Otaaia^ 
time, then represented hy a huge adaptad lost 

toweil by a Kt<«mf>r. 




DQBOOK, H. Purt. bazartuxft. 
in «if low denoiii illation, and of 
ng value and metal (co]){>er, tin, 
and ttitrna^ie), formerly rurrent 
a and eLs4* where cm the Western 
, as wt'll iL<« at »ome other i>laces 
e I ud iai I .«eas. 1 1 wjls altio adooted 
the port uglier? in the earliest 
jUi (.iiin;igt' at Doniliay. In the 
3«t (fosi coina^, that of Albu- 
[ue (15I0y. thf Ual or haziirucro 
i|iial to 2 m'4^ of whirli reu there 
420 tit the ^il<l rruxtido (Genon 
inha). The luinie appears to have 
a iLitivf one in use in Qoa at 
tinif ni the cunqueMt, but its 
»hijf>* is unrertain. In Van 
t".- Vovii^ (1G48) the won! is 
i.-«i fn»ni hiizifr^ and said to nieiin 
k,ei-mi»iit*y ' (]»erhat>s fnlzt1r-riiktt^ 
w<t wiinl U'iiig u»5e<l for a copjK^r 
in i HuareM.'). [Tliis view is in'- 
1 by Gray in hi* note,s on Pyrard 
. S*. ii. 68), and bv Burnell 
Tfct^^n. Hak. S«».-. ii. 143). The 
'U, A»itnin. Mtin. Glfnt*. (s.v.) gives 
an. I ••nil Jk* httjiirfi-rokkhn^ * market - 
y/] r. I*. Brown (MS. notes) 
^ ill*' wi»rd ='#»C'/»i»/'*-rwJb«, which 
yt winild in <*.inares«» Ik* Mmlm;- 
• , and he ingeniously outjtes 
1»r5»n-'* "l»rpg:irly denier, and 
f "n *• ril»m fix^'wi." This is 
•-•1 in <M>ist.ui<e by Mr. E. 
ka.% uh'» ]Mijnts out that ruktl 
JBfi i** Ml Maliraiti (s«*e Moi^jnntiih^ 
•n--t« fifth nf ;in anna. Hut the 
' -if Khi'iti Kh.'tn U-low suggt'st 
!h»* i««»nl may U* a t-orrujition 
" I*. '.fiCMry, *big,' and ;u'<onling 
lUiin. ba^hithh <-«.v.) is us«*<l in 
afii iL« .i liiab'tti'' rorrupii(»n of 
y. Tbi- di'rivati(»n may In- 
A\\ • t rr-»l»iir.iTi-«I bv th»' fait that 
■-h'i Th'-rf i-, or was fnrmeily, 
;i (whi' h bid IxTDUie a money 
f .n! onlv. SO to till* d«>llar)('alb*<l 
1 '. *bi^' (...■,- Orintffon^ 4f>3, and 
i-n. I. *J*^), It Wf I -on Id atta«b 
vi!?:- in I'yrapl's s|M'lling- - 
nu^ii^*— tbi- wituld U* in favnur 
- <<.iiij'- ('*yMi**Iiigv ; as i> also the 
'<«or»/^n\vn by .MaiidfKln. [For 
•'\.4riiiiiati"Ti <if tb«* value of the 
mJk l*t-«-«l on the nnHt rerent 
f!^it-«% ■••r IfhiUtntif^ iiijtt- of th 
I'i/^r, p. ttS.] 

— iiAMrmfft at MaIuoi (Mulut'Cii.'*} 

». Ai 40 IWU to Um tJingli, Tl tAHfTHs 

"<»• qiiAM ImaniotM m f:i7. 

comUi do 200 uaixas" (/.c. to tho tanga).— 
A, NuiHtSy 41. 

[1584.~Ba8arachiet, JiarrH, in i/aife/. 
Soo 8HB0FF.J 

1598.-"They nay two Banrakes, which 
ia aa much om a Hollander's Doit. ... It is 
molten money of baddo T\nno"~LiMchoUu^ 
52, 69 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 180, 242J. 

1609.— "Ijc plus Ixis arpfoiit, sont Basa- 
meos . . . et Hont fait do mnuvaifl Estain." 
— J/oufnuinii.y in NatigiUion (Ua Holfandoin^ 
\. 53/*. 

c. 1610.—'* II y on a de plusieurs sorteB. 
\a premiere est apt>cllee BoUBUraqaet, 
dont il en faut 7o i»our uno TatujHe. 11 y a 
d 'autre BonsumqaeB viuilleM, dont il on faut 
10r> |>our lo Tanffue. . . . II y a de cetto 
monnovo qui est <lo fer : et d'aiitro do oo/Ziw, 
metiil de <'hine" (set- CALAY). —I'tfrard, ii. 
.39 ; we al«» 21 ; [Hak. Soc. ii. 33, 68J. 

1611. — "Or a Viceroy coins false money ; 
for iKi ] may call it^ ju* tho people lose by it. 
For copiHsr in worth 40 xeni^ttu (see ZEBA- 
FINE) the hundred weight, but they coin 
the basamccos at the rate of 60 and 70. 
Tho Moora on the other hand, keeping a 
keen eye on our affairs, and seeing what 
« hiure i>n)tit there is, coin there on tho 
niainianu a great quiuitity of iMUMUmoOB, 
and gnidually .smuggle them into Ooii, 
making a pitfnl of gold."— ^V>i/to, Dialwo do 
S>tldoft„ /Vi/Z/v,. 138. 

16:W.— "They have (at (^»mbroon) a 
'.'crtain (.-<ip}K;r CVnn which they call BMOrg, 
whereof 6 make a /V/m, an<l 10 l*ftt* make 
a (Until (ShVil) which is worth aliout M. 
Knglish.**— r. and Tr. nf J. A. MandeUht 
into th*- E. Indifjty K. T. 1669, p. 8. 

1672.—*' Their coins (at Tanor in MalaUr) 
. . . of (%>p|M>r,^ a Buierook, 20 of which 
iiuiko a Faiuiin." — /Vyr, 5Ji [He aUio spells 
the w(ird Basrook. See quotation under 

1677. — " Rui»ces. l*icos and Badgroolu." 
—IjeiUn Patent nf Charles II. in Chiirtern vf 
the E. I. rV, p. 111. 

1711.— '* The BndgwrookB (at Muskat) are 
mixt Mettle, rather Tike Iron than anything 
else, have a Cniss on one sifle, and wore 
i-oinM by the rorluguose. Thirty of them 
make a silver J/rirn'Mx^t, of aUmt Kight 
Pence Value." — htthj*-r^ 211. 

e. 1720-:iO.-'*Tliey (the Porlugucse) alMo 
use bits t»f cttpjier which they cj»I1 bu^nrff^ 
and fiiur of these bozaigB p:iss fur -a Julatt." 
-Khn/l Khh>, in A7/io/, v. 31.'^». 

«■• 17»»^). -"At (Jo;i the sconiphim is worth 
21*) Portugal /mm, or aUiut ItW. sterling; 

2 i'<M make a baiaraco, ir> baiaracoB a 

.■i"«'/*«, -12 lint ill* a tiuuHi^ 4 titHfffu a /Mirn^ 
2^ JIIII-H0-M a iKigoiia of gold." — (jivm**-, i. 282. 

1 s:tM. - * • I )nly eight or ten loads («>f c-otTee) 
were im|M'rted this year, including two loads 
of 'Ko{ii>^' (xei.^ COPECK), the i^^)p]«r cur- 
rency of Hiis.<«ia, known in this cHmntry by 
the luinie of Boghrukcha. They are 
ronverted to the >.iTne uses as Ciipi>er." — 
l('fm>r( tn>tn Knhnf, by .1. Ilnrnfji ; in l*i'Hjiih 
Trnd' llfffut. A pp. p. iii. 




This may possibly contain some indication 
i)f the true form of this obscure word, but 
I have derived no light from it myself. 
The budorook was apparently current at 
Muscat down to the beginning of last cen- 
tury (sec Milhurn, i. 116). 

BUDLEE, s. A substitute in public 
or doiiiestic service. H. badU^ *ex- 
cliange ; a person taken in exchange ; 
a locum tenens'y from Ar. hadal^ Mie 
changed.' (See HUDDLE.) 

BUDMAsH, s. One follow-ing evil 
(rouraes ; Fr. nuiuvau sujei; It. malan- 
drino. Properly bad-ma^dsti, from P. 
bad, *evil,' and Ar. ma\fti!i, * means of 

1844. — ". . . the reputation which John 
LAwrenco acquired ... by the masterly 
manceuvring of a body of police with whom 
he descended on a nest of gamblers and cut- 
throats, 'budmashes' of every description, 
and took them all prisoners." — Bosworth 
Smith' K Lift of lA. Lawretic^^ i. 178. 

1866.— "The truth of the matter is that 
I was foolish enough to pay these badxnashes 
beforehand, and they have thrown me over." 
— Thf IkLwk BungiUoWy by G. O. Treveftfun, 
in Frater^ p. 385. 

BUDZAT, s. H. from P. badzdt, 
*■ evil race,' a low fellow, * a l^Jid lot,' a 

l866,—**Cfu)lmondrfe!f. Why theshaitan 
didn't you come before, you lazy old 
budMLTt?"— TA^ Bawl' Bunga/oic, p. 215. 

BUFFALO, s. This is of course 
originiilly from the Latin bubalusy which 
we have in older English forms, bvffle 
and 6j/Jf and bugle, thnnich the Fi-ench. 
The present form ]m)bably came from 
India, as it seems to be the Port. 
bvfalo. The proper meaning of bubalus^ 
according to Pliny, wjis not an animal 
of the ox-kind {(ioofiaXis was a kind of ! 
African anteloju*) ; but in Martial, as 
<(Uot4Ml, it would seem to bear the 
Niilgar sense, rejected by Pliny. 

At an early period of our connection 
with India tiie name of buffalo aj)pear8 
to have been given erroneously to the 
(t(miin(m Indian ox, whence canu' the 
still surviving misnomer of London 
shops, ^buffalo humps.' (See also the 
quotation from Uvington.) The buffalo 
has no hump. Buffalo fotujwx are 
another matter, and an old luxury, as 
the third quotaticm shows. The. ox 
having appropriated the nanu* of the 
buffalo, tlie true Indian domestic 
buffalo was diffcMvntiatM as the ^irafrr 

bitffaloy a ])hrase still maintained by 
the British soldier in India. This has 
probably misled Mr. Blochmann, who 
uses the term ^vmter buffalo^' in his 
excellent English version of the Ain 
(e.g. i. 219). We find the same phrase 
in BarkLsy's Five Years in Bwgaria^ 
1876 : " Besides their bullocks everj 
well-to-do Turk had a drove of water- 
buffaloes" (32). Also in CoUingwood^s 
Rambles of a Naturalist (l^^X P- ^ 
and in Miss Bird^s GMen Chersomas 
(1883), 60, 274. [The unscientific use 
of the word as applied to the American 
Bison is as old as the end of the 18di 
century (see N,E,D.).'\ 

The domestic buffalo is apparently 
derived from the wild buffalo (Bubaliu 
ami, Jerd. ; Bos bubcUus, Blanf.), whose 
favourite habitat is in the swampy sites 
of the Sunderbundsand Eastern Bengal 
but whose hauntsext«nd north-eastward 
to the head of the Assam vallev, in the 
Terai west to Oudh, and south nearly 
to the Godaver}' ; not beyond this in 
tlie Peninsula, though tlie animal is 
found in the north and north-east ci 

I'he domestic buffalo exists not only 
in India but in Java, Sumatra^ ana 
Manilla, in Maxanderan, Mesopotamia^ 
Babylonia, Adherbijan, Egypt, TurkeTi 
and Italy. It does not seem to it 
known how or when it was introdneed 
into Italy. — (See Hehn.) [Aeoofding 
to the Ennfcl. BrUi. (9th ed. iv. 44S1 
it was introduced into Greece and 
Italy towards the close of the 6th 

c. A.D. 70. — *' Howbcit that coiiiiti7 
brinf^oth forth certain kinds of goodly gn>t 
wild bcuufcfl: to wit the Bisontei, 
with a collar, like Lionx ; and the Vri [Ui 
a mightie strong beast, and a swift, «i 
the ignorant people call B^Mn (ImlMLlotK 
whereas indeed the Bvffie is bred in Ai!riai» 
and carieth some resemblance of a oatft 
rather, or a Stag."— i^/tay, by PA. HoUudi, 
i. 199-200. 

C. A-D. 90.— 

'' Ille tulit geminoA facili oervico iuTenooi 
Illi cessit atrox bnballUi atque biaon.** 

Martial, Dt Spectaemiis, iziv. 

c. 1580. — " Veneti meroatoros lingnas Ba- 
balonun, tanquam mensia optimaa, mU 
eonditas, in mo^na oopia Venetias nuttont* 
—Pntsperi Alpmi, Hut. Nat, Afowpti, P. I. 

p. 228. 

1585.—" Here be many Tiffon, wfld BA 
and great store of wildo Foula. • ."—it. 
Fitch, in UahL ii. 889. 

"Here are many wilde 
phanta."— /Wrf. aW. 




•The King (Akbar) hath ... as thoy 
.u* crediblr report, 1000 Elenhanta, 30,000 
^*^«, 1400 tame deere, 800 concubines; 
•iich fitare of uaDcea, tigers, Bnfflee, oock» 
aad llaukeK, that it in Tery strange U) see." 
—Ihid. 386. 

158».— "Thev doo plough and till their 
rT«>aDd with kine, bufalos, and bulles."— 
Mradomma Ckima, tr. by Parke*, ii. 56. 

[c. 1590.— Two methods of snaring the 
h«ftdo are de»cribed in A\n^ BiocJkmann, tr. 

IfiW. — ** Therein also an infinite number 
•<f wild bsfli that go wandering about the 
diMTUr—Pi^/ttta, £. T. in Uarhian Coll. 
'.f V^tnngrt, ii 546. 

[Idis.— "The inhabitants (of Malabar) 
krrp CV>w», or boflUlS."— P. delUi ValU, 
lUk. Site. n. 207.] 

1630.— "Ai« tu Kinc and BoffliOM . . . 
t^l«•T he«meare the floores of their hoiue? 

• ith their dang, and thinke the ground 
«*iM.-tified by nich jiollution."— />W, DU- 
'*"*T»' 9*/ the Banian R^lit^ian, 60-61. 

1644. — ** We tooko cxwch to Livomo, thro' 
the i«reat I>uke'ii new Parke, full of huge 
•'•rke-tree* : the underwood all myrtills, 
UD» «g< which were mxiny boffaios feeding, 

- kind of wild ox. short nos'd, horns re- 
^*T^A." — Etelfn, Oct. 21. 

16*56. -*•. . . it prodnc«i Eienhants in 
»<TfAt number, oxen and holbdOM {hufarM). 

- Var^ p S.mM. i. 189. 

16W. — ••. . . Imth i.f this kind (of Oxen), 
uid the BiffiUiM, are remarkable for a big 
fa«c« i4 Fle«h that ni»ei* alx>ve Six Inches 
kich between their Shouldern, which is the 
rhi«ccvt and flelicatei^ piece of Moat upon 
them, eap^^-ially put into a dish of Palau. — 

1** -•'. . . the BlllfkU milk, and curd, 
•ad >«tt«T simply rbume«i and clarifiecl, ij« 
:u ri4Bm>>n a«e anxmcr these Indiana, whilst 
:Lc daanUe* <•! the ('«»w l)air>' is prescribed 
*.*• valrtudinariani*. as Hectics, and preferred 
»'y riad-uf (f) api^titen. or impotents alone, 
90 that *4 the atprine and assine in at home." 

The tj»nk whs< h feil hi<* fields wax there. . . 
TTMrrr frr<D the intolenibic heat 

The bnflkloM rvtrtsat ; 
* *'-.T their n<#«triU rHi<«d to meet the air, 
Am>d the *helt'nng clement they rest." 

V»rt^ ftf Krhitma ix. 7. 

I'T*. — '• I had in my iiossessiim a head of 

• 'vjw taflftlo that measures 13 feet 8 inches 
:. cirrumfereiKe, and 6 feet 6 inches l>e- 

7«ecn the tip»— the largest hnffalo ht»d in 
•K* world. "—/WAi^. SjMni, in fir. Burmah, 
4' I. 107- 

of teak from India. It seeiiiH to be a 
corruption of the Span, and Port, bajely 
baxel, haixel, haxella^ from the Lat. vaa- 
ceUum (see DieZy Etym, IF&rterb. i. 439, 
s. v.). Cobarruvias (1611) gives in hia 
Sp. Diet. ^^Bcucel, quasi vasel" as a 
generic name for a vessel of any kind 
going on the sea, and quotes St. Isidore^ 
I wlio identifies it with phasel^ut, and 
fn)m whom we transcrilie the ]>a8sage- 
l)elow. It remains doubtful whether 
this word was introduced into the East 
by the Portuguese, or had at an earlier 
date passed into Arabic marine use. 
The latter is mast probable. In Correa 
{('. 1561 J this word occurs in the* 
form vajer, pi. pajeres (j and x being 
interchangeaole in Sp. and Port. 
See Lendas^ i. 2, pp. 592, 619, &c.). In 
Pinto we have another form. Among^ 
the models in the Fisheries Exhibition 
(1883X there was "A Zaroogat or 
Bagarah from Aden." [On the other 
hand Burton (Ar. NighUy i. 119) de- 
rives the word from the Ar. hagMahj 
'a she-mule.' Also see BUDOEBOW.) 

c. 636. — *^ J*fuuf/us est navigium quod 
nos corrupte haMluxil dicimus. De quo 
Virgilius: Picti»/ue phase/u." — I»odory» 
IlispafnuriSf Oriffinum et Htyrnol. lib. xix. 

c. 1539. — "Partida a nao pera Oca, 

Fem2o do Mora is . . . seguio sua viage na 

volta do |K)rto de Dabul, onde chegou ao 

outro dia as novo horas, o tomando nelle 

; hQ pagael de Malavares, carregado de algo- 

I dao o do pimonta, poz logo a tormento o 

' Capitano e o piloto delle, os quaes oonfee- 

. sanio. . . ." — PintOy ch. viii. 

1842. — " As store and horse boats for that 
i service, (^apt. Oliver, I find, would prefer 

the large class of native boggllM, by which 
; so much of the trade of this coast with 

Scindo, Cutch ... is carried on." — Sir O, 
', Arthur^ in Ind. Admin, of Lord EUenborough^ 


[1900. — "His tiny baggaU, which 
mounted ten tiny gims, is now employed 
in trade."— /{rw/, Soutkem Arabia^ 8.] 

BUGKIT, s. In India this is a 
(two-wheeled) gig with a hood, like the 
gentleman's cat) that was in vogue 
in I>ond(m al>out 1830-40, before 
; broughams came in. Latham puts a 
(?) after thf word, and the earliest 
I t'xamples that he gives are fn>m the 
' second cjuarter of this century (from 
Praed and 1. D'lsrjieli). Though we 
trace the woni much further liack, we 
have not discovered its birthplace or 

BUGOALOW, *. >fahr. htiqUl, ^|. 
'^Li. A nanu* cfmiinonly given on the 
W o«rt rif India Xo Arab vesw^'ls of 

tkr oM native fonu. It '\» alsr> in etymology-. The word, though used in 
'«4niDfm IMP in the Red Sea (hakald) ' -' ' 
f'c thr largrr native vesseK nH taiilt 

EnglanoThas never lH»en very common 
there ; it is l>etter knoii^ii lx>th in 




Ireland and in America. Littr^ gives 
boghei as French also. The American 
imgay is defined by Noah Webster as 
** a light, one-horse, four-wheel vehicle, 
iisnaUy with one seat, and with or 
without a calash-top." Cuthbert Bede 
shows (N. {(; Q. 6 ser. v. p. 446) that 
the adjective 'bucgy' is used in the 
Eastern Midlands for * conceited.' This 
jiuggests a possible origin. " When the 
Ilunterian spelling-controversy raged 
in India, a learned Member of Council 
is said to have stated that he approved 

the change until began 

to spell Suggy as bagi. Then he cave 
it up." — {M.-G. KecUinge.) I have 
recently seen tliis spelling in print. 
£The N.E.D. leaves the etymology un- 
settled, merely saving that it has l^een 
connected with )>oqu and hug. The 
earliest <iuotation given is that of 1773 

1773.— "Thursday 3d (June). At tho 
flessions at Hicka's Hall two boya wore 
indicted for driving a post-coach and four 
«ffainst a mngle, thro\«in^ out 
iho driver of it, and breaking the chaise to 
pieces. JuHtice Welch, the Chairman, took 
notico of the froquencv of tho brutish cus- 
tom among the post drivers, and their in- 
flensibility in matdng it a matter of sport, 
ludicrously denominating mischief of this 
kind 'Kunning down the Buggies.' — The 
Drisoners were sentenced to be confined in 
Newgate for 12 months." — Oenttrman's 
Magazinfy xliii. 297. 


*' Shall D((ma/kl come with Butts and tons 
And knock aown Epegrams and Puns ? 
With Chairs, old Cots, and Buggies trick 

Forbid it, Phocbiw, and forbid it, Hicky ! " 

In Jlid'i/'A Bengal dazfUf^ May 13th. 

„ "... go twice round the Race- 
Oourse as hard as we can sot legs to ground, 
but we are beat hollow by Bob Crochet's 
Horses driven by Miss Fanny Hardheart, 
who in her career oversets Tim Capias the 
Attorney in his Buggy. . . ." — In India 
OazfUe, Dec. 23rd. 

1782.— "Wanted, an excellent Buggy 
Horse about 15 Hands high, that will trot 
15 miles an hour." — India (iazrtUy Sept. 14. 

1784.— "For sale at Mr. Mann's, Rada 
Baxar. A Phaeton, a four-spring'd Buggy, 
and a two-npring'd ditto. . . ." — Calcutta 
Gazette J in i^ton-Karr, i. 41. 

1793.— "For sale. A goo<l Buggy and 
Horse. . . ." — Bombay Courier, Jan. *i^h. 

1824.—" . . . the Archdeacon's buggy 
and horse had every ap|)carance of issuing 
from the Iwck-gato of a college in Cambridge 
on Sunday morning."— //«wrr, i. 192 (ed. 

[1S:17. '1110 vehicles of the place (Mong- 

hir), amounting to four Bnggiei (that is a 
foolish term for a cabriolet/but aa it is the 
only vehicle in use in India, and as frij^yy i^ 
the only name for said vehicle, I give it up), 
. . . were assembled for our use." — J/*>» 
Edtn, Up the C&untnf, i. 14.] 

c. 1838.— "But substitute for him an 
average ordinary, uninteresting Minister: 
obese, dump^ . . . with a second-rate wife 
— dusty, deliquescent — ... or let him be 
seen in one of those Shem-Ham-and-Japhet 
bUGHB^^es, made on Mount Ararat soon after 
the subsidence of the waters. . . ." — ^^*f]l 
i^mithf 3rd Letter to Archdeacon Singleton. 

1848.—" * Joseph wants me to see if his— 
his bu|wy is at the door.' 

" * What is a buggy, papa ? * 

" ' It is a one-horse palanquin,' said the 
old gentleman, who was a wag in his way." 
— Vanity Fair, ch. iii. 

1872.— "He drove his charger in his «ki 
buggy." — A True Reformer^ ch. i. 

1878.— "I don't like your new Bonibav 
buggy. With much practice I have learned 
to get into it, I am hanged if I can ever get 
out."— Oiw/awrf Times of India, 4th Feb. 

1879. — "Driven by that hunger for news 
which impels special correspondents, he had 
actuxdiy ventured to drive in a * spider,' 
apparently a kind of boggy, from the 
Tiigela to Ginglihovo."— iS/wrfotor, May 

BXJQIS, n.p. Name given by the 
Malays to the dominant race of the 
islana of Celdbes, orimnating in the 
S.-We8tem limb of tbe island ; the 
])eople calling themselves IVvgi. But 
the name used to 1)e applied in the 
Archipelago to native soldiers in 
European service, raised in any of 
the islands. Com])are the analugoiLH 
use of Telinga (q.v.) formerly iu 

[1615.— "AU these in the kingdom of 
Macassar . . . besides Bugles, Mander sad 
Tollova."— /Vwre^, Lett^s/ui. 162.] 

1656.— " Thereupon the Hoflandnt r^ 
solv'd to unite their forces with the Bit* 
quises, that were in reliellion against their 
Soveraign."— raivr/t^Vr, E. T. ii. 192. 

1688.— "These Buggasses are a sort of 

warlike trading Malayans and meroensr; 

' soldiers of India. I know not well wheooe 

: they come, unless from Macassar in the U* 

of CelelHjs." — Dampirr, ii. 108. 

[1697.—" . . . with the help of Blf- 
gesses. . . ." — Hedge*, I>iary, Hak. Sac n. 


1758.— "The Dutch wore commanded br 
; C-olonelKoussely, a French soldier of fortaaa 
' They consisted of nearl]^ 700 Europeans^ ■>' 
, as many bugffOBes, besides countrr tieopa" 

—Narr. of iJvtch attempt in Boogif, ^ 

Malcolm' K Clive, ii. 87. 

1783.— "BuggMMS, inhahitante of 0*- 
Ik;s."- -Fon-rHt, Voyage t*t Merffm, p. 




1TH5.— *'Tlte word BvggMS haA become 
ACDiiQir Europea&t conwonunt to soldier, in 
the e&vct of India, as Sepoy \a in the West." 
-/^ui. 78. 

lSl1.-''We had faUen in with a fleet of 
nine BlJ|f8 prown, when we went out 
T..w:»rd.« Palo Mancap/* — Lord Minto in 

\<7%. — "Tlie Bogis are evidently a dis- 
tiRfCt nee from the Malays, and oome 
•viirinallv from the soutliem part of the 
Uiaod of Celebes."— J/rJ\'fur, Pftak, laO. 

BXJLBITL, A. Tlie word hulhul Is 
"ripn;il1y Persian (no doubt intended 
\" imitate the bird's note), and applied 
••• .« bin! which doea duty with Persian 
i.-t* for the nightingale. Whatever 
'.'•i*- Persian bulbtil niay be correctlv, 
'it*- application of the name to certain 
•Ti»-^i«-< in India "has led to manv 
i:ii-<'«»n»-eption.'< aliout their powers of 
«<»ur and stmg,'' savs Jerdon. These 
•]--*ie!< liel(»ng to tlie family Brachi- 
)*^idtu, or ahort-legged thruMhe.s, and 
:;i^ tnie bulbuU to the sub-family 
fymofu4ina^y e.g. genera Hypsipetes^ 
fi^uur^ Alcurwt, Criniijer^ Ixotj Kela- 
•irf wf^ Rubigulii, Brachxpodiu^ Otocofmpsa^ 
l*w^on*4u» (P. jiygaetuty amiinon Bengal 
iVilbiil : /'. kaemorhou^ ecmimon 
M4<inir> Bulbul). Another sub-family, 
rhMfnitkinae^ rontaiiLs various species 
v^ikIi Jenlon ralU gre^n BulbuU. 

' K Uily having a*<ked the late Ix>rd 
}..4jrrti««n. a Ju<lffe of tho (V>urt of Soiwion, 

Wkit Mjct of aninuil ii« the hul/hnl/ f " he 
"'f J»c<i. ** I mipfioNe. Ma'am, it mu^t be the 
..jXt *4 the cov-rvi." — 3rti JH.*r., -V. d: Q. 
• -1.1 

17S4.— **W« are literally lulled to sleep 
' t l*«r«&an aiirhtinf^aleis and ceaAo to wonder 
tfi«t the Bulbul. with a thoujiand tales, 
XAkc!*> #och a t&^ure in Persian ixjetry." — 
S*r W. JoMft^ in Mrnutirs, Ac, ii. 37. 

I^l.T — **Tbe Imlblll or Persian ni^htin- 
^^^ ... I never heard one that potwessed 
*.A« cfiarmitii; variety of the night- 
!:tfx»c . . . whether the Indian bnllml and 
'tM,i *4 Iran entinrly comntpond I have some 
■\ «b«U ' /uff^rs, OrvMiai Mt!VU)ir$^ i. 50 ; 

jchd«a. t.M\. 

l^4«. -"'it i* one's nature to i«iii^ and 
'2^ «jCkcr*« U» l^jot,' he said, laii^hin^, 'and 
«rth Kjcik a sweet voice ns you have your- 
•« JL >'Ci fBiist bvliifig to th«) Bullml faction." 

V'tAttf FakT, 11. th. xxTii. 

BULQAftt BOLOAB, s. P.bubjhdr. 
Tbr fleaeral AnjUic name for what 
we call *RiubU leather,' from the fact 
that ike region of manufacture and 
ef pcfft wM origiiiaUy BolfhJlr on the 
V^ga« a kingdom which stood for 

many centuries, and gave place to 
Kazan in the beginning of the 16th 
century. The word was usual also 
among Anglo-Indians till the b^rin- 
ning of last century, and is still in 
native Hindustani use. A native 
(mythical) account of the manufacture 
is given in Baden - PotoelTs Punjab 
Handbook, 1872, and this fanciful 
etymology : " as the scent is derived 
from soaking in the pits (ghdr\ the 
leather is called Balghdr'^ (p. 124). 

1298. — "He bestows on each of those 
12,000 Barons . . . likewise a pair of boots 
of Borgal, curiously wrought with silver 
thread.^— i/arco Polo, 2nd ed. i. 381. See 
also the note on this passage. 

c. 1333. — "I wore on my feet boots (or 
stockings) of wool ; over thrae a pair of linen 
lined, and over all a thin pair of Bor^bUi, 
i.e. of horse-leather lined with wolf skm." — 
/bn Batuta, ii. 445. 

[1614.— *' Of your BoUgazyan hides there 
are brought hither some 150." — FonUTy 
iMterSy iii. 67.] 

1623.— Offer of Sheriff Freeman and Mr. 
Coxe to furnish the Company with "Bul- 
gary red hides." — Court MinMtes, in Sains- 
//tfry, iii. 184. 

1624. — ** Purefy and Hay ward, Factors at 
I.<ipahan to the E. I. Co., have bartered 
monte- teeth and ^bnlgars' for carpets.*' — 
Ibid. p. 268. 

1673.— ** They carry also Bnlgar-Hidee, 
which they form into Tanks to bathe them- 
Holves."— /Vyrr, 3»8. 

c. 1680. — "Putting on a certain dren 
made of Bolsar-leather, stuffed with cot- 
ton. "—*»►« rlZiito^^mJa, iii. 387. 

1759. — Among expenses on account of 
the Nabob of Bengal's visit to Calcutta we 

"To 50 {lair of Bulger Hides at 13 per 
l^air, R». 702 : : 0."—Long, 193. 

1786. — Among "a very capital and choice 
a><8ortment of Europe goods we find "Bul- 
gar Hides." — Col. UazHU^ June 8, in Stion- 
Karr^ i. 177. 

1811. — " Most of us furnished at least one 
of our HervantM with a kind of bottle, holding 
nearly three quarts, made of bnlgh^T . . . 
or RiWMia - leather."— ir. Ousef^'A Travelt, 
i. 247. 

In Tibetan tho word ix bulhari. 

BULKUT, s. A large decked ferry- 
lN»at ; from Telug. balla, a lioard. 
(C. P. Brown). 

BULLUMTEER, h. Anglo-Sepoy 
dialect for ' Voluntefr.^ This diatinc- 
tive title was applied to certain regi- 
ments of the ola Bengal Amiv, whMa 
terms of enlistment embraoed aeirice 





is the 



in the 
not if 
the tw 
an aim 


of dr 
and t 




ID. s. Any artificial embank- 
I dant, dvke, or causeway. H. 
The root b both Skt (bandh) 
, but the common word, used as 
rithout aspirate, seems to have 
rom the latter. The word is coin- 
I Penda (e.^. see BENDAMEEB). 
alw> naturalised in the Anglo- 
le port!). It Ls there applied 
dly to the emlianked quay along 
;>re of the settlements. In Hom^ 
alone this is called (not hunS^ 
HBia (Port, 'shore ' [see PRAYA]X 
»ly aaopted from Macao. 

—'•The irroat bond or dyke."— 
r. .V. ii. 279. 

— ** The natirea have a tradition that 
traetioo (if the bond waM effected by 
H enemy.'* — Tn^nnU'i Cfylon, ii. 504. 

— **. . . it iji pleaiiant to see the 
r . . . being I>*t>|)elled along tho bond 
r hiUid cartrt." — ThumjoH*t Malacca^ 

— •■. . . »o I torik a iitroll on Tien- 
r—fit/f, Hityr of UoltUn Sand, 

VDER, j^ P. bandar, a landing- 
T quay ; a seaport ; a h;ir))Our ; 
[>mrtini«'?< abio a custom-house). 
id Ital. frala, mod. m^Io, is the 
cr«|uival«?nt in nu>st of the 
that occurs to iw. We have 
S5) the Mir-bandar, or Port 
, in Sind (Elliot, i. 277) [cf. 
Bdsr]. The Portuguese often 

the won! bandeL Bonder is \ 
[ndia the |M>pular native name 
mlipfttam, or Machli'bdfuiar. 

M. — '*The profit of the treasury, 

hey call bandar, cont«iKt<< in tbo , 

bayinfr a certain portion of all m>rtH 

at A tiled price, whether the gtMxlK 

wf*rth that or more ; and this it* ; 

fee Lair of (Ju Itandar." — !hn BtitttUi^ , 


S. — "ifmf wv Undv<l at the bandar, 
a large ci^ lection lif huusos on the 
tJ'^h»id. *£». 

" C'l^pa-atar msnX word ^> Aflfonzo 
iief*\iui that *rtx the coaMt of the 
A 4ifi}M«it4*. at a |iort which u* calloil 

Angno . . . were arnve<l two ain* 
■« *A the King of Shiraz." — lUtrnut, 

-'•' Roiode* the 'dnngcr in intorccpt- 
tKAU to and fniCD the lihore, Ac, 
t^f fnicn the *•**'* would Iw with 
finiHy."— /Vm^t, Leit*r», iv. 328.] 

.*'We fortify "^mr Honncis have 
I or Dock* fur our VemeK to which 
b'anfo for SaaoMii, Soldien, and 
r. lis. 

1809.-'* On the now bunder or pier."— 
Maria Onihaniy 11. 

[1847, I860. — See quotations under 

BIJNDEB-BOAT, s. A l^t in use 
i on the Bombay and Madras coast for 
j ootnniunicating with ships at anchor, 
I and also much employed by officers of 
, the civil deoartments (Salt, &c.) in 
I going up ana down the coast. It is 
j rifi^d as Bp. Heber describes, with a 
cabin amidsliii>s. 

I 18*25. — '*We crossed over . . . in a stout 
I Ixiat called here a bnndnr boat. 1 suppose 
. from ^hundur* a harbour, with two masts, 

and two lateen sails. . . ."—Heber, ii. 121, 

ed. 1844. 

BUNDOBUST, s. P.-H.— 6and-o- 
: hast, lit. 'tying and binding.' Any 
I system or mode of regulation ; dis- 
cipline ; a revenue settlement. 

[1768. — "Mr. Rumbold advises us . . . 
he ])ro})oso8 making a tour through that 
province . . . and to settle the Bandobnst 
! for the ensuing year."— Letter to the Court of 
I)irtctar*y in Verelst, View of Bengat, App. 

c. 1843.— '* There must be hahut achch'hd 
■ Itandobast {i.e. very good order or discip- 
I line) in your country," said an aged 
Khansama (in Hindustani) to one of the 
present writers. ** When I have gone to the 
Snndhcads to meet a young gentleman from 
RUdifaty if I gave him a cup of tea, ^UtnH 
tdnh\' said he. Three months afterwards 
this was all changed ; bad language, violence, 
no more tdnki." 

1880. — ** There is not a more fearful 
wild-fowl than your travelling M.P. This 
unhappy creature, whose mind is a perfect 
blank regarding fanjddri and Bando- 
bast . . ."—.4// Baba, 181. 

BUNDOOK, 8. H. hiindiik, from 
Ar. bundiil. The commun tl. term 
fi»ra musketor nwitchlock. The history 
«»f the word i.s very curious. Bundui, 
pi. btituldil% wjis a name applied by tte 
Arabs to tillierts (as some allege) l)e- 
<'aitse thify came from W'mcA*. (liattadii, 
comp. Geiinan Venedi/f). The name 
was transferred to the nut-like pellets 
shot fn)m LTa8H-lK)ws, anil thence the 
cross-lwws or arblasts were called 
butuiHl\ elli])ti('ally for l-aus al-b., 
*IK*llet-lK»w.' From mws-lwws the 
imme was tninsferntd again to fire- 
arms AS in the ]>andlel case of arqiu- 
bus. [Al-Bfindukuni, 'the man of the 
jMillet-iKiw,' was one of the names by 
which the Caliph Hiiruu-al-Rashlil 
was known, and Al Zahir Bay bars 




al-Bandukduri, the fourth Baharitc I 
Soldan (a.d. 1260-77) Avas so entitled I 
Itecause he had l>eeii slave tu a Baiiduk- 
dar, or Master of Artillery (Bnrtotu '. 
Ar. NigJUs, xii. 38).] 


[1875.— ^'Bandtlqis, or order! ich of the | 
Muharaju, carrying long guiis in u loow roil 
cloth cower."— iJrcir^ Jumniifo and Kashmir, 

BUNGALOW, s. H. and Mahr. 
hangUl. The iniwt usual class of house 
occupied by Euroi>eans in the interior 
of India ; being on one story, and I 
rovered by a pyramidal nK>f, which 
in the normal nnngjilow is of thatch, 
but may be of tiles without ini])airing ; 
its title to Ik* called a bicngahw. Most 
of the houses of ofKcers in Indian can- 
tonments are of this character. In 
reference to the stvle of the house, 
Imngalinc is sometimes emj)loved in 
<"ontradistinction to the (usually more 
i»retentious) pucka house; by which 
tatt^T term is implied a masonry houst* 
with a terniced roof. A bumjaloic may 
also be a small building of the type 
whi(th we have descrilK*d, but of 
temix)niry material, in a gJinlen, on a 
terraced nK)f for slee])ing in, &c., &c. 
The word has also Injen adoi)ted by 
the French in the Ejist, and by 
Kuropeans genenilly in Ceylon, China, 
Japan, and the coast of Africa. 

Wilson writes the wor<l biVigld, 
giving it as a Bengali word, ana as 
proKibly derived from lianga, I^^ngal. 
This is fundamentJilly the etymob»gy 
mentioned by Bp. HelM-r in his «/oanm/ 
(see belowX and that etymology is cor- 
roborjited by our tirst quf>tntion, fnmi 
a native historian, as well as bv that 
fn>m F. Buchanan. It is to Ije re- 
mem l>ered that in Hindustan ])roper 
the adjective *ot' or lK*longing to 
l^'iigJil is constantly pi*onounced as 
hungtild or hnnihi. Thus one of the 
er;is used in E. India is distinguished 
as the BawjUi era. The prolKiliility is 
that, when Euroi>eans Iwgjni to build 
houses f»f this rhaiiirter in Behar and 
U])]»er In<liii, thes<* wen* callecl IhwjUI 
or * Bengal- fashion ' hrnisfs ; that the 
name was ado]>te<l by tin* Kui-opeans 
theinsi'lv«'s and their followers, and so 
was Imnight Uick to li«'ng;il it>**lf, as 
wrll as carried to other jwirts of India. 
f'^In BengJil, and notably in the 
districts near Calcutta, native houst^s 
to this day an-, divided into nfh-rhaht^ 
chau-chala, and Dangala^ or eight - 

nx)fed, four-roofed, and Bengali, or 
common hut^. The tinit tenu does 
not imply that tlie hou^e has ei^t 
coverings, but tliat the roof hafl four 
distinct sides with four more projec- 
tions, so as to cover a verandah all 
round the house, which issijuare. The 
Bangahiy or Bengali house, or bungalow 
has a ulo]>ing roof on two .sides and two 
gable ends. Doubtless the term ms 
taken up by the iirnt settlers in Bengal 
from the native style of edifice, was 
materially im]>roved, and wha thence 
carried to other ]Mirts of India. It is 
not necessar}' t^) assume that the first 
bungjilows were erect*Ki in Behar." 
{Saturday Rev., 17th April 1886, in a 
review oi' the first ed. of this bcwk).] 

A.H. 1041 -A.D. 1633. -"Under the rule of 
the Uongnlifl {darahd-i-IUtngdix^dn) a |«rty 
of Frank merchants, who arc inhabitants JT 
Sundfp, came trading to Sdt^fKnw. One ko* 
above that place they occupied wnno f^^rouDd 
on the lianKs of the estuary. Under the 
]irotence that a buiidinfi: wan necenaaiy for 
their tmnMuctions in buying and aelling, ther 
erected roveral houses in the Bengili style. 
—BdcUi?tdJtHdmaj in Elliut, vii. 31. 

c. 1680. — In the tracing of an old Datcb 
chart in the India Office, which may be 
assigned to about thhm date, aji it hai no 
indication of Calcutta, we find at Hoosty: 
*' Ouyli . . . HoUantze Ijnqlf . . . Banfjiaar 
of Sji^i^ihuifs,'* i.f. "rioogly . .TontA 
Factory . . .' Bungalow, or Fleaaure-houae.'* 

1711.— '/-Vr. H^rnng, th^ Pihti\l}%rt€tiitmi 
fur hriugiug of Stiijm dotm tkf River ^ 


" From (inn Uot nil along the Hmkfof 

Shore until lielow the NfW Ckatuy aunort 

' as far as the Dutch Bongelow lies a Sand. 

. . ."—ThorHtoh, Th^Knylish ISiot, Pt III. 

p. 54. 

'■ 1711.-'' Nntfjf BvLD^lo or XftUU Bn- 
galla Kiver Hch in this Reach (Tanna) on 
the Ijarboard tnde. . .** — Ibid. 56. TlieplMe 
in the chart is Nfdda Beiigalla» and Mens 
t4) have l)ccn near the promsnt Akf» on the 

1747.— "Nalx>b'H Camp near the Hedge 
of the l^unds, building a BaagallMi, rainv 
Mudd Walli* round the Camis w**l"ty Gon 
CarriogeM, kc. . . . (Pogodaii) 55 : KT: 73." 

-Aoct. of Extraordharhi Cluirg^M , . . Janu- 
ary, at IWt .ST. iJtimdj 'MS. Heeordt in ImH* 

17r>8.— *'1 waM talking with my friendiiB 
Dr. Fullcrton's bangla when new* came of 
I Kam Narain'H being defeated." — Sfir Mvm- 
j t/h-rin, ii. lOIJ. 

1780.— "To be Sold or liet, A Cbmmodi- 
1 ou» Bungalo and out Houiws . . . mtoitad 
on the Road leading from the Hospital to 
the Bur>'ing Ground, and directly inmuriti 
to the Avenue in front of Sir EKjah uu^'i 
I House. . . ."—The India GasHU^ Deoil 






1781 -SS. — "BoafVlowi are buildioffs in 
India, gvneraJIy rained od a base of brick, 
oot, two, or three feet from the fl^und,%ind 
eoiMtst of onlr one stor}' : the plan of them 
vmall J is a larire room in the center for an 
eating and mttiniir room, and moma at each 
«onMr for uleeitinir ; the whole w covered 
vith one ffeneral thatch, which comes low 
to each Aoe ; the spacen between the angle 
are TiramUrt or open portiooeii . . . 
the center i-iramdera nt each end 
▼erted intoroooMu" — Htidgts. Travels. 
146. J ^ > 

17S4.— ••TobeletatChinsnrah . . . That 
laive and oommodioiu Houm. . . . Theout- 
boudinge are — a warehoiue and two large 
k$idt-^ommah$f 6 store-nx>m8, a cook-room, 
and a garden, with a bungalow near the 
hooM.**— Cb/. OasftU^ in Seton-Karr, i. 40. 

1787. — **At Bairackpore many of the 
BugBloVt mouh danoaffed, though none 
entirtly dectno^tMl.**— 7M. p. 213. 

179S.— ** . . . the bungalo, or Summer- 
. ."— MroiiA, 211. 

**For Hale, a Bungalo situated 
hstween the two Tombntcnies, in the Island 
«f Conkba."— AnH^ay Courier, Jan. 12. 

17M.— "The candid critic will not how- 
ever expect the iiarehed plains of India, 
or baaolOM in tne land-winds, will hardly 
tempi tLe Auoian maidd wont to disport on 
the banka of Tilier and Thames. . . ."— 
am9k Aeyrf, 170. 

1809.— ** We came to a small bnngmlo or 
girdan h^mie, at the point of the hill, from 
tb<*re ia, I thmk, the finest view I 
mmr— Maria Urakam, 10. 

c 1810.— ** The style of private edifices 
that is prriper and peculiar tt> Bengal con- 
iwU fjf a bat with a iient roof cc>nstnicte<l 
c4 two alnf«ng side* which meet in a ridge 
forvtnc tbe segment <if a circle. . . . This 
kmd of hat, it is mid, from lieing peculiar 
lb Beacal, is called hv the natives Banggolo, 
a naws which has f>een somewhat altereci 
b« Enrticwwns, and ap]»lied by them to all 
tacff Vstildings in the c«>ttage style, although 
nooe of thetn have the pniper Mhaiie, and 
■any mA them are excellent brick houses." 
-'BmHmmmM.'* Ihmayeport (in K/uttrrn India, 

1*17. — '•TTie T<frH-hangala is made like 
tvcf thatched bttuses i>r baogalai, placc<l 
by ade. . . . These temples are dedi- 
V' different gods, but are not now 
seen in Bengal."— Ifanfi IHk- 
II. ch. i. 

c 1S19. — "As soon as the sun is down 
•• will gu ovvr to the Captain's bungalow." 
-Jfrt .^O^rvc^ .Seorvsf, Ac., ed. 18/3, p. 1. 
TVs c4igina] editions of this book contain 
•a ingisiim of "The <^ptain's Bungalow 
U l^wnpure" (c. 1H1M2), which shows 
tftai nu ■■teria] change has occurred in 
id each dwellings down to the 


itself of Barrackpore 
Lord Amhenit's 
his aides-de-camp and 
bongaknra built at some 

little distance from it in the Park. Bunga- 
low, a corruption of Bengalee, is the general 
name in this country for any structure in 
the cottage style, and only of one floor. 
Some of these are spacious and comfortable 
dwellings. . . ."— jfcter, ed. 1844, i. 38. 

1872. — " L'emplacement du bnngalon 
avait 6\j6 choisi aveo un soin tout parti- 
culier." — Rev. des Deux Monde*, torn., 
xcviii. 930. 

1875. — "The little groups of officers dis- 

Sersed to their respective bnngalowa to 
ress and breakfast. — The Dilemma, ch. i. 

[In Oudh the name was specially 
applied to Fyzabad. 

[1858.— "Fysabad . . . was founded by 
the first rulers of the reigning family, and 
called for some time Bungalow, from u 
bungalow which they built on the verge of 
the stream." — Sleeman, Journey through Uie 
Kingdom of Oudh, i. 137.] 

BUNGALOW, DAWK-, s. A rest- 
house for the accommodation of travel- 
lers, formerly maintained (and still to 
a reduced extent) by the paternal care 
of the Government of India. The 
materiel of the accommodation was 
humble enouffh, but comprised the 
things essential for the weary traveller 
— shelter, a bed and table, a bath- 
room, and a servant furnishing food 
at a very moderate cost. On principal 
lines of thoroughfare these bungalows 
were at a distance of 10 to 15 miles 
afNirt, so tliat it was possible for a 
traveller to make his journey by 
marches without carrying a tent. On 
some leas frequented roads they were 
40 or 50 miles apart, adapted to a 
night's run in a palankin. 

18f):).— "D&k-ban^owi have been de- 
scribed by some Oriental travellers as the 
Mnns of India.' Playful satirists!"— Oai-- 
Jleld, ii. 17. 

1866.— "The Dawk Bungalow; or, Is 
his Appointment Pucka? —By G. U. 
J^rrw/yaw, in Frater*s Magazine, vol. 73, 
p. 215*. 

1878.— « I am inclined to think the value 
of life to a dak bonnlow fowl must be 
very trifling." — In my Indian Harden, 11. 

BUHQY, 8. H. hhntigJ. The name 
of a low caste, habituallv employed as 
sweepers, and in the lowest menial 
oflftces, the man Wing a house sweeper 
and dog-boy, [his wife an Ayu]. 
Its meml)er8 are found throughout 
Northern and Western India, and 
every European household has a 
servant of tnis class. The colloquial 
application of the term bungy to such 




servanUi is however peculiar to BoiuIniv, 
[but the word is coniiiionly used in 
the N.W.P. but always with a 
contemptuous significance]. In the 
Bengal Pry. he is generally called 
Mehtar (q.v.), and by politer natives 
Halalkhor (see HALALCOBE), &c. In 
Madras tcii (see TOTY) is the usual 
word ; [in W. India Dh^r or Dhed], 
Wilson suggests that the caste name 
mav be derived from 6^71^ (see BANG), 
and this is possible enough, as the 
class is generally given to strong drink 
and intoxicating drugs. 

1826.— "The Kalpa or Skinner, and the 
Bonghee, or Sweeper, are yet one atop 
below the Dh*r.'*—Tr. Lit. Soc. Bombay j 
iii. 362. 

BUNOW, s. and v. H. bamlo^ used 
in the sense of * preparation, fabrica- 
tion,* &c., but properly the imperative 
of banana, * to make, prepare, fabricate.' 
The Anglo-Indian word is applied to 
anything fictitious or factitious, *a 
cram, a shave, a sham ' ; or, as a verb, 
to the manufacture of the like. The 
following lines have l)een found among 
old papers Wlonging to an officer who 
was at the Court of the Nawab Sa'adat 
'Ali at Lucknow, at the l>eginning of 
tlie bust c^iiiturv : — 

'* Young Orant and Ford the other day 

Would fain have had some Sport, 
But Hound nor Beadle none had they, 

Nor aught of Canine sort. 
A luckless Pamj * came most pat 

When Ford — ' we've Dogs enow ! 
Hero Maitrf--Kairn aur Doom ho Kant 

Julfl ! Terrier bunnow ! ' f 

" So Saadut with the like design 

(1 mean, to form a Pack) 
To ***** t gave a Feather fine 

And Ke<l fVwit to his Rick ; 
A Persian Sword to clog his side, 

And Boots Hussar SHh-nyah^X 
Then eyed his Handiwork with Pride, 

Crying Me*jir nnjn bunnayah ! ! ! " § 

"ApjK)inted to be said or sung in all 
Moscjues, Mutts, T\ickeahs, or Eodgahs 
within the Reserved Dominions." || 

1853.— "You will see within a week if 

• /.«. PariaJi <lojc 

t " Mi'htar ! cut his t>ars nnd tail, quick ; fabri- 
•■ate a T»rrri«*r 1" 

J All new. 

8 " S««c. 1 h&\*' fabricaUd a Major !" 
i Tlip wnt«T of these lines is believwi to have 
IwH-n Cajitain U<>b«Tt Skirv-inp, of Croys, Galloway, 
a brother of Archilwlfi Skirving, a iSi'otch artint of 
n^jMite, and the win of Archibald 8kirvinc, of East 
Ii<»Uiian, th«' antbor of a once famous ballad on 
th«' lattle of Pri'st onions. CapUin 8kir\'ing 
k«tv<h1 in the HiMif^il anny from about 1780 to 
1806, and di*Hi about 1840. 

this is anything more than a 
(Jaknetd, ii. 68. 

[1870.—" We shall be satisfied with duMS- 
ing for illustration, out of many, one ^<«wf 
of Denowad or prepared evidence.'* — Okeven, 
Mfd. Juns/n-ua.y o6.] 

BUBDWAN, n.p. A town 67 dl 
N.W. of Calcutta — Bardwdn^ but in 
it8 original Skt. forni KardAafiufiiay 
*thri\'inff, prosperous,' a name which 
we findf in Ftoleniy (BaTdamaMa\ 
though in another part of India. 
Some closer approximation to the 
ancient form must have been current 
till the middle of 18th centurv, for 
Ilolwell, writing m 1765, speaks of 
"Burdiwin, the principal town of 
Burdomaan" (Hut. EvmU, &c., 1. 112; 
see also 122, 125). 

BUBGHEB. This word has thne 

distinct applications. 

a. s. This is only used in Ceylon. 
It is the Dutch word burger^ * citizen.' 
The Dutch admitted people of mixt 
descent to a kind of citizenship, and 
these people were distinguidied by 
this name from pure natives. The 
word now indicates any persons who 
claim to l>e of partly European desooit^ 
and is lused in the same SQpse as * kd^- 
caste ' and * Eurasian ' in India Proper. 
[In its higher sense it is still uaea by 
the Boers of the Transvaal.] 

1807.— '* The mater part of tbem w«» 
admitted by the Dutch to all the priTikgw 
of citizens under the deDomiiuitioQ <if 
Bnrghert."— Corr/<««-, /Vac. o/Cfylan. 

1877. — *' About 60 years ago the BiughMi 
of Ceylon occupied a position simflar to tlut 
of the Eurasians of India at the niuwut 
moment." — Cakutta lUvirtr, cxiii. ISS*!. 

b. n.p People of the HU^ieny 

Ililbi, properly BadagaSy or *NOTth- 
emers.' — See under BADEOA. 

C. 8. A rafter, H. bargd, 

BUBKUNDAUZE, s. An anned 
retainer ; an armed policeman, or 
other armed unmounted employ^ of a 
civil department; from Ar.-ft hmk- 
anddZy 'lightning-darter,' a word of 
the same class as jdn-bdZy &c [Abo 
see BUXEBBY.] 

1728.— "2000 men on foot, called Mr 
candM, and 2000 pioneers to niftke tht 
road, called liiddars (see lWT.naf - 
VcUrntijn, iv. ^VmMr, 276. 

1798.— "Capt. Welsh has snooMdtd ii 
driving the Benssl Btthndomi Mt tf 
Assam."- CoravoJ/u^ ii. 307. 




17i*l. — "Xotico is hereby given that per- 
-.•oh decdrtHiH of wnding oMoortH of bur- 
koadaaM or other armed men, with 
mcnrhAiidiMe, are to apply for passiiorts." — 
Id Srtutk-Karr, ii. 139. 

[1832. — ** The whole line of march is 
guarded in each pmceanon by burkhand- 
ban (matchlock men), who tire singly, at 
int«rT»U, on the way." — Mr» Affrr Hfusan 
.«ii. i. S7.J 

BUEltA, BUBMAH (with BUB- 
l">«*c, &c.) n.p. The naiue bv which 
vr dndgnat^i the ancient kingctoni and 
nation iirrupying the central Uisin of 
the Iran iidi faver. "British Burma" 
I- (•tn'^ituted of the pn>\'ince,s con- 
•iiien-l from that kincdfrni in the 
two wan* of 1824-26 ami 1862-53, viz. 
'-.n the tirst) Arakan, Martal)an, Teiias- 
•^niii. And (in the second) Pegu. 
r{>{»-r Biinna and the Slian States 
*tTe aniiext^l after the third war of 

The name is taken fn>m Mran-m&, 
'br national natiit* of the Burmese 
j»4»pl»*. whirh thfv themselves giMierally 
j-r-iu-mric** Bam-md^ unless when sj)eak- 
:X4^ f<»mially and emphatically. Sir 
Arthur Phayre coiL'<iaers that tfiis 
riaiiie wa- in all proUibility adoptifl 
by the Monp'loid tril^es of the Upper 
Ir^wafii, on their rf»nversi<m to Buaah- 
>iu >'y mis**ioriaries from (rangetic 
India, and is identiral with that 
•Lr^fm-mtl) by whirh the first and 
H-'ly inhabitant<> of the world an* 
-tyir-i in the (Pali) Scrip- 
rir^. BriOimii-dfMi htl* the term 
^pphrd to the country by a SinL'hales** 
rii'^ik returning thence to Ceylon, in 
■•►n'.»'r*fcition with <»ne of the ])re.Hent 
»nf« r«. It i«» hf»wever the view 
■i Up. Ihpindet and of Prof. Forch- 
iuiiitfit-r. ^ui»|»orie«l by iMuisiderable 
iririni#-nl^ tnat Mran^ Mya», or Myen 
»»- !h«- «»n*rinal name of the Burmese*, 
:«^.p!r, an*r \* tnweable in the names 
ir.v«-n t'» them by their neighUmrs ; 
* '} \'\ (liineMr ili^n (and in Marco 
p.i^.)*; by Kakhyens A/y(f7i or Mren; 
^> SliauN Mdn; by Sgaw Karens, 
FiY* , *\v Pgaw KareiLH, PuyfJn; by 
?al'»:jxui%' ptinJn^ ic.* Prof. F. con- 
*AfT> tnat Mran-M«f (with this hono- 
nti': suffix) due» not date bev(md the 
14:h .»-ntury. fin J. R A. iioe. (1894, 
p. 152 «9v'X ^^' ^^ ^^^^^ suggests 
'hat thr word Myamtna is derive<i 

further that thr tididttal 
with m\ «•!, or ]pe u a i>rD- 

from niyan, *s\vift^' and //la, '.sti*oug,' 
and was taken as a soubri([uet by the 
]>eople at some early date, perhaps in 
the time of Auawrahta, a.d. 1150.] 

1516. — "Having passed the Kingdom of 
Bongale, along the coast which turns to the 
South, there is another Kingdom of Gentiles, 
called Barma. . . . They fre<iuently are at 
war with the King of Pei^i. We have no 
further information respecting this country, 
because it has no shipping."— i3ar6o«a, 181. 

[ ,, "Venna." See quotation under 

[1538. — **But the war lasted on and the 
Bram&s took all the kingdom."— C'orrat, 
iii. 851.] 

1543. — "And folk coming to know of the 
secrecy with which the force was being 
dospatche<l, a great desire took possession 
of all to know whither the Governor in- 
tended to send so largo an armament, 
there bein^j^ no Kumis to go after, and 
nothing being known of any other cause 
why ships should be despatched in secret 
at such a time. So some gentlemen s}x>ke 
of it to the Governor, and much importuned 
him to tell them whither they were going, 
and the (lovemor, all the more Iwnt on 
concealment of his intentions, told them that 
the expedition was going to Peg^ to fight 
with the Bramas who had taken that 
Kingdom."— /frii:^. iv. 298. 

c. 1545. — ** Hatr O^e Kintj f>/'Bram& nndtr- 
tttol th^ conf/Mfst of this hngdum of SiAo 
(Siam), and of trfuU hap]t*'ned tlil his arrivuf 
at th^ City of OdiA:'—F. M. Pinto (orig.) 
cap. 185. 

[1553.— *'Brem4." See quotation under 

1606. — "Although one's whole life were 
wasted in describing the superstitions of 
these (irentiles — the Fegus and the Bramas 
—one could not have done with the half, 
therefore I only treat of some, in passing, 
as I am now ul>out to do." — Conto, viii. 
cap. xii. 

[1639.-" His (King of Pogu's) Guard 
consi*its of a great numl)er of Souldiors, 
with them called Brahmans, is kept at 
the second Port."— J/<iii</*'/«/w, Travefsy E. T, 
ii. 118.] 

1680.— "Abticlbs of CoMMiRCS to be 
proposed to the King of Barma ami Pegu, 
m behalfe of the bnglish Nation for the 
settling of a Tmde in those countrys." — 
Ft. St. if to. C\ms.y in Iffttrs and Extx.^ lii. 7. 

1727.— "The Dominions of Barma are at 
present very large, reaching from Moravi 
near Tanacerin^ to the IVtivince of Vunan 
in China." — A. IlamittoHy ii. 41. 

1759. — * * The Btatf hmahi are much more 
numerous than the Peguese and more ad- 
dicted to commerce ; even in Pegu their 
numlwrs are 100 to 1 ." — letter in Ikdrymplf^ 
O. R., i. 99. The writer appears desirous 
to convey by his unusual 8|telling some 
accurate reproduction of the name as he 
had heard it. His testimony as to the 




predominance of Bunno8o in Pegii, at that 
date even, w remarkable. 

[1768.—" Bnrmah." See quotation under 

[1767.— "Bura^hma^h." See quotation 
under 80NAPARANTA. 

[1782.— "Bahmans." Bee quotation under 

II lent to designate the head of that 
(iepartnient, local or remote. 

[1889.— "At anv rate a few of the great 
lords and ladien (Bnxra Sahib and Bun 
Mem Bahib) did npeak to me without beiofr 
driven to it. ' — Ijod^ Ihifferinr^ 34.) 

