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President of the Association of Practical Hoasekeeplng Centers In New York City 

Chairman of the New York School Lunch Committee 

Author of "Practical Homemaking,'* **A Second Coarse In 

Homemaking," "Hoasekeeping Note»" 



t • 

Copyright, 1917, by 
Mabel Hyde Kittredge 





I The House Itself 3 

II Kitchen 14 

III DiNiNG-RooM 37 

IV LiviNG-RooM 48 

V Bedrooms 54 

VI Plumbing 68 

VII Useful Facts for the Homemaker .... 79 

VIII Laundry Work 89 

IX Marketing no 

X Division of Income 126 

XI Foods and Their Values 135 

XII Cooking 150 

XIII Cooking — Continued; Baking 163 

XIV Preserving Fruits 175 

XV Care OF Children 183 

XVI Food for Infants 203 

XVII Prevention OF Disease ; Home Care OF Sick . 224 

XVIII A Hot Weather Lesson 249 

XIX City Waste 262 

What the Body Needs 282 

Food Values from U. S. Bulletin .... 285 
Inexpensive Cooking Receipts ..... 287 
Index 373 






Every woman or girl who studies homemaking does it 
because she knows that some day, from the bricks or 
stone or wood that go to make a house, she must create 
a home. The house may shelter the family, but home' is 
what makes life easier and better for each member of it ; 
home should give health to the tired body and nerves 
and refresh the mind. The home must have a certain 
sense of harmony that will bring a feeling of pleasure to 
all who come into its circle. It must have order, just as 
truly as school education must be orderly. Each home 
must have what we call individuality; that is, it must 
not be just like every other home, but express the people 
who live in it. The law recognizes the difference be- 
tween the mere structure or building and the idea of a 
home where human beings grow and develop. There are 
" Building Codes."x These have to do with construction 
only. Then there is a " Housing Code " in nearly every 
city which regulates the sanitary condition of houses. 

Health in the Home. 

There is a close relation between the homes of a na- 
tion and the health of a nation, and an intimate relation 




between the homes of a people and the character of a 
people. In London, before the Great War, it was shown 
that children fourteen years of age, brought up in over- 
crowded homes that were without sunlight, were on an 
average five inches shorter and thirteen pounds lighter 
than were children brought up where there was space 
and plenty of sunlight. 

Woman's Place in the Household Partnership. 

The house has become largely the woman's affair, and 
it is reasonable to feel that she must be taught how to 
select it and how to manage it, just as any scientific 
worker is taught his profession. The home is really the 
most important factor in the nation's life. Home work 
is the most important business there is. And the woman 
who manages it must feel this, and she must go about it 
as a man goes about his business. She is usually the part- 
ner of a man who works somewhere and earns money for 
the support of the family. She spends his money in 
carrying on her home business, and it is not fair to her 
partner that she should not know how to do it to the best 
advantage. Two men would not remain in partnership 
very long if the one who furnished the capital saw his 
partner wasting it: buying badly and not trying to learn 
how to do his share well. 

What the Home Has Grown Out Of. 

The right kind of a home is adapted to the climate, 
place, and kind of life in which it is to serve its part. 
Primitive people make their homes of reeds, of grasses 
or of leaves thatched on poles. A step higher in civiliza- 
tion is a wooden house, and even the early natives of 
Alaska and of New Zealand used wood. In lands where 
there are deserts and very few trees, wood is scarce, and 


tents are used for temporary homes, and permanent ones 
are made out of clay and stone. The early Egyptians and 
the Aztecs of Mexico used stone. Such log houses, or 
cabins, as were built by the first white settlers in America, 
were simple and really beautiful because of their sim- 
plicity. The man cut down the trees in the forest, made 
them into logs, and built the house which his wife made 
into a home for the family. 

Selecting a Home. 

When you try to find a house to live in, deal directly 
with the landlord if you can instead of with an agent. 
It is better that the tenant should be personally known to 
the landlord, for then the landlord is more apt to be inter- 
ested in the tenant. Nothing quite takes the place of a 
personal interview. If you must deal with an agent, at 
least know who the owner of the house is. You may 
need to consult him. 

When you are choosing a house, remember that you 
are going to live inside of it and not outside. Consider 
the arrangement of rooms and your future comfort, 
rather than a pleasing exterior which, after all, is seen 
chiefly by your neighbors. 

Honesty in Furnishing. 

Avoid sham, for it is always vulgar. People of good 
taste do not like cheap pretenses. Don't take a house 
full of factory-made, useless ornamentation. Because 
of the perfection of modern machinery, shams are 
easily made. Wood can be made to look like stone; 
pine wood can be stained to look like mahogany; but it 
is better that your house and ever)rthing in it should look 
just what it is. Honesty and simplicity in a house indi- 
cate the character of the owner or tenant just as much as 



honesty in a person. Avoid that which is not genuine in 
your house and in its furnishings. 

Here are the questions we should ask ourselves as we 
go out to select a home : 

1. Is the street quiet and do the neighbors seem to be 
agreeable ? 

2. Is there a good view? 

3. Is the house near the place of business of the wage- 
earners, or is it convenient to a trolley or other means by 
which the place of business can be reached? 

4. Is it near a good school? (And this matter should 
be thoroughly looked into if there are young children in 
the family.) 

5. Is there a grocer and butcher near? 

6. Can fuel easily be delivered? 

7. If in the country, how about the drainage and the 
water supply? Gas and electricity also should be con- 

8. If you are buying the property, is it likely to advance 
in value or to depreciate ? 

9. Does it get the morning sun in the back or the front 
windows? (It should.) 

10. Are the windows large so that a great deal of light 
and air can enter the house ? 

11. Are there windows opposite each other so as to 
have a through draft? Never forget that draft is what 
you need. Fresh air diminishes the chance of " catching 
cold." Colds are usually caused by the saliva of one with 
a cold sprayed into the air by talking, coughing, and 
sneezing. Heated, shut-in air makes the lining of the 
nose susceptible to germs. Look for a house with drafts 
in it ; then if you feel them don't think the air has come 
into your house to give you a cold or stiff neck. You don't 


want a house where you must go out to get fresh air. 
Let the fresh air come to you. 

12. Are the taxes reasonable? 

13. How about the rate for gas, water, or electric 

Outside Conditions. 

In selecting an apartment take especial notice of 
the outside conditions about the house: 

This is an unsafe fire-escape. 
Are the fire-escapes in good condition? 
Are they easy to reach from the apartments ? 


Is the yard and area-way clean? 

Are the ash and garbage cans covered? A i 
usually can tell the standards of the owner of the house 
by these conditions. If the outside is dirty the inside is 
almost sure to be badly kept. 

Inside Conditions. 

Notice especially the halls. Is the woodwork in good 
condition ? 

Is the plaster in repair? Are the halls clean? 

In the apartment itself: Is the plumbing in good re- 
pair? See laws pg. 71. 

Is there hot water at all times? Is there sun (prefer- 
ably morning) in at least one room? 

Are there airshaft rooms? (Avoid these.) 

Are there enough windows and a through draft in most 
of the rooms? 

Is the kitchen large or small? A small kitchen saves 
steps and allows more space in other rooms where it is 
needed, while a large kitchen can be used to dine in as 
well as to work in. See page 2. 

Built An Fittings. 

Whether you rent a single house or an apartment, 
built-in fittings lessen the cost of furnishing. Only be 


particular that lines are good, the work honest and simple, 
and no sham. 

General Suggestions. 

One room often serves two purposes. A kitchen is 
used sometimes for a dining-room; a sitting-room for 
a bedroom. In a small apartment it may not be pos- 
sible to put aside a separate room for a sitting or living- 
room only. The dining-room with the big table to sit 
about would be the natural one to select. This is much 
better than turning the living-room into a bedroom at 
night. Bedrooms must have fresh, unused air in them 
when night comes. 

Excepting in the case of bedrooms, one large room is 
better than two small ones. 

Don't take a house where one room leads from an- 
other with no independent entrance. Such a room is al- 
most useless. 


It is not necessary to have locks on all the doors. For 
example, the kitchen, living-room, library, and dining- 
room are almost never locked. A good catch on the door 
is needed ; but as locks get out of order when not used, 
you will find the lock useless if only occasionally you 
want to turn it. 

Have as many fireplaces in your house as possible ; these 
give warmth, cheer, and ventilation. 

See that the house is dry, especially the cellar; disease 
germs live and breed in damp places, and die in a dry 

If others have lived in the house before you, talk with 
the former tenant. If it is a new house, talk with some 
one who has rented from the same landlord. 


A house that has been lived in is more apt to be dry 
than a new house. 
A cold dry cellar closet can be used for preserving food. 

Servants' Rooms. 

If there are servants' rooms, take time to look at them 
carefully. It is very common to give the dark, badly 
ventilated part of the house to the servants. They must 
have air enough, a chance to bathe, and rooms that give 
health and pleasure. A home means not only the rela- 
tion of one member of the family to another, but the 
relation of servant to family. The servant cannot have 
dignity and self-respect if the mistress does not care 
where she sleeps or in what kind of a room she rests after 
her housework. 


There are many ways of heating a house. 

1st. Open fires. These only heat the air near the fire- 
place, and as the hot air is drawn up the chimney the heat 
does not get into the far comers of the room. 

2nd. Coal, wood, and gas stoves. A stove heats 
one room, but there is no means of carrying the heated air 
into other rooms. 

3rd. Hot-water heating. This is expensive, but for a 
large house it is the best. By this method a furnace heats 
large coils of pipes filled with water. Over these pipes 
the outdoor, fresh air passes, and after it is heated by the 
hot water pipes, it rises through registers into the rooms 

4th. Hot-air heating. Here the heated air from the 
furnace passes directly up through flues into the rooms. 
This air has lost much of its freshness and vitality. 

5th. Steam heating. This is by means of steam radi- 



ators in the rooms. The radiator pipes are filled with 
hot steam, and then the radiator heats the surrounding 
air of the room just as the air about a stove is heated. In 
a steam-heated room always have the window open to let 
in fresh air ; don't keep reheating the same old devitalized 


Be careful before taking a house or apartment to notice 
where the lights are placed. 

Is there a light near the kitchen sink? Is there one 
near the stove? (A window should not be directly oppo- 
site the stove as in that case the cook stands in her own 
light.) Is there one near the stairs? In the cellar near 
the furnace? Near the cellar closet? Are there low 
lights for reading? Will it be necessary to depend upon 
lamps? Is there a light near the wall space where the 
bureau will be placed ? 

These seem small points in the selection of a home, but 
they will mean comfort or discomfort later on. 

Notice whether the doors have large openings, as a 
small door gives neither good air through the house nor a 
sense of space. A glass over the front door will give 
light in the vestibule at night. 


If girls are to look upon housekeeping as an important 
business, they should know the laws relating to housing 
conditions. Each girl should know whether the state or 
the city in which she lives has adopted good housing laws 
or not. And she should know whether the observance of 
these laws are under the care of the building department 
of her city, or the tenement house department, or the 
health department Then she will know where to obtain 



redress for unhealthy or dangerous conditions in her 
home. Of course, she cannot keep any laws unless she 
knows them. For state and city ordinances relating to 
housing conditions write to Board of Health. 

Country Houses. 

A wise farmer or breeder of animals often takes more 
thought where he places his cows and his horses than 
where he puts his family. This is partly because he con- 
siders it his business to look after the farm, while it is 
the woman's business to look after the house. But the law 
seldom looks after country houses. Living conditions in 
the coimtry or small town are often so very bad that 
the farmer finds himself powerless to change them, even 
though he has the desire. There is often no water; the 
houses are hard to heat ; the windows are smaller than a 
city Board of Health would permit; the walls are thin; 
the roofs leak. 

One reason so many people stay in the city is that 
homes in the country often are not comfortable. Also 
country people live far apart and cannot easily get to- 
gether and demand better housing conditions as the people 
in cities have done. 

If you are considering living in the country, choose 
ground that is well drained, with warm soil and choose 
a house that is dry, with large windows and, if possible, 
running water. 

A piazza is a great comfort as an addition to a coun- 
try house, for in summer it adds to the pleasure of out- 
door life, and in winter, if it is enclosed with glass, it will 
keep the house much warmer. 

Test the roof in a rain storm. Test the fireplaces. 
Look at the gutters and leaders. 

It is not only her own home that a woman should have 


in her mind as she studies homemaking, but she should 
realize that she is helping to lift up the taste and increase 
the comfort and the health of the entire community. 

Each person can do a little; even a sign painted does 
something. It is said that when a shop sign or poster 
is well done it helps to educate the people. If a man 
whitewashes a back court, he has brought in light and 
cleanliness, and he may be encouraging some one to do a 
larger piece of work. 



Kitchen work 'is hard at best. The kitchen, there- 
fore, must be a cheerful room, orderly and well fur- 
nished. It will lighten the labor of cooking if you get 
charm and even gaiety into your kitchen. 

A small kitchen means fewer steps for the cook, and 
this should be considered. 

The ventilation should be perfect. This necessitates 
windows on two sides of the room so as to get a draft 

Have as little wood in the fittings and utensils as pos- 
sible, because wood absorbs odors and grease. 

Have no dark closet for pots and pans. It is easy to 
forget to keep a place clean when you cannot see the dirt, 
and a close, shut-up closet is not as good for cooking 
utensils as it is to have them hanging out in the kitchen 
where they will get air. In many kitchens copper and 
brass utensils hang from iron hooks at the side or in the 
center of the room, and these add much to the beauty of 
the surroundings. 

The floor should be of plain wood, or covered with 
oilcloth. A kitchen must have a floor which can be easily 

There is no question as to what should be done with 
the walls of the kitchen : they must be painted and so made 
washable even if the other rooms are papered. 



There should be no shade in the kitchen window, as 
the window must be open top and bottom at all times, and 
the shade gets torn as well as greasy. If protection is 
needed, have muslin half-curtains, or have whole curtains 
hanging on rings so that they may easily be taken down 
and washed. These curtains may be made of linen, of 
gay creton, or of some washable material that will be 
thick enough to be a protection when the gas is lighted. 

Be careful to have light near the kitchen sink, and light 
near the stove. Food has to be watched while it is cook- 
ing, and dishes cannot be thoroughly cleaned in the dark. 

If there is not a large drainage board for dishes, have a 
drop-shelf built beside the sink. This can be let down 
when not in use, thus saving space. 

Hang brooms under a shelf or in a closet built for the 
purpose. Do not put brooms and brushes in a closet with 
other things. 

Have all the pipes connected with the plumbing in plain 
sight. Hidden pipes are against the law and against all 
ideas of sanitation. 

The ornamentation of a kitchen lies in the care and the 
arrangement of the useful implements. There never 
should be one useless article, not even a picture on the 

Copper and brass utensils, a shiny black stove, a spot- 
lessly white table, the symmetry with which pots and 
pans, dishes and jars are arranged, and perfect cleanliness 
will give beauty to any kitchen. 



An atmosphere of perfect order is one of the hardest 
things to accomplish in a room where much work is done, 
but it is necessary to have this order in the kitchen if one 
would have comfort and a sense of harmony in the home. 

In buying kitchen utensils it pays to buy good iron, 
aluminum, brass, and copper articles, because these last 
for a long time. It does not pay to buy expensive tin- 
ware, as it is at best shortlived. It is often economy, for 
example, to buy tin utensils in a lo-cent store so that they 
often can be replenished. 

Equipment of the Kitchen. 

Each article in the kitchen must have a place of its 
own so that it can be found in the dark if necessary. 

A little thought as to where to put things in the first 
place, a nail here and there, and a determination always 
to put each article back in its own place, will make house- 
keeping less tiresome and the kitchen so comfortable and 
orderly that, if size permits, it will be a pleasant room to 
eat in as well as to cook in. 

Kitchen Work. 

Many are apt to think of the work of the kitchen as 
consisting of cooking only, but as a girl studies the busi- 
ness of housekeeping she will realize how much knowl- 
edge other than cooking is necessary if a good house- 
keeper would run her kitchen as a good business man runs 
his shop. 

Coal Stove. 

The first thought in connection with a home after the 
shelter itself, is how to heat the house and cook the 


Therefore, the stove is what we think of first after the 
house has been secured. 

To understand one's own stove will save money, for 
a great deal of coal or gas can be wasted simply by not 
knowing how to manage the stove. One can waste both 
time and patience " fussing " over the fire. Much good 
food material is spoiled by not knowing how to regulate 
the heat in the oven. 

Every housekeeper responsible for the home work, 
whether she does it herself or directs others to do it, 
should imderstand her fire — making it, feeding it, and 
cleaning the stove. 

This work can be very dull or can be really interesting. 
If a woman thinks of homemaking as a profession, and 
is determined to play her part in the family partnership 
with the greatest efficiency, she will look upon the kitchen 
stove as her most valuable tool. 

In many homes gas or electricity are used for cooking 
instead of coal, but in all country houses and many 
city houses the coal stove is still the only means of cook- 
ing and often the only means of heating. Even if a girl 
at the present time has gas or electricity in her home she 
should know about a coal stove as she is almost sure to 
need the knowledge some day. 

When purchasing a coal stove, be sure it has a hot 
water boiler if hot water is not furnished in the house. 
A good stove pays in the saving of fuel. 

To Clean Gas Stoves. 

Dissolve soda in boiling water and wash the stove thor- 
oughly. Why? Because the grease from food is bound 
to soil the stove, and soda removes grease. Soak all 
separate parts of the stove in hot soda-water. 


Coal Stove. 

Before examining the stove, if it has been used, clean it 
thoroughly, remove the ashes over the oven box, under 
the oven and at the sides. 

Then examine the picture in the book and notice the 
direction that the hot air takes. 
Be sure that no clinkers or ashes interrupt the circula- 

tion of this air. To understand a stove thoroughly it is 
necessary to take it apart as far as possible. 

Each furnace, range, or stove is somewhat different, yet 
the principle of all is the same. Each has a damper, 
draft, and check, each must have an escape for coal gas 
and smoke, and each should have water near by to pre- 
vent the air from becoming too dry. 


In a kitchen stove this water is often placed on top of 
the stove in a bowl. This bowl must be washed and re- 
filled each morning. In a furnace the water is in a pan 
attached to the furnace. 


The damper is a flat plate which, when shut, closes a 
door between the stove and the chimney ; when the damper 
is open much of the heat goes up the chimney ; when it is 
closed the heart waves go around and over the oven. The 
damper is never entirely closed as the coal gas must have 
an escape through the chimney. 


The drafts are doors or openings that come below the 
fire box. When they are open a strong current of air 
passes up through the fire box making the fire burn bet- 
ter. When the draft is closed the fire burns more slowly, 
because the air is shut out. 


The check is a slide or small door above the fire-box. 
When open, cold air comes in on top of the fire ; this so 
retards the fire, that is makes it bum more slowly. 

In starting the fire, open the damper and draft, and 
close the check so that there will be a draft passing 
through the fire-box. When the fire is well started, close 
the damper and so save the heat which otherwise would 
continue to go up the chimney. 

To make the oven hot close the damper, open the 
draft and see that the check is closed tight. 

For a slow fire close the draft and damper, and open 
the check. 



Near the Stove. 

The things needed in connection with the stove must 
hang near it. You should never have to look about for 
anything required to manage a stove or range. 

Connected with the stove or near it, one must have a 
matchbox, matches, a box for kindling, a place for news- 
papers, an ash-can, a coal-scuttle and a shovel, a stove 
lifter, a shaker, a poker, and a rake for cleaning out soot 
from all air spaces under and over the oven, a blacking 
dauber and brush, stove blacking, a whiskbroom, — and 
an old glove to protect the hand. One small shelf over 
the stove can hold all of these things, if some hang on 
hooks underneath. 

An oven-cloth should be near at hand with which to lift 
hot dishes and so avoid any danger of the housekeeper-, 
using her apron or a dish-towel for this purpose. 

Making the Fire. 

First take out the ashes, seeing that clinkers and fine 
ashes are removed from every part of the stove. 

Clean the space over the oven every day and that whidi 
is under the oven at least once a week. -^^ 

Ashes prevent the free circulation of air and absorb the 
heat. Save tmbumt coal. 

Lay a fire lightly, first paper, then wood, then a little 
coal. Remember that a packed fire will not burn, because 
the air cannot get through it. 

Before lighting the fire the dust should be brushed from 
every part of the stove and the stove blackened. 

When lighting a fire have all drafts open, damper 
open, and check closed. Put very little, if any coal on at 
first and add more coal after the wood begins to bum. 

When the coal begins to burn with a steady blue .flame, 
close the damper. 



In class work, the pupils, not the teacher, should do all 

Blackening the Stove. 

Before blackening the stove, rub it off with a damp 
newspaper. A range should be blackened every morn- 
ing before the fire is lighted. 

Never blacken over dust. 

Clean the stove with newspaper if anything spills on 

If a stove is not thoroughly polished after blackening, 
the bottom of the saucepans will become dirty. 

It is necessary occasionally to scrub the stove with soda- 
water which will remove all old blacking. 

During the day rake but do not shake the fire. 

Never have the coal reach the lids of the stove, as this 
cracks them. 

Never allow the stove to get red hot ; it warps the lids. 

To cool a too hot fire open the check or lift the lids. 

While the fire is starting, it is a good time for the 
girls to learn something about the history of stoves, coal, 
wood, and matches. 

Never forget that the amount of interest one gets out 
of a subject is in exact proportion to the amount of study 
and good spirit one puts into that subject. 

In this book there are a few facts about coal, wood, 
and matches, but each girl will enjoy her stove more if 
she finds out something for herself in relation to these 


The first coal was taken from the ground in America in 
1750, in Richmond, Virginia. At the time of the Ameri- 
can Revolution coal was first used as fuel. 



There are, in general, two kinds of coal : Anthracite, 
or hard coal ; bituminous, or soft coal. 

The principal deposits of anthracite coal in this country 
are found in Pennsylvania. 
There are several kinds of anthracite coal: 
White Ash, $7.00 a ton in 1916 in New York City 
Pink Ash, 7.25 a ton in 19 16 in New York City 

Red Ash 7.75 a ton in 1916 in New York City 

These are the prices when bought by the ton. It always 
saves money to buy coal in large quantities and by weight. 
Bituminous, or soft, coal cost in 1916 about $14.00 a 
ton. It burns more quickly than hard coal and makes a 
great deal of smoke and soot in the burning. For this 
reason, in most cities, factories are forbidden to use soft 
coal. The engines on many railroads use soft, or bitu- 
minous coal — but nowadays less and less of it, because of 
the smoke and the fact that soft coal sends forth sparks 
which, as the train rushes through the country, is apt to 
set the woods on fire. 


Brickets are bricks made of coal-dust. They give a 
very hot fire but burn very quickly. 


Charcoal is wood which has gone through a certain 
process of combustion. It is not cheap; it gives a very 
hot fire but bums out quickly. It is used by plumbers, 
tinsmiths, and other artizans. It is seldom used for cook- 
ing purposes, as this would be expensive on account of the 
rapidity with which it is consumed. 


It is much cheaper to buy kindling-wood by the bag or 
load than in bundles. It is necessary to use only very lit- 


tie kindling to start a fire if it is laid correctly, that is, 
lightly on the paper — and the paper loose. (Never stuff 
a whole newspaper in at the bottom of the fire-box.) 
Also, remember that a clean stove is a saving of wood as 
well as coal; for only in a clean stove can the hot air 
circulate easily. 


Before matches were manufactured, flint and steel were 
struck together and the sparks fell among tinder or on 
paper and set it afire. Many attempts were made to use 
chemicals for the production of a fire, but it was not 
until 1827 that a druggist in England made a really prac- 
tical match. He sold matches at the high price of 84 
matches for 25 cents. In 1833, a man called Preschel, of 
Vienna, opened the first factory for making phosphorous 



Dish Washing. 

The piling, scraping, and rinsing of dishes is quite as 
important as the washing. Dishes that stand a long time 
before scraping require more effort to wash. 

It is well in every practice kitchen to have the direc- 
tions for dish-washing typewritten and tacked on the 

1. Scrape dishes. 

2. Pile dishes. 

3. Wash dishes. 

4. Rinse dishes. 

5. Wipe dishes. 

6. Put away in neat piles. 




Scrape all pieces of food from the dishes onto one plate 
and when every dish is scraped, empty this plate into the 
garbage pail, which first may be lined with newspapers. 
This paper must not be thrown into the can with the gar- 
bage when the house garbage is emptied into the street 

Piling Dishes, 

Pile the dishes in order of size: cups together, saucers 
together, plates together. Put knives, forks, and spoons 
together, handles all one way. Never set one glass in an- 

Soaking Dishes. 

Soak all cooking dishes, and put on one side those 
which were used in the preparation of food, to be washed 
with the table dishes after the meal. 

Soak with cold water all milk dishes, all dishes that 
have had dough in them, and all egg and cereal dishes. 
Soak with hot water all dishes that have had sugar in 
them, and all the greasy dishes. A little soda added to 
the water in which the greasy dishes are soaked will 
make the later washing easier. 

To Wash Dishes. 

Use two dish pans, or a stationary sink and one pan, 
or better still a double dish-washing sink, with very hot 
water; a draining tray, or stationary draining board; 
dish cloth, not mop ; and enough dish towels so that you 
can take a fresh dry towel as often as the one you are 
using gets too wet. If you have to heat water, refill the 
kettle at once after taking water from it, but it is easier 
to have a large boiler for this purpose. 


Make the hot dish-water soapy with a soap shaker; 
never leave soap in the water (washing-soda instead of 
soap is used by the Jewish people). Have rinsing water 
very hot with no soap or soda. If rinsing water is boil- 
ing hot, place dishes in a wire rack and allow them to dry 
by their own heat ; a dish towel is then unnecessary. Be 
sure dishes are dry before putting them away. As soon 
as you can afford it buy a dish washing machine. The 
saving in labor more than balances the purchase price. 

When rinsing water is not boiling hot, take the dishes 
from the rinsing pan and drain them on the rack or tray, 
placing the dishes upside down ; thus some water runs off 
and dish towels do not as quickly get wet. 

Order of Washing Dishes, 

Wash the cleanest first : glasses, silver, teacups, saucers, 
rest of china, granite and tinware, pots and pans. The 
kitchen knives and forks should always be scrubbed at the 
time they are washed with SapoHo or with bath brick or 
ashes. A cork is better for cleaning knives than a cloth. 
Do not put handles of knives in the water as it loosens 
them by melting the glue. 

To Clean Milk Bottle. 

First soak the bottle in cold water ; second, wash with 
other glassware in hot soapy water ; third, rinse with hot 


Pots, Pans, and Kettles. 

Clean seams of pans with a match stick or wooden 

To clean a pan or kettle in which something has been 
burnt, fill with water, add a handful of soda, and boil. 
Repeat this process, if not successful at first. 


Dry tinware near the stove. 

Dry woodenware in the sun (never near the stove). 

After the dishes are washed and wiped, scrub the sink 
or pans, dry them, and always hang up the dish pans after 

Wipe off the top of the table where the dish pans have 
stood, scrub the draining board or wash the draining 
trays, and then wash out the dish towels. 

Washing Dish Towels. 

Dish towels must be washed every time they are used. 
If grease is allowed to dry on the towels, it is hard to get 
them clean. Wash dish towels while they are still wet. 
Remember if they are not thoroughly washed every time 
they are used, and boiled once a week, they are not free 
from grease, and the towels will have an odor of grease 
as well as the dishes which are wiped with them. 

Use clean pan and plenty of hot water, a small rub- 
bing board, and soap. Wash one towel at a time, rinse 
each piece in a separate basin, shake out, stretch on rack 
with edges even ; do it well and no ironing is required. 
Scrubbing Kitchen Table. 

The kitchen table can be a beautiful piece of furniture, 
but it needs daily care, and always the right care. 

Scrub the kitchen table every day. Use basin of hot 
water, two cloths, small scrubbing brush and Dutch 
Cleanser or Sapolio (never use soap, as it makes the table 

Wash one half of the table at a time to leave place for 
the cleaning materials. 

1. Wipe table with cloth wrung out in hot water. 

2. Shake Dutch Cleanser on the wet half and scrub 
with the brush. Scrub always with the grain of the 



wood, as scrubbing around or across the grain does not 
take the dirt out and leaves streaks. 

3. Wipe off the cleaning material with a wet cloth. 

4. Wipe with a dry cloth. 

Do second half in the same way, placing the cleaning 
materials on the half of table that has been washed. 

After table is washed, put away Dutch Cleanser, empty, 
rinse, and dry the pan, rinse out brush, put the brush 
away with bristles down, wash out the cloths, wipe up the 
floor under the table if any water has been spilled, hang 
up the pan, and put all cleaning cloths on towel rack to 
dry, stretching them out smooth. 

All bare wood, that is, unpainted, tmvarnished, and un- 
stained wood, is cleaned exactly like the kitchen table. 

Putting away work after cleaning is as much a part 
of good housekeeping as the cleaning itself. 

Kitchen Sink. 

Near the sink there always should be kept a sink 
brush, a sink shovel, a soap dish, washing soda, a soap 
shaker, a strainer, wood ashes, and a knife-brick or 
Sapolio for cleaning knives. 

To Clean Sink. 

First brush all the bits of food and dirt from the sink 
with the sink brush and shovel, and put these scraps into 
the garbage-pail. Place over the sink strainer a small 
rubber mat or a cup, to prevent the soda from running 
down too quickly. Next put a handful of soda in the 
sink and pour on it boiling hot water^ scrubbing the in- 
side of the sink with the sink brush while the soda dis- 
solves. Remove mat or cup, allowing boiling water and 
soda to run down the pipe. . Then let clear hot water run 



down the pipe until you are sure all grease and soda are 
rinsed away. Soda left in pipe will eat into pipe, and 
while soda and grease together are cleansing when hot, 
if allowed to cool they make a hard soap that clogs the 


On tin pots and pans one will often find rust. Rust 
comes from dampness. If a tin pan is found rusty in the 
cracks we can be sure it was not thoroughly dried near 
the stove, or that the closet where it hung was damp. 

