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Full text of "Holsinger's history of the Tunkers and the Brethren church : embracing the Church of the brethren, the Tunkers, the Seventh-day German Baptist church, the German Baptist church, the Old German Baptists, and the Brethren church, including their origin, doctrine, biography and literature"



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FROM THE LIBRARY OF 



REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON. D. D, 



BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO 

THE LIBRARY OF 

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

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Holsinger's History of the 

TUNKERS 



The Brethren Church 



EMBRACING 



The Church of the Brethren, 

The Tunkers, The Seventh-Day German Baptist Church, 

The German Baptist Church, The Old German 

Baptists, and The Brethren Church 



including 

THEIR ORIGIN, DOCTRINE. BIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE 



By H. R. HOLSINGER 

Editor of the Christian Family Companion, first weekly paper published 
in the interests of the Tunkers 



Lathrop, California 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR 

By Pacific Press Publishing Co., Oakland, Cal. 

1901 



First read the preface. Then carefully peruse the 
glossary, and you will be prepared with understanding to 
finish the book. 



COPYRIGHT, igor, BY H. R. HOLSINGER. 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



PREFACE 

Forty-five years ago I became a member of the Church of the Brethren, 
as it was then known. Among those who did not belong to the same 
denomination, the members were called "Dunkards," especially among 
those who were not friendly to their cause. Besides these names I knew 
no other. I was then in full harmony with the teachings of the church 
as far as I knew, with a few exceptions. I was told that the gospel of 
Christ was our only creed and discipline. My father was a minister in 
the church, and his father was a minister. Hence, I had every opportunity 
of knowing the customs and practices as well as the sentiments of the 
church, and can safely say that, taking all together, I was in harmony with 
the average membership. With the gospel peculiarities of the church I 
was in full sympathy. Among those may be enumerated Faith, Repent- 
ance, Triune Immersion, Laying On of Hands, Feet-washing, Lord's 
Supper, Communion, anointing, Salutation, Anti-war, Anti-slavery, Non- 
swearing, Non-conformity from all sinful fashions and customs. I set 
out to serve the Lord in good faith. 

In a few things, however, I did not agree with the average member- 
ship of that day. For instance, I never could see that education was a 
dangerous thing, and had a great thirsting for more of it. I always pre- 
ferred to hear a man preach who knew more than myself, which did not 
require anything uncommon. I was never much afraid of Sunday-schools, 
although I never had attended a Sunday-school regularly. I believed in 
plainness of attire, but never accepted the uniformity theory. I worked 
along without jarring with the congregations in which I lived or the 
officers under whom I served for more than fifteen years. 

After I entered the publishing business and began to advocate advanced 
views, I came into contact with the dignitaries of the church, and met 
with much opposition. I labored to have removed from the brotherhood 
that which I believed to be error or superfluity. And I am happy to 
believe that my labors were not altogether without success. But in course 
of time certain leaders of the church determined that they would tolerate 
improvements no longer. Accordingly they began to bring complaints 
against me and my colleagues for introducing and advocating innovations, 
and enacted decisions of annual meeting intended to circumscribe the 
progressive element of the fraternity. 

However, progressive sentiment had grown so rapidly that for several 
years it seemed that conference itself was being controlled by that ele- 
ment. When this was noticed by the conservative portion, they beean 
to threaten withdrawing from the body, unless their favorite traditions 
were maintained. Progressive sentiment had advanced too far to permit 
conference to make. all the retractions that the conservatives demanded, 

(3) 



6 PREFACE. 

He also acknowledged that his articles on the two Christopher Saurs 
are based on data furnished by the library of A. H. Cassel, of Harleys- 
ville, Pennsylvania. It was also obvious that all important articles in the 
Pioneer were contributed by this same modern historian, Seidensticker. 
The case then appeared thus : If all information in regard to our history 
comes from Brother Cassel, one may as well go to the fountain-head at 
once. Accordingly, in the winter of 1897-98 I made a pilgrimage to Har- 
leysville, accompanied by Bro. J. C. Cassel, of Philadelphia, as amanuensis 
and copyist. A week was spent with the great Tunker antiquarian. We 
had full access to the library and the constant, kindly assistance of the 
librarian during the five days we spent in his family. Many valuable items 
of history were gathered, and our brother also loaned me a number of 
manuscript folios, which have been copied and returned. 

John Calvin Harbaugh, of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, favored me with 
a copy of the Chronicon Ephratense. translated into English by J. Max 
Hark. Having previously read the German twice, the translation enabled 
me to readily gather such facts as it contained. It is difficult to say just 
how much confidence should be given to the statements in this work. 
That the authors were in position to know the truth whereof they wrote, 
may not be denied. That they were in danger of being prejudiced is 
equally true. 

One brother admonished me to be careful to free myself of all prejudice 
or preference, as to the parties in the church ; that their party— meaning the 
conservatives — were very sensitive as to their method of church oolicy. 
The item was scarcely necessary, as experience has taught me that fact. 
Nevertheless, a sincere desire is cherished to appear grateful to friends 
for their good intentions, and an earnest hope is held that profit has been 
gained. 

Having entered upon the work, it was discovered that much of the manu- 
script had been duplicated, and that the labor and expense devoted to 
copying and preserving were all lost; that we had in print almost the 
entire history of the church during the first fifteen years of her existence, 
and that the work to be performed would consist of committing, assim- 
ilating, and rewriting, with such embellishment as would not darken the 
statement of facts. This had not proceeded beyond the prehistoric 
department when "A History of the Brethren," by M. G. Brumbaugh, of 
the Pennsylvania University, appeared. The people described by Brum- 
baugh being the same as those whose history is here related, I was hopeful 
that it might assist me in my duties. Prompt application was made to 
Brother Brumbaugh for permission to quote from his book. A generous 
response was received that he would be willing to grant any reasonable 
privilege, but inasmuch as most of the data was very rare, it would be 
necessary to point out such portions of his work as were desired. When 
reading the history, the discovery was made that the book was dedicated 



PREFACE. 7 

to Abraham H. Cassel, whose collection of manuscripts made the volume 
possible. As that was the case, I had no occasion to quote or copy there- 
from. You who have occasion to compare the books will kindly bear in 
remembrance the foregoing statements, and hold in mind that while this 
book is being published several years later, the first part of it was written 
or outlined at least two years earlier. 

It does not often happen that an author has as many difficulties to sur- 
mount as in the writing of this book. At least ninety per cent was dic- 
tated to an amanuensis, because the author could not write legibly, on 
account of nervous afflictions, and even became almost speechless, making 
the labor of dictating at all times difficult and frequently impossible. It 
was discovered that speaking more distinctly could be done when in a 
prostrate position, hence part of the dictation was given while lying abed. 
Other difficulties of less importance, but equally hard to surmount, were 
met, but through them all kind Providence has mercifully sustained me. 
Though the labor has been difficult to one of my infirmities, yet I thank God 
for a few more days in His service. The toil has also been lightened by the 
hope that the present and future churches might find an interest in the 
facts as here related, and which may also serve as data for future his- 
torians. The recalling of revered names will at least be an inspiration to 
many in whose memory they still live. The patriarchs are passing. A 
record of their lives, though very brief, is well worth treasuring. I much 
regret my inability to do justice to all. 

The illustrations in this work are a new feature of Tunker literature, 
and required much labor and many rebuff's to collect the subjects. I am 
happy to be able to present a fair group of pictures, some of which will 
be familiar to many; others will be unknown, but I trust none the less 
appreciated. 

The inability to secure other desired photographs is regretted. 

It had been intended to include in this work an autobiography of the 
author, but when it was observed how frequently my name appeared in 
every department of the work and how intricately my own history is 
interwoven with that of my people, all inspiration to write on the subject 
was lost. However, the following items are submitted, for which room 
has been found in this department. 

I was born in Morrison's Cove, Pennsylvania, May 26, 1833. My 
father and grandfather were Tunker preachers. My grandmother on my 
father's side was Elizabeth Mack, daughter of William Mack, son of 
Alexander Mack, Jr. Hence, I am a grandson of a great-grandaughter 
of one of the founders of the church. I was married June 1, 1864, to 
Susannah Shoop. We had two daughters, Mrs. P. G. Nowag, of Johns- 
town, Pennsylvania, and Mrs. S. J. Holsinger, of Phcenix, Arizona. On 
the 15th of July, 1901, all were yet living. 

I was baptized into the Tunker Church early in the spring of 1855, at 



8 PREFACE. 

Clover Creek, Pennsylvania, by Elder George Brumbaugh. I was elected 
to the ministry Oct. 28, 1866; advanced to the second degree a few months 
afterwards, and ordained to the eldership Oct. 21, 1880. 

I began writing the "History of the Junkers" early in the fall of 1898, 
and completed it in July, 1901. 

The remainder of my history, is it not written in the Chronicles of 
the Church? 

To the many friends who have kindly given assistance in the prepara- 
tion of this volume I wish to gratefully acknowledge obligations. 

H. R. HOLSINGER. 

January J, A. D. 1901. 



OUTLINE OF CONTENTS 

Introductory — Title Page and Reverse — Preface — Outline of 
Contents — Glossary — Key to Ilustrations — List of Authors 
Quoted 1-24 

CHAPTER I. 

PREHISTORIC. 

Importance of German History — The Waldenses — The Baptists 
— The Pietists — Futile Efforts at Organization— Kingdom 
of God — Apostolic Succession 2 5 _ 34 

CHAPTER II. 

ORGANIZATION IN GERMANY. 

First Baptism — The Pious Eight — Early Indications of Progres- 
sion 35-39 

CHAPTER III. 

SCHWARZENAU, GERMANY. 

The Quaint Village — The River Eider — The Bridge — Official 
Record — House Inscriptions 40-44 

CHAPTER IV. 

mack's book translated. 

Preface — Introduction — Outline History of the Church — Forty 
Pungent Questions and the Answers AS' ll 7 

CHAPTER V. 

FROM THE CHRONICON EPHRATENSE. 

Another Story of the Origin of the Tunkers — Conrad Beisel's 
View of Piety 1 18-120 

(9) 



IO CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI: 

EARLY INTERNAL TROUBLES. 

Persecutions — Krefeld — Note — Driven to America 1 21-122 

CHAPTER VII. 

FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 

First Emigrants from Germany — A Furious Storm at Sea — First 
Mission in America — A Disappointment that Resulted in 
Good — Organization in America — Beggarstown — German- 
town — Important Ephrata Movement — Snow Hill Nunnery 
— Early Churches 123-159 

CHAPTER VIII. 
German Baptist Congregations 160-206 

CHAPTER IX. 

DOCTRINAL. 

D. P. Sayler's Definition — Mandatory Laws — Election and Or- 
dination of Officers — Form of Worship — Controversy on 
Feet-washing- — Sayler's Report to the Ecumenical Council 
— Cassel's Reply — Elder George Hoke's Theology — Form of 
Worship — Tunker Love-feast — Tunker Meeting-houses — 
God, the Progenitor of the Human Race 207-262 

CHAPTER X. 

LITERATURE. 

First Hymn-book — Educational — Early and Later Efforts 

263-272 



CONTENTS. I I 

CHAPTER XL 

DENOMINATIONAL. 

German Baptists; — Historical — Missionary — Financial — Statisti- 
cal — Educational 273-294 

CHAPTER XII. 

GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Biographical 295-414 

CHAPTER XIII. 

OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 

Historical, Congregational, and Biographical 415-469 

CHAPTER XIV. 

BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 

Progressive Work — Holsinger's Troubles — Berlin Committee — 
Arnold Grove — Schoolhouse No. 7 — Dayton Convention — 
Ashland Convention — Organization 470-551 

CHAPTER XV. 

BRETHREN CHURCH CONGREGATIONAL. 

Organization of Churches — Literature — Ashland College — Pub- 
lishing House 55 2 -64 : 

CHAPTER XVI. 

BRETHREN CHURCH BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Biographical 642-758 

CHAPTER XVII. 

KINDRED FRATERNITIES. 

Congregational Brethren — Far Western Brethren — Leedy Breth- 
ren — Oimanites — Moravians — River Brethren — John A. 
Bowman Brethren — The Honites 759 _ 773 



12 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

EPISTOLARY HISTORY. 

Letters from Alexander Mack, John Hildebrand, Michael Pfautz, 
Christopher Saur, Michael Frantz, John Price, Isaac Price, 
Grabil Meyers, B. F. Moomaw 774~79 6 

CHAPTER XIX. 

MISCELLANY. 

First American Bible — A Tunker War Episode — First German 
Printing Press — A Mother in Israel Indeed — Sunday-school 
Tickets — Laying on of Hands — Reputation of Early Tunkers 
— Encouragements — The Little Tunkeress — A Remarkable 
Family 797-820 



GLOSSARY 

Instead of numerous foot-notes, scattered throughout the work, inter- 
rupting the reader and breaking the pages, we have selected this depart- 
ment. The reader who expects to finish the work will be greatly assisted 
by thoroughly acquainting himself with its contents, especially with the 
explanations of certain words and terms of frequent occurrence and of 
peculiar signification. Having arranged these into a special department, 
we shall aim to treat the various subjects with due consideration, and 
more fully than is done in the foot-note system. 

Annual meeting, big meeting, yearly meeting, are all synonymous, and 
imply the general conference of the church. For many years it was known 
only by the name "Big Meeting." 

"Gross Versammlung." — It was almost universally so called in my 
youthful days, and many years after it became an established annual affair. 
See "History of Annual Meeting." 

"At present" in this work implies at the close of the year 1900. The 
term "now." and all similar expressions indicating time, imply the same 
period. 

Avoidance. — This is a term much used in early Tunker literature. As 
used by them it would be synonymous with the word "ban," and implying 
somewhat more than the word excommunication, as used in the discussion 
of ecclesiastical subjects generally; inasmuch as the ordinance of avoid- 
ance, as practiced by the early churches, followed the excommunicated 
person with severe execration after having been debarred from fellowship 
with the church. 

Ban. — This word occurs in most of the modern languages of Europe, 
and its primary signification appears to have been, "to make a signal" 
(see banner), "to proclaim" or "publish." This meaning it retains in the 
phrase bans or banns (q. v.) of marriage. In Germany, the acht, or ban- 
nuni, was a sentence of outlawry pronounced in the middle ages against 
those who escaped from justice, or refused to submit to trial. We often 
read of refractory princes, and even cities, being placed under the ban of 
the empire. The following are the terms of banning used in an old 
formula : "We declare thy wife a widow, and thy children orphans ; we 
restore all thy feudal tenures to the lord of the manor ; thy private prop- 
erty we give to thy children ; and we devote thy body and flesh to the 
beasts of the forest and fowls of the air. In all ways and in every place 
where others find peace and safety, thou shalt find none; and we banish 
thee into the four roads of the world, in the devil's name." Besides these 
sentences of outlawry, many other announcements were accompanied with 
denunciations and imprecations. When a grant of land was made for 

(13) 



14 GLOSSARY. 

religious purpose, or when a charter of liberties was granted, the trans- 
action was proclaimed in public with certain ceremonies, and curses were 
denounced against any one who should violate the deed. Thus, banning, 
or publishing, came to be associated with cursing ; and hence the origin of 
the popular use of the word. It occurs in this sense in Shakespeare and 
Milton, and other old writers. 

Lining Hymns. — This exercise was very common in the middle ages 
of the history of the Tunkers. Although it originated through an enforced 
condition of the people, in later years it was practiced as a sacred rule. 
Hymn-books being scarce, the minister would read the first two lines of a 
stanza, which the congregation would sing. Then the second two lines 
were read and sung; and so on until the entire hymn had been finished. 

Mode, Single and Double. — These expressions are peculiar to the 
Tunkers. They have reference to different methods of performing the act 
of feet-washing. Those using the single mode each wash and wipe the 
feet of one person only, and have the same rule performed to them. By 
the double mode two persons are engaged in the same service, one wash- 
ing and the other wiping the feet of the same person, and perform the 
service to from six to twelve persons. Then they are relieved by two 
other persons, who follow the same procedure. Reference will be made to 
this subject quite frequently in this book. 

Old Style — New Style. — The old style implies the old mode of reckon- 
ing time, according to the Julian year of three hundred and sixty-five 
and one-fourth days. The new style is the present, or Gregorian method, 
by which the year has three hundred and sixty-five days five hours and 
forty-nine minutes. There is now a difference of twelve days between old 
style and new style. Thus, while the old was January i, the new is Janu- 
ary 13. The change was effected for Great Britain and Ireland, including 
the colonies of America, in the year 1751. It was enacted that eleven days 
should be omitted after September 2, 1752, so that the ensuing day should 
be September 14. 

The change was made on the birthday of King George II, reigning 
sovereign at that time. By this arrangement, September, 1752, had but 
nineteen days instead of thirty. The author of this work had the pleasure 
of handling a copy of Christopher Saur's almanac for that year, and it 
was interesting to notice the short calendar of the September page. 

Order. — Tlys word and its corresponding term, "order of the church," 
frequently occur in T linker writings. Its meaning is almost unlimited, 
inasmuch as it includes both written and unwritten usages and order of 
the church. It is, however, more generally confined simply to the regula- 
tion in regard to the wearing of clothing and dressing of the hair, although 
it is not always and at all places the same, yet it may be said to embrace 
the following particulars : — 



GLOSSARY. 15 

The hair of the men shall be worn parted in the middle or combed 
straight back over the head without parting, or cut short in front and 
worn over the forehead either with or without parting. These forms were 
adopted at an annual meeting, of which the standing committee had mem- 
bers of its body who wore their hair in the several methods described 
above, and may, therefore, be said they were an example to the flock. 
Mustaches were forbidden. 

Male Attire. — The coat and hat of the brethren are the only items of 
male attire that are prescribed. The coat shall have a stand-up collar 
too narrow to be turned down, and the corners of the skirts must be cut 
round, according to the style known in tailor nomenclature as "shad- 
belly." 

The hat must have a wide brim, and must not be too high in the crown. 

Female Attire. — So far as the decisions of conference are concerned, 
the regulations of female attire are quite numerous. However, the women 
seem to have or to assume some privilege in regard to their own dress, at 
least so far as drapery is concerned, but the head-gear, like the laws of 
the Medes and Persians, changes not. 

It consists of a white cap of material that can be seen if not felt. No 
regard is paid to the shape of the article. This cap is called the prayer 
covering, in reference to Paul's instruction to women to have their heads 
covered when they pray or prophesy. Some of the Tunker women are 
very conscientious on the subject, and would not venture to go to any 
place of worship without wearing it, nor sit down to the table to eat, nor 
appear in the presence of a company of Christian men or ministers, without 
their sign of authority upon their heads. 

Over the cap may be worn any kind of weather covering which is not 
after, or too nearly after, the fashion of the world — hats excepted, no 
matter whether plain or stylish. 

From the head downward the women are given almost exclusive con- 
trol of their clothing, except in case of new fashions, such as crinoline, etc. 

It may be said the Tunker cap covers a multitude of sins. In many 
congregations it is positively the only outward sign of membership, in the 
German Baptist or the Old German Baptist Churches. Otherwise the 
sisters are dressed in as good style as their circumstances will permit or 
their taste dictate. It is not uncommon to see a communion table sur- 
rounded by young sisters dressed in the best style and of finest material, 
each wearing a cap or something which was called a cap, and all passing 
as being in the order, although it is doubtful whether any two were dressed 
alike. 

Pie Meeting. — The Tunkers of the nineteenth century, - and possibly 
earlier, were inclined to make an ordinance of hospitality, to which their 
environments, no doubt, largely contributed. Manv of the rural churches 



l6 GLOSSARY. 

— and Tunker Churches were almost universally rural — worshiped almost 
exclusively in their own dwellings and barns. The country was but 
sparsely settled, and many of the members went great distances to attend 
services. They could not well return to their homes without some refresh- 
ment for themselves, and provender for their horses. These were cheer- 
fully supplied by the family which had entertained the meeting. As the 
country grew up, the churches enlarged, and the congregations increased 
in numbers. By and by it was found necessary for several neighbors to 
unite in order to accommodate the people. It is altogether likely that 
this hospitable feature of their meetings had a tendency to increase the 
attendance at their services. Even in the days of Christ, some followed 
Him for the sake of "loaves and fishes.'' 

At each meeting the invitation was extended to everybody to remain 
for dinner, and there was an abundance prepared for all. If it happened 
that the next service announced would be held in a schoolhouse, or in 
the barn of a poor brother, it was distinctly stated where the people might 
expect entertainment. This custom was continued for many years after 
the houses of worship had been built, which many of my contemporaries 
can affirm. At the Clover Creek church, in Morrison's Cove, Pennsyl- 
vania, it was announced that services would be held there again at a stated 
time, and the people would be entertained at Brother Smith's, and if he 
had no stable room, then it was stated that the horses would be cared for 
somewhere else. I have known cases when the tables would be filled 
as many as four times, and when it took until half past three in the after- 
noon for all to be served; and yet, would you believe it? it was a very 
difficult matter to break up this slavish, expensive, and useless custom. 
Like the brazen serpent erected by Moses for a specific and single purpose, 
the custom had been given a sacred place. 

These meetings the town people called ''pie meetings." The reason for 
it was because, invariably, apple pies were served with the refreshments. 
The same custom prevailed on communion occasions, and is still practiced 
in many out-of-the-way places, especially where the German language is 
spoken. 

Progressive. — In this work the word is always used to indicate a move- 
ment toward ideal completeness or perfection in respect of condition of 
individuals and communities in morals and religion. 

Salutation. — The kiss of love, or holy kiss, referred to in the Scrip- 
tures (see Rom. t6:i6; i Cor. 16:20; 1 Peter 5:14, etc.), is called the 
Christian salutation among the Tunkers. In the German Baptist Churches 
it is practiced as a common salutation. Whenever men shake hands, they 
also kiss each other, except recently it is omitted on public occasions, such 
as vendues, agricultural fairs, and entertainments. Among the German 
Baptist women there are no exceptions. In the Brethren Church it is 



GLOSSARY. 17 

observed only as an ordinance on occasions of worship, but is permitted 
whenever parties feel disposed to extend to each other the Christian 
salutation. 

Table. — Table in Tunker literature corresponds with pulpit in that of 
other denominations. When applied to the communion, it is usually quali- 
fied by the addition of "of the Lord," or "communion." For more than 
a century many Tunker preachers positively refused to enter a pulpit, and 
there was much disputation and hard feeling engendered by the discussion 
of the subject before even a platform a single step high was tolerated in 
the Tunker Churches. The same prejudice is still maintained in the Old 
German Baptist Church. 

Titles. — It will be found a peculiarity of this work, especially in the 
department pertaining to the Brethren Church, to omit all titles of office 
or dignity, except in cases where their use appears necessary to designate 
a service alluded to in the narrative, and not easily to be understood. The 
author believes that it will be generally understood when a person is 
referred to as having preached a sermon, that he is a minister or reverend, 
or any other title by which the reader may be pleased to have him desig- 
nated; or when some one presides at an ordination, organization, com- 
munion, or marriage, that he is an elder or bishop. 

Visit. — The Tunkers have an ordinance called the visit. It is per- 
formed by the deacons before each communion occasion. It is a house-to- 
house visit among all the members of the congregation. They are expected 
to invite the family visited to a season of devotion in their house, and to 
admonish the members to faithfulness, and to point out any known irreg- 
ularity in their life in church relations ; to inquire whether they were still 
in the faith and desire to remain with the church ; to inform them of the 
time and place of next communion meeting, and invite them to attend; 
and to receive their contributions toward the expense of the church. 



KEY TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



GERMAN BAPTIST, OLD GERMAN BAPTIST, AND SEVENTH-DAY GER- 
MAN BAPTIST CHURCHES. 

No. 41. Lordsburg College, Cal. 
No. 42. McPherson College, Kans. 
No. 43. Old Germantown Church. 
No. 44. New Germantown Church. 
No. 45. G. B. Church, Philadelphia. 
No. 46. Old Germantown Parsonage. 









GROUP 1. 


No. 


1. 


Danie 


1 Vaniman. 


No. 


2. 


Christian Myers. 


No. 


3- 


J c. 


Harbaugh. 


No. 


4- 


G. B. 


Royer. 


No. 


5- 


H. P. 


Albaugh. 


No. 


6. 


C. S. 


Holsinger. 


No. 


7- 


D. B 


. Sturgis. 


No. 


8. 


S. Z. 


Sharp. 


No. 


9- 


John 


S. Holsinger. 
GROUP 2. 


No. 


10. 


Grabill Meyers. 


No. 


11. 


Isaac 


Price. 


No. 


12. 


J. F. 


Oiler. 


No. 


13- 


C. G, 


, Lint. 


No. 


14. 


J. T. 


Meyers. 


No. 


IS- 


T. T, 


, Imler. 


No. 


16. 


T. T 


. Meyers. 


No. 


17. 


J. B. 


Brumbaugh. 
group 3. 


No. 


18. 


Mrs. 


Isaac Price. 


No. 


19. 


Mrs. 


Jacob Beck. 


No. 


_'0. 


Mrs. 


J. F. Oiler. 


No. 


21. 


Mrs. 


Michael Raber. 


No. 


22. 


Mrs. 


David Baringer. 


No. 


23- 


Mrs. 


Buck. 


No. 


24. 


Mrs. 


Hannah Knauff. 


No. 


25. 


Mrs. 


Josiah Kimmel. 



111. 



No. 47. 
No. 48. 
No. 49. 
No. 50. 
No. 51. 
No. 52. 

No. 53. 
No. 54. 
No. 55. 
No. 56. 
No. 57- 
No. 58. 



No. 59- 
No. 60. 
No. 61. 
No. 62. 
No. 63. 
No. 64. 



No. 26. G. B. Holsinger. 
No. 27. Lydia Schuyler Allen. 
No. 28. George Hanawalt. 
No. 29. Henry Koontz. 
No. 30. Mount Morris College, 
No. 31. Wm. C. Thurman. 
No. 32. Christian Custer. 
No. 33. P. R. Wrightsman. 
No. 34a. Elder Martin Nehers. 
No. 34. Snow Hill Nunnery. 
No. 35. Old Order Price Church. 
NO. 36. Snow Hill Nunnery Church. 
No. 37. Germantown Graveyard. 
No. 38. Old Green Tree Church. 
No. 39. Old Coventry Church. 
No. 40. G. B. Church, Los Angeles, 
Cal. 

(18) 



No. 65. 



No. 66. 

No. 67. 

No. 68. 
No. 69. 



GROUP 4. 

A. H. Cassel. 
H. B. Brumbaugh. 
Thomas S. Holsinger. 
Elder Christian Hope. 
Elder S. W. Hoover. 
Elder Andrew Fahnestock. 

group 5. 
Elder James Quinter. 
Elder R. H. Miller. 
Elder Isaac Price. 
Elder Jacob Fahrney, M. D. 
Elder Jacob Miller. 
Welty Church, where Fahr- 
ney preached. 

New Price Church. 

Old Price Church. 

Old Welty Church. 

Juniata College, Pa. 

Bridgewater College, Va. 

Birth-place of Gospel Visi- 
tor, where the author of 
this book took his first les- 
sons in the art of printing. 

Spring Run Church, Pa., 
where license was granted 
to publish The Family 
Companion, etc. 

German Baptist Publishing 

House, Elgin, 111. 

Bridge at Schwarzenau. 

Mt. Morris College Faculty. 

group 6. 



No. 70. David Emmert. 
No. 71. Miss Phebe Weakly. 
No. 72. Prof. J. W. Zuck. Also sin- 
gle cut 72. 



KEY TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



19 



No. 73. Prof. Archibald Anderson. 
No. 74. J. C. Ewing. 
No. 75. Prof. Brumbaugh. 
No. 76. Elder Samuel Murray and 
wife. 

group 7. 

No. 77. Elder John W. Brumbaugh. 

No. 78. Elder Daniel P. Sayler. 

No. 79. Peter S. Myers. 

No. 80. Jacob Holsinger. 

group 8. 

No. 81. Mrs. C. S. Holsinger. 
No. 82. Mrs. H. B. Brumbaugh. 
No. 83. Mrs. John S. Holsinger. 
No. 84. Dr. C. H. Balsbaugh. 
No. 85. Elder M. M. Eshelman. 



No. 86. Elder John Fox. 
No. 87. Elder John P. Ebersole and 
wife. 

group 9. 
No. 90. Elder G. W. Brumbaugh. 
No. 91. I. G. Harley, deacon. 
No. 92. Elder T. B. Maddocks. 
No. 93. Elder J. S. Flory. 

No. 94. Sharpsburg Church, Md. 
No. 95. South Waterloo Church, la. 
No. 96. Grove Church of Brothers- 
valley Congregation, Pa. 
No. 97. Elder John H. Umsted. 

group 10. 

A Public School in a Tunker Com- 
munity. 



KEY TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



BRETHREN CHURCH. 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 10. 
No. ii. 
No. 12. 
No. 13. 
No. 14. 
No. 15. 
No. 16. 
No. 17. 
No. 18. 



GROUP I. 

E. E. Roberts. 

Mrs. E. E. Roberts. 

Mrs. Wm. Kolb. 

Wm. Kolb. 

Mrs. J. C. Cassel. 

J. C. Cassel. 

Frank Balderston. 

Mrs. Balderston. 

Mrs. Emma Kinsing. 

Mrs. Horace Kolb. 

Wm. Kolb. 

Horace Kolb. 

Mrs. Rebecca Balderston. 

Mrs. P. B. Clymer. 

Edward Cnes. 

Peter B. Clymer. 

H. C. Cassel. 

Mrs. H. C. Cassel. 

GROUP 2. 

No. 19. J. H. Knepper. 
No. 20. M. C. Meyers. 
No. 21. Roger Darling. 
No. 22. W. M. Lyon. 
No. 23. J. B. Wampler. 
No. 24. Christian Forney. 
No. 25. A. P. Reed. 
No. 26. J. L. Gallin. 

No. 27. Lanar, Illinois. 

No. 28. M. J. Thomas. 

No. 29. Enon Church, Iowa. 

No. 30. Samuel Leedy and wife. 

No. 35. Isaac Kilhefner. 

No. 36. Susan Holsinger. 

No. ^7 Hannah Holsinger Garver. 

No. 38. Martin Shivery. 

group 3. 

No. 39. Noah Heater. 
No. 40. Jno. Nicholson. 
No. 41. Jacob Rothenberger. 
No. 42. Daniel Hendricks. 
No. 43. Jonathan Jay. 
No. 44. D. S. Cripe." 
No. 45. J. H. Swihart. 
No. 46. J. G. Winey. 
No. 47. Ester Dickey. 

(20) 



No. 48. 


Laura Grossnickle Hec 


Iricks. 


No. 49. 


J. H. Palmer. 




No. 50. 


E. L. Yoder. 




No. 51. 


John A. Myers. 




No. 52. 


J. O. Tally. 




No. 53. 


W. C. Perry. 




No. 54. 


J. F. Koontz. 




No. 55. 


J. Allen Miller. 




No. 56. 


C. E. Deffenbaugh. 




No. 57. 


D. C. Christner. 




No. 58. 


S. H. Bashor. 




No. 59. 


A. S. Menaugh. 




No. 60. 


D. A. Hopkins. 




No. 61. 


H. S. Enslow. 




No. 62. 


W. L. Spanogle. 




No. 63. 


J. M. Tombaugh. 




No. 64. 


Eliza Stoneburner. 




No. 65. 


Henry Wise. 




No. 66. 


John Stuckman. 




No. 68. 


W. M. Summers. 




No. 69. 


I. N. Miller. 




No. 70. 


B. C. Moomaw. 




No. 71. 


Chris. Forney. 




No. 72. 


Josiah Keim. 




No. 73- 


M. M. Eshelman. 




No. 74. 


W. J. H. Bauman. 




No. 75. 


Jesse Calvert. 




No. 76. 


Geo. A. Copp. 




No. 77. 


Zed H. Copp. 




No. 78. 


H. R. Holsinger. 




No. 79. 


R. K. Binkley. 




No. 80. 


S. J. Harrison. 




No. 81. 


A. D. Gnagey. 




No. 82. 


J. B. Wampler. 




No. 83. 


Daniel Crawford. 




No. 84. 


D. M. Rittenhouse. 




No. 85. 


G. W. Rench. 




No. 88. 


I. D. Bowman. 




No. 89. 


E. B. Shaver. 





GROUP 4. 

No. 90. J. D. McFaden. 
No. 91. J. M. Tombaugh, 
No. 92. R. R. Teeter. 
No. 93. M. S. White. 
No. 94. W. H. Miller. 
No. 95. William Keifer. 
No. 96. Z. T. Livengood. 
No. 97. W. S. McClain. 



KEY TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



21 



GROUP 5. 

No. 98. D. A. Hopkins. 
No. 99. R. Z. Replogle. 
No. 100. S. B. Grisso. 
No. 101. Daniel Miller. 
No. 102. D. C. Ullery. 
No. 103. A. R. Bemenderfer. 
No. 104. B. F. Schisler. 
No. 105. J. L. Kimmel. 

group 6. 



No. 


106. 


Noah Flora. 


No. 


107. 


G. W. Rench. 


No. 


108. 


V. M. Reichard. 


No. 


109. 


D. J. Hetric. 


No. 


no. 


Alonza Shrum. 


No. 


in. 


Walter Clark. 


No. 


112. 


Jacob Mnsser. 


No. 


113- 


Samuel Forney. 


No. 


114. 


Elias Teeter. 
group 7. 


No. 


124. 


John Dalzell. 


No. 


125- 


Duke McFaden. 


No. 


126. 


Blaine Replogle. 


No. 


127. 


L. W. Ditch. 


No. 


128. 


J. D. McFaden. 


No. 


129. 


W. A. Harman. 


No. 


130. 


Henry Wise. 


No. 


131- 


J. M. Murry. 


No. 


132. 


T. H. Knepper. 


No. 


133- 


j. L. Gillin. 


No. 


134- 


S. L. Buck. 


No. 


135- 


W. H. Miller. 


No. 


136. 


Eli Hoover. 


No. 


137- 


John Copp. 


No. 


138. 


R. Z. Replogle. 


No. 


139- 


Dr. McGregor. 


No. 


140. 


Jacob A. Hazel. 


No. 


141. 


A. S. Menaugh. 


No. 


142. 


A. R. Bemenderfer. 


No. 


144. 


D. C. Moomaw. 


No. 


145- 


J. Allen Miller. 


No. 


146. 


R. R. Teeter. 


No. 


147. 


P. M. Swinehart. 


No. 


148. 


Kauffman. 


No. 


149. 


J. L. Bowman. 


No. 


150. 


J. C. Mackey. 


No. 


I5L 


Jack Miller. 


No. 


152. 


J. M. Tombaugh. 


No. 


153- 


E. E. Haskins. 


No. 


155- 


DanieJ Crofford. 


No. 


156. 


J. C. Cassel. 


No. 


157. 


Roger Darling. 



No. 158. J. W. Smouse. 

No. 159. Stephen Hildebrand. 

No. 160. Wm. Menges. 

No. 161. B. H. Flora. 

No. 162. J. E. Roop. 

No. 163. Hiram Gochnour. 

No. 164. H. R. Holsinger. 

No. 166. J. F. Koontz. 

No. 167. J. M. dinger. 

No. 168. J. B. Wampler. 



No. 169. J. H. Swihart. 
No. 170. H. R. Holsinger. 
No. 171. Edward Mason. 
No. 172. E. L. Yoder. 
No. 173. P. F. Brown. 
No. 174. S. H. Bashor. 
No. 175. H. R. Holsinger. 
No. 176. Edward Mason. 
No. 177. J. A. Ridenour. 
No. 178. E. L. Yoder. 

GROUP 9. 

No. 179. W. L. Spanogle. 

No. 180. Wm. Keifer. 

No. 181. J. H. Swihart. 

No. 182. W. J. H. Bauman. 

No. 183. E. L. Yoder. 

No. 184. J. W. Beer. 

No. 185. Stephen Hildebrand. 

No. 186. D. S. Cripe. 

No. 187. J. P. Martin. 

No. 188. Edward Mason. 

No. 189. George Neff. 

No. 190. H. F. Hixon. 

No. 191. J. H. Worst. 

No. 192. J. A. Ridenour. 

No. 193. S. H. Bashor. 

No. 194. H. R. Holsinger. 

No. 195. R. Z. Replogle. 

No. 196. P. J. Brown. 

N0.197. E. S. Miller. 

No. 198. Henry Jacobs. 

No. 199. A. A. Cober. 

No. 200. Samuel Keehl. 

No. 201. J. W. Fitzgerald. 

No. 202. T. E. Davis. 

No. 203. J. C. Cripe. 

No. 204. J. B. Wampler. 

No. 205. Levi Fry. 

No. 206. Schoolhouse No. 7. 

No. 207. Mrs. Thomas Clayton. 



22 



KEY TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



GROUP 10. 

No. 208. Ananias Becknel. 

No. 209. Mrs. Peter Smith. 

No. 210. Mrs. David Becknell. 

No. 211. Mrs. E. Rhorer. 

No. 212. Mrs. John Kline. 

No. 213. Mrs. John Dubbs. 

No. 214. Mrs. William Fisher. 

No. 215. William Fisher. 

No. 216. John Montgomery. 

No. 217. Brother Switzer. 

No. 218. Enoch Rhorer. 

No. 220. Mrs. Vestal Cammack. 

No. 221. H. R. Holsinger. 

No. 222. John Dubbs. 

No. 223. William Fisher. 



No. 225. 
No. 226. 
No. 227. 
No. 22S. 
No. 229. 
No. 230. 
No. 231. 
No. 232. G. A. 
No. 233. W. J 



GROUP II. 

Daniel Crofford. 
J. O. Tally. 
Henry Wise. 
Beer and Wampler. 
J. C. Mackey. 
S. J. Harrison. 
I. J. Thomas. 

Copp. 

H. Bauman. 



group 12. 
No. 234. George Wolfe. 
No. 235. John P. Wolfe. 
No. 236. Henry J. Frantz. 
No. 237. A. J. Hixon. 
No. 238. Solomon C. Stump. 
No. 239. Jacob Miller. 



No. 240. E. 
No. 241. M 
No. 242. J. 
No. 243. J. 
No. 244 
No. 245 
No. 246 
No. 247 
No. 248 



GROUP 13. 

H. Smith. 
A. Witter. 

L. Bowman. 

H. Burnworth. 
D. J. Bole. 
Henry Murr. 
Samuel Kiehl. 
S. W. W T ilt. 
Elder Isaac Leedy. 



GROUP 14. — DEACONS. 

No. 249. Hon. C. C. Musselman. 
No. 250. Josiah Kimmel. 
No. 251. Hon. E. J. Myers. 
No. 252. Dr. W. K. Beachly. 
No. 253. Dr. G. W. Brallier. 
No. 254. B. G. Frederick. 
No. 255. D. J. Myers. 



No. 256. Thomas Clayton. 
No. 257. Ross J. Miller. 
No. 258. J. C. Ewing. 
No. 259. Dr. R. E. Cable. 
No. 260. Frank Fields. 
No. 261. Geo. B. Replogle. 

GROUP 15. — WOMEN PREACHERS. 

No. 262. Laura Grossnickle Hed- 

ricks. 
No. 263. Mrs. Sadie Gibbons. 
No. 264. Miss Mary M. Sterling. 
No. 265. Mrs. Clara Flora. 
No. 266. Mrs. M. C. Myers. 
No. 267. Mrs. L. S. Bauman. 

GROUP l6. — PREACHERS' WIVES. 

No. 268. Mrs. J. W. Beer. 

No. 269. Mrs. John P. Wolfe. 

No. 270. Mrs. John H. Knepper. 

No. 271. Mrs. J. O. Tally. 

No. 272. Mrs. S. H. Bashor. 

No. 273. Mrs. Z. T. Livengood. 

No. 274. Mrs. J. H. Burnworth. 

No. 275. Mrs. Christ. Forney. 

No. 276. Mrs. J. C. Mackey. 

group 17. 
No. 277. A. B. Horner and wife. 
No. 278. E. G. Bickley. 
No. 279. Samuel Lichty. 
No. 280. Miss Sadie Harrison. 
No. 281. Miss Ida Harrison. 
No. 282. Miss Laura Teeter. 
No. 283. Jennie Harrison. 
No. 284. Joseph Forney. 
No. 285. John M. Lichty. 
No. 286. D. G. Lichty. 
No. 287. Mrs. J. M. Sayler. 
No. 288. Mrs. John Hildebrand. 
No. 289. John P. Beck. 
No. 290. Ephraim Hoover. 
No. 291. Eli Hoover. 
No. 292. David Harrison. 



No. 293. 
No. 294. 
No. 295. 
No. 296. 
No. 297. 
No. 298. 
No. 299. F. 
No. 300 
No. 301 



group 18. 

Holsinger. 
A. Amend. 
M. Lichty. 
M. Oberholtzer. 
H. Beachly. 
C. Carpenter. 
B. McCullough. 
Dyoll Belote. 
Ada Sanger. 



KEY TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



23 



No. 302. Ed. Burnworth. 
No. 303. Prof. J. A. Miller. 
No. 304. Geo. Whistler. 
No. 305. Miss Vianna Detwiler. 

group 19. 

No. 306. Dyoll Belote. 
No. 307. Wallace Garber. 
No. 308. A. H. Lichty. 
No. 309. H. M. Oberholtzer. 
No. 310. W. A. Amend. 
No. 311. Prof. Garber. 
No. 312. Homer Fallentine. 
No. 313. G. C. Carpenter. 
No. 314. C. E. Carpenter. 
No. 315. Mable Garber. 
No. 316. M. A. Witter. 
No. 317. Emma Gnagey. 
No. 318. Vianna Detwiler. 
No. 320. C. E. Weidner. (See Group 
Eighteen.) 

group 20. 

No. 321. Martin Shivery. 

No. 322. H. S. Enslow. 

No. 323. Jonathan Myers. 

No. 324. J. W. Beer. 

No. 325. J. G. Winey. 

No. 326. Strother Hansel. 

No. 327. L. A. Hazlett. 

No. 328. L. S. Bauman. 

No. 329. John A. Myers. 

group 21. 

No. 330. J. M. Olinger. 
E. E. Haskins. 
William Byers. 
J. R. Keller. 



No. 331 
No. 332 
No. 333 

„ ,. jut. u. ivi. n 
No. 335. John Sterling 

No. 336. Berlin Church, Pennsyl- 



^"■ooo- j- — -^eiier. 

No. 334. Dr. U. M. Beachley. 

V.f <^t-1it-i or 



No. 345. Moses Frick. 
No. 346. Mrs. W. R. Frick. 
No. 347. Jacob Frick. 
No. 348. Miss Ella Oakes. 
No. 349. Miss Mary Lichty. 
No. 350. Mrs. S. J. Holsinger. 
No. 351. Mrs. H. R. Holsinger. 
No. 352. S. J. Holsinger. 
No. 353. H. R. Holsinger. 
No. 354. P. G. Nowag. 
No. 355. Mrs. P. G. Nowag. 
No. 356. Mrs. George D. Paul. 
No. 357. Mrs. Thos. Clayton. 
No. 358. Franklin Forney and grand- 
children. 
No. 359. Mrs. H. S. Enslow. 

group 23. 

No. 360. Mrs. Laura Slotter Wil- 
liams. 

No. 361. Mrs. Ellen Gnagey Lichty. 

No. 362. Mrs. Martin Shively. 

No. 363. Mrs. W. S. Reyner. 

No. 364. Mrs. Alice Slotter Leonard. 

No. 365. Miss Minnie Isbell. 

No. 366. C. F. Yoder. 

No. 367. Mapleville, Maryland. 

group 24. 
No. 368. P. H. Beaver. 
No. 369. I. D. Bowman. 
No. 370. Isaac Kilhefner. 
No. 371. Dr. J. E. Roop. 
No. 372. William W. Summers. 

group 25. 
No. 373. Lydia Stahlhafer. 
No. 374. Mrs. Samuel Kiehl. 



No. 337. Washington. D. C. 
No. 338. Johnstown, Pa., after the 
flood. 

GROUP 22. 

No. 339. Mrs. John Lohman. 
No. 340. Mrs. John Lohman. 
No. 341. Mrs. Poley, mother of Kate 

Gamble. 
No. 342. Mrs. J. C. Ewing. 
No. 343. Miss Ida Frick. 
No. 344. W. R. Frick. 



No. 375. Mrs. 

bert. 

No. 376. Mrs. 

No. 377. Mrs. 



Matie Moomaw Lam- 
Benjamin Benshoff. 
G. W. Rench. 

GROUP 26. 

Pennsylvania State Conference of 
1897, at New Enterprise. 

group 27. 
No. 378. J. G. Kimmel and wife. 
No. 379. Benjamin Benshoff. 
No. 380. Solomon Benshoff. 

group 28. 
No. 381. David Augustine. 
No. 382. Jacob P. Lichty and wife. 



24 



LIST OF AUTHORS. 



No. 383. C. F. Yoder. No. 388. College Dormitory. 

No. 384. A. J. Ingleright. No. 389. J. B. Early. 

No. 385. C. P. Guinther. No. 390. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

No. 386. Jos. W. Lichty and family. No. 391. Waterloo, Iowa. 

No. 392. Milford, Ind. 
No. 387. Ashland College. No. 393. Warsaw, Ind. 



LIST OF AUTHORS QUOTED IN THIS WORK 

We are indebted to the following writers, whose names it was not con- 
venient to place in connection with their productions. The articles from 
which we have copied were mostly contributions to some church period- 
ical, weekly, or annual. The authors should not be held accountable for 
any errors or imperfections that may have occurred, as we purposed to 
use their articles only as data, and have so done, except in cases where the 
original was too good to be changed. It was absolutely necessary to 
abbreviate in order to bring the articles within the scope of our work. 
We are grateful for the opportunitv of using the information therein con- 
tained. 



AUTHORS. 



John Calvin Bright. 
S. F. Sanger. 
J. H. Moore. 
Owen Opperman. 
Geo. W. Cripe. 



David Bailey. 



Daniel Wine. 
M. M. Eshelman. 
I. J. Rosenberger. 
D. B. Gibson. 
B. C. Moomaw. 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS 



CHAPTER I 
PREHISTORIC 

A feeling of opposition to the government of the mother coun- 
try, and a sentiment favoring the independence of the colonies, 
prevailed among the early settlers of America long before the 
adoption of the Declaration of Independence ; and so it may be 
said of the organization whose history we are about to record. 
There was much dissatisfaction with the prevailing churches, 
some, perhaps, more imaginary than real, but much of it, no 
doubt, too well founded. 

Dissatisfaction with one's circumstances inspires him with a 
desire and hope for improvement, and such solicitude also dis- 
covers appropriate remedies. "Necessity is the mother of inven- 
tion." We shall not attempt to account for all the discontent 
and complaint that existed among the laity of the churches, previ- 
ous to and during the reformation ; but the existence of such 
sentiments is a well-established fact in history. Nothing very 
good is likely to come from discontent alone ; it simply irritates, 
and seldom provokes to love. It is a holy ambition for better 
things — a hungering and thirsting after righteousness — that is 
prolific of good results and the accomplishing of great things. 

A steady rein restrains the steed, but too severe bits cause him 
to rear, and suggest breaking away. Firmness is a grace in gov- 
ernment and good order, but severity is despotism, and breeds 
anarchy. 

The study of the history of Christianity during the period dat- 
ing from 1695 to 1750, in connection with that of the Brethren 
Church, is very interesting. The severity with which the clergy 
governed the churches of that day brought about a terrible 
reaction, resulting in strong opposition to almost every measure 

(25) 



26 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

advocated by them. The churches were regarded — and we fear 
justly, too — as being nothing more than worldly institutions 
maintained for the subservience of the clergy and dignitaries 
of the church, much as the national government is looked upon 
by anarchists of this time. The colleges and their faculties were 
denounced as broods of infamy ; the synods, as schools of iniq- 
uity; and the pastors, as leeches, feeding upon the blood of the 
common people. 

The importance of German church history to the student of 
the history of our own people will appear more apparent from 
the consideration that all previous preaching and practices had 
their influence, more or less, upon the minds and hearts of the 
people of that and future generations. We are all influenced 
to some extent by our environments. Especially was this so 
regarding points not claimed to be decided by positive revelation. 
By the study of the practices, principles, and teaching of their 
predecessors, we may learn how far they are an original church. 

It is not essential to an orthodox denomination that her organ- 
ization should date back to the apostolic age. It is only essential 
that she be established on the truth. The gospel of Christ is the 
truth. ("Thy word is truth.") The time and place are matters 
of indifference. But we do claim for the Tunker Church that 
all her sacred peculiar doctrines and practices may be traced all 
along the historical highway from Christ and His apostles down 
to the organization at Schwartzenau, in a. d. 1708. At times and 
in places the road abounds in rich findings of important data of 
the doings of the devotees of the religion of the Master, and at 
other points it is almost destitute of any well-beaten landmarks 
to indicate the travels of the fathers, by even the waysides. 
This would indicate that they did not always travel in "the 
middle of the road." Sometimes they may have attempted to 
take the byways and short cuts, and again they were, no doubt, 
driven into the wilderness by their persecutors. It is evident, 
however, that whenever they were permitted to travel unhindered, 
in the light of liberty and knowledge, they always left indications 
of having read the Gospel, and a disposition to obey it, according 



PREHISTORIC. 27 

to the letter of the word. This goes a great way toward con- 
firming my oft-repeated assertion, that conscientious readers of 
God's Word, uninfluenced by fear or favor, with an intelligent 
understanding of the language in which they read the Bible, 
would declare the same doctrine, and practice the same ordinances 
in substantially the same manner. The different practices of the 
ordinances of the gospel, by the different denominations, do not 
obtain from any deficiency of clearness of statement in the Word 
so much as from the different coloring of glasses through which 
men read the Word. It can not be possible that the Bible, which 
is inspired of God, and was written by men filled with the Holy 
Spirit, should be so full of imperfections as to need correction 
by uninspired and irreligious persons of very ordinary mental 
endowment. If that were true, or possible to be true, it would 
put inspiration on a very cheap value indeed. The very fact 
that we accept a book or document as being inspired, places it 
beyond everything else in comparison to it in point of accuracy 
or truthfulnesss, on the subjects taught therein. Any assertion 
bearing the imprint of inspiration from God, is beyond human 
criticism ; it needs no confirmation, and dare not be denied or 
doubted. It emanates from the highest authority known to men 
or angels. When it is accepted as such, it will be received and 
obeyed in like manner by all who so accept it, and who have the 
capability of understanding the truths taught, and the liberty of 
obeying what is enjoined. We may find some of the principles of 
Tunkerism among the followers of Christ from the days of Christ 
to the Reformation. Some of these we regard as of sufficient 
importance to be noticed herein. 

THE WALDENSES. 

The Waldenses were a people of whose organization we know 
but little. We are told that they were founded by Peter Waldo, 
at Lyons, about a. d. 1170, after whom they were named. Perse- 
cution drove them to the valley of Piedmont, in the thirteenth 
century, where they lived in retirement, and in the wilderness or 
groves ; and another historian says on that account they were 



28 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

called Waldenses, from "Wald," woods; "woods people" (Thall- 
eute). While they are not universally acknowledged as evangel- 
ical, they are declared to be scripturally devout and scrupulously 
pious. 

We observe a striking similarity between the Waldenses and 
the Tunkers, and especially in the "Declaration of Principles" of 
the Progressive Brethren. For instance : — 

They taught and required unconditional submission and 
obedience to the New Testament in all its requirements, 
which they acknowledged as the Word of God, and which 
took the place of the Old Testament, and most vigorously 
opposed the church creeds and professions of the ruling 
churches, that were simply the decisions of men, without 
scriptural authority. They opposed the Roman Catholic 
Church, which they regarded as the mother of harlots, and 
demanded a separation from that church, as well as from all who 
sympathized with her or recognized her as evangelical; opposed 
the usages of churches supplanting true inward gospel ethics and 
Christian discipline. They, therefore, required more than sim- 
ple obedience to the outward ordinances of the church, as an evi- 
dence of gospel regeneration, and strove to attain to a genuine, 
inward, conscious, personal renewal through the Holy Spirit. 
They discriminated between that formal, nominal fellowship with 
the worldly church relationship, and fellowship with the separate 
people of God, who had withdrawn from all secular relation with 
the world and its votaries ; and only such as had thus withdrawn 
from the world did they recognize as true Christians. They so 
vehemently opposed all ordinances of men, and so tenaciously 
advocated the gospel alone, that many of them had committed the 
greater part of the Xew Testament to memory. They taught 
prayer "in spirit and in truth," and discarded all unscriptural 
practices in connection with baptism and the communion, relat- 
ing to mere form, such as clothing, ceremonials of the priests, 
calling on the saints, etc. It will be remembered by many at 
this day that the Brethren were referred to as "Gospelers," by 
the conservative papers, during the transitional state of the 



PREHISTORIC. 29 

church. It is also said of the Waldenses that they kept a careful 
notice of their poor, which duty was intrusted to the deaconship. 
They carefully observed the restrictions of the Saviour against 
taking oaths, and opposed all lascivious indulgence, such as danc- 
ing, which they called the "process of the devil." The saloon 
they named the ''school of the devil." 

THE BAPTISTS. 

Max Goebel, in his "Geschichten des Geistlichen Lebens," 
speaking of the Baptists of the sixteenth century, says : "They 
represent an entirely distinct and separate people in their Christian 
lives. Although they w r ere constantly persecuted, they could not 
be entirely subjugated. Their peculiarities — which separated 
them from the other sects of that period, 1600-1650 — consisted 
mainly in the fact that they persistently demanded genuine 
repentance and regeneration through the Holy Spirit, of every 
individual, and that of his own free will and choice. They also 
required an entire separation from all other spiritual and worldly 
things, whether church or state, and uniting with the church of 
the truly regenerated, and to take upon himself a vow of absti- 
nence from everything worldly or sinful through the Christian 
discipline of the church. They also taught the community of 
goods, at least a very liberal distribution of their spiritual and 
temporal possessions, and demanded a peaceable and non-resisting 
life. They did not only set forth these doctrines in their pro- 
fessions, as did the Lutherans, but enforced them in their system 
of church government. Their aim and purpose appeared to be 
to bring together into one bond of fellowship all truth-loving, 
believing, obedient, regenerated children of God, out of the great 
unregenerate mass of sinful humanity ; these to represent the 
wise virgins ready to go forth to meet the Bridegroom at His 
coming. 

They claim for their special work in the Reformation the 
-restoring of the right of liberty of conscience to every believer in 
Christ, to work out his own salvation. 

Their rejection and denunciation of infant baptism, and their 



30 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

universal and public practice of immersion, and especially the 
baptism of those who had been sprinkled for baptism, exposed 
them to the contempt and scorn of the dominant sects of their 
age. They were, therefore, persecuted, and many of them suf- 
fered martyrdom. 

Persecution and martyrdom were all the more readily effected 
upon them, inasmuch as the Baptists discarded all the other 
reformers and reformations, and ignored the authority of the 
government over them. History informs us that as early as 15 17, 
before the Reformation, Baptists were executed in Germany. 

However, I believe I have found in the Waldenses the most 
complete antitype of the Tunkers. Although it is not universally 
admitted that they were all and always immersionists, yet the 
best authorities admit them to have been Anabaptists. Von 
Braght gave many good authorities for that view, and among 
the Baptists of Germany in 1524 were many Waldenses who had 
removed into that domain. It is also claimed for them, by our 
German historian, that they did not regard infant baptism, and 
that they also did not claim for it the power of regeneration. 
That power they attributed alone to the influence of the Holy 
Spirit. 

THE PIETISTS. 

The Pietists were a class of religious reformers in Germany 
during the seventeenth century, who sought to revive declining 
piety in the Protestant churches. Among them were to be found 
men of all shades of religious' opinions, which were at variance 
with the established churches. In this aggregation of persons 
holding widely differing views on almost all Christian duties, 
except those of devotion and piety, it was found difficult to col- 
lect a sufficient number who were of "one mind" to establish a 
congregation. As long as they kept prominently before them- 
selves their specialty, and devoted themselves assiduously to the 
cultivation of their favorite virtue, they prospered greatly. 

There appears to have been a special revival among the Pietists 
during the first several years of the seventeenth century. They 
held house-to-house meetings besides the regular services. At 



PREHISTORIC. 31 

these private gatherings the young converts presented themselves 
for prayers and instruction in the higher attainments of the 
Christian life. Unfortunately for them, their frequent assemblies 
attracted the notice of their enemies, and inflamed the spirit of 
jealousy, and persecution speedily followed. Many of them were 
driven from their homes in Switzerland, Wirtemberg, Hesse- 
Cassel, and other places. A number of these exiles found refuge 
at Witgenstein, under the government of a friendly count, 
through whose intercession liberty of conscience was granted. 
This leniency on the part of the local government had the effect 
of inducing a heavy immigration to the community, although the 
land was rough and the soil barren. Most of them settled at 
Schwarzenau, about three miles from Berlenberg. This influx 
of people greatly increased the population of the place, and gave 
it prominence among the towns of the province. 

In their endeavors to administer wholesome discipline among 
themselves, the Pietists were again made to feel the necessity of 
better organization. They felt a desire to put into practise the 
instructions given in the eighteenth chapter of Matthew, "If thy 
brother shall trespass against thee, go tell him his fault between 
thee and him alone;' etc., but they could not agree upon any sys- 
tem of church government. Some of them did not want to be 
under any restraint, nor to submit to any discipline, no matter 
how salutary it might be. Others returned to the churches which 
they had left, while still others drifted into outright infidelity. 
This degeneracy and the discouragements which followed caused 
some of the more sincere among them to become all the more 
impressed with the importance of reviving primitive Christianity, 
by following the Saviour in all His commands and ordinances. 
They were especially convinced of the importance of faith and 
obedience to effect genuine reformation unto salvation. Their 
scriptural researches had also assured them that Christian bap- 
tism was an important ordinance, which was closely related to 
salvation, but which had often been lightly spoken of among the 
Pietists, to the great sorrow of those who truly loved the truth as 
it is in Christ Jesus. 



32 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Our Saviour, during His presence among men, taught the peo- 
ple that His kingdom resembled a number of natural things, the 
nature of which they understood much better than they did the 
character of the religion which He came to establish ; and to get 
the gist of His instructions it becomes us to study carefully the 
metaphors He makes use of, and to apply them intelligently. 
After prayerfully investigating the parables which refer to the 
subject named, I have arrived at the following conclusions: — 

1. That the terms "kingdom of God" and "kingdom of 
heaven" do not always imply a visible or temporal organization. 

2. That the two terms are practically the same, and may be 
used interchangeably. 

3. That in most cases where they do apply to an organization 
they may be used to designate the church of Christ. 

I. Let us now consider some of the cases where we think the 
phrase "kingdom of heaven" need not be understood as referring 
to the church of Christ or any other body of people. 

(1) Matthew 13:33: "The kingdom of heaven is like unto 
leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, 
till the whole was leavened.'' In this case we understand the 
Saviour to teach that His religion was like leaven ; that His doc- 
trine in the hearts of men was like leaven in meal ; that it works 
like leaven. Leaven continues its work until the entire lump has 
been leavened ; and in like manner the religion of Christ will 
permeate the whole man until a new creature shall appear, as 
unlike the ''former man" as is the beautiful, flaky bread, to the 
unsightly, lifeless lump of dough from which it came. Leaven 
works quietly ; so does religion in the heart of men. "The wind 
listeth, and thou nearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell 
whence it cometh or whither it goeth ; so is every one that is 
born of the Spirit." We may observe the results of the leaven, 
and so we shall know those who have been born of the Spirit. 
"Ye shall know them by their fruits." 

(2) The parable of the hidden treasure and goodly pearl are of 
the same character. They serve to set before us the inestimable 
value of the salvation found in the religion of Christ. We must 



PREHISTORIC. 33 

seek it, dig deep for it. It costs all a man has, and is worth all 
it costs. See Luke 14 : 33. 

(3) The following passages are offered in proof of our view of 
the subject: "The kingdom of God cometh not with observation." 
Luke 17: 20. The Emphatic Diaglott renders it, "With outward 
show." That is, not in such a way that it can be seen. It is a 
power, a mighty influence, which silently works wondrous results. 
Again, "The kingdom of God is within you." Luke 17:21. 
This was said of disciples who knew and felt. And so it is. 
The religion, the doctrine of Christ, was in them ; the hope of sal- 
vation was in their hearts ; they had His Spirit within them. The 
Pharisees, to whom the former quotation had been addressed, 
could not see that which the disciples knew and felt. Again, 
"For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness 
and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost." Rom. 14: 17. "For the 
kingdom of God is not in word, but in power." 1 Cor. 4 : 20. 

II. The proposition that the two expressions are synonymous 
is established by the fact that the evangelists Matthew and Luke 
use them interchangeably. See Matthew 13 and Luke 13. 

III. The parable of the net undoubtedly refers to the church. 
The net is the church ; the fishermen are the ministers ; the gather- 
ing out of the sea is the gathering into the visible church of both 
good and evil; the landing of the fish and the selection of the 
good is the day of judgment. So, also, the parable of the sower 
and others have reference to the church. 

From the above considerations we deduce the following propo- 
sition : That the church of Christ is a principle as well as an 
organization. As a principle it is coequal with Christ; has 
always existed and will endure forever, independent of all other 
influences. In its visible form it is dependent upon the zeal, 
energy, and environments of those who constitute the body. The 
gospel of Christ is the embodiment of that principle, and those 
who hear or read the gospel, and imbibe its teachings, become 
subjects of Christ's spiritual kingdom; and the association of a 
number of such sectaries will constitute the visible body or king- 
dom of Christ. For the gospel of Christ "is the power of God 



34 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

unto salvation to every one that believeth." Rom. i : 16. The 
preaching of the cross "is to us that are saved, the power of God." 
i Cor. i : 18. "In every nation he that feareth Him, and work- 
eth righteousness, is accepted with Him." Acts 10 : 35. Wher- 
ever, therefore, the gospel of Christ is heard or read and believed 
and obeyed, there the church of God is established. When Christ 
was personally in the world, He taught His doctrine in person. 
He also personally committed it to His chosen apostles, who de- 
clared it to men in "demonstration of the Spirit and of power." 
Then it was written in a book, by inspired men, "That we might 
believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God ; and that believ- 
ing we might have life through His name." John 20: 31. 

The purpose of this somewhat lengthy prelude is to show that 
"apostolic succession" is not essential to the existence or establish- 
ment of the church of Christ. Apostolic succession could be of 
no valuable utility. It might even be a hindrance. Succession 
was a hindrance to the Jews. They claimed to be the seed of 
Abraham, and trusted in their inheritance. "Abraham is our 
father," they said; but Jesus told them, "If ye were the children 
of Abraham, ye would do the works of Abraham." And so 
He would say to those who claim to be the children of God, "If ye 
continue in My word, then are ye My disciples indeed." John 
8: 31. Those who claim apostolic succession have been hindered 
in their effort to serve the Lord by the temptation to arrogance 
and self -righteousness, which such assumption begets. 

It is possible that God has always had a visible church in some 
part of His domain, but such a fact is not requisite to its present 
existence ; nor is a knowledge of its perpetual tangibility pertinent 
to an organization of a congregation of believers. Such was 
also the faith of our forefathers, as we shall learn further on. 



CHAPTER II 
ORGANIZATION IN GERMANY 

Finally, after much solicitude and many disappointments, eight 
persons succeeded in obtaining the consent of their own minds 
to forsake the world with all its sinful pleasures, and to covenant 
with God to remain faithful until death, took upon themselves a 
vow to follow Christ in all the commandments and ordinances of 
the New Testament. And thus they organized themselves into 
a Christian church. 

They were now in their first love, and full of zeal for God and 
His word. Accordingly, true to scriptural precedent, their first 
step was into Christian baptism. 

It appears to me I can more than anticipate the solemnity that 
pervaded the minds and hearts of the eight consecrated men and 
women, as they prepared themselves to go out to the clear waters 
of the river Eider, on a pleasant morning in the summer of the 
\-ear 1708. It must have been near Alexander Mack's mill, for, 
as he was a miller by trade, and owned a mill, he would know just 
the proper spot where the sacred work could be properly attended 
to without danger of molestation. There was all the gravity of a 
funeral march, as the procession moved along the unpaved streets 
with solemn tread. 

Baptism is always a solemn service ; and so it should be, for it 
is a figure of death and burial, and that the death of one whom 
most people worship up to the day of their conversion. Such an 
one the pious eight went out to bury into the watery grave. But 
this occasion was especially solemn, for several reasons: First, 
no one had ever seen the ordinance performed in the manner in 
which they expected to receive it this morning. Second, the 
administrator, whom they had chosen to perform the work, was 
inexperienced, and they had occasion for misgivings, and he him- 
self of fear and trepidation, as every minister of the gospel who 
has performed the solemn ceremony of his first baptizing can 
testify. The atmosphere itself was freighted with solemnity. 

(35) 



36 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

They had fasted and prayed and sang and prayerfully read the 
Word of the Lord ; and now an unction from heaven prompted 
them with the words of the angel, "Why tarriest thou? Arise 
and be baptized, and wash away thy sins." True piety and Chris- 
tion devotion invariably beget implicit obedience. 

It may not have been in the summer-time nor on a pleasant 
morning, nor even near Father Mack's, mill, for those are circum- 
stances of which they left no record. We are only told that it 
was in the quiet of an early morning in the year 1708, and that 
the place was at the river Eider. They purposely carefully con- 
cealed the exact day of its occurrence, and the name of the first 
baptizer. The latter was done with the view of avoiding all occa- 
sion of the new denomination being named after any man. I am 
inclined to believe from the success with which they have kept 
the secret, that there were no spectators present outside of their 
own families. It is difficult to keep a secret when the family 
alone knows it, and it would be impossible to conceal it if the 
public had witnessed the work, especially since some of the peo- 
ple were their enemies. All we do know positively is that it was 
not Alexander Mack who performed the first baptism among the 
Tunkers, and that it may have been George Greby, Lucas Fetter, 
Andrew Boney, or John Kipping. 

Having arrived at the water's edge and prayer offered and a 
blessing for each invoked from kind heaven, he who had been 
selected by lot took Alexander Mack by the hand, and "both went 
down into the water," and after Mack had knelt down in the 
water, he was baptized, face forward, "into the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," according to the 
commission of the great Commander. 

Then returning to the shore, Alexander Mack, who had been 
chosen as their minister, took him, by whom he had just been 
baptized, and, leading him into the stream, baptized him in the 
same manner, and afterward the other six also. 

The names of the eight persons who constituted this conse- 
crated body, and thus became the charter members of the Tunker 
Church, were as follows : George Greby and Lucas Fetter, of 



ORGANIZATION IN GERMANY. 37 

Hesse-Cassel ; Alexander Mack and Anna Magareta Mack, of 
Schreisheim, between Manheim and Heidelberg; Andrew Boney 
and Johanna Boney, of Basel, Switzerland; John Kipping and 
Johanna Kipping, of Wirtemberg. Five men and three women 
constituted the body. 

After they had changed their garments, and were assembled 
for devotion and confirmation, we are told they realized a won- 
derful inward blessing, being filled with great joy and gladness. 
These feelings developed an intense missionary spirit, which was 
another indication of primitive Christianity, for thus it was in the 
days of the apostles. No sooner had Andrew found Christ for 
himself than he immediately found his brother Simon and brought 
him to Jesus. See John I : 35-51. 

They assembled quite frequently for worship and to encourage 
each other by bearing testimony to the truth as they had found it 
in Christ. And the Lord was with them and showered His 
blessings abundantly upon them. Their fervor was contagious, 
and spread through the community from town to town and 
country to country. In the space of seven years, from 1708 to 
1715, a large congregation was established at Schwarzenau, and 
members were scattered throughout many part of the Palatinate. 
Attempts to organize the scattered members resulted in perse- 
cution. They then resorted to Marionborn, where a church was 
organized, and for a time prospered greatly, but were also soon 
followed by persecution. They then fled to Krefeld, under the 
king of Prussia, where they enjoyed freedom of conscience for 
a time at least. 

During the seven years of prosperity referred to above, the 
Lord called into the church a number of laborers, who had been 
distinguished in other parts of His vineyard. Among them are 
named : John Henry Kalkloeser, of Frankenthal ; Christian Libe 
and Abraham Duboy, of Ebstein ; John Naas and others, from 
Norten ;* and Peter Becker, of Dilsheim. 

There were also added to them John Henry Traut and his 
brethren, Henry Holsapple and Stephen Koch. From the data 

*It is probable that this phrase should be translated simply from the 
north. 



38 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

at hand we infer that John Henry Traut had been the leader of 
a church, or at least a class of brethren in the community, 
since we are told that he and his brethren were added to the 
Schwarzenau church. The most of these located at Krefeld, but 
John Henry Kalkloeser, Abraham Duboy, George Raiser Gantz, 
of Umstatt, and Michael Eckerlin, of Strasburg, settled at 
Schwarzenau. 

While on the one hand they found favor with God and men, 
because of their upright life and holy conversation and devotion 
to the truth, on the other hand they met with persecutions which 
they drew upon themselves by the same virtuous life and faith- 
fulness to duty. Some had their property confiscated, others 
suffered imprisonment, varying in length from a few months to 
several years. Christian Libe was condemned to the galleys, and 
was obliged to labor at the rudder and mingle with wicked and 
ungodly men for a term of several years. However, through 
the mercy of kind providence, they were finally all liberated, and 
permitted to return to their homes with a good conscience. 

It certainly does appear to be true that "persecutions, though 
severe, are oft in mercy sent,'' for our data assures us that the 
persecutions, tribulations, poverty and imprisonments endured 
by these good people only increased their happiness. And so it 
should be, for Jesus said, "Blessed are they which are persecuted 
for righteousness' sake ; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." 
"Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and 
shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for My sake. 
Rejoice and be exceeding glad ; for great is your reward in 
heaven ; for so persecuted they the prophets which were before 
you." Matt. 5: 10-12. 

The next trial which these young converts encountered was of 
a catechismal nature. Their enemies assailed them with subtle 
and cunningly-devised questions, hoping thereby to divert them 
from the truth and to inveigle them with disputations, and thereby 
to bring them into disfavor with the authorities. Forty pointed 
questions, prepared by educated men of the opposing churches 
and clergy, were presented in writing, to be answered by the 
Tunker brethren. And thev certainly manifested both wisdom 



ORGANIZATION IN GERMANY. 39 

and sagacity in their answers to the critical questions ; and some 
of the replies are almost as cunning as the questions themselves ; 
but the brethren were able to solve all the knotty problems sub- 
mitted to them, and to such satisfaction to the church that the 
congregation decided to publish both questions and answers in 
pamphlet form, to be distributed for the information of their 
friends and neighbors. 

In this particular they manifested an unusual degree of zeal 
and enterprise, which would entitle them to be called progressive. 
This being the first literary work of these people it is entitled 
to a place in this work. With that view it has been carefully 
translated from the German. In the translation I have endeav- 
ored to give a faithful rendition of the sentiment of the text in 
English that will compare in style with the original, without 
special regard to exact literal translation. It affords me great 
satisfaction to be able to present this production of the fathers of 
our church to the readers of this volume. The text used was 
printed at Baltimore, by Samuel Saur, 1799. I have availed 
myself of a former translation by some one who signed himself, 
"A Friend to Religion." It was no easy task, even with the 
assistance of the above translation, to present a' clear and positive 
interpretation of this ancient literary work, as the German lan- 
guage has undergone several revisions in the last two hundred 
years. In the introduction to the book was obtained much of the 
data upon which is founded the historical part of the Tunker 
Church. The preface was presumably written by Alexander 
Mack, Jr. It is signed "Abend Mahl," the first letters of each 
word of which form the initials of the name Alexander Mack. 
The last sentence is very ingeniously woven together so as to 
make sense by closing with the significant words, "Abend Mahl," 
meaning evening meal, supper of the Lamb, or the Lord's Sup- 
per, all of which are endearing terms in the German language, 
after the style of the term "the Fatherland." 

The introduction is dated 1774. In it the author acknowledged 
having gathered the facts set forth therein from certain papers 
by Alexander Mack, Sr., and Peter Becker, who had died some 
time previous. 



CHAPTER III 

SCHIVARZENA U, GERMANY 

Apropos to the occasion, let us turn our eyes to the town from 
whence sprung this denomination. 

Elder D. L. Miller, editor of Gospel Messenger, during one of 




BRIDGE AT SCHW 7 ARZENAU 

his eastern trips, visited the town of Schwarzenau. and in an 
article published in his paper, he describes the town and vicinity, 
from which we compile the following : — 

The German village of Schwarzenau is one of those quaint, 
old-fashioned towns that seemed quite out of place in the present. 

(40^ 



SCHWARZENAU, GERMANY. 4 1 

It belongs to the past, and has not yet awakened to the impulse 
of the age, which has taken hold upon many parts of Germany. 
Its peace and quiet have never been disturbed by the sound of 
locomotive or cars. For more than three centuries it has nestled 
in the beautiful valley through which, like a thread of silver in a 
ribbon of green, flows the historic river Eider. 

As we write, we are seated on the approach to the foot-bridge, 
used by the villagers to cross over the stream. On either side 
of the river stand the quaint-looking old houses, with high gables 
and steep roofs, covered with straw or red tile, which form the 
ancient village of Schwarzenau. The village children, in peculiar 
dress, stand at a respectful distance, watching, with open-eyed 
wonder, the strangers who have invaded their quiet little town. 
Even the elderly people stop and give us a look of surprised 
inquiry, and collect in groups to discuss the strange sight of a 
drosky with travelers in their streets. As they pass by they 
greet us cordially with a "Guten Tag" ("Good-day"). Wife 
walks along the meandering stream, the water of which is as 
clear as crystal, and the gently-sloping banks are covered with 
grass to the very edge of the river. A well-kept lawn is not more 
evenly mowed than the grassy slopes of the Eider. It is a quiet 
October day, a day that recalls our own delightful Indian sum- 
mer weather at home. The mountains on either side of the valley 
are covered with a thick growth of pine, birch, maple, and beech. 
The touch of autumn has tinged the foliage with a rich coloring 
of crimson, red, and gold. Up the stream, a hundred yards away, 
is the old, five-arched stone bridge, built centuries ago, and be- 
yond this a beautiful stretch of green meadow land. Sitting here 
on the old foot-bridge, with the valley for a mile above and below 
Schwarzenau in full view, we have no picture in mind so beau- 
tiful as this. 

And what are the associations connected with this quiet, old- 
fashioned German hamlet? Here at Schwarzenau, nearly two 
hundred years ago, the dying embers of primitive Christianity 
were rekindled, and the Tunker Church was organized. Here, on 
the banks of this beautiful stream, doubtless not far from where 



42 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

we write, the Tunkers assembled in the year 1708, and, following 
the example of Christ, the}- went down into the water and were 
baptized "into the name of the Father, and into the name of the 
Son, and into the name of the Holy Ghost," and from here went 
forth that little band of persecuted believers, exiled from their 
"Vaterland," to find a home in the Quaker Colony of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

We have been brought into close contact with the homes of our 
brethren in Germany. We have seen where they lived and 
labored, and we are much impressed with the thought of the great 
sacrifices they made when they left these beautiful and fertile val- 
leys for the wilds of the New World. We are made to admire, 
more and more, their courage and the spirit of self-sacrifice which 
led them to abandon home and the associations of a lifetime for 
the sake of primitive Christianity. How they must have suf- 
fered, and what hardships they must have endured, all for the 
sake of religious liberty! How often, from their lonely homes 
on Indian Creek and the Wissahickon, at White Oak, at Ephrata. 
and at Germantown, surrounded by the red man of the forest, 
must they have looked back with longing, yearning hearts to this 
beautiful valley of the Eider, once their quiet, peaceful, happy 
home, from which they were exiled, never to return again ! 

How often must they have battled with the homesick feeling 
that will come to all who love home and leave it ! How often in 
their dreams their feet pressed again the grassy slopes of the 
Eider, they drank again of its crystal water, and breathed again 
the pure mountain air, and were happy again in their old homes, 
only to wake to find it all a dream ! These brave men and women 
endured much so that they might serve the Lord in His own 
appointed way. Long ago they were gathered to that home 
where the weary are at rest, and from which they will never be 
exiled. The cause they love so well . and for which they sacri- 
ficed so much, still lives. And shall it not continue to live? Shall 
not we, who to-day stand in the places of those who have gone 
before, hold up the cause of apostolic Christianity? Shall we 
not be true to the cause we have espoused, and for which our 



SCHWARZENAU., GERMANY. 43 

fathers suffered so much, yea, for which Christ died? God help 
us to be faithful even unto death. 

The village is built on either side of the Eder, and contains 
about 600 souls. On the outer wall of one of the principal 
houses hangs a square sign-board, on the white surface of which 
is painted in large black letters the following official record of 
the place : — 

D. Schwarzenau. (Village of Schwarzenau.) 

Amt Arfeld. (District of Arfeld.) 

Kr. Wittgenstein. (Circuit of Wittgenstein.) 

Rg. Bz. Arnsberg. (Government Division of Arnsberg.) 

Landwehr-Battalions. (Military Battalions.) 

Bezirk Meschede. (Division of Meschede.) 

The people of the village are engaged in farming, and appeared 
to be well-to-do and happy. Their piety asserts itself in the cus- 
tom of engraving passages of Scriptures on the oak sills and 
panels in the sides and gables of their houses. Not only at 
Schwarzenau, but at other villages in the valleys of the Eder. we 
noticed not only scriptural passages but short poems and various 
pious mottoes on the houses. The following are given as exam- 
ples. We copied them verbatim : — 

"Gott segne dieses Haus" — God bless this house. 

" Und einen jeden Stand " — And every other dwelling. 

" Den Burger in der Stadt " — Of the burgher in the city. 

*' Den Bauer auf dem Land " — And the farmer in the country. 

" Gib Segen und Gedeihen " — Give blessing and prosperity. 

"Auch fuer ein jedes Wesen "— Also for every being. 

" Besonders noch fuer den " — Specially for them. 

<l Der diesen Spruch thut lesen "— Who shall read this saying. 

At another place we read, "Dieses Haus gehoert Gott und mir" 
— This house belongs to God and me. Here the owner takes the 
Lord into partnership with him. A lesson may be learned from 
this simple villager. We have too much of the "I own this prop- 
erty," and not enough of the "It belongs to the Lord" in our way 
of looking at what God has made us stewards over. Another 
example': 'Teh getrau Gott in aller noth" — I trust God in all dis- 



44 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



tress. Much of the carving is skilfully done, the old German 
letters being used, and the capitals finely decorated. 

Not far from Schwarzenau is the town of Berleburg. This 
was a noted center for the Tunkers and Pietists. They came 
here from many parts of Germany. Among others who came 
was a printer from Strasburg, named John Jacob Hang. He 
had been awakened, and came to Berleburg to enjoy the society 
of kindred spirits. A printing-press was set up for these 
early brethren believed in the use of printer's ink, and Hang took 
charge of the office. Here, in 1726, the celebrated Berleburg 
Bible, with notes, was published in three volumes. A copy of 
this Bible may be seen in the Cassel Library, at Mt. Morris, 
Illinois. The printing-press was afterwards sent to America, 
where, in 1736, it came into the possession of Elder Christopher 
Saur, and he used it to print the first religious paper and the first 
Bible. ("1743) that were printed in America. 




GERMAN BAPTIST CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



CHAPTER IV 

MACK'S BOOK 

It will be discovered in reading the introduction to the work 
that a second history of the organization of the Tunker Church is 
narrated. 

PREFACE. 

God is omnipotent ; and to the disobedient a dreadful God. 
This was clearly evinced in the punishment of our first parents, 
in Paradise, for their disobedience ; and afterwards by His 
marked displeasures with His people Israel for disobeying His 
law : "He that despised Moses' law died without mercy, under 
two or three witnesses." A punctilious observance of the law 
was required, therefore He enjoins upon His people by His serv- 
ant Moses (Deut. 4:1, 2), "Now therefore hearken, O Israel, 
unto the statutes and unto the judgments, which I teach you, for 
to do them, that ye may live, and go in and possess the land 
which the Lord God of your fathers giveth you. Ye shall not 
add unto the Word which I command you, neither shall ye dimin- 
ish aught from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the 
Lord your God which I command you." Nothing could be more 
positive than the command, nothing more certain than that a 
scrupulous attention and obedience were required by those to 
whom it was communicated. No less evident is it that God 
requires obedience to all things that in these last times have been 
revealed and communicated to all the world by His Son, to them 
that are called Christians especially, that they might as children of 
the same family, be of one mind, of the same judgment, and culti- 
vate a unity of sentiment, following the example of the good Shep- 
herd, keeping His commands, to which the promise of eternal 
life is annexed as a powerful incentive for us to obey in all things. 
For this cause the baptism with water, that Jesus commanded 
to be performed in His name, as well as all other ordinances and 
commands recorded in His will, merit our attention and obedience, 

(45) 



46 HISTORY OF THE TINKERS. 

for as He is, who has ordained them under the new covenant, 
so are we to consider His commands, and the promise which He 
hath annexed thereto, namely, life everlasting, in addition to all 
the gifts of His grace, and His Holy Spirit, with which we are 
privileged in this world; such, therefore, who are rebellious and 
disobedient to His divine commands, have wrath and indignation 
to fear, as St. Paul says in his second epistle to the Thessalonians, 
that the Son of God "shall come in naming fire, taking vengeance 
on them that know not God, and obey not the gospel." A similar 
denunciation we find in Rev. 22: 18, 19, "If any man shall take 
away from the words of the prophecy of this book [by which the 
ordinances of Christ are intended] God shall take away his name 
out of the book of life ; and if any man shall add unto these things, 
God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this 
book." Our object in publishing this book is to endeavor to 
bring these things to mind, in order that he who reads may under- 
stand what the Lord requires of him, and be obedient in all things, 
that he may go in and possess the land ; that the abuses which 
have crept into the Christian church may be studiously avoided 
by a strict conformity in all things to the Word of God. 

It is presented in a form of a conversation of questions and 
answers between father and son, who were journeying together 
in the Christian pilgrimage. 

INTRODUCTION. 

In order. to profit by the perusal of a treatise and apprehend 
the design thereof, great advantages will be derived by laying 
aside all prejudice, and with an impartial and unbiased mind and 
a love of the truth investigate the subject with the evidence 
therein advanced. Then, after having proven all things by the 
standard of truth, hold fast that which is good. AVe should be 
guided in all such investigations by the grace and mercy of our 
God, weighing all things in the balances of the sanctuary, — the 
testimony of our Lord from the scriptures of the apostles and 
prophets. 

The necessity of such a frame of mind will appear the more 



mack's book. 47 

indispensable when we consider the danger arising from a bias of 
mind in the examination of the best production. In suffering 
ourselves to be carried away by the current of popular prejudice 
our judgment becomes darkened, and the true spirit of examina- 
tion dethroned. The consequences will be uncertainty and con- 
fusion, bringing about that state of mind compared to night, 
wherein if a man walk he stumbles. To a person in this con- 
dition Christ Himself and His glorious gospel become a subject 
of cavil, "a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense." If there 
be any who by a spirit of disputation would bring themselves into 
notice, by caviling at this well-meant production, they are cau- 
tioned in a friendly manner, lest they should be found engaging 
in a contest with their own conscience, which is an impartial 
judge, and will plead for the truth. It is also sufficiently power- 
ful in the breast of every one to command an audience sooner or 
later. To him, therefore, who is an impartial reader, the follow- 
ing remarks will serve as a satis factorv introduction to this work. 
It pleased God in the beginning of the last century (17; to 
cause His saving grace to be experienced, and the voice of His 
mercy to be heard by many, awakening them to repentance and 
arousing them from the sleep of sin and death to seek salvation 
in Christ their Saviour. They felt the general departure from 
the general principles of Christianity, and were devoutly inclined 
to bear testimony to the truth, in word and practise. Accord- 
ingly private meetings were established for the edification and 
building up of the newly-awakened souls. The laudable under- 
taking was, however, soon vigorously opposed by jealous and 
embittered ecclesiastics. These influenced the civil powers, and 
instituted a series of persecution in Switzerland, Wirtenberg, in 
the Palatinate, at Hesse-Cassel, and at other places where the 
faithful were cast out as exiles. But the Lord provided a place 
of refuge for them in Witgenstein, under the protection of a 
prince, eminent for his moderation. Here the awakening power 
of God had previously found its way to the hearts of some 
honorable ladies of the court. At a place called Schwarzenau, 
in the vicinity of Berlenburg, liberty of conscience had been 



48 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

graciously afforded to the refugees. Witgenstein, though a rough 
and barren country, became a place of refuge to the awakened, 
and also of considerable reputation, in the course of a few 
years, for the exiles, who now generally resorted to Schwarzenau. 

Of the number who collected here there were those of different 
opinions, habits, and manners. They were all denominated Piet- 
ists, but they considered each other as brethren. They soon met 
with trouble among themselves. They found it difficult in their 
unorganized state to put into practise the salutary counsel of our 
Lord, "If thy brother trespass against thee, go and tell him his 
fault between thee and him alone," there being no church to report 
to. At this point some returned to the religion from whence 
they had come. They could not endure the discipline of the cross. 
Others fostered a spirit of liberalism more to be dreaded in its 
consequences than their former depravity. There were some, 
however, who, notwithstanding this state of perturbation, were 
sincerely desirous of finding the footsteps of the primitive Chris- 
tianity and following the example of the Saviour, being fully con- 
vinced of the necessity of faith and obedience in order to obtain 
salvation. Their solicitude paved the way to the discovery of the 
importance of the ordinance of water baptism, which they 
regarded as the door to the church toward which they had such a 
longing desire. The subject of baptism among the Pietists was 
variously understood, which was greatly deplored by all lovers of 
the truth. 

In the year 1708, eight persons entered into a covenant with 
each other, by the help of God to endeavor to attain to the answer 
of a good conscience by rendering obedience to all the commands 
of the Lord Jesus, and following Him as their good shepherd 
and leader through good and evil report. These eight persons 
were as follows, namely, five brethren and three sisters : The 
brethren were George Greby, of Hesse-Cassel, the first ; Lucas 
Fetter, also from the Hessian land, the second; the third was 
Alexander Mack, from the Palatinate of Schreishim, between 
Manheim and Heidelburg ; the fourth was Andreas Boney, from 
Basel, in Switzerland ; the fifth was John Kipping, from Bareit, 



MACK S BOOK. 49 

in the province of Wirtemberg; the three sisters were Johanna 
Boney, the first ; Anna Margaretta Mack, the second, and Johanna 
Kipping, the third. 

These eight persons convenanted with each other as brethren 
and sisters under the bond of the cross of Jesus Christ, to labor 
together in the unity of the faith as a church. 

By consulting history they found that the primitive Christians 
in the first and second centuries were uniformly planted into the 
likeness of His death by baptism in water by a threefold immer- 
sion. But they were unwilling to rest their faith upon the author- 
ity of history alone. They searched the New Testament Scrip- 
tures, and found implicit testimony to the same. Thereupon they 
became desirous of practising the ordinance, and securing the 
benefit of a means of grace so strongly recommended by the 
example of our Lord, and so emphatically enjoined by His writ- 
ten precepts ; they believed that it became them thus to fulfil all 
righteousness. 

Then the question arose who should perform this outward 
service for them. One of their number who had labored in word 
and doctrine in different parts of Germany had learned the 
views of the Baptist brethren generally. He found that the large 
majority maintained that immersion was the proper mode of bap- 
tism when it is received in love to Christ, but believed that 
sprinkling might also answer the purpose if everything else con- 
nected therewith was right and proper. 

However, their consciences could not be reconciled with such 
reasoning. They requested their minister, who had acted as their 
leader, to baptize them by immersion according to the example of 
the first and best Christians. Inasmuch, however, as he regarded 
himself as being yet unbaptized he requested to be first baptized 
by them before he would administer the ordinance to others. 
Thereupon they took counsel and determined to resort to fasting 
and prayer in order to obtain help and divine direction. They all 
had the same desire simply to do the will of the Lord. The 
promise of the Saviour came to them in great power, "Where two 
or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the 



50 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

midst of them." In confidence in the promises of the Saviour, 
they cast lots by solemn prayer and fasting, and submitted the 
question to the Lord, Which one of the four brethren should bap- 
tize the one who so earnestly desired to be baptized by the church 
of Christ? They had previously agreed among themselves that 
no one should reveal who was the first baptizer among them. 
This they did to avoid the occasion of naming them after any 
man, which custom the apostle Paul reproves in the Corinthian 
church. 

Everything having been set in order, those eight persons 
resorted to the river Eider, in the quiet of the early morning, 
where the brother on whom the lot had fallen, baptized the brother 
who desired to be baptized by the church of Christ. After he was 
baptized, then he in turn baptized the one by whom he had been 
baptized ; and then also the other three brethren and three sisters. 
And so the eight persons were all baptized at an early morning 
hour. 

As they had all retired from the water, and had changed their 
clothing, they were filled with great joy. Then the word of the 
Lord, "Be fruitful and multiply," with its spiritual application, 
was impressed upon their minds with unusual power. This 
occurred in the year 1708, as mentioned above. But of month 
or day they have left no record. 

From that time onward these eight persons grew more and 
more in the faith of the gospel, and bore testimony to their faith 
and experience in the public assembly. And the Lord bestowed 
upon them His special blessings in an abundant manner. 
Through these means a number of believers were added to them, 
and during the first seven years of their history, in the year 171 5, 
a large congregation had assembled at Schwarzenau, and churches 
were organized in different parts of the Palatinate, especially at 
Marienborn, to which many of the converts attached themselves 
because of persecution which was meted out to them in other 
portions of the country. This large accession drew public atten- 
tion to them, and caused them to be persecuted at Marienborn 



MACKS BOOK. 5 1 

also. Then they fled to Krefeld, under the king of Prussia, 
where they found freedom of conscience. 

The Lord also called a number of laborers into His vineyard. 
Among these were John Henry Kalkloeser, from Krankenthal ; 
Christian Libe and Abraham Duboy, from Ebstein; John Naas 
and others, from the north ; Peter Becker, from Dillsheim ; John 
Henry Traut, and his brethren, Henry Holsappel and Stephen 
Koch, also associated themselves with them. The most of these 
came to Krefeld. John Henry Kalkloeser and Abraham Duboy, 
however, went to Schwarzenau ; so did also George Balser Ganz, 
from Umstatt, and Michael Eckerlin, from Strasburg. 

While they received the blessings of God on the one hand, they 
encountered the enmity of men on the other hand. The enemies 
of truth arose against them, and persecutions were encountered 
in different places for the word of God's sake. Some were robbed 
of their property, which they appeared to submit to joyfully. 
Others endured bonds and imprisonment, some for a few weeks 
only, but others for several years. Christian Libe was compelled 
to serve at the galleys on board of one of the ships, being coupled 
with ungodly miscreants, to work at the rudder. However, 
through the mercy of God, all finally regained their liberty, and 
returned to their homes with good conscience. 

The fact that their persecutions, poverty, tribulations, and im- 
prisonment appeared to make them all the more joyful, attracted 
the attention of certain men of great learning. These endeav- 
ored to tempt the brethren with pointed disputations and subtle 
questions. Forty questions were submitted to them with the 
request that they be answered. These questions with their 
answers were published in tract form by the church for the 
instruction of the reader. At the same time it was thought 
proper by the church at Schwarzenau to publish this small book, 
for the instruction of the uninformed, in which the unprejudiced 
reader, with the assistance of this introduction, may learn the 
reasons for issuing this publication. 

Afterwards, when those who were then engaged in the work 
of the Lord in the simplicity of their minds, had fallen asleep 



52 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and gone to their reward, the church in America manifested a 
desire to have the same reprinted, for the instruction of the young 
people, especially ; and also to glorify God, who had so wonder- 
fully protected His people in these perilous times. To the same 
all-wise and merciful God, therefore, is this simple testimony to 
His truth presented, and commended to His protecting power. 
To the friendly reader we wish a devout, truth-loving state of 
mind, in which an assurance can be had that we belong to the 
fold of Christ. Blessed is the man who will yield implicit obedi- 
ence to the Holy Spirit, who will bring to his mind everything 
that Christ taught in His everlasting Word. 

"Now unto the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the 
world, be honor, and praise, and adoration, in the church of the 
First-born, in heaven and upon earth, in the communion of the 
Father and the Holy Spirit. Amen." 

N. B. — This simple statement was compiled partly from 
papers left by Alexander Mack, Sr., and Peter Becker, and 
partly information received from the lips of my parents and 
other brethren, as they related it to me for our comfort and 
encouragement. To which the author testifies this 20th day of 
January, 1774; who accounts himself an invited fellow-guest to 
the marriage of the Lamb and to the glorious 

Abend-Mahl. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

Beloved Friends and Fellow-Pilgrims: It is desired to learn 
more in regard to your new denomination and the baptism which 
you practise, inasmuch as disputation has obtained in different 
places on account of the uncertainty existing as to your doctrine. 
In order, therefore, to have your views or principles properly 
set forth and understood, and to remove all doubts and uncertain- 
ties, it has been deemed prudent to present to you the following 
questions, to which it is desired that you make plain and faithful 
answers : — 

Response. — Beloved friends: Inasmuch as you have expressed 



MACKS BOOK. 53 

a desire to know our doctrine, and as the apostle Peter instructs 
believers to "be ready always to give an answer to every man 
that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meek- 
ness and fear," we could not avoid to offer you our frank and 
faithful answers to the questions presented, and submit the same 
for your consideration, according to the light of the gospel. 

Question i. — Do you not claim that for over one thousand 
years there had been no true baptism in the world, and, conse- 
quently, not a true church on the earth ? 

Answer. — We believe and maintain that God has always had 
His church and consequently that which also observed the true 
form of baptism. It was, however, not always manifest to 
unbelievers, and frequently it existed in a faint, glimmering one ; 
nevertheless, the gates of hell could never entirely prevail against 
it. It is also clear from history that the Lord has always pro- 
tected His ordinances as a testimony to unbelievers. 

Question 2. — Could the church of Christ not exist at any time 
and in any manner, even in the faintest glimmerings, without 
observing the original outward form of baptism, as did the Jew- 
ish church for a short period while dwelling in the wilderness, 
without observing circumcision ? Joshua 5 : 5-7. 

Answer. — The church of Christ having been established by the 
true Master-builder, Jesus Christ, it can only be maintained by 
practicing the true mode of baptism, as instituted by Christ Him- 
self, taught and practiced by the apostles themselves, and con- 
firmed by signs and wonders from heaven. It must, therefore, 
be incontrovertible that at that time no church of Christ could 
exist without the ordinance of baptism as commanded by the 
true Author. That, however, there were individuals who lived 
in retirement and were drawn into the church, we will not deny ; 
but whether they confessed and obeyed Christ publicly, or whether 
they cared more for the honor of the world than they did for the 
glory of Christ, we need not say. As concerns the Israelitish 
church, it is evident that while they were in the wilderness, the 
children were obliged to bear the reproach of the Egyptians and 
the sins of their fathers. As soon, however, as they entered the 



5/). HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

promised land, and before they captured the first town, Jericho, 
they were required to be circumcised. The Lord said unto 
Joshua, "This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from 
off you." Joshua 5 : 9. Then, and not till then, were they per- 
mitted to keep the passover. This is symbolic unto us as long as 
we live in the wilderness of sin. Even if we should have left the 
land of Egypt, with its flagrant, outrageous sins, through the 
mighty hand of God, we could still not enter the house of the Lord 
and enjoy the fellowship of Christ and His people and partake of 
the communion. Christ requires that we should first be baptized, 
and to this all faithful believers will submit, although every man 
must have an answer of a good conscience within himself. If 
only men would more faithfully obey the inward promptings. 

Quest ion j. — Did the church entirely cease to exist upon earth 
at such time when the ordinance of baptism was not practised 
according to the original institution ? 

Answer. — If baptism as first instituted had been entirely unob- 
served, then certainly the church of Christ had ceased to exist, 
liven if a few isolated might be found, here and there, in the great 
bulk of humanity, they still could not be called the church ; but 
since we believe, and can prove by church history, that the original 
mode of baptism had never been entirely lost sight of, the church, 
of Christ had never ceased to exist, however small it may have 
been. 

Question 4. — How do you reconcile such views with the prom- 
ises of Christ (Matt. 16: 18), "The gates of hell shall not pre- 
vail against it" (the church), and chapter 28: 20, "And, lo, I am 
with you alway, even unto the end of the world"? 

Answer. — This question has already been answered, because 
we believe that "the gates of hell" never have prevailed against 
the church of Christ, but it has stood and will stand to the end 
of the world. 

Question 5. — How do you regard those undeniable witnesses 
to the truth, who, from century to century, even to the present 
lime, have lived devout and exemplary lives?' Are they not to 
lie regarded as communicants of the body of Christ and partakers 
of His spiritual nature? 



MACKS BOOK. 55 

Answer. — Christ says (Matt, y.20), "By their fruits ye shall 
know them." Inasmuch as we believe that writings of fine books 
and even prophesying are not fruits of a Christian life, whereby 
men can be recognized, therefore, by such marks alone we can 
not accept such as Christians ; and since we did not know those 
people during their lifetime we can not judge them, but will 
leave them in the hands of the Lord ; but all their writing and 
prophecy can not make us doubt the gospel of Christ. We can 
not, however, regard them as constituting the church of Christ, 
simply because of their prophesying, if they did not obey the 
teachings of Christ in baptism and the other ordinances as He 
delivered them. 

Question 6. — Are you not of the opinion that the long-lost 
ceremony of baptism must be re-established in every particular ? 
And for what reason? Or is it not more likely that Almighty 
God suffered the decline of this non-essential ceremony, as He 
did in the case of circumcision under the old covenant which 
could not make the comers thereunto perfect, and establish the 
new economy and family of purely spiritual children, as all the 
prophecies and promises indicate ? 

Answer. — We believe, with the apostle, that as long as there 
was no change in the priesthood there could be no change in the 
law ; for as long as the Levitical priesthood continued, so long 
the law remained, and circumcision continued in force, and could 
not be changed without incurring the displeasure and punish- 
ment of God ; but when Christ came, who is the everlasting Priest 
and Son of God, He established a spiritual law, and removed the 
first as being imperfect, weak, and could not make the comers 
thereunto perfect, and opened the way into the holiest of holies, 
confirming His will with His blood. Hence, we believe that 
though an angel from heaven should bring any other gospel, he 
would meet the curse of God. Gal. 1 i 8. We believe, therefore, 
that the doctrine of Christ must be obeyed until He shall return 
again, "revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, in flaming 
fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey 
not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ." 2 Thess. 1 : 7, 8. 



56 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Therefore, the gospel of Christ must, in these latter days, be 
implicitly obeyed by all believers, but to the unbelieving there is 
no commandment. 

Question /. — Whether they did not believe and confess that in 
all cases, whether under the reestablished or under the first and 
unchanged application of the ordinance of baptism, an unmis- 
takable, direct call of the Holy Spirit is essential and required by 
the Scriptures and according to the great church reformations. 

Answer. — We do, indeed, believe that in order to carry out the 
doctrine of Christ a direct call and wooing of the Spirit of God 
is required. That this calling must be accompanied by witnesses 
of great wonders before men we will not determine. It will be 
sufficient if the call be from God, whether men believe it or not. 
In such cases we must submit to the conscience of each individual. 

Question 8. — Can any of you venture to declare before God, 
expecting to answer at the day of judgment, that he has received 
such a direct call and such reestablished scriptural baptism, which 
had not been practiced since the time of the apostles and the 
first Christians, and thereby have entered the reestablished church 
of God? 

Answer. — When the Pharisees sent from Jerusalem, to inquire 
of John whether .he was Christ, or the prophet, because he bap- 
tized, he answered: "I baptize with water, but there standeth 
One among you whom ye know not, He shall baptize you with the 
Holy Ghost and with fire." So we say also, in all simplicity, we 
baptize in water upon faith in Christ, who in these days speaks to 
the hearts of men. Oh, that men might know Him and follow 
Him ! Then He would be all in all. No man, however, shall 
assume to himself the prerogative of establishing a pure church, 
and to institute a sanctifying water baptism, or even to claim 
having been sent from God to do so. That honor he should 
attribute to God alone. And even should the Lord choose some 
men as special instruments in accomplishing His work, we can 
still use them only as witnesses, and know whether they are sent 
of God by their works, as John says, "He whom God hath sent 
speaketh the words of God." John 3 : 34. 



MACK S BOOK. 57 

Question p. — In what does such direct call consist, and how- 
does it operate on the hearts of those among the sects, as well as 
those without, in convicting and convincing them and bringing 
them to a knowledge of the truth ? 

Anszver. — The direct call consists in this that it instils into the 
hearts of men a knowledge of the operation of the Spirit of God, 
and such person does not concern himself as to whether men 
believe or do not believe whether he is being so wrought upon, 
as Christ Himself taught, "Murmur not among yourselves. No 
man cometh unto Me except the Father draw him." John 
6 : 43, 44. And so it is still ; no man can come to or accept the 
gospel of Christ unless he be drawn by the Father ; and he who 
will obey the drawings of the Father can have no difficulty to find 
the chosen people of God. 

Question 10. — Is it not reasonable to conclude that if this work 
is of God, and that you have received such a direct call from 
God, thousands of persons would volunteer and be added to the 
number, according to the example of the day of Pentecost, when 
the Spirit and power of Christ operated on the hearts through the 
services of the apostles ? 

Answer. — Christ said to His own people, alluding especially to 
the present time, "Take heed that no man deceive you." He does 
not say that in these troublesome days in which the hearts of men 
have waxed cold, thousands would flock to His gospel. Even 
the faithful are not too ready to follow their Master when they 
must leave all to follow Him acceptably. Christ had much more 
to say of the great tribulation of the present time, and of the 
abomination and desolation that should come to pass. It is also 
said that they shall come to the mountain, which signifies "Mount 
Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem." 
Heb. 12 : 22, 23. Whereunto all the truly faithful have always 
fled for refuge, and many of the saints even were unable to per- 
suade their wives and children to accompany them. So it was 
in the case of faithful Lot, who, called by the Lord, was led by the 
hand of an angel to flee the wrath to come. His friends ridiculed 
him, and he was compelled to leave his wife upon the plain. 



58 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Wherefore, Christ warned His disciples with the words, "Remem- 
ber Lot's wife." Luke 17: 32. 

Question 11. — Is water baptism so essential that nobody abso- 
lutely can be saved without it, no matter how strong his faith may 
be, or how pure and holy and irreproachable his life ? 

Answer. — We believe that in the Old and New Testaments 
believers only have the promise of salvation. And we may learn 
the mind and disposition of believers by the example of faithful 
Abraham, the father of all believers. He was obedient in all 
things, and received the promise on account of his faith, that 
was living faith, which wrought obedience. So we believe that 
if a person lives holy and irreproachably, his life being actuated 
through faith in Christ, such faith will work obedience to bap- 
tism. It would not be nearly so severe a trial as that of Abra- 
ham's offering up his son. If, however, a person is still disposed 
to dispute with God, by saying, "What good can water do 
me ?" his holy life • and pretended piety is nothing- but self- 
righteousness, which he seeks to establish as did the Jews, of 
which St. Paul writes in Romans 10. And to such righteousness 
there is no salvation promised. Christ is the end of the law. and 
whoso believeth on Him is justified ; and faith in Christ worketh 
obedience to all His commandments. 

Question 12. — Does not the assertion of Mark 16: 16, establish 
the contrary, in which Christ so emphatically declared. "He that 
believeth not," and is not baptized, "shall be damned"? 

Answer. — A person is not saved because of his faith in Christ, 
through whom everlasting life is promised. John 3:15-18. 
Why should a believer not be willing to obey Him on whom he 
believes? Since it is the will of Christ that believers should be 
baptized, it should also be the will of him who believes; and if 
that be his will and desire to do the will of Christ, then he is 
saved, even if he should not be able to receive baptism on account 
of unavoidable hindrances. As in the case of Abraham, who was 
rcad\- to offer up his son Isaac, he obtained a blessing for his 
faith, although he did not actually sacrifice his son : yet he proved 



MACK S BOOK. 



59 



obedient. So, also, the believer who desires to be baptized, but 
from unavoidable circumstances is not able to attain his desire, 
can still be saved, as was the thief on the cross. If, however, 
a person does not desire baptism, he will be adjudged as unbe- 
lieving and disobedient, not so much from the lack of baptism as 
because of his unbelief and disobedience. This view will accord 
with the words of Christ, "Whosoever believeth." Had Chris: 
connected salvation with baptism, then men would have been 
eager to receive baptism and retain their self-will and carnal mind, 
as anti-Christ does, and attribute their salvation to the water, and 
continue to live on in their sinful lives. 

Question 13. — If water baptism is so absolutelv necessarv. win- 
is it that Christ made no reference to it in His sermon on the 
mount, when He has so much to say of the blessings? So, als », 
in His description of the judgment, where He so specirica'.'.-. 
referred to those who should be saved or condemned. He does 
not make the slightest reference to baptism. 

Answer. — It is astonishing how imperfectly men do understand 
the mind of God. Christ does refer to many blessings in the 
fifth chapter of Matthew, and it would be well to inquire how 
those blessings may be obtained. He says, "blessed are the 
meek." Xow, let us notice the call of Christ (Matt, n : 28. 20 : 
"Come unto Me. all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will 
give you rest. Take My yoke upon you and learn of Me : for I 
am meek and lowly in heart, and ye shall find rest unto 
souls." From this we learn that Christ is the author of salvation, 
and whosoever would be saved, according to His sermon in Mat- 
thew 5, must necessarily accept Him in true faith, and submit 
to His institutions, in humble obedience, as clay in the hands of 
the potter; for He is indeed the One whom the prophets have 
foretold, who is to make everything new and perfect. God the 
Father Himself commends His Son. Inasmuch as Christ, wh 
is the Saviour of the world, considered baptism essential to 
believers, we must conclude that obedience to the ordinance is 
essential to salvation, although Christ declared those blessed who 
had it<\ and clothed Him. and makes no reference to the new 



60 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

creature or regeneration, of which He spoke so emphatically in 
the third chapter of John, declaring that no one could enter the 
kingdom without being born again. It is also to be observed that 
in the third of John He said nothing whatever of visiting those 
in prison and feeding the hungry. Who would, therefore, con- 
clude that the unregenerate, those referred to in Matthew, fifth 
chapter, were unregenerated and unbelieving persons, upon whom 
Christ announced His blessings on account of their works of 
righteousness? — Oh, no; but we would conclude that they were 
despisers of baptism. I do not believe that there was one 
despiser of baptism to be found among them, although there may 
have been unbaptized persons who could not attain their desire. 

Question 14. — How can you prove that John the Baptist was 
himself baptized ? He said of himself, in addressing the Saviour, 
"I have need to be baptized of Thee, and comest Thou to me?" 
Or was he saved by a miraculous interposition without baptism? 

Answer. — One might ask many similar questions, as, for 
instance, Where were Peter and John baptized? or, Where were 
certain of the worthies of the Old Testament dispensation cir- 
cumcised ? It would be more easy to ask questions than to edify 
to godliness. Paul refers to such questions. See 1 Timothy 
1 : 4, "Who gave heed to fables and endless genealogies." How- 
ever, we will endeavor, with patience, to answer this question 
also. John greatly desired to be baptized of Christ, and requested 
it ; and to this desire and request, we believe, according to the 
Scriptures, he would be saved, and not by water baptism. Al- 
though it may not be proven by the Scriptures that John was 
baptized, yet it can be proven that he did not despise the ordi- 
nance. He can not be found among those who say, "What good 
can water do me?" He manifested his obedience to Christ, as 
Abraham did his in offering up his son. The son was not slain, 
and yet obedience was assured. 

Question 15. — Were all those lost who lived since the days of 
the early Christians, and died without having received the 
original baptism, although they scrupulously observed the funda- 
mental principles of the gospel of Christ, and some of them even 



MACKS BOOK. 6 1 

sacrificed their lives for their faith? No matter whether they 
were impelled for want of a higher impulse or from a lack of 
proper information, they trusted in their infant baptism : must 
all such be condemned ? 

Anszver. — If they will receive the same treatment that Abra- 
ham did in offering his son, then they will, indeed, be saved ; 
namely, they had the true faith in Christ, which is the foundation 
of the Christian religion, even though they should not have 
received baptism, as in the time of persecution or on account of 
other unavoidable circumstances. If, however, they believed that 
their infant baptism was right and effectual, then they were cer- 
tainly ignorant of the first principles of the doctrine of Christ, 
and inexperienced in the elements of Christianity, and it is to be 
feared that they had not attained to the state of a new creature 
in Christ, which alone can stand before God. However, we 
would not judge those whom we have never known, and who 
lived and died many centuries ago. We will leave them to the 
mercy of a just Judge. Their case can not help those of the 
present day, who, through ignorance, will not accept baptism. 

Question 16. — Does not the commandment of baptism, like that 
of circumcision under the old covenant, concern the children, and, 
therefore, as long as they are unbaptized, are they not in danger 
of losing their salvation ? And if they should die without being 
baptized, will they not be lost? 