BUBBAMPOOTEB, n.j). Properly 

1793.— "Bnrmah bonlen* on Pegm to the (Skt.) Bralitnaputra (*the son of 

north, and occupioH lK>th hanks of the river 
an far as the frontiers of China." — HeniulVs 
Memoir^ 297. 

[1 795. — * ' Birman. " See (juotation under 

[c. 1819. — " In fact in their own language, 
their name is not Burmete, which we have 
l)orrowed from the Portuguese, but 
Biamma." — Sangfrmann^ 36.] 

BUBBA-BEEBEE, s. H. harl bfbl, 
'Grande dame.' This is a kind of 
slang word applied in Anglo-Indian 
society to the lady who claims T»re- 
<;edence at a party. [Nowadays Ban 
yfem is the term a])plied to the chief 
Lidy in a Station.] 

1807.— "At table I have hitherto been 
allowed hut one dish, munoly the Burro 
BebM, or lady of the highest rank." — 
/.ttrd Minto in IndUi, 29. 

1848.— "The ladies carry their bnrrah- 
bibiahip into the steamers when they ^o 
to England. . . . My friend endeavoured m 
vain to persuade them that whatever their 
social importance in the H-ity of Palaces,' 

i^rahma '), the great river Brahmpuir of 
which Assam is the valley. Rising with- 
in 100 miles of the source of the Ganges, 
these rivers, after being separated by 
17 degrees of longitude, join before 
entering the sea. Tliere is no distinct 
recognition of this ^reat river by th« 
ancients, but the Ihardanes or OuEohm. 
of Curtius and Strabo, described as a 
large river in the remoter parts of 
Inaia, al)ounding in dolphins and 
r.rocodiles. probaoly represents this 
river under one of its Skt. names, 

1552. — Barrofl does not mention the naue 
before us, but the Brahmaimtra aeema to he 
the river of Caor^ which traversing the 
kingdom so called (Ghmr) and t hat o f 
Comotay, and that of Cirot ^ (see S ILHET|. 
issues above ChatigHo (see CHITTAOOWBl 
in that notable arm of the Gknget which 
passes through the island of Somagiin 

c. 1590. — "There is another very laife 
river called Berhompattar, which runs froo 
Khatai to Coach (see COOCH BEHAB)aBd 

m •• M% t_ ▼* «_ « A Aft •• 

they would l>e Imt small folk in Ix>ndon." from thence through Bazoohah totbetM. 
-Cho,r Cho>r^ l»y Vh' Falkland, i. 92. j -Aye^n ^ifc^vrrv (GUdwin) ed. 1800, iL 6: 

[BUBBA-DIN, s. H. banl-din, A 
*greiit day,' the term applied by natives 
t4) a great festival of Europeans, par- 
tirularlv to Christmas Dav. 

[1880.— "This l>einff the Bum Din, or 
^ruat day, thu fact of an animal l)eing shot 
was interprote<l bv tlio inon as a favourable 
iiuirur}'."— /i(f//, Jinmh Liff, 279.] 

[od. JarrtU, ii. 121]. 

1726. — "Out of the same mountatni «e 
see ... a groat river flowing which . . • 
divides into two branches, whereof the 
easterly one on account of its die b caSkA 
the Great BaxTempootar."— ra/aUiViL t. 

1753.—" Un peu au-dessous de Daka, le 
(range est joint par une grosse riviere, qoi 
sort de la frontiere du Tibet. Le nondt 
Bramanpoutre qu'on lui trouve dam x^- 
B U BB A-KH ANA, s. H. hard oues cartes est une corruption de oelni dt 
khiria, Miig dinner'; a term of the . Brabmaputren. qui dans le langage di 
siime chanutvr jls the two last, applied !'«>•« siKintie tirant son origine de Bridiiiia.'' 
to a va^Jt and solemn entei Uiinment : "^^ ^nvtlU, Rela*rctssemms. 62. 

nuQA .»T ,. Kiit.> VI.... 1767.— "Just before the Gangee fall* iato 

[1880. ---To go out to a burra khaoA, ^ ^^ g^ „ j^ receive? the BtM- 

or big dinner, which is succee<Ied in the ^trey ^^ Assail River. The kmmmY&m 

IS larger than the Ganges . . . it is a perftct 
Sea of fresh Water after the Junction of tbe 
two Rivers. . . ."—MS, LeiUr of Jamu 
Renndl, d. 10th March. 

1793.—". . . till the year 1765, the Btf 

i rampooter, as a capital river, was anknowB 

in huroi>o. On tracing this river in ITd 

Niino or soinu other houno by a larger 
evening jtsirtv." — ir«7j«'/«, Ahotif of »Snotr, 

BUBBA SAHIB. H. hard, * gre^t ' ; 
*the great Sd/tib (or Mitster),' a term 
constantly (w^'urring, wliether in a 
familv to distinguish the father or 
iheefder brother, in a station to in- 
dicate the ('<)llert<»r, Ccmimissioner, 
<»r whatever otlirer may 1m*. the re»!og- 
nised liea<l <»f the <<Miet y, or in a dejKirt- 

>I>o. Km tracing 
I was no lesB suri)risea at finding it 
larger than the (kmges, than at iti 
previous to its entering Bengal. . • . leoaU 
no longer doubt that the 
and Kanpoo were one and the 
—Reniif^l, Ainnoivy 3rd ed. 35& 




EUEBEL, s. ii. Utaral/ Ovis na- 
Awn, Hodgson. The ])lue wild sheep 
<if the Hinialaya. [Btanford, Mamm. 
489, with illiifltratioiL] 

BUBSAUTEB, s. H. bar$dtly from 
hartiit, 'the Rains.' 

a. The word properly is applied to 
ft di««ae to whicn horses are liable in 
the nina^ piistalar eruptions breaking 
<Kit on the head and fore parts of the 

(1*B.— ** Thftt -wwy extraordiiuuT' disease, 
^ b m a tt — ."—Or. SuurU Mag., reprint, 

[1882.~**Hc»rM« are subject to an in- 
fsrtinas diaoaiv, which generally makoM xU 
tppMrmace in the rainy nea^ion, and there- 
f.«v oalled tenhaftatie.'^'— A/r« Men- Hasaan 
Ml. n. 27. 1 

b. But the Wf)rd is alsf) applied to a 

• itt-q.niof clottk, or the like. (See 


l^HO. -"The pcenerr hati now been 
Jkiraoced for the nectma [Mirt of the Bimla 
«a*i« . . . and the appropriate coAtume 
f <r buth sexes in the decorous bunatti." — 
PuBmen- Maii^ July 8. 

BU8. «dT. P.-H. ftox, * enough.' 
r«d cotnmanlv as a kind of inter- 
jwti««i : ♦ Enoug)i ! SUm ! Ofuijam $atu ! 
iSmdOy btuia ! * Few mndustani words 
itKk clcMer >»y the returned Anglo- 
Indian. The Italian expression, though 

• .f <>liM<are ef yniohjgy, can hardly have 
4ny roniiecti<»n witfi hoA. But in use 
It always feels like a mere expansion 

l^U.— " * And if vou paai,' say my dear 
r*«i oatursd friends, *you may f^et an 
spfaa&tiBeDt. Bus ! (you see my Hindo- 
tsn— knowledire already carries roe the 
ttugth *4 that emphatic monosyllable). 
* fkUjMd, 2nd ed. i. 42. 

BUSHIBE, n.p. The pnnci{ial 
otf^iera Persian sm|M>rt on the Persian 
fi-ili ; prr>|ierly AlfAthnhr. 

1777. **Bawefai«r i« also a Maritim 
Tjwn. ... It stand* no an Island, and hat 

• ppstty gCKsi Trade."—.!. Hamilton, i. M). 

, K An inhabited tpiarter, 
-* «-illa^. H. &njfi, from 8kt. xxu- 
dvelL Many v«4irs ago a native in 
I'p^r India iilun to a Euro|)ean assis- 
tant tn the C>uial Department : '' You 
Fenngii talk much of your count r>' 
■&nd iu pover, but we know tlkit the 
vbule of you oonie froni five villagp.8 
ifdmtk %ifltiX The word is applied 


ill Calcutta to the sejiarate groups of 
huts in the humbler native quarters, 
the sanitary state of which has often 
been held up to reprobation. 

(1889.— *' There is a dreary hnitM in the 
neighbourhood which is said to make the 
most of any cholera that may be going." — 
R. Kipling, City of Drmd/nl Night, 64j 

BUTLEB, s. In the Madras and 
Boml)ay Presidencies this is the title 
usually applied to the head-servant of 
any English or quasi-English house- 
hold. He generally makes the daily 
market, has charge of domestic stores, 
and superintends the table. As his 
profession is one which affords a large 

I scope for feathering a nest at the ex- 
pense of a foreign master, it is often 
followed at Madras by men of com- 

I paratively good caste. (See CON- 

I 8U1IAH.) 

! 1616.— ''Yoeky the bnUer, being sick, 
asked lycense to goe to his howse to take 
phisick." — Cttcks, i. 135. 

1689.—". . . thoButlenare enjoin'd to 
take an account of the Place each Night, 
before they depart home, that they (the 
Peons) might l)e examin'd before they stir, 
if ou^ht l>e wanting." — Ovington, 393. 

1782.— "Wanted a Person to act as 
Steward or Bailer in a Gentleman's House, 
he mnat nndmitaHd Hairdrtssing." — India 
Gazette, March 2. 

1789. — "No person considers himself as 
comfortably accommodated without enter- 
taining a hvlMjih at 4 pagodas per month, 
a BnUer at 3, a Peon at 2, a Cook at 3, a 
Compradoro at 2, and kitchen boy at 1 
pagoda." — J/wwn/s yarratirt qf OprratUms, 
p. 27. 

1873. — "(tlancing round, my eye fell on 
the pantry do|)artment . . . and the hatlar 
trimming the reading lamps." — Camp L{fe 
in India, Fra$er'$ Mag., June, 696. 

1879. — **. . . the moment when it occurred 
to him (i.^. the Nvoung-young IVince of 
Burma) that he ought really to assume the 
^ise of a Madras ^tler, and l>e off to the 
Residency, was the happiest inspiration of 
his Mie."- Standard, July 11. 

English s|K)ken bv native s*»rvanta in 
the Madnw Presiciency ; which is not 
very much In^tter than the Pigeon- 
Bn i rllah of China. It is a singular 
dialect; the pn»»ent jwirticiple («.^.) 
being<l for the future indicative, 
and the preterite indicative being 
formed bv *done'; thus / Ulling'^ 
* I will tell ' ; I done tell =^ ' I have 
told*; done www =»* actually arrived.' 
Peculiar meanings are also attached to 




words; thus family = 'wife.' The 
oddest cliaracteristic al)out this jargon 
is (or was) that masters used it in 
8]>eakiiig to their servants as well as 
stirvants to their masters. 

BUXEE, s. A military ]>ay master : 
U. bakhdu. This is a word of complex 
and curious history. 

In origin it is Inelieved to l)e the 
Mongol or Turki corruption of the 
Skt. bhihhuj *a Ixiggar, and thence 
a Buddhist or religious mendiamt or 
memWr of the Jiscetic order, Ixmnd V)y 
his dis<:i^)line to obtain his d;iily food 
l)y 1 Hogging.* BdkttJU was the word 
commonly applied by the Tartars of 
the host of Cningiz and his siu:ces8ors, 
and aft^ir them by the Persian writers 
of the Mongol em, to the regular 
Buddhist clergy ; and thus the word 
ajUHiara under various forms in the 
works of medieval EuroiMvm writers 
fix»m whom example-s are quoted Iwlow. 
^[anv of the class came to Persia and 
tlie we«st with Hulaku and with Batu 
Khan : and jus the writers in the Tartar 
camps were proUibly found chiefly 
among the bahOii^ the word underwent 
exactly the Siuiie transfer of meaning 
as our i'Urk^ and came to signify a 
literatun^ scriln* or serretarv. Tlius 
in the Lfitiiio-Perso-Turkish voca- 
bulary , wlii<-h belonged to Petrarch 
and is j>ivserved at Venire, the word 
scribal is rendered in (.Ntmanian, ij:. 
the then Turkish of the Crimea, as 
Bacin. The change of meaning did not 
stoj> here. 

Abu'1-Fa^l in his a<-count of Kashmir 
(in the Atu^ [»vl. JorMt^ iii. 212]) re- 
calls the fact that hikhinhi was the title 
given l>y the It'arntMl among IVrsian 
and Arabic writei-s U) the Budcihist 
riests whoni the TilM-tansstyled Idmdtt. 
ut in the time of li;ilK»r, siiv circa 
1500, among the Mongols the word 
had conn^ to mean mfnjfnn; a changi* 
analogous agiiin, in some measure, to our 
coll(M{uial u>e of dot'tor. The nuxlrrn 
Mrnu'ols, according to Pallas, use the 
won! in the sensr of * Teacher,' and 
apply it to the most venerable or 
learned j»riest of a coiniiiunity. Among 

• III n not*' witli wliii'h wr w»'n* fa\<iiiivil hy th«' 
lat<' I'nif. Anton S<-liii>fniT, In* ♦•xpn-nH*'*! liiiuhts 
\\1h-i1j»t tin' lUikxln uf tin* TiU'tans himI Montis 
was not of •■arly intrrxliK-tion t)irtiii>;)i tli«« l.'it^iii.s 
tioiii -»oin«'«>tlifr roirMjiti"*! Siinskrit wonl, or »'Mmi 
ot |ii:i-liui|inii>«tir i|i>rivutioii from uii Iraiiitin 
.so;in-».. Wi- ilo imt tlml tin* w«.ii| in .lai'^rhk** s 
TiJi«t.«ii h 'ti'ii.ri'x. I 

_ I 


the Kirghiz Kazzaks, who profyN* 
Mahommedanism, it has come to bear 
the character which Marco Polo nioiv 
or less associates with it^ and means a 
mere conjurer or medicine-man ; whiU 
in Western Turkestan it sigiiifies « 
*Bard' or * Minstrel.' [VaniWrv in 
his Sketches of Central Ana (p! 81) 
speaks of a BakJusfu as a trouljadour.] 

By a further transfer of meanioj^ 
of which all the steps are not clear, in 
another direction, under the Moham- 
medan Emperors of India the wcml 
bakJuJU was applied to an officer high 
in military administration, whw 
office is sometimes rendered 'Master 
of the Horse' (of horse, it is to I* 
remembered, the whole substance f4 
the army consisted), but whose duties 
sometimes, if not habitually, em- 
braced those of Paymaster-Uenertl 
as well a.s, in a manner, of Com- 
mander-in-Chief, or Chief of the Statf. 
[Mr. Irvine, who gives « detailed 
account of the Bciknshi under the 
latter Moguls (J. R. A, Soe,, July 
1896, p. 539 seqq.\ prefers to call him 
Adjutant-General.] More properly per- 
liaps this was the |XAsition ot the Mir 
B(tkJiiOily who had other bakk^U under 
him. BakhjthU in military commiiKl 
continued in the armies of the Mah* 
rattas, of Hyder Ali, and of other 
native powers. But lx)th the Persiaii 
si)elling and the modem connection ot 
tiie titk* with yxif/ indicate a probability 
that some confusion of association hau 
arisen U^Xween the <»ld Tartar title and 
the P. bftkhsh^ '\Hnt'u)Ti,^b<ikhdildan^*Xo 
give,' bakJiahlsh^ '|)aymeut.' In the 
earlv days (»f the Council of Fort 
William wc find the title Bnxee ap- 
])lied to a £urr)i)ean Civil oflict*r, 
through whom ]Hiynients were made 
(set^ Long and Moti-Karr, paffiiiii). 
This is ol»solete, but the word is A ill 
in the Anglo-Indian Army the rea^- 
nised designation of a PaynuuUr. 

This is the Ixist known existing iwe 
of the word. But under .some Native 
Governments it is still the designatiim 
of a high otKcer of .state. And acenrd- 
ing to the Cnlrutta iHoMnry it has lieen 
used in the X.W.P. for *a collevtor 
of a house tax' (?) and the like; in 
IWngiil for ' a su})erinUMident of peons' ; 
in MvsoR* for ^a treasurer/ &e. [In 
the N.W.P. the Hakk^ populariy 
known to nativi*s as ^BaMuhl tVUbm^' 
'Tax Rikbshi,' i< the ]vrsou iu duu)^ 





of one of the minor towns which are 
not under a Municipal Board, but are 
managed l>y a PancK^ or Ixxiy of asses- 
sorSi who raise the income needed for 
witch and ward and conservancy by 
meana of a graduated house assess- 
ment.] See an interesting note on 
this word in Quatremire^ H. des Mon- 
90U, 184 »tiqq.; also see Marco Polo, 
BiL L cIl 61, note. 

1296. — "There is another marvel per- 
foRDed bj tbom Baoii,.of whom I have been 
■p—king a« knowing' no many enchant- 
muntM. . . r— Marco Po/o, Bk. 1. ch. 61. 

c 1300.— "Although there are many 
Bal^kridi^ Chinese, Indian and othern, 
tbcae of Tibet are mont esteemed."— Kiuh id- 
mddim^ quoted by lyOhtnon, ii. 370. 

c 1300.— "Et sciendum, quod Tartar 
qoofdam hotnine* nufier omneM do mundu 
boQorant : frmrttlf. f«ctlicet quottdam ponti- 
ficwydolumm." -Iticoftius de MontecrueiSy in 
p€r*f^mmb/r^s, IV. p. 117. 

c 1S08. — ** ToCto yiip Koirr^xa^it iva- 
r^m^ v/4« ^ciKia. dte^f/Saior* irpurrot S^ 
rur Itp&ftiyv^f Toth^ofM ToOro^^WriwL^erai. " 

O mry. Paehymtrts dt Andronioo PcUartt- 
Uf^ LA. TiL The lant part of the name of 
tkie A^Mfaai^MLru, 'the Amt of the iiacred 

E' appears to bo Bakhshi ; the whole 
ps to be A'A'yirr-Bakliahi, or KOchiti- 

c 1340.— "The Kingn of this countr>- 
frum Jincrhiz Khan . . . followed 
the jtofsaX (or laww) of that Prince 
the doiniiaii received in hid family, which 
in revering the nun, and conform- 
ng in ail thinir** to the advice of the 
likilria.''— •S^A<i6*^JiM, in Xot. H Kxtr. 
OB. !£I7. 

1430, —"In thi* city of Kamchcu there is 
aa idiA temple* TdK) cubits 5«}uarc. In the 
Bidd:-« i» an idol lying at length, which 
aeaMire* 50 pacui. . . . Behind thix image 
. . . f&gnrcii* fii F*It*^^* an large an life. . . ." 
-.*dUA Hnkk't Mi*9inn tn China, in Cathay, 
ki ersxL 

Wlf». — "Then I move*! him for bin favor 
foraa Km^f»Mk Viu-Utry U> lie Resident in the 
Tovne, which hi-v willingly gninte<l, and 
gave prcMtnt 4»nirr i*t the oOZy, ttj draw a 
Ftrmm ^mAh f**r their comming vp, and for 
their r«Aent«." Sir T. I(tf. in pMirhtm, 
1. Ml ;(Hak. Soi-. i. ftJ.] 

c. 16<K).- "... oblige*! me to take a 
fiaWy frum the ftrtmd M'»ftftl in the quality 
«4 a |*hi«itian, and a little tsiXar inmx 
iMM^aekwtemi Kan, the mo«t knowing nmn 
<4 .iMtf, vbr> hail been BakrhU. or (treat 
lU^tmr*4 the }htrMs." - lirrni^, K.T. p. 2; 
I«d. Omtt^J^, p. 4]. 

1701. -"The friend'«hip of the Bozie i^ 
•ot so aiach desired for the poHt he in now 
«, b«l that he »• of a very gotid family, and 
km mtmjf rslations near the King."— In 
iriMnlir, I. XfK 

170^7. — ^'Ho the Kmi»on>r ap|»ointe<I a 

nobleman to act as the balr»b< of K^ra 
Bakhsh, and to him he intrusted the Prince, 
with instructions to take care of him. The 
hakilhf was Sultan Hasan, otherwise called 
Mir Malang. "—Z>a«r«on'« £Uiot, vii. 385. 

1711.— "TohisExceUency Zulfikar Khan 
Bahadur, Nurzerat Sing {Nasrat-Jai^ t) 
Backshee of the whole Empire."— Address 
of a Letter from President and Council of 
Fort iSt. George, in Wheefer, ii. 160. 

1712.— "Chan Dhiehaan . . . first Baksi 
general, or Muster-Master of the horsemen." 
— Vaieniijn, iv. (Suratte), 295. 

1753.—" The BoxejT acquaint the Board 
he has been using his endeavours to got 
sundry artificers for the Negrais." — In Long, 

1756. — Barth. Plaisted represents tho bad 
treatment he had met with for "strictly 
adhering to his duty during the Bozy-ship of 
Messrs. Bellamy and Kempe " ; and " tho 
abuses in the post of Bozy." — Letter to the 
Hon. the Court of Directors, d:c., p. 3. 

1763.— "Tho bnzey or general of tho 
army, at the head of a select body, closed 
the procession." — Orme, i. 26 (reprint). 

1766.—" The Bnzey lays before tho Board 
an account of charges incurred in the Buzey 
Connah . . . for the relief of people saved 
from tho Falmouth." — Ft, WiUiam, Cons., 
Long, 457. 

1793.— "The bokshey allowed it would 
l)e prudent in tho Sultan not to hazard the 
event." — IHrom, 50. 

1801. — " A bnckshee and a body of horse 
belonging to this same man wore opposed to 
me in the action of the 5th ; whom 1 daresay 
that I shall have the pleasure of meeting 
shortly at the Poshwah's durbor." — HW- 
fington, iii. 80. 

1811. — "There api)car to have been dif- 
ferent doHcriptions of BoktshiM (in Tip[KX)'H 
service). The Baktshiet of Kushoons wore 
a sort of comniiHsaries and paymasters, and 
wore subordinate to the sipahdAr, if not to 
the KoHillad/lr, or commandant of a battalion. 
The Meer Buktshy, however, took rank of 
the Siuahdilr. ThoBuktthias of tho Ehsham 
and Jyshe wore, I beliovo, the superior 
officers of these corps n)s|)ectively." — Note 
to Tipp<Mt'» Letters, 165. 

1823.— "In the Mahratta armies the 
prince is deemed the Sirdar or Commander ; 
next to him is the Bokthee or Paymaster, 
who is veste<i with the princi}>al charge and 
resj^m.-nbility, and is coiu<idorod accountable 
forull military ex i>onsc.s and disbursements." 
—Malcolm, Ct-ntnil India, i. 534. 

1827. -" lK>ubt it not— the H*)ldiers of the 
Boegum Mootee Mahul . . . are less hers 
than mine. 1 am myself the Buklhee . . . 
and her Sirdar* are at my devotion."— 
Waltrr tScittt, The Surgntn's Ihiughtrr, ch. xii. 

1861 . — " To the l)est of my memory be was 
aocuse<! of having done his tiest to urge the 
ficople of Dhar to riso against our (}ovem- 
ment. and Hovcnil of the witnesses deiNMied 
to thi** etTfi't ; amongst thoni the BnklhL" — 
Mnnu. OH Jfhar, by Mojur McMulUn. 




1874. — " Bofore the depmntionfl wore taken 
down, the ffomAata of the planter drew aside 
the Pfvl"^<, who ia a police-officer next to 
the darog^." — (ruvinda SamanUt, ii. 235. 

BUXEBBY, s. A matchlock man ; 
apparently used in much the same 
sense as Blirkondanze (q.v.) now ob- 
solete. We have not found this term 
excepting in documents pertaining to 
the middle decades of 18th centurv in 
Bengal ; [but see references supplied 
l»y Sir. Irvine below;] nor have we 
fcnmd any satisfactory etymology'. 
Ihixo is in Port, a gun-l>arrel (Genu. 
JJurhse) ; which suggests some possible 
word buxeiro. There is however none 
such in Bhiteau, who hfus, on the other 
hand, ^^ButgeroSy an Indian term, 
artillery-men, &c.," and quotes from 
Hiit. Orient, iii. 7 : " Buttieri sunt hi 
«iui quinque tormentis praeficiuntur." 
This does not throw much light. 
Bajjary Hhiuiderlmlt,' may have given 
vogue to a word in analogy to P. oar/- 
anddZj * lightning-darter,' l)ut we lind no 
such word. As an additional conjec- 
ture, however, we may suggest Babtdris, 
from the jK.>ssible circumstance that 
such men were recruited in the 
country al>out Bahnlr (Buxar), i.e. the 
Shdhdbild district, which up to 1867 
was a great recruiting ground for 
Si*TM)ys. [There can be no doubt that 
this l«^««t suggestion gives thi^ (correct 
origin of the word. Buchanan Hamil- 
Umy Eastern India, i. 471, des<'ril)es the 
large number of men who joined the 
native army from this juirt of the 

[1690.— The Mogul army was divided into 
three classes — Smrdrdnj or mounted men ; 
Tnfti'fifinuh, artillery ; Ahshdm, infantry and 

( ** AfjJiMm — Jiatuiiu/dn-i-iauffl —Bakaari- 
;inh mi Huitddah .{hshdui^ i.e. regular 
niatc*hl<K.'k-men, BaksarivahB and Hundc- 
Inhs."- /ttistrir- nf -'aiiiaJy written al>out 
IrtOO-l : B. M'fsnim MS., No. 1611, fol. 
r»s6. 1 

171H. — "Onlercd the Zemindars to send 
Buxerries to clear the Ixmin and bring them 
up an Prisuners." — Ft. William Cvhu.f April, 
in Long^ j). 6. 

,, **We received a letter from . . . 
('i)uncil at ('o>simUazi»r . . . advisin^^ of 
their having sent Knsign McKion with all 
the Military that were ahle to travel, 150 
buxerries, -1 Held pieces, and a lar^e quan- 
tity of anuniuiition to Cutwav." -If>ui. p. 1. 
1749.— '• Havinp freipicnt rejiorts of several 
stnij«:nliTi)r parties of this lianditti pliUKleriu); 
aUmt tliis place, we on the '2d Noveml>cr 
ordered the Zemindars to entertain one 

hundred bnzeries and fifty pike-men over 
and above what were then in pey for the 
protection of the outjikirtii ot your Hooor'ft 
town."—Ijetter to Cuurtj Jan. IS, Ihid, p. 2L 

1755.— "Agreed, we despatch Lieutenaot 
John Harding of a command of aoldienSS 
Buxaxies in order to clear these boaii if 
stopped in their way to this place/' — Ibid, 

„ ** in an account for this year «e 
find among charges on behalf of William 
Wallis, Es(j., Chief at Cossimbazor: 

" ' 4 Bnxeries ... 20 (year) . aia*" 
MJS. Htfcord* in India Office, 

1761.— ''The 5th they mode their Isit 
effort with all the Kepoys and Bimxte 
they could assemble." — In Long^ 2M. 

,, ** The number of BuZMrrUi or 
matchlockmen was therefore augmented te 
1500."— Onn*- (reprint), ii. 59. 

,, "In a few minutes thev killed I 
buxerries."— 7/"V/. 65 ; see also 27*9. 

1772. — ' ' BucksexTlas. Foot soldiot 
whose common arms are only sword and 
target."— C//^«»«ary in (wrose's Vojfogt, Sad 
ed. [This is copied, as Mr. Irrine iho*% 
from the Glossary of 1757 prefixed to A% 
Address to the Proivrietors oj E. I. Sktek^h. 
Ilohoetl's Indian Tracts, 3rd od., 1779.] 

1788.— "BnxexTles- Foot soldieis, wbm 
common arms are swords and taigets or 
spears." — Indian Vucahulary (Stodcdole'i). 

1850.— "Another iK>int to which CKf^ 
turned his attention . . . was the oigaaBS' 
tion of an efficient native regular force. . . . 
Ilitherto the native troops employed ii 
Calcutta . . . designated BnzmziiM w«e 
nothing more than Iii*rlxiHdAz, armed ssd 
equipped in the usual native manner.**— 
§nMftiifj I/i*t. ofthf liisr and I*rogret» 4^ At 
llengat A mn/y i. 92. 


note ))y KirkjMitriik to the l)aAaig|^ 

bidow from Tipjtoo's Letters 8BLy» Byit 

Horse are "the same as Ptnddrmi^ 

I LootifSy and Kazzdks'* (see PINDABBT. 

LOOTY, COSSACK). In the Life 4 

Hyder AH hv Hussain 'All Khin 

Kirmani, tr. ^»y Miles, we nsad thit 

Hyder's Kuzzaks were under the 

coinmand of "Ghazi Klian Bedt." 

But whether tliis leader waa lo 

called from leading the ''Bade " Hom» 

or gave his name to them, does not 

appear. Miles lias the highly intelli- 

<rent note : *■ Bode is another name for 

(Knzzak): Kirkpatrick supposed the 

word Bede meiuit infantry, which, ^ 

l>elieve, it dcH's not' (p. 36). Tlie 

'. ([uotatiou fn)m the Life of Tiffi^ 

< seems t^) indicate tliat it was the naas 

I of A caste. And we tind in ShernM^ 

I Indium Tribes and CaeUej among thoift 

of My.sore, mention of the **"'* 




rulflibly of hunUineii, dark, 
i warlike. Formerly many 
])loyed as 8oldier8, aud ser\'ea 
fr's wars (iii. 153 ; see also the 
be in the S. Mahratta country', 
Asumin^ -at to be a plural 
e bave Here probably the 
" who gave their name to 
uiKiering horse. The Bedar 
tioned as one of the predators* 
of the peninsula, along witn 
ra, Kallara, Ramusis (see 
ITX Ac., in Sir Walter ElUot^s 
f. Etknnl. Soc., 1869, N.S. pp. 
But more will be found 
^ them in a ])aper by the 
n. BriggH, the translator of 
'a Hi<«t. (/. R, A. Soc. xiii.). 
Be<lar, Badnor (or Nagar^ in 
Mfenijf to take its name irom 
e. [See i?uv, Mywrt^ i. 265.] 

•• . . . The Cunilry of the Rao . . . 
uR-h a defeat from Hydur'H Bedet 
Iff that they fled and never looked 
b«in until they arrived at Croori 
-HiM. o/HyduT Saik, p. 120. 

** Byd* Hone, out of employ, have 
J pmt excewefl and deproi^ationA 
car* d<iminioiu«." — Ijrtter* of Tipptto 

"The Kakur and Chapa(» hor^e 
bouirb thew) are included in the 
w, they carry off the tialro even 
n in the art** of n»bhery) . . . " — 
«, by H»*»nH 'Aii Khan Kirmdni^ 
if*, p. 76. 


CABAYA, 8. This word, though 
of Asiatic origin, was perhaps intro- 
duced into India by the Portuguese^ 
whose writers of the 16th century 
apply it to the surcoat or long tunic 
of muslin, which is one of the most 
common native garments of the better 
classes in India. Tlie word seems t» 
j l>e one of those which the Portuguese 
had received in older times from the 
Arabic {hibd^ *a vesture'). From 
Dozy's remarks this would seem in 
Barl^ry to take the form kabdya. 
Whether from Arabic or from Portu- 
piese, the word lias been introduced 
mto the Mala^ countries, and is in 
common use m Java for the light 
cotton surcoat worn by Europeans, 
lK>th ladies and gentlemen, in dis- 
habille. The word is not now used in 
India Proi)er, unless by the Portuguese. 
But it has l)ecome familiar in Ihitch, 
from its use in Ja\^. [Mr. Gray, in 
his notes to Pyrard (i. 372^ thinks 
that the word was introduced before 
the time of the Portuguese, and 
remarks that kabaya in Ceylon means 
;i coat or jacket worn by a European 
or nativ 


8. A small two- wheeled 
imwn bv two oxen. H. hahaU 
lii, mhich lia^ no connection, 
fZMTally .•<up|Mi«e<l, with 6at7, 
' ; but i« <lerive<i innw the 
, ' li> rarry.' The byUe is U8e<l 
' partM*ngerM, and a larger and 
iip(i«in^ Vfhicle of the same 
tn»- But. Tlien* is ;i pood 
of a Pan jab hyltt in KipTina't 
A M*tn \\K 117); also M.*e the 
thf fpKiUition from FoH>es 

"A native bjlM will utually pn»- 

N/ld aJi<l silver of jrrwit purity, ton 

««vht I if precious* ntuU'il!* to \h> 

truta a i^eneral oflkxTH e>iui]4i^e." 

• * Imd»*i, i. )42. 

" M««t «-f the |Nirty . . . were in a 
h-jt the rich man hiinJH;lf [one of 
ra Scthv] atill adhereti Ui the nrimi- 
e\ao<.e *4 a bylis, a thinj? tike a 

•jtt two «hc«ls i;euerally drawn 
menu ^t in which he driven a 
\mar *4 white bomem iiittinjr cniM- 
m while ! "—J/r* Maclmzi^, Life 
•M, Ac.. H. 20S.] 

c. 1640.— "There waa in her an Emhas- 
rtador who had brought Hidalran ridaloanl 
a very rich Cabajra . . . which he would 
>not accept of, for that thereby he would 
not acknowledge himself fiubjeot to the 
Turk."— Coyrtn'« PhUo, pp. 10-11. 

1W)2.— *'. . . he ordered him then to 
l>eMtow a cabaya."— Ccu/fot/toia, iv. 488. 
See alflo Stanley a Corrta, 182. 

lf>f)4.— **And moreover there are given 
to tbcAe Kin^ (Malabar Rajaa) when ther 
come to receive theae allowances, to each 
of them a cabajra of ailk, or of scarlet, of 
\ cubits, and ii cap or two, and two sheath- 
knives."— N. Botdho, Tombo, 26. 

" Luzem da fina purpura as oabaymSt 
Lustram os ])annos da tecida soda." 

Vamiifjtf ii. 93. 

*' Cabasra de damasco rico e dino 
Da Tyria cor, entre olios o«timada." 

Ibid. 95. 

In these two i>assAgcs Burton translate* 

l.'iSS.— "The Kinjr i« ap|«rellcd with a 
Cable nuido like a shirt tied with stringa 
on one side." — It. Fitc/i^ in Hidtl.^ ii. 886. 

1J>98.- "They wear sometimes when they 
(TO abnmd a thiniio cotton linnen gown^ 
mlledCabaia. . . ."-/.»ajcAo<^, 70;[Hak. 
Soc. i. 247J. 




c. 1610. — *'Cette jaquette ou mutane, 
qu'ils appellent Libasse (P. ItbdSj * clothing ') 
ou Cabaye, est de toile de Cotton fort 
fine et blanche, qui leur va juaqu'aux 
talons." — Pyrard de Laval, i. 265; [Hak. 
Soc. i. 372). 

[1614.— "The white Cabas which you 
have with you at Bantam would sell here." 
— Foster, LetUrs, ii. 44.] 

1645. — ** Vne Cabaye qui est vne sorte do 
▼estement comme vne lar^e soutane couverte 
par le devant, k manches fort larees." — 
Cardim, Jtel. de la Prt/v. du Japan, 56. 

1689. — "It is a distinction between the 
Moors and Bannians, the Moors tie their 
Caba'B ^ways on the Right side, and the 
Bannians on the loft. . . ." — Ovington, 314. 
This distinction is still true. 

1860. — " I afterwards understood that 
the dress thoy were wearing was a sort 
of native garment, which there in the 
country they call sarong or kabaal, but 
1 found it vcrv unbecoming." — Max 
Havf/aar, 43. [There is some mistake 
here, sarong and Kabaya nre quite 

1878.— ♦'Over all this is worn (by Malay 
women) a long loose drejwing-gown style of 

? garment called the kabaya. This rulie 
alls to the middle of the log, and is 
fastened down the front with circular 
brooches." — McNair, PeraJc, kc, 151. 

OABOB, s. Ar.-H. kabdb. Tliis 
word is used in Anglo- Indian lumse- 
holds generi tally for roast meat. [It 
usually follows the name of the disli, 
e.g. mxmjhl kalxib, * roast fowl'.] But 
specitically it is applied to the dish 
described in the ([notations from Fryer 
and Ovington. 

c. l.'>80. — "Altoro modo . . . ii>sam 
(camcm) in parva fioistra disscctam, ct 
veruculis ferreis acuum modo indzam, 
super crates forreas igno supposito positam 
torrofaciunt, auam succo limonum ospersam 
avid^ esitant.' — Prosj^er AfpiHVs, Pt. i. 229. 

1673.— "Cabob is Rostmeat on Skewers, 
cut in little round pieces no bigger than a 
Sixi)cncc, and Ginger and Garlick put 
between cich." — Frijrr, 401. 

1689.— "Cabob, that is Beef or Mutton 
cut in small pieces, sprinkled with salt and 
pepjKjr, and dipt with Oil and (larlick, which 
have been mixt Ujgethor in a dish, and then 
roasted on a Spit, with sweet Herbs put 
between and stulf in them, and basted with 
Oil and (Jarliek all the while."— On /jy^"w, 

1814.--"! t)fton jMirtook with mv Arabs 
of a dish common in Ambia callc<i Kabob 
or Kab-ab. which is meat cut into small 
pieces and placed on thin skewers, alter- 
nately iKJtween slices of onion and green 
ginger, seasoned with |>ep|>er, salt, and 
Kian, fried in trhec, to 1)0 ate with ri««e 
and (lh<»ll." FutUs. Or. Mem. ii. ISO ; 
[2nd ed. ii. ^'J ; in i. MIT) he writes Kebabs]. 

[1876. — ". . . kavap (a name whidi it 
naturalised with us as Caboba), anuJl Yni* 
of meat roasted on a spit. . . ." — Sckuyln, 
Turl-tstan, i. 125.] 

OABOOK, s. This is the Ceybm 
term for the su1)stance called in IndiA 
Laterite (q.v.), and in Madras by 
the native name Moomxn (q.v.). Thr* 
word is i)erhaps the Port, cabowo or 
aivoucOy *a quarry-.* It is not in 
Singh. Dictionaries. [Mr. Feiviunn 
says that it is a corruption of the 
Port, pedras de cavon4X)j * (^uarry-stonev' 
the last word l>eing by a misapprehen- 
sion applied to tlie stones themseke^. 
The earliest instance of the use of 
the word he has met with occurs in 
tlie Travels of Dr. Aegidiiis Daalnuuu 
(1687-89), who descril?^ )wphok stone 
as Hike small pebbles lying in a haid 
clay, so that if a large square stone 
is allowed to lie for some time in 
the water, the clay dissolves and the 
pebbles fall in a heap together ; but 
if this st^)ne is laid m good mortar, 
so that the water cannot get at it, 
it does good service ' (/. As. Soc. Cejflott, 
X. 162). The word is not in the 
ordinary Singhalese Diets., but A. 
Mend is Qunasekara in his Sinchale^ 
Grammar (1891), among words derived 
from the Port., gives kabuk-gal (cabtmen^ 
vabook (stone), * laterite.'] 

1834. — **The soil varies in difTerent fltin« 
tionfl on the Inland. In the Ci>UDtry ruond 
ColomlK) it consi»t8 of a titron^ red cbT. 
or marl, called Cabook, mixed with mimit 
ferruginous particles." — Cnilcn Oatrttftr, $1 

„ ' * The houAos are built with eabook. 
and neatly whitewashed with chunun."— 
Ibid, 75. 

1860. — " A peculiarity which is one uf the 
first to strike a stranger who lands at Gslle 
or Colombo is the bright red ooloar of the 
streets and maris . . . and the abiqaitj 
tif the fine red dust which i>enet rates evciy 
crevice and inijiarts its own tint to efwy ■ 
neglected article. Natives resident in thsK 
localities are easily recognisable elsewfacR 
by the general hue of their dress. Hw i« 
occasioned by the prevalence ... of laUnk, 
or, as the Singhalese call it, ctbook.**- 
T^nn^nVs C^yhn, i. 17. 


This name (Kabul) of the chief ciiy 
of N. Afghanistan, now so familiir« 
is perhaps traceable in Ptolemy, vli«* 
gives in that same region a poof^ 
called Ko/SoXTrai, and a city ctlW 
Kd^ovpa. Perhaps, lioweyer, one or 
' lx)th may W conroborated by tke 
, vdpSoi Ka fkiKlnf of the PeriploSb TW 




kibnl ifl moRt distinctly on 
tl king sylUMe, but English 
^ xtry perverse in error 
\tT acc-rntrt the la^t HvlIaMe : 

** . . . pmaegrAnattMi full 
■ ■xtaeww. and tb« peam 

Bit Aiiple* that Caabal 

vidvitad }r»rdcn.« lieurii." 

Light »*ftk* Uartm. 
»1«1 d«M^ IikewL!)e in Sohrah 

tjup (if i«dkir« frum Cabool, 
dcrncAth the Induin Cau- 

►Id chAHMteriMicallv of the 
EllfnUrnmgh tliat, after 
in India, though for months 
hr name correctly Hjioken 
imill'ir^ and his statf, he 
I calling it C*lbool till he 
Mahummed Khan. After 
ifW the Gowmor- General 
AK a new discover^', fn»m I 
pronunciation, that Cdbnl \ 

TV* I form. ' 


r<«« ciilU it '*A ridade Cabol. i 
" M'C'-If^.'"- IV. ri. 1. 

■ T>'.- tfrrit^iry of Kabul (^mi- 
. Tiniins." — A\h^ tr. Jurrttt, • 

»«'nl "'f wi.^f .iml hitt<?r «hamc : 
•i'l "'.-i Kii^land'j* rUur, ili-*- 

1. '«.ink 

^t: * n.-v:vnt ; and the Jnitchcr 

!:kc rtx-'l^ the Uivonct.'* that 
« V • -, ♦#> -cnow-ciii't <'aiioaj«U!«, 

thr :.^h .1 hundivti vcarn <'f 

r** /*'!». v**« Trrr, a IVtcrn. 


[*L - This (K-'urs in th»' i 
J--ttnotI i1 Ahtoin* tw'fillimtf^ 
.n.]"l- in lt;T3: " 1 hapnt-s 
. •iroTi*- 'lU'-n \i^- il.iu-i ]*' 

■?: .rS-.- (11. ^n.i). Thi^ 
i' i'fi"/<i f««r < \inlani(tiii, 

■MTi'.n fmm (I.mi.i. W'r 
, that K'li-iiln w.iN a ]»la«r 

■ti thf (Iiilf «ii* Siaiii, 

!*.- Till** a !• •"»->*•« hhI («m*«' 
I, !v iP»4J). Auii a 
.•i •»/ C\iriini«»ni a|t]K*ars 
"••i iriiiii Si. nil, .lm"//ium 

Av'.vna jri^v* .1 (.-ha|>t«T on 
;tTi linrf It intti tho hffj-r and 

ca.jjiiir 'jni' i>f thcni »nc*»/f't 
.*•. ■-th«T nte*-^M r^tjH^r [\r 

«*i.- fi I* :*A n.iuh a-* U* ^w 

grtalrr cardamom and tmaffer cardamom." — 
Oarda Ih O., f. 47i\ 

1759.— "Theiie VakooUi . . . stated that 
tho Rani (of Bednore) would pay a yearly 
!<um of 100,0(X) liocnu or Pagoaaa, bendea a 
tribute of other valuable articlea, such an 
Foful (>>et«l), DiiteK, Sandal-wood, Kaknl 
. . . black pepper, Ac." — UiM. a/ Hydur 
yaik, 133. ^ :r' 

CADD7, s. i.e. tea-caddy. This 
is iK>rtsil)ly, as Cmwfurd Hiiggests, from 
Catty (q.v.X and may nave been 
originally a]>plied to a small Imjx 
containing a catty or two of tea. The 
suggitstion is confirmed by this ad- 
vertisement : 

1792.— '*Hy R. Hondermn ... A Quan- 
tity of Tea in (^lartor (^hextfl and Cftddl— , 
iin{Mjrted lu^t xeuMon. . . ." — Madras CoynW, 
Dec. 2. 

OADBT, 8. (Fn>m Prov. capdU, and 
Low Lat. cajntdium^ [dim. of cajmt^ 
*head'l Skeat). Tliis word is of 
<"<mrs*» oy no means exclusively Anglo- 
Indian, but it was in exceptionally 
rommon and familiar use in India, 
{IS all young oflicers apiK)inted to the 
Indian arniv went out to that countrv 
.IS r/j/fW-s and wen* only promotiHi to 
»*nsigiuies and J>o^ted to regiments 
after their arrival — in olden days 
^>metinies a coiu^sirlerable time after 
their arrival. In those days there 
wjLs a building in Fort William known 
.u* the H'adet Barrack'; and for some 
lime early in last century the cadet< 
alter their arrival wen* 8*»nt to a sort 
of college at Rir;t><'t ; a system which 
led to no giMxl, and was speedily 

17«>^J. — '• We' shouKl very gladly comply 
with your nx|ne}*t f«»r (H^ndirij? y«>u yoiini; 
|Ksn«>!is t4» Ikj hnnifrht up om iinsistants in 
the Knirineerin^ hnmch, hut as wo tind ii 
fxtreniely ditticult to pn»cun' «iiu*h, you 
will do Well t<» employ any wh«» have a 
talent that way amon^ the cadetl or 
other*.*'— ''.«"/7.« l^tt'-r, in /.""V, 2W. 

17rti*. -"'rjion our leaving: Kn;;'anil. the 
cadets and writers u^ed the trn^at iMbin 
pn'mi'*«.-uou«*ly : Imt Hn«iini; thev >*ere 
tniuliJe-Miine and ■juarrel-x'rne, we ^-niu^jht 
a Hill inU* the hou-^e for their ojcrtnient. * 

/.'/'■ o /■/,/!» I / T'i'jiiiunuth. i. ir». 

\1^\.- "'Y\\M Cadets of the en.i of the 
vear-i 1771 and iKririnnint: of 177*J served 
in the <*ountrv four vearM :us Cadets anil 
earrird the inu«k«*t .til the timf." - l^'ttiT in 
ll»ci'l'* J>'>--fttf ('. Sept. 2*.». 

CADJAN, -. .lav. and Mai iv i'ijnnti, 
[t»r annrdiiii; t«» Mr. Skeat, A-'i/nm/j, 
iiH iiiin.' * ji.iliii l«av»"s' r«.|M*iially tho**** 



every CaJaTa two Souldiun."— Tfi^TAicr, 
K. T. ii. 61 ; [ed. ifci//, i. 144]. 

1790. — *'Th6 camel apprupriated to tht 
aooommodation of powon^cn, carriei t*» 
tienons, who are lodiged in a kind of panmir, 
laid loosely on the back of the animaJ. TUi 
pannier, termed in the Persic XI4JtliVlh. 
18 a wooden frame, with the ndee aiM 
bottom of netted cords, of about S f e«t kt(f 
and 2 broad, and 2 in depth ... the 
journey being usually made in the nig^ 
time, it becomes the only plmoe of bis 
rest. . . . Had I been even much aooH- 
tomed to this manner of traTellizv, it mnst 
have been irksome ; but a tow^ want of 
practice made it oicessiyely ffrieTooi."— 
FuTfter'a Juumetfy ed. 1808, ii. l(M-5. 

of tin* Nipa ('i-v.) palm, <ln*Hsed Um' 
thatching or iiuitting. Favn»*3 Diet, 
renders the word feuillea entrelac^. 
It has been introduced by foreigners 
into S. and W. India, where it is used 
in two senses : 

a. C(K!()-T)Jilni leaves matted, the 
f'ommon sui>stitute for thatch in S. 

1673. — ". . . flags especially in their 
Villages (by them called uajau, being Co- 
coo-tree oranches) upheld with some few 
rtticks, supplying notn Sides and Coverings 
to their (jottages."— /Vyfr, 17. In his Ex- 
itlanatoiT Index Fryer gives 'Cajan, a 
iwugh of aTo<idy-troe.' z^Awr r»_ i xr i rm 

c. 1680. --•* Kx iis (foliis) quonue mdiores , GAEL, n.i>. Properly Kdyal [TtDi 
niattae, Cadjang vocatae. conficiuutur, qui- Kdyu, to l)e hot 'J, * a lagoon or ' bick- 
bus aediuni muri ot navium orac, tjuum ; water.' Once a famous port near tlie 
frumentuni nlirjuod in iis deponore velimus, 
obteguntur."' — Humj^hnnf^ i. /I. 

1727.— '* We travelled 8 or 10 miles before 
we came to his (the Cananore Raja's) Pulace, 
which w:is built with Twig^, and covered 
with Cadjam or Cocoa-nut True Leaves 
woven together." — A. Hamilton^ i: 296. 

1809.- "The lower cUuwe« (at Bombay) 
content tbcmsolveM with snuill hut^, mostly 
(►f clny, and rtK»fed with cadjan."— -Varm 
Uraham^ 4. 

I860.— "HouMos are tinilwrc*! with its 
w(Kxl, and rtK»fed with ib* plaited fronds, 
which under the name of cadjaill, are like- 
wise employed for constructing iiartitions 
and fences.' - Tfunent't Ceyloi^y ii. 126. 

b. A strip of fan-iNilm leaf, i.e. 
\'\\\wT of the Talipot (q.v.) or of tlu* 
Palmsnra, j)rei)ared for writing on ; 
and so a document- written on such a 
stri]). (Si^e OLLAH>) 

1707.— '* The officer at the Bridge Gate 
bringinc in this niornintr to the (rovernor a 
Cajan letter tluit he found hung \\\Mm a {xwt 
near the (vato, which when translated soemo<l 
to be from a IkkIv of the Right Hand Caste." 

In Whit'lcr. ii. 78. 

1716.-- "The President acrpinints the 
Kmrd that he hx\^ intereepte<l a villainous 
letter or Cajan." Ihid. ii. 2:n. 

1H89.— •• At ^{ajahnnnuiry . . . the iKJOple 
UHe<l to sit in our reading nnmi f<»r hours, 
copying our 1km )ks on their own little cadjan 
Iwives." — IsttOrsfi-om Madm*^ 27r». 

CADJOWA, s. [P. hifUmh]. A kind 
«i|" frame or jkuiuht, nt' whith a |wiir 
an* slung acmss a camel, sf»nu*timos 
mad«; like litt«TM to carry women or 
"iick iMTscais, sometimes to contain 
sundries nf camiJ equi]mge. 

le^lfi. -•• lie entered the t«>wn with 8 or 
10 cariH'ls. the tw«i Cajavaa or Litters on 
rarh side of the ( 'amelT)eing cl<w*e shut. . . . 
Miit instead «>f W«)nicn, he had put into 

extreme south of India at the mootik 
of tile Tanira|Mrni R., in the Gulf of 
Maiiaar, and on the coast of TinneTelly, 
now long al»andone<l. Two or thne 
miles higher up the river lies the lito 
of Korkai or KoUuii^ the KoXxet ^/^rifum 
of the Greeks, each jiort in succeflflMi 
having been destroyed by the retire- 
ment of the sea. Tutikonn, six miki 
N., may 1)e considered the modem and 
humbler representative of those 
ancient marts ; [see Stuart^ Man. ef 
TinneveUy^ 38 xr^^.]. 

1298.— *' Call is a frroat and noble eitj. 
: . . It is at this city that all the ship 
touch that come from the west.** — ifcni* 
Polo, Bk. iii. ch. 21. 

1442.— *' The Coast, which inclodm Grii- 
cut with some neif^hbouring pofti, tad 
which extends as far as Kabel (read p^iQ 
a place situated opiKMite the Islaad of 
Screndib. . . ." — Aoaiinxizzdl:, \n India ta 
fheXVth r>w/., 19. 

1444.— ''Ultra eas url)s est Gfthlla, qd 
locus maivaritas . . . producit." — OomHt ia 
I'oggiuSy ne Var. Fi^rtUMat: 

1498.— "Another Kiiif^dom, Gaall, vkkh 
has a Moorish Kinf?, whili«t the Jpeuplo ■>* 
(*hristian. It is ten days from Oalecvt by 
Hoa . . . here there be many peaiis."— 
HttUiro de V. da Uawa^ 108. 

1514.— *< I'assando oltre al Cavo Cbaidi 
(<\ Comorin), somi front ili ; e intra «■» • 
Qael ^ dove si i>eHca lu {lerlo.** — f/tbr. dis 
Kmptiiiy 79. 

151t$.— *' Further aIon{r the coaiit ia a city 
called Cael, which also lielonfpi to the V^Mg 
i of (\mlam, pc\>plod bv Moors and Gentoo^ 
ffroat traders. It has a v^ooA harbov^ 
whither come many shiiM of Malabar ; 
of fharamandel and ik)ngiiala." — j 
in LisbitH Coll., 357-8. 


kii.y n.p. The word ia proper l y tht 


» pi. KofrOy *an infidel, au 
' m Islam.' As the Ara1)8 
lifl to P^gan negroea, among 
,e Portuguese at au early 
it up in this sense, and our 
in from them. A further 
;ioii in one direction has 
e the name specifically that 
ic^k trilies of South Africa, 
now call, or till recently 
Ufrw. It was also applied 
Pliilippine Islands to the 
N. Guinea, and the Alfuras 
lu4*cas, brought into the slave- 

iier direction the word has 
quasi -proper name of the 
less) fair, and non-Mahom- 
ibes of Hindu-Kush, some- 
id more siiecifically the Su!h- 
laik-roU^r Cafin. 
m i* often ap]>lied nialevo- 
SiahoniniedaiLS to Christians, 
I prolvihly the origin of the 
•ervadiiip some of the early 
r narnitivt»?s es|)ecially the 
Vatro dn (inma^ which de- 
my of the Hindu and Indo- 
latW as Wing Christian.* 

' See under LACK.] 

<lf « penple near ('hina : ** They 
iaus after the manner of tho!<e 
—'.larij<t by Starkhum^ 141. 

A India: "The (leople of India 
ia«, the I>>nl .ind mont (lort of 
after the manner t»f the (rroelu ; 

them aLM> are other ChriHtiaas 
thi*m-««iTeM with fire in the face. 
«ed » different fnmi tliat of the 
th««ie who thu!4 mark thom.'<elveM 
r lem esnecmed tlian the other*. 

them are MtMir* and .Iowm, hut 
jeit ti» the <'hri'»ti:in(i." -(^Utrijn, 
\.; oimi*. Markham^ l.^-'^4. Hen.* 
h the (<»infutt«in of Caffer and 
AiA {'!} thec«*nfiL«i<>nrif AhyitKiniu 
'»rt ««r M'tidl^ Jmlitt of Home 
ilvm) with India Pn»|»vr. 

"The ••» i< infv*te«I with piratet*, 
I are KofiUTl, neither ('hni«tian!4 
can" ; they pray Ut Ktiino idoU, 
i-.t «'hri««t."' -Aih<tH. Sitikin^ in 
XVtk r,„t., p. 11. 

. . he li'ame«i X\\i\X. the whoK? 
hie Nland «if S. I>»uren^> . . . 
3afrM with ciirlv hiiir like thow 
ju«." /frcrruf, 11. i. 1. 

hf^MmUxrin (i.f. (>jrriirain<}fl) h(* dt* 
', r*j < Ikn^tJoijt. ' Ho al«u C^ytam 
#:/^* <llftteeca). /v^H/i. kc, arc all 
'bnttiaii statMi with Chnntian klntrt. 
ii««l l»liaii Chnntiaii* who cam** on 
aa at MeUiHl'' vrm to hav(« betii 

1563.— "In the year 1484 there came to 
Portugal the Kinff of Benin, a C&Sre by 
nation, and he became a Chriatian."— 
StarUri/'a Correa p. 8. 


** Verfio OH Cafres aaperos e avaros 
Tirar a lindn dama seus vostidos." 

CainofSy V. 47. 
By Burton: 

" shall see the Caifres, greedy race and fore 
** Htrip the fair Ladye of her raiment torn." 

1582.— "TheHo men are called CafrM 
and are (jent\\Q»J"—CastaRfda (by N.L.), f. 

c. 1610.—" II estoit fils d'vn Cafre d'£thi- 
opie, et d'vne femme de ces isles, ce qu'ou 
appelle Mulastre."— /^ymn/ de Laval, i. 220 ; 
[Hak. Soc. i. 307]. 

Jo. 1610. — •' ... a Christian whom they 
1 Caparou."— /6iV/., Hak. Soc. i. 261.] 

1614:— "That knave Simon the CaAro, 
not what the writer took him for— he is a 
knave, and better lost than found."— &»tM«- 
hurif, i. 366. 

[1615. — "Odola and Gala are Capham 
which signitieth misbolievors; "—5ir T. Rw^ 
Hak. Soc. i: 23.] 

1653. — ". : . toy mcsme qui passe pour 
yii Blaffar, ou hommo wius Dieu, {>armi los 
Mausulmans."- />^ la JioHllaye-l^-Uouz. 310 
(ed. 1657). 

c. 1665. — " It will appear in the sequel of 
this History, that the pretence used by 
Aurtng-Zfbfj his third Brother, to cut off 
his (Dora's) head, was th:it he was turned 
Kafer, that is to say, an InAdel, of no Re- 
ligion, an Idolater, —/^rrwi^, E. T. p. 3 : 
[cd. Ottutab/^j p. 7 J. 

1673;— "They show their Greatness hy 
their numlier of Sumbreeroes and Cofforiet, 
whereby it is dangerous to walk late."- 
Ertfer, /4. 

,, " Beggars of the Ma<wlemon Cast, 
that if they see a Christian in g(Kxl C^IothcH 
. . ; are presently u}K»n their Punctilios with 
(J<xi Almighty, and intern igate him, Why 
he suffer* him to go af<K>t and in Rigs, and 
this Coffery (Cnlnjliever) to vaunt it thus?" 

Ihu/. »1. 

1678. "The Justices of the Choultry U» 
tuni Padry I^isipiall, a Popish Priest, out of 
town, not to return again, and if it proves 
til lie true that he attempted to seduce Mr. 
M ohun's CoAre Franck fnan the Protestant 
religion."— fY. St. U^n. f^ots. in Xf»fes atul 
KxtA., \*t. i. p. 72. 

1759. -" Blacks, whites, Coffriet, and even 
the natives of the Cfmntry (Pc|;ii) have not 
Iteen exem^>te<l, Imt all uiiivcrsjilly have been 
suhject to intennittent Fevers and Fluxes " 
(at ^'egnli^). In iMi/ntrnj^lc, (h\ lUp. \. 124. 

,. .\mong ex|tensi's of the (Niuncil at 
< V'ticutta in entertiiining the NaUih we fiofl 
*' Purchasing a Coffre l»oy, lis. 500."— In 
Aosy, 191. 

1781.- " Tn U *>/// h;i Privite Sale —Two 
Coffree I^»ys ^'h4» can play remarkaUy 




well on tho French Horn, ubout 18 Years i»f 
Ago: belonging to a FortugueBO Paddriu 
lately deceased. For particulars apply to 
the Vicar of the Portuguese Church, Cal- 
cutta, March 17th, 1781."- TV*/- fwlia Gazette 
or Puhli*' AdvfrtUrTj No. 19. 

1781. — "Run away from his Master, a 
g(KMl-looking CfOflree Boy, aliout 20 years 
old, and about 6 /("*■( 7 inclirs in hfjffht. . . . 

When he toent of hf ha/i a hiyk tuupie." — Ibul. 

Dec. 29. 

1782.— "On Tuesday next will l>e sold 
three CofEtee Boys, two of whom play the 
French Horn ... a three- wheel'd Buggy, 
and a variety of other articles." — India 
(rozftte, June 15. 

1799.— "He (Tipi>oo) had given himself out 
jis a Champion of the Faith, who was to 
drive the F.nglish Caffen out of India."— 
Letter in Li/f of. Sir T. Alunro, i. 221. 

1800.— "The Caifre slaves, who had been 
introduced for the purpose of cultivating 
the lands, ruse upon their masters, and 
seiasing on the lM>ats belonging to the island, 
effected their escajMJ." — />//?«/ jf, KmiHUsi/ to 
Aixtj p. 10. 

c. 18dt>.— 

" And if 1 were forty years younger, and 
my life Inifore me to cho<»se, 
I wouldn't Ih) lectured by Kafin, or 
swindled by fat Hindoos." 

Sir A . C. Ltfall, Tlir 01*1 Pimlarff. 

GAFILA, s. Aral), ktlfila ; a Inxiy 
or convoy of travellers, a Caravan 
(4. v.). Also used in s<jiiie of tlie 
following quotations for a seii convoy. 

1552. — "Those roads of which we speak 
are the general routes of the CafilEB, which 
are sometimes of 3,000 or 4,000 men . . . 
f«)r the country is very jK'rilous liecause of 
lM>th hill-people and plain-[>eople, who haunt 
the roads to n>b tnivellers. — Barro*^ IV. 
vi. 1. 

