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E%t Attt|oti}eli Vnmn, 






£ «. d. 

I. GENESIS and EXODUS. Second Edition 110 


Edition 18 

THE PENTATEUCH complete may be had in one Volume 1 18 

m. JOSHUA, JUDGES, RUTH. Second Edition 12 

IV. THE BOOKS of SAMUEL. Second Edition . ... 10 



All the above Parts, completing the historical books of the Old Testament, may be had 

bound together in three Volumes. 

VI. THE BOOK of JOB 090 


By the same Editor, uniform icith the above, 




£ «. d. 

I. THE FOUR GOSPELS. Fifth Edition 110 

II. THE ACTS of the APOSTLES. FouHh Edition .... 10 6 

III. ST. PAUL'S EPISTLES. FouHh Edition 1 11 6 


INDICES. Third Edition 110 

The whole work may be had bound together in two thick Volumes. 


lonlion, ®xfotli, antt (ffamiirilige. 

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Pabt n.— the books of SAMUEL. 




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cS.:^ J6^^^> C3,/y/. 

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Iktboduction to the Books of Samuel ....... vii 

I. Samttel ............ 1 

II. Samuel ............ 70 

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The Books op Samttel properly form one Book '. They are represented as such in the Hebrew 
Manuscripts, where they are entitled "The Book op Samuel*' or "Samuel." The name some- 
times given to them, " The First and Second Book of Kings/' is derived from the Greek and Latin 
Versions, and serves to mark their connexion with those Books, which are so called in the Hebrew 

The Books of Samuel are like a continuation of the Books of Judges and Buth. The earlier 
chapters of the First Book of Samuel place us in the times of Eli, one of the last of the Judges, 
when the Ark was still at Shiloh. Samuel himself is a Judge of Israel ; and he anoints Said the 
first King ; he also anoints David, whose genealogy has been presented to us at the close of the 
Book of Ruth. Thus the Books of Samuel have a retrospective character. They also look forward. 
They close with the last words of David, and display him erecting an altar to God on the spot which 
was afterwards to become the site of the Temple built by his son Solomon. 

But while the Books of Samuel have thus an intermediate position, they form also a distinct 
whole. They hold a place of their own, and perform a peculiar work, not only in relation to the 
Hebrew Nation, but in a higher function, as preparing the way for Cheist. The holy Apostle St. 
Peter marks their character in this respect when he says, " All the prophets from Samuel . . . 
have foretold of these days," the days of Christ and the Gospel (Acts iii. 24). 

In this Book (let us be allowed with the Hebrews to regard it as one) there is, as it were, a 
pensive tone of sadness and sorrow, mourning over the present, and yet a festive air of hope and 
joy, yearning for the future. That future has its consummation in Christ. 

This double character of the Book meets us at the beginning of it. There we see the pious 
Hannah at Shiloh. Hannah is regarded by the ancient Expositors as a type of the Christian 
Church *, for a long time barren, and mocked by her rival, the Jewish Synagogue, but at last 
breaking forth into singing, with a rapturous ecstasy of thankfulness to God. 

The Magnificat of H^mnah in the Tabernacle of Shiloh is an evangelical song, chanted by the 
spirit of Prophecy under the Levitical Law. It is a prelude and overture to the Gospel. It is a 
connecting link of sweet and sacred melody between the Magnificat of Miriam* after the triumphant 
passage of the Bed Sea — symbolizing the Death, Burial, and Besurrection of Christ — and the 
Magnificat of the Blessed Virgin Mary, after the Annunciation of His Birth. 

At a time of national degeneracy, when the Sanctuary of God was desecrated by the sins of the 
Priests who ministered there, and when Eli their father, the High Priest and Judge of Israel, 
restrained them not, Hannah proclaimed the supremacy of Jehovah. Hannah is the first person in 
the Bible who invokes Him as the " Lord of Hosts *." Thenceforth that title became the usual 
appellation .of the Most High. As the Name Jehovah had acquired new significance in the 
revelations of Horeb to Moses, and marked a new epoch in the history of Israel ', so the title 
Jehovah Sabaoth ushered in with a voice of power a new period in the national annals of Israel. 
It declared the sovereignty of the God of the Hebrew People, in opposition to the rival claims of 
false deities worshipped by the heathen — such as the Sun and Moon, and host of heaven, and such 
as the gods of Philistia — and it was also a divine protest against the worldly policy of God's own 
People Israel, impatient of His supremacy, and craving for themselves an earthly king, and relying 
on physical strength and secular support. 

Heumah, the devout mother of Samuel the Prophet, asserted the incommimicable attributes, 

^ Oriffen, in Eoseb. vi. 25. S. Cyril, CfttechoB. iv. 84. ^ See above, on Exod. r7. 20, and the Preliminary Note to 

8, Jerome, Prolog. Galeat. Exod. xv. 

' See below, on ch. i. 2. * See below, ch. i. 11 : cp. ch. i. 8. 

* See above, note on Exod. vi. 2, 8. 

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and adored the divine majesty, of the Lord of Hosts; and was enabled by the Holy Ghost to behold 
from afar the revelation of His glory in that future kingdom, — of which the monarchy of David, 
who was to be anointed by her son Samuel, was a type —the kingdom of Christ. " The Lord," she 
said, " shall give strength unto His King, and exalt the horn of His Anointed •," 

The divinely-inspired Song of Hannah, as we shall see, is like a golden key for the interpreta- 
tion of the whole Book. In tones of sadness, the Book proceeds to describe the profligacy and 
profaneness of Eli's sons. But the child Samuel shines forth in bright and quiet contrast, in that 
dark picture. The child is made a Prophet to the aged Priest, and reveals to him the doom of his 
house. The Philistines are used by Qod as His instruments for chastising the Priesthood and the 
People of Israel. The Priests and the People rely on the external ordinances of religion ; and send 
for the Ark from Shiloh to the camp at Aphek. But Qod would show them by a terrible example 
that all outward forms, without inward holiness, are hollow, profitless, and vain. He punished 
their presimiption by allowing the Ark — the visible symbol of His own Divine Presence, which had 
led them to so many victories for four hundred years, from Sinai to Shiloh— to fall into the hands 
of the uncircumcised Philistines, and to be carried in triumph to Ashdod, and to be placed as a 
trophy in the temple of their god Dagon. But there he would still prove Himself to be '^ the 
Lord of Hosts." Dagon should fall down prostrate before Him, and own the supremacy of 
Jehovah ; and the Ark should be brought back to its own land, not by the agency of Israel, but 
by the hands of the Philistines themselves. 

Notwithstanding these divine interventions, Israel was not yet awakened frt>m its spiritual 
lethargy. Shiloh had been pillaged by the Philistines; the Tabernacle was removed from it'. 
The Ark was in banishment, separated from the Tabernacle. The frmctions of the Levitical Priest- 
hood were in abeyance. The National Church seemed to be lying in desolation and ruin. But 
still God was *' the Lord of Hosts." Cities may be spoiled. Men and Nations may fail, but God 
never fails. His supremacy is indefeasible, and in times of national apostasy it is displayed with 
greater prominence and in clearer light, even through men's defections. At such a time as that, 
God raised up Samuel. Samuel, when a child, had been called by God at Shiloh, the Sanctuary of 
the Lord of Hosts. But Shiloh had passed away as a dream, never to return. Samuel had ministered 
before the Ark in the Tabernacle ; but the Ark was now severed from the Tabernacle: both of them 
lay almost forgotten, in neglect and obscurity ^. 

Samuel, when a child, had been commissioned by God to announce the woes which were 
coming on Eli and his house. Those prophecies had now been fulfilled. The Lord was vrith 
Samuel, and '' did let none of his words fall to the ground ; and all Israel, from Dan even to Beer- 
sheba, knew that Samuel was established to be a Prophet of the Lord '." 

After the return of the Ark to Kirjath-jearim, Samuel came forth and preached repentance ; 
and gathered the people to Mizpeh, and proclaimed a fast, and sacrificed and cried to the Lord. The 
Lord heard the cry, and thundered out of heaven in token of approval, and gave to Israel a great 
victory over the Philistines at the self-same place, Ebenezer, where they had been before discomfited 
by the Philistines \ and where the Ark of God had been taken ; and " the hand of the Lord was 
against the Philistines all the days of Samuel." 

Here was a striking contrast ; Israel had been smitten, although the Ark was present with them, 
and the Priests had been slain, and the Ark had been taken by the Philistines. But Samuel, 
without the Ark, was victorious over the same enemies at the same place ; and that place became a 
memorable one in the history of the Hebrew Nation ; " Samuel took a stone and set it up between 
Mizpeh and Shen, and called the name Ebenezer (or stone of help), saying, Hitherto hath the Lord 
helped us " (1 Sam. vii. 12.) 

But here we are encountered by objections. 

Samuel was not a Priest ; he was only a Levite *. And yet he offered sacrifices to God, And 
he did this, not in one fixed place, at the Tabernacle, or in the presence of the Ark, but in various 
places, such as at Mizpeh, and at Gilgal ; and we hear no remonstrance made by God against those 
acts as irregular ; on the contrary, they appear to be acceptable to Him, and were followed by 
signal tokens of His favour '. 

* See below, on ch. ii. 10. * See ch. viL 8 — 14; and see on ch. vii. 12. 

7 See on ch. vii. 2. * See on ch. i. 1. 8. Jerome adv. Jovinian, lib. i. p. S2. 

8 Compare 1 Chron. ziii. 8 — ** We inquired not at the Ark in Samoel propbeta fdit, Judex fUit, Levita ftiit, non Pontinx, ne 
the days of Saul ;" or, rather, " we asked not for it.;" see the tacerdos quidem. 

note there. * ch. iii. 19, 20. 'See ch. viL 10; ziL 18. 

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Some persons in our own days have taken occasion to comment on these proceedings as indica- 
tions that either the Pentateuch did not exist in the days of Samuel, or that it could not have been 
generally known. The Pentateuch prescribes in the clearest terms that sacrifices should be offered 
by the Aaronical Priesthood, at the door of the Tabernacle, or at the one place which the Lord 
shoidd choose to set His name there *. 

If this command had been known to Samuel, would he not (it is asked) have observed it ? 
Would the Hebrew Nation have connived at such infractions of the Levitical Law without any 
expostulation on their part P Would sacrifices, offered in contravention of Qod's Law, have been 
accepted by Him who enacted it P 

This is one form which the comments on Samuel's acts have assumed '. 

Here, then, it appears that the history of Samuel, as related in this Book which bears his 
name, has been used as an argument against the credibility of the Books of Moses. 

Other allegations, also, which seem to require notice, have been derived from it. 

Li the sacred history of the Old and New Testament the name of Samuel is commemorated 
with signal honour. In the Psalms he is distinguished among those who call upon the Name of the 
Lord', and are heard most graciously by Him. In the prophecies of Jeremiah, God couples 
Samuel with Moses as exercising special power by his intercessions \ Samuel is introduced in the 
New Testament by St. Peter ', as standing at the head of the goodly company of prophets. 

And yet in this Book, which bears Samuel's name, he is displayed to us as doing priestly acts, 
although he was not a priest ; and as sacrificing in various places, although God had commanded 
that sacrifices should be offered to Him in one place. 

Hence Samuel has been described by some as a second Gideon', fashioning an Ephod for 
himself, according to his own device ; or, like another Micah - , making for himself a sanctuary and 
teraphim of his own, and worshipping God according to ways of his own imagination ^ 

The inferences from this estimate of Samuel's acts are obvious. They have been used as proofs 
that compliance with God's requirements, as to the order and ministrations of His worship and 
service, are of secondary importance, and are even regarded by Him as indifferent. If Samuel could 
assume the functions of the Levitical Priesthood, and not only be blameless in God's sight, but be 
specially honoured by Him, why, it may be asked, should we speak in harsh language of what we 
are wont to call " schismatical intrusions into the Christian Priesthood?" and why should the 
Ministry of the Word and Sacraments in the Christian Church be assigned and restricted with 
superstitious reserve and nsurrow-minded jealousy to a special order of men, set apart and solemnly 
appointed for that purpose P 

These are important questions. How are they to be answered P 

Samuel, it is true, was not a Priest, but only a Levite, and he performed prieetiy acts in 
various places. But his case vras altogether extraordinary. He had an express commission from 
God to do what he did; and the anomalous and exceptional character of the times, in which he lived 
and acted, gave a peculiar reason for this extraordinary conmiission from God. 

Almighty God is the only Author and Governor of every Priesthood, whether Patriarchal, 
Aaronic, or Christian. All the authority, by which the Priests of His Church have acted, now act, 
or ever will act, is derived from Him alone. His Priests are only instruments in His hands. He 
is the Sovereign Agent who works by them. They are channels of grace which flows from Him 
Who is its only source, 

* See Levit. zvH. 4. Bent. zii. 5. 13 ; liv. 24 Abore^ J»- Similar remarks may be found e^^n in the artiole on the 
trodueHan to Deateronomy, p. 198. Books of Samuel in the IMctionary of the Bible, H. p. 1127, 

* In J^. OoUtuo on the Pentateuch, "Patrt Y. These objections e. g. ** The Book of Samuel seen^s to have been writt^ when 
had been raised by Voter, Be Wette, and others, and may be the PcAtateuch— whether it was, or was not, in existence in its 
seen stated with force and confidence br Br, Damdeon (Intro- present form— was at any rate not acted on, as the rule of 
duction to the Old Testament, p. 623), who says, '*In the religions obseryai^oes." 

Books of Kings the Deuteronomio Legislation is pre-supposed, * Ps. xcix. 6. ' ^er. xr. 1. 

in which the imity of worship in Jemsuem ¥ras strictly ei^oinedi * Acts iii. 24. * See Judg. yiii. 7. 

but in the Books cf SamMel it u reUted thataltars yrere erected > See Judg. xrii. 6. 

and sacrifices offered to JehoTsh in other places than that where ' May it not be hoped, that Bean Stanley may be induced to 

the Ark was dcqposited, without any hmt of illegality or of ^econsiderthe following statement in his Lectures on the Jewish 

Jehovah's displeasure. On the contrary, such sacrifices are Church, First Series, p. 894^ " Samuel dwelt in his own birth- 

Tiewed as acceptable to God." 1 Sam. yii. 5^17; ix. 18 ; x. 8; place, a;id, like Oideon or like 3£icah, made it a sanctuary of 

xir. 85 ; xtL 2. his own '' ? (m. 2nd series, p. 83, where Uzzah's act Qn touching 

J^. Coleneo says, p. 155, referring io the history befbre ns» the Ark, 2 Sam. tL 7) is called an ** unexplained sin ;** and 

"On all hfuids we are met with diffi^ties and direct contradic- q>. his remarks on what is called Samuel's " anti-eaoerdotal 

tions of the Mosuo Law;" and p. 157, <* All the concUtions of character," 1st series, p. 406. Surely, it is remarkable, that the 

ths Priesthood, as we gather from the more autiientio history, reetoroHon at the regular worshij) of God b^ the Priests and 

were in those days utterly at variance with the laifs and Levites, after a time of confiision, is ascribed m Holy Scripture 

examples of the P^tateu<di " (p. 159), io tha inflnfflioe of Samuel (see below, on 1 Chron. ix. 22). 

Vol. n. Pabt n. a 

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It is God*8 ordinary will and desire, that men should receive grace, by means of those instruments 
and channels which He appoints for the dispensing and conveying it; and that they should 
receive it at the places, and in the manner, of His divine appointment. Men are tied to the use of 
the means which God appoints ; but God^s power is not tied to the means which are appointed by 
Him. And though the human instruments and channels may fetil, yet the Divine Agent and Source 
never fails. Nay, rather, the working of His Almighty power, and the abundance of His exhaustless 
loYe, are more magnified in days of human degeneracy; and it is then most clearly shewn, that God 
is the Almighty Agent and the Only Source of all grace to all. 

This is precisely what was manifested in the days of Samuel. He had received a call from 
God, when He was ministering as a child before the Ark, in the Tabernacle at Shiloh. But, for the 
sins of the People and the Priesthood, the Ark was taken, the Tabernacle was removed, and Shiloh 
was dismantled and destroyed. And during the whole time of Samuel, the Ark was never again 
united to the Tabernacle. The reason for bringing the sacrifices to the door of the Tabernacle was 
set aside by the removal of the Ark, which was the very heart and soul of the Tabernacle. The 
Tabernacle had become like a cenotaph. There was no one place to which sacrifices could be brought 
in compliance with the Levitical Law. It was not till after Samuel's death that the Law revived. 
The Ark was brought up by David to Mount Zion ; but it was not till the Temple was built on 
Moriah, and the Ark was settled in it by Solomon, that the requirements of the Levitical Law, pre- 
scribing that sacrifices should be brought to the place which the Lord had chosen, could take effect*. 

Then the Law awoke, and after this choice of a place was made by God, and the Ark was 
settled there, then the offering of sacrifice in any other place, and by any other hands, than those of 
the family of Aaron (except by God's express commission) was contrary to God's will. Such an 
act would have been like the gainsaying of Korah. Such was the sin of Jeroboam. Hence, 
also, the punishment of IJzziah the king of Judah, smitten with leprosy, for presuming to perform 
a priestly act, namely, to bum incense *. 

Yet further. The offering of sacrifices in different places by Samuel, who was not a priest, and 
the favourable acceptance of those sacrifices by God, served another very important purpose of the 
highest kind. It not only showed God's supremacy, and man's subordination to Him, but it was 
preparatory to another higher and more spiritual dispensation, that of the Gospel, and of the priest- 
hood of Christ. It weaned the minds of the faithful Israelites from dwelling on any one place in 
their own land, as the centre of the Visible Church, or from regarding one earthly family among 
themselves, such as that of Aaron, as the only priestly Ministry of God's Sanctuary. It prepared 
them for the transfer of the priesthood from Aaron to Christ, and for the imiversal diffusion of God's 
grace, and for the universal extension of His kingdom, in the days of the Messiah, when '' in every 
place incense would be offered to His name, and a pure offering*." 

Thus, the priesthood of Samuel was preparatory to the priesthood of Christ. The prophetic 
declaration of God Himself to Eli, the priest, at Shiloh, when the Tabernacle was profaned by his 
sons, was, " I will raise Me up a faiihful priest, that shall do according to that which is in my heart, 
and in my mind, and I will build him a sure house, and he shall walk before mine Anointed for 
ever*/* This prophecy had indeed a preparatory accomplishment in Samuel, who was not of the 
family of Aaron, and who was specially raised up by God, in days of priestly degeneracy, to do 
priestly acts ; and it had another fulfilment afterwards in Zadok ; but it reached its consummation 
in Christ, Who was not of the seed of Aaron, or of the tribe of Levi, and Who was raised up by (Jod, 
*when the Jewish Church and priesthood were lying in degradation and confusion, and Who joined 
the priesthood and the kingdom in one everlasting bond of union, in Himself'. 

We are thus led on to observe, that the Book of Samuel occupies an unique place, and has a 
special value and interest, as revealing the Kingdom of Christ. It is the first book in Holy Scrip- 
ture which declares the Incarnation of Christ as King — in a particular family — the family of David. 
It is the first book in Scripture, which announced that the Kingdom founded in Him, raised up from 
the seed of David, would be universal and everlasting. Here also the prophetic song of Hannah 
gives the clue to the interpretation of this history. " The Lord," she says, " shall judge the ends of 
the earth;" that is. His kingdom will be established in all nations. "He shall give strength unto 
His King, and exalt the horn of His Anointed^; ''^the Messiah, or Christ; Who was to come of 
David, and sit on His throne for ever. 

» See below, on ch. iv. 6; vii. 9. 15; ix. 12; and note above, « See cb. ii. 85. 

°^'^^*"'^- . ,„ _ See below, on Luke xi. 2. 

< 2 Cbron. xxvi. 18—21. • Mai. i. 11. « See cb. ii. 10, and note there. • 

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It was God*8 design that Israel in due time should have a king. God had promised to Abraham 
and to Jacob that kings should arise from them S and Jacob had foretold that " the sceptre should 
not depart from Judah till Shiloh came/' in whom it was to be settled for ever ^; and Balaam had 
prophesied that " a sceptre should arise out of Israel *;" and God Himself had been pleased to give 
laws preparatory to the establishment of the kingdom, and for the better regulation of it'. 

The sin of Israel in the days of Samuel with regard to the kingdom consisted in not waiting for 
God's time, in which He might think fit to give them a king. It consisted in antedating that 
season, by a rude seizure and impati^it grasp of human anticipation, and in asking for a king in 
order that they might be like other nations, and that their king might lead them forth to battle, 
and deliver them from their enemies, — as if it was not a special privilege to be unlike other nations, 
in being directly under God's rule ; and as if God had not always delivered them from their enemies, 
whenever they were obedient to Him ! 

But God often accommodates and adjusts His doings to men's devices *, in order that they may 
see by experience how evil a thing it is to follow their own inclinations, instead of conforming to 
His will, and tarrying His leisure. So it was with Israel. God gave them a king in compliance 
with their wish, a king endued with many gifts and graces, and adapted by his physical strength 
and prowess to their carnal reliance on material force and support. The fair beginnings of Saul, 
his modesty, prudence, clemency, and success ; his subsequent degeneracy when he was elated by 
victory, and pufiiBd up by his royal dignity ; his vain-glory, self-confidence, and disobedience to God 
speaking to him first by Samuel, and next in a direct command from Himself ; his hypocrisy and 
formalism ; his rejection and desertion by God ; his visitation from an Evil Spirit ; his envy, hatred, 
and malignant persecution of David, his deliverer and benefactor, and even of his own son ; his 
desolation, distress, distraction, despondency, and despair ; his resort to the witch of Endor for 
counsel from Samuel when dead, whom he had disobeyed when living ; his shameful defeat by the 
Philistines, and his wretched death on Mount Gilboa by his own hand ; and the succession of 
David in his room — all these events are full of deep moral interest, and fraught with warning, 
admonition, and instruction, both in faith and practice. 

But the history of Saul's monarchy acquires fresh value for us, and is seen to have a profounder 
meaning, when it is viewed, as the ancient Christian Church has taught us to regard it', in its 
relation to Jesus Christ, who was foreshadowed by David and his hereditary kingdom, and who was 
promised to Abraham and Jacob, and whom Balaam pre- announced and proclaimed from afar, and 
of whom Hannah prophesied when she said, ** The Lord shall judge the ends of the earth, and He 
shall give strength to His i^ng, and exalt the horn of His Anointed." 

Saul had no successor of his own line ; and his kingdom was introductory to that of David, 
who had an uninterrupted succession even to the days of Christ. Saul foreshadowed the Jewish 
dispeilsation, preparatory to the Kingdom of Christ, and giving way to it. The Hebrew kingdom 
was contemplated in the counsels of God ; the monarchy of Saul came in, as it were, accidentally 
and parenthetically. So it was with the Levitical Law '• " It was added because of transgress- 
ions ^," it was preliminary and transitory, and introductory to the Kingdom of Christ. 

The beginnings of the Jewish dispensation, as long as the Hebrew nation was humble, submis- 
sive, and obedient to God, were, like the beginnings of Saul, fair and promising, and were marked 
by extraordinary tokens of God's marvellous favour and protection. But it became self-confident 
and vain-glorious. It degenerated, like Saul. It persecuted the true David, and was forsaken and 
rejected by God. It resorted to false prophets. The Jewish Nation became like Saul at the Cave of 
Endor ; and God, by the mouth of His prophets, and of Christ Himself, revealed to it its doom, as 
He had done to Saul by Samuel at that cave. The Jewish Nation fell by its own hand, and was 
spoiled by heathen armies, as Saul was by the Philistines. " Israel, thou hast destroyed thyself®." 

But God's mercy triumphed over man's sin. In the family of Saul there was a faithful remnant. 
Jonathan, the loving and beloved friend of David, he who was very pleasant unto David, and 
whose love to him " was wonderful, passing the love of women *," stands forth in beautiful contrast 
to Saul, his father ; and is a type of those faithful Israelites who loved Christ for His own sake. 
Although the Jewish Nation was to melt away and be absorbed into Christ's Kingdom, as Jonathan's 

• Gen. xviii. 6. 16 ; xxxv. 11. » As will be seen in the followiiuf notes : see, for example, on 
» See above. Gen. xlix. 10. ch. xt. 28; xz. 42; and below, p. xiv. 

s Num. xxiv. 17. ' See below, Introdnction to St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, 

« Dent. xvii. 14—20. p. 191. 

* PiB. xviii. 26 ; see above, on Num. xxii. 20 ; and below, 7 See on Gal. iii. 19. 

Rev. xxiL 11. s Hoe. xiii. 9. • Ch. 1. 26. 


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kingdom was merged in Ddvid's, yet tliose loving and faithful Jonathans beUeved the Divine David, 
even when persecuted and rejected by His own people *. 

Saul of Tarsus, " of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews," first a persecutor of the 
Church, then an Apostle and Martyr for Christ, is the evangelical contrast to Saul of Gibeah *. And 
the son of Jonathan, Mephibosheth, lame and impotent in his feet, and thtis a striking contrast to 
the physical stature and strength of his grandfather Saul — ^but shewing his reverence for David by 
bowing before him when king, and admitted by David to be a constant guest in his palace at his 
own table — is surely a beautiful type of all true Israelite ; and is a cheering pledge and earnest to 
the faithful Jew, of the blessings which are yet in store for him, when turning to the true David, 
and bowing before Him as King, in the spiritual Sion of His Church '. 

It must be reserved for the Book itself, and for the notes upon it, to set before the reader this 
view of its inner meaning in a clearer light ; suffice it to say, that this interpretation is confirmed 
and illustrated by the whole history of David as related in this inspired record. 

Who can read of SamueVs visit to Bethlehem, and of David's private unction there, by the 
express appointment of God, without thinking of the spiritual imction of Christ the Divine David 
when bom in privacy at Bethlehem P The successive unctions of David, first at Bethlehem and 
afterwcu*ds twice at Hebron, first as King of Judah, next as King of all the Tribes of Israel, find 
their Evangelical coimterpart in the successive unctions of Jesus Christ *. David, designated as 
King by Samuel the prophet, and miraculously preserved by God, and at length victorious and 
reigning at Jerusalem, after many years of danger and hdir-breadth escapes, is a figure of Christ, 
resisted and persecuted, but finally, according to the voice of Prophecy, triumphant and supreme in 
the heavenly Jerusalem. 

The victory of David over the Philistine Champion Goliath, defying the armies of Israel for forty 
days, is a rehearsal of Christ's Temptation and victory a thousand years afterwards *. 

The sweet music of David, exorcising the Evil Spirit which possessed Saul, is a melodious 
prelude to that Divine Voice which cast out Evil Spirits from the Saul of the Jewish nation. The 
persecutions which David endured from Saul are like prophetic revealings of the bitter malignity 
with which the true David was pursued by that nation. David's compassionate and forgiving spirit 
toward Saul, and his lament at his death, has its holy gushing'-forth and overflow in Christ's tears 
over Jerusalem, and in His dying prayer for his murderers. 

The ascent of David in triumph to Mount Zion, as recorded in this Book and celebrated in 
David's Psalms, is happily connected by the Christian Church with the Ascension of Christ to the 
heavenly Jerusalem *, and with the Coming of the Holy Ghost from heaven. 

The tardy and interrupted progress, by which the Ark of God was at length brought up to 
Zion, after many delays, checks, and hindrances, is a representation of the course of the Church of 
Christ in this world, in a long and weary pilgrimage, attended by many sorrows, trials, and human 
shortcomings and imperfections ' ; but at length, after patient struggles, brought up to the altitude 
which the Divine David has already reached, and where He has prepared a place for her, and where 
she will rest for ever in an everlasting Temple built by Him Who is the true Solomon, or Prince of 
Peace, as well as the mighty Conqueror, the Divine David. 

The divine promise of perpetuity and everlasting dominion to David's Seed follows the narrative 
of the ascent of the Ark to Moimt Zion, and of David's desire to build a house for the Lord. 

That promise has received its fulfilment in Christ, born of David's seed iti David's City ". The 
victories of David, consequent on the settlement of the Ark on Zion*, have their full spiritual accom- 
plishment in the triumphs of Christ and of His Gospel, and will be consummated at the Great Day, 
when Christ will put all enemies under His feet, for of Him the Lord says, " Yet have I set My 
King upon My holy hill of Zion ' ; " " Sit thou on My right hand till I make thy foes Thy footstool." 

The history proceeds to relate the sin of David. This narrative belongs to that class of Scrip- 
ture records which serve the purpose of shewing, that, though the most eminent Saints of the Old 
Testament were Types of Christ, yet that they fall far short of the Divine Antitype. Their failings 
remind us that they are figures and shadows, and are not the substance itself. Th^ir human ble- 
mishes teach us not to dwell on them, but to look forward and upward to the High and Holy One, 

» See below, on ch. xiv. 1 ; xviii. 1—4 ; zz. 42r • See below, on 2 Sam. vi., Prelimburfy Note, 

s See below, on ix. 2 ; x. 11. 16. ' See below. Preliminary Note to 2 Sam. vL, and that chap- 

' See below, on 2 Sam. ix. 6. ter throoghout. 

* See below, on 1 Sam. xvi. 3. 2 Sam. ii. 4. & gee below, PreUminaij Note to ch» yii. ; and the chapter 

^ See this exhibited in detail in the notes on 1 Sam. mrii. 4. throughout. 

16. 40—51. » 2 Sam. yiiL » Pa. ii. 6. 

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in whom no spot or stain of imperfection is seen. In the unsullied purity of Christ there is always 
a contrast to what is faulty in the Type. We ha^e seen this already in the history at the Patriarchs 
and of the Judges '. 

So it is with David, regarded as a figure of Christ. David sinned by lust and murder, and the 
history of his sin serves to bring out more clearly the purity and love of Christ. It is not without a 
spiritual meaning, that the holy Evangelist, St. Matthew, introduces the name of her who had been 
the wife of Uriah, in the genealogy of Christ, and relates that she was the mother of Solomon. St. 
Matthew reminds us there, that the Son of God vouchsafed to take our nature in a line which had 
been tainted by the sins of a Tamar, a Bahab, and a Bathsheba, and He thus shows that penitent 
sinners of every nation may find mercy in Him. 

Our Divine David joined to Himself a Spouse formerly stained by sin, like Bathsheba, and united 
her to Himself in pure mystical wedlock, and begat by her a holy seed, a " Jedidiah, beloved of the 
Lord'," who was also called Solomon; for from this imion of Christ with our Nature we have peace 
with God*, and are " accepted in the Beloved." 

The above remarks may be extended to the remaining scenes of David's life. David is punished 
for his sin, by the rebellion of Absalom his son, and by the revolt of his people, and is driven from 
Jerusalem. This history brings before our eyes in many particulars a picture of the treatment 
which the Divine David, Jesus Christ, who knew no sin, experienced from His own children 
the Jews, and from His own city, Jerusalem. The parallelism in the incidents of the two histories 
is too striking to escape the notice of even the most cursory reader *. The return of David to Jeru- 
salem, after the rebellion of Absalom, and after Absalom himself was slain, and the eagerness of 
Judah to receive him, and the mention of the loyalty of those who welcomed him in his return, and 
the sorrow of David for his son's miserable end •, have already in part received an evangelical ac- 
complishment in the overthrow of Christ's enemies ; and exhibit to the inner eye a view of His 
tender compassion for their suflPerings consequent on their rebellion. They have also a prophetic 
significance, and vrill hereafter be seen to have a complete fulfilment in Christ, the true King of Judah, 
received and adored as such by the faithful remnant of His ancient people the Jews ' turning to 
Him with contrite hearts, and saying, with plaudits of joy, ** Hosanna to the Son of David, Blessed 
is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord ; Hosanna in the Highest." 

Some persons have expressed surprise that the death of David is not mentioned in this book. 
It contains his hymn of thanksgiving for the mercies of his past life'. It sets down his " last words *." 
It concludes with a narrative of the erection of the altar on the threshing-floor of Araunah on the 
cessation of the pestilence, and describes the offering of sacrifices on the site purchased by David *, 
the spot where the Temple was afterwards erected by Solomon his son \ But it says nothing of 
David's death. 
. Why was this P 

The reason will appear firom a consideration of the true character of this book. 

The Book of Samuel is connected with the Book of Judges by its beginning, and with the Book 
of Kings by its ending ; and is yet a well-organized and complete whole in itself. It is not (as some 
have most erroneously imagined') a congeries of ill-digested materials, and of fruitless repetitions. 
It is 8L prophetic history* of real events, preparing the way for the Priesthood and Kingdom and Pro- 
phetic Office of Christ ; and foreshadowing them. We have seen in the history of the Pentateuch 
that there is no break or interruption in the narrative, but the history of one Patriarch gradually 
melts into the history of another; and by this blending together and shading off of one history into 
another, we have a clearer prophetic view of the character and office of Christ, in their various 
phases', which could not be in any degree adequately represented by anyone of the Patriarchs indi- 
vidually. We shall also see that the Prophet Elijah passes almost imperceptibly into his successor 
the prophet Elisha, by the transmission of his mantle and of his spirit *, so that the sons of the 
prophets could say, *' The spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha ; " and thus Elijah and Elisha together 
symbolize the imbroken continuation of Christ's working after His Ascension, and the manifesta^ 

« See above, on Gen. xxviL 17; and Introdnotion to Judges, » E. g. Bertheau, Ds Wette, Oramherg, Chraf, Theniu9, and 

pp. 78, 79. others : q>. Davidson, Introdnotion, ii. 513. This notion haa 

» See below. Preliminary Note to 2 Sam. xi. been ably refnted by Dr. Keil, Einleitnng in d. a. test., pp. 

< See 2 Sam. xii. 25. Eph. i. 6. 166—175 : cp. EavernicJc, Einleitnng, ii. 133—142. 

• See below. Preliminary Note to ch. xv. * The reader will bear in mind that these Books, and the 

• See note below, on ch. xviii. 33. Books of Joshua, Judges, and Kings, are called " the former 
7 See 2 Sam. xix. 14> 16. 31. Prophets " by the Hebrews : see ^[otHnger, Thesaurus, p. 468, 

• 2 Sam. xxii. • 2 Sam. xxiii. 1—7. • See above, note on Gen. xxxiv. 1. 

> See on 2 Sam. xxir. 15. 18—26. > 2 Chron. iii. 1. < See below, note on 2 Kings iL 

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xIt introduction to the 

tion of His presence and spirit in the Apostles and their successors to the end of the world. We 
have seen also that the virtue of Christ's One and All-sufficient Sacrifice, with all its manifold mean- 
ings and phases, which could not be represented by Ofie kind of sacrifice in the Levitical Law, is 
symbolized by a group of various sacrifices clustering together in the Levitical Ritual '. 

So it is with the histories of David and Solomon. The one melts into the other. There is no 
break in the story. David utters his last words ; but he does not die. Solomon succeeds to the 
throne of Israel, while David, his father, is still alive. David rises again, as it were, into youth and 
glory in Solomon ; and so the double character of Christ, the King of all faithful Israelites, the true 
David, and also the true Solomon, is symbolized. In David we see Christ the Conqueror — the Man 
of War — the Lord of Hosts. In Solomon we see Him Who is the Builder of the Temple of His 
Church, the all-wise, and all-glorious King, the Prince of Peace. The history of the glorious end 
of David is reserved for the Book of Chronicles, where he is seen, on the eve of death, with 
Solomon at his side, in the assembly of the Princes and People of Israel, at Jerusalem ; and so the 
Father and the Son are, as it were, blended into one. 

There is one point more, intimately connected with what has been said, which seems to demand 
attention. The Book of Samuel marks a memorable epoch in Hebrew history in the institution 
of a particular office, continued thenceforth for many hundred years, the office of Prophet. 

This institution of the Prophetic office was a natural consequence of the degeneracy of the 
Priesthood, in such times as those of Eli's sons ; and it was a result of the erection of the earthly 
Monarchy*, in Saul. Hebrew Prophecy is supplementary to the defects of the Hebrew Priesthood ; 
it discharges its functions in times of national confusion and ruin ; and it was directive of the 
actions, and corrective of the aberrations, of the Hebrew Monarchy and Hebrew People. It was to 
the Hebrew Priesthood, and to the Hebrew Monarchy, in a far higher sense, what the most 
enlightened Equity is to human Law. It was to them what the calm wisdom of the lyrical Chorus 
in the Greek drama was to the frailties of the actors in the dialogue. It was an impersonation of 
the Eternal Godhead itself; supplying the defects of sinful humanity, and controlling its passions, 
and regulating its practice, and punishing its sins. 

Those Hebrew Dispensations— the Kingdom^ the Priesthood, the Prophetical Office — were only 
for a time ; and they all had their appropriate functions in preparing the way for Christ, the 
Universal Prophet, Priest, and King. Christ is the Eternal King ; His is the never-failing Priest- 
hood. He is the all-wise Prophet. In Christ all the attributes of Samuel, as Prophet and as 
Priest (raised up from another family than that of Aaron) are united with the royal prerogatives of 
David and Solomon. In Christ's Priesthood there are no defects to be supplied ; in His Kingdom 
there are no errors to be rectified ; and therefore the Hebrew Kingdom, Priesthood, and Prophecy, 
are all concentrated in Christ ; they coalesce, and are harmonized, and dwell together in loving 
union in Him, to Whom all the Prophets bear witness by their words and deeds, and in Whom all 
the Kings, Priests, and Prophets of the Hebrew Dispensation culminate, as their consummation, 
and of Whom Moses said to Israel, " The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the 
midst of thy brethren like unto me ; unto Him shall ye hearken •." (Deut, xviii. 15 — 19. See 
Acts iii. 22 ; vii. 27.) 

Such considerations as these, which have now been submitted to the reader, in reference to the 
office and acts of Samuel, Saul, and David, whose history forms the subject of this Book, seem to 
suggest strong arguments for its divine Inspiration. An uninspired Annalist could hardly have 
treated the history of Samuel, Saul, and David in such a manner as to display preparatory and 
prophetic foreshadowings of the Office and Work of Christ, as Prophet, Priest, and King, and of 
the history of Judaism in relation to Him. The history of this Book is written in such a method 
as to be pre-adjusted in a marvellous manner to the mysterious revelations of the Gospel, which 
was preached to the world a thousand years after the events which are here narrated. 

If the remarks here offered are well grounded, and they are little more than an expansion and 
development of what the Ancient Church has taught on this subject S then here surely is a proof 

7 See above, on Levitioof, Introduction, pp. ii. and iii., oh. iii. 1. Impcoii Sacramenta testator:" q). 8. JM^usHne in Pi. VL, 

A See below. Preliminary Note to 1 Chron. xxviii., and the and in Ps. Ivi., and eroedallr 8, AuguHine de Civitate Dei, 

end of that Book. xvii. 4 : " Procursus civitatis Dei, nbi penrenit ad Begum tem- 

' See below, on 1 Sam. ix. 1 ; and on 1 Kings xvii., Prelimi- pora, quando David, Saule reprobate, ita regnum primus 

nNote, and above on Judg. viii.*: cp. Hengttenberg, obtinuit, ut ejus posteri in terren& Jerusalem diuturnk suo- 

entic, i. 146. ^ oessione regnarent» dedit %uram re gett& sigpfiiflcans atque 

^ As, for example, the language of 8. Jerotne (Epist. 50 ad prsonuntians de rerum mutatione futurarum, quod attinet ad 

Paulinum iv., p. 572), *' Samuel (i. e. the Book of Samuel) in duo Testamenta, Yetus et Novum, ubi Sacerdotium Regnum- 

Heli mortuo, et^ in occisione Satil, veterem Legem abolitam que mutatum est per Sacerdotem eundemque Begem, Novum et 

monstrat; porro in Sadoc, atque David, novi Sacerdotii novique Sempitemum, qui est Chbistts Jssus. 

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that this Book was composed under the guidance of Him with Whom " a thousand years are as 
one day." 

On the Authobship and Date of the Books of Samuel. 

Many early Expositors, Jewish and Christian, have supposed that there is a reference to the 
Books of Samuel in 1 Chron. xxix. 29 ; " Now the acts of David the King, first and last, behold 
they are written in the book of Samuel the Seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in 
the book of Gad the Seer,'* and they were of opinion that the books now called the books of 
Samuel owed their origin to Samuel, Nathan, and Gad *. The Hebrew word here rendered book is 
dibrei, which may mean either words or acts. Indeed, in the former part of this verse it is rendered 
acts in our version *. Inasmuch, however, as Nathan and Gad were prophets, whose duty it was to 
^eak God's word rather than to act slb rulers of the people, there seems good reason to prefer the 
rendering tcords or books in this particular passage. And though we cannot speak with certainty on 
the subject, it seems unreasonable to regard as altogether erroneous the opinion above recited, that 
the author of the Chronicles, in the passage just quoted, may refer to written compositions of 
Samuel, Nathan, and Gad, and that these writings are extant in these books which bear the 
name of Samuel ^. 

That the books of Samuel were written at an early period, considerably before the date of the 
composition of the books of Kings, is almost universally admitted. The style is of the purest 
Hebrew, free from Chaldaisms*. It has been argued by some, that the date of its composition cannot 
be earlier than the days of Jeroboam, on account of the expression in 1 Sam. xxvii. 6, ** Where- 
fore Ziklag pertaineth to the Kings of Judah unto this day." But this does not seem to be a 
valid inference. The historian is speaking of the Kings of Judah, as contradistinguished from the 
rulers of the Philistines, and not as contrasted with the Kings of Israel. Even in David's time 
Judah was regarded as entire in itself. Arguments for a date later than the beginning of Solomon's 
reign, have been attempted to be deduced by some from the use of the word nabi (prophet) in 
1 Sam. ix. 9, and from the phrase mentioned as a proverb, "Is Saul among the prophets?" 
(in X. 12) and from the expression, " unto this day " (1 Sam. v. 5 ; vi. 18 ; xxx. 25 ; 2 Sam. iv. 3 ; 
vi. 8). But these appear to be of little weight '. It seems most probable that the Books of Samuel 
were written at intervals during the times of Samuel, Saul, David, and the earlier years of Solomon. 

The period comprised in this book is about 120 years ', terminating at about B.C. 1016, 

The ancient commentaries on these books are specified below, p. 1, to which may be added the 
two homiKes of Origen ; the Quaestiones of Tkeodoret and 8. Augustine, the Apologia Sancti David 
by 8. Ambrose, the Commentaries of 8. Ghregory the Great, and of Isidorus Hispaknsis, and oiBede; 
the expositions of Bonfrerim, 8anctius, 8erarius, A Lapide; of Calvin, P. Martyr, Brentius, Burmann, 
Willett, 8, 8chmidt, Drusirn, Bp. Patrick, Le Ckrc, and of the more recent works of Hensler, Konigs- 
feldt, TJienius, and KeiL 

" Nam et, Heli sacerdote reprobato, subetitntuB in Dei rniniB- * This was the opinion of some of the Talmudists, e. a, in 

teriom Samoel, simol officio Amctns sacerdotis et jndicis, et, Baha Bathra, cap. i. f. 14: and J2. Mosm Kimchi; and of 

Sanle abjecto, David fimdatus in reg^o, hoc quod dico figura- Theodoret, Fracopitu, Qregory the Qreat, Isidorus of Pelu- 

venxnt. C^ S. Prosper. Aquitcmus de Vrovolss, n, 2^ : Siunuel sium, and JSucherius; and of BCu^fo, Lyranus, Cdietanus, 

ejus gratifiB ftiit, ut et diviua responsa acciperet, et ei futura Vatahlus, Sixtus Senensis, SancHus, Serarius, Cornelias ^ La- 

Dominus nuntiaret : in illo tria inveniuntur, qusB Christo sunt pide, Waltherus, Calovius, Carpzovitts, and many others. See 

Domino consignanda. Dux enim^et sacerdos, et propheta &ctu8 Carpzovius, Introduction, p. 214; and note below, on 1 Chron. 

est." xxix. 29. 

S. Augustine (de Civitate Dei, xvii. 4), having animadverted • As it is fteqnently : 1 Kings xi. 41 ; xiv. 29 ; xv. 81 ; xvi. 

on the poverty and meagreness of that kind of expository Criti- 14. 20—27. 2 Kmgs xv. 11 ; but is not less often rendered 

dsm, which would interpret the Song of Hannah as a mere word or words : cp. 1 Kings xi. 41, with the margin, 
hymn of thanksgiving for the birth of a child to herself, instead * Cp. Keil, Kommentar, p. 11, who supposes that those dibrei 

of regarding it as a divine prophecy, reaching forward from her were used by the author of the Books of Samuel. For a further 

own times to Christ, asks this question, whether the reader of discussion of the point see Sdvemick^ Einleitung, ii. 193 ; Keil, 

this Scripture ought not to recognize in Hannah a figure of the Einleit. in d. a. T., p. 438 ; and Apolog. Versuch fiber die 

Church of God P ** Nonne agnoscit ]per banc mulierem, cujus Bucher der Chronik., p. 249 ; Archdeacon Zee, on Inspiration, 

etiam nomen, id est Anna, OrcUia ejus interpretatur, ipsam p. 466; and Movers, iiber die Chronik., p. 179; and the note 

Civitatem Dei, cujus Rex ^ et conditor Christus, ipsam pos- below, on 1 Chron. xxix. 29. 

trem6 Dei Gratiam prophetico spiritu sic locutam, a qu& * Cp. Keil, Einleit. in d. a. Teat. p. 176 ; Davidson, Int. i. 

superbi alienantur ut cadant, ^u& humlles implentur ut surgant. 524 ; 2>r. Smith, BibL Diet. iL 1128. 

Dicat ergo Ecclesia Christi, Civitas Regis Magui, gratis plena, ^ Cp. 1 Sam. xL 8 ; xvii. 52 ; xviii. 16. 2 Sam. ii. 9, 10 ; 

prole fecunda, dicat quod tant6 ante de se prophetatum per os iii. 10; v. 1 — 6; xix. 41; xx. 2; xxiv. 1. Cp. Sdoemick, 

hcgus pis matris agnoscit ;" and then S. Augustine proceeds to ii. 143 ; Keil, 175. 

shew how the song of praise of Hannah for the birth of Samuel, 7 Cp. Keil, Einleit. in d. a. Test. p. 175, who has slightly 

is in a large and prophetic sense a song of the Church for the modified his opinion in his Kommentar, p. 10. A later date is 

birth of Christ, and thus concludes : *' Heeo Anna prophetavit, assigned to the Book in the article in I>r. Smith's B. D. ii. 

SamueUs mater, sancti viri, in quo tunc est figurata mutatio 1129 ; and by Dr. Davidson, Int. p. 528. 
Veteris Sacerdotii, et nunc impleta, quando infirmata est (Syna- * See above. Introduction to Judges, p. 83 ; and Browne's 

goga Judaica) quss multa erat in filiis, ut novum hab^t in Ordo SsBCulorum, pp. 264^ 265; Winer, R. W. B. ii. 877; 

Clmsto Sacerdotium sterilis, que peperit septem." Savemick, Einleit. iL 119; Keil, Kommentar, p. 1. 

Digitized by 


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I. VNOW there was a certain man of Bamathaun-zophinii of monnt 
Ephraim, and his name was ^Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihn,, 
the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, **an Ephrathite : ^ And he had two wives ; bRiithi.2. 
the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah : and 
Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children. 

^ And this man went up out of his city "" f yearly ^ to worship and to sacrifice o ex. «8. m. 
nnto the Lobd of hosts in ^Shiloh. And the twp sons of Eli, Hophni and lX2.4i.^ 

' * t Heb./ro« 

toy war. 

dDeat. IS. 5,6,7. 

e Josh. 18. 1. 

Ch. T. 1. Bamathaim-9ophim\ the same as Hamah Q., e. the 
lofty place) ; see V. 3 compared with v, 19, and iL 11. The 
name is always osed with the article ha-rctmah (the high place), 
and ramathaim is the dual fonn ; probably becaose there was 
an npper and lower dty (cp. the plnnd words Athenm, Mycena, 
Theta, &c.). Zophim may dther mean loatckmen (cp. Num. 
xziii. 14), and in a spiritnal sense prophets (Tar^um, Jerome), 
or it may be the proper name of Elkanah's &mily, among which 
we find the name ZivpA or Zophcd (see here and 1 €7£x)n. vi. 
26. 35). Bamah is now called Er Bdm, two hours K.w. of 
Jerusalem, and was situated on a circular hill on the east of the 
road to Shechem. It was the place where Samuel was bom, 
and afterwards dwelt, and died (vii. 17; zv. 34; zvL 13; 
zix. 18. 22), and was buried (xzv. 1 ; zzviii. 3). 

— SlkaiMhl i. e. ctcqttired by God/ as the Levites were, in 
exchange for the firstborn (Num. iiL 13. 44), an appropriate 
name for one who was of the family of Levi, as Elkanah was : 
see Jeromkuter*^ here, and Theodoret, Qu. 1; Seldende Success, 
i. 18 ; Hengst^ Auth. ii. 62. 

— an Bphrathite'] i. e. an EphraimUe : so Sept. and Tar- 
amm Jon, Cp. Judg. xii. 6. 1 Kings xi. 26; and EeU, The 
Levites of the famOy of Kohath, to which £3kanah belonged, 
had their cities in the tribes of JSyhraim, Dan, and Manasseh 
(Josh. xxi. 5. 21->26), and Elkanah is called an Ih)hraimite 
because he derived his origin from the residence of his family 
in that tribe. Cp. Hengetenberg, Auth. ii. 61. 

2. two wines'^ Ferhaps he took a second wife on account of 
Hannah's barr^mess. 

— Hannah'] \,%, grace, favowr : cp. Luke ii. 36. 

— Peninnah] t e. peaA (Bochart, Martmann), or, as others 
suppose, coral (GheeiC). 

— Hannah had no children^ The Christian Fathers com- 

1 Under this name (JeromiaHer) is here dted the author of 
the " Quffistiones HebraicsB in Libroe Begum," which are con- 
tained in the editions of 8, Jerome, App. tom. ii., ed. Bened., 
Paris, 1699. In some recent publications these ** Questions ** 
have been attributed to S. Jerome. 

In the fbllowing notes on the Books of Samuel and Kings 
the reader will also find refer^ces to the valuable commentiary 
attributed to JSkcherws, Bishop of Lyons in the fifth century. 
It was written bv a later author, a contemporary of S. Ore- 
gory I., to whom he refers, lib. iiL c. 22; th^y may be found in 
Bibl. Patr. Max. vol vi. pp. 939—1014. The commentary of 
Asigelomue, which has also oeen used, is contained in Bibl. Pntr, 
Max. XV. 309—413. 

Vol. II. Pabt II.— 1 

pare Hannah, at first barren— as Sarah and Bachel, contrasted 
respectively with Hagar and Leah— and taunted by her rival ; 
but afterwards the mother of Samuel the Ptophet; to the Chris- 
tian Church scorned at first by the Synagogue, as sterile, but 
afterwards fruitful in all lands (Isa. tiv. 1. GtaL iv. 27. S. 
Gregory, Bede, and Angelomue in 1 Sam.). 

8. the Lobd qf hosts] This is the first occurrence of this 
Name, "Jehoval Tsebaoth," "The Lord op Hosts." It is 
not found in the Pentateuch, nor in Joshua, Judges, or Euth. 
But henceforth it becomes an usual appellation of the Most 
High (see o.ll; iv.4; xv. 2; xvii. 46. 2 Sam. v. 10; vi. 2.18; 
vii. 8. 26, 27). It declares that the God of Israel is the Lord 
of all "the host of heaven*' (Gen. ii. 1. Cp. Ps. ciii. 21. Isa, 
xL 26), who were worshippea as divine by the ancient inha- 
bitants of Canaan and by tiie Assyrians, and afterwards by the 
kin^ of Judah (cp. Deut. xvii. 8. 2 Kings xvii. 16 ; xxi. 6 ; 
xxiu. 4. Jer. xix. 18. Zeph. i. 5) ; that He is the Lord of all 
the elements of the world above, and of the angels (Gen. xxxii. 2), 
and is worshipped by them ^eh. ix. 6), and much more is 
He the Sovereign Ruler of all nations and armies (cp. Exod. 
vii. 4 ; xii. 41). This titie is found firequentiy in the books of 
the prophets ; sixty -two times in Isaiah ; and sixty-five times in 
Jercnniah. It does not occur in the Book of Job or in Ezekiel. 
In the Books of Kings it occurs seven times ; in the Chronicles 
three times, in passages derived from the Books of Samuel 
(1 Chron. xi. 9. Cp. 2 Sam. v. 10. 1 Chron. xvii. 7. 24. Cp. 
2 Sam. vii 8. 26). 

This title, <<The Lord of Hosts," seems to be inserted 
designedlv by the sacred historian at the beginning of this 
book, which relates the craving of Israel for an earthly king 
when the Lobd was thdr King (see viii. 6 ; xii. 17^, and the 
setting-up of an earthly kingdom in Saul. It is like a pre- 
liminary protest against that act of national fhithlessness; and 
it proclaims the umversal supremacy of Jbhotah. 

— tfi ShUoh] where the Tabemade and Ark were (see above. 
Josh. xviiL 1). 

Here is an evidence, that notwithstanding the corruptions 
which prevailed in the days of the Judges, the devout ^milies 
of Israel continued to resort to " the pl»ce which Gk)d chose out 
of their tribes to pkoe His Name there,'' according to the Law 
of Moses (Deut. xvi. 15); and here is a refutation of the allega- 
tion of some, that the Pentateuch could not have existed iu 
those days, because its precepts were not observed : see farther 
on this objection the excellent remarks of Hengst,, Auth. ii. 
63-56. 83. 89. 

— And the two sons of Eli] or, rather, and two sons ofEU, 
He may have had more sons. Eli was of the line of Ithamar, 


Digitized by 


Hannah's payer. 

1 SAMUEL I. 4—22. 

SamueVs birth. 

Phinehas, the priests of the Lord, were there. * And when the tune was that 
L^^ii!'* *'* **■ Elkanah 'offered, he gave to Peninnah his wife, and to all her sons and her 
daughters, portions : ^ But unto Hannah he gave || a worthy portion ; for he 
loved Hannah : ^but the Lord had shut up her womb. ^ And her adversary 
also f ^ provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the Lord had shut up 
her womb. ^ And as he did so year by year, || f when she went up to the house 
of the Lord, so she provoked her ; therefore she wept, and did not eat. ^ Then 
said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest thou ? and why eatest 
thou not ? and why is thy heart grieved ? am not I ^ better to thee than ten sons ? 

^ So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had 
drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of ^ the temple of the 
Lord. ^^ ^ And she was f in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the Lord, and 
wept sore. ^^ And she "vowed a vow, and said, Lord of hosts, if thou wilt 
indeed "" look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and "" remember me, and not 
forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid f a man child, then 
I will give him unto the Lord all the days of his life, and ^ there shall no 
razor come upon his head. 

^^ And it came to pass, as she f continued prayiog before the Lord, that 
EU marked her mouth. ^' Now Hamiah, she spake in her heart ; only her 
to^fai.""^''*"^ Ups moved, but her voice was not heard : therefore Eli thought she had been 
drunken. ^^ And Eli said jmto her. How long wilt thou be drunken ? put 
away thy wine from thee. ^^ And Hannah answered and said. No, my lord, 
I am a woman f of a sorrowful spirit : I have drunk neither wine nor strong 
drink, but have ** poured out my soul before the Lord. ^^ Count not thine 
handmaid for a daughter of ' Belial : for out of the abundance of my || complaint 
and grief have I spoken hitherto. ^^ Then Eli answered and said, • Go in 
peace : and Hhe God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of 
him. ^^ And she said, ""Let thine handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the 
woman "" went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more sad. 

^^ And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the Lord, 
and returned, and came to their house to Eamah : and Elkanah ^ knew Hannah 
his wife ; and * the Lord remembered her. * Wherefore it came to pass, f when 
the time was come about after Hannah had conceived, that she bare a son, and 
called his name || Samuel, saying y Because I have asked him of the Lord. 

^^ And the man Elkanah, and all his house, * went up to offer unto the Lord 
the yearly sacrifice, and his vow. ^ But Hamiah went not up ; for she said 

I Or, a doubtt 

f Gen. 80. 3. 

f Heb. angtrod 


h Job 24. 21. 

I Or, from the 

timt that «Atf, 4e. 

t Heb./VoMAn- 

going up. 

\ Ruth 4. 15. 

k ch. 3. 8. 

1 Job 7. II. 
& 10. 1. 

t Heb. Utter of 

2 Sam. 17 8. 
m Gen. 28. 20. 
Num. 30. 8. 
Judg. 11.80. 
n Gen. 29. 82. 
Ex. 4. 31. 

2 Sam. 16. 12. 
Pa. 28. 18. 
o Gen. 8. 1. 
& 30. 22. 
t Heb. eeed of 

5 Num. 6. 5. 
udg. 18. 8. 

t Heb. hard of 


4 Ps. 68. 8. 

& 142. 2. 

r Deut. 18. 13. 
K Or, meditation. 
8 Judf . 18. 6. 
If ark 5. 84. 
Luke 7. 50. 
8r 8. 48. 
t Ps. SO. 4, 5. 
u Gen. 88. 15. 
Ruth 2. 18. 
X Bccle*. 9. 7. 

y Gen. 4. 1. 

2 Gen. 80. 22. 
t Heb- in reoolU' 
tion of dage. 

I That it, 

the yoonger Km of Airon (1 Chron. zxiv. 8), wluch had now 
been advanoed above that of Eleazar; but that of Eleazar after- 
waids recorered its precedence. See above on Num. uvL 12, 18 ; 
and below, 1 Kings iL 27. Jo9epK Antt. t. 11. 5. BengH^ 
Anth. U. 74, 76. JTaii, p. 80. 

Joeqphns says that there were three high priests between 
Phinehas and l^—viz., AUeaer, Bokki, and Uui, who were of 
the line of Eleazar (1 Chron. vi. 60, 61), so that EU was the 
first high 'priest of the line of Ithamar. Eli was Judge of 
Israel (vr, 18) for fwrty years, as well as high priest. 

— ike priests of the Lobd] rather, priests qf the Lord ; 
there were other priests beside them; this is necessary to be 
observed in regard to the objections of some, that Mi and his 
sons wotdd not have sufficed to perform the priestly functions of 
the sanctnary : cp. Sengst^ Anth. U. 68. 

Although H^hni and Phinehas were among the priests, 
yet Elkanah and Kumah did not separate themselves from the 
service of the sanctuary where they ministered— • lesson against 
schism : cp. note below on Matt. x. 4. 

4. offhred^ peace-oflTerings. 2 Sam. vi. 18: cp. Lev. vii. 84; 
Deut. xii. 11. 

5. a worthy portion] literal^, one poriii^ far hoo pers<m»i 
Gesen. 69; Keil, 18 ; and so Sgriae. 


6. her adversofy also provoked her sore"] Observe the evil 
effects of polygamy : cp. Gen. iv. 19. 28 ; zzx. 8. 

9. by a post of the temple qf the Lobd] near a portal qf 
the palace of Jehovah, The Tabernacle is called a palace, not on 
account of its external splendour, but as the royal residence of the 
Lord, the Emgof Israel. Cp.iii.d. P8.V.7. Geseu,222, £nZ,19. 

11. all the days of his life"] Samuel was a Levite, but as 
such, he was not bound to tiie service of the sanctuary before 
be was twenty years of age, and his term of service did not 
extend beyond fifty (Num. viii. 24^ 26); but his mother dedicated 
him to the Lord's service all ^ dijq^ qf his life, not only as a 
Levite, but as a Kazarite. 

— there shall no raaor oome upon his head] he shall be a 
Nazarite for ever : see above, Num. vi. 6, and the history of 
Samson, Judg. xiii. 6; xvi. 17. Here is another evidence of 
acquaintance with, and observance of, the Mosaic law at this 
tame. Cp. Mei^st,, Auth. ii. 77. 

16. qf BeUcU] See above on Deut. xiiu 18. Judg. xix. 22 ; 
XX. 18. The high priests were sons of Belial (ii. 12). Such was 
the degeneratrr of tiie times. 

80. S arnu e t] L e. heard of Ood; from shama, to hear, and 
lEl, Ood {Gesen, 888. 886. Joseph., Antt. v. 10. % who inter- 
prets the name by Beeiryrroi) : cp. v. 27. 

Digitized by 


He is dedicated to God. 1 SAMUEL I. 23 — 28. 11. 1. Hannah's song of praise. 

unto her husband, I mil not go up until the child be weaned, and then I will 
*» bring him, that he may appear before the Lord, and there ^^ abide ** for ever. l^^^Hl 
^And 'Elkanah her husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee good; &i*i.*''**- 
tarry until thou have weaned him ; ^only the Lord estabhsh his word. So the lllmhlr. 
woman abode, and gave her son suck until she weaned him. ^ And when she ^^ ^^' '* "* 
had weaned him, she ' took him up with her, with three bullocks, and one ephah « oeut. u. s, 
of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him unto ** the house of the Lord in h J6«h. is. i. 
Shiloh : and the child was young. ^5 And they slew a bullock, and 'brought i Luke 2. m. 
the child to Eh. ^^ And she said. Oh my lord, ^as thy soul Uveth, my lord, I kG«n.42. 15. 
am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the Lord. ^ ^ For this i Matt 7. r. 
child I prayed ; and the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of 
him : ^ " Therefore also I have || lent him to the Lord ; as long as he Hveth "Jr?;il'4!i 
II he shall be lent to the Lord. And he " worshipped the Lord there. 
II. ^ And Hannah * prayed, and said, 

^ My heart rejoiceth in the Lord, 

^ Mine horn is exalted in the Lord, 

bSeeLuk«l. 46, &o. 

Aim, whom I have 
obtaintd hp peti- 
tion, to thf Lord. 
U Or, he whom [ 
have obtained by 
petition than be 
n Gen. S4. 26, 62. 
a Phil. 4. 6. 
Pa. 92. 112.9. 

88. gave her 9on suok^ On tb« duty of mothers to nnne 
their own children, according to the example of Sarah and 
Hannah, see ahove, on Qen. xxi. 7; and helow, on 1 These. 
iL 7 : cp, S, Chrytoriom in Ps. xx. Clem, Alex., Pted. iii. 4. 

24. iohen she htid v>eamed him, the took him up with her"] 
The Hehrew mothers oontinaed to give their children suck for 
three years (2 Mace. vii. 27) : cp. ahore, on Qen. xxi. 8. 

— and the child was tfoun^] literally, and the child was a 
chUd, not merely in tenderness of years, hnt in childlike dodlity, 
meekness, and gentleness. 

35. they slew a bullock'] the hollock for the homt-offering, 
with which Samnel was dedicated to Qod. The other two 
bullocks were offered as thank-offerings and peace-offerings, 
with which Elkanah feasted his friends. 

28. he worshipped the Lobd] Elkanah joined with Hannah 
his wife in the dedication of Samuel, for whom he probably 
prayed with her : cp. ii. 20. 

The mother (says A Lapide) cannot dedicate a child 
without the father's consent ; for " the husband is the head of 
the wife " (£ph. y. 23), and of the whole household. 

On the dedication of the child Samnel to the service of the 
Lord in Shiloh, and the practical lesson thence to be derived, 
see the five Homilies of 8, ChryeoHom in Annam, tom. iv. 
pp. 699—747, ed. Montfaucon, Paris, 1721. 

Thb Soho of Haititah. 

Ch. II. L Aud Sduuah prayed, and eaid"] This Prayer and 
Song of Hannah is, as it were, one of the golden links which 
connect the song of Sarah, on the birth of Isaac (see above, 
Qen., xxL 6, 7), with the Magnificat of the Blessed Virgin, after 
the annunciaticm of the Angel Gabriel, saluting her as the 
Mother of Chbibt : see Luke L 46 — 65. Let this ^ine Sooog 
of Hannah be read in the Septuayini, and thai let the May- 
mfioai of the Blessed Virgin be read in St. Luke's original, and 
the connexion of the two will be more clearly recogni^. The 
Holy Qhost inspired both, and he leads on the devout mind firom 
the birth of Samuel to that of Christ. See, fox example, the 
beginnings of each song — 

'£<rrc^ci^ i^ KupZia /mv iv McYoX^ct ^ ^vx^\ uov vhif 
Kvp(^f i>i^$il K4fMs /Mv ^ K6pio¥, kcU iiytiwUurt rh 

ffurripl fjMv (Luke L 46). Cp. 
below, vv, 7, 8. 

Another link is the triumphal Song of Miriam, after the 
passage of the Red Sea, and the victory of Jehovah and His 
people over their enemies (Exod. xv. 20, 21). Another is the 
Song of Deborahy praising the Lord for dehvering His people 
by the hand of a woman : see Judg. v. All these poetic hymns 
of thanksgivix^, uttered by women, are celebrations of joyfU 
events, which are prophetic foreshadowings of the universal 
deliverance and victory achieved by the Incarnation of Christ, 
the Promised Seed of the woman (Gen. iii. 15). 

This is their true meaning, and here is a reply to the oh- 
jectiont of some (such as JEkoald and T^hetdua) who except 

against the genuineness of this song of Hannah, as if it were of 
too general and comprehensive a character to be suited to the 
occasion which suggested it — the birth of Samuel — an^who 
assert that it must have been produced by some great national 
victory of the Hebrew people, or by such an event as the over- 
throw of Goliath (Stanley, Jewish Church, p. 878 ; and note to 
Diet, of Bible, ii. p. 1130). 

The true characteristic of Sacred Poetry is, that it is not 
egotisticaL It merges the individual in the Nation, and in the 
Church Universal. It looks forward from the special occasion 
which prompts the utterance of thanksgiving, and extends and 
expands itself, with a loving power and holy enei;^, into a lai^e 
and s^pathetic outburst of^ praise to God for His love to all 
mankmd in Christ. Like a pebble cast into a clear and calm 
lake, it sends forth concentric rings of waves, ever cnlarg^g 
toward the margin, to that the puticular mercy to the indi- 
vidual produces ever-expanding undulations of praise. 

This Magnificat of Hannah is conceived in this spirit. It 
is not only a song <^ thanksgiving, it is also a prophecy : it is 
an utterance of the Holt Ghost moving within her, and 
making her maternal joy on the birth of Sunuel to overflow in 
outpourings of thankfulness to God for those greater blessings 
in Chiubt, of which that birth was an earnest and a pledge : 
see Auyuetine de Civ. Dei xvii. 4; and the remarks of S, 
Qreyory, Euthymius, Angelomua, SancHus, and others here. 

In this req>ect it may be combined with the Song oj 
Moses (Dent, xxxii.^ and the Song of David (2 Sam. xxii.), and 
forms a connecting link between them : see bebw, PreUminary 
Note to 2 Sam. xxii. 

The Books of Samuel contain other divine songs : see xviii. 
7. 2 Sam. i. 17—27 ; iii. 88 j xxii. ; xxiii. 1—7. Some have 
supposed them to have been collected and preserved in the 
" Book of Jasher " {Dr. Lee on Inspiration, p. 466). 

— My heart rejoiceth in the Losp] All the joy of the saints 
is in the Lord (S, Chrys., Hom. 8, de Ann&). <* lllud verum 
est gaudium, quod non de creatur& sed de Creatore susdpitur" 
{S, Bernard, Epist. 116). 

The Targum of Jonathan well says here, "Hannah prayed in 
the spirit of prophecy, and saidj" and the same Chaldee Para- 
phrast interprets this song as a prophetic announcement of the vic- 
tories to be gained by Jehovah and His people over their enemies 
(the Philistines and c^er Heathen nations), even to the last days ; 
and sums up by saying, " He willgive strength to His kings, 
and will increase the kingdom of JERs Messiah .*" so Kimchi. 

It was, therefore, the opmion of the ancient Hebrew 
Church that this song is a prophecy of Christ. And ancient 
Christian Expositors recognize in Hannah a figure of the 
Christian Church, contrasted with the Jewish Synagogue, and 
blessing God for His mercies in the Gospel. « Manifbstissim^ 
Anna m cantioo suo mutationem Veteris Testamenti, vel sacer- 
dotii, in Novum Testamentum, vel sacerdotium, qui est Chbis- 
TTTS, prophetare videtur " {Angelomus), 

— Mine horn] Concerning this figure which first appears 
here, and reappears in David's Song (2 Sam. xxii. 8), and 
agun in the Song of Zaoharias in the Gospel (Luke i. ^), set 
b«low on 2 Sam. xxii. 2. 

B 2 

Digitized by 


Hannah's song of praise. 1 SAMUEL 11. 2—10. The Lord wUl strengihm His King. 

My month is enlarged over mine enemies ; 
Because I "* rejoice in thy salvation. 
2 • There is none holy as the Lobd : 
For there is 'none beside thee : 
Neither is there any rock like our God. 

* Talk no more so exceeding proudly ; 
« Let not f arrogancy come out of your mouth : 

For the Lord is a God of knowledge. 
And by him actions are weighed. 

* ^ The bows of the mighty men are broken, 
And they that stumbled are girded with strengths 

^ * They that were fall have hired out themselves for bread ; 
And they that were hungry ceased : 
So that ^ the barren hath bom seven ; 
And ^ she that hath many children is waxed feeble. 
^ "" The Lord killeth, and maketh ahve : 

He bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up. 
^ The Lord ° maketh poor, and maketh rich : 

"" He bringeth low, and lifteth up. 
^ p He raiseth up the poor out of the dust. 
And lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, 
*> To set them among princes, 
And to make them inherit the throne of glory : 
' For the pillars of the earth are the Lord's, 
And he hath set the world upon them. 
^ • He will keep the feet of his saints. 

And the wicked shall be silent in darkness ; 
For by strength shall no man prevail. 
The adversaries of the Lord shall be * broken to pieces ; 
" Out of heaven shall he thunder upon them : 
' The Lord shall judge the ends of the earth ; 
And he shall give strength unto his king, 
7 Pt. 89. 24. ^ And exalt the horn of his anointed. 

d Pt. 9. 14. 
& 18.5. & 20.5. 
8t 35. 9. 
e Ex. 15. 11. 
Deut. 8. 24. 
ft 32. 4. 
Pt. 86. 8. 
ft 89. 6, 8. 
r Deut. 4. 35. 
2 Sam. 22. 32. 

f Pt. 94. 4. 

Mai. 3. IS. 
Jude 15. 
t H«b. hard. 

h Pt. 37. 15, 17. 
ft 76. 3. 

i Pt. 34. 10. 
Luke 1. 5S. 

kPt. 113.9. 

1 Isa. 54. 1. 
Jer. 15. 9. 
m Deut. 32. 39. 
Job 5. 18. 
Hot. 6. 1. 

n Job 1.21. 

P». 75. 7. 

pPt.n3. 7, 8. 
Dan. 4. 17. 
Luke I. 52. 

q Job 36. 7. 

r Job 38. 4, 5, 6. 
Ps. 24. 2. 
ft 102. 25. 
ft 104. 5. 
Heb. 1. 8. 
t Pt. 91. U. 
ft 121.3. 

t Pt. 2. 9. 

u ch. 7. 10. 
Pt. 18. IS. 
X Pt. 96. 18. 
ft 98. 9. 


2. Neither is there oiiy roek Uke our God"] This figure of 
the Bock is another connecting link which joins together this 
song, and the song of Moses, with the song of David, and all of 
them with Christ : see above, Dent, xxxii. 4 ; and PreUminanf 
Note to 2 Sam. xxii., and v, 82 of that chapter. 

8. 7\xlk no more eo exceeding proudhf] TT«.nni^li goieralizes her 
reply to the taunts of her adversary, who had provoked her for what 
was the Lord's doinff (for ** the Lord had shut up her womb," i. 6), 
into a lesson of moderation to all who boast Uunnselves against 
Qod, who is a Qod of knowledge, and whose acts are just. 

Prophetically these words may be applied to the Christian 
Church reproving the arrogancy of the Synagogue {Angelomue), 

— Let not arrogancy'] The negative (not expressed in the 
Hebrew text) is implied m the foregoing member of the sentence. 

In the text is To with an aleph (signifying no€), instead of 
lo with a vau (signifying, to Amm). And this passage is reckoned 
by the Masorites as one of those fifteen places in which this con- 
fusion exists. C^, Exod. xxL 8, and AurivHUut, Dissert, p. 469. 

— hg him actume are foeighed]thai is, His actions are all 
rightly balanced, and just (S^t, Vulg,, Theodoret, KeU), Or, 
man's actions are weighed by Him in the balance of His judg- 
ment {Targum, Striae, A £apide, JStoald), Cp. Ptov. xvi. 2; 
xxi. 2 ; xjdv. 12. 

4 — 9.J With these words of Hannah compare those of Mary, 
recognizing in her iown exaltation a specimen of Gk)d's general 
dealings in raising up the lowly and abasing the proud (Luke L 

5. oeated] 1. e. to be hungry. 

7, 8. He bringeth low, and Itfteth up] The Septuagint has 
here K6piot raTftyoiKoi itpvipot *Aif urr^ imh yiis friwrirti. .... 
KaBlffai fierit ^vvaffrmw XooD, ical Bp6vov Z6^s KarcucXripoyofuow 
aJbrois, Thus the Septuagint Vorsion helps us to connect 
Hannah and her song of praise with the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
and her Magnificat^ in which we read, ica0eiXc hupdarat &irb 
Bp6v»v jcol (Kf^ofO'c raxtiwoifs (Luke i. 62). 

Hannah, the type of the Christian Church, nrophesies the 
abasement of the pride and self-righteousness of the Synagogue, 
and the graces and glory of the meek, who believe in Christ 
(Origen, Theodoret, Augustine, Angelom^ A Lapide), 

8. the pillars of the tfo^f*^ ft flffurative expression, derived 
firom a palace or temple. The will of God (says 8. Basil in 
Hoseam, Hom. i.) is the base and column on which the earth rests. 

10. The adversaries of the Load] The word Jbhoyab 
stands onphatically at the beginning of this sentence, as in ov. 6, 7. 

— shall he thtrnderl fulfilled literally in this historyi see vii. 

— he shall give strength unto his king. And exalt the hom 
of his anointed] Thus, in this heavenly-inspired song, 
Hannah prophesies that God in His own appointed time would 
ndse up a king {Sis kinf ) to His people ; and thus this holy 
and pious woman, in this psalm or praise to God for mercies 
foi^seen as well as past, and in her devout acknowledgment 
that God only is the Book (v. 2), and that it is the sole pro- 

, rogative of God to raise up Irinoes (vv, 6—8), and to give them 

Digitized by 


The sins of the priests. 

1 SAMUEL n. 11 — 22. Samuel ministering at Shiloh. 

^^ And Elkanah went to Bamah to his house. 'And the child did minister 
unto the Lobd before Eli the priest. ^^ Now the sons of Eli were * sons of Belial ; 
^ they knew not the Lobd. ^^ And the priest's custom with the people wasy 
that, when any man offered sacrificei the priest's servant came, while the flesh 
was in seething, with a fleshhook of three teeth in his hand ; ^^ And he struck 
it into the pan, or kettle, or caldron, or pot ; all that the fleshhopk brought up 
the priest took for himself. So they did in Shiloh unto all the Israelites that 
came thither. ^^ Also before they "" burnt the fat, the priest's servant came, 
and said to the man that sacrificed. Give flesh to roast for the priest ; for he 
will not have sodden flesh of thee, but raw. ^^ And if any man said unto him. 
Let them not fiedl to bum the fat \ presently, and then take as much as thy soul 
desireth ; then he would answer him. Nay ; but thou shalt give it ms now : 
and if not, I will take it by force. ^^ Wherefore the sm of the young men was 
very great ^ before the Lord : for men • abhorred the offering of the Lord. 

^^ ^But Samuel ministered before the Lord, being a child, ^girded with a 
hnen ephod. ^^ Moreover his mother made him a little coat, and brought it 
to him firom year to year, when she ^ came up with her husband to offer the yearly 
sacrifice. ^ And Eli * blessed Elkanah and his wife, and said. The Lord give 
thee seed of this woman for the || loan which is ^ lent to the Lord. And they 
went unto their own home. ^ And the Lord ^visited Hannah, so that she 
conceived, and bare three sons and two daughters. And the child Samuel 
" grew before the Lord. 

^ Now Eli was very old, and heard all that his sons did unto all Israel ; and 
how they lay with ** tiie women that f assembled at the door of the tabernacle 

B Ter. 18. 

ch. S. 1. 

a Deut. 18. IS. 

b Judg. 2. 10. 
Jer. 2S. 10. 
Rom. i. 28. 

c Lev. 8. S, 4, 

t Heb. M on the 

d Gen. 6. 11. 
e Mftl. 2. 8. 

fver. li. 
g Ex. 28. 4. 
t Sam. 6. 14. 

h ch. 1. 8. 

Oen. 14. 19. 

H Ox, petition 
which the atked, 

k ch. 1. 28. 
1 Gen. 21. 1. 

m Judg. IS. 24. 
▼cr. 26. 
ch. S. 19. 
Lake 1. 80. 
& 2. 40. 

n See Ex. S8. 8. 
t Heb. assembted 
hjf troopt. 

Btren^, ttands in a striking contrast to tiie people of Israel, 
who impatiently asked for a king "to jndge them Uke the 
noHons/* and to go out before them, and to Ji^ht their hattlee 
(see below, viii. 5— -20), instead of waiting patiently Qod's time, 
and instead of r^oicinff in their privilege in not bdng like the 
nations, bat in being the spedal people of Qod, and Instead of 
relying on His Almighty arm to save them fhmi their enemies. 

Hannah, the mother of Samuel, is the first person in Holy 
Scriptnre who addressed Qod as ^ the Lobd ov Hosts ^' 
(L 11), a title which emphatically declares the sovereignty of 
the Ahnighty and unseen Baler of the world; and thns also by 
her Adth in Him she stands in ccmtrast with the fidthless im- 
patience of the people of Israel, who asked of Samnel to make 
them a visible nesd who might reign over them : see above 
on L 11. 

Hannah is also the first person in Holy Scriptnre who 
nses the words ** his anointed. As was before observed (on 
o. 1), the ancient Hebrew Charoh interpreted her words as a 
prophecy of the Messiah : see next note. 

— And exaU the horn of hie anointed"] {n^^cfi K4pas 
Xpi<rrov cUrrov (Sept,) : "Christi sni" (Vul^.), The king, of 
whom Hannah prophedes, is " JEKe king/' a king by whom ** the 
Lord shall judge the ends of the earth," not the king craved 
by the people, on mere worldly considerations (see the pre- 
ceding note), bat the King to be appointed by Goa, in His own 
doe time; and a figure ra Christ, of whom Jehovah says by 
David, <* Tet have I set «!Mf Icing upon my holy hill of Sion ** 
(Ps. iL 6), and to whom Tie will give the heath^i for His in- 
heritance, and to whom all judgment is given (Ps. Izxii. 1. 
John V. 2&, 27), and who will put all His enemies under His 
€BetaCor.xv.26— 28). 

Therefore it is rightly said, '< h»c omnia spectant ad 
Christum " {A Lapide). 

12, eone of Belial] Seech.L16. How different from Hannah ! 
There is a similar contrast in the Gospd between Mary of Beth- 
any and Judas : see on Matt. xxvi. 6. 

— knew not the Lobb] Tbey who ministered daily to Him 
did not know (i. e. did not fear and love) Him to whom they 
ministared. They were blinded by thdr sms. Cp. Judg. ii. 10. 
Titus L 16. 1 John ii. 4. 

18. the prieet^e euetom .... was] Such were their sins. 
These sons of £Ii were not contented with the portion of the 
peace-oiKerings that was assigned to them by the Law (see Lev. 

vii. 81 — 85. Dent, xviii. 8), but they would also rob the offerer 
and his Mends of that portion which belonged to them, and 
which th^ were preparmg, in order to feast before the Lord 
(cp. Sengit,, Auth. iu 88). This was a sin against men ; the 
next was a sin against God. 

15. before theg burnt the fat] which was not to be eaten, but 
was God's portion, to be burnt by the priest on the altar (Lev. 
iiL16j vU. 28. 26. 80, 81). 

" I%ev burnt," not the offerer, but the prieet for him 
(Mengst, ii. 67). 

17. the einofthe goung men woe very greoH ** Grave pec- 
catum saoerdotum, ob scandalum datmn laiois" {A Jjoptde), 
On the sins of priests and their punishment, see Jer. xxiii, 
1, 2. Ezek. xxxiv. 2 — i. Hosea v. 1. Zech. xL 17. Mai. 
i. 6 ; iL 1 (5: Qregor,, Hom. 17, in Evanff.). 

18. But Samuel minietered^ The Levite child is contrasted 
with the g^wn-up priest. 

— a linen ephod] not to be confbunded with the costly ephod 
of the High Priest, described Bxod. xxviii. 4—6 ; and see below, 
V, 28 ; xiv. 8 ; xxiii. 9. 

The linen ephod (Heb. ephod bad) was a simple robe of 
the ordinary priests (1 Sam. xxii. 18) and Levite^ and also 
sometimes worn by men, — as David, dancing before the ark 
(2 Sam. vi. 14. C^. Senget, u. 67). 

19. a little ooaQ a little meil (Heb.). The meil was a 
priestly robe, see Exod. xxviii. 4; xxxix. 22 — 26. Samuel is 
described as wearing a meil below, xv. 27 ; xxviii. 14, but the 
same word is also used to describe a princely and royal robe 
(xviii. 4; xxiv. 4. 2 Sam. xiii. 18. 1 Chron. xv. 27). 

80. the loan which is lent] Or, the boon which one has asked. 
Eli supposes that Elkanah had joined in Hannah's prayer for a 

82. the women that aeeembled] by troops, for religious 
worship (Targum, Josephue), Probably these women were 
dedicated to the service of the sanctuary : see Exod. xxxviiL 8 
{Sengst, ii. 76). 

— at the door of the tabemaole] How different was this 
Phinehas, tlie son of Eli, from Phinehas, the son of Eleazar ! See 
above. Num. xxv. 6—8. 

The punishment was suited to the sin. The Priests polluted 
the tabemade at Shiloh; and ** God forsook the tabernacle in 
Shiloh, even the tent that He had pitched among men; He 
delivered their power into captivity, and their beauty into the 

Digitized by 


Woes denounced on EWs house. 1 SAMUEL 11. 23 — 86. 

A faithful Priest promisecL 

n Or, / hear tvil 
words of pou. 

I Or, to cry out, 

o Num. 15. SO. 

pJosh. 11. SO. 
Prov. 15. 10. 
q ver. 21. 
r Prov. 8. 4. 
Luke 2. 52. 
Acts 2. 47. 
Rom. 14. 18. 
s 1 Kings IS. 1. 
t Ex. 4. 14, 27. 

u Ex. 28. 1, i. 
Num. 16. 5. 
8i 18. 1, 7. 

X Lev. 2. 3, 10. 
& 6. 16. 

8e 7. 7, 8, S4, 35. 
8i 10. 14, 15. 
Num. 5. 9, 10. 
8c 18. 8—19. 
J Dcut. 32. 15. 
X Deut. 12. 5, 6. 

a Ex. 29. 9. 
b Jer. 18. 9, 10. 

c Ps. 18. 20. 
&91. 14. 
d Mai. 2. 9. 
e I Kings 2. 27. 
Ezek. 44. 10 
Seech. 4. U, 
18. 20. He 14. S. 
ft 22. 18, ftc. 
I Or, the affliction 
of the tabernacle f 
for all the wealth 
which Ood would 
have given leraet. 
{ See Zech. 8. 4. 

f Ueb. men 
g I Kings 13. 3. 

i 1 Kings 2. 85. 
1 Chron. 29. 22. 
Ezek. 44. 16. 

of the congregation. ^ And he said unto them. Why do ye such things ? for 
II I hear of your evil dealings by aU this people. ^ Nay, my sons ; for it is no 
good report that I hear : ye make the Lobd's people || to transgress. ^ If one 
man sin against another, the judge shall judge him : but if a man "" sin against 
the Lord, who shall intreat for him ? Notwithstanding they hearkened not 
unto the voice of their father, ^ because the Lobd would slay them. ^ And the 
child Samuel ''grew on, and was ' in £a.vour both with the Lobd, and also with men. 
^^ ' And there came a man of God unto EU, and said unto him, Thus saith 
the Lobd, 'Did I plainly appear unto the house of thy fietther, when they were 
in Egypt in Pharaoh's house ? ^ And did I " choose him out of all the tribes 
of Israel to be my priest, to offer upon mine altar, to bum incense, to wear an 
ephod before me ? and "" did I give unto the house of thy father all the offerings 
made by fire of the children of Israel ? ^ Wherefore ^ kick ye at my sacrifice 
and at mine offering, which I have commanded in my ' habitation ; and 
honourest thy sons above me, to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all 
the offerings of Israel my people ? ^ Wherefore the Lobd God of Israel saitii, 
" I said indeed that thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before 
me for ever : but now the Lobd saith, ** Be it far from me ; for them that 
honour me ^'I will honour, and **they that despise me shall be lightly 
esteemed. *^ Behold, • the days come, that I will cut off thine arm, and the 
arm of thy father's house, that there shall not be an old man in thine 
house. ^ And thou shalt see || an enemy in my habitation, ia b31 the wealth 
which God shall give Israel : and there shall not be 'an old man in thine house 
for ever. ^ And the man of thine, whom I shall not cut off from mine altar, 
shall be to consume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart : and all the increase 
of thine house shall die f in the flower of their age. ^ And this shall be^SL sign 
unto thee, that shall come upon thy two sons, on Hophni and Phinehas ; ^ in 
one day they shall die both of them. ^ And * I will raise me up a faithful 
priest, that shall do according to that which t5 in mine heart and in my mind : 

enemy's hand" (Ps. Ixxvlii. 61, 62). He allowed the Ark to be 
taken by tbe Philistines, and it was never restored to Shiloh. 
"The fire consumed their young men; and their maidena were 
not given to marriage. Their Priests (Hophni and Phinehas) 
were slain with the sword, and there were no widows to make 
lamentation" (vv, 63, 64). 

28. And he said unto them] Eli was the Judge and Priest ; 
and he was bound, in his double character, to punish his sons, 
and to vindicate the honour of Ood; but he did not follow 
up his words with deeds, and he encouraged them by impunity. 
C^. the remarks of the Sev. IL W. Evans, Scrip. Biog. i. 114. 

36. the judge shall Judge him] or, rather, Ood shaU Judge 
him, shall dedde between one man and another; and nere is 
place for intercession. The aggrieved party may himself become 
a mediator for the offender, as Moses was for Miriam when she 
had spc^en against hhn (Num. xii. 18). 

— who shall intreat for him ?] A man mav intercede with God 
for remission of a penalty due for injury to hunse^, but who shall 
venture to entreat for one who has outraged the migesty of God ? 
On the senses of the Hebrew word used in both these clauses, 
palal, to judge, and, in hithpael, to intercede, see Qesen, 676. 

— heoause the Lobd would slay them] or, therefore the liOXD 
would slag them (Noldius, Ffeiffer, p. 198). Cp. Ps. cxvi. 10. 
Jer. iv. 10; xxix. 16 ; where the particle here translated because 
signifies therefore. But the rendering of the Authorized Ver- 
sion need not be abandoned : thev heawened not to the voice of 
their father, because the Lord nad hardened thdr hearts for 
their stna, and would punish them for their wickedness. Cp. 
Exod. iv. 21. 

26. the child Samuel grew on^in favour both with the Lobd, 
and also with f^en] St. Luke adopts these words (ii. 52), 
and applies them to Christ. 

27. a man of Ood] A prophet (Judg. xiii. 6) pre-announoed 
God's judgments on Eli's house, and explained the reason of 


them, and thus made those judgments to be a dear pcoof of 
God's truth and righteousness. 

— of thg father] Aaron (Exod. iv. 14. 27). 

28. kick ge] Cp. Deut. xxxii. 15, « Jeshurun waxed ht, and 

80. I said indeed] God's promises are con^tional on 
obedience, as his threats may be averted by repentance (Jonah 
iii. 4. 9. 10). 

— should walk before me for ever] In uninterrupted pros- 
perity : this was to be forfeited, at least for a time, by the 
destruction of Shiloh, and the capture of the Ark. 

81. thine arm] tiiy strength (Job xxii 9. Ps. xxxvii. 17). 

82. thou shalt see an enemg in my habitation, in all the 
wealth which God shaU give i»raen Thou, tbe High Priest, 
and those who succeed thee in the oiffioe, shall see a destroyer 
of my house at Shiloh, in all those good things which God 
would have given Israel, if the Priestl:^od had been faithful in 
its ministry. See ch. iv. 4. 11. 22. This was " the captivity " 
wMch is mentioned above (Judg. zviii. 80). Cp. Pa. IxxviiL 62. 
Even in the days of Samuel, the Ark, having been taken by 
the Philistines, was never brought bade into the Tabemade ; 
and the Tabernacle was never set up again in Shiloh. 

88. thinehouse] This ^d not ext^id to the fkmily <^ Ithamar 
g^erally, but only to that of EIL 
84. in one dag theg shaU die] See iv. 11. 

Thb Faithful Pbisst. 
80. I will raise me up a faithfiU priest] Though thy sons, 
the priests, shall die, and though thou, the High Priest, and ihw 
house shall suffer grievous afflictions, yet the Priesthood shaU 
not perish. '* I will raise me up a faithful priest, that shall do 
according to that which is in my heart and in my mind : and I 
will build him a sure house; and he shall walk befture mine 
Andnted for ever." 

Digitized by 


Ood reveals Himself 

1 SAMUEL n. 36. HI. 1—11. 

to Samuel. 

and ^ I will bnild him a sure house ; and he shall walk before ^ mine anointed 
for ever. ^ "* And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left in thine 
house shall come and crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel of bread, 
and shall say, f Put me, I pray thee, into || one of the priests' offices, that I 
may eat a piece of bread. 

ni. ^ And* the child Samuel ministered unto the Lobd before Eli. And 
** the word of the Lobd was precious in those days ; there was no open vision. 
^ And it came to pass at that time, when Eli was laid down in his place, ^ and 
his eyes began to wax dim, that he could not see ; ' And ere ^ the lamp of God 
went out * in the temple of the Lobd, where the ark of God wasy and Samuel 
was laid down to sleep ; ^ That the Lobd called Samuel : and he answered, 
Here ami. ^ And he ran unto Eli, and said. Here am I ; for thou calledst me. 
And he said, I called not ; lie down again. And he went and lay down. 
^ And the Lobd called yet again, Samuel. And Samuel arose and went to Eli, 
and said, Here am I ; for thou didst call me. And he answered, I called not, 
my son; lie down again. ^ ||Now Samuel 'did not yet know the Lobd, 
neither was the word of the Lobd yet revealed unto him. ^ And the Lobd 
called Samuel again the third time. And he arose and went to Eli, and said. 
Here am I ; for thou didst call me. And Eli perceived that the Lobd had 
called the child. • Therefore Eli said unto Samuel, Go, lie down : and it shall 
be, if he call thee, that tnou shalt say, Speak, Lobd ; for thy servant heareth. 
So Samuel went and lay down in his place. ^^ And the Lobd came, and stood, 
and called as at other times, Samuel, Samuel. Then Samuel answered. 
Speak ; for thy servant heareth. 

^^ And the Lobd said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, ^ at 

k 2 8am. 7. 11,27. 

1 Kings 11. M. 

IPs. 2. 1. 

& 18. 50. 

m 1 Kings 2. 27. 

t Heb. Joim. 
I Or, toflMwAal 
about tk* prUai- 

ach.2. 11. 

b Pi. 74. 9. 
Amos 8. 11. 
See ver. 21. 
Gen. 27. 1. 
ft 48. 10. 
ch. 2. 22. 
ft 4. 15. 
d Ex. 27. 21. 
Ler. 24. S. 
2Chron. IS. II. 
e ch. 1. 9. 

I Or, Thus did 
Samuel btfor* ke 
knew the Lord, 
and bifort the 
word of the Lord 
wa» revealed unto 
f See AcU 19. 2. 

2 Kings 21. 12. 

5 2 Kings 
er. 19. 8. 

This prophec J was fulfilled jprimaiily in Sanmel. 

Samuel, in. the interval of oonftiskni (when tha regular 
exercise of the Levitical Ritoal and Priesthood was suspendM, by 
the destractioa of Shiloh and by the sepamtioQ of the Ark from 
the Tabemade), was nused np in an extraordinary manner, by 
special commission from Qod, to perform priestly acts. 

It had a secondary fiilfibnent in Ztutok, who, on aocomiC of 
his fiutbfblness to the noose of David, was placed by Solomon in 
the room of Abiathar (1 Kings ii. 27). 

Bat it can only be siud to have iisfkU and final accomplish- 
ment in Chbist, who b the Divine Samuel, and the faithful 
Priest— the true Zadox, or RiaHTBOUS Oki, who has saper- 
seded the Aaronic priesthood, and " abideth a Priest for ever " 
(Heb. vii. 11 — 28); and has united the Priesthood with the 
kingdom everlastinglv. 8, Bippolytut fed. Lagarde, p. 167) ; 
Tkeodoret, Qu. 7 ; and 8. Auguttine de Civ. Dei xvii. 5, who 
has commented at large on this prophecy in a Christian sense ; and 
see also Angelomiu and A Lapids, and the notes below on 
1 Kings ii. Itl, 

86. And it shall come to paee] This was fulfilled literally 
in the distress which afflicted the fiunily of Eli, and in the 
massacre of his descendants at Nob (xxii. 19^ ; but it is fulfilled 
in a larger sense in the submission of the Aaronical priesthood 
to Him ** Who abideth a Priest for ever,'* and in their liumble 
resort to Him for spiritual food and sustenance, especially in 
His Holy Word and Sacraments, llie curse is taken away, and is 
changed into a blessing, in Christ. 8, Auguttine uid Theodoret, 
Qn. 7 ; and so 8, Oregory and Proeopiue in A Lapide. 

Ch. III. 1. the ehild Samuel] He was then twelve years 
old, says Joeephue (v. 10. 4). 

If this was the case, tms vidon vouchsafed to Samuel, and 
this message sent by €k>d through him to Eli in the Tabernacle, 
may sugsest a comparison between him at this time and our 
Blessed Xord when a child of twelve years old, in the Temple, 
manifosting His Divine Wisdom, so that '* all were astonished at 
His understanding^ and answers," and expostulating with His 
mother, ** Wist ye'not that I must be about My Father's busi- 
ness ?*' (Luke ii. 46—49 ;) and, as the child Samuel was not 
elated by this vision and revelation vouchsafed to him in the 

Temple, but went humbly to Eli ; and, when it was morning, 
did the daily work prescribed to him (o. 16), so the chiM 
Jesus, after the honour paid Him in the Temple, "went 
down to Nazareth, and was subject to " Mary and Joseph (Luke 
u. 61). 

— precious] rare. 

— no open vision] The prophetic vision was not opened, 
extended (cp. ^^v. ui. 10), but was contracted on account of 
the sin of the Priests and people. 

2. his eyes began to wax dtm] Therefore Samuel might well 
suppose that Eli called him to minister to him in some service 
of help bv night ; and ho was probably sleeping near Eli for that 
purpose (o. 6). 

8. the lamp qf Ghd] The seven-branched candlestick, fed with 
oil every evening (Exod. xxvii. 20; xxx. 8. Lev. xxiv. 2). 

— went out] The call was, therefore, probably near morning. 

— in the temple] the Tabemade at Shiloh. 

4. the Lobd called Samuel] probably by a voice from the 
Ark in the Holy of Holies. We may suppose that the High 
Priest Eli was nearer the Ark ; but he heard not the voice of 
Qod, which the child Samuel heard : it was directed specially 
to ^m. 

7. did not get know the Load] He did not know the Lord 
in that fulness and deamess in which he afterwards knew Him, 
speaking to him, and declaring His will, with an audible voice. 
Compare the use of the phrase knew not, in John i. 81. 3d ; 
see the note there, and the note above on Exod. vi. 3. 

— neither was the word qf the Lobd get revealed unto him] 
It was not yet uncovered (see Cfesen, 170) ; afterwards the Word 
was uncovered (cy. v, 21), and his own ear was uncovered to 
receive it : see below, ix. 16, and Bp. Pearson, Art. i. p. 7. 

So it was with the disciples of Christ after His resurrec- 
tion. Christ did then a double work for them. He opened to 
them the Scriptures, and He opened their hearts to understand 
them (Luke xxiv. 82. 46). 

10. the Lobd came, and stood^ The Glory of the Lord was 
revelled to him {Targum), It was not a dream, nor an inspira- 
tion, but a vision of the Lord which was vouchsafed to Samuel. 
See how Ood loves holiness in children. The child Samuel was pre- 
ferred by Him to Eli, the aged hijch priest and judge {Theod<iret). 

Digitized by 


Samuel is established to he 1 SAMUEL III. 12—21. IV. 1—3. a Prophet of the Lord. 

h ch. 3. Sfr-M. 

t Heb. beginning 

and ending. 

D Or, Amd I will 

tell Mm, ^e. 

i ch. 2. 29, SO, 

31. ftc. 

k Ezek. 7. 3. 

«r 18. 90. 

1 ch. 2. 12, 17, 22, 

H Or, accureed. 

t Heb. frowned 

not upon them. 

m ch. 2. 23, 25. 

nNum. 15.30,81, 

Isa. 22. 14. 

oRuthl. 17. 
f Heb. to add. 
D Or, word. 

f Heb. all the 
thinge, or worde. 
p Job 1.21. 
& 2. 10. 
Ps. 80. 0. 
Isa. 39. 8. 
qch. 2. 21. 
r Gen. 39. 2, 
21, 23. 
■ ch. 9. 0. 
t Judg. 20. 1. 
I] Or, faithful. 

u ver. 1, 4. 

U Or, came to 


f Heb. was. 

a eh. 5. 1. 
&7. 12. 

t Heb. the baUle 
woe epread. 

t Heb. the arrag. 

f Heb. lake t 

which both the ears of every one that heareth it shall tingle. ^^ In that day 
I will perform against Eli *" all things which I have spoken concerning his 
house : f when I begin, I will also make an end. ^' || * For I have told him 
that I will ^ judge his house for ever for the iniquity which he knoweth; 
because * his sons made themselves || vile, and he f ° restrained them not. 
^^ And therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's 
house ** shall not be purged with sacrifice nor oflfering for ever. 

^^ And Samuel lay until the morning, and opened the doors of the house of 
the Lord. And Samuel feared to shew Eli the vision. ^^ Then Eli called 
Samuel, and said, Samuel, my son. And he answered. Here am I. ^^ And he 
said. What is the thing that the Lord hath said unto thee ? I pray thee hide 
it not from me : **God do so to thee, and f more also, if thou hide any |i thing 
from me of all the things that he said unto thee. ^^ And Samuel told him 
f every whit, and hid nothing from him. And he said, ^ It ts the Lord : let 
him do what seemetll him good. 

^^ And Samuel '^ grew, and 'the Lord was with him, • and did let none of his 
words fall to the ground. ^ And all Israel ' from Dan even to Beer-sheba 
knew that Samuel was |{ estabhshed to be a, prophet of the Lord. ^^ And the 
Lord appeared again in Shiloh : for the Lord revealed himself to Samuel in 
Shiloh by "* the word of the Lord. IV. ^ And the word of Samuel || f came to 
all Israel. 

Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and pitched beside 
• Eben-ezer : and the Philistines pitched in Aphek. ^ And the Philistines 
put themselves in array against Israel : and when f they joined battle, Israel 
was smitten before the PhiUstines : and they slew of f the army in the field 
about four thousand men. 

^ And when the people were come into the camp, the elders of Israel said, 
Wherefore hath the Lord smitten us to day before the Philistines ? Let us 
f fetch the ark of the covenant of the Lord out of Shiloh unto us, that, when it 

11. tinffle] Cp. 2 Kings xxi. 12. Jer. xix. 8. Hab. i. 5. 
The massacre of Eli's descendants by Sanl, at Nob, was in 
part a Ailfilment of this prophecy (see xxii. 19). 

20. from Dan even to Beer-sheba] from the northern to the 
southern extremity of the land (see Jndg. xx. 1). 


— that Samuel was etiahUthed to be a prophet of the Loud] 
A ve^ important statement. What Samuel did in offering 
sacrificee, &c. (see vii. 9), was not (as some seem to imagine) 
an irregular intrueion into th.e prieetly office. But in a time of 
great degeneracy and confusion, temporal and spiritual, when 
the Priesthood itself was polluted, and when the Tabernacle was 
defiled by deadly sins, and when, in consequence of those sins, 
the priests were slain by the sword, and the Ark of God was 
taken, and Shiloh itself was destroyed, and when the exercise 
of the ordinary functions of the Ijevitical priesthood was in 
abeyance, Samuel was specially raised up by God, and receiyed 
an extraordinary commission from Him who is the Author of 
all priestly power and authority, to do what he did in main- 
taining the worship of God ; and *' all Israel, from Dan eyen to 
Beersheba," knew, by yisible tokens, that Samuel "was estab- 
lished to be a prophet of the Lord," that is, an interpreter and 
expounder of God's will to Israel. Obserye also what follows ; 

21. the LoBD appeared again'] literally, ctdded to appear, 
and He reyealed Himself to Samuel by the Word of the Lord, 
by audible manifestations. This was done in Shiloh, the ap- 
pointed place of Diyine worship. Samuel deriVed his extra- 
ordinary commission from God, in His own House. 

Consider the circumstances recorded in this chapter. « The 
Word of God was precious in those days : there was no open 
yision " (v. 1). God breaks through the silence of many years 
and reyeals Himself to Samuel. Wherefore was this ? Samuel 
had a childlike fiuth. Therefore he was yery dear to God. The 

words are remarkable, " the child was a child " (see i. 24), and 
" he g^ew before the Lord " (ii. 21. 26) ; he was a child in in- 
nocence, humility, siniplicity, and holiness. He was holy, amid 
scenes of unholiness. In spite of the pernicious examples of Eli's 
sons, the priests of God, the child stood firm ; he was true to 
God in the most trying circumstances. Therefore God reyealed 
Himself to him. The child Samuel was preferred to the aged 
Eli, the high priest and judge ; and thus (as Theodoret remarks) 
God showed that holy childhood is better than hoar hairs. God 
reyealed to Samuel the things which concerned Eli. See here 
the fruits of obedience. He was ** wiser than the aged," and 
had ** more understanding than his teachers," because he ** kept 
God's commandments" (Ps. cxiz. 99, 100), and he was not 
elated by his reyelations : he was meek and docile as before, 
reyerent and dutiful to Eli, who was treated with contempt by 
his own sons. Therefore he grew on, and the Lord was with 
him, and g^ye him more reyelations, and "all Israel knew that 
he was established to be a prophet of the Lord." 

Ch. rV. 1. ihe word of SamueT] The word which God spake 
to and by him who was established *' a prophet of the Lord," 
and whose appearance was a remarkable era in the history of 
Israel ; see Acts iii. 2^ " all the prophets from Samuel,** the 
most eminent prophet after Moses. Cp. Heb. xi. 82, " The time 
would fail me to teU of Samuel and of the prophets." 

— Eben-ezer"] which signifies, stone of help; so called by 
anticipation, firom the yictory giyen there to Israel, twenty 
years afterwards, in answer to Samuel's prayer (yii. 12) ; it was 
between Shen and Mizpeh (the watch-tower), lurobably Mizpeh 
of Bei^amin (Josh, zym* 26), now Nehy Samwil (Kobinson), 
two hours K.w. of Jemflalem, half an hour s. of Gioeon. The 
site of Shen {tooth or crag) is unknown. 

— in ApheJe] See Josh. xy. 68. 

8. Let us fetch the ark of the covenant] by means of which 

Digitized by 


The Ark taken. 

1 SAMUEL IV. 4—11. 

Hophfd andPhinehas slain. 

Cometh among us, it may save us out of the hand of our enemies. ^ So the 
people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the 
covenant of the Lobd of hosts, ** which dwelleth between *the cherubims : and 
the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the 
covenant of Gk>d. * And when the ark of the covenant of the Lobd came into 
the camp, all Israel shouted with a great shout, so that the earth rang again. 
^ And when the PhiUstines heard the noise of the shout, they said, What meaneth 
the noise of this great shout in the camp of the Hebrews ? And they 
understood that the ark of the Lobd was come into the camp. ^And the 
Philistines were afraid, for they said, God is come into the camp. And they 
Raid, Woe unto us 1 for there hath not been such a thing f heretofore. ® Woe 
unto us ! who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods ? these 
are the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wilderness. 
^ * Be strong, and quit yourselves like men, ye Philistines, that ye be not 
servants unto the Hebrews, * as they have been to you : f quit yourselves like 
men, and fight. 

^^ And the Philistines fought and 'Israel was smitten, and they fled every 
man into his tent : and there was a very great slaughter ; for there fell of 
Israel thirty thousand footmen. ^^ And » the ark of God was taken ; and ^ the 
two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, f were slain. 

b 2 Sun. 6. S. 
Pt. 80. 1. 
ft99. 1. 
c Ex. t5. 18, 22. 

Num. 7. 89. 

t Heb. futerdafft 
or, tkt third daif. 

d 1 Cor. 16. IS. 

e Judg. IS. 1. 
t Heb. b€ men. 

t ret. 2. 
Ley. 26. 17. 
Deut 28. 25. 
Ps. 78. 9. 62. 
g ch. 2. 82. 
Pt. 78. 61. 
h ch. 2. 34. 
Pi. 78. 64. 
t Heb. died. 

God bad wrought gach wonden of old, espedalhr in the puBOge 
of Jordan, and in the overthrow of Jericho. Bat they forgot 
that God only works for those who obey Him. They trusted in 
the ouiwitrd meant. But God would show that the outward 
means are of no arul without inward holiness, and therefore He 
suffered them to be smitten, and allowed the Ark to fidl into 
the hands of their enemies. « Trust ye not in lying words," 
says the prophet ^Jer. vii. 4), "saying. The Temple of the Lord ;" 
but if ye thorougnly amend your ways, '*Then wiU I cause you to 
dwell in this place for ever and ever " (o. 7). It is observable 
that God there refers to this history, and says, « Go ye now to 
Shiloh, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of my peo^e 
Israel" («. 12). 

Probably David remembered this history, when, with a 
clearer faith, he refused to allow the Ark to be carried with him 
in his retreat before Absalom out of Jerusalem ; and even when 
the priests had brought it forth, he commanded them to carry 
it back to its place, saying, " If I shall find favour in Uie eyes 

of the Lord, He will bring me again and show me both it uid 
his habitation" (2 Sam. zv. 25). 

David, without the Ark visibly present, but with the unseen 
help of Him who was enthroned on the Ark, triumphed, and 
was restored to Jerusalem and the Ark. But Israel with the 
Ark visibly present, but without the blessing of Him whose 
Throne the Ark was, fell before their enemies, and were deprived 
of the Ark, which was taken by the Philistines. 

4. between ths cherubinu'] or, on the cherMm. 

— ^ the two tone of Sli, ffovhm and Phinehat, were there"] 
What, therefore, would the Ark profit them, when the priests 
were profane who ministered before it, and polluted it by Uieir 
presence? What are mere outward Churches of God, when 
the living Church— the Priests and People— are unholy ? The 
hiBtory of Jerusalem supplies the answer (see on Matt. xxiv. 15). 

7. the PhiUttinet — tatd, God it come into the campl The 
Ark is called by the sacred writer <'The Ark of the Load" 
(Jehotah), but the Philistinee, being heathens, say that 
Elohik is come into the camp ; and they speak of God in the 
plurcU number, — " these mighty Gods." However, they bear wit- 
ness to the truth, that the rresence of God was enshrined in tJie 
Ark ; and that the God of Israel had smitten the E^^tians with 
^ag^nes. Here is a fulfilment of what Moses hS. prophesied 
cExod. XV. 14), " Sorrow shall take hold of the inhabitants of 
Falettine.** Cp. below, vi. 6. 

Thb Captitsb ot thb Abe. 

11. the ark of God woe taken'] The Ark, which Moses had 
made by Gk)d's command at Sinai, and on which the Divine 
Presence was enshrined in the Holy of Holies; and which had 

Vol. n. Pabt IL-9 

accompanied Israel in their marches through the wilderness, and 
before which the waters of Jordan had fled backwsrd, and the 
Wis of Jericho had fiUlen down — that Ark was taken by 

Why did God permit this P 

(1) In order to show that His presence had forsaken Israel, 
because they had forsaken Him ; and especially to punish the 
Priesthood, which had profimed Hb Sanctuary by their sins. 

(2) In order to show that visible ordinances of religion only 
profit those who have the spirit of religion within them. The 
Ark of God's visible Church only benefits those who have the 
Shechinah of His Presence in their hearts. As long as Israel was 
obedient (says Theodoret, Qu. 10), thev might safely trust in 
the providence of God ; but when they forsook Him, neither He 
nor the Ark would profit them. The Ark contained the Tables 
of the Law, and thus showed the sanctity of the Law ; and how 
could the Ark avail those, who broke the Law which was con- 
tained in it ? 

(3) In order to show that though men are bound to use the 
outward means of grace which God has instituted for the convey- 
ance of His benefits to them, yet God's presence and working are 
not tied to those means; and that He can act without them. 

Thus it was shown that the means of grace are only 
channelt of blessing from Him, and that He is the only touroe 
of grace. After the capture of the Ark, the Tabernacle was like 
a Cenotaph. It was like a body without a souL And Shiloh 
itself was soon reduced to desolation. 

The Vieible Church of Israel seemed then to be Iving in ruins. 

But the God of Itrael still lived and acted. And His 
Sovereign Power and Divine Independence were seen to work 
more ^oriously and graciouriy even when the Visible Church 
appeared to be overthrown. He raised up a Samfel, the most 
illustrious of Prophets after Moses. He authorized him, though 
only a lievite, by a special commission, to do the work of a 
Fnett, in offering sacrifices (see above on iii. 20, 21 ; and below, 
on vii. 10. 17). He accepted the sacrifices offered by him, as He 
had accepted those of the Patriarchs who offered sacrifices before 
the Law. He employed him in anointing Saul first ; and then 
David, tJie type and ancestor of Christ. He inaugurated, as 
it were, a new era in Samuel ; and prepared the way for the 
Gospel. He showed that the Aaromcai Priesthood was only 
parenthetical and provisional ; that the Levitical ordinances were 
not necessary to God's gracious dealings with His people ; th^t 
they were shadows which would one day pass away ; that they 
were like a scaffold for building up a house — the Church of 
Christ — and would one day be removed, when their purpose had 
been served, and the spiritual house was erected, which is " built 
on the foundation of Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ Himself 

Digitized by 


EWs death — Ichabod. 

1 SAMUEL IV. 12—22. V. 1—3. The Ark at Ashdod. 

i 3 Sam. 1. S. 

k Joth. 7. 6. 
2 Sam. IS. 19. 
ft 16. 82. 
Neh. 9. 1. 
Job 2. 12 
1 ch. 1. 9. 

m ch. 8. 2. 
t Heb. Hood. 

n 8 Sam. 1. 4. 
t Heb. it tht 

I He seemt to 
haTc been a 
Judge to do 
Justice only, and 
that in South- 
west I$ra§t. 
I Or, to cry oui. 

t Heb. wtre 

o Oen. M. 17. 

t Heb. Mt not 

her heart. 

I That if, Where 

is the gUtTMt 

m, There U no 


p ch. li. 8. 

iPi. 26. 8. 
78. 61. 
a ch. 4. 1. 
ft 7. 12. 

b Judg. 16. 23. 

Isa. 19. 1. 
ft 46. 1, 2. 

^2 And there ran a man of Benjamin out of the army, and * came to Shiloh 
the same day with his clothes rent, and ""with earth upon his head. ^' And 
when he came, lo, Eli sat upon ' a seat by the wayside watching : for his heart 
trembled for the ark of God. And when the man came into the city, and told 
it^ all the city cried out. ^* And when Eli heard the noise of the crying, he 
said. What meaneth the noise of this tumult ? And the man came in hastily, 
and told Eh. ^^ Now Eli was ninety and eight years old ; and ■• his eyes f were 
dim, that he could not see. ^^ And the man said unto Eli, I am he that came 
out of the army, and I fled to day out of the army. And he said, " What 
f is there done, my son ? ^^ And the messenger answered and said, Israel 
is fled before the Philistines, and there hath been also a great slaughter among 
the people, and thy two sons also, Hophni and Phinehas, are dead, and the ark 
of God is taken. ^^ And it came to pass, when he made mention of the ark of 
God; that he fell from off the seat backward by the side of the gate, and his 
neck brake, and he died: for he was an old man, and heavy. || And he had 
judged Israel forty years. 

^^ And his daughter in law, Phinehas' wife, was with child, near || to be 
delivered : and when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and 
that her &ther in law and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and 
travailed ; for her pains f came upon her. ^ And about the time of her death 
**the women that stood by her said unto her. Pear not; for thou hast bom a 
son. But she answered not, f neither did she regard it. ^^ And she named 
the child ||Plchabod, saying, ""The glory is departed from Israel: because the 
ark of God was taken, and because of her father in law and her husband. 
22 And she said. The glory is departed from Israel : for the ark of God is taken. 

V. ^ And the Philistines took the ark of God, and brought it *from Eben- 
ezer unto Ashdod. ^ When the Philistines took the ark of God, they brought it 
into the house of ^'Dagon, and set it by Dagon. ^ And when they of Ashdod 
arose early on the morrow, behold, Dagon was "" fallen upon his face to the 

beinff the chief Comer-rtone" (Eph. ii. 20). God thus gave a 
prophetic fbreshadowixig of what was more rally displayed to the 
world when the material Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by 
the Romans, and the UniTersal Church of Christ was nused up 
in its place. 

(4) By allowing the Ark to feSl mto the hands of the PhiHs- 
tinei, luid to be bronght in triumph into the temple of their god 
Da^on, and by the wonders that He wrought m that temple, 
where He made Dagon fidl prostrate before the Ark, Qod gave 
the Philistines themsdves an evidence of His own Divine 
Sovereign^, and c^ed them to turn firom idols, and to worship 
the True God. Cp. Theodoret, Qu. 10. 

— Hophni and Phinehae were eloHi] A proof of God's 
truth (u. 84). 

13. ^t eat upon a teat hy the way tide watching] So all the 
ancient versions. J2. Schwartz, by an alteration of the Hebrew 
pointing, renders it " by the wayside leading to Mucpeh*' (see 
Grove, B. D. ii. 888). The reading of the MSS.,^ac, is cor- 
rected by the Keri to yad, a hana or tide. See Cteten. 847. 

IS. qfthe arh cf Q^d] The news of its capture was more 
grievous to Eli than that of the defeat of Israel, and the death 
of his own sons. " If I forffet thee, O Jerusalem, let mv right 
hand forget her cunning; u I do not remember thee, let my 
tongue cleave to the rwA. of my mouth, if I prrfer not Jeru- 
taUm above my chief Joy" (Pb. cxzxvii. 6, 6). The dying words 
of Archbishop Whit^ were ** Tto Ecdesia Dei." 

— he had judged Itrael forty yeartl When I read of Eli the 
Priest, of the sons of Aaron, judging Israd forty years, and of 
Samuel, certainly a Levite, though not a Priest, going circuit as a 
judffe, itinerant in Israel (1 Sam. vii. 16); and of others of the 
fimiilies of Levi appointed by Sang David to be judges and officers, 
not only in all the business of the Lord, but also for the outward 
business of Israel (2 Sam. xv. 86. 1 Chron. xxvi. 29. 82); when 


I observe in the Church Stories, ever since the world had 
Christian Princes, how ecclesiastical persons have be^ em- 
ployed }y their sovereigns in their weightiest consultations and 
affiurs of state ; I cannot but wonder at uiose who inveigh against 
the courts, power, jurisdiction, and the temporalities of Bishops 
and other Ecclesiastical persons. I speak it not to justify abuses 
of men, but to justify the lawfulness of the thine (Bp, Sanderton, 

19. bowed hertein sank on her knees. 

21. IchabodTi No glory (Geten. 86. 88). 

88. The glory it departed from Itrael : for the ark of Ood 
it taken} The Ark being the visible centre of the theocratic 
system of Israel, its capture was the departure of lorael's glory, 
and is spoken of as the *' captivi^ of Uie land :'* see above, on 
Judg. iviii. 30 ; and Ps. Ixxviii. &3 — 67, " God was wroth, and 
gfreatly abhorred Israel, so that He forsook the tabernacle of 
ShUoh, the tent which He placed among men, and delivered 
His strength into captivity, and His ghry into the enemy's 
hand; He gave His people over also unto the sword: their 
priests fell by the swokL" Cp. Jer. vii. 12; xxvi. 6. Hengtt^ 
Auth. ii. 48. 62. 66. 

The glory is departed from Israel — so it seemed in the eyes 
of men. But with God there is «no variableness or shadow of 
turning ** (James L 17) ; and in that dark night of sorrow to 
the Hebrew Church and Nation, His gloir £one forth most 
brightly : see above, v. 11. There is no Ichabod to God. 

Ch. v. 1. Ajthdod] now Btdud : see Josh. xiiL 8. 

8. Dagon] See on Judg. xvi. 28. 

8. Dagon xrufUlen upon hit face to the earth] Dagon £aU 
prostrate before tiie ark, though the ark was captive. Dagon in 
his own temple fell down like a prisoner before his conqueror, 
or like a suppliant before his god. Cj^Jotephut, vi. 1. 1. 