Answer. — Circumcision was not commanded to children under 
eight days of age, and if it were administered to them, it would 
be as much of a transgression of the ordinance of circumcision 
as not to administer it at the proper time. Just so baptism, which 
is commanded to believers only, must not be administered to chil- 
dren before they can confess their faith, to which the eighth day 
of circumcision is a figure. 

Question 17. — Whether the children, under the old covenant, 
who died without being circumcised, were lost ? How, therefore, 
can we apply the comforting words of David to Bath-Sheba 
(2 Sam. 12 : 23), in regard to his child which died at the age of 
seven days? 



62 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Answer. — Male children who died before the eighth day were 
no more guilty of not being circumcised than were the females, 
to whom it never applied. It did not affect their salvation. 
Enoch led a godly life, and was counted among the obedient, and 
attained the age of several hundred years without being circum- 
cised. It had not been commanded to him. So in regard to all 
the commandments of God; where there is no law there is no 
transgression, and where there is no transgression there is no 
penalty. 

Question 18. — When should children be baptized? And should 
not parents use all diligence to bring about the baptism of their 
children as early as possible, even in their childhood? 

Answer. — The children should be brought to Christ through 
prayer; but baptism should be deferred until they manifest faith, 
and can make confession, of which the eighth day is a figure 
in the old covenant, and the first day in the life of the new crea- 
ture. If they should be baptized sooner, in their ignorance, it 
would be as much out of place as it would have been for the 
Jews to have circumcised their children before the eighth day, 
which would have been presumption instead of obedience. 

Question ip. — Are not children susceptible of faith and, conse- 
quently, also of baptism, according to Luke 1:41-44; Matt. 
18: 3-6; Luke 18: 16, 17; 1 Cor. 7: 14, even if they should not be 
able to make verbal confession like adults? And do not the 
words of Mark 16: 16 place more stress upon baptism and the 
validity of faith than in the mere words of confession? 

Answer. — We have this single example of John the Baptist, 
that he was wrought upon by the Holy Spirit before his birth, 
because he was a child of promise and the forerunner of the 
Lord. Nevertheless, he could not be circumcised until after he 
was born into the world, and not then until the eighth day ; hence, 
even the operation of the Holy Spirit upon John could not change 
the ordinance of circumcision, but with children less favored he 
had to be circumcised on the eighth day. Even so also witli 
baptism ; if the children of believers should be moved upon before 
their birth, thev must still wait until after thev are born, and 



mack's book. 63 

then till they are called of God through the Holy Spirit, and 
manifest their faith by desiring and by asking to be baptized 
according to the example of Christ. Matt. 3:13. And such 
desire must be manifested by faith in the Lord Jesus Christ ; 
otherwise it would not be proper to baptize a child, as salvation is 
not in the water, but alone through faith which worketh obedi- 
ence through love. 

Question 20. — Is it not contrary to the evangelical doctrine of 
the new covenant to regard any outward ceremony essential to 
salvation, and more in accord with the teachings of the old 
covenant, against which St. Paul so earnestly contended in his 
epistles to the Galatians and the Colossians? 

Answer. — We do not regard baptism of any more importance 
than the Scriptures have given it ; and since the Word of God 
commands that those who believe shall be baptized, we regard it 
as an act of disobedience to refuse or oppose that which God has 
commanded. And whoever will oppose God, even in so small a 
matter as water baptism, must expect to be punished for his dis- 
obedience. We do not believe that men have a right to call 
any command of God small or unimportant, if they would give 
proper regard to the goodness, greatness, and power of Him 
who gave them. That which Paul wrote to the Galatians and 
Colossians concerns the law of Moses, because it was too imper- 
fect, and yet the Galatians wanted to observe them, hoping 
thereby to be saved, and thus despising the gospel of Christ by 
giving it a secondary place. But Paul reminds them of the 
importance of baptism when he says, "For as many of you as 
have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ." Gal. 3 : 27. 
This testimony of St. Paul is not against but in favor of baptism. 

Question 21. — Do you not, by elevating baptism as a command 
to which obedience is indispensably essential, establish a new 
species of popery, in which men expect salvation through works ? 

Anszcer. — W T e have already plainly declared that we do not 
expect to merit salvation by works, but alone through faith in 
Christ, which faith must have works of obedience in order that it 
may be a saving faith. And when there is no such faith which 



64 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

worketh obedience (not because of the edict of the pope, but 
because of the command of Christ the crucified), there is no 
salvation to be hoped for from any act that is performed without 
faith. 

Question 22.t—Is the ban (or external discipline) an essential 
item in the government of the church, since Christ did not exer- 
cise such discipline upon wicked Judas ? 

Answer. — The ban- is a real and necessary institution in the 
church of Christ, as long as she remains in this wicked world of 
strife and evil spirits. And no church of Christ can exist with- 
out discipline. Without it the devil would soon destroy every- 
thing that is good, by his leaven of wickednesss ; and true believ- 
ers never tried to shirk this practice so long as they remained 
obedient, but regarded chastisement of the unfaithful as an act 
of grace, mercy, love, and care for the church of Christ, and 
regarded the excommunication of evil-doers as a strong wall for 
the protection of the church of Christ. As to Judas, we believe 
that Christ did execute the ban against him, and committed him 
to the power of Satan with such authority that he went immedi- 
ately out "and hanged himself." That Christ did not execute 
the ban upon Judas until after the outward act of sin, is in favor 
of excommunication instead of against it, and is in accordance 
with the mind of God throughout all His dispensations. It may 
be observed in His dealings with Adam, who, no doubt, had 
been blandishing with the devil before he broke out in the open 
disobedience to the word of the Lord. And so Judas, before 
he betrayed the Saviour, had conceived the wicked thought ; but 
the long-suffering of Christ spared him and invited him to repent- 
ance, until at last wickedness overcame him and broke out in open 
act, when he was placed under the ban by the Saviour. There- 
fore, the act of excommunication was practically applied in the 
case of Judas. 

Question 23. — Was not the ban, binding and loosing, a peculiar 
privilege of the apostles exclusively, which no one of the present 
day should assume to practice? 

Answer. — That the loosing and binding was commanded espe- 



mack's book. 65 

daily to the apostles is true, but in the same manner as it was a 
peculiar command and privilege of Moses that through him the 
.law should be revealed to the children of Israel. It did not, how- 
ever, cease with the death of Moses, so as to exclude his posterity, 
but the promise remained to the faithful to the Lord in His Word. 
In the same manner Christ has instituted a church with ordinances 
and services, and appointed apostles and chosen witnesses, all of 
which was confirmed by signs and wonders from heaven. There- 
fore their successors must not be suffered, either through pride 
or prejudice, to substitute other ordinances, but submit them- 
selves willingly to the institutions of the apostles as faithful 
stewards of the house of God. Since, therefore, the ban was 
instituted by Christ and His apostles, they would certainly have 
the privilege of administering it. However, that will not excuse 
the faithful followers of Christ from executing the ban without 
fear or favor of persons. 

Question 24. — Whether Christ intended in His teaching (Matt. 
18: 17) to establish a general law of the New Testament church, 
or does He not rather refer to the state of the Jewish Church, 
and give to His disciples quite different instructions in the 
twenty-first and twenty-second verses of the same chapter? 

Answer. — That Christ intended to institute a general rule for 
the observance of His church in Matt. 18: 17, has already been 
shown, and it is not repealed in verses 21 and 22, but they rather 
confirm the institution. Luke 17:4 also confirms our position: 
"If thy brother sin against thee seven times in a day, and seven 
times in a day turn again to thee, saying, I repent ; thou shalt for- 
give him." For without confession there is no forgiveness, 
neither with God nor with men. Hence believers must be of the 
same mind. When a sinner acknowledges his sins, we must 
forgive him. If he does not confess his sins, the ban must be 
executed upon him, for the twenty-eighth chapter of Matthew 
says, "Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have 
commanded you ; and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the 
end of the world." 

Question 25. — Did the apostles ever forbid the administering 



66 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

of charity or benevolence to those who had been excommunicated ? 

Answer. — The apostles never did forbid the exercise of charity 
toward excommunicated members, either in spiritual or temporal 
matters ; but the excommunicated are to be invited to repentance, 
and if they will not hear, then the faithful members are free. So, 
also, in temporal matters, those who are charitably inclined and 
have means to spare are at liberty to minister to the excommu- 
nicated who may need assistance. 

Question 26. — Did you New Baptists, who claim to exercise 
the ban in apostolic order, ever observe the same godly effect 
upon those whom you have excommunicated? 

Answer. — We verily believe that all those whom we have 
excommunicated agreeably to God's Word have been to some 
degree made sensible of its effect internally, and will be made 
manifest outwardly at the day of judgment if they will repent in 
their day of grace. A case like that of Ananias, who fell dead, 
has not occurred among us, and it was the only instance among 
the apostles, although quite a number were excommunicated by 
the apostles, but only one suffered physical death. Nevertheless, 
the influence and power of the ban had its intended effect. 

Question 2/. — Is regeneration inseparably connected with water 
baptism ? 

Answer. — The genuine regeneration is nothing more or less 
than genuine obedience to the Lord in all His commandments ; 
and every one who has been born again will say as Jesus did, 
"Thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousnesss." Matt. 3: 15. 
And so we will also answer that obedience to the ordinance of 
baptism is inseparably connected with genuine regeneration. 
However, in case of unavoidable hindrances, regeneration might 
occur without baptism, but not if omitted through disobedience 
or contempt for the ordinance. 

Question 28. — Are all those whom you have baptized actually 
born again of God? 

Answer. — That, indeed, would be a grand baptism if all those 
whom we baptize in water would become new creatures. Such 
results, however, did not obtain from the labors of Christ or His 



mack's book. 67 

apostles, that all whom they baptized walked in the truth. But 
when there is true faith, and the Word be accepted in faith, a 
genuine regeneration will follow with the washing of water by 
the Word, as expressed in Eph. 5 : 26. 

Question 29. — Can not one actually be born again before being 
baptized, inasmuch as baptism itself can not cause or bring about 
regeneration according to your own confession ? 

Answer. — Adam was created in Paradise, after the likeness of 
God, but when he became disobedient to the command of God, 
he lost the beautiful image in which he was created, and on 
account of his disobedience he was doomed to death. And so 
a person may receive some of the blessings of regeneration before 
baptism. If, however, he does not grow in the divine life, he 
will surely fall back and lose all that he had gained. Obedience 
to Christ in the keeping of His commandments, is nourishment 
to the new creature. If he will not partake of it, but instead 
eat of that offered by the tempter, which is disobedience to the 
Word, it will happen to him as it did to Adam in Paradise. Inas- 
much as baptism is commanded by Christ, therefore the regener- 
ated man must submit to it, in order to fulfil righteousness. 

Question 30. — Does not true Christian brotherhood depend 
more on regeneration than on baptism ? 

Answer. — Christian brotherhood must result from faith and 
obedience to Christ and His gospel. Therefore, the true brethren 
of Christ never attempted to evade outward baptism, inasmuch 
as their Elder Brother had taught it by precept and example, and 
declared that He would recognize as His brethren those only 
who obeyed the will of His heavenly Father. Matt. 12 : 50. 

Question 31. — Are we not duty bound to recognize those as 
brethren who manifest their regeneration before God and man, 
even if they have not been baptized? See Matt. 12:49, 5°- 

Answer. — Those who manifest their regeneration before God 
and man we hold as brethren, and such will not resist any ordi- 
nance of the Lord, but will gladly receive Christian baptism 
upon their faith and internal evidence. Christ recognized those 



68 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

only as His brethren who were also His disciples and had been 
baptized. Read carefully Matt. 12:49, 5°- 

Question 32. — Can you declare before Jesus Christ, the all- 
wise Searcher of Hearts and Judge of the quick and dead, that 
you are all of the same mind and of one accord ? 

Anszver. — The Lord does not require that we should already 
be perfect, of one heart and of one soul; and therefore we can 
not say that we have attained unto perfection in the acts, in 
the will. However, we must be perfect, continuing in well- 
doing, "till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the 
knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the 
measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." Eph. 4: 11-13. 
It can not be said that the church at Jerusalem lived in a state of 
perfection, and that they were all of one heart and of one mind, 
although at first they were all united in following Christ through 
self-denial of all their earthly pleasures, wealth, and honor. In 
knowledge, however, they were at variance with each other, as 
may be learned from Acts 15:5, etc. And as to the church at 
Jerusalem, great heresies arose among them, and disputations on 
the subject of circumcision, causing the apostles much trouble in 
order to maintain unity, making it necessary to call "the great 
council," already referred to. It is, therefore, unreasonable to 
expect perfection in us in these last days, when darkness covers 
all nations, and especially since those who claim to have received 
the spirit of baptism disagree so much among themselves upon 
the clearly revealed command of baptism that they are living in 
constant doubt and uncertainty in regard to the command of bap- 
tism and other institutions of the house of God. 

Question 33. — Do you not regard your church as superior to 
other Baptists of the present or any other age? and wherefore and 
wherein ? 

Anszver. — We do regard our church better than the present 
degenerated Baptists, whom we know of a certainty to have 
degenerated in life and doctrine, and have left the doctrine and 
life of the old Baptists. This is acknowledged by their own peo- 
ple. We can not answer for former Baptist Churches, of whose 



mack's book. 69 

life we know nothing. As far as doctrine is concerned, we are in 
perfect harmony with those who oppose no part of the gospel of 
Christ. 

Question 34. — What reason can you give for regarding your 
new established church, with its baptism and excommunication 
ordinances, as equal with the apostolical church, since it had 
neither divine calling, nor manifestation of spiritual power? 

Answer. — With respect to the power of performing miracles, 
we regard ourselves as very inferior to the apostles, and unworthy 
to be compared to them. In respect to the doctrine and inclina- 
tion, we still beseech our heavenly Father to ? give us the mind 
and will of the apostles, and not only that, but the mind of His 
Son, Jesus Christ. 

Question 35.— Can your teachers and elders confess before 
God and their own consciences that the Holy Ghost ordained them 
bishops in your church to feed it and nourish it as a church of 
God, and whether they have the qualifications and spiritual gifts 
required and enumerated in 2 Cor. 6, and other passages? 

Answer. — To God they must answer if they are true shepherds. 
But they must not be discouraged if men will not believe them, 
but should rather rejoice when their names are cast out as evil 
for the Son of man's sake. Luke 6 : 22. 

Question 36. — Must you not confess before God, that many 
among you were more affectionate, mild, and humble before bap- 
tism than afterward? 

Answer. — To this we must answer, No. Of course there were 
those among us, who, like dry branches, had to be pruned. 
Others pretended to have a great love, but were animated only 
by hungering after the loaves and fishes, and had never cruci- 
fied the flesh by genuine repentance. Their profession was : "Let 
me serve God according to my own will and pleasure. I will 
grant you the same privilege. We will love each other and call 
each other brethren." If you mean such, then we acknowledge 
the truth of your accusation. Especially was that our experi- 
ence while we were yet among the Pietists ; but now we have 
learned to exercise a love that hates corruption and punishes 
wickedness. 



7<D HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Question 3/. — Did you not introduce your new baptism with 
much doubt and uncertainty, and still continue in darkness? 
And did you not manifest the same trepidation and inconstancy 
in other points; for instance, by rejecting matrimony and then 
again permitting it, sometimes working for a livelihood, and then 
again denying it ? 

Answer. — We introduced the baptism of Christ according to 
His command, and the strong faith and certainty, and the dear 
Lord has sustained us until the present time against much oppo- 
sition, and has established us in His grace, so that we are enabled 
to say that whosoever believeth should be baptized, but that we 
have need of instruction after baptism in regard to matrimony, 
the duty of labor and upon other points of doctrine is more than 
true ; because while we were yet among the Pietists we were not 
taught any better. We also had much strife and contention before 
we were liberated from that error. 

Question 38. — How shall we know, beyond all doubt, that your 
new denomination, above all others, is to be recognized as the 
true church? 

Anszver. — We have no new denomination and no new ordi- 
nances, but simply desire to live in the old church which Christ 
established through the virtue of His own blood, and obey the 
commandment which was from the beginning; and it is not our 
desire to appear before men as the only established church of 
Christ; but we do anxiously desire to show forth undaunted 
godliness by the grace and power of Christ as it was in Christ 
Himself and in the church at Jerusalem. And if we can succeed 
in thus setting forth the institutions of Christ and of the original 
church in a godly life and by holy conversations, and in keeping 
His ordinances, it appears to us that should be sufficient to show 
to all men that we are the true church of Christ. But whosoever 
can not recognize Christ in the holiness of His commandments 
would not be able to recognize the church of Christ, even if the 
twelve apostles were among them. 

Question 39. — Have you the undoubted assurance of your 
divinely-established calling through the Holy Spirit that God has 



mack's book. 71 

recognized you as His chosen people? And how will you con- 
vince the world of the truthfulness of your assumptions ? 

Answer. — Such assurance must certainly be before God, as 
Paul declares in Rom. 5:1, 2: 'Therefore, being justified by 
faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ ; 
by whom we have access through faith into this grace wherein 
we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God." But this 
assurance the apostles and no one else can have, except by the 
commands of Christ ; for as long as they abode in Christ, and His 
words remained in them, so long they were His disciples, and 
whatsoever they asked of Him that was granted unto them. For 
whosoever continues in the doctrine of Christ to the end shall be 
saved. See John 15:7. 

Question 40. — Do you expect better success than that which 
followed earlier anabaptists ? And why and with what assurance 
can you hope to receive the blessing of an impartial God, who 
despises self-exaltation ? 

Answer. — If we abide in the doctrine of the New Testament, 
then we may, indeed, hope for this one result, namely, the end of 
our faith shall be everlasting life ; and for the light afflictions of 
this life shall inherit a crown of everlasting joy. Of our suc- 
cessors, however, we can say nothing. According to their faith 
and works shall be their success. We will say, however, that the 
influences of the early Baptists were much better and more cred- 
itable to their religious profession than that of L or C 

or C N, whose influence had too much of the sensual and 

too much of the fleshly mind. Even the Jews and the Turks 
were astonished at the ungodly conduct of their followers. They 
could not destroy life rapidly enough by persecuting God's people 
with the gallows, and the wheel, and the rack; but they volun- 
tarily entered the army and killed their fellowmen, and in many 
cases their own brethren, by the thousands ; and all this is the 
fruit of your infant baptism. One will not find Tunkers going to 
war, and very few in prison or on the gallows, as penalty for 
crime. They are generally in favor of peace. One may safely 
abide under their roofs without fear of being robbed or murdered. 



72 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Indeed, it would be a blessing to society if the world were full of 
those despised Tunkers. Their influence is also better than that 
of the Pietists who made a misstep only a few years after they 
had cut loose from the great Babel. Many of them soon volun- 
tarily returned ; from which may the good Lord mercifully pre- 
serve all Baptists, so that their success may be as intimated above, 
of peace and joy. 

Conclusion. — These, dear friends, are the most important ques- 
tions which it has been deemed prudent to present to you in 
regard to your new baptism and denomination, as well for your 
own sake as for the satisfaction of others. You will please con- 
sider them well, and then make such answers, accompanied with 
such arguments as you may be able to present in favor of your 
doctrine and practice, as you expect to answer before our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ and all His holy angels. 

Reply. — Beloved Friends : At your request we have endeavored, 
in love and in the fear of God, to answer your pointed questions 
upon forty difficult subjects. We did this according to our faith 
and to the best of our knowledge, as we expect to answer to God, 
who sent His beloved Son into the world that we should hear Him 
and obey Him, and thus inherit everlasting life. And now, if you 
love your own souls, we would admonish you to make haste and 
bow to the scepter of our great King. Believe His Word, and 
that His baptism is essential to the salvation of the poor sinner. 
Do not say, How can water help me? and do not comfort your- 
selves with your infant baptism, which is contrary to the Word 
of God. Otherwise these simple testimonies which you extorted 
from the humble Tunkers of Schwarzenau will all be in vain to 
you, and for which you must answer in the great judgment day 
before our Lord Jesus Christ, who shall come in great power, in 
flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God and 
obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. And now unto 
the Lamb that was slain, who has power in heaven and on earth, 
be praise, and honor from everlasting to everlasting. Amen. 
Behold, He cometh in the clouds of heaven, and every eye shall 
behold Him, and they also which pierced Him. Amen. 



MACK'S BOOK. 73 

Published at Schwarzenau, in the month of July, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and thirteen. 

A CONVERSATION BETWEEN FATHER AND SON. 

In the same cover is published a conversation between father 
and son, which is also here presented. To save space the ques- 
tions are omitted, being incorporated in the answers. 

The conversation is introduced by the following statement : — 

Son. — Beloved father, as we are here alone in a desert, I will 
relate to thee the treatment given me by a certain company. I 
was attacked on the subject of baptism. I was called an ana- 
baptist, because we baptize such as were baptized in their infancy. 
Then, too, I was severely attacked by those who in their riper 
years were baptized by sprinkling, and whom we baptize by 
immersion, should they wish to enter our congregation. This, 
with our mode of keeping the Lord's Supper, excommunication, 
observance of feet washing, and the use of unleavened bread at 
our communions, were also criticized. Then I was opposed by 
ingenious discourses, to which I was not able to give satisfactory 
answers. I therefore entreat thee, beloved father, to give me 
better instructions in all such cases of controversy, as to the 
tenor of the holy Scriptures and the primitive Christians. My 
desire is to become firm in my faith, and be able to give others 
a true account of divine knowledge, for which friendly act I shall 
always be indebted to thee. 

Fathers Reply. — God is the author of baptism. As early as 
the days of Noah He gave a figure of baptism by water in the 
new covenant ; for when men became wicked, God sent a flood of 
water to drown the ungodly. Of this the apostle Peter says: 
"The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us 
(not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer 
of a good conscience towards God) by the resurrection of Jesus 
Christ." i Peter 3: 20, 21. Further, the Lord gave a figure by 
His servant Moses in testimony of what afterwards should be 
manifested by His Son. Hebrews, third chapter. Moses was 
drawn out of the water by Pharaoh's daughter, therefore, said 



74 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

she, he shall be called Moses, "because I drew him out of the 
water." Ex. 2:10. 

When God by a mighty hand conducted Abraham's seed by 
this same Moses out of Egypt, the children of Israel escaped 
from the Egyptians, which escape was made through the Red 
Sea, and which act represented baptism in the new covenant. 
Paul calls it a baptism "unto Moses in the cloud and in the 
sea." 1 Cor. 10: 2. 

When the Lord instructed Moses to erect a tabernacle, it was 
intended as a figure of the church or congregation of the Lord 
Jesus. With this in view God ordered Moses to make a laver 
before the tabernacle, wherein Aaron, the priest, and his sons 
were obliged to wash themselves before they were admitted into 
the tabernacle. Ex. 30:18, 19, 20; 40:12. This, too, was a 
striking figure of baptism which Jesus commanded : That none 
can enter or serve in the Lord's congregation without previously 
having been baptized in water upon the confession of their faith 
in Jesus. God commanded in the law that when a leper had 
been cured of his disease, he was obliged to wash his body in 
water. Lev. 14:8, 9. The women, too, in order to their puri- 
fication, were commanded to bathe their bodies with water. In 
a word, numbers of these ceremonies, commanded to be per- 
formed in the Old, all alluded to baptism in the New Testament. 
When the Father was about to manifest His beloved Son in the 
world, a forerunner preceded Him, preaching to the people of 
Judea "the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins," that 
they might believe in Him who was to come after him, namely, 
in Jesus, the Son of God. He baptized "in Aenon, near to Salim, 
because there was much water there." John 3 : 23. An ablution 
by water in those days was not counted a very strange act. It 
was a custom among the Jews for the purpose of cleanliness. All 
the surprise it occasioned proceeded from its connection with 
preaching repentance, announcing the appearance of the Son of 
God, and recommending faith in Him. The scribes and the 
great men of the world did not submit to his baptism — did not 
suffer themselves to be baptized. To them it was too contempti- 



MACK'S BOOK. jc 

ble. They rejected the counsel of God against themselves, and 
were not baptized, as ye may see in Luke 7 : 30. But Jesus, the 
Son of God, in this respect was obedient to His Father, because 
He knew that the baptism of John was from heaven. He there- 
fore came from Galilee to Jordan in order to be baptized of John. 
Matt. 3 : 13. It was a forcible example for all His disciples to 
follow Him. The Son of God was so well acquainted with the 
will of His Father that He said to John, "Thus it becometh us to 
fulfil all righteousness." It was the intention of Christ to order 
and institute a water bath for His church, to answer as an initiat- 
ing seal, and an external mark, for all those who should believe 
in Him. He in the first place fulfilled His Father's will. 
The baptism of John was commanded by God, and thus made 
a beginning of baptism. This was not necessary for repentance, 
but alone for such who had already repented and believed in 
Jesus, and upon this faith and confession were baptized in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 
The moment the Lord Jesus was baptized and arose from the 
water, a voice was heard from heaven, which said, "This is My 
beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased," and the Holy Ghost, 
like a dove, alighted upon Him. Thus has the beginning of bap- 
tism by water in the New Testament a very powerful author, 
namely, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, 
in whose three most exalted names Jesus commanded baptism to 
be administered. After His baptism, Jesus began to make dis- 
ciples and to baptize. See John 3:26; 4:1. The disciples of 
John came to him and said, "Rabbi, He that was with thee beyond 
Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold the same baptizeth, 
and all men come to Him." John answered and said : "He must 
increase, but I must decrease. He that cometh from heaven, is 
above all, and what He has seen and heard He testifieth ; and no 
man receiveth His testimony, but he that hath received His testi- 
mony, hath set to his seal that God is true." In confirmation of 
this, John says, in his first epistle (5:6), that the Son of God 
came with water, blood, and the Holy Ghost ; and that these were 
the three who bear witness upon earth. 



76 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Did Christ, after His resurrection, command baptism to be 
performed ? — Yes ; when the Lord Jesus was about to send His 
disciples into the world to preach His gospel, He gave them this 
strict charge: That they should teach and baptize in His name 
all such who should believe in Him. Matt. 28: 19 20. "Teach- 
ing them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded 
you." This case is farther exemplified in Acts 2 : 37, 38. When 
the people asked Peter what they should do, he answered, 
"Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus 
Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of 
the Holy Ghost." 

Philip preached Christ to the people at Samaria, and those 
who believed were baptized, both men and women. Acts 8: 5-12. 

As it is written here that both men and women were baptized, 
were not children also baptized ? 

No ; in the New Testament we do not find a single instance of 
the kind, for the apostles baptized only such who by true repent- 
ance confessed faith in Jesus, because their Master did not com- 
mand any others than such as were capable of being taught, both 
before and after baptism. 

True, but did not Christ command that the children should be 
baptized? And did not the apostles obey Him? 

Christ commanded to baptize faithful believers only, and not 
children. Jesus laid His hands on children and blessed them ; 
but with respect to baptism of infants the Scriptures are silent. 
Circumcision in the Old Testament was ordered alone for male 
children, to be performed on the eighth day. If a child died 
before that time, which, as no doubt many did, it would not have 
transgressed the commandments of God, nor would it have been 
rejected on that account. Female children were not circumcised, 
yet they belonged to the kingdom. Thus if a child dies without 
having been baptized, it can sustain no injury, because it did not 
live to the time when it could have repented and believed in the 
Lord Jesus, upon the faith of whom it could have been baptized, 
which time doubtless is represented by the eighth day. Baptism 
is ordered alone for believing adults and not children. Children 



mack's book. 77 

are saved through the merits of Jesus Christ. Articles of faith 
of such importance are always connected with positive com- 
mands. 

Did the primitive Christians baptize children? 
We find in Godfrey Arnold's portrait of the first Christians 
that infant baptism began to be practiced in the end of the second 
century. In the beginning this was done at pleasure by every 
one who was disposed to do so. It was afterwards performed 
only on Easter days. And it was enacted a law by a certain 
pope, that no child should be suffered to die without baptism, and 
by a long-established custom it got into such reputation that 
many now believe it to have been commanded by Christ Himself. 
Is it water that saves ? 

Water is a fluid created by God, and is the source of every- 
thing. The whole earth rests in water, and is founded thereon. 
Man himself in the womb is formed in water. Even the Spirit 
of God originally moved on the water, and, of course, it contains 
a divine mercy. Christ, too, by His baptism, sanctified the water. 
He says (John 3:5) that it is impossible for a man to enter the 
kingdom of God unless he be born again of water and of the 
Spirit. Nevertheless, the believer puts no faith whatever in the 
power of water in baptism, but alone in the power of the Word, 
which commanded it, since Christ instituted a water bath for His 
community, and will purify it by the washing of the water in the 
Word, as Paul says (Eph. 5:26). The faithful believe that the 
obedience towards the commandment of baptism purifies and 
saves them from everlasting punishment, provided that after this 
ablution they do not again wallow in the mire by transgressing 
and sinning against the Word ; for God looks upon obedience as 
binding the faithful to follow the Word, by which alone they 
obtain everlasting life. 

If a man should deny himself in everything, give his goods to 
feed the poor, pray and fast a great deal, but will not receive 
baptism, because it is an external deed, can such a man not 
please God? 

Were a man to do all this by true faith and love towards 



78 HISTORY 0$ THE TUNKERS. 

God, it would be good and wholesome, and he could certainly 
not refuse to submit to baptism; "For this is the love of God, 
that we keep His commandments; and His commandments 
are not grievous." I John 5:3. Paul, in 1 Cor. 13:3, says: 
"Though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I 
give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profit eth me 
nothing." Charity believeth all that God commanded. Christ, 
too, said, John 14 : 23, 24, "If a man love Me, he will keep My 
words ; He that loveth Me not, keepeth not My sayings." A man 
in his own conceit, therefore, may do a great deal without pos- 
sessing the love in Jesus as the chief head. "Whosoever shall 
keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of 
all." James 2 : 10. If you, my son, had been obedient to me for 
more than ten years, and I were to command you to pick up a 
straw, but you were not willing to do this, and did it not, I would 
be compelled to look upon you as a disobedient child, even though 
you should say a thousand times, "Father, I will do everything; 
I will work hard ; wherever you send me I will go ; but to pick up 
the straw I take to be a very useless piece of business to you as 
well as to me." I would, therefore, call you a disobedient child. 
God is inclined in the same manner. God told Adam he 
should eat of every tree; but of one he should not eat. The 
moment he ate of the forbidden fruit he lost all his felicity, and 
for his disobedience was expelled from the garden. In the Old 
Testament (Num. 15 : 30, 31), it is said that if a soul doeth aught 
presumptuously, and despises the word of the Lord, and breaks 
His commandments, he shall be cut off. 

When the sons of Aaron brought strange fire before the Lord, 
they died. Lev. 10: 12. King Saul was rejected by the Lord on 
account of his disobedience. 1 Sam. 15:22, 23. Achan was 
forced to die, with his whole family, because he violated the com- 
mandment of God in taking of the accursed thing at the siege of 
Jericho, which God had forbidden to take. Joshua 7 : 20. Many 
similar instances might be cited from the Holy Scriptures, but 
these will suffice. God requires a strict obedience from all His 
creatures, and the faithful of all ages have always obeyed all the 



MACK S BOOK. 79 

commandments of God and subjected their understanding and 
wills to the will of God. Neither have we on record a single 
instance when a believer refused obedience to God or any 
commandment. 

God is good, and does not require services from men for His 
own glory, as He has thousands of angels and servants, who con- 
tinually serve Him. The commandments given by God to man 
are always given for man's good, to make him humble, pure, and 
holy. Through the fall of Adam man became puffed up, and in 
his own conceit desired greatness and power. To rescue man 
from this depraved condition, commandments were given him 
through obedience, to which he might purify himself. If he 
obeys these and surrenders his reason to the will of God, he may 
again attain unto a state of purity and simplicity, and if perse- 
vered in, the soul will find rest, peace, and safety. Jesus said, 
"Verily, I say unto you, that unless ye become as children, ye 
can not enter the kingdom of heaven." 

All commandments point to true obedience. The same is true 
of baptism, which Christ commanded His apostles to administer, 
and which they did. This commandment was issued to all 
believers, that they should be baptized, and is to continue in prac- 
tice until the end of the world. It is clearly and explicitly so 
expressed in Matt. 28: 19, 20, where our Saviour says: 'Teach 
all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching them to observe all things 
whatsoever I have commanded you ; and, lo, I am with you 
always, even unto the end of the world. Amen." 

God's economy and discipline were remarkable, even under 
the law. When the Lord ordered Moses to build a house for the 
priests to serve in, He selected, from the tribe of Levi, Aaron and 
his sons to fill that office. When it happened that the temple and 
all belonging to it, was destroyed, and the people again wished 
to have divine service, no other than those of the tribe just men- 
tioned were permitted to act as priests. The wicked king Jero- 
boam made priests of those not belonging to that tribe, who 
administered false worship. 1 Kings 12: 31. When they elected 



80 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

priests from the tribe of Levi, they took such as were free from 
blemishes and infirmities. I Chron. 3:21. So, also, the Son of 
God appointed apostles and other teachers to watch over His 
church. The apostles also appointed others for the house of God, 
to baptize, excommunicate, etc. But they always selected those 
whose pedigree was from the royal priesthood ; that is, those who 
had the Spirit of Jesus, and by this alone could they with pro- 
priety baptize. The apostles in their time noticed, too, such men, 
not possessing the Spirit of Christ, who, nevertheless, pretended 
to be Christians. Of these Paul said to the elders of Ephesus, in 
the Acts of the Apostles 20 : 2, 9, 30, "Of your own selves shall 
men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after 
them." Thus, at all times this was looked upon as a sign of the 
false spirit. Those who seek their own honor, have not the 
nature of Christ. Christ did not place Himself in the office of 
the priesthood, but His Father did. The first teachers and elders 
of the church were appointed by the Holy Ghost. Acts 
20: 18-28. When the apostle Paul called to him the elders and 
teachers of the church of Ephesus, among others he gave them 
this charge: "Take heed, therefore, unto yourselves, and to all 
the flock, over which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers." 
Whenever men placed themselves in the service of the church, 
urged on by their own spirit and honor, great abuse and corrup- 
tion were the result. 

Thousands of preachers this day exist in the world, of whom 
the smallest number belong to the royal priesthood of the people. 
1 Peter 2 : 9. The smallest number have the Spirit of Christ. 
The smallest number were made overseers by the Holy Ghost. 
Their object in preaching is nothing but honor and emolument. 
The churches, after the death of the apostles, who still remained 
pure, always appointed among them such men as had the Spirit 
of Jesus and denied themselves. As Christ appointed His 
apostles, so did the church of the Lord, as the body of Christ, 
ever since appoint such as they thought fit ; and thus commands 
of Jesus in their purity never ceased to be executed. They are 
in these words, namely, "Teach them to observe all things what- 



mack's book. 8 i 

soever I have commanded you." Matt. 28 : 30. And these will 
remain in full force until Christ shall come again and reckon with 
His servants as well as His enemies. 

Ciprianus, and other pious men of the primitive church, 
demanded of one who would baptize, that he be sound in the 
faith, and that he was appointed for that purpose by the church. 
The same was required by the council at Ilibris, that the adminis- 
trator of baptism should himself have been properly baptized and 
that he had not since then fallen from grace. Gregory also 
demanded that those who would be numbered among the faith- 
ful, should be regarded as worthy and competent to administer 
baptism. 

BAPTISM IS IMMERSION. 

Christ, as the true Exemplar of His church, was baptized of 
John in the river Jordan. Matt. 3:13. John baptized at a place 
"near Salim, because there was much water there." John 3 : 23. 
From these two testimonies it is evident that baptism could not 
have been performed in a dry place, or John would not have 
resorted to places where there was much water ; for it would 
have been much more convenient to have performed this ordi- 
nance in a house than in the water, which is often cold and dis- 
agreeable to nature. 

Baptism, according to the Greek text, is said to signify immer- 
sion, as translated by Jeremiah Felbinger. But since sprink- 
ling became a custom, and the learned for the sake of delicacy 
were afraid of the effects of water, they allowed the Greek word 
also to signify sprinkling, pouring, or aspersion. Still they con- 
fess its true signification to be immersion. When Philip bap- 
tized the eunuch, they went down into the water, and Philip 
baptized him. Acts 8 : 38, 39. We also find in the history of 
the primitive Christians, that they baptized in streams, rivers, 
fountains, etc. We also read in the bloody Tonel of the bap- 
tized (page 265), that many persons were baptized in the river 
Euphrates, in the year after Christ, 980. Again (page 207), it is 
written that in the vear 1620 Paulinian baptized in the river 



82 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Trentho, at the south side of the city ot Truvolsinga, and that 
the ancients called this baptism immersion or dipping into water 
(page 220) ; and that the English baptized in the rivers Swallow 
and Rhine, and that it could be done in no other manner. 

In Rom. 6 : 4 baptism is called a burial of the body of sin. Paul 
calls it a washing with water. Eph. 5 : 6. And Christ says 
(John 3:5) a man must "be born of water and of the Spirit." 
The primitive Christians had these words of baptism, namely: 
"The fleshly-minded children of Adam stepped into the water, 
and soon after arose therefrom, that is, after they became the 
spiritual children of God." Justinius himself gave an account 
to the emperor, that those who believed in our doctrines, promis- 
ing to live in the grace of God up to its import, these we 
instruct to pray, fast, and obtain from God forgiveness of sins. 
Afterwards they are led to the water, and converted as we are ; 
then they are washed therein in the name of God the Father, and 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost. He further adds that 
this was enjoined upon us from the apostles. With respect to 
this, Beda says (Lib. 2, c. 14) that at the beginning of the first 
congregations, the English in several places were immersed in 
rivers of water. Walfred Strabo writes in his Lib. de Rebus 
Eccles, c. 26, that the faithful originally were baptized in streams 
and fountains. And our Saviour Himself, in order to sanctify 
this bath for our use, was baptized in Jordan. John baptized 
at "Aenon near Salim, because there was much water there." 
John 3 : 23. Hononus Aug. writes in Gemma Anima, Lib. 3 : 106, 
that the apostles and their disciples formerly baptized in streams 
and fountains. Tertullian mentions in his Lib. de Bonona Mil- 
itas, that the baptized, some time previous, avow before the con- 
gregation and preacher, to renounce the devil, his pomp, and 
angels ; after which they are plunged under the water three times, 
and baptized. This custom prevailed until 801, when Ludovicus 
was made emperor, a. d. 815. 

Some say that to go into water is plainly commanded in Scrip- 
tures ; but how baptism is to be performed there is not known. 
Would Jesus, the Master, command His people to perform such 



mack's book. 83 

an important act as baptism, and yet not fully instruct them as to 
the manner of performing it? If so, they certainly would have 
occasion to ask information, or delay its performance rather than 
to undertake it in uncertainty. What must be the condition of 
persons who would administer the ordinances of the house of 
God, and yet uncertain as to the manner in which they should be 
performed? It is a mystery to me to know how men claim to 
sprinkle, or wet the head with a handful of water, and call it bap- 
tism. There is not a single passage of Scripture in its favor, and 
nothing that would suggest it. 

Christ and His apostles and the primitive Christians baptized 
in streams, rivers, and fountains. Baptizing agreeably to the 
commandment signifies nothing else than immersing in water, for 
Christ said to His apostles, 'Teach all nations, and baptize them" 
(immerse them), and not wetting their hair as is done among 
Papists. Matt. 28 : 19. Jesus did not say baptize the head or 
any part of his body, nor moisten him a little in My name. No 
commandment was given by Jesus, except that of immersing the 
whole body in water. The true signification of baptism relates 
to the new man, which, to be represented in its true light, must 
correspond exactly with its nature. 

OF THE LORD'S SUPPER. 

This ordinance is called the Lord's Supper, because His dis- 
ciples, for whose remembrance it was instituted, thereby 
announce His death, break the bread of the communion, drink 
the cup, unite in love as the members of Jesus, to be always faith- 
ful to their Master in the true obedience of faith, and continue 
firm under the cross, to be fully capable in the end of the world of 
keeping, with the Son of God, this supper in its fullest extent. 

Are no others to be admitted to the Lord's Supper but such 
as are the true followers of Jesus, who keep His command- 
ments, and bear His cross? 

Christ gave this commandment to such as were His servants, 
who entered His kingdom by true repentance, faith and bap- 
tism, and who kept all His ordinances in the obedience of faith. 



84 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Something similar to this God commanded in the law, that who- 
ever would eat the Passover of the Lord must previously be cir- 
cumcised. Ex. 12:48. Therefore, whosoever would worthily 
partake of the Lord's Supper, should be cut off from the body of 
Satan, the world, all unrighteousness, and all false sects. He 
must adhere to Jesus, the head, as a true member in faith and 
love, and if required, according to the will of God, in an evangel- 
ical sense, must be ready to yield up his life for the sake of Jesus 
and His doctrine. But he that lives in sin and disobedience 
towards God, and will not follow Christ consistent with the 
instructions of Jesus, in the denial of his own self, and every- 
thing belonging to this world (Luke 14: 26, 27), is still unworthy, 
and eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the 
body of the Lord from the body of sin. 1 Cor. 1 1 : 29. 

The true believers and lovers of Jesus always have their eye 
singly directed to their Lord and Master. They wish to obey all 
His commands, and imitate His example. Then they can only 
be said to be sensible of the simplicity and will of their Master in 
every particular ; as it is called in the Scriptures the Lord's Sup- 
per (1 Cor. 11:20), which the faithful Christians kept at that 
time in the manner Paul instructed them, as it is said in verse I. 
And he delivered to the Corinthians that which he received of 
the Lord. Verse 23. Thus, they then truly kept the Lord's 
Supper, and, according to plain reason alone, it was a supper, and 
not a dinner. Even as early as the days of Paul, people supped 
together, but he said they did not eat the Lord's Supper. 1 Cor. 
1 1 : 20. But when believers met with one accord to eat the sup- 
per, they were not inattentive to the injunction of the Lord in 
washing their feet, agreeably to the example which He set them. 
John 13:14, 15. So, likewise, when they were breaking the 
bread of the communion, and drinking the cup, they spake of the 
sufferings of Christ, praised His great love towards them, and 
exhorted each other to be firm in their sufferings, to follow and 
be faithful to their Lord and Master in all His commandments, 
strongly to resist all sin, fervently to love each other, and live 
together in peace and unity; and this alone can be called the 



mack's book. 85 

Lord's Supper. In this manner they can properly enjoy and com- 
fort themselves in the sufferings of Christ. By this they mani- 
fest that they are members of Christ, and in the end of the world, 
will keep with Him the Lord's Supper, in the enjoyment of eternal 
felicity. Of this supper, says Paul, "For he that eateth and 
drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, 
not discerning the Lord's body." But where people eat a break- 
fast or dinner, and that without true repentance, faith in the 
commandments of the Lord and being baptized, and still love 
wickedness, the lusts of the eye, the lust of the flesh, and the 
pride of life, and live in envy, hatred, debauchery, etc., it can not 
be called the Lord's Supper, but a substitute, dictated and con- 
firmed by the false doctrine of the learned, and long continued 
custom of the unguarded. Every one who imagines that he thus 
truly keeps the Lord's Supper, is greatly mistaken. 

OF EXCOMMUNICATION. 

Persons guilty of even one work of the flesh (as Paul writes, 
Gal. 5:3), and refusing repentance after suitable admonition, are 
not only to be excluded from the Lord's Supper, but from the 
kingdom of God, and consequently from the church of the Lord, 
for as they are excluded from the kingdom of God by their sins, 
they can not expect to belong to the church of God. 

Since a man has to give account of himself, what harm would 
it be to me if any of my fellow-members were guilty of a sin, and 
I were to tell him candidly to alter his course of life, might I not 
still remain his associate, though he were to continue in sin and 
suffer him to settle that in his own account? Such a procedure 
might make a fair appearance of love, but is only a pretense, and 
does not correspond with the love of God. Divine love must 
work in accordance with the mind of God, and according to the 
command of God, just as a man can not believe, except as God 
has commanded him to believe. The love of God can not be 
known by the feelings of men, but by inspiration and revelation 
of God. The man in whom the love of God really exists, looks 
to the Lord and learns of Him His attributes and nature. To 



86 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

apply this to the above, the children of God have learned of their 
heavenly Father, to distinguish between, and separate the clean 
and unclean, light and darkness, His people and the heathen. As 
may be seen in the creation, when God made heaven and earth, 
light, darkness, earth and water having all been mixed together, 
He divided the light from darkness, and called the former day, 
and the latter night. After the planting of Paradise, which con- 
tained everything pleasant, God also created man after His own 
image, and suffered him to live in the garden, to eat of the fruit 
of all the trees which God commanded him to eat. But as soon 
as man proved to be disobedient towards God, he became unclean, 
and, as such, he could no longer remain in Paradise, but was 
expelled therefrom, and until he be purified by Christ, the second 
Adam can not again be permitted to return. Many hundred 
years elapsed until this return was effected by Christ, the prom- 
ised seed of the woman ; and with Adam many saints were con- 
ducted by Him into His kingdom. Matt. 27 : 52. Thus we may 
learn how sin and disobedience separate us from the love of God 
and His kingdom. God manifested to Abraham, as the father 
of all believers, a distinction and separation, that his offspring 
should be a separate nation from that of the heathen, which he 
conducted by a mighty hand from Egypt, and promised to give 
them an holy land. To this nation, in the wilderness, the Lord 
God, upon Mount Sinai, gave a peculiar law, with the intention 
that they should not only be a separate people from all unclean 
heathens, but even from all unclean beasts, fishes, and birds ; 
therefore, God said to them (Lev. 20:24-26) : "I am the Lord 
your God who have separated you from other people ; ye shall 
therefore put difference between clean beasts and unclean, and 
between unclean fowls and clean ; and ye shall not make your 
souls abominable by beast, or by fowl, or by any manner of liv- 
ing thing that creepeth on the ground, which I have separated 
from you as unclean, and ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the 
Lord am holy, and have severed you from other people, that ye 
should be Mine." Observe how God manifested His will in the 
separation of the clean from the unclean, the Lord's people from 



mack's book. 87 

the heathens, who were equally the creatures of God, but were 
not to have any share and communion with His people. 

The discourses of Jesus and His apostles also require a sepa- 
ration in the new covenant between the believer and unbeliever. 
Jesus (Matt. 13:24) compares the present world to a field con- 
taining seeds, both good and bad. The good are sowed by Jesus, 
through His gospel, and these are the children of His kingdom, 
born from above by "the word of truth." James 1 : 18. But the 
tares are the bad, sowed by the devil, and are planted by his false 
and sophistical word. Now, the harvest of these is in the end 
of the world. There the Lord thereof will gather the good seed 
into His barn, but the tares He will burn with unquenchable fire. 
Notice carefully the relation of excommunication in the Old 
Testament, as commanded by Moses, as a testimony for the new 
covenant. Heb. 3:5, 6. For as there was no uncircumcised, 
no leprous nor unclean person admitted into the temple, such an 
house or community was instituted by the Son of God, by His 
death, and by the Holy Ghost, which temple, in the New Testa- ■ 
ment, is called "the body of Christ." Rom. 12:5; 1 Cor. 12 : 27 ; 
Eph. 1 : 22, 23 ; 4 : 12 ; 5 : 23 ; Col. 1 : 18. Into this body, temple, 
or community, all the members of Jesus are embodied and bap- 
tized. 1 Cor. 12 : 13. "For by one Spirit are we all baptized into 
one body." This body is sanctified and cleansed by Christ, "with 
the washing of water, by the Word." Eph. 5 : 26. It is sepa- 
rated from the world, from the whole house of the old Adam, 
according to the inward part, by faith. This community in the 
Scriptures is called the "chosen generation, a royal priesthood, 
an holy nation, a peculiar people." 1 Peter 2:9. As this body, 
according to Rom. 6 : 2-4, is dead to sin, buried by baptism into, 
and raised again to the newness of life in Christ Jesus, and in 
whom it continues and grows like a fruitful branch in this evil 
world, so, by divine permission, Satan may tempt every member 
to sin, for the trial of its faith and love. Jesus and His apostles, 
therefore, call upon the faithful to watch and pray, to wrestle 
and be vigilant. Nevertheless, it is an easy matter for such a 
member, who hath renounced sin and put on Christ, as the new 



88 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

life, unless he continue constantly in prayers, again to transgress 
against his fellow-members, or even against the commandments 
of the Lord. Thus says the Lord (Matt. 18:15): "If thy 
brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault 
between thee and him alone. If he shall hear thee, thou hast 
gained thy brother. But if he will not hear thee, then take with 
thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses 
every word may be established. And if he shall neglect to hear 
them, tell it unto the church. But if he neglect to hear the 
church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican." 
Thus we see who is the author of excommunication in the New 
Testament, namely, Jesus Christ, the Lord and Master. 

It was so ordered for the purpose of such persons whose sins 
may be forgiven without its being executed, provided they will 
obey the good admonition. If not, they are banished from the 
church, not for the sake of their sins, but for pride and obstinacy ; 
because they reject the counsel of God's Spirit, despise and grieve 
the whole congregation, when it would have been their duty 
rather to die for their fellow-members than vex them, or despise 
their good counsel. Such characters are taken notice of under 
the law (Num. 19: 13) : "Whosoever toucheth the dead body of 
any man that is dead [which is a trifling act], and purifieth not 
himself, defileth the tabernacle of the Lord, and that soul shall 
be cut off from Israel," etc. The water of separation, which was 
used in the law for the purpose of cleansing the unclean, refers 
in the new covenant to brotherly admonition. If, for instance, a 
member transgresses, is guilty of sin, and despises counsel, 
becomes hardened by the delusion of sin, Paul exhorts the faithful 
(Heb. 3 :i3, 14) : "Take heed lest any of you be hardened through 
the deceitfulness of sin. For we are made partakers of Christ, 
if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the 
end." That is, we become the partakers of newness of life, in 
Christ Jesus. Let us but remain firm in it until the end, and not 
wander from the true life in Christ and the living God, by the 
old way of sinful living. 

We should always endeavor to learn the teachings of the Spirit 



mack's book. 89 

of God. He is the best counselor, who foresaw everything, and 
therefore subjected His house to very wise regulations. As early 
as the law of Moses (Num. 15:27-31), God commanded that 
if any soul, or the whole congregation, should sin, through 
ignorance against any commandment, then he shall bring unto 
the Lord a sin-offering, "and it shall be forgiven." "But the 
soul that doeth aught presumptuously, the same reproacheth the 
Lord ; and that soul shall be cut off from among His people. 
Because he hath despised the word of the Lord, and hath broken 
His commandment, that soul shall utterly be cut off ; his iniquity 
shall be upon him." Thus, should a whole congregation, or city, 
sin in this manner, and serve other gods, that is, commit such 
things, which are forbidden by the Lord, it shall be utterly 
destroyed. Deut. 13: 12. 

So now let us observe how this must in a spiritual manner be 
attended to by the church of God, in the New Testament, so 
that the church may not be prevailed upon by the gates of hell, 
that is, by sinful actions. Every member of the Lord's body 
knows that he is "buried with Him by baptism into death" (Rom. 
6:4), and that he "should walk in newness of life." He is called 
upon at his baptism to renounce all sin, the devil, and his own 
corrupt will, and to follow the Lord Jesus until death, and in His 
commandments. "The works of the flesh are manifest, which are 
these: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, 
witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, 
heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revelings, and such 
like." Gal. 5 : 19-21. To all such the kingdom of God is utterly 
denied by the Holy Ghost, that is, if any one of these evil prac- 
tises rules or reigns over them. Thus, if in the Lord's body a 
member be guilty of such, and the church have knowledge of it, 
he must be excommunicated, according to 1 Cor. 5:13, until he 
shall be purified by true repentance, that the whole body thereby 
may not become unclean. How wicked and corrupt must such a 
member have become who would justify himself in his sinful 
life! 



90 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

OF VARIANCE. 

This spirit tempts persons who are not sufficiently instructed 
in the ways of the Lord, similar to the serpent who spoke to Eve 
in Paradise : "Ye shall not surely die, for God doth know that 
in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye 
shall be as gods, knowing good and evil ;" which in part so hap- 
pened ; for as soon as they had eaten thereof, their eyes "were 
opened, and they knew that they were naked." Gen. 3:1-7. 
Therefore, Paul calls upon the Corinthians : "But I fear, lest by 
any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtility, so 
your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in 
Christ." 2 Cor. 11:3. As long as a member of the body con- 
tinues in this conflict, "bringing into captivity every thought to 
the obedience of Christ," and "casting down imaginations, and 
every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God" 
(2 Cor. 10: 5, 6), so long the spirit of discord can not bring the 
soul into captivity. His living with his fellow-members in sim- 
plicity, obedience of faith, peace, and unity, he continues with 
them, submitting willingly, peaceably, and simply to them what 
he does not understand, according to the advice of Peter. 1 Peter 
5:5. But the moment the spirit of discord prevails, they grad- 
ually separate themselves from the peace and love of their fellow- 
members. They take offense at trifling occurrences, until, by 
degrees, they lose the grace of faith. To them, idle and profane 
conversation is more delightful than an affectionate address of 
their fellow-members respecting their conduct. They refuse to 
listen to the fraternal admonition of their brethren, and give place 
to the deceitful spirit, who, like Lucifer, transformed into an 
angel of light, persuades them to criticize the defects of their 
fellow-members, to be offended at them, and finally become their 
own masters, and thereby bring about a separate party or organi- 
zation. Such proceeding is called by the Spirit of God, "sedition 
and heresies." ' It is a manifest work of the flesh, not belonging 
to the kingdom of God, neither to the house of the Lord, but to 
the kingdom of the world. Division has always been the begin- 



MACK S BOOK. 91 

ning of evil, and where it exists there no family can prosper, much 
less the church. True believers, therefore, must avoid such per- 
sons, who, in this manner give offense or cause division, accord- 
ing to the instructions of Paul. Rom. 17:17. They are the 
works of the flesh, originating in a fleshly mind, even though the 
fleshly person committing them disguises himself under colors 
of angelic humility. Col. 2: 18. Paul, too, calls them heretics, 
who are to be rejected. Titus 3 : 10. 

WHO IS QUALIFIED TO CONDUCT THE EXCOMMUNICATION? 

Salvation is promised only to the faithful. Whosoever believes 
in the Son of God, shall have eternal life ; but they that believe 
not, the wrath of God abideth on them. Observe, also, the nature 
of faith, as defined by the Son of God (Mark 16: 17, 18) : "And 
these signs shall follow them that believe. In My name [that is, 
by His doctrine, word, and commandments] shall they cast out 
devils ;" first out of themselves, and then out of them who believe 
in Him, and by their word are converted. "They shall speak 
with new tongues : they shall take up serpents ; and if they drink 
any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them. They shall lay hands 
on the sick, and they shall recover." To such believers eternal 
life is promised, and they are commanded by Christ to expel 
from their congregations such sinful, offensive persons ; and 
what they bind upon earth, will be bound in heaven ; and what 
they loose upon earth shall be loosed in heaven. Such believers 
carry into effect the laws and regulations of their Lord and Mas- 
ter, although rejected for such conduct by the wicked. Faithful 
members may err and sin through weakness, but they never do 
so intentionally, and are always very sorry for the act. They 
are such who mourn for their frailty, and if reminded by their 
brethren, they greatly delight in hearing them, and take correc- 
tion whenever they err. They are such of whom John says, "My 
little children, if any man sin, we have an advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous." 1 John 2 : 1. They are in 
a continual warfare against sin, and constantly mortify the sinful 
members of their mortal bodies. Thev would even rather be 



92 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

excluded from the congregation of the Lord than transgress and 
not repent when reprove^. Such persons can assist, with a good 
conscience, in excommunicating and withdrawing from their most 
beloved brethren for transgression and not accepting their affec- 
tionate corrections, because they have already banished from 
themselves this mind and spirit of the Christians. Such believers 
can say with John ( I John 4:6), ''We are of God ; he that know- 
eth God heareth us ; he that is not of God heareth not us. Hereby 
know we the spirit of truth and the spirit of error." Thus, with a 
good conscience, can they reject from their society a member who 
is insensible to their affectionate corrections and instructions. 
For if a member transgresses and refuses all correction, it is a 
sin unto death, for which we are not commanded to pray, as John 
savs. 1 John 5:16. Hereby we may discover the great differ- 
ence in sinning; for if two persons commit the same sin, one of 
them may be lost and the other saved, as was the case with the 
two criminals crucified with Jesus. The one entered into Para- 
dise w T ith Christ, because he acknowledged his sins, and believed 
in Him. The same may be the case in a congregation where two 
members sin alike ; the one hears, repents, and obtains forgive- 
ness ; the other, not able to bear correction, becomes hardened in 
pride and self-love, and will be lost. There is a great difference 
in committing sins, for which purpose David said, "Blessed is the 
man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity, and in whose 
spirit there is no guile." Ps. 32 : 2. Sincere Christians, after 
erring inconsiderately, easily repent when reproved by their fel- 
low-members. Of these James speaks : "For in many things we 
offend all." James 3 : 2. "There is therefore now no condemna- 
tion to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the 
flesh, but after the Spirit." Rom. 8:1. "Whosoever is born of 
God, doth not commit sin ; for his seed remaineth in him ; and he 
can not sin, because he is born of God." 1 John 3 : 9. Such par- 
doned believers are in daily warfare against sin ; and between 
them and the serpent there is a continual enmity. They feel its 
bruises, but its dominion is destroyed. Therefore, the faithful, 
as long as they live in the state of humility, are called the church 



MACKS BOOK. 93 

militant; but they shall overcome "by the blood of the Lamb.'' 
Rev. 12 : 11. 

But some have told me that they were happy, and could not 
feel its effects. Others said that it had no power, because they 
were insensible of its influence, and were in good spirits. Such 
poor souls must have been deceived by the subtlety of the serpent, 
for when they repented and believed in the gospel of Christ, they 
entered the church, and received divine ordinances, and assisted 
in conducting its services. They believed that what would bind 
the Lord's community upon earth will bind it also in heaven. But 
they did not contend for the faith according to the advice of the 
apostle (Jude 5:3), but departed from it, and gave heed to 
seducing spirits, which they accepted as angels, as Paul clearly 
writes ( 1 Tim. 4:1); and they harkened to them because they 
promised them liberty, etc. (2 Peter 2: 18, 19). Thus their con- 
science becomes seared, and they may continue insensible of their 
condition until the judgment. They may even speak to the con- 
gregation of the Lord in a haughty tone, "You may exclude us as 
you please ; God still will receive us into His grace." But they 
who have been excommunicated for their sins, and still continue 
in the faith, are sensible of their state, and again return by faith 
and repentance. How great is the blindness of those who find 
fault with a congregation for avoiding them ! They are insen- 
sible of the effect of excommunication, and contend against the 
church of the Lord. 

God Himself subjects the greatest part of mankind to a state 
of excommunication, as is the case with all unconverted. Unless 
they are born again, according to the will of God, they are the 
children of His wrath, which waits on them with everlasting pun- 
ishment, but they are lively and in good spirits, even claiming, 
through the medium of false doctrine, hope of salvation. Of 
such Jesus says (Matt. 24: 38, 39), "For as in the days that were 
before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giv- 
ing in marriage," etc They were merry "until the flood came 
and took them all away." They cared nothing for Noah's preach- 
ing and his building the ark, neither did they believe, but mocked 



94 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

at him. Even so will the unconverted be in the days of "the 
coming of the Son of man." They will not believe their condition 
to be so bad, because they possess no sense of the divine excom- 
munication, to which they are subjected. Infidelity has hardened 
their hearts, like Lot's wife, who became a pillar of salt. So, also, 
will those who turn back to the sinful Sodom have no faith in the 
gospel. Peter says (2 Peter 2:21), 'Tor it had been better for 
them not to have known the way of righteousness, than after they 
have known it to turn from the holy commandment delivered 
unto them." Observe what these rejected angels did. They con- 
tended against the good angels. See Jude 5-9; Rev. 17: 17. A 
contest likewise took place between Satan and Christ. Matt. 
4: i-ii. With the same propriety might these poor, deluded 
people say to God that His excommunication had no effect. Do 
not be alarmed because those who depart from the faith and 
adhere to these unruly spirits are permitted to contend against 
the good — for the rejected angels were permitted by God to con- 
tend against the good angels — they only increase their damnation, 
and prove the faithful for confirming their salvation. Therefore, 
concern thyself little about other people's conversation, for com- 
monly it is of a profane nature, and against the mind of God ; 
and although their testimony be received by some, the testimony 
of God is greater. John 5 : 9. For God has borne witness of 
His Son, and whosoever believes in the Son has the witness 
within himself, which is more certain than the testimony of men, 
be it of what appearance it may. 

But would the powers that be, suffer the church to estab- 
lish such tribunal for judging and excommunicating their mem- 
bers? Such ordinance can not be against the will and intention 
of earthly government, but on the contrary, is exceedingly bene- 
ficial to it. Paul instructs the faithful (Rom. 13 : 1-7), that every 
soul shall be subject, for the Lord's sake, to human regulations, 
made by their rulers, and render them tribute, custom, fear, and 
honor; for all magistrates are ordained by God to punish evil- 
doers and defend the good, in such a manner as to correspond 
with the will of God. In such of their subjects, therefore, they 



mack's book. 95 

should take great delight, especially if they walk in the fear of 
God, suffer among themselves no transgressors, and give their 
rulers their dues, as well as the Lord ; for the Lord hath prom- 
ised a time when "kings shall be nursing fathers" to His people. 
Isa. 49 : 23. 

OF TAKING OATHS. 

It is much better for men, and more in accordance with the 
teachings of Christ, that the faithful should affirm with yea what 
is so, and with nay what is not so, than to take many oaths, which 
are frequently not kept sacred. More peace and safety exist in 
a government where the subjects, in the fear of God, tell the 
truth with yea and nay, and adhere to it, than the oaths of those 
in whom no confidence can be placed. 



SELF-EXAMINATION. 



Men are so apt to act upon, and even to judge and condemn, a 
thing which they do not understand, according to their carnal 
minds, instead of learning the mind and will of God in the case. 
Above everything else, men should strive to learn the will of God 
when they are about to execute judgment in the house of the 
Lord ; and it is a source of comfort to know that He has not left 
us in the dark, but has plainly revealed His will by the manner 
of His dealing with His people in the old dispensation. They 
dare not pretend to be wiser, and although they be taken by men 
for fools, they must act agreeable to the model of divine wisdom. 
Paul says (1 Cor. 3: 18, 19) : "If any man among you seemeth 
to be wise in this world, let him become a fool that he may be 
wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God." 
Now, as the faithful in all things must look to God, they should 
do so in the trial of their brethren. When the Lord wished to 
prove a person or a nation, He gave them His laws and com- 
mandments, and by these they were fully proved. Such always 
has been the manner of divine wisdom, and still is. Sirach 4:19; 
6 : 22. Even Adam had to be tried after he was placed in Para- 
dise, and his trial was for the purpose of showing whether or not 



96 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

he would eat of the forbidden fruit. Noah was tried in his failli 
in building and entering the ark. Even Abraham, the father of 
all believers, had to undergo the severest trial. He had to leave 
his mother country, go through the ceremony of circumcision ; 
and what was still greater, was commanded to sacrifice his only 
son, Isaac. Gen. 12: 1 ; 22: 1, 2. And God fully tried the seed 
of Abraham in Egypt ; and after having been led into the wilder- 
ness by a mighty hand, He began to humble and prove them, even 
after they had the promise of the holy land, to know what was 
in their hearts, whether or not they were willing to keep His com- 
mandments. Deut. 8:2. In this trying wilderness most of them 
were destroyed for their unbelief, with whom God was not well 
pleased, although they had been "baptized unto Moses in the 
cloud and in the sea ; and did all eat the same spiritual meat," the 
food of angels (Ps. 78: 25), "and did all drink of the same spir- 
itual drink ; for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed 
them, and that Rock was Christ." 1 Cor. 10:3, 4- But they 
did not hold out in their trial. God required of them obedience to 
His commandments and laws. 

Now let us observe God's intention in the new covenant. 
In the first place, we read of no trial or temptation having 
occurred to the Son of God before His baptism ; but as soon as 
this was performed by John in Jordan, and the voice from heaven 
heard, "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" 
(Matt. 3: 16, 17), temptations began. Then was He tempted of 
the devil, and by the scribes and Pharisees ; then "learned He 
obedience" (Heb. 5:8), "and became obedient unto death, even 
the death of the cross." Phil. 2:8. In the same manner that the 
Father led and tried His Son, so does the Son lead His followers. 
Hence the kingdom of heaven is compared to a net that gathered 
of every kind of fish, but the bad were cast away. Matt. 
13:47, 48. Jesus calls many who, through faith and baptism, 
became His disciples (John 4:1), but they will be proven by the 
cross and made perfect by His doctrine. Never did Jesus prove 
any man without His gospel ; but all that came to Him and 
believed on Him He received as disciples, but He said to them, 



MACK S BOOK. 97 

"If ye continue in My Word, then ye are My disciples indeed. 
And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free." 
John 8: 31, 32. Again, He said to His apostles: "If ye abide in 
Me, as the branch does in the vine, ye will bring- forth much 
fruit ; but if ye will not abide in Me, ye will be cast forth as a 
branch and be withered." John 15:4-6. Such a spirit must 
govern the church of Christ that if a man will repent, and pub- 
licly renounce the devil, the world, and all its sins, and acknowl- 
edge the doctrines of Jesus, it is their duty to admit him, although 
there be no certainty that he will continue faithful in his profes- 
sion, while nothing is known of him that would justify the con- 
gregation in rejecting him. By his following Jesus, he will mani- 
fest whether or not he will reject His gospel as the way of life. 
Divine wisdom invites everybody to come to her, even the simple 
and such as lack understanding. Prov 9: 1-4. She excludes no 
man who will accept the invitation of forsaking the way of fool- 
ishness and accepting the way of understanding. The believer 
will be tried in the house of God. There he may suffer his feet 
to be put into fetters, and his neck into the yoke. If then he does 
not hold out faithful, the whole blame lies upon himself. It is 
God's design to prove men in keeping His commandments, after 
they have entered into covenant with Him. Otherwise we might 
say that God in the Old Testament dispensation did not prove the 
inconstant, previous to His adopting them and vouchsafing to 
them His promises. And Jesus might be accused of choosing 
disciples who proved unfaithful. "Why did He not select all 
such as He knew would continue steadfast ?" for it is written that 
"many of His disciples went back, and walked no more with 
Him." John 6 : 66. Thus, too, we might accuse all the apostles 
for making disciples by the preaching of the gospel, of whom 
many became apostates in different ways. 

Please consider the following illustration : If two persons loved 
each other, and proposed to enter into matrimony, when can they 
best try each other, before or after marriage? Before, they are 
free from the burden of the family. The woman is not under the 
necessity of obeying the man, and the man is free from the cares 



98 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and infirmities of the woman. They know nothing but to love. 
But as soon as they enter the public matrimonial covenant with 
each other, and accept family relations, then, it may be said, 
their trial begins. Then the wife dare not court any other man. 
She must be obedient to her own husband. Then the husband 
will discover her weakness. Then the intensity of conjugal affec- 
tion will subside, and if they hope to enjoy peace, they must seek 
divine love and guidance. Then an ever-enduring affection will 
be required, one that will abide until death, in prosperity and 
adversity. They dare not separate from each other until death 
parts them. This, then, is the state of matrimony among 
believers, which represents Christ and His church. Eph. 5 : 32. 

People of the world make love with one person, then they will 
seek and woo another, and are very inconstant. They will also 
find fault with the conduct of married people, and imagine that 
they could lead a better life and show a better example. How- 
ever, when they enter the state of matrimony they will discover 
that in the family only can they learn how to conduct a family. 
And, too, many become adulterers, as they do not have love and 
patience enough to remain steadfast unto the end. 

Apply this case to spiritual matters. Many persons have been 
awakened and have been led to forsake the great whore, — have 
come out of Babylon, and have made numerous efforts to woo 
the gospel of Christ. One will take a passage out of the New 
Testament here and another there, with which they flatter each 
other, and pretend strong affection among each other, calling 
each other brethren and sisters, but refuse to enter a bond of 
Christian fellowship, or to be baptized "by one Spirit" "into one 
body." 1 Cor. 12:13. Therefore, they take liberty to adhere 
to what they please, one to one, and another to another opinion, 
one to this and the other to another spirit, thus solacing them- 
selves with this species of love, so that the saying will apply very 
well to them that "love covers everything and makes no conten- 
tion," which is true, for the flirtations of the latitudinarian cover 
everything where there is no matrimonial restraint, no sacred 
ties with Christ and His church, its commandments and ordi- 



MACK S BOOK. 99 

nances. Rom. 13:9. Where there exists a true union between 
Christ and His church, there will be no dallying with the world, 
but instead thereof a hatred of its vanities and sinful pleasures. 
Now let us observe the criticism and unjust remarks of those 
worldly coquettes, upon those who have entered into fellowship 
with Christ. They speak lightly of the faithful followers of 
Christ in their efforts to admonish each other to constancy of 
life. And if it should so happen that one of their number should 
depart from the faith and give place to the enemy in a sinful 
and wicked life, and the faithful should discipline them accord- 
ing to the gospel, they will raise a great cry of intolerance and 
cruelty. And the expelled member will invariably attach him- 
self to those courtiers, and unite with them in the exercise of their 
indiscriminate affections. They want unlimited freedom of mind 
and spirit ; and such, indeed, they do possess, for they are out of 
the church of God, out of His kingdom, where there is no 
restraint. But in the church of God there is order, for God is 
a God of order, peace, and love. All have but one mind and one 
will, and that is the will of God. The angels of heaven are 
governed by the will of God, and when they entertained any other 
will, they were speedily "cast down to hell, and delivered into 
chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment." 2 Peter 2 : 4. 

Herein we discern the nature of the love of God, and His own 
method of its application to offenders, and it is the duty of all 
His faithful followers to be of the same mind, and to make the 
same application. Let us hear His word (Matt. 18: 19) : "And 
if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee. It 
is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than 
having two eyes to be cast into hell fire." 

This commandment Jesus particularly gave to His church, His 
body, that it should cut off all sinful and offensive members, to 
prevent the destruction of the whole body. A love of this nature 
was commanded by God, in the law, that if "thy friend, which is 
as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and 
serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou shalt not 
harken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him." Deut. 



IOO HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

1 : 6-8. Behold, of this love every courtier remains ignorant as 
long as he refuses to enter into the sacred ties with Christ, or 
His doctrine and ordinances. Yet he professes to be very cath- 
olic, broad-minded, and liberal in his views and feelings for 
others, and may be so regarded by the inexperienced. However, 
when he will be made manifest, it will be discovered that he was a 
mere pretender. The Scriptures say, "Let love be without dis- 
simulation." Rom. 12:9. See also 1 Tim. 1:5, 6. "Now, the 
end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a 
good conscience, and of faith unfeigned, from which, some having 
swerved, have turned aside unto vain jangling." 

OF LOVE. 

How do we prove true love and sound faith, or false love and 
pretended faith ? True faith, and that which hath the promise of 
everlasting life, must be conformable to Scripture ; it must be as 
Jesus said : "He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture hath said, 
out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water." John 7 : 38. 
A scriptural faith will also produce a scriptural love. "For this 
is the love of God, that we keep His commandments." 1 John 
5 : 3. "If ye love Me, ye will keep My commandments." (Rev. 
Ver.) "He that hath My commandments, and keepeth them, 
he it is that loveth Me;" and "if a man love Me, he will keep 
My words" (John 14: 15, 21, 23), by which scriptural love all 
men are to know His disciples (John 13 : 34, 35). For as Christ 
was born, crucified, and raised according to the Scriptures ( 1 Cor. 
15:3, 4), so He taught His believers a scriptural faith, and 
promised them an everlasting life. But a feigned love and faith 
are not recognized by Scripture, but are built upon the wisdom of 
men ; one will believe as he was taught by his learned predecessor, 
the other will be governed by some book, and the third by his 
own opinion and desires ; whereas the Scripture expressly says, 
"One Lord, one faith, one baptism." Eph. 4:5. Should ten 
vain professors be examined according to the Scriptures, it would 
appear that each one would be governed by a peculiar faith, and 
not one of which would correspond with the Scripture, for there 



MACK S BOOK. IOI 

is only one true and unfeigned faith according to the Scriptures, 
and all they who possess this faith are of the same mind. 

OF FAITH. 

Whoever says, because all sects appeal to Scripture, that there- 
fore no such liberty is to be given to the true believer, necessarily 
must be miserable and an ignorant person. That all sects 
acknowledge the divine origin of the Scripture, and appeal to it, 
although they do not believe in it, gives great support to the 
faith of the believer. There is a great difference between appeal- 
ing to and believing in the Holy Scriptures, which will appear 
from the conversation between Jesus and the Jews. "For had 
ye believed Moses, ye would have believed Me ; for he wrote of 
Me." John 5 : 46. The Jews all appealed to Moses, but did not 
believe in his writings. Thus, all sects appeal to Scripture, and 
even to Jesus Himself. In the same manner, therefore, as they 
believe in Jesus, so they believe in the Scriptures. Could a true 
believer be so stupid as to conclude that because all sects appeal 
to a crucified Saviour, "therefore I can not safely do so" ? Such 
a conclusion would answer the devil's purpose extremely well. 
Rut true believers have been taught otherwise by their Master; 
for as the devil in his temptation of Jesus, appealed to the Scrip- 
tures, an appeal was made to the Scriptures by Jesus in His 
answer. See Matt. 4:6, 7. Admitting that the devil and all 
false spirits appeal to Scripture, is not admitting that they believe 
in it. The faithful children of God always look unto their 
heavenly Father, believe and follow Him in His revealed Word, 
because they are certain that God and His Word exactly corre- 
spond with each other. They would be under the necessity of 
omitting a great deal if they were not to do what the wicked 
and infidels do in their unbelief. They would not be allowed to 
pray, sing, labor, eat, and sleep, which to the wicked is all sin 
and abomination before God. For "unto the pure all things are 
pure; but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing 
pure." Titus 1:15. When the ungodly perform divine service, 
as praying, singing, holding meetings, going to sacrament, and 



102 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

such like, blind reason here may suggest that if such be the prac- 
tice of these people, it will be no harm to omit them. Uninformed 
persons may, indeed, be so confounded, in various ways, that 
finally they will be at a loss to know what to think or believe. 
Then will they be compelled to invent one of their own, of which 
perhaps not the smallest trace exists in Scripture. In pursuing 
this, they will imagine to have exceeded the apostles, and will 
reject every counsel of the Scriptures. I have known people, 
whose course I discovered, to end in great depravity. Their 
ruined condition was such that finally they believed in nothing at 
all, and some of them again resumed the broad road to destruc- 
tion. May God in His grace preserve every innocent believer 
against such a condition, that he may not aspire to rise too high, 
but be satisfied in a humble sphere. Rom. 12:16. And Paul 
says to his son Timothy, "that from a child thou hast known the 
Holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation, 
through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All Scripture is given 
by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, 
for correction, for instruction in righteousness ; that the man of 
God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works." 

1 Tim. 3:15-17- 

Are we in all respects to believe the teachings of the Holy 
Scriptures, and is a believer bound to believe and obey the same, 
or does the Spirit of God not lead us in ways different from what 
the Scripture literally tells us ? 

It is not necessary to tell a believer that he is absolutely bound 
to believe and obey the Scripture, but no person can be faithful 
without the Holy Ghost, who is the author of our faith. The 
Scripture is simply an external evidence of things formerly 
taught and commanded by the Holy Ghost, containing the prom- 
ises and judgments pronounced by Him. When a person obtains 
the Holy Ghost, it will be the same Spirit of faith who worked in 
Peter, Paul, and John, many hundred years ago. He is the 
same in all the faithful, although working in greater measure in 
the apostles for the spread of the gospel, and what they wrote 
and commanded all believers accepted as long as they continued 



MACK S BOOK. IO3 

sound in the faith. As there is but one God, and one Spirit, the 
purpose of this one Holy Spirit must be the same as it was many 
hundred years ago. What the Holy Ghost commanded the faith- 
ful to observe, is externally recorded, especially to which all 
the faithful submit, for He gives the same doctrine internally that 
the Scripture gives externally. But whenever persons examine 
the Scripture with their own wisdom and fleshly minds, they read 
it without the spirit of faith, and can not believe its external 
evidence, nor be obedient thereto. They are not bound to obey 
its commandments, because they do not consider it directed to 
them. If a king were to give laws, and record them for the use 
of his subjects, connected with great promises and threats, in case 
of obedience or disobedience, others not his subjects might read 
them with great ado, but with little concern for obeying them. 
The same holds good with the Holy Scriptures, the New Testa- 
ment. Whoever reads it may see what Jesus, the King of kings, 
has promised to those who truly repent, believe, and faithfully 
follow Him in all His commandments. They can likewise read of 
all His judgments upon all who refuse to obey His gospel, or the 
government of His Spirit in the obedience of His commandments 
as recorded in Scripture. It is true, a man may read the bare 
scriptural Word, speak and write it, but if he has not the Spirit of 
faith in him, he will not concern himself about its commandments, 
nor be much terrified at its threats. The reason is plain, his ears 
are not opened. Thus Jesus said to those who heard Him preach, 
"He that hath ears to hear, let him hear." Matt. 11:15; 13 : 43- 
And in the Revelation the Spirit of God calls upon the seven 
churches : "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches." Rev. 2 : 7. Thus, a believer whose internal 
ears are opened, if he read the Holy Scriptures, hears what Jesus 
enjoins in His doctrine, what the apostles require in their writ- 
ings, and by his internal hearing be excited to true obedience 
externally. He reads the Scriptures in faith, and hears the 
internal Word of life, which gives him power and vigor to follow 
Jesus. But where faith is wanting, it is an easy matter for a 
man to hear and read the bare Word, and sav, "It is a dead letter 



I0 4 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

which I can not obey, because I am not internally convinced of 
what is externally written," but he is ignorant of his want of 
sound faith and the true love of God. John 14: 1 5. 

OF THE EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL WORD. 

When the Lord God revealed His law to His people, He wrote 
the commandments on two tables of stone, and gave them to 
Moses, to be put into the ark of the covenant. Deut. 10: 1-5; 
Heb. 9:4. Of these they were to take a copy, and write them 
upon the posts of their houses. Deut. 6 : 6, 9. It is written that 
the words of the commandments should be in their hearts, of 
which they should talk to their children, bind them for a sign upon 
their hands, and write them upon the posts of their houses and 
gates. The external copy, of course, was a faithful transcript of 
the writing of God upon the tables of stone within the ark of the 
covenant in the holy place, so that the external and internal law 
are of the same import. The ark of the covenant, containing 
the commandments in the holy of holies, may represent the 
heart of each believer in the new covenant. It contains, also, the 
tables of the commandments of his God, written not by the hand 
of man, but by the Holy Ghost. This, therefore, stands in close 
connection with the external writings in the New Testament, 
which flowed from the interior, and is the very image of the 
inward living Word of God. But where a person says that the 
laws of God are in his heart, and still wars against the com- 
mandments of the Son of God and His apostles, of which the 
Scriptures testify, we may safely believe him to be of a carnal 
mind, possessing in his heart the spirit of error and falsehood. 
Where the law of God is written in the heart, all are of one faith, 
one baptism, and one Spirit, according to Christ Jesus. It was 
the design of the true Lawgiver that His disciples all should 
be one, even as the Father and Son. John 17: 21. On the con- 
trary, where a spurious gospel is received and written in the 
heart by the spirit of error, there is ignorance of divine things. 
Ps. 5 : 10. It separates men from the commandments and ordi- 
nances of God, and causes among them many religious professions 



MACK S BOOK. IO5 

and opinions. This I have experienced in many, who said they 
were a free people, under no compulsion to obey the letter of the 
New Testament, because the law of God was written in their 
hearts. But I have seen such whereof not two were of one mind. 
For as many as possessed this high disposition, so many different 
opinions had they among them. To me, indeed, this appeared to 
be a very curious spirit, writing so many different laws in the 
different hearts of men. Even in the days of the prophet Jere- 
miah, God complained that the Israelites were corrupted by false 
prophets, forsook His laws and altars. Jer. 11:13. The same 
is the case with people in our times, who boast of great liberty 
without obeying the Scripture, the divine counsels, and command- 
ments. The saying here is perfectly true : "As many people, so 
many spirits and so many laws. But however great their spir- 
itual pretensions may be, it still continues to be Babylon, con- 
fusion, and discord. As builders, they refuse to desist, although 
the Lord confuses their language. Although many learned and 
wise have built, were disgraced and turned fools, still they begin 
again to build this confused edifice. The consequence will be 
confusion, confounding, and their minds will be so corrupted as 
totally to be unfit for believing. ''Yet their folly shall be mani- 
fest unto all men," as is written in 2 Tim. 3 : 9. Both true and 
false laws may be written in the hearts of men, the false by the 
spirit of error, in the hearts of the unbelieving; and the true by 
the Holy Spirit of truth, in the children of the new covenant, or 
the true believers, perfectly corresponding with what Christ and 
His apostles commanded and recorded in the Scriptures. 

OF THINGS STRANGLED AND OF BLOOD. 

Blood having been as an offering for atonement, in the Old 
Testament, therefore God said to Noah, when permitting him and 
his sons to eat flesh, "But flesh with the life thereof, which is the 
blood thereof, shall ye not eat." Gen. 9 : 4. Again God com- 
manded His people by Moses, saying, "Ye shall eat no manner of 
blood, whether it be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwell- 
ings. Whatsoever soul it be that eateth any manner of blood, 



I06 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

even that soul shall be. cut off from his people." Lev. 7:26, 27. 
God expressed the same still more clearly, when he said, "And 
whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the 
strangers that sojourn among you, that eateth any manner of 
blood ; I will even set My face against that soul that eateth 
blood ; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an 
atonement for your souls. Therefore, I said unto the children 
of Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood." Lev. 17: 10-12. This 
is the reason why God in the Old Testament has forbidden His 
people to eat blood. In the time of the apostles the Holy Ghost 
was pleased to command to abstain from eating blood as well as 
from acts of fornication, as a necessary observance for the faith- 
ful, both from among Jews and Gentiles. Acts 15:29. The 
reason of not eating blood by the Christians, is that the blood of 
the Son of God is an atonement for them, and is forbidden, both 
in the Old and New Testaments. The language of the first 
Christians to the heathen was, "We are not as brutal and desirous 
as the beasts to eat their flesh with blood." They inflicted a 
state of bondage on a man who proved to be guilty of this act, as 
may be seen in Godfrey Arnold's "Portrait of the Primitive 
Christians." 

But the apostle said, "Whatsoever is sold in the shambles that 
eat." 1 Cor. 10:25. P )Ut P am * alludes only to natural food, 
and blood can not be considered as an article of that description. 
Thus it is a settled point that the eating of blood and things 
strangled, as well as acts of fornication, are forbidden by the 
Holy Ghost and apostles. 

OF MATRIMONY. 

The Lord Himself instituted matrimony in Paradise, as Jesus 
said to the Pharisees: "Have ye not read, that He who made 
them at the beginning made them male and female, and said, They 
twain shall be one flesh?" Matt. 19:4, 5. That this state is 
for the purpose of two persons who in the fear and faith of God 
are to be one, and was instituted and blessed by Himself, may be 
seen in the cases of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the saints of the 



MACKS BOOK. I07 

Old Testament. That it is to be conducted in unity and purity, 
likewise has been expressed in the law. Thus God has forbidden 
the children of Israel to marry any other than those of the seed 
of Abraham. Deut. 7 : 3. The Lord gave His commandments 
to the Israelites by Moses, respecting this ordinance, for which 
see Ex. 19:15; Lev. 12:5; 20:18. From all these command- 
ments it is clear that the state of matrimony is a regulation 
of decency and not in concupiscence, as among the heathen, who 
are ignorant of God and His will. In the New Testament it is 
to be respected as an ordinance still more holy. To the unmar- 
ried the apostle Paul says that it would be good for them if they 
abide even as he. For if a single state be conducted in the 
purity of the Spirit, and flesh, in the true faith of Jesus, and 
kept in true humility, it may be considered as an higher grade of 
perfection, and a nearer resemblance of the image of Jesus. But 
if a single person marries, he commits no sin, provided it be done 
in the fear of the Lord, that is, in the true faith of Christ, to be 
one flesh even as Christ and His church. Eph. 5 : 30. For in 
no other manner can a man be of one flesh with Christ than by 
obedience to the Word, which is Jesus, and which He has taught. 
In like manner must true matrimony be so conducted that they 
be one according to the outward flesh, but much more according 
to the inward part in the will of their God must they have one 
body and one faith in Christ Jesus. In no other manner has 
matrimony been instituted and consecrated. But where people 
marry on account of pleasures, and riches, and not in unity of 
faith in Christ, such a marriage lies under the curse, and must be 
rejected by the faithful, and is improper in the church of the 
Lord, and always has been punished by God. As may be seen, 
that when the sons of God turned away from Him, and became 
fleshly minded, "saw the daughters of men that they were fair, 
and they took to themselves wives of all which they chose," a 
flood came and destroyed them all. The Scripture called those 
from the tribe of Seth the children of God, because he, having 
been Adam's son, was begotten after his image. Gen. 5 : 3. But 
the children of men were from the tribe of Cain, whom the Lord 



I08 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

cursed for murdering his brother. God did permit these two 
tribes to mix with each other, but they disobeyed, and they all 
perished from the face of the earth, with the exception of a seed 
from the tribe of Seth, consisting of Noah and his sons. The 
devil, however, soon brought one of his sons, named Ham, under 
the curse of his father. Gen. 9:25. God therefore made no 
selection from Ham's tribe, but from Shem's, his brother, of 
whom Abraham, the father of the faithful, was a descendant. 
Abraham, for the marrying of his son Isaac, said to his eldest 
servant that he should not take a wife unto his son of the 
daughters of the Canaanites, namely, from the tribes of Ham, 
but go to Abraham's country and kindred, and take a wife to 
his son Isaac. 

The same disposition governed Isaac when blessing his son 
Jacob and commanding him not to take a wife of the daughters 
of Canaan, but go to his mother's father's house, and take a 
wife of his daughters. But Esau, Jacob's brother, a wild man, 
and hated by the Lord, not regarding the will of God, but court- 
ing at pleasure, took two wives, not of his kindred, but of the 
Hittites, which caused great grief to Isaac and Rebecca. Gen. 
28: 1-5; Mai. 1 : 1-3. The wise king Solomon, when overcome 
by the love of strange women, and marrying contrary to the 
law, fell under the displeasure of God, so that his kingdom was 
rent out of his hands. 1 Kings II : I. The Jews, too, when 
rebuilding the temple at the time of Nehemiah, repented and sep- 
arated themselves from all strange women which they had taken, 
of whom some even had children. See Ezra, tenth chapter. 

It, no doubt, frequently occurred among the first Christians 
that one of the two only became faithful. Paul therefore recom- 
mends the believer to continue with the unbelieving as long as 
the latter be pleased to dwell with the former; but if he made 
proposals for parting, the faithful no longer will be bound in such 
cases. 1 Cor. 7: 12-15. It should be observed what Paul says 
of the marriage of the faithful in the foregoing verses, where the 
Lord says: "Let not the wife depart from her husband; but if 
she depart, let her remain unmarried. But to the rest speak I, 



MACKS BOOK. IO9 

not the Lord. If any brother hath a wife that believeth not, and 
if she be pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her away." 
By this we are to understand that if the unbelieving should be 
brutish and continually grumbling and destroying every good 
feeling, or should be guilty of adultery, so that the believing party 
is to serve as a cloak to cover shame, in this case the believer 
is not bound to dwell with such a wicked person. 

But shpuld one commit adultery, shall they be permitted still 
to live with each other? In the beginning it was commanded 
in the law of Moses, to put to death all adulterers, and not to 
suffer any one of them in the house of the Lord. But if a man 
has set his wife at liberty by a letter of divorcement, she was no 
more to be considered as an adulteress, although married with 
another. Yet if the latter husband dies, her former would not 
have been allowed to take her again to be his wife, for she would 
have been considered an abomination before the Lord. Deut. 
24:3, 4. How great, then, must the crime of adultery be, and 
how much it operates against a believer to marry an adulterous, 
whorish body, is evident from the great corruption it produces 
in the sight and congregation of the Lord, and therefore as such 
an abomination can not be permitted, no other remedy against 
such an offense than actual separation could be prescribed, unless 
in cases of thorough repentance. 

OF EXCOMMUNICATION. 

But if either party, the husband or wife, sins so as to be 
excommunicated by the church, is the other party to have no 
communication with him or her? God commanded in the Old 
Testament that "if thy brother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or 
the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, who is as thine own soul, 
entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, 
which thou hast not known," "thou shalt not consent unto him," 
nor "shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither 
shalt thou conceal him, but thine hand shall be first upon him, to 
put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people." 
Deut. 13:6-9. Thus it may be seen of what little consequence 



HO HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the closest connections were to him who was to be put to death 
under the law. This itself represents the state of excommunica- 
tion in the church of God in the new covenant. There Jesus said, 
If thy brother transgress against thee (including husband and 
wife, children and parents, if belonging to the congregation of 
the Lord), and if he shall neglect to hear thee and the church, 
"let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican." Matt. 
18: 15-17. This forbearance for the purpose of escaping corrup- 
tion, both in spiritual as well as bodily communication, is to be 
observed even among the nearest connections. In Deut. 17:7 it 
is strongly marked out, namely, if one has transgressed, so that 
he must suffer death, the hands of the witness first shall be upon 
the perpetrator, and then the hands of all the people. And when 
Israel had transgressed, through the medium of the gold calf, the 
Levites were commanded by the Lord to slay from gate to gate 
throughout the camp, every man his brother, companion, and 
neighbors, and then a blessing was bestowed upon them bv 
Moses. Thus, in Christendom it is exceedingly necessary to 
renounce all for the Lord's sake. The doctrine of self-denial 
purports the same thing. It is an easy matter to assist in excom- 
municating as long as we are not under the necessity of expelling 
our companions and children, but in that case our natural affec- 
tions, alas ! often prove to be stronger than our love for divine 
things, which must end in destruction. It is, therefore, a settled 
point, what Jesus says, "Whosoever loveth anything more than 
Me is not worthy of Me." See Matt. 10: 3, 7. 

OF OUTWARD WORSHIP. 

There is a time for humiliation, and a time for exaltation. 
Jesus first appeared in this world in a low, humble station, in a 
humble and voluntary submission to the will of his father. In 
future He will appear as the exalted Christ, in great glory. 
Therefore, every soul wishing to share in His exaltation must 
follow Him in a state of humility, and not be ashamed to confess 
Him before men in all His commandments. In no other manner 
can success be insured. The church of the Lord has always been 



MACKS BOOK. IH 

little and despised in the eyes of the world, and has been as the 
sweepings of the dust. Such men greatly err who teach that it 
is needless for the faithful to be baptized with water and partake 
of the wine of communion for showing forth the death of Christ, 
pretending to be baptized with spiritual water and to partake of 
spiritual wine, and other high pretensions they may have against 
the clear evidence of the Holy Scriptures. It is very necessary 
to look wholly to the testimony of Jesus and His example ; and 
to avoid being misled by these high-toned people, we must simply 
follow His example in the obedience of faith, and bring every 
thought into captivity under that obedience. 

THE EXCUSE OF UNBELIEVERS. 

But some people appeal to saints such as Taulerus, Thomas A. 
Kempis, and others, who have written spiritual books, without 
mentioning anything respecting the practice of the outward doc- 
trine of Jesus. Men who appeal to men's evidence indicate that 
they are destitute of the testimony of Jesus. Therefore says St. 
John, "If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is 
greater ; for this is the witness of God which He hath testified of 
His Son. He that believeth on the Son of God hath the witness 
in himself. He that believeth not God hath made Him a liar, 
because he believeth not the record that God gave of His Son." 
i John 5 : 9, 10. Such testimony is essential to salvation, and 
possessed by all saints. But it is very dangerous to appeal to 
men who are still under the influence of popish institutions, and 
have avoided out of fear what otherwise they might have con- 
fessed. An appeal to saints is as absurd as though the world 
were to appeal to Christ and His apostles, and yet not harmonize 
with their doctrine. Such poor souls are to be pitied who 
endeavor to ground their faith upon such a slender foundation, 
which in time of affliction will afford no consolation. But the 
Son of God has taught, "Therefore, whosoever heareth these 
sayings of Mine, and doeth them, I will liken unto a wise man, 
which built his house upon a rock." Matt. 7 : 24. Our Saviour 
further says, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that heareth My 



112 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

word, and believeth on Him that sent Me, hath everlasting life, 
and shall not come into condemnation, but is passed from death 
unto life." John 5 : 24. Again, "Whosoever liveth and believ- 
eth in Me shall never die." John 11 126. These are true testi- 
monies to him who believeth, but how wretched it is to appeal to 
the testimonies and practice of men as patterns in divine things, 
and passing by the example of Christ and His apostles. Let us 
remember what Paul says : "But though we, or an angel from 
heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we 
have preached unto you, let him be accursed." Gal. 1 : 26. This 
is the only gospel to which we shall listen, to which Moses and 
the prophets have pointed, and was revealed by Christ and His 
apostles ; neither dare it to be altered or tampered with by the 
holiness of angels or men, or even by the power and dominion 
of the whole world. To add anything to, or take away from it, 
would bring upon us the displeasure of God, for it is as firm as 
the mountain of the Lord ; and Christ compares it to a stone, 
saying, "Whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken ; but 
on whomsoever it shall fall, it shall grind him to powder." 
Matt. 21 : 44. 

OF THE REWARD OF THE FAITHFUL. 

The riches and glories to be obtained through Christ, are of 
such magnitude as to be inexpressible by any human tongue ; 
nor can any one describe what God has prepared for those who 
love Him. The Son of God Himself testifies, "That whosoever 
believeth in Him should not perish, but have eternal life." John 
3:15. This is a great expression of eternal glory. It is not 
like the life of kings and the great of this world, for this is 
scarcely like the span of an hand, and at the same time is full of 
danger, disease, and disquietude, and at last it will be brought 
to naught ; but it is such a fulness of joy, which is no more sub- 
ject to death, but will continue forever. No pain, no fear, no 
want, nor even any complaint, for as the life is everlasting, so 
will be its glory, as God said, "Everlasting joy shall be upon their 
heads." Isa. 35 : 10. There will proceed "out of the throne of 



MACKS BOOK. II3 

God and of the Lamb, a pure river of water of life," and "on either 
side of the river was there the tree of life," bearing the most 
precious fruits. Rev. 22: 1, 2. It is here where the city of God 
will be manifested amidst this happy state of existence (Rev. 21), 
whose streets will be of pure gold and precious stones, and where 
the faithful will sing glorious hallelujahs. Job 13:22. They 
shall have crowns on their heads, and will be clothed with white 
robes, and palms of victory in their hands. Rev. 7:9. They 
will shout, and sing, and rejoice, and the Lamb will lead them 
unto living fountains of water, and feed them with fruit of 
immortality. It will heighten their joy still more when they 
shall behold Jesus in His great glory and majesty, with millions 
of His saints and angels surrounding His throne, and with a loud 
voice and great joy they shall sing everlasting hallelujah until 
heaven and earth will echo the song of the redeemed unto the 
Lamb that was slain, ascribing "blessing, and honor, and glory, 
and power," forever and forever. Rev. 5: 12, 13. Their pleas- 
ure will become still greater when they behold Jesus in His glori- 
fied humanity. They will be astonished that so few have loved 
and followed their blessed Redeemer, and that they themselves 
had not more willingly served Him. 

OF EVERLASTING TORMENT. 

In the same manner that the glory of the faithful shall be 
inexpressible, so will be the misery of unbelievers. The Scrip- 
ture expressly says of the Son of God : "Behold, He cometh with 
clouds ; and every eye shall see Him, and they also which pierced 
Him; and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of Him. 
Even so, Amen." Rev. 1 : 7. And out of great fear they shall 
say "to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us and hide us from the 
face of Him that sitteth on the throne and from t'he wrath of the 
Lamb." Rev. 6: 16. But all this will profit them nothing, for 
Christ will say unto them, "Depart from Me, ye cursed, into 
everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels." Matt. 
25:41. For they who "worship the beast and his image" "shall 
be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy 
8 



114 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

angels and in the presence of the Lamb ; and the smoke of their 
torment ascendeth up forever and ever." Rev. 14: 10, 11. "And 
whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into 
the lake of fire," where "their worm shall not die, neither shall 
their fire be quenched." Rev. 20:15; Isa. 66:24. Yes, they 
will be abhorring to all flesh, and their punishment will be still 
more aggravated when they recollect that they have forfeited 
this glorious life which they now behold in the children of God, 
for which they have had so little respect. Moreover, when the 
righteous shall be seen with great cheerfulness by those who have 
given them such anxiety, and rejected their doctrine and faith in 
Jesus, then will the damned fall into a terrible dismay respecting 
such blessings ; in sorrow will they converse with each other, and 
sigh with anxiety of spirit : This is he whom we fools had treated 
as an outcast and his conduct as insane. Now he is counted 
among the children of God ; and his inheritance is among the 
saints. Therefore, have we missed the ways of righteousness. 
What profit do we now reap from our pomp? Of what avail 
now are our riches and pride? When they will now seriously 
reflect upon all their sinful deeds committed in this world, with- 
out the least love of God as the greatest good,, and consider their 
forfeiture of such enjoyments, a torture and misery will ensue 
in them, which will be inexpressible ; for they are banished from 
the presence of the Lord and all His saints. 

According to the testimony of Scripture, it appears that "the 
smoke of their torment" will ascend "up forever and ever." Rev. 
14: II. But that it is to be without any termination the Word 
does not teach, which, however, is no consolation to the believer, 
and not worthy of much inquiry or investigation, for the wicked 
will have lost so much of the heavenly enjoyment that even if 
there should be" a final termination of their punishment, after a 
long eternity, they could never enjoy that which the faithful will 
inherit through obedience to Christ. 

It is a great error, and will prove disastrous to many, who r 
having heard of a final restoration, will trust to it for their 
redemption, and neglect the only means of salvation, — entire 



MACKS BOOK. 115 

consecration to the service of Christ. When they once enter the 
place of torment, such hope will vanish like a vapor, even in an 
apparent eternity. It is much wiser, therefore, to secure the 
hope of salvation in the time and by God's appointed means of 
grace, and thus escape the wrath of God and the torments of hell, 
than to waste time in devising means of final escape. As if a 
thief were to console himself with the thought, Ah, well, if I 
should be apprehended and convicted, my sentence would expire 
sometime! Would not that be poor comfort? ^Therefore the 
gospel which teaches how to escape the wrath of God, is much 
safer and better than the gospel which teaches that external 
punishment will finally cease, which, though a truth, is however 
not at all the proper gospel to be preached to the ungodly. But 
the sincere milk of the Word is withheld from them through 
propositions of suspiciously-prepared strong food, and the result 
can scarcely be realized nor fully deplored, for it must be 
destruction and death, tearing apart and scatttering abroad. 
And after the people have been fed a long time on such food, 
and their teacher goes to other fields, they do not know of what 
they had partaken, although they had heard many long, fine- 
spun, high-sounding, but to them unmeaning sermons. Through 
such a ministry nobody was prepared the better to resist the 
devil and his cohorts. Such people the apostle Paul likens to 
"sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal." I Cor. 13 : 1. They 
lacked the love and obedience that would enable them to obey 
the commandments and ordinances of the Lord. John 14 and 
1 John 5 : 3. 

A FATHERLY ADVICE. 

In conclusion, I offer you an affectionate, fatherly advice, 
which I hope you will cherish and keep sacredly while you live, 
that you may remember it wherever you go ; when you lie down 
at night, and when you rise in the morning let this be your great - 

*"Also ist das Evangelium viel besser und seliger, welches lehret wie 
mann den zorn Gottes entflihen Kan, als Solches Evangelium welches 
lehret dasz die emige Qual ein Ende hat, welches zwar eine wahrheit ist, 
geheret aber gar nicht als ein Evangelium denen Gottlosen zu pretigen." 



Il6 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

est concern; that all your desires, and your highest aspirations, 
and your sighs and groanings, may be that you may be enabled 
to love the Lord God, who made you, and Jesus Christ, who 
redeemed you with His own precious blood, with all your heart, 
with all your soul, and with all your mind, over everything in 
the world, whether it be beauty or wealth, or whatsoever you 
may see or hear or think of. And in this love, to fear and serve 
God, in childlike simplicity of heart, meditate upon His com- 
mandments day and night, and keep them with a pure heart. Let 
them be your instructor and adviser, and pray steadfastly for 
the Holy Spirit, who will lead you through His Word into all 
truth. Suffer the words of David to ring constantly in your 
ears: "Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? — By 
taking heed thereto according to Thy Word." Ps. 119:9. 
Again, "The words of the Lord are pure words ; or silver tried in 
a furnace of earth, purified seven times." Ps. 12:6. x\nd 
again, "The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul. The 
testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple. The 
statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart. The com- 
mandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes. The fear 
of the Lord is clean, enduring forever. The judgments of the 
Lord are true and righteous altogether. More to be desired are 
they than gold, yea than much fine gold ; sweeter also than 
honey and the honeycomb." Ps. 19:7-10. And keep also con- 
stantly in mind the words of our Saviour : "If a man love Me, he 
will keep My words, but he that loveth Me not, keepeth not My 
sayings." John 14:23, 24. Again, "My sheep hear My voice, 
and they follow Me, and I give unto them eternal life." John 
10 : 27. And bear in mind, too, what the Lord Jesus says of 
His commands, in these words: "For I have not spoken of 
Myself ; but the Father which sent Me, He gave Me a command- 
ment, what I should say and what I should speak. And I know 
that His commandment is life everlasting. Whatsoever I speak, 
therefore, even as the Father said unto Me, so I speak." John 
12 : 49, 50. And keep steadfastly the precious advice of the Lord 
Jesus to His own, when He said, "Beware of false prophets, 



JACK'S BOOK. 117 

which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are 
ravening wolves.' Matt. 7:15. And regard carefully the 
warning He offers you . "Take heed that no man deceive you, 
for many shall come in My name, saying, I am Christ, and shall 
deceive many." Matt. 24 : 4, 5. Keep thy soul always safely in 
thine own hands, as the most valuable of all thy treasures, and 
walk constantly before the Lord in holy fear. Like David, speaK 
to the Lord in uprightness of heart. "Concerning the works of 
ifien, by the word of Thy lips I have kept me from the paths of the 
destroyer." Ps. 17:4. And if in your associations you should 
come in contact with men who appear more holy than John, with 
more fiery zeal than Elias, more wonderfully miraculous than 
Moses, more mild, meek, humble, and spiritual than Christ and 
His apostles, but do not walk in the doctrine of Christ, our cruci- 
fied Redeemer, as it is recorded in the New Testament, and desire 
to lead you away from keeping the simple commandments of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, you may be assured in your heart that they 
are false prophets and deceitful workers. Close your ears against 
their pernicious teaching. Be as wise as serpents who stop their 
ears against the charmer. Call earnestly to Christ for help, as 
a sheep would bleat for the shepherd when it heard the voice 
of the wolf. 

It may appear harsh and uncharitable to hold such persons, 
who make such loud pretensions to holiness and claim miraculous 
power, as false professors and deceitful workers, because they 
do not obev the outward ordinances and ceremonies of the writ- 
ten Word of the Lord, but such judgment will be found consistent 
with the teachings of both the Old and New Testament. 



CHAPTER V 

FROM THE CHRONIC ON EPHRATENSE 

A third report of substantially the same circumstances is here 
presented and taken from a work entitled "The Chronicon 
Ephratense," being a history of the Seventh-day German Bap- 
tists : — 

"It is still fresh in the memory of all, that, with the beginning 
of the present century, important changes in the realm of the 
church took place in many lands, especially in Germany. A great 
many people, of all ranks, separated themselves from the common 
forms of worship, and were in general called Pietists. But as 
only the three known church parties were included in the religious 
peace, the Pietists everywhere began to be proceeded against with 
much severity. On this account many of them went back again 
into the pale of the church, and were therefore denominated 
Church-Pietists. The rest, for the most part, went back to the 
districts of Marienborn, Schwarzenau, Schlectenboden, etc., 
whose rulers had themselves been awakened, and so took up the 
refugees, and granted them liberty of conscience. 

"Among the Pietists gathered together in that region, two 
congregations were soon formed, whose principles were radically 
different and contrary, namely, the Community of True Inspira- 
tion and the Baptists of Schwarzenau. As the superintendent's 
relations were intricately involved with these congregations, they 
will often have to be referred to. The Schwarzenau Baptists 
arose in the year 1708 ; and the persons who at that time broke the 
ice, amid much opposition, were Alexander Mack, their teacher, 
a wealthy miller of Schriesheim an der Bergstrasse (who devoted 
all his earthly possessions to the common good, and thereby 
became so poor that at last he had not bread enough to last from 
one day to the next), his housekeeper, a Widow Noethiger, 
Andreas Boney, John George Hoenig, Luke Vetter, Kippinger, 
and a gunsmith, whose name is not known. These eight asso- 

(118) 



FROM THE CHRONICON EPHRATENSE. I IQ 

ciated themselves together, chose one of their number by lot as 
baptist, and then, according to the doctrine brought from heaven 
by Christ, baptized one another that same year, in the running 
stream of water that flows by Schwarzenau. Who their first 
baptist was has never been known. 

"From these eight persons are descended all the various kinds 
of Baptists among the High Germans in North America, who are 
now scattered from New Jersey to Georgia ; but whether they were 
the first who restored immersion, as a candle to its candlestick, in 
Germany, is a question demanding closer investigation. It is 
asserted that the godly Hochmann agreed with them on the 
subject of baptism, but as they carried the thing out while he 
was under arrest, he could not afterwards insist upon it any 
more ; probably, too, their sectarianism was a hindrance to him. 
Certain it is that God was with them at that time. Neither was 
there any difference between them and the congregation after- 
wards founded at Ephrata, except with reference to the Sabbath, 
and it is affirmed that Alexander Mack once publicly declared, 
'We now lack nothing any more, except the Sabbath, but we have 
enough to carry already.' They had their goods in common, and 
practiced continuence, though, it is said, they did not persevere 
in this zeal longer than seven years, after which they turned to 
women again and to the ownership of property involved therein. 
And this is very likely, from the fact that, afterwards, when the 
great awakening in Conestoga took place, during which similar 
circumstances arose once more, they always declared that if it 
were possible to live in such wise, their fathers at Schwarzenau, 
who for a time had the same zeal, would have succeeded in it. 
Thus they made their faithlessness the criterion according to 
which they would judge God's leading, which was the very 
source whence afterwards arose the division between them and 
the congregation at Ephrata. 

"This congregation of Baptists at Schwarzenau increased very 
much. A branch of it settled in the Marienborn district, but 
was thrice persecuted there, and finally found a refuge in Kre- 
feld in the year 171 5. Here a division took place. Some say it 



120 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

was with reference to the question whether one might marry out 
of the congregation. Others maintain that the occasion of it 
was the marriage, contrary to the teaching of Paul (i Cor. 7), 
of a single minister of theirs by the name of Hager or Hacker. 

"It happened that young Brother Hacker had studied, and was 
full of love, and an intimate friend of the said Peter Becker, and 
wanted to marry the daughter of a merchant, who also had been 
baptized into the congregation, but still served the Mennonites as 
preacher, because they did not wish to lose him, and gave him 
a yearly salary of 800 gulden. This man was glad for such a 
son-in-law, and married them with the greatest pleasure, not 
thinking that it would produce such a great excitement in the 
congregation. But when the affair became known, the tumult 
in the congregation became so great that Christian Libe, the sec- 
ond teacher, and with him four single brethren, rose up against 
it and excommunicated said Hacker, though John Naas and the 
congregation wished only to suspend him from bread-breaking. 
This godless excommunication ruined the whole congregation in 
the town of Krefeld. I heard the blessed teacher, John Naas, 
say that more than one hundred persons in Krefeld had been 
convinced in favor of the new baptism, but on account of this 
ban everything was ruined and killed. And since no Moses was 
there, who might have sent Aaron with the censer, the fire of ban 
burned on, and consumed the whole congregation, which still 
pains my heart whenever I think of it. But it touched poor 
Hacker most, who took all the blame on himself. The spirits 
took possession of him, so that he fell sick and died of consump- 
tion. As they were converted people, they were able to accom- 
plish something. His good friend, Peter Becker, however, was 
with him in his utmost need, up to his death. 

"After this Peter Becker concluded to move to Pennsylvania, 
and when this became known several others moved with him, 
but the spirit of discord and ban also moved with them, and so 
wounded and corrupted them on the other side of the ocean, that 
they could hardly be cured in America." 