Bon Ami or whiting are good for brightening tinware. 
But when tin-covers of saucepans are dulled by the steam 
it is not possible to make them as bright as new. 


Kerosene and ashes will remove rust from ironware. 
Take an old cloth (that can be thrown away afterwards) 
and rub the iron utensil with the ashes and kerosene. 
Then wash with strong, hot soda-water, and rinse in clear 
hot water. Dry on the stove. 

If iron is very rusty, cover it with some sort of grease 
(mutton fat or tallow are good), sprinkle with lime, and 
let it stand over night. Wash next morning in hot soda- 
water and dry thoroughly. A very rusty sink may be 
cleaned in this way, but be very careful of the hands as 
lime hurts the skin. 


Wood holds odors unless great care is taken. Wood 
often needs soda and boiling water to cleanse it and sun 
and air to dry it. The stove heat is bad for wooden 
utensils. Any one furnishing her own house should buy 
as few wooden utensils as possible. 



Agate- and enamel-ware are very good, but they crack 
and break if not washed and dried properly, or if the 
material is cheap. A half dried agate kettle put on a stove 
to dry is apt to crack. If an agate lined pot or kettle is 
allowed to boil dry, the lining will crack and break oS. 
Careful soaking so that there will be no need to scrape 
these utensils helps greatly to preserve them. Never use 
a knife ; use paper to wipe out the worst dirt. Wipe off 
any utensil blackened by the stove with a piece of paper 
before washing it. 


This is the best material for kitchen utensils and al- 
though quite expensive at first, in the end it pays. To 
clean aluminum ware buy for ten cents one package " OO 
Steel Wool and Ivory soap." Take piece of wool the size 
of an egg and using this as a dishcloth wash soiled alumi- 
num utensils with hot water and Ivory soap. 

Cleaning the Bread-Box. 

Each week the bread-box should be emptied, and all 
crumbs removed ; then wash it with hot water and soda ; 
thoroughly rinse it with clean hot water, and dry and air 
it (in the sun if possible). 

Window Shelf. 

The window shelf is an ice-box in winter. 

In winter we can save money by using this outdoor 
shelf instead of an ice-box. The cold outdoor air is free, 
while ice is expensive. This window shelf must not be 
placed at the fire-escape window. 

The law about putting food on fire-escapes does not 
vary in different states or cities. Everywhere it says: 


" No person shall at any time place any incumbrance of any 
kind before or upon any fire escape." 

It is an offense punishable with a fine if persons break 
this law. It is only the amount of the fine that differs in 
the various cities. 

In making this window shelf, be sure that it has a 
slanting roof to allow rain and snow to run off; that 
it has holes bored in the back to admit cold air, and at 
least a half inch opening between the shelf itself and the 
upright back, to allow the dust to be swept out and also 
to prevent the possibility of food lodging in cracks. 

An enamel-cloth curtain will hide the contents. 

To preserve ice, wrap in woolen cloth and then in 

If ice is buried in the ground it will last for days. 

Cleaning Window-Shelf. 

Take everything from the shelf. Put them one side 
out of the way. Brush and wipe off the top of 
the box. Wipe out the inside with a damp cloth, using 
a pointed stick or skewer to dig out any scraps of food 
that may have gotten into the cracks. The least particle 
of food allowed to spoil in the window-box gives a bad 
odor to the fresh food. Now, scrub with hot water and 
soda. Do not wash the enamel curtain with soda-water, 
as the soda makes the enamel cloth crack. Soap and 
water are the best for enamel cloth. 

The window-box must be perfectly dry before you 
return the contents. Water soaked wood gives a bad 
odor to food. 


The ice-box should be always in the coolest part of the 
kitchen. The drain-pipe of the ice-box, even when the 


ice-box IS built into the house, has no direct connection 
with other household plumbing; sewer gas might be ad- 
mitted to the ice-box if it had. 

A pan for water is found under the ice-box. This 
must be emptied when necessary, and cleaned twice a 
week, at the same time and in the same way the ice-box 
is cleaned. 

Cleaning Ice-Box. 

In cleaning the ice-box remove all food and ice, and 
wash the inside of the box with hot suds; rinse with 
hot soda-water and again with clear hot water. Take 
special care, in scrubbing off racks and shelves that no 
particles of food are left in the grooves. Use a skewer 
to dig out the comers. Draw an old cloth through the 
drain-pipe, or have a small brush for the purpose, for 
grease is apt to lodge in this pipe. Dry the ice-box and 
air it for at least half an hour. 

Wash the pan under the ice-box in hot soda-water. 

Cleaning the Kitchen Thoroughly, Including Closets. 

In giving the kitchen a thorough cleaning (which must 
be done at least once a month) always clean out the closets 
first. The reason for this is easy to see. You do not 
want the dirt from the closet to be swept into a clean 

Any closet that holds food should be cleaned once a 

Cleaning Closets. 

Take everything from one shelf at a time, dusting each 
article and placing it on the table, which has first been 
covered with a paper. Do not mix articles from the dif- 
ferent shelves ; it makes confusion later. 



To clean closets, if the shelves are unpainted, use the 
same utensils as were necessary for cleailsing the kitchen 
table ; a basin of hot water, two cotton cloths, small scrub- 
bing brush, and Dutch Cleanser or Sapolio. Before 
scrubbing the shelves wipe doors, walls and top of closet 
with a damp cloth. 

Dust off shelves with damp cloth. 

Scatter on the Dutch Cleanser and scrub with brush 
and hot water (with the grain of the wood). 

Wipe off the Cleanser with clean cloth, and then thor- 
oughly dry. 

Mold and a bad odor are the result of returning things 
to a closet and shutting it up before it is thoroughly 

Should the closet smell musty, wash it with hot soda- 
water after scrubbing the shelves, or add a little ammonia 
to the cleaning water. 

If ants or cockroaches are found in the closets: first, 
clean shelves thoroughly; then boil a half pound of sul- 
phur and four ounces of potash in water in an earthen- 
ware vessel until dissolved. Cool, dilute, if necessary; 
put into cracks and holes. Be very careful not to have 
this liquid touch any of the food. 

While the closet is drying it is a good time to wash out 
empty jars in hot soda-water; also, to wash and air the 

Glass jars are the best receptacles in which to keep 
dry groceries; because one can see the contents without 
opening the top and looking in; also, one can see when 
any article needs replenishing. The jars are tight; no 
insects, air or dust can get in, and any one can tell 
when they need washing. They can be marked with the 
name of the article. Use ready mixed black oil paint 
for this and a very small brush, and print the name 


on the jar. After it is dry, cover the name with a 
thin coating of white liquid shellac. 

The closet for pots and pans; closet for dish-towels, 
cleaning cloths and aprons; drawers for knives, forks, 
etc., all are cleaned in the same way as the food closet. 
Where the work in the home is very heavy it is often 
better to clean one or two closets every week rather 
than all the closets on the same day. 

Every shelf and closet must be kept clean. How often 
they are washed must be decided by each housekeeper. 

Always arrange in perfect order all articles that have 
been taken from the closet. A closet may be perfectly 
clean and yet not orderly or attractive. 

We have now learned exactly how to clean all kitchen 
closets. The main body of the kitchen is cleaned every 
day, but has a thorough cleaning (by that is meant re- 
moving all furniture from the room, cleaning walls, 
closets, etc.) at least once a month. 

Never forget that your kitchen is the most important 
room in the house when considered from the point of 
view of health. Our life depends so largely upon the 
food we eat, and the cleanly way in which the food is 
prepared that no effort is wasted which is spent in good 
kitchen work. 

To Clean Kitchen After Closets Are Cleaned. 

First dust and take from the room everything that can 
be moved; do the stove cleaning next as this is the 
dirtiest work; then sweep the floor, after which cover a 
broom with a cloth and wipe down the walls. Next 
wash the painted walls and all woodwork with a woolen 
cloth. The unpainted and unvarnished shelves should 
then be scrubbed as we learned to scrub th^ b^r^ wood of 
the kitchen tabla 


To Clean Painted Woodwork. 

Dust the woodwork with a cloth. Wash with warm 
water and white soap. Soda or Sapolio should never be 
used as they take off the paint. Use a small brush to 
take the dust from the grooves, and two cloths, one for 
washing and one for drying. Many add a few drops 
of Sulpho-Naphthol or other disinfectant to the cleaning 
water, but soap is a disinfectant in itself. 

While the shelves and woodwork are drying, wash the 

To Wash Windows. 

Use a pan of hot water, a duster, two cleaning cloths 
and a dish of Bon Ami. Place them on a newspaper 
near the window. Bon Ami is but one of many cleansers 
that can be used for washing windows. 

First Method. Dust the window and woodwork and 
then apply a thick coating of Bon Ami to the glass. Let 
it dry, and rub off with a dry cloth. With a wet 
dusting cloth wipe off the woodwork around the window- 
panes. Newspaper or tissue paper is very good for 
polishing windows. 

Second Method. To clean windows, add a few drops 
of kerosene and ammonia to a pan of hot water. Use a 
duster, two cleaning cloths and a newspaper. Dust the 
windows, wash, dry and polish. 

Besides this general cleaning, windows should be dusted 
every day with a dry duster. 

A little alcohol added to the water in the winter pre- 
vents its freezing. 

The last cleaning in this thorough cleaning work is 
the floor. 



Scrubbing the Floor. 

For cleaning an unpainted floor have a pail of hot 
water, a floor-brush, floor-cloth and soap. Scouring 
powder may be used or soda. The condition of the floor 
must decide which cleaning agent to use. Grease can be 
taken from the floor with soda, lime and hot water. 

Decks of ships are scrubbed with Fuller's Earth, soft 
soap and silver sand — equal amounts of each. Boil with 
water in an old saucepan. Keep in a jar and when you 
use it take a small quantity, dilute with water and use in- 
stead of soap. 

Even if the floor has been swept it should be wiped, 
section by section, before scrubbing. Scrub a small space 
at a time and wipe off with a wet cloth ; scrub with soap 
following the grain of the wood; or you can scrub with 
Fuller's Earth preparation; rinse and dry with a cloth 
wrung out in the scrubbing pail. Change the scrubbing 
water very often. 

Return furniture to the kitchen when the floor is dry. 

A good housekeeper will scrub her kitchen two or 
three times a week, after the day's work is done. 

A kitchen should be left at night in perfect order so 
that you will find it so when you begin work in the 

Scouring Material. 

Coarse scouring soap for iron and steel ware. 

Fine scouring soap for windows, enamel, nickel and tin. 

Scouring powders for unfinished wood and tinware. 

Kerosene, plain or with sifted ashes, for cleaning zinc, 
removing rust, cleaning bath-tubs when stained, knives, 
iron sinks, etc. As a vermin preventive, kerosene is also 


Brass polish, liquid or paste, for all brass and copper. 

Silver polish, whiting or prepared polish, for nickel and 

Vermin destroyers made of carbolic-acid preparations. 
Corrosive sublimate preparation, for bedbugs. 

Disinfectants, without oils, for mattresses, general dust- 
ing, especially in cracks and dark places. 

Sulphur preparations for destroying and preventing 
roaches and ants. 

Alcohol, to prevent water from freezing. 

Ammonia is good after cleaning bath-tub with kero- 
sene. Soak handkerchiefs in ammonia water. Ammonia 
water brightens rugs. 

Chloride of lime for sink pipes and water-closets. 

Sal. soda for cleaning where grease has collected ; also 
for dish washing in Jewish homes because soap is not 

Bro.wn soap for laundry and hard cleaning. Brown 
soap is strong because of the resin in it. 

White soap for white paint and fine laundering. 




The furnishing of a dining-room should be very simple, 
if the room is used only as a place in which to eat, all of 
the furnishings should suggest this object. 

Often a dining-room is used as a living-room as well. 
Then more than ever it must not be cluttered with un- 
necessary furnishings, for the occupations of the family 
will need all the room possible. 

The table does not necessarily have to be in the center 
of the room, but can be in an alcove at one side, thus 
giving more sense of space. See page 2. 

The chairs need not be all alike. In a small house or 
apartment six or eight chairs exactly the same might make 
a joint dining-room and living-room appear like the room 
of an institution. 


Shelves for china are better than a cheap sideboard. 
The shelves can be stained with alcohol stain and waxed 
until they have a high polish. Any kind of a side- 
board is too large for a small apartment room, and 
yet people who cannot afford it feel the necessity of 
purchasing a sideboard, and so buy a highly polished 
cheap piece of furniture, which gives a crowded look 
to the room. 

To hang china cups under a shelf is one way of deco- 




rating a dining-room. Also plates placed in a plate rack 
on the wall may add to the color scheme of the room. 
Be very careful that the color of your wall blends with 
the color of the china. 

If china is kept in a china-closet hang the cups imder 
the shelf and so save space. 

Radiator Box. 

A box on top of the radiator with a shelf inside is very 
handy and need not be an ugly object in the room. 
This box is useful in keeping the dishes hot during a ipeal 
or heating plates before a meal. 


Somewhere in the dining-room have a large tea tray 
or tea wagon. Every equipment for afternoon tea should 
be so convenient that tea can be served at a moment's 
notice. This custom has grown to be an expression of 
hospitality, and unless this act of serving tea can be 
performed without apparent effort it is no compliment to 
a guest. 

Window Seat. 

A window seat in the dining-room, made of pine, 
stained and waxed, is often a great convenience. Under 
this seat have one or more shelves; have a door enclos- 
ing it like a closet ; hang this door by hinges from the top 
or the bottom. In this closet you can keep the table 
linen if there is no other closet provided and the seat 
itself will take the place of at least one chair and so 
give more space. 

Do not have couches with cushions or stuffed chairs in 
this room. The room in which we eat must be sanitary, 
and furniture that collects dust is never really free from 
the possibility of germs. 



Care of Dining-Room. 

Before setting the table for breakfast always air the 
dining-room. Even if the weather is very cold, open the 
window wide for a few minutes and change the air of the 
room. If the weather permits keep the windows open 
while the breakfast is being cooked. 

Dust the dining-room before setting the table ; dust the 
table with a clean, damp cloth. 

You now have a room free from dust and filled with 
fresh air; in such a room food can stand uncovered on 
the table without danger of contamination. 

Setting a Table. 

In preference to tablecloths use plain, but well-laun- 
dered, doilies with a bare table ; these are easily washed 
and ironed, and a spot on one does not mean that all must 
be washed. 

The first thing to set on the table is a centerpiece. On 
this you will have flowers, if possible, or fruit of some 
kind. Next place as many doilies as there are to be 
persons at the table ; set these at even distances apart and 
about one half inch from the edge of the table. 



Knives and spoons are placed at the right, the sharp 
edge of the knife toward the plate. 

Forks and napkins at the left. Be careful that all 
knives, forks and spoons are at least one inch from 
the edge of the table. 

Glasses at the top of the knives, three quarters full of 
water, and filled at the last moment. Salt and pepper 
on the table at every meal. 

Place the chairs at the table the last thing. 

This is the general plan of table setting. The ar- 
rangement thus far is the same for all meals. The ad- 
dition of the proper articles for eating the different foods 
varies with the different meals. 

Any one who can set a table properly has done a 
good piece of work. It means training the eye to see 
with exactness, so that the least unevenness in the placing 
of any object will be noticed immediately, as well as 
the training of the memory to remember everything that 
should be on the table. 

The order of the dining-room, apart from the table, 
must be carefully noticed. Every door and drawer should 
be tightly closed. If the meal is breakfast and the 
morning paper is delivered it should be placed neatly on 
a chair. No clothing about, or articles not pertaining 
to eating. 

Breakfast Table. 

A good breakfast for a family where there are chil- 
dren is fruit, coffee for the father and mother, milk or 
cocoa for the children, cereal with milk and sugar, toast 
and butter for all. If you use this as a practice break- 
fast, and take it for granted that there i^ no servant 
to wait, you must have everything needed on the table, 
excepting the hot food (coffee, hot milk, cereal, toast). 


In addition to the general plan there will be needed 
on this breakfast table: fruit plates, butter plates and 
butter knives, extra glasses for milk, coffee cups, two 
spoons at each plate, bread, butter, sugar, pitcher of 
milk, pitcher of water. When the fruit plates are taken 
off, a plate with a cereal dish on it should be placed before 
each person. 

Dinner Table. 

In preparing the table for dinner follow the general 
table-setting plan. Place as many forks, knives and 
spoons by the side of each plate as will be required 
during the meal. Place on the table (if the meal is 
to be served by the family) all food, except hot dishes. 
On a near-by side table have any extra plates or pre- 
pared cold dishes that will be needed after the first course. 
Have space on this side table for hot dishes. A shelf 
under the serving table on which to place soiled or emp- 
tied dishes, and castors to enable you to move the serv- 
ing table from place to place, will be found a great con- 

Before considering the dinner table as finished, go 
over in your mind each article of food to be served and 
see if everything needed for that food is on the dinner 
table or the serving table; take notice whether the ar- 
rangement of the table is attractive, and whether you 
have left space on the serving table to be filled later by 
the hot dishes. 

If one member of the family rises and serves the 
others, she should pass all dishes (from which one helps 
oneself) on the left hand side, holding the dish low for 
the convenience of the person served; hold a napkin in 
the hand under the dish. Go on the right side if you 
are placing a plate on the table or taking a used plate from 



the table. In the absence of a servant pass as many 
dishes as possible without rising. 

If the serving table is on castors, or if there is a re- 
movable tray the size of the serving table, all hot dishes, 
for each course, can be brought in at one time; thus 
steps are saved and the social side of the meal is less dis- 

Luncheon and Supper Table. 

The table at these meals differs little from a breakfast 
table. After the general table-setting plan, add such ar- 
ticles as will be needed during the meal. Just before serv- 
ing dessert at any meal, remove all used dishes from the 
table and all articles that will not be needed for the 
dessert; brush the crumbs from the table with a clean 
napkin on to a plate. See that all glasses are refilled, and 
then bring in the dessert plates and the dessert. 


Many people have a paid employee or servant to do 
much or all of the housework. Some have one and some 
many of such employees. That does not mean that 
the work connected with homes are tasks for which any 
woman is too fine and so hires a person to do the work 
for her. It means (or should mean) that in many homes 
there are too many things for one woman to do, espe- 
cially in homes where children are to be cared for. If 
the mother has money enough she hires some one to 
come in and do a part of the housework in order that 
she may be free to do more thoroughly such duties as she 
feels are her especial responsibility. It does not mean 
that one woman pays another woman to do her work so 
that she may be idle. 

A well-run office or factory or store carries on its 


business in the same way. One man cannot keep the 
books, run the errands, sell the goods, and attend the 
telephone; so the manager divides up the work between 
himself and those whom he hires to help him. A man 
does not look down upon these associates in business ; he 
knows that they are exactly as good as he is and their 
work, like his, a necessary part of the whole business. 

A man who stands at the head of a business and di- 
rects others is perfectly fitted for his work only if he 
knows by practical experience every branch of the busi- 
ness. For this reason men who aim to be directors start 
at the bottom and work up. A homemaker must, in the 
same way, have had her experience in every branch of 
housekeeping before she can consider herself an efScient 
person to direct servants. 

A servant is less protected by law than any other 
business woman. Thirty-nine states have laws limiting 
the working hours of women in factories and stores. 
In only nineteen are women workers in hotels and res- 
taurants included ; in only five are public institution serv- 
ants protected; and in no State are the servants in our 
homes protected by law. They are obliged to work as 
many hours as the head of the house directs, or give up 
the place. 

There is a great work for every woman and every 
girl to do in uplifting the profession of the house work- 
ers or servants. In the first place, have as exact a rule 
about the hours of wdrk and the hours of freedom from 
work, as is the case with factory or office labor. This 
regulation of time will at once put the profession on a 
business basis. Do not ask any woman to perform for 
you any labor that hurts her dignity or any act that each 
individual should do for herself. Never address a serv- 
ant with anger or as if she belonged to you. Show all 



employees the same courtesy you expect from them. 
Remember that you make them just as angry as they 
make you ; you probably seem unreasonable and at times 
stupid. A competent servant has her own way of doing 
things. She will do better work as you give her more 
freedom in her tasks. Never forget that one woman 
gets tired as surely as another, and one woman wants 
happiness as surely as another, and all people get lonely 
at times. If you take a human being into your home as a 
servant, only eight hours of her time should belong to 
you. Beyond this her time is her own to use as she 

Expert Table Work. 

An expert in any kind of work will be careful of 
details. In table work the skilled laborer will be : 

Always clean and neatly dressed; being particular 

about finger nails and hair. 
Will step lightly and quickly. 
Will close a door without noise. 
Will never rattle dishes or make any sound with the 

Will never let her dress touch the dishes on the 

Will be pleasant about her work. A skilled laborer is 

not cross as he works. 

Dining^Room Rules. 

1. The dining-room must be in perfect order before 

any meal is served. 

2. Have hot dishes for hot food, cold dishes for cold 


3. Glasses should not be filled until just before a meal 

is served. 


4. Butter must not be placed on the table until the meal 

is ready. 

5. Bread must be freshly cut. 

6. Everything placed before a person is placed at the 

All dishes from which a person serves himself are 
passed at the left. 

7. Everything relating to one course must be removed 

before serving another. 

8. A meal is not ready for the family until everything 

is in readiness in the dining-room and the kitchen 
is in order; all pots and pans soaking, and a 
space cleared for the soiled dishes as they are 
removed from the dining-room after using. 

9. In clearing the table food must be removed first, then 

soiled china, glass and silver. Brush off the 
crumbs from the table and wipe the table with 
cloth slightly damp. 

Put away very carefully the doilies that are not 

If there is any stain on a doiley take it out at once 
(see stains page 99). 

Put doilies that require laundering in the clothes- 

The cleaning of silver is a part of dining-room work. 

To Clean Silver. 

Collect newspaper, old tray, silver polish, saucer, alco- 
hol or water, duster and two pieces of old cloth. 

Dust the silver. 


Mix some silver polish and alcohol in a saucer. Rub 
this on each piece of silver and lay each aside on a piece 
of newspaper to dry. When thoroughly dry, polish off 
with another cloth. A soft brush is necessary to re- 
move the polish from grooves or designs. 

Wash the silver in hot water before returning it to 
the drawer. 

Table Etiquette. 

The attitude of one member of a family at a meal 
can make or spoil that meal for the entire family. 

Each member of the family should cultivate a habit 
of appreciation; that is, don't be fault finding but take 
the food that is on the table and eat it with apparent 
pleasure. There are girls and boys who always come 
to the table in a faultfinding mood, they seem to take 
pleasure in saying that they "hate" this or that dish, 
forgetting that some one has worked hard to prepare it. 
A bad temper or an unhappy mood while eating is not 
good for the stomach and often produces indigestion. 
Talking pleasantly and eating slowly while at meals 
aids digestion. 

When a meal is ready, go at once *to the table. If 
late, the food gets cold and you have spoiled the pleasure 
of the cook, as well as annoyed the family, and ruined 
the taste of your own meal. A meal is a family gathering. 
No one must think of herself alone, but of what will 
give the entire group the most pleasure. We should 
not be over-anxious as to what is on our plate. Let us 
keep our eyes open. Notice when some one wants his 
plate replenished or his water glass refilled, or is in 
need of butter, salt, pepper, etc. A little girl should 
never allow her mother to wait on her ; she is the one to 



rise when necessary and wait on those older than her- 

" See to it that a certain ceremony, a certain importance, 
be attached to the partaking of food." 

Booker T. Washington. 



An English architect describes the living-room as "a 
room with space enough to carry on the business of life 
freely and with pleasure, and with furniture made for 
use." Another describes the living-room as a room that 
grows until it expresses the individual tastes of each 
member of the family. 

" I give a loving glance as I go 
To three brass pots on a shelf in a row 
To my Grandfather's grandfather's loving cup 
And a bandy-leg chair I once picked up 
And I can't for the life of me make you see 
Why just these things are a part of me." 

This does not sound like the old-fashioned back and 
front parlor used only on state occasions, with the 
shades drawn to save the carpet from fading. Because 
such a parlor was not a room to live in, it has ceased 
to be needed in the homes of to-day. 

The right kind of a living-room will suggest to you at 
once what occupations the family are engaged in. Do 
they read good books? If so, the book shelves and the 
library table will tell you so. There will be lights low 
enough to read by, and these will be placed near the 
comfortable chairs. Is the family musical? You will 
be able to tell this not only by a piano or other musical 
instnunent, but by the sheets of music which you will find 
in the music rack. They will be the compositions of real 




musicians and jolly refined tunes, not the cheap, vulgar 
songs of the day. Are there stay-at-home, domestic 
members in the family? If so, the work basket will have 
a place in the living-room, and there will be a good light 
on the table to sew by. 


In this living-room there must be a desk for writing. 
If you want an inexpensive desk buy a kitchen table for 
about $2.40, with a drawer and with square, not turned, 
legs. Make an alcohol stain the color you require. Stain 
the entire table and after it is thoroughly dry, rub off any 
powder that may be left on the surface of the desk with 
a soft cloth, and then wax every part with a good floor 
wax or common beeswax. 

Rack for Writing Desk 

For the back of the desk make a rack like the picture 
to hold bills, papers, etc. (Any carpenter can make this 
rack, or a smart boy can make it). 

Have a glass or brass tray to hold pens and pencils, a 
glass inkwell and a large blotter. Glass fittings for the 
desk save time as they need only to be washed, and not 



polished. The blotter should be of a color that blends 
with the room, and there always should be small blotters 
near at hand so as to keep the large blotter fresh and 

Library Table. 

There should be a large table in the living-room, but 
it is well to remember that this table is for use. Have 
one made of good wood, oiled or waxed rather than pol- 
ished, because a polished table soon becomes marred. A 
table cloth on this table catches the dust and makes extra 
labor for the housekeeper. Therefore, an uncovered 
table is to be preferred; or a table covered }vith chintz 
which has over it a glass surface. The chintz adds color 
to the room and the glass is easily washed. 

Tea Table. 

Afternoon tea is often served in the living-room, and 
as it is inconvenient to clear away the books, work basket, 
etc. from the large table, a small folding table should be 
on hand to be brought out at tea time. The tea tray, 
with every furnishing for tea on it, will be prepared in the 
kitchen and brought into the living-room and placed on 
this small table. 


If there is but one fireplace in the house have it in the 
living-room, then build your room around it ; that is, think 
of the open fire as the center and have chairs, couch, and 
table all placed in relation to it. 


If you have just a few good pictures hang these in the 
living-room, as the room suggests more leisure to look 
at pictures than any other room in the bouse, 


Care of Living Room. 

The daily and weekly cleaning of this room does not 
differ from the sweeping and dusting of dining-room or 


Books are hard to keep clean if not kept behind glass 
doors. In dusting books never use duster dampened with 
water. If leather bindings of books are wiped with a 
cloth slightly dampened with castor oil once a year they 
will be much longer preserved. 


Every day dust the desk. Throw away blotters when 
used up. Refill inkwell when necessary. Be careful 
of letters and papers belonging to other people. Never 
read one word of the papers and letters on other people's 
desks. Leave all papers in neat piles. 


In a living-room or library that has no electric lights, 
a kerosene lamp is almost a necessity for reading. Some 
homes, especially in the country, are absolutely dependent 
upon kerosene and candles. Therefore it is well for 
every girl to know about the care of lamps whether she 
uses them at the present time or not. 

Daily Cleaning of Lamps. 

Two lamp cloths, hot water, and a duster are needed. 

First dust the chimney, shade, and body of the lamp. 
Wash the chimney as you would any other glassware. If 
sooty clean with paper before washing. Next, turn 
the wick high enough to show all the charred part. Wipe 
this off with tissue paper until wick is perfectly even. 



It is well to light it in order to test the evenness. Fill 
lampy and then with lamp cloth wipe off any oil that may 
be on the outside. Dry with second cloth. 

A bright light comes from clean burners. When light- 
ing the lamp turn the wick down, allowing the chimney 
to become heated slowly. Put new chimneys in cold 
water and allow the water slowly to come to a boil. This 
will prevent a new chimney from cracking with the heat 
v/hen the lamp is first lighted. 

In putting the lamp out, blow across the chimney — 
never into it — as this might send the flame down into 
the kerosene. 

If it is necessary to move a lighted lamp, first turn the 
wick low. The flaring up of the flame smokes the chim- 

Thorough Cleaning of Lamps. 

This need not be done oftener than two or three times a 
year if lamps have daily care. 

For this cleaning take a tray, a newspaper, a duster, 
two cloths, a dish towel, scissors, soft paper, kerosene, and 
a pan of hot soda water. 

Cover the tray with newspaper. Place the lamp on 
the tray and take it apart. First wash the chimney and 
shade in hot water and dry with a towel; polish, using 
soft paper if there is no chamois. 

Boil every part of the burner in the hot soda-water. 
Fill the reservoir with kerosene within an inch of the 
top. Trim, but never wash, the wicks. Put new ones in 
if the old wicks smell stale with oil. Put all parts of the 
burner and lamp together; wipe every part clean, seeing 
that all is tight, that the wick is even, and the chimney is 

Put the cloths to soak. Later wash and boil them. 


Keep an old pan exclusively for cleaning lamps, for the 
odor of the kerosene is lasting and would ruin pans for 
other use. 

Remember that special care must be taken when kero- 
sene is used. A drop on the kitchen table or the hands 
may spoil a whole dinner. 



The living-room, dining-room, and kitchen in your 
house belong to all, but each bedroom is the expression of 
only one or two people. These rooms, therefore, should 
be as individual as the members of the family, each room 
expressing a personality. 

Furnishing the Bedrooms. 

Do not have plumbing of any kind in the rooms that 
are used for sleeping. Confine the plumbing to the bath- 
rooms, pantry, kitchen, and laundry; thus the piping is 
concentrated and it is easier to keep it in order. There is 
also less danger of sewer gas in the house. The possibil- 
ity of sewer gas in a sleeping room is too great a danger, 
and for this reason washstands with running water are no 
longer placed in bedrooms. 