Thus tiM device designed by the Philistines for the glory of 

Digitized by 


Dagon falls prostrate. 

1 SAMUEL V. 4—12. 

Philistines plagued. 

earth before the ark of the Lobd. And they took Dagon, and ^ set him in his 
place agam. * And when they arose early on the morrow morning, behold, 
Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of the Lobd ; and 
® the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the 
threshold ; only Wthe stump 0/ Dagon was left to him. ^ Therefore neither the 
priests of Dagon, nor any that come into Dagon's house, 'tread on the 
threshold of Dagon in Ashdod unto this day. 

^ But ' the hand of the Lobd was heavy upon them of Ashdod, and he ^ de- 
stroyed them, and smote them with * emerods, even Ashdod and the coasts thereof. 
^ And when the men of Ashdod saw that it was so, they said. The ark of the 
God of Israel shall not abide with us : for his hand is sore upon us, and upon 
Dagon our god. ® They sent therefore and gathered all the lords of the 
Philistines unto them, and said. What shall we do with the ark of the God 
of Israel ? And they answered. Let the ark of the God of Israel be carried 
about unto Gath. And they carried the ark of the God of Israel about thither. 
^ And it was so, that, after they had carried it about, ^ the hand of the Lobd was 
against the city ' with a very great destruction : and " he smote the men of the 
city, both small and great, and they had emerods in their secret parts. 

^^ Therefore they sent the ark of God to Ekron. And it came to pass, as 
the ark of God came to Ekron, that the Ekronites cried out, saying. They have 
brought about the ark of the God of Israel to f us, to slay us and our people. 
^^ So they sent and gathered together all the lords of the PhiUstines, and said. 
Send away the ark of the God of Israel, and let it go again to his own place, that 
it slay f us not, and our people : for there was a deadly destruction throughout 
all the city ; " the hand of God was very heavy there. ^^ And the men that 
died not were smitten with the emerods : and the cry of the city went up to 

d Iia. 46. 7. 

e Jer. 50. S. 

Ezek. 6. 4, 6. 

Micah 1. 7. 

g Or. tkeJUky 


f SeeZeph. 1.9. 

gTor. 7, 11. 
Ex. 9. 3. 
Pa. 82. 4. 
Acts 18. 11. 
h ch. 6. 5. 
i Deut. 28. 27. 
Ps. 78. 66. 

k Deat. 2. 1 
eh. 7. 18. 
ft 12. 15. 
Iver. II. 
m yer. 6. 
Pt. 78. 66. 

t Heb. mtt to tla/g 
me and my. 

t Heb. wu not, 
n ver. 6, 9. 

their god Dagon, and for the humiliation of Jehovah, redounded 
to D^^'s humiliation, and to Jehovah's glonr. So it ever 
has b^en, and ever will be, with all the contrivances of evil 
men and of Qod's enemy, Satan, against His Cbspel. They 
will recoil upon thdr authors, and will tend to the exaltation of 
Christ and of His Church. " The fierceness of man shall turn 
to Thy praise, O God" (P*. bum. 10). 

— ctnd tet Urn in hi* pUtce] Their god Dagon could not set 
up himself, but must be raised fix>m the earth by the hands of 
his worshippers in his own temple. See the blindness of 
idolatiT ! Cp. v. 5. 

4. the head of Dagon and both the palm* of his hand* wete 
cut ofr\ The word vyere is not in the original, and would be 
better omitted ; the head and palms of I^gon being cut off, 
were lying on Ihe threshold. Here was the miracle; and it was 
very sigmficant. It was done by the divine power. The head 
and pahns of Dagon, the chiefest of his members, the emblems 
of his strength, were lo|n)ed off, and they were lying on the 
threshold, as if to be trodden under foot by his worshippers. 

— onUf the stump of Jk^on wa* ieff] The words, the 
ttrnnp of are not in the original ; the sense is— only Dagon, the 
fish (from doff, tiJUh), the ignoblest part, was left. 

5. Therefore neither the priest* . . . tread on the threeh- 
olt] Another proof of the obstinate pride and blind infatua- 
tion of idolatry. Instead of concluding, as they ought to have 
done from these miracles, and from others that followed (see w, 
6—12 ; vi. 1—9), that Dagon was no god, and that his idol 
ought to be trodden under foot, and that the Lord God of Israel 
ought to be wordiipped, the Philistines turned these miracles 
themselves into occasions for more superstitious devotion to 
th^ idol, although they were constrained to confess that the 
hand of the God of Israel was upon them, and upon Dagon their 
god {v, 7). When a Church becomes idoUUrou*, her case is 
almost desperate. 

After the record of the infatuation of these men of Ashdod, 
it is refiresinng to turn to another scene in the same place. 
*' Philip was found at Axotu* ** (Acts viii. 40). Perhaps then the 

joyfUL prophecies of the turning of Philistia to God in Ps. Ix. 8 ; 
cviii. 9, were fulfilled : see below on Acts viii. 26. 

6. with emerods'] Cp. Deut. xxviii. 27, and Ps. Izxviii. 66, 
*' He smote them on their hinder parts" (Ifeiffter, Dnbia, p. 194 ; 
Gesen, 645. 821). 

Quorsum hoc supplicium a Deo immissum P Forsan Philis- 
tffii, sicut alisB nationes Canaanitic& stripe oriundee, Sodomiticis 
flagitiis erant inquinati, idedque iis membris, quibus erant abusi, 
a Deo plectebantur (cf. v. 9). 

At the end of v. 6, the Sept. and Vulg. insert a relation of 
the devastation of the land by mice ; an addition which seems 
to have been suggested by the fiict recorded in vi. 4. 

8. Oath'] They thought that Jehovah the God of Israel had 
a special hatred against Ashdod and Dagon, but that his power 
would not reach to Gath, which was probably between Ashdod 
and Ekron (cp. Josh. ziiL 8), and therefore they sent the ark 
thither. They imagined Hun to be a mere local dei^: cp. 
1 Kings zx. 28. 

Tmt device also recoiled upon themselves, and redounded 
to the greater glory of God. All the shifts of Satan will issue 
in his own greater confusion. Observe how he is represented in 
the Apocalypse as shifting his artifices against the Church of 
God, and how all are frus&ated : see below on Rev. vi. 16. 

Tlie site of Gath is not accurately known. It was probably 
in the interior of Philistia, about ten niiles east of Ashdod, at a 
place called now Tell-e*'8cfleh, and about the same distance B jb. 
of Ekron {Porter), 

9. theu had emerod*] emerods broke out (JKei^ 

10. Wcron] now Jkvr, the most N.w. city of Philistia (Josh, 
xiii. 8), where Beelzebub was worshipped (2 Kings i. 2). The 
struggles of the Philistines against Jehovah tended only to 
bring the ark nearer to its own home, and to bring more evils 
on its enemies. The sufferings of Ekron were worse than those 
of Ashdod, and the sufferings of Gkth were more g^evous than 
those of Ekron. So all the assaults of the enemies of the fiuth 
against the Ark of Christ's Church, will serve only to bring her 
nearer to ber heavenly and eternal home. 

C 2 

Digitized by 


The Ark sent bach. 

1 SAMUEL VI. 1—14. 

Comes to Beth-shemesh. 

ft Omi. 41. 8. 
Ex 7. 11. 
Dan. a. 2. 
&4. 7. 
Matt. 2. 4. 

b Ex. 2S. 15. 

Deut. 16. 16. 
Lev. 5. 1», 16. 
d Ter. 9. 

e See ver. 17, 18. 
Joth. IS. 8. 
Judg. 8. 8. 
t Heb. tkim. 

ff JMh. 7. 19 
Iia. 48. IS 
Mal. 8. a. 
John 9. 24. 
h Bee oh. 5. 
Pt. 39. 10. 
i eh. 5. 3. 4, 7. 
k Ex. 7. 13. 
ft 8. 15. 

at 14. 17. 

I Or, reproadk- 

IBx. 12.81. 
t Heb. ik4tm, 
m a Sam. 6. 8. 
a Num. 19. 2. 


o ver. 4, 5. 

p Josh. 15. 10. 

I Or, a. 

q Ter. 8. 

YI. ^ And the ark of the Lobd was in the coontry of the PhUistines seven 
months. ^ And the PhiUstines ^ called for the priests and the diviners, saying. 
What shall we do to the ark of the Lobd ? tell us wherewith we shall send it to 
his place. ^ And they said, If ye send away the ark of the God of Israel, send 
it not ^ empty ; but in any wise retnm him "" a trespass offering : then ye shall 
be healed, and it shall ''be known to you why his hand is not removed from 
you. ^ Then said they. What shall be the trespass offering which we shall 
return to him ? They answered. Five golden emerods, and five golden mice, 
^ according to the number of the lords of the Philistines : for one plague was on 
f you all, and on your lords. * Wherefore ye shall make images of your 
emerods, and images of your mice that 'mar the land ; and ye shall 'give glory 
unto the God of Israel : peradventure he will ** lighten his hand from off you, 
and from off * your gods, and from off your land. ^ Wherefore then do ye 
harden your hearts, ^ as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts ? 
when he had wrought || wonderfully among them, ^ did they not let f the people 
go, and they departed ? ^ Now therefore make " a new cart, and take two 
milch kine, ° on which there hath come no yoke, and tie the kine to the cart, 
and bring their calves home from them: ^ And take the ark of the Lobd, and 
lay it upon the cart ; and put ** the jewels of gold, which ye return him for a 
trespass offering, in a coffer by the side thereof; and send it away, that 
it may go. ^ And see, if it goeth up by the way of his own coast to **Beth- 
shemesh, then \\ he hath done us this great evil : but if not, then "> we shall know 
that it is not his hand that smote us ; it was a chance that happened to us. 

^^ And the men did so ; and took two milch kine, and tied them to the cart, 
and shut up their calves at home : ^^ And they laid the ark of the Lobd upon 
the cart, and the coffer with the mice of gold and the images of their emerods. 
'2 And the kine took the straight way to the way of Beth-shemesh, and went 
along the highway, lowing as they went, and turned not aside to the right hand 
or to the left; and the lords of the Philistines went alter them unto the 
border of Beth-shemesh. ^* And they of Beth-shemesh were reaping their 
wheat harvest in the valley : and they lifted up their eyes, and &aw the ark, and 
rejoiced to see it. ^^ And the cart came into the field of Joshua, a Beth- 
shemite, and stood there, where there was a great stone : and they clave the 

Ch. VI. 1. the arh of the Lobd was ui the eountrjf of the 
FhilUtinee seven monthe] So enfeebled and debased was Israel 
by their sins, that they durst not, or wonld not attempt to 
recover it. God displayed His own power by brining back the 
Ark, not by the hands of Israel, bat by those of His enemiea. 

8. thepriette and the divinert] who were so controlled and 
'overmled by God, that even th^ answer was made ministerial 
t6' God's glory, as were the prophecies of Balaam and Caiu^has, 
and the soroeij of the witch at Endor, and the writing of Pilate 
on the cross of Christ. 

— ihe ark of the Lobd] They now call it the Ark of 
Jbhotah (cp. V. 8). Before this, they had called it the " Ark 
of the God of Israel" (w. 7, 8: 10, 11). The recognition of 
the God of Imtiel as <' the Loid" was consequent on what they 
had seen and sniffered from Him. 

8. ihen ^e shall he healed] If ve are then healed, then ye 
shall know, why His hand is not withdrawn from you as long as 
ye detain Uie Ark here (Keil). 

4. ff olden emerode—mice'] On the custom of dedicating 
images or pictotes of diseased members as votive offerings to 
gods, see Theodoret (iv. p. 821, ed. Schulze) j Winer, R. W. B. 
n. 266, art. " PhiKstcr;" and Keil, p. 48. Snch representations 
may be seen still on the Pnvx at Athens. The onstom is also 
practised in some Christian Chnrches. 

— onyoi* ain rather, on them all; i.e. on all the people. 


6. as the Egjfptiane'] Another testimony from the heathen to 
the tmth of the Pentatench (see above, iv. 8), and a proof that 
Qod*B judgments on Egypt were not without salutary effects on 

7. two mUch kine, on which there hath eome no ^oke] who, 
naturally, wiU be restive under a yoke, and wiU yearn after 
their calves; their course therefore in another diction was 
pretematmraL God's hand drove them. 

8. thereof] of the Ark. The Philistines were withheld, it 
seems, by awe of the Ark fitmi looking into it, and from putting 
the images of the emerods and the mice into it. 

9. Beth^hemeeh] now Ain 8heme, on the borders of Judah 
and Dan (see Josh. xv. 10). Gk)d directed them, bearing the 
Ark, to Beth-shemesh, as bemg a citv of the priests (Josh. xxi. 16). 

12. lowing as they went] bearmg au^ble witness to their 
natural and motherly yearning for their calves, and yet preter- 
naturally going away from them. 

18. wheat harvest] about Pentecost. 

14. iield of Joshma] Observe the name. The Ark wiMi not 
carried back to the place whence it had been taken, but to Beth- 
shemesh, a priestly city, and to the field of Joslma ; one who 
bore the same name as he who had brought Israel and the Ark 
into Canaan, and who was a type of our Jesus, in whose field 
the Ark of the Church rests. See 8» Justin Mar^r c Tiyphon. 

Digitized by 


IThc men of 

1 SAMUEL VI. 15—21. VH. 1. 

Beth-shemesh smitten. 

wood of the cart, and offered the kme a burnt offering unto the Lobd. ^* And 
the Levites took down the ark of the Lobd, and the coffer that was with it, 
wherein the jewels of gold werej and put them on the great stone : and the men 
of Beth-shemesh offered burnt offerings and sacrificed sacrifices the same day 
unto the Lobd. ^^ And when ' the five lords of the Philistines had seen it, they 
returned to Ekron the same day. 

17 • And these are the golden emerods which the Philistines returned for a 
trespass offering unto the Lobd ; for Ashdod one, for Gaza one, for Askelon 
one, for Gath one, for Ekron one ; ^^ And the golden mice, according to the 
number of all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five lords, both of 
fenced cities, and of country villages, even unto the || great stone of Abel, 
whereon they set down the ark of the Lobd : which stone remaineth unto this 
day in the field of Joshua, the Beth-shemite. 

1^ And ^ he smote the men of Beth-shemesh, because they had looked into 
the ark of the Lobd, even he smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore 
and ten men : and the people lamented, because the Lobd had smitten many 
of the people with a great slaughter. . ^o ^nd the men of Beth-shemesh said, 
" Who is able to stand before this holy Lobd God ? and to whom shall he go 
tip from us ? ^1 And they sent messengers to the inhabitants of * Kirjali- 
jearim, saying. The Philistines have brought again the ark of the Lobd ; come 
ye down, and fetch it up to you. VH. ^ And the men of * Kirjath-jearim came, 
and fetched up the ark of the Lobd, and brought it into the house of ** Abinadab 
in the hill, and sanctified Eleazar his son to keep the ark of the Lobd. 

r Josh. 18. 8. 

I Or, ffrtai tton*. 

t See Ex. 19. 21. 
Num. 4. 5, 15, 20. 
t Sam. 6. 7. 

u 2 Sam. 6. 9. 
Mai. 8. 2. 
X Josh. 18. 14. 
Judg. 18. 12. 
1 Cliron. 18. 5, 6. 

aoh. 6. 21. 
Pf. 1S2. 6. 

b 2 Sam. 6. 4. 

— th^—a^ered the kine'] Some suppose that this was done 
bj the FiuUstines {Schmidt, Men^tt), 

15. the Leviiet took down the ark] Cp. Num. iv. 15. 

— the men of Beth-ehemeeh offered burnt offerings and 
eaefificed eacrifloes] This was not a violation of the Levitical 
Law, as some allege. The men of Beth-shemesh, which was a 
priestly dty, offcured these sacrifices by the ministry of the 
priests who dwelt there (A Lapide, MiehaeUt, Hengst. iL 60). 
It must also be borne in mind, that at this time there was no 

fixed place chosen by Ood for sacrifices; but wherever the Ark 
was, uiere was the llirone and Presence of the Lord. 

18. of fenced cities, and of country villages'] Literally, from 
fenced otty even unto country village ; L e. m>m large towns 
even unto little hamlets: so gpreat were the ravages of the 
Divine visitation. 

— even unto the great stone of JheV^ The words etone qf 
are not in the original, but they seem to be rightly inserted : 
see V, 14, " The cart came into the field of Joshua, a Beth- 
shemite, and stood there, where there was a gretU ttone** The 
stone may well have he&a. called Ahel (mourning) on account of 
the lamentation of the Philbtines for their afflictions, which 
extended to fenced cities and country villages, and even to this 
place, the frontier of Israel (Kimchi, Serariue, A Lapide), 

19. hecauee they had looked into the ark] either with vain 
curiosity, or, it may be, with a good intention, to see whether 
the Philistines had restored all tlutt was in it before its captivity. 
Even the Philistines, it seems, had not ventured to open the 
Ark, but they had placed their offerings in a casket beside it. 

Here is a solenm lesson on the reverential awe which is 
due to Divine things (cp. 2 Sam. vi. 6) ; Bi)ecially may this be 
applied to the Word of Ood and Sacraments. Compare St. Paul's 
WOTds, 1 Cor. xi. 80, and see note below on Mark xiv. 3, p. 147. 

— emote— fifty thousand and threescore and ten men] In 
this statement, as it stands in some of our present manuscript 
copies of the Hebrew, there is something anomalous in the 
position of the threescore and ten htfore the fifty thousand, and 
m the absence of the copula vau before the second number. 

It is also surprising that Beth-shemesh should have had so 
large a population as would be inferred from this number. 

Some Hebrew manuscripts (three in Kennicott) do not 
oontain the words fifty thousand, and Josephus (Antt. vi. 1. 4) 
■peaks only of threescore and ten ; and this is accepted by some 

as the right reading, as by Keil. Some ancient versions (the 
i^riac and Arabic) h&YQfive thousand instead fA fifty thousand. 
The Chaldee Targum has " he smote of the elders of the people 
seventy men, and of the whole body of the people fifty thou- 

The occurrence of the munher fifty thousand in the majority 
of the Hebrew manuscripts seems to be best accounted for by 
supposing, with Le Clere, that seventy were smitten out of 
fifty thousand. This is confirmed by the position of the numbers 
in the MSS., in which the seventy precede the fifty thousand. 
It is not wonderful that a large number of persons should have 
flocked to Beth-shemesh at the tidings of the return of the 
Ark of God. And it is observable that the Sacred Historian 
adds that the people lamented because the Lord had smitten of 
the people (literally, on the people) with a g^eat plague. This 
exposition is approved by Waterland, Script. Vina. p. 136. 

Another interpretation is given by Bochart, Hierozoic. ii. 
36, which is accepted by Bp. Patrick and others : « He smote 
threescore and ten men, fifty out of a thousand ;" a sense at 
which he arrives by supplying a Hebrew preposition before eleph 
— a thousand. This preposition, of, is oiten to be supplied in 
Hebrew. Cp. Exod. xxxvi. 8. 19. 34. 2 Sam. xxiii. 24. 

21. Kirjath-jearim'] i. e. city of woods : cp. Ps. cxxxii. 6, "We 
have found it (the Ark) in the wood" Now Kuryet-el-Enab. See 
Josh. ix. 17. It was the nearest large city to Beth-shemesh, on 
the way to Shiloh, to which, perhaps, they supposed that the Ark 
ought to return. But the Ark remained at Kiijath-jearim till it 
was removed thence by David to Jerusalem (2 Sam. vi. 2, 8). 

Ch. VII. 1. sanctify Sleazar his son to keep the ark] 
To keep it, not to minister before it ; but only to defend it from 
such profane intrusions as had caused so much suffering to the 

An answer to the objections of those ^such as De Wette) 
who infer fh)m this statement that the Levitical Law was not 
known to the men of Kirjath-jearim, and even that the Penta- 
teuch did not then exist in its present form, has already been 
g^ven by Calvin, in his note on this passage. See Hengst,, 
Auth. ii. 66. It has been supposed by some (see Josephus vi. 
1. 4, Bp. Patrick, and KeiJ) that Abinadab was a Levite. 
This may have been so, but this is not stated in the sacred 

Digitized by 


The Ark at Kirjath'jearim. 1 SAMUEL VII. 2 — 10. SamtieVs sacrifice at Mizpeh. 

cDeut. 80.2— 10. 

1 Kings 8. 48. 
Isa. 55. 7. 
Hos. 6. 1. 
Joel 2. 12. 

d Gen. 35. 2. 
Josh. 2i. 14, 23. 
e Judg. 2. IS. 
f2Chron. 30.19. 
Jobl). 18, 14. 
g Deut. 6. 13. 
h 10. 20. 
ft IS. 4. 
Matt. 4. 10. 
Luke 4. 8. 
h Judg. 2. 11. 
i Judg. 20. 1. 

2 Kings 25. 23. 
k 2 Sam. 14. 14. 
1 Neh. 9. 1, 2. 
ban. 9. 3, 4, 5. 

^091 2. 12. 
m Judg. 10. 10. 
I Kings 8. 47. 
Ps. 106.0. 

t Heb. Be not 
iitentfrom u» 
from erffing, 
n Isa. 37. 4. 

Pi. 99. 6. 
Jer. 15. 1. 

1 Or, aiuwered. 

p See Joih. 10.10. 

Judg. 4. 15. 

ft 5. 20. ok. 2. 10. 

^ And it came to pass, while the ark abode in Eirjath-jearim, that the time 
was long ; for it was twenty years : and all the house of Israel lamented after 
the LoBD. ^ And Samuel spake onto all the house of Israel, saying, If ye do 
"" return unto the Lobd with all your hearts, then ^ put away the strange gods 
and 'Ashtaroth from among you, and 'prepare your hearts unto the Lobd, and 
* serve him only : and he will deUver you out of the hand of the Philistines. 
^ Then the children of Israel did put away ^ Baalim and Ashtaroth, and served 
the Lobd only. ^ And Samuel said, ^ Gather all Israel to Mizpeh, and I will 
pray for you unto the Lobd. ^ And they gathered together to Mizpeh, ^ and 
drew water, and poured it out before the Lobd, and * fasted on that day, and 
said there, ""We have sinned against the Lobd. And Samuel judged the 
children of Israel in Mizpeh. 

^ And when the PhiUstines heard that the children of Israel were gathered 
together to Mizpeh, the lords of the Philistines went up against Israel. And 
when the children of Israel heard tt, they were afraid of the Philistines. 
® And the children of Israel said to Samuel, \ " Cease not to cry unto the Lobd 
our God for us, that he will save us out of the hand of the Philistines. ^ And 
Samuel took a sucking lamb, and oflFered it for a burnt offering wholly unto the 
Lobd : and " Samuel cried unto the Lobd for Israel ; and ^e Lobd || heard 
him. ^^ And as Samuel was offering up the burnt offering, the Philistines 
drew near to battle against Israel: ^but the Lobd thundered with a great 

2 Sam. 22. 14. 15. 

2. the time was lon^'] nearly fifty years. The Ark was not 
carried to Shiloh, which had been destroyed by the Philistines. 
On account of the sin of the Priests, who had mimstered there, 
" God forsook the tabernacle of Silo ; and refused the tabernacle of 
Joseph " (i. e. in Ephraim, where Shiloh was. Ps. Ixxviii. 61. 68). 

The Tabernacle (from which the Ark was separated) was 
removed to Nob, where it remained for some time (xxi. 6), and 
afterwards to Gibeon H. Kings iii. 4. 1 Chron. xvi. 39. 2 Chron. 
i. 8) ; and there the xabemade remained till the Temple was 
bailt by Solomon; and it was not till that time that the Ark 
found again a resting-place in the Sanctuary of God. 

Some suppose the Ark to have been also at Mizpeh 
{Jeromiatter in 1 Begum vii. 2, p. 15). 

The Ark remainoi at Kirjath-jearim till Da'nd's time, who 
carried it—but ftot the Tabernacle — ^to Mount Zion (1 Chiron, 
xiii. 6 ; xv. 29). 

— it woe twenty yeare] before the people turned to God 
by the exhortation of Samuel. Such was the irreligious in- 
difference of those times. Indeed, during the whole of Saul's 
reign, <*the people inquired not at the ark/' they did not ask 
much after it (see 1 Chron. xiii. 3). 

The term twenty yeart does not refer to the sojourn of the 
Ark there, which was nearly j^l^ years : see the foregoing note, 
and Bp. Fatrick't note, and Menffetenbery, Auth. ii. 51. 

— and aU the houte of Itrael lamented^ They were affected 
with feelings of remorse for their apostasy, and yearned for re- 
conciliation with the Lord, and then Samuel stiired their hearts 
to repentance {lAghtfoot), 

5. to Mizpeh"] which signifies a watch-tower j probably at 
Neby SamwU—BO called from the supposed tomb of tiie Prophet 
Samuel, which is still shown there, surmounted by a mosque, 
once a Latin church. " Neby Samwil is about 500 feet above 
the plain, and is one of the most marked places in the vicini^ 
of Jerusalem," which is to the 8.x. of it. Cp. Josh, zviii. 26. 
Judg. XX. 1. Bobinson, ii. 189—143. Vandevelde, p. 835. 

6. and drew water, and poured it out before the Lobs] They 
poured out water, as a sign of their penitential consciousness of 
their own weakness, and as a token of the outpouring of their 
own hearts in tears of sorrow for their sins (Taryum, J)rusius), 
Cp. Ps. vi. 6, " Every night wash I my bed and water my couch 
with my tears." Ps. xxii. 14^ *' I am poured out like water." 
2 Sam. xiv. 14. 1 Chron. xi. 18, and Jeremiah, Lam. ii. 18, 19, " O 
wall of the daughter of Zion, let tears run down like a river day 
and night : pour out thine heart like water before the &ce of 
the Lord." Jer. xiv. 17. Lam. L 16. " Aquam pro lacrymis 
effundebant " (8. Gregory ^ A Lapide). 

— and fasted'] Another sign of repentance. Thus they were 


reconciled to God, and conquered thmr enemies. 8* Jerome o. 
Jovin. lib. ii. ; TertuUian de Jgtm. c. 7. 

— 8amuel judged the children of Israel] He was thdr 
ruler as well as their prophet : cp. v. d6. 

8. Cease not to cry unto the Loan our Qod^ An evidence of 
the reality of their repentance and faitb in God ; and of their 
reverence fo^ Samuel ; and of Samuel's habitual resort to God in 
prayer for hdp. Cp. xii. 19. 28. In Ps. zdx. 6 Samuel is specially 
mentioned as given to prayer, and as prevailing by prayer: 
" Moses and Aaron among His Priests, and 8amu€l among them 
that call upon His Name : these called upon the Lord, and He 
heard them ;" and God says (Jer. xv. 1), " Though Moses and 
Samuel stood before Me, yet My mind could not be toward this 
people." Samuel had been given by God, in answer to his mother's 
prayers (i. 20), and his whole life seems to have been governed by 
a sense of the power of prayer, to which his birth was due. 

9. 8amuel took a sucking lamb, and offered it for a bumi 
offering wholly] To be a symbol of the total self-dedication of 
the people now brought back by repentance to newness and 
holiness of heart and Ufe. This offering of the sucking lamb is 
recorded with special emphasis in Ecclus. xlvL 16. 

Samuel, though only a Levite, offered a burnt-offering at 
Mizpeh, because the regular ministries of the Tabernacle, which 
was separated from the Ark (see above on o. 1, 2), were in 
abeyance, and God had not yet chosen any fixed place to set His 
Name there, after the destruction of Shiloh; and Samuel was 
raised up with a special commission fix>m God to supply the 
deficiency of this provisional and tranmtory state of things, and 
to show that though men are tied to the use of means when 
appointed by God, yet God's power and g^race are not tied to 
means, but can work independently of them. And it was the 
special office of the prophets to teach the Hebrew nation the 
true meaning of the law, that " thellaw is spiritual," and that 
" mercy is better than sacrifice," and " to hearken, than the fat 
of rams." See above, on iv. 11, and below, on v, 16, and Intro- 
duction to this Book, and A Lapide here, who says well, '* hine 
patet Samuelem, licet ex sturpe tantum esset Levitat ex Dei 
tamen dispensatione extraordinariwn fmsse saeerdotem: et cum 
Samuele dispensavit Deus, et extra Tabemaculum et altare 
holocaustorum sacrificaret in Maspha." And again, on xxi. 1, 
he says, " The priests offered sacrifices at the place where the 
Tabernacle was, and where was the altar of bumt-ofiisring 
(cp. 1 Chron. i. 29) ; but Samuel and others, for g^ve reasons, 
by special dispensation of God, offered sacrifices in other places, 
until God chose a fixed place in the Temple of Solomon." 

10. the Load thundered] The Voice of God answered the 
prayers of Samuel, as on another occasion (xii. 17, 18). 

Digitized by 


Rout of the Philistines— Ebenezer. 1 SAMUEL VII. 11—17. VIII. 1. Samuel judged Israel. 

thtmder on that day upon the Philistines, and discomfited them ; and they 
were smitten before Israel. ^^ And the men of Israel went out of Mizpeh, and 
pursued the Philistines, and smote them, until they came under Beth-car. ^^ Then 
Samuel "> took a stone, and set it between Mizpeh and Shen, and called the name 
of it i I Eben-ezer, saying. Hitherto hath the Lobd helped us. ^^ ' So the Philistines 
were subdued, and they ' came no more into the coast of Israel : and the hand 
of the LoBD was against the Philistines all the days of Samuel. ^^ And the 
cities which the Philistines had taken from Israel were restored to Israel, from 
Ekron even unto Gath ; and the coasts thereof did Israel deliver out of the hands 
of the Philistines. And there was peace between Israel and the Amorites. 

^* And Samuel * judged Israel all the days of his life. ^^ And he went from 
year-to year f in circuit to Beth-el, and Gilgal, and Mizpeh, and judged Israel 
in all those places. ^^ And "" his return was to Bamah ; for there was Ms house ; 
and there he judged Israel ; and there he ' built an altar unto the Lord. 

Vm. ^ And it came to pass, when Samuel was old, that he ' made his ** sons 

b See Jadg. 10. 4. ft 12. H, compaied 


q Gen. S8. 


ft 35. 14. 

Josh. 4. 9. 

ft 24. 26. 

I That in, 

Tke atout of help: 

ch. 4. 1. 

rJadg. 13.1. 

• eh. 13. 6. 

t Ter. 6. 
ch. 12. 11. 
Judg. 2. 16. 
t Heb. and k4 
n ch. 8. 4. 

xJudg 21.4. 

a Dent. 16. 18. 
2 Chron. 19. 5. 
with Judg. 5. 10. 

Here also was a proof from heaven that Samuel had a 
Divine commiaaion to do what he did in offering sacrifice, 
although he waa not a priest; and that his offering was aocept- 
ahle to God. 

Therefore the acts of Samnel in discharging the ftmctions 
of the priesthood are no precedent (as some allege) for irregular 
intmsions into holy ministries. 

IL Beth-oar] west of Ifispeh: m^XP< Koffaimw (Joiephus, 
▼i. 2. 2). 
12. between Mizpeh and Shen] See iv. 1. 


— Hhen-eter] Sione of the help received from the Lord in 
answer to prayer. Samnd ascribes all the honour to Him, and 
assumes none to himself. What a contrast between the event 
now recorded at Ebenezer, and that recorded as having oc- 
curred a few years before at the same place I See 1 Sam. 
iv. 1. 

At that time Israel had the Ark with them, the visible 
sign of God's presence, but the Lord Himself had forsaken them 
on account of thdr sins; and Hophni and Fhinehas were with 
the Ark, and they were discomfited with a great slaughter, and 
the priests were slain with the sword, and the Ark <n God was 
taken by the Philistmes (iv. 10, 11). 

Now they have not the Ark, but they have repented of 
their sins, and Samuel is with them, and the Lord hearkens to 
his prayers, and the Philistines are smitten; so that they return 
no more into the coast of Iflniel during the days of Samuel, and 
Samuel sets up the great stone at Ebeoezer. 

Hence it appears that the outward ordinances of a Visible 
Church are of no avul without holineas in the wOTshippers; and 
that in the most distressed conditions <^ the ^Hsibie Church 
God can raise up Samuels, and endue them with extraordinary 
graces, and enable them to do great acts, and give comfort and 
victory to the Church of God by their means. 

In a spiritual sense, the true Eheneger of Israel is Jssns 
Chbut. He is otfT Stone of Self. He was raised up, like 
Samuel, in evil days, when the jpnesthood was degenerate and 
corrupt, and when the glory of God was about to depart from 
the literal Israel; and by extraordinary call and mission He 
became the Priest and Prophet of all true Israelites, and routed 
our spiritual Philistines, so that in His days they can no longer 
come and hurt us. He set up the true Stokx of Hblp, even 
TfimaAlf. See Isa. xxviiL 16, <* I lay in Zion for a foundiUion a 
stone, a tried stone, a precious comer stone, a sure foundation." 
Matt. xxi. 42. 1 Pet. iL 4. Augnttme de Civ. Dei, xviL 7. 

18. the FMUetinee were enbduetT^ The forty years' domination 
of the Philistines over Israel, mentioned in Judg. xiiL 1, could 
not be overthrown bv the supernatural strength of Samson, 
but it was terminated by the prayers of Samuel : so much more 
powerfrd are the weapons of prayer in the hands of righteous 
men (James v. 16), than any arm of fiesh. 

— they oame no more^all the dayt of SamneV] But when 
Samuel was dead, they again smote Israel, and overcame their 
king, Saul (1 Sam. xxxi. 1). 

15. Samuel judged lerael all the dajfe of hie Itfe] He was { 

therefore continued in his judicial office after Saul's accession, 
and a portion of the rule of Samuel as Judge, coincides with a 
portion of ^e reign of Saul as Ejng, and is to be cotmted in the 
forty years assigned to Saul in Acts xiii. 21 : cp. .<i Lapide 

16. QilgaX] Where Joshua had first encamped in Canaan : 
see Josh. iv. 19, 20; v. 9. 

— in aU those places'] The Sept, has iv wcuri rots i^xcur- 
liipois roinois, in (Ul these sanctified places, which is a Inti- 
mate paraphrase. 

In the interregnum between the captivity of the Ark in 
the days of Eli, until the bringing up of the Ark to Jerusalem 
by David, and to the building of the Temple by Solomon, there 
was no one fixed place in which God put His name, and to which 
the offering of sacrifice was restricted. As is wdl said by Bp. 
Patrick (on ix. 12), "According to the Levitical law, all sacri- 
fices were rM^ulariy to be offer^ before the Ark, in the place 
which the Lord should choose. But while this choice stood 
suspended, because Shiloh lay desolate, and no other place was 
appointed, they sacrificed in other places, where neither tiie Ark 
nor the Tabernacle was, the TabOTuade beinff void of the Ark, 
which was its principal ftimiture, and the Ark being without a 
house of God to dwell in. But when the Ark was again settled, 
it became unkn^kl to sacrifice t» other pUioes** 

This must be carefhUv borne in mind, in order that we may 
not fkll into the enor of those who allege that Samuel set at 
nought the Levitical law, and that compliance with its precepts 
waa a matter of indifference in his eyes, and who even compare 
Samuel to Micah, who set up ten^mm in his own house (see 
Judg. xvii. 4 5). 

Such allegations as these would make Samuel to be no 
better than a Eorah, and under the nretext of his example 
would let in a flood of schismatic irregularities into the Church 
of God. 

But it is a sound maxim, ** Distingue tempora, et concorda- 
bis mores." Samuel's times were altogether exceptional, and he 
ly authorized and commissioned by God, who ** estab- 
him as a prophet of the Lord," and directed him to adopt 
measures suited to the peculiar exigencies of the times in whicli 
he lived : see above, on v. 9 ; iv. 6 ; and Bp. Patrick on v. 17, and 
on ix. 12 ; and Hengst,, Auth. ii. 49. 

At the same time it is to be remembered, that the offering 
of sacrifice in different places by Samuel who was not a 
priest, and the fiivourable acceptance of those sacrifices by God, 
were practical evidences that the Levitical cndinances and 
Aaromc priestiiood were not the essential substances of religion, 
but were only transient shadows, and were preparatory to 
anoth^ dispensation,' when the knowledge of God would he 
generally diffused, and when "in every jMce incense would be 
offered to God, and a pure ofilering among the G^tiles '* by 
those who were not of the line of Aaron (see Mai. i. 11), and 
"that the hour vras coming when, neither in' this mountain 
(Geriadm), nor yet at Jerusalem (only), should men worship the 
Father :"— but in all pUcea. See John iv. 21. 

Ch. YIII. 1. old] Tet he lived some time after this, and con- 
tinued to Judge Ivael even while Saul was king : see vii, 15. 

Digitized by 


SamueVs sons. 

1 SAMUEL Vm. 2—5. The Israelites ask for a King. 

I VaOtni, 

I Chron. 6. 28. 

Jet. 22. IS, 
16, 17. 

d Ex. 18. 21. 

1 Tim- 8. 8. 
ft 8. 10. 

e Deut. 16. 19. 
Pf. 15. 5. 

frer. 19, 20. 
Dent. 17. 14. 
Hm. is. 10. 
Acts 18. 21. 

judges over Israel. ^ Now the name of his firstborn was || Joel ; and the name 
of his second, Abiah : they were judges in Beer-sheba. * And his sons "" walked 
not in his ways, but turned aside ^ after lucre, and ^ took bribes, and perverted 

^ Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to 
Samuel unto Bamah, ^ And said unto him. Behold, thou art old, and thy 
sons walk not in thy ways : now 'make us a king to judge us like all the 

It haa been supposed by many learned expositors that Samnel 
was about sixty years of age at this time ; that he continaed to 
act as jndge for about sixteen years after Saul was created king 
{Abulemis, ScUianus, A Lapide). 

2. Joel^JJbiahl Samuel showed his piety by the names he 
gave his sons ; Jenovah is Ood — Jehovah is mif father, 

— M Beer-sheba'] Samuel himself being resident at Ramah 
(vii. 17). Thus the country was divided into judicial districts 
between Samuel and his sons. 

8. took bribes'] taking advantage of their father's old age and 
absence, he being at Ra^ah (Theodoref). 

5. thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thgf ways] which 
assertions, if true, were good reasons for prayer to Qod to raise 
ap for them a ruler, but were not reasons for such a speech as 

Thb Isbaxlites A8K 70B A Eiva. 

— make us a king to judge us like all the nations] See 
also V, 19. '* Nevertheless" (notwithstanding Samuel's remon- 
strances) " the people refufled to obey the voice of Samuel ; and 
they said, Nay, but we will have a king over us, that we may 
be Uke all the nations; and that our king may judge us, amd 
go out before us, and fight our battles" 

The question here arises — 

Wherem oonusted the sin of the Israelites in asking a 

To this it may be replied — 

(1) It did not consist simply in wishing to have a king. 
God nad promised to Abraham that kings should come out of 
hhn (Qen. xvii. 6 : see also v. 16), and also to Jacob (Qen. 
XXXV. 11). The Holy Spirit had prophesied by Jacob that 
" the seeptre should not depart from Judah until Shiloh come " 
(Qen. xlix. 10); and Balaam, that "a sceptre should arise out of 
Israel" (Num. xxiv. 17); and God had provided in Deuter- 
onomy certain laws for the kingdom wMch should arise in 
Israel (Deut. xvii. 15—20). 

But their sin consisted in not waiting patiently for God's 
time, when He might think fit to give them a king. It consisted 
in not leaving the season of the kingdom, and the choice of the 
king, in His hands. It consisted in not asking Samuel to inquire 
of Sod whether the time had arrived when they might have a 
king; and in presuming that they were theniselves the best 
judges of what conduced to their own welfisure, and needed not to 
ask counsel of God. 

St. Paul notices this in his historical address in the syna- 
gogue at Antioch in Pisidia. ** Ood gave unto them judges 
about the space of four hundred and nity years, until Samuel 
the prophet and afterwards they desired a king " (Acts xiii. 
20, 21). 

It consisted in the nnthankfUness and discontent of the 
people, dissatisfied with their present condition, when "God 
was their King." It consisted in an eager desire to be " Uke 
aU other nations," who had earthly kings ; whereas they ought 
to have deemed it a high privilege to be unlike other nations, in 
that they had been separated from all other people (Lev. xx. 26), 
and chosMi from out of other nations to be t^peouUar treasure 
to God above all people, a holy nation, a ktiydom of priests 
(Exod. xix. 5, 6), "a special people unto the Lord their God, 
above all people that are upon the fiice of the earth " (Deut. vii. 
6). They thought lightly of this prerogative; and, like a 
national Esau, they profimely bartered their birthright for what 
they deemed a temporal benefit. They impiously imagined that 
they would be more safo under an earthly king, than under the 
shadow of the wings of Jehovah. ** Give us a king," they said, 
"that he may ju^e us, and go out before us, waA fight our 
battles" As if the Lobd ov Hostb could not judge them (see 
above, i. 11) ! As if He had not fought their battles, and as if 
they had not always been victorious when they obeyed Him ; and 
ns if He had not recently saved them, after fifty years' bondage, 
bv a marvellous deliverance at Ebenezer ! 

They had forgotten the noble answer of Gideon, when the 
people ofiered him the kingdom, — ** I will not rule over you« 
neither shall my son rule over you ; the Lobd shall rule over 
you" (Judg. viii. 22, 23); and they imitated the example of 
the trees in the parable of Jotham (Judg. ix. 7—15), and of the 
men of Shechem, who made Abimelech their kins (Judg. ix. 6). 

God adapted His reply to their request. He gave them a 
king, as they desired. He gave them a king distinguished by 
physical force and beauty, and eminent in bodUy stature; for 
of Saul it is noted that he was higher than any of the people 
from his shoulden and upwards (ix. 2; x. 23), a fit answer to 
the earthly notions of those who trusted in an arm of flesh. 
And when Saul " saw amy strong man, or valiant man, he took 
him unto him " (xiv. 52). 

But notwithstanding these physical qualities, Saul, the 
king whom they received, showed by his character and acts 
how profitiess and disastrous to a nation an earthly king is, 
however gifted with natural accomplishments, who does not de- 
pend on God's gprace, and does not govern by His law, and does 
not aim at His glory. 

The reign of Saul was fraught with bitter disappointment 
to the people who had asked for a king. In the b^^ning of 
his reign, while he was humble and « littie in his own eyes," and 
obedient to God, guiding him by Samuel, the prophet of the 
Lord, he prospered ; and God would have been with him, if he 
would have acknowledged the divine sovereignty of Jehovah 
(see ix. 16), and if he hi^ ruled as His Yioegerent. But he soon 
became sdf-confident, arrogant, and vain-glorious; he disobeyed 
the commands of God, and the Nation was reduced to a low 
ebb of political abasement under his sway. The Philistines, 
who had been defeated by Samuel's prayen at Ebenezer, the 
Stone of the Help of Qod, a name which stands in striking con- 
trast to the subsequent policy of Saul, who looked to 1wnse{f 
for help rather than to God, and who were kept in subjection 
during his rule, recovered their dominion over IsraeL And finally, 
Saul fell by his own hand, forsaken by God and man; a memorable 
warning of the evils of worldly-mmded policy, and of godless 
government, the miserable victim of despair. 

Almighty God, speaking by the prophet Hosea, has com- 
mented on this history in tiiese wor& : " O Israel, thou hast 
destroyed thyself, but in Me is thine Help" ^Heb. eter: I am 
thine Ebenezer) ; " I will be thy Eing : where is any other that 
can save thee in all thy cities ? and thy judges, of whom thou 
saidst, Oive me a king and princes? I gave them a king in 
Mine anger, and took him away in My wrath " (Hosea xiiL 9. 11). 
And the Apostle St. Paul, interpreting this history, marks the 
oontrast between the king who, like Saul, was asked for by the 
people, acting without God, and who sought to reign independentiv 
of God ; and the king who, like David, was raised up by God, 
and who reigned as God's deputy or servant, and who, therefore* 
said, " Thou art my King, O God" (Fs. xliv. 5 ; xlv. 12; xlviiL 
14; cxlv. 1), and who nded in obedience to Gkxi's sovereignty; 
and so was a dgnal tyipe of Chbist, the tme king of Israel, who 
said, " I come to do Thy will, O God" (P». xL 7. 10). 

St. Paul's words are — and they are very instructive to all 
princes and subjects — " They desired a king, and God gave them 
Saul, the son of Cis ; and when He had removed him, he raised up 
unto them David to be their king, to whom also he gave testi- 
mony, and said, I have found David, the son of Jesse, a man 
after Mme own heart, which shaUTW {/IZ all My will. Of this man's 
seed hath God, according to His promise» raised unto Israel 
a Saviour, Jssus " (Acts xiii. 21. ^. 

Some modem critics (such as liwald, Themus, and Dieeteti 
have alleged that tha« are inoonmstencies between seyeral 
portions of this book, some portions (such as ch. yilL and x. 
17 — 27 ; xi. 12) being dictate^ as they imagine, by a writer who 
saw in the earthly kingdom an irreconcileable antagonism to 
the monarchy of JehovBh : and other portions (such as ch. ix., 
and xiii. 14) being written by an author who looked on the 
earthly kingdom with a more mvourable eye. 

Digitized by 


Give us a King," 1 SAMUEL Vlir 6—22. IX. 1, 2. Samuel's remonstrance— Saul. 

1* And "he •will take "i f '■ri.'- '• 

^ But the thing f displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge J^f «»>• ^/*^i^*« 
us. And Samuel prayed unto the Lobb. ^ And the Lobd said unto Samuel, 
Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee : for ^they g see ex. i6.8. 
have not rejected thee, but **they have rejected me, that I should not reign».&u 
over them. ® According to all the works which they have done since the day hm-^s. lo, n. 
that I brought them up out of Egypt even unto this day, wherewith they have 
forsaken me, and served other gods, so do they also unto thee. ^ Now therefore 
II hearken unto their voice: || howbeit yet protest solemnly unto them, and *shew i or. obe,, 
them the manner of the king that shall reign over them. It^S^Sin 

^^ And Samuel told all the words of the Lobd unto the people that asked of prTtestJaJ^l^ 

^ •■^ ikuny then thou 

him a king. ^^ And he said, ^ This will be the manner of the king that shall f^i^' **'• 

reign over you : ' He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself, for his tt^e^^^il:^^' 

chariots, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariots. ^^^^ ^^'^^ "•"• 

he will appoint him captams over thousands, and captains over fifties ; and mil 

set them to ear his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments 

of war, and instruments of his chariots. ^' And he will take your daughters to 

be confectionaries, and to be cooks, and to be bakers. 

your fields, and your vineyards, and your oliveyards, even the best of theniy and 

give them to his servants. ^^ And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of 

your vineyards, and give to his f officers, and to his servants. ^^ And he will ^^©b. 

take your menservants, and your maidservants, and your goodliest young men, 

and your asses, and put thm to his work. ^^ He 'vrill take the tenth of your 

sheep: and ye shall be his servants. ^®And ye shall cry out in that day 

because of your king which ye shall have chosen you ; and the Lobd " will not 2^^: ** "' ^^ 

hear you in that day. if^iafi. 

^^ Nevertheless the people ** refused to obey the voice of Samuel; and they 0Jer.44.i6. 
said, Nay; but we will have a king over us ; ^ That we also may be ^ like all v^ex.6. 
the nations ; and that our king may judge us, and go out before us, and fight 
our battles. ^^ And Samuel heard all the words of the people, and he rehearsed 
them in the ears of the Lobd. ^ And the Lobd said to Samuel, "^ Hearken ^ 
unto their voice, and make them a king. And Samuel said unto the men of 
Israel, Go ye every man unto his city. 

IX. ^ Now there was a man of Benjamin, whose name was * Kish, the son of ach. u. si. 

•^ 1 Chron. 8. 38. & 

Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of Bechorath, the son of Aphiah, || a Benjamite, \'^ll^^,^^f^ 
a mighty man of || power. ^ And he had a son, whose name was Saul, a choice n>Vi*SlIi. 

I Yer. 7. 
Eios. 18. II 

The condderatioiiB, which have heen now submitted to the 
reader, may serve to show the groundlessness of this hypo- 
thesis. Cp. Keii, pp. 60, 61. 

9. the manner of the king'] The right which the king would 
claim to exercise over them {A Lapide, CHroHut), Samuel 
told them what a king mifht do dejure ; and also to what they 
must submit, if he did it da facto. Bp, Sanderson, ii. 888. Cp. 
Pfetfer, Dubia, p. 195. 

IL Me will take your tone] As Saul did (xiv. 52). 

14. he will take—^our vineyards'] Ab Ahab did (1 Kings xxi.7^. 

22. Searken unto their voice] God gave them a king in His 
anger (Hos. ziii. 11). « He gave them their request, but sent 
leanness into their soul" (Ps. cvi. 15). He "punished them by 
their own inventions." God was angrv with their request, and 
chastised them by granting it. He g^ve them a king suited to their 
own temper, and chastised them by his means. 8. Cyprian ad Re- 
gatianum, Ep. 88. 8. Augustine in Ps. li., contra Julianum, v. 8. 

— Ooye every man unto his city] He gave them time tore- 
consider their request, as well knowing that God's permission 
was a punishment. Cp. Ps. cv. 15; above, Num. xxu. 20. 

Ch. IX. 1. Kish, the son of Abiel] In 1 Chron. viii. 88 ; 
is. 89, it is said that "Ner begat Kish, and Kish begat Saul;" 
probably some one or more links are there omitted between Ner 
and Kish {Keil), or the name Ner is here omitted between 

Vol. II. Past II.— 17 

Abiel and Kish. In xiv. 51 it is said that " Ner, the fiither of 
Abner, was the son of Abiel, and that Kish was &ther of SauL" 
Cp. above on Ruth iv. 20, and Saul's pedigree, in Stanley's 
Lectures, Lect. xxi. p. 8. 

— a mightyman qf power] This refers to Kish. 

2. SauVi Heb. Shdul ; i. e. desired, asked for : his name was 
an omen of his history. 

SAJJJt AXD St. Paul oomfabed. 

The history of Saul the king, the first kin^ of Israel, will 
be read with greater profit if it be contrasted with that of the 
Apostle St. Paul. 

Both were of the same tribe— that of Bei\jamin ; both re- 
ceived the same name at circumcision. The question which his 
own people asked was, '*Is Saul also among the prophets f " 
and the Hebrew nation asked with astonishment, *' Is Saul also 
among the Apostles P " (See on x. 11.) 

Saul the king began well ; he was modest, humble, and 
obedient ; and the grace of God was with him ; and he gained 
victories over the enemies .of God's people ; but, in raocess of 
time, he became elated with pride; he disobeyed God, and 
persecuted David; and God's grace was withdrawn iVom him. 
He became the prey of an evil spirit, he was deserted by God, 
and defeated by his enemies, and fell by his own hand. 

Saul of Tarsus isfirstknowntous asapersecutorof the Divine 


Digitized by 


Saul's appearance. 

1 SAMUEL IX. 3—9. The Prophet's name and office. 

bch. 10.18. 

c 2 Kings 4. 41. 

d Deut. Zi. I. 
1 King! IS. 1. 
ech.3. 19. 

fSeeJudg.e. 18. 

& 19. 17. 

1 KingH 14. S. 

t Kings 4. 41. 8e 


t Heb. i$ gone out 

oA *c. 

t Heb. is with u*. 

t Heb. there i$ 

found in mp hand. 

g Gen. 25. 22. 

young man, and a goodly : and there was not among the children of Israel a 
goodlier person than he : ^ from his shoulders and upward he was higher than 
any of the people. 

^ And the asses of Kish Saul's father were lost. And Kish said to Saul his 
son, Take now one of the servants with thee, and arise, go seek the asses. 
^And he passed through mount Ephraim, and passed through the land of 
"" Shalisha, but they found them not : then they passed through the land of 
Shalim, and there they were not : and he passed through the land of the 
Benjamites, but they found them not. * And when they were come to the 
land of Zuph, Saul said to his servant that was with him. Come, and let us 
return ; lest my father leave caring for the asses, and take thought for us. 
^ And he said unto him. Behold now, there is in this city ^ a man of God, and 
he is sua, honourable man ; ' all that he saith cometh surely to pass : now let us 
go thither ; peradventure he can shew us our way that we should go. ^ Then 
said Saul to his servant, But, behold, t/ we go, 'what shall we bring the man ? 
for the bread f is spent in our vessels, and there is not a present to bring to the 
man of God : what f have we ? ^ And the servant answered Saul again, and 
said, Behold, f I have here at hand the fourth part of a shekel of silver : that 
will I give to the man of God, to tell us our way. ^ (Beforetime in Israel, 
when a man 'went to enquire of God, thus he spake. Come, and let us go to 
the seer : for he that is now called a Prophet was beforetime called ^ a Seer.) 

h 2 Sam. 24. II 
2 Kings 17. 18. 
1 Chron. 26. 28. 8r 29. 29. 2 Chron. 16. 7, 10. Isa. SO. 10. Amos 7. 12. 

David (Acto is. 4). He gloried in his own strongtb, and tmsted 
in his own righteonsness ; bat Jesus revealed Himself to bim, and 
he was " not oiuobedient to the heavenly vision" (Acts xxvi. 19^ ; 
and he rejoiced in suffering persecution, and loss of all things ror 
His sake ; and though He " laboured more abundantly than all 
the Apostles/' vet he ascribed all the fruit of his labours to the 
grace of God that was with him (1 Cor. xv. 10). He places the 
word grace in the forefront and end of all his Epistles (see below 
on 1 Thess. v. 28, p. 23) ; Grace is his Alpha and Omega ; and 
he died joyfully for Christ, and grace was ripened in him into 
everlasting glory. 

Saul of Tarsus, like Saul of Gibeah, once breathed forth 
threatenings with furious phrenzy, and the Divine David sfud 
to him, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou MeP" (Acts ix. 
1 — 5 ;) and the Divine Da\id calmed and soothed him with the 
Holy Spirit from heaven. 

Saul the King is our warning ; Saul the Apostle is our ex- 
ample. The former shows how wretched man is if he labours 
for his own glory, and if he is without God's grace; the latter, 
how blessed he is, if he relies on God's grace, and lives and dies 
for His glory. For fhrther remarks on Saul of Gibeah, as 
compared with Saul of Tarsus, see below, x. 11. 16 ; and cp. notes 
below, on Acts ix. 1. 1 Cor. xv. 9, 10. 

— /Vwis his shoulders and upward] See x. 23. In personal 
qualifications, Saul corresponded to the desires of the people, 
wlio, in their demands for an earthly king, showed that 
they had little regard for spiritual qualifications, and trusted 
in an arm of flesh : see on viii. 5, and Theodoretf Qu. 24. 

Almighty God suggests the true moral inference from this 
incident by tiie contrast which He draws in the case of David. 
When Samuel saw Eliab among the sons of Jesse, he said in his 
heart, ** Surely the Ijord's anointed is before him ;** but God 
corrected this inference from physical qualifications: "Look 
not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature, because 
I have reftised him ; for the Lord seeth not as man seeth; for 
man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh 
on the heart " (xvi. 6, 7). The elder and taller son was refused, 
and David, the youngest, and probably the least, was chosen, and 
lie was " the man after Qod*s oion heart" (xiii. 14. Acts xiii. 22). 
4. he passed through mount JEphraim, and passed through 
the land of Shalishcri He went from his own home, Gib^h 
(x. 10), no»' Tuleil'el-Ph4l, about four miles north of Jeru- 
salem (cp. Josh, xviii. 28), and went in a north-west direction 
to the land of Shalisha, called Baal-Shalisha in 2 Kings iv. 
42, fifteen Roman miles k. of Diospolis, or Lydda {Euseh), 
There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to the site of 

the places here mentioned: see Orove in B. D. ii. pp. 1229. 
1861, and 8tanley*s Lectures, p. 6. 
— land of Shalim] seven Roman miles w. of Lydda (JSuseb,). 

5. land of Zuph] south-west of Benjamin, not far from the 
tomb of Rachel : see x. 2. 

6. •• this citg] Samuel hi^pened to be there at the time. It 
is not to be inferred that the city was Samuel's residence, Ramah.* 

Thb Nahx and Offioi op Pbophet. 

9. Beforetime in Israel . . . ,for he that is now called a 
Prophet was beforetime called a Seer] This parenthesis is em- 
phatic, and marks a new era in the history of Israel, consequent 
on the choice, now to be related, of a King. 

The personage who, after the constitution of the Monarchy, 
was called tL prophet, had aforetime been called a seer. Not 
that the word no^, or prophet, was unknown in earlier times, 
for Abraham is called a prophet (see above, on Gen. xx. 7) ; nor 
was the word roeh, or seer, entirely supplanted by the word 
ncUfi, or prophet ; for Samuel himself is called a roeh in 1 Chron. 
ix. 22 ,- xxvi. 28 ; xxix. 29. But the name in use before Saul 
was made king and the books of Samuel were written, was roeh. 

The writer intimates that a change was introduced in the 
popular nomenclature in this particular respect by the institution 
of the earthly monarcJ^. 

And no wonder. Before this period of time. Almighty God 
had given answers on special occasions to special questions by 
particular persons who were called seers. 

But now a new era had arrived in the history of Israel. The 
earthly Kingdom was to be established, and a permanent office 
was to be instituted, co-ordinately with it, in order to represent 
God's Supremacy over the earthly monarch ; and to advise, to 
exhort, and, if need were, to correct, rebuke, and even to de- 
nounce the earthly sovereign for his sins ; and even to declare 
his dethronement, in the name of God, the Supreme Ruler of 
Israel, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; and thus to pre- 
pare the way for the time when the functions of King and Pro- 
phet would all coalesce in Chbibt. 

This permanent office placed side by side with the Throne, 
was the office of Pbophet. 

^ The crisis is strongly marked, and the transition is clearly 
indicated in this book. Samuel, who as a roeh, in answer to an 
inquiry, had informed Saul that his asses were found, afterwards 
comes forward as God's Kabi or Pbophbt, and declares in the 
name of God that Saul, on account of his disobedience to his 
heavenly Lord, has lost the kingdom (ch. xiii. 14). 

If we may venture to compare sacred thmgs with secular. 

Digitized by 


f Heb. in the 
ascent of the eify. 

k Gen. 31. 54. 
ch. 16. S. 
y Or. feast. 
1 1 Kings S. 2. 

Saul comes to Samuel; 1 SAMUEL EX. 10—24. is honourably entertained by him. 

^^ Then said Saul to his servant, f Well said ; come, let us go. So they went ♦Heb. r*y ^ord 
unto the city where the man of God was. *^*"'' 

^^ And as they went up f the hill to the city, *they found young maidens 
going out to draw water, and said unto them. Is the seer here ? ^^ ^^ y^^y 
answered them, and said. He is ; behold, he is before you : make haste now, 
for he came to day to the city ; for ^ there is a (| sacrifice of the people to day 
* in the high place : '^ As soon as ye be come into the city, ye shall straightway 
find him, before he go up to the high place to eat : for the people will not eat 
until he come, because he doth bless the sacrifice ; and afterwards they eat that 
be bidden. Now therefore get you up ; for about t this time ye shall find him. 
^^ And they went up into tiie city : and when they were come into the city, 
behold, Samuel came out against them, for to go up to the high place. 

^^ "Now the LoBi) had f told Samuel in his ear a day before Saul came, 
saying, ^^ To morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of 
Benjamin, " and thou shaU anoint him to be captain over my people Israel, 
that he may save my people out of the hand of the Philistines : for I have 
** looked upon my people, because their cry is come unto me. ^^ And when 
Samuel saw Saul, the Lobd said unto him, ''Behold the man whom I spake to 
thee of! this same shall f reign over my people. 

1® Then Saul drew near to Samuel in the gate, and said, Tell me, I pray 
thee, where the seer's house is. ^^ And Samuel answered Saul, and said, I am 
the jseer : go up before me unto the high place ; for ye shall eat with me to day, 
and to morrow I will let thee go, and will tell thee all that is in thine heart. 
^ And as for *> thine asses that were lost f three days ago, set not thy mind on 
them ; for they are, found. And on whom ^is all the desire of Israel ? Is it not 
on thee, and on all thy father's house ? ^^ And Saul answered and said, • Am not 
I a Benjamite, of the ^ smallest of the tribes of Israel ? and "^ my family the 
least of all the famiUes of the tribe of Benjamin ? wherefore then speakest thou 
f so to me ? 

22 And Samuel took Saul and his servant, and brought them into the parlour, 
and made them sit in the chiefest place among them that were bidden, which 
were about thirty persons. ^ And Samuel said unto the cook. Bring the portion 
which I gave thee, of which I said unto thee. Set it by thee. ^ And the cook 
took up *the shoulder, and that which was upon it, and set it before Saul. 

f Heb. to dap. 

m ch. 15. 1. 
Acts 13. 21. 
t Heb. revealed 
the ear of Samuel, 
ch. 20. 2. 
nch. 10. I. 

o£x. 2. 26. &S. 

6ch. 16. 12. 
oe. 13.11. 

t Heb. restrain 

q ver. 8. 
t Heb. to dap 
three davs. 
Tch.S.S, 19. & 
12. IS. 
Bcb. 15. 17. 

t Judg. 20. 46, 47. 


Ps. 68. 27. 

u See Judg. 


t Heb. according 

to this uford f 

z Lev. 7. 82, S3. 
Ezek. 24. 4. 

the Pbophst in the Hebrew Monarohy occupied a pMition some- 
whAt similar to that of the Chobub m the Ghreek l>rama. The 
OhoroB was the Personifioation of DiWne justice and truth, and 
corrected the aberrations, and controlled Uie will, and restrained 
the passions of pinces and people in the drama; as is hapjuly 
expressed by Moraoe, in words which might be supplied to the 
action of Hebrew prophecy under the Jewuh Monazchy, 

" nie bonis fiiveatque et consilietur amio^ 
£t regat iratos, et amet pacare tumentes, 
lUe dapee Uudet menssB brevis, ille salubrem 
Justitiam, legesc[ue et apertis otia portis, 
nie tegat commissa, deosque precetur et oret 
Ut redeat miseris, abeat fortuna superbis." 

(HortU., A. P. 196—201.) 

The word noli expressed the official title of God's prophets, 
who were established by Him to be the declarers and ex- 
pounders of His will ; but roeh denoted those who had a special 
revelation from Him fbr a particular purpose. Cp. HSvemick, 
Einldtnng i. pp. 55—69 ; see also Dr, Lee on Inanition, p. 543. 

11. to draw water] at the foot of the hill. 

12. in the high place"] See abore on yii. 10. 17. 

18. he doth hleee the eaeriflce] ihe peaoe-oflforingt; on which 
See Ley. iii. 1. 

15. told Samuel in hie ear] literally, had opened hie 
ear, Cp. xx. 12. 2 Sam. yii. 27 ; and aboye on iii. 7. 

16. I hone looked upon my people] Therefore though the 
people had sinned in asking for a king (see yiii. 5), yet God in 
His mensj would g^ve success to their king, if he and his sub- 
jects would acknowledge God's Supremacy, and obey His Will. 

17. ehiUl reign] literally, shall reetrain : see Qeeen., p. 648, 
on the word ateor, to shut to, or hold back. 

81. Am not I a Benjamite H Saul begins his public career 
with modesty and humility, and God poured out upon him of 
His Spirit (x. 6. 10). All seemed to promise well for the new 
king and kingdom (see below, xy. 7). But these fair hopes 
were blighted by disobedience to God, consequent on pride and 
self-oonfidenoe. And thus the moral was made more evident ; 
though a yisiUe earthly kingdom had now been established in 
Israd, yet there was no promise of prosperity to him or his 
subjects, except in subordination to the unseen heavenly 
Monarchy of God. 

28. the ehoulder] If it was the right shoulder, then Samuel, 
to whose share it fell, as performing the functions of priest 
(Lev. vii. 82), eave Saul of his own portion ; or, if it were the 
left shoulder, then he admitted Saul to the next share after his 
own. In either case he showed the harmony that ought to 
exist between Uie prophetic and kingly office. 
D 2 

Digitized by 


Samuel communes with Saul, 1 SAMUEL IX. 25 — 27. X. 1 — 5. 

afid anoints him. 

I Or, re$erv4J. 

J Deut. 22. 8. 
2Sam. U. 2. 
Acts 10. 9. 

t Heb. to do$. 

ft ch. 9. 16. tt 16. 


2 Kings 9. 8, 6. 

b Pt. 2. 12. 

c Acts 18. 21. 

d Deut. 82. 9. 

Ps. 78 71. 

e Oen. 35. 19, 20. 
f Josh. 18. 28. 

t Heb. Ms buH- 

g Oen. 28. 22. a; 
85. 1, 8, 7. 

t Heb. a$k th§e 
ofptaee: as Judg. 
18. 15. 
h ver. 10. 
ich. 18. 3. 

And Samuel said, Behold that which is || left ! set it before thee, and eat : for 
nnto this time hath it been kept for thee since I said, I have invited the people. 
So Saul did eat with Samuel that day. 

^ And when they were come down from the high place into the dty, Samud 
commmied with Saul upon ^ the top of the house. ^ And they arose early : 
and it came to pass about the spring of the day, that Samuel called Saul to 
the top of the house, saying. Up, that I may send thee away. And Saul arose, 
and they went out both of them, he and Samuel, abroad. 

^ And as they were going down to the end of the dty, Samuel said to Saul, 
Bid the servant pass on before us, (and he passed on,) but stand thou still f a 
while, that I may shew thee the word of God. X. ^ Then ' Samuel took a 
vial of oil, and poured it upon his head, ^ and kissed him, and said, Is it not 
because "" the Lobd hath anointed thee to he captain over ^ his inheritance ? 
^When thou art departed from me to day, then thou shalt find two men by 
*^ Kachel's sepulchre in the border of Benjamin ' at Zelzah ; and they will say 
unto thee. The asses which thou wentest to seek are found : and, lo, thy 
father hath left f the care of the asses, and sorroweth for you, saying, What 
shall I do for my son ? ^ Then shalt thou go on forward from thence, and 
thou shalt come to the plain of Tabor, and there shall meet thee three men 
going up *to God to Beth-el, one carrying three kids, and another carrying 
three loaves of bread, and another carrying a bottle of wine : * And they will 
f salute thee, and give thee two loaves of bread ; which thou shalt receive of 
their hands. ^ After that thou shalt come to **the hill of God, * where is the 
garrison of the Philistines : and it shall come to pass, when thou art come 

25. «po» the top cf the house"] to which they retired for 
private eonverBation, after the sacrificial meal. See on Matt 
xziv. 17. Acts X. 9. 8. Jerome, Epist. ad Soniam, "In 
Paleetinft non habent in tectis cnlmina, sed domata, qniB Boms 
eolaria yocant :" hence the VtUg, has *' eolarmm " here. Cp. 
Dr, Thomson, Land and Book, p. 39. 

The correctness of the present Hebrew text is confirmed by 
the SyHcie and Arabic Versions, and by the Chaldee Targvm, 

According to the Sept, Version, the sense is, " From the 
high place he came down into the dt^, and they strewed a 
couch for Sanl upon the honse-top^ and he slept ; and it came 
to pass that when the day was breaking, Samuel called to Sanl 
on the house-top, and said. Arise I" The Vulg, has, « They 
came down from the l^h phioe into the city, and he talked 
with Saul on the house-top ; and he slept, and when they had 
arisen in the morning, and day was breaking, Samuel called 
to Saul on Uie house-top, saying, Ansel" Josephus also says 
(Antt. vi. 4. 2) that ** the rest of the guests arose and dispersed, 
each one to his own home, but Saul lay down and slept by 
the side of the prophet and Ms senrant." 

It would seem that the variations in the Septuagint are 
merely probable additions from the hand of the translator or 
paraphrast, and that they have passed thence in part into the 
Vulgate. To alter the Hebrew text in order to suit these varia- 
tions, as some have done (Swald and I%emus\ seems to be con- 
trary to sound criticism. There are frequent mstances through- 
out tins book, where the framers of the Septuagint Version have 
evidently intended to do the work of Paraphnuts, rather than of 
Transktors: see, e.g., the next chapter, v, 1. The Septuc^UU is, 
in many respects, rather a Targum than a Translation. 

26. to the top of the house] or, doum from the top of the 
house, where Saul slept {Keil). The original literally is, Samuel 
called^to SauHpn) the top of the house, and so Sept, and Vulg, 

The top of uie house (says 2>r, Thomson) is a common 
place for sleeping in summer in the East. According to our 
Authorized tranouEition, Samuel called Saul to the top of the 
house ; but the true sense rather is, He called hha fi'om it. Saul, 
young, vigorous, but weary with his long search, would 
desire no better place to sleep in, than on the roof (Thomson, 
Land and Book, p. 89). The incident is mentioned to 
show Saul's modes^ and humility at this time. He was 

content to make his bed with others of the household, in the 
open air, on the roof of the house, whence Samuel called him 
down in the morning, and anointed him king : see x. 1. 

Oh. X. 1. Then Samuel took a vial qf oil, and poured it 
upon his head] And thus Saul became the Lord's anointed 
(xiL 3. 5). On the unction of kings, and on the consequent signi- 
ficance of the woids Messiah and Christ (Anointed), denoting His 
royal office, see Sp, Pearson on the Creed, Art li., pp. 79. 98. 

— and kissed him] in token of reverence and love : cp. Ps. 
ii. 12, "Kiss the Son." 

Observe the aged Samuel's prompt obedience to God, and 
his disinterested humility in paying th^ marks of honour and 
afibction to a youngman who was to rule Israel in his own stead. 
2. thou shalt fi^T] Samuel gives to Saul three signs as tokens 
that what he had d^e was done by a Divine commission; and 
that therefore Saul might be assured that God would be with him 
if he would obey Him who had anointed him to be king by the 
hands of His Prophet, whom He enabled to foretell the future. 

— hy Saohel's sepulchre] about half an hour K.w. of Beth- 
lehem : cp. Gen. xxxv. 19, 20. It appears therefore that the first 
king of Inrad was anointed not far from the birth-place of David 
the king, and of Christ, the "KiNa of kings and Losd of lords." 

8. plain of Tabor] Or, rather, terebinth of Tabor; on the 
road from Rebel's grave to Gibeah. 

— to Beth-el] a.Bllowfid by the presence of God and bjr the 
worship paid to Him by Abraham and Jacob (Gen. xii. 8; xiii. 3; 
xxviii. 18 ; xxxv. 7). 

4. give thee two] of the three loaves dedicated to Qod ; an omen 
that GodHimself would feed and sustain him, if bewouldobey Him. 

5. hill of God] Rather, Oibeah of Elohim : he is speaking of 
Saul's own city, GHbeah, in the tribe of Bei:\jamin, called bdow 
Oibeah of Saul (xi. 4; xv. 34. 2 Sam. xxi. 6). He thereby 
intimates that though this dty might be called by SauPs name, 
yet it must not be forgotten that it belonged to Ood ; just as 
he had said before, ''the Lobd hath anointed thee to be 
captain over Sis inheritance " (v, 1). 

Hence, also, we may account fo}: the fiict that the people of 
the place were acquainted with Sanl (v. 10, 11). 

— the garrison qf the Philistines] A military post of the 
Philistmes. Samuel assured him that the Spirit of the Lofd 

Digitized by 


The Spirit of the Lord. 1 SAMUEL X. 6 — 13. "Is Satd also among the prophets}" 

thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down 
^ from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, 
before them ; * and they shall prophesy : ^ And " the Spirit of the Lobd will 
come upon thee, and ° tiiou shalt prophesy with them, and shalt be tamed into 
another man. ^ And f let it be, when these ** signs are come unto thee, \ that 
thou do as occasion serve thee ; for ^ God is with thee. ® And thou shalt go 
down before me "* to GUgal ; and, behold, I will come down unto thee, to oflFer 
burnt offerings, and to sacrifice sacrifices of peace offerings : ' seven days shalt 
thou tarry, till I come to thee, and shew thee what thou shalt do. 

^ And it was so, that when he had turned his f back to go from Samuel, God 
f gave him another heart : and all those signs came to pass that day. ^^ And 
• when they came thither to the hill, behold, ^ a company of prophets met him ; 
and ""the Spirit of God came upon him, and he prophesied among them« 
^1 And it came to pass, when all that knew him beforetime saw that, behold, 
he prophesied among the prophets, then the people said f one to another. 
What is this that is come unto the son of Kish ? ' Is Saul also among the 
prophets? ^*And one fof the same place answered and said. But ^who 
15 tiieir father? Therefore it became a proverb. Is Saul also among the 
prophets ? ^^ And when he had made an end of prophesying, he came to the 
high place. 

k ch. 9. 12. 

1 Ex. 15. SO. 21. 

2 Kings S. 15. 
1 Cor. li. 1. 

m Num. 11.25. 

ch. 16. 13. 

n ver. 10. 

ch. 19. 28, 2i. 

t Heb. it MkaU 

eome to pan, that 

wlun these eignSf 


o Ex. 4. 8. 

Luke 2. 12. 

t Heb. do /or /Am 

as thine hand 


Judg. 9. 88. 

p Judg. 6. 12. 

ich. 11. li, 15. 
r ch. 18. 8. 
t Heb. shoulder, 
t Heb. turned. 
• ver. 5. 
t ch. 19. 20. 
u ver. 8. 

t Heb. a man to 
his neighbour. 
X ch. 19. 24. 
Matt. 18. 54, 55. 
John 7. 15. 
Acts 4. 18. 
7lsa.54. IS. 
John 6. 45. ft 7. 

would oome on bim there (o. 6). Here was an angnry that, if 
he obeyed Gbd, he wonld be endned with supematimd strength 
to overcome tli^ Philistines, the enemies of Israel and of Qod, 
who now infested Sanl's own country; and that he would van- 
quish them in thdr own strongholds : cp. xiii. 8, "Jonathan smote 
the garrison of the Philistines in Geba." 

— a company of prophets] Literally, a string, or a cord or 
band (chehel; Oesen, 267, 268). The 8^t.hBsxoi>6si cp. below, 
six. 20. 

There is something significant in these words. The pro- 
phets were all joined in one body, they were bound together 
by a holy bond of unity, and blended their yoices as in a 
chorus of praise to GkxL Compare the language of the Apos- 
tolic fkther, 8. ZpnUmt, comparing the Christians jomed 
together with their Bishop, to the *' chords of a lyre strung 
together," and "joining as a chorus in a hymn of praise to Qod 
the Father, through Christ." (5. l^nat. ad Ephes. c. 4). 

— -ptaUery, and a tabrei, and a pipe, and a harp] llie first 
of these in the Hebrew is nehel (whence ydfi\a) ; the second, 
cMifsor—these were stringed instruments, the former like a 
psaltery, the second like a ffvitar or harp ; the third (ioph) was 
like a tambourine, rendered cymbal in Ezod. zv. 20; the fourth, 
chaUly was like v^JUde (see Keil, ArcbsBol. ii. § 187, pp. 187—189. 
Winer, B. W. B. ii. 128, where are fUll accounts of these instru- 
ments). See also Mr. Wrighfs articles in the Diet, of the Bible, 
under the words in the text, and ii. p. 446. 

— {hey shaU prophesy"] Sing hvnms of praise to Qod with 
rapturous ecstasy (Exod. zy. 21. ^m. xi. 26. 1 Chron. xxy. 8) . 
The distinction is described by Augustine in Ps. xzxii., " cithara 
lignum concayum, cui chorde innituntur, in inferiors parte 
habet : psalterium in superiore** 

6. the Spirit of the Lobd mil come upon thee, and thou 
9haU prophesy with them, and shalt he turned into another 
man] The Spirit bloweth where it listeth (John iii. 8), and the 
power of the Holy Ohost manifested itself by sudden effiisions 
before the day of Pentecost ; but on the day of Pentecost the 
Hol^ Spirit was sent from heaven by Christ to His Church, to 
• abide with her for ever' (John xiy. 16). 

« As of Saul it is written when the Spirit came upon him, 
<he was changed into another man;' this holds true even 
of the whole world. For, when the breath (of the Holy Ghost) 
came upon it, it was cast into a new mould presently, and became 
a new world :" see £p. Andrewes^ Sermon on the Sending of 
the Holy Ohost, *iii. 27. 

Hence also we may see eyidence of the power of the Holy 
Spirit to change our bodies at the Besurrection into a likeness 
to the glorified body of Christ (Bom. yiii. 11. Phil. liL 21. 
TertuUian de Besur. Camis, c. 66). 

The Spirit is not in the natural man ; and when the Spirit 
is given, a change is produced thereby (TertuUiau de Amma, 
c. 11). But this g^ may be quencheo, as it was in Saul, 
" Saul bonus pne cseteris livore posted evertitur " {TertuUian de 
PrsMC. Hieret., c. 8). The Spirit was given to Balaam, Saul, and 
Caiaphas, but they did not use it aright; no miraculous g^ 
"profiteth without charity" (1 Cor. xiii. 1—8. 8. Aug. ad 
Simplidan. ii. o. 1). 

7. do €ts occasion serve thee] For Qod is with thee» and 1 
wiU not intrude upon thee with imperious dictations on each 
several occasion, but I will leave thee to the free exercise of thy 
royal authority. 

8. Oilgal] Where thou wilt be reminded of the feith, 
obedience, and success of tbe great Captain of Israel, Joshua, in 
his campaigns against the enemies of Qod: see Josh. iy. 19; 
v. 9; X. 48. 

— seven days shalt thou tarry] This is to be the trial of 
thy obedience ; and in this Saul failed : see xiii. 4. 8. 

As to the chronology of these events, it is to be observed 
that Samuel had commanded Saul to " do as occasion served," 
for God was with him. By his success in these enterprises 
Saul would have evidence of God's favour to him. And after 
he had executed them, and had done as occasion served, then he 
was to come to Qilgal, in order to join Samuel in a sacrifice of 
bumt'Off'erings ; that is, in a sacrifice ezpressive of total self- 
dedication to God (this was the meaning of the humt-offering : 
see above, on Lev. L 1, 2), and also m a sacrifice dl peace- 
offerings ; i. e. in a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to Gk)d 
for His goodness to him ; and in that sacrifice he would be ad- 
mitted to communicate with Samuel, God's appointed minister, 
and with God Himself (see above, on licv. iii. 1). 

This sacrifice at Gilgal is mentioned by Samuel here as the 
crisis in Saul's reign, and as the object to which he was to look 
with special attention. 

11. Is 8aul also among the prophets 1] A question showing 
God's power in raising up one who was lightly esteemed among 
his own people, to be the first king of Israel, and also in enduing 
him with prophetic inspiration : cp. ziz. 24. 

Is Saul among the preachers of Christ P was a question of 
wonder which was asked by the friends of St. Paul (GaL i. 23\ 
whose career may be compared with that of Saul (see above, ix« 21). 

12. But who is their father ?] Who is the father of the pro- 
phets? Not man, but God. And God can make even Saul, 
whom ve deroise, to be a prophet also. 

18. he had made an end of prophesying] The gift, therefore, 
in his case was transitory, not permanent, as in Samuel's : com- 
pare the case of Eldad and Medad, and the other elders, as con- 
trasted with that of Moses (Num. zi. 26). Theodoret. 

Digitized by 


SauVs humility : 

1 SAMUEL X. 14—27. 

he is proclaimed king. 

s Judg. n. n. sc 

20. 1. 
ch. 11. 15. 
a ch. 7. 5, 6. 
b Judg. 6. 8, 9. 

c ch. 8. 7, 19. ft 
12. 12. 

d Josh. 7. 14, 16, 


Acta 1. Si, 26, 

ech. 23. 2, 4, 10, 

fch. 0. 2. 

g2 Sam. 21. 6. 

h 1 Kings I. 25, 


2 Kings 11. 12. 

f Heb. Lei the 

king live. 

i See Deut. 17. 

14. &c. 

ch. 8. 11. 

k Judg. 80. 14. 

ch. 11. 4. 

loh. 11. 12. 

m Deut. 13. 13. 

^^ And Saul's uncle said unto him and to his servant, Whither went ye ? 
And he said, To seek the asses : and when we saw that they were no where, wd 
came to Samuel. ^^ And Saul's uncle said, Tell me, I pray thee, what Samuel 
said unto you. ^^ And Saul said unto his uncle, He told us plainly that the 
asses were found. But of the matter of the kingdom, whereof Samuel spake, 
he told him snot. 

^7 And Samuel called the people together *unto the Lobd *to Mizpeh ; 
^^ And said unto the children of Israel, ''Thus saith the Lord G-od of Israel, 
I brought up Israel out of Egypt, and delivered you out of the hand of the 
Egyptians, and out of the hand of all kingdoms, and of them that oppressed 
you : ^^ "" And ye have this day rejected your God, who himself saved you out 
of all your adversities and your tribulations ; and ye have said unto him. Nay, 
but set a king over us. Now therefore present yourselves before the Lord by 
your tribes, and by your thousands. 

^ And when Samuel had ^ caused all the tribes of Israel to come near, the 
tribe of Benjamin was taken. ^^ When he had caused the .tribe of Benjamin to 
come near by their famiUes, the family of Matri was taken, and Saul the son 
of Kish was taken : and when they sought him, he could not be found. 

^ Therefore they ' enquired of the Lord farther, if the man should yet come 
thither. And the Lord answered, Behold, he hath hid himself among the 
stuflf. 23 j^^ tiiey pan and fetched him thence : and when he stood among the 
people, ^he was higher than any of the people from his shoulders and upward. 

^ And Samuel said to all the people, See ye him * whom the Lord hath 
chosen, that there is none Hke him among all the people ? And all the people 
shouted, and said, ^ f God save the kiug. ^ Then Samuel told the people 
* the manner of the kingdom, and wrote it in a book, and laid it up before the 
Lord. And Samuel sent all the people away, every man to his house. 

2^ And Saul also went home ^ to Gibeah ; and there went with him a band 
of men, whose hearts God had touched. ^ * But the " children of Belial said. 

16. of the matter of the kingdom — he told him not"] Such 
was then his modesty and humility : cp. v, 21. In like manner 
Samson, in the early days of his humility, told not his parents of 
the lion (see Judg. xiv. 6). So Saul of Tarsus spaxe not ot 
his visions and revelations of the Lord till he was constrained 
to do so by his enemies : see below, on 2 Cor. xii. 1. 

17. MUpeh] Whore Samuel himself had brought the people 
to repentance, and had gained a victory over the Philistines by 
his prayers : see vii. 5. 

18. Thus taith the LoBD God^ Lest they should imagine that 
because he was about to proclami Saul as king, they had not 
sinned in asking for a king (see on viii. 5), he rehearses God's 
gracious dealings with them since the Exodus from Egypt, when 
He was their kmg. 

19. before the Lobd] Before the altar at Mizpeh (vii. 9). 
Samuel had already anointed Saul as king, by Qod's com- 
mand, but he refers the matter to the Divine decision by lot in 
the presence of all Israel, in order that it may not be thought that 
he had been swayed bv any private partiality in anointing Saul. 

— your thousands] Or, your famiUes : cp. xxiii. sS. See 
Qesen. 54. 

20. when Samuel had caused all the tribes of Israel to 
come near'] Tlie unction of Saul had been only a private act; 
the king must receive also a public mission from God, in the 
eyes of all Israel. God observes the same rule in sending forth 
His priests. Christ was anointed by the Holy Ghost from His 
mother's womb, but He received a public unction at Jordan 
(Matt. iii. 17. Luke iii. 22). St. Paul was called by Christ 
from heaven when he was going to Damascus ; but he did not 
go forth as an Apostle to the Gentile world, till he had received 
a public mission at Antioch : see below, on Acts xiii. 1 — 3. 

— was taken] by lot. Compare the case of Achan (Josh. 


vii. 14. 16—18), and of Jonathan (below, xiv. 41. Josephus, 
Antt. vi. 4. 5). 

21. he could not he found] Another sig^ of his modesty, 
simplicity, and freedom from ambition at that time : see v. 16. 

2^. they enquired of the Lobd] by the Uiim and Thummim : 
cp. xxiii. 9; xxx. 7. 

— among the stuff] The baggage of the people who had come 
to Mizpeh : cp. xxv. 13 ; xxx. 24. Qesen, 399. 

23. he was higher] Cp. ix. 2. 

24. See ye him whom the Lobd hath chosenl Though the 
people were resolved to have a king, yet none could make one but 
Chxl, from whom all authority came : see below, on Rom. xiii. 1, 2. 

— God save the king] Literally, "Let the king live" "Vivat 
Rex," "Vive le Roi:" cp. Bp, Pearson, Art. xii. p. 395, note* 

25. the manner of the kingdom] the law of the kingdom 
{VulgjSi rh hucaifotxa (Sept.), the statute of the monarchy. 

This law of the kingdom is not identical with the ''manner 
of the king," described by Samuel, viii. 11 — ^18. Tlie Hebrew 
word rendered manner in both places is mishpat, which pro- 
perly me&ns judgment, right, law, that which is strictly dejure; 
but it also signifies usage, manner, custom, that which is d^ 
facto (see 2 Kings xi. 14 ; and Gesenius, pp. 519, 520), and the 
mishpat of the kingdom here expresses the former; but the 
mishpat of the king (in viii. 18) comprehends also the latter. 

— laid it up before the Lobd] Probablv (as Josephus says, 
vi. 4. 6), in the Tabernacle in the Holy o^ Holies, where Uie 
Book of the Law had been laid up (Deut. xxxi. 26). 

26. Saul also went home to Gtbeah] Thus he obeyed Samuel, 
who told him to wait, and do as occasion served. An occasion 
for action soon presented itself, as is seen in the next chapter. 

— a band of men] Rather, the valiant company (ha chayiT) : 
cp. Exod. xiv. 28 ; and below, xiv. 48 ; xvii. 20. 2 Chron. ix. 1. 

Digitized by 


Nahash the Ammonite. 

1 SAMUEL XI. 1—11. 


How shall this man save us ? And they despised him^ " and brought h\m no 
presents. But || he held his peace. 

XI. ^ Then ' Nahash the Ammonite came up, and encamped against 
'^ Jabesh-gilead : and all the men of Jabesh said unto Nahash, ""Make a 
covenant with us, and we will serve thee. ^And Nahash the Ammonite 
answered them, On this condition will I make a covenant with you, that I may 
thrust out all your right eyes, and lay it for ^ a reproach upon all Israel. 

* And the elders of Jabesh said unto him, f Give us seven days' respite, 
that we may send messengers unto all the coasts of Israel : and then, if there 
be no man to save us, we will come out to thee. * Then came the messengers 
' to Gibeah of Saul, and told the tidings in the ears of the people : and ^all the 
people lifted up their voices, and wept. * And, behold, Saul came after the 
herd out of the field ; and Saul said, What aileth the people that they weep ? 
And they told him the tidings of the men of Jabesh. ^» And the Spirit of God 
came upon Saul when he heard those tidings, and his anger was kindled 
greatly. ^ And he took a yoke of oxen, and ^ hewed them in pieces, and sent 
them throughout all the coasts of Israel by the hands of messengers, saying, 
* Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and after Samuel, so shall it be done 
unto his oxen. And the fear of the Lord fell on the people, and they came 
out f with one consent. ^ And when he numbered them in ^ Bezek, the 
children ' of Israel were three hundred thousand, and the men of Judah thirty 

^ And they said unto the messengers thsrt came. Thus shall ye say unto the 
men of Jabesh-gilead, To morrow, by that time the sun be hot, ye shall have 
II help. And the messengers came and shewed it to the men of Jabesh ; and 
they were glad. ^^ Therefore the men of Jabesh said. To morrow " we 
will come out unto you, and ye shall do with us all that seemeth good unto 

i^And it was so on the morrow, that "Saul put the people ^'in three 
companies ; and they came into the midst of the host in the morning watch, 
and slew the Ammonites until the heat of the day: and it came to pass, that 
they which remained were scattered, so that two of them were not left 

n % Sam. 8. 2. 
1 Kings 4. 21. & 

2Chron. 17. 5. 
Pt. 73. 10. 
Matt. 2. II. 
B Or, h« was at 
though he had 
been deqf. 
a ch. 12. 12. 
b Judg. 21. R. 
c Gen. 26. 28. 
£x. 28. 82. 
1 Kings 80. 84. 
Job 41. 4. 
Ezek. 17. 18. 
d Gen. 34. 14. 
ch. 17.26. 
t Heb. Forbear 

eoh. 10. 26. & 15. 


2 Sam. 21. 6. 

f Judg. 2. 4. 8; 21. 

g Judg. 8. 10. 8c 

6. 84. & 11.29. & 

18. 28. 8c 14. 6. 

ch. 10. 10. ft 16. 


h Judg. 19. 29. 

i Judg. 21. 5, 8, 

t Heb. a* one 
wtan, Judg. 20. 1. 
k Judg. 1. 5. 
1 2 Sam. 24. 9. 

I Or, deliverance 
m ver. 8. 

n Seech. 81. 


Judg. 7. 16. 

The word chayil is often rendered armef and hoii in our version 
in the latter books : q). Gesen. 275. 

87. he held hie peace"] Literallj, woe ae deqf. Another sign 
of his modesty, patience, and praoenoe at this time. *' Begium, 
im6 divinnm ^t, i^joiias despioere, et beneficiis obmere" 

Ch. XI. 1. Nahaeh the Ammonite^ renewed the pretensions 
which had been made by the Ammonites in the days of Jeph- 
thah : see Judg. xi. 4. 12. 28. 

— Jaheah-gUead] The metro^lisof Gilead {Joeephiu), called 
Jabesh from its dryness ; accordmg to JSueebiue it was six miles 
from Pella, on the east of Jordan, on the road to Qerasa. It 
was perhaps at EUDeir, on the south side of Wadgf Jabee {Mohin- 
eon) : op. Jndg. zzl. 8. 

St. On thie condition mil I make a covenant wUh you, that 1 
mojf thrust out all your right eyes'] In order to make them 
nseiefls fbr ever. The left eye woold be covered by the shield 
in battle : the right eye was needed for uming the spear : they 
wonid therefore be no better than blind if they lost their right 
eye {Joeephus, Theodorei). 

Nahash the Ammonite de m anded of these Israelites a sur- 
render of their principal organ of sight as the condition of a 
covenant with Mm. In spiritoal things this is precisely what is 
done by the Bishop of Rome. He is a " Kahash the Ammonite " 
in the Catholic Church of Christ He requires of all Christians 
to make a surrender of their reason, conscience, and their 

will (which belong to their Master, Christ, see on 1 Cor. vii. 27. 
Qal. V. 1), as the price of communion with himself. If we are 
willing to allow him to " thrust out our right eyes," then he 
will afiow us to communicate with himself — ^but not otherwise. 

8. GHve us seven d€^s* respite] The demand of Nahash, and 
the answer of the men of Jabesh, show to what an abject con- 
dition the Gileadites had now been reduced, from which God 
delivered them by SauL 

4. to Qibecih of SauC] There appears to have been an ancient 
alliance between the men of Jabesh and the tribe of Benjamin. 
The men of Jabesh-gilead had absented themselves from the 
league against Beiigamin (Judg. xxi. 8), and its maidens were 
given as wives to the Bei\jamites (Judg. xxi. 12 — 14) ; and the 
men of Jabesh -gUead showed their attachment to Saul after his 
defeat and death (1 Sam. xxxL 11, 12). 

6. the Spirit of Ood came upon Satu] A frilfilment of Samuel's 
words (x. 7). 

7. he— hewed them in pieces, and sent them] Saul the Ben- 
jamite seems to remember what had been done by the Levite in 
Judg. xix. 29, to stir up the tribes against the BeijamiteB. 

8. Bezek] Seven hours K. of Sichem (Euseb.) : cp. Judg. i. 4. 
— Israel— Judah] An evidence of the distinction of Judah 

(the tribe of the friture kingdom and of Shiloh himself) from 
the rest of the tribes even at that time. 

11. into the midst qf the host] of the Ammonites who had 
gone forth to meet the sally of the men of Jabesh, and found 
tiiemselves between them and Saul's companies. 

Digitized by 


Samuel speaks to Israel : 1 SAMUEL XI. 12— 16, XII, 1 — 10. recounts their history. 

poh. 10.17. 12 j^^ the people said unto Samnel, 'Who is he that said, Shall Saul reign 

over us ? ^ bring the men, that we may put them to death. ^^ And Saul said, 
' There shall not a man be put to death this day : for to day • the Lobd hath 
wrought salvation in Israel. 

^* Then said Samuel to the people, Come, and let us go * to Gilgal, and 
renew the kingdom there. ^^ And all the people went to Gilgal ; and there 
they made Saul king "before the Lord in Gilgal ; and ' there they sacrificed 
sacrifices of peace offerings before the Lobd ; and there Saul and all the men 
of Israel rejoiced greatly. 

Xn. ^And Samuel said unto all Israel, Behold, I have hearkened unto 
*your voice in all that ye said unto me, and "^have made a Inng over you# 
2 And now, behold, the king ^'walketh before you: "^and I am old and 
grayheaded ; and, behold, my sons are with you : and I have walked before 
you from my childhood unto this day. ' Behold, here I am : witness against 
me before the Lord, and before ^ his anointed : ^ whose ox have I taken ? or 
whose ass have I taken ? or whom have I defrauded? whom have I oppressed? 
or of whose hand have I received any f bribe || to * blind mine eyes therewith ? 
and I will restore it you. * And they said. Thou hast not defrauded us, nor 
oppressed us, neither hast thou taken ought of any man's hand. ^ And he 
said unto them, The Lord is witness against you, and his anointed is witness 
this day, ** that ye have not found ought * in my hand. And they answered, 
He is witness. 

^ And Samuel said unto the people, ^ It is the Lord that || advanced Moses 
and Aaron, and that brought your fathers up out of the land of Egypt. ^ Now 
therefore stand still, that I may ^ reason with you before the Lord of all the 
f righteous acts of the Lord, which he did fto you and to your fathers. 
® "* When Jacob was come into Egypt, and your fathers ° cried unto the Lord, 
then the Lord "* sent Moses and Aaron, which brought forth your fathers out 
of Egypt, and made them dwell in this place. ^ And when they ' forgat the 
Lord their God, "^ he sold them into the hand of Sisera, captain of the host of 
Hazor, and into the hand of 'the Fhihstines, and into the hand of the king 
'of Moab, and they fought against them. ^^And they cried unto the Lord, 

q See Luke 19. 

rSSam. 19.22. 
• Ezod. 14. 13, 
80. ch. 19. 6. 

t oh. 10. 8. 

u oh. 10. 17. 
X cb. 10. 8. 

a ch. 8. 5, 19, 20. 

boh. 10.24.6 11. 

14, 15. 

c Num. 27. 17. 

oh. 8. 20. 

d cb. 8. 1, 0. 

e ver. 6. 

ch. 10. 1. k 24. 6. 

2 Sam. 1. 14, 16. 

f Num. 16. 15. 

Acts 20. 33. 

1 ThesB. 2. 5. 

t Heb. ransom. 

H Or, Ukai lihould 

hide mint «««« ai 


K Deut. 16. 19. 

h John 18. 88. 
Acts 23. 9. 8c 24. 
16. 20. 
i Ex. 22. 4. 

k Mic. 6. 4. 
I Or, mad$. 

1 Iia. 1. 18. ft 5. 


Mic. 6. 2, 8. 

t Heb. righteous* 

Jesses, or, beneMie, 
udg. 5. 11. 
t Heb. with, 
m Gen. 46. 6, 6. 
n Ex. 2. 23. 
o Ex. 3. 10. ft 4. 

p Judg. 8. 7. 
q Judg. 4. 2. 

'Judg. 10. 7. 
ft 18. 1. 

• Judg. 8. 12. 

12. And the people eaid unto Samuel] to whom they still 
looked as their roler, and whose presence is mentioned to show 
Saul's moderation and clemency at this time; for it was not 
Samuel, hut Saul, who interfered to rescue those who had 
despised him. 

18. the Lobd hath wrought salo€tiion'] Saul claims none of 
the victory for himself, but ascribes it all to God. How much 
changed was he afterwards, when he had disobeyed God, and had 
thereby forfeited God's grace ! Cp. ziv. 24. 

15. to GmffcW] A very appropriate place, formerly the camp 
of Joshua, and connected with those glorious victories which 
God had wrought by his hand when he first settled Israel in 
Canaan. How many instructive memorials of God's power and 
' love to His people might suggest themselves to Saul at Gilgal ! 
How many pledges and earnests to himself if he imitated 
Joshua in faith and obedience to God, especially at Gilgal! 
See Josh. v. 9, and vi. 10. 

— there they made Saul king before the Lobd] Or, rather, 
they made him to reign. He hai ^en anointed bj Samuel pre- 
viously (x. 1), and had been designed bv God as km? at Mizpeh; 
but as yet he had not been puoUdy acknowledged king by the 
Nation ; but now we read all the people went to Gilgal, and 
made l^ul to reign before the Lora; that is, they would not 
allow him any longer to lead a private life, but they made him 
to assume the royal state and authority, to which he had been 
appointed by God. In xii. 1, Samuel says, ** I have made a 
king over you." 

— there they sacrificed saerifieee of peace offerings] Thank- 


offerings: see on Ezod. xx. 24; xxiv. 6; xxiz. 28. 
Josh. viiL 8L 1 Sam. x. 8. 

Lev. ill. 1. 

Ch. XII. 1. And Samuel said] By appointing a great pert 
of this chapter (viz., to o. 22) to be read in the synagQ^rues as 
a Haphtarah to Num. xvi., xvii., xviii., the ancient Hebrew 
Church suggests the parall^ between this speech of Samuel, 
dedaratorv of God's migesty, power, and gpoodneas, and vin- 
dicating his ffovemment and his own adnunistration, and tiie 
address of Moees, in reply to Eorah and his rebellious asso- 

2. my sons are with you] They are reduced to the condition 
of private persons, and are sulgects of the king, as ye are. 

8. Behold, here I am — I will restore it you] On this text 
see the Sermon of Bp, Sanderson ad Magistratum, ii. 830—862: 
and on Samuel as an example to governors, spiritual and tern* 
poral, submitting their acts to be examined by those whom they 
govern, see Feter Damiani, Epist. i. 12, in .^ Lapide here. 
Cp. the example of Job (xxxi. 18), who did not ** despise the 
cause of his manservant or maidservant when they contended " 
with him. 

— whose ass hate I taken ?] So Moses said, "1 have not taken 
one ass fVom them " (Num. xvi. 16). 

— bribe] Heb. CMfher, ransom or satisfaction, from eaphar, 
to cover, to pardon (Oesen, 411) : cp. Bp, Sanderson, iL 869. 

6. It is the Loiu>] I brought thee out of the land of Egypt, 
and I sent before thee Moses, Aaron, and Miriam (Micah vi. 4). 

9. king qfMotib] Egk>n (Judg. iii. 12). 

Digitized by 



1 SAMUEL Xn, 11 — 22. Samuel speaking of himself. 

and said, ^ We have sinned, because we have forsaken the Lobd, ''and have tjudg. 10.10. 

u Jndg. S. 18. 

served Baalim and Ashtaroth : but now ' deliver us out of the hand of our fg^«*«- ^^- »«' 
enemies, and we will serve thee. ^^And the Lord sent ^Jerubbaal, and y Jndg. 6.14.32. 
Bedan, and ' Jephthah, and 'Samuel, and delivered you out of the hand of your H^^l^ '• 
enemies on every side, and ye dwelled safe. ^^And when ye saw that "^Nahash bcii.n.i. 
the king of the children of Ammon came against you, ^'ye said unto me. Nay ; cch.8.«, 19. 
but a king shall reign over us : when "^the Lord your God was your king, ch^'i*?;*-*^- 
^^ Now therefore •behold the king ^whom ye have chosen, and whom ye have t chill: a. 
desired ! and, behold, ^ the Lord hath set a king over you. ^* If ye will ** fear L*'?. 2V* 
the Lord, and serve him, and obey his voice, and not rebel against the |/^f-,**/*- 
f commandment of the Lord, then shall both ye and also the king that reigneth ♦ ^***- '^•"*- 
over you f continue following the Lord your God : ^* But if ye will * not obey the J^f i*'/f •'• 
voice of the Lord, but rebel against the commandment of the Lord, then shall ^^;^^%^^ „* ^^^ 
the hand of the Lord be against you, ^Mit was against your fathers. ^^Now i^ei.^:^^ 
therefore * stand and see this great thing, which the Lord will do before your iEx.i4.ia,8i. 
eyes. ^^ Is it not "wheat harvest to day ? "I will call unto the Lord, and he Jj^S^io^iV. 
shall send thunder and rain; that ye may perceive and see that ^'your wickedness j^^Vk 17, 
is great, which ye have done in the sight of the Lord, in asking you a king. l\. s. 7. 

^^ So Samuel called unto the Lord ; and the Lord sent thunder and rain 
that day : and ^ all the people greatly feared the Lord and Samuel. ^^ And l^^^^i:^, 
all the people said unto Samuel, "^ Pi-ay for thy servants unto the Lord thy j^jj^y"- 
God, that we die not : for we have added unto all our sins this evil, to ask us fJSSiVie.' 
a king. ^ And Samuel said unto the people, Fear not : ye have done all this 
wickedness : yet turn not aside from following the Lord, but serve the Lord 
with all your heart ; 21 And ' turn ye not aside : • for then should ye go after vain r Dent. n. lo. 
things, which cannot profit nor deliver; for they are vain. ® For *the Lord f^/j^J- 
will not forsake his people " for his great name's sake : because *it hath pleased pl.^fj.*- " 

n Josh. 7. 9. Ps. 106. 8. Jer. 14. 21. Esek. 20. 9, 14. z Deut. 7. 7, 8. & 14*. 2. ' Mai. 1. 2. 

10. we haneforioken the Lobd] Samuel adopts the words of 
the Book of Judges (u. 18), *' They forsook the Lord, and served 
Baalim and AshtaroUi :" see also Judg. z. 10. 

U. and Bedan] Not mentioned in the Book of Judges or 
elsewhere in Scripture. Hence some (e. g. KimoAi and others) 
have supposed an error in the text, and that we ought to read 
Ben-Dan, *' Son of Dan," L e. Samson, the name hsre in the 
ChcUdee Targums and so JeranUcuter, Jjtffelom., lAjran^ 
Vatabl., A Lapide. Others read Barak (so the Sept., I^jfriao, 
and Arahio Versions, and so KpV). JStoald suggests JJbdon : 
see Judg. x. 18. 16. 

But it is not at all probable^ that if such a well-known 
name as Barak, or even JJbdon (Judg. xii. 18. 15), had ever 
stood in the text, it would have been obliterated from all the 
Hebrew HSS., and that an unknown name, such as Bedan, 
would have been substituted for it by the copvists. And it is 
not likely that 8amson would have been ouled by such an 
indefinite name as Ben-Dan, which is never given mm in the 
Book of Judges, or in any other part of the Scripture. 

On the whole, Bedan, the reading of all the extant Hebrew 
MSS., appears to be correct. And we may see here a confirma- 
tion of the opinion already expressed in this work, that the 
Book of Judges is not, and was not deeigned to be, a complete 
history of all the events that took place under the rule of the 
Judg^ any more than the Acts of the Apostles is intended to 
be a record of' the doings of aU the Apostles : see above, Intro- 
duction to Judges, p. 76 ,* and note on Judg. v. 6. 

We have also a parallel here to what has perplexed some, 
vis., the mention by Deborah of another Judge (viz., JaeT), 
whose acts are not "known to us from that Book, and whose 
name is not dsewhere mentioned in it (see Judg. v. 6) ; and if 
Bedan is the true reading, as there is good reason for bdieving, 
then in the very obscun^ of the name we have a confi^ation 
of the genuineness of the speech. A forger woidd not have 
ventured to insert a name which occurs nowhere else. 

— and Samuel] To the objections of those who allege that 

Vol. XL Pabt n.— 26 

Samuel would not have thus mentioned himeelf, it is enough to 
say, that the speaker is not recounting what Samuel did by hie 
own strength, but what "the Loiu>" did hg him, and the 
remarks aheady made on the manner in which Moses and St, 
Paul speak of themselves m^ be applied here : see above, on 
Num. xii. 8; and below, on 1 Cor. xv. 9, and 2 Cor. xi. 81. 
Here, also, is another proof of the genuineness of this speech. 

17. he shall send thunder emd rain] Very rare at that season. 
See Josephus, B. J. iv. 4, 6. Beland on Joseph, iii. 1. 6. 
<< Nunquam in his provindis in fine mensis Junii, aut in Julio in 
his provindis, maxim^ue in Judtsa, pluvias vidimus " {S, Jerome 
in Amos iv. 7). In ordinarv seasons, from the cessation of 
the showers in spring, until their commencement in October or 
November, rain never falls; snow in summer and rain in harvest 
were things incomprehensible to a Hebrew (Prov. xxvi. 1. 
Bobinson/FaL ii. 98, 99). 

In theparallel history— that of Hoses (see above on v. H)— 
the great Hebrew Lawgiver appeals to Qm, and predicts that 
He " wUl make a new thing ^' in the natural world, in order to 
prove the sin of the rebds, and to attest the integrity and com- 
mission of Moses (Num. xvi. 80). 

18. the Lord sent thunder] and thus confirmed the truth of 
Samuel's words; and thus, auo, Qod has nven .assurance to us, 
that what Samud did in offering sacrifices m various pLices, was 
done by special commission firom God, Who raised him up and 
authorized him, though only a Levito, to perform priestly 
functions, in that remarkable period of priestly degeneracy and 
of ecdesiastical confusion : see above, on iL 86 ; vii. 17. 

The thunder was a sign of God's anger, for it is an instru- 
ment of God's justice : and it declared the sin of the people 
in despising the government of Samud, and seeking for some 
other rule; for if Samuel had such power with God as to move 
heaven by his prayers, doubtless he would be able to overcome 
and destroy the enemies of Israd, if Israd obeyed God 
(Zvranus), Indeed, he had already done so at Ebeneser 
(vm.lO). ^ 

Digitized by 


Promises and warnings. 1 SAMUEL XII. 23—25. XIII. 1—9. 

Saul at GilgaL 

▼ Acts IS. 5. 
Rom. 1.9. 
Col. 1. 9. 
2 Tim. 1. 8. 
sPb. 84. 11. 
Ptov.4. 11. 
a 1 Kings 8. 36. 
2 Chron. 6. 27. 
Jer. 6. 16. 
b Ecolei. 12. 13. 
c Isa. 5. 12. 
il Or, what a 
gr^at thing, 3(c. 
d Dent. 10. 21. 
Pi. 126. 2, 8. 
e Josh. 24. 20. 
f Dent. 28. 86. 
f Heb. tk0 ion of 
one year in hi* 
a ch. 10. 26. 
b ch. 10. 5. 
B Or, The hiU. 
t Heb. did etink. 
Geo. 84. 30. 
Ex. 5. 21. 

c Jnd^. 2. 

t Heb. irembied 
after him. 
d ch. 10. 8. 

the Lord to make you his people. ^ Moreover as for me, God forbid that I 
should sin against the Lord f^ in ceasing to pray for you : but * I will teach you 
the * good and the right way : ^ **Only fear the Lord, and serve him in truth with 
all your heart : for "" consider || how ^ great things he hath done for you. ^ But 
if ye shall still do wickedly, •ye shall be consumed, ^both ye and your king. 

Xm. ^ Saul t reigned one year ; and when he had reigned two years over Israel, 
^ Saul chose him three thousand rnen of Israel; whereof two thousand were with 
Saul in Michmash and in mount £eth-el, and a thousand were with Jonathan in 
^ Gibeah of Benjamin : and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent. 

^ And Jonathan smote ^ the garrison of tiie Philistines that was in || Geba, and 
the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, 
saying, Let the Hebrews hear. ^ And all Israel heard say that Saul had 
smitten a garrison of the Philistines, and that Israel also f was had in abomi- 
nation with the Philistines. And the people were called together after Saul to 
Gilgal. ^ And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel, 
thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and people as the sand 
which is on the sea shore in multitude : and they came up, and pitched in 
Michmash, eastward from Beth-aven. 

^ When the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait, (for the people 
were 'distressed,) then the people ""did hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, 
and^in rocks, and in high places, and in pits. ^ And some of Hie Hebrews went 
over Jordan to tibie land of G^ and Gilead. As for Saul, he was yet in Gilgal, 
and all the people f followed him trembling. ^ "^ And he tarried seven days, 
according to the set time that Samuel had appointed : but Samuel came not to 
Gilgal ; and the people were scattered from him. ^ And Saul said. Bring hither 
a burnt offering to me, and peace offerings. And he offered the burnt offering. 

88. God forbid that I should sim — in cBOiing to pra^ for 
ffOii] Moees and Samael are specified by Qod as haying eictra- 
ordinary power with Him (Jer. xv. 1) ; and why ? Because 
they prayed for their enemies (8, Gregory , Horn. 27 in Evang.). 

Ch. XIII. 1. SavX reigned one ^ear^ Literally, Saul (was) eon 
of a gear in reigning : " filios omns anni erat Saul cum regfnare 
ccepisset " (Vulg.), and the Chaldee Targum explains it to mean 
that "he was as the son of a year (a child cmly a year old), in whom 
is no guile, when he began to reign;" and so many Hebrew Babbis, 
and l^heodoret, Qu. 26 ; and Jeromiaeter, and Feter Damiani, 

Others suppose, that a letter signifying 20 years has fiUlen 
out of the MSS. of the text, and of ancient Tersions here 
{SeaUger and Kelt), But this is hardly probable. The true 
meaning seems to Imb, that Saul had been publidy made king by 
Samuel (see x. 1), and had reigned one year, when the evento 
recorded in the former chapter had taken place ; and, that after 
he had reigned two years, he chose 3000 men, and did what is 
related in this chapter {A Lapide, Pfeiff^er, JBp. Patrick), 

On the chronology of Saul's reign, see Acts xiii. 21, which 
specifies a period of forty jears ; and uie most probable opinion is, 
that this mdudes the time in which Samuel was judge with 
him, and the time in which Samuel was judge before : and that 
Samuel was judge by himself twenty-two years, then sixteen with 
Saul as king ; and that Saul survived Samuel two years (SaUanus), 

2. Saul choee kirn three thousand men] He seems to have 
taken a body-g^uard to himself and his son, which was a new 
thing in Israel and which was a symptom of distrust of God's 
defence, and oi reliance on an arm of flesh. Hus was what 
Samuel had prophesied (viii. 11, 12). 

— Michmtuhl About nine miles K. of Jerusalem, now 
Mukhmae, described by Robinson (ii. 117). 

— mount Seth-et] now Beitin (see Josh. vii. 2), about six 
miles N.w. of Michmash ; and twelve K. of Jerusalem. 

— Qibeah of Benj(VBMn\ The residence of Saul, now Tuleil-el- 
Ph4l, about midway oetween Jerusalem and Michmash. 

8. G^eba"] now Jeba, s.w. of Michmash, and ir.i. of Bamah : 
see Bobineon, ii. 118. Cp. Josh, xviii. 24. 

4. Saul had tmitten a garrison of the FJalistines'] in his 
own tribe of Benjamin : cp. x. 6. 20. 

— to OilgaT] near Jericho, where Samuel had appointed to 
meet him (x. 8), and where God had manifested His power and 
glory in the days of Joshua. Cp. Josh. ix. 6. 

5. thirty thousand chariots] So the extant Hebrew MSS., 
and the Sept, and Vulg, and Chaldee Targum, But some 
ancient Versions (Sjgriao and Arabic) have 8000 chariots. The 
number seems disproportionate to that of the persons (cp. 2 
Sam. X. 18. 1 Kings x. 26. 2 Chron. xii. 8), and could hardly 
have been raised by the Philistines themselves. Solomon had 
only 1400 chariots, which are mentioned as a large number 
(2 Chron. L 14). Some suppose that baggage-waggons are in- 
cluded in this number. Probably the Philistines may have 
engaged other nations, the enemies of Israel, to fight with them ; 
and this supposition is confirmed by the mention of the people 
"as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude;" 
and also bv the confusion of the army, which is mentioned in 
xiv. 20, and which was due in part to the &ct that it was com- 
posed of various nations {Josephus vi. 6. 8). 

There is a parallel to this in 1 Chron. xix. 6, 7, where it is 
said that ** the children of Ammon sent to hire them chariots 
out of Mesopotamia and other places :" " so they hired thirty 
and two thousand chariots, and the king of Muochah and his 

8. he tarried seven days'] Samuel had commanded Saul, 
'* Seven days shalt thou tany tUl I come to thee, and show thee 
what thou shaU do" (x. 8). 

Samuel tried Saul's ikith by this command; and then he came 
to Gilgal : see 9. 8, and Josephus vi. 6. 2, who says that '* Saul 
waited seven davs, but did not ftdly obey the command." The 
seventh day had arrived, and Samuel had not yet come. Saul 
seeing that many of his men had depurted, and that only six 
hundred remained, resolved not to wait any longer ; and he 
offered sacrifices — ^not only burnt-offerings, but peace-offerings — 
and Samuel (it seems) came before the seventh day was over, 
and before the sacrifices were completed. If Saul had waited 
a few hours, he would have been blessed for his obediencd to 
God speaking by the mouth of his prophet: see v, 18 {S, 
Oregory, Lyranus, Serarius, A Lapidi), 

9. he offered the bu/nU offering] Did Saul offer it with hii 
own hand, or no ? 

Digitized by 


Said's disobedience 

1 SAMUEL Xm. 10—18. 

and ryection. 

^^ And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the 
burnt offering, behold, Samuel came ; and Saul went out to meet him, that he 
might t salute him. ^^And Samuel said, What hast thou done? And Saul 
said. Because I saw that the people were scattered from me, and that thou 
camest not within the days appointed, and that the Philistines gathered 
themselves together at Michmash ; ^^ Therefore said I, The Phihstines will come 
down now upon me to Gilgal, and I have not f made supplication unto the 
Lord : I forced myself therefore, and offered a burnt offering. ^' And Samuel 
said to Saul, ^Thou hast done foohshly : 'thou hast not kept the command- 
ment of the LoBD thy God, which he commanded thee : for now would the 
Lord have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever. ^* 'But now thy 
kingdom shall not continue : ^ the Lord hath sought h\m a man after his own 
heart, and the Lord hath commanded him to be captain over his people, 
because thou hast not kept that which the Lord commanded thee. 

^^ And Samuel arose, and gat him up from Gilgal unto Gibeah of Benjamin. 
And. 3aul numbered the people that were f present with him, * about six 
hundred men. ^^ And Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the people that were 
present with them, abode in f Gibeah of Benjamin: but the Philistines 
encamped in Michmash. 

^"^ And the spoilers came out of the camp of the Phihstines in three 
companies : one company turned unto the way that leadeth to ^ Ophrah, unto 
the land of Shual : ^^ And another company turned the way to ' Beth-horon : 

t Heb. bUii him. 

t Heb. intreated 

e 2 Chron. 16. 9. 
fch. 16. 11. 

geh. 16.28. 

h Ps. 89. 20. 
Acts 18. 22. 

t Heb./ottfid. 
i ch. 14. 8. 

t Heb. G«6a, 
▼er. 8. 

k Joih. 18. 28. 

1 JoBh. 16. 8. 
ft 18. 18, 14. 

It Ib said br some (e.g. by AhuUmit, Serariut, A Lapide, 
and KeU, p. 97) that we must suppose here the interyention 
and co-operation of a priest as the offerer, as on other occa- 
sions, when the king is said to offer (2 Sam. xxiv. 25. 1 Kings 
iii. 4 ; viii. 63). It seems that Sam had the Ark, and Ahiah 
the priest with him : see xiv. 8. 

Joiephus says (vi. 6. 2) that Sanl offered sacrifice in an evil 
manner ; and his annotator, WhUton, asserts that Saul usurped 
the priest's office. 

Whether this was so or not, is not evident from the text. 
It seems to be suggested by the words of Saul : " Bring hither a 
bumt-offering to me" JDean Stanley says (L<H;tures, p. 23) 
that "he sacrificed; and that, as kmg, he had a right to 
sacrifice." Bishop Andrewes says that he usurped the priest's 
office (iv. 88) ; and so Dr, KUto, pp. 155, 188, " The kings of 
many other nations were also priests, but, although more 
than one Hebrew king evinced a disposition to assume priestly 
power, yet it was plainly unlawful, except the king were of the 
fiunily of Aaron, as was the case with the Maccabsean or 
Asmonean sovereigns. Saul offered sacrifices with his own 
hand. This was a double offence. Priests only might offer 
sacrifices ; the only exception being in the case of the pro- 
phets, who sometimes claimed that right for the honour of God, 
by whose Spirit they acted." 

In the absence of any dear statement to that effect in the 
text, and inasmuch, also, as Samuel does not animadvert on 
any such intrusion on Saul's part, it does not seem safe to affirm 
that Saul offered the sacrifice with his own hand. 

His sin consisted in not obeying the word of the Lord, 
speaking- by His Prophet, and commanding him to wait till 
Samuel came and told him what he must do (x. 8 : see v, 13, 
14, and Jeromiaeter), " Thou hast done foolishly : thou hast not 
kept the commandment of the Lord thy God." Saul's faith in 
God, and his obedience to Him, were tried by the number of the 
Philistines, and by the falling away of his own forces, and by 
the delay of SamueL If he had beheved in God, and if he had 
obeyed Him, he would have been sure that God could, and 
would, deliver him in His own time ; but he did not trust in 
God's word and power: he feared man rather than God, and 
relied rather on the externals of religion, than on the essence 
of it, which is obedience; and therefore Samuel told him that 
his kingdom should not continue. 