CHAPTER VI 

EARLY INTERNAL TROUBLES 

The brethren at Krefeld had their share of internal troubles. 
The ruling sovereign of the province to which Krefeld belonged, 
was of very amiable and peaceable disposition, and granted his 
subjects more religious liberty than was given in other parts of 
Germany. In consequence of this freedom, there was a contin- 
uous and heavy immigration into the town and vicinity, from 
different parts of the country. Many of these newcomers were 
members of the church. This aggregation of people brought into 
the Krefeld church almost as many different views on subjects 
of theology, as most of them belonged to some other denomina- 
tion before they joined the brethren. Some were driven there 
by persecution, some came for the sake of church associations, 
and some, no doubt, were drawn thither by the savory odor of 
the "loaves and fishes." The Krefeld church being in its first 
love, like the mother church at Jerusalem, abounded in hospitality, 
and endeavored to practice community of possessions to a fault. 
One historian informs us that it became such a burden to sup- 
port this large mass of immigrants and refugees that several 
of their most wealthy brethren were impoverished in the attempt 
to do so. And it was impossible to find immediate employment 
for so many people. But "necessity is the mother of invention," 
and man's extremity became Krefeld's opportunity, for from 
that period dates its extensive silk and velvet manufactory.* 

Out of such a conglomerate mass of enforced idleness would 
naturally spring forth a heavy crop of religious discussion among 
those who were religiously inclined, and discussion not religious 
among those who were not, with a dangerous infection of those 

*Note.— "Krefeld: Important manufacturing town of Rhenish Prussia, 12 
miles northwest of Dusseldorf. It owed its importance to the settlement 
here, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, of numerous refugees 
from religious persecution, in neighboring countries, who established here 
the silk and velvet manufacture, for which Krefeld is now the most noted 

town in Prussia." — Manifold Cyclopedia. 

(121) 



122 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

who tried to be. Such a state of society always broods strife, 
by increasing food for gossip, on which busybodies thrive and 
multiply. Their difficulties were augmented by the fact that all 
of them were entirely inexperienced in church discipline, or 
housekeeping, and therefore did not know how to help themselves 
out of their troubles, or to avoid getting into new complications. 
The different nationalities, each having its peculiar manners of 
conduct, and all more or less prejudiced to their own, in pro- 
portion to their intelligence and experience, also greatly hindered 
harmony of action in church work. And there is no doubt that 
the enemy profited by this state of dissension among them, 
in bringing on the work of persecution, as it afforded occasion 
for accusations of apostasy. But the saddest part of the above 
affair is that it did not end at Krefeld. Although persecuted 
from place to place, some to Friesland, some to Holland, still a 
disposition of wrangling was maintained, though somewhat modi- 
fied by their afflictions from without. 

About 1 7 19 a. d v twenty or more families fled to America. On 
board the ship they revived their discussions, which resulted in 
such bitter contentions that some of the families were totally 
estranged to each other before they landed. Thus they brought 
with them to the New World the German "leaven of malice," as 
well as the Christian spirit of brotherly love. As a natural result, 
they dispersed to different parts of the country when landing on 
the shores of America. Some of them hoped to get rid of their 
troubles in alienation from those with whom they had been con- 
tending, but each took with him the essential part of their faith 
and practice. Thus, again did good come out of evil, for thereby 
was the Word of God spread abroad. The only serious hindrance 
to divine progress to individuals resulting from this state of 
affairs, was that which comes from not assembling of themselves 
together, the loss of brotherly exhortation and admonition. 
This some of them soon began to realize in a longing for the 
sweet associations of kindred spirits and brotherly intercourse. 
Others endeavored to keep up the life within by social and 
domestic worship, while many, alas ! suffered the lamp to burn 
dry and the light to die out and become "great darkness." 



CHAPTER VII 

FIRST WORK IN AMERICA 

The first emigrants from the mother church in Germany 
arrived in America in the autumn of 17 19. Their number 
included at least parts of about twenty families. They embarked 
on a large Flemish vessel, at Friesland, with a number of other 
passengers. The voyage was to them, and to the New World, to 
which it brought them, an eventful one. It introduced them to a 
land of religious freedom, and gave to the country a people who 
would become one of its most useful and influential factors. In 
Chapter VI reference is made to certain dissensions among 
them, which were discussed during navigation, resulting in an 
estrangement of that brotherly feeling that had at first existed 
among them. Nevertheless, they still maintained Christian char- 
ity, which always characterized God's true followers, — a childlike 
simplicity, a forgiving disposition, and faithfulness to the truth 
as it is in Christ Jesus. Their fidelity to their religion is proven 
by an incident that occurred during the voyage. A furious storm 
arose, which threatened the destruction of the vessel. The sails 
were lowered, and much of the merchandise was thrown over- 
board, all to no avail. Meanwhile the brethren were in their 
quarters, in the hold of the ship, unitedly pleading with their 
heavenly Father, who needeth but to speak the word, "Peace, 
be still," and the winds and the waves must obey His will. The 
captain, in his despair, or more likely directed by Providence, 
went to the humble apartment of the devoted Tunkers, and, 
behold, they were praying and singing, as unconcerned as though 
the sea were quiet. He did not rebuke them for indifference to 
their fates, as Peter did our Savior. He was impressed with 
their pious devotion and serene calmness, and himself caught 
the inspiration of hope. He immediately returned to his post, 
and encouraged his crew, declaring that Almighty God would 
not suffer a ship to perish with such pious people on board. 

(123) 



124 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

With this assurance, all worked together, the storm soon abated, 
the sea calmed, and the passage was completed. 

The ship which brought the first emigrants to this country 
landed at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the autumn of the year 
1 7 19. Immediately upon reaching shore they scattered abroad, 
seeking homes for themselves and their families. The leading 
peculiarity of the pure German citizen is to get a home and keep 
it, that the home may keep him. Some remained at Philadelphia, 
some went to Germantown, the others to Skippack, Oley, and 
Connestoga. Peter Becker, whom we will call Baker hereafter, 
settled near Germantown, on a twenty-acre farm, where he 
remained for twenty-seven years. He had been the leader of the 
first company of emigrants, and was destined to lead them in 
other ways. He was a minister of the gospel, but did not preach 
publicly for several years. No doubt he had plenty to do at 
home, in the new country, as he was by trade a weaver. The 
first three years of their existence in this country is entirely 
lost to the history of the church. Yet no doubt, like some of 
the sand rivers of Kansas and Nebraska, the current continued 
to flow onward. Such a life of inactivity was very unsatisfactory 
to Brother Baker, especially, and we are told also to Brethren 
John Gomery, Balser Gantz, and Henry Traut. Brother Baker 
was much enthused by an apprentice whom he took into his 
employ and into his family as well. He was a recent refugee 
from Germany, by the name of Conrad Beissel. He was a 
religious enthusiast, although he did not belong to Baker's church 
at that time. They kept up a continued religious conversation, 
day and night, interspersed with numerous seasons of worship. 
In the latter, the above-mentioned brethren, Gomery, Gantz, and 
Traut, frequently joined them. Beissel greatly increased their 
religious enthusiasm by relating his experience in the persecu- 
tions in the fatherland. He told them all about the sufferings 
of their brethren and friends across the deep waters, until their 
zeal had been wrought up to a high pitch. They held frequent 
meetings to devise some plan by which those of like faith in the 
community might be brought together for public worship and 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 1 25 

reconciliation. In this effort Beissel encouraged them, and rec- 
ommended that Peter Baker should take one or more of the 
brethren with him, and make a house-to-house canvass of all the 
families who had been members of the church in Germany, and 
more especially of those residing within meeting distance of 
each other. Now, the reader must not conclude that this implied 
those residing in the same town, or township, or county, or even 
within a ''Sabbath day's journey," — fourteen miles. The coun- 
try mentioned was not in 17 19 to 1722 as it is now in 1901. Phil- 
adelphia and Germantown were then villages, with six miles of 
wildwood between them. Where now are fine, beautiful towns 
and cities, were marshes, bogs, and swamps, as will be observed 
when naming congregations and places. They felt assured that 
if they could get the members together but for one single occa- 
sion, to mingle their voices in the worship of God in song and 
prayer, all their differences would melt away as the fogs dis- 
perse before the rays of the sun. 

Finally the mission was agreed upon, and all the preparatory 
arrangements completed, and in the fall of the year a. d. 1722 
their long-prayed-for effort was put into execution. Peter Baker, 
John Gomery, and George Balser Gantz were commissioned to 
perform this visit of love in the interest of peace and union 
between brethren. This is recorded as having been the first 
home mission work performed in America by any religious peo- 
ple. They traversed the regions of Skippack, Falcomer's Swamp, 
Oley, and other places. They met the brethren and sisters at 
their homes, prayed and worshiped with them, and fully explained 
the nature and intent of their mission, extending on their part 
the olive branch of forgiveness and complete reconciliation 
unconditionally. This effort was wonderfully blessed. Meet- 
ings for public worship were held in many places, attended with 
a general revival of brotherly affection. The missionaries them- 
selves were also greatly blessed, and determined to make an 
effort of the same nature in their own neighborhood. A time 
was agreed upon, and an appointment was made at the house of 
Peter Baker. This was the first public worship and preaching 



126 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

service they had held, in that community, since their arrival in 
the New World. The following Sunday they met at Brother 
Gomery's. Services were continued, alternating- between the two 
places, until winter set in, when the services were discontinued on 
account of the want of suitable accommodations to entertain the 
people. 

The next year, as soon as fair weather had settled, the work 
was again taken up with renewed vigor, and continued thence- 
forth, but the meetings were held at Baker's only, perhaps because 
he had the most convenient house for the purpose. 

In August of this same year quite a sensation was created in 
the neighborhood, by the report that Christian Libe had arrived 
from Germany. As it was known that he was an able minister, 
and had been persecuted, and had been compelled to serve as a 
galley slave for several years, it may well be imagined what an 
interest would be awakened by such a report. There was also 
quite an awakening among the brethren along the Schuylkill 
River about this time, where the Hermits of the Ridge had been 
holding meetings. The Schuylkill brethren, hearing of Brother 
Libe's coming, went to Philadelphia to meet him, but they were 
disappointed, as the report was false. The Germantown brethren 
then persuaded this committee of the brethren, who had been 
sent to meet Brother Libe, to tarry with them several days, and 
attend their services. They readily accepted the invitation, and 
appeared to greatly enjoy the meetings, as well as the associa- 
tions of their brethren. The pleasure of association was mutual, 
but the visitors were especially entertained and edified by the 
reports of the persecutions and trials of the churches and mem- 
bers in Germany, as related to them and read from letters 
received by the Germantown people. They must have been well 
pleased, for they repeated their visit a short time afterwards, 
and secured a promise of ministerial service from Brother Baker 
and others, which was fulfilled the following month. 

These good men had come full of hope and expectation to meet 
their persecuted brother from the fatherland, and to hear from 
his lips the tales of his sufferings, and to have him tell the sweet 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA, 1 27 

story of the cross in their mother tongue in the strange country 
whither they had strayed. In this they were disappointed, but 
they did not find other brethren of like feelings, with whom they 
could tarry awhile and worship. They could say, with Joseph 
of old, The originator of the false report of the coming of Brother 
Libe meant it for ill toward us, but the Lord has turned it into 
a blessing. And how their hearts must have throbbed with emo- 
tion of pure gratitude as they joined in the worship at the family 
altar of Elder Peter Baker, and sang in familiar melody their own 
sweet song of thanksgiving: — 

"Grosz ist unsers Gottes Guete; 
Seine Treu taeglich neu 
Ruehret mein Gemuethe; 
Sende Herr, den Geist von oben, 
Dasz jetz und, Herz und Mund, 
Deane Guete loben." 

Translation: 

Great is the goodness of our God; 
His faithfulness daily renewed 
Incites my admiration; 
Lord, send the Spirit from above, 
That, now and ever, heart and tongue 
May sing thy loving-kindness. 

While enjoying this unexpected feast of good things, they 
could all the better realize what it is to be children of one Father, 
and "how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell 
together in unity." 

This first mission of love was greatly blessed, and several per- 
sons were brought under conviction and demanded to be baptized. 
But they felt themselves too unworthy to perform this solemn 
rite without being especially commissioned thereunto. It appears 
that the church in Europe had not been fully organized, or 
Brother Baker did not fully appreciate his privileges, or, perhaps, 
he was unnecessarily timid. We are also told that their late 
estrangement still haunted them, and insinuated that they had 
better first heal themselves, or remove the beams from their own 
eyes, before they would undertake to help others into a better life. 



128 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

While they regarded themselves as constituting a branch of the 
church at Krefeld, they felt the need of better organization, in 
order that they might exercise in all the ordinances of the house 
of the Lord. And this very serious dilemma was the occasion of 
completely unifying them and fully establishing them for their 
work. They took the matter into prayerful consideration, 
renewed their own baptismal vows, and reiterated their forgive- 
ness of each other's faults and trespasses, and plighted their 
faith in God and their love for each other. Peter Baker was 
authorized to perform the service of baptism, he being the choice 
of the applicants. So, after all the preliminary services had 
been attended to, they resorted to the Wissahicon Creek, early in 
the morning of December 25, 1723, where the six converts 
referred to were baptized. Their names were, Martin Urner and 
wife, Henry Landis and wife, Frederick Long, and John Maylie. 
These were the first persons baptized by the Tunker brethren in 
America. 

The same day, December 25, 1723, they organized themselves 
into a congregation, and in the evening of the same day a love- 
feast was held at the house of John Gomery. Twenty-three per- 
sons participated in the communion services. They were : Peter 
Baker, Henry Traut, Jeremiah Traut, Balser Traut, Henry Hol- 
soppel, John Gomery, Stephen Koch, Jacob Koch, John Hilde- 
brand, Daniel Ritter, George Balser Gantz, John Preisz, Joseph 
Kaempfer, Magdalena Traut, Anna Gomery, Maria Hildebrand, 
and Joanna Gantz, and the six who had been baptized in the morn- 
ing, making in all twenty-three persons, seventeen brethren and 
six sisters. Thus, we have the first organization of the Tunker 
Church, the first baptism administered, and the first communion 
celebrated in America, all on the same day, and that on the natal 
day of our Redeemer, in the seventeen hundred and twenty-third 
year of His own dispensation. 

Quite a revival followed the organization for a year or more. 
Their services were so largely attended that they found it diffi- 
cult to provide accommodations for all the people. The meet- 
ings were also full of interest and followed with good results. 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 1 29 

Many of the young people, and especially their own children, 
were converted, which was very encouraging to parents as well 
as to the ministers. Nor was the revival confined to this one 
neighborhood, but it spread over the entire colony. They also 
held frequent love-feasts, which were something so much out of 
the regular order of religious service that they attracted much 
attention, and created deep interest and investigation of religious 
subjects and study of the Scriptures. All this research would 
invariably result favorably to the Tunker cause. It always does. 
In this case it was the occasion of numerous accessions to the 
congregation organized, and of. establishing others in the adjacent 
communities. And still more, the inspiration was sent abroad in 
numerous letters, and a special epistle was prepared in the name 
of the church in America to the church in Germany, giving a full 
account of the glorious work the Lord was performing among 
them, following their reconciliation. 

After several years of activity, the interest abated in this coun- 
try. Meanwhile the inspiration was working up among indi- 
vidual members in the mother church in Schwarzenau. 

What has been said of the Tunkers so far must be understood 
as relating to the church in general. As a congregation, the 
above organization was called the Beggarstown church. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE FIRST CONGREGATION IN AMERICA. 

Beggarstozvn. — The first properly-organized Church of the 
Brethren in America was that of Beggarstown, a small village 
about two miles west of Germantown, Pennsylvania, and about 
eight miles from Philadelphia. Its name originated from a beg- 
gar by the name of John Pettikoffer, who had a lot of ground 
there. By begging, he procured means to build a small house on 
it in the spring of 1731. Other houses were erected in the 
vicinity, making a small village, which was called Beggarstown. 
This town and Germantown soon grew together, and are called 
Germantown. After the death of Pettikoffer, this property came 
into possession of Brother Peter Schilbert, an old and well- 
established member of the fraternity. In 1760 he made a present 



130 'HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

of the old building and eighty rods of the land to the church for 
a place of worship and a burying-ground. He had it formally 
conveyed to the church by Theobald Endt and Henry SlinglufT, 
in a deed of trust to Christopher Saur, Alexander Mack, Peter 
Seibert, and George Schreiber, trustees, under date of August 
12, 1760. 




OLD GERMANTOWN PARSONAGE 

At the confiscation of Christopher Saur's property during the 
Revolutionary War, 1778, this property narrowly escaped con- 
fiscation, but Brethren Fox and Seibert interested themselves and 
saved it. Their plea was that it was not Saur's property, and 
that he only held it in trust. The soldiers reluctantly consented, 
because Brother Saur occupied the loft of the house as the 
storage place for Bibles and other books, before they went to the 
binders. Most of the sheets for books were scattered to the 
winds by the soldiers. 

In this house the brethren held their regular worship until 1770, 
when their increased number required larger accommodations. 
They again converted the house into a dwelling-place for the 




OLD AND NEW GERMANTOWN CHURCHES 



132 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

wardens of the church, and built a meeting-house of stone, thirty 
feet square, on the same lot, a little back of the old dwelling. 
Both of those buildings are still in reasonable condition (a. d. 
1899), and have been occupied ever since as houses of worship, 
and the ground is used for burial purposes. 

The first appearance of brethren in America was in the fall of 
17 19, when about twenty families of the persecuted flock at 
Schwarzenau emigrated to this country, hoping to find an asylum 
of peace and safety from their persecutors in Germany. They 
landed at Philadelphia, but dispersed themselves, some to Ger- 
mantown, some to Skippack, some to Oley, some to Conestoga, 
and elsewhere. This dispersion incapacitated them for meeting 
for public worship, and so they soon grew lukewarm, then cold. 

In a. d. 1722, Brethren Baker, Gomery, and Gantz visited the 
scattered brethren in their various dispersions, with a view of min- 
istering to their spiritual necessities. Their mission was attended 
with blessed effects, and a revival followed, resulting in the form- 
ing of new societies wherever a number of families were in reach 
of each other. 

On December 25, A. d. 1723, the members at Germantown 
formed a society. They chose Brother Peter Becker to be their 
elder ; and on the same evening they observed the ordinances of 
feet washing, the Lord's Supper, and the communion. This was 
also the first time that these ordinances were celebrated in Amer- 
ica. Those who constituted this organization were : Peter Becker, 
Henry Traut, Henry Holtzapfel, John Gomery, Jeremiah Traut, 
Stephen Rock, John Hildebrand, Daniel Ritter, George Balser 
Gantz, Jacob Koch, John Priesz, John Kaempfer, Joanna Gantz, 
Magdalena Traut, Anna Gomery, Maria Hildebrand. 

From this small beginning some moved away, some died, but 
the number kept increasing. In 1770, when their new meeting- 
house was dedicated, forty-seven years after their organization, 
they numbered fifty members in forty families. The additional 
members at this time were the following: — 

Christopher Saur, his wife and son, Elder Alexander Mack, Jr., 
his wife and daughter, Margaret Boyer, deaconess, George 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 1 33 

Schreiber and wife, Nathaniel Schreiber, Catherine Schreiber, 
Henry Slingluff and his two daughters, John Slingluff and 
wife, Philip Weaver and wife, Peter Seibert and wife, 
Anthony Schneider and wife, Richard Roob, Elizabeth Roob, 
Michael Keyser, Peter Keyser and wife, Jacob Bowman and wife, 
Justus Fox and wife, John Kline, Conrad Guth, Conrad Stamm 
and wife, Hannah Stamm, Mary, Sarah, and Susannah Baker, 
Eva Feith, Elizabeth Boyer, Mary Bossert, Margaret Hertzback, 
Magdalena Mellinger, Christian Von Delashet and wife, William 
Spyra and wife, Henry Sharpneck and wife, Mary Nice, Rudolph 
Harley and wife, Mary Fend, Sybille Endt. 

At first after their organization (a. d. 1723), they held their 
meetings, in rotation, at the residences of the brethren. Some of 
them were poor, had small dwellings, and they labored under 
inconveniences. After some time, Christopher Saur, a man of 
considerable means and of a very benevolent character, built a 
large new house. He arranged the second floor on purpose for 
holding meetings. The partitions were hung on hinges fastened 
to the joists, and could be swung open when more room was 
required. Because of these advantages, the meetings were gen- 
erally held there, until increase in business and growth of family 
required so much of the house room that other accommodations 
had to be sought. Then the above-named Peter Shilbert kindly 
bestowed the Beggarstown property, where the meetings have 
been regularly held for the last one hundred years. 

The first ordained minister of this church was Peter Becker. 
For a complete history of his life and services, see Biographical 
Department. 

AN IMPORTANT IMPORTATION. 

On the 15th day of September, 1729, the church in America 
received valuable accessions in numbers and influence by the 
arrival of a number of members of the mother church from 
Schwarzenau, where persecution was raging with increasing 
fierceness. They had first fled to Krefeld, and from there to 
Holland. From Holland about thirty families emigrated to 
America. They crossed the ocean on the ship Allen, commanded 



134 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

by James Craige, of Rotterdam, sailing from the Isle of Wight, 
July 7, 1729. They had a boisterous voyage, lasting seventy- 
one days, but landed safely at Philadelphia on the day above 
mentioned. The following persons were among the number : 
Alexander Mack and his three sons, John, Valentine, and Alex- 
ander ; Hans Gunde, Andrew Bony, John Naas, Antony Dear- 
dorff, Jacob More, Rudolph Harley, Johan Peter von Laushe, 
Jacob Bossert, Jacob, Henry, and Christopher Kalkglcesser, 
Johannas Kipping, Willhelmus Knepper, Jacob and Mathias 
Schneider, John Pettekoffer, Hans and George Koch, Reinhard 
Hammer, with their wives and others. 

This large increase of membership, and especially the addition 
to their number of Elder Mack and other founders of the church, 
wonderfully encouraged the churches in America. This inspira- 
tion became contagious, and resulted in the organization of sev- 
eral new congregations. Among them were: Oley, in 1732; 
Great Swamp, 1733; Amwell, New Jersey, 1733; Cocalico, 1735; 
White Oak, 1736; Little Conowago, 1738; Big Conowago, 1741. 
For particulars in regard to those several organizations, see 
"History of the First Churches in America." 

Some time afterwards the Pettikoffer property came into the 
possession of Brother Peter Schilbert, an old and honorable mem- 
ber of the church. He presented the building to the congrega- 
tion for a house of worship, and eighty perches of land for a 
graveyard. It is deeded to the church by Theobald Endt and 
Henry Slingluff, under the date of August 12, 1760, in trust of 
Christopher Saur, Alexander Mack, Peter Shilbert, and George 
Shreiber, trustees. The partitions were taken out of the house, 
and the entire building converted into an audience room. It was 
used for church purposes until 1770, when it became too small 
to accommodate the increased attendance at their services. This 
property narrowly escaped confiscation, during the Revolutionary 
War, in 1778. Christopher Saur being the first-named trustee 
in the deed, and because he had stored in the loft printed sheets 
of Bibles, it was seized, with his personal property, all of which 
was condemned and taken bv the government. However, 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 1 35 

through the interposition of the other trustees, who could easily 
establish their claims, the property was saved to the church. But 
Brother Saur's printed sheets of Bibles and other books, await- 
ing the binders, of which there were several tons, were all 
destroyed. Some of the paper was used for bedding the army 
horses, and some for making cartridges by the soldiers. 

THE EPHRATAH MOVEMENT. 

The author of this work is not in sympathy with any part of 
doctrine wherein the Ephratah faction differs from the main body 
of the Tunker fraternity. For a period of ten years or more after 
the work was fully organized at Ephratah, say from 1730 to 1740, 
they were the more influential and leading faction of the body. 
And had it not been for the prominence they gave to the errors 
of celibacy and the seventh day, they might have held their hard- 
earned prestige. Their consecration, devotion, piety, spirituality, 
systematic, stated, yes, constant worship, in prayer, song, and 
exhortation and admonition, was so rapturously inspiring as to 
be almost irresistible. It is related of several of the old mem- 
bers, while on their first visit to the Ephratah service, that 
during a private conversation about what they were seeing 
and hearing, one had made the remark, "It will be difficult for 
you to get me away from this heaven-like place." Their music 
must have been enchanting, from the description given by Dr. 
Fahnestock, in Belcher's history, elsewhere referred to. And 
from my own personal experience I have good reasons to believe 
he has not in the least exaggerated the subject. I had the pleas- 
ure of hearing a choir from Snowhill, Antietam, Nunnery on 
several occasions, in the vicinity of New Enterprise, Bedford 
County, Pennsylvania, when I was a young man. And such 
inspiring singing I never heard anywhere else. I can not under- 
stand why it should be lost. There was nothing supernatural 
about it ; nothing but cold science, accompanied by the devotion 
which the performance itself would inspire. A fortune awaits the 
church choir, or operatic troupe, that will revive it and traverse 
the United States. I walked a distance of twelve miles and back, 



136 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

to hear it, and would cheerfully repeat the trip, if possible, to 
enjoy a similar occasion. 

The life at Ephratah and Snowhill, barring the restraint, might 
be said to have been one continued enraptured spiritual enjoy- 
ment, to all who were religiously inclined. 

The foregoing sketch was written almost entirely from data 
furnished us for this work by Abraham H. Cassel, of Harleys- 
ville, Pennsylvania, the Tunker antiquarian of the nineteenth 
century. We believe the things set forth as facts to be correct. 

By way of explanation, but not for apology, as an introduction 
to the following chapter, we wish to state that until the actual 
and official separating of the two factions of the Tunkers, we 
shall consider them in all particulars equal and equally entitled 
to recognition. True, it is probable that the Sabbatarians were 
greatly in the minority, even in their most prosperous period. 

In "Religious Denominations in the United States," by Joseph 
Belcher, D. D., and published by J. E. Potter, 1855, may be found 
the data for the following chapter. Mr. Belcher acknowledges 
his indebtedness for the facts set forth therein to Dr. W. M. 
Fahnestock, of Bordentown, New Jersey, who, he says, "Is more 
fully acquainted with them than any other man/' A letter 
addressed to Doctor Fahnestock, or any lineal descendant, by the 
author of this work, brought a reply from Mrs. M. F. Reed, 
Allegheny, Penn., one of Doctor Fahnestock's daughters. From 
her letter we learn that Doctor Fahnestock died in December. 
1854; that the article for Doctor Belcher's history was written 
shortly before his death. The statements made by Doctor 
Fahnestock must therefore be taken as current about 1850- 1854. 
Doctor Fahnestock was a member of the Seventh-day Baptist 
Church, and therefore knew whereof he wrote. The reader will 
please remember these facts when perusing the chapter, and 
especially note the dates of occurrences specified by the term 
"present time." 

EPHRATAH. 

"This is the name of a village in Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania. It is about forty-five miles a little north of west from 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 137 

Philadelphia, and about thirty-five miles a little south of east 
from Harrisburg. In 1722 the Tunkers made an evangelizing 
tour through this section, and seemed to meet with success, and 
felt very much encouraged. Upon due consideration, they con- 
cluded to make a second effort. October 23, 1724,. was fixed as 
the time to start on this mission of love. They visited their 
brethren in different places until they came to Oley. Here they 
learned of several persons at Conestoga who were desirous to 
hear God's Word expounded. The brethren went there, reach- 
ing the home of Henry Hoehn on the evening of November n. 
They went to work at once. On the next day they held services 
there, and Brother Peter Becker baptized the following seven 
persons: Conrad Beisel, V. Frederick, Henry Hoehn and wife, 
John Mayer and wife, and Joseph Schoefer. The balance of the 
day was improved in exhortation and prayer, and in the evening 
they observed the Lord's Supper and communion. These serv- 
ices were held at the home of Brother Hoehn. At the same meet- 
ing a church was organized, and they chose Conrad Beisel to be 
their minister. This was at Mill Creek. After closing the 
meeting they went about three miles northward, into Earl Town- 
ship, and pitched on the land of Rudolph Nageley. Here there 
was something winning, temporarily, socially, and religiously, so 
that they remained about nine years. They succeeded in arous- 
ing an interest, and many went to see them and to become 
acquainted with their faith and practice. Many were so well 
satisfied, and so much impressed with what they saw and heard, 
that they united with them. Here, also, they began their 'Econ- 
omy.' Men lived by themselves, on lands of Rudolph Nageley ; 
and women, likewise, by themselves, on the land of John Mayly. 
Two elders and a matron (deaconess) were appointed by Elder 
Beisel to watch over this body in the wilderness. He gave to 
each a New Testament, and had them make a solemn promise 
to govern, or oversee, according to the teachings of that Book. 
Then he left, as though they should not see him again. This 
was in 1733. 
"Elder Beisel then went northward, through the wilderness, 



133 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

until he arrived at the place where Ephratah now stands. In some 
way he was so allured with the place that he made this his stop- 
ping-place, and, as it was in the spring of the year, he planted 
Indian corn and roots for means of future subsistence. He was 
here but a short time until his brethren found and visited him in 
his cot. They settled with him, the brethren on the west side 
of Cocalico River, and the sisters on the opposite side. They lived 
in sight of each other, but the river ran between them. 

"In 1734 they commenced the building of a village. This vil- 
lage became Ephratah, and was afterward denominated 'Dunkard 
Town.' In the beginning there were only temporary places of 
public worship. This tract of land, of about 155 acres, was in a 
triangle formed by the Paxton and Lancaster roads and Cocalico 
River. The village contained between thirty and forty buildings, 
and within it there were three places of worship. One was called 
Sharon, a chapel adjoining the sisters' apartment. Another, also 
a chapel, was called Bethany. It belonged to the apartments of 
the brethren. To these they resorted for worship every morning 
and evening, and often in the night-time, each in its proper 
department. The third was a common church, and it was called 
Zion. This was on the summit of a little hill, about two hundred 
yards from the others. In this house the single brethren and 
single sisters, the married people and their children, would 
assemble promiscuously, once a week, for public worship. The 
brethren adopted the dress of the White Friars, with some modi- 
fications, and the sisters were required to be nuns ; and both took 
the vow of celibacy. Somehow they disregarded their vows, quit 
their cells, and went into the neighborhood of married people. 
The brethren all wore their beards. They cultivated their land 
for a living. They had a grist-mill, a sawmill, an oil-mill, a 
paper-mill, and a printing office. The sisters engaged in sewing, 
knitting, spinning, and weaving, etc. 

"At first they slept on board couches, with blocks of wood for 
pillows. Afterward they introduced beds, and otherwise aban- 
doned their former severity. They observed the seventh day of 
the week for their Sabbath, to which their founder, Brother 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 1 39 

Conrad Beisel, had been proselyted by the Rev. Thomas Rutter, 
a minister in an extinct branch of the Seventh-day Baptists, who 
were disciples of the celebrated Abel Noble. From their 
uncouth dress and their esthetic life, somber appearances and 
rough manners might naturally be expected, but the facts were 
to the contrary. A smiling innocence and charming meekness 
were said to have graced their countenances, and a softness of 
tone and accent added interest to their conversation. Their 
deportment was gentle and obliging. Their singing was enchant- 
ing, partly on account of the melodious voices, the variety and 
number of the parts they sang, and the devout manner in which 
they performed it. The number of their members was varied, 
because many of them, when their first flame of devotion began 
to subside, would become dissatisfied with their rigidity, and 
would leave them. Others, on account of their charming sim- 
plicity, would so fall in love with them as to seek admission, 
which caused their number to constantly fluctuate. Then, as 
celibacy was considered to be such a great virtue, a marriage 
was barely sanctioned, and consequently they had but little 
increase from consanguinity. However, in 1769, about the time 
of the death of their founder, there were about forty families 
belonging to them, with 135 members, including single brethren 
and sisters. The number of their single brethren then was only 
fourteen, and their names were : Henry Bendle, Jacob Eiker, 
Marcus Groff, Samuel Furtk, Jacob Funk, John Hupple, Jacob 
Kimmel, William Lebracht, Peter Miller, John Moyley, Jacob 
Moyer, George Miller, Christian Reb, John Reesman. 

"Their first minister, as before stated, was Conrad Beisel. This 
was his real name, but when he became a brother, he assumed to 
himself the name Friedsan Gottrecht ; and he gave new names 
to all the brethren and sisters. (See biographical sketch 
elsewhere.) 

"Elder Beisel's successor was Brother Peter Miller. In 1735 
he joined the Brethren ; and in 1744 he was ordained to the min- 
istry by Elder Beisel, to- be prior of the society, over which he 
presided until 1790. 



I40 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

"No other remarkalbe event happened to this society, except 
a conspiracy, which Eckerlin, their first prior, had formed to sup- 
plant the founder. He had seduced the brethren to his purpose, 
and began to tamper with the sisters, but they perceived his 
design, and opposed and defeated it. Afterward he caused some 
uneasiness through the power he had as a trustee of the land. 

"The number of brethren and sisters in celibacy was greatly 
reduced after the death of the founder, and from that time onward 
gradually diminished, until their celibates, as a class or order, 
became extinct. Afterward, however, a society somewhat sim- 
ilar was established at Antietam, Franklin County, Pennsylvania. 

"Though they considered contention with arms and at law 
unbecoming professors, yet they were decided Whigs in the 
Revolution, and, unfortunately, had to defend themselves too 
frequently in courts of justice. To set an example of forbearance 
and Christian meekness, they suffered themselves for a long time 
to be wronged and plundered, until forbearance was no longer a 
virtue. In the French War of 1756, the door of the cloister, 
including the chapels, meeting-room, and every other building, 
was opened as a refuge for the inhabitants of Tulpehocken and 
Paxton settlements, then the frontiers, from the incursions of 
the hostile Indians, all of whom were received and kept by the 
society during the period of alarm and danger. Upon hearing 
of which a company of infantry was despatched by the Royal 
Government from Philadelphia, to protect Ephratah ; and on 
representation of the character of the society, by the commis- 
sioners who were sent to visit the place, the government made 
them a present of a pair of very large communion goblets, which 
was the only recompense they would receive. At an early period 
they attracted the attention of the Penn family, and one of the 
young ladies, in England, commenced a correspondence with the 
society. Governor Penn visited them frequently, and, desirous 
of giving them a solid evidence of his regard, had a tract of five 
thousand acres of land surrounding Ephratah, surveyed and con- 
veyed to them, as the Seventh-day Baptist Manor; but they 
refused to accept it, believing that large possessions were cal- 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 141 

culated to engender strife, and that it is more becoming to Chris- 
tian pilgrims and sojourners not to be absorbed in the gains of 
this world and the accumulations of property. After the battle 
of Brandywine the whole establishment was opened to receive 
the wounded Americans, great numbers of whom were brought 
here in wagons, a distance of more than forty miles, and one 
hundred and fifty of whom died, and are buried on Mount Zion. 
Their doors were ever open to the weary traveler, and all visitors 
were cordially received and entertained while they tarried, as is 
done in the hospices of Europe. All supplies were given to the 
needy, even their own beds, and to stripping their own backs, to 
afford some shelter from the 'peltings of the pitiless storm,' to 
those who were exposed to the weather in inclement seasons. 

"Many of the brethren being men of education, they established 
at a very early period a school, which soon gained for itself an 
honorable reputation, many young men from Philadelphia and 
Baltimore being sent there to be educated. A Sabbath-school 
was also instituted for religious instructions, which flourished 
many years, and was attended with some remarkable conse- 
quences. It produced an anxious inquiry among the juvenile 
population who attended the school, which increased, and grew 
into what is now called a revival of religion. The scholars of 
the Sabbath-school met together every day before and after 
common-school hours, to pray and exhort one another, under 
the superintendence of one of the brethren. The excitement ran 
into excess, and betrayed a zeal not according to knowledge, 
which induced Friedsam to discourage an enterprise which 
had been commenced and was partly under way, namely, to erect 
a house for their especial use, to be called Succoth. Ludwig 
Hoecker, or Brother Obed, as he was designated, who was the 
teacher of the common school, projected the plan of holding a 
school in the afternoon of the Sabbath, and he, in connection 
with some of the other brethren, commenced it, and gave instruc- 
tion to some of the indigent children who were kept from regular 
school by employments which their necessities compelled them 
to be engaged at during the week, as well as to give religious 



I42 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

instruction to those of better circumstances. It is not exactly 
known in what year the Sabbath-school was commenced. 
Hoecker came to Ephratah in the year 1739, and it is presumed 
that he began soon after he took up his residence among them. 
The materials for the building were furnished, as is recorded in 
the minutes of the society, in the year 1749. After the battle of 
Brandywine, the Sabbath-school room, with others, was given up 
for a hospital, which was occupied as such for some time; and 
the school was never afterwards resumed. Hoecker at that 
period was sixty years of age. 

"By 1777 the society began to decline, not from causes alleged 
by some writers, lack of vigor in the successor of Beisel, who 
died in 1768; for his successor, Peter Miller, was a man of much 
greater powers of mind, and had the management of the estab- 
lishment during Beisel's time, and to his energy and perse- 
verance is mainly attributable the great prosperity of the institu- 
tion in its early days. The institution was one of the seventeenth 
century, and in accordance with European feelings, most of the 
members being natives of Germany. The state of public opinion 
at Beisel's death was widely different from what it was during 
the first fifty years after it was established, in relation to politics 
and government, and with this march of intellect different senti- 
ments were entertained in regard to religious institutions. It 
was commenced as a social community in the midst of a wilder- 
ness. The hand of improvement made the desert bloom, and at 
that time (1768) it was surrounded by a dense population. 
These circumstances, connected with incessant persecution, the 
turmoil and contention into which it was thrown and constantly 
kept by some of its envious neighbors, were the principal causes 
of its decline. 

"At an early period they established a printing office, one of 
the first German presses in the state, which enabled them to dis- 
tribute tracts and hymns, and afterwards to print several large 
works, in which the views of the founder are fully explained. 
Many of these books have been lost and destroyed. In the 
Revolutionary War, just before the battle of Germantown, three 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. I43 

wagon-loads of books, in sheets, were seized, and taken away for 
cartridges. They came to the paper-mill to get paper, and not 
finding any there, they pressed the books in sheets. 

"Music was much cultivated. Beisel was a good composer and 
musician. In composing sacred music he took his style from the 
music of nature, and the whole, comprising several large volumes, 
is founded on the tones of the Aeolian harp ; the singing is the 
Aeolian harp harmonized. It is very peculiar in its style and 
concords, and in its execution. The tones issuing from the choir 
imitate very soft instrumental music, conveying a softness and 
devotion almost superhuman to the auditor. Their music is set 
in four, six, and eight parts. All the parts, save the bass, are led 
and sung exclusively by females, the men being confined to bass, 
which is set in two parts, the high and low bass, the latter resem- 
bling the deep tones of the organ, and the first, in combination 
with one of the female parts, is an excellent imitation of the 
concert horn. The whole is sung in falsetto voice, the singers 
scarcely opening their mouths or moving their lips, which throws 
their voice up to the ceiling, which is not high, and the tones, 
which seem to be more than human, at least so far from common 
church singing, appear to be entering from above, and hovering 
over the heads of the assembly. Their singing so charmed the 
commissioners who were sent to visit the society by the English 
Government, after the French War, that they requested a copy to 
be sent to the royal family in England, which was cheerfully 
complied with, and which, I understand, is still preserved in the 
British Museum. About twelve months afterwards a box was 
received about three or four feet long and two or two and a half 
wide, containing a present in return. What the present was is 
not now known, none having seen it but Friedsam and Jabez, who 
was then prior, and into whose care it was consigned. It was 
buried secretly by him, with the advice of Beisel. It is supposed, 
from a hint given by Jabez, that it was images of the king and 
queen, in full costume, or images of the Saviour on the cross, 
and the Virgin Mary, supposing, as many in this country have 
erroneously thought, that the people of Ephratah possess many 



144 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

of the Catholic principles and feelings. The king, at whose 
instance they were sent, was a German, and we may presume that 
he considered they retained the same views as the monastic insti- 
tutions of Europe. They have nearly a thousand pieces of music, 
a piece being composed for every hymn. This music is lost 
entirely now at Ephratah, not the music books, but the style of 
singing. It is, however, still preserved and finely executed, 
though only in a faint degree, at Snowhill, near the Antietam 
Creek, in Franklin County, where there is a branch of the society, 
and which is now the principal settlement of the German Seventh- 
day Baptists. 




SNOW HILL NUNNERY 

"They greatly outnumber the people at Ephratah, and are in 
a very flourishing condition. There they keep up the institution 
as originally established at Ephratah, and are growing rapidly. 
Their singing, which is weak in comparison with the old Ephratah 
choir, and may be likened to the performance of an overture by 
a musical box with its execution by a full orchestra in an opera 
house, is so peculiar and affecting that when once heard it can 
never be forgotten. I heard it once at Ephratah, in my very 
young days, when several of the old choir were still living, and the 
Antietam choir met with them. And some years since I sojourned 
in the neighborhood of Snowhill, during the summer season, 
where I had a fine opportunity of hearing it frequently, and judg- 
ing of its excellence. On each returning Friday evening, the 
commencement of the Sabbath, I regularly mounted my horse 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 145 

and rode to that place, a distance of three miles, and lingered 
about the grove in front of the building, during the evening 
exercises, charmed to enchantment. It was in my gay days, when 
the fashion and ambition of the world possessed me, but there 
was such a sublimity and devotion in their music that I repaired 
with the greatest punctuality to this place, to drink in those 
mellifluous tones, which transported my spirit for the time to 
regions of unalloyed bliss ; tones which I never before nor since 
heard on earth, though I have frequented the English, the French, 
and Italian opera. That is music for the ear; the music of 
Beisel is music for the soul, music that affords more than natural 
gratification. It was always a delightful boon to me, enhanced 
by the situation of the cloister, which is in a lovely vale just 
beyond the South Mountain. During the week I longed for the 
return of that evening, and on the succeeding morning was again 
irresistibly led to take the same ride, if I did not let it be known 
on the evening that I was on the ground, for whenever it was 
discovered, I was invited and kept the night in the cloister, to 
attend morning service, at which time I always entered the room, 
and there was preaching. But as often as I ventured, I became 
ashamed of myself, for scarcely had these strains of celestial 
harmony touched my ear, than I was bathed in tears. Unable to 
suppress them, they continued to cover my face during the serv- 
ice, nor in spite of my mortification could I keep them away. 
They were not tears of penitence, for my heart was not subdued 
to the Lord, but tears of ecstatic rapture, giving a foretaste of 
the joys of heaven. I have spoken of Ephratah as it was, not 
as it is. True, old Ephratah still stands its weather-beaten walls, 
some of which are upwards of an hundred years old, and crum- 
bling to pieces, rendering it more interesting from its antiquity. 
Many traces of the olden time remain, but its life has departed. 
There are, however, many delightful associations connected with 
its moldering walls, which, like some of the dilapidated castles, 
are apparently falling to the ground, deserted, and given to the 
rooks and owls, yet it contains many habitable and comfortable 
apartments. 



I46 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

"As early as 1758 there was a branch of this society established 
at Bermudian Creek, in York County, about fifteen miles from 
the town of York, some of the members of which still remain, 
though they have been without preaching for many years. 
Another was established in 1763, in Bedford County, which still 
flourishes, and many members of the present society are scattered 
through the counties of the interior of the state, so that the truth 
which was left has not become extinct, but is still extending, 
which is particularly the case at Snowhill ; and hope is still enter- 
tained that the little one may become a thousand, and the small 
one a ereat nation. 




SNOW HILL NUNNERY CHURCH 

"A few years ago the German Seventh-day Baptists were 
placed in a situation in which, with all their dislike to law, they 
felt that the great principles of religious freedom demanded an 
appeal to Caesar. Prior to that period Sunday was regarded in 
the eye of the law as a holy day, and an act of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature, passed in 1794, fined those who pursued their secular 
callings on it. Harmless and inoffensive as the German Sabba- 
tarians had ever been, there were found those who brought them 
before the magistrate with a view to their being fined. For some 
time this was submitted to, but at length it was brought before 
the Supreme Court of the state. Thaddeus Stevens, the counsel 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. I47 

employed by these Baptists, took grounds : ( I ) That Christianity 
is not, as is generally assumed, the common law of the land ; and 
(2) that the law of 1794, under which they were prosecuted, is 
unconstitutional, inasmuch as it sets up and enforces Sunday as 
a sacred — a holy day — a religious institution. The difficulty was 
felt, and the final decision of the court was, that the Legislature 
was incompetent to give religious preference to any sect, but was 
competent to ordain a civil rest day, which might be established on 
any day of the week, at the pleasure of the Legislature, thus 
stripping, so far as human law is concerned, the day of rest of all 
sacredness. A subsequent law of the Legislature took away 
the temptation to inform against the violators of the law, by 
throwing the whole of the fine into the county treasury, instead 
of dividing it, as heretofore, with the informer. Since that 
period the Seventh-day Christians of the state have pursued their 
own path without annoyance." 

COCALICO CHURCH. 

The Cocalico River flows through Lancaster County, Penn- 
sylvania, and is a small tributary of the Susquehanna. A num- 
ber of members lived along this little river, who came from 
different places, and although for some time they had no regular 
organization, they did not neglect the work of the Lord. The 
Lord blessed their efforts, and in a short time it was considered 
advisable that they should be organized. It was effected in 1734, 
and was presided over by Elder Peter Becker. From its loca- 
tion it was called Cocalico church. 

For several years this congregation was under the care of the 
Conestoga church, and finally it became the Lancaster church. 
Brother Michael Frantz was one of the first ministers of this 
congregation. From records still existing, it is evident that this 
was considered as the most prosperous and successful of all the 
churches of those days. In 1745 there was a large influx of 
members from the Amwell church, New Jersey. During the 
fourteen years' service of Brother Frantz, nearly two hundred 
members were added to this congregation. 



I48 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Michael Pfautz, a German, came to this country in 1727. He 
settled not far from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where, twelve 
years afterward, in 1739, he was converted and was baptized by 
Brother Frantz. Five years later he was chosen to the ministry 
in the Cocalico church. Under his ministration the church was 
alive and zealous, and, according to the records, during- the first 
year fifty-seven became members by baptism, and within the next 
seven years seventy-nine more were added to the church. He 
died in the sixtieth year of his age, and the church mourned his 
loss. (See Biography of Elder Michael Pfautz.) 

In 1748 Brother Jacob Sontag was chosen to the ministry, and 
in May, 1763, he was ordained to the eldership, but resigned his 
office the next day. 

After the foregoing, on December 1, 1764, this congregation 
chose Christian Longanecker, born in this country but of Ger- 
man parentage, to serve them in the ministry. The church pros- 
pered under his service, and on the 4th of May, 1769, he was 
promoted to the office of bishop. At this time there were in this 
church about fifty-three families and eighty-six members. 

WHITE OAK LAND. 

In Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Warwick Township, there 
was a tract of land that was called White Oak. A number of 
members lived in this township and surroundings, and in the 
vicinity of this tract of land. In 1729 Jacob Krebil, John 
Longanecker, George Keyser, and some others, located in this 
vicinity. They came from Germany, but some others came from 
other places. There was a deep interest felt and manifested in 
this place, and in 1736, Elder Michael Frantz presiding, they 
were organized into a church, and because of their nearness to 
the above-named White Oak Land, they adopted for the name of 
the congregation, White Oak Land. Elder Frantz resided in the 
Conestoga church, but he became the pastor of this newly- 
organized congregation, and next to him in office were brethren 
Michael Pfautz and Jacob Sontag. Brother Christian Longan- 
ecker became their first resident minister, and he served them 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. I49 

acceptably and successfully. About the time to which allusion 
is made, there were sixty-six members, and their names are yet 
on record, which is a source of gratification to their far-off 
progeny. ' Their names are the following : Catherine Bitner, 
Salome Borghart, Andrew Eby and wife, Barbara Eby and four 
daughters, Henry Eter and wife, Abraham Flohry and wife, 

John Frantz and wife, Fronica , Catharine Gish, Conrad 

Gingle, Henry Giebel and wife, Widow Huber, Ann Huber, 
Elizabeth Huft, Jacob Hershy and wife. John Hackan and wife, 
Conrad Hausser and w T ife, Jacob Kuensing and wife, Christian 
Krabiel and wife, George Kleine and wife, Mrs. Kratzer, Chris- 
tian Langanacre and wife, E. Langanacre and wife, Ulrich 
Langanacre, John Lautesmilch and wife, George Mohler and 
wife, John Pfautz and wife, Elizabeth Rover, Catherine Royer, 
Martin Schuh and wife, Henry Stohler and wife, George Stohler 
and wife, John Zug and wife, Jacob Zug and wife. 

BIG SWATARA, OR EAST CONEWAGO. 

This congregation was named after the Swatara River, along 
which most of its members resided. It was also sometimes called 
East Conewago, after another small stream running through the 
neighborhood. Their meetings were mostly held in the houses 
of members in Mt. Joy Township, Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania, about twenty miles from Lancaster City. 

In 1752 Mr. George Miller was awakened by the Spirit of 
God. He and his wife received the doctrine of the brethren, and 
were baptized by Elder Michael Pfautz, from Conestoga. Being 
filled with the Spirit, he at once began to exhort and preach 
among his neighbors. He soon succeeded in convincing them, 
and many of them became converted and members of the body. 
Others moved in from Conestoga and White Oak Land, and in 
1756 they were regularly organized, and Brother Miller became 
their minister ; but the church was under the oversight of Elder 
Pfautz. After the death of Elder Pfautz, Brother Miller was 
placed in charge. This was in 1769, but he was not regularly 



I50 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ordained as an elder until August 15, 1770, when the impressive 
service was performed by Elders Saur and Urner. 

Brother Adam Hammacher also became a minister of this 
church, which at that time numbered thirty-nine members, as in 
the following list: Elder George Miller and his wife and 
daughter, Adam Hammacher (minister) and wife and daughter, 
John Buck and wife, Christopher Brauser and wife, Peter Bersh 
and wife, George Balshbach and wife, Freny Cass, Jacob Eter 
and wife, John Eter and wife, Peter Ertzstone and wife, Barbara 
Henry, Frederick Hess and wife, George Henry and wife, Wen- 
del Merich and wife, Jacob Metzer and wife, Philip Roemer and 
wife, Philip Reicker and wife, Henry Stohner and wife, Henry 
Thomas and wife, Margaret Thomas. 

BIG CONEWAGO. 

Like many other churches, the Conewago church was named 
after the river along which most of its members resided. It was 
denominated Big Conewago, to distinguish it from a neighboring 
congregation known as the Little Conewago. It was mainly 
located in Reading Township, York County, Pennsylvania. It 
was organized in 1741. At that time Joseph Latshaw, Peter 
Neiper, John Neagley, Jacob Swigart, Adam Saur, and others, 
united in enjoying a communion service. Their first minister 
was George Adam Martin, and he remained but a short time. 
After him Elder Daniel Leatherman was placed in charge. He 
soon removed to Maryland, and Brother Nicholas Martin was 
made an elder. He remained but a short time. He moved to 
Maryland, and Brother George Brown served them up to 1770, 
the period at which this history closes. The following are 
their names : — 

George Brown (minister) and wife, Samuel Arnold, Barnet 
Achenbach and wife, Rudolph Brown, Sarah Brissel, David 
Brissel and wife, Henry Brissel and wife, Marilas Baker, 
Nicholas Bakener, Jr., Nicholas Bakener, Laurence Bakener and 
wife, Matthias Bouser and wife and daughter, Velten Brissel and 
wife, Michael Brissel and wife, John Burkholter and wife, Daniel 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 15 1 

Baker and wife, Michael Bosserman and wife, Manass. Bruch 
and wife, Adam Dick and wife, Peter DierdoriT and wife, Henry 
Dierdorfl and wife, John Dierdorfr and wife, Anthony Dierdorff 
and wife, David Erhard and wife, Peter Fox and wife, Christian 
Frey, John Heimer and wife, Mary Latzcho, Nicholas Moyer and 
wife, John Nageley and wife, Ustace Reinsel and wife, x\braham 
Stauffer and wife, Catharine Studebaker, Philip Snell and wife, 
Adam Saur and wife and two daughters, Andrew Trimmer and 
wife, George Waggoner and wife. 

TULPEHOCKEN. 

The Tulpehocken branch is composed of parts of Lebanon and 
Berks Counties, Pennsylvania. There were several families of 
brethren living here about 1770, who held to the Conestoga and 
White Oak churches, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These 
brethren had meetings in their houses, held by the ministers of 
the above-named churches. In 181 3 Brother Abraham Zug 
(son of Elder John Zug, of White Oak) moved into this vicinity. 
He was formerly of Conestoga, about a mile south of Tulpe- 
hocken Creek. At that time there were four families in this 
place, making in all nine members. Two families held with the 
Conestoga and two with the White Oak. In 181 5 Brother 
Abraham Zug was chosen as a minister of the Word by the 
Conestoga church. He served about twenty-seven years as min- 
ister and elder, and died in 1841, in the seventieth year of his age. 
There were then about fifty members in this district, but part still 
held to Conestoga and part to White Oak. 

As there was no minister or deacon here after the death 
of Elder Abraham Zug, the elders of the adjoining churches came 
on a visit, and counseled the brethren of this district to organize 
and choose a minister and two deacons. The majority took the 
advice of the elders, and on the 5th day of October, 1841, they 
held an election. The choice fell on John Zug (son of Elder 
Abraham Zug) as minister, and Jacob Oberholzer and Daniel 
Royer as deacons. The church then received the name of Tulpe- 
hocken. Afterward brethren were called to the ministry as the 



152 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

church had need of them. Since 1841 four of these went the 
way whence, it is said, none ever return, and will receive their 
reward. In 1873 there were four ministers, five deacons, and 
about two hundred members in this congregation. 

NORTHKILL. 

The Northkill church is located mainly in Berks County, Penn- 
sylvania, in Tulpehocken and Bern Townships, and about fifteen 
miles from Reading. It was in 1748 that this church was organ- 
ized. It was called after a small river of that name. There 
were not many resident members at the time of the organization, 
but among them were Brother John Stump, wife and sister, 
Frederick Moyer and wife, and a few others. Elder Michael 
Pfautz conducted a communion for them, and they continued to 
exhort each other, and to build one another up in the most holy 
faith. 

In 1750 Elder George Kleine, from New Jersey, moved among 
them. He became their first officiating minister, and was placed 
in charge. Soon after this his labors w.ere greatly blessed of 
the Lord. They continued to increase in number until the more 
western valleys began to settle. Then many of the members 
moved to other places, and the once thriving church was gradually 
reduced. In 1770 there were only eleven members in fellowship 
with the church. Following are the eleven names : Elder George 
Kleine and wife, Valentine Lang, Elizabeth Reiler, Elizabeth 
Stump, Elizabeth Brandel, Mary Stoner, Sarah Solenberger, 
Susannah Mackly, John Stoner and wife. 

It is sad, but true, that this little congregation became extinct, 
or more likely the name was changed to Little Swatara, as stated 
by David B. Kline in "Brethren's Almanac," 1872, page 20. 

BERMUDIAN. 

The Bermudian church, in York County, Pennsylvania, was 
organized in 1758. At first it was under charge of Elder Con- 
rad Beisel. Among the members at the time of organization 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 1 53 

were Peter Beisel, Philip Gebel, and Henry Lohman. After 
some time Elder Beisel no more visited this church, and brethren 
George Adam Martin and Peter Miller did the preaching. 
Brother Martin was a member of this body, but Brother Miller 
resided at Ephratah. In 1762 the former adhered to Beisel, 
left the church, and migrated westward. Brother Henry Loh- 
man was elected to the ministry, and, the Beisel annoyance not- 
withstanding, the congregation prospered, and in 1770 there were 
fifty-three members from forty families. Following are their 
names : — 

Henry Lohman (minister) and wife, John Bence and wife, 
one daughter and four sons, Peter Bender and wife, Peter Beisel 
and wife, son, and daughter, Philip Beisel and wife, John Cook 

and wife and son, Mrs. Dorothy, Daniel Fahnestock and 

wife, Frick, Elizabeth Foltz, Philip Gebel, Benjamin Gebel, 

John Lehn and wife, John Miller and wife and two sons, John 
Messerbach and wife, George Neiss and wife, Frederick Reuter, 
wife, and daughter, George Reiss, Belzar Smith and wife, Sebas- 
tian Sholles and wife, Stauffer, Paul Traub and wife, Adam 

Weyley and wife, Melchior Webber and wife. 

OLEY. 

This congregation was named after Oley Township, in Berks 
County, Pennsylvania, where it was located. The principal point 
was about fifty-five miles northwest of Philadelphia. In 1732 
there were several members residing in that vicinity, among 
whom were Brethren Ritters and Shelbut. They arranged to 
have a communion service, at which Elder Peter Becker pre- 
sided. They had an enjoyable meeting, and at that time they 
were organized, and the church was named Oley. They had 
no resident minister, but with the aid of ministers from other 
places, and through their own zealous, persevering efforts, and 
under God's blessing, they increased rapidly. This was very 
pleasant and encouraging, and they soon had a strong congrega- 
tion. About ten years after their organization, in 1742, a number 



154 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

of members moved to other places, most of them to the attractive 
valley of the Conacocheaque. Their correspondence in relation 
to their country was so favorable that, in 1743, nearly the whole 
church followed them, leaving only a few. This was discourag- 
ing, but they did not cease working. They were faithful, hope- 
ful, and persevering, and the Lord blessed their efforts. Martin 
Urner and John Jodder were the first resident ministers in this 
church, but they were often visited and helped by ministers in 
adjoining congregations. 

The following members belonged to this congregation : Martin 
Gaby and wife, David Kinsey and wife, Christian Kinsey and 
wife, Peter Kleine, Daniel Kleine and wife, Catharine Plank, 
Conrad Price and wife, Elizabeth Ellis, David Price and wife ; 
eighteen members in all. 

COVENTRY, OR SCHUYLKILL. 

This church is located in Chester County, Pennsylvania. 
Before its organization eight members belonging to the German- 
town congregation were residing here. Elder Peter Becker, of 
Germantown, had them in charge, and ministered to them. On 
September 7, 1724, he assisted them in their organization, and 
they adopted Coventry for a name, which was the name of the 
township. This was about forty miles from Philadelphia, the 
city of brotherly love, and was the second Brethren Church in 
America. Elder Becker still had them in charge, but by their 
choice Martin Urner was commissioned to be their exhorter and 
leader. It is located on the Schuylkill River, and on this account 
it was also sometimes called Schuylkill. 

In the evening of the day of their organization they held a 
love-feast, with eight native communicants. Their names were : 
Daniel Eiker and wife, Peter Heffly, Henry Landis and wife, 
Owen Longanecker, Andrew Sell, and Martin Urner. They 
prospered and increased rapidly, and would soon have become a 
a large congregation, had they all remained, but the beauty and 
utility of the surrounding country attracted many settlers, and 
the land was soon all taken up and advanced in price. This 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 155 

caused many to migrate to other settlements with their families. 
Some sought homes in Virginia, Carolina, and other places. 
Notwithstanding these deflections, in 1770 they numbered twenty- 
two families, containing forty members. 

For many years, up to 1772, they held their meetings for wor- 
ship in a kind of rotation, at about five private houses. Their 
first meeting-house was built in 1772, the second in 181 7, and the 
third in 1890. This is a commodious house, and may stand for 
many years. 

The first elder of this church, it will be remembered, was Peter 
Becker, of Germantown, but the first elder ordained here was 
Martin Urner. He was ordained by Elder Alexander Mack, in 
1729. The next ordained minister was Martin Urner, Jr., who 
was ordained in 1756. Since then there have been near a score 
of ministers in this place, and to-day the church seems to be in 
a prosperous condition. 

CONESTOGA. 

There is a place in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, called 
Conestoga. In this vicinity there resided several members of 
the Tunker Church, namely, Conrad Beisel, Veronica Frederick, 
Henry Hohn and wife, John Moyer and wife, and Joseph 
Shaffer. On the 12th of November, 1724, they were organized 
into a church, with the name of Conestoga, by Elder Peter 
Becker. At this time Conrad Beisel was chosen to be their 
minister. Soon after the organization, Sigmond Landert and 
wife were received by baptism. At first they held their meetings 
on Mill Creek, but soon in Earl Township, at the house of Peter 
Nageley. At this place they held their meetings for seven years, 
Beisel being their principal minister. From about 1728 till 1734 
there was considerable annoyance and confusion in this Conestoga 
congregation. Their minister, Beisel, imbibed some strange 
views, and they grew so strong that he withdrew fellowship from 
the brethren, and a number of members went with him, but 
not all. 

After the above withdrawal the remaining members were min- 
istered unto by Elder Peter Becker, until September 29, 1734. 



156 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

On this day there was a reorganization of the congregation, with 
Michael Frantz (minister) as their leader. This was effected 
by a somewhat novel method of working. They were assembled 
in a council meeting in a barn, and Brother Frantz laid a rail on 
the floor. One side of the rail he called the right side and the 
other the left. He then solicited those who would remain with 
the brethren and constitute the reorganized congregation to step 
to the right side, he leading, and asked all who wished to follow 
Beisel to step to the left side. Thus there was a friendly division, 
and the following members constituted the reorganized body: 
Michael Frantz (minister), John Frantz, Samuel Good, John 
Landis, Michael Pfautz, Emick Reyer, George Reyer, Philip 
Rowland, Henry Sneider, Rant Woolf, and others whose names 
are not given. 

Immediately after there was an encouraging revival, and the 
following were added to the church: Rudolph Bollinger, Gott- 
fried Geiger, Samuel Gut, Hans Hildebrand and wife, Ludwig 
Kalckglasser and wife, Hans George Koch and wife, Hans Kep- 
pinger and wife, Sister Kropf, Joseph Latschan and wife, Brother 
Luys and wife, and Brother Vogan. Several of these had been 
members in other places. 

Brother Michael Frantz was ordained in 1735. He died in 
1748. He was succeeded by Elder Michael Pfautz, who served 
till 1763, and then Brother Jacob Sontag was ordained. 

LITTLE SWATARA. 

The Little Swatara church is located partly in Berks County - 
Pennsylvania, and partly in Lancaster County, in the neighbor- 
hood of twenty-five miles from Reading. 

In 1745 a man named George Beasher settled in this neighbor- 
hood, and soon after he was followed by Peter Heckman, Michael 
Frantz, and others. These were converted under the labors of 
the brethren, and they were baptized by Elder George Kline, 
from the Northkill congregation. They continued to increase, 
and were organized into a church. At this time they chose 
Brother Peter Heckman for their minister, who served faith- 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 157 

fully. Their first communion was celebrated in 1757, Elder 
Kline officiating. He continued to assist them in various serv- 
ices until about 1770, when Brother Peter Heckman was ordained 
to be their elder. Ten years later, on August 12, 1780, Brother 
Michael Frantz was ordained an elder by Elders Urner and 
Saur, and Brethren George Beasher and Jacob Mover were 
ordained deacons. In 1770 there were forty-five members, 
whose names follow : — 

Jacob Beasher and wife, Jacob Baker and wife, Widow Bene- 
dict, Elizabeth Benedict, Jacob Breneisen and wife, George 
Beasher, Mrs. Cryder, Jacob Deal, John Frantz and wife, 
Nicholas Gerst and wife, John Grove, Peter Heckman (minister) 
and wife, John Heckman and wife, Adam Henrick, Eliza Kentzel, 
David Kleine and wife, Sophy Kish, Simon Merrick and wife, 
David Marge and wife, Jacob Mover and wife, Hans Stohner 
and wife, Leonard Sebalt and wife, Rose Schables, Jacob Smith 
and wife, Philip Zeigler and wife. 

Elder John Hertzler was in charge of this congregation at the 
close of the nineteenth century. 

CODORUS. 

This church is located in Codorus Township, York County, 
Pennsylvania, about ten miles from York City. Its organiza- 
tion was accomplished in 1758. Its charter members were 
Brethren John Brillhart, Peter Brillhart, Elder Jacob Donner, 
and Rudy Yount. Their first minister was Henry Neff. He 
labored under the care of Elder Jacob Donner, and his labors 
were very successful. Elder Donner presided over them until 
he moved to Monocacy, Maryland. He was a noted poet, and 
served the church faithfully for a long time. This was in 1770. 
At this time Brother Neff was ordained to the eldership, and 
their membership was about thirty-five, as follows : — 

Elder Henry Neff and wife, Michael Berkey and wife, Peter 
Brillhart and wife, Catharine Beightley, Wendel Baker and wife, 
George Beary and wife, Christian Eby and wife, George Ettor 
and son, John Harold and wife, Elizabeth Leip, Ann Neiswanger, 



158 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Jacob Neiswanger and wife, Jacob Spitler and wife and two 
daughters, William Spitler and wife, Matthias Spitler and wife, 
Jacob Tilman and wife and daughter, Susanna Weltner, Rudy 
Yount and wife. 

After Elder Donner had moved to Maryland, he lived at 
Linginohr (now Linganore), Frederick County, but the Codorus 
church was not forgotten or neglected by him, as it was frequently 
visited by him, and he labored diligently for the spiritual welfare 
of its members and the salvation of souls. 

GREAT SWAMP CONGREGATION. 

This society was called by the above name from the large, level 
tract, called the great swamp. Their meetings were usually 
held at the house of their minister, Brother John Frick, in Upper 
Milford Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. In the spring 
of 1733 there was an awakening of a few persons in the vicin- 
ity, who occasionally met for devotional services. They had 
some knowledge of the brethren, and of their manner of observ- 
ing the sacraments, and they solicited a visit from some minister 
to instruct them more fully in the ordinances of the Lord's 
house. Accordingly, Brother Johann Naas> then living in the 
Jerseys, made an evangelizing tour among them, during which 
he baptized six persons, namely, Salome Miller and her brother, 
Joseph Miller, John Bracht and his wife, Peter Longanecker, and 
Peter Rhoads. These established meetings between themselves, 
to edify one another, as the apostle enjoined. This little leaven 
soon began to work, and it continued to extend its influence. 

In a. d. 1735 they were visited by Elders Peter Baker and Mar- 
tin Urner, of Germantown, Pennsylvania. They found five more 
earnestly awaiting opportunity to manifest their faith in the Lord, 
and they were baptized. These were Hanse Zuck and his wife, 
John Frick and his wife, and John Slifer. In the evening of the 
same day there was a love-feast, at which Peter Becker officiated. 
Here an organization was effected of eleven members in 1735, 
which existed for a number of years, without the occurrence of 
anv unusual event. 



FIRST WORK IN AMERICA. 1 59 

In 1742 Count Zinzendorff canvassed the country to make 
proselytes to his accommodating faith. He made inroads among 
the brethren, and, by his artfulness, took a number of them away. 
They, however, soon found themselves disappointed, and some 
of them returned. They were frequently visited by ministering 
brethren from other parts, and continued to increase in number. 
Many of the Mennonites united with them, preferring immersion. 
The Moravians also intermingled themselves among them, and 
diminished their number. Their first elder was Abraham Duboy 
(see Biographical Department), who became a resident minister 
in 1738. He died March 21, 1748, and then John Frick became 
the pastor of the congregation. In 1770 he became an ordained 
elder. At this time there were about twenty families identified 
with the congregation, and there were twenty-eight members, as 
in the following list : — 

Elder John Frick and wife, Philip Deal, Frederick Deal, Law- 
rence Erbach and wife, John Demuth and wife, Egite Christian 
and wife, Ludwick Christian and wife, Mary Christian, Philip 
Goodman and wife, Henry Kun, Widow Crayling, Andrew 
Meinzinger, Widow dinger, John Redrock and wife. Widow 
Rinker, Catherine Rinker, John Sleifer and wife, Jacob Staut and 
wife, Freny Trissel. 




OLD GERMAN BAPTIST CHURCH 



CHAPTER VIII 
GERMAN "BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS 

ANTIETAM, PENNSYLVANIA. 

Abraham Stouffer, who was ordained a bishop by Elder Peter 
Becker, preached a while at Conewago, York County, before 
moving to Antietam. That church was organized in 1741. He, 
with Elder George Adam Martin, organized the Conococheaque 
congregation in Franklin County. Stouffer did not remain there 
more than twelve years, when he again emigrated eastward to 
a place called Bermudian. Conococheaque and Antietam are 
two prominent streams flowing southward in Franklin County, 
and emptying into the Potomac River in Washington County, 
Maryland. Prior to the organization the people were supplied 
with preaching by ministers traveling back and forth between 
Germantown and Virginia. 

In 1780 a number of families from various places settled along 
the Antietam. Some were members of the church, others joined 
after they arrived. Among those were the Snowbergers, Knep- 
pers, Fridlys, Stovers, Prices, and Rovers. 

This is one among the oldest Tunker churches in America. 
It was organized about the middle of the eighteenth century, 
probably not later than 1752. This congregation was first 
named Conococheaque, the Indian name of a small stream flow- 
ing through the county. Of the names of the ministers from the 
time of its organization to the year 1800 only two are known, 
namely, George Adam Martin and William Stover. During the 
first fifty years the brethren suffered many privations on account 
of the French War, in 1755, the Revolution twenty years later, 
and the Indian wars, together with many inconveniences incident 
to a newly-settled country. 

For upwards of forty years no meeting-house was built, and 
they worshiped in their houses and barns, and sometimes in the 
open air. The dread of the Indian tomahawk and scalping 

(160) 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. l6l 

knife was everywhere felt. In the morning, before going to 
the fields to work, the farmer and his sons often bade good-bye 
to the balance of the family, fearing they might not return, or, 
if permitted to do so, would find their loved ones murdered by 
the Indians. Some, indeed, fell victims to the ruthless hand of 
their dreaded foe ; but, owing to the strict vigilance of the settlers, 
the Indians were finally banished, and a brighter era dawned over 
the community. The long, dark night of woe gave way to a 
beautiful morn, betokening a pleasant day, which the brethren, 
with others, have enjoyed through the present century. 

In 1798 the first meeting-house was built, where they continue 
to meet for worship. It is commonly called Antietam or Price's 
church, built on the bank of the Antietam, near Waynesboro, 
Pennsylvania. Since then other meeting-houses have been built, 
making five in 1898. 

Four annual meetings have been held in this congregation dur- 
ing the nineteenth century, namely, in 1810, at Antietam meeting- 
house ; in 1829, with Brother George Royer ; in 1847, with 
Brother Isaac DeardorfT; and in 1866, with Brother Jacob Price. 

The names of the ministers elected since 1800 are : Daniel 
Stover, John Royer, Jacob Holsinger, Sr., Henry Strickler, Jacob 
Fahrney, Israel Senger, Daniel Keefer, D. Fogelsanger, Sr., 
William Boyer, Jacob Price, William Etter, David Bock, Joseph 
Gipe, Daniel Holsinger, Isaac Renner, Joseph F. Rohrer, Joseph 
Garber, D. F. Good, Abram Golly, John D. Benedick, Jacob F. 
Oiler, Jacob Snider, and Daniel M. Baker. The last three and 
John B. Ruthrauff and Rush B. Oellig are the ministers in the 
service in 1899. 

The ministers, two together, go on a circuit through the con- 
gregation. The two ministers who will be at a place on one 
Sunday will be at another the next, that there be no disappoint- 
ments, and the ministers become better acquainted with the mem- 
bers. The membership numbers about four hundred, eighty of 
whom live in Waynesboro, where they have a meeting-house 
and a Sunday-school conducted by the members only. The mem- 
bers meet in council quarterly. The secretary records all that is 

11 



162 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

brought before the meeting, with its decisions, and keeps a record 
of the attendance of members. 

In the primitive days of the church the Welch Run and Bock 
Creek congregations belonged to it, and in later years out of it 
the Ridge and Falling Spring churches were organized. 

At first they worshiped all together in the German language. 
It was not until the year 1830 that any English preaching was 
done, and then only one sermon in a month. But during the 
last thirty years this has all changed. English only is mostly 
spoken. 

There are two Sunday-schools kept up the year round, and 
another during the summer months only. On Wednesday even- 
ings they have prayer-meetings, and on Sunday evenings, before 
the regular services, they have a young people's meeting. 

AUGHWICK, PENNSYLVANIA. 

The Aughwick church, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, 
was organized about 1802, with only six members, namely, Chris- 
tian Long and wife, Daniel Secrist and wife, and Peter Secrist 
and wife. Of these Christian Long was chosen minister, and 
Daniel Secrist deacon. They could only labor in German, and 
hence, for a time, there was but little progress in number ; but 
soon after the organization some members moved in from other 
points. In a few years, Jacob Lutz, also German, was chosen 
to the ministry ; and again, in a few more years, John Hanawalt 
was chosen. He could speak in English, and the work seemed 
to move a little faster. The number was about twenty-five, 
when, in 1826, Peter Long was chosen to the ministry; and in 
1827 Andrew Spanogle and John King were elected. Next in 
turn, in 1835, was Michael Bollinger; and afterward, in 1839, 
were elected Grabill Myers and Christian Long, Jr. John Glock 
was chosen in 1842, and John Spanogle in 1844. About this 
time the Aughwick church was denominated "a preacher fac- 
tory." This seemed to be suitable, for the good work still went 
on as follows: Abraham Funck, in 1847; Enoch Eby, in 1850; 
George Myers, in 1853; James R. Lane, in 1858; Peter Swayne, 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 1 63 

in 1861 ; Christian Myers, in 1865 ; Isaac Book and John Garver, 
in 1869; Robert Wakefield, in 1872; Seth Myers, in 1874; W. L. 
Spanogle, in 1877. 

Of the foregoing twenty-two ministers, Christian Long, the 
first elected, served about forty-seven years, and died in 1849. 
In 1877 ^ our more had departed this life. Seven were still in the 
bounds of the original Aughwick church, which was afterward 
divided into three organizations ; and ten migrated to other 
places to carry forward the good work. 

BROWNSVILLE CHURCH, MARYLAND. 

The Brownsville church comprises the lower part of Washing- 
ton County, known as Pleasant Valley, also the southern part of 
Middletown Valley, Frederick County, Maryland. 

This congregation is located upon territory embraced in what 
is known as the Grossnickle congregation, embracing Mechanics- 
town on the east, during 1878, in D. P. Sayler's congregation, and 
extending westward to a point six miles beyond Charlestown, 
Jefferson County, West Virginia. The Virginia portion of this 
Grossnickle congregation is now under the supervision of Elder 
David Long (since deceased), of Washington County, Maryland. 
After cutting off the two extreme points of the Grossnickle con- 
gregation, as above, only Middletown Valley, with the lower por- 
tion of Pleasant Valley, was left, leaving the last-named congre- 
gation about twenty miles north and south and eight miles east 
and west. In time this territory was divided by the great 
national turnpike, which runs from Baltimore westward. All the 
members south of said road belong to the Brownsville congre- 
gation. Soon after the close of the Revolutionary War, brethren 
emigrated from Pennsylvania to this section of the country. 
Among those early pioneers was John Slifer, whose name appears 
in the annual meeting minutes of those early days, Peter Miller, 
and Peter Garver. Those named took up land around what is 
known as Burkittsville, Frederick County, and Rudolph Brown, 
about the same time, settled in Pleasant Valley, Washington 
County. Brownsville is named after him. Burkittsville and 



164 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Brownsville are but two miles apart, yet the South Mountain 
runs between them. And here at Burkittsville is Crapton Gap, 
a place rendered famous in American history by a battle being 
fought during the Civil War, which took place September 14, 
1862. 

For some years the scattered members through this section of 
country were dependent upon traveling ministers — Brother Fer- 
gason and Elder Jacob Leatherman. After Fergason, Christian 
Harshman and a brother by the name of Holler, who has three 
sons in the west preaching. After those came Christian Harsh- 
man, Jr., and Jacob Leatherman. Next in succession, Daniel 
Brown. Jacob Leatherman was the first elder. Then followed 
Henry Koontz, George Bear, Emanuel Slifer, Daniel Boyer, Ezra 
Gilbert, George Grossnickle, and Jonathan Baker. Grossnickle 
circuit was divided in April, 1864. Brother George Bear at this 
time was also an elder, who was assigned to Brownsville congre- 
gation. Brother Jacob Leatherman had the supervision of the 
Grossnickle church. In 1879 the ministers in this congregation 
were George Leatherman and Daniel Gibbon. Brother Bear 
continued elder of the Brownsville congregation until his death, 
April 16, 1872, aged eighty-three years. October 14, 1873, 
Emanuel Slifer was ordained elder of the Brownsville congrega- 
tion, whose assistants were Cornelius W. Castle and Eli Yourtee. 
In 1878 there were forty-three added to this church, and the 
number of members was about 134; and at that time they com- 
pleted an addition to their meeting-house. 

COAL CREEK, ILLINO. 

In the autumn of 1844, Jacob Negley, with his family, came to 
Fulton County, Illinois, not knowing of any members there. In 
the spring of 1845, David Zuck and his family came. He was 
in the second degree of the ministry. They held social meetings 
at their houses every two weeks. At first their congregations 
were small, but after their neighbors heard of it, the congrega- 
tions increased. John Markley and his wife, from Ohio, had been 
there several years. In the autumn of 1847, Daniel Martin and 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 1 65 

his family came. He was an ordained elder. These, excepting 
Markley and his wife, all came from Welsh Run, Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania. They then commenced holding meetings 
regularly in schoolhouses, and they had a small organized body 
of about eight or nine members. They adopted for a name Coal 
Creek. 

About a year later, one Sunday morning, a man by the name 
of Ensign called at Brother Negley's house to shelter from a 
storm. After some conversation he asked to what denomination 
they belonged. The answer was that they belonged to the Ger- 
man Baptists, but were probably more commonly known by the 
name of Tunkers. He said, "Then you belong to soup peo- 
ple." The reply was, "Yes, we have soup at our communion 
meetings." He then said, "I know a man by the name of Wolfe, 
in Adams County, an able preacher, who belongs to your church." 
When asked for the first name and address of Brother Wolfe, he 
could give neither, but he said that he had a brother-in-law in the 
same county, by the name of Bushnel, belonging to the same 
church, whose address was Liberty. 

Shortly after, Brother Wolfe was written to, in care of Brother 
Bushnel. About two weeks later Brother Bushnel visited the 
brethren in Fulton County, and it was concluded that they were 
of the same faith, and he gave Brother Wolfe's full name and 
address, upon which they entered into correspondence with 
Brother Wolfe, giving him invitations to visit them. 

Probably in the autumn of 1849, the brethren in Fulton 
County, Illinois, had their first love-feast. They had become 
more extensively known, and Brother Samuel Garber, from Ogle 
County, and Brother Wolfe attended. Being strangers to each 
other, they had a council meeting, at which they concluded to 
commune with each other, and to wash feet in the single mode. 

At the next annual meeting Elder Garber introduced Elder 
Wolfe, and afterwards the latter visited the brethren in Fulton 
County frequently. In 1876 in this church there were four min- 
isters, two of whom were ordained elders, one in the second 
degree of the ministry and one in the first degree, and there were 
three deacons, and about sixty members. 



1 66 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

DANISH MISSION. 

The Danish Mission, by the Tunkers, was brought about mainly 
through Brother Christian Hope, who was born in Denmark, 
December 7, 1844. 

His father was a farmer, and of limited means. However, he 
sent him to school seven years, the time required for a common- 
school education. He possessing fine natural abilities, his father 
early resolved to place his son in the ministry, but his mother 
frustrated this, and he was sent to learn harness making. 

It seems that from his youth it was impressed on his mind 
that he should become a missionary, and in 1864 he was brought 
under conviction by reading the Scriptures. Believing the state 
church to be in error in many things, he associated with the 
Baptists, and united with them on the 1st of April, 1865. He did 
not find the union and peace he had expected in the church. He 
thought the members did not live as they should. 

Zealous, earnest, and sympathetic, he pressed the priests with 
questions and arguments which aroused their enmity, rather than 
love and forbearance. He criticized the king of Denmark for 
acts which he regarded as without warrant in the divine law. 

Seeing corruption looming up on all sides, he beheld Christian- 
ity wanting, and unbelief asserting its sway over the people. His 
soul was grieved, his heart saddened by the fearful manifestations 
of uncleansed affections among his countrymen. Believing that 
those who should exhibit the greatest virtue had fallen from wis- 
dom and goodness, he attempted a reformation by issuing a fifty- 
two page pamphlet, with the flaming headings, "A FALLING 
AWAY," "ANTI-CHRIST," "THE SON OF PERDITION." 
He also issued four sixteen-page tracts, entitled respectively, 
"Marriage and Wedding," "Can a Rich Man Be Saved?" "Lo, 
Here ; Lo, There !" "The Scaffold," or "A Voice from the Infernal 
House." All of these were published in 1869, and to meet the 
demands of the publisher he disposed o'f his stock in trade, gave 
his furniture to the poor, and went about distributing his tracts, 
and preaching the gospel. At the close of the year his printer 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 1 67 

was called upon by a government officer to answer for the tract, 
"The Scaffold," but not until diligent search had been made for 
the young man who had turned the country upside down with 
his "Scaffold." The printer sought young Hope, and told him 
of the difficulty. The young soldier at once surrendered himself 
to the government, appeared in court, and confessed authorship 
and responsibility, thus clearing the printer. As the Danish laws 
require printers to be responsible for the character of each pub- 
lication issued through them, and the counsel of the king finding 
that young Hope had no property, he turned his attention to the 
printer, and secured judgment against him for 2,000 crowns. 
However, by some good streak of fortune, the printer was let off 
with a very small sum. He continued to preach peace and good- 
will to his fellow-citizens, and in four months held 340 meetings, 
which were attended by large crowds. 

Before this took place he and a friend had almost resolved to 
sail across the great Atlantic for free America, and in casting 
lots it was determined that they should go. During the interval 
between his arrest by the government for the "Scaffold" publica- 
tion, two more were issued, entitled "The Mark of the Beast," 
and "Redemption." These created a storm of indignation, and 
a reward of twenty crowns was offered for his capture. The 
mail and telegraph were brought into use for his apprehension, 
and every other means was used to secure his arrest and imprison- 
ment, so that several times he barely escaped being captured, but 
a way of escape was opened, and he reached Norway in safety. 

Here he proclaimed the gospel, as he then understood it, in low 
and in high places, for a month or more to great crowds of peo- 
ple, who thronged to hear the young defender of the truth and 
the Bible. From here he started for America, reaching the cen- 
tral part of Iowa about harvest-time, in 1870. He remained in 
central Iowa one and one-half years, and, after having married, 
went to Clinton. Here he joined the English Baptists. To 
become better acquainted with the English language he bought 
some English books, and among these was a family Bible, which 
contained historical sketches of various denominations. Here he 



l68 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

first learned of the Tunkers. He at once saw that this people 
were in possession of many of the practical truths for which he 
had so earnestly labored in Denmark. He made inquiry of a 
Baptist deacon, who replied that he knew some of the Tunkers 
years ago in the east, and added, "They want to be a little smarter 
than other people, that's all." The only thing that seemed to puz- 
zle him was trine immersion. He saw that Matt. 28 : 19 would 
sustain it, but, like many others, thought single immersion just 
as good. He read that "scrap of history" time and again, and 
the oftener he read it, the more he was assured that if the Tunkers 
live as they teach, he could live with them. 

He had much trouble in finding the Tunkers, but succeeded at 
last, and was received by baptism into the church at Hickory 
Grove, Carroll County, 111. 

He settled down to work in Mt. Carroll, where he remained a 
few months, and then, at the solicitation of kind friends, moved 
to Lanark, where he continued working at the harness trade. 

Having found peace with God and gladness of heart, he had 
not forgotten his countrymen, and here commenced to translate 
Moore and Eshelman's pamphlets into Danish, thinking that per- 
haps some day he would be able to have them printed and dis- 
tributed in Denmark. One day Brother Eshelman came to visit 
him, and the conversation soon drifted toward tract work. 
Brother Eshelman said, "I will begin the work by giving twenty- 
five cents ; will you do the same ?" They did so, and called on 
others for help, through the papers, and soon $400 was donated 
toward publishing the translated pamphlets. 

While this was going on he wrote to an old-time friend of his 
in Denmark, named Christian Hansen, concerning the brethren, 
and sent him Moore and Eshelman's pamphlets, as Mr. Hansen 
could read English. Brother Hope prayed God to give him 
grace to know the truth and obey it. By the time the $400 for 
the tract fund was in, he had received a letter from Mr. Hansen 
to the Cherry Grove church, Carroll County, Illinois, asking to 
have the gospel preached in Denmark, and wishing to be received 
into the church. This brought the church to action, and after 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 169 

the request was read, it was agreed by the Cherry Grove congre- 
gation to seek the counsel of all the churches comprising the 
northern Illinois district. It was agreed to convene in special 
district council, at Cherry Grove, November 12, 1875. Every 
church but one was represented, and the house densely crowded 
with earnest, sympathizing members from the various congrega- 
tions. The Spirit of God seemed to fill every heart; and there 
was but one expression, and that was that the call must be heeded. 
But who should go ? was the momentous question. It was finally 
decided that the delegates should choose two brethren to fill the 
call, and that the general brotherhood should be invited to con- 
tribute money to meet expenses, but that if sufficient would not 
be contributed, northern Illinois would bear the whole burden. 

Brothers Enoch Eby and Paul Wetzel were chosen to go to 
Denmark, but later Daniel Fry was chosen in place of Brother 
Wetzel. Brother Hope was chosen to be their interpreter, as 
the brethren selected could not speak Danish. 

It was agreed that Brother Hope should prepare immediately 
and go in advance to begin the work. By the first of January, 
1876, Brother Hope left Lanark, Illinois, and visited his wife's 
parents at Clinton, Iowa, and other friends, and then set sail for 
Denmark. Both he and his wife were very seasick, but landed 
safely. 

They went to see Christian Hansen, who lived in the northern 
part of Denmark. He was glad to see them, but thought it best 
that they should locate in the southern part of the country, so 
they located at Assens. 

Their first work was to distribute the translated tracts among 
the people, so as to awaken them to a sense of gospel duty. 

Hansen was baptized May 5, 1876. He informed Brother 
Hope of a young woman who was seeking the Lord, and would 
likely join the brethren if he would go and see her. He went, 
and on the 27th of May she was baptized. This finished the 
harvesting for 1876. Brother Hansen traveled during the sum- 
mer of 1876, and distributed pamphlets all over the country. He 
was apprehended and thrown into prison because he refused to 
do militarv dutv. 



iy HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Elders Eby and Fry and their wives landed in October, 1877, 
and a church was organized by them at Hjorring. There were 
thirteen members at the time of organization. Brother Hope was 
advanced to the second degree, Brother C. C. Eskilsen was chosen 
to the ministry, and Brother N. C. Nielsen chosen deacon. 

Brother Hope was shortly afterwards advanced to the elder- 
ship, and before returning home the American brethren also 
ordained Brother Eskilsen to the eldership, and he was given 
charge of the church. 

Brother Hope remained in this part of Denmark about two 
years, and then went to Copenhagen, and started to work there. 
Here there were at one time about twenty members, but there are 
only a few left now. (They did not do well in Copenhagen, 
largely because of the mode of dress required.) 

In 1884 Brother Hope moved to Malmo, Sweden, and com- 
menced to work there. Returning to the United States in 1887, 
he located in Herrington, Kansas. 

Since then he has been in the mission work all of the time, and 
under the direction of the German Baptist Mission Board, and 
has been working in many states. He was sent to Denmark and 
Sweden several times to help the work along. He crossed the 
ocean nine times. 

He was there in 1899, and coming home in the spring, was sent 
to Texas, and was there when that part of the country was flooded. 
He contracted disease from it, and came home sick, dying after 
an illness of about ten days, July 31, 1899, leaving a wife and six 
children. 

In 1899 there were in Denmark eighty-two members, of which 
four are elders, two are ministers, and seven are deacons ; and in 
Sweden eighty-four members, of which three are elders, four are 
ministers, and three are deacons. 

DRY CREEK CHURCH, IOWA. 

Early in the spring of 1854, Brother T. G. Snyder and family 
left their home in Blair County, Pennsylvania, and emigrated to 
the west. They arrived in Linn County, Iowa, April 16, 1854. 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 171 

Brother Snyder, then a deacon, and his wife were the first mem- 
bers in the county. The second family of members was that of 
Elder Jacob O. Waters, who emigrated from the Conemaugh 
congregation, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, in the spring of 
1856. Within a few months ten or twelve members were located 
in this vicinity, and Elder Wagner, of Ohio, assisted Elder Waters 
to organize what is now known as the Dry Creek church. 

In the fall of 1856, this little congregation held their first love- 
feast in Brother Snyder's barn. A few brethren from Waterloo 
and elsewhere were present on this occasion, and about twenty 
enjoyed a very pleasant feast together. At this time a choice 
was held for a speaker, which resulted in calling Brother Snyder 
to the ministry. Two years later this little band of brethren 
gained strength enough to build the first meeting-house in the 
state. It is still in a good state of preservation, though it plainly 
shows the marks of age. 

It was here that the Quinter and McConnell debate was held, 
in 1867, which resulted in the entire overthrow of the Disciple 
Church in this vicinity. The house in which the debate was heid 
has long since been torn away. A dim outline of the foundation 
is all that marks the place where once stood a flourishing church. 
Many were added to the Tunker Church after the debate, and 
ever since they have had a strong hold in the community. 

Ministers elected up to the time when the old-order brethren 
withdrew, -were, Jonathan Keys, J. C. Miller, Solomon Stamy, 
and Martin Boyd. Those moving into the district were, John 
Filmore, Moses Rogers, John Veach, Daniel Hoisinger, and 
Abram Stamy. Those who went with the old-order brethren 
were, Daniel Hoisinger, Solomon Stamy, Martin Boyd, and J. C. 
Miller, who took with them nearly sixty members. 

The church, in 1894, had a membership of about one hundred, 
and three houses of worship, two in the country and one in the 
city of Cedar Rapids. The latter was the outgrowth of the 
annual meeting held there in the spring of 1892. 



172 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ELKHART, INDIANA. 

Among the first venturers into this wild, new country was 
Daniel Cripe, an elder in the Tunker Church. He, with his 
family, and Jacob Cripe, Christopher Stouder, and John Pipenger 
and their families, came in 1829. Daniel Cripe was a man of 
medium height, broad-shouldered and well muscled ; his face was 
smooth-shaven, and complexion light. Being of kindly disposi- 
tion, he made many friends, and commanded the love and respect 
of all who knew him. 

He selected for himself a half section of land on Elkhart 
prairie, about two miles south of where the city of Goshen now 
stands, and at once erected a log cabin upon it, and made other 
necessary preparations for a home. He, with his friends, con- 
structed a rude plow with a wooden moldboard, for the purpose 
of turning a few furrows to mark their claims, and put out small 
crops to raise provisions for the coming winter. 

After making the plow, the question arose as to who should use 
it first. It was decided that the oldest should first use it, and, as 
Daniel Cripe was the oldest, the lot fell to him, and thus, accord- 
ing to tradition, he was the first white settler to plow a furrow on 
Elkhart prairie. 

Having established his new home, he returned in the early part 
of 1830 to Montgomery County, Ohio, his former home, and 
induced his son Samuel, and family, to emigrate to this country. 
Martin Weybright and family, Jacob Studebaker and family, and 
others, came also the same year. In the early part of the sum- 
mer of 1830 a daughter, Rosanna, was born to the wife of John 
Cripe, nephew of Daniel Cripe, she being the first child born to 
any of the brethren in northern Indiana. The Cripe family has 
since become very numerous, and has exerted no small influence 
in the history of the church of this county, a large portion of it 
adhering closely to the teachings of the church. 

One of the first things to be remembered by these early settlers 
was their devotion to God. Accordingly, services were held in 
the homes of the members, Elder Cripe preaching in German. 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 173 

The work prospered, and soon, in the spring of 1830, was organ- 
ized the Elkhart church. This was the nucleus around which were 
formed all the churches of the northern district of Indiana. 
From the first they called themselves the Brethren, and for a long 
time were known by no other name. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1830 the church decided to 
hold a love-feast. No beef could be procured, therefore Elder 
Cripe gave a ewe lamb — the only one he had — for the supper. 
About twenty members communed. It was held in Elder Cripe's 
house, and was pronounced, by some present, as the most enjoy- 
able feast they had ever attended. 

Traveling in those days was very difficult, and many hardships 
had to be endured, even after reaching the settlement. But these 
difficulties stimulated them to greater efforts. Emigrants from 
the east kept pouring in, and, settling in different localities, soon 
covered a great amount of territory. This created much work 
for Elder Cripe, and, feeling the need of help, a church meeting 
was called, and two brethren, Martin Weybright and Jacob Stude- 
baker, were chosen to the ministry. These were the first two 
brethren elected to the ministry in northern Indiana. 

Other ministers moved from the east, and made this their home. 
John Leatherman came in 1835, and settled in the southern part 
of Elkhart County. Soon after eight members of that portion 
of the territory were organized into a separate congregation, and 
are known as the Turkey Creek church. 

Elder James Tracey came in about 1850. He was a natural 
orator and born leader of men, and, by his strong traits of per- 
sonal character, exerted a wonderful influence for the church. 
Through his efforts the Elkhart district was again divided, this 
time into three separate congregations. The Rock Run church 
was cut off on the east and the Yellow Creek church on the west. 
Later the Elkhart Valley district was cut off on the northwest. 
A number of churches have been organized from the Elkhart 
church. 

The lives and the work of our pioneer brethren are full of 
interest. As a historian says of the Puritans, so we say of our 



174 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ancestors : 'They were sturdy men and women, and the sturdiest 
part of them was their principles. When they began the structure 
of their new society, they began at the bottom. They built upon 
God and in godliness. Christ was their foundation, and His edi- 
fice was the structure which they sought to build." 

Elder Cripe died in 1859, at the age of eighty-seven years and 
six months. His ashes now rest in the little cemetery near the 
eastern edge of Elkhart prairie. His grave is a modest one, and 
but few people in passing by realize that here lie the remains of 
the organizer of the first Tunker Church in what was then 
known as the northwest, and the first Protestant minister in 
Elkhart County. 

FLAT ROCK, VIRGINIA. 

One hundred years ago, the first brother moved to the valley 
of Virginia, and settled in the upper end of Shenandoah County. 
He was a minister, and his name was John Garber. He was the 
father of seven sons, six of whom became ministers, and the other 
a deacon. They were all faithful ministers, planted many 
churches in Virginia, Tennessee, and Ohio, and . all lived to be 
aged. Martin Garber, one of the seven, remained in the county 
near the home of his father, traveled much, and labored faithfully 
in the cause of the Redeemer, connected with some of the writ- 
ings of the old brethren in the encyclopedia. He was elder of the 
first district of Virginia, which then extended from Harrisonburg 
to the Maryland line. 

When the membership became large, the district was divided, 
and Jacob Wine, grandson of Martin Garber, became first elder 
in the Flat Rock district. The district took its name from the 
rock on which the meeting-house is built, it being one mile from 
where Martin Garber lived. This rock has an area of about one 
acre. It was deeded to the church by Brother Michael Wine, St., 
who lived in a house in which, over eighty years ago, a yearly 
meeting was held. The house was not more than half full of 
people. An old man from the South Branch being present, said 
that the house was so large there ought to be two preachers. 






GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 1 75 

HICKORY GROVE, OHIO. 

From 1827 the territory now known as Donnels Creek, Lost 
Creek, and Hickory Grove, were one organization, presided over 
by Elder Christian Frantz. In the part now called Hickory 
Grove, Isaac Darst was a minister ; in all, about twenty-five mem- 
bers. In 1830 Henry Harshbarger, David Landis, deacons, and 
Isaac Karns, elder, moved in. Then what is now Hickory Grove 
church was organized, with about forty members, under the care 
of Isaac Karns. 

In the fall of 1832 Isaac Darst died. In 1833 John Stude- 
baker died. In 1835 David Landis was elected to the ministry. 
In 1836 David Shelabarger, Adam Stinebarger, and Henry Rub- 
son, ministers, moved in. 

In 1837 James Ward and Daniel Arnold were elected deacons. 
Ward at this time insisted on the ordination of Darst, so that 
their children could be married in English. About 1849 the 
interest in the good cause grew so low that for a time there was 
no regular preaching services held, though there were three resi- 
dent ministers ; but by the efforts of David Bowman, John Darst, 
and Peter Nead, the work was again established, David Shela- 
barger being in charge. 

In 1853 David Landis and David Shelabarger moved out, and 
Joseph Arnold and Jacob Snell were elected deacons. David 
Studebaker moved in. He proved a minister of great influence, 
and being dead yet speaketh. There were now about eighty 
members. In 1855 the present house of worship was built. In 
1856 Abraham Studebaker died. In 1858 Joseph Arnold was 
elected to the ministry, S. S. Studebaker deacon, and Henry Rub- 
som and Adam Stinebarger ordained. From the time David 
Shelabarger moved out until the above ordination the church was 
under the care of Elder John Frantz, of Donnells Creek. 

In i860 John Crist was elected to the ministry. In 1863 G. W. 
Studebaker moved in and labored here for two years, then moved 
to Indiana. In this time the death of David Studebaker occurred, 
which was deeply lamented. There were now one hundred 
members. 



176 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

About 1865 Rubsom and Stinebarger were relieved of their 
ministry by a committee from annual meeting, and H. D. Davy 
and Abraham Flory placed in charge. Flory remained in charge 
until the division of '8i. In 1866 Samuel Coppock was elected 
minister, Jacob Hawier and John Filburn, deacons. In 1872 
Isaac Studebaker, minister, moved in. In 1873 O. F. Yount was 
called to the ministry, and labored here until 1876, when the mid- 
dle district was formed. He and Samuel Coppock were living in 
that territory. In 1879 Joseph Arnold was ordained. In 1880 
Henry Gump was called to the ministry. 

In 1 88 1 the memorable divide took from this church about 
thirty members, including Elder Flory and three deacons, leaving 
the church with Henry Gump, minister, and two deacons ; in all, 
about one hundred members. The church now called Elder John 
Smith to take charge. 

In 1 88 1 Jacob Coppock was called to the ministry, and Henry 
Gump advanced. 

In 1882 the first series of meetings were held, resulting in 
twenty-eight accessions and greatly confirming the members. In 
1885 D. S. Filburn was called to the ministry. In 1886 Henry 
Gump was ordained. In 1893 Samuel Gump was called to the 
ministry. 

The official board now stands : Ministers, Henry Gump, Jacob 
Coppock, D. S. Filburn, and Samuel Gump ; deacons, Jacob Kaw- 
ver, Jacob Snell, George Zimmerman, and Samuel Studebaker. 
There are now about one hundred and fifty members. There are 
three points of regular preaching, with fair attendance and inter- 
est. A greater per cent of the members' children are in the 
church. 

LITTLE CONEWAGO, PENNSYLVANIA. 

The Little Conewago church is located in Pennsylvania, York 
County, Hanover Township, and along the Conewago River. 
The central point was about twenty miles from York City. It 
was established in 1738, when Brethren Bigler, Deardorff, Eld- 
rick, Gripe, Stutsman, and some others who resided near to them, 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 177 

united in an organization. Elder Daniel Leatherman attended 
to this service, and for some time he had the oversight of the 
congregation. He then moved to Monocacy, in Maryland, and 
Brother Nicholas Martin was selected and appointed to take his 
place. He was blessed in his ministry, but also left them and 
moved to Conococheaque, Maryland. After this Brethren Jacob 
Moyer and James Henricks were elected for the ministry. 

In 1770 this Little Conewago congregation numbered fifty-two 
members, and the following are their names : — 

Jacob Moyer (minister) and wife, Rudy Brown and wife. 
Brother Dobis and wife, Mrs. Bowser, Maud Bowser, Barbara 
Bear, Eliza Bearing, Henry Donner (tanner) and wife, Christian 
Etor, John Geiny, Henry Geiny and wife, James Henrick (min- 
ister) and wife, Nicholas Housteter and wife, Christian Hous- 
teter, Henry Hoeff and wife, Great Hyman, Michael Kouts and 
wife, John Moyer and wife, Mrs. Moyer, Jacob Miller and wife, 
Joseph Moyer and wife, Stephen Peter, wife, and daughters, 
George Peter, Hans Adam Sneider and wife, John Swartz and 
wife, Jacob Souder and wife, Barbara Sneider, Michael Tanner 
and wife, John Peter Weaver, George Wine and wife, Daniel 
Woods and wife, Hester Weiss. 

MAHONING, OHIO. 

The territory occupied by the Mahoning church was settled by 
white people about the year 1800. John Myers, John Shoemaker, 
and John Summers were among the first Tunkers that settled 
there. Ministers from Pennsylvania preached for them occa- 
sionally, and from time to time some were baptized. After the 
lapse of several years, the exact date of which we could not 
obtain, it was deemed proper to form an organization. George 
Hoke and Joseph Mellinger were chosen to the ministry, and 
John Coller and Abram Heastand deacons. George Hoke was 
ordained to the eldership in the year 1820, and David Shoemaker 
and David Summers chosen to the ministry. In 1826 Elder Hoke 
moved to the Canton church, but retained the charge of the 
church. A number of other members moved away, keeping up a 

12 



I.78 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

constant drain on the membership. During the years interven- 
ing between 1827 and 1836, David Shoemaker, David Summers, 
Joseph Mellinger, Abraham Myers, and Abraham Heastand, all 
ministers, moved from this congregation to the vicinity of North 
Georgetown, where a new settlement of Tunkers was being 
formed. This left David Summers and Richard Brenemon the 
only members of the church. Elder Henry Kurtz about this time 
resided in the Canton church, and in 1841 Elder George Hoke 
authorized him to visit Mahoning church once a month. Hi c 
labors were greatly blessed in the conversion of sinners. It is 
recorded that at one meeting he baptized ten persons, which was 
then regarded a remarkable occasion. In the spring of 1842, 
Brother Kurtz moved into the Mahoning church, and four other 
members were received by letter. Soon after this Henry Kurtz 
was given charge of the church, although not ordained at that 
time. There were then about fifty members, including three 
ministers and three deacons. The following is a synopsis of the 
membership gathered from the church record : — 

Number of members in 1841 55 

By letter and baptism, to 1870 122 

Total, 1870 177 

Died during above period 46 

Removed to other places 69 

Number left in 1870 62 

George Hoke moved to Canton in 1826, where he preached 
about twenty years. He moved to the Nimishillen church, and 
finally to Ashland, where he died. 

Henry Kurtz was ordained Sept. 26, 1844, and died Jan. 
12, 1874, after serving the church thirty years in the capacity of 
elder. Philip Rothenberger lived in this congregation and moved 
to Indiana, where he was ordained. James Quinter moved into 
this congregation in 1856, and was there ordained. Jacob H. 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 179 

Kurtz and Noah Longanecker were elected to the ministry 
Aug. 30, 1861 ; Jonas Hoke elected Oct. 8, 1875, D. F. Longan- 
ecker and Edwin Ruhlman, Oct. 4, 1879. 

The first meeting-house in this church was built in 1849, on 
the Summers place, and about one mile from the residence of 
Elder Henry Kurtz, in Mahoning County, Ohio. This was the 
birthplace of the monthly Gospel Visitor, the first serial publica- 
tion in the Tunker Church since the days of Christopher Saur. 
In 1 87 1 another house of worship was built near Columbiana, 
called Zion Hill. In this house Elder Kurtz preached his last 
sermon, on the day before his death. 

Before the erection of any church building, services were held 
in the houses and barns of the members. The following is a 
list of the names of those who entertained the meetings and love- 
feasts previous to the time of houses of worship : John Summers, 
David Hardman, David Summers, M. Shoemaker, Jacob Leedy, 
Conrad Hauger, Daniel Summers, M. Bowman, Jacob Summers, 
Henry Hoke, George Battenfield, Daniel Hardman, John Bright, 
Richard Brenneman, Adam Anglemeyer, Daniel Wise, Mathias 
Haas, David Brown, Jacob Longanecker, Henry Kurtz, John B. 
Summers, and Jacob Haas. 

MARSH CREEK, PENNSYLVANIA. 

This church was organized about 18 10, the probable member- 
ship being twelve. David Pfautz was elected to the ministry, 
and Jacob Sherfy to the deaconship. 

About 181 3 Michael Slothour, a minister, came into the church, 
and he served as such until 1834, when he died. In September, 
1830, David Ecker and John Pfautz were chosen to the ministry, 
and Slothour and David Bosserman as deacons. August 28, 1836, 
the latter was chosen to the ministry. August 27, 1 841, Daniel 
Benner was chosen speaker, and Joseph Kittinger deacon. May 
23, 1845, Henry Bucher, and in December, same year, Michael 
Bushman, were chosen to the ministry. February 8. 1851, J. D. 
Trostle was chosen to the ministry. October 4, 1851, Joseph 
Sherfey and Jacob Diehl were elected deacons, and on May 



l8o HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

29, 1853, the former was called to the ministry, and Jeremiah 
Sheets elected deacon. Between this and 1874, David Blocher 
and C. Lahman Pfoutz were chosen to the ministry, and the fol- 
lowing were deacons : H. G. Koser, Samuel Hoffe, Isaac Bucher, 
David Blocher, John Trostle, C. Lahman Pfautz, Ephraim Dear- 
dorfT, Isaac Pfautz, and B. F. Kittinger. 

It is said that David Pfautz was ordained in 1821, and that he 
was an elder till his death, in 1849; also tnat David Bosserman 
was ordained in 1848, and that, in 1877, the church was still 
flourishing under his eldership. 

This church is located in Adams County, Pennsylvania, and is 
bounded by these churches : Upper Conewago, Antietam, Falling 
Spring, Lower and L T pper Cumberland, Monocacy, and Pipe 
Creek. The membership in 1877 was 193. In 1850 the territory 
was formally divided into six sub-districts, the boundaries being 
designated by public roads meeting at Gettysburg. In 1877 
there were five ministers, eight deacons, and five places for regu- 
lar preaching. At that date there were but two meeting-houses, 
one built in 1830, and the other in 1852. 

MAQUOKETA, IOWA. 

Jacob Stutzman and wife were the first Tunker members who 
lived in the territory which constitutes the Maquoketa church. 
Afterward Samuel Brumbaugh moved in, and in 1852, David 
Brower preached in his house, which was the first Tunker preach- 
ing in that community. The church was organized in the fall 
of 1855, at the house of Samuel Brumbaugh. Elders Daniel Fry 
and Christian Long presided at the organization, and Elder Fry 
officiated at the communion meeting following. There were at 
that time nineteen members scattered through Jackson, Clinton, 
and Cedar Counties. Jacob Stutzman and Henry Haines were 
elected deacons. There was no minister in the church until the 
following year, when Jones De Haven moved in from Pennsyl- 
vania. The following ministers were elected in this church: 
Felix Senger, Joshua Schultz, Johm Gabel, Jacob Long, and 
David Kamiar, and Isaac Barto and Marcus H. Fowler moved 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. l8l 

in. Joshua Schultz was ordained here in 1874, and Isaac Barto 
in 1880. 

Previous to 1880, one hundred and fifty-nine members were 
received by baptism and sixty-eight by letter. Twenty-three 
members died, twenty-seven were disowned, sixty-six moved 
away, and fifteen were struck off by a change of territorial lines. 
The church embraces Clinton, Scott, and the eastern one-half of 
Jones County. The officers in 1880 were: Joshua Schultz and 
Isaac Barto, elders; John Gabel and David Kamiar, ministers; 
J. Kindig, J. Friday, Levi Snowberger, J. Scott, George Stramp, 
and Fred Oberfelt, deacons. 

They preached at Lost Nation, Grand Mound, South Grove, 
Nashville, Mill Rock, and Calamus. The congregation had one 
church at Lost Nation valued at $1,300. 

MONOCACY, MARYLAND. 

The territory constituting the Monocacy church was formerly 
of the Beaver Dam congregation, and was organized into a sep- 
arate church Dec. 3, 1855. There were at that time Vwenty-six 
brethren and fifty-three sisters, who constituted the charter mem- 
bers of the organization. They were much scattered over a terri- 
tory 10x30 miles. There were thirteen different sects occupying 
the same territory who regarded baptism by immersion as non- 
essential. At the time of the organization Daniel P. Saylor was 
the elder, Daniel Boyer minister, and John Weybright deacon. 
The first baptism was administered Aug. 3, 1856, by Elder Saylor 
to Peter Fogle. Since then to 1880 one hundred and sixty per- 
sons have been baptized in this church. Daniel Harp, Isaac 
Renner, D. R. Saylor, G. A. Hoover, and T. J. Kolb were chosen 
to the ministry. 

A committee appointed by the annual meeting of 1879 to visit 
Maryland churches, did not deem it necessary to visit this con- 
gregation. The church has two meeting-houses, one at Rocky 
Ridge, the other at Double Pipe Creek, and a membership of 
about 125 in 1880. 



1 82 history of the tunkers. 

Morrison's cove, Pennsylvania. 

Extract from Charles B. Clark's "Semi-Centennial History of 
Blair County" : — 

"The first permanent white settlers of Blair County, coming 
into the southern end of Morrison's Cove about 1760 or earlier, 
are Tunkers, and that was probably the first religious denomina- 
tion to obtain a foothold in Blair County territory. A Presby- 
terian minister by the name of Beatty preached a sermon one 
Sunday at Beaver Dams, now called McCann's Mills, in 1756; 
but it is likely that the Tunkers, who resided here, as above stated, 
held religious services at a still earlier date, and that the congre- 
gation consisted of residents of the Cove." 