If.jMj. _ "The Hhii»sof 67«i//»j«(see CHETTY) 
of these ptirt>< are not to sail along the coast 
of Malavar or to the north except iii a cafilla, 
that they nmy c*ome and gt) more securely, 
and not be cut off by the Malavars and other 
rors»iirs."--/'r(x7ai/wi</»//i oj Hva Vicerotff in 
Arrhir. Port. Or., fasc. iii. 661. 

[1598.— "Two CaifVlen, that is companies 
of i>e<>ple and Camolles." — LitiM-hotrn, Hak. 
Stic. ii. 159.J 

[161«._.'A cafilowe consisting of 200 
bnKidcloths," kc. — Fo»tfr, iMtn-n^ iv. 276. J 

[1617. - "Bvthefailingof tho(;..aCalfila." 
-Sir T. HiH''\\vLV. S<K'. ii. 402.J 

162.'$.— "Non navigammo di nuttc, j)erche 
la cafila cr.i inolto grande, al mi<> imrcre di 
piu di ducento vascelli." — /'. dtlta I'at/e, 
ii. M7 ; [and comp. Hak. S<x;. i. 1>>]. 

16U0.— ". . . some of the liiiiahs . . . 
making Outroadcs prey on the Caffaloes 
{•assing by the Way. . . ."— /><;iirf. Banian's 
Hrtitjion^ 81. 

1672. — "Several times yearly nuiueroos 
cafilas of merchant barquen, oollaciod ia 
the Portuguese towns, travenw this cfaaondl 
(the Gulf of Cambay), and thew alwiyt 
await the greater security of the full bioqil 
It is also observed that the Teasob whioh 
^o through with this voya^ should not bs 
joined and fastened with iron, for so grest 
IS the abundance of loadstone in the bottOB, 
that indubitably such vessels go to pispM 
and break up." — P. Vinctnso, 109. Acozioai 
survival of the old legend of the TK^fftunt 

1678. — " . . . Time enough before ths 
Caphalas out of the Country' oome with 
their Wares."- /V^r, 86. 

1727.— "/n Anno 1699, a pretty rick 
Caffila was robbed by a Band of 4 or 5000 
villains . . . which struck Terror on aO 
that had commerce at Tatta" — A. HamiUan, 
i. 116. 

1867. — "It was a curious siffht to see, at 
was seen in those da3rs, a carnage enter om 
of the northern gatcw of Palermo preotdtd 
and followed by a large convoy of amed 
and mounted travellers, a kina of Kliki 
that would have been more in place id Iks 
opening chapters of one of James's romuMi 
than in the latter half of the 19th centuy." 
—(^itartrr/y Heciewy Jan., 101-2. 

CAFIBI8TAN, n.]>. P. Kdfiriddn, 
the country of Kdjfirs, i.e. of the pagu 
tril>C3 of the Hindu Ku^ noticed in 
the article Gaffer. 

c. 1514.— "In Cheghanser&i there an 
neither grapes nor vineyards ; bat tksy 
bring the wines down the river fran 
K&feriat&n. ... So prevalent is the Mi 
of wine among them that every Klliv kaa 
a khiffy or leathern liottle of wine aboat bii 
neck ; they drink wine instead of witer." 
— Autobiog. of BtOn^ry p. 114. 

Tc. ir>90.— The Kifin in the Ttfrntu of 
Alishang and Najrao are mentioned in dM 
Ain., tr. Jaxrttty ii. 406.] 

1603.—" . . . they fell in with a 
pilgrim and devotee, from whom they leamid 
that at a distance of 30 days* journey then 
was a city called Cafmentain, into wfaick 
no Mahomedan was allowed to enter . . .* 
— Journr^ of B*nrJ. (r'ttenj in OatUaft ^ 
ii. 6f>4. 

CAIMAL, 8. A Nair chief; a 
woni often occurring in the oM 
Portuguese historians. It is MalayiL 

1504.— "So thev consulted with tbt 
Zamorin, and the floors otfored their sffaoey 
to send and {loison the wells at Cochm, as 
as to kill all the PortugucM, and also Is 
send Nairs in disguise to kill any of off 
]>eoplo that they found in the iMdm-«Qod% 
and away from the town. . . . And 
while the Mangate r^linal and the 
of Primbalam, and theCunuU nf 
seeing that the Zamorin*i aldUn were gohf 


It.* Mtrvi- ngion i: 

—f, M. I'iiUo, oBp. ixiii. 

i^rrr DHALL, CALATAHCE.) lSS2.-"Tho King of 9 

* *".*'■. *'''""■, .J^""* *"™ ,11 ;,>„A«™ and MlAlnna, -bich are row- 

\^ IwaaV .|Uit^ a dlffi-fvlit i i8i3._..Af,d hnritig otnWkod with tome 
'in hijtfg vhK'h gi\ia' lu omMiiMina in a nlalw <>r ruwiiig t«w1. 
. . ;'-(J«i.*l.,rf- A-r^.n, f. 51. 

PUT. *. The naint! t>f a] CAIiAMAITOEB WOOD, s. A 

'^rntUI oil iinxluctHl rjiiirui- | tienitiCul kiiiil uf nH^-wuid pit froDi 
V-Ulcx and toe iH-itthtuurin^ a Cvyluii tivt^ {IHoipyro* quaetiUi, 
B»uii>. A ImH!^ (iiMUtilT in i Trnneiit rcgiinl.'t lli<^ iihiiif aa a Untcn 
lr<iu SinfvpOK ana BotaviH. I curruiitioii <if Voromatidrl wotid (i. 118), 
•i iiMi4 (rmini-nily *■ "h ei- I ami Dniry, wp «-.■, o«ll.* one of the 
«>lifatii>ii, liul alini inti-nuillv, eUmv-trnv) (D. riwIaHOzyltm) "Coro- 
1 (.4 Uif) ill cMra of iliiili-iH. ' iiiandi'l-eliony." Furlies Wataon giTW 
f u takm (ruin Ili<- Mabiy ' uSiit^hali-se nainen nf the wihiiI Galm- 
A. ijL 'LVfHMm allmtm.' Kili-t mitfinwi. Kalumtderii/r, Ik., and the 
140) pTH ciz differvnt Irm> i t«nii Kn^ununlinyi is given with thi» 
n^ ibe oil, which in derived ' iiieaniug in CloiiKh'a Sii^h. Diet. ; riill 
^^.11-.: — ^1 jj^ Uavcs. in abwnc* of fuiiher informUion, it 




may reiiiaiii doubtful if this be not a 
lx)rrowt*d word. It may W wortli 
while to observe that, according t-o 
Ta vernier, [ed. Hall^ ii. 4l the "painted 
calicoes" or "chites" of Masulipatam 
were called " CcUmendar, that is to say, 
done with a jwncil " {Kalam-iUir ?), and 
jKxssibly this ajijiellation may have been 
given by traders to a delicately veinwl 
wood. [The N.E.D. suggests that the 
Singh, terms (quoted ai>ove may be 
adaptations from the Dutch.] 

1777. — '*lnthe Cingalese language Cala- 
minder \a Hnid to Higiiify a black flaming; 
troo. The hairt, or woody jxirt of it, in 
extrcmuly handijomo, with whitish or pale 
yellow and bbick or brown veins, streaks 
and wavas." — Thunlterg, iv. 20.^-6. 


1825. — '* A groat deal of the furniture in 
Ceylon Ls made of elxmy, as well an of the 
Calamaiider tree . . . which i8 In^'omc 
scarce from the improvident use formerly 
made of it."— //^Mr (1844), ii. Itil. 

18Ji4. — " The forests in the neighbourhiKKi 
afford timl>or of every kind (Calamander 
excepted)."— CA/«v, C*>ihu f/tuHtf^r, 198. 

[:).—<< Calaminder wood " appears 
ig C'eylon products in MUhurn^ i. 34r>. 

CALAMBAG, s. The finest kind 
of alues-WJKxl. (-niwfurd gives the 
worfl a.s Javanesi*, bilamfxik^ but it 
perhaps came with the article fn>m 

Champa (q.v.). 

1510.- "There are three sortj* of aloes- 
wood, 'llie tirst un<! most i>orfcct sort is 
calle<l Calampat."— TaWA/'i/tu, 235. 

1510. — '* ... It must be said that the 
very fine calembuco and the other ettgle- 
wood is worth at Calicut 1000 nmnivedis the 
pound." — Jinrfntnaj 20-1. • 

1.'k^9. - " This Emlws^-idor, that was ! 
Brother-in-law to the King of the ]iata«< ; 
. . . brought hiin a rich Present of WikmI 
of Aloes, Calambaa, and 5 quintals of 
lienjamon in flowers." — /'. M. Pinto^ in 
Cogan's tr. p. 15 (orig. cap. xiii.). 

1551. — (CamjKir, in Sumatni) "has nothing 
but forests which yield aloesw«Kxl, called in 
India Calambuco." (Mittanhoia, bk. iii. 
cjip. t5I}, p. 218, I] noted by Cnur/urd, I)es. 
Die. 7. 

l.'».V2.— '* F*ast this kingdom of C'amlxija 
begins the other Kingdom called C-am(Ki 
(Champa), in the mountain.''^ oi which grows 
the genuine aloes -W( km 1, which the McN>rs 
of thi»sc i»arts call Calambuc." — Jiarnut^ I. 
ix. 1. 

[c. 1590. -"Kalanbak (calembic) is the 
wood of a tree bntiight fn>m Zlirbad; it is 
heavy and full of veins. Some l)elieve it to 
l»e thr niw wi.mmI «jf aloes." — Aniy ed. liUfh- 
mann, i. 81. 

[c. 1»)1<). -•' KiMTii this river (the (ianires) 
comes that c\fcllcnt wimsI Calamba, which 

ifi believe<l to como fn>m the IDarthly huk- 
diw. •- y'ym/W rf< LanU, Hok. Soc. i. 335.] 

1A13.— "And the Calamba i* the nxK. 
fragrant wrdtiUa of the said tree."— //flrfinJU 
it*'. /CrfrfiUf f. ISf*. 

rif>15. — "Lumra (a black gum), gumlack, 
collomback."— /fMifer, l^u*rM. iv. 87.] 

1618. — "We oi>on(xl the ij chiiites which 
came from Syam with Aallawihf^^ir and sflk. 
and waid it out."— <VX/* />'«ry, ii. 51. 

1774. — " Les Mahometans font de ce 
Kalainbac des chai>elcts qu'ils portent I U 
main par amusement. Ce boLs quand il frt 
^hauft^ ou un jmu frotU^, rend un odenr 
agr6ible."— .ViV//M/tr, /><*•. rf^ rArafji^, 127. 


CALASH, ». French rnUclie, mA 
1>V Littre U^ 1>e a Slav word, [and »> 
N,K.DX In Rivlv's Di. t. it id caUuk 
and cttlorht. [The N.K.D. does nd 
rec(igni^ the fatter form ; the former 
i.s as early ;ls 1679]. Thi^ seems to 
have been the earliest i>iv«;uris*jr of tb< 
bnggy in Eastern settleiiieuts. Ba^ly 
! defines it as * a small o|)en chanot.' 
The (I notation IhjIow refers to Ritavii, 
and the President in onestion was the 
Prest. of the English Faetory at 
Chusan, who, with his counfi], hid 
l>een expelled from China, and ww 
halting at Batavia on his ni'ay to 

1702. — "The Shabander riding boiw 
in his Calaah thi8 Momingr, and sMseingtht 
IVosident sitting without the docM* at hH 
liodgings, alighted and came and Sat with 
the President near an hour . . . what 

moved the Shabander to Hpcak so pUinly 
to the President thereof he knew not^ Bat 
obsor\'ed that the Shahlmnder was iD hii 
(Tlasses at his first alightim;^ from hi* 
Calash."— /'mv7x. "Munday, Sdth Muth," 
MS. Jieptirt in India Office. 

GALAVANCE, 8. Akindoflwui: 
ace. t-o the (|uotation from Osbeck, 
Dolichos nifietiiin. The word was once 
(roi union in English use, but seenis 
forgotten, unless still us4m1 at sea. Sir 
.)asiiT»h Hooker writes : '* When I was 
in tile Navy, haricot Iteans were in 
constant use as a substitute for potatoes 
and in Brazil and when% werr 
called Galavances. I do not re- 
nieml>er whether they were the swd 
of PJuueolus lunatti* or vulgaru^ or of 
Jhlichojt sinrnm'*, aliits Catjang" (k« 
CAJAN). The wortl comes from the 
Span. (jarhtinzoSj which De Candolltf 
mentions as Castilian for ^poU eUdk' 
or f.Urer arietivum^ and as used alio 
in Biisfpie under the form garhaniWM, 




MfsM, fn>ni garau^ *8e«d,' antzu^ 

fmsn h«Dc« they niako thoir 

iH called Klang (see Miss Birdj Oolden 
Chertone«e^ 210, 216). The PortugucHc 

...^ -^-*« ...^ „.^„ have the fomw ra^tm and calin^ with 

1 in Au'>urvUn^r ^^^-^ *>«5^ and | ^he iiasal termination so frequent in 
. . ^mmaeM, ur *ua11 noaze ur . their Ea^t^rn Iturrowings. Bluteau 
. . . -fVi^/j />i'ary, ii. 311. , I'x plains calaim as 'Tin of India, finer 

0. — ". . . in their <.:anur« lirought I than ourH.' The old writers seem to 
fT««n pcT>f«r. caimTmnot. ButfoU, j have ht^sitat*^ al)ont the identity with 
^^1 Jlr *^i?S' tiling*. •->'.> r. 1 ti,j^ and the word is confounded in 
«4. lii«^. I-. ^. ^^jj^ quotation l)elow i^ith Tootnaffoe 

- -I «a. f,«d to Jive them an | .^y rpj^^ y^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^-^ j^ ^.j^^ 

Uaarr meal eTery dav, either <>i i/ ' • r ^i -d i « xt i 

- • P. version of the Book of Numbers 

(ch. x.xxi. V. 22) lala*l is used for *tiu.' 

See on this wonl Quatreniere in the 

Journal des SavanSj Dec. 1846. 

which nt once mode 
kMe oia«iim}«tiiin of our vrater 

-"Hut gaxrmilfoa nre pre|iared 
:5ervot nuinncr. neither do they 
tft like <ith«r iiul<«. Ity huiling. 
tc'i Tmt^/s, od. 17."»7. p. 110. 

c. 920. — *' Kalah is the focufi of the trade 
in AloenwofMl, in camphor, in sandalwood, 
""'!'' *~* **"*' * ,.*.'^* i in ivory, in the lead which is called al- 
CaUymilMt {/Mftrha an- \ XMXk'i.—IUlation (let Vovages, dr., i. 94. 
-»M'>^rr. I. JW. ,„ ,,. .,,. 

„.. I I. I « *v c. IIM.— "Thence to the iBien of Ijanki- 

■ Vlh,-n I ;i^ke<l .-iny of the men -jj-^ -^ reck<.ned two day^ and from the 

7-1 *,***>■ *^^ "^ K^'l^T *'',*'^"' ■ letter to the Island of Kalah 5. . . . There 

'\.**i*^*"*** • • /. * \?*"JJ • • / ; in in thiH hwt inland an abundant mine of 

^i^^^^^^VVh' them. -/c^f/. | ^^^ -/ij.KaU*!). The metal is Tory pure 

•r..»^i, IW. ; ^jjj brilliant. "-Ayrw/, by Janbert, i. 80. 

-•■Hi» Maje*tv i* authorised to' ,_.., ., »v u- i^ *t^ i ^ au 

'-r a liaiiu-l ■ time Lv Onler in , ^^^•- \rPV' ''^.**'*l.**;® KP^^-^'oV!? 

rh-P lrr.? fn^ .uiy Port or V^"!^^^- call Calem. -^ «m^«iii W<i, in. 213. 

r..t^Trr .^f . . . :inv iWan^ tailed .M ij »"entiune<l as a staple of MaUcca in 

Kr-a-r. lu^tLi*. Tiftf-, I>etitik'!«. "* ' **• 
leaa. »r. i »=! oth«T *.rtM i.f PuUtr." ' IrtOtJ.— '-That all the chalices which were 
i •»-B»'. III. *.\\'. xixvi. nfithcT of pv>ld, nor silver, nor of tin, nor 

of calaim, ^h«)al<l \ye broken up and dc- 

lAY. -■ Tin: il- v., t.. tin '^tn.yc.l.- -//o./.>ci. .vy^^Wo, f. m. 

..•.^:--!I. I'ila'i hirwl. Tlu- l'HO.-'"niey rarry (to Hormuz) . . . 

\r I ihi'i Mill' ubi. )i ■».■ tl"vc, cinniimoii, jvppcr. cardamom, finger, 

.- At i./'ii, tin, ysUHh ,k- ^^^^^ „„tmetr, sujrar, calayn, or tin."- 

■ -.. ..Ti.-.iu AriMr wnttT-* wji> Av/„Won.x (/*■ >. T^Uemi. 'Si<2. 

•: fr 'III .1 miuf in In«li.i <aHiMl i^m .» ^ ,. « ♦ ^„u. .* 

. , , .. •■ • 1 ^'' lolO.--*'. . . monov . . . not only of 

in -T'?*' "t Thf •lit!» initial . ^^,i,| ^^^^i ^Hvor. hut als*'. of another met^il, 

-:■ Ti \] l-tT'Ts IT --.iii^ at least whith is calltMl calin. which is white like tin, 

' •*. iT :!.»■ pl.t !• nn-aiit w^is tin* Imt harrier, purer, and tiner, and which in 

-' *) '■ ■•I I -Vrib i»i*'»irri!»b»'rs much use*! in the Indioj*." — /Vrfirr/ rf< /yi#>i/ 

K.X n-..r «h:-l. thrv Vl.i.i' '••■'"'•;"• 1« ^ m-'k. S«=. i. a»<. «ith Gmy-. 
■ , , . - 1 1=1* n<»teL 

, 1 • .1 . lt)l;^. — *• And ho also reconnoitre*! all the 

■. •i.M^Jjvr- aU.sit tlh->l .itcs of niine«, of RoM, silver, mercurv, tin 

i A. j^wiMy.a- h.L- U-vu <uj:- „r calem, an«l iron and other mouils *. . .• 

i'. Am"' 'A* t-r .i- wi- wiit*- it. — <fW»nA<* </f AVrt/Zn, f. .'iS. 

A. [S-r- .1 i. 'I. rr.J'f rr»/r. iii 4S.] [ItVI*. — "Callaym." See « quotation umUr 

• :/|r-J:-«- 'I that r.-^'i«iii i^ TOOTNAOUE.j 

• v» r Ktlt^yj i<. sn.j.'f'il alM> lf>46. — ". . . il y a (•'.'. in Siani) pluMeur-* 

•* r.'i .ri M il.iv. wlii'h n».iv miuierejtde calain,^'" ^'"^ ^'"""■"^•^^ '"^'*<^>*-'"' 

.--. 'f.-'r .'■ ■:;';!. ■! tli- wiuil cntre lo j.lomb et rfst;iiii."- VnnCm, lUI. tir 

]• i:.»v '- i'i-b-«l that till- ' ' 

f S,klili'.r U-tvvr*Ml !'"'-*'»• 'Thejr'-xlscxiKTtcd hitlKT (fn^n 
i r.rik «".< f..rnHTlv ' l^'V'»>.;»ro . . . Kalin (a nu-taU-ming very 

. \:..^.KAUn«. nr lb.. 'Tiii "-' •^••^■^'^» • • • -»•''<*»'."-. ^. 1-^^. 

• * '^i- t).. i.^.r (.11 tin. 1770.---Thcy j^i-ikI <»nly vi-s^el (viz. 

.1 u . I i> 1 .1- thv Putoh to Mam) whuh tniii-lN»rt-'* Ja\a- 

> •}.■ F.r->»: i:.-i.i.*nt llVo> jj^.^. jj^,^^.^ .„j,l i^ fr^.i^.ht^.l with migar, 

-spioo!*. and linen : for whiJi th.-y ri»^-eive in 

•- ' ■0,^'.^\ r.- m-i^-r. tJjir A"! -ila in rvtum calin. at 70 livro-* IW woiifht."— 

*'-• -.'- -.r ^r» f » rav.>»M. n\rr. ]Un„al \\T. 1777), i. •-•"^. 

.*■•• -SI*' >■ ini*:: ;«.r?» i-i th'* MaUy # .•*. i i. au 

- r^iiftft o^Th- *r.v A.'mt* i>i iifoUably 175?0. -'*... ilic l^Tt of l^ie<lah ; there 

r »..f f I-v >jtj . T»t;»r«. is a trade fi«r calin or tutenauur . . . l'> 





export to different parta of the Indies." — 
In Dunn, N. Directed, 388. 

1794-5.— In the Travels to China of the 
younger Deguignes. Calin is mentioned as a 
kind of tin imported into China from Batavia 
and Malacca. — iii. 367. 

CALCUTTA, n.p. B. Kalikdtd, or 
Kalikattdj a name of uncertain ety- 
mology. The first mention that we 
are aware of occurs in the Ain-i- 
Akbari. It is well to note that in 
some early charts, such as that in 
Valentijn, and the oldest in the 
Engli^ Pilots though Calcutta is not 
entered, there is a phice on the Hoogly 
Calcula, or CalciUa, which leads to mis- 
take. It is far below, near the modem 
Fulta. [With reference to the quota- 
tions below from Luillier and Sonnerat, 
Sir H. Yule writes (Hedges, Diary, 
Hak. Soc. ii. xcvi.) : " In Orme's 
Historical FragmentSy Job Chamock 
is described as * Governor of 'the 
Factory at Qolgot near Hughley.' 
This name Golgot and the correspond- 
ing Qolghat in an extract from Mu- 
haubat Khan indicate the name of 
the particular locality where the 
English Factory at Hugli was situated. 
Ana some confusion of this name 
with that of Calcutta may have led 
to the curious error of the Frenchman 
Luiller and Sonnerat, the former of 
whom calls Calcutta GolgovJthe, while 
the latter says : * Les Anglais pronon- 
cent et ecrivent GolgotaJ "J 

c. 1590.— "Kalikata vu Bahoya wa Bar- 
hakpur, 3 MaJuU"—A%n, (orig.) i. 408 ; [tr. 
JarreU, ii. 141]. 

[1688. — "Soe myself accompanyed with 
Capt. Haddock and the 120 soldiers we 
carryed from hence embarked, and about 
the 20th September arrived at Calcotta." 
— Hedges, Ihary, Hak. Soc. ii. Izxix.] 

1698. — "This avaricious disposition the 
English plied with presents, which in 1698 
obtained his permission to purchase from 
the Zemindar . . . the towns of Sootanutty, 
Calcutta, and Goomopore, with their dis- 
tricts extending about 3 miles along the 
eastern bank of the river." — Orme, repr. 
ii. 71. 

1702. — "The next Morning we pass'd by 
the English Factory belonging to the old 
Company, which they call Qolgotha, and 
is a handsome Building, to which were add- 
ing stately Warehouses." — Voyane to the E. 
Indies, hy Le Sieur Luillier, E. T. 1715, 
p. 269. 

1726.—" The ships which sail thither (to 
Hugli) first pass by the English Lodge in 
CoUeoatte, 9 miles (Dutch miles) lower 
down than ours, and after that the French 

one called Chandamagar, • • ." — 1 
V. 162. 

1727.— "The Company has a pn 
Hospital at Calcntta, where mai 
to undergo the Penance of Physic, 
come out to give an Account M i 
tion. . . . One Year I was there, f 
were reckoned in August abo 
English, some Military, some Sei 
the Company, some private Merd 
siding in the Town, and scMne 
belong to Shipping lying at the T 
before the beginning of Jantiary tl 
460 Burials registred in the Clerl 
of Mortality." — A, HamiUon, ii. 9 a 

c. 1742. — "I had occasion to ati 
city of Firtbhd^[nga (ChaDdemagoi 
is inhabited by a tribe of Frenchm 
city of Calcntba, which is on the c 
of the water, and inhabited by a 
English who have settled there, 
more extensive and thickly popolat 
—'Ahdvd Karim Khdn, in Ellioly vii 

1763.— "Au dessous d'Ugli in 
ment, est T^tablissement HoUaj 
Shinsnra, puis Shandemagor, 
ment Fran9ois, puis la loge 
(Serampore), et plus bas, sur 1 
oppos^, qui est oelui de la gaach 
scendant, Banki-bazar, oh les Ostem 
p{l se maintenir; enfin CoUoo 
Anglois, & quelques lieues de Ban 
et du mfime dbiS" — D^AnvUle^ A 
mens, 64. With this compare: 
opposite to the Danes Factory i 
banksal, a Place where the Ostend • 
settled a Factory, but, in Anno 1' 
quarrelled with the Fotudaar or • 
of Hughly, and he forced the CM 
quit. . . ." — A. Hamilton, ii. 18. 

1782. — "Les Anglais pourroien 
aujourdliui des sommes immenset ( 
s'ils avoient eu rattention de mi* 
poser le conseil supreme de CalM 
Sonnerat, Voyage, i. 14. 

CALESFA, 8. Ar. Kha^ 

Caliph or Vice-gerent, a wort 
we do not intrSiuce here in 
Mahonimedan use, but becaus 
quaint application in Angk 
households, at least in Uppe 
to two classes of domestic a 
the tailor and the cook, and so: 
to the barber and farrier. 1 
is always so addressed by his 
servants (Khallfa-jl). In Sout 
the cook is called Maistry, t.< 
In Sicily, we may note, he ii 
called Monsd ( 1) an indication 
ought to be his nationality. 1 
of the word Khalifa, accordinjg 
Sayce, means * to change,' ana 

• "Capitale des ^tablisaements Ai^ 
Bengale. Let Anglais prwumenU i 
GolgoU '(!) 





kr, kkilhf^ * exrhan^ ur agio ' • mnoke their calleooni under the 

•npn of thir Orwk KoKXvfiot ' ^^ KfizcWjash, i. r»9. 

/?AiW»i;7y, 2u(itHl., 213). fl«80.— **KaUi4iu." Soe quotation under 

— ". . . rindrent inArchoantenr<Ntt 


*:: «:.M^::rcl'ii''d: L:Z ' CAUOO, a C..ttonclot.h,ordinarilly 
4r dei Sarrmaw . . . Icjuel on nn- . "' tolerHhly tine Uixtiire. The word 
aliffi dr Uauda^. . . /' ^Joinvi/ie, I appears in the ITtli century sometimes 

! in the form of Calirut^ Imt ixja8i)>lv this 
• EU-ida- i- 4 jm-at city, which ujHxi "»'^v have )>een a juirism, for calieoe or 
cmt xf thi* Calif of All' the Samcenh cnlliro occurn in English earlier, or at 
id. ; i«t -A.* Knme w the «oat iA the ' h»;iflt more conmionly in early voyages. 
:\ th* <-bn.itin*.--J/arr,, iV«, r(/rt/^|<^ in 1678, i^m^jrr'ir I^ict, p. 42.] 

i The word mav have come to us through 
•T.. whi.h the Sheikh rcpHcHhat I the Fren<li calicot, whirh though re- 

'^ 'k"^V h^ '^Jir^il^n ':>.!;'T,i ««in"»g tl»*- ' ^^ «»»^ »^ve, does not do so 
w^th • It ni« iwrmwiion who wan ^ ^i " mi \ 2- **• • ^i 

ewTi Caltb 'i the IViphct Ma- to the ear. The quotations sufficiently 

e co^M h<>id no communication illustrate the of the word and iU 

pi- whi. Ml persecuted hi* fol- origin from Calicut. The fine cotton 

— /fcirrw, 11. i. 2. I stulfs of MalalKir are already men- 

M-iwntty. the bite Kaleefiu or j tioneil hy Man'o Polo (ii. 379). Pos- 

■ f ihi* |in.%'inci*. .-iw<iired mo thiit siMv thev mav have l»een all hrought 

Unv u.:..funru: t.. of them f nun Ik- vond the Ghauts, as the Malabar 

■n^ ..... :« irKh.-l in length.' - : *''»»^*'"' rnH-ning dunng the rains, w 

I *:* .H r^'n^'try, ud. 17r.7. p. 30. "'^t ussihle, and tlie cotton stuffs now 

. . .. , , ., . . ust-d in MalaKir all ct>me from Madura 

■iv r.v-v!K.r »ith theripiR-ndaireM (•^♦•^' ^''.V'T Wlow ; and Terry under 

..-J.'t-J :i.!i.i-t.r. thty *ore pre- CALICUT). The ( JtTiimiis, we may note, 

•hi- QhAlif f the ;ik'e. that i-i hy call thf turkfV f'tiUcutMif Hohn^ 

- 'hi::.^ f. t..j.iH..wu da.ufhter." tliouph it c(Hiie> no more fn>m C'ali- 

•'••*'• tut than it <i«H's firim Turkey. [See 


K :■.»•- i^'l Tl.f t!jr'.inc« thov .<it 
K : ■ ,- f Kr.« r.i.i.' t» > t he Caliph « 'f 


.. »,r'. f • ird AMti'nkT the puters 
- -- Kl-Air-i. and --qii-PM-ii tn lie 
1-. ri 7«T.i:ih' !-■, in t}ji.- linri o<i. i-f 


'fc'. » Ju- fjii'l- that thev irv 


•r 111 .1 ]-vm *iy I^ini 
-• -iv i.iiMi' t f'.fj'i. (The 

M r...r K-. and thi* thn-uo thev 


. ' I . 

i:ii-.' t.. The r'lillv i'f 


l.'i7'.^ — •••i nrreat an<l larjre CanowoH, in 
eai-h where«»f were certaine of the {^rcatent 
|H>r«tin^i{Tt*s that were alniut him. attired nil 
of them in white !«iwne. i>r cloth of Calecni.** 
-Ifiitke, W'lif-f'f Eni'iHifHWfd, liuk. Sue. 

iri91. — '"The ei»inmodities of the ^hipiMJjc 
that o>ine fnmi lifiurala l>oc . . . tine uali- 
CUt cliith. /*»»./.'//*»<, and Rice." — liarker* 
lAihCii.*t'-f, in ll'iil. ii. r»9'2. -'-Tlie c&lioos were l>oi)k-calico«, 
calico laun(.-s. )>pi;id white calicot. tino 
<itan.-he4l calicos, ciuir.«e white ddicot, 
tipiwiu- c»xirH» calicos." -/>?>-. of the iirent 

l^VCTJ. — "".Vnd at hi-^ iie|«.irt'irc ^ratiea rol>o. 
and a T\uke of Calico wn.uL'ht with cf>M." 
- hinfa*t*-r'* Vnt/ntf,; in /•■tc/cw, i. ].'►:}. 

1»»<^4.— •• It «liith aj«|KMr hy xhr al»hreviate 
of the Ai'i-ount-'* ^ent honn* out i^f the Indiofl. 
thill there reniaim-il in the handi of the 
Vkient, Ma."«ter St.trkry. 4"*- fanlelji of 
Calicoi."- - In M-hll'f'in's Vo'i't'j^, Hak. 8oc. 
A|»p. ill. 1:5. 

■• 1 Tit yn»i. kTrntiomen, with fine 

callicOM t'^. for dii'.iMcts : the only «weet 

■ •■•., -I v>i?. when the i:ue*t f^Lnhi^n now, \\v*'i\ dcii«Mto and c«»iirtly : n 

•'■! ;- r-.r^i^o. jji'fuT.iIiy fun- meek e^entle callico, t*"i u|">n twii doiiMe 

i -- r:r-t. the kaleoon. ««r afTahle tatTatAJ*; a)* "' 'icat. fi-at, and 

-Jir»',J.\iihf^fhn.wjh iinnuitchaltle." — P* '^uh'*( M'hor^, 

Act. 11. Sc. ▼. 

^.i^r -f the men met to | ItSOTi.— '*. . . they (the 

-• •■ilf':! iHi-'nir thetii 
wi I- i:.?oi kholeefa. i-r 
r thi- ■M-A».ii. 
vi. l^'-'J. J'- I'W.] 

CALYOON. . \\ 

I'.i-- i^r -np'kiiii: ; tin- 

*:<- Habble-Bnbble 




Javanese) weare a kind of Callioo-oloth." — 
£dm. Scot, ibid, 165. 

1608. — '*They esteem not so much of 
money as of Caiecut clothes, Pintados, and 
such uke stuffs." — Jc^n IhivU, ibid, 136. 

1612. — "Calioo copboord claiths, the piece 
. . . xls." — Rates ana Valuatiouns, &c. (Scot- 
land), p. 294. 

1616. — "Angarezia . . . inhabited by 
Moores trading with the Maine, and other 
three Easteme Hands with their Cattell and 
fruits, for Calliooos or other linnen to cover 
them." — Sir T. Roe, in Purehaa ; [with some 
verbal differences in Hak. Soc. i. 17]. 

1627.—" Calkoe, tela delioata Indica, H. 
Calictid, dicta k Calecdt, Indiae regione vhi 
conficitur." — Minsheu, 2nd ed., s.v. 

1673. — " Staple Commodities are Calionts, 
white and painted."— /Vycr, 34. 

,, "Calocut for Spice . . . and no 
Cloath, though it give the name of Caleeat 
to all in India, it being the first Port from 
whence thoy are known to be brought into 
Europe."— Ibid. 86. 

1707. — "The Governor lays before the 
Council the insolent action of Captain Lea- 
ton, who on Sunday last marched part of 
his comp>any . . . over the Company s Cali- 
coes that lay a dyeing." — Minute in Wheeler, 
ii. 48. 

1720.— Act 7 Geo. I. cap*vii. "An Act 
to preserve and encourage the woollen and 
silk manufacture of this kingdom, and 
for more effectual employing oi the Poor, 
by prohibiting the Use and Wear of all 
printed, painted, stained or dyed Calliooes 
m Apparel, Houshold Stuff, Furniture, or 
otherwise. . . ." — Stat, at Large, v. 229. 


*' Like Iris' bow down darts the painted clue. 
Starred, striped, and spotted, yellow, red, 

and blue, 
Old calico, torn silk, and muslin new." 

Rejected Addresses {Orabbe). 

CALICUT, n.p. In the Middle 
A^es the chief city, and one of the 
chief ports of Mala1)ar, and the resi- 
dence of the Zamorin (q.v.). Tlie 
name Kolikddu is said to mean the 
* Cock-Fortress.' [^Logan {Man. Mala- 
bar^ i. 241 note) gives koli^ *fowl,' and 
kottn, * corner or empty space,' or kotta^ 
*a fort.' There was a legend, of the 
Dido type, that all the space witliin 
cock-crow was once granted to the 

c. 1343. — " We proceeded from Fundnraina 
to KalikHt. one of the chief ports of Mull- 
bur. The iHjople of Chin, of Java, of Sailan, 
of Mahal (Maldives), of Yemen, and FarH 
frofjucnt it, and the traders of different 
regions meet there. ItH iKjrt is among the 
greatest in the world." — Ihn Bufuta, iv. 89. 

c. 1430.— "Collicuthiam deinceps jiotiit, 
urbem maritimam, octo millibus fkaasuum 

ambitu, nobile totius India« e m po ri ma, 
pipere, lacca, g^ingibere^ cimuunomo cns- 
siore,* kebulis, Mdoana fertflis." — Ccmii, 
in Poggius, De Var. Fortunae. 

1442.—" Calicut is a perfectly secure har- 
bour, which like that of O^iu briogi 
together merchants from every city and fran 
every country."— ^&(£ttrriv«dl, in Indm w 
J[VtkCent.,p. 13. 

c. 1475.— *' Caleeat is a port for the whoto 
Indian sea. . . . The country prodooes 
pepper, ginger, colour plants, mowmt [iiiii> 
™%n> cloves, cinnamon, aromatic rool% 
adrach [green ginger] . . . and everytlunf 
is cheap, and servants and maids are vary 
good." — Ath. yaiiiK., ibid. p. 20. 

1498.— "We departed thence, with the 
pilot whom the king gave us, for a city whicb 
IS called Qualtcut, —Roteiro deV.da Oama, 


** J& f6ra de tormenta, e doa primeiros 
Mares, o temor v&o do peito voa ; 
Disae alegre o Piloto Melindano, 

* Terra he de Caleeat, se nfio me engino.** 

Ounces, vi 02. 
By Burton: 

" now, 'scaped the tempest and the first 

fled from each bosom terrors vain, and 

the Melindanian Pilot in delight, 

* Calecut-land, if aught I see aright ! ' " 

1616.— '* Of that wool they make div«i 
sorts of Callico, which had that name (as I 
suppose) from Callicatta, not far from Goa, 
where that kind of cloth was first bought 
by the Portuguese." — Terry, in PwAi. 
[In ed. 1777, p. 105, CaUieote.] 

CAUNGULA, 8. A sluice or 
escape. Tarn, halingalj much used 
in reports of irrigation works in S. 

[1883.-" Much has been done in the way 
of providing sluices for minor ehanneb of 
supply, and caHngalahi, or water weiit for 
8uri)lus vents." — VenhoMami Row, ifea. if 
Tanjare, p. 332.] 

CALPUTTEE. s. A caulker ; alao 
the process of caulking ; H. and Beng. 
hfUfpattl and kaldvdttly and these no 
doubt from the Port, calafate. Bat 
this again is oriental in origin, from 
the Arabic kdldfaty the 'prooeaB of 
caulking.' It is true that Dorr (see 
p. 376) and also Jal (see his /luieac, iL 
589) doubt the last deri\'ation« and 
are disposed to connect the Portugucie 

* Not ' a IsfKer kind of cinnamon,* 
which i« known there bv the n 
(ranellae (mae groasae apmltmniur\ 
Jones oddly renders, oat em 
* coarse ' cinnamoa, aliaa 



■ad the Itolian 15ia— "The mid wood k fixed in th* 

KL. wttli tbe Lfttin eMaetn. middle of the bedk of the maleCMtor, Mid 

ftW» mini ■■■ 0%ii!^im^ m. 1682.— "The CSapiteiiM Geneiml for to en- 

J^iy^tvl C^y^ ooorige them the more, comnyuided be«oi« 

nctM in tbe Meditem- them •!! to pitch a long etelTe in the ground, 

B we lUTe teen the veeKl the which wee mede sharp at ye one end. 

ror, and n gfeat fire of The eeme among the Malaban ie ealled 

Qed under it to keep the ?«^T'*^,'»P»l^y« T^f? ^^ ^ •'5^ 

mngfood to exMitly, and iwe.— "The Qaeen marreHed modi at 

low so man J other marine the thing, and to content them die ofdeied 

be Mediterranean to have the ■oroerer to be dellTered over for puddi- 

from the Arabic, theie does ment, and to be let on the oalMl% which 

o be room for reasonable » a Tory sharp st^e fixed finnly in the 

thia case. The Emperor f^ • ' • *«— ^«««». '• «»; eee al«> 
. (A.D. 1041) was called 

•M rw^.^M /Ti»., n^^ OALTAH, n.p. The name of more 

India ; 8kt Ktdydna^ 'beautiful, noble, 

ifaiqoe) ... "T6 two propitiouA.' One of these is the place 

" 'n^ .^V!S^ hngantoee, at gtill known as Kalyan^ on the Ulas river, 

3b ^ for ^Snti^anoeui? fi ^^^ usually called by the name of the 

Billet to^Mdi, of which no ^^^Jy ^ ™- N.E. of Bombay. This is 

nr—SimJle BUeik0, Tmnbo, 11. a very ancient port, and is probably 

SU crtnrt bamin de eaUkdar ^^« o"« mentioned >>y Cosmaa below. 

. . un y aoroit hcaucoup de It appears as the residence of a donor 

i Pk>rt, priacipalemeDt ri on est in an inscription on the Kanheri caves 

>e seruir den Cliarpentien et i,| SaJ^jtte (see FerguMOfi and Burgess, 

m do Pays; paire naib de- ^g. Another Kalytoa was the 

fill (}<»uTenieur de Bombain. * •T^i * ^i_ ro i » "^ vTv t\ 

. d., Imi.s fPri^mt., |Nir Aleixo *'«P»t«l of the Chalukyas of the Deccan 

rheT«oiiC'« ( ollectian. in the 9th-12th centuries. This is in 

the Nizam's district of NaldrCig, alK>ut 

T .«. This in mmiw old "^ miles E.N.E. of the fortress called 

till deeper in the squaro in the ^''^>^'" Ta vernier (ed. BttlL, ii. 206) 

Jl«! Sonet-Kaaa/the retired ^'^lls CaUtan Boudi or Kalytln Bandar.) 

flaM €if the priry Council."— The quotations refer to the first Calyan. 

''msfnhU, ;>fil.l 

„ . ^ . c. A.D. 80-90.— ** The lociil nuirt^ which 

Biu^ t4.ll yjMi what a K«od occur in order ftfter Barj^arA arc Akabaru, 

tJc KajB id Tallaoa m. \V ben Supi«ra, Kalliena, a city which wa* raii-ed 

we ml r« twomu^di without ^ ^^^ ^„^ ^^ ^ rv^Jar mart in the time of 

ne «iQ|rle word, in a ver>- r«- Sarajnmen, but, nince Sandane« became ita 

-har : !«it the moment we re- n^^^r, it« trade han been put under rortric- 

■"^r» ? ***^ 1*™"^/ "*'* tionM ; for if Greek vo«iel!«, even bv accident. 

Dinal R«iri»t*r, and hiii Minute ent^r'itj. port^ a guartl w\mi on b»*ird, and 

t,a«cUuQs and UUnoei. fur the ^j^^^. ^^ ^^^^ ^^ Bar^^na* ."- /Vi>/i/*, § 52. 
od begmn ex|ilaining the utato 

try a« eafrerly a« a young c. A.D. 545.—** And the nio«t notable 

KifJ^nstime^ in L*/f, ii. 144. places* of trade are thexe : Sindu, Orrhotha, 

b, kkalwei or priraU Kx.m in f^lllW Si>K)r '-CW.u, in Cathay, 

1673._«»On l>oth side?* are placed stately 
nd dwellinffi* of the PvrtugtU Ft- 

AIHhls^ and dwelling- -. ~- — ^ - 

wm f*A. T.AW0 . T\>.. diUn*a ; till on the Kight, within a Mile or 

^ y^^^^ 5; , . , nK>re of QnUean, they yield po«eiwon to 

fl impalement ; Malaval. the neighbouring? .Vni f/i, at which Citv 

m. ilttX [See IMPALE.] (the key this way into that Rebel's Country), 




Wind and Tide favouring us, we landed." — 
Fryer, p. 123. 

1825.— "Near Candaulah is a waterfall 
... its stream winds to join the sea, nearly 
opposite to Tannah, under the name of the 
Culianee river." — HebfTy ii. 137. 

Prof. Forchhammer has lately described 
the ^p'eat remains of a Pagoda and other 
buildings with inscriptions, near the city of 
Pegu, called Ealsrini. 

CAMBAY, n.p. Written by 
Maliommedan writers Kanbdrjatj .some- 
times KinbdycU. According to Col. 
Tod, the original Hindu name was 
Khambavati^ ' City of the Pillar ' ; 
[the Mcui. Admin. Man. Gloss, gives 
utambha-tlrtha, 'sacred pillar pool']. 
Lfonc a very famous ]K)rt of Guzerat, 
at the head of the Gulf to which it 
gives its name. Under the Mahom- 
medan Kin^ of Guzerat it was one 
of their chief residences, and they 
are often called Kings of Caml>ay. 
Camlwv is still a feudatorv State 
under a Nawab. Tlie place is in 
<lecay, owing jwirtly to the shoals, 
and the extraordinary rise and fall 
of the tides in the Gulf, imiHjdintf 
navigation. [See Forbes, Or. Mem. 2na 
ed. i. 313 seqq^. 

c. 951.— "From Kambiya to the sea 
about 2 parasangs. From Kambiya to 
SitraWya (?) about 4 days." — Istakhrif in 
ElUot, \. 30. 

1298.— "Cambaet is a great kingdom. 
. . . There is a great deal of trade. . . . 
Merchants come hero with many ships and 
cargoes. . . ." — Marco /Wo, Bk. iii. ch. 28. 

1320. — "Hoc voro Occanuni mare in illis 
IMirtibus princi)mlitcr hal>ct duos portus: 
quorum vnus nominatur ^faJ^4lbar, et alius 
Cambeth." — Marino JSamuio, near begin- 

c. 1420.— "Cambay is situated near to 
the sea, and is 12 miles in circuit ; it 
abounds in spikenard, luc, indigo, myra- 
l)olan!«, and silk." — Conti\ in India in A Vth 
Cent., 20. 

1498. — "In which (lulf, as wo were in- 
formed, there are many cities of Christians 
and Moors, and a city which is called 
Qummbaya."- /^o^Wn), 49. 

150rt.— "In Ck>mbea ^ terra do Mori, e il 
suo Kc b Moro ; el b una gran terra, o li 
nasce turbiti, e 8pip)iiardo, e milo (read 
nilo — sec ANIL), lachu, comiolu, calcedonie, 
^otoni. . . ." — li'l. (fi Lfonardu Ca' Mauer, 
in Archivio JStor. Italia no, App. 


" ITie IVince of Cambay*! daily food 
Is asp and liasilisk and t<»iid, 
Which makes him have so strong a breath, 
Vjich night he stinks a (piecn to death." 

Jludihras, l*t. ii. Canto i. 

Butler had evidently read the itaiiei of 
Mahmad Bigara, Sultan of Guaentt in 
Varthema or Purchas. 

OAMBOJA, n.p. An ancient 
kingdom in the eastern part of Indo- 
China, once great and powerful : now 
fallen, and under the 'protectorate* 
of France, whose Saigon colony it 
adjoins. The name, like so many 
others of Indo-China since the days 
of Ptolemy, is of Skt. origin, being 
apparently a transfer of the name 
01 a nation and country on the N.W. 
frontier of India, Kambqja^ supposed to 
have been about the locality olChitFal 
or Kaiiristan. Ignoring this, fantastic 
Chinese and other etymologies have 
been invented for the name. In the 
older Cliinese annals (c. 1200 ac) 
this region had the name of Fu-nan ; 
from the period after our era, when 
the kinirdom of Camboja had become 
powerful, it was known to the Chinese 
as Chin-la. Its power seems to have 
extended at one time westward, per- 
haps to the shores of the B. of BengiL 
Ruins of extraordinary vastneas and 
architectural elalx)ration are numerona, 
and have attracted great attention since 
M. Mouhot's visit in 1859; thon^ 
they had ])een mentioned by 16th 
century mi.ssionaries, and some of the 
buildings when standing in si>lendour 
were de.scri1icd by a Chinese visitor at 
the end of the" 13th century. The 
Cambojans proper call themselvea 
Khmer, a name which seems to have 
given rise to singular confusions (see 
COHAB). The gum Gamboge {Om- 
bodiam in the early records [Birdwood^ 
Rep. 071 Old Rec.,'^ 27 J) so familiar in 
use, derives its name from this country, 
the chief source of supply. 

c. 1161. — ". . . although . . . 
the belief of the people of Kimiova (PafTi) 
was the same aa that of the Buddha-belaiv- 
ing men of Ceylon. . . . Paniknina tht 
king wa« living in peace with the king of 
lUm^ya — yet the ruler of RdmlKnya . . . 
forsook the old custom of proTiding main- 
tenance for the ambassadors . . . sanog: 
' These messengers are sent to g^ to wtM- 
boja,' and so plundered all their goods aiicl 
put them in prison in the Malaya coontry. 
. . . Soon after this he seised soroo roywi 
virgins sent bv the King of Ceylon to tht 
King of Kimboja. . . ."—Ext. frooi Gry- 
lonfM Annafs, by T. Rhvs Dmnii, m 
J.A.S.B. xli. Pt. i. p. 198. 

1295.— **Le pays do Tehin>la. . . hm 
gens du pays fe nomment Kmi-] 
Sous la a^nastie actualle, lea li] 
des Tib^tains nomment oo paja 




Aceomnt of Chitda^ in 
nml^ AVkv. MU, i. 100. 

>. — "PMdiog from Siam towards 
' th« coMt we find the kingdom 
ta (reed Gtmbcria) . . . the people 
wmrrion . . . and the country of 
abooixU in all sorts of riotuala 
hie land the lords rolontarily bum 
le^ when the king dies. . . ." — Bout- 
in Raamutio^ i. f . 336. 

**And the next State adjoining 
he kingdom of Cftmboja, through 
He of which flows that splendid 
Mecoo, the source of which is 
BfioDs of China. . . ." — Barru, 
IT. iz. cap. 1. 

asa per CamboiJa Meoom rio, 
pHio das agues se interpreta. . . 

GeurAm, X. 127. 

-••22 cattes eambcja (gamboge)." 
iT. 188.] 

A > /I : 

, 8. Thifl word {kam\i\ 

in colloquial H. and ^Tamil 
irt.' It comes from the Port. 
Bat that word is directly 
e Arab iomif, 'a tunic' Was 
nc'a Latin word an earlier loan 
s Arabic, or the source of the 
rord / probably the latter ; [so 
!.▼. Cb misf]. The Mod. Greek 
iSophocles has ra/i(^ior. Camtta 
ding to the ^iana Dictionary , 
the cant of English thieves ; 
K>re ancient sUing it was made 

-** Solent militantes habere lineoji 
lifltaa T«>cant, sic aptas membriii et 
' corpf^lnx.«, ut expediti mnt rel 
B, T«I ad prselia . . . i{U<x;um«^ue 
I trmxerit."— .*irfi. Hirrvnymi Eptst. 
Fahtofam, g 11. 

" And to the said Ruv Gonzalez he 
g borw, an ani>>ler, for they prize 
hat smbie*. fumiKhe<l with saddle 
l«, Tery well scoording to their 
and bestden he gare him a ****"<■■ 
aa»««lla " (see SOMBRERO).- 
Ixxzix. ; Markham, 100. 

** to William and Richard my ivonA, 
reamiMa. . . ."-Will uf Richard 
Newnham, Deron. 

"That a very fine camyiat which 
ral wuald be worth 300 m'j, wa.<« 
re for 2 /nnonn^ which in that 
I the eiittiTAlent of 30 reis, though 
> rif 90 mj i* in that country no 
t*r." — Rut^ini d^ V. dti <iama^ 77. 

"The richest of all (the ahoiMi in 
where they sell eamisas. ...**— 
Unc UentnU dt Africa, Pt. I. 

P, a. In the Madras Presi- 
M well aa in N. India] an 

official not at his headquarters is 
always addressed as *in Camp.' 

OAMPHOB, s. There are three 
camphors : — 

a. The Bomean and Sumatran 
camphor from Dryobalanops aromcUica, 

b. The camphor of China and JftP&n, 
from Cinnamomum Camphora, (Tnese 
are the two chief camphors of com- 
merce ; the first immensely exceeding 
the second in market value : see Marco 
Polo, Bk. iii. ch. xi. Note 3.) 

C. The camphor of Blumea hakami' 
/era, D.C., produced and used in China 
under the name of ngai camphor. 

The relative ratios of \'alue in the 
Canton market may l)e roimdly given 
as b, 1 ; c 10 ; a, 80. 

The first Western 'mention of this 
drug, as was pointed out by Messrs 
Hanbury and Fluckiger, occurs in the 
Greek medical \iTiter Aetius (see 
l)elow), but it prol>ably came through 
the Aral>8, as is indicated by the ph, 
or / of the Arab luffar, rei)resentmg 
the Skt. karpUra. It has i)een sug- 
gested that the word was originally 
Javanese, in which langua^ kdpur 
appears to mean l)oth *lime' and 
* cani])hor.' 

Moodeen Sheriff says that kdfdr is 
used (in Ind. Materia Medica) for 
'amber.' Tdbashlr (see TABASHEEB), 
is, according to the same writer, called 
hdm-kdfur * l>amlx)o - camphor ' ; and 
ra»-kdfur (mercurv-campnor) is an 
im]>ure sulKhlorirfe of mercury. Ac- 
coming to the same authority, the 
varieties of camphor now met vnXAx 
in the liazars of S. India are— 1. kdfikr' 
i'laifQrl, which is in Tamil called 
pach*ch*ai (i.e. crude karummram; 2. 
^urati kdfar; 3. chm't; 4. hatai (from 
the Batta country?). Tlie first of 
these names is a curious instance of the- 
j)erpetuation of a blunder, originating 
m the misreading of loose Arabic 
writing. Tlie name is uncjuest ionably 
/infttri, which carelessness as to jjoints 
has converted into kai^iirl (as above, 
and in Blochmunn^s Aln, i. 79). The 
camphor alfanfiirl is menticmed as early 
as by Avicenna, anrl by Marco Polo, 
and came from a ]>lace called Pant6r 
in Sumatra, ymrhaiw the same as Banl^ 
which has now long given its name to 
the costly Sumatran dnig. 

A curious notion of Ibn Batuta^s 


(iv. 241) that the camphor of Sumatra 
^and Borneo) was jiroduced in the 
inaide of a cane, filling the joints 
between knot and knot, maj lie ex- 
plained by the statement uf Barliosa 
(p. 204), that the BorDeo camphor 
aa exported waa packed in tnl)ea of 
bamboo. This camphor is liy Barbosa 
and some otlier old writers called 
'eatable camphor' (da mangiare), !«- 
canse used in medicine and with 

Our tonn of the word Be«inB to have 
come from the Sp. alcanfor and aaifora, 
throngh the French camjJiTf.. Dozy 
points out that one Italian form retains 
tlie truer UHiiie cn/unc, and an old 
Oemian one (Mid. High Germ.) is 
gaffer {Ooittrl. 47). 

c. *.D. 640,— " Hygrotuyri cOfcctio, olei 
■iiica lib. ij, iipobalMkuii bb. i., opicienardi, 
folij nnf^. unc. liii. carpobalnanii} ama 
bonis, omomi, lit^ni bIuob, sing. udc. ij. 
maiticbite, moKbi, Edng. scrap, vi. qacd 
HI etiu oaphntk non dserit ex ca uqo. ij 
adjicito. . . ." — Aitii Atnui-fat\ Libronun 
XVI. Tomi Dvo . . . latinilate donati, 
Basil, MDXllv., Liv. xtj. cup. cii. 

c. MO.— "These (islanda called al-Ramln] 
abound in Bold rninea, and urs near the 
country of Kniuur, fnmoua ror iU Camphor. 
. . ."—3(as-\ldl, i. 3S8, Tho innio work At 
tii. 49, rofen back to thia pasmEO aa "tbc 
country of ManjSnih." Probabry Mafi'Qdl 
wrote correctly r'aa\-irak, 

1298.— "In this kingdom of /'cintnrerovt 
tho liest ramfhor in tbo wortil called Cam- 
ftatt Fantsn."— Marco I'alo, bk. ill. ch. li. 

J60B.— ". . . de li (Tonoasorim) visr 
{■eTCre, canolln . . . camfora rfu m«fi2ar r. 
lie iiulla I'm tr ma»:a . . . "{i.'. botli 
cami>hur to cat and not to eat, orSumatn 
and Oiiaa comiihiir).— /.Juiuinlu Ca' J/iuun-, 

o. 1590,— '"nio CMnidlor (r« in a lurgi 
trM ennriag in the (ihnuls uf Hindustan 
and in China. A huudrcil liorsumen unrl 
u[nrard« nuiy nut in the iihadc uf a >iint;lo 
tree. ... Of tho Tariinis kiiul:< uf camiihur 
the bcMt IK vatlud JlilMi in- l/uifUn. . . . 
in wnue liuukii nimidioT in itx nutuml state 
Ik caltwl . . . /i«;«»i>,i'.-'— .{in, Uh,-hm«>,« 
wl. i. (8.0. [Ithim^-.vl i* more iTOiierly 
U;»*ni, nnd takcH its natnc tniin thudemi- 
K'h) HhlnvHiii, A<uo<mil winnf Cnndu.] 

1621.- -"In tliii> shi|>i< wc hare laden a 
■mail inrvcll of oampUn of lUin.-.^, U-inir 
in nil m rai;,.-'—lh,la^i«H iMt'r, imliil. in 
l!,^ti liiarf, ii. 9VA. 

I TJO. — "llic IVirniina name tho ( 'amT|h<ir of 
lt:in>«, unci alMi of Bonieu to (hiH dny Kafur 
I'lmfue!, n« it at« ii|ii>enn in tiiu'priuli'rl 
tL>xt..f Avi.pnn;, . . .and ]MI.„,«,), n..W, 
tliJit in — iiiu MSS. i.f the author i» frrtiu.l 
KafoT Fansnil. . . ."— I'n'-itdjii, iv. 67. 

ir^'''. ''The Camphor Tros han been rc- 
conlly!d in thi» [inrt of the Hircar'n 


wuntry. Ws have MDt two bottUi <( the 

MKential oil made frDm it for yonr on."— 
UOrr uf Tippoo, Siripalrici, p. 231. 


" Camphor, Bhinueini (barm), vihia- 


JSr. India xp to 1876. 
The first of then ia the fine Sumatna 
camphor : the aecond at ^j, of the piia ■• 
China camphor. 

OAHPOO, s. H. kamps, i 

rr. of 


'a camp,' but formerly was fnHtcificiHr 
ap])lied to tlie partially aisciplinei] 
brigades under Eiirupttan commanden 
in the Maliratta ser\-icc. 

[152S.— Mr. Whiteway notes that Cann- 
hoda (bk. vi. uh. ci. p. 2171 and Buna 

Campon ChiHO, which may (upplr a 
link between Campoo and Kampmig. iSa* 

1803.-" Beimm Suninw'a Casipoo hu 
come u]> the chautii, and I am afrud . . . 
joined Scindiah yctrtcrday. Two dewrten 
. . . declared that Pohlman'i CUDPM ■>• 
following it."- IIV//.»sto», ii. aM. 

1S83.— ". . . it* unhappy plaioe waie 
Hwept over, this way and that, by the 
cnvnlry of rival Muhratta powen, Uogid ead 
itohilla bon4emen, or eampoa and ptltiai 
(bnttnliuiu) under European advmtnivfi. 
. . ."—(JiMrUrlg K'-citiv, April, p. 2M. 

OANABA,n.p. Piu[>erly Xorim^ 
This name has long lieen ^ven to tut 
part of the West roost which lies Iwlnw 
IheOhauts, from Mt. ])elv ntirthvard 
to tliu (ioa territorj- ; and now to tb« 
two Itritish districts constituted out 
of that tnii^t. viK. N. nud S. Canum. 
This apiiropriatiiin of the name, how- 

; 'country'], from the black (fittoii suit 
i prevailing theit, was iirojiurly sviiiwj- 
I mous with Karmltakti (eee CAUATIC); 
and ai>i>arently a cumiption of ihA 
1 wonl. Our ipiotAtionn hIiow ihtt 
I thnnigliout the nixteentlt century the 
tei'm wan applied to the ctiuntry alioK 
I the Ghauts, simietinies to th« whnle 
kingrloiti of Harsilisa or Vijayana^ 
(s«c BISHAOAB). Gradually, and pio- 
Kibly owing to bx-al application at 
Uoo, where the natives seem to han 
I l>cen from the firat known to ik* 
Portiignese as Canarijn, t, t«nn vhkk 




ortMMn works meanB 
paonfe and language of 
m became appropriated 
country on the coast 
ind^ Malabar, which was 
i kingdom in quertion, 
une war that the name 
at a later date to be 
tlie other side of the 

s or CSanareae langnage 
a krge tract above the 
I &r north as Bidar (see 
d. p. 33). It is only one 
ngnam spoken in the 
Aa of Canara, and that 
nail portion, riz. near 
V" ^ ^^^ chief language 
n District. y^i»^^i« 
;rast Tanjore inscription 

ad tkiB river ooaunenoM the 
which oootaiiu fire 
«eeh with a Unguage 
I ftnt, which stretchM along 
iahar. is Talinata (i.^. Tif/v- 
dam district of 8. Canara) ; 
tha interior . . . ; another 
Talinga, which confines with 
' On» : another is Caaarl, 
great city of Bisnaga ; and 
m of Charamendel, the Ian- 
i« Tamol.'*— Bartoia. This 
ledsn^ly oomipt, and the 
ri\j imperfect) is made up 
. Stanler's English, from a 
Soc p. ^ ; the Portognese 
Academy, p. 291 ; and 
a U- f- '^0. 