12. I forced miyeeif therefore, and offered a humi offering'] 
As if burnt-offerings were more pleasing to God than obedience, 
and could be acce^Sed by God, when offered without faith! Cp. 
XV. 22. 


13. for ever"] As long as his seed lasted. 

14. thy kingdom shall not continue] Saul was not as yet 
personally r^ected from being king. He is told, that if he had 
oeen obedient, his *' kingdom should have been established" in 
his family ; but that now it should not continue. And if he had 
taken warning now, and repented, there is reason to believe that 
even this penalty would not have been inflicted on him. 

But he repeated his sin ; and the next punishment was more 
heavy. " Thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord 
hath rejected thee frvm being king " (xv. 26). In the former 
case, the sentence was pronounced agiunst the kingdom ; in the 
latter, against the king, 

— the LoBD hath eonght"] David did not seek honour for 
himself; but was sought by God for it. " I have found David 
my servant" (Ps. Ixxxix. 20). 

— a man after his own hearf] Cp. Acts xiii. 22. Samuel 
does not mention David by name, lest he should excite Saul's 
iealousv against him. David is called ** a man after God's own 
heart," because, as to his general character, he conformed his 
own will to God's will : beloved what God loved, and abhorred 
what God hated (S. Chrys.), 

15. Samuel—yat him up — unto CHbeah'] A proof that Samuel 
had not been actuated by feelings of personal anger against Saul 
and his family, and had not yet forsaken him, and would be 
willing to befriend him, if he would repent. Cp; below, xv. 31. 

— six hundred men^ Verv few, if compared with those who 
followed Saul while he was ooedient to God ; and who amounted 
to 300,000 men (xi. 6). 

Therefore his sinful act in offering sacrifice, lest the people 
should be scattered frcm him («. 11), failed of its purpose. 
Worldly policy does not attain even its own temporal ends. 
See below, John xi. 48, "If we let this man thus alone, the 
Bomans will come and take away both our place and nation." 
They did not let Jesus alone; and therefore the Bomans did 
come, and destroyed them. 

16. the Philistines encamped^ If Saul had obeyed God, they 
would have been routed, as the Ammonites were (xi. 11). 

17. the spoilers'j Literally, the spoiler, Qesen., pp. 616. 816. 

— Philistines %n three companies'] Observe the contrast. 
Saul, while obedient, had gone out ag^ainst the Anmionites in 
three companies (xi. 11). But now that he has disobeyed God, 
the Philistines come against him in three 'companies, 

— Ophrah] Five miles B. of Bethel (see Josh, xviii. 23), pro- 
bably now Tdxyibeh (described by BohinsolH, ii. 110. 119 — 126)' 

— land of Shuat] foxland : perhaps ShaUm (ix. 4). 

18. Beth'horon'] Beit-ur : see Josh. x. 11. 

£ 2 

Digitized by 


IsraeVs low -estate. 1 S.OIUEL XIII. 19—23. XIV. 1—6. Jonathan's prowess. 

m Neh. 11. S4. 

o See S King! 
S4. 14. 
Ter. 84. 1. 

tHeb. a ;UewlM 


t Heb. to Ml. 

So Judf . 5. 8. 

p ch. 14. 1, 4. 
I Or, ttandinff 

H Or, there was a 

a eh. 18. 15. 

bch.S2.9, 11, 20, 
called JMflMterA. 
d eh. 2. 28. 

ech 18.23. 

t Heb. tooth. 

and another companytumed to the way of the border that looketh to the valley 
of " Zeboim toward the wilderness. 

^^ Now ° there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel : for the 
Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords or spears : ^ But all the 
Israelites went down to the Philistines, to sharpen every man his share, and his 
coulter, and his axe, and his mattock, ^i Yet they had f a file for the mattocks, 
and for the coulters, and for the forks, and for iJie axes, and f to sharpen the 
goads. ^ So it came to pass in the day of battle, that "" there was neither 
sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with Saul and 
Jonathan : but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found. 

^ p And the || garrison of the Philistines went out to the ^passage of Michmash. 

XIV. ' Now II it came to pass upon a day, that Jonathan the son of Saul said 
unto the young man that bare his armour. Come, and let us ^o over to the 
Philistines' garrison, that is on the other side. But he told not his father. 
2 And Saul tarried in the uttermost part of Gibeah under a pomegranate tree 
which is in Migron : and the people that were with him were * about six hundred 
men; ^And ^Ahiah, the son of Ahitub, ^I-chabod's brother, the son of 
Phinehas, the son of Eli, the Lord's priest in Shiloh, * wearing an ephod. 
And the people knew not that Jonathan was gone. ^ And between the passages, 
by which Jonathan sought to go oyer "" unto the Philistines' garrison, there was 
a sharp rock on the one side, and a sharp rock on the other side : and the 
name of the one was Bozez, and the name of the other Seneh. ^ The f forefront 

— ZAoim] Perhaps k.b. of Jerasalem : see Neh. xi. 84. 

19. Now there wot no smUk—for the Fhilistinee said] In 
Buch a state of depresdon were the IsraeliteB : here was another 
consequence of their king's disobedience : see xii. 16. 

20. to the PhUUtmee] who had garrisons in the country 
(x. 6 ; xiiL 8). 

— hie share'] The root of this word and of that rendered 
mattock is the same : viz.» charash, x^^P^^*>> ^ ^ *^*^» ^ 
plough (see Gesen, 466 and 809). 

-^ his coulter] See Isa. iL 4. Joel iii. 10. Micah iv. 8, 
where it is rendered ploughshare, 

— his axe] See Qesen. 742. 

~ his mattock] See Gesen, 466. 

21. Yet they had a file for] Bather, so that hUmtness qfedge 
was — i. e. ensued — ^to those instruments which ought to have 
been sharp : they became notched and unfit for use. The word 
translated file is petsirah from patsar, to mcJce hJMwt, The 
words are well rendered bv Vulg,, "Betuss itaque sunt acies 
vomerum:" cp. A Zapide here; Gesen, 685; and Keil, p. 98. 
The parenthesis is continued as fkr as the word axes. 

This is adduced as another consequence of Saul's dis- 
obedience. The Philistines hdd Israel in subjection ; and not 
only did they deprive the Israelites of weajpons of war» but they 
made them dependent on their enemies for the sharpening of 
their instruments of husbandry, which became blunted and 
almost useless; and thus Agriculture suffered by the king's 
disobedience to Qod. 

— and to sharpen the goads] That is, they were forced to 
resort to the Philistines even for this purpose. The words 
rendered jfet they had a file (see the foregoing note) down to 
axes form a parenthesLs : cp. Gesen,, p. 561. On the g^oads of 
the Israelites, see Dr, Thomson, Land and Book, p. 822. 

28. the garrison of the Philistines went out to &e passage of 
Miohmash] Sallied forth to the steep predpitous valley now 
called Wadg-es-8uweimt, between Geba and IGchmash, and 
described by Mobinso'n, ii. 116. 126, and m his Later Biblical 
Besearches, p. 878, quoted by KeH, p. 100. 

Ch. XIV. L Jonathan] A name which means gift of 
Jehovah, In name and character, he is the Ifathanael of this 
history. Jonathan's name and prowess are mentioned here as a 
eontraet to the unbelief and oisobedience of 8aml his father 
(see further below at the end of ch. xx.). 

The clue to the understanding of this narrative is afforded 
by Jonathan's words (i^. 6), *' The Lobd will work fbr us : there 

is no restraint to the Lobd to save by many or by few," and v, 
10, <* The Lord hath delivered them mto our hand." 

If Saul had been animated by the fiiith of Jonathan, he 
would not have disobeyed the Lord at Gilgal (xiii. 8 — 18) and in 
the matter of Amalek (xv. 19). 

The miraculous success of Jonathan, the son of Saul* in the 
present enterprise, is like a practical condemnation of Saul his 
fkther. It shows how great would have been Saul's proiperity 
if he had trusted in Ood and obeyed Him, instead of looking to 
carnal ends, and being swayed by his own wilL 

%, pomegranaie tree] Bather, the pomegranate-tree: a 
well-known one. On the pomegranate-tree and its fruity see 
8, Ambrose, Hex. iii. 18 ; 8. Jerome in Jovinian. lib. L ; and 
A Lapide here, and on Canticles iv. 8. 18. 

— Migron] v, of GilgaL 

— six hundred men] His forces had not increased rfnoe he 
came to Gibeah, as mignt have been expected : see xiii. 16. 

8. Ahiah] Supposed by some to be the same as Ahimelecht 
mentioned as the priest in xxi 1, and son of Ahitub (the elder 
brother of Ichabod, the son of Phinehas, the son of £3i, " the 
Lord's priest in Shiloh"), in xxii. 9. 11, which is possible: 
Ahiah (brother or friend of Jehovah) may be another name of 
Ahimeieeh (brother or friend of the king). But it is more 
probable that Ahiah died without offspring, and that Ahimeieeh 
(as his brother) succeeded in his place. 

— wearing an ephod^ Bather, wearing the ephod; Le., the 
high priesf s ephod, with the Urim and Thummun : see on li. 28. 

Saul had with him the external ordinances of religion, but 
they did not profit him, because he was unfidthftd and dis- 
obedient to Qod. 

There is a solemn sound in the words ** the Lord's priest in 
ShUoh .*" the history of the captivl^ of the Ark, which had 
been at 8hUoh, and the death of Hophni and Phbiehas, the 
priests who had ministered there, and of Eli himself^ the High 
Priest and Judge, and the destruction of Shil<^, were terrible 
warnings to Sam, that no religious or political privilcp;es are of 
any benefit, without a sanctified heart, and an obedient will : 
see above on iv. 4, 6. 

Howftill of encouraffement, on the other hand, are the his- 
torical associations of GUgal, with its records of Gk>d's wonderAil 
workings for Israel, by the hand of His fkithfhl servant Joshua ! 

Yet there, eVlm at Gilgal, Saul disobeyed God. 
4. Bozez] shining (Gesen, 108). 

— Seneli] Perhaps a tooth, or it mi^ be oonnected with 
sanah, to lift up, or to sharpen (Gesen, 591). 

Digitized by 


Jonathan's faith and courage. 1 SAMUEL XTV. 6 — 18. 

Saul calls for the Ark. 

of the one was situate northward over agamst Michmash, and the other south- 
ward over agamst Giheah. ^ And Jonathan said to the young man that bare 
his armour, Come, and let us go oyer unto the garrison of these uncircumcised : 
it may be that the Lobd will work for us : for there is no restraint to the Lobd 
'to save by many or by few. ^ j^^ }^^ armourbearer said unto him, Do all 
that is in thine heart : turn thee ; behold, I am with thee according to thy 
heart. ^ Then said Jonathan, Behold, we will pass oyer unto these men, and 
we will discover ourselves unto them. ^ If they say thus unto us, f Tarry until 
we come to you ; then we will stand still in our place, and will not go up unto 
them. ^^ But if they say thus, Come up unto us ; then we will go up : for the 
Lobd hath delivered them into our hand : and ^this shaU be a sign unto us. 

'^And both of them discovered themselves unto the garrison of the 
Philistines : and the Philistines said, Behold, the Hebrews come forth out of 
the holes where they had hid themselves. ^^ And the men of the garrison 
answered Jonathan and his armourbearer, and said, Come up to us, and we 
will shew you a thing. And Jonathan said unto his armourbearer, Come up 
after me : for the Lord hath delivered them into the hand of Israel. ^' And 
Jonathan climbed up upon his hands and upon his feet, and his armourbearer 
after him : and they fell before Jonathan ; and his armourbearer slew after 
him. ^^ And that first slaughter, which Jonathan and his armourbearer made, 
was about twenty men, within as it were || an half acre of land, which a yoke o^ 
oxen might plow. 

^^ And ^ there was trembling in the host, in the field, and among all the 
people: the garrison, and 'the spoilers, they also trembled, and the earth 
quaked : so it was f ^ a very great trembling. 

^^ And the watchmen of Saul in Gibeah of Benjamin looked ; and, behold, the 
multitude melted away, and they * went on beating down one another. ^^ Then 
said Saul unto the people that were with him. Number now, and see who is gone 
from us. And when they had numbered, behold, Jonathan and his armourbearer 
were not there. ^® And Saul said unto Ahiah, Bring hither the ark of God. For the 

fJndg. 7.4, r. 
SChion. 14. 11. 

i Heb. Bt tUU, 

fSee Gen. S4. 14^ 
udg. Ml. 


Or, U(fa 
m oftm aert 

udg. 7. 21. 

h S King! 7. 7. 
Job 18. 11. 
I oh. 13.17. 

t Heb. a IrtmftMaa 


k Oen. 85. 5. 

1 Tor. SO. 

On these two rocks, probably in Wady Suvmmt, leading 
from Geba to Michmash, see Rohmson, ii. 116 : *' In the valley 
are two hills of a conical or rather a spherical form, having 
steep rodcy sides ; one of these rocks is toward Jeba (Qeba), 
the other toward MukJkma* (Michmash)/' 

These seem to be the two rocks mentioned here. 

0. MichmaghJ Nine miles from Jemsalem (JSuieb,), to the 
nor^ of it; now Mukhmas: see Sobinson, ii. 118—116. 

6. Come, and lei ue go cner\ O divine power of fiiith* which 
makes a man more than men ! The qnestion is not what 
Jonathan can do» but what Qod can do^ whose power is 
not in the means, bat in Himself. There is no restraint 
in the Lord to save by many or by few. O admirable fiuth in Jo- 
nathan, whom neither the steepness of the rocks, nor multitude 
of enemies, can dissuade from such an assault 1 (J9[p. Kail.) 

11. the BJBhrew9\ They will not call them by their more 
Huxrad name —the men of lero/el : cp, v, 21. 

18. we will shew you a tUng^ Literally, we will make you 
know a word ; we will tell you something. 

— the Lord hath delivered them] Jonathan shows extra- 
ordinary fiuth in the choice of the rign, and in obedience to it» 
and relies wholly on the Lord — a striking contrast to SauL 

14. acre] Rather, Jkirrow {Geeen, 4Q&). 

-*- of land, which a yoke of oxen might plow] These words 
are a rendering of the Hebrew teemed, which properly sigmfles 
a pair, or couple (firom ieamad, to hind), and uienoe is applied 
to express tire quantity of land which a yoke of oxen oould 
filougfa in a day : cp.jugum,jugerum {Qeeen. 712). 

16. trembUny in the hoet] A panic sent by Gk)d. For 
other instances, see 2 Sam. v. 24, 2 Kings vii. 6; xix. 7. 

18. Briny hither the ark] This is the meaning of the text as 
it stands in the extant Hebiew MSS., and in the Vuly,, SMae, 
Arahic, and Chaldee Taryum, But the Septuayvnt has, ''Bring 
hither the ephod,** which is supposed by some to be the prefer- 
able reading; so Stanley, Lectures, p. 19, who calls the reading 
of the Hebrew MSS. '* an obvious mistake." 

But it is not probable that, if the word ephod had been in 
the original text, it would have been changed by the oopvista 
into arks on tlie other hand, a transcriber might suppose it to 
be improbable that the aj^ should have been brought from Kir- 
jath-jearim, and be now with Saul (vii. 2), and he might there- 
fore be induced to substitute ephod here. 

The presence of the Ark is very significant and instructive 
(see on v. 8). Although Saul had the High Priest, the Urim, 
and the Ark with him ; yet they were of no avail, because he 
lacked the essential requisites fbr making them profitable. He 
lacked faith in Him whose ordinances the Ark and the Priest- 
hood were : compare the case of the army of Israel, above, 
iv. 8-11. 

On the other hand, Jonathan, Saul's son, having fkith in 
God, was achieving at this time, ahnost single-handed, a great 
victory over the enemies of Israel : see on v. 1. 

Saul is a specimen of that class of persons who show a cer- 
tain reverence and zeal for the outward forme of religion, and 
even a superstitious reUanoe on them, but are not careftd to 
cherish the inner epirit of vital religion, without which all out- 
ward farmB and ordinances, even though instituted bv Ck>d 
Himself, are mere " sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal :" cp. 
1 Cor.xiiL 12; below, v. 24^ and xv. 21. 

Digitized by 


The Lord saves Israel. 

1 SAMUEL XIV. 19—29. 

Saul's adjuration. 

m Num. 27. 21. 
a Or, tumult. 

t Heb. were cried 


n Jnd^. 7. 22. 

2 Chron. 20. 28. 

o ch. 18. 6. 

p Ex. 14. 80. 
P8. 44. 6. 7. 
Hoi. 1. 7. 
q ch. 18. 8. 

T Joih. 6. 26. 

• Dent. 9. 28. 
Matt. 8. 6. 
t Ex. 8. 8. 
Num. 18. 27. 
Matt. 8. 4. 

I Or, weary. 

ark of God was at that time with the children of Israel. ^^ And it came to pass, 
while Saul " talked mito the priest, that the || noise that was in the host of the 
Philistines went on and increased : and Saul said unto the priest, Withdraw thine 
hand. ^ And Saul and all the people that were with him f assembled themselves, 
and they came to the battle : and, behold, ° every man's sword was against his 
fellow, and there was a very great discomfiture. ^^ Moreover the Hebrews that 
were with the Philistines before that time, which went up with them into the 
camp from the country round about, even they also turned to be with the 
IsraeUtes that were with Saul and Jonathan. ^ Likewise all the men of Israel 
which ""had hid themselves in mount Ephraim, when they heard that the 
Phihstines fled, even they also followed hard after them in the battle. 
25pSo the Lord saved Israel that day: and the battle passed over ^unto 

^ And the men of Israel were distressed that day : for Saul had ' adjured the 
people, saying. Cursed he the man that eateth any food until evening, that I 
may be avenged on mine enemies. So none of the people tasted any food. 
^ 'And all they of the land came to a wood; and there was 'honey upon the 
ground, ^ And when the people were come into the wood, behold, the honey 
dropped ; but no man put his hand to his mouth : for the people feared the 
oath. ^ But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the people with the 
oath : wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that was in his hand, and 
dipped it in an honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth ; and his eyes were 
enlightened. ^ Then answered one of the people, and said. Thy father straitly 
charged the people with an oath, saying. Cursed he the man that eateth any 
food this day. And the people were || faint. ^ Then said Jonathan, My 
father hath troubled the land : see, I pray you, how mine eyes have been 

19. while SatU talked unto the prieef] Either with a yiew of 
bringing forth the Ark to lead the people onward to the battle, 
or thathe might inquii^ of Qod by Urim and Thummim before 
the Ark. 

— Withdraw thine hand^ i. e. let alone. There la no more 
need of Inquiry or of prayer : let ni go at once to the battle. 
There seems to have been an indifference and contempt on Sanl's 
part for prayer and for a knowledge of God's will (cp. v, 86). 
He thought ^tff of himself, and God was in the second place. 
" The neglect ofprat/er" (says Bp. Andrewee, v. 823) "was the 
beginning of SauVefall, as all the Fathers interpret that place, 
where it is said that ^ul commanded the priest to withdraw 
his hand from the Ark." See also Bp. Andrewes, v. 845 : 
** There are some, who with Saul will call for the Arl^ and will 
presently cry, • Away with it I* that is, wiU begin their prayers 
and will break them off in the midst on any occasion." See also 
Ibid, ii. 11. 

Saul will consult the Ark : hypocrites, when they hare 
leisure, will perhaps be holy. But when the tumult was aroused, 
Saul's piety decr^sed. '* Withdraw thine hand," he said. The 
Ark must giye place to arms. Worldly minds regard holy 
duties no fia^her than they stand with their own carnal pur- 
poses. Saul, who would before wilfully sacrifice ere he fought 
(ziii. 9), will now, in the other extreme, fight. in a wilful inde- 
votion (Bp, Salt). 

The courage of Jonathan had already achieved the victory, 
while Saul was talking about what was to be done : so much 
more successful was, the faith and obedience of the son, than the 
worldly policy and formal indifference of the father. 

80. every man's sword was against his fellowl As was the 
case with the Midianites when attacked by Gideon (Judg. vii. 22). 
Thus God riiowed His Divine power and favour to Israel, and 
merciAilly still strove with Saul m order to bring him back to 

21. the Sebrews'] As distinct from the men of Israel, with 
whom they are contrasted here : cp. v. 11, and w. 22, 28. 

28. the LoBD saved Israel} As Jonathan had said the liord 
would do (w, 6. 12). 

— Beth-itven'] East of Michmash. The Israelites attacked 
the Philistines from the south, and scattered them toward Beth- 
aven on the east, and to Ayalon on the west (o. 81). 

24. the men of Israel were distressed] A consequence of 
Saul's rashness. Even his prudence &iled him, by which he 
had been before distinguished (z. 16 ; xi. 18), when he said 
piously, ** The I^yrd hath wrought salvation in Israel." Blind- 
ness and infatuation are fruits of disobedience to God, Who takes 
His grace from those who forsake Him and rely on them* 

— Saul had adjured the people! Another spedmen of Saul'i 
hot, hasty, and headstrong wUfolness and imperiousness, 
joined to a show of zeal for the outward forms of religion : see 
V, 18. X 

Here was an instance of that will-worship which is charac- 
teristic of Saul. To eat no food all day was harder than to 
attend for a short time on the Ark. But Saul chose the one 
and neglected the other (see v, 19). Bp. Sail observes : " The 
voluntary, self-imposed services of hypocrites are many times 
harder and more painful than the religious duties enjoined by 
Almighty God. But these acts of wul-worship are sweetened 
to them by self-love ; and so they are ensnared and enslaved by 
the Evil One— as Saul was." 

— that I moff be avenged on mine enemies'] Observe his 
egotism. He does not call them the enenues of the Lord, but 
he says, "that I may be avenged on mine enemies;" and he 
speaks in this self-confident tone even after that the Lord had 
just marvellously interfered to save Israel (see v, 28). Thus he 
abused God's goodness, and made it an occasion for sin. Here is a 
symptom of that self-love and vain -glory which was his ruin. 

25. honey] Wild honey, abundant in Canaan, ** a land flow- 
ing with milk and honey." Bochart, Hieroz. II. iv. 12. Cp. 
Exod. iii. 8. Num. xiii. 27. Judg. xiv. 8. Matt. iii. 4. 

27. Jonathan heard not] And was not therefore bound by 
his father's oath : and consequently could not be said to ha^e 
transgressed it. 

— put forth the end of the rod] In the eagerness of the 
pursmt he would not stop to do more. 

Digitized by 


Jonathan is discovered 

1 SAMUEL XIV. 30—45- 

hy the lot. 

uIi«T.8. 17. 
6 7.S6. 
ft 17. 10. 
ft 19. S6. 
Dent. IS. 16, 

X oh. 7. 17. 
t Heb. thai •liar 
he btfmn to h^atd 
unto tkt LORD, 

enlightened, because I tasted a little of this honey. ^ How mnch more, if 
haply the people had eaten freely to day of the spoil of their enemies which 
they found ? for had there not been now a much greater slaughter among the 

*^ And they smote the Philistines that day from Michmash to Aijalon : and 
the people were very faint. ^ And the people flew upon the spoil, and took 
sheep, and oxen, and calves, and slew them on the ground : and the people did 
eat them "" with the blood. ^ Then they told Saul, saying, Behold, the people 
sin against the Lord, in that they eat with the blood. And he said, Ye have 
II transgressed : roll a great stone unto me this day. ^ And Saul said. Disperse ^Tu. 
yourselves among the people, and say unto them. Bring me hither every man ckeri^iV."" 
his ox, and every man his sheep, and slay them here, and eat ; and sin not 
against the Lord in eating with the blood. And all the people brought every 
man his ox f with him that night, and slew them there. ^ And Saul * built an ; Heb. <»*<« 
altar unto the Lord : f the same was the first altar that he built unto the 

^ And Saul said. Let us go down after the PhiUstines by night, and spoil 
them until the morning light, and let us not leave a man of them. And they 
said. Do whatsoever seemeth good unto thee. Then said the priest. Let us 
draw near hither unto God. ^ And Saul asked counsel of God, Shall I go 
down after the Philistines ? wilt thou deliver them into the hand of Israel ? 
But ^ he answered him not that day. 

® And Saul said, "Draw ye near hither, all the f chief of the people : and J/^J/ji/* 
know and see wherein this sin hath been this day. ^ For, * as the Lord liveth, Ju^g^ioT^' 
which saveth Israel, though it be in Jonathan my son, he shall surely die. But 
there was not a man among all the people that answered him. ^ Then said he 
unto all Israel, Be ye on one side, and I and Jonathan my son will be on the 
other side. And the people said unto Saul, Do what seemeth good unto thee. 
*^ Therefore Saul said unto the Lord God of Israel, || ^ Give a perfect lot. j^*^^ <*« 
""And Saul and Jonathan were taken: but the people f escaped, 
said, Cast lots between me and Jonathan my son. And Jonathan was taken 
^ Then Saul said to Jonathan, ^ Tell me what thou hast done 
told him, and said, ^I did but taste a Uttle honey with the end of the rod that eyer.s7. 
was in mine hand, andy lo, I must die. ^ And Saul answered, 'God do so and f Ruth 1. 17. 
more also : *for thou shalt surely die, Jonathan. ** And the people said unto ff^^w- 

J ch. S8. 6. 


IS. 5. 

*2 And Saul i^T^J- »»• 

Acts 1. 24. 
c Joeh. 7. 16. 
ch. 10. 20, 21. 

And Jonathan Sf^l;""?/'"*- 

81. Aifalon] West of Michmash : see Josh. z. 12. 

8d. tM people flew upon the noU — and — did eat them wUh 
the blood] In the ravenoas cravmg of their appetite, through 
faintness, they did not widt to dr^ it, hut devoured it raw ; 
another evil result of Saul's rashness. On the sin of eating the 
blood, see Gen. ix. 4. Lev. iii. 17. 

Thus Saul's rash oath brought the people under the curse 
of God, who said, "Whatsoever soul eateth any manner of 
blood, shall be cut off from his people " (Lev. vii. 26 ; zvlL 10; 
xix. 26). 

88. roll a great etone unto me] In order that I may slay the 
cattle thereon, and sever the flesh from the blood, and pour out- 
the blood on the ground, so that ve mav not eat thereof. 

84. there] on the stone (Joeephue, vi. 6. 4). 

86. the same woe the flret altar that he hniU] Literally, 
tJUi same he began to buUd an altar to the Lobd. It was a 
thank-offering U> God for the yictory. It seems to be implied 
that though he bad reijgned three years, and had been enabled bv 
God to gain many idctories, yet he had not made any such 
acknowl^gments of gratitude to God for his successes, and that 
he had ascribed the credit of them to himself. 

86. Let ms go down] He did not inquire of the Lord whether 

he should do so ; and he is, therefore, checked by the priest 
(v, 87), and is restrained from executing his purpose by reason 
of his rash vow. 

87. he answered him not] Gk>d made no reply to his inquiry 
bv Urim and Thummim, and thus gave him a foretaste of the 
bitterness of that desertion which he afterwards felt more deeply 
(xxviii. 6. 15). 

88. see wherein this sin] which Saul infers from God's 
silence. The sin, however, was not in Jonathan, but (what Saul 
little thought) in himself. And this was brought to light 
by God's silence, and by the lots which called forth Jonathan, 
to be condemned unjusUy by his father, but to be honourably 
acquitted by the people, as not having been conscious of Saul's 
oaui (see v, 27), and, tberefore, not having broken it; and as 
having wrought with God, and "wrought salvation in Israel " 

4L Give a perfect lot] The word lot is not in the original : 
the sense is, '* O Lord, mnt us perfectness — ^integrity. Beveal 
Thy will to us. Give the truth '^ {Gesen, 267). Cp. Sept. and 
Vulg. here. The original word tamim (perflBct) b used here in 
a neuter sense, as in Josh. xxiv. 14. Judg. ix. 16. 19. 

44. thou shaU surely die, Jonathan] He is swayed more 

Digitized by 


The second trial 

1 SAMUEL XIV. 46—62. XV. 1—6. of Saul's ohedienee. 

hSSm. 14. 11. 
1 King! 1. 53. 
Luke SI. 18. 

ieh. 11. 11. 

k 2 Sun. 10. 6. 

I Or, wrtmgki 
1 eh. 15. 8, 7. 

m eh. SI. S. 
1 Chron. 8. U. 

n eh. 9. 1. 

o eh. 8. 11. 
a eh. 9. 16. 

b Ex. 17. 8, 14. 

Num. 24. 20. 

Deut.25. 17, 18, 


Lev. 87. 28, 29. 

Josh.6. 17, 81. 

d Num. 24. 21. 
Jndg. 1. 18. ft 4. 

Sard, Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel ? 
Grod forbid : '^ a^ the Lord liyeth, there shall not one hair of his head fall to the 
gronnd; for he hath wrought with God this day. So the people rescued 
Jonathan, that he died not. ^^ Then Saul went up from following the 
Philistines : and the Philistines went to their own place. 

^7 So Saul took the kingdom oyer Israel, and fought against all his enemies 
on eyery side, against Moab, and against the children of ' Ammon, and against 
Edom, and against the kings of ^ Zobah, and against the Philistines : and 
whithersoever he turned himself, he vexed them. ^ And he || gathered an host, 
and * smote the Amalekites, and delivered Israel out of the hands of them that 
spoiled them. 

^ Now "^ the sons of Saul were Jonathan, and Ishui, and Melchishua : and 
the names of his two daughters were these; the name of the firstborn Merab, 
and the name of the younger Michal : ^ And the name of Saul's wife wm 
Ahinoam, the daughter of Ahimaaz : and the name of the captain of his 
host was f Abner, the son of Ner, Saul's uncle. *^ " And Kish was the fiftther 
of Saul ; and Ner the fiftther of Abner was the son of Abiel. 

^^ And there was sore war against the Philistines all the days of Saul : and 
when Saul saw any strong man, or any valiant man, ""he took him unto him. 

XV . ^ Samuel also said unto Saul, ^ The Lord sent me to anoint thee to he 
king over his people, over Israel : now therefore hearken thou unto the voice of 
the words of the Lord. ^ Thus saith the Lord of hosts, I remember that 
which Amalek did to Israel, ^how he laid wait for him in the way, when he 
came up from Egypt. ^ Now go and smite Amalek, and ^utterly destroy all 
that they have, and spare them not ; but slay both man and woman, inHemt and 
suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass. 

^ And Saul gathered the people together, and numbered them in Telaim, two 
hundred thousand footmen, and ten thousand men of Judah. ^ And Saul came 
to a city of Amalek, and || laid wait in the valley. ^ And Saul said unto ^ the 


by wilftdnees, self-love, and formalism, than by piety and natural 

45. the people rescued JomUham] Obflerre the homiliatioa 
to which Saul is reduced by his disobedience, and bv the con- 
seanent withdrawal of divine grace, and by lus rashness and 
innttnation. The son is raised abore the fk&er, and the people 
above the lnng« 

46. Then Saul weni up] and so the Philistines escaped: 
another result of Sard's sin. 

47. 8<ml took the kingdom] took it into his own hands. 
There seems to be something of disapprobation in this expres- 
sion, as if Saul took it as his own, rather than recdved it from 
God, working by the fidth and courage of Jonathan his son. 

51. Ner^ynA the eon of JbieT] as Kish also was ^ 1). 
Joeephue, vL 6. 6. 

bi. sore war agaimst the Philietinee aU the doge qf 8c 
Very different had been the state of things when Samael 
Israel. Then " the Philistines were subdued, and they came no 
more into the coast of Israel ; and the hand of the Ixurd was 
against the Philistines all the days of SamueL" 

~ he took him] As Samuel had foretold (viii. 11. 16), "He 
win take your sons, and appcnnt them for hixnself. He unJl take 
your goodliest young men, and nut them to lus work." Saul 
was himself distinguished bv physioal strength, and relied on 
outward means, and forsook wa in the end, and perished 
miserably. And the people, who looked for raotection to an arm 
of flesh rather than to Ood who was their £mg, were punished 
by that instrument — Saul — ^which they had chosen for themselves, 
in order that they might be saved by it. 

Ch. XV. 1. hearken thou unto the voice of the worde of the 
Lobd] This was Saul's second trial. Before he nad been com- 
manded by SamueU the Prophet of the Lord, to do nothing, but 

to tarry Ull Samuel came to QilgaL He had ftuled in that trial; 
and had received ope solemn wanung of Qod's anger fOT his dis- 
obedience (see X. 8 ; ziiL 8 — 14). 

But now he receives an express order from Ood Etmeeffi 
commanding him to perform a certain act: "Hearken tboa 
unto the voice of the Lobd." 

2. I remember that which Jmalek did to leraeT] Ood does 
not forget sins; rather, "He writes them with a pen of iron 
and point of a diamond" (Jer. xvii. 1). It is not in the 

Eir of Time to rase out the arrearages of Ood (Bp, SM), 
2 Sam. xzL 1, which narrates the punishment inflicted 
Saul's death, for Saul's an. 

God had alread v declared by Balaam that His wrath was 
hanging over Amalek : see Num. xxiv. 20. 

Although God does not immediatelv punbh sins, but spares 
the guilty for a time, in order that thev may repent; yel if 
they do not repeni^ He then inflicts punishment. See above, on 
Qea, XV. 16, " the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet foil." God 
has " a book cKf remembrance written before Him;" and if men 
and nations do not repent, thdr former sins rise up in judgment 
against them : see Matt xvilL 88, 84; xziii. 84, 85. Li&e xi 
51; and JTaterland, Scr. IHndicated, p. 142. 

5. Now go and emite Amalek] It pleased God to set a brand 
of infamy on the Amalftkiteat, on account of their inhumanity, 
treachery, and impiety, and to take the most exemplary ven« 
gfeance of them, in order to create the utmost abhorrence m such 
practices in the eyes of aU men (Waterland). 

— infant and euckUng] See above on Num. xxxL 17. Josh, 
vi. 17. 21. • 

4. Hblaim] Perhaps the same as Telem in Josh. zv. 24^ on 
the eastern verge of the south country of Judah. Cpw Ife^fhr, 

6. a ^qf Amalek] The principal oitj of that people. 

Digitized by 


Sard's disobedience 

1 SAMUEL XV. 7—15. 

denounced by SamueL 

Kenites, • Go, depart, get you down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy 
you with them : for 'ye shewed kindness to all the children of Israel, when they 
came up out of Egypt. So the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites. 
7 J^And Saul smote the Amalekites from »^Hayilah until thou comest to ' Shur, 
that is over against Egypt. » And "^he took Agag the king of the Amalekites 
alive, and * utterly destroyed all the people with the edge o£the sword. ^ But 
Saul and the people " spared Agag, and the best of the sheep, and of the 
oxen, and || of the fatUngs, and the lambs and all that was good, and would not 
utterly destroy them: but every thing that was vile and refuse, that they 
destroyed utterly. 

^^ Then came the word of the Loed unto Samuel, saying, ^^ " It repenteth me 
that I have set up Saul to be king : for he is * turned back from following me, 
»*and hath not performed my commandments. And it *> grieved Samuel ; and he 
cried unto the Lord all night. ^^ And when Samuel rose early to meet Saul in 
the morning, it was told Samuel, saying, Saul came to 'Carmel, and, behold, 
he set him up a place, and is gone about, and passed on, and gone down to 

^^ And Samuel came to Saul : and Saul said unto him, 'Blessed be thou of 
the Lord : I have performed the commandment of the Lord. '* And Samuel 
said. What meaneth then this bleating of the sheep in mine ears, and the lowing 
of the oxen which I hear ? ^^ And Saul said. They have brought them from 
the Amalekites : ^for the people spared the best of the sheep and of the oxen, 
to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God ; and the rest we have utterly destroyed. 

e Gea. 18. 25. 
& 19. IS^ 14. 
ReT. 18 4. 
fEx. 18. 10^19. 
Num. 10. 29, U. 

gch. 14. 48. 
Oen. 2. 11. 
8e 25. 18. 
i Oen. 16. 7. 
k See 1 King! 20. 
84, 35. &c. 
1 Seech. SO. 1. 
m ver. 8, 15. 

t Or, 0/ the ueoHd 

n ver. 85. 
Oen. 6. 6, 7. 
2 Sam. 24. 16. 

Joth. 22. 16. 

1 Kings 9. 6. 
p ch. 13. 13. 
ver. 8, 9. 

q Ter. 85. 
ch. 16. 1. 
r Joih. }5. 55. 

• Gen. 14. 19. 
Jndg. 17. 2. 
Ruth 3. 10. 

t Ter. 9, 21. 
Oen. 8. 12. 
Prov. 28. 18. 

6. Kenitet] On the contrast between the Kenites and Amalek- 
ites, see on Num. xziv. 21. 

7. Havilak-^to 8kwr] See Gen. xvL 7 j xxv. 18. Exod. xv. 22. 
t. Agag"] The official title of the kings of Amalek : see Num. 

xxiv. 7. 

9. Sand and the people spared Agag'] Thns disobeying the 
command of Qod (o. 8), and being swayed by his own private 
fancy« and by what he supposed to be ms own personal interest 
{Joeephue, vL 7. 2). Bnt thereby he lost his kingdom (v. 28). 

— fhe beet of the eheep] As spoil far himself. 

— failings] Heb. fnishenim i properly, those which were 
brought forth at the second birth, which were considered the 
best {KimelU, BddMsr, Keil). 

— the lambs] Heb. carim : properly, fat-lambs. Cp. Dent. 
xxxiL 14. Gesen, 412. 

10. (Mme the word qf the Lord] The command came directly 
iroai Qod (see «. 1), so did the condemnation for disobedienoe 
to it. 

U. It repenteth mel Qod does not feel the pain of remone 
(says 8, Augustine in Ps. cxxxi.) j nor is He ever deceived, so as 
to desire to correct any thing in which He has erred. Bnt, 
as a man desires to make a change when he repents, so when 
Qod is said in Scriptore to repent, we may expect a change from 
Him. He changed Sanl's kingdom, when it is said that He 
repented of malung him king. Cp. TertulUan c. Mardon. ii. 
248. Theodoret, Qa. 32. Bnt God's repentance is not like 
oars : for He is not a man that He shonld repent, i. e., as man 
repents : see below, v. 29, where it is said, *« The Strengthof Israel 
wul not lie nor repent,*' and Num. xxiii. 19, " God is not a man 
that He shoold lie, neither the son of man that He shocjhd re- 
pent :** and cp. above. Gen. vi. 6. 

When God changes His doings by His unchangeable 
counsd, then by reason of the change of His doing, and not of 
His design. He is said to repent. 8. Augustine, who thus speaks 
(Confess, i. 4) in his address to God, — "Amas nee lestuas; 
zelas et secums es; pcsnitet te, et non doles ; opera mutas, et 
non mutas consilium.'' 

— he cried unto the LoBD all night] in prayer fbr Saul 
(Joseph, vi. 7. 4). 

So tender-hearted was Samuel towards the sinner, while he 
condemned his sin : see xii. 23 ; below, v. 36. Samuel was like 
Moses in this respect also. Exod. xxxiL 26 — 29. 31, 32. Cp. 
below, V. 36, and xvi. 1. 
Vol. II. Pabt II.— 33 

18. Cfarmet] Not Mount Carmel; but Carmel in the hill- 
country of Judah, B.B. of Hebron, now Kurmul : see xxvii. 3, 
and Josh. xv. 66. 

— a place] Literally, a hand, a monument. Cp. 2 Sam. xviii. 
18. So well satisfied was Saul with his own conduct, that he 
proceeded to commemorate his recent action by a memorial or 
trophy {Jeromiaster). 

13. Saul said unto him. Blessed be thou of the Lobd] Saul 
is well satisfied with himself; and in a tone of self-complacency 
comes forward to boast his own obedience at a time when 
God was angry with him for disobedienoe. Here is a proof 
that A man may be blinded by his own self-will, and that 
he may imagine that his own way is right, while it is leading 
him to the gate of death (Ptoy, xiv. 12 ; xvi. 26j). It is not 
enough fbr a man to be approved by his own conscience ; but it 
is neceesaiy to regulate the consdenoe by Gkxfs Will and Word : 
see below on Acts xxvL 9, and on 1 71m. L 13; and Bp, Sander- 
son, Sermon on Bom. xiv. 23, vol. IL p. 122. The only safety 
for man is in obedience to God. 

— I have performed the commandment of theLo^iy] When 
a man boasts of holiness, it is a sure sign that he is unholy. 

14. this bleating qfthe sheep] which God commanded thee to 

15. the people] Saul lays the blame on the people, whom, as 
king, he ought to have restrained ; as Adam laid the blame on 
Eve, and Eve on the serpent. 

— to sacrMoe unto the Lobd thg Ood] He pleads a good 
intention ; as if evil might be done in order that good may come ! 
See Bom. iii. 8, and the exodlent remarks of Sp, Sanderson, in 
his Lectures on Conscience, Lect. ii. § 13, where he comments 
on this case of Saul, and exposes the futilitjr of tbe pretence 
that good intenHon is a rignt rule of conscience, and a safe 
guide of conduct. 

Probably Saul saved the cattle in order in part to enrich 
himself; and this plea of religion was a mere mask for covetous- 
ness. " Saul" (says Bp. Sanderson on 1 Pet. ii. 16. vol. iii. 291) 
'* spared Agag and the fktter cattle, contranr to the Lord's 
express oommand, and the offering of sacrifice must be the 
cloak. Jezebel murdereth Naboth, and the punishment of blas- 
phemy must be the cloak." Men do not set themselves " colere 
vf^utes, sed colorare vitia** {8, Bernard). 

Samuel does not now pause to expose the hollowness of this 
plea ; but proceeds to pronounce sentence on him for disobedience, 


Digitized by 


The Lord pronounces by the 1 SAMUEL XV. 16 — 26. prophet the rejection of the King^ 

^^ Then Samuel said unto Saul, Stay, and I will tell thee what the Lord hath 
said to me this night. And he said unto him. Say on. 

^7 And Samuel said, " When thou wast Uttle in thine own sight, wast thou 
not made the head of the tribes of Israel, and the Lord anointed thee king over 
Israel ? '® And the Lord sent thee on a journey, and said. Go and utterly 
destroy the sinners the Amalekites, and fight against them until f they be 
consumed. *^ Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the Lord, but 
didst fly upon the spoil, and didst evil in the sight of the Lord ? ^ And Saul said 
unto Samuel, Yea, ' I have obeyed the voice of the Lord, and have gone the 
way which the Lord sent me, and have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and 
have utterly destroyed the Amalekites. ^^ ^But the people took of the spoil, 
sheep and oxen, the chief of the things which should have been utterly destroyed, 
to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God in Gilgal. ^ And Samuel said, 

* Hath the Lord as great dehght in burnt offerings and sacrifices, 
As in obeying the voice of the Lord ? 
Behold, "to obey is better than sacrifice, 
And to hearken than the fat of rams. 

^ For rebellion is as the sin of f witchcraft, 
And stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry 
Because thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, 
^ He hath also rejected thee from being king. 
^ ""And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned: for I have transgressed the 
commandment of the Lord, and thy words : because I ^ feared the people, and 
obeyed their voice. ^ Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin, and turn 
again with me, that I may worsliip the Lord. ^ And Samuel said unto Saul, 
I will not return with thee : 

* For thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, 
And the Lord hath rejected thee from being king over Israel. 

u ch. 9. 21. 

t Heb. a«y coii- 
»um9 iktm. 

X Ver. IS. 

y yer. 15. 

% Pi. 50. 8, 9. 
Prov. 21. a. 
Ita. 1. 11, 12, 18, 
16. 17. 

Jer. 7. 22, 23. 
Mie. «. 6, 7, 8. 
Heb. 10.6, 7,8.9. 
aEcclei. 5. 1. 
Hos. 6. 6. 
Matt. 5. 24. 
fr 9. 13. 
it 12. 7. 
Mark 12. 33. 

Dent. 18. 10. 
b eh. 13. 14. 

c See 2 Sam. 12, 


d Ex. 23. 2. 

ProT. 29. 25. 

Isa. 51. 12, 13. 

• See ch. 2. 30. 

16. Stay"] Saul was going away as if nothing was amiss ; or 
perhaps he was exasperated by Samoers rebuke ; bnt the pro- 
phet oetains him, in order that he may hear his condemnation 
from God, — **1 will tell thee what the LoBD hath said to me 
this night." 

17. when thou wast little in thine own Hghf] Then thoa 
wast g^reat in the sight of God ; but now thou art great in thine 
own eyes, and art little in B^ sight. Observe the contrast 
between Saul and Paul. Saul of Gibeah lost an earthly king- 
dom by pide, but Saul of Tarsus gained a heavenly kingdom 
by humihty. *'I am the least of the Apostles, that am not meet 
to be called an Apostle'* ^1 Cor. xv. 10). The name Pwlue, 
which he receivea, proclaimed his littleness in his own sight : 
see below, notes on Acts Ix. 21, and on xiii. 9. 

81. thi/ Ood'} thy God ; as if he had been showing honour to 
Samuel, as well as God, when he was disobeying both ! 

— in Gilffat] The place consecrated by Joshua, as a memorial 
of his fkith and obedience. How different was his temper and 
conduct from that of Saul ! 

22. And Samuel eaid] We behold here the holy seer cominff 
forward as the interpreter of God's wilL There is a poeticid 
rhythm in the original, which gives it the tone of a Divine 
oracle uttered by the Spirit of God, imparting to it an awftil 
solemnity, and making it sink deep in the memory of the hearers 
in all ffeneratdons. 

— hnmt offerings] In which men offer the flesh of irrational 
animals; these are not to be put in comparison with that 
sacrifice which man offers of himself; God required of Saul the 
latter, and without it the former were an abomination (Prov. 
XV. 8). Cp. Isa.L 11, 12—16; Ixvi. 8. Jer. vii.21— 28. Micah 
vi. 6—8. Kom. xiL 1. 1 Pet. ii. 6. Mark xii. 88. << Per victimas 
aliena caro, per obedientiam voluntas propria, mactatur" {S, 
OregoTfft Moral, xxxv. 10). "Deum citrus placat quandogladio 
prsBcepti se immolat " {8, Bernard de Ordine Vit»). 


Here was a foreshadowing of the spiritual worship of the 
Gospel, when bumt^fferings would cease. 8. Iren, c Hssr. iv. 82, 
"Dooet eas Samuel, quoniam obauditionem vult Dens, quie 
servat eos [magis] qu^ sacrifidaet hobcmutomata; et Novum 
simul prophetaas Testamentum." 

28. rebellion — witehcrq/t. And etubbomnees is na—idolatryu'] 
Literally, according to the orderof the words inl^origlnal, — *'ror 
as the ein qfwitehoraft ie rebellion :" the emphatic word rebellion 
is reserved for the last place in the sentence; and so in the next 
clause, and (as) teraphim (jIb) etmbbomneee. Concerning teraphim, 
images used for consultation, see Gen. xxxi. 19 ; below, xix. 18. 
The principle of this solemn sentence of Samuel is, that the 
man who disobeys Gk)d, is virtually guilty of consulting fkmiliar 
spirits, and of resorting to sorcery, instead of obeying God's 
will as revealed in His Word ; and ^at he is g^Uty of setting 
up idols in his own heart in the place of God, and in opposition 
to Him. He who disobeys God, is chargeable with mfidelity 
and idolatry. Saul had been chosen out of all the tribes of Israel 
by the Lord to be king; and by disobeying the word of the 
Lord, he, the king of Israel, the chosen servant of J^ovah, had 
been guilt;^ of apostasy fi^m Him, and had consulted the fhmiliar 
spirit of his own carnal wiliulness, and had bowed down before 
the idols which he had made for himself. 

Tbb saying of Samuel came literally true in Saul's case. 
Through disob^enoe he was forsaken of God, and became a 
prey to the Evil Smrit ; and was led on in time to resort to 
untchcrqft (xxviii. 7), and perhaps to consult teraphim: see 
below on xix. 18. Here is a solemn warning for these Utter days. 

24. I have tinned"] These were not the words of sincere re- 
pentance : see o. 80. 

— I feared the people] Thou shalt not follow a multitude to 
do evil (Exod. xxiii. 2). And as king he ought to have restrained 
the people from doing it. 

26. the LoBB haih n^eeted thee] See above, xiii. 14. 

Digitized by 


and transfer of the kingdom. 1 SAMUEL XV. 27—35. XVI. 1, 2. Agog executed. 

^ And as Samuel turned about to go away, 'he laid hold upon the skirt of his 
mantle, and it rent. ^ And Samuel said unto him, 

* The Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, 
And hath given it to a neighbour of thine, that is better than thou. 
^ And also the || Strength of Israel ^ will not Ue nor repent : 
For he is not a man, that he should repent. 
^ Then he said, I have sinned : yet * honour me now, I pray thee, before the 
elders of my people, and before Israel, and turn again with me, that I may 
worship the Lord thy God. *^ So Samuel turned again after Saul ; and Said 
worshipped the Lord. 

^ Then said Samuel, Bring ye hither to me Agag the king of the Amalekites. 
And Agag came unto him delicately. And Agag said. Surely the bitterness of 
death is past. ^ And Samuel said, 

^As thy sword hath made wom^i childless. 
So shall thy mother be childless among women. 
And Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal. 

^ Then Samuel went to Bamah ; and Saul went up to his house to ' Gibeah 
of Saul. ^ And "" Samuel came no more to see Saul until the day of his death : 
nevertheless Samuel ° mourned for Saul : and the Lord "" repented that he had 
made Saul king over Israel. 

XVI. ^ And the Lord said unto Samuel, * How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, 
seeing ^ I have rejected him from reigniug over Israel ? "^ fill thine horn with oil, 
and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Beth-lehemite : for ** I have provided me 
a king among his sons. ^ And Samuel said. How can I go ? if Saul hear ity 


King! 11. 

gch.l8. rr, 18. 
1 Kings U. SI. 

h Num. 23. 19. 

Esek. S4. 14. 

t Tim. 2. IS. 

Tit. 1. 2. 

i John 5. 44. & 12. 


k Ex. 17. 11. 
Num. 14. 45. 
See Jadg. I. 7. 

1 ch. 11. 4. 

m See ch. 19. 24. 

n rer. 11. 
ch. 16. 1. 
o rer. 11. 

ach. 15 85. 

b ch. 15. 28. 
c oh. 9. 16. 

2 Kings 9. 1. 

d Ps. 78. 70. ft 89. 
19, 20. 
Acts 18. 22. 

28. Thelioni} haih rent the kingdom ofltraelfirom thee this 
day. And hath given it to a neighbour of thine, that is better 
than thou\ Compare the words A Ahyah the prophet to Jero- 
boam» 1 mngs xi. 80, 81. 

In this rencUng of the mantle, and the words of Samuel 
pronouncinff sentence of the disruption of the kingdom of Saul 
ror unbeli^ and disohedience, and for carnal wilfhlness and 
obstinacy, and in the transfer of the kingdom to David, the 
ancestor and type of Christ, the ancient Fathers saw a prophetic 
figure of the removal of God's kingdom from the literal Israel, 
the Jew, for stubbornness and unbelief, and of the transfer of it 
to the seed of David, who believe in Christ : see 8, Angtutine de 
CHv. Dei xvii. 7, ''Populi Israel personam fieurat^ gerebat 
homo iste (Saul) ; qui populus reg^um fUerat amissurus, Christo 
Jeeu Domino nostro per Novum Testamentum non camaliter 
■ed roiritualiter regnatuio." 

The histories of Samuel and David acquire a new interest 
for us Christians, when we see in the former a picture of those 
sins for which the literal Israel has been cast off by Qod, and in 
the latter an image of those graces, by which alone we can 
hope to be partakers of His kingdom in Christ. 

59. the Strength of Israel] or, the Glory of lerael. The 
Hebrew nettah signifies what is bright and shines continually, 
and therefore what may be relied upon — as the sun and stars. 
(Geeen, 662.) Cp. James i. 17, ** The Father of lights, with 
whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning." 

80. I have sinned] This was a confession of the lips, not 
of the heart. This is evident from what follows, and from 
Samuel's answer, as compared with that of Nathan to David, 
who uttered the same words, but with a different spirit (2 Sam. 
xii. 18). 

— honour me now^before the elders of my people] Saul's 
repentance was not genuine repentance : he £d not sorrow for 
his sin, as offensive to Qod, but as prejudicial to himself: his was 
not "dolor admissi," but "dolor amissi," sorrow for his punish- 
ment, not for his sin ; it corresponded to the description of 
worldly sorrow as described by St. Paul (see below, on 2 Cor. 
vii. 10) ; and while he was asking for pardon, he was aJl the while 
thinking of himself, and of the appearance he would mfte in 
the eyes of the people. He did not seek for God's honour and 
glory, but for his own. If Saul had been really penitent, he 
would have prayed to be humbled, rather than to be honoured 
(A Gregory), 

" Many men who pass so little (i. e. care so little) fbr their 
consciences, ;^et stand so much upon their credit; as Saul, who 
using no diligence to regain the &vour of God, was yet very 
solicitous that his honour might be preserved in the opmion of 
the people" {Bp. Sanderson, ii. 821). 

81. Samuel turned again after SauX^ Samuel had said 
nothing in anger, but had spoken the truth m love, and was will- 
ing to cherish the weakest tendencies of Saul toward repentance : 
see above, on ziii. 16 ; and below, God's speech concerning Ahab, 
1 Kings xxi. 29. 

82. delicately] arjoyfkUy; the "Rehtew nM>adannoth is from 
adan, to live softly, voluptuously {Ghsen, 491. 509). 

88. Samuel hewed Agaa in pieces] He commanded it to be 
done by the public executioner of justice : cp. Josephus, vi. 7. 5. 
Cp. Matt, xxvii. 26. John xix. 1, and iv. 1, 2. He did it 
before the Lord, that is, in execution of the Divine justice for 
Agag's sins; so Phinehas slew Zimri and Cozbi (Num. xxv. 
8~-15), and E^jah slew the prophets of Baal (1 Kings xviii. 40). 
Samuel was a Judge of Israel, as well as a Prophet (see above, 
vii. 16) ; and in Saul's default, the charge of executing God's 
will (o. 8) devolved on him in his public capacity. Samuel's 
act was not one of personal revenge, but of o£Bcial obedience. 

W, of his death] Of his own death. On this mode of ex- 
pression see Bp. Pearson, Art. iii., p. 174. 

— Samuel mourned for Saul] As for one dead, while still 
alive : cp. xv. 11 ; and xvi. 1. Here is a proof that Samuel 
was free from all personal considerations for himself in his 
prophetic denunciations against Saul. He mourned for the 
king, whose appointment to the throne was a disparagement of 

Samuel mourned for Saul, but we do not hear that Saul 
mourned for himself. 

Ch. XYI. 1. I have refected him] Saul, the persecutor of 
David, was r^ected, and David, who was persecute was made 
king in his place ; so the literal Israel (the Jew), who persecuted 
the spiritual Israel (the Christian), has been rqjected by God, 
and the Christian has received the kingdom in his room. 
S, Aug, de CSv. Dei xvH. 7. 

— Beth-lehemite] of Bethlehem ; the friture birth-place of 
Christ, the King of Israel, of the seed of David. 

— I have provided me a king among his sons] "Mediator 
Novi Testament! Christus figurabatur in chrismate, quo unctus 

t 2 

Digitized by 


The unction of David 

1 SAMUEL XVI. 3—13. 

at Bethlehem. 

f Heb. In thine 


e ch. 9. 12. ft SO. 


f£x.4. 15. 

g ch. 9. 16. 

h eh. 21. 1. 
t Heb. mteting, 
11 Kings 2. IS. 
2 Kings 9. 22. 

k Ex. 19. 10, 14. 

Ich. 17. 18. 
Called Blihu, 
I Chron. 27. 18. 
m 1 Kings 12.26. 
n Ps. 147. 10, 11. 

Isa. 55. 8. 

p 2 Cor. 10. 7. 
t Heb. e^et. 
q I Kings 8. 89. 

1 Chion. 28. 9. 
Ps. 7. 9. 

Jer. 11. 20. Sc 17. 
10. Sc 20. 12. 
Acts 1. 24. 
r ch. 17. 18. 
s ch. 17. 18. 
H SMwuuh, 

2 Sam. 18. 8. 
1 ChroD. 2. 18. 

t ch. 17. 12. 

u 2 Sam. 7. 8. 
Ps. 78. 70. 

t Heb. round. 

xch. 17. 42. 

Cant. 5. 10. 

t Heb. /a«ro/ 


J So eh. 9. 17. 

zch. 10. 1. 

Ps. 89. 20. 

he will kill me. And the Lord said, Take an heifer f with thee, and say, *! am 
come to sacrifice to the Lobd. ^ And call Jesse to the sacrifice, and 'I will 
shew thee what thou shalt do : and ^thou shalt anoint unto me him whom I 
name unto thee. 

^ And Samuel did that which the Lobd spake, and came to Beth-lehem. 
And the elders of the town ^ trembled at his f coming, and said, ' Oomest thou 
peaceably ? ^ And he said, Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice unto the Lobd : 
^ sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified 
Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice. ^ And it came to pass, 
when they were come, that he looked on *EUab, and " said. Surely the Lobd's 
anointed is before him. ^ But the Lobd said unto Samuel, Look not on "" his 
countenance, or on the height of his stature ; because I have refused him : <»for 
the Lord seeth not as man seeth; for man ^looketh on the f outward ap- 
pearance, but the Lobd looketh on the "> heart. ^ Then Jesse called 'Abinadab, 
and made him pass before Samuel. And he said. Neither hath the Lobd 
chosen this. ^ Then Jesse made ' || Shammah to pass by. And he eaid, 
Neither hath the Lobd chosen this. ^^ Again, Jesse made seven of his eons 
to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto Jesse, The Lobd hath not 
chosen these. ^^ And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children ? 
And he said, * There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the 
sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, "^ Send and fetch him : for we will not 
sit f down till he come hither. ^^ And he sent, and brought him in. Now he 
was "ruddy, and withal f of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. 
y And the Lobd said. Arise, anoint him : for this is he. *^ Then Samuel took 
the horn of oil, and * anointed him in the midst of his brethren : and ' the 

a See Num. 27. 18. Judg. U. 29. & IS. 25. 8( 14. 6. oh. 10. 6, 10. 

est David " {8. Auguttine de Civ. Dei zvii. 6, 7). See above on 
XV. 28. (See v. 6). 

2. he wiU kill me\ A proof that Saul had not repented of hii 

The Sacred Historian does not conceal from ns that Samuel 
himself was afraid, but relates the fact : here is an evidence of 

— Take an heifer with thee, and loy, I am come to eaeriflce'] 
At this time, when the Ark was separated from the Tabernacle, 
there was no one fixed place for sacrifice; and Samuel, though 
only a Levite, bein^ established as Qod's prophet, was autho- 
rized and commissioned by Him to offer sacrifice : cp. vii. 9. 
16,17; ix. 12. 

There was no fidsehood here ; Qod willed that His prophet 
should be safe by means of the exercise of a Amotion which 
Samuel was autiiorized and commissioned to perform at that 

Samuel did as he was commanded bv God, Who ordered him 
Kp&^ai fi^v ^pyop, tliruy 9i rh wdptpyov (Theodorei), 

8. thou shalt anoint! It was to be done private^, out of ten- 
derness to Saul himself as well as to David. Qod would not 
provoke Saul to envy and jealousy bv openly setting up any 
rival against him: but would give bun time to repent; and 
though David was to succeed Saul in the kingdom, yet Saul 
miffht have reigned long and hapj^ily, if lie had not obstinately 
resisted God's g^racious dealings with him. But Saul would not 
repent, but beotme more froward and wil^ in rebelling against 

Saul resembled the Jewish Nation, which ought to have 
acquiesced in God's unction of Christ, Whose ki^dom— like 
David's— came "not with observation," and they ought to 
have rcrj<noed in it; and those among the Jews were blessed, 
who did so. But the nation was envious of Christ, as Saul 
was of David, and rq'ected God's mercifril overtures of grace in 

The succeenve unctions of David— first among his bre- 
thren at Bethlehem, then as King at Hebron, and afterwards 
at Jerusalem — were figurative of the successive unctions of 
Chbist, conceived by the Holy Ghost in the Virgin's womb, 
then anointed publicly at His Baptism, and finally set at God's 

right hand as King of the universal Church, in the heavenly 
Jerusalem : see notes below, on 2 Sam. ii. 4. 

4. trembled at his coming] They supposed that God's 
prophet was come to rebuke them fbr some sin. Probably they 
had heard of Samuel's denunciation of Saul, and of his execu- 
tion of Gk)d's judgments on Agag, related in the foregoing 

5. sanctify yourselves'] See Exod. xix. 10. 22. 

7. Look not on — the height qf his stature] For the xoonl 
inference from this, see on ix. 2. 

9. Shamnuth] Called Shimeah, 2 Sam. xiii. 8. Cp. 1 Chron. 
ii. 13. 

11. Inhere remaineth yet the youngest] Slighted by men, but 
beloved of Ck)d~such was Chnst. 

Such, also, was the younger brother, the Gentile World, 
desTOsed by the elder, the Jew, but chosen of God, and anointed 
with the unction of the Holy Spirit in Christ : see S, Hilary 
in Ps. xcviii. 

As to David's age, it is to be remembered, that at Saul's 
death and at his own accession to the throne of Judah, David 
was only thirty years of age (2 Sam. v. 4). It is probable, that 
he was about eighteen years old at this time : and that his con- 
flict with Goliath took place when he was about twenty years 

— he keepeth the shew] In this respect also David was 
a type of the ** Good Shepherd," Jesus Chnst. 

— we will not sit down till he oome] To the feast that 
followed the sacrifice of the peace-offering. There is no com- 
fortable mrticipati<m in any sacrifioe without the presence of 
the true David. We cannot sit down tiU He come. 

18. ruddy] golden-haired, tu/)^(Cici}s (/Ssp^) ; "TufoB" (Vulg.). 
Cp. Gen. XXV. 25. Gesen. 14. 

— of a heautffltl countenance] Literally, beautifhl as to bib 
eyes : see xvii. 42. Cp. the description of Christ (Ps. xlv. 

— Arise, <tnoint him] God acknowledged Samuel's act as 
His own act : " I have found David My servant— with My holy 
oil have I anointed him " (Pb. Ixxxix. 20). 

On the typical character of this act see Angelomus here, 
and note below, on 2 Sam. ii 4. 

Digitized by 


David soothes SauVs spirit. 1 SAMUEL XVI. 14—23. XVIL 1—4. Goliath of Gath. 

Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward. So Samnel rose 
up, and went to Bamah. 

^* "^But the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and *^an evil spirit from 
the Lord || troubled him. ^* And Saul's servants said unto him, Behold now, 
an evil spirit from Gtod troubleth thee. *^ Let our lord now command thy 
servants, which are ^ before thee, to seek out a man, who is a cunning player on 
an harp : and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God is upon thee, 
that he shall ''play with his hand, and thou shalt be well. ^^ And Saul said 
unto his servants. Provide me now a man that can play well, and bring him 
to me. ^^ Then answered one of the servants, and said, Behold, I have seen a 
son of Jesse the Beth-lehemite, that is cunning in playing, and 'a mighty 
valiant man, and a man of war, and prudent in || matters, and a comely person, 
and * the Lord is with him. ^^ Wherefore Saul sent messengers unto Jesse, 
and said. Send me David thy son, ** which is with the sheep. ^ And Jesse 
' took an ass ladm with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them 
by David his son unto Saul. ^^ And David came to Saul, and ^ stood before 
him : and he loved him greatly ; and he became his armourbearer. 22 j^^ 
Saul sent to Jesse, saying. Let David, I pray thee, stand before me; for 
he hath found favour in my sight. ^ And it came to pass, when * the evil 
spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his 
hand : so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him. 

XVn. ^ Now the Philistines 'gathered together their armies to battle, and 
were gathered together at ^ Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched 
between Shochoh and Azekah, in || Ephes-dammim. ^ And Saul and the men 
of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and f set 
the battle in array against the Philistines. ^ And the Philistines stood on 
a mountain on the one side, and. Israel stood on a mountain on the other side : 
'and there was a valley between them. * And there went out a champion out of 

b Judg. 16. 20. 
ch. 11.6. 
& 18. 12. 
& 28. 15. 
Ps. 51. 11. 
c Judg. 9. 23. 
ch. 18. 10. 
8c 19. 9. 
I Or, UrrifUd, 
d Gen. 41. 46. 
ver. 21, 22. 

1 Kings 10. 8. 
e ver. 23. 

2 Kings 3. 15. 

f ch. 17. 82, 84, 
35, 36. 

Or, tpeech. 

g ch. 3. 19. 
& 18. 12, 14. 
h ver. 11. 
ch. 17. 15, 34. 
i See ch. 10. 27. 
Sc 17. 18. 
Oen. 43. II. 
Prov. 18. 16. 
k Gen. 41. 46. 

1 Kings 10. 8. 
Prov. 22. 29. 

1 ver. 14, 16. 

a ch. 13. 5. 

b Josh. 15. 35. 
2 Chron. 28. 18. 
I Or, The eoatt of 
Dammim, called 
1 ChiOD. II. 18. 
t Heb. ranged 
the battU. 

13. the Spirit of the Lobd eameupon] Lit. leapt upon : ^Karo, 
Sept, See Oessn, 709, and see above, x. 6 ; xi. 6, where the 
w<Mrd is anplied to Saul. Cp. Jadg. xiv. 6. 19 ; xv. 14. The 
word is often rendered by protper in our Version : see Dent, 
xxviii. 29. 1 Kings xxii. 12. Isa. liii. 10. 

14. em evil tpvritfrom the Lobd] sent 6y the Lord ; it is never 
called *' an evil spirit of the Lord." Cp. v, 16—28 ; xviii. 10. 

Saol, who at first was hnmble and hid himself among the 
staff, that he might not be king, is now transported with vain- 
glory. Satan ti^es vantage of his melancholic dejection, and 
tarns this passion into trenzj. Ood will have even evil spirits 
work by means ; and He Himself works oat His own purposes 
by the powers of darkness. Cp. ^, Hall here. 

— troubled] terrified him. The original word is from 
bdaih — to frignten by a sadden attack : see 1 Chron. xxi. 80. 
P^ xviii. 5. Job iii. 6. Dan. viii. 17 (Oeeen, 188). Saal 
became melancholy, gloomy, irritable, envions, sospicioas, and 
distracted, as a man wandering about in the dark (Abarbinel, 
Joeephue) ; like another Cain—another type of the Jews, who 
r^ect Christ : see Qxsn.. iv. 15. 

On the moral decline and downfiill of Saul, see TertulUan 
o. Mardon. iL 24; Bp. Andrewee, iv. 86 — 88. 

16. he shall play with Mi hand, and thou shalt he well] 
David with his holy psahns soothed Saul, and is ever soothing 
the troubled spirit (cp. Josephus, vi. 8. 2. 8. Basil, Prooem. to 
t)ie Psahns); a beautifbl passage, translated bv Sooker, V. 
zxzvii. 2 : ** Let there be any grief or disease incident unto the 
Boul of man, for which there is not in this treasure-house (the 
Ptalms) a present comfortable remedy." This is done by the 
■{mritual music of the Divine David in the Gospel. 

We see music allied with prophe<nr in this book (x. 6), and 
in the historr of Elisha (2 Kings iii. 15). 

18. a fniffhty valiant man] As was proved by David's conflict 
with the lion and the bear : see xvii. 84. 

81. his armourbearer] One of many. Joab had ten armorr- 
bearers (2 Sam. xviii. 15) 

88. Saul wets refreshed, emd wets weU] David played with 
his hand, and Saul was refireshed. So Jesus Christ, the true 
David, came to the literal Israel, which Saul represents (see 
XV. 29), and spoke sweet music to their ears, and cast out devils 
by his Word (see Ps. xlv. 2) ; and they who listened to that 
Divine Voice were refreshed and were well (see John v. 25) ; and 
when the Jewish Nation turns to Him, and receives that Voice 
into its heart by fiiith, then it will be "refreshed and be well." 

Ch. xvii. 1. Shocihoh] about eleven miles s.w. of Jerusalem 
and of Bethlehem ; now Shuweikeh, in Wadv-es-Sumt. Saul 
encamped on the north side, opposite the Philistines (Bobinson, 
ii. 850. Dr, Thomson, p. 567. Cp. Stanley's Lectures, xxii. p. 

— Ephes-dammUn] now Damwn, a ruined village, four miles 
N.E. of Shuweikeh. Azekcth is to the east of Ephes-dctmnUm. 

8. the valley of Elah] or of the terebinth. It is now called 
Wady-eS'Sumt, The largest specimen of a terebinth which we 
saw in Palestine still stands in the vicinity. It took its ancient 
name (Elah) from the terebinth, just as now it takes its name 
(es-Sumt) m>m the acacias there {Bobinson, li. 850). 

Dattd Ain> Goliath oompabed with Chbist ajsd Satak. 
4. a champion] Literally, the middleman, the mediator 
{6 /iteirris, cp. Oesen., p. 115), "one who comes between," 6 
fuedios (Sept, in d. 28 : such probably ought to be the reading 
for 6 ifiLtectuos), that is, the fiunous man who came between the 
two armies (see w. 8 — 10), and challenged the host of Israel ; 
and who, as champion of the Philistines, asked that a man 
should be given him, so that by single combat he might decide 
the war between Philistia and Israel. Cp. Pfeiffer, Dubia, p. 

This word, " the mediator," applied to Goliath, the Philis- 
tine champion, is remarkable in connexion with the spiritual 
interpretation of this historv, in which David, the shepherd, 
vanquishing Goliath in single combat, is a signal type of our 

Digitized by 


His armour and challenge. 1 SAMUEL XVII, 5 — 18. Danid is sent by his father. 

e 2 Sam. SI. 19. 
dJoih. 11.22. 

t Heb. elotktd. 
H Or, gorgtt. 
e 2 Sam. 21. 19. 

fch 8.17. 

f ch. 11. I. 

h ver. 26. 
2 Sam. 21.21. 

i ver. 58. 
Ruth 4. 22. 
ch. 16. 1, 18. 
k Gen. 85. 19. 
Ich. 16. 10. 11. 
See 1 ChroD. 2. 
IS, 14. 15. 
m oh. 16. 6, 8, 9. 
1 Chron 2. IS. 

n ch. 16. 19. 

t Heb. ehtett* of 


t Heb. captain of a tkoutamd. 

the camp of the Philistines, named "" GoKath, of ^ Gath, whose height was six 
cubits and a span. ^ And he had an hehnet of brass upon his head, and he 
was f armed with a coat of mail ; and the weight of the coat wa^ fiye thousand 
shekels of brass. ^ And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a || target 
of brass between his shoulders. ^ And the ^ staff of his spear was like a 
weaver's beam ; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron : and 
one bearing a shield went before him. ^ And he stood and cried unto the 
armies of Israel, and said unto them. Why are ye come out to set your battle 
in array ? am not I a PhiHstine, and ye ' servants to Saul ? choose you a man 
for you, and let him come down to me. ^ If he be able to fight with me, and 
to HU me, then will we be your servants : but if I prevail against him, and 
kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and » serve us. ^^ And the Philistine 
said, I ^ defy the armies of Israel this day ; give me a man, that we may 
fight together. *^ When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philis- 
tine, they were dismayed, and greatly afiraid. 

^^ Now David was * the son of that ""Ephrathite of Beth-lehem-judah, whose 
name was Jesse ; and he had * eight sons : and the man went among men /or 
an old man in the days of Saul. ^' And the three eldest sons of Jesse went 
and followed Saul to the battle : and the "" names of his three sons that went 
to the battle were EUab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the 
third Shammah. ^^ And David was the youngest : and the three eldest 
followed Saul. ^* But David went and returned from Saul *" to feed his father's 
sheep at Beth-lehem. ^^ And the PhiUstirie drew near morning and evening, 
and presented himself forty days. 

^^ And Jesse said unto David his son. Take now for thy brethren an ephaL 
of this parched com, and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to thy brethren ; 
^® And carry these ten f cheeses unto the f captain of their thousand, and ** look 

o Gen. 37. 14. 

Great Mbdiatob (6 fitairris, 1 Tim. ii. 6), overcoming the 
champion of tbe spiritua] Fhilistinee, the finemy of the Israel of 
God : see 8. Auguttine, Serm. 82, and in Ps. 88 : "In figar& 
Chbibtt, David; sicnt Qolias in figur& Diaboli; quod I&vid 
prostravit Goliam, Christus est, qni occidit Diabolnm ;" and in 
Ps. 143 ; and cp. Angelomut here, and A Lapide, 

Observe the contrast. Goliath the type, and Satan the 
antitype of Goliath, is a Mediator who comes forward as an 
enemy to shed the blood of his adversary; but Christ, the 
" One Mediator between God and men " (1 Tim. ii. 5), comes 
forward to make peace by shedding His own blood, even for His 
enemies (Eph. ii. 14, 15. Rom. v. 10. Col. i. 21). 

— tia cubiU and a tptM] about ten feet. 

6. atargei] Bather, a dart: see Gh^en. 895. Keil, 128; 
and cp. Joseph, vi. 9. 1. 

7. a shield"] Literally, the shield. 

8. a PhiUsHne] Rather, Am not I the Philistine ? Am not I 
their famous champion and representative, who have already 
performed great exploits against you ? (See the Targum here.) 

Such is our spiritual Enemy : the Champion of the powers 
of darkness ; the arch-enemy of the Israel of God ; " the Philis- 
tine " of their souls. 

— ye servants to Sauf] Time was, when Saul slew forty 
thousand Philistines in one day, and now one Philistine is suf- 
fered by him to brave him and all Israel for forty days. Whence 
this difference ? The Spirit of God had departed from him, on 
account of his disobedience, and his people suffer with him. If 
it had not been so, <*one of them would chase a thousand" 
(Deut. xxxii. 80). 

10. give me a man, that we mayflghf] The first challenge 
to a duel that we ever find, came out of the mouth of an uncir- 
cumcised Philistine (Bp. Sail). 

12. David] who had returned from the court of Saul (xvi. 
21—28) to his shepherd's life : see o. 15 ; cp. v, 66. Probably 
some years had elapsed since he had attended upon Saul. 

— eight sons] See 1 Chron. ii. 18 — 16. 


— and the man .... Saul] Literally, and the man (iek) 
in the days of Saul was old, coming among the feeble (6a- 
anoshim) — th^ is, declining to a place among the aged and 
feeble. The difference between ish and enosh is here strongly 
marked. Cp. above, on Gen. iv. 26; and Keil, p. 181. 

16. fortg davs] The same time as the Temptation of Christ. 
The true David ** was in the wilderness ./brily days, tempted oi 
Satan" (Mark L 13). "In David, Chbistus." In David it 
Christ, says 8, Augustine, commenting on this history, and he 
shows how it is to be applied to Christ's conflict with Satan at 
the Temptation, and to Uie conflict of every Christian with hii 
Ghostly Enemy. 

Jesus Christ, in His Temptation, was our pattern ; and we 
are in Him our Head. '* Do not, therefore," adds Augustine, 
** read this history of David, as if it did not concern yoa» 
who are members of Christ." " In David, Christus ; Christos 
caput et corpus ; non ergo sic andiatis, quasi ad vos non pertinett 
qui estis membra Christi. Hoc tanquam fnndamento posito 
videte qua sequantur" (Augustine in Ps. 148); an ezoellmt 
observation, applicable to the whole history of David, as written 
in this book, which can never be rightly understood without an 
eye to Chbibt. David, after that he had been an(unted by 
Samuel, when the Spirit of God came upon him, went forth to 
meet the Philistine, — so our Divine David, after that He had 
been anointed with the Holy Ghost and with power, at His 
Baptism, was led up by the Spirit into Uie wilderness to ep- 
counter Satan there. Compare what is said on this analogy 
between David and Christ by 8, Ambrose de Offic. i. 85 ; on Ps. 
118. Chrvs., Hom. 46 in Genesim, et HomiL de Dav. et Sank ; 
de Ticton& David; and in Pa. 50. 8, Basil SeUue^ Out. 15. 
Bernard in Dom. 4 post Pentecost. 

18. look how thy brethren fare] Literally, visii them in 
peace ; namely, salute them. David is sent by his &ther, to his 
brethren, from Bethlehem. So the Divine David, Jesus Christ, 
who was bom at Bethlehem, was sent to His brethren by His 
Heavenly Father. 

Digitized by 


David is scorned hy Us brother. 1 SAMUEL XVII. 19—36. His faith and courage. 

how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge. ^^ Now Saul, and they, and all 
the men of Israel, were m the valley of Elah, fighting with the Phihstines. 
^ And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, 
and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the 
11 trench, as the host was going forth to the || fight, and shouted for the battle, i or, piacto/tki 
2^ For Israel and the Phihstines had put the battle in array, army against fof^i^tuarra 
army. 22 j^^ David left f his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage, T^^thl^eiL 
and ran into the army, and came and \ saluted his brethren. ^8 ^^ ^^ j^^ {Xb!T*?rf1;, 
talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the PhiUstine of Gath, -l^dS.fsTs"' 
Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Phihstines, and spake ^ according to ?▼«. %. 
the same words : and David heard them. -^ And all the men of Israel, when 
they saw the man, fled ffrom him, and were sore afraid. ^ And the men of ♦Heb. /row *<. 
Israel said. Have ye seen this man that is come up ? surely to defy Israel is he 
come up : and it shall be, that the man who killeth him, the king will enrich 
him with great riches, and "» will give him his daughter, and make his father's <» '^ ^»- >•• 
house free in Israel. ^ And David spake to the men that stood by him, 
saying, What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh 
away 'the reproach from Israel? for who is this • uncircumcised Phihstine, that 
he should * defy the armies of " the Uving God ? ^ And the people answered 
him after this manner, saying, "" So shall it be done to the man that killeth him. 
^ And EUab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men ; and EUab's 
^ anger was kindled against David, and he said. Why camest thou down hither ? 7 oen. 37. 4, s, 
and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness ? I know thy Mitt. lo. se. 
pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart ; for thou art come down that thou 
mightest see the battle. ^ And David said. What have I now done ? " Is there « ^^ •' 
not a cause ? ^ And he turned from him toward another, and * spake after «Ter.s«,a7. 
the same f manner : and the people answered him again after the former t Heb. word. 
manner. * And when the words were heard which David spake, they rehearsed 
them before Saul : and he f sent for him. t Heb. took him. 

^ And David said to Saul, ** Let no man's heart fail because of him : "" thy » ^^i- «?• 1. 3- 

' •' c ch. 16. 18. 

servant will go and fight with this Philistine. ^ And Saul said to David, 

** Thou art not able to go against this PhiUstine to fight with him : for thou art j^see Num. w. 

btU a youth, and he a man of war from his youth. ^ And David said unto ^•"*' ^- *• 

Saul, Thy servant kept his fiather's sheep, and there came a Uon, and a bear, 

and took a || lamb out of the flock : ^ And I went out after him, and smote 1 ot. ^d. 

him, and delivered it out of his mouth : and when he arose against me, I caught 

him by his beard, and smote him, and slew him. ^ Thy servant slew both the 

rch. U.S. 
s eh. 14. 6. 
t Ter. 10. 
u Deut. 5. S6. 
X Ter. 25. 

— and take their pledge"] Bring pledges to aBsnre me of 
iheir safety. Compare the message sent l^ Jacob to his elder 
sons, through Joseph the yonnger (Gen. jcxxvii. 18, 14). 

Joseph and David, when peifonning acts of kindness to 
their brethren at their fathers' bidding, were ill received by 
those to whom they came 6cp. Gen. xxxvii. 4. 18. 20) ; so Christ, 
when sent b^ His Father m>m heaven on an embassy of love, 
was ill received by His own brethren the Jews. "He came 
unto His own, and His own received Him not " (John i. 11). 

20. trench'] Rather, the uxtggon^ampart ; constructed of the 
waggons and other baggage of the armv (Gesen, 491). 

&. hU carriage'] the Uiinffs which he had carried with him 

iw. 17, 18); rS VKtiii ainov {8ept^', "vasa quae attulerat" 
Vulg), Oa this use of the word "carriag^e, ' compare the 
Authorized Vernon, Acts xzi. 15. 
SS. the champion] the middleman : see v. 4. 
S5. give him hie daugJUer] Such was the Inng's promise to 
the victor. The true David, Jesus Christ, by BLis victory over 
our ghostly Goliath, has gained to Himself the Bride—" the 
king's daughter, all glorious withm" (Ps. xlv. 14). 

99. Is there not a oauee ?] Rather, Is it not merely a word 
that I have spoken (not any act thsit I have done), and wouldest 
thou make me an offender for a word? See S^t., Vulg., 

83. Thou art not able to go] Such was the language <A Saul 
to David; and such was the language of the Jewish people 
to Christ. They had no fkith in His power to overcome the 

34. a lion] Heb. the lion : the beast of prey well known as 
the enemy of the sheep. 

The promise to the true David was, "Thou shalt tread 
upon the Uon and adder : the young Uon and the dragon shidt 
thou trample under feet" (Pb. xd. 18). Christ delivers His sheep 
from the lion who goeth about seeking whom he may devour 
(1 Pet. V. 8). Cp. 8. Prosper de Promiss. ii. 26. 

On lions in Palestine, especially in David's country, see 
Jer. iv. 7; xxv. 88; xllx. 19, and the firequent references 
to the PSidms and Amos quotCMl by Wilton, Kegeb, p. 44, and 
Ibid, pp. 216, 217. Stanley, Lectures, pp. 52, 58, Lect. xxii. 

Digitized by 


The single combat 

1 SAMUEL XVn. 37—49. hetwem David and Goliath. 

ePs. 18. 16, 17. 

<c68 9, 

8c 77. II. 

2 Cor. 1. 10. 

2 Tim. 4. 17, 18. 

fch.20. IS. 

1 Chron. 22. 11, 


^ Heb. clothed 

David with his 


I Or, vaUtf, 
t Heb. 

g Ps. 123. 8, 4. 
ICor. 1.27, 28. 
h eh. 16. 12. 

i oh. 24. 14. 
2 Sam. 3. 8. 
ft 9. 8. & 16. 9. 
2 Kings 8. 18. 
kl K&igs20. 10, 

1 2 Sam. 22. 38, 

Pfl. 124. 8. 
8e 125. I. 

2 Cor. 10.4. 
Heb. 11.89, 34. 
ra rer. 10. 

t Heb. shut the* 


n Deut. 28. 26. 

Josh. 4. 24. 

1 Kings 8. 43. 
ft 18. 36. 

2 Kings 19. 19. 
Isa. 52. 10. 

6Ps. 44. 6, 7. 
08. 1. 7. 
Zech. 4. 6. 
q 2 Chron. 20. 15 

lion and the bear : and this uncircnmcised Philistine shall be as one of them, 
seeing he hath defied the armies of the liying God. ^^ David said moreoveri 
* The Lord that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of 
the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said 
unto David, Go, and 'the Lord be with thee. 

^ And Saul f armed David with his armour, and he put an helmet of brass 
upon his head ; also he armed him with a coat of mail. ^ And David girded 
his sword upon his armour, and he assayed to go ; for he had not proved U. 
And David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these ; for I have not proved them. 
And David put them off him. ^^ And he took his staff in his hand, and chose 
him five smooth stones out of the || brook, and put them in a shepherd's f bag 
which he had, even in a scrip ; and his sling was in his hand : and he drew 
near to the Philistine. ^^ And the Philistine came on and drew near unto 
David ; and the man that bare the shield went before him. 

^^ And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he ^ disdained him : 
for he was Imt a youth, and ** ruddy, and of a fair countenance. ^ And the 
Philistine said unto David, ' Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves ? 
And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. ^ And the Philistine ^ said to 
David, Oome to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to 
the beasts of the field. ^ Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to 
me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield : ' but I come to thee in 
the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou 
hast " defied. *^ This day will the Lord f deliver thee into mine hand ; and I 
will smite thee, and take thine head from thee ; and I will give " the carcases 
of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild 
beasts of the earth ; "" that all the earth may know that there is a God in 
Israel. ^^ And all this assembly shall know that the Lord ^ saveth ^ot with 
sword and spear : for "> the battle is the Lord's, and he will give you into our 

^ And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh 
to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the 
Philistine. ^ And David put his hand in his bag, and took tiience a stone, 

87. The LOBD tTwi delivered me"] ** Ad prceUnm prooedere 
coepit, fortis non in se, sed in Domino; annatos non ferro, led 
fide" (Anffuetine). 

88, 89. ScnU armed David vfUh Me armour — I cannot go 
with these"] It was so ordered that the carnal weapons of this 
world should be offered to Ditvid, and that they shoold be 
refuted by him, in order that it might be seen firom this refusal, 
and from the simplicity of the means nsed, that the victory was 
of the Lord. 

The Jewish nation, like Sanl, relied on the weapons of this 
world ; but Jesus Christ, the true David, in His conflict with 
the spiritual Goliath, and in the preaching of His Gospel* did 
not resort to the armour of this world's wisdom, power, and 
wealth ; but chose those things which are despised of men, and 
overcame Satan with the Word of Gk>d, and by the Mnistry of 
things and persons despised as weak and foolish by the world, 
espeoally by the doctrine of the Cross, preached by publicans 
and fishermen. 1 Cor. i. 27. 2 Cor. iv. 7 ; x. 4. 

40. he took his staff in his hand] His pastoral staff, as a 
shepherd ; 

So our David, the Good Shepherd, went forth to meet the 
<3nemy, not with sword or spear, but with a pastoral staff; nor 
did ne put forth His Divine power, by any miraculous exer- 
cise of it, against the Tempter. " The Shepherd and Bishop 
of our souls " (1 Pet. ii. 25) taught us by His example how to 
overcome temptation and vanquish our ghostly enemy. 

— chose him five smooth stones out of the broole] David, the 
Shepherd of Bethlehem, chose five smooth stones out of the 

stream for his sling, and with one of them he overthrew the 

So our Divine David, the Good Shepherd of Bethlehem, 
when He went forth at the Temptation to meet Satan, our 
ghostly Goliath, chose ./Im etones out of the brook ; He took the 
five books of Moses (" quinque lapides Lex erat, quse continetur 
in quinque Ubris Moysi," says S, Augustine) out of the flowing 
stream of Judaism ; He took what was solid out of what was 
fluid; He took what was permanent out of what was transitory; 
He took what was moral and perpetual out of what was cere- 
monial and temporary. He took stones out of a brook, and with 
one of these he overthrew Satan ; all Christ's answers to the 
Tempter are moral precepts, taken from one book of the Law, 
Dbvtbbokomy (see on Matt. iv. 4), and He prefaced His 
replies with the same words, **It is written" and with this 
sling and stone of Scripture He laid our Goliath low, and He 
has taught us bv His example bow we may also vanquish the 
Tempter. See S. Augustine, Serm. 82, and tiie parallel drawn 
of David's combat wiUi Gk)liath, and Christ's oonflkt with Satan, 
by 8, Prosper de Promiss. ii. 25, where he traces the analogy ; 
and Beds (Quastion. in 1 Beg., q. 9). 

The analogies between the nistories of David and Christ 
are expressed in the Second Hymn for the First Sunday in 
Lent in the " Mo^ Tear,*' b^niming with the words : — 
''live pebbles from the brook 
The Shepherd David drew. 
One of those five he took. 
And proud CK)liath slew." 

Digitized by 


David with a sling and 1 SAMUEL XVII. 60 — 58. XVlil. 1. stone overthrows Goliath. 

. S. 81. 



and slang it^ and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into 
his forehead ; and he fell upon his face to the earth. ^ So 'David prevailed J^jJig% 
over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, fsam!t8.a 
and slew him ; but there was no sword in the hand of David. *^ There- 
fore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and 
drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head there- 
with. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, 'they fled, •nth.u. 
^^ And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued 
the PhiHstines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And 
the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to * Shaaraim, even unto » jo«j» "• 
Gath, and unto Ekron. ^' And the children of Israel returned from chasing 
after the PhiHstines, and they spoiled their tents. ^ And David took the 
head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem ; but he put his armour in 
his tent. 

^ And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto 
Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, "whose son is this youth? And 5,^ *'**•'* "• 
Abner said. As thy soul liveth, king, I cannot tell. ^ And the king 
said. Enquire thou whose son the stripling is. ^^ j^^ ^s David re- 
turned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought 
bim before Saul 'with the head of the Philistine in his hand. ^AndxTer.04. 
Saul said to him. Whose son art thou, thou young man ? And David 
answered, ^ I am the son of thy servant Jesse tiie Beth-lehemite. XVIII. y^ai. 
^ And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto 

40. smote the PhiUstine in his forehead] AH jiride comes 
forth with boldness of forehead ; and therefore the wound was 
on the forehead, the seat of impious effronteir. But we conquer, 
because we have the cross on our foreheads ; for we are bold only 
by Christ's Cross, the sign of His humility, by which He attained 
to glory. 8. Augustine, Serm. 82, " Eracuata est frons (Phi- 
listei) qusB haboit impudentiam superbiie suse; si portas (he adds) 
in fronte signum humilitatis Christi, porta in coTCle imitationem 
humilitatis Christi ;" and 8. Aug, in Ps, 83, «* In figurA Christi 
David, et Golias in figur& Diaboli ; et quod David prostravit 
Ooliam, Christus est qui ooddit Diabolum. Humilitas ocddit 

— the stone sunJc] by preternatural power: see the note 
above, on Judg. iv. 21. 

51. JDamd^took his sword^and cut off his hectd therewith'] 
''Gladium dus abetulit, et inde caput mi absddit; hoc fecit 
noster David, dejecit Diabolum de suis" {8, Augustine). Our 
divine David, Jesus Chxist, cut off our Gh)liath's head with his 
own sword. " By death He destroyed him that had the power 
of it -the devil '"^ (Heb. ii. 14). The devil excited the Jews to 
stir up the Romans to crucify Christ, but by the Crudflxion the 
devil himself was overthrown : he was beheaded with his own 
sword (Theodoret, Qu. 41). 

52. the men of Ztrael-'-arose] When David had conquered 
Goliath, then Israel arose and routed their enemies. So when 
Christ, our David, had overcome Satan, the Israel of Gkxl arose, 
and routed the armies of the Evil One {Theodoret), 

— 8ha(iraim] in the lowland of Judah; perhaps Kefr 
Zcfkaria :' see Josh. xv. 86 (Keil). 

54. took the head of the PhiUstine'-Jerusalem'] The city, 
where Israelites dwdt already (see Josh. xv. 68. Judg. i. 8), 
although the' stronghold of ^on was still in the hands of the 
Jebudtes ; and thus David gave an omen of his future victory 
over them : cp. Theodoret, Qa. 42. 

David brings the head of the Philistine champion in 
triumph to Jerusalem. Our David, Jesus Christ, ascended in 
triumph to the heavenly Jerusalem, bearing His trophies with 
Him, ''leading a^vity captive" (Ps. IxviiL 18. Eph. 
iv. 8). 

— he put his armour in his tent] in his abode at Bethlehem. 
The word ohel, here rendered tent, oftai means any dwelling- 
pUoe : see iv. 10 ; xiii. 2 (KeiCj. He afterwards dedicated the 
sword of Goliath to the Lord : see on xxL 8, 9; zxii. 20. 

Vol. II. Pabt II.-41 

So our David did His mighty acts for His Father's glory, 
and consecrated the spoils of His victories to Him, and t^hes 
us to do the same (John vii. 18 ; viii. 50). 

According to the Chaldee Paraphrast, the ninth Psalm was 
composed by David as a Thanksgiving for this victory, — " I will 
praise Thee, O Lord, with my ^ole heart : I will show forth all 
Thy marvellous works." 

55. whose son is this yonth T] In the time which had dapsed 
between Davidfs residence at Saul's court and his appearance 
at Shochoh (Josephus says that it was an interval of a few 
years, vi. 9. l), and in the multitude of persons daily passing 
before his eyes, and in Saul's disordered state of mind, it is not 
ititprobable (as has been observed by Theodoret, Auguetine, and 
others), that he did not even recognize David himself, who now 
appealed, not as before in the costume of a courtier or warrior, 
but in the homdy drees of a shepherd. J>r* Thomson observes 
(in his hiteresting work, " The Land and the Book," p. 569) that 
great alterations toke place in the physical appearance of the youn^ 
men of Palestine in a very short tune. " I have often (he says) 
been accosted by such persons, formerly intimate acquaintance, 
who had suddenly grown entirdv out of my knowledge ; nor could 
I without difficult recognize them." The growth of the beard 
especially would make a great change. But, it may be added, 
this question of Saul does not necessarily imply ignorance on 
his part as to who the youth himself was ; but he asks who his 
father was P and David does not reply by giving his own name, 
but his Other's name. 

Saul asks Abner, ^ Whose son is this youth P" because he 
had promised, that whosoever killed the Philistine should have 
his own daughter in marriage (o. 26), and he naturally wished 
to know what the parentage was of lus own future son-in-law. 

May we not also add, that there is a spiritual meaning 
here, as in the rest of this history P Abner said, " As th^ soul 
liveth, O Ein^, I cannot tell." Saul, in his unbdief and disobe- 
dience, and m his disordered mind, prefigured, as we hove 
seen, the literal Israel — ^the Jew — who disobeyed Gkxl and re- 
sided the True David, Jesus Christ, the Bethlehemite. The 
Jew asks, "Whose son is this youth ?" The Jew even to this 
hour does not know whose son Christ is, and his Abners cannot 
tell him (see Matt. xxii. 41 — 44). C^. Angelomus, p. 881, who 
says, <*GBcitas Judsorum Jesum Christum Filium Doi esse 
approbare poterat; sed dicunt d, Ubi est pater tuus?" (John 
vnS. 19.) 


Digitized by 


Jonathan' $ love f(/r David. 1 SAMUEL XVIII. 2—16. 

Saul tries to kill him. 

a 0«n. 44. 80. 
b ch. 19. 2. 
&20. 17. 
3 Sam. 1. 26. 
Deat. 18. 6. 
c ch. 17. 15. 

I Or, prosptetd, 
ver. 14, 15, 30. 

II Or, PkUUUMi. 
d Ex. 15. 20. 
Judg. 11.34. 

t Heb. thrf- 
ttringtd int^m- 

e Ex. 15. 21. 
fch. 21. U. 
ft 29. 5. 

t Heb. woi evil 
in his effei. 
g Eocles. 4. 4. 

h (h. 15. 28. 

i ch. 16. 14. 

k ch. 19. 24. 
I Kings 18. 29. 
Acts 16. 16. 
1 ch. 19. 9. 

m ch. 19. 10. 
ft 20. 83. 
Prov. 27. 4. 

n ver. 15, 29. 
o oh. 16. 18, 18. 
p ch. 16. 14. 
& 28. 15. 

q ver. 16. 

Num. 27. 17. 

3 Sam. 5. 2. 

U Or, prospertdt 

ver. 5. 

r Oen. 89. 2, 8, 


Josh. 6. 27. 

• ver. 5. 

SaiQi that *the soul of Jonathan was knit with the sonl of Dayid, ^'and 
Jonathan loved him as his own sonl. ^ And Saul took him that day, "" and 
would let him go no more home to his fiather's house. ' Then Jonathan and 
David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul. ^ And 
Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, 
and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle. 

^ And David went out whithersoever Saul sent him, and \\ behaved himself 
wisely : and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the 
sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants. 

^ And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the 
slaughter of the || Philistine, that ^ the women came out of all cities of Israel, 
singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with 
f instruments of musick. ^ And the women ^ answered one anotiur as they 
played, and said, 

'Saul hath slain his thousands. 
And David his ten thousands. 
* And Saul was very wroth, and the saying f« displeased him ; and he said. 
They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed 
but thousands : and what can he have more but '' the kingdom ? ^ And Saul 
eyed David from that day and forward. 

'^ And it came to pass on the morrow, that ' the evil spirit from God came 
upon Saul, " and he prophesied in the midst of the house : and David played 
with his hand, as at other times : ' and there was a javelin in Saul's himd. 
^^ And Saul " cast the javelin ; for he said, I will smite David even to the wall 
with it. And David avoided out of his presence twice. 

^2 And Saul was " afraid of David, because "" the Lord was with him, 
and was "^ departed from Saul. *' Therefore Saul removed him from him, and 
made him his captain over a thousand ; and "> he went out and came in before 
the people. ^* And David [| behaved himself wisely in all his ways ; and ' the 
Lord was with him. ^^ Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself 
very wisely, he was afraid of him. ^^ But • all Israel and Judah loved David, 
because he went out and came in before them. 

Ch. XVIII. 1-4. the soul of Jonathcm weu hnW] bound, as 
bj a card (G^en. zzzviii. 28 ; xIit. 80. Dont. yL 8). Jonttthan, 
the son, is contrasted with Saul, the fiither (see abore, xiy. 1). 
Saul is more and more estranged from David. Jonathan is more 
and more attached to him. Jonathan prefigured the iaithfbl 
Israel of God, who hailed the advent of the true David and 
rejoiced in his triumphs ; Saul typified the envious and malig- 
nant Scribe and Pharisee who desired to destroy him. 

Jonathan represents those loving souls who were bom and 
lived under the Iaw, like John the B^ytist and St. Paul, and who 
gladly stripped tikemsshes qf their own robes (the robe of legal and 
ceremonial righteousness, and all the privileges of the Levitical dis- 
pensation), in order that they might do homrar to the true David, 
who fulfilled all the righteousness of the Law, and who spiritual- 
ized the Law by the Gospel. The Baptist said, " He must increase, 
but I must decrease '' (John iii. 80) ; and St. Paul's words are, "I 
count all things loss, for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ 
Jesus my Lord, that I may be found in ffim " (Phil. iiL 8, 9). 
Such is the language of the Jonathans of the Gospel. 

The Hebrew preposition (ed, to\ "even to his sword," &e., 
is repeated thrice to show that Jonathan divested himself 
entirely of his own prinoely raiment and armour, and gave them 
to David. Such was tibe temper of the Aposties and Saints of 
old. They emptied themselves of aU thin^ : they divested them- 
selves of all notions of strength or grace m themselves, and gave 
all the glory to Christ : see 1 Cor. xv. 10. Phil. iv. 18. 

We must be evangelical Jonathans> if we would have our 
souls knit with Christ. 

6. the women! like Miriam (Exod. xv. 20), and Deborah 
(Judg. V. 1), and Jephthah's daughter (Judg. xi. 84). 

— tabrets'] timbrels. 

— instruments ofrnmsicJc] Literally, triamgfdar instruments 
{Gesen, 828). 

8. 8oml was very ufroth] So the Jews were angry, and 
envious of the triumph of Christ at Jerusalem (Luke xix. 89), and 
at the success of the Gospel in heathen lands (1 Thess. ii. 15, 16). 

10. he prophesied] Rather, he ratoed .* see 1 Kings xviii. 29. 
Jer. xxix. 26. Oesen. 526. Keil, 189. 

11. Saul oast the javelin; for he said, I will smite David] 
In this and the fi>llorwing nanwtive of Saul persecuting David, 
we may see a foreshadowing of the history of the Jew madly 
raging against the true David, Jesus Christ. ** 8aml, Saul, whp 
persecutest thou Me ? ** (Acts ix. 4,) the words of Christ Himself 
to Saul of Tarsus, suggest the comparison. Saul of Gibeah 
gave place to the Evil Spirit, and came to a miserable end. Saul 
of Tarsus listened to the voice of the Holy Spirit, and is glorious 
amonff the saints : cp. above, on ix. 2. 

This is the first of the series of persecutions which David 
suffered from SauL The earlier expositors reckon seven such 
principal persecutions (Supertus, A ixtpide), and compare them 
with the persecutions which David's great Aioditype endured on 
earth from His enemies : e. g., Saul twice attempted to smite 
David with a dart; so the Jews twice attempted to stone Christ 
(John viii. 59 ; x. 81) ; and they observe that David came forth 
more ffkrious from each of his persecutions, and so was a figure 

Digitized by 


Saul tries to slay 1 SAMUEL XVIII. 17—30- XIX. 1, 2. David by the Philistines. 

*^ And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, ^ her will I give t eh. ir. js. 
thee to wife: only be thou f valiant for me, and fight ""the Lobd's battles. tHeb.a«ofio/ 
For Saul said, 'Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the jy^Imi. ss. 20, 
PhiUstines be upon him. ^* And David said unto Saul, ^ Who ami? and what f;e^;2i!'2ft. 
is my life, or my father's feunily in Israel, that I should be son in law to the jt^velii. 
ying ? 1^ But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should tiL^.\. is. 
have been given to David, that she was given unto " Adriel the ^Meholathite to JJu®^v*ii** 

^** And Michal Saul's daughter loved David: and they told Saul, and the bver.28. 
thing t pleased him. ^^ And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be i neb, 100$ right 
^ a snare to him, and that ** the hand of the PhiUstines may be against him. l^^;\^j\'' 
Wherefore Saul said to David, Thou shalt *this day be my son in law in the e8«jTer,26. 
one of the twain. ^ And Saul commanded his servants, saying^ Commune 
with David secretly, and say, Behold, the king hath delight in tiiee, and all his 
servants love thee : now therefore be the king's son in law. ^^ And Saul's 
servants spake those words in the ears of David. And David said, Seemeth it 
to you a Ught thing to be a king's son in law, seeing that I am Sk poor man, 
and hghtly esteemed ? ^ And the servants of Saul told him, saying, f On this J^rtlSi^^"""' 
manner spake David. ^ And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king 
desireth not any 'dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the PhiUstines, to be foen.M.u. 
•avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul *" thought to make David fall by «^^^/fy**- 
the hand of the PhiUstines. ^And when his servants told David these words, 
it pleased David well to be the king's son in law: and *the days were not*»^^'«- 
t expired. ^ Wherefore David arose and went, he and ^his men, and slew of t^J?;{5?"'*'- 
the PhiUstines two hundred men; and 'David brought their foreskins, and they usam.s.u. 
gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the king^s son in law. 
And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife. ^ And Saul saw and knew 
that the Lobb was with David, and that Michal Saul's daughter loved him. 
2^ And Saul was yet the more afraid of David; and Saul became David's enemy 
continuaUy. ^ Then the princes of the PhiUstines "went forth : and it came »n 2Sain. n. 1. 
to pass, after they went forth, that David "* behaved himself more wisely than n vcr. 5. 
aU the servants of Saul ; so that his name was much f set by. t Heb.precimu, 

XIX. ^ And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to aU his servants, that |Kingsi'.i8. 

"■■ Ps. 116. 16. 

they should kiU David. ^ But Jonathan Saul's son ^ deUghted much in David : a ch. is. 1. 
and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee : now 

18. what iBtny Ufef] Literally, who is mjf Ijfe ? i. e.> who are 
the clasB of personB in m^ state of life and m my family, that I 
sboold he exalted to this hononrP Cp. David's langoage in 
2 Sam. Tii. 18, " Who am I, and what is my houses wat thon 
hast hrooght me hitherto P '* 

21. the hand of the Philistines may he (igainst him"] Saul 
endeayoored to destroy David, the deliverer of Israel, hy means 
of the Philistines, the enemies of Israel. 

So the Jewii^ nation (which is typified hy Saul in his perse- 
cntion of David as in other respects) contrived that the Divine 
Son of David should he destroyed by the hands of the Romans, 
their own heathen oppressors. 

— in the one of the twain] Bather, in this second time, Cp. 
Job x^iii. 14. Neh. xiii. 20. Oesen, 841. 

25. foreskins'] Why not hetids ? Here is a ngn of Saol's 
suspicious and malignant spirit ; he, judging from himself, im- 
piously suspected, t£at David would go forth and destroy some 
of the Israelites, Saul's own subjects, as he himself desired to 
destroy David, his own deliverer; and the foreskins were re- 

[uired as a proof that they who were killed were not Israelites 

Theodoret, Procop. &€Ub!), 

— Philistines] enemies of Israel and of Qod, who were oc- 



cupying the land which God had given to His peof^. Saul could 
profess seal for God, while he was seeking to kill David — as the 
Pharisees professed zeal for Qod, when seeking to kill Christ. 

27. two hundred] David's men, as well as David himself, 
were employed in this campaign against the PhilistineB ; and 
therefore it was not possible to limit the slaughter of the enemy 
to the exact number. 

Some have seen a spiritual meaning in this act of David, 
who is a figure of Christ. The ChntUe world is aJled tiio 
hKpofivffria, or ''the Unciroumcision," in the New Testament 
(Bom. ii. 26; iii. 80. £ph. ii. 11) ; and Christ gained a peaceful 
and bloodless victory fi>r the Gospel over the Oentile world before 
He espoused to Himself a Church from the Jews — typified by 
the daughter of Saul. Bede (Quasst. 10) says, "Prius in 
nationibus resecavit ChristuB eamis poUutionemj et 
postea copulatus est Synagogs;" and he refers to Bom. 
xi. 25. 

80. the princes of the PhiUstines went forth] to battle, in 
order to avenge the act which David had done before his mar- 
riage; and perhaps suppodng (as the Babbis suggest) that 
according to the Hebrew law he would claim exem^ion from 
warfare fbr a year after his marriage (Deut. xxiv. 6). 
G 2 

Digitized by 


Michal saves David. 

1 SAMUEL XIX. 8-17. 


b ProT. 81. 8, f. 

c Gra. 4S. SS. 
Ps.U 12. 
ft 109. 5. 
Prov. 17. 13. 
Jer. 18. 20. 
d Judg. 9. 17. 
ft 12. 8. 
Ps. 119. 100. 
e ch. 17. 49, 60. 
fl Sam. 11. 18. 
1 ChTon. 11. H. 
g ch. 20. 82. 
b Matt. 27. 4. 

i eh. 16. 21. 
ft 18. 2, 18. 
t Heb. if*H9rda§ 
third dag. 

iUeh, his fact, 

k ch. 16. 14. 
ft 18. 10, 11. 

IPs. 89, title. 

m 8o Josh. 2. 16. 
Acts 9. 24. 25. 
f Heb. teraphim. 
Gen. 81. 19. 
Judg. 17. 8. 

therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning, and abide in a 
secret place, and hide thyself : ^ And I will go out and stand beside my father 
in the field where thou art, and I will commune with my father of thee ; and 
what I see, that I will tell thee. ^ And Jonathan ^ spake good of Dayid unto 
Saul his father, and said unto him. Let not the king ''sin against his servant, 
against Dayid ; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works 
have been to thee-ward very good : * For he did put his *^ life in his hand, and 
*slew the Philistine, and 'the Lobd wrought a great salvation for all Israel: 
thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: 'wherefore then wilt thou ''sin against 
innocent blood, to slay David vdthout a cause ? ^ And Saul hearkened unto 
the voice of Jonathan : and Saul sware, As the Lobd liveth, he shall not be 
slain. ^And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan shewed him all those 
things. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence, 
^ as f in times past. 

^And there was war again: and David went out, and fought vrith the 
Philistines, and slew them v^ith a great slaughter ; and they fled from f him. 
^ And ^ the evil spirit from the Lobd was upon Saul, as he sat in his house 
vdth his javelin in his hand : and David played vrith his hand. ^^ And Saul 
sought to smite David even to the wall vnth the javelin ; but he slipped away 
out of Saul's presence, and he smote the javelin into the wall : and David fled, 
and escaped that night. ^^ ' Saul also sent messengers unto David's house, to 
watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David's wife told him, 
saying. If thou save not thy life to night, to morrow thou shalt be slain. ^^ So 
Michal ""let David dovm through a window: and he went, and fled, and escaped. 
^^ And Michal took an \ image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' 
hair for his bolster, and covered it vnth a cloth. ^^And when Saul sent 
messengers to take David, she said. He is sick. ^^And Saul sent the 
messengers again to see David, saying. Bring him up to me in the bed, that I 
may slay him. ^^ And when the messengers were come in, behold, there was 
an image in the bed, with a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster. ^^ And Saul 

Ch. XIX. 5, he did put hUlifeinhis hand] Tentnred hU life. 
What is put into the hand (eaph) may easily fall oat : see Judg. 
xiL 8; bdow, xxviiL 21. Jobxiii. 11. See Bp. Andrewea, iv. 27. 

9. the evil epirU from the Lord wot upon Saul] in con- 
sequence of David's recent snccess. The evil spirit is said to be 
from the Lord. God nses evil spirits to work His own imrposes 
in pumshing evil men, who persecute His servants * see xvi. 18, 14. 

18. through a window] as the spies escaped at Jericho (Josh, 
ii. 15—21), andSt. Paul at Damascus (2 Ckir. xi. 83). 

18. And Michal tooh] She thus guned time for David. On 
the typical rdations of this history to the resurrection of Christ, 
see below on Ps. lix. at end. 

— an image] Literally, the teraphim. The word here used, 
teraphim, occurs in thirteen other places in the Hebrew Scrip- 
tures, and in all these it seems to mean image (literally, imagei). 
See Qen. xxxi. 19. 84, 86, where Rachel secretes the images of 
Laban ; and Judg. jlvu. 6 ; xviii. 14. 17, 18. 20, concerning the 
teraphim of Micah ; and 2 Kings xxiii. 24^ where it is connected 
with idols. Ezek. xxL21. Hosea iii. 4. Zech. x. 2. 

What is the meaning of the teraphim here F The sense in 
which it ii used in idl these passages, and in a place in the pre- 
sent book, XV. 28 ("iniquity and idolatry," literally teravhtm), 
is probably the same in which it is employed here. Rachel 
was Jacob's wife, but was also Laban's cUiughter ; and Labau's 
reliffion was idoktrous, and she took her father's teraphim ; 
Mi<3ial was David's wife, but she was also Saul's daughter; and 
the wilftdness of Saul's character, and the disorder of his mind, 
possessed by an evil spirit and forsaken by Qod, mav have 
already led him to resort to teraphim, not for worship, but for 
oracular consultation, as they did afterwards lead Saul to 
pnc^MB witohertfft, 

Is there not also something mysterious and prophetie in 
Samuel's speech to him (xv. 28^ F — *' Rebellion (is as) the nn of 
witchcraft, and stubbornness (is as) iniquity and teraphim'* 
The settmg up of idole in thg own heart, bv foUowmff thine own 
will, in opposition to Qod's will, is witokort^ and teraphim^ 
Did it not lead Saul on to both F 

Michal might have had teraplwn without David's know- 
ledge, as ^tto observes (p. 243). The women's apartments in 
eastern houses were separate; and David, being a military 
commander, would be often from home. 

Whatever Michal did in this respect, David, we have reason 
to believe, found his help in Qod : see Ps. lix. « Deliver me from 
mine enemies, O my God;" probably written, as the title inti- 
mates, at this time, " when Saul sent, and they watched the 
house to kill him." 

— a piUow qf goate* hair] or, the coverlid of goatt^ hair; 
or, the hair mattress. The word is derived from ctUnir, to bind 
together, to plait, to braid (Oesen, 888). 8, Jerome (Epist ad 
Marcell.) thus comments on the passage, — "Venerunt nuntii 
et ecoe Kword^ia (Sept,) in lecto. Pro cenotaphiis in Hebr»o 
Theraphim, id est, fxopipAfiara jxixtsk Aqruim interpret ationem 

C'ta sunt ; et pulvillus capramm, qui intonsis capillis caput 
linis in lecto mvoluti mentiretur." 

— for his bolster] or, for its head, to cover the image. 

— with a cloth] with the cloth, or mantle f or his cloak, as 
if he were sick. 

16. there was an image in the bed] and thus David escaped j 
and Saul said unto Michal, " Why hast thou deceived me so, 
and sent away mine enemy F " The fidsehood of Michal, by 
which she decdved her father Saul, was a retribution on him ; 
it was the fruit of lus own evfl example, teaching her to practise 

Digitized by 


Saul among the prophets 1 SAMUEL XIX. 18—24. XX. 1—8. 

at Ramah. 

said onto Michal, Why hast thou deceived me so, and sent away mine enemy, 
that he is escaped ? And Michal answered Saul, He said unto me. Let me go ; 
" why should I kill thee ? nssam. 2. ». 

*• So David fled, and escaped, and came to Samuel to Bamah, and told him 
all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth. 
^^ And it was told Saul, saying, Behold, David is at Naioth in Kamah. ^Ati^ 
*" Saul sent messengers to take David : I'and when they saw the company of oseeJoimMs, 
the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them, the f^J; Y' |' «• 
Spirit of God was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also *» prophesied. flNum.n.25. 
2* And when it was told Saul, he sent other messengers, and they prophesied ^^*'"* 
likewise. And Saul sent messengers again the third time, and they prophesied 
also. ^ Then went he also to Bamah, and came to a great well that is in 
Sechu : and he asked and said, Where are Samuel and David ? And one said. 
Behold, they be at Naioth in Bamah. ^AnA he went thither to Naioth in 
Bamah: and 'the Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on, and 
prophesied, until he came to Naioth in Bamah. ^ *And he stripped off his •i».ao.2. 
clothes also, and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and f lay down J^J^^^'/i. 
''naked all that day and all that night. Wherefore they say, "I5 Saul also 8i?i8ii?:6. m. 
among the prophets ? 

XX. ^ And David fled from Naioth in Bamah, and came and said before 
Jonathan, What have I^ done ? what is mine iniquity ? and what is my sin 
before thy father, that he seeketh my life ? ^ Aud he said unto him, God 
forbid ; thou shalt not die : behold, my fiather will do nothing either great or 
small, but that he will f shew it me : and why should my fiather hide this thing t Heb. 
from me ? it is not so. • And David sware moreover, and said. Thy father 7eJ^i?^' 

•^ ch. 9. 15. 

certainly knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes ; and he saith. Let 
not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved : but truly as the Lobd Hveth, and 

I eh. 10. 11. 

deceit by his own acts: see eh. xviiL 17. 19. 21. 26. Hisfidiehood 
and traacherj recoiled on himself, aa Laban's ikUehood and 
tieacheiT against Jacob recoiled on Laban himiwlf, by the con- 
duct of his daughters to him (Oen. xxxi. 14—20. 85). Sanl had 
cheated Dand of his wife, as Laban had cheated Jacob of his 
wife. The dao^ters of Laban and Saul practised against their 
fkthers the lesscms of deceit which they had learnt ^ their own 

May there not also be an instance of a similar nemesis m 
tiiese teriMphim, or images? P^haps Sanl, forsaken by God, 
and possessed by the Eyil Spirit, had resorted to ierapkim (as 
be afterwards resorted to witchcraft) ; and Qod overmled evil 
fbr good, and made his very ieraphim (hj the hand of his own 
daughter) to be an instroment for Davici's escape. 

Thns, in the history of the tme David— Jesns Christ — God 
has used Kings' Daughters and heathen Temples as means for 
promoting the Gospel, and for celebrating the worship of Himself. 

18. came to Samuel] Samuel's forbearance toward Saul 
appears from the fact tfiat he never attempted to raise up any 
rival party against him, and in £iivour of David. Nor did bavid 
attempt to engage Samuel as his ally against Saul. The only 
instance^ where Samuel and David are seen together, after 
Samuel had anointed David at Bethlehem, is in this chapter. 

19. at Natoth"] Bather, in the abodee or ({«M^ZM|^»of the po- 
phets at Bamah. The word here rendered Naioth is derived 
from namahf to rett, to abide (Geeen, 688). It is rendered 
*'the house of learning" (or college) by the ChtUdee Targum. 
This coUe^ or school of the Prophets, was near Bamah, 
Samuel's birth-place. 

On the schools or colleges of the Prophets among the 
Hebrews, see below, on 2 Kings ii. 8 — 28. 8, Jerome, Epist. ad 
Busticum, and Epist. ad Paulinum, c. 6. Vitringa, Syn. Vet. i. 
2. 7. Buddei Hut. v. 7; ii. 276. Kramehfel^e Essay, Berlin, 
1865. Oehler in Herz. Bealencycl. ziL p. 216. Winer, B. W. 
B. ii 282. Mm>. F. Meyriek, in Bib. Diet. ii. 928. KeiPe note, 
pp. 146—161. 

80. they also prophesied] This portion of Scripture, from 
V, 18 to the end of the chapter, which relates the iUapse of the 
Spirit on Saul's messengers, and even on Saul himself, the perse- 
cutor of David, is appointed by the Church to be read on Whit- 
sun Tuesday, in order to show the existence and working of the 
Holy Ghost before the times of the Gospel, and the freedom 
and power of His divine agency. Cp. above, Num. xi. 26— 30, 
the mstory of Eldad and Mecfad, which is read on Whitsun 

82. Sechu] Perhaps Bir'Neballa, between Gibeah and 

88. prophesied] as Balaam and Caiaphas did : see above, 
on Num. xziv. 2. 

84. stripped off his clothes] his upper garments; his royal 
robe (Zyranus). 

— naked] without his upper garment : see Isa. xx. 2. Micah 
i. 8. So the word yvfufbs is used (Mark xiv. 51, 52. John xxL 
7), and *'nudus" in Latin, as Viry, Geor. L 299, "nudus ara, 
sere nudus," 

— Is Saul also among the prophets t] A saving which was 
afterwards verified in the best sense in St. Paul : cp. on x. 11, 
and on Acts ix. 21. If Saul the King had obeyed God, and had 
cherished the Holy Spirit within him, he might have been like 
Paul the Apostle; and Paul the Apostie would have been like 
Saul the King, if he had grieved the Holy Ghost. 