No Ornaments. 

A bedroom needs no ornaments except a few good pic- 
tures, and the usual bedroom necessities which should be 
beautiful as well as useful. 

No Fancy Beds. 

Queens used to hold receptions in bed. For this reason 
lavishly decorated beds came into existence, but now beds 
are used only to sleep in at night and but three things 
should be considered : Is the bed comfortable, can every 
part of it be washed and are the lines good? 



Do not place your bed in the comer of the room where 
there is no circulation of air. Corner air is apt to be 

Another Don't. 

You will not sleep any better by surrounding your bed 
with a handsome set of furniture. Buy what you need 
in the way of a bureau, table, chairs, but buy each piece 
separately and because it fits the room and your special 

If an adjoining large and small room are used jointly 
for a bedroom and a dressing room, it is sometimes better 
to use the small room to sleep in and the large one as a 
dressing and living-room. The bedroom can then be kept 
as cold as a sleeping porch, and the larger warm room 
used to dress in. 


Have iron or brass beds. Wooden beds are hard to 
keep clean and attract insects. The day of the double 
bed is past, because single beds are more easily made 
and kept clean, and it is healthier and more comfortable 
for each person to have a bed of his own. 

Trundle Bed. 

A trundle bed is a bed which can be pushed under an- 
other bed in the daytime. This is a great convenience in 
crowded quarters. If you wish to have a trundle bed, 
attach four short legs to a bed spring, and it is made. 
Or take a regular couch bed and have the legs shortened. 


Hair or felt mattresses are the best, but are the most 
expensive. Cotton and hair mattresses are less expensive 




and very comfortable. Excelsior mattresses are hard, 
but cheap, and when covered by a cotton pad are not un- 
comfortable. Feather mattresses are unsanitary, they 
over-heat the body, and the body cannot lie in a flat, 
healthy position. 


A screen is necessary in the bedroom for privacy, if 
more than one person occupies the room. This may be 
made of a clothes-horse hung with burlap or cretonne or 
any wash material. Paint the screen white or any color 
that blends with the room. Use brass tacks in the top of 
the screen as knobs; on these hang the curtain by brass 
rings sewed to it. This curtain is easy to take off and 
clean and is better than a gathered curtain tacked fast. 


See that all bureaus have drawers that open and shut 
easily; that the handles are wooden or heavy brass, not 
light, cheap brass handles ; that there is a mirror over the 
bureau; and that the lines of the bureau are simple and 
the finish dull. A high polish is used only on very cheap 
or very expensive furniture. It is poor taste to imitate 
the latter. The high polish can be removed from a cheap 
bureau and the bureau waxed. If light handles are 
changed for plain, heavy brass ones, the whole bureau 
will have a more pleasing appearance. 


If closets are not built in the house, a place must be 
made in which to hang clothes. 

Have a shelf in each bedroom. On this shelf tack a 
curtain. A clothes-tree in the room for wrapper, night 
gown, or any article just taken off, will keep one from 


throwing clothes on chairs. A window-seat with a closet 
underneath is a convenience in a bedroom for boots and 

Child's Room. 

Do not furnish the children's room with any old pieces 
of furniture or ugly rugs, taking it for granted that a 
child is too young to care. The children's room should be 
a means of education, developtnent, and pleasure to the 
child. There is an educational advantage in the color- 
ing of the room if this coloring is beautiful and the 
colors well combined ; in the lines of the furniture, if they 
are simple; and in the pictures on the wall if they are 
worth looking at and are the kind of pictures that a child 
can understand. These pictures should be hung low so 
that the child can see them easily. The shelf for books 
should be low enough for the child to reach the books. 
This should be true, also, of the shelf or box for toys. 

Have nothing in the room that is very valuable, because 
a child is not capable of knowing the value of things, or of 
being responsible for things that he can handle. We all 
know this, and yet we scold a young child if he breaks 
what we prize. 

If the child's bedroom is to give pleasure to the child, 
the pictures, wall paper, curtains, bed covering — all must 
be of the kind that will interest a child. If the room is to 
be to the child his very own, he must be allowed to 
"muss it up" at times, because that is his nature and 
his baby way of expressing his energy. He can be 
taught to put away his own toys after he has finished 
playing with them. 

Nursery pictures can be pasted on the wall and washed 
over with white liquid shellac ; then they may be washed 
with the walls, if the walls are painted. 



Guest Bedroom. 

A guest room must suggest welcome. It must not only 
be comfortable but must show that the homemaker has 
given her own thought to it and not left it entirely to serv- 

In every guest room have a basket or box of sewing ma- 
terials, hairpins, pins, paper, envelopes, good pens and 
ink, such books as the different guests would be likely to 
want to read, and drinking water. At night a few 
crackers in the room are often appreciated. While a 
member of the family will always feel free to ask for any 
of these things, a guest usually would rather go without 
than trouble the hostess. A few fresh flowers in the bed- 
room are not a necessity, but they will be a proof to a 
guest that she is welcome to the home. 

Do not have articles about the guest room that are 
distinctly personal to the family, such as family portraits 
on the bureau, the closet half filled with clothes, the desk 
cluttered with family letters. This will make a guest con- 
scious that you have turned someone out in order to make 
room for her. 

Hospitality is more often a characteristic of simple peo- 
ple who have not much money than of rich people who 
live in an elaborate way. Hospitality quite often de- 
creases rather than increases as people become what we 
call civilized, although civilization means to grow more 
refined and more enlightened. In Tahiti, in the Society 
Islands in the Pacific Ocean, the natives greet a stranger 
by saying " lorana," which means " Come in and have 
something to eat." In Mexico, long ago, a stranger who 
was journeying through the land could stop at any house 
and get a room for the night and food. On the table in 
these guest rooms it was the custom to have a pile of 
silver known as " guest money." From this the stranger 


took what he needed to continue his journey to th6 next 
stopping place. 

Formality is not politeness, but it often happens as a 
people grow rich and get the gloss of social ways, that 
they mistake forms for real courtesies. As long as peo- 
ple live simply there is time and desire to entertain guests. 
It is when our lives get crowded and confused that we find 
it hard to be interrupted by our friends. 

Bedroom Work. 

Airing the Bed. Every morning the moment you are 
out of bed take all the bedding off, throw it over chairs, 
raise the mattress in the middle so that the air can reach 
it on all sides, open the windows top and bottom, and 
allow all bedding to air for at least half an hour. In the 
average home where the housework is done by the home- 
maker the bed airs while the breakfast is being prepared 
and eaten. 

Daily Work. 

This is the work that someone in every household has 
to do every day. Not only does the bed have to be aired 
and made, but the bedroom has to be put in order and left 
free from dust and made attractive. 

Just as surely as every morning you wash your body, 
face, and hands, comb and arrange your hair and your 
dress, so do you make your bedroom fresh, clean, and 

These daily household tasks are often dull and monoto- 
nous, but if we do them well they become an art and a 
means to an end. That end is an orderly habit of mind 
with which to gain greater control over the larger hap- 
penings of life. 

A mind grows orderly in sympathetic surroundings. 



A bedroom, in a way, represents the girl or woman who 
occupies it and cares for it. If it has an atmosphere of 
order and simplicity and repose, it is beautiful and tells 
of a personality that dominates worldly things and is not 
confused by them. If the room smells of sweet, outdoor 
air, we know it is the habit of the occupant to push the 
hot air out by letting in fresh air. If there are no unnec- 
essary things about, we know at once that the girl who 
sleeps in the room has good taste, which comes largely 
through education. Every one has seen a bedroom so full 
of charm that she longs to know the person who is 
responsible for it. 

Before making the bed, the room must be "picked 
up"; that is, each article out of place must be put back 
into its own place. Soiled clothing must be put into the 
soiled clothes basket or barrel; coats, dresses, or hats 
not in use hung up ; books put back in the bookcase. 

Bedroom Closets. 

Never hang up in the closet any article of clothing 
which has been worn without first shaking and airing it. 
At night, when the window is open, or in the morning 
when the room and bed are aired, always open the door of 
the closet and let the cold outdoor air blow through the 

Every one has noticed the close odor that sometimes 
comes out when the door of a bedroom closet is opened. 
This odor is unnecessary if the dust is brushed out of our 
outer garments each day, the clothes shaken and aired 
before hanging in the closet, and the closet and clothes 
aired at night. 

The following is the usual way to make a bed, but 


exact methods vary with different teachers and different 

It is well for children to learn these tasks exactly, by 
one rule. Only after much education should one try in- 
dividual methods. 

First. Turn the mattress from end to end. Be sure 
the mattress is the other side up from what it was the 
night before and the other end around. Thus the mat- 
tress wears longer and does not become worn down in one 

Second. Place a pad or square of cotton flannel over 
the mattress, before putting on the lower sheet. This 
is to protect the mattress and make the bed more com- 

Third. Put lower sheet right side up, broad hem at 
the top, tuck in first at top, then at bottom, stretching 
very tight before tucking in the sides. Make square cor- 

Fourth. Have second sheet wrong side up, broad hem 
at the top. At first, tuck in only at bottom. Be sure 
that both sheets have middle crease exactly in the middle 
of the bed. 

Fifth. Put the blanket on the bed at least a quarter of 
a yard below the top of second sheet, and turn top sheet 
over blanket to keep blanket clean. Now tuck in the 
sides, top sheet and blanket together. Both sheets and 
blankets should be tucked in with square corners, and 
pulled so tight that there is no crease anywhere. 

Sixth. The spread is put on over the blanket, also 
with square comers, but the sides of the spread should 
not be tucked in but allowed to hang, in order to hide the 
sides of the bed. 

Seventh. The way a pillow is put on a bed can entirely 
spoil the looks of the bed, but if the pillow is very clean 



and very smooth and lies very square on the bed it will 
add to its beauty. 

Eighth. When a comforter is used it is better to roll 
the comforter and put it at the foot of the bed than to 
make up the bed with the comforter under the spread, 
because the bed must be kept square like a box, and this is 
not possible when made up with a puff. 

Cleaning the Bed. 

In a crowded city, especially in old houses and in apart- 
ment houses, no house can be sure of always being kept 
free from bedbugs. They are one of the evils of con- 
gestion. They appear under conditions of dirt and neg- 
lect, but they are easily transferred from dirty homes to 
clean homes. Thus watchfulness and care are necessary 
even on the part of a perfect housekeeper. 

If bedbugs get into a bed, first clean the mattress with 
a carbolic acid solution and put the mattress aside. Wash 
the bed with strong soap and hot water and dry thor- 
oughly, and then wash with a solution of carbolic acid or 
a bedbug preparation which can be bought at any drug 
store. Repeat this every day until all traces of bugs are 

Bedbugs hide chiefly in cracks, in the castors of beds, 
and in the tufting of the mattress. They always stay in 
dark places. If they continue after the bed is clean, they 
are usually to be found behind the base board or wall 

Preventive Work, 

If a housekeeper, even in a tenement house, is on the 
watch she will never let this evil get the better of her. 
As a preventive against bedbugs, clean well once a month. 
Take all clothes from the bed and shake hard in the air, 


throwing them loosely over a chair near the window. 

Wipe the mattress first with a cloth wrung out in 
water and Sulpho-Naphthol, being especially careful to 
wipe in the tufted places. After making sure that the 
mattress is clean from all dust, put near a window to air. 
Now wipe the iron part of the bed and the springs of the 
bed, first with soap and water, then with clear kerosene. 
Be sure that the springs are perfectly dry before making 
up the bed. 

If one moves into a dirty apartment in which bedbugs 
are in the woodwork or wall paper, have all wall paper 
taken off and the walls scrubbed with hot water, Gold 
Dust or strong soap and Sulpho-Naphthol. Pour a car- 
bolic acid solution behind the baseboards and wash 
the closets with Sulpho-Naphthol, Gold Dust, and hot 

If, after this thorough scouring, the entire place is 
painted, no further trouble should occur. A more thor- 
ough cure is to close tight all doors and windows, paste 
paper over cracks that let in air, then burn candles of sul- 
phur or corrosive sublimate in this empty air-tight room 
for twenty-four hours. This should be done before the 
painting if there is any doubt of cleanliness. 


After the bed is made each morning sweep the floor. 
In sweeping use different sides and corners of the broom, 
so that the broom will wear evenly. Hold the broom near 
the floor and sweep with short strokes so that the dust 
will not fly about. 

Before sweeping any room see that no uncovered food 
is in the room, or anything that dust would injure. 
Sweep out the comers of the room first (a small brush 
for this is best). Sweep toward the center of the room. 



Use a dust pan and brush to gather up the dirt that you 
have swept into the middle of the room. 

If you have a coal stove it is better to burn this dust at 
once as it may contain disease germs. If you have a gas 
stove put the dust in a paper and send it out with the 

Brush out the large broom, after using, with the small 
brush. Wipe the dust pan with a cloth. Wipe off the 
small brush with the same cloth. Shake out the cloth and 
put it at one side to be washed. 


In dusting use cheesecloth dusters because cheesecloth 
is soft and takes up the dust. Never use a feather duster, 
as it only scatters the dust. With a dry duster wipe off 
the windows, mirrors, brass, china, and books. Then 
shake the dust from the cloth and after dampening it wipe 
all articles not marred by dampness, dusting at the same 
time the shelf or table on which they stand. 

Woodwork should be wiped off with a damp cloth; 
this includes chairs, tables, desks, and any wood that is 
painted, varnished, or stained but not polished. For 
highly polished wood use an oily woolen cloth, as a cloth 
damp with water leaves streaks. Boiled linseed oil, with 
or without beeswax mixed with it, is used for polishing. 

Weekly Bedroom Cleaning. 

As in the kitchen, so in all rooms, the closets must be 
cleaned first if they are to be cleaned on the same day as 
the room. Once a month is often enough to give bedroom 
closets a thorough cleaning. 

Thorough Cleaning of Closets. 

When you clean a closet thoroughly, take all clothes 
from the closet, giving each garment an extra shake as it 


IS taken out. Air these clothes in the open air, if pos- 
sible, while the closet is being cleaned. 

Brush all loose dust and dirt from the walls and floor 
of the closet, wipe the walls with a damp cloth and scrub 
the floor, being careful to wipe out all cracks and crevices. 
Dry and then shut the door tight before beginning the 
cleaning of the room. 

Besides each day dusting and doing the regular morn- 
ing work in a bedroom, it is necessary once a week to give 
the room a thorough cleaning. 

Dust all movable things, including small pictures, and 
put them in another room. Take curtains down if pos- 
sible; if not, pin them up away from the floor. Cover 
with old sheets kept for the purpose any stuffed piece of 
furniture too heavy to move from the room. Take out 
any rugs that may be on the floor, and then sweep the 
floor with windows open. 

Brush the walls with a covered broom, then sweep 
again with a damp cloth on the broom. 

While the dust is settling, wash the windows. Wash 
the mirrors at the same time as the windows, also wash 
the glass of all pictures which have not been removed 
from the room. (For washing windows, see page 


Next clean the woodwork, washing the painted wood- 
work if it is really dirty, and wiping it with clean damp 
cloth if not. 

To Wash Painted Woodwork. 

First. Wipe with damp cloth. 

Second. Wash with white soap or whiting and warm 
Third. Wipe off soap with clear cool water. 
If there is a stained or waxed floor, oil or wax it the 



last thing before moving the small pieces of furniture 
back into the room. 

Do not forget to dust the gas fixtures. Never try to 
clean them with polish. Rubbing the gas fixture hard 
will loosen it. 

If curtains have been taken down, shake them well, out 
of doors if possible, before rehanging them. 

To Clean Brass. 

All brass and nickel should be cleaned before returning 
it to the room. (Some housekeepers have a regular day 
for polishing all the brass, silver, and nickel in the house, 
not a general cleaning day.) 
Dampness tarnishes brass and nickel. 
If copper is too tarnished to clean with brass polish, 
first boil in soda and water. It will then polish easily. 

For cleaning brass it is necessary to use some sub- 
stance to remove the dirt, tarnish, and corrosion, and also 
a dry polish to give a higher luster. First, collect the 
necessary implements: 

A newspaper to protect the table. 

An old tray upon which to set the article to be 

Wet polish, or brass paste. 
Dry powder (whiting or silver powder is good). 
A cheesecloth for dusting. 

Three pieces of cloth (that you can throw away). 
A polish cloth (tissue paper, or newspaper, may be 

substituted for this cloth). 
Never use good cloths of any kind for hard clean- 
ing. It wears them full of holes. 
Dust the brass, apply wet polish with an old piece of 
cloth, rubbing very hard. This cloth becomes very dirty 
and should be thrown away. 


Use a piece of match-stick under cloth to remove dirt 
from cracks and grooves. 

Wipe off the wet polish, which loosens the dirt and rub 
with a second piece of cloth. With a third, apply the dry 
white polish. Rub hard with polishing-cloth. 

Brass will keep bright twice as long if treated with a 
final dry white polish. 

To keep brass from tarnishing when not in use, wrap in 
tissue paper. 

To Clean Nickel. 

Wipe off nickel. Mix silver polish with a little water 
or alcohol. Rub this on each piece of nickel. When 
dry, wipe off powder and polish with a clean, dry cloth. 

After the bedroom has been cleaned, see that it looks 
orderly. A room may be clean and yet not attractive. 
The shades must be even, the chairs straight, plants 
watered, and all dead leaves taken off. 




Odors are danger signals. A bad odor means " Look 
out ; there is trouble somewhere." 

If you smell gas, look at once for the leak. Fumes 
of gas cause death. Do not look for the leak with a light. 

If you smell that dry, disagreeable odor which is asso- 
ciated with the burning of agate or tinware, you should 
rush to fill the kettle or saucepan. The water is boiled 
away; the smell is the warning which comes often too 
late to save the kettle. 

Every one haa noticed a stale smell when entering a 
bedroom where the windows have been closed all night. 
This IS a warning that the oxygen in the air has been ex- 
hausted and only poisoned air is left. Had one window 
been open at the top and bottom, no odor would have 
been in the room. Oxygen, or fresh air, has no odor. 

At times the offensive breath of a friend has been 
noticeable. There are days when one is conscious that 
one's own breath is not sweet. This is nature's danger 
signal. The breath is virtually without odor in health. It 
IS often the neglect of the ordinary habits of a person's 
life that produces an unhealthy condition of which the 
bad breath is but the sign. Eating candy between meals, 
or eating too fast while at meals, or forgetting to drink 
water, creates indigestion. A coated tongue, a bad taste 





in the mouth ; these can be hidden from others. But na- 
ture uses still another method: she attacks our pride in 
her effort to make us obey her laws. The breath that 
comes from a disordered stomach no one can hide from 

Or, possibly the trouble is that the waste matter from 
the system has not been carried off. One's obligation to 
reach school, store, or office at a certain hour is put ahead 
of every other duty. But nature rebels when her rules 
are broken. The waste matter of the body is poison to 
the system and the system must be cleansed of that waste 
every morning. The habit of neglecting this duty causes 
constipation. Constipation is first a clogged system, then 
a poisoned system. 

A decaying tooth throws out an odor that means dis- 
ease. Brushing the teeth night and morning, and a visit 
to the dentist, surely as often as once a year, will often 
prevent decay ; and without decay there can be no odor 
from the teeth. 

The close odor that is sometimes called the human odor 
is very noticeable in crowded places like trolley cars or 
a great city's subway in the rush hours. And it is at 
times associated with an individual. This odor is like a 
loud voice crying, " The body has not been bathed re- 
cently." " The clothes have not been changed often 
enough," or "The clothes and the closet in which the 
clothes have hung have not been aired." If human be- 
ings lived out of doors instead of in houses the air would 
cleanse the body from much of the impurity. Without 
this outdoor life, daily thought must be given to bathing 
the body and airing the clothes. 

It would be interesting, while on this subject, for pupils 
to think of other odors that are signs of trouble and to 
give the remedy for each. There is almost always a 



remedy. In the case of the smell of smoke, immediate 
action and a cool head are what is needed. Sewer gas 
often has no odor, and so a test of plumbing is made with 
a liquid that has a strong smell like peppermint. This 
peppermint is put down the pipes, and if there is a leak 
the peppermint escapes and sends its odor up into the 
house, we know the sewer gas is escaping too. Under 
these circumstances, call in a plumber at once. 

The plumbing in our homes is connected with the 
sewerage system of the city, just as the disposition of 
all the individual left-over food and rubbish in each 
home is a part of the work of the great municipal de- 
partment that cares for the street and city waste. 

Municipal Housekeeping. 

We^have city or municipal housekeeping as well as per- 
sonal housekeeping. Just as the work in a large hotel is 
divided into departments, the cooks being responsible for 
the kitchen work, the chambermaids for the bedmaking 
and the cleanliness of the rooms, so the work of a city is 
divided into departments, and each individual in each 
home is protected by the laws of these various depart- 

The police department is responsible for the order of 
the city. It is its duty to see that no man is disorderly on 
the street or in any way interferes with the rights of any 
other man. The street cleaning department is held re- 
sponsible for the cleanliness of the streets. The work 
of the health department is to look after the physical con- 
dition of the city so that the people will not get sick ; and 
should a case of contagious sickness occur, to prevent its 
spread. And so we might talk of the department of 
bridges, public charities, department of correction, city 
courts, department of docks and ferries, fire department, 


bureau of highways, park department, department of sew- 
ers and water supply. These are all branches of the city's 
housekeeping, and the people of each city are taxed to pay 
the expenses of these departments. You would find it an 
interesting study to learn for what each of these depart- 
ments IS responsible. It is our money that pays for these 
city employees, and it is our business to see that these 
servants do their work well. 

The city departments that have to do with the plumbing 
in our homes are the health department and the tene- 
ment house or building department. In some cities all of 
this responsibility is thrown on the health department. 


Plumbing is an3^hing connected with piping — such as 
sinks, wash-tubs, bath-tubs and water-closets. 

Laws in regard to the construction of the plumbing are 
sometimes state laws, and sometimes city ordinances ; but 
each city's health department must see that the piping of 
its houses is kept in good condition so as not to endanger 
the health of any citizen. 

It is the duty of every citizen not only to know the laws 
but to have a clear idea as to where the tenant's responsi- 
bility lies and what is the responsibility of the owner of 
the house, so that he can go about the righting of wrongs 

Some of the best plumbing laws. 

" There shall be a separate water-closet in a separate 
compartment located within each apartment, suite, or 
group of rooms." 

** There shall be a sink or wash-bowl with running 
water in each apartment, suite, or group of rooms." 


" In every tenement house all plumbing pipes shall be 
exposed." That is, there can be no woodwork or even a 
curtain to hide the pipes. Each woman must be able to 
clean around her pipes and a leak can be noticed and 
mended at once. 


" The floor, or other surface, beneath and around the 
water-closet and sinks shall be maintained in good order 
and repair, and if of wood shall be kept well painted 
with light-colored paint." Many of these laws were made 
after houses were built, but owners of old houses must 
take away the old woodwork around the pipes and paint 
the floor a light color on which dirt can be seen easily. 

These laws are useless unless known and cooperated 
in by the owner of the house and by every tenant A 
complete knowledge of household plumbing is a neces- 
sary part of homemaking education. Every house- 
keeper should understand the piping in her house, how 
the water and waste liquid matter are carried from the 
house to the sewer. She should see to it that the light of 
day shines on every part of the piping. 

A trap, or water-seal, is a U-shaped bend in a pipe. It 
must always have in it sufficient clean water to extend an 
inch or more above the bend. This water is called the 
seal, and its use is to keep the sewer gas from coming into 
the room. All water-closets, sinks, and tubs have these 

Buy a bent glass tube at any drug-store. Pour into 
this glass tube dirty water and then pour .in clean water, 
and you will see how the clean water forces the unclean 
water down and forms the clean seal which keeps the 
odors from coming up. 

The stationary equipment connected with the plumbing 
in most homes is the water-closet, bathtub, wash-tubs and 
kitchen sinks, and some times stationary wash-stands in 
bedrooms. We speak of the ice-box in connection with 
plumbing, for, although the pipe in connection with the 
ice-box is not always built into the house, it is a pipe which 
must be cleaned in the same way as all other pipes, and it 
is a danger to health if not kept absolutely clean. 



Kitchen Sink. 

First consider the kitchen sink and how to keep it clean, 
and how the pipe under it can be kept free from grease. 
This sink has the U-shaped pipe underneath, and, as has 
been learned from the reading of the plumbing laws, there 
is no woodwork inclosing this pipe. In a dark, damp 
place vermin collects, while in a light, dry place, where 
there is open plumbing, there is not this danger. The 
kitchen sink and the inside of the pipe connecting the 
sink with the sewer are kept free from the accumulations 
of grease by the use of soda. Dishwater is apt to be 
greasy, even if one is particular in the scraping of 
dishes. Liquid grease chills as it reaches the pipes and 
clings to the inside of the pipes; other substances stick 
to these greasy sides; and if nothing is done to cut 
away the grease, these substances rot and send odors 
into the house. The next thing is that the pipe becomes 
clogged and the water will not pass through. To correct 
this is not the plumber's or the landlord's business, but it 
is the duty of the little housekeeper, or the grown-up 
housekeeper, who washes the dishes. 

To Clear Pipes of Grease. 

A strong hot solution of washing soda will dissolve 
grease if there is no other foreign matter. The kitchen 
sink should be washed out with this hot solution of soda 
once a day (as we learned in the kitchen work, page 27). 

Further Pipe Cleaning. 

If the water still fails to flow freely, the trouble prob- 
ably is that a match, leaves, pieces of food, or like waste, 
has reached the bend or water-seal and cannot pass 
through. Put a bucket underneath the bend. Unscrew 
the nut with a wrench, which every housekeeper should 


have. The water collected in the bend will at once rush 
out bringing with it grease, tea leaves, coffee grounds, 
etc. This may cleanse the pipe ; if not, while nut is off, 
pour through the pipe a strong solution of soda and 
boiling water. A steel wire closely coiled (called a 
ferret) can be bought and used. Push this through the 
pipe if still not clear. 


Water-closets should be well-lighted and well-venti- 
lated and should have floors that wash. Every girl study- 
ing this chapter should know by heart the laws of her 
state relating to water-closets. 

Every one using a toilet should feel responsible for the 
condition of that toilet. Each time the water-closet is 
used it must be thoroughly flushed, at least three or four 
gallons of water should go'^ down the pipe. The water- 
closet may be cleaned thoroughly every morning, but in 
one hour it can become an unattractive, unhealthy place 
if each person using it is not careful to flush it well, leav- 
ing the seat dry and clean, the toilet-paper neat, and no 
newspaper about. The closet in every house, in every 
public hall, or in every public school, is the responsibility 
of every one who uses it. 

To Clean Water-Closet. 

For cleaning water-closet (which should be done at least 
once a week) you will need a long-handled brush, which is 
used only for the toilet ; a cleaning cloth marked " T," so 
that no one in the house will be tempted to use it for any 
other purpose ; hot, soapy water, and a kettlef ul of boiling 
hot soda solution. 

First lift the open, as well as the closed cover; then 
with the hot soapsuds and the long-handled brush wash 


every part of the bowl and all the hidden cracks and 
crevices. Flush thoroughly so that at least two or three 
gallons of water may flow into the pipes. Now, pour 
into the bowl the soda-solution, allowing it to run down 
the pipes as slowly as possible. Flush again thoroughly, 
and with the cloth wipe every part of the woodwork 
connected with the seat. Be especially careful to leave 
dry the hidden crevices, for it is in these damp hidden 
places the roaches collect, and from these places, if left 
damp, disagreeable odors come. 

This thorough cleaning of the toilet should be repeated 
at least once a week, besides the daily cleaning with the 
long-handled brush. 


Wash-tubs are to be used only for washing clothes 
not for storing soiled clothes. It is very hard to keep 
wash-tubs absolutely free from dampness; and allowing 
clothes to stay in a damp, air-tight place will surely cause 
them to become moldy. There is nothing dirtier, more 
unhealthy, or more untidy than using wash-tubs as store 

To Clean Wash-Tubs. 

After using the tubs to wash clothes in, wash them thor- 
oughly with soap and water, then wipe them out with a 
clean cloth. Be very careful to dry every part about the 
hinges of the cover of the tubs and all cracks and crevices. 
It is in these cracks that dampness collects and that cock- 
roaches breed. After the tubs have been washed and 
dried thoroughly, do not use them again until you are 
ready to wash more clothes. 



In England there is what is called the " Order of the 
Bath." Back in the fourteenth century, when a king 
wanted to honor a nobleman he treated him to a bath as 
symbolic of regeneration ; a bath was rare in those days, 
as private baths were found only in palaces. After 
this honor, the Order of the Bath was conferred upon 
the nobleman. In these days there are few houses that 
have not one bathroom, and some houses have as many 
bathrooms as there are bedrooms. 

Furnishing. Have as little wood about your bathroom 
as possible. Remember that wood absorbs odors. If 
you can choose, have the tub some distance away from 
the wall. It is easier to clean behind it. Have as much 
white as possible in the bathroom ; it suggests cleanliness. 
If the room is papered, shellac the paper about the wash- 
stand where water is apt to spatter. 

Have a nickel basket for soiled towels; a wet towel 
put into the clothes basket will itself become mildewed, 
and will mildew the other clothes. If a half curtain 
(muslin) at the window is necessary for protection, have 
two. pair of such curtains so that when one is being 
washed a clean pair can be put up at once. 

The furnishing of a bathroom must be most carefully 
considered because of its connection with health. It 
must have floor and walls that can be scrubbed. 

The plumbing must be open, so that cleaning under the 
sink, bath-tub and toilet will be possible. 

There should be as few things in a bathroom as pos- 
sible. A shelf or a closet for medicines, towel rack, a 
shelf for extra clean towels, hooks for tooth brushes, a 
toilet-paper rack or nail (always supplied with toilet- 
paper), a few white hooks on the door or wall on which to 


hang a wrapper or night-gown while bathing. Glass 
shelves and glass rollers are the best because easily 


Scrub out the bath-tub with soap and water every morn- 
ing (not with sand soaps as these will scratch the tub). 
Insist upon it that each member of the family after bath- 
ing shall wipe out the bath-tub, and in addition the tub 
must be thoroughly scrubbed by the housekeeper as a 
part of the morning work. 