« last Kingdom of the First 
he Province f!^wy<w« ; it in 
e side by the Kingdcnn of 
niadira, and on the other 

India or Malabar. In the 
King of Narsinga, who is 
intrr. The upeech of thoise 
different fnim that of the 
■can and of (;i«."— Portu. 

v/ EagUrn Kimgdonns^ in 

Third pmrince ii called Ca- 
in tcriur. . . ." — t'ajiUinh^iay 

i««i to the langnagi* : — 
:« c4 the (rcnttioe \» Ca- 

«bc>Ie onast that we «fieiik 
ihaut {*9au) mountain range 
VjQcao. and the people pro- 
r {fJvtk*fmmij$\^ thf»U(;h uur 
\ Oaaaiese {CanariJM). . . . 
hm (fhauts to the sea (*n 
Uaean all that striu is called 
1 Xhm Ghauta to tne aea on 
las^ always excepting that 

itretoh of 46 lemiee of whiofa wo liaye 
spoken [north of Mooni Dely] whieh balonge 
to the eame Canard^ the strip which itietflhss 
to Gano Oomorin is oallad MaUber."— Awrvi^ 
Deo. I. Ht. iz. cap. 1. 

1562.—**. . . The Kingdom of Oaaaii* 
which extends from the rlTsr eaUad Gats^ 
north of Chaol^ to CSape Oomorin f to Iv as 
ooocems the mtarior regioa east of tlie 
Ghats) . . . and which in the eastmarohas 
with the kingdom of Orita ; and tha Gentoo 
Kings of this great Prorinoe of CSaaavi win 
thoee from whom sprang the preaent Kings 
of Bisnaga."— /6uf. Deo. II. Ky. ▼. cap. 3. 


" Aqui se enzerva li do mar nndoeo 
Hum monte alto, que oorre longamenta 
Serrindo ao Malabar de forte muro^ 
Com que do Oaaard Yive ■egnro." 

Osaite^ Tii. 21. 
Englished by Burton : 

" Here seen yoosde whare wavy waters 
a range of mountains skirts the murmur- 
ing main 
■emng the Bfalabar for mi^ty mure, 
who thus from him of Canard dwells 



1608.— ** The land itselfe is oaUed Deoan, 
and also Caaanu"— £tiucAo<M, 49; [Hak. 
Soc. i. 169]. 

1614. — *' Its proper name is CKantatkaea, 
which from corruption to corruption has 
come to bo callea Canara." — CoutOf Dec. 
VI. liv. V. cap. 5. 

In the following <|uotation8 the term 
is applied, either inclusively or exclu- 
sively, to the territory which we now 
call Canara : — 

1615.— "Canara. Thence to the King- 
dome of the fi««t»^Hw, which is but a 
little one, and 5 daves journey from 
IkimaM. They are tall of fttature, idle, 
for the most part, and therefore the greater 
theeves."— />< M on/art, p. 23. 

1623.— "Havinff found a good oppor- 
tunity, such aA 1 desired, of getting out 
of (.roa, and |>eDotrating further into India, 
that w more to the south, to Canara. ..." 
/'. c/W/a I'a/if, ii. 601 ; [Hak. Soc. ii. 168]. 

167*2.— *'Tho Atrii) of land Canara, the 
inhabitants of which are calle<l CrflTi'ftrtllff, 
ij* fruitful in rice and other fiKxi-situffs." — 
BuMaeHM, 98. Theru is a good map in this 
work, which shows * Canara* in tbo modem 

1 672. — * * Ikscrii^ion of Canara a jwf Journey 
to f/tw.— Thin kingdom w one of the flnest 
in India, all plain country near the sea, 
and ercn among the mountains all peopled." 
— /^ Vincrnxfi Maria, 420. Here the title 
wems used in the modem sense, but the 
name writer applies* Canani to the whole 
Kingdom of Bisnagar. 

1573.— '« At Mirja the Protector of Canoia 
came on board." — Frifrr (margin), p. 57. 

1726.— ** The Kingdom Canara (under 




which Onor, Batticala, and Gkrcopa are 
dependent) comprises all the western lands 
lying between Walkan {Konkant^ and 
Malabar, two great coast countries." — 
Vaientijnf v. 2. 

1727. — *'The country of Canara is gener- 
ally governed by a Lady, who keeps her 
(burt at a Town called haydmtr^ two Days 
journey from the Sea." — A, Hamilton^ i. 280. 

CANABIN, n.p. This name is ap- 
plied in some of tne quotations under 
Canaia to the people of the district 
now so called by us. But the Portu- 
gueije applied it to the (iiTonAantJpeople 
of Gk)a and their langua^. Tlius a 
Konkani grammar, originally pre])ared 
about 1®C)0 by the Jesuit, Thomas 
Estev&o (Stephens, an Englishman), 
printed at Goa, 1640, l)ears the title 
Arte da Lingoa OaQarin. (See A. 
B(umell) in Ind. Antiq. iL 98). 

[1823. — '^Canareen, an appellation given 
to the Creole Portuguese of Goa and their 
other Indian settlements." — (hcen^ Narra- 
/»«€,!. 191. J 

NAUGHT, s. H. from Ar. kandt, the 
side wall of a tent, or canvas enclosure. 

[1616. — ''High cannattes of a coarse 
stuff made like arras." — Sir T. Roc, Diary , 
Hak. Soc. ii. 325.] 

,, " The King's Tents are red, reared 
on poles very high, and placed in the midst 
of the Cam]>, covering a large Compasse, 
encircled with Canats (made of red calico 
stiffened with Canes at every breadth) 
standing upright about nine foot high, 
guarded round every night with Souldiers." 
—Ttny, in rvrchas, ii. 1481. 

c. 1660. — "And (what is hard enough to 
believe in Jndosfajiy where the Grandees 
especially are so jealous . . .) I was so 
near to the wife of this Prince (Dara), that 
the cords of the Kanatei . . . which en- 
closed them (for they had not so much as 
a poor tent), wore fastened to the wheels 
of my chariot."— i^frMi>r, E. T. 29; [ed. 
ConsUdjIf, 8y]. 

1792. — "They j»assed close to Tippoo's 
touts : the canaut (misprinted caaam) was 
standing, but the green tent had been 
removed." — T. Mnnrity in Liffy iii. 73. 

1793.— "I'lie canaut of canvas . . . was 
painted of a l>eautiful sea-green colour." — 
IXroiHy 2:30. 

[c. 1798. — "On iMiAsing a skrcen of Indian 
connaughts, we pn)ceoded to the front 
of the Tusbcah Khanah." — Asiatic Jim.y iv. 
4 14. J 

1817. — "A species of silk of which they 
make tents and kanauts." — Mi/fy ii. '201. 

1825. — Hel>er writes coxmaut. — Orig. ed. 
n. 25/. 

[1838.— "The kheiianta (the sptoe be- 
tween the outer covering and the lining 
of our tents)."- J/icf Eden, Up the CovUry 
ii. 63.] 

GANDAHAB, n.p. KanMdr. 
The application of this name is now 
exclusively to (a) the well-known dty 
of Western Afghanistan, which is the 
object of so mucn political interest. Bat 
by the Ar. geographers of the 9th to llUi 
centuries the name is applied to (b) 
the country about Peshawar, as tJie 
equivalent of the ancient Indian Gai^ 
hdniy and the Gandaritis of Straba 
Some think the name was transferred 
to (a) in consequence of a iiiigratioii 
of the people of Qandhara carrriiig 
with them the begging-pot of Bucfdha, 
l>elieved by Sir uL Kawlinaon to be 
identical with a large sacred vessel of 
stone preserved in a moeque of Canda- 
bar. Others think that Candahtr 
may represent AUxandropolw in An- 
chosia. We find a third application of 
the name (c) in Ibn Batuta, as well 
as in earlier and later writers, to a 
former |X)rt on the east shore of the 
Gulf of Camlmy, Ghandhar in the 
Broach District. 

*a.— 1552.— "Those who go from Peim, 
from the kingdom of Hora^m (Khonuui)i 
from Boh^lra, and all the Western Regions, 
travel to the city which the natires ear* 
niptly call Candar, instead of Scaadar, 
the name by which the Pendant eeO 
Alexander. . . ." — BarrOM^ IV. ri. 1. 

16d4.— " All these great preparatioiis givt 
us cauiie to apprehend that, instcaa of 
going to Ktifkemirfy we l>e not led to be- 
siege that iniportant city of KaBdifetff 
which iH the Frontier to Fersia, Indortuit 
and Usbeck, and the (^pital of an exoelkiit 
Country."— /i<rni>r, E. T., p. US; [ed. 
CoiisUihUy 352]. 

" From Arachosia, from Candaor eart. 
And Margiana to the Hyrcanian cliffs 
Of CaucasiM. . . ." 

Paradite Refined, iii. 316 «0ff* 

b.— c. 1030.—". . . thence to the riwr 
ChandrtOia (OhiniCb) 12 (parasangs) ; thoet 
to Jailam on the West of the B<yat (or 
Ilydaspes) 18 ; thence to Waihimi, capitel 
of*Kandahir ... 20 ; thence to Fanhavir 
14.'. . r^Al-Bir^niy in Elliot, i, 63 {tat- 

c— c. 1343.— "From Kinbftya (Gamfaay) 
we went to the town of Kj&wi {KMm,v%, o|i^ 
CamVxiy), on an estuary where the Mi 
rises and falls . . . thence to Kfluiiakbi 
a considerable city belonging to ^3bm IniMk 
and situated on an eetiuuy fmm tht ■§•" 
\ —Ibn Batuta, it. 57-8. 




riv«r, wfakfa 


try MnoQg the iMMMitB, and in th* City. 
\ J. Saar^t Ib-Jdkngt Kriegt^Diemd, 97. 

mfliw from 

'rftoAtad on tbo banks 

I of ooniidcnble tnulo ; 

IroiD the tea 


v. •. In Ifalay, to 
toe word apparently 
A term tormerly 
o tlw hondredth of the Chinese 
* wri^tft eommonly caUed hy 
toy nune takU (see TAEL>. 
ITS) givee tlie Chinese weights 


V in aOvar ii 10 OuadieeBS 


'In Malaeea tb« w«ght nMd for 

k, 4e., tbo «a«e, oontaini 20 tmdg^ 

15 flMaet, aadi mu 20 earn- 

1 paaal 4 masea, each mas 

cttpooi^ 5 

W« boo^ht 5 gT«ate square 

the Kioffee matter oarpeoter. ; 

r 5 i M i liTus per peeoe. "—Cociv, 

mr, n.p. A town in the hill 
li Ceylon, which became the 
f the sacred tooth of Buddha 
jnwning of the 14th century, 
idoptea as the native capital 
tt. Chitty says the name is 

to the nativ^ who call the 
ki iiMtvra, *CF^^ city.' The 
n» to hare arisen out of some 
tension by the Portuguese, 
ij be iDostrated by the quota- 


-"And paawi^ into the heart of 
. there came to the Kin^om of 

certain Friar Panooal with two 
K who were well reoeired by the 
e e wmUf Jama Bandar ... in 
■1 be cave them a flrreat niece of 
d everything oeedfol to ouild a 
i hnoam for them to dwell in."— 

VI, hT. IT. cap. 7. 

. . and at three or four places, 
■Mee erf the Alp* of Italy, one 
■ee within this circnit (of moun* 
» fivoM a Ki^rdom called Caade." 
Nc HI. liv. ii. cap. 1. 

Sam then as soon as the Emperor 
lo kas Cas«le in Caadl he gare 
the aOO oaptiTe HolUuiders 
' thr uu ghtwt his oonn- 

1551.-<* The Fint is the aty of Onufy. so 
moerally called hj the CSbtMsaj^ pnliably 
from Grade, which in the C^ntngmuKifi Lan- 
guage signifies HilU. tix uxkoog them it is 
situated, but by the Inhah&nts called 
HUigodamU'iieitrt, as much as to ssy 'The 
CSty of the Ohimgukui people,' and jMaaamr, 
i^paijing the 'Chief or Boyal aty.'"— A. 
Knox^ p. 5. 

1728.— *' Cuidi, otherwise Oandia, or 
named in Cingalees Cmilf OimIs, ».«. the 
high moontain ooontry."— VaUntij% (G^loa), 

(2)aAND7, & A weight used in 8. 
India, which may be stated rou^y at 
about AOO lbs., but Tarying much in dif- 
ferent parts. It corresponds broadly 
with the Arabian Baluur (q.v.)i and was 
generally equivalent to 20 Mimids, 
varying therefore with the mannd. 
The word is Mahr. and TeL lAonds 
written in Tarn, and MaL handi^' or 
MaL kanti^ [and comes from tfie Skt. 
kKamd^ *'to divide.' A Oandy of land 
is supposed to be as much as will pro- 
duce a eamfy of grain, approximately 
75 acres]. The Portuguese write the 
word candil. 

1568.— '* A candfl which amounts to 522 
pounds " (omUew). — Oarcia^ f . 55. 

1598.— *' One oandiel (t.I. oandu(\ is Uttle 
more or less than 14 bushels, wherewith 
they measure Rice, Come, and all graine.'* 
—LiKKkoUn, 69 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 245]. 

1618.— "The Candee at this place (Bate- 
cala) containeth neero 500 pounds.' — W, 
Hortj in Purehu, i. 657. 

1710.— "They advised that they have 
supplied Habib Khan with ten osaitar (^ 
country gunpowder." — In Wkeeler, ii. Ijfe, 

c. 1760. — Grose gives the Bombay oandy as 
20 maunds of 28 lbs. each =560 lbs. ; the 
Surat ditto as 20 maunds of 37^ lbs.r=746} 
Ihfi. ; the Anjengo ditto 560 lbs. ; the Carwar 
ditto 575 lbs. ; the Coromandel ditto at 500 
lbs. kc. 

(3) OANDT (SUGAR-). This name 
of crystallized sugar, though it came no 
doubt to Europe from the P.-Ar. kand 
(P. also skakar latidy Sp. azucar candt; 
It. candi and zucchero eandito ; Fr. tucre 
candt) is of Indian origin. There is a 
Skt. root khand^ *to break,* whence 
khamfa^ Mirokea,' also applied in 
various compounds to granulated and 
candied susar. But there is also Tam. 
kar-kamia^kala-kantUiy Mai. kandi^ kal- 
kandiy'ind kalkaniuy which mav have 
been the direct source of the P. and 
Ar. adoption of the word, and perhaps 




ito original, from a Dravidiau word = 
Mump? [The Dra vidian teniis mean 
* stone-piece.'] 

A German T^Titer, long within last 
century (as we leani from Mahn, quoted 
in Diez's Lexicon), a])pears to derive 
candy from Candia, " because most of 
the sugar which the Venetians im- 
ported was brought from that island" 
— a fact prolMibly invented for the 
nonce. But the writer was the same 
wiseacre who (in the year 1829) 
characterised the book of Marco Polo 
as a "clumsily compiled ecclesiastical 
fiction discuised as a Book of Travels " 
(see Intrmuction to MUrco Polo^ 2nd 
ed. pp. 112-113). 

c. 1343. — *'A continajo si vonde gien- 
giovo, cannella, lacca, incenso, iDdaco . . . 
vendno scorzuto, zucchero . . . mcchero 
candi . . . porcellaDO . . . costo . . ." — 
Pegitii>tti, p. 134. 

1461. — ". . . Un aiDjpoIetto di balsamo. 
Teriaca bossoletti 15. Zucchcri Moccari (?) 
panni 42. Znccheri canditi, scattolo 5. 
. . .** — LUt of Pr(*€ntt from SuHan of Egypt 
to the Thtge. ' (Sco under BENJAMIN.) 

c. 1596.— ** White sugar candy (kandl 
9aftd) ... 54 damt \^t 5^r." — Ahi^ i. 63. 

1627.— *'<Sttgar Candle, or Stono Sugar." 
— Mihtheic, 2nd ed. a. v. 

1727.— "ITie Trade they have to China is 
divifled l>etween them and Surat . . . the 
GruM8 of their own Cargo, which consists 
in Sugar, Sugar-candy, AUom, and some 
Drugs . . . arc all for the Surut Market.'* — 
A, JIamiffvHy i. 371. 

CANGUE, s, A square hoard, or 
portable ]>illory of wood, used in 
(y*liina as a puiii.shnient, or rather, as 
Dr. Wells "W illianis stiys, as a kind of 
censure, carrying no disgrace ; strange 
as that seems to us, with whom the 
essence of the pillory is disgrace. The 
frame weighs up to 30 lbs., a weight 
limited by law. It is made to rest on 
the shoulders without chafing the 
neck, but so bnwid as to i)revent the 
wearer fnjui feeding himself. It is 
generally taken oil" at night {Giles, [and 
see Gray, Chirmy i. 55 scqq.]). 

The Cangue was inlrcKluced into 
China by the Tartar dynasty of Wei 
in th«' 51 h <viiturv, and is tirst 
ineiitioiii'<l imder A.D. 4S1. In tlie 
Ku^uig-ftHfi (a Chin. l.)i<'t. published 
A.D. l(X)O) it is calh'd koinjyiai 
(in(Mh*rn mandarin hinwj-hini), i.e. 
*Ne<k-t'eltt'r.' From this old form 
jiroUibly tlu' Anamites havi- deriwd 
their wonl Utv it, iffiuj^ and the 

Cantonese J^ang-ktiy 'to wear the 
Cangue,* a survi>'al (as frequently 
happens in Chinese vernaculars) of an 
ancient tenn with a new orthography. 
It is prol)able that the Portugueae 
took the word from one of these btter 
forms, and associated it with their own 
canga, * an ox-voke,* or * porter's yokefor 
carrying bui-ciens.' [Tnis \'iew is re- 
ject<»d by the N.E.IK on the authority 
of Prof. Legge, and the word is ns 
garded Jis derived from the PorL form 
given alK)ve. In replv to an enqniry, 
Prof. Giles writes : '* 1 am entirely of 
opinion that the word is from the 
Port., and not from any Chinese 
t^jrm.'*] The thing is alluded to hr 
F. M. Pinto and other early writers 
on China, who do not give it a name. 

Something of this kind was in iuk 
ill countries of Western Asia, called 
in P. doahdka {ftilignum). And this 
word is a])plied to the Chinese cangw 
in one of our (plot at ions. DaJuSkOt 
however, Ls explained in the lexicon 
Burhdn-i-Ki1ti i\s 'a piece of tinilier 
with two branches jilaced on the neck 
of a criminal* (Qvntrtnnere, in Xot. d 
Extr, xiv. 172, 173). 

1420. — ". . . made tho amboMiadon cooM 
forwuni .side by side with certain fwi M oet*. 
. . . Souio of thcjto hud a doskSin on their 
nocks."— *S/j<i/t Jin Ik'* MiuioH to Olt'iitf, in 
Cathajfy p. cciv. 

[ir.25.— Castanheda (Bk. VI. eh. 71, ^ IM) 
N(>caks of women who had come from I\»tugil 
in the Hhips without leave, being tied ap ia 
u ca^ and whipi>cd.] 

c. IWO. — " . . . Onleroil us to be pot in % 
horrid )>ri.S4m with fetters «>n our feet, man* 
aclen on our hnnds, and rofforg on our iMck& 
! . . ."—F. M. pinto, (orig.)ch. Ixxziv. 

15Sr». — " AIho they doo lay on them neer 
tainc covering; of timber, wherein remjiaetk 
no more siKtcc of hollowneiixc than tlwir 
IxKlies doth make : thui» they are TMd that 
are condonined to death."— .V#;)fr/<jai (tr. ly 
Parke, ir.99), Hak. 80c. i. 117-118. 

1690.—** He was imprisoned. eOMDlii 
tormented, but making fricndt witE bit 
Money . . . was cleurcfi, and made Under* 
Custonier. . . ."—Bfurifer** Journal tdCuduM 
(!hina, in Ifalrympfr^ (Jr. lUp. i. 81. 

[UO,'*. — "All the peiiplo were under con- 
finement in separate houses and aim in OM- 
gasa"— //»//y'«, Ihartf, Hak. S*ic. ii. ccciL; 

,, '* I desir'd several Times to wail 1 
u|x>n the (Tin'emour ; but could not, ba «■• 
Hf) taken up with over-halUni^ the Gooda, tktX 
I oamu fri>m Pufo Condorr, and weighiof At 
' Money, which wax found to amoont toI&,IB0 
Tale. At lant upon the 28th, I wu iAM fd 
to a]i|>ear as n Criminal inflimil mW* 
the (xovemour and lUs Grud OtaHB^ 





td wttli All tlM Skrei in the G<mga«." 
IT tram Mr. Jama Cumyngkam^ siir- 
id the Palo Cuodore tDAmacre, in 
\ p. 9S. Lockyer adds : *' I under- 
be Oh«M to be Thunibolti " (p. 95). 

.—"With hi* neck in the coogOM 
If* * yur oi StDckn made of bambooe." 
fmmuiaom^ iL 175. 

. — '* AuMtftt im lee mit tons truui en 
dea rheinwi aux fiiedii, une eMBgVM 
"—Ltttr^s JS*it/. xxT. 427. 

. — "Theimninhmentof thee&a, uinially 
bj Eiifofwiani the eaBglM, u* (generally 
a f«ir petty crimen." — >itauMtvn, Em- 
kc., ii. 492. 

. — ". . . frmp|«r ffur le« joucii a Taide 
.l e tit e lame de cuir ; c'vet, je cnna, la 
orrectvio intliir^ aux femmoflf car je 
I jamiiT Tu aiiciine ]K»rter la etJkfpit" 
r. .4 TravTi Lt CMinf, 124. 

VOfODB]. ii.p- Kanyitfuviu [or 
wkadn^ T>im. kuni^ *' huiiii»ed,' meau^ 
ad ' ] : a pbict* cm the Con)iiiAiidel 
whuh yff-i^ f'triiitrlv the site of 
s-^Xk f^torif.s ( 1682-]'6d8) litt ween 
i- hrrry 4n<l MadnLS :iUmt 13 in. 
th- I'tntiiT. 

■'.'.. Amerufi* Vf^puci'i'« letter from 
-:v ti» I^'Tvii/'' «lc" Medici, triviti^ an 
:t -f the Pi'rt.i,:»ieMf di'«c<Acrie.<« in 
S nDtmirim** ■►n the oMi^t, >M,"foro 
.<•'. " Conimid. " - I n lUtUUUi-Honi^ 
i :»' It Muu'A*, |». liii. 

- "Ori thi* c«<i-t there i«* » place 

CmahMmnm, where there ore ao 

l-«r an'i wiM cattle that if a nian 

•-• hfiy .100 detrr'-kin*, within ei>;ht 

:;.•• :!ii** *^ th«? pLu'e will (fire him 

';• ;aU-h:rj^ irj Mriarv^, iind ^ving 

• -ir^« •kifi* fif a f:in.»m. '*-■-'. '"rrm, ii. 

' — ■ It !• re*»i'e«l t«» aj»p!y to the 
ikT '4 xr\iZvK - « ■wintry of rhen^y for 
fM t*. «ettif fjut.-r.t.- .it <'«w»n»UR>r (') 
iMaflnnro. ii'-t -ii*** :U P«irti» Novo, if 
la. -/"f. .V. 'r-'f. 'oauitj., 7th Jan.. in 
«W /Irtj.. N . i::. p. U. 

*f - ■ W.* th«r»'f«d' fmchide it more 
:>i - 1 (««i:er.t thxt the < 'hief • rf Conimere 

tfu AAii Twt KiLTRA lUjA." —In \Vh^l<r, 

fcr . f . ST 

•r Conjemeer i-* the 

\fc. « «h*rv the /.'• ;"•*> had a Kact<>rv 
i^-jL.*-*. r-it. -ir. th'.ir purLlia-^injj Fort 



• ^ 


•fcen VI p. ... -\t pre5«4 
■a- t» r*H.t •«wn ir* the Maj* of Trad 
i/z*^l.«. 1 :}5:. 

1 - - !>• P odicheri k MAtlru.<t. la cAte 
ea n f q / faJ afrd-n.'rde.-^t <iuel<|uett 
• «*t. Lr frraiH-r eu<lriiit de rt>tDar<iue 
l^gl aarftak rui4purrmcntdit CoogllllAr, 
<.-v \%9/Qim sanoee p!a« quo moins dc 
ra«n.'-//.Uri//*. p. 123. 

GANNANOBE, n.p. A port on 
the coast of northern Malabar, famous 
in the earlv Portuguese history, and 
which still IS the chief British military 
station on that coast, with a European 
regiment. The name is Kann'Ar or 
Kafinantlr, ' Krishna's Town.' * [The 
Madnu Glass, gives MaL kannu^ *cy^' 
ur, * village,' i.e. ' Ixsautiful village.'] 

c. 1506.—** In f>ii*i«niir il suo Re ri ^ 
zentil, e qui nasce tz. {i.e. semarif 'ginger ') : 
ma Ii zz. nochi e non cum boni oome quelh 
de Colcut. ' — LfOnardoCa' Master , in Archivio 
Ston'co Ital.y Append. 

1510. — **Canonor is a fine and Urge city, 
in which the King of Portugal has a rery 
8tronff castle. . . . This Canonor is a port 
at which horses which come from Persia 
disembark."— TartA^Mna, 123. 


'* Chamard o Samorim mais gente nora 

• • • • • 

Pari que todo o Nay re em Am so mova 
Que entre Calecut jaz, e Ganaiior." 

CamOeSj z. 14. 
Bv Burton : 

** The Saroorin shall summon fresh allies ; 

• • • • • 

lo ! at hi(» biddin^^ everj' Nayr-man hies, 
that dwells 'twixt Calocut and CaoanOT." 

[1611.— *• The old Xahuda Mahomet of 
Cainnor goeth aboard in this boat." — 
iMiHVer^, LrttrrSj i. 95. J 

CANONOO, s. p. hinun-go, i.e. 
*Ljiw-uttert?r' (the first part 1>eing 
Arab, from Gr. /carwr). In upper 
India, and formerly in Bengal, the 
regii<trar of a tahfU^ or other revenue 
su I nii vision, who receives the reports 
of the iHitWLlrU, or village registrars. 

17«>8._"Add to this that the King's 
Ckinnegoet were maintained at our, 
ax well as the (romastahs and other aorTant** 
>)elonging to the 2^mindars, whoi«e accounts 
we Mcnt for.** — iMtrr to Cu»rty Dec. 31, in 
hmg^ 157. 

1765. — "I have to struggle with over)' 
difficulty that can Ikj thrown in my way by 
mini.'tten*, mntju^di''*. oongoes (1), &c., and 
their dei)en<lenti*."— liCtter fn.>m F. Stflc^Jt^ 
in Carracci'tir* Lift uj (JHc*^ i. 542. 

CANTEB07, s. A gold coin 
formerly used in the 8.E. part of 
Madras territorv. It was wortn 3 rs. 
Fn»j)erlv Katithiravi hun (or ]»agoda) 
1 from knnthintvti Riiyd^ *the lion- 
voict»<l,' [Skt. biNfha, *thn>at,' rava^ 
* noise'], who ruled in Mvjvu-e fnnn 
1«38 to 1659 (C. P. 7/roim, i/.S./ [Rice, 
Afysore, i. 803 J. See IHronCs Narrative, 
p. 279, where the revenues of the 




territory taken from Tippoo in 1792 
are stated in Canteray jxagodaa. 

1790. — "The full ooUoctions amounted to 
five Croros and ninety-two loclu of Canteroy 
pogodofl of 3 Ku|)eos each." — Dalrymj^^ Or. 
Jiep. i. 237. 

1800.— "Accounts are commonly kept in 
Canter'raia PaUim*, and in an imafi^nary 
money containing 10 of t heae, hy the MuauI- 
mans called chiicrams [see CHUCJOtUH], and 
by the Enfs^lish Canteroy Pagodas. . . ."— 
Buch<xMtn*s Aft/surtt i. 129. 

CANTON, n.p. The civat seaport 
of Southern China, the cliief city of 
the Province of Kwang-tung, wlience 
we take the name, through tlie Portu- 
giiest*, whose older writ<?rs call it 
Cantao. The proi)er name of tlie 
city is K\mn[i'chau-fu. Tlie Chin, 
name Kipung-tuntj ( = 'Bi'oad East') is 
an ellipsis for " capital of the E. Divi- 
sion ot the Pn)vince Lmiiy-Kicang (or 
*Two Broad Realms ^."—(ijp. Mouh). 

ir»16.— "So as this went on Femiio Peres 
nrrivod from l*acem with his caivo (of 
I)e])i>er), and having furnished himself with 
nouessarics set off on his voyage in June 
1516 . . . they were 7 sail altogether, and 
they made their voyage with the aid of good 
pilots whom they had taken, and went with- 
out harming anyl>ody touching at certain 
ijorts, most of which were subject to the 
Cing of China, who called himself the Son 
of Ood and Lord of the World. Formlo 
Peres arrived at the islands of C?hina, and 
when he was seen there came an armed 
squadntii of 1*2 junks, which in the season of 
navigation always cruized alKuit, guarding 
the sea, to prevent the numerous pirates 
from attacking the shi]>s. Femiio Peres 
knew al)«>ut this from the pilots, and as it 
was late, and he could not double a certain 
island there, he anchored, sending word to 
his captains to have their guns ready for 
defcntu if the Chins desire<l to fight. Next 
day ho made siiil towards the island of 
Vcniaga, which is 18 leagues fnim the city 
of Cant&O. It is on that island that all the 
tnidcrs buy ami sell, without licence from 
the nilors i)f the citv. . . . And 3 leagues 
from that island oi Voniaga is another 
iMand, where is {Mtsted the Admiral or 
Captain- Major of the Sea, who iu)mediately 
<ui the arrival of strangers at the island of 
Vfuiaira ro]X)rts to the nilcrs of Cant&O, 
who they are, and what prtKxls they bring or 
wish tt» Imiv ; that the rulers mav send orders 
what roursc t«» t-;»ke." ''o/*#-*/, ii. :t'M. 

c. liV»,'i. - '• . . . liue.-te (.-ose . . . vanno 
alia China con Ii lor giunchi, e a Camton, 
cho !• Citta grmde. . . ." — Sommftriu d*^* 
Itt'ijni^ /inmnjtiOj i. f. IW7. 

ir)Sr». "The Chinos ilo vse in their pro- 
nunciatinn to tennc their cities with this 
sylabk', Fii, that is as much as to sjiy, citie, 
a< Tayhin ifu, Canton fu, and their townos 

with this syllable, Chen."— M^iutoaa, ftrke'« 
old E. T. (1588) Hak. Sec. i. 24. 

1727.— "Cmnion or QuaniMnff (as the 
Chinese express it) is the next moritinM 
Province."— <^4. Hamiltou, ii. 217. 

CANTONMENT, s. (Pron. Can- 
toonment^ with accent on peuult.). This 
English word has become almoel a]i- 
propriated as Anglo- Indian, being so 
constantly used in India, and so little 
used elsewhere. It is applied tu 
military stations in India, built usuallr 
on a plan which is originally that of a 
standing camp or * cantonment.' 

1783. — '*I know not the full mMning of 
the word cantonment, and a camp thii 
singular place cannot well be tennad; it 
more resembles a large town, very niiBy 
miles in circumference. The officflis' 
bungalos on the banks of the Tappee in 
large and convenient," kc. — /Vwnbu, Letter 
in Or. Mem. describing; the '* Bengal Cui- 
tonments near Surat." iv. 239. 

1825. — "The fact, however, is oertain . . . 
the cantonments at LucknoWf nay Otlciitis 
itself, are abominably situated. 1 hftvt 
heard the same of Madras : and now tbt 
lately-settled cantonment of Xuaaeenfaid I 
ai)pears to be as objectionable as any d 
them." — HfltfTy ed. 1844, ii. 7. 

1848.— "Her ladyship, our old aoquiim- 
anoe, is as much at home at Madnw ai at 
Brussels — in the cantonment as under ttw 
tents." — Vanittf Fair, ii. ch. 8. 

CAPASS, s. The cotton plant and 
cott4)n-wool. H. kapdSy from SkL 
karpasa^ which sttems as if it must be 
the origin of irdpvcurof, though the 
latter is ap])lied to flax. 

1753. — **. . . They cannot any wtyooa- 
ceive the musters of 1738 to be aht studtrf 
for judging by them of the cloth sent xu tUi 
year, as the copaaa or country oottoa his 
not lx>en for these two years vtust under oiM 
or ten rujHjes. . . ." — Ff. Wm, ClMfc, ■ 
L«rn*j, 40. 

[1813.— "(ruzerat cows are voir fond of 

the capanaaia, orcotton-Hccd."~/ijrM Or* 
Afeiti. 2nd e<l. ii. 35.] 

CAPEL, s. Malayal. kappal^ ** 
ship.' This word luU been imported 
into ^lalay, kdptdt and Javaneae. [U 
ap])ears to 1>e still in use on the W. 
C< ; see Bombay (razettetr^ xiiL (9 

1498.— In the vocabular}' of theIaiMp> 
of (Vilicut given in the Roiciro d€ T. rfcwtfri 
we have — 

" A'rtoo; capelL"-p. 118. 

l.')10.— "Some others which are _ 
ours, that is in the bottom, th^ call 
— V(irth€»Mf 154. 




SIaAJI, n.p. This is a iiaiiie 
ir«A civrn \t\ He\X'raI 16th- 
tnvrllm Ui tW iiioiintjiiiis in 

fnmi whiih thv ruhies pur- 
aX l*»^i Wt-re ha id to t-oiiu' ; 
» •■! ihfir *li««t.iiii«% &<•., U'iiip 
m-. It i- licit in i»tir jxiwi-r to 
: iLtni*- w^L'i int«'nfli'<l. [It was 

Kt^if-yym.] Thr r*'al ]Nisition 
'riil'V-!iiint-s' i«» (X) or 70 ni. 
Manila Uy. [S«^ balls Tui^rJiur^ 

rb«r «: ohianiu Acai^CIl, dove )i m> 
•.ti r:^:;ii. c i*|<in:Mle, u Uiie d'oficni 

'Thr *«ilf iuerch.tnrii:*u «»f thoi*o 

jr«c'^ XfaAt L*, niJiiw*. which cnnio 

rh«-r r:ty inUe*! C^ptlltin, which in 

f ft. thi-" il*c^) W f lays' journey." 

K.rthvr inland than the wii<l 

f \v.%, it ri*-«; ilay-* journey to tho 

■r. .- ir.--tht!r cilv of livntifi*!* . . . 


iptlUL »nd all nmnd aro likcwi<io 
.r.^ »:.•! t:i eel lent nihici*, which thev 

- ■ ^: !hv lity and fair of Ava. ami 

-•••r lii.iii th'i-c i-f Ava." ■ 

1"' :• r«vri"ii "f Ar<jiiaii> U)r\Ifr- 

■. -. r -a-rh thf j^ mountain 

tpclABITUll, w hvrL* art* many plart'-* 

» *.-■• *cr\ iivili*c«l )it>(i|iU>. 

— ■..:•< ar.'l fiJ-ir* to thv irn*.it 
» *'.'.■ 'i I- tin* L.lpit.ii of thr 

' \r . ..ill ' -.Ni»i»ii'j<m*i tf^ 

* ... A !ii'-'ir.rain TJ 'lav-* 

• •> . -. I'- it-. Tp.iii .*».#. /I t«iwanN 

— • ■ .-• . tKf Ii.iTl.t- whlTlHif in 

I- t^.:- r:iii;i .tn- f. ■•ind irrt'at 
• * \, •■:•■-. T''-''''*i- iK. 1.) ii. 

M.'»r.v'> ' m'Tdilii* to ("nj. 

• '•i -.- '.y,'. ' ■i;ility i.f Tho njl»y 
CAptlan !:.>■ .nt.tin>. •*i\i\ \\\\\vs 

J.-. . T ;,■,'.« V> li'n ' "- »./. .1 «. .'v--. 
?' Th'.- wnTt-r 1- '.iTtairily very 
.*•• ^'■^: ' ;. . I'ld l»an.i *%.•<{. 1*^,'»'») 

■ - V. r "'nil •■«■'? ru)»y f*siy- 

"•• CapclAB tii'.i(:taiii'«. iK-ar 

• ' i"-^- . - .1/ ..r../.^/-/. |.. -J-JL'. 

UCAT. :: T- Tl.'- Iiallli- of a 

~« 1 :.♦ ir * 'ill! ut, nifU- 

- .• r tl ■ !-i I'.itliiir-v Itiit 

* !!>.»j'i"- ii»-i tp'iii till' 

: ■ ' I'-Iy Ii-. li.iipT i'xi.-t>. 

••r -..i:;.' :- uiii i-rtaiii. [It 

■ :• r* - I KapiwiTt or Kapiuit- 
Mi!. i'fr i/, '^wani,' /x/'", 

:.-:.. I •>>n-'iiiliranaii«i Taluka 
'•! -. ■ I ■ - « r I ►i-T n ' t . ( Lott*i h, Man. 

• : 73 ^ Thi* Mmirtu 1ilt>it, 

calls it Caupaud, Also sec Qray, 
Pyrardy i. 360.] 

1498. — In the Roteiro it is called CapiUU 

1 fiOO. — ' ' Thin being done the Captain- Major 
(Po<lralvare8 Cabral) made nail with the fore- 
Miil and mizon, and went to the port of 
Capocato which waH attached to the name 
city of Calecut, and wan a haven where 
there was a fp^eat loading of Tewels, and 
' whore many 8hipfi wore moored that were 
' all engaged in the trade of Calicut. . . ."— 
CVrtTva, I. 207. 

IMO. — ". . . another place called Capo- 
gatto, which iji alito subject to the Kin^ of 
Culocut. llliM place haH a very beautiful 
]trilaco, built in the ancient style."— Tar- 
Uuimi, 1331 34. 

1M6.— "Further on . . . is another town, 

at which there w a small river, which is called 

• Capncad, whore there are many countr}*- 

lirtm Moons and much shipping.— /{arftuM, 


ir>62. — "And thoy Hoize<l a groat number 
of grabn and vofwelN belonging to the people 
of Kahkad, and the new {wrt, and Calicut, 
and Funan [«>. Punant/Ji thene all being 
subject to the Zamorin. —Tok/dl-ttf-Sivia- 
hiiUrn, tr. by RuirltiHdiOK^ p. 157. tlio 
want of editing in this la^t Ixiok is deplorable. 

KOLLEN, &!'., s. Malay kOra-kOni or 
hlni-kttra, which is [either a trans- 
fernHl us<* of the Malay kftra-kMra^ or 
k'u-kftni, *a tortoisi',* alluding, one 
w»»uM «.uj»iK»Si*, either to tlie sha]>e or 
June <»f tiie iKKit, hut ]K.*rhai)8 the 
tortoise \v;l*« named from the l.K>at, 
or the two words are inde]H*ndent ; 
or fi-om tlie Ar. lurlftr^ pi. lanfltr^ *a 
larp' luenhant vess*d.' Scott (s.v. 
i'nnu'itrti)^ siiys : **In the absence of 
»n»of ii» the contrary, we may a.ssunie 
[■orn-kora to W native .\falavan."] 
I)o/y (s.v. f'./rm<<i) siys that tlie Ar. 
liirn-iOra was, among the Anibs, a 
men bant vessel, somi>times of verv 
great size. Crawfurd d»*st:ril>es the 
Malay inr'i-lurii^ as 'a large kind of 
.^-liiing'l ' ; hut tlie quotation 
tmm Jarric shuws it to have been 
tlie Malav gJilley. Marre (Knfa-Knta 
Maliiwni,'A-:)si\\s: *'The .Malav kOia- 
kora is a gn-at mw-lnwit ; Mill in us«? 
in thf Mnlui<as. Many mea'iure 100 
t»'i*t long an<i 10 witlr. Some have as 
iiianv as 90 n»Wfr>.'' 


c. l.'UJO. — "Wo omK'irkotl mi the sea at 
litdhikiya in a bii; ^"/-f. 'mt l»clon^ng to 
(lenoew (x^iiilr. the in.i>tcr of which wai^ 
called Martalamin."— //"I lUitntn^ ii. *2ri4. 

1349. — " I took thoaea on a small kurkim 
belonging to • Tonifi*"-"— /6w/. iv. 327.' 




1606.— *' The foremost of these galleys or 
CSaraooUes recovored our Shippe, wherein 
was the King of Tamata."— J/uiii/«ta>i'ir 
Voyagfy E. 2. 

„ '*. . . Nave conflceiis&, quam lingu^ 
patri& oaraoora noncupant. Navi^i genus 
est oblogum, et an^pstum, triremis instar, 
velis simul et remis impellitur." — Jarric, 
ThcMuruSf i. 192. 

[1613.— "Cmra-cnxra." See quotation 
under OBANKAY.] 

1627.— "They have Gallies after their 
manner, formed like Dragoms which they 
row ver}' swiftly, they call them karkollen. ' 
— Purchatf Pilffrimagtj 606. 

1659.— "They (natives of Ceram, Ac. J 
hawked these dry heads backwards ana 
forwards in their komkoiTM as a special 
rarity."— WalUr SckuUten's Ott-lndiacht 
Reisej <£*c., p. 41. 

1711. — **Les Philippines nomment ces 
batimens camooai. C'est vne esp^ce de 
t>etito galore k ramos et k voiles." — Lettrts 
Edif. iv. 27. 

1774.— "A eoroooro is a vessel generally 
fitted with outriggers, having a high arched 
stem and stem, like the jioints of a half 
moon. . . . The Duteh have fleets of them 
at Amboyna, which they employ as guarda- 
costos." — /wrrejrf, Toyo^ to N. Outnea, 23. 
Forrest has a plate oi a oorocoro, p. 64. 

ri 869.— "The boat was one of the kind 
called kora-kora, quite open, very low, and 
about four tons burden. It had out-riggers 
of bamboo, about five off each side, which 
supported a bamboo platform extending the 
whole length of the vessel. On the extreme 
outside of this sat the twenty rowers, while 
within was a convenient ixutsage fore and 
aft. The middle of the boat was covered 
with a thateh-house, in which Imggage and 
jtassengers are stowed ; the gunwale was not 
more than a foot above water, and from the 
great side and top weight, and general 
clumsiness, these noats ore dangerous in 
heavy weather, and are not infre(]uently 
loHt.'^- Wallao', MaUuf Anh., ed. 1890, 
p. 266.] 

CARAFFE, 8. Dozy shows that 
this wonl, wliicli iu English we iise 
for a watii^r-lH)ttle, is of Arabic origin, 
and comes fn)ni the rcwt (jhamfy *to 
(Imw' (water), through the Sp. garrdfa. 
But the precirtt* Arabic word is not in 
the dictionaries. (See under CARBOY.) 

CABAMBOLA, s. The name given 
by various old writers on Western 
liidia to the l>ejiutiful acid fruit of 
lli«' tree (iV.O. Oxitlulfoe) called by 
Jiiiin. from this word, AwrrJum airam- 
Mi. This name was that used by 
tlie Portugu«'se. De OrUi tells us that 
it w;Ls the MalaU'ir name. Tlie woni 
hirnniHil is also given 1>V Moleswortli 
a-^ the Mahralti name; [another form 

is karambela, wliich comeB from the 
Skt. karmara given below in the sense 
of * food-appetizer '1 In Upper India 
the fruit is called KamrangOf kamrakk^ 
or khamrak (Skt karmara^ ftormtfra, 
karmarakoj karmaranga)* (See abo 
BLIMBEE.) Why a cannon at billiards 
should be called bv the French earam- 
holage we do not know. [If Mr. Ball 
be right, the fruit has a name, Gape- 
C^fooseberrv, in China which in India 
is used for the Tiparry. — Tliwgt 
Chinese, 3rd ed. 253.] 

c. 1530.— "Another fruit is the 
It w fluted with five sides," ftc. — Enkinei 
Baber, 325. 

1563. — *' 0, Antonia, pluck me from thst 
tree a CaramboU or two (for so thejr osU 
them in Molavor, and we hare adoptad tiM 
Malavar name, because that was the fint 
region where we got acquainted with then). 

* ' ^ . Here they are. 

" R, They are beautiful ; a sort of soar- 
sweet, not rety acid. 

"O. They are called in Canarin and 
Decnn cumara^ and in Malay ha/imba . . . 
they make with Hugar a very pleasant ood* 
sor>'e of these. . . . Antonia! bring hither 
a preserved carambola. "—O'ama, ff. 4<r, 

1598.— "There is another fruite caDsd 
Carambolas, which hath 8 (5 really) coman, 
as bigge as a smal aple, sower in eating, like 
▼nripe plums, and most rsod to make Ooa- 
semes. (Sote by Paludanvt), Hie frnitt 
which the Malabars and Portinnles call 
Carambolaa, is in Decan called Gaaailii 
in Canar, Camarix and Oarabefi ; in Malak^ 

DolutnbOrt and by the Persians 

—LinMkuien, 96; [Hak. Soc. ii. 38]. 

1672.— "The Carambola . . . as lai«;«u 

a pear, all sculotured (as it were) and divided 
into ribs, the ridges of which are not roond 
but sharp, resembling the heads of thoas 
iron mocea that were anciently in nae.**^/*. 
VincfHto Maria, 352. 

1878.—". . . the oxalic Kamnk."— /• 
7»j/ IndUin Garden^ 50. 

[1900.—". . . that most curious of fnuta,tht 
carambola, called by the Chinese the .««■#• 
Vo, or foreign poach, thougrh why tiiis naiw 
should have been selected is a mystery, far 
when cut through, it looks like a star with 
Ave rnyN. By Europeans it is also known ai 
the Vajie gvot^ipTry. —Iktli, Tiling* C%MOr, 
3rd ed. p. 253.] 

OABAT, 8. Aral) Jtimlt, which is 
taken from tlic Gr. Ktpdnm, a beaa 
of the K€paT€la or carob tree (Geratania 
n/i'^iia, L.). ThisK^an, like the Indian 
rah (see BUTTEE) was used aaa weight, 
and thence ahio it gave name to a coin 

* Sir J. Hooker olMKnes that the teci thittfcl 
is All acid and a ■wwt'friiiteA variety f ftNsriHl sf 
lliiM iilaiit indicates a very old cnlUvaBOb 





Wagffon to carry passongers to and from 
London." — Olostographiay &c., by J. E. 

lOilruardi ; a Serai (<i.v.) for the recep- 
tion of GaraTans (q.v.). 

1404.—" And the next day being Tuesday, 
they departed thence and going about 2 
leagues arrived at a great house lilce an Inn, 
vrhich they call Cantbansaca (read -Mra), 
And here were Chacatays looking after the 
Kmperor's horses."— CAi *•//<;, § xcviii. Comp. 
Markhanit p. 114. 

[1528. — " In the Persian language they call 
these hoiLsos carvanoaraB, which means 
resting-|>lace for caravans and strangers." 
— TenretrOt ii. p. 11.] 

lf)54. — " I'uy k parlor Rouuent de ce nom de 
Carbachara : . . . le ne peux le nommer 
autrement en Francois, sinon vn Car- 
bachara : et ix)ur le sf auoir donner h en- 
tendre, il fault supposcr qu'il n'y a point 
d'hostellcries es fm's ou domaine le Turc, 
ne de lieux ]x>ur se loger, sinon dodens cellos 
maisons publiq^ues appoll6e Carbachara. 
, . ." — Obsentittons par P. BeloHy f. 59. 

1564. — "Hie diverti in diversorium publi- 
cum, Caravasarai Turcae vcx^ant . . . vas- 
turn est aediticium ... in cujus medio 
patot area ponendis sarcinis et camelis." — 
Bughfijuiif J' i. (p. 35). 

1619. — " ... a great liazar, enclosed and 
roofed in, where they sell stuffs, cloths, &c. 
with the Hou.He of the Mint, and the great 
caravanserai, which l>oars the name of Ltifa 
lirlij (l)GcauMo Ijalu Beig the Treasurer pfives 
aiKliencos, and docs his business there) and 
another little caravanserai, called that of 
the iihifar or i)oople of (ihilan." — /'. rfW/a 
Wi/fe (from Isi>ahan), ii. 8; [comp. Hak. 
Soc. i. 95 J. 

ir)27.— "At Band Atltf wo found a neat 
Oaixavansraw or Inne . . . built by mens 
charity, U> give all oivill |iasscngers a rest- 
ing place t/nitis ; to keepe them fnun the in- 
jury of theeves, beasts, weather, &c." — Htrr- 
hert, p. 124. 

CARAVEL, s. This often occurs 
in the old Portuguese narratives. The 
word is aHefjed to he not Oriental, hut 
Celtic, and »Mjnne«'ted in its origin 
with the old British coracU; see the 
quotation fnun Isidore of Seville, the 
indiciition (»f which we owe to Hluteau, 
s.v. The Portuguese caravel is de- 
scril)ed hy the latter as a 'round 
vessel' {i.r. not long and sharp like 
a gjilh'v), with lateen s'lils, ordinarily 
of 200 tons burthen. The charactiT 
nf swift ui's*^ attriluited to the niravtl 
(see holh l)auiian and Ricon below) 
has suggfStiMl to us whether the word 
has not «'onn' nitluT fn»ni the Persian 
(lulf — Turki lartfwuly *a scout, an 
i'Utpost, a vanguard.' I)ouI>tless there 

are difficulties. [The N.E.D. says 
tliat it is probably the dim. of Sp. 
caraba.'] The word is found in the 
following passage, quoted from the 
Life of St. Nilus, who died c. 1000, 
a date hardly consistent with Turkish 
origin. But the Latin translation is 
by Cardinal Sirlet, c. 1550, and the 
word may have been changed or 
modified : — 

"CogitaTit enim in unaqimque GalabriM 
regione perficere naTif^. . . . Idautennoo 
forentes Runani cives . . . simul irmaotet 
ac tumultuantes navigia combuMenint et 
eas quae Caravellaa appelUtntar aeeoerant" 
— In the CoUeotion of Martene and Durawi, 
▼i. col. 930. 

o. 638.— **Cara!ms, pania seafa ez Timin* 
facta, quae oontexta crude corio gonm oavi- 
ffii praebet." — Itidori Hitpal, Owra. (Fuiib 
1601), p. 256. 

1492. — "So being one day importuned by 
the said Chriatopher, the Catholic King vm 
persuaded by him that nothing should keep 
him from making thia experiment ; and v* 
effectual was this persuasion that they fittsd 
out for him a ship and two eaniTau, «ith 
which at the beginning of August 1492, with 
120 men, sail was made from Oades."— Am- 
mary of the, U. of the Wrttern Indies, by Pietn 
Martirt in JiMtiHsiOy iii. f. 1. 

1506.— "Item traze dolla Mina d*oro dt 
Qinea ogn anno ducati 120 mila che viw 
ogni mise do' caraveUe con ducati 10 mila." 
—Ijeoiiardo di Ca' Mautr^ p. 30. 

1549.— "Viginti et quinque agiles navii^ 
quas et oaraT«llas dicimua, quo gWMi* 
nauium soli Lusitani utuntur.' — Zkunisai 
a (roeSy DUnfi4 Uppugnatio, ed. 1602, p. SB8. 

15r>2.— " lis lJU;h^rent los bordtfes de kon 
Karawelles; om^rent leurs raisseaox dt 
pavilions, et s'aranceront sur nous.**— 5irft 
Alit p. 70. 

c. 1615.— "Hho may spare me her miMO 
and her bonnets ; I am a eanrtl to her.'*~ 
Beaum. A: Fiet.^ M'it without Afoji^y. i. 1. 

1624. — "Sunt etiam naves quaedam niU' 
ciao quae ad oflicium coleritatis apposHs 
exstructue sunt (quas camellafl vucant).*'— 
Baanif Hi$t. Ventorum, 

1883. -"The deep-sea fishing lioaU called 
AIachod$ . . . are carval built^ and no« 
generally iron fastened. . . ." — Short Account 
of Bombay Fitherieg^ by />. Q. MaedonM 

OABBOT, s. A large elsios lioctle 
holdinc sevenil calh'Ui^t and ceuendir 
covered with wicker-work, well known 
in England, whei-e it is chietiv u»i 
to convey acids and corrosive liquidi 
; in hulk. Though it is not an An^ 
Indian word, it comes (in the fois 
lardlkt) from Persia, as Wedgwood 
tijis pointed out. Kaempfer, 
we quote from his description off 



iT^9 at Shinu, ^ves an exact 
{ of a carfiuj. Littr^ mentions 
le Uu M. Mohl referred caraffe 
I laiiN* original ; but see that 
Kmrdba is no doubt connected 
kx. tiiha^ *a large leathern milk- 

— "Vmm vitrta, alia sunt majora, 
feaaa «t ctreumdueto Miipo tunicata, 
ktKaimb4 . . . Venit ifom^ una 
duobaa mamudi, raro ca 
fer, AwuM%. Exvi. 379. 

— **l d«lsT«rad a preaent to the 
or, eooautio^ of oran^aa and lemon4, 
rvavml »<U of dried fruits, and nx 
« %d Ufahan win*. "—Manwa^, i. 102. 

— *'^z tffm^hf of ruee-water. "— 
Mmk fc».4i«, p 488. 

— "Otfbojcif RoMwator. . . ."—Mil- 

. I 

" l>>|4a who make it (Shiraz Wine) 

li b«^tie it themeelTea, or elae sell it 

w ^^Cca oaUed *Kliraba' holding 

•ifvaa qoarta." — Macyrtoor^ Journen 

£\urmMmgM, 4c. 1879. i. 37. 


1* kttrkhdiniy *a ]»lace where 
<«• 1- d'»nf'; a wnrk>h<»|» ; a 
u^rntal t^Htablishiiieiit .such as 
: the I'l^mmivNiriat, or the 
->- }k&rk, m the tieM. 

•■ There an* al-i f.nm<l nuiiiy raij*eil 
kid T«nt> in Miii'lry i*lace«. that are 
*^ "i •«T*ral Mrticon HesiiK-s thesn; 
p^ Bianj irrt.nt H.ilU that are calle<l 
laafm. • r ( ! v«>« wLvre ILindy-cnifts- 

• Tk Ii*rnfr, K T. Kt ; ed. 

■ -. ::fw* 

'*5 I:; r^fiy, Hyiur i)U'4i<le<l hi* 

• 'XT Le pnnui^tl that iv* mntti 
•r. -^ 't r-»Tr i-«t.iMi^he<l hi** }"»wt;r. 
; 'itr.* t - r»v»i!.itc hi- •it.>|mrtii)cnt8 
JLa^jAt . th*' atn*' Wit oho.iNl K' mid 
'■. » A' A*''-i.i. Ilfttorti if' JltHi'tr 

Tb* e>| hjiir.t J^^Ionir* t'» tho 
.r 1 •« aiA\ .-i« vol) kcv|> hiu> till we 
- i«'' ;^ n, 1 1 U 

If t^•• (fil<'ki <»'«tal»ii'»hrnent 
•■ f -r-:— i. »♦ •h-H;i«i t»e iii rejfulur 
:aa -/' i. m !*]2 

tOOON. *. Mahr. hirkuri, *a 
rf -\' iir-knn, i r'l iftuhrum 

* ■ In th* sxxne way a* the kar- 
• •- •• thf t^^n^ili< tion8«>f the aMew- 
■-•• Mv^^itff^.i^t \wi the fhifif^jii !«hall 
^r r**|«-ctiTe a«.c«mntj«. " — -I ift. tr. 
. I; 

W*«i4» mrant to the Coreone or 

^ L« )• a* t/* the oopta "( the King'* 

/ ■-*'^ /^'fi-Ti, 111. rj2 

[1616.— "Add ick Raia Pongolo, GoctMn of 
this place."— yfcirf. iv. 167.] 

1826.—" My benefactor's chief earooon or 
clerk allowed me to sort out and direct 
despatches to officers at a distance who be- 
longed to the command of the great Sawant 
fUo."—Pandunifu; Hart, 21 ; [ed. 1873, i. 

0ABEN8, n.p. Burni. Ka-reng, [a 
word of which the meaning is very 
imcertain. It is said to mean Mirty- 
feeders,* or * low-caste people/ and it 
has been connected with the Kinlta 
tril>e (see the question discussed by 
McMahon^ The Karais of the Crolden 
Chertimeu^ 43 mq.)]. A name applied 
to a group 01 nou- Burmese tri))es, 
settled in the forest and hill tracts 
of Pegu and the adjoining parts of 
Burma, from Mergui in the south, 
to l>eyond Toungoo in the north, and 
from Arakan to the Sal wen, and 
beyond that river far into Siamese 
territory. They do not know the 
name Kareng^ nor have they one name 
for their own race ; distinguishing, 
among these whom we call Karen.s, 
tliree tribes, Syaw, Pwo^ and Bghiii^ 
which differ somewhat in custoin.s 
and tradition.s and e.siHJcially in 
language. "The results of the lalMnirs 
among them of the American Ba]>tist 
Mission liave the apixvirance of being 
almost miniculous and it is not g<Mng 
too far to .state tliat the ce.ssatiim of 
bl«Hxl feud.s and the i>eaceable way 
in which the various tnU'.s are living 
. . , an<l liave lived togetlier since they 
came under British rule, is far more 
'iue to the influence exercised o^^•r 
them by the missionaries than to tlie 
measures a<l<n>t»'<l bv tlie En«;li>li 
(rovernment, U'lieficial as these doubt - 
le-is have been" (/)r. Itunwi ^^^^<•/^' r, 
[ii. 226]). The author of tliis ex- 
cellent work should not, liowev.-r, 
have admitted the ijuotatiou nf l)r. 
Mason's fanciful notion aln^it tlie 
identity of Marco Polo's f\ir<ijifn with 
Karen, which is totally ^roundle». 

17r»9. -'•Thorv U another i»et>plo in thi-* 
country calkvi Carlannen. whiter than 
either '( Bu^nun^ or IViruansK tli'*tiin:ui'«hel 
into fi»rii(/hinnh and /'<'/" Caxlanners ; tlwy 
live in the kv***/*, in small S^H-iftie-*. of ten 
• ir twelve hn'i$^$ : are not w.intinir in m- 
ilii^try. thiMiv'h it p'i's n«» further than to 
|ir<»i'u're them an annual su^si-teiice." - In 
Ihi/n/mplr, (h: />/». i I'.nJ 

1799 "Fn>ni thi> reverend f.ither ^V. S,m- 
i;ennan<i) I reeeived nuieh useful inft»nnrt- 
tiou. Ho t«ilil me of a Min^fular dtf!«eri|itiou 

a A RICA L. 



uf poople ctillecl Cmrajrnen or Carianen, 
that inhjihit different partn uf the country, 
IMirticularlv the western provinces of DaAa 
and Ba.ssein, several societies uf whom also 
dwell in the district adjacent to Kiinguon. 
He represented them tis a simple, innocent 
race, speaking a language distinct from that 
of the Hirmans. and entertaining rude notions 
of religion. . . . They are timorous, honest, 
mild in their manners, and exceedingly 
ho8pit«ihle to strangers." — Sytn^n^ *207. 

c. 1819. — "We must not omit here the 
Carian, a good and i>eaceable people, who 
live dis))crsed through the forests of Pegh, 

c. A.D. 550.— In the Brikttf-SanhiidoSYa 
hamihira, in the enumbratioa of peoples tod 
regions of the south, we have in Kern's trani' 
lation(/. R. At. ifoc. N.S. ▼. S3) Kantatx: 
the original form, which is not given by 
Kern, is Kam&ta. 

c. A.D. 1100.— In the later Sanskrit liten- 
ture this name often occurs, ^.p. in the 
Kath<isarit9dganij or 'Ocean of Ri?en of 
Stories,' a collection of tales (in vent I 
of the l)oginning of the 12th century, 
by Somadeva, of Kashmir; but it is doi 
possible to attach any very precise measing 
to the word as there used. (See refs. in 

in small villages consisting of 4 or 5 | Tawntiiy tr. ii. 651.] 

houses . . . they are totally dependent upon 
the desix>tic government of the Burmese." 
— Stinij'Tniixno^ p. 34. 

CABICAL, n.P. Etymology doubt- 
ful ; Tain. Karaxkkdly rwhicli is either 
kdrai^ * masonry ' or * the plant, thorny 
webera' : kdl^ *channer (Jdiidras Adm, 
Man. ii. 212, Gloss. s.v.)J. A French 
settlement within the limits of Tanjore 

CABNATIC, n.i>. Kanidtaka and 
Kdnuitaka^ 8kt. adjective forms from 
Karmlta or Kdntdta, [Tam. kaVy 
M)lack,' nddu, * country']. This word 
in native use, according to Bn. Caldwell, 
denoted the Telegu and Canarese 
})eople and their language, but in 
I) of time became si)ecially the 

aj>i.ellatioii (jf the i»eo]»re "Faking i (countrj-), and TeUngana. we« 

Cfanarese and their language (Dmt;. ,i?^^ttothe I«I of Bidar/'-'wlstf/ii 

in Ef/iot vii. 12rt 

A.D. 1400. — The word also oocun in the 
inscriptions of the Vijayanagam dynasty. 
'.'.p. in one of a.u. 1400. — {Hi^m. of S. Ittdlaii 
Pafatwjraphy^ 2w\ od. pi. xxx.) 