Many are the gifts of God (says Augustine), which are 
posMSsed by evil men. Evil men have often great talents, 
great skill, great wealth. The gift of the Sacrament of Bap- 
tism is a great gift, but it was possessed by a Simon Mag^ 
(Acts viii. 18). The gift of prtyhecy is a great gift^ but it was 
possessed by Saul. Saul, an evu king, prophesied at the very 
time that he was persecuting holy David. Let not, therefore, 
men boast if they have God's gifts : those g^fts will profit them 
nothing without charity (1 Cor. xiii. 1, 2). But let them think 
of the fearful account they must one day give to God, if they use 
not holy things holUy {8. Aug, in Ps. 108). 

Digitized by 


Jonathan renews 

1 SAMUEL XX. 4— 21, 

his covenant with David. 

I Or, Sat ^f^* is 
My mhtd, and 1 
wUl do, tc. 
f Heb. sptakeik, 
or, tkimkHk. 
ftNum. 10. 10. 
&S8. II. 
b ch. 19. S. 

e «h. 16. 4. 

I Ot, featt, 
eh. 9 12. 
d See Deat. 1.28. 
2>8am. 17. 4. 

e ch. 25. 17. 
Esth. 7. 7. 
f Josh. 2. 14. 
g ver. 16. 
ch. 18. 8. 
8r 28. 18. 
h 2 Sam. 14. 82. 

t Heb. tearehod. 

f Heb. uneovtr 
thine *ar, 
▼er. 2. 
i Ruth 1. 17. 

k Joeh. 1. 6. 

ch. 17. 87. 

1 Chron. 22. 11, 


1 2 Sam. 9. 1. 8, 

7. ft 21. 7. 

f Heb. (wl. 

m ch. 25. 22. 
See ch. 81. 2. 
2 Sam. 4. 7. 
U 21. 8. 

I Or, hykitlov 
inward Mm. 
n ch. 18. 1. 

ver. 5. 

t Heb. mimed. 

1 Or, ditigenttf, 
f Heb. greaUa. 
p ch. \i. 2. 

t Heb. in tkedof 
of the bmeineee. 
i Or, that ekewetk 
the waif. 

as thy sonl liyeih, there is but a step between me and death. ^ Then said 
Jonathan unto David, || Whatsoever tiiy soul f desureth, I mil even do it for 
^ And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the *new moon, and 

I should not fail to sit with the king at meat : but let me go, that I may ^hide 
myself in the field unto the third day at even. ^ If thy father at all miss me, 
then say, David earnestly asked leave of me that he might run ""to Beth-lehem 
his city : for there is a yearly || sacrifice there for all the family. ^ *^ If he say 
thus. It is well ; thy servant shall have peace : but if he be very wroth, thm 
be sure that •evil is determined by him. ^ Therefore thou shalt 'deal kindly 
with thy servant ; for « thou hast brought thy servant into a covenant of the 
LoBD with thee : notwithstanding, ^ if there be in me iniquity, slay me thyself; 
for why shouldest thou bring me to thy father ? 

^ And Jonathan said, Far be it from thee : for if I knew certamly that evil 
were determined by my fiather to come upon thee, then would not I tell it thee ? 

^^ Then said David to Jonathan, Who shall tell me ? or what if thy father 
answer thee roughly? ^^And Jonathan said unto David, Come, and let 
us go out into the field. And they went out both of them into the 
field. ^^And Jonathan said unto David, Lord God of Israel, when I 
have f sounded my father about to morrow any time, or the third day, and, 
behold, if there be good toward David, and I then send not unto thee, and 
t shew it thee ; *• * The Lord do so and much more to Jonathan : but if it 
please my fSather to do thee evil, then I will shew it thee, and send thee away, 
that thou mayest go in peace : and "the Lord be with thee, as he hath been 
with my father. ^* And thou shalt not only while yet I live shew me the 
kindness of the Lord, that I die not : ^^ But aho ' thou shalt not cut off thy 
kindness from my house for ever ; no, not when the Lord hath cut off the 
enemies of David every one from the fBU5e of the earth. ^^ So Jonathan f made 
a covenant with the house of David, saying ^ " Let the Lord even require it at 
the hand of David's enemies. ^^ And Jonathan caused David to swear again, 

II because he loved him : " for he loved him as he loved his own soul. 

^® Then Jonathan said to David, "" To morrow is the new moon : and thou 
shalt be missed, because thy seat will be f empty. ^^And when thou hast 
stayed three days, then thou shalt go down || f quickly, and come to ^the place 
where thou didst hide thyself f when the business was in hand, and shalt remain 
by the stone || Ezel. ^o j^^ j y^ shoot three arrows on the side thereof as 
though I shot at a mark. 21 j^^^ behold, I will send a lad, saying^ Go, find 
out the arrows. If I expressly say unto the lad, Behold, the arrows are on 

Ch. XX; 6. Beth-Uhem .... there lg a yearly iocrifioe 
ihera] a yearly sacrificial feast. According to the Levitiod 
Law (Deat. xii. 6, 6) Bacrifices could only be killed at the door 
of the tabernacle. But in the present disordered and unsettled 
condition of religion in Israel, when the tabernacle was without 
the visible symbol of Qod's presence, the ark ; and when Qod 
had not as yet chosen any one fixed place to put His name there, 
altars existed in various places, wnere sacrifices were offered. 
Cp. above, on ch. iv. 11. 

10. or what ifj Bather, or loAo^— that is, who shall tell me 
what thy father is resolved to do to me, or what rough answer 
he may make to thee ? He may prevent thee finom having any 
intercourse with me. Who then shall give me intdligence P 

12. O LoBD &od of Israel] Rather, the Lord God of 
Israel is witness, or knows that (Striae, Arabia, Sept.), 

14, 16. And thou shalt not only .... earth'] Or, perhaps 
these words may be rendered thus, — and it shail not he, that 

while lam alive, thou shalt not show the mercv of the Lord 
(i. e. thou shalt not fidl to show the mercy of the Lord} to me 
(personally), and I shall not die-^i. e., so tliat I myself die not ; 
be not destroyed; and thou shalt not cut off thy mercy firom my 
house for ever ; no, not when the Lord shall cutoff tike §ne mies 
qf the Lord, every one from iheface qf the earth. 

The sense is, — The time shall never come when thou ahalt not 
show kindness to Jonathan himself, so that he shall not be put 
to death when thine enemiet perish; and more than this, thou 
shalt show mercy to his posterity after his death, when all thine 
enemies are cut off: see v. 42. Some versions {Syriao and 
Arabic) seem to read lu (utinam) for lo (non). Cp. Cfesen, 482; 
and so Ewald, Thenius, and KeU} but tms does not seem neoea- 
sary. Some read the sentence interroffatively. And wUt thou 
not show mercy J And this rendering gives a good sense. This 
requirement of Jonathui was f\ilfill^ by David, in the case of 
Mephiboeheth (2 Sam. is. 1. 8. 7; xxL 7). 

Digitized by 


Saul seeks 1 SAMUEL XX. .22 — il. to kill his son Jonathan. 

this side of thee, take them ; then come thou : for there is peace to thee, and 
f no hurt; *»(w the Lobb liveth. ^ But if I say thus unto the young man, ?*?$; '^'•"^ 
Behold, the arrows are beyond thee ; go thy way : for the Lord hath sent thee ^ '^' * * 
away. ^ And as touching 'the matter which thou and I have spoken of, behold, si%'e"'42* 
the LoBD be between thee and me for ever. 

^ So David hid himself in the field : and when the new moon was come, 
the king sat him down to eat meat. ^ And the king sat upon his seat, as at 
other times, even upon a seat by the wall : and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat 
by Saul's side, and David's place was empty. ^ Nevertheless Saul spake not 
any thing that day: for he thought. Something hath befallen him, he is 'not %^^/J/ii: 
clean ; surely he is not clean. ^ And it came to pass on the morrow, which 
was the second day of the month, that David's place was empty: and Saul said 
unto Jonathan his son. Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to meat, neither 
yesterday, nor to day? ^And Jonathan * answered Saul, David earnestly tv«.«. 
asked leave of me to go to Beth*lehem : ^ And he said, Let me go, I pray thee ; 
for our family hath a sacrifice in the city; and my brother, he hath commanded 
me to be there : and now, if I have found favour in thine eyes, let me get away, 

I pray thee, and see my brethren. Therefore he cometh not unto the king's 

^ Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, 

II t Thou son of the perverse rebellious womany do not I know that thou hast i^^vSw!**^' 
chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy i^'$!^ebtuion, 
mother's nakedness ? ** For as long as the son of Jesse Hveth upon the 
ground, thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now 

send and fetch him unto me, for he t shall surely die. *^And Jonathan J^^^'*"^ 
answered Saul his father, and said unto him, "Wherefore shall he be slain? m^Vz'.m. 
what hath he done? •^And Saul "cast a javelin at him to smite him: xch*i«.ii.* 
y whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David. y^«'' 
^ So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did eat no meat the 
second day of the month : for he was grieved for David, because his father had 
done him shame. 

^ And it came to pass in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field 
at the time appointed with David, and a little lad with him. ^ And he said 
unto his lad, Kun, find out now the arrows which I shoot. And as the lad 
ran, he shot an arrow f beyond him. ^ And when the lad was come to the ♦^•^.J*'^' 
place of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, Jonathan cried after the lad, and 
said, Is not the arrow beyond thee ? ^ And Jonathan cried after the lad, 
Make speed, haste, stay not. And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, 
and came to his master. ^ But the lad knew not any thing : only Jonathan 
and David knew the matter. ^ And Jonathan gave his f artillery unto f his lad, t^eb. iiM«r«. 
and said unto him, Go, carry them to the city. J J«*» *^* ^" 

^* And as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of a place toward the 
south, and fell on his fewje to the ground, and bowed himself three times : and 
they kissed one another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded. 

M. So David kid UnmJf t# the field] having gone first tc 
Beihkhem {w. 6. 28). 

87. the son of Jeesel S«al eeems to hate the name of David, 
and in contempt he eaUa him "the son of Jesie." 

80. eon of the perverse rebelUoue woman] Literallj, eon of 
a perverse woman of rebellion : lee Oesen, 611. Such was 

Saul's madness : hfs cnrse recoils on his wife and on himself. 

8L he shall sureUf die] Literally, hew a son of death. 

38. SatU oast ajaveHn] Saal tries to kill bis own son, for 
loving David j so the Jews killed thdr own reUtives for be- 
lieving in Christ : cp. on v, 42. 

40. artillery] his weapons,— bow, quiver, and arrows. 

Digitized by 


Jonathan and Damd. 

1 SAMUEL XX. 42. XXI. 1—5. 

David at Noh. 

a oh. 14. S, 
called Ahiuk. 
Called also 
Mark S. 26. 
b ch. 16. 4. 

io^;tiJLmi)be *^ And Jonathan said to David, 'Go in peace, || forasmuch as we have sworn 
JiSric'^*^ both of us in the name of the Lord, saying. The Lobd be between me and 
See Tar. M. ^^^ ^^^ botweeu my seed and thy seed for ever — ^And he arose and departed: 
and Jonathan went into the city. 

XXI. ^ Then came David to Nob to * Ahimelech the priest : and Ahimelech 
was ^ afraid at the meeting of David, and said unto him, Why art thou alone, 
and no man with thee ? ^ And David said unto Ahimelech the priest, The 
king hath commanded me a business, and hath said unto me, Let no man 
know any thing of the business whereabout I send thee, and what I have 
commanded thee : and I have appointed my servants to such and such a place. 
^ Now therefore what is under thine hand ? give me five loaves of bread in 
mine hand, or what there is f present. ^ And the priest answered David, and 
said. There is no common bread under mine hand, but there is "" hallowed 
bread ; "* if the young men have kept themselves at least from women. ^ And 
David answered the priest, and said unto him. Of a truth women have been 
kept from us about these three days, since I came out, and the * vessels of the 
young men are holy, and the bread t5 in a manner common, || yea, though it 

there i$ oihtf ioneii/Ml in the v$$$*t. 

t Heh. found. 

e Ex. S5. 80. 
Lev. 14. 5. 
Matt. 12. 4. 
d Ex. 19. 15. 
Zech. 7. 8. 

e 1 These. 4. 4. 

B Or» emede/ly 
when thu dof 


42.foratmmeh^ LitenJly, that which, 
^-for ever] After these words we mnst snpply the daote, — 
let that remain established. There is something very pathetic 
in this apoaopesis, as if Jonathan's words were broken off by 
emotion, and by sobs stifling his utterance. Bat Damd eX' 
ceeded. He said nothing : his sorrow was too deep for words. 

How mnch more touching and true to nature is this simple 
narratiye of Holy Scripture than the elaborate description of 
Josephus, who makes them spend their time in long speeches to 
one another ! (Joseph,, Antt. yi. 11. 10.) 

The Christian reader, who contemplates the affecting and 
beautiM scene presented to his view in the foregoing chapter, 
can hardly fiul to be reminded of higher things ; 

Saul, the persecutor of David, was a type of the unbelieving 
and ^Usobedient Jew,~onoe endued with great spiritual gifts and 
privHegee, but fidling away from Qod by pride, vain-glory, self- 
will, and obstinacy, and at length rejecting Christ. 

But Jonathan, Saul's son, was a figure of all those fiuth- 
fill Israelites, such as John the Baptist, Nathanael, and the 
loving Apostle St. Pbter, and the penitent thief, and the be- 
loved disciple St. John, and St. Paul, who were bom under the 
Law, and who hailed the rising glory of the true David, and 
stripped themselves of the legal insig^nia in which they were at- 
tired (see above, xviii. 4), and whose hearts were knit to Christ, 
and who made a solemn covenant with Him, even at the time 
when He was rejected and persecuted by the Jewish Saul ; and 
who looked forward with fiuth to the time when the kingdom 
of the true David would be established, and His fbes made His 
footstool, and His enemies be cut off before His fiice, and who 
prayed to Him to show mercy to themselves personally in 
their own Hfetime, and to their posterity after their death, for 
evermore (see tw, 14, 16), and who incun«d danger, scorn, and 
death from their own parents and relatives, for the sake of 
Christ: see v. 88. 

Jonathan loved Damd as he loved hie own eonl (o. 17), and 
made a covenant with him, « The Lord be between me and thee, 
and between my seed and thy seed for ever," and they kissed one 
another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded. 

What tears oeuld be compared with those shed by the true 
David at the grave of Lazarus, and when He looked down upon 
Jerusalem and wept over it ! What tears could be compared 
with those tears of blood which He shed in His agony in the 
garden, when ** in the days of His flesh, He offered up pravers and 
supplications with Hronff crying and teare, and was beard in that 
He feared ; and though iMPrere a Son, yet learned he obedience 
by the things which He suffered ! " (Heb. v. 7, 8.) 

Ch. XXI. 1. Noh'] A priestiy city (xxiL 19), a littie to the 
north of Jerusalem, and between it*and Anathotii (Isa. z. 80. 82). 
It is supposed by some to have been situated at the place now 
called laawijeh d, e. Eeam^e town, or Edom-iown), about a mile 

and a half v. of Jerusalem: by others it is placed near Shqfai - 
see Hacketi in B. D. iL 676; and Keil, p. 159. Some place it 
on the K. summit of Olivet (Thmpp, Stanley, FalesU 187). 

— Ahimeleoh'] the high priest, son of Ahitub, son of Phine- 
has, son of £11 : see below, zxii. 9. 11. 

For a reply to the allegation, that there is a discrepancy 
between the statement here and that in Mark ii. 26, see the 
note below on that passage of St. Bfark, p. 119. 

— Why art thou alone f] Thou, the king's son-in-law, why 
art thou without any retinue P 

9. The king h<»th commanded me a huaineee] The Sacred 
Historian does not conceal the fiulings of David : cp. v, 8. He 
here informs us that David in his distress resorted to an untruth. 
He also shows us in the sequel the consequences of this untruth 
in the slaughter of the priests at Kob : see zxii. 9—19. 

With regard to this and other similar cases, see the 
treatises of a. Anguetime de Mendacio and contra Mendacium, 
ad Consentium, voL vL pp. 711 — 791; and Bp, Sanderson, 
ii. 68 ; and on Consdence, Lect. iii. 6—9, § 9 ; and notes above, 
on Ezod. i. 21, and on Josh. ii. 5. 

The reconl of these fiulings of David ii an evidence of the 
truth of the sacred narrative, and reminds us that human 
ezamples are no safe rule of conduct; that there is but one 
perfect ezample, that of the Divine David, Jesus Christ ; and 
that His Will and Word are the only right standard of practice. 
David afterwards confessed his fkilings in this respect, and 
prayed to Qod fbr pardon and grace ; *' My soul melteth for 
neariness : strengthen Thou me according unto Thy Word. Re- 
move trom me the wag of lying, and grant me Thy Law 
graciously " (P*. czix. 28* 29J. 

Here also we have an evidence of the Inspiration of Holy 
Scriptore. David, as a man, was not ezempt from human infir- 
mities, but as "the sweet Psalmist of Israel,'* whose divine 
songs are in the mouth of the Universal Church, he was guided 
and inspired by the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of Truth. David, 
the IVophet and Psalmist, laments the errors of David the King. 
And at this very time, when he fiiuled and filtered throu^ 
human weakness, he was made an instrument in the hands of 
the Holy Ghost for inditing Divine Psalms, such as the 9th, the 
84th, the 66th,the 69th, and the 142nd, in one of which he says :— 

« What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many days, 
that he may see good P Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy 
Ups ftom speaking guile" (Pe, zxziv. 12, 18). 

4. hallowed bread] shewbread ; which might only be eaten by 
the priest and his sons in the holy place : see Lev. zziv. 6. 8, 9. 

— ^the young men'] The priest would give the shewbread 
(under certam conditions) out of regard for the higher law, that 
of love, to which, in his view, the ceremonial law must give 
place ; and rightiy, as the Divine Author of the Law declares 
in the Gospel : see Matt ziL 8» 4. MarkiL25, 26. Lukevi.8. 

5, the vessels qfthe youngmen"] L •• thor bodies : see below, 
on 1 Thess. iv. 4; 1 Pet. iiL 7 ; and tee also the next note. 

— and the bread is tfi a manner eommon^-in the vessel] 

Digitized by 


David receives the shewbread. 1 SAMUEL XXI. 6—15. XXII. 1. 


were sanctified this day 'in the vessel. ^So the priest 'gave him hallow^ 
bread: for there was no bread there but the shewbreadi ''that was taken from 
before the Lobd, to pat hot bread in the day when it was taken away. ^ Now 
a certain man of the servants of Saul was there that day, detamed before the 
LoBD ; and his name was ' Doeg, an Edomite, the chiefest of the herdmen 
that belonged to Saul. ^ And David said nnto Ahimelech, And is there not here 
nnder thine hand spear or sword ? for I have neither brought my sword nor 
my weapons with me, because the king's business required haste. ^ And the 
priest said. The sword of GoUath the Philistine, whom thou slewest in "the 
valley of Elah, ' behold, it is here wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod : if thou 
wilt take that, take it : for there is no other save that here. And David said» 
Tliere is none like that ; give it me. 

^^ And David arose, and fled that day for fear of Saul, and went to IJAchish 
the king of Gath. ^^ And * the servants of Achish said unto him. Is not this 
David the king of the land ? did they not sing one to another of him in dances, 
saying, * Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands ? ^^ And 
David^laid up these words in his heart, and was sore afraid of Achish the king 
of Gath. ^' And ^he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself 
mad in their hands, and || scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle 
&11 down upon his beard. ^^ Then said Achish unto his servants, Lo, ye see 
the man {| is mad : wherefore then have ye brought him to me ? ^^ Have I need 
of mad men, that ye have brought this fellow to play the mad man in my 
presence ? shall this fellow come into my house ? 

XXTT. ' David therefore departed thence, and *" escaped ^ to the cave Adullam : 


tMatt 13. 8, 4. 
ark 2. S5, S«. 
Luke 6. S, 4. 
h L«T. S4. 8, f . 

i eb. SS. •. 

Ps. 5S, titi*. 

k ch. 17. S, 60. 

1 8m eh. II. 10. 

I Or, Jbim$Ueh, 
Pi. 34, title, 
m Ps. M, titl*. 

n ch. 18. 7. » S9. 


o Luke i. 19. 

p Ps. 84. Utle. 

I Or, wt&4$ 


n Or, ptoy«M tMe 
9Md Man. 

a Ps. 57, title, ft 

148. tiUe. 

b 2 Sam. 88. 18. 

The words the bread are not in the original; and the sense 
rather is, ik€ waff (on which I am going), and in which I ask for 
breadof^oo, wboareiMiosta, itaMow^ir one. Let it be granted 
that it IS so X true it is, J am not engaged in any prZstfy or 
sacred ministry, as jf« are. I do not wa& in the coorts of the 
sanctoarj, as ye do; still it (the way) wiU be sanctified this day 
(thongb not a Sabbath) by the vessel or instroment employed in 
it. The ves9el is David hunsdf, who was the Lord's anointed (cp. 
Theodoret, Qn. 58, and in part, JeromicuUr), and the word veswl 
may be extended also to David's associates, who were ceremonially 
dean : see the foregomg note, and Ljframu here, and ALapide, 

The Hebrew woi^i (elf) and tiie Greek o-jccvof, rendered 
vessel, are often applied to men in tiie Old and New Testament. 
David compares himself to a veesel (P8. xzxL 12) ; and wicked 
men are likened to broken veeeeU (Pto. ii. 9). Cp. Isa. ziiL 5. 
Jer. uii. 28; zlviu. 88; L 26. Hos. viiL 8. AcU is. 16. 
Bom. iz. 21—28. 2 Cor. iv. 7. 2 Tim. iL 21. 

Oar Lord seems to sanction this interpretation, when He 
jostifles the act of David eating the shewbread, in ccmsideration 
of the condition of the veesel Qua body, then snffeiing hunger) 
into which the bread was received; and this interprotation is 
confirmed by S, Irenenu (iv. 20, p. 806, ed. Qrabe), who refers 
to the words of onr Ixwd justifying David on this occasion, and 
adds, *' Sacerdos autem sdtus (qu. sanctus) fuerat DaM apod 
Deum, qnamvis Saul perseentumem fkceret ei ; iras fieurtKehs 
SIkoios Uparac^v rii^iv lx«i :" cp. TerMUam de Exhort. Cast, c 7. 

8, AugueUne remarks on this and other acts of David, 
that they were prophetic of Christ, who would unite in Himself 
the priestly with the royal ftmdaons: "Nonne oommutatun 
regnum in David, reprobato Saule, damat prssnuntiari novum 
sacerdotium, novumque regnum reprobato vetere, quod erat 
umbra fhturi in Dommo nostro Jesu Christo venturum P Nonne 
ipse David, cum panes propositionis manducavit, quos non licebat 
manducare nin soils sacerootibus, in un& person^ utrumque fntu- 
rum, id est, in uno Jesu Christo regnum et sacerdotium fiffuravit P ** 

In his note on the passage of Irenaras, Dr, Or^e applies 
this passage to the consideration of the question whether, in 
cases of necessity, where a lawful minister may not be had, the 
Sacrament of Baptism may not be administered by lay hands ? 
Cp. Hooker, V. Ixii. 

6. the day when it woe taken away] The Sabbath (Lev. 
xxiv. 8). 

7. detained before the Lobd] Perhaps as a proselyte for 
Vol. II. Pabt II. " 

insfaruction, or fbr some rdigious purification. Doeg was en- 
gaged in the performance of an act of religion, before the L<»d, 
at His sanctuary, and yet he harboured malignant thoughts, 
and was ready to perform an impious and luoody deed: see 
below, xxii. 18. The sins of blasphemy and cruelty seem to 
have spread from Saul to his servants. 

IKMg the Edomite, the betrayer (^ David, is ccnnpared by 
the fathers to Judas, the betrayer of Christ : cp. Bede, Qn. 18. 
Judas the traitor, and the chief priests and people who joined 
with him, were engaged in a work "befbre the Lord,'' viz., in 
keeping the passover, when they crucified Christ. 

9. The awordaf OoUath'\ See above, xvii. 61. 64. 

— vaHey qfmakl or, of the terebinth : see xviL 2. 

10. Aehieh'] Called Abimeleoh (the official title of the Ungs 
of Gkktb) in the superscription to Pto. xxziv. 

— Cfath] Oath was near David's native mountains, and 
probably had more fHendly relations with the Israelites than 
the more distant cities of the PhilistineB (Dr. Thornton, p. 669). 

11. David the kiny qf the land] The Qentile Philistines 
acknowledge him as sooh, even when Saul is perseeuting him. 
So Pilate, the heathen governor, wrote on the Cross, " Jesus, 
the King of the Jews," when they rmected him. 

18. hB changed JUe behaviour] Literally, he ehanyed hie 
eenee, hie reaeon. Cp. Ps. xxxiv. 1. Qeeen, 828. 

— ecrdbhled^ scrawled : see on Pa. Ixxviii. 41. 

1^ ye eee the man it mad] So speaks Achish oonceminf 
David. David fieioned madness. In Christ, the true DavicC 
there are none of ute infirmities of David. David taid that he 
came on the king's business. This was not true of him, but it 
it true of Christ, who said, <* Wist ye not that I must be about 
My Father's buainessP" (Luke u. 49.) «I came not to do 
mine own will, but the will of Hun that sent Me" (John v. 80; 
vL 88). David feigned to be mad, and was demised as such. 
Christ is the wisdom of Qod, but even His own friends said of 
Him, " He is beside Himself" (Mark iiL 21); and His Gospel was 
r^ecied as foolishness by the princes of this world (1 Cor. i. 
22. 26; iL 6—8), and to Christ's Apostle it was said, " Much 
learning doth make thee mad" (Acts xxvi. 24). Cp. 8. 
Anyuttine in Ptt. xxxiii. 

Ch. XXII. 1. Aduflam] in the lowlands of Judah ; probably 
near Shochoh and Azekah, about eight miles from Bethlehem, 
from which place David's brethren came to him. 

^ H 

Digitized by 


Saul sends for 

1 SAMUEL XXn. 2— 15, 

Ahimelech the Priest. 

c Judg. U.S. 

t Heb. had a 


t Heb. bitter of 


d 2 Sun. U. 11. 
1 Cbron. 21. 9. 
3 Chron. 29. 2^. 

il Or, gro9* in a 
high plmeo. 

• oh. 8. 14. 

t Heb. Mneovereth 

mine ear, ch. 20. 


fch. 18. 3. ft 20. 


g ch 21. 7. 
Pa. 52. Utle, ft 
ter. 1, 2, S. 
hch. 21. 1. 
i eb. M. 8. 
k Num. 27. 21. 
Ich. 21. 6. 9. 

i Heb. Behold 

md when his brethren and all his fother's house heard it, they went down thither 
to him. * * And every one that was in distress, and every one that f t^^ hi debt, 
and every one thai was -f discontented, gathered themselves mito him ; and he 
became a captain over them : and there were with him about four hundred men; 

« And David went thence to Mizpeh of Moab : and he said unto the kmg 
of Moab, Let my father and my mother, I pray thee, come forth, and 
be with you, till I know what God will do for me. * And he brought them 
before the king of Moab : and they dwelt with him all the while that David was 
in the hold. * And the prophet ** Gad said unto David, Abide not in the hold ; 
depart, and get thee into the land al Judah* Then David departed, and came 
into the forest of Hareth. 

^ When Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men that were with 
him, (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a || tree in Bamah, having his spear in 
his hand, and all his servants were standing about him ;) ^ Then Saul said 
unto his servants that stood about him. Hear now, ye Benjamites ; will the son 
of Jesse 'give every one of you fields and vineyards, and make you all captains 
of thousands, and captams of hundreds ; ^ That all of you have conspired 
against me, and there is none that f sheweth me that 'my son hath made 
a league with the son of Jesse, and there is none of you that is sorry for me, or 
sheweth unto me that my son hath stirred up my servant against me, to lie in 
wait, as at this day ? 

^ Then answered *Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants 
of Saul, and said, I saw the son of Jesse commg to Nob, to ** Ahimelech the 
son of ' Ahitub. *^ ''And he enquired of the Lobd for him, and 'gave him 
victuals, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine. 

^^ Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all 
his father's house, the priests that were in Nob : and they came all of them to 
the king. ^^ And Saul said, Hear now, thou son of Ahitub. And he answered, 
f Here I am^ my lord. ^' And Saul said unto him. Why have ye consirired 
against me, thou and the son of Jesse, in that thou hast given him bread, and a 
sword, and hast enquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to 
lie in wait, as at this day ? ^^ Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said. 
And who is so faithful among all thy servants as David, which is the king's son 
in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is honourable in thine house ? ^^ Did I 
then begin to enquire of God for him? be it far from me: let not the king 

1. every one that was in distrese — mi debt — dieconteiUed] 
A foreshadowing of what was afterwards said of the tnie David, 
Jesos Christ, — ** This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with 
them " (Luke xv. 2). Cp. Matt. xi. 19. David's men were im- 
proved under his command and influence : see zxv. 15. Christ 
received nnners in order that they might not continue sinners, 
but be released from the burden of their sins, and become holy 
in word and deed (Matt. xi. 28). 

— f9ur hundfed men] A list of the principal among them Lb 
given in 1 Chron. xii. 8-— 18 ; and some of their acts are de- 
scribed in 2 Sam. xxiiL 18—22. 1 Chron. xi. 15—24. 

8. Mizpeh of Jfoa5] Perhaps he resorted to Moab for refuge 
because his ancestress Ruth was from that country (Ruth i. 
2.4; lv.21,22). 

— Lei mif father and mf mather'-\)e with yon'] and be in 
sirfbty, as Ruth was hospitaibly received at Bethlehem. In this 
soGcitude of David for his parents, we see a fkint glimpse of the 
tender care of the true David, when on the (>oss, fbr His 
mother (John xix. 26, 27>. 

4. the hold] the fortifudd cave. The original word is derived 
fWim tewr, a i^>ek (Oeeem, 51). Ptobably it means the rock near 
Mizpeh (fi^rrtoc, Jrcibio)} and Joeepmu (vL 12. 4) seems to 

countenance this inteipretation. God came to David there, and 
directed him to return to Judah. 

6. Gad] who was probably brought up in Samuel's school of 
the Flrophets, and was informed that David had been anointed 
by him, and afterwards is oalled his seer (2 Sam. xxiv. 11. 
1 Chron. xxL 9. 2 Chron. xxix.'25), and the chronider of his acts 
(1 Chron. xxix. 29). 

— Hareih] the site of which is unknown. In the Onomas- 
ticon it is placed to the west of Jerusalem. 

6. under a tree in Ramah] Rather, under the terebinth on 
the hill, or high place, of Gibeah, Saul's own city. On the 
word eehel, here rendered^^ree, see Gen. xxL 83 ; below, xxxL 18. 
1 Chron. x. 12. Cfeeen, 86; and as to the word Samah {hen 
with the article), hijfh pUtce, see Ezek. xvi. 24 ; and Oeeen, 769 ; 
and Keil, 64. 

14. ffoeth at thy bidding] Rather, who is admitted to thy 
private audience. The Hebrew word here rendered ffoeih is fWnn 
eur, to retire, to draw near i&eeen. 582) ; and the words seem to 
mean, who retiree to thy amdtenee, i. e., is admitted to thy secret 
counsiBls : see 2 Sam. xxiii. 28. 1 Chron. xi. 25 ; and Cfeeen, 518. 

16. for him] No, it was not for him, but fbr ihee, whoso 
son-in-law and loyal subject he Ib. 

Digitized by 


Saul commands Doeg 1 SAMUEL XXII. 16—28. XXTII. 1—6. to slay the Priests. 

impute any thing onto his servant, nor to all the house of my father : for thy 
servant knew nothing of all this, fless or more. *^ And the king said, Thou tneb. «/ 
shalt surely die, Ahimeleoh, thou, and all thy father's house. ^^ ^nd the king '*^"'' 
said unto the || f footmen that stood about him, Turn, and slay the priests of i or, gnard. 
the LpBD ; because their hand also is with David, and because they knew when ' "'""'^* 
he fled, and did not shew it to me. But the servants of the king "would not »8^Exod. i. 
put forth their hand to fidl upon the priests of the Lobd. *® And the Inng said 
to Doeg, Turn thou, and &11 upon the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, 
and he fell upon the priests, and ""slew on that day fourscore and five persons n see oh. s. si. 
that did wear a linen ephod. ^^ •And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he oTer.i», n. 
^th the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and sucklings, and 
oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword. 

^ ''And one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, pch.«».«. 
*• escaped, and fled after David. ^^ And Abiathar shewed David that Saul had qch.i.M. 
slain the Lobd's priests. ^ And David said unto Abiathar, I knew it that day, 
when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul : I have 
occasioned the death of all the persons of thy father's house. ^ Abide thou 
with me, fear not : 'for he that seeketh my life seeketh thy life : but with me r i King«i. se. 
thou shalt he in safeguard. 

XXTTT. ' Then they told David, saying, Behold, the Philistines fight against 
' Eeilah, and they rob the threshingfloors. ^ Therefore David ** enquired of the a jch. u. h. 
Lord, saying. Shall I go and smite these Philistines ? And the Lord said J^^[^ 'j ,,j jj. 
unto David, Go, and smite the Philistines, and save Keilah. ^ And David's 
men said unto him, Behold, we be afraid here in Judah : how much more then 
if we come to Keilah against the armies of the Philistines ? ^ Then David enquired 
of the Lord yet again. And the Lord answered him and said, Arise, go down 
to Eeilah ; for I mSl deliver the Philistines into thine hand. ^ So David and 
his men went to Eeilah, and fought with the Philistines, and brought away 
their cattle, and smote them with a great slaughter. So David saved the 
inhabitants of Eeilah. ^ And it came to pass, when Abiathar the son of 
Ahimelech ""fled to David to Eeilah, that he came down with an ephod in his e eh. u. so. 

17. i^ tervanU .... womld nof] And thtis they were 
more fidtiifhl to Sftal» than if they had obeyed hk order, 
which was against the commandment of the Lord, whose servant 
the king was, no leas than they. 

The heinoosness of Saul's sin in killinff the Priests made 
the cnp of his g^t to orerflow, and is made more oonqnonoos 
by this refhsal of his servants to do it (Theodorei), 

The three years' fhmine in David's time was "for Sanl and 
his bloody hoose, because he slew the Gibeonitee," the ministers 
of the tabernacle : see 2 Sam. zxi. 1. 

18. a linen ephod] See above, ii. 18 ; xv. 27. 

19. And Not, the city of the prieHe] who were treated by 
Sanl in his rage as if they had been Amalekitee (xv. 8V 

Yet even in this barlMurons act, Sanl unoonsdonsly lUffiDed 
the prophecy of God against the honse of Eli fbr its dns : as 
Josephue observes (vi. 12. 6). See above, ii. 27. 86 ; iii. 11—18. 

God owed a revense to the honse of Eli, and now, by the 
dehtion of Doeg, He tuces occasion to pay it. SaoFs cmelty and 
Doeg^B treachery were made the instruments for the execution 
of (iod's connsel ; but they lose nothing of their gnilt thereby, 
nor does God's holy counsel gather any blemish by their guiH 
(Bp. HaU\ 

The mty-second Ptalm was composed by David on this 
occasion; perhaps also Psahns xvii., xxxv., Ixiv., and cxl. 8, 
JSil€Mry, commenting on the Psalms, obwrves that Doeg the 
Edomite, the herdsman of Saul, who betrayed David's visit to 
the Tabemade, and to Ahimelech, and who murdered the 

priests, is a figure of the Jews in their treadieiy to the troe 
David. Judas was a Doeg. Such were the unbdieving Jews ; 
such are all who betray c£rtst and persecute His Church. 

88. Abide thou with me, fear not] By saving David he saved 
himself. AHftt)>*»' received a testimony firom Solomon : ** Thou 
barest the ark before David my fktl]^, and thou hast been 
afflicted in all wherein my father was afflicted;" therefore 
« I will not put thee to death" (1 Kings ii. 26). 

But he was treacherous to Solomon, and was thrust out of 
the priesthood, and so another prophe<7 was fulfilled: see 
1 Kings ii. 27, and on Num. xxv. 11—18. 

Cb. XXm. 1. JT^iZoillin the lowlands of Judah (Josh. XV.44); 

— the thr9ihin^[floor8\ on the high open ground outside the 
town. Cp. on Ruth iii. 2. 16. 

8. Damd enquired of the Lobd] By the Urim and Thum- 
mim of the breastplate, which Abiathar the Priest had brought 
to him. 

The murder of the priests had deprived Saul of this access 
to God, and had opened it to David : see v. 6. 

6. Abiathar—fled to David to Keilah] Not as though 
Abiathar had tb^ fled to David for ihe first time ; but he showed 
his faith and attachment to David (see above, on xxii. 28) by 

ling to David for a reftige, when David was supposed, even by 

3 own men, to be in the greatest dai^r (t>. 8). 

— he came doum with an ephod in hie hand] Rather, theephod 
came down in hie hand, God's oracle came with him to David. 

H 8 


Digitized by 


Jonathan comforts David. 1 SAMUEL XXIII. 7 — 24, The treachery of the Ziphites. 

d Num. »7, 81. 
ch. 80. 7. 

e ch. M. 19. 

f Heb. shut «p. 

ft S5. 18. 

g Ps. 11. 1. 

h Josh. 15. 65. 
i Ps. 54. 8, 4. 

k oh. 24. SO. 

1 ch. 18. 8. 
& 80. 16, 48. 

2 Sam. 81. 7. 

ni Bee cb. 86. 
Ps. 54, title. 

f Heb. •« th$ 
right hand, 
I Or, TktwU- 
n Ps. 54. 8. 


o Josh. 15. 55. 
ch. 25. 8. 

7 And it was told Sard that Dayid was come to Eeilah. And Sanl said, God 
hath delivered him into mine hand ; for he is shut in, by entering into a town 
that hath gates and bars. ^ And Saul called all the people together to war, to 
go down to Eeilah, to besiege Dayid and his men. ^ And David knew that 
Saul secretly practised mischief against him; and *^he said to Abiathar the 
priest, Bring hither the ephod. ^^ Then said David, Lord God of Israel^ 
thy servant hath certainly heard that Saul seeketh to come to Eeilah, *to 
destroy the city for my sake. ^^ Will the men of Eeilah deliver me up into his 
hand ? will Saul come down, as thy servant hath heard ? Lord God of 
Israel, I beseech thee, tell thy servant. And the Lord said. He will come 
down. ^^ Then said David, Will the men of Eeilah f deliver me and my men 
into the hand of Saul? And the Lord said, They will deliver thee up. 
^^ Then David and his men, * which were about six hundred, arose and departed 
out of Eeilah, and went whithersoever they could go« And it was told Saul that 
David was escaped from Eeilah ; and he forbare to go forth. ^^ And David 
abode in the wilderness in strong holds, and remained in ' a mountain in the 
wilderness of ^ Ziph. And Saul * sought him every day, but God delivered him 
not into his hand. '^ And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life : 
and David was in the wilderness of Ziph in a wood. 

^^ And Jonathan Saul's smx arose, and went to David into the wood, and 
strengthened his hand in God. ^^ And he said unto him. Fear not : for the 
hand of Saul my fiather shall not find thee ; and thou shalt be king over Israel, 
and I shall be next unto thee ; and ^ that also Saul my father knoweth. ^^ And 
they two 'made a covenant before the Lord : and David abode in the wood, 
and Jonathan went to his house. 

^^ Then " came up the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David 
hide himself with us in strong holds in the wood, in the hill of Hachilah, 
which is f on the south of || Jeshimon ? ^ Now therefore, king, come down 
according to all the desire of thy soul to come down ; and ^ our part shall he to 
deliver him into the king's hand. ^^ And Saul said. Blessed he ye of the Lord ; 
for ye have compassion on me. ^ Go, I pray you, prepare yet, and know and 
see his place where his f haunt is, and who hath seen him there : for it is told 
me that he dealeth very subtilly. * See therefore, and take knowledge of all 
the lurking places where he hideth himself, and come ye again to me with the 
certainty, and I will go with you : and it shall come to pass, if he be in the 
land, that I will search him out throughout all the thousands of Judah. 
^ And they arose, and went to Ziph before Saul : but David and his men were 
in the wilderness ^'of Maon, in the plain on the south of Jeshimon. 

9. Bring hither the ephod] with the Urim and Thnmmim. 
Cp. HengH^ Auth. ii. 67. 

U. the Lord eaid^ He will eome iatm'] God oonectB the 
order of David's questions. 

12. Thetf will deliver thee «j9] Henee it is dear (as many of 
the Schoolmen have observed) that God's foreknowledge ex- 
tends to eontimgenciee ; that is» to ev^ts which would take 
place, if other events (which may not take place) should take 
place. God fereknows what would be» and will not he, as well 
as what will be. 

On the importance of this proposition, in its hearing on the 
question of Predestination, the Editor mav perhaps be allowed 
to refer to his Occasional Sermons (Serm. iv. p. 71). 

14. the wildemeee] between the hill-country of Judah and the 
Dead Sea. 

— Ziph"] now Tell-Zifs a hill about ibur milee I.B. of 
Hebron \B0hin90n, iL 191). Cp. Josh. xv. 55. 

16, in Chd] in God's promises— not by human aid : another 

proof of Jonathan's faith, which confirmed that of David him- 

17. I ehaU he ne»t unto thee] So said Jonathan to David, 
and so the fkithfbl soul of the true Israelite is permitted to say 
to the Divine David i see Bev. iii. 21. 

19. the Ztphiteel whose treachery fbrms a striking contrast 
to the love of Jonauian, and makes it more conspicuous. 

The oompUint of David for the treachery of the Ziphites 
may stall be heard in the fifty-fourth Pudm, written (as is com- 
monly supposed) at this time. 

— SachHah] on the south side of Tell-Zif (v. 14), whence is 
a fine panoramic view of the scene here described (Fande- 

— Jethimon'] the wUdemeee; on the west side of the Dead 

80. eome down'] from Gibeah. 

22. where hie h<HuU is] Literally, where hie foot »^*-tnick 
him, as if he were a beast of prey. 

Digitized by 


David at Maon and Engedi. 1 SAMUEL XXTTT. 25—29. XXIV. 1—6. Spares Saul's life. 

^ Saul also and his men went to seek him. And they told Ba^id : wherefore 
he came down || into a rock, and abode in the wilderness of Maon. And when 
Saul heard that^ he pursued after Da^id in the wilderness of Maon. ^ And 
Saul went on this side of the mountain, and David and his men on that side of 
the mountain : ^ and Dayid made haste to get away for fear of Saul ; for Saul 
and his men "^ compassed David and his men round about to take them. 
^ 'But there came a messenger unto Saul, saying, Haste thee, and come ; for 
the Philistines have f invaded the land. ^ Wherefore Saul returned from 
pursuing after David, and went against the Philistines : therefore they called 
that place |l Sela-hammahlekoth. 

^ And David went up from thence, and dwelt in strong holds at 'En-gedi. 
XXrV. ^ And it came to pass, 'when Saul was returned from f following the 
Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David t^ in the wilderness of 
£n-gedi« ^ Then Saul took three thousand chosen men out of all Israel, and 
''went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats. ' And he 
came to the sheepcotes by the way, where was a cave ; and "" Saul went in to 
''cover his feet : and * David and his men remained in the sides of the cave. 
^ 'And the men of David said unto him, Behold the day of which the Lobd said 
unto thee, Behold, I will deliver thine enemy into thine hand, that thou mayest 
do to him as it shall seem good unto thee. Then David arose, and cut off the 
skirt of f Saul's robe privily. ^ And it came to pass afterward, that * David's 
heart smote him, because he had cut off Saul's skirt. ^And he said unto his 


p Ps. 81. n. 
qPs. 17.9. 

r See S Kiogs 19. 


t Heb. »prM4 


I That is, The 
roek qf dipiriont. 

s 2 Chron. 20. 2. 

a oh. 28. 28. 
t Heb. ^fitr. 

b Ps. 88. 12. 
oPs. 141.6. 

d Jodg. 8. 24. 
e Ps. 57, title, 
ft 142, title, 
feh. 26. 8. 

t Heb. lk$ rob* 
wkiek WM Soul's, 
g 2 Sam. 24. 10. 

96. a roek] ih€ roeks probftbly tlie drcnkr hiU of Metith on 
which are ruinf of a tower. It oommands an exteniiye view eait- 
ward toward the Dead Sea; and northward toward Hebron, 
which ia Tisible from it : aee Jiobimi<m ii. 194^ who layt, « Here 
we found onnelTes gorroonded by the towns and monntuns of 
Judah, and ooold enumerate before ns not less than nineplaoes 
•till bearing iq^parenU^ their ancient names— Maon, €«rmel 
(now KurmiU), and ^p^, and Jnttah ; Jatthr, Soooh (now 
Skmwikek), Anab, and Eshtemoa (now Semuah), and • Kiijath 
Arba, which is Hebron' (Josh. xv. 48). The feelings with 
which we looked npon those ancient dtes were a soffldent 
reward for our whole journey." 

— 4fao«] now Maim, about nine miles south of Hebron (cp. 
Josh. XY. 65), and about five miles south of 2V{^Z|f, whence it 
is risible. 

87. Seuie tkee, and corns ; for the FiiUsHnei Jloo* imvaded 
ike land] The Philistine invasion was providentiallv the means 
of David's escape. So Jerusalem was delivered by Qod, sending 
a blast on Sennacherib, by a rumour of the inroad of the king 
of Ethiofrfa (Isa. xxxviL 7. 9). So the primitive "Church of 
Judiea bad rest," because tne Jews, their persecutors, were 
driven off by the assault of the Romans npon them (see on 
Acts ix. 81) ; so St. Fwal escaped by means of the quarreb of 
the Pharisees and Sadducees (Acts xxiiL 9, 10). 

S8. Sek^kammaAUkoih'] roek ofucafmgt: from ehalak, to 
he smooth, and in hiphil, to slip away, to escape (Ghsen. 283^. 
Anothor meaning of ehalak is to decide, and this meaning is 
assigned to this word here in some andent versions {Sept,, Vulg,, 
4^*» Arabics, whence perhaps the sense is rook of divisions, 
because Saul s attention was distracted between two enemies ; 
and so David escaped. 

to. En-geds] now Ain Jidff, i. e. fountain of the kid, a 
beantiAil fountain on the west coast of the Dead Sea (Josh. xv. 
62). There David lived among " the rocks of the wild goats." 
On an sides the countir is ftdl of caverns, which might serve as 
lurking-places for David and his men. We ascended the sum- 
mit of a perpendicular diff overhanging Aim Jid^ and the Dectd 
8sa, fifteen hundred foet below us, iniich lay before us, in its 
vast deep chasm, shut in on both sides by ranges ofpred^tous 
mountains. The more ancient Hebrew name (^ Mgedi was 
ffasezon Tamar (felling of palm-trees) ; as such it is first men- 
tkmed before the destruction of Sodom (Oen. xiv. 7. 2 Chron. 
XX. 2). Under the name ofSngedi it occurs as a dty of Judah 
to the desert, giving its name to that part of the desert to 

which David withdrew for foar of SauL According to Josephus 
(AjxtL ix. 1. 2) it lay upon the Uke Aq^tites, and was celebrated 
lor beautiftil ^a2m-<r0er, whence its name Hazezon Tamar; and 
its vineyards are likewise mentioned in the Old Testament 
(Cant. i. 14). Sobinson, ii. 204. 214. Ch^. Dr. Thomson's descrip- 
tions, Land and Book, pp. 602, 608; and the description and view 
in the ]iev. S. B. Tristram's Land of Israel, pp. 281, 282. 

Ch. XXIY. 8. a caice'] Supposed by some to be a hurge cave 
called EUnaamah in Wa^ Chareitmn (]r.B. of Tekoa), described 
by Tococke (u, 41), and by Vandevelde QL 74), but this seems 
to be too far from i)ngedL 

•-- to cover his feef] One of the modes of expression by 
which Hol^ Scripture teaches reserve and delicacy of language. 
Cp. Judg. lii. 24^ and Joseph«s vi. 8, 4; and see note below, on 
1 Thess. iv. 6. 

4. cut of the skirt qf Sours robej The skirt (literally, the 
foing) of bis long outer mantle {meiCj. Saul had probably laid 
aside his loose mantle, when be retired for the purpose men- 
tioned in V, 8, and had left lus mantle on the ground, which 
David espied (perhaps it was of a bright colour, such as was 
worn by lungs), and he advanced from nis retreat> and cut off 
the skirt of it. 

Pkobably David would have felt too much reverence for 
Saul, to ii^ure bis robe, if it had been actually on his royal 
person at the tome; as it was, "his heart smote him 
because he had cut off Saul's skirt" 

5 — 8.1 For lessons of CThristian loyalty to kings, derivable from 
this history, see the sermon of Bp, Andrewes on this text, iv. 

Many divines of the Roman Church, especially among the 
Jesuits, have not hesitated to affirm that David womd have been 
justified in kUUng Saul, as an act of self-defence : see Lessius de 
Justitia ii. 9, dub. 8, and Covamvias, Corduba, Ndvarms, and 
others quoted by A L<spide here ; an opinion which contravenes 
David's own declaration, v. 6. 10, 11; xxvi. 9. 11; and 2 Sam, 
i. 14—16. Cp. S, Chrgs., tom. iv. p. 767. 8, Augustine c. 
litt. PetiUan., " David Smilem, propter sacro-sanctam unctionem, 
et honoravit vivum, et vindicavit oodsum ;" and bdow, on iv. 

0. Doeuf tf heart"] Here heitrt is used for conscience, as 
often in Hebrew : see Prov, iv. 23. Eccl. vii. 22 ; note below, 
on 1 John iii. 21; and Bp, ScMderson on Conscience, Pr»l. 

Digitized by 


David's speech to Saul. 

1 SAMUEL XXIV. 7—22. 

Said weeps. 

hch 16. 11. 

f Heb. en$ of. 
i P«. 7. 4. 
Matt. 6. 44. 
Rom. 12. 17. 19. 

k Ps. 141. 6. 
Prov. 16. 28. 
&17. 9. 

1 Ps. 7. 3. 
8r 35. 7. 

m ch. 26. 20. 

n Gen. 16. 5. 
Judg. 11.27. 
ch. 26. 10. 
Job 5. 8. 

och. 17.43. 
2 Sam. 9. 8. 
p ch. 26. 20. 
q ver. 12. 
r 2 Chron. 24. 22. 
sPs. 85. 1. 
&43. 1. 
8c 119. 154. 
Micah 7. 9. 
t Heb. Mm. 
t ch. 26. 17 . 
u ch. 26. 21. 
X Gen. 38. 26. 

y Matt. 6. 44. 

s ch. 26. 23. 
f Heb. 9hut tip, 
eh. 23. 12. 
ft 26. 8. 

a eh. 21. 17. 

e t Sam. 21. 6, 1 

d oh. 28. 29. 

men, ** The Lord forbid that I should do this thing nnto my master, the 
Lord's anointed, to stretch forth mine hand against him, seeing he t^ the 
anointed of the Lord. ^ So David f ' stayed his servants with these words, and 
suffered them not to rise agamst Sanl. But Saul rose np out of the cave, and 
went on his way. 

^ David also arose afterward, and went out of the cave, and cried after Saul, 
saying, My lord the king. And when Saul looked behind him, David stooped 
with his face to the earth, and bowed himself. * And David said to Saul, 
^ Wherefore hearest thou men's words, saying. Behold, David seeketh thy hurt ? 
^^ Behold, this day thine eyes have seen how that the Lord had delivered thee 
to day into mine hand in the cave : and some bade me kill thee : but mine eye 
spared thee ; and I said, I will not put forth mine hand against my lord ; for 
he is the Lord's anointed. ^^ Moreover, my father, see, yea, see the skirt of 
thy robe in my hand : for in that I cut off the skirt of thy robe, and killed 
thee not, know thou and see that there is 'neither evil nor transgression in mine 
hand, and I have not sinned agamst thee ; yet thou "" huntest my soul to take 
it. ^^ *" The Lord judge between me and thee, and the Lord avenge me of 
thee : but mine hand shall not be upon thee. ^^ As saith the proverb of the 
ancients, Wickedness proceedeth from the wicked : but mine hand shall not be 
upon thee. ^* After whom is the king of Israel come out ? after whom dost 
thou pursue? "^ after a dead dog, after «*aflea. i^^The Lord therrfbre be 
judge, and judge between me and thee, and 'see, and 'plead my cause, and 
f deliver me out of thine hand. 

^^ And it came to pass, when David had made an end of speaking these 
words unto Saul, that Saul said, * J« this thy voice, my son David ? And Saul 
lifted up his voice, and wept. ^^ « j^^ he said to David, Thou art ' more 
righteous than I : for ^ thou hast rewarded me good, whereas I have rewarded 
thee evil. ^^ And thou hast shewed this day how that thou hast dealt well 
with me : forasmuch as when " the Lord had f delivered me into thine hand, 
thou killedst me not. ^^ For if a man find his enemy, will he let him go well 
away ? wherefore the Lord reward thee good for that thou hast done unto me 
this day. ^ And now, behold, "I know well that thou shalt surely be kmg, 
and that the kingdom of Israel shall be established in thine hand. ^' ^ Swear 
now therefore unto me by the Lord, "" that thou wilt not cut off my seed after 
me, and that thou wilt not destroy my name out of my father's house. ^ And 
David sware unto Saul. And Saul went home ; but David and his men gat 
them up unto ^ the hold. 

6. The JjOTld forbid] Lit. a curse he to me firom the Lobd 
{Cheten. 280^. Cp. Josh. zxU. 29; below, xxvi. 11. 1 Kings 
xxi. 3. "Tnere is not in any tongue so earnest, passionate 
an abnegation, abjuration, abrenundation as tins'' {Bp. 
Andrewes, iv. 168V 

David showed more heroism in oonqnering his own anger, 
ambition, and revenge, and in roaring Saul, than in oonqaenng 
Cioliatii the champion of the Philistines. 8. Chr^, in the homi- 
lies quoted at the end of this chapter, p. 761. 

7. suffered them not] Lit. tore them away. Cp. Qesen, 841. 
18. nakedness proceedeth from the toicked] It comes from 

the wicked ; but does not proceed from me. 

David, though he could not but desire the accomplishment 
of God's gracious promise to advance him to the Kingdom, 
which was not his yet, otherwise than by God's designation, but 
nnotfaer's (i« e. Saul's) ; yet when he was urged by his followers to 
lay hold of a fiiir opporitunity, which, they thought, God had 
put into his hand for the effect thereof, his soul did so much 
nbhor the veiy mention of such a feet, that at two several times 
(cp. xxvi. 11) he would not so much as take the advice into the 

least ddiberadon, but rejected it, with an Abnt ! too. " ShaU I 
lay these hands upon the Lobd'b anointed f Oodfbrbid t Ko ; 
I will not do it for a kingdom ; such wicked &ct8 1 leave fbr 
wicked men to act. God can, and will, in His own due time make 
good His own promise without my sin. I shall be oontent to wait 
His leisure, and to remain in the sad condition I now am in, till it 
shall please Him to bring me out of it." Bp. Sanderson, i. 129. 

Wickedness proceedeth from the uncked-^A prophetic 
speech. Thy death will not be from me, who have no sudi erfl 
thoughts — ^but from the wicked. And so it was : Saul perii^M 
by his own wicked hands (xxxi. 4). 

14. a flea'] Lit one flea : a single one ; and so 8ept^ V^U 
Cp. XXVI. 20; the only other place where it is mentioned to p 
Bible {Thomson). 

16. Is this ihy voice, my son David f] Darid, by his tender- 
ness and forbearance, heaped coals of nre — of burning ihMne, 
remorsei, and love, on Saul's head. Cp. below, xxvi. 17 ; and 
note on Bom. xii. 20 ; and 8. Chrys, Horn., quoted below, p. 778. 

22. David— ff at ^unto the hold] David sware to Saul, nad was 
true to him ; but David could not trust Sftol. 

Digitized by 


Death of Samuel. 

1 SAMUEL XXV. 1—11. 

David and Nabal. 

XXY. ^ And * Samuel died ; and all the Israelites were gathered together, 
and ** lamented him, and buried him in his house at Bamah. And David arose, 
and went down * to the wilderness of Paran. 

^ And there was a man "^in Maon, whose ||posseseions were in ^ Carmel ; and 
the man was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand 
goats: and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel. ' Now the name of the man 
was Nabal ; and the name of his wife Abigail : and she was a woman of good 
understanding, and of a beautiful countenance : but the man was churlish and 
eyil in his doings ; and he was of the house of Caleb. ^ And David heard in the 
wilderness that Nabal did 'shear his sheep. ^ And David sent out ten young men, 
and David said unto the young men, Get you up to Carmel, and go to Nabal, and 
f greet him in my name : ^ And thus shall ye say to him that liveth in prosperity j 
■Peace be both to thee, and peace be to thhie house, and peace be unto all that 
thou hast. ^ And now I have heard that thou hast shearers : now thy 
shepherds which were with us, we f hurt them not, ^ neither was there ought 
missing unto them, all the while they were in Carmel. ^ Ask thy young men, 
and they will shew thee. Wherefore let the young men find favour in thine 
eyes : for we come in * a good day : give, I pray thee, whatsoever cometh to thine 
hand unto thy servants, and to thy son David. ^ And when David's young 
men came, they spake to Nabal according to aU those words in the name of 
David, and f ceased. ^^ And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, ^ Who 
is David ? and who is the son of Jesse ? there be many servants now a days 
that break away every man from his master. ^^ ^ Shall I then take my bread, 
and my water, and my f flesh that I have killed for my shearers, and give it 

a ch. 28. 3. 

b Num. 20. 29. 
Dent, 34. 8. 
c Gen. 21.21. 
P«. 120. 5. 
d ch. 23. 24. 
I Or, buHntu, 
e Jo«h. 15. 55. 

f Gen. 88. 13. 
2 Sam. IS. 23. 

t Heb. ask him in 
mff uamt of ptuee, 
eh. 17.22. 
g I Chron. 12. 18. 
P«. 122. 7. 
Luke 10. 5 

f Heb. tkamid. 
hver. 15,21. 

i Nefa. 8. 10. 
£tth. 9. 19. 

t Heb. rested. 
k Judg. 9. 28. 
P«. 73. 7, 8. & 
128. 8, 4. 

1 Judg. 8. 6. 

t Heb. slaughter. 

Certain Psalms of David appear to be connected with the 
incident! related in this chapter ; especially Psalm Ivti., see the 
title to that PiBabn, "when he fled from Sanl in the cave " (" Be 
mercifVil nnto me, O God ") ; and cp. Ps. Iviii., and Pb. Ixiii., 
which win be read with interest in refeorenoe to these incidents. 

There are three eloquent homilies of 8. CkrytoHom, on 
Sanl and David, which relate to this portion of the history : 
see S, Ckrwi. xv. pp. 748—783, ed. Montfiincon. Meditat^ he 
says, on this example of David ; and do thou imitate it. Imitate 
it, in his self-control and in his love of his enemy. The cave 
in which he was, became like a Christian Chnrch ; and he was 
like a Christian Bishop, who first preaches a sermon, and then 
offers the sacrifice of the altar. (On the sense in which S. 
ChiTSDstom used the words, " offiBTS the saorifloe of the altar," 
see below, notes on Heb. ix. 12, p. 411.) So David preached a 
sermon by his example; and offered a true sacrifice, the 
^iritual sacrifice of himself, of his own anger : he became as it 
were*a priest, a sacrifice, and an altar ; and having offered this 
victim, he gained a glorious victory (8, Chryt,, tom. iv. p. 

Ch. XXV. 1. Samuel died] According to Joeepkue (vi. 18. 
6) he had judged Israel twelve vears siter Eli's death, and 
eighteen years together with Saul tne king : see above, on xv. 88. 
After the death of Samuel the Prophet his protector and 
fliend, David seemed to be more desolate, and retired to a 
greater distance from the persecution of Saul. 

— BamaX] where Samuel was bom and lived : see on i. 1. 

— wUdemese i(f Faram] the northern tract of the desert of 
Arabia : see Num. x. 12. ** Woe is me (he says, P&. cxx. 5) that 
I sqjoum in Mesech, and dwdl in the tents of Eedar. My 
flesh longeth for thee, in a dry and thirsty land, where no watcxr 
i8"(P8.1xiu. 1; cxliii.6). 

2. Moon] in the hill-oountry of Judah, where he had been 
before : see xxiiL 24. 

— Carmen not the Carmel on the sea-coast, celebrated in 
the history of Elijah (1 Kings xviii. 19), but in the hill-country 
of Judah, about a mile F.w. of Moon. It is now called Kurmul $ 
** where are more extensive ruins than we yet had seen an v 
where unless, perhaps, at Bethel. The ruins of the town Ue 
around the head, and along the two sides, of a valley, the head 
of which forms a semicixcular amphitheatre shut in by rocks; 


the bottom of which is formed by a beautifhl grass-plot with an 
artificial fountain in the middle. Here Saul set up the trophy 
of his victory over Amalek, and here Nabal was shearing his 
sheep, when the affiiir took place in which Abigail bore so con- 
spicuous a part" {Rohineonj iL 196. 199). 

8. NahaV] On the meaning of which name see o. 25. 

— AhigaiV] which means whoee father iejoy (Qeeen, 5). 

— he was of the house of CsZsftJ Lit. and he uxte a Calebite; 
which Josephus (vL 18. 6) interprets by kvvik6s, eur-Uke : and 
so 8ept,t Arahict and JSjyriac ; and this seems to be the true 

4. David heard in the wildemeeej of Paran : see o. 1. He 
was drawn from his retreat bv these tidings. 

5. ffo to Nahal, and greet him'] In all these particulars (says 
Dr. Bobinson) when we were at Kurmul, taid were in the 
midst of scenes memorable for the adventures of David, we 
were deeply struck with the truth and strength of the biblical 
description of manners and customs, almost id^tically the same 
as tiiose that exist at the present day. On such a festive occa- 
sion as a sheep-shearing, near a town or village, an Arab Sheikh 
of the neighbouring deaert would hardly £ul to put in a word, 
either in person or by message ; and his message would be a 
transcript of that of David to Nabal (MoHneon, ii. 200, 201). 

6. that Uveth] or, literally, to life. It seems to be a salutation 
like vivae ! valeae / See Bp, Peareon on the Creed, Art. xii., 
note, p. 895. 

9. and eeaaed] See Oeeen, 589. Some inte>^[>ret it ** they eat 
down** waiting for a rcfdy. They added nothing of their own, 
but delivered tiie message of thdr master, precisely as David had 
uttered it. 

11. flNjf bread] Nabal says,— my bread, my water, my flesh, 
im shearars ; as if any thing were really his own, and not lent to 
him by God ! Our Lord, describing the Nahal {ot foot) of the 
Gospel ; who had said, ** I have no room where to bestow my 
fruits ; I will pull down mff bams, and will build greater, and 
there will /bestow all «^ fruits, and my goods; and I will say 
to my soul. Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; 
take thine ease ; eat, drink, and be meny," adds, that Uod said 
unto him, <* Thou fool (&^y)» (thou second Nahal,) this night 
shiJl thy soul be requirod of thee ; and then whose shall those 
thmga be winch thoa host provided ? " See below, on Luke 
xiL 17—20. 

Digitized by 


David's oath* 

1 SAMUEL XXV. 12—26. 

Abigail's intercession. 

m ch. 80. S4. 

n vn. 7. 

Ex. 14. 21. 

Jobl. 10. 

p ch. 20. 7. 

q Deut. IS. IS. 
Judg. 19 12. 
rOen.Sl. IS. 
Prov.18. 16.ft21 

I Or. 

unto men, whom I know not whence they he? ^^ So Dayid's young men turned 
their way, and went again, and came and told him all those sayings. ^^ And 
Dayid said unto his men, Gird ye on every man his sword. And they girded 
on every man his sword ; and David also girded on his sword : and there went 
up after David about four hundred men ; and two hundred "" abode by the 

^* But one of the young men told Abigail, Nabal's wife, saying. Behold, 
David sent messengers out of the wilderness to salute our master ; and he 
t railed on them. ^* But the men were very good unto us, and ° we were not 
f hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as we were conversant with them, 
when we were in the fields : ^^ They were ** a wall unto us both by night and 
day, all the while we were with them keeping the sheep. ^^ Now therefore 
know and consider what thou wilt do; for 'evil is determined against our 
master, and against all his household : for he is such a son of "^ Belial, that a 
man cannot speak to him. ^^ Then Abigail made haste, and 'took two hundred 
loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready dressed, and five measures 
of parched com, and an hundred || clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes 
B Gen. 81. 16. 20. of figs, aud IbiA them on asses. ^^ And she said unto her servants, 'Go on 
before me ; behold, I come after you. But she told not her husband Nabal. 
^ And it was so, as she rode on the ass, that she came down by the covert of the 
hill, and, behold, David and his men came down against her ; and she met 
them. 2^ Now David had said, Surely in vain have I kept all that this fellow 
hath in the wilderness, so that nothing was missed of all that pertained unto 
him : and he hath * requited me evil for good. 22 u g^ ^^^ ^j^^j.^ ^^ ^^ q^^ 
unto the enemies of David, if I ' leave of all that pertain to him by the morning 
light ' any that pisseth against the wall. 

^ And when Abigail saw David, she hasted, and ' lighted off the ass, and 
fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground, ^ And fell at 
his feet, and said, Upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be : and let 
thine handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thine f audience, and hear the 
words of thine handmaid. ^ Let not my lord, I pray thee, f regard this man 
of Belial, even Nabal : for as his name is, so is he; \\ Nabal is his name, and 
folly is with him : but I thine handmaid saw not the young men of my lord, 
whom thou didst send. ^ Now therefore, my lord, ^as the Lobd Uveth, and 
as thy soul liveth, seeing the Lord hath **withholden thee from coming to shed 

t Ps. 109. 5. 
Prov. 17. IS. 
a Ruth 1. 17. 
ch. S. 17. ft It. 
13. 16. 
z ver. S4. 
7 1 Kings 14. 10. 
2 Kings 9. 8. 
I Josh.-lS. 18. 
Judg. 1. 14. 

t Heb. Mf». 

t Heb. tmgiiio 


I That U. Foot. 

at Kings 3. 2. 

b Gen. 20. 6. 
y«r. iS. 

18. the ttuff^ See Oen. zzzi. 87; xlr. 20: above, x. 22; 
below, zxz. 24. 

17. 80% of Belial] See on Dent. ziii. 18, and Jndg. xix. 22. 

20. covert qf the hiU] A deep dip into the hill, into which 
she came down from the north, when David came down to it from 
the sonth. 

22. So and more aUo do €hd wUo—DavU^ David swears that 
he will destroy eveir male of Nabal's hoosehold. Tet he did not 
keep this oaA ; and he afterwards bleseed God that he was pre- 
vented fiY>m keeping it (see v, 83), for he was nnder a previons 
obligation to obey wd, and not to commit murder. He sinned 
in swearing such an oath ; bat he wonld have sinned more, if he 
had added the sin of murder to the sin of swearing a rash oath. 

Here is instruction with regard to raeh oathe and unlcaoful 
VOW9 : see Bp. Sanderson de Juram. iii. 16 ; and note below, on 
Matt. xiv. 9. Acts xxiiL 12. Observe the contrast between the cases 
of David and Herod. David is deterred by the expostulations of 
Abigail, a prudent and fiur woman, from keeping his oath, and 
from putting to death an evil man, Nabal; and he blesses Qod 
for it. Herod is urged by Herodias and her mother, two 
women fair in countenance, but foul in heart, to keep his rash 
oath, and to put to death a holy man, John the Baptist ; and 

he suffered remorse fbr doing so (Matt. xiv. 1, 2), and afterwards 
fdl into greater sin, and mocked the Divine David (Luke xxiii. 
11), and came to a miserable end. 

— aay .... wall] any male (so B. Levi, BUae, Boohart, 
KaUt Aisemann), espeoaUy the youngest boy of the &mily. See 
Geeen. 853. Cp. 1 Kings xiv. 10; xvL 11 ; xxi. 21. 2 Kings 

28. lighted off the ate] as Achash did, before her fiUiher 
(Josh. XV. 18). 

26. man of BeUaX\ man of nanght, a weak creature : see on 
Deut xiii. 18 : above, o. 17 ; below, xxx. 22. 

— Nabal is hie name, and foUy is with him] Bather, siUu 
neet ie with him. He is by nature a weak creature. Do not there« 
fore heed what he says. Abigail apologizes for her husband, 
and represents him as offending out of stolidiW and sUUness, 
rather than of malice prepense. Nabal, i. e. i^pttv, the word 
used by our Lord in St. Luke's Gospel : see above, on v. 11 (from 
the w(Hrd nahal, iofade away, Geeen. 528), and the Sept, here 
has k^a^yfi fier* ain-ov, and Jotephue (vi. 13. 7) says that 
Naj8((\or Korrk r^y 'Kfioaiwf yXStrra^ ii^poffvpiiv hjiKot, not so 
strong a word as fAuplay, Job applies the word NabcU to his 
wite (Job ii. 10), as Abigail does to her husband. 

Digitized by 


David blesses Abigail. 

1 SAMUEL XXV. 27— 39, 

NabaVs deaths 

blood, and from f" avenging thyself mth thine own hand, now *let thine 
enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Nabal. ^ And now 'this 
II blessing which thine handmaid hath brought unto my lord, let it even be 
given unto the young men that f follow my lord. ^ I pray thee, forgive the 
trespass of thine handmaid : for 'the Lobd will certainly make my lord a 
sure house ; because my lord » fighteth the battles of the Lord, and ** evil hath 
not been found in thee all thy days. ^ Yet a man is risen to pursue thee, and 
to seek thy soul : but the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of life 
with the Lord thy God ; and the souls of thine enemies, them shall he * sUng 
out, f as out of the middle of a sling. ^ And it shall come to pass, when the 
Lord shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he hath spoken 
concerning thee, and shall have appointed thee ruler over Israel ; ^^ That this 
shall be f no ^ef unto thee, nor oflfence of heart unto my lord, either that 
thou hast shed blood causeless, or that my lord hath avenged himself: but 
when the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord, then remember thine 

^ And David said to Abigail, * Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, which 
sent thee this day to meet me : ^ And blessed be thy advice, and blessed be 
thou, which hast 'kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from 
avenging myself with mine own hand. ^4 Yot in very deed, as the Lord God 
of Israel liveth, which hath ° kept me back from hurting thee, except thou 
hadst hasted and come to meet me, surely there had *" not been left unto Nabal 
by the morning light any that pisseth against the wall. ^ So David received 
of her hand that which she had brought him, and said unto her, ** Go up in 
peace to thine house ; see, I have hearkened to thy voice, and have ^ accepted 
thy person. 

^ And Abigail came to Nabal ; and, behold, ^ he held a feast in his house, 
like the feast of a king ; and Nabal's heart was merry within him, for he was 
very drunken : wherefore she told him nothing, less or more, untU the morning 
light. ^ But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of 
Nabal, and his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him, 
and he became as a stone. ^ And it came to pass about ten days after, that 
the Lord smote Nabal, that he died. ^ And when David heard that Nabal 
was dead, he said, 'Blessed be the Lord, that hath 'pleaded the cause of my 

t Heb. saving 


c Rom. 12. 19. 

d 2 Sam. 18. 82. 

eOen.SS. U. 

ch. SO. 26. 

2 Kings 5. 15. 

n Or, present. 

f Heb. walk ai 

the feet of, %e. 

ver. 42. 

Judg. 4. 10. 

f2Siim. Ml, 27. 

1 Kings 9. 5. 

1 Chion. 17. 10, 


g ch. 18. 17. 

heb. 24. 11. 

1 Jer. Id. 18. 

f Heb. in tht 
midst of the 
bought of a sling. 

t Heb. no stagger' 
ing, or, stumbling. 

k Oen. 24. 27. 

Ex. 18. 10. 

Pa. 41. 18. 8c 72. 


Luke 1. 68. 

1 ver. 26. 

m Ter. 86. 
n TOT. 28, 

ch. 20. 42. 

2 Sam. 15. 9. 

2 Kings 5. 19. 

Luke 7. 50. & 8. 


p Gen. 19. 21. 

q 2 Sam. 18. 28. 

r Ter. 82. 

• ProT. 28. 88. 

86. <u Kabat] weak, and ioBigniflcuLt, irnable to hxat thee; 
Abigail refers to the etymology of ihe name, which means to 
wither, to feule away, lilce a flower or a leaf: see v. 26. 

27. Mi* blesnnsfj tlXoyla (Sept,), gifi : see Qen.zxziii. 11; 
below, XXX. 26. 2 Kings ▼. 15. 2 Cor. ix. 6, 6. 

29. T(Bt a num is risen] Literally, tmd a man is risen. She 
spares the name of the kmg, and the case is put almost hypo- 
thetically. '* Si enim snrrexerit ** ( Fulff.), 

— in the bundle oflifel in the bundle of the Ueinaones wUh 
the Lobd ; i. e., of those who Uoe with Jihoyah, the Eyer-liying 
Onei, both in time and eternity. Cp. iyeiff^er,y. 200. 

The word bundle is the same as that in (^. xliL 86. Job 
xiv. 17. Prov. TiL 20, where it is rendered ba^, i. e. pnrse. 
Comp. Lnke xii. 88, " bags which wax not old, a treasure in the 
heavens." How expressiye therefore are the wmds of the Apostle, 
who seems to refer to the same metaphor, '* Your life is hid with 
Chbibt in God ** — as money in a safe treasury (Col. iii. 8). 

— slinff out, as out of the middle of a sUng] from the middle, 
or hollow cavity (Gen. xxxiL 25), in which the stone is placed by 
the slinger in order to be slung out. This figure is adopted in Jer. 
X. 18, "I will sling out the inhabitants of the land at this once." 

80. 99hen the Lobd shaU have done to my lor^ Abigail 
therefore had heard that David was appointed by God to be kSig. 
Vol. IL Pabt II.— 67 

81. That this shall be no grief uuto thee"] like a wise woman, 
she reserves the strongest argument for the last. 

" This shall be no grief unto thee*' The remembrance that 
thou hast heard my prayer, and spared Nabal, shall be no grief, 
literally, no offence, no stumbling-block, to thee, nor offenoe of 
heart, no stone of stumbling to thy conscience : see xxiv. 5. 

— either that thou hast shed blood causeless] RaUier, both 
for shedding blood without a cause, and for avenging thyself, 
instead of committing thy cause to God. This clause hangs upon 
the foregoing word, stumbling-block. The sparing of Nabal will 
be no such stumbling-block as thou wouldest have fbr kilUng 
him, and fbr taking vengeance into thine own hands, instead of 
reserving it to God. Cp. Bom. xii. 19, and the words of 
Solomon (Prov. xx. 22), " Say not thou, I will vecompense evil; 
but wait on the Lobd, and He shall save thee." 

82. Blessed be the Lobd] David knew thecorruptionof hisown 
heart. '* Keep back thy servant from presumptuous sins,'* was 
his prayer to CK>d (Ps. xix. 18) ; and if he was kept bade from 
sinning, he praised God for it. Here is a double lesson to us, 
not to rely on ourselves, but on Gbd's grace. See Bp. Sander^ 
son, i. 108, on Ps. xix. 13. 

84. and come] On the unusual Hebrew form here used, tabothi^ 
see J^aU, Gr. § 191. 4>»^ p. 179. Cp. Dent xxxiu. 16. 

Digitized by 


Damd takes Abigail to icife. 1 SAMUEL XXV. 40 — 44. XXVI. 1— 9. He spares Saul. 

t vex. 26, 84. 

a 1 Kings 2. 44. 
Pt. 7. 16. 

X Ruth 2. 10, 13. 
Ptov. 15. 83. 

t Heh. at her feet, 
ver. 27. 
7 Josh. 15. 56. 
K ch. 27. 8. & 80. 
a 2 Sam. 8. 14. 

1 Phaltlel, 

2 Sam. 8. 15. 
b Isa. 10. 30. 
a ch. 23. 19. 
Ps. 54, title. 

bch. 14. 60. & 17. 


n Or, midst of hit 


ch. 17.20. 

e 1 Chroa 2. 16. 

d Judg. 7. 10, 11. 

t Heb. ehttt up, 
ch. 24. 18. 

e ch. 24. 6, 7. 
2 Sam. 1. 16. 

reproach from the hand of Nabal, and hath ^ kept his servant from evil : for the 
Lord hath "returned the wickedness of Nabal upon his own head. 

And David sent and communed with Abigail, to take her to him to wife. 
^^ And when the servants of David were come to Abigail to Carmel, they 
spake unto her, saying, David sent us unto thee, to take thee to him to wife. 
*i And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth, and said. Behold, 
let 'thine handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord. 
^^ And Abigail hasted, and arose, and rode upon an ass, with five damsels of 
hers that went f after her ; and she went after the messengers of David, and 
became his wife. *^ David also took Ahinoam ^ of Jezreel ; * and they were also 
both of them his wives. ^ But Saul had given "Michal his daughter, David's 
wife, to II Phalti the son of Laish, which was of ** Gallim. 

XXVI. ^ And the Ziphites came unto Saul to Gibeah, saying, "Doth not 
David hide himself in the hill of Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon ? ^ Then 
Saul arose, and went down to the wilderness of Ziph, having three thousand 
chosen men of Israel with him, to seek David in the wilderness of Ziph. ' And 
Saul pitched in the hill of Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon, by the way. 
But David abode in the wilderness, and he saw that Saul came after hm into 
the wilderness. ^ David therefore sent out spies, and understood that Saul was 
come in very deed. 

^ And David arose, and came to the place where Saul had pitched : and 
David beheld the place where Saul lay, and ^ Abner the son of Ner, the captam of 
his host : and Saul lay in the || trench, and the people pitched round about him. 
^ Then answered David and said to Ahimelech the Hittite, and to Abishai "" the 
son of Zeruiah, brother to Joab, saying, Who will **go down with me to Saul 
to the camp ? And Abishai said, I will go down with thee. ^ go David and 
Abishai came to the people by night : and, behold, Saul lay sleeping within the 
trench, and his spear stuck in the ground at his bolster : but Abner and the 
people lay round about him. ^ Then said Abishai to David, God hath 
f delivered thine enemy into thine hand this day : now therefore let me smite 
him, I pray thee, with the spear even to the earth at once, and I will not smite 
him the second time. ^ And David said to Abishai, Destroy him not : • for who 

89. And David sent and communed wnth Ahiffoin We are not 
told how long a time elapsed between her huBband^s death and 
her marriage with Dayi<L 

41. hoio&i hersein She knew he wonld be king (v. 80). 

48. cmd became hie vnfe'] after the death of ISabal, whose 
character and acts have beaa described. S. Ambrose compares 
the espoosalfl of Abigiul to David, after Nabal's death, to the 
union of the Church to Christ after the cessation of its con- 
nexion with heathenism (Ambroee, Epbt. 81, ad Irenem). 

48. AMnoam] which means, whose brother is grace* 

— JezreeU not the Jezreel in Issachar, but in Judah (Josh. 
XV. 66). 

44. to FhaU%] or, Fhaltiel (2 Sam. iii. 15). But David received 
Michal back again after Saul's death (2 Sam. iii. 14). 

— OtdUm'] between Gibeah and Jerusalem (Isa. x. 80). 

Ch. XXVI. 1. And the Z^hites came'] the old enemies of 
David : see xxiiL 19. In replv to the allegation of some modern 
critics (such as Thenius, who has revived the ol^ections of 
Ba^le), that it is not credible that the Ziphites and Saul should 
have renewed their combined hostilities against David, and that 
the present narrative is only a repetition c^ that in ch. xxiii., in 
a modified form, the reader may refer to 2)r, Chandlef's life of 
David, ch. xiii., and Keil here ; and he may be reminded of the 
repeated combinations of the same foes, the Scribes and Pharisees, 
against the Divine David in the Qospel (Matt. xii. 14 ; xxL 46, 
46; xxii. 15, 16. John xi. 47; xviii. 8). 

— HachUah — Jeshimon'] See xxiii 19. 

2. the wHdemess qf 2XpS] That entire region is now almost 
deserted, except bv Bedouin robbers, who render it as dangerous 
to honest shepherds as it was in David's time : see J>r, Thomson, 
p. 601. 

— three thousand chosen men^ His body-guard : see xiii. 2. 

6. Abishai] brother to Joab, son of David's sister Zeruiah 
(1 Chron. ii. 16). 

7. his we€W stuck in the ground] See on o. 11. 

8. Chd hath delivered thine enemy] lum whom thou hast 
saved, and who on several occasions has sought to kill thee 
(xViii. 11. 25 ; xix. L 10. 15 ). Cp. Bp. Andrewes (iv. 27). 

— let me smite him] At the cave of Engedi, David's men 
had prompted David himself to smite Saul, whom they said the 
Lord had delivered into his hand ; and David then said, " The 
LoBD forbid that I should do this thing unto my master, the 
Lobd's anointed" (xxiv. 4 — 6). 

Abishai does not ask David to smite Saul, but asks his 
leave that he himself may do it~" Let me smite him." David 
might have pleaded that it was not his own act ; but he will 
not do this. Re forbids Abidiai to smite Saul : " Destr(yr him 
not: for who can sta^tch forth his hand against tiie Lord's 
anointed, and be guiltless ?" For the lessons of Christian loyalty 
to be derived firam these words, the reader may r^er to the 
Sermon of Bp. Andrewes on this text, vcl, iv. pp. 24—42. 

These inferences with regard to the dutv of reverence to kings 
may be extended further, to all rulers, spintual and temporal. 

Digitized by 


Takes his spear and cruse. 1 SAMUEL XXVI. 10—19. David's answeY to Saul. 

can stretch forth his hand agamst the Lobd's anomted, and be gmltless ? 
^^ David said furthermore, As the Lord liveth, 'the Lord shall smite him ; or » his 
day shall come to die; or he shall ^ descend into battle, and perish. ^^^The 
Lord forbid that I should stretch forth mine hand against the Lord's anointed : 
but, I pray thee, take thou now the spear that is at his bolster, and the cruse of 
water, and let us go. i^ Qq David took the spear and the cruse of water from 
Saul's bolster ; and they gat them away, and no man saw it, nor knew it, 
neither awaked : for they were all asleep ; because ^ a deep sleep from the Lord 
was fallen upon them. 

1^ Then David went over to the other side, and stood on the top of an hill 
afar off; a great space being between them : '* And David cried to the people, 
and to Abner the son of Ner, saying, Answerest thou not, Abner ? Then 
Abner answered and said, Who art thou that criest to the king ? ^* And 
David said to Abner, Art not thou a valiant man ? and who is hke to thee in 
Israel ? wherefore then hast thou not kept thy lord the king ? for there came 
one of the people in to destroy the king thy lord. ^^ This thing is not good 
that thou hast done. As the Lord liveth, ye are f worthy to die, because ye 
have not kept your master, the Lord's anointed. And now see where the 
king's spear w, and the cruse of water that was at his bolster. ^^ And Saul 
knew David's voice, and said, * Is this thy voice, my son David ? And David 
said, It is my voice, my lord, king. ^® And he said, "* Wherefore doth my 
lord thus pursue after his servant ? for what have I done ? or what evil is in mine 
hand ? ^^ Now therefore, I pray thee, let my lord the king hear the words of his 
servant. If the Lord have " stirred thee up against me, let him f accept an 
offering : but if they be the children of men, cursed be they before the Lord ; 

fch. 35. 38. 
Ps. 94. 1, 2, 23. 
Luke 18. 7. 
Rom. 13. 19. 
g See Gen. 47. 29. 
Deut. 31. 14. 
Job 7. 1.&14.3. 
Ps. 87. 18. 
h ch. 31. 6. 
1 ch. 24. 6, 12. 

X Gen. 2. 21. M 
15. 12. 

f Heb. ike »otu of 


2 Sam. 12. 5. 

1 ch. 24. 16. 
mch. 24. 9» 11. 

n2 8am. 16. 11. 
ft 24. 1. 
t Heb. smell, 
Gen. 8. 21. 
Lev. 26. 31. 

11. ihe tpear that \b at hU hoUter, and the onue of water] 
*' I noticed (says Dr, Thornton, Land and Book, p. 367), at 
all the encampments which we passed, that the sheOch's tent was 
distinguished from the rest by a tall spear stuck upright in the 
ground in ftx)nt of it ; and it b the custom, when a party is out 
on an excursion for robbery or for war, that when they halt to 
rest, the spot where the chi^ reclines or rests, is thus designated. 
So Saul, when he lay sleeping, had his spear stuck in the ground 
at his bolster, and Abner and the people lay round about him 
(1 Sam. xxvL 7). The whole of that scene is eminently Oriental 
and perfectly natural, even to the deep sleep into which all had 
fallen, so that David and Abishai could walk among them in 
safety. The Arabs sleep heavily, especially when fatigued. 
Often, when travelling, my muleteers and servants have resolved 
to watch by turns in places thought to be dangerous ; but in 
every instance I soon found them fiist asleep, and generally 
their slumbers were so profound that I could not only walk 
among them without their waking, but might have taken the 
very aba with which they were covered. Then the cruse of 
water at Saul's head is in exact accordance with the customs of 
the people at this day. No one ventures to travd over these 
deserts without his cruse of water, and it is very common to 
place one at the ' bolster,' so that the owner can reach it during 
the night. The Arabs CAt their dinner in the evening, and it is 
generiuly of such a nature as to create thirst ; and the quantity 
of water which they drink is enormous. The ontee is, there- 
fore, in perpetual demand. Saul and his party lay in a shady 
valley, steeped in heavy sleep, after the &tigue of a hot day. 
The camp-ground of Sheikh Fareij, in WacUf Skukaiyif, is 
adapted in 2l respects to be the scene of the adventure. David 
from above marks the spot where the king slumbers, creeps 
cautiously down, and stands over his unconscious persecutor. 
Abishai asks permission to smite him once, only once, and pro- 
misee not to smite a second time ; but David forbade him, and, 
takinff the spear and cruse of water, ascended to the top of the 
hUl arar off, and cried aloud to Abner : ' Art not thou a valiant 
man ? and who is like to thee in Israel P . . As the Lord liveth, 
^e are worthy to die, becauM) ye have not kept your master. 

the Lord's anointed. And now see where the king's spear is, 
and the cruse of water that was at his bolster ' (1 Sam. xxvi. 
15, 16). What a strange sensation must have run through the 
camp as David's voice rang out these cutting taunts fVom the 
top of the hill ! But David was perfectly safe, and there are 
thousands of ravines where the whole scene could be enacted, 
every word be heard, and yet the speaker be quite beyond the 
reach of his enemies." 

The spear was the emblem of royalty, and this taking away 
of the spear from Saul's head as he slept was like an omen of 
the transfer of his royalty to David {Bp. Patrich), 

14. David cried to the people, and to Abner] He did not 
make an appeal now to Saul (as he had done before, xziv. 9), 
having had bitter experience of his faithlessness. 

16, worthy to die] Literally, eone qf death, 

17. Is thu thy voice, my son JUavidf] See above, xxiv. 

19. lei him accept an offering Literally, let him smell (as a 
tweet savour^ an offering (see Gen. viii. 21; xxvii. 27. Oesen, 
760); literally, a minchah or y\/t (Lev. ii. 1). If the Lord 
have stirred thee up against me, for any &nlt of mine [cp. the 
case of Absalom's sin (2 Sam. xii. 11), and of Shimei's (2 Sun. 
xvL 10), and of David's (2 Sam. xxiv. 10), and the note there], 
let me know mine offence, and I am ready to make an offering 
fbr it to the Lord, that I may be forgiven : so the Arabia 
Vernon, and Chaldee Targum, Others suppose that David 
suggests to Saul that The should offer a sacrifice to Gk>d, in order 
that he may be relieved of his unworthy suspicions; but the 
other interpretation seems preferable. 

— ifitiej be the children of men] Without any offence of mine. 

•— cursed be they before ihe LoBp] David does not utter a 
wish, but states a fact; he does not pray that they may be 
cursed, but he asserts that they are incurring a curse from Ood 
by driving him from Qod's sanctuary, and fix>m communion 
with GKxi's people. 

The F«/$r. translates the words well "maledictinfii^.'" not 
'' maledicti sint ;" and in our Authorized Yerrion the word he if 
equivalent to are, 


Digitized by 


Saul's confession. 1 SAMUEL XXVI. 20—25. XXVII. 1—8. David's flight to Goth. 

Deut. 4. S8. 
Ps. 120. 5. 
t Heb. eltaving. 
p 3 Sam. 14. 16. 
& 20. 19. 

q ch. 24. 14. 

r ch. 15. 24. ft 24. 

I ch. 18. 80. 

t Pt. 7. 8. ft 18. 


11 Oen. 82. 28. 

t Heb. b* eon- 

a ch. 25. IS. 
bcb.21. 10. 

c ch. 25. 43. 

** for they have driven me out this day from f abiding in the ^ inheritance of the 
Lord, saying, Go, serve other gods, ^o j^q^ therefore, let not my blood fall 
to the earth before the face of the Lobd : for the king of Israel is come out to 
seek "* a flea, as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountains. 

21 Then said Saul, 'I have sinned : return, my son David : for I will no more 
do thee harm, because my soul was 'precious in thine eyes this day: 
behold, I have played the fool, and have erred exceedingly. ^ Aai David 
answered and said. Behold the king's spear ! and let one of the young men 
come over and fetch it. ^ * The Lord render to every man his righteousness 
and his faithfulness : for the Lord delivered thee into my hand to day, but I 
would not stretch forth mine hand against the Lord's anointed. ^ And, 
behold, as thy life was much set by this day in mine eyes, so let my life be 
much set by in the eyes of the Lord, and let him deliver me out of all 
tribulation. ^ Then Saul said to David, Blessed be thou, my son David : thon 
shalt both do great things, and also shalt still "prevail. So David went on his 
way, and Saul returned to his place. 

XXVII. ^ And David said in his ^eart, I shall now f perish one day by the 
hand of Saul : there is nothing better for me than that I should speedily escape 
into the land of the Philistines ; and Saul shall despair of me, to seek me any 
more in any coast of Israel : so shall I escape out of his hand. ^ j^^ David 
arose, •and he passed over with the six hundred men that were with him **unto 
Achish, the son of Maoch, king of Gath. * And David dwelt with Achish at 
Gath, he and his men, every man with his household, even David ^^ with his two 
wives, Ahinoam the JezreeUtess, and Abigail the Carmelitess, Nabal's wife. 

— iotfinff, €h, serve other gods] He does not so mach quote 
their words as represent the tendency of £heir acts (Keil), 

20. let not my blood fall to the earth before the face </the 
Lobd] for He will surely avenge it. The word here renaered 
before is neged with m prefix, and is rendered by some far fi-om, 
as in Ps. xxxviiL 11 (so Keil), Drive me not to a foreign land 
that my blood may be spilt there. But the former interpreta- 
tion seems preferable, and this sense of muneged is illustrated by 
Gen. xxi. 16, and other passages : see Qeeen, 531. 

— a partridge] Heb. hori. The word is only found here, 
and in Jer. xvii. 11. Its name is derived from the Hebrew hara, 
to cry. The Sept. renders it by yvxriKSpai : Vulg, and other 
ancient versions by perdix, partridge ; and this seems to be 
the right rendering. 

Ths sense is. Thou, tlie King of Israel, huntest me, who am 
not worth thy pains ; and thou doest it in strange places ; and 
when thou mightest employ thy time in other pursuits, as in 
conquests over tlie enemies of IsraeL As if a hunter, who might 
find coveys of partridges in the^^, should leave the lowlands, 
and oome and range ulo mounteUnt in quest of some one solitary 
bird. The species of partridge here described is probably that 
which when chased will not nse into the air, but runs rapidly 
along the gpround, and which is pursued by the Arabs, and when 
weary and can run no further, is knocked down by them with 
their staves. Shaw, Travels, p. 236. Cp. iTiner, R. W . B. ii. 307. 

David's language in Ps. xL is very appropriate here, and 
seems to have been suggested by the incidents in the text, — " In 
the Lord put I my trust : bow say ye then to my soul that she 
should flee, as a bird utUo the hill?** 

20. thou shalt both do great things, and also shalt still 
prevaiT] Saul is here also " among the prophets," and foretells 
David's exaltation and victory. ** Vicisti, Nazarene I" was the 
exclamation of Julian. 

Ch. XXVII. L I shall now perish] These words, extorted 
from David, prove Saul's faithlessness and impenitence— like that 
of Pharaoh—after protestations of remorse : see ch. xivi. 21. This 
narrative prepares us for Saul's desperate resolve, described in 
the next chapter ; and it accounts for God's refusal to hear him. 
There was some infirmity in this act of David, saying that he 
should perish by the hand of Saul. It may be compaired with the 

temporary weakness of Abraham, leading him to dissemble^ Ant 
with Pharaoh, and afterwards with Abimelech (G^n. xx. 12). 

Although David had a promise of the kingdom from God, yet 
he feared that he should perish one day by the hand of Saul ; 
and in a kind of distrust of God's truth and protection, he ven> 
tured so far upon his own head, never so much as asking counsel 
at the hand of God, as to expose himself to great inconveniences, 
hazards, and temptations, in the midst of a hostile and idolatrous 
people ; and he was sensible of the imperfection, and acknow- 
ledgeth it as an infirmity, and striveth against it (Ps. IxxviL 
10—12). Bp, Sanderson (i. 414). 

— there is nothing better for me than] Literally, there is not 
any good for me here : but I will escape into the land qf the 
Philistines, That which he had most deprecated (xxvi. 19), 
" They have driven me out from abiding in the inheritance of 
the Lord," is liow forced upon him by Saul. 

Here was another sign of distrust in David, of which he 
afterwards repented. He says, there is nothing good for him in 
the land of Israel. But he afterward said, " It is good for me to 
hold me fast by God j to put my trust in the Lord God " (Pft. 
Ixxiii. 27) ; and he censured those who said, " Who will show us 
any good ? Lord, lift Thou up the light of Thy countenance 
upon us " (Ps. iv. 6), and he encouragidd himself in the LOBB 
his God : see below, xxx. 6. 

2. Achish] See xxi. 11. 1 l^mgs ii. 89. Whether this 
Achish is the same person as there mentioned, or whether Achish 
may not have been an official title of the princes of Gath, cannot 
be determined. 

8. Ahinoam the JezreeUtess, and Abigail the Carmelitess'] 
Ahinoam means my brother is delight i and Jezreel signifies 
sown of God, Abigait means my father is eataUatioH ; and 
Carmel meanafrui^l field. 

Some of t^ ancient Fathers regard the wives of David aa 
types of Christian Churches (see Ambrose, Epist. 31); and 
these names might be applied in a spiritual sense td Churches 
of Christ. 

David was a type of Christ ; but what in the human type 
was sinful, was, as it were, purified from its sinfulness in the 
Divine Antitype. David sinned in taking many wives; but 
Christ's love is seen in His spiritual union with all Churches 
and with fidthfiil souls in them : see beloW, 2 S4in. v. 18. 

Digitized by 


David at Ziklag. 1 SAMUEL XXVn. 4—12. XXVm. 1—4. 


^ And it was told Sanl that David was fled to Gath : and he sought no more 
again for him. 

^ And David said mito Achish, If I have now fomid grace in thine eyes, let 
them give me a place in some town in the country, that I may dwell there : 
for why should thy servant dwell in the royal city with thee ? ^ Then Achish 
gave him Ziklag that day : wherefore ^ Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah 
unto this day. ^ And f the time that David dwelt in the country of the 
Philistines was f a full year and four months. 

® And David and his men went up, and invaded 'the Geshurites, 'and the 
II Gezrites, and the ^ Amalekites : for those nations were of old the inhabitants of 
the land, ^as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt. ^ And David 
smote the land, and left neither man nor woman aHve, and took away the 
sheep, and the oxen, and the asses, and the camels, and the apparel, and 
returned, and came to Achish. ^^ And Achish said, || Whither have ye made a 
road to day ? And David said. Against the south of Judah, and against the 
south of * the Jerahmeelites, and against the south of ""the Kenites. ^^ And 
David saved neither man nor woman alive, to bring tidings to Gath, saying, Lest 
they should tell on us, saying. So did David, and so will he his manner all the 
whUe he dwelleth in the country of the Philistines. ^^ And Achish believed 
David, saying. He hath made his people Israel \ utterly to abhor him ; there- 
fore he shall be my servant for ever. 

XXVUl. ^ And "it came to pass in those days, that the Philistines gathered 
their armies together for warfare, to fight with Israel. And Achish said unto 
David, Know thou assuredly, that thou shalt go out with me to battle, thou 
and thy men. ^ And David said to Achish, Surely thou shalt know what thy 
servant can do. And Achish said to David, Therefore will I make thee keeper 
of mine head for ever. 

' Now ^ Samuel Was dead, and all Israel had lamented him, and buried him 
in Bamah, even in his own city. And Saul had put away ^ those that had 
familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land. ^ And the Philistines 

d See Josh. 15. 
81. ft 19. 0. 
h€r of daft, 

t Heb. a year of 

See ch. 29. 8. 
e Josh. IS. I. 
f Josh. 16. 10. 
Judg. 1. 29. 
I Or, GtrnUti. 
g Ex. 17. 16. 
See ch. 15. 7. 8 
h Gen. 25. 1& 

I Or, Did ye« iwt 

mutk* a romd, ^. 

1 See 1 Chxon. S. 


k Judg. 1. n.«Ma. 

a ch. 29. 1. 

b ch. 25. 1. 

c ver. 9. 

Ex. St. 18. 

Lev. 19. 81. ft 20. 


Deat. 18. 10, U. 

6. ZiJklaff'} on the west side of the sonth ooantrr of Judah : 
■ee JoBh. XY. 31. Here, or in its neighbonrhooct David so- 
jonrned for a year and four months ; cp. xxx. 14. 26. 1 Chron. 
xiL 1 — 7. 20, where is a list of the mighty men who came to 
him there ; and there he received the tidings of Saol's death 
(2 Sam. i. 1 ; iv. 10) : its exact site has not been determined : 
see Orove, B. D. ii. 1851. It has been conjectured to be at 
AtU^, three hours B. of 8ehata (Sowlandt, JRobinsan, WUton), 

7. a fitU year] Literally, day 9, Cp. Ley. xxy. 22 ; alwve, L 
8.20; u. 19. 

t. went up] to the moontainoos region, sonth of Judah* and 
north of Paran. 

— Qeshwritei] on the south of Fhilistia : see Josh. xiiL 2. 
They and the Qezritee were Canaanites, whom Qod had com- 
manded Israel to dispossess (Orotiut), David was not a private 
person, but had been anointed king of Israel, and acted as such 
{A Lapide), 

— Amalekites] who were under the Divine malediction for 
their cruelty and treachery toward Israel : see above, rv. 1, 2. 

10. IFhither] So the ancient versions render the Hebrew el 
here: cp. Oeten, 46. Some modem expositors interpret it as 
equivalent to an interrogative not: "Te have not made any 
excursion to-day, have ye ? " Compare the margin here, and 
Qesen,, p. 44 Keil, p. 188. 

— Against the south of JudoK] Here David is betrayed into 
an equivocation by his distrust in CK>d, and by his recourse to 
Achidi : see on 9. 1. 

It was true that the country on which he had made an in- 
vasion was to the south of Judah, and of the regions here 
mentioned ; but it was not true that it was the land of Israel, or 
of their allies, as Achish was led to believe (t>. 12). Cp. on xxL 1. 

— JerahmeeUtes] the descendants of Jerahmeel, the first- 
born of Hezron, the grandson of Judah (1 Chron. ii. 9. 25). 

— Kemtes] who were under the protection of Judah (Judg. 
i. 16). 

11. ^ did David, and so will be his manner] Bather, so 
did David, Here should be a full stop ; and here the lustorian 
makes an addition of his own : and so was his manner all the 
while he dwelt in the country of the Philistines, So Sept,, 
Vulg,, Syriac, Arabic, Targum, The sacred historian does not 
disrase from the reader, that David resorted to unworthy shifts 
and prevarications, and to acts, it may be, of cruelty. Such 
were the results of his want of trust in the Divine Providence 
and protection (see v, 1), and of his looking for aid and defence to 
the arm of flesh, particularly to the enemies of Gk>d and His 
Church — the Philistines — ^instead of relying upon (Jod. Here is 
a proof of ingenuousness and veracity in the historian ; and these 
incidents in David's life are recorded as a warning to men and 
churches, that they should not resort to doubtful expedients, but 
cleave sted&stly to Qod in all dangers and adversities. Cp. xxL 1. 

Ch. XXVIIL 2. thou shaU know what thy servant can do] 
David does not promise his own cO-operation agwnst IsraeL His 
answer is ambiguous ; and here is another evidence of the effects 
of his distrust in GK)d : cp. xxvii. 10, 11. But God mercifully 
interfered to deliver him from the dikmfaa in which he had 
placed himself: see xxix. 4. 

8. Samuel was dead] See xxv. 1. 

4. Saul had put away those that had familiar spirits^ and 
the wizards] The command of the Levitical law was, "Thou 
shalt not suffer a witch to live '* (Exod. xxii. 18. Lev. xx. 27). 
Saul had put away, not destroyed, those that had familiar spirita 

Digitized by 


God does not answer Saul. 1 SAMUEL XXVIII. 5 — 12. Savi resorts to witchcraft;. 

d Joth. 19. 18. 
2 Kings 4. 8. 

f Job 18. 11. 

gch. 14.37. 
Prov. 1. 28. 
Lam. 2. 9. 
h Num. 12. 6. 
i Ex. 28. SO. 
Num. 27. 31. 
Deut. S3. 8. 

kDeut. 18.11. 
1 Chron. 10. 18. 
Iia. 8. 19. 

1 ver. 8. 

gathered themselves together, and came and pitched in ** Shmiem : and Saul 
gathered all Israel together, and they pitched in ' Gilboa. ^ And when Saul 
saw the host of the Philistines, he was ^afraid, and his heart greatly trembled. 
* And when Saul enquired of the Lord, *the Lord answered him not, neither 
by ^ dreams, nor * by Urim, nor by prophets. ^ Then said Saul unto his 
servants. Seek me a woman that hath a familiar spirit, that I may go to her, 
and enquire of her. And his servants said to him. Behold, th^e is a woman 
that hath a familiar spirit at En-dor. 

® And Saul disguised himself, and put on other raiment, and he went, and 
two men with him, and they came to the woman by night : and ^ he said, I 
pray thee, divine unto me by the familiar spirit, and bring me him up, whom I 
shall name unto thee. ^ And the woman said unto him. Behold, thou knowest 
what Saul hath done, how he hath ^ cut off those that have familiar spirits, and 
the wizards, out of the land : wherefore then layest thou a snare for my life, 
to cause me to die ? ^^ And Saul sware to her by the Lord, saying. As the 
Lord liveth, there shall no punishment happen to thee for this thing. ^^ Then 
said the woman, Whom shall I bring up unto thee ? And he said. Bring me 
up Samuel. 

^2 And when the woman saw Samuel, she cried with a loud voice : and the 

(ohoth : see Ley. zix. 31), and the wizards : see Lev. xii. 81 ; xz. 
6. Deat. xviii. 11. 

— Shunem] in the tribe of Issachar (cp. Josh. xix. 18), now 
Sulem, or Sotem, on the eastern side of the plain of Jezi^, or 
EsdraeUm, about dght miles s.w. of Mount Tabor, about a mile 
to the south of Kain, and about four to the Bouth of Nazareth 
(Bobmson, iii. 169. Vandevelde, p. 349). 

It was the native place of Abishag, " the Shunammite'' (1 
Kings i. 8), and was afterwards the scene of Elisha's mirade, 
related in 2 Kings iv. 8; and the neighbourhood had been 
rendered illustrious by the victories of Deborah and Qidoon over 
the enemies of Israel ( Judg. iv. 7 ; vii. 1 — 22), but now it was 
to be made memorable by a very different event. 

Sulem affords an admirable camp-ground for a large army, 
Jehel-eUDuhy rising abruptly behind it, and the top of it com- 
manding a pOTfect view of the great plain in everv direction, so 
that there could be no surprise, nor their march be impeded, 
or retreat cut off (^Thomson, p. 451). 

— in CHlboa] now Jelbon (Bobinson, iii. 157, 168. Van' 
develde, 316). The mountain range of Gilboa, now called Jebel 
ihikuah, rises on the eastern side of the plain of Esdraelon, and 
extends its white, bleak, barren clifb ten miles, from west to 
east {Porter, Thomson). The Philistines had now penetrated 
into the very heart of the country, and the king of Israel and 
hlB army lay to the south of them, at Qilboa. 

6. Saul enquired of the Lobd] In 1 Chron. x. 14 it is said 
that Saul did ** not inquire of the Lobp," and that therefore 
*' He slew Him.'^ But the word there used in the original is 
different. The word here used is ehaaU to ath ; there, it is 
darath, to eeeh dUigentUf, Saul did, indeed, ask of God, but 
he did not seek diUgentUf to Him ; and the difference is strongly 
marked in that passage (1 Chron. x. 13), where it is said that 
he did ask of the familiar spirit : he did seek diligently to it : 
cp. Aaron Pick, Pref. to Hebr. Concordance. 

— the Lobd answered him nof] for Saul was persisting 
obstinately in his iniquity. He had killed the Lord's priests, 
and had not repented of his sin in persecuting David, whom he 
did not allow to return to his own land; and his unhappy 
temper is shown by his resort to witchcraft, which God com- 
manded to be exterminated, and which he himself, in a better 
mood, had put away (©. 4). Therefore God hid His fece from 

— hy ITnm] on the High Priest's Ephod : see Exod. xxviii. 
80. It seems that Abiathar himself, the High Priest who had 
the ephod, l^id been compelled to flee to David to Ziklag 
(see XXX. 7; and cp. xxiii. 6); and it is supposed by 
some (as Kimohi) that Saul sent to Abiathar to ask counsel 
by him. In v. 15, Saul does not mention the Urim : see note 



7. Seek me a woman thai hath a familiar spiriQ Literally, 
one who is mistress of an ob : see Lev. xix. 31. 

— En-dor"] still bearing its ancient name, a village on the 
northern side of Jebel Duhy, or Little Hermon, about a mile to 
the east of Nain, and four miles to the south of Mount Tabor 
{Robinson, iii. 218. 225. Tristram, p. 127), where is a view of 
Mount Tabor from Endoor. Cp. p. 502. 

The name Endor occurs m the record of Deborah's victory 
over Sisera, as desmbed by the Psalmist ^s. IxxxiiL 9, 10). 

8. Saul disguised himself . . . . 6y ntghf] It was a fearftd 
ride (says Dr, Thomson, p. 451) that dark night; for the Philis- 
tines lay encamped in Shunem, between Said's camp at CKlboa 
and Endor. Saul probably kept to the east of Jezreel, erossed 
the valley below Am Jalud, and thence over the shoulder of 
Jebel-el-Duhtf to Endor. 

— bring me him up] from Sheol, or the place of departed 
spirits. Since God and the holy angels are in heaven above, and 
the spirits of the faiths departed are not yet in glory, and 
those of the ungodly are in misery, it could not be otherwise 
than that an evocation of a spirit should be called a bringing 
up; and the holy Apostles speak of their abode as the lower 
parts of the earth (see below, on Eph. iv. 9. 1 Pet. iiL 19) ; and 
the Christian Church has adopted this language into her creed, 
when she says that Christ in His human so^ descended into 
Hades ; without professing to determine the exact local relation 
of Sheol or Hades to the earth in which we dwell. 

U, 18. Bring me up Samuel — And when the woman sano 
SamueV] Was the soid of Samuel really seen by the woman; 
and was it Samuel who spoke to Saul P 

(1) The Sacred Historian appears distinctly to assert that 
it was Samuel. He says (t>. 12) the woman saw Samuel: 
{v. 14) Saul perceived that it was Samuel : (t>. 15) and Samuel 
said to Saul : (and so v, 16, and v. 20) Saul fell on the earth 
because of the words of Samuel, 

(2) The ancient Hebrew Church appears also to have been of 
opinion that it was Samuel ; 

In Ecclus. xlvi. 20 it is recorded of Samuel that ** after his 
death, he prophesied, and showed the king his end." 

In the Septuagint Version, made by Jews, we find an addi- 
tion at 1 Chron. x. 13 : " Saul asked counsel of her that had a 
familiar spirit, to inquire of her; and Samuel made answer to 

In his history of the Jews, Josephus affirms that it was 
Samuel who appeared and prophesied to Saul (Antt. vi. 14. 2). 

This opinion is entertained by all the Jewish Expositors, 
"fiiisse verum Samuelem statuunt Judffii ad unum omnes*' 
{Pfeiffer, Dubia, p. 201). 

Digitized by 


Samuel appears 

1 SAMUEL XXVm. 13- 

to the witch at Endor. 

woman spake to Saul, saying, Why hast thon deceived me ? for thon art Saul. 
^^ And the king said unto her, Be not afraid : for what sawest thou ? And 


Early Christian writers agreed with the Hebrew ChnrcK 
bus Justin Martyr (c. Trypho. § 105) says, " That the sonl 
lives after death, I have shown from the fact that the soul 
of Samuel was broneht op by the woman with a &miliar spirit^ 
as Saul had desired/' 

The same is asserted by Origen, in his second homily on this 
book (torn. iL pp. 490 — 496), where he examines and coniutee the 
opinion of those who alleged that it was only a phantom like 
Samuel which appeared to the sorceress, and which spoke to 
SauL 8, Sippofytut, the celebrated Bishop of Portus Bomanns, 
in the third century, wrote a treatise on the Witch of Endor, 
but it is not now ertant. 

S, Ambrose (in Luc. tab. i.) expresses the same opinion, 
"Samuel, post mortem, secunaum Scripturss testimonium, 
ftitura non tacuit.'' 

8, JMgustine, after a discussion of the question in his former 
treatises, De divers. Qucest. ad Simplicianum, ii. Qu. 8, andDeOcto 
Dulcitii QusBstionibus, Qu. 6, appears to have made up his mind 
in a later work, De Cur& pro Mortuis agend&, cap. 15, and com- 
pares the appearance of Samuel to that of Moses and Elias at 
the Transfiguration (Matt, xvii 8. Luke ix. 80). 8, JBaeU, 
Epist. 80 ; a. Oregorv Nazian^ Orat. iii. ; 8. Jerome in Esaiam, 
c vii.; Tkeodoret, Qu. 68.; 8ulp. 8everue, Hist. lib. L; Ivo 
Veronensie de Resur., are of the same opinion, which is adopted 
by many expositors, Abulensie, Cafetanus, Lyra, Hugo, Cor^ 
nelius a Lapide, ToetcUue, SaneUut s and, hesitatingly, by 
NataUs Alexander, Hist. Ecdes. iii. 124 ; Wouvers, and others ; 
and in more recent times, bv Dr. Waterland, in an excellent 
sermon on this subject (vol. ix. p. 411) ; see also Dr. Kitto (p. 
294— 298), and among later German writers, Oerlach, DeUtesck, 
Stroehel, and KeU. In the heading of the chapter in our 
Authorized Version we read, ** The witch ndseth up Samuel." 

On the other side TertulUan de Anima, c. 67; 8. Cyril 
Alex, de Adorat. 187 — 191, may be cited, and a sentence of 
8. Jerome in Matt. vi. 84^ where he says, *' In Samuelis phan- 
tasmate PythonisBa loquitur ad Saulem, Cras eris mecum;" 
Eustaih. Antioch., Bibl. Patr. Max. torn, xxviii. ; Qalland. iv. 
541 ; and so Luther, Cahin, Bp. Mall, Bp. Patrick, and M. 

The opinion that it was Samuel who appeared, seems most 

The arguments which are alleged by those on the other 
nde, who are of opinion that it was only a spectral illusion, 
like to Samuel, which appeared to the sorceress, and which 
spoke to Saul, and not the spirit of Samuel himself, are these :-~ 

(1) It is not likely that Gk>d would have allowed a witch 
to bring up the holy prophet by her magical art. But here we 
may reply, — It is not said that she brought up Samuel: indeed 
it appears, that before she had time to resort to her magical arts, 
or, at least, before she had gone through the mysterious process 
of her incantations, the spirit of Samuel suddenly appeared, to 
her great surprise, so that it could not be said that she had 
brought him up. She was g^reatly amazed and terrified, and 
cried with a loud voice when Samuel appeared. It was not the 
witch who brought up Samuel, but it was Almighty God who 
punished her for her sorceries, and who also punished Saul for 
his sin in resorting to them, and for asking the witch to bring 
up SamueL CK>d punished them both by the very means which 
they had employed. He used their own instruments against 
them. As He says by Ezekiel (xiv. 4. 7), " The Lobd will 
answer him that oomeith " (m an idolater) " according to the 
multitude of his idols. I will answer him bv Myself, and will 
set My feoe against that man." God sent rorth the spirit of 
Samuel the Jnx>phet, to confound the witch in her witchcraft, 
and to do his work of a prophet even after death, and to pronounce 
sentence on the king for his sins, and to foretell to him his 
erasing death. 

(2) Samuel says to Saul, " Why hast thou disquieted me to 
bring me up P" Hence it is alleged, that God would not have 
allowed the soul of his faithful servant to be disquieted in his 
rq^KJee by Saul or by a sorceress. 

But Samuel might well complain of Saul's sin, as the cause 
of his mission, without in any way imputing any thing to God 
Who sent him. He might also well complain that Saul had 
resorted to magical arts in order to bring him up, and he might 
well be ^turbai by godly sorrow and indignation on this account. 
He could not but grieve for Saul ; and this declaration of his 
own disquietude is a beautifxil trait in his character : it is a 
sympathetic expression of sorrow for Saul's lamentable fall, 

which was the occasion to Samuel of bdng the messenger of 
evil tidings to Saul — tidings that might bring tears into the eyes 
of the holy angels. Even the Holy One of God, Who dwells 
in heavenly bliss, said to Saul of Tarsus, on his way to Damascus, 
« Saul ! Saul i why persecutest thou Me ?" (Acts ix. 4.) 

It is not to be ruferred from this history, that Sorcerers 
and Necromancers have power to disturb the repose of the de- 
parted spirits of the righteous; but Holy Scripture teaches in 
this narrative, that, for adequate reasons, God may employ the 
spirits of his Prophets to amaze and confound those who practise 
such evil arts, and to punish those who resort to them. 

(8) It is otrjected, that the words of the Spirit to Saul, " To- 
morrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me '* (v. 19), coidd not 
have proceeded from Samuel himself, inasmuch as Saul did not 
die on the following day ; and the soul of Saul after death can- 
not be supposed to nave been with that of Samuel ; 

But to this it may be replied, with 8. Jerome (on Matt, 
vi. 84), that, according to Hebrew usage, the Hebrew word 
mdchar (to-morrow) does not here mean uie next day, but some 
near ftiture time. (^. Exod. xiii. 14. Deut. viii. 20. Josh.iv. 6; 
xxii. 24. Isa. xxii. 18. Qesen. 466. Cp. 1 Cor. xv. 22. And, 
in saying, " Thou shalt he with me," Samuel does not pronounce 
Saurs £ial condemnation ; for he had no mission to do so, but 
rather draws him by tenderness to a better mind. He uses a 
mild and charitable expression (as St. Paul does in 1 Cor. xi. 80) 
applicable to all, whether ^ood or bad, " Thou shalt be as I am, 
no longer among the living." In the vision of the werld of 
spirits, revealed to us b^ our Blessed Lord, the souls of Dives 
and Lazarus may be said to be together in the abode of de- 
parted spirits, for Dives saw Lazarus and conversed with Abra- 
ham (Luke xvi. 28), though there was a gulf fixed between them. 

If Samuel had said to Saul, "Thou shalt be among the 
damned," he would have crushed him with a weight of despair, 
and have hardened him in his impenitence ; but by using this 
g^tler expression he mildly exhorted him to repentance. 
While there was life, there was hope: the door was still open, 
and by ^leaking of to-morrow he urged him not to delay his 
repentance j and if Saul had listened to the warning of Samuel, 
even then, who can say that he might not have been raised 
again into the fiivour of God, and have been numbered hereafter 
with the penitent to whom the Lord said, " To-day thou shalt 
be witkMe in Pkradise V* (Luke xxiii. 48. Cp. Heb. iii. 14, 15.) 

It is well sidd by 8. Augustine (ad Simplician.), " Meoum eris 
non ad equalitatem felicitates, sed ad parem conmtionem mortis 
referatur; quod uterque homo ftierit, et uterque mori potuerit; 
jamque mortuus (Samuel) mortem vivo (Sauli) denuntiabat." 

This hbtory is fraught with spiritual instruction. 

(1) It contains a dear, divine testimony to the existence of 
the human soul after death. Samuel had been dead several 
years (xxv. 1), but his soul was alive : his soul appears here and 
speaks to Saul. 

' (2) It shows the bitter consequences of being forsaken of 
God, and supplies a solemn warning against disobedience and im- 
penitence, and against the sin of stifling God's voice speaking 
by Holy Scripture ; and of resorting to familiar spirits, or to any 
other imlawful means, for counsel and guidance. 