A tin tub can be brightened with Bon Ami powder. 
The stains on a porcelain or tin tub can be removed with 
turpentine, or kerosene. These stains come from soap, 
hard water, and the oil from our bodies. 

Bath tubs should be cleaned with kerosene at least once 
a week, and after that thoroughly scrubbed with soap and 
hot soda water. 

Nickel Faucets. 

If the nickel fittings in the sink and bath-tub are rubbed 
every day with a soft dry cloth they will not need to be 
cleaned with whitening oftener than once a week. Clean 
nickel like silver, page 45. 




Let the colors of the different rooms blend. Sharp 
contrasts are neither pleasing nor artistic. Plan all 
rooms at the same time, having a general scheme of color, 
as one room is often seen from another. 

Get unusual rather than ordinary and commonplace 
furnishings. This always shows thought. 

Furnishing cannot be done in a day, it should be a slow 
process. Often you cannot tell what to buy to complete a 
room until you have lived in the room for a time. 

Remember that the people in the house are judged more 
or less by the house. If the furniture is tawdry, the 
ornaments sham, the pictures cheap and with showy 
frames, every one is sure to think that there is some- 
thing a little vulgar in the minds of the people living in 
that house. Refinement is expressed by simplicity. 


No pictures at all are better than poor ones. There 
are people who hang a picture because they happen to 
have it, irrespective of whether or not it gives pleasure. 
Such indifference cheapens a room. A picture is like a 
book; often you like it at first, but time proves that it 
does n't continue to please. If so take it down, you want 
your room to express your taste. 



Scrap Baskets. 

Scrap baskets can contribute a cer- 
tain beauty to the room in line and 

(u'^lJi^^HK color- This does not mean they must 
be expensive. Often market baskets 
are charming in line. Don't decorate a 
scrap basket with bows. If there is a 
carpenter in the family he can make a 
scrap basket out of wood. A bottom 

and four sides, with eight holes bored in each and the 

sides then held together by pieces of leather fastened 

through the holes, will make a basket. 


There are few ornaments so beautiful that they add 
to a room without the additional virtue of being useful as 
well. A vase has its place, it holds flowers ; candlesticks 
are necessary for the candles; photograph frames only 
are good if they hold photographs you care for — the 
frame is to show the photograph, the photograph is not an 
excuse to show off the frame. 

Pieces of copper and brass need not be useful to de- 
serve a place in the house. They add to a room by the 
very beauty of their color. This is true of anything 
where the color and line is beautiful. But be sure it 
has this value. 


Have all the shelves you can use. They save closet- 
room, table space, and floor space. They make it much 
easier to be orderly, and they really add (if put up with 
thought) to the lines of a room. Any one of the family 
with a knack for carpentry work can make and put up 


Kitchen Shelves. 

In the kitchen have a shelf under which you can hang 
brooms, brushes, dust pan, etc., and on this shelf put jugs, 
jars, small brushes, or any kitchen utensils. Also, have a 
shelf for pots and pans ; one for stove materials near the 
stove ; and one near the sink for soap, soda, etc. 

Have shelves in the living-room for books ; in the din- 
ing-room for china ; in the bedroom for clothes, if there 
is no closet. No one can be orderly unless there is 
enough hanging-room and shelf-room for everything. 


What to do with the floors in a house is always a ques- 
tion. Carpets cannot be kept sanitary unless they are 
cleaned with a vacuum cleaner, and few have this lux- 
ury. This is true of rugs when they are too large to be 
taken into the yard and cleaned. A few rugs, small 
enough to shake easily, are all right and practical. Many 
rugs are a nuisance. A painted floor is not durable un- 
less you varnish over the paint. This varnish can be re- 
newed from time to time and the paint kept from wearing 
oflF in spots. Shellac on floors is serviceable only when 
covered with wax, for shellac turns white if washed or 
even wiped with a damp floor cloth. The most satis- 
factory floor is a stained floor waxed with some good 
floor wax. Linoleum can be preserved by a coating of 

To Stain Floor. 

Only natural wood, without paint or varnish, can be 
stained. The wood should be well cleaned and thoroughly 
dried before staining. Soda and hot water is often suf- 
ficient for this cleaning, but if the floor has been painted 
remove the paint with lye and hot water, or varnish re- 



mover; do not let the lye touch clothing or hands. For 
staining floors, any one of many floor stains may be used. 
Ask for an oil stain without varnish, selecting the desired 
color. One quart is enough to stain one good-sized room. 
Put stain on with large brush. Dry for twenty-four 
hours; wipe the surface oflF with dry cloth, then wax 
with common floor wax. If such a floor is waxed once a 
month, it should last a year without restaining. Once a 
year scrub oflF all wax and stain again. 

To make oil stain yourself use % oil to % turpentine, 
a little drier and dry stain of the desired color. 


There are laws regarding walls and wall paper. Many 
cities have this law. 

" No wall paper shall be placed upon a wall unless all 
wall paper shall be first removed and said wall thoroughly 

Any tenant has a right to insist upon this law being 
kept before a room is repapered. 

As papered walls cannot be washed, in apartment 
houses or in crowded quarters they are always a source 
of danger. If there are germs of any kind resulting from 
disease or dirt, they find a resting place on wall paper, 
and paper cannot be sterilized because it cannot be 
washed. If vermin of any kind get into a house, behind 
the wall paper is the most natural place for them to hide, 
as dampness and darkness are what attract them. 

Paint is a safeguard against vermin. Soap is a disin- 
fectant. Painted walls can be washed and, therefore, ab- 
solutely sterilized. A plain coloring is a better back- 
ground for furnishing (especially for pictures) than a 
figured paper. 

Kalsomine or Cold Water Paint comes in beautiful 


colors, and it is so easily put on that any one can kalso- 
mine a wall. This kalsomine cannot be washed, but it 
makes an inexpensive wall covering and can be put on 
fresh once a year if necessary. ICalsomine is much 
cheaper than paint but less durable. 

To Paper Walls. 

Make a thick paste of two pounds of fine flour and cold 
water stirred together. Add to this about one-fourth 
pound of glue. Add enough boiling water to make the 
paste the consistency of cream. Cool. Wet the wall 
rather than the paper with this paste. Use large flat 
brush in putting on paper. Keep some wall paper on 
hand, in case paper on wall needs patching. 

No rule regarding the color of walls can be laid down. 
It is all a matter of taste and education. Different na- 
tions have different ideas. The Italians love bright colors. 
The Japanese and Chinese have brought to us wonderful 
combinations. The walls of a room should be thought of 
as the framework to what the room contains. Nothing 
destroys the eflfect of a room so much as a staring wall 
paper. The tint of the ceiling must be one that shades 
into the wall paper, not one that contrasts with it. 

Window Shades. 

Shades are seldom beautiful in themselves. They are 
simply a protection against persons looking in and as a 
means of darkening the rooms. Shades are apt to be- 
come discolored and torn if the window is opened from 
the top. Therefore, there is some advantage in having 
inside shutters or curtains instead of shades. 

If curtains are used as protection, they should be made 
of a material that does not fade ; for example, net, pongee, 
linen, blue denim. Hang these curtains next to the win- 


dow on white celluloid rings so that they can be moved 
back and forth easily on a brass rod. 
The white rings wash with the curtains, 
while brass rings tarnish with damp- 
ness. Brass clasps to hold back the 
curtains when the window is open will 
^keep them from blowing out of the 
( window or into a gas-light. 

Inside curtains hung for decoration 
Rand not protection should be very thin, 
'/so that the light can come through; 
' ' short, so that the dust from the floor 
cannot reach them ; and made of washable material. 


Have chairs where you naturally want to sit down, by 
the window, in front of the fire, by the table where the 
lamp stands. Don't place a chair just because you think 
it looks well in a certain spot. 

Staining Furniture. 

The furniture (when bought in the white) can be 
stained with alcohol stain and waxed with floor wax. If 
the furniture is varnished and one wishes to stain it, re- 
move the varnish with " vamish-remover," then wash the 
wood clean with benzine. After it is dry, stain with alco- 
hol stain, dry, and wax. 

Alcohol stain is made by mixing dry Aniline stain with 
alcohol. The proportion of each should be regulated ac- 
cording to the shade desired — if the color is too dark, add 
more alcohol; if too light, add more stain. Only the 
Aniline stains dissolve in the alcohol. 

Oiling and Waxing Furniture. 
In old times cabinet makers used no varnish or shellac. 


They covered the wood with boiled Unseed oil and bees- 
wax and rubbed it with a soft cloth until the wood was 
sufficiently polished. 

Two Receipts for Furniture Polish, 

( 1 ) Equal parts beeswax, turpentine, and linseed oil. 

(2) J<2 pint turpentine, 
J^ pint vinegar, 

J4 pint linseed oil. 


When locks get out of order it is usually from lack of 
use. Any one can repair a stiff lock. Take lock off with 
screw driver, keep screws in relation to right holes. Soak 
lock and lock plate in kerosene oil, and oil all parts with 
oil dropper. If, after taking the lock off, you find the 
spring broken, take it to a locksmith. (It will cost only 
half as much as bringing the locksmith to your house.) 
When the lock is oiled and mended, put it back yourself, 
using screw driver and same screws. 

Loose Door Handles. 

This is due, usually, to the screw holes becoming large 
and the screws not holding. Get screws a size larger, and 
the trouble usually will be remedied. 

Never have cheap brass in locks or catches. If you 
cannot afford good brass, have iron or. a cheaper material. 
Avoid imitation. 

Receptacle for Soiled Clothes. 

A white clothes box made of white papier mache is 
sanitary, easily washed, and fits in the corner. 

A clothes bag is awkward hanging on the wall, and is 
ugly when filled with soiled clothes. 

A clothes basket is hard to wash, and the odor of the 
clothes gets into the straw. 



A good receptacle for soiled clothes is a pickle barrel, 
price fifty cents. Holes should be bored in the sides to 
admit air, and a barrel top may be purchased at any hard- 
ware store. This kept in an unused comer, serves also as 
a seat, and is less bulky than a straw basket. 

To Take Paint from Glass. 

Use soda and boiling water. If the paint has been long 
on the glass use varnish remover. 

Gas Meter. 

Ask the gas man once to tell you how to read the gas 
meter, and you will be able to keep account of this house 

Rattling Windows. 

If the windows rattle, tighten the window fastening 
by taking oflf the plate with a screw driver. Replace it a 
little further back so that the windows are held closer to- 

Mica Shades. 

Don't buy new mica shades when yours look dull. Soak 
the old ones for five minutes in vinegar and water. 


To clean matting, wipe over with cloth wrung out in 
salt and water ; then wipe dry. 

Enamel Paint. 

If enamel paint is too highly polished, rub it with a light 
pumice stone and oil. 

How and When to Save Money. 

The first thing is to realize the value of education in 
the matter of buying those things which every one must 


purchase to live. Women are the great purchasers of 
household supplies, and they do not play the game of 
living intelligently if they do not learn how to buy. 

The second thing is, education is not learning some- 
thing by heart or taking as truth what some one else tells 
you. Education trains us to think. If we learn to think 
for ourselves we will be able to estimate the relative im- 
portance of things. On certain things one can save 
money, on others it is wiser to spend money. 

Take advantage of every labor-saving device you can 
aflford. Many get so in the habit of doing household work 
one way, that if a new device is at first confusing they will 
not accept it. 

Don't save money (unless economy demands it) on a 
mattress. You get just what you pay for. A hair 
mattress will last twice as long as a cotton mattress. 

Don't save money on a moving man if you have good 
furniture. A cheap man may do more damage to one 
piece of furniture than what you have saved. 

You don't save money by buying coal or groceries in 
small quantities. In the end you pay nearly twice as 

You don't save money by buying cheap furniture, var- 
nished to look expensive. Furniture should last two or 
three generations. It will pay in the end to have it made 
of good wood. 

You save nothing by buying on the instalment plan. 
This is only a loan from the company which you pay little 
by little, adding the interest on the loan to the payment. 
Save all the money needed first, and then buy your furni- 
ture with confidence. You will get full value for your 
money in this way. 

If linen is laundered at home (not in a steam laundry) 
it pays to get good linen. It does not pay to get more 


than you need. If bed linen and towels are laundered at 
a laundry, buy them cheap, as they will not last anyway. 
Save money where frequent renewals are inevitable, as 
with china and glass. Expensive pieces break as quickly 
as cheaper ones ; they are no cleaner, they make the food 
no better. Neither expensive ones nor cheap ones suffer 
from wear and tear. It is breakage that destroys the use- 
fulness of china and glass. 

Save money on curtains. These are destroyed by sun, 
dampness and air, and expensive material is as easily af- 
fected by these things as cheaper material. 

Save money on tin kitchen ware. It rusts soon with the 
best of care. 

Don't save money on brass or copper utensils : they last 
forever if of good material. 


You cannot keep your house in order without tools. 
Have not only utensils to cook with, brooms, brushes and 
cloths to clean with, but tools to repair what is out of 
order. Have a basket made of wood containing hammer, 
screw driver, awl, wrench, nails, tacks, wire, large scissors 
and any other tools that your particular need requires. 
This basket can be taken from one place to another and 
the tools will not get mislaid. 


Laundry Equipment. 

Before doing the first stroke of work a good workman 
is sure that he has at hand all the necessary tools and ma- 
terial for the performance of his particular task. This is 
true of every piece of work, if you would keep your mind 
and work orderly. 

In this task, be sure that you have time enough ; hur- 
ried work is usually poor work. 

Second, see that the place you have to work in is the 
best at your command. A light, airy basement is the ideal 
laundry ; but the majority of women must use the kitchen. 
If the kitchen is also the laundry, great care must be 
taken that the soiled clothes (many of them underclothes) 
are not about at the time the food is cooking. On wash- 
day very simple food should be served and as much of this 
as possible cooked the day before. This is the cleanest, 
easiest, and most orderly way. 

As the stove will be needed for the clothes-boiler and 
irons, there will be but little space for pots and pans. 


In some homes, where space and money are plentiful, 
there are laundry stoves separate from cooking stoves. 
Such stoves are never blackened, because the irons must 
be kept absolutely clean ; they are rubbed clean with a dry 




In the majority of homes the cooking-stove is used for 
irons. Therefore, be very careful that on ironing-days, 
especially, the stove is rubbed as free from blacking as is 


Porcelain or soapstone tubs are the best; wooden tubs 
absorb odors. 

The most desirable stationary tubs are set away from 
the wall, but these are seldom found in apartments. 
When the tubs are built against the wall it means more 
care for the housewife, to keep dry every crack and edge 
and hidden crevice. 

If galvanized tubs are used, be careful that they do not 
rust. Dry well and occasionally oil. 

In the country, portable wooden tubs are used ; if these 
are allowed to become too dry, between washings, they 
will fall apart. When in use such tubs are placed on a 
bench, which should be about thirty-six inches high. The 
advantage of portable tubs in the country is, that they 
make it possible to wash out of doors, and fresh air and 
sunlight sweeten the clothes. 

Stoves and tubs are what are called stationary equip- 
ment and are usually put in by the landlord; but every 
woman or girl is responsible for their condition when 
wash-day comes. It is only a bad housekeeper who uses 
her tubs as a storing place between washings. Damp 
tubs breed cockroaches. 

Movable Equipment. 

If the laundress is the right kind of laundress, she 
will see that all equipment necessary for washing and 
ironing is on hand and in good repair before wash- 
day comes. 


In a small kitchen many things that we have for 
every-day use may be utilized in our laundry work, thus 
avoiding unnecessary things about, and also saving ex- 

There are three kinds: 

Glass. Which is most easily cared for, and wears 

Zinc covered boards. 

Wooden boards. Which are the least desirable. 

Wringer. This is not a necessity, but helps to make 
easier the wringing of clothes. It is more economical to 
buy a wringer of good quality, even if more expensive. 
A good wringer requires very careful treatment. To keep 
the rubber-rollers clean, it is very necessary after each 
washing, to unroll them and wipe them dry. A very 
good housekeeper will have a slip bag to keep her rollers 

Boiler. An oblong boiler is more practical than a round 
one ; it holds more clothes and fits better on the stove. 

A copper boiler will outlast all others, but it is expen- 

A tin boiler, with copper bottom, is a very practical 
boiler to buy. 

An all-tin boiler is cheap but it does not last. 

Any boiler must be carefully dried after each wash- 

Have on Hand on Laundry Day 

Clothes-Stick. An old broom-handle is as good a stick 
as any other to take clothes from the boiler. 

Pail. To carry water. 

Dipper. The house dipper will answer. 

Agate pan. This is for starching; the dish-pan will 



Saucepan. To make the starch in. 

Tea-kettle. Be sure it is absolutely clean. 

Three brushes. One for scrubbing the wood-work of 
board, tubs, etc. 

One for removing very soiled spots from clothes. 

One when it is necessary to use cleaning fluids. 

Wooden spoon. For starch. 

Strainer. For starch. 


Clothes-horse or towel-rack. 

Clothes-line and clothes-pins. 

Get a good clothes-line, it lasts longer; a poor line 
is not safe. Take the clothes-line down every time it 
is used. Wipe with damp cloth before using. Metal 
lines rust easily. 

Clothes-bag for pins. Have this of pretty cretonne, and 
make it an attractive addition to the kitchen. 

Duster for clothes-line. Any clean duster will answer. 

A cloth for wiping tubs, boiler, etc. 

Small piece of perfectly clean cloth, always at hand to 
rub off any spots. 

Equipment for Ironing. 

Ironing-table or board. It should be covered with 
flannel or a coarse blanket, and cotton cloth pinned tightly 
over this. A drawer in an ironing-table is a great con- 

Irons. There are many kinds of irons: gas and elec- 
tric, which are expensive. 

Nickel-plated. These do not rust. 

Iron ones are the most common and many a laundress 
will use no other kind. These must be of different sizes. 
They must be kept smooth. When not in use keep in a 
dry, clean place. Wash, arid heat irons before using. 


Iron-holders. Do not use any old rag for an iron- 
holder, but take time to make three or four holders of 
bright, pretty material. 

Iron-stand. A tin cover may be used for this. 

Wax. This is needed to prevent irons from stick- 

Sandpaper, For smoothing irons. 

Heavy paper and cloth. This to test the heat of the 
irons ; never try them on the ironing board. 

Materials Used in Laundry Work. 

Soap. Use a soap containing little resin. 

Ammonia. Mild. 

Borax. For removing stains and softening water. 

Sal-soda. For cleaning the tubs and pipes. 

Salt. Used for smoothing irons ; also for stains. 

White vinegar. Sets color. 

Alcohol. For stains. 

Bluing. Not liquid. Bluing, in liquid form, is usually 
a compound of ferro- ferric oxide; that is, an iron com- 
pound, and injurious to clothes in combination with an 
alkali. Soap is an alkali; therefore, clothes not well 
rinsed, after bluing, will often show rust-marks. 

Starch. It will pay to get the best. 

There are many Hquids for removing stains, such as 
Javelle water, ether, etc., but any girl who is not a 
trained laundress cannot be trusted with these'^things ; 
when not used properly they spoil the clothes. 

Many clever women have found substitutes for vari- 
ous articles of laundry equipment that may for some 
reason be missing, even in the home of a good house- 
keeper. It will be interesting for any one studying this 
book to take note of any substitution that has taken place 
in her home. 


Body Clothes. 

Clothes which are worn absorb waste matter thrown 
off from the body in the form of perspiration, and in bits 
of dead skin which are being constantly rubbed off. 
The food that we eat repairs this waste. Our undercloth- 
ing, because of tlfis waste matter, becomes damp, sticky, 
and oily. Unclean clothes increase the heat of the body 
in summer and make it colder in winter. A bath every 
day, winter and summer, followed by clean clothes at 
least twice a week in winter and oftener in summer, will 
do much to prevent discomfort and illness. In the case 
of small children clean clothes will often stop their 
fretting, which indicates irritation. 

As every girl knows, dust must be removed, if for no 
other reason, because dirt indicates the possible presence 
of disease germs. 

Sorting the Clothes. 

Sorting is the separation of clothes, before washing, into 
the divisions in which they are to be washed. 

Table linen. Towels, 

Bed linen. Flannels, 

Underclothes, Stockings, 

Handkerchiefs, Print or colored dresses. 

Before beginning the actual washing, it will make the 
labor much more interesting to know something of the 
materials that are to be washed. The care of the stove 
is more interesting work after studying about coal and 
wood. Care of household garbage is interesting when we 
know about the municipal problems in the disposition of 
the city waste. This rule holds good in laundering. 

The materials ordinarily laundered are linen, cotton, 
8ilk and wool. 



Linen is not so good for many things as cotton; it 
wrinkles easily and is much more expensive. For the 
table however it is the best material to use; its smooth, 
brilliant texture adds to the beauty of the table ; it looks 
fresh and clean and when properly laundered lasts well. 

Linen is woven from flax. Flax is a plant which 
grows from two to three feet high, bears small leaves and 
blue flowers. When the seeds of flax begin to ripen the 
plant is pulled up by the roots. Then follows a process 
called " rippling " by which the seeds are taken from the 
plant. The stalk is then steeped in water to produce 
fermentation. Then comes '* scutching," by which the 
fibre is freed from its woody core; then a process 
called "heckling" by which the fiber is combed out, 
straightened, and the longer threads separated from the 
woolly mass. " Spinning " is twisting the fiber into 
thread. " Weaving " is the art of producing the linen 
cloth from a combination of these threads. 

Making linen of flax is but one of the uses of the flax 
plant. The seed is very nutritive; linseed oil, which is 
made from the seed, is a great industry. Flax used to 
be raised on individual farms, and the women of the 
family took the flax after the heckling and with their own 
hands did the spinning, weaving, bleaching, and finishing. 

The cultivation of cotton did much to lessen the neces- 
sity for linen, and the introduction of machinery did away 
with flax-growing and weaving as an individual farm in- 
dustry; even dragging up the flax by the roots is all 
done now by machinery. Hand-linen looms are not used 
to-day, and many families were ruined when the ma- 
chinery for making linen was introduced, as their hand- 
looms were their only wealth. 

In the process of making linen, " finishing " is the last 




step. It IS in this finishing that the linen manufacturers 
are able to deceive the public. This finishing or sizing is 
the gloss on the linen; it is often simply starch ironed 
in, and polished hard. The starch will wash out with the 
first laundering. When you buy linen the way to test 
good from bad is to rub a piece of it between the fingers; 
if it is thickened with starch instead of being really heavy 
linen, the starch will come off on your fingers ; also after 
you have rubbed a little of the starch out the linen will 
have a thin look, while good linen will stand rubbing and 
keep its firm appearance. 

Cotton Cloth. 

Underclothes often are made of cotton cloth, so also 
is what we call "bed-linen." This expression comes 
from the old times when sheets and pillow-cases always 
were made of linen. Linen is too expensive now to be 
used generally for sheets. 

Cotton is now our chief vegetable fiber. At least six 
billion pounds a year are produced, and the United States 
raises the larger part of this. 

Cotton is the white downy covering of the cotton-plant, 
and the value of the cotton depends upon the evenness 
and strength of the fiber. In cheap cotton the fiber is 
about an inch long ; in good material the fiber is two inches 
long. Long fiber cotton is used for fine cotton laces, fine 
lawn, and muslin goods, while the short fiber cotton is 
made into inexpensive cloth. One reason why cotton is 
cheap is that there is only five per cent loss in preparing 
it for use. 

There is not time in a book like this to make a study of 
the manufacture of cotton, but every w^an and girl 
should know good cotton cloth from a poor quality. It is 
true in cotton, as in linen, that the finish or sizing is de- 


ceptive. This, too, can be put on with starch which, 
when washed out, leave the cloth loosely woven and 
flimsy. Rub the cloth, and feel it with your fingers and 
you will soon be able to judge the quality. 

Do not blame the woman behind the counter if you 
find that you have bought a nightgown, for example, that 
looks cheap after a few washings. The saleswoman does 
not make the goods, and does not set the price; very 
likely she herself has no knowledge of cottons. She is 
paid to make you buy the nightgown. 

It is well to remember a few good rules about ready- 
made cotton underclothes. If an article is cheaper than 
the market price there is usually some reason for it ; if it 
is being sold at a marked-down sale it is worth while to 
examine it very carefully. After you have rubbed it in 
your fingers if it feels thin and loosely woven do not buy 
it, no matter how tempting the bargain. If any one gets 
good cloth and good work she has to pay for them. 

Colored Cotton Cloth. 

Gingham is made of yam which is dyed before it is 
woven into cloth. Cretonne, chintz, and calico are made 
into cloth and then stamped. 

Outing cloth, which is an imitation of wool, is soft and 
light and made of cotton. It does not shrink like wool, 
the best grades do not fade, but it has not the warmth 
of wool. 


Flannel, whicli is all wool, is made from the soft, hairy 
covering of sheep and goats. The wool of the llama of 
South Africa also is used in making stuffs for women's 
wear. Sheep-raising was a business long before agricul- 
ture was known ; in fact so long ago that no one knows 



when man first realized that the wool of sheep was valu- 
able. As soon as wool began to be used for cloth the 
sheep-raiser saw the need of improving the fleece. This 
was done by careful breeding, careful feeding, and by 
protecting the wool-bearing animals in bad weather; in 
other words, the more domestic a sheep is, the softer and 
finer the wool. Much of the wool used in this country 
comes from Australia, South America, and South Africa. 

The wools used for blankets and carpets come from a 
lower quality of sheep, where the hair is harder and 

Cashmere wool is the most costly of all wools, and 
comes from the cashmere goat in the Himalaya Moun- 

In old times, wool manufacture was a home industry, 
just as linen was. The beautiful hand-spinning and 
weaving, done then has not been excelled to this day. 
The first wool machine in this country was in Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts, in 1790. 

Manufacture of Woolens and Worsteds. 

First, the sheep is washed, and then sheared ; the wool 
is then beaten to get rid of dust and other impurities, 
then washed again. This second washing, after the 
wool is taken from the sheep, is not only needed to remove 
dirt but a fatty secretion, called **yolk." Wool is 
washed in a soapy solution, often with soda added; 
and is passed from one tub to another until it comes 
from the last tub comparatively clean; it is then 
dried, bleached, or dyed. Even after all this, the wool 
has a matted appearance, and contains some dust and 
sand. The process of removing this is called "willow- 
ing," and is done by a machine that gently tears the 
matted locks apart, and frees the wool of all impurities. 


" Mixing " comes next, and is a process whereby wools 
of different quality are mixed together. If other ma- 
terial, such as silk or cotton, is to be blended with the 
wool, it is done at this time. 

Oiling, The wool, after its many washings, is hard 
and wiry, and in order to restore its natural softness it is 
slightly oiled while it is being mixed. Up to this point 
worsteds and woolens go through the same process ; after 
this the work is different: worsted thread is combed 
and the thread twisted until it becomes hard; woolen 
yam, from which woolen goods are made, is simply 
carded and loosely spun. 

Carding. This process produces a thread whose fibers 
lie loosely, projecting from the main thread in little ends 
which form the nap of the cloth. 

Spinning is the art of drawing and twisting this fiber 
so that it is formed into continuous threads, ready for 
weaving or knitting. 

Weaving. This is the art of making thread into cloth. 

Stains on Clothes. 

As a good laundress sorts her clothes she will look for 
stains. Any garment or article having a stain on it should 
be laid aside, for if put into hot soapy water it will set 
the stain and make it difficult to remove. 

Blood Stains. Wash in cold water, then rub with 
naphtha soap, and soak in warm water. If the stain re- 
mains apply a paste of raw starch. 

Chocolate or Tea. Sprinkle with borax and soak in 
cold water; then, when washed in the hot soapy water 
the stain will come out. 

Coffee, Fruit. Lay the stained part over a bowl and 
pour boiling water on it; have the water come from a 
height so as to give it force. : ^ f • 


Glue. Vinegar rubbed on with a cloth will remove 

Grass Stains. Warm water and naphtha soap should 
take out grass stain. If on white goods ammonia may be 

Grease. Wash in gasoline and then warm water and 

Ink. Let the stained part stand in milk, and when the 
milk is discolored change it to fresh milk. Wash next in 
cold water, and lastly wash in warm water with a little 
ammonia, if the goods are white. 

Ink on Carpet ist. Take up all possible ink with a 
spoon. 2nd. Lay on carpet blotting paper; press well 
into carpet. Take fresh piece and repeat. 3rd. Wash 
stain with warm water and ammonia. Use milk if you 
have no ammonia. 

Kerosene. Use Fuller's earth made into a paste, and 
let this remain on the stain for twenty-four hours. 

Machine Oil. Wash first with soap and cold water, 
and then rub with turpentine if the stain is not removed. 

Mildew. Usually it is our own fault if the clothes 
are mildewed; they have been neglected and left damp 
in a close place. If they should become mildewed, 
squeeze lemon juice on the stain, and lay it in the sun- 
light. If this does not remove the stain, make a paste of 
soap, starch, lemon and salt, and let this paste stand on 
the spot for twenty-four hours. 

Milk. If on a colored dress, wash with cold water. 

Paint. Use benzine or turpentine. 

Perspiration. Soap-suds and sunshine. 

Scorch. Rub the scorched article with lemon and put 
in the sun. 

StOTJie Polish. Naphtha soap and cold water. 


» r 


Wagon Grease. Rub with lard and then wash with 
warm water and soap. 

IVax. Place brown paper over grease spot and press 
paper with warm iron. 

Wine. Put a layer of salt on the stain; then pour 
boiUng water over the spot, as in fruit stains. 

The next step after sorting clothes and looking for 
stains is to : 

Soak Clothes. This is done to loosen the dirt so that 
the garment will require less rubbing when washed. Add 
a little soap to the water in which clothes are soaked. 
Stockings and colored clothes are not soaked. 