1608.—" In the land of KarnAta and 
Vidyanagara was the King Mahendm."— 
TanmaOui's 11. of HmWiitm^ by ikkyfntr, 
p. 267. 

c. 1610.— "The Zumindara of Singaldij* 
(Ceylon) and Kamatak came up with then- 
forces and expelled Sheo Kai, the ruler of 
the Dakhin."— /VnVAla, in Kfliot, vi. 549. 

1614.— See quotation from Couto under 

[1623.— "His Tributaries, one of wbon 
was the Queen of ConiAt.*'— /\ dtlta ValU, 
Hak. Soc. ii. 314.] 

c. 1652. — "Gandicot is one of the stnwg- 
est Cities in the Kingdom of Oamatfim."- 
Tiutrni^r, E. T. ii. JW ; [ed. Bali, i. 2S4;. 

c. 1660.— "The lUfs of the 

Gnim. 2nd ed. Intr«Kl. j). 34). The 
Mahommedans on their arrival in 
S. India found a region which em- 
braces Mysore iind ]Nirt of Telingana 
(in fact the kingdr>m of VijayanagJira), 
called the Knntdttihi (M)untrv, and 

1673. — " I received this informatioo frov 
the natives, that the Canatlftk coontrr 
reaches from (iunqftla to the ZamarkUi 
C Country of the .^ahilnirf oXoiut the Sea. 
ami infand up to the Pepi>or Mountains of 
SuntUi . . . hfdnutrf^ four Days Journey 

this was ideiitiail in application (and ; ;,c„ce, iVthe Capital' City. "-/V^r^, 1«2. in 
])rnbably in etymology) ^^^th the | u.tter IV.. A Relation uf th^ Cuatkl 

identifioH the "Cana 
ow the (vhauta. 

Canara country (q.v.) of the older ' Cwr/t^r//. —Hero ho ic 
NutUk'' writers. The A'arw<f^iA-a I tick " with Canara l»olo 

So also the catst of Canara smiu* 

became extended, esiKjcially in con- 
nection with the rule of tlie XalK)bs 

iim on «.i. u.« ruR- ui n.u .>«.«..« ,,,^..^,,, ;„ „,,. fallowing:— 
1)1 Ai'cot, who ]>artially o<;cui)iea the ^ 

Vijavaiiagara territory, ana were! c. 17tJ0.—" Though the navi^tion fron 
known as Nawalxs of tlie Knrtidtahi, \ the Carnatic c.^x to Rmibay is «» •J*? 
. ,1 » 1 1 . ♦! . /ii.».'.fo* „: fhort run, of not aU>vo six or seven duLieei 

to the countrv below the (Ihaut.s, on .. ,.' ^ ; .>>.> ^ 

the eastern .side of the Peninsula, just ^^__ _ .. . , 

^1 ^1 r /t 111 "The CaxiUktiC or province « 

as tin- other furm (.amxra Imd become ; ^^^- .^ ,j^.^^ „^^ are greatly in- 

extended to the country below the I f^.ri^,r to thono which bounded the ancient 
Western Ghauts; and eventually Camatic; for tho Nabobs of Arcot hn« 
aincmg the English the term Camatic' never extended their authority beyond the 
came to be understood in a sense ! "^'cr tiondcgama to the north : the BfjJ« 

cham of mountainit to the we#t ; and tM 

nmre or less restricti^l to the eastern 
low country, though never (juite so 
alvsolutely as (Vinara has l)ecome re- 
stricted to the western low country. 
Tbe term Camatic is now obsolete. 

branches (»f tho Kinf^doni of TrichiaopoSi 
Taniorc, and Maissore to the eoath; At 
sea iKiunds it on the east." — Ihid, II. viL 

1762.— "8iwaee Madhoo Rao . . . 
thlf immense force . . . made aa i 


'A l:\ATrr FASHIoX. 



'±» KAfBAtte Haiairhaut."-//MM'//i^// oirrtirti is regarded bv Skeat as jim- 
.^ H^st.^. f U^mr .\%i*i. 148. j^rk r/im>a, from rnrrifflr.?, It. caricarf, 

"I"? **>, * to lade, to charge.* Tli is is possible ; 

r*^.i;:V!f: ' ^»'it it would Ihj wen to examine if 

l-e thut our uopiiKitif 
■a^i^v *; . cii« !•«.• iiiii4-h ad 

'iu|AA-tnv^>> ^l the fpiiitier 

ur £. -^r».i -L.-, > in the Camatic. *^ ''*' "^^ '"^M* ^'^^ -A.r. hardhih^ a 

coiiie fn>in mrnrarr, which already 
occurs ill St. Jt'iYHiie. So that Mr. 
Soi* Skeat *8 origin is iK>fwihly c/)rn»<-t. 
[Tlie N.E.iK refers to carrnra^ of 
which the origin is »iid to W un- 
CABSACK. n.i>. An i<*1and certain.] II )n Uatuta uses the word 



K- ■;i-y»-r ]fcirt -if thv IVrsian <iulf, 
h u.\> Ufii iiM«n* tliaii oun* in 

^•ii •■^•-w;fci!h*n. i'ri>|MTly Kharak. 

• ••. wriTt«-Ti in J'ltititrt')! K«fn.<{ 

yU. 372) But I>r. Hidgi*r giv.s 
. -Itrii Ar.iK:.' n^ •i-Khirij^ wjiji-h 
j r^vr-^Mit -iM P. Khnri*!. 

I • 

O'ttf i-,e 'jUi a tin 

Vl ?. Til V. -J'it. 

:' i"^*'! i'-i -la Ri-^-ri -i pi-vx 
'» -f' ■'••" ai.iPv :i Ki!iii:i <l«'»tr.i 
■.••■ r».-"" i->i.i -ii Carichi. . . 
v.. /.'-•. »i-. in. ;>»"i , 

:•:• "• ir. ». ».f Carrick l>. ai-'Ut 

■ !.' I..1-* '. . . . ITtiriU'iliatfiv 

• V- .- >. i: I f Karec. wht-n* 

I* ;K it •■.Ti.i- ;.iii1 t*ii- pi. til. 


twice at least for a state 1)ai]ge or 
something of that kind (8i*e (Sithay 
J). 499, and Ibn Bat. ii. 116 ; iv. 289) 
The like use occurs several times in 
Mnkrizi {ejj. I. i. 143 ; I. ii. 66 ; and 
II. i. 24). Quatrem^re at the place 
first i[uute<l observes that the hardlah 
was not a fire shij) in our sense, but 
a vrs.'H-l with a lii^Mi deck fnmi which 
fire could \h' tlipiAvn ; but that it 
could also Ih* usi*d as a transjM)!t 
vcssfl, and w.ts ^a^ used on .s»»a and 

l:j;i^. — *«. . , ;ift4T tliat we cmliurkod at 
Vfiiirv on )Htnni a certain cairack, and 
-jiilod diiHii the Adriatic Sea." — Frior I'ns- 
if'tif, ill t.\ithiin, &r., 'S-\\. 

l:;^;^. — *'l")<Mjfni tt;ni{K)rc venit in ni:u;nu 
tcrujH.'stiito ad Sjindcviri )«irtuni navi^ i|ii:iin 
dirunt carika nuintcf nKHTnitudinix, plena 
divilin. quae facile inopiaui totius lermc 

■ - . .". -^ ,r!, V\f-.-iv-l wjth ,.. iiiucVi i^''*-".^-"**-" |*>tui.s.-*<-t, A inmlaniin invidia jn-r- 
.^ .' ., ••■. mi'iisM.'t.' - - 7*. M'ti/jiift/ftaw, Jli»(. Ai>*fl!r.^ 

l.v //. r. A'f/'/, iSCt. il. »3-^l. 

CABBACK. s. A kind nf 

: .: i- -i :r--iii tl..- .Middl.- 

•v»:. ■ . r:..- «iiil .•! flu- 17th 

T V'- "iiri. T.-r •»! lilt- i-.irlii-r 

.• ■ * ■- j'Ti ■ :^']\ lit'tiui'il. 

.' j:-' .ii^r'-^br]*-* «»f till' 

'•• - 

.»■■ ■* 



' I'. 

\\f.^\. — "The priyor lieintr oonchi'led. ami 
th«- stnnn ^till ^i>ini? lui. a liL'ht like a raniile 
a{i|K.*are<l in the i-ace at the nia!<t-hea<i nf tho 
cairaca. and an«>ther li^ht on th«.- >i<ir that 
they eall l"»wr.|<nt yUftpi't'.w uhich i-* tixe«l 
in the fi>re«'a-<tle : and ant •: her lijh! '.ike a 
4'andlo »'i '"I'l '>!/■« f/» rufi'i.'lii I'l ••ver tlu? 
j«"«p, arj'l thes*.' liirlit- were --en \>\ a?* ni.»ny 
... as Were in the cairack. and \\«'i> lalled up 
;• !.' r-i.iV -.. ««:% 1,-1, and ^,, ^^.^. them, and thev Isu^te.l iwhii.-anii then 


*.•■*: ! ••Ti«'r!U"tl-« di.'t^ipii'aretl, an<l all this whin.- the -ti»rn» did 

n-'t ie:i'0, ami hv-anil-hv a'.. \»«.ijt \m Avvy 
exi'Opt the "teernnian and v. r'.iin siik»rr« i»i 
the«h.'* CVii.'./'S § ''J''-- •■•nip. .Viha- 
ham, p. IM. 

1. VI •*.._•» l»o The<iun» nii-Tr.» munititMium 
anillarionini. Tent' •ram. r.ivi'.j.iiiMni. pro 

4 d-k'. 

• r. 

• - • 

* 'h iiii'»k 
'.:. j>. IM ha*' a 
in.i'k "1 \UA± 
•. . M - i.- r:pTi..ii lit a 
* •■— -.i'Ti h. • ik'Il Iv .Nir .bdin 

^- . ■ \:*.*'* h wi- 'd l.«^X) 

- l-Ti. vk !.. r»- : :•<) ii.i-r- h.indi/i* ; 

: 3i I Tfc^- J:- •- and In-twefii 

r*^ jA*-»-ijj:»'r* (0; wjL»* built 

'l«^ k.« Th* w..'rl (L. Lilt.) 

Fl-pii!* n.'ivihii-< caracatiB. (Jalei-* et aliis nayi- 
1»Uj» iinihus<.'unj«iMe. . . . ' -Aet of K<lw. \ 1. 
in Jifwi',-, XV. li,'i. 

ITkVJ.— •' 11" avnient I Uinpies trramlo-* 
couilne do!- karnU.a. . . .** — "^'di 'Ah, p. »»7. 




1566-68.—". . . about the middle of the 
month of Ramazan, in the year 974, the 
inhabitants of Funan and Fandrooah [i.e. 
Ponany and Pandarftni, q.v.], having sailed 
out of the former of these ports in a fleet of 
12 grabs, captured a caracca belon^ng to 
the Franks, which had arrived from Bei^al, 
and which was laden with rice and sugar . . . 
in the year 976 another party ... in a fleet 
of 17 grabs . . . made capture off Shaleeat 
(see CHATiTA) of a large caraoca, which had 
sailed from Cochin, having on board nearly 
1,000 Franks. . . ."—TohfiU-ul-MvjakicUen, 
p. 159. 

1596. — "It comes as farre short as . . . 
a cocke-boate of a Carrick." — T. Nash, 
Have with you to Saffron Wafderif repr. by 
J. P. GoUier, p. 72. 

1613. — "They are made like carracks, 
only strength and storage." — Beaum. A 
Flft., The Coxcomb, i. 3. 

1615. — "After we had given her chase 
for about 5 hours, her colours and bulk 
discovered her to be a very g^roat Por- 
tugal carrack bound for Goa."— Ten^, in 
Purchas; [od. 1777, p. 34]. 

1620. — "The harbor at Nangasaque is the 
best in all Japon, wheare there may be 1000 
sealo of shipps ride landlockt, and the 
greatest shipps or caxickes in the world 
. . . ride before the towne Within a cable's 
length of the shore in 7 or 8 fathom water 
at least." — Cocks, Letter to Batavia, ii. 313. 

c. 1620.—" II faut attendre Ik des Pilotes 
du lieu, <iue los Gouvemeurs de Bombaim 
ot do Marsag^ ont soin d'envoyer tout k 
I'heure, {>our conduire le Vaisseau k Tur- 
uniba [i.e. Trombay] oh les Caraqnes ont 
coustumo d'hyvemer." — Houtier . . , des 
Indes Or., by Aleixo da Motta, in Thetrnot. 

c. 1635.— 
" The bigger Whale, like some huge carrack 
Which wanted Sea room for her foes to 
play. ..." 

Waf/rr, Battle of the Sumnier Islands. 

1653. — ". . . pour moy il mo vouloit 
loger on son Palais, et (|ue si i'auois la 
volenti de rotoumer a Lisbono par mor, 
il roe feroit embaniuer sur les premieres 
Karaques. . . ."—be la Boullai/e-le-Oouz, 
e<i. 16f>7, p. 213. 

1660.— "And further. That every Mer- 
chant Denizen who shall hereafter shi]) any 
(t<)<x1s or Merchandi/x) in any Carrack or 
Cralloy shall jwiy to your Majesty all manner 
of CHistoms, and all the Subsidies aforesaid, 
aa any Alien lx)m out of the Realm." — Act 
12 Gar. II. cap. iv. s. iv. (Tonnage and 

c. 1680. -"To this City of the floating 
. . . which foreigners, with a little varia- 
tion from ctirro^o*, call carracas." — Vieira, 
quoted by Blutean. 

1684. — ". . . there was a Caiuck of Por- 
tugal cast away upon the Reef having on 
boani at that l^nio 4,000,000 of Guilders 
in (itjlti ... a present fn>m the King of 
Siam to the King of Portugal."— CVnc/r*/, 32, 
in lkijnjfi*r'f Voijiifjes, iv. 

CABRAWAY, s. This word for 
the seed of Garum carui, L., is (piobablr 
through Sp. alcaravea) from the Arabic 
karawiyd. It is curious that the English 
form is thus closer to the Arabic than 
either the SpauLsh, or the French and 
Italian carvty which last has pasiied into 
Scotch as carvy. But the Arabic itself 
is a corruption [not immediately, 
N.E.D.] of Lat. careum, or Gr. «^ 

CABTMEEL, s. This is, at lent 
in the Punjab, the ordinary form that 
'mail-cart takes among the natitei. 
Such inversions are not uncommon. 
Thus Sir David Ochterlony was alwars 
called by the Sepoys Loni-oUUar. In 
our memory an officer named Hobmfi 
was always called by the Sepoys Ba^fddi^ 
[and BroumloWy LobrHn. JBv another 
curious corruption Mackintom beeomes 
Makkhanhtash, * buttered toast' I] 

OABTOOOE, 8. A cartridge ; kdrtu. 
Sepoy H. ; [comp. TOSTDAUV]. 

0AB70TA,s. This is the boUnittI 
name (Garyota urens^ L.) of a magnificent 
palm growing in the moister foicflt 
regions, as in the Western Qhauts aBid 
in Eastern Bengal, in Ceylon, and ii 
Burma. A conspicuous chancter ift 
presented by its enormous bipinnate 
leaves, somewhat resemblinff ooloanl 
bracken-fronds, 15 to 26 feetlongp lOto 
12 in width ; also by the hugenendcnt 
clusters of it^ inflorescence ana seed^ 
the latter like masses of rosaries 10 feet 
lone and upwards. It affords mnch 
Toddy (q.v.) made into spirit and 
sugjir, and is the tree chiefly affording 
these products in Ceylon, where it ii 
chilled Kitul. It also affords a kind of 
sago, and a woolly sul>8tance found tl 
the foot of the leaf -stalks is sometimei 
used for caulking, and forms a ^ood 
tinder. The sp. name urens is derived 
from the acrid, burning taste d the 
fruit. It is called, according to Brandii^ 
the 3f/i(f r-palm in Western India. We 
know of no Hindustani or faipiTiT 
Anglo-Indian name. [Watt, {Eecm, 
IHct. ii. 206) says that it is known in 
Boml>ay as the Hill or &ago pakn. It 
has penetrated in U}>i)er India as far 
as Ciiunar.] The name CaryolaMeas 
taken from Pliny, but his amUeitni 
is to a kind of date-palm ; nit iMi* 
nient that it afforded Uie bat wiviJf 




the East probably suggested the 

c. A.D. 70. — *'Ab his earyotaa maxnme 
estobrantnr, et cibo qaidem et tuoo uber- 
rim**, «z combos praecipuA vina orienti, 
miqna eaniti, nude pomo nomen." — Pliny t 
lin. I 9. 

1681.— ** The next tree is the Settule. It 
froweth stnuffht, bat not so tall or big 
a* a Cck^'AMt-Tree ; the inside nothing 
but a white pith, as the former. It 
rieldeth a Knl of Liauor . . . very sweet 
and pleasing to the Pallate. . . . The which 
Liqoor tbcT boyl and make a kind of brown 
ngar called Jmt^^oty [see JAGOEBY], Ac. "— 
A'm^kT, p. 15. 

1777.— ** The Caxyoia urens, called the 
Sagnsr tree, grew between Salatiga and 
Koppisg, and was said to be the real tree 
from which sa^ is nuLde."—Thunbergt E. T. 
IT. 149. A mistake, however. 

1961. — S«e quotation under PEEPUL. 

s. A name applied by 
Eurc^peans to sundry coins of low 
\rklue in various parts of the Indies. 
The word in its ori^pnal form is of 
cxtnruie antiquity, '*8kt. kartiha . . . 
A wfi^ht of silver or gold equal to riv 
..f a THUl''(WUliams, Skt. Did.; and 
»«r also a Note on the Kdnha, or rather 
kdrtkdpamiy as a copper coin of great 
AOtiuuitv, in E. Thama^t Pathdn Kings 
*f Iteikl, 381-362). From the Tam. 
fonn idtw, or perhaps from some Kon- 
kazii form which we have not traced, 
th«* Portuguese tieem to have made 
mLm. whence ihe English ccuh. In 
Singalese also kdti is used for *coin' 
in general. The English term was 
aj*prripriated in the monetary system 
which r»rvvaile<] in S. India up to 
1^16 ; tnus there was a copper coin 
for iiae in Madras struck in England 
m 1803, which bears on the reverse, 
~XX Cash." A figure of this coin is 
pv^-n in RvAintf. Under this system 
*0 <:siah=l faiiam, 42 fanams=l star 
u^^^ia. But from an early date the 
PortugQ<4tf had applied caixa to the 
MXkall mouev of foreign systems, such 
a^ tbofe o{ the Mamy Islands, and 
'mfcially Ui that of the Chinese. In 
f'nina the word c(uh is used, by 
Kurv4«ans and their hangers-on, as 
th** fynonrm of the Chinese le and 
tffWN, whicli are th<ise coins made of 
an alloT of cupner and lead with a 
wjuare \HAit in tne middle, which in 
fonncr days ran 1000 to the liang or 
tMl (q.v.X ukI which are strung in 
errUiB Bmnben on cords. [This tyjie 
«l Mflfy, at WM recently pointed out 

by Lord Avebury, is a survival of the 
primitive currency, which was in the 
shape of an axe.] Koideaux of coin thus 
strung are represented on the surviving 
bank-notes of the Ming dynasty (a.d. 
1368 onwards), and probably were also 
on the notes of their Mongol prede- 

The existence of the distinct English 
word cask may probably have affected 
the form of the corruption before us. 
This word had a European origin from 
It. cassa^ French caisse^ *the money- 
chest ' : this word in book-keeping 
having given name to the heading 
of account under which actual dis- 
bursements of coin were entered (see 
IVedgwood and N.E.D. s.v.). In Min- 
sheu (2nd ed. 1627) the present sense 
of the word is not attained. He only 
gives ** a tradesman's QTash, or Counter 
to keepe money in." 

1510. — **They have also another coin 
called oas, 16 of which go to a tare of 
silver. "~Kor<A«ma, 180. 

,, "In this country (Calicut) a great 
number of apes are produced, one of which 
is worth 4 caase, ana one caiie is worth a 
quat(rino."—Ilnd. 172. (Why a monkey 
should be worth 4 casse is obscure.) 

1598.— "You must understand that in 
Sunda there is also no other kind of money 
than certaine copper mynt called Caixa». 
of the bignes of a Holl&des doite, but not 
half so thicke, in the middle whereof is a 
hole to hang it on a string, for that oom- 
monlie they put two hundreth or a thousand 
▼pon one string." — LinschoteHf 34 ; [Hak. 
Soc. i. 113]. 

1600.— "Those (coins) of Lead are called 
oazas, whereof 1600 maice one mas."— yoAw 
DaviSt in Purchaa^ i. 117. 

1609.— "lis (les Chinois) apportent la 
monnoye qui a le cours en toute Tisle de 
lavSf et Isles circonvoisines, laquelle en 
lague Malaique est appellee Cais. . . . Cette 
monnove est jett^ en moule en Chine, a la 
Ville de Chincheu.'* — Houtman^ in Saw. des 
HollaneUns, i. 306. 

[1621.— "In many places the^r threw 
abroad Cashes (or brasse money) in great 
quantety."— C'ocir*, Diary ^ ii. 202.] 

1711.— "Doodoos and Cash are Copper 
Coins, eight of the former make one 
Fanham, and ten of the latter one Doo- 
doo." — Lockyer, 8. [Doodoo is the TeL 
duddu^ Skt dci^ 'two'; a more modem 
scale is : 2 dooggaunies^l doody : 3 doodus^ 
1 anno. — Mad. Olois. 8.T.] 

1718.— "Cass (a very small coin, eighty 
whereof make one Fano). "— Propapalion qf 
tkt Goipd in tke Host, ii. 52. 

1727.— "At Atcheen they have a small 
coin of leaden Money called Cash, from 


12 to 1600 of them goee to one Mace, or note on Lin^ckoUn^ Hak. Soc ii 871 

MaueU:'--A. Hamilton, ii. 109. xhe name appeara to be S. American, 

c. 1750.60.-'* At Madraa and other part* acajou, of which an Indian form, faftti, 

Ik^aTnLm^^^^T^et^llnl! ?^^ fend Maky ,a>],. have W^m^ 

fanamfl a silver pagoda, or 78. 8d. ster- 1 he so-caUed fruit is the fleshTtqxtf 

\mg."--Oro$e, i. 282. the peduncle which bears the not 

1790. _« So far am I from giving credit The oil in the shell of the nut is acrid 

to the late Government (of Madras) for to an extraordinary degree, whilst the 

ceconomy, in not making the necessary kernels, which are roasted and eaten, 

^:;!Kt~^'''^ '°'' rfil "^^^"^ ^ ^« are quite bland. The tree yields a 

positive orders of the Supreme Govern- _♦ .j j*.i ^ ^ n j- 

raent, after having received the most gross «^^ imported under the name of Oadju 

insult that could be offered to any nation ! gum. 

\^^}u\ %''-^7 ^^^^' ^^ «^e»T Carii 1578.-" This tree gives a fruit caDed 

of that ill-juciged saving may cost the eommonly Calu ; which beinTa g«d 

rjTx^rto^'E.T^oi7o^^^^^ '^^' crJj^^jt^^' - »S 

see the Ma4r^ Courier, ^22n, Sept.' 17??/ ^^JT'd^ Vg;;w evT^iU'hu?? 

[1792.—** Whereas the sum of Raheties found in gardens at the city of Santa Cna 

IfflS, 6 fanams and 30 khas has been de- in the Kingdom of C5ochin.**--C. Acotki, 

ducted." — Agreement in Logan, Malahar, Tractado. 92i seoo. 

iflifi A* M ^ -J- * Miu 1598.— **Cajn8 groweth on trees like 

1813. -At Madras, according to Milbum, apple-trees, and are of the bigne* at a 

the coinage ran: Peare."-L«MrAoten, p. 94 ; [Hak. 

**10Ca8h=l doodee; 2doo(Ua=l pice; 8 281 » r » l 

doo<U,.=l .nnglo fanam." *c. [i623.-P. d^lla VaOe, lUk. Soc I. 136, 

Tlie following shows a singular cor- **"■ **• ca^u.] 

ruption, probably of the Chinese tsien, 1658.— In PUo, De Indiae virtuapu Rf 

and illustrates how the striving after '^^'^'f\tf MedicA, Amst.. ye have a good 

1 1 .• ° cut of the tree as one of BraaiL caUed 

meaning shapes such corruptions :- ^^-^ .,^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ Aoi5«u^ 

1876.— ** All money transactions (at 1672.—**. . . il Cagin. . . . Qnasko \ 

Manwyne on the Burman-Chinoso frontier) I'Amandola ordinariadell' India, per il cIm 

are effected in the copper coin of China se ne raccoglie grandissima quantity e»- 

called ^change,' of which about 400 or 500 gendo la pianta fertilissima e molto in- 

go to the rupee. These coins are gener- quente, ancora nelli luoghi pih deaarti at 

ally strung on cord," kc— Report on the inculti."— F/wf «ro i/orio, 354. 

Country Orough Mch ih. Force passed to i673._Fryer describes the tree under tks 

meet th^ Uox^mor, by U . J. CkarUon, M.D. ^^^ ^^^l^ (apparently some mistaka). 

An intermediate step in this trans- P* ^^®^* 

formation is found in Cociks's Japan iZ^*r~ , %_ i • ..^ **' *^' X^ "^ . 

Jounml, passim, e.g., ii. 89 : ^"^ ^^^'^ ^P^^ '"^ ^^ K*^!f ^"^ V 

_ Onungv, iv. 

** But that which I tooke most note of rioio t:. i. « • . . i. ^ 

was of the liberalitee and devotion of these [1813. — Forbes calls it **Uie <:*ajj«r- 

heathen peonlo, who thronged into the SPJ*®*, ^^L^rZ^ «W<^-*PP»«- —Or. Mm. 

Pagod in multetudes one after another to ^" ^' *• ^^ 238.J 

cast money into a littel chapoU before the c. 1830.- "The caahew, with its i^e 

idalles, must parte . . . being gins or brass like that of the cities of the Plain, fair to 

money, whereof 100 of them may vallie som look at, but acrid to the taste, to whidi the 

lOd. str., and are about the bignes of a 3d. far-famed nut is appended like a bud."— 

Knglish money." Tom Cringle, ed. 1863, p. 140. 

1875.— **C«Joo kernels. "—roMeof CmCspu 

OASHEW, S. The tree, fruit, or Duties impost in Br. India up to 1875. 
nut of the Anacardium ocddentale, an 

American tree whicli must have been CASHMERE, n.p. The famous 

introduced early into India by the valley urovince of the Western Hima- 

Portuguese, for it was widely diffused lavji, H. and P. Kashmir, from Skt 

apparently as a wild tree long before KaJhnira, and sometimes Kdimlta, 

the end of the 17th century, and it is alleged by Bumouf to be a contnc- 

descrilKjd as an Indian tree*^ bv Acosta, ti(m of Kasyapamlra. [The name is 

who vvn)te in 1578. Crawfurd also more prol>ably connected with the 

s])eaks of it avS abundant, and in full Khasa tribe.] Whether or not it be 

bwiring, in the jungly islets of Hastings the Kaspatyrus or Katpapynu of Herod* 

Archiptrlago, off the coast of Camboja otus, we believe it undoubtedly to be 

(Emb. to Siam, dc, i. 103) [see Teele's the KoJtpeiria (kingdom) of PtoleDij. 




i ihc old AnilfUn ^trugrapLers \ 
« iuiiu«f with the guttural , 
In A u Hot Mi xvsKfi ill mud em ' 

- "The Kinfrtiom «if Xiarthi-fliii-lo 
ka5 At»4it 7000 fi of circuit. On 
itp frxitjcp" lire -.ummnded by 
»; ihe^ arc 'if i'nyii^oiL<( height ; 
u/fa therv an* |«th4 affuniiiiff ac- 
. the** an? fxtrvniely namiw." — 
lay /W. H'**^'Mh.) ii. 167. 

... 1:4 a rnuiiiitainouii . 

iiiTuitw a Ijuyt^ killed* ifn. ci^itain- . 

i^ thjiii fri.'jfiO ..r 70. OUT) towns* or . 

I: > in:>i I'v^iMc uxc<:']it <iti one • 

L«Xi«'n!r Jw «ntvrv«l liy one )(iite.*' 

». I. ;c.i. 

-KAAhmir. :& ]>n>vincv of India, 

Vhi T irk* ; :iii'l it- jie«>i»lu of mixt 

In iu:. hl.pwi excel aU iither* in 

• y tihiimiT :ti<«' i<« :i |«r<ivince in- 
% A f«<-|>.« w|i.i :trv isolators and 
-•'^ ..^u:*' "f thvir <»wti . . . thui 
■ • thv n'r\ •itirx'c fn>«i which 
-fc» •lif id a^'rwd." — *l/u/vo /'«/», 


l>i- ^! V' • • h -Id t' tti- 
N . r. till- r^vi-'ii .'^-jdKin!!. which 

Qntximir. •'»ri>l .its<> M<iaiit 

• *. ■• J \:-U-* ludi t fpitu the other 

I." ^. IV. M. 1. 

ChufamMTC. t^«- ihi*;fo f'irio i^^ 
' ..'I ■-. Tf.-r-'. in /'•'rfift<. ii. 

■- /. - • M ip, v..'. li. Il.ik. S»o. 
mcr ■. /' •' -. /^ ?''"•*. iii. •-"*•*]• 

^ r ■:. I '^i it h:irh "t»ot:ii '^.lid. one 
■ • :r«' th. it I ,iiu '~iiiiowlt:it 

^ " Kacbemtre. ■tn-l * I yr*.*- 
•,'.'• 'i** i:i 'h. wi-rli like it 

. ;■•■ 

• ■ .r ».,- l:.'-»* I nj'i-t n>ako : 
',.''. i r :i..-.t-. ■^- Tiijch :4- virt'ie's 

• « • 



. 'f Caisimere 

r- -• I* ...f CaMimer :i:id the 
/ ■'•^. Or J/. .1 iii 177 ; 
: . — KHBSETMERE. \ 

CAZIS. CACIZ. v\. ., s. 

..-:: iud I*.«rt i;j»i»'-f \\.»p1, 
■'• J.V"- '.r «'iily i'« /tr-tr*' 
• !:••. ;• Ti*l\ ••in|'l"»\»"l l>y 

'T', iTi-i WriNT* oil K.i-it«TII 

i- :i .'..- M.ili'*niiih"lan 

. ...I .T.-i !l|.- llkf). It 

.-> '.•-! t.i hiVf .irisfii 

r *• ■!! •■!' l» ■ .'Xr.i)'!'- (••rins 

CAZEEf i'l i I'l-ihUh i>r 

.r:»rii!i l'r-"»^yivr' (inmi a 

-.A.TillV iii^ «^mimO- Iii'l*****! 

n^s tiii'i the pret-i-s** wi>n.l 

irntlu^ (Caxix) used hy Cnm.stian 
writers ii8 if it were the special title 
(»f a Mahonimedan tIieoU>gian, instead 
of Wing, as it really is, tlie .•{pecial and 
techniail title of a Christian priest (a 
fact which gives Mount Athnn its 
common Turkish name of KaJtUk 
Ihiffh). In the first of the following 
fjuotAtions the word a]»])ejirs to Ixi 
a])plied hy the Mussulman historian 
to pttifan ]»rie.sts and the word for 
churches to ]Nigan temples. In the 
'»thers, excei»t that fnuu Major 
Millingen, it is a])plied by Christian 
writers to Mahommediin divines, whicli 
is indeed its recognised signitication 
in SjKinish and Portuguese. In Jarric's 
Tfu/nuruit (Jesuit Missions, 1606) the 
woni //ici;t»w is j'oiLstantlv used in 
this sense. 

c. 1310.— ** There arc 700 churches (itoZUia) 
reisemhlin^ fortreMrio.H. and every «>ne tuf them 
«>vurt1owin^ with )ire«byter8 (kaihlllllll) 
without faith, and monkM without rolifficxi.** 
- /tejtrri/tfian of thr (%/«»-*; VUii of Knaniai 
(Ilan^chaui in Wiwlf* Hijtfifrtf (see alflo 
MftrCi, Pnin, ii. lli»i). 

1104. — "The town wom inhabited by 
.MooriHh hermits calle<l Caxizes; and many 
puoplu t'iimc to them oii |>i];;riina^ef and 
ihfV healed many diHoa'*e'4,"--JAir/-Art»t'jc 

rio-iju, 7^. 

1.M4 —"And M«). from one tti another, the 
nio.<4'4ii4^e fkiiHsod thr>iu?h four or five hands, 
till it came to a Oaxizi, whom we sliould call 
a bishoji or prvlate, who .«.t«xxl at the Kinjf's 
feet . . ."—Letter t»f Uin,\ ih Kmjtofi^ in 
Aic)i>c. St'fr. Ital. \Y\iQni\. p. ;>5. 

l.'viS. — '•.Iu«*t as the Cryer wjf ofTerinfi^ to 
deliver me unt«) whoiiwjever w«nild buy me, 
in corner that very Cacii Mouluna. whom 
they lield for a Sjiiiit. with 10 t»r 11 'it her 
Cacis hi< Inferiors, all l'rie»t<i like him- 
>elf of their wicked sect."- /'. .1/, /*iutu 
(tr. by H. <'.). jv X. 

ir»r»2. -Cacis in the sime sen>e u.<ied by 

linrnnf. II. ii. 1. 

I.VkJ. — See iju<it.'ition from llurr'ts under 

l.V»4. ■" Whi> w;i«» a Cacix of tlie Moors* 
>%hieh meanx in I'ortJi^rueMi an eLviesia'itic.'* 
-*\utniic'ta, Hk. I. eh. 7. 

l.'i«>l. "The Kin;: -enl otT the Mt»«»r. .'inil 
with him hi^ Casis. :in n\(\ man i>f luueh 
authi»rity, who wa< tlie |»rinei|»,d priest of 
hi-* Mo^J\i«!." -('-.rrf^f, liv hf. >>•»»<'•;/. 113. 

l.V»7 -". . . The n.»ly Syn-Kl ileelaresit 
in.H.«e'«s;iry to remi»ve fr'»m the territories of 
Ki* iliirhness nil the intidek wh*!"*** otfiee it 
i-» t«» maintiiin their faNe rt*li»rii>n. -ueh as 
are the dusilM ^*f the M>>i»r.^. and the 
preachers <»f t!ie (Jent'»«»"i. yj-'y.*, s«>n."erers, 
\i'ntir^irmi\ /"«»M»i'y. i/rii-n {{.'. /••■</ii.» or astru- 
li^fon*. and //"O"!'*). Jind whatst»evcr others 
make a business of religion amon^ the in- 
fidels, and so aU) the bnunans and /mi6n« 





He calls these di^iaions in 
% and Malabar so many lets 
o«, i.e. * laws' of the heathen, 
lense of sectarian rules of life. 

lues the word eeuta in a less 
il way, which shows how it 

easily have passed into the 
d senfte. Thus, s]>eaking of the 
f Calicut: "This King keeps 
3inen, to whom he fives regular 
lance, and they always go to 
irt to act as the sweepers of 
aces . . . these are ladies, and 

I family " (eMtm mom fidalyas e 
casta.— In CW/. of Linhtm 

y, ii. 316). So also Castan- 
■* There fled a knight who was 
FemA^i Loi>ez, homem de boa 
(iii. 239). In the <iuotations 
tamia, Correa, and Uarcia de 
'e have the word in what we 

II the technical sense. 

4.— "Whence I conclude that thi« 
■ta) of men iii the moHt a^le and 
IB that there w in the world." — 
/<•, ytirrffofdtj^ i. 14. 

-**Tbe AdDiiral . . . received theno 
nth honour and joy, showing ViTe&t 
Dent with the King for sending his 
hy mich i«erwnji, Maying that he 
I thiff coming of thcini to proiiftor, ax 
«i ii«tt enter into the bunneMi any 
be casta of the Moom."— Airro*, 1. 

"Some tit them amertcd that they 
the casta {rftgtti) of the Clinstiaxu. ' 
. LtmHtm, i. 2, 6^/i. 

-"One thing \* X*i Ik> noted . . . that 
haogvi* fn^m hin father'^ tnule, and 
*4 the fiame caite [nt^tn) of nhoo- 
une the «me."--^/»irrj«i, f. 213/». 

" In M)m«; {lartj* of thin IVovince (of 
e <H7nt4MM divide thomjtelvoM into 
rare* i*r caitit (ntMtu) of greater or 
nil}* holding the ('hrintianx as of 
VTve. and keep thc«o m) cuiionrtiti- 
at Dfi one <>f a higher cai*te can eat 
with th«*»e<if a lower. . . ."—Decree 
'je Siurfii ' 'ntffcri/ i.f' //j,«i, in Art'kic. 
■ rm£., fa>c. 4. 

ix«l«jM ha de gente ; pon{ue a nohro 
4*haraAdu« mo. e a menoA dina 
Uetkt ^lor nome, a i|ucni ohriga 

Jiff mi^turar a eaat4 antiga.' 

^'itJN^/, vii. 37. ! 
.n«jn : I 

i'«jep of men are known ; the nohlcti • 


uue of NajTTv, who call the lower 

Gentoos is the superstition which they main- 
tain in relation to their oaitea. and which 

, wImjid Uieir haughty lawx contain 
ntcrminf ling with the higher strain." 

- " Aa mgardi the castes (ruji<(M) the 
It to the ounvennon of the 

prevents them from touching, communicating, 
or mingling with others, whether superior or 
inferior ; these of one observanoe with those 
of another."— (^<mto, Dec. V. vi. 4. See also 
as regards the Portuguese use of the word, 
OoHtta, ff. 103, 104, 105, lOW, 12»6 ; 
Synodo, 186, kc. 

1613.— *'The Banians kill nothing; there 
are thirtie and odd severall Casts of these 
that differ something in Religion, and may 
not eat with each other."— ^. IVitMngton, 
in PutrhaSy i. 485; see also Pilgrimage, 
pp. 997, 1003. 

1630. — "The common Bramane hath 
eighty two Casts or Tribes, assuming to 
themselves the name of that tribe. . . ." — 
Lord'* Display of the Banian*, p. 72. 

1673.— '* The mixture of Casts or Tribes 
of all India are distinguished by the different 
modes of binding their Turbats." — Fryer, 

c. 1760. — *'The distinction of the Gentoos 
into their tribes or Casts, forms another 
considerable object of their religion." — Oro9e, 
i. 201. 

1763— *' The Casts or tribes into which 
the Indians are divided, are reckoned by 
travellers to be eighty -four." — Orme (ed. 
1803), i. 4. 

[1 820. — ' ' The Kayasthas (pronounced 
Kaistfl, hence the word caste) follow next." 
— W. Hamilton, I}e$cr. of IIindo*tan, i. 109.] 

1878 — "There are thousands and thou- 
sands of these so-called Castas; no man 
knows their numl>er, no man can know it ; 
for the conception w a very flexible one, and 
moreover new castas continually spring up 
and ijass away." — F. Jtigor, Ost-InMehe 
Handtctrt und Onperbe, 13. 

Castes art*, according to Indian 
social views, either high or low. 

1876.— "Low-casta Hindoos in their own 
land arc, to all ordinary apprehension, 
Hlovenly, dirty, ungraceful, generally un- 
acceptable in pcrMon and nurruundings. . . . 
Yet offensive ixn in the fotr-Mstf Indian, were 
I eHtate-owner, or colonial governor, I had 
rather see the lowewt PariahM of the low, 
than a single trim, HnuM>th-fiiced, smooth- 
way ed, clever high-casta Hindoo, on my 
lands or in my colony." — IP. (/. Palgrave, in 
Fort nightly Hrv., ex. 226. 

In the Madnm Pren. caMee are also 
'Riqht-hamV and ' Lrft-hand.' This 
di.*itincti(>n represents the agricultural 
cla^sst^A on tlie one luind, and the 
artizans, &c., (»n tlie other, as was 
jKiinted out bv F. W. Ellis. In the 
old days of Vx. St. (Jeorge, faction- 
tightfl l)etween tlie two were verj' 
common, and the terms riaht-hand and 
Uft-harui ca.Htes o<«ur early in the old 
records of that settlement, and fre- 




tjiiently in Mr. Talliovs Wheeler's 
extnicts from tlieiu. Tliey are men- 
tioned by Couto. [See Nelson, Madura^ 
Pt.. ii. p. 4 ; Uppert, Orig, InJiah. ]». 67.1 
Sir Walter Elliot considers this feuJ 
to 1)e "nothing else than the occasional 
outbreak of the smouldering antagonism 
1>etween Bmhmanism and Buddhism, 
although in the lapse of age^ lK)th 
parties have last sight of tiie fact. 
The ])oints on which they split now 
are mere trifles, such as parading on 
horse-lwick or in a palankeen in pro- 
cession, erecting a i^ftTl^frl or marriage- 
.shed on a given number of pillars, and 
claiming to carry certain flags, &c. The 
right-hand party is headed bv the 
Brahmans, and includes the f^arias, 
who assume the van, l>eating their 
tom-toms when they come to blows. 
Tlie chief of the left-hand are the 
Panchalars [i.e. the Five Classes, 
workers in met-al and stone^ &c.], 
followed by the Pallars and workers 
in leather, who sound their long 
trumi>ets and engage the Parias." (In 
Journ. Ethnol. Soc. K.S. 1869, p. 112.) 

1612. — ''From th(»46 four castes are de- 
rived 196 ; and those again arc divided into 
two {Nirties, which thejr call Valangu and 
Elnngtf [Tam. txtlangaiy tdaiigtu'], which is as 
much as to say *the rif^ht hand ' and 'the 
left hand. . ," — CoulOy u. a. 

The word is current in French : 

1842. — ''II est cLiir quo Ics castes n'ont 
jamais pu exister M^lidemont sans une veri- 
tal)le conservation relitneuse." — CunUe^ (Jo}irn 
lie Phil. P<fxitice^ vi. .'iOf). 

1877. — " Nous avons alwli les castes ot 
los privil^j^ef*, nous nvtms inscrit partout le 
)irincii>o de I'^ulit^ dovant la loi, nous avons 
donn^ lo suflfra^o i\ tous, mais voilli <ju'on 
reclame maiutcnant Te^jilit^ des conditions." 
— A', de Ixii'deifr^ J ye la PntjiritUj p. iv. 

Caste is also ajmlied to breeds of 
animals, as 'a hign-caste Arab/ In 
such cases tlu* usigi* may j)Ossibly 
have come directly from the Port. 
idta caMa, aiata Itavjca, in the sense of 
breed or strain. 

CASTEES, s. Obsolete. The Indo- 
Portuguese formed from castn the w<>rd 
tnstint^ which they to denote 
cliilaren born in India of Portuguese 
jKirents ; much as rrmlf was used in 
the W. Indies. 

l.'ii*!*. — "Lilieri vcn) nati in India, utn.j<jue 
]iar(>nte Lusitano, castisos v(K*antur, in oni- 
niliU"* fere Lusitani** similo'*, colore tanicn 
iiuxlicum ditfenmt, ut <jui ad pilvum non 
nihil deflectant. Hx castisis dcinde nati tonejitj 275. 

magis magiMjuo ffilvi fiont^ a parontiboi et 
mextici* magis denectentefl : porro et mttdint 
nati per omnia indigenis respondent, ita ut 
in terti& generatione Luntani relinuia Indis 
sunt mmiilimi." — De Bry, ii. 76 ; {Lina^ititni 
[Hak. Soc. i. 1841). 

1638.— "Les habitana sent cm GmUhb, 
c'est ^ dire Portugais natuielA, et nes de 

rire et do mere Portugais, ou Si^ix$j c'ext 
dire, nez d'vn pere Portugais et d'me mere 
Indienne. " — MuHfi^fdo. 

1653.—" Les Castissos sent ceux qui toot 
nays de pere et mere reinoU (Rffinftl): ce 
mot rient de Canta, qui signifie Race, ila 
8ont mesprizez des Koynols. . . ." — LeOemz, 
Voyaget^, 28 (ed. 1657). 

1661.— "Die Stadt (Negapatam) iat om. 
lich volksreich, doch menrentheiln tod 
Mastycen Castyoen, und Portugeeichen 
ChriHton."— Walter Schulze, 108. 

1699.— " Castees wives at Fort St 
George."- ( (5*ffK* of Englisk on. ike Hood, in 
Wheder, i. 356. 

1701-2.— In the MS. Retnrn* of Pfrmn* ih 
the Sercire of the Rt, HtmbU, tkf E. I. 
Cumnanift in the India Office, for this yeer, 
we nnd', "4th (in Council) Matt. EmpsoD, 
Sea Customer, marry*d Gastasa," and under 
1702, "13. Charles Bugden . . . many'd 

1726. — " ... or the offstn-ing of the aune 
by native women, to wit Midice* and OmU- 
ces, or blacks . . . and Moors." — Valentiju^ 
V. 3. 

CASUABINA, 8. A tree (Ctuuar- 
ina jHuricatu, Roxh. — X. 0. OcutuarinnK) 
indigenous on the cofist of ChittagoDg 
and the Burmese ])ruvinces, and south- 
ward as far as Queensland. It ww 
intnxiuced into Bengal by Dr. F. 
Buchanan, and has l»een largely- adopted 
as an ornamental tree lN)tn in Bensil 
and in Southern India. The tree Eas 
a considerable superficial resemblance 
to a laixh or otiier finely -feathered 
conifer, making a very acceptable 
variety in the not plain.% where real 
pines will not grow. [The name^ ac- 
cording to Mr. Scott^ appears to be 
Itased on a Malayan name associating 
the tree with the Oassowaiy, as Mr. 
Skeat suggests from the resemfilam-e 
of its needles to the quills of the bird.] 

1861.— See (]uotation under PEEPUI» 

1867.— "Our road lay chieHy bv the see- 
cMNLst, along the, white sands, wbich ««i« 
fringed for miles by one gnind oontinoooA 
line or lionler of casnarina trees."— Z^.-Ctrf. 
/,r,r/„, A Ffg oh, the Whrti, 362. 

1879. — " It was lovely in the white mooo* 
lil^ht, with the curving shadows uf palmi on 
the dewy grass, the grace of the droniiv 
casuaxinas, the shining water, and the wu 
drift of Hurf. . . "—^fiuBU^^OMm€ll»r^ 


taitH, 'binding,' maram, 'wood,' A 
ni\ formed of three or four li^ of 
«..>! U.«hMl to(^ther. The Anglo- 
Iri'lun at-rrntuation uf the last sj'lluble 

l.>>Ll. — '-S*T«i round tunbmi luhsd b>- 
erlbcr for Mch of ths Kid boaU. and ot the 
■•1.1 «T«i timben flTe form the bottom ; 
■ at\n tlia middle loader tlun tjierwt ra&kea 
1 >-<itwaur. and aoothar makes a |ioop which 

y 1 

sd OaUmonti." 


]>>73. — " Cfluting aloog »me CftttA- 
—"*" 'I'tt* lacbed to that advantage thnl 
tl»v waft off all thuir Gouds, ool; hanng r 
Tw' m the mid»t and Paddln t« guide them] 
cult after mt. . . ."—Fryrr.-H. 

!41*i. — -- Some time after the 

lT«irtii .1 tallw. . , ,"— lo WhairT, 

o iKTted fnim that by ohich 'he 
ndii«. >*fu» that line whu wan uin 
fp m :hc -bKn tm a Cat«81Mmil cuuld n 

'.■CtK - '- N'liH on comiaro t» the CAta- 

;■... T thtve men . . , thuy "it cmuched 
il-c their baeki, thnxHnu their [nddlea 
i.'-«I TUT dailennulr. Iwt fery unlike 
-win*" L'ttertf-m M'uinu,M. 

1 1- iq and CucvauuHlel. ' 


(, C'!,t.m 

[iMnng the war witli Xa|<olu<>ii, tlie 
a -p) -Mtw Ui )w a]ipli«l |i> a xort of 
ftr*— hit'. "(Srwit fiopnt havt liefn 
•..■Tv..'^ at ihr Adniimltv (in 1804) of 
.-n*.ii vn«-b which «■.■«• filled with 

'•iul-u.<til-lm»»d tslleil CfttunUUlB." 

-iLi. SfiBA.^. I.iff of fin, iv. 21B.) 
Tm- luav haw intPflnivil ihf wird in 
EML-h'ao<l ImJio itM \iM!\^ 'oM cat 
■ r * 'bivwiAh ha^.] 

OATECHQ, al«. CUTCH >>i..l 
CADT. a. An aiitriiigi'nt vxiraci 
irtix \hr wimd "f i«fvt!nil siieciwi ol 
A ,a.->a M'tt-io Mtrtku, Willil.), th< 
tikiw, and Atatia iHma, Kurz, i4e 
naifra. D. C. and nrtiUhlv nxirr. Tin 
'itnrt i* cmIImI in H. iufA, [Skt. XtvifA 
*to deooctl bat Uw two Bnt coin 


nercial names which we have given 
ire duuhtleas tAken from the southern 
bnns of the word, e.g. Can, falcfcit, 
Pam. faini, MaUy kadia. De Oria, 
vhose judgments are always worthy 
)f respect, considered it to be the 
ycium ot the ancients, and always 
Lpplied that name to it ; but Dr. 
Koyle lias shown that {^'um was an 
extract from certain species of herbmt, 
tnuwn in the bazars as ratdt. Cutch 
3 first mentioned by Barbosa, among 
^be dnigs imported into Malacca. But 
it remained unknown in Europe till 
lirought from Japan about the middle 
ni the 17th century. In the 4th ed. 
if Schroder's Pharmarv^. Mtdico-tky- 
rnvm, Lyons, 1664, it is briefly de- 
icrilied aa Caledtu or Terra Japoniea. 
"'feniM terrae aaticae" {Hanhvry and 
214). This 1 ■ 

drugs from Cam bay \ amongst 
4 a drug which we do Dot 
which thoy call ptirM (see 

IHOCK) and another called oaohA.^'— 

Barb.^: 191. 

15&4.-"The bahor of Cat*, which here 
(at Ormiu) thoy call oacho, is the same an 
thot uf rice."— 1. Xiiiri, -JS. 

1563. — ** Culloquio XXXl. Cuncenung 
the vo<h1 vulRsrly called Cat*; and oon- 
Ininina l-rotilabls matter on that subject." — 
fAm«,, f, li'i, 

l.'.:8.->'Tho Indians use this Cat* milt 
with Arois. and with Betel, and b; itself 
without other mixture."— .iroiita, Tnu-t. 150. 

l.WS.— Sas'wtti mentions oatll as deriTod 
from the KhaHini tree, i.t. in modom Hindi 
the AAu.V (Skt. thidin). 

tl«]a,-"010 l«g« Catcb«."-^''«(fl-, Z^- 
ler., iT. Vn.] 

1617.— "And there was roc. out of the 
Adi-i:. vn. . . 1 hhiitiilrugM oMha; 5 ham- 
|iors luchok" (see PtTTCHOCKl.- t'urii'f 

Rrprrt. i. ion. 

clos (betel, 
for lu.ury 

which fniin iwrfuinus iin<i iitliur iniitureH, 
chiefly mamifucturtKl ut Itoa, ni'eivBS such 


>[><>rte<l I 


whnt they oall 
tumeit «jm|iuintion. . . ." ^llnur, i. '238. 

mS— '■. . . The (UMints manufacture 
cat«chn, or irmi Ja/iimica, fnni the Ktiri 
[tllair] tree lM-m.mi t'iM-Ah) which gruwii 
wild on the hills i>f Kanknna, but in 
DO other pirt of the Indian V ' 




[orroneousl. — Forbes^ Or. Mem. i. 303 ; [2nd 
ed. i. 193]. 

CATHAY, n.p. China ; originally 
Northern China. The origin of the 
name is given in the quotation below 
from the Introduction to Marco Polo. 
In the 16th century, and even later, 
from a misunderstanding of the medieval 
travellers, Cathay was supposed to be 
a country north of China, and is so 
represented in many maps. Its identity 
with China was fully recognised by P. 
Martin Martini in his AUas Sinensis; 
also by Valentijn, iv. China, 2. 

1247. — ''Kitai autem . . . homines sunt 
pagani, qui habent literam specialem . . . 
homines benigni et humani satis esse vide- 
antur. Barba^ non habent, et in dLsposi- 
tione faciei satis concordant cum Mongalis, 
non tamen sunt in facie ita lati . . . meUores 
artifices non inveniuntur in toto mundo . . . 
terra eorum est opulenta valde. " — J. de Piano 
Carpiniy Hist. Mongalorum^ 653-4. 

1253. — *' Ultra est magna Cataya, qui 
antiquitus, ut credo, dicoMintur Seres. . . . 
Isti Catai sunt parvi homines, loquendo 
multum aspirantes per nares et . . . habent 
parvam aperturam oculorum," &c. — Itin. 
Wilhelmide Rubnd; 291-2. 

c. 1330. — " Cathay is a very groat Empire, 
which extendeth over more than c. days' 
journey, and it hath only one lord. . . . ' — 
Fritir Jordanuiy p. 54. 

1404.—'* £ lo mas alxofar [see ALJOFAB] 
que on el mundo se ha, so pesia o falla en 
a^l mar del Catay. "—Clavijo^ f . 32. 

1555.—'' The Yndians called Caiheies 
have eche man many wiues." — Watrtman^ 
Fardfe of FaciotitiJtj M. ii. 

1.^)98. — ** In the lande lying westward from 
< 'hiiia, thoy say there are white i>eople, and 
the land called Cathaia, where (as it is 
thought) are many Christians, and that it 
should confine ami lx)rder u]x>n Persia.** — 
Linjtrhoten, 57 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 126]. 

[1602. — *'. . . and arriuod at any porte 
within the dominions of the kingdomos of 
Cataya, Ohina, or .lix\xxn."—Birc!trood, First 
Letti^r Bool; 24. Hero China and Catatfa are 
siH)ken of as different countries. Comp. 
nirdiroofl, Hep. on Old Rec.y 168 note.] 

Bef»)ro 1633.— 

** I'll wish you in the Indies or Cataia. ..." 

Jlfaum. rt- Fletch., The Woman's Priz^, 
iv. 5. 

'* Domudores d;us tcrnus e dos mare.s 
Niio Si) im Malaca, Indo e Person streito 
Mas na (^hinn, Catai, Jai)ao estnmho 
lioi nova intnxiuzindo em .sacro iKUiho." 

Malaca (.^oih/nistada. 

16t>4. — '•'I'is not yet twenty years, that 
there went caravniin every year from Karlu- 
niirr. which croH.sed all thoso mountaiits of 
the great Tibet, entred into Tartary, and 

arrived in about three mcmtha'at CStliia. 
. . ,**—Beniter, E. T., 186 ; [ed. OnuWe, 


** Better fifty years of Europe 
than a cycle of Catliay.'* 

TennytoHf Loekalei/ Hall, 

1871. — *'For about three oentiuies the 
Northern Provinoes of China had bemi de- 
tached from native rule, uid subject to 
foreign dynasties ; first to the Kkiia* . . . 
whose rule subsisted for 200 yean, and 
originated the name of Khilai, Khata, or 
Catliay, by which for nearly 1000 yean 
China has been known to the natioiu of 
Inner Asia, and to those whose aoquaint- 
ance with it was got by that channel."— 
Marco PolOf Introd. ch. ii. 

CATS-EYE, s. A stone of value 
found in Cevlon. It is described by 
Dana as a form of chalcedony of a 
greenish grey, with glowing internal 
reflections, whence the Portuguese call 
it Olho de gatOy which our word trans- 
lates. It appears from the quotation 
l>elow from Dr. Royle that the Belt 
oculiut of Pliny has 1>een identified 
with the cat-8-eye, which may well be 
the case, though the odd circumstance 
noticed bv Koyle mav he. only a 
curious coincidence. [T)ie phrase hilh 
ki dnkh does not appear in PlatVi Did. 
The usual name is lahianiyd^ Mike 
^rlic' The Burmese are said to call 
it kyoung, * a cat.*] 

c. A.D. 70.—" The stone called Belus eye hk 
white, and hath within it a black apple, the 
mids whereof a man shall see to ghtter like 
gold. . . ."^Holland's P/inie, ii. «25. 

c. 1340. — "Quaedam regiones mooetam 
non habent, sed pro ea utuntur lapidibui 
quos dicimus Cati OcnlM."— CVmet, in Pog- 
giuSj I)e Var. Fortunaef lib. iv. 

1516.— '* And there are found likewise 
other stones, such as Olho da rato. Chryso- 
lites, and amethysts, of which T do not treat 
because they are of little value." — BarUiea, 
in Lislton, Acad., ii. 390. 

1599. — "Lapis insuper alios ibi mlgmrii 
est, quem Lusitani olhos da gajfcto. id est, 
oculum felinum vocant, proi>teroa quod cam 
eo et colore et facie conveniat. Nihil autem 
aliud quam ackatrs est." — /> /{ry, iv. 84 
(after Linschoten) ; [Hak. Soc. i. 61,' ii. 141). 

1672.— "The Cat'f-ayea, by the Ptarta- 
guese called Olhos de Oatos, occur in Z^/om 
Vamhaiiay and Pmh ; they are men 
esteemed by the Indians than by the Pbrtn- 
guese ; for some Indians believe that if a 
roan wears this stone his power and 
will never diminish, but always ii 
Hnldiiens, Germ. ed. ItiO. 

1S37. — "Beli oculus, menUoned by Pliayt 
xxxvii. c. 55, is considered by HaiwMii& to 




ifskot to oril dt ehat— named in 
Uh k* amJtk."^RoyU'$ Hindu Medi- 

PIT, a. 

k weight uaed in China, and by 
hinese introduced into the 
dajB^ The Chinese name is 
cAtn. The word kdti or hatl 
lavo-Javanese. It is equal to 
tK %.e. H lb. avoird. or 625 
eA. This is the weight fixed by 
; but in Chinese tra^e it \'aries 
oz. to 28 oz. ; the lowest value 
used by tea-vendors at Peking, 
ighert by coal-merchants in 

— *'€Sate." See quotation under 

— "ETerie Galt« is as much as 20 
ill ooAcea."— ZiiurAo^^ 34; [Ilak. 

—** Their pound they call a Gate 
I ooe and tventie of our ounces." — 
ik» Ikirii, in Pttrehtu, i, 123. 

— *' (^>fferinfr to enact among them the 
<rf dcMth to such as woiud sel one 
i spice to the Hollanders." — K^ing^ 

-** And (I prayse CJ<>d) I have aboord 
indfwi thirtie nine Tunnes, six 
M, (loe quartemo two pound of 
■ and siie hundre<l two and twenty 
^ *A Mace, which makoth thirtie 
noes, tiftoene CathayM one quar- 
•>De and twentie pound." — uaeid 
■, iiiyi. i. 247. In this jiaMsage, 
'. ^MiKay** seems to l)e a strange 
n| Purchas or his copyist for (*W. 
M pTTflmbly Mala\' $nkat^ "a measure, 
I quantity. " [Tne word apiMsars as 
a a letter of 1615 (/W^r, lii. 175). 
>at SQgge^tjt that it is a misreading 
evL Stttit^ he KAvs. means ' to 
• anything' (indefinitely), hut is 
«m1 f'lr a definite mc<^sure.J 

hr monl catty <»<Tur.H in another 
u th«* follnwin^ ]iiiriMiigtr. A note 
hat **f.\ttty or more literally 
is» a Tamil word .signifying 
'<q.%'.>. But may it not rather 
-heal ern>r for hatty f 

- ** If we sh«Hild detain them longer 
x*t give them cattj." — letter in 
. i. 142. 

rUB, ». A light rf)wing vess«*l 
n thr roast ot MalaUir in tli^ 
days of the Portuguese. W»' 
iji l«en able U> tnu'e the name 
Indian source^ [unless i)osi«ibly 
dlMTo, ^nwift*]* Is it not pro- 

bably the origin of our ^ cutter^? We 
see that Sir R. Burton in his Com- 
mentary on Camoens (voL iv. 391) 
says : " Catur is the Arab, katireh, a 
small craft, our * cutter.'" [This view 
is rejected by the N.E.D,, which re- 
gards it as an English word from 'to 
cut.*] We cannot say when cvUer was 
introduced in marine use. We camiot 
find it in Dampier, nor in Eobinson 
Crusoe J- the first instance we have 
found is that quoted below from 
Anson's Voyage. [The N.E.D. has 
nothing earlier than 1746.] 