Saul, at the beginning of his reign, had been endued with 
many g^ifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, but he had disobeved 
God in not wiuting fbr Samuel (xiii. 9), and in the mission against 
Amalek (xv. 10 — ^22); and Samuel, when alive, had pronounced 
God's judgments against him for his disobedience ; but Saul had 
not profited by the warning; and God took away His Spirit 
from him, and Saul was visited by an evil spirit, ana slew wd's 
priests, and persecuted David; and though God strove with 
him still, and endeavoured to bring him to repentance, espedally 
by means of David, who twice spared his life : yet though Saul 
was touched for a time with remorse, he haraened his heart 
more and more, and God became his enemy, and answered him 
not by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets; and in an hour 
of deep distress and despondency SaxH resorted to witchcraft 
for counsel, and was caught in his own device ; and God met 
him, as He met Balaam when he sought for enchantments, and 
spoke to him with the stem voice of prophecy, and pronounced 
upon him his own doom. Therefore we may well pray, « From 
hardness of heart, and contempt of Thy Word and Command- 
ment, Good Lord, deliver us !" 

12. thou art Saul'] Probably Samuel had revealed this to her 
(Josephus, vi. 14. 2). Samuel saw through Saul's disguise (o S), 
which had deceived her whom Saul came to oonsult, and he 

Digitized by 


Savl perceives Samuel. 1 SAMUEL XXVlJi. 14 — 26. Samuel prophesies to Saul. 

m Ex. 22. 28. 

t Heb. What U 
his form? 
D ch. 15. 27. 
8 Kings 2. 8, 18. 

oProv. 5.11, 12, 
18. & 14. 14. 
p ch. 18. 12. 
q ver. 8. 
t Heb. fry tht 
ktmd of prophet*. 

B Or, for himself, 
Prov. 16. 4. 
rch. 15. 28. 
iHtb. mine hand. 

• ch. 15. 9. 
1 Kings 20. 42. 
I Chron. 10. 18. 
Jer. 48. 10. 

t Heb. Made 
haste, and fell 
with thefulneee 
of hii eiature. 

t Judg. 12. 8. 
ch. 19. 5. 
Job 13. 14. 

the woman said unto Saul, I saw " gods ascending out of the earth. ^* And he 
said unto her, f What form is he of? And she said, An old man cometh up ; 
and he is covered with *" a mantle. And Saul perceived that it was Samuel, 
and he stooped with his face to the ground, and bowed himself. ^* And 
Samuel said to Saul, Why hast thou disquieted me, to bring me up ? And 
Saul answered, **I am sore distressed ; for the Philistines make war against me, 
and ^ God is departed jfrom me, and *» answereth me no more, neither f by 
prophets, nor by dreams : therefore I have called thee, that thou mayest make 
known unto me what I shall do. ^^ Then said Samuel, Wherefore then dost 
thou ask of me, seeing the Lobd is departed from thee, and is become thine 
enemy ? ^^ And the Lord hath done || to him, ' as he spake by f me : for the 
Lobd hath rent the kingdom out of thine hand, and given it to thy neighbour, 
even to David: ^®" Because thou obeyedst not the voice of the Lord, nor 
executedst his fierce wrath upon Amalek, therefore hath the Lord done this 
thing unto thee this day. ^^ Moreover the Lord wUl also deliver Israel with 
thee into the hand of iJie Philistines : and to morrow shalt thou and thy sons 
be with me : the Lord also shall deliver the host of Israel into the hand of the 

^ Then Saul f fell straightway all along on the earth, and was sore afraid, 
because of the words of Samuel : and there was no strength in him ; for he had 
eaten no bread all the day, nor all the night. ^^ And the woman came unto 
Saul, and saw that he was sore troubled, and said unto him, Behold, thine 
handmaid hath obeyed thy voice, and I have * put my life in my hand, and have 
hearkened unto thy words which thou spakest unto me. ^ Now therefore, I 
pray thee, hearken thou also unto the voice of thine handmaid, and let me set a 
morsel of bread before thee ; and eat, that thou mayest have strength, when 
thou goest on thy way. ^ But he refused, and said, I will not eat. But his 
servants, together with the woman, compelled him ; and he hearkened unto 
their voice. So he arose from the earth, and sat upon the bed. ^ And the 
woman had a fat palf in the house ; and she hasted, and killed it, and took 
flour, and kneaded tY, and did bake unleavened bread thereof : ^ And she 

tpoke to Saul, as Saul (v. 16). So Ahnah the prophet, 
though blind by age, saw through the disg^uue of the wife of 
Jeroboam (1 Kings xiv. 2. 6). 

18. I saw goaa] JBlohim, which may signify prineea or 
judges, Exod. xxi. 6; xxii. 7. Ps. Ixxxii. 1. 6. AZapide here, 
and Oessn, 49, suppose it to signify a god-like form — something 
awMly miy'estic and august ; and Saul seems to have under- 
stood the woman as speaking of some single apparition, for he 
says, "What form is he of P'^ 

-- oui of the earthy See on t». 8. The abode of departed 
spirits in Sheol may hence be inferred to be below the earth ; at 
any rate, the departed spirits of the righteous, which are " in 
Abraham's bosom" (see Luke xvi. 22, 23), or "Paradise" (see 
Luke xxili. 43), are not yet in heaven; nor will they be in 
heaven, till their bodies are raised at the general Resurrection, 
and are joined again to their souls, and they receive their reward 
of heavenly bliss at the I^v of Judgment from the lips of Jesus 
Chbist, the Judge of quick aqd dead. 

U. a mantle^ Hebrew meU : such as Samuel wore in his life- 
time (xv. 27). 

It is objected. How could a spirit be clothed P 
The answer is—God designai that the spirit of Samuel 
should be recognized by human eyes, and how could this have 
been done but by means of such olgepts as are visible to human 
sense ? Our Lord speaks of the tongue of the disembodied spirit 
of Dives, in order to give us an idea of his sufferings ; and at 
the Transfiguration He presented the form of Moses in such 
a garb to the three disciples as might enable them to recognize 
him as Moses. 

15. TF^j^ hast thou disquieted mef] The Hebrew verb here 

used is the hiphil form of rag at, to be stirred with any emotioii» 
whether of anger, or sorrow, or fear : see Deut. ii. 26. F^. iv. 4. 
Prov. xxix. 9. Isa. xxxii. 11. Cp. Oesen, 756. 

— answereth me no more, neither hy prophets, nor hv dreams'] 
Why does not Saul mention the Urim, wMch is specified by the 
sacred historian (v, 6), and which was the principal means of 
learning the Divine Will P 

Probably Saul's conscience smote him for having murdered 
Ahimelech the priest, who had the Urim, and for having killed 
eighty-four other priests at Nob (xxii. 18), and he did not dare 
to speak to Samuel of the Urim which had been worn by the 
priest whom he had slain. How natural this is ! 

17. hath done to him"] Rather, hath wrought for Simself, 
for His own glory and truth : though thou hast resisted Him, 
God has worked out his own purposes by thee, as He did by 
Pharaoh of old (Exod. ix. 6). 

— to David] whom Samuel had not mentioned by name to 
Saul in his own lifetime (cp. xv. 28), lest he should excite Saul's 
envy against David ; but now that Saul was about to die, this 
testimopiy was very seasonable, being made in the hearing of 
Saul's companions («. 8; v. 28), and being thus an additional 
guarantee for Dayid's succession to the tl^ne. It was a pro- 
clamation of David's royalty. 

An evil spirit personating Samuel wot|ld not have spoken 
thus: he would not have wished to help David, the man of 
God's choice, the "man after God's own heart," to the throne of 
Israel ; nor would an evil spirit have spoken in such solenm terms 
of the punishment due to rebellion against God : see ev. 18, 19. 
Here is another evidence that the Appearance was Samuel himself. 
81. I have put my life in my hand] See six. 6. 

Digitized by 


Philistines send David away. 1 SAMUEL XXIX. 1—11. XXX. 1—5. Ziklag lumt. 

e Dan. 6. 5. 

brought it before Saul, and before his servants ; and they did eQ,t. Then they 
rose up, and went away that night. 

XXIX. 1 Now *the Phihstines gathered together all their armies ** to j^h. 28.^1. 
Aphek : and the IsraeUtes pitched by a fountain which is in Jezreel. ^ And the 
lords of the Philistines passed on by hundreds, and by thousands : but David 
and his men passed on in the rereward *^ with Achish. * Then said the princes c ch. 28. 1, 2. 
of the Phihstines, What d^ these Hebrews here ? And Achish said unto the 
princes of the Phihstines, Is not this David, the servant of Saul the king of 
Israel, which hath been with me ^ these days, or these years, and I have ^ found d seech. 27. 7. 
no fault in him since he fell unto me unto this day ? * And the princes of the 
Phihstines were wroth with him ; and the princes of the Phihstines said unto 
him, '^Make this fellow return, that he may go again to his place which thou f 1 chron. 12. 19, 
hast appointed him, and let him not go down with us to battle, lest ^in the 8A«ch.i4 21. 
battle he be an adversary to us : for wherewith should he reconcile himself 

unto his master ? should it not he with the hes|.ds of these men ? ^ Is not this 
David, of whom they sai^g one to another in dances, sf^ying, ^ Saul slew his h ch. is. 1, 
thousands, and David his ten thousands ? 

^ Then Achish called David, and said unto him. Surely, as the Lord Uveth, 
thou hast been upright, and Hhy going out and thy coming in with me in the iKta^awfJv. 
host is good in my sight : for ^^ I have not found evil in thee since the day of ^''^- «• 
thy coming unto me unto this day : nevertheless f the lords favour thee not. L?^i^"«jr 
^Wherefore now return, and go in peace, that thou f displease not the lords 7neh.*d^l^t%ii 
of the Phihstines. ® And David said unto Achish, But what have I done ? and {Jr*?'. ^" ** "^ 
what hast thou found in thy servant so long as I ha,ve been f with thee unto J^^eb. b^/are 
this day, that I may not gp fight against the enemies of my lord the king ? 
^ And Achish answered and said to David, I know that thou art good in my 
sight, ' as an angel of God : notwithstanding " the princes of the Phihstines 
have said. He shspll not go up with us to the battle. ^^ Wherefore now rise up 
early in the morning with thy master's servants that are come with thee : and 
i^s soon as ye be up early in the morning, and have Ught, depart. 

^^ So David and his men rose up early to depart in the morning, to return 
into the land of the Phihstines. " And the Phihstines went up to Jezreel. 

XXX. ^ And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag 
on the third day, that the ''Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and 
smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire ; ^ And had taken the women captives, 
that were therein : they slew not any, either great or small, but carried them 
away, and went on their way. * So David and his men came to the city, and, 
behold, it was burned with fire ; and their wives, and their sons, and theup 
daughters, were taken captives, * Then David and the people that were with him 
lifted up their voice and wept, until they had no more power to weep. ^ And 
David's ''two wives were taken captives, Ahmoam the Jezreeljtess, and Abigail JgJiJ'i^^;^- 

1 2 Sun. 14. W, 
20. & 19. 27. 
m ver. 4. 

n 2 Sam. 4. 4* 

a See ch. 15. 7. 
ft 27. 8. 

Ch. XXTX. 1. Apheh"] Frobabty in the plain of Jezreel, 
not the san^e as Aphek in iy. 1. The name signifies fcutneaa, 
fortrs$8 iChsen, 72), and was given to several different places 
in Palestine : see Winer, i. 67. Cfrove in B. D. i. 78. It is 
placed near Endor by JSusehim, 

— fountain — JegreeT] now Ain JcUut, i. e., fountain of 
Goliath, a large and copious spring which, from under a cavern 
in the conglomerate rock which there forms the base of Gilboa, 
makes a fine limpid pool of forty to fifty feet in diameter; 
Mobinson (iii. 167), who says, " There is eve^ reason to regard 
this as the ancient fountain of Jezreel, where Saul and JonaUian 
pitched before the last fktal battle ; and where, too, in the days of 
the Ousades, Saladin and the Christians succeeaiyely encamped." 

Vol. IL Pabt II.-66 

4. the prinoei] Probably, the princes of the other cities of 
Philistia (Josh. xiii. 3 ; above, vi. 18). 

5. Is not this David ?'] See xviiL 7. Thus God, in His merey, 
made use of the song of the women, which had occasioned Saul's 
envy, to be the means for delivering David from the dilemma, in 
which he had been placed by resorting to Achish for shelter : see 
above, xxvii. 1. 10, 11. 

11. into the land of the Philistines'] Probably to Zikkg 
(xxx. 1. 1 Chron. xii. 20. 22). 

Ch. XXX. 1. the Amalekitesl As a reprisal for what 
David had done to them (xxvii. 8). In this disaster we see 
another evidence of the consequences of his distrust : cp. xxvii. 1. 

Digitized by 


Cmehy of Amalehites to a slave. 1 SAMUEL XXX. 6 — 19. David's mercy to him. 

cEx. 17 4. 

f Heb. bitter, 
Judg. 18. 25. 
ch. 1. 10. 
2 Sara. 17. 8. 
2 Kings 4. 27. 
d Pa. 42. 5. 
ft56. S. 4, 11. 
Hab. 3. 17, 18. 
e ch. 23. 6, 9. 

f ch. 23. 2, 4. 

g ver. 21. 

h So Judg. 15.19, 
ch. 14. 27. 

i ter. 16. 
2 Sam. 8 18. 
1 Kings 1.38, 44. 
Ezek. 25. 16. 
Zeph. 2. 5. 
k /osh. 14. 1. 3. 
8c 15. IS. 

1 1 Thess. 5. 3. 

t Heb. tktir 

the wife of Nabal the Carmelite. • And David was greatly distressed ; ^for the 
people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was f grieved, 
every man for his sons and for his daughters : * but David encouraged himself 
in the Lord his God. 

^*And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray thee, 
bring me hither the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither the ephod to David. 
® 'And David enquired at the Lord, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop ? 
shall I overtake them ? And he answered him. Pursue : for thou shalt surely 
overtake ihem^ and without fail recover all. ^ So David went, he and the six 
hundred men that were with him, and came to the brook Besor, where those 
that were left behind stayed. ^^ But David pursued, he and four hundred men : 
* for two hundred abode behind, which were so faint that they could not go over 
the brook Besor. 

^^ And they found an Egyptian in the field, and brought him to David, and 
gave him bread, and he did eat ; and they made him drink water ; ^^ And they 
gave him a piece of a cake of figs, and two clusters of raisins : and ^ when he 
had eaten, his spirit came again to him : for he had eaten no bread, nor drunk 
any water, three days and three nights. ^' And David said unto him. To whom 
belongest thou 2 and whence art thou ? And he said, I am a young man of 
Egypt, servant to an Amalekite ; and my master left me, because three days 
agone I fell sick. ^^ We made an invasion upon the south of ' the Cherethites, 
and upon th£ coast which belongeth to Judah, and upon the south of ^ Caleb ; 
and we burned Ziklag with fire. ^* And David said to him. Canst thou bring 
me down to this company ? And he said. Swear unto me by God, that thou 
wilt neither kill me, nor deliver me into the hands of my master, and I will 
bring thee down to this company. 

^^ And when he had brought him down, behold, they were spread abroad upon 
all the earth, ' eating and drinking, and dancing, because of all the great spoil 
that they had taken out of the land of the Philistines, and out of the land of 
Judah. *^ And David smote them jfrom the twiUght even unto the evening of 
f the next day : and there escaped not a man of them, save four hundred young 
men, which rode upon camels, and fled. ^^ And David recovered all that the 
Amalekites had carried away : and David rescued his two wives. ^^ And there 
was nothing lacking to them, neither small nor great, neither sons nor 

6. hut David encouraged himeelf in the LoBD his Ood"] His 
calamities had brought him to repentance. Formerly he had 
said, "There is nothing good for me, but to fly for help to 
Philistia" (see xxvii. 1) ; bat havhig foond eartmv helps to be 
weak and rain, he now strengthens himself in tne Lord his 
Qod,— a striking contrast to SaoL 

7. bring me hither the ephod] with the Urim and Thtunmim, 
which Abiathar, the priest, had brought with him from Nob : 
see xxiii. 6. 9. If Saul had been faithful to God, God would 
have answered him by Urim, as .He answered David. But 
Saul disobeved God; and God answered him not (xxviiL 6). 
How dreadml was that silence ! Cp. Prov. i. 28. 

9. brook Besor"] Supposed by some to be Wady /^keriah, 
which flows down to the sea, south of Ashkelon and Gaza 
(Raumer). But it seems to )iave been on the south of 
Ziklag, which was probably about forty miles s.s. of Gaza 

13. nw master left me, because three days agone I fell sick] 
An incidental trait of cruelty in the character of the Amalekites, 
which made them hatefol in God's sight : see above, on xv. 2. 
The Amalekites had camels for their young men (see o. 17) ; but 
would not carry with them their sick slave, but left him behind 
them to die in the desert. 

But this act of barbarism cost them their lives. For this 

forsaken slave vras an instrument in God's hands for the execu- 
tion of His judgments upon them : see w, 15. 17. 

Here is a warning to Christian Nations, who have, what the 
Amalekites had not, a clear revelation of God's will in the 
Gospel with r^ard to Slavery: see below. Introduction to 
Philemon, pp. 884, 885. It may be expected that He wUl visit 
them with retribution in mysterious ways of Hb Proyidence, 
when they least anticipate it» for acts of cruelty to slaves. 

On the other hand, we see that David's kindness to a 
perishing stranger and slave, in the hour of his own sorrow and 
distress, was the cause of his victory, and of the recovery of his 
wives and substance, and of that of his people. Mercy is the 
best policy of Kings and States. In this mercifol act of David 
we see also a typical foreshadowing of what the true David, 
our Divine Redeemer, b ever doing to the outcast and miserable 
in thb world (Bede, Qu. 17). 

14. Cherethites] Inhabitants of the southern parts of Philistia : 
cp. Ezek. XXV. 16. Zeph. ii. 5. The Sept. and Svriac sometimes 
render it Cretans; and by a comparison with Jer. xlvii. 4. 
Amos ix. 7, some have conjectured that the Philbtines were 
connected with Crete (see Ghsen. 417) ; but thb b doubtfol. 

On the Cherethites and Pelethites see Airther^ 2 Sam. 
viii. 18; xv. 18; xx. 23. 

Digitized by 


They who tarry mth the stuff 1 SAMUEL XXX. 20 — 30. are rewarded with them that fight. 

daughters, neither spoil, nor any thing that they had taken to them : " DaTid 
recovered all. ^ And David took all the flocks and the herds, which they 
drave before those other cattle, and said, This is David's spoil. 

2^ And David came to the " two hundred men, which were so faint that they 
could not follow David, whom they had made also to abide at the brook Besor : 
and they went forth to meet David, and to meet the people that were with him : 
and when David came near to the people, he || saluted them. ^ Then answered 
all the wicked men and men "" of Belial, of f those that went with David, and 
said. Because they went not with us, we will not give them ought of the spoil 
that we have recovered, save to every man his wife and his children, that they 
may lead them away, and depart, ^s Then said David, Ye shall not do so, my 
brethren, with that which the Lord hath given us, who hath preserved us, and 
delivered the company that came against us into our hand. ^ For who will 
hearken unto you in this matter ? but ** as his part is that goeth down to the 
battle, so shall his part be that tarrieth by the stuff: they shall part alike. 
^ And it was so from that day f forward, that he made it a statute and an 
ordinance for Israel unto this day. 

^ And when David came to Ziklag, he sent of the spoil unto the elders of 
Judah, even to his friends, saying, Behold a f present for you of the spoil of the 
enemies of the Lord ; ^ To them which were in Beth-el, and to them which were in 
"^ south Kamoth, and to them which were in ' Jattir, ^ And to them which were in 
•Aroer, and to them which were in Siphmoth, and to them which were in *Esh- 
temoa, ^ And to them which were in Rachal, and to them which were in the cities of 
"the Jerahmeelites, and to them which were in the cities of the 'Kenites, 
^ And to them which were in ' Hormah, and to them which were in Chor-ashan, 

m ver. 8. 

n ver. lOt 

I Or, asked them 
hnw tk*jf did, 
Judg. 18. 15. 
oDeut. IS. 18. 
Judg. 19. 22. 
t Heb. mtn. 

p See Num. 31. 
Josh. 22. 8. 

t Heb. and 

1 Heb. bUiring. 
Gen. S3. II. 
ch. 25. 27. 

q Josh. 19. 8. 
r Josh. 15. 48. 
s Josh. 13. 16. 
t Josh. 15. 50. 

u ch. 27. 10. 
X Judg. 1. 16. 
y Judg. 1 17. 

20. iheflocht and the herd*] of the Amalekites. 

— thote other cattU] whicn had belonged to David, and 
were recovered by him : q^. v. 26. 

— TMt is David's epotf] Perhaps this was snng in triumph. 
82. men of Beliat] worthless men. See i. 16; ii. 12; x. 27; 

XXV. 17. 

— they went not with ut] Here is a specimen of the eiivv and 
pride of those who imagine that no work is done in the Church 
of Qod, except it be done in their way. 

24. Of Ai# part \»—eiuff'] This decree of David seems to be 
founded on the law of Moses, though not exactly identical with 
what is recorded in Num. xxxi. 27. 

26. he made it a ttaiute — unto this day"] And it continued to 
the time of the Maccabees: 2 Mace viiL 28. 80. 

The narrative of this expedition, which is introduced in the 
middle of a critical part of the history, and is set down with 
minute circumstantial detail, seems to be designed by the Holy 
Spirit to be exemplary and prophetical ; as follows : — 

(1) Some moral warnings which it suggests have been 
already noticed : see v. 18. 

^2) The reference to God for counsd and direction, befbre 
entermg upon war, ought also to be observed. 

(8) The moderaticm ci David in the hour of victory is also 
instructive (o. 28). 

(4) The decree, that they who for good reasons (see «. 21) 
tany with the stuff, shall share alike with those who go down 
to the battle, which became a received ordinance in Israel, is not 
without its meaning ; 

In the heavenly Church of God, 

« His state 

Is kingly ; thousands at His bidding speed. 
And post o'er land and ocean without rest : 
They also serve who only stand and wait.'' 

(Milton, Sonnet xix.) 

Moses, praying on the hill, contributed to the victonr over 
Amalek, even more than Joshua fighting on the plain (Exod. 
xvii. 11). And in the Christian Church, provision ought to be 
made for praver, and meditation, and for patient study of God's 
Word (see 1 Tim. iv. 18. 2 Tim. iv. 18) ; and for the encourage- 
ment of sacred learning, as well as for the more active exercise 
of pastoral duties. 

(6) "David was here a type of Christ" (says Bp, Hall) ; 
'* we follow Him in His holy wars against our spiritual Ama- 
lekites. Christ had compassion for us, who were, like the Egyp- 
tian stranger, ready to perish; and He made our necessities to 
be the occasion of His own victories. He took our nature, and 
raised it up from the earth, and went forth against our Amalek, 
who had cruelly left us to die in the wilderness. He not only 
recovered what we had lost in Adam by the Fall, but overcame 
our foes, and ' spoiled principalities and powers ' (Col. ii. 15), 
and led tiiem in triumph. All Christians are not of equal 
strength : some follow Christ to the conflict ; others tarry with 
the stuff. Some fight the Lord's battles in the din of active 
Ufo ; others, aged men and women, the Simeons and Annas of 
tiie Church, pons widows and holy maidens, weak in body, but 
strong in fiuth, fight with the peaceful arms of prayers aud 
tears. Christ is omnipotent and mercifHil. He rewards those 
who tany in patience with the stuff, as well as those who go forth 
on the march, and fight valiantly in the battle." 

(6) The victoiy of David over Amalek was probably con- 
temporary in time witii Saul's defeat by the Philistines. David 
consulted God, and prevailed. Saul resorted to witchcraft, and 

There is evidently a contrast designed between the one and 
the other; and this book thus doses, with a prophetic and 
typicid view of the conquest of the true David, and of tiie 
miserable end of all who persecute Christ and His Church. 

27. Beih^V] PUiced here first, probably on account of its 
sacred character. Some suppose ai^other Bethel to be meant ; 
bat this seems improbable. 

— south Ramoth] Josh. tix. 8. 

— Jaitir\ See Josh. xv. 48. 

28. Aroer] in Wady Arara, about ten miles BJ9.X. of Beer- 
sheba, and twenty miles 8.E. of Hebron. 

— Siphmoth] the site of which is unknown. 

— Sshtemoa] in the s.w. region of the hill-country of 
Judah, now Semua: see Josh. xv. 50 (Bohinson, ii. 194. 627). 

29. Bachal] the site of which is not known. 

— Jerahmeelites— Kenites] See xxvii. 10. 
80. Hormah] now 2^ata : see Josh. xii. 14. 

— Chor-ashan] Perhaps Ajshan in the northern confines of 
the south country, and on the southern firontier of the lowlands 
of Judah. Cp. Josh. xv. 42. 


Digitized by 


Jonathan's death on GUboa. 1 SAMUEL XXX. 31. XXXI. 1—9. 

Saul's death. 

1 Joth. 14. 18. 

2 Sam. S. 1. 

a 1 Chron. 10. 
J— 12. 

II Or, waundtd, 
b ch. 28. 4. 

c ch. 14. 49. 

I Chron. 8. SS. 
d See 2 Sam. 1. 
6, ttc. 

t Heb. MkooUti, 

men with bowt. 

t Heb. /ottmi 


e So Judg. 9. 54. 

fch. 14.6. 

& 17. 26. 

II Or, tHock me. 
g 2 Sam. 1. 14. 
h 2 Sam. 1. 10. 

i 2 Sam. 1. SO. 

and to them which were m Athach, ^* And to them which were in * Hebron, and 
to all the places where David himself and his men were wont to haunt. 

XXXI. ^ Now • the Philistines fought against Israel : and the men of Israel 
fled from before the Philistines, and fell down || slain in mount ** Gilboa. ^ And 
the Philistines followed hard upon Saul and upon his sons ; and the Philistines 
slew ^^ Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Melchi-shua, Saul's sons. *And **the 
battle went sore against Saul, and the f archers f hit him ; and he was sore 
wounded of the archers. * * Then said Saul unto his armourbearer, Draw thy 
swwd, and thrust me through therewith ; lest 'these uncircumcised come and 
thrust me through, and || abuse me. But his armourbearer would not ; 'for he 
was sore ajfraid. Therefore Saul took a sword, and ^ fell upon it. * And when 
his armourbearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise upon his sword, and 
died with him. ^ So Saul died, and his three sons, and his armourbearer, and 
all his men, that same day together. 

7 And when the men of Israel that were on the other side of the valley, and 
they that were on the other side Jordan, saw that the men of Israel fled, and 
that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook the cities, and fled ; and the 
Philistines came and dwelt in them. 

® And it came to pass on the morrow, when the Philistines came to strip the 
slain, that they found Saul and his three sons fetllen in mount Gilboa. ^ And 
they cut off his head, and stripped off his armour, and sent into the land of the 
Philistines round about, to * publish it in the house of their idols, and among 

— Athach'] Its site is unlmown. 

81. Hebron] He had begun with Bethel (o. 27), and ends 
with Hebron, DOth of which were renowned in the history of 
the Patriarchs (Gen. xxiiL 17. Cp. Josh. x. 8) j and thns he 
showed his g^titnde to Qod. 

— were wont to haunt] From the liberality which dictated 
these presents of David, and irom the testimony of the Car- 
melites (xxv. 14), it may be inferred, that David's sqjoum in 
that country was characteri^d by equity and mildness. 

Ch. XXXI. 1. mount OUboa] See xxviii. 4. Probably the 
battle took place in the plain of Jezre^ te the west of Mount 
Qilboa; and ihe Islraelites, beiAg routed, took ifefuge in the 
mountain, and fell there. 

2. Jonathan] Jonathan, "felix opportunitate mortb," was 
spared the sor^w of hearing that his father had died by his own 
hand. Jonathan had not gone with his father to Endor; and we 
hear nothing of Ins being with Ms &ther when he was persecuting 
David; but he now comes to him when he is in dbtress, and 
assists him against the Philistines. And now he falls in battle, 
fighting for his father and for his counti^, against the enemies 
of IsraxA ; and he is received to a better kingdom than that which 
he leaves to David ; and his death is an entrance into a temporal 
kingdom to his fHend David, and into an eternal one to himself. 
A blessed end. 

4. leit these uneireumeUed eOmif] Even in Saul's dving 
speech there is something of ihtA religions formalism whi(£ 
marked his character after his fidl from God, and which is a 
striking siffn of spiritual blindness : " Lest these unoireumcieed 
come." He censures the Philistine as unoiroumcised : he pro- 
fesses seal for the letter of the law, just as if circumcision could 
profit without obedience, and as if he himself was not uneiroum' 
cited, both in heart and Ups-! 

— and fell upon U] bv his own hand. Cp. 1 Chron. x. 4^ 6. 
All the care of Saul at his death— like the core of Abimelech 
(Judg. ix. 54)— was to keep his perishable body from being ill- 
treated by the himds of his enemies, instead of preparing his 
immortal soul to meet God. He thought more of temporal 
shame to his body than of eternal misery to his souL He acted 
as a coward toward man, and as foolhardy toward GkxL 

Such is the blindness, in which Satan plunges those who 
disobey God. It must not be forgotten, that Saul was reffarded 
by the ancient Christian Church as. a figure of the Jewish 
Nation in its unbelief and disobedience; and Saul's death and 
David's succession were considered as lypical of the abolition of I 

Judaism, and the succession of the Gospel of Christ. '< Samuel 
(that is, the Book of Samuel) in occisione Saul, veterem Legem 
abolitam monstrat. Porrd in David, Novi Imperii sacramenta 
testatur " (S. Jerome ad Paulin., Ep. 50, p. 572). 

6. he feu likewise ^on his sword] Evil examples of kings 
provoke imitation. The armour-bearer of Saul dares do that to 
himself which he durst not do to his master : he would not kill 
Saul because he was the Lord's anointed, but he forgot that his 
life was not his own, but God's ; that he himself was made in 
the image of God — the King of kings. 

This act of Saul (slaying himiself in order to avoid insult 
from the Philistines) has been defended, and even praised by 
some, e,^,, Josephus, and some of the Rabbis; and even by 
some Christian writers, as Lyranus, adopting the arg^uments of 
the Stoics {tJi Seneca de Divin& Providenti4) m favour of suicide^ 
which was resorted to by many famous among them, as Oato 
and Brutus. But these arguments have been well reftited by 
8. Augustine de Civ. Dei i. 17—28. LactanHus, iiL 18; vi. 
11 ; and by A Lapide here. 

6. all his men] Explained in 1 Chron. x. 6 by *' all his house" 
— ^that is, all the members of his house that were wiUi him. in 
the battle. His son Ishbosheth was not there. 

7. on the other side of the valley] That is, on the western 
ude of the plain of Jezreei. 

— on the other side Jordan] On the west side of Jordan. 
The word rendered other side here, is eber, and does not mean 
other side, but over against, Cp. Josh. 1. 14^ 15 ; ix. 1. 1 
Sam. xiv. 40. 1 Kinss iv. 24j v. 4: see abovoi Deut. L 1. 5; 
ilL 8 ; and the iSyrioo Version here. 

— the Philistines came and dwelt in them] Thus at Saul's 
death, almost the whole land of Israel was in the possession of 
the Philistines, who had been driven from that land by Samuel 
(vii. 13, 14). A remarkable contrast. And such was the issue of 
the choice of a king by the people of Israel, on motives of mere 
worldly policy, that they miffht be like other nations, and that 
their king might go out before them, and fight their battles ! 
See 1 Sam. viiL 5 ; ix. 19, 20. A solemn warning to Christian 

9. they cut off his head^ Another contrast to David, who 
had cut ofi* the head of Goliath. Saul's head was fastened h^ tiie 
Philistines in the temple of Dagon (1 Chron. x. 10). David 
brought the head of the Philistine champion Goliath to Jerusalem 
(1 Sam. xvii. 51. 54). 

— in the house of their idols] whom they praised for what 
was done by the God of Israel, punishing Saul for his sins. 

Digitized by 


Saul's body at Beth'Shan, 1 SAMUEL XXXI. 10 — 18. recovered by the men of JabesL 

-.•.^ kch.«1.9. 
«»"^ IJudg.l. U. 

in 2 Sam. 21. 12. 
n Josh. 17. 11. 

I of that which the ©"h.'n*. s,*9, n. 

the people. ^® ^ And they put his armour in the house of ' Ashtaroth 
" they fastened his body to the wall of ■" Beth-shan. 

11 **And when the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead heard „ _ 

Philistines had done to Saul ; ^^ ** All the valiant men arose, and went all night, *'g^^*J'^ "^ 
and took the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons from the wall of Beth- llii. 1.4^7. 
shan, and came to Jabesh, and *> burnt them there. 1* And they took their 3«J.^T*^*'* 
bones, and ' buried them under a tree at Jabesh, ' and fasted seven days. 

Amos 6. 10. 
r 2 Sam. 2. 4. 5. 
ft 21. 12—14. 
■ Gen. 50. 10. 

10. Jsktaroik] See Jadg. iL 18. 1 Chron. x. 10. 
— Seik^han] now Beitan : see Josh. xvii. 11. 

11. inhoMatUs of Jabeih-mlead] to whom Saul had showed 
kindness in the beginning of his reign (1 Sam. xi. 1—11). 

18. buTfU tkem] not to ashes ; ror the bones were left and 
were bnried (v, 18}. It was not nsnal among the Hebrews to 
bom the bodies of the dead, bnt to bury them. The mortal re- 
mains of Sanl were partly bnmt, becanse they had been "aeris 
ii^nriis ezposita, et patre&cta ; et ne ezponerentor novis Indi- 

briis." Pfnff'er, p. 208, who examines the qnestion, whether 
there are instances of boming the dead among the Hebrews : 
those sometimes cited (2 Chron. xvi. 14 ; xxi. 19. Jer. xxxiv. 
4, 6. Amos yi. 10) refer rather to burning of spices on the 
bo^es, than of the bodies themselves. 

18. under a trge] under the tamarisk (Geeen. 86). Op. 
1 Chron. x. 11, 12, where the word is a more general (me. 

The bones were afterwards removed by David to the 
buiying-plaoe of Saul's fkther at Zelah (2 Sam. xxi. 12—14). 


Digitized by 





a 1 Sam. 80. 17, 


b ch. 4. 10. 


. 4. 13. 

f Heb. Wkai wa$ 
1 Sam. 4. 16. 

d 1 Sam, 81. 1. 
e Se« 1 Sam. 81. 2, 

f Heb. Bthold 

I Or, mff eoai of 
matt, or, mp 
embroidered eoai 
kindtretk wu, thai 
my, 4*0- 

gch. 8. 81. 
ft 18. 81. 

I. ^ NOW it came to pass after the death of Saul, when David was returned 
from *the slaughter of the Amalekites, and David had abode two days in 
Ziklag ; ^ It came even to pass on the third day, that, behold, ^ a man came 
out of the camp from Saul "" with his clothes rent, and earth upon his head : and 
so it was, when he came to David, that he fell to the earth, and did obeisance. 
* And David said unto him. From whence comest thou ? And he said unto 
him, Out of the camp of Israel am I escaped. ^ And David said unto him, 
t How went the matter ? I pray thee, tell me. And he answered, That the 
people are fled from the battle, and many of the people also are fallen and 
dead ; and Saul and Jonathan his son are dead also. ^ And David said unto 
the young man that told him. How knowest thou that Saul and Jonathan his 
son be dead ? ^ And the young man that told him said. As I happened by 
chance upon ** mount Gilboa, behold, * Saul leaned upon his spear ; and, lo, the 
chariots and horsemen followed hard after him. ^ And when he looked behind 
him, he saw me, and called unto me. And I answered, f Here am I. ^ And he 
said unto me, Who art thou ? And I answered him, I am an Amalekite. 
^ He said unto me again. Stand, I pray thee, upon me, and slay me : for 
II anguish is come upon me, because my life is yet whole in me. ^® So I stood 
upon him, and 'slew him, because I was sure tiiat he could not hve after that 
he was fallen : and I took the crown that was upon his head, and the bracelet 
that was on his arm, and have brought them hither unto my lord. 

^^ Then David took hold on his clothes, and 'rent them; and likewise 

Ch. I. 1. t^ earns to past — AmalehUes] By tbese words 
the Author coxmectB this Book with the preceding, in the same 
way as the Author of the Book of Joshua begins with recapitu- 
lating what is said at the dose of the Pentateuch (Jodi. i. 1). 
C^. Deut. xxxiv. 6. 

— Ziklag] See 1 Sam. xxvii. 6. 

6. I happened by^ chancel The Sept has wtpurr^fiari 
w9pi4ireffoy — ^the ori^nal word is in the niphal of the Hebrew 
Jcarct, to meet, to occur, Oesen. 741 (see xk. 1). The 
Amalekite thought " that he brought good tidings," and that 
David would have rewarded him for them : see ch. iv. 10. 

— horeemen] Lit., the mastere of the cavalry : Imripxcu, Sept. 

9. cmguith'] Heb. ehabats ; vertigo, giddiness, dizziness 
(Gesen, 803); darkness (Sept., Sgriac), cramp (Kimchi), 

10. defter that he was fallen'] on his spear (1 Sam. zxxi. 8). 
others, less probably, render it " after his misfortune." 

It seems that Saul, having b^en wounded by the archers, 
cetired from the battle to some recess in Mount Gilboa, and his 

body was not found by the Philistines till the morrow: see 
1 Chron. x. 8. Some suppose that this story of the Amalekite 
is a pure fiction invented by him to ingratiate himself with 
David (Theodoret, Serarius, A Lapide), But it is observable 
that Josephus (vi. 14. 7 ; vii. 1. 1) adopts the story of the 
Amalekite as true ; and it seems that the two accounts of Saul's 
death are supplementary, the one to the other, Saul was the 
author of his own death, because he did what he could to destroy 
himself; but after he had fallen on his sword he may have been 
despatched by the Amalekite ; and if the story of the Amalekite 
had not been founded on fact, why did not the Amalekite re- 
tract it^ and so escape from punishment ? and the presentation of 
the crown and bracelet of Saul seems to afford some warrant for 
its truth. If the story is true, it is worthy of remark that Saul 
owed his death to one of that nation of Amalek which he had 
been commanded by God to destroy : 1 Sam. xv. 8. Our sins 
are our Amalekites, which we ought to destroy, in obedience to . 
God; and which, if we do not de&roy them, wUl destroy us. 

Digitized by 


David's lament 

2 SAMUEL L 12—28. 

over Saul and Jonathan. 

all the men that were with him : ^^ And they monmed^ and wept, and fasted 
until even, for Saul, and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the 
LoBD, and for the house of Israel; because they were Mien by the 

18 And David said unto the young man that told him, Whence art thou ? 
And he answered, I am the son of a stranger, an Amalekite. ^^ And Dayid 
said unto him, ** How wast thou not * afraid to * stretch forth thine hand to 
destroy the Lord's anointed ? ^^ And ' David called one of the young 
men, and said, Go near, and fall upon him. And he smote him that he 
died. 1^ And David said unto him, " Thy blood be upon thy head ; for 
"thy mouth hath testified against thee, saying, I have slain the Lobd's 

1^ And David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan 
his son : ^^ (** Also he bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow : 
behold, it is written ''in the book |j of Jasher.) 

^^ The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places : 

*» How are the mighty fallen ! 
20 ' Tell it not in Gath, 

Publish it not in the streets of Askelon ; 

Lest 'the daughters of the PhiHstines rejoice. 

Lest the daughters of ^ the uncircumcised triumph. 

Ye "" mountains of Gilboa, 
" Let there he no dew, neither let there he rain, upon you. 

Nor fields of offerings : 

For there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away. 

The shield of Saul, as though he had not heen ^ anointed with oil. 

From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty. 

The bow of Jonathan turned not back, 

And the sword of Saul returned not empty. 

Saul and Jonathan were lovely and || pleasant in their lives, 

And in their death they were not divided : 

They were swifter than eagles. 




h Nam. 12. 8. 
i 1 Sam. SI. 4. 
kl Sun. 24. 0. 
ft 26. 9. 
Pt. 105. 16. 
1 ch. 4. 10. 12. 

m 1 Sam. 26. 9. 

1 Kingt2. 82, 8S, 


n TCT. 10. 

Luke 19. 22. 

ol Sam. 81. 8. 

p Joih. 10. 18. 
I Or, 0/ Uu 

4 Ttr. 27. 

r 1 Sam. 81. 9. 

Mio. 1. 10. 

See Jadg. 16. 28. 

i See Ezod. 15. 


Judg. 11. ^4. 

I Sam. 18. 6. 

I I Sam. 81. 4. 
u 1 Sam. 81. 1. 

X So Jodg. 6. 28. 
Job 8. sT?. 
Jer. 20. 14. 

7 1 Sam. 10. 1. 
s 1 8am. 18. 4. 

I Or, 

18. a stranger] not bound 1^ ties of allegiance to Sanl. 
* 14. the Lobd'b anointed] If the life of the Lord's anointed 
wai to be revered by strangers and enemies (such the Amalekites 
were to Sanl), how much more is the life of soyereigns to be 
regarded by their own subiects ! 

18. the use of ^A« bow] that is, David not only mourned fbr 
Saol and Jonathan in his own person, and in that of his fiunily 
(see V, 11), but he composed an elc^ upon their death; and he 
taught his own tribe, the tribe ofJitdah (who might be sup- 
posed to be jealous of Saul, and of the tribe of Benjamin), to sing 
this Diige, called " the Bow/* from the mention of the achieve- 
ments of the archery of Jonathan (t?. 22) ; and of the tribe of 
Bei\jamin, the tribe of Saul, fkmous for its skill in the use of the 
bow. 1 Chron, viii. 40 j xii. 2. 2 Chron. xiv. 8; xvii. 17 
(Seranue, Tirinue, A Lapide, Keil). So the Lamentations of 
Jeremiah and others for Josiah appear to have been learned by 
the people, who mourned for him (2 Chron. xxxv. 26). 

The portion of Scripture, in which the vision of Hoses at 
the bush is described, is called" the Bush " (Mark xiL 26. Lukexz. 
87) ; Hymns of the Christian Church are called the Te Deum, 
Magnificat, &c,, from words at their beginning. Cp. Bom. 
3d. 2, where a portion of Scripture is called ** EUas" 

David, in his tears of pity shed over his enemy Saul, is a 
signal type of our compassionate Saviour, weeping over Jerusalem. 
— it is written in the book of Jasher] Tins Dirge is in- 
serted in the national collection of songs and records of heroic 
acts : see on Josh. x. 18. 

19. The beauty oflsraet] This dirge is divided into three 

stanzas, each ending with the pathetic exclamation, ** How are 
the mighty ^len!'° 

21. Nor fields of offerings] fields which afford firsfflrnits ; 
and therefore fertile and blessed by Qod. David appeals to the 
elements and natural objects, that they may sympathize in his 
sorrow. Let not the blessing of God descend in dew and in 
rain on the mountains of Gilboa ! and let no fertile regions be 
there, which may bring forth early fruits to be offered to Him. 
But let them be smitten with banenness, for there the blood of 
Saul and Jonathan was spilt» and there his shield was cast away. 
The sense is given in Kiennicotfs translation (Dissert, 
p. 123) and in Bishop Lowth's metrical version of this dirge, — 

** Triste solum, Gilboa ! Tuis ne in montibus unquam 
Vel ros, vel pluvisB decidat imber aqusd : 
Nulla feret primos aris tua messis honores, 
De grege lecta tuo victima nulla cadat ! ** 

^ east awasf] as if it were despised and loathed; fbr the sense 
of the verb gaal here used, see Lev. xxvi. 11. 80. 48. Jer. 
xiv. 19. C^esen, 176. 

— as though he had not been anointed with oU] The words, 
as though hehad, are not in the original, and the sense seems 
rather to be, in that it (the shield) was not anointed wiih oilf 
but, rather, was stained with blood (cp. v, 22). It did not par- 
take of the unction of the king, and was not profited by it. And 
so Sept., ^pfhs XaohK ohx ixp^^ ^^ i^Mv As to the sense of 
the Hebrew beli, signifying * because not/ see Oesen. 122. 

Digitized by 


David is anointed 

2 SAMUEL L 24—27. II. 1—8. King of Jvdah at Hebron. 

aJadg. 14. 18. 

b 1 Sam. 18. 1, 8. 
8c 19. 2. 
&20. 17,41. 
& 2S. 16. 
c ver. 19. 
aJudg. 1. 1. 
1 Sam. 23. 2,4, 9. 
& 30. 7, 8. 

b 1 Sam. 80. 81. 

ver. 11. 

ch fi. 1. 3. 

1 Kings 2. 11. 

c 1 Sam. 80. 5. 

d 1 Sam. 27. 2, 8. 

& SO. 1. 

1 Chion. 12. 1. 

e ver. 11. 

eh. 8. 8. 

fl Sam. 81. 11, 

g Ruth 2. 20. 
fie 3. 10. 
Ps. 115. 15. 

h2Tim. 1, 16.18 

t Heb. he y« Ou 
tont of valour. 

i I Sam. 14. 50. 
t Heb. the host 
which was Saurt, 






They were * stronger than lions. 

Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, 

Who clothed you in scarlet, with other dehghts, 

Who put on ornaments of gold upon your apparel. 

How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle I 

Jonathan, thou wast slain in thine high places. 

1 am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan : 
Vei^ pleasant hast thou been unto me : 

** Thy love to me was wonderful, passing the loye of women. 

How are the mighty fallen, and the weapons of war perished ! 
^ And it came to pass after this, that David "" enquired of the Lobd, 
saying. Shall I go up into any of the cities of Judah ? And the Lobd said 
unto him. Go up. And David said. Whither shall I go up ? And he said. 
Unto ** Hebron. ^ So David went up thither, and his "" two wives also, Ahinoam 
the Jezreehtess, and Abigail Nabal's wife the Carmelite. ^ And ^ his men that 
were with him did David bring up, every man with his household : and they 
dwelt in the cities of Hebron. ^ •And the men of Judah came, and there they 
anointed David king over the house of Judah. 

And they told David, saying, That Hhe men of Jabesh-gilead were they 
that buried Saul. ^ And David sent messengers unto the men of Jabesh- 
gilead, and said unto them, « Blessed be ye of the Lord, that ye have 
shewed this kindness unto your lord, even unto Saul, and have buried 
him. ^ And now ^ the Lord shew kindness and truth unto you : and I also 
will requite you this kindness, because ye have done this thing. ^ Therefore 
now let your hands be strengthened, and f be ye valiant : for your master 
Saul is dead, and also the house of Judah have anointed me king over 

^ But * Abner the son of Ner, captain of f Saul's host, took || Ish-bosheth the 

II Or, B»h-baal, 1 Chron. 8. 88. 8c 9. 39. 

26. O Jonathan] David mourns bitterly for Saul ; but the 
climax of bis sorrow is for Jonathan, dear to him as a brother, 
and loving him with the love of a wife. 

Jonathan was more than forty years old at the time of his 
death (see ii. 10), more than ten years older than David (v. 
4), and Saul was about seventy. 

Ch. ii. 1. enquired of the JjOJO}] Bv the Urim aqd Thummim 
in the breastplate on the ephod of Abiathar, the High Priest. 
Cp. 1 Sam. xxiii. 9. 

— 8h(Ul I go up into any cf the eities of Judah ?] David's 
own tribe ; but he might well doubt, whether he might return 
thither : first, on account of the Pbilistines who had got posses- 
sion of the country ; and next, on account of the enmity of Abner 
and of the house of Saul. He therefore inquired of the Lobd. 

— Hebronl Because it was hallowed by its associations with 
the history of the Patriarchs who were buried there (Theodoret) : 
see Gen. xxiii. 19; xxxv. 27; xlix. 80; L 18; and of Caleb, 
Josh. xiv. 18. Judg. i. 20 ; and of Samson, xvi. 3. 

4. there they anointed David king over the house of Judah"] 
As Saul, after having been privately anointed by Samuel, was 
publicly inaugurated as king (see 1 Sam. jX. 15) ; so David. 

This unction of David was figurative of the unction of 
Christ. Hebron was the patriarchal dty; and David, being 
anointed king of Judah at Sebron, was a figure of Christ, king 
of the Jews, In the words of our learned Expositor, "David, 
the most undoubted type of the Messias, was anointed at 
Bethlehem ; for there * Samuel took the horn of oU, and anointed 
him in the midst of his brethren : and the Spirit of the Lord came 
upon David from that day forward ' (1 Sam. xvi. 18). Of which 
unction those words of God must necessarily be understood, " I 
have found David My servant ; with My holy oil have I anointed 
him ' (Ps. Ixxxix. 20). And yet he was agun anointed at Hebron ; 
first, over the house of Judah (2 Sam. ii. 4) ; then over all the 
tribes of Israel, at Jerusalem (2 Sam. v. 8). 

"As therefore David at his first unction received the 
Spirit of Gk)d, and a full right unto the throne of Israel, which 
yet he was npt to exercise till the death of Saul and acceptation 
of the Tribes ; and therefore when the time was come that ho 
should actually enter upon his regal office, he was again anointed : 
so our Jesub, the Son of David, was first sanctified and anointed 
with the Holy Ghost at His conception, and thereby received a 
right unto, and was prepared for all those offices which belcmged 
to the Redeemer of the world ; but when He was to enter upon • 
the actual and full performance of all those Amotions which be- 
longed to Him, then doth the same Spirit, which had sanctified 
Him at His conception, visibly descend upon Him at His inau- 
guration, and that most properly upon His Baptism ; because, 
according to the customs of those ancient nations, washing was 
wont to precede their unctions. Wherefore 'Jesus when he 
was baptized, went up straightway out of the water; and lo, the 
heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God 
descending hke a dove ' (Matt. iii. 16) " (JBp. Fearfon on the 
Creed, Art. ii.). Cp. A iapide on v. 8. Cp. below, on v. 8. 

There is an analogy between royal coronations and ordina- 
tions of priests. Not only a (livine call, but a public commis- 
sion is necessary for them : see above, on Deut. xxxi. 7 1 xxxiv. 
9 ; and below, on Acts xiii. 1 — 8. Heb. v. 4. 

The xxviith Psalm (" The Lord is mv Light") is entitled 
in the Sept, " before the anointing," and may probably be re- 
ferred to this time. 

8. Abner] Saul's first cousin (1 Chron. ix. 86), and captain 
of Saul's host (1 Sam. xiv. 51 ; xvii. 57). 

— Ish'boshith] which means, man of shame. He is called 
JEsh'baal (fire of Baal, i.e. destruction of Baal, Keil, 215) in 
1 Chron. viii. 83; ix. 89. So Jerub-baal (Gideon) is called also 
Jerub'bosheth (2 Sam. xi. 21>; and Merib-baal (cont^ider 
against Baal, Oesen. 509) is called Mephibosheth (see below, iy, 
8. IChron. viii. 84; ix. 40). Cp. Hos. ix. 10. Jer- iii. 24. 

These modifications of the name seem to have arisen from 

Digitized by 


IshboshetVs reign. 

2 SAMUEL n, 9—16. 

Abner's challenge to Joab. 

son of Saul, and brought him over to Mahanaim ; ® And made him king over 
Gilead, and over the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and over Ephraim, and over 
Benjamin, and over all Israel. ^^ Ish-bosheth Saul's son was forty years old 
when he began to reign over Israel, and reigned two years. But the house of 
Judah followed David. ^^ And ^the f time that David was king in Hebron over 
the house of Judah was seven years and six months. 

^2 And Abner the son of Ner, and the servants of Ish-bosheth the son of 
Saul, went out from Mahanaim to ' Gibeon. ^^ And Joab the son of Zeruiah, 
and the servants of David, went out, and met f together by " the pool of Gibeon : 
and they sat down, the one on the one side of the pool, and the other on the 
other side of the pooh ^* Ajid Abner said to Joab, Let the young men now 
arise, and play before us. And Joab said, Let them arise. ^^ Then there 
arose and went over by number twelve of Benjamin, which pertain£d to Ish- 
bosheth the son of Saul, and twelve of the servants of David. ^^ And they 

k ch. 5. 5. 
1 Kings 8. II. 
f Ueb. numbtr of 

iJosh. 18. 25. 

t Heb. thtm 


m Jer. 41. 11. 

a reUgiouB abborrence of the name of Baal, and an nnwillmg^ess 
to pronounce it; but this reluctance was overcome in course of 
time, and (marvellous to say) Baal was admitted to divine 
honour under Ahab, and even superseded Jehovah in the hearts 
of Israel. Such is the progress of Idolatry. Here is a solemn 
warning for our own days, in which we nave to deplore the 
melancholy fact that n^en and women in the Christian Church, 
who have been brought up in a godly hatFed and righteous 
abomination of creature-worship, are at length so fascinated and 
bewitched by it^ that they sink into the lowest depths of Mario- 
latry, and into abject deification of the Bishop of Rome, as if he 
were a God upon earth ! 

— to Mcihanaim] On the eastern side of Jordan, in order to 
be secure firom the attacks of the Philistines, and of David ; 
and that he might stren^hen the power of Ishbosheth there, 
before he declared lum King of Israel. 

Mahanaim also, as well as Hebron (v, V), was hallowed by 
patriarchal associations, and was perhaps cnosen by Abner on 
that account : see Qen, zxxii. 1, 2. 

9. nuide him kinff] Ishbosheth was not made king of Israol 
immediately after the death of Saul, but after an interval of 
some years, probably five ; during which time Abner was en- 
deavouring to raise Israel from the state in which they lay in 
servitude to the Philistines. Cp. Bp, Cotton in B. D,, i. p. 9; 
and ibid., i. p. 891; and Keil, p. 216. 

Ishbosheth, as son of Saul, seemed to have a right to the 
kingdom as long as the unction of David was merely private, 
and not published to the world ; and Ishbosheth is not regarded 
in Scripture as an usurper: see iv. 11 {Abulensis, Serarius, 
A Lapide), He may be compared spiritually to those who, before 
Christ's public inauguration, and before the open preaching of 
the Gk>spel, still clave to Judaism. He represents, as it were, 
the state of transition between the birth of Christ and the pub- 
lication of the GospeL 

— Oilead] The region east of Jordan (Num. zziiL ^. Josh, 
zzii. 9). 

— Ashurites] The Syriac, Arabic, and Vul^. identify them 
with the Geshurites (Deut. iii. 14. Josh. xiii. 13. 2 Sam. xv. 
8. 1 Chron. ii. 23), on the S.B of Damascus; and so JEkoald and 
Thenius. The Targum of Jonathan interprets the word by 
"house of Asher," i. e. the country west of Jordan, above 
Jezreel ; and so Orove, B. D. i. 124. 

— Jezrest] The rich wide plain of Esdraelon, K.w. of 
Qilboa : see Judg. i. 8 ; iii. 9 ; vi. 33. Josh. xvii. 16. JSobin- 
son, ii. 815; iii. 113. Stanley, Palestine, p. 336. Vands' 
velde, p. 826. Porter^ B. D. i. p. 575. It was celebrated in the 
history of the conflicts of Deborah and Barak (see Judg. iv.), 
of Gideon (see Judg. vii.), and of Saul and Jonathan (1 Sam. 
xxix. 1) : see above, 1 Sam. xxviiL 4. 

10. Ish-bosheth .... -vnAforty years old when he began to 
reign .... and reigned two years] After which David became 
Eling of Israel : see v. 1 — 3. The end of these two years of 
Ishbosheth coincides with the end of the seven and a half years 
during which David reigned over Judah ; which period of seven 
and a half years began with the death of Saul : see v. 1, and on v, 9. 

11. the time that David was king in Hebron over the house 
of Judah was seven years and six inofi^Af] Before he beqame 
ki^ over all Israel : see below, v. 1 — 8. This gradual exten- 

VoL. IL Pabt II.— 73 

sion of David's kingdom from Judah to all the tribes of Israel 
was figurative of the expansion of the kingdom of Christ from 
Judffia to all nations: see above, on 9. \ and below, on v. 

12. Qibeon] now W-Jlb, about seven miles west of Jerusalem 
(see Sobinson, ii. 137)> odebrated in the history of Joshua's 
miracle (Josh. x. 12), and as the place of Solomon's prayer 
(1 King^ iii. 4 — 15. Vandevelde, p. 316). Here Amasa was 
killed by Joab (below, xx. 8—12). 

18. Joab the son of Zeruiah] sister of David (1 Chron. ii. 
15, 16). Joah'sfather^s name, according to Josephus (Antt. vii. 
1. 3), was Suri, who is never mentioned in Scripture. Probably 
the name of his mother (Zeruiah) is mentioned on account of 
her relation to David, and because his fitthor was of obscure 
origin a ad station. 

Joiib here first comes prominently forward in the history. 
Abishai, the brother of Joab, is mentioned as a companion of 
David, and as asking Um to allow him to kill Saul (1 Sam. xxvi. 
6 — 9). Henceforward Joab plays a conspicuous part in the 
military and civil history of David's reign, even tUl David's 
death (1 Kings i. 7; ii. 5, 6). 

It seems surprising, at first sight, that David, who was then 
in the flower of his age, only tldrty years old (see v. 4i), and who 
had been long distinguished for his courage and skill as a mili- 
tary leader, should now decline into a subordinate position as a 
warrior, and that Joab should occupy the principal place in the 
wars of Israel, and should exercise a dominant influence over 
David, so that the king was constnuned to sav, <* I am this day 
weak, though anointed king; and these men, the sons of Zeruiah, 
are too hard for me " (iii. 89). 

Was this unhappy condition a consequence of his poly- 
gamy (see iii. 2, 3 ; and particularly v. 13 — 16) ? Waa this 
multipHcation of wives, contrary to God's command (Deut. xvii, 
17), a cause of effeminacy and softness ? Did it disqualify him 
for the hardships of the field, and afford an opportumty to such 
bold, ambitious, and insidious persons as Joab, who profited by 
his weakness and fiivoured it, to g^ain the mastery over him ? 
see especially xii. 14 — 27, and consider what is suggested by 
that history. ** Cams erit Begi, qui Begem tempore quo vult 
Acousare potest." 

— the pool of CHbeon] Gibeon, M-Jib, about fovr or five 
miles of Jerusalem, famous in the history of Joshua 
(Josh. ix. 3 ; x. 2. 4. 12). The pool of Gibeon is described by 
Itobinson, Palest, ii. 136; and by Dr. Thomson, Land and 
Book, p. 669. It is mentioned by Jeremiah, xU. 12. 

14. Abner said] Abner is the aggressor; and eventually, 
after the slaughter of his men, falls a victim to his own cruel 
proposal : see iii. 27. 

(Hbeon was afterwards the scene g( the orud and trea- 
cherous act of Joab killing Amasa (see m. 8. 10), and, by a 
remarkable retribution, the scene also of his death (1 Kings ii. 
28,29. Cp. 1 Chron. xvi. 89). 

— play] an euphemism iov fight. The same word is used to 
describe the act of Samson (Judg. xvi. 27) which was so fatal 
to the Philistines. Cp. Prov. x. 23 ; xxvi. 18, 19. 

16. twelve of Benjamin] Who arose in consequence of Abner's 
oballeni^ to Joab and David's servants, and were slain by them. 

— twelve of the servants of Dewid] These twelve servants 

Digitized by 


Abner's men are beaten. 

2 SAMUEL n. 17—32. 

Asahel slain by Abner. 

II That is, The 
juid o/ ttrong 

n 1 Chron. 2. 16. 

o 1 Chron. 12. 8. 
f Heb. of hit feet, 
t Heb. at one of 
the roes that is in 
p Ps. 18. 88. 
Cant. 2. 17. 
ft 8. 14. 

iHtb. from t^fter 

J Or, tpoil, 
udg. 14. 19. 

q ch. S. 27. 
ft 4. 6. 
ft 20. 10. 

r Tcr. 14. 

Prov. 17. 14. 



i Or, gone avcjr. 

caught every one his fellow by the head, and thrust his sword in his fellow's 
side ; so they fell down togetiier : wherefore that place was called || Helkath- 
hazzurim, which is in Gibeon* ^^ And there was a very sore battle that day ; 
and Abner was beaten, and the men of Israel, before the servants of David. 

^^ And there were ° three sons of Zemiah there, Joab, and Abishai, and 
Asahel : and Asahel was ** as light f of foot f ** as a wild roe. ^^ And Asahel 
pursued after Abner ; and in going he turned not to the right hand nor to the 
left f from following Abner. ^ Then Abner looked behind him, and said, Art 
thou Asahel ? And he answered, I am. ^^ And Abner said to him. Turn thee 
aside to thy right hand os to thy left, and lay thee hold on one of the young 
men, and take thee his || armour. But Asahel would not turn aside from 
following of him. ^ And Abner said again to Asahel, Turn thee aside from 
following me : wherefore should I smite thee to the ground ? how then should 
I hold up my face to Joab thy brother ? ^ Howbeit he refused to turn aside : 
wherefore Abner with the hinder end of the spear smote him ** under the fifth 
rih, that the spear came out behind him ; imd he fell down there, and died in 
the same place : and it came to pass, that as many as came to the place where 
Asahel fell down and died stood still. ^ Joab also and Abishai pursued after 
Abner : and the sun went down when they were come to the hill of Ammah, 
that lieth before Giah by the way of the wilderness of Gibeon. 

^ And the children of Benjamin gathered themselves together after Abner, 
and became one troop, and stood on the top of an hill. ^ Then Abner called 
to Joab, and said, Shall the sword devour for ever ? knowest thou not that it 
will be bitterness in the latter end ? how long shall it be then, ere thou bid the 
people return from following their brethren ? ^ And Joab said. As God liveth, 
unless ""thou hadst spoken, surely then f in the morning the people had || gone 
up every one from following his brother. ^ So Joab blew a trumpet, and all 
the people stood still, and pursued after Israel no more, neither fought they 
any more. 

^ And Abner and his men walked all that night through the plain, and 
passed over Jordan, and went through all Bithron, and they came to Mahanaim. 
^ And Joab returned from following Abner : and when he had gathered all the 
people together, there lacked of David's servants nineteen men and Asahel. 
^^ But the servants of David had smitten of Benjamin, and of Abner 's men, so 
that three hundred and threeiscore men died. ^ And they took up Asahel, and 
buried him in the sepulchre of his father, which was in Beth-lehem. And 
Joab and his men went all night, and they came to Hebron at break of day. 

of DaTid deBtroted their enemies in thu bloody ttvf, and they 
themselves perished in it. 

The s^rrants of the Bivme David, the Prinoe of Peaoe» Hk 
holy Apostles, have gfuned bloodless victories, and have oon- 
qnered the worid bv being martyrs for Christ. 

16. ofki thrust ni$ noord in] Or rather, and hi$ moord «a# 
in the side. 

— Melkath-hazzurim] Literally, the Jield of the Hones, or 
rooks, i. e. of the strong men» firm as rocks : ** offer robust- 
orum" (F«^.). 

In a flgnrative sense, the Apostles of the true David are 
also compared to stones : see Bev. xxi. 14. Some render turim, 
edges (i. e. of their swords) (cp. Ps. Ixxxiz. 44. KeU) ; bat the 
former interpretation seems prefSerable. 

18. a wild roe] a gazelle: see below, xxii. 84. 

81. tiike his armour] that thoa mayest have deftno^ and spoil. 

88. the hinder end of the sj^ear] with which it might be 
fixed in the ground (1 Sam. xzvi. 7). 

^- fifth rib] the lowest. "Sab qnft nihil est osseom, sed 
venter moUis, letali ictoi opportonos'' {A Lapide). 

86. Shall the sword devour for ever?] Abner, who had 
made a jest of shedding blood (" Let the young men pk^ before 
OS," «. 14), now that he is worsted, and is in danger, professes 
repagnanoe for bloodshed. 

87. unless thou hadst spoken] If thou hadst not made tho 
challenge ^ v, 14), this war 6i brethren with brethren would 
never have begun. Thou oomplainest that the sword devoQrB> 
but thou wast the first to unsheath it. Abner was the aggressor, 
and his own death, as well as that of his men (o. 81), were the 
consequences of the aggression. 

88. J^oah hlew a trumpe£] To sound a retreat. Cp. xviiL 16. 

89. the plain] The arabdh, or valley of the Jordan. 

— aU Biihron] All the gorge, or ravine (flrom Heb. hafharf 
to out; €fesen, 149 ; cp. the word T^empS, mm r4/um, to cat), 
probably between the M>bok and Mahanaim. 

Digitized by 


David's sons at Hebron. 2 SAMUEL m. 1—16. Abner turns against Ishbosheth. 

in. 1 Now there was long war between the house of Saul and the house of 
David : but David waxed stronger and stronger, and the house of Saul waxed 
weaker and weaker. 2 j^^ a^^^ j)^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 1^^^ ^ Hebron : and his •iciiron.8.1-4. 
firstborn was Amnon, **of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess ; *And his second, »>> s«n. «5. «. 
II Chileab, of Abigail the wife of Nabal the CarmeUte ; and the third, Absalom } Sjon*^*?' 
the son of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king * of Geshur ; * And the fourth, « » 8»» «^. «• 
** Adonijah the son of Haggith; and the fifth, Shephatiah the son of Abital; d\' King.* 1.6. 

* And the sixth, Ithream, by Eglah David's wife. These were bom to David 
in Hebron. 

^ And it came to pass, while there was war between the house of Saul and 
the house of David, that Ahner made himself strong for the house of Saul. 
7 And Saul had a concubine, whose name was • Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah : ech.ii.8ao. 
and Ish'bosheth said to Abner, Wherefore hast thou 'gone in unto my father's fch.i6.ii. 
concubine ? ^ Then was Abner very wroth for the words of Ish-bosheth, and 
said. Am I « a dog's head, which against Judah do shew kindness this day unto g Dent. 23. is. 
the house of Saul thy father, to his brethren, and to his jfriends, and have not ih.Tif*' **' 
delivered thee into the hand of David, that thou chargest me to day with a 
&ult concermng this woman ? * "^ So do God to Abner, and more also, except, ii Ruth 1. n. 

* as the LoED hatii sworn to David, even so I do to him ; ^^ To translate the y^5*f "• "• 
kingdom from the house of Saul, and to set up the throne of David over Israel f cLn. 12. 2«. 
and over Judah, ^ from Dan even to Beer-sheba. ^^ And he could not answer k judg.20. 1. 
Abner a word again, because he feared him. 

^2 And Abner sent messengers to David on his behalf, saying. Whose is the 
land 7 saying also^ Make thy league with me, and, behold, my hand shall be 
with thee, to bring about all Israel unto thee. ^* And he said. Well ; I will 
make a league with thee : but one thing I require of thee, f that is, * Thou shalt ♦ Heb^^ _^ 
not see my face, except thou first bring "* Michal Saul's daughter, when thou mi8«n.i8.2o. 
comest to see my face. ^^ And David sent messengers to Ish-bosheth Saul's 
son, saying. Deliver me my wife Michal, which I espoused to me " for an j^* 8«n- >»• ««. 
hundred foreskins of the Philistines. ^^ And Ish-bosheth sent, and took her 
from her husband, even from ""Phaltiel the son of Laish. ^^ And her husband j.iJjT**' *^ 
went with her f along weeping behind her to i^Bahurim. Then said Abner unto t Heb.^ii,«iMr 
him. Go, return. And he returned. T^.'Sl w. 

h. 17. 11. 
1 KinffB 4. 28. 


Ch. nL 8. wUo David were sans horn im SlAr<m} of Uie six 
wives here mentioiied ; and he had many concabinei (t. 18). 

This polygamy of David, forbidden by Qod, seems to have 
been the cause or his weakness (see on iL 18), as it was of 
innumerable jealousies and enmities in his family. Kane of the 
SODS here mentioned were eminent for yirtne, and some of them 
(Amnon, Absalom, and Adon^ah) were notorions fbr their sfauk 

But David was a flgore of Christ : and that which was a sin 
in him, does in a spiritoal sense distingriish, as a maik of teDder- 
ness and aflbetion, the character of Him in whom titers is no 
spot or blemish of hnman nnholiness, bat who is infinitely pnre, 
and who vouchsafes to join to Himself particular Cbnrehes of all 
nations, and even individual souls, by the neajrest and dsarest 
intimacy of mystical wedlock, as St. Paul teaches, who says to 
tl^ Corinthians, " I have espoused you to one husband, that I 
may Pjesent you as a chaste virgin to Christ'' (2 Cor. zL 2). 

This is well expressed by an ancient writer : '* Perhaps some 
one may ask. If David was a type of Christ, how is it that he is 
related to have had many wives and concubines : a thing which 
Christ abhors and condemns? But this too was fi^^irative. 
The wives of David foreshadowed the maiqr nations who would 
be united to Christ in spiritual wedlock." (Bede, Qu. in 2 Sam. 
c. IL : see below, on v. 18.) 

Ukio Baifkd were sons hom •» Hebron, when he had 
beeome lEmg of Judah, It is remarkable, that no sons seem to 

have been bom to him befbre that time, when he was tUrt^ 
years of age ; and after it he had a numerous issue ; 

Christ had no spiritual issue, before He was proclaimed 
King, by the voice from heaven, at His baptism, when He was 
thiHy $ears of age (Luke iii. 22, 28). 

8. OJuUahli i.e. Uke his fathers called DaiM in 1 Chxon. 
ilL 1, The Hebrew Babbis say that he was called Chileab also^ 
ffom his likeness to David, and to silence t^ insinuations of 
soma that he was the son of Nabal. 

— Oeshmr] ir.B. of Bashan (Deut. iiL 14). 

5. Vglah Dofcid^s wtfe"] Supposed by some of tiie Babbis to 
be Michal {Jeromiaster). 

6. Jhner made himself strong"] But Qod strengthened David, 
whom Abner knew to have been desi g ned for the kingdom by 
Qod: see 09. 9, 10. 

7. Baml had a ooneubine'] by whom he had two sons (zxi. 8). 

— Whertfore hast thon gone ta — eononbine f] which was tan- 
tamount to a daim to his throne : see zvL 21, and 1 Kings ii. 22. 

8. a dog's head:] See 1 Sam. xviL 48. 2 Kings viii. 18. 
Abner appears to denv the charge, which was one of immodesty 
and undeanness {A JLapide), 

14. David sent messengers to Tsh-hosheth] He proceeds law- 
Mly, and not by violence, to recover her who belonged to him 
by right. 

— mg wife Michal, which I espoused to me] See 1 Sanu 

16. her husband went with her along weeptng behind her] 

Digitized by 


Abner resorts to David^ 

2 SAMUEL ni- 17—29. 

is slain by Joah. 

t Heb. both 
iietterda& and ih« 
third da^. 
q Ter. 9. 

r 1 Cbron. 12. 29. 

• ver. 10, 12. 
1 1 Kings 11. 27. 

u 1 Sam. 29. 6. 
Isa. 37. 28. 

X 1 Kingf 2. S. 
So ch. 20. 9, 10. 

II Or, peaeeakly, 
y ch. 4. 6. 
X ch. 2. 23. 

t Heb. bloodM. 

a 1 Kings 2. 82, 

f Heb. b$ cut off. 
b Lot. 15.2. 

^7 And Abner had commtinication with the elders of Israel, saying, Ye sought 
for David f in times past to be king over you : ^^ Now then do it : ** for the Lord 
hath spoken of David, saying. By the hand of my servant David I will save my 
people Israel out of the hand of the Philistines, and out of the hand of aU 
their enemies. ^^ And Abner also spake in the ears of 'Benjamin : and Abner 
went also to speak in the ears of David in Hebron all that seemed good to 
Israel, and that seemed good to the whole house of Benjamin. ^ So Abner 
came to David to Hebron, and twenty men with him. And David made 
Abner and the men that were with him a feast. ^^And Abner said unto 
David, I will arise and go, and • will gather all Israel unto my lord the king, 
that they may make a league with thee, and that thou mayest ^ reign over 
all that thine heart desireth. And David sent Abner away ; and he went in 

^ And, behold, the servants of David and Joab came from pursuing a troop, 
and brought in a great spoil with them : but Abner was not with David in 
Hebron ; for he had sent him away, and he was gone in peace. ^3 Yfhea 
Joab and all the host that was with him were come, they told Joab, saying, 
Abner the son of Ner came to the king, and he hath sent him away, and he is 
gone in peace. ^ Then Joab came to the king, and said. What hast thou 
done ? behold, Abner came unto thee ; why is it that thou hast sent him away, 
and he is quite gone ? ^ Thou knowest Abner the son of Ner, that he came 
to deceive thee, and to know ** thy going out and thy coming in, and to know 
all that thou doest. 

^ And when Joab was come out from David, he sent messengers after Abner, 
which brought him again from the well of Sirah: but David knew it not. 
27 And when Abner was returned to Hebron, Joab * took him aside in the gate 
to speak with him || quietly, and smote him there ^ under the fifth rib, that he 
died, for the blood of * Asahel his brother. 

^ And afterward when David heard itj he said, 

I and my kingdom are guiltless before the Lobd for ever 
Prom the f blood of Abner the son of Ner : 
^ * Let it rest on the head of Joab, and on all his father's house ; 
And let there not f fail from the house of Joab 
One ^that hath an issue, 
Or that is a leper. 

But his soitow wasnot caused by his oWn sin in taking to himself 
another man's wife. His tears ought to have been tears of re- 
pentance, for his sin against Qod and against David. It is not 
said that Michal wept. 

Here i^ spiritual instruction. David sent to recall Michal 
to hims^j and she was received back by him. So Christ 
mercifully recalls and receives a church, or a soul, which 
has been gfuilty of un^thfulness to Him (Hos. iii. 1 — 6), 
although they who have beguiled it to break its troth pursue 
after it and endeavour to retain it. So God will recover His 
own Michal, Saul's daughter, the Jewish nation, as the prophet 
says, and unite her again to Himself. In this respect God's 
love exceeds any tenderness and compassion which was pre- 
scribed to men by His own law : see Jer. iii. 1, and cp. Theodoret 

18. I vrill gave] This is the correct rendering ; there is a 
typographical error in most of the editions of the Hebrew here, 
which have the past tense and the third person ; and are to be 
corrected from many MSS. in De MosH, and firom the ancient 
versions, which have "Iwill save." 

19. Abner alto spake in the eart of Ber^aminl His own 


28. he is gone in peace"] David has let Abner escape, although 
he had killed Asahel, his own nephew. 

86. well of Birah] twenty furlongs from Hebron (Josephus, 
vii. 1. 6). 

27. for the blood of Asahel his brother] And because Joab 
thought that Abner would supplant him in his high station as 
chief captain of David's forces (Josephus, Theodoret), Abner 
had slain Asahel, but it was in open war, and Abner had wished 
to spare him (ii. 21), but Joab treacherously " shed the blood 
of war in peace " (1 Kings ii. 5). 

29. on aU his father^s house] The family of the husband of 
David's own sister. David's indignation at Uie murder seems 
to have transported him beyond the bounds of reason, and to have 
betrayed him into forgetAilness of God's law, which declared 
that children should not suffer for their faUier's sin (Dent, 
xxiv. 16). But his passionate imprecation is an evidence that 
Abner's death was not desired but detested by David, whose 
name Joab had abused in order to effect the murder (see «. 26, 
and Bp. Patrick's note), and who might therefore be thought 
by all people to be the author of it. 

If David's curse took effect, it is to be remembered that 
'' outwardly and temporally children may fare the worse for their 

Digitized by 


David's imprecation on Joab. 2 SAMUEL III. 30 — 89. IV. 1 — 3. His lament for Abner. 

Or that leaneth on a staff, 

Or that falleth on the sword, 

Or that lacketh bread. 
^ So Joab and Abishai his brother slew Abner, because he had slain their 
brother "^ Asahel at Gibeon in the battle. 

^^ And David said to Joab, and to all the people that were with him, * Bend 
yonr clothes, and* gird yon with sackcloth, and mourn before Abner. And 
king David himself followed the f bier. ^ And they buried Abner in Hebron : 
and the king lifted up his voice, and wept at the grave of Abner ; and all the 
people wept. ^ And the king lamented over Abner, and said. 

Died Abner as a 'fool dieth ? 
^ Thy hands were not bound, 

Nor thy feet put into fetters : 

As a man falleth before f wicked men^ 

So fellest thou. 
And all the people wept again over him. ^ And when all the people 
came *to cause David to eat meat while it was yet day, David sware, saying, 
^ So do God to me, and more also, if I taste bread, or ought else, ^ till the 
sun be down. ^ And all the people took notice of it, and it f pleased them : 
as whatsoever the king did pleased all the people. 

^ For all the people and all Israel understood that day that it was not of 
the king to slay Abner the son of Ner. ^ And the king said unto his servants. 
Enow ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel ? 
^ And I am this day \ weak, though anointed king ; and these men the sons of 
Zeruiah ^ be too hard for me : * the Lobd shall reward the doer of evil according 
to his wickedness. 

IV. ^ And when Saul's son heard that Abner was dead in Hebron, * his 
hands were feeble, and all the Israelites were ''troubled. ^And Saul's son 
had two men that were captains of bands : the name of the one was Baanah, 
and the name of the f other Bechab, the sons of Bimmon a Beerothite, of the 
children of Benjamin : (for ^'Beeroth also was reckoned to Benjamin : ^ And the 
Beerothites fled to ** Gittaim, and were sojourners there until this day.) 

e cb. S. 23. 

d Josh. 7. 6. 
oh. 1.2. 11. 
e Gen. 87. 84. 

t Heb. bed. 

f eh. 18.12,18. 


gch. 12.17. 
Jer. 16. 7. 

h Ruth 1. 17. 
i ch. 1. 12. 
f Heb. wa$good 
in their epes. 

f Heb. iender. 

k ch. 19. 7. 
1 See ch. 19. 18. 

1 Kings 2. 5, 6, 
88, 84. 

Ps. 28. 4. 
& 62. 12. 

2 Tim. 4. 14. 
a Esra 4. 4. 
Isa. IS. 7. 

b Matt. a. 8. 

t Heb. second. 
c Josh. 18. 25. 
d Neh. 11. 88. 

father's sms, but spiritaally and eternally they cannot" (Bp, 
Sanderson, iii* 68), and that a flEtther's sin and ponishment are 
salutary warnings to children, and that their own temporal 
Bufferings may be made the means of everlasting felicity and gloily. 

— a staff] or crutch ; Heb. peleo : see Q-esen,, p. 676. 

88. the king lamented over Abner} As at the fkll of Sanl and 
Jonathan, David not only wept for them, but composed a 
lamentation^ a dirge for them, in order that the mourning for 
them might be more pubUo and permanent (see i. 12. 17), so he 
did also for Abner. 

In the depth and tenderness of his affection and com- 
passion, even for his enemies (Saul, Abner, Absalom), David is a 
signal type of Him who wept {tKKavcw) over Jerusalem, and 
composed its funeral dirge in the words of sorrow which He 
pronounced over it even when it was about to reject and cruciiy 
Him (Matt, xxiii. 37. Luke xix. 41). 

— Died Abner as a fool dieth 7] Literally, Shall Abner die as 
a fool ? Must Abner die as a miscreant ? see Ps. xiv. 1 ; and 
for a version of this dirge see JBp, Lowth, Prslect. zxil. p* 229. 
Moald, Dichter d. a. B. 1. 99. Keil, 224. 

84. Thy hands were not bound] No ; thou wert not a male- 
factor, treated by me as such, and eiven up to the Law as a 
felon after sentence, with hands pimoned and feet fettered, in 
order to be executed. I did not so deal with thee ; but thou 
wast taken away by treachery and iniquity. 

This short poem is not only a dirgp it is also an apology 
for David, and for Abner himself. 

87. it was not qf the king to slojf Abner] Though Joab had 

made use of his name for the purpose of slaying him. David 
showed kindness to Abner after his death by promoting his 
son (1 Chron. xxvii. 21). 

80. these men the sons of Zeruiah be too hard for me] The 
sons of his own sister; for Abishai as well as Joab had been 
guilty of Abner's death {v. 80). 

— the Lobd shall reward the doer of evil] Therefore David's 
charge to Solomon concerning Joab (1 Kings iL 5, 6) was no act 
of private revenge against Joab, but it was the execution of 
QoaB justice upon him for his sins. 

At the same time, if David had done what his conscience 
had told him was right, and what he did to the miuderers of 
Ishbosheth (iv. 11); if he had fully trusted God, and done 
justice with courage, according to God's law (Gen. ix. 6) ; if, 
relying on God, ana not looking to the carnal advanta^s which 
he derived from the military skill of Joab and Abishai, he had 
executed judgment on Joab, he would have probably prevented 
other mm^ers, such as that of Ishbosheth^ and of Amasa ; and 
he would have been spared the sorrow of giving on his death- 
bed the warrant of execution against Joab, to be put in effect 
by Solomon. "Impunitas ad deteriora invitat;" "Saevit in 
innocentes, qni parcit nocentibus." 

Ch. TV. 2. a Beerothite] Of Beeroth, now Bireh; on the 
western frontier of the tribe of Benjamin: see Josh. ix. 17; 
xviii. 25. 

8. Qittaim] One of the places where the Benjamites dwelt 
after the captivity (Neh. xi. 83). 

Digitized by 



2 SAMUEL rV. 4— 12. V. 1, 2. David king of all Israel. 

• eh. 9. 8. 

f 1 8am. S9. 1,11. 

I Or, Mtrib-iaal, 
1 Chron. 8. 84. 
ft 9. 40. 

f eb. S. S8. 

h 1 Sam. 19. S, 
10, 11. 
ft SS. 15. 
ft 88. 29. 

Oen. 48. 16. 
1 Kings 1. 89. 
Pa. 81. 7. 
k ch. 1. 2, 4, 18. 

t Heb. he was in 
ki$ own eiie» a$ a 
bringer, |«. 
i Or, which waa 
th4 reward 
I gave him for 
hit tidingt, 
1 Oen. 9. 8, 6. 

m oh. 1. 18. 

n eh. 8. 88. 

a 1 Chmn. 11. 1. 
ft IS. 88. 

^ And * Jonathaiii Saul's son, had a son that was lame of his feet. He 
was five years old when the tidings came of Saul and Jonathan ^out of 
Jezreel, and his nurse took him up, and fled : and it came to pass, as she 
made haste to flee, that he fell, and became lame. And his name was 
II Mephibosheth. 

^ And the sons of Bimmon the Beerothite, Bechab and Baanah, went, and 
came about the heat of the day to the house of Ish-bosheth, who lay (m a 
bed at noon. ^ And they came thither into the midst of the house, as though 
they would have fetched wheat ; and they smote him ' under the fifth rib : and. 
Bechab and Baanah his brother escaped. ^ For when they came into the 
house, he lay on his bed in his bedchamber, and they smote him, and slew 
him, and beheaded him, and took his head, and gat them away through the 
plain all night. ^ And they brought the head of Ish-bosheth unto Dayid to 
Hebron, and said to the king. Behold the head of Ish-bosheth the son of Saul 
thine enemy, ^ which sought thy life ; and the Lobd hath avenged my lord the 
king this day of Saul, and of his seed. 

^ And David answered Bechab and Baanah his brother, the sons of Bimmon 
the Beerothite, and said unto them. As the Lobd Hveth, ^who hath redeemed 
my soul out of all adversity, ^® When ''one told me, saying. Behold, Saul is 
dead, f thinking to have brought good tidings, I took hold of him, and slew 
hm in Ziklag, || who thought that I would have given him a reward for his 
tidings : ^^ How much more, when wicked men have slain a righteous person 
in his own house upon his bed ? shall I not therefore now ' require his blood of 
your hand, and take you away from the earth ? ^^ And David " commanded 
his young men, and they slew them, and cut off their hands and their feet, and 
hanged them up over the pool in Hebron. But they took the head of Ish- 
bosheth, and buried it in the *" sepulchre of Abner in Hebron. 

y. ^ Then ^ came all the tribes of Israel to David unto Hebron, and spake, 
saying, Behold, ^ we are thy bone and thy flesh. ^ Also in time past, when 

4. Hdin^i eam$ of SatU amd Janathtm] That ia, of their death 
(1 Sam. zxxi.). 

— idooMM lame\ Why is this aocoont of Mephiboiheth in- 

In order to prepare the reader for hia sabaeqaent historj, 
and to explain why the kingdom waa ao eaailv transferred fixmi 
the house of Sanl to David T^^^mm) ; and becaoae he waa the 
next arenger of blood, and» beinff lame and yonng» wonld not be 
able to porane the mnrderera of lahboaheth, who were therefore 
emboldened to do what they did. Bat thongh Mephiboaheth 
waa lame and could not overtake them, yet God'a joatice followed 
and poniahed them when they little expected it : aee o. 11. 

— MephiboMheth] Called Jf0n&-iaaZ(*'atriying againat Baal") 
1 Chron. Till. 84; ix. 40. The name Mepkibosheth probably 
meana extermmatimg shame, or idol {Simonit, Oeten, 498) : aee 
above, on it 8. For hia auJbaeqnent hiatoiy aee chi^ia. ix., xvi, 
and xix. 25. 

d. to the honee of Jbh-hoeheth^ At MiJ«t«i^m QL 8. 12). 

0. aa thongh they would have fetched wheaf] lit. fetching 
wheat i that ia, nnder the pretext of coming to the king'a 
granary to ^t wheat fbr the ropd of the aoldiera of lahboahetii, 
whoae captaina they were (v. 2). 

7; through the plain"] The valley of the Jordan, between 
Mahanaim and Hebron. 

8. the Lobd hath avenaed my lord) They pretended piety 
and loyalty, but they regarded nothing except their own interest. 
A apecimen of what haa been often aeen in the history of the 
world and the Church, where zeal for Qod ia aometimea a colour 
fbr worldly ambition, and an occasion for doeda of craelbr and 
treachery, — even for the murder of princes; aa Henry IlL and 
Henry IV, of France. 

But David jnatlv poniahed theae two murderers : and ihd 
day ia coming when, however aome churches may canonize auch 
methods of serving Christ, and of promoting what they call the 
cause of the Catholic Church, Qod will declare that Christianity 
was not intended to be a doak for crime, and that ** thor dam- 
nation is just" who do evil in order that good may come 
(Bom. iii. 8). 

12. their hande and their feef] Their feet with which they 
bad made haste to shed Uood; and their hands with which they 
had shed it. 

Dated xb xadi Enra oyib all Isbaxl. 

Ck. y . 1. Then eame aU the tribee of lerael to David mnio 

M^ron"] And thus Qod overruled evil fbr good, and bronght 
good out of eviL He made the crimes of Abner, Joab, and of 
the two Beerothites to be subservient to the exaltation of 
David, and the establishment of his kingdom over all IsraeL 
Hms Qod will make all the sins of evil men to be one day 
ministerial to the extension and final settlement of the universal 
dominion of Christ. 

Afler the death of Saul, David had been anointed kine of 
Jndah. Sanl represents the Jewish Dispensation, which m&ea 
way for Christ and the Qospel (Jerome). A fhller unction wm 
takes place. 

^ thy hone and thy flesh'] So all Israel say to David; and so, 
as St. Paul teaches, the Church may m to Christ (see Eph. 
V. 80), "for we are of His flesh and of EUs bones,*" and Chrut, 
bv His exaltation to the heavenly Jerusalem, is made king over 
aU true Israelites, and is become our Second Adam in g^ory, 
joining to Himself an imiversal Eve from all nations ; as Adam 
said in Paradise of Eve, the mother of all living, '* This is now 
bone of my hemes, and flesh of my flesh " (Qen. it 28). 

Digitized by 


ixoes to Jerusalem. 

2 SAMUEL V. 8—6. 

The blind and the lame. 

Saul was king over ns, ^ thou wast he that leddest out and bronghtest in Israel : 
and the Lobd said to thee, * Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt 
be a captain over Israel. ^ • So all the elders of Israel came to the king to 
Hebron; 'and king David made a league with them in Hebron 'before the 
Lobd : and they anointed David king over Israel. * David was thirty years 
old when he began to reign, ^and he reigned forty years. * In Hebron he 
reigned over Judah ' seven years and six months : and in Jerusalem he reigned 
thirty and three years over all Israel and Judah. 

^ And the king and his men went ^ to Jerusalem unto ^ the Jebusites, the 
inhabitants of the land : which spake unto David, saying. Except thou take 
away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither : || thinking, David 

1 Sam. 18. IS. 
d 1 Sun. 10. 1, 11. 

Ps. ys. n. 

See ch. 7. 7. 
e 1 ChTon. 11. 8. 

f2 King! 11. 17. 
g Judg. 11. 11. 
1 Sun. 38. 18 

h 1 Chron. 26. 81. 
ft 29. 27. 
i oh. 2. 11. 
1 Chron. 8. 4. 

k Judg. 1. 21. 
1 Josh. 18. 68. 
Judg. 1. 8. 
fr 19. II, 12. 
B Or, tajfiiu, 
David tkaUnoi, 

8. tkey amoUUed David himg over ItraeT] Aooording to the 
word of the Lord hy Samoel (1 Chron. xL 8). David was a type 
of Christ ; and here also was a preflgoration of the uniyerHil 
dominion of Christ. 

With regard to the soccessiye nnctions of Datid, which 
were tyi^oal of the soccessiye unctions of Christ, JBp* Pearean, 
following other expositors rsee A Lapide here), thus writes :— 

" I>Avid was not only first designed, bat also andnted, king 
orer Inrttel (1 Sam. xvi. 13), and yet had no possession of the 
crown. Seven years he continued anointed by Bamael, and had 
no share in the dominion; seven years after, he continued 
anointed in Mebron, only king over ihe tribe of Judah (2 Siun. 
iL 4). At last he was reodved by aUtJke iribei, and so obtained 
fall and absolute regal power over aU lerael, and seated himself 
in the royal city Jerusalem, 

** So Chbist was bom King of the Jews, and the conjunc- 
tion of His human nature with His Divine, in the union of 
His person, was a sufficient unction to His regal office, yet as 
the Son of Man He exercised no such dominion, professing that 
His kingdom was not of thie world (John xviii. 86) ; but after 
He rose from the dead, then, as it were in Hebron with His own 
tribe. He tells the Apostles (Matt, xxviii. 18), all power is given 
wUo Him ; and bv vurtue thereof g^ves them ii^junctions ; and at 
His Ascension He enters into the Jerusalem above, and there 
sits down at the right hand of the throne of God, and so makes 
a solemn entry upon the fhll and entire dominion over all things ; 
then could St. Peter say (Acts iL 86), 'Let all the house of 
Israel know assoredly, tnat God hath made that same Jesus 
whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ ' " {Bp, Pearson 
on the Creed, Art. vi^. Cp. above, on iL 4. 

4. thirty years ola\ As Joseph was, when he was exalted by 
Pharaoh (Gen. xlL 46), and as Jesus was, when He was anointed 
publicly by the Holy Ghost, and was proclaimed to be the Son of 
God from neaven (Luke ilL 28. Angelomms\ 

— he reigned forty yeairs'\ As Saul did (Acts niL 21), and as 
Solomon did (2 Chron. ix. 80^. " Quadragenarius numerus, qui 
ex quater denis constat, plemtudinem temporum et rerum per- 
feetionem significat" (Angelovms), 

6. the kiny and his men^ Called, « all Israel ''(1 Chron. xL 4}. 
David's victorious entry into Jerusalem is the triumph of " all 
Israel.'' So the Ascension of our David into the heavenly 
Jerusalem is the ascendon of us aD (Eph. ii. 6). Where tbte 
Head is, there the members are already in hope, and wfll be 
hereafter in fruition. They are His bone and His flesh. 

— to Jerusalem unto the J^usites"] Who occupied the 
fortress, ''the strongh<dd of Hod," tiie southern and highest 
lull of the dty ; the northern and lower parts bong in the hands 
of the Bei\jamites : see Judg. L 8. 21. 

Thb BLnm Aim thb LuaE.^DATn> xktbbs JBBxrsiLEX. 

— Except thou take cmay the blind and the lame"] This 
translation has been corrected by some as follows : " Thou const 
not come in hither; bnt the bUnd and the lame will keep thee 
oft" (JBueU, who compares Isa. xiv. 82 for the use of the 
smgular verb hesireoct, from swr to keep off, instead of the 
plimd ; and see Swald, § 819.) 

But the translation seems preferable which is given in the 
Authorized Version, aococding to which the verb is the hiphil 
infinitive, and this tnmdation is confirmed by Vuly., Arabic, 
Striae, Taryum, Jonathan, 

Who the lame and the bUnd were, has been doubted. Some 

have supposed (as Josephus, vii. 8. 1) that the Jebusites relied on 

the strength of their fortress, and set the Uind and lame on the 

walls in ^terision of David^ as if they would suffice to keep him 


off. A similar exposition is offered by Anyelomus, A Lapide, 
Kennioott, Dissertations, i. 82— 42, and others. 

Others suppose that the "blind and the lame" here mean 
images sculptured with inscriptions, placed on the walls by the 
Jebusites. So Ahen Ezra, R. Levi ben Oereon, and other 
Jewish expoeitoTB: cp. I^cmus, Carihusiamu, and Luther, 
Walther, and others, who suppose that they were idols of tiie 
Jebusites, who had placed them on their battlements, and relied 
on them as the patrons and tutelary deities of their city (cp. the 
learned Essay or John Oreyorie, Dissotations, 1684^ p. 29, and 
Dr, Kitto, p. 842, for illustrations of this practice), and that 
David called these images " lame and blind," according to his 
own language in Ps. cxv. 2 — 11, " Wherefbro should theneathen 
say. Where is now their God P Their idols are silver and gold, 
even the work of men's hands. They have mouths, and speak 
not; wes have they, and see not; they have hands, and huidle 
not; fiet have they, and walk not. They that msJce them are 
like unto them, and so are all they that put their trust in them. 
But thou, house of Israel, trust tnou in the Lord, He is their 
succour and defence. Te that fear the Lord, put your trust in 
the Lord, He is their helper and defender." 

This interpretation is confirmed by what follows. If " the 
lame and blind" had been mere feeble and maimed men, they 
would have been pitied "by David's soul," but not have been 
hcfted, as they are declared to be ; but if they were idols they 
would be olg'ects of his detestation, and he would desire to abolish 
them, and to establish the worship of the true Qod, the Chxl of 
Israel, on the heights of Moriah, hallowed by the sacrifice of 
Abraham, and called Jehovah-jireh by him : see Gen. xxiL 21. 
Further, this is correborated by what is related of David subse- 
quently in this chapter, v. 21, that he burned the images of the 
Philistines : see note there. 

Yet more ; the victory of David over the Jeburites, and 
his triumphal entrance into Zion and Jerusalem, were critical 
events in his life. Henceforth he became king over all the 
tribes of Israel, and made Jerusalem the capital dThis kingdom, 
and reigned there, and brought up the Anc of the Lord with 
joy and thanksgdving into it. 

Doubtiess (as is observed by ancient writers : see TertulUan 
c. Marcion. iv. 86, and Anyelomus here) these things were pro- 
phetic and typical of Christ, and of His victory over the heathen 
world, and of His triumphal entry at His Ascension into the 
heavoily Jerusalem, and of the establishment of His reyal sway 
over all the tribes of true Israelites throughout the world, and 
of His reception of the Ark of His Church into tiie heavenly 
dty, to be enshrined for ever there. 

But before this glorious consummation could be accomplished, 
a previous work was to be done in the heathen world. Hie 
heathen world trusted in false gods; it relied on "the blind and 
the lame ;" on gods that could neither see nor walk : witness, 
for example, the colossal image of Minerva Promachus, and the 
Temple of the Parthenon on the Acropolis at Athens, the most 
learned of heathen cities ; and the Temple and the Statue of 
Jupiter adored on the Capitol of Bome, the mistress of the 
world, when Christ and His Apoeties preached the Gospel, and 
stormed tiie fortresses of Satan, who is worshipped by the 
Jebusites of heathendom, and opened the way to tiie tarte Zion, 
and planted the trophies of victory on the walls of the heavenly 
Jerusalem. " The idok He shall utteriy abolish, and the Lord 
alone shall be exalted in that day," was the prophecy of Isaiah, 
foretelling the victory of Christ and the Gospel (Isa. ii. 17, 18). 
" The blind and the lame," the fidse gods adored by heathen- 
dom» but "liated by the soul" of the Divine David, Jbsts 
Cbbist, ittust fizirt; be removed, before Jerusalem can be won« 

Digitized by 



David takes Zion. 

2 SAMUEL V. 7—18. David's house and offspring. 

m ver. 9. 

1 Kings 2. 10. 

&8. I. 

nl Chron. 11. 

R Or, Beeautt 
ikey had said, 
9ctn the blind and 
the lame. He shall 
not come into the 

ver. 7. 

t Heb. went going 
and growing. 

p I Kings 5. 2. 

1 Chron. 14. 1. 

t Heb. hewtrs of 
the stone of the 

qDeut, 17.17. 
1 Chron. 9. 9. 
fr 14. 3. 

r 1 Chron. S. 5. 
9c 14. 4. 
H Or, Shimea, 
1 Chron. 8. 5. 
I Or, Slishama, 
1 Chron. 3. f. 
I Or, BeeliadOt 
1 Chron. 14. 7. 

■ 1 Chron. 11. 16. 
ft 14. 8. 

t ch. 23. 14. 

cannot come in hither. ^ Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion : 
°* the same is the city of David. ® And David said on that day, Whosoever 
getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the 
blind, that are hated of David's soul, ° he shall be chief and captain. [| Wherefore 
they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house. ^ So David 
dwelt in the fort, and called it ** the city of David. And David built round 
about from Millo and inward. ^^ And David f went on, and grew great, and 
the Lord God of hosts was with him. 

11 And p Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and 
carpenters, and f masons : and they built David an house. ^^ And David 
perceived that the Lobd had established him king over Israel, and that he had 
exalted his kingdom for his people Israel's sake. 

1' And "* David took him more concubines and wives out of Jerusalem, after he 
was come from Hebron : and there were yet sons and daughters bom to David. 
1* And ' these be the names of those that were bom unto him in Jerasalem ; 
II Shammuah, and Shobab, and Nathai^, and Solomon, i* Ibhar also, and 
||Elishua, and Nepheg, and Japhia, ^^And Ehshama, and jjEhada, and 

17 'But when the Philistines heard that they had anointed David king over 
Israel, all the Philistines came up to seek David ; and David heard of itj * and 
went down to the hold, i* The Philistines also came and spread tiiemselves 

Here is a moral lesson to Christian Chorclies, and to every 
individual soul j let them put away their idols, their worship 
of creatures, of swnts and ancels, and of every object except 
of the Lord God of Israel, if thev desire to ascend with Christ 
into the heavenly Jerusalem, and to dwell with Him for ever 
there. " For what agreement hath the templeof God with idols ?" 
(2 Cor. vi. 16.) " Little children, keep yourselves from idols" 
(1 John V. 21), Idolaters are cast forth from the heavenlv city 
(Rev. xxii. 16), and Uiey will have " their part in the lake of fire * 
(Rev. xxi. 8). 

8. David said on that day, JFhosoever getteth up to the 
gutter, and smiteth the Jehueitee^ This translation must be 
corrected, as to the order of the words, and also as to the sense : 
they would be better rendered. Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites, 
let him cast down into the gutter the lame and the blind, hated 
hg David's soul : so JBochart, Ewald, Keil, 

The sense is complete (as Bp* Patrick has observed) with- 
out the addition of the words in the Authorized Version, ** he 
shall be chief and captain," which are indeed true, being found 
in 1 Chron. xi..6, but ought not to be inserted here. 

The word rendered gutter is tsinnor, which occurs also in 
Ph. xlii. 8, and there means toater-spout 

David ordered that whosoever smote the Jebusites should 
cast down "the blind and the lame," i. e. their idols, into the 
gutter; and so the true David commands that His faithful 
soldiers and servants, who fight against the spiritual Jebusites 
of the world, the flesh, and the devil, should cast down their 
idols, and overthrow " every high and proud imagination that 
exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bring into 
captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ" (2 Cor. 
X. 5). This is the first pre-requisite for entrance into the 
heavenly Jerusalem. 

As to Mardon's objection, derived firom this passage, see 
TertulUan c. Mardon. iv. 36. 

What, therefore, is to be said of those who, after that 
Christ and His Apostles have destroyed idolatry, pick up the 
idols again out of the gqtter, and replace them on their pedes- 
tab P Is not this the case with the Church of Rome, and with 
those wl^ &U away to her ? and may they not derive a warning 
to themselves from this Scripture ? 

— The blind and the lame shall not come into the house'] 
Into the house of David, to whose soul they are hateftd. Idols 
were not admitted by him into his own house at Jerusalem ; and 
woe to those who set them up in the house of the Divine 
David ; for, as the Apostle asks, '* What communion hath light 
with darkness, and what concord hath Christ with Belial ? and 

what agreement hath the Temple of Qod. with idols P" (2 Cor. 
vi. 14—16.) 

9. David dwelt in the fort"] Zion; David took up his abode 
there ; literally, sat down there. So Christ, having conquered 
our spiritual Jebusites, ascended into the heavenly Jerusalem, 
the "holy hill of Zion" (Ps. u. 6. Cp. Heb. xii. 22. Rev. 
xiv. 1), and sat down on the right hand of God (Heb. x. 12). 

— firom Millo] From the fortress (see Judg. ix. 6. 46. 49) : 
probably on the northern side of Mount Zion ; from which he 
carried a wall round about, so as to enclose the lower city, which 
lay on the north of Zion, and to connect it with Zion on the 
south, and to join the city and the citadel into one. 

11. Hiram king qf Tgre] On the chronology see 1 Kings 
▼. 1. 1 Chron. xiv. 1. 

— sent messengers to David — and theg buHt Daivid on 
house] The heathen king and people of Tyre, the great mer- 
chant city of antiquity, contributed to the gloiy of David after 
his exaltation in JernBalem. So of the true David it is said 
after His Ascension, that " the daughter of Tyre shall be there 
with a g^ ; the rich among the people shall make supplication 
unto Thee " (Ps. xiv. 12) ; and this was to be the presage of the 
time when ** all kings shall fall down before Him, all nations 
shall do Him service" (Ptu Ixxii. 11). Psalm xxx. is said in 
its title to have been composed for the dedication of David's 

18. David took him more concubines and wives out of Jeru- 
salem] Cp. 1 Chron. xiv. 8. A sin in David, as forbidden by 
God's law (Dent. xvii. VTS. But the stain and blemish of the 
type vanish in the Divme Antitype, Jesus Christ {Bede and 
Angelomus : see above, on iii. 2). 

The Divine David, after His ascension into the heavenly 
Jerusalem, espoused to Himself Churches in spiritual wedlock 
frt)m all nations, as the Apostle speaks (2 Cor. xL 2), and He is 
ever raising up to Himself a holy seed of sons and dauffhters 
from Churches throughout the world: Christ HimseEf, by 
spiritual ^neration bnd propagation, is ever being bqrm, 
according to David's language (Fs. Ixxxvii. 4) and that qf St. 
Paul (Gal. iv. 19) in the hearts of believers in all lands. 

14. these be th^ names] Mentioned by anticipation. 

— Shammuah — Solomon] Sons of Bathsheba. 1 Chron. 
iii. 6. On the name of Solomon, see xii. 24. 

15, 16. Ibhar — Miphalet] Here are seven names ; in 1 
Chron. iii. 8 are nine ; probably two of them, one of the two 
Eliphalets and Nogah, died in childhood (Keil). 

17. the hold] He came down from Mount Zion to another 
strong place hAow, where his army might be more conveniently 

Digitized by 


David bums the images; 2 SAMUEL V. 19 — 25. VI. 1. brings up the Ark to Zion. 

in ** the yalley of Bephaim. ^^ And David ' enquired of the Lord, saying, 
Shall I go np to the Philistines? wilt thou deliver them into mine hand? 
And the Lord said unto David, Go up : for I will doubtless deliver the 
Philistines into thine hand, ^o ^j David came to ^ Baal-perazim, and David 
smote them there, and said. The Lord hath broken forth upon mine enemies 
before me, as the breach of waters. Therefore he called the name of that 
place II Baal-perazim. ^i ^^ there they left their images, and David and his 
men ' |j burned them. ^ ' And the Phihstines came up yet again, and spread 
themselves in the valley of Bephaim. ^And when *" David enquired of the 
Lord, he said, Thou shalt not go up ; but fetch a compass behind them, and 
come upon them over against the mulberry trees. ^ And let it be, when thou 
"^ hearest the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees, that then thou 
shalt bestir thyself: for then * shall the Lord go out before thee, to smite the 
host of the Phihstines. ^ And David did so, as the Lord had commanded 
him ; and smote the Phihstines from * Geba until thou come to ^ Gazer. 

VI. ^ Again, David gathered together all the chosen men of Israel, thirty 

u Josh. 19.8. 
Ita. 17. 5. 
X ch. S. 1. 
1 Sam. as. S, 4. 
ft SO. 8. 

y !»•. ?8. 21. 

I That it. The 
plmim of breaches. 
% Deut. 7 5, 25. 
1 Chron. 14. 12. 
I Or, took them 

a 1 Chron. 14. IS. 
b ver. 19. 

c So 2 Kings 7. 8, 
d Judg. 4. 14. 

• 1 Chron. 14. 16, 


f Josh. 16. 10. 

encamped ; he also thns showed that he was not daunted hy the 
approach of the Philistinesy hut trusted that with God's help 
be would overcome them. 

18. vall^ of BephaimloT giants: see Qen, jjv. 6; zv. 20. 
Deut. ii. IL Josh. zii. 4. On the west of Jerusalem (Josh. zy. 8). 

S80. Baal-perazim] place of breachee (Cfeten, 131. Cp. 1 
Chron. xiv. 11). 

21. thei/ left their imttffee, and David and hie men burned 
them] The Philistines had probably brought the images of their 
gods (see 1 Chron. xiv. 12) mto the field to be their champions ; 
as the Israelites carried the Ark to thear wars (1 Sam. iv. 4^ 5). 
The Ark, though it fell into the hands of the Philistines, was 
the cause of plagues and shame to them and their idol I>agon 
(1 Sam. V. 8—9). But the Philistines left their idols, which 
had " feet, but walked not," and they fell into David's hantl, 
and he burned them with fire, according to God's command 
(Deut. vii. 5). So the true David, Jesus Christ, and His 
servants, after He had ascended into the heavenly Jerusalem, 
went forth to the battle against the armies and idols of heathen- 
dom, and has cast them into the fire. Alas ! then for those who 
venture to pluck idols out of the flame, and to set up creature- 
worship in the Church of God, and in their own hearts. 

28. Thou ehalt not go up] Why does God now say " Thou 
shalt not go up," when He had said before '*Thou shalt go up ?" 
To teach mvid not to follow his own devices, or to lean on his 
own strength, but in all things to obey the Divine will, and to 
depend on the Divine help {Theodoref), The same may be 
observed with regard to the soldiers of the Cross, particularly 
St. Paul : see below, on Acts xvi. 6. 

— the mulberry trees'] So the Rabbis : others render it pear- 
trees (Sept.), The original word baea is derived from baea or 
baoah, to weep, and signifies some tree which dther weeps with 
gum like the balsam, or hangs down its leaves in tresses Uke the 
weeping willow, and is easily moved by the wind (see Oesen,, 
p. 119, and B, D. ii. 440). 

24. when thou hearest the sound of a goin^ in the tops of 
the mulberry trees, that then thou shaU bestir thyself] Literally, 
when thou hearest the voice of a going, <^o., then thou shalt 
move thyself David might not move himself (says JosephuSy 
vii. 4. 1) till the trees of the grove should be in motion without 
any blowing of the wind, but as soon as the trees moved he 
should go forth without delay to certun victory. This sig^ 
was very expressive. The sound of the voice of a going in the 
tops of the trees had a double significance. It was the sound of 
the viewless march of" the Lord, going out before him to smite 
the host of the Philistines." It was the sound of God going 
forth to smite their gods, even as He smote the gods of Egypt 
{Jeromiaster). " The voice of the Lord " (as David hin^self says, 
Ps. xxix. 4) " is powerfid and full of majesty : the voice of the 
Lord bredceth the cedars; yea, the Lord breaketh the cedars of 
Lebanon." But even the whispers of that voice are fUll pf trouble 
to Hb enemies, and of comfort to His servants. The sound of 
the voice of His going, even in the tops of the mulberry -trees, 
— that is, even though it rustles in the quivering leaves of the 
grove, must, if He wills, strike a panic into the hearts of the 
Philistines : as He Himself says of those who disol^ey H^m, '* I 

Vol. IL Paet II.— 81 

will send a faintness into their hearts, and the sound of a shaken 
leaf shaU chase them, and they shall flee as fleemg from a 
sword, and they shall fall when none pursueth " (Lev. xxvi. 86). 
Cp. 2 Kings vii. 6, " The Lord made the host of the Syrians to 
hear a noise of chariots and a noise of horses;" and 2 Kings 
xix. 7, " I will send a blast upon him, and he shall hear ^ 
rumour." But in those who trust in Him and obey Him, the 
gentlest murmur of His voice will breathe comfort and courage ; 
they will listen eagerly for the slightest intimation of His will, 
and will bestir themselves with alacrity and courage at the 
signal of His going before them. " The wind bloweth where it 
listeth " (John iii. 8) ; and at the Day of Pentecost the Spirit 
came down firom heaven as the sound of a rushing mighty wind 
(Acts ii. 2), and the soldiers of Christ were stirrwi by its power 
to go forth and conquer the armies of the spiritual Philis- 
tines, and to subdue the world unto Christ (cp. Angelomus 

Ch. VI.— Oy the Bsnranro xtp of thb Abk to Monrr Ziok. 

This chapter, firom v. 1 to v. 19, was appointed by the 
Hebrew Church to be read in the Synagogues together with 
Lev. ix. 1 to xi. 47, which describes the offerings of Aaron, the 
High Priest, in the Tabernacle, after his consecration, and the 
coming down of the fire from heaven; and the Divine judg- 
ment on Nadab and Abihu for oflering strange fire. 

The connexion of these portions of Soripture is obvious. 
The act of David, bringing up the Ark to its abode in Mount 
Zion, was an accomplishment, in part, of the work begun in the 
wOdemess by the setting up of the T&bemacle and the consecra- 
tion of the Aaronical Priesthood. 

But this act of David reaches far forward to a much more 
glorious consummation. On the occasion of the bringing up of 
the Ark to Zion, he composed (as is cpmmonly believed) the 
xxivth Psalm, " The earth is the Lord's," &c. " Who shall as- 
cend into the hill of the Lord ?" and the xlviith Psalm, apother 
Psalm for Ascension ; cp. Ps. Ixxviii. ** Let God arise, and let 
His enemies be scattered," &o. " Thou art gpne up on high, and 
hast -led captivity captive, and received gifts for men ;" which 
the Church has most aptly connected with the Abobnsion of 
Jesus Chbist into the heavenly Zion, and with the Coming of 
the Holy Ghost |n fire firom heaven on the Church of Cluist 
at the Day of Pentecost. 

The appointment of these Proper Lessons and Proper PBalms 
by the Hebrenv and Christian Churches, is like a practical expo- 
sition of the meaning of these Scriptures, which are thus 
brought together, and reflect sjuritual light on each other. 
Therefore, m reading the history of the going up of David and 
the Ai-k, let us think of Christ going up into heaven, and carry- 
ing up His Church thither ; and let us meditate on the spiritual 
gifts which He procured for her by that glorious exaltation to 
the heavenly Jerusalem. 

But here another preliminary remark must be made. 

David himself had already gone up to Jerusalem ; and was 
there enthroned in his capital as King of Israel. But the Ark 
—the Visible Church of God— was not yet established there. 
And, as we shall see in this chapter, the progress of the Ark 

Digitized by 


The Ark set on a cart. 

2 SAMUEL VI. 2—7. 

TJzzah touches it. 

a 1 Chron. 13. 5, 


I Or, Baalah, 

thm 18, Kirjatk- 


Joth. 15. 9, 60. 

D Or, ai which 

tht natne, even 

the name of ihe 

LORD of hosts, 

icas called upon. 

b I Sam. 4. 4. 

Ps. bO. 1 . 

t Heb. madt to 


c See Num. 7. 9. 

I Sam. 6. 7. 

II Or. the hill, 
d 1 Sam. 7. 1. 
t Heb. with. 

e 1 Chron. IS. 9, 

he is called, 


f Sec Num. 4. 15, 

y Or, itumbted. 

thousand. ^ And * David arose, and went with all the people that were with 
him from || Baale of Judah, to bring up from thence the ark of God, || whose 
name is called by the name of the Lobd of hosts ^ that dwelleth between the 
cherubims. ' And they f set the ark of God "" upon a new cart, and brought 
it out of the house of Abinadab that was in || Gibeah : and Uzzah and Ahio, 
the sons of Abinadab, drave the new cart. * And they brought it out of ^ the 
house of Abinadab which was at Gibeah, f accompanying the ark of God : and 
Ahio went before the ark. * And Datid and all the house of Israel played 
before the Lord on all manner of instruments made of fir wood, even on harps, 
and on psalteries, and on timbrels, and on comets, and on cymbals. ^ And 
when they came to *Nachon's threshingfloor, Uzzah 'put forth his hand to the 
ark of God, and took hold of it ; for the oxen || shook it. ^ And the anger of 

toward Zion was retarded by many hmdrances and by many 
drawbacks ; 

Its progress* was commenced with the mistake of placing the 
Ark in the new cart (v. 3) instead of on the shoulders of the 
Kohathitee ; its course was arrested by the disastrous check at 
Perez-uzzah {v. 6 — 8) ; it sojourned for a time at the house of 
Obed-edom {v. 10—12). David's act of rejoicing before it was 
derided by his own wife ; and it was not tdl the days of Solomon 
his son that it was solemnly inaugurated in the Temple at 

So it has been in the history of the Chnrch* 
Our Divine David Himself is gone up to the heavenly 
Jerusalem, by a glorious Ascension, and by that Ascension His 
members are already there in hope. But the progress of the 
Ark of His Church to that glorious altitude is a weary pil- 
grimage, by a steep and rugged way (see on v. 3), attended by 
many sorrows, trials, and imperft»ctions. It is not without 
much tribulation that the Church militant can arise to the glory 
of the Church triumphant. 

1. Damd gathered together] See 1 Chron. xiii. 1 — 5, where 
David associates the Priests and Levites and people throughout 
all Israel with himself in this work of religious joy and exul- 
tation. The universal Church of Christ partakes with the 
Divine David in the gbry of His Ascension into the heavenly 
Sion (Eph. ii. 6). 

2. Baale'] The old Canaanitish name of Kiijath-jearim, where 
the Ark had been, with only occasional removals, since its re- 
covery out of the hands of the Philistines : see 1 Sam. vi. 21 ; 
vii. 2. 

Probably there is a reference to Kirjaih-jearim. i. e. city 
of wooda^ in Ps. cxxxii. 6, in which we rend, — "We found 
it (the Ark) in thejlelde of the wood.** " Arise, O Lord, into 
Thy resting-place. Thou and the Ark of Thy strength/* 

The Ta^ernacls at this time was at Gibeon, where it re- 
mained till the building of Solomon's Temple, 1 Chron. xvi. 39. 
2 Chron. i. 3. 

— whose name — cherubims] Rather, over which (Ark) 
the Name, the Name of the Lord of Hosts, TFho sitteth 
on the Cherubim, is called; that is, over which is proclaimed 
and manifested the glory and power of the Lord of Hosts. 
The Ark was His Throne, on which His attributes of power 
were manifested; as had been seen in the dividing of the 
waters of Jordan, and in the fall of the walls of Jericho^ and 
the overthrow of Dagon at God's presence manifested between 
the Cherubim on the Ark. This was the reason, why David 
desired to carry up the Ark, the visible syinbol of God's presence, 
majenty, and power, into the capital of his kingdom, Jerusalem. 
Cp. Exod. xxxiii. 19, where God says to Moses, " I will make aU 
my goodness pass before thee, and I will proclaim the Name of the 
Lord before thee;" and Exod. xxxiv. 5, 6, " The Lord stood and 
proclaimed the Name of the Lord ; and the Lord passed by him ' 
and proclaimed the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious ;" 
and see 1 Chron. xiii. 6, where David is said to bring up the Ark 
of the Lord, " that dwelleth between the Cherubims, whose Name 
is called on it ;" and Keil, p. 240 ; and below, on 1 Kings viii. 43. 

3. they set the arh of Qod upon a new cart] As the Philistmes 
had done (1 Sam. vi. 7, 8. 14^ ; but it ought not to have been car- 
ried in a cart, but on the shoulders of Levites, the Eohathites 
(Num. iv. 15 ; vii. 9 ; X. 21). 

Even David himself, we see, was liable to the charge of 
no^ligence and forgetf\ilne8S in the manner of bringing up the 
Ark ; and his fault is not disguised by the sacred writer. Ho 

had imitated the Philistines, GKxl's enemies ; and had disobeyed 
God's law. David afterwards recollected the error of which he 
had been guilty in this respect, and corrected it, in the remainder 
of the progress of the Ark to Jerusalem : see 1 Chron. xv. 2 — 15. 
All religious reformations, which aro wrought by men, are 
blemished by human infirmities. It is Christ only of whom it 
can be said^ that " His Work is perfect," in the intention, and 
in the act, and in the mode of doing it. 