Clothes are soaked usually over night. 

In the morning wring out the clothes. Wash the tubs 
and fill nearly full of hot water. Fill the boiler half 
full of cold water and add enough dissolved soap to make 
a light suds. Put a coarse, clean cloth in bottom of the 
boiler, to prevent clothes scorching. You are now ready 
to wash, not to talk about it, but to do the actual work. 

In clothes, as in dishes, the cleanest are washed first. 

Table and Bed Linen. 

Put these in one tub of hot water ; use soap freely. As 
each piece is washed wring it with the hands and drop it 
in the next tub of water. When all of this first lot are in 
the second tub, wash them again with soap, as before ; as 
each piece is washed and wrung from this tub, drop it in 
the boiler of cold water. When the boiler is full start the 
fire, if it is a gas or electric stove; put the boiler over 
the hot fire, if it is a coal stove. Press the clothes down 
with a wooden stick, which is also needed to turn the 
clothes and take them from the boiler. 

While the first tubf ul of clothes is scalding in the boiler. 


rub out the second tubful of underclothes, which are the 
next cleanest, in the same manner. 

When the second lot is ready for the boiler, the first 
should have finished boiling and be ready to take out. 
Put these in a tub of clear water. Wash the third lot, 
which will be the more soiled clothes and towels, while 
the second lot is in the boiler. Take the second lot from 
the boiling water and put them in the tub with first 
clothes, and then put third washing in the boiler. It is 
now time to rinse the first and second clothes. First, 
wash out and thoroughly clean the tubs that have been 
used in washing, as they are to be used for the rinsing. 
Fill both tubs with clear hot water ; rinse and wring from 
one tub into the other, then wring out into bluing water. 
The last boiler of clothes should be rinsed in the same 
way and blued. As the clothes are wrung out from the 
bluing water separate those that require starching. 

Bluing Water. 

Use clean cold water, and have the bluing ball tied in a 
cloth, to prevent specks coming onto the clothes. Never 
allow the clothes to stand in this water, as they will be- 
come streaked, and never, for the same reason, allow 
them to rest on the bottom of the tub. 


Be sure the lines are clean and tight. Every time they 
are used they must be wiped with a clean, damp cloth. 
See that the clothes-pins are clean and not broken. Hang 
clothes of a kind together, and hang white clothes in the 
sunlight, if possible. All articles should be hung on the 
wrong side. Hang the sheets out first, as they take the 
longest time to dry. In hanging fine pieces, and the un- 
derclothes, be careful that the clothes-pins do not tear the 


Starched Clothes. 

Bed linen, towels, table linen and handkerchiefs should 
never be starched. People differ about underclothes. 
Many care for no starch, while others wish a little, real- 
izing that garments iron more easily when starched, and 
keep clean longer. 

To Make Thick Starch. 

Half cup of starch, 

Half cup of cold water. 

One quart of boiling water. 

One quarter teaspoonf ul of lard or wax. 

One teaspoon ful of borax. 

Mix the starch with cold water, and make smooth; 
slowly add wax, borax, and boiling water. Allow the 
starch to cook about fifteen minutes, and then strain. 
Use the starch hot. Borax gives stiffness, gloss, and 
whiteness to clothes; wax keeps irons from sticking. 

Thin starch. 

This is made in the same way, except that three quarts 
of hot water, instead of one quart, are added. Wring 
clothes out in hot starch while they are still wet. Hang 
them out of the wind to dry ; wind blows the starch from 
the clothes. 

Raw starch. 

Two tablespoonfuls of starch. 
One half teaspoonful of borax, 
Two cups of cold water. 

Dissolve the borax in a little hot water; mix starch 
with cold water and add this to the borax. This is used 
for starching shirts and collars and cuffs. 

When cold water is used, the articles to be starched 
must be thoroughly dry before starching. As each article 


is starched, squeeze it and roll it in a towel for an hour 
before ironing. 

Woolens and Flannels. 

As these require great care to prevent them from 
shrinking, it is well to do them pn a day separate from 
the regular wash day. All woolen material should be 
washed in lukewarm water, and rinsed in water of the 
same temperature. In the first water use a soap solution ; 
never rub soap on the garment. If woolen garments are 
not thoroughly rinsed, so that no soap remains, they will 
not be soft. When washing, do not rub flannels more 
than is necessary, as rubbing hardens and thickens them. 
Use borax and ammonia if the water is hard. Dry flan- 
nels in the sun or in the air; never near a hot stove. 
Squeeze dry, and shake well, before hanging. Hang 
wrong side out. Never let flannels freeze because it 
shrinks them. White clothes are not injured by freez- 
ing. It is well to bring flannels Indoors before they are 
perfectly dry; roll them in clean cloths and iron as soon 
as possible. ' 

Blue flannel will keep its color better if a tablespoonf ul 
of vinegar is added to the rinsing water. 

White flannels are blued, as are other white clothes, 
but great care must be taken to have the water of the 
same temperature as the washing water. 

Good Things to Remember About Flannels. 

First. Don't allow them to get very soiled before wash- 
ing, as rubbing hard injures them. 

Second. Wash in lukewarm water, one piece at a 

Third. Do not soak flannels, as it hardens them; do 
not boil, as it shrinks them; wash quickly. 


Fourth. Rinsing and bluipg waters should be of the 
same temperature as the washing water. 

Fifth. Shake flannels before washing and shake them 
after washing, before hanging. 


Select a clear, windy day in which to wash blankets. 
Fill two tubs with lukewarm water; pour a soap solu- 
tion into one tub and a weak soda solution into the 

Dissolve three tablespoonfuls of borax in a quart of 
water and divide this between the two tubs. 

Shake the blankets ; then put one pair into the first tub, 
sop it up and down until the dirt is out of it; squeeze 
the water out and put it in the next tub ; sop up and down 
as before. Now rinse the blankets very thoroughly in 
waters of the same temperature as the washing water. 
Run the blankets through a wringer, if you have one. 
Shake hard before hanging up to dry. Hang, by firmly 
pinning in many places, so that no great strain may come 
on any one part of the blanket. 

If there are any soiled spots remaining on the blanket 
spread it on a board and rub with a brush ; rubbing with 
the hands twists the fiber. Have fresh water for each 
pair of blankets. Be sure that the blankets are perfectly 
dry before they are taken from the line ; brush with a soft 
brush after drying or beat with a clean furniture beater. 
Fold and place between sheets with a heavy weight on 
the top ; this is better than ironing. 

Colored Clothes. 

To set the color in clothes before washing, rinse the 
colored garments in one gallon of water to which has been 
added, either, one tablespoonf ul of salt or one quarter cup 



of vinegar. Colored clothes should never be soaked. Do 
not use much soap in washing ; do not have the water hot, 
only warm; do not use strong, yellow soap or washing- 
powder or ammonia ; do not rub any soap on the garment 
but wash in suds. Colored clothes must not be boiled or 
blued. Dry quickly and dry in the shade. 

If a girl will remember all of the " don'ts " connected 
with the washing of colored clothes, she may be trusted 
to wash them. 

To Wash Silks. 

Make warm, soapy water of Ivory soap. Rub article 
to be washed as little as possible ; squeeze the dirt out so 
as not to hurt the weave. Do not use ammonia on white 
silk ; it makes it yellow. One teaspoonf ul of borax dis- 
solved in a pint of boiling water softens the water. This 
is sufficient for two tubs of water and should be added 
to the soapy water. Rinse in two waters ; wring as gently 
as possible, and hang out to dry. When half dry, take in, 
roll tightly in clean cloth, towel or sheet ; let it stand thus 
for an hour and then press. 

Ribbons are washed by spreading them on a clean 
board, scrubbing them with a soft brush, rinsing well and 
pressing the same as silk. Do not use too hot an iron on 
silk ; it makes it stiff. 


Great care should be given to the washing of stockings. 
Clean, fresh stockings mean warmer feet in winter and 
cooler feet in summer. Stockings rinsed out but not 
washed are not ** clean " stockings. 

Stockings should be first washed on the right side and 
then turned and washed on the wrong side. Never rinse 
stockings in water that has been used for other clothes, as 


it contains lint. It is well to rinse new stockings in salt 
water to set the color. 

Silk stockings are washed like other silk goods. 

Woolen stockings are washed the same as flannels. 

Cleaning of Tubs. 

This is the last task connected with washing, and is 
most important. First, the tubs should be scrubbed to 
remove the grease and scum. Lint from the clothes is 
very bad for the pipes ; therefore, they should be flushed 
with soda water after every washing. If the water runs 
slowly down the pipes, even after using soda, pour down 
potash and boiling water. • 

Dry the tubs, and the woodwork all about them. Do 
not use tubs for anything between washings. 


It is not possible to learn ironing with a few trials ; for 
knowledge of this art comes only with practice. Ironing 
is like cooking; all that any book can do is to start a 
girl in the right way. As was taught in the very begin- 
ning of the laundry lessons, do not begin to iron imtil 
everything for the work is at h^nd. Go over once more 
the necessary things. 

Ironing table or board. Cloth and paper for testing 

Iron stand, irons. 

Flat-irons, Wax, 

Iron holders. Sandpaper, 

Bowl and cloth for dampening dry spots. 

First, be sure the work of covering the ironing-board 
is understood. Every girl should be able to cover an 
ironing-board so that it will be smooth and tight. 

To obtain good results, clothes must be well dampened. 
Spread each article out on a clean cloth and sprinkle one 



piece at a time. This is done with the hand or a clean 
whisk-broom that is used for nothing else. Then roll the 
clothes, turning in the edges as you roll. 

Plain articles, such as towels, napkins, handkerchiefs, 
may be rolled together. After sprinkling and rolling, it 
is a good thing to let them stand several hours before 
ironing. Starched clothes need to be damper than those 
that are not starched, except those with cold water 

There are always some clothes that do not require iron- 
ing, such as knitted underwear, woolens and stockings. 
It is only necessary to smooth these out well and fold 
carefully ; they are fresher if not ironed. 

Be very sure that the irons are clean before heating. 
Place the articles needed for the ironing on the ironing- 
board, at the right. Iron the coarser things first, as the 
irons become smoother the longer they are used. 

First towels, then napkins, table doilies, sheets and pil- 
low-cases, and handkerchiefs. 

Be careful that the hems are properly ironed and the 
edges even — edge to edge. If there is embroidery on the 
articles iron this first and on the wrong side. 

Fold hems of sheets together and fold wrong side out. 
Iron table-linen on the right side. Iron all pieces until 
dry, that is, until all steam stops rising. 


If there is embroidery, iron this first. Then the sleeves, 
the yoke, and lastly the body of the garment. Iron over 
as large a space at one time as possible, and do the work 
rapidly, or the garment will dry. 


The ruffle is ironed first, then the band, and lastly the 
body of the skirt. 


Any garment with folds and seams should hang for a 
while before being folded ; it is difficult to get the seams 
perfectly dry with the iron. Starched clothes require a 
very hot iron. 

Remember the appearance of table linen and handker- 
chiefs depends upon the way they are folded. Fold all 
napkins alike so they will look the same on the table. 

Iron an embroidered article on a Turkish towel; this 
will make the embroidery stand out. 

Never allow irons, when not in use, to stand on the 
stove ; they lose their temper, and are not able to hold the 


How to Learn Marketing. 

The only way to learn how to cook is by cooking, day 
after day, making mistakes, producing unexpectedly good 
results, blundering along, working, working, working, 
until finally you instinctively know the taste of the pud- 
ding before you begin to combine the ingredients. You 
know instantly what flavoring is lacking in the stew the 
moment you taste it. You can make an entire meal from 
the left-overs in the ice-box by adding here and combin- 
ing there ; and never will you waste so much as one egg 
shell. Only then are you a first-class cook. Marketing 
is mastered in the same way. Not one visit to the market 
with a teacher can teach you how to buy. All that 
teachers and books can do is to give you the rules to 
work by. Taste, education, income, digestibility, time, 
all go toward making a difference in diets. 

Don't begin to market after you get to the store. The 
ice-box, the window shelf that holds the left-over food, 
the bread box; these are the first places to visit. 
Any one can go to the market and buy steak, vegetables, 
salad and a dessert. It takes an artist of the kitchen to 
see in the liquid part of the left-over mutton stew the 
foundation of a clam chowder; or see the possibility of 
good meat balls in the strained-off pieces of meat, the few 
pieces of stale bread in the bread-box and one onion. 
To a woman with a creative mind the cold cereal of yes- 
terday is not something for the garbage pail, but thicken- 



ing for soup. All children do^ not like cereals plain. A 
wise housekeeper is glad of the chance to give such a child 
this nourishing food in combination with other foods. 
In the ice-box the good housekeeper may find the water 
that yesterday's corned beef was cooked in, or the vegeta- 
ble water from yesterday's beets. At once she thinks of 
pea soup, using the corned beef water instead of pork; 
or with vegetables, adding the beet water to soup stock. 
A few pieces of stale cake are in the cake box; that 
means that with one egg, a little milk, sugar and chocolate 
you have the pudding for dinner. 

Now when you start for the butcher's and the grocer's 
you buy only what will supplement and make into new 
combinations the food at home. 

What are some of the foundation principles that every 
housewife should carry with her to the market and what 
are some of the faults she should overcome ? 

Waste is one of America's greatest faults. 

You want the meat of an egg to-day rather than the 
egg shell, but it is wasteful not to foresee that to-morrow 
morning you will want the shell to clear the coffee. In 
the same foolish way, women buy meat, and stand and 
look on while the butcher (having made those women 
first pay for the entire weight) trims oflF the fat, and cuts 
out the bone, and throws this valuable food in a box 
under the counter to be sold again ; and yet these women 
know that the bone is good for soup and the fat for 
frying. Why do they do it? Indifference and laziness. 
What the butcher cuts off is yours, ask him for it. 

Another rule to carry to market is : don't buy in small 
quantities. Space is valuable^ and storage place is sadly 
lacking in most homes, but many buy five cents' worth of 
this, ten cents' worth of that, because no thought has 
been given to using what space there is. 


Glass jars take up very little room ; they cost only from 
five to twenty-five cents each, and they last forever. Put 
a shelf in the kitchen ; and on it a row of one and two 
quart jars, each holding a dry grocery; and you have 
added to the beauty of your kitchen, you have saved 
money by making it possible to buy in quantity, and you 
have saved the labor of running out overy day for the 
flour, sugar, coffee and staple articles that should always 
be in the house. 

Don't try to buy cheaper than the market price. If 
butter is selling for forty-one cents a pound, and you can 
buy it for thirty cents, there is something the matter with 
the butter. When you think you buy forty-five cent eggs 
for twenty-five cents, you don't ; you buy only twenty-five 
cent eggs. The salesman deceives you by making you 
believe you are saving money, instead of telling you that 
you are paying a good price for poor eggs. 

In some shops sugar, flour, rice, etc., are all done up in 
pound packages; "to save time," you are told. Have 
the dry groceries you buy weighed out before you. It 
takes a little more of your time, but you get the full 
weight for your money. When you buy by the package, 
you pay for paper and the labor of packing. One half 
pound of loose soda crackers has thirty-five crackers, and 
costs five cents. One package of soda crackers has 
twenty-four crackers and costs five cents. You sacrifice 
eleven crackers for the paper package. 


To buy meat to the best advantage a girl must know 
the different cuts; which ones are tough and which are 
tender; where the juicy parts lie; what the proportion of 
meat is to bone in each cut and why the quality and 



price of the meat is different in one part from another. 
This knowledge may be gained by 3 careful study of meat 
charts ; by asking questions of those who know, and more 
than all else by going to market and learning by experi- 

To acquire a perfect knowledge of the charts given in 
this chapter is a good way to begin the study of meats. 

Cuts of Beef 
-. — . . - -- „. — - -„ -, -,. leven prime rib*: 

oin or porieTbouse:.n; to a6. thick or hip siripin: gCL'o "^i fump 

§i«ei 07, where rump ii divided inlo tap and tail chd: 'c,*d, shoulder- 
iadei e. e, *, t. crou- rib- piece; /, o, bones in shoulder of Wet; K sleraum; 
\, bead of thigb-bone; k, socket; J. ball. 

Take, first. Fig. 3. This is the skeleton of beef. The 
vertebrae run from head to tail. Study the bones in the 
spine with the help of the text underneath, so that when 
you see those bones in the butcher shop you will know at 
once from which part of the animal each cut comes. As 
the beef hangs in the market it is split in two down the 
back bone. Remember this when you try to locate the 
bones as seen in the picture. See Fig. 4. 


portcrhouie r 

end of rump; .._...,. 

(itloin; r, flimk; d, [riaCe piece; (, oaTCh f, 


A careful study of the text under these two cuts will 
give you a clear knowledge of where the porterhouse 
steak, the rib roasts, the chuck, the round steaks, etc, 
come from. No matter, at first, about the cost; leam 
only the location of the various cuts; be familiar with 
the names, and leam what cuts have little and what have 
much bone. 

Now pass on to Fig. 5 and again study the different 
cuts ; this time with thought as to price and the quality 
of the meat. 

This book quotes prices of meats in normal times. 

Fig. 5. Diagram of Beef 

I, rump or ahott Hcaki i, round; 3. Iain; 4, flanli; ;, teg; 6, ribi: 7, 
diuck; 8, ii«ki 9, brisket; id, ihouldcr; 11, navel; 12, plate. 

The cuts of beef can be divided into three qualities; 
first, those from the middle of the back, called ribs. 
There are seven of these ribs, as you can see by counting 
in Fig. 3. They are marked 6 in Fig. 5. Porterhouse, 
sirloin and Delmonico steaks are cut just back of these 
ribs. These are the most expensive cuts; in New York 



City the meat costs from twenty-four to thirty cents a 
pound. These roasts and steaks are also the tenderest 
part, because they are the least muscular, that is the least 
exercised. There is, as you will see in Fig. 3, a great 
deal of bone that you pay for when you buy these expen- 
sive cuts. As the butcher cuts the meat from nearer 
the head and nearer the tail he charges less. Cuts from 
these parts of the beef are the second quality. Rump and 
round, marked i and 2 on Fig. 5, are the back cuts, and 
the chuck (marked 7) is the part near the head. In both 
of these extremities the meat is more muscular. Watch 
a cow moving its head back and forth, or notice the 
constant motion of its hind legs, and you will see at once 
how much more the muscles are used here than in the 
back. Although this makes the meat less tender and 
therefore cheaper, we find in these second quality cuts 
less bone and fat than in the rib ; and the meat has more 
flavor, and is juicier. The tenderness is gained by longer 
cooking. The chuck and round make excellent rolled 
steaks and pot roasts. The round is used because of its 
juicy quality for making beef broth, beef tea, scraped 
beef and stew. These second quality cuts, in New York, 
are from eighteen to twenty-four cents a pound. 

The third quality is the toughest meat; that on the 
legs, that part below the neck called the brisket (marked 
9 on Fig. 5) and the meat on the belly, called the navel 
and plate (11 and 12 on the chart). From the neck 
we get good stew meat, beef for broiling and mince 
meat. The brisket, navel and flank are often put inlo 
brine and sold as corned beef. The heavy part under the 
ribs is sold too for stew meat and pot roasts. The price 
of this meat is from sixteen to eighteen cents a pound. 
It is from the legs or shin as it is called, that much of the 
good soup meat comes ; the bone adding to the flavor be- 



cause of the marrow inside and the gelatin from the tissue. 
This shin or soup meat costs sixteen cents for the meat, 
not counting bone which is thrown in. 

Every part of the animal is utilized. The bone which 
is not used in our kitchens is ground into manure or 
turned into numerous articles; the skin is made into 
leather, the ears and hoofs into glue; the hair is mixed 
with mortar; and the horns are cut and molded into 
spoons and other useful articles. 

Fig. 6. Lamb 

I, leg; 2, ribs and loin; 3, flank; 4, chuck; 4^, neck; $» breast; 6, 

Mutton or Lamb. 

This meat is called lamb if the animal is less than a 
year old, after the year it is called mutton. The first 
eight ribs on a lamb are what we call mutton chops, next 
to these rib chops and nearer the tail are the loin chops. 
(These rib and loin parts are marked 2 in Fig. 6.) The 


loin mutton chops are what in beef we call steaks; they 
are better to buy than the ribs because there is more 


Fig. 7. Mutton. 

If Icff; 2, ribs and loin; 3, flank; 4, chuck; 4^, neck; 5, breast; 6, 



meat in comparison with the bone. When the thin bones 
of the rib chops are trimmed they are called French chops. 
The leg is the most economical cut of mutton be- 
cause there is so little waste. The shoulder makes a 
good, cheap roast for a large family. Roasts, stew and 
pot pie meat are cut from the shoulder, the chuck and the 

Fig. 8. Pork 

I, ham: 2, flank; 3, loin; 4, brisket; 5, ribs; 6, shoulder; 7, neck; 8, 
head; 9, head. 


Pork is the flesh of the hog. Pork is more apt to be 
diseased than any other meat and the ways to know 
healthy pork from unhealthy should be known to every 
housewife. Pork should be cooked a long time and it is 
a good rule not to buy pork in hot weather. 

The quality of the meat depends upon many things; 
age of the animal, kind of food eaten by the hog, the 
way the meat is prepared for market and the length of 
time it has hung after being killed and dressed. The 
dirty food which many pigs eat is the chief reason for the 
bad meat which we must avoid in buying pork. 


Fig. 9. Pork 

I, ham; 2, flank; 3, loin; 4, brisket; 5, ribs; 6, shoulder; 7, neck; 8» 
head; 9, head. 

A large part of the hog is too fat to eat fresh, and 
that part has to be salted down and sold as salt pork^ 


As in the ca&t^mmti and mutton the ribs and loin are 
the best cuts^^H^se are marked 3 and 5 in the Figs. 8 
and 9. WhUpSady^for the table we know these cuts as 
pork chops and roast pork. 

The shoulder, marked 6 on the charts, is often used 
fresh for roasting and boiling. 

Ham comes from the leg; and bacon is pork which has 
been salted and smoked as well. The brisket, in the belly 
of the hog, is the meat used most often for this salting 

Salt pork is made from the flank, the head, the bris- 
ket. Any of the fat part of the hog can be salted down 
and sold as salt pork. 

Sausages are made from pork ; sometimes in combina- 
tion with beef or veal. It is very easy to put any left- 
over scraps into sausages ; the only way one can be sure 
that one is getting good meat is to have confidence in the 
sausage maker. 

How to Know Good Meat from Bad. 

Only by experience can the odor of bad meat be de- 
tected. No teacher can convey by words the difference 
T)etween a fresh and stale odor. 

Good beef is firm, fine-grained, bright red in color, 
moist, juicy. The fat is light straw color, the suet white, 
firm, dry and crumbly. 

Bad beef is coarse meat, flabby, dark in color. The 
fat is dark yellow. The suet oily and fibrous. 

Diseased pork has a dull appearance, with yellowish 
lumps through the fat and lean. 

Fresh pork has fat which is firm, clear, and white, and 
the lean meat is pink. 

The price of the different cuts is learned from daily 
experience, trying diflferent markets until you feel a confi- 


dence in your butcher. Never go to any market that is 
not clean. Leave any butcher that allows customer or 
employee to spit on the floor. 

When porterhouse steak sells for twenty-eight cents a 
pound, round steak should sell for about twenty cents, and 
the chuck steak in the cuts just back of the neck for six- 
teen cents. In buying the chuck ribs for ten cents you 
buy more than one-half bone. In the round, one-twelfth 
is waste, and in the expensive porterhouse cuts one-eighth. 
Of course, every girl knows that bone and fat are not 
really waste, but they are worth only seven cents a pound 
not twenty-five cents. It is well, therefore, to know just 
the proportion of twenty-five cent meat and of seven cent 
bone and fat that you are paying full price for. Never 
forget that when you buy expensive meat you get less 
nourishment for your money than in other food. Such 
foods as eggs, milk, peas, beans, fish, cheese, give you 
the nourishment at less cost. Remember that a cheap cut 
of meat cooked slowly has more flavor than an expensive 
cut cooked quickly. 

The best way to reduce the meat bill is to cut down the 
amount of meat. It is never necessary to have meat 
oftener than once a day. Other foods can be substituted. 
Meat also may be used in combination with vegetables and 
dough as in meat and vegetable pie; or in combination 
with cereal, as in baked rice and meat ; thus the flavor of 
the meat is extended through a larger amount of food 
than merely the meat itself. 

Another way to get a better value for our meat money 
is to buy intelligently, getting cuts that have flavor and 
little waste and not to pay so much for the tenderness of 
the meat. 

Depend on long cooking, and as has been said, use every 
scrap of fat and bone that is paid for. Meat is one of 


the most expensive items in the family food bill. It will 
pay to give much study as to how to reduce this steady 
drain on the income and still satisfy the family taste and 
give the necessary nourishment. 


When you think of buying fish, Friday, very likely, 
comes to your mind, but you can buy better fish and 
cheaper fish on other days than Friday, when the demand 
is less. Learn to appreciate the value of fish. It does 
not contain all the nutritive value of meat, but it is a good 
substitute. Buy fish from a fish dealer you can trust. 
If he cuts off the head, fins, etc., make him give them to 
you if you have paid for their weight. These fish trim- 
mings are good for chowder. 

Left-over fish can be made into a dozen good dishes, 
so it is more economical to buy a good-sized whole 
fish, and to make it last for two days, rather than to 
buy a small fish that is just enough ; there will be more 
meat to the amount of waste in the larger fish. If the 
fish is cleaned at the fish dealer's, watch to see that it is 
cleaned thoroughly. Above all, learn to tell fresh fish 
from stale. In a fresh fish the eyes are bright, the gills 
red, the flesh firm and without odor, the fins firm and 

In a stale fish the flesh is not firm, it has an odor, and 
after being cooked is watery rather than creamy, and is of 
a bluish appearance rather than white. To test a fish, put 
it in water ; like an egg, it will sink if it is fresh, and float 
if it is not. 

It is very dangerous to eat fish that is not perfectly 
fresh. Buy fish in their diflferent seasons, if you would 
have them fresh. Fish out of season is kept in cold 



Fish Seasons. 

January to June Shad 

September to March Oysters 

June to September Smelts 

May to September Mackerel 

May to October Bluefish 

All the year Cod, Haddock and Halibut 

A reliable fish dealer will tell you what fish is fresh 
and in season. Ask before buying. Don't buy frozen 
salmon and pay a high price, when you can buy fresh 
cod for less than half the price. Haddock is a good, 
cheap fish for frying ; it is firmer than cod. In buying a 
fish for boiling have the fish as firm as possible. 

Buying Vegetables and Fruit. 

Vegetables, like fish, should be bought when in season, 
for what we want is freshness. You can read book after 
book on the subject of vegetables, and the writers will 
tell you to " cook the vegetables the day they are picked." 
In our large cities it is hard always to buy these newly 
picked vegetables ; but try for freshness. 

Potatoes, onions, cabbage, beets, carrots, spinach, tur- 
nips, we have all the year. Corn — June to November ; 
cucumbers, peas, squash, string beans through the summer 
months ; asparagus, March to June. 

As you go to the vegetable market day after day, you 
will become as familiar with the different vegetable sea- 
sons as a country girl is with the times of the year in 
which the daisies, the violets and the wild roses come. 

Another thing that is an important part of buying vege- 
tables is to learn how much to buy. For example, peas 
in the pod, squash that boils down seemingly to nothing, 
are deceiving. The following list will be a guide, but ex- 
perience is the best teacher : 


Asparagus, i bunch will serve four people. 
Cabbage, a good, solid one, will serve eight people. 
Cauliflower will serve six people. 
Carrots, i small bunch will serve four people. 
Onions, i qt. will serve four to six people. 
Peas, I qt. will serve four people. 
String beans, i qt. will serve four people. 
Tomatoes, i qt, 5 to qt., will serve six people. 

Greens and salads should be crisp, and should have no 
appearance of decay or of being bruised or wilted. 

Cabbage and cauliflower should look solid and have 
no discoloration. Don't buy very large or very small 
vegetables ; there is much waste in the small ones, and the 
large ones have lost some of their best taste. 

A good pumpkin and a good winter squash will be dark 
in color, also heavy and hard. 

These are only a few hints; the rest every girl must 
learn by marketing, not hurriedly or in a spirit of indif- 
ference, but going to market just as she goes to school, to 
learn something. 

A business man would not think of buying goods until 
by feeling, looking and testing these goods in every way, 
he knew the value of what he was buying; and yet a 
woman will go to market and take anything the butcher 
or the grocer gives her. 

Above all, go to market yourself. Do not order by 


Division of Income. 

What is income? 

The dictionary says *' income is the money which comes 
in to a person as payment for labor or services, or as gain 
from business, land, or investment." 

Leisure and a sense of freedom in the home are de- 
pendent on income, plus the intelligence of the house- 
keeper. The income of an ordinary family is what is paid 
the father each week for his labor, or what he makes 
from his store or office ; and added to this, is such money 
as the mother or children may earn by their individual 

Sometimes money is invested, that is stocks or bonds 
or mortgages are bought, and from these interest comes 
in once or twice, or sometimes four, times a year; this 
interest is income. 

At times an income may be increased by renting rooms 
in the home to outside persons. All this money added 
together makes up the family income. 

Why is it necessary to divide one's income before 
spending it? Why must one plan how to spend it be- 
forehand? Because certain expenditures are more nec- 
essary than others. We divide the income so that we do 
not rob the absolutely necessary output and use the money 
for luxuries. What we call luxuries are things we can 
live and be happy without. 



Statistical experts have taken hundreds of family in- 
comes and have calculated what part or what percentage 
of these incomes should be spent for food, what per- 
centage for rent, what amount for clothes, etc. Restau- 
rants, stores and hotels are run in this way. Experi- 
ence has shown that the man or woman in charge of a 
restaurant will probably not succeed if he spends more 
than 43 per cent, of his income for food ; 28 per cent, for 
cooks and waitresses, or what is called labor; and ii>^ 
per cent, for rent and all other necessary expenses. The 
percentage must stay the same whether the restaurant 
makes little or much money ; that is, let us say that a man 
decides that he will pay out for expenses 82J4 per cent, 
of what comes in more and have a profit of 17J4 
per cent. If he takes in $100 a week, $82.50 will go to 
buy food, pay the cook and the other necessary charges. 
If he has a larger restaurant and takes in $1000 a week, he 
can have better food, more people to work for him but 
the percentage is still the same; he still should pay out 
about five-sixths of what he takes in. 