Bluteau gives co^tir as an Indian 
term indicating a small war vessel, 
which in a calm can be aided by 
oars. Jal (Arch^logte Namle, ii. 259) 
quotes Witsen as saying that the 
C^urt or Alma^i^ were Calicut 
vessels, having a length of 12 to 13 
paces (60 to 65 feetX sharp at both 
ends, and curving back, using both 
sails and oars. But there was a larger 
kind, 80 feet long, with only 7 or 8 
feet beam. 

1510. — "There is also another kind of 
vessel. . . . These are all made of one piece 
. . . sharp at both ends. These ships are 
called Chatnri, and go either with a sail 
or oars more swiftly than any galley, fusta, 
or brigantine." — Varlhfma, IM. 

1544. — ". . . navigium majus quod vocant 
oa,taxtim."^Scti. Frunc. J^av. Epistolae, 121. 

1549. — *' Naves item duas (quas Indi 
catOTM vocant) summ& celeritate armari 
jussit, vt Oram maritimam legentes, hostes 
commcatu prohiberent." — (/oft, d^t Hello 
CamlHuco, 1331. 

1552. — "And this winter the tJovemor 
sent to have built in Cochin thirty CatnreB, 
which are vessels with oars, but smaller 
than brigantines." — Caitanfuda^ iii. 271. 

1588. — "Cumbaicam oram Jacobus Lac- 
teus duolKM catnribiu tueri iussus. . . ."— 
Mifffri^ lib. xiii. ed. 1752, p. 283. 

1601. — " Biremes, seu Cathnria quam 
plurimae conduntur in l^assnon, Javae civi- 
tate. . . ." —IM Bry, iii. 109 (where there 
is a plate, iii. No. xxxvii.). 

1688. — "No man was so liuld to contra- 
dict the man of Crod ; and they all wont 
t«> the Arsenal. There they found a good 
and sufficient Ixirk of those they call Catur, 
l)esides seven old foysts." — JJryden, Life of 
-Vatier, in Ifurive, 1J*21, xvi. 200. 

1742. — " . . . Ut prevent even the poHsi- 
I bility of the giilcons uMcaping us in the night, 
I the two CntteiB U'longing to the Centurion, 

and the (iluuccMer wurc buth manned and 
. sent in shore. ..." Anson m Vojfagey 9th ed. 

1756, j>. 251. Cutter also occun pp. Ill, 
I 129, iM), and other places. 




CAUVEBT, n.p. The great river 
of S. India. Properly Taiu. Kdviri, 
or rather Kdvert, and Sanscritizea 
Kflrerl. The earliest mention is that 
of Ptoleniv, who writes the name 
(after the Skt. form) XdjSijpoj (si'. irora- 
/i6i). The Kafidpa of the Periphis 
(c. A.i). 80-90) prol>ably, however, 
repi-esents the same name, the Xafiriplt 
ifiiropidtf of Ptolemy. Tlie meaning of 
the name has 1)een mudi deljated, and 
several plausihle but unsatisfactory 
explanations have l>een given. Thus 
the Skt. form Kdvefi has l)een ex- 
])lained from that language by kdrtra 
'saffron.' A river in the Tamil 
rountry is, however, liardly likely to 
have a non-mvthological Skt. name. 
The Cauvery in tUxMl, like other S. 
Indian rivers, assumes a reddish hue. 
And the form Kdvtri has l>een ex- 
]i]ained by Bp. Caldwell as passibly 
from the Dra vidian hivi^ 'red ix'hre' 
or h! {hf-i'n\ 'a grove,* and er-n^ Tel. 
*a river,' er-i, Tarn. *a sheet of water' ; 
thus either *red river' or * grove river.' 
[The Miuhaa Admin, Gloss, takes it 
tnim kd^ Tani. *gi'ove,' and en-. Tarn. 
Mank,' from its original source in a 
garden tank.J Kd-vin\ however, the 
form found in iiiMrriptions, atibrds a 
uion* sjitisfactory Tamil interpretation, 
viz. Kd - ciri, * grove-extender,' or 
develoi>er. Any one who has travelled 
along the river will have noticed the 
thii'k grov«*s all along the Imnks, which 
form a ivniarkable feature of the 

V. l.'iO A.U.— 

** Xafi^pov TTorafiov eK^oXdi 

XafiTjpl^ e'tinopiov." — Ptolemyy lib. vii. 1. 

'Hie l;i«<t wiM proUibly represented by 

c. .>ir». --"Then there is SielcdoUn, /.<». 
Taj)n>bano . . . nii«i then apiin <>n the 
Continent, and further Iwick, i** Manillo, 
which exjiorts e* inch -shells ; Kaber, which 
c>x}K)rts alalMinrlinuni. "--<*' *^/w«j<, TojHtf/. 
f'/itisf. in Cufft'itf, kv. clxxviii. 

l:J10-ll.- "After tnivorsinji: tho )misscs, 
they arrived at ni^ht on the Uinks of the 
river KAnobarl, an<l bivouacked on tho 
sjin<ls.'" Aiii'if KhiLvrC', in lUUnt, ii. UO. 

Th»' f'tinnru appears to be ignored in 
tln'<»ld«'r Kuro]M*aii ac<-ount and maps. 

CAVALLY, rt. This is mentioned 
as a ti-^b of (Vvlon by h'e.% ITTf) 
(p. r)7). It is no doubt the sjime that 
i- d»-MrilKMl in the quotation fn»m 
Pyrard [^^ce liniif's note, Hak. Soc. 

i. 3881. It mav represent the g«niis 
Eqnuui,of whioli 12 spp. are desiTiljed 
by Day (Fishes of India ^ pp. 237-242), 
two being named by difl'erent zooI<»- 
gists £. cabdlla. But Dr. Day hesi- 
tates to identify the fish now in 
question. The fish mentioned in the 
fourth and fifth quotations mav be the 
same s])ecies ; but that in tKe fifth 
seems doubtful. Many of the spp. 
are extensively sun-dried, and eaten 
by the poor. 

c. 1610. — "Cefl Moucoia pescheun pren- 
nent entr'autrefl grande quantity a'Tnir 
aorto do petit poijvon, 4jui n'est pas ploii 
§:rande que la main et larfi^ commo vn 
petit hremeau. Lcm Portugais PappeUent 
re.sche canallo. II ej<t 1« plus comiLian 
do toute cotfte coste, et c'est de quov il« 
font Ic plus grand tmfie ; car ils le tettfient 
|iar la moiti<5, ils le salcnt, et le font secher 
au soleil." — I't/mrd d^ Lara I y i. 278; »«* 
al«o 309; [Hak. Soc. i. 427; ii. 127, 2W. 

1626.— ''Tho Ilo inricht iw with many 
good thing8 ; Buffola, . . . oyitten, Braauw. 
Cavalloes, and store of other fiMh." — ^'l> T. 
Heri^i, 28. 

1652. — ** There ia another very small fi«h 
vulgarly called Cavmlle, which i« good 
enough to eat, but not very wholesome.**— 
Philipput a Sanrt. TriHitate^ in Ft. Tr. 3S3. 

1796.— '* Tho <!///«, called in Portuguese 
cavala, ha.« a gtNKl ta^te when fresh, but 
when stdted bccomos like the herring."— /'m 
/\iolnu\ E. T., i». 210. 

1875.- *'('ttmo« deHtn^ (BI. Schn.). Thi* 
fixh of wide rango from the Mediterrmnean ti* 
tho coiiiit of Brazil, at St. Helena ia knovn 
liH the Cavalley, and ii« one of the best ubl« 
tish, being indeed tho salmon of St. HeleoA. 
It is tjikon in c«)njtidera>>l6 numbersi. chiefly 
during the .*mmmer monthit, aroimd th« 
coiLst, in not very deep water: it variet in 
length from nine inches up to two or thiw 
feet.*— i**. Jhhrn, by J. C, Meffift, p. 106. 

CAWNEY, CAWNY, s. Tain. 
kdm\ * projieily,' hence * hind/ [fnuii 
Tain, /.vn?, *t<» see,' what is knovii 
and n'romiised,] and .s<i a measure of 
land used in tne Madnis Presidencv. 
It varies, of course, but the standard 
Cuwny i.s contsideivd to !»• = 24 itwmu 
or GroundB Oi.v.X of 2,400 S(|. f. each, 
henre 57,600 w|. f. <»r ac. I '322. Thi* 
is the only si'iLse in whieh the word 
is used in the Mjidnu<< dialei't of thr 
Anglo-Indian toTigue. Tlio * Indian 
Voiabulary ' of 1788 has the word in 
the forui ConnSTS, but with an unis- 
telligible. explanation. 

1807.- "The land measure of the Jnl^>* 
is a<« follows: 24 Adies sqiwra=l Oo^: 
100 Culies 1 Canay. Out of wtel b 




called charitr however the C'lily in in fact 
fc BaxdUmi 2^ A died or 22 feet 8 inches in I 
Ikro^rth . . . the Ady or 51&labar foot is I 
thtfreforv 10 ^^ inches nearly : and the custo- ■ 
mary cmaMJ c«>n tains 51,375 sq. feet, or 
1 i'f% acrc« nearly ; while the proper can&y 
i>i>uld i-nly contain 43,778 feet."—/'. Bnch- 
••ndJi, MtMorr, d,v. i. 6. 

CAWHPOBE, n.p. The correct 
iiaxii« is Ktlnhpiir^ *the town of Kaiih, 
K^iiihaiva i»r Krishna.' The citv of 
thf DiKkh ?<«i i-siHed, having in 1891 
A I»*]>iil.iti«in of 188,712, has grown 
nj. rnlin-ly under Hriti^h rule, at fii-st 
A- xhtr liaAir and dependence of the 
iant«>nni*nf e.stahlL'*lnKi here under a 
tivaty nuidf with the XalKih of Oudh 
iTi 17t>'i, and afteni'ard;^ as a great ' 
iriiTt t.f truie. 

CATMAN, f^. This in not u.sed in 
hi'iU. It IS an American name for 
af: Al]i^4t4»r ; fn>m the ("arih aanjnmnn 
L\ttr*i Hut it apjK'ars formerly to 
h*\*- '•.-fu in gcnenil use among the 
!»■::• h in the KnaX. [It is <me (►f 
rh'»»- w.ipls ** which the Portuguese 
■ r Sjb*iii.ipl> WTV early caught ui> in 
'U- ]^irt •>! the world, and natural i:»<*(l 
;t: .in-'tht-r." (X.E.lK)]. 

i .'->■*. "'The country is extnivafrantly 
\ fi . irA the rivur* art* full iff Caimani. 
• *»►. h fcn- i.<-rt.iin water-li/jinN {/»i{fnrfi)." 

.V . - % . . /^^ ' r •• : .M I T M , in JiniM uxin^ iii . ittt*. 

lli« ■ ■• Iri llii'* riTcr *Z;iirv or C'onnr«>) 
"h-n- jr»' Iivtnjr tlivcr* kin«i« of crcnturcj*, 
*r,l lu f*»rlku!ar. iiiihrhty trruat cn»c<>dilc!*, 
»i.-K •?»!• ••»-intry jieoitle there ciill 
CUBULB. l*'j'tt-tVt, in Hnrluian (.'oil. of 

Tl.> !• in in-tano* of the way in 
*i..ii v«" -•• <-it*-ii M-1* ;i wnni Wlong- 
'j ■• I dirti nnt «|U;irtfr of the world 
.:.:-.•.} ciitflv a''«rili«'*i to Afri«*a or 
A-. I. i.- th»- *<.t-«' iiiav 1h*. In the 
Ti'i* •,'i-»f-»ii"ii we fiml it a.*4«rilH'd to 
Ir.i-i * 

I^!i.-- ■■ Ijii. *. cap. iii. \hi C'ni*.'o*lilo 
..: \^T % laiii Indium eaymu iiuilit." -- 

;'TJ. "ni*- •ijrur»"i •«• rejiru!M-'ntod in 
\ iJkOi • f'" -•T.jw »crc ... 41. The Kinir 
■* ' ^-c CaiaiAas • 'r < 'mci <lilex. " — JhiMo "j* 

K./i -Ann.* I'JW thore were 3 newly 
irrTc*! « ;<ii<*p* . . ■ near a certain (hl*l>et 
Mjk'. •t>"t ^'> the river •'Utnide the iMxitn, 
• . *jbarf \\ frtu^ued h\ a Kllwnan they 
•cry •'/'Jiired to clinil> the i^lihet for >afety 
«bi!«t ta« creature «tandint( up on hU hind 
f««c r«Mch«d with hiA wn^ut Ui the verv , 
L4. til tb* abbM."— ValtMtiJH, iv. 231. ' ! 

CAYOLAQUE, s. A'ayji='wood/ 
in Malay. Lakn is given in Craw- 
furd's Malay Diet, as "name of a 
red wood used as incense, Myristica 
iners" In his Deacr. DiH. he calls it 
the *'^Tanari\is major; a tree with a 
red-coloured wood, a native of Sumatra, 
used in dyeing and in pharmacy. It 
is an article of considerable native 
trade, and is chiefly exported to 
China" (p. 204). [The word, accord- 
ing to Mr. Skwit, is prolwibly kayUy 
*wood,* lakh^ *red dye ^ (see LAC), but 
the combined form is not in Klinkert, 
nor are these trees in Ridley's plant 
list. He gives Laka-laka or Malaka as 
the name of the phyllanthtis emblica,] 

1510. — "There also grows hero a ver>* 
frreat (}uantity of laoca for making rod 
colour, and the tree of this is formed like 
our trees which produce walnuts." — Ittr- 
themo^ p. 238. 

c. l.'iOO.— **I being in Cantan there was 
a rich (bed) made wrought with luorie, 
and of a Hweet wood which they call 
Cayolaqua, and of Strulaiumy that was 
prized at 1500 t'rownes." — Ga»iHir Da OrvZf 
m Pttrt'fuu^ iii. 177. 

1585.—** Euerio morning and euening they 
do offer vnto their idollos frankensence, 
benjamin, wo<xi of aguila, and cayolaQUOt 
the which is maruelous sweete. . . ." — 
Mendozat China^ i. 58. 

CAZEE, KAJEE, vS:c., s. Arab. 
I'ihji^ *a judge,' the letter zmJd with 
which it is atndt In'ing always pn>- 
uouucimI in India like a z. The form 
Oidi^ familiar from its use in the old 
version of the Anibian Nights, (tomes 
to u.s fn.)m the Levant. The word 
with the arti<-le, id-lxldi\ becomes in 
S]>;inish aladdr ;* not alcauh^ which is 
fn)m kn'ld^ *a chief; nor ahjuacily 
whicli is from irnzlr. So Dozv and 
Engehnann, no <l<nibt i-orivctly. Hut 
in Pinto, cap. 8, we find "ao tmnnil da 
justica i\ em elles he como corre- 
gi*<lor eiitre no.i»"; where ifwrj'I seems 
to stand for Iff^i. 

It is not ejisy t<> give an a<'cuKite 
account of the ]M>sition of the AT'/f? in 
British India, which has gone through 
variations of whirh a di>tinct n^cord 
cannot 1h' found. Hut the following 
outline is lielieveil to U* substantially 


* hi. K. K<>st i>)x.<TM-> to tis thnt thn Anliic 
IfttfT cui'ii i> |iriiiiouii(-f<l \t\ th«' MtUyH like* U 
(rt»M" nl"*** t'nurfunl * Mn-'i'i 'ifimmiir, |i, 7)l And 
it m niriniit t4i timi a tran^fiT of th<* nme letter 
Into S|iatiiih at M. In MaUy kidl becomm kallL 




Under Adawlnt I have given a 
brief sketch of the history- of the 
jiidiciary under the Comjxany in the 
Bengal Presidency. Down to 1790 
the greater part of the administration 
of criminal justice was still in the 
hands of native judges, and other 
native otticials of various kinds, though 
under £ur()})ean sujH^rvision in varying 
forms. But the native judiciarv, ex- 
cept in positions of a miit^i sulM)rdinate 
charact<jr, then ceased. It was, how- 
ever, still in substjince Mahommedan 
law that was administ-ered in criminal 
cases, and also in civil cases between 
Mahommedans as affecting succession, 
&c. And a Kdz'i and a Mufti were 
retained in the Pro\'incial Courts of 
Appeal and (Circuit as the exponents 
of^ Mahommedan law, and tne de- 
liverers of a formal Futwa. There 
was also a Kiizl-itl-Kozdt^ or chief Kdzi 
of Bengal, Behar and Orissa, attached 
to the Sudder Courts of Dewanny and 
Nizamut, assisted by two Muftis, and 
these also gave written futuxis on 
references from the District Courts. 

The style of Kdsi and Mufti i)re- 
sumably continued in formal existence 
in connection with the Sudder Courts 
till the al>olition of these in 1862 ; 
but with the earlier al>oliiion of the 
Pruvinciixl Courts in 1829-31 it had 
quitA? ceast»d, in tliis sense, to 1^ 
familiar. In the District Courts the 
coriespondiug exjKDnents were in 
Englisli ollicially designated Law- 
officers, and, I l)elieve, in official 
vernacular, jw well as commonly among 
An^'lo- Indians, Moolvees (q.v.). 

Under tlic article LAW-OFFICER, it 
will Ije seen that certain trivial cases 
were, at the discretion of the magis- 
trate, referred for dis])Osal by the 
I^aw-officer of the district. And the 
latter, from this fact, as well as, 
p<*rliaps, from the tradition of the 
elders, was in some j>arts of Benmil 
jxjpularly known as *the Kdzl.' "In 
the Magistracy's office^" writ<.*s my 
friend Mr. Seton-Karr, "it was 
quite common t^) sjK'ak of this case 
as refern*d to the joint m.'upstrate, 
and that to the (fhhofd Sd^ib (the 
Assistant), and that agjiin to the 

But the duties of the Kdzl popular! v 
so styled and officially recognised, had, 
almost from the beginning of the 
century, become limited to certJiin 
notarial functions, to the performance 

and registration of Mahommedan 
marriages, and some other matters 
connected with the social life of their 
co-religionists. To these functions 
must also l>e added as regards the 
18th century and the earuer years 
of the 19th, cluties in connection with 
' distraint for rent on Ijehalf of Zemin- 
dars. Tliere were such KdzU nomin- 
ated by Government in towns and 
])ergunnas, with great variation in 
the area of the localities over which 
they officiated. The Act XI. of 1864, 
which repealed the laws relating to 
law-officers, put an end also to the 
appointment Dv Govenmient of Kd^ 
But this seems to have led to incon- 
veniences which were complained 
of by Mahommedans in some parts 
of India, and it was enacted in 1880 
(Act XII., styled "Tlie KdzU Aa^ 
that with reference to any ]>articular 
local it V, and after consultation with 
the chief Musulman residents therein, 
the Local Government might select 
and nominate a Kdzl or KdtU for 
that lo(.>al area (see ' FUTWA, 'LAW- 

1338.— ''They treated me ciTilly and Ht 
mo in front of their mosque dnnng thar 
Eoflter ; at which mo«r]ue, on account of 
its bein^ their Easter, there were aawmbkd 
from divers quxirters a number of their 
Cadini, i.e. of their biahoiw.**— Letter of 
Friar Pa*cal^ in Cathan^ dr., 235. 

c. 1461.— 
" Au terns quo Alexandre regna 
Ung hum, nomm€ Diomed^ 
Devant luv, on hiy amena 
Engrillone i>oulces ot detz 
Commo ung larron ; car il fut da 
Escumeurs (pie voyons courir 
Si fut niys devant le cadte, 
Pour ostro jug6 k mourir." 

ad. Trftamentde Fr, Vi/foiu 

[c. 1610.— ''The Pandiare is called Ca4F 
in the Arabic tongue." — Fyrard rf" lJgnJ^ 
Hak. Soc. i. 199.] 

1648.— "Tho Government of the city (Ah- 
medabad) and surrounding villages rsfti 
with tho Governor Cout^atui, and the 
Judge (whom thoy call Caagy).*'— Van Tuid^ 

[1670.— "The Shawbundcr, 
IftdfjeSf Diari/f Hak. Soc. ii. ccxxiz.} 

1673.— "Their Law-Disputes, they ai« 
soon ended ; the Governor hearing ; and 
the Cadi or Judge determining every Mon- 
ing.' — /'Vver, 32. 

,, "The Caqr or Judge . . . minMi 
them."— Ibid. 94. 

1683.—" . . . more than that 3000 ppor 
mon gathered together, oomplMBiii|[ wMh 
full mouths of his " " ' ""^ 




toward* them : some donuuiding Rupees 10, 
otIkerB Ru|iee« 20 per man, which Bulchund 
Terr geoeivuiilv fmid them in the Caiee's 
pruWo ce. . . .' —Hfdgeg, Not. 5 ; [Hak. Soc. 
L \U : Cant in i. 85$ 

1<S84.— *'/rtJiirrtry 12. — From Caasumbazar 
"tir adrifwd ye MerchantJi and Pioare appeal 
tnf%m tit TeCasM for Justice againat 9ir. 
HukTD'tck' Ye CSasM citefl Mr. Chamock 
k>a|ifuar. . . .*' — Ibid. i. 147. 

]«i^9. — **A Co^** • • • ^^o ^ ^ Person 
ikilird in their Law." — Onmgttm^ 206. 

Here there in perhaps a confusion with 

iriT.— ** When the Man sees his Spouse, 
aod hkcH her. they a^^ree on the Price and 
Term of Weeks, Months, or Years, and 
then ap|«ar dcftrre the Cadjee or Judg^o." — 
A. Hnmttttftk, \. 62. 

17C). — **The Cadi holds court in which 
we tri«d all <iL(putes of property." — Orme, 
i JS led. 1803). 

1773. — ** That they should be mean, weak, 
irmcant, and corrupt, is not surprising, 
vbeo the salary of the i>rincipal judge, the 
QuL d<-«* not exceed Ks. 100 per month." 
—F^'m Impcv's Jtnif/m^t in the Patna 
Oi*jr, '{iMted ty Stephen ^ ii. 176. 

\7Vk — '* H^^luUions fvr tlw Court of 

'■'24. That each of the Courts of Circuit 
be «u[i«-nntcnded by two coTenanted civil 
•rrrantJK '4 the (Vnnpany, to Iw donomi- 
nat«d Jads«ii •>f the Courts of (Mrcuit . . . 
uputeii by a Kaii and a Mufti."— Rrgn*. 
i*4r tk^ .\*im. «/ JvMift in thr FoHJdarr*t 
m <'^A-»ii/ i^'iMri* iM RfntjiiK Rnhar^ arui 
«^n*«. V;».*'^i by the G. (J. in C., Dec. 3, 


■ • Ti . . . The chartre against the prisoner, 
bi* ( - -.ft-^-Km. which is always to \te received 
wth ■ :r«-urtt*j*cti<m and tenderness . . . 
k* . )m-\a£ all heard and fronc through 


|'rr'-4-nce amd that of the 

V ^tZi "i the ( V>urt. the Kad and Mufti are 
t.^rr. ^- write at the *»ott<)m of the record 
'.f thr prrx^eedings held in the trial, the 
/«farn "T Law aA applicable to the circum- 
vUfik'e* • f the case. . . . The Judges (»f the 
«'*an -^l attentively connider such /m^*^, 

Ac.- ^P'ui. 

17V1.- "The Judges of the Courts of 
I irr:i:t •hall refer U* the Kail and Mufti of 
thctr re*|4<ctive Courts all ({uestions on 
;>«&t« «if law . . . regarding which they 
aav r»«c have lieen furnished with s)>ccitic 
t^ractv OS frr>m the 0.-(t. in C. or the 
.V>T«»' .l<Afir/«/. . . ."—Ji^jn. Xo. XXX v. 

ITSTi. -Revenue Regulation of July 20, 
N ixv.. emfv/wers lAndhoIders and 

Kiriberv of L^nd to distrain for Arrears 
of R«cs '<r Revenue. The "Kaii of the 
p«0r-4CXiAh " is the ofllcial under the Col- 
mtujt. rvf«atedly referred to as regulating 
sad cmrrying out the diatrmint. So, again, 
miUfm. XVII. of 1793. 

— ** IzH. TIm Niiamnt Adaulat 
■tniiM to \m hM at Calcutta. 
***'"-^ TW Ooort ihaO oouiat of the 

Governor-General, and the members of the 
Supreme Council, assisted by the head 
Caniy of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, and two 
Muftis." (This was already in the Regula- 
tions of n9\.\- Regn. IX , of 1793. Seealao 
quotation unaor MUFTY. 

1793. — *M. CauzieB are stationed at the 
Cities of Patna, Dacca, and Moorshedabad, 
and the principal towns, and in the per- 
gunnahs, for the purpose of preparing and 
attesting deeds or transfer, and other law 
papers, celebrating marriages, and perform- 
mg such religious duties or ceremonies 
prescribed by the Mahommedan law, as 
have been hitherto discharged by them 
under the British Government. ' — Reg. 
XXXIX. 0/1793. 

1803. — Regulation XLVI. regulates the 
appointment of Caiisy in towns and per- 
gunnahs, " for the purpose of preparing and 
attesting deeds of transfer, and other law 
papers, celebrating marriages," &c., but 
makes no alhmion to judicial duties. 

1824. — "Have you not learned this com- 
mon sa\nng — * Every one's teeth are blunted 
by acids except the cadi'l, which are by 
sweets.'"— i/aj/i Baha, ed. 1835, p. 316. 

1864. — "Whereas it is unnecessary to 
continue the offices of Hindoo and Maho- 
medan Law-Offlcen, and is inexpedient 
that the appointment of CBM»e-ool-Cozaat, or 
of City, Town, or Pergunnah Caiees should 
be made by Government, it is enacted 
as follows :^ 

"II. Nothing contained in this Act shall 
be construed so as to prevent a CaS6e-oo/- 
CozmU or other Caiee from performing, 
when re«{uircd to do so, any duties or cere- 
monies prescribed by the Mahomedan Law," 
—Act No. XI.of\%^. 

1880. — " . . . whereas by the usage of the 
Muhammadan community in some parts of 
India the presence of K4lis appointed by 
the Government is required at the cele- 
bration of marriages. . . ." — Bilf intr*>ducfd 
into th^ (\niHrH of Oov.-Otn.y January 30, 

,, "An Act for the appointment of 
pentons to the office of B14zi. 

" Whereas l)y the preamble to Act No. 
XI. of 1864 ... it was (among other things 
declared inexpedient, kc.) . . . and whereas 
by the usage of the Muhammadan com- 
munity in some parts of India the presence 
of Kaiia appointed by the Government 
in rei]uired at the celebration of marriages 
and the i>orformance of certain other rites 
and ceremonies, and it is thoref«>re cx- 
i>edient that the (}t)vemment should again 
fm emp<iwored to appoint such |>orsons to 
the office of B14zi ; It is hereby enacted ..." 

—Art So. xii.ofnm. 

1885.— "To come to something more 
specific. 'There were instances in which 
men of the mtist venerable dignity, per- 
secuted without a cause by extoKionom, 
died of rage and shame in the gripe of Uie 
vile alguazils of Imiioy' [Macaulay's Ktmy 
OH Uatiing$], 




" Hero we see one Cazi turned into an in- 
definite numlier of * men of the most vener- 
able dignity ' ; a man found guilty by legal 
process of corruptly oppressing a belpless 
widow into * men of the most venerable 
dignity ' (>er8ecuted by extortioners without 
n cause ; and a guard of sopor's, with which 
the Supreme Court had nothing to do, into 
*vile alguazils of Impoy.'" — ikrphen, Stonj 
of Nvncvtiuir^ ii. 250-251. 

Gazee also is a title used in Nepal 
for Ministers of State. 

1848. — '^Kajees, Counsellors, and mitred 
Lamas were there, to the number of twenty, 
all planted with their backs to the wall, 
mute and motionless as statues." — Hooker n 
IlimaJoyan Jonrnahy od. 1856, i. 286. 

1868.— "The Durbar (of Nepal) have 
written to the four Kajees of Thibet eii- 
nuiring the reason." — Letter from (hi. H. 
jMtrrcHdy dated 1st April, regarding perse- 
cution of li. C. Missions in Tibet. 


" Ho, lamas, got ye ready, 
Ho, Kazts, clear the wa^ ; 
The chief will ride in all his pride 
To the Rungcct Stream to-day." 

Wilfrid Hethy, A Latf of Modern 

apj)liL*d familiarly at the beginning of 
the last century "to the territory south 
of the Tungabfiadra river, which was 
cedt'd to the Company bv the Nizam 
in 1800, after the uefeat and death of 
TipiMK) Sultan. This territory em- 
bniced the ]»resent districts of liellary, 
(■uddaixili, and Karnul, with the Pal- 
nad, which is now a sulxli vision of the 
Kistn;i District. The mime jwrhaps 
became best known in England from 
(ihiifA Lift: of Sir TlwmaH Munro^ that 
great man having administered these, 
]>rovinces for 7 years. 

1873. - ** We regret to announce the death 
of Lieut. -(Tunonil Sir Hect«»r Jones, O.C-.B., 
at the advanced ajro of 86. Tht? gallant ollicer 
now (leceaserl buloni^cd to the Madnu« tl*«ta- 
blishnicnt of the E. F. Co.'s forei.'s, an<l Inire 
a di'^tin^uished fcirt in many of the f*Tcat 
achievements <if that army, including the 
celebnited m:ireh into tlic Ceded DlstlictB 
under the Collector of Canani, and the eam- 
|wii^n sijraiiist the Zemindar of Maduni." 
Th* Trt" Ii> foriii'-r, it. 7 ('*wrot scrkcs- 
tick ••). 

CELEBES, n.i>. According t^) 
Crawfurd this name is unknown to 
the mitive.-j, n<»t only of the great 
islnnd its-elf, but nf the Archii)elago 
genenilly, and must have arisen from 
some Portuguese misunderstanding or } 

corruption. There appears to In? no 
general name for the island in the 
Malay language, unless Tariah Bugii^ 
' the Land of the Bugis people ' [see 
BUGI8]. It seems sometimes to hare 
been called. the Isle of Maeassar. In 
form Celebes is apparently a Portuguese 
plural, and .several oi their early 
writers speak of Celebes as a ffroup of 
island.s. Cra^'f urd makes a suggestion, 
hut not very confidently, that PhIo 
skllahih^ *the islands oyer and aK)ve,' 
might have 1>een vaguely sjioken of by 
the Malays, and understood l»y the 
Portuguese as a name. [Mr. Skeat 
doubts the correctness of this explana- 
tion : *^ The standard Malay form would 
l»e Pulau SiiUf/ih, which in some dia- 
lects might lie S<l-Uln^ and this may 
have been a \'!iriant of Si-I^ih^ a 
man's name, the d corresponding tu 
the def. art. in the Germ, phrase *'/«r 
Hans.' Numerous ^Lalay luace-naines 
are derived from those of people."] 

1516. — **Ha\nng passed thetie uland« of 
Maluco . . . at a distance uf 130 leagrues 
there are other Islands to the we!«t, fron 
which Homotimefl there come white pecfJe, 
naked from the waixt upwards. . . . Tben 
noopio oat human tleKh, and if the Kino: of 
Maluco ha.s any person to execute, toej 
beg fur him to eat him, just aw one wodd 
iu«k for a pig, and the ixlandif from whid 
they come aro called Celebe." — BoHMom^ 

c. 1544. — "In this street (of Pegu) tbert 
wore f<ix and thirty thoiuvind Htrangeri of 
two and forty different N.itions, namely. . . 
PapuoAx*^ Selebrw, MindiinHOM . . . and manr 
others whoso nnmcs I know not." — F. Jr. 
PintOf in Cttffan'x tr., ]». 200. 

1552.—'^ In the previous November (1529) 
arrived at Tomato I). Jorge de Caittro mha 
camo fn>m Malaca by way of Borneo in a 
junk . . . and gi>ing astray pomod akii^ 
the //t/f of MtutiMr. . ." — Jiama, Dee. H. 
i. 18. 

„ " The Hrst thing that the Samano 
did in this was to make Tristilo de Tkid* 
l>eliovo that in tho Iiles of the CSaltllM, »bA 
of the Mftrttt^art'* und in thtit of Mindin*' 
there was much gold."— //«</. ri. 25. 

1579.--"The 16 Day (Dei-eniber) wee tad 
sight of the Hand Celebes or BUeiUt."-- 
hnik'fy World KnromfHi*ffvl (iluk. Socl p. 

1610.— '* At the same time there were «t 
Tomato certain amlias.'tadorM from the IMm 
of th>' Mat-a^An (which ore to tho wert of 
thttsc of Maluco — the nearent ol them aboet 
60 leagues). . . These islandfi are many, tad 
jr)ined together, and appear in the eea chiiti 
thrown iikto one very big island, exteDdiii> 
as tho sailors say, riorth and Sonthi tm 
having near 100 league* of mnnMai Aad 




thi ikani of ftbif loenil^ 
(■iTOlaldaf to t£t KNrtk 
sad bv tb* CMMw (A 

rakMl bv flMaj Kiiig% 
in Mvi* ftiid ci»- 

ii Thb w(»d WIS 
Im t m w cd direcUj from the 
India (enUaph), [The 

ii A kind of worm whlefa 
ein m — tep4, and tho 

h-dl a Urge iBlnnd in the 

Set, tte Smifi^ of the Malays. 
mkttt prm the nnme Siran, which 
Bkcat tliiiiks more likely to lie 

OAEAM&ftc^s. The 
iTilim MmM, a gitehouae with a 
■' orcr the gate, and generally 
lied. This is a feature of temples, 
as well as oi private houses, in 
ibar [«« Logan^ l 881 The word 
D applied to a chamber raised on 
pnibk [The word, as Mr. 8kmt 
. has rtmw into Malay an mtmmhi 
i, 'a house veranda/] 

> --"He wmm Uken U* m osrams, 
■» M cJO#-«t«incd batwe of wuod, which 
Of had cTBctfld for their meeting- 
-4L*«AiS<d;«, Bk. I. cap. S3, p. 103.] 

-**... where «triod the qanuns of 
t. which i» hw tetDfile. . . ."—/hid. 

- ** FedrmlTmrap . . . wan carried 
i'* •b(ialden> in aa andor till 
i<i(r the <fento(> Princes wh<mi 
nn bad atnt to recoiTo him at the 
il«t the imid ^*amcirin himi*elf was 
rithin fi|rht in the ^^— ■■"*^ awaiting 
" — JBamj*. I. T. 5. 

1m word occur* alw) in D'Albo- ! 
< 'ummentarie* {Hat, Sur. tr. i. 
tt m there erruncou*<Iy rondcrvd 

* Aatoe de entrar no Cerame | 

l«r aSguoP •enhfjrci* tUjm <)ue 

«?1 Hei."—iMim. d^ O'mj^ Chrftn. 

f, n.|». Tliis iiaiiie. ha h]*- 
r ffr^ island which ImugH 

like a de|ifn(lfiit jewel, 
a al«»ut the 13th century. 

!•• irmt-ed luiieh earlier. 
mn undoul»te<ily U* W 

iHmkala or SOuiUt^ Mioiis* 

vme adopted in the isbind 

itself at an early date. This^withth 
addition ol * Island/ £K%aJa-ii0fc^ 
down to ns in GGsmas as JUtXidifia 
There was a Pali form Sihalanf which, 
at an early date, most have heen ed- 
loqnially shortened to SUan^ as appears 
fnun the old Tamil name Ham (the 
Tamil having no proper sihilantX and 
prohahly frmn this was formed the 
aaratu^ and Sanmdib which was long 
the name in use by mariners of the 
Persian Gulf. 

It has been suggested hy Mr. Yan 
der Tuuk, that ue name Saikm or 
SiUm was really of Javanese originy as 
je<a (from Skt hid, «a rock, a sUme*) 
in Javanese (and in Malay) means *a 
precious stone,' hence Pulo Sdan would 
be « Isle of Gems.' [«« This," writes Mr. 
Skeaty ^ is possible, but it remains to 
be proved that the gem was not named 
after the island (i,e. *€Wlon stone*). 
The full phrase m stanoud Malay is 
baiu Silan, where hai% means * stone.' 
Klinkert merelyniarks SaUan (Ceylon) 
as Persian."] The island was reaUy 
called anciently Rainadvipa, 'Isle of 
Gems,' and is termed by an Arab 
historian of the dth century JazltxU-^l 
jfaliit, * Isle of Rubies.' So that there 
18 considerable plausil>ility in Van der 
Tuuk's suggestion. But the genealo^gr 
of the uaiue from SihaUi is «o legiti- 
mate tliat the utmost that can l>e con- 
ceded is the poHHibility that the Malay 
fonn SrluH may have been slia])ed by 
the ccmsideration suggested, and may 
have influeuceii the general adoption 
of the form SniUin, through the pre- 
dominance of Malay navigation in the 
Middle Ages. 

c. 362. — **Undo nationibufi Indicia certatim 
cum donin optimateM mitten tibiM ante tompus, 
ab uMjue Dirii* ct Sersndivis."— .-ImMkuiMf 
.Vtf rr^/Zix M*, XXI. rii. 

c. 430. — **The Uland of l^nka wan called 
Bibala after the Lion ; listen yo to the 
narration (»f the inland which I (am ^oing to) 
tell : * I'hc daughter of the Vanffa King 
cohabited in tho forest with a lioo.*** — 
/>i/<((iviM«*, IX. i. 2. 

c. TA^K- "This is the jn"*«t island in the 
oi'enn, lying in the Iiuliun ^>ca. By the 
Indians 'it is callo<i Sielediba. but by the 
<froi»ksTiiiin)l>iine."— fWiHiM, Bk. xi. 

SM . - " Near Barandlb is the pearl-flKhery. 
SitntHfiVi \s entirely summnileti by the tea.** 
~- RtlatiitH dfjt Vutfiiiff:!^ i. p. 5. 

c. 9t0.— *' Mas'aai |>nM*eeils : In the laUnd 
Sarandib, I mys^>lf witnesHc<l that whea 
the King was dead, he wan placed on a 
chariot with low wheeU po that hii hair 




dragged upon the ground." — In (JUdemeiilery 

c. 1020. — "There you enter the country 
of lArisiy whore is Jaimtlr, then Malia, then 
Ktoji, then Dorild, where there is a great 
gulf in which is Sinkaldip {Sinhala dvipa)^ 
or the island of Sarandip."— ^/ Biruniy as 
given by liaghUlvdditif in Mliotf i. 66. 

1275. — " The island Sailan is a vast island 
between China and India, 80 parasan^ in 
circuit. ... It produces wonderful things, 
sandal-wood, spilcenord, cinnamon, cloves, 
brazil, and various spices. . . ." — Kazvinljin 
GUdfineiMer, 203. 

1298. — " You come to the island of Seilan, 
which is in good sooth the best island of \X» 
size in the world." — Marco Polo, Bk. iii. 
ch. 14. 

c. 1300. — "There are two courses . . . 
from this place (Ma'bar) ; one leads by sea 
to Chin and M^hfn, passing by the island 
of Silin."-/e<«AirfM<Wm, in Elliot, i. 70. 

1330. — "There is another island colled 
Sillan. ... In this . . . there is an ex- 
ceeding gretit mountain, of which the folk 
relate that it was uiK)n it that Adam mourned 
for his son one hundred years." — Fr. Odoric, 
in Cathay, i. 98. 

c. 1337. — "I met in this city (Brussa) the 
pious sheikh 'Abd - Allah - al - Misri, the 
Traveller. He was a worthy man. He 
made the circuit of the earth, except he 
never entered China, nor the island of 
Sarandlb, nur Andalusia, nor the Siidan. I 
have excelled him, for I have visited those 
regions." — Ibn Jiatnta, ii. 321. 

c. 1350. — ". . . I proceeded to sea by 
Seyllan, a glorious mountain op|K>8ito to 
Paradise. . . . 'Tis said the sound of the 
waters falling from the fountain of Paradise 
is heard there." — Marignolli, in Cathay, 
ii. 346. 

c. 1420.— "In the middle of the Gulf 
there is a very noble Island called Zeilam, 
which is 3000 miles in circumference, and 
on which they find by digging, rubies, 
safiires, garnets, and those stones which 
are called cats'-oyes." — -A'. Conti, in India 
in the XVth Century, 7. 

1498. — ". . . much ginger, and i)epi)er, 
and cinnamon, but this is not so fine as that 
which comes from an island which is called 
Cillam, and which is 8 days distant from 
Calicut." — Roitirode. V. da Uama, 88. 

ir)14. — " Possando avanti intra la terra e 
il marc si truova I'isola di Zolan dove nosce 
la cjumella. . . ." — fHoc. da KiujhjH, in 
Archil'. Star. Ital., Append. 79. 

1516. — "Leaving these islands of Mahal - 

diva . . . there is a very largo and l)eautiful 

island which the Moors, AraTw, and Persians 

Cjill Ceylam, and the Indians call it 

Ylinarim." — llarl>ma, 166. 

1586.— "Tliis Ceylon is a brave Hand, 
very fruitful and fair." — Hall. ii. 397. 

[J1605. — " Hciire you shall buio theis 
Comoditics followinge of the Inhabitants of 
Selland. '— -tttrdjroorf. First Utter Book, 84. 

[1615.—" 40 tons of dmuunon of Ctlaad." 
— Foster, Letten, iii. 277. 

[ „ "Here is arriyed a ahip out of 
Holland ... at present turning under 
BnoiL'—lbid. iv. 34.J 

1682.—". . . having run 35 mUee North 
without seeing Zeilon." — Hedge*, I^ittry, 
July 7 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 28J. 

1727.— A. Hamilton writes Zeloan (i. SK); 
kc), and as late as 1780, in JMinn*9 Saml 
Directory, we find Z^l^n throughout. 

1781.— "We explored the whole ooaftcl 
Zelone, from Pt. Pedro to the little Remw, 
looked into every port and spoke to eveir 
vessel we saw, witnout hearing of French 
vessels." — Price g Letter to Ph. Francis, in 
Tnictji, i. 9. 


" For dearer to him are the shells that sleep 
By his own sweet native stream. 
Than all the pearls of BereildMp, 

Or the Ava ruby's gleam ! 
Home ! Home ! Friends — health — repose, 
What are Golconda's gems to those if * 

Bengal Annnal, 

CHABEE, 8. H. chdhl, didhhi, 'a 
key/ from Port, diave. In Bengali it 
becomes sdhl, and in Tarn, atfvi. In 
Sea-H. *alid.' 

GHABOOTBA, s. H. chahOM and 
chdbutara, a paved or plastered pkt- 
foriu, often attached to a house, or in 
a g*rirdeii. 

c. 1810. — "It was a burning erening in 
June, when, aftor sunset, I accompanied Mr. 
Sherwood to Mr. Martin's bungalow. . : . 
We were conducted to the Chartelff . . . 
this Cherbuter was many feet aqoare, sad 
chairs were set for the gueets." — Autatitf. 
of Mr*. tSh^icood, 345. 

1811.—". . . theChabootahorTemoe.'' 
— }yitlianuon, V. M. ii. 114. 

1827.— "The splendid procession, hsviiC 
entered the royal garaens, appRMcfaed 
through a long avenue of lofty treei, i 
chab^tra or platform of white msrt4e 
canoi)ied by arches of the same material."'- 
.SVr W. iirott. The SHrgeons Ikiughtrr, ch. vr, 

1834.— "We rode up to the Chabootn, 
which has a largo enclosed court before it| 
and the Darogha received im with tkt 
respect which my showy cncort claimed."' 
Metn. of Col. Monntain, 133; 

CHAOKUR, 8. P.— H. chdhat, *i 
servant.' The word Ls hardly erer 
now used in Anglo-Indian hoiuehdids 
except as a sort of rhyming amidifiei- 
tion to Naukar (see NOKUS) : ^Navhtf' 
chdknr" the whole following. But oi 
a past generation there w«b a distill 
lion made between nadbor, the i 
servant^ such as a mwuM^ a 





a chchddTy a ikdntama^ &c^ and chdkar^ 
11 ni«'uial servant. Williamson fives a 
curit'iu lut of both classes, snowing 
what a large Calcutta household em- 
hnu*e<l at the Wginning of last century 
( r. M. i. 18&.187). 

1^10.— "Such u the superiority claimed 
br the %*>ken, that to tfitk one of them ' whose 
dbaaktr he ifi ? ' would be considered a 
i^ruM* in«ult." — irtV/uiMA/ft, i. 187. 

CHALIA, CHALE, n.p. Chdlyam^ 
'.Vf/iyiM, or Chdlayam ; an old ]>ort 
«>f MaLiliar, on the south side of the 
IVyjHir [see BETPOOR] R., and opj)06it4i 
IVyimr. The tenuinal station of the 
M-i-int- Hallway is in fjict where 
(.'iialyatii was. A plate is given in the 
L*^i'U- of ('orrea, whii-h makes this 
jiUm. Tilt* plac** is incorre<tly alluded 
lo a:* Knl^in in Imp. GitzrHeer^ \\. A^ \ 
riiMr*^f.>rrt-<tly on next jwige a^s Chaliiim. 
[^♦^ L**HfK ilnhfnr^ i. 75.] 

t. \XV.K -St-v in AhHh'fd*i, "8h&li7&t> a 
citT «'f MitUlwr."- ffiltitmeiMrrj 186. 

<.. l:U4. "I went then to Sh&lyftt, a 
trrj J ■!>.■! tv town, where they make the 
< .f.* th:-!! ItKir iti4 name [i«eo 8HALEE]. . . . 
T^.tj.iv i returned tu Kahkut." — Ihn BatutOj 

l.'ilK. •' lte\"nd thi.-* city (Calicut) towanln 

thf «ruth there is another city called 

Chalyaiii. ^ht-rc there are nunicruuM Muom, 

rjttivtr- "f ih<- omntr\'. and much shipping. " 

-/;.»r'—i. I.VJ. 

t l,*r'». "* And it w;l.* duniur the reign <»f 
*Kj- inn** ihtt the Frankn erectcil their fort 
-i ual^Mlt ... it thiLH conimunded the 
rrkir t^tvet-n Arabia and (ulicut. since 
•jc? •*»::» the i t-t vitv and >'Ati/»«^i/ the diw- 
lAU-v »:t« ^-ar-^lv 2 jjani.*«ang^. " — Tithjut-ul- 

J»r-,..r/. ■'.'-. 'I. y. li». 

\:ti. - 

A y^n f •.!:•> fi:n<c «ucce<!ler:( 
( unhu. 'file Hin^o temfie tern o leme: 
Ik- ClMlhl ^* t<*rrtr« altoM ergiicr^ 
tm -^xuito Iho illuxtre delle treme." 

t\unfif*f X. 61. 
By liuir-ii : 
Tlie;^ "hail luccvcd ttj fierce Sam{iaici't( 

< .-.Li. ihtt'i hold the helm fur many a year. 

* .li-i:'^' "f Chal«-to«n thu lofty toworK, 

• Liiv 'iiLike* lUuHtrioiu Diu hm name to 

[f . 1610. "... crrjAM^l the river which 
4«f4krat«« the ( A'tfcut kintrdom from that of a 
kir^ fuifxw«i CbMij.*' — iynird d'' /xini/, ilak. 
?^. I. »".) 

l^J. — " ^huimmma Cinacotta itituata alia 
rncca del fioBie Clali, <luuo li Portnghexi 
brtflicffo ahf* volte Furtecza."— /'. ViHrfn:o 
Mmr^ 1:0*. 

OH A MP A, n.p. The name of a 
kingdom at one time of ^reat power 
and importance in Indo-China, occupy- 
ing the extreme S.E. of that re^on. A 
limited portion of its soil is still known 
by that name, but otherwise as the 
Binh-Thuan province of Cochin China. 
The race inhalntin^ this portion, Chams 
or Tsiams, are traditionally said to have 
occupied the whole breadth of that 
peninsula to the Gulf of Siam, before 
the arrival of the Khmer or Kambojan 
people. It is not clear whether the 
i>eople in question took their name 
irom Champa, or Cliampa from the 
people ; but in any case the form of 
Champa is Sanskrit, and probablv it 
was adopted from India like Eamuoja 
itself and so many other Indo-Chinese 
names. The original Champd was a 
city and kingdom on the Ganges, near 
the modem Bhagalpur. And we find 
the Indo-Chinese Champa in the 7th 
century called Mahd-champd, as if to 
distinguish it. It is probable that the 
Zd/Sa or Zd/kii of Ptolemy represents 
the name of this ancient kingdom ; 
and it is certainly the Sanf or Chanf of 
the Arab navigators 600 years later ; 
this form representing Champ as nearly 
as is possible to the Arabic alphabet. 

c. A.D. 640. — '* . . . plus loin k Test, le roy- 
aume de Mu-ho-trh^H-pa" (Mah&champft). 
— Hionen ThMing^ in Piln'int Bouddk. iii. 

8f)l.— "Ship« then proceed to the place 
calle<l Sanf (or Chanf) . . . there fresh 
water ii« pnK;urod ; from this place is ex- 
jiorted the aloes- wo(xl called Cnanfl. Thin 
iH a kingdom." — lieftition det VoyageSf Ac., 
i. 18. 

1298.— ** You come to a country called 
Chamha, a very rich region, having a 
King of its own. The people are idolaters, 
and (lay a yearly tribute to the Groat Kaan 
. . . there are a Tery great number of 
Elephants in this Kingdom, and they have 
I lign-nloes in great abundanc*e." — Marco Pofoy 
Bk. iii. ch. 5. 

c. 1300.— "Passing on from this, you 
come t4> a continent called Jampa, also 
subject to the Kaan. . . ."—RtifAuiuddlnf 
in £tfu>t, i. 71. 

c. 132R. — "There is also a certain iMirt of 
India called Champa. There, in place of 
hc»rses, mules, asses, and camels, they make 
use of elephants for all their work." — Friar 
Jordan yji^ 37. 

1^16. — " Having passed this island 
(Ik>mey) . . . towunls the country of 
Ansiam and C*hina, there is another great 
island of Gentiles called Champa*, which 
has a King iind langiuige of its own, and 
many elephants. . . . There also grows in 
it aloes- w<Ksl."—/i<i Www, 204. 




1552. — *'Concorriam todolos navegantes 
do8 marei) Occidentaes da India, e doe 
Orientaes a ella, que sao as regi5ea di 
SiSo, China, Ghoampa, Camb^ja. . . ." — 
Barroifj ii. vi. 1. 


'* Ves, curre a costa, que Champa se chama 
Cuja mata he do pao choiroAo omada." 

Catn/fetf x. 129. 

By Burton : 

** Here course th, see, the called Champa 
with woods of odorous wood 'tis deckt 
and dight." 

1608. — ". . . thence (from Assam) east- 
ward on the side of the northern mountains 
are the Nangata [ i.e. Naga] lands, the Land 
of IHikham lying on the ocean, Balgu 
[Baigu? i.e. regu], the land Rakhang, 
tiamsavati, and the rest of the realm of 
Munyang ; beyond these Champa, Kam- 
lK)ja, etc. All these are in general named 
Koki."—Taranaffia (Til>etan) Hijit. of Bud- 
dki*m^ by ikhiffnrr^ p. 262. The preceding 
passage is of great interest as showing a 
fair general knowledge of the kingdoms of 
Indo-China on the yart of a Til)etan priest, 
and also as showing that Indo-China was 
recognised under a general name, viz. 

1696. — '* Mr. Bowyear says the Prince of 
Champa whom he mot at the Cochin (Jhine*e 
(Amrt was very polite to him, and strenu- 
ously exhorted him to introduce the English 
to the dominions of ChamiKi." — In Ikif- 
rymple's Or. lifperi. i. 67. 

CHAMPANA, s. A kind of small 
vessel. (See SAMPAN.) 

CHANDAUL, s. H. Ommhll, an 
outcast e, * used generally for a man of 
the lowest and most dc.«pised of the 
mixt tribes' (J[7//m///«) ; *]>ro]>erly one 
sprung from a Sudra fatlier and Brah- 
man mother' {}ViUon^^ [The last is 
the definition of the yl7/? (ed. Jarrttt, 
iii. 116). Dr. Wilson identities tliem 
with the Ki(tuiah\n' Goruffili of Ptolemv 
{Iful. Cn.<fe, i. 57).] 

712.— "You have joined those Chanddls 
and cowcators. and have heeonie one of 
thorn." -■<%tr/,.^Y,n^a/,, in Kf/iot, i. 193. 

flSlO. — "Chandela," see quoUition under 



name of the French si'ttlemeiit on the 
Hoogly, 24 miles hv river alM)ve Cal- 
cutta, originally occnipied in 1673. 
T]w. name is alleged hy Hunter to he 
]>roperly (%i)uhin{a)-nit(jara^ *Sandal- 
wocmI City,' hut the usual form points 
rather tt» (luindni-mninni. 'Moon Cilv.' 

1 ' « 

[Natives prefer to call it Fartuk-dan^ 
or ' The gathering together of Freoch- 

1727.— "He forced the Ostenders to (piit 
their Factory, and seek protection nam 
the French at ChMJikBfpxr. . . . They ha^ 
a few private Families dwelling near the 
Factory, and a pretty little Chnrdi to 
hear Mass in, which is the chief Bim um m 
of the French in Bengal."— .4. ffamiltan, 
ii. 18. 

[1753.—" Shand araagor/' Seequotatioa 
under CALCUTTA] 

OHANK, CHUNK, s. H. muM, 

Skt. mnkluiy a large kind of shell 
{TarbineUa m^) prized hy the Hindus, 
and used hy them for offering libatiouK, 
as a horn to hlow at the templea, and 
for cutting into armlets and other 
ornaments. It is found especially in 
the Gulf of Manaar, and the CJuitiib 
fishery was formerly, like that of the 
jiearl-oysters, a Grovemment monopoly 
(see TennenVs Ceylon^ ii. 556, and the 
references). The ahuormal chank^ with 
its spiral opening to the right, is of ex- 
ceptional value, and has 1>een some- 
times priced, it is said, at a lakh of 
ruiHjes ! 

c. S45. — "Then there is Sielediha, t.e. 
1 aproluine . . . and then again on tbt 
continent, and further hack is Maraibs 
which exix>rts conch-shells (jroxXux/f).''— 
('(MiiiuUy in Cathay, I. clxxviii. 

851.— "They find on its shores (of Ceykn) 
the pearl, and the shank, a name by which 
they designate the great shell which mntt 
for a tnim))et, and which is much songbt 
after." — lieiuatfdj Hi^IatioH*, i. 6. 

lf>63. — ". . . And this chanoo is a waie 
for the Bengal trade, and formerly it no* 
duccd more profit than now. . . . And 
there was formerly a custom in Bengal that 
no ^nrgin in honour and esteem could \m 
corrupted unless it were by placing braodttt 
of chance on her arms ; but since the Patui 
came in this usage has more or less oeaied : 
and so the rhanro is rated lower now. . . ," 
-(JarnUy f. 141. 

1644.— "What they chiefly bring (froB 
Tuticorin) are cloths called aichat* ... a 
liirgc quiintity of Chanqno ; these are faufB 
shells which they fish in that sea, aid 
which supoly Bengal, where the blacks make 
of them nraeolets for the arm ; alao the 
biggest and best fowls in all thoee Earton 
I>ttrts. "—iJomrrw, ^fS. 310. 

1672. — "Garroude flew in all haste to 
Brahma, and brought to Kisna the **^**^^ 
or I'ini-horn, twisted to the right.'* — BaUmnn, 
Cilerm. ed. 521. 

* Tliese are probably the iiamA as Miltwi* 
under Tuticorin, calls hrtrkieM. Wm do nol 
th<' T)roi>or nnme. [See Putton ffcitchitH. 




-** There are others thoy call ohan- 
» shells of which are the Mother of 

-** It admits of some Trade, and 
Cotton, Com, coam Cloth, and 
a Shell-fish in shape of a Pori- 
nt as large as a Main's Arm above 
sr. In Bemgai they are saw'd into 
r Ornaments to Women's Arms." — 
Hum, i. 131. 

-''Expended towards digging a 
on, where »lfi»lr« were buried 
nstomed ceremonioH." — In Whrlrr, 

-**L*pon the same coast is found a 
called zmBXat, of which the 
\X Bengal make bracelets." — JRat/nai 
P i. 216. 

-**A dbank opening to the right 
highly valued . . . alwavt* sells fur 
It in gold.**— JI/iVMirnr, i. ^7. 

-*-Thc Clinch or chimk shell."— 

S. LATge for ('4ime<)H. Valuation 

per 100 10 R«. 
WhiU'. live ., ,, 6 ,, 

d«id „ „ '^ ,, 

T^U" •./' 1 '.'jrfoiiw hull** on ImjKjTt* 
im/«< lir'tt'tsh India up to l^^f). 

EPOY, «*. H. rJulrinn, from P. 
»fi (i.r fniir-ft'et), tnt* coiimion 

l«*^-t«-a«l, sniiietiint*;* of vtTV 
j»t*-Ti;il«% luit in oth»*r oasi's 
wiv \iT«»HL'lit and itfiintcd. It 

tiv «li--« riiHMl in tin* quotation 
n Kiiiita. 

». "Thv lie«l* in India ;ir« very 
i *ici^lv ruan i-in (■;irry uiiv, and 
a«c:lU-r •h«'«ild luivo hin own Ih**!, . 
:• •Ia^v ^.umcj* iiUmt i^n hit head. . 

o iri^^t." «»f four coiiicnl Itv*. on ' 
•ur »ti»»t— nrv l.iid ; lK.'twoi«n they , 
• ■ri "f ^^^■•^ «»f "ilk «>r cotton. 

u h«' ••» It Mill ntH^l n« it hint; <-'l'*v 
f the \k'*i ''uttirit'ntlv flaf«tit\" 

o •• Hii<«iiin Khan Tji-htilar was 
•.•n»«f Kti-jtM;-* fn»i« iVnjral. Hr i 
•r»Tri;iriir tii^'ht anci <hiy. Whcn- 

]■ ■ .\n*t.' ••vvr him hi* |la«'tMi himself 
cliahAr-pU- and tho villac('r<« 

..n; »!■•?**: ••!» thfir >»honIili,'r*." MS. ' 

•. AVr'-A IT. II**. ! 

T irtakM*. I'-nir r.iiit.% tn>w«««.r*. i 
•1 *,*«■( irur "XI charpais. art' •{Uttt- tin- 
// ..•,!/•• y ■• i/i'fi'i //I «vij«i«./« «.; ^1 «.v»/n. 
, /;'../.-./»#./.. J.A.S.Il. xli.j.t. i. »^0. 

A -y't-At M«i/'iffirijinrk'ar, l>iti^r 

. I dUUpOT . . ■ vk.i- killfl hy a 

k •'•^n'4: hini in th<- *\*\*' ... it 

iM««l in j.'lay." lUil'ff'ni. Ijiinj' muf 

■• After a iraili'p ;»• P'-*-! <-iiuntry. ho 
^ • n .1 charroy. «>r funtry Un|, 
\ m.u in i-rtfoj-f ■! /'»>' "f all tin- 

village folk." — C. Raikex^ in Zi, of L. 
LuHTence, i. 57. 

CHATTA, s. An umbrella; H. 
chhdtd, dihatr; Skt. chhatra, 

c. 900. — *' He is clothed in a waist-cloth, 
and holds in his hand a thing called a 
Jatra ; this is an umbrella mode of pea- 
cock's feathers." — Reinuud, Relations, kc, 

c. 1340. — ** They hoist upon these elephants 
as manv chatrfts, or umbrellas of dlk. 
mounted with many precious stones, ana 
with handles of pure gold." — Ibn EkUuiay 
iii. 228. 

c. 1354. — *'But as all the Indians com- 
monly go naked, they are in the habit of 
canying a thing like a little tent-ruof on a 
cane handle, which they open out at will 
as a protection against sun and rain. Thin 
they call a ohatyr. I brought one home to 
Florence with me. . . ." — Ji^hn Marignottij 
in Caffiiittf &c. p. 381. 

1673.— ''Thus the chief Naik with his 
loud Musick ... an Ensign of Red, Swollow- 
tailod, sereral Chitories, little but rich 
KHmAU (which are the Names of several 
Countries for UmbroUoes). . . ."— /Vyer, 160. 

[1694.— "3 chatten."— 7/rt/i^«, hiary, 
Hak. Soc. ii. cclxv. 

[1826.— "Another as my chitree-burdar 
or umbrolla-carrior." — Panduning J/ariy ed. 

1873, i. 28.J 

CHATTY, s. An wirthen pot, sphe- 
roidal in sha]H*. It i.s a b. Inaiau 
won!, but is tnlerjiMy familiar in the 
Anglo-Indian jKirlancc of N. India 
also, though the H. Ghurra (ijhard) \a 
more commonly um»<1 tlien*. The woni 
i.»* Tam. x/uf/i", »lmtti^ Tel. rhatti. whicli 

• • • 

a]>iH*ars in Pali as cfuidi. 