— in Oibeah] Rather, in the hill, on the ir.W. of Eiriath- 
jearim : cp. 1 Sam. vii. 1, and so Sept. See Pfeiffer, Dnbia, p. 
204^ and Dr. Thomson, Land and Book, p. 666, who describes 
this road from Kirjath-jearim (Kuryet'el'Mnctb), on ihe borders 
of Judah and Bei\jamm, to Jerusalem. ** It took " (he says) 
"just three hours, moderate riding, from Kuryet-el-JSnab to 
Jerusalem; first a long descent into Wady Sctmna, then a 
similar ascent, succeeded by a very steep pass and a very slippery 
path down to Kulonia. The path then winds up a valley, and 
stretches over a dreary waste of bare rocks until within a mile 
of the City (Jerusalem), when the view opens its naked ram- 
parts and the mysterious region beyond the Dead Sea." 

— Uzzah and Ahio, the sons qf Abinadab] Perhaps the word 
sons here may mean grandsons, says Keil, who calculates (pp. 
217. 240) that the time since the first arrival of the Ark at 
Abinadab's house (1 Sam. vii. 1), when Eleazar his son was ap- 
pointed to guard it, was about seventy years. 

4. accompanying the ark] Literally, with the Ark; objections 
have been made to the statement here, as if it were a mere 
repetition of what had been said in the previous verse, and as if 
it were tautology to say, they brought the ark with the ark 
(Cappellus, Houbigant, Keil). 

But the sacred historian is explaining how what he is 
about to relate came to pass. The two sons brought the Ark ; 
at first they were toith the Ark ; then AMo went before the 
Ark, but Uzzah followed with it, and touched it {v. 6). 
Others suppose that " they brought it," in this verse, means, 
they brought the cart or carriage from the house of Abinadab, 
and this opinion deserves consideration. 

5. of^ wood] or, cypress {Oesen. 140). 

— on harps] See 1 Chron. xiii. 8 ; and as to the Instniments 
here named, cp. 1 Sam. x. 5. 

— comets] Rather, sistra ( Vulg.), which were shaken in order 
to produce sound. Cp. Oesen. 488. 540. 

6. Nachon's threshingfloor] In 1 Chron. xiii. 9 it is called 
Chidon* s threshing-floor : see the margin. 

How is this to be explained ? 

Neither Nachon nor Chidon are in fact proper names. Tho 
words rendered " Nachon's threshing-floor," ought to be trans- 
lated, the threshing-fl(X)r of smiting (from nacah, to smite), so 
called from the event ; because God there smote Uzzah (Boehart, 
Keil) ; and the words, " Chidon's threshing-floor," ought pro- 
bably to be translated, the threshing-floor of the dart, i. e. of 
the stroke with which Uzzah was smitten. Cp. Keil, p. 242. 

Uzzah uaisa hoij> of the Abk. 

— Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of Ood, and took 
hold of it] which it was not lawful for him to do, not being a 
priest (Num. iv. 15. Josephus, vii. 4. 2). It is not certain &at 
he was a Kohathite, but if he were, then he had clearer know- 
ledge than others, and knew he might not touch it, but help to 
bear it on staves ; and death was threatened in the Law, as the 
penalty for the violation of this law (Num. iv. 15. 19, 20; 
vii. 9). 

Uzzah did what he did with a good intention; and his punisb- 

Digitized by 


Uzzah smitten. 

2 SAMUEL VI- 8— 12, 

The Ark with Obed-edom. 

the Lord was kindled against Uzzah ; and * God smote him there for his \\ error ; 
and there he died by the ark of God. ® And David was displeased, because 
the Lord had f made a breach upon Uzzah : and he called the name of the 
place II Perez-uzzah to this day. ^ And ** David was afraid of the Lord that 
day, and said. How shall the ark of the Lord come to me ? ^^ So David 
would not remove the ark of the Lord unto him into the city of David : but 
David carried it aside into the house of Obed-edom * the Gittite. ^^ ^ And the 
ark of the Lord continued in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite three 
months : and the Lord ^blessed Obed-edom, and all his household. 

^2 And it was told king David, saying, The Lord hath blessed the house 
of Obed-edom, and all that pertaineth unto him, because of the ark of God. 
" So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obed-edom 

g 1 Sam. 6. 19. 
I Or, rashness. 

t Hcb. broken. 

H That ii, 
The breach of 

hPs. lie. 120. 
See Luke 5. b. 9. 

il Chron. IS. IS. 
k 1 Chroa. 13. 14. 

1 Gen. 80. 27. 
& 39. 6. 

m 1 Chron. 15. 25. 

ment is a warning that no itUentiony however good, can justify 
a bad aot. As Balvian says (de Gnbemat. Dei yi. 10)» " Oza 
Xievites ipao officio inofficiosas ftiit, qui iiyussa prsBsampsit, et 
extinctus eat :" see Bp. Sanderson de Consc., Prsel. ii. § 13, who 
says, ^ This inadvertency of Uzzah, notwithstanding the inno- 
cence of his intention, brought down the Divine vengeance on 
his head, which struck him with present death, before the whole 
asAembly of the people, as the punishment of his presumption. 
And by this severe stroke upon the first violator of the law, 
God impressed a dread upon the hearts of men, and gave a 
sanction to His commands that no man should attempt upon 
any pretence whatever, to act in defiance of His Law, or boldly 
to dispense with what God has established/' 

"Die special moral of this warning is, that no one, on the plea 
of zeal for the Ark of Gbd's Church, should resort to doubtful 
expedients and unlawful means for the attfdnment of his end. 
Let him not say, that for the advancement of the Church of 
God, all acts are pleasing to Him. No : if the vessel of the 
Church is tossed with storms, the Disciples may not approach 
Christ and touch Him with familiar irreverence, in order to 
awake Him who sleeps as man, but sees all things as God (see 
on Mark iv. 88 — 40). Here is the trial of their faith. Let 
them tarry the Lora's leisure, and He will rise and succour 
them, and bless them for their trust in Him. 

Here (as Bp. Sanderson has shown in the second of his 
invaluable lectures *' On Conscience '') is a divine protest against 
the fimaticism of the Anabaptists, Antinomians, and others, on 
the one side, and the impiety of the Papal casusts on the other, 
who justify and encourage any act, however sinM, if it conduce 
to what they call a good end. 

— the oxen shook it] Literally, the ox let it loose, perhaps by 
slipping, so as to endanger its fiuling. The verb here used is 
sl^txt, which is rendered to release in Deut. xv. 8, and^ to let 
rest in Exod. xxiii. 11, and to throw down in 2 Kings ix. 83, 
and to overthrow in Ps. cxli. 6. 

The road was a steep and rough one, so that the 
oxen might easily stumble, and cause a concussion of the 
cart, and of the Ark in it : see o. 8. Josephus, viL 4. 2. 

"Oza Levites, Arcam Domini, quam portare debuerat, 
quasi mentem sustentare voluit, et percussus est" (i9. Jerome, 
Epist. 48 : so Theodorei), His knowledge, if he was a Levite, ag- 
gravated his sin. The mstory of the Divine judgment on Uzzcdi 
IS a proof that the Mosaic Law, concerning the functions of the 
Xievites, was then in existence, and may be appealed to in reply 
to the strange allegations of some that the Levitical Amotions 
date from the time of David himself: see Bp. Colenso on the 
Pentateuch, F^irt v. ch. xv. p. 159. 

Uzzah meant well ; but the best intention cannot excuse 
us in unlawful actions. There is nothing more dangerous 
than to be our own carvers in matters of devotion {Bp. Sail). 

Observe the consequence of disobedience. If GUxi's law 
had been complied with, the Ark would not have been placed on 
a cart, but on the shoulders of the Eohathites ; and the occasion 
for Uzzah's sin would not have occurred. Perhaps Uzzah had 
been one of those who had caused it to be drawn by oxen : and 
his own instruments became the cause of his death. Here then 
is a warning to all, that they presimie not to put forth their 
hands, without a due call and mission, to meddle with holy 
things. " You must rather leave the Ark (of the Church) to 
shake, if it so please God, than put unworthy hands to hold 
it up ** (Lord Bacon) : cp. Acts xix. 13. 
7. God smote him therefor his error^ In touching the Ark ; 

and if such reverence was due to the Ark of the covenant, which 
was sprinkled with the blood typifying that of Christ, with how 
much awe ought the Name of Christ, and the " Blood of the 
Covenant " itself to be treated ! see Heb. x. 29. 

— he died] It is not said that he perished immediately ; or 
that he died eternally : he may have repented of his sin, as the 
Hebrew intei*preter8 suppose : see Bfeiffer, Dubia, p. 206. 

8. David was displeased^ His anger was kindled against the 
oause of this judgment, that is, against the sin, from which he 
himself was not exempt, which had led to it. If he had taken 
care that the Ark had been carried, as it ought t^ have been, on 
the shoulders of the Kohathites (see v. 8), this calamity would 
not have happened. One irregularity in holy things leads to 
another: and €k>d's patience is exhausted, and He interferes 
with some awful judgment to prevent ftirther aberrations. 
David's displeasure was like that spoken of in 2 Cor. vii. 11. 

— Berez-wizaK] Uzzah* s breach : cp. Baal-perazim, v. 20. 

9. Bavid was (^aid—How shall the ark of the Loed come 
to me ?J who have been an accessory to Uzzah*s sin t see on t;. 8. 
David applies the judgment on Uzzah to himself. 

We then make a right use of God's iudgments of others, 
when we fear them for ourselves : and finding our sins equal, 
tremble at the expectation of the same punishments. Awful' 
ness is a safe inte^reter of God's actions, and a wise guide of 
ours (Bp. Hall). 

10. the house of Obed-edom the CHtUteli How is this to be 
accounted for ? If Obed-edom was dwelling in his own city, 
Gati-rimmon, which was in the tribe of Dan (Josh. xix. 46 ; xxi. 
24), then David must have carried the Ark to a place which was 
more distant from Jerusalem than Kiijath-jearim. Kirjath- 
jearim was ten miles, and Gath-rimmon was twelve miles, west 
of Jerusalem (Onomasticon). 

This circumstance, which otherwise might have appeared 
strange and incredible, is probably to be expkined fipom the fact 
that Obed-edom was a Kohathite (see Exod. vi. 21; xviii. 16 ; 
compared with 1 Chron. xv. 18. 21. 24; xvi. 5; xxvi. 4), and 
was therefore one of those who were authorized and commis- 
sioned to bear the Ark (see on v. 3) ; and it is a proof that David 
had derived a salutary lesson from Gkxl's judgment on Uzzah, 
as is indeed dear from what David himself says in 1 Chron. xv. 
1—13. Cp. Theodoret, Qu. 19. 

11. the ark of the LoBD contiwued in the house of Obed- 
edom^and the LoBD blessed Obed-edom, and cdl his house* 
hold] See here the courage and faith of Obed-edom : he knew 
that the presence of the Ark had been disastrous to Dagon, and 
had brought plagues on the Philistines, and that the men of 
Beth-shemesh had been struck dead for looking into it; and 
that Uzzah had been smitten for touching it ; and yet he gladly 
welcomed it, and harboured it fi)r three months; and God 
blessed him for his fidth. Obed-edom well knew that though 
"God is a consuming fire" to those who treat Him with ir- 
reverence. He is infijiite in mercj to those who obey Him. 
The Gadarenes, smitten with fear, besought Jesus to depart out 
of their coasts, and we do not hear that He ever visited them 
again. But Zacchaeus, animated by love, received Him gladly, 
and Jesus said, " This day is salvation come to this house " 
(Luke xix. 9). All divine things, such as the Scriptures and 
Sacraments, are set, as Christ Himself was, "for the fall and rising 
agam of many m Israel " (Luke ii. 84); they are "a savour (or 
odour) of death unto death" to those who reject or despise them, 
and " an odour of life unto life " to those who love them (2 Cor. 
ii. 16). 

M 2 

Digitized by 


The Ark is brought to Zion. 2 SAMUEL VI. 13—21. 


n Num. 4. 16. 
Josh. 8. 8. 
1 Chron. 15. 2, 

See 1 Kings 8. 

1 Chron. 15. 26. 
p See Exod. 15. 

Pb. 80. 11. 
q 1 Sam. 2. 18. 

I Chron. 15. 27. 

r 1 Chron. 15. 28. 

I I Chron. 15. 29. 

tl Chron. 16. 1. 
u 1 Chron. 15. 1. 
Ps. 182. 8. 
t Heb. tlretehed. 
X 1 Kings 8. 5, 
62, 63. 

y I Kings 8. 55. 
1 Chron. 16.2. 
z 1 Chron. 16. 8. 

aPi. SO, title. 

b ver. 14, 16. 
1 Sam. 19. 24. 
c Judg. 9. 4. 
I] Or, openltf. 
d 1 Sam. IS. 14. 
& 15.28. 

into the city of David with gladness. ^^ And it was so, that when "^they that 
bare the ark of the Lord had gone six paces, he sacrificed ** oxen and fatlings. 
1^ And David ^ danced before the Lord with all his might ; and David was girded 
*» with a liiien ephod. ^* ' So David and all the house of Israel brought up the 
ark of the Lord with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet. 

^^ And " as the ark of the Lord came into the city of Ddvid, Michal Saul's 
daughter looked through a window, and saw king David leaping and dancing 
before the Lord ; and she despised him in her heart. 

^f And *they brought in the ark of the Lord, and set it in "his place, in 
the midst of the tabernacle that David had f pitched for it : and David * offered 
burnt offerings aaid peace offerings before the Lori^c ^® And as soon as David 
had made an end of offering burnt offerings and peac6 offerings, ^ he blessed the 
people in the name of the Lord of hosts. ^® * And he dealt among all the 
people, even among the whole multitude of Israel, as well to the women as 
men, to every one a cake of bread, and a good piece of flesh, and a flagon of 
witie. So all the people departed every one to his house. 

^ * Then David returned to bless his household. And Michal the daughter 
of Saul came oUt to meet David, and said, How glorious was the king of Israel 
to day, who ** uncovered himself to day in the eyes of the handmaids of his 
servants, as one of the ^^ vain fellows |f shamelessly uncovereth himself! ^^And 
David said unto Michal, It was before the Lord, * which chose me before thy 

13. thei/ thai hare the arkl Observe, David hite leantt 
wisdom from the judgment on Utzah. The Ark is no longer 
carried in the new cart, btit is borne on the shoulders of the 
Eohathitea, who wei^ appoiiited by God to bear it. Cp. 1 Chron. 
XV. 15. 

— had gone ns pade^"} without any mark of God's dis- 
pleasure. D^vid did not delay his thank-offering for G6d*B 
goodness in allowing him to begin the mai^h afresh, and he 
implored God's favoilr upon It with this sacrifice. 

— he sctcrijtcedl Not with his own hand, but by the ndiiisfcry 
of the Priests and Levites. C^. 1 Chfon. xv. 26. 

14. danced] His transport was greater even on account of his 
former fear and sorrow {f>. 8). 

Here was an example of spiritual humility and moral 
courage. David stripped himself of his royal raiment, and ex- 
posed himself to the disparagement of the bystanders by his 
holy love and zeal for (Jod and His ser^nce. " Non vitcscere 
mctuit coram Deo. Ego plus saltantem stupeo quam pugnantem. 
Pug^antera quippe hostes snbdidit; saltando, seipsum" (8, 
Chreaory, Moral, xxvii. 27). Cp. S. Ambrosef Apol. David i. 6 ; 
de Fcenit. ii* 6 ; in Lilc. c. vii., " Est honesta saltatio qui 
tripudiat Animus. Hsec saltatio fidei socia, gp^ise comes." 
By fighting he conquered his foes, by dancing he conquered 
himself. Thus he Mras a type of Christ, Who hilmbled Him- 
self, and was content to be despised and to be accounted mad 
(Mark iii. 21) for God's sake ; and so St. Paul (Acts xxvi. 24). 

— a Unen ephod] He laid aside his itoyal robes, and rejoiced 
to appear as a minister of the Tabernacle : see 1 Sam. ii. 18. 

A Lapide compares the history of Sir Thomas More, who 
when Lord Chancellor of England sometimes took hb place and 
sang in the choir of his Parish Church, in a surplice t and 
when the Duke of Norfolk expostulated with him, as Michal 
did with David, ibr degrading himself and the King's service, 
he said, " Nay, your Grace may not think that the King mV 
master will be offended with me for serving of God his Mastelr'' 
(Eccl. Biog. a. 68). 

15. with the sound of the trumpet'] So David with the 
Ark ascends to Mount Zion; ana or the Lord Jesus, the 
Divine David, ascendihg to the heavenly Zion, and bearing H^ 
Church in triumph with Him, it is said by David, in one of the 
Psalms appointed for the Festival of the Ascension, " God is 
gone up with a shout, and the Lord with the sound of the 
trumpet " (Ps. xlvil. 5. Cp. Ps. Ixviii. 24, 25 ; another Pbalm 
for Ascension Day). 

18. MichiO] Called here " SauPs daughter," rather than 
"David's wife," because she was elated with pride for her 
princely origin, and what she did was rather according to the 

temper of her finther Saul (who had car^ little for the Ark, 
1 Chron. xiii. 8), and was at variance with her duty to her 
husband David. In 1 Skun. Iviii. 20, We are told that " Michal 
loved David," Perhaps her affections had been estranged by 
his subsequent marriage with Abig^, ais Professor Blunt sug- 
gests, who thinks that tnere is a reference to Abigail and Ahinoam 
in the words '* handmaids" 

— she despised him in her heart] And she tras Smitten with 
barrenness (o. 22). Saul's daughtOT Michal looking out of the 
window at Jerusalem, and despbing David wheti going up with 
joy and exultation before the Ark to Zion, and being smitten 
for her sin with barrenness, is rightly regarded as figurative of 
the proud and censorious temper of the Jewish Church, de- 
spising the true David, and mocking at the glory of His Church, 
and therefore stricken with sterility. ** Michal, in typo syna- 
gogse, sterilis permansit " (cp. Ambrose, Apol. Dav. i. 6, and 

Vt. the tabernacle] Not the Levitical Tabemaele, which was 
at Gibeon (cp. 1 Chron. xvi. 39), but a temporary one which 
David had pitched for it, till he had bililt, a& he designed to do, 
a temple to receive it : see vii. 1 — 8. 

18. he blessed the people] As Isaac bleased J'acob (Gen. xxvii.), 
and Jacob blefts^ Ephi^im and Manasseh (Gen. xlviii.), and 
Moses blessed the tribes (Dent, xxxiii.), and Solomon blessed the 
people (1 Kings viii. 14), and the people blessed Solomon {v. 66). 

They did not use the peculiar form of Benediction pre- 
scribed for the Priests (Num. vi. 22 — 27), as is all^^ by some 
(Bp. Colenso on the Pentateuch, Pt. v. p. 157). King David, 
having gone up to Zion, blessed the people in the Name of the 
LoBD of Hosts ; so our David, who is the King of Glory, and 
the Lord of Hosts Himself (as David describes Him in one of 
the Psalms, written by him on this occasion, and used by the 
Church on Ascen^on Day: *'The Lord of Hosts: He is the 
King of Glory," Ps. xxiv. 10), moubted to the heavenly Zion in 
the act of blessing His Apostles, th6 heads of aU the Tribes of the 
spiritual Israel (Luke xxiv. 50—52), and in Heaven itself He is 
ever blessing His people. 

19. he dealt among all the people — a good piece] David, 
when he had ascended into Mount Zion, gave gifts (see Oesen. 
87. Keil, 245) ; a poHion perhaps of tiie sacrifice of peace- 
offering (Josephus, lb, de Dieu), 

— a flagon] Rather, a cake, of raisins, or other dried fhiits. 
Cp. Cant. ii. 6. Hos. iii. 1 (Oesen, 75, and so Josephus, vii. 

21. And David said unto MichaZ] This reply of David to 
Michal, Saul's daughter, may be said to have a prophetic and 
typical reference to the tnie David, Jesus Christ, who laid aside 

Digitized by 


MichaVs barrenness. 

2 SAMUEL VI. 22, 23. VII. 1. 

David in his home. 

father, and before all his house, to appoint me ruler over the people of the 
Lord, over Israel : therefore will I play before the Lord. 22 ^^ j ^ju y^^ 
be more vile than thus, and will be base in mine own siffht: and II of the DOr,o/<A«Aaiid. 

, _ oil maids of my 

maidservants which thou hast spoken of, of them shall I be had in honour. »«^»°'»- 
2' Therefore Michel the daughter of Saul had no child •unto the day of her j^sw 1 sam. 15. 

Vn. ' And it came to pass, •when the king sat in his house, and the Lord »ichron. 17.1. 

His royal robe of heavenly glory, and consented to abase Him- 
self, and to be despised and set at nought by the Jewish Syna- 
gogue, prefigured here by Michal, and to lie vile in their eyes 
hefore tKe Lord^ that is, for the sake of God's glory, and the 
exaltation of His Church to the heavenly Jerusalem (see Ange- 
lomMS, A Lapide). 

28. will be base in mine own sighf] Observe these words. 
Here is true humility. Many abase themselves in other 
people's sight who are great in their own sight. Their very 
humility is pride ; but David will not only humble himself in 
the eyes of others, but in his own (S. Oregory, Moral. xxviL). 

S)8. Mickal — had no child! Sne is here again called the 
daughter of Saul, and not ** the wife of David" (see v. 16), for 
the same reason as before. Micl^, Saul's daughter, despising 
David, is compared by the Fathers to the Jewish nation's de- 
spising Christ. 

The Jewish Church ceased to be a faithful wife when it re- 
jected the true David ; it was only ** a daughter qf Saul," who 
fell from Qod by ffuthlessness and disobedience. 

— had no child'] See on v, 16. Some suppose that she had 
children before this time, but none after. Cp. below, on xxi. 8. 

Many of the Pbalms of David are expressive of his feelings 
on this solemn occasion. The 29th is entitled in the Sept,, 
« On the going forth of the Tabernacle." The 15th, the 30th, 
and the 101st seem to be connected with David's occupation of 
his new abode at Jerusalem. The 24th and the 68th (as alreadv 
observed) appear to celebrate the entrance of the Ark in triumph 
within the portals of the ancient fortress ; and the 132nd appears 
to be associated with that event. The student will do well to 
read those Psalms in connexion with this history. 


God's Paoxisb op Pbbpbtuity of Dubatiok Ain> 
Douimov to David's Sebd. 

This chapter is the proper sequel and completion of the two 
foregoing ones. 

In the last chapter but one, Daidd himself is anointed king 
of all the tribes of Israel, and conquers the Jebusites, and takes 
Mount Zion, and makes it the capital of his kingdom. 

In the next chapter, the one immediately preceding the 
present, David endeavours to bring the Ark of God to Mount 
Zion, and, after some hindrances, he brought it; but he did 
not settle it in the Tabernacle : the work is yet incomplete. 

The present chapter carries us forward to the consumma- 
tion of the work. David desires to build a house for God at 
Jerusalem, but Gk>d forbids him ; at the same time He gives to 
David a glorious revelation of the ftiture. He promises to build 
a house for David himself, and that David's seed shall be set up 
after him, and that he shall build a house for GK)d'8 name, and 
that David's kingdom and throne shall be established for ever 
(w. 12-16). 

V The Apostle St. Peter, when filled with the Holy Ghost on 
the day of Pentecost, not only affirms that these promises were 
fulfilled in Chbist, who is the Seed of David, and in whom the 
throne and kingdom of David is estabUshed for ever (iHa. xi. 10. 
Luke i. 82, 83), but St. Peter asserts also that David himself 
understood them to refer to Christ. " The Patriarch David " 
(he says) " being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn 
with an oath to him, that of the &uit of his loins He would raise 
up Christ to sit upon his throne " (Acts ii. 29, 30 ; and cp. here 
99. 12, 13). And (as Theodoret has remarked) the author of 
the Epistle to the Hebrews quotes the words of God to David 
(o. 14), " I will be his father, and he shall be My son " (Heb. i. 
6), and applies them to Chbist. And the same writer says (Heb. 
iii. 6), << Christ was faithftd, as a son over his house; whose 
house are we." ' 

This chapter exhibits, therefore, a new era in Scripture 
prophecy. A new step in advance is here gained. 

In the prophecy of Jacob (see above, on Gen. xlix. 8—10) 
the particular tribe— that of «7tK2a^~had been specified, from 

which the Messiah should come, and have an everlasting 
dominion ; and so the mind of David and all fiiithful men had 
been opened to receive clearer light on that glorious subject. 
And now the particular family in that tribe is pre-announced — 
the fiimily of David himself. 

Standing on the vantage ground of this prophecy, David 
himself, and other writers of the Psalms, and other prophets of 
the Old Testament, henceforth describe the kingdom of Christ 
as settled on Mount Zion, and speak of Christ as enthroned on 
the Seat of David. 

At the same time, in a subordinate sense, the promise and 
prophecy have a reference to Solomon (see v, 14), who as the 
son of David, and in his name " Peaceable," Bhd in succeeding 
his father on his throne, and in building the Temple at Jerusa- 
lem, was a signal Type of the Prince of Peace, the Divine Son of 
David, who has built up the true temple of God, His Church, 
which will shine for ever in glory in the heavenly Jerusalem. 

Thus then we see that these three chapters (v. vi. vii.) 
reveal the history of Christ and His Church for evermore. 

David himself wHs auoiilted King of all Israel, and esta- 
blished his throne in Zion. 

So Christ. He ascends to the Heavenly Jerusalem, and is 
crowned there King of the Church Universal. 

^ But the prog^ress of the Ark — the figure of the Church 
Militant, oversnadowed bv the Divine Presence— toward Mount 
Zion was slow and difficult, and impeded by many hindrances. 
David hoped to be able to settle it in a fixed temple at Jerusa- 
lem ; but he was not allowed to do so. The ascent of the Ark 
was rather an ascent in hope than in accomplishment. It was 
not enshrined in the Tabernacle. It had made a lono^ pilgrim- 
age from Sinai ; it had moved from place to place; it had ndlen 
into the hands of the Philistines ; Shiloh, its residence, had been 
destroyed; it had remained in long banishment iq Earjath- 
jearim. Even after its ascent to Zion under David, it must have 
waited more than thirty years till it had a fixed abode in the 
Temple of Solomon ; and for the sins of that king (see v. 14), 
and of other kings of Judah, that Temple would be laid in ruins. 
And though that Temple would be restored after many years, 
yet it would be finally demolished. 

But still the promise in this chapter is to David, *' that 
God would not take His mercy from him, as He took it f^m 
Saul, but David's house and kingdom and throne should be 
established for ever" (w. 13—16). 

This prophecy has been partly fulfilled already in the 
Resttbbection and Ascension of Jesits Chbist the Son of 
David according to the flesh, and in His Session at GK)d's right 
hand ; but waits for complete fulfilment till His Second Coming, 
when He will put all His enemies under His feet, and the throne 
and kingdom of David will be established in Him for ever, and 
the Ark of His Church Militant, after its weary journey through 
this world, a journey beset with many hindrances and many 
human infirmities, will rise at last to the glory of the Church 
Triumphant, when, according to the Divine Vision, "the Ten^le 
of God will be opened in heaven, and there will be seen, in His 
Temple, the Ark of His Covenant" (Rev. xi. 19). 

In confirmation of this interpretation of these chapters, the 
reader may refer to iS^. Augustine de Civ. Dei xvii. 8, 9; and 
Lactant., Hist. iv. 13 ; and the excellent remarks of Theodoret, 
Qu. 21 ; Bee also hero Angelomus, Menochius, Gerhard, Huetius, 
Calovius, Olassius, Waltherus, and others in ^eiffer, Dub. 
207. Wouvers, Dilucid. in cap. vii. Hengstenherg, Christol. i. 
143 — 169, or p. 41 of Arnold's translation; and Keil, p. 253, 
who has sufficiently refuted the sceptical objections to the 
authenticity of this prophecy, p. 2 17. 

1. th£ king] Observe this phrase, " the SXng." Tfie Sacred His- 
torian changes his style from " David" to " the King ; " because 
he is about to speak of the perpetuity of his tnngdom, in Christ. 
— sat in his house] In quiet meditation, for God had given 
him rest. Probably the 132nd Psalm is the expression of his 
feelings at this time« 

Digitized by 


David's desire. 

2 SAMUEL VII. 2 — 14. God's message to him hy Nathan. 

bch. 6. 11. 

c See Acts 7. 46. 

d Ex.26. 1. 

& 40. 21. 

el Kings 8. 17, 


1 Chron. 22. 7. 

& 28. 2. 

t Heb. to my 
tervant, to David, 
fSeel Kings 6. 
S. & 8. 19. 
1 Cbron. 22. 8. 
8c 28. 8. 

g 1 Kings 8. 16. 
h Ex. 40. 18, 19, 

i Lev. 26. 11, 19. 
Deut. 28. 14. 
ri Or, any of the 

1 Chron. 17.6. 
k ch. 5. 2. 
Pi. 78. 71, 72. 
Matt. 2. 6. 
Acts 20. 28. 
1 1 Sam. 16. II, 

Pi. 78. 70. 
i Heh. from after. 
m 1 Sam. 18. 14. 
ch. 6. 10. 
& 8. 6, 14. 
n 1 Sam. 81. 6. 
Ps. 89. 23. 
t Heb. from thy 

Gen. 12. 2. 
p Ps. 44. 2. 
& 80. 8. 
Jer. 24. 6. 
Araos 9. 15. 
q Ps. 89. 22. 

r Judg. 2. 14, 15, 

1 Sam. 12. 9, 11. 
P8. 106. 42. 

s ver. 1. 
tEx. 1. 21. 
ver. 27. 

1 Kings 11. 88. 
u i Kings 2. 1. 
X Deut. 31. 16. 
1 Kings 1.21. 
Acts 13. 36. 
y 1 Kings 8. 20. 
Ps. 132. 11. 
s 1 Kings 5. 5. ft 

had given him rest round about from all his enemies ; ^ That the king said 
unto Nathan the prophet, See now, I dwell in **an house of cedar, ''but the ark 
of God dwelleth within ** curtains. ^ And Nathan said to the king, Go, do all 
that is ^ in thine heart ; for the Lord is with thee. 

^ And it came to pass that night, that the word of the Lord came unto 
Nathan, saying, * Go and tell f my servant David, Thus saith the Lord, 
^ Shalt thou build me an house for me to dwell in ? ^ Whereas I have not 
dwelt in any house * since the time that I brought up the children of Israel 
out of Egypt, even to this day, but have walked in ** a tent and in a taber- 
nacle. '^laaXLthe places wherein I have * walked with all the children of Israel 
spake I a word with || any of the tribes of Israel, whom I commanded ^ to feed 
my people Israel, saying, Why build ye not me an house of cedar ? ® Now 
therefore so shalt thou say unto my servant David, Thus saith the Lord of 
hosts, * I took thee from the sheepcote, f from following the sheep, to be ruler 
over my people, over Israel : ^ And " I was with thee whithersoever thou 
wentest, " and have cut ofif all thine enemies f out of thy sight, and have made 
thee ** a great name, Uke unto the name of the great m>en that are in the earth. 
^^ Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will ^ plant them, 
that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more ; *> neither shall 
the children of wickedness afllict them any more, as beforetime, ^^ And as 
' since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel, and have 
' caused thee to rest from all thine enemies. Also the Lord telleth thee * that 
he will make thee an house. '^ And '"when thy days be ftdfilled, and thou 
* shalt sleep with thy fathers, ^ I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall 
proceed out of thy bowels, and I will estabhsh his kingdom. ^® *He ahall 
build an house for my name, and I will * stabUsh the throne of his kingdom for 
ever. ^* ** I will be his father, and he shall be my son. ^^ If he commit 

6.12.6 8.19. 1 Chron. 22. 10. ft 28. 6. a ver. 16. Ps. 89. 4, 29, 36, 37. b Ps. 89. 26, 27. Heb. 1. 6. e Ps. 89. 30, 31, 32, S3. ' 

2. Nathan the prophef] See above, on 1 Sam. iz. 9. Nathan 
aftenvards comes forward to rebuke Dayid for his sin, in 
xii. 1 — 12, and yet did not forfeit David's favour : see 1 Kings 
i. 8. 10. 

— curtains'] Exod. xxvi. 2. 

8. Nathan said] The sacred writer does not disguise the 
fact that prophets — as men, not under the direct inspiration of 
God at that particuhir time— sometimes spoke without due con- 
sideration and are corrected by Qod : see v. 4. Op. Acts xxi. 
12, 13. 

5. Shalt thou build me an house ?] No ; the reason for the 
prohibition is declared by David himself. 1 Chron. xxii. 8; 
xxviii. 3. Gk>d will not allow him to do it, although He com- 
mends the intention : see 1 Kings viil. 18. 

6. have walked in a tent] And thus Qod showed that a local 
habitation is no necessary requisite for His worship, although 
He is pleased to choose places wherein to put His Name, and to 
reveal Himself specially there. This migratory character of 
His Clmrch was a preparation and training, not only for faith 
in His Omnipresence, but also for the reception of the doctrine of 
the universality of the Church, not to be limited to Palestine, 
but to be extended to all nations; and so St. Stephen expounds 
it : see Acts vii. 46—49. 

7. the tribes] Bepresented by their rulers : cp. 1 Kings viii. 
16, and Ps. Ixxviii. 69 — 71, where the choice of David by Qod 
is represented as the choice of the tribe of Judah. Qod had 
not flowed Moses, Joshua, or the Judges to build Him a house, 
because they were men of war, as David was (1 Chron. xxii. 8. 

9. all thine enemies] Up to this time: see v. 1. Other 
enemies rose up afterwards (see ch. viii.), but the victory gained 
over the former by God's help was an assurance to David that 
the others would be eventually cut off. 

10, 11. I will appoint a place — the LoBD telleth thee that 
he will make thee an house] Thou desirest to appoint a place for 
Me, but I will go before thee, and appoint a yltace for thj people 
Israel, even an everlasting inheritance foreshadowed by Canaan, 


for all true Israelites; and I will build an eternal house for 
thee, in thy seed, preftg^ured by thy son (Solomon), even in 
Chbist: see Preliminan/ Note to this chapter; and or. 13. 

Qod built for David a house — even a temple— by the In* 
carnation of Christ, Who came from his seed. For CbriBt calls 
His own body, which He took from the Blessed Virgin Mair, of 
the seed of David, a temple : " Destroy this temple, and in tlir^ 
days I will build it up agun. He spake of the temple of His 
body," John ii. 21 (Theodoret), 

12. when thy days be fuJfiUed, and thou shalt sleep with 
thy fathers, IwiU set up thy seed qfler thee] Hence it is clear 
that this prophecy was not exhausted in Solomon, who began 
to rdgn Wore David slept with his fathers (8, Auyustine 
de Civ. Dei xvii. 8. Laotant., Inst. iv. 13). 

8. Augustine remarks, that we see some gleams and 
glimpses in Solomon of what was to be fulfilled in Christ. In 
some things Solomon's acts corresponded to this prophecy ; in 
other things they did not. His name Solomon (peaceable), his 
building of the Temple, these were tendencies to the fulfilment 
of the prophecy, which is accomplished in the Et^nal Son of 
David, the buUder of the Church Universal (Matt. xvi. 18. 
Heb. iii. 6), Jesus Chbist our Lord. 

18. I will stahUsh the throne of his kingdom for ever] In 
Jesus Christ, who was made of the seed of David according 
to the flesh (Bom. i. 3. 2 Hm. ii. 8), and of whom it was 
declared by the angel Gabriel, that "the Lord Qod shall give 
unto him the throne of his father David, and he shall reign over 
the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be 
no end" (Luke i. 32, 33^. 

This exposition of tne prophecy is elaborately confirmed by 
IWrtullian c. Marcion. iii. 20, who refutes the notion of those 
who restrain this prophecy to Solomon, and shows that it can 
only be said to have had its full accomplishment in Christ. See 
also Justin Martyr c. Tiyphon. § 68, and Bp. Pearson, Art. ii. 
p. 153, and Art. vi. p. 280. 

14. I will be his father] This is applied to Christ by St. 

Digitized by 


God's promise of eternal dominion 2 SAMUEL VII, 15 — 23. 

to David's seed. 

iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the 
children of men : ^* But my mercy shall not depart away from him, ** as I to6k 
it from Saul, whom I put away before thee. ^^ And • thine house and thy 
kingdom shall be established for ever before thee : thy throne shall be esta- 
bUshed for ever. ^^ According to all these words, and according to all this 
vision, so did Nathan speak unto David. 

^® Then went king David in, and sat before the Lord, and he said, 'Who 
am I, Lord God ? and what is my house, that thou hast brought me hither- 
to ? ^® And this was yet a small thing in thy sight, Lord God ; » but thou 
hast spoken also of thy servant's house for a great while to come. ^ And is 
this the t manner of man, Lord God ? ^o j^^ ^^i^Q^t can David say more 
imto thee? for thou, Lord God, ' knowest thy servant. ^^ For thy word's sake, 
and according to thine own heart, hast thou done all these great things, to 
make thy servant know them. ^ Wherefore ^ thou art great, Lord God : 
for * there is none like thee, neither is th^re any God beside thee, according to 
all that we have heard with our ears. ^'And "what one nation in the 
earth is like thy people, even like Israel, whom. God went to redeem for a 

1 Sam. S. 2, Ps. 86. 8. ft 89. 6, 8. Iia. 45. 5, 18, 22. m Deut. 4. T, 82, 84. ft M. 

d 1 Sam. 15. 23, 

28 ft 16. 14. 

1 Kingill. 18, 


e ver. 18. 

Ps. 89. 36, 87. 

John 12. 34. 

' Gen. 82. 10. 

g ver. 13, 18. 

h Isa. 05. 8. 

t Heb. law. 

iO«n. 18. 19. 
Ps. 189. 1. 

k 1 Cbron. 16. 25. 
2 Chron. 2. 5. 
Ps.48. 1. 
ftS6. 10. ft96.4. 
ft 135. 5. 
ft 145. 8. 
Jer. 10. 6. 
1 Deut. 3. 24. 
&4. 35. &33. 3 
29. Pt. 147. 20. 

Paid, adopting the words of the Sept., Heb. i. 5, and so JuHin 
Martyr c. Tryphon. § 117, "De fide ergo est, huno locum 
intelligi de Chnsto." A Lapide. Cp. 8. Aug, de Civ. Dei zriL 

— J^he commit iniquUtf] That is, if thy seed commit iniquity ; 
which was the case with Solomon, and with other kings who de- 
scended from David. 

The promise to them was conditional, as is acknowledged 
by Dayid himself (Pb. Ixxxix. 80—82 ; cxxxii. 12), and, to adopt 
the words of Bishop Pearson (Art. vi. p. 280), " The kingdom 
of David was intercepted, nor was his family continued in the 
throne ; part of the kingdom was first rent from his family, and 
next the reg^ty itself, and when it was restored it was trans- 
lated to another family. But yet, in a larger and better sense, 
after these intercisions the throne of David was continued in 
Him who never sinned, and consequently could never lose it, 
and He being the Seed of David, m Him the throne of David 
was without interception or succession continued. Of Him did 
the angel Gabriel speak at His conception, ' The Lord shall 
g^ve unto Him the throne of Sis father David, and He shall 
reign over the house of Jacob /or ever, and of His kingdom there 
■h^ be no end * (Luke i. 32, 38)." Compare the note above, on 
Jacob's prophecy concerning Shiloh, Qen. xlix. 10. 

The promise oi perpetuity was made to the house of David, 
who is eminently the &ther of Christ ; and the distinction is 
careftdly to be drawn between the conditionality of the promise 
to his immediate son and to his successors, which their iniquity 
might suspend or forfeit, and the absolute securifgr of the ulti- 
mate promise to David, of the eternal royalty, which all Israel 
expected to spring from him, and which was to triumph over all 
apostasies and to g^ve peace to Israel and the world : see Dr. 
W, H. Mill on the Genealogies, pp. 174, 175. 

This promise was always in David's mind, even to the end 
of his life ; and in it is the consummation of all the blessings, 
for which he praises God in his song at the close of his days : 
see below, on xxii. 50, 51. 

— rod of men"] Thy seed, though favoured by Me, will not be 
exempt from punishment any more than that of other men, if 
they fell into sin (Jeromiast., A Lapide, Mengst.). 

This warning was providentially and merdiiilly given, lest 
David and his seed, presuming on God's favour to themselves 
personally, might be tempted therebv to commit sin. 

17. so did Nathan speaJc] Nathan honestly delivered the 
message, which showed that he himself had been mistaken : see 


18. David— sat before the Loed] Before the Ark, '* sedit 
oraturus :" Augustine (de Divers. Qu. ad Simplician. ii. 4), who 
thinks that his attitude was the same as that of Elijah (1 Kings 
xviii. 42 — 46), and that under the Law no special attitude 
was prescribed for prayer, «sed liberum esse quolibet gestu 
uti, qui ci^jusque conditioni et devotioni foret accommodus." 
But probably the word, here rendered sat, is not to be taken 


literally, but means, as it often does, he remained. Gen. xxiv. 55. 

David's feelings at this time may be seen in Ps. cxxxvili. 
19. And is this the manner of man, O Lord God ?] Lit., is 
this the Law of Adam 1 This is the only place in the Authorized 
Version where the Hebrew word torah is rendered manner ; in 
all other places it is rendered lato. 

The sense is, *' Dost thou thus condescend, O Lord God, to 
one, who is a mere man (lit., Adam) ; one made of earth, earthy ? " 

The beet comment on the words is that of David himself, 
PB. viii. 4, ** What is man, that Thou art mindful of him ? and the 
son of man, (Adam), that Thou so regardest him ? " 

In that Psalm, where he uses the same titles in addressing 
God, he had a vision of Christ, the Son of God, taking the 
nature of man, and made a little lower than the angels, to be 
crowned in His human nature with glory and worship. And 
David, who, as St. Peter declares (Acts ii. 30), understood these 
promises of God as implying that Christ would arise fh>m him- 
self, may reasonably be supposed to be looking to Christ, and to 
His everlasting kingdom (see v, 24. 29), when he exclaims, " Is 
this the kw of Adam, OLord God P" 

All the Ancient Versions, as well as the Authorized' Version, 
r^^ard the words ''Lord God " as a vocative ; and for this and 
other reasons, we cannot accept the rendering of those (such 
as Luther, Oalovius, Gerhard, Pfeiffer, and others) who con- 
sider these words as put in apposition with man, or Adam {this is 
fhe law of the Man who is the Lord €hd), and who see here a 
direct statement of the doctrine of the Humanity and Divinity 
of Christ. 

Others also (as 3p, Morsley) see here a prophecy of Christ, 
and render the words, " this is the law of (or concerning) the Man 
(Christ Jesus), O Lord Ood /* and they infer this sense also from 
the parallel place (1 Chron. xvii. 17), Thou hast regarded me 
according to the estate of a man {the man) of high degree ; i. e. 
from above. * 

But this parallel is in harmony with the interpretation 
offered above at the beginning of this note ; and that interpreta- 
tion seems to be the less forced, while at the same time it in- 
cludes a reference to Christ, Who, beinff of David's seed, and 
therefore Very Man, would exalt Davia and his house to a 
Divine dignity, which David contemplates with awe and ad- 

Is this the law of one that is a mere man created from the 
dust, as I am, that I should be elevated to such a glorious 
altitude as thisP I had supposed that the *'law of Adam," 
after the FaD, was to be subject to mortality (Gen. iii. 19), but 
Thou hast spoken of everlasting continuance to my seed, and to 
my kingdom; the curse of sin is revoked; the law of death 
is repealed to me. 

And no wonder; for though "in Adam all die," yet "in 

Christ," who is the Second Adam, and of the seed of David, and 

the Lord firom heaven, " all are made alive " (I'^Cor. xv. 22. 47). 

88. Qod went to redeem'] The plural verb Is used here with 

Digitized by 


David's tlurnksgiving. 2 SAMUEL VH. 24— 29, VIII. 1—3. 

David's victories. 

n Deut. 9. 26. 
Neb. 1. 10. 
o Deut. 26. 18. 

p Ps. 48. 14. 

people to himself, an4 to make him a name, and to do for you great things and 
terrible, for thy land, before " thy people, which thou redeemedst to thee from 
Egypt, from the nations and their gods ? ^4 Yox **thou hast confirmed to thy- 
self thy people Israel to he a people unto thee for ever : ** and thou. Lord, wt 
become their God. ^ And now, Lord God, the word that thou hast spoken 
concerning thy servant, and concerning his house, establish it for ever, and 
do as thou hast said, ^ And let thy name be magnified for ever, saying, The 
Lord of hosts is the God over Israel : and let the house of thy servant David 
be established before thee. ^ For thou, Lord of hosts, God of Israel, hast 
♦ Heb oiHr»«d<A€|j.^y^aie^ to thy servant, saying, I will build thee an house: therefore hath 
thy servant found in his heart to pray this prayer unto thee. ^ And now, O 
Lord God, thou o>rt that God, and ** thy words be true, and thou hast promised 
this goodness unto thy servant : ^ Therefore now f let it please thee to bless 
the house of thy servant, that it may continue for ever before thee : for thou, 
Lord God, hast spoken it : and with thy blessing let the house of thy 
servant be blessed ' for ever. 

Vni. ^ And * after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, 
and subdued them : and David took || Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the 

^ And ^ he smote Moab, and measured them with a line, casting them down 
to the ground; even with two lines measured he to put tp death, and with one 
fall line to keep aUve. And so the Moabites ^ became David's servants, and 
^ brought gifts. 

^ David smote also || Hadadezer, the son of Behob, king of • Zobah, as he 

Ruth 4. 4, 
1 Sam. 0. 15. 

q John 17. 17. 

t Heb. be thou 
pleaud and blett, 

r cb. 22. 51. 

a 1 Cbron. 18. 1, 


I Or, The bridle 


b Num. 24. 17. 

Tei. 6, ft 14. 

d Pt. 72. 10. 

6eel Sam. 10.27. 

II Or, Hadarezer, 

1 Chron. 18. 8. 

e ch. 10. 6. Pt. 60, title. 

Elohim ; literaUy, godt wetU : was this merely fortoitoos P May 
not this have been spoken by pophetic inspiration ? May not 
David have had some divine mtimation of the comunction of 
the Persons of the Godhead co-operating in the redemption of 
Israel from %yp** *ypifyiJig *^® Redemption of the World by 
means of Ood the Father, and of God the Son taking our 
nature from David's own seed ? 

26. let % name be magnified far ever] This was David's 
first aim —the glory of God. 

29. thctt it may continue for ever before thee] The estabKsh- 
ment and perpetuity of the kingdom of Christ was the sum of 
David's desires ; and it ought to be the end of ours. 

Ch. VIII.— David's Viotobibs. 

After the gracious promises of God to David in the fore- 
going chapter, which reveal the friture full and final establish- 
ment of the kingdom of Christ, it seems that the arch-enemy of 
God and man, being moved with hatred and envy, put forth all 
his power against David, as he did against the Divine Son of 
David at the Temptation, after the glorious manifestation of 
Christ at His Baptism ; and as he did against Christ's Church 
after the Ascension. 

He raised up against David enemies firom without, — Phi- 
listines, Moabites, Ammonites (chaps, viii. and z.), and 

Iliese were overthrown by David; but Satan afterwards 
assailed him from vnthin, and David feU a prey to this infernal 
temptation. While his armies ^ere victorious a^^ainst Moab, he 
himself was taken a prisoner by Satan (ch. xi. xu.). He was in- 
deed restored to God's fiivour by repentance; but after the com- 
mission of that sin, though the sin itself was pardoned (zii. 18), 
yet he sufiers temporal punishment for it in his owi^ person and 
hous^ld, even to the end of his reign. 

Thus the important truth is clearly displayed, that though 
in many respects David was a signal type of Cnrist — thougl^ ne 
had conquered the Jebusites, and placed his throne on Mount 
Zion, and brought up the Ark to Jerusalem, and overthrown his 
enemies round about — yet it was not possible for him, nor for any 
of the sons of men, to achieve that g^eat triumph, and establish 
that universal dominion which God had promised to his house ; 
but that this glorious pons^mmation would be due to the power 

of God's grace, to be displayed in Christ who was afterwards to 
be revealed, and who is not only the Son of DavicU but the Son 
of God (Ps. ex. 1 : see MaU. xxiL 44, 45). 

The present chapter— followed up by certain additional 
notices in ch. x. 1 — 19, xii. 26— 81— contains a summary of the 
victories of David over the kings and nations round about him ; 
and these victories foreshadowed the triumphant prog^ress of Him, 
who after ^is glorious Ascension into the heavenly Zion, went 
forth "conauering and to conquer" (Rev. vi. 2), and of whom 
it is foretold by David himself, that <*all kings shall bow down 
before Him, all nations shall do Him service:" see Pi. IxiL 11. 
Other Psalms where Dayid, as a royal conqueror, appears as a 
figure of Christ, are the 60th, the 108th, and the 110th. 

1. took Metheg-ammah'] Took the bridle of the mother out 
of the hand of the ^hiUetines, that is, of the metropolis, or 
mother city. The dependent cities are called damghtere: see 
Josh. XV. 45. 47. 

To take the bridle of a mother city out of the hand of its 
rulers, is to dispossess them of its government, as a man who 
takes the reins into his own hands out of those of the driver 
of a chariot, or rider of a horse, and deprives them of control 
over it. (SchuUen, Oeeen. 57, Orove, B. D. iL 844: KeiL 

In thp parallel passage (1 Chron. xviii 1) we have "Gath 
and her daughter towns." There is a somewhat similar figure 
in ^chglue, Pers. 195—200, where Xerxes is represented as 
taking into his hands the reins of two personified countries, Asia 
and Greece, yoked to his car. 

2. he smote Moai] And thus he ftilfilled Balaam's prophecy 
in part p^um. xxiv. 17). 

This and the other victories of David reUited here, were 
pledges and earnests of the final triumph of the mighty Con- 
queror, whom Balaam pre-announced (see the note there), and 
whom David prefigured: cp. David's own prophecy, Pb. 
Ix. 8; cviii. 9, where, under the name of conquests ove» 
Philistia and Moab, he describes the victory of Christ orer His 

— with tfoo lines measured A«] Two parts for destruction, and 
a fiiU line for keeping alive : cp. Ps, Ix. 6, " X will mete out the 
valley of Succoth." 

8. Radadezer] which means Radad (the sun-god of the Sy- 
rians. Movers, Phoen. i. 196) is our helps but he was no hdp 

Digitized by 


David's conquests ; 

2 SAMUEL Vin. 4—14. 

he dedicates the spoiL 

went to recover 'his border at the river Euphrates. * And David took || from 
him a thousand p chariots ^ and seven hundred horsemen, and twenty thousand 
footmen : and David * houghed all the chariot horses, but reserved of them for 
an hundred chariots. * ^ And when the Syrians of Damascus came to succour 
Hadadezer king of Zobah, David slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand 
men. ^ Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus : and the Syrians 
* became servants to David, and brought gifts. ^ And the Lord preserved David 
whithersoever he went. ^ And David took * the shields of gold that were on the 
servants of Hadadezer, and brought them to Jerusalem. ^ And from || Betah, 
and from || Berothai, cities of Hadadezer, king David took exceeding much 

® When II Toi king of Hamath heard that David had smitten all the host of 
Hadadezer, ^^ Then Toi sent ™ Joram his son unto king David, to f salute 
him, and to bless him, because he had fought against Hadadezer, and smitten 
him : for Hadadezer f had wars with Toi. And Joram f brought with him 
vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of brass : ^^ Which also king 
David "did dedicate unto the Lord, with the silver and gold that he had 
dedicated of all nations which he subdued ; ^^ Of Syria, and of Moab, and of 
the children of Ammon, and of the Phihstines, and of Amalek, and of the 
spoil of Hadadezer, son of Kehob, king of Zobah. 

13 And David gat him a name when he returned from f smiting of the Syrians 
in ** the valley of salt, ^ || being eighteen thousand m^en. ^^ And he put garrisons 
in Edom ; throughout all Edom put he garrisons, and •* all they of Edom 

^ See Gen. 15.16. 
Or, of his. 
II As 1 Chron. 

g Josh. 11.6,9. 

h I Kings 11. 29, 
24, 25. 

i ver. 2. 

k ver. 14. 

ch. i.9. 

1 See 1 Kings 10. 


U Or. Tibhath. 

li Or, CAaifi, ■ 
1 Chron. 18. 8 

II Or, Tow, 

I Chron. 18. 9. 

m 1 Chron. 18. 10, 


t Heb. ask him 

of peace. 

t Heb. wa$ a man 

of wars tritk. 

t Heb. in bit 

hand were. 

n 1 Kings 7. 51. 
1 Chron. 18. 11. 
& 26. 26. 

I Or, slaifing. 

t Heb. hU 

o 2 Kings 14. 7. 
p See 1 Chron. 
18. 12. 

Ps. 60, title, 
q Gen. 27. 29, S7, 40. Num. 24. 18. 

against David ; and the helps of the heathen will be no helps 
against the " Sun of Righteousness." 

— 2k)hah2 A district of Syria, probably N.E. of Damascus and 
w. of Euphrates : see Bochari, Phaleg u. 7, and Bp. Patrick's 
note here, and Keil, p. 26 : cp. 1 Sam. ziv. 47. 1 Chron. zviii. 3. 
2 Chron. viii. 3. 1 Kings xi. 24. 

4. a thousand chariots] The word chariots is not in the ori- 
ginal, but it is in Sept, : see 1 Chron. xviii. 4 {Junius, Serarius, 
Com. a Lapide, KeiX), 

— seven hundred horsemen'] The Sept, Version has seven thou- 
sand, and so 1 Chron. xviii. 4. It may be conjectured, there- 
fore, that our present MSS. may be corrected from the Sept. in 
this place. Chr, it may be supposed, with Abarbinel, that the 
sacred writer here is speaking of the chief captains of the cavalry, 
each of whom, as a centurion, may have had the command of 
ten men (Serarius, Walther, and others ; see Wouvers), 

Others suppose that the words here are to be joined to the 
preceding, and that the number of horsemen was a thousand and 
seven hundred, who had nothing to do with chariots, which are 
not mentioned here ; and that the 7000 chariots in 1 Chron. xviii. 
4 comprise both the drivers apd those who fought in the cha- 
riots: cp. Isa. xxi. 9; xxii. 6 {Bfeiffer, Dub. 248). And this 
is a probable opinion. 

Compare below, on x. 18, where it is observable that the 
word chtiriots comprises the men who fought in them. 

— houghed^ See Josh. xi. 6. 9. 

6. brought gV^'] As all kings will to Christ. Vs, Ixviii. 29 ; 
Ixxu. 10, 11. Rev. xxi. 24. 

7. that were o»] Or, that belonged to, 

8. Betah — Berothai] The exact sites of which are uncertain. 
Cp. 1 Chron. xviii. 6. 

— brass] Of which the brazen sea, and brazen pillars, and 
brazen vessels were made by Solomon for the Temple (1 Chron. 
xviii. 8). The spoils of Heathenism, the gfold and silver of Egypt, 
the cedars of Tyre, the brass of Syria, are to be dedicate to 
the service of Qod, and of His Church. See abovei, note on 
Exod. iU. 22. 

9. SamcUh] The principal city of Upper Syria, in the valley 
oftheOrontes: see Num. xiii. 21 ; xxxiv.8. Josh.xiii.5. Judg. 
iii. 3. 

10. Jorani] Which meai^ whom the Lord exalts. How are 
we to account for such a name as this among a heathen people P 

Vol.. II. Pabt 11.-89 

He is called Hadoram in 1 Chron. xviu. 10 ; and hence some 
have imagined a discrepancy here. But Joram is in the MSS. and 
Versions here, and in Josephus vii. 5. 4. And is it not probable 
that the Syrian or Arabic name Hadoram (cp. 1 Kings xii. 18. 
2 Chron. x. 18) was Hebraized into Joram in honour of David 
and of David's Qod ? 

David dedicated the presents of Toi to the service of Je- 
hovah {v. 11, 12 ; cp. 1 Kings vii. 51), and may not the son of 
Toi, who came to bless DaWd, have received a spiritual bless- 
ing for himself from his visit to Jerusalem ? 

11. David did dedicate] David by his conquest procured 
times of peace for his son l&lomon, in order that he might build 
the Temple ; and he also provided silver and gold wherewith the 
Temple might be adorned. The victories of Christ, as our David, 
are all preparatory to the peaceful days of Christ as our Solo- 
mon, and to the building up of the Church militant here and of 
the Church glorified in Uie heavenly Jerusalem hereafler. 

13. David gat him a name] By his victories ; and Christ by 
His conquests has obtidned ''the Namb that is above every 
name;" see on Phil. ii. 9 : cp. below, on v. 15. 

— Jfrom smiting of the Syrians in the valley of salt] How 
is this to be explained ? The Syrians, who dwelt on the n.n.b, 
of Palestine, are said to be defeated in the valley of salt at the 
southern extremity of Judah. The literal rendering iB—fi*om 
smiting of Aram in the valley of salt. The Sept. has Sdom 
instead of Aram; and (as Movers and Robinson have observed) 
this seems to be the true reading; the change in the MSS. 
(written trithout Masoretic points) would be simply that of two 
very similar letters, resh and daleth ; and this is confirmed by 
the parallel, 1 Chron. xviii. 12, ** Abishai slew of the Edomites, 
in the vaUey of salt, eighteen thousand men;" and thus the 
eeographical difficulty cUsappean. The Syrians {Aram) were 
mr from the valley of salt, which is to the south of the Dead 
Sea, but the vaUey of salt separated Edom from Judah {Bobin* 
son, ii. 483 ; cp. 2 Kings xiv. 7), and if the Edomites came 
against David, then the valley of salt would be the most likely 
pkoe for their encounter. A similar conAiaion of Edom and 
Aram is supposed by some to occur in the hitherto ooUated 
MSS. of 2 Kings xvi. 6i and above v, 12, Syria (i. e. Aram), 

14. he put garrisons in Edom] And thus fulfilled, in part, 
Isaac's prophecy (Gen. xxvii. 37—40), which has its peorfect 
accomplishment in Christ. Cp. on Isa. Ixiii. 1. 

Digitized by 


Davidreigns over all Israel. 2 SAMUEL VIH. 15 — 18. IX. 1. Zadoh and Ahinulech priests. 

r Ter. 6. 

• ch. 19. IS. 
ft 20. 2S. 

I ChroD. U. 6. 
ft 18. 15. 

I I Kings 4. 3. 
I Or, remem' 
brancer, or 
writer of 

tt I Chron. S4. 8. 
B Or, $eeretar^. 
X 1 Chron. 18. 17. 
7 1 Sam. 80. 14. 
|-Oc» prineet, ch. 

became David's servants. 'And the Lobd preserved David whithersoever he 

1^ And David reigned over all Israel ; and David executed judgment and 
justice unto all his people. ^®* And Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the host ; 
and ' Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was \\ recorder ; ^^ And "^ Zadok the son of 
Ahitub, and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, were the priests ; and Seraiah 
was the || scribe ; ^® * And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over both the 
' Cherethites and the Pelethites ; and David's sons were || chief rulers. 

IX. ^And David said, Is there yet any that is left of the house of Saul, 

15. David reigned over all Israeli and David executed 
judgment and juaiice unto all hit people"] And was thus a sieiial 
type of Christ, of whom the P^hiet says, ** Behold* the days 
come, siuth the Lord, that I will ruse unto David a righteous 
Branch, and a Kin^ shall reign and prosper, and shall execute 
judgment andjwtitce upon the earth. In his days Judah shall 

oe saved, and Israel shall dwell safely : and this is his name 
whereby he shall be called* The Lobd ous BiaHTEOVSirBSS " 
( Jer. xxiii. 5, 6). 

16. recorderj or remembrancer, who noted down all that 
took place, and kept a record of it, and ^gested it into annals, 
and reminded the king when necessary of afi that was chronicled 
there : cp. Esther vi. 1 {Chardin, PauUen, Keil). 

Zadok and Ahihblboh Pbixstb. 

17. Zadok the son o/Ahitub, and Ahimelech the son of Alia- 
thar, were the priests] How is this to be accounted for r 

At this time Abiathar himself was living, and appears to 
have been the High Priest. Before this time, Abiathar had mi- 
nistered as High Priest, in the presence of David in his afflic- 
tions. See 1 £m. xxiL 20; x:dii. 6. 9 ; xxx. 7. 

Bat in David's old age, " Abiathar the priest " helped Ado- 
n^ah against Solomon (1 Kings L 7 ; ii. 22) ; and after David's 
death he was deprived of the power to exercise the ftinctions of 
his place, and of the High Priesthood, by Solomon, and Zadok 
was pat by the king into his room. See 1 Kings ii. 26, 27. 36. 

Some critics have cat the knot by supposing an error in the 
Manuscripts here, and by proposing to read AbuUh€ir the son qf 
Ahimelech, instead of AMmeleeh the son of AbieUhar, (So 
JEkoald, Thenius, and others : cp. Dr, Smith's B. D. i. 5.) 

This coi^jecture receives some support iVom the ^friae and 
Arabic Versions, but is contravened by the Sept, and Vulg., and 
by the parallel place in 1 Chron. xviiL 16, and in 1 Chron. xxiv. 
8. 6 ; uid it is not probable that AJbiaihar would have been 
placed after Zadok here and in 1 Chron. xviiL 16. 

There must, therefore, on that hvpothesis, not only a change 
be made in the names, bat in the order of them. 

The difficulty, after all, seems to be purely imaginary. 

The historian states that Zadok ujidAhimelech were priests ; 
so the original words oaght to be rendered ; and not, as in our 
Authorized Version, " the priests'* 

He supposes the reader to know the notorious fibct, that 
Abiathar was the Priest. But he tells us, that in addition to 
Abiathar, the High Priest (of the line of Ithamar), Zadok, who 
was of the line of Eleazar, and Ahimelech (so ouled from his 
grandfather, 1 Sam. xxi. 1 ; xxiL 9. 16, by a common usage 
among the Hebrews : cp. 1 Chron. vi. 80 — 41), the son of Abiathar 
(the High Priest), officiated as priests; just as we read of " the two 
sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, priests of the Lord," 1 Sam. i. 8. 

Thus he prepares the way for the sequel of Abiathar's his- 
tory. His name may, perhaps, be kept hack here, on account 
of some temporary disgrace, afterwards issuing in rebellion 
against David ; and we see, that though the EL^^h Priesthood 
was hereditary, and though fas we l»im from this passage) 
Abiathar had a son, Ahimele<m, yet, on account of Abiathars 
treachery, that son did not succeed hhn in the High Priesthood, 
but Zadok, the faithfril priest, was advanced to the Hk'h Priest- 
hood, from which Abiathar was degraded, and thus &e divine 
prophecy concerning the lines of Eleazar and Ithamar were ful- 
filled. 1 Kinffs ii. 26, 27. 85. 

It is probable, that after the deitruction of the priests at 
Nob by Saul, and after the flight of Abiathar to David (1 Sam. 
xzii. 20), Saul appointed Zadok, of the line of Eleazar, to minister 
in the priesthood at the Tabemade ; and the severance of the 
Tabernacle ttom the Ark for manv years mav have given 
occasioa to the ministrations of two almost co-ordinate and con- 
temporaneous priesttioods: one at the Ark, the other in the 

Tabemade. These coalesced in Zadok, when the Temple wm 
built by Solomon. Similarly in the Qoepel we find tie con* 
temporaneous priests (Annas and Oaiaphas) mentioned at Uie 
epocb of Chrisrs public inauguration into ms ministry : hut all 
tne Jewish priesUiood (then in oonfbsion) is summed up in our 
Divine Zadok, Jb8V8 Christ, who alndeth a Priest for ever: 
see below, on Luke iiL 2. 

— sertite] Secretaiy of state. 

18. Benaiah the son qf Jehoiada] See zxiii. 20. 

— was over both the Cherethites and the Pelethiies'} David's 
body-guard (JoMpA. viL 5. 4: cp. xv. 18. 2 Chron. zii. 11. 1 Kings 
X. 16) ; perhaps, the executioners (from carath, to cut off), and 
the counersjnom palath, to run). This is adopted by Oesenius, 
417. 677 ; Keil, 266, 267 ; and I%enius on 1 Kings i. 88; and 
see KeiTs note there, in his first edition : q>. A Lapide here. 

The names are derived by others (Juntus, Pfdjfer, Ewald, 
Bertheam, Movers, Sitmg, Stark, JEL S, Poole) from the Phi- 
listines, and from a Philifene tribe (Cerethim) mentioned 1 Sun. 
xxx. 14: cp. Ezek. xxv. 16. Zeph. iL 6; but the meaning of the 
word in the latter two phices is doubtftil, and may be «mo»- 
turners (Jerome). Cp. ^eiffm^s Dubia, p. 209. 

This ofMnion seems to oe confirmed by the combination of 
the Cherethites and Pelethites with <' all the Qittitea, six hun- 
dred men," that is, with men of Oath, the Philistine dty, who 
were part of David's body-guard, and remained fiuthfbl to hun 
when ne fied fit>m Absalom (xv. 18). 

David's sqjoum in the land of the Philistines, and his cam- 
paigns in the service of their king (see 1 Sam. xxvii. xxix), may 
have enabled him to organize a military force which was attached 
by strong personal ties of affisction and loyalty to himself, on 
which, as the event showed, he was able to depend with more 
confidence than even on his own subjects and children (see on 
XV. 18, and compare Stanlw, B. D. i. 408). We find Ittai 
the Oittite distinguished by loyalty to David (xv. 19 ; xviiL 2). 

The Cherethites and Pelethites were David's ministers for 
execution of justice and mercy. Christ, the Divine David, has 
His angelic Cherethites, who execute vengeance on the evil ; and 
He has His angelic Pelethites, who speed on messages of love 
to the righteous (Heb. i. 14). 

— ch*rf rulers] The original word here is eohanim, the 
same word as in o. 17 : it does not mean Priests here, butas the 
paralld plaoe in 1 Chron. xviii. 17 shows, they '* were at the 
hand of the king," or, *' near his person," as Josephms expresses 
it ^viL 6. 4), prindpal officers in his courts. The word is 
derived from eakan, to administer any one's affiiirs, to plead his 
cause, to transact his business (Selden de Syned. iL 16. Oesen, 
886) ; hence its double sense. The sons of the true David are 
made ««Khig8 and Priests to God" by Him (Bev. L 6). 

Ch. IX. 1. David said. Is there yet ang that is Irft qf the 
house of Saul t] Observe the connexion with what has gone before. 
How true to nature this is 1 David had been filled with thank- 
ful amazement by the Divine promise of perpetuity to his own 
house, and <^ evenasting dominion to his own seed (m, 18 — ^29). 
Well might he contrast his own condition with that of Saul 
(see viL 16). Tender-hearted and loving as he was, well might 
he fed ^ij for that of SauL Having recdved an assurance 
from Qod of continuance to his own Uneage, well might he call 
to mind his own promise to Saul (1 Sam. xxiv. 21, 22), and his 
covenant of love with Jonathan and his posterity (1 Sam. xx. 
14—17.42; xxiii.l8). 

David's Psalm on the bringing up of the Ark, *' Who shall 
ascend into the hill of the Lord P " (Fi. xxiv.) shows his own 
foding that one of the reqmsites for so hish an iMmonr was that 
he who was thus fiivoured bv Qod should not ** swear deemU 
fully " (Ps. xxiv. 8, 4); and m the spirit of that Ptahn he now 
performs his oath to S«il and Jonathan, 

Digitized by 


Mephihoshethf lame in Ms feet , 2 SAMUEL IX. 2 — 11. bows before David, and is exalted. 

that I may * shew him kindness for Jonathan's sake ? ^ And there was of the 
house of Saul a servant whose name was ^ Ziba. And when they had called 
him unto David, the king said unto him, Art thou Ziba ? And he said, Thy 
servant is he. ^ And the king said. Is there not yet any of the house of Saul, 
that I may shew "" the kindness of God unto him? And Ziba said unto the 
king, Jonathan hath yet a son, which is ^ lame on his feet. * And the king 
said unto him, Where is he ? And Ziba said unto the king, Behold, he is in 
the house of * Machir, the son of Ammiel, in Lo-debar. ^ Then king David 
sent, and fetched him out of the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, from 

^ Now when || Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan, the son of Saul, was 
come unto David, he fell on his face, and did reverence. And David said, 
Mephibosheth. And he answered, Behold thy servant ! ^ And David said 
unto him. Fear not: 'for I will surely shew thee kindness for Jonathan thy 
father's sake, and will restore thee all the land of Saul thy father ; and thou 
shalt eat bread at my table continually. ® And he bowed himself, and said, 
What IS thy servant, that thou shouldest look upon such * a dead dog as I am ? 

^ Then the king called to Ziba, Saul's servant, and said unto him, ^ I have 
given unto thy master's son all that pertained to Saul and to all his house. 
^^ Thou therefore, and thy sons, and thy servants, shall till the land for him, 
and thou shalt bring in the fruits, that thy master's son may have food to eat : 
but Mephibosheth thy master's son * shall eat bread alway at my table. Now 
Ziba had ^ fifteen sons and twenty servants. " Then said Ziba unto the king. 

a I Sam. 18. 8. 
&20. 14, 15, 
16. 17, 42. 
Prov. 27. 10. 
bch. 16. 1. 
ft 19.17,39. 

c I Sam. SO. 14. 
d ch. 4. 4. 

ech. 17.27. 

n CaUed, Merib^ 


I Chron. 8. 84. 

f T«r. 1, 8. 

g 1 Sam. 24. 14. 
oh. 16. 9. 

h See ch. 16. 4. 
& 19. 29. 

iver. 7,11, 18. 
ch. 19. 28. 
k ch. 19. 17. 

8. thai I may thew the kindness of Ghd] He rememben hU 
own words in 1 Sam. zx. 14!, where he promised to show the 
kindness of the Lord, — L e. love for the Lord's sake» and in the 
Lord's sight, and according to the Lord's example, pore, per- 
petual love, and not snch love as arises from mere human respects 
and is shown in the eye of man— to Jonathan's posterity. 

— lame"] His lameness was a permanent memento of the 
misfortunes of Saul and Jonathan : see It. 4. 

4. Lo-debar'] On the east side of Jordan, near Mahanaim, 
xviL 27; perliapB the same as Lodehir, which seems to be 
mentioned In Josh. xiii. 26. Seland, KeU. 

6. Mefhibosheth'] See iv. 4. 

Kbphibosheth, laics iw both his Feet, sownra beeobb 
David, afd admitted to Datid's Table. 

— hefeU on his face, and did reperencel Mephibosheth, the 
son of Jonathan, the son of Saul, bowed lumself before David, 
and said, ** What is thy servant, that thou shouldest look on 
such a dead dog as I P" (v. 8.) << And David restored to him the 
land of Saul his fkther, and also promised that he should eat of 
his table continually " (v. 7). 

It cannot be doubted that this incident, comparatively in- 
ngnificant in itself, is recorded here with so much minuteness, 
not merely as an historical evenly but fbr a spiritual purpose. 

Saul (as the andent Christian expositors have unanimously 
declared) was in his high privileges and prerogatives, and in his 
noUe and holy beginmngs, and also in his melancholy dedine 
and fall, and in his persecutions of David — a type of the 
Jewish Nation, glorious in its origin, specially fitvoured by God, 
but lapsing from its \high estate and persecuting the true 
David, Jebits Chbist. 

But Saul had a son — the beloved friend of David — J(Hia- 
jthan; and Jonathan had a son, Mephibosheth, lame in both his 
&et, and oommemorating by his lameness the melanohdy &te 
of Saul (W, 4). David reniembers his {NXMnise to S|^id and 
Jonathan; and when he is established in Mount Zion, and 
has overcome the kings and nations round about him, l^e 
calls Mephibosheth, and restores to him his frither's land» and 
makM lum eat at his table: and Mephibosheth receives the 
royal boon with grateftil reverenoe and lowly self-abasement. 
Though he ktm lame qf both Ms feet, and could not stand, 
yet he is able to bow down befixre him, and thus is exalted 
to privUeges transcending the glory of those who were stxonger 

than he -even of his father, Saul himself, so fiuned for his sta- 
ture and strength, so confident and vain -glorious, and so mise- 
rable in his &11. 

Surely a greater than David is here. May we not see here 
a type and a prophecy of what we know from *other portions of 
Holy Scripture will one day come to pass ? 

There is a remnant of Israel which has already bowed 
before the Divine David. There is also a remnant which will 
one day bow before Him. Israel itself is like Mephibosheth. 
It is lame in both its feet. Its lameness is due to its Ml, 
consequent on the apostasy of its fathers. It supposed that 
it could walk before God hj its own strength ; but it can do 
nothing to help itself. *' It is lame on both its feet/' the words 
are emphatically repeated bv the sacred historian (v. 13). 

But it will one day become sensible of its own lame- 
ness, and then will recover its place in God's favour. Even now 
the Divine David remembers His own promise, ratified hj oath 
to the &thers. He remembers His own love to the Hebrew 
Jonathan, the patriarchs and prophets, whose love to Him 
was a deep and intense love, "a wonderful love, passing the 
love of women " (2 Sam. L 26). He desires to show the 
kindness of €hd to their souL He searches after them. 
Let them come to Christ as Mephibosheth did to David, in 
faith and humility. Let them divest themselves of all proud 
notions of their own righteousness. Let them fidl on their fkoe 
before the Divine Son of David, and do Him reverence. 

Let them, who despised the (Gentiles as unclean, even as 
dogs (Matt. XV. 26), sav with Mephibosheth, ««What is thy 
servant, that thou shonlciest look upon such a dead dog as I P'' 
(v. 8.) Then the Divine David wul graciously receive them. 
He will restore to them the inheritance of their fkthers : nay, 
more, He will treat them as the kind's sons (v, ll). He will 
make them eat and drink for ever at His table in H(is kingdom 
in the heavenly Jerusalem (cp. «. 7 ; v. 10). 

Here also we see that uie <* sure mercies of David " over- 
flowed on the fiEuthful and humble-minded in the fJEunily of SauL 
Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan, was admitted to partake in 
the roval prerogatives of David's son, and to sit continually at 
David s table ; and so it will be with the Jews ; when they are 
Mei^iibosheths in fiuth and humility, they will be Mephiboeheths 
in honour, th^ wiU be admitted to share in the glorv of the True 
David in the Church militant here and triumphant hereafter. 
10. Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants] Whom David 
N 2 

Digitized by 


Contrast with Ziha. 2 SAMUEL IX. 12, 13, X. 1 — 10. David's servants insulted. 

1 1 Chron. 8. S4. 

m ver. 7, 10. 

n ver. S. 

% I Chron. 19. 1, 

t Heb. In thiiu 
ejfet doth David. 

b Isa. 20. 4. 
ft 47. 2. 

c Oen. 34. 30. 
Ex. 5. 21. 
1 Sam. 13. 4. 
d ch. 6. 8, 5. 

I Or, iha men c/ 

Toh, S9e 
Judg. 11.3,5. 
e ch. 23. 8. 

f ver. 6. 

According to all that my lord the king hath commanded his servant, so shall 
thy servant do. As for Mephibosheth^ said the king, he shall eat at my table, 
as one of the king's sons; ^^And Mephibosheth had a young son, * whose 
name was Micha. And all that dwelt in the house of Ziba were servants unto 
Mephibosheth. ^'So Mephibosheth dtvelt in Jerusalem: "for he did eat 
continually at the king's table ; and ° was lame on both his feet. 

X. ^Arid it came to pass after this, that the *king of the children of 
Ammon died, and Hanun his son reigned in his stead. ^ Then said David, 
I vdll shew kindness unto Hanun the son of Nahash, as his father shewed 
kindness unto me. And David sent to comfort him by the hand of his 
servants for his father. And David's servants came into the land of the 
children of Ammon. ^ And the princes of the children of Ammon said unto 
Hanun their lord, f Thinkest thou that David doth honour thy father, that he 
hath sent comforters unto thee ? hath not David rather sent his servants unto 
thee, to search the city, and to spy it out, and to overthrow it ? * Wherefore 
Hanun took David's servants, and shaved off the one half of their beards, and 
cut off their garments in the middle, ^even to their buttocks, and sent them 
away. * When they told it unto David, he sent to meet them, because the 
men were greatly ashamed : and the king said^ Tarry at Jericho until your 
beards be grown, and then return. 

® And when the children of Ammon saw that they ^ stank before David, the 
children of Ammon sent and hired **the Syrians of Beth-rehob, and the 
Syrians of Zoba^ twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand 
men, and of || Ish-tob twelve thousand men. 

^ And when David heard of it, he sent joab, and all the host of * the mighty 
men. ® And the childi'en of Ammon came out, and put the battle in array at 
the entering in of the gate : and Hhe Syrians of Zoba, and of Rehob, and 
Ish-tob, and Maacah, were by themselves in the field. ® When Joab saw that 
the front of the battle was against him before and behind, he chose of all the 
choice nten of Israel, aiid put them in array against the Syrians : *^And the 

made tributary to Mephiboshetli ; but Ziba was not faithM 
(see xvi. 3), and Mephibosbeth remained loyal to David, and was 
content to part with all his earthly goods if he could only see 
David in peace (xix. 30). So " the Israelite indeed" loves Christ 
not for any worldly benefits he receives from Him, but for His 
own sake. 

18. Mephibosheth had a ifoung son, whose name was Michal 
Who had a numerous ofispring (1 Chron. viii. 34, 35 ; ix. 40), 
and so the house of Saul sprouted ttp and flourished afresh 
from one who had seemed without help and hope, but being 
received into David's favour, was endued with dew lif^. Such 
will the Hebrew nation be when restored to God's &youi^ in Christ. 

Ch. X. 1. kinff of— Ammon'] Probably Nahash (1 Sam. xi. 1). 

4. Wherefore Hanun took David's servanti, and shaved off 
the one half of their beards'] A special insult to Orientals, many 
of whom would rather part with their lives than their beards 

iArvieux), and who only shaved the beard as a sign of mourning 
Isa. XV. 2. Jer. xli. 5 ; xlyiii. 87). It was al«> a contumely 
offered to the religion of these Hebrews, who were forbidden by 
the law to shave their beards, even in niouming (Lev. xix. 27. 
Deut. xiv. 1). And the shaving of half the beards made a par- 
ticular indignity in this respect, because they would not them- 
selves cut off the other half, and therefore were exposed to the 
contempt and ridicule of all spectators. And this was an 
aflfront and outra^ agidnst David himself, whose ambassadors 
they were, and who ^id sent them on a message of kindness 
and peace. Here we may see a foreshadowing of the con- 
tumeJions treatment which the ambassadors of the Divine David 
must expect to receive from the World, even when they come 
before men with the words of the Gospel of peace and loye in 
their mouths (Matt. x. 26; xxiv. 9. 1 Cor. iv< 18). 

But as it was with David and his ambassadofrs, so it is 
with Christ and His ministers. Whosoever despiseth them, 
despiseth Him (Luke x. 16). He sympathizes with them, as 
David did with his ambassadors in their shame (o. 6), and 
resents their injuries as offered to Himself (Acts ix. 4) ; and as 
the insults offered to David in the person of his ambassadors 
bec^ine the occasion of gn*eater triumph and glory to David, and 
of greater shame and misery to his enemies, though confederate 
against him, so it will be in the end in the cause of Christ 
and His Church. 

— cui off their garments] And thus reduced them to the 
contemptible condition of prisoners — captiyes led in triumph : 
see Isa. xx. 4 ; xlvii. 2. 

6. saw thai they stank^Cp, Gen. xxxiv. 80. Exod. v. 21. 

— hired the SuruuM] With a thousand talents (I Chron. xix. 
6). They paid deariy for the insult to David. 

— Beth-rehob] Called Behob in v, 8» south of Hamath : see 
Kum. xiii. 21. Judg. xviiL 28. 

— Zoba] SeeviiL8. 

— Maacah] North-east of Geshur and near Hermon: cp. 
Deut. iii. 14. 

— Ish-tob] Rather, men of Tob (see Judg. xL 6) ; between 
Syria and the land of the AmmonitaB. 

7—10. A« sent Joah — Abishai his brother] David not only 
makes war and gains victories in his own person, but by means 
of his generals, the two brethren, Joab and Abishai; so the 
Divine David not only conquers His enemies by His own hand, 
but He conquered also by means of His Apostles, among whom 
were three pairs of brethren, and whom He sent forth two and 
two (see Matt. x. 1. 5. Luke x. 1). And this work He 
continues eyen unto the end, till all enemies wUl be put under 
His feet. 

Digitized by 


David's conquests. 

2 SAMUEL X. 11—19. XI. 1. 

David's sin. 

rest of the people he delivered into the hand of Abishai his brother ^ that he 

might put them in array against the children of Ammon. ^^ And he said, K 

the Syrians be too strong for me, then thou shalt help me : but if the children 

of Ammon be too strong for thee, then I will come and help thee. ^^ » Be of «i>«««»i.«. 

good courage, and let us ^ play the men for our people, and for the cities of our M^sam.y. 

God : and * the Lord do that which seemeth him good. * > 8«»- «• *»• 

^' And Joab drew nigh, and the people that were with him, unto the battle 
against the Syrians : and they fled before him. ^* And when the children of 
Ammon saw that the Syrians were fled, then fled they also before Abishai, and 
entered into the city. So Joab returned from the children of Ammon, and 
came to Jerusalem. 

^*And when the Syrians saw that they were smitten before Israel, they 
gathered themselves together. *^And Hadarezer sent, and brought out the 
Syrians that were beyond |[ the river: and they came to Helam ; and || Shobach i^.*^ 
the captain of the host of Hadarezer went before them. ^^ And when it was 5 cfcfnf^i*: 
told David, he gathered all Israel together, and passed over Jordan, and came 
to Helam. And the Syrians set themselves in array against David, and fought 
with him. *®And the Syrians fled before Israel; and David slew the men of 
seven hundred chariots of the Syrians, and forty thousand ^ horsemen, and ^J^2~»- ^'^^ 
smote Shobach the captain of their host, who died there. ^^ And when all the 
kings that were servants to Hadarezer saw that they were smitten before Israel^ 
they made peace with Israel, and * served them. So the Syrians feared to ich.8.6. 
help the children of Ammon any more. 

XI. * And it came to pass, f after the year was expired, at the time when l^^-^/,^ ^^ 

1 Kings SO. IS, i6. S Chron. 36. 10. 

11. ijT the Syrians he too etrong for me"] Here Christ's 
soldiers and Chnstian Churches mtj see an example to them- 
selves, that they should strengthen and succour one another in 
the spiritual conflict against the common enemies of the True 
Bavid, and for the advancement of His kingdom : cp. Luke uiL 
82. 1 Cor. xii. 21. 

Joah's language on this occasion, as related here (and in 
1 Chron. xix. 13), presents also a noble example of faith and 
resignation and true valour, " Be of good courage, and let us 
behave ourselves valiantly for our people, and for the cities of 
our Qod : and let the Lord do that which is good in His sight." 
And so the great Christian Captain speaks, ** Stand fast in the 
faith, quit you like men, be strong " (1 Cor. xvL 13). 

16. Hadare»er] King of Zobah (viii. 3). 

— they oame to Helam] That is, the Syrians beyond the 
Euphrates crossed the river westward, and came to Elam ; per- 
haps JJmatha, on the west of that river (Ewald, Orove), 
or a site rather more to the south. 

17. it was told Davitf] Who passed over Jordan with all 
Israel, represented bv their captains, and went against the 
enemy and put an end to the war (v. 19). So the Divine David, 
after the conquest gained by His soldiers, will come in person 
and destroy His enemies. 

18. David slew the men of seven hundred chariots of the 
Syrians'] In the parallel passage in 1 Chron. xix. 18 we read 
that David sUw of the Syrictns seven thousand men which fouyht 
in chariots. Observe the word slew as applied to chariots in 
both these places : it obliges us to supply some such words as 
are supplied in our Version. 

l^e Arabic Version has a clause here to the effect that to 
each of these chariots several men were attached ; and confirms 
the view taken of the two passages in our Authorized Version, 
viz. that in the present passage the Historian, by seven hundred 
chariots, means all the men that belonged to them ; and in the 
Chronicles the Historian adds the information that ten men on 
an average belong to each chariot. In the army of Poms 
wluch marched against Alexander we are told by the Historian 
that each chariot carried six men : ** Senos viros singuU 
quadrigiB vehebant " {Ourtius, viii. 14. 2). 

Indeed, whenever more than a thousand chariots are men- 
tioned (which was a vast ncbaber fo^ any king to muster), we 

may infer that the drivers and warriors who manned tliem are 
in<uuded in the number. But whenever a great victory, such as 
that befbre us, is described, and the number of chariots does not 
amount to one thousand, it may be that to each of these chariots 
were attached many men, and that the defeat of these many men 
is implied by the mention of the destruction of the chariots. 

— forty thousand horsemen] In 1 Chron. xix. 18 we have 
forty thousand footmen. The Syriac Version inserts, '* and 
much people;" the Arabic has, "a vast multitude of footmen." 
It is observable, that in the present passage there is no mention 
oi footmen, and in the parallel place in Chronicles there is no 
mention of horsemen; and it is not credible that the Historian 
intended to convey in the present passage that no footmen were 
slain, or in Chronicles that no horsemen were slain. And 
from this drcumstance, and the identity of the number in both 
places, it may be inferred that in the Syrian method of warfare 
the horsemen sometimes dismounted and fought on foot, and 
that the footmen, when weary, mounted on horseback, and so they 
relieved one another, and that they might therefore be called 
dther horsemen or footmen as disting^sh^ from those in chariots. 
It is supposed by some that forty thousand of each were 
slain. Josephms says that Shobach had eighty thousand foot- 
men and ten thousand horsemen under his command (Joseph. 
viL 6. 3). 


Di^tid's Snr. 

After the erection of David's throne on Mount Zion, and 
after the divine promise made in chapter viL of perpetuity to 
David's seed, and of an everlasting dominion to his house, a 
dominion to be established in Christ, it appears that the 
Enemy of Qod and man, envious of such a privilege, which he 
knew would be disastrous to himself, assailed David with succes- 
sive temptations. 

He first raised up enemies against him on all sides, and 
endeavoured to overthrow his kingdom by a combination of 
confederate forces marshalled against it. 

These open and violent attacks recoiled upon those who 
made them, and redounded to the greater gloir of the King of 
Israel and Judah : see above, Prelim, Note to chap. viii. 

In the present chapter^ a new and more dangerous form of 

Digitized by 


David sends Joab to Rabbah. 

2 SAMUEL XI. 1. 

David tarries at home. 

a 1 Chron. 20. 1. 

kings go forth to battle, that ^ David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and 
all Israel ; and they destroyed the children of Amnion, and besieged Babbah. 
Bnt David tarried still at Jerusalem. 

temptatiou assails him; a temptation from vntMn; and he 
who had vanquished all his enemies in the hattle-tield is overcome 
' by means of himself. As 8. Ambrose says (Apol. Dav. ii. 8), 
" David, vir magnus, et qni allophylnm immanem oorpore armis 
quoqne inhorrentem fide vioerat, ntinam se ipse vicisset ! Utinam 
sic interiorem adversariom stemere potuissetl Qravior est 
pugna ejns qui intus, quam illins qui /om dimicat.'^ 

He is guilty of adulter}-, then of dissimulation and murder : 
adultery with the wife of Di-iuh, one of his most valiant soldiers ; 
dissimulation with Uriah and with Joab ; and murder of Uriah 
himself. And though, by God's goodness, his conscience was 
awakened firom its slumber, and was brought to repentance, and 
his sin was forgiven with respect to the future life and the eternal 
world, yet from this time forth, as far as this world was con- 
cerned, the sword never departed from his house (zii. \0\ and 
his life was embittered by sins and sufferings in his own nunily 
— the fhuts of his own sin — even to the day of his death. 

Tet even here Satan is defeated, and Qod is glorified by 
means of Satan's devices; which appears as follows, viz. : — 

(1) We have here a strong proof of the veracity of Holy 
Scripture. David's sin was committed in private. He was a 
king, a powerful king, beloved by his people, and — as is clear 
from his penitential Psalms, expressive of his remorse for his 
sin, as well as from the language of Nathan (xii. 13^ — he was 
sincerely contrite for his sin ; and in the rest of his fife he did 
that wluch was right in the sight of the Lord (1 Kings xv. 5). 

Besides, one of the worst consequences of the publication of 
his sin would be that he would have given great occasion to the 
enemies of the Lord to blaspheme (xii. 14). Might it not there- 
fore have been expected that a veil would have been thrown 
over his sin, and that it would not have been exposed to the 
eyes of the world in Holy Writ ? 

^ Holy Scripture had been the work of man, theee con- 
siderations would probably have prevailed, and David's sin 
would not have been disclosed to our view ; or, if it had been 
revealed, the historian would probably have extenuated it—as 
many of the Hebrew Babbis have done (see Bp, Patrick's 
note on o. 4)— and have dwelt on David's virtoes, especially on 
his repentance. 

But the Author of this history is the Holy Qhost : it is 
divindy inspired. He reminds na that we have to do with 
One Who is no respecter of persons; One Who knows the 
hearts of all, and beholds their secret acts ; and will one day bring 
to light the secret sins of Princes and Potentates of this world, 
and call them to receive their doom at His Judgment-seat. 

In reading the Bible, we have the satis&ction of know- 
ing that in it there is no suppression of facts, no disguise or 
extenuation fipom worldly motives ; that in Uie Bible, and the 
Bible alone, we have the realization of the perfect Historian : 
" Ne quid falsi dicere andeat, ne quid veri non audeat." 

Here there is one benefit to be derived from this record of 
David's sin : it supplies an argument for the Truth and Indira- 
tion of Holy Scripture. 

(2) This history is also a moral test of the readers of the 

The oonsequenoe of David's sin is thus stated by Nathan, 
that *' it would g^ve great occasion to tiie enemies of the Lord to 
blaspheme " (xii. 14). But woe to the enemies of the Lord ! 
Woe to those who blaspheme Him! For it is written, *'A11 
Thine enemies, O God, shall feel Thine hand ; Thy right hand 
shall find out them that hate Thee " (Ps. xxi. 8). The enemies 
of the Lord may turn the food of Scripture into poison, and may 
abuse David's sin into an occasion for selling themselves captives 
into the hands of the Tempter ; but the friends of God will take 
warning fh>m his fall ; and, however great may be their spiritual 
privileges, they will "not be high-minded, but fear," and they 
will meditate on David's repentance, and bear in mind the 
sorrows which were entailed on "the man after God's own heart" 
by the commission of this sin : and thus the friends of the Lord 
will derive a blessing firom this divine record, and they will bless 
HLb Name for it. 

(3) ^David's sin in the matter of Uriah the Hittite had 
not been recorded in Scripture, we should have been astonished, 
perplexed, and staggered bv the series of tribulations which 
roUowed him henceforth to the grave. 

But this sad scene explains them all. Qere is the weU- 
' ig, from whence flowed forth that dark stream of sorrow. 
If we had a similar view of men's secret nns, if we had a 

dear insight into our own, as they are seen by God, the anomalies 
of the present state of things in this world would in a great 
measure disappear. The tangled web of its intricate mazes 
and perplexities would be unravelled. We should doubtkat 
behold the true cause of the misery which prevails around us, and 
we should have a stronger convicikion, that the world is under 
a Moral Governor; and that the day is coming, when every 
work will be brought to judgment, and men will be rewarded 
or punished accordmg to an exact rule of retributive justice. 

(4) David, in many respects, was a signal type of Christ. 
But he, and all the other types of Christ, have some features in 
their character in which they are contrasts to Christ (see above, 
Introd, to Judges, pp. 78, 79). So it is in the history before na. 
David was a man of deep and tender affections : but here he was 
mastered bv his passions, which hurried him into the oommissioii 
of deadly sm. The love of Christ was stronger than death, bat 
it was as pure as it was strong. It is an unmthomable fountain 
of unsullied holiness. He, in the eventide of the worid, looked 
down from the heights of heaven, and brought to Himself Ifi« 
Church, once a Bathsheba; and placed her in His own royal 
palace, and joined her to Himself in pure and holy love. 

Thus when we pass in our thoughts from David to Christ* 
that is, from the type to the antitype, we find that the sins of 
the one vanish and are swallowed up in the gprace and glory of 
the other. 

The &iling^ of a David and a Solomon remind us also that 
no human examples are to he substituted for the Divine law as a 
rule of life, and that there is no spotless example but that of 
Christ; and that the promise, in wluch we have a deep oonoem 
and interest, of perpetual continuity and universal dominion to 
the house of David, could never have been fulfilled, unless One 
had arisen from that lineage, " Who was holy, harmless, nnde- 
filed, and separate from sinners " (Heb. vii. 26), and in Whom aU 
the promises of everlasting glory made to David's house are fhl- 
fiUed to all those of every age and nation who believe and obey 
BUm (cp. S. Ambrose, ApoL David, c. 3 and c. 4). 

(5) Personally as a sinner, D^vid cannot be said to be a 
type or Him who was sinless. And yet, inasmuch as it is said 
in Holy Scripture that God laid on Christ the iniquities of na all 
(Isa. liii. 6), and Qod. made Him to be sin for us Who Imew no 
sin (2 Cor. v. 21), and that He was made a curse for us (Gal. 
ilL 13), therefore even in David's sin and in its sorrowful conse- 
quences Darid foreshadowed Christ bearing the burden of sin 
by imputation, and as sufifering the heavy penalties of it. And 
in the pardon and justification of David, by God putting away 
his sin, and raising up, in lawfrd wedlock, oolomon^the Peace' 
able — fifjax. him, even by Bathsheba, who had been the 
companion of his sin, we have a glimpse of Ckd's justifying 
grace to us in Christ, bringing to us paidon and peace even bv 
means of ooi:\juncticm with our humanity, and of unioii witn 
that flesh which had been the cause of our shame and woe (see 
Bom. viii. 3, 4). The first Adam is seen in the adnltery of David 
with Bathsheba, which brought forth death; for of ^b^firsi 
issue of that union it is said, " The child that is bom unto thee 
shall swrely die** (xii. 14). But the Second Adam is seen in 
the coiyu^ union of David, now justified, with Bathsheba; 
and in the issue of that union, Solomon, the peaceable, who is 
called also Jedidiah, beloved of the Zord (lii, 26). Cp. 8. 
Ambrose, Apd. David, cap. 3. 6. 16 and 17 ; and 8. Angustine 
c. Faust, xxii. 87, " David graviter scelerat^ue peccavit .... 
Christus adamavit Eodesiam mundantem se a sordibns ssBcnli^ 
eamque sibi perpetuo connubio eopulavit ; " and 8, Ambrose in 
Luc. (lib. ill.), " Mysterium est in fignri; Pecoatnm in lustoriA ; 
Culpa per hominem; Sacramentom per Yerbum;" and cp. 8* 
Or^ory, MoraL iii. c. 21. 

(6) David's sin and St. Peter's sin, and David's punishment, 
are recorded in Scripture, that no one rnKv presume; and David's 
repentance and Peter's repentance and pardon, are also re- 
oorded there, in order that no one may despair. "Sicut lapsus 
David cantos fkcit eos qui non cecidemnt, sic desperates esse non 
vult qui oeciderunt" (8. Augustine in Pa. 60). " In Scriptnr4 
Sacrft, David et P^ peccata sunt indita, ut cautela minorum sit 
ruina miyomm ; utrorumque poenitentia et vepia insinnantur, 
nt spes pereuntium sit recuperatio perditorum. De statu sno^ 
David (»dente, nemo superbiat: de lapsu sue, David cad^ite, 
nemo desperet" {AngeUmms). How can we presume of not 
sinning, or despair for sinning when we find so great a saint 
thus fiiUen, thus risen ? {Bp, Mall,) 

Digitized by 


David on the roof of his 

2 SAMUEL XI. 2—13. 

palace at eventide. 

^And it came to pass in an eveningtide, that David arose from off his bed, 
** and walked upon the roof of the king's house : and from the roof he "" saw a 
woman washing herself; and the woman was very beautiful to look upon. 
'And David sent and enquired after the woman. And one said, Is not this 
II Bath-sheba, the daughter of || EUam, the wife ^ of Uriah the Hittite ? ^ And 
David sent messengers, and took her ; and she came in unto him, and ^ he lay 
with her ; || for she was 'purified from her uncleanness : and she returned unto 
her house. ^ And the woman conceived, and sent and told David, and said, 
I am with child. ^ And David sent to Joab, saying , Send me Uriah the Hittite. 
And Joab sent Uriah to David. 

^ And when Uriah was come unto him, David demanded of him f how Joab 
did, and how the people did, and how the war prospered. ^And David said to 
Uriah, Go down to thy house, and 'wash thy feet. And Uriah departed out 
of the king's house, and there f followed him a mess of meat from the king. 
^ But Uriah slept at the door of the king's house with all the servants of his 
lord, and went not down to his house. ^^And when they had told David, 
saying, Uriah went not down unto his house, David said unto Uriah, Camest 
thou not from thy journey ? why then didst thou not go down unto thine house ? 
^^ And Uriah said unto David, ^ The ark, and Israel, and Judah, abide in tents ; 
and * my lord Joab, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the open 
fields ; shall I then go into mine house, to eat and to drink, and to he with my 
wife ? as thou livest, and as thy soul liveth, I will not do this thing. ^^ And 
David said to Uriah, Tarry here to day also, and to morrow I will let thee 
depart. So Uriah abode in Jerusalem tiiat day, and the morrow. ^' And when 
David had called him, he did eat and drink before him ; and he made him 
^ drunk : and at even he went out to lie on his bed *with the servants of his 
lord, but went not down to his house. 

b Deut. tS. 8. 
c Gen. S4. S. 
Job 31. 1. 
Matt. 6. 28. 

B Or, Batk-tkua, 
1 Cbron. S. 5. 

iOr, JmmUi. 
ch. 23. 39. 
e Ps. 61, title. 
Jamet 1. 14. 
I Or, and whtm 
Mk« had pmri/Ud 

fLev. 15. 10, 28. 
ft 18. 19. 

f Heb.o/M«p«ae« 

g Gen. 18. 4. 
ft 19. %. 

f Heb. iMfi< out 

h ch. r. 2, «. 
i eh. 20. 6. 

k Gen. 19. 88, 86. 
1 Ter. 9. 

1. it came ip pass] With regard to the date of these events, 
it maj be noted that Solomon, the second child of David's 
connexion with Bathsheba, was bom not much sooner than 
two years afterwards, and that at David's decease^ who died 
when he was seventy years of age, Solomon most have 
been at least twenty years old, for at his accession to the throne 
Solomon had a son one year old (1 Kinss xiv. 21. Cp. zi. 
42). Anmon, who is mentioned soon after me events in the pre- 
sent chapter (xiii. 1^, was bom afber David's accession to the 
throne <^ Jndah (iii. 2), and was his firstbom son afl^r that 
event, and mnst have lieen, at least, nearly twentr years old at 
the time described in that chapter. It is probable, therefore, 
that David was abont fbrty-eight years of age at the time here 
tpoken of. 

— after tke year was expired] That is, at spring time. 

— - iahhah] The capital of Ammon (Dent. iii. 11. Josh. ziiL 

— But David tarried still ttt Jerusalem] At the time when 
Icings go forth to battle. Observe the contrast; and compare 
the lines of the Latin poet — 

** Qa»ritnr, .Sgisthns quA re sit &ctns adulter t 
In promptu caosa est — desidiosus erat." 

8. in an eveningtide, that David arose from off his bed] 
From his mid-day sleep : see iv. 6. 

— upon the roof] To enjoy the cool air and the view : per- 
haps for religions meditation. They who read this history may 
thmk themselves safe like David. They may have fought the 
Lord's battles as he did ; they may have song and written holy 
psalms as he had. And yet, perhaps, in some tranquil season^ 
in the peaoefhlnees of their own home, in the cool of eventide in 
the season of spring, their ghostly enemy may be near them, and 
they may be most in danger w6en they think themselves most 
secure. Then it is that they have most need to pray, ''Lead us 
not into temptation" (Matt. vi. 13). Cp. Deut. zxii. 8. Josh, 
ii. 6. 8. 1 Sam. ix. 25. Matt. x. 27. Acts x. 9. 

This palace-roof, on which David walked when he oonodved 
this sin in his mind, was probably the scene of the inoeetnons 

act of his son Absalom, which was the bitter fruit and punish- 
ment of David's sin : see o. 11, and xvi. 22. 

— he s€MO a womtm washing herself] Probably, in the fountain 
in the court-yard of her house. 

8. enquired after the woman] The first step towards sin 
had been in hu multiplying wives to himself, contrary to God's 
law fDent. xvii. 17). If ne had kept close to 'that law, he 
woula not have fidlen into this nn. The only safeguard agidnst 
Satan is in obedience to Qod's will and word. 

— Bath^heba] called Bath-^hua in 1 Chron. iii. 5. The vam, 
according as it is vocalized, would be pronounced either « or « / 
and 9 would easQv pass on to its cognate labial b, 

— Xliam] called also Ammiel (1 Chron. iii. 5), which has 
the same meaning, and is, indeed, the same word, its component 
parts being inverted, and means Qod*s people, Eliam was the 
son of Ahithophel, xxiii. 84 {Jeromiast,), and one of David's 
most valiant soldiers (xxiiL 84). Here was an aggravation of 
David's sin, and perhaps the sense of wrong done to Bathsheba 
exdted Ahithophel, her mndfather, to help Absalom against him. 

— «;i/V] iJavid had probably hcmed she was unmarried; 
but now that his passion was inflamed, the knowledge that she 
was a wife did not deter him from his purpose; " When lust 
hath conceived, it bringeth forth sbi " (James L 15). 

— Uriah] One of David's most faithfbl subjects and valiant 
soldiers (xxiu. 89) ; another aggravation of the sin. 

4. for she was purified] &ther, and she was pureed from 
her uncleanness (see Lev. xv. 18) ; and then she returned home. 
She was more scrupulous about the ceremonial law than the 
mottl (Wouvers, Keil), 

Sin often seeks for a shelter in superstition. 

5. and sent and told David] In order that he might protect 
her from the punishment due to adultery— death (Lev. xx. 10). 

9. Uriah slept at the door of the hinges house] As one of his 
bodv-guard. Cp. 1 Chron. xi. 41. 

11. The arJe] Perhaps it had been carried with the army to 
the battie. Cp. 1 Sam. iv. 8. 

18. he made him drunk] And tried to make him break his 
oath («. 11). 

Digitized by 


David's sin. 

2 SAMUEL XI. 14—27. XH. 1—4. Nathan is sent ft) him. 

Judg. 9. 53. 

5Judg. 6. 32, 

m Seel Kings SI. ^ And it Came to pass in the morning, that David "wrote a letter to Joab, 
and sent it by the hand of Uriah. ^* And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set 
♦ Heb. stronff. jB Urfah ui tho forofront of the | hottest battle, and retire ye f from him, 
*'"*u*' ,«T that he may ° be smitten, and die. 

n ch. U. 9. •' ' 

^^ And it came to pass, when Joab observed the city, that he assigned Uriah 
unto a place wherie he knew that vaUant men were. ^^ And the men of the city 
went out, and fought with Joab : and there fell some of the people of the 
servants of David ; and Uriah the Hittite died also. 

^® Then Joab sent and told David all the things concerning the war ; ^^ And 
charged the messenger, saying. When thou hast made an end of telling the 
matters of the war unto the king, 20 And if so be that the king's wrath arise, 
and he say unto thee. Wherefore approached ye so nigh unto the city when ye 
did fight ? knew ye not that they would shoot from the wall ? ^^ Who smote 
**Abimelech the son of **Jerubbesheth ? did not a woman cast a piece of a 
millstone upon him from the wall, that he died in Thebez ? why went ye nigh 
the wall ? then say thou, Thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also. 

^ So the messenger went, and came and shewed David all that Joab had 
sent him for. ^s And the messenger said unto David, Surely the men prevailed 
agaiost us, and came out unto us into the field, and we were upon them even 
unto the entering of the gate. ^ And the shooters shot from off the wall upon 
thy servants ; and some of the king's servants be dead, and thy servant Uriah 
the Hittite is dead also. ^ Then David said unto the messenger. Thus shalt 

t Heb. be€viiin thou Say uuto Joab, Let not this thing f displease thee, for the sword devoureth 

fB.lh!'ti'and -j- one as well as another : make thy battle more strong against the city, and 
overthrow it : and encourage thou him. 

^ And when the wife of Uriah heard that Uriah her husband was dead, she 
mourned for her husband. ^And when the mourning was past, David sent 

4ch.if.9. and fetched her to his house, and she "^became his wife, and bare him a son. 

♦Heb^ij«#rt*<ii But the thing that David had done f displeased the Lord. 

a Ps. 61, title. 

b See ch. 14^ 5, 


I Kings 10. 85— 


IM. 5. 3. 

f Heb. won§l. 

Xn. ^ And the Lord sent Nathan unto David. And • he came unto him, 
and ''said unto him. There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the 
other poor. ^ The rich m>an had exceeding many flocks and herds : 'But the 
poor man had nothing, save one Uttle ewe lamb, which he had bought and 
nourished up : and it grew up together with him, and with his children ; it did 
eat of his own f meat, and 4rank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and 
was unto him as a daughter. ^ And there came a traveller unto the rich man, 

14. sent ifc hy the hand of Uriahl A proof that David well 
knew how loyal and trusty a senranl Uriah was to himself, and 
yet this knowledge did not prevent him from hasely and cruelly 
trying to destroy him. David was now blinded and led captiye 
by Satan. 

16. Joab — assigned Uriah unto a place"] Joab, alover of powe|>, 
an ambitious and aspiring man, and not scrupulous about blood- 
shed, as David knew fW>m Joab's conduct to Abner (iii. 28 — 30), 
was tempted to do this by a persuasion that by indulging 
David in this secret sin he would acquire a complete ascendancy 
over him, as he did.- 

21. Who smote Abimeleoh?"] See Judg. ix. 53. It seems 
probable that the Book of Judges was commonly known at this 
time. Joab quoted God's Woid, but was not careM to keep it. 

— Jerrubbesheth] or Jerubbaal : see Judg. vi. 82; and alM>ve> 
ii. 8; V. 4. 

27. displeased the Lobd] Literally, was evil in the eves of 
the Lord : and how much more evil are such sins now m the 
case of Christians, than they were in that of David ! For the 
All-Holy One, the Ever-Blessed Son of Qod, has now taken our 
nature, and has joined us in Himself to God, and has sane- 

tified Marriage, and has given to us the Comforter, and has 
made our bodies to be temples of the Holy Ghost : see Irenatts 
iv. 46, who, quoting the words of a still earlier author, says, 
" We ought not, thereforei, to be high-minded, and to censure 
the ancient patriarchs, but to fear for ourselves, lest we, who 
have received the dear knowledge of Christ, should do what ia 
eyil in tiie eyes of Gk>d, and should be excluded from Hia 

Ch. XII. 1. the Lobd sent Nathan unto David^ Having 
waited nine months for some movement towards repentance 
on David's part {v. 14) ; but he was blinded and hardened by 
Satan, and might have continued in this state, if God had not 
mercifuUv intervened to arouse him from his deadly slumber^ 
by the mmistry of His holy Word. 

— and saict] This parable, and others in the Old Testament 
(Judg. ix. 8. 2 Kings xiv. 9), prepared the wav for the Divine 
teaclung of Christ Himself, revealing the mysteries of the Gospel 
and impressing Divine truths on the hearts of men, by means of 
parables (Matt. xiiL 3. Mark iv. 11). 

4. a traveller— the waj/faring mofi] David's roving In^ 

Digitized by 


Davicts answer. 

2 SAMUEL Xn. 5 — 11. Nathan's 'prophetic denunciation. 

and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to dress for the 
wayfaring man that was come unto him ; but took the poor man's lamb, and 
dressed it for the man that was come to him. * And David's anger was greatly 
kindled agamst the man ; and he said to Nathan, As the Lord Kveth, the man 
that hath done this thing \\ shall surely die : • And he shall restore the lamb 

* fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no pity. 

7 And Nathan said to David, Thou art the man. Thus saith the Lord God 
of Israel, I ** anointed thee kmg over Israel, and I deKvered thee out of the hand 
of Saul ; ^ And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy 
bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah ; and if that had been 
too Uttle, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things. 

* • Wherefore hast thou ' despised the commandment of the Lord, to do evil in 
his sight ? » thou hast killed Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and hast taken 
his wife to he thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of 
Ammon. ^^ Now therefore ^ the sword shall never depart from thine house ; 
because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to 
be thy wife. ^^ Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee 

I Or, is mortky tf> 

tlirt or, it a Mff 


1 Sam. U. 1«. 

c Ex. 2S. 1. 

Lake 19. 8. 

d 1 Sum. 16. IS. 

e See 1 Sam. 15. 


f Num. 15.31. 

R ch. 11. 15, 16, 


b Amos T. 9. 

{Theodore£)i "immoderatsB Ubidinis Don pennando Aiit, led 
tranntos ; proptereit vocatos est koMpet " {8, Au^fUfUne de Doet. 
Chr. iii. 22, Senn. 58 de Tempore). 

5. l>av%^4 an^er ¥ku greatUf InndUd] Pa^id had not recog- 
nized his own likeness, drawn by Nathan in the parable, md 
held up to hia own eyes ; he did not see Uriali in the poor man, 
nor himself in the nch man, nor his own lost in the trayeJler, 
nor Bathsheba in the ewe lamb, and he pronoonoed sentence of 
death in the Name of *' the Lobd *' on the rich man for his 

Our Conscience therefore is no safe mle of life unless it be 
regxdated by the Divine Word. The conscience even of a David 
may be seared, as with a hot iron, by sin (1 Tim. iv. 2), it mav 
become callous and insensible. The sinner may continue, month 
after month, in a treacherous And fatal sleep, hugging lus darling 
sin, sleeping soundly on his pillow with his bebvS Bathsheba in 
his bosom, unless he takes heed to examine his own life and con- 
venation by the rule of Chxl's commandments, and to ascertain 
horn that role what lus spiritual condition is in the sight oi Qod. 

Here then is a warning against the prevalent notion, that 
rdiance may be placed on our own per$onal aaturanoe, as to our 
own spiritual state, and as to our own acceptance with Qod. 
" lliere is a way which seemeth right unto a man, but the end 
thereof are the ways of death " (Prov. xiv. 12; xvL 26). Cp. 
below. Acta zziiL 1. 6. 14. Bom. xiii. 5; xiv. 6. 14. 1 Jdm 
iii. 20. Our conscience is indeed to be heard, but it is first to be 
informed. Its dial is to be illumined bv the solar beams of 
Divine light. If David had thus dealt with his conscience, if he 
had tried his own actions by the test of God's law, if he had re- 
membered that it was written by the Divine hand in the Divine 
code, ** Thou shalt not commit adultery," and " Thou shalt not 
kill," he would have become a Nathui to himself; his Con- 
science would have become a prophet, and have said to him in 
God's Name, Thou art the man. Here also is a lesson to 
hearers and readers of Scripture and of sermons. David listened 
to a sermon fVxnn Nathan, which exactly suited his own case, 
and yet he did not apply ii to himse^. He turned the edge of 
it from himself to another. The benefit of sermons de- 
pends more on the hearer than on the preacher. The beet 
sermon is that which is hett applied by those to whom it is 

6. fourfold] David remembers and quotes God's law (Exod. 
zziL I) as agamst others, but not against himself. 

Nathan manifested David's sin by the indignation which 
David himself expressed at a less sin in another : ** Out of thine 
own month will I judge thee." 

7. Nathan said to David, 7%ou art the man"] Such was the 
courage of the prophets of old. Qod sent them and spoke by 
them; being strong in the consdouaness of their Divine mission, 
th^ rebuked kings for their sins. Samuel rebuked Saul; 
Nathan rebnked David; the man of God from Judah rebuked 
Jeroboam, standing at his own altar; £l^jah robuked Ahab; 
£lidia rebuked Je^ram; Isaiah robuked Ahaz; John the Bap- 

VoL. II. Pabt II.— 97 

tist robuked Herod ; S. Ambrose robuked Theodosius. When 
will this prophetic spirit of (H)urage roturn to the Churoh of God P 

8. /Ay mastef^e fwr«] No wife of a king of the Hebrow 
nation could ever be married to any one but his successor : cp. 
below, 1 Kings ii. 22. 

9. thou hatt killed:] Thou, king David, hast slain thine 
own brave and faithfU soldier, while fighting thine own battles. 
Thou hast slain him by the sword of the Ammonites, the enemies 
of God ! Thou hast robbed him first of his wife, and next of his 
life. Thou art the man ; I show thee thyself, I reveal to thee 
thy most secret acts. 

If the prophet was enabled thus to expose secret sins, 
how much more will this be done by the God of all the pro- 
phets ! Compare below, the act and words of Elisha to Gehazi, 
*« Went not mine heart with thee ? " ^2 Kings v. 26.) " The eyes 
of the Lord are in every place, beholding the evil and the good " 
(Prov. XV. 3) ; and <'all things aro naked and opened unto the 
eyes of Him with whom we have to do ** (Heb. iv. 18). «* He will 
bring to liffht the hidden things of darkness, and make manifest 
the oounsds of the hearts" at the Great Day (1 Cor. iv. 5). 

Thou hast slain — it was not Joab, nor the Ammonite in the 
battle-field, but thou at Jerusalem, in thy palace, writing that 
letter privately, and sending it by the hand of Uriah — thou luut 
slain Uriah the Hittite. Thou art the murderer, and must pay 
the penalty for thy sin. 

Sins committed by the intermediate agency of others will be 
brought home, at the Day of Judgment, to those who have em- 
ployed that agency: ana however fiur romoved in time and 
place the effect of the sin mav be ftom the prime author of it, 
the complicated maze of all its intricate windings will be un- 
ravelled by God's Omniscience ; and He will lay the sin at the 
door of him who was the prime mover of it, and will say, « Thou 
art the mau.'* 

10. the tword ahaU never depart from thine house] Henco- 
fbrward, for about twenty years, David had no respite from 
domestic affliction. 

If we turn to the next chapter, we find his son Amnon 
g^ty of incest ; and if we proceed farther, we find another son, 
his beloved son Absalom, guilty of murder, and of robellion 
against his own fkther, and of adultery in David's own house, 
and destroyed by Joab, who had been employed bf David in the 
murder of Uriah ; and a third son, Adon\jah, rising m insurrection 
against him when he was lying on his deathbed. " What a world 
or miarhiflf and miserv did £b create unto himself by that one 
presumptuous act in the matter of Uriah (1 Kings xv. 6), almost 
all the days of his life after ! " See Bp, Sanderson, i. 99, Serm. 
on Ps. xix. 18. 

Let those who aro tempted by David's sin be deterred fh>m 
sin by David's punishment. If he, who was in other respects 
the *'man after God's own heart," was thus chastised for his 
sin, even till the end of his life, what may not others expect, if 
with greater means of grate, and with David's history as their 
wam&g, they abuse it into an occasion for sin P 

Digitized by 


God's sentence on David. 

2 SAMUEL Xn. 12—21. 

The child dies. 

i Deut. 28. 30. 
ch. 10. 22. 

k ch. 16. 22. 

1 See 1 Sam. 15. 

m ch. 24. 10. 
Job 7. <0. 
Ps. 82. 6. 
&51. 4. 
Prov. 28. IS. 
nch.24. 10. 
Job 7. 21. 
Ft. 32. 1. 
Mic. 7. 18. 
Zech. 3. 4. 
o Isa. 52. 5. 
Esek. 36. 20, 23. 
Rom. 2. 24. 

iHth. fasted a 


p ch. 13. 31. 

t Heb. do^uart. 

q Ruth 8. 3. 
r Job 1.20. 

out of thine own house, and I will * take thy wiyes before thine eyes, and give 
them unto thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this 
sun. 12 For thou didst it secretly : *" but I will do this thing before all Israel, 
and before the sun. ^^ ^ And David said unto Nathan, "" I have smned against 
the LoBD. And Nathan said unto David, The Lobd also hath *" put away thy 
sin ; thou shalt not die. ^^ Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast given 
great occasion to the enemies of the Lobd ""to Uaspheme, the child also that 
is bom unto thee shall surely die. 

i^And Nathan departed unto his house. And the Lobd struck the child 
that Uriah's wife bare unto David, and it was very sick. *^ David therefore 
besought God for the child; and David f fasted, and went in, and ^ lay all 
night upon the earth. ^^ And the elders of his house arose, and went to him, 
to raise him up from the earth : but he would not, neither did he eat bread 
with them. ^^And it came to pass on the seventh day, that the child died. 
And the servants of David feared to tell him that the child was dead : for they 
said. Behold, while the child was yet alive, we spake unto him, and he would 
not hearken unto our voice : how will he then f vex himself, if we tell him that 
the child is dead ? ^^ But when David saw that his servants whispered, David 
perceived that the child was dead : therefore David said unto his servants, Is 
the child dead ? And they said. He is dead. ^ Then David arose from the 
earth, and washed, and "^ anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came 
into the house of the Lobd, and 'worshipped : then he came to his own house ; 
and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat. ^i Then 
said his servants unto him. What thing is this that thou hast done ? thou didst 
fast and weep for the child, while it was alive ; but when the child was dead, 

11. he sh<ai lie with th^ wives'] See 2 Sam. zvi. 22. 

The sin of AbBalom, commitied in the same place where 
David's un was eonceived (see above, on zL 2), was used bj 
God as a ponishment for the sin of David. God did not 
approve Absalom's sin. Heaven forbid ! No, He forbade and 
punished the sin (2 Sam. zviii. 32) ; but yet He made it to be 
an instrament of His own justice. Satan himself will be €k)d's 
eiecutioner on the wicked* when Satan has been condemned 
for his own sin, and consigned to the lake of iite. 