Now, we should run our homes in much the same way ; 
a good housekeeper is an executive officer, an account- 
ant. She knows sanitation and hygiene; is a household 
physician and a nurse, she should have a social sense so as 
to make her family and guests feel at ease and happy. 

As a family's income increases, the percentage for food, 
rent, fuel, the actual necessities of life, becomes smaller. 
That is, if a man gets $20 a week, he spends (or should 
spend) about $13.50 for food, rent and heat^ If he gets 
$25 a week, he spends about the same for these necessi- 
ties, but has more money for clothes, education, recrea- 
tion and health. The division of an income differs in dif- 
ferent places. Rents in large cities are twice as high as in 
small towns. Fuel in the country is less than in the 


city. Carfare is an important item of expense to a man 
in the suburbs. The division of income discussed in this 
chapter is that of the average city family living in an 
apartment or small house. 

There are wealthy people who do not bother to divide 
their income before spending it; but even rich people 
should make this division. Some of them put into their 
budget (that is, their calculations) a certain percentage 
which is to be given away. Many families fail to live 
well, not because they have not enough money coming in, 
but because they do not calculate before spending it how 
this income can be divided to the best advantage. 

It is usually the woman, the housewife, the mother in 
the home, who manages the expenditures; and the girls 
who study this book are the housewives of the future. 
An orderly mind in this matter of money and how to spend 
it, is what is lacking in nearly all homes. To have this 
clear sense of order in household management, several 
things are necessary : 

First. A woman must feel within herself the ability 
to do every kind of housework perfectly with her own 
hands. This gives a consciousness of power and does 
away with the feeling of confusion that often comes 
from facing tasks of which one is not the master. This 
power should belong to the woman with servants, as well 
as to one who does her &wn housework. A servant is 
an employee of the housekeeper, who is the employer. 
The agreement between them is a business contract. The 
servant sells so many hours of her time for work. These 
hours should be as definitely understood as the working 
day of any clerk or laborer. 

Second. Be a good buyer. Forty-three per cent, of 
the average small income goes out for food. Do not add 
to expense by demanding unnecessary deliveries. 


Third. Know food values, so that you will not spend 
25 per cent, for water and waste, and only 18 per cent, 
for nourishment. Make your money buy just as much 
as possible of the food that makes bone and tissue and 
good red blood. 

Fourth. She must make the most of the food pur- 
chased, bringing out all the flavor and assuring its digesti- 
bility. She will never waste any left-over food. 

Fifth. She must be an expert at sewing and mending 
and making over clothes. A woman living on a small 
income who cannot sew, will never clothe her family well 
on the allowed one-tenth of her income. She must darn 
the stockings when the holes are small. Sew on a button 
when it first comes off; buttons cost very little and take 
little time to sew on. She must be able to make children's 

Sixth. A simply furnished, orderly house is the ex- 
pression of a good housekeeper. When you visit a house 
where there is a place for everything and ever)rthing is 
in its place, you know at once that the housewife has a 
good business mind. 

There is one article of furniture that is almost a neces- 
sity if accounts are to be kept ; that is, a desk pr table for 
writing, and a drawer in which to keep papers. A kitchen 
table with a drawer, and with square legs, makes a 
good desk. Make* an alcohol stain by mixing wood alco- 
hol with Aniline stain until you have the desired color. 
If Aniline stain is too expensive take % turpentine, % 
linseed oil and a little drier ; to this add the required color 
in any dry stain. Stain the entire table with this. After 
it is thoroughly dry, rub with a soft cloth and wax 
with any floor wax or common beeswax. Make a 
rack for the back of the desk to hold bills, papers, etc., 
as seen in the picture on page 49. Have a tray to hold 


pens and pencils, a glass inkwell that can be washed 
and a large blotter. This desk, completely equipped, 
will make it easier to keep the family accounts ; no one is 
likely to keep household accounts well if the materials to 
work with are not on hand. Remember, no work is ac- 
complished without thought and labor. On the desk have 
a small card catalogue with all receipts ; not for cooking 
only but for the different methods of improving house- 

From now on we will imagine five people when we 
speak of a family: father, mother, and three children. 
Each family has its own standard of living. For in- 
stance, a family paying $15 a month for rent has dif- 
ferent food, different clothes, lives in a diflferent way 
from the family spending $100 a month for rent. Not un- " 
til the income is more than $2000 a year does the style of 
living change much; then the standard of living is dif- 
ferent in every department. In the household of small 
income, women work and the object is to buy the ne- 
cessities of life ; in the one of large income, it is possible to 
buy sufficient food to nourish thoroughly every member 
of the family ; to provide a shelter that gives each person 
enough room to sleep and eat and live comfortably, to 
buy clothes enough to keep the body warm ; to secure an 
education for the children beyond the compulsory age of 
fourteen ; and to have enough money over for recreation. 
For an income to be adequate there must be some money 
for recreation (perfect health is seldom possible without 
this contrast from work) and a little money to put away 
against possible sickness. If there is not this possibility 
of saving, the wage-earners worry, and worry is like 
poison; it saps one's strength. 

What is the lowest living wage for a family of five? 
What is the least on which a family can be healthy and 




keep out of debt? Different writers give different fig- 
ures ; $1040 a year, or $20 a week, is the lowest living 
income affording any comfort. So, in learning how to 
divide the money that a family spends, we will take this 

In studying division of income select either pads or en- 
velopes as your method. If the pad method is selected, 
use sheets like the sample given below. Have extra 
sheets to allow for mistakes. Mistakes will be made at 
first, and a girl will have to go over the work again and 

Weekly Expense Account. 
For tbs waek tnilai 



















■ xptnd by tll« 




Riclpot — 



SHinil |. ■■ 


With an income of not more than $1 loo a year, 43 per 
cent., or nearly one-half, should be spent for food; only 


20 per cent, for rent (so if the income is $20 a week the 
rent of the apartment should not be more than $17.33 
a month). Only 5 per cent, of the income should be 
spent for coal and gas, 10 per cent, for clothes, and so 
on. If you use the pad system — work out for yourself 
how the income should be divided. There should be 
fifty-two sheets in each pad, one for every week in the 
year. Each sheet is divided into columns giving the per- 
centage of the income allowed for each household ex- 
pense, and each column is divided into spaces for the days 
of the week. In the lower right-hand corner is shown 
how to reckon percentage. At the head of each column 
is a dollar mark. Reckon for yourself how much, with 
a certain income, should be spent for each item, and then 
see how nearly you have approached this at the end of the 

Besides the pad an account book should be always at 
hand. No matter where you go, take your account book 
with you (a penny blank book will do), and make an entry 
in it every time you spend money for carfare, marketing, 
clothes, rent, etc. Put down the amount you spend and 
what you spend it for. At the end of each day enter the 
total of each expenditure on your pad. For example 
here is an account for a day — say Monday : 

Bread $ .05 

Potatoes and fruit 20 

Gas (quarter meter) 25 

Shoes mended 50 

New pail 25 

Carrots 05 

Soup meat 10 

Sugar 05 

Milk 07 



Moving pictures $ .15 

Carfare 10 

Coal 20 

Month's rent 17-33 

That evening write in the rent column of your pad after 
Monday $4.00; for although you pay by the month, a 
monthly rent of $17.33 comes to $4.00 a week. Your 
food, on Monday, added together comes to $.52 ; gas and 
fuel $45; clothing (that would include the mending of 
shoes) $.50. Recreation (that takes in carfare and recre- 
ation) is $.25 The new pail for $.25 will go in the 
sundries column. 

After the entries have been made for the whole week, 
add all the expenditures together and see how far the 
amount expended exceeds what you allowed yourself. If 
it comes to more than it should, put the amount under 
deficit, and try to cut down expenses until the amount 
has been made up. 

Every girl who has the care of the house expenditures 
should realize the need of some system. 

If the envelope method of keeping accounts is selected, 
get stout manila envelopes for the purpose. There should 
be seven envelopes. At the top of one write " Rent," on 
another, " Food," then " Light and Fuel," " Clothing," 
" Insurance," " Recreation," " Extras." If other divisions 
are more convenient, they can be used ; these are merely 
suggestions. In each envelope put the amount of the 
week's wages that can be spent for that especial account, 
calculating on the same percentage basis that was used 
with the pads. When any member of the family takes 
money out of one of the envelopes, he or she must put in 
its place a slip of paper on which is written the amount 
taken out, the name of the person drawing it, and the item 



for which it is spent. At the end of the week there 
should be in each envelope either the money or the slip 
accounting for the money. On the outside of the en- 
velope, the expenses for each day may be entered to be 
added together at the end of the week. It the money in 
the envelope marked ** Clothels " is insufficient, you may 
have to borrow from the envelope marked " Food," but in 
that case enter the loan on a slip and pay back the 
" Food " envelope next week. 

When a woman knows how much money she can spend 
she will not spend more, if her house is run like a busi- 


Sensible Diet^ 

" Why do we need advice in regard to what we eat? 
Why should we not eat what we want when we want it, so 
long as we feel well ? The answer is that we are not sure 
that because we feel well to-day we shall continue to be 
well ten years hence when the result of our diet has had 
its effect on our heart, brain, liver or kidneys. 

" We know that the average person is not as strong 
and well as he ought to be, so that we have the right to 
consider whether there is not possible some improvement 
in our food, as there is certainly possible an improvement 
in many of our other daily habits. Wise men have been 
for some years testing the results of food, and they have 
found out how an improvement in health is possible. 
There are two ways of treating this subject : 
First. To prepare a daily list of foods, and to ask 
you to have faith enough to believe that they are what you 
ought to eat. 

" Second. To outline a few important principles in re- 
gard to food, and then to let you make up your own bill 
of fare. 

" In this chapter we shall try to make some of the prin- 
ciples clear. 

" The practical questions that confront the housewife 

*A part of this chapter is rewritten from a paper by Eugene 
Lyman Fisk, M.D., and read by him at a meeting of the Medical 
Society of the County of New York. 





are: What is the cheapest, best-tasting, most digestible 
food that will keep a family in the highest state of health? 
What are the most important food requirements ? What 
are the least important? 

" The most important foods for the human body are 
energy foods. These energy foods are called carbon- 
aceous foods. Just as coal, the simplest form of carbon, 
is fuel for a steam engine, so are the carbonaceous foods 
fuel for the human engine. Carbonaceous, or energy- 
giving foods are sugar, starches, and fats. The sugar 
and starches are called carbohydrates ; the fats are called 
hydrocarbons; but the single term carbonaceous covers 
all. It is well for us to get. familiar with these terms. 
For the average human body about six-tenths of the heat 
or fuel needed should come from the carbohydrates, 
namely, sugar, potatoes, bread, cereals, and vegetables. 
Three-tenths should come from hydrocarbons, namely, 
fats, butter, oils, milk or cream, and the fat of meat, 
the latter the least desirable. A person who exercises a 
good deal, or works very hard, needs more fuel food than 
one who does very little with his body. 

'* The least important foods are those which we take for 
the purpose of building up or repairing the body. These 
are the nitrogenous, or protein foods. We have seen that 
from energy-giving foods we should get six-tenths plus 
three-tenths of our needs. This leaves one-tenth, and 
that one-tenth should come from what are called proteins. 
Examples of these are the lean of meat, fish, all flesh 
foods, white of eggs, and cheese. Certain vegetables are 
also rich in protein, especially peas, beans, and lentils. 
There is protein also in nuts, cereals and bread. These 
latter foods contain both elements, heat and energy. 

" Now, after a skyscraper has been built, we do not 
keep piling brick and mortar and steel girders into it. A 


certain amount of wear occurs, and a limited amount of 
repair material is needed right along. So it is with the 
human body. The body having been built, these protein 
materials are needed in limited quantities for mainte- 
nance; not more than 5 per cent, is needed for growth. 
These proteins can also be used for energy, but they are 
an expensive source of energy; just as oak or mahogany 
wood is an expensive fuel to burn in the furnace. If the 
body takes in too much protein fuel, the intestines become 
poisoned. Careful experiments by many wise men in 
this country and in Europe have shown that we can have 
sound health and strength on about half the quantity of 
protein or meat foods that are generally eaten. Increased 
muscular work does not call for more meat, but for more 
energy food. ' More work — more meat ' is not true. 
It is true that a man doing hard outdoor exercise can 
burn up greater quantities of meat or protein food than 
a man working quietly in the house, but he may still 
poison his body, and the meat food is an expensive fuel 
from a financial as well as a health standpoint. The 
homemaker, for these reasons, should keep herself and 
her family from too much of this class of foods. There 
is less risk of injury from peas, beans, lentils, eggs, 
cheese, and nuts than from meat. Such foods are like- 
wise cheaper, so a goodly portion of the protein should be 
got from food other than meat. Meat makes an acid 
gas in the intestines, and does not stimulate them, and 
they are apt to become sluggish and not throw off the 
poison or waste. Meat, fish, or eggs once a day will 
keep one's body fairly safe. Many people keep in good 
health without any meat, but until we know more about 
it, it is well to keep meat in our dietary so long as it is 
used in small quantities. 

'* Other important elements in our foods are the fruit 



and vegetable acids and alkaline salts, and other in- 
organic material such as phosphorus and iron. These 
elements are not exactly foods, as they do not supply 
energy and are little needed for repairs, although they 
enter into the bone, teeth, and other tissues, and are 
needed for growth and to maintain a certain chemical 
balance in the blood and elsewhere. Lack of these ele- 
ments, especially lime, may cause serious disease. For 
this reason, we must eat in abundance fruit and green 
vegetables. These keep the kidneys active and the blood 

" As to arranging a dietary with the above to guide us, 
it is necessary to have at least a rough idea of the energy 
requirements of the body. This is measured in what are 
called calories. Calory means a definite, easily under- 
standable unit of measure. Just as a scuttle of coal will 
produce a certain amount of steam pressure, so will a defi- 
nite quantity of food produce a certain amount of heat or 
energy when burned in the body, — in other words, when 
digested and absorbed. The body is losing heat con- 
stantly, and this heat must be replaced or the body will 
grow cold and the internal activities will stop. 

" A woman weighing 155 pounds requires 2900 calories 
a day. The number of available calories in the various 
foods have been determined by scientific experiments. 

" Nuts are high in protein and calorific value and can be 
substituted for meat and other protein foods, but they 
should not be added to a meal already rich in protein, 
such as an ordinary Christmas or Thanksgiving dinner. 
Peanuts, or peanut butter, and apples, form a well-bal- 
anced ration that would supply the body's needs at small 
expense. Macaroni and cheese also forms a well-bal- 
anced ration of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Needless 


to say, foods must be made digestible by cooking, or their 
calorific value is lost. 

" It is not so hard to think in calories as one might im- 
agine. Take a dinner and analyze it, — Roast beef, 100 
calories, Bread 150, Butter 150, Rice Croquettes 128, 
Baked Potatoes 100, Bread Pudding 128, Sugar (two 
lumps) in coffee 100. Total 956, about one-third of the 
day's requirements in calories. This meal has too much 
protein, but the balance would be restored by lack of 
protein and more green vegetables and fruit at the other 
meals. An ordinary portion of these hearty foods aver- 
ages about 100 calories. 

" When one is working hard, the portions of bread, po- 
tatoes, butter, and rice can be increased and will easily 
raise the meal to the energy requirement, without the 
addition of a protein ration. If a man has worked hard 
and is hungry, help him to more potatoes and vegetables, 
or simple pudding, but do not increase the meat portions. 
Com bread and syrup will carry him far on a cold day, 
and if he works hard he will bum it up completely ; there 
will be no ashes, as in the case of meat or other protein. 

" The beacon lights I would hang up are as follows : 

" To keep you warm and give you energy for work, eat 
energy or fuel foods, potatoes, bread, cereals, corn bread, 
syrup, and other sugars. 

"To keep your muscles and organs in repair eat a 
limited and fixed amount of repair foods, meats, eggs, 
cheese, nuts, flesh foods, peas, beans and lentils. 

*' Do not increase the repair foods with increase in work 
or exposure to cold ; increase the fuel foods for further 

" Eat fruit every day. Canned f mits are good. 
Cooked fruit is often better than fresh fruit. 


" Eat green vegetables whenever you can get them. 
Thoroughly wash all raw foods. 

" Have plenty of bulky vegetables of low food value, 
like carrots, parsnips, spinach, turnip, squash and cab- 
bage to stimulate the bowels and give flavor to the diet 
and prevent over-nourishment. 

" Eat slowly and taste your food well, and it will slide 
down at the proper time. 

" Do not let any one bring a grouch or a cross feeling 
to the dinner table ; it will upset all the food values.*' 

The Day's Food for a man doing fairly hard muscular 

1/4 pounds of bread or i pound of oatmeal, corn meal, 
rice, etc. 

% cup of butter, oil, meat drippings. 

%. cup of sugar, or J^ cup of honey or syrup. 

1% pounds of fresh fruits and green vegetables. 

12 ounces of meat or meat substitutes ; that is, poultry, 
fish, eggs, cheese, dried peas, beans, lentils and 
nuts. — Department of Agriculture, 


Protein is that in food that repairs the waste. Just as 
our clothes wear out, and our houses and our furniture 
show wear, so our bodies slowly wear away and need new 
material to renew their loss. Protein food is needed in 
the case of children for growth. 


This means, the starch and the sugars in food. The 
value of these carbohydrate foods is to give heat and 
energy to our body. If we kept our body in repair by 
eating protein foods and gave it no carbohydrates or 
energy foods we would be as useless as a good stove with 





Granulated Sugar. 

no fire in it. Four-fifths of our food should be energy 
food, just as we spend little time and money repairing 
the stove but much time in putting in coal. 


These give body fuel or heat, and heat that can be stored 
away. So in cold countries or in cold weather, the body 
wants more fats than when the weather is warm. 


One-half of the weight of what we eat is water. 
Water is as necessary for the inside of our bodies as 
bathing is for the outside. Water helps us digest our 
food ; it helps carry off the waste matter or that par^ of 
the food that our bodies cannot use. Besides the water 
that is a part of food, every one should drink at least 
six glasses of water a day. 

Minerals. • 

The minerals in food purify the blood, and the body, 
especially bones and teeth, need these minerals. 


This is the part of food that is left to pass off after the 
body has taken the repair property, the energy and heat, 


the minerals, and all that the body needs from the food. 
This ash must not remain in the body to clog the circula- 
tion as clinkers and ashes clog the stove. 
A calory is a unit of heat energy. You don't eat 

Ash: 0.7- 




calories any more than you eat a pound. One eats food 
that supplies heat or calories to the body. 

The housekeeper must study the various foods and 
see how much protein, how much carbohydrates, how 
much water are in the foods that she has on her table or 
sees in the market every day. What should she buy and 
cook for a meal to get about % energy food and % repair 


The reason small children can live on milk and little 
else is because in milk we find every kind of food: 
protein, starch, fat, sugar, and water. Milk is called a 
complete food because it contains, more than any other 
food in the world, everything the baby needs. 




Cereals are the fruit or seeds of grasses. In all grasses 
there is laid up in the seed a storehouse of nourishment 

Water; iZi 



at: 2.0 

Ash: 1.0 

for the young plant while it is growing. It is this nour- 
ishing seed we eat when we eat oatmeal or other cereals. 
There is in cereals about 10 per cent, or 12 per cent, of 
protein, and the rest is starch, fat and water. When 
milk and sugar are eaten with cereal, any girl can see 
that she gets a great deal of food-value for the money 


Water: 10.6 

Protein: 12..2. 


—Fat: 17 

Ash: 18 

paid. About four cups of cereal will feed six per- 
sons for one meal and the cost is about twenty cents, in- 
cluding the milk and sugar eaten with it. 



Bread is made from flour. Flour can be made of wheat, 
rye, oats, or barley, but wheat is one of the most nutritious 
of the grains, and wheat flour is the most popular in this 
country from which to make bread. Bread is called the 
" staff of life " because it contains all the food elements 
the body needs, except almost no fat. Bread contains 

Fat: 1.3. 

Ash: 1.1 

wheat, milk, water, and sugar; also yeast, which makes 
it light and digestible. For a given sum one can obtain 
more food-value from bread than from any other food ; 
for it is % solid nourishment and only % water. There 
are no animal foods and few cooked vegetable foods of 
which this can be said. But no one would want to live on 
bread alone, as a child lives on milk ; one would have to 
eat four pounds of bread or five ordinary five-cent loaves 
to acquire enough energy to get through the day. 


Butter is eighty-five per cent, pure fat. We eat fats to 
give heat and energy to the body. 

Butter is an expensive fat. Oil and lard and crisco give 
us the heat at a smaller price. 



Fat:8 5.6^ Water.fl.O 


Proteins 1.0 


Eggs contain a great deal of protein and fat; one egg 
yields as much energy as half a glass of milk. But eggs 
are not a food you can serve all alone, any more than 
you serve meat with nothing else. Eight eggs are equal 
to one pound of meat, but you would n't feel like work- 
ing or playing even if you ate one pound of meat or 
eight eggs ; it would be too much protein for the system to 
take care of. If you serve eggs on toast you will get the 
needed carbohydrates. 

A potato is a root that grows under the ground. On 

Proteins 2.2 

Fat: 0.1 

Car b^yd rates: 



its surface are what we call " eyes." If a potato is buried 
these eyes send out shoots. Now, an ordinary root does 
not have these eyes, or buds, so the potato is really a 



thick underground stem. If you leave the potato in a 
dark, warm place, it will send out shoots exactly as it 
does underground. A potato is not good to eat after it 
has begun to sprout, because much of the nourishment 
has gone from the potato to feed the sprouts. 

It is now about three hundred years since the potato was 
introduced into this country. It came into Europe in 
about 1580 — that is, more than three hundred and thirty 
years ago ; but the people in Europe thought for a great 
many years that the potato was poisonous, and it was 
not until a* time when the crops were so bad that the peo- 
ple were almost starving and were obliged to eat the 
potato, that they realized their mistake. Since that time 
it has become, more and more, a popular article of 

If you cut a potato across with a sharp knife, and look 
at the cut surface, you will find three distinct layers : 

First. A thin, outer skin. This outer skin contains a 
poisonous substance called solanine, but the poison in the 
skin is destroyed by cooking. It is because of this poison 
in the skin of the potato that the water in which it is 
boiled must not be used for anything else but must be 
thrown away. This is not true of the water that other 
vegetables are cooked in, for vegetable water as a rule is 
very useful as a foundation for soups. You will find that 
a good housekeeper always keeps vegetable water for 

Second, Next to the skin is a broad layer which dis- 
colors when it is exposed to the light. If we allow this 
discoloration to take place it gives the potato a very un- 
pleasant taste. If you peel a potato and cannot at once 
boil it, see that it is kept in cold water until you are 
ready to put it into boiling water ; but do not let a potato 
soak in cold water unless it is absolutely necessary, be- 



cause while it is soaking it will be losing some of the good 
mineral salts which are in the middle layer and which are 
a part of the food value which we wish to get out of the 
potato. These minerals help to build up the tissues of the 
body. It has been found that we would die within a 
month if we did not get from our food these necessary 

Third. The flesh of the potato is the inner part. 



^ote.n:1.6 Carbc^ydrate^ 

at:0.5 22:0 





While the middle layer between the skin and the flesh 
gives us the mineral matter that we need, the center gives 
the starch which is the chief food-value in the potato. 
Starch is what we found so abundant in cereals, but in 
cereals we also found a great deal of protein ; in the potato 
we get the heat and energy from the starch, but very little 
of the protein tissue-building material. Therefore, po- 
tato alone is not a good diet. We must eat with the po- 
tato meat or eggs, or we must cook potatoes with a milk 


sauce. Then we get the needed protein from the meat, 
eggs, or milk and the starch from the potato. 

More than 76 per cent, of every potato is water. This 
water we have found is very necessary to our bodies, but 
it is not what we call food. You can, therefore, see that 
only 24 per cent, of a potato is really food, and all the rest 
is water. 


Fresh Vegetables. 

Most vegetables contain only a small amount of nutri- 
tive value. The ex- 
ceptions are peas, 
beans, and lentils. 
But although you may 
not get energy out of Waten 
the other vegetables, Protein: t.l 
you get what the body ^ 
needs in minerals. L^j„?rr 


h: 0.6 

. , hydrates: 

As you see m the cuts * 

there is a great deal of water in vegetables ; also there are 
mineral salts and vegetable acids. Our intestines need a 
certain amount of bulk in order that the proper action 
shall take place. Vegetables do much to give this re- 
quired bulk. 

Water. 84.6 


of fresh fruit 


There is not much 
nourishment in fruit. 
We eat it more for 
the sake of the blood 
and because we like 
the sweetness. From 
75 to 90 per cent. 



Foods and Their Values. 

Group i. — Foods depended on for mineral matters, vegetable 
acids, and body-regulating substances. 

Fruits : 
Apples, pears, etc. 

Oranges, lemons, etc. 

Vegetables : 
Salads — lettuce, celery, etc. 
Potherbs or "greens." 
Potatoes and root vegetables. 
Green peas, beans, etc. 
Tomatoes, squash, etc. 

Group 2. — Foods depended on for protein. 

Milk, skim milk, cheese, etc. 





Dried peas, beans, cowpeas, etc. 


Group 3. — Foods depended on for starch. 

Cereal grains, meals, flours, etc. 

Cereal breakfast foods. 



Macaroni and other pastes. 

Cakes, cookies, starchy pud- 
dings, etc. 

Potatoes and other starchy 

Group 4. — Foods depended on for sugar. 



Fruits preserved in sugar, jel- 
lies, and dried fruits. 
Sweet cakes and desserts. 

Group 5. — Foods depended on for fat. 

Butter and cream. 
Lard, suet, and other cooking 

Salt pork and bacon. 
Table and salad oils. 

— U. S. Department of Agriculture. 




There are certain rules in connection with food and 
cooking that must be known by heart before one is 
ready to begin to do the actual work of cooking. 

Good Things to Remember. 

Personal appearance and cleanliness. Be clean in body 
and in dress. 

Wear a dress of wash material. 

Always wear an apron. 

Cover the hair with a cap, or if not see that no hairs or 
curls are loose and untidy. 

Have a towel pinned at the belt to wipe your hands on. 

Never " run out and buy " just before a meal. This is 
an expensive way and it is a sign of disorderly house- 

Market only once a day for the three meals. Do this 
marketing in the morning. 

Never leave food uncovered when not in use. Keep 
milk in a tightly covered bottle; the bacteria in the air 
sours milk. 

To keep milk overnight without ice, scald it, then cool 
and cover tightly. 

Cover butter when not in use, as butter absorbs odors. 
If you put a melon in the ice-box with uncovered butter 
the butter will taste of the melon. 



Cooked food, especially meat and fish, will keep better 
than fresh food. 

Bread and cake do not need to be kept in a cold place, 
but they must be kept in air-tight tins or earthen jars. 

Olive oil is injured by freezing; do not keep it in the 
ice-box excepting in very hot weather. 

Never put hot food in the ice-box. 

Do not waste the space of an ice-box or window-box 
by using it for food that does not need the cold to keep 
it fresh. Keep the ice-box for milk, eggs, butter, vege- 
tables, fruit, meat and leftover, cooked food. 

In cooking a meal, everything must be hot and ready to 
serve at the same time. 

Never begin to cook until the cooking table has on it all 
you need to work with. 

Rules for a Cooking Table. 

Pull table away from the wall. 

Cover with white paper or enamel cloth. 

Place on the table all pots and pans, knives, forks, 
spoons, and working dishes that will be required. 

Get out all needed cooking materials. 

See that the kettle on the stove is filled with fresh water 
for boiling. 

See that the fire is raked down, ashes out, coals hot, and 
the damper and check closed and draft open. 

Have cooking receipts in plain sight. 

Now you are ready to combine materials and to apply 

Useful Weights and Measures. 

32 tbsp. in a pound of butter 
2 cups in a pound of butter 
5-cent loaf of bread cuts into 18 pieces 


4 cups of flour to i pound 
2 cups of sugar to i pound 
2% cups dry beans to i pound 
2% cups brown sugar to i pound 
2% cups oatmeal to i poimd 
^2% cups com meal to i pound 
1% cups rice to I pound 
4% cups coffee to i pound 

2 cups chopped meat to i pound 

3 tsp. in I tbsp. 

1 6 tbsp. in I cup 
2 cups farina in one package 
2 cups farina in one pound 
I pint of rice in i pound 

Table of Proportions. 

I cup liquid to 3 cups flour for bread 
I cup liquid to 2 cups flour for muffins 

1 cup liquid to i cup flour for batters 

2 tsp. soda to I pint sour milk 

1 tsp. soda to I cup molasses 
J4 tsp. salt to 4 cups custard 

2 tsp. salt to 4 cups water 

^ tsp. salt to I cup white sauce 
% tsp. pepper to i cup white sauce 
J^ pint or I cup is 8 ounces of milk 
32 ounces in i qt. of milk 
2 tbls. in one ounce. 

Cooking in General. 

There are four reasons for cooking food : 

1. To bring out new flavors. 

2. To please our taste. 

3. To make food more digestible. 



4. To destroy harmful microbes. 

Cooking consists in applying heat to raw food. There 
are many methods of cooking; the most common ways 

Boiling, Cooking food in boiling water, the food being 
covered by the water. 

Stewing, Simmering or slowly boiling. 

Broiling. Cooking food directly over a fire or in front 
of a fire. 

Roasting. Cooking meats, or fish, in an oven, allow- 
ing the juices to be drawn out into the roasting pan, 
and then basting, or moistening, the roast with these 

Frying, Cooking food in hot fat. 