I further glean from this history that about the year 1765 
Jacob Neff, who was a Tunker, built a mill where Roaring Spring 
is now situated. His mill was burned by the Indians, and rebuilt 
by him prior to the Revolution. Later, but still long, long ago, 
it was owned by John Ullery. He had a brother named Samuel, 
who was the first Tunker minister in the Cove, a great grand- 
father, on the mother's side, of S. B. Furry, the writer of this 
article. He preached in the Yellow Creek congregation, south- 
east end of the Cove, in the vicinity of New Enterprise. So far 
as I remember, his successors in office were Martin Miller, John 
Holsinger, David Brumbaugh, Jacob Miller, John Eshelman, 
Leonard Furry, and Daniel Snowberger. All died before the 
division except Jacob Miller. 

According to the "Biographical Cyclopedia of Blair County, 
Pennsylvania," "Jacob Neff killed two Indians who attacked him 
at his mill at Roaring Springs in November, 1777, and then fled; 
after which the entire war party came up and burned his mill." 
This statement must be wrong; he killed only one Indian. The 
facts, as I gather them from the early settlers, are these : While 
in his mill, two Indians suddenly came upon him. He hid in the 
water-wheel. He remained there until everything was quiet, for 
a good while. Then he emerged with his gun, and ran up the 
hill in the direction of East Sharpsburg. As he glanced back, 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 1.8 3 

he saw one of the Indians close upon him, gaining on him, when 
he suddenly turned and fired. The Indian fell dead, and Neff 
escaped. But he was afterwards disciplined by the church. 
Some said he was expelled. I do not vouch for the truth of the 
last statement. S- B - Furry. 

NAPERVILLE, ILLINOIS. 

The first brother that loacted in Du Page County, Illinois, was 
Jacob Netzley, probably in 1850. He was a lay member at that 
time, but afterwards was made a deacon. They had no meeting 
for two years. During this time they heard of brethren west of 
them in Lee, Ogle, and Stephenson Counties. In 1852 Samuel 
Garber, Daniel Fry, and Joseph Emmert responded to their call, 
came over, and preached for them. This was the first meeting 
held by the brethren in this county. Shortly afterward Levi 
Hartranft and wife were baptized, being the first in the county. 
Afterward the brethren visited them every eight weeks. In 1855 
the church was organized by Elders Samuel Lehman, Daniel Fry, 
and Joseph Emmert. After that they were five years without a 
shepherd, when Elder Samuel Lehman came to labor. The first 
minister elected was Christian Martin, the first deacon Jacob 
Netzley. The church in 1878 numbered about seventy. Of this 
number there were four ministers, Elder C. Martin, Jacob Solen- 
berger, John Hollinger, George Mowery. 

OREGON COAST CHURCHES. 

The early Tunker Churches of Oregon had. the usual difficulties 
incident to frontier work. 

Like children learning to walk, they had much to learn before 
they could keep step to the music of the gospel trumpet. 

About the year 1867, a very ominous cloud hung over the scat- 
tered membership in the communities of Salem, Albany, and 
Lebanon, foreboding nothing but confusion. With a view of 
reviving the work of the Lord among them, they sought the 
assistance of the California churches, who sent Elder George 
Wolfe and Henry Haines (a deacon) to their assistance. They 



I84 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

started on their mission April 27, 1867, by way of San Francisco, 
Portland, and Oregon City, a distance of nine hundred miles. 
After a voyage of seven days they reached their destination, and 
found the brethren, as Elder Wolfe says, "in a tangled and 
gloomy condition, but after laboring with them from house to 
house, for nearly two weeks, all day and part of the night, with 
occasional public preaching, hope began to revive, and a desire 
was expressed in the church and outside in favor of union and 
fellowship." 

They called a meeting at the house of Brother Philip Balti- 
more, near Lebanon, Linn County, where the main body of the 
Oregon membership resided at that time. The meeting was held 
May 13, 1867, when the following memorable document was 
agreed to and signed : — 

Lebanon, Linn Co., Oregon, May 13, 1867. 

We, the brethren of Oregon, being assembled at the house of 
Brother Philip Baltimore, agree : — 

First : In order that we may have a union and practice love and 
affection one toward another, to lay aside all hardness, past acts, 
and feelings, forgiving one another and asking forgiveness of all. 

Second: We promise to strive in the future to cultivate 
brotherly love and peace. 

Third: We agree to lay aside strivings and disputings (as we 
have heretofore done) about the restitution, the devil, the judg- 
ment, the resurrection, and the second coming of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. 

Fourth : We agree that we will not provoke one another on 
those subjects. 

Fifth : And whoever oversteps these agreements, we will 
admonish and deal with them according to the Master's directions 
in the eighteenth chapter of Matthew. 

Sixth, and lastly: We agree to be subject to the decisions of 
the brethren in the yearly meeting. 

Hereunto we subscribe our names. 

Signed in the presence of us, George Wolfe and Henry Haines. 

J. Hardman, Anna Hardman, J. H. Ritter, Rachael Ritter,. 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 185 

B. Hardman, Philip Baltimore, Mary Baltimore, Daniel Leedy, 
Mary Leedy, David Peebler, M. Hardman, A. J. Wigle, Mary 
M. Wigle, J. W. Hardman, H. Spurlock, S. R. Peebler, Catharine 
Barnard, Peter Zell, Susan Peebler, Jacob Wigle, Nancy Wigle, 
Solomon Ritter, Elizabeth Ritter, Samuel Hardman, Mary 
Hardman. 

Antedating the above organization we have a sketch of the 
life of some of its charter members. Jacob W. Wagner, in a 
letter to the Gospel Visitor, dated August 8, 1853, says : — 

"My parents settled in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, in 
early days. They became members of the church under the min- 
istry of Elder John Hendricks. I was born in that county, in 
1807. My father removed to Illinois, and lived under the care 
of Elder George Wolfe, who was my mother's brother. I 
was brought up under religious instruction and joined the 
church in my youth. I was baptized by Elder Wolfe in Sptem- 
ber, 1827. I traveled much with Father Wolfe, visiting the 
churches. 

"In the spring of 1852 I and two of my brothers set out for 
Oregon Territory. We were told before starting that in cross- 
ing the plains we might be required to deny our faith by travel- 
ing in a military form and under military protection, which, how- 
ever, we did not find necessary, as the Indians were friendly 
toward us. 

"We live eighty miles above Oregon City, seven miles above 
Calapoosa, on the east side of Willamette Valley. There are 
seven of us, three brothers and four sisters. Three others crossed 
the plains with us, but settled a hundred miles from us. The 
church elected me deacon, which is the only church officer among 
us. 

In his remarks to the above the editor of the Visitor says : — 

"There is one other subscriber to the Visitor in Oregon. His 
address is David Peebler, Salem, Marion County." 



1 86 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA. 

The subscribers and contributors for purchasing a lot on which 
to build a church held their first meeting March 19, 1817. 
Nearly five thousand dollars had been subscribed. At that meet- 
ing James Lynd, George Gorgas, Jacob Ziegler, James Gorgas, 
and John Rink were appointed to procure a lot of ground. 
March 24, the committee reported that they had purchased a lot 
on Crown Street below Callowhill, seventy-five by eighty-six feet, 
for four thousand dollars. • A building committee was then 
appointed, and held its first meeting April 11, 181 7. The Crown 
Street meeting-house was built, and was dedicated October 12, 
181 7. Brother Peter Keyset was their minister. 

Election of Ministers. — I have no date for the election of 
James Lynd and John Heisler. Timothy Banger was elected 
April 24, 1824; John Righter elected November 18, 1841 ; John 
Fox elected September 28, 1844, and ordained bishop November 
16, 1867; Christian, Custer elected December 24, 1861. All the 
above ministers preached in the old Crown Street church. 

Deacons Elected. — Peter K. Gorgas and John Fox, July 13, 
1842; John Goodyear and Christian Custer, February 23, 1850; 
John Fry and Isaiah G. Harley, January 31, 1863. 

The Crown Street church was sold September, 1872, and the 
lot bought on Marshall Street below Girard Avenue in the same 
month. The building was thereon erected for the worship of 
God. The Sunday-school room was dedicated July 13, 1873. 
The main church room was dedicated the second Sunday in Sep- 
tember, same year. Brother Isaac Price preached the sermon 
that day. The building was sold in March, 1890, and ground 
bought at the northeast corner of Dauphin and Carlisle Streets, 
in June, 1890. The church building was erected in 1891. 

I. G. Harley, Secretary. 

The church, corner of Carlisle and Dauphin Streets, was dedi- 
cated May 3, 1 89 1. With that date my ministry began in this 
church. In the fall of 1892 Sister Mary S. Geiger built a splen- 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 1 87 

did Sunday-school-room addition to the church, and presented 
it as a free gift to the church. In 1896 we started a mission 
Sunday-school at Twenty-sixth Street and Lehigh Avenue. The 
expenses of the work at this place were and are now entirely 
borne by Sister Geiger. In 1898 she purchased a lot at the above 
corner, built a splendid chapel and parsonage, and presented the 
entire property to the church. Brother J. W. Cline is the min- 
ister in charge at that place. The Sunday-school is large and 
active. This work is under the care of the main first church. 
The Philadelphia church has at present about three hundred 
members. More than two hundred have been baptized in the 
past eight years. The church is very active in all missionary, 
benevolent, and charity work. T. T. Myers. 

PANTHER CREEK CHURCH, ILLINOIS. 

The first brethren that visited Woodford County, Illinois, to 
preach, were Daniel Martin, Jacob Negley, and D. Zuck, of Ful- 
ton County, all formerly from Pennsylvania. Brother Daniel 
Martin preached the first sermon, June 27, 1852. On that day 
eight of us came to the meeting with the purpose of uniting with 
the church. This was the first meeting ever held by the brethren 
in the county known to us. There were four men and their 
wives. There were six members here that had moved from 
Roanoke County, Virginia, at the time of the first meeting. The 
brethren came back again the following October, when four more 
were baptized. They organized a church on the 23d of October, 
1852. Two brethren were elected to the ministry, George W. 
and James R. Gish. Since that time we have had regular meet- 
ings, but not without our tips and downs. After dividing twice, 
we still have over one hundred members, six ministers, and four 
deacons. We are still trying to do as well as we can in the Mas- 
ter's cause, endeavoring to keep close to the gospel and ancient 
landmarks. James R. Gish. 

Roanoke, III, 18//. 



i88 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



SHARPSBURG, MARYLAND. 

The town of Sharpsburg is situated in Washington County, 
Maryland, twelve miles south of Hagerstown, and about an equal 
distance north of Harper's Ferry. It is an historic town, noted 
chiefly for the bloody but indecisive battle fought in its suburbs 
and along the banks of Antietam Creek, September 17, 1862. 
A national cemetery at the eastern end of town contains the mor- 
tal remains of 4,667 Union soldiers. While probably an equal 
number of the opposing army fell victims to the cruel war, a 
much larger number were wounded, some of whom died subse- 
quently, and others were maimed for life. 




SHARPSBURG CHURCH AFTER THE WAR 



It is conceded that more men were slain in a given time in this 
engagement than during any other battle during the war. Large 
shafts and monuments, numerous tablets, and silent artillery 
mark the places of the severest engagements. Other points of 
historic interest are "Burnside's Bridge," across Antietam, 
"Bloody Lane," and the "Tunker Church." This meeting-house 
is in the Manor congregation, is situated one mile north of town, 
and was built in 1853. It stood within the lines of battle, and was 
partly demolished by the batteries of both armies. 

After the battle it was used as a hospital for both the "blue" 
and the "gray," and is a silent witness of human carnage and 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 189 

inhuman warfare. The building was repaired in 1864. The 
War Department proposed to purchase the house and preserve it 
as a relic of the bloody event. The offer, however, was declined 
by the congregation, believing it would serve a better purpose by 
using it as a place in which to worship the Prince of Peace and 
teach the doctrine of love and good-will. A tablet has been 
placed on the outer wall, to the right of the door, by the govern- 
ment, which gives a brief history of the meeting-house and its 
connection with this battle. 

The central meeting-house of the congregation, known as the 
Manor church, was built in 1832 by John Weaver and Peter 
Shamel. The annual conference of 1857 was held in this house. 

Previous to the building of the Manor house, this territory was 
a part of the Beaver Creek church. Up to 1897 the bishops in 
this territory were, Joseph Emmert, Jacob, Emmanuel, and Isaac 
Long, and David Reichard. Brother Emmert was an uncle of 
Elder Joseph Emmert, of Arnold's Grove, Illinois, who was the 
grandfather of Mary Stover, of India. He preached mostly in 
the German language. These faithful standard-bearers had all 
gone to rest before the roar of cannon resounded within the walls 
of this hallowed sanctuary. 

Samuel Mumma donated the church lot, whereon the Sharps- 
burg house was built in 1852 or '53. He was born in 1801. He 
was living within the lines of battle at the time of this engage- 
ment. His dwelling-house, barn, and nearly every building, with 
most of their contents, were laid in ashes during the battle, leav- 
ing scarcely a change of raiment for his family. 

Elders Jacob Hibarger and David Long were next placed in 
charge of the flock. Elder Long was well known in the brother- 
hood, having served frequently on the standing committee of the 
annual meeting and other important committees. He reared a 
large family. Four of his sons, Joseph, Victor, Orville, and 
Walter, and three of his sons-in-law, Eli Yourtee, Seth Myers, 
and E. D. Kendig, are ministers. 

During the war the Manor congregation numbered between 
three and four hundred members. It now numbers two hundred 



IQO HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and forty. Many have removed to other localities, and the 
Hagerstown congregation has taken a part of their territory and 
membership. 

SPRING RUN, PENNSYLVANIA.* 

This church is a part of the old church, which, about fifty years 
ago, was mostly known by the name of Kishacoquilas, and later 
by the name of Lewistown. In 1857 it was divided, and the 
western portion called Spring Run. The eastern portion is 
known by the name of Dry Valley. 

The Lewistown congregation was presided over for many 
years by Joseph Rothrock, who resided near Lewistown, and 
later by his son Abraham, who subsequently emigrated to Kan- 
sas and died there. About 185 1 Joseph R. Hanawalt was 
ordained to the bishopric of the church until it was divided, and 
over both churches for several years, until Jacob Mohler was 
ordained to the bishop's office. The first minister that lived in 
the territory of the Spring Run church was Jacob Kinsel, who 
died near McVeytown. About the same time John Hanawalt 
resided near Newton Hamilton, but his residence was in the 
Aughwick church. 

The next resident minister in the limits of Spring Run was 
Joseph R. Hanawalt, who died in February, 1877. At that time 
the ministerial board consisted of Peter S. Meyers, George Hana- 
walt, Abram Myers, Samuel Musser, George H. Swigart, John 
S. Hanawalt, and William J. Swigart. There was a branch of 
this congregation called Stone Valley, in charge of Archy Van 
Dyke. The meeting-house where the love-feasts are held is at 
Spring Run, about two miles from McVeytown station, and was 
built in 1856. The whole number of members at present (1877) 
is near three hundred and fifty. In 1858 the number was about 
one hundred and twenty. The increase by baptism has been 
about thirty per annum, and seems regular and substantial. . The 
young people are nearly all members of the church, from ten 
years upward, and many of them are quite intelligent and talented. 

^Contributed by George Hanawalt in 1877. 




I s 



192 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

The ministers are generally gifted, and have their labors reduced 
to a perfect system. There is regular preaching at over twenty 
different points. 



SOUTHWEST MISSOURI. 

Walnut Creek Church is located in the northeastern part of 
Johnson County, about four miles north of Knobnoster, on the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad. It is the oldest church in southwest 
Missouri. It passed through a severe trial during the war. It 
was under the care of Elder Joseph Wampler, and seemed to 
prosper till toward the close of his life, when dark clouds threat- 
ened its prosperity, but of late years those clouds have passed 
away. In 1880 it was under the care of Andrew Hutchison. 
They had a good church house in which to worship, and num- 
bered about forty members. 

Center View church is located in the central part of Johnson 
County, around the village of Center View, on the line of the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad. It was organized in 1870, and in 
1880 was under the care of Elder Andrew Hutchison, who was 
assisted in the ministry by Elder Alexander W. Reece. They 
numbered about fifty members, and had a good church. 

Mineral Creek church is located in the southern part of John- 
ison County, and embraces also the northern part of Henry 
County. As a church district it is large, and has a membership 
of about one hundred and fifty. It was organized about i860. 
A number have since moved in, and others have united by bap- 
tism. S. S. Mohler, elder ; assistant ministers, J. M. Mohler and 
!F. Culp. It is distant from Warrensburg (south) about twelve 
miles. They have a commodious church house. 

Holden church is in the southwestern part of Johnson County, 
eight miles south of Holden. It was organized in 1879, with a 
Ismail membership and two deacons, but no resident minister. 
'The church was placed under the care of Elder J. S. Mohler. 

Grand River church is in the southwestern part of Henry 
Countv, south of La Due 'about three miles. It was organized 






GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 193 

about 1 87 1, with a membership of about twenty. In 1880 it num- 
bered about seventy, under the care of Elder J. S. Mohler and 
J. C. Mays. They have a good church house. 

The Mound church is in the northern part of Bates County, 
at Crescent Hill. It was organized in 1878, with a membership 
of about twenty, and was placed under the care of Elder D. L. 
Williams. 

Murrow Creek church is in Morgan County, about twelve miles 
south of Tipton, on the Missouri Pacific Railroad. It was organ- 
ized about 1874, with a membership of about thirty. It was 
under the care of Elder D. Bowman. 

Clear Creek church is in Saline County. It was organized 
about 1875, and under the care of Elder D. B. Williams. 

Brush Creek church is in St. Clair County, and was organized 
soon after the war, and was placed under the care of Elder Jacob 
Ullery. After his leaving, it was placed under the eldership of 
Brother John Ullery. He also moved away, leaving the church 
in the hands of Elder Lair. It was about three miles south of 
Osceola. 

Nevada church is in Vernon County, in the vicinity of Nevada. 
It was organized about 1870, and was under the care of Elder 
S. Click, assisted in the ministry by Brother Wine. 

Cedar County church is located in the southwestern part of 
Cedar County. It was organized about 1888, and under the care 
of Elder S. Click, assisted in the ministry by Brother Thomas 
Allen. 

Spring River church is in Jasper County, in the vicinity of 
Carthage. It was organized in 1872, and was placed under the 
care of Elder Addison Baker. Since his death it was under the 
care of Elder George Barnhart, assisted in the ministry by 
William Harvey and S. Garber. In 1878 there was a member- 
ship of about sixty. 

Shoal Creek church is in Newton County, in the vicinity of 
Newtonia, and was organized about 1872, having a membership 
of about seventy-five. It was presided over by Elders C. Harader 
and G. Barnhart, assisted by Brother William Hubbard. It was 

J 3 



194 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

in this church that J. W. Stein identified himself with the 
church. They have a commodious house in which to worship. 

Texas County church is located in Texas County. It was 
organized in 1879, and cared for by Elders Harader and Barn- 
hart, and is the result of missionary effort on the part of those 
elders. 

The churches of southwest Missouri are generally in a pros- 
perous condition. 

SOUTH WATERLOO, IOWA. 

The South Waterloo church was organized in April, 1856, with 
twelve members. Among these were John Spicher and wife, 
Matthias Miller and wife, John Dull and wife, John Berkley, and 
John Myers. John Filmore was chosen first pastor, and John 
Spicher was elected soon after. Meetings were held in the 
neighboring schoolhouses, in the country, and in the halls in town 
until 1868, when the church had grown numerically strong enough 
to build a house of worship when the Orange church was erected. 
It is 40x80 feet in size, and cost about $5,000. The house in the 
city of Waterloo is located on the corner of South and Seventh 
Streets, and was built in 1878. It is 30x48, feet, and cost about 
$1,200. 

The following persons were called to the ministry in the South 
Waterloo congregation : John Filmore, Joseph Ogg, John Spicher, 
S. M. Miller, S. H. Miller, C. Asquith, L. R. Peiffer, Martin 
Beeghly, John Snyder, W. H. Liclity, H. F. Maust, E. B. Hoff, 
A. P. Blough, L. W. Eikenberry, n' J. Miller, J. H. Fike, J. B. 
Spicher, W. O. Tannreuther. 

The following moved into the district : Jesse Myers, Henry 
Gochenour, Jacob Hauger, E. K. Buechley, Jacob A. Murray, 
A. B. Hochstetler, Tobias Musser, and Benjamin Buechley. 

Of this church the Waterloo Courier says : "There are many 
interesting spots in Black Hawk County, and one of no small 
importance is the Tunker settlement south of Waterloo. In the 
midst of this community, and at its most interesting point, stands 
their meeting-house, the largest country church in Iowa, known 
as the old Tunker Church of Orange. 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 



195 



"To many a visitor who goes to this place for the first time 
there naturally comes the thought that he has been transported 
back to the times of the early church, so devout and utterly devoid 
of any semblance of ostentation are the people and their sur- 
roundings. It is a picture of a people whose object in life seems 
to be to live in perfect harmony with themselves and the rest of 
the world, and at the same time uphold the teachings of Christ as 
they recognize them. 

"The church has two entrances, one for the women and the other 




SOUTH WATERLOO, IOWA 



for the men. At the ends of the room facing the center are sev- 
eral rows of plain wooden seats, while those in front of the 
pulpit — which is located at the side of the room directly opposite 
the entrances — face the platform. An aisle running through the 
center divides the room into two parts, one of which is occupied 
by the men, the other by the women. The room will seat upwards 
of eight hundred people. The ministers occupy the piatform dur- 
ing the service, each taking a part. The singing is entirely con- 
gregational. On Sabbath morning Sunday-school is held; then 



I96 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

follows the preaching service. The young people's society holds 
a meeting in the early evening, and preaching services are held 
again during the hour following. 

"It is a custom among the Tunkers to attire themselves in a 
peculiar style of dress. The men ordinarily wear a full beard, 
without a mustache. The clothing of both sexei is entirely 
plain. Broad-brimmed hats predominate among the men, while 
the ladies have a plain bonnet extending beyond the face. It is 
a custom for the men on meeting to extend the hand and salute 
with a kiss. This rule is also observed among the women. 

"This church has the honor, and we believe the pleasure also, of 
entertaining the first annual meeting held west of the Mississippi 
River, that of 1870. The congregation now numbers upward of 
three hundred and fifty members." 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

In the year 1884 J. S. Flory, M. Hasdel, and P. S. Myers made 
a tour through Arizona and California, for the purpose of select- 
ing a suitable location for a colony of brethren. After thorough 
investigation they decided upon a tract of two thousand acres 
twenty-five miles east of Los Angeles City. They projected a 
town which was named Los Covinas, afterwards changed to 
Covina. Arrangements were soon made for subdivision of the 
land in ten-acre blocks, and settlement commenced. 

A number of brethren with their families soon located there. 
At that time there were but two members in southern California. 
Meetings were opened in a hall near the colony. P. S. Myers 
settled at Ontario, ten miles east of Covina, with some other 
members, and held meetings there in a hall for some time. 

June 20, 1885, an organization was effected at Covina, with 
eighteen members and two elders, J. S. Flory and A. F. Deeter, 
one minister in the second degree, no deacons. A meeting-house 
was built near Covina, in 1886, named Southern California church. 
The name was changed to Covina church in 1889. Number of 
members now enrolled, one hundred and ninety-four. The next 
organization was in Ventura County, January 5, T889. Their 



I9# HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

church is now disbanded through removals. Lordsburg church, 
thirty miles east of Los Angeles, was organized Nov. I, 1890. 
John Metzger and John W. Metzger, elders. Number now, some 
seventy or eighty members. 

Tropico, five miles north of Los Angeles, was organized Aug. 
15, 189 1 ; J. S. Flory in charge. A neat little meeting-house was 
built at that place. Brother Reuben Wolf and others were the 
active members there. 

In 1892 P. S. Myers settled in the city of Los Angeles, and con- 
ducted services in a hall, assisted by S. G. Lehmer. 

In 1896 the name of the Tropico church was changed to First 
Los Angeles church, and measures set on foot to build a house 
of worship. Elder P. S. Myers had published a lithographic 
chart representing the world in its struggle for higher life. He 
made an extensive tcur through the eastern churches, selling the 
chart and donating the proceeds to purchasing the lots on which 
now stands one of the most modern and convenient church houses 
in the brotherhood, P. S. Myers designer and builder. The 
whole, complete, cost $3,200 ; membership, sixty. 

San Jacinto came next in order of organization. Isaac Gibble 
is the elder. 

Englewood organization, J. W. Thomas ; then Colton, which is 
under the mission board. 

A mission is also conducted in West Los Angeles by S. W. 
Funk, under the mission board. 

Solomon's creek, Indiana. 

In the year 1856 the Solomon's Creek church was organized, 
with Frederick P. Loehr and Martin Weybright ministers, and 
Jacob Arnold, John Weybright, Joel Rush, and Levi Wyland 
deacons. In the year 1858 Daniel Shively was chosen to the 
ministry, and F. P. Loehr was ordained elder. 

The meetings were held in barns, schoolhouses, and dwellings 
until the year 1864, when they built one of the largest meeting- 
houses in northern Indiana. This was during the Civil War, 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 199 

when drafts were frequent. Commutation money, in connection 
with the expense of building a house of worship, taxed the 
brethren very heavily. Just about the time the house was com- 
pleted, in the year 1864, Martin Weybright died, never having 
been permitted to worship in the new meeting-house ; and early 
in the year 1865 F. P. Loehr moved to Michigan. In June, 1866, 
George W. Cripe was chosen minister. In 1867 Joseph Hard- 
man and George Domer moved in, and in 1868 Lewis Muntz was 
chosen to the ministry. The same year George W. Cripe moved 
into another district. In 1869 Jesse Calvert was received by let- 
ter, and in 1 87 1 Joseph Hardman moved away, and Joseph Hart- 
sough was received by letter. In 1872 Abraham L. Neff was 
chosen to the ministry, and in 1873 George Domer moved away, 
and Davis Younce moved into the district. In 1875 Jesse Cal- 
vert, and in 1876 Joseph Hartsough, moved away, so that, in 1877, 
the ministers were Daniel Shively, Lewis Muntz, A. L. Neff, 
and Davis Younce. In 1877 twelve ministers and twenty-one 
deacons had served in the church since its organization. 

TENNESSEE. 

The first Tunkers of Tennessee were emigrants from Virginia. 
As early as 1799 the Shanks and Simmons families, of Greenbrier 
County, Virginia, settled in what is now Hawkins County, Ten- 
nessee. The former located on the Holston, the latter on Big 
Creek. Christ Simmons was a minister among them, but died 
soon after the settlement was made, and the membership was left 
without organization. 

Michael Krous, from Shenandoah County, emigrated to Wash- 
ington County, Tennessee, as early as 1799. He located on Knob 
Creek in 1801. 

The Bowman families came from Franklin County, Virginia, 
in 1801, some of them settling on Knob Creek, and others, later, 
on Boone's Creek. One member of this family had settled here 
some years earlier, but about the year 1797, he moved into the 
mountainous wilderness of the adjoining state of North Carolina. 
He and his companions were the first members of the church in 
Yancey County, where they located. 



200 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

The church was regularly organized by Elder Samuel Garber, 
of Rockingham County, Virginia, very early in the century. He 
preached the doctrines of the church here while the country was 
but sparsely settled and much of it a wilderness. Traveling on 
horseback a distance of three hundred miles or more from his 
home in Virginia, he is known to have visited the country as often 
as three different times. He was the first of the brethren who 
preached in Tennessee. 

The first resident Tunker minister was Isaac Hammer. His 
connection with the church was of short duration, on account of 
heterodox views. 

From the time of the organization up to 1834, the chief minis- 
terial force of the church was Daniel Bowman, English, and 
Michael Krous, German. David Molsbee, of Hawkins County, 
on the organization of the church there, in 1824, was added to 
the ministry. 

The first communion service after the organization of the 
church in Washington County, was held in a private house, in the 
gap of the ridge between Knob Creek and Boones Creek. Only 
five members engaged in the service. 

The membership remained small up to 1833, when the Garber, 
Nead, Miller, and Lair families, seven families in all, emigrated 
from the Valley of Virginia, and settled in Washington County, 
making quite an accession to the church. 

In 1834 Samuel Garber and John Nead were added to the min- 
istry, and about the year 1841 John A. Bowman, of Sullivan 
County, and Benjamin Byerly, of Limestone, Washington County, 
were added to the ministerial force. Solomon Garber, Sr., and 
Solomon Garber, Jr., had been preaching some time before this 
date. 

In 1844 a church was organized in Yancey County, North 
Carolina, with Henry Masters, and later, Peter Peterson, as min- 
isters. Pleasant Hill, Sullivan County, and Limestone church, 
Washington County, were separated from the Knob Creek 
church, as distinct organizations, about the year 1846. Other 
organizations followed, and have multiplied until, in the year 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 201 

1890, there were twenty-eight churches, sixty-six ministers, and 
a membership cf 1,700. 

Houses of worship were erected on Knob Creek, in 1834, on 
Limestone, 185 1 ; at Pleasant Hill, Sullivan County, 18—; Cedar 
Grove, Hawkins County, 1858; Pleasant Valley, 1858; Cherokee 
or Pleasant View, 1S58 or '59, and again in 1877; Whitehorn, 
1864 or '65 ; others, later. 

The above historical sketch is taken from an article by M. Nead, 
published in Brethren's Almanac, 1890. 

WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. 

In the spring of 1783 a young Tunker deacon by the name of 
John Keagey, emigrated from York County, Pennsylvania, to the 
back-woods of Bedford County, into the valley lying between the 
Alleghany and Negro Mountains, and located at a point about 
thirteen miles south of the ancient village of Berlin. At the time 
of his arrival there were living in the vicinity a few scattered 
members of the same denomination. One of those was John 
Burger, who lived on the farm now known as the Buechley estate. 
In the fall of the same year some ministering brethren from the 
east visited Brother Keagey, hunted up the other members in the 
valley, and held a love-feast at the house of John Burger, and 
organized the little band into a church. Keagey was promoted 
to the ministry, and another brother was elected deacon. This 
was the first communion meeting held by the Tunkers west of the 
Alleghany Mountains. 

Peter Livengood, John Olinger, Michael Buechley, and Chris- 
tian Hochstetler, all of them members of the Amish church, had 
preceded Keagey. The four families soon after united with the 
Tunkers, and Livengood, Buechley, and Hochstetler were called 
to the ministry. From this time onward the church grew 
rapidly, extending her borders southward into Maryland and 
across the neck into western Virginia, and northward to the 
Conemaugh. Some time afterward a separate church was organ- 
ized on the south, called Sandy Creek ; and, later on, Conemaugh 
was struck off into a separate church. Keagey was ordained 



202 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

bishop about the year 1790, and in the fall of 1806 he emigrated 
to the vicinity of Dayton, Ohio. Michael Meyer, who had emi- 
grated from Lebanon County in his youth, was ordained to take 
the place of Elder Keagey, and was, consequently, the second 
elder living in this valley. He presided over an extensive mem- 
bership for thirty years. He died in the spring of 1836. In the 
fall of the same year Peter Cover and John Forney were ordained. 
Forney died in 1847, and Jacob Meyer, son of Elder Michael 
Meyer, was ordained to the eldership. 

By the year 1849 the membership had become so numerous 
and the territory occupied so extensive, that it was deemed pru- 
dent to divide again. A general meeting was called for the 
purpose of deciding on the territory and boundaries. It was 
determined to divide into six churches, namely : Brothers' Valley, 
Ouemahoning, Middle Creek, Elklick, Bear Creek Cove, and Shade 
Mills. The latter two were in Alleghany County, Maryland. 
Peter Cover and Jacob Meyer, bishops of the Brothers' Valley 
church, were given charge of Quemahoning and Middle Creek 
churches ; John Berkley and Jacob Lichty were ordained elders of 
the Elklick church, and given the oversight of the two Maryland 
churches. A few years after the above work, Jacob S. Hauger 
was ordained bishop of the Middle Creek, and Christian Smucker 
of the Ouemahoning church. 

The farm occupied by John Burger at the time of the organi- 
zation above referred to, is now covered by the beautiful town 
of Meyersdale, and contains two Tunker Churches — one Con- 
servative and one Progressive — and more members to the square 
acre than any other territory in the United States. 

An incident occurred in a part of the territory described above, 
which is worth recording. The Tunkers were, from their begin- 
ning, great missionary people in their own way. Their method 
was peculiar to themselves. They called it visiting neighboring 
churches, and in olden times all. the churches of Pennsylvania 
constituted the neighborhood or mission field. It was quite com- 
mon for ministers from Franklin, Cumberland, and other eastern 
counties to visit, once a year, the churches beyond the Alleghany. 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 203 

During one of these mission tours, Elder George Price, grand- 
father of Elder Isaac Price, and others, had been visiting the 
church in the Glades. On their homeward journey they found it 
necessary to stop at a hotel. They were politely informed by the 
landlord that the house was promised for a dance that night, and 
he feared they could not be made comfortable. But it was grow- 
ing late, and it was seven miles to the next tavern, where the 
accommodations were not so good for man or beast. They seemed 
inclined to remain. The landlord remarked that his accommo- 
dations were ample, if the music and dancing would not disturb 
them. One of the old men remarked that neither the music nor 
dancing would keep him awake, if nothing of more annoying 
kind should follow ; and so they all said. 

After supper the landlord came to their room and stated that 
the leader of the dancing party desired to see them. He was 
invited up, and, after a brief interview, he requested that a few of 
his friends might also be permitted to enjoy their company. This 
was readily acceded to, and after a number had collected in the 
room, it was proposed to postpone the dance, and the old man 
was invited to preach ; and preach and pray they did ; but further 
deponent saith not. Eternity may reveal the results, but the Lord 
has declared that "bread cast upon the waters shall not return to 
Him void ;" and from the numerous crumbs scattered abroad 
by the pioneer Tunker preachers a wonderful sentiment has 
obtained, and a numerous membership is scattered over the ter- 
ritory included between the Alleghany Mountains and the Ohio 
River. 

WOLF CREEK CHURCH, OHIO. 

The Wolf Creek church is situated in the northwestern part of 
Montgomery County, and the northeastern part of Preble County. 
This district is about ten miles wide and twelve miles long. 
Among the earliest settlers were brethren who came while Ohio 
was yet a territory. The Bersts, Bakers, Cripes, Diehls, Nise- 
wongers, Shocks, Ulricks, and Wogomans were prominent among 
the earliest members in this part of the Miami Valley. 



204 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

All was under one organization — the Miami church — until 
October 18, 1811, when a committee of four elders from the east 
w r as called to settle the difficulties in which the officials were 
largely involved, and which threatened the life of the church on 
the Miami. The names of these elders were, John Garber, Mar- 
tin Garber, Jacob Staley, and Frederic Klein. The church com- 
mitted everything into their hands, and promised to abide by 
their decision. The trouble was investigated, a decision made, 
full satisfaction rendered, and the Miami church divided into four 
churches, the Wolk Creek church being the northwestern division. 
At that time it included all north of the Dayton and Western 
road, and west of the old Stillwater road, an unlimited terri- 
tory, but having the limited number of about twenty-five members 
only. It was under the care of Elder Daniel Cripe, a resident 
elder, assisted in the ministry by D. Ulrich. 

The meetings were held in the houses and barns of the mem- 
bers until the year 1837, when the first house of worship was built 
in the center of the district. It was called the Dutch meeting 
by the neighbors, as all the services were conducted in the Ger- 
man language until that time, and mostly for ten years longer. 
The German language has not been used much since 1879. 

The meeting-house built in 1837 was enlarged with kitchen 
attachment in 1856. In 1870 this was superseded by building the 
big meeting-house across the road. In 1872 the Eversole meet- 
ing-house was built in the southern part of the congregation. 
In 1886 the Wolf Creek and the Salem districts built one in 
.Arlington, on the line between the two churches. 

The following is a list of the ministers of the Wolf Creek 
church to 1897. Those marked with a star were elders. 

*Daniel Cripe, 181 1-28; Jacob Shively, 1814-20; D. Ulrich, 
181 1-25; * Emanuel Flory, 1820-30; *Michael Landis, 1822-33; 
*Samuel Pfoutz, 1830-43; *Christly Arnold, 1834-55; * Abraham 
Erbaugh, 1840-72 ; *Joel Wogoman, 1844-78 ; * Samuel Murray, 
1847-51 ; *Samuel Garber, 1852-81 ; Samuel Bock, 1855-65; George 
Sala ; Stephen Miller ; Ezra Gilbert ; John Wrightsman ; *Jacob 
Garber, 1870; John Kimmel, 1872-81; Henry Garber, 1879-81; 



GERMAN BAPTIST CONGREGATIONS. 205 

*Conrad Brumbaugh, 1879-81; Simon Mikesell, 1880-82; *John 
Calvin Bright, 1881 ; Samuel Horning, 1882 ; Geo. Erbaugh, 1882. 
Of the above, Brethren Cripe, Flory, Murray, Bock, and Sala 
moved to Indiana, and spent years of service in the Master's cause. 

John Arnold was elected to the ministry in 1832, but as he could 
not read, he asked to be excused, and said he was willing to serve 
as a deacon. This was granted in 1834, when his brother, Squire 
C. Arnold, was elected. From 183 1, for several years, Elder 
David Bowman, Sr., of the Bear Creek church, had the oversight 
of Wolf Creek. 

A general council was held in this church September 4 and 5, 
1840, by permission of the annual meeting of the preceding spring. 
In 1862 the annual meeting was held at the place of the 
former meeting, on the old Hay farm, with Brother Kline as 
moderator, and Brethren Savior and Quinter as clerks. In 
December, 1880, there was a large council held in the big meet- 
ing-house, called by the Miami Valley elders, who were not satis- 
fied with the disposition made of their petition by the annual 
meeting the preceding spring. A large number of elders from 
various parts of the brotherhood were present. The conserva- 
tive counsel of Brethren D. P. Saylor, James Quinter, R. H. 
Miller, Enoch Eby, and others, discomfited those who were 
anxious for separating for the time being. 

This church suffered considerably from divisions. In 1831-33 
Elder Michael Landis, with some ministers of adjoining branches 
of the church, caused a division. The principal points of differ- 
ence were : They wanted lamb for the Lord's Supper, the single 
mode of feet-washing only, and a greater distinction in non- 
conformity in dress. They prospered for some years, then 
became divided among themselves, and have been on the decline. 
They never erected houses for worship. They were put in 
avoidance and released therefrom by their own request. 

The later falling away was the Old Order Brethren, from which 
nearly all the churches of the Miami Valley suffered. The author 
of the petition of 1880 and the resolutions of 1881 was a prom- 
inent and influential elder of this district, and with him went one 



206 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



elder, two ministers in the second degree, and three deacons, with 
a total of one hundred and forty members. The loss was greater 
than that of any other church in the brotherhood. Their first 
conference meeting was held in this district in 1882. 

The first extended series of meetings was held in this church 
February 19-26, 1882, by Elder James Quinter. Sound doctrine 
that could not be gainsaid was preached in demonstration of the 
Spirit and power, uniting the members together with the bond 
of perfectness, so necessary after witnessing the troubles the year 
before, and anticipating, at the time, the progressive development. 
It was a most successful meeting. In 1886 they organized their 
first Sunday-school. In the same year the church unanimously 
concluded to go back to the original mode of feet-washing, with 
the supper on the table. 






CHAPTER IX 
DOCTRINAL 

The Tunkers having been avowedly opposed to creeds from 
the beginning, it has always been a difficult matter for outside 
parties to state, even approximately, what they did believe. 
Their practice, so far as ceremonials are concerned, could be 
observed and recorded with some degree of accuracy. However, 
a form of government has evolved through the decisions of the 
general conferences, which may be accepted as the rule of the 
church upon all points acted upon. The aim of the author of this 
work is to give the views of prominent members of the denom- 
ination upon all paints touching theology, and not his own. This 
course, I am persuaded, is both honorable and proper. It may,, 
however, give occasion to repeat more than is desirable, as this 
procedure will necessarily prevent a systematic arrangement of 
the various subjects to be treated. 

The first statement will be the testimony of Elder Daniel P. 
Sayler, of Maryland, affirmed to in the Court of Common Pleas 
of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, in a case involving church 
property. Elder Sayler being under affirmation, his statement 
must be accepted as being candid ; and being a prominent elder in 
the church, he was qualified to speak for the denomination as one 
having both knowledge and authority. This statement will also 
indicate the facts of the separation of the Old Order element, 
which faction became the nucleus for the organization of the Old 
German Baptist Church. 

The report of the court proceedings has been stripped of official 
interpolations, but the facts as stated have been carefully 
preserved. 

The question at issue for the decision of the court was, Which 
of the divisions of the fraternity was the church ? 

r207^ 



208 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



CHURCH TERRITORY, 



On this subject Elder Sayler said: "Our churches are com- 
posed of certain portions of territory, the boundaries of which we 
know, and which are larger and smaller. Over that territory an 
elder or bishop presides, and he may have one or more assistants 
in the ministry. These, with the laity, compose the church. The 
church has supervision, moral and religious, over its members. 

DISCIPLINE OF MEMBERS. 

"All matters of immorality are referred to our church council 
meeting, in which the offenders are tried. The case is stated, and 
when heard a vote is taken of all the members, male and female, 
of the church, as to how they hold. That decision of the church 
is mandatory. If the party feels aggrieved, and asks for a rehear- 
ing or new trial, if a majority favors, it is granted, and adjoining 
elders are called in to assist in the examination. If that does not 
satisfy, he may appeal to the annual meeting for a committee. 

ANNUAL, DISTRICT, AND OTHER COUNCILS. 

"The annual meeting embraces all the territory over which the 
church extends, — the United States, and Denmark, and all. It 
is the highest authority in the church. That body is made up of 
all who choose to attend it. The states are laid off in what we 
call district meetings, and these are made to suit convenience. 
Pennsylvania has three, and Maryland two, and so on. These 
meetings are held annually, and are, in a general way, composed 
of all who attend. Every church, however, has the right to be 
represented by two delegates. These take the business of 
their respective churches to that meeting. All questions are open 
to free discussion to all who are present. Decisions are made by 
'the vote of the delegates, without any rule. All questions not 
agreed to are sent to annual meeting ; also all questions of a gen- 
eral character are sent up, such as having the right to organize 
Sunday-schools, holding series of protracted meetings, establish- 
ing colleges. These come up generally in the form of petitions. 






DOCTRINAL. 209 

The district meeting asks concerning them. When these requests 
are granted, all the churches of the brotherhood have the right to 
avail themselves of the liberty. They are not mandatory to all 
churches, some having accepted them, others having rejected 
them, and hence the rebellion. 

"The annual meeting meets once a year — the first Tuesday after 
Whitsuntide. The district meeting elects a member of the stand- 
ing committee of the annual meeting, and one delegate at large. 
I further say that at the district meeting any who attend it may 
discuss, but only the church delegates may vote on questions. 
This standing committee of the annual meeting elects the mod- 
erator of the meeting. The delegate at large does little more than 
carry papers from the home church. The standing committee 
regulates all the business of annual meeting. All business is 
presented to the general meeting by the standing committee. 

"When such business is presented, it is open for free discussion, 
and all who are present may take part. The moderator decides 
who is entitled to the floor, calls the speaker to order, if out of 
order, and decides when the debate shall close. The question is 
submitted to the vote of the whole congregation, male and female 
members alike, formerly expressed by yeas and nays. A late 
meeting (1882) has annulled that order of voting, and adopted 
the delegate system. This is new, and yet untried. 

"The standing committee makes its own organization annually. 
They elect a moderator from their own number, and go outside 
for a reading clerk, who reads all papers ; a writing clerk, who 
prepares the manuscript for the press. A record is kept of the 
proceedings of each annual meeting, and the last few years, a 
stenographic report of the speeches. These proceedings are 
printed. The churches get the printed minutes, and in this way 
only do they get the action of the annual meeting. The annual 
meeting has decided that these minutes shall be read to the several 
churches. This, of course, is done after the printed proceedings 
reach the elders. No action of the churches is needed to be taken. 
The elders simply read them for the information of the churches. 

"A business meeting of a congregation is called a church meet- 

14 






2IO HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ing by some ; we call it a council. I think the times of holding 
these meetings differ in the several churches. Some hold them 
quarterly ; in mine we meet only when we have business. The 
elder or the eldest preacher who has the charge, presides at such 
meeting. 

"Our ministry is, however, as the first degree, the second 
degree, and the full ministry or eldership. The minister of the 
first degree is merely an assistant, has no authority to appoint 
meetings on his own account, and can preach only as liberty is 
given him by older ministers, except at funerals, when he is 
allowed to preach. 

"Of the second degree, he is authorized to make appointments 
in his own church territory, baptize, marry, administer the com- 
munion, preside in the local councils, and in all minor matters, 
but has no authority to preside in case an officer of the church is 
on trial, can not install in the ministry, nor lay hands on in 
ordination. 

"If advanced to the eldership, he is invested with authority to 
preside in all councils at home and abroad, and is eligible to serve 
on the standing committee. 

"In the first place, the presiding elder of a church sees the neces- 
sity of having another minister ; he makes it known to the church, 
and if the church assents to it, and it is desirable to have it unan- 
imous if possible, the members are exhorted to fasting and 
prayer, making the subject a matter of serious thought and prayer. 
At a meeting, generally one of our communion meetings, to which 
elders of other churches are called, before them all the members 
of the church are exhorted to say, by their voice, whom they will 
choose for their preacher. He who receives the majority is 
installed in the first degree of the ministry by one of the called 
elders. 

"A congregational vote is taken upon the question whether a 
minister shall be advanced to the second degree, and he is charged 
by the elders. When an elder dies, the minister of the second 
degree, who is next in seniority, is advanced. 

"When a brother is called to the eldership, two elders are called 



DOCTRINAL. 211 

from adjoining churches; to them the matter is stated. They 
retire to a private room, and all the members, male and female, 
are called into their presence, one at a time, and their wishes 
learned. It is desirable that they should be unanimous. If 
objection is made, and the elders present consider the objection 
well taken, there is no ordination ; but if the elders do not con- 
sider the objection well taken or legal, they may overrule the 
objection, and the ordination proceeds, his duties being clearly 
defined what the gospel requires of him and what the church 
requires of him. If he assent to it at all, and accepts his position, 
he kneels down, and two elders lay their hands on his head, with 
prayer, and he becomes an elder. Unless chosen in the manner 
I have described, no one has a right in our church to exercise any 
privileges of a minister. 

"The territory of a congregation is called a church, and a num- 
ber of them combined are a district. A church may have a num- 
ber of meeting places. Each district ordinarily has a presiding 
elder or bishop ; some have more. 

"All questions in the councils, the district meetings, the annual 
meetings, are decided by a majority. 

MANDATORY DECISIONS. 

"While heretofore there has not been a clear definition of what 
is mandatory and what is not, in the decisions of the annual meet- 
ing, it is hard for me now to define it. Matters come before the 
meeting in different shapes. If a matter arises in the church not 
involving a doctrinal question, and the elder may not be author- 
ized to decide it, he may send it to the annual meeting for advice, 
and the action of the annual meeting is advisory only. This 
question must pass through the district meeting. Cases of 
immorality, — criminal offenses, — the nature of which is not 
defined in the gospel, for instance, billiard and drinking saloons, 
which are not mentioned in the gospel, and similar cases, are 
taken up to the annual meeting. The decisions upon such cases 
are mandatory. If a petition asking the privilege to hold a 
Sunday-school is granted, the privilege applies to all the churches, 



212 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and all who choose may avail themselves of it. If my church 
accepts the privilege granted, no other church has a right to inter- 
fere with its liberty. The acceptance is determined by the church 
at home — by its council — by all who were present at it. At a 
council only members have a right to vote. 

"If a church asks for a privilege from the annual meeting, and 
it should be granted, but on the return of the decision from the 
annual meeting, the minority should yet be dissatisfied, I can not 
say what would be done, for no such case has ever arisen. 

"When a difference arises in a church in regard to matters that 
&re mandatory, the loyal members of that church will call a coun- 
cil, and that council will call adjoining elders, and they will exam- 
ine the case, and, if required, will expel the refractory members. 
The expelled ones have a right of appeal to the annual meeting 
for a committee, and that committee comes and examines the 
case, and if the decision of the church that expelled them is 
affirmed by the committee, and accepted by the majority of the 
loyal members of the church, the decision is final. 

"The highest jurisdiction in the church is the annual meeting. 
All the churches are subordinate and subject to the control of the 
annual meeting, if loyal. The loyal members of a church are 
those who are governed by the proceedings of the annual meet- 
ing, and that is so whether they are a majority or minority of the 
church. After that the disloyal members are not regarded as 
constituent members of the church. On doctrinal points, and 
those of crime and immorality, the action of the annual meeting- 
is mandatory, and that action must be obeyed by all the loyal 
members of the church. 

"In all cases that I can remember of appeals to the annual meet- 
ing, and decisions thereon, favorable to such matters as Sunday- 
schools, protracted meetings, and the like, if the local church or 
churches were not unanimous about them after the decision and 
a minority continued to oppose, the advice of the annual meeting 
has been to defer until there could be unanimity in the matter. 
If a minority in such cases as Sunday-schools, protracted meet- 
ings, or the like, which, when acted on and permitted by the 



DOCTRINAL. ' 213 

annual meeting, are advisory simply, should, in its opposition to 
the measure, refuse to agree with the majority and withdraw 
from the church, they would be expelled from and be no longer 
considered as members of the church. 

"The membership of the church, according to the last census 
taken (1882), is somewhat less than 100,000. 

"The denomination or body has no written or printed creed that 
I know of, except as developed by the minutes of the annual 
meeting. 

"The present dissension originated among the brethren in the 
Miami Valley, Ohio, in 1869. They came before the general 
council with a petition, and asked annual meeting to rescind cer- 
tain grants that they had granted, and objected to the manner in 
which the meeting was held; to the term "moderator;" to the 
names of certain of the general committee brethren being signed 
to the minutes. I, of the number, met them and satisfied them, 
apparently, for the time being, and harmony was restored until 
in 1880, when they presented to the annual meeting a petition, a 
printed copy of which I present. This is a petition from the 
elders of the Miami Valley to the district of southern Ohio, for 
the annual meeting of 1880. This came up from the district to 
annual meeting of 1880. It was presented and considered, but all 
that was petitioned for was not granted. I have here in print 
the action taken by the annual meeting. It is shown in the min- 
utes of 1880, in this pamphlet, on page 8 and following. The 
action of the annual meeting did not satisfy the petitioners. The 
elders signed to this petition called a meeting. I was present, 
and went there to prevent secession. This paper is headed "Min- 
utes of the Miami Valley Council." This paper shows what was 
officially done at that meeting. I believe that the object of the 
meeting was to bring about secession. The meeting was called 
for the 8th of December, 1880, and lasted through the 9th and 
10th. These resolutions were offered at that meeting, and when 
they failed to pass, it was agreed that these resolutions should 
go to the annual meeting; but when they came there, they were 
ruled out on the ground that they had not come from the district 



214 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

meeting. Then the petitioners called a meeting for August 24, 
1 88 1. I was not present at that meeting, but at that meeting the 
resolutions were adopted. With the exception of David Murray, 
the resolutions are signed by the same persons as had signed 
the former. 

"On September 2, 1881, I was in Ohio, and the loyal members 
of the Loudon and Painter Creek church held a meeting in the 
same house as the meeting of August 24 was held. William 
Cassel, the elder of that church, was the leader in that meeting of 
the 24th of August. This of September 2 was called by the loyal 
members of the church. At this meeting William Cassel was 
tried on the following charges : — 

"1. For taking an active part in the great schismatic meeting, 
by which many of our beloved members have been induced to 
separate themselves from the brotherhood. 

"2. For telling the untruth, and railing against the church, by 
saying, 'When I was at last annual meeting I did not know 
whether I was at a show, a circus, or an annual meeting, or what/ 

"3- 

"4. Preferred by Elder Joseph Kaufman : 'William Cassel said 
at the meeting of the 24th of August, 1881, that all who accept 
these resolutions, separate themselves from the brotherhood and 
the annual meeting.' 

"On these charges he was tried, and they were overwhelmingly 
proved. A vote was taken in regard to his standing in the church. 
One hundred thirty-nine answered, 'Not as a brother ;' eighteen 
answered, 'We hold him as a brother ;' and he was expelled. 

"In our faith we do not differ from any evangelical body of 
Christians. The differences are in the practical part. We believe 
in the atonement, as all Christians do. The only difference is in 
the manner of the application. We believe that faith, repentance, 
and baptism are inseparably joined together. We believe in 
thrice immersion, face forward. We believe that the Lord's Sup- 
per consists in a full meal, to be taken in the evening, according 
to the example given by Christ, in the thirteenth chapter of John. 
Directly after the meal is eaten, bread and wine are partaken of 



DOCTRINAL. 2I 5 

as the communion, representing the body and blood of Christ. 
To obey all the truths is a cardinal injunction. By that we mean 
to obey all the Scriptures teach. 

"We all consent in our baptismal covenant to obey the church — 
by which we mean the church, not the congregation. 

"As doctrine we regard faith, repentance, baptism, the Lord's 
Supper, feet-washing, communion of bread and wine, a kiss 
of charity. The Bible, and the Bible alone, is the rule of 
salvation as to matters of faith and practice, and has always been 
the rule. Our present system was organized in Germany, in 1708. 
Alexander Mack was one of the reformers. I think that in 1719 
it began in America. The first congregation was organized in 
Germantown, Pennsylvania. In essentials the doctrines are 
unchanged. It is one of the rules that members do not go to law 
with each other. We resort to equity to settle differences, as in 
cases of succession to property. 

"Touching the real estate belonging to the church, I know of no 
rule about its disposition. This question was never brought 
before the annual meeting, to my knowledge. There never has 
been a question raised at law about real estate. My knowledge 
is general, since 1841, of the doings of the annual meeting. Since 
1842 the proceedings are in print — before in manuscript — and 
were collected, at the grant of the annual meeting, by Elders 
Tames Quinter and H. D. Davy, and printed in a volume. So far 
as questions had been asked, these publications contain the action 
and advice of the church from the beginning. The annual meet- 
ings undoubtedly never assumed to themselves legislative power. 
The word 'mandatory' is a new word, and perhaps was used first 
at last annual meeting. When the meaning of the gospel is 
expressed, the annual meeting can not assume to change it. In 
the essentials of faith, repentance, baptism, and the Bible, all, 
loyal and disloyal, agree. If a man does not subscribe to the 
advantage of a Sunday-school, he is not disloyal. I accept such 
schools. If another will not, and will not fellowship me, he is 
disloyal. Objections to a paid ministry do not constitute dis- 
loyalty, only disobedience to the mandates. 



2l6 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

"The seceders in the Miami Valley withdrew because they 
objected to our tolerance of Sunday-schools, protracted meetings, 
missionary boards, colleges, and paid ministry. I know of no 
difference in doctrine at all. The seceders say that we have gone 
away from the doctrines of the old. In my earlier days — twenty- 
five years ago — this was the state of the church. We had then 
no railroads, etc., either. 

"I did not ever preach against the innovations. I do not know 
that I ever preached against colleges. I might find fault with 
those who oppose Sunday-schools. In an article in the Vindicator 
of March, 1878, written by me, I did take the ground that the 
church needed reorganization. 

"The article in the Vindicator of June, 1881, headed 'Legislative 
or Mandatory Only,' is my article. I have always contended that 
the decisions of the annual meeting should be mandatory on all 
subjects. I mean it in the strongest sense. I was the author of 
the petition presented in the last meeting, and the annual meet- 
ing decided that upon all subjects submitted to them its decrees 
or decisions should be mandatory. This action is not yet printed. 
The annual meeting sat for seven days. 

"By the reorganization of the church, as set forth in the article 
of March, 1878, I meant just what is set out in the petition pre- 
sented at last meeting, — that the church should define in a written 
rule what our faith, rules, and practices are ; should define minis- 
terial duties. If the annual meeting would accept, and if a cer- 
tain element would not, then, as I wished, that element should be 
sloughed off, but I did not get it adopted. Since I have been a 
member of the church, the majority rule in voting has been the 
rule. I do not know of any effort to get back to an older rule 
of unanimity. No man, for a mere matter of opinion, has ever 
been put out in our church. Since 1864, the powers of the annual 
meetings have not been changed, so far as I know. The rule has 
been advisory only. 

"Article 34, minutes annual meeting, 1865, 'Does the annual 
council make laws or give advice only when it has no direct gosr 
pel on the subject?' The answer being, Tt gives advice onlyjr 



DOCTRINAL. 217 

so far as I know, passed annual meeting, as appears by the 
minutes. 

"Article 41, pages 218-9, °f the published minutes of 1858, is the 
method of receiving people into the church, so far as I know. 
The covenant I speak of is that contained in Matthew 18: 10-22. 
It was the intention of the minutes that the practice of the church 
should be uniform, and this teaching was intended to make it 
so. * * * Questions about Sunday-schools, educated or paid 
ministry, are not put to candidates. These are not questions of 
doctrine, but of expediency or policy. 

"The rule of conduct touching suits at law was laid down in 
minutes of annual meeting, 1867, section 24, page 325. There 
have been some modifications since. One is that they might con- 
sult the church, and if the church saw proper, the right to sue 
might be given. Another is, that if a brother does sue, the church 
can not give him authority, and he does it on his own responsi- 
bility. When the suit is decided, the church may know what 
amount of wrong he did, and can judge him farther on. I don't 
myself consult the book of minutes, but consider the written law 
of the church to be the Bible. If the annual meeting passed 
what I thought to be in conflict with the Bible, I would oppose 
it; but if the annual meeting did pass it, I would then consider 
what to do. I would heed the decision as that of the church, and 
would think that I was wrong. If it were proposed to change 
baptism to sprinkling, then I would rebel. I make the Bible the 
rule of my conduct, and not the decisions of the annual meeting. 
As individuals, we are all permitted to hold our own views of 
what the Bible teaches, but are not permitted to preach all our 
private views. 

EXPELLED MEMBERS. 

"An expelled member is excluded from all participation in 
church matters, from the whole church. Any church fellow- 
shiping an expelled member can be brought into council. 

"The expulsion of members in accordance with the rules of the 
church, as we understand them, places such members out of fel- 



2l8 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

lowship with the whole body of the church at large ; and if the 
members of another church would admit those expelled members 
into their fellowship, they would be expelled also." 

OLD-ORDER TROUBLE IN THE ANTIETAM CHURCH. 

Then the case turned to local matters, and was confined to the 
Antietam church, Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Elder Sayler 
had been appointed bishop of that congregation by a committee 
from annual meeting, and his testimony was mostly in reference 
to cases of a personal or individual character. Then Elder Say- 
ler proceeded: "Such circumstances as those of the Miami Valley, 
and this of the Antietam church, Pennsylvania, never having 
occurred here before in the history of the German Baptist Church, 
I have no precedent on which to base what the mind of the church 
would be. My private opinion is, looking at it from the fact that 
a brother possessed of certain real estate dies intestate and has 
minor heirs, that it is legal, just, right, and allowed by the church, 
to sell and convey that realty through the court of equity. On the 
same ground I hold it to be just and right for the church to 
recover property by the same means. 

"The rule of the church is, that when a committee is sent by the 
annual meeting, that committee represents the church, and can 
make precedents for future action. 

"In the spring of 1881, a general visit of the whole church at 
Antietam, Pennsylvania, was ordered by the council, of which I 
was the presiding elder. A visit once a year is the order in our 
church. The object of a general church visit is to ascertain the 
standing and feelings of the membership, and to assist in recon- 
ciling matters of minor differences between members. On this 
visit the visiting brethren were instructed, in addition to their 
general duties, to ascertain the feelings of the membership in 
regard to the standing- in this division, and report to the council 
the names of all who go with the division. This was done, and 
at a council meeting to which the elders had again been called, all 
who were reported as having determined to go with the division 
were expelled without trial or notice. About eighty persons were 



DOCTRINAL. 219 

so expelled. There was a large congregation present that day, — 
about one hundred and fifty." 

The following is the paragraph from the Vindicator of June, 
1881, referred to in the foregoing: "Now I propose that annual 
meeting pass that all questions sent to her for decision shall be 
fairly decided according to the spirit of the gospel in such cases 
where there is no direct, Thus saith the Lord, applicable to the 
case, and that decision shall be mandatory ; and all brethren 
refusing so to observe it shall be dealt with as not hearing the 
church. 

"And that next annual meeting shall appoint a committee, to 
consist of one member from each district, who shall make their 
own organization, and shall, during the year, write out in regular 
order and form, the order, faith, and practice of the German 
Baptist Church, which shall be submitted to annual meeting of 
1882 for approval and adoption ; and when adopted shall be man- 
datory, as the rule and order of the church." — D. P. Sayler. 

HISTORICAL EVIDENCE ON FEET-WASHING. 

Brother C asset's Reply. 

The following article was put in print by the Brethren at 
Work, but was never published in the paper. It is a reply to 
the report of the committee appointed by the annual meeting to 
ascertain, if possible, which was the first mode of feet-washing 
practiced by the church. There were several elders on the com- 
mittee, but for some reason Elder Sayler alone . performed the 
duties assigned to them. This explanation will account for the 
personal character of Brother Cassel's article. 

The article from the pen of Brother Daniel P. Sayler in the 
Brethren's Advocate of March 30 was so far from the truth that 
I concluded it did not merit a reply, and would have held my 
peace, if brethren had not requested me to reply. I will, there- 
fore, in the fear of the Lord, try to do so. 

In the first paragraph he says : "In compliance with appoint- 
ment by annual meeting of 1871, to ascertain as far as possible how 



220 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the brethren first washed feet in America, I made as thorough, 
an investigation of the subject as then could be made," etc. Now, 
let me tell, with the strictest regard to truth, how thorough that 
investigation was made. 

He (Sayler) came here with another brother who is also an 
elder (but because he has so far held his peace, I will not now 
mention his name*) on a Saturday afternoon. I was not at home 
when they came, but they were kindly received by my family 
(who w T ere all members), and requested to stay, as I would soon 
be home, but they would not. My son and others of the family 
pressed them to stay, as it was our regular meeting Sunday, and 
it so happened that we had no preacher, therefore they were the 
more anxious that they should stay and preach for us ; but no, 
they would not, and stayed all night (unknown to us) near by with 
a stranger where they had no business. But while they were 
here, Brother Sayler said they would for all like to see the library, 
so as to have an idea of its nature and size. My son then took 
them up (the room is forty feet long in the clear), and they 
walked through to the end of it on the one side, and back again 
on the other to the stairway, without asking a question or looking 
at anything, and were, altogether, hardly five minutes in it. They 
then reported that they had been to see Brother Cassel, but found 
nothing on feet-washing, as he asserts. 

This, dear brethren, is the truth, and to corroborate it I say 
that in all my intercourse with the brethren I have not found a 
bitterer enemy to the single mode than Daniel P. Sayler. He 
had to come here because he was expressly ordered to see me, 
as I was informed. But he did not want to see me or anything 
pertaining to the single mode, and so he artfully slipped through, 
without seeing anything, in the manner just told. And what 
makes it still worse, the neighbor with whom they stayed over- 
night says that after supper he offered to walk with them up to 
my house, or he would bring them up, but they would not. 
I would further say that since his visit here I traveled through 
Maryland, and stayed with Brother Sayler all night, and to his 
credit I say, he received me very kindly as a brother in the Lord. 

* It was Elder Moses Miller. — Author. 



DOCTRINAL. 221 

It was a cold, chilly October evening, so after supper he raked 
up the fire and said, "Now, Brother Cassel, sit here by me, and 
let us have a real old-fashioned talk." "What shall be the sub- 
ject, Brother Daniel?" said I. "Oh, anything at all," he replied, 
"except feet-washing! I will hear nothing about that, for you 
have your views and I have mine, and I mean to hold to what 
I have. Therefore, there is no use talking about it." And so 
my visit to him passed off without saying anything more about 
it. For, from his previous knowledge of me, he knew very well 
that I had such overwhelming testimonies in favor of the single 
mode that he could not overcome them, and therefore he would 
not hear or see anything relating to it. This, I trust, will suffi- 
ciently answer his first paragraph. 

In the second he ^says : "The only written testimony I found 
on the mode of feet- washing is from the Ephratah Chronicon, on 
pages 217, 218. It is written that G. A. Martin and J. Ham came 
to Ephratah on a visit, and stopped with \ Father Friedsam (that 
is, Conrad Beisel), when he washed their feet and Brother 
Negley wiped them," etc. 

This, he says, is the only testimony he could find, and this is 
the double mode. I say it is no testimony at all ; or if it is any- 
thing, it is against him, as it only proves their deviation from 
their own, original single mode. But it does not concern us in 
the least, as Ham and Martin were both at the time fallen mem- 
bers, who had left the church. Ham became a Universalist of 
the worst kind, and of Martin I might say a good deal, but out 
of respect for his yet living descendants I forbear. And, further, 
it was only a social act of humility, which was more or less cus- 
tomary at that time to distinguished visitors, as I very well 
remember myself; and as it was not intended for the sacred 
ordinance to be observed in connection with the emblem, it did 
not matter about the mode. But be that as it may, it does. not in 
the least concern us now, for this took place about the year 
1760, and Beisel and his adherents had left the brethren already 
in 1734. And so completely did they leave them, that they 
would neither "lot nor part with them any more;" and as a 



222 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

token of it Beisel said, "We even gave them their baptism back 
again by being rebaptized." Therefore, I said it did not con- 
cern us how they observed it so many years after they had so 
completely left us. But, to enlighten Brother Sayler and others 
equally ignorant, I will give you a short account of Conrad 
Beisel, and the organization of the church to which he belonged. 

He was born at Eberbach, in Germany, in 1691, and although 
bred a Presbyterian, he was a ripe mystic before he left Ger- 
many. He arrived at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1720, from 
whence he came to Germantown, Pennsylvania, and had his 
home for several years with my great-grandfather, Peter Becker, 
and learned the art of weaving stockings while with him. After 
he left Germantown he traveled westward, and lived for a while 
as a hermit about Mill Creek, and the Swedespring, in Lancaster 
County. He was long before convinced of the duty and neces- 
sity of baptism, but considered himself so eminently holy and 
far advanced in the divine life that he could see nobody fit to 
administer it to him, until the thought struck him that, while 
Jesus Christ condescended to be baptized by His inferior servant 
John, so he might also be baptized by one inferior to himself, and 
was accordingly baptized by Peter Becker, with six others, on the 
1 2th of November, 1724, in the little stream called the Pequa, 
in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These were the nucleus of 
the old Conestoga or Ephratah church. Others were soon 
added, and a church was organized there the same vear, with 
the assistance of Peter Becker and others from the mother church 
of Germantown, and entrusted to the care and oversight of this 
Conrad Beisel. He soon began to make changes, and introduced 
a number of innovations which the brethren would not sanction. 
So, after a great deal of trouble and long years of vexation, they 
finally split, as above said, and let him have his own way, which 
included Brother Sayler's favorite double mode of feet-washing, 
which you may rest assured has no higher origin than the fertile 
brain of the mystic Conrad Beisel. 

In the third paragraph he says : "One thing is certain, that the 
claim 'mother church' does not apply to the Germantown church, 



DOCTRINAL. 223 

for mother implies offspring, and she has none, while her sister 
Conestoga has many branches." With astonishment I ask the 
reader, Did you ever hear anything further from the truth than 
this assertion? I think I have already satisfactorily shown that 
Conestoga was not the sister nor a sister of the mother church of 
Germantown, but one of her legitimate and first-begotten daugh- 
ters ; and as mother implies offspring, as he says, so sister must 
necessarily imply a descent. I would, therefore, ask, Where did 
this sister Conestoga descend from ? What is her parentage ? or, 
Who was her mother? Even if we had no record of her origin 
and organization, it is a well-known fact that all the brethren that 
came across the ocean first stopped a while at Germantown, and 
that the first and only organized church of the brethren then in 
America was the one organized in Germantown, which was organ- 
ized on the 25th of December, 1723, at the house of Brother John 
Gomery. Now, as this was the first, and, as already said, the 
only church in America, and which for a while embraced all the 
members that came to America, how, then, could Conestoga be 
her sister, or how could she be anything else but an offspring of 
the mother church of Germantown, as he himself is, as I will 
show. For his ancestor, Daniel Sayler, or Seiler as the name 
was then written, was baptized into this Conestoga church on the 
29th of March, 1782, by Michael Pfoutz, and Michael Pfoutz 
by its then elder, Michael Frantz, in 1739, and Michael Frantz 
was baptized by Peter Becker, of Germantown, on the 29th of 
September, 1734, and also ordained by him the same year, which 
proves that our servant D. P. S. is a direct offspring of that 
mother church which he says had no offspring. 

Further on in the same paragraph he says : "It is true that the 
brethren always did wash feet in the single mode in the German- 
town church, but in all subsequently-organized churches the 
double mode was always practiced, ... for it is morally 
certain that the single mode was observed in no other church." 
This is another very erroneous assertion, for it is not only 
"morally certain," but positively sure, that the double mode was 
not always practiced in all the subsequently-organized churches, 



224 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

but on the contrary, the subsequently-organized churches did, for 
a good while, all practice the single mode, and many of them held 
to it till they were broken up by domineering elders. To clear 
this assertion I shall resort to history, which is as follows : — 

The double mode being introduced as above said by Beisel and 
his adherents, it soon gained favor by others, who also took part 
in it. Especially was this the case with the sister church of 
Coventry, then under the eldership of Martin Urner, who was also 
a mystic, born in Alsace, in Germany, in 1695 ; came to America 
in 171 5, and settled with the Hermits of the Ridge, not far from 
Philadelphia, in 1723. He was also baptized by Peter Becker, 
after which he and several others moved to what is now Coventry, 
in Chester County, who were the nucleus of that for many years 
flourishing church of the same name, and of which he became 
the overseer, in 1729; and while he was of a kindred spirit with 
Beisel, he would see things as Beisel did, and, as a matter of 
course, took sides with him in many respects, at least in the 
double mode of feet-washing, which was early introduced in that 
church. And as the country was beautiful, and the soil very 
fertile, numbers flocked thither, until the price of land became 
very high, and being mostly poor, they began to leave and seek 
for cheaper homes elsewhere. Many moved to what was then 
called the Conecocheague, now partly embraced in the counties 
of Franklin and Perry, and established churches there as early 
as 1743. Some also went to German colonies that were then 
settling in Virginia and further south, where they likewise estab- 
lished churches at an early day. In the surroundings of the 
Conestoga church, the case was pretty much the same, as many 
left there also to seek for cheaper homes elsewhere, going mostly 
to Maryland, and settled within the limits of the present old 
Pike Creek and Beaver Dam churches. The most prominent 
among these was the above-mentioned Daniel Seiler, whose pos- 
terity constituted the leading members of those churches for many 
years ; and as he came from a church that had adopted the double 
mode, it is quite natural that he took that mode with him to 
Maryland, as we suppose the others also did to the places 



DOCTRINAL. 225 

whithersoever they went, which accounts for the early introduc- 
tion and practice of it in those localities, especially in those 
churches that were planted by them. By a careful research I 
rind that nearly all the churches that sprung from them adopted 
the double mode, and so strenuously did they adhere to it as if 
it were of divine origin, while those churches which descended 
more direct from the mother church of Germantown invariably 
practiced the single mode. And they did establish many, as I can 
abundantly show, in different parts of Pennsylvania, in New Jer- 
sey, Maryland, Virginia, and in the Carolinas, both in North and 
South, as also in Georgia. From there they began to "pitch 
their tents" westward into Tennessee and Kentucky, where they 
became very numerous, until elders from the north and east 
began to make it their business to interfere with their mode of 
feet-washing; and to such an extent did they interfere, that to 
escape their fury, they found it necessary to leave those settle- 
ments. Consequently, they dispersed throughout Indiana and 
Illinois, and even beyond the Mississippi, until they reached what 
was then called the Black Hawk purchase, now Jefferson County, 
Iowa, and established the single mode wherever they went. But 
they were nowhere allowed to enjoy their peace long, until they 
were assailed for their single mode. Several were coerced 
against their will to accept the double mode, and they even went 
so far as to disown whole churches that would not submit, of 
which I could give a number of instances in detail, but charity 
forbids. On account of the great opposition that was every- 
where exerted against the single mode, it declined very fast. For 
these "lords over God's heritage" did also forbid to organize any 
more churches in the single mode, and in consequence of their 
persistent opposition, many that were organized in that way 
finally changed, some because they were almost compelled to it. 
Some, perhaps, voluntarily, after being made to believe that it 
was indifferent, and so much more convenient ; and many for the 
sake of gaining favor with the elders, and being more popular 
with what came to be the general order of the day, so that in 
many places where the single mode was extensively practiced it 

15 



226 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

became nearly extinct, so that it is now a matter of history and 
a surprise to the rising generation to hear that it was once so 
prevalent. But I am happy to say that the adversary's counter- 
feit is fast losing ground again, and the true mode is being estab- 
lished almost everywhere, for many of the churches in the east 
and some in the south and west are beginning to see their error, 
and are now striving to recover the "old landmarks" of their 
fathers, after the example of our great law-giver, Jesus Christ. 

In conclusion I would say, that even our old Indian Creek 
church here, which was so long under the pastoral care of the 
mother church of Germantown, was also duped to the double mode 
about seventy-five years ago, after the good old fathers had 
dropped off, and practiced it that way until about ten years ago, 
when we asserted our Christian liberty, and changed back again 
to the original single mode. 

I hope this may be sufficient to convince any impartial reader 
that the mother church of Germantown really had "offspring," 
that the "Conestoga is not her sister," and that the double mode 
"was not practiced in all the subsequently-organized churches ;" 
and also that it is not "morally certain" that the single mode "was 
never" observed in "any other church," except in that of 
Germantown. 

There are a few more assertions in Brother Sayler's article that 
might have been replied to, but I hope truth will not suffer by 
passing them in silence. Abram H. Cassel. 

MANUSCRIPT NOTES BY ELDER GEORGE HOKE. 

The following was printed in the Gospel Visitor, in 1864, with 
the accompanying explanation : "These notes were lately handed 
to us by his surviving widow, a beloved sister in the Lord, and we 
hasten to give it a place in our columns, to preserve it from being 
lost, and for the edification of the church." 

Deacon or minister is one and the same thing or office. Christ 
is called a deacon or minister of the circumcision. Rom. 15:8. 

The word "deacon" can only be found five times in the New 



DOCTRINAL. ' 227 

Testament, once in the Epistle to the Philippians I : i, and four 
times in I Tim. 3 : 8, 10, 12, 13. 

The word "deacon" can not be found applied to those seven, or 
any one of them, in Acts 6, or in any place of the New Testament. 

Distribution. — It is very plain to be seen from Acts 2 : 45 ; 
4:35, 37, and 5:2, that previous to the dispute which arose in 
the church, or the murmuring of the Grecians against the 
Hebrews (about or) in the neglect of their widows in the daily 
ministrations, when any money was given, it was laid at the apos- 
tles' feet, and distribution was made, as every man had need, 
there must have been those that made them (or it). Tables were 
served before the dispute arose, as well as after the seven were 
chosen and installed into office. 

Now upon such an important complaint, if the apostles had to 
investigate the matter, it would have drawn their attention from 
preaching the Word. 

Therefore, the apostle said, "Look ye out among you seven 
men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom [of 
course of the first class], whom we may appoint over this busi- 
ness," now in dispute, of course, in the church. 

Who can say aught but that those seven brethren may have 
been some of the seventy disciples, whom Christ Himself had 
appointed and sent out to preach and to heal the sick, etc., whereas 
Stephen, one of the seven brethren chosen and installed into 
office in Acts 6:6, did begin (see verse 8 of the same chapter), 
to preach, and did great wonders and miracles among the peo- 
ple ; kept (continued) preaching unto them with power, until he 
was stoned to death. See Acts 6, from verse 8 to the end of chap- 
ter 7. 

Philip, another one of those seven brethren chosen in Acts 
6 : 6, and installed into office, went down to the city of Samaria, 
and preached unto them Christ ; also did miracles, cast out unclean 
spirits, healed the palsied and lame, and baptized, etc. Acts 
8 : 5-7, 37, 38, 40. This same Philip is also called an evangelist, 
an office next to the apostles, by Paul and his company. See 
Acts 21 : 8. 



228 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Now, from the Word it appears without any contradiction that 
those seven chosen by the church at Jerusalem, were at least next 
to the apostles in office, as can be seen by the acts, deeds, and 
miracles done (performed) by them; I say again, were called 
evangelists, but have never been called deacons ; no, not even one 
of the seven by the Word. 

Paul says (2 Cor. 12:12), "The signs of an apostle were 
wrought among you in all patience, in signs and wonders, and 
mighty deeds." These were wrought by Paul, who was not 
of the original twelve. 

The apostle Paul says thus to the Ephesians (chapter 4:11, 12), 
"And He [Christ] gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and 
some, evangelists ; and some, pastors and teachers ; for the per- 
fecting of the saints," etc. 

Paul to the Corinthian brethren, enumerating the offices in the 
church of Christ, says : "God has set some in the church, first 
apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that mir- 
acles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of 
tongues." I Cor. 12:28. 

We can plainly see from the aforesaid scripture passages of 
the New Testament, that those seven brethren chosen by the 
church and set before the apostles to be installed into their offices 
in Acts 6:6 (or their office), must have been remarkably dif- 
ferent from the office of our visiting brethren or overseers of the 
poor, as they have ever been set apart by the church of the old 
brethren, which they have again established upon the Word of 
God in these United States something near a century and a half 
ago, and has, down to the present time, been kept up by all the 
churches, with few exceptions, in the manner laid down by the 
old brethren aforesaid agreeably to the gospel. 

Our visiting brethren or overseers of the poor, when put in 
their office, are not commanded to go and preach the gospel, but 
their duty merely is, to visit the sick and the poor, to have charge 
of the church treasury, and serve tables at the communion. It 
is even not required of them to rise in public meeting, when they 



DOCTRINAL. 229 

bear a testimony to the Word preached or spoken by the speakers 
(ministers of the Word) in the church. 

The old brethren have, therefore, always done, and do yet, 
when a choice is made in a church, and they are set before the 
elders, either for speakers or visiting brethren, that is, then they 
are instructed in the order of the house of God, and in their duty 
in their several offices, and then they are received by the old 
brethren, and afterward by the whole church by the hand and kiss. 

Old teachers, when they are to be set apart for a special pur- 
pose, or to be ordained, are to be placed before two or three 
ordained elders, one of whom will lay down the duty of his office 
as an established, ordained minister in the church or house of 
God, and those that officiate lay their hands on him and pray, and 
then he is also received by the whole church then present by 
hand and kiss, and is thus ordained "in the church of the living 
God, the pillar and ground of the truth." I Tim. 3: 15. 

Laying On of Hands at Baptism. — See Acts 8: 17; 19:5, 6; 
Heb. 6:2. 

Laying On of Hands in Ordaining or Setting Apart Ministers. 
— See Acts 6:6; 13:3; 1 Tim. 4 : 14, and 5 : 22. 

Laying On of Hands on the Sick. — Acts 28 : 8 ; James 5 : 14-16 ; 
Mark 16: 18. 

Laying On of Hands by Violence. — John 7:30; 8:20; Acts 
4:3; 5- 18; 21:27. 

Laying On of Hands. — A similar circumstance in the Bible, 
where Moses was commanded by the Lord, saying, "Thou shalt 
bring the Levites before the Lord, and the children of Israel shall 
put their hands upon the Levites." Num. 8:9, 10. The number 
then of the Levites was twenty-two thousand (Num. 3: 39), and 
the number of the Israelites was six hundred and three thou- 
sand five hundred and fifty, who were commanded to lay their 
hands on the twenty-two thousand Levites, which, the Word says, 
they did according to the command of the Lord. Chapter 8 : 20. 

On the Lord's Supper. — John 13:2. Whether supper being 
literally ended, or only ready and prepared, or served on the table 
before feet-washing? Some translators give it, supper being 



23O HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

finished ; some, supper being ended ; some, supper being prepared ; 
and some, supper being done. But I can not find anywhere in the 
New Testament, that supper was served on the table before feet- 
washing. 

Matthew writes, "Go and make ready, or prepare ; and they 
made ready." Matt. 26:17-19. Mark records words to the 
same amount. Mark 14:12; 15:16. Luke, also, 22:8, 9, 
12, 13. John says (chapter 13:4), "He riseth from supper," 
which we understand from the prepared supper. As all the other 
three say nothing about feet-washing, so I can find nothing that 
the supper was served on the table before feet-washing. 

Since Matthew, Mark, and Luke say nothing of feet-washing, 
but merely mention (Matt. 26 : 20) , "When the evening was come, 
He sat down with the twelve; Mark 14: 17, "In the evening He 
cometh with the twelve ;" Luke 22 : 14, "And when the hour 
was come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him." 

But after Jesus had washed the disciples' feet, He asked them, 
"Know ye what I have done unto you?" In this He had shown 
them by His example. He then began to command them to 
observe the ordinance of feet-washing. Peter did not know 
what use it was for ; but in giving the command Jesus gave other 
instructions (John 13:26), when He dipped the sop and gave it 
to Judas at supper. This took some time, — from the time He rose 
from the table, and washed their feet, then seated Himself again, 
and commanded them how to do it, and observe the ordinance ; 
and shortly before His ascension He commanded them again, 
"Teach them to observe all things, whatsoever I have commanded 
you." Matt. 28 : 20. When we are commanded to do a certain 
thing, reason and Scripture will give us time to do it in, as every- 
thing in the house of God was to be done in order. 

Jesus says, "Ye ought to wash one another's feet." In Ger- 
man, "So sollet ihr audi cuch untereinander die Fucsze zvaschcn," 
that is, Ye shall wash feet among yourselves. 

It was the custom of the patriarchs of old to wash feet always 
before victuals were served on the table, as Abraham, Gen. 
18*4, 5; Lot, chapter 0:9:2, 3; Bethuel, chapter 24:32, 33; 



DOCTRINAL. 23 1 

Joseph, chapter 43 : 24, 25. Some more testimonies see hereafter. 
On Fasting. — As some think, there is no command to fast. See 
Matt. 6:16, 17; 17:21; Acts 13:2,3; 14:23; 1 Cor. 7:5; 
2 Cor. 6 : 5. 

On the First Resurrection. — See Matt. 24:31; Rev. 14:1-5; 
20:4-7; 1 Thess. 4: 15-17; 1 Cor. 15:20, 23-25, 51, 52. 

"If I tarry long, that thou may est know how thou oughtest to 
behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the 
living God, the pillar and ground of the truth." 1 Tim. 8: 15. 

Easter. — The festival of the goddess Eostre, worshiped by 
Pagans, was six days after the Jewish Passover, and why so called 
is from the Saxons. But why translated or called Easter in Acts 
12:4, in our English New Testament, is not known certainly. 
Never anywhere else is the name Easter found in the English 
Bible, but always called the Passover, or feast of Passover. 
Acts 12:4. 

Matthew wrote his gospel about a. d. 44 ; Mark also in 44 ; 
Luke wrote his in 55, and the Acts in 63 ; John wrote his gospel 
in 97, his epistles in 66, and the Revelation in 96. He died about 
a. d. 99, aged ninety-two years. 

Any brother or brethren wishing to have any order changed in 
the church, as a matter of course he or they should find and show 
by the Word, that the order heretofore (observed) kept up by 
the churches was not in accordance with the Word. 

The general council meetings (annual meetings, etc.) are not 
instituted by the apostles (see Acts 15) for debating (or dis- 
cussing) meetings, but to bring things in a union of spirit and 
of soul, according to the Word of God. 

Christ said to Simon the Pharisee, when seated at the served 
table in the Pharisee's house, "Thou gavest Me no water for My 
feet." Now had it been the custom to set victuals on the table 
before feet-washing, he would not have faulted Simon as yet. 
Simon could have told Him, It is a-coming, or, It will soon be 
here. Luke 7 : 44. 

Feet-washing was always practiced before the meal was put on 
the table. See above and examples of the patriarchs. 



232 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

The Lord Jesus sent out His disciples two by two. See Luke 
10:1; James 5:14; Mark 16:8; Peter and John, Acts 3:1; 
Paul and Barnabas, Acts 13:2. 

The brethren's practice in feet-washing was the same. They 
went two by two, and one to wash and the other to wipe, each 
saluting- with the kiss of charity. 

They were sent two by two. Mark 6 : 7. The twelve apostles 
were thus sent, and so were the seventy. Mark 6:7; Luke 10 : 1. 

FORM OF WORSHIP. 

In order to afford the readers of church history, in the coming 
generations, a full account of these peculiar and interesting peo- 
ple, I will devote this chapter to a detailed statement of their 
faith and practice. 

I had intended in this connection to publish the contents of a 
pamphlet entitled, "Doctrines and Duties, or Faith and Practice 
of the Tunkers," by J. W. Beer, and had obtained permission 
from the author to do so, but can not find room within the allotted 
compass of this work. 

In the first place, what they believe and teach may be compre- 
hended in the statement that they accept the New Testament as 
their creed and discipline. That is, the New Testament as it is, 
and not as they would have it, or as they understand it, but as it 
reads. They believe that the Book is inspired of God , has been 
preserved by His almighty power, and translated into the vari- 
ous languages through His direct instrumentality ; that the Book 
means what it says, and says what it means, nothing more and 
nothing less, and is not to be added to nor taken from, and will 
suffer no deviations. That is Tunkerism, briefly but accurately 
stated. 

The application of the principles embraced in the above state- 
ment must, of course, depend upon the intelligence of its adher- 
ents. The same is true of the student or teacher of any science in 
the use of any text-book. 

First we will relate their method of selecting their ministers. 



DOCTRINAL. 233 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

When it is discovered by the congregation that more preachers 
are required to perform the duties expected of the ministry, the 
elder and his colaborers, ministers, and deacons hold counsel 
among themselves as to the proper course to be taken. When 
they have agreed upon a plan of procedure, the matter is sub- 
mitted to the church in open council. The usual manner is to 
call a council after the regular preaching service, where a number 
of appointments are held in the same congregation. If a reason- 
able unanimity of sentiment prevails, the time and place are 
agreed upon and announced. This is usually fixed at the time 
of communion, when ministers from a distance are expected. It 
is necessary, according to the usages of the church, for at least 
one ordained elder to be present when church officers are to be 
chosen. 

The business session generally follows the forenoon service. 
Public statement is made, and the members are instructed and 
admonished as to their duties and privileges. All members, male 
and female, have the privilege of franchise ; and all male mem- 
bers are eligible to office, but only those in the order can be 
installed or ordained. This means, among the German Baptists, 
that he must wear his hair and clothing after a certain prescribed 
fashion, and of late that he must not use tobacco as a habit, and 
must also possess the scriptural qualifications for the duties 
required by his office. 

An election board is agreed upon by the officials present. These 
are stationed in a booth, generally the kitchen or in the attic. All 
the members are then expected to come before this board, one 
at a time, and cast their ballot for whomsoever they may wish, 
having been cautioned to make the subject a matter of prayer, 
and to avoid electioneering. 

If a member should not be able to make up his mind in favor of 
any one, he may be excused. I have assisted on occasions when 
one candidate was far ahead of all others, when the question was 

put to such undecided persons, "Will you be satisfied if 

should be elected ?" 



234 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

In cases of advancements the question is generally asked, "Are 

you agreed that shall be advanced to the second degree 

of the ministry ?" Or, if a bishop is desired, "to the full minis- 
try, or eldership?" 

In all the divisions of the Tunker fraternity unanimity is sought 
for in all church work. In the election of church officers a 
majority of voices has lately been required; formerly a plurality 
would answer. It is not deemed prudent to ordain a brother if a 
respectable minority opposed his appointment. 

The votes having been counted, everybody is expectant until 
the announcement of the result has been made. This is usually 
done after the opening of the next session. The officiating elder 
may be expected to say, after having introduced the subject: 
"While the choice was not unanimous, which scarcely ever occurs, 
I am happy to say that the result of the election still shows that the 
hand of the Lord has been in the work. The choice of the 
church, by a respectful majority, is in favor of Brother ." 

In some congregations the duties of the officers chosen are first 
stated before announcement is made. Those who practice this 
method believe that closer attention will be given to the state- 
ments of the duties required by the newly-elected party while his 
nerves are yet undisturbed by the knowledge that he is the party 
who is to take on himself the grave responsibilities. 

The person or persons who have been elected and named are 
then requested to come forward. Having been suitably seated, he 
is required to promise to conform to the order of the church, as 
stated before. If his promises are satisfactory, the installation 
will follow. In the German Baptist Church the following form 
is used : — 

"Dear Brother: Your duties, while in the first degree of the 
ministry, are not very onerous. The church authorizes you to 
exhort and to preach as an assistant to the elder and older min- 
isters, as they may give you liberty to do. It is your duty, how- 
ever, faithfully to attend the meetings of the church, and, when 
liberty is given, to exhort or preach, and do it humbly, and will- 
ingly, and faithfully, as the Lord will afford you grace to do. 



DOCTRINAL. 235 

But should it happen that none of the older ministering brethren 
should come to the regular appointment, then it will be your 
duty, and you are hereby authorized to conduct the meeting 
according to the usual order of the brethren, to the best of your 
ability, and to announce the regular appointments. But you have 
no authority to make or announce any appointments on your own 
private account. In case, however, you are called to preach on 
a funeral occasion, you are at liberty, and are hereby authorized, 
to go and conduct the services according to the usual order of the 
brethren. And it is thought good that the elder and older min- 
istering brethren should be liberal in giving you liberty to preach, 
and not always confine you to the closing services, or you may 
not soon learn to be a "workman of God, that needs not to be 
ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth." 

As a confirmation, the minister and his wife, if a married man, 
are then told to stand up, and all the members present are invited 
and expected to come forward and extend the Christian salutation 
to the newly-elected minister. (See Glossary.) 

In the Brethren Church all officers of the church are installed 
by imposition of hands, which they regard as a means of grace, 
and not as a token of distinction. 

When a minister is to be advanced to the second degree, the 
process of election having been performed, the candidate is 
required to reaffirm his satisfaction with the church and the 
decisions of the annual meeting, and to conform to its rules. 
That having been done, the following form of installation may be 
used : — 

"Dear Brother (naming him) : The church having called you 
into the first degree of the ministry, and on trial has confidence 
in your fidelity and integrity, now proposes to advance you into 
the second degree, and thereby your labors will be increased, and 
your duties will become more onerous, and will require a greater 
sacrifice on your part. The church now authorizes you to appoint 
meetings for preaching, according to the general order of the 
brethren, to administer the ordinance of baptism, and, in the 
absence of an elder, to take the counsel of the church on the 



236 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

admission of an applicant for baptism, to serve the communion 
in the absence of any elder, or at his or their request, if present ; 
to solemnize the rite of marriage according to the laws of the state 
and the usages of the church ; in brief, to perform all the duties 
of an ordained elder, except that you have no authority to install 
officers in the church, neither by giving a charge, as I am now 
doing, nor by laying on hands in ordaining a brother into the full 
degree of the ministry. You have also no authority to preside 
in the council meetings of the church in which official members of 
the church are to be dealt with. You have no authority to go 
into the acknowledged territory of any organized church to make 
appointments for preaching, unless called by the elder or council 
of said church. It is an assumption of authority for an ordained 
elder to do so. But be it understood that while the church now 
invests you with rights and privileges, she still holds you to the 
apostolic injunction, 'Ye younger, submit yourselves unto the 
elder; yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed 
with humility ; for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to 
the humble' (1 Peter 5:5), and will hold you amenable to her 
councils. And if you manifest an arbitrary self-will and dom- 
ineering spirit, the same authority which now gives you these 
privileges, will, if need requires it, suspend you, and take from 
you all authority she now gives you/' 

The same ceremony that was used at the time of his induction 
to the first degree will now follow, that is, the Christian salutation. 

ORDINATION OF ELDERS. 

Every congregation of the Tunkers should have at least one 
elder or bishop. If an elder is chosen at the time of the organ- 
ization of a church, the congregation may take action in the case 
in connection with the election of their other officers. 

In addition to the choice of the church the candidate for bishop 
must also pass the approval of the board of adjoining elders, who 
usually preside at the election. Having passed the examination, 
he is ordained according to the following form : — 

"Dear Brother A. B. : The church having called you to the 



DOCTRINAL. 237 

ministry of the Word, and, on trial, found you faithful in your 
calling, now proposes to advance you to the full ministry by 
ordaining- you an elder, or bishop, by the laying on of hands by 
the presbytery. In ordaining you an elder, the church gives you 
all the rights and authority belonging to the ministry, such as 
presiding in council meetings, in which official members are tried, 
at home or abroad, if you are called to do so, in district or annual 
meetings ; to give the charge to deacons, or ministers, and install 
them into their respective offices. In short, the church now 
invests you with all the rights and authority belonging to the 
eldership, you being equal with all the elders. This phrase, never- 
theless, in the apostolic injunction, 'Ye younger, submit your- 
selves to the elder,' still applies to you ; and should you manifest 
an arbitrary, self-willed, and domineering spirit, the church will 
hold you subject to her councils, and suspend you, and take from 
you all the authority she now gives you, and again reduce you to 
the laity, or even expel you from membership if necessary. 

"It will be your duty to faithfully preach the Word, and to care 
for the wants of all the membership, being yourself an example 
to the church in all holiness and purity of heart, walking in all 
the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless. It 
will be your duty in all the affairs of the church to counsel with 
your official brethren and with the church, taking the oversight 
not by constraint, but willingly ; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready 
mind, and in no way to lord it over God's heritage. The church 
will not allow you to depart from the order of the general brother- 
hood in faith and practice, but will hold you to the faith and prac- 
tice of the Scriptures as defined by the brethren in annual meeting 
assembled. 

"Now, dear Brother A. B., do you willingly accept the position 
into which the church now proposes to put you? And do you, 
in good faith, without any mental reservation, accept and adopt 
all the order and practice of the general brotherhood, in her plain- 
ness of dress and non-conformity to the world? And do you 
promise to unite your labors with all your faithful brethren, every- 



238 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

where, to observe and enforce all the faith and practice of the 
general brotherhood ?" 

After having been instructed, the initiate is asked to kneel 
down, and the officiating elder will lay his left hand on the uncov- 
ered head of the candidate, while his assistant lays one hand on 
the elder's, which is covered by the bishop's right hand, if only 
two elders are engaged in the work, and then the assistant's sec- 
ond hand is laid on last of all. Then follow solemn invocations 
and prayer for the blessings of heaven, such as may be suggested 
on the occasion, no especial form being required. And again, the 
Christian salutation is introduced as an act of confirmation. 

In cases of the organization of a church where all the officers 
have been chosen, the confirmation of all will occur at the same 
time ; the candidates, standing in line, accompanied by their wives, 
the highest in office standing at the head of the line, will be 
received by the salutation as described above. 

DEACONS. 

The ceremony attending the election of deacons is the same 
as that of ministers. The charge and installation are performed 
according to the following form : — 

"1. Dear brother: It is your duty to visit and oversee the poor 
in the church ; also to assist and attend to the annual general 
visit made from house to house, prior to communion occasions. 

"2. When things of importance are to be investigated, it is your 
duty, when requested, to accompany the minister, or you may be 
sent alone to investigate the matter and report to the minister. 

"3. It is your duty to visit the sick, the poor, and distressed, 
and report their condition, that their wants may be attended to. 
In all their administrations a correct account should be kept, and 
a report made to the church. 

"4. It is your duty to assist the minister, when called upon, bv 
reading the Scriptures, leading in prayer, and in bearing testi- 
mony to what has been said by the minister. When no minister 
is present, it is your duty to take charge of the meeting by sing- 



DOCTRINAL. 239 

ing, prayer, reading the Scriptures, and also to exhort, if it can 
be done to the edification of the congregation. 

"5. It is your duty, at times of communions, to see that the 
necessary preparations are made, that the tables are served, and 
that everything is attended to in proper time and order." 

In the Brethren Church, deacons and their wives (when the 
sisters possess the proper qualifications) are installed by the same 
ceremony, — the imposition of hands. In justification of such 
procedure they refer to Acts 6: 1-6. 

TUNKER MEETING. 

Regular preaching at a Tunker meeting at the present time is 
conducted much like that of other denominations. Until about 
twenty years ago the following practice was almost universal : — 

The ministers were expected to take their seats behind the table 
in rotation, according to their official ranks, the bishop at the head. 
It was expected of the bishop, when present, to introduce the 
service, either in person or by direction. The latter was usually 
done by saying, "Brethren, it is time to open the meeting, and I 
wish freedom." If the next in office felt moved to accept the 
liberty, it was his privilege. If not, he would extend the liberty 
down the line, and so on until some one would accept the offer.* 

* Note. — An instance: At a regular appointment in my home church, at a 
point where usually from six to eight ministers were present, the senior 
elder extended the liberty by saying he had nothing on his mind. The 
assistant made the same declaration, which was repeated by number three. 
My place was about fourth or fifth. When it came my turn, I said aloud, 
"Well, brethren," I can wish the freedom, but I can not say that I have 
nothing on my mind; in fact, I'd be ashamed to say so, if it were the case." 
In response, a deacon directly in front of me remarked aloud, " That's so." 
When it occurred to him what he had done, he acted as if he wished he 
were under the table. 

I then rose and said: " I presume I'm in for it now. First, permit me to 
explain. According to our method, nobody knows who is to preach at this 
appointment, there being generally from six to eight of us present. I make 
it a rule of my life whenever I attend any of our appointments, to go pre- 
pared to preach, so that in case I should be called upon, I may not be put 
to shame by making a bungled effort; but I do not have to preach every 



24O HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



The first service consisted of announcing, lining, and singing 
of a hymn. This was followed with an exhortation to prayer, 
varying in length and strength according to the mental caliber 
and sense of propriety of the exhorter. Prayer followed, which 
was always in a kneeling posture. Two persons were required to 
lead in prayer, in succession, the latter invariably closing with 
the Lord's Prayer. 

If asked for reason for this process the Tunker preacher would 
reply that Christ had commanded that at the mouth of two or 
three witnesses every word should be established, and that "when 
ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven," etc. 

The preaching will depend upon the intelligence of the preacher 
more than upon the rules or customs of the church. The report 
here made is intended to be an average discourse, and is based 
in point of time at about 1850 to 1875. 

The course commonly pursued consisted of an exposition of 
the Bible ^om Adam to Moses and from Moses to John on the 
Isle of Patmos. It may be said, however, that they all dwelt more 
or less lengthily on Christ and His commandments, and invariably 
closed with a warm exhortation, but scarcely ever was an invita- 
tion extended to the penitent sinner. 



CONVERSIONS. 



The method of conversion among the Tunkers was peculiar to 
themselves. They were dreadfully afraid of all appearance of 
excitement or undue emotion. Occasionally it was stated by the 
minister that if any one felt a desire to unite with the church, he 
could make it known to any member of his acquaintance, who 
would bring the matter before the church. Even such a state- 



time I go to church, simply because I am prepared to do so. A sermon 
will not spoil for want of being delivered. It may be salted down and 
kept for weeks. More sermons are spoiled by premature delivery than by 
being deferred." 

Then I took my seat, again extending the liberty, which was returned to 
me by the full board, with the unanimous consent of an interested audience, 
probably in order to test the extent of my preparation. 



DOCTRINAL. 24I 

ment was seldom made in my early experience. It was more an 
unwritten rule known and practiced among themselves. 

When a convert had made application for membership it was 

stated to the congregation that had made application 

for membership in the church, and that if there was any one 
present who knew of any reason why he should not be received 
he should make it known. 

The occasion for this announcement was owing to the peculiar 
tenets of the Tunkers in the following particulars : — 

1. They did not receive a person who had been divorced, and 
whose former partner was still living, unless promising not to 
marry again during the life of former partner. 

2. They would not receive members belonging to secret 
societies. 

More generally, however, the congregation was requested to 
withdraw and the members to remain for counsel. Then the sub- 
ject was stated and, if no objection was offered, the candidate was 
invited to come in, when it was stated to him that his request had 
been laid before the church, and that they were all not only will- 
ing but glad to receive him, and that he should now prepare him- 
self to go to the water for baptism. In some cases the congrega- 
tion was then invited to come into the church again, when the 
statement would be made, while in other places some one would 
announce to those outside that baptism would be performed at 
the appointed place immediately. 

Resorting to the water, a hymn was sung, and sometimes a 
discourse on some phase of the subject of baptism would be deliv- 
ered, while the candidate and elder were getting ready for the 
ordinance. When all had been assembled, the candidate was 
asked whether he was familiar with the order of the church in 
regard to non-conformity to the world in dress, non-swearing, 
non-resistance, etc. And whether he was in unison with those 
points. If not, he was told what they were in detail, and then 
asked whether he agreed with them, and would promise to obey 
the church according to Matthew 18, which had just been read to 
him. 

16 



242 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Then the administrator and the candidate would kneel, and 
prayer was made for each one, according to the sense of pro- 
priety in the estimation of the minister in charge of the service. 

After prayer both would go down into the water, and the can- 
didate would kneel so that the water would come to about the 
arm pits. Then he was asked, among the German Baptists, "Do 
you believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and that He 
brought from heaven the saving gospel?" — "I do." 

"Do you willingly renounce Satan, with all his pernicious ways, 
together with the sinful pleasures of this world?" — "I do." 

"Do you covenant with God, through Christ, to be faithful unto 
death?"— "I do." 

"According to the promises which you have made before God 
and the world, you are baptized for the remission of sins, in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

At the repetition of each name of the Trinity the candidate is 
immersed, face forward, until the entire body is covered over, and 
immediately drawn back. 

Among some elders a custom which is called the rapid system 
came into use about the seventh decade of the nineteenth century. 
By that system the person is dipped three times without taking 
breath or removing of the hands from the face, which can be done 
without unnecessary haste, when it is expected by the candidate. 

After the three actions have been performed the administrator 
lays both his hands on the head of the person baptized, and offers 
substantially the following prayer : "O Lord, we thank Thee that 
thou hast caused this brother to covenant with Thee to be faith- 
ful until death. Now we pray Thee to accept him as Thine own 
child ; to write his name in the Lamb's book of life ; to blot out all 
his sins ; to fill his heart with the Holy Spirit ; to keep him faithful 
in the discharge of his duties through life, and finally receive him 
with all Thy people into the everlasting kingdom. Amen." 

Then he rises from the water, and is received by the minister 
with the right hand of fellowship and the salutation of the kiss, 
or, if a woman, by the right hand of fellowship only. 

As they return to the shore the candidate is met by the church 



DOCTRINAL. 243 

officials and members, and received in accordance with the rules 
of the church. 

In the Brethren Church the laying on of hands and prayer and 
salutation are deferred until after the parties have changed cloth- 
ing. It is generally observed at the first meeting following, and is 
termed confirmation service. It is believed that this method is 
more impressive to the audience, as well as more edifying to the 
parties directly interested. It is also believed to be more in 
accord with New Testament precedent. See Acts 19: 1-6. It is 
also made an occasion of admonition to faithfulness and steadfast- 
ness in the performance of the duties belonging to the Christian, 
which could not well be attended to at the time of baptism. 

A beautiful and highly important part of the confirmation cere- 
mony in many of the Brethren congregations, consists of the pre- 
sentation of a copy of the Revised New Testament to the new con- 
vert, with suitable inscriptions, as the creed and discipline of his 
church, accompanied with an admonition to study it carefully and 
implicitly obey it in all things. The author of this work com- 
mends the practice to all the churches of the brotherhood. 

Among the German Baptists and the Old German Baptists, the 
services at the water close the initiation of members. 

THE TUNKER MEETING-HOUSE. 

Let us now take a look at the old meeting-house and its 
surroundings. It usually stands in some stately grove of old 
oaks, but is not itself a stately or imposing edifice. It is generally 
a long, low building, capable of seating a large congregation, for 
the brethren in old times worshiped in barns or private houses 
until they were sure that a house of worship would be permanently 
needed, and until they were well able to build large enough for 
the present and prospective population of the community. The 
old churches are all pretty much of the same style of architecture, 
and adapted to large congregations and communion purposes. 
On such occasions everybody attended, saints and gentiles. Nei- 
ther inside nor outside was a dollar spent for any sort of ornamen- 
tation. The style of architecture was bare in its simplicity, and 



244 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



far removed from such vanities as spires, towers, stained win- 
dows, painted or cushioned pews, ornamental pulpits, or anything 
else which could not show the passport of indispensable utility. 
It included, also, a kitchen department, for the purpose of pre- 
paring the food part of the Lord's Supper, as well as that of the 
common meals, of which more will be said farther on. Many of 




GROVE CHURCH, NEAR BERLIN, PA. 

the old houses also have a nursery, generally in the attic, and 
supplied with beds and cradles for the accommodation of sisters 
with young children and the aged and infirm. 

A SUNDAY MORNING SERVICE. 

Let us stand among the grand old oaks, and witness the gather- 
ing of the faithful. Evidences of rural prosperity abound on 
every hand. The sleek, gentle horses bear testimony that "the 
righteous man regardeth the life of his beast." Blessed is the 
horse whose lot was cast with a good Tunker farmer. Trunk you 
not that he came to reflect the peaceful, unworldly, unambitious, 



DOCTRINAL. 245 

and contented temper of his master? Their very looks and 
actions were in harmony with their belonging. I have seen a 
hundred horses lining the fences or standing by the great trees, 
and heard the joyous neigh of recognition ringing through the 
quiet Sabbath morn. There was no discord in the sound. There 
was rather the harmony and sympathy of friendship and joy, 
almost human in its intelligence, and none the less in its sincerity. 
The very horses entered into the fraternal spirit of the worshipers. 

The members, having alighted from their plain, almost rude 
vehicles, are greeting one another with the holy kiss. They linger 
around the church doors in quiet converse. It yet lacks ten min- 
utes of the appointed hour for worship, but the worshipers have 
all arrived. There is an unwritten law against the late comer 
which no discreet Tunker will violate. 

Our description concerns a typical Tunker congregation, such 
as could be seen anywhere in the fraternity about the middle of 
the nineteenth century. Meeting day, which was usually only 
once a month at the old church, was the great Sabbath of the 
month. All who were physically able to be out, were sure to be 
there. Tunker houses were closed that day, the whole family and 
the help at church. They never were and never will be more dil- 
igent in this respect than during the period mentioned. Duty 
called them to the house of God, but another and still louder call 
urged them. It was the call of love. They loved one another, 
and they loved to meet and greet each other at the doors of the 
sanctuary. They loved the plain gospel hymns, full of consola- 
tion and rest. They loved the glorious congregational singing, 
which swelled triumphantly in the great church, and rolled its 
billows of sublime harmony out through windows and doors, and 
up through the solemn oaks toward heaven. They loved the 
preacher, who earnestly and honestly, and in their own language, 
spake to them the Lord's message. He might not be able and 
eloquent, but they cared little for these things. His honest out- 
giving, the tones of his voice, his very looks, rested and fed their 
souls. The polish and accomplishments of the schools would 
have separated him from them. Rhetorical language and flowery 



246 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

periods would have estranged them from each other. The "man- 
ner of man" he was, became to them eloquence and power. 

Peace is written in the faces of young and old, in the mild 
looks, the quiet kindness in every eye, the modulated tones of 
brotherly love in every salutation. It is the contagion of the 
place, and broods over all, so that one feels himself immersed in 
an atmosphere of peace. The world seems far away. Toil and 
care and worry are forgotten, and you rest in the motherly arms 
of peace, as one that is weary hastens to the enfolding of 
maternal love. 

The congregation is in its place. Behind the long, unpainted 
table, instead of a pulpit, the long, plain bench is filled with the 
elders and preachers. There are no upholstered chairs for this 
unpretentious clergy. They allow themselves no luxury denied 
to the people. 

A steady, strong, musical voice on the deacons' bench raises 
the tune, and soon the whole congregation join in the hearty 
singing. This was always the most attractive part of the old-time 
Tunker service. No congregation ever sang better. It was a 
beautiful, spiritual, refreshing worship, and the sound of an 
instrument in one of those old-time Tunker congregations, where 
every voice made "melody unto the Lord," would have seemed 
a discord and a profanation. 

But the hymn, lined out in a rather unnatural and sanctimonious 
style, is finished. Every verse was sung. The Sabbath is before 
them. No conventional hour shall limit the heavenly feast. The 
echoes of the last notes having died away, the preacher prepares 
to further enforce the sentiment of the hymn, and gradually pre- 
pare the minds of the people for prayer. His remarks are a 
prosy repetition of the sentiment of the lines, but they do not 
seem to be superfluous, or out of place. There must be no hurry 
on the threshold of the mercy-seat. Plainly, simply, unostenta- 
tiously he talks for five, ten, even fifteen minutes. An increasing 
weight of solemnity comes down upon the congregation. They 
are about to appear before God, and to speak with Him, as friend 






DOCTRINAL. 247 

to friend. The very place is holy, and profound seriousness is 
marked upon every countenance. 