This doctrine milst be maintained against the dangerous 
error of some (as CcUvin, Inst. L 18. 2), who have not 
hesitated to call the sin of Absalom the work of God. But, as 
Augustine well says, *' Deus non est auctor, quorum est ultor." Cp. 
Pfeiffer, Dubia, p. 209; Gerhard de Prov. $122; WaUhery 
liaim, BibL p. 891 : md note above, on 1 Sam. zzvi. 19; and 
below, on xvi. 10, 11, and xxiv. 1. 

18. offoinsi the Lobd] David's sorrow was a God-ward 
sorrow : thouffh he had sinned against man, jet he looked 
upward, and nghUv considered his sin in its rdation to God, so 
that he sud, *' Against Thee onUf have I silmed." See Ps. li. 
4 ; .and below, on 2 Cor. viL 9, 10. The moral and spuritual 
character of true repentance, as distinguished from that penance 
which relies on outward ceremonies, without inward affections, 
is clearly brought out by David's example and words, ^th all 
his zeal for the honour of the Leviti(»l dispensation and the 
sacrifices of the Tkbemade, he says (see Pk. 11. 16, 17), *' Thou 
desirest no sacrifice, else would I give it Thee, but Thoudelightest 
not in bumt^fferings. The sacrifices of God are a troubled 
sprit; a broken and oontrite heart, O (jU)d, Thou wilt not despise." 
— The Lobd <Uso hath put away thtf sin] Did not Swil 
also sa^, <*I have sinned" (1 Sam. xv. 24. 80; xzvi. 21) ? but 
he received no such gracious answer in return. Why was this P 
The words wero the same in sound in both cases ; but, as may be 
concluded from the effect of those words, as heard by the ear of 
God, who searoheth the hearts, they were not uttered with the 
same inward fedings of faith and repentance, and therefore they 
received a different treatment from God {Augustime). 

The insincerity of Saul's profession appeared from his sub- 
sequent acts ; the reali^ of David's sorrow was shown in its 
firuits; especially in his penitential Psalms (P&. vi., zxxii., 
jjLZviii., IL, dl, cxzx., czliii.}* 

— • ihou shalt not die] Nathan does not mean, as some luiva 
supposed, that David should not suffer the infiiotion of temporal 
dMth, the penalty affixed to the sin of adultery by the Levitical 
law (xx. 10). The notion that the king of the Hebrew people, 
the ropresentative of Jehovah, was subject to the q)eration ot 
the code, of which the sovereign himsdf was the minister, it 
altogether foreign to the primary principles ot H^row juris- 
prudence. God reserved their punishment in His own hands. 
8. Ambrose says truly (ApoL David, 10), "Bex utique erat, 
nullis ipse legibus tenebatur, neque enim regee ad poonam 
vocantur legibus; Homini ergo non peocavit; sed Deo erat sub- 
ditns, et legi qjus se subjectum esse cognosoens peocatum segare 
non poterat ; 2%bi soli peecaoi" 

Nathan means to say, *< Thou shalt not die th€a death which 
is the wages of sin, that is, dea& eternal." Nathan's dedaration 
oonoemed the fnkmre lifo. It assured the penitent khig, that 
although in this present short fife the sword i^uld ''never 
depart finom his house," vet at the Great Day of reckoning his 
sin should not be remembered against hiboi. And fUl of fiuth in 
this gracious announcement, David uttered those joyous words, 
<* Blessed is he whose unrighteousness is forgiven, and whose sin 
is oovered " (Ps. xxxii. 1). '< I said, I will confess my dns unto 
the Lord, and so llioa fragavest the wickedness of my sin " 
(Ps. xxxii 6). 

Here there is a dear proof of David's fiuth in the Besorreo- 
tion. Judgment, and Eternity. As far as this world was con- 
cerned, David henceforth was "most miseraUe." But he lo<^ed 
beyond the grave, and derived joy, comfort, and thankflilness 
from the prospect ; and the sorrows of this lifo had the chasten- 
ing effect of increasing his fiuth, repoitance, and hope, and 
of making him yeam with more intense desire fbr the l^ss of 
the heavenly Jerusalem. 

14. the child — shttU sureUf die] But even here thero was 
mercy : if the child had lived, it would have been a record of 
David's sin {Theodoret), and an occanon to evil men for reproach 
and blasphemy, and have been exposed to insult fi;om many in 
the earthly Jerusalem. But in the life to come, and in the 
heavenly Jerusalem, where all will be bve and peac^ and 
whero no sin will be remembered against the saints, that child 
will be an everlasting monument of God's grace. 

14 — 86.] For some remarks on the spiri^$al significance of th« 

Digitized by 


Solomon's birth. 

2 SAMUEL Xn. 22—31. XIII. 1. 

Rabbah is taken. 

then didst rise and eat bread. ^ And he said, While the child was yet alive, 
I fosted and wept : • for I said, Who can tell whether God will be gracious to 
me, that the child may live ? ^^ Bnt now he is dead, wherefore should I fast ? 
can I bring him ba(^ again ? I shall go to him, but ^ he shall not return 
to me. 

^ And David comforted Bath-sheba his wife, and went in unto her, and lay 
with her : and ' she bare a son, and "" he called his name Solomon : and the 
LoBD loved him. ^ And he sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet ; and he 
called his name || Jedidiah, because of the Lord. 

^ And ^ Joab fought against ' Babbah of the children of Ammon, and took 
the royal city. ^ And Joab sent messengers to David, and said, I have fought 
against Babbah, and have taken the city of waters. ^ Now therefore gather 
the rest of the people together, and encamp against the city, and take it : lest 
I take the city, and fit be called after my name. ^And David gathered 
all the people together, and went to Babbah, and fought against it, and took 
it. ^ 'And he took their king's crown from oflf his head, the weight whereof 
was a talent of gold with the precious stones : and it was set on David's head. 
And he brought forth the spoil of the city f in great abundance. '^ And he 
brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under 
harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the 
brick-kiln : and thus did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon. So 
David and all the people returned unto Jerusalelm. 

Xm. ^ And it came to pass after this, 'that Absalom the son of David had 

• See IM. 88. 1, 9. 
Jonah 8. 9. 

t Job 7. 8, 9, 10. 

u Matt. 1.6. 
X 1 Chron. 82. 9. 

I That U, 

Beloved of th§ 


J 1 Chron. 20. 1. 

sDeut. 8. 11. 

t Heb. m$ name 
b§ emlled iipoii ii. 

A 1 Chron. 20. 2. 

t Htb. Mry^Ml. 

a ch. 8. 2, 8. 

incidents recorded in these rerses, see the conduding paragraphs 
of the PreUminafy Note to chap. xi. 

8S. I shall go to him] An evidence of David's helief in the 
personal identitj of risen saints, and in everlasting recognition 
in a fhtnre state. 

See below, the notes on Matt. zviL 8; cg:Q<A. i. 22. 28; 
1 Thess. ii. 19. 

24. Solomon] Heb., ShelSmoh; in the 8ept^ Salomon; in 
the New Test, and in Josephms the second syllable is short, 
SoliSmon, The name signifies peaoeable (Chsen. 831), as com* 
pared with his fitther, who was a man of war (see 1 Chron. 
xxiL 9). 

Let it be remembered, that in the genealogy of Christ, the 
Holy Spirit says, "David the king begat Solomon of her that 
had been the wife of Urias f* and thns gives sinners the hope of 
peace in Christ (see on Matt. 1. 6). 

Solomon, in his name, was a record of the peace which 
God had restored to David's conscienoe; and a flgnre of Christ, 
the " Prince of Peace." 

20. he sent bf the hand of Nathan] God, who " loved 
Solomon," sent by the mimstiy of Nathan, and gave him an 
additional name expressive of that love, "Jedidiah" (beloved 
of the Lord), and thns made him to be in another respect a 
type of the Beloved Son in whom the Father is well pleased 
(tlUtt. ilL 17; xiL 18; zvii. 6). 

The name David signifies beloved, and after his repentance, 
and when he had been pardoned by God, David revived, as it 
were, after his fUl« and rose np again in his son Jedidiah, the 
beloved of Jbhotah. 

Solomon prefigured Christ, as Prince of Peace; and as the 
WeU-beloved of God; and as the Bnilder of the Temple ; and 
as excelling in 'Wisdom and knowledge. (Cp. Euoherime, in lib. 
iii. Regnm m BibL Pktr. Max. iv. 966.) 

27. the eity of waters] of the river Motet, or npper Jabbok 

29. David — weni to Sdbhaih] David comet with his people at 
the dose of the conflict, and gains the victory, and receives the 
crown, and executes judgment : so will Chri^ 

20. the weight whereof] Bather, the value, according to 
some Jewish interpreters in E»mcihii and so Bochart, FatricJc, 
KeU : cp. Eitto, 894. 

— wUh the precious stones] That is, as is expressed in 
1 Chron. xx. 2, he took the crown, which was valued at a 
talent> and there were precious stones in it. 

Some suppose that the crown of the king of Ammon was 
melted down, purified, and refined, and made anew fbr David, 
and adorned with its jewels, and then set upon David^s head 
{Angelom^ Wouvers). 

— it was set on David's head] A type of the victories gained 
over the heathen world by Him of Whom it is said, ** Thou hast 
set a crown of pure gold on His head " (Ps. xxi. 8). 

81. saws — liick'kiln] This seems to be the right interpre- 
tation, though controverted by some: cp. Keil, p. 286, and 
Kitto, pp. 895 — 898. It does not appear, that this severe punish- 
ment was inflicted upon any of the Ammonites who had not 
resisted the arms of David ; and it must be remembered, that 
the Ammonites were guilty of savage cruelties toward Israel 
(cp. 1 Sam. xi. 2), of which the prophet speaks,— « The children 
of Ammon ripped up the women with child of Gilead, that 
they might enlarge their border" (Amos i. 18. Cp. Ezek. xxv. 
2) ; and that they had treated the ambassadors or David with 
wanton insult ; and that they had lapsed from the worship of 
God into the foulest and most unnatural idolatry. 

Besides, the acts of David, executing vengeance on the 
enemies of Israel and of God, are doubtless recorded in Scripture 
as a prophetic warning to all, that they mav not incur the 
terrible doom, which will be pronounced by the Divine Son of 
David on His enemies, who wUl be cast hj Aim at the last day 
into outer darkness, where will be weeping, and wuling, and 
gnashing of teeth. ■ 

Pesuhivast Notb to Chapter XIII. 
BxTEiBimoN TOB David'b Sik, which wab paedokbd. 

Henceforward, for about twenty years, to the end of his 
reigpi and life, David, though penitent and pardoned by God, is 
afliicted by sufierings produced by sins in his own houMhold. 

If we were to consider David's life as ending in himself in 
tihm world, he would appear to be an object of commiseration, 
and to be forsaken of God. 

But this would be an erroneous view of his history. 

(1) We must extend our view to another world, and see the 
blessed fruits of his godly sorrow, ripened into an eternity of 
bliss by the gracious dews and sunsliine of God's grace and 
mercy to the penitent. 

(2) Yet nirther. David, as guilty of sin, and as punished 
fbr rin, and yet pardoned and beloved of God, is a signal type 
of Him Who. in His own Person, knew no sin, bnt who bare our 
fAjna. uid their punishment (see above, PreUm, Note to chap. xL) ; 


Digitized by 


Amnorif David's son , 

2 SAMUEL Xin. 2—14. 

his sin against Tamar. 

b 1 Chron. 3. 9. 


marveltot$$, or, 

hidden in tk§ cy«t 


c See 18am. 16.9. 

t Heb. thin. 
t Hcb. morning 
bp morning. 

dOen. 18.6. 

B Or, pa»te. 

e Gen. 45. 1. 

f Oen. 39. 12. 

tHeb. A«m^/«»e, 
Oen. 34: 2. 
gLev. 18.9,11. 
ti 20. 17. 

so to be done. 
b Oen. 34. 7. 
Judg. 19. S3. 
& 20. 6. 

k Dent. 22. 25. 
Seech. 12. 11. 

a fjEdr sister, whose name was ^ Tamar ; and Amnon the son of David loved 
her. ^ And Amnon was so vexed, that he fell sick for his sister Tamar ; for 
she was a virgin ; and f Amnon thought it hard for him to do any thing to 
her. ^ But Amnon had a friend, whose liame was Jonadab, ""the son of Shi- 
meah David's brother : and Jonadab was a very subtil man. ^ And he said 
unto him, Why art thou, being the king's son, f lean f from day to day ? wilt 
thou not tell me ? And Amnon said unto him, I love Tamar, my brother Ab- 
scLlom's sister. ^ And Jonadab said unto him, Lay thee down on thy bed, and 
make thyself sick : and when thy fathei^ cometh to see thee, say unto him, I 
pray thee, let my sister Tamar come, and give me meat, and dress the meat 
in my sight, that I may see it, and eat it at her hand. ^ So Amnon lay 
down, and made himself sick : and when the king was come to see him, Amnon 
said unto the king, I pray thee, let Tamar my sister come, and "^make me a 
couple of cakes in my sight, that I may eat at her hand. 

7 Then David sent home to Tamar, saying, Go now to thy brother Amnon's 
house, and dress him meat. ^ So Tamar went to her brother Amnon's house; 
and he was laid down. And she took || flour, and kneaded tY, and made cakes 
in his sight, and did bake the oakes^ ^ And she took a pan, and poured them 
out before him; but he refused to eat. And Amnon said, ^Have out all men 
from me. And they went out every man from hkn. ^^ And Amnon said unto 
Tamar, Bring the meat into the chamber, that I may eat of thine hand. And 
Tamar took the cakes which she had made, and brought them into the chamber 
to Amnon her brother. '^ And wh^n she had brought them unto him to eat, 
he 'took hold of her, and said unto her. Come lie with me, my sister. ^^ And 
she answered him. Nay, my brother, do not f force me ; for ^ f ^^ such thing 
ought to be done in Israel: da not thou this ''folly. ^*And I, whither shall 
I cause my shame to go ? and as for thee, thou shalt be aS one of the fools in 
Israel. Now therefore, I pray thee, speak unto the king ; * for he will not 
withhold me from thee. ^"^ Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice : 
but, being etronger than she, ^ forced her, and lay with her. 

and Who in this respect was ** a Miln of Soritol^trB, and &eqii&mted 
with grief," ** for He was wounded for our transgressionR, and 
bruised for oni' iniquities ; and ihfo chastisement of our peace 
was upon Him^; and the Lord laid dA Him the iniquity of us all" 
(Isa. liii. $^->6^. Thus He was a David in sorrow and suftering ; 
yet He was the well-beloved Son. He wa9 the true Solomon, 
the Prince of Peace, the Divine Jedidiah, the " Beloved of the 
Lord :" and therefore the Prophet, having described His suffer- 
ings, proceeds to say thatj though '*it pleased the Lord to 
bruise EEim, Vet when His soul had been made an offering for 
sin. He would see His Sbed, and prolong His days, and the 
pleasure of the Lord would prosper in His hand " (Isa. Hii. 10). 

Here iff the true key to the history of David's life. We 
must not Umit our view to David as a sinner, and as puniahed 
for his sin during the rest of his life ; but we must see him 
as pardoned and justified in Christ : we must contemplate his 
repentance ais a "repentance unto salvation," and as "yielding 
the peaceable fhiits of righteousness " in those inward spiritual 
comfbrts which he received from God in the salutary discipline 
of sorrow, and which are abundantly manifested in the Psalms 
which he cdtnposed at this time: sde Ps. iiu, tli., x^, xliii., 
Iv., lxi„ Ixii., Ixiit., cxiiii., which ought to be read together with 
the history of this period. 

We must not confine our view to David's personal life and 
reign. After that we have seeti him fallen and suffering for sin, 
we must see him rising again, r^viilg in a mord glorious reign 
in Solomon his son, who began t0 reign while David his fietther 
was still alive, in order that the continuity might be more 
clearly mariced. And aboVe all, we must contemplate him as 
culminating upward, and attaining the climax of his gloi^. 
which God had rcvwiled tx) him, and for which he yearned with 
devout aspiration, ifi CSIUST, the Divme Datid, and the Son of 

David, the Solomon, thio Jedidiah, the builder of the Temple of 
the ChuYch visible on earth, and glprified in heaven. 

Different phases of Christ's Person and Office were fore- 
shadowed in David and Solomon his son ; as different phases of 
Christ's Persod and Office had been foi^hadowed in the suc- 
cessive lived of the Patriarchs —Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and 
Joseph. See above, on Gen. xxxiv. 1. 

1. Absdlam—had a fair sister"] The daughter of David by 
Maachah, the daughter of the king of Geshur (iii. 2, 8). 

— tamar'\ which signifies a palm-tree. 

— Amnon\ The firstborn son of David by Abinoam, after he 
had been madje king of Juduh, at Hebron : see iii. 2. 

2. for she was a virgin ; and Amnon thought it hardl These 
words are to be cdnnected ; she was a virgin, and tnerefbre 
secluded &om him in a separate house (o. 7) or part of the palace ; 
and so he dould not execute his wicked design against her. 

8. Shimeah'] or Shammab (1 Sam. xvi. 9). 

4. d€^ to day] Literally, morning to morning. 

11. he took hold of her] David's sins are reproduced in hit 
own house, by his own children : he had been g^tv of adultery, 
dissimulation, and murder : his son Amnon is g^^ilty of incest 
and deceit ; and is murdered by his own brother Absalom (v. 
28). " David is scourged by the sins of his sons, whom his act 
taught to offend '^ {Bp. Sail). David's sons imitated him in 
sin; but they did not imitate him in repentance: he was 
forgiven by God, but they cime to a miserable end. 

18. n^ brother] She reminds him of the near relationship 
by blood between them, to deter him from sin. 

18. speak unto the king; for he will not withhold me firom 
thee] Either she ^ns so confused that she knew not what she 
said, for such a marriage was strictly forbidden bv the Levitical 
law (Lev. xviii. 9; xx. 17), or perhaps David's example in 

Digitized by 


Amnon*s sin 

2 SAMUEL Xm. 15—31. 

and death. 

1* Then Anmon hated her f exceedingly; so that the hatred wherewith he I^f^'^JS/^* 
hated her was greater than the love wherewith he had loved her. And Amnon 
Bald unto her, Arisei be gone. ^^ And she said nnto him. There is no cause : 
this evil in sending me away is greater than the other that thou didst unto me. 
But he would not hearken unto her. ^^ Then he called his servant that minis- 
tered unto him, and said, Put now this woman out from me, and bolt the door 
after her. ^® And she had * a garment of divers colours upon her : for with i^^fij 
such robes were the king's daughters that were virgins apparelled. Then his ^» *«•**• 
servant brought her out, and bolted the door after her. 

^*And Tamar put ""ashes on her head, and rent her garment of divert aJo.h.y.«. 
colours that was on her, and ° laid her hand on her head, and went on crying. J'JJ.i'iy. 
^ And Absalom her brother said unto her. Hath f Amnon thy brother been ^Ufib.Amimon 
with thee ? but hold now thy peace, my sister : he is thy brother ; f regard Jfc25 w<?*' 
not this thing. So Tamar remaiiied f desolate in her brother Absalom's tHeb.aiMirf«o. 

^^ But when king David heard of all these things, he was Very wroth. 
22 And Absalom spake unto his brother Anmon ** neither good nor bad 
Absalom >* hated Amnon, because he had forced his sister Tamar. ^a^^ j^. 
came to pass after two fall years, that Absalom **had sheepshearers in Baal- Jjf u.®**°- "• 
hazor, which is beside Eplnraim : and Absalom invited all the king's sons. '^»"***»^- 
^ And Absalom came to the king, and said. Behold now, thy servant hath 
sheepshearers ; let the king, I beseech thee, and his servants go with thy 
servant. ^ And the king said to Absalom, Nay, my son, let us not all now go, 
lest we be chargeable unto thee. And he pressed him : howbeit he would not 
go, but blessed him. ^ Then said Absalom, If not, I pray thee, let my 
brother Amnon go with ud. And the king said unto him, Why should he go 
with thee? ^ But Absalom pressed him, that he let Amnon and all the king's 
sons go with him. 

^ Now Absalom had commanded his servants, toying, Mark ye now when 
Amnon's ' heart is merry with wine, and when I say unto you. Smite Amnon ; {/^f«- '••«• 
then kill him, fear not : || have not I commanded you ? be courageous, and be fSll^'Jiss. 
t vaUant. ^9 j^^ ^y^^ servants of Absalom did unto Anmon as Absalom had pII^im: It: 

^—^ I Or wiit MM 

commanded. Then all the king's sons arose, and every man fgat bim up "^^^c^/Aot^ 

^ * cowmandedpout 

upon his mule, and fled. Jneb^'^Lo/ 

^ And it came to pass, while they were in the way, that tidings came to TuXlrode. 
David, saying, Absalom hath slain all the king's sons, and there is not one of 
them left. ^^ Then the king arose, and • tare his garments, and ' lay on the Jci'li/ii. 


for o ^n- ^' ^^' 

multiplying wives to himself, contrary to the law, had introduced 
lax notions into his family that their father as Idng conld dis- 
pense with the law. The history before us is one of the many 
prooft of the evils conseqaent on polygamy. 

16. hated her] Instead of hating his own sin. Thus he showed 
that the love he had professed to her was not love, bat lost; that 
!t was not of Qo<1, bat of the Evil one. 

16. There is no ea«se:—unto me'] There are no reasons 
{C^esen, 18) for this evil, which is great even compared with the 
other wickedness which thoa h&Bt done to me — ^this evil of 
thus sending me away, and of ordering thy servants to bolt me 
oat, which will expose me to the suspicion of being an immodest 
and guilty person, and of having tempted thee to sin, whereas 
thoa hast been the only author of the sin, and hast pat me to 
shame. Tamar was therefore obliged in self-defence, to publish 
her own shame, and to declare the wrong that had been done 
to her. 

18. a garment of divers colours] Her long mantle, with 
fiinges and sleeves : see (Jn Gen. xxxvii. 3. 

21. David — was very wroth] David was wroth, but did not 
punish his son Amnon ; being conscious of the sin which he him- 
self had committed, and by which he had tempted his children 
to sin. And because the king did not execute justice, therefore 
Absalom, Tamar's brother, takes the law into his own hands, and 
murders his brother Amnon. Thus one sin leads to another by 
an almost endless chain of consequences. 

28. Baal'haxor] Perhaps T'ell-asur, five miles north-east of 
Bethel {Eohinson), 

29. the servants qf Absalom did unto Amnon] Joab, 
David's servant, had l^een the instrument of Uriah's deat^ : 
here again, David's sin is reproduced in his fEunily; and he 
weeps over it, but does not punish it. 

— mule] This is the tfrst mention of a mule in Scripture. 
The meaning of (Jen. xxxvi. 24 is questionable. Cp. below, 
xviii. 9 ; 1 Kings i. 33, where is mention of " the king^s mule." 
The breeding of mules was forbidden to the Hebrews; but 
their use was regarded as lawfbl. The king, it seems, would 
not ride on a horse : cp. Deut. xvii. 16. 

Digitized by 


Joab's device 

2 SAMUEL Xm. 32—39. XIV. 1—11. for Absalom's return. 

u ver. 8. 

t Heb. wtomtk. 
I Or, $ettl4d. 
z oh. 19. 19. 

J Ter. 88. 

4 Heb. according 
to the word of tkp 

t Heb. with a 

great weeping 


s ch. 3. S. 

n Or, Ammihur. 

ft ch. 14. 88, 82. 

ft 15. 8. 

I Or, woe eow- 


Ps. 84. 2. 

b Gen. 88. 12. 

a ch. 18.89. 

b 2 Chron. 11. 6. 

c See Ruth 8. 8. 

d Ter. 19. 
Ex. 4. 15. 

e 1 Sam. SO. 41. 

ch. 1. 2. 

t Heb. 8oee. 

f Sees Kings 6. 


g See ch. 12. 1. 

t Heb. MO 
delimerer between 

h Nam. 85. 19. 
Deut. 19. 12. 

t Heb. itpon the 
face of the earth. 

i Oen. 27. 18. 
1 Sam. 28. 24. 
Matt. 27. 25. 
k oh. 8. 28, 29. 
1 Kings 2. St, 

earth ; and all his servants stood by with their clothes rent. ^ And "* Jonadab, 
the son of Shimeah David's brother^ answered and said. Let not my lord 
snppose that they have slain all the yonng men the king's sons ; for Amnon 
only is dead : for by the f appointment of Absalom this hath been || determined 
from the day that he forced his sister Tamar. ^ Now therefore 'let not my 
lord the king take the thing to his heart, to think that all the king's sons are 
dead : for Amnon only is dead. ^ ^ But Absalom fled. 

And the yonng man that kept the watch lifted up his eyes, and looked^ and, 
behold, there came mnch people by the way of the hill side behind him. 
^ And Jonadab said unto the king, Behold, the king's sons come : f as thy 
servant said, so it is. ^ And it came to pass, as soon as he had made an end 
of speaking, that, behold, the king's sons came, and lifted up their voice and 
wept : and the king also and all his servants wept f veiy sore. 

^ But Absalom fled, and went to ' Talmai, the son of || Ammihnd, king of 
Geshur. And David mourned for his son every day. ® So Absalom fled, and 
went to ' Gteshur, and was there three years. ^ And the soul of king David 
II longed to go forth unto Absalom : for he was ^ comforted concerning Anmon, 
seeing he was dead. 

XIV. ^ Now Joab the son of Zeruiah perceived that the king's heart was 
^ toward Absalom. ^ And Joab sent to ^ Tekoah, and fetched thence a wise 
woman, and said unto her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, "" and 
put on now mourning apparel, and anoint not thyself with oil, but be as 
a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead : ^ And come to the 
king, and speak on this manner unto him. So Joab "^put the words in her 

^ And when the woman of Tekoah spake to the king, she * fell on her £eu^ 
to the ground, and did obeisance, and said, f ^ Help, king. ^ And the king 
said unto her, What aileth thee ? And she answered, ^lam indeed a widow 
woman, and mine husband is dead. ^ And thy handmaid had two sons, and 
they two strove together in the field, and there was f none to part them, but the 
one smote the other, and slew him. ^ And, behold, ^ the whole family is risen 
against thine handmaid, and they said. Deliver him that smote his brotiier, 
that we may kill him, for the life of his brother whom he slew ; and we will 
destroy the heir also : and so they shall quench my coal which is left, and shall not 
leave to my husband neither name nor remainder f upon the earth. ^ And the 
king said unto the woman. Go to thine house, and I will give charge concerning 
thee. ^ And the woman of Tekoah said unto the king, My lord, king, ^ the 
iniquity be on me, and on my father's house : ^ and the king and his throne he 
guiltless. ^® And the king said, Whosoever saith ought unto thee, bring him 
to me, and he shall not touch thee any more. ^^ Then said she, I pray tiiee, 

Ch. XIV. 1. 70062 Who probably looked upon Abealom 
ai the heir of the kingdom^ now that Amnon his elder brother 
was dead. Joab procures Absalom's return to Jemsalem, per- 
haps wishing to win his favour; bat Absalom prefers other 
friends, and rebels against David, and Joab slays hun (xviii. 15). 

— toward AbMcUom] This seems to be the correct rendering 
( Oesen,, p. 629) ; some translate it (igaintt Absalom, but this 
is not supported by ancient versions, nor Jotephui (vii. 8. 4). 

2. Joab] Who is the personification of worldly policy, and 
secular expedioiov, and temporal ambition eager for its own 
personal aggrandizement, and especially for the maintenance of 
its own pohtical ascendancy, and practising on the weaknesses of 
princes for its own self-interests; but at last the victim of its 
own Machiavellian shrewdnesik 

— TBhoaK] About two hours' south of Bethlehem (J2oUiiioii,iL 
182—184), the birth-place of the prophet Amos ; an interestiDg 
description of it is given by Raokett, B. D. iii. 1447. 

4. Aind when the woman of 7}ehoah tpahel Bather (according 
to the reading of many MSS. in De JRosei), and the womam 
came; and this is confirmed by Sept., Vulg,, ^gfr,, Arahie, 

5. WhtU aileth theeT] David's eav was open to widowi* 
pravers : cp. Ps. Ixviii. 6. 

7. DeUoer him\ To be put to death (Num. xxxv. 18). 

— my eodC] The live ooal which is left ; by which the fire, 
now almost extinct, is to be kindled and kept up. 

10. And the king eaid] David pronounces judgment at onoe, 
as he had done when he heard Nathan's parable (xii. 5), which 
may have suggested this indirect method of working upon him. 

Digitized by 


Absalom returns 

2 SAMUEL XIV. 12—24. 

to Jerusalem. 

let the king remember the Lobd thy God, f that thou wonldest not snffer ' the t Heb. ikattkt 
revengers of blood to destroy any more, lest they destroy my son. And he j^Sni^^ip/yto 
said, "* As the Loed liveth, there shall not one hair of thy son fall to the \^^^\l\i 
earth. Acu^ri. * 

^^ Then the woman said, Let thine handmaid, I pray thee, speak one word 
mito my lord the king. And he said. Say on. ^'And the wcnnan said. 
Wherefore then hast thon thought such a tiling against ""the people of God ? nJ«<^- ><»-<. 
for the king doth speak this thing as one which is faulty, in that the king doth 
not fetch home again ""his banished. ^^ For we ^must needs die, and are as ocii.i8.87.88. 

" vJoh 84. I« 

water spilt on the ground, which cannot be gathered up again ; || neither doth ^eb 9^27. 

God respect any person : yet doth he "^ devise means, that his banished be not 

LOr, keeatue Qod 
mvaif hfs liftt k§ 

expelled from him. ^* Now therefore that I am come to speak of this thing )!S^f**^ 
unto my lord the king, it is because the people have made me afraid : and thy JfifiT' 
handmaid said, I will now speak unto the king ; it may be that the king will 
perform the request of his haadmaid. ^^ For the king will hear, to dehver his 
handmaid out of the hand of the man that would destroy me and my son 
together out of the inheritance of God. ^^ Then thine handmaid said. The 
word of my lord the king shall now be f comfortable : for ' as an angel of God, J^Jl^VoT'^*"* 
BO w my lord the king f to discern good and bad : therefore the Lord thy God tHib." w. 
will be with thee. 

^^ Then the king answered and said unto the woman. Hide not from me, I 
pray thee, the thing that I shall ask thee. And the woman said. Let my lord 
the king now speak. ^^ And the king said. Is not the hand of Joab with thee 
in all this ? Aiid the woman answered and said, As thy soul liveth, my lord 
the king, none can turn to the right hand or to the left from ought that my 
lord the king hath spoken : for thy servant Joab, he bade me, and 'he put all •▼«'•*• 
these words in the mouth of thine handmaid : ^ To fetch about this form of 
speech hath thy servant Joab done this tiling : and my lord is wise, * according ^j^f^^J*, 
to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth. 

^^ And the king said unto Joab, Behold now, I have done this thing : go 
therefore, bring the young man Absalom again. ^ And Joab fell to the ground 
on his fsrce, and bowed himself, and f thanked the king : and Joab said. To day t Heb. bim^d. 
thy servant knoweth that I have found grace in thy sight, my lord, king, in 
that the king hath fulfilled the request of || his servant. ^ So Joab arose "* and I eh! isf sr. 
went to Geshur, and brought Absalom to Jerusalem. ^ And the king said. 
Let him turn to his own house, and let him 'not see my face. So Absalom J,,®j;*ii^ *• 
returned to his own house, and saw not the king's face. 

11. let the king remember the Lobd] She importonet him 
for the usoranoe of an oath. 

— that thou wouldeet not euffer'] Bather, that the avenger 
qfhlood may not prevail (literally, be multiplied) to deetrog 
anw more, 

18. for the king doth epeak'] or, by speaking this word (that 
is, in making this promise or oath to me), the king 4e ae one who 
is in fault, and he oonyiett himself of nnldndness to his own 

14. neither doth Ood respect any person"] Rather, God doth 
not cart awav any soulf or, as the Vulg, rightly expresses it, 
'*Nec Yult Bens perire animam;" so the Svriao Version. 
Ood had shown His long-suffering and loTing-kindness in an 
especial manner in the case of David himself, and probably this 
"wise woman" dedgned to suggest this thought to David's 
mind, and to prevMl on him to imitate, in regard to his outcast 
son Absalom, the tenderness which David's heavenly Father had 
shown to himself when estranged by sin from God. 

— yet doth he devise meofw] or rather, amd Se devisee 


means, God not only does not wish the sinner to perish, but He 
devises means fbr the rinner's return. God had done this to 
David ; ought not David to do the same to Absalom P 

16. ihe people have made me c^aid^ In demanding that my 
son should be delirered up to the avenger of blood. 

17. as am angel of Ood] The*' wise woman" prevails over 
David by praising his wisdom. Cp. v. 19. 

94. Ut Mm not see nw face] Absalom had dwelt in exile 
three years in Geshur (xiu. 88), and whs now two years in 
Jerusslem without seeing his other's face (v, 28). David was 
veiy tender-hearted to him, but how much more tender-hearted 
had God been to David hixnself ! Two mediators did not prevail 
(Joab, and the wise woman of Tekoah) to reconcile David to 
Absalom : but God sent a messaee of mercy to David, and gave 
him an assurance of pardon, on his first si^ of repentance (xiL 
18). How much more compassionate is our heavenly Father 
than the most tender-hearted of earthly parents ; and how much 
the loving-kindness of God is magnified and manifested in this 
history 1 {8, AMibrose*) 

Digitized by 


Jb$alom*$ heauty ; 2 SAMUEL XIV. 25—33. XV. 1, 2. he rebels against his father. 

t Heb. And a$ 
Abtalom ihert 
was not a beauti- 
fui man in M 
Israel to praU§ 
7 Ita. 1. 6. 

s See oh. 18.18. 

A ver. S4. 

t Heb. ntar ny 

b Gen. SS. 4. 
8e 45. 15. 
Luke 15. SO. 
ach. 12. 11. 
b 1 King! 1. 5. 

^ f But in all Israel there was none to be so much praised as Absalom for 
his beauty : ^from the sole of his foot even to the crown of his head there was 
no blemish in him. ^ And when he polled his head, (for it was at every 
year's end that he polled it : because the hair was heavy on him, therefore he 
polled it :) he weighed the hair of his head at two hundred shekels after the 
king's weight. ^ And * unto Absalom there were bom three sons, and one 
daughter, whose name was Tamar : she was a woman of a fair countenance. 

^ So Absalom dwelt two full years in Jerusalem, * and saw not the king's 
face. ^ Therefore Absalom sent for Joab, to have sent him to the king ; but 
he would not come to him : and when he sent agam the second time, he would 
not come. ^ Therefore he said unto his servants, See, Joab's field is f near 
mine, and he hath barley there; go and set it on fire. And Absalom's 
servants set the field on fire. ^^ Then Joab arose, and came to Absalom unto 
his house, and said unto him. Wherefore have thy servants set my field on fire ? 
^ And Absalom answered Joab, Behold» I sent unto thee, saying, Come 
hither, that I may send thee to the king, to say. Wherefore am I come firom 
Geshur ? it had been good for me to have been there still : now therefore let me 
see the king's face ; and if there be any iniquity in me, let him kill me. ^ So 
Joab came to the king, and told him : and when he had called for Absalom, he 
came to the king, and bowed himself on his face to the ground before the king : 
and the king ^ kissed Absalom. 

XV. ' And "it came to pass after this, that Absalom ^ prepared him chariots 
and horses, and fifty meu to run before him, ^ And Abstdom rose up early, 

S5. Ahsalomfor hit heaufy'] Joab and Absalom, each of whom 
rebdled against David to gratify their own passions^ -are represen- 
tatives of two forms of worldliness which rebel against Christ ; 

Joab is the representative of worldlv ambition; Absalom 
of worldly vain -glory and self-conceit ; and both fell a prey to their 
own designs. Snch will be the end of all conspiracies against Christ. 

96. polled his head] Once a year — not more. The Talmadists 
say that he was a Nazarite, and m snch, he let his hair g^w 
long, and, it would seem also, under the pretence of religion, in a 
vain-glorious ostentation of personal beauty : see Dr. lAghtfoofe 
Works, i. 1092 ; ii. 774*. On the polling of the hur by Kazarites, 
see below, note on Acts xviii.' 18. 

— two hundred shekels ajter the hint's weiffhl^ About 
three pounds {Boehart), If they were shekels of the Scmeiuary, 
they would amount to nearly six pounds (KeiJ), Cp. Pools, 
B. D. iii. 1874. JFiner, R. W. B. ii. 445. 
** This hair was his halter:" see xviii. 9. 

87. unto Absalom therewere bom three sons, and one daughter^ 
Absalom was the third son bom to David after he became king 
at Hebron (iii. 8). David was thirty years of age when he began 
his reign (v. 4), and therefore this notice relates to events which 
took place when David was probably between fifty and sixty 

? rears old. Cp. xviii. 18, whence it may be inferred that Absa- 
om had been married some time befbre he had any son. From 
the statement in xviii. 18 it has been inferred that his three 
sons died before their father. 

2l5i, let me see the king's foes'] Being sure that if he could 
once do that, all would be gained ; such was his confidence in 
the tender-heartedness of David. But all this, it seems, was 
designed by Absalom in order that he might steal the hearts of 
the people from the king his &ther (see xv. 1. 6), which he 
could not do, as long as they k^ew that his father was estranged 
from him. 

Pbxldokabt Notb to 

Chaptbes XY., XVI., XVn., XVIII., XIX, 

BxBBLLiov 0? Absalom. 

It is scarcely necessary to remind the Christian reader, 

that in the history of the msurrection of Absalom against his 

father king David there are many points of resemblance to the 

rebelUon of the people of God — Inrael, "His firstborn" — against 

the Divine David, the King of the Jews, Jesub Chbist. 

David's departure firom Jerusalem, his passage over the 


brook Kidron, his ascent of the Mount of Olives, his tears on 
that Mountain, the meekness of his deportment there ; his ten- 
derness for Absalom, who rebelled against him ; his forbearance 
toward Shimei, who cursed him ; the treachery of Ahithophel, his 
fiuniliar fHend whom he trusted — the type of Judas the traitor, 
in his sin, and in his wretched end — ^these' incidents bring 
before us some prophetic and figurative foreshadowings of th« 
last days of our Lord's Ministry : His weeping over Jerusalem, 
when He was on the Mount of Olives ; His Agony in the Ghirden ; 
His betrayal. His rejection and Crucifixion by the people of His 
own city, Jerusalem, and His prayers for those who reviled and 
slew Him. 

Nor is this all. The counsel of Ahithophel comes to nought ; 
the rebellion of Absalom is quelled, he himself is slain; and 
Shimei, who cursed David« is humbled ; David is brought back 
to Jerusalem in triumph, and is received by the people with joy. 
May we not see here a foreshadowing of Chnsf s Resurrection and 
Ascension, and of the discomfiture of His enemies, and of the 
final establishment of His Kingdom P 

Of this we are assured by the Holy Spirit Himself in the 
New Testament, that David "knew that God would raise up 
Chbist to sit on his throne," and that, "being a prophet, and 
seeing before, he spake of the Besurrection of Christ, that His 
soul was not left in hell, neither did His flesh see corruption " 
(Acts ii. 29—81). The interest and beauty of the histoir of 
David iu this severe trial are enhanced by these conriderations. 
May we not be permitted to suppose, that he was cheered and 
comfwted by the sense that he himself was travelling on the 
same road of suffering in his way to glory, which would be 
traversed by Him, Who was to be raised fix>m his seed and to 
sit for ever on his throne F and so the sorrows of Olivet may 
have even been brightened to David by visions of the Ascension 
to heaven firom that M^mntain of Tears : and in his return to 
Jerusalem he may have had a glOTious revelation of what he 
himself describes, the triumphant entry of his own Son, the 
King of Glory, the Lord of Hosts, within the gates of the earthly 
Zion (Ps. oxviiL 18—26) and the heavenly Jerusalem (B9. xxiv. 

Ch. XV. 1. Jhsalom'] Whose name mocjiA father qf p^aoe; 
but he belied his name by his acts. 

— horses] A sign of pride and vain-glpry : see aoove, ziii. 
29, and Dout. xvii. 16. 20. 

Digitized by 


Absalom steals the hearts 

2 SAMUEL XV. 8—16. 

of the people. 

and stood beside the way of the gate : and it was so, that when any man that 
had a controversy f came to the king for judgment, then Absalom called mito 
him, and said. Of what city art thou ? And he said, Thy servant is of one of 
the tribes of Israel. ^ And Absalom said unto him, See, thy matters are good 
and right ; but || there is no man deputed of the king to hear thee. ^ Absalom 
said moreover, "" Oh that I were made judge in the land, that every man which 
hath any suit or cause might come unto me, and I would do him justice ! 
^ And it was so, that when any man came nigh to him to do him obeisance, he 
put forth his hand, and took him, and kissed him. ^ And on this manner did 
Absalom to all Israel that came to the king for judgment : ^ so Absalom stole 
the hearts of the men of Israel. ^ And it came to pass * after forty years, that 
Absalom said unto the king, I pray thee, let me go and pay my vow, which I 
have vowed unto the Lobd, in Hebron. ^'For thy servant ^ vowed a vow 
** while I abode at Geshur in Syria, saying. If the Lobd shall bring me again 
indeed to Jerusalem, then I will serve the Lord. ^ And the king said unto 
him. Go in peace. So he arose, and went to Hebron. 

*® But Absalom sent spies throughout all the tribes of Israel, saying, As soon 
as ye hear the sound of the trumpet, then ye shall say, Absalom reigneth in 
Hebron. ^^ And with Absalom went two hundred men put of Jerusalem, that 
were * called ; and they went *" in their simpUcity, and they knew not any thing. 
"2 And Absalom sent for Ahithophel the Gilonite, * David's counsellor, from his 
city, even from *" Giloh, while he offered sacrifices. And the conspiracy was 
strong ; for the people "* increased continually with Absalom. 

** And there came a messenger to David, saying, ** The hearts of the men of 
Israel are after Absalom. ^* And David said unto all his servants that were 
with him at Jerusalem, Arise, and let us ^ flee ; for we shall not else escape 
from Absalom : make speed to depart, lest he overtake us suddenly^ and f bring 
evil upon us, and smite the city with the edge of the sword. ^* And the king's 
servants said unto the king. Behold, thy servants are ready to do whatsoever 
my lord the king shall f appoint. 

^^ And ^the king went forth, and all his household f after him. And the 

t Heb. to come. 

fl Or, nont will 
hear thee /rout the 
king downward. 
c Judg. 9. 29. 

d Rom. 16. 18. 
e 1 Sam. 16. 1. 

f 1 Sam. 16. 2. 
g 6«n. 28. 20, 21. 
h ch. 18. 38. 

i 1 Sara. 9. IS. 
k 16. 3, 5. 
k Gen. 20. 5. 
IPs. 41.9. 
& 55. 12, 13, 14. 
m Josh. 15. 51. 

nPs. 8. 1. 

o ver. 6. 
Judg. 9. 3. 

p ch. 19. 9. 
Ps. .1, title, 
t Heb. thrmL 

t Heb. I 

q Ps. 3, title. 
t Heb. at his 

8. See, ihy mattert are goodr\ Thus the grand rebel Absa- 
lom, by ^screditing his father's government, pretending a great 
zeal n>r justice, and making shows and promises of gpreat 
matters to be done by way of reformation, if the supreme power 
were settled upon him, did by little and little ingratiate hmiself 
with the people, and loosen them from the conscience of their 
bounden alliance, and engage them in an imnatural war 
ag^ainst his own father, and their undoubted sovereign. Bp. 
Sanderson, i. 388; ii. 199. 

7. after forty yeart] This is the reading of almost all our 
hitherto cdlated Hebrew manuscripts. Two in Kennicott have 
forty dctyt. It has been supposed that they ought to be cor- 
rected m>m some andent versions, Syriao, Arabic, Siztine 
edition of the Vulaate, and that the true rea(Ung is four years; 
and so Josephus, Theddoret, Keil, and Bp, Cotton, B. D. i. 14. 
Absalom had dwelt two years at Jerusalem without seeing the 
king's fkce (xiv. 28), and after four years, probably since his 
return to Jerusalem, he rebelled against him. 

They who maintain the genumeness of the reading in the 
Hebrew MSS. hitherto collated (forty years), date those years 
from the unction of David by Samuel (1 Sam. xvi. 18) : see 
Calovius, p. 778, and JTouvers, p. 878, who says that the first 
unction of David was an era in Hebrew history, like that of the 
Birth o^ Isaac in the history of Abraham. 

— in Hebron"] Where he was bom (iii. 8), and where pro- 
bably he had many friends, and would find many persons who 
were disaffected and discontented on account of the transfer of 
the capital of the kingdom from Hebron— the old patriarchal 

YOL. II. Pabt IL— 105 

city, associated with the memory of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob 
— to Jerusalem its rival. 

Thus Absalom, the son of David, on religious pretences, en- 
deavoured to make Hebron itself to be a seat of schism and re- 
bellion agtunst David, and against Jerusalem, the city of Qod. 
This is imitated by those, who, on the plea of religion, rise up 
in separation and opposition to Christ and His Church. 

10. *p»«] Intelligencers, couriers; literallv, runners on foot. 

11. called] Invited by him to his sacrificial feast at Hebron ; 
and drawn away in their simplicity, under pretence <^ religion, 
to rebel against David. 

12. Ahithophel— Davids 8 counsellor, from his city— from 
Qiloh'] s.w. of Hebron. Cp. Josh. xv. 61. 

Ahithophel, David's « familiar friend, in whom he trusted " 
(Ps. Iv. 18), "who did eat of his bread" (Ps. jdi. 9), seems to 
have been already in the plot, and to have imitated Abealom, 
in masking his treacheiy by a plea of religion, for he was 
offering sacrifices at the time. Such was also the pretext of 
the Chief Priests and Pharisees — perhaps even of Judas himself 
— when they conspired against Christ. 

— the people increased continually wUh Absalom] ** Lord, 
how are they increased that trouble me!" were the words of 
David in a Psalm which he then wrote (Ps. iii. 1). 

14. oflitd smite the city] David retired frt>m Jerusalem, in 
order that he might not bo the occasion of bloodshed there. 
He preferred the safety of the people to his own ; and was thus 
also a figure of Him who said in the Ghirden of Gethsemane, 
** If ye seek Me, let these go their way " (John xviii. 8). 


Digitized by 


David crosses over Kidron ; 

2 SAMUEL XV. 17—25. 

sends hack the Ark. 

r ch. 16. 21, 22. 

t ch. 8. 18. 

tch. 18.2. 

I Sam. 23. 13. 

X Ruth 1. 16, 17. 
ProT. 17. ir. 
fit. 18. 24. 

king left ^ ten women, which were concubines, to keep the house. ^^ And the 
king went forth, and all the people after him, and tarried in a place that was 
far off. ^^ And all his servants passed on beside him ; ' and all the Cherethites, 
and all the Pelethites, and all the Gittites, six hundred men which came after 
bim from Gath, passed on before the king. ^^ Then said the king to ' Ittai the 
Gittite, Wherefore goest thou also with us ? return to thy place, and abide 
with the king : for thou art a stranger, and also an exile. ^ Whereas thou 
t Heb. maketh^e camest hut vesterdav, should I this day + niake thee ^o up and down with us ? 

icandef in going. % .^ i v-» x 

seeing I go " whither I may, return thou, and take back thy brethren : mercy and 
truth be with thee. ^^ And Ittai answered the king, and said, ' As the Lord 
liveth, and as my lord the king liveth, surely in what place my lord the king 
shall be, whether in death or life, even there also will thy servant be. ^^ And 
David said to Ittai, Go and pass over. And Ittai the Gittite passed over, and 
all his men, and all the little ones that were with him. ^ And all the countiy 
wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over : the king also himself 
passed over the brook || Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way 
of the ^ wilderness. 

^ And lo Zadok also, and all the Levites were with him, • bearing the ark of 
the covenant of God : and they set down the ark of God ; and Abiathar went 
up, until all the people had done passing out of the city. ^ And the king 
said unto Zadok, Carry back the ark of God into the city : if I shall find favour 
in the eyes of the Lord, he ' will bring me again, and shew me both it, and his 

fl Called, John 
18. 1, 
y oh. 16. 2. 
z Num. 4. 15. 

a Ps. 43. 3. 

16. ten women — concubines'] It would seem, therefore, that 
his wives followed him. 

17. a place thai was far off] The houae outside the city, and 
At some distance from it (Qesen. 509. 766). On the way toward 
Jericho there seems to have been> a hoase that bore this name, 
as the Sept. has iy oiKtp r^ ^tucpdy, *' the far-house." The Sept, 
adds that it was near an olive-tree. 

18. idl the Cherethites, and all the Pelethites, and all the 
Gittites] Observe the repetition of the word all, markinff their 
faithfulness to David in his affliction, when his son and many 
of his own subjects rebelled against him. These Cherethites, 
Pelethites, and Gittites, his body-guard, were probabljr strangers 
(cp. V. 19), and perhaps of Philistine origin : see on viii. 18. 

Our Lord found more fiuth in a Roman centurion than in 
all Israel ^Matt. viii. 10) ; and Greeks were desirous to see Him, 
when the Chief Priests were plotting against Him (John xii. 20) ; 
and the first and greatest harvest of the Gospel was of strangers 
who came from distant lands to Jerusalem (Acts ii. 5) ; the 
Gentiles were eager to receive the Gospel which was r^ected 
by the Jews (Acts xviii. 6; xxii. 21; xxviii. 28. 1 Thess. ii. 

19. Ittai the Oiitite] A beautiftd instance of loyal constancy 
and faithfrd devotion to David in a Philistine soldier at a time 
of apostasy and defection : see xviii. 2. His truth and fidelity 
are brought out in stronger and clearer light by the contrast 
with the treachery of Absalom, Ahithophel, and eventually of 
Joab and Abiathar (1 Kings i. 19. 25 ; ii. 26. 28) ; and by the 

Jermission given to him by David to retire from his service, 
ttai's profession of fidelity to David has been compared with 
that of St. Peter to the Divine King of the Jews near the same 
place, Matt xxvi. 86 {Stanley^, 118). 

— abide with the kinff] Whoever may be king, serve him : 
thou art a stranger, it is not for thee to concern thyself about 
our political conflicts, it is enough for thee to adhere to the 
ruling power, whatever it may be, — <rr4pry€ rhif Kparovvr* h*l. 

20. 1^0 whither I majf] Like the Son of Man, who had not 
where to Uiy His head (Matt. viii. 20). 

21. Itt<n answered]lL noble answer of genuine lovalty. Com- 
pare the reply of theMoabitish stranger Buth to ner mother- 
in-law of Bethlehem (Ruth i. 16, 17) ; and of Simon Peter to 
Christ, <* Lord, to whom shall we go P Thou hast the words of 
eternal life" ^John vi. 68). 

22. Qo and pass over] the brook Kidron (o. 28). 

— the Utile ones] His family : see Exod. xii. 87. Such was 
his trust in David and in his fortunes. 


28. hrooh Etdron] Kidron, dark ; probably so called from 
hadar, to be dark (Gesen, 724) ; perhaps from the c<^our of its 
water, or of its bed in the rocky gorge of the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat, between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and 
having Gethsemane on its eastern bank {Robinson, i. 343. 402). 
The word has been grecized into Kedron by the Sept,, and in 
this form it appears in many MSS. of St. John xviii. 1 : see note 
there. To us the most interesting feature in its history is, that 
it was crossed by King David and his finithful followers in a 
time of deep distress, when he retired from Jerusalem, and that 
it was afterwards passed over by the Son of David, the King of 
Israel, on the night of His Agony, when He was rejected by 
Jerusalem, and was about to be crucified there. 

24. Siadoh'-and Abiathar] Zadok is placed before Abiathar 
by the historian (cp. €. 29), although Abiathar was the High 
IHriest; either because Zaaok, as tiie younger man, took the 
lead in bearing the Ark, or perhaps becimse Abiathar was 
already b^ginnmg to show some signs of lukewarmness and 
disaffection toward David and his cause. The writer composed 
the history at a time when it was a well-known fact that 
Abiathar was deposed by Solomon for disloyalty, and Zadok was 
placed in his room : see below, 1 Kings i. 7 ; ii. 85. 

25. Carry back the ark] An instance of David's dear 
faith in the omnipresence of God, and of his spiritual elevation 
from the outwaid symbols of the Sanctuary, to the Divine 
Essence that was symbolized by them. Observe also here his 
disinterested self-sacrifice for the good of the people. He would 
not punish his subjects for his son's sins. If the Ark followed 
him fh>m Jerusalem, his People would be deprived of the hallow- 
ing influences of its pree^ice. 

It must not however be imagined that David depreciated 
outward forms, because he b^Mild with the eye of nith the 
Divine Spirit which was enshrined in them. The Psalms, which 
he compiled at this time, when he was separated from the ser- 
vices of the Sanctuary, and when the bitt^ett ingredient in his 
cop of sorrow was, that he was deprived of access to the Lord hk 
the ministries of His Courts at Jerusalem, and when he ex- 
presses hii intense longing to be restored to them ("My soul 
thirsteth fbr God :" see xlii. 2—4 ; xliii. 8), sufficiently prove, that 
he not only knew that " God is a Spirit, and is to be worshipped 
in spirit and in truth " (John iv. 24), but that he felt that the 
best helps to spiritual worship are to be found in those religious 
ordinances which God Hunself has appointed for the main- 
tenance of His own Worship. 

Digitized by 


David ascends Olivet; 2 SAMUEL XV. 26 — 37. worships on the top of the mountain. 

habitation : ^ But if he thus say, I have no ** delight in thee ; behold, here am I, 
* let him do tome as seemeth good unto him. ^ The king said also unto Zadok 
the priest. Art not thou a ^ seer ? return into the city in peace, and • your two 
sons with you, Ahimaaz thy son, and Jonathan the son of Abiathar. ^ See, 
^I will tarry in the plain of the wilderness, until there come word from you to 
certify me. ^ Zadok therefore and Abiathar carried the ark of God again to 
Jerusalem : and they tarried there. 

^ And David went up by the ascent of mount Olivet, f and wept as he went 
up, and ^had his head covered, and he went ''barefoot : and all the people that 
was with him * covered every man his head, and they went up, ^^ weeping as 
they went up. '^ And one told David, saying, * Ahithophel is among the 
conspirators with Absalom. And David said, Lobd, I pray thee, " turn the 
counsel of Ahithophel into fooHshness. 

^2 And it came to pass, that when David was come to the top of tlie mounts 
where he worshipped God, behold, Hushai the "Archite came to meet him 
** with his coat rent, and earth upon his head : ^ Unto whom David said, K 
thou passest on with me, then thou shalt be ^ a burden unto me : ^ But if thou 
return to the city, and say unto Absalom, ** I will be thy servant, king ; as I 
have been thy father's servant hitherto, so vnll I now also be thy servant : then 
mayest thou for me defeat the counsel of Ahithophel. ^ And hast thou not 
there with thee Zadok and Abiathar the priests ? therefore it shall be, that 
what thing soever thou shalt hear out of the king's house, 'thou shalt tell it 
to Zadok and Abiathar the priests. ^ Behold, they have there "with them their 
two sons, Ahimaaz Zadok's son^ and Jonathan Abiathar's son ; and by them ye 
shall send unto me every thing that ye can hear. ^ So Hushai 'David's 
friend came into the city, "* and Absalom came into Jerusalem. 

b Num. 14. 8. 
ch. 22. 20. 

1 Kings 10. 9. 

2 Chron. 9. 8. 
Isn. 62. 4. 

c 1 Bam. 3. 18. 
d 1 Sam. 9. 9. 
e Seech. 17. 17. 

fch. 17. 16. 

t Heb. going np, 
and weeiJtng. 
r ch. 19. 4. 
Etth. 6. 12. 
h I»a. 20. 2, 4. 
1 Jer. 14. S, i. 
k Ps. 126. 6. 
1 Pg. 8. 1,2. 
& 55. 12. &c. 
m ch. 16. 23. 
& 17. 14. 28. 

n Josh. 16 2. 
och. 1. 2. 
p ch. 19. 85. 
q ch. 16. 19. 

rch. 17. 15, 16. 
8 ver. 27. 

t ch. 16. 16. 
1 Chron. 27. 83. 
uch.l6. 15. 

97. Art Dot than a teer T] or, O thou teer. Vulg., Jerome^ 
Luther, Keil, Since thou art a prophet* return to Jemsalem, 
which is the proper place for thee ; lor the Ark will be there, 
and do thou give me coonsel and information therefrom. Per- 
hm also there was something of remonstrance in this address ; 
Thou, a teer ! Thoa, as such, miffhtest know that 1 would not 
deprive God and His people of thy service, and of the Ark's 
presence at Jerusalem^ for my oinn personal benefit. 

88. the plain] Rather, thepcueoffe leading to the ford, by which 
the Jordan might be passed over (Josh. ii. 7. Judg. iii. 28. 
Cp. xvii. 16). 

89. Zadok — and Abiathar'] Here, and in o. 24, and v, 27, 
and V, 85, Zadok appears to occupy the principal place, although 
Abiathar was the High Priest (cp. on o. 24). Some circumstances 
unknown to us would doubtless explain this. Perhaps David 
had already some reason to place less trust in Abiathar, and 
this preference of Zadok may have been an occasion for Abia- 
thar's subseouent defection. 

80. And David went up hjf the aeeent of mount OUvet, and 
wept] In the habit of a mourner (Esth. vi. 12. Jer. xiv. 8). 
David wept on Mount Olivet; Chnst wept on Mount Olivet 
(Luke xix. 41). Both wept for the ingratitude of those whom 
they loved, and who were their own subjects and children. 
Christ saw the future, and wept for it. Was David enabled to 
see beyond the present sorrow, and to behold, in the Spirit, 
Christ revealed to his eyes and weeping over the same city r 

81. And one told David^ As to the construction, see Oeeen. 
680. Some of David's Psalms, especially Ps. Iv., Ixix., cix., 
seem to express his feelings at the tidings of the treachery of 

— into foolishness] Did David allude to the meaning of the 
name Ahithophel (brother of a fool) ? Cp. Gesen. 871. 

88. when David was come to the top d the mount, where he 
worshipped Chd] The conjunction when is not in the original, 
and would be better omitted. The fact recorded is, that David 
came to the top, or head (Heb. rosh, which has been preserved 
in the Sept.) of Olivet, and there bowed down before Gbd. 

After that he has received the tidings of the treachery of 
Ahithophel— the type of Judas — he mounts the hill, and there, 
on the top of Olivet he fidls down and worships Qod. 

Surely it was not without a providential coincidence that 
he did this on the very spot wherd afterwards the Son of David, 
when He had been betrayed by Judas, and rejected bv Jerusalem, 
went up on the clouds in the sight of His futhiul disciples into 
heaven itself, and sat down on the riffht hand of God (see the 
note below, on Acts i. 10, On the place of the Asobnbion). 
David worshipped God there. Did God reveal to him there 
the glories which David himself had celebrated in the twenty- 
fourth Psalm P "Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord P 
Lift up your heads, O ye gates ; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting 
doors ; and the King of Glory shall come in " (Ps. xxiv. 8. 7). 

— Hushai] David's friend {v. 87}, xvi. 16. 1 Chron. xxvii. 83. 

— Arehile] Perhaps of the family which had possessions on 
the southern boundary of Ephraim, between Bethel and Ataroth : 
cp. Josh. xvi. 2. 

— coat] Tunic, or long inner garment, with sleeves ; Heb. 
cuiSneth : Qesen. 420. 

84. as J have been thy father's servant] The words as and 
have been are not in the ori^al, and had better be omitted : 
Thy father's servant hitherto, and now I am thy servant. 
There is mental reserve here, but in a certain sense the 
words were true. Hushai would beet serve Absalom by serving 
his father, by infatuating the counsel of his godless counsellor 

David in his distress was driven to stratagems and arti- 
fices. In this respect we have a contrast with the Divine Anti- 
type, the Son of David, who in all His sorrows and suflTerings 
retained His holiness, purity, and truth, unsullied and undefiled. 

David's feelings of sorrow at this time were expressed in his 
P&alms, especially such as Ps. iii. and cxliii. 

87. Hushai Danid^s friend came into the city] David's fiuth- 
ful friend Hushai went back to Jerusalem, being sent thither by 
David fh>m the top of the Mount of Olives. Hushai's counsel 
prevailed over that of Ahithophel. 

Our Loid's fkithftil Apostles went back from the same place 
to Jerusalem by His command, and tarried there till they were 
endued with Divine wisdom, by the gift of the Holy Ghost 
(Luke xxiv. 49. Acts i. 4. 12), and thus the counsel of those 
who had conspired against the Son of David was brought to 
nought, being confounded by their preaching. 
P 2 

Digitized by 


Ziba and Mephibosheth. 

2 SAMUEL XVL 1— 12. 

Shvnei's curses. 

ftch. 15.30.32. 
b ch. 9. S. 

c ch. 15. 23. 
m 17. 29. 
d ch. 19. 27. 

e Ptot. 18. 18. 

tlleb./ <fo 

fch. 19.16. 

I Kings 2. 8. 4i. 

II Or, he itill cotne 
forth and cursed. 

t Heb. man of 


g Deut. IS. 13. 

h Judg. 9. 24, 

56. 57. 

I King8 2. 3!, 33. 

i Seech. I. 16. 

ft 3. 28, 29. 

&4. II, 12. 

i Hth. behold 

Ihee in thy evil. 

k 1 Sam. 24. 14. 

ch. 9. 8. 

I Ex. 22. 28. 

m eh. 19. 22. 

1 Pet. 2. 23. 

n See 2 Kings 18. 


Lam. 3. 38. 

o Rom. 9. 20. 

p ch. 12. 11. 
q Gen. 15. 4. 

XVI. ^ And ' when David was a little past the top of the Jiill^ behold, ** Ziba 
the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and 
upon them two hundred loaves of bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, 
and an hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine. ^ And the king said 
unto Ziba, What meanest thou by these ? And Ziba said. The asses be for the 
king's household to ride on ; and the bread and summer fruit for the young 
men to eat ; and the wine, "" that such as be faint in the wilderness may drink. 
^ And the king said, And where is thy master's son ? * And Ziba said unto the 
king, Behold, he abideth at Jerusalem : for he said, To day shall the house of 
Israel restore me the kingdom of my father. * * Then said the king to Ziba, 
Behold, thine are all that pertained unto Mephibosheth. And Ziba said, f I 
humbly beseech thee that I may find grace in thy sight, my lord, king. 

^ And when king David came to Bahurim, behold, thence came out a man 
of the family of the house of Saul, whose name was ^ Shimei, the son of Gera : 
II he came forth, and cursed still as he came. ^ And he cast stones at David, 
and at all the servants of king David : and all the people and all the mighty 
men were on his right hand and on his left. ^ And thus said Shimei when he 
cursed. Come out, come out, thou f bloody man, and thou 'man of Belial: 
^ The Lord hath ** returned upon thee all * the blood of the house of Saul, in 
whose stead thou hast reigned; and the Lord hath dehvered the kingdom 
into the hand of Absalom thy son: and, f behold, thou art taken in thy 
mischief, because thou art a bloody man. ^ Then said Abishai the son of 
Zeruiah unto the king, Why should this ^ dead dog * curse my lord the king ? 
let me go over, I pray thee, and take oflf his head. ^^ And the king said, 
" What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah ? so let him curse, because 
° the Lord hath said unto him. Curse David. ** Who shall then say. Where- 
fore hast thou done so ? ^^ And David said to Abishai, and to all his servants, 
Behold, P my son, which ** came forth of my bowels, seeketh my life : how 
much more now may this Benjamite do it ? let him alone, and let him curse ; 
for the Lord hath bidden him. ^^ It may be that the Lord will look on mine 

Ch. XVI. 1. bunches of raisins'] Rather, masses of raisins 
pressed together like cheeses. 

— swnmer fruits'] Rather, perhaps, cakes made of dates 
pressed together : see Sept. These are still used as provisions 
for caraTans (Burckh, in Winer, R. W. B. i. 258). 

•— a bottle] A large skin (Josh. ix. 4. Matt. ix. 17). 

8. he said. To dav shall the house of Israel restore] For a 
refutation of this calnmny see xix. 27. Ziba is contrasted with 
Mephibosheth : Ziba loved David for the sake of the land, 
Mephibosheth loved David for David's own sake: see xix. 
80. Here we may see a figure of the two kinds of love for 
Christ— the Divine David. The latter only is true love, the 
former is love of self. 

4. T^hen said the king to Ziba] Here is another instance of 
the weakness into which David was betrayed in his distress. 
How natural was it, however, that when his own son Absalom 
was rebelling against him, David should suppose that he had no 
fidthfiil friend left. Contrast with this hnman infirmity of 
David the thoughtfblness of Christ for others, in the garden, in 
the way to Calvary, and on the Cross (John xviii. 8. Luke 
xxiii. 28. John xix. 27). 

5. Bahurim] In the tribe of Benjamin, on the eastern slope of 
the Mount of Olives (iii. 16), not far from the site of Bethanv. 

7. Come out] From the kingdom which thou hast usurped. 

9. Abishai] Who had asked David's permission to slay Saul 
when in the trench at the hill of Hachilah (1 Sam. xxvi. 8), but 
had been restrained by David from doing so. Tliat disinterested 
and compassionate act of David was a sufficient reftitation of 
Shimei's slander against him; but David was silent, and re- 
strained Abishai from revenge; thus David prefigured Christ, 
ivho said in the garden to Peter, " Put up thy sword into the 


sheath : the cup which My Father hath ^ven Me, shall I not 
drink it V* (John xviii. 11 ;) and who prayra for those who railed 
upon Him at Calvary (Luke xxiii. 84). 

10, 11. What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah 1] 
So our Lord seems, as it were, to say, *< What have I to do with 
you, ye sons of Zebedee ? " when they would have stimulated Hira 
to destroy those who would not receive Him : see Luke ix. 55. 

— ^Atf Lord haih said unto him. Curse David — the Lord hath 
bidden him] By allowing him to do so. Since nothing happens 
against, or without, the wiU of Him who is Omnipresent, Omni- 
scient, and Omnipotent, all things, which God does not prevent, 
may be said, in a certain sense, to be done by Him (S, Augustine 
de Libero Arbitrio). Qod willed that David should be chastened 
for his sins, but He did not will the evil means by which the 
chastisement was inflicted. God willed the salvation of the 
world, but He did not will the wickedness of those who crucified 
Christ : see below, on Acts ii. 23, and PfeiJ^er, Dubia, p. 211 ; 
and above, xii. 11, 12. ** Non accusat David Dominum, quasi 
auctorem peccati ; sed magis laudat, qu6d patiatur nos minora per- 
peti, ut minorum veniam peccatorum adipiscamur" (8, Ambrose, 
Apol. Davia, c. 6). ** Deus voluntatem Shimei, vitio suo malam, 
in hoc peccatum maledioendi Davidi indinavit (8, Augustine de 
Gratia, c. 20). 

Compare the porallel cases in 1 Kings xxii. 22. 2 Kings 
ii. 7. Matt. viii. 32.' Tliese cases are important, as shedding 
light on the question of Pharaoh's obduracy. As Augustine 
says (ibid. c. 23), God hardens those evil men whom He allows to 
be hardened ; but, to speak strictly, their own free will hardens 
itself. " Deus obdurat, id est, obdurari permittit Pharaonem, 
similesque reprobos ; sed propria libcrum eorum arbitrium seip- 
sum obdurat :" cp. A Lapide here. 

Digitized by 


Shvm^'8 cursing. 2 SAMUEL XVI. 13—23. XVH. 1—3. AhithopheVs counsel 

II f affliction, and that the Lord 'will ' requite me good for his cursing thia day. 
^^ And as David and his men went by the way, Shimei went along on the hill's 
side over against him, and cursed as he went, and threw stones at him, and 
f cast dust. ^^ And the king, and all the people that were with him, came 
weary, and refreshed themselves there. 

^* And • Absalom, and all the people the men of Israel, came to Jerusalem, 
Mid Ahithophel with him. ^® And it came to pass, when Hushai the Archite, 
'David's friend, was come unto Absalom, that Hushai said unto Absalom, 
f God save the king, God save the king. ^^ j^^ Absalom said to Hushai, Is 
this thy kindness to thy friend? "why wentest thou not with thy friend? 
^^ And Hushai said unto Absalom, Nay ; but whom the Lord, and this 
people, and all the men of Israel, choose, his will I be, and with him will 
I abide. ^* And again, ' whom should I serve ? should I not serve in the 
presence of his son ? as I have served in thy father's presence, so will I be 
in thy presence. 

^ Then said Absalom to Ahithophel, Give counsel among you what we shall 
do. 2^ And' Ahithophel said unto Absalom, Go in unto thy father's ^ concubines, 
which he hath left to keep the house ; and all Israel shall hear that thou ' art 
abhorred of thy father : then shall * the hands of all that are with thee be 
strong. ^ So they spread Absalom a tent upon the top of the house ; and 
Absalom went in unto his father's concubines **inthe sight of all Israel, ^s And 
the counsel of Ahithophel, which he counselled in those days, was as if a man 
had enquired at the f oracle of God: so was all the counsel of Ahithophel 
*both with David and with Absalom. 

XYn. ^ Moreover Ahithophel said unto Absalom, Let me now choose out 
twelve thousand men, and I will arise and pursue after David this night : 
- And I will come upon him while he is ' weary and weak handed, and will 
make him afraid : and all the people that are with him shall flee ; and I will 
** smite the king only : * And I will bring back all the people unto thee : the 

{Or, tears. 
Heb. «yf, 
Oen. S9. 82. 
lS«m. 1. II. 
Ps. 23. 18. 
T Rom. 8 28. 

t Heb. dutUd 
him wilh du4t. 

t oh. Iff. 87. 

t ch. 15. 87. 

f Heb. LH th« 
kino live. 
u ch. 19. 25. 
ProT. 17. 17. 

z ch. Iff. 84. 

y ch. Iff. 16. 
ft 20. 8. 
* Oen. 84. 80. 
1 Sam. 18. 4. 

a ch. 2. 7. 

Zeoh. 8. 18. 

b ch. 12. ] 

t Heb. word, 
cch. 15. 12. 

a See Dent. 25. 


ch. 16. 14. 

b Zech. 18. 7. 

12. the LoBD wUl requite me good for hU curnng'] Let 
them curse, but blegg Thou ! (Pa. dx. 26— 28.J 8, AugusHne 
says well (de QratU, c 20), *' Deus utitur cordibus malorum ad 
laudem atque a^umentum bonomm. Sic usus est JudA tradente 
Christum ; sic usus est Judseis crucifigentibus Christum. £t 
quanta mde bomi prsestitit populis credituris! Quin et ipso 
Diabolo utitur pessimo, sed optim^ ad ezercendam et pro- 
bandam fldem et pietatem bonomm." 

God willed David's chastisement, but hated Shimei's wicked- 
new j whose lewd tongue^ moved bj Qod, moved lewdly from 
Satan (Bp. Sail). 

For some excellent remarks derived from David's example 
here, on the benefits to be elicited from ii^juries, see S, Ambrose 
de Officiis, i. 6. 8. Chrytoti, in Ps. xxxviii., and Theodoret here. 
8, Gregory, MoraL xxxi. 17, who observes that David was thus 
brought to a deeper sense of his own sins, and was exerdsed iu 
true repentance, and so found cause to be thankful for these 
indignities, which made him nearer and dearer to Qod, ** Sicque 
fit, ut oontumeliis gratia magis qutoi ira debeatur." It was 
a wise saying of 8. ChrgsoeU>mf that "no man is ever really 
hurt by any one but by himself." And on account of the bene- 
fits to be derived firom ii^juries, and from not being overcome 
of evil, but frt>m overcoming evU by good, even the heathen poet 
could bless heaven for ii\jurie8, and say, 

"Miserrima est fortuna, qusB inimico caret." 

14. refiresJied themselvee there"] At Bahurim ; so Jesus Christ, 
in His Passion Week, retired horn Jerusalem, in the evenings, 
to the village of Bethany, on those eastern slopes of the Mount 
of Olives, and refr<^ed Himself there in the house of Martha, 
Mary, and Lazarus, whom He loved (Matt. xxL 17. Mark 
xi.1.11. Lukexxi.87. John xL 1. 6). 

21. Oo in—eonoubinet] This will be a public declaration that 
thou daimest thy fitther's throne (^. iii. 7 ; xii. 8. 1 Kings ii. 22), 

and that the breach between thee and him is irreparable. 
Thot^h this was a capital crime (Lev. xx. 11 ; q>. 1 Cor. v. 1 ), 
and Beuben had lost his birthright by it, and incurred his 
fother's curse (Gen. xlix. 8 — 5), yet Ahithophel, in his worldly 
policy, did not scruple to recommend it ; and Absalom complied 
with the advice, and '* declared his sin, as Sodom." 

Perhuis (as A Lapide and others suppose) Ahithophel was 
influenced by feelings of private revenge against David for his 
conduct to Bathsheba, who was the daughter of Eliam (xi. 3), 
the son of Ahithophel (xxiii. 84). 

Observe here the bitter fruits of David's own example In 
the violations of God's laws, by Polygamy and Adultery. Those 
sins recoiled on himself. But Absuom imitated David in sin, 
not in repentance. 

Obe^e also the end of Ahithophel's oounseL He armed 
the son, Absalom, against his own father, David; and at last he 
armed his own hanck agiunst his own life {Theodore^, 

28. 8o theg spread'] And thus even by their sin tney proved 
God's truth, who had foretold this by Nathan (xii. 11, 12). 
Thus also they gave additional evidence that the prediction 
made to David by means of the same prophet, of Divine punish- 
ment to David's children if they sinned (vii. 14), and of the 
perpetual establishment of his kingdom in the Divine Son of 
David, Jesus Christ, would be fulfilled also (viL 16). 

Tliis " roof of the house" was probably the same scene in 
which that evil desire was conceived by David, which brought 
all tills misenr on him and his fiunily (see xi 2). '* David walked 
on the roof 01 tiie king's house." It was like a Maboth's vin^ard 
to him. His sin and punishment met together there ; so (Hbeon 
was the scene of Joab's sin and punishment : see below, xx. 8. 

Ch. XVII. 8. J wUl bring back aU the people mUo theel 
Ahithophel, David's counsellor, and traitor, treats Absalom Iki 
king, and he treats David as the rebel against him ! He pro- 

Digitized by 


Hushai's counsel 

2 SAMUEL XVn. 4—18. 

is pre/erred. 

man whom thou seekest is as if all returned*: so all the people shall be in 
j^Heb. ^^^M^ peace. * And the saying f pleased Absalom well, and all the elders of Israel. 
1 8am. 18. 10. 5 Then sald Absalom, Call now Hushai the Archite also, and let us hear like- 
iHeh.whaiiBin msB + what he saith. 

Am mouth, ' 

t Heb. word t 

t Heb. MUer of 


Judg. 18. 25. 

c Hos. 13. 8. 

t Heb. falUn. 

d3osh. 2. 11. 

e Judg. 20. 1. 
fGen.22. 17. 

t Heb. that tkp 
face, or, pretenet 
go, ^c. 

^ And when Hushai was come to Absalom, Absalom spake unto him, saying, 
Ahithophel hath spoken after this manner : shall we do after his f saying ? if 
not ; speak thou. ^ And Hushai said unto Absalom, The counsel that Ahi- 
t Heb. eovfuMtd. thophel hath f given is not good at this time. ^ For, said Hushai, thou 
knowest thy father and his men, that they be mighty men, and they be f chafed 
in their minds, as "^ a bear robbed of her whelps in the field : and thy father is 
a man of war; and will not lodge with the people. ^ Behold, he is hid now in 
some pit, or in some other place : and it will come to pass, when some of them 
be f overthrown at the first, that whosoever heareth it will say. There is a 
slaughter among the people that follow Absalom. ^^ And he also that is valiant, 
whose heart is as the heart of a lion, shall utterly ^'melt : for all Israel knoweth 
that thy father is a mighty man, and they which be with him are vaUant men. 
^^ Therefore I counsel that all Israel be generally gathered unto "thee, *from 
Dan even to Beer-sheba, ^as the sand that is by the sea for multitude ; and 
t that thou go to battle in thine own person. ^^ So shall we come upon him 
in some place where he shall be found, and we will light upon him as the dew 
falleth on the ground : and of him and of all the men that are with him there 
shall not be left po much as one. ^^ Moreover, if he be gotten into a city, then 
shall all Israel bring ropes to that city, and we will draw it into the river, until 
there be not one small stone found there. '^ And Absalom and all the men of 
Israel said. The counsel of Hushai the Archite is better than the counsel of 
Ahithophel. For *the Lord had f appointed to defeat the good counsel of 
Ahithophel, to the intent that the Lord might bring evil upon Absalom. 

1^ ** Then said Hushai unto Zadok and to Abiathar the priests, Thus and 
thus did Ahithophel counsel Absalom and the elders of Israel ; and thus and 
thus have I counselled. ^^ Now therefore send quickly, and tell David, saying, 
Lodge not this night * in the plains of the wilderness, but speedily pass over ; 
lest the king be swallowed up, and all the people that are with him. *^ ^ Now 
Jonathan and Ahimaaz * stayed by "* En-rogel ; for they might not be seen to 
come into the city : and a wench went and told them ; and they went and told 
king David. *' Nevertheless a lad saw them, and told Absalom : but they 
went both of them away quickly, and came to a man's house ° in Bahurim, 

g eh. 15. 81, 84. 
t Heb. eow^ 

h ch. 15. 85. 

I ch. 15.28. 
k ch. 15. 27, 86. 

1 Josh. 2. 4, ftc. 
m Josh. 15. 7. 
ft 18. 16. 

mises to bring back to Jerusalem all the people who have gone 
forth from it with David. Here was a foreshadowing or the 
traitoroos act of Jndas. Here was a foreshadowing of tiie anti- 
christian policy of the Ahithophels of this world, who conspire 
with rebellious Absaloms against the Divine David. But their 
end will be like that of Ahithophel: they will perish by their own 

— the man whom thou seekesf] The capture of David is 
tantamount to the return of all the people to thee. 

9, heU hid now in some j^f\ or cave, as he used to be when 
Saul was pursuing him, and was not able to catch him. 

— some of th^"] of Absalom's forces, then at Jerusalem. 
11. m thine own person] Hushai insinuates that Ahithojphel 

by his counsel had been indulging in an egotistical vauntmg. 
Ahithophel had sud (t>. 1—3), ** J will arise : J will come upon 
him : / will smite him : / will bring back the people ;" and he 
insinuates also that Ahithophel had been desirous of robbing 
Absalom of the gloir of the victory over David, and of assuming 
it to himself. And tiius Hushai practises on Absalom's vain- 
gloij and self-bve, and excites him against Ahithophel. 

18. we wUl draw it into the riverl Hushai says we, not I, as 
Ahithophel had done. He offers toM of the expedition, which 

was to be led by Absalom himself, and thus persuades Absalom, 
as wen as by the greatness of the adventure, whidi was very 
flattering to Absalom's vun-glory. ** We wUl draw the town 
into the river" ** Nihil est quod credere de se Non possit, cilm 
laudatur Dts equa potestas." He takes advantage of the 
weakness and self-conceit of Absalom. Hushai gain^ his end, 
and overthrew Absalom by flattering his vanity: see above, 
xiv. 25. 

16. plains'] Rather, the passages : see xv. 28. 

— pass over] Jordan. 

17. Sn-roget] or ** filler's fountain," at the s.e. of Jerusalem 
(Josh. XV. 7 ; xviii. 16) ; now called « Well of Joab," or more 
probably, " Spring of the Virgin." 

— a wen«^] Literally, the maiden ; one of the maidens of 
the High Priest, who was entrusted with this confidential servioe 
of being a means of communication between the High Ihiiest 
and David (Keil) ; ij irai9l<rfcn (Sept.), She came to the well, as 
if to draw water or to wash clothes there. It may not be un- 
worthy of notice, that " a maid o£ the High Priest " is men- 
tioned, though in a different capacity, in the histonr of David's 
sufferings and of those of Christ (Matt. xxvi. 69. IkUrk xiv. 69. 
Luke xxii. 56. John xviii. 17). 

Digitized by 


AhithopheVs end. 

2 SAMUEL XVn. 19—29. 

Barzillai^s loyalty. 

which had a well in his court ; whither they went down. ^^ And • the woman 
took and spread a covering over the well's mouth, and spread ground com 
thereon ; and the thing was not known. ^^ And when Absalom's servants came 
to the woman to the house, they said, Where is Ahimaaz and Jonathan ? 
And ^ the woman said unto them, They be gone over the brook of water. 
And when they had sought and could not find themj they returned to Jerusalem. 
2^ And it came to pass, after they were departed, that they came up out of the 
well, and went and told king David, and said unto David, *> Arise, and pass 
quickly over the water: for thus hath Ahithophel counselled against you. 
^ Then David arose, and all the people that were with him, and they passed 
over Jordan : by the morning light there lacked not one of them that was not 
gone over Jordan. 

2^ And when Ahithophel saw that his counsel was not f followed, he saddled 
his ass, and arose, and gat him home to his house, to 'his city, and fput his 
household in order, and •hanged himself, and died, and was buried in the 
sepulchre of his father. 

2* Then David came to ^ Mahanaim. And Absalom passed over Jordan, he 
and all the men of Israel with him. ^ And Absalom made Amasa captain of 
the host instead of Joab : which Amasa was a man's son, whose name was \\ Ithra 
an IsraeUte, that went in to " f Abigail the daughter of || Nahash, sister to 
Zeruiah Joab's mother. ^6 g^ igyael and Absalom pitched in the land of 

^ And it came to pass, when David was come to Mahanaim, that "^ Shobi 
the son of Nahash of Babbah of the children of Ammon, and ^ Machir the son 
of Ammiel of Lo-debar, and *Barzillai the Gileadite of Bogelim, ^ Brought 
beds, and || basons, and earthen vessels, and wheat, and barley, and flour, and 
parched com, and beans, and lentiles, and parched pvlsey ^ And honey, and 
butter, and sheep, and cheese of kine, for David, and for the people that were 

See Josh. 2. S. 

5 See Ex. 1. 19. 
osh. 3. 4, 5. 

q ver. 15, 1«. 

t Heb. doM. 

r ch. 15. 12. 

t Heb. govt ekargt 

eoneenUng hit 

2 Kings 20. 1. 
8 Matt. 27. 5. 

t Gen. S2. 2. 
Josh. IS. 26. 
ch. 2. 8. 

I Or, Jeihtr an 


a 1 Chron. 2. 16, 


t Heb. Abtgal. 

LOr, JetM, 
se 1 Chron. 2. 
18, 16. 

X See ch. 10. 1. 
6 12. 20. 

J ch. 9. 4. 

S ch. 19. 31, 82. 
1 Kings 2. 7. 
H Or, cup*. 

18. a well] A dstero, then empty. It seems to have been 
summer time. 

19. ground corn] meal (Pror. zxvii. 27), as if she wished to 
dryitCG'ettffi. 768). 

21. the water] The Jordan. 

22. Danid arose— and they pateed over Jordan] Perhaps 
David then composed Psalms xlii. and ziiiL, where he looks 
back upon Jemaidem "from the hmd of Jordan" (xlii. 6). 
Some connect the 8rd and 4th Psahns with these days of trial. 
See also bek)w, preUm, notes to Ptolms 56, 61, 68, 64^ 65, 84^ 
85, which seem to belong to this time. 

28. Ahithophel— hanged himself] He strangled himself 
(Oesen. 298), as Jndas the traitor did. The Sept, here uses 
the word infiyiarro, and this word is adopted by St. Matthew in 
his narrative of the death of Jndas (see Bfatt. xxviL 5), who 
thns seems to invite his readers to compare Jndas and Ahitho- 

Ahithophel jMi< Am housein order; and he did the deed de- 
liberately. Josephus says that he foresaw that David's canse would 
succeed, and that he desired to obviate his anger by this act. 

Ahithophel's counsel had been formerly regarded ajs an 
oracle hy Hoe world (xvi. 28); and he now killed himself from 
vexation Uiat his counsd was rejected. With desperate pre- 
meditation and impious recklessness, havinff settled his house- 
hold affiurs with coolness, he rushed boldly mto the presence of 
his Judge, his hands stained with his own blood, and with his 
sins unrepented on his head — ^wise for this world, but a madman 
for Eternity. Thus he displayed the miserable infatuation of 
worldly p<^y. By his deadly revenge on himself, he incurred 
eternal »iame and misery, in order to escape the contempt of 
godless men. Such is political wisdom! ''The wicked is 
snared in t^ work of his own hands" (Ps. vii. 15). 

A wise man, whose wisdom is from God, lives happily under 
the world's contempt ; but " worldly wisdom is no protection 
finom shame and ruin ; Ahithophel cared for the world, cared 

for his house, but cared not for his own soul. How foolish 
is it to be wise, if we are not wise in Gtod ! " (Bp, Sail.) 

24. Mahanaim] A fortified Levitical city on the east of 
Jordan in the tribe of Oad, near the ford of Jabbok, and cele- 
brated in the history of Jacob (Gen. zxzii. 2) and of l^hbosheth, 
who had there been made king of CKlead : see ii 8, 9. 

25. Amasa] A nephew of David, and cousin of Joab and 
Absalom : see 1 Chron. iL 16, 17. 

— Ithra an Israelite] Called Jether the Ishmaelite in 
1 Chron. ii. 17. Perhaps he was a proselyte fVom Ishmael 
( Vatahhis), Compare Josephus, vii. 10. 1. Or Israelite may 
mean that he was not of the tribe of Judcth, as might have been 
expected fVtnn his marriage with Abigail, David's sister ; he was 
an Ishmaelite by descent^ and not an inhabitant of Judah, but 
of some other tnbe. 

— Naliash] Supposed by Kimohi and others to be another 
name of Jesse ; and by others, to be no oth^ tluui the king of 
the Ammonites (x. 2), but this is hardly probable. 

27. 8hoh%] Whom David perhaps had put into Hanun's 
place (cp. xii. 26). David had received beaieflfcs from Nahash, 
and had shown kindness to Hanun whidi was ill requited by 
him (x. 2), but not forgotten by ShobL 

— Machir] Who had brought up Mephibosheth, and knew 
David's kindness to him (ix. 5). 

— Barzillat] contrasted with Ahithophel and with Absalom. 
See on r. 29, and xix. 31. 

28. beds] mattresses. 

— basons] caldrons, or kettles. 

99. cheese of kine] from buttermilk (Surckh,, Keil). 

David was received with kindness in the land of (iilead, on 
the east of Jordan, at a time when he was driven by his own 
son out of his own capit4il, Jerusalem, in his own tnbe. The 
Jews r^ected Christ, but the Gospel was gladlv received by 
Samaritans (Acts viU. 4 — 6) and by the Gentiles (Acts xiii. 
46—48; xxviii.28). 

Digitized by 


71ie Wood of Ephraim. 

2 SAMUEL XVm. 1—9. 

Absalom's death. 

a ch. 16. 3. 

« ch. 15. 19. 

bch.2I. 17. 

f Heb. set their 
heart on us. 
i Heb. as ten 
thousand of us. 
t Heb. b« to 

dJoth. 17. 15,18. 

t Heb. multiplied 
to deooMt . 

with him, to eat : for they said, The people is hungry, and weary, and thirsty, 
' in the wilderness. 

XVin. ^ And David numbered the people that were with him, and set captains 
of thousands and captains of hundreds over them. ^ And David sent forth a third 
part of the people under the hand of Joab, and a third part under the hand of 
Abishai the son of Zeruiah, Joab's brother, ' and a third part under the hand 
of Ittai the Gittite. And the king said unto the people, I will surely go forth 
with you myself also. ' ^ But the people answered, Thou shalt not go forth : 
for if we flee away, they will not f care for us; neither if half of us die, will 
they care for us : but now thou art f worth ten thousand of us : therefore now 
it is better that thou f succour us out of the city. ^ And the king said unto 
them. What seemeth you best I will do. And the king stood by the gate side, 
and all the people came out by hundreds and by thousands. 

^ And the king commanded Joab and Abishai and Ittai, saying. Deal gently 
for my sake with the young man, even with Absalom. ""And all the people 
heard when the king gave all the captains charge concerning Absalom. 

^ So the people went out into the field against Israel : and the battle was in 
the ^ wood of Ephraim ; ^ Where the people of Israel were slain before the 
servants of David, and there was there a great slaughter that day of twenty 
thousand men. ^ For the battle was there scattered over the face of all the 
country : and the wood f devoured more people that day than the sword de- 
voured. ^ And Absalom met the servants of David. And Absalom rode upon 
a mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great oak, and his 
head caught hold of the oak, and he was taken up between the heaven and the 
earth ; and the mule that was under him went away. 

Ch. XVIII. Z. hut now tbou avt] Instead of the Hebrew 
atiah (with initial ayin), Bignifying now, some would read 
attah (with initial aleph'S thou; and this seems probable, though 
not necessary ; and the rormer word appears to have been reid 
here by the Chaldee Paraphrast. 

6. wood of Sphraim] where was this ** wood of Ephnum ?'* 

It seems evident, that it could not have been in the tribe of 
Ephraim, on the west of Jordan (as is supposed by some, Winer, 
Keil), because the people say to David, who remained in 
Mahimaim, that he should succour them out of the city (v. 8) ; 
therefore it was not &r from Mahanaim, and therefore on the 
east of Jordan. 

Also in xvii. 26 it is said that " Israel and Absalom pitched 
in the limd of GKlead/' that is, on the east side of Jordan. And 
there is no mention of any crossing of the Jordan by David's army, 
after the battle, in order to come hack to him ai Mcthanaim, 

This opinion, which is that of the ancient expositors, is 
nudntained by Ewald, Thenius, and others. 

Why the wood or forest bore the name of Ephraim is 
uncertain. Some (with Orotiue and Prof, ^/unQ have sup- 
posed that it was so called from the slaughter of the Ephraimites 
by Jephthah in that neighbourhood (Judg. xii. 1—8). 

Others think that it derived its name from this very battle 
between David's army and Absalom's, which is called the army 
of " Israel " (see xvii. ; 24. 26 ; xviii. 6, 7), and in which probably 
the tribe of Ephraim took the lead. 

But the more probable opinion is, that there was a settle- 
ment of Ephraim there, in connexion with the neighbouring 
brother-tribe of Manasseh {Bp, Cotton, Stanley). 

For a remarkable parallel to this supposed geographical 
anomaly see above, on Judg. vii. 8. 

8. the wood devoured] In swampa, morasses, and pits (see 
V. 17) : and because, being entangled in the forest, they conild 
not escape from their enemies : cp. below on Pa. Ixiii. 10. 

Death of Absalom— Thb EnrG's Muu. 

9. Ahedlom met the servants of David] Who would not attack 
him. on account of the king's commandment (w. 5 and 12); but 
though they let him go, Qod met him, and put a stop to bis 
Oight (Bp, Patrick). 

Absalom, by the counsel of Ahithophd, had perpetrated 

that other crime by which he declared in the light of all Israel 
that he had usurped his father's throne (see above, xvi. 21 — 23), 
and now, in the ught also of the people, he rides upon the kind's 
mule. Compare the incident mentioned in Esth. vL 8, ** Let 
the horse that the kin^ rideth upon, be brought for the man 
whom the king delighteth to honour;" and Henry IV. 
^Bolingbroke) riding on King Richard IL's " Roan Barbair " 
(Act V. Sc. v.). David, we are told, as if in reference .to this 
act, had walked up Mount Olivet harrfoot (xv. 80) ; not on his 
mule. He had Idft that behind him. Absalom, as if he were 
king, mounts his father's mule, and rides upon it ; but, as we 
shaU see, this act of usurpation was the cause of his death. 

— Absalom rode upon a mule] Lit., upon the mule; Josephms 
(vii. 9. 2) says that it was **the king^s mule." (Compare 
i Kings i. 83. 88. 44, where the riding on the king^s mule (see 
above, xiii. 29) is represented as an act of royal authori^, wluch 
Absalom claimed, and which David afterwards gave to Solomon. 

This circumstance makes the manner of Absalom's death 
more remarkable. He was caught by his hair, in which he 
gloried (xiv. 26, 26). The justice of God plaited a' halter with 
that in which he sinned by pride ; and he was left hung up in 
the tree by the mulo which he had usurped ; a fit punishment fbr 
a rebel son and a traitor. Ahithophel, his counsellor, and Absa- 
lom, both perished by the death which was accounted accursed 
bv the Hebrews, that of hanging (cp. v. 10. Dent. xxL 28. 
dp. Bp. Pearson, Art. iv. p. 2ff! note). 

— of a greai oak] Lit., of the great terehinth ; probably it 
renudned to after-ages, and was pointed out as the tree in which 
Absalom had been caught; like the oak in wUch a lawful 
English monarch escaped, when his throne had been usurped. 

— his head caught hold qf the oak] Probably (tm Josephus 
says, vii. 10. 2) his hair was caught in the tniok boughi 
and twigs, and then his head was wedged in by his neck in 
a forked bough, while his mule ran swiftly from under him. 

— between the heaven and the earth] Absalom was rqected, 
as a traitor, by both heaven and earth (S, Chrys.). 

The mule, on which he rode, as if it were weary to bear 
so unnatural a burden, resigned its load to the tree of justice. 
Absalom, Ahithophel, Judas, all lifted up their hand agwnat 
God's Anointed, and all died the same death {Bp. Sail). A 
warning to all conspirators and reg^dcs. 

Digitized by 


Absalom* $ death ; 

2 SAMUEL XVm. 10—23. 

his monument. 

^^ And a certain man saw tV, and told Joab, and said. Behold, I saw Absalom 
hanged in an oak. ^^ And Joab said nnto the man that told him. And, behold, 
thou sawest fern, and why didst thou not smite him there to the ground ? and 
I would have given thee ten shekels of silver, and a girdle. ^^ And the man 
said unto Joab, Though I should f receive a thousand shekels of silver in mine 
hand, yet would I not put forth mine hand against the king's son : * for in our 
hearing the king charged thee and Abishai and Ittai, saying, \ Beware that 
none touch the young man Absalom. ^' Otherwise I should have wrought 
falsehood against mine own life : for there is no matter hid from the king, and 
thou thyself wouldest have set thyself against m^. ^* Then said Joab, I may not 
tarry thus f with thee. And he took three darts in his hand, and thrust them 
through the heart of Absalom, while he was yet aUve in the f midst of the oak. 
^* And ten young men that bare Joab's armour compassed about and smote 
Absalom, and slew him. 

^^ And Joab blew the trumpet, and the people returned from pursuing after 
Israel : for Joab held back the people. ^^ And they took Absalom, and cast 
him into a great pit in the wood, and 'laid a very great heap of stones upon 
him : and all Israel fled every one to his tent. ^^ Now Absalom in his life- 
time had taken and reared up for himself a pillar, which is in » the king's dale : 
for he said, ^ I have no son to keep my name in remembrance : and he called 
the pillar after his own name : and it is called unto this day, Absalom's place. 

^^ Then said Ahimaaz the son of Zadok, Let me now run, and bear the king 
tidings, how that the Lord hath f avenged him of his enemies. ^ And Joab 
said unto him. Thou shalt not f bear tidings this day, but thou shalt bear 
tidings another day: but this day thou shalt bear no tidings, because the king's 
son is dead. ^^ Then said Joab to Cushi, Go tell the king what thou hast seen. 
And Cushi bowed himself unto Joab, and ran. ^2 Then said Ahimaaz the son 
of Zadok yet again to Joab, But {howsoever, let me, I pray thee, also run after 
Cushi. And Joab said. Wherefore wilt thou run, my son, seeing that thou 
hast no tidings || ready ? ^ But howsoever, said he^ let me run. And he said 
unto him. Run, Then Ahimaaz ran by the way of the plain, and overran 

t Heb. weigh mpon 
mine hand. 

e Ter. 5. 

t Heb. Beware 
whosoever ye be 
0/, ♦«. 

t Heb. b^ore 


t Heb. heart. 

t Joab. 7. 26. 

gOen. 14. ir. 
h See ch. 14. 27. 

t Keh. Judged 
him from the hand, 

t Heb. be a man 

t Heb. be what 

I Or, convenient. 

11. Joah 9ttid] Joab, wbose conduct wa0 swaged by regard to 
his own interest, rather than by love to David« knew that if 
Absalom succeeded, he himself would be superseded in the chief 
command by Amasa (xviL 25). 

We see here the same man, acting on the same motives as 
the murderer of Abner (iii. 23 — 80). This is evident from Joab's 
subsequent treachery and murder of Amasa (zx. 9, 10). 

— a girdle] A captmn's commission, which perhaps was 
ugnified by the delivery of a girdle : see Isa. xxii. 21 (Jf. Henry), 

18. I should have wrought fdUehood'] I should have been 
imtrue to myself, as well as to tne King and the King's son. 

14. three darts] Literally, three rods, which is supposed by 
some to be the meaning here {KeiJ), And in the more than 
one hundred places where it occurs, this is the only one where 
the original word (shebet) is rendered in our Vernon by dart : 
a rendering however which is supported by Sept., Vulg,, Byriac, 
and Targwn. 

16. blew the trumpet] Sounded a retreat; for, with the death 
of Absalom, the victory wni won. 

17. catt him into a great pit] They spared David the sorrow 
of seeing his son's mangled bodv. 

— Imd a very great heap of stones] And thus Absalom, as a 
rebel against his father, was in a manner punished according to 
the Law of God with the penalty prescribed for a son's rebellion 
—stoning (Deut. xxi. 20, 21). 

18. Now Absalom i» his lifetime— pillar] The Sacred His- 
torian, having described the heap of stones, which was the monu- 
ment of Almlom's sin and diame — like the heap of stones 

Vol. IL Pabt II.-113 

which commemorated the sin of Achan (Josh. vii. 26), and like 
the heap of stones raised over Uie body of the King of Ai, who 
had been hanged (Josh. viii. 29. Cp. Josh. z. 27)^now pro- 
ceeds to speak, by way of contrast, of the monument which 
Absalom had designed for himself. His monument was a soli- 
tary cairn in the wild forest, instead of a lordly pillar in the 
"King's dale" near the capital city, to be admired by passing 
crowds in future ages. Such was the result of his hopes. 

By his unnatural rebellion his glory was turned mto shame. 
<* But the memory of the just is blessed ;" and though in this 
world he may have no monument, Christ wiU make him to be 
<'a pillar in the house of his God'* (Rev. iii. 12). 

— a pillar, which is in the king's dale] About a quarter of a 
mile to the east of Jerusalem, in the valley of Jehoshaphat, near 
the brook Kedron. Cp. J^osephus, viL 10. 8 ; and above. Gen. 
xiv. 17. 

— I have no son] The three sons mentioned in xiv. 27 were 
either bom after the erection of the pillar, or (as Kimchi and 
other Hebrew writers and Theodoret suppose) had died before 
it. Absalom, a rebellious son, was punished by leaving no son 
behind him. 

— Absalom's place] Literally, Absalom's hand, or monu- 
ment, that which pointed to him (cp. the word monumentum, 
from moneo). Cp. 1 Sam. xv. 12. Isa. Ivi. 5. Oesen. 332. 
And perhaps also, as being his handiwork, cp. Ps. xix. 1. The 
pillar, which was designed by Absalom for his own glory, only 
remained as a memorial of his shame. 

21. Cushi] or an Ethiopian. 


Digitized by 


Damd mourns 

2 SAMUEL XVIII. 24—33. XIX. 1—7. 

for Absalom. 

j Ut\i. I $te the 

D Or, Peace be to 


t Heb. Peace. 

t Heb. shut up. 

t Heb. I8 there 
peace t 

f Heb. Tidinge ie 

12 Kmgs0. ir. 24 ^^ David sat between the two gates : and * the watchman went np to the 
roof over the gate unto the wall, and lifted np his eyes, and looked, and behold 
a man running alone. ^ And the watchman cried, and told the king. And 
the king said. If he be alone, there is tidings in his mouth. And he came 
apace, and drew near. ^ And the watchman saw another man running : and 
the watchman called unto the porter, and said, Behold another man running 
alone. And the king said. He also bringeth tidings. ^ And the watchman 
said, f Me thinketh the running of the foremost is like the running of Ahimaaz 
the son of Zadok. And the king said. He is a good man, and cometh with 
good tidings. 

^ And Ahimaaz called, and said unto the king, || f All is well. And he fell 
down to the earth upon his face before the king, and said. Blessed be the Lobd 
thy God, which hath f delivered up the men that lifted up their hand against 
my lord the king. ^^ And the king said, f Is the young man Absalom safe ? 
And Ahimaaz answered. When Joab sent the king's servant, and m^ thy 
servant, I saw a great tumult, but I knew not what it was. ^^ And the king 
said unto him. Turn aside, and stand here. And he turned aside, and stood 
still. ^^ And, behold, Cushi came ; and Cushi said, f Tidings, my lord the 
king : for the Lord hath avenged thee this day of all them that rose up 
against thee. ^ And the king said unto Cushi, Is the young man Absalom 
safe ? And Cushi answered. The enemies of my lord the king, and all that 
rise against thee to do thee hurt, be as that young man is. ^ And the king was 
much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept : and as he 
went, thus he said, ^ my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom 1 would 
God I had died for thee, Absalom, my son, my son ! 

XIX. ^ And it was told Joab, Behold, the king weepeth and moumeth for 
^ And the f victory that day was turned into mourning unto all the 
people : for the people heard say that day how the king was grieved for his son. 
'And the people gat them by stealth that day *into the city, as people being 
ashamed steal away when they flee in battle. * But the king ** covered his 
face, and the king cried with a loud voice, ^ my son Absalom, Absalom, 
my son, my son 1 

^ And Joab came into the house to the king, and said, Thou hast shamed 
this day the faces of all thy servants, which this day have saved thy life, and 
the lives of thy sons and of thy daughters, and the lives of thy wives, and the 
tHeb.Bytortiv, lives of thy concubines ; ^ f ^^ ^'^^ *^^^ lovest thine enemies, and hatest thy 
friends. For thou hast declared this day, f that thou regardest neither princes 
nor servants : for this day I perceive, that if Absalom had lived, and all we 
had died this day, then it had pleased thee well. ^ Now therefore arise. 

k eh. 19. 4. 

t Heb. ealvationt A Viao 1 nm 
or, deliverance. -^OSaiOm. 

a ver. 83. 

b oh. 15. 80. 

c ch. 18. 88. 

f Heb. that 
prineee ortervante 
Kttnottc thee. 

S4. the two gatet] The inner and oater gate of the city. 

36. unto the porter] or, to within the gate where the king 

89. 1$ the yowng man Absalom ecfe X\ Lit., ie there ehalom 
(peace) to Ahealom 7 

88. And Oushi cmewered— young man is] See Bp. Andrewee, 
V. 8 — 2B, for a sermon on this text. 

Dated koubkutg- tob Absaloh. 
88. would God I had died for theelJAt., who will grant me 
to die for thee? Was not this done by David, in type of the tme 
King and Redeemer of Israel ? (3p. Hall.) 

David had not monmed after the death of his infimt child, 
but had said, "Can I bring him back again P I shall go to him, 
but he shall not return to me " (xii. 28). Why then this mourn- 
ing for Absalom ? Why so intense a sorrow for it ? (see xix. 4.) 
It was because David believed in the Resurrection, and in the 

Judgment to come, and in a ftiture state of Rewards and Puiush- 
ments. It was because (as Theodoret suggests) his son Absalom 
had been cut off in an act of sin : the wages of which are the 
second death, and because by Absalom's death the door of 
repentance and pardon was shut upon him. 

David did not weep because he had lost a son, but because he 
well knew into what punishments that son's gnUty soul (tam 
impi^ parricidalis et adultera) was carried away by death. 8» 
Augustine (de Doot. Christ, lii. 21. Cp. c Faust, xzii. 66). 

Ch. xix. 8. hg stealth] Not through the gate where David 
sat (xviiL 88). 

4. covered his face] as in mourning (xv. 80). 

5. Joah oame] Thinking it best to assume a haughty tone, and 
to proceed with a high hand, as if David was in the wrong, and 
not Joab himself, who had disobeyed the king's orders and slain 
his son. 

Digitized by 


David is brotu/ht back 

2 SAMUEL XIX, 8—22. 

by Judah to Jerusalem. 

go forth, and speak f comfortably unto thy servants : for I swear by the Lokd, l/jf^/^^};*^' 
if thou go not forth, there will not tarry one with thee this night: and that ^en.M.s. 
will be worse unto thee than all the evU that befell thee from thy youth until 
now. ^ Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And they told unto all the 
people, saying. Behold, the king doth sit in the gate. And all the people 
came before the king : for Israel had fled every man to his tent. 

^ And all the people were at strife throughout all the tribes of Israel, saying, 
The king saved us out of the hand of our enemies, and he delivered us out of 
the hand of the Philistines ; and now he is ** fled out of the land for Absalom, d cb. is. i4. 
1^ And Absalom, whom we anointed over us, is dead in battle. Now therefore 
why f speak ye not a word of bringing the king back ? l^f-, ^ y* 

^^ And king David sent to Zadok and to Abiathar the priests, saying, Speak 
unto the elders of Judah, saying. Why are ye the last to bring the king back 
to his house ? seeing the speech of all Israel is come to the king, even to his 
house. ^^ Ye are my brethren, ye are • my bones and my flesh : wherefore then e ch. 5. 1 
are ye the last to bring back the king ? ^^ 'And say ye to Amasa, Art thou not 'ch. v. 2t>. 
of my bone, and of my flesh ? * God do so to me, and more also, if thou be not g Ruth 1. 1». 
captain of the host before me continually in the room of Joab. ^^ And he 
bowed the heart of all the men of Judah, ^even as the heart of one man; iiJ«dg.2o.i. 
so that they sent this word unto the king. Return thou, and all thy servants.- 
^* So the king returned, and came to Jordan. And Judah came to *Gilgal, to iJ««h.6.9. 
go to meet the king, to conduct the king over Jordan. 

^^ And ^ Shimei the son of Gera, a Benjamite, which was of Bahurim, hasted f Ktegf"2**8. 
and came down with the men of Judah to meet king David. ^^ And there were 
a thousand men of Benjamin with him, and *Ziba the servant of the house of i^^f^^jY^®' 
Saul, and his fifteen sons and his twenty servants with him ; and they went 
over Jordan before the king. ^^ And there went over a ferry boat to carry 
over the king's household, and to 4o fwhat he thought good. And Shimei Jif^i'**^'''"" 
the son of Gera fell down before the king, as he was come over Jordan ; ^^ And 
said unto the king, " Let not my lord impute iniquity unto me, neither do thou ^ 1 8*«. 2«. 15. 
remember "that which thy servant did perversely the day that my lord the nch.i6.5,6.&o. 
king went out of Jerusalem, that the king should ** take it to his heart. ^ For och.i«.3«. 
thy servant doth know that I have sinned: therefore, behold, I am come 
the first this day of all ^the house of Joseph to go down to meet my lord the p86ech.i6.6. 
king. ^^ But Abishai the son of Zeruiah answered and said, Shall not Shimei 
be put to death for this, because he ''cursed the Lord's anointed? ^ And q ex. 11.28. 

B. Israel hadJM^ Abialom's faroes (called Itrael, xvi. 24. 
26 ; xviii. 6^ 7) luid dispersed themselyes to their own homes. 

18. 9ajf ye to Asnasa] Let him not fear or resist me, becaose 
ho was Abklom's general : see xviL 26. 

— Art thou not qfmy hone T] My nephew : see xvii. 26. 

— i^the room ofJoah'] the mniderer of my son, thv cousin. 
This annooncement stirred the envy and jealousy of Joab« and 
was the occasion of Amasa's death (xx. 10). 

14. he bowed theheart qftUlthe men qf Judah — Metwm thou, 
and all thp eeroants'] So it will one day be with the Jewish 
nation, which is now serving an Absalom of their own will» but 
will then greet the return of their true King, and say, " Blessed 
be the Idngdom of our fi&ther David that cometh in the name of 
tiie Lord — Hosanna in the highest" (Mark xi. 9, 10). 

16. Jndah came to QilgdU—to meet the king] This turning 
"of the heart of all the men of Judah" to David, whom they 
had rqected at Jerusalem, and tins bringing of him back from 
Gilgal to his own city, was a foreshadowing of the future con- 
version of the Jews to their true King, Jesus Christ, whom they 
have crucified, and whom they will hereafter hail with joy as 
their King : see Matt xxiii. 9. Bom. xi. 26, 26. 2 Cor. iii. 16. 

— Oilffaf] The place consecrated bv the historical associations 
of Joshua and of Samuel (Josh. v. 9; ix. 6; x. 6. 1 Sam. viL 16; 
XV. 33). Gilgal was a type of Qolgotha : see on Josh. v. 9. Is 
that without a meaning here P See the foregoing note. 

16. Shimei the eon of Gera"] Who had cursed David when 
going over Olivet, in his flight from Jerusalem in sorrow, but - 
now desires pardon from him, because David is returning in 
power. The Shimeis of this world, who slight the Son of David 
in His sufi^erings, will endeavour to make peace with Him when 
He comes again in glory. 

17. they went over Jordan before the king! Tins passage of 
Jordan was the most memorable one since the days of Jodiua and 
the Ark ; and like that, ought to be associated in our minds with 
the history of the Divine David, Who by His baptism in that river 
brought hsL^k His people to Ood. 

20. of Joseph] Not of the tribe of Benjamin only, my own 
tribe; but before any others, except thy own tribe, Judah. 
Joseph comprehends all Israel (cp. Josh. xvi. 1). KeiU Shimei 
avoids the mention of Benjamin, the tribe of Saul. 

21. Abishai] Again eager to revenge David (see 
xxvi. 8. 2 Sam. xvi. 9), and again restrained by him. 


1 Sam. 

Digitized by 


Mephibosheth's loyalty ; 

2 SAMUEL XIX. 23—35. 

and Barzillai's. 

T ch. 16. 10. 
1 1 Sam. 11. IS. 

t 1 Kings 1. 8, 9, 
37, 46. 

Q ch. 9. 6. 

X ch, 16. 1^7. 

J oh. 16. 8. 

s eh. 14. 17, 20. 

t Heb. mn of 


I Sam. 26. 16. 

a ch. 9. 7, 10, IS. 

b I Kings 2. 7. 

cch. 17.27. 

t Heb. How many 
dapt tLTe tk« peart 
of my lift. 

d Ps. 90. 10. 

David said, 'What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah, that ye should 
this day be adversaries unto me ? ' shall there any man be put to death this 
day in Israel? for do not I know that I am this day king over Israel? 
25 Therefore * the king said unto Shimei, Thou shalt not die. And the king 
sware unto him, 

^ And "" Mephibosheth the son of Saul came down to meet the king, and had 
neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes, from 
the day the king departed until the day he came again in peace. ^ And it 
came to pass, when he was come to Jerusalem to meet the king, that the king 
scdd unto him, "Wherefore wentest not thou with me, Mephibosheth ? ^ And 
he answered, My lord, king, my servant deceived me : for thy servant said, 
1 will saddle me an ass, that I may ride thereon, and go to the king ; because 
thy servant is lame* ^ And ^he hath slandered thy servant unto my lord the 
IriTig ; "but my lord the l^ing is as an angel of God : do therefore what is good 
in thine eyes. ^ For all of my father's house were but f dead men before my 
lord the king: "yet didst thou set thy servant among them that did eat at 
thine own table. What right therefore have I yet to cry any more unto the 
long ? ^ And the king said unto him. Why speakest thou any more of thy 
matters ? I have said, Thou and Ziba divide the land. ^ And Mephibosheth 
said unto the king. Yea, let him take all, forasmuch as my lord the king is 
come again in peace unto his own house. 

'* And **Barzillai the Gileadite came down from Rogelim, and went over 
Jordan with the king, to conduct him over Jordan. ^ Now Barzillai was a 
very aged man, even fourscore yea^rs old : and * he had provided the king of 
sustenance while he lay at Mahanaim ; for he was a very great man. ^ And 
the king said unto Barzillai, Come thou over with me, and I will feed thee 
with me in Jerusalem. ^ And Barzillai said unto the king, f How long have I 
to live, that I should go up with the king unto Jerusalem ? ^ I am this day 
** fourscore years old: and can I discern between good and evil? can thy 
servant taste what I eat or what I drink? can I hear any more the voice 
of ringing men and singing women ? wherefore then should thy servant -be yet 

28. What have I to do v6Uh you— that ye should— he adve^- 
eartee unto tnel'] LiterAlly, that ye should be an €ulversary (Heb. 
a Saian) to me. The Vulgate here has ** in Satan." So our 
Lord says to Peter, wben dissuading Him from suffering, " Qet 
thee behind Me, Satan " (Matt. xvi. 23). 

Mephibosheth meets David. 
S4. Mephibosheth ?] This other Beniamiteis contrasted with 
the traitor Shimei, and with Ziba, in his loyalty to David : he 
is a type of the ffdthful among the Jews in love and devotion 
to the true David, Jesus Christ : see above, note on ix. 6. Such 
"Israelitesindeed" are grieved in all the sorrows, and rejoice 
in all the joys, of Christ and his Church (see v, 24), and love 
Him, not for temporal respects, but for His own saJce (v. 30), 
and are content to ensure slander from theic friends and ser- 
vants—the Zibas of this world — if only they can see His glory. 

— had neilher dressed his feet— clothes] In token of sorrow : 
cheered however by fiiith and hope, for he could not have 
intended or expected that such a condiition of attire and person 
should be other than of short duration. It was like the lasting 
of the children of the bride-chamber, looking and praying for 
the bridegroom's return (Matt. ix. 15). 

29. Why speakest thou any more /] Why dost thou labour to 
defend thyself? I am fully persuaded of thy innocence. 

— / ha/ve said. Thou and ^ba divide the land^ That is, I 
before declared (ix. 10) that Ziba should labour in tilling it, 
and should render to thee a part of the produce. This b what 
1 first commanded ; and I now reinstate thee in thy possessions, 


accotding td my orig^inal grant, aUd I revoke the concession to 
Ziba, which he obtained from me by misrepresentation. See 
xvi. 4, where David said to 2iba, " Thine are all that pertained 
unto Mephibosheth." 

Why, it may be asked, did not David punish Ziba for his 
slander of his master by dispossessing him altogether of the 
land ? Probably for the same reason as that for which he had 
spared Shimei ; because this was a day for joy (v. 22). 

80. And 'Mephibosheth said — Yea, let him take aU, foras" 
much <u my lord the king is come again in peace unto JUs oum 
house'} A beautiful contrast, not only to Ziba, but to Joab, Ahi- 
thophel, and Absalom. Mephibosheth, the heir of Saul, did 
not envy David, whose famUy had superseded his own in the 
throne of Israel ; but he loved David, as Jonathan his fkther 
had done, and he loved David for David's own sake. Others 
loved themselves when they profemed love to the king. They 
were self-seekers; and if they did any thing for David, it waa 
not for David's sake, but for their own. In Mephibosheth we 
see the picture of the true Christian soul, which loves Christ for 
Christ's sake. *' Minus Te amat ** (says 8. Augustine), " Domine, 
qui Tecum aliquid amat quod non propter Te amat. Beatus 
qui amat Te, et amicum in Te, et inimicum propter Te." 
** Rectum cor cum Deo est, cum Deus quseritur propter Deum." 

81. Martillai} The Simeon of the Old Testoment, who now 
sees David in peace, and sayn, ** Nunc dimittis " (o. 87* Luke 
ii. 29). Compare prelim, note to Ps. Ixxxv. 

— Rogelim] On the high limds east of Jordan. 

85. singing men and singing women"] Had Solomon in hiB 

Digitized by 


David crosses Jordan ; 2 SAMUEL XIX. 36 — 43. XX. 1 — 5. returns to Jei-usalem. 

a burden tiiito my lord the king ? ^ Thy servant will go a little way over 

Jordan with the king : and why should the king recompense it me with such 

a reward ? ^ Let thy servant, I pray thee, turn back again, that I may die in 

mine own city, and be buried by the grave of my father and of my mother. 

But behold thy servant •Chimham ; let him go over with my lord the king; ei Kings 1.7. 

and do to him what shall seem good unto thee. ^ And the king answered, 

Chimham shall go over with me, and I will do to him that which shall seem 

good unto thee : and whatsoever thou shalt f require of me, that will I do for t Heb.c*oM«. 

thee. ^ And all the people went over Jordan. And when the king was come 

over, the king 'kissed Barzillai, and blessed him; and he returned unto his ' 

own place. ^ Then the king went on to Gilgal, and f Chimham went on with + Heb. chimhan. 

him : and all the people of Judah conducted the king, and also half the people 

of Israel. 

*^ And, behold, all the men of Israel came to the king, and said unto the 
king. Why have our brethren the men of Judah stolen thee away, and «have gvcr.w. 
brought the king, and his household, and all David's men with him, over 
Jordan ? ^^ And all the men of Judah answered the men of Israel, Because 
the king is **near of kin to us : wherefore then be ye angry for this matter ? !»▼«■ 12. 
have we eaten at all of the king's cost I or hath he given u» any gift ? ^^ And 
the men of Israel answered the men of Jud^, and said, We have ten parts in 
the king, and we have also more right in David than ye: why then did 
ye t despise us, that our advice should not be first had in bringing back our tHeb.jrt««# 
king ? And ' the words of the men of Judah were fiei-cet than the words of the ^^Y^^- *• "• 
men of Israel. 