1781. — *' In honour of Hij< Majesty's birth- 
clay wo had for dinner fowl cutlets and a 
fliiur )»U()din^, and dmnk hin health in a 
chatty of sherbet."- -^V(ftrr. of uh OjHrfr of 
lioilli*'* /tt'fdrhiH^Ht, (]uote<l in Lirfjt of the 
Linfisiiys, iii. 2><.'». 

1 ^'J^K ' ' 'Hie chatties in whioh the women 
t-arry water are >rlobular earthen vessels, 
with a l>ell-nioiith at top."- .l/»wi. of Col. 

AIoMhtittHj 1*7. 

CHAW, H. For rha, i.e. Tea (<i.v.). 

lt»l»). -'• I 1-ent ... a silver chaw |iot and 
a fan to I'apt. China wife."— C«#ti{ji'j« Ih'ary^ 

i. 2ir>. 

CHAWBUCK, s. and v. A whip ; 
to wlii]». An obsolt'tc vulij:ari.Hm fnmi 
v. riuihnky *alert'; in lI. *a horse- 
wlii]).' It s«'4Miis In l»f thi* same oh the 
sjanifntk in um* at the ('ai>e, and ap- 
jMinMitly rarried fmm Iiiaiji (Hee the 
Himtatinn fmm Van Twint). [Mr. 




Skeat points out that Klinkert gives 
chamhok or mmhokj as Javanese forms, 
the standard Malay being chabok or 
cJiahiik; and this ])erhaj>s su^ests that 
the word may liave been introduced 
by Malay grooms once largely employed 
at the C-ajK*.] 

1648. "... Poor and little thieves are 
flogged with a groat whip (called Siamback) 
sevcnil days in succession." — Van Twi*t, 29. 

1673.—** Ujx>n any suspicion of default he 
has a Black Guard that by a Chawbuck, a 
great Whij>, extorts Ck)nfo8sion." — Frytr^ 98. 

1673.— "The one was of an Armenian, 
Chawbacked through the City for soiling of 
Wine."-//><W. 97. 

1682. — ". . . Ranigivan, our V^ketl there 
(at Huglv) wiis sent for by Permesuradass, 
Bulchunu's servant, who immediately clapt 
him in prison. Ye same day was brought 
forth and slipi>ered ; tho next day ho was 
heat on ye soles of his feet, ye third day 
Chawbackt, and ye 4th drub'd till he could 
not speak, and all to force a writing in our 
names to my Rupees 50,000 for custome of 
ye Silver i)n)ught out this year." — Hedget, 
I>iarif, Nov. 2 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 46]. 

[1684-5. — *' Notwithstanding his being a 
great iMsrson was soon stripped and chaw- 
buckt. ' — Pring/fj Aludrax Contn*. iv. 4.] 

1688.— " Small olTendcrs are only whipt on 
the Hack, which sort of Punishment they 
call Chawbuck." — iMmpler^ ii. 138. 

1699.- "The Governor of Surrat ordered 
the cloth Broker to Ixj tycd up and chaw- 
bncked."- /-'^^r /ro/M (imtrt^l and Council 
at JSomfHiif to E. J. C. (in Record Oflice), 23rd 
March, lt)9J<-9. 

*' Another Pariah he chawbucked 


25 blows, put him in the Stocks, and kept 
him there an hour." — WherOr, ii. 410. 

1756.--'*. . . a letter from Mr. Hastings . . . 

says that the NaVM>b t<» engage the Dutch 

and Krench to purchase also, had put (>eons 

uix)n their Factories and threatened their 

VaijiiilU with the Chaubac."— In Lotnj, 79. 

17t)0.-- •• Mr. Barton, laying in wait, 
seized Bcnjiutn)m C'liuttogoo op|)osite to 
tho d<K>r of the CVmncil, and with tho 
:issi.stancu of his ticurer and his |>eons tie<l 
his hands and his feet, swung him u^xm a 
liamlKN) like a hog, carried him to his own 
house, there with his own hand chawbooked 
him in the most cruel manner, almost to 
the deprivation of life ; ende^ivoured to 
force l»ecf into his mouth, to the irreparable 
loss of his Bramin's caste, and all this 
without giving car to, or sufFering the man 
to speak in his own defence. . . .'* — Fvrt 
Wm. Coii^n.y in Long^ 214-215. 


The sentinels placed at the door 

Are f<ir our security Ixiil ; 
With Muskets and ChaubuckB secure, 
They giuinl us in Bangalore .lail." 

Sinig^ by a Oevtlfvuin of thr Navif 
(i)risoner with Uyder) in ikton- 
Aarrj i. 18. 

>i 'I 

1817.—". . . readv to preaeribe hii 
favourite regimen of the ChaODk for •▼tiT 
man, woman, or child who dared to thnak 
otherwiflo." — Ixilfa Rooth. 

P. chdhnk-HU\cdr^ a rough-rider. 

[1820. — '* As I turned him short, he thnv 

up his head, which camo in contact vith 

mine and made my chabookiwmr ezdaiiB, 

AllmudiU. ' the helpof AH.' "—Tttd, Ftntul 

yarr. Calcutta rep. ii. 723. 

[1892. — " A sort of high-nteppiiig caper it 
taught, the chabnksowar (whip-nder), or 
breaker, holding, in addition to the bridle, j 
cords tied to the fore fetlocks." — KipHMf, j 
Bnul and Man in India, 171.] | 


CHEBIJLI. The denomination of : 
one of the kinds of MyrobolailS (q.v.) { 
exj)orted from India. The true ety- 
mology is proltablv Kdbuliy as stated 
by Thevenot, i.e. *froni Cabul.* 

c. 1343.— **ChebuU mirabofanir—LiA^ 
SpicfSy kc.y in Pegolotii (Delia Dociim, isu 

c. 1665. — ** Do la Province de Cabool . . . 
les Mirabolans croissent dans leu MoDtagnei 
et c'est la cause pournuoi leii Orientaiu let 
appelent OB^yalj. —TkevnuA^ ▼. 172. 

CHEECHEE, adj. A dispaiamng 
term applied to half-castes or EuzBIIIBt 
(q.v.) (corresponding to the Up-lu of 
the Dut<;h in Ja\'a) and also to their 
manner of speech. The word is said 
to be taken from chl (Fie !), a conunon 
native (S. Indian) interjection of re- 
monstrance or reproof, supposed to be 
much uifed by tiie class m question. 
The term is, however, perhaps also a 
kind of onomatopa'ia, indicating the 
mincing pronunciation which oftai 
characterises them (see l»elow). It 
should, however, be added that there 
are many well-educated East Indians 
who are quite free from this mincing 

'* Pretty little liOoking-GIaMCfl. 
Good and cheap for'Chee-ch«# Miaw.** 
Hicky't B€:\gal OtuHt^, Mareh 17. 

1873. — " Ho \a no faTourite with the pure 
native, wh(»HO language he apeakR as hit ova 
in addition to the hvbrid luinoed EogUik 
(known a8 chee-chM), which he aluo flOH 
ploya." — Franer^i Magtizin^, Oct., 437. 

1880.— "llie Eurasian girl in oft«n pretty 
and graceful. . . . ' What tboiif^h upoa hir 
li])N there hung Tho accontw of her tdMcU 
tongue.' "— ^Vr AU Bttba, 122. 

1881.— "There in no doubt that the *Gtai 
Chee twang,' which beoomes so objeelioB 
able to every Kngliiihinan belbra ba Mi bea 





— " . . . am tormontod every day by 
of pvntlvmcD eomind^ to the end of 

h t<* talk politics and smoke cheroots 
T them rut her to think of mondinfj: 
e?* in their old vhirt:*, like me." — 
. I.tMi^iit (in /,•'«>« of tkf Lin(fMv»\ 

" I >ti.r eTeniii^f amujicmentif instead 
«t lipid ILirmoiiicjs wan playinf; (^Ardt* 
k^;inimiin, chewing Beetle and <tmok- 
■mtOft." — (ff*f f^'ftintrti ('ujtttiin^ in 
•»:•'«'. Kchv. 24. 


— "I^ U\\wic y rt?u«it trJ*:* bien : 1cm 
W rle M.inille Mtnt renumm^s danf* 
Inde iKir lour iittdt agr&iblo ; auf^si 
i**«« CO )iayM fumeiit-clleo toutc 
w.' .'^iM»i»m/, Vottaff^^ iii. 415. 

— "At th:tt time (c. \llu) T have seen 
.t-r^ riK'Unt puini many's the time 

. . . neither <lid thev at that time 
■ur fii-t-C!-. hut had a fonjr Pole with til It. . . . With this in ont* 
nd .1 Chiroot in the other you saw 
1 itinjr .iwftv at the Main (Juard." — 
*'- -tr -.. April X 

■•"nit.' N'Wf^t cl;uwo« of Kuro|)eiinii, 

■f tKi- isiiivox . . . freijuently Mtuoke 

ft. •.•\.ki-tly ci»rre-*jii»ndiii|j with the 

•*•.«'.-. thitiurh u:'imllv made nit her 

Iky. ' WJ/utfHJUfit. I . M. i. 4IH*. 

--I»:r^- <i\iv le Tchoroat e^^t In 
■ ■ i-t III*; «iL«<i>onHer d"on faire la ■ 
!- •:. .>../. wwji, in. : 

■H'- .iimi.**.'d hint-ii'if by Hinnkin^' 
aiiotei. o.'r,,, *Yfi/r. ii. .V). j 

■■*n»»- iiit-MJ <le-j>atchefl. all who' 
t ■-!. 'tity la\ diiwn . . . almost t4N> i 
-T.i>k*.> Their cheroots l>c-fore fulliii).' 
Tt" /' f'lhii'ti. eh. XXX vii. i 

[RBY FOUJ, ■*. H. chnn-fauj / 
wri'-u- |»hrH>*«' «KTurs in tin* i 
■ ■:i-. th»* >4-«"nii<| of M'liich «'X- 
•- tii'-inin^. I am not <«'rt;iin 
■':•■ :ir-? jfcirT In ^»ut it is most | 
:\ -i-rri. III tilt' rM-nsf ni * mov- I 
{.• i.iii.,t i\i/ ^» that the j»liras«* 
J i'\.iI*'iiT to 'tl\in^' hri^'Jidi'.' 
|.i..!)i)\ \m- f7i»fWi?, I'nr rhnrhti}^ 
• ii-- "f * pnj«initi«>n t<»r Uittb*.'] 
•■v.d-nM\ .1 t«'i ]ini«ality of llif 
T.i iriijif', 

I r.t ■.»'jvit .f ;i cherry fouj. 
_•-.-. with t»«' aniiit"* after it. 
'.■•*\ i^«.ut .iii>l iilu!iiK-r the rirhe^t : 
,' ■ .11 nii'l. ip't til iiiari-li tlin'U^'h 

• I • ir.fni". til make r«.'\<>lutiun'< in 
I ■ fj f 1* f.«. Ill /../'•• i. .V.». 

T.i . ili't.ii hint rit« uinler . . . 

!.:■ f « "f *<-n»«' ri'ii^cpU'lu*'. ;ir«' 

; ■ \-«i v.i W\\\u^ ifntriliuti'in-* in 

\'f' f !l.i .fvj--'r i'«»uiitry, Sut-h 

• M. .n K x\\v\ choree faoj; thev 

ru > ••|iii|'|«e*l very liirhtly, with 

• trtiiler\ ; aii<l are «hiiuiI)v ffrnii- 
•hf.r prv'rev to friend and ftn*." 

CHETTY, s. A iiienil)er of any 

of the trading castes in S. India, 

answering in even* way to the 

Banyans of W. and N. India. 

Malayal. chettiy Tarn, nhetti^ [Tel. setH^ 

in Ceyh^n Wr/i"]. These Have all been 

su|)T)osed to Jni fornts from the Skt. 

heJui; but C. P. Brown (MS.) denies 

this, and says ^^ShettLvi shop-keeper, 

is j)lain Telegii," and quite distinct 

! fn>m hedui, [The same view is 

■ Ukcn in tlie Mndraa GlossJ] Whence 

I then the H. Seth (see SETT) ? [The 

I won! was also used for a *merchant- 

; man ' : see the quotations from Pyrard 

I on which Gray notes : "I do not 

I ^ 

know any other authority for the 
, list* of the word for merc]iantshi])s, 
> though it is analr^)us to our * mer- 
chant men.* "] 

I c. 1JJ49. — The word occurs in Ibn Batuta 
' (iv. 2.09) in the form 9&ti, which he says was 
: ^ven to very rich merchants in China ; and 
I this in one of his (lueationablo atatomenti 
about that country. 

Ifdl. — "The ijroat Afonw) Dalbotiueniue 
. . . detennined to ammint Ninachatu, oo- 
cause ho wait a Hinuoo, Governor of the 
(^uilins (Cheling) and Chetine."— CVnummf. 
*{f Aj. iMi/fHM/.jtliik. Soc. iii. 128 ; [and nee 
quotation fn>m ihid. iii. 146, under &IJNQ]. 

1516. — *'Some of these are called Chettit, 
who are (ientileii, natives of the province of 
(^holniender."— ^ir/;<»#»r, 144. 

ir>r»2.- - *' . . . whom our fteople commonly 
call Chatie. These are men with 8uch a 
(genius for merchandise, and m> acute in 
every mode <>f tnide, that among our people 
when they desire either to blame or praiJ«e 
any man for his subtlety and skill in mer- 
chant's t nitric they say of him, *ho i^ a 
Chatim ' ; and thev use the wonl ftJiM-t^ n^y 
f«»r 'to tnide,' ■ which are words now verv 
eoinmonlv received among us." — JUirros. f. 
ix. y. 

c. l;VJt). ■-■'• I'i sono uomini i>eriti ehe si 
chiamano Chitini. Ii oimli niettono il prez7.i> 
alio ]K;rle.*' — i'f^iff r*<f'riri\ in lifituHJtii; 
iii. :««J. 

1 ftlM). ' ' The vesst>Is < if t he Chatins of these 
\mrli* never s;iil alitii;: the ci>:i.'«t of Malavar 
ni>r towanl'i the north, exee}>t in a ttijifin, 
in onler to irn and come more s^H'urely, and 
to avoiil ln-iiii: cut off by the Malavars and 
iitlii-r • iip>ijiir.-, who are continually roving 
in thii-**' ••eas." Viftr^iii'.* I'li-liiiiuttiun at fJ*iu, 
111 Ai-'fut. I'ni'f. Or., fa'<'. ii, tWl. 

Ifil*?*. "'ITie Smldiers in these dayen give 
thenisi!lve» nioru tn bu Chettijne (v'ar. lect. 
Chatiins] and to deale in Marchan<Iise, than 
to serve the Kin^r in hi- Armailo."— /,kajf- 
.Inhii, .>; [link. Sk-. i. -JirjJ. 

I ,. *-Mo>t ..f tlii-*evesHelswereCnietlll, 

that i" to -viy, iiien-haiitmeii." — I'virard rf" 
Im"K lliik. Sh-. i. iUfi. 



[c. 1610. — "Each is composed of fifty or 
sixty war ^aliotn, without coimtinfir thoae of 
cheiie, or merchantmen." — J*i/nirdde Laval^ 
Hak. Soc. ii. 117.] 

1651.— "The Bitty are merchant folk."— 
Ritgn^uit, 8. 

1686.—". . . And that if the Chetty 
Bazaar people do not immediately open 
their shops, and sell their o^rain, etc., as 
usually, that the fi^oods and commodities 
in their several ships l)e confiscated." — In 
Wheet^y i. 152. 

1726.— "The Sittis are merchant folk and 
also porters. . . ." — Valentijn, Choro. 88. 

,, "The strenjj^th of a Bramin is 
Knowledge ; the strength of a King is 

(\mrage ; the strength of a Bfllalt' (or . ordinarily is called Chiammay. 
(Hiltivator) is Revenue ; the strength of a I Pinto^ CogttR$ tr., p. 271. 
(niem is Monoyr -A jM,ph(f.^M* ^ ir..'i2.-"The Lake of Chiamai, whidi 

tr. m I at*^rtt,jn, v. 6W. ^^^^^ ^ ^j^^ northward, 200 leagues in the 

c. 17M.— "Chittiesare a particular kmd ; interior, and from which iscme six ouUbfe 
of merchants in Madras, and are general Iv ' streams, throe of which combining with 
very rich, but rank v-ith the left-hand cart. ' others form the great river which |«m» 

of tlie 17th, is made the source of most 
of the great rivers of Further Indian in- 
chiding the Brahmaputra, tlie Iramdi, 
the Salweu, and tne Meuam. Iak« 
Chiamay was tlie counteqiart of the 
African lake of the same ])eriod whidi 
is made tlie source of all the great riven 
of Africa, but it is less easy to suggest 
what gjive rise to this idea of it. iTw 
actual name seems taken from thr 
State of Zimm^ (see JAHGKIHAT) <»r 
Chiang-ma i. 

c. IfAA. — "So prrwecding onward, he ar- 
rived at the Lake of StH'tuWhur. which 

— /^j», 25. 

1796. — "Cetti. mercanti astuti, diligenti, 
laboriosi, sobrii, frugali, ricchi." — Fni Path- 
lino, 79. 

[CHEYLA, s. "Originally a H. 
word {chtldy Skt. chetaka^ chedaha) 
meaning *a servant,' many changes 
have been rung upon it in Hindu 
life, so that it has meant a slave, a 
household slave, a family retainer, an 
adopted meiiil>er of a greiit family, a 
dependant relative and a soldier in 
its secular senses ; a follower, a ]mpil, 
a disciy>le nn i a convert in its ec- 

through the midst of Siam, whilst the irth«r 
three discharge into the Gulf of BengaUa."- 
Barnniy I. ix. 1. 


" Olha o rio Menao, ipie se derrama 
Do grande lago, que Chiunai se chamA." 

1652.— "The Countrcy of these Branw 
. . . extendeth North ward.** from the nccr- 
est Piyuan Kingdomes . . . watered irith 
many grroat and remarkable Rirers, iiniiiv 
from the Lake Chiamay, which tboop 
600 miles from the Sea, and emptying itidf 
continually into so many Channels, contuni 
400 miles in comiM&ss, and is nevertbelMi 
full of waters f<»r the one or the other."— 

clesiastical s**ns*^s. It lifw pissed out ,, y/^.„., c^.^nry^.V, ii. 238. 
of Hindu usage into Muhammadan 
usage with miicli the same meanings 
and ideas attached to it, and has 
even meant a convert, from Hinduism 
to Islam." (Col. Temple^ in Ind. Ant., 
July, 1896, pp. 200 m/7.). In Anglo- 
Indian usjige it came to mean a s]>ecial 
Kittalion made uj) of prisoners and 

[c. 15%. '"Hic Chelahs or Slaves. His 
Majesty frr,m reliiri-ms m.itives <lislikes the ,.,„j 1^. ij^,. ^^,^^l^ that the words iW 

name tmnaah or slave. . . . He therefore .^ 11, .^. „| 1 . ^\ * . _,_ 

calls thi, cLass of menChelah.. which Hindi 1 »^-^."> tnuvable U) the gsune of rA«iHM». 



These English words, signifying petli- 
fogging, captious contention, taking 
every ]>ossible advantage in a contest, 
have l)een referred t^ 8]iauish rftifo, 
* little^' and t-o Fr. r/ii>, chiajntt. * a little 
bit^' as by Mr. Wedg^^'ood in his Did. 
of Eiuj. Khjmology. iSee also quotation 
from Suttirday Rennc 1 >elow. But ihei* 

lis this class of men Chelahs, which Hindi , '»"".* ""'"V"^ "' • K'""*^."' rfl««y«-^ 
rm signifies a faithful <lisiii.le."- Ain. or horse-g»>lf. This game is now well 

Bl»th,iianu. i. '2I*A 5' 77. known ill England under the name of 

[1701. — "(The Kun»i>eans) all were l)ound 

on the parade and rinps (Wi/) the badfre 

of slavery were put into their ears. They 
wtTc then incor]K>rato<l into a liattalion of 
Cheylaa."— In Sffoii-Karry ii. 311. 

[1795.—". . . a Havildar . . . compelle<l 
til serve in one of his Chela Corj»»-" — P'*d. 
ii. 407."! 

CHIAMAY, n.j). The name of an 
imaginary lakt*, wlii<'h in the mti]»s of the 
16th century, followed by most of thase 

Polo (4. v.). But the recent iutroduc- 
tion under that name is its second im- 
]M)rtation into West4?m Eurojie. For 
111 the Middle Ages it came from Persia 
to Byzantium, where it was popuUr 
under a modification of its r^rsin 
name (verb r^jraWfciv, playing grooBd 
T^KayiiriifHw), and from Byaotiini 
it ])asse(l, as a pedestrian guM, to 
Languedoc, where it was called, hf 
a further modification, Mmm (fi 


teange, DiMatrtationt 9ur VHittoire 
Si. /^MU, viii^ and his Glosmrium 
aeniati^ .4. v. r^oyJ^Eir ; also Outeleif's 
aivZi, i. 345). The aiiAlpgy of certain 
rifxltt fif tlic game of ^If suggests 
V tbr ti^irative meaning of chwaner 
ght ari?if in taking advantage of the 
itT .v-i identri of the surface. And 
s U the «trict meaning of dixcantTy 
uael )>y militan' writers. 
[>ucang«'\s idea 'wa.*« that the Greeks 
1 liiirniwe*! 1f»th the game and the 
nif irtjm Fnince, hiit this is e vi- 
tal y .-rr'»n«iiij«. He was not aware 
the iVrsian rhtufffin. But he ex- 
iin-« Well how tlie tairtics of the game 
>uld have IhI to the a]>[>1ication of 
Dam*' to " th«.«!<e lurtuoiLs pnK'eedings 
pleaileR* which we old practitioners 
1 }^irrr*'^ The indication of the 
r>ian origin of lH>th the GrtH'k and 
-ri' h wonls ii» due to W. Ouseley 
fi :.. yuatremere. The latter luis an 
'-r.'-tiiig note, full «»f his iLsual wealth 
(>r.» reading, in his translation 
Makri/iV Mumttuk^ HultaiUy torn. i. 
1. I -J*. 121 v-f/*/. 

rtiT- {in-«eding etymology- wjls imt 
•».ini :igain in Note^i uj^K»n Mr. 
Hil^-»*-id'r» liirtioiwry piilthshed by 

- ••f the iin-iiK'nt writers in ik-eun 
.jArrti]»<Sej»t. IHTi, p. 186. ThesJime 
!!«»•!• ig>- h;is Hme )>een given by 
::r»- (».\. , whi» s-iys : " Dirs lors, L'l 
:•• dr^ "eii.<» e*it : jeu de mail, ]»uis 
j'.n d** di.-sputer la i»artie, et entin 
.•ji'i^r*-* pp"'i'***ives'' ; [anri is ac- 
/ c-J \ . \ t he S. E.lK w i t h t he rt«er va- 
r. that **evidt-n«-e actually conne«!t- 
r th»' Fren«h with the (5 reek word 
>-ar« n'4 to U' known"]. 

Ph.- P. I onus of the name are 
\^fin ni\*\ rh'inujdn; hut acronling 
xhr lUthtri \Aj*un ih great Persian 
:i-iiiar> ■ ompih-*l in Inai;i, 1768) the 
rnit:\*- f.»nii of the wonl Ls chiihjan 
ta rA«/\ ' U-nt,* whi« h (as t4)tlie form) 
• •rr'»l*or«t«-'i hy the Anihic mwljan. 
the oih«T liand, a j»ro1>ahle origin 
k^iup'in would lie an Indian (Pnikrit) 
ft. m»^ning *four comers* [Platte 
»- rK.iuff'inn^ 'fimr-fold'l vi/. ixs a 
■J*- f' T th*- ji* ih>-ground. The rh uhjan 
;»a*»iMy A ^£tt riving after meaning.' 

- n^f^iingn are arrording to Vullers 
%nT «ti« k »ith a cniok ; (2) such a 

' k um:<\ a^ a drunt^tick ; (3) a 
0*k frrmi which a steel liall is sus- 
Eid*^ which waa one of the ntval 
lignia, ochcnriae called ktiukahu [stH' 
iiifH ToL i. plat« ix. No. 2.] ; 

(4) (The golf-stick, and) the game of 

The game is now quite extinct in 
Persia and Western Asia, surviving 
only in certain regions adjoining India, 
as is specified under Polo. But for 
many centuries it was the game of 
kings and courts over all Mahomme- 
dan Asia. The earliest Mahommedan 
historians represent the game of chau- 
gdn as familiar to the Sassanian kings ; 
Ferdusi puts the chamjdn-atick into 
the liands of Siawusli, the father of 
Kai Khusru or C^rus ; many famous 
kings were devoted to the game, 
among whom may l)e mentioned 
Nuruadin the Just, Atahek of Syria 
and the gi-eat enemy of the Crusadfers. 
He was so fond of the game that he 
used (like Akbar in after days) to 
play it by lamp-light, and was severely 
rebuked bv a devout Mussulman for 
Ix'ing so devoted to a mere amuse- 
ment. Other zealous r/mi/r/rf/i-players 
were the great Saladin, Jalaluadin 
Mankl»ami of Khwari/m, and Malik 
Bil>ars, Marco Polo's " Bendocquedar 
Soldan of liabylon," who was said 
more than once to have played 
chmnjdn at Danwisi-us and at Cairo 
within the siime week. Many illus- 
trious iHTs<)ns also are mentioned in 
Asiatic historv as having met their 
death by accidents in the maiddn, as 
the rhaHij(ii)'f[A<\ was esj)ecially called ; 
e.q. Kutbuddin il>ak of Delhi, who 
was killed by such a fall at Lahore 
in (or aUmt) 1207. In Makrizi (I. i. 
121) we read of an Amir at the 
Mameluke Court called Husamuddin 
Liijin 'AzTzi the Jukdnddr (or Lord 
High Polostick). 

It is not known when the game was 
convey«»d to Constantinople, but it 
must have U'en not later than the 
U'ginning of the 8th century.* The 
fulhtft des<Tiption of the game as 
playe<l there is given by Jtihannes 
Cinnamus (c. 1190), who does not 
however give the liarltarian name : 

** The winter now being over iind the f^lcwm 
clejire<i away, ho (the Kiu{)eri>r Manuel 
C.omnonu;*) devoted himwlf to a certain 
8ol>cr exer(*ise which from the tin«t had been 
the cuiit4im of the Km)ierurK an<l their Hom 
to practice. Thin in the manner thereof. 
A iNtrty of youni^ men divide into two etiual 
bandii, and in a flat K|>ace which has boen 

* Th<* cuiirt fur duiui/i'in b AKcribrd bv Oodiniia 
i (m*** It^low) to ThiMxloniuii I*ar\-uii. Tnis could 
I tianlly ht> th<^ nun of Arcadiu« (4.IX 406-450), bat 
I rmtber TheodOHiiu IIL (716-718). 


meamired out purposely thoy cast a leather 
1n\11 I. in HizA wjincwhut like nn a|)ple ; and 
setting? this in the middle as if it were a 
prize to be contended for they rush into the 
rontest at fiill sjieed, each ^nuspiut? in his 
right hanfl a stick of moderate lenfrth which 
comes Middcnlv to a broad rounded end, the 
middle of which is closed by a network of 
dried cat^rut. Then each party strives who 
shall tirst send the ball l>eyond the (Coal 
plantcfl conspicuously (^n the oj)j»osite side, 
for whenever the Ijall is struck by the netteil 
sticks throujrh the goal at either side, that 
gives the victrjry to the other side. This is 
the kind c»f game, evidently a slipj»ery and 
dangerous one. For a i)layer must be con- 
tinually throwing himself right Uick, or 
bending to one side or the other, as he 
turns his horse short, or suddenly dashes 
off at speed, with such strokes and twists as 
are neeilofl to follow up the Kill. . . . And 
thus (Ls the Kmperor was rushing round in 
furious fashion in this game, it so hapi>ened 
that the hurse which he rotie came violently 
Ui the gn>und. He was prostrate below^ the 
horse, and as he stnigglen vainly to extricate 
himself from its incumbent weight his thigh 
and hand were cnished l>eneath the saddle 
jiud much injured. . . ." — In B<inn ed. 
pp. 2t)3-2t^l. 

We fik'v from this ]»{i.s.siige that at 
I»yxaiitiinn the gaiiie wjw played with 
a kind <»t' nu-ket, and not with a polo- 

W<* have not heen aide to find an 
instance (»i' the medieval Fivnch cJii- 
ni)it> in this sensi*, nor d<K*s Littiv's 
Dictionary give any. But Ducange 
states jMJsitively that in his time the 
wonl in this sense survived in Lcingue- 
dnr, ;ind there could be no better 
evidence. From Henschel's Uwtwtjt' 
also wr iMjrruw a quotation which 
shows rhucd^ used for tunm' game of 
ball, in F'riMKh-Tjiitin, surely a form 
of i'htiutjihi oi' rhicnnr. 

The gjinir of I'hniiijtln^ the ball {fjfi 
or */'/*•/) and the jilaying-ground 
(nun'thifi) a Hold «;onstant iu»*taphors in 
I*frsian lileratun*. 

c. S2<^.». "If a man <lri'!tiii that he is on 
ImrscKifk -Ahmi: with tlic Kiuu' hinl^*clf. or 
.-ome |K.TM)iiairt', and that he strikes 
the ball h<imc. or wiii-< the chuk&n {fjToi \ 
Ti^vKavis'fi) he shall find gnice and favour 
thcrtMi]«in. enti fori liable to the sin;ces?4 of 
his ball and the tlexterity i»f his liorsc." 
Airaiii : •' If the King dreaiii tliat be has won 
ill the chuk&n {on iT\i'Kavii'rv) he shall tind 
thiiiL's pr«»sj»er with him."" — T/h hnitn, Jtifii/- I 

nc itf.s lit' At'Iiwt /hn .*^//"i///. fri'Ill a MS. 

(Jn-ek version ipuited by Jhiodi'/r in f//'<.«. 

f* I'll' I fiif-y, 

e. t'lO. ri.iij,taiitiiie !*orphyri^'enitus. 
<]n'akiii;_' ot the rapid «< of the Itnini/irtu or 
I)nii-p« I. says : "' 6 &i toOto ffffxiyfibs Toaov- 

TTfplov" (''The defile in this case is a« 
narrow as the width of the rh»hth'grf»md."t 
— /> AdiH. Imp., cap. ix. (Bonn ed. iii. 75). 

969. — **Cum«juo inquisitionis sedicio non 
modica ]>etit pro Constantino . . . ex ea 
parte tpia Zacanistri luagnitudo |ic«tenditiir. 
Constantinus crines sr>Tutiis per ainoeliorf 
caput exposuit, suaipie utften.<rione ix>pQli 
mox tumultum sedavit." — Litidpranif"*, in 
PertZy Alon. Ocrm., iii. 333. 

'' . . . he selected certain of his niediciiie* 
and drugs, and made a ffoJ^-J^id- (JaiiklB?i 
[Burton, 'a liat '1 with a hollow handle, inb> 
which he introduced them ; after which . . . 
he went again to the King . . . and directdi 
liim to re]>air to the horse-course, and Vt plav 
with the l»all and gf^ff-tnlrk. . . "—!Me 
Anthian Xi'jhtSj i. 85-86 ; [II » Hum, i. 43J. 

c. 10:i0-40. —"Whenever you march . . . 
you nuist take these pe<iplc with you. ina 
you nmst . . . not allow them to drink wiw 
or to play at chaugh&n." — /^f/A<(i-i', id 
Kltnd, ii. 120. 

1416. — '' Ikornardus de <.'astni ttitu et 
nonnulli alii in studio TholtMano s^tudenteA. 
ad ludum lignol>o1ini sivo ChlieinB 
luderunt pro vino et rolema. qui ludu^ert 
uuiLsi Indus billardi," &c.— MS. quuted in 
Ili*n»thrr» DHfiing-. 

c. 1420.— "The Trvfaritrr^pior «» 
founded bv 'llieodosius the I^ss . . . Baaliv 
the i^hicedonian extendeii and IcTelled the 
Ti"e«:ai't<rr^/>toi'." — tfHtnjin* Ojdimut d> 
A Htt'f/. ( jmOitHt. , lk>nn ed . 8 1 -82. 

ir)16. — Barlir>sa, sjieaking of the Mabon- 
medans of C'amliay, wiys: "Saom Ua 
li^fuiros e manhosc^s na sela que a caTtk- 
jo^iuun ha choqua, ho ijunl jopio elcK ten 
autre sy na conta em <{mq nos tenIOfihodft^ 
cauas"— (Lisl»ou ed. 271); i.^. "Theyiwii^ 
swift and dexterous in the saddle thai they 

1>Iay choca im horseUick, a pinio which thcj) 
lold in iiA hi^h esteem as we du that uf the 
canes" (i.^. the^V-rvvf/). 

ir»60.— "They (the Ara»»s) are such p«t 
riders that they play tennis on h«>neljick'' 
(tjiir jiitji\u a choca « &! »*»//•.). — TVwiVlffl, 
fiiwmi'in, ed. 1762, p. :i,')9. 

c. IfiOO.— "His Majesty aU> plaw at 
chaugan in dark nifrhts. . . the 1«thi whkfc 
are use<l at nijfht are set on tire. . . . For 
the sjike of addin^jr splendour tA) the gamei 
. . . His .Majesty has knot is of (^ild awl 
silver tixed to the to})s of the efian{rd» stiekm. 
If one of them breaks, any player that,gcii 
hold of the pieces nuiv keep them."— JU-i- 
AH^irl, i. 2J« ; [ii. :J03]. 

1837. — " Tlie {;amc of chOQ^han mentioacd 
by lkil>er is still played every where in T^bet; 
it is nothing but * hix.*key on horselAck.* aad 
is excellent fun."— l'i'/n>^, in J. .1. N. /{^W. 
VI. nA. 

In the following I would say, in 
justice to the great man whiles word* 
are ({uotiid, that rhuttne is ii£«d in the 
( I uiusi- military of taking eTor 


, iPufrrtation* $ur VHidoire 
/*Mti. vim and hu GloMarium 
•14, *.v. rfiMOplikiw : also OumtI^* 
I. a4-'iU The aiuilcjg^' of rertaiu 
<-f rb*- piii)«* of ^jlf .suggests 
t^r-i ml 1 \ f II If an i nfj of ch int ti^r 
n**- in taking a<lvuntjip.* of the 
( I'i'-n:.'* of thf >urfact'. And 
hf -t r i • t ni I'un i iig nf ch int m r, 
ly mill tan' writ«?rs. 
.jj**'- i'i*-.4 WiL- xhnX the (Jn'^ks 
p>w4'«i t^'th th«* pinif aii<i the 
r*'Hi Fr.ui'if-, )iiit this is evi- 
-rn r.»-i'ti-. Hf wil* not aware 
Jvp*..ui rh'iU'Mfi. Hut he ex- 
f il h«'U th*' r.i* ti« -i of the giinie 
xx\'' \*^i to the a]>|ili<'atioii uf 
■!.•*• I h'l-f i«irtu«»us jiriHVfdingsi 
••r^ »hi«h Me old {•rai'titioiiers 
■r#>.' The iiidi«-ati(in of the 
. r.^-::i "f l"'th th** Gre«fk and 
w-r-l- i* dut* to W. Ous^'lev 
j»»-n.' r*-. The latter luu** an 
iiiT ii"t*-, full nf his UMial wealth 
■.;i'. T'-.iding. in his tmiu^lation 
./: * yf'ti.Mtlnk^ Sultan*^ Xolu. i. 

\ T' -i::!^- - •\ iniil'»}jv i»ut 
i^M-:i :ii NmI»-- ujHMi Mr. 
--:- I»-r:'»u.ii\ |»iilili<.hf<l hy 
rrii- ]•:••>••!. T \\rit»'r:» in "'>*//! 
.. S-;«t. l*»7*J, i». iNi. Tli'siiiu- 
■jTi :. ».- -iij- «' Ih-imi giv»-ii l»y 
-. \ , ^W. • -.i\- : ** Or- l'»r.s la 

- ^-Ti- '-T ■ |»'U de mail. j»uis 
:- iL-j-i'-i 1.1 |»iirtir, «*t fiitin 
. :• , ',.r«- t—«i\ ♦•."." ; [and i* a«"- 

. • li »■ .W A. / '. w 1 1 h t h e res«' r va - 

r ". v:d' II' •■ .i»!u.dly <niine<t- 

Kr» I. I'j w:th th»' <ip'vk \vi»nl 

:•?:■':-■ kii"Hn ' ]. 

r t"r:ii* ■■! thf iiaiiif are 

iTL-i ''•i-'-i'ih; hut ariiipling 

/-:' .'ri A"i"t a tjrt-at IVr>iau 

• i;»:i»'i in Iihii.i, l7^^^) the 

• : -TV.. ■: thf wtird is chuhjiin 
. . ■ '- '.•. wh.' h (Jt-i to the form) 

- r •*• J ■ % th'- Arihii murlji'm. 
■r-r hitil. .1 ].n>Kihlf nrigin 

w- « .-i) : U- .111 Imiian : l*r.»krit) 
■.-1:1:.,: 'i--'.:r 'nrn'T-i' [IMatts 
■, ; • I. 'f-'ir-fi Id J, \\f. as a 

• *: ' j- '.— cr'*uiid. Thi* 'hnI'Mu 
\ . '-rrixing ;iftiT iiifaiiing.' 

■.: ' J-* .iT'- .i'» "•rdmg t«t \ ull»'r> 
-■ *. w'.th .1 . r«-»k ; (-J) Muh a 
.-•: I* .1 druinMit'k : ^')) a 

- ! . wl.i- h a .-tevl l»all is i^us- 
, nh- h wo.* one of the n\val 
k. ' t h-^rm i.-^ ••all«-<l hiuhthn [s*^* 
'iiiiv, Mir., \uL L plate ix. Nu. 2.] ; 

(4) (Tlie golf-stick, and) the game of 

Tlie game is now quite extinct in 
Persia and Western Asiii, sun'iving 
only in certain regions adjoining India, 
as is s])ecitied under Polo. Hut for 
many centuries it was the game of 
kings and courts over all Mahouinie- 
daii Asia. Tlie earliest Mahoinmedan 
historians represent the game of chau- 
tjthi as familiar to the Sassfinian kings ; 
Ferdusi ]mts the r/i/iMi/f/n-stick into 
the hands of SiawiLsh, the father of 
Kai Khusru or Cvrus ; maiiv famous 
kings Were devoted to the game, 
among whom may W mentioned 
Nfiruddln the Just, Ataljek of Syria 
ancl the great enemy of the Crustiders. 
He was so fond of the game that he 
usiHJ (like AkUir in after days) to 
play it hy lain] >- light, and was sevendy 
rt-hukefl hv a devout Mussulman for 
1>eiiig so devote<l to a men' amuse- 
ment. Other zealous r/i/M/Vf7/i-plavers 
were the great Saladin, Jahuuddm 
Mankltarni of Khwari/m, and Malik 
HiUirs, Mart'o Polo's " Hi'iidoctjuedar 
SoMan <»l Rihyloii,"' who was sjiid 
iimiv than oiuf t4> have jdayed 
fhitmjiiti at I)aiiias«us and at C\iiro 
within the sniu" wrek. Many illus- 
tri«»u.> jH-iN'ns also are mentioned in 
Asiatji- hi-torv a> having met their 
death l»v anideiits ill tin* in*iuUhi. jis 
the «'A//««////;-tifld wjLses|KM'iallv railed ; 
'-.'/. Kuthwridin JKik of l)el)ii, who kilh-d l»y su« h a tall at I^ihore 
in (or alMiut) liiOT. In Makri/i (1. i. 
\'1\) w»* ivad I'f an Amir at tht- 
Mamelukf Cnurt ralliMl HiiNimuddin 
Lijin 'A/i/i tin* Juhindar {or Lord 
High Polo-sti.k). 

It is not kiiDwn wln-n the gjime was 
conveyed to Constantinople, hut it 
' must have Ikm-ii imt later than the 
' Kyinninu of thf Htli ifiitury.* The 
fullest de.srriptiini of thf game iis 
jiliivf^l there is given hy .Inhannes 
('innamu>< (r. lllX)), wh«» do*'s nut 
h«»WfVfr givf the K'lrkirian naiiie : 

**'I*ho winter now K-im: i>vor .md tlu- i;1<x>m 
floaivl Jiwuy, hf It ho Kin|K'n>r Manuel 
I'unUK'niiH) (iovotfd hiin«>flf to .1 ofrtain 
»v>>»or cxemM' wiiij-h fnan the tii>t h;i»i l>oon 
thf custom of tlif Kiiiii;n»i> !in«l thfir ."H»ni« 
to pniotiso. Tliix U th*- niannor thorvof. 
A l»Jtrty of youi^r men liivido into t»o o«|ual 
li(uul?«/:in(l in a flat .•'|«.iff which hiw Inxm 

• Th»» court f<ir rhnu-fn i> a-scriN'"! hv Cuihiiiui 
(»^- ln»lnw) t*^ lIitMnlosiHH l*jir\U}«. T^ii-* could 
i hanlly Im? th«' M>ti (if Ari*a<ltM4 (a.ix 40S-4:iO), but 
I rmther Theoilomuji 111. (Tl'i-TlSX 

miLA w. 



M name ci the Greek Part- 
jfeM'« Caid»ol, ed. 1889, 
Mine bird which is called 
DatiTee and fire-eater by 
engaL"— ///iVf. ii. 95]. 

• day in the fort he found 
ndoeed in a wicker basket, 
called the chuckoor, and is 
—Mt$. Skencood, Aulohiog.^ 

ffat of birds attracted my 
tgine them to be a species of 
se— black beneath and with 
oat the wings — they were 
4i; the people called them 
AblfOtty Sotes during a 
in J. R, Geog. Soc. 

Q.p. A place on the west 
oa, an old seat of the 

The name is a corrin>- 
Tam. »aldhham^ *tne 
nghale^ it is Halavntta. 
H a>muionlT applied by 
e to the whole a^grega- 
I {Baixos de Ohi£u>) in 
tCanaar, lift ween Ceylon 

of Madura and Tinne- 

jiafChilao." See quotation 

sAjueria de Chilao . . . por 
sente in un puerto del mi^- 
. iaU de Seylan . . . Ilaraado 
\ ; por que chilao, on lengua 
qiiiere dezir ite^/Hrria." — 

, s. H. chilim ; **the 

Ihi (s*^ HOOKA) which 

Ak^vo and charcoal 1 Mills, 

»uietinit*jj l(Mjrtelv iLsed for 

, or the act of smoking 

It is a]s«> aiiplie<i to the 

of the liowl, in the same 

ask-* fiir "another" 

I* vxM-il by the mai«M.'d in 

ibble, w cut small and 

a pulp with (jortr^ i>. 

a little wat4*r. Hen<-e 

with glowing cliarr<Kil 

fp it alight. 

nnjT a habblo-bubble, |tor 
ma a dny. 

/i« 0, dnUZ, ra$h 0." 
rrymrr* in ("n/tticHif of Hut*. 

hare n«A the same scruples 
as for the rest of the H(M>ka, 
lent . . . whereas the very 
the Hooka giren rise fre- 
ridieokNu quarrels."— 

1828.— '^Ever^ sound was hushed but the 
noise of that wind . . . and the occasional 
bubbling of my hookahy which had just been 
furnish^ with another ohillimi." — Tkt Kvz- 
zUhoihy i. 2. 

1829. — "Tugging away at ^our hookah, 
find no smoke ; a 'thief having purloined 
your silver chelam and Burpoose."— /oAa 
Shippy ii. 159. 

1848. — ** Jos however . . . could not think 
of moving till his baggage was cleared, or 
of travelling until he could do so with his 
chiUum." — Vanity Fair, ii. ch. xxiii. 

in S. Arcot, which is the site of a 
famous temple of Siva, properly Shi- 
damburam. Etym. obscure. [Qarstiii 
(Man. S. Arcot, 400) givto th^ name as 
Chedambram,, or more correctly CkiU- 
ambalam, Hhe atmosphere of wisdom.'] 

1755. — "Scheringham fSeringam), Bohft- 
lembroiif et Gengy m'onroient ^alement 
la retraite apr^ laquelle je soupirois." — 
An^udii du t^emmy Zendav, Disc, Prelim, 

CHILLUMCHEE, s. H. chilamehi, 
also nlfchiy and silpchl, of which chilam- 
chi is probably a corruption. A basin 
of brass (as in Bengal^ or tinned copper 
as usually in the West and South) 
or washing hands. The form of the 
word seems Turkish, but we cannot 
trace it. ♦ 

1715. — "We prepared for our first present, 
viz., 1000 gold mohura . . . the unicorn's 
horn . . . the astoa (?) and chelumgie of 
Manilla work. . . ."—In Whftl^, ii. 246. 

1833.— "Our supper was a petfaw . . . 
when it was romove<l u chillnxnchee and 
goblet of warm water was handed round, 
and each washed his hands and mouth." — 
/'. (roidon^ FrAgmrnt of tkt Jourmd of a 
Tour^ 4c. 

1 Kfd . — " When a chillumohee of water Mm 
!<oap was providcKl, * Hnvo you no soap?' 

Sir C. Napier asked " — SfamtoHf Itutian 

Command of Sir C. Sapirr. 

1857.— "I went alone to the Fort Adju- 
I tant, to report my arrival, and inquire to 
; what regiment of the liengal army I was 
\ likely to l>o potfte<l. 

" Army ! — regiment ! ' was the reply. 
* llioru IS NO liongal Army ; it is all in 
revolt. . . . I*rovidc younwlf with a camp- 
liedritoad, and a chiUnmchee, and wait for 

'* I saluted and left the presence of my 
MU|H;ri«>r officer, deeply jKindering as to the 
|MjfwiliIu nature and qualities of a ehilllUII- 
ehee, but not venturing to en<{uiro further." 
-'U.-<\tl. Lewin, A Ftn on th^ Wk^et, p. 8. 

There is an Anglo-Indian tradition, 
which we wouM not vouch for, Uiat 





out? of the onitors on tlie great Hast- 
ings trial depicted the 0])preK8or ou 
some occasion, as "gras[)ing liis c/«i7- 
lum in one hand and his chlUuincliee 
in the other." 

The hitter wonl is used chiefly by 
Anglo-Indians of tfic Bengal Presi- 
dency and their servants. In Boml>ay 
the article has another name. And it 
is told of a gallant veteran of the 
old Bengal Artillery, who was full of 
** l^r^sidential " ]>rejudices, that on 
hearing the ]^)nil>iiy army commende<l 
l»y a hi-other officer, he hmke out in jiLst 
wrath : "The BomUiy Army 1 Don't 
talk t«» me of the Boniluiy Army I They 

ciill a chilltimchee a ifiruhj! the 

Bkasts : '■' 

CHILLY, s. The i)<)pular Anglo- 
Indian name of the ]kk1 of iH^d pep])er 
{f'apsicujii frntico8U/u and C. annHum, 
Nat. Orrl. Maiuurat). There can be 
little doubt that the name, as stated 
by Bontius in the <|Uotation, w;u< taken 
from Chill in S. America, whence the 
l>lant Wits carried t^) the Indian Ar- 
rhi]H?lago, and thence to India. 

[1004. — " Indian |K>pi»cr. ... In tho 
lan^im^u of ruxco, it in ca]lo<l Vchu, and 
in tfiat of Mexico, chill." — f*nniMon^ tr. 
irAcuita. H. \y. Iiuii\t^ I. Hk. iv. 239 LStanj. 


l»5.1l.— '*. . . oort addore fnictiini Kicini 
Aniuricani. iiu<k1 lada Chill Malaii V(x?ant, 
1 1 nasi «Hca?i Viymr c Chile, Hraniliae conter- 
niina rcffi«»no.' —Jar. liimtH, Dial. V. p. 10. 

AgJiin (lib. vi. cap. 40, j». 131) B<m- 
tius calls it ''pijtfr Chih'nsi\* and also 
* Hicinus I'niziliensis.' But his com- 
nit-nlator, Piso, observes that Ricinus 
is ipiite imjtroper ; "vera Pi]K*ris sive 
('a]isi4-i lira/iliensis s|H*ries apjKiret." 
pMHitius s'lys it was a (tommon custom 
of natives, and even of eirrtain Duteh- 
men, to kee]> a piece of chilly eon- 
tinually chewed, out he found it in- 

ISIS.-'" Try a chiU with it. Miss 
Sharp,' Miiid .fnsi'ph, really interested. 
*A chili?' s'lid KelK'cia, paspinir. 'Oh 
ve^ ! ' . . . • Mnw frL-h and irrvL-n they 
UK>k,' she «iiil, and pnt one into her nmuth. 
It wa'* h<»tter than the tJirry ; Me-h ami 
lilood e«)ul«l Iwar it no liinj^er."— Van if if 
Foil', ch. iii. 

GHIMNET-GLASS, s. (iarrlener's 
name, «in the l^ouiliay sifleiif India, for i 
the flower and plant Alhnintmla cathnr- 
tiai (Sir G. Ih'rOiroiHf). 

CHINA, n.]i. The European know- 
ledge of this mune in tlie funiiA Thih'f^ 
ana Sinae goes Itack nearly to th** 
Christian era. Tht» famou.s* nientiuu 
of the Sinim hy the )irophet Isaiah 
would carry us much fiirther liack, luit 
we fear the ]M)ssibility of that r^ferriiij: 
to the Chinese must I>e aljaiidoned. as 
must 1>e likewise, ])erha|hs the siiiiiilar 
application of the name China* in 
ancient Sanskrit works. The iui««t 
proltjible origin of the name — whi-h 
IS essentially a name applied ^y 
foreifjHern to the country — iu yel ?uj;- 
gested, is that put forward by ftii««n 
F. von Ri<-hthr>fen, that it conies fn'rii 
Jih-nnn^ an old name of Tongkiii^ 
seeing tliat in Jih-nan lay the only )Nirt 
which was o|>en for foreign trade with 
China at the 1)eginning of our era. and 
that that province wa.s then incliidt^i 
administnitively within the limits "f 
China Proper (see Rirhthofen^ Ckiivu L 
r>04-r>lO ; the same author'^ pa}ier$ in 
the Tnum. of (he Berlin Gto^. iSfC, l^ \ 
1876 ; and a iNi|H'r by one of the pn^nt j 
writers in Proc, I(, Ofoij. Soc.^ NoveiiiWr 

Another theorv hiis l>een suggt^tifd 
by our friend M. 'I'errien de la Couperie 
in an elalNmite note, of which we om 
but state the gi'neral gist. WhiUt 
he quite acce]its the suggestion that 
Kiao-chi or Tongking, anciently calW 
KiiO'ti\ W)isthe Knttigara of Ptolemy* 
authr>rity, he denies that Jih-nan <-in 
have U'eii the origin of Sinae. Tliy 
he cliK'S on two chief grounds: (1) 
That Jih-nan w;is not Kiait-ehi, but a 
provinee a giNKl deal further t^mtK 
corres| Minding to the niiMieni pw\Txi'T 
of An {Stjhi Aufy in the nia]» of M. 
Dutreuil de Rhins, the capital ••f 
which is alMMit 2' 17' in lat. 8. "f 
Hanoi). This is distinctly stated in 
the Otiicial (Jeogniphy of Annam. An 
was one of the twelve juiiviiirts i'J 
(*orhin China ^u-oiht till 1820-41, when, 
with tw(» othei-s, it was transfer^d 
to Tongking. Also, in the ChiB«<t 
Historical At bus .Mb -nan lies in Chen- 
Chiiig, i.e. OK-hin-Chiiui. (2) That 
the ancient i>ninunciatioii of Jih-n-tn. 
as indicatiHl i>y the Chiiies«* authorities 
of the Han ]H*ri(Ni, was Xit-naiH. It 
is still ]»i*onounced in SinifO-Aunamitr 
(the most archaic of the Chinew 
dialects) Nhut-miiH^ and in OuitonvKe 
y at nam. M. Terrieii further painto 
out that the export of duneae goodie 
and the traffic with the Kmth tai 




.L** for !*«'Vfral centuries B.C. 
i***d }'\ \\w Stiite of Titen 

• »iioiiiui.*d in Sinii'f>-Annaniite 
1*1 in Mandarin TiV/*), which 
!nK"i to till* centre and of 
Yun-nan. The Shr-ki of Sze- 
n (H.C. 91), and the Annals 
Han I)vnjL«ty att'oi-d inter- 

nfiirniitinn on tliis subject. 
h»' KnijH'Mir AVu-ti, in con- 

• nf I 'hanf;-KienV information 
Kuk fr»»ni liaitria, sent envovs 

tlie n»nte folluwe<l hv tfle 
• •I Sliiili (/.#. Sze-chuen) Uj 

irr^' I'hvnys Were detaiuefl l»y 
»n^\ Kin;; of Ts«*n, wln> (►!>- 
« th»*ii f\|ilriiin^' trade-routes 

}ii- tt-rritorv. s;ivin«' hau'ditilv : 

r Han a -Teater d<»!uinii>n tlian ■ 

•^ I 

»rri.-n mnreives that as the | 
inii:iii<atinn nf tlii> T>en State « 
S-ii \v. -uld Ih' hy the S<Mi^-K<)i 
ii^H'iji.'ii iif s«*a-trade witli that ;t« nmutli. vi/.at Kia»>- i 
'i,.*ir.i. Thu.*, lie CI insiders the 
7*-'. rhi- |»ii\verful and arro- I 
,'»■, :li'' iii"n«ijH»liMT of trade- 
iri .'ill jiiMKil.ility that whi«*h 
r mi \\vU' the name nf ('h'nij 

:•. 7'/, i«»|^, anij Jires<TVe<l its ' 

..iji< «' in the mnutlhx of 
-, •'\tn wln-n, a.-* in the 2nd 
'»! iiur t-ra, th** ^'n-at Km] tire 
ii. h.i- '-Ntt nded «»v»T tin* I)»*lta 

't.^*-K"i. I 

iit,i\ !;i-i-<U n»'»i<' •ini-idrrat i<»n ' 
'.k'l ii'.w u':n'- It. Hut it will ■ 
1. I*. • «li~i u-i-iiin i*l>»«-\vh«ri', : 
■•■- i.-.T •ii'.tiirh Riiliih«»iVn'.s 
^;-'ii <•! K iff i^Mra. j 

•il'.- T'lTiI'l* T}i«' -UL'lJ*"*t i"U«i 

':■ f* :r iti-1 T. ijr l.i ( 'oujH-ri" , 
u' i' V--.-. Fr«iiii ;i ii-i-i-nt r»-- 
l.'-!i « I tin* .-ulijiTt hi- ha" 
)i. .iiii jii-iiiTi tliat tin* naui'- 
. } ]\ )m' di-nv*-d fr«»m th«- 

.1 d\!ia-Tv, ilt't}! Ill" IViti, 

r ';,.d li.i . 2.V>.2<>7, .in'l l.i-- 

:• "■. kni'Wii 111 In«lia, Pri-ia. 

: A-i.iti- • '•uuTrie-. till- 

: i*-l '.V thf I*i«rtiiL'Ui'>«-.] 

*' -• ■ h-hii:'l thi- c'liiitr^ 
« • ii.i-- fi- .i t«-riiiiii.itii>it 

i:. Thm. ti-'l m th«- iiitt-n-.r "f . 
r> ■,'iiT.' tw til.- li.irth. thi-n- i- 
»r < ty .,i::iil Thinaa. fri-m uhiili ■ 
.'i «■!« thri-.tii aii^l xilk -liitTx art- 
• rLAX.'l thniii,:h fi.irtria to 11:4 rv 
«-T aft '•!i th»* othtT hiin'l hy th<" 
«-«r t*» liinyncf. It i.-* n«»t ra.-N. 
'• set to thii Tllia, ami fvw aii'l 

far )>ctwoon arc those who como from it. ..." 
—IWinlu* Man's Erythnm ; seo Miiller, Geog. 
fir. MIn. i. 3a?. 

c. 1.50 "Tho inhabited part of our earth 
is )x>unded on the east by the Unknown 
Ijaml which lies along the region occupied 
by the ejwternnKwt races of Asia Nfinor, the 
Sinae and the natives of Serice. . . ."— 
Cf(uafiitj< Ptolemtjj Bk. Wi. ch. r>. 

c. 545. — "ITio country of silk, I may men- 
tion, is the romntest of all the Indies, lying 
towards the left when you enter the Indian 
Sea, l)uta distance further oflf than the 
Persian (Julf or that island which the Indians 
call Sele<lil»a. and the (Greeks Tanrobane. 
Tiinitni (elsewhere Txinista) is the name 
of the Country, and the Ocean comiNisses it 
round to the left, just as the same Ocean 
comjiusscs liarliari (/.r. the Somali Country) 
naind to the right. And the Indian philo- 
sophers called hrachmans tell you that if you 
were to stretch a straight conl from Tlinitm 
through i'crsia to the Roman territorj', you 
Would just divi<io the world in halves." — 
CiMinitjt, T(fji*H/. <"hriM.. Bk. II. 

c. r>41.— **In Wl the King of Mngadha 
(Ik'har, ki.'.) sent an ami Missador with a let- 
ter to the Chinese Court. The emperor . . . 
in return direct-etl one of his officers to go to 
the King . . . and \o invite his submission. 
The King Shiloyto (Siladitya) w;is all aston- 
i-^hment. * Since time immemorial,' ho asked 
his iitficer, '<!id ever an amltassiidor come 
intwx Muhtmhinton t' . . . The Chinese author 
remarks that in the tongue of the Imrlmrians 
the Middle Kingdom is callc<l MuhfichJSlUiii 

• Maha-Chlna-sthana)."— From Vathtnj^ &c., 

7^1.- "Adam Priest and Hishoi) and Poi»e 
< >f Txinetth&n. . . . 1*he preachings <if our 
Fathers to the Kin;r of Tlillia."— Nv''"'<" ^'"'"^ 
"»f the Injti rif'timi 'tt Simhinfu. 

11th Century. The "King of China" 
(BhinaJtonififiii) ap|»«irs in the list of 
pnivinrc ami nionan-hies in the great In- 
•*<Tiptii>n of the Tanjoro FagiMia. 

1 \'j>. "Chlnaand JAnA/ichi]ianpi»earina 
li'-t of placo"* pn»«lii<.-in^ silk and t»ther cloths, 
in the Atthihtj^hitni-OuiihiHttlintnii of the 
Ch."»l Ilk va King.'' -Sjitfifiiniffii-ft (MS.)* Bk. 
111. .h.'O. 

VJ'.**^. - " Yi»M mu-t know the Sea in which 
li«' tin* Ulands of tho-*c |i;irts {•* called the 
Sc.i of Chin. . . . Kor. in thr lan^rujige in 
tlio-i- l«.li-. wIhmi tliov Niy Chin, 'tis Manzi 
tiny iiMiin." M'ii"> I'"/-: Hk. III. eh. iv. 

• I: iii.i\ '•• wf".! !'• :i]ii-!i-Mi'-i'' tlif whi>li« list 
whii li I m >! .-11 :i •-■■i:ip "f luip'T ii. IM" Miinj««lls 
h.iii<i^»rit:ii,j (\ ): 

p.-lMlaimm. .\tnUv:"ttn (AnhUtikI). 

« »i.'iji\.ill;. MMi.ip'ini. 

A\:t:iMvhitt:i (T ■'■>,). Mri!:i-»Tli.iiio (.V"//ani 
N.i^,-iit.f.l* I Ni;-,-rf.t:i. ') r..ttiiM:i. 
p.ii..l\.fl.-4.i (Ma'l.>"n. I\tfti'l»iiiatuna. 

All.'.sak.l!.l < 11.11.1. 

S-.riiliala-li ;iM (< • ■ " ■ V M.ili.irhiiui. 

• .../.-.ii-tli..-.n' ). Kiiliiijawl-M (rro'^it 

I ii.4'.;ik.i ( Ih i"H f) 




one ot" the t)ratoi's on the great Hast- 
ings trial depicted the o])])re.ssor on 
some occasion, as "gra««innK his f/*i7- 
Ihiii in one hand and his chlUmnchee 
in the other." 

The latter word is used chiefly by 
Anglo-IndiaiLs of tfie Bengal Presi- 
dency and their servant,s. In Bonil>av 
the ailicle \\i\A another name. And it 
is told of a gallant veteran of the 
old Bengal Artillery, who was full of 
*' I*residential " prejudices, that on 
hearing tlie l^>inhay army commended 
l»y a brother officer, he bnjke out in just 
wrath : "The Boml»av Armv I Don't 
talk to me of the BomU'iy Army ! They 
uill a chilliunchee a niruhj! the 

I^EAHTS ! " 

CHILLY, s. Tlie popular Anglo- 
Indian name of the ikkI of red i>epiH'r 
(f.-apsicum fruticosxivi and C. anna urn, 
Nat. Ord. SolanaceiHf). There can be 
little doubt that the imme, as stateil 
hy liontius in the 4 notation, was taken 
from C7it7i in S. America, whence the 
jilant wiis carried to the Indian Ar- 
chi{H.*higo, and thence to India. 