The preacher calls to prayer. Immediately a great rustling is 
heard throughout the church. Every man and woman is on 
bended knees. No resting of foreheads on hands or bench backs 
will suffice to express the reverent spirit of the congregation. The 
leader in prayer tarries long at the mercy-seat. He may not be 
gifted, though many of the old brethren were gifted in this grace. 
They spake not the eloquence of the schools, but the eloquence of 
the heart, which, after all, is the truest eloquence. The seeming 
formality of the prayer is lightened by the evident sincerity of the 
man. Some prayed almost the same prayer for years, without 
becoming wearisome or disappointing. Like a chapter in the 
Bible, it never grows old. 

The initial season of devotion having closed, the oldest bishop 
extends "the liberty" to his associates, who, in turn, offer it to 
each other. This interchange of courtesies occupies a minute or 
more, the congregation meanwhile looking on, and wondering 
who would deliver the sermon, a point that in few congregations 
was settled before the time had actually arrived. If there hap- 
pens to be a visiting brother on the bench, he usually finds it 
impossible to decline the "liberty." If there are none, one of the 
home ministers yields, with apparent reluctance, to the importuni- 
ties of the brethren, and arises to sound forth the Word. 

Lifting the big Bible from the stand, the preacher of the day, 
while looking for his text, or perhaps while trying to decide what 
text he would take, requests the congregation to sing either one 
or the other of two well-known hymns: — 

"Father, I stretch my hands to Thee, 
No other help I know; 
If Thou withdraw Thyself from me, 
Ah, whither shall I go?" 

Or, 

"A charge to keep I have." 
One who never heard a congregation of Tunkers sing one of 
these hymns just before the sermon, would find it difficult to 



248 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

form any adequate idea of the quiet, deep fervency and solemn 
earnestness with which they were rendered. Deep feeling, not 
the kind which takes emotional forms, for the Tunkers are not 
and never were an emotional people, but the kind which springs 
from profound sincerity, inward truth, marks the singing of this 
hymn, and the preacher arises to his task with every spiritual 
support, prepared at all points to speak his message, all but one, 
and that the needful intellectual training and special preparation 
which for so many years were regarded as mere human devices, 
which could not possibly add to the saving power of the Word. 

That this has been the fatal weakness of the Tunker ministry 
throughout nearly the whole of the nineteenth century is now 
recognized by the leaders of the church, with the result that this 
hitherto conservative people are perhaps outstripping the most 
progressive denominations in the matter of schools and colleges 
for the thorough training of their talented youth. 

Many a time, but not every time, we have heard a long, ram- 
bling, illogical, ungrammatical, confused, vehement discourse, 
which would scatter any other but a Tunker congregation to the 
four winds. Some signs of disappointment and weariness might 
be observed here and there, but the great majority of the members 
followed the preacher through all his devious and obscure wan- 
derings, apparently with unflagging interest. He fed their souls, 
and that was all they were looking for. He ministered to their 
spiritual life, whether that was strong or weak, and beyond this 
they had no consciousness of comparatively unimportant defects. 
The only eloquence that was eloquent to them was the purely 
spiritual, and the dull apostle, if his heart and life were right, if 
the spirit rested upon him, imparted as much grace as the brilliant 
one, and in so vital a connection mere talent, oratory, phrase- 
making, exegetical skill, was not to be mentioned at all. 

Nevertheless, as we have already said, Tunker sermonizing in 
the church of that period was their greatest, their almost fatal 
weakness, for while an abler and more attractive ministry may 
not have been specially needed as a pastoral agency, it was sorely 
needed as a missionary agency, to extend the church beyond its 



DOCTRINAL. 249 

natural and hereditary limits. There was practically at that time 
no question as to the gathering in of the young people belonging 
to Tunker families, and their few dependents ; but how could it 
be expected that intelligent, educated outsiders were to be favor- 
ably impressed by preachers who were unable to present a logical 
and convincing statement of their own doctrines ? 

But we must cut short this digression and hasten to the end. 
The sermon finally concluded, a word of testimony is borne by 
one of the associate preachers, and this is followed by the con- 
cluding prayer and hymn. Then, with the usual announcements, 
the congregation is dismissed without the benediction, to return 
to the beautiful farms and fragrant orchards, the better benedic- 
tion of God's peace resting upon each one as he carries with him 
the consciousness of duty done, the sanctified memories of a holy 
place, and the sweet echoes of melody and song. 

THE TUNKER LOVE-FEAST. 

Let us glance for a moment at one of those remarkable assem- 
blies. Within the long, low auditorium a vast congregation, often 
numbering a thousand souls, throngs every foot of available space. 
The members are all seated around long, immaculately white 
tables. If it is a typical Tunker communion, the white caps of 
the sisters, framing pure and peaceful faces, ranged on either 
side of their separate tables, forms a picture which lingers long 
in the memory, in its unique and singular beauty. A narrow 
space along the walls of the church accommodates the audience, 
the outsiders, and thickly standing upon the benches which have 
been packed into this space, they gaze upon the scene before them 
with eager and unflagging interest, not seeming to be conscious 
of the long hours, nor of the fatigue attending their crowded and 
uncomfortable position. At a central table solemn and venerable 
men are conducting the service. A devout atmosphere pervades 
the house. The reverent voice of the officiating bishop arrests 
even the most careless ear, and all who are present feel that the 
place is holy, and that God Himself is not very far away. 

The Tunker love-feast embraced a series of services, beginning 



250 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

usually on the forenoon of Saturday, and ending with a great 
assembly and a notable sermon on Sunday forenoon. If any other 
day was selected for opening, substantially the same course was 
pursued. The Saturday-forenoon service was followed by a din- 
ner, which was served to the whole congregation, having been 
prepared in the kitchen apartment. The young people belonging 
to the Tunker families in the community would assist in spread- 
ing the tables and waiting on the people. It was not unusual 
for the dinner to continue until three o'clock in the afternoon, and 
from three to nine hundred persons were fed. The menu varied 
somewhat, according to the financial ability of the congregation. 
It invariably consisted of the very best bread, good butter, apple 
butter, pickles, and pies and coffee. If the church could afford 
it, fresh beef was also supplied. 

Illustrating the fact that the throng is often hungrier for the 
loaves and fishes than for the spiritual gospel, it was often neces- 
sary to appoint door-keepers to regulate the crowd while the meal 
was in progress, and the strongest men in the community were 
chosen for this office. The recess following this meal was enjoyed 
by the members as a season of delightful social intercourse. In 
later years, however, this Saturday-morning sermon and dinner 
were abandoned by some congregations, and the services began 
with the "examination" in the afternoon, — a. season of devout 
seriousness, a spiritual preparation for the communion proper, — 
which was soon to follow. 

1 Cor. 1 1 : 38 was read as a basis for one or more discourses, 
after which the officiating elder would deliver an exhortation to 
prayer, being careful to remark in conclusion that there would be 
perfect freedom to any one, brother or sister, who might feel 
pressed to lead in open prayer, and the season would close with 
the Lord's Prayer. It was not unusual for three or four brethren 
to exercise in prayer, but it was very unusual to hear a sister pray 
on such or any other public occasion. 

Then followed a short intermission after the announcement that 
the next service would be indicated by singing, when the mem- 
bers who expected to participate in the communion would take 



DOCTRINAL. 25 1 

their seats on long benches at the tables immediately on entering 
the house, so that the deacons might know whether sufficient 
table-room had been prepared. 

The song having been completed, the thirteenth chapter of 
John was read to the end of the thirtieth verse. After reading the 
scripture, with suitable admonition, the washing of feet began. 
Later on, the time for commencing the washing of feet was indi- 
cated when the reader came to the fourth verse, "He riseth from 
supper." At this point those who had been appointed to lead 
would arise, two by two, lay aside their garments, gird each 
other with a white apron, pour water into a small vessel, and pro- 
ceed, one to wash and the other to wipe the feet of such persons 
as might be prepared to receive the service. The first two would 
wash and wipe the feet of from six to ten or more persons, when 
they would be relieved by such other two persons as might volun- 
teer. This was called "the double mode." By "the single mode" 
one person arose, commenced the service by laying aside his coat, 
girding himself, and washing and wiping the feet of the member 
seated next to him. Then he gave the towel to the person whom 
he had served, who would proceed in the same manner to number 
three. Thus the work continued to the last one on the bench at 
a table, who, in turn, served number one. 

After having washed and wiped the feet, the members engaged 
salute each other with the holy kiss. This custom is invariable 
among all denominations of Tunkers. In the Brethren congre- 
gations this is the only occasion when the salutation is cere- 
monially observed. 

Clear water and clean towels are supplied for cleansing of 
hands. Besides the esthetic purpose, this washing of the hands 
indicates the sacredness of the succeeding ordinances of the 
Lord's Supper and the Communion. 

Feet-washing having now been concluded, the Lord's Supper 
was next placed on the table. Certain ones had prepared the 
food during former exercises. It consisted of bread, mutton or 
beef, and soup made of meat broth. Thanks being offered, the 
meal was partaken of. After supper, during the singing of a 



252 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

hymn, the tables were cleared of everything except the cloths, 
which were turned. Then the Communion bread and wine were 
placed upon the table. 

Then, usually, the nineteenth chapter of John was read, fol- 
lowed by a dissertation on the sufferings of Christ, by some 
preacher of merit, and closed by the elder, with an admonition 
to love and other duties. During this exhortation the elder pre- 
pared the Communion bread by breaking the loaves into narrow 
slices indicated by slight indentures before baking. These were 
placed side by side and crossed until the process was complete, 
and was performed with much exactness, and observed by all 
within sight with as much solemnity as the ordinance itself. 

Then the salutation was introduced, quoting 1 Cor. 16:20, 
"Greet ye one another with an holy kiss," or kindred passages. 
Then the elder would extend his right hand to and kiss the 
brother next to him. Thus the salutation would pass to the last 
brother at the last table, who would kiss the officiating elder, thus 
completing the circle. After having started the divine command 
with the brethren, the elder in charge extended the right hand 
of fellowship to one of the sisters occupying an end of the table, 
with instructions to pass the salutation among themselves, and 
he followed the line to see that it was properly observed. 

The following remarks were then made by the elder in cnarge : 
"The apostle Paul says, T have received of the Lord that which 
also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus the same night in 
which He was betrayed took bread, and when He had given 
thanks, He brake it.' So, in like manner, we will also return 
thanks for this bread." Then all arose, and thanks were given 
for and a blessing asked upon the bread. After all were again 
seated, he proceeded. "The apostle says, The bread which we 
break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?' which is 
equivalent to affirming that it is. So I will say to my brother, 
Beloved brother, the bread which we break is the communion of 
the body of Christ," and while speaking these words, he breaks 
a small piece from the long slice and hands it to him. The larger 
piece, from which he had broken, is passed to number two, who 



DOCTRINAL. 253 

repeats the same to brother number three, etc. One or two sub- 
elders accompany the line with supplies of bread. 

The leader then turns to the sister to whom he had extended 
the right hand of fellowship, saying, "Beloved sister, the bread 
which we break is the communion of the body of Christ," break- 
ing a piece and handing it to her. This he repeats substantially 
to the next sister, breaking bread for and to every sister at the 
table. 

Both circles having completed the breaking of bread, the bishop 
remarks, "We have tarried one for another until all have been 
served, and we will now eat this bread, contemplating the suffer- 
ings of our Saviour." After all had eaten in silence, the white 
covering was removed from the wine, and two cups were filled. 
If several bottles were at hand, wine was poured from each one 
into each cup. This was done, we presume, to show that it was 
all alike. "After the same manner also He took the cup, when 
He had supped," is the bishop's next quotation, and he con- 
tines, "from which we conclude that as He had given thanks for 
the bread, He did also for the cup. Let us rise and give thanks 
for the cup." 

When the members are seated again, he says, "Beloved 
brother, this cup of the New Testament is the communion of the 
blood of Christ," and hands a cup to whom he had broken bread ; 
who, after taking a sip of the wine, passes it to the next brother, 
and so on until the circle is complete, the leader partaking last 
of all. A sub-elder follows the line with a supply, replenishing 
the cup when required. 

The same quotation is repeated to the sisters, as the bishop 
hands the cup to the first one. After taking a sip, she returns 
the cup to the bishop, who hands it to the next sister, and so on 
until all have been served. No matter how inconvenient it may 
be for the leader to give and have returned to him, the cup must 
be given to each sister by the officiating elder. This has been an 
inflexible rule with the German Baptist and Old German Baptist 
branches of the Tunker fraternity, to the close of the nineteenth 
century. 



254 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

During the passing of the cup the congregation engages in 
singing, but during the breaking of bread singing is not generally 
permitted. 

The last quotation, to close the Communion, is now repeated : 
"And they sang a hymn and went out." This is followed by 
prayer and song, and the congregation may consider itself 
dismissed. 

In the Brethren Church only one cup is used, the sisters being 
served first, with both bread and wine, as a matter of courtesy 
more than of theology. The officiating minister, in passing the 
loaf to the first sister, remarks, "Beloved sister, the bread which 
w r e break is the communion of the body of Christ ;" and while 
both are holding the bread, they break it, the sister retaining the 
smaller part for herself, and then receiving the larger piece from 
the elder, breaks it with the next sister, and so on until all have 
been served. The last sister breaks bread with the brother desig- 
nated to her by the leader. The cup is passed in the same man- 
ner, following the line of bread-breaking. To avoid embarrass- 
ment it will be well to seat the members so that husband and 
wife may serve each other in the Communion exercises. 

All now look forward to the Sabbath-morning service, which 
is a fit consummation of the series. A great throng assembles, 
for we have never known the interest in these meetings to wane, 
whether the sermon be usually good or usually poor. Generally 
the ablest preacher at command is selected to deliver the dis- 
course. The members come, spiritually refreshed from the 
recent communion, and filled with joyful prayer. It is a thrilling 
moment when the preacher rises to face that vast congregation. 
From the four corners of the great building a multitude of eager 
faces look up at him. At every window and door new throngs 
await his message. If there was ever a time for him to play the 
man, it is now. All his powers are astir in him. The occasion 
calls for his mightiest and best, but woe to the careless soul who 
flounders in confusion over this great opportunity which comes 
not often to many men whose mission it is to stand between God 
and the people. Generally a fundamental gospel theme or a text 



DOCTRINAL. 255 

of invitation is selected like unto that one in Revelation which 
proclaims, "The Spirit and the Bride say, Come, and let him that 
heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And who- 
soever will, let him take of the water of life freely." Inspiring 
hymns, in which a thousand voices swell the sublime melody, fol- 
low the great sermon, and then a tender prayer, and the people 
depart, each one to his tabernacle of earthly rest. 

GOD THE SOVEREIGN PROGENITOR OF THE HUMAN RACE. 

BY ELDER P. J. BROWN. 

Text: "We are also His offspring." Acts 17:28. 

Saint Paul in his travels as a missionary of the cross, came to 
the capital of Greece, where the people brought him to the hill 
of Mars. There, in the midst of the venerable lawyers and 
jurists of the supreme court of Athens, called the Areopagus, 
he stood and preached Jesus and the resurrection. One of his 
principal arguments in defense of the doctrine of the resurrection 
was that we "live, move, and have our being in God." And to 
clinch his argument and make it convincing to his talented and 
polished auditors, he quotes from Arastus, a Grecian poet and 
astronomer (whom he calls "one of their own poets"), the impor- 
tant declaration that we are the "offspring of God." 

Arastus was a man whose writings were regarded as being of 
high authority. He wrote about 270 before Christ. He was a 
Cilician, a native of the same province with St. Paul, and the 
circumstances show that the latter was well acquainted with his 
writings. The poem from which he quotes was one of his mas- 
terpieces. The renowned Cicero has translated it into Latin. 

Taking into account these facts, it becomes a matter of much 
consequence as to what we are to understand from the statement 
that we are the "offspring of God." And let it not be forgotten 
that Paul accepts it as a fact, for in the succeeding verse he says, 
"Forasmuch, then, as we arc the offspring of God." 

The first question we wish to examine is, Who are the off- 
spring of God ? We find that both Paul and Arastus take a com- 



256 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

prehensive, yea, an unlimited view of the case. Paul says, "All 
nations of men which God has made of one blood, to dwell on all 
the face of the earth." Arastus says, "We," the human race, are 
the offspring of God ; not the few who accept the gospel and are 
converted to Christ ; for Arastus knew nothing about the gospel 
or any revelation from God ; hence he means all men, regardless 
of any moral condition. Those who accept the offer of salva- 
tion are subjects of a second offspring, or regeneration, or, as 
Christ calls it, are "born again." The central truth remains, that 
all men are in some sense the offspring of God. And it will 
be our purpose in the second place, to find in what sense we are 
the offspring of God. In order to do this successfully it will be 
necessary to ascertain what we are to understand by the term 
"offspring." And, since we are dealing with a Greek author, we 
must, to some extent, consult Grecian literature. The Greek 
word is "genos," and Downegan, a standard author, gives the 
word the following definitions : "Birth, race, lineage, family, 
original family, or stock." Offspring differs from generation, 
which usually means an age or portion of time, while offspring 
includes all ages and all times. The English definition, as given 
by Webster, is : "That which is produced, a child, or children, 
descendants, however remote from the stock." 

From the beautiful harmony of sense in these high authorities 
we are forced to the conclusion that the very flow and sound of 
the word "offspring" means that the human race in some sense 
sprang from God. This was the faith, not only of Arastus, but 
of the still more renowned Plato, who died at Athens, three hun- 
dred and forty-three years before Christ, who taught the same 
doctrine. Of him, says Thomson Moore, the biographer, "His 
writings are very valuable, his language beautiful and correct, 
and his philosophy sublime." Such is the testimony of men of 
comprehensive learning. While the novice may sneeringly say, 
"I do not believe in the immortality of the soul, because Plato, 
a heathen philosopher, taught it," be it not forgotten that Arastus 
and Plato had not the Bible, but drew their conclusions from the 
study of the broad field of nature. And if they, without the 



DOCTRINAL. 257 



Bible, reached better conclusions as to the nature and source of 
the human race than some of the latter-day would-be revealers 
of revelation do with the Bible, their memory should be the more 
revered, and the latter should be the more ashamed. 

Third. We shall next consider the relation between the parent 
and the offspring. If the parent is an Indian the children will 
be Indians. If the parent is an African the children will be 
Africans. If the parent is an Anglo-Saxon the children will be 
Anglo-Saxons. These differences are due to the difference in 
the parents physically, but not spiritually. Their material being 
is made of created and changeable matter, but the life power is 
all by the same blood. All are the offspring of God because all 
are capable of loving and serving God. Whatever their moral 
or intellectual condition, they have His "breath of life," and spirit- 
ually are His offspring. 

A man's child is his child, and always will be, regardless of 
moral conditions. The child may become a profligate, a drunk- 
ard, or a prostitute, may be driven from home, and lose the 
inheritance, but is yet the parent's child, bears his name and 
image, though in a degraded condition. So in the other and 
higher sense, the human race is the offspring of God, and never 
can be otherwise. Though they rebel against Him, because they 
are wicked, and are driven away from Him, and lose the inherit- 
ance of eternal life, they are yet His offspring. 

Again, if the parent is mortal the child is mortal ; if the parent 
is immortal so is the child. Our parents were mortal, and they 
died or will die. We inherited from them a mortal body, and 
so far we, too, will die ; but God, our spiritual Father, is immor- 
tal in every sense, and we derived from Him, through Adam, the 
life, soul, or spirit, or whatever you may call it ; and that, being 
the part of us which is the offspring of God, must of necessity 
also be absolutely and emphatically immortal. Though through 
the corruptibility of the flesh that soul should be lost, it never- 
theless lives and always will live, for the very good reason that it 
always did live. Immortality is from God, is a part of God, and, 
like God, has neither beginning nor end. If this is not the kind 



17 



258 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

of a soul we have, then, like the brute, we had a beginning, and, 
like the brute, we will cease to exist after this life. Such is the 
soul-sleepers' hope; it is not ours. Sirs, we never can die any 
other death than the death of separation from God and from the 
glory of His power. This is the second death ; this is eternal 
death, but it is also eternal torment, "where the worm dieth not, 
and the fire is not quenched." In this sense it is said, "The soul 
that sinneth it shall die." The soul-sleeper may offer his snarls 
and sneers about the "death that never dies." Such is, neverthe- 
less, the sense that science and revelation will ever teach, for as 
God our Father is immortal, will never die, so we are immortal 
and will never die ; for as is the parent, so will be the child. 

"But," says one, "is this the only text from which you claim to 
prove the immortality of the soul, irrespective of moral or intel- 
lectual condition ?" — Not so by any means. But suppose it were ; 
we regard this one as absolutely invulnerable. Were it not that 
Paul accepts the views of Arastus as being correct, thus giving it 
the divine sanction of the Holy Spirit, under whose influence he 
preached, there might be some possible escape for the soul-sleeper 
from the position of the immortality of the soul, which is so clearly 
taught in the text. But this one truth, presented by a heathen 
poet, and sanctioned by an inspired apostle, is sufficient to crush 
all the soul-sleeping out of the present generation, if the people 
will but open their eyes long enough to let reason assert her 
rights. 

We are not done, however. This is only our introduction. 
We do not boast of having read a "house full of books." The 
retaining points of our memory are not strong and capacious 
enough, and life is too short to risk such an experiment; for it 
is our candid opinion that beyond a certain range, the more a 
man reads the less he knows, and that if he persists in abusing 
his brains, he is liable to turn up in some lunatic asylum. We do, 
however, lay some claim to having read the Bible, and from the 
Bible we shall farther endeavor to establish and prove to your 
entire satisfaction the immortality of the soul, regardless of moral 
condition. 



DOCTRINAL. 259 

It is sometimes said that all religious discourses begin in the 
Garden of Eden. Whether this assertion be correct or not, there 
is a potent reason why they should do so. There is an affinity, 
a connection like an electrified wire, running through every intel- 
lectual fiber of the human race, from the last one born back to the 
time of our offspring. The Bible gives an account of the crea- 
tion of Adam clearly in harmony with the thoughts adduced from 
the text, and is as follows : "And the Lord God formed man of 
the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath 
of life, and man became a living soul." Gen. 2 : 7. 

Two acts are here recorded. First, the body was formed of 
created material, and hence is subject to dissolution. Second, 
the life was given it by the act of breathing it into the body, and, 
as a result, the man became a living soul. The quibbler will here 
ask, "Was he then a dead soul prior to this second act?" We 
answer, The term soul is here used to mean the entire person ; 
same as in Acts 6 : 14, where it is said, ''Jacob and all his kindred, 
threescore and fifteen souls." Again, in Acts 2:41, "And the 
same day there were added unto them about three thousand 
souls." In both cases the entire person is meant. So, in the 
case of Adam, prior to the possession of life, he was a dead body, 
but after that he was a living soul or person. It is not an unusual 
thing for a person to be spoken of in his entirety as a single entity. 
I say, "Somebody is coming." No one should think I mean a 
soulless body like that of Adam prior to the influx of life or the 
offspring of life from God. So, when we read of a given num- 
ber of souls being added, or having journeyed, we should not 
understand it to mean bodyless spirits. 

But with all the quibbling that has been resorted to, the grand 
fact remains that "Adam was the son of God." Luke 3 : 38. 
And the history of the fact is that God breathed the life into 
him, transferred it, gave it as a part of Himself, and it can never 
be extinguished ; it is indestructible ; it is immortal ; it is the part 
of God through which He becomes our Father. This declaration 
by the evangelist Luke is so plain, so utterly incapable of being 



26o HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

misunderstood, although thousands read it and have read it with- 
out giving it sufficient thought to comprehend its import. 

"Adam was the son of God." In what sense was Adam the 
»on or offspring of God ? Was it the body of Adam that sprang 
from God ? — Surely not ; for every act in the history of Adam's 
creation points unmistakably to the fact that Adam's body was 
the offspring of the earth, hence it was the soul of Adam that was 
the offspring of God. There can be no other conclusion. And 
the stream of life that God started in Adam still flows on, and 
which He kindles in every child that comes into the world unless 
it is still-born, and becomes the offspring of God through Adam. 
Hence, Adam is our elder brother, and God the Father of all. 

How clearly does the definition of Webster appear, when he 
says, "The offspring is a descendant, a child, however remote 
from the stock." 

In Revelation 22 : 16 Jesus says, "I am the root and offspring 
of David." Again we ask, In what sense is Christ the offspring 
of David ? Turn to Acts 2 : 30. Here we are told by the apostle 
Peter that, David, "being a prophet, and knowing that God had 
sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, accord- 
ing to the flesh, He would raise up Christ to sit on his throne. w 
This makes it clear that Christ was the offspring of David accord- 
ing to the flesh, and the flesh only. And when we remember 
that there were twenty-eight generations between David and 
Christ, it helps us to comprehend the stupendous fact that, as 
Adam was the offspring of God, so is the last born of the human 
race. All the souls that exist or ever will exist, are the offspring 
of God through Adam, and hence are immortal, indestructible, 
and yet susceptible of punishment. They can not be destroyed 
in the sense of being annihilated, for the good reason that they 
were not created. That which was made may be unmade. God 
is an uncreated Being ; yes, every particle of Him, including the 
breath that He breathed into Adam's nostrils, and which consti- 
tuted Adam a living soul, thence an immortal soul. So, also, all 
his posterity. 

The soul-sleeper tries to meet our arguments with such pas- 



DOCTRINAL. 26l 

sages as Eccl. 3 : 19, where we are told : "For that which befalleth 
the sons of men befalleth beasts, even one thing befalleth them, as 
the one dieth so dieth the other ; yea, they have all one breath ; so 
that a man hath no pre-eminence above a beast ; for all is vanity." 
This language, like many of the sayings of Solomon, is very 
ambiguous, to say the least of it. But, allowing it all the force 
that language is entitled to, it must be admitted that Solomon 
speaks with reference to the mortal part of man ; that as such he 
must die the same as the beast; that the breath sustains the same 
relation to life in beasts as it does in man; that all created, all 
mortal things are vanity ; all of which we freely admit. But that 
there is no difference between the breath of man and that of the 
beast in their relation to God, we by no means admit. The dif- 
ference is wide as eternity. God gave breath to all living crea- 
tures, as well as existence itself, by the operation of general laws. 
He commanded the waters to bring forth the living creatures in 
them. God created great whales, which the "waters brought 
forth." He commanded the earth to bring forth the living crea- 
tures, cattle, and everything after their kind, and it was so. But 
with man it was not so accomplished, for God formed him of the 
dust of the ground with His own hands, by a special act; and by 
a special act He breathed the breath of life into man, which was 
by no means the case with any other creature. This, we think, 
is a sufficient answer to such statements as the one cited in Eccl. 
3 : 19. But as a further evidence of the difference between man 
and all the other creatures, we call attention to the fact that man 
stands, of all creatures in point of intelligence, the highest. What 
has he not invented ? And invention is only one link below crea- 
tion, and that link God will ever hold in His own hand. If man 
were allowed to create things, he would probably enter upon a 
career of rivalry with God ; a thing God never did and never will 
suffer. He must and will maintain His sovereignty. 

Not so with other creatures. The beaver builds his dam as did 
his ancestors thousands of years ago. He has never so much as 
invented an ax to cut down the trees, but continues to gnaw them 
down with his teeth as did his father before him. The noble 






262 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



horse has never contrived means by which to make man his serv- 
ant. Although possessed of superior strength, he lacks in intel- 
ligence. And so all the way through the earth, sky, and seas ; man 
is the master. And why ? Why does man, instead of the lion or 
the elephant, build the railroads? Why does man, instead of the 
whale or the sea-lion, lay the submarine cable? All these, and 
a thousand more questions that might be asked, must be answered 
in the light of reason and revelation, in the light of science and 
intelligence, as follows: Man, by reason of his immortality, his 
relationship to God, is endowed with such superior intelligence 
that he stops short of nothing but creation itself. 

And now, in conclusion, allow me to say that, owing to our 
superior endowments of knowledge, means, and opportunities, 
our Father will hold us correspondingly responsible. We owe 
Him our best service, our most humble obedience, our love, and 
our all, for He is our Father, and the Sovereign Progenitor of the 
human race. 




DR. C. H. BALSBAUGH 



CHAPTER X 

LITERATURE 

The early history of the Tunkers is not as barren of literature 
as one might be led to conclude from the erroneous statements 
made by those who have attempted to give a true and faithful 
account of their origin, faith, and practice. Indeed, the large 
majority of their membership are unfamiliar with the enterprise 
and ability of the fathers during the first twenty years of their 
existence. The reason for such ignorances must be attributed to 
the criminal indifference of the lukewarm period, dating from, 
say, 1790 to 1850, in round dates; or, in plainer statement, from 
the time when English speaking, reading, and writing were 
introduced into use in the family and public worship. Had the 
English-speaking Tunker been as faithful in translating what the 
fathers had written and published as were those who wrote in 
the mother tongue, they and their posterity would have been much 
better informed, and the historian would not have been obliged 
to draw so largely upon his imagination or to borrow so liberally 
from the credulity of others. 

The first two books published by the church were written in 
the German language, a translation of which may be found else- 
where in this book. Other small works were published by 
Christopher Saur, but were not authorized by the denomination. 

DAVIDISCHE PSALTERSPIEL. 

The first hymn-book used by the Tunkers was entitled, "Das 
Davidische Psalterspiel" — David's Psalm-song. The first edi- 
tion was printed in 17 18. It was not printed by them, but was 
privately published, and bears no imprint except the date. It 
was used by the Pietists and other enthusiasts and dissenters 
from the leading churches, including the Tunkers and Mennon- 
ites. It contained 928 double-column pages, over one thousand 
hymns, and most of them were very lengthy. The book soon 

(263) 



264 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

became very popular among old classes of spiritual worshipers, 
so that by 1740 three editions had been issued. It was to the 
German people of that period what the " Gospel Hymns" were 
to the American Christians of the latter half of the nineteenth 
century. 

The first Tunker emigrants to America brought but a few 
copies of their song-book with them to their new home, perhaps 
partly on account of its large size and great weight. As the 
churches in America increased in numbers, there was a demand 
for hymn-books. On account of the heavy expense and other 
difficulties attending the importation of books from Germany, it 
was found impracticable to import the old book. And inasmuch 
as there was some objection to the book on account of its weight 
and bulk, the brethren began to devise plans by which an 
abridged edition might be published. We find it difficult to 
learn who were the prime movers in this first work in America, 
as no names were attached to the preface. This seems to have 
been a preference among the early authors of religious literature, 
as neither the original Psalterspiel, the German Reformed Hymn- 
book of 1807, the Mennonite German Hymn-book, and four editions 
of the Ephratah Hymn-book have any names of the compilers 
attached to their introductions. However, we have good author- 
ity for stating that Christopher Saur, Alexander Mack, and Peter 
Becker took part in the work ; and it was decided to publish Das 
Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel. Some of the longer hymns in the 
old book were abridged, and some omitted entirely, some sub- 
stituted by original productions ; and soon the work was ready 
for press. The first edition was printed by Christopher Saur, 
Germantown, Penn., 1744. It contained 530 pages and 536 
hymns. Below we offer an introductory paragraph from the 
preface of the first edition : — 

2>fe Urfadjen biefe§ fletne ®at)tbtfd)e $falterfptel f)erau§ 3 it qeben, 
ift gemefen, toetl in benen SSerfammlitugett ber ©lieberftfjaft oft groffer 
Mangel an ®efang=23iidjern toar, unb in mandjen SSerfammlungen 
gtuet), ja bretyertet) Sieber*biid)er maren, barnm nntrbe man ratf)§, bafc 
man ein ©efanfl&ud) brucfen lieffe ; man mar and) einftimmig bk 
me^reften nnb befantefien Sieber au% bem bi§Jer moljl befanten gr5f» 



LITERATURE. 265 

fern $falterfpiet t)erau§ p mafjten, beren 2Mobepen am meiften 
befannt finb, unb in bie§ format p bringen* 9)tan Ijat fief) aud) 
befliffen, nact) bem atlerunpartfjeDifdjten Sinn p Ijanbeln, bafc man 
audj au§ anberer 2tutf)oren ©efang=23ud)er Steber <m§gelefen, nebft 
einigen Siebern, toeld)e man in 9ftanufcript gefunben, fo bafc man 
aflerbinge fagen Ian, bafc e§ ein gang unpartei)ifd)e§ ©efangbud) fet), 
ja ein einfaitige§ $tumen=@arilein Don allerlet) ©orten SBtumen ober 
Siebern, Dor afle folate Stebfyaber, bte ben §@rrn mit §er§ unb 9Jhmb 
toben* Unb toeil man ntdjt gefinnet tft Diet ^ntjmenS t»on biefem ©e= 
fang=23ud) in ber $orrebe p madjen, urn e§ f)od) in bie §of)e p ftellen, 
(gleicfjtDte man Don anberen Slutporen fiefyet), fo lafet man biefe§ 2Ber! 
fid) felbft ritijmen, bann man meife roof)I, ba$ nod) a((e§ in ber Unt>oE= 
fommenfyeit auf ber ©rben tft; fo fino and) nod) ade Sieber=23itd)er mit 
p 3dt)len nnter ben UnDoltfommenfjeiten: £)arum tft and) nod) fein 
Dotlfommen ©efang^ud) fierau§ gegeben ioorben, fonbern ein jebe§ 
Ijat nod) einen DJlangel, unb mufe fid) xifyten laffen; barnm giebt man 
aud) biefe§ ©efang^uc^ bem Urtljeil iiber, unb nennet e§ einfaltig mit 
bem s #amen: 2)a§ fteine $falterfpiet, gleidjmie bie tfjeuerften Seljren 
3@fu mit bem geringen £itut fd)led)tf)in genennet toerben: ®a3 neue 
Seftament 

SKeilen aber bod) aHe§ ©ute baZ ber ©eift ®Dtk% mitrfet, e§ fet) im 
ftkben, 33dten ober im Sieberflufe, Ijerfommt au§ bem Dollfomtnenen 
s JJceer ber ©bttlid)feit; barum etlet aud) alle§ biefe§ mieber p feinem 
Urfprung, ba e§ bann in ^otItomment)eit oor bem £f)ron ©£>tre3 ba% 
Dottfommene Sob mieber fan erreicben* 2)arum follen nun aud) bit 
©taubigeu auf (§rben mit einanber fid) nod) erbauen, nad) bem D^att) 
be§ fjeiligen 2tpoftel§ $auli, ba er fpridjt: O^ebet mit einanber Don 
$falmen unb Sobgefdngen, unb geiftlidjen Siebern, finget unb fpielet 
bem §@rrn in eurem §er§eru @plj* 5, 6* ®arum mirb ba% Sob Don 
ben ©laubigen auf (Srben fo lange todljren, bi§ ba% DoIIfommene Sob 
fid) toirb offenbaren* @o laffet unS nun opfern burd) ifyn ba§ Sobs 
opfer ©Dtt aUegeit, baZ tft, bie grud)t ber Sippen berer bie fetnen 
D^amen befennen, ,§eb + 13, 15* 

@§ mirb bk 3dt nod) geboren merben, bafc biefe§ in bk (grfitttitng 
gefjen mirb moDon oer ^rop^et 3efaia§ fpria^t: 2Bir f)bren Sobgefang 
oom @nbe ber ©rben p (Srjren bem ©erea^ten; nun aber tjei&t e§ noc§ 
oftmal§: 2lber mie bin icb fo magen 

9tun ber §@rr laffe feine SSerljeiffung batb in (SrfiiEung ge^en pm 
Xroft alter martenben Seelen im ©tauben ber §offnung 3ton§, unb 
bafe ber ©eift unb bk SBraut fprea^en: ^omm, unb mer e§ Joret ber 
fprea^e fomm, unb mer ba mid, ber nejme ba§ SBaffer be§ Seber.§ 
umfonft 

§aEeluja, §eit unb $rei&, @^re unb f raft fep ©Ott 
unferm §®rrn in ©migfeit, 2lmen! 



266 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

This new book was extensively used throughout the entire 
brotherhuod, and occasional copies of the later editions may still 
be found, and, possibly, occasionally used in the German churches 
of eastern Pennsylvania. Saur published four editions of it: 
First, 1744; second, 1760; third, 1764; and fourth, 1777- Steiner 
and Cist, of Philadelphia, published an edition in 1781. Then 
Samuel Saur issued three editions, the first dated 1791, and the 
third, 1797. Michael Billmeyer, of Germantown, printed three 
editions, dated respectively, 1797, 181 3, and 18 17. So says our 
historian ; but we have before us a copy of the book in excellent 
condition, like new, and clean, bearing the imprint, 'Third 
Improved Edition, Germantown, Printed by Michael Billmeyer, 
181 3." It is probable that the second edition was issued previous 
to 181 3. This copy was presented to the author of this book by 
Sister Elizabeth Gantz, of Boonesboro, Maryland. I have also 
in my possession a copy of the first edition, published by Michael 
Billmeyer, 1797. This book was used by my grandfather, John 
Holsinger, Sr., whose wife was a granddaughter of Alexander 
Mack, Jr. On one of the fly leaves is written in his own hand, we 
presume, the following: "Johannes Holtzinger, Geheart dieses 
Buck." 

I have also another copy printed by Schaeffer and Maund, 
1 8 16, and being the first improved edition, This edition was 
copyrighted by Frederick George Schaeffer in the District of 
Maryland, of which Philip Moore was clerk. This is also in 
good condition. 

Then Henry Ritter, a German stationer of Philadelphia, had 
an edition printed in Germany, which bears the imprint Germania, 
1829. Next George Mentz and Son, of Philadelphia, had the book 
stereotyped about 1833, and after that all traces were lost as to 
editions. The elder Mentz died in 1850, and the plates were 
destroyed by fire, hence no copy can be found of a later date. 
Thirteen of the fourteen editions named above are in the custody 
of the Cassel library. 



LITERATURE. 267 

EDUCATIONAL. 

An effort was made by the early Tunkers to establish a high 
school at Germantown, Pennsylvania. According to data, a pub- 
lic meeting was called on December 6, 1759, at the house of 
Daniel Mackinet (which still exists). 

At this meeting it was resolved that a commodious building 
be erected near the center of Germantown for the use of an Eng- 
lish and High German school, and suitable dwellings for the 
teachers to reside in. 

At the same meeting a subscription was "set on foot," and those 
present, generously subscribed thereto.' 

"Christopher Saur, Batlas Reser, Daniel Mackinet, John Jones, 
and Charles Bensell were appointed to promote and receive sub- 
scriptions from all such well-affected and generous persons as 
were willing to contribute to the undertaking." It was also 
agreed that the trustees be chosen by and out of the contributors, 
the first choice to be made on January I, 1760, and that a plan for 
the government of the school should also on that day be laid 
before the contributors, who should also choose from among them 
managers for the building." 

The contributors met, as arranged, on the first day of January, 
1760, when it was discovered that the subscriptions had been so 
liberal as to afford them good hopes of success. 

A rough draft of the fundamental articles and a system for 
the organization of the school was submitted, and after being 
approved of, it was intrusted to Joseph Gallaway, an eminent 
lawyer of the day, to be put into proper form. 

Managers for the building were then selected ; Richard Johnson 
was appointed treasurer, and Christopher Saur, Thomas Rosse, 
John Jones, Daniel Mackinet, Jacob Keyser, John Bowman, 
Charles Bensell, Jacob Naglee, and Benjamin Engle, were chosen 
trustees. 

The managers of the building were then directed to select a suit- 
able lot, and to submit a plan and estimate of cost at the next 
meeting. 

This was held on the 25th of the same month. The plan of gov- 



268 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

government having been written out, as ordered, was read and 
approved. After reciting, as an inducement to the enterprise, the 
importance of a liberal education to the well-being of society, and 
that the people of Germantown had long suffered inconvenience 
for want of a well-regulated school, it provides, among other 
things, that the institution about to be established shall be free to 
persons of all religious denominations ; that the trustees shall be 
annually elected by contributors to the amount of forty shillings ; 
that the number of trustees "shall be thirteen, and no more, and 
that they shall be reputable persons in the community." 

At the same meeting the managers of the building reported that 
they had selected a lot, "in the lane or cross-street, leading toward 
the Schuylkill, commonly called Bensell Lane," which, being 
agreed to, the lot was purchased from the owners, John and 
George Bringhurst. 

On the 8th of February a plan of the schoolhouse and houses 
for the professors (or masters) was approved, and they were 
directed to proceed with the building as soon as the season 
permitted. 

On the ioth of April following, the money was paid for the 
lot, and a deed executed on the 17th. 

April 21, 1760, was the day appointed to lay the foundation of 
the schoolhouse. The trustees, with the managers and contrib- 
utors, assembled, and four corner-stones were laid. 

The occasion does not appear to have been distinguished by 
any special ceremony, as only a simple record of it was made in 
the minutes, but doubtless friendly greetings were exchanged, 
and suitable recognition taken of the occasion. 

In September, 1 761, the schoolhouse was finished and opened 
for the reception of scholars. Hilarius Becker was the German 
teacher, and David James Dove the English teacher, and Thomas 
Pratt the English assistant teacher. 

The school received the immediate encouragement from the 
people, as appears from the fact that on the 16th of the following 
October it had one hundred and thirty-one pupils, sixty-one in the 
English, and seventy in the German department, proving that the 



LITERATURE. 269 

founders had justly appreciated the character and wants of the 
community. 

As has been intimated elsewhere, the Tunkers lost their repu- 
tation for intelligence during the early years of the nineteenth 
century. They were not only indifferent to their privileges, but 
stood in opposition to all educational accomplishments beyond 
that of ability to read the Bible. Let it be understood, however, 
that this assertion has reference to individuals and individual 
congregations only, for at least forty years after the days of the 
Macks, Saurs, Becker, and Keyser. The cause of the degeneracy 
is also accounted for in the same connection. 

About the year 1850 the few friends of education in the 
brotherhood began to make efforts looking toward the establish- 
ment of schools of a higher grade. No sooner was this discern- 
ible than the opponents of the work took the question to the 
annual meeting, "How is it considered by the brethren, if brethren 
aid and assist in building great houses for high schools, and send 
their children to the same?" To this they received the reply, 
"Brethren should be very cautious, and not mind high things." 

We are not told whence the query came, but undoubtedly it was 
in response to the first effort made to establish a high school. 
This honor belongs to Brother Jacob Miller, of Bedford County, 
Pennsylvania, of whom a biography will be found elsewhere. It 
occurred in the year 1852, and there are still several of the first 
students of the school living and in active life. Unfortunately 
for the effort, Brother Miller was cut down by that relentless foe 
of man's ambition, — death. 

Nine years after the failure of this enterprise, on the 1st of 
April, 1861, Prof. S. Z. Sharp took charge of the Kishacoquillas 
Seminary, in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. At this institution 
several brethren of more or less prominence in the church received 
their literary impulse, but it continued a few years only for want 
of patronage. 

About the same time Elder James Quinter attempted to build 
up a school at New Vienna, Ohio, which he continued for four 
vears, and it died for the same reason. 



27O HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

The next effort was made at Bourbon, Indiana, and was called 
Salem College, and advertised as being second to no institution of 
education in Europe or America. Although its friends labored 
hard to keep up the school with patronage and other influence, 
after supporting it for about four years it died also, and at the 
loss of considerable money, which had been invested in the prop- 
erty, to the great discouragement of the friends of higher Tunker 
attainment. 

April 13, 1874, Brother Lewis Kimmel opened a school at 
Elderton, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, called Plumcreek 
Normal School, which attained a very respectable attendance in 
a short time ; but owing to opposition from within and without, 
it died also, after a brief existence. 

Nothing daunted by these failures, the friends of education 
continued their efforts. In the winter of 1872 an educational 
meeting was called by the western districts of Pennsylvania, 
which convened at Martinsburg, Blair County. At this meeting 
it was decided to establish a school of higher grade at Berlin, 
Somerset County, to be called The Brethren High School of 
Berlin. The following was the plan of procedure. H. R. 
Holsinger was provided with the following subscription list : — 

"We, the undersigned, hereby obligate ourselves to pay, or 
cause to be paid, the amounts set opposite our .respective names, 
for the purpose, in the manner, and upon conditions following : — 

"1. Said moneys shall be appropriated for the building and 
establishing of a school of the higher grade, at Berlin, Somerset 
County, Pennsylvania, to be known as The Brethren High 
School of Berlin. 

"2. This school shall be under the immediate control of the 
shareholders, subject, however, to the following rules of prin- 
ciple : — 

"1. Members of the Church of the Brethren, who are in full 
standing in the church, shall alone be eligible to the office of 
director, or to the position of teacher. 

"2. While it shall not be the purpose or object of the school to 
inculcate theological or sectarian doctrines, nevertheless, in life 



LITERATURE. 27 1 

and conduct it shall be the aim and purpose of the managers and 
teachers to exhibit the distinctive features that characterize the 
church. 

"3. One-fourth of the amount subscribed shall be paid within 
one year of the date of subscription, as may be demanded by the 
board of directors. 

"4. For the remaining three-fourths, we will give a bond or 
mortgage, upon which we will pay six per cent interest, annually, 
for the period of ten years, when the bond or mortgage shall be 
null or void. Each shareholder shall, however, have the privilege 
to pay up his interest in lieu of giving a bond. 

"5. Each five hundred dollars shall be denominated one share, 
and the holder thereof shall be entitled to five votes in the munici- 
pal management of said school, and to his pro rata share of the 
dividends. One hundred dollars shall be denominated one-fifth 
share, and command one vote, etc. 

"5. Unless subscriptions to the amount of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars ($100,000) shall be secured, no part of these sub- 
scriptions shall be collectable." 

On this subscription over sixty thousand dollars were secured, 
but the financial crash of 1875-76 struck it too hard, and the effort 
miscarried. 

The brethren of Berlin made an effort during the fall of 1874 
to establish the school at the Old Grove church, one mile north 
of town, and endeavored to secure the services of Prof. J. M. 
Zuck, and would, no doubt, have been successful had not Brother 
Zuck been attacked by one of his frequent indispositions just at 
the time when it was desired to open the school. The flame kin- 
dled by this effort, however, continued to burn. The next seen 
of it was at Huntingdon, in 1875, where Brother Zuck opened a 
normal school, which effort became eminently successful, and was 
the first success met with in the history of the church. For 
further particulars see Juniata College. 

The success at Huntingdon seemed to inspire enthusiasm in 
favor of high schools throughout the entire brotherhood. Even 
conservative Ohio caught the contagion, and Ashland College 



272 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

proved the next enterprise. This institution was chartered in 1878, 
by the German Baptist Church in the state of Ohio. Being located 
in a wealthy settlement, there appeared to be no difficulty in rais- 
ing money for building purposes, and being in the hands of thor- 
oughly progressive members, the enterprise did not lack any of 
the essential elements of success. Prof. S. Z. Sharp, founder of 
the Kishacoquillas School, who had meanwhile drifted away from 
the church into a Presbyterian College in Tennessee, was elected 
president of Ashland College. The school started out with sixty 
students the first day, and attained an enrollment of one hundred 
and eighty-seven on the opening of the second year. While 
Professor Sharp was a popular teacher, he lacked in executive 
ability as the head of the institution. He soon became involved 
in personal disputes with the trustees, and was obliged to resign. 
Elder R. H. Miller was chosen successor to Sharp. He had none 
of the qualifications of president of a Tunker college, except his 
Tunkerism. He, too, found it more convenient to resign his posi- 
tion than to fill it, and his resignation was promptly accepted. It 
would be interesting to pursue the history of Ashland College if 
the scope of my work would permit. With the retirement of 
R. H. Miller, Ashland College ceased to be a German Baptist 
School, and went into the care of the Progressives, and then into 
the hands of the Brethren Church. 

The next college established by the German Baptists is Mount 
Morris College. The buildings of this institution had been erected 
by the Methodist Conference of northern Illinois. It continues 
to exist and to prosper. See the history of the institution. 

Next in rotation is Bridgewater College, Virginia, which was 
followed by McPherson, Kansas ; Lordsburg, California, North 
Manchester, Indiana ; Plattsburg, Missouri ; Fruitdale, Alabama ; 
and there are rumors of schools being established at Smithville, 
Ohio, and Union Bridge, Maryland, as well as of the discontin- 
uance of the Plattsburg College. Property of the German Baptist 
colleges is now estimated at fully $500,000, and the number of 
students is figured at 2,000. 



CHAPTER XI 
DENOMINA TIONAL 

GERMAN BAPTISTS. 

Note. — It was not my intention originally to extend the history 
of the German Baptists and the Old German Baptists beyond the 
time of the general division in 1882, but the splendid progress 
which both the conservative branches of the Tunkers have made 
since they have operated alone, has created a desire in the heart 
of the author to bear testimony of approval to their work. 
Besides, it appears becoming at the close of the second century 
since their origin, to make a brief record of the facts relating to 
the status of each denomination at the closing date of this work, 
as it is not likely that another effort at writing the history of this 
people will be attempted very soon. I have, therefore, endeavored 
to secure data of the several interests of all the separate divisions 
of the brotherhood. It is, however, unfortunate that the old- 
order brethren are so indifferent, and I am afraid a little preju- 
diced, in regard to keeping record of their proceedings that it is 
almost impossible to obtain statistics of the number of churches 
or membership. However, I shall do as the apostle said : "Such 
as I have give I unto you." In the item of missions it is astonish- 
ing to notice the progress the German Baptist denomination has 
made during the last decade. I can truly say that I rejoice in 
their progress almost as much as if they were my own denomina- 
tion : For are we not all brethren ? 

The German Baptist Church constitutes the main body of the 
Tunker fraternity. The organization took nominal form at the 
annual meeting of 1836, when it was unanimously agreed "To 
call ourselves The Fraternity of German Baptists.' " This title 
was modified to "The German Baptist Brethren" in 1871. Their 
right to the name was sustained by the courts of Pennsylvania 
and Ohio during the transitional state of the denomination in the 
investigation of title to church property in several counties of the 
18 ( 273) 



274 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

states above named. Their claims were sustained by the courts 
upon the representation that the German Baptists had successively 
maintained, sustained, and upheld and controlled the annual meet- 
ings as the denominational conference of the body from its first 
organization. The courts could not, therefore, do otherwise than 
to recognize the German Baptist Church as the legal representa- 
tives. It was not within the jurisdiction of the courts to decide 
upon the claim to the ecclesiastical or doctrinal succession. That 
question still remains open to discussion. 

The Brethren Church, organized at Dayton, Ohio, in 1882, on 
the gospel of Christ, is as precious to me as the organization of 
the Church of the Brethren at Schwarzenau, in 1708. I am a 
charter member of the former, and a legal descendant of the latter. 
Either of them is good enough, and neither can help to salvation 
unless the will of the Father is done. 

Previous to 1836 no name was known among the Tunkers, 
legally or otherwise, except that of the Brethren. By outsiders 
they were called Dunkards, a vulgarism for Tunker. (For par- 
ticulars see Glossary.) 

While we are told that it was unanimously concluded to call 
ourselves "The Fraternity of German Baptists" at the annual 
meeting of 1836, it is a fact that, during my recollections, the 
name of German Baptist was not generally acceptable. It was 
tolerated because an idea had obtained among the membership 
that another name than that of Brethren was required to validate 
claims to church property. That was all a mistake, but it 
answered the purpose of retaining the original name for the latest 
organization, which is one of its technical inheritances. 

It may, therefore, be said that from 1836 to 1882 all Tunkers 
were German Baptists. Having had the prestige of priority and 
seniority, as well as the advantages of a well-established organiza- 
tion, they would naturally keep in the van of church work. 
Whatever has been said of the Tunkers of the period above 
referred to, may be attributed to the German Baptists. Their his- 
tory may be found in this work in general up to the time of the 
division of the Tunkers, during the period of 1879 to 1882, when 



DENOMINATIONAL. 275 

the body was divided into three parts : The ultra conservatives 
withdrawing from the body, and becoming the Old German Bap- 
tists ; the conservatives remaining the German Baptists ; and the 
progressives, having been expelled by the German Baptists for 
being progressive, organized the Brethren Church, as nearly as 
possible, on the original platform. 

Besides the advantages above mentioned, the German Baptists 
had the benefit of the progressive era, dating from about i860. 
This age of prosperity brought to the church not less than three 
well-established colleges, an organized missionary society, with 
at least an incipient endowment, several hundred thousand dol- 
lars of church property with undisputed title, a host of well- 
educated ministers, the fruits of their own schools, and a well- 
equipped publishing house, and last but not least from a pecuniary 
point of view, a large percentage of the wealthy membership. 

I am unable to account for the wonderful enthusiasm which 
entered the denominations almost immediately after the separa- 
tion. Some of them claimed that it was because of their freedom 
from incumbrances, while others declared that they had need of 
the progressives, and felt the loss of them in their local and 
general work. It is, however, a well-established fact, that from 
that time onward the German Baptist Church has made splendid 
progress. She has 2,400 names on her list of ministers, many of 
whom are elders and bishops. 

MISSIONARY. 

The General Missionary and Tract Committee presented the 
following report, for the year ending March 31, 1900: — 

India. — At Bulsar ten sub-stations are visited regularly, at some 
of which native members reside. 

Number of members, native 45 

Total number of members 55 

Pages of tracts distributed 8,000 

Whole or parts of Bible sold or given away 811 

Accessions to the church, four of whom are orphans 17 
Total membership in India 56 



276 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Six native members are helping in the out stations. 
During the past year an orphanage was built, and about two 
hundred famine children were cared for and instructed. Over 
fifteen thousand dollars were donated and disbursed in the sup- 
port for the relief of famishing India previous to April, 1900, not 
one cent of which was used for clerical purposes in this country 
or by the missionaries in India. 

Three persons were received into the church at Novsari. 
Asia Minor. — No progress is reported for 1899. The com- 
mittee is making an effort to send a man into the field, which is 
regarded as a difficult place to occupy. A number of members 
are faithfully adhering to the church without any financial sup- 
port. Two traveling secretaries have been kept in the field, 
developing missionary sentiment and soliciting funds. They 
report the following for the past year : — 

Endowment contracts $101,005 

Cash endowment 3.700 

World-wide mission fund collected 800 

FINANCIAL. 

The following summary of all money received during the year 
of 1899 was presented to the conference of 1900: — 

Cash on hand at beginning of year ......:. .$15,323 76 

World-wide fund 28,518 41 

Washington meeting-house fund 4>335 25 

Asia Minor fund 268 69 

India fund 19,677 81 

Gish testament fund 502 01 

Interest-bearing fund 74,128 87 

Switzerland meeting-house 25 68 

Total receipts $127,456 y2 

Cash on hand with total receipts 142,708 48 

Total expenditures 125,588 81 

Balance on hand $17,191 67 



DENOMINATIONAL. 277 

The following statements of assets of the church were also pre- 
sented to the conference of 1900 : — 

Mission fund $ 9>9 2 6 9 2 

Interest-bearing fund 167,686 47 

Publishing house building and ground 73>7 21 85 

Value of real estate above investment 3, 000 00 

Gish estate 23,500 00 

Total assets without pledged endowments . $277,845 24 
Total assets without pledged endowments, 

March 31, 1899 255,599 69 

Increase $22,245 55 

Pledged endowment, interest and non- 
interest bearing $204,149 00 

Assets as given above 277,845 24 

Total $48i,994 24 

Total, March 31, 1899 409748 66 

Increase . . .' $72,245 55 

LITERATURE. 

The church owns a well-equipped publishing house, which, 
during 1899, was m °ved from Mt. Morris to Elgin, Illinois. A 
magnificent building was erected especially for the business, of 
which I present the following description, accompanied by an 
illustration made from photograph. 

The building is three stories high and constructed of brick and 
stone and cost $17,000. It is warmed throughout by steam, has 
window lights on four sides, and is admirably arranged and 
adapted to the purpose for which it was built. The front is of. 
pressed brick with stone trimmings. The editorial and compos- 
ing rooms are on the third floor, the mailing and business rooms 
on the second, and the presses and other heavy machinery on 
the first floor. The building is located between two railway 



278 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

depots, and so close to one of the lines, that goods may be trans- 
ferred without expense of drayage. 

The committee on publication report the following earnings for 
the year ending March 31, 1900: — 



GERMAN BAPTIST PUBLISHING HOUSE, ELGIN, ILL. 

Merchandise account $ 3,274 70 

Gospel Messenger 14,095 18 

Young Disciple and Children at Work 2,597 69 

Quarterlies 2,872 50 

Annual meeting report 270 07 

Subscription books 710 19 

Advertisements 248 61 

Job work 288 59 

Reserve fund and special income 1,158 90 



Total $25,516 43 

Expenses 13,906 18 



Net profit $11,610 25 



DENOMINATIONAL. 



279 



Of the net gain $5,957.80 was turned over to the church mis- 
sion fund. 

The financial condition of the house on April 1, 1900, was esti- 
mated at $50,046.92. This amount included cash on hand, reserve 
fund, office material, book accounts for 1896 to 1899, merchandise. 

The entire investment of the printing plant is given at 
$73,961.85, toward which there has been donated $83,947.99. 
The difference, $9,986.14, is earning interest for the world-wide 
mission. 

STATISTICAL. 



There were represented at the conference of 1900 the follow- 
ing:— 

States. Districts. Congregations. 

Tennessee, North Carolina, and Florida. 1 3 

Virginia 2 26 

West Virginia 2 4 

Maryland 3 7 

Pennsylvania 4 43 

Ohio 3 59 

Indiana 3 102 

Illinois and Wisconsin 2 36 

Missouri and Arkansas 3 8 

Iowa, Minnesota, and Dakota 3 31 

Michigan 1 7 

Nebraska 1 7 

Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma 4 13 

Texas and Louisiana 1 1 

Oklahoma and Indian Territory 1 o 

California and Arizona 1 2 

Oregon, Washington, and Idaho 1 1 

Denmark 1 o 

Sweden 1 o 

Asia Minor 1 o 

India 1 o 



28o 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



EDUCATIONAL. 



The German Baptists support the following schools and 
colleges directly or indirectly under the auspices of the church : — 



MPHERSON COLLEGE. 



This institution was chartered in 1877, and a dormitory costing 
about $20,000 erected at once. This building was both used for 
dormitory and recitation purposes during two years. The main 
college building, 94x117 feet, was then begun. Due to financial 



qx 





M'PHERSON COLLEGE, KANSAS 

embarrassments this building was not placed under permanent 
roof until 1897. 

This institution has successfully fought its battle with the mort- 
gages, is now without debt, possesses grounds, buildings, and 
apparatus valued at $75,000, has a charter which forbids mort- 
gaging the property of the institution, annually enrolls about four 
hundred students, and its faculty and instructors number from 
eighteen to twenty. Eight members of the faculty are college or 
university graduates (from Harvard, University of Chicago, 



282 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



Illinois, Wesleyan University, Kansas State University, etc.), and 
seven others are graduates of professional schools or departments. 
The college sustains preparatory, commercial, normal, col- 
legiate, oratorical, Biblical, German, and musical departments, 
five courses in academic, normal, and collegiate departments, 
the model school for teacher-training, and the chair of pedagogy, 
which are recognized by the Kansas State Board of Education, 
and normal and collegiate graduates receive state certificates to 
teach in Kansas. 




M'PHERSON COLLEGE, KANSAS 



Present officers : Elder C. E. Arnold, Ph. B., A. M., president ; 
Elder Edward Frantz, A. B. M., vice-president; S. B. Fahnestock, 
A. B., M. C. S., secretary and treasurer. 



PLATTSDURG COLLEGE. 



Plattsburg College, Missouri, was for many years under the 
auspices of the Disciple Church, but was purchased by the Ger- 
'man Baptist Brethren, in 1897, and deeded to the state districts of 
that church located in Missouri, and the state districts adjoining 





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BRIDGEWATER COLLEGE, VA. 



284 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Missouri west of the Mississippi River, and to those districts it 
legally belongs. 

Committee of reference: Elders M. T. Baer, David Hilder- 
brand, F. W. Dove, Merril Hodgen, George Wise, and Archy 
Van Dyke. S. Z. Sharp is president and professor of mental and 
moral science and Bible department. 

This college has academic, commercial, musical, Biblical, and 
normal courses, and also correspondence department — Bible 
course. The plan adopted for this latter course is unique and 
simple, and suited to the aged as well as to the child of twelve 
years. There is an earnest demand for this course by those who 
can not afford to leave home. By this plan the student can obtain 
instruction at a low rate, and save board and car fare. 

For further particulars address, Plattsburg, Missouri. 

BRIDGEWATER COLLEGE. 

In 1880 Prof D. C. Flory opened the Spring Creek Normal 
School and Collegiate Institute, being assisted by J. R. Shipman, 
an efficient teacher. In the first session fifteen students attended, 
and in the second session there were thirty students. 

Before the third session the school was moved to Bridgewater, 
and the name was changed to Virginia Normal School. Faculty : 
D. C. Flory, principal ; Daniel Hays, J. R. Shipman, George B. 
Holsinger. Attendance, fifty-two students. 

A commodious building 40x80, three stories high, was erected, 
and ready for the fourth session. Faculty : D. C. Flory, J. E. 
Miller, Miss Sallie A. Kagey, and George B. Holsinger. Attend- 
ance, eighty. 

Fifth session. S. N. McCann was added to the faculty, and 
eighty-seven students were enrolled. 

For the sixth session Mrs. George B. Holsinger took the place 
of Miss Kagey, and in the spring term Prof. Carson Miller was 
secured. Eighty-one students. 

Seventh session. Faculty : Daniel Hays, principal ; J. B. 
Wrightsman, E. A. Miller, Mr. and Mrs. George B. Holsinger. 
Students, seventy-two. 



DENOMINATIONAL. 285 

Eighth session. Faculty : E. A. Miller, A. B., Principal ; J. B. 
Wrightsman, E. M. Crouch, Miss Kate M. Flory, J. M. Coffman, 
C. E. Arnold, George B. Holsinger, and Mrs. Fannie Wrights- 
man. Closed with one hundred and eleven students. 

The name was changed to Bridgewater College, and in 1888-89 
there were nine teachers and one hundred and sixty students, good 
location, attractive scenery, and mild and salubrious climate. 

MOUNT MORRIS COLLEGE. 

Mount Morris College has been reared upon the ruins of Rock 
River Seminary. Away back in the thirties of the nineteenth 
century, a few public-spirited men of the Pine Creek settlement 




MT. MORRIS COLLEGE, ILL. 

determined that the Pine Creek Grammar School should develop 
into a seminary. Some time afterward the Methodist Conference 
concluded to establish an institution of learning in northern 
Illinois. The committee on location decided in favor of Mount 
Morris. On the fourth of July, 1839, the corner-stone was laid, 
and the institution received the name of Rock River Seminary. 
Under the liberal patronage of those enterprising settlers the 
school prospered greatly. 

The students developed with the spirit and energy of the new 
country, and a large proportion of them rose to distinction. 
Among their number are found cabinet officers, foreign minister, 
senators, representatives, governors, judges, leaders in business 
and finance, and ministers of the gospel. 

However, the Rock River Seminary, during the seventies, 



286 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

gradually became involved in financial difficulties, which finally 
ended her career. Hon. R. R. Hitt purchased the property, which 
he later disposed of to Elders Melchor Newcomer, D. L. Miller, 
and John W. Stein, for $6,000. They purchased the property 
with the intention of starting a school to be conducted under the 
auspices of the German Baptist Church. After expending sev- 
eral thousand dollars in improvements, the school was reopened 
under the name of Rock River Seminary and Collegiate Institute. 
Elder Stein was elected president, and D. L. Miller business 
manager. 

On August 20, 1879, the first term of the school under the man- 
agement of these brethren was opened. Sixty students were in 
attendance. Professor Stein displayed remarkable ability as 
president of the college and as an instructor, but in the year 1881 
he became the principal of a disgraceful escapade. 

On pretence of going to Europe for his health, he left his wife 
and family, and eloped with his ward, Miss Delilah Tombaugh, 
who had been living with the family and attending the college. 

After his departure, Elder D. L. Miller became president, and 
also continued as business manager of the college. Under his 
management the patronage of the school rapidly increased, young 
men and women coming from all parts of the country where mem- 
bers of the church were located. 

In 1884 the trustees obtained a new charter for the school, and 
changed the name to Mount Morris College. The capital stock 
at that time amounted to $30,000. In that year Prof. J. G. Rover 
invested considerable money in stock. He was elected president, 
which position he has filled with much credit ever since. From 
that time the advancement of the college has been steady. Each 
year new improvements have been added, and the equipment and 
facilities of the college greatly increased. 

During the latter part of the eighties, the two original seminary 
buildings became inadequate for the growing necessities of the 
college. Accordingly, plans were set on foot for the building of 
a new temple of instruction, the present college. About $20,000 
were necessary for the erection of the desired building, and Presi- 



~~£& 




288 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

dent Royer started to solicit the amount by subscription through- 
out the brotherhood. The canvass proved successful, and ground 
was broken for the building in March, 1890, and the edifice was 
completed and ready for occupancy at the beginning of the fall 
term of 1891. This building is a massive structure. It is a plain, 
substantial, brick-veneered building, with seventy-two feet front, 
and including a spacious chapel, one hundred and twenty-two feet 
long. The main part is three stories above the basement and 
contains fifteen well-arranged rooms, most of which are of ample 
size. 

The faculty for the school year, 1899- 1900, was as follows: 
J. G. Royer, president ; D. D. Culler, rhetoric, literature, and 
German ; J. E. Miller, Greek and Latin ; O. R. Myers, psycology, 
pedagogy, and French ; G. W. Furrey, higher mathematics, 
astronomy, and political economy ; W. L. Eikenberry, science and 
civil government ; A. L. Clair, principal commercial department ; 
G. E. Weaver, principal art department; Mrs. Flora E. Teague, 
phonography and typewriting ; Mrs. Libbie Robertson, director of 
music ; Miss Josephine Royer, elocution and physical culture ; 
A. W. Ross, vocal music. For the year 1900-01 there are several 
changes. Prof. Heber M. Hays takes the place of J. E. Miller, 
who accepted a position in the State University at Urbana, and 
Miss Lucia McCosh, a graduate of the Chicago Musical College, 
takes Professor Robertson's place as director of music. D. D. 
Culler withdrew from the faculty at the close of the school year, 
June, 1900, and is now president of Smithville College, Ohio. 
His place is being filled by Prof. O. R. Myers. J. F. Souders is 
a new instructor in the Bible department ; J. D. Suter is first 
assistant in the commercial department ; Myrtle Royer conducts 
the painting department, and is also assistant in music ; M. W. 
Emmert teaches geography and U. S. history ; and Wallace Fike 
is assistant in the art department. 

LORDSBURG COLLEGE. 

Lordsburg College was founded in 1891 by Daniel Houser, 
David Kuns, Henrv Kuns, and Samuel A. Overholtzer, members 



DENOMINATIONAL. 



289 



of the German Baptist Church. They associated with them 
several other brethren who soon severed their relations with the 
institution. 

They purchased and fitted with suitable school furniture a 
magnificent three-story building, which had been erected in 1888 
for a hotel. The building originally cost $73,000, and contains 
about 130 rooms with twelve bath-rooms and lavatories. It has 
a south front of 183 feet, an east wing of 109 feet, and a west 
wing of 183 feet. It is situated in a charming town wholly free 



4/ 






LORDSBURG COLLEGE, CALIFORNIA 

from places of resort. The surrounding country is thickly settled 
with an industrious and cultured class of people. Good roads 
lead in all directions through as fine orange, lemon, and olive 
groves as are found anywhere. The valley and mountain scenery 
is magnificent. 

The last two named founders have since died, and the present 
trustees are Daniel Houser, David Kuns, John S. Kuns, J. W. 
Cline, and W. I. T. Hoover. 

The faculty this year is the largest and strongest in the history 
of the institution. They are all Christian men and women of 
high culture, a number of them being college and university 
graduates. 



19 



29O HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

The courses of study in all departments have been greatly 
strengthened. Many new subjects have been introduced, and the 
latest and best text-books adopted. The character of the students 
and grade of work being done this year is far in advance of what 
it has ever been in the history of the college. 

The college is now operated on a truly educational basis. It 
has no debt, besides already a substantial beginning by way of 
an endowment. The present board of trustees have in con- 
templation the complete reorganization of the institution and 
its enlargement along strictly college lines. 

The circumstances attending the founding and maintaining an 
institution of higher education are quite different on the Pacific 
Coast from what they are in the central and eastern states, and 
doubly so among the German Baptists or Tunkers, due to various 
causes, in no way reflecting upon the church in the west. How- 
ever, it is confidently predicted that within a few years Lordsburg 
College will be equal to any, and superior to most of the Brethren's 
colleges. 

NORTH MANCHESTER COLLEGE, INDIANA. 

This institution is conducted under the auspices of the German 
Baptist Conference. The committee of examiners reported to 
the annual meeting of 1899 that the teachers and students mani- 
fest great earnestness in pursuit of the work laid out for them, 
and that the work of the year has been of a commendable char- 
acter ; that the teachers who are members of the church are well 
conformed to the usages of the church in dress, and that there 
seems to be a growing tendency among the students who are mem- 
bers to comply with the usages of the church in their costume. 

Financially, we are told that the management has invested over 
$40,000 in the college grounds, buildings, and equipments. The 
enrollment of students is reported to be 309. 

The institution was founded in the spring of 1895. It was 
formerly occupied by the United Brethren Church, but as they 
were not strong enough numerically to furnish the required num- 
ber of students, they sold the property to the German Baptist 



DE N O M I X A T I O X A L. 



29I 



brethren, who have successfully conducted the school since in 
their possession. Prof. H. P. Albaugh is the president, and 
M. W. Sherrick vice-president. Several new buildings have been 
erected, and ample accommodations are provided for several hun- 
dred additional students. Male and female students are admitted 
to this school. 




FIRST FACULTY OF THE JUXIATA COLLEGE 



HUNTIXGDON NORMAL COLLEGE, PENNSYLVANIA. 

This institution is located at Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, 198 
miles west of Philadelphia and 153 miles east of Pittsburg. 

It was started April 17, 1876, by Prof. J. M. Zook, in a small 
room in the Primitive Christian Building. The first day there 
were only three students. At the close of the day Brother Zook 
remarked, "It looks very small indeed, but if the work is of the 
Lord it will grow," and by heroic effort it did grow. For years 



292 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the teachers struggled on with barely enough money to live until 
the first decade was passed. Building after building was erected, 
until now four commodious edifices are occupied, a liberal col- 
legiate course is pursued, able instructors are employed, and 
nearly four hundred students are enrolled. 

The college buildings stand on high ground overlooking the 
town and the adjacent country, and are admirably adapted to the 
purposes of the institution, and afford a pleasant and comfortable 
normal home for teachers and students of both sexes. 

On the main floor are the library, reception room, two recita- 
tion rooms, and the chapel, a large room which will seat from 
500 to 600 persons. 

From the top of the building there is a grand outlook over the 
town and surrounding country. The view is one that will delight 
the eye of any one who can appreciate the beauties of natural 
scenery. Many beautiful pictures have been painted on the can- 
vas of Pennsylvania by the Great Artist, but our picturesque state 
contains few lovelier scenes than that which greets the admiring 
gaze of the students from the "Brethren's Normal." 

Its charter places it forever under the control of members of 
the Church of the Brethren, for the special benefit of the children 
of the fraternity, to be a home, church, and school for them, where 
they can receive an education free from the contaminating influ- 
ences of fashionable life. It is designed to give a good, thorough, 
practical education to all students, without regard to sect or creed. 
Instead of a small room with its four inmates, the commodious 
buildings erected for its use have been crowded with earnest 
students intent upon making the best possible use of their time 
and their talents. The work has met with divine favor, and, 
therefore, has prospered. 

The school year consists of forty-three weeks, opening Septem- 
ber 5, and closing June 29, and is divided into three sessions, at 
the opening of each of which the classes will be organized, thus 
affording advantages to the students who may wish to enter at the 
opening of any session, while those who continue during the year 
can do so without the interruption and loss of time occasioned 
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HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



The examining committee made the following remarks in its 
report of 1900: — 

"The teachers are all members of the church but two. 

"The moral and religious influence is certainly very strong, 
and of a high order. The prominence given to Bible study is 
commendable, and deserves mention. 

"There is a strong desire on the part of the management to 
work in harmony with the church. 

"While there is not that rigid adherence to form in dress that 
some of our people desire, yet the peculiarity of the church is 
plainly seen." 




ELD. WM. C. THURMAN. 



CHAPTER XII 
GERMAN BAPTISTS— 'BIOGRAPHICAL 

PROF. H. P. ALBAUGH. 

H. P. Albaugh was born in Johnson County, Missouri, October 
9, 1869. In 1875 he moved, with his parents, to Darke County, 
Ohio, where he was brought up and educated. For six years he 
was an instructor in public schools, after which he had a business 
career of four years in Chicago, Illinois. He was elected presi- 
dent of North Manchester College and Bible School in April, 1899. 
Brother Albaugh was elected to the office of deacon by the church 
of Chicago, and was duly installed with Brother Bruce Otto, on 
Sunday, December 9, 1900. (Portrait 5, group 1.) 

ELDER G. C. BOWMAN. 

He is a descendant of a family prominent in the past history of 
the brotherhood in Tennessee, among the lineal descendants of 
which were a number who were talented quite above the ordinary 
mass of men. 

G. C. Bowman was born in the year 1832, on Carroll Creek, 
Washington County, Tennessee, where he spent the early years 
of his life under the religious influence and teaching of the 
brethren. In the year i860 he married Anne Hylton, daughter 
of Elder Austin Hylton. In the autumn of this year he and his 
wife were received into the church. Within a year or two after 
his baptism, he was chosen to the ministry. 

Brother Bowman engaged at once in the work to which he had 
been called. His first efforts in public were much like those of 
one engaged in ordinary conversation, — without any apparent 
effort in delivery, and entirely without that zeal and enthusiasm 
that characterized his preaching in later years. But there was 
something in his public talks that indicated his methods of study, 
and gave promise and evidence of growth and development. 

(295) 



296 history of the tunkers. 

His preaching consisted almost entirely of scriptural quotations, 
with such comments as he could give. Fulness and accuracy of 
quotation were quite apparent in all his efforts. 

Three prominent traits appear conspicuous in his character: 
First, he was an untiring student of the Scriptures ; second, he 
was a man of much faith ; third, he was much given to prayer. 
Had he in his earlier years been trained to habits of analysis and 
to that close application of scriptural truth that is always effective 
in religious discourse, he would indeed have grown into a man of 
wonderful power in the pulpit. 

The later years of his life were given entirely to the work of 
preaching, and the burden of his thoughts was in line with his 
work. 

When his last sickness came, in the delirium of his last days, 
his ebbing energies were given to repeating passages of Scripture, 
to apparent efforts of preaching, and to prayer. 

ELDER GEORGE BRUMBAUGH. 

George Brumbaugh, Sr., was born in Huntingdon County, 
Pennsylvania, January 9, 1795. He was the elder in the Clover 
Creek congregation for about forty years, and although not an 
eloquent preacher, he was a very successful housekeeper in the 
church of Christ. I received the ordinance of baptism at his 
hands, and always highly esteemed him for his Christian character. 
He died March 26, 1875, aged eighty years, two months, seventeen 
days. 

ELDER GEORGE W. BRUMBAUGH. 

George W. Brumbaugh, son of Deacon John Brumbaugh and 
brother to Elder J. W. Brumbaugh, was born August 6, 1827. 
He joined the German Baptist Church about 1850, and was elected 
to the ministry in 1855, advanced to the second degree in 1862, 
and ordained to the eldership in 1888. 

Brother Brumbaugh and myself were intimate acquaintances 
when young men. George was a blacksmith, and I used to strike 
for him at the anvil, and many a sermon was forged out while 




GROUP NO. i 



298 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the horseshoe was being turned. Not a gospel sermon, however, 
but an argument on politics, school work, or agriculture. Now 
we are both ministers, and our heads are blossoming for the 
grave. He still resides within ten rods of the spot where the 
blacksmith shop stood, while I have drifted westward until reach- 
ing the western coast. 
(Portrait 90, group 9.) 

ELDER JOHN W. BRUMBAUGH. 

John Brumbaugh was born April 7, 1823, in Blair County, Penn- 
sylvania. His father was John Brumbaugh, and his mother was 
Elizabeth Wineland. He was married to Margaret Nicodemus, 
April 21, 1844. He was elected to the ministry September 28, 
1849; advanced October 26, 1855 ; and ordained August 26, 1867. 
He died March 18, 1894, aged seventy years, eleven months, and 
eleven days. 

(Portrait yy, group 7.) 

ELDER H. B. BRUMBAUGH. 

Henry Boyer Brumbaugh, son of John and Catherine B. 1m- 
baugh, of Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, was born April 
1, 1836. He spent his boyhood days on the farm, and received 
his early education at home and in the public schools, at the 
Williamsburg Academy and Cassville Seminary. He also 
taught public schools for nine years. 

He was baptized June 15, 1856. Married Susan F. Peightal, 
November, i860. They have one son, Isaac Harvey, who is a 
graduate of Juniata, Haverford, and Harvard Colleges, and is act- 
ing president of Juniata College. 

The first seven years of Henry's married life were spent on the 
farm, an experience to which he looks back with feelings of much 
satisfaction, assured that in this calling he was successful. Dur- 
ing this period he was called to the ministry, and preached his first 
sermon August 14, 1864, from John 11 : 25. 

In 1870 he and his brother John commenced publishing the 
Weekly Pilgrim, at James Creek, Pennsylvania. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 299 

The office was removed to Huntingdon in 1875, and the Pilgrim 
consolidated with the Christian Family Companion and Gospel 
Visitor, out of which The Primitive Christian was formed. He 
has been on the editorial staff for thirty years. 

In 1876 he became one of the charter members in organizing 
the Brethren's Normal College at Huntingdon, now Juniata Col- 
lege. To this institution much of his life and means have been 
devoted. He has been president of its board of trustees from the 
beginning, and is now dean of the Bible department. After his 
removal to Huntingdon, and his connection with the college, he 
availed himself of the literary opportunities of the institution, in 
New Testament Greek, etc. 

In 1895 he made a tour of six months to foreign lands, visiting 
England, France, Ireland, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, 
and eastern Germany. He made a special visit to Schwarzenau, 
the original home of the Tunkers ; Switzerland, the country of 
beautiful lakes ; Turkey, visiting Smyrna and Ephesus ; Damascus, 
the Moslem paradise. He enjoyed his overland trips in the Holy 
Land, traveling on horseback, living in tents, visiting Jerusalem, 
the city of the great King and the Jewish Zion ; climbing Egyptian 
pyramids, and other interesting experiences of eastern travelers. 

In 1889 he was ordained to the eldership, and since then has 
been in charge of the Huntingdon church. He is in full vigor of 
life, is a close student, keeping abreast of the times, and is in the 
midsummer of his usefulness. 
(Portrait 48, group 4.) 

ELDER ADAM BEAVER. 

This worthy brother was born June 10, 18 16, in Union County, 
Pennsylvania, and died near the same place, January 7, 1898, at 
the age of eigty-two years, six months, and twenty-seven days. 
He was a son of John and Anna Beaver, and was the next oldest 
of a family of thirteen children. He had first belonged to the 
Methodist Church, but some forty years before his death he joined 
the Tunkers, and was soon called to the ministry, and rapidly 
advanced through the various degrees to the highest position in 



300 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the church. He served his people faithfully for many years, and 
traveled much, all at his own expense. 

PETER BECKER. 

Peter Becker, the first minister of the brethren in America, 
was born at Dillsheim, in Germany, in the year 1687. He was 
brought up and educated in the Presbyterian faith, but embraced 
the principles of the Brethren at Krefeld, in 17 14. He emigrated 
to America, at the head of the first company of the Brethren that 
crossed the ocean. This was in a. d. 17 19. He settled near Ger- 
mantown, Pennsylvania, on his little farm of twenty-four acres. 
This he tilled with his own hands, and followed his occuption 
(weaving) besides, until October 14, 1746, when lonesomeness 
and the infirmities of age prevailed on him to retire. He made 
vendue, sold both his real and personal property, and moved to 
his son-in-law, Rudolph Harley, at Indian Creek, Pennsylvania. 
There he lived until the day of his death, March 19, 1758. He is 
buried in the family cemetery, about one and one-half miles from 
Indian Creek. He was married to Dorothy Partman, a very pious 
and worthy woman. They had two daughters, Mary and Eliza- 
beth. The former married the above-named Rudolph Harley, 
and the latter Peter Stump, and they raised fifteen children. 

Brother Becker appears to have been a man of ardent feeling 
and considerable talent, accompanied with great zeal in the Mas- 
ter's service, and he was the happy instrument in organizing most 
of the early churches of the brethren in America. He traveled 
and labored more extensively in the cause of the church than all 
his contemporaries. His successor, who was also his colleague, 
was Alexander Mack, Sr. 

ELDER ALLEN B0YER. 

Allen Boyer was born March 29, 18 19, in eastern Pennsylvania. 
His father, John Reinhart Boyer, was born March 19, 1797, and 
died June 26, 1879. His mother's name was Anna Maria Schan- 
bach. His grandfather, Andon Boyer, was born 1766. His 
grandmother was named Sally Reinhart. 



302 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Allen was first sent to German school to a teacher by the name 
of Carl Gro. His father was a Lutheran, his mother a German 
Reformed, and his uncle, S. R. Boyer, was a Lutheran minister. 
And it was intended that Allen should be a preacher of the same 
denomination. His parents being in limited circumstances, Allen 
was hired out to help support the family. In 1835 ^ e was hired 
to Elder Isaac Meyers, of the Buffalo Valley church, Pennsyl- 
vania, at six dollars a month. He had read the Scriptures pretty 
well, as he thought, and felt fully confirmed in the Lutheran faith, 
and felt able to meet the old Tunker preacher ; but when Brother 
Meyers met him in his fatherly, unassuming, affectionate manner, 
he readily convinced his young friend of his errors, and he readily 
accepted the new truths he had learned. In the spring of 1836, 
he made application to Brother Meyers to be baptized. The 
elder, however, advised him first to consult his parents, which 
he did, and who, unexpectedly, cheerfully gave their consent. 
Accordingly, he and Sister Susie Miller were immersed by Elder 
John Royer, his mother taking affectionate care of him. 

On the 1 6th of February, 1840, he was married to Leah Jorden. 

In the fall of 1841 he and John Bogenreif were elected deacons, 
Elder John Klein, the martyr, giving the charge. 

In 1846 he moved to Stephenson County, Illinois. When he 
came to that place he found a band of thirteen members. John 
Lawver was their minister, and Allen was the deacon. They held 
their meetings at private houses. In the fall of 1848 the Yellow 
Creek and Waddams Grove churches were organized. And at 
this time, of the thirteen original members, only Elder Allen 
Boyer and his wife are yet living, having attained the age of 
eighty-one years. 

In the spring of 1862, Brother Boyer was elected to the minis- 
try. He has been a member of the church sixty-four years, a 
deacon twenty-one years, and in the ministry thirty-eight years. 

ELDER ADAM BROWN. 

Elder Adam Brown, a very able German and English minister, 
was born in Adams County, Pennsylvania, about the year 181 1. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 



303 



His parents were members of the Tunker Church. He associated 
himself with the Seventh-day German Baptist Church when quite 
young. During his boyhood he lived in Waynesboro, Pennsyl- 
vania, assisting his brother-in-law, John Deardorfr", in the drug 
business. The seventh-day nunnery being only three miles north 
of Waynesboro, he would frequently attend church there. Soon 
after this, at the age of eighteen, he became a member, but not 




being satisfied with their discipline, he withdrew from that per- 
suasion after being a member a short time. When he became of 
age, he traveled westward, and visited Indian camps, and became 
a missionary among them, preaching for them wherever it was 
practicable. After being with the copper-colored race for some 
time, he returned to the home of his childhood, Abbottst'own, 
Adams County, Pennsylvania. Here he joined the Tunkers, 
being admitted on his former baptism, the Seventh-day Baptists 
also baptizing by trine immersion. He became a zealous minister 



304 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

in that church, and when in middle age, he was ordained a bishop, 
in what year is unknown. He was in every sense a self-made 
man, an able school-teacher, as well as an able minister. What 
he knew he acquired by diligent study, not having an opportunity 
of attending even a good common school. In his day he traveled 
much through this and adjoining states, as well as his western 
trip in his younger years. He was not a wealthy man, but would 
often go on extended ministerial tours with but little money in 
his pockets. He was no begger for money, but every person loved 
him. His mild and gentle manners endeared him to everybody. 
He was a fluent speaker in English and German. He never wrote 
for any periodical, but wrote intelligent letters, and could have 
written for the press, also. He died in the year 1895, a g" e d about 
eighty-four years. D. h. f. 

ELDER ELIAS CAYLOR. 

The father of Elias Cay lor (John Cay lor) came to America 
from Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany, when but sixteen or 
seventeen years of age. He, with two sisters, landed in Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, in 1763. For his passage across the ocean 
he was sold for three years to a man by the name of Lichtv, a 
farmer living in the vicinity. 

At the expiration of his indenture he married Magdalena Barn- 
hart, and moved to Botetourt County, Virginia. To this union 
nine children were born, — five sons and four daughters. After 
this, death entered his home, taking away the companion of his 
youth. A few years later he married Salome Kinsey, whose 
mother had been stolen by the hostile Indians, prior to the War 
of the Revolution, and had lived in captivity seven years, but had 
been restored to her friends by a treaty of peace, and married 
Kinsey, whose daughter Salome now became the second wife of 
John Caylor. 

To avail himself of the facilities for securing a home, which the 
new country afforded, John Caylor and family emigrated from 
Virginia to the Miami Valley, Ohio, about the close of the seven- 
teenth century, where Elias Caylor was born May 22, 1805, said 
to have been the first while child born west of the Miami River. 



306 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

The country, at that time almost an unbroken forest, afforded but 
limited school privileges. He attended the district school only 
two weeks, but, by industry and perseverance, he learned to read 
fairly well, and acquired the art of writing . sufficiently for the 
transaction of the ordinary business of the times. 

In December, 1825, he married Sarah Umberger. Ten children 
were born to them. They joined the Tunker church in Novem- 
ber, 1827. About the year 1837 tnev moved to the Nettle Creek 
Church, Henry County, Indiana. 

In 1842 he moved into the Upper Fall Creek Church, same 
county. Here he was elected to the office of deacon, May 16, 
1843, an d on March 30, 1844, he was elected to the ministry. He 
preached much in the above-named church, including Lower Fall 
Creek, and Hamilton County, Indiana. In 1849 ne moved to 
Hamilton County, Indiana, to a few scattered members, which 
was the nucleus of the Stony Creek church. He was the only 
minister until they organized. In 1857 he was ordained to the 
full ministry, and was the leading spirit building up the Cicero 
Creek church, Beech Grove church, Hancock County church, and 
often preached in Montgomery County, Indiana, where he baptized 
Brother R. H. Miller. 

He traveled much on horseback, as it was the best mode of 
traveling in their pioneer life. He was at all times an uncom- 
promising advocate of the faith and practice of the brethren. 
One of his strong characteristics was his devotion to the cause 
of the Master. 

MILLS CALVERT. 

Francis Calvert, of Bedford County, Virginia, married a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church, a Miss De Witt, about 1792. Their 
sons were Robert, Mills, and John. 

Robert Calvert was born in Bedford County, Virginia, Septem- 
ber 9, 1794. He was married February 2y y 1 816, to Sarah Stretch, 
who was born August 15, 1793, and who was, at marriage, a 
member of the Brethren Church. 

In the spring of 1817 they left Bedford County, having then 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 



307 



one child. The mother and child on horseback, and the father 
on foot, they came one hundred and sixty miles to the Kanawha 
salt works. At this place they stayed one season, he working at 
the cooper trade. In the fall of 1817 they came to Manchester, 




ELDER JOHN FOX. 

Was born 1786 and died 1880. He was pastor of the Philadelphia 

church for a number of years. 

Ohio, thence to a farm near New Lexington, Highland County. 
Here they settled, and on November 8, 1818, Mills Calvert, the 
subject of this notice, was born. To them were born eleven chil- 
dren, two of whom died under two years of age. The others' 



308 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

names were, John, Mills, Ira, Francis, William, Moses, Joel, Jesse, 
and Susanna. 

The father first united with the Methodists, but in a short time 
joined with the Tunkers, was baptized in 1821 or 1822, and, in a 
short time, was put to tiie ministry. He was advanced to the 
eldership, in which position he remained till his death. They 
moved into the Brush Creek church, Adams County, in the spring 
of 1839, and it was in this county, and in Highland and Ross 
Counties, that he principally labored. It was said of him, "If ever 
there were any good people in the world, Robert Calvert was one 
of them." He died December 19, 1851, aged fifty-seven years, 
three months, and ten days. His funeral sermon was preached in 
the summer of 1852, by Sister Sarah Major. The mother died 
August 2, 1870. Of the children, six sons and the daughter 
joined the Tunkers, four of whom were elected to the ministry, 
and two to the office of deacon. 

Mills Calvert was a man of extensive information. His gift 
of language was good, and his power to retain what he read and 
heard was remarkable. The texts of Scripture so often used by 
him, both in preaching and in conversation, he had learned from 
his father's preaching. He once remarked, "If I could live my 
life over again, there is one change I would make. I was once 
offered a good chance to attend school, when a young man, and 
did not take it; I ought to have taken it." He was married to 
Susanna Garman, October 8, 1843, was baptized in 1849, an ^ on 
the 17th day of August, 1850, he was called to the ministry. His 
labors were mainly in Adams, Highland, and Ross Counties, with 
an occasional visit to other places. He baptized about two hun- 
dred, married two hundred and four couples, and preached the 
funerals of more than two hundred persons, besides attending the 
burials of a great many more. 

Although never ordained, he filled the specifications laid down 
by the apostle, and especially that of having "a good report of 
them which are without." As a preacher on general topics, he 
was considered able, and on such subjects as the power of God 
to save, the saving qualities of religion, the resurrection, and the 
doctrine held by the brethren, he had few equals. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 309 

They had three sons, all becoming- prominent members of the 
church: one the treasurer, one the clerk, and one a minister in 
the church. 

In the fall of 1875 his health began to fail, and by January he 




thought his case hopeless. He was visited by many persons, 
especially by the old and religious people, and he enjoyed their 
presence and conversation fully as well as one could in his con- 
dition. To Brother Garman he said, "I am like the psalmist ; I 
behold the Lord always before my face." He lingered on till 



3IO HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Tuesday night, June 12, when, with his mind perfectly clear, and 
his faith firmly fixed on the Son of God, he quietly passed away. 
He had selected the hymns to be sung at his funeral. The funeral 
sermon was delivered by Brother A. J. Hixon, July 15, 1876, in 
the Pleasant Grove church, from Job 14 : 10. It seemed to be 
most suitable, as it was the greatest subject of his life. 

ABRAHAM H. CASSEL. 

Abraham H. Cassel was born September 21, 182 1. His father's 
name was Yelles Cassel. Through the line of his mother he was 
great-grandson of Christopher Saur. 

One of his biographers said of him, "He is universally recog- 
nized as a historian of his church," which is that of the German 
Baptists or Tunkers. For half a century he has been a wise 
counselor of his church, and his decisions on important questions 
are accepted as final. He is the personification of benevolence, 
and has a gentleness of manner and kindliness of heart, which win 
for him recognition among all classes of people, who find in him 
a worthy friend and charming companion. Crowning all his 
noble qualities is the spirit of humility in all his daily acts. He 
has a certain simple eloquence of speech which is made impressive 
with his earnestness, and to which is lent a united charm by a 
slight German accent. He dresses in the plain habit of his 
brethren, and possesses a clean-cut face, which is lighted with 
intelligence, and his manner kindles with enthusiasm when he dis- 
courses on his favorite themes. It is one of the best evidences of 
the complete development of Mr. Cassel's mind and character that 
he is held in the highest esteem by his prosaic neighbors, who 
care little for books, but everything for the crops, and for thrift 
and economy. This is partly due to the fact that he has thrived 
by holding the plow himself, and has accumulated a competency, 
but the universal respect in which he is held by a large circle of 
acquaintances in all classes of society, is mainly due to his sincere 
and noble character. The atmosphere of piety pervading his 
home, the beautiful simplicity of his manners, the endurance of 
his friendship, and the story of his remarkable career have kindled 



312 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

a love for him which is not bounded by the county or the state, 
but which even extends to foreign lands. 

Brother Cassel's library, in its entirety, contained over fifty 
thousand volumes. This includes bound books, pamphlets, and 
documents, besides over one thousand specimens comprising com- 
plete sets of the principal American almanacs from 1714 to the 
present day ; also many ancient magazines and early periodicals 
of Pennsylvania and American newspapers of the earliest days. 
Brother Cassel also preserved all his correspondence, which was 
very extensive, and has all letters sent to him on whatever subject 
filed away and indexed, so he can refer to any personal corre- 
spondence at a glance ; also has many autograph letters of 
Christopher Saur, Alexander Mack, Peter Becker, Conrad Beisel, 
Martin Urner, and others of the fathers of the Brethren Church. 

( Portrait 47, group 4. ) 

PROF. AARON L. CLAIR. 

Prof. Aaron L. Clair was born at Nora, Illinois, July 25, 1866, 
and is the son of Preston and Mary Clair. His early life was 
spent on his father's farm near Lena. In the fall of 1888 he 
entered Mount Morris College. By June, 1890, besides the liter- 
ary work done, he had completed the shorter commercial and pen 
art courses. Within a year he was called to the position of prin- 
cipal instructor in penmanship, and assistant in the business 
department of Maryville Seminary, Missouri. The year follow- 
ing he was promoted to the principalship of the business depart- 
ment of the seminary. 

In the fall of 1892 he again entered Mount Morris College. 
During 1893-94 he served as an assistant in the business college, 
and in September, 1894, he was promoted to the principalship, 
which he still fills. Professor Clair is an instructor whom every 
one likes because of his cheerful nature and his agreeable manner 
of conducting recitations and the work in the commercial depart- 
ment. With rare tact and skill he directs the work in the com- 
mercial hall, and the large attendance in this department is a 
testimonial to his ability as an instructor. He was married June 







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314 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

16, 1892, to Lizzie' Albright. In July, 1900, he was elected to 
the first degree of the ministry. 

ELDER JESSE CROSSWHITE. 

The author's acquaintance with Elder Crosswhite is inseparably 
associated with that of Doctor P. R. Wrightsman, and dates to 
about 1865. He was then a Tunker preacher, but we learned that 
he had formerly belonged to the Campbellites. We have been 
unable to learn dates of birth, baptism, and installation to office. 
He was a zealous advocate of the cause, able and influential in his 
ministerial labors. He and Brother Wrightsman were colaborers, 
traversing the hills and valleys of east Tennessee and North 
Carolina on horseback, through all kinds of weather. On one 
occasion, after an all day's journey in the rain, in Johnson County, 
Brother Crosswhite's horse fell in the middle of a swollen stream. 
He swam out with his overcoat and broad-brim hat on. His 
horse also escaped, but the saddle-bags, containing their clothing, 
went down the river, and were lost. 

On another occasion these same brethren were holding pro- 
tracted meetings in the same county. Among the converts was 
a doctor's wife. She wished to be baptized, but the husband 
swore that he would shoot the preacher that attempted to baptize 
his wife. The ministers held a council over the matter. Brother 
Wrightsman favored proceeding with the work, saying he did 
not believe that the Lord would let the man's powder burn. But 
Brother Crosswhite favored deferring the matter until the doc- 
tor's wrath would abate, and his advice prevailed. Near the close 
of the meeting the lady was baptized, and there was no shooting 
done. Some time after the doctor himself was baptized and the 
family made happy. 

During the latter years of Brother Crosswhite's life he felt 
convicted that the Tunker Church was placing too much stress 
upon the subject of dress, by making it a test of official standing, 
and in some cases expelling members for non-compliance with the 
form of dress adopted by the church. He claimed that the 
brethren added to God's Word. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 315 

About 1890 he was so much agitated upon the subject that he 
liad about concluded to withdraw his fellowship from the church. 
He wrote a long letter to Brother Wrightsman for the unburden- 
ing of his mind upon the subject which rested so heavily upon his 
heart. Brother Wrightsman, like a true brother, his heart filled 
with love for his colaborer. responded at equal length ; and, hav- 
ing kept a copy of his letter, we are enabled to publish an extract 
therefrom : — 

"My heart yearns for your welfare, and for the best results of 
your severe trials. While I, also, feel that our church has made 
a mistake in placing so much stress on the dress question and so 
little on the internal spiritual work, with holy living, yet with all 
this weakness, where, my brother, could we improve our moral 
situation? You can not accept open communion, single immer- 
sion, or omit any of Christ's commandments, which you would be 
required to do if you were to unite with any other denomination. 
'Let no man take thy crown.' Stand still, and see the salvation 
of God. O my brother in travail, let me beseech you, think of 
our labors together in the Lord, by day and by night, in war and 
in peace, over hills and mountains and through floods ! The 
Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want.' I make this one request ; 
please study it well ; take it to the Lord in prayer ; stay upon His 
Word, and trust Him. Make no change in your church relation- 
ship for six months, and by that time I believe the Lord will direct 
His children." 

In the latter part of the following year he wrote to Brother 
Wrightsman again, stating that he had seriously reflected over the 
situation ; although he did not believe in adding to God's Word, 
he felt that he could do no better by making the contemplated 
change. He cordially thanked Brother Wrightsman for his 
advice and interest in his welfare. 

Brother Crosswhite was accidentally killed, the particulars of 
which I am unable to learn. 

ELDER JOHN P. EBERSOLE 

was born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, November 22, 1805. 
His parents moved to Ohio in 181 5, remaining in Columbiana 



31 6 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

County until 1835, when they permanently located in Hancock 
County. 

He was converted and received into the Tunker Church in the 
year 1844. He and his wife were baptized by Elder Israel Hanes. 
He was chosen to the office of deacon in one year after joining the 
church, and elected to the ministry in 1846. In 1852 he was 
ordained to the eldership by Elder George Hoke and Joseph 
Showalter, and he became a leader among the Brethren. His 
ability as a preacher and a counselor was recognized, not only in 
his own community, but throughout the entire state. He pre- 
sided over six different churches. He attended forty annual 
meetings, and was always in demand as a preacher on such occa- 
sions, and he frequently addressed audiences numbering thou- 
sands. He crossed the Alleghany Mountains twenty-two times 
on church business. 

Elder Ebersole was married to Susannah Green, October 12, 
1827, and was the father of seven children. He died August 3, 
1890, aged eighty-four years, eight months, eleven days. 

Sister Ebersole was born October 8, 1805, in Newcastle 
County, Delaware. She was of English descent. She died at 
the house of her son-in-law, Jacob C. Hazen, January 20, 1892, 
aged eighty-six years, three months, and twelve days. 

ELDER ENOCH EBY. 

Enoch Eby was born near Waterloo, Juniata County, Pennsyl- 
vania, November 15, 1828. He was raised on a farm, in a 
Catholic community in the north corner of Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, in the limits of the Aughwick church, Huntingdon 
County. All the members of his family united with the German 
Baptist Church in their youth, the result of good parental training. 
Enoch is the only church official, however, in the family. x He was 
baptized near the Aughwick church by its elder, Andrew Span- 
ogle, in May, 1845, in his seventeenth year, and was elected to the 
ministry in the same congregation. May, 185 1. 

He was married to Hetty Howe, of Mechanicsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, November 18, 1847. They took charge of his father's 



31 8 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

farm, though isolated from the body of the church. The appoint- 
ments for preaching were from fifteen to thirty miles distant, 
across two and three mountains, which meant something in Penn- 
sylvania, especially when afoot or on horseback. 

On his return home from meeting, crossing the mountains 
alone, he committed to memory two lengthy chapters in the New 
Testament, and frequently on his way to and from meeting, he 
would unconsciously catch himself preaching. At one time sev- 
eral persons were herding cattle in a field close by the road- 
side, unobserved by him. Supposing that he was intoxicated, 
they inquired of a friend living with them whether he came home 
sober that evening. 

His enjoyment, however, was greatly marred for one season 
by sickness, which the doctor and all his friends said would prove 
fatal, during the first year of his married life. However, he 
called for the elders of the church, and was anointed according 
to James 4, and recovered in a remarkably short time. 

Educational advantages were meager. School terms meant 
only three to four months in a year. When the crops were good, 
half the time was spent in tramping out the grain and hulling the 
clover seed. But by using late and early hours, he succeeded in 
obtaining an average log-schoolhouse education, so that he could 
teach in the winter and farm in the summer. A Lutheran minis- 
ter, a friend of his, asked a question, "When do you study your 
sermons?" He replied, "While after my plow and sometimes 
while others sleep." The Lord has preserved him for seventy-one 
years, with more than ordinary health. 

In March, 1855, they moved west with four children, and located 
in Stephenson County, Illinois, where sunshine and dark clouds 
were awaiting them. The church received them gladly, and for 
about six years all went well with them. The church prospered, 
and at almost every meeting some one was baptized. But dark 
clouds were approaching. In January 28, 1867, death entered the 
family and claimed the mother of eight children. 

In 1870 he again united in matrimony, marrying Anna (Lauver) 
Gilfilen, of Perry County, Pennsylvania. All his children were 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 319 

baptized into Christ in their youthful days, and three sons were 
elected to the ministry in single life, in their twenties, and in the 
same church in which they were raised. 

In May of 1864 he was called upon by the adjoining elders and 
the church to take oversight thereof, and was ordained to the 
eldership, in which office he served thirty-two years, during which 
time bereavements fell heavy on his family. His wife died Jan- 
uary, 1867; December, 1869, a son of four years; July 6, 1871, a 
daughter of sixteen years ; then his mother, who had been a mem- 
ber of his family since his father's death, in October, 1872, aged 
seventy-two years ; December, 1876, another single daughter, aged 
twenty-three years. In July, 1885, a married daughter, with two 
children, died in southern California, aged twenty-eight years. 

In 1875 tne northern district of Illinois appointed Brother Fry 
and wife, with Enoch Eby and wife, to go to Denmark, to organize 
the first German Baptist Church on the other side of the ocean, 
which was accomplished in November, 1877. They returned to 
eastern Pennsylvania the latter part of March, and to Illinois in 
May, 1878. 

Crossing the ocean twenty-one years ago meant more than it 
does now. He attended thirty-nine annual meetings ; served on 
standing committee about twenty times ; twice door-keeper ; four 
times reading clerk ; moderator eleven times ; and on committees 
about twenty-five times. His home at present is at Booth, 
Kansas. 

M. M. ESHELMAN. 

Matthew Mays Esheiman was born near Lewistown, Pennsyl- 
vania, September 1, 1844. His ancestors were from the Canton 
of Eshel, in Switzerland. For many years a gentleman from 
said Canton represented it in the Swiss Parliament, as eventually 
he was known as "Der Mon von Eshel" — (( Dcr Esheiman" hence 
the origin of the name. 

His grandfather, David, was born near Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, and died an elder in the Tunker Church, near Mohrsville, 
Pennsylvania. His father, Andrew, died in 1872, near Lanark, 
Illinois, and, at the time, was a deacon in that church. 



320 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



In August, 1862, he enlisted for the war, marching from Clarion 
County, Pennsylvania, to Camp Howe, at Pittsburg. In a few 
days the regiment was transported to the Potomac in time to par- 







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ELDER M. M. ESHELMAN 

ticipate in the second Bull Run defeat. From here they were 
rapidly marched to Antietam, where he was wounded September 
17, and was taken to Wolfe Street Hospital, Alexandria, where 
he was "honorably discharged," December 29, 1862. 

He then joined the Ohio National Guards. In May, 1864, they 
were called into service for one hundred days. On arriving at 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 321 

Fort Ethan Allen, Virginia, he was made secretary to the adjutant 
of his regiment. During Breckinridge's attack on Washington, 
in August, his regiment participated, and his company was 
assigned to duty at Chainbridge. Before returning home his reg- 
iment was drawn up in front of the White House in Washington, 
and President Lincoln delivered them an address. 

His next experience consisted of the more peaceable vocation 
of teaching in the common schools in the vicinity of Virden and 
Lanark, Illinois, until 1876. 

He was married to Miss Lizzie A. Best, October 25, 1865. In 
1871 he joined the M. E. Church in Freeport, Illinois, and the next 
year moved to Christian County, where his zeal and earnestness 
continued. The German Baptists held services "every four weeks" 
in the schoolhouse where he taught, and he attended those services, 
and became interested. He read the New Testament through, and 
after much wrestling in prayer, determined to obey from the heart 
every requirement. When through, he united with the German 
Baptist Church, June 1 1, 1873. 

In 1875-76, he prepared three works, "Our Faith Vindicated," 
"Sabbathism," and "True Vital Piety," and wrote a history of the 
Danish mission. 

September 1, 1876, J. H. Moore, J. T. Myers, and M. M. Eshel- 
man began the publication of the Brethren at Work, in Lanark, 
Illinois, J. T. Myers having brought his printing outfit from Ger- 
mantown, Pennsylvania, to Lanark. By January I, 1877, the 
paper had a circulation of 2,000. 

In 1877 a Bible school was opened in Lanark, and M. M. Eshel- 
man conducted it successfully. In a few years similar schools 
were in operation in nearly all the congregations in northern 
Illinois, known as Sunday-schools. 

In the spring of 1880 Elder J. H. Moore retired, and Eshelman 
became sole proprietor of the paper. 

Some time after the retirement of Elder Moore, S. J. Harrison 
ana* L. M. Eby became associated with the journal, and after a 
few months Eby retired, and Eshelman and Harrison assumed 



322 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

entire control. In the autumn of 1880, S. J. Harrison sold his 
interest to Eshelman. 

The Mount Morris College having been established about the 
year 1879, in December, 1880, Eshelman moved the paper to that 
place. 

January, 1882, Elder Joseph Amick purchased a half interest in 
the Brethren at Work, and prepared to move from Indiana to 
Mount Morris, Illinois, to take charge of the business department. 
Brother Eshelman, to recuperate his health, spent a month or two 
in Missouri. In February, 1882, he transferred his interest to 
Joseph Amick, D. L. Miller, and others, and retired from the 
business in broken health, as compensation for his time and talent. 

He next took up pastoral work in northwestern Kansas, where 
he was ordained to the eldership in the Whiterock church in the 
spring of 1885. 

He served as a member of the standing committee for the years 
1885 and 1887 from northwestern Kansas and Colorado. 

He next took part in the establishment of McPherson College, 
Kansas. To this institution he rendered valuable service, and 
was involved in serious trouble for his reward, and for a time lost 
his eldership. 

He was next engaged in an effort to build up an educational 
institution. In connection with T. J. Nair, Henry Frantz, and 
D. A. Norcross, rre bought a large hotel property at Lordsburg, 
California, which was converted into the Lordsburg College, and 
in the spring of 1890 Brother Eshelman moved to Lordsburg, and 
the college became an established institution. 

This enterprise afforded Elder Eshelman plenty of work and 
more trouble, financial and ecclesiastical. It would require a vol- 
ume in itself to recount in detail all his sad experiences, and lest 
I should do him injustice by enforced brevity, much is omitted of 
which our data is full and complete. 

After locating in California he was connected with the Santa 
Fe Railroad Company, and became instrumental in colonizing a 
large number of families from the east to southern California. He 
also enlisted the influence and means of such men as Daniel 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 323 

Houser and S. A. Overholser at Covina, and Henry and David 
Kims, of Cerro Gordo, Illinois, in favor of the Lordsburg Col- 
lege, thus assuring its financial success. 

April 24, 1892, Brother Eshelman went to Waterloo, Iowa, and 
joined the Enon Brethren Church, of which S. J. Harrison was 
pastor, H. R. Holsinger officiating. Shortly after this occasion 
he wrote of himself: "Since that event I have been living in the 
ethereal regions of spiritual delights. My joy is running over, 
my cup is full, and the ecstacy of spiritual animations scarcely 
knows any bounds." 

In the summer of the same year, he became one of the charter 
members in the organization of a Brethren Church at Lordsburg, 
California, which was afterwards disbanded. 

Sometime during the summer of 1893 Brother Eshelman 
assisted in the organization of a Brethren Church in the city of 
Los Angeles, California, and the same day he baptized three 
young women in the Disciple Church pool. He was given charge 
of the church, and for a while it prospered, but its existence was 
very brief. 

On the 5th of November, 1893, Brother Eshelman assisted in 
the organization of the Rosena Brethren Church, and located his 
membership in that congregation, his wife at the same time 
transferring her membership from the German Baptist Church 
to the Rosena Brethren Church. We verily thought that now 
Brother Eshelman's cup of joy was full. Early in the year 1895 
he returned to the German Baptist's communion, and was 
restored to the eldership; and since then has been doing very 
faithful service in that denomination. Sister Eshelman reluc- 
tantly accompanied her husband in this last transfer. 

PROF. W. LEWIS EIKENBERRY. 

Prof. W. Lewis Eikenberry, B. S., is the son of William and 
Susan Eikenberry, and was born near Waterloo, Iowa, July 12, 
1 87 1. After leaving the country school, he attended a short time 
at a private school in Waterloo, and finally came to Mount Morris 
College in the fall of 1887, and after two years of solid work, 



324 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

graduated in the academic class of 1889. In 1890 he again 
entered the college and did two years of seminary work, graduat- 
ing from that department in 1892. 

In the fall of the same year he enrolled at the University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, and graduated after two years, receiving 
the degree of Bachelor of Science. He was immediately engaged 
as professor of science by his alma mater. 