XX. ^ And there happened to be there a man of BeKal, whose name vms 
Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite : and he blew a trumpet, and said, 'We '^^ ^^- *'• 
have no part m David, neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse : "* every Jch^id.^ift.** 
man. to his tents, Israel. ^ So every man of Israel went up from after 
David, and followed Sheba the son of Bichri : but the men of Judah clave unto 
their king, from Jordan even to Jerusalem. 

^ And David came to his house at Jerusalem ; and the king took the ten 
women his *= concubines, whom he had left to keep the house, and put them in ^^^- \^^ »« 
f ward, and fed them, but went not in unto them. So they were f shut up L^/"**^" 
unto the day of their death, f living in vridowhoodr 

* Then said the king to Amasa, **f Assemble me the men of Judah vrithin d^Jh.Ws. 
three days, and be thou here present. * So Amasa went to assemble the men 
of Judah : but he tarried longer than the set time which he had appointed him'. 

t Heb. bound. 
t Heb. in widow- 

t Heb. CaU. 

memoTY this epeech of the aged Barzillai to his fhther when he 
wrote in his own old age me words of Ecclesiastes xii. 4, 5 ? 
"The daughters of music shall be brought low — the grass- 
hopper shall be a burden, because man goeth to his long 

87. thy servant Chimhctm] Barzillai's son : cp. 1 Kings iit 7, 
and Jotephus vii. 11. 4. 

— let him go over] Chimham seems to haye received an in- 
heritance from David in his own city, Bethlehem (see Jer. 
xli. 17), or from Solomon, to whom David gave charge to show 
kindness unto the sons of BarziUfu the Qileadite (1 Kings ii. 7). 

40. QilgtW] Whither Judah Had come to meet David {v, 15). 
48. ten ptirts'] As against Judah. Ephnum and Manasseh 
are counted as one : the Levites are not reckoned. 

— were fierc^ljaid thus gave occasion to the contention 
which followed. Tbev had right on their side, but they did 
wrong, and eaiued evUi by urging, their right with fierceness. 


Ch. XX. 1. a man cfBeUaV] a worthless man : Deut. xiii. 13. 

— to his tents, O IsraeV] This national proverbial expres- 
sion, used in Israel long after they had settl^ habitations (see 
1 Kings xii. 16. 2 Chron. x. 16), is an evidence that there had 
been a time when they had no houses, but dwelt in tents ; and 
confirms the Mosaic history of their long wanderings in the 
desert : cp. I>r, Thomson, Land and Book, p. 296. 

8. the ten women his concubines — itddowhood] beihg polluted 
by Absalom's sin j and they were shut up in privacy, lest their ap- 
pearance in public might be an occasion to others to speak of it ; 
and they were punished fbr consenting to it as ail example and 
warning to others. Here is another bitter fruit of David's sin in 
multiplying wives to himself, against the law of God (Deut. xvii. 
17). The punishiricnt of these concubines may be regarded as a 
warning to unfaithful Churches. 

4. Amas4t] Whom he had appointed in JoaVs place (xix*' 

Digitized by 


Joah treacherously slays Amasa 2 SAMUEL XX. 6 — 19. 

at Griheon. 

eeh. 11.11. 

Kings 1. M. 
t Heb. delivtr 
himsefffrom our 

fch.8. 18. 
1 Kings 1. 38. 

g Matt. 26. 49. 
Luke 22. 47. 

h 1 Kings 2. 5. 
i eh. 3. 23. 
f Heb. doubled 
not his stroke. 

k 2 Kings 15. 29. 
2 Chron. 16. 4. 

1 2 Kings 19. 82. 
K Or, il stood 
outmost wall. 
t Heb. marred to 
throw down. 

li Or, Tkep 
plainly spake 
in the beginning, 
saying, Surely 
they will ask of 
an end: 
seeDeut.20. 11. 

^And David said to Abishai, Now shall Sheba the son of Bichri do us more 
harm than did Absalom : take thou ^thy lord's servants, and pursue after him, 
lest he get him fenced cities, and f escape us. ^ And there went out after him 
Joab's men, and the 'Cherethites, and die Pelethites, and all the mighty men : 
and they went out of Jerusalem, to pursue after Sheba the son of Bichri. 

^ When they were at the great stone which is in Gibeon, Amasa went before 
them. And Joab's garment that he had put on was girded unto him, and 
upon it a girdle with a sword fSEtstened upon his loins in the sheath thereof; 
and as he went forth it fell out. ^And Joab said to Amasa, Art thou in 
health, my brother ? ^ And Joab took Amasa by the beard with the right hand 
to kiss him. ^^ But Amasa took no heed to the sword that was in Joab's hand : 
so ^ he smote him therewith ' in the fifth nb, and shed out his bowels to the 
ground, and f struck him not again ; and he died. So Joab and Abishai his 
brother pursued after Sheba the son of Bichri. ^^ And one of Joab's men stood 
by him, and said, He that favoureth Joab, and he that is for David, let him go 
after Joab. ^^And Amasa wallowed in blood in the midst of the highway. 
And when the man saw that a]l the people stood still, he removed Amasa out 
of the highway into the field, and cast a cloth upon him, when he saw that 
every one that came by him stood still. ^^ When he was removed out of the 
highway, all the people went on after Joab, to pursue after Sheba the son of 

^^And he went through all the tribes of Israel unto ^Abel, and to Beth- 
maachah, and all the Berites : and they were gathered together, and went also 
after him. ^^ And they came and besieged him in Abel of Beth-maachah, and 
they ^ cast up a bank against the city, and || it stood in the trench : and all the 
people that were with Joab f battered the wall, to throw it down. ^^ Then 
cried a wise woman out of iJie city. Hear, hear ; say, I pray you, unto Joab, 
Oome near hither, that I may speak with thee. ^^ And when he was come 
near unto her, the woman said. Art thou Joab ? And he answered, I am he. 
Then she said unto him. Hear the words of thine handmaid. And he 
answered, I do hear. ^® Then she spake, saying, || They were wont to speak 
in old time, saying. They shall surely ask counsel at Abel : and so they ended 
the matter. ^^ I am one of them that are peaceable and faithful in Israel : thou 
seekest to destroy a city and a mother in Israel : why wilt thou swallow up 

6. to Abishaf} Not to Joab : here was a second slight upon 

7. Cherethitet] See viii. 18. 

— th9 migMy men] Probably, the 600 yeterans of David : 
see XV. 18. 

8. CHheon] now called EUJib, about five or six milen K.N.w. 
of Jerosalem ; celebrated in the histoiy of Joshua : see above. 
Josh. ix. 8 ; x. 2. 4. 12. 

The Tabernacle was there at this time, and it is remarkable 
that Gibeon, the scene of the treacherous and evil act of Joab 
here described (w, 8 — 10), was the scene also of his death : 
1 Kings ii. 28, 29. Cp. 1 Chron. xvi. 89 : above, note on xvii. 

— Joah* 9 garmeni] How came Joab to be here ? Probably 
he had heard that the rendezvous of the troops was to be at 
Gibeon : chosen perhaps by David for that purpose, because the 
tabernacle was tnere, in order that the expedition might be 
inaugurated by sacrifice and prayer. 

— a 9wordr—it fell oufX of the sheath. Joab seems to have 
chosen a small sword for the purpose. It fell out of the sheath, 
as if by accident ; but, in reality, this was so contrived by Joab, 
in order that he might use it against Amasa, without putting 
him on his guard by drawing it ftx)m the scabbard. 


0. my hroihef^ cousin. 

— took Amata hy the heard— to hi$» him] An usual oriental 
salutation {Rarmer, Thevenot, D'Artneux). 

10. he emote him--and struck him not ay ttin] The first wound 
was so violent as to be deadly. This was tne third murder 
committed by Joab (the two others were those of Abner and 
Absalom) from motivei of jealousy and ambiUon, and for ^ 
sake of his own pre-eminence and supremacy. But these mur- 
ders recoiled eventually upon himself (1 Kings ii. 5. 84), and be 
was slain by Benaiah at Qibeon, where he hi^ slain Amasa. 

14. Abel] now called AheUeUKaneh, on the east side of the 
stream Deaara, in the north of Falestin^ above the waters (^ 

— Beth-maachahl near Abel, so as sometimes to be con- 
sidered as one pUice with it (1 Kings xv. 20. 2 Kings xv. 29), 
called ftom its ndghbooring waters AheUBethmaim (2 Chron. 
xvi. 4). 

— the Beritee] Probably the inhabitants of that district. 
There is no need for the change (proposed by Ewald and others) 
into Bahurim, i. e. yomtg men, 

18. ai AheV] wmch was of old time fkmous for its wisdom. 
She reproves Joab for not first inquiring whether the men of 
Abel were ready to make peace. 

Digitized by 


David* 8 officers. 

2 SAMUEL XX, 20— 26, XXI, !• The three years' famine. 

"the inheritance of the Lord ? ^ And Joab answered and said, Far be it, far 
be it from me, that I should swallow up or destroy, ^i jj^g matter is not so : 
but a man of mount Ephraim, Sheba tie son of Bichri f by name, hath lifted 
up his hand against the king, even against David : deliver him only, and I will 
depart from the city. And the woman said unto Joab, Behold, his head shall 
be thrown to thee over the wall. 22 Then the woman went unto all the people 
" in her wisdom^ And they cut off the head of Sheba the son of Bichri, and 
cast it out to Joab. And he blew a trumpet, and they f retired from the city, 
every man to his tent. And Joab returned to Jerusalem unto the king. 

2^ Now ''Joab was over all the host of Israel: and Benaiah the son of 
Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and over the Pelethites: ^^ And Adoram 
was P over the tribute : and "* Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was || recorder : 
2* And Sheva was scribe: and 'Zadok and Abiathar were the priests: 26 "And 
Ira also the Jairite was || a chief ruler about David. 

XXI. ^ Then there was a famine in the days of David three years, year after 
year ; and David \ enquired of the Lord. And the Lord answered, It is for 

ch. 8. 18. 

f Heb. 90ughi the face, ^c. 

m 1 Sam. 26. 19. 
oh. 21.3. 

t Heb. by ki» 

n Ecclet. 9. 14, 


f Heb. were 


ch. 8. 16, 18. 

p 1 Kings 4. 6. 
q ch. 8. 16. 
1 Kings 4. 3. 
n Or, remem- 
rch. 8. 17. 
1 Kings 4. 4. 
s ch. 23. 38. 
Q Or, a prince, 
Gen. 41. 45. 
Ex. 2. 16. 
Bee Num. 27. 21. 

88, ill her mtdom] with her wise oonxuel. Does Solomon 
refer to this act in Eccles. ix. 14, 15, when he describes the 
siege of a dty, the bnlwarks built against it, and the deliveranoe 
of it by a single citizen P A good deal of mischief would be 
prevented, if contending parties would endeavour to understand 
one another, before they rush into the conflict. Joab furiously 
attacks the city (o. 15). The citizens prepare to encounter 
violence with violence. The wise woman mediates between 
them. She devises and proposes terms of agreement, which are 
accepted by both the belligerent parties; and so the city is saved 
and the civil war is ended. This is the office of Christian teachers 
and of the Christian Church, — ^to allay strife and to promote 
peace by bringing men to a mutual understanding with each other. 

88. Joah was over all the hotf] Joab prospered in this world, 
even after his sin. Qod g^ve him time for repentance, but he 
hardened his heart by sin, and in the end he was cut off (see on 
V. 10). 

— Benaiah'] See viii. 18 ; xxiii. 20. He was afterwards em- 
ployed by Solomon to execute judgment on Joab (1 Kings ii. 34), 
whom he succeeded as '<over the host *' (1 Kings iv. 8 ; ii. 85). 

84. Adoram] Probably the same as Adoniram (1 Kii^ iv. 6). 

— oter the tribute] the exchequer and its revenues, arising 
from taxation : see Sept., Vulg., 8yr,, jirabic, Tar^vm, Others 
suppose that tribute means the levy of forced service (iiyyapla) i 
see Matt. v. 41 ; xxvii. 82; and Gpeen,, p. 488; and KeU (1 Kings 
V. 13, p. 47). 

85. Sheva was ecribe] Cp. viii. 17. 

86. Ira— chief ruler] or cohen. See viii. 18. 

— Jairite] n*om Gilead (Num. xxxii. 41). 

Thb Thbei Ybabs* FAMnrs rs David's TncB fob thb 


National Jttdoments fob National Sins. 
Ch. XXI. 1. Then there wae a famine] Rather, and, or now, 
there wae a famine. The ooojunction then is not in the 
original The famine here described may have been before the 
revolt of Absalom {Aharhanel, Keil, Stanley), 

— David enquired of the Lobd] A worldly-minded ruler 
would have ascribed the famine to natural causes merely, such 
as drought ; and perhaps he would have imputed that c&ought 
to the mfluence of heavenly bodies ; but Jhrnd. knew that he 
must look above the clouds and beyond the stars, and he 
inquires of the Lord the cause of the fiunine ; and the Lord 
gives him an answer. Compare the case of the Pestilence, 
below, chap. xxiv. 

Here is a rebuke to those who ascribe such visitations as 
fiunines, murrains, and pestilences to secondary causes alone, 
and do not regard them as Divine punishments for man's sins, and 
as Divine ci^ to repentance. But how different is the view 
which was taken of them by holy men of old : see the words of S. 
Cyprian; speaking of the plague at Carthage (de Mortelitate, 
p. 274), he says, ** Plagues to us are not f^erals of terror, but 
exercises of holiness : we understand their meaning : they are 
messages sent to us by God to explore our hearts, to sound the 
depth of our love to man, and to fathom our faith in Qod." 

In proportion as the World draws nearer to its end, we 
may expect that national sins will be visited more closely by 
national judgments ; because Nations, as Nations, will have no 
existence in another world, and therefore they must look for 
retribution in this world : see Ezek. xiv. 13 — 21, and the re- 
marks in the Editor's Occasional Sermons, No. xxxiv., on this 

— It is /or Saul, andfbr his bloody house, because he slew 
the Oibeonites] Perhaps, when Saul dew the priests at Nob 
(1 Sam. xxii. 18), he uew also the Oibeonites, who were their 
servants, ** the hewers of wood and drawers of water " fbr the 
Tabernacle (Josh. ix. 21. 27). 

The slaving of the Gibeonites was a heinous offence, because 
they were God's ministers ; and because the obligation of Israel 
to protect them had been shown by the history of Joshua (see 
above, Josh, x.), who hastened from Gilgal to rescue them from 
their enemies. 

It has been alleged, that it could not be consistent with 
divine justice to visit Israel with a famine of three years, at the 
end of David's reign (which lasted forty years), fbr a sin com- 
mitted by his predecessor Saul and his house. 

To this it may be replied with Dr, Waterland (Scrip. Vind., 
p. 147),—** It ought not to be said, because it cannot be proved, 
that tne Israelites of that time were punished for crimes that 
they were no way guilty of. We know not how many, or who, 
were confederate with Saul in murdering the Gibeonites, or 
guilty in not hindering it. We know not how many, or who, 
made the crime their own, by approving it afterwards. We 
know not what share of g^t might be derived upon the whole 
nation for suffering so much innocent blood to be shed, against 
a national contract; or for not expressing their horror and 
detestetion of it by some public act. Further, we know not 
what other sins (which had no relation to that) the people might 
be guilty of, to deserve a &mine; which sins, though God would 
have remitted or passed by at another time, He would not remit' 
then, when the sins of their fathers, added to theirs, called for 
an act of discipline. We know not, how far such an act of dis- 
cipline at that time might be necessary to prevent the like 
murders for the time to come, or to preserve the whole nation of 
the Gibeonites from rudeness and insult; or to raise in the 
minds of the Israelites a proper regard and respect for them. 
We know not, how much the sacredness and validity of national 
oaths or contracts might be concerned in that matter. In a 
word, we know not the depths of the divine counsels, nor a 
hundredth part of the reasons which an all-wise God might 
have; and therefore it behoves us, in such cases, to be modest 
and reserved in our c^isures, remembering that Qod is in 
heaven, and that we dwell in dust, and that He knows all 
things, and we nothing in comparison." 

** Forty years and more are past between the sin and the 
reckoning for it. It is a vain hope that is raised from the 
delay ofGod's judgments. No time can be any prqudioe to the 
Ancient of days" {Bp, Salt). Cp. 2 Pet. iii. 4—12. 

Nearly forty years passed between the Crucifixion and 
its punishment, — the destruction of Jerusalem. 

Digitized by 


The reason of the famine. 

2 SAMUEL XXI. 2—8. 

Mephibosheth is spared. 

a Josh. 9. 8> lfi| 
16, 17. 

b eh. 20. 19. 

II Or, It is not 
silver nor gold 
that we have to do 
with Sttul or hie 
hou^e, neither pcT- 
Uint It to US to 
kill, 9e. 
I Or, cut ue off. 

e 1 Sam. 10. 26. 


d 1 Sam. 10. 24. 

D Or, chosen of 

the LORD. 

el Sam. 18. S. 
8c 20. 8, 15, 42. 
& is. IS. 
fch. 8. 7. 

g Or. MichaVe 

Saul, and for his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites. ^And the king 
called the Gibeonites, and said unto them ; (now the Gibeonites were not of the 
children of Israel, but • of the remnant of the Amorites ; and the children of 
Israel had sworn unto them : and Saul sought to slay them in his zeal to the 
children of Israel and Judah.) ^ Wherefore Bsmd said unto the Gibeonites, 
What shall I do for you ? and wherewith shall I make the atonement, that ye 
may bless ** the inheritance of the Lord ? * And the Gibeonites said unto him, 
II We will have no silver nor gold of Saul, nor of his house ; neither for us 
shalt thou kill any man in Israel. And he said. What ye shall say, that will 
I do for you. ^And they answered the king, The man that consumed us, and 
that II devised against us that we should be destroyed from remaining in any of 
the coasts of Israel, ^ Let seven men of his sons be delivered unto us, and 
we will hang them up unto the Lord "" in Gibeah of Saul, ^ || whom the Lord 
did choose. And the king said, I will give them. 

^ But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of Saul, 
because of 'the Lord's oath that was between them, between David and 
Jonathan the son of Saul. ^ But the king took the two sons of ^ Eizpah the 
daughter of Aiah, whom she bare unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth ; and 
the five sons of || Michal the daughter of Saul, whom she f brought up for 

t Ueb. bare to Jdriel, 1 Sam. 18. 19. 

It is also evident from Holy Scripture, and from the world's 
history, that Almighty God regards kiugs as representatives of 
nations; and that as the piety of princes hrings blessings on 
their people, so their sins are causes of national misenr. " Rex 
est publica persona, et rempublicam reprsBsentat : iae6 publi- 
cum regis peccatum public4 fame castigavit Deus" (ALapide), 
Here is a lesson to rulers, that they should take heed to their 
own conduct, not only for their own sake, but for that of the 

8. Amorites] The common designation of the Canaanites 
(Gen. X. 16; xv. 16). They are called " Hivites" Josh. ix. 7. 

This history has been rightly regarded as one of the many 
internal evidences of the tmtib and inspiration of this portion of 
Holy Scripture. In thb narrative, seven princely Israelites are 
represented as given up to death at the request of the Gibeon- 
ites, who were of the seed of Canaan, which was under a divine 
curse ; and as a compensation for ii\jury done to them. Would 
the Jews ever have accepted such a history as this as part of 
the sacred canon, unless they had been convmced by irrenstible 
arguments of its truth and inspiration ? 

— hetd sworn unto them] Josh. ix. 15. 19. 

— in his zeal] Zeal without knowledge TBom. x. 2); the 
seal of a Saul persecuting the Church of God (Phil. iii. 6 : con- 
trast Gal. iv. 18). Here is another proof in the history of Saul 
(see above, 1 l^im. xv. 21, 22), that good intentions are not 
sufficient to constitute a good action ; and that a person, who 
intends well, may still be an object of God's displeasure, and 
■ubject to punishment from Him ; and that if we desire to please 
Him, we must not only make His glory our aim, but must walk 
in the way of Hb commandments, in order to attain that 

4. We will have] Literally, I will have : they answer as one 

6. we will hang them up] Kot while alive, but after they had 
been executed : see on Num. xxv. 4. Deut. xxi. 22. 

— unto the Lobd] To satisfy His justice, because the 
Gibeonites were mixusters of the Lord, and their safety had been 
guaranteed by an oath before the Lord, and because the violation 
of an oath is a sin against God, and He demands reparation for it. 

Here is a warning to some Christian Churches and States 
which countenance the opinion, that ** faith is not to be kept 
with heretics." 

This was also done to satisfy the justice of God, whose 
ministers the Gibeonites were, and whose honour was outraged 
by their murder ; and who has declared in the Law that blood 
defileth the hmd, and can only be expiated by blood (Num. 
XXXV. 33). 

It is true that God had also paid that the children should 
not be put to death for the parents (Deut. xxiv. 16. Cp. Ezek. 
xviii. 20) ; but this lawt while it controlled the aption of the 

magistrate, did not restrain God, who required and accepted 
the expiation (o. 14. Cp. Exod. xx. 5). 

Josephus affirms (vii. 12. 1) that David inquired of the 
prophets, and that they answered that God would have the 
GibeoniteB avenged, and that He would be entreated for the 
land, when the Gibeonites had been consulted, and when their 
demands had been complied with. David did what he did, not 
as a private man, or even as a magistrate, but in obedience to an 
oracle from God {TirinuSy Estius, A Lapide, Wouvers). God 
seems to have prompted the Gibeonites to make the demand, 
and to have authorized David to comply with it, for reasons 
which we cannot fully ascertain : see above, on v. 1. 

Certain it is, that God thus has made a solemn declaration 
to the world, that no one should presume that sins will not be 
punished hereafter, because they are not punished immediately ; 
and that parents should be deteired from sm, by a consideration of 
the sufferings they may entail on their children by sin ; and that 
it is not suffering which is a sign of Gk>d's anger, but rather it 
may be a salutary dispensation ; and that in this world it often 
happens, that one man sins, and others suffer for his sins, and 
therefore this present world is not every thing, but there is a 
future state, in which every man will bear the burden of his own 
sin : see Bp, Sanderson's three excellent sermons on 1 Kings 
xxi. 29, vol. iii. pp. 2—87. 

The Gibeonites were among the lowest and meanest of the 
ministers of Gkxl's sanctuary, yet the shedding of their blood was 
not overlooked by Him. The sin of their murder was visited by 
a three years' fkmine on the whole nation, and by the execution 
of the throe sons of the king who had committed the crime. 

Here is a warning to kings and nations that they will incur 
God's %vrath if they sin against the humblest ministers of Him 
who said, '* Take heed that ye despise not one of these little 
ones. Whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe 
in Me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about 
his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea" 
(Matt, xviii. 6. 10) ; and ''He that despiseth you despiseth Me, and 
he that despiseth Me despiseth Him that sent Me *' (Luke x. 16). 

If God thus avenged the sin of Saul against the Gibeonites, 
who were the meanest ministers of his sanctuary, can we sup- 
pose that He will spare those who are guilty of sins of sacri- 
lege, and who injure the ministers of the Christian Church, the 
spouse of Christ, for which He shed His blood P 

Let those who would despoil churches — for instance, the 
Church in Ireland— of revenues dedicated to God« meditate on 
this lesson of Holy Scripture. 

— in Ofheah of Saul] 1 Sam. x. 26 ; xi. 4 : that the warning 
might be more solemn, tlie sin was brought home to his house, 
and the punishment was executed at his door. 

7. Mephibosheth] ix. 3—6. 

8. Michal the daughter qf Saul, whom she brought up — the 

Digitized by 


Rizpah the daughter of Aiah. 2 SAMUEL XXI. 9—18. Acts of David's Worthies. 

Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite : ^And he delivered them into the 
hands of the Gibeonites, and they hanged them in the hill ^ before the Lord : 
and they fell all seven together, and were put to death in the days of harvest, 
in the first daySj in the beginning of barley harvest. ^^ And ** Rizpah the 
daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, * from the 
beginning of harvest until water dropped uponthem out of heaven, and suflfered 
neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field 
by night. 

"And it was told David what Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, the concubine of 
Saul, had done. ^^And David went and took the bones of Saul and the bones 
of Jonathan his son fi-om the men of ^ Jabesh-gilead, which had stolen them 
from the street of Beth-shan, where the * Philistines had hanged them, when 
the Philistines had slain Saul in Gilboa : **And he brought up firom thence the 
bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son ; and they gathered the 
bones of them that were hanged. **And the bones of Saul and Jonathan his 
son buried they in the country of Benjamin in " Zelah, in the sepulchre of 
Eish his father : and they performed all that the king commanded. And after 
that ° God was intreated for the land. 

^* Moreover the Philistines had yet war again with Israel ; and David went 
down, and his servants with him, and fought against the Philistines : and David 
waxed faint. ^^And Ishbi-benob, which was of the sons of || the giant, the 
weight of whose \ spear weighed three hundred shekels of brass in weight, he 
being girded with a new sword^ thought to have slain David. ^^ But Abishai 
the son of Zemiah succoured him, and smote the Philistine, and killed him. 
Then the men of David sware unto him, saying, ** Thou shalt go no more out 
with us to battle, that thou quench not the ^ \ Kght of Israel. 

^^ "lAnd it came to pass after this, that there was again a battle with the 
Philistines at Gob : then ' Sibbechai the Hushathite slew || Saph, which was 

gch. 6. 17. 

h ver. 8. 
ch. 8. 7. 

i See Deut. 21.23. 

rlChroD. 11.29. 

k 1 Sam. 81. U, 

12, 13. 

1 1 Sam. 81. 10. 

m Josh. 18. 28. 

n So Josh. 7. 26. 
ch. 24. 25. 

I Or» Rapha. 

t Heb. tk9 »iag, 
or, iht h$ad. 

o ch. 18. 8. 

p 1 Kings 11.86. 

8c 15. 4. 

Pa. 182. 17. 

f Heb. candle, or, 


q 1 Chron. 20. 4. 

I Or, Sippai. 

MehoUsthUe] The Hebrew text has, whom »he bare, Heb. 
yaUdaht and so 8evt» and Vulg, In 1 Sam. xviii. 19, it is 
said that the wife of Adriel was Merah, The Chaldee Targwm 
has t^e name of Merab here ; but it adds, whom Miohal the 
daughter of Saul had bronght up ; and the Syriao and Arabie 
have Nadab. 

The rendering, hrotight up, in onr Authorized Version was 
sngfgested by the Hebrew expositors (e. g. EAmehi — who cites 
RuUi iv. 17—80 JeronUatter, A Lapide, and Selden). 

Two of Kennicotft MSS. have Merad here; and perhaps 
when more MSS. have been collated the name Merah may be 
found in some of them. Jotephus (vii. 4. 8) asserts that Michal 
had four children ; cp. on 1 Chron. iii. 8. Some recent critics 
say that there is an error in the MSS., and that for Michal we 
oufi^t to read Merab here (Keil, Archdeacon Browne, Chrove, 
in B. D., under the words Adriel, Merab, and Michal). 

It seems not improbable that the Sacred Historian wrote 
** the five sons of the daughter of Saul,'' and that some of the 
copyists first placed the name of Michal in the margin, and that 
thence it first found its way into the text. 

0. in the beffinnina of barley harveetl At the Passover. See 
licv. xxiii. 11. 15. JDeut. xvi. 9. Ruth iL 28. The beginning 
of harvest was a critical time, and the expiation was to be 
effected then, lest there should be a fourth year of famine. 

10. until water dropped upon them out of heaven"] If this 
were the " former rain," it would be about the end of October. 
See on Lev. xxvi. 4. If this was the case (as some of the 
Hebrew exporitors suppose, and so Stanley, Lectures, xxL p. 84), 
the affectionate and fiuthfdl woman watched the bodies for half 
a year, i. e. fiom Passover to October. 

But it seems more probable, that God sent nun in modera- 
tion (" the water dropped from heaven ") soon after the begin- 
ning of the barley harvest; and this would be very opportune, 
after the long drought, and would make the grain to swell, and 
Vol. II. Pabt II.— 121 

would produce an abundant wheat harvest, and would be a sign 
that " God was entreated for the land " (v. 14), and then the 
bodies would be taken down and buried. The law (Deut. xxi. 22), 
which did not allow dead bodies to remain all night on a tree, did 
not apply to such a case as this (Keif), 

11, IS. it woe told Bavid^And David wentl David heard 
what Bizpah had done, and he was pleased with her tenderness, 
and was exdted bv her example to do honour to the bodies 
of Saul and Jonathan, and thus showed that he did not war 
with the dead, and that his recent act, in deliverinfl^ up Saul's 
sons, was not one of personal revenge, but of public justice. 

— from the men of Jabesh-ffilead] who had buried them 
(1 Sam. xxzL 18). 

— the etreet^ Heb. rechab, the market-place, not in the 
middle of the city, but near the gate (cp. 2 Chron. xxxiL 6. 
Neh. viiL 1. 3. 16), and therefore the bodies are said to have 
been fastened by the Philistines on the waU of Beth-shan 
(1 Sam. xxxi. 10). 

14. Zelah] Ptobably the birth-place of Kish and his family ; it 
is mentioned as in the allotment of Beijamin, in Josh, xviii. 28 : 
perhaps it was the residence also of Saul himself before he 
became king. 

15. Moreover] This brief specimen of some of David's 
deliverances is introduced here as a prelude to his hymn of 
thanksgiving (ch. xxii.). 

16. Ishbi-benob] L e. whose dwelUng is at Nob (Chsen, 872), 
or on a high place, 

— three hundr^ shekels] Half the weight of Goliath's (1 Sam. 
xviL 7). 

17. sware unto him] This, therefore, seems to have happened 
after the rebellion of Absalom. 

18. Gob] The same as Gezer, or near it (1 Chron. xx. 4) ; 
near the modem site of Sl-Kubab, about fbur miles east of 
Joppa. Cp. Josh. X. 88. 

Digitized by 


Acts of David's Worthies. 2 SAMUEL XXI. 19—22. XXTT. 1, 2. David's song. 

I Or, Kapha. 

B Or, Jair. 

I See 1 Chron. 20. 

t 1 Chron. 20. 6. 

B Or, Rapha. 

I Or, reproached, 

I Sam. 17. 10, 25, 


u 1 Sam. 16. 9, 

X 1 Chron. 20. 8. 

a Ex. 15. 1. 
Judg. 5. 1. 
b Pt. 18, title. 
& P«. 84. 19. 

e Dent. 82. 4. 
Pt. 18. 2, &c. 
8e31. 8. ft 71. 8. ft 91. 2.^144.2. 

of the sons of || the giant. ^^And there was agam a battle in Gob with the 
PhiUstines, where Elhanan the son of |! Jaare-oregim, a Beth-lehemite, slew 
• the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's 
beam. ^And 'there was yet a battle in Gath, where was a man of gre(U 
stature^ that had on every hand six fingers, and on every foot six toes, four and 
twenty in number ; and he also was bom to (| the giant, ^i^nd when he 
II defied Israel, Jonathan the son of "* Shimeah the brother of David slew him, 
22 « These four were bom to the giant in Gath^ and fell by the hand of David, 
and by the hand of his servants. 

XXII. ^ And David • spake unto the Lord the words of this song in the day 
that the Lord had ^ delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out 
of the hand of Saul : ^ And he said, 

^ The Lord is my rock, and my fortress, 

19. Slhanan the son of Jaare-ore^m, a JBeth-lehemite, slew 
the brother of ChUath the Gittite, the Haff of whose spear was 
like a weaver's beam] The words, the hrother of, are not in the 
original. In 1 Chron. xx. 5, we read, ** Slhanan the son of 
Jair slew Lahmi the hrother of QoUath the OUtite, whose spear 
staffs was like a weaver's beam" 

Many expositors suppose that the text in our passage is 
corrupt, and ought to be assimilated to the parallel passage in 
CSironicles : see Movers, Keil, Grove, 

None of the ancient versions authorize the insertion of the 
words the brother of in our passage. 

The Targvm supposes £lhanan Twhich means "given by 
Qod's grace,'* and is rendered "Adeoaatu8**by Vulg,) to be no 
other than David himself; and so JeronUaster g[n Qusest. Hebr.). 

It seems not improbable that (as is suggested by A Lapide) 
Ooliath was a eeneric name given to the family of giants, which 
is mentioned m v, 22, "l^ese four were bom to the giant 
{ha-raphdh) in Gath." 

Cfoliath means simply a stranger, an exile (Gesen. 172), and 
may be compared with the word Philistine, which signifies a 
wanderer and emigrant, rendered in Greek by &A.A^vAos (one 
of a different or foreign tribe), and an " alien " (cp. Heb. xi. 84) ; 
and the name GvUath, therefore, mav describe any one of the 
family of the giants of Gath, the Anakim, or sons of Anak, the 
Philistine Titans; as Hamor was the name of the chieft of 
Shechem; Abimelech, of Gerah; Pharaoh and Ptolemv of 
those of Egypt ; Ceesar, of Rome ; and the members of the 
giant-family of the Cyclops are all called Cyclopes by Homer 
and other poets; and many other parallel cases might be cited. 

The historian in the passages before us says that fSlhanan dew 
GoluUh, L e. one of the fimuly of the ^ants. In the Chronicles 
we have the special name Lahmi, by i/^ch he was distinguished 
from other Goliaths. 

In the passage before us, Elhanan is called the son of 
« Jaare-oregim /' in the Chronicles he is called ike son of 
"Jair." The original word oregim means "of weavers" 
{Gesen, 76), and occurs at the end of the verse here: "The 
staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam." May not the 
word "oreffim " have been added to his name in honour of his 
son's exploit ? 
81. Shimeah the brother of David] xiii. 8. 
22. to the giant] to the Bapha (Heb.). Hence JiliUon has 
taken his character of Ha-rapha, in Samson Agonistes. 

— by the hand of David^ None of them was slain by David 
personaJly; but David, as km? and leader, is said to do, or co- 
operate in doing, whatever is done by his servants. 

This sugg^ts the consideration, that, as David himself, 
fighting with the first Goliath of Gath who is mentioned in 
Scripture, and overcoming him, was, as we have seen, a signal 
type of Christ, our Divine David, conquering the champion of the 
enemies of the spiritual Israel (see above, on 1 Sam. xvii.), so 
doubtless these conflicts of David's servants are typical of the 
spiritual combats of Christ's soldiers with the family of the Evil 
One. The mention of the four heroes of David who overcame 
the "sons of the giant" invites a comparison of the spiritual 
victories achieved by the Four Evangelists, and by all Evan- 
gelical champions who fight the good fight of faith preached in 
tiie Four Gospels, and £us overcome Uie worid, thie fiebh, and 
the devil. Whatever victory is gained by them, is not due to 
themselves, but it is achieved by the co-operation of Christ 
working in them and by them: and so the enemies of tiie 

Christian Church fidl by the hand of the Divine " David, and by 
Uie hand of lus servants :" cp. 1 Chron. xx. 8. 


The Books of Samuel begin and end with a Song of praise 
for God's mercies (sec 1 Sam. iL 1 — 10^. So Moses had begun 
and ended the Wanderings in the wilderness with a Song of 
thanksgiving (Exod. xv. I)eut. xxxii.). 

These songs are connected together by means of the titleB 
of honour given to God, especiafiy by that of the Rook : see 
Deut. xxxii. 4, and passim: 1 Sam. ii. 2; and here v, 2. 
Compare below, on v. 82 ; and the beginning of the Song of 
Moses (Exod. xv.). 

Tl^ present song appears with some modifications in the 
body of the Psalms, as Ps. xviii., where the title has "to the 
chieif musician^" or "precentor." The variations are probably 
to be accounted for from the drcumstanoe that in the present 
chapter the song appears as used by David ori^nally in his own 
private devotions; and in the 18th P6alm it exhibits the 
form in which he delivered it for the general liturgical use of 
the Hebrew Church : cp. below, on 1 Chron. xvi. 7. 

Moses in his song, and Hannah in her song (as we have 
already seen : cp. above, on Deut. xxxii. and on 1 Sam. ii.), riae 
from a consideration of God's mercies to themselves persooially, 
and ascend by a lofly flight of inspiration to a contemplation oi 
God's goodness to aU nations in Chbist, the Seed of Abraham^ 
the King of Israel, the Anointed One of God. 

The present Song is composed in the same spirit : David 
speaks first of merdes to himself, but his heart is more and 
more warmed with divine forvour ; he rises to loftier heights ; 
his field of view expands and enlarees, till its horizon embraces 
all mankind, in all g^enerations, looking with fkith and love to 
one divine central form — that of Chbist. In the glorious 
altitude to which he is raised by the Holy Ghost, he looks 
backward on God's mercies to Israel in <ihe Exodus, and in 
the passage of the Bed Sea ^see on w, 8 — 18) ; and then he 
casts his view forward, and bciiolds the glorious Antitype of aU 
Israel's deliverances, and he sums up fdl bv an ascription of 
pnuse» uttered in the name of all nations, both Jew and Gentile 
(as the Holy Spirit, speaking by St. Pftul, has taught us : see 
below, on w, 60, 51), and magnifies and blesses God for £Qs 
goodness in Chbist to " David and his seed fbr evermore." 

" The grace which the Lord has shown to David is so great, 
that his praise fbr it cannot be limited to the narrow range of 
Israel. Together with the dominion of David over the naSons* 
the knowle^^ of the Lord and the praise of His name, who had 
given him uie victory, extended themselves. Bightiy has St. 
Paul QKom. xv. 9) adduced v, 60 of the present chapter, together 
with Deut. xxxii. 43, and Ps. cxviL 1, as an evidence that the 
salvation of God was demgned also for the heathen" (JT^i/). 

The king, for whom God is a tower of salvation {v, 51), is 
not merely C^vid as an individual, but " David and his seed fbr 
evermore, and the royal race of David, which culminates in 
Chbist. David's joys and hopes terminate as ours ought to 
do, in Christ {Bp, Patrick, M, Eenry), 

A critical comparison of the text of this chapter with that 
of Psalm xviii. may be seen in Dr, KenmeoU^s Dissertation, 
Oxf., 1753, vol. i. pp. 464—472, and vol. ii. 566-670. 

2, 8. my rook] or my eUf^, or crag. In the English Tersion 
the word rook appears twice, here and v, 8, but the original 

Digitized by 


Ood ih4 Rock. 

2 SAMUEL XXn. 3—11. 

David's deliverances. 

And my deliverer ; ^ the God of my rock ; 
** In him will I trust : 

He is my •shield, and the 'horn of my salvation, 

My high * tower, and my ** refuge, 

My saviour ; thou savest me from violence, 
^ I will call on the Lobd, who is worthy to be praised 

So shall I be saved from mine enemies. 

* When the || waves of death compassed me. 
The floods of f ungodly men made me afraid ; 

^ The II ' sorrows of hell compassed me about ; 

The snares of death prevented me ; 
^ In my distress ^ I called upon the Lobd, 

And cried to my God : 

And he did * hear my voice out of his temple. 

And my cry did enter into his ears. 

* Then °* the earth shook and trembled, 

■ The foundations of heaven moved and shook. 

Because he was wroth ; 
^ There went up a smoke f out of his nostrils. 

And ^ fire out of his mouth devoured : 

Coals were kindled by it ; 
^^He ^ bowed the heavens also, and came down ; 

And "> darkness was under his feet ; 
1^ And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly : 

And he was seen ' upon the wings of the wind ; 

d Ueb. 2. IS. 

e Gen. 15. 1. 
f Luke 1. 69. 
g ProT. 18. 10. 
h Ps. 9. 9. 
& 14. 6. 
& 59. 16. 
& 71. 7. 
Jer. 16. 19. 

II Or, pang». 

t Heb. BtliaL 

]| Or, cords. 
i Ps. 116. S. 

k Pi. 116. 4. 
& 120. 1. 
Jonah 2. 2. 

1 Ex. 8. 7. 
Ps.84.6, 15, 17. 

m Judg. 5. 4. 
Ps. 77.18. 
& 97. 4. 
D Job 26. 11. 

t Heb. hg. 

Ps. 97. 3. 
Hab. 8. 5. 
Ueb. 12. 29. 

P Ps. 144. 5. 
Isa.64. 1. 
q Ex. 20. 21. 

1 Kiugs 8. 12. 
Ps. 97. 2. 

r Ps. 104.8. 

oonverB two distinct ideas. David first speaks of God as a high 
oUff (sela), a steep lofty place to which he resorted for refine 
(cp. Ps.xriiL 8; xxxi. 4; xlii. 10; IzxL 4), as he had done to 
the steep clifib of Palestine^ as a refuge worn Saul : see 1 Sam. 
zxiL 5 ; xxiv. 5. 

This is the first passage in the Old Testament where God is 
called a sela. It is obsenrable, that it is first used hy David, 
who had often found reftige on a sela in his persecutions, and it 
is used more frequently by him than by all the writers of Scrip- 
ture; indeed, it is only once used by any other writer in the Old 
Testament, in a figurative sense — ^viz. Isaiah (xxxii. 2), and 
there the metaphor is derived from the shadow, and not from 
the height, of the rock. 

But the word rendered roeh in 9. 8 (vii. tswr) oonveyB a 
diflSsrent idea. 

It signifies what is solid, firm, compact^ and nnmoveable : 
cp. Dent. TTTJi. 4. 

Thus these two words {sela and tswr) intimoate that Ck)d is 
a sure re^e at all times to the fiuthfU. 

8. shield'] A figure borrowed from God's own language to 
Abraham (Gen. xv. 1), and firom the words of Moses speaking of 
God (Dent, xxxiii. 29). 

— horn] The fignre is from animals, whose strength is in 
their horns. This figure appears first in the song d Hannah 
. (1 Sam. ii. 1. 10), and like the other figure here, the rock (see 
00. 2, 8), serves to connect tins song of David with that of 
Hannah ; and this figure is adopted in the Gospel and applied 
to Christ in the Song of Zacharias (Luke i. 69), who says He 
has "raised to us a horn of salvation in the house of His servant 

5. the wanes] In the parallel {dace in the Psalm, xviii. 4, 5, 
we have the wrad oords twice {sorrows in the English Version), 
where the figure is from a hunter taking a wild beast in the 
toils of a net : cp. Ps. cxvL 8. 

Here David may seem to compare himself to Israel of old, 
delivered from the waves of the sea, which overwhelmed their 
enemies (cp. Isa. 11. 9, 10. 16), and to foreshadow the Divine Son 
of David, aelivered from the waterfloods of Death and the Grave, 
and rising by a glorious resurrection to life everlasting. 

Accordmgly, St. Peter seems to refer to these words when 

roeaking of the Besurrection of Christ (Acts IL 24). See JBp. 
Pearson, Art. v., p. 248, note. 

— qf vmgodty men] Literally, of Belial, who is spoken of 
as a person by St. Paul (2 Cor. vi. 15). See above, on Judg. xix. 
22; XX. 18. lSam.L16; ii. 12; X. 27. 

7. qfhis temple] Heaven itself. 

8. Then the earth shook] David here again seems to com- 
pare himself to Israel, dehvered, amid storm and darkness, by 
God's power, from the depths of the Bed Sea, in which their 
enemies were overwhelmed (see esp^ually oo. 16, 17) ; and so 
he foreshadowed the true David, whose Death and Besurrection 
were prefif^ued by that glorious deliverance, and who by that 
Death and Besurrection redeemed all true Israelites, all the 
genuine seed of David, and overcame their enemies thereby. 
See above* the Preliminary Note to Exod. xiv. 

The intention of the Holy l^irit, speaking by David, to 
associate his deUverance with the Exodus of Israel, and wiUi the 
passage through the Bed Sea, and with the future Exodus of all 
true Israelites, from a spiritual Egypt, in Chbist; — so that David 
in his Divine Son is, as it were, a connecting link between the 
Ancient Hebrew Church coming out of Egvpt, and the Church 
of Christ Universal, delivered by the Divme David from the 
E^ypt of Sin and Satan, and brought through the Bed Sea of 
His Mission, into *'the glorious liberty of the children of God" 
(Bom. viii. 21) ; — will be evident to those who compare the de- 
scriptions here of David's deliveranoes, with the description of 
the deliverance of Israel. Compare with o. 16 here the lan- 
guage of Moses (Exod. xv. 8), David's own words referring to 
Israel's deliverance HPs. cvi. 7 ; cxiv. 6), and Habakkuk's mag- 
nificent description (iii. 8 — 15). 

11. a ^kerub] Another roferenoe to the scenery of the 
Exodus from Esypt and the Wanderings in the Sinaitic wilder- 
ness, where God vouchsafed to appear enthroned on the Cheru- 
bim over the Ark (see Exod. xxv. 20 : cp. note on Gen. iii. 22) ; 
and, inasmuch as the Ark was carried through the wilderness, 
the Mercy Seat became, as it were, God's ^umphal Chariot, 
as well as His Boyal llirone ; whcoioe the imagery in Ezekiel 
(x. 2—22 : cp. i. 4^28), and in the Apocaly^ (Bev. iv. 7). 

— he wcu seen] Manifested Himself in His glory. In Pu, 
xviii. 10 it is. He came flying as an eagle. Cp. Deut. xxviii. 49. 

B 2 

Digitized by 


Qod's majesty. 

2 SAMUEL XXn. 12—31- 

David's trust in Him* 

flTer. 10. 
Pt. 97. S. 

1 Heb. hinding of 

t Ter. 9. 

u Judg. 5. 20. 
1 Bam. 2. 10. 
ft 7. 10. 
Ps. 29. 8. 
Isa. 80. 80. 
X Deut. S2. 28 
Ps. 7. IS. 
&77. 17. 
& 144. 6. 

T Ex. 15. 8. 
Pa. 100. 9. 
Nab. 1. 4. 
Matt. 8. 26. 
I Or, amjfttt 
Pt. 74. 1. 
s Pi. 144. 7. 
I Or, great, 

a Ter. 1. 

b Pt. 81. 8. 
ft 118.5. 

c cb. 15. 26. 
Pt. 22. 8. 
d Ter. 25. 
I Sam. 26. 28. 
1 Kingt 8. S2. 
Pt. 7. 8. 
e Ps. 24. 4. 
f Gen. 18. 19. 
Pt. 119.8. 
ft 128. 1. 
Prov. 8. 82. 
g Deut. 7. 12. 
Pt. 119.80, 102. 

h Gen. 6. 9. 
ft 17. 1. 
Job 1. 1. 
t Heb. to him, 

i yer. 21. 

f Heb. before hie 


k Matt. 5. 7. 

I Lev. 26. 28, 
24, 27, 28. 
I Or, wrestle, 
Pt. 18. 26. 
m Ex. 8. 7, 8. 
Pt. 72. 12. 18. 
n Job 40. 11. 12. 
Ita.2. 11, 12, 
17. ft 5. 15. 
Dan. 4. 87. 

}0r, eandU, 
Ob 29. 8. 
Pt. 27. 1. 
I Or, broken a 

Dent. 82. 4. 
Dan. 4. 87. 
Rev. 15. 8. 
pPl. 12. 6. ft 119. 
140. Ptot.80.5. 




^^ And he made " daxkness pavilions round about him, 

f Dark waters, and thick clouds of the skies ; 
^^ Through the brightness before him 

Were ^ coals of fire kindled. 

The Lord "* thundered jfrom heaven. 

And the most High uttered his voice ; 

And he sent out * arrows, and scattered them ; 

Lightning, and discomfited them ; 

And the channels of the sea appeared, 

The foundations of the world were discovered, 

At the ^rebuking of the Lord, 

At the blast of the breath of his || nostrils. 
^7 * He sent from above, he took me ; 

He drew me out of [| many waters ; 
*^ * He delivered me from my strong enemy. 

And from them that hated me : 

For they were too strong for me. 
^^ They prevented me in the day of my calamity : 

But the Lord was my stay ; 
^ •* He brought me forth also into a large place : 

He delivered me, because he "" delighted in me. 
21 ^ The Lord rewarded me according to my righteousness : 

According to the ^ cleanness of my hands hath he recompensed me ; 

For I have 'kept the ways of the Lord, 

And have not wickedly departed from my God ; 

For all his « judgments were before me : 

And as for his statutes, I did not depart from them ; 

I was also ** upright f before him. 

And have kept myself from mine iniquity. 

Therefore ^ the Lord hath recompensed me according to my righteousness ; 

According to my cleanness f in his eye sight. 

With ^ the merciful thou wilt shew thyself merciful. 

And with the upright man thou wilt shew thyself upright ; 

With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure ; 

And ' with the froward thou wilt || shew thyself unsavoury ; 

And the " afflicted people thou wilt save : 

But thine eyes are upon " the haughty, that thou mayest bring them down. 
^ 'For thou art my || lamp, O Lord : 

And the Lord will lighten my darkness ; 

For by thee I have || run through a troop : 

By my God have I leaped over a wall. 

As for God, ** his way is perfect ; 
^ The word of the Lord is \\ tried : 

I Or, r^/lmed. 










16. diteomJUed ihem] Another reference to the Exodns : see 
Exod. xiy. 24 (Kay). 

17. jETtf dmo me ouf] Another reference to the Exodus. The 
original word here is mash<Mh, which occnrs only here and in 
Exod. ii. 10, with reference to the deliverance of Moses (LtUher, 
Km/, KsU). 

87. wUh the flroward thou wiU shew thyself unsaitowry] 

/iCT& crpe^Kov crp^fikaiBli^ {Sefi^i "com perverse perver- 
teris" {Vulg), lliese two verses emhody the all-important 
troth, that Qod deals with eveiy man acooraing to his ctisposi- 
tion. Cp. above, on the history of Balaam, Kom. xziL 20 ; and 
below, on Rom. L 28, and on Rsv. zxii. 11. 

80. have I leaped over a ^o^ttt] 1 have sprang over the 
battlements of the enemy. Davia and his men sprang over 
the wall of Zion, and took the fortress of the enemy (vii. 8). 

Digitized by 


Ood the Boch. 

2 SAMUEL XXn. 82— 46. 

David's victories. 

He ts a buckler to all them that trust in him. 

For *» who is God, save the Lord ? 

And who is a rock, save our God ? 

God is my ' strength and power : 

And he \ ■ maketh my way * perfect. 

He \ maketh my feet " like hinds' /^^i ; 

And * setteth me upon my high places. 
** ^ He teacheth my hands f to war ; 

So that a bow of steel is broken by mine arms. 

Thou hast also given me the shield of thy salvation : 

And thy gentleness hath f made me great. 

Thou hast " enlarged my steps under me ; 

So that my f feet did not shp. 

I have pursued mine enemies, and destroyed them ; 

And turned not again until I had consumed them. 

And I have consumed them, and wounded them, that they could not arise : 

Yea, they are fallen 'under my feet. 

For thou hast ^ girded me with strength to battle : 
"" Them that rose up against me hast thou f subdued under me. 

Thou hast also given me the "^ necks of mine enemies. 

That I might destroy them that hate me. 

They looked, but there was none to save ; 

Even * unto the Lord, but he answered them not. 

Then did I beat them as small ^as the dust of the earth, 

I did stamp them ' as the mire of the street, 

And did spread them abroad. 
^ ^ Thou also hast delivered me from the strivings of my people. 

Thou hast kept m^tohe^ head of the heathen : 
^ A people which I knew not shaU serve me. 
^ t Steangers shall || f submit themselves unto me : 

As soon as they hear, they shall be obedient unto me. 

Strangers shall fade away, 

And they shall be afraid ^ out of their close places. 












Pi. 66. 8. & 81. 16. 

?1 Sam. 8. 2. 
sa. i6. 5, 6. 

r Ex. 15. 2. 
Pi.27. 1. 

6 28. 7. 8. 
Isft. 12. 2. 

f Heb. ridd^ik, 
or. lootglh. 
» lleb. IS. 21. 
t Deut 18. 13. 
Job 22. S. 
Ps. 101.2. 6. 
ft 119. 1. 
t Heb. equallelk. 
u ch. 2. 18. 
H«b. S. 19. 
X Deut. 32. 13. 
Iml 33. 16. 
ft 58. 14. 

7 P». 144. 1. 

t Heb. /or /A* 
f Heb. 

muUiplied vm. 
% Prov. 4. 12. 
t Heb. ankUi. 

& Mai. 4. 3. 
b Pt. 18. 82, 39. 

o Pa. 44. 5. 

t Heb. catued to 


d Gen. 49. 8. 

Ex. 23. 27. 

Joeh. 10. 24. 

e Job 27. 9. 
Prov. 1. 28. 
Isa. 1. 15. 
Mic. 8. 4. 
f2 Kings 13. 7. 
Pi. 35. 5. 
Dan. 2. 35. 
R Isa. 10. 6. 
Mic. 7. 10. 
Zeeh. 10. 5. 
h eh. 3. 1. 
ft 5. 1. 
ft 19. 9, 14. 
ft 20. 1, 2. 22. 
i Deut. 28. 13. 
ch. 8. 1—14. 
Ps. 2. 8. 
k Isa. 55. 5. 
f Heb. Son* of 
ths itrangtr. 

J I Or, pitld 
tignod obodUmce, 
tHeb. /<«: 
Me Deut. 33. 29. 
lMic.7. 17. 

82. who U Ood,9ao€ the Lobd ? And who U a rock, saoe omr 
Ood ?] He adopts the language of Moaee in hU somg, Deut. 
xxxiL 4. 15. 18. dO, 91, in aU wUch places the word tsuTt rock, 
IB applied to God ; and that is the first passage in the Bible, and 
the only chapter in the Pentateoch, where that figore is nsed; 
and it is next adopted in 1 Sam. iL 2, " There is none holy as 
the Lord ; for there is none beside Thee, neither is there any 
Soek like onr God." In the present chapter the fignre is nsed 
four times, vv, 8. 82. 47 twice, and below, xxiii. 8. These are 
the only places up to this point in the Hebrew Bible where the 
word tmr is thus nsed, and they serve to mark the connexion 
between the hymns of Moses, of Hannah, and of David. 

84. like hind** feet] Like the feet of a gazelle. ** The sacred 
writers (says Dr, Thomson) frequently mention gazelles under 
the various names of harts, roes, and hinds. They are cele- 
brated for their activity. Thus Jacob says of Naphtali, ' he is 
a hind let loose' (Gen. xlix. 21); and his mountains abound 
in gazelles to this day. Asahel was light of foot like a wild roe 
(2 Sam. ii. 18); and David says, * He maketh my feet like hinds' 
fleet, and setteth me upon my high places.^ I have often 
stopped to admire the grace, ease, and fearless security with 
whi<m these pretty creatures bound along the high places of the 
mountains" {Dr. Thomson, The Land and Book, p. 172). 

— seUeth me upon my high places'] So God exalts believers 
in Christ, even to heavenly places, and makes them to sit tiiere 
together with Him» Eph. li. 6. 

86. He teacheth mgf hands to war] Compare the language 
of the Apostle, speaking of himself, 2 Cor. x. 4, 5. 

86. ^ gentleness] Thy gracious condescension to my prayer 
for help. 

41. Thon hast also gioen me the necks qf mine enemies'] See 
above. Josh. x. 24, where is also a figure of Christ's victory, and 
of the victory of all Christians in Him. 1 Cor. xv. 25—28. 

44. Thou also hast delivered me^A people which I knew not 
shall serve me] This and the two following verses, fiilfllled in 
part in David, will be accomplished completely in Christ : cp. 
Isa. Iv. 6; Ixv. 1. Bev. vL 15^ 16; xix. 16. 

46, Strangers shall submit themselves unto me] shall lie to 
me; play the hypocrites; render me homage in an obsequious 
and servile manner; there is a reference here to the words of 
Moses, Deut. xxxiii. 29. 

— As soon as thetf hear] Literally, at the hearing qf the 

46. shaUfade awag] Shall wither, as if scorched up by my 

— shaU he afraid'] Literally, thev shall gird themselves and 
come out, if the readmg be oonrect (see G^esen, 261) ; or, if the 
reading in the parallel pUce in the Ptalm (Pto. xviii. 46) be 
adopted* they shall come forth trembling from their hiding- 
pla^ : cp. Micah viL 16, 17. Hos. xL 11. 

Digitized by 


David and the heathm. 2 SAMUEL XXII. 47—51. XXTTT> 1—8. David's last words. 


m Pi. 89. 26. 

t H«b. giveth 
aoenjftment for 

1 Sun. 25. 89. 
ch. 16. 19, 81. 
n P». 144. 2. 

o P«. 140. 1, 
p Rom. 15. 9. 

q Pi. 144. 10. 
r Pt. 69. 20. 

t cb. 7. 12, 18. 
Pfl. 89. 29. 

a cb. 7. 8. 9. 

Pt 78. 70, 71. 

& 89. 27. 

b 1 8«m. 16. 12, 


Pt. 89. 20. 

c 2 Pet. 1. 21. 

1 Deut. 82. 4, 81. 
?h. 2S. 2, 82. 
B Or, Be thou 
niUr, J^e. 
Pt. 110. 2. 




The Lord liveth ; and blessed be my rock ; 
And exalted be the God of the "rock of my salvation. 
It is God that f avengeth me, 
And that ^ bnngeth down the people under me, 
And that bringeth me forth from mine enemies : 

Thon also hast lifted me np on high above them tibat rose np against me : 
Thou hast delivered me from the "* violent man. 
Therefore I will give thanks unto thee, Lobd, among ^ the heathen. 
And I will sing praises unto thy name. 
^^*^Heis the tower of salvation for his king : 
And sheweth mercy to his ' anointed, 
Unto David, and ' to his seed for evermore. 
XXm. ^ Now these be the last words of David. 

David the son of Jesse said, 
' And the man who was raised up on high, 
** The anointed of the God of Jacob, 
And the sweet psalmist of Israel, said ; 
2 *= The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, 

And his word was in my tongue. 
' The God of Israel said, 
^ The Bock of Israel spake to me ; 
II He that ruleth over men must be just, 

60,51. Therrfore Iwms^ihanki unto thee^UtUo I>avid, 
and to his teed for evermore] The Holy Ghoat, speaking by 
St. Fkiul (Bom. XV. 9), teaches jib that here is a Divine prophecy 
of the onion of the Gentiles with the Jews, in one nnivenal 
CSiareh, and in a song of thankfUness to God for His merdes, 
not onlv to David personally, bnt to David in hie eeed for ever^ 
more, tiiat is, to the blessed company of all faitht\il people of 
every age and nation, united together in heavenly glory in Christ. 
See above, on vii. 13^16, where God makes this promise of per- 
petoi^ of duration and of dominion to David's seed in Christ. 

Here also the Holy Spirit, speaking by David, uses the 
same language as He luid uttered before by Moses (see on Deut. 
xxzii. 48), and by Hannah (1 Sam. IL 10). And St. Paul, by join- 
ing the last utterances of Moses with the last utterance of David, 
and by combining them together in two consecutive verses in his 
Epistle to the Bomans (Rom. xv. 9, 10. 12), snd by adding thereto 
the words of the evangeli(»l prophet Isaiah, " There shall be a 
root of Jeeee, and He that shall rise to reign over the Oentitee, 
in Him shall the Qentilee trust" (Isa. xi. 1. 10), instructs us that 
the consummation, to which Moses in the Law, and David in the 
Psalms, and the Holv Prophets looked, was one and the same — 
the Uinoiir of all nations in CasnT and His Church. 

Pbixhok^bt Kotx to Chap. XXIII. 
Thx Last Wobdb ov Datid. 

These ''lattword* of Damd*'Bxe nottohe considered as the 
last which he spoke as a man in his personal capacity (for later 
sayings of Ids are fbund in 1 Kings i. and iL), but thev are his 
«<novissima verba," his fkreweU utterances, as a divinely in- 
spired Prophet of Ood. All lus hopes and desires are summed 
up in them. They are like the seal, which God the Holy Ghost, 
Who spake by him, sets to the whole historv of his life ; and in 
them he leaves a last testimonv to the world, of his faith in the 
promise of perpetuity, which he had received through Nathan 
the prophet from God : see above, vii. 12 — 17. 

It is to this futh, in which David spake, and in which he 
fell asleep ; it is to this blessed hope, and to its farewell utter- 
ances, that St. Peter refers when he says, ** The patriarch 
David, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with 
HU oath to him, that of the fhiit of his loins according to the 
flesh ffe would raise up Chbist to eit on hie throne — he, seeing 
this before, spake of the resurrection of Chbist :" see Acts ii. 
29 - 81. Cp. Acts xiii. 88—37. 

The Jews themselves acknowledge these words to be the 

profesnon of faith, which David, the Elng, the Pnlmisty and 
the Plophet, delivered as his final utterance to the world : cp. 
Luthet^e Works, xxxvii. p. 1. Catovme, BibL Illnst. p. 778. 
Hengetenherg, Christologie, i. 169. 

1. David the eon of Jeeee muT) Literally, the saying or 
utterance of David the eon ttf Jeeee. Hie word her« used and 
rendered, eaid, is properly the pasnve participle ncOm, ftcm 
naam, to speak bv Divine Inspiration (see Geeen, 525). 

By means of this solemn word, this parophecy oi David is 
linked on to that of Balaam oonceming the Messiah, which is 
introduced in the same way : see Num. xxiv. 8, 4. 15, 16. 

But there is this difierence between the nctUm, effhium, or 
prophetic utterance of Balaam and David, that one is the utter- 
ance of a man fidling into a trance, the other is that of one 
lifted up on high, and greaUv favoured by God ( JTsiQ. 

— raised up on h^gh, M anointed ftf the God of Jaeob"] 
Baised from the low estate of a shepherd to tiie throne <» 
Israel (see PS. Ixxviii. 72), and anointed by God Himsdf. This 
is the correct interpretation ; the other, which is fbund in the 
Vulgate, <'cui constitutum est de Christo," and is adopted by 
Luther, Pfeiffer (DuUa, p. 211, "David oonfirmatus est de 
MessiA"), and others, cannot be maintained on grammatical 

— the eweetpeaUmH ofleraeX] Literally, who is aeoeptable 
(to God^ in the pealme (m hymns of praise to God) qf leraeL 
David here spcidcs by inspiration, oonceming what the HoW 
Ghost had uttered by his means (see o. 2). This is not «^- 
praiee, any more than the words of Moses, *< the man Moses was 
very meek," are : see above, on Num. xiL 8, and the words of 
Samuel, 1 Sam. xii. 11. 

8. The Spirit of the LoBD epake bg nui] As Christ Hhnself 
bears witness : Matt. xxii. 48. Cp. Acts ii. 80 ; iv. 25 : cp. Bp. 
Pearson, Art. i. p. 8. David says of himself, " My tongue is t& 
pen of a ready writer" (Ps. xlv. 2) 5 it was God's secretary. 

It is not without reason that many expositors have seen 
here a prophetic reveUition ai the Three Persons of the Blessed 
Trinity, peaking to David ; 

(1) The Spirit of the Lord, God the Holy Ghost. 

(2) The God of Israel, God the Father. 

(8) The Rock of Israel, God the Son: BeeLuther, 1. c, and 
Cfaloviut, Bi\A. HI. p. 778. 

8. The Jtock qf Israel] See above, on xxii. 2, 8. The 
origmal word here is teur. "Tribuit Scriptura Chrieto pecu- 
liariter nomen Petro" (Calovius). Cp. below, on Matt. x^. 18. 

8, 4^ 5. Me that ruleth over men must be Just — rain] The 

Digitized by 


David'9 prophecy of Christ. 2 SAMUEL XXTII. 4 — 7. Christ's Coming and Kingdom. 

Baling •in the fear of God. 
^ And ^he shall be as the light of the mornings when the sun riseth, 

Even a morning without clouds ; 

As the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain. 
' Although my house be not so mth God ; 
^ Yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, 

Ordered in all things, and sure : 

For this ts all my salvation^ and all my desire, 

Although he make it not to grow. 
^ But the sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns thrust away. 

Because they cannot be taken with hands : 

But the man that shall touch them 

Must be f fenced with iron and the staff of a spear ; 

And they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place. 

e Ex. 18. 21. 
2Chron. 19. 7,9. 
f Judg. 5. 81. 
Ps. 89. 36. 
FroT.4. 18. 
Hob. 6. 5. 
SeePs. 110. 8. 

g ch. r. 15, 16. 
Pi. 89. 29. 
ISA. 65. 8. 

t Ueh.JllM. 

words inserted in italics in the Authorized Version in these 
three verses wonld be better omitted. These verses contain the 
snm of David's utterances, the substance of David's fiuth and 
hope» the kernel of all the Messianic Psalms ; 

David has a vision of Christ, and he thus describee what he 
sees. In his spiritual ecstasy and rapture he pours forth his 
utterances with vehemence and brevity, and with characteristic 
abruptness he omits verbs, and in the vigorous language of nouns 
he declares the character of the Divine Person Whom he beholds. 
He takes as it were the trumpet of prophecy in his hands, and 
lifts up his voice, as a herald of the Messiah, and proclaims the 
attributes and prerogatives of the Jodge and King, Whose 
Coming he beholds ; 

These verses may thus be translated : — 
A Ruler over men, Righteomi 
One who rtUeth in the fear of Chd, 
The best comment on them is Jeremiah xxiii. 5» 6 >— 
Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, 
That I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, 
And a King shall reign and prosper. 
And shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. 
And this is His name whereby He shall be called, " Thi 


Compare Ps. hdi. 2. Isa. xi. 1 — i, and Zech. ix. 9. 

Next follows a description of the blessed effects of Christ's 
kingdom, in dispelling the darkness and in diffusing light over 
the world ; And as Ught of the morning the Sun shall arise ; 
as morning, and no clouds. 

Christ is the Sun of ^ghteousness ^MaL iv. 2), and He 
shall arise as the Dayspring from on high (Luke i. 78) ; and 
no clouds shall be seen, tor they shall be dispersed by the bright- 
ness of His rising. 

From His brightness and rain, the greenness from the 
earth (sprouts forth). 

David is here describing the consequences of Christ's Birth 
and of His Resurrection, and of the light, and dews, and showers 
of the Holy Spirit, making the earth to flourish ; as the Psalmist 
himself says (Pd. IxxiL 6), " He shall come down, like rain upon 
the mown gprass, as showers that water the earth." And again 
(Ps. Ixviii. 9), " Thou sentest a gracious rain on Thine inherit- 
ance, and refireshedst it when it was weary :" cp. Deut. xxxii. 2. 
Isa. xliv. 8, 4, " I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and 
floods upon the dry ground : and they shall spring up among the 
grass, as willows by the water courses" (Iv. 10, 11). 

The Birth of Christ was from the gracious dews of the Holy 
Spirit, as the Angel said to the Blessed Virgin, "The Holv 
Gnost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall 
overshadow thee " (Luke i. 85) ; and Sie Incarnation of Christ is 
the origin of aU spiritual grace to mankind. As an ancient 
writer expounds the words, "Ecclesia, oriente Sole, Christo 
resurgent^ absque nubibus rutilat. Pluvia, evangdica prsDdi- 
cstio. Herba credentem signiflcat populum " (Angelomus). 

Ibr is not so mg house with Ood ? Is it not thus blessed 
by Him P Certainly it is ; as to the construction, cp. Hos. xL 5. 
lial. ii. 15 (j;ba?<2, § 824 Keil), 

Because Me has established wUh me an everlasting 
covenant. As had been declared by Kathan to David (see vii. 
12—17). Comp. the paraphrase here in the Chaldee Targvm, 

Ordered in all and guarded. He compares the covenant 
to a strong fortress or city wall, ordered, and furnished, and 
safely guarded, so as to be impreg^ble: <»>. Gesen. 654 and 
837 for an explanation of the original words here used. 

Jbr all mg salvation, and aU mg desire, wHl JBe not 
make it grow f Will not God make my salvation and my desire 
to spring forth and flourish in His own appointed season P As- 
suredly He wilL David here looks forward to the coming 
forth of Christ with all His blessed influences, as a branch from 
the stem of his own family, of which the Prophets speak, " There 
shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch 
shall grow out of his roots" (Lml xi. 1), wbioh St. Paul applies 
to Christ (Rom. xv. 12). 

But Belial (i.e. worthlessness and wickedness : see Deut. xiii. 
18 ; XV. 9. Judg. xix. 22; zx. 18. 1 Sam. i. 16. 2 Sam. xx. 1). 
AU of them are thorns oast awag. They are thorns which are 
uprooted from the field in order to be burned. Such are the 
wicked rooted out of the field of God's Church t cp. Matt. 
xiiL 80. 

JFbr men wiU not gather them in their hand, Theyaxe 
not like good wheat, which men gather into sheaves. " With 
them the mower fllleth not his himd," as David says, "neither 
he that bindeth up the sheaves his bosom" (Pa. cxxix. 7). 

Sewho grapples with them will provide himself with iron, 
and spear, and staff; and thev shall utterlg be burned with fire 
in their own place. David is here speaking, as the Jews them- 
selves confess, of the Aiture judgment to be executed by the Son 
of David, the Messiah, at the Great Day : see the Chaldee Tar- 
gum here. Cp. Luke xix. 27. Heb. vi. 8. 

David'a Woethibs. 

After the foregoing final prophecj^ of David, concerning the 
Coming of Christ, and its blessed spiritual consequences to the 
World, even to the end of time, the Sacred Historian inserts a 
Catalogue of David's mighty men — ^his heroes or worthies. 

In their names and deeds we may see a foreshadowing of 
the noble acts effected bj^ the Apostles, and othen in succession 
after them, in the Christian Church, its Martyrs, Confessors, and 
other champions of the Cross, animated by the Spirit, Whom 
Christ sent to enable them to overcome the enemies of the 
Faith. Thus the acts of these mighty men are exemplary to 
the soldiera of Christ. 

David's worthies are divided into three classes : — 

(1) Consisting of the three (8—12). 

?2) Of two (18—28). 

(3) Of 82 (24—89) ; v. 84 contains three names. 

Twelve of these, viz. the five of the first two classes, and 
seven of the third, were chie& for a month respectively of a body 
of 24,000 apiece (see 1 Chron. xxvii. 1 — 15). Joab is not men- 
tioned in this catalogue. Cp. v. 28. 

Many critics Imve endeavoured to force the two accounti 
here and in 1 Chron. xxvii. 1—15, into verbal identity; and a 
great many constrained conjectural emendations have been pro- 
posed by them for this purpose. It seems more reasonable to 
suppose that the two writers are giving various details con- 
cerning I>avid's worthies, and, sometimes, concerning different 
periods of David's history, and that the latter writer is not a 
mere copyist of the former. 

Digitized by 


David's worthies : 

2 SAMUEL XXm. 8—15. 

their feats. 

Ij Or. Joskeb' 
bfUMbH ih0 Taek- 
moMitt, Juad of 
ike three. 

II See 1 Chron. 11. 
11.6 27.2. 
t Heb. iMn, 
h 1 Chron. II. 12. 
& 27. 4. 

i 1 Chron 11.27. 
k See 1 Chron. 
11. 18. 14. 
U Oii for foraging. 

1 1 Chron. 1 1. 15. 

Or, the three 

captain* over the 


m 1 Sam. 22. 1. 

n ch. 5. 18. 

o 1 Sam. 22. 4, 5. 

^ These be the names of the mighty men whom David had : \\ The Tachmonite 
that sat in the seat, chief among the captains ; the same was Adino the Eznite : 
II he lift up his spear against eight hmidred, f whom he slew at one time. ^ And 
after him was ** Eleazar the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the three mighty 
men with David, when they defied the Philistines that were there gathered 
together to battle, and the men of Israel were gone away : ^® He arose, and 
smote the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clave unto the 
sword : and the Lord wrought a great victory that day ; and the people 
returned after him only to spoil, 

^^ And after him was ^ Shammah the son of Agee the Hararite. ^ And the 
Philistines were gathered together || into a troop, where was a piece of ground 
fiill of lentiles : and the people fled from the Philistines. ^^ But he stood in 
the midst of the ground, and defended it, and slew the Philistines : and the 
Lord wrought a great victory. 

^3 And * II three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the 
harvest time unto " the cave of Adullam : and the troop of the Philistines 
pitched in "" the valley of Eephaim. *^ And David was then in ** an hold, and 
the garrison of the Philistines was then in Beth-lehem. ** And David longed. 

An elaborate essay on the catalogue in this chapter, as com- 
pared with the catalogae of worthies in 1 Chron. xi., may be 
seen in Dr. Kenmcotfs Dissertations, Oxford, 1763, vol. i. 
15—518. The learned author of that essay seems to have been 
biassed by a theory that the two catalogues were originally 
almost identical, and ought to be brought into coincidence 
with one another. 

8. The jyichmonife thai $at in the geiW] or, Jashobeam the 
son of Machmoni : see 1 Chron. xi. 11 ; and compare v. 9 here, 
where the son of Achochi is the same person with the Acho' 

The reading in the extant MSS. here is supposed by some 
to have arisen from the occurrence of the words b<uhshebeth, in 
the seat, in the previous verse {Dr, Kennicott, who enlarges at 
much length on the words of the text here, as compared with 
1 Chron. xi. 11 : see his Dissertations, vol. i. pp. 64—128). 

If the words in the MSS. here are genuine, they mean 
sitting in the seat (Oesen. 872). This reading is confirmed by 
the Targum here, and by Syriae, and Arabic, and Vulg., and is 
not hastily to be abandoned. The name Jashobeam, in Chronicles, 
means to whom the people turn, Cp. Fuerst, p. 616. 

— the captains'] So Oesen., p. 828; or, rather, adjutants of 
the king {Keil, p. 356). 

— the same was Adino the Etnite] The Hebrow words here 
(hu adino ha-etseno) are supposed by some to be equivalent to 
those in the parallel place of Chronicles {hu orer eth chonitho), 
he lifted up kis spear. But it is not easy to see how they could 
have been formed from them. It is coiyectured by Simonis and 
Gesenius, pp. 606. 648, that the sense is he (foiu^ht with) the 
wielding (or vibration) of his spear aaainst — . Q>. Orove and 
Bullock in B. D. i. 604. 934; and bdow, on 1 Chron. xL 11. 

llie Sept. has, "Adino the Ezrite, he drew his sword;*' and 
the Targum has, *< hurling with Ms spear;" and the Striae has 
the name '* Gedchu." Abarbanel thinks that his second name 
was Adino ha-ezri. Adina occurs as a name 1 Chron. xi. 42. 
The words, he lift up his spear, might be omitted without 
detriment to the sense "he stood (done against;" and the 
difference of numbers (see next note^ seems to suggest as pro- 
bable that the battle hero spoken of is a different one from that 
in the Chronicles ; and that it is not reasonable to attempt to 
force the two accounts into verbal identity. 

ITie opinion of Pfeiffer (Dubia, p. 218> deserves attention. 
The words Josheb bashshebeth here, and Jashobeam in Chronicles, 
contain two descriptions of the same person; and the words 
Tachmomte and son of Hachmoni represent redprocaUy the 
cognomen of the person and the name of his fkther ; Adino ha- 
eUino is another name of the same hero, with the addition of the 
name of his birth -phice ; this is omitted in the Chronicles, and 
it is there added that " he brandished his spear," and routed 
the enemy therewith. ** Binomincs Hebrsei erant, nee opus ut 
omnia simul et semel in uno loco referantur." So Pagninus, 
Vatdblus, and Calovius, p. 784. We shall see numerous in- 

stances of double names borne by the same person among David's 
worthies : see below, w. 25. 27, 28. Why should we be sur- 
prised at this, any more than at the different names borne by the 
same Apostles of Christ ? see on Matt x. 3, 4. 

— eight hundredr~-at one time'] In the extant MSS. of the 
Chronicles the number is three hundred : cp. v. 18. But (aa 
Kimchi supposes) the two writers are probably speaking of two 
different battles : see the foregoing note ; and this is the reason 
why each of the two writers adds "at one time," suggesting 
that other feats were done at another tmte (Pfeiffer). 

0. Eleazar the son of JDodo] or, of lyodai : see 1 Chron. 

— the Ahohite"] Literally, the son of Achochi: m the 
Chronicles he is called an Achochitef the patronymic 

— with David] The Chronicles here adds the place, "at 
Pas-dammim" (1 Chron. xi. 18); probably Ephes-daimnim 
(1 Sam. xvii. 1). 

— when thejf defied the Philistines'] In answer to the former 
proud boast of Qoliath, who had defied the armies of the Living 
Qod in the same place (1 Sam. xvii. 10. 36). 

This incident, recorded here, is not mentioned in the 
Chronicles ; here is one of the numerous evidences that the two 
catalogues are supplementary to each other, and ought to be 
treated as such, and not to be forced (as they are by some 
critics) into identity by violent conjectural alterations. This has 
been attempted, in part, by Kennicott, pp. 128 — 144. 

11. Mararite] Perhaps the mountaineer {Syriao, Arabic, 

— a troop] The onnnal word, signifying a heap, is explained 
in the Chronicles (1 Chron. xi. 18. 15). 

— lentiles] In the Chronicles it is added that there was 
barlejf there (1 Chron. xL 18). Doubtless the field (a large 
plain) was sown with both ; the independence of the two writers 
is thus shown ; and the latter intended that his own account 
should be supplementary to the former : see the notes there. 

18. three qf ^ thir^] Their names are not mentioned. Qod 
knows them, as He knows the noble acts of all His Saints and 
Martyrs, and wiU reward them at the Great Day, although, 
like the fkr greater part of the actions and sufferings of the 
holy Apostles themselves, they are not written in any earthly 
histories. Th^ names are "in the book of life " (PhiL iv. 3), 
and their acts, unknown to men, are registered in Qod's 

— h€^rvest time] When thirst would be most intense. In 
the Chronicles it is added that they came "to the fock." 

— cave of Adullam] Where I)avid had hid himself when 
persecuted by Saul (see 1 Sam. xxiL 1), and where he was 
fortifying himself agidnst the Philistines wnen they came against 
him, as described above (v. 17, 18), as ai^>ears probable from 
the mention of "the valley of Bephaim." Cp. Josephus, viL 

14. an hold] A fortress. 

Digitized by 


David and the water of the 

2 SAMUEL XXm. 16—20. 

well of Bethlehem. 

and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Beth- 
lehem, which is by the gate ! ^^ And the three mighty men brake through the 
host of the PhiUstines, and drew water out of the well of Beth-lehem, that was 
by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David : nevertheless he would not 
drink thereof, but poured it out unto the Lord. ^^ And he said. Be it far from 
me, LoBD, that I should do this : is not this ""the blood of the men that went ?!•«*. i?. lo. 
in jeopardy of their lives ? therefore he would not drink it. These things did 
these three mighty men. 

1® And *>Abishai, the brother of Joab, the son of Zeruiah, was chief among qichnm. 11.20. 
three. And he lifted up his spear against three hundred, \and slew theniy and tHeb.#tei«. 
had the name among three. ^^ Was he not most honourable of three ? therefore 
he was their captain : howbeit he attained not unto the first three. 

^And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man, of 'Kabzeel, rjo> 

15. Oh thai one would gvo€ me drink of the water of the well 
qfBeth-lehem] His own birth-place ; water which he knew to be 
refreshing, especially at that sultry time of harvest. But it was 
then posMssed by the Philistines, the enemies of Israel and of GK)d. 

Bethlehem itself is now ill snpplied vrith water (Thomson, 
p. 647), and no Well has been foona within the dty or near the 
gate {Mohinson, ii. 158). There is a dstem of dear cool water 
about half a mile N.x. of the town (Eitter, Toiler), and it is 
called *' the Well of David " (Bobineon) ; near it, according to 
tradition, was " Jesse's honse" (Keil). Joeephus says (vii. 12. 
4) that the Well was near the gate. 


16. he would not drink thereof, hut poured it out unto the 
Lobb] As a drink-offering. He gives the reason: that he 
looked npon it, not as water, but bl<Hfd (v. 17), being procured at 
the hazurd of their lives ; and he knew that it was forbidden by 
the Law to drink of blood (Lev. xvii. 11, 12) ; as is related in 
1 Chron. zi. 18, 19, he said, " Shall 1 drink the blood of these 
men that have put their Uves in jeopardy P " Therefore he 
would not drink it, bat poured it out to the Lord. Joeephue 
adds (viL 12. 4) that he gave thanks to God for the preserva- 
tion of their lives. 

(1) There is a moral lesson in this history, as an example of 
resisUnce to, and sacrifice of, the fleshly aj^tite. Riamples of 
this kind are dted from prd^e history; viz. of Aleiander the 
Qreat» in his Indian campaign, refusing a proffered draught of 
water, when he was pardiea with thirsty saying, ** Nee solus, 
inquit, bibere sustineo; neo tam ezifluum omnibus dividere 
possum'' (Outfit. Curt. vii. 6); and of Cato Uticensis, 
" Somni pardssimus ipse est ; 

Uliimus hanstor aqu» ; qutun tandem fonte reperto 

Indiga oonatur latices potare juventus, 


{Lucan, iz. 590). In the words of Bp, Sanderson (L 107^, 
slightly modified: When thou obeervest thy will eag^Iy 
bent upon some one thing, deny thyself: cuirb thy desires, 
though they be somewhat importunate, and thou shalt find 
incredible benefit by it. This is one of the best uses of 
to cross the appetite and pull down the will. 

Solomon's words, '* Put a knife to thy throat** (Prov. xxiu. 2), 
and «* Buffet thy body " (1 Cor. ix. 27). Exercise rule over thy 
will (1 Cor. vii. 87). David would not taste a drop of the 
water of the weQ by the gate of Bethlehem, but in condemnation 
of his appetite, wmch had exposed such worthy persons to the 
hazard of their lives, poured it out before the Lord. What a 
mass ci sin and misery would he have e8<»ped, if he had so 
denied himself in the matter of Uriah ! VerQy, there is no 
conquest like this, for a man to conquer himself. 

" Fordor est, qui se qukm qui fortissima vindt 
Oppida-** ^ ^ ^ 

" Est virtus Ileitis abstinuisse bonis." 
And to adopt also the words of S. Ambrose (Apol. David i.), 
** David overcame nature by not drinking when he thirsted : 
and he thus taught his army by his example to endure thirst, 
and showed them that he would not expose his soldiers to 
danger in order to grati^ any ambitious desires of his own. 
To him the water would have no sweetness, being tainted with 
the taste of the death of his friends." 

J 2) Some of the Fathers suppose that thb inddent is related 
ter to show that David, who had not been content with his 
Vol. IL Pabt II.-.129 

own wives, nor to drink ** water out of his own cistern " (Prov. 
V. 15), but had coveted his neighbour's wife, and had been gpiilty 
of adultery wiUi her, had now mastered his passions : see Chrys, 
in Ps. L, and 8, Ambrose de Jacob i. 1 : " Humanum passus 
est David ut concupisceret, sed ooncupiscentiam rationabiliter 
parato fraudavit remedio." Cp. 8, Qregor, in Kegistro ix. 39 : 
" Licebat d bibere, si voluisset ; sed quia illidta se fecisse me- 
minerat, laudabiliter a Ileitis abstinebat." 

David, who before had yielded to his carnal appetite in n 
lawless lust, in his palace at Jerusalem, in the cool eventide (see 
xL 2), now triumphs over the natural appetite of thirst in a 
scorching summer's day. He who before had shed the blood of 
his faithfrd soldier Uriah, now shrinks from drinking the water 
because it seemed to be purchased by those who willingly 
hazarded their lives; and he poured out tne water on the ground. 
It is well said by an andent expodtor : " In sacrifidum 
Domini effhsa aqua oonversa est, quia ctilpam concupiscentiss 
mactavit per poenitentiam. Qui quondam concupiscere alienam 
uxorem non tmiuit, post etiiam quia concupierat expavit. Quia 
illidta perpetrAsse meminerat, contra sdpsum jam rigidus etiam 
a lidtis abstinebat." «Quod aquam bibere nolui^ sed earn 
Domino libavit, exemplum presbmt militibus suis. Vidt natu- 
ram, ut suo exemplo omnis exerdtus vincere dtim disceret" 

(8) Tet farther, as some of the Christian Fathers suggest, 
the inddent here recorded by the Holy Ghost has not oiSv a 
moral, but also a sdritual, prophetic, and typical meaning (see 
8, Ambrose, Apd. l)av. L 7). David was a prophet : he spake 
by the Spirit; he foreknew that Chbibt would spring ftt>m his 
own loins (Acts ii. 80). He propheded by this action; though 
we are not bound to suppose that he himself understood its 
meaning, anv moro than we aro to suppose that he, or any other 
propheC understood the ftdl meaning of what they uttered in 
words. The events of the Gk)6pd nave explained to us the 
meaning ci many acts and utterances of Patriarchs and IVo- 
phets, which were not dgnificant to themselves. Christ is the 
true Well-sprincr of Bethlehem, gushing forth with living waters 
of salvation. David thirsted for the water which would spring 
from that divine welL But he did not drink of it, and he was 
overruled by a divine instinct to pour it out, as blood, beforo the 
Lord. David ropresents the fiuthful souls of the Patriarchs 
thirsting for Chnst (Ps. xliL 1). 

(4) The Well of Bethlehem was in the hands of the Philistines, 
and David's three valiant men broke through the host of the 
enemy and ^rew water from it at the risk of their lives, and 
gave it to David, who poured it out, as blood, before the Lord. 
The water is called their blood. Thej represent Christ's self- 
sacrifice for us, and our own duty. To win Christ requires a spirit 
of m ar t v rdom; and when He isjjained, and when the soul rccdves 
Him who was pierced <m the Cross, and who is the " true foun- 
tdn opened to the house of David for sin and for undeanness " 
rZech. xiii. 1), and from whom ''came forth blood and water" 
(John xix. 84. 1 John v. 6) to save, deanse, and refresh us, then we 
are not to look for carnal delights, but for something far higher, 
nobler, and sweeter than all earthly pleasure ; we are to find our 
joy in Him, and in sacrificing ourselves for Him ; then He be- 
comes our all-sufficient Sacrifice before the Lord, and we are 
accepted thereby: cp. Methodius in Hypapante; Euoherius, 
Bede, Angelomus here. 

18. Abishm] See 1 Sam. xxvL 6. 1 Chron. xi. 20. 

'_ three"] Three with whom he was cUissed, not the first three. 

80. Benaiah the son of Jehoiada^ The priest : 1 Chron. 


Digitized by 


David's worthies. 2 SAMUEL XXIII. 21—39. XXIV. 1, 2. He numbers Israel. 

f Heb. great of 


s Ex. 15. 15. 

I Chron. 11.22. 

i Heb. liana of 


i Ileh. a MOM of 

countenance^ or, 

fight: called, 

1 (hron. 11.23, 

man of great 

1 Or, konourahU 
among the thtrtif, 

t cb. 8. 18. 
ft > 0.23. 
n Or, eomncH. 
t Heb. at hit 
1 Sam. 22. 14. 
uch. 2. 18. 
X See 1 Chron. 

! Or, vallnft, 
Deut 1.24. 
y J udg. 2. 9. 

z ch. 20. 26. 
ach. 11.8,6. 
ach.21. 1. 

II Satan. 

Seel Chron. 21.1 

Jamet 1. 13, 14. 

fwho had done many acts, 'he slew two f lionlike men of Moab: he went 
down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in time of snow : ^^ And he 
slew an Egyptian, f a goodly man : and the Egyptian had a spear in his hand ; 
but he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the 
Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear. ^ These things did 
Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and had the name among three mighty men. 
23 He was || more honourable than the thirty, but he attained not to the first 
three. And David set him ' over his || f guard. 

^ " Asahel the brother of Joab was one of the thirty ; Elhanan the son of 
Dodo of Beth-lehem, ^5 « Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite, ^ Helez 
the Paltite, Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite, ^ Abiezer the Anethothite, 
Mebunnai the Hushathite, ^ Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai the Netophathite, 
^ Heleb the son of Baanah, a Netophathite, Ittai the son of Kibai out of 
Gibeah of the children of Benjamin, ^ Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai of the 
! I brooks of ^^Gaash, «* Abi-albon the Arbathite, Azmaveth the Barhumite, 
32 Eliahba the Shaalbonite, of the sons of Jashen, Jonathan, ^ Shammah the 
Hararite, Ahiam the son of Sharar the Hararite, 3* Eliphelet the son of 
Ahasbai, the son of the Maachathite, Eliam the son of Ahithophel the 
Gilonite, ^ Hezrai the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite, ^ Igal the son of Nathan 
of Zobah, Bani the Gadite, ^ Zelek the Ammonite, Nahari the Beerothite. 
armourbearer to Joab the son of Zeruiah, ^^ » Ira an Ithrite, Gareb an Ithrite, 
^ * Uriah the Hittite : thirty and seven in all. 

XXrV. ^ And * again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and 
j! he moved David agamst them to say, ** Go, number Israel and Judah. ^ For 

b 1 Chron. 27. 23, 24. 

xxYu. 5 : qp. 1 Chron. xii. 27. Benaiah was the captain of the 
Cherethites : viii. 18 ; xx. 28. 

— the 8on] And therefore renowned, thronffh his grandfather 
as well as his &ther, in war. So Tar^wm and Vulg. 

— vcUionf] Literally, of life and valonr {&—&%, 273). 

— of KabzeeH In the sonth of Jadah (Josh. xy. 21). He 
was a Levite hj descent, bnt an inhabitant of Judah. 

— two lionwce wen] Literally, two arieUt or Uone of Ood ; 
a name given to valiant men mke " Cceor de Lion ") by the 
Arabs and others (Booharf), He slew two lionlike men, and 
a lion also. 

— qfapif] or dstem, where he had taken reftige. Benaiah 
leapt into it and grappled with the lion there, in a snowy day, 
which is apt to benumb man's strength and to cool the courage, 
and when beasts of prey are most fierce and ravenous ftt>m 
hanger. The pit was probably near a house, and the lion was 
lying in wait for his prey. 

21. a goodly wan] A prodigious man, a man to be gazed at 
with wonder, for his site ; he was five cubits high : see 1 Chron. 

28. Me gMord^ His body-guard (viii. 18 ; xz. 28). Who the 
third was, b not mentioned. Could it be Joab ? Was he de- 
graded, KoA is his name omitted, on account of his crimes P 
Both his brothers, Abishai (o. 18) and Asahel («. 24), occur in 
the list. His armour-bearer is mentioned (o. 87). llius there 
are " some first that shall be last, and the last first." 

JoaVs prowess is described in the first place in the catalogue 
in 1 Chron. xi., and thouffh his name is not expressly mentioned 
in thb list, it being well known, yet it is supposed here in order 
to complete the number, 87 {Kennicott, p. 16). 

26. Shammah] Called Shammoth, 1 Chron. xL 27. 

— Harodiie] See Judg. vii. 1. 

26. Paltite] Pelonite, 1 Chron. xi. 27. 

27. Mebunnai] Called perhaps Sibbecai, 1 Chron. xL 29. 

28. Zalmon] Called also perhaps lUu, 1 Chron. xi. 29. 

29. Heleh] Called also Heled, 1 Chron. xL 80. 

80. Pirathomte] Of the tribe of Sphraim, 8.w. of NahUte, 
Judg. xii. 18. 

— Hiddai] Called also Hurai, 1 Chron. xL 82. 

— Oaaeh] in Ephraim, Josh. xxir. 80. 

8L Ahi-aUHm] Called also AMel, 1 Chron. xi. 82. 

— Jrhathite] From Arabah, in the wilderness of Judah 
(Josh. XV. 61; xviii. 18. 21). 

— BarknmUe] Of Bahurim, xvL 6. 

82. of the eone <tf J<uhen] The two fbllowing weone his oiT- 
^nring--Jonathan and Shammah. 

88. Shara/r] Called also Sacar, 1 Chron. xi. 86. 

84. EUam] The faUier of Bathsheba (xi. 8« and 1 Chron. 

If this is correct, then we see both the &ther and husband 
of Bathsheba (t). 89) were among David's worthies. 

86. CarmeUte] Of Judah, iSam. xxv. 2. 

88. IthrOe] Of Kirjath-jearim, 1 Chron. ii. 68« 

89. Uriah] See «. 84. The names of the prindpal heroes 
and worthies of David are recorded here and in the Book ci 
Chronicles; and the names of all the faithful soldiers and 
servants of the true David, whether they be men, women, or 
childroi, are " written in the Book of Life " (PhiL iv. 8). 

Ch. XXIY. 1. And again] That is, after the three years* 
fiunine recorded in xxi. 1. 

— the anger ^ the LoBB wa* kindled against leraet] 
Ftobably for their sins in joining in the rebellion of Absalom 
against David : see xv. 13, " The hearts of the men of Israel 
are after Absalom ;'* and xviiL 7, and for their participation also 
in the rebellion of Sheba the son of Bichri : see xx. 2, " Everr 
man of Israel went up from after David, and followed Sheba ; 
and for other transgressions. 

Datid VTnaaxa& Isbabl. 

— €Md he moved David against them to sag, Oo, mtmher 
Israel and Judah] In 1 Chron. xxi. 1, it is said, Saiam stood 
up affainst Israel, and provoked David to number IsraeL 

How is tills to be explained f 

(1) It is replied by some, that '^ he moved David ** is to 
be translated here impersonaUg, acoordingto a common Hebrew 
usage, and that it signifies ^one moved Day'id," and ]m equiva- 
lent to the passive, Damd was moved; CastaUo, CMaker, 
Le Cleret and so Dr. Waierland, Ser. Yind., p. 160: cp. the 
learned remarks of the Mev, 8. C. Malan, *' Philosophy and 
Truth,'' p. 169> who would suj^y the nominative Satan, as in 
oar margin. 

Digitized by 


David* s sin 

2 SAMUEL XXIV- 3—9. 

in numbering the people. 

the king said to Joab the captain of the host, which was with him, || Go now > 0'» compau. 
through all the tribes of Israel, ""from Dan eyen to Beer-sheba, and number ye ^^^^s- 'o i. 
the people, that "^I may know the number of the people. ' And Joab said djer.17.9. 
nnto the king, Now the Lord thy God add unto the people, how many soever 
they be, an hundredfold, and that the eyes of my lord the king may see it : 
but why doth my lord the king delight in this thing ? * Notwithstanding the 
king's word prevailed against Joab, and against the captains of the host. 

And Joab and the captains of the host went out from the presence of the 
king, to number the people of Israel. * And they passed over Jordan, 'and 
pitched in • Aroer, on the right side of the city that lieth in the midst of the e Dcut. 2. se. 
II river of Gad, and toward 'Jazer : ^ Then they came to Gilead, and to the ISim^nKz. 
II land of Tahtim-hodshi ; and they came to »Dan-jaan, and about to ^ Zidon, L2/i"-A^J«h.'' 
^ And came to the strong hold of Tyre, and to all the cities of the Hivites, and $ud|!*i8 V/ 
of the Canaanites : and they went out to the south of Judah, even to Beer* Ju^g. is. >» ' 
sheba. ' So when they had gone through all the land, they came to Jerusalem 
at the end of nine months and twenty days. ^ And Joab gave up the sum of 

(2) But it BeemB better to refer the pronoun he to the 
Lards and this is quite consistent with what is said in the pas- 
sage in Chronicles, which throws additional light on the history. 

Qod is not the author of any sin ; but nothing can happen 
without His penmssion. And (as Anguttine and Theodorei 
observe) He is often said in Scripture to do what He permits to 
be done, when that which is done is ordered to some end which 
conduces to the manifestation of His justice in punishing sin, or 
of His glory in promoting holiness. 

Thus, in the Books of Samuel, David himself supposes that 
Ood may have stirred up Saul against him for some fkult of his 
(1 Sam. zzyi« 19) ; and m 2 Sam. zii. 11, Nathan says to David 
in God's name, " I will raise up evil against thee out of thine 
own house, and I will take thy wives, uid give them unto thy 
neighbour," &c. And David says of Shimei, " Let him curse, 
because the Lord hath sud untx> him. Curse David .... the 
Lord hath bidden him" (xvi. 10, 11). 

In all these cases, the sin itselr was from Satan, and fionl 
roan's corrupt hearty and was fbrbidden and hated by GKkL 
But God used the sin well. He ordered it to the manifestation 
of His own power and justice, and the punishment of sin. It is 
in the moral worid as it is in the naturaL The filth of the dark 
sewer is from corruptioD ; but (to adopt a modem term) God 
** utilizes the sewage " of that corruption, and makes it fertilize 
the soil, and bring forth fair fruits of piety and virtue. As is 
wdl said by A Lapide, "God moved David, not by direct 
suggestion, but by permitting Satan to stir up David to do 
w£it he did ; and God is said to move David, because nothing 
can be done without God's permission, and because it was of 
Qod* s righteous retribution that the people were punished for 
their sins, in consequence of David's act/' and so Bp. Hall, 
<*Both God and Satan had their hand in tliis wwk. God by 
permission, Satan by suggestion. God as a judge, Satan as an 
enemy. God as in a lust punishment for dn, Saton as in an act 
of sin. QoA in a wise ordination of it to good, Satan in a 
malicious intent of confusion. Thus God moved, and Satan 
moved. Neither is it any excuse to Satan or David, that God 
moved. Neither is it any blemi^ to God, that Satan moved." 
On the contrary, it redounds to the honour of God, that He 
used Satan himself, and controlled and ordered his movements, 
for the manifestation of H3s own power and justice. Cp. ^eiffer, 
Dubia, p. 215. 

This histoiy shows that the acts and fortunes of rulers and 
people are closely connected together; and that the sins and 
virtues of the one exercise great influence on the happiness of 
the other (8. Oregory, Moral, xxix. 14). 

8. thoit I mcuf know the number of the pwpW] Where was 
the sin of this? God had twice ordered t& people to be num- 
bered in the wilderness, at Sinai at the beginnmg of their march 
(Num. i. 2), and in the plains of Moab at the end (Num. xxvi.) ; 
and it is observable that the chapter immediately preceding the 
present concludes with an emmeroHon of David's worthies. It 
nas been suppcwed by some, that David desired to know the 
number of the pecmle, and ordered this census to be made, with 
a view of ascertaining the amount of taxes and imposts which he 

designed to levy upon them. But this is altogether a ground- 
less conjecture. The nature of David's sin is declared by tlie 
sacred Writer, saving that it was prompted bv Satan, the author 
of pride and unbelief; and it may be inrerred from Joab's 
answer (v. 8), and from the mode in whidi it was punished by 
God: see AuguH, c. Faust. xxiL 66, — <<Populo numerato, 
peccatum elationis qjus sic punire placuit Deo, ut etmdem 
numerum minueret morte multorum, cigus multitudine cor 
regis frierat superbia pertentatum : in quo occulto judicio Deus, 
apud quern non est iniquitas, quos noverat indignos hie vitd 
subtraxit huic vit»." 

It was the sin of lack of faith in God, and in His protec- 
tion ; it was the sin of self-oonfidence, vain-glory, and reliance 
on an arm of flesh. ** Let him that glorieth, glory in the Lord" 
(2 Cor. X. 17). David says himself, " Some put their trust in 
chariots, and some in horses, but we will remember tiie Name of 
the Lord our God " (Fs. xx. 7). « No king can be saved by the 
multitude of an host . • . • but the Lord is our help ana our 
shield" (Ps. xxxiu. 15. 19). 

6. Aroerji In the east of Jordan, in the tribe of Gad, before 
Eabba, in "fvad^'Nahr-Jmrndn (Num. xxxii. 84. Josh. xiii. 25. 
Judg. xi. 83), to be distinguishea from the other Aroer in Reu- 
ben, on the bank of the river Amon (Dent. ii. 86. Josh. xiii. 9). 

— Jazer"] See Num. xxxii. 8. Perhaps on the site of Ee- 
Ssir, about nine miles w. oiAmmdn (Seetzen, cp. B. D. i. 909). 

6. TahUm'hodehi] The site of which is uncertun. The ety- 
mology of this word seems to tend to the transktion, the lower 
parte Uee Oeeen. 862) of the new moon (Qeeen, 268). But 
what toe meaning of this is, can only be conjectured. Some 
have siroposed that the sea of Galilee may sometimes have been 
called tne crescent moon (Bdticher), and that this phrase means 
the lower parts of Gennesaret. 

Is it not possible that Hodthi (new moon) may be one of 
the many names in Palestine (like Jericho, Beth-shemesh, &c.), 
which preserve a tradition of the old Canaanitish worship of the 
heavemy bodies, and that this word, Tdhtim-hodshiy signifies 
the lower parte of that region which was formerly celebrated 
for the worship of the new moon f 

— DiM'^'aan'] It is doubtful whether this is the Dan which 
was originally called Laish (Josh. xix. 47. Judg. xviii. 29) : 
see Keilhere, and above, on Gen. xiv. 14. It seems however to 
be spedfied as the northern limit of David*s kingdom ; and as 
the census was to be taken oi the people from " Dan to Beer- 
sheba " (t). 2), that is an argument for thdr identity. 

7. Simiee, and cf the C<tMaanxtee'\ In Naphtali and Zebulun 
(Judg. i. 80. 88). 

8. ai the end qfnine monihe and twenty daye'] This period 
of time* nine months and twenty days, and the mention of it by 
the sacred Writer, are remarkable. It seems to be equal to the 
interval which elapsed between the commission of David's great 
sin ¥rith Bathsheba and the birth of the child, after which 
Nathan was soit to him by God (ch. xii.). On that occasion it 
needed the stem denunciation of the Pnophet to arouse David 
tram his spiritual lethargy ; but now David is a Nathan to him- 
self: see V. 11. 


Digitized by 


The pestilence 

2 SAMUEL XXIV* 10—17. 

till the time appointed. 

the number of the people unto the king: *and there were m Israel eight 
hundred thousand yaUant men that drew the sword ; and the men of Judah 
were five hundred thousand men. 

1^ And ^ David's heart smote him after that he had numbered the people. And 
David said unto the Lobd, ' I have sinned greatly in that I have done : and 
now, I beseech thee, Lobd, take away the iniquity of thy servant ; for I have 
"* done very fooUshly. ^^ For when David was up in the morning, the word of 
the Lord came unto the prophet " Gttd, David's "* seer, saying, ^^ Go and say 
unto David, Thus saith the Lobd, I offer thee three things ; choose thee one of 
them, that I may do it unto thee. ^^ So Gad came to David, and told him, 
and said unto him. Shall ^ seven years of famine come unto thee in thy land ? 
or wilt thou flee three months before thine enemies, while they pursue thee ? or 
that there be three days' pestilence in thy land ? now advise, and see what 
answer I shall return to him that sent me. ^^ And David said unto Gad, I am 
in a great strait : let us fall now into the hand of the Lobd ; "> for his mercies 
are || great : and 'let me not fall into the hand of man. 

^* So • the Lobd sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the 
time appointed : and there died of the people from Dan even to Beer-sheba 
seventy thousand men. '^ 'And when the angel stretched out his hand upon 
Jerusalem to destroy it, " the Lobd repented him of the evil, and said to the 
angel that destroyed the people. It is enough : stay now thine hand. And the 
orlan ~"* *'' "' ^^g^l ^^ ^^ LoBD was by the threshingplace of "" Ajaunah the Jebusite. ^^ And 

see yer. 18. 2 Chron. 8. 1. 

1 Pee 1 Chron. 

k 1 Sam. 24. 5. 

1 ch. 12. 18. 

m 1 Sara. IS. 18. 

n 1 Sam. 22. 5. 

1 Sam. 9. 9. 

1 Chron. 29. 29. 

pSee 1 Chron. 21. 

q Ps. 103. 8, IS, 


& 119. 156. 

II Or, Many. 

r See Isa. 47. tf. 

Zech. 1. 10. 

s 1 Chron. 21. 14. 

& 27. 24. 

t Ex. 12. 28. 
I Chron. 21. 15. 
u Gen. 6. 6. 
Joel 2. IS, 14. 

9. ill lirael eight hundred thousand vcUiant men] In 1 Chron. 
xxi. 5, the number is stated 1,100,000 men. In the former 
muster it is probable the standing army of David (1 Chron. 
xxvii.^, which had before been nombered, is not reckoned, but 
it is mserted in the latter. This standing army consist^ of 
12 X 24,000=288,000 men, who, with their chiliarcbs and twelve 
generals, will make 300,000; and if these are added to the 
800,000 mentioned here, the numbers in both places would co- 
incide {TremelL, Junius.^ Orot^ WaUher, Ifeiffer), 

— Judah— Ave hundred th<msand] In 1 Chron. xxi. 5 the 
number of Judah b 470,000 men. Perhaps David had 80,000 
stationed with him at Jerusalem, and the other 470,000 were 
mustered by Joab, who "went out from the presence of the 
king" (v. 4) unto other cities of Judah. 

11. Jpbr when David was wpl Bather, and David arose. 
The coigunction for in our Version leads to an impression that 
David's confession was produced by Gad's visit. This is a mis- 
take. David had made spiritual progress since the time when it 
required the parable of Nathan and uie prophetic announcement 
'< Thou art the man ** to awaken him iVom his spiritual slumber 
(see above, xii. 7^. At this period of his life, he examined him- 
self, and weighed his own actions in private, especially at night 
time, and no sooner was the census of the men of war reported 
to him, than, instead of being elated with self-confidence, and 
puffed up with vain-glory, his heart smote him, and he confessed 
his sin (cp. 1 Chron. xxi. 7 — 9), and Ood, who heard his confes- 
sion, sent Gad to him with a message. 

— David^e eeer] See 1 Sam. Ix. 9. 1 Chron. xxix. 29. 

12. I offer thee three things] God remitted the future 
punishment in another world, in consequence of David's con- 
fession ; but He punished him with temporal chastisements, as 
in the case of his former sin (see above, xii. 13, 14). Spiritual 
pride, and reliance on human strength, are therefore heinous 
sins in God's sight, as well as adult^ and murder. And God 
punished Israel also for their sin (o. 1). 

18. Shall eeven years of famine come ?] In 1 Chron. xxi. 
10, 11, it is, '< Choose thee either three years' famine." And the 
Sept, has three jean ; but Vulg., Syriac, Arabic, Chaldee, 
and Josephus confirm the reading of the text. It has been sup- 
posed by some expositors, that in the Chronicles the Author 
calls the years three, because three successive years of fkmine to 
come were offered ; and that here they are called seven, because, 
together with the three former years of famine (see xxi. 1), 
and with the year then in course, they would make seven 
(Kimehi, Junius, Calovius, Pfeiffer), 

14. let us fall now into the hand of the Lord] War and 
famine would not have hurt David's own person ; with noble 
disinterestedness he chose pestilence, in which he himself would 
be exposed to deaUi no less than his subjects (Theodoret), 


15. to the time appointed] or, rather, to the time of the 
evening sacrifice (Targum, Jeromiaster, Patrick, Keil). 

It would seem that the pestilence began in the morning, 
and was not extended to three dags, but the time was shortened 
by God, saying, ** It is enough " (v. 16), and was not extended 
beyond one day (Josephus, SSpt,, Svriac, Arabic, KUnehi; and 
so Theodoret, who says that it lasted only six hours; and 8. Am^ 
brose, in Pto. xxxviL), and seems to have stopped at the hour of 
evening prayer, called eth moed, the ninth hour (Acts ill. 1). 

It is remarkable that this was the hour of Christ's death 
(Matt, xxvii. 46—50. Mark xv. 88 - 87. Luke xx'iii. 44—46), 
by which the wrath of God against all Mankind for sin was ap- 
peased; and God said to the destroying Angel, holding his drawn 
sword over the World, ** It is enough : stay now thine hand." 
The Angel Gabriel came to Daniel, at '* the time of the evening 
oblation," and brought the message of the MssSLiH (Dan. ix. 21). 

God's miraculous manifestations of mercy often take place 
at the stated times of public prayer, and thus He shows His 
approval of such appointments, and His gracious acceptance of 
united prayer in His house : cp. 1 Kings xviii. 29. 2 Kings 
iii. 20. Acts x. 8. 80. 

God stayed the Angel—who had the sword drawn in his 
hand — from destroying Jerusalem, in the same place where He 
had stayed Abraham, who had the knife in his hand, firom sacri- 
ficing his son Isaac. God "spared not His own Son," but gave 
Him for us all, and thus He has saved us from the sword of the 
destroying Angel; and He raised His beloved Son to eternal 
glory, and has raised us up in hope with Him, that we may 
worship, in the everlasting Temple of the heavenly Jerusalem* 
Him who was prefigured by David and by Solomon, and by all 
the sacrifices that were offered in that Temple, which Solomon 
built on the place which David purchased, and where he built 
an altar, and offered a sacrifice of thanksgiving for the deliver- 
ance of Jerusalem, which was a fig^ure of a far greater deliver- 
ance by Christ {8, Augustine c. Advers. L^gis i. 18). 

— seventy thousand] David had glori^ in tiie number of 
his subjects, and had relied on their strength, and is punished in 
that which was the cause of his pride. 

16. threshingpUice] On a hill, as most threshing-floors were, 

Digitized by 


David buys the threshing-floor 2 SAMUEL XXIV. 18 — 26. of Araunah the Jebusite, 

David spake nnto the Lobd when he saw the angel that smote the people, and 
said, Lo, ^I have sinned, and I have done wickedly : but these sheep, what yichron.21. 17. 
have they done ? let thine hand, I pray thee, be against me, and against my 
father's house. 

^® And Gktd came that day to David, and said unto him, *Go up, rear an »ichroii.2i.i8, 
altar unto the Lord in the threshingfloor of f Araunah the Jebusite. ^^ And t lieb. jramah. 
David, according to the saying of Gad, went up as the Lobd commanded. 
^ And Araunah looked, and saw the king and his servants coming on toward 
him : and Araunah went out, and bowed himself before the king on his face 
upon the ground. ^^ And Araunah said, Wherefore is my lord the Intig come 
to his servant ? * And David said, To buy the threshingfloor of thee, to build jj^eeGen.aa. 
an altar unto the Lord, that **the plague may be stayed from the people, d Num. w. 48, so. 
■22 And Araunah said unto David, Let my lord the king take and offer up what 
seemeth good unto him : ^^ behold, here be oxen for burnt sacrifice, and threshing « > ^^^s* i»«i- 
instruments and other instruments of the oxen for wood. ^3 ^jj these things 
did Araunah, as a king, give unto the king. And Araunah said unto the king, 
The Lord thy God ** accept thee. ^ And the king said unto Araunah, Nay; dEzek. 20. 40,41. 
but I will surely buy it of thee at a price : neither will I offer burnt offerings 
unto the Lord my God of that which doth cost me nothing. So *^David eseeichron.21. 
bought the threshingfloor and the oxen for fifty shekels of silver. ^ And 
David built there an altar unto the Lord, and offered burnt offerings and 

for ventilation. It was on Mount Moriah, K.x. of Zion. See on 
t>. 18. 

It may be inferred from Arannah's employment at the time 
(see on v, 22), that the pestilence was in the summer heats, and 
its virulence was aggravated thereby. 

— Araunah] Called also Oman, 1 Chron. xxi. 15. 

— the Jebusite] One of the old inhabitants of the city : see 
V. 6. 

17. these sheep, what have thejf done t let thine hand, Iprcty 
thee, he against me] David imitates Moses (Exod. xxxiL 82), 
and is a type of the Qood Shepherd, who gives His Ufe for the 
sheep (John x. 11. 15). ''In gregem sibi commissum tanta 
erat Davidi dilectio pastoralis, ut pro eis ipse vellet mori ** {S. 
Aug, c Faust, xxii. 66. Op. 8. Ambrose, Apol. David, c. 7). 

8. Ambrose (Epist. 51) courageoushr commends King 
David's example to the imitation of the Emperor Theodosius, 
after the massacre of Thessalonica. 

— what have they done 1] They had rebelled against David 
himself, and God was angry with them (see on v. 1), but David 
forgets their sin in his own. 

Thb Altab 07 David at Mobiah ok the Thbb8hik&- 
PLOOB OP Abaunah thb Jbbitbitb. 

18. Go up, rear an aUar^Jebusite] On Mount Mobiah, so 
called from the Appearing of Jehovah ; where Abraham, in will, 
had offered up Isaac, at Qod's command (see Josephus, Ant. 
vii. 13. 4 ; and the notes above, on Qen. xxiL 2). And there, as 
we read in 2 Chron. iii. 1, Solomon built the Temple : " Solomon 
began to build the house of the Lord at Jerusalem in Mount 
Moriah, where the Lord appeared unto David his father, in 
the place that David had prepared in the threshing-floor of 
Oman the Jebusite;** one who was descended from the old 
heathen inhabitants of Jerusalem : see above, v. 6. 

28. behold, here be oxen] With which Araunah was then 
treading out the wheat on his threshing-floor. "Oman saw the 
angel, and his fbur sons with him hid themselves. Now Oman 
was threshinff wheat" (1 Chron. xxL 20). Hie plague had not 
yet reached Jerusalem (v. 16). 

88. All these things did Araunah — king] Bather, all these, 
O hing, Araunah gives to the king (Keil), as it is in 1 Chron. 
xxi. 28, " Take it to thee— I give it all," 

The willingness of Araunah the JebusUe to nve g^fts to 
David, foreshadowed the readiness of the Gentues to bring 
tribute and to do homage to Christ (Ps. Ixxii. 10, 11 ; ex. 8). 
See below, on v, 24. 

84. I will surely buy it — cost me nothing] It is heartless 

r'ety to desire to serve God cheaply (Bp, MeUt), Cp. Malachi 
18, and notes below, on Mark xiv. 8, and on John xiL 

— David bought the threshingfloor and the oxen for fifty 
shekels of silver] In 1 Chron. xxi. 25, we read that David gave 
to Oman six hundred shekels of gold by weight for the place, 
David did two things ; he purchased for fifty shekels of silver 
the oxen and the threshing-floor for his own immediate use oa 
that particular occasion, when he built an altar, and offered 
sacrifice to God, for this special mercy to himself and his ; 

But he did more than this ; he also purchased the place, 
probably the area of the house and homestead of Araunah, as a 
site fbr the Temple to be built by Solomon, and for all its 
glorious apparatus of services in future g^erations. 

The author of the Chronicles supposes his readers to be 
acquainted with the Books of Samuel, and adds fr^sh materials 
to them. 

On the history of Mobiah and its religious associations 
from the days of Abraham to those of David, Solomon, and 
Chbibt, see above, notes on Gen. xxiL 

In Holy Scripture the Universal Church of Christ is often 
compared to a threshingfloor (Matt. iii. 12; Luke iii. 17); 
compare above, on the histoiy of CKdeon (Judg. vL 87), whose 
threshing-floor was al>>'ay8 considered by ancient expositors as a 
figure of the Universal Church ; 

Boaz at Bethlehem, the lord of the harvest, sleeping on his 
threshingfloor, and finding there his bride, Buth the Moabitess, 
presents another image of Christ, the Lord of the Spiritual 
Harvest, and the Husband of the GJentile Church : see above, on 
Buth iii. 9. And as the threshing fioor at Jerusalem formerly 
belonged to Ara»nah the Jebusite — a Gentile — so the World 
was formeriy under Heathenism. And as David would not 
receive it for nothing, but bought the threshing-floor at a price, 
so Christ has purchi^ied the Church with His own Blood (Acts 
XX. 28). '< Quid per Aream Araunss Jebussri, nisi Ecdesiam ex 
omnibus gentibus coUeotam, dgniflcat ?"' (Angelomus.) 

David, offering his own life fbr his people (v, 17), and 
saorificing on the threshing-floor of Araunah, and appeasing 
God's wrath, and staying the plague on Moriah, was a type ot 
Christ offering Himself at Jerusalem as a propitiation for the 
sins of the world, and staying the plague of Death, which 
threatened to destroy them. The Altar of David, and the 
Temple of Solomon, erected on the threshing-floor and field of 
Araunah the Jebusite, the heathen lord of the soil at Moriah, 
where Abraham's sacrifice was offered, were a figure of the 

Digitized by 


David's sacrifice. 2 SAMUEL XXIV- 25. The plagium is stayed. 

peace offerings. 'So the Lobd was intreated for the land, and 'the pla^e 

fch.SI. 14, 
g ver. 21. 

was stayed from Israel. 

Church Universal^ bmlt of lively sfcoaes of all true Israelites of 
all nations, on the foundation of the fisuth of Abraham (see 
A IJapide), 

The purchase of the Floor was the sign of the cessation of 
the Pestilence; so the purchase of the Church Universal by 
Christ, followed on the cessation of the power of Death, and on 
the propidation of God's wrath. And as the site of the floor 
became a Temple, builded by Solomon, the Peaceable, son of 
David, so our Solomon, the Prince of Peace, the Divine Son of 
David, has made the threshing-floor of heathendom to be an 

universal Temnle of God, where sacriAoes of prayer and praise 
are ever offered to Him. And still that Temple is a thrediing- 
floor, for, at the end of the world, the Son of Man will come 
with His fan in His hand, to judge, and '* will throughly purge 
the Floor" of His Visible Church, « and will gathw the wheat 
into His Gamer, and bum up the chaff with unquenchable fire " 
(Matt. ill. 12^. May God of His great mercy grrant, that we 
may be found to be good wheat, at that Day, through JBsrs 
Chbibt our Lord, to Whom, wiUi the Fathbb and ttie Holt 
Spibit, be all honour and gloiy, now and for ever. A kbit. 


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