Baking, Cooking in an oven by heated air. 

Frying is a very common method of cooking, because it 
is the easiest and the quickest. It is the least healthful . 
method. In frying, the food absorbs the hot fat, and hot 
fat is very irritating to the stomach, unless it has been sub- 
jected to long and slow cooking, as in the case of baked 
cakes, cookies, muffins, etc. Even with these it is bet- 
ter, before eating, to allow the fat in them to cool. A 
muffin is more digestible cold than fresh from the oven. 
The reason for this is that fat which has been heated and 
then cooled is more granular, the water having been 
driven off in steam; then the fat becomes brittle and is 
more easily broken up in the stomach. 

Baking is a healthful way of cooking food. In baking, 
the heat of the oven expands the air or gas in the food, 
the water in it turns to steam ; while a part of this water 
evaporates a part remains in the food. It is the steam 
in the food and the expansion of the gases that work the 
physical changes in the raw materials that have been 
mixed together. 


Sample Menus. 

For a Cooking Class. 

All receipts for dishes suggested in the following menus 
are in the back of this book. These receipts take it for 
granted that when the terms teaspoon and tablespoon, or 
" tsp." and " tbsp." are used, level teaspoon and level 
tablespoon shall be understood. 

No. I. 

Breakfast of Cocoa, Cereal, Bread and Butter. 

Why are these valuable foods ? 

Cocoa is simple to make, easy to digest, tastes good and 
is nourishing. It takes the place of tea or coffee. Tea 
and coffee are stimulants, never good for boys or girls. 
They affect the nerves. Only a very stupid girl, who does 
not value health, will take into her system food that 
injures her body. 

In a cup of cocoa we get : 
Milk, Cocoa, Sugar. 

Milk. You would have to eat two eggs, or half a pound 
of potatoes, or nearly a quarter of a pound of round steak, 
to get as much strength as you will get from a cup of 

Sugar, Helps the taste, but it also gives the body heat 
and energy. 

Cocoa, Gives the flavor and contains a very little pro- 

Receipt for Cocoa is on page 287. 

Cereals, or grains, are simply the seeds of certain 
grasses that are used for food. Cereals contain woody 
fiber, and so must be cooked a long time. They also con- 
tain much starch and some protein. 



To know how to cook cereals is very important, because 
there are few foods where we find as much real nourish- 
ment for the money. 

Time-Table for Cooking Cereals 

Amt. Water Salt Time 

Cereal Cups Cups tsp. min. 

Rolled Oats i 2^ i 40 

Pettijohn's i 2 i 40 

Cream of Wheat i 4 i/4 40 

Wheatena i 4 i>^ 30 

Rice I 6 2 30 

H. O I 2 I 30 

Hominy (fine) . . i 4 2 1 i hour 

Cornmeal i 4 2 ] 2 hours 

Oatmeal (coarse) i 3^4 ij4 3 hours 

Things to Remember About Cooking Cereals. 

1. Cereals should not be eaten unless they are thor- 
oughly cooked. 

2. Have the cereal stiff enough to be chewed. If too 
soft it is swallowed without being chewed and is, there- 
fore, not easily digested. Infant cereal food is strained. 

3. It is a good rule to cook cereals twice as long as di- 
rected on the package. 

Suggestions for Serving Cereals. 

1. Berries, apple sauce, sliced peaches, or sliced bananas 
can be served in the same saucer as the cereal, and this 
makes a very appetizing dish. 

2. Figs or dates, cut in small pieces, may be stirred into 
cooked farina or mush before serving. If eaten with 
cream and sugar, this dish contains enough nourishment 
for an entire meal. 



Cereals can be divided into three classes : 

Raw cereals, such as old-fashioned oatmeal, cornmeal, 
etc. ( These need long cooking. ) 

Partially cooked, such as Cream of Wheat, H. O., 
Quaker Oats, etc. (These need less cooking.) 

Prepared cereals, such as Shredded Wheat, Force, etc. 
(These require no cooking.) 

The only difference in the cooking of cereals is the 
amoimt of time required in the boiling and the amount of 
water used. The water should be boiling and salted when 
the cereal is added. Cook for five minutes directly over 
the fire, and stir lightly with a fork until all is thor- 
oughly mixed. Then cook in a double boiler or in a small 
saucepan placed over a larger saucepan, the larger one 
containing boiling water (this to prevent the cereal from 
burning) . While cooking, stir occasionally from the bot- 
tom with a fork. 

As the water underneath boils away, more should be 
added; also, if the cereal absorbs the water too rapidly, 
add more water. 

Bread and Butter. 

Bread. Three-fifths of a loaf of bread is solid nour- 
ishment. Bread contains a large amount of carbohy- 
drates, a small amount of protein, but very little fat. 
When we eat butter (which is about 85 per cent, pure 
fat) with bread, any girl can see what a well-balanced, 
nourishing food bread and butter is. 

How to go to Work. 

To prepare a breakfast of cocoa, H. O., and bread and 

Have receipts either clearly in your mind or in plain 


Put fresh cold water in kettle to boil. 

Wipe off kitchen table and cover with white paper or 
enamel cloth. 

Put the following on the kitchen table: cocoa, sugar, 
milk, H. O., salt, bread, utensil plate, measuring cup, 
knife, teaspoon, tablespoon, saucepan, double boiler, bread 
knife, egg-beater. Place cereal dish on back of stove to 
get warm. Fill cocoa jug with hot water. 

As soon as water is boiling, start cereal. 

While cereal is cooking, make cocoa. 

When both are ready to serve, place on stove where 
they can simmer but not boil. 

Cut bread in even, thin slices and put on bread plate. 

Take butter from ice-box the last moment, cut in even 
squares (unless it has been made into butter balls), and 
serve on one plate. 

Now pour hot water from cocoa jug and fill with hot 

Fill cereal dish with hot cereal. 

All is now ready to serve — cocoa, cereal, bread, butter. 

Sample Meal. 

No. 2. 

Cream Toast, with or without Cheese. Baked Apple. 

Receipt for Milk Toast on page 340. 

Receipt for Baked Apple on page 358. 

Toast. Ordinary white bread is improved in flavor 
and is more digestible when it is toasted. Second-day 
bread, that is, bread a little stale, is better for toasting. 

Milk has all the necessary ingredients required by 
the body. It is not however a perfect food for a grown 
person. A man or woman cannot live on milk alone, as 
a baby does. We would have to drink eight glasses of 


milk to get enough nourishment, and that would be too 
bulky for the stomach to take care of. 

Common flour is wheat reduced to a powder by grind- 
ing. Only by cooking is it valuable as a food. Flour has 
in it what is called gluten. Gluten is a protein, and it is 
the gluten in flour that makes it possible to make bread. 
When this gluten mixes with water and gas, it blows up 
the mass we call bread like a sponge. 

So in milk toast we get bread toasted (thus made more 
digestible) ; milk, with its high nutritive value ; flour with 
its fuel value ; lastly butter, which gives fats to the body. 
Fats give more than twice as much heat as carbohydrates. 
When you add cheese, as in receipt on page 340, you 
greatly increase the nourishment in your meal, for cheese 
has all the concentrated food value of milk. There is as 
much nutritive value in one pound of cheese as in three 
pounds of beef. 

Baked Apples, These do not contain much nourish- 
ment excepting the energy from the sugar. Cooked fruit 
loses in food value but gains in digestibility. For baking 
select smooth, sound apples. Wash them and follow re- 
ceipt on page 358. 

Be sure, when you cook fruit, to preserve all the juice ; 
you will lose the best part of the fruit if you allow this 
to be lost. 

How to Go to Work. 

Collect and put the following articles on the kitchen 
table: bread, milk, butter, cheese, pepper, salt, apples, 
sugar, cinnamon, sauce-pan, measuring cup, utensil plate, 
teaspoon, tablespoon, knife, grater, pan for apples. 

See that fire is in good condition with oven hot. 

Place dish for toast on back of stove to heat. 

Follow receipt for baking apples. 

• COOKING 159 

While these are baking, make cream sauce for toast and 
let it simmer on back of stove while you make the toast. 

When apples are baked put on serving dish. 

Butter the toast, put in hot dish and pour over it the 
sauce. The last moment add cheese and serve at once. 

Sample Meal. 

No. 3. 

Fish Chowder, page 295 — Crackers 
Dried Apricots or Fresh Berries, page 360. 

These receipts will show you that on the kitchen table 
you must have fish, potatoes, onions, milk, salt pork, salt, 
pepper ; also apricots, sugar for cooking fruit, and neces- 
sary cooking utensils. 

Fish chowder is a very hearty dish. One and a half 
pounds of codfish is equal in nutritive value to one pound 
of lean beef. The milk, as you know, has high nutritive 
value. The potatoes will contribute starch and bulk, and 
the mineral in the potato will help digestion and purify 
the blood. The onion is used as seasoning on account of 
the strong oil quality. It adds almost no nourishment to 
the chowder. The salt pork is made from the fat part of 
the pig. Turn to page 120 and you will see how the fat 
from the back and belly of the pig is salted down. The 
fat adds to the taste of the chowder and gives heat to the 
body. After eating a hearty chowder you will want 
something fresh and light. Fresh berries would be the 
most agreeable, or as a good substitute apricots cooked 
according to the receipt on page 360 and served cold. 

How to Go to Work. 

First put apricots (which have soaked over night) on to 

Place soup dish on back of stove to heat. 



Now make chowder according to receipt. 

As soon as apricots are soft, place one side to cool. 

After chowder is cooked and eaten, apricots will be cool. 

Sample Meal. 

No. 4. 

Cornmeal served as Polenta, with Lettuce and Celery 

Cornmeal is Indian com ground fine, and has every ad- 
vantage as a food. It is cheap, because it is quick and 
easy to raise; it has great nutritive value, only 10.8 per 
cent, is water while over 89 per cent, gives energy and 
fat and repair matter to the body. Cornmeal may be 
served in many ways : as a mush, as polenta (which is an 
Italian dish), as a pudding or boiled and fried. 

It is well to serve such vegetables as lettuce and celery 
with the cornmeal in order to get the water and the min- 
eral matter that is lacking in the heavier dish. We 
crave a light, cool dish like a salad after as hearty a dish 
as cornmeal. The oil in the salad dressing gives addi- 
tional heat value and the cheese served with the cornmeal 
gives all the nutritive value of milk with no loss in water. 

Receipt for polenta on page 366. 

Receipt for salads on page 328. 

How to Go to Work. 

Place on the kitchen table all material and all utensils 
necessary for cooking corn meal. 

Fill kettle with fresh water. 

As soon as the water boils start com meal cooking ac- 
cording to receipt. 

While com meal is boiling, take from the ice-box the 
lettuce and celery. Wash and put back in cool place. 


Make French salad dressing, and leave this also in the 
ice-box or cold window box. 

Do not put greens and salad dressing together until the 
last moment after polenta, or corn meal dish, is ready to 

Sample Meal. 

No. 5. 

Pea Soup Crackers 

Lettuce and Tomatoes with Mayonnaise dressing. 

Receipt for pea soup on page 296. 

Receipt for Mayonnaise dressing on page 328. 

A pound of dried peas from which pea soup is made 
costs eight cents, and there is as much protein in a pound 
of peas as in one pound of the edible part of most meats. 
Dried peas give the body a large amount of repair ma- 
terial, or protein. The salt pork contributes the needed 
fat, and the crackers eaten with the soup will supply the 
starch food. In the salad the lettuce gives minerals while 
the tomato adds an acid flavor that is pleasing to the 
taste. In the salad dressing one gets the nutritive value 
of the egg and the heat value of the oil. 

How to Go to Work. 

Think far enough ahead to soak the peas over night in 
cold water. 

The first thing in the morning drain and cook peas as 
directed in receipt. 

When soup is nearly ready, place on the kitchen table 
oil, vinegar, pepper, mustard, salt, lettuce, tomato, bowl 
and spoon for making salad. Then make dressing accord- 
ing to the receipt. 

Wash lettuce. Wash, peel and slice tomatoes. Ar- 
range in salad dish, with lettuce leaves around the edge 



and tomatoes in the center. 

Put soup dish on back of stove to get warm. 

When soup is finished strain it into hot dish, and eat 
with crackers. 

After soup is eaten put dressing on tomatoes and let- 
tuce and serve on salad plates, or small tea plates. 



A Suggestion for Plan of Class Work. 

Taking it for granted that a class is to have a course of 
twenty lessons. In every other lesson have some baking. 
Divide this work between : 

Baked Meats. 

Baked Puddings. 

Baked Cheese and Vegetable dishes. 

Muffins, Com Bread and Baking Powder Biscuit. 

Cookies and Cake. 

If possible, more lessons should be given on this subject. 

In baking, there are physical changes which come from 
a blending of all the materials. No substance is lost, but 
some of the substances are changed. For example, in a 
cake, the sugar is still sugar, the starch is still starch, and 
the fat is still all there; but the materials have been 
blended together, and as a result of this blending new flav- 
ors develop. A proportion of the starch and sugar in the 
crust will change to what is called caramel. (In the back 
of this book is a receipt for caramel sauce, and any girl 
can see for herself how the flavor of the sugar is changed 
by cooking.) (Receipt on page 351.) 

In the back of this book are receipts for baking cake, 
muffins, corn bread and biscuits, for preparing baked 
meats, baked puddings and baked vegetable and cheese 

The first thing to be sure of in baking is that you per- 



f ectly understand your oven, and that it is in the best con- 
dition for baking. A freshly made fire is apt to give a 
hotter oven than one that has been burning for many 
hours ; but since a fresh fire is by no means always pos- 
sible, have your fire as free from clinkers and ashes 
as you can, and have the coals red. 

For a hot oven, close the damper, open the draft, and 
be sure that the check is closed tight. 

There are two ways to test an oven: 

1. Place a piece of clean white paper in the oven and 
time with the clock. If the paper burns in five minutes, 
the oven is a " hot oven." If the paper takes eight min- 
utes to brown, the oven is a " moderate oven." 

2. An easier test is to hold the hand in the oven and 
count. Your hand will feel very hot in six counts in a 
" hot oven." You can count eight before it will feel very 
hot in a " moderate oven." 

Keep the inside of the oven clean; do not think that 
because no one sees it you can neglect this necessary 

Doughs or batters, containing a large proportion of 
eggs, should be cooked in a moderate oven to prevent 
toughening. Any girl can see why this is so if she will 
boil an egg rapidly and then boil one slowly by putting 
it in cold water that slowly comes to a boil ; the first egg 
will be tough and the last creamy and tender. 

In baking doughs, the larger the mass, the lower must 
be the temperature of the oven. This is so that the heat 
may have time to penetrate to the middle of the dough, 
and expand the gas and harden the albumen and gluten 
before the crust forms around it. If one is baking a 
cake, for instance, and the crust forms before expansion 
has taken place, the cake will be heavy. 

An oven which has in it food giving off much moisture. 

. BAKING i6s 

or water vapor — com cake, for example — requires 
great heat. If, at one time, there are several dishes in 
the oven all throwing off steam, the oven should be hot- 
ter than if those dishes were cooked separately. 

No brown crust is formed in baking until the water 
from the surface has nearly all evaporated. 

Remember that every time you open the oven door to 
look at what is baking, you allow cold air to enter the 
oven. On the other hand, don't think for one moment 
that when the dough is in the oven you can forget it. 
It is your responsibility every minute until it is thor- 
oughly cooked. 

If the cake is put on the lower shelf of the oven, the 
greater heat will reach it from the bottom, and the cake 
will cook slowly (giving the gases time to expand). 
This is better than if the cake were first put on the top 
shelf, where it would heat too quickly making a hard crust 
before the dough is heated through.. 

All of these points in regard to the oven have to be 
known before the mixing and the baking begins. After 
the mixture is put together, as little time as possible 
should pass before it is in the oven and the door is shut. 
There is no time to study the oven after- the batter is 

Getting Ready for Baking. 

Cover the kitchen table with paper. 

Collect all the utensils and materials that will be used. 

Before any baking is begun be sure that teaspoon, table- 
spoon, measuring cup, utensil plate, materials to be mixed, 
bowls for mixing, flour sifter, baking pans, even paper 
for buttering pans, are on the table. Every good cook 
will use forethought in getting ready so that after she 
has once begun to combine the food materials she will 


not have to leave the table until the batter is ready for 
the oven. 

There are good cooks and bad cooks, and a poor cook 
often works as many hours as a good one. The thing 
that makes a good cook is a thorough interest in cook- 
ing. Cookery is an art; and to succeed in it, you must, 
while working, give it your whole attention, your com- 
mon sense, your muscle, and your taste. When a girl 
is a trained cook, she can use her own initiative. 


Doughs are made light and porous in the following 

1. When baking-powder unites with moisture, the gas 
in the baking-powder is set free. To test this, put dry 
baking-powder in a spoon, drop a little water on it, and 
at once you will see bubbles of gas. It is this gas in 
dough that makes it light. 

2. Gas is produced by yeast. Yeasts are very minute 
plants. These tiny plants, when they come in contact 
with sugar, so break it up as to produce from it carbonic 
acid gas and alcohol. This process is called fermenta- 
tion. The use of yeast is simply to manufacture the gas 
from the sugar that is in the dough. 

3. Doughs are also made light by beaten eggs. The 
whites of eggs, especially, can be expanded by beating air 
into them. Then, when the egg is added to the dough, 
the air is also added. Batter without eggs can be beaten 
so hard that air is beaten into the batter. When eggs 
are used as leavening agents, the whites are beaten sepa- 
rately, as they will expand much more when they are 
separate from the yolks. The whites are folded into the 
mixture last of all, and a good cook will be careful to 
break as few air cells as possible. 


4. Soda in combination with an acid such as sour milk 
or molasses liberates a gas that makes the dough light. 

5. The expansion of water into steam, as the heat 
enters the dough in the oven, also lightens the dough. 

AH material used for leavening must be kept cold, as 
cold air expands more on being heated than warm air. 

General Rules for Mixing Dough and Batter. 

Two cups of flour require about four teaspoons of bak- 
ing powder. But batter and muffin mixtures require 
more baking powder to the amount of flour than soft 

When eggs are added, one teaspoon of baking powder 
can be omitted for each egg. 

Fats are added to a dough or batter mixture to make it 
brittle. This is called shortening, and greatly enriches 
the dough. Fat should be cold when added to pastry, but 
melted when mixed with batter. 

Food that is served cold needs more sweetening than 
food that is to be eaten hot; warm food always tastes 
sweeter than cold. 

To Test any Batter. 

A cake or com bread or any soft batter is ready to be 
taken from the oven when a clean toothpick (do not use a 
straw from the dirty broom) can be inserted and no batter 
sticks to the toothpick. 

Time-Table for Baking or Roasting Meats. 

Beef — 15 minutes to the pound 
Lamb — 20 minutes to the pound. 
Pork — one-half hour to the pound. 
Veal — one-half hour to the pound. 
Chicken — 20 minutes to the pound. 
Turkey — 20 minutes to the pound. 


Time-Table for Baking. 

Fish — 15 minutes to the pound. 
Bread — 45 to 60 minutes. 
Cookies — about 10 minutes. 
Thin Cake — 15 to 30 minutes. 
Loaf Cake — 40 to 60 minutes. 
Indian Pudding — 3 hours or more. 
Bread Pudding — 45 minutes. 
Pies -^ 30 to 45 minutes. 
Scalloped Dishes — 20 to 30 minutes. 
Baked Beans — 5 to 7 hours. 

Some Reasons Why Baking Is Not a Success. 

Carelessness in watching the fire. Coal is put on at the 
wrong time. 

Failure to test the oven. 

Slowness in putting the batter in the oven at once after 

Failure to have the leavening agents cold. 

Failure to move the cake from the bottom to the top 
shelf at just the right time. 

Failure to test batter with a toothpick before it is over- 

Greasing baking pan with butter instead of crisco or 

Sample Lesson in Baking Meat. 

First Baking Lesson 

Roast Mutton with Mint Sauce, Brown Potatoes 

Mutton is the same as lamb, only it is cut from a sheep 
one year or more old. Mutton is a good food for many 
reasons. Sheep are especially free from disease, and the 
meat is seldom unfit for food. Mutton has a smaller per- 
centage of water than lamb, more fat and protein. There- 


fore, there is more tissue-forming substance and energy 
value in mutton than in lamb. Mutton is a digestible food, 
and practically all of the nutritive part is taken up and 
assimilated by the body. 

Mutton is cheaper than beef, pound for pound, and 
there is less waste, because a sheep can be cut so that all 
parts are used. 

When mutton comes from the market it should be 
wiped thoroughly with a damp cloth, and all parts that 
have the least unpleasant odor cut off. As to cuts of 
mutton, see Chapter on Marketing, page no. 

Beside baking there are different ways of cooking mut- 

Soups and Broths. In making mutton broth we want to 
get as much of the flavor and nutritive material of the 
meat into the water as possible. To do this, cut the meat 
in small pieces so that a great deal of the surface of the 
meat comes in contact with the water. Don't let the water 
at any time boil hard. If the meat is fresh, do not remove 
the scum that rises to the top, for there is nourishment 
in that scum. 

There is not much nourishment in mutton broth, for it is 
in the meat that is taken out that the nourishment lies, 
only gelatin and mineral matter are left in the water. 
No one can grow or gain enough energy to work on 
with mutton broth as the only food during a day. 

Then there is Mutton Juice. This is juice from the 
mutton pressed out, or squeezed out with a lemon 
squeezer, without using any water as in boiling. 

Mutton Stews, page 312. 

Minced Mutton, page 311. 

Boiled Mutton — this is the same process as in soup, 
only the mutton is boiled whole and not cut up. 


Boiled Mutton with Vegetables. 

Boiled Mutton with Caper Sauce. 

Many more ways to cook mutton can be found by send- 
ing for " Mutton Bulletin " No. 526, Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington. 

Roast Mutton. When the word roasting was first 
used it meant cooking before an open fire. Now it means 
the same as baking. 

For this baking the oven should be very hot at first so 
as to keep the juices from escaping. Then reduce the heat 
after the meat is covered with a crust. As the fat drips 
from the mutton into the dish, take a spoon and pour it 
over the meat every fifteen minutes or so. 

Roasted Leg of Mutton with potatoes makes a good 
dinner dish. 

Second Baking Lesson 

Corned Beef Hash 
Baked Rice Pudding 

In cooking a meal of Corned Beef Hash and Baked Rice 
Pudding, the pudding must be mixed and put into the 
oven first. (Receipt on page 348.) While this is baking, 
chop and cook the hash. Place platter for hash on back 
of stove to get warm before beginning to cook. 

In making Corned Beef Hash use one cup corned beef 
to two cups potatoes. 

Do not put the beef through a grinder but chop it by 
hand. Only in this way can all the gristle be gotten out. 
To make a good hash, a cook must take time : " fuss over 
it," taste it, season it carefully. It takes more skill to 
make a good hash than to roast beef. Follow receipt on 
page 312. This meal lacks mineral matter, so add fresh 


Sample MeaL 

Third Baking Lesson 
Baked Macaroni and Cheese — Spinach 

Macaroni is made of flour and water, molded or formed 
into tubes. After the molding it is dried or slightly 

Macaroni is more than 75 per cent starch. 

Macaroni is always combined with cheese, milk, tomato 
or some other food before it is eaten. 

Cheese is more than 33 per cent, fat and more than 2$ 
per cent, protein. 

Butter is about 85 per cent. fat. 

Milk, as you have found, has high nutritive value, so if 
you follow the receipt on page 324 you will see that Baked 
Macaroni is a dish that in nutritive value can take 
the place of meat for dinner. With this hearty dish 
you will crave a green vegetable composed largely of 

Spinach has Uttle food value, but it is refreshing and it 
is very healthy. Invalids and little children can eat 
spinach. Spinach is seldom perfectly cooked. It needs 
two things to make it good — labor and butter. It takes 
time, water and patience to wash it clean. In the place 
of butter drippings from beef or chicken may be used. 
For children, spinach when young and fresh is often 
cooked without water so as to keep all of the salts. 
Cooked in this way, it is also more of a laxative. Page 

While the macaroni is baking and the spinach boiling, it 

would be well to study vegetables as a whole, and the time 

needed to cook the diflferent vegetables. 

Cooking Vegetables. 
In choosing vegetables in summer, be very careful to 



select fresh ones. Summer vegetables should be cooked 
as soon after gathering as possible. Vegetables purchased 
from push-carts must be carefully examined to see if they 
are fresh, and very carefully washed before cooking. If 
the peas or beans you buy seem old, it is better to make 
them into soup than to serve them as vegetables. The 
subject of vegetables is a big subject, for there are dried 
and canned vegetables to consider as well as fresh ones. 

Every girl should learn to can vegetables so as to use 
them in winter when fresh vegetables are dear. Certain 
vegetables are especially good for sick people and certain 
ones are beneficial for children. 

Vegetables give the body minerals and water and neces- 
sary bulk; peas, beans and lentils give a great deal of 

All vegetables should be cooked in boiling salted water. 
Some of the common summer vegetables are: 

Time for Cooking 

Lima Beans i to 1% hours 

String Beans i to 3 hours 

Beets, young 45 minutes 

Beets, old 3 to 4 hours 

Cabbage 35 to 60 minutes 

Cauliflower 20 to 25 minutes 

Celery .' Used raw 

Com 20 minutes 

Lettuce Used raw 

Onions 45 to 60 minutes 

Spinach 25 to 30 minutes 

Tomatoes Cooked or raw 

Peas 20 to 60 minutes 

A small scrubbing brush, which may be bought for five 
cents, with the word " vegetable " marked on the back, 


and a small pointed vegetable knife are a necessary part 
of preparing and cooking vegetables. 

Sample Meal. 

Fourth Baking Lesson 

Omelet and Corn Bread 

In preparing the cooking table for making omelet and 
com bread, place on the table Indian meal, flour, milk, 
eggs, butter, sugar, baking powder, pepper and salt; a 
mixing bowl, measuring cup, spoons, knife, utensil plate, 
drippings or crisco to grease pan for com bread. 

Have a good fire in the stove. Place on the back of 
the stove to heat, a platter for omelet and plates. 

First make the corn bread after receipt on page 335. 

While this is baking, get eggs beaten, seasoned and 
ready for omelet. Do not put the egg into the frying pan 
until corn bread is finished, cut and ready to eat. Then 
make and serve eggs according to receipt on page 304. 

Sample Meal. 

Fifth Baking Lesson 
Cake — Plain, and with Frosting 

Before beginning to cook, read over carefully what is 
said about doughs, batters and baking on page 164. 

There are many cake receipts, but in nearly every cake 
certain things are to be done. 

Dry ingredients, that is, all dry material like flour, 
sugar, salt, baking powder, are mixed together and sifted 
before uniting them with the wet material. 

Cake should be beaten hard to get the air in. 

After mixing and beating, the cake should be put at once 
into the oven before it has a chance to fall. 


Whether the cake turns out well or not is largely de- 
pendent on whether the oven is good or not. 

Feather cake, on page 354, is a simple cake to make for 
a first cake lesson. 

Cake may be left plain or with frosting. 

Uncooked Frosting. 

White Si i egg. 

Confectioner's sugar. 

2 tbsp. thin cream. 

4 tbsp. cocoa or i square chocolate. 

Beat egg and to this add cream and enough sugar to 
make a thick frosting. Melt chocolate and add to white 
mixture while still hot. 

Make up five other sample meals which include baking 


Different Ways of Preserving Fruits. 

Fruits are best when served ripe and in season, but the 
fruit season is a short one and when winter comes 
some fruits are difficult to get and are too expensive 
for the majority of people to buy. We do well to store 
fruits for winter during the summer when they are cheap. 

There are different ways of preserving fruits in season 
so that they may be used out of season. They may be 
dried in ovens or in the sun, so that all water is evapo- 
rated. Dried fruits, such as apples, peaches, apricots, 
dates, raisins, when boxed and sealed, keep an indefinite 
length of time. They can be purchased by the pound 
at any grocery store. Other ways of keeping fruits are 
to preserve them in a heavy sugar solution: to reduce 
them to jelly, and still another way is canning. 

Food Value of Fruit. 

Most fruits have but little nutritive value, the average 
amount of water being 85 per cent., but our systems need 
this water. We need also the mineral properties of fruit, 
and the odor and flavor act as a stimulant to the appetite 
and as an aid to digestion. 

There are a few fruits that have a high nutritive 
value, and these are dried fruits : dates, figs, prunes and 
raisins. Raisins have the highest per cent of nourish- 
ment, and prunes the next highest. 

The dried date is a staple article of diet in Egypt. 



Half a pound of dates and a half a pint of milk is 
food enough for a meal for a man. 

Half a pound of dried figs is more nourishing than 
half a pound of bread. A pint of milk and six ounces of 
figs are a hearty meal. 

Prunes are dried plums; they not only have a high 
value as food, but have a laxative quality for which 
reason they are given to children as a means of regulat- 
ing the bowels. 

Fruits are dried in great sheet-iron stoves, which look 
like tall towers. These stoves have a number of wire- 
netting shelves, one on top of the other. The fresh- 
cut fruit is laid on these shelves. A fire is built at the 
bottom of the stove, and the fruit is bathed in steam 
vapor until all moisture has passed out of it in the form 
of steam, leaving the fruit dry. In this dried condition 
it is packed into boxes and sealed. 

The receipts for cooking dried fruits are on page 359. 

Cooked fruit is more digestive than raw fruit. It 
takes the stomach more than three hours to digest two raw 
apples, while a cooked apple will digest very quickly. 
The acid in raw fruit, if at all unripe, causes irritation to 
the intestines. Diarrhea and colic are often the result 
of eating unripe fruit. 


In canned fruits the flavor of the fruit is preserved 
better than in any other way, since less sugar is used 
in canning than in preserving. Therefore, this means of 
preservation gives us the best substitute for fresh fruit. 
Canning fruit is simply putting sterilized fruit into steril- 
ized jars, and making the jars air-tight and water-tight. 
Sugar may or may not be used. When we use the word 
sterilize, we mean the killing of all bacterial life by means 


of heat. To sterilize our jars we simply boil them until 
all possible bacterial life has disappeared. 