He is one of the exceedingly small number of men who have 
had the presence of mind and the opportunity to photograph a 
moving tornado, which feat he accomplished in 1898. Copies of 
the picture have appeared in quite a number of papers and mag- 
azines all over the United States, and, along with a number of 
other photographs of the effects of the tornado, will be found in 
a later chapter upon calamities. 

In 1893 ne was elected to the first degree of the ministry, and 
was later advanced to the second degree. 

ELDER JACOB FAHRNEY. 

Elder Fahrney was an eminent physician in his day, and prac- 
ticed his profession in Franklin and Cumberland Counties, Penn- 
sylvania, and Washington County, Maryland, for a period rang- 
ing between 1821 and 1848. He was also a prominent minister 
of the gospel, speaking both the German and English languages, 
and was for several years the elder of the old Antietam church. 
He was twice married, his first wife having been a Miss Welty, 
with whom he had several children, one of whom, now deceased, 
practiced the healing art in Philadelphia. His second wife was 
Elizabeth Holsinger, daughter of Elder Jacob Holsinger, for 
many years the bishop of the Antietam congregation. With this 
second marriage he had six sons and four daughters. 

An indication of the progressiveness of Elder Fahrney was the 
radical position he assumed upon the temperance question. In 
his day it was common, even among church members, to take 
whisky into the harvest fields, and to give it freely to all working 
hands. Elder Fahrney, noticing the injurious results of this cus- 
tom, not only advocated its abolition, but took an active part in 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 



325 



inaugurating systematic opposition to it. In those days such 
reformatory measures were not popular in the Tunker Church, 
and those who advocated them could all be numbered on the 
fingers of one hand. In this work Brother Fahrney and Elder 
Isaac Price were contemporary, and we feel assured they are now 
both reaping a glorious reward for their labors ; for the Master 
has said, "The laborer is worthy of his reward." 

The portrait of Doctor Fahrney has been copied from a 
daguerreotype taken early in 1848. At that time having one's 
likeness taken was regarded as very progressive, and Elder 




Fahrney was severely censured by some of his brethren for this 
act, and it was said at the time, that the severe criticisms, with 
the implied threats of ecclesiastical investigation, were the cause 
of his premature death. 
(Portrait 56, group 5.) 

ELDER J. S. FLORY. 

J. S. Flory was born in Rockingham County, Va., Maich 28, 
1836. He was grandson of John Flory, one of the pioneers of the 
church in Virginia, and a representative minister through Virginia, 
Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. At the age of 
twentv-one lie married Miss Elizabeth Sanger, daughter of Jacob 



326 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Sanger. He joined the church at twenty-three, and was ordained 
as an elder at thirty-two. He built up the church in Fayette 
County, western Virginia, and after the war, in 1872, he went to 
Colorado. There were only three members in the territory at 
that time, but he built up a church of about one. hundred mem- 
bers. After eleven years, he went to southern California, at 
which time there were only three members there. He was there 
fifteen years and the church prospered, so that there are probably 
five hundred members. He spent forty years mostly on the 
frontiers and at his own expense ; and he served a number of 
times on the standing committee, always paying 1 his own expense 
in going. They raised a family of nine children, six daughters 
and three sons, and they have two sons-in-law who are ministers, 
J. O. Tally, Chicago, and W. H. Neher, Inglewood, California, 
and one deacon son-in-law, F. M. Calvert, Westport, Illinois. 
J. S. Flory was the author of "Echoes from the Wild Frontier," 
"Mind Mysteries," and some smaller works. He is a graduate, 
and a thorough student of the science of vital magnetism and 
suggestive therapeutics, and helped to start the Peoples' Magnetic 
Institute, at Bridgewater, Virginia, and is a practitioner of the 
science. 

(Portrait 93, group 9.) 

KATHARINE FORRER. 

Katharine Forrer was born near Hagerstown, Maryland, 1767* 
and died at the Shenandoah Iron Works, Page County, Virginia, 
July 18, 1859, in her ninetieth year. John J. Harsberger, in the 
Gospel Visitor, January, i860, says of this estimable lady: "The 
private virtues of Sister Forrer deserve more than a passing 
notice. She was born in colonial times, and lived under the king 
of England. She distinctly remembered the tour of General 
Washington to select a site for the location of the seat of the 
national government. Washington was a guest of her father. 
Sister Forrer was then in the prime of girlhood, and treasured 
faithfully the image of the father of his county. She took great 
pleasure in recounting the personal traits of the great man as he 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 327 

appeared at that time on his snow-white charger. Her husband 
died while yet young, and Sister Forrer remained a widow. 

MICHAEL FRANTZ. 

Michael Frantz was born in the Canton of St. Joseph, nigh to 
Basel, Switzerland (date not given). He came to this country 
in September, 1727, and settled in Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania, within the limits of the Cocalico church, about seven years 
before its organization. He was here but a short time until he 
was convinced of the correctness of the doctrine of the Brethren 
Church, and he became a member of the small body. He was 
baptized by Elder Peter Becker, September 29, 1734, on the same 
day in which the little flock was organized into a regular church. 
As this church was in need of a minister, Brother Frantz was 
commissioned to serve as an exhorter. In this relationship he 
served so satisfactorily, that, by the laying on of hands, he was 
ordained to be their elder ; and the next year, 1735, he accepted 
the entire care of the church. He was an approved and success- 
ful laborer in the Lord's vineyard, and there was an abundance 
of fruit. 

It is said that he departed this active and devoted life in 
December, in either 1747 or 1748. During his thirteen or four- 
teen years' service, nearly two hundred members were added to 
the Cocalico church, and many others in other places. 

Elder Frantz was not only a good and highly-respected minis- 
ter, but he was an apt writer and good poet. He composed a 
number of excellent pieces that were published by Brother 
Christopher Saw, in 1770. Selections from this work were pub- 
lished in the Gospel Visitor, in 1858, and so, more than a century 
after his decease, he still speaks ; and will continue to do good by 
his influence as a faithful, diligent, persevering servant in the 
Lord's house. 

ELDER LEONARD FURRY. 

Elder Leonard Furry was born in Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania, July 15, 1806, and died in Bedford County, Pennsylvania, 



328 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

December 8, 1877. His grandfather emigrated from Switzer- 
land. The original name was Fohrer. Leonard was brought up 
a Lutheran, but when he married, connected himself with the 
German Baptist brethren. Soon after he was elected deacon, 
then to the ministry, and finally ordained bishop of the Yellow 
Creek congregation, embracing then quite a large territory. He 
was firm in the faith, preached the gospel without fear or favor, 
and traveled very extensively. His manner was mild, kind, and 
persuasive. Once and sometimes twice a year, he would take a 
tour to preach through the eastern and western counties of Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, and Ohio, by private conveyances; and fre- 
quently by rail and stage through Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, and 
other states, which in those days was considered quite an under- 
taking. He traveled at his own expense, with but few excep- 
tions. He attended almost every annual meeting during his 
membership, but served only once on the standing committee. 

His favorites were Elders John Kline, James Quinter, and D. 
P. Sayler. He often gave glowing descriptions of them. From 
these my idea of the first was a father in the church ; the second, 
a theologian ; the third an orator. In after years I became per- 
sonally acquainted with the three. 

He always considered the decisions of annual meeting as sim- 
ply advisory, and claimed that the gospel was sufficiently plain 
and comprehensive without any additions, and deprecated any 
strenuous measures. He kept well informed on all current topics, 
read much history, both ancient and modern, and was a close stu- 
dent of the Bible, church history, and commentaries. His life 
was always strictly moral and temperate, and he abstained from 
the very appearance of evil. In number of contributions to the 
Gospel Visitor he was next to Elder Quinter and a great help at 
that time to the literature of the church. S. B. Furry. 

ELDER JAMES R. GISH. 

Elder James R. Gish was born in Roanoke County, Virginia, 
January 24, 1826, and in the year 1849, the da Y after he was 
twenty-three years old, he was married to Barbara Kindig, of 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 2> 2 9 

Augusta County, Virginia. In the fall of 1849 Brother Gish and 
wife, in company with others, in a covered wagon, came to Illinois. 
They were six weeks on the road. Brother Gish drove to a beau- 
tiful knoll, on what was known as Grand Prairie, looked over the 
thousands of broad, unoccupied acres, and said, "Barbara, we will 
drive our stake right here. Here we can live, and have all the 
free range for cattle just as long as we may want it." There he 
built his first residence. The free range did not last long ; and on 
his farm the city of Roanoke has since been built. 

In 1852, he and his wife and six others were baptized. Four 
months later he was elected to the ministry, and the next year 
advanced to the second degree. In 1863, he was ordained to the 
eldership. 

By occupation Brother Gish was a farmer, and from boyhood 
was noted for his sober and industrious habits. 

A short time before his death, which occurred April 30, 1896, 
Brother Gish partly arranged for the publishing of a New 
Testament, with the references following each verse. This 
arrangement was lately completed by Sister Gish, and the book 
is now on the market. 

Brother Gish spent forty-four years in active mini-sterial labors, 
preaching in not less than twenty-two states. He spent many 
years in mission work, and laid the foundation of a number of 
churches. The last nine years of his useful life were spent in 
Arkansas, in which state he died. He was a man of noble moral 
and Christian qualities. He had strong convictions, and in his 
preaching never gave an uncertain sound. No one ever doubted 
his sincerity. 

ELDER GEORGE HANAWALT. 

George Hanawalt was born near McVeytown, Pennsylvania, 
April 2, 183 1. He is the oldest son of Joseph R. Hanawalt, and 
grandson of George Hanawalt, who served in the Revolutionary 
War a short time at its close. His mother was Mary Swigart, 
daughter of John Swigart, of McVeytown. 

Young George was of a studious turn of mind, and very fond 



33o 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



of books, with a preference for the marvelous. About 1850 a 
school of the academic grade was opened at McVeytown by Prof. 
M. W. Woods. George plead with his father to permit him to 
attend this school, and obtained his consent. About this time one 




ELDER GEORGE HAN AW ALT 



of the deacons of the church paid an official visit to the elder 
Hanawalt, informing him that high schools were worldly institu- 
tions, and that he was spoiling his boy and setting a bad example 
to others. Those who remember the characteristics of Joseph R. 
Hanawalt can easily anticipate his reply. The young man 
attended a term of sixteen weeks at this school. About ten vears 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 33 1 

later he taught in the same school, with Prof. S. Z. Sharp as prin- 
cipal, and George Hanawalt assistant. After attaining his major- 
ity, he was elected county auditor, and served six years. During 
his incumbency as county auditor, he succeeded in exposing cor- 
ruption, and bringing about several reforms in the county affairs, 
especially in the almshouse department 

He married Miss Caroline McKee, November, 1856. She died 
June 8, 1858. He married Miss Barbara Replogle, ' daughter of 
Daniel Replogle, of New Enterprise, Pennsylvania, February 9, 
i860. She died June 8, 1873. June 4, 1874, he married Miss 
Lucinda Stutzman, of Johnstown. Of these women Brother 
Hanawalt has been heard to say that he always sought in prayer, 
and that the good Lord had each time given him an angel for a 
helpmate. 

He became a member of the Tunker Church in June, 1858, and 
was elected to the ministry in June, 1864. He labored in that 
capacity in the Spring Run congregation during her most pros- 
perous years. In 1879 he moved to Johnstown, Pennsylvania, 
then the largest congregation in the state. At this place he 
labored during the transitional period of the denomination, the 
time which tried men's souls. He did what he could in a manly 
and brotherly manner to avert division, but when the division 
came, he went with the annual meeting party. 

Brother Hanawalt took an active part in building the new 
church in Johnstown, now owned by the Brethren Church, as well 
as in settling the troubles that arose in regard to the disposition 
of church property in the division of the denomination. He also 
assisted in building several other houses of worship in the same 
congregation, among them the Walnut Grove church. 

Finding his family filling up with boys, he began to look about 
for a farm which might afford employment for them. This he 
found in the Ligonier Valley, Westmoreland County, Pennsyl- 
vania. Here he found some scattered members of the church, 
whom he soon organized into a congregation, which is called the 
Ligonier. A small house of worship was built at Waterford, now 
called Boucher. He also presided over the Bolivar church. He, 



332 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



however, resigned the charges at Bolivar and Cokeville, in 1898. 
Elder George Hanawalt was a logical reasoner, inclining 
toward verbosity; but the intelligent listener who carefully fol- 
lowed his course could not fail to comprehend the truth set forth 
by the speaker. 

ELDER JACOB H. HAUGER. 

Elder Jacob H. Hauger was born October 26, 1805, in Somerset 
County, Pennsylvania, and 
died at Opdyke, Jefferson 
County, Illinois, August 13, 
1887, aged eighty-one years 
nine months and seventeen 
days. 

He was an active member 
in the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church till July, 1834, when 
he and his wife united with 
the German Baptist Church, 
and were baptized by Elder 
Peter Cober. He was elected 
to the office of deacon in 
1834, to the ministry in 1835, 
and ordained as elder May 26, 
1854. He preached two hun- 
dred and thirty-nine funerals, 
and performed one hundred 
and thirteen marriage cere- 
monies. He lived nine years 
at Waterloo, Iowa, about fourteen years at Dutchtown, Illinois, 
and four years at Opdyke. He married Catharine Yowler, May 
4, 1829. 

JOSEPH R. HANAWALT. 

Henry George Hanawalt came to America about the year 1753, 
and settled near Waynesburg, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, 
now McVeytown, Mifflin County. His second son, George, occu- 




ELDER CHRISTIAN CUSTER. 

Many years pastor of the germantown 

and philadelphia churches. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 333 

pied the Hanawalt homestead. He married Susannah Rothrock, 
and his brother John married Mary Rothrock, Susannah's twin 
sister, about the same time, and became a Tunker minister. 

Joseph Rothrock Hanawalt was born January 4, 18 10, on the 
homestead of his grandfather, being the son of George Hanawalt. 
He married Mary Swigart. He and his wife were baptized in 
the year 1840, in the Lewistown congregation. He was elected 
to the ministry about 1844. He had a fair common-school educa- 
tion and was a good reader. His mission occurred at a period 
when there was great demand for English preaching in the church 
and neighborhood, and he was the first in his community whose 
labors were wholly in English. The meetings at that time were 
held in the houses and barns of the members, the terms coming 
around about every twenty weeks. The congregational territory 
embraced the whole of Mifflin County. Previous to 1845, Joseph 
Rothrock was presiding elder. About that time Joseph died, and 
his son Abraham was ordained to the eldership. He was a wor- 
thy man in every way, but was not gifted as a preacher. He 
moved to Kansas Territory about the beginning of the Civil War, 
and was fatally shot by raiders. 

Joseph R. Hanawalt was ordained to the eldership about the 
year 185 1. Under his administration two meeting-houses were 
built in one year, in the panical year of 1857, one at Spring Run, 
and the other at Dry Valley, being about sixteen miles apart. In 
1866 the congregation was divided, the eastern part retaining the 
name of Lewistown church, and the western part assuming that 
of Spring Run. Brother Hanawalt retained the oversight of both 
congregations for several years, until Jacob Mohler was ordained 
elder of the Lewistown church. 

Brother Hanawalt's church at that time had a membership of 
about two hundred and fifty, with a good home mission spirit. 
By the year 1867, he had quite a corps of assistant ministers in 
his congregation. He introduced a system of itinerate mission 
work. He had three committees of two preachers each, who 
preached at sixteen different points, requiring from five to twenty- 
five miles of travel to the several appointments. This system was 



334 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

maintained to the close of his life. He died February 15, 1877. 

Brother Hanawalt was an energetic man, and created a great 
demand for preaching over a wide extent of country, and faced 
the most inclement weather to carry the gospel to those who were 
anxious to hear it. He was married the second time, to Eve 
Kauffman, and was the father of sixteen children. Four of his 
sons were called to the ministry. 

Brother W. J. Swigart, of Juniata College, gives the follow- 
ing testimony to the worth of Elder Hanawalt : — 

"He was the elder of the church in which I was born and bap- 
tized and installed in the ministry. His life was largely given 
to the church. He was possessed of more than ordinary natural 
rhetorical power. His education, of course, was limited, but he 
surely was an eloquent man ; and when he would preach on some 
subject, like faith, he had few equals. He could make more use 
of the little stock of information he had than any other man I 
ever heard preach. He had "Josephus' History of the Jews," 
and, I think, one or two volumes of "Barnes' Notes," and a few 
other books, but I have heard jhim grow eloquent over the 
destruction of Jerusalem, and draw the scenes with wonderful 
power and vividness." 

ELDER HIEL HAMILTON. 

Hiel Hamilton was born May 4, 181 1, in the state of New 
York. His parents were of English descent. They emigrated 
to Fayette County, Indiana, and resided a few miles southeast 
of Connersville. When he was twelve years old His mother died, 
leaving three sons and a daughter. A year later young Hiel 
went to live with James Taylor, in the eastern part of Union 
County, Indiana, where he resided until he was eighteen years 
old. He then went to work by the month on Four-mile Creek, 
where he first saw members of the German Baptist Church. The 
brethren, wearing long beards and plain clothing, and saluting 
each other, were an unusual sight, and were not without effect 
on young Hamilton. 

September 3, 1830, he was united in marriage to Nancy King- 



336 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



ery. In the fall of 1831 he and his wife united with the Church 
of the Brethren, and were baptised by Elder John Moyer. 

As Brother Hamilton had grown to manhood where school 
facilities were very poor, his early education was somewhat 
neglected, but he now procured some books, and by close study 
he acquired a fair education. 

In the fall of 1845 ne was elected to the ministry ; and on the 
last day of August, 1846, he moved to Howard County, Indiana, 
and located on a farm about ten miles northwest of the present 
city of Kokomo. Howard County was then an unbroken wilder- 
ness, there being no public road nearer than three miles. There 
were, at that time, four or five families of the brethren living in 
the county, who were members of the Bachelor's Run congrega- 
tion. The services were held in private houses, in a rotation of 
nineteen different places of meeting, and were held every two 
weeks. June 21, 1856, Brother Hamilton was ordained to the 
eldership of the Howard congregation. From that time until 
November, 1880, he was connected with the church in Howard, 
Carroll, and Cass Counties. 

He was twice married, the second time to Mary Crull, of Car- 
roll County, where he resided for some time, enjoying the respect 
of a large circle of acquaintances in and out of the church. 
Brother Hamilton attended twenty-one annual meetings, and 
served on the standing committee four times. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE B. HOLSINGER. 

George B., son of Joseph H. Holsinger, was born in Bedford 
County, Pennsylvania, May 10, 1857. He was fond of music 
from childhood, but had no method of expressing his thoughts 
except by song, his home being in the mountain regions, far 
away from instruments which could be used in connection with 
the human voice. More than that, there was a prejudice against 
singing by note, among young George's most intimate relations. 
However, his father manifested a progressive disposition in favor 
of the gamut, which he regarded as essential to his son's success- 
ful study of music. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 



337 



His first instrument was a German accordion, with which he 
spent many pleasant hours. Then his father secured a reed 
organ. 

About this time, 1875, "Gospel Hymns," No. 1, was published, 
and a copy found its way into the Holsinger family, and every 




G. B. HOLSINGER 



piece in the book was played and sung by George and his father. 
In 1876 a severe accident disabled him for farm work, and he 
was sent to a normal school for public-school teachers. After- 
ward he taught school for some years. During this time he con- 
ducted singing-schools at many places in the neighborhood, and 
now blushes at the thought of the kind of work that he must 
have done. A little incident worth mentioning threw him into 

22 



33$ HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. ' 

the field of musical labor. In failing to prepare and to perform 
satisfactorily a duty in a literary society, it was suggested that 
he redeem himself by singing a song instead, which was so 
well received that then and there he resolved to make music his 
life-work. In a very few weeks he was on his way to attend a 
musical normal. This was in 1881, and the same school was 
attended again the next year, taking the first prize in musical 
composition both years. In 1882, at the founding of the Bridge- 
water College, at Bridgewater, Virginia, he was called to take 
charge of the musical department, and has held the same 
position ever since. 

In 1888 he attended one of the most profitable normals of his 
educational course. It was held by Prof. B. C. Unseld and 
P. J. Merges. Other normals attended were as follows : One at 
Silver Lake, under Dr. George F. Root and Fred W. Root, in 
1892, which makes one of the most pleasant recollections of his 
life, because of the inspiration and encouragement received ; one 
under W. H. Pontius and J. M. Dungan ; and another at the 
great Philadelphia Summer School, conducted by such renowned 
teachers as W. S. B. Matthews, Wm. Mason, Fred W. Root, 
J. C. Fillmore, Chas. W. Landon, and A. J. Clark. His first 
musical compositions appeared in "Good Tidings," No. I. On 
the title-page of this book appeared Mr. George B. Holsinger's 
name as one of the assistant authors. In 1893 "Psalms and 
Hymns" was published, with J. Henry Showalter and George 
B. Holsinger editors, assisted by four of the pupils of the latter. 

Some of Brother Holsinger's best new tunes are, "Gathered 
Home," "At the Saviour's Right Hand," and "Steer Straight for 
Me, Father." The latter, with a dozen others, are published in 
sheet form. 

George B. Holsinger is now in musical authority of the Ger- 
man Baptist Church, compiling and editing the Tune and 
Church Hymn-book and Sunday-school music. One of his 
books, which is called "Psalms and Hymns," has attained a sale 
of over 100,000 copies. He has been associated as author and 
compiler of six different books. Of "Gospel Songs and Hymns," 
No. 1, 33,000 copies have been sold. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 339 

ELDER CHRISTIAN HOPE. 

Christian Hope, first missionary to Denmark, was born in 
Fyne, Denmark, December 7, 1844. 

Elder Hope came to Amercia in 1870. Six years later he was 
sent to Denmark by the northern district of Illinois, to establish 
the Danish mission. Here he labored continuously for about 
eleven years. The work extended also to Sweden and Norway. 
After returning to America, Elder Hope made three visits to 
the Scandinavian Mission, under the direction of the mission 
board. In all he labored about twenty-three years for the mis- 
sion board. He was the pioneer in foreign missionary work of 
the Tunker Church, and his influence in creating the present 
missionary sentiment can not be estimated. 

Brother Hope possessed unique powers of thought and 
expression. He took hopeful views of life, the future of the 
church, and the growth of God's kingdom. He was a close stu- 
dent, and had accumulated an extensive library. In his spare 
moments he could be found with his Greek Testament and 
Lexicons. 

A few weeks before his death he came home from the mission 
field in Texas, carrying with him the germs of the fever to which 
he succumbed. He died at Herington, Kansas, July 31, 1899. 
(Portrait 50, group 4.) 

ELDER DANIEL M. HOLSINGER. 

Elder Daniel Mack Holsinger was born in Bedford County, 
Pennsylvania, October 22, 1812. He was a son of Elder John 
Holsinger, who was born July 21, 1768. His mother was 
Elizabeth Mack, and she was born October 13, 1776. 

In his boyhood days opportunities for obtaining an education 
were very poor, being confined to the old-fashioned log school- 
houses, with their slab benches to sit on. He and Polly Ritz 
were married August 12, 1832, and both joined the Tunkers the 
following year. He was elected to the ministry about 1841. 
Feeling the need of a better education in order to become pro- 
ficient and useful in his new calling, he attended night school 



34-0 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

in the town of Martinsburg, taught by Prof. John Miller. At 
that time he was carrying on the coopering business for a liveli- 
hood. His principal study was English grammar and such other 
acquirements as would assist him in his ministerial duties. In 
his early ministry he was about the only English-speaking Tunker 
preacher in the community. For that reason and because of his 
satisfactory administration of his duties, he officiated at most of 
the marriages and burials in Central Morrison's Cove. 

He was possessed of an exceedingly retentive memory, and, 
being a close student of the Scriptures as well as a lover of poetry, 
he had at his command almost the entire Word of God, as also 
the hymn-book of his day, and could recite page after page from 
many of the poets. During the last fifteen years he was almost 
totally blind, but his great store of knowledge was a constant 
source of consolation to him, and lighted his pathway to the 
grave. 

A local biographer said of him : "Daniel M. Holsinger adhered, 
during his lifetime, tenaciously to the conservative branch of the 
church, and so averse was he to any encroachments of its rules 
and doctrines that he could not have any sympathy with the new 
departure. Indeed, his convictions were so deep-rooted that he 
had no patience whatever with the progressives. To him the 
German Baptist Church owes a debt of gratitude for his services 
and self-denials, that should be perpetuated in a monument of 
stone and marble erected to his memory." 

He was ordained to the eldership in 1863, and served on the 
standing committee on several occasions. He was a member of 
the John A. Bowman Committee, sent by annual meeting to 
Tennessee, and was sent as a missionary to the state of Maine. 
He died at Clover Creek, January 31, 1886. 

His wife survived him more than eight years, passing from 
this world on July 15, 1894, at the age of eighty-three years four 
months twenty-six days. 

These parents had eight children, four sons and four daughters, 
of whom the author of this work was the first-born, and all were 
living on January 1, 1901. 



342 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

SAMUEL W. HOOVER. 

Samuel W. Hoover was born April 16, 1837, near Liberty, 
Montgomery County, Ohio. There thirty years of his life were 
spent on the farm. The pioneer log schoolhouse was his col- 
lege, yet this meager advantage enabled him to secure a practical 
education. January 26, i860, he was married to Catharine 
Basore. 

In August, 1882, he entered the ministry. Though well 
advanced in years, he took into the pulpit the energy of youth, 
and indomitable spirit to press on into larger usefulness. His 
voice gave no uncertain sound. "Growth," "progress," "develop- 
ment," were the key-words of his discourses. He saw clearly the 
needs of the church in missionary, benevolent, and educational 
lines, and set to work at once to create sentiment in favor of 
advancement. His most active ministry was spent in the West 
Dayton church. 

In church council he was prompt and fearless in asserting the 
right of individual opinion. He made no boast of his independ- 
ence, yet he was, in the fullest sense, independent. His wisdom 
and keen sense of justice fitted him especially to be an arbitrator. 
He advocated strongly the principle of arbitration and the law 
of Matt. 18: 15-17. Many were the times that he was called to 
adjust some unpleasant case in family or church, and rarely did 
he fail to reach an amicable settlement. Thus he was a true 
lawyer. 

He was best known to the brotherhood through his connection 
with the book and tract work, and since its consolidation, as a 
member of the General Mission Board. General Conference 
located the work at Dayton, Ohio, but without any means to 
begin operations. Sentiment was not yet ripe for this movement. 
Solicitors were appointed, but acted too slowly, or failed alto- 
gether. Money was the first thing needed. Accordingly, after 
many discouragements and failures, a few dollars were secured 
from the "Gentiles." This fact is not generally known. The 
real beginning will some day be written in the light of its success ; 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 343 

then the church will wonder why she hesitated to support it 
liberally from the start. 

He had a wide circle of friends, who will remember him for 
his genial, social nature. It was not learning, or wit, or brilliancy 
that won friends, but a humor peculiar to himself. Children 
were his first friends, in whom he took delight. If he was ever 
too jovial, it was because a nature like his must find expression in 
humorous moods, as well as in the solemnity of the pulpit. He 
frequently indulged in that humor which makes life sunnier and 
religion more human. Youth, he thought, should dwell immortal 
in the aged frame. 

As a preacher, he delighted in the work of the pulpit, though 
he was no sermonizer. His fixed habits were against acquiring 
ease and grace of manner. What he lacked in these he supplied 
in practicability, for if he was not practical, he was nothing. His 
methods were his own. Most of his subjects were taken from 
the gospels or Paul's writings, Paul's being his favorite. 

The powers of an athlete were given to him, but they were 
wasted in overwork until the pink of health was gone forever. 
He was not overtaken by old age or infirmity; he was not ripe 
for the grave. He was growing into larger usefulness. He saw 
the cause growing to which he had given his best thought, — the 
benevolent institutions, — and was glad. 

He often expressed a desire to die in active service, but never 
did he suppose that his would be a tragic end, for God had erected 
a pulpit for his death-bed. On Sunday, March 10, 1895, he 
preached in the morning. The afternoon was spent in hard 
study for the evening service, in communion with God. What 
his prayers were, none will ever know, but God answered them 
strangely and tragically. He entered upon that memorable serv- 
ice somewhat weary, but with a glowing spirit. "Whatsoever a 
man soweth, that shall he also reap," was the text. As he neared 
the end of the discourse, his words became prophetic. "One by 
one we are passing over," were spoken, and, in an instant, his 
great soul stepped into the eternal world. 

What a change of audience ! Angels instead of mortals ! His 



344 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

sermon was to be completed in the "temple not made with hands," 
or, rather, a new one of joy and praise begun. He left no fare- 
well, for "God took him, and he was not." 

ELDER JOHN HOOVER. 

John Hoover was born in Morrison's Cove, Pennsylvania, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1782, and died November 7, 1839, aged fifty-seven years 
nine months and four days. 

Although under seven years of age at the time when Elder 
Hoover died, I distinctly remember hearing my parents discuss 
the seriousness of the occasion. He was regarded as a minister 
of unusual eloquence and ability, and was cut down in the prime 
of life. His wife was a sister to Elder George Brumbaugh, and 
was favorably known in the Clover Creek community as a 
Christian woman. 

ELDER CYRUS HOOVER. 

Cyrus Hoover was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 
October 16, 1821. His parents moved to Wayne County, Ohio, 
in 1840, and settled on a farm, which became the property of 
Brother Cyrus Hoover, on which he lived and died. He and 
his wife joined the German Baptist Church in 1853, and he was 
elected to the ministry by that denomination in 1869, and ordained 
to the eldership of the Wooster congregation in 1878. The 
annual meeting of 1872 was held on his place. Elder Hoover 
died January 8, 1901. Age, seventy-nine years. 

PETER KEYSER, JR. 

The Keyser family was notable in Europe, principally on 
account of its strict adherence to the doctrine of Menno Simon. 
Leonard Keyser, one of the ancestors, was publicly burned at the 
stake near Scharding, Bavaria, in August, 1527, on account of 
his religion. 

Persecution caused the family to shift about from place to 
place, until they settled at Amsterdam, the chief city of Holland. 
From thence Peter Dirck Keyser, great-grandfather of the sub- 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 345 

ject of this memoir, emigrated to America, in 1688, and became 
one of the original settlers of Germantown. Here his grand- 
father, Dirck Keyser, was born, September 26, 1701, and his 
father, Peter Keyser, August 8, 1732. 

Our Peter Keyser, Jr., was born November 9, 1766, at German - 
town. Peter Keyser, Sr., was the first of the family to unite with 
the Tunkers. He was baptized by Elder Alexander Mack, Octo- 
ber 5, 1769. He died April 10, 1818, and is buried in the Concord 
burying-ground, where most of the old brethren were interred 
before they had a cemetery of their own. 

Peter Keyser, Jr., was baptized by Martin Urner, September 25, 
1784, when in the eighteenth year of his age. In his youth he 
was remarkable for quickness of perception and his wonderful 
memory. He could commit whole chapters of Scripture with 
little effort. This remarkable trait of character made him prom- 
inent among his friends, and stimulated him to still greater effort 
in the line of committing Scripture to memory. It is related that 
he fixed a shelf above the hopper of the bark-mill, on which he 
placed his Bible so that he might read while grinding bark for his 
father, who was by occupation a tanner. In this way he was 
enabled to commit chapter after chapter, until he had the whole 
of the New Testament and the greater part of the Old Testament 
fixed in his memory. He also had the reputation of leading an 
exemplary life in unaffected piety. He was called to the ministry 
in 1785, not long after having been baptized. In this calling he 
acquainted himself so well that he was ordained elder on August 
2, 1802. He died May 21, 1849, i n tne same house in which, as 
he used to say, he was twice born, in the eighty-third year of his 

age. 

He was pastor of the Germantown and Philadelphia churches, 
and elder forty-seven years. It is doubtful whether the Tunker 
Church ever had a more efficient preacher in the German or Eng- 
lish language than Peter Keyser. He was also distinguished as 
an orator, and drew large crowds of hearers of all denominations ; 
even Roman Catholics are said to have attended his preaching. 

He was, like Saul, "higher than all the people," being six feet 



346 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

three inches tall, spare in form, and very athletic. He was blind 
for many years, but continued to preach. He would name a 
chapter, open the Bible, and repeat it without missing a word. If 
others should omit a word in reading a chapter in his presence, 
he was sure to correct them. 

He continued in the tanning business with his father in Ger- 
mantown until 1794, when he removed to Philadelphia, and 
embarked in the lumber business. In this he continued until 
1828, when he retired and returned to Germantown, and occupied 
the house left him by his father. 

He was in the habit of rising regularly at four o'clock in the 
morning to read and study until time of business. This was a 
source of great interest and pleasure to him, but may also have 
been a cause of losing his sight. 

Mr. Simpson, the author of the "Eminent Philadelphians," 
says : "He had the most intimate knowledge of the sacred Scrip- 
tures, both in English and in German, and it is doubtful whether 
any other man could repeat them more accurately than he. It 
appeared as though he remembered the very words, verses, and 
chapters of the entire Bible." 

Reverend Dr. Philip F. Mayer is said to have made the remark 
that if by accident every copy of the Scriptures should be 
destroyed, they would not be lost as long as Peter Keyser lived. 

He was "diligent in business, fervent in spirit, serving the 
Lord." Besides faithfully discharging his secular and ministerial 
duties, he was also engaged in many other measures for the good 
of his fellow-man. He was, for a long while, a member of the 
board of health, and for some time its secretary. He was 
inspector and treasurer of the public prisons. He was director 
and controller of the public schools when the system was adopted 
by the state, and continued in that office until his removal to his 
estate in Germantown. Our biographer says he was like Job, 
"Eyes to the blind, feet to the lame, a father to the poor, and the 
cause which he knew not he searched out." During the whole 
of his extensive business career, he never sued anybody nor was 
sued. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 347 

ELDER JOHN KLINE. 

Elder John Kline, of Rockingham County, Virginia, was born 
June 17, 1797. During his active life he was not only a farmer, 
but a physician, an author, and a minister of extensive and varied 
experiences. He was married and lived on a homestead near his 
place of birth. Having no children of their own, the farm fur- 
nished an ample living, so that he was enabled to devote most 
of his time to other pursuits. As a physician he practiced the 
botanic system of medicine, and his practice grew largely out of 
his conviction that the sick needed his knowledge as a medical 
advisor, as well as his counsel for their spiritual benefit. 

He kept a diary of each day's transactions, his travels, texts, 
sketches of sermons, council meetings, and journeys. He 
possessed a commanding presence, an orotund voice, a ready 
delivery, and as a minister, he was impressive and successful. 
The lucid manner in which he treated his subjects, his calm and 
collected demeanor, his immense store of scriptural knowledge, 
and his intimate acquaintance with human nature, gave his gospel 
ministry an immediate and lasting influence. His descriptions of 
the judgment day make deep and lasting impressions. 

He traveled extensively on horseback, from church to church 
and from house to house. In many a place the people heard the 
gospel for the first time through Brother Kline. He attended 
the annual meetings of the church regularly, and extended his 
journey to engage in preaching. During one of these tours his 
wife received word of his death, and fell into a state of mental 
imbecility, from which she never recovered. 

He was a pillar in the temple of truth, and he left the stamp 
of his life and character upon the church where he lived, and 
upon the members wherever he labored. He was a wise and 
efficient counselor, faithful to every trust committed to him. He 
advised young ministers to study the Bible in order to sustain the 
doctrine of the church. 

He considered it his privilege and duty to represent his district 
in the annual meeting, and to assist in the work of the confer- 



348 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

cnce. During the Civil War he continued to attend, and he was 
a connecting link in the chain that bound the church together, 
though separated by the clash of contending armies. The last 
annual meeting he attended was in 1864. He was then in his 
sixty-seventh year; and he built better 'than he knew. 

On June 15, 1864, near the summit of a little ridge, about two 
miles from home, he was found dead, having been slain by violent 
hands, in the covert of the woods by the roadside. Amid the 
lamentations of the people he loved and who loved him, and whom 
he faithfully served, he was laid to rest in the Linville Creek 
cemetery, by Elder D. Hays. 

We copy the following remarks from the Christian Family 
Companion, as published by the author on receiving the news of 
the death of Elder Kline : "The painful intelligence of the death 
of this esteemed old brother will be more the signal for sorrow 
than of surprise. Being anti-slavery, anti-war, anti-secession, it 
could not be expected that he should escape the vengeance of the 
pro-slavery animosity of the confederates. The name of Brother 
John Kline of Virginia will pass down to posterity as the first 
Christian martyr of our church in America. He was moderator 
of the annual meeting at Clover Creek, Pennsylvania, in 1863, 
where my home was at that time. I still remember very dis- 
tinctly the sympathy felt and expressed when the old veteran de- 
parted for his home in the sunny south, and can still see the tears 
which rolled down his manly cheeks as he bade farewell to the 
brethren and sisters, as we felt, for the last time. He, however, 
reached his home safely, and at our last conference, in Indiana, 
in 1864, I had the pleasure of meeting him again, and interchang- 
ing sentiments on moral and religious subjects. He was again 
chosen moderator, and discharged his duties with credit to him- 
self and the church. After laboring in the community where 
conference had been held, he started upon his journey to his 
home and his flock in Virginia, to be seen no more by us, as the 
sequel proves. We mourn, but not as those who have no hope, 
feeling assured that if martyr blood was required of our church, 
no nobler victim could have been selected." 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 



349 



ELDER GEORGE KLINE. 

George Kline was a German. He was born at Zwei-Brucken, 
October 9, 171 5. When twenty-three years of age, in 1739, he 
emigrated to America. He first settled near Amwell, New Jer- 
sey. Here he was baptized in 1739, by John Naas, who was pre- 
siding elder at that time. 
Soon after he was chosen to 
the ministry, and in 1750 he 
moved to Northkill. In 1757 
he was ordained to the elder- 
ship in this church by Elders 
Michael Pfautz and Martin 
Urner. In his official rela- 
tion he seemed to be faithful 
during a long and useful life. 
His descendants are now 
scattered over a number of 
states, many still holding to 
the Tunker faith, and a num- 
ber are in the ministry. 

ELDER HENRY KOONTZ. 

Henry Koontz was born in 
the Grossnickle Valley, Fred- 
erick County, Maryland, April 
20, 1797. He was a son of 
Jacob Koontz, and a grandson of Michael Koontz, well-known res- 
ident of Frederick County, Maryland. He was married to Julia 
Ann Whisman, December 2, 1819. In his younger years he was a 
class leader and local minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
About the year 1839 he united with the Tunkers, and in October. 
1840, he was elected to the ministry. For a while he resided at 
Burkittsville, Frederick County, Maryland. From there he moved 
to Boonesboro, Washington County, Maryland. About the year 
1855 he moved to Mapleville, same county, in the Beaver Creek 
church. 




ELDER HENRY KOONTZ 



350 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

In May or June, 1858, he was ordained to the bishopric of said 
church, to succeed the late Elder Daniel Reichard, who was one 
of the founders of the present Sunday-school system. Some 
years later Elder Koontz moved into the Antietam church, Frank- 
lin County, Pennsylvania, locating near the town of Waynes- 
boro. He died at this place February 24, 1882, aged eighty-four 
years ten months and four days. 

Elder Koontz was one of the ablest ministers in the Brethren 
Church during the time he served it. He traveled much among 
the churches of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, and was 
frequently a member of the standing committee at annual con- 
ference, and was often sent by annual meeting, on committees by 
that body, to assist in settling difficulties in the churches. He was 
a good writer, and frequently contributed to the Gospel Visitor. 
His articles in this magazine were highly appreciated by its read- 
ers. His education was altogether in the English language, and 
it is doubtful whether he could understand a word of German, 
although he often preached in German communities, where at least 
some of the congregation could understand him. His ancestors 
came from Ireland. (Portrait No. 29.) d. h. f. 

ELDER HENRY KURTZ. 

Elder Henry Kurtz was born in Bunnigheim, Germany, July 
22, 1796. His father was engaged in teaching, and young Henry, 
inclining toward the same profession, received a fair education, 
including some knowledge of the dead languages. In 181 7 he 
emigrated to America, and engaged in teaching. In the mean- 
time he prepared himself for the ministry ,and was received into 
the synod of the Lutheran Church, June 10, 1 819. He entered 
upon his charge August 8, 18 19, in Northampton County, Penn- 
sylvania, where he became acquainted with Anna Catharine Loehr, 
to whom he was married in 1820. In 1823 he left this charge, 
and removed to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where he resided until 
1826, when he settled in Columbiana County, Ohio, and in the 
spring following removed to Stark County, same state. 

While in Pittsburg he became troubled in mind concerning the 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 35 1 

validity of some of the church ordinances, especially that of infant 
baptism, but still continued preaching for his people until he felt 
himself compelled publicly to avow his sentiments and disclose 
his convictions. What hastened this step was the fact that he 
was called by the parents of a family and members of his church 
to baptize their children. In company with an elder, he repaired 
to the home of this family, and found some of the children old 
enough to be instructed. This he at once undertook to do, but 
while he was engaged with one, the others would stroll away, 
and he found this task a difficult one, as the children could not 
be kept together, so that the elder remarked, "Es hat bald noth das 
man den hund hat fner sic bei holen." (It is almost necessary to 
have a dog to bring them together.) Finally he made known his 
convictions to the church, and, as might be expected, it created 
no small stir. One council after another was held, in which a 
difference of opinion prevailed at to whether he should be excom- 
municated or not, but finally the decision was rendered against 
him. Being thrown out of employment, he met with some 
difficulty to support his family. 

Before moving to Stark County he had heard of Tunkers living 
there, and perhaps had visited them once, and soon after locating 
in this county he united with the church. He was baptized 
April 6, 1828, and placed in the ministry in 1830. As a means 
to support his family, he resorted to printing and publishing. 
In December, 1838, he returned to Europe, where he had the 
pleasure of seeing his parents and one sister once more. One 
object of his visit was to become acquainted with the various 
religious denominations, and to preach the Word where there 
was an open door. During his journey he visited Switzerland, 
and on the 14th and 15th of April, 1839, he baptized nine persons, 
several of whom afterwards emigrated to America. Returning to 
this country in July, 1839, he remained in Stark County until 
1842, when he was called to settle in the Mill Creek church, 
Mahoning County (now Mahoning church), in which he was 
ordained an elder in 1844, and had the care of this congregation 
for more than thirty years. In 1851 he commenced the publica- 



352 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

tion of the Monthly Gospel Visitor, which he continued until a 
few years before his death, which took place January 12, 1874. 

Elder Kurtz was a prominent member of the German Baptist 
Church, and labored zealously for unity of form and practice 
among its members. In the general council of the brotherhood 
he ever held a prominent position as a member of the standing 
committee, and often as clerk of the meeting. 

I was personally and well acquainted with Brother Kurtz, hav- 
ing learned the art preservative under his tutelage, and lived in 
his family for six months or more. He then lived on a farm five 
miles from Poland, Mahoning County, Ohio. The office was in 
the spring-house loft, a short distance below the dwelling. The 
location was as undesirable a spot for residence or business, 
other than farming, as could well be found. It was low, foggy, 
and boggy, in that part of the state designated as the Western 
Reserve. Of course the place had not been selected as a business 
location ; that part was accidental, pure and simple. Elder Kurtz 
had selected the place with the double view of making a home for 
his family, and furnishing employment for his four sons, all of 
whom had attained to manhood when I went to live in the family, 
in the autumn of 1856. Paul, the eldest son, was then married, 
and lived in Elkhart County, Indiana. George was the farmer, 
and Jacob and Henry were printers. Brother Kurtz was editor, 
proprietor, foreman, proofreader, and general manager. Elder 
James Quinter was nominal associate editor, and moved into the 
neighborhood the same year. He was a valuable acquisition to 
the office in the way of furnishing copy, which was about the 
extent of his knowledge of the printing business up to that time. 

Referring to his trials, Brother Kurtz said, in the Gospel Visitor 
for June, 1853 : "The other dark cloud hung for a while threat- 
ening over the Gospel Visitor and its humble editor. In fact, 
he has been under a cloud this long time. For more than fifteen 
years he has been clerk of the yearly meeting, and many of his 
dear brethren know him only from occasionally seeing him acting 
in that capacity, being overwhelmed with business, and constantly, 
in and out of meeting, harassed, urged, and pressed on every side. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 353 

Thus circumstanced, embarrassed, not being able to speak when 
he ought to speak, nor to be silent when silence would be best, he 
stands before many of his brethren in an unfavorable light, — in 
a cloud. But, thanks be to God, the cloud has been lifted up, the 
yearly meeting has again declared that it is none of its business to 
interfere with the private affairs of members, and the Gospel Vis- 
itor may continue its course, if not rejoicing, at least unmolested, 
yea, with fear and trembling." 

Elder Henry Kurtz was a German of the Teutonic caste. Any- 
thing that was not purely German might pass, but could not be 
set down as first-class. I was selected as apprentice from a long 
list of applicants, because I was of "German extract," and could 
speak and read the language. Most of the editorials were writ- 
ten in German, and were translated into the English for the Vis- 
itor. He was an excellent German reader, and eloquent in prayer 
in his mother tongue, but hesitated and almost stammered in 
English. He was very religious in his forms, and held family 
worship every evening, and frequently in the morning, also. 
Under his charge I learned to exercise in prayer. Sister Kurtz 
would repeat the Lord's Prayer, but never attempted anything 
farther, and it was to relieve her that I made my first attempt. 
His favorite morning hymn began thus, quoting from memory : — 

"Wach auf mein Hertz und singe, 
Dem Schaepfer aller Dinge: 
Dem Geber aller Gueter, 
Dem frommen Menchen Hueter. 

"Heunt als die dunkeln Schatten, 
Mich ganz umgeben hatten, 
Hat Satan mein begehret, 
Gott aber Hat's gewehret." 

The melody was peculiar, and, of course, also German. 
Brother Kurtz was quite a musician, vocal and instrumental, and 
had an organ in the house, but rarely used it. I shall long remem- 
ber one occasion on which I heard him perform and sing one of 
his favorites. I went to the house, where the editorial sanctum 
was, on business connected with the office. After 'entering the 

23 



354 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

hall, I heard music, and, finding the door ajar, I stopped and lis- 
tened till the hymn was completed, much delighted with the 
strains. When I complimented him on his success, he explained 
that he had been tired of reading and writing, and had sought 
recreation and solace in the music. I prevailed on him to play 
and sing another piece for my gratification, which is the only 
occasion I remember that I was with him when the inspiration 
was upon him. 

There was one German habit that Brother Kurtz had con- 
tracted which was a painful thorn in his flesh in his declining 
years. It was the tobacco habit. According to the flesh, he 
dearly loved his pipe, but he groaned in spirit to be relieved of the 
slavish bonds it had woven into his nature. And his experience 
furnished me with my strongest anti-tobacco sentiment. Poor 
old man ! I would gladly have granted him full absolution, but 
his conscience would not. It was sad, and yet it was amusing to 
witness the pranks resorted to by this good man of mighty intel- 
lect and finished education. After dissipating with his pipe until 
dyspepsia and conscience came to his rescue, he would take the 
instrument of his torture to his wife, with the instruction, "Now, 
gib mir sic niwwiermehr." From the tone of her reply I'm very cer- 
tain that she had received the same instructions before. Her reply 
was, "Es Doart nicht lang" and she knew what she was saying. 
Perhaps he held out faithfully a whole week, and sometimes pos- 
sibly longer. The first time he went to the kitchen, he feigned 
sociability and business, and returned to his room without any 
farther advancement, to continue the warfare with the giant 
habit. After battling a day or two longer, he went again, 
ostensibly upon marital duties, but, in fact, with a view to the 
gratification of the baser passion. The mistake which he would 
invariably make before he was overcome would be in overdoing 
himself by unnatural smiles and courtesy. In this case he was 
told where he could find his old pipe, and he went his way rejoic- 
ing, although defeated and humbled. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 355 

ELDER JOHN LAWYER. 

Elder John Lawver was the first Tunker minister in the vicin- 
ity of Lena, Stephenson County, Illinois. He was a man of 
much ability as a minister, and stood high in the community for 
his Christian character. He removed from Union County, Penn- 
sylvania, to Stephenson County, Illinois, in the spring of 1846, 
where he died August 8, 1851, aged sixty-eight years eight 
months. 

His wife died several years later, and both were buried at 
the Waddam's Grove church. 

ELDER C. G. LINT. 

Conrad G. Lint was born May 2, 1834, at Meyers' Mills, now 
Meyersdale, Somerset County, Pennsylvania. His father was 
Gillian C. Lint, who was a blacksmith and a mechanic of some 
prominence in the community. Conrad learned the trade in his 
father's shop. So had P. J. Brown some years previous. Con- 
rad also learned what was taught in the common schools of his 
day. 

When yet quite young he was married to Miss Catharine 
Flickinger, daughter of Brother Samuel Flickinger, a wealthy 
and influential citizen of Somerset County. 

Sister Lint proved to be a valuable helpmate to her husband. 
She had the esteem of the Christian people of the entire 
neighborhood. 

Soon after his marriage he joined the German Baptist Church, 
and on the same day on which he was baptized he was elected to 
the office of deacon, and one week later he was advanced to the 
first degree of the ministry. He thereupon quit the smithing 
business, and devoted himself entirely to the ministry, reading 
many books, and applying himself diligently to the preparation 
for his duties. 

This close application to his studies soon exhibited marked 
improvements, and in a few years Brother Lint became one of 
the ablest and most popular Tunker preachers in Somerset 



356 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

County. He was ordained to the eldership in 1867, and from 
that on took the name of Bishop Lint. (See portrait 13, 
group 2.) 

JACOB M. LICHTY. 

Jacob M. Lichty was born in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 
April 26, 1832. He was a son of Daniel Lichty, and was raised 
on the farm on which he died, near Mechanicsburg church. He 
was married December 29, 1859, to Susannah, daughter of Elder 
David Livengood. He was a progressive member of the Ger- 
man Baptist Church, a kind neighbor, and a good citizen. His 
death occurred December 24, 1900. 

ELDER JONAS A. LICHTY. 

Jonas A. Lichty was born in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 
September 25, 1830. He was a son of John C. Lichty. He 
and Mary Miller were married at Meyers' Mills, December 1, 
185 1. I have no data relating to his baptism, call to the minis- 
try, or ordination. However, I know he was a worthy mem- 
ber of the German Baptist Church, and a minister of the gos- 
pel previous to 1870, and was ordained to the eldership several 
years later. Elder Lichty spent his best days in Somerset 
County, Pennsylvania, and in the decline of life he moved to 
Waterloo, Iowa, where he died in 1893, loved by his family and 
honored by all good men. 

ELDER MICHAEL LYON. 

Michael Lyon, of Hudson, Illinois, was born in Maryland, 
September 25, 1793. During his earlier years he taught school 
in West Virginia. He often met those who had received 
instructions from him in their childhood, and who had still 
cherished the warmest affection for their teacher of long ago. 
In early life he united with the Tunkers, and while yet a youmg 
man, entered the ministry, in which he distinguished himself as 
an evangelist, traveling through the mountains and preaching 
extensively. In 181 6 he married Louisa Stingly, who died in 
1863. I n J 865 he came west. He was the father of a large 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 357 

family, all belonging to the same church. He was an exten- 
sive reader, and the last ten years of his life, except two, were 
improved in studying the prophecies, in which he found great 
comfort. He was a model of patience, never known to murmur 
or complain, and he had unwavering faith in God's promises, 
which were fresh in his mind to the last. He passed away 
quietly on March II, 1880, aged eighty-six years five months 
and sixteen days. 

ELDER THOMAS B. MADDOCKS. 

Thomas B. Haddocks was born at Mackworth, Derbyshire, 
England, March 27, 1834. He came to America March 8, 1852. 
I first met him in the summer of 1855, and was favorably 
impressed with the young man because of his sociability, and 
persuaded him to visit our home. He did so, and engaged to 
teach the Clover Creek school during the winter of 1855. He 
soon espoused the Tunker faith, and was baptized in March, 
1856, by Elder Daniel M. Holsinger. Soon afterward he mar- 
ried Lydia, daughter of Elder George Brumbaugh. He was 
elected to the ministry December 25, 1868, advanced December 
25, 1872, and ordained August 11, 1894. (Portrait 92, group 9.) 

ALEXANDER MACK, JR. 

Alexander Mack, Jr., was the son of Alexander and Anna 
Margaretta Mack. He was born in Witgenstein, Germany, Jan- 
uary 28. a. d. 1 712. He was baptized, and became a member of 
the mother church at Schwarzenau, in 1728, when but sixteen 
years of age. He came to America, with his parents, in the 
autumn of 1728, and he was called to the ministry June 1, 1748. 
On the 10th of June, 1753, he was advanced to the office of 
bishop, by the laying on of hands, and the care of the church at 
Germantown was publicly given him. 

On January 1, 1749, he married Elizabeth Nice, of German- 
town, by whom he had one son, William, and five daughters. 
Their names were Sarah Margaretha, Hannah, Lydia, Elizabeth, 
and Anna Margaretha. Sarah Margaretha married Jacob Zieg- 



358 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ler; Hannah, Adam Weber; Lydia, Dilman Kolb, and afterward 
Jacob Lentz; Anna Margaretha, Emanuel Fox, the father of 
Elder John Fox, of Philadelphia. These raised him a great 
number of giand and great-grandchildren, who were dispersed 
through different states of the Union. Elizabeth died young. 

As to character, he is represented as a sincere, good man, 
much given to retirement. By occupation, he was a stocking 
weaver. His worldly possessions were but small, his wants few, 
which made his contentment quite complete. 

In his preaching it is said he did not manifest much oratory, 
but with the pen he was very ready and fluent. He had a special 
talent for poetry, as many hundreds of his verses and poetic 
stanzas still prove. A remarkable degree of sagacity and dis- 
cernment was his, so that no art could ensnare him, nor hypocrisy 
beguile him. He died on the 20th of March, 1803, aged ninety- 
one years one month and twenty days. 

During his brief sickness he was visited by a number of his 
fellow-laborers, whom he very feelingly admonished to be faith- 
ful in the discharge of their various duties, and he grieved over 
the several deviations which were creeping into use, especially 
in that of feet-washing, which distressed him so much that he 
charged them, with his last expiring breath, to be faithful to the 
pattern which Christ gave us. His last words were, "Nan reisz 
ich gegen M or gen, wer mit will dor mache sick eilends fertig:"' 
"Nov/ journey I toward the morning; who will accompany, let 
him prepare himself hastily." 

Although he was as well as usual, he had a strange presenti- 
ment of the nearness of his dissolution, and he therefore com- 
posed the following epitaph for his tombstone. This he gave to 
his daughter, Anna Fox, telling her that his departure was at 
hand now, and that this was his last visit to her. So it proved to 
be. The epitaph, in the following words, was placed on his tomb- 
stone in the Brethren's gravevard, in Germantown, Pennsyl- 



vania 



'Gott, der uns hat aus staub gemacht, 
Und weiderum Zu staub gfebracht, 
Wird Zeugen seiner Weisheit-macht, 
Wan wir nach seinem bild erwacht." 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 359 

God, He who us of dust did make, 
And unto dust again did bring, 
Will show His might for wisdom's sake, 
When in His likeness we awake. 

ALEXANDER MACK, SR. 

Brother Mack was born in a. d. 1679, at Schreisheim, Ger- 
many. He was educated a Calvinist, and by occupation he was 
a miller. He was one of the founders of the Brethren Church, 
in A. d. 1708, and he came to this country, with a number of his 
congregation, in 1729. The same year he became a minister of 
the Beggarstown church. On January 18, a. d. 1735, he died, 
and he was buried in the public cemetery at Germantown. 

He was married to Anna Margaretta Kling. They had four 
children, namely, Valentine, John, Alexander, and Anna. Val- 
entine married into the Hildebrand family, John into the 
Schneider family, and Alexander, into the Nice family. Anna, 
their fourth child, for different reasons, took a voluntary vow of 
perpetual celibacy, and became an inmate of the sisters' convent 
at Ephratah, Pennsylvania. 

Elder Mack was a man of extensive education and deep piety, 
and he had formed a firm, unchanging resolution to serve God 
faithfully, whatever he might be called upon to lose or suffer. 
He had a handsome patrimony at Schreisheim, Germany, also a 
very profitable mill, and several vineyards ; however, he suffered 
the loss of all in building up and maintaining the church, amidst 
his persecutions at Schwarzenau. He was succeeded by his 
youngest son. 

SARAH RIGHTER MAJOR. 

Sarah Righter was born in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, 
August 29, 1808. Her father, John Righter, was a Tunker 
preacher, of the Philadelphia church. He had but two children, 
Sarah and Mary. 

Sarah was brought under conviction through the ministry of 
Harriet Livermore, a lady preacher of wide reputation in her 
day. She preached in the Tunker Churches in Germantown and 



360 lil STORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Philadelphia, and Sarah Righter attended the service, and was 
converted and joined the Tunker Church in her eighteenth year. 
Soon after her conversion she felt that she was called by the Lord 
to preach. For some time she suppressed those feelings, but suf- 
fered much distress of mind for her disobedience to the heavenly 
calling. She realized the great responsibility of such a calling, 
and with womanly timidity she shrank from assuming its duties. 
Her family and intimate friends observed her distress, but did 
not know the cause of it. Her father observed her trouble, and 
pressed her to reveal to him the cause of her distress. Having 
learned it, he interviewed Elder Peter Keyser, pastor of the Phil- 
adelphia church, and acquainted him with the circumstances. 
He sympathized with the young woman, and encouraged her to 
take up the cross, but all the members of the Philadelphia church 
did not take the same view of the case as did the pastor. In fact, 
some were strongly opposed to women preaching, and some 
trouble arose in the church, thus throwing new trouble in the way 
of the young herald of the cross. However, she began her pub- 
lic ministry in a very humble manner in her home congregation. 
Elder Israel Poulson, of Amwell, New Jersey, was also one of her 
admirers, and encouraged her by inviting her to occupy his pul- 
pit. His congregation was the first place she preached outside 
of Philadelphia. 

Sister Righter had great influence over her audiences, and when 
she became deeply interested in her subject, she grew eloquent. 
Her appeals were especially effectual to those of her own sex. 

Notwithstanding the strong prejudice against women preach- 
ing which existed in the brotherhood, Sister Righters extreme 
modesty and her exemplary life subdued much of it, wherever 
she was once permitted to preach; and one of her biographers 
says, "Some brethren went to hear her preach, with considerable 
prejudice, but when they had heard her, that feeling was greatly 
diminished, if not altogether removed." That remark suits my 
own case very well. I had the satisfaction of sharing the Phil- 
adelphia pulpit of the Tunker Church some time during the six- 
ties of the nineteenth centurv with Sister Major. It was my 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 36 1 

turn to preach in the forenoon, and I confess guilty of a feeling 
closely akin to humiliation, at the thought of being in the same 
stand with a woman preacher. In the evening Sister Major 
preached, and I now humbly acknowledge that I was very much 
ashamed of myself and of my effort, but most of all was I dis- 
satisfied with myself because of the prejudice confessed to above, 
but which I am thankful to have the assurance I had carefully 
concealed. She preached an excellent sermon. Her style was 
simple, her manner perfect, and every gesture in place. 

At the Sunday-school she was called on to address the chil- 
dren. The Sunday-school was held in the gallery. Sister Major 
arose, and walked around the pulpit opening in the floor of the 
gallery, to a point opposite the writer. She stood for a moment, 
looking about as if to decide as to whether she was occupying the 
proper spot, when she said, "Years ago to-day, at this very hour 
of the day, I stood in this same spot ; I was converted to Christ, 
and felt the assurance of my sins forgiven," or words to that 
effect, as I am quoting from memory, after a lapse of thirty odd 
years. 

Sarah Righter and Thomas Major were married March 10, 
1842, by Elder Peter Keyser. Major was also a minister in the 
Tunker Church. He was born September 19, 181 1, and died 
April 17, 1888. They raised three chlidren, neither of whom 
belonged to the Tunker fraternity. 

Sister Major was never licensed to preach, nor even authorized 
to do so by any congregation of her people. She was simply 
tolerated or permitted to preach in certain congregations. She 
died September 18, 1884, at their home in Highland County, 
Ohio, aged seventy-six years and nineteen days. 

ELDER JOHN METZGER. 

Elder John Metzger was born in Blair, then Huntingdon 
County, Pennsylvania, December 20, 1807. 

When about eight years old his parents moved to Montgomery 
County, Ohio, where, on Easter Sunday of 1828, he was married 
to Miss Hannah Ullery. To them were born five children, J. W. 



362 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Metzger and Mary Kuns, of California ; Catharine Shively and 
Barbara Shively, of Cerro Gordo. 

In 1834, he moved to Tippecanoe County, Indiana; in 1849, to 
Clinton County, Indiana; in 1864, to Macon County, Illinois; in 
1867, to Piatt County, Illinois; and in August, 1881, to Cerro 
Gordo. His wife died May 31, 1887. February 26, 1889, he- 
was married to Sister Permelia A. Wolfe, who survives him. 

In January, 1890, he made a visit to southern California, 
returning in March following. In September of the same year 
he went to Lordsburg, California, where later he built a home. 
After that he divided his time between his two homes, making 
the trip back and forth each year. Since 1890 he made the trip 
across the plains fourteen times. 

In early life he united with the Tunker Church. In 1835 he 
was elected to the ministry. A few years later he was ordained 
to the eldership. 

On the morning of the day of his death, he appeared unusually 
bright, and said he felt well, and thought he would go to his 
daughter's for dinner. When they raised him up to eat his 
breakfast, he said, "Lay me down ; it seems as if the house was 
going around ;" and in about twenty minutes all was over. 

He died May 25, 1896, aged eighty-eight years five months and 
five days. 

The Gospel Messenger, in obituary notice, says of Brother 
Metzger : "He was one of the most widely known preachers in 
the brotherhood, and in his day did as much preaching as any 
minister among us. He was not noted for either learning or elo- 
quence, but as a pure, earnest Christian preacher he had few 
equals. He was loved and respected wherever he was known. 
He was the means of leading thousands of sinners from the 
error of their way. Few men among us have done more baptiz- 
ing, and solemnized more marriages, and preached more funerals. 
He was among the most active pioneer preachers of the west, and 
generations to come will tell of the good he has done as a minister 
of the gospel. 

His first wife died while the annual meeting was in session at 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 363 

Ottawa, Kansas. He afterwards married Sister Wolfe, the 
widow of Elder David Wolfe, son of the noted Elder George 
Wolfe, of the "Far Western Brethren" fame. He was on inti- 
mate terms with most if not all of the pioneer preachers of the 
brotherhood in the west for nearly two generations. He was an 
honor to our people, and goes to his grave mourned by thousands 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

Elder Metzger was a very kind-hearted man, and I learned to 
love him after becoming personally acquainted with him. In the 
summer of 1894 he paid us a visit at our home at Rosena, Cali- 
fornia, where we enjoyed a very pleasant interview, recounting 
our experiences and associations. He took a special interest in 
referring to our own work at the Ashland annual meeting, of 
1 881, when we stood side by side conducting the collection for 
the Danish mission. If all the elderly Tunker preachers had been 
of the same spirit and disposition as Elder John Metzger, there 
would now be no schism in the fraternity. 

JACOB MILLER. 

Brother Jacob Miller was born February 18, 1828. His brief 
existence deserves more than a passing notice, although he had 
no title to indicate notability. Yet such was his short career that 
I feel justified in saying his would have been "one of the few 
immortal names that was not born to die." 

This Jacob Miller is entitled to the distinction of a pioneer 
Tunker educator, and had he lived, in the providence of God, 
would have been preeminently successful in his calling; but, like 
Jacob Zook, another pioneer teacher, he was cut off at the thres- 
hold of his usefulness. In the Gospel Visitor of July, 1853, page 
34, will be found his obituary notice, in the following words : — 

''Departed this life May the nth last, after a short illness, 
Brother Jacob Miller, of Bedford County, Pennsylvania, aged 
twenty-five years two months and twenty-three days." 

This was supplemented by the following editorial remarks, 
Brother Henry Kurtz being editor at the time : — 

"Though young in years, he was, according to the testimony 



364 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

of all who knew him, a worthy member, and highly gifted, 
acceptable minister in the church, and we may be allowed to add, 
an able and useful correspondent for the Gospel Visitor, as those 
articles may testify which came from his pen." See Vol. 1, page 
212, the article headed ''Rejoice Evermore ; Vol. 2, page 34, "Ben- 
efits to be Enjoyed by Those Who Love the Saviour and Keep 
His Word;" page 247, on Hebrews 11:6. 

In these last two articles he had distinguished himself under 
the assumed name of "Onesimus." These articles will make our 
dear brother, with whom we never had any personal acquaint- 
ance, better known to all our readers than anything we can add. 

We also copy the following remarks from his father, in con- 
nection with the notice : — 

"My dear son was very obedient to me from a child. In early 
life he became a member of the church, and about one year after 
he was baptized he was elected to the ministry, wherein he labored 
faithfully while living and in health, and even on his dying bed. 
He was buried May 13. His was the largest funeral we ever had 
in our neighborhood". He had made every preparation to go to 
the yearly meeting. The very day he was to leave home for that 
purpose, he went into eternity. 

"He often stood by my side, and expounded the gospel of our 
Lord Jesus Christ in its purity. I" attended two appointments 
since his death in our congregation, and, oh, how he was 
missed ! Andrew Miller." 

Brother Miller received his intellectual training principally 
from Professor Harris, a strict, old-style Catholic teacher, at 
Bedford, Pennsylvania. He taught school near his father's 
home, in the winters of 1849, ^o, and 1851. In the summer of 
1 85 1 his great uncle, George Buterbaugh, of Illinois, offered him 
great inducements to come west, and Jacob had already made sale 
of his personal effects, intending to go west, and grow up with 
the country, but his father took it so hard that the young man's 
heart failed him, and he relented. This incident turned his atten- 
tion to the educational work of the church, and in the summer 
of 1852 he put up a building for school purposes, fifty by thirty- 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 365 

six feet. John S. Holsinger was the architect and builder. The 
same building was also used for church purposes. He opened 
school in the fall of 1852, and was very successful from the start. 
There was a large home patronage, and a number of students 
came from abroad and boarded with his family. Among the 
students from a distance were Jeremiah Beeghley, Nelson Mey- 
ers, Lewis S. Keim, Israel Berkly, Edward S. Miller, William 
Snowdon, Eli Miller, John S. Holsinger, Joseph Elder, Jonas 
Flickinger, John B. Furry, and others whose names we have not 
been able to secure. 

He married Miss Eleanor Arnold, eldest daughter of Peter and 
Hannah Arnold, December 16, 1848. They both joined the Tun- 
ker Church in August, 1849, being baptized by Elder James 
Quinter. 

It is the opinion of the author of this work that he was a 
descendant of Elder Peter Miller, of colonial reputation, and that 
the foundation of the work in Millikan's Cove was laid by Elder 
George Adam Martin, during his visits to the Stony Creek set- 
tlement, in Somerset County. 

For a number of years, dating from 1850 to i860, or later, 
Millikan's Cove, or Will's Creek as it was known to us, was a mis- 
sion point, and was supplied by the Bedford and Somerset County 
churches, jointly. Clover Creek congregation took her turn, and 
my father, Elder Daniel M. Holsinger, made at least two trips to 
the mission, and on one occasion assisted in conducting a com- 
munion service. I can not tell the exact location where the com- 
munion was held, but one incident I remember hearing him relate. 
The family at whose house the meeting was being held, had not 
provided any meat for the Lord's Supper, and in this emergency 
they killed a chicken, which supplied both meat and sop. The 
narration of this incident was indelibly fixed on my young mind, 
as my father related it with all the gravity of a sacred dilemma. 

Brother Miller's effort to establish a school for the accommoda- 
tion of the young people of the church was undoubtedly the first 
movement of the kind in the history of the denomination. And, 
although made in the most unpretending manner, it would have 



366 history ob THE tunkers 

been eminently successful if his life had been spared, but he died 
before the close of the second term. 

Brother S. B. Furry says of Brother Miller as a teacher and 
preacher: "He taught the public schools at New Enterprise in the 
winter of 1848. He was ambitious, bright, and sociable. He 
revolutionized the system of teaching then in vogue, and created 
among the students a wonderful interest in education. 

"The last sermon he preached at Xew Enterprise was from the 
text, 'Cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground?' Luke 13:7. 
It was a masterly effort, full of pathos, warning, and persuasion. 
He was considered k the boy preacher,' and to see him back of the 
long table beside the grave-looking old elders, was a sight seem- 
ingly odd— youthful, smooth-faced, sprightly, and beaming with 
animation. He was fluent in language, pointed in logic, and 
had great influence over the young." 

Brother Lewis S. Keim writes in relation to Professor Miller 
and his school: "Forty-eight years ago I attended the school at 
Buffalo Mills, Bedford County, Pennsylvania, taught by Pro- 
fessor Jacob Miller. He was a young minister, and his prospects 
were of a high grade ; his manners were fine ; and the longer we 
were about him the better we liked him as a teacher. He was a 
Christian. He had about forty scholars, mostly from the 
neighborhood." 

ELDER SAMUEL MOHLER. 

Elder Samuel Mohjer was a member of a large family, who 
resided in Juniata County, Pennsylvania. At the age of twenty 
he was married to Catharine Sayler, a relative of Elder D. P. 
Sayler. Soon after this union, they journeyed over the moun- 
tains to one of the Antietams, near Waynesborough, Pennsyl- 
vania, where they united with the church. 

Shortly after this they moved to Ohio, and located near Cov- 
ington. In this vicinity he lived about sixty-two years. 

There were born unto them eight sons and five daughters. In 
1891, three of his sons were ministers; Samuel S., of Warrens- 
burg, Mo. ; Martin, of Cornelia, Mo. ; and John S., of Morrill, 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 367 

Kansas. Jacob and Levi were deacons in the Covington church, 
Ohio. 

In 1858 Brother Mohler was elected to the ministry, with his 
son, Samuel S., Elders Peter Need, and Abraham Flory officiat- 
ing. His special line of work in the ministry was not in preach- 
ing, but in watching the general interests of the body, keeping the 
church in order. In this line Brother Mohler had great natural 
ability. He was a quick observer, and rather slow in rendering a 
decision ; but when his decision was once made, his mind was not 
easily changed. It is said that he controlled all his business with 
great order and system. The hours to commence and quit work, 
and the hours for worship, were all known and promptly observed. 

His manner in church work was similar ; everything was prompt 
to the time announced. His success in raising his children, so that 
they all early united with the church, aided in giving force to his 
efforts in church work. His long years in the vicinity in which he 
lived were years of strict honesty and unbending integrity. He also 
had an open hand of charity to all in want. It was not uncommon 
for him, on the Lord's day, to take up a public collection in 
response to a letter received from some brother who had lost his 
crop by storm, or buildings by fire. Brother D. L. Miller once 
remarked, "If all our elders would send in their missionary col- 
lections as Brother Samuel Mohler does, our treasury would be 
well filled." 

There was something peculiarly striking and impressive in his 
person and appearance, and he was a man of remarkable vigor of 
body and mind. On the night of April 13, 1891, when trying to 
walk across the room alone, his strength failed and he fell, and 
in the fall his left leg was broken. The limb never properly 
healed, and through the natural decline of age his vigor was 
reduced, until, on the morning of July 26, he passed away, aged 
eighty-three years two months and seven days. 

I express the sentiment of many, both in and out of the church, 
by the following editorial note from the Covington Gazette: 
"Probably no man in this community was more highly respected. 
As a Christian he practiced what he preached, not only one day 



368 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

in the week, but every day in the year. His counsel was always 
wise, and it will be hard for the German Baptists to fill the place 
of 'Elder Sammy,' as the people loved to call him." 

ELDER HIRAM MUSSELMAN. 

Hiram Musselman was born in Somerset County, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 5, 1837. He and Christian Musselman were brothers, 
and their father died when they were quite young. Hiram Mus- 
selman and Frances Yoder were married in 1858, and both united 
with the German Baptist Church in their youth. He was called 
to the ministry about 1862, and at once became a persistent 
student of the Bible. Although not an eloquent speaker, he had 
great influence among the people. He was a faithful, devoted 
servant of God, abounding in sympathy for his fellow-men. Tic 
was of a genial, hospitable disposition, and his house was the 
home of traveling ministers. He solemnized two hundred and 
fifteen marriages, and ministered on numerous funeral occasions, 
among all classes of people and denominations of Christians. 

By industry and economy he accumulated considerable prop- 
erty, most of which he gave to his church and other charitable 
purposes. He died on Sunday, December 9, 1900, at his home 
at Scalp Level, aged seventy-three years six months. 

ELDER T. T. MEYERS. 

Elder T. T. Meyers was born March 29, 1865, in Somerset 
County, Pennsylvania. In 1876 his parents moved to Carroll 
County, Illinois, where he received a thorough training on the 
farm. He was called to the ministry in the Milledgeville church, 
Illinois, January 1, 1886. After attending Mt. Morris College 
four years, he was called to the Philadelphia church, in the spring 
of 1891, and has continued in charge to the present. In Phila- 
delphia he took a course in the National School of Oratory, and 
also took the A. B. degree from Temple College. 

In 1895 he took an extended tour through Europe and Pales- 
tine. At present he is taking a course in theology, in the Crozer 
Theological Seminary, Upland, Pennsylvania. While doing this, 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 369 

C. C. Ellis is associate pastor in the church. (Portrait 16, 
group 2.) 

JACOB T. MEYERS. 

Jacob T. Meyers, a son of Elder Tobias Meyers, was born in 
Somerset County, Pennsylvania, in 1857. He was baptized and 
received into fellowship in the German Baptist Church in the 
Middle Creek congregation, in the same county. He was stu- 
dious from childhood, and fond of religious reading and service, 
and made it a point never to fail to fill his place at church, unless 
prevented by sickness or foul weather. 

He was called to the ministry at the age of twenty years, and, 
in order to prepare himself for his calling, he went to Phila- 
delphia in the spring following his election to the ministry, and 
took a course of study, at the same time preaching for the church 
in the "City of Brotherly Love." He remained there about four 
years. During his service there he conducted the funerals of a 
number of the venerable of that noted congregation. 

September 20, 1877, he married Miss Lydia Belle Quinter, 
daughter of Elder James Quinter. They were married in the 
college chapel at Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, by Elder Quinter. 

Immediately after their marriage, Brother Meyers took charge 
of the Green Tree church, "until such time when it might be 
mutually agreeable to discontinue." He has now served twenty- 
two years, and it is still mutually agreeable to continue. When 
he took charge, the church numbered one hundred and thirty- 
seven ; present membership, over three hundred, mostly young 
people. He has two services each Sunday. (Portrait 14, 
group 2.) 

PROFESSOR OSCAR R. MYERS. 

Professor Oscar R. Myers comes from the "Keystone" state. 
He was born at Lewistown, April 16, 1873, being the son of 
George S. and Susanna Myers. From the time of his arrival at 
the school age until the fall of 1889, he attended the public school 
at Lewistown, and worked in his father's lumber establishment. 
He then came to Mount Morris College, and completed a business 
24 



370 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

course. He completed the preparatory work, and graduated with 
the academic class of 1894, but continued two more years in the 
seminary department. 

In 1896 he entered the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. 
After two years' work he graduated from that institution, with 
the class of 1898, receiving the degree of Ph. B. He returned to 
the university in the fall of 1898, and in the spring of 1899 
received his second degree, that of Master of Philosophy. In 
the fall of 1899 he became a member of the faculty of his alma 
mater, and soon became recognized as one of the best. 

ELDER GRABILL MYERS. 

No Tunker preacher in the state of Pennsylvania attained a 
wider reputation or was more esteemed in the hearts of his peo- 
ple than did the subject of this sketch. Although he did not have 
a good education as school men would have it, I frequently over- 
heard the remark, "Der Mann nuts gute lerning haben:" "That 
man must have good learning." He was liberal and broad-minded 
for his generation and environments. While he was unswerving 
in his devotion to the doctrine and practice of the church, he was 
kind and respectful toward all other denominations. This fact 
was confirmed by his preaching for a pastorless Lutheran con- 
gregation near Williamsburg, Blair County, for a term of three 
months, at a salary mutually satisfactory to both parties. 

Like all extemporaneous speakers, he had his certain line of 
subjects. He used to tell me, "Sometimes I take a text to suit 
my discourse, and at other times I choose a subject to suit my 
text." And it did not appear to make much difference to him 
or his hearers, for he invariably entertained his audience. Among 
his favorite texts were the following: "Let us hear the conclusion 
of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep His commandments." 
Eccl. 12:13. "Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to 
harken than the fat of rams. For rebellion is as the sin of 
witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry." 1 Sam. 
15:22, 23. "And they gathered themselves together against 
Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, Ye take too much 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 37 I 

upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, 
and the Lord is among them; wherefore, then, lift ye up your- 
selves above the congregation of the Lord?" Num. 16: 13. 

I regret very much that I can not give my readers the detailed 
account of the life of this truly good man. It is remarkable, too, 
that only one or two of his children followed his example, and 
became members of the church. His daughter Eliza, intermarried 
with Brother John Oyer, was a noble exception. She lived and 
died in the faith of the Master. 

Brother Myers was elder of the Warrior's Mark congregation 
when I lived at Tyrone, and under his charge I was called to the 
ministry, and advanced to the second degree. He was a faithful 
bishop, and kept in view the development of his flock. A few 
letters from his pen will be found in the epistolary department, 
which will indicate his sentiments on religious subjects. He 
died at his home near Eldorado, Blair County, Pennsvlvania. 
(Portrait 10, group 2.) 

ELDER ISAAC MYERS. 

Elder Isaac Myers was one of the younger of ten brothers and 
one sister. Isaac and David and their only sister, Susannah, 
were all young married people when they moved from Lancaster 
County to Union County, Pennsylvania, about one hundred miles 
from Lancaster, between 1825 and 1830. Two of his brothers 
settled in Clarion County, and one, George, in Hill Valley, Mifflin 
County. George was the father of Grabill, Reuben, Isaac, Abra- 
ham, John, Benjamin, George, and Christian, all Tunker preach- 
ers except John and Benjamin. John is the father of Clara Myers 
Flora, of Dallas Center, Iowa, a well-known minister in the 
Brethren Church. Isaac Myers was born February 24, 1804, and 
was married about 1829 to Sally Weidler, also of Lancaster. He 
spent his entire lifetime in the vicinity of Lewisburg, Union 
County, Pennsylvania. His address for the last tweny-five years 
was Mifflinburg. There he joined the church, served for some 
time in the office of deacon, and was called to the ministry about 
the year 1840, exact dates not being attainable. He served quite 



372 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

acceptably as a minister for about ten years, when he and John 
Sprogel were both ordained elders at the same time, in the year 
1849, John Kline and another Virginia elder officiating. During 
the joint eldership of John Sprogel and Isaac Myers the church 
of Buffalo Valley was very prosperous. Sprogel was a sweet- 
tongued and fluent speaker, and a persistent visiting .evangelist, 
and Myers a safe and conservative counselor, and so affectionate 
(Liebreich) and self-sacrificing in his disposition, with a social 
magnetism that gained him respect and influence among all classes 
of people. During his administration in the eldership of thirty 
years the church was not harrassed and distressed by visits of 
officious adjoining elders. Isaac Myers exercised a judicious pro- 
tectorate over the flock. He was a man of correct business judg- 
ment, and made it a rule to be more strict with himself than with 
his fellow-men. A test was presented to Elder Sprogel at the 
time of their joint ordination, which created much inside gossip 
among the membership. Sprogel, up to this time, was a clean- 
shaven man. Elder Kline told him that unless he would grow 
his beard, he could not be ordained. Sprogel consented, and from 
that time on cultivated the beard of a Tunker elder. 

During the administration of Isaac Myers, the Sugar Valley 
church in Clinton County, about twenty-five miles north- 
west of Buffalo Valley, was built up, and placed upon an 
enduring congregational and financial basis of usefulness. He 
solemnized many marriages, and baptized many converts dur- 
ing his long ministry, because the people generally had full con- 
fidence in his Christian integrity. He died near Mifflinburg, 
Pennsylvania, November 12, 1879, aged seventy-five years eight 
months and eighteen days. The term of his active ministry 
extended over about forty years. 

ELDER MARTIN NEHER. 

Martin Neher was born in Rockingham County, Virginia, May 
21, 18 1 2, where he grew to manhood, and was married to Susan- 
nah Simmons, February 16, 1834. To them were born twelve 
children. His wife died during the winter of 1895, an d he joined 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 



373 



her in the spirit world, October 18, 1899, aged eighty-seven years 
four months and twenty-seven days. 

The preaching spirit seems to have been in the family blood, 
for early in life several of the brothers aspired to enter the holy 
work. He was elected to the ministry at Ladoga, Indiana, many 
years ago, in the congregation presided over by Elder R. H. Mil- 
ler. He was advanced to the full ministry in the Okaw church, 
Piatt County, Illinois, about twenty-two years before his death, 
and just prior to his removal to southern Kansas. The members 
in the vicinity of his new home, near Monmouth, Crawford 




ELDER MARTIN NEHER AND WIFE 



County, Kansas, were soon organized and became the Osage 
church, and Elder Neher and Robert Edgecomb were ordained 
to the eldership, Neher presiding over the new congregation 
almost continuously to the day of his death. He was a man of 
deep convictions, and having once made up his mind on any point, 
it was almost impossible to convince him of the incorrectness of 
his conclusions. Of his descendants, three sons and two grand- 
sons are in the ministry, and through them, "he being dead, yet 
speaketh." 



374 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

H. MICHAEL PFAUTZ. 

Hans Michael Pfautz was another of the patriarchs, whose 
memory deserves more than a passing- notice. He was born in 
the Palatinate of the Rhine, in Germany, in 1709. He emigrated 
to this country in 1727, when about eighteen years of age. He 
came over in the ship William and Sarah, last from Dover, Eng- 
land, under command of Master Hill, as by clearance of his 
majesty's customs there. 

They arrived early in September of the same year, with one 
hundred and nine Palatinates on board. When said master was 
asked if he had any license from the court of Great Britain for 
transporting these people, and what their intentions were in com- 
ing hither, he said that they had no license, or allowance, for their 
transportation, more than the above clearance, and that he believed 
they designed to settle in this province. Then, at a meeting of 
the Board of Provincial Council, held at the court-house in Phila- 
delphia, on the 21st of the same month (September), all the male 
persons above the age of sixteen were required to repeat and sub- 
scribe their names, themselves, to the following declaration : — 

"We, subscribers, natives and late inhabitants of the Palatinate 
upon the Rhine, and places adjacent, having transported our- 
selves and families into the province of Pennsylvania, a colony 
subject to the crown of Great Britain, in hope and expectation of 
finding a retreat and peaceable settlement therein, do solemnly 
promise and engage that we will be faithful, and bear true 
allegiance to his present majesty, King George the Second, and 
his successors, kings of Great Britain, and will be faithful to the 
proprietor of this province, and that we will demean ourselves 
peaceably to all of his said majesty's subjects, and strictly 
observe and conform to the laws of England and of this province, 
to the utmost of our power and to the best of our understanding." 

Afterward they landed, and settled in the Tunker settlement, 
in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Here he became convinced of 
the truth of the doctrine taught by the brethren, and was baptized 
by Michael Frantz, first elder of the Conestoga and White Oak 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 375 

churches, in the year 1739. In 1744 he was elected to the minis- 
try, and was advanced to the office of bishop on the 25th of Sep- 
tember, 1748, by unanimous consent of both churches. He was 
ordained by the laying on of hands by Elder Michael Frantz, 
whose successor he became, and only a few weeks before the death 
of Elder Frantz. 

From that time the care of the two churches rested entirely 
upon Elder Pfautz. His duties were very onerous, and were pre- 
eminently successful and blessed of the Lord. During the first year 
of his oversight fifty-seven persons were added to the church, and 
during the years up to 1755, nearly a hundred more were added. 
Then he met with a series of troubles, so that he had no accessions 
to record for seven years. About the year 1762 he again received 
the spirit of revival, and the few remaining years of his eventful 
life were full of zeal and usefulness. 

He was married to Catharine Schlauch, by whom he had four 
children, followed by a numerous generation, many of whom are 
in fellowship with the church, and several in the ministry. He 
died May 14, 1769, in the sixtieth year of his age. Jacob Sontag 
became his successor in office. 

JACOB SONTAG. 

Jacob Sontag was born in Geneva, Switzerland, in the year 
1700, came to America in 1733, and settled in Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania. Here he became acquainted with the 
Tunkers, accepted their religion, was baptized by Elder Frantz, 
and entered into fellowship with the Conestoga church in the 
year 1743. He led an exemplary life, and was chosen to the 
ministry September 25, 1748. He was ordained to the eldership, 
after fifteen years' faithful service, in May, 1763. The next day, 
on coming to church, he resigned his office and ministry before 
the whole congregation, and never afterward exercised in either 
calling. This is a most remarkable circumstance in the history 
of the church, and one which was not repeated since, and may 
never occur again. A letter dated May 29, 1763, contains the 
following account of the affair, which we copy verbatim: — 



376 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

"Anno 1763, im Mai, sind dem bruder Jacob Sontag die Haend 
auf gclcgt zvorden, sum Dicner oder Forsteher. Aber den 
folgenden Tag kam er in die versammlung, und hat sein Anit und 
Dienst vor dcr gonzcn Gemcinde zvieder nieder und abgelegt, und 
hat niemals etnas von diesem Dienst und Anit angcnommen, 
weder bei unsers Vorsteher's Leben, noch nach seine in Tode. 
Hat also ganzlich seinem Anit abgesagt/' 

It is said he remained in the neighborhood and in fellowship 
with the church as a private member, but never gave a satisfactory 
reason for his peremptory refusal to serve in his office. He was 
married to Mary Landis, and had one son, but nothing farther is 
known of his posterity. His death is noted in the church rec- 
ords, but without date. 

ELDER WILLIAM W. PRICE. 

Elder William W. Price was a grandson of Jacob Price, who 
was born in Witzenstein, Prussia, and emigrated to this country 
about 1 7 19, and settled at Indian Creek, Montgomery County, 
Pennsylvania. His father's name was Johannes (John), who was 
the only son of the above-named Jacob. John Price had thirteen 
children, but only seven lived to raise families. William was born 
August 29, 1789, on the homestead of his grandfather. He was 
a tailor by trade, but early manifested an eager desire for knowl- 
edge, and improved all his spare moments in. reading and study. 

He was elected to the ministry in 18 14, and ordained an elder 
in 1830. He was "instant in season and out of season." Besides 
the care of a large family, he traveled much as an evangelist, 
without pay. He was a preacher of more than ordinary ability, 
hence was often called upon to preach outside of his own denom- 
ination. He understood the science of music, and sang with great 
compass and power. He also was a poet of no mean ability, and 
wrote a number of hymns. He wrote a poem of some length on 
the promises to the patriarch Abraham, and another on the his- 
tory of the prophecies, which have never been published. 

He died on August 7, 1849. He was the father of ten chil- 
dren. He belonged to a priestly family. Probably twenty-five of 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 377 

his near relatives before and after him were preachers, among 
them Elders John and Isaac Price, of Green Tree and Coventry, 
in Pennsylvania. 

ELDER ISAAC PRICE. 

Elder Isaac Price was born in Coventry Township, Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, on the 24th day of September, 1802. He 
was the son of Elder John Price, a widely-known and eloquent 
minister of the Brethren Church, and an early friend of Sabbath- 
school work. 

Elder Isaac Price was the eldest of twelve children, and a 
descendant, in a direct line of ministers in the Brethren Church, 
from Elder Jacob Preisz, the ancestor of the family in this coun- 
try, who was born in Witgenstein, Prussia, and emigrated to 
America in 17 19, having been driven from the old country by 
persecution. He settled at Indian Creek, in Lower Salford Town- 
ship, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. His son, John Preisz, 
was also a minister, as were also Daniel Preisz, of the third gen- 
eration, and George Price (modern style of spelling name), of the 
fourth, and his son, John Price, of the fifth generation, who was 
the father of Elder Isaac Price, and who was therefore the great- 
great-great-grandson of the first settler of the family in this 
country. 

Elder Price taught school in early life, and at one period lived 
in Pottstown, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, and for a time 
was one of the editors and proprietors of the Lafayette Aurora, 
a newspaper started in Pottstown, about 1825. He subsequently 
removed to Schuylkill Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 
where he engaged in the mercantile business, and continued in the 
same nearly all the rest of his lifetime. He was appointed post- 
master there, during the administration of President Jackson, and 
held that office under all changes of administration, until about 
two years before his death, when he resigned. For a long time 
he was one of the oldest and in later years the oldest postmaster 
in the United States, as to length of tenure of office. 

He was a minister of the Tunker Church for nearly fifty years. 



378 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

He had great ability as a preacher and orator. At Green Tree 
church, in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, was his principal 
place of preaching, but he frequently preached in the old Coventry 
meeting-house, and also at Lawrenceville, both in Chester County, 
Pennsylvania. He was not only active in the cause of religion, and 
an earnest and successful revivalist, but active and earnest in 
every branch and department of the Master's work. He was a 
great friend of children, and was highly appreciated by them 
everywhere. 

He was a strong advocate of the abolition of slavery, laboring 
manfully in the cause, and had the great satisfaction of seeing 
that curse removed. He was an equally strong advocate of the 
temperance cause, down to his last days, and protested by word 
and action against the use of alcoholic wines for communion 
service, instead of the pure fruit of the vine, unfermented. 

Elder Price not only stood high in his own religious denomina- 
tion, as a pious and zealous Christian man and preacher, but 
enjoyed the love and respect of all other churches and people 
wherever he was known. 

It may well be said of Elder Isaac Price, as it was at the death 
of his father before him, "Lo, a great man is fallen in Israel !" 
He was married to Hannah H. Umstead, March 17, 1826. They 
had three children. 

In reference to the troubles in the church, Elder Price strongly 
condemned the actions of the German Baptists expelling com- 
mittees. His sympathies were with the progressives, but he was 
willing to fellowship the good in both divisions of the church. 

The following extracts from letters addressed to the author of 
this work, will indicate the intensity of his desire to avert a divi- 
sion in the church : — 

Dated March 4, 1884. 
"Should annual meeting readopt minutes as advisory only, 
accept the New Testament as our creed and discipline, would not 
the greater part flow together by congenial attraction? I do 
think many see their error. Oh, try to keep the way open for all 
who have the same views of the gospel to flow together ! It will 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 379 

require self-abnegation, and earnest devotion to the good cause, 
but nothing is impossible with God." 

Dated February 29, 1884. 

"I deprecate the causes of this division ; I mourn over the 
result ; but I am not without hope that the brethren and the Ger- 
man Baptists may yet become one communion. Those who really 
are progressive Christians, of the number who practice as we do 
in the ordinances, should all be one communion. Oh, do try to 
move that such a union may be possible ! The Old German Bap- 
tist brethren are a fixed fact, and they have no progressive root 
in all their movements. 

"The brethren have accepted the true foundation, — the gospel 
of Jesus only, — and I hope they will move very carefully. The 
German Baptists are still the large body, but they are not a unit 
in the sense that the other two parties are. A large portion of 
them are in unison with the brethren, but do not feel prepared to 
unite with them ; but they are the leaven which is working to the 
end, viz., unity." 

Dated March 17, 1884. 

"Your paper is well filled, and breathes a good spirit in gen- 
eral, but an occasional word shows want of charity for what are 
deemed erring brethren. The Lord has precious saints in each 
of the three sects of the Tunker Church, or I might more properly 
say, in two sects, as the Brethren Church is not a sect of the 
body, but the remaining branch, who hold to the name. Each 
of the others has taken a departure. I am pleased that you 
hold to the true, good, old name, and would be glad to see the 
day, or even to think of the day, when all will be so named. O 
my clear brother, how I love you, and how earnestly I pray God 
to bless you, lead and guide you in everything you say, think, or 
do, that is prompted by the good Spirit, and fill your heart with 
hope, faith, and charity ! . . . 

"Keep in mind and hope for the possibility of all flowing into 
one again." (Portraits 11 and 55.) 



380 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ELDER JAMES OU INTER. 

James Quinter was born February 1, 1816. His parents were 
John and Alary Quinter. His father was a native of Phila- 
delphia, and in that city he made his home, and there the eldest 
two of his children were born. Mrs. Quinter s maiden name 
was Mary Smith, and she was a native of New Jersey. The 
family was dependent on the father's daily labor for support. 
In 1824 they removed to Phcenixville, Pennsylvania, about 
twenty-five miles from Philadelphia, where the father found 
work at the iron mills. The boy, James, was also employed 
during the intervals between the short school terms. He drove 
a donkey and cart, gathering the work as it was finished. The 
father died in 1829, leaving his wife, one son, and two daughters, 
with little means of support. Thus, at the age of thirteen, the 
duty of helping to care for his mother and sisters rested upon 
James. 

The children were sent to school as much as possible. The 
schools of those times were very different from those of the 
present, yet with the lessons of the school-books were inculcated 
lessons of truth, purity, and nobility. 

The Bible was in daily use in many schools, and their read- 
ing books contained selections from the writings of their stand- 
ard authors. A love of books and a desire for an education 
were awakened by such lessons. This, no doubt, had an impor- 
tant influence in the formation of those noble purposes and high 
ideals which characterized the subject of this notice. In his 
boyhood he manifested a determination to obtain an education. 
His mother shared his desire, and did all she could to help him. 
After leaving school he obtained a situation in the store of 
Brother Isaac Price, near Phcenixville. Brother Price said, "I 
soon found he was too reserved to make a good storekeeper, and 
asked Brother Fitzwater to take him on the farm/' 

We next find him in the family of Brother Abel Fitzwater. 
To the influence of this kind Christian family he attributed his 
early conversion, and they were ever kindly and gratefully 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 38 1 

remembered. In the community were the homes of John 
Umstead, George Price, and Isaac Price. These brethren, with 
Brother Fitzwater, were among those who came into the church 
during a religious revival in the community in 1831. They were 
baptized in the Coventry church, near Pottstown. Through the 
efforts of these brethren, meetings for public worship were held 
in the schoolhouses, and prayer-meetings w r ere held at their 
homes. During a meeting in the old Green Tree schoolhouse, 
his mind was aroused upon the subject of his salvation. It 
engaged his thoughts deeply for a time, and one day as he was 
working at the barn he suddenly stopped, exclaiming, "I've got 
it ; I've got it ;" and ran to the house. "I've got it, — peace with 
God." He was baptized in the Coventry church in his seven- 
teenth year. 

Later a church was organized in the village of Lumberville, 
now Port Providence. Their first love-feast was held in Brother 
Umstad's barn. The church grew and increased in numbers and 
power. In this church, prayer-meetings and protracted meetings 
were first held among the brethren. These prayer-meetings 
afforded good opportunities for exercising gifts. They were 
excellent promoters of spiritual life, and good schools for 
improvement in many ways. 

From the beginning of his Christian experience his life was 
characterized by deep piety. His exemplary character, his ear- 
nestness, and his sincerity, won for him the love and confidence 
of all who knew him. 

His friends, noting his zeal and his manifest disposition to 
learn, were interested in him, and by their assistance he was 
enabled to prepare himself for teaching. He began teaching in 
Limerick Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, in 
Hobson's schoolhouse. In the spring of 1834 he came to Lum- 
berville, and continued to teach here seven years, from 1834 to 
1 84 1. To his work in the school-room he devoted all his ener- 
gies, and not only labored to impress upon the minds of his 
pupils the temporal truths of their daily lessons, but also by 
precept and example endeavored to lead them to the higher 
truths of the spiritual life. 



382 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Shortly after his conversion he was impressed with a call to 
follow his Master in the work of the ministry. His conviction 
of this duty grew stronger, yet in this, as in all things else, he 
was willing to submit the time to the Lord's will. In 1838, in 
a council meeting, held at the home of Brother George Price, he 
was called by the church to the ministry. 

In his calling as a minister he grew rapidly in favor with the 
church and in the estimation of the public. Having a good use 
of the English language, his labors were especially appreciated 
by the more intelligent classes, and Elder Quinter must be cred- 
ited with the conversion of a greater number of that class of 
people than any other minister in the Tunker Church before his 
time. 

While his preaching was somewhat emotional, his sermons 
were logical, and free from everything sensational. He scrupu- 
lously avoided all pleasantry in his discourses. The nearest 
approach to the humorous which I can recall occurred during 
my first attendance at his services in Columbiana, Ohio. In 
referring to the incident of Jacob and Rachel he remarked that 
"Jacob must have loved Rachel very dearly if his seven years' 
service would appear as but a few days for the love he had to 
her," which remark was accompanied by a smile. 

He soon became popular as an evangelist, and his service was 
in great demand in all the English churches of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and New Jersey, where he traveled much. He was, 
indeed, the boy preacher of his age and denomination. Although 
history says he was called to the ministry by the church in 1838, 
those who are able to read between the lines may readily dis- 
cover that he commenced preaching "shortly after his conver- 
sion," which occurred in his seventeenth year. His official call 
and installation to the ministry added dignity and authority to 
his youthful appearance, and he soon became as popular a coun- 
selor as he had been a preacher. 

During my apprenticeship to printing in the office of the Gos- 
pel Visitor, after its removal to Columbiana, Ohio, I boarded at 
Elder Ouinter's during the summer of 1857. In September of 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 3 8 3 

this year, Sister Quinter returned to the home of her parent, 
Daniel Mosers, in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, in the last stage 
of consumption, where she died October 9, 1857. 

My relation and associations with the family were the most 
pleasant of my life among strangers. Sister Quinter being ill 
all the while of my sojourn with them, afforded me an excellent 
opportunity to learn the disposition of Elder Quinter in a time 
of trouble and trial. Being of a very quiet, studious, and devout 
nature, he was inclined to accept every misfortune as the inev- 
itable. Sister Quinter was of the opposite nature, and disposed 
to take everything to heart. Elder Quinter was very strict in 
the family, both as to his own habits and those of the members 
of the household. He was courteous in his domestic relations, 
and always agreeable. He was very strict in keeping the Lord's 
day, even so that he objected to having fruit in the process of 
drying carried into the sunshine on Sunday morning. 

I attended a four-days discussion on baptism between Elder 
Quinter and Joseph Fitchner, a Lutheran preacher. The debate 
was held in the vicinity of Claysburg, Blair County, Pennsyl- 
vania, in the winter of 1853. In this discussion Elder Quinter 
showed his Christian manhood and strength of purpose to per- 
fection. It was, in the estimation of the writer, a fiery ordeal, 
almost equal to martyrdom. It appeared as though Mr. Fitchner 
was determined to break down his opponent by provocation. He 
taunted him, mocked him, ridiculed him, and did everything that 
he thought might provoke Brother Quinter and throw him off his 
guard, but Brother Quinter appeared to be clothed with a coat 
of mail, proof against the darts of his enemy. Nothing but the 
grace of God could sustain a man under such trial. 

Brother S. B. Furry, of Martinsburg, Pennsylvania, who also 
attended the debate says of Mr. Fitchner's manner of discussion : 
"He simply misrepresented and ridiculed his opponent. In ref- 
erence to Paul's baptism, he said, 'Paul could not have been 
immersed ; why, he was so sick, he could not even raise his head/ 
As he said this, he let himself down almost to the pulpit to give 
emphasis to his assertion. On another occasion, Quinter asked 



384 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

permission to correct some of Fitchner's misstatements. Fitch- 
ner stepped back, leaned against the wall, and granted permis- 
sion. Quinter proceeded very mildly, when he was suddenly cut 
short by Fitchner stepping forward, and, with defiant gesture, 
crying out, 'I will not yield my stand if hell resist.' " 

I will add one more incident. Fitchner said he would now 
"give out" a Tunker hymn, and this is his hymn : — 

"Ho, every son and daughter, 
Here's salvation in the water, 
Come and be immersed, 
O, come and be immersed!" 

And as he repeated these words he would duck his head down to 
his knees, in the most dramatic style, in derision of the Tunker 
mode of baptism. 

I also attended the debate between Elder Quinter and Mr. 
Mitchell, in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, in June, 1868. 
This discussion was conducted more nearly on Christian princi- 
ples. Mr. Mitchell was a Christian gentleman, and profession- 
ally a lawyer. He used much Christian persuasion in his argu- 
ments. He appeared to be entirely indifferent as to the decision 
of the technical results of the discussion, and directed his remarks 
to the propagation of his favorite views of the subject under 
discussion. Neither did he confine himself strictly to the sub- 
jects under consideration, but would digress, and theorize, and 
exhort, and teach from the entire Campbellite confession of 
faith. It was universally granted that Brother Quinter ably 
defended his cause, and fairly met every proposition. One inci- 
dent I recall. I was appointed to conduct one of the morning 
services. Being a novice in religious discussions, I asked the 
Lord, in my opening prayer, for a special blessing on Brother 
Quinter, that he might be enabled to successfully defend the 
truth. And in order to show impartiality, I offered a prayer 
also for Mr. Mitchell, that the Lord would give him light to see 
his error and accept of the better way. My prayer evidently 
irritated Mr. Mitchell's natural and acquired evenness of temper, 
as was manifest in his speeches during the day. In the evening, 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 385 

on our way homeward, Brother Quinter kindly admonished me 
to be more impartial in my prayers on such occasions. To this I 
replied that when I go to the Lord, I ask for favors exactly such 
as I want, and that I had asked for that which I desired, and I 
believe for that which all the brethren desired, and could say 
amen. To this he assented, with the remark that in a public dis- 
cussion each party must grant the possibility of himself being in 
the wrong and his opponent in the right, and that in our prayers 
this impartiality should be recognized, if for nothing else, as a 
matter of courtesy and consistency (the truth of which I now 
acknowledge), and that it had been manifest during the entire 
day that Mr. Mitchell felt aggravated, and that it appeared to 
him that the morning service was the cause of it, all of which 
appears very reasonable to me at this time. 

Brother Quinter became associate editor of the Gospel Visitor 
about the year 1856. He moved into the vicinity in which the 
paper was being printed, some time during the same year. His 
first editorial was published in the June number of that year. 

In June, 1857, the office of the Visitor was removed to Colum- 
biana, Ohio, a village on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago 
Railroad. In the autumn of 1866 the office was moved to Cov- 
ington, Ohio, where it remained until May, 1869, when it was 
moved to Dayton, Ohio, the editorial office abiding at Covington. 
In 1873 Elder Quinter purchased Brother Henry J. Kurtz' inter- 
est in the Gospel Visitor, and the Christian Family Companion, 
then published at Dale City (now Meyersdale), Pennsylvania, 
of H. R. Holsinger. The Companion, being issued weekly, and 
having a circulation of about five thousand copies, and having a 
large and well-stocked office, took the preference, and was 
continued. 

Brother Quinter removed his family to Meyersdale some time 
about the close of the year 1873, and took editorial charge of the 
Companion on the first of October. January, 1876, the name of 
the paper was changed to the Primitive Christian, and in Octo- 
ber of the same year he consolidated with Brethren H. B. and 
J. B. Brumbaugh, publishers of the Weekly Pilgrim, and removed 

25 



386 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

to Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, where the Primitive Christian was 
continued, published by Quinter and Brumbaugh Brothers. 

In June, 1883, the Primitive Christian and the Brethren at 
Work were consolidated, and the name of the paper changed to 
the Gospel Messenger, Brother Quinter remaining editor-in- 
chief, which place he held till the day of his death. 

Brother Quinter died a glorious death, while on his knees 
offering prayer, at one of the services preceding the national 
conference of his denomination, in the midst of his friends, and 
admirers, and associates in the service of the Lord, apparently 
without pain or distress, or even threatening danger. He was 
thanking God for His blessing, and with a cheerful heart 
exclaimed, "We are glad to meet again !" which were his last 
words on earth ; and as his spirit winged its way to heaven, it 
was accompanied by the same happy salutation in the memorable 
words, "We are glad to meet again." The conference that year 
was held at North Manchester, Indiana, and his death occurred 
on Saturday, May 19, 1888. Age, seventy-two years three 
months eighteen days. 

For data of the first part of this sketch, I am indebted to 
"Life and Sermons of Elder James Quinter," by Mary N. Quinter. 
(Portrait 53, group 5.) 

ELDER LEVI ROBERTS. 

Prominent among the early settlers of the southern part of 
Cambria County, Pennsylvania, was Elder Levi Roberts. His 
grandfather was a native of Wales. He first settled in Virginia, 
where his children were born, and where, probably, he died. He 
had several children, but little is known of them, except of his 
son Joseph, the father of the subject of this notice. Joseph 
Roberts married Agnes Seabrooks, daughter of William Sea- 
brooks, of Maryland, and resided for a while in Virginia and 
Maryland, but subsequently settled in what was known as Wood- 
cock Valley, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. He had a num- 
ber of children, only five of whom lived to years of maturity, 
viz., Richard, Nancy, Jemima, Mary, and Levi. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 387 

Richard, his eldest son, joined the American army during the 
Revolutionary War, and never returned. 

Nancy married Jacob Sheets, but never lived west of the 
Alleghany Mountains. Jemima married Patrick Dimond, and 
Mary married John Shaffer. They both died in this county. 

Levi was born in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, on the 
9th day of February, 1779. That part of the country was, at 
that time, overrun by the Indians, and the lives and property of 
the settlers were in perpetual danger. When about two years of 
age, his father, Joseph Roberts, was killed by the Indians. 

Levi's mother and the family remained together at the same 
place after their sad bereavement until the end of the war, but 
were continually driven from place to place by the Indians. On 
the 19th day of November, 1799, he married Elizabeth Gochnour, 
daughter of David Gochnour, of Bedford County, and in the 
spring of 1803 he, with his mother and his two brothers-in-law, 
Dimond and Shaffer, moved to what is now Cambria County, and 
settled on a tract of land called the "Vineyard," which he had 
purchased from Martin Reiley, of Bedford, and which has been 
surveyed on a warrant in the name of John Gregg, and after 
sundry conveyances was patented to Reuben Haynes, of Phila- 
delphia. It is situated about five miles north of Johnstown. 

His mother resided with him till the time of her death, which 
occurred on the 24th of August, 1833. She was born March 18, 
1743, Old Style. 

Elder Roberts possessed a remarkably strong physical consti- 
tution, and surmounted difficulties and endured hardships which 
men of the present time would not dare to encounter. As soon 
as he had a shelter erected for his family, he commenced a war 
of extermination upon the wild animals around him, and numer- 
ous panthers, wolves, bears, deer, and smaller animals yearly fell 
victims to his keen sagacity as a hunter. Often when engaged in 
hunting he would camp out in the most inclement seasons. 
Building a large fire, and sleeping upon a bed of hemlock boughs, 
with his unerring rifle by his side, and surrounded by his faithful 
dogs, he had little to fear from the savage denizens of the forest. 



388 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

In 1839 he sold his farm, but remained in the neighborhood till 
1844, when he moved to Iowa, then a territory, and settled in 
Jefferson County, where his wife died on the 6th of December, 
1846. In 1848 he returned to Cambria County, and remained 
here till the time of his death. About the year 1820 he joined 
the Tunkers, and a few years afterwards was chosen and ordained 
a minister of the gospel. 

In his ministerial capacity he labored with commendable zeal 
and energy. He traveled much through Cambria, Somerset, 
Bedford, Huntingdon, Indiana, and Armstrong Counties, fre- 
quently passing over rugged and almost impassable roads, some- 
times on horseback, and sometimes on foot, yet he seldom failed 
to fill an appointment. 

He died on the 6th of December, i860, just fourteen years 
after the death of his wife, and is buried in Angus' graveyard. 
His age was eighty-one years nine months and twenty-seven days. 
He was much esteemed by his neighbors and acquaintances, as 
an honest, upright man, and a sincere Christian, and we may 
safely say, he died without an enemy. 

I frequently heard Brother Roberts preach, and on several 
occasions listened to his thrilling tales of adventure and pioneer 
life. 

ELDER PHILIP ROTHENBERGER. 

George Philip Rothenberger was born at Bartenheim, Hesse 
Darmstadt, Germany, August, 1802. His parents were Luther- 
ans, and he was christened and confirmed in that church. His 
father died when he was twelve years old, and his mother after- 
ward married a man who proved to be a very cruel stepfather, 
who mistreated his wife and her children. 

The following biographical sketch was written by Jacob Rothen- 
berger, a son of Elder Philip. Jacob became a minister in the 
Brethren Church, soon after its organization, and lived and 
labored at La Paz, Indiana. He had an excellent reputation 
for truthfulness, honesty, and godly zeal, but was not noted as a 
preacher. He had, also, a good education, and engaged in 
teaching a number of terms. He died about 1898. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 3 8 9 

"111 the year 1839 Elder Henry Kurtz went to visit his father, in 
the kingdom of Wurtenburg, Germany. He also went into 
Switzerland. He came to father's about Easter. I first saw him 
at the house of my grandfather. He preached several times in 
that vicinity, and baptized several persons, my father being the 
first. Mr. Froelich heard of it, and wrote quite a long letter to 
the church, in which he denounced Brother Kurtz as a deceiver, 
and by a series of arguments succeeded in winning back some of 
those who had been immersed by Brother Kurtz. Father, with a 
few others, remained faithful. He continued to hold meetings 
at our house and other places. He was severely persecuted. 
Once he was nearly killed. He was actually left for dead not 
far from his own house. His beard was pulled out. Father and 
Brother Kurtz kept up correspondence, which resulted in coming 
to the United States, where he labored among the Tunkers as a 
minister for forty years. He traveled very extensively, and sold 
books among the brethren. Soon after coming to the United 
States he lost his second wife. He was again married, in 1842, 
to Mary Kleisly, who accompanied us to the United States. 