[ItKM. — " Indian jKJpiwr. ... In the 
hin^iumre of (.'usco, it in called Vchu, and 
in tlmt uf Mexico, chili." — t''riinjiUni^ tr. 
//.loW«, //. U'. /ndir:,^ 1. «k. iv. -239 (Stan/, 

WA\. — •'. . . ism nddere fnictnm Kicini 
.Vniuricani, quod lada Chili Malaii vocant, 
qiuvsi flicius niK;r u Chile, HniJ«iIiao contur- 
iiiinu rcgione.* — Jnr. JiontHy IHjiI. V. p. 10. 

Again (lib. vi. ca[». 40, ]». 131) Bou- 
tins calls it ^ pijur ChUen^n's^* and also 
* Hicinus Hra/iliensis.' But his cf»m- 
im'ntatr>r, Pi>n, ()bM.«rves that Kicinus 
i>. quite imprnjuM* ; "vera PijH-ris sive 
(ajisici Hra/.iliensis species a]»iMirel.'' 
liontiiis siys it was a mmmon custom 
of natives, and rveii (»f i-ertain Dutch- 
men, to kci'jj a piece of chilly <*on- 
tinually rln-wed, but In- found it iii- 

18tS.-"*'rry :i cWU witJi it. Miss 
Shar]»,' Maid .Io-<i']»h, really intorosttHl. 
'A chili?' sriid K««lii-cca. pi.^pin^. ' < Hi 
vcs ! ' . . . • How frc»-h and irrcrn tlu-v 
look,' she sjiid, and ]>nt nno into her nii>ut)i. 
It %^as hotter than the curry ; ticsh and 
hlo«Kl ojiild lK.'ar it no lon^jcr." — Van'tu 
Fair, ch. iii. 

CHIMNEY-GLASS, s. (Jardmer's 
name, on the Boiulwiy side«>f India, for 
the flower and plant AUamnndn cathar- 
tiai (Sir G. Biroirouil). 

CHINA, n.]». Tlie Eur«)pean know- 
ledge of this name in the furnu Tliiw^ 
ana Siwie goes Ixick nearly to tlif 
Christian era. The famous nientinu 
of the Sinivi by the pi-ophet Isaiah 
would carry us much further liack, 1»iit 
we fear the jMwsibility of that nifeniiij; 
to the must l>e aliaudoniKL m 
must W likewise, perhaps the .similar 
application of the name Chinat in 
ancient Sanskrit works. The iu4h-t 
pHjlttble origin of the name — whi«h 
IS essentially a name applied i'V 
foreUjinTA to the country — as yet suj:- 
gested, is that put forward by Banm 
¥, von Kichthoten, tlmt it comes fr<»m 
Jih-nati^ an old name of Tongkiit^ 
seeing that in Jih-nan lay the only pitt 
which was o]K*n for foreign tmde with 
China at the l>eginning of uur era, and 
that that ] province was then inchidnl 
administratively within the linii(« 'i 
China Pn»iH*r (s»*e Richihoffn^ China, i. 
004-510 ; the same author's pajieK in 
the Tninn. of the Berlin Gtotf. Sk. f^r 
1876 ; and a jMij^er by oueuf thepwprnt 
writers in Prot'. R. (itoy, Soc,^ Xoveniltr 

An<.)ther thi-<.»rv has lieeu sug^t«<l 

by our friend M. "tenien de la Cou|ieri< 

in an elalM>rate note, of which we iad 

but stat^' the geiienil gist. WhiU 

he ((uite acce]>ts the sugj^ion that 

Kiao-chi or Tongkinjj, anciently itlW 

Ki'io-ti^ was the Kattignra of Ptoleni*^ 

authority, he denies that JiK-nan lan 

have Ikm'U the origin of Sina^. Thi* 

li«* diH's on two chief grounds: (1) 

That Jih-nan not Kiao-chi, hut » 

j»rovinre a g«HKl deal further 8i«aih. 

corresjKmding to the miNleni pro^in r 

of An (Xffhe Attf, in the map of M. 

Diitri'uil de Khins, the capital i<f 

whiih is alKMit 2" 17' in lat. 8. |rf 

, Hanoi). This is distinctly stated in 

j thf Ottic-ial (reogniphy of Annam. .4i( 

' wa< one <»f the twidve pmviuce* «** 

( '«"liin t 'hina ]»n>]>er till 1820-41, when, 

with tw(» others, it was transfenvl 

lo Tongking. Also, in the Chine* 

: HiMorieal Atlas, Jih-nan lies in Clh»n* 

Chiiig, 7>. C.Hhin-China. (2) Thit 

' thf aucifut ] pronunciation of 

I as indicated l»y the Chine.s«« authorilit^ 

! of the Han jHTiod, was Xit-nam, It 

! i< still jM-onounred in Sinioo-Annaiuitf 

(the m«>st archaic of the Chinrt^ 

iliab'i'ts) AVll/^mll/l, and in OuiUm* 

Yntnmit. M. Terrien further poiiti 

out that the export of Chinese goodie 

and the tratKc with the aondi ■■' 

Mnnl centQrici b.c. 
T the Bute of Tmi 
•d in Bmico-AnnamiU 
lUnduin TVcn), which 
> the eentre uid west of 
IB. The Skt-ti ot 8ie- 
. 91), *ad the AniuLi 
n^TBUtj affonl inter- 
itxm OD thia sutiject. 
iperor Wu-ti, in cim- 
■ug-Kien's infomiAtion 
ram Bactria, Htit envors 
mat* folliiwed liT the 
nh {Lt. Sie-cbuvn) to 
vayt wen detained bv 
ing of T»en, who ob- 

exploriiiff trade-routes 
itoTT, (Byiiig haughtily : 
I gnater dnniinion than 

coDreivn that aa the 
ation of thin Tn-n Slal« 
mid lie ))j die Song- Koi 
III ot sea-trade with that 
Lt ita mouth, Kiao- 

ThuK, he coniiidera, the 
hi* jxnrerful and arro- 
' iii<>n<>jM>IL)«r »f trade- 

|im)iririi]ity that wliioh 

Jr. JIfin. i. 80 

..t ail, 

inae, and pTv)»'n-pd 
in the uioiilhit <•■ 

\ when, aa in the Snd 
era, the great Eiii]>ire 

FXtcnde<l over the Delta 

rrtla tiiiin- <-oniuderatii>n 

■f diiAurl. Rii'lilbofeii'^ 

: Euttipira. 

r>-pirdi the ."iigp-slioD!' 
jnd T. 'ie la (.Vm|KTie 
*. Friiiii a recent re- 
'I the siityevt lie has 
' thai the iiame 
>•• derived fmm the 
.ii*rtT, C»'in <JT r/in, 
I nc. 855.207. and U- 
n-'irn in India, Pers-iii, 
tic "ninlrim, the lituil 
■y the IV-rtiipjesr.] 
— '■ hehinil thi* cinintrj' 
t^ KiuJ IQ the int«rii>r iii 

eaSlsd maa*. fnim which 
ihnail lUid nlk >>tuff> are 
thRnirb Bvtna u> Bkry- 
nti th« oOwT luad by th« 
U iuj i k *. It ia not suf. 
Is tkb IUb, and ta« and 

I<nd whioh JiM ■loog tlu rwioo OMti|riad 
by ttia eMMmmort mooa of Ana Mliur, th* 
Una* and tha natiTM of UmiiBt. . . ."— 
C/OHfi'iu Jtolemg, Bk. Tij. ch. B. 

c. MS.— "Theooantryof oik, I EMyiHa- 
tku, i« the TBmoMrt of all tlM Indit*, M^ 
lAwardji the left when jm entar the iMan 
Sea, hutavkrtdiMaiMMtnrUMraffthantlw 
PanuD Qnlf c« that kland whiefa thelDdiaiH 
call Selediba, and the OrMki IWpralMM. 
TilBltn (eleewben TIIbIMk) b tba naoM 
of the Cotutr;, end tha Ocean i iiiiifw It 
iDund to the left, jiut a* tha Hto* Oosan 
comp— ii Bartwri (i.r. the SoBdlJ OoDBtar) 
round to the nsbt. And the Indian pliilo- 
■opiiem sailed fiaehmau tall jon that H na 
were to itretoh a itrajght oord from Trianift 
thmuah Pereia to the RoiDan tan i tofy, you 
■oulcT jort dJTide the worid in halna/'— 
Omu, Topng. C%riM., Bk. II. 

o. «41.- 

(Bohar, kc.) eent an amba 
tar to the CTiintee Court. Hie emperor .. . 
in return directed one of hi* oAoen to go to 
the Kinff . . . and to iorita his mbmianon. 
Thu Kin« Shiloyco (Siladityft) wu all utoo- 
iHhment. 'Since time iromeinorial,' ha inked 
hii ofliuer, 'did eTir an ■mboimdor come 
fromJV'MUr^liiifunr . . . The CbinCM author 
niniarlu that in the tongue of tha barbarians 
the Middle Kioffdoiu is catlad Mu/iotsUnlan 
|MHh>-CUBa-stMna)."-Kn>m rVxAey, Ac, 

AdaiD I'rieat and Bishop and Pope 

,— than. . - . The preachings of our 

of the iiurrifitutn vf Sinj/anfa. 

11th t'entiiry. — The "King of (Jfainn '' 
tShiBa'funuAoH) appears in (he list of 
IwMTiDceH and moDBrvbies in the great In- 
•crigition of tha Tanjnre Haguda. 

11-JA.— "CUaaandiraAdeUnasppearine 


i( tbo 
ikya Kiog.'"— ■Soiifinir.ufira (-«■'*.)• Bk. 
:h. 6. 

«.— "Yoii must know the Sen in which 
lo I»bnds of lliuiw imrtH i* cillcd tha 
'f Cbin. . . - i'"'. in tba Inneiiaga in 
Inlco. whan thov uy Chin. 'Ii< Maiib 
m«aa:'~Marr., }:.t.., Bk. 111. ch. i*. 

• >nsv 1- w,-ll lo 


',i,.,-.rlnl-r B« 



hi»ti.\-ilt {AhXilrU). 




■ T.ptiiil'*. 



Thli.iski {nasa f) 






c. 1300. — "Larg[e ships, called in the 
language of Chin * junks, bring various sorts 
of choice merchandize and cloths. . . ." — 
Rathiduddin, in Miot, i. 69. 

1516. — **. . . there is the Kingdom of 
China, which they say is a very extensive 
dominion, both along the coast of the sea, 
and in the interior. . . ." — Harboaa^ 204. 

1563.—" R. Then Ruelius and Mathiolus 
of Siena sav that the best camphor is from 
China, and that the best of all Camphors 
is that purified by a certain barbarian Ring 
whom tney call King (of) China. 

"0. Then you may tell Kuolius and 
Mathiolus of Siena that though they are 
so well acquainted with Greek and Latin, 
there's no need to make such a show of it 
a.s to call every body 'barbarians' who is 
not of their own race, and that besides this 
they are quite wrong in the fact . . . that 
the King of China does not occupy himself 
with making camphor, and is in fact one 
of the greatest Kings known in the world." 
— Garcia De Orta^ f. 45ft. 

c. 1690. — "Near to this is Pegu, which 
former writers called Cheen, accounting 
this to bo the capital city." — Ayetn^ ed. 
1800, ii. 4; [tr. Jairett, ii. 1191. (See 

CHINA, s. In the sense of porce- 
lain this word (CTiZwi, &c.) is used in 
Asiatic languages as well as in English. 
In English it does not occur in Minshew 
(2nd ed. 1627), though it does in some 
earlier publications. [The earliest 
(I notation in N.E.I J. is from Cogan's 
Pinto^ 166^.] The phrase China-dishes 
as occurring in Drake and in Shaks- 
jxfre, sliows how the word took the 
sense of j>orcelain in our own and other 
languages. The ])hrase Cliina-dishes as 
first used was analogous to Turkey- 
carpets. But in the latter we have 
never lost the geographical sense of 
the adjective. In tiie word turquoises^ 
again, the phrase was no doubt origin- 
ally pier rex turfiuoises^ or the like, and 
here, as in china dishes^ the specific has 
superseded the generic sense. The use 
of arah in India for an Arab horse is 
analogous to china. The word is used 
in the sense of a chijia dish in Lan^s 
Arabian Nights, iii. 492; [Burton, I. 

8f)l.—*' There is in China a verj- fine clay 
with which they make vtisos transjiarcnt 
liko l>ottlcs ; water can bo seen iiijtidc of 
thum. 'ITieso v;w«e.s are made of clay." — 
lUlnand, Rtlatiuns^ i. 34. 

c. 13r>0.—*' China-ware {al-fnlhHAr al- 
Slnly) is not ma<lo except in the cities of 
Ziiitun and of Sin Kalun. . . ."—Ibn JJatutaj 
iv. 2fi6. 

c. 1590.— ** I was paanng one day aloo^ 

a street in Damascus, when I saw a lUTe- 
boy let fall from his hands a graat Chiiia 
dish {^fat min al-hakkkk&r al-tSaif) vhkh 
they call in that country mAh^ ^ It broke, 
and a crowd gathered round the Kttle Mane- 
luke."— /&» JkaHta, i. 238. 

c. 1567.— "Le mercantle eh'aDdaouM) 
ogn' anno da Ooa a Bezeneger eranomohi 
caualli Arabi . . . e anche pfzztt di CIdtt, 
zafaran, e scarlatti." — Cetare <fc* Ftdaiti^ in 
RamtitiOf iii. 389. 

1579.—" ... we met with one ship mora 
loaden with linnen, China silke, and Qdna 
diflhet. . . "—DraJx, }Varld Mmeompm^, 
in Hak. Soc. 112. 

c. 1580. — "Usum Tasomm aureoriim et 
ax^enteorum Aegyptii rejeoenmt, ubi mar- 
rhina vasa adinvenere ; quae ex India affer 
untur, et ex ea regione ^uam Silii vocaiit, 
ubi conficiuntur ex variis lapidibus, fnt- 
cipueque ex jaspide.'* — Protp. Alpimus^ Pt 
I. p. 55. 

c. 1590.— ''The eold and sflrer ditbei 
are tied up in red cloths, and thoM in 
0[>pper and China (rAlni) in white ooe^."— 
Aiitj i. 58. 

c. 1603.—'' ... as it were in a fndt-diih, 
a dish of some threepence, your honoon 
have seen such dishes ; they are not CUit 
dishes, but very good dishes." — lieancr'Jvt 
Mfosurfj ii. 1. 

1608-9.—" A faire China dish fwhich act 
ninetie Rupias, or forty-five Reals of ewfat) 
was broken." — JIaictin*, in J*urrluu, L 220. 

1609.— "He has a lodging in the Stnpd 
for the purpose, or to wateh when ladiet 
are gone to the China-house, or the Ei- 
change, that he may meet them by cbanot 
and give them presents. ..." 

"Ay, sir: his wife was the rich GUba- 
woman, that the courtiers visited so often." 
— Bfn Joiiwuy JSifrnt Woman, i. 1. 


"... Oh had I now my Widiw, 
Sure YOU should learn to make their CUM 
Doggrel prefixed to Conf<U** Cndilin, 

c. 1690. — Kaempfcr in his account of the 
Persian Court mentions that the depaitaisnt 
where porcelain and plate dishes, cc, vcn 
kept and cleaned was called CbiB-kbiM> 
' the Cliina-cloeet ' ; and those servants who 
carried in the dishes were called ChUfcllh. 
— Amoen. Exot., p. 125. 

1711.— "Purselainc, or China-ware is » 
tender a Commodity that good Instmetuni 
are as necessary for Package as Purchsss.** 
— I^tcl'tfer, 126. 

1747._'»The Art of Cookery made Ptain 
and Easy ; which far Exceeds any ThiK 
of the Kind yet Published. By a Udf. 
Ixjndon. Printed for the Author, and SoM 
by Mrs. Asbum a China Shop WooiB. 
Comer of Fleet Ditch, MDOCXLVII.** 
This the title of the ori^iiMd aditioa d 
Mrs. Glass's Cookery, as giTtD fay O. i* 
Sala, in Jtid. Neu% May 12, 188S. 




>rfS. - " SchuT)«r mcntidiui that the hevt 
-ar:rr niTthfnware in TurktutAn ik called 
CbSaX. iLd \nfAr* a duiDJiy imitatiun of a 
'^u^w ai.4rk — («c« Turi-ufan, i. 1-^7.) 

F r th*- f''lli>«'iiiK iiit«ivsting n(»teon 
:!■' Ar.iJ :• lu^ Uf an; iii<iel>t«*d to 
t^-i"^^ r Ki»U-rt.-<'ii Smith : — 

^ri^A I* *P'-ken of thu« in the Lataiftil- 
!rj irtf 'f li Tb'kliKT. cd. I>tf J«.inir. Loydvn, 
:^ * '--'k wnttcn in A.D. 990. **Tho 
\rh-M «>-rt: ■•••r.t ti' lull all cloicnnt vefweU 
L.'*t :tr lAf SlBlya (■.'. Oiinefie), whatever 
:a«T r*a ■■ »«-r««. >*i-.-i»i«v nf the ]«|tecialtv 

• f ?sr ' h:r-^-^- iri ■ihj«'t.- I'f vortii ; and this 
.^^'? *»a_k)u- :rj thv f^'nininn won! MUtrtind 
:; J? .1^ : *-i ♦. !hi }-rt-*cnl liiiy." 

N .:i '-tfr T'.lr-^^.'f-thitiiH iff llin Ma«ko- 

• k,\ Kr li>;. Ar. li. fr*?.'. it ii* Maid that 
u'. Vi» •-^•.•i:rv • f M:inn'm with Kfirun "her 
rfkr.'! :> tLrr fc?r*i«t'*l «ivcr her 1000 {icarlii 
t^r I gjL'jm "f iTi'M." In ^Vyp^ the 
'aIl....^ r ■.:.■! V-rfc" tr.iV"* iimmI t4> dine off, 
Air -^ « 1 i-*l nl-l^^it {vul^ii wrNivfi), [the 
'^ . ■'^ ; -f N. Iiiilia*} and rt<> !<• a £un>i)oan 

T>. • i| r»^^i. n tiiii^i/ »(/ j.ii?, '* A <*hineKC 

• ^i«> :• ,:j-!«-d atf.titi I'V IK* (iiwje frr)ni 
I \**z. i %''.l«hdii Airanl. liii. 2i. [Sco 

;CHINA-B£EB. ^. kind (»f 
. : - i '.Ti 1 '];:!. .u ]<«T}i.i|i<i a varifly 

I .r. i .» j.rr ■ f China Ik-are." 
-' . .1 : /• ■ :. :W.; 

CHIHA BUCK£EB. up. <>nt- <>f 

• : !»-l*.i :i. ■ ith- ••! Uii- Irawadi 

.!■'.!. !;. iriLr- I ii.iit"'. W'v have 

" ■ — :. :' '• '■■ L- ■ rt.iiM ihi- "rifTiii of 

■ ,■ -. I .r*K-r Than thai Pmf. 

r ■ ■ .: .: • r. .ri "i:- .V' ♦'■': '»7i fh' Ettrly 

;/.-• ■• '»..-;. . r' /.v. }lnrnfi (j». IG), 

*'i"'- •• i* •:!' ■■ iiiMx l-t-twei-n Riii- 

: • ■- i* : !-».-- H. '. ' "li the We.««t «'l 

■■:.- i-.nj • T. H;\« r. l'"r»' th»" name nf 
' ■.. T':..- !•• ' n ■• ■ xj'laiii the '7<//(i<. 

GfHIKA BOOT. -■ A «>n<-.- famniw 

• ,■ •.- '■* r. .1- /.'■"/'.>■ 'ViMi'i* and 
r. •' ; i. . "'-II.*: ?)i«' tnU-r nf 

■ ■•- .- r > ■■•■hij (N. o. >'»!»■- 
- ' ■ ■ -.«!..« •■■ \\l::'h %ir<Ni{uirilla 

• ■ .'■ !* •» I- %i:d r«« liave heen 
-: • •■ j^.-i . Tf.-i t ■.!> rliaili'S V. 

* ■'. - -? r.'.j !'r .:ii k*"'!!, and anpiired 
»*--.' :• : .:♦ It h l- al-) miii h ns«'d 
■■■-•«:.- »av !.« •^irsiikirilla. It i«J 
•- ■ . •, .>-.\ttf m Kn^hin<l. hut is 
:.-.: :ti f.-t-rni in the native 
;urt:^^'-j«f ui» of (linm and Imliii. 

1563.— "7?. I wish to take to Portugal 
iiome of the Boot or Wood of Cbina, since 
it w not a contraband dnif^. . . . 

**0. ThiM wooti or root grown in China, 
an immenMO countr)', preHumod to be on 
the confines of Mtuicovy . . . and hecaune 
in all thene regionn, lM>th in China and in 
tJajMin, there exintii the morbo fuipo/itano^ 
the merciful (v<xl hath willed to give them 
thi.t TXKtt for remedy, and with it the good 
phyKiciann there know well the treatment.'* 
— frurcitt, f. 177. 

c. ir»90. — "Sircar Silhet in very moun- 
tainoiiM. . . . Chiiui-Root (rkttb-cklni) is 

{»r(xluced hero in threat plenty, which woa 
mt lately dij»covere<l by m>mo Turks." — 
' Aj^^H Al-ft.^ by (SUuimiiy ii. 10 ; [ed. Jarrftt^ 
ii. 124;. 

iri98.— " The roota of China in commonlio 

VMe<l amtmg the I<4ryptian.H . . . speciallv 

for a consumj>tion, for the which they seeth 

: the rc^>te China in bn>th <»f a henne or cocke, 

' whereby thev )»ecome whole and fairo of 

face. "--/>/■. l*at»dahM8, in Lintrhotm^ 124, 

. [Ilak. Soc. ii. 112]. 

c. 1610.— "Quant k la rerole. ... lis la 
; gxieriKsciit sans suer avcc du boil dXlchine. 
. . ."—PvrarH d^ Lat^l, ii. 9 (ed. 1679); 
[Hak. StK.-. ii. 13 : also see i. 182]. 

[o. 1690. — "Tlie caravans returned with 
i munk, China- wood i'**"* dr Chiuf)."— 

lirrt,i*-r, ed. i\in.*taf>le, p. 42r».J 

CHINAPATAM, n.p. A name 
! si»metimes piven l»y the natives to 
Madras. The name i.s nnw written 
ShtJintn-Shfiifm-pfNitnnam/rAni., in Tel. 
(^hffitnifmtta)uimu^ iiUi\ the followinp is 
tlie (»npn <>f that name an-ording to 
the statement given in W. Hamiltdn's 

On ••thi'* |»;irt of the <'< of Con»mundeI 
. . . tlic Knjrlish . . . itosjte-ised no tixcl 
v^'tabli^hnieiit until A.D. \*\^\\K in ^^hich Year. 
i»n the 1-t i»f M;tn*h. a ^ntnt was received 
fpim the deNi'eudiint." of the }{iiid«Mi dynasty 
of HijanaiTur. then rei^rninu' at Chander- 
irhiTry, fur tlie er»'rtioii i»f a f<irt. This 
lioiMinient fnun Sn-i' Kunir iJaveel e\i're-'lv 
euj'-iii'*. that the town anil fort to In- i-nvteii 
at Madni"* "liall U' calle«l after hi- i>wn 

' tuiino. Sr'f H'lffja fiaini/''ifiii.i ; lnit the IikmI 
jfovfriii -r of Naik. I)anierl.i who 
tir*t inviteii Mr. Kranri- I>ay. the i hief i^f 

. Arrniuriiii. to renjovu to M.ulr.i-. ha' I pre- 
vii.u-ly intniiat«'d to him that he wnilii 
h.iVf the new Ktijli-^h e-.f.iM:'hliiiTit f« -untied 
in the n.irne •■[ hi^ fatln-r • h«-TUia|]M. an«l 
the name if ^h^'Ila]»|•.l|".^^^:Il •■■ntinut - l«» be 
univer>ally apj'lird to tin* •• wn of 
by the nativi". ..f that ilivi'iii of the -i«uth 
of India nanie<) Gravida." »\"!. ii. p. 4l;J». 

Dr. Pj»irnell doubt e-l this origin nf 

the name, and iiin-i'iiTed that the 

, aetual name eoiild hanlly have been 

, f»»rnu*<l fn»m that of ('henai»j«. It is 

|K^Me that sume name .similar lt» 





obcitAtioD to advance to 
tieen pr«|«red for tbeixi, 
Irvt l*o MMtetl ; in thti* 
chanan, whu had vi<nte<l 
e what wan ti> \te dr>ne ; I 
d on the fiirem«wit, whiUt 
nelf frm|»|iled with the 
«M«i iixvii them in their 
« during thv f(tru{?(?Ii'. re- 
I. Chin Chin* the rhiuoMe 


0HIKT8, GHINOH, s. A Inij^. 
This word is now quite olisolete 1x)th in 
India and in England. It is a corrup- 
tion of the Portuguese ddnche^ which 
iigain is from cimex. Mrs. Trollope, 
in her once famous 1>ook on the Do- 
mestic Manners of the Americans, 
made much of a suiuxised instance of 

,m"—<Mr FmUuMy to '^^^^^ scjueamishness m Amencan 

I Ifidies, wlio iisi^l tlie word chtnt^ei in- 

4 the rhineie nervant* ^^^^^ "^ ''".V*. But she was igiiorant 

of tlie fiict that chini* was an old and 
I>ro])er name for the ohjectionable 
exotic inset't, Mmg' being originally 
but a figurative (and perhaps a polite^ 
term, *an o)>jei!t of disgtist ana 
horror' (IVedfficood). Tlius the case 
was exactly the opposite of what she 
chose to imagine ; chxnii was the real 
name, hiig tiie more or less affected 

Aaid. ' Mr. TalUit chin 
\mwi\.' "- Tk' FaHkifU^ at 

ir fntni thinking? it any 
oiur licaiitiful lan^ua^ef 
t4i t;!(»ry in iti« diiitortiun, 
k iintf uD<>thvr to como to 
cad i>f dinner : and .^ond 
eren in Ictteni, niUier 
inientH ; uxwt of them i^r- 
t that * rhnt-thitf'- ' in no ! 
kin it i<( Ilehrcw ; that | 
h .in exprewion Uf*od }»y 
• rtut in it^ tnio moaning , 
*kr'"'i-t'ye. old fellow,* f<»r ' 
iL<od. <fr the nimplinientH 
.lU-ntlv •iilwtituted." -If. 
-.. Sf'.^f. i. lW;(ed. 1V*3, 

1616.— "In the ni^ht we were likewise 
very much diwjuietod with another iiort, 
callcKl M n»jH^tu^*^ like our Gnatu, but 
i«omc-what Ichh ; and in that seotion we 
were very nnich tnmblod with Chinchaa, 
another sort of Httic trouble!«omc and offen- 
sive creature**, like little Tikrs : and thene 
!iimove<i u!i two wave8 : a.** first bv their 
bitiiur and .stim^in^^ and then by their stink.' 
— Terrif. ed. 16t)r», p. 372 ; [cd. 1777. p. 117]. 

161.''».--'* . . . for the m<*st part the bed- 
steads in Italy are of forced iron fnl'lo*'* 
•<inoe it is im{H>ssiblo to keei>o the wooden 
ones fn»ni the chimicet." — A'r»'/*/«'* hiam^ 
Si-pt. 29. 

I«i7"i. — **. . . Our Ktxlies brt>ke out intfi 
•<mall tiery limples . . . aucrniented by 
.Mu>ikeetoo - Hitcs. and Chinoes riii^ring 
Hli.xters «m us." — Fri/rr^ IJT*. 

'*Chint8 arc vcnonums. and if 
PIECE-GOODS)-] sipieezed leave a m(.ist Povscmou.s Stench." 

-/fn\f. 1M». 

. ii.p. \ \**\\u <*\i the 
•; Hi:!.'*: .ilMiVf < 'alrutla, 
ik. wlii* h w;is the M'at 
' and l,ut«iry 
wb»-n It fi'^ii'd t«> 
.TV itf Liiii'ioii, undtT 
it L^i^** up Malai <a and 
- :n r<iiiliiii'ii!al India, 

ir*-\i trmii Suniatia. 

i'» iiaiin- to .1 kind of 

.■. U.'f*»i-i» 'i iiriti rt ••VliK.'k 

« .ipt Kii'h.ipi'MiTi and h\- 

■ n.\ !•• •!:•*.• in ye Chin- 

.i ::.• t hi- f' •'!■•« if ij ni»-''si*re 

■ : ..." H-tij-f, Ih'i; ;i, 

:• ip{- \Wv • h.iiiidorii.ij<«r 

M i-t. -'t :•■•■ "ur li' b 'rd 

'■• .\- <l«. < J.iTUTc-. ... A 

■J :. \ I "i:;*- i:r.ind».' Villi- 

nt . . . J. ■■•'•' I' r, »»!-»».'. 

, . 'At, I r-- "Mr L" "!*:»• '"r 
:- - . .i...d Sintemu |'.'. 

* H ■•,' : ' ^li»« 1» i* the 

l': ■>.'.:.. \. 1»IJ. 

htirm. w^t.-n- tin- l)'iti;h 
the K.ii.tiip« li.i\o 

• 1 M- i*c» -t.irjdiru: pltM".- 
. r Si'lr : tri'l .til of lliein 
-c« -A J/,iimi/f.,n, ii. 20; 

See ipioUitioii 

CHINTZ, .s. A |>rinte«l nr siM>tte<l 
«ott«»n ilotli ; l*nrt. cJiita ; Mabr. r/^f^ 
and H. chlnt. Thi- wonl in this bi.'*t 
liirm o<riirs (c. IM^O) in tlie A'm-i-Ak- 
ft-in (i. 0.')). It miiu's ajuwuvntly from 
the Skt. chitnt^ * varii-^'aled, spr<'kled.' 
'I'lu' bi"»t rhint'y,< wen- )Miut;lit on tin' 
Madras co.lsI, at Ma>uli]Kitani an<l 
S;idr;u«. Tlie Fn-inh Iniin nl the \v«>nl 
is ihit*\ whirli has su^ee^ttMi tin* ]H»ssi- 
i»ilitv i»f our sh*'ft Ihmujx *•! ^hi* .s;inu* 
origin. Hut rhit^- is a|n»;uvntly of 
in<lian oripn, tbroui:li the l*nrt»ii^ues«\ 
\vbil>t sh**t \< niu<'h »»Mer than the 
I'tirtUj^uese (-onnnuni«-ation with India. 
Tlius f 14r><)) in Sir T. CumU'rworth's 
will lie tliroits liis " wreilu'il InmIv t<» 1k» 
bervd in a rhittr with nwle any kyst**" 
{Arminny, Se].t. '27, 1871), ]». *23t)). 




The resemblance to the Indian forms 
in this is very curious. 

1614. — *'. . . ehinti and chadors. . . ." 
— Peyton f in Purcha»y i. 630. 

[1616.— ** 3 per Chint bramport. "—aocifei'* 
Diartff i. 171. 

[1623. — '^Linnen stamped with works of 
sundry colours (which they call dt)." — J*, 
delta Valle, Hak. Soc. i. 45.] 

1653.— "Chites en Indou signifio dcs 
toillos imprime^s." — De la Boullaye-le-Gous^ 
ed. 1647, p. 536. 

c. 1666. — "Lo principal trafic des Hol- 
landois k Amedabad, est de chites, qui sont 
de toilet* peintes." — Therenoty v. 35. In the 
English version (1687) this is written BChites 
(iv. ch. v.). 

1676.—" Chitesor Painted Calicuts, which 
they call Calviendary that is done with a 
pencil, are made in the Kingdom of Gol- 
conda, and particularly about Matuli- 
fXitam^—Tacaiiier, E.T., p. 126; [ed. Bail, 
li. 4]. 

1725. — "The returns that are injurious 
to our manufactures, or growth of our own 
country, are printed calicoes, chintz, wrought 
silks, stuffs, of herl>a, and barks." — />e/cw, 
iV<ir V(ntagr round Uie World. Worhj Oxford, 
1840, p.* 161. 

1726. — "The Warehouse Keeper reported 
to the Board, that the chintiM, being 
brought from painting, had l>een examined 
at the sorting go<lown, and that it was the 
general opinion that both the cloth and the 

{>aintings were worse than the musters." — 
n WM^r, ii. 407. 

c. 1733.— 

" No, let a charming chints and Brussels 
Wraj* my cold limbs, and shade my life- 
less face." 

Pofi*'^ Moral Kssaiffj i. 248. 

" And, when she sees her friend in deep 
Olwerves how much a Chints exceeds 
Mohair. . . ." 

Ihi'd. ii. 170. 

1817.—" Blue cloths, and chintzes in 
{larticular, have always formed an extensive 
article of imiK)rt from Western India." — 
Rafflt^t^ II. of Java, i. 'f*>^ ; [*2nd ed. i. 95, 
and comp. i. 190 . 

In the earlier books alMHit India .<»oine 
kind of chintz is often termed pintado 
(q.v.). See tlie i)} in tlie 
( I not at ion from Wheeler alK)ve. 

Tills exjMjrt from India to EuroiHi 
has long ceased. AVhen one of tne 
]»reseiit writers was Sub-(.ollector of 
the ^ladras Distritt (1866-67), chintzes 
were still figured by an old man at 
Sadras, who had been taught by the 
Dutch, the cambric Ix'ing furnished to 
liim by a Madras Chetty Ol-v.). He is 

now dead, and the bnsineaB has ceued ; 
in fact the colours for the proceflB are 
no longer to be had.* 'Hie former 
chintz manufactures of Pulicat are 
mentioned by Correa^ Lendoi, iL 2, 
p. 567. Havart (16d3) mentions the 
manufacture at Sadras (i. 92^ and 
gives a ^ood description of the pT0c«« 
of painting these cloths, which he calls 
chitsen (iii. 13). There is also a ,veiT 
complete account in the LetiraEdifi- 
antes, xiv. 116 seqq. 

In Java and Sumatra ehtntms of a 
very peculiar kind of niarbled pattern 
are still manufactured by women, 
under the name of bdtik. 

CHIPE, s. In Portuguese use, from 
Tamil shippi, <an oyster.' The pearl- 
oysters taken in the pearl-fiahenes of 
Tuticorin and Manar. 

[1602.— *< And the fishers on that eoMi 
ffave him as tribute one day's oysten (Ana 
dia de chipo), that is the result of one dsv'i 
pearl fishmg.'*— CV/m/o, Dec. 7, Bk. Vlll. 
ch. ii.] 

1685.—" The efaipe. for so they call tbost 

* I leave this passage as Dr. Bnmdl wnCe it 
But though limited to a specific localitr. ofvbkh 
I doubt not it was true, ft convenrs an Idea of the 
entire extinction of the ancient chints prodoetta 
which I And is not Justified by the Ikets, as skovs 
in a most interesting letter from Mr. Piodoii 
Clarke, C.&L, of the India Moseam. One Usd 
is still made at Masulipatam, under tlis ssp«r> 
intendence of Persian merchants, to sapplj tht 
Ispahan market and the '* Mog^nl " tndcis st 
Bombay. At Pulicat very jHHraUar rhhitnt sn 
made, which are entirely jfalam JTdrl voric, or 
hand-i>ainted (apparrtntly the wonl now luad in- 
stead of the Calmendnr of TkvfmieT, see aborf, 
and under CALAMANDERi This is a work 
of infinite labour, as the ground has to be ston>^ 
off with wax almost as many tiroes as then art 
colours used. At Combaconnm Saroiics(q.T.)sie 
print<Hl for the Straits. Very bold prmuog Is oow 
at W&l^&pet in N. Arcot, for sale to the MoslMSl 
Ilyderautd and Bangalore, 

An anecdote is told me by Mr. Clarke wlurii 
indicates a caution as to morvi thinss than cktats 
printing. One iiarticular kind of chints met irith 
In H. India, he was aMured by the Tcndor, «ss 

nrinted at W ; but he did not reoognias tbe 

locality. Shortly afterwards, visiting Hor tbf 
second time the city of X. (we will csall it), when 
lie liad already lieen assured by the eollsctort 
iiativHi aidn that there was no such mannftctarp, 
and showing the stuff, with the statement of lU 

lieing ma<le at W , ' Why,' mid the collector, 

'that is where I live!' Immediately behind kis 

bungalow was a small hasar, and in this the 
was found going on, though on a small scale. 

Just so we shall often find persons V who hat* 
been in India, and on the spot — anseventiDgtksl 
At such and such a place there are no —*—**— or 
no converts ; whilst those who hare cared tokaovt 
know lM»tter.-(H. Y.) 

[For Indisn chintzes, see Forbes Wataon, TWA 
Manvfactvm, PO 9eqq. ; MukhMtjH^ Aft JIsM' 
fnelurfi nf India, 848 ttM. ; & H. HadL MmL m 
Dye* and DyHna in tit N.W,P. end OiA 44 
$eqil. ; Francis, Men, <m . 




'•vr« vkii-h their UmU are wont to iifih." 
-/. '..r . f. 63. 

IT!'.' "tnum: ••{ tbete oy<«1cr« or che|^, 

»0 :L%- r^t:ir* t.'al! them, firriduce ]icarK but 

*--tr, •*,■>• rm.'. the irreat«r i«rt im Mincing 

Q.T •«-:t1 p«Ar.« ■•i/>;rrv«) [itev ALJOFABJ. ' 

.v»fcs. ttr^^^u '' 'I'^tfiif. ii. 243. 

CEIBETTA, s. H. rhir^nuu Malir. 
ii' /i*'f A iliiiialay:iii hfr)t*iccoiis 
J L » : . • ? T I . . < > p 1«* r ' rVn f i'«f nnrme (Svyrtvi 

•1> H i : : I . : OjMia Ch initu^ 

*jr:- -U« 1j : *iti'ti'iun t'hiniyitn^ Hnxli. ; 
.4;;'''f*. r-Airrii/fa, Dnii.), tile {\v\vA 

r% .-- T w'hi'.h. infiiM-(l. atfonl a |mre 

' •*. - •• t ..- tii'l M«rifuj?r. It.s Skt. 

:-.:..- t- • "f'ffii:?*!, Mln* Mtt«-r plant of 

•h- A - .'•■i>, rvft-r- ii.- <iiH iiwry to ih;it 

:•-: ^•. iTi t v:» ii.-i\vlv-<lit!uMMi fuivst 

■'■-. • *-•. iF.'i ii'irth-ea.*! of Bi'Iipil, 

■b- k.^z5ai -I :li»- Peri plus, and tht* 

••- ; • • : tr.f Ktp^dia i»f l^toleniy. 

T:-r- .- r." in'ii<ati<>ii of its having 

'»*L k\. uTi :#• (f. *li* Orta. 

■ I 

A ■ ' M^j in Ri'n^l : Great in 
&c ... It i" cXL-vj».«iiVt'lv hitter, and 

r*- •■ . -T. r.Mnhii' ari<i vi'nii»fiVf.'*--/i>j». 


.*-' Thi;. :»!"« t''^'" ■» '!'itt«.r «kiiK.'tii'ii 

' • ■ •■?.. • .!/• ■';.'• 'I •«. /fi'i ;iii<l che- 
rvflA ! ■■ ■ • ;■ • 7*"»-'-.«'.ii' ••'" A"/."/, in 

Ivi Chiretta t. l< '--nj In-en hcM ill 
*■— •■ ;. ':.•■ Hu.ii ...... In Kiurlami 

• ••%■•■ ■■ ."ri.t - ii.i- .if tfiiTjMTi aUiiit 
'.'i' .-. : ;-: \^^\',* »;i- i:;*r'-«l*h fd into thi- 
•-•■■■ .V i'K ini: 1. 1 1-1 1.1. Tin.- i>!jint wa- 
V-.- ..^-v-o ■•■■, i:".\> irjh in 1^14."- 

CHIT. CHITTY, s A letter .t 
-' •' .-• I • -rtili" .i!«' ^:iveii to a 
••■ i; *. ' r 'i'l- Ilk*- : .i |»ii.^'. H. rhitfhi ; 
M.:- -:'r; [Skt. J.'?;-!, ' niarkiHi.'J 
T- : iT, 1*. TT i^i- M- .i1m» u.^* r/»f7() 
■ ' •' • / .♦'•;•.. Si;pj»lt-iin-iit). Tile 
T.v ; :^ y :•■ t;^' j>ii' l-.r a tKket, or 

; • T ' i' • •- .»/! 

■• -III- B 1*'«. 

■<"■' : -•• :.v -f i.iir tlniiiv, with 

' • W..-, F . Chttty r I'.L-i-. t.» thv tiowm- 

'.".' ]* \^r ;•.■■> n«t t4-t hntic to 

'■'• ■' 'i- chltt *• S ii'-thifij »"iit the 

•*•"/'■* ..• i-i-..-- . : Iriw fr-'in ine." - 

■ '*' . T^ -^- Li'SU-- :iu*\ lit-ntle- 

'-'■ *• -m •:. '.. 'V ?-t .j-i.r :h.»t i-'lit«- Art 

'"'' '^ • . Vr. U- T.«.. n^i;. kn'»w hi"* tenn** 

•••'■ ,* * Chit- . . ■ - Iti Sftt.n-Kori; 


-»< Y- '1 fcfv I" *^-ii net. Ae., tn every 
"^T-uts.'. fr n» Mu'N.-it ■ii-. briniT'* v«»ii u 
ckittj ?f» tj. Mrcr K&juii.. — T'j'j''-''$ L'tur$^ 

1787.— '*Mn«. Arond . . . will wait ujKjn 
any Lad v at her own houao on the shortest 
notice, bv addressing a ehit to her in 
C'hattawala Gully, opposite Mr. Motte's 
old hoiutc, Tirotta's liaiar."— Advt. in 
! SfUm-Knrry i. 226, 

1794.— "The i)etty but constant and uni- 
verwil manufacture of ohitfl which prevails 
here." — H*itjh liuyil^ 147. 

1829.- "He wanted n chithee or note, 

■ frjr this is the inoHt note-writing country 
'■ under heaven ; the very Drum-major writes 
i me a n<ite to tell me alnnit the mails." — 

MfM. oj (%tJ. MouHtiiiH, 2nd ed., 80. 

ia39. — "A thorr>ugh Miwlnw lady . . . 

receives a numlier of morning vifnton), takea 

uj) a little worsted work ; gooH to tiffin with 

I .Mrs. ('., unless Mrs. D. e<imeH to tiffin with 

■ her, and writes some dozens of chitf. . . . 
< These incesf«.'int chitl arc an immense trouble 

and interniption, but the ladies seem to 
like them.*'— Z,*-^/»r*/ruwi AftvlrtUt 284. 

CHITCHKY, s. A curried veg*»- 
tal»le mixture, often .served and oaten 
with meat curry. ProjKjrly lieng. 


1^7r>.- "... Chhenchki, usually called 
(orh'iri ill the Vurdhiimfina District, a sort 
• »f h«Hlijf-]HKl;je consist iiii;r «»f jMitatoe-s 
brinjiils and ten<ler stalk.-. ..." -ft'nrin(ta 
SttHttHfti^ i. .'»9. 

CHITTAOONO, n.p. A town, 
|»<irt, and di.<lnri of Ka.-^tern IVnpil, 
]»ro|M.Tly written (Viattjatiw (jHje PORTO 
PIQUENO). rhittaj^oiig ap{>eais to l»e 
the fV/// (/ lifiujaUi of \'arthenia and 
some of the i*arly l*ortu^ue.s\ (S«e 

c. i;il«;. --'-The tirst city of Hencnl that 
wo eiitiTcd was Sudk&W&n, a irreut place 
-it Mated yj\\ the "ihore of the jrreat Sea." — 
Il'H H,ttit,i, iv. 2rj. 

l.Vi'J. -"Ill the mouths of the two arni«« 
of thi* (!a[i^f'< enter tw\> ncitable rivers, one 
on thr v;i."it. aii<l ont* on the Wf^t si«le, 
buth U>uiiiliii^' this kiiu:doni (of Beniral); the 
one of tho>e our {>co{»le call the llivcr *A 
Chutigam. l>ecau*ie it entiTx the F.jistfrn 
f^tuiiry of thf (Jaiit'cs at a rity of that 
name. whi»-h l- tlio iiio-t famous and 
Wealthy of that Kintrdi'in. by rea->n of it-* 
iNirt. at which meet" the tratVic of all that 
Ki'-tcni niri'iti."- /'• /**«//"f'o, Dec. IV. 
hv. ix, cap. i. 

l.'i.^).- "Satagam." See i|Ui 'tat ion under 

l.'»91.- "So al-o thi-y infi-rni me that 
.\ntonit» «ii; S»u.-..i (Ioui|iiih«» ha.* rierved me 
well in ll'iu>j'ntJla, ami that he has matlo 
tributary t«»*this vtat«' the Nlr of Sundivj, 
and has 'taken the ft>rtn*H- -f ChatagU&O hy 
force of arm-*."-- Ai'ii;/'.* L'tor, in HrfAfii.» 
I J'nrt, iPri'Ht.^ f:u»c. iii. 2.'»7. 




1598.— "From thia River Eostword 50 
miles lyeth the towncr of Chatigui, which 
is the chief towne of Ben^ala." — LinachoUfif 
ch. xvi. ; [Hak. Soc. i. 94].* 

c. 1610. — Pyrard do la Val has CharticaJi, 
i. 234 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 326]. 

1727.— "Chittagonng, or, as the Portu- 
guese call it, Zatiffaxn, about 50 Leagues 
below Dacca." — A.lIamUton, ii. 24 ; ed. 1744, 
ii. 22. 

17— .— "Chittigan" in Orme (reprint), 
ii. 14. 

1786.— "The province of Chatigan (vul- 
garly Chittagong) is a noble field for a 
naturalist. It is so called, 1 believe, from 
the ch4Xta4jy\ which is the most beautiful little 
bird 1 ever saw." — Sir W. Jonety ii. 101. 

Elsewhere (]). 81) he calls it a 
" Montpelier." Tlie derivation given 
l)y this Qlustrioiis scholar is more 
than questional )le. The name seems 
to 1^ really a form of the Sanskrit 
Cliaturgnima (= THrapolis\ [or accord- 
ing to others of Sapt^igrdmaj * seven 
villages'], and it is curious that near 
tliLs position Ptolemy has a Petitapolis^ 
very i>rol>Jil)ly the sjune j)lace. Chatur- 
grdma is still tlie name of a town in 
Ceylon, lat. 6^ long. 8r. 

CHITTLEDROOG, n.p. A fort 
S.W. of Bellary ; properly Chitra 
Diirgaviy Red Hill (or Hill-Fort, or 
r* picturesque fort']) called by the 
Mahommeaans ChitMurg (C P. B.). 

CHITTOBE, n.j). Clutor, or Chitor- 
gurhy a very ancient and famoiLS rock 
fortress in the Kajput State of Mewar. 
It is almost certainly the Ttdroi'pa of 
Ptolemy (vii. 1). 

ir>33.— "liiidour [i.f. Bahadur Shah) 
... in Chami^anel . . . sent to carry off 
a (]uantity of iK>wder and shot and stores for 
the attack on Chitor, which occasioned some 
delay because the distance was so great." — 
Ctirrea, iii. .'>06. 

101.').— * "The two and twentieth (Dec.), 
Master Edwards met me, accompanied 
with Thomas Coryat, who had {wssed into 
India on finite, tiue corn's* to Cytor, an 
ancient CMtie ruined on a hill, but so that it 
apiKjarcs a T<mil)o (Towne?) of wonderfull 
magnificence. . . ." — .SVr Thovui* IOh'^ in 

* Then* is no reaHon to suppoHe that LiiiHchoU>n 
lm<l himsiilf Xy^w to Chittagonp. My fheii'l. I>r. 
liiinioll, ill his (iKMithumoiis) e«Iitinii of IJiischoten 
for lh« Ilakluyt Society has coiifoumlwl Cfnltignm 
in thiH lOHsago with Sattiaoii^M^o Porto Piqueno 
(H. Y.X 

t The cMtak which fl>?un»« in Hindu i)oetry, is, 
according to thedirtioiuiriRS, Cuculu* mrianoleucoM, 
which murtt Im» the jmjhI cuckoo, Cocvystes mrla vo- 
ir ucw, Om., in Jcrdon : but this surely cannot be 
8ir William's " niOMt beautiflil little bird he ever 

Pyrcfuu, i. 540 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 102 ; "OHor " 
in i. Ill, "Cliytor"inu. 540]. 

[1813. — '*. . . a tribute . . . impoiiedbjr 
Muhadajee Seendhi;^a for the restitatioa of 
Chaetohzgarh, which he had conquflrad 
from the Rana." — BrovgkUm, LtUen^ ed. 
1892, p. 175.] 

CHOBDAB, s. H. from P. eU- 
ddr^ 'a stick-l)earer.' A frequent at- 
tendant of Indian nobl&s, and in 
former days of Anglo- Indian officials 
of rank. Tliey are still a i>art of the 
state of the Viceroy, Grovemors, and 
Judges of the High Courts. The 
chcmdrs carry a staff overlaid with 

1442.— "At the end of the hall stand 
tohobdan . . . drawn up in line."— .4Mtfr- 
Razziik, in Ituiia in the XV. CmL 25. 

1673.—" If he (the President) more oot 
of his Chamber, the Silvrr Statpv wait od 
him."— /Vy^T, 68. 

1701.—". . . Yesterday, of hit own 
accord, he told our Unguistit that he had 
sent four Chobdan and 25 men, an a aife- 
guard." — In IIA*w/er, i. 371. 

1788.— "Chubd^ . . . Among the Na- 
bobs he proclaims their praises aloud, as ht 
runs before their palankeens." — Itufiam IV 
cahulary (Stockdale's). 

1793.— "They said a ChnbdATt with a 
silverstick, one of the Sultan*s metMOgcn 
of justice, had taken them from the plaoe, 
where they were oontined, to the pahbc 
Bazar, where their hands were cut «f.**~ 
DiroiHy yamitirf^ 235. 

1798.— "The chief's Chobedar . . . ako 
endeayoured to impress me with an ill 
opinion of these messengers." — O. FonUr» 
Traveltf i. 222. 

1810.—" While we were seated at 
breakfast, we were surprised by the en- 
trance of a Choabdar, that is, a semuit 
who attends on persons of oonaeooMiet^ 
runs before them with a silver sticlc, ana 
keeps silence at the doors of their apart* 
ments, from which last office he deriTes his 
name." — Maria (JraJiam^ 67. 

This usuallpr accurate lady has been hsrs 
misled, as if the word were ckup-dtf, 
* silence-keeper,' a hardly possible hybrid. 

OHOBWA, s. Burmese Tnuhwa, 
Siamese Chao^ * prince, kins,' also 
Chaohpd (compounded with AJN^ 
Mieaven'X &ud in Cushing's Shan 
IMcty. and cacography, gow^ Moid, 
master/ smohpa^ a *hereditarv prince.* 
The word chu-hu^ for * chief/ ia found 
a])plied among tribes of Kwang-si, akin 
tx) the Shans, in a.d. 1160 iPrtif, T. ii 
la Cou]>erie). The designaUon of tbe 
])rinces of the Shan States on tlM 
of Burma, many of whom are (or 
till lately) tributary to 




kftor them came the Chobwaas, 
butary |>rinces: thei»e are per- 
il before the Bunums had ex- 
r eooqueete orer the rtuat terri- 
I thej DOW poaeea*, had hold 
mdeat toTereigntiee which they 
maintain to long as the balance 
atinued doubtful between the 
egucr^i and Siamese." — iSjfme$, 

ill that tract of land . . . is in- 
L nomermis nation called Sciam, 
same as the LaoK. Their king- 
ided into small districts under 
hief* called ZaboJ^ or |>etty 
'imffrmmrto, 34. 

rhe Tunbwas of all thoto prin- 
r«n where must ab(«oIutolv under 
all the ftirms and appurt4;nancos 
— Tn/if, Mifwion to A iw, 303. 

The Kuccessiun to the throne 
«f«ndji upon the (lerMHi chosen 
rt and fieople being of princely 
1 Kuch are calle<l chow or prince. ' 
TkoHtaitd JiiUi vhuh Elfphantj 

L -'. Turki choahd. A long 
iriiit'iir, like a an'.s«ing-g«>\i'ii 
f ft It u'liich Eimii>eaiLs often 

'»i It). It is pn)i)erly an 
rni «»f (livsts and is generally 
•-••iiif siift wfN)lK*n matifrial, 
^•iiliTed on the Mleeves and 
In Bokhara the v^'onl is 
I iurre«l n)l>e. ["InTil»etan 
. Turki jiiAn. It is variously 
r-i chufniy jufnt or rhxjha in 

Jiufm «»r iJnihka in Kussia" 

N.S. XXIII. 122)]. 

\W do not hour of 'Hhirt-^ilecveH* 
i>in with lloiiry (I^wrvnce), m) 
n .Ii>hTr>« I'.'iM,* ; wo Iwlievu A// 
lt«h.iriir:«: wiui an Afifhan choga, 
chiintv oirervd a multitude i»f 
, It'Tf", Sit, 'JIO, on Z,i*/V of Isttrd 
.. JO.*. 

IDAB, ^ A watchman. 
•■ in IVi> form fmni 

Thf wonl 1- uMially a]»plii*d 
iTf wHt* bnian : in s<>nu* \^ivXA 

b»- if* g»*nerally of a thieving 
•i hi.s employment nmy 1>e 
.4^ a .xort of blackmail to 
Tir.- jin»ii»Tty. (In N. India 
\^ tTkaukhlar is the rural 
lA, ami he in alH» <'mpl<>ye«l 
h and ward in the smaller 

-And tlM Day foUowi the Cho- 

f -)T*d from 

... at night parading about with his spear, 
shield, and sword, and assuming a most 
terrific asi>ect, until all the family are 
asleep ; when HR OOBS TO slbsp •too." — 
Willmviton, V, M. i. 296. 

c. 1817. — "The birds were scarcely begin- 
ning to move in the branches of the troes, 
ana there was not a servant excepting the 
ehoekedann, stirring about any house in 
the neighbourhood, it was so early." — Mrt, 
Shmrood'$ Stanei, kc, (ed. 1873), 213. 

1837. — *' Every village is under & potailf 
and there is a purmiH or priest, and dhoil- 
keednop (sic !) or watchman." — Pkillxp$y 

1864.— llie church book at Peshawar 
records the death there of **The Kevd. 

I L 1, who on the ni^ht of the ~th 

, 1864, when walking in his veranda 

was shot bv his own choUdar" — to which 
record the hand of an injudicious friend has 
added : '* Well done, thou good and faithful 
servant ! " (The exact words will now be 
found in the late Mr. E. B. Eastwick's 
Panjdb Handbook, p. 279). 

CHOKBA, s. Hind, chhokrd, 'a 
l)oy, a voungster*; and hence, more 
siHM'iticallv, a Ixn' employed a1x)Ut a 
household, or a regiment. Its chief 
ufle in 8. India is wiUi the latter. (See 

[1875.— *' Ho was dubbed <the ohokra,* 
or simply *boy.*" — Wilton, Abode of Unotr, 


CH0K7, s. H. chauhl, which in 
all it.s senses is proliably connected 
with Skt. chatur, 'four'; whence 
ckatushkay *of four,* 'four-sided^' &c. 

a. (l*erliaps first a shed resting on 
f<mr jMwts) ; astati(m of police ; auxik- 
up ; also a station of {lauinkin l>earers, 
horses, &e., when a post is laid ; a 
customs or toll -station, and hence, as 
in the tin<t ([notation, the due.s Ievii*d 
at sueh a jvlace ; the act of watching or 

1 .'»3.'i. - • * They < m ly pji v the choqueia 
oiiiiim; ill »h\\ti* from tha Moluccas to 
.Miiliicca, which ainountH t4) 3 |¥irtH in 10 
for the owner of thu ship for ekt»t/Hry which 
i'* freight : thut which liolongs to His 
Fii;;hncM<4 pay.M nothing when it comes in 
!*hijw. Thi-* I'h'f/'ir i!i an fur as Malacca, 
from thrni'v to India 'i!* anitther freight as 
aminir*'d l»etween th*- |«:irtiff*. Thus when 
flovvs are hnMi^^ht in HIh iiifi^hnesM's shi|is, 
{Niyin^ the third and thu *'hitqHirt, there 
\nm^ fmni every !K) Uihant 16 to the King, 
our Iii»nl." Armttt/fnirHf tmuU fry JVkro 'W 
<''iNA«f, (iiiotc'd in Ihtt-^lKu Tumho, p. 113. 
On this .Mr. Whiteway rem^rica: ««n» tkia 
arrangement the King of ^ 
ship any cloves ijf his m 
•^ but he tiKik one*thifd 




free, and on the balance he took one-third 
as (Shidkjy which is, I imagine, in lieu of 
customs, j 

c. 1590.— ** Mounting gpiard is called in 
Hindi Chauki."— ^in, i. 257. 

1608.— "The Kings Custome called 
Chnkey, is eight badges upon the hundred 
l>agges." — Saritf in Purctuis, i. 391. 

1664. — "Near this Tent there is another 
ffreat one, which is called Tchankykane, 
because it is the place where the Omrahs 
keep guard, every one in his turn, once a 
woelc twenty -four hours together." — BerMtr^ 
E.T., 117 ; [ed. ConstabU, 363]. 

1673._"Wo wont out of the Walls by 
Broach Gate . . . where, as at every gate, 
stands a Chocky, or Watch to receive Toll 
for the Emperor. . . ." — Frytr, 100. 

,, " And when they must rest, if they 
have no Tents, they must shelter themselves 
under Trees . . . unless they hap])en on 
a ChowUe, i.^.j a Shed where the Customer 
keeps a Watch to take Custom." — Hid. 410. 

1682.— "About 12 o'clock Noon we got to 
ye Chowkee, where after wo had shown our 
J}'idirt and given our present, we were dis- 
missed imm^iatoly." — Hedges^ Diary ^ Dec. 
17 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 58]. 

1774.—" II pih difficile per viaggiare nell' 
Indostan sono oerti posti di guardio chia- 
mate Cioki . . . quosti Cioki sono insolon- 
ti^wimi."— />«/^a TomlxL, 33. 

1810.—". . . Chokies, or patrol stations." 

— Williairifon, V. M.^ i. 297. 

This word has passed into the 
English slang vocabulary in the sense 
of * j)rison.' 

b. A chair. This use is almost peculiar 
to the Bengal Presidency. Dr. John 
Muir [Orig, Skt. TVarfs, ii.'sl cites it in 
this sense., or a Hindi word which has 
no resenil)lance to any Skt. vcxjable. 
Mr. Qrtjwse, however, connects it with 
chatur, *four' (/ri/f. Antiq.^ i. 105). See 
also l>eginning of this article. Cfiau is 
tht' conmum form of 'four' in (jom- 
iHwition, e.g. chauhdiidi^ {i.e. *four 
fastening') the complete shoeing of a 
hoi-se ; cluiujmhra (* four watches ') all 
night long; cliaupdr, *a <|uadrui>ed'; 
chuukat and chaiikhat (*four timi)er'), 
a frame (of a d(x>r, &c.). So chaukl 
s<*fms to have l)een used for a square - 
framed st<X)l, and thence a chair. 

1772. -" Don't throw yourself hack in your 
hiirrti chokey, and tell mo it won't do. . . ." 

— ir. I[a4tinn» to (f. Vansittartj in CZ/rjV/, 
i. 2:W. 

c. 17H2. — "As soon as morning ftpi>oare<l 
hu (Hai(lar) nut down on his chair (chauld) 
anil wxshcd his face." — //. (*/* Htfdur *V<f*7-, 

BUS, s. The Disease. The term 
' cholera,' though employed hy the old 
medical writers, no doubt came, as 
regards ita familiar iLse, from India. 
Littr^ alleges that it is a mistake to 
supix)se that the word cholera (x^f) 
is a derivative from x^"^* 'bile,' ana 
that it really means *a gutter,' the 
disease l)eing so called from the 
symptoms. This should, however, 
rather \)e dwb tQp x^^^^t the latter 
word l)eing anciently used for the 
intestines (the etym. given by the 
medical writer, Alex. Trallianus). But 
there is a discussion on the subject in 
the mod