In 1845 he moved to Carroll County, Indiana, and in 185 1 to 
Kosciusko County, where he died Oct. 30, 1882. His son Daniel 
is a minister in the German Baptist Church. 

I remember, also, of meeting Elder Philip Rothenberger, 
who called at my father's when I was a boy, and of seeing the 
bare sport in his beard where the hair had been plucked out dur- 
ing the persecution in Germany, and of hearing him relate his 
experience during that trying ordeal. 

PROFESSOR J. G. ROYER. 

Professor John G. Rover, M. A., president of Mt. Morris Col- 
lege, was born April 22, 1838, at Hartleton, Pennsylvania, being 
the son of Jacob and Susan (Myers) Rover. His father was a 
minister of the German Baptist Church, preaching as opportuni- 
ties were afforded him. Professor Rover gained his early edu- 
cation in the country schools of his native county, and later 
attended the academy at Mifninburg, but completed his literary 



390 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

course at Union Seminary, at New Berlin, Pennsylvania. At 
twenty he had completed his college education, and decided to 
pursue teaching as a life profession. From 1858 to 1863 he was 
engaged in teaching in the graded schools of his native state. 

At the age of twenty-five, he went to Darke County, Ohio, and 
there continued teaching in graded schools eight years, being 
principal of the schools at Webster and Versailles the last six 
years. In 1871 he went to Burnettsville, White County, Indiana, 
and was principal of the high school at that place four consecu- 
tive years. He then accepted the superintendency of the high 
school at Monticello, Indiana, and held it with honor for eight 
years. While at this place the degree of Master of Arts was 
bestowed upon him, entirely unsolicited. From Monticello he 
went to Mount Morris, and was assigned the chair of English 
literature in the college. The year following his arrival he was 
elected to the presidency of the college, and has fulfilled that 
position with much credit ever since. President Rover is a strict 
disciplinarian, and his advice and admonition, given in private 
and chapel talks, have been of untold value to the students. 

December 8, i860, Professor Rover was married to Miss Lizzie 
ReifT, of his native county. Professor Rover was elected to the 
ministry in 1872, at Monticello, Indiana, and along with his 
school work, he has always taken an active part in church matters. 
In 1 88 1- he was advanced to the eldership, and has continued to 
act in that capacity ever since. He is now regarded as one of the 
most able ministers of the German Baptist Church in Illinois. 

ELDER DANIEL P. SAYLER. 

Elder Daniel P. Sayler was born near Beaver Darn, Frederick 
County, Maryland, June 23, 181 1. He was a grandson of Elder 
Daniel Sayler, who, with his parents, was the first Tunker that 
settled in the territory known as the Beaver Dam church. The 
family emigrated from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, about the 
year 1772, and in course of time built the home in which the Elder 
Daniel and, after his death, the Elder Jacob Sayler lived and 
entertained the brotherhood of the church for ninety years. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 39 1 

Daniel Sayler, great-gandfather of Daniel P., was a native of 
Switzerland, but emigrated to America about the year 1750. 

Elder Sayler was twice married. His first wife, a Miss Root, 
died in 1874. His second wife was a Miss Rohrer, of Washing- 
ton County, Maryland. He died June 6, 1885. 

The life of Daniel P. Sayler forms a conspicuous part in the 
history of the Tunker Church. During the last thirty-five years 
of his life, he was a leading figure in the movements of this relig- 
ious body, took a prominent part in its councils, and was fore- 
most in establishing the notable "Mandatory Resolution," which 
led to a separation of the German Baptist Church. He was the 
author of this resolution, which made the decisions of the annual 
meeting final on questions submitted to it for advice. 

He united with the church at the age of twenty-six, three years 
thereafter was called to the ministry, and on the 7th of May, 1850, 
ordained as elder. He was elected to the ministry the same year 
his grandfather died, the grandson thus taking up the mantle laid 
aside by the ancestor. It was a source of apparent satisfaction to 
the grandson in his later days to remind his friends that his 
family had preached the gospel in an unbroken line for a century 
of years. 

The first divine service ever held within the present limits of 
the Monocacy congregation was conducted by Elder Sayler, at 
Rock Ridge, Easter Monday, 1843. The country was then com- 
paratively a wilderness. Usually in good weather the meetings 
were held amid groves, and his congregation seated around him 
on the rocks or on the trunks of fallen trees. In bad weather a 
schoolhouse, now in ruins, was occupied. These were initial 
meetings that led to the formation of the Monocacy church. It 
was then part of the Beaver Dam district. The church was 
organized in 1856. 

In the year 1842 he began his ministerial labors in the Pleasant 
Hill or Monrovia community, and organized a congregation that 
at the termination of his work, which occurred when the district 
was divided, numbered over two hundred members. During all 
this time, Elder Sayler was active in the missionary work beyond 



392 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

his congregation. Some of his pilgrimages extended far down 
the valley of Virginia. 

In the sense of schools, Elder Sayler was not an educated man. 
He was a man of positive opinions and strong convictions, never 
shrinking from their avowal, and always ready to maintain them 
by argument to the best of his ability. This characteristic, united 
to a very decided oratorical ability, soon gave him a reputation 
throughout the entire brotherhood. ( Portrait 78, group 7.) 

CHRISTOPHER SAUR, SR. 

Christopher Saur, Sr., was born at Laasphe, a small town in the 
province of Westphalia, Germany, 1693. Not much is known of 
his early life. Some historians have speculated largely, antici- 
pating and drawing from imaginations, forming entertaining 
chapters of interesting reading matter without much solid infor- 
mation. It may be presumed that he grew to manhood much 
as other German boys with the same environments. 

His early home was in the vicinity of Berleberg and Schwarz- 
enau, both literary and ecclesiastical centers, and therefore amidst 
theological and educational opportunities. These should be suf- 
ficient for the formatory period of a promising young man's life, 
and that they entered largely into his make-up will be abundantly 
proven by his future career. He was married in Germany to a 
woman spoken of as Maria Christina, at some time in the early 
part of the eighteenth century. Their only child was born Sep- 
tember 26, 1821. He was given the name of his father, Chris- 
topher Saur. 

The next we learn of the Saur family is at Germantown, Penn- 
sylvania, where they landed toward the close of the year 1724. 
They remained at Germantown nearly two years, and in the 
spring of 1728 removed to Millbach (Mill Creek), Lancaster 
County. Here the elder Saur engaged in agricultural pursuits, 
purchasing fifty acres of land in Leacock Township. We are not 
told whether or not he made a success in his rural pursuits. 

At this place Father Saur met Conrad Beisel, whom he had 
known in Germany as a Separatist. Beisel had, in the meantime, 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 393 

joined the Tunkers, and become the head of the Ephratah settle- 
ment. Up to this time Mr. Saur had not attached himself to any 
church, but after attending the services of Elder Beisel for some 
time, he was baptized by him, on Whit Sunday, 1728, with 
Michael Eckerlin and Jacob Gass.* This being before the sepa- 
ration of Beisel and his party as a distinct organization, we have 
Christopher Saur, Sr., in the Tunker Church, through the 
administration of Conrad Beisel, founder of the Seventh-day 
German Baptists. It is not material, however, that this should 
have occurred prior to the division of the denomination, as, for 
many years thereafter, members were received into the German 
Baptist Church from the Seventh-day German Baptists without 
disfavor. To my own knowledge, Barbara Long, who was bap- 
tized by the Seventh-dayers before her marriage to my uncle, 
John Holsinger, was afterward received into the German Bap- 
tist Church without rebaptism. Similar cases occurred fre- 
quently in Morrison's Cove, Bedford County, where the two 
denominations flourished from about 1800 to 1850, when the 
seventh-day people began to decline. 

While Father Saur was a church-member, he was also a busi- 
ness man, and it is possible that he kept the injunction, "Not 
slothful in business," more diligently than that other instruction 
as to fervency in spirit, which is common to all active business 
men. It has been reported that he had never even belonged to 
church, which, however, is a mistake. He was not only bap- 
tized by Beisel, but participated in a communion service at 
Ephratah, in 1738. His wife, also, was an enthusiastic member, 
and through Beisel's persuasive preaching was induced to leave 
her family, and enter the sisters' house, or cloister, at Ephratah, 
and she became a nun, being known as Sister Marcella. Here 
she remained until November, 1744. Then she was persuaded 
by her son to return to her home, but for some time afterward 
she simply assumed the duties of the household, without taking 
her place as wife and mother. She was, however, fully reenstated 

* Chronicon Ephratense, pp. 41 and 42. 



394 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

to her marital place in the family before her death, which occurred 
December 14, 1752. After these disturbances in his family rela- 
tions, Brother Saur lost his interest in the Ephratah services, and 
he and his son returned to Germantown. 

ELDER S. Z. SHARP. 

Professor S. Z. Sharp was born at Airy Dale, Huntingdon 
County, Pennsylvania, December 21, 1835. His boyhood was 
spent on the farm. His common-school advantages were poor, 
yet at twelve years of age he determined to become a teacher, and 
bent all his energies, during his spare moments, summer and 
winter, to prepare himself for that profession. He not only mas- 
tered all the common branches, but, unaided, made some advance- 
ment in Latin, Greek, some of the sciences, and higher mathe- 
matics. At twenty he began teaching and attending school, until 
he graduated at the State Normal School of Pennsylvania, in 
i860. 

On April 1, 1861, he bought and took charge of Kishacoquillas 
Seminary, in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, and taught the first 
high school ever taught by a Tunker (excepting the effort of 
Jacob Miller, of Bedford County), preceding Elder James 
Quinter's effort at New Vienna, Ohio, by six months. During 
the five years he was principal of this seminary, he had a very 
scholarly Presbyterian minister for an assistant, under whose 
instruction he continued his studies in the ancient languages. 
Selling this seminary in 1866, he taught one year in the Penn- 
sylvania State Normal School, and then went to Maryville, 
Tennessee, where he established a private normal school, with 
marked success. After acting as principal of this school seven 
years, a professorship in Maryville College, Tennessee, was 
offered to him and accepted, which he filled three years. 

During the ten years he was in Tennessee he preached nearly 
every Sunday in a territory where the Tunkers were little known. 
Here he soon organized a congregation and built a commodious 
meeting-house largely at his own expense. 

When Ashland College was projected in Ohio, he was called 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 395 

on to assist in raising the money to build it, and to become its first 
president. In September, 1879, he opened school, with an attend- 
ance of sixty students, and raised the number enrolled to one 
hundred and eighty-seven the next year. His policy and that of 
the trustees not being in harmony, he resigned his position here, 
and accepted the chair of mental and moral science in Mount 
Morris College, Illinois, and also acted as chairman of the 
faculty. After teaching here seven years he was called to the 
presidency of McPherson College, Kansas, for nine years, which 
institution he organized and built up until it reached an enroll- 
ment of three hundred and eighty-seven regular students. 

In February, 1897, Plattsburg College, Missouri, was pur- 
chased by brethren, and Professor Sharp called to be its presi- 
dent, which position he now holds, in the forty-sixth year of his 
career as a teacher. 

While actively engaged in teaching and preaching, he also 
devoted himself to special departments of science, taking a course 
in geology under Professor Shaler, of Harvard University, and 
spent some time in original investigation of this subject. In 
1876 he was elected a member of the "American Association for 
the Advancement of Science," and in 1895, one of the two state 
geologists of Kansas. He was also elected a member of the 
Kansas Academy of Science. In school work he makes Bible 
instruction a specialty, and holds Bible normal institute, also con- 
ducts Bible instruction by correspondence. He received the 
degree A. M., of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, and LL. D., of 
Mount Morris, Illinois. 

Elder S. Z. Sharp's parents and relatives were Mennonites. 
In his study of the Greek language while at school, he became 
convinced that trine immersion was the gospel mode of baptism. 
This led him to unite with the Tunker Church, in 1861. He was 
elected to the ministry in 1863, in Pennsylvania, and to the elder- 
ship in 1868, in Tennessee. 

On March 26, 1879, he published Our Sunday-School, the first 
Sunday-school periodical published by a Tunker. For this he 
prepared the Sunday-school lessons, issued weekly. The circu- 



396 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

lation reached over three thousand in six weeks, and five thou- 
sand within a year. Next year he bought the Children at Work, 
and united the Young Disciple with his paper. The combined 
issue reached a circulation of over thirteen thousand, and sup- 
plied nearly four hundred Sunday-schools among the Brethren 
Churches, during the second year. 

He also prepared the lessons for the Brethren s Quarterly 
when first started, and discontinued only on account of too much 
other work. ( Portrait 8, group i . ) 

ELDER THOMAS G. SNYDER. 

Elder Thomas G. Snyder was born in Stark County, Ohio, in 
December, 1825. In 1846 he was married to Esther B. Stifler, 
and located in Blair County, Pennsylvania. There he united 
with the German Baptist Church, and shortly afterward was 
chosen to serve as a deacon. 

In 1854 he and family left Pennsylvania for the far west, and, 
after a tedious journey, they arrived in Linn County, Iowa, April 
15. He and his wife were the first members of the German Bap- 
tist Church in said county. The first love-feast was held in his 
barn in the fall of 1856, when he was called to the ministry. His 
wife died July 18, 1876. On November 8, 1877, he was married 
to Catharine Miller. 

About 1888 he was ordained to the full ministry. He was 
industrious, economical, and prosperous, and an exemplary 
Christian. On the morning of October 31, 1899, he arose as 
usual, and ate a hearty breakfast. About eight o'clock he 
dropped to the floor and passed away. 

ELDER D. B. STURGIS, M. D. 

The parents of Daniel B. Sturgis settled in Delaware before 
the Revolutionary War, but soon after emigrated to Tennessee. 
Daniel was born at Maryville, Tennessee, June 17, 181 1. Dur- 
ing his childhood his parents located near Dayton, Ohio. In 
182 1 they removed to Sangamon County, Illinois, near Spring- 
field,. then a small village of a few cabins. He was the youngest 






GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 397 

of the family, and his father died when Daniel was thirteen years 
of age. He labored on a farm, and helped to raise the family. 
He obtained an education mostly by the light of an old-fashioned 
fireplace. Then, by diligent application and nine months of 
instruction in the subscription school, he was enabled to master 
everything taught in those days, and to take a degree of M. D., 
by the use of books. His parents were Episcopalians, but by 
association he joined the Calvinistic Baptists. He used to relate 
his troubles in accepting the doctrine of approbation, and that it 
almost drove him into infidelity. He read Payne's "Age of Rea- 
son" and Voltaire's works. 

When quite a young man he became acquainted with Elder 
I sham Gibson. About the year 1830, he inquired of Elder Gib- 
son in regard to the faith and practice of the Tunker Church, and 
especially asked to see their creed and discipline. Elder Gibson 
handed him a small book, which he always kept near him for any 
emergency. Sturgis looked at the book a moment, and then 
handed it back, with the remark, "You gave me the wrong book : 
this is a New Testament." "True," remarked the elder; "it 
is the only creed, guide, and discipline God ever gave to the 
church, and it is all I believe, teach, or enforce." 

This seemed to satisfy him, and he and his wife were baptized 
by Elder Gibson. 

He served as a deacon for a short time, and was then called to 
the ministry. He was ordained a bishop September n, 1841, by 
Elders George Wolfe and Isham Gibson. The following is his 
certificate of ordination : — 

"To whom these presents may come, greeting: 

"This is to certify that, at a meeting appointed at the house of 
Brother Isham Gibson, at Apple Creek, Morgan County, Illinois, 
at the request of the church, Brother Daniel B. Sturgis was 
ordained a bishop of the church or fraternity of Baptists, by lay- 
ing on of hands of the presbytery, on the nth day of September, 
in the year of our Lord 1841. Given under our hand, day and 
date above written. George Wolfe, 

Isham Gibson/' 



398 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Elder Sturgis held a number of debates on religious subjects. 
The first was with a Mormon elder, during the great Nauvoo 
trouble, in the early forties. 

Being a member of the Far Western Brethren, he used all his 
energies to bring about the union with the general brotherhood. 
He also served on a number of important committees, and 
attended twenty-seven annual meetings, and thirty-one district 
conferences. The first district meeting in southern Illinois was 
held at his house, in 1863. He had an excellent voice for a 
preacher, but spoke in a cadence style. With a little imagination 
I can still hear him preaching, as I heard him at a distance of 
perhaps twenty rods in the open air, at the annual meeting, in 
Somerset County, Pennsylvania, in 1859. 

Doctor Sturgis had an excellent reputation as a physician, and 
was widely known as a skilful practitioner. 

He died at Mulberry Grove, Illinois, March 16, 1897, aged 
eighty-five years eight months and twenty days. 

These facts were supplied for this work by his son-in-law, 
Elder D. B. Gibson, of Cerro Gordo, Illinois. (Portrait 7, 
group 1). 

ELDER MICHAEL THOMAS. 

Michael Thomas was born in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 
January 18, 1804. He was one of a family of fifteen children, 
twelve of whom attained to manhood, and whose combined ages 
aggregated nine hundred and twenty-two years in 1898. Brother 
Thomas was twice married, and was the father of sixteen chil- 
dren, one hundred grandchildren, one hundred eighty-one great- 
grandchildren, and fourteen great-great-grandchildren. Total 
descendants, three hundred and fourteen. He was a minister of 
the old-style Tunker brethren for many years. His energy and 
labor were confined to his local church. He died and was buried 
on the farm on which he had lived many years, in Fayette County, 
Pennsylvania, July 28, 1898, in his ninety-fifth year. 

ELDER JOHN H. UMSTAD. 

We had the pleasure of a personal acquaintance with Brother 
Umstad, and of laboring with him at several communion meet- 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 



399 



ings in 1872. He was an original character, and in some partic- 
ulars, quite peculiar. He had a few favorite texts, from which 
he preached quite frequently. One of them was, "Mene, mene, 
tekel, upharsin." Dan. 5 : 25. From this we heard him speak 




ELDER JOHN H. UMSTAD 

several times, and he handled it well. He was fond of fishing, 
and it is said of him that, once upon a time, while holding meet- 
ings in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, he was out fishing, 
and tarried rather late in the evening, so that when he arrived, 
the meeting had been opened. He was so informed, and immedi- 
ately he stepped before the audience and said, "I go a-fishing." 



4-00 



HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 



This was his text, and we are told that he preached a good sermon 
from it. 

Brother Umstad was by nature almost a Christian, having a 
kind, companionable disposition, not only toward his relatives and 
friends, but toward all men. He was very courteous in his own 
way, but cared little for conventionalities. On being introduced 
to a young person, one of the first things he was likely to say was, 
"Does thee love Jesus?" 

On one occasion when taking leave of him in the cars, — a rail- 
road coach, — I offered him my hand, but he rose and said. 
"Brother Henry, I want to kiss thee," and we saluted each other, 
I sincerely believe, with a kiss of love. 

These incidents are related to enable our readers who were not 
personally acquainted with the patriarchs of the brotherhood, to 
form an accurate conception of their personality. 

Our portrait is from a photograph, and is a very exact like- 
ness of Elder Umstad. He was born in Montgomery County, 
Pennsylvania, January I, 1802. He was not religiously brought 
up, but received a fair education, such as the common schools of 
the locality afforded. In 1829 he married Miss Ann, daughter 
of Daniel and Frances Brower, and sister of Abraham, Christian, 
and Daniel R. Brower. They had four children, one son (who 
died in infancy) and three daughters. 

From 1830 to 1840 was a period of extensive revivals of 
religion all over this region of country, in which all evangelical 
sects more or less participated. In the fall of 1831 a great 
awakening, conducted by the brethren, commenced in the neigh- 
borhood where the subject of this notice lived. His sister, Mrs. 
Isabella Fitzwater, already belonged to the church, but being of 
a lively disposition and fond of worldly enjoyments, he had not, 
up to that time, given religion any attention. His sister was 
very devoted, and deeply concerned for her brother, and was 
instrumental in bringing him within the influence of the revival. 
The result of a series of meetings was that Sister Fitzwater's 
husband, her brother, J. H. Umstad, and Elder Isaac Price were 
converted and baptized. The inroad made upon the society of the 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 40I 

neighborhood opened the way for the organization of a church in 
the locality. In 1834 Green Tree church was built on land 
belonging to or adjoining Elder Umstad, and he and Isaac Price 
were ordained ministers. 

Brother Umstad's labors in winning souls were very success- 
ful. The cheerfulness of his Christianity, added to his natural 
vivacity, made him an agreeable companion, and when in private 
company with his friends, he seldom failed to use the opportunity 
of recommending Christ to them, which was often done success- 
fully. In his public preaching he was warm and pointed, and 
his direct appeals to sinners were often very strong. 

He w r as blunt and outspoken even to eccentricity, but these 
qualities were but a spice to his exuberant honesty and kind- 
ness of heart. Soon after his union with the church, he laid 
aside his fashionable attire, and conformed to the habit of the 
church in dress. 

He preached his last sermon to the people of his charge on 
April 13, 1873, and left home on the 15th, to visit his daughter 
and her family at Baltimore, Maryland. Here, on the 27th of 
the same month, he expired, and his remains were interred in the 
cemetery of the church he had helped to found many years 
before. 

ELDER GEORGE WOLFE. 

Elder George Wolfe was born in Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania, April 25, 1780. His parents were both members of the 
Tunker Church, and of German descent. His father, whose 
name was also George, was an elder in the church at the time his 
son George was born. He had one other son, whose name was 
Jacob. When the subject of our sketch was about seven years 
old, his parents moved across the Alleghany Mountains, settling 
near Uniontown, the county seat of Fayette County. This was 
in the year 1787. This Elder Wolfe, Sr., is said to have been 
the first ordained elder who settled west of the mountains. 

In the vear 1800, Elder Wolfe with his family, started down 
the Ohio River, landing in Muhlenburgh County, Kentucky, near 
26 



4-02 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the middle of the western part of the state. There were other 
members of the church in Kentucky at that time, but how many 
we have no means of knowing. They emigrated from North 
Carolina in an early day. Elder Casper Rolland was the first 
minister to settle in the state, and Elder John Hendricks, of 
North Carolina, the next. 

It was in the year 1800 that Elder George Wolfe landed in 
Kentucky, March 3, 1803. His son George, the subject of this 
sketch, was married to Anna Hunsicker, the only young, unmar- 
ried woman in the community. A young lawyer sought her hand, 
and threatened to severely punish the young farmer for winning 
the heart of his expected bride. George reasoned with him, telling 
him the lady had her choice, and made the selection of her own free 
will, that the "knot was tied," and there was no use in making 
trouble over it. Reason would not satisfy the young attorney, 
and, in regular western parlance, he told Wolfe that he could 
prepare himself for a good thrashing. 

Seeing that the lawyer could not be satisfied with reason and 
good common sense, George, who was a man of large bodily pro- 
portions, great strength, and inured to the hardships of a frontier 
life, told him plainly that he had married the woman in good 
faith, and that if he thought a little spindling lawyer could 
handle a strong, robust farmer like himself, he was at liberty 
to have his satisfaction. The lawyer never troubled George 
any more. 

Five years later, in 1808, young George and his brother Jacob 
emigrated to Illinois, and settled in Union County. Jacob 
Wolfe was the father of Elder George Wolfe, of California. 

The next year, 1809, the Elder George Wolfe, Sr., whose 
home was still in Kentucky, traveled through southwestern Mis- 
souri and southern Illinois on a preaching tour, and on his way 
home took sick at the old town of Kaskaskia, about fifty miles 
northwest of where his two sons were living, and died and was 
buried at that place. His death was probably the first among 
the members in the state. 

In the year 181 1 occurred the remarkable earthquake in the 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 403 

Mississippi Valley, which lasted six months. The convulsions 
of the earth were so great as to create lakes and islands. Deep 
chasms were formed in the earth, from which vast volumes of 
water, sand, and even coal, were thrown to the height of nearly 
one hundred feet. It was a year of intense excitement and great 
religious awakening in the west. The Methodists held a revival 
in the Wolfe neighborhood, and George, being of a religious turn 
of mind, united with them, there being ten others who professed 
conversion at the same time. Brother Wolfe was appointed 
their class leader. He had a good knowledge of the brethren 
and their doctrine, but up to this time had made no profession. 

He had taken his conversion and appointment as class-leader 
quite seriously, and the first time the class met, he took his place 
as their leader, and addressed the members of his class as fol- 
lows : "Brethren and sisters, we are now organized into a class. 
I have pondered and prayed over the matter, and have come to 
the conclusion that if John Wesley is the Saviour, we are all right, 
but if Jesus Christ is the Saviour, then we are all wrong." 

This speech from the bold young class-leader sent a thrill of 
horror through the hearts of the members of the newly-formed 
class. They said, "Jesus Christ is our Saviour," and in amaze- 
ment they asked, "But what shall we do?" Brother Wolfe said, 
"Let us send to Kentucky for a Tunker preacher to come and 
baptize us." A young man by the name of Hunsicker, Wolfe's 
brother-in-law, was immediately started to Kentucky, a distance 
of about one hundred and fifty miles. On the road he met 
Elder John Hendricks, who was on ;. visit of love to his friends 
in Union County. His arrival was hailed with joy, for the 
harvest was fully ripe. He held meetings, and baptized the 
entire class in Clear Creek, there being about fourteen in all, 
including the two Wolfe brothers and their wives. Brother 
George was the first one to enter the water. He was probably 
the first person ever baptized by the brethren in the state. This 
was in the year 1812, at which time George was thirty-two years 
old. 

The same year the little band was called together and organ- 



404 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ized by selecting George for the ministry and his brother Jacob 
for the deacon's office. Brother George entered earnestly upon 
the active duties of the ministry, being the only minister in Illinois 
or Missouri. 

The next year, 181 3, Brother Wolfe was ordained to the elder- 
ship by Elder John Hochstettler and Hahn, of Kentucky. This 
was the first ordination among the brethren in Illinois. 

October 17, 18 18, James Hendricks was ordained to the elder- 
ship by Elder George Wolfe. This was the first ordination in 
Missouri. 

Under the able preaching of Elder Wolfe the churches in Illinois 
and Missouri prospered greatly. He and Brother James Hen- 
dricks, of Missouri, were fast friends, and were much together in 
their traveling, preaching, and church work. 

The first love-feast ever held in Missouri was about the year 
1 810, or about two years before Elder George Wolfe united with 
the church. It was held under the direction of Elder John 
Hendricks. 

Elder Wolfe continued his labors in Union County for about 
nineteen years, traveling and preaching much, and became widely 
known. Many remarkable things are related of him, one of 
which is that he held a public debate with a Roman Catholic priest 
in the town of Kaskaskia. The place had been a Catholic strong- 
hold for more than a hundred years. The debate created a 
wonderful excitement. It was attended by the governor of the 
state, who afterwards said of Elder Wolfe, : TTe is the profoundest 
man, for an illiterate man, I ever heard." So crushing were 
Brother Wolfe's arguments against Catholicism, so powerful 
were his appeals for primitive Christianity, so complete was his 
victory over his opponent, and so thoroughly did he arouse the 
Catholic hatred, that his life was greatly in jeopardy. At that 
time a company of soldiers was stationed at Kaskaskia, and the 
governor, unknown to Brother Wolfe, had detailed a number of 
soldiers to protect him on his homeward journey. When he 
mounted his horse to leave the place, he was greatly surprised to 
find himself surrounded bv a band of cavalrv, with drawn swords, 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 405 

whose officer explained to Elder Wolfe that he had orders to 
accompany and protect him on his journey. After guarding him 
a safe distance from the town, the soldiers returned. 

In August, 183 1, Elder George Wolfe emigrated, with a num- 
ber of his members, to Adams County, Illinois, and settled near 
the present town of Liberty. A love-feast was held in September 
of the same year, being the first feast held by the brethren in that 
county. 

After settling in Adams County, he traveled very extensively, 
mostly on horseback. He is known to have visited the churches 
in Morgan, Sangamon, and Macuopin Counties every year for 
over thirty years. In 1858 the ferryman at Naples, Illinois, 
speaking of Elder Wolfe, said, "I have ferried that man over the 
river nearly every year for twenty-five years." 

In appearance he was almost a giant, being nearly six feet 
and a half tall, and weighing about two hundred and sev- 
enty-five pounds. He had a very large head, arched eye- 
brows, a high, broad forehead, and wore a long white beard. 
A powerful and erect form contributed to his commanding 
appearance. In manners he was as gentle as a child, and 
vet as bold as a lion. He knew no fear. He was a great 
reader, and possessed a wonderful stock of information, which 
was always at his command. As a reasoner his resources 
seemed unlimited. Colonel Richardson, of Ouincy, said he 
regarded Elder Wolfe as one of the profoundest thinkers the 
state of Illinois ever had. Elder Gibson says, "His manner of 
preaching, like his presence, was commanding." 

In one of his last sermons he said : "I have preached the 
gospel for over fifty years. I labored much when Illinois was 
a wilderness. My work is now nearly done. I have, like Paul, 
finished my course, and when eternity shall dawn, and as I gaze 
with enraptured vision on the mighty hosts of the redeemed, 
if, in that mighty throng, one soul shall be numbered with the 
blest because I worked, prayed, and preached, I shall be fully 
repaid for all my labors here." 

November 16, 1865, in the eighty-sixth year of his age, he 



406 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

quietly closed his labors on earth, and was buried near Liberty, 
Adams County, Illinois. He was the father of eight children, six 
sons and two daughters. 

It is related that word was brought to him that a mass-meeting 
was to be held in the western part of Indiana, at which the ablest 
ministers to be found in the wilds of the west were to deliver 
addresses, setting forth what they considered to be the best 
religion for a pioneer life. Elder Wolfe resolved to attend that 
meeting and address the assembly in behalf of his church. He 
started on horseback, his usual way of traveling, and, after a 
long journey, reached the immense, rudely-constructed house in 
the woods, where the meeting was to be held. A vast concourse 
of people had already assembled, and the house was then filled. 
Wolfe's fine appearance and venerable looks attracted attention 
at once. He was a stranger, of course, but everybody seemed to 
know that he was a preacher. 

To satisfy the curiosity of the people, he was invited to deliver 
the first address. His mind was well prepared for the task. It 
is said that for hours he held that vast assembly of hardy pio- 
neers, who listened intently, and drank eagerly everything he 
presented in behalf of the religion which his people had accepted, 
and which he considered so eminently adapted to the wants of 
a frontier life. It is further related that, after he had finished 
his discourse, not another preacher ventured, in his presence, to 
present a contrary view. He had made it clear that the simple 
form of religion, as set forth in the New Testament, if taken in 
all its parts, was perfectly adapted to all the necessary conditions 
of mankind, in every age and in every clime, and, of course, to 
the man and his family on the frontier as well. 

PETER R. WRIGHTSMAN. 

P. R. Wrightsman was born about the year 1835, in East Ten- 
nessee. He was converted when twenty years of age, while 
alone at work, with rather a remarkable spiritual experience. 
Soon after his conversion he attended a Baptist revival meeting. 
The minister, having learned of his spiritual condition, invited 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 



407 



him to join his church, offering him inducements which were 
very tempting to young Wrightsman, who was then exceedingly 
anxious to obtain a liberal education. But Peter had been read- 
ing the New Testament as a text-book in school, and, having a 
retentive memory, he committed most of it ; so he excused him- 
self, by saying that he did not consider himself a fit subject for 
church fellowship, that so 
many joined the church and 
afterwards became stumbling- 
blocks to others and brought 
disgrace to the cause. Peter's 
father was a pious, spiritual- 
minded, Scripture-reading, 
devoted Tunker brother. His 
mother was a noble woman, 
a member of the Missionary 
Baptist Church, as were also 
four of his sisters. This 
brought our young convert 
into a strait between two 
ideas, and under the influence 
of different views of influen- 
tial parents, in whose Chris- 
tianity he had the most im- 
plicit confidence. So he took 
the matter to the Lord in 
prayer. Day and night he 
prayed: "Lord, Thou know- 

est where I may best glorify Thy name. Thou didst direct Thine 
ancient people in answer to their prayers. Do Thou, dear Lord, 
influence me, and direct me where I shall unite with the people of 
God. Lead me; and, where Thou leadest, I will follow." The 
Lord must have heard him, for, on the first Sunday in May, 1853, 
his youngest brother, John, who was converted about the same 
time, and two of his sisters and himself, were baptized by trine 
immersion, and received into the Tunker Church. 




DR. P. R. WRIGHTSMAN 



408 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

In i860 he was elected to the ministry, while yet unmarried 
and unlearned. He was still laboring to obtain an education, and 
trying to do the best in the ministry, laboring with his own hands 
at grading railroad track for his bodily support. 

In 1863 many of our brethren were shut up in prison for refus- 
ing to fight, although they had complied with military require- 
ments. The law had provided that all Christians who were con- 
scientiously opposed to bearing arms should be exempted from 
military service, by paying the Confederate authorities $300 per 
capita, in Confederate money, which our brethren did. But men 
were getting scarce, and many of our brethren were dragged off 
and forced into the army. The church at Limestone, Tennessee, 
desiring to care for its membership, met in council, and decided 
to get up a petition and send it to the Confederate congress, pray- 
ing that body to release our members from bearing arms, aver- 
ring our non-resistant principles. Brother Wrightsman was 
chosen to carry the petition to the seat of government. 

When he set out upon his mission, he found the train loaded 
with southern soldiers. At Jonesboro a Methodist minister came 
into the car and took his seat by the side of Brother Wrights- 
man. From this point we will permit Brother Wrightsman to 
tell his own story, as related in the Brethren's Almanac for 1871. 

"Presently he asked me whether I was not a minister. I told 
him I was. He inquired of what persuasion. I told him the 
Brethren. He wanted to know what we believed, and, in enumer- 
ating to him different points, I mentioned non-resistance. 'And 
do you not believe,' said he, 'that it is right to fight for our glori- 
ous Confederacy ?' To which I replied, 'No ; for the Savior has 
said, "Put thy sword into its sheath," and we are to love and do 
good to our enemies." (Soldiers in Confederate uniforms were 
thick around.) 

"Methodist : 'Then do you not think General Washington was 
a good man ?' 

"'My Bible, sir, does not say anything about Washington.' 

"Methodist : 'Well, do you not think that God set up this gov- 
ernment by Washington ?' 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 409 

" 'Yes,' said I, 'but does not God use one wicked nation to 
scourge another, and make use of individuals to carry out His 
purposes, and yet they be wicked? And do you not think Gen- 
eral Washington was a good man, and that God set up this gov- 
ernment by him?' 

"Methodist : 'Yes, I do believe it.' 

"Then said I, 'What do you think will become of you Con- 
federates who are trying to pull down and destroy what God has 
built up?' 

"And they went their way, being condemned. 

"The soldiers standing around us during this conversation 
threatened my life. They said one to another, 'Shoot him,' 'Spear 
him,' 'Bay him ;' but none of those things moved me. I felt that 
the Lord was with me, 'strong to deliver, and mighty to save.' 
But I proceeded on to Richmond, then the capital of the Con- 
federacy, presented my petition, and made my speech. I told 
them we would not fight, because the Captain of our salvation 
commanded us, 'Thou shalt not kill ;' and if we were taken to the 
battle-field, we would be in their way, and an expense to them ; 
that 'we are the best subjects of our government ; we stay at home, 
mind our business ; we never disturb nor bushwhack your men. 
Our people are mostly farmers. They raise grain, and your men 
come and take it, and we do not resist. We are the best subjects 
in your government ; but fight our fellow-man w r e will not.' 

"They granted my petition, and I came home, went to Knox- 
ville, and turned our brethren out of prison. To God we give 
all the glory. 

"After the war, and in 1867, I married Elizabeth Witter, at 
South Bend, Indiana. We both went to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 
1867, where I graduated from the Eclectic Medical College ; 
thence to Dayton, Ohio, where the Lord blessed my ministry in 
the city. Praise His name. After three years we moved to 
South Bend, Indiana. Here the Lord blessed my labor in busi- 
ness and in the church. There I was ordained to the eldership 
in 1875, by Elder James Miller. Here I lived with my family 
ten years, until my health failed. I then moved to Kansas, and 



4IO HISTORY OF THE' TUNKERS. 

thence to Georgia, on account of our daughter's failing health, 
where she has much improved. 

"I am still preaching the gospel. Blessed be the Lord for all 
His mercies." 

DANIEL WRIGHTSMAN. 

Daniel Wrightsman, father of Dr. P. R. Wrightsman, was one 
of the old brethren of southwestern Virginia. October, 1849, 
he moved to east Tennessee. He was one of the best scriptorians 
in the brotherhood. He was elected to the ministry in his church 
on the headwaters of Roanoke River ; but because his wife was 
not a sister in the church, but a worthy Baptist, the elder ruled 
that, as Brother Wrightsman's wife was not a member, he 
thought best not to install him ; that he might come home some- 
times cold or hungry, and his wife would probably not arise to 
comfort him. So the elder suggested that his son-in-law be the 
choice ; and so it was done. 

Such ruling very much discouraged Brother Wrightsman. As 
was his custom, he took it to the Lord in prayer. The Holy 
Spirit comforted him, and signified to him that he did well that 
he had it in his heart ; and, while he did not exercise his gift, 
God would raise up out of his loins sons who would preach the 
gospel. Two of his sons, Peter and John, became preachers. 
Brother Daniel kept up the family altar, did strictly as he would 
have others do to him, and died happy. 

PROFESSOR JACOB M. ZUCK. 

Prof. Jacob M. Zuck was born near Mercersburg, Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, Oct. 29, 1846. He was the son of Jacob 
and Susannah Zuck. When he was 18 years old he had a fall 
in which he displaced the knee-cap of the right leg, and by mal- 
practice he became lamed for life. He first walked with two 
crutches, but finally became able to walk with a cane. Soon after 
he took white swelling in the same limb, which grew in length, 
but failed to gain flesh. He was a great sufferer in bodily afflic- 
tion, but during all manifested much patience. 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 4 11 

On account of his lameness he did not receive the amount of 
schooling that he would have had under more favorable circum- 
stances ; but having a bright mind, he learned rapidly, and passed 
the examination to teach in public schools in Franklin County, at 
the age of 16 years. 




PROF. J. M. ZUCK 



He became a member of the German Baptist Church at the 
age of 16 years, being baptized at Welsh Run, Pennsylvania. 
About this time he entered the state normal school at Millers- 
ville, Pennsylvania, where he spent the summer months and 
taught in the winter, thus paying his own expenses. This shows 
what may be done by an ambitious, energetic young man of push 
and grit, even against adverse circumstances. 



412 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

He graduated from Millersville about 1868, with compli- 
mentary honors from Professor Brooks. He was chosen prin- 
cipal of the Tremont schools, in Schuylkill County, and taught 
there in 1871-72. October, 1872, he commenced teaching at 
Waynesboro, which was continued for two years. 

He entered the National Normal, at Lebanon, Ohio, Sept. 21, 
1873, remaining until May, 1874, when his health gave way, and 
he was obliged to abandon school work. He continued home 
studies, and was thereby enabled to graduate, August 14, 1874, in 
the scientific course, taking the title of B. S. His graduating 
address was entitled "Spanish Struggle for Liberty." The effort 
brought him numerous compliments. He took up a classic 
course at Lebanon, Ohio, Sept. 8, 1874. But, on account of 
some change in teachers, he left Lebanon, and entered Professor 
Carver's Normal, at Medina, Ohio, Nov. 24, 1874, and remained 
until 1875, when he was compelled to abandon school, and 
returned to his home. 

His next effort was at Huntingdon, where he opened a school 
in the Pilgrim Building, April 17, 1876. The enrollment con- 
sisted of three students. The school grew rapidly in number, and 
soon required larger apartments, and became what is now known 
as the Juniata Normal College, with its spacious and beautiful 
landscape and edifice. The first building was erected and ded- 
icated in 1877, of which I am happy to present a fine engraving. 
For the history of the institution see a sketch under "Literature." 

Of this humble effort the following is the first announcement ; — 

NORMAL SELECT SCHOOL. 

The undersigned will open a normal select school, in the Pil- 
grim building, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. The school year 
will consist of four terms of eleven weeks each, beginning April 
17, September 4, November 20, 1876, and February 12, 1877. 

TERMS. 

Tuition for eleven weeks n $6 50 

. For less time, per week 65 

Boarding, per week 3 00 



GERMAN BAPTISTS BIOGRAPHICAL. 413 

The patronage of all is solicited. Special attention given to 
those desiring to teach. For further particulars address, 

J. M. Zuck, 
Huntingdon, Pa. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

"I take pleasure in certifying that Mr. Jacob Zuck is a graduate 
of the State Normal School, that he is a young man of Christian 
character, a good, thorough scholar, and that he taught with suc- 
cess in our normal school. I cordially recommend him to any 
desiring a good teacher. Edward Brooks, 

"Principal State Normal School." 

"Mr. J. M. Zuck graduated in our scientific class in 1874. He 
is a man of correct habits, of remarkably clear and strong mind, 
mastering with certainty every subject to which he applies him- 
self. He is well qualified in the higher mathematics, in the nor- 
mal sciences, and in the Latin language, to teach them with 
success. It is my opinion that he will win the respect and good- 
will of his pupils and patrons wherever he may locate. 

"A. Holbrook, 
"Principal National Normal School, Ohio. 

"April 7, 1876." 

Brother Zuck possessed exceptionally strong religious convic- 
tions, and was fearless in maintaining them in public or private 
life. He fought the battles of life bravely against odds. He was 
a constant reader of the Bible, and meditated much upon the 
blessed truths revealed therein. This frequently caused him to 
take the unpopular side of questions in school. He was known 
to withhold criticisms and arguments from others until they were 
delivered in public, when his opponents were confounded with 
the force of his arguments. He observed daily seasons of devo- 
tion, and his heart was full of prayer and praise to God, and his 
intimate associates will testify to his bedside prayers upon retiring. 

Brother Zuck opened the first Sunday-school in the Welsh Run 
congregation in the fall of 1867, which has been continued unin- 
terruptedly by his brothers. He died May 11, 1879, aged 32 
years 6 months 14 davs. 



414 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ELDER JOHN ZUG. 

John Zug was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, May 
14, 1797, and died in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, July 19, 
1873, aged 76 years 2 months and 5 days. He was a member 
of the church for more than half a century, and a minister some 
30 years. He ever manifested a zeal in the Master's cause, trav- 
eling and preaching, visiting the sick and afflicted, both friend 
and foe, and especially was he vigilant in the church of his charge, 
which he left in a thriving and prosperous condition. He was 
the eldest son of Elder Abraham Zug, and became his successor 
in office. 

Brother John Zug, had he lived in the present, would have been 
considered eccentric. We may say he was peculiar in a harmless 
sense. He was very much opposed to new things, and especially 
to manners or etiquette. One story I heard him relate of himself, 
which he thought too good to be lost ; and, as I coincide in that 
opinion, it is here repeated : — 

He had a niece living in Harrisburg. On one occasion, when 
eating at their table, the bread plate was passed. This was too 
much "style" for our humble brother, and he said, 'Teh kann mil 
selver helfe." Thereupon the plate was directed to be placed on 
the sideboard. When Brother Zug wanted to eat bread, and 
called for it, the stern host replied, "You said you could help 
yourself; over there is the bread." And he went and helped 
himself. 

A similar incident occurred at the house of Brother Christian 
Brumbaugh, at Clover Creek, Pennsylvania. Sister Brumbaugh 
had prepared a special dish at his own request. At the table, in 
the exuberance of her kind heart, she handed Brother Zug the 
dish, when he replied, 'Teh kann rnir selver helfe." The dish was 
set down, and Brother John spread himself over the table, accord- 
ing to the good old order, and helped himself. 

When the annual meeting was at Bareville, Pennsylvania, in 
1868, the author of this work was entertained at his house, and 
found the old brother and his wife to be of the true Tunker style 
in hospitality. 



CHAPTER XIII 
OLD GERMAN "BAPTISTS. 

Modern Tunker literature abounds in misnomers. As this is 
a history of the Old German Baptist Church, the reader may infer 
there is a new or later German Baptist Church. It may also be 
inferred that we are treating alone of German people, while the 
fact is there was not a German address delivered and likely not 
a sentence spoken in the German language in all the deliberations 
attending the organization of this body. However, every parent 
has the privilege of naming his own legitimate offspring; these 
people chose the appellation at the head of this chapter as their 
denominational name and title. 

The occasion for this organization grew out of dissatisfaction 
with the rulings of the German Baptist Church in her general 
councils. Three elements had obtained and taken form in the 
Tunker fraternity, all of which seemed to strive for supremacy. 
They were called Progressive, Conservative, and Old Order, the 
last implying ultra-conservatism. 

In a pamphlet entitled "The Brethren's Reason for Producing 
and Adopting the Resolutions of August 24, 1881," are set forth 
the particulars anteceding the organization. It was published at 
the office of the Vindicator, the official organ of the denomination. 
It is prefaced by the benedictus of Elder Samuel Murry, George 
V. Siler, and Samuel Kinsey, dated January, 1883. The object of 
the publication is said to be to show how frequently the Old Order 
Brethren had entreated the annual meeting to put away the new 
and fast movements in the church, and to leave on record the 
earnest labors of the "old faithful brethren to maintain the old 
landmarks of the German Baptist or Dunkard Church." 

I am greatly indebted to this little book, not so much for infor- 
mation as for reminders and exact dates of events, with which I 
was familiar at the time of their occurrence. 

The reader will find elsewhere the statement that the pro- 

(415) 



416 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

gressive period in the Tunker Church began with the first issue 
of the Monthly Gospel Visitor, their first church paper. In this 
view our Old German Baptist brethren concur ; for, in an address 
preceding the report of one of their meetings, they say : "Up to 
the year 185 1 peace and union existed in the church. In that year 
the first paper was permitted to be printed among us." They 
thus associate the departure of peace and union with the introduc- 
tion of the paper, which was no doubt true, so far as their own 
peace and comfort were concerned. It was prophesied by the 
opponents of the paper, in their arguments against its introduc- 
tion, that it would lead to the implantations of other innovations ; 
and it required neither inspired prophecy nor remarkable perspi- 
cuity to make the discovery. 

Let us learn the name and character of the things which 
disturbed the peace of these good people. On the same page (35) 
it is stated : "In 1857 Sunday-schools were rather warranted, and 
in 1858 privilege was granted to hold lengthy revival meetings, 
and also high schools. These somewhat disturbed the peace of 
many brethren. Thus, when the order of the church was once 
broken, one innovation after another crept in among us, to the 
sorrow of many members." 

In the following paragraph other grievances are mentioned, 
most of which need explanation to the uninitiated reader. After 
having read the chapter headed the "Tunker Love-feast," we will 
be able to proceed intelligently, having learned that it is essential 
to the proper observance of the Tunker communion to have a 
prepared full meal, of which all may and should partake, as each 
may require or desire. For many years it was the custom not to 
have this meal on the tables until after the service of feet-washing. 
Upon close study of the institution of the ordinance by Christ, 
it was observed that He rose from a prepared supper, and after- 
wards sat down to the same meal, and addressed the twelve, until 
He introduced the elements of His broken body and shed blood. 
True to the Tunker idea of implicit obedience to the commands 
of Christ, having learned better, they proceeded to do better, and 
the elements of the Lord's supper and the communion were 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 417 

placed on the tables at the opening of the services. To this the 
Old Order element objected, because, they said, "During the Old 
Testament dispensation it was not permitted to have two sacrifices 
before the Lord at the same time." 

Another source of trouble to these brethren was the mode of 
observing the ordinance of feet-washing. The reader is again 
referred to the very full account of these services in the chapter 
headed the "Tunker Love-feast" and the Glossary. It is remark- 
able that an intelligent body of such devoted people should suffer 
themselves to become alienated from each other in regard to the 
manner of observing an ordinance which was instituted for the 
special purpose of uniting them more closely, by inculcating the 
spirit of self-abnegation and humility. In all the controversies 
that ever disturbed the Tunker fraternity, none was so prolific in 
the propagation of bad feeling, harsh sayings, and unholy conduct 
as was that upon the mode of feet-washing. The Old Order ele- 
ment was greatly offended at the manner of soliciting money for 
church purposes. They had so little use for money in their 
method that they knew practically nothing of the financial problem 
of church work. It must not be inferred that these people were 
penurious because they were opposed to giving money for mis- 
sionary purposes. They were liberal in their own way of giving, 
and outdid all other sects in feeding the poor, keeping all their 
own indigent, and contributing liberally to every other worthy 
charity ; but they were conscientious on this subject, as on all 
others. 

They began to seek redress, first by talking the matter over 
among themselves privately, then by consultation among the 
adjoining elders, until they agreed the time had arrived when 
some public effort must be made to check the constantly-growing 
source of their vexations. Accordingly, the 14th day of Novem- 
ber, 1868, was set apart to consider the matter. However, a 
caucus was held on the 13th of October preceding, composed of 
about twenty persons, when it was decided to change the time 
for the public council to the 13th of November, for what reason 
we are not told. They claim that Elders Henry Kurtz and Peter 
27 



418 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Nead originated the idea of the council of November 13, 1! 
To what extent the meeting was advertised is not on record, but 
presumably only by private letters to the elders whose presence 
was desired. At this 13th of October caucus it was further 
decided the most prudent step would be to petition next annual 
meeting, in the first place, to fall back upon the ancient order of 
doing busienss, "and that in case it would refuse to do so, they 
were fearful that many churches would not be represented at the 
next annual meeting." 

The author of this work was editor of the only weekly church 
paper at the time, and he knew nothing of the council of Novem- 
ber, 1868, until some time in the beginning of the following year. 
In the editorial department of C. F. C, volume 5, number 13, we 
find the following remarks : — 

"This is the sum and substance of the petition. What is the 
plea for the proposed reformation ? Is there any point of doctrine 
involved? — Not any. But that is in exact accordance with all 
schisms. If ever there will be any general division in the church, 
it will not be upon any point of doctrine, but upon some matter 
of tradition or theory. Oh, that we could all adopt the beautiful, 
and, we believe, holy sentiment expressed by Augustine in the 
words, Tn essentials, unity ; in doubts, freedom ; in all, however, 
love.' Then we would not have these petty bickerings about how 
our fathers used to do, what was the old order, and a host of 
other questions not any more essential." 

We are told that the meeting of November 13, 1868, was well 
attended by prominent elders, mostly from Ohio, and some from 
other states. After two days' deliberation it was agreed to send 
the following petition to annual meeting of 1869. The petition 
is said to have been signed by many brethren, but I have not been 
able to secure a list of the signatures ; but I copy the petition com- 
plete, as follows : — 

"We, the undersigned elders, teachers, and visiting brethren 
from various districts of the church in the state of Ohio, being 
assembled in the fear of the Lord and prayer, upon the 13th day 
of November, 1868, for consultation upon matters with regard to 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 4 X 9 

the present condition of the church, do unanimously and most 
earnestly petition for our next annual conference, to be held in the 
state of Virginia, in the spring of 1869, to change, at least in the 
following particulars, its present manner of conducting business, 
etc., etc., so that in the future our annual conference meeting be 
conducted more in simplicity, and after the manner of our first 
brethren. 

"1. From the elders present at the place of annual meeting let 
there be six or eight of the old, experienced, and established breth- 
ren selected, and these need not be selected, like our representatives 
in Congress, a certain n.imber from eacn state, as each state, from 
its peculiar circumstances, condition, etc., has its peculiar laws 
adapted to its own wants ; but not so with regard to the church. 
Her rules and understandings must be trie same throughout all 
the states, and hence let those brethren be selected from either or 
all of the states, as prudence and the Holy Spirit may suggest ; 
and let not their names appear on the minutes as ' Standing Com- 
mittee.' After having withdrawn, let those brethren receive the 
queries, etc., from the different districts represented, and let them 
present the same in order before the meeting, for consideration. 
A minute of the proceedings of the meeting to be kept by some 
brother present. Let those old selected brethren see that there be 
order, if necessity require; but let no brother be selected as 
(human) moderator; rather, submit that office to the dictations 
of the Holy Spirit. Let all the business, we entreat, be trans- 
acted in great simplicity, and thus do away with those worldly- 
wise regulations, such as selecting a certain portion of the stand- 
ing committee from each state, appointing a moderator, etc., and 
to have their names affixed upon the minutes. 

"These points we look upon as tending to elevation, through 
which also the business and power is gradually concentrating too 
much into the hands of a few. Let us all be members one of 
another, and, above all, we say, Close the door against that which 
has a tendency to elevate and exalt the mind, lest Paul would say 
of us, 'But I fear lest as the serpent beguiled Eve through his sub- 
tility, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that 
is in Christ.' 2 Cor. 11:3. 



420 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

"We think it advisable that the minutes of conference be again 
read to all at the close of the meeting ; then let them be witnessed 
by several of the old elders, but avoid especially designating 
those who had been selected to receive the reports of the churches. 
"2. We petition conference to desist from sending committees 
to various churches where difficulties exist. We advise that all 
churches who need assistance call upon the elders, etc., in adjoin- 
ing districts to come to their help, for it is probable that in most 
cases these have a better knowledge of the case than those 
brethren sent to them from a distance. And let all cases where 
any of the ordinances or doctrinal points be involved, be reported 
to conference, and let conference, after having considered the 
case, write accordingly to the church where the difficulty exists. 
Let two brethren be chosen to carry and deliver the epistle to 
said church. This will be according to the practice of the 
apostles' days, for proof of which see the fifteenth chapter of Acts. 
"3. We further petition this meeting to counsel and advise 
Brethren Quinter and Kurtz and H. R. Holsinger to publish 
nothing in their periodicals that disputes the practice of the pre- 
cepts and ordinances of the gospel, as handed down to us by 
Christ and the apostles, through and by the forefathers of the 
church. And let Brothers Nead, Kinsey, and all the brethren 
who write, be cautioned upon this head. 

"In conclusion we say that if this Conference Meeting shall 
hear and grant this petition, well; but in case it shall refuse to 
do so, it is very probable that many churches will not be repre- 
sented at our next annual conference, and hence the result will 
be reorganization of our conference meetings by said churches 
in accordance with this petition." 

In order to strengthen their forces, a number of the Miami 
Valley elders and Old Order members held a meeting at the Bear 
Creek church, west of Dayton, Ohio, on Easter Monday, March 
29, 1869. At this meeting they reiterated their grievances, and 
endeavored to devise some system of manipulating Annual Meet- 
ing so as to carry their point. They declared the object of their 
labors to be to "unite the brotherhood upon the ancient principles 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 4 21 

of the church, and thus save her from a corrupted Christendom." 

A supplement was then prepared in the form of a petition, and 
with a view of circulating it and obtaining signers thereto. By 
way of preamble, and as an inducement to obtain signatures 
thereto, they said: — 

"The brethren need not be alarmed, neither need they entertain 
the slightest fear in putting their names to this paper, seeing we 
plead not for any new thing, in which there may be danger, but 
for, Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in the ways and see, and ask 
for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and 
ye shall find rest for your souls.' Jer. 6: 16." 

Finally it was agreed to place the following pledge, or bond of 
union, at the head of the petition : — 

"And that there may be as much accomplished as possible in 
this direction, the brethren in council on the 13th day of October, 
1868, and again on the 13th day of November, and we, the under- 
signed, do most earnestly entreat our annual conference of 1869 
to hear the accompanying petition, and to grant the requests 
therein stated — giving a definite reply — after which the steps nec- 
essary to be taken will manifest themselves. We, the under- 
signed, do hereby signify that we will be firm and faithful to that 
which is herein contained, and that we will be true to each other, 
by evil report and good report." 

This petition, we are told, was signed by 126 members at the 
meeting. How many additional names were obtained at other 
times and places deponent saith not. It was printed, and circu- 
lated extensively. 

In due time the paper, with the signatures attached, was pre- 
sented to the annual meeting, which that year was held in Roa- 
noke County, Virginia. It received respectful consideration at 
the hands of the Conference, with the following reply : — 

"i. Whereas there have been certain petitions from southern 
Ohio presented to this annual meeting, and which have been exten- 
sively circulated through the brotherhood, wherein the petitioners 
have set forth certain grievances, and desire some change or 
modification in holding the annual meeting, and also in certain 



422 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

practices among the brethren ; and whereas this annual meeting 
desires to maintain all the practices and ordinances of Christianity 
in their simplicity and purity, and to promote 'the unity of the 
spirit in the bonds of peace ;' therefore, though it can not grant 
the changes and objects desired by the petitioners to the full 
extent petitioned for, it will make the following changes in the 
manner of holding the annual meeting, and endeavor to guard 
with increased vigilance against the abuse of the practices referred 
to in the supplement, by advising and urging the brethren to 
observe the cautions and directions in reference to said practices, 
as hereinafter stated: — 

"i. In relation to the appointing of the standing committee, 
we advise that the district meetings select old, experienced, and 
established brethren ; and that, in signing the minutes, we advise 
that a suitable number of elders sign them, but not as members 
of the standing committee, and the signers need not be confined 
to the committee. We also advise that the minutes be read to 
all at the- close of the meeting, provided there is time, and it be 
found practicable to do so ; and that the term Moderator, as 
applied to the brother who keeps order, be dropped. 

"2. In relation to holding protracted meetings for worship, we 
feel much impressed with the propriety of conducting said meet- 
ings in strict accordance with the gospel ; that all disorder and 
improper excitement should be avoided ; that care should be 
taken that the understanding be enlightened as well as the pas- 
sions awakened ; that on all occasions when candidates for church 
membership are visited and examined, they be dealt with as the 
gospel seems to require, and as the order of the brethren has 
sanctioned ; that in noticing the success of preaching, we advise 
that the number of additions to the churches be omitted. 

"3. In relation to Sabbath-schools, we feel the great necessity 
of guarding against the prevailing manner in which these schools 
are conducted ; of cautioning the brethren who take any part in 
them against having festivals, or anything of the kind that does 
not comport with the spirit of Christianity, which such schools 
are designed to promote ; that care be taken lest pride be taught 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 4 2 3 

rather than humility, and that nothing be encouraged thereby that 
will conflict with the established order and character of the 
brethren ; and that care should be taken that no offense be given to 
brethren in these things. 

"4. In reference to the controversial articles published in our 
religious papers, we counsel and advise our Brethren Qu inter and 
Kurtz and H. R. Holsinger to publish nothing in their peri- 
odicals that disputes the practice of the precepts and ordinances 
of the gospel, as handed down to us from Christ and the apostles, 
through and by the forefathers of the church ; and that Brethren 
Nead and Kinsey, and all the brethren who write, be cautioned 
upon this head, and are hereby given to understand that a disre- 
gard to this counsel will subject a brother to the counsel of the 
church. 

"5. In reference to prayer-meetings, social meetings, and 
Bible classes, we would say that we advise the brethren to be very 
careful in conducting such meetings, when they have been intro- 
duced, and to conduct them not after the prevailing custom of 
the religious world, but in the order that the brethren conduct 
their meetings for worship ; that brethren be cautioned against 
introducing such meetings where their introduction would cause 
confusion in the churches, and that elders always be consulted 
in introducing such meetings." 

The author of the aforesaid pamphlet criticises the action of 
annual meeting pretty severely ; he also declares that the petition 
did not come before the public meeting at all, which is probably 
true. 

Then he refers to the difficulty existing upon the mode of feet- 
washing. 

In the year 1871 they made another effort to control the annual 
meeting in regard to this question. The article on the minutes 
of the annual meeting reads as follows : — 

"Whereas this annual meeting finds, to its great regret, that 
the subject of feet-washing, in its single or double mode, as 
the difference is called, has produced serious difficulties among 
us, and threatens still greater difficulties in the future questions 



424 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

relating to this subject having come from different localities in 
the brotherhood, it has assumed such a degree of importance as 
to commend it to the serious and prayerful attention of the 
brotherhood. Under these considerations, with prayerful reflec- 
tion, the propriety has suggested itself to us of calling the elders 
of the brotherhood together to consider this matter, as the apostles 
and elders did to consider the case of circumcision. We have 
therefore concluded to request all ordained elders of the brother- 
hood to meet, in the fear of the Lord and under a sense of their 
responsibility, in solemn assembly, on Whit-Monday, 1872, at the 
place of our next annual meeting, to dispose of the subject as 
the peace and prosperity of the fraternity may require. In the 
meantime no church should be organized under the single mode, 
neither should any change from the double to the single mode. 
And in order to obtain all information posible, to present unto the 
council of elders above alluded to, we appoint the following 
brethren as a committee to ascertain, as far as possible, which was 
the first mode practiced by our brethren in America, D. P. Sayler, 
Jacob Reiner, James Quinter. 

The committee discharged their duties, it is presumed, to the 
best of their ability, and in due time laid the report of their inves- 
tigations before the council of elders. Annual Meeting was held 
that year in Wayne County, Ohio, on the farm of Elder Cyrus 
Hoover. The council was referred to as Episcopal and as an 
ecumenical council. As it was composed exclusively of ordained 
elders, and the author of this work not belonging to that class at 
that time, he was not admitted into the council chamber. Among 
those who participated in the discussion the following are named : 
Henry Kurtz, Peter Nead, B. F. Moomaw, D. P. Sayler, H. D. 
Davey, James Quinter, J. H. Umstad, Jacob K. Reiner, D. B. 
Sturgis, John Cadwalader. The report of the committee was as 
follows : — 

sayler's report to the elders at annual meeting. 

Dear Brethren : In compliance with appointment by annual 
meeting of 1871, Art. 37, to ascertain, as far as possible, what 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 4 2 5 

was the first mode in the observance of the ordinance of feet- 
washing by the brethren in America, I, being governed or guided 
in the field of my research by this history : "The first appearing of 
these people in America was in the fall of the year 17 19, when 
about twenty families landed in Philadelphia, and dispersed them- 
selves, some to Germantown, some to Skippeck, some to Olev, 
some to Conestoga, and elsewhere. This dispersion incapaci- 
tated them to meet for public worship, and therefore they began 
to grow lukewarm in religion. But in the year 1722 Messrs. 
Baker, Gomery, Gantz, and Frantz visited these scattered breth- 
ren, which was attended with a great revival, insomuch that soci- 
eties were formed wherever a number of families were in reach 
of one another." — Benedict's History of the Baptists, page 599. 
This, being from Morgan Edwards' "History of the Pennsylvania 
Baptists," is authoritative. 

To visit these points, I started on a tour on the 27th of 
September, 1871, in my private conveyance, taking with me Elder 
Moses Miller, who kindly consented to go along. I was out 
8 days, and traveled upward of 300 miles, traveling as many as 
47 miles a day. And, passing from one point to another, we 
passed through territory not occupied by brethren, and, being 
strangers, we were obliged to lodge overnight and for dinner in 
public houses sometimes. Having learned that, although Oley 
had the second meeting-house built by the brethren in America, 
yet, by death, removal, and other causes, the church had gone 
down so that there had been no preaching there for forty years but 
of late years had been revived through the labors of Elder John 
Zug, so that it now numbers about sixty members, with David 
Eshelman elder, I could ascertain nothing, although Elder J. Zug 
is a living, walking encyclopedia on church matters. We did not 
visit this church, though we passed through its territory. We 
also learned that Skippeck was a point within the territory of the 
Indian Creek church. So we traveled east as far as to the old 
meeting-house in the Indian Creek church, which is in Mont- 
gomery County, and answers the historical Skippeck. We also 
visited all the oldest members named to us, in order to ascertain 
all the traditional information we could. 



426 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

We did not find Samuel Harley, elder of the Indian Creek 
church, at home, neither A. H. Cassel, they having gone to a 
love-feast some distance away. This I regretted much, though 
Brother Cassel's son kindly showed us through his father's 
library, but, of course, we could ascertain nothing by a personal 
inspection of manuscript, etc., not knowing where to find them. 
In order to meet this deficiency I appointed Brother Abraham 
H. Price, who, in my stead, should have Brother Cassel to search 
all the written manuscripts in his library to obtain all the written 
information on the subject, and write the same to me. In com- 
pliance with this arrangement Brother Price writes: "November 
1 8, 1 87 1. I have done as you have requested me to do. I asked 
Brother Cassel whether he had a journal of the ancient church 
that would show or tell how the German Baptists practiced feet- 
washing. He said he had. Yes, a journal he has from the Ger- 
mantown church wherein we can see many things to our satis- 
faction of the housekeeping of the old brethren in the church. 
But nothing of feet-washing, whether single or double, nothing 
in his library. But he has much to tell of what he heard of old 
Brother Fox and others. They tell him that single mode was 
the practice of the mother church in Germantown.' 

To give Brother Cassel an impartial hearing I insert the fol- 
lowing letters from him. He writes voluntarily, October 19, 
1865, as follows : "I have read your article on feet-washing 
{Gospel Visitor, Vol. 15, page 112) with a great deal of interest, 
and cheerfully endorse every word of it, excepting the assertion 
at the close, that the present order has been the order of the 
church since hei; organization in America, I can not endorse, 
because I know the contrary is the fact. But I am very well 
satisfied with the order as the church observes it. St. Paul's 
reasoning in 1 Cor. 12 satisfies my mind against any scruples on 
the subject. And, although it is an ancient order, as you have 
traced it eighty-one years back, and might be traced still further, 
it is, nevertheless, not the ancient, or first order, and can not be 
traced back to her organization in America. For that the 
brethren originally did wash and wipe is a fact that admits of no 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 427 

doubt, and therefore needs no argument to sustain it. But that 
many branches of the mother church did early deviate from it, is 
also a fact, and that some did never observe it that way at all, 
must be likewise admitted, among which is Indian Creek, one of 
its most early branches, and under the immediate patronage of 
the mother church at Germantown, did not observe it that way 
until many years after its organization, where, in compliance to 
the wishes of some of its members, the attempt was made for 
once to wash and wipe, but found it so inconvenient that we went 
back again to our former mode, and never attempted it since. 
This also proves the assertion of Brother Thurman in regard to 
Indian Creek having changed the order is entirely groundless." 

"From all that I can learn, it appears as if the Brethren were 
at first somewhat indifferent about the mode, or, rather, as if they 
had left it optional, while some practiced it in this way, and some 
that way, even during the lifetime of its founders, and yet were 
all loving and sociable together as we are yet to this day with 
those that do still retain the ancient or first order. 

"I said the brethren at first appeared somewhat indifferent 
about the mode of feet-washing. They did so, but justice 
requires me to say that they did not at all continue so, for A. 
Mack, Jr., was always inclined to observe it according to the 
pattern of Christ, and when upon his death-bed, in 1803, he was 
visited by several of his junior colaborers, whom he admonished 
very feelingly to continue steadfast in the external forms of our 
religion, especially in that of feet-washing, for although he bore 
with the deviation, he for all grieved it on his death-bed. And 
to use his own words, he feared it was opening a bar in the 
inclosure for still greater deviations to creep in. They were 
faithful to his dying injunctions, and to this day observe the 
old mode of washing and wiping. But, oh, what deviations did 
they allow to creep in in other respects ! I allude to the man- 
ners of holding love-feasts, and to their general intercourse with 
each other, etc. Yours in love, Abraham H. Cassel." 

January 8, 1865, he writes again : "In the first place I would 
inform you yet of what I forgot to mention in the proper place 



428 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

in my former letter, — that for many years after the organization of 
our church the brethren had a deal of trouble concerning the time 
of washing feet, which occasioned two changes already. For, in 
the beginning of our fraternity, we washed feet after the supper and 
the breaking of bread was over. After observing it in this way for 
a while, we began to see a little more, and washed them between 
the supper and the bread, and that way we continued to do until 
I. H. Reitz' translation of the New Testament appeared. That 
and the arguments of a brother that understood the Greek lan- 
guage convinced us of our error. Since then we observe it as 
we still do, before supper. But concerning the mode, or order, 
of washing them, I can not find anything more explicit than what 
I have already stated, namely, that he who washed also wiped, 
and that A. Mack and the mother church at Germantown never 
did observe it otherwise, but, as already said, bore with the 
branches that deviated. Fraternally yours, A. H. Cassel." 

In my charge to Brother A. H. Price I requested him to ascer- 
tain which were the next oldest churches to Germantown. To this 
he replies : "The first one was the Coventry church, in Chester 
County, and the next one was either the Indian Creek or Ephra- 
tah, we can not positively tell which. But this we do know, that 
feet-washing in these was always performed in the double mode." 
I, however, being guided in my research by the historical direc- 
tion, and learning from that of the apparent simultaneous organ- 
ization of churches at the four points named and that neither 
one is mother or the offspring of the other, but each being an 
independent organization by the same authority, and having 
ascertained all about Oley, Skippeck, and Germantown, I turned 
to Conestoga, which is in charge of Elder Christian Bomberger. 
Here I found a written record from the date of her organiza- 
tion, by Elder Peter Becker, of her first love-feast, the names of 
all her ministers, the names and dates of all her baptized. This 
rceord I was told is not in A. H. Cassel's library. I report as 
follows : — 

The church at Conestoga was organized by Peter Becker, in 
1722, and Conrad Beisel was baptized, and the first love-feast 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 4 2 9 

served by Becker, and, after the meeting, when Brother Becker 
was leaving the place, he told the brethren that he could not 
visit them regularly ; he put the New Testament into the hand 
of Beisel, and told him he should do the best he could in church 
housekeeping. This way of authorizing Beisel to take charge 
of the church caused much dissatisfaction among the brethren, 
and to settle this he was elected to the ministry, in 1724, with 
John Hildebrand, deacon, to serve in the Conestoga church, 
under Peter Becker, bishop. Beisel, however, caused a schism in 
the church in reference to the Sabbath, which caused consider- 
able trouble in the church, and, in 1732, it culminated in a sepa- 
ration, six brethren and five sisters adhering to Beisel, and 
twenty-seven remaining with Becker, all Conestoga members. 
This Beisel was baptized by Brother Becker, in the Conestoga 
church, and the same day communed, and was informally author- 
ized to preach, and in 1724 was regularly elected to the minis- 
try, and in December of the same year served his first communion. 

Brother Becker was minister in Germantown and Conestoga 
churches till 1724. During his administration fifty-two were 
baptized in Conestoga church. 

Brother Michael Frantz succeeded Becker. He was bishop 
thirteen years. He died in 1747. During his administration 
one hundred and nineteen were baptized. 

Brother Michael Pfautz succeeded him, and was her bishop 
from 1747 to 1769, a period of twenty-two years. He died in 
the sixtieth year of his age. During his administration one 
hundred and sixteen were baptized. 

Brother Christian Longanaker succeeded him, and served 
three years, when the church was districted into three, namely, 
Conestoga, White Oak, and Swatara, Berks County. Jacob Stoll 
was ordained bishop for Conestoga, Christian Longanacker and 
Johannas Zug for White Oak, and Martin Gable for Swatara. 
Jacob Stoll was in charge of the Conestoga church from 1772 to 
1822, a period of fifty years. He died in 1822, in the ninetieth 
year of his age. During his administration two hundred and 
sixtv-three were baptized, and during the three years of Longan- 



430 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

aker seventy-nine were baptized. (This is the offspring a 
church must have to entitle her to the appellation of mother. 
Of these Germantown has none, and hence she is not the mother 
church. ) 

In 1815 (Stoll's administration) the Conestoga church elected 
Abraham Zug and Jacob Pfautz to the ministry at the same time, 
and in 1823 both were ordained together. Zug died in 1841, 
and Jacob Pfautz had charge of the church forty-one years, and 
died in 1864, in the eighty-eighth year of his age. During his 
administration three hundred and sixty-seven were baptized. In 
1830 (Zug and Pfautz' administration) Christian Bomberger 
was elected to the ministry, and in 1864, the year Pfautz died, 
Conestoga church was again districted into three, namely, Cones- 
toga, West Conestoga, and Ephratah. C. Bomberger was 
ordained for Conestoga, in whose charge the church now is, and 
up to the time of writing, October 3, 1871, of his administration, 
three hundred and ninety were baptized. In all this carefully- 
kept record there is not one word written on the mode of feet- 
washing, and as in Germantown and Indian Creek (the historical 
Skippeck) churches, we are dependent on tradition alone on the 
subject. 

After having learned that Beisel was baptized by Becker in 
the Conestoga church, in 1722, and at the same time authorized 
to preach, and was duly elected to the ministry in 1724, and in 
December of the same year served the communion in the Con- 
estoga church, thus identifying him with the early history in 
America, and keeping a written (now printed) record of all that 
transpired in the church, whether good or bad, I turned my 
investigation in that direction, seeking written testimony. I 
made a special personal visit to the nunnery in Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, but only learned that a David Landis (not a mem- 
ber, but one who communed with the church) had caused some 
little trouble among them in urging the single mode, and that in 
1826 they had a meeting on the subject in Ephratah, and it was 
concluded to make no change, as the church had ever observed 
the double mode, and if that had not been the right way it cer- 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 43 1 

tainly would have been revealed to the holy fathers and founders 
of the church. Elder John Zug having access to a copy of the 
Ephratah Chronica, I requested him to examine it and ascertain 
whether anything is written on the mode of feet-washing. He 
kindly consented to do so. He writes : "I have read the Chron- 
ica through, but find nothing by Beisel on the mode of washing 
feet ; but it confirms the Conestoga record, that he, as a minister, 
served the community for the first time in the Conestoga church 
in 1724, etc. But on page 216 one George Adam Martin writes 
and says, 'Although I am separated in time and eternity from 
their (the Brethren) doctrine and teaching, excepting baptism, 
Lord's Supper, and feet washing, yet I have great respect before 
God towards them, especially towards Alexander Mack. 5 This 
G. A. Martin was baptized by the brethren in Martin Urner's 
Coventry church, in 1735. For what cause he afterwards went 
with Beisel I have not ascertained, but on pages 217, 218 it is 
written that this G. A. Martin and John Ham came to Ephratah 
on a visit, and stopped with Father Freedsome (Bissel), when 
the old father arose and said, 'Come, brethren, take a seat here, 
and I will wash your feet,' and Brother Nageley wiped them." 

This, dear brethren, is the only written testimony I could find 
on the mode of feet-washing, in all the diligent investigation, and 
this you will observe was in the double mode, and this I think 
is conclusive testimony that the single mode was not practiced 
in the churches when Beisel became a brother, for if it had been, 
in this act of hospitality the single mode certainly would have 
been in order. 

Failing to obtain written testimony I made diligent search to 
ascertain all the traditional information I could. To this end 
the brethren pointed out the oldest living members, but I found 
none that ever heard tell of any other but the double mode being 
observed outside of Germantown. Elder John Zug remembers 
his grandfather well, who was baptized in the Conestoga church, 
in 1749, and was elder in the White Oak church, as was also his 
father, yet he never heard them mention the single mode outside 
of Germantown. My own great-grandfather was baptized in 



432 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

1752, and migrated with my grandfather to Beaver Dam, Frank- 
lin County, Virginia, in 1772, and I communed with my grand- 
father several times, and had many conversations with him on 
church matters, and though he told me all about the changes in 
feet-washing, in reference to the time of washing, he never men- 
tioned any but the double mode being observed. 

The Antietam church, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, was 
formed and organized by emigrant brethren from Coventry, 
Indian Creek, and Conestoga churches, in the eighteenth century. 
I requested Elder J. F. Oiler to ascertain all the information on 
the subject he could. He informs me that the brethren made 
diligent search, but have only traditional testimony. They have 
a sister ninety-two years old, whose mental faculties are unim- 
paired. She has a traditional knowledge from old members in 
her early age. She never knew or heard of any other than the 
double mode. 

Thus, dear brethren, in all my diligent and personal research 
into the subject throughout different counties in eastern Penn- 
sylvania, personally interviewing members who are far in their 
fourscore years, whose parents were members in the church, 
I failed to find even a trace of the single mode ever being 
observed in the churches outside of Germantown, excepting one 
time in the Indian Creek church. 

Dear brethren, the result of my investigation may be summed 
up as follows : — 

First. Peter Becker (and perhaps others) organized churches 
at Germantown, Skippeck (Indian Creek territory), Oley, and 
Conestoga, as near simultaneous as circumstances would admit, 
and while Germantown was the first, and had the first love-feast, 
she is, nevertheless, no more entitled to the appellation mother 
than any of the others. Mother implies offspring, and neither 
of the first-organized churches are her offspring, but all were 
organized by the same authority. And while the term is offen- 
sive, and belongs to the Papacy, let it be forever dropped. 

Second. Tradition says the church at Germantown always 
observed feet- washing in the single mode ; even so it says that all 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 433 

the other churches observed it in the double mode. And it is 
certain that none observed it in any other mode since the change 
as to time was made, excepting the one time in the Indian Creek 
church, which A. H. Cassel says was done at the request of some 
of her members. But members who lived at that time, and are 
yet living, told me that it was done at the unceasing importunity 
of John Price, of Fitzwater, who preached at Germantown, and 
say but for him the members would never have thought of such 
a thing. 

Third. Great stress is laid on the reported dying regrets and 
injunction of Brother Mack by the advocates of the single mode 
as given in A. H. Cassel's letter above, but as such regrets as 
reported are so unbecoming a great and good man, and a leader 
of a religious association, and are so clearly anti-apostolic, that, 
if true, I wish the mantle of charity had been thrown over his 
apparent weakness. St. Paul's dying words to Timothy were 
not, Don't do as I did. And I am very slow to believe what is 
reported as Brother Mack's dying regrets by his friends to sus- 
tain a doubtful favoritism. But if it is positively true that he 
had regrets, I think I see a different cause for it than bearing 
with the double mode. As seen above, Beisel caused a divi- 
sion in the church, and it was a long time before the brethren 
ceased to mix with them, and partake with them in their religious 
services. Brother Mack once left his charge, and dwelt with 
Beisel one year at Ephratah, and only left it when he became con- 
vinced that it would fall through. And Sister Saur time and 
again would leave her husband and home in Germantown, and 
seclude herself in Beisel's nunnery at Ephratah. So, if anything 
caused Brother Mack any regrets on his death-bed, I am much 
inclined to believe such a mixing in with a cut-off faction was the 
principal cause. 

Fourth. Brethren from seventy to eighty years old told me 
they heard old brethren say that the church was the body of 
Christ, and that in her the ordinance of feet-washing must be 
observed by her members, where there is with God neither male 
nor female, bond nor free, but are all one in Christ, and while the 

28 



434 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

church is the body of Christ and we members in the body, none 
dare to assume the position of Christ. 
All is humbly submitted by 

D. P. Sayler. 

The following resolution contains the decision of the meeting 
upon the subject: — 

"Make no change whatever in the mode and practice of feet- 
washing, and stop the further agitation of the subject." 

This decision should have satisfied the most pertinacious 
defender of the double mode. We can not refrain from drawing 
comparisons between the advocates of this double mode of feet- 
washing with the course pursued by the advocates of American 
slavery. That was exactly what the slaveholders requested of 
the National Congress: That the agitation of the subject of 
slavery, especially on the anti side, should be prevented by law. 
It does not seem possible that the motives could have been the 
same, nevertheless the process certainly was very similar, and 
so, too, were the results. And so it always will be, for it is 
decreed by the inevitable of cause and effect. No good cause 
will require the suppression of discussion, and an evil cause will 
be advocated by the very attempt to prevent a thorough investiga- 
tion of all there is of it and in it and about it. It is like hiding 
straw from an ox, — the bars that separate the animal from the feed 
will incite the appetite, and infatuate the desire to obtain that 
which otherwise he would trample under his feet. Bryant says 
truly : — 

" Truth crushed to earth shall rise again: 
The eternal years of God are hers; 
But error, wounded, writhes in pain, 
And dies among her worshipers." 

In the case of slavery the effort to suppress the agitation of the 
subject gave stimulus to the anti-slavery side of the subject, 
and so it occurred in the discussion of the matter under consid- 
eration, for at that very time the double mode received its death 
stroke from the hands of its own friends, and at this time there 
is scarcely a single congregation in the German Baptist Church 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 435 

that practices the double mode, and the single mode is universally 
observed in the Brethren Church. Hence the Old German 
Baptists are the exclusive custodians of the double mode. 

The reader must not conclude, however, that the members of 
the German Baptist Church, who now compose the Old German 
Baptist Church, were the only advocates of the double mode. 
The great division of the fraternity was not always on the line of 
principle. A very large percentage of preference and prejudice 
and feeling entered into the cause of the separation. It is 
remarkable how easily these people could become reconciled to 
each other after the division had taken form. Shortly before- 
hand it was declared by prominent men on both sides that "two 
can not walk together- unless they be agreed," implying that peo- 
ple could not dwell together in peace in the same church unless 
they agreed upon all questions of theology. The champion of 
the double mode, for example, became one of the most inveterate 
persecutors of the Old German Baptists, but immediately after 
the division he meekly submitted to the change in the practice 
of the ordinance. 

The advocates of the double mode claimed that they had the 
prestige of annual meeting decisions, and they were determined 
to make the most of it. This was true at least up to 1876. The 
decision of 1876 states that the so-called double mode of feet- 
washing is the recognized mode of the general brotherhood; 
therefore, the annual meeting can not grant the liberty prayed 
for, and no church can change from the double to the single 
mode under authority of annual meeting. But they forgot that 
what man does man can undo, and that annual meeting was a 
fallible institution, made up of fallible men, and consequently 
subject to changes. Of this fact they were reassured by the 
action of the conference of 1877, which decided that those 
churches which stood to observe the single mode, we will bear 
with if it can be done unanimously, without causing trouble or 
offense in the church. The advocates of the double mode recog- 
nized this relaxation, for they say, "Here we notice that liberty 
was granted by annual meeting to practice the single mode, and 



436 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

though a caution was given not to urge a change, the caution was 
not regarded as the door was now opened." In the year 1879 
they appointed five brethren to correspond with leading elders and 
members of other states for the purpose of obtaining their views 
as to what course to pursue. 

The sentiment of many of the letters received by this commit- 
tee was to the effect that the church was "shaking hands with the 
world," and that "we can not expect anything from annual 
meeting." 

On November 25, nearly all the elders of the Miami Valley 
met in council in the Salem church to read and consider the letters 
reported by the committee. This consultation resulted in what 
is known as the Miami Valley petition of 1880, which is as 
follows : — 

MIAMI VALLEY ELDERS^ PETITION. 

"Dear Brethren: We do hereby most earnestly petition the 
annual meeting, through the district meeting, to consider the 
present condition of the church in her confused and divided state, 
and to make an effort by which may be removed the fast element 
among us, which is the cause of the troubles and divisions in the 
church. 

"Now, as all former efforts have failed — in sending query after 
query to the annual meeting, the exercising of patience and for- 
bearance from time to time, all of which have accomplished but 
little, the so-called fast element gaining ground year after year, 
and one innovation after another being introduced among us, 
which, if suffered to continue, will lead the church off into pride 
and the popular customs of the world and the other denomina- 
tions — we think we feel the propriety of a renewed effort on our 
part to accomplish the object of this petition. 

"We, in southern Ohio, have of late years felt and observed the 
element more than ever, and in serious meditation have we felt 
the weight of Paul's language in 1 Cor. 1 : 10, and in 1 Peter 
5: 12. We, as elders of the church, over which the Holy Ghost 
we trust has made us overseers, do feel that dutv demands of us 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 437 

to make this effort, that we may have order, peace, and union 
again restored among us. We offer the following as the rem- 
edy, in our wisdom and judgment, whereby a union can be 
affected, namely, to hold and maintain the ancient and apostolic 
order of the church in her humility, simplicity, and non- 
conformity to the world, and we feel that we can no longer 
suffer or tolerate those innovations in the church of Christ. The 
causes of the trouble must be removed before peace and union 
can be restored ; and among some of these causes are the high 
schools among us, popular Sunday-schools, with their conven- 
tions and celebrations, long, protracted meetings, and the way 
they are generally conducted, by singing revival hymns and giv- 
ing invitations to rise or come forward, a salaried ministry, and 
the single mode of feet-washing. 

"Now the things here named we do not regard as being in 
harmony with the spirit of the gospel, neither are they in har- 
mony with the ancient and apostolic order of our church ; and 
when we speak of the ancient order of our church, we have refer- 
ence also to non-conformity to the world, not only in dress, but 
in the building and fancy painting of our houses, barns, etc., 
after the customs of the world, the gaudy and costly finish put on 
them, and fine furniture, etc., to set off our rooms and parlors, 
after the fashions of the world, together with fine and costly 
carriages, etc. In these things we confess that southern Ohio 
has gone too far out of the way, and we hope will be willing to 
reform and make any sacrifice for Jesus' sake. 

"i: With regard to high schools among us, we fear they will 
greatly operate against the simplicity of the gospel of Christ, as 
well as create or cultivate the desire for an educated ministry, 
which is not in harmony with the teachings of Christ and the 
apostles, nor with the ancient views of the church. Paul says, 
'Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth/ i Cor. 8: i. 
'Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate.' 
Again, 'Be not wise in your own conceits.' Rom. 12 : 16. The 
views of our old brethren were in perfect harmony with the 
gospel as regards this matter, as will be seen by reference to the 
following queries and decisions : — 



438 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

"Annual meeting of 1831, Article I, 'Whether it was consid- 
ered advisable for a member to have his son educated at a col- 
lege? Considered not advisable, inasmuch as experience has 
taught that such very seldom will come back afterward to the 
humble ways of the Lord.' 

"Annual meeting of 1852, Article 22, 'How is it considered by 
the brethren, if brethren aid and assist in building great houses 
for high schools, and send their children to the same? Consid- 
ered the brethren should be very cautious, and not mind high 
things, but condescend to men of low estate.' Rom. 12 : 16. 

"Annual meeting of 1853, Article 28, 'Is it right for a brother 
to go to college or teach the same? Considered, that we deem 
colleges a very unsafe place for a simple follower of Christ, inas- 
much as they are calculated to lead us astray from the faith and 
obedience of the gospel/ And in 1857, when the subject again 
came up, the answer of the annual meeting is definitely given 
thus, l It is conforming to the world. Knowledge puffeth up, but 
charity edifieth.' 

"Thus we see that high schools were not permitted to come into 
the church for at least twenty-seven years after they were first 
urged. 

"2. Sabbath-schools we consider to be more of human origin 
than by command of Christ or His apostles, and hence are more 
of a worldly custom than of gospel principle and authority, and 
are not in harmony with the apostolic order of the church, the 
principles of the gospel, and were never sanctioned by the annual 
meeting in the way many are and will be conducted. Paul says, 
'Fathers, provoke not your children to wrath, but bring them up 
in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.' Eph. 6 : 4. This 
command is given to parents, and not to others. 

"3. Protracted or revival meetings, in the way they are gener- 
ally conducted, are, we claim, not in harmony with the old order 
and the apostolic rules of the church. 'And Paul, as his manner 
zvas, went in unto them, and three Sabbath days reasoned with 
them out of the Scriptures.' Acts 17:2. Again, 'And he rea- 
soned in the synagogue every Sabbath,' etc. Again, 'And when 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 439 

the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought 
that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath.' 
Acts 13:42. 'And the next Sabbath day came almost the whole 
city together to hear the Word of God.' Verse 44. 

"4. A salaried or paid ministry is also against the apostolic 
order. Hear Paul on this subject : 'I have coveted no man's sil- 
ver or gold or apparel ; yea, ye yourselves know that these hands 
have ministered unto my necessities, and to them that were with 
me.' Acts 20 : 34. 'What is my reward, then ? Verily, that 
when I preach the gospel I mav make the gospel without charge, 
that I abuse not my power in the gospel.' 1 Cor. 9: 18. Again, 
'Neither did we eat any man's bread for naught, but wrought 
with labor and travail night and day, that we might not be charge- 
able to any of you.' 2 Thess. 3 : 8. And when Christ sent out 
His disciples He forbade them the carrying or providing of gold 
or silver in their purses. These were to constitute no part of the 
considerations of the labor before them. 

"5. And with regard to the subject of feet washing, what 
method had we best adopt to provide against the troubles growing 
out of having different modes of performing the ordinance among 
us? We hereby recommend and pray that the decision of 1872 
be re-adopted by this meeting. The subject was brought before 
the elders of that annual meeting ; a committee had been appointed 
and a careful investigation made for a final decision of the matter, 
and after this special investigation and a thorough examination 
of this matter, the annual meeting decided to 'make no change 
whatever in the mode and practice of feet-washing, and stop 
the further agitation of the subject.' And in 1876, when it 
again came up, it was decided that 'no church can change from 
the double to the single mode on the authority of annual meeting.' 

"Now, the decision of 1872 should, we think, have forever 
settled the feet-washing question, and to this we desire to hold as 
the order of the church, unless we can be convinced that the double 
mode is wrong, or that Christ will be pleased 'with different modes 
or practices of worship in His church. All do admit that the 
command is fulfilled by the ancient or general order, and why 



44-0 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

not abide by it ? Why should we have such troubles in these last 
days with an ordinance that has so long stood under the bless- 
ings of God while the church prospered? 

"Dear brethren, in order to have permanent peace and union 
restored — which we hope all are praying for — we will have to 
deny ourselves of the recent inventions among us, and fall back 
and unite upon the principles of the gospel and the ancient prin- 
ciples and apostolic order of the church. Upon this we were all 
once united and satisfied, until the innovations herein alluded to 
crept in among us, which are now disturbing our peace. Can we 
not, dear brethren, all acknowledge that we were not watchful and 
guarded enough in suffering these things to come into the 
church, and repent for our want of faithfulness? Forbearance, 
we think, is the door through which these things came into the 
church, one after another, and now, it seems, there is no door 
to be found by which to get them out again. 

"Do not, dear brethren, find fault with us, and conclude we 
are taking too much upon us. We have with sorrowful hearts 
looked upon the very fast drift and movement of things in the 
church, and as all efforts to exterminate from the church the 
things which mar our peace have thus far failed, we saw no 
better source than the one presented. Our plain decisions have 
been disrespected and overruled, and if this state of things shall 
continue to exist, we will lose all our power in the controlling of 
the church. We, for the present, can see no better plan by 
which to restore brotherly harmony and peace than to direct our 
efforts to the causes from whence the disunion arises. 

"Now we pray, dear brethren, that this may receive your 
prayerful and serious consideration, and our wish and desires 
are that it may pass the annual meeting without any compromise. 

"Conrad Brumbaugh, Samuel Garver, Jacob Miller, David 
Murry, George V. Siller, Emanuel Miller, Joseph Arnold, Eman- 
uel Hoover, Abraham Flory, David Brumbaugh, William Cassel, 
Samuel Murry, Nathan Haywood, Jesse Rover." 

This petition was signed by a number of elders from various 
parts of the brotherhood. It was also presented to the district 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 44 l 

meeting of the southern district of Ohio, and the district meet- 
ing consented to send it to the annual meeting, although not 
unanimously. 

The standing committee of the annual meeting of 1880 formed 
a condensed substitute for the petition, which, says the "Reasons," 
though it made a plausible appearance to restrict certain things, 
it still retained in the church about all that the petition wished to 
have done away, and consequently the answer did not give 
satisfaction. 

This Substitute and Resolutions and Answer are as follows : — 
"Whereas, Our beloved fraternity has been considerably dis- 
turbed by brethren holding extreme views, some being disposed 
to enforce more rigorously the order of the church in regard to 
non-conformity to the world in giving form to our costume, than 
has commonly been done by our ancient brethren ; while some, on 
the other extreme, would abandon the principle of non-conformity 
so far as that principle has anything to do with giving form to 
our costume ; and, 

"Whereas, The principle of non-conformity in giving form to 
our costume, as well as in everything else, has been a peculiar char- 
acteristic of our fraternity, and is so stated in our written history, 
and has had its influence with our non-swearing and non- 
combatant and our general principles identifying our fraternity 
with the primitive and apostolic church in preserving us from the 
extravagant expenditures which both the religious and secular 
world have fallen into and in obtaining for us as a body the 
character of simplicity, honesty, purity, and uprightness, in the 
world ; and, 

"Whereas, It is thought by many, and even so declared, that 

as a body we are opposed to all improvement and progress ; and, 

"Whereas, Contention and strife in the church are great 

obstacles in the way of both its holiness and its usefulness ; 

therefore, 

''Resolved, First, that we will labor in the spirit of the gospel 
and in brotherly love to maintain the principle of non-conformity 
in giving form to our costume, and in every way that the 
recognized peculiarities of our fraternity require. 



442 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

"Resolved, Secondly, that while we declare ourselves conserva- 
tive in maintaining unchanged what may justly be considered 
the principles and peculiarities of our fraternity, we also believe 
in the propriety and necessity of so adapting our labor and our 
principles to the religious wants of the world as will render our 
labor and principles most efficient in promoting the reformation 
of the world, the edification of the church, and the glory of God. 
Hence, while we are conservative, we are also progressive. 

"Resolved, Thirdly, that brethren teaching, through the press 
or ministry, or in any way, sentiments conflicting with the recog- 
nized principles and peculiarities of our fraternity, shall be con- 
sidered offenders, and be dealt with as such. And to specify 
more particularly the subjects named in the petition, we offer the 
following as an answer : — 

"i. Inasmuch as there exists a widespread fear among us that 
the brethren's high schools are likely to operate against the sim- 
plicity of the gospel of Christ, as also likely to cultivate the desire 
for an exclusively educated ministry, to guard, therefore, these 
schools from producing these effects, we think the principals of 
these schools should meet and adopt rules that will prevent such 
tendency, and said rules be in harmony with the principles of 
annual meeting. 

"2. Sabbath-schools, when held in the spirit of the gospel, may 
be made a means of bringing up our children in the 'nurture and 
admonition of the Lord,' but should have no picnics and celebra- 
tions or any vain things of the popular Sabbath-schools of the 
day connected with them. 

"3. All meetings for worship should be held as our stated or 
regular meetings are held, and we be cautious not to use such 
means as are calculated to get persons into the church without 
a gospel conversion, — such as over-persuasion or excitement, 
simply to get them into the church, — but use the gospel means 
to get them to turn away from sin. 

"4. In regard to a paid ministry, we believe that it is not right 
in the sense for brethren to go and labor for churches in the hope 
of receiving monev for services, and the offer of money as an 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS 443 

inducement to brethren to preach, but to poor ministers who are 
faithful both in the doctrine and practice of the church, we 
would encourage giving towards their necessity, as also defraying 
the expenses of traveling in attending to church interests. 

"5. Inasmuch as our old fathers have always admitted the 
validity of the two modes of feet-washing, and as much as we 
desire a more perfect union in this matter, we can not condemn 
either mode as being invalid. And, inasmuch as former decisions 
have failed to settle this question to the satisfaction of all, we 
advise more forbearance and liberty to the conscience of our 
brethren in this matter, because both have been practiced among 
us, and the best way to stop the agitation of this question is to 
allow the same liberty of conscience for our brethren that we ask 
for ourselves. But this shall not be construed to annul the 
present decision and advice of annual meeting." 

The statement that the church was "progressive as well as 
conservative" gave offense to the old-order brethren, although 
they acknowledged the truthfulness of the statement. They also 
objected to the decision in Article 5, that the best way to stop 
the agitation of the subject of different modes of feet-washing 
is to "allow the same liberty of conscience for our brethren that 
we ask for ourselves." As a matter of fact, the old-order 
brethren were disposed not to be suited with anything short of 
the entire elimination of all innovations to church observances of 
the order for fifty years preceding 1876, and discovering that 
to be impossible, they concluded that the only certain way of 
becoming liberated from the fast element was to withdraw from 
it. If they could not expel the progressive element from the 
church, they could withdraw or secede from the church, and thus 
become liberated from the responsibility of tolerating the evil. 
Accordingly, another caucus was held on November 9, 1880, at 
which a special meeting was appointed to be held at the Wolf 
Creek church, Montgomery County, December 8, 1880. To this 
meeting all the faithful and steadfast brethren— in the ministry 
and at the visit — who were in favor of the ancient and apostolic 
order of the church, as set forth in said petition, were most 



444 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

heartily invited. The meeting was advertised; railroad privi- 
leges were secured, of which announcement was made in the 
I 'indicator. This announcement was signed by Elders Abraham 
Flory, Samuel Garber, David Murry, Samuel Mohler, William 
Cassel, G. V. Siler, Samuel Murry, and Emanuel Hoover. And 
all the "Brethren papers were requested to please copy." 

We have two reports of the meeting, but as neither attempts to 
give anything more than simply the business transaction, we 
prefer to make use of the authorized minutes as published in the 
"Reasons," which are as follows : — 

MINUTES OF THE MIAMI VALLEY COUNCIL. 

"At the special or great council meeting held with the brethren 
of the Wolf Creek church on the 8th, 9th, and 10th of December, 
1880, brethren from the various states being assembled, the fol- 
lowing resolutions with regard to the subject of feet-washing, 
after the evils of the present manner of observing it were fully 
considered, was prosposed and passed the meeting unanimously : — 

"Resolved, That with regard to the mode of feet-washing, we 
ask the annual meeting of 1881 to readopt the decision of 1872, 
and repeal all decisions made since then that do in anywise 
favor or encourage the single mode. This resolution to be sent 
to the annual meeting of 1881 for confirmation. 

"The question was asked the meeting, whether brethren had 
the right to petition the annual meeting, and to sign the same. 
Answered, that they had the right to do so and sign it, of course. 

"Question 2. Asked if the committee of last year authorized 
any brethren to go abroad out of their own territory to ordain 
two brethren. The brethren present of the last standing com- 
mittee said they gave no such privilege. 

Question 3. Is such a course legal? Answered, that adjoin- 
ing elders should be consulted in all such cases, and that if such 
work was done, it was illegal, and the elders are not bound to 
recognize it. 

"A decision of southern Illinois was read on the same subject, 
which gives it as wrong to do so. It was, therefore, decided that, 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 445 

"Whereas, Offense has been given to churches by elders going 
from home and ordaining brethren without consulting the elders 
of the adjoining churches in which the ordination is .made, and 
contrary to the general order of the brethren ; therefore, 

''Resolved, That all elders be admonished not to do as above 
stated until next annual meeting, when the duties of elders in 
regard to this work will be more definitely defined. 

"A supplement to the Miami Valley Petition was read, but it 
was concluded to consider the petition first. 

"Commencing at the petition, the subject of high schools was 
first read. It was found that one great objection to these schools 
was that some have assumed the authority to call them and adver- 
tise them as the 'Brethren's School,' when the annual meeting 
never gave them such authority. 

"Query I. With regard to high schools among us, we fear 
they will operate greatly against the simplicity of the gospel of 
Christ, as well as create or cultivate the desire for an educated 
ministry, which is not in harmony with the teachings of Christ and 
the apostles, nor with the ancient views of the church. Paul says, 
'Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.' I Cor. 8: I. 'Mind 
not high things, but condescend to men of low estate.' I Cor. I. 
Again, 'Be not wise in your own conceits/ Rom. 12: 16. The 
views of our old brethren were in perfect harmony with the gos- 
pel as regards this matter, as will be seen by references to the 
following queries and decisions : — 

"Annual meeting of 1831, Article 1, 'Whether it was consid- 
ered advisable for a member to have his son educated in a college. 
Considered not advisable, inasmuch as experience has taught that 
such very seldom come back afterward to the humble ways of 
the Lord.' 

"Annual meeting of 1852, Article 12, 'How is it considered by 
the brethren if brethren aid and assist in building great houses 
for high schools, and then send their children to same ? Consid- 
ered that brethren should be very cautious, and not mind high 
things, but condescend to men of low estate.' Rom. 12 : 16. 

"Annual meeting of 1853, Article 28, 'Is it right for a brother 



44 6 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

to go to college or teach the same? Considered that we would 
deem colleges a very unsafe place for a simple follower of Christ, 
inasmuch as they are calculated to lead us astray from the faith 
and obedience to the gospel.' And, in 1857, when the subject 
again came up, the answer of the annual meeting is definitely 
given thus: 'It is conforming to the world. Knowledge puffeth 
up, but charity edifieth.' 

"Thus we see that high schools were not permitted to come 
into the church for at least twenty-seven years after they were 
first urged ; therefore, 

"Resolved, That this meeting petition the annual meeting of 
1881 to readopt the answer to Query 28 of 1853, with the fol- 
lowing amendment : 'It is conforming to the world, and repeal all 
the decisions that have been made that favor the high schools 
conducted amongst us by the brethren.' 

"The above passed the meeting almost unanimously. 

"Query 2. Sabbath-schools we consider to be more of human 
origin than by command of Christ or His apostles, and hence are 
more of a worldly custom than of gospel principle and authority ; 
are not in harmony with the apostolic order of the church, the 
principles of the gospel, and were never sanctioned by the 
annual meeting in the way many are and will be conducted. 
Paul says, 'Fathers, provoke not your children to wrath, but 
bring them up in the nurture and admonition Of the Lord.' Eph. 
6 : 4. This command is given to parents, and not to others ; 
therefore, 

"Resolved, That we petition our next annual meeting to with- 
draw the right of holding Sunday-schools in the brotherhood. 

"Passed nearly unanimously. 

"Query 3. Protracted and revival meetings, in the way they 
are generally conducted, are, we claim, not in harmony with the 
old order and apostolic rules of the church. 'And Paul, as his 
manner was, went in unto them, and three Sabbath days rea- 
soned with them out of the Scriptures.' Acts 17:2. Again, 
And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles 
besought that these words might be preached to them the next 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 447 

Sabbath.'' Acts 13 : 4. 'And the next Sabbath day came almost 
the whole city together to hear the Word of God.' Verse 44. 

"Resolved, That this meeting petition annual meeting to revise 
the answer of Article 3 of the petition, so as to read, 'And we be 
not allowed,' to use instead of the words 'be cautious.' 

"Passed unanimously. 

"The answer as revised will read thus : 'All meetings for wor- 
ship should be held as our stated or regular meetings are held, 
and we be not allowed to use such means as are calculated to get 
persons into the church without gospel conversion, — such as over- 
persuasion, or excitement, simply to get them into the church, — 
but use gospel means to get them to turn away from sin.' 

"Query 4. A salaried or paid ministry is also against apostolic 
order. Hear Paul on this subject: T have coveted no man's sil- 
ver, or gold, or apparel ; yea, ye yourselves know that these hands 
have ministered unto my necessities, and to them that were with 
me.' Acts 33 : 34. 'What is my reward, then ? Verily, that 
when I preach the gospel, I may make the gospel without charge, 
that I abuse not my power in the gospel.' 1 Cor. 9: 18. Again, 
'Neither did we eat any man's bread for naught, but wrought 
with labor and travail night and day, that we might not be 
chargeable to any of you.' 2 Thess. 3 : 8. And when Christ sent 
out His disciples, He forbade them the carrying or providing of 
gold or silver in their purses ; these were to constitute no part of 
the considerations of the labors before tnem. 

"Resolved, That this meeting urge the elders of our fraternity 
to carry out the decision as given by last annual meeting, which 
is as follows : — 

" 'In regard to a paid ministry, we believe it is not right in the 
sense for brethren to go and labor for churches in the hope of 
receiving money for services, and the offer of money as an induce- 
ment to brethren to preach, but to poor ministers who are faith- 
ful in the doctrine and practice of the church, we would encour- 
age giving toward their necessities, as also of defraying their 
expenses of traveling in attending to church interests.' 

"The above being disposed of, the condition of many of the 



448 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

members in parts of the brotherhood was considered ; and it was 
further 

"Resolved, That by the general voice of this meeting, we advise 
our brotherhood to bear with all our brethren and sisters in the 
several localities, who have been threatened by a majority, who 
perhaps have limited their time — members who seem to want to 
abide by the general order and petition, and against whom there 
is no individual charge existing. The united voice of this meet- 
ing is to bear with all such until the annual meeting shall con- 
sider the business of this meeting. And we further advise that 
all those who have been expelled for holding the sentiments in 
the Miami Valley Petition shall be held as members of the church, 
and that they shall not be held to acknowledge for simply holding 
those views. 

"Query. With regard to the present missionary plan, with its 
board of directors, etc., we are not in full harmony with, and do, 
therefore, offer the following: — 

"That we ask the annual meeting of 1881 to recall said decision 
of last year, in which we fear a paid ministry is encouraged, and 
urge it earnestly upon the brotherhood to be more actively 
engaged in spreading the truth among us, and to all as much as 
can be done, but in a more simple manner, after the pattern and 
advice of the church, as given us heretofore. 

"Decided by this special council that this paper shall be first 
presented to the district meeting. 

"The conduct of the brethren generally, and the spirit of 
humility and Christian courtesy manifested during the time of 
this meeting, was commendable, and had, we trust, its good 
effects. The special call for this meeting was by many thought 
to have been quite needful, and it is hoped that its salutary effects 
would be felt and appreciated by all. 

"By order of the meeting. Samuel Kinsey/' 

It will be observed from the proceedings above given that hope 
had not been entirely abandoned of controlling general confer- 
ence, as all the resolutions passed were directed to the annual 
meeting of 1881, and accordingly the proceedings of the meeting, 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 449 

with their petitions and resolutions, were presented to annual 
meeting of 1881, which was held at Ashland, Ohio, that year. And 
the "Reasons" again claim that their paper did not come before 
the open council, but was taken in charge by the standing com- 
mittee, and abridged and condensed into a compromised paper, 
which passed the general council, and is as follows : — 

"Accordingly, this petition was handed to the standing com- 
mittee. But now these same annual meeting brethren, who, on 
December 8, helped and said it should go, began to draw back, 
saying that it did not come there legally, and would likely be 
objected to. So it was not permitted to come before the general 
council for consideration in the way it was agreed upon by these 
leading brethren, but was declared illegal. None of the leading 
brethren who helped to send the petition up again did defend it 
before the meeting save one. And not only was this petition 
rejected as illegal, but the following was passed against it at the 
same meeting. Article 22, 'Resolved, That the decision in regard 
to what is called the Miami Elders' Petition is as near right 
as any that can be reached upon the questions embodied in said 
petition, and the prosperity of the brotherhood demands that said 
decision of annual meeting of 1880 remain unchanged.' ' : 

In the spring of 1880 the Dry Creek church, Iowa, had pre- 
sented a petition similar to the one from the Miami Valley, which 
had passed the district meeting of middle Iowa, and was sent 
to annual meeting, but got not farther than into the standing 
committee. Rejecting the Miami Valley Petition, and ignoring 
the Iowa paper, and then passing the above resolution destroyed 
all hope, and confirmed the old-order brethren in their opinion 
that "nothing could ever be expected from the annual meeting 
that would do away with the innovations which caused the trouble 
and threatened division;" and to use and to quote from "Rea- 
sons:" "Here laid the cause which was now fully ripe for a 
movement to afford relief. Here many of the fathers and mem- 
bers over a great portion of the brotherhood, who felt to hold on 
to the form of practice and usages of the church, were not only 
disappointed, but greatly discouraged, and regarded it as a waste 
of time to go to annual meeting again." 

29 



450 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Accordingly, notice was given through the Vindicator that a 
meeting would be held in the Ludlow and Painter Creek church, 
Darke County, Ohio, August 24, 1881. The object of the meet- 
ing was stated to be "that all the faithful part of the church may 
consult for the preservation of a unanimity of sentiment in faith 
and practice, and the purity of the church." This meeting was 
said to have been largely attended. After rehearsal of griev- 
ances and the hopelessness and fruitlessness of their efforts to 
accomplish any good through the annual meeting, they finally 
passed the following resolutions : — 

"Be it therefore, Resolved, That we will more strictly adhere 
to the self-denying principles of the gospel, as practiced by our 
ancient brethren and as set forth in our petition of 1880, to 
which we wish to hold. With this amendment as the petition 
mentions popular Sunday-schools, and revival meetings the way 
they are generally conducted ; to be more clearly understood, we 
say that we feel to suffer none in the brethren's church, and then 
we will be sure to have no trouble with them. No Sunday- 
schools, no high schools, no revival meetings, no paid ministry, no 
missionary plans or mission boards, as now granted by annual 
meeting. No money soliciting, or begging to carry out such 
plans. No single mode of feet-washing, no musical instruments, 
as pianos, melodeons, and organs, etc. No unlawful interest to 
oppress the poor. 

"Resolved, further, That we fully adhere to primitive Chris- 
tianity as taught by Christ and His apostles, in all His command- 
ments and precepts, as practiced by our forefathers. (The first 
above-named things we do not understand as belonging to prim- 
itive Christianity as taught by Christ and His apostles.) And 
that we strictly adhere to a plain and decent uniformity of dress, 
as soldiers of King Immanuel. That the brethren wear a plain, 
round-breasted coat, with standing collar, hat, overcoat, and 
everything else to correspond. A plain way of wearing the hair 
and beard, no fashionable mustaches, and no roached or shingled 
hair. The sisters also to wear a plain, modest dress and bonnet, 
also a plain white cap in time of worship or on going abroad. 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 451 

In short, that the brethren and sisters let their light shine as a 
light on a candlestick, and not part or wholly under the bushel, 
but to show to the world that we try to possess what we profess. 
And above all, that brethren and sisters be more upon their guard, 
and more reserved in their conversations, as that 'unruly tongue 
is doing much mischief among us.' " 

The same meeting also decided upon the following course of 
procedure : — 

"Now, after this resolution is accepted, we advise that all our 
members be counseled in every church in the valley, and in all 
other districts in our brotherhood that unite with us. Do the 
same to get the minds of the members. And we advise that two 
faithful and impartial elders be present at those councils, as we 
want nothing but honesty and fairness. But first, before any 
council is gone into, the members should be well instructed and 
enlightened in every point, showing no partiality nor forbidding 
brethren to give their opinion in love on both sides. After the 
members are well enlightened, let each member express his own 
mind, that a fair decision may be made, so we can learn how many 
will stand united to the ancient order of our church. And if 
some should ask time to consider, let it be granted them. To 
such the door of the church is open. But such as will express 
themselves not willing to stand united with the ancient order of 
our church, we could not help them, and if they would afterwards 
change their minds and wish to unite with us, they will then have 
to enter legally, according to order, the door of the church to be 
opened for them also. But such as will not stand united with us 
in the apostolic order of our church would then have to be dis- 
fellowshiped from the old brethren's church." 

Signed in behalf of the meeting by the following elders : — 

Abraham Flory, Samuel Garber, Jacob Miller, Nathan Hay- 
wood, David Murray, Conrad Brumbaugh, Emanuel Hoover, 
William Cassel, George V. Siler, Joseph Arnold, Emanuel Miller, 
Jacob Metzger, David Wise, Samuel Musselman, and Stephen 
Metzger. 

It may be said that now the die was cast, in which a new 
organization would be moulded. 



452 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Had these good people realized the sad consequences of their 
action, we doubt whether even their zeal for the perpetuation of 
the landmarks could have inspired them to inaugurate their plans. 
Presumably they thought they might proceed peaceably and 
unmolested in opposing innovations in the brotherhood. They 
had decided for themselves to resort to no coercive measures, and 
had expected similar leniency from their conservative brethren, 
but in that they were disappointed, for "the same evening after 
the resolutions were adopted, plans were already talked of by 
their opponents by which they might be defeated. And in a few 
days after active operations were commenced, by ordering visits 
to be made to members, and the appointment of council meetings. 
Young elders sent visits to and arraigned old bishops who had 
had charge of congregations for a score of years, and in many 
cases obtained judgment against them, casting them out of the 
church. In these actions they claimed and quoted in their behalf 
the words of Christ: 'Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, 
and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall 
reproach you, and cast out your name as evil.' 

"There were a number of annual meeting leaders who went 
from church to church, conducting expelling meetings, until hun- 
dreds of old and faithful members, deacons, ministers, and elders 
had been excommunicated. In some churches perhaps only six 
or seven members stood by the order, but the number soon 
increased to thirty or forty ; in other churches sixty or seventy 
went with the old order, but soon increased to double the num- 
ber. Many were intimidated by fear of expulsion, but constantly- 
increasing numbers had a tendency to allay such fears." 

On September 2 a council was held in the same church in 
which the resolutions originated. In this church the elder, two 
ministers, three deacons, and a number of members had already 
been expelled for working for the maintenance of the ancient 
usages of the church, as set forth in the resolutions. 

It is claimed by them that advantage was taken of them in get- 
ting up the meeting and attempting to intimidate some of the 
members. Ministers and old faithful elders were forbidden to 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 453 

preach and worship in the church-houses which they had helped 
to build. 

In places where the old-order element held the keys and the 
church officials, new locks were put on the doors by the conserva- 
tive party. The old brethren proposed to open the houses and 
use them alternately, or to divide amicably, to neither of which 
the conservative party would consent. They carried their oppo- 
sition so far as to announce that the old-order ministers would 
subject themselves to a fine of $500, by solemnizing marriages, 
so the "Reasons" claims. I received similar notice by church 

officials, while residing at Ashland, Ohio. In order to settle the 
question of privileges, the judge visited my office, and assured 
me I could proceed with all my official duties as before. The old- 
order brethren took the same course, and received the same 
information. Upon this action they quote the language of Paul 
to Timothy : "Now the Spirit speaketh expressly that in the latter 
times some shall depart from the faith, . . . forbidding to 
marry." 

The "Reasons" also claims that many things were said at those 
expelling councils to break down their reform work. It was 
even intimated that some of those who had been expelled might 
be put under the ban. It was also predicted that the reform work 
would soon come to naught, as all former factions which had 
been expelled or left the annual meeting party had done. At 
some places the resolutions were loudly denounced as being very 
bad, and at one council meeting they were ruled out by the elder 
in charge, although the issue was whether to stand by the reso- 
lution or remain with the general brotherhood. I quote again 
from the "Reasons," on page 42: "The severing of churches in 
such a rash manner, locking their meeting-houses, and grasping 
all the church property, expelling of elders and ministers and 
some of the most faithful members, commenced in a few days 
after the meeting of August 24, and in about six weeks, twelve or 
fifteen churches in the Miami Valley had been visited. In the 
meantime the same work had been carried on in Indiana, Penn- 
sylvania, and Maryland. In this time hundreds had been expelled, 



454 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and most of the church property had been taken, and the doors 
locked against the old-order brethren, who made no resistance, 
but endeavored to bear it with patience. " 

It is but just to say that some who took an active part in 
expelling the old fathers and mothers in Israel for standing by 
the usages of the church as set forth in the resolutions, had them- 
selves signed the petition, but afterwards changed their course, 
and took a conspicuous part in endeavoring to put down the very 
things they had helped to bring about. 

After the expelling work and locking of church-houses had 
been well accomplished, it occurred to some of the leaders that 
their work should be ratified by annual meeting. Accordingly, 
at the conference of 1882, the following petition was presented : — 

"Whereas, Certain elders and others became aggrieved at our 
annual meeting in her manner of doing business, and also at some 
of her decisions, and hence have framed certain resolutions in 
which are set forth the cause of their aggrievances ; and on the 
24th of August, 1881, they met together from different states, in 
the Ludlow and Painter Creek church, Darke County, Ohio, 
where those resolutions were read, and some remarks made upon 
their merits, and after an explanation by their foreman, when he 
said 'that all who vote for these resolutions separate themselves 
from the general brotherhood and its annual meeting,' they 
then took a rising vote to ascertain who were willing to accept 
their resolutions, thereby causing a division in the brotherhood, 
and especially in southern Ohio, hence bringing about a neces- 
sity for the elders and officers of the church, who were still will- 
ing to stand by the general order and usages of our annual meet- 
ing, to bring the matter before their local churches, where all that 
have gone with the resolutions were excommunicated from the 
church ; therefore, 

"Resolved, That we ask annual meeting, through district meet- 
ing, to endorse the action of the churches in southern Ohio and 
elsewhere, in regard to those who have gone with the resolutions, 
and also to enter the same upon the minutes. Answer : This 
annual meeting" does endorse the action of the churches which 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 455 

expelled the members who accepted the resolutions referred to 
above.'' 

This action the "Reasons" claims was taken without inquiry or 
explanation, and that the one who had been instrumental in bring- 
ing about the division was the first one to move to pass it, and 
argues that it would have been more intelligent if the matter had 
been brought to light before the vote was taken, as but few per- 
sons in the conference understood the causes of the expulsions 
or the manner in which they were brought about. 

However, all the expulsions and closing of churches did not 
stop the work nor dampen the zeal of the old brethren. Other 
denominations offered the use of their churches. Private houses, 
barns, and schoolhouses were freely opened to them, and in fields 
and groves large congregations would gather to listen to the 
Word spoken by those who had been deprived of the use of their 
own houses of worship. And so the good work went on, and in 
a short time hundreds came over from the conservative party. 
Some who had assisted in the expelling saw their mistake, asked 
pardon, and joined in with the old-order brethren. 

On November 25, 1881, a meeting was held in the barn of 
Abraham Landis, in the Salem church, Montgomery County, 
Ohio, for the purpose of further organization. At this meeting 
it was decided that the name of the new organization should be 
the Old German Baptist Brethren. The reasons given for the 
using of the word "old" was to distinguish them from the new, 
or those who introduced new measures into the body. Arrange- 
ments were also made for holding a yearly meeting on Pentecost, 
1882, and Brookville, Ohio, was selected as the place. Evan- 
gelists were also selected to help those who had been oppressed, 
and had sent their appeals to the valley for assistance. 

The Old German Baptist Church was now fully established 
and ready for harmonious and active operation. At their con- 
ference of 1882, congregations were represented from nine differ- 
ent states. The meeting was largely attended from different 
parts of the brotherhood. The business was transacted har- 
moniously, and in the same simple manner in which similar meet- 



456 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ings were conducted in days of yore. Elder Jacob Metzger was 
moderator; Aaron Frantz, reading clerk; and Samuel Kinsey, 
writing clerk. 

The following is a list of the names of the first standing 
committee : — 

Jacob Metzger, of Indiana ; John Harshey, of Missouri ; Abra- 
ham Flory, of Ohio; G. V. Siler, of Ohio; Isaac Pfautz, of Mary- 
land ; Jacob Root, of Illinois ; Jacob Flora, of Indiana ; C. Flory, 
of Kansas ; Joseph Cripe, of Illinois ; Aaron Frantz, of Ohio ; 
A. H. Senseney, of Maryland; Samuel Kinsey, of Ohio; and 
Daniel Holsinger, of Iowa. 

The old system of sub-committees was agreed upon, and prac- 
ticed in the first conference. No new subjects were introduced, 
and no new decisions made at this first session. 

The constant increase of the church by accessions from the 
main body made it necessary for them to build a number of new 
churches, especially in Ohio. In the fall of 1882 a house was 
built in the Grove church, Miami County, Ohio. The lot donated 
to them joins the lot on which stood the conservative church. 
The lot belonging to the old-order church had on it 'a spring 
of water, from which privilege had been granted to the house 
which had been built, to be used in common by all parties. The 
new building was placed near the head of the spring. After the 
house was on the way the conservative party issued an injunc- 
tion, and stopped the process of building, and the old brethren 
were arraigned before the court. The following is the sheriff's 
notice : — 

"You are hereby commanded to notify John Filbrun, Samuel 
Studabaker, Silas Arnold, James Brubaker, as trustees and dea- 
cons and pastors ; Harrison Shull and Joseph Arnold, as pastors 
of the Old German Baptist Church in Bethel Township, Miami 
County, Ohio ; James White and James Berringer, that they have 
been sued by Henry Gump, pastor ; David Filbrun, Jacob Hawver, 
Jacob Frantz, as the deacons ; and Jacob Coppock, and the trustees 
of the German Baptist Church in Bethel Township, Miami County, 
Ohio, in the court of common pleas, of Miami County, and that 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 457 

unless they answer, by the ninth day of December, 1882, the 
petition of the said plaintiffs against them, filed in the clerk's 
office of said court, such petition will be taken as true, and judg- 
ment rendered accordingly. You will make due return of this 
summons on the twentieth day of November, 1882. 

"Witness my hand and the seal of the said court at Troy, this 
sixth day of November, 1882. J. B. Latchford, 

"Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, Miami Co., Ohio." 

"I hereby certify that the within summons and endorsements 
thereon is well and truly copied from the original summons. 

"J. M. Campbell, Sheriff." 

The decision of the court was that there was no infringement. 
The building, however, was delayed until winter set in, but was 
finished the following summer. 

Similar suits were brought against the old brethren by the 
conservatives in Cedar County, Iowa, and Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, but the most notorious action that was taken dur- 
ing the transitionary period of church trouble was issued on 
February 14, 1883, when suit was entered against the old-order 
brethren for preaching and solemnizing marriages in the name of 
the Old German Baptist Church. I have in my possession all the 
documents pertaining to this action, but will quote only such parts 
as appear to be necessary to verify the statement. The follow- 
ing is from the bill : "The said plaintiffs complain of the said 
defendants that they represent the whole membership of the 
German Baptist Church in Darke County, Ohio, and that the said 
German Baptist Church was organized in the United States as 
early as 1719, and still maintained its organization, and that it 
had ever since its organization been styled and known as the 
German Baptist Church, and had been controlled by annual 
meeting; that at different annual meetings harmless innovations 
were made, at which the said old-order party felt aggrieved, and 
on August 24, 1 88 1, had passed certain resolutions repudiating 
the action and doings of various annual meetings in regard to said 
innovations, and finally withdrew from the general brotherhood ; 
that in consequence of said withdrawal from the membership of 



458 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the German Baptist Church, they were excommunicated from said 
church, which act of excommunication was confirmed by the 
annual meeting of 1882. Plaintiffs further complain that the 
said defendants, disregarding the rights of the German Baptist 
Church, have organized new congregations under the name of the 
Old German Baptist Church, and by means of the use of said 
names, falsely represented that they are the only true and genuine 
Baptist Church; are thus enabled to influence members of the 
said German Baptist Church to withdraw their connections from 
said church, and uniting themselves with the new organization, 
thereby disturbing the peace and harmony. of the German Baptist 
Church, producing contentions in the families of the plaintiffs, 
and creating bickering and strife between husband and wife and 
parents and children, members of the said German Baptist 
Church. Plaintiffs further aver that said excommunicated mem- 
bers are obtaining license and solemnizing marriages as ministers 
in good standing in said church, while in fact they are not min- 
isters in said church in any sense of the word; that by thus 
solemnizing marriages they are interfering with the rights of 
ministers in good standing in said church, by appropriating the 
emoluments derived from solemnizing marriages, which would 
otherwise go to the benefit and support of regular ministers in 
said German Baptist Church. Plaintiffs therefore pray that they 
may be secured in the use of the name German Baptist Church, 
and that defendants be enjoined from appropriating the said 
name or calling themselves the Old German Baptist Church, and 
may be restrained from taking out license as ministers of the Old 
German Baptist Church, or of solemnizing marriages as ministers 
of the same." 

The facts in the above statement were affirmed to by John 
Bolinger and Edward Martin, on the 14th day of February, 1883. 

The old brethren met the case, and the court sustained a 
demurrer, and threw the case out of court at the cost of the 
plaintiffs. 

The "Reasons" congratulates the Old German Baptist Church 
upon the unity of practice and oneness of mind, which was at 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 459 

once enjoyed throughout their new brotherhood, identity being 
acknowledged from the east to the west, and from north to south, 
nearly one hundred churches having been organized before the 
close of the year 1883. They quote with much satisfaction the 
motto, <k By good works we constrain others." 

They have continued to hold their conferences on Pentecost of 
each year, according to the custom of the Tunker fraternity, for 
the last one hundred years. The business is much of the same 
kind as that brought before similar meetings during the past 
century. This fact confirms their right to the claim of old order 
or conservatives. I endeavored to obtain statistics of their 
numerical and financial status, but was prevented by their oppo- 
sition to all new movements. I have learned, however, from the 
Vindicator, that they have two hundred and four ministers, and 
about two hundred congregations in the United States. I also 
endeavored to gather data from which biographies of their most 
eminent men might be written, but failed, except with a few of 
the most conspicuous characters. 

OLD GERMAN BAPTIST CHURCH, DRY CREEK, IOWA. 

Elder Daniel Holsinger removed from Franklin County, Penn- 
sylvania, into this congregation in April, 1872. There were then 
about one hundred and twenty members in the church. Jacob O. 
Waters and Abraham Stamy were ordained elders. Thomas G. 
Snyder was a minister in the second degree, and Solomon Stamy 
in the first degree. John C. Miller, in the second degree, had 
moved away several years before, but returned about two years 
after. Elder Waters died a few years later. Then Martin Boyd 
was elected to the ministry, and John Miderheisen, deacon. 

In September, 1881, the church divided, and the Old German 
Baptist Church was organized. Daniel Holsinger, Solomon 
Stamy, and Martin Boyd, ministers ; and D. Senger, John Boyd, 
and J. Miderheisen, deacons ; and about sixty members joined 
the organization. A few years after J. C. Miller also fell in with 
the old-order church. All the official members who united with 
the old brethren at the time of the division are still living, but 
three of them have moved away. 



460 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

J. I. COVER. 

Joseph I. Cover was born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 
January 25, 1834. His parents were members of the German 
Baptist Church. Early in life he showed an aptness for learning, 
and obtained a fair education. He followed teaching, dentistry, 
and farming. He married Eliza S. Miller, of Somerset, Penn- 
sylvania, daughter of Elder Jacob D. Miller, in 1857, and the 
same year embraced the gospel faith and was baptized. 

He was chosen to the ministry in the George's Creek congre- 
gation, Pennsylvania, in 1858, and ordained elder in 1870, in 
which office he faithfully served up to the time of his death. He 
moved from Pennsylvania to Ohio in 1882, and identified himself 
with the old-order part of the church. Here he earnestly taught 
and labored for the ancient order. In 1883, at the death of Sam- 
uel Kinsey, the editorship of the Vindicator was bequeathed to 
him, in which he continued while he lived. He died October 28, 
1889, and is buried in Sugar Grove cemetery, Miami Co., Ohio. 

ELDER GEORGE LONG. 

George Long was born in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, Sep- 
tember 6, 1823, moved to Shanesville, Ohio, in the fall of 1844, 
was baptized by Gabrial Neff, at Rogersville, June 8, 1845, was 
married to Luanda Rowe, August 15, 1850, moved to Owen 
County, Indiana, in the fall of 185 1. He was. elected to the min- 
istry, September 28, 1852, advanced to the second degree in Octo- 
ber, 1856, removed to La Grange County, Indiana, in the fall of 
1864, and was ordained in 1867. He moved to Ionia County, 
Michigan, in the fall of 1870, at which place he still resides and 
continues to labor in the gospel. 

He joined with the old-order movement in the beginning, and 
has continued a steadfast advocate of the cause of the Old 
German Baptist Church. 

ELDER JACOB PRICE. 

The lineage of Jacob Price is quite interesting, and is closely 
connected with the history of the Tunker Church in the United 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 



461 



States. His great-grandfather was born in Prussia, Germany, 
and emigrated to this country October, 1719, when twenty fam- 
ilies of Tunkers fled from the persecution of the fatherland. He 
settled near Germantown, Pennsylvania, where he died and was 
buried at Indian Creek, Montgomery County. Elder Jacob's 
grandfather was born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, and 
his father in the vicinity of Waynesboro. Both their names were 
John Price, and both are buried in the Welty graveyard. Jacob 
Price joined the Tunker Church at the age of twenty-five 




OLD ORDER PRICE CHURCH. 



years. In 1845 ne was elected to the ministry, and in 1867 was 
ordained a bishop, and he held the office to the end. 

When the division occurred in the Tunker fraternitv, Elder 
Jacob Price took sides with the old-order element, and became 
one of the charter members of the Old German Baptist Church. 
He was of a very quiet and peaceful disposition, and his life was 
consistent with his faith and profession. He died October 19, 
1883, in the seventy-third year of his age, and was buried at 
Price's Church. 



462 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

ELDER CHRISTOPHER FLORY. 

Christopher Flory was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, 
October 26, 1829; was married to Mary A. Shofner, of the same 
place, on May 9, 1852. In the fall of the same year they moved 
to Whitley County, Indiana. In the year of 1853, he and his 
wife, with Henry Brumbaugh and Indith, his wife, and Samuel 
Kinsey and Barbary, his wife, were baptized in Blue River. 

In the fall of 1864 they moved to Kansas, with their teams, and 
settled on the place where he lived until his death, about thirty- 
five years. 

In 1873 he was put to the visit (that is, he was chosen to the 
office of deacon). The following year he was installed into the 
ministry. Soon after he was advanced to the second degree, and 
in 1882 was ordained to the eldership, in which he served faith- 
fully. 

He was a very good housekeeper in the church, — always ready 
to give good counsel. 

He traveled much in Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Indiana. He 
died at his home at Willow Springs, on Christmas day, 1899. 

ELDER H. D. DAVY. 

Henry Dorsey Davy was born in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, 
May 4, 181 1. His father's name was John Davy, and his 
mother's maiden name was Dorsey, being related to the family 
of that name in Maryland. His grandfather's name was also 
John. He emigrated from Wales in early days. 

H. D. Davy and Elizabeth Leatherman were married May 31, 
1832. She was a daughter of Elder John Leatherman, who 
moved from Maryland to Tuscarawas County, Ohio, where 
Elizabeth was born. Date unknown. Elder Davy was the 
father of fourteen children, ten of whom are yet living, namely, 
Catherine, wife of Elder Sidney Hodgden ; Ruth, widow of 
Samuel Clawson ; John L., Ezra J., W. W., Doctor Jesse P., 
Mary A. C, wife of William Gilmore ; Jacob A. (attorney), Henry 
D., Jr., and Elias S. 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 463 

Brother Davy's first wife died in 1850, and his second marriage 
occurred during the same year. His second wife, Catharine 
Bosteter, was also a member of the German Baptist Church. 

After his first marriage he moved to Delaware County, Ohio, 
then a wilderness, and cleared one hundred acres in a short time. 
He joined the Tunkers in 1838, and was baptized by Elder John 
Mulsbaugh. He was elected to the ministry in 1845, i n tne Owl 
Creek church, Knox County, Ohio, being the nearest organiza- 
tion to his home, and there he was called to the ministry at the 
same time with Brother Abraham H. Leedy. 

Elder Davy first served as moderator of annual meeting in 
1865, at Antietam, Pennsylvania, and continued to serve consec- 
utively, until 1876, a longer term than any other man has ever 
held the same office. He was the most dignified and efficient 
chairman that ever swayed the scepter over a Tunker conference. 
Being of a pleasant countenance, he could order a brother to take 
his seat, or inform him that he was out of order, without any 
danger of giving offense. He was a natural diplomat and 
peacemaker. 

In his home and community Brother Davy was regarded as a 
man of keen perception, with good foresight, honest convictions, 
and unflagging industry. He was strictly a self-made man, 
having had but three months' schooling, in the common schools 
of Ohio. Catharine and her husband, Mary A. C. and her hus- 
band, are members of the German Baptist Church ; and John L. 
and William W. belong to the Old German Baptist Church. 

From his sermons no one would have taken Elder Davy as an 
illiterate person, his spoken language being of good style, and his 
vocabulary above the ordinary of Tunker preachers. In the field 
of literature Elder Davy never made any pretense. His only 
effort in the line of books was in connection with Elder James 
Ouinter, in the compilation of the book of minutes of annual 
meetings. This work was not one of his own choosing, having 
been appointed to the duty by the conference of his church. 
With a liberal education Henry D. Davy would have been the. 
peer of the best men in any denomination in the country. 



464 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

In the general division of the Tunker Church Elder Davy 
chose the Old German Baptist Church, in which he served as 
moderator of their yearly meetings on several occasions. 

He died at his home near Fletcher, Miami County, Ohio, 
September 7, 1895, aged eighty-four years. His second wife 
died February, 1896, at the age of seventy-five years. 

ELDER SAMUEL KINSEY. 

Samuel Kinsey was a son of Joel and Elizabeth Kinsey, and of 
Virginia ancestry. His grandfather, Christian Kinsey, came 
from Virginia to Ohio in the early days of its settlement, and 
located in Montgomery County, about ten miles northeast from 
Dayton. 

When he came to Ohio, he settled on what is since known as 
the Troxel farm. This farm he cleared, and here he reared a 
family of five children. He remained here until he reached old 
age, and then removed to Whitley County, Indiana, where he 
died shortly after, at the age of seventy years. 

He was a consistent member of the Tunker Church, and a 
deacon for some years. 

Joel Kinsey, eldest son of Christian and father of Samuel, was 
born in Virginia, and was quite young when his parents came 
to Ohio. He was reared on the farm, and received such educa- 
tion as was available in the county at that early period. He 
remained on the farm with his father until he became of age, 
and soon after this united himself in marriage to Elizabeth Brum- 
baugh, who had formerly come with her parents from Pennsyl- 
vania, and settled in the same neighborhood. Shortly after their 
marriage they moved to Williams County, thence to and settled in 
Miami County, near Covington. Here he died at the age of 
thirty-three years, leaving his family with rather limited means. 

He was a member of the Brethren Church. His children were 
Samuel, Lydia, Noah, and David. 

Samuel Kinsey was born near Covington, May 25, 1832. 
After the death of his father he went to live with his uncle, Levi 
Kinsey, who resided near Clayton, Ohio. Here he received a 
common-school education. 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 465 

When fifteen or sixteen years old he commenced learning the 
carpenter's trade. A year or two later he went to Indiana, where 
he plied his trade in his own behalf. Here he was successful, 
and shortly after purchased a small piece of land, upon which he 
erected some buildings, and opened up a general country store. 
Shortly after, he succeeded in having a post-office located in the 
village of his adoption, Bloomfield. 

In 1852 he returned to Ohio, and married Barbara Nead, 
daughter of Elder Peter Nead. They were blessed with a fam- 
ily of thirteen children, namely, Mary E., Cynthia, Clarinda, Wil- 
liam N., Lydia, Sarah, Ellen B., Lucretia, Ida, Charles E., Jesse 
E., and Allen. 

Shortly after marriage they returned to Indiana, but remained 
only a year or two, when they sold their property and went back 
to Ohio. Here he took charge of his father-in-law's place, and 
farmed it for a share of the products. A few years later he pur- 
chased a small tract of land adjoining this. By economy and 
industry he added more from time to time, until he finally was in 
possession of a small home for himself and family. 

Being somewhat interested in horticulture, he began the propa- 
gation of nursery stock in a small way, as early as 1855. He 
did his own grafting and building at first. He was successful 
in his new undertaking, and increased his assistants from year 
to year. By persistent labor and perseverance, and by a system 
of fair and liberal dealing, he gained for his nursery a good repu- 
tation, which brought him increased trade from all over the 
country. At this time his business transactions and all shipping 
were done from Dayton, but by the construction of a new line of 
railroad in the year 1880, which touched at his place, he suc- 
ceeded in having located near his home a station, also a post- 
office and express office, designated as Kinsey, and thereafter all 
his business was transacted from this office. 

He and his wife were both members of the Brethren or Ger- 
man Baptist Church, having connected themselves with that 
denomination early in 1853. He was first elected by his church 
to the office of deacon, some time later to the ministry, and in 
1882 he was ordained elder. 

30 



466 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

In 1870 he, with the assistance of his father-in-law, Elder 
Peter Nead, established a religious monthly paper, called The 
I Indicator, which is still published in the interest of the Old 
German Baptist brethren. 

During the last eight or ten years of his life he gave the man- 
agement of his financial and business affairs largely into the care 
of his eldest son, William, and others, devoting his time princi- 
pally to his ministerial duties and other church work. He mani- 
fested a deep interest in the welfare of the church, and labored 
much in the cause of his Master. He was called from his home 
much, and the remainder of his time was devoted to corre- 
spondence and editorial work on his paper. 

He ever contended for the ancient principles and faith of the 
gospel, as taught by our Saviour, held forth by the apostles, 
and handed down to us by the fathers through the church. 

He was opposed to the changing of the observances of the 
house of God, and also to the introduction into the church of new 
things, which in their nature were contrary to the sanction of 
holy writ, claiming that these innovations would engender pride, 
and thereby cause the church to deviate from the true principles 
of Christianity. 

When the German Baptist Church divided, in 1881, in conse- 
quence of the introduction into her of some new issues and the 
agitation of others, Elder Kinsey stood with the old-order branch 
of the church, laboring with them faithfully in the cause of the 
truth until his death. 

During his connection with the brethren he wrote several 
books and pamphlets on various subjects of Scripture, some of 
which are these: "The Pious Companion," "The Parable of the 
Supper," "Forward and Backward Mode of Baptism," "Plain 
Remarks on Light-mindness." 

He died at his home after a short illness of about two weeks, 
with hemorrhage of the lungs, June 8, 1883, aged fifty-one years 
and twelve days, leaving a widow and eleven children. 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 467 

ELDER PETER NEAD. 

Peter Nead was born of Lutheran parents, at Hagerstown, 
Maryland, January 7, 1796. He was a son of Daniel Nead, a 
farmer and the owner of a tannery. His mother died when he 
was quite young. His Grandfather Nead was yet living, and 
took a great interest in his grandson, and offered to educate him 
for a Lutheran minister. But Peter was not so inclined, and did 
not accept his offer. He was sent to school, and acquired what 
was at that time considered a good education. 

He had three brothers who lived to manhood, Matthias, Daniel, 
and John. Matthias was a Lutheran. He lived and died in 
Greencastle, Pennsylvania. Daniel and John were both Tun- 
kers, and labored in the ministry. Both died in Tennessee. 

Peter was first a Methodist, and served as a class-leader. But 
he seemed not satisfied with the Methodist faith, and for several 
vears he stood alone, during which time he went about preaching, 
traveling from place to place, making appointments where they 
admitted him. He kept a record of his travels and appointments 
connected with his labor during these few years. 

About this time there chanced to fall into his hands a pamphlet, 
written by Elder Benjamin Bowman, title not known, from which 
he first learned of the Tunkers. He was much pleased with the 
doctrines and ideas advanced in this little work, and he deter- 
mined, if possible, to find those people, and learn something more 
about them. Accordingly, he made his way into a settlement 
of the brethren, and attended one of their communions. Here, 
upon learning farther of the doctrine as held forth by the breth- 
ren, and seeing how strictly they observed the ordinances of the 
New Testament, he concluded that these were the humble fol- 
lowers of the Lord, and so made application for admission into 
the church, and was received. 

He had not been a member of the church very long until he 
was elected to the ministry. The preaching of the brethren at 
this time was mostly in the German language, but a desire began 
to be manifested for the English also, and, as Brother Nead spoke 



468 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the English, his labors were much sought. In fact, for a long 
time he went by the name of the "English Preacher." 

About this time he became acquainted with Elizabeth Yount, 
of Broadway, Rockingham County, Virginia. They were mar- 
ried December 20, 1825. Here he settled, and carried on the 
tannery business, teaching school in the winter seasons. In the 
year 1833 ne wrote his "Primitive Christianity," which he had 
printed at Staunton, Virginia. It was one among the first 
books written by the brethren, perhaps the very first of its size, 
and as it treated of the ordinances of the Lord's house and the 
first principles of the gospel in a plain and comprehensive man- 
ner, it met with pretty general circulation, and did much to 
enlighten the minds of those who read it, and was, no doubt, the 
means of bringing a number to a knowledge of the truth. 

In 1840 he moved to Augusta County, Virginia, where he lived 
about three years, and then moved to Botetout County, where he 
remained about five years. 

In 1845 ne wrote a pamphlet treating on "Baptism for the 
Remission of Sins; Faith Alone, and Prayerless Doctrine Con- 
sidered; The Present State of the World, Corrupted Christen- 
dom, and the true Church of Christ." This he had printed at 
Fincastle, Virginia. 

In 1848 or 1849 ne moved to Ross County, Ohio, but remained 
only a few months, when he moved to Montgomery County, set- 
tling first in the district of the Bear Creek congregation near 
Trotwood, and a little later in the district of the Lower Still- 
water church, locating on a farm nine miles northwest of Dayton, 
where he remained until his death. 

In 1850 he compiled his book, "Nead's Theology," which com- 
prised his first works, with an addition of sixty-seven pages, 
making it a volume of four hundred and seventy-two pages. Of 
these works two editions have been printed. The book has been 
much called for, and the last edition is now exhausted. 

In 1866 he wrote his book entitled "Wisdom and Power of God 
as Displayed in Creation and Redemption." This work is still 
in stock. 



OLD GERMAN BAPTISTS. 4 6 9 

For nearly thirty years he resided at one place, and almost his 
entire time during this period was spent in the cause of his Mas- 
ter, attending meetings for preaching and meetings for business. 
He was considered an able counselor, and hence was often called 
from home to church councils. 

His one great concern was for the church and her welfare, and 
he labored constantly to this end, even to the last. 

It was principally through his efforts and suggestions that the 
publication called Vindicator was started, so that through its 
pages the firm and faithful might have a medium to combat the 
numerous innovations that were being introduced into the church 
contrary to his views. His articles in the Vindicator were 
headed, "Restoration of Primitive Christianity." 

His voice was loud and strong, and his discourses were inter- 
esting and edifying. He had a good, strong mind, so far as the 
Scriptures were concerned. His vision was excellent, and he 
never had occasion to wear glasses. 

He had four children. Samuel, the eldest, moved to Indiana, 
and is a farmer. Daniel practiced law at Dayton. He died in 
1862. Mary died in 1889. Barbara is still living on a part of 
the farm where her father died, near Kinsey. 

He had good health until his last illness, which was of short 
duration. He died of erysipelas, March 16, 1877, aged eighty- 
one years two months and nine days. 

I was personally acquainted with Peter Nead, and distinctly 
remember his first visit to my father's. It was some time 
between 1844 and 1847, wnen we lived on tne Dnickamiller 
place, two miles south of Martinsburg, Pennsylvania. When he 
bade mother good-bye, she sent her love to Sister Nead, saying 
she supposed she would get very lonesome during his long visit 
from home, to which he replied, "I have a little wife, but she has 
a big heart." 



CHAPTER XIV 
BRETHREN CHURCH— HISTORICAL 

Transitional — This period will parallel with the prehistoric, in 
the history of the Tunkers. It may be said to have begun with 
the publication of the Gospel Visitor, the first publication in the 
brotherhood since the days of Christopher Saur. It was first 
regularly issued during the year 18*51, eight pages, octavo, 
monthly. It was a small affair, indeed, compared with the 
religious weeklies of the present time, but it was a mighty engine 
among our people. It afforded the three essential elements of 
success to every public cause, — acquaintance, communication, and 
cooperation. Although but a youth, and not yet a member of 
the church, I distinctly remember my emotions on first sight and 
handling of our church paper, and with what interest I read 
every column. What it was to me it was to all young Tunkers 
of like tendencies. If the paper was not so well adapted to 
our fancies, our fancies were adjusted to our reading matter, 
which was, perhaps, just as it should be, even in this enlightened 
age with its abundant literature. With the appearance of the 
Visitor was ushered in the progressive era in the Tunker Church. 
It was so prophesied by its opposers, and we must do them the 
honor of stating that they were true prophets, in this case. Most 
of them enjoyed its fulfilment, but many did not. 

One of the first tangible fruits of the progressive era that 
dawned upon these people was the publication of the Christian 
Family Companion, a weekly paper, published at Tyrone, Penn- 
sylvania, by Henry R. Holsinger, the first regular issue of which 
is dated January 3, 1865. Holsinger had served an apprentice- 
ship of one year in the office of the Visitor, at Poland and Colum- 
biana, Ohio. He never had been inside of a printing office, nor 
saw a type, before he entered the office to learn the trade. He 
had only the commonest of a common-school education, and no 
experience in composition before entering the Visitor office. 

(470) 









■■■ -:■■: ■":' ■ ..: 



JLOS- 



km 






a/3 




SCHOOLHOUSE No. 7, IN WHICH THE PROGRESSIVE BRETHREN HELD THEIR FIRST 
CONFERENCE AFTER THEIR EXPULSION BY THE ANNUAL MEETING 



472 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

He endeavored to persuade Elder Kurtz, the editor and propri- 
etor of the Visitor, to change the paper to a weekly, and give him 
a place on the staff. But Elder Kurtz did not think the time had 
yet come when a weekly paper could be supported by patronage, 
or sustained by original contributions to give it dignity. Besides, 
he had two sons who could manage the business if he should con- 
clude to launch out further. And so I returned to my home, 
in Morrison's Cove, Pennsylvania, and engaged in teaching 
school during the winters and working for the farmers in summer 
time, until the spring of 1863, when I purchased a newspaper 
office at Tyrone, Pennsylvania, and established the Tyrone Her- 
ald, in the interests of the new Republican party. That was 
during the darkest days of the Rebellion. However, I was fairly 
successful during the first eighteen months, and might have 
succeeded in the secular department, but politics was distasteful 
to my religious inclinations ; besides, I had a preference to direct 
a religious paper. Having had opportunity during my appren- 
ticeship to read much of the correspondence which came to that 
office, I was persuaded that a strong desire for a weekly paper 
prevailed in the brotherhood. I had also read in Elder Kurtz' 
waste-basket some communications which, while they may not 
have been very dignified, were interesting and spiritual. They 
were probably excluded from the columns of the Visitor for lack 
of room, or, more likely, because they required to be rewritten. 

And so, after obtaining the sanction of the middle district of 
Pennsylvania, in the spring of 1864, The Companion was sent 
out on the first of January, 1865. By previous prospecting with 
two specimen copies, a subscription list of four hundred and 
eighty-four names had been secured. No money was taken until 
the first number had been sent out. 

This paper met with remarkable success from the first number 
issued. The publisher, being conscious of his inability as a writer, 
offered inducements to his patrons to contribute to its columns. 
A free rostrum was announced for the discussion of all subjects 
pertaining to the welfare of the church. Any person who was 
able to communicate an idea to the comprehension of the editor 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 473 

was sure to appear in the paper. No matter how scrawling 
the handwriting, or how stammering his words, the article would 
be put into good shape. This feature was very encouraging to 
young authors, and old men who had experience in public speak- 
ing but none at all in writing. 

Another peculiarity of the paper was that every contributor was 
required to write under his own signature. In this way authors 
were brought face to face with each other, and required to meet 
the issue of their individual productions. The first work under- 
taken was to remove certain hindrances to the prosperity of the 
church. As in the case of the young prophet Josiah, it appeared 
that the book of the law had been lost in the rubbish of tradition. 
It was imperative that this dead weight be removed before the 
light of intelligence could shine upon the sacred page with such 
brilliancy as to reflect into the hearts of mankind. One of these 
hindrances was called "avoidance ;" for a full description of the 
meaning of the term see Glossary. This was no easy task, as it 
was an ordinance of the church of long standing, and in great 
favor with a certain class of church dignitaries. An educated 
ministry was advocated, and with it an approximate support of 
the ministry. 

In fact, the church was in great need of reformation. One 
unfortunate feature in the state of the church at this time was 
that the congregations were in the care of incompetent bishops. 
By incompetence insufficiency is meant in literary attainments, 
and all such shortcomings as may result from such condition. 
And no one suffered more personal humiliation from this state 
of affairs in the church than the writer. And we doubt whether 
any other person in the brotherhood had equal opportunity of 
knowing the facts as they existed, being the editor of the only 
weekly paper at that time. We had letters of a business char- 
acter from almost every bishop, relating to some feature of church 
work, from every housekeeper, or some deputy into whose con- 
gregation the paper circulated. And those who did not take the 
paper could safely be set down as prejudiced or uninformed. 

I can even now close my eyes and name a dozen churches with 



474 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

whose elders I was personally acquainted who could not read 
intelligently a chapter from the Bible or a hymn from a hymn- 
book, nor write an intelligent notice or announcement of a com- 
munion meeting for the paper. Some of them could deliver a 
pretty fair discourse in an extemporaneous way, more or less 
satisfactory to the people of the community in which they lived, 
but the more discreet of them could not attempt to preach at a 
strange place or in a town. Morally, they stood among the very 
best people in the community. They were honored of all men, 
independent of party, sect, or caste, for honesty, truthfulness, 
integrity, hospitality, and general benevolence. Had they been 
enabled to live the same Christian life in the private ranks, it would 
have been said of them, ''Behold, a perfect and an upright man, 
one that feareth God and escheweth evil." Job I : 8. But the 
very fact that he was a bishop, with all the virtues of a good man 
and none of the qualifications of his official standing, militated 
against him, and in many cases entirely destroyed his official 
influence. The office of a bishop carries with it more than piety 
and spirituality, even according to the sacred oracles. It bears 
with it a fitness to teach and a capability to use sound doctrine, 
to exhort and to convince gainsayers. And even more so accord- 
ing to the usages of church and in religious literature. When a 
Methodist bishop comes into a community everybody is expect- 
ant, and nobody is disappointed, because no Methodist minister 
can become a bishop unless he can preach anywhere. This rule 
is inflexible, and so it ought to be, for the Word of God declares 
that a bishop "must be fit to preach." The Tunker people appear 
to have lost sight of the essential qualifications of this important 
official. It may, indeed, have been that men with the proficiencies 
under consideration were hard to find in most of the churches, but 
the fact remained that they were not sought for nor accepted 
when pointed out or nominated. There were other essentials, in 
the estimation of the board of examiners, which was always a 
council of elders, more readily found and more willingly accepted. 
It was called "the order of the church," particularly in dress. 
I have it from the lips of an elder of no mean repute, who served 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 475 

on the standing committee, and other important committees 
appointed by annual meeting, that if he were required to give the 
casting vote between two brethren with equal qualification as to 
spirituality and moral character, the one a man of learning and a 
preacher of eloquence, but who did not conform to the order in 
wearing his hair and clothing, and another who did conform to 
the order but could not preach, he would unhesitatingly accept 
the latter. 

I remember one occasion, a love-feast in Somerset County, 
Pennsylvania, where fourteen bishops sat behind the table, and 
yet they pressed a second-degree minister who could not possibly 
have been ordained, to do the preaching. Similar incidents, 
varying only in number, were common in different parts of the 
brotherhood. 

Such men as those just described composed the examining 
board for the candidate to the eldership in ninety-nine cases out 
of one hundred. 

From this description the reader may form a pretty correct 
idea of the chances of promotion to an aspirant with short hair 
or store-bought garments and a worldly education with a godly 
life and holy conversation. From this grade of elders the stand- 
in^ committees of the general conference were elected, for none 
except ordained elders were eligible to the standing committees. 
From their ranks, also, were selected the members of the various 
committees sent to the churches by annual meeting. These, with 
the council of adjoining elders, constituted the consistory, and 
held the fiat of the Tunker power, from which there was no 
appeal. 

The state of affairs described above did not contribute much to 
the prosperity of the church, either numerically or spiritually. 
About all the additions came from the posterity of the member- 
ship. It is no wonder, therefore, that persons filled with church 
patriotism were greatly concerned for the welfare of the denom- 
ination. Neither is it to be wondered at that those who felt that 
the salvation of the church depended on the maintenance of the 
•order" or peculiar costume and habits of the fathers, should be 
greatly concerned lest the "landmarks" might be removed. 



476 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

The controversies were not confined to the church papers, but 
they were carried up to the district and national conferences, 
resulting in bitter personalities, envies, and, it is to be feared, 
hatred, until, sad to say, Christian affection and brotherly love 
were strangers in the camp of Israel. 

While we are not to measure ourselves by ourselves, yet I 
doubt whether any member of the Tunker fraternity deprecates 
more painfully the unkind expressions and bitter denunciations 
between brethren than did the writer. 

It was the intention, and much had been written on that line, 
to present a number of excerpts from editorials, communications, 
and addresses, illustrating the feeling of leading men during 
the transitionary state of the fraternity, when men's souls were 
tried. Upon more mature thought the conclusion was reached 
that the reader would be able to gather enough of the bitter from 
the various statements pertinent to the historical department, and 
will be glad to throw the mantle of charity upon the faults of 
our fathers. I must say, however, that if a prophet had foretold 
that the time would come when brethren would treat each other 
in the manner in which we were compelled to witness it, we would 
have replied in the language of Hazael, "Is thy servant a dog 
that he should do this great thing?" 

The first occasion which brought me prominently before the 
general conference was in 1867, in Carroll County, Maryland. 
The subject under discussion was that of ordaining deacons. 
The question had come up through the middle Pennsylvania 
district. When it was brought before the conference the dele- 
gate explained that no special opposition had been raised against 
sending it to the annual meeting, and that Brother H. R. Hol- 
singer had championed it. Thereupon Elder H. D. Davey, 
moderator, called on me to open the discussion. This I pro- 
ceeded to do deliberately, by stating that I had used but little 
argument at the district conference; had simply stated that it 
appeared that the duties demanded of the deacons were strikingly 
similar to those required of the "seven" referred to in Acts 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 477 

6: 1-8; and that the seven had been set apart to their work by 
laying on of hands, and therefore I was favorable to installing our 
deacons and ministers in the same manner. 

Immediately thereafter an old brother (if I am not mistaken, 
it was Abraham Flory, of Miami Valley) arose, and remarked 
that he was astonished that young brethren should advocate such 
ideas, since old Brother George Hoke, who is now dead, had so 
thoroughly explained the subject, and continued in the same 
irrelevant manner until the audience was thoroughly aroused. 
This had an exciting tendency, and quickly rising, I said that I 
could not understand why the old brethren did not kindly meet 
the arguments by Scripture quotations, or, in the absence of 
Scripture, produce the arguments which Brother Hoke had 
advanced, instead of giving shame for attempting to defend the 
plain reading of the Word of God. 

Then my father, Elder Daniel M. Holsinger, arose and 
appealed to me to be careful or I would ruin my business. This 
remark greatly agitated me. I sprang to my feet, and, raising my 
hands aloft, exclaimed, "Thank God, I am not bound to truckle 
to the prejudice of any man or set of men, for the sake of my 
business, as long as I have the use of these two hands wherewith 
to labor for the support of myself and family." 

By this time the audience was excited to the highest pitch. 
I never before or since witnessed such intensity of feeling in an 
assemblage. The council was held in a dense grove, and men 
and women wept aloud, and several voices shrieked so as to 
waken the echo. A committee was appointed (I can not say 
how), who waited on me, and endeavored to persuade me to 
apologize, to which I finally consented, and attempted to do at 
the close of the day, but friends declared that the apology was 
more aggravating than the original offense. It was, however, 
accepted, and so the matter was permitted to rest, and the 
answer given to the query was : "Inasmuch as it does not appear 
plainly to all the brethren that it was always the practice of the 
apostles to lay hands on those appointed to any special duty, we 



47§ HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

therefore think it best to make no change at present in the order 
of installing speakers and deacons in their offices." 

My experience is elsewhere described in the account of an 
effort to force a reporter upon the annual meeting, in Virginia, in 
the year 1869, which will not here be repeated. For the faults 
charged to me I was called up at next conference, which con- 
vened at Waterloo, Iowa, and the matter was satisfactorily 
arranged. 

And so the warfare was continued from year to year, until 
1873, when the burden appeared to have become too heavy to 
bear up under the load. Hence, I determined to unload the 
greater portion of it ; and right here it becomes me to state plainly 
and positively a fact which has not been generally known among 
our people. Reference is here made to the disposing of the office 
of the Christian Family Companion to Elder Quinter. It has been 
intimated and believed by many that the change was forced upon 
me, which is a mistake. I voluntarily sought an interview with 
Brother Quinter, and proposed to sell to him. It was unexpected, 
he having had no idea that I would part with the paper at any 
price ; and while he acknowledged that the terms offered were 
most reasonable, he still requested time for consideration, as it 
was a turn in church affairs for which he was not prepared. 
Time was willingly granted, for apparently I was more anxious 
to sell than he was to buy. Shortly upon the return to his home 
his acceptance of the proposition was received, and the bargain 
closed. 

The reasons for disposing of the business, as given to my 
successor, may be stated as follows : — 

I was tired of the constant friction between the church coun- 
cils and dignitaries and myself. At the annual meeting of 1873, 
for instance, not less than two full days were devoted to the 
opposition of measures and methods inaugurated and advocated 
by myself. To show the state of my mind at the time and under 
influences referred to, I will give an instance: — 

At the close of the conference I met a brother on the deserted 
ground, who spoke in the following language, "Do you know that 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 479 

the standing committee is holding a session, and is going to 
expel you from the church ?" I replied : "No, certainly not. The 
standing committee has adjourned." But he persisted and 
remarked, "You had better keep on the lookout." Soon after- 
wards another brother was met, who made the same remark. 
Now I began to feel a little uneasy; although knowing that no 
such action could then be taken, yet it indicated that something 
was brewing, especially after the stormy time encountered dur- 
ing the conference. Very shortly after the second brother had 
spoken to me I was told by another that I was wanted in the 
standing committee's room, at the house of Elder Lint. By this 
time I began to realize that something was going to be done, and 
with many misgivings stepped into the committee's room, but 
found only the moderator present with the members of a com- 
mittee of elders, which had met the local church some time 
before, and had left without finishing the business entrusted to 
them. I was involved in the business of the committee, and to 
meet my part of it had been invited before them, and Elder Davy 
had been requested to remain and present the matter to me, inas- 
much as I was considered a pretty hard case to manage. The 
matter was amicably disposed of, and I was sent out a free man, 
but the experience of the morning left an impression on my 
mind and heart which caused me to sacrifice the best business of 
my life, and which had cost years of toil and worry to establish. 
I hope this will put at rest forever the vain imagination and 
theories of friends and foes as to the cause of my remarkable 
and unexpected change of programme and unreasonable surrender 
of position and power. 

Elder Ouinter was purposely selected as my successor, for the 
reason that he was capable and conscientious. In our conver- 
sation preceding the purchase my reasons were candidly stated 
for making this sacrifice. He expressed himself as being able 
to realize my situation, and while the reasons did not appear to 
him as being sufficient for such a change, yet he could readily 
grant that they were to me of much more importance. 

The church was now practically without a free rostrum or a 



480 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

progressive organ, although Elder Quinter had agreed not to 
change the policy of the paper. And from his point of view he 
kept his agreement It is one thing to oppose a measure and 
quite another thing to advocate or promulgate a cause. Brother 
Quinter kept open the columns of the paper for the free discus- 
sion of all matters pertaining to church work, but he himself 
took no advance steps in the editorial department. It might be 
said that the place he occupied on the paper was to the church 
a kind of moderatorship or as governor to a steam engine, to pre- 
vent the velocity of the machinery to run at too high a speed. 

The only article I wrote for the paper that created any especial 
interest during Quinter 's administration appeared in the Com- 
panion, Vol. 10, page 502, and was entitled "A Serious Depart- 
ure," of which we make the following extract : — 

"Our correspondence from Philadelphia, in January last, called 
forth some just criticism, and which has been an incentive to 
the present article. The kind reproof of the sister who wrote 
upon the subject ('The Spreading of the Gospel') was very timely. 

"Our ministers are much to be blamed for the feeling and senti- 
ment of the church upon the duty of contributing to the support 
of those who minister in the word. They have been preaching 
so long and so much against 'hirelings/ a 'paid ministry,' 'money 
beggars,' 'extravagance,' etc., that a kind of fear, or conscien- 
tious scruple, takes hold of our congregations whenever a collec- 
tion is talked about. Indeed, I know of no other duty in which 
the brethren are so remiss as in that of giving, and those other 
duties that suffer per consequence. The cause of Christ is made 
to languish from very want of means, while the membership is 
being enriched in worldly effects by the thousands. Perhaps 
this may answer for Christianity, but I have not so learned Christ. 

"Brethren, I have wondered much how the opinion originated, 
and the prejudice became so strong and so common among us, 
against supporting our ministers. It can not have been so at the 
organization of the church. Their sentiments and principles 
were based upon the Word, the plainly-revealed Word of the 
Lord, and certainly no such dogma can be sustained by Scripture. 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 48 1 

Indeed, what astonishes me most at finding this sentiment among 
us, is the fact that there is no intimation in the Scripture against 
the membership giving to the minister, or the minister receiving 
from the people. Why, brethren, I would as soon undertake to 
reason away the anointing, feet-washing, the salutation, with 
other institutions held sacred among us, as to deny the duty of 
the church to support her ministry. 

"I mean, now, not simply to keep them from starving, when 
they have become old, and feeble, and blind, but I mean a 
living, healthful, working support, that will enable them to 
give as much of their time to the ministry of the Word as 
God and the church may demand, including time and facil- 
ities for reading and studying, in order to show themselves 
approved unto God, and enable them rightly to divide the Word 
of truth. This would be the reasonable conclusion, if there were 
no revelation upon the subject. But God has not left us without 
His testimony. Our Saviour says, 'The laborer is worthy of his 
hire.' And He says it to them and of His ministers. The apos- 
tle Paul reiterates this sentiment in the most emphatic language. 
And he wanted it understood that it was not only his opinion as 
a man, but that it was a doctrine founded upon the law. He 
urges that the passage, 'Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the 
ox that treadeth out the corn,' was not written only for the sake of 
the oxen, but 'altogether' for the sake of His ministers. But he 
makes a still stronger point when he says, 'If we have sown unto 
you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal 
things?' This alone should be enough. The apostle intimates 
that the carnal things are scarcely a fit recompense for the sowing 
of spiritual things. 

"Then he reminds them of the rights and privileges of the priests 
and those who ministered at the altar, under the old dispensation. 
If the reader will refer to Num. 18:8-15 and Deut. 18: 1-5, he 
will learn what the priests had a right to expect, and what it was 
the duty of the people to give. It was not a mere pittance. It 
was the best part, because it was the part that was an offering unto 
the Lord. This God gave unto His servants, and to their sons, 

31 



482 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and to their daughters, by a statute forever. 'What of it?' do 
you say ? There is this, and which I wish every sincere brother 
and sister to mark well, as a matter that is related to the salvation 
of the soul. The enlightened and inspired apostle Paul says : — 

' 'Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the 
gospel should live of the gospel.' 

"What could be plainer than this? As those who ministered 
about the temple lived of the things of the temple, and as those 
who waited at the altar were partakers with the altar, even so 
those who preach the gospel shall live of the gospel. Brethren, I 
have been tongue-tied and pen-tied long enough ! I can contain 
no longer! Here is a plain injunction of Holy Writ which we 
ignore! Heaven forgive us! I have been persuaded of this 
remission long ago, but the devil deterred me from making the 
declaration by words which he said he would put into the mouths 
of my brethren, viz., 'Yes, he wants to be paid !' But I have now 
obtained power, by the grace of God, in reading and meditating 
upon the following verse of Scripture: 'But I have used none of 
these things ; neither have I written these things that it should 
be so done with me, for it were better for me to die, than that 
any man should make my glorying void.' 

"In this case I think I feel like Paul, T would rather die than 
to have it truthfully said that I preached to make money. And 
as the truth of Christ is in me, no man shall stop me of this 
boasting. 2 Cor. 11 :io. I know there are those among us who 
desire occasion, just as there were in the days of the apostle 
(twelfth verse), but I want to cut it off from them. I am deter- 
mined, by the grace of God, that I will be chargeable to no man, 
or set of men. I desire nothing and refuse nothing; give and 
take. 

"But although I do so, in order that, like Paul, I may boast 
a little, nevertheless the Lord has ordained that those who preach 
the gospel shall live by the gospel. That is the scriptural rule, 
and those who abide by it are more to be admired in that par- 
ticular than those who do not, Paul and myself not excepted. 

"Now, brethren, I want no controversy upon the subject of 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 483 

supporting the ministry. Neither do I fear any. The subject 
is too plain. It is incontrovertible. God has decreed it, and the 
Scriptures have revealed it, that God's ministers shall live by their 
ministry. Of course there are those who will abuse their privi- 
leges. Of this the same apostle informs us. He calls them 
'false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into 
the apostles of Christ.' But those we meet in every place. 

"Henceforth I shall call for reform in this matter. As I said 
before, I am at a loss to know how such a sentiment obtained 
among us, which is so evidently unscriptural. And still more 
astonishing that our ministers, who profess to have nothing to 
preach but the Word (and, indeed, they have no authority to 
preach anything else), should proclaim that God's ministers must 
live by the labor of their own hands, when the Scripture declares 
that they shall live of the gospel. Yes, and some of our minis- 
ters have had this erroneous notion so thoroughly implanted into 
them as to bind their conscience, and make them afraid to accept 
the offerings which God had made His servants willing to give 
them. 

"Brethren, whence comes this conscientiousness? — Verily not 
from the teaching of God's Word. Let us return speedily to the 
old order, the Bible order. This was a departure unwarranted 
by the law of the Lord, and the sooner we amend, the better will 
it be for ourselves, and for the cause for the prosperity of which 
we are laboring." 

This article had a salutary effect upon the brotherhood at large. 
It did not arouse the opposition that had been expected, but it 
did have an astonishing number of reciprocal responses, and did 
much good to ministers and laity. 

In the meantime another weekly paper had been started, pub- 
lished by H. B. and J. B. Brumbaugh, at Huntingdon, Pennsyl- 
vania. It was called The Pilgrim. Both editors were pro- 
gressive in their views, but conducted their paper on the prin- 
ciple of policy, not so much for the sake of making money as to 
avoid friction. It required more than ordinary courage to dis- 



484 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

cuss religious subjects with the dignitaries of the church, some 
of whom were more dignified than responsive. 

Several other papers were introduced about the same time, for 
whose history see "Literature." Each one had its special theories 
to advocate, or rather to oppose, as Tunker literature is almost 
exclusively conducted in the negative. By reading the minutes 
of annual meetings it will De observed that many of the queries 
start in with, "Is it wrong?" etc. 

In the fall of 1878, Elder Joseph W. Beer and myself com- 
menced the publication of the Progresskr Christian, at Berlin, 
Pennsylvania, with the avowed purpose of advocating progressive 
measures and reforms. The publication did not meet with the 
patronage which was expected, partly for the reason that there 
were then six papers in the field. The paper was continued for 
about six months, when we became somewhat discouraged, and 
began to cast about for the cause of the failure. The annual 
meeting of 1879 had given the Progressive Christian a denuncia- 
tion, of which the following is an account : — 

Petitions had been sent up from northwestern Ohio, middle 
Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, first district of Virginia, and east 
Pennsylvania, demanding that "H. R. Holsinger shall make hum- 
ble acknowledgments for past mistakes, and faithful promises 
for the future," and some demanding the peremptory suppression 
of the paper and severe censure of the publishers. 

I can only give a few samples of the expressions used in the 
papers presented before the conference : — 

"Whereas, Brother H. R. Holsinger, and certain contributors 
to the paper he is publishing, have committed great offense to 
many brethren, publishing slanderous articles against the general 
order of the brethren, — for instance, in No. 11 of the Progressive 
Christian, in replying to D. P. Sayler on non-conformity to the 
world in dress, calling it 'Idolatrous Clothes Religion ;' there- 
fore, we ask annual meeting to stop such publications, as said 
publishers are sowing discord among their brethren, after the 
spirit of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram." 

"Will not the annual meeting suppress the superfluous number 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 485 

of periodicals now being published in the brotherhood, and sup- 
press the antiscriptural, from time to time." 

"Whereas, Some of our periodicals make expressions unbe- 
coming in reference to the government of the church and the 
transactions of annual meeting denouncing the system of 
sending delegates to annual meeting, or committees from the 
annual conference to settle difficulties in the churches, of which 
the paper called The Deacon has been guilty — and it is held by 
some brethren that the Progressive Christian is still worse — shall 
annual meeting suffer their conduct to continue, and thus open 
the door of mischief?" Answer, "No; and we call on annual 
meeting to bring them to order." 

After discussing the subject pro and con, for several hours, 
the following answer was offered by the standing committee: — 

"Whereas, Petitions were received from several districts, re- 
questing the annual meeting to prohibit slanderous and schismatic 
articles from being published in the Progressive Christian and 
Deacon; therefore, it is required that the editors of the Pro- 
gressive Christian, and particularly H. R. Holsinger, make an 
humble acknowledgment to the annual meeting for publishing 
erroneous statements in regard to the church's principles, charg- 
ing the church with idolatry, and stigmatizing some of its mem- 
bers with terms of reproach, ridiculing some of the practices in 
the church, and publishing inflammatory articles, some even from 
expelled members. 2. That the editors of the Vindicator and of 
the Deacon make satisfactory acknowledgment for writing and 
publishing similar articles as the Progressive Christian. 3. That 
Elders John Harshey, James Ridenour, and Howard Miller be 
required to render satisfaction to the annual meeting for writing 
schismatic articles. 4. That the editors of all the periodicals be 
required hereafter not to admit into their papers any article that 
will assail the doctrines of the church, in regard to non- 
conformity to the world, the personal character of ministers, or 
the peculiar tenets or practices of the church. In order that this 
decision may be fully carried out, which we are anxious to have 
done, we appoint a committee to carry them out." 



486 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Several restrictions were also offered to the Vindicator and the 
Deacon, as well as to a number of individual contributors, but 
the main object was the restraint of the Progressive Christian. 

In my defense before conference, I disclaimed any intended 
disparagement of the adopted practices and customs of the 
church, also declaring that what was said in regard to D. P. Say- 
ler could not properly be applied to the church as a people, and 
further continued, "We are losing the proverbiality for integrity 
that the church once possessed, when a Tunker's word was as 
good as his note." 

I claimed that by continually advocating externals to the 
neglect of the weightier matters of the law of God, the present 
state of affairs was produced ; that the preachers are to be blamed 
for it. They do not advocate with sufficient force and emphasis 
and frequency the peculiar doctrines of the Bible. I also opposed 
all sinful extremes in dress, and assumed that there is a happy 
medium, which was the position occupied by the progressive por- 
tion of the church, and that the principles of our holy religion 
require meekness, cleanliness, plainness, and modesty, and that 
any garment which comes within these restrictions is sustained 
by the gospel, and is acceptable to God, and may not be rejected. 
The ancient customs of the church should be respected, but ought 
not to be compared to the teachings of God's Word. 

Meanwhile other influences were at work producing favorable 
results. A few years after Elder Ouinter purchased the Christian 
Family Companion, he consolidated with the Pilgrim, taking into 
partnership Henry B. and John B. Brumbaugh. These brethren 
were as progressive as Holsinger, and so declared themselves. 
Each paper had also gathered around it an able force of contribu- 
tors and correspondents, which had been educated and trained dur- 
ing the past decade. The several efforts in the line of school work, 
although not a success, were nevertheless exerting an influence in 
favor of progress and reform, which must not be passed 
unnoticed. Their teachers and students were called to the min- 
istry, and occasionally one was advanced to the eldership, all of 
which added life and energy to the controlling" influences of the 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 487 

brotherhood. This was especially true in reference to the addi- 
tion of "young blood"' into the arteries of the eldership. These 
all made themselves felt in the state and general conferences, 
and especially were their labors manifest when these young 
elders took places on the standing committee. Other auxiliaries 
were found in the Sunday-school conventions and missionary 
societies, all of which were being recognized by annual meeting. 
And that was about all that the annual meeting was ever expected 
to do, — to permit, suffer, tolerate, and recognize measures, which 
had been introduced by individuals, congregations, or district 
meetings. 

The progress made in mission work in the Tunker fraternity 
is phenomenal. I very distinctly remember the time when all 
classes of missionary work and missionary societies were openly 
denounced by ministers of the denomination, as worldly institu- 
tions. At the present time the German Baptists alone have a 
mission fund, which has almost reached a half million dollars, and 
support home missions in the cities of New York, Brooklyn, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles, and 
in a number of the smaller cities and towns of the United States. 
She also supports foreign missions in Denmark, Sweden, Nor- 
way, France, Smyrna, India, and is contemplating the opening 
of churches at other places. And the Brethren Church, which 
has been operating as a separate denomination only about seven- 
teen years, has well-established churches in Philadelphia, Wash- 
ington, Hagerstown, Altoona, Johnstown, Pittsburg, Chicago, 
Waterloo, and numerous towns and smaller cities. I believe I 
am safe in stating that the Tunker fraternity, since the time of the 
first appearance of the Gospel Visitor, has increased in number 
and influence more than during the one hundred and fifty years 
of her previous existence. And she is just in her infancy in all 
reform movements. 

There is one special distinction which the author of this work 
claims, namely, an untarnished reputation in my home church and 
community. It was that which enabled me to withstand the 
attempt of enemies to assail my standing. And that attempt was 



488 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

the most bitter part of my experience during the church troubles. 
Nothing was more painful than the discovery that my own 
brethren were attempting in a clandestine manner to injure that 
standing in the church, through private letters. Nothing but an 
invulnerable reputation could withstand such an attack, but, 
thank God, although they were published broadcast in home 
papers, I came out of the furnace without so much as a smell of 
fire on my garments. The first and most painful experience was 
occasioned by a visiting elder from West Virginia, by the name 
of William Buckelew. 

I had been invited to attend a love-feast in the Middle Creek 
church, an adjoining congregation. The year before the occur- 
rence of the incident to which reference is made, I had performed 
a considerable amount of preaching in their territory, holding 
several protracted meetings, and at the council meeting on Satur- 
day baptized fourteen persons, and on Sunday forenoon and 
afternoon eight more, making twenty-two during the same visit, 
and also succeeded in settling several troublous church cases, 
which had greatly endeared me to the substantial members of the 
church. 

I therefore accepted the invitation to attend the communion 
with much pleasure, taking my daughter and one of the office 
helpers with me. I preached in the forenoon, and took some part 
in the afternoon services. Toward evening I was invited to a 
council room upstairs, where I met Brother Buckelew and several 
other members and elders, and was told that they had decided 
that I could not commune that evening. I inquired who had 
made the decision, and was told that the officials had held a coun- 
cil. I then remembered having observed some of the ministers 
with Buckelew in a fence corner of the church-yard, but attached 
little importance to it. The suddenness of the announcement 
and the outrageous nature of the assault completely unmanned 
me for the time, and, like a sheep before the slaughter, I was 
dumb with amazement. Buckelew said in answer to my objec- 
tion to the course of procedure and its illegality, that if I would 
commune he would not, to which several others assented. Had I 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 489 

not taken the matter so seriously to heart, but simply replied, "All 
right, brethren, I shall use my privilege and you may use yours, 
but I shall conduct the services, if necessary," and had exposed 
the trick before the whole congregation, which I should have 
done, I could have held half the membership of the church to 
the progressive cause. 

The direct cause of this assault was claimed to be the publica- 
tion of an article in the Progressive Christian, Vol. I, No. 25, 
which I give as follows : — 

IS THE STANDING COMMITTEE A SECRET ORGANIZATION? 

"The query at the head of this article has occurred to us fre- 
quently, and has been asked us as often, perhaps, but we were 
made to feel the importance of the question more than ever at 
our late annual meeting. For some reason, which we do not 
know whether we ought to reveal or not, we were invited to come 
before the standing committee. When we came to the door 
there was the door-keeper, just as there is at the lodge. As he 
knew we had been sent for, and being accompanied by the mes- 
senger, no password was asked for, neither would it have been 
at the lodge, under the same circumstances. So we walked in, 
and while we knew we were among brethren, we felt then as if 
we had stepped into a lodge room. We can not help it, brethren, 
we did feel it. We were but once in a lodge room in our life, and 
that was at our initiation. We had been deceived into it, by the 
statement that it was simply a society, and we never went back. 
That occasion was recalled when we stepped into the standing 
committee room, on the 5th inst. We presume, of course, those 
who are members of that committee, or those who often come 
before it, may feel differently ; but then we suppose one might 
also become accustomed to the lodge, so that there would be less 
of a feeling of timidity on entering it. 

"Now we do not wish to bring an accusation against the stand- 
ing committee of this year, or of any other year ; we simply want 
to know whether there is really any occasion for so much secrecy, 
or to assimilate our standing committee room to a secret lodge. 



490 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

If there can be any good reason assigned for it which would not 
also apply to societies for benevolent purposes, then we may be 
consistent ; but if the reasons for holding secret sessions of the 
standing committee would also be applicable to other societies 
intended for good, then we are hardly consistent in using secrecy 
ourselves and condemning it in others. 

" Perhaps it may not occur to every one in what particulars the 
meetings of standing committee are like lodge meetings, hence 
we will present a few of the most prominent similarities : — 

"i. It has a room to itself. 

"2. It has a door-keeper. 

"3. It holds its sessions with closed doors. 

"4. The representatives of the press are excluded. 

"5. It admits into its sessions only those of a certain degree, 
the third degree in the ministry. In this particular it reminds 
one of Royal Arch Masonry. 

"6. It has secrets of its own, which its members dare not reveal, 
at least so they tell us when we ask for reasons for certain of its 
doings. 

"Now, in these six particulars the workings of our standing 
committees are very similar to those of secret societies. And in 
view of this fact, and other facts set forth in the above, we call 
upon the more intelligent brethren who have been on the stand- 
ing committee to answer the question contained in the head of 
this article." 

After returning home from the annual meeting and discussing 
the works of conference, Brother Beer suggested that perhaps 
the paper was being conducted in too radical a spirit, while 
I thought it ought to be made radically progressive, inasmuch 
as there was no room for the expression of our views in any of 
the conservative papers ; that the people were tired of policy, and 
required and desired more principle in their instructions, both 
from the pulpit and through the press. 

This was the first occasion when we two men disputed on a 
course of procedure in our business relations of more than ten 
years, and this dispute was not upon the merits of the case, but 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 491 

as a matter of business policy. After talking over the matter, I 
proposed to sell my interest in the paper and rent the office to 
Beer, that he might test his policy proposition. The transfer 
was made accordingly, and the course of the paper was changed 
in accordance with the views of its new management. I con- 
tinued to contribute to the paper in such articles as were deemed 
consistent. 

Toward the close of the year Brother Beer discovered his mis- 
take, and when subscriptions were being solicited for the follow- 
ing year, found himself hopelessly swamped, and discontinued 
its publication. It had been a verbal contract that if the paper 
were wrecked by the change of policy, I was to have the ruins. 
The paper lay dead until May, 1880, when it was resurrected by 
Howard Miller, and conducted in the name of Holsinger and 
Miller. Miller remained on the editorial staff only about 
two months, when I became editor, publisher, and proprietor. 
No other changes occurred in the management of the paper until 
after the committee had recommended the expulsion of its editor. 

In the meantime I had been ordained to the office of bishop. 
About the same time the old Brothers' Valley church was sub- 
divided into four separate congregations. They were called 
Berlin, Stony Creek, Brothers' Valley, and Somerset churches. 
I was unanimously chosen elder of Berlin and Stony Creek, and 
by a large majority of the Somerset church. This elevation to 
position in the church created alarm in the ranks of the Tunker 
episcopacy, for, said they, "Now he is a bishop, and eligible to 
the standing committee, and if he should ever get on that com- 
mittee, there would be no end of trouble." Accordingly, the 
elders set to work to avert this danger by writing personal letters 
to the leading men in their several localities, where it was thought 
it was mostly required. I will give one letter as a sample. It 
came into my hands in a legitimate manner. Both the writer and 
the recipient of the letter are long since dead, as are also most of 
the brethren referred to in the communication. As I dictate 
this historv I am made to wonder whether, if they were yet living, 



492 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

after having seen and heard and felt what we have experienced, 
they would pursue the same course and in the same manner. 

By way of introduction to the letter, I want to say that Brother 
Jacob Miller was a warm personal friend of mine and a school- 
mate of my father, and although he remained in fellowship with 
the conservative party, he did not favor the harsh measures used 
to enforce the discipline of the church, and especially was not in 
sympathy with the method of accomplishing their purposes. 
This is evident from the fact that he suffered the letter to fall 
into my hands without any special reservation. It is also proper 
to say that the two Miller brethren were not kinsmen. 

LETTER FROM ELDER MOSES MILLER. 

"Mechanicsburg, Pa., Dec. 10, 1881. 

"Elder Jacob Miller, Greeting — Dear Brother in Christ; 
Your letter came to hand on Wednesday. I am very glad to 
hear from you, but sorry to learn that you were not well. So it is 
in this world, we have our afflictions, troubles, and sorrows to 
pass through. But if we love God they will all work for our 
good. ... I expect to go to upper Cumberland this after- 
noon. I wish to visit Brother Daniel Keller and others, and 
may stay three or four days and have some meetings. We 
are only some eighteen miles apart, but do not get together often. 

"Well, Brother Jacob, I had for several weeks past thought to 
write to you and Brother John W. Brumbaugh, and D. M. Hol- 
sing-er also, about our church troubles. As far as I know, in our 
valley there is not much trouble until we get to Antietam and 
Falling Springs. There the division is made, and it is a bad 
work, and I think there was no need for it. If the brethren had 
called the proper help, and worked together according to the 
gospel and usages of the brethren, those churches I do think 
could have been saved. I fear it is now too late. Of course 
Beaver Dam, in Maryland, is divided. And, my dear brother, 
you must not believe every spirit. Those Miami brethren 
(seceders) even in their Vindicator say things about annual 
meeting and otherwise that are not at all true. They have much 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 493 

to say about old order, and are down on having more than one 
order in washing feet. Now I have it from Maryland that when 
they were in from Ohio (Cassel, Seiler, Flory, and others), and 
effected a union with the cut-off party at Beaver Dam, the Ohio 
men were strong for not having the supper on the table at time 
of washing feet. So Beaver Dam yielded to have it off, also, 
but insisted on having lamb or mutton for supper. So they 
agreed when the Miami folks came to them they must eat mut- 
ton. But when Beaver Dam goes to Miami they must eat beef. 
Well, it looks nice, but they have two orders already, and I see 
more difference in these two orders than in some things they con- 
demn annual meeting for. But which of the two modes they call 
old order I don't know. I am much in favor of the old order, 
but it should be the order of the gospel, and that I think will 
stand. 

"As for Daniel Mentzer's letter, I do not credit all he says. I 
had a number of papers sent me, and they are sometimes too one- 
sided. For instance, in one they said that the Miami elders had 
investigated why they were expelled, and when they heard it they 
gave them credit that they had done as they did. You would 
always wish to hear both sides before you would decide. 

"But what I had thought to write to you and others is this : 
I fear the Huntingdon and some others are rather helping to 
drive off some to the Miami faction. You know a few years ago 
annual meeting decided that brethren should not have Sunday- 
school conventions. Soon after that Quinter and the Brum- 
baugh s had a program published about Sunday-school conven- 
tion. Last annual meeting it was decided that the brethren 
should not call their colleges or schools the Brethren's School. 
As soon as the report came it had a picture on the cover of the 
school building, and at the top, 'The Brethren's Normal.' What 
does my Brother Jacob think of this? The very brother that 
wrote and printed the decision of annual meeting, to violate or 
transgress it first. 

"That is not all. In August attended a Sunday-school con- 
vention and giving their proceeding in the paper, calling H. R. 



494 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

Holsinger brother, who, I hold, is legally expelled; and mixing 
in with him and a ring of dandy members. How can you old 
brethren, who are so near James Quinter, let it pass ? This will 
drive others over to the secessionists. I wish you would see 
]. W. B. and D. M. Holsinger, and others if you can. There 
must be something done in this matter by our next district meet- 
ing. Let us not be like the watchmen in Isaiah 56, 'Dumb dogs 
that can not bark.' We must do something to save the middle 
or main body of the church. Miami Valley has done what the 
south did twenty years ago, — seceded, and the progressionists 
must be dealt with. But we must do our duty, so we do not help 
to scatter or drive away. And I see no way but to prefer charges 
against those who do transgress or violate the decisions of annual 
meeting and the gospel. And in such cases as I referred to, to 
bring strong queries with good answers from the churches at 
home to district meeting, and, if necessary, to annual meeting. 
But we must act in this matter, for the seceders and the pro- 
gressionists are busy working, and in my humble judgment both 
sides are. wrong. 

"Read or give this to Brother John Replogle, and then to the 
elders at Clover Creek, and where you think best. I am not 
a very good writer, but hope you can read and understand. My 
advice to the churches would be to stand firm by the gospel and 
the established order of the church, hoping by and by the storm 
will be over. I would not invite progressionists to preach for us, 
such as look for a dollar a day or more, and their way paid, or 
a gathering at district meeting for them. I think my dear 
brethren will understand me. Pardon me if I should be wrong. 
With my best love to you and sister, and the members with you, 
I remain, Your well-wishing brother, 

"Moses Miller/' 

In a postscript to the above letter Elder Miller adds that he 
had written so many letters that he had already broken on the fifth 
package of envelopes since January I, besides a number of postal 
cards. 

During the period of 1880-81, the old-order element formu- 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 495 

lated rapidly toward separate organization, having had the 
advantage of several conferences, through which they had gained 
influence and passed laws which they were determined to enforce 
upon the progressive part of the brotherhood. In fact, the old- 
order element was intolerant, to the extreme of persecution, 
which they carried out as far as possible in a country of religious 
freedom. It was interesting to observe how they squirmed after 
the tables were turned and it was measured to them as they had 
measured to others. While in many things I was in sympathy 
with the old-order brethren because of their consistency, as a mat- 
ter of fact they were the indirect source of all my trouble and 
persecutions. They furnished the ammunition, while the con- 
servatives fired the guns, not intending to injure anybody. I 
grant them the credit of having been sincere in their motives, but 
sadly mistaken as to the matter itself. 

It is astonishing to observe what changes have been made 
since I came into the arena of public church work, and still more 
astonishing to contemplate the fact that nearly every effort put 
forth toward progress was opposed by many of the brethren who 
are now its friends, and a few of whom are even enjoying the 
accruing opportunities and advantages. 

The trouble was finally brought to a focus at the annual meet- 
ing of 1881, at Ashland, Ohio. At that conference no less than 
five district meetings presented strictures against the Progressive 
Christian or its editor. They originated in northern Illinois, 
southern Missouri, southern Ohio, and southern Indiana, all 
strong old-order territory. I quote the first entire to confirm the 
assertion made that the opposition came from the old-order 
brethren : — 

"Inasmuch as Brother H. R. Holsinger has been admonished 
by the annual meeting again and again, according to the minutes 
of annual meeting, to cease to publish articles conflicting with 
the general order of the old brethren and good feeling of the 
church, and still continues to do the same, we now request annual 
meeting to deal with him according to Matthew 18, and the 
decisions of annual meeting, either directly or by a committee, 



496 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and if he does not hear the church, hold him as a heathen man 
and a publican." 

The second stricture came from northern Illinois, which reads 
as follows : — 

"Is it right for brethren to publish papers like the Progressive 
Christian and Vindicator, creating and fostering strife by publish- 
ing articles against the established order of the church ? And if 
not right, what is to be done with brethren that publish such a 
paper or papers?" 

"Answer — Not right for brethren to publish such a paper or 
papers, and any brother or brethren that publish such a paper or 
papers, shall make an humble acknowledgment for so doing, 
and promise not to publish such articles any more in the future, 
said acknowledgment and agreement to be published in their 
paper or papers." 

In this query the Vindicator is included as a stroke of policy. 

The third came from southern Missouri, another old-order 
stronghold. This query is equally strategic, but fraught with 
less policy. I quote only main parts of the queries and answers, 
as follows : — 

"Is district meeting favorable to calling the attention of annual 
meeting to the character of the Progressive Christian, and require 
Brother Holsinger, its editor, to cease publishing articles of criti- 
cism on annual meeting and its decisions, and publishing his own 
articles advocating measures calculated to subvert the principles 
and rules of order of our brotherhood, in matters of plainness of 
dress, etc. ?" 

"Anszver — This district meeting requests annual meeting to 
decide that the Progressive Christian and all like papers, purport- 
ing to be published by a member of the Brethren Church, do not 
reflect the spirit and principles of the church of Christ. We also 
look with sorrow upon the tendency to levity and jesting through 
the papers, and beseech writers and teachers to avoid the degrad- 
ing habit, and to remember I Thess. 5:6, 8 ; Eph. 5:4; 4 : 29 ; 
Titus 2:2, 12 ; 1 Peter 1:13:4:7, and 5 : 8. 

"And we further desire that annual meeting require Brother 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 497 

H. R. Holsinger to make confession for having violated the law 
of God in the manner in which he had conducted his paper." 

The fourth query came from southern Ohio, and is as fol- 
lows : — 

"Whereas, H. R. Holsinger is publishing articles in his paper 
which have a tendency to bring about discord among the 
brethren, and have a bad influence outside of the brotherhood, we 
request, therefore, that a committee be appointed whose duty 
it shall be to take notice of that paper, and if articles still con- 
tinue to appear contrary to the faith and practice of the church, 
that it shall be their duty to bring said Holsinger to an account 
as in their judgment they may deem proper and right." 

"Answer — This meeting asks the annual meeting to grant and 
appoint the committee herein asked for, that it may carry out 
the decisions of 1879, Article 16." 

The fifth originated in northern Illinois, of which I quote the 
following : — 

"Whereas, H. R. Holsinger, editor of the Progressive Chris- 
tian, is publishing unchristian and often untruthful reflections 
upon brethren, and also publicly charging them with being 
untruthful ; and, 

"Whereas, The tendency of such publications is to encourage 
disorder and misrule among the churches, affecting the peace 
and prosperity of local churches ; and, 

"Whereas, The churches of the south Missouri district unite 
their efforts with all the churches of our general brotherhood 
towards preserving the long-established order of church fellow- 
ship ; will, therefore, district meeting consider whether H. R. 
Holsinger can be recognized as a brother, conducting the Pro- 
gressive Christian, and to declare whether he can assist in gen- 
eral church work, or to serve on the standing committee?" 

"Answer — We view with fear the course pursued by H. R. 
Holsinger, in the manner of conducting his paper and of the 
principles he advocates, and we are unanimous in the conviction 
that it should be declared that we can not regard him as a brother, 
and that he should be excluded from all participation in general 

32 



498 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

church work, and we place these our convictions in the hands of 
the standing committee, to act in the premises as to them appears 
to be necessary." 

These several queries and answers were declared to be the 
property of conference. A motion was made by Elder Joseph 
Kauffman, seconded by P. J. Brown, that the meeting appoint 
a committee to take charge of the papers, and report to this 
meeting again. 

R. H. Miller then remarked that although he was a member 
of that body he would prefer to have the papers put into the 
hands of the standing committee if the brother would withdraw 
his motion. After further remarks by J. P. Ebersole and S. Z. 
Sharp, Brother Miller said, "It is said my motion was seconded," 
to which S. Z. Sharp responded : "I made a motion to amend, 
and it was seconded. My amendment is that instead of refer- 
ring it to the standing committee, which has more work than it 
can do, a committee be appointed, composed of delegates, and 
thus relieve the standing committee from the pressure of labor." 
By that time R. H. Miller had lost himself, and made the fol- 
lowing statement : "When there is one motion and seconded 
before the house it is not in order to make another motion. I 
made a motion and that brought it before the house. Brother 
Sharp made another motion, and that motion can not come before 
the house without I accept it." 

The facts are that Kauffman and Brown had introduced the 
motion, and Miller was out of order himself. Other irrelevant 
remarks were made by different parties, including the moderator, 
who stated, quoting from the authorized report, that if the 
meeting was to be carried on strictly in accordance with parlia- 
mentary usages it would be under the absolute necessity of elect- 
ing another moderator. He plead ignorance of such rules. 

The above remark by the moderator suggested the following 
thoughts, which I offered, and which were apparently well 
received by the audience : — 

"Inasmuch as we do not understand a great deal about parlia- 
mentary rules, I would suggest that we decide this matter upon 



JJKETHREx\ CHURCH HISTORICAL. 499 

the principle of Christian courtesy, and therefore, that this stand- 
ing committee, upon the principles of Christian courtesy, will 
appoint a committee from the delegates sent here by the various 
district meetings, to take these papers in charge, and consolidate 
them into a query with an answer, to be presented to this 
meeting." 

John Wise also preferred to have the papers placed into the 
hands of the standing committee, as he believed that was in 
accord with the general order of the brotherhood. After some 
further discussion a motion prevailed that the papers be sub- 
mitted to a committee of elders, and they report to the standing 
commtitee, and the standing committee report to the public 
council. The following persons were appointed on the com- 
mittee : S. S. Mohler, Abraham Miller, Daniel Vaniman, Joel 
Neff, D. E. Price, C. Bucher, George W. Cripe, John Brillhart, 
and John Smith. 

The committee laid its report before the conference at the after- 
noon session of the third day, which is as follows : — 

"We the undersigned members of the committee appointed to 
consider charges against H. R. Holsinger and Samuel Kinsey, 
find that H. R. Holsinger is publishing a paper in which many 
articles have appeared criticising the work of annual meeting, 
and against the order of our government, as also against our 
order of observing the gospel principle of non-conformity to the 
world in wearing apparel, after having been again and again 
admonished by our annual meeting to be more guarded in his 
publications, and promised to do so, which promise he has not 
performed, but has continued his former course with increased 
effort. We therefore recommend that this meeting appoint a 
committee to wait on him in his church, and deal with him 
according to his transgressions. 

"S. S. Mohler, Abraham Miller, Daniel Vaniman, Joel Neff, 
D. E. Price, C. Bucher, John Smith, John Brillhart, G. W. Cripe." 

The report of the committee was then put on its passage. In 
the discussion I made the following remarks : — 

"I notice that these two papers end so differently, I would like 



500 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

to ask the reason for it. In my case you say, 'Deal with him ac- 
cording to his transgression/ and in Brother Kinsey's, 'as his case 
may demand.' There is a discrimination here that looks to me 
not exactly fair. You see Brother Kinsey confesses he is trying 
to maintain the old order and gets into trouble, and I am trying 
to maintain the gospel order, and get into trouble." 

To this John Wise made the erroneous reply : "I wish to call 
Brother Henry's attention to one fact: The papers were in the 
hands of two different committees." 

This was so evidently erroneous that I could only remark, 
"Brother Wise, will you please look up another excuse," and then 
proceeded to say : "I am certain that I do not have a fair show- 
ing. There are some stray copies of my paper sent all over the 
brotherhood. Some articles are marked, calling the attention to 
their offensiveness as understood by the sender, while the reply 
to, or corrections of, said article never reaches the same party. 
The objections to my paper generally come from parties who are 
not regular readers, but only see an occasional copy sent to 
them for especial purpose. Hence, my strongest opposition 
comes from those who know the least about the Progressive 
Christian. In conclusion, I plead for at least one man on my 
committee who was a regular reader of my paper, through whom 
I might expect an intelligent representation of my cause." 

It was all to no effect, however, and the following committee 
was appointed, and which is known in Tunker history as "The 
Berlin Committee :" John Wise, Enoch Eby, David Long, Joseph 
Kauffman, and Christian Bucher. 

I wish here to call the attention of the reader to several incon- 
sistencies in the foregoing proceedings : — 

First. One district complains that I had charged certain 
brethren with untruthfulness, and in the same sentence publicly 
charges me with having published "unchristian and untruthful 
reflections." 

Second. To the lack of proof or evidence to establish the 
charges made against me. And so it was through my entire 
trial. It appears that the case was conducted on the presump- 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 501 

tion that, since I was in the minority, I must be in the wrong, and 
as they were in the majority and had the power over me, they must 
be right, without further evidence. I do not know what testi- 
mony was produced before the committee at Ashland, who had 
the complaint and formulated the charge against me, and I am 
certain nobody else can tell. It is evident that there was none 
brought before the conference by its absence. Not a copy of my 
paper was brought before conference nor a single article read 
before annual meeting in testimony of the accusations made 
against me. The same is true of the Berlin committee meeting, 
and at the Arnold's Grove annual meeting, when I was dis- 
owned. I do not mention these matters in the spirit of com- 
plaint, but as a remarkable fact in the history of an important 
case. It would certainly have made the case much stronger 
against me if the damaging articles alluded to in the complaint 
had been read before the council from my paper. That they 
existed is presumed, but presumption is not evidence, and if they 
existed, that they were available goes without saying. 

The committee visited the Berlin church on the 9th day of 
August, 1881, and, after a sitting of two days, rendered the 
following verdict: — 

REPORT OF BERLIN COMMITTEE. 

"We, the undersigned committee, appointed by annual meet- 
ing to go to Berlin church, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 'to 
wait on Elder H. R. Holsinger, and deal with him according to his 
transgressions,' do report as follows : — 

"Met with the Berlin church on Tuesday, August 9, 1881, and 
were unanimously accepted by the church, H. R. Holsinger 
included. And upon the question to H. R. Holsinger, whether 
he would concede to and accept of the general usages of the 
church in conducting this investigation, H. R. Holsinger 
declined, whereupon a lengthy discussion followed upon the 
following departure from the general usages of the church : — 

"1. H. R. Holsinger employed a stenographer to take down 
and publish the proceedings of the council. 



502 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

"2. The council to be held in the presence of persons not mem- 
bers of the church, which discussion closed by the Berlin church, 
saying that they had passed a resolution in absence of the com- 
mittee, that they will have a full report of proceedings taken, 
and right on this passed, in presence of the committee, the 
following : — 

''Resolved, That this council shall be held openly to all mem- 
bers, and persons not members of the Brethren Church will be 
considered present by courtesy only, and none but the members 
of the Berlin church and the committee are invited to participate 
in the business." 

Wednesday, August 10, met at 9 A. m., according to adjourn- 
ment. The chairman announced to the meeting that the com- 
mittee feared the members did not understand the responsibili- 
ties they assumed yesterday, and proposed a reconsideration 
and rescinding of their decisions. After some investigation of 
the propriety of reconsideration, I gave liberty for any one to 
make a motion to that effect, but no motion was offered. After 
due time the committee retired and decided as follows : — 

"In view of the above considerations, especially in view of the 
fact that Brother H. R. Holsinger refused to have his case 
investigated by the committee in harmony with the gospel as 
interpreted by our annual meeting, and the consent of our gen- 
eral brotherhood, and inasmuch as Brother H. R. Holsinger and 
the Berlin church assumed all responsibility in the case, there- 
fore we decided that Brother H. R. Holsinger can not be held 
in fellowship in the brotherhood, and all who depart with him 
shall be held responsible to the action of the next annual meeting. 

"John Wise, Enoch Eby, C. Bucher, David Long, Joseph N. 
Kauffman." 

Explanation by John Wise. — "Met with the Berlin church, on 
Tuesday, August 9, 1881, and were unanimously accepted by 
the church, H. R. Holsinger included. And upon the question 
to H. R. Holsinger whether he would concede to and accept the 
general usages of the church in conducting this investigation, 
H. R. Holsinger declined; whereupon a lengthy discussion fol- 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 503 

lowed. It may be a question in the minds of many, Why 
propound such a question? I answer, What gave rise to this 
was the following: Prior to our going to Berlin we saw in the 
Progressive Christian the announcement that Brother H. R. 
Holsinger had employed a stenographer, and that he proposed 
publishing in his paper a full report of the proceedings of that 
committee. We regard this as a departure from our established 
usage, as where a report is to be taken under such circumstances, 
all interested parties should have a part in the choice of the 
stenographer if it be agreed that one shall be employed. No 
member of that committee was interrogated in regard to this 
matter, and we regard the treatment towards us as unfair; and 
not only unfair in a business point of view and a departure from 
general usages, but contrary to the principles of our holy Chris- 
tianity. We considered it not at all fraternal or brotherly that 
Brother Holsinger should have the matter of publication under 
his control. We are not misrepresenting Brother Holsinger, as 
T will read from the report, and as you will find in a pamphlet 
entitled The Stenographic Report of the Proceedings of the 
Committee for the Trial of Elder H. R. Holsinger, for Insub- 
ordination to the Traditions of the Elders.' In the progress of 
the consideration of the propriety of this departure we have the 
following: 'You have employed a stenographer to take a full 
report of the proceedings of the committee, to be published in 
your paper, which we think should not be done, as it is a 
departure from the usages of the general brotherhood.' ' 

While it is regarded as my privilege to comment upon the 
method pursued by the committee in the treatment of this case, 
I shall be confined as nearly as possible to the historical part of 
the case. The full report of the proceedings is upon record, and 
can be found in any first-class library in the fraternity, to which 
the reader who wishes more information than is herein contained 
is respectfully referred. There were present from a distance on 
the occasion the following: Elders James Ouinter, I. J. Rosen- 
berger, E. K. Buechley, C. G. Lint, J. B. Moser, and others. 

The action of the committee is of unusual importance, from the 



504 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

fact that it became the entering wedge which divided a large 
denomination, one part of which became a new organization. 

After the usual devotional services, in which Elder Quinter 
took some part, John Wise stated that they were present as a 
committee appointed by annual meeting to the Berlin church to 
investigate Brother Holsinger's case, and then said the first thing 
in order would be to know whether they are accepted by the 
Berlin congregation, and proposed to withdraw so as to enable 
the members of the church to express their opinion without any 
intimidation. 

The committee then withdrew from the council room, and 
during their absence the church unanimously agreed to accept 
the committee. 

The committee then objected to the house in which the council 
was being held as being too small. The church, however, 
decided in favor of the place. The committee would have pre- 
ferred to go to the Grove church, about a mile out of town, but 
as that was outside of the Berlin church territory, the members 
could not consent to the removal. The afternoon session was 
held in the Methodist church. It was hard to understand why 
the committee should want larger apartments when they wished 
to exclude the audience. 

The next objection was in regard to the reporter. John Wise 
stated that this was a departure from the usages of the general 
brotherhood, and that it was never so done to his knowledge on 
any former occasion, and therefore should not be done in this 
case. To which I replied that there never was a case exactly 
like this in the history of the Tunker Church ; that no other man 
had ever been tried for similar charges ; that I had employed the 
stenographer at my own expense ; he was a member of the 
church, and was responsible and competent, and that for my 
own satisfaction and in justice to myself I had determined to 
have the report taken down in full, and that in this, my church 
was unanimous in my favor, and consequently intimated that 
part was a settled matter ; but in case of publishing the report I 
would be accountable to the church at large for any injury that 
might result. 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 505 

After discussing the subject for some time, the committee 
retired again, and the church passed the following resolution : — 

''Resolved, That we insist upon having a full report taken of 
the sayings and doings of this committee and council." 

This ended the first half-day's business. 

In the afternoon John Wise quoted the following passage of 
scripture, "But if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto 
thee as a heathen and a publican," and then proceeded to argue, 
"You are to tell it to the church, not to a mixed assembly," and 
other arguments in favor of a private council. I then said: "It 
had been announced at our public meetings that this council 
would be a business meeting, and that none but members are 
invited ; that others would take no interest in the business ; that 
we were neither a military organization nor a secret society, 
therefore none were here by invitation, except members of the 
church. All who are present are perfectly welcome, so far as we 
are concerned, but no one will be expected to take part in the 
work of the council except members of the church. The general 
brotherhood is interested in the business of this council, and has 
a right to know what was done and how and why. This is no 
ordinary church meeting. There is no similarity between this 
case and the passages of Scripture referred to. If I am guilty 
of any wrong-doing I am willing that the world shall know of it. 
Having been publicly accused, I am determined to be as publicly 
vindicated. If, however, the committee sees proper to exclude 
all except the Berlin church and themselves, I presume it is their 
privilege to do so, but we will not do it." 

Elder Long asked, "Are you sure, Brother Henry, that your 
congregation will not do it?" 

I replied that they could speak for themselves, that those in 
affirmative should rise and be counted, in response to which 
seventy-one members arose, and so that point was settled. 

Elder Kaufrrnan remarked : "We are here as a committee sent 
from annual meeting to do business. We dare not depart from 
the usages of the church. We must make our report to annual 
meeting, and dare not digress from our orders. We can not come 



506 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

here and sanction the idea of having this council meeting held 
open and public ; neither can we sanction having the report of 
the proceedings published. And you should not ask us to digress 
from the usages of the church. If any such privilege be taken, 
we want the responsibility to rest right here with you." 

To this I replied: "I can hardly see why the committee dare 
not digress from the usages. I know of no scripture that forbids 
them to make a new record of a new case. Can you not for once 
throw by the usages, and say that you will do 'as seemeth good 
to us and the Holy Ghost' ? Are you really bound by the usages 
of the fathers? I am sure this church has assumed the respon- 
sibility. The church has unanimously decided that we will have 
a full report and an open council. We have put ourselves upon 
record, deliberately making this statement in both German and 
English, and giving every member an opportunity to express his 
sentiments before taking the vote." 

There was some further discussion between the committee and 
the church till late in the afternoon, when the following resolution 
was unanimously adopted: "That this council shall be held 
openly to all members, and persons not members of the Brethren 
Church will be considered present by courtesy only; and none 
but the members of the Berlin church and the committee are 
invited to participate in the business ;" and so the first day's 
work closed with apparent hopeful feeling that in the morning 
the business of the committee would proceed. However, next 
morning the committee stated that they feared there was a mis- 
understanding, and that therefore they proposed to proceed to a 
careful explanation to the church ; that they had understood that 
the church presumed that the committee would go ahead with 
the trial; that yesterday they had demurred, and that they did 
so this morning; that they stood upon the authority of the gospel, 
and would submit to the usages of the general brotherhood ; that 
they stood free from any further investigation in the matter. 
Said they : "We told you yesterday that we understood the usages 
of our brotherhood are based upon the Word of God. We are 
conscientious in the matter; and as a body of the brethren will 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 507 

not put ourselves on record, and then in less than twenty-four 
hours go directly against the record we made. We place our- 
selves on record, and we propose to stand upon the record we 
have made. You place yourselves upon record, and we fear 
you do not understand what you are doing. We will give you 
an opportunity to reconsider and rescind your action of yesterday." 

The committee then paused for some time, waiting for an 
action for reconsideration, but no motion was made. I then 
endeavored to explain the situation to the congregation in Ger- 
man and English, so that there could be no possibility for mis- 
apprehension, after which a voice was heard, saying, ''What I 
have written, I have written." I think the speaker was Brother 
Samuel Forney, one of the most venerable members of the 
congregation. 

John Wise then said : "We consider the matter is fairly before 
the congregation, and if no action is taken we shall consider the 
matter as standing by the resolution. We have given time to 
hear from the congregation, but as there was no response, and 
as other business is being introduced, we now propose to 
withdraw and prepare our report." 

At this point Elder Quinter remarked, "Then you- don't give 
them the privilege of assuming the responsibility ; I don't fully 
understand." 

After some further speaking pro and con, hardly to the point, 
John Wise concluded : "Having been sent here by annual meeting, 
and as we were spending our time for the church, if you have 
any donations to make they will be gratefully received on the 
part of the committee. The amount of our expenses is $126. 
It is the general brotherhood I am addressing." 

After several hours' retirement the committee returned, and 
rendered their verdict, which see above. Then they passed 
around to each individual member to obtain the assent to their 
decision, but all except one member answered no. This one was 
Elder John P. Cober, M. D. He had voted with the church in 
favor of an open council and full report, but when it came to the 
final test he said, "Ich gehe mitt den alU;" I go with the old ones. 



508 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

After the committee had finished its work and closed with 
prayers, the Berlin church met in council, and after some delib- 
erations they unanimously passed the following resolution : — 

"Inasmuch as Elder H. R. Holsinger has not violated any 
gospel order of the general brotherhood, and not having had a 
trial of the charges brought against him at the annual meeting of 
1 88 1, therefore the Berlin congregation, including the Meyers- 
dale branch, will continue to work together with Brother Hol- 
singer as our bishop, and we invite all who are willing to take 
the gospel of Christ as the man of their counsel, into church 
fellowship with us." 

It will be seen that the whole issue hinged upon the open 
council and stenographer. 

During the time intervening between the decision of the com- 
mittee and the annual meeting of 1882, the question under dis- 
cussion was whether I was in the church or outside of the church, 
and all the papers entered into investigation of the subject. S. H. 
Bashor wrote a tract entitled "Where Is Holsinger?" which was 
distributed by the thousands over the entire brotherhood, and 
was published in the Progressive Christian. 

Meanwhile I continued to publish the Progressive Christian 
with redoubled energy and largely-increased subscription list, 
and also had charge as presiding elder over two adjoining con- 
gregations. During the following month I attended a Sunday- 
school convention of the western district of Pennsylvania, and 
was chairman of the meeting, elected delegate by that body to 
the state convention at Green Tree church, Montgomery County, 
which convened in the same month. 

I take the liberty to insert the following article, published in 
the Progressive Christian of September 16, 1881, written by 
Professor Howard Miller, which may be accepted as truthful 
and impartial. Brother Miller was thoroughly conversant with 
the situation, having resided in Somerset County for several 
years, and having been associate editor of the Progressive Chris- 
tian. He is one of the most able and fluent writers in the frater- 
nity, as well as one of the most independent thinkers in the 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 509 

country. I am happy to say he is still living and writing for the 
public press, and at the present time is editor of the Inglenook, 
a weekly, semi-secular, German Baptist magazine, published at 
Elgin, Illinois. 

THE BERLIN SITUATION. 

"The condition of the church affairs at Berlin is one of great 
interest to all, involving as it does a number of principles of 
church policy. A committee from annual meeting was sent to 
try the editor of the Progressive, and dispose of him according 
to his misdeeds. They met, disagreed with him at the outset, 
and set him out. The annual meeting is supposed to pass a final 
affirmation or rejection of their action. There can hardly be a 
doubt as to their affirming the decision of the lower court. And 
unless Henry Holsinger comes to the scratch of an acknowledg- 
ment, he will likely remain out. 

"Now, let us take a look at the dead, although Resurgam might 
be written on his ecclesiastical coffin, and he is likely to prove a 
lively corpse. Divested of all its verbiage, the trouble with 
Henry is that he is now, and always has been, too far ahead of 
his day and generation. The other side of the house would put 
this to the credit of his being wickedly fast. I write it as being 
farther seeing than the rest, and too honest to become a common 
Jeremiah Funk, subordinating intelligence to the prejudices of 
the masses. Let us examine this statement a little. Who 
originated the weekly press of the church, and stood the brunt 
of the battle of its establishment? The committee people them- 
selves will hardly deny that Henry Holsinger did that. Who 
has the paper now? Is it wicked Henry Holsinger or the ele- 
ment devoted to his destruction? Who introduced the hymn 
and tune book? And now who has it, and who makes the money 
out of it? Who took the shorthand writer to the annual meet- 
ing, and between fast Henry Holsinger and the annual meeting, 
which turned his stenographer loose with a left-handed blessing, 
between the man and the other party, which has the stenog- 
rapher ? And who makes the money out of his original venture so 



5IO HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

disastrous to him ? In the days of college conception, who inter- 
ested himself in the establishment of one ? When it meant some- 
thing to stand up for higher education, who did the most of it, 
Holsinger or his opponents? And to-day, with our three edu- 
cational weaklings, who is at their head, reaping whatever honor 
or money is in them? Is it Henry Holsinger or the other side? 
And the establishment of the progressive as an advance on the 
old ways of patting the old man on the back, and flattering him 
out of his senses, who now originates and suggests the boldest 
innovations? Where did the idea that the oldest in office should 
not necessarily be ordained originate and take expression? 
Where was it suggested that a literary qualification determined 
by an examination should precede installation? And from sing- 
ing the threadbare refrain of the good, goody, good old brother, 
who now is suggesting measures and engaged in enterprises to 
most effectually set him back? 

"It is evident that just as fast as the honest and daring pioneer 
has cleared out a farm, the camp followers move up, take out 
a patent, and serve a writ of ejectment on the frontiersman. A 
good many fair-minded people look on this as a part and parcel 
of human experience, to be rewarded in the hereafter. The 
negroes of the south think they are entitled to heaven because 
they have been so miserable here. This is an error of the worst 
stamp. I see the editor is the recipient of letters of sympathy, 
'Aw, poor, p-o-o-r Brother Henry, etc.,' and here it ends. 
There is nothing like adversity to try friends. In the days when 
the winds sing a lullaby, and the skies are as sweet as a psalm, 
then the rabble are hurrahing approbation as they did at the tri- 
umphal entry of Christ into Jerusalem. When the shipwreck 
comes, and some one is to be nailed up, where, then, is the crowd? 
You could not find the majority of them with a lantern. 

"To say that Henry Holsinger has his weaknesses would be to 
express one of the commonest and silliest platitudes. To define 
truthfully the differences between him and many a one in good 
standing in the church would be to say that the others have all 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 511 

his faults, overtopped with the vice of dissimulation and colored 
by the sin of hypocrisy. 

"The church temporal, being human, is ungrateful. No voice 
has been raised giving Holsinger credit for his good, and the 
same with others. Look at Stephen Bashor ! He has done more 
to increase the membership of the church than any other man 
living. Yet do the pseudo leaders of conservative thought give 
him credit for it? or do they tear and rend him? It is held that 
they oppose and destroy, and make the church weep. Let us 
see about this. Who is the church ? Is it a few who think they 
hold the lever of the universe in their hands, or is it the great many 
who make up the body ? The body of the church knows nothing 
about the Progressive. Not one in fifty sees or reads the Pro- 
gressive. And perhaps not one in a thousand really cares a rap 
about it, and rather enjoys its pyrotechnics. But here is some 
poor, miserable specimen of conservative mediocrity with his 
mouth full of bad grammar and his heart full of suspicion that 
every line in the paper is specially designed to pull his little self 
off the picket fence of local supremacy, and something has to be 
done — for if he were belittled, it would be just the same 
thing as destroying religion in the abstract. So to ease the 
moral fever Holsinger is put out of the church. But now that 
it is done, it is well to inquire what has been actually gained 
by the proceedings. The Progressive is not suspended. It 
comes regularly, and gives its good resounding thwacks as of 
yore, all the same. H. R. H. goes on with his preaching, edit- 
ing, and marrying, as usual. Contributors without the fear of 
men before their eyes, characterize the committee as a 'blast of 
one hundred and twenty-six dollars worth of old orderism,' 
and the sun has not failed to rise, the wells have not gone dry, 
and nobody has been whisked away in a blue blaze by the supreme 
power of Satan. 

"A good many people are honest in their convictions about the 
disputed points of externalism. A man may believe that he will 
go to hell if he does not comb his hair down all around, although 
he may not so plainly state his position in such vigorous English, 



512 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and if he is honest about it, why, let him go on with his way. 
No progressive objects; it does nobody any harm. But when he 
gets so high that he will not go to heaven with the neighbor who 
parts his hair, then I admit there is some wrong about the matter, 
something suspicious about the order of such holiness. 

"It is only a question of time till every shadow of externalism 
is wiped out. The sober, honest, thoughtful advocates of order 
may differ, but to such allow me to ask if it is held that the young- 
men and women of the church who graduate at our colleges, or 
who go to real colleges to graduate, are going to preach as an 
essential to salvation and fellowship that we must all refrain 
from having our hair cut short? If you really think so, upon 
what evidence given by the product of a thousand years of col- 
leges do you base your belief? Imagine somebody getting 
thrown out of the church for wearing suspenders ! And the day 
is not far distant when no sister will be thrown out for wearing a 
hat, and no brother will be disfellowshiped for opposing such 
proceedings. 

k, If Henry Holsinger is ousted for opposition to the faith and 
practices of our fathers, why are not James Quinter and Robert 
Miller thrown overboard for their offense? Are not they as 
squarely set against the order of the brethren in putting them- 
selves at the head of colleges when such were absolutely for- 
bidden long ago? It is a fair question; answer it fairly. If it 
is held that changed times and changing conditions demand dif- 
ferent treatment, I answer that this is just what Holsinger has 
been advocating, and he has been disfellowshiped, not for what 
he is, but for declaring it. I think it may be laid down as a broad 
principle that no one should ever be put aside except for doc- 
trinal and moral defections. Holsinger's morals or faith were 
not questioned. He was shelved because he presumed to ques- 
tion the wisdom of his fellows. 

"The church is built on the Arcadian dream of holy men 
engaged in a holy cause, divested of baseness and filled with the 
Holy Ghost. They are supposed to act harmoniously with the 
church and with each other. It may even be said that there is no 



BRETHREN CHURCH HISTORICAL. 513 

reason why it should not be so. But in practice it is found, as 
far as my observation has gone, that in a majority of cases the 
ministry are the most active and prominent factors in almost 
every church quarrel. If it could be so arranged that but two 
preachers should ever have any one church, scripture would be 
observed, and many a bitter quarrel about supremacy avoided. 
As long as from three to ten men want to ride one horse, and 
all want to ride in front, there will be trouble. And so in church 
matters this is always, or nearly always, the case, that from some 
cause, usually jealousy, the bitterest quarrels come from the 
leaders. 

"I observe the committee gets a full share of blame for the 
result. I hardly regard this as just, as they only gave expression 
to the sentiment that sent them there. And after all is said and 
done, what real business has any progressive in the German Bap- 
tist Church? The church has always prided herself on looking 
backward to what some one dead and gone would have said and 
done. The majority of the church is willing to live and die in 
this faith. If there is one, or a hundred, or a thousand who 
prefer a different outlook, there are other churches, or another 
can be made. The idea is deeply rooted that the Brethren Church 
and the apostolic days are one thing. As a church organiza- 
tion there is a lapse of over sixteen hundred years between it and 
the first Christians. It is only one of many such. It will, like 
the many, be lost in time. Even to-day the original founders 
would disown the whole lot could they come back. We are 
imbued with a spirit of what seems to me to be pure asinine pride, 
that usually takes form in the expression, 'We are the only true 
church,' we are the elect of God ; all other churches are wrong. 
The facts are, we are only a small lot of worshiping Christians, 
and can point to no countries canvassed, n© charities established 
for the sun-struck strangers, no home for the aged and widowed, 
no sleepless city missionary, and no learned scholars to cope 
with the mental athletes of other churches we are so fond of 
deriding. Take the train from Richmond, Virginia, to Mobile, 
Alabama, or from Albany, New York, to Boston, Massachusetts, 

33 



514 HISTORY OF THE TUNKERS. 

and not one passenger in a hundred ever heard if there be such 
a thing as the Brethren Church. With such a record as this in 
the century and a half of our sectarian existence, the Berlin com- 
mittee might, nay, more, the annual meeting could, have found 
something of greater value than this little, unknown paper or its 
editor, to make an ado over. The new version says, straining 
'out' a gnat and swallowing a camel. Holsinger has been 
strained out, and the camel of ignorance, of prejudice, of flattery, 
of a coming educated ministry that will overturn the whole thing, 
are bolted without wisdom or questioning. 

"But what will come of it all? If the experience of the world 
is worth anything, the answer is clear. Take Simon Menno and 
his church. We have the old Mennonites, the Reformed Men- 
nonites, the High Amish Mennonites, the Wislerite Mennonites, 
the Holdeman Mennonites, the Staufferite Mennonites. With 
Alexander Mack's church we have the