Buying in quantity is the cheapest way to buy fruits. 
Much better value can be obtained for your money by 
buying by the crate or the basket rather than by the 
pound. Do not buy from stands or from carts, as it is 
very necessary to have fresh fruit for all canning and pre- 
serving. Fruits for canning should be firm, fresh, and 
ripe, but never overripe, as overripe fruit ferments, even 
though it has been boiled and put up in air-tight jars. 

After buying the fruit, the sugar, and as many one- 
quart jars as will hold the fruit, the next thing to 
do. is to prepare the table, as we would in any cooking- 
lesson. Surely every girl who reads this chapter in the 
homemaking course has learned the lesson, never begin 
to cook until everything she needs is ready on the kitchen 

Draw the table into the middle of the kitchen, away 
from the wall; for the preservation of the wall and for 
the greater convenience of the cooks. Cover the table 
with a white paper or enamel cloth. Collect all materials, 
fruit, sugar, jars, and cooking utensils. These utensils 
are : pan, in which to sterilize the jars ; kettle for cooking 
the fruit (this should be of agate or enamel, never of 
tin) ; wooden or silver spoon for filling the jars and for 
stirring the fruit; a working plate; a cloth for standing 
jars on and wiping them ; silver knife ; funnel for filling 
jars with small fruit (the larger fruit is dropped into the 
jars with the spoon) ; scales ; measuring-cup ; brush for 
cleaning the fruit ; paring-knife ; quart jars, and covers ; 
rubber rings; colander for washing berries and draining 
the water from the fruit. An excess of water will make 
the fruit tasteless. 

Go carefully over the receipt and notice for yourself 



what utensils and what materials will be needed in this 
canning lesson. Not until these are on the kitchen table, 
every girl ready in a large apron, perfectly clean hands, 
and the kitchen fire burning at its best, is it time to be- 
gin work. 

In canning we use glass jars with tight-fitting covers 
and rubber rings. The jars and covers may be used for 
years, but the rings should never be used more than once, 
as the rubber becomes porous, and will let in the air if 
used a second time. 

To Test Jars. 

Wash the jar, the cover, and the rubber ring in soapy 
water, and rinse. Fill the jar with clear water, put on 
cover and rubber ring, and turn it upside down, allow- 
ing it to stand in this position for some little time. If 
the water comes from under the cover, the jar is not 
water-tight, and it is useless to sterilize it, as the best 
sterilization cannot make it fit to use. Remember it is 
by keeping all air out of the fruit from the time it is 
canned until the time it is used, that prevents fermenta- 

After testing the jar in this way and finding it is not 
tight, it can sometimes be made air-tight by putting on 
a different rubber ring or a different cover, but never 
use a jar until it will stand this water test. After you 
have proved your jars air-tight, sterilize them. 

To Sterilize Jars. 

Wash the jars, and fill with cold water. Set them in a 
pan of cold water, the water covering the jar. Put 
this pan with jars on the fire and let the water slowly 
come to the boiling point. Boil for at least five minutes. 
While the jars are being sterilized, prepare the fruit for 


fhem, for they should be filled with the fruit while still 

The covers should stand in the boiling water at least 
five minutes, but the rubber rings should be dipped in and 
taken out at once. Never allow the rubber to boil in 
the hot water, as water softens it. 

General Rules for Canning Fruit. 

All fruit should be washed in cold water, never in hot 
or warm water. If berries are being canned, hull them 
after washing. Cherries may or may not be stoned. 
Pears are cut in half, pared, and the core taken out. 
Peaches are pared, and the stones taken out. Apples are 
pared, cut in quarters, and the core taken out. Plums 
are skinned by scalding them in boiling water. The stone 
of the plum need not be takeii out for canning. Grapes 
are skinned for jelly and marmalade, but are not skinned 
for canning. Rhubarb is peeled before canning. 

While thus preparing the fruit, the syrup can be cook- 
ing on the stove. As has been said, sugar does not neces- 
sarily have to be used, but it helps to keep the fruit from 
fermenting. For all fruits, such as pliuns, cherries, and 
berries, make a syrup of one cup of sugar and three cups 
of water. This amount of syrup is sufficient for each jar 
of fruit. For sweeter fruits, such as peaches and pears, 
use three-fourths of a cup of sugar and three cups of 
water for each jar. While the syrup is boiling, put the 
prepared fruit into the syrup carefully, so as not to break 
it. Cook until the fruit is tender. To know if the fruit 
is tender, try it with a fork. Be sure that the fruit is well 
heated through, or it will spoil after being put into the 

Now that the jars and fruit are sterilized by boiling, 
the time has come to fill the jars with the fruit. 


To Fill the Jars. 

Remove sterilized jars from the water and place on a 
plate covered with a hot, wet cloth, so as to avoid all 
danger of the jar breaking. 

Fill the jar with the boiling fruit until it overflows. If 
it is large fruit, it should be put in with a spoon; if 
small fruit, put it in through a funnel. Run the blade 
of a silver knife around the outside of the fruit after 
it Is in the jar; dip the rubber in the boiling water for a 
moment, and put in place around the top of the jar; now 
take the cover from the boiling water and screw on 

Turn the whole thing upside down and let it stand on 
its head to cool. Be sure that the cover is on so tight 
that no juice leaks from the can. Wipe off your jar with 
a damp cloth, and put it in a cool place until you are 
ready to use the fruit. 

If fruit ferments it will be for one of three reasons: 
the jar and the fruit were not perfectly sterilized ; the jar 
was not air-tight ; or the fruit was overripe. 


The dictionary says that marmalade " is a pulpy con- 
sistence made from various fruits." Marmalade is the 
pulp and the juice of fruit with sugar, while jelly is the 
juice and sugar without the pulp. 

Preserves, marmalades, and jams are virtually the 
same, being the preservation of fruit in a strong sugar 
solution; but marmalade is usually made from the more 
acid and bitter fruits. Marmalade is less apt to spoil 
than canned fruits, because of the quantity of sugar 

It is economy to put up marmalade when fruits are 
in season, for the expense at that time is comparatively 


slight. Later this preserve can be used on bread in 
place of butter; in sandwiches, and if served with meat 
adds much to a dinner. 
Receipts for marmalade are on page 362. 


Jellies are made of cooked fruit-juice and sugar, there 
being an equal proportion of juice to the sugar. 

Not all fruits can be made into jelly. There is a cer- 
tain quality in fruit called pectose, and only when this is 
present will the fruit jellify. In overripe fruit this 
quality is lost. If the fruit and juice cook too long 
the power to make the juice firm is gone. Consequently, 
if you fail to obtain a firm jelly, it can be explained by 
one of these reasons: the fruit was too ripe or it was 
cooked too long. Sometimes, when fruits are picked 
directly after a rain, the juice will not harden into jelly. 
The best fruits for jelly are grapes, quinces, crab-apples, 
and currants. 


These should be prepared in the same way that jars 
are prepared for canning: sterilized by placing in cold 
water and allowing this water to come to a boil; and 
boiling at least five minutes. After the jelly is poured 
into the glass, cover with paraffin. Paraffin may be 
bought by the cake, melted, and poured over the jelly. 
If the glass has not a tin cover, a piece of paper, cut 
round, and placed over the top, and pasted down over the 
edge of the glass, with mucilage, will do as well. 


A jelly-bag 1^ necessary to strain the juice of the fruit 
from the pulp. To make this bag, take cheese-cloth, fold 



double, then fold two opposite comers together; round 
the pointed end, and sew, making it the shape of a cornu- 
copia. Bind the top with tape, and sew on two or three 
loops of tape by which to hang it. 
Jelly receipts on page 363. 



Clothes for the Young Baby. 

A baby does not need a great many expensive, useless 
things, but only enough clothes to keep it warm, fresh and 

The clothes should be made by hand rather than pur- 
chased ready-made, for clothes made by hand give better 
value for the money expended, and will last longer. 
Inexpensive material may be used, but, of course, goods 
of better quality wear longer, if they can be afforded. A 
baby's clothes should be extremely simple, never over- 
trimmed, and ready when the infant is bom. 
Necessities for a Baby. 

From two to four dozen diapers of bird's-eye diaper- 

Four flannel bands. 

Three wool shirts, 

Two flannel skirts. 

Two white skirts (these are not necessary at first), 

Three to five dresses, ^ 

Three night-slips, 

One cap and coat, 

Two flannel or knitted blankets, 

Three pairs long white stockings, for winter. 

Soft lawn or nainsook is the best fabric for slips and 
skirts. The cloth should be washed before being made 



up to protect the tender skin of the baby from chemicals 
that may have been used in bleaching the material. 


It will be necessary to buy paper patterns; the cost 
of patterns is only ten cents each. 

Diaper. Eighteen inches wide, one yard makes one 
iliaper; twenty inches wide, ten yards make nine diapers; 
twenty-four inches wide, four yards make three diapers. 
Never use rubber diapers. 

Band. Three-quarters of a yard of flannel for four 
bands. A small baby wears a flannel or knitted band as 
a safeguard against rupture, or as a support to its little 
body, and for warmth. Bands should be made of fine, 
white flannel. 

Bands should be cut, and the goods left with raw edges, 
so that the bands will stretch, or they may be torn straight 
across the goods. Make them six inches wide and eight- 


een inches long. These should be worn only two months. 
Shirts. The baby should have at least three all-wool or 
silk-and-wool shirts. 

Flannel Skirt 

Merino shirts are the best. Do not get the first size, 
as the baby outgrows them too soon. The second size 
will fit for a long time. 

Flannel skirts. These should be made to hang from 
th^ shoulders, and not with a band to pin around the 
abdomen. A white skirt is not necessary for a young 
baby. The flannel skirt should be twenty-seven inches 
long ; if a white skirt is used make it of cambric or nain- 

Dress. Twenty-seven inches wide goods take two and 
and five-eighths yards ; thirty-six inches wide goods take 
two yards. Dress when finished should be twenty-seven 
inches long. Neck should be fastened with tape, not 



Nightgown or night-slip. Twenty-seven inch wide ma- 
terial, two and one-eighths yards. Open in front, 

A pinning-blanket is not necessary or advisable ; it pre- 
vents the baby from using its feet freely. 



It is necessary, in winter especially, to protect a baby 
from draft; a wrapper such as shown on page 184, made 
of Scotch flannel or outing flannel, is a useful garment 
for this purpose. A paper pattern can be bought for ten 
cents. Tie the wrapper at the neck with ribbon to match 
the flannel. 

Flannel Sacque 

The flannel sacque is worn for the same reason as the 
wrapper, to protect the baby from draft. The sacque is so 
simple that no pattern is necessary. Cut the flannel 

in a circle making a hole in the middle for the neck and 
an opening in the front and at the sides as in the picture. 
Bind it all around with binding ribbon or work a blanket 


stitch around the entire edge. Tie together i and i, 2 
and 2, 3 and 3, 4 and 4. 

Topics to be Discussed While Sewing. 

Lessons on the care of a baby are difficult lessons for 
grown-up people and still more difficult for girls to learn, 
for there are many facts that must be learned by heart. 
It is easy to have near us in the kitchen the many re- 
ceipts for cooking, and if our memory fails, the cook-book 
is always at hand; but it is not possible to carry about 
directions on how to give a tiny, irresponsible child its 
best chance for health and happiness. The rules that lead 
to this every good mother knows by heart : the right thing 
to do at the right time. The care of little children is a 
more serious occupation than any other. An infant is 
absolutely helpless, and responsibility for its very life falls 
on the girl or the mother who has the baby in charge. 
While a group of girls are sewing clothes for a make- 
believe baby, a great many important facts about real 
babies may be learned. 

If the baby in your house is sick, the first thing for the 
girl or the mother to do is to see a doctor or a nurse and 
find out what the trouble is. Do not take the advice 
of neighbors; they mean well, but the advice is often 

Before proceeding farther on this subject of children, 
a tribute should be paid to the big sisters who give much 
care to the tiny members of the family. This responsi- 
bility means constant sacrifice of playtime, and it means 
endless patience on the part of these older sisters. But 
this position of " minding the baby " is taken almost al- 
ways with a spirit of love and unselfishness — a spirit that 
is one of the most beautiful things in the crowded parts 
of our city life. 


It needs more than love and an unselfish spirit to care 
for a. baby. Every girl must have knowledge, and shq 
must learn to control herself and to control the infant 
in her charge. It is not enough to know that the baby 
should not eat candy or suck a nipple; one should see 
that he does n't. Every girl who takes the responsibility 
of a little brother or sister must see that rules are obeyed. 
Let every girl and woman from this day on make this firm 
resolution : ** As I know the laws of life, I will do all in 
my power to keep them and to enforce them." This 
strengthening of the will and this power of control are 
more important than any other education in the world. 

Let every one who studies this book drop forever the 
idea that the important subjects of life are known after 
once being studied. The remark is constantly made by 
school-girls, ** I studied that," or ** I did that last term ; 
I don't see why I need to go over it again." Those 
who are studying this lesson for the first time, at fifty 
will be still studying the subject, " How to take care of 
the baby." 


Diapers should be washed every time they are soiled, 
and dried, if possible, in the sun and open air. Never 
dry a diaper and use it again without washing. Keep 
diapers in covered pails until washed; and really soiled 
diapers should be washed out at once. 

Very few clothes are needed by the baby in hot 
weather; a diaper and a gauze shirt are often enough. 
More harm is done by putting too many clothes on a baby 
than by not putting on enough. It is because babies are 
loved so much and seem so frail to grown-up people and 
to big sisters that the fear of their taking cold is exag- 
gerated; and so the baby is wrapped up until its body is 



too warm, and the child finds it hard to use its limbs com- 
fortably. The body of a tiny child is warmer than the 
body of older people, and it feels the heat more. The 
skin wants to breathe, and the air wants a chance to 
enter the pores of the skin. It is the fresh air that gives 
life, and yet some babies are wrapped up as if fresh 
air were a poison and must be kept away from the little 

Perfect circulation is necessary if a baby is to have 
rich blood ; good air must enter the lungs ; and the cloth- 
ing be kept loose. Fresh air cannot enter the lungs of any 
child that has a shawl wrapped around its head or has 
so many tight clothes on its body that its lungs cannot 

The only way a baby exercises is by screaming, kick- 
ing, and squirming. Tight clothes prevent this. 

The baby's clothes should be thin, light, and soft, arid 
always laundered without starch. They should hang 
from the shoulders. 

For a baby to sleep well, its clothes should be loose. 
Remember, if an infant is too warm, its sleep will be rest- 

A child suffers from wet clothes, but cannot tell of its 
discomfort. It is for the one in charge of the baby to 
use such thoughtfulness and kindness that the clothes 
will be changed as soon as they become wet or soiled. 

Before the Birth of the Baby. 

The care of a baby should be started before it is bom, 
and there are many things that even schoolgirls can do to 
help their mothers. Of all the babies who die under one 
year of age, thirty-five per cent, or over one-third, die 
before they are a month old. Many of these babies die 
because at birth they are weak and sickly, and this is due 


largely to the fact that the mother uses up too much 
strength during the months before the baby is bom. 
Every girl must see that one way to help save the life 
of her baby brother or sister is to help the mother as 
much as possible before the baby is born. 

In the first place, more respect should be shown to all 
women at this time. Very often a woman is irritable 
when she is carrying her child. This is because she is 
uncomfortable, and her whole nature feels the discom- 
forts and hardships of life more than at other times. 
It is little enough for the family to do to show great 
patience toward the mother at this time. Another way 
a girl can help is to spare her mother all the steps and all 
the housework possible, never allowing her to carry or 
lift any heavy weight, taking from her as much of the 
cooking, bed-making, cleaning, and care of the house as is 

In many cases the schoolgirls of a family hear more 
about such institutions as settlements, milk stations, and 
hospitals than does the mother. It is, therefore, the 
daughter who should see that her mother has the address 
of a good trained nurse or a good hospital or the best 
doctor. This will relieve the mind of the woman, and 
will be of great benefit to the tiny baby. 

Other causes which weaken the mother before the 
birth of the child are improper food, irregular meals, and 
lack of rest and sleep. This reduces her strength, and she 
has not the proper strength to give the baby who is de- 
pending upon her. 

Every child has a right to be bom healthy. Life is a 
hard battle, even if we have all the strength that is our 
due, but it is unfair, if it can be avoided, to start a baby 
with a weak body. .If every schoolgirl realizes the neces- 
sity that a woman who is bearing a child should be in the 



best physical, mental, and spiritual condition possible, it 
will do a great deal to make better men and women in the 
coming generation. Heredity is what a baby gets from 
its father and its mother, and environment is the condition 
under which the child lives and grows to be a man or a 
woman. A great deal has been said about heredity, that 
a baby could not help being this or that because it in- 
herited the tendency from its father or mother ; but now 
we know that conditions over which we have control — 
have much to do with the life of a child. 

The Nursery. 

The nursery is the room in which the baby sleeps. 
This room should be free from all unnecessary articles 
that collect dust and interfere with the circulation of the 
air. It is the mother of the house who, in most cases, 
decides where the children, including the baby, shall 
sleep, it is she who furnishes the rooms; consequently, 
schoolgirls have little power to carry out individual ideas 
except by suggestion. Every girl has a right to her own 
ideas and taste, and the chance will come when she 
can furnish a nursery her way, but in the meantime she 
can help, and often advise her mother. 

The baby's room should be the room that the sun shines 
in, if there is such a room in the house. Grown people 
spend much time at the shop, the factory, the school, or 
in the street. The baby spends at least three-fourths of 
every day at home, and it needs the sun to help it grow — 
surely as much as a flower does. A crib for the baby 
should have only such trimming as can be easily taken off 
and washed. Even though schoolgirls cannot regulate 
many things about their parents' house, they often can 
detect close air in a room when the mother does not 
notice it. This is because the mother does not get the 


contrast her girls get, who constantly run in and out 
from the open air. When the air in the baby's room 
seems impure, open the window wide for a few moments, 
taking the baby into another room while you thus change 
the air of the nursery. 

Do not dry the diapers in the room where the baby is 
sleeping ; don't cook food there ; and it is better not to have 
the gas burning at night in the nursery. 

The baby does not want too much heat in the room 
any more than it wants an over amoimt of clothes. 
Thermometers do not cost much ; get one, and keep it in 
the nursery. Never let the thermometer go above seventy 
degrees. If it rises above that, open the window a little 
from the top and bottom, and let the overheated air out 
and the fresh air in. 

Have the room the baby lives in a bright, pretty room, 
but not fussy. The baby and its equipment need all the 
space possible. Nothing is more beautiful than a nursery 
which in every detail shows that it belongs to a little 
child. The bed in this nursery should be a crib or a single 
bed. A baby should sleep alone, never with a grown 

Nursing a Baby. 

Girls may say that this is their mother's business, but 
for three reasons it is everybody's business to learn 
about this subject. First, because it makes every one 
anxious to help a nursing mother so that she can better 
perform this great obligation to her child. It makes 
every one respect her and show this respect in every pos- 
sible way. And, third, this subject is so important that 
girls should begin to realize it when they are young and 
when there is time and opportunity to study about these 



These are a few of the reasons given by the Board of 
Health in New York City on the subject " Why a Mother 
should nurse her Baby." 

1. One death out of every five which occur at all ages 
is that of a baby under one year of age, and the greatest 
number of these deaths is among bottle-fed babies. 

2. In the city of New York during 1912, 3392 babies 
under one year of age died from bowel trouble, and nine 
out of every ten of these babies were bottle-fed. 

3. Mother's milk is the only safe food for a baby dur- 
ing the first six months of its life. 

4. Cow's milk or prepared food can never equal breast 
milk as the proper food for the baby. 

5. Breast fed babies rarely have bowel trouble. Bottle- 
fed babies rarely escape it, particularly during warm 

6. Babies fed on breast milk show the best develop- 
ment ; the teeth will appear at the proper time ; the mus- 
cles and bones will be stronger, and walking will not be 

7. A breast-fed baby is not so likely to have bronchitis 
or croup, and if attacked by any disease, has a much 
better chance of living than a bottle-fed baby. 

8. Pneumonia in babies is fatal more often in bottle- 
fed babies than in breast-fed babies. 

There is a great deal that mothers should know about 
nursing their babies that schoolgirls must learn later, but 
one fact every girl must know by heart and teach to as 
many women as she can. A baby must be nursed only at 
regular intervals and at the same time each day. A 
doctor, a nurse, or a milk station attendant will tell a 
mother how far apart these intervals should be, and then, 
no matter how hard the baby cries, no food should be 


given between times. Remember, when little girls or 
women give children what they cry for because they cry 
it is not kindness but selfishness, and is cruel to the 

Children's Diseases. 

A little knowledge as to the signs of illness is neces- 
sary for girls so that they can act in time to prevent 
serious sickness. If you have not sufficient knowledge to 
know when the baby is sick, you will not know when to 
send for the doctor. 

The common diseases of children are the following: 

Colic, This can be known usually by the sign of pain, 
hard crying, and drawing up of the feet. 

If this happens, get the feet warm, and put a hot 
flannel on the stomach and rub the stomach gently. No 
young girl should give medicine. If the pain continues, 
call at once on some one with experience. 

Convulsions, You can recognize a convulsion by a 
choking sound, spasmodical breathing, stiffness of the 
body. The eyes are staring, the hands clenched, and the 
mouth firmly shut. 

Send for the nearest doctor and while you are waiting 
for him, put the baby in a hot bath, and, if this does not 
relieve him, soak the feet in mustard water. 

Constipation. This is the responsibility of the older 
members of the family toward the little children. Small 
children cannot realize the importance of having their 
bowels move every day and at the same time each day. 
It is one of the duties of big people to train little children 
to form this habit of regularity. Begin this training when 
the baby is only two months old. Let no girl ever lose 
sight of the fact that constipation is a fearful danger ; the 


system becomes clogged and finally poisoned, often for no 
larger reason than that children forget, or are in too much 
of a hurry, to care for and respect their bodies. 

Diarrhea. Too frequent movements of the bowels, oc- 
casioned usually from indigestion. The baby is sick when 
it vomits or has diarrhea; it is seriously ill when it has 
several loose, green passages a day. Stop all food, give 
cool boiled water, and take the baby to a doctor. Older 
children often have diarrhea from, buying and eating 
what the little stomach cannot digest. Giving a penny to 
a child to keep it quiet is a cruel act to the child ; there 
is no kindness in it. If the child in your care has 
diarrhea, there are two things to do: stop all food and 
keep him quiet. If he is not better in five or six hours, 
ask a doctor's advice. 

Earache. If the baby screams as if with pain, puts 
his hand to his head, and cries when he is touched, the 
trouble is often earache. No girl knows enough to treat 
the ear. Do not even drop oil or hot water in the ear. 
Put a hot water-bag or a warmed piece of flannel against 
the ear ; but if this does not stop the cries, carry the baby 
to a doctor or to the nearest nurse. Nurses do not 
treat diseases, but they can advise as to the very best place 
to go and how to get there. 

Croup. This usually comes to a child at night when it 
is difficult to get the doctor or nurse at once. Croup 
begins with a dry, hard cough, and the baby shows diffi- 
culty in breathing. While the father, or some one, is 
getting dressed to go for the doctor, the big sister can do 
the following things : start the tea-kettle boiling and let it 
boil in the room with the baby, for steam helps it to 
breathe. Also, hot cloths put on the throat may relieve 
the child. The room should be kept warm. This is all a 
girl can do except to keep her head and help the family 


to keep calm, and get the advice of a doctor or nurse, 
not a neighbor's advice. 

Measles begin with sneezing, watery eyes and nose, a 
cough, and an eruption appearing on the face and neck. 
Under these conditions keep the baby warm, out of all 
drafts, and away from all other children, if there is any 
eruption, until you have seen a doctor; as so many dis- 
eases are contagious. 

Whooping-cough. This also is very contagious. It 
begins like an ordinary cold, growing more severe as time 
goes on, until the child begins to " whoop." It is not a 
dangerous disease, except with tiny babies, but it means 
suffering and terrible discomfort.. Children are apt to 
vomit when they cough, and this requires much labor and 
much patience on the part of big sisters. 

Mumps. A swelling beneath the ear and a sore throat 
indicate mumps. Take the child to a doctor if you fear 
mumps. It sometimes proves very serious, always pain- 

If a child shows symptoms of serious illness, put him to 
bed at once. Keep all other children out of the room 
until the doctor comes. And do not wait until to-morrow 
to send for the nurse or doctor. Send at once. 

Don't get irritated at a baby if he seems cross. He 
may be ill. Look for the following signs: a hot, dry 
skin means fever. Vomiting means the baby is trying to 
get rid of something that is not digesting. If he won't 
nurse or take his bottle, there surely is something wrong. 
If he has a cough, find out at once if it is serious. 

A cross and fretful baby is usually a sick baby. A well 
baby sleeps most of the time and is happy when he is 

Many children's sicknesses and deaths can be prevented 
if grown people know what to do, and do it. 



How to Bathe a Baby. 

A baby can have a tub bath after it is ten days old. It 
should not be bathed for one hour after feedings and if 
the room is cold in the morning, bathe the baby just be- 
fore he is put to bed for the night. 

Get everything ready for the bath before undressing 
the baby. See that the room is warm. 

Place the baby on a pillow on a table or on the lap — 
first protecting the pillow with rubber or oilcloth. If the 
room is cold, have the table near the stove, or have the 
baby on a blanket over a hot-water bottle. 

Have clean clothes on a chair near the stove. 

Have plenty of hot water, Castile soap, soft towels, and 
a piece of cheese-cloth (not a sponge), several cotton 
swabs, and a glass of clean water to wash out the baby's 

In taking off the clothes, unfasten them and pull them 
all down over the feet. In undressing a child have a 
separate place for wet diapers. 

Cover the baby with a blanket, then lay a towel over 
the blanket. 

Shake soap in water lightly and wash the face. Never 
use cold water ; it frightens a baby. 

Pay special attention to the corners of eyes and ears. 

Wash the ears carefully, and in back of the ears. If 
dirt is found, apply white vaseline to back of ears with 
cotton swabs, then wash. Twist wash-cloth very finely, 
and wash inside of the ears. 

Rinse the cloth and wash the face all over, then dry 

Then wash the head, soaping well, and dry very care- 
fully and quickly. 

If there are crusts on the head, use vaseline to soften 


Wash the mouth by wrapping absorbent cotton around 
the finger, dip the finger in a glass of clean water, clean 
under the tongue, the roof of the mouth, and around the 

Then clean the nostrils with a twist of the wash-cloth. 

Be sure the water is warm. It should feel warm 
to the elbow. As it cools quickly, have the water 
warmer than necessary for the bath when you first draw 

Soap the body before putting the baby in the basin. 
Do this very gently to avoid frightening the child. 

Wash it all over very carefully and thoroughly in the 

Take the baby in one hand and the towel in the other 
and put the baby back on the pillow. 

Never lift the baby by its arms. Put one hand under 
the head and the other hand under the back. 

The navel must be kept clean. If necessary, use vase- 

Dry the baby by patting it with the towel ; do not rub 
it. Give the child a bath every day, and more than one 
a day can be given in hot weather. This is to cool the 
body, more than for cleansing purposes. 

Wash the baby, when soiled, every time you change it^ 
diapers. Use no soap, only warm water, and dry thor- 
oughly to prevent chafing. Chafing comes always from 

Dressing a Baby. 

Keep in mind that no clothing must be tight, and that 
no common pins may be used. Put all clothes on over 
the feet, not over the head. 

Have clothes warmed before putting on. Damp 
clothes might cost the baby its life. 


First put on the shirt, then push it up out of the way, 
so that the band can be put on. 

The belly-band is rolled before it is put on, and then 
unrolled as it is put around the body. Pin just at the 
side of the middle in front. Never use cheap safety-pins. 
Stitch the band on or use reliable pins. Be careful when 
pinning not to stick the baby. Put pins one inch apart. 
Have the band tight enough to support the abdomen and 
protect the navel, but not tight enough to cause ridges in 
the flesh. 

Have a blanket always over the baby's legs while dress- 
ing it; pull skirt down over the band. 

Then put on a diaper. Fold the diaper to fit the baby, 
always diagonally. For older babies, two diapers should 
be used, and put on in the same way. 

Pin the shirt to the diaper, but do not have the diaper 
too tight; it must be comfortable. 

Put the stockings on next and pin them to the diaper. 


At night all the baby needs is a diaper, belly-band, and 
nightgown, flannel in winter and nainsook in summer. 
In winter turn the nightgown up at the bottom, like an 
envelope, to protect the feet. 

As we have learned, it is much better for a baby to 
sleep alone. Grown people have been known to roll on 
children during sleep and smother them; and if an infant 
sleeps with the mother, there is always the temptation to 
frequent nursing at night. 

The child's bed should have a mattress, firm, but soft ; a 
rubber sheet to protect the mattress ; a very thin pillow, or 
none at all, and never a comforter, only blankets that can 




A tiny, healthy baby should sleep nine-tenths of the 
time. At six months old, two-thirds of the time. 

Never rock a baby to sleep. 

Never give it a "pacifier." 

Never let a little child in your charge stay up after 
seven o'clock. 

The room a child sleeps in should be darkened and 
quiet. In crowded homes quiet is hard to secure, but 
let every one try to secure a restful sleeping-place for 
the little members of the family. 

When a baby cries at night, it is a signal for help. 
Get up and see that the bedding is smooth, his hands and 
feet warm, the diaper not soiled or wet, and the baby 
comfortable. Don't take him up, or he will expect it. 

Not only do babies sleep at night, but they take one or 
two long naps in the daytime. Out of doors is the best 
place for these naps. But night or day, while a child 
sleeps, have the window open to admit fresh air. 

To Lift a Baby. 

Practise on a doll how to lift a baby in the right way. 
With the right hand grasp clothing below the feet. Slip 
the left hand beneath the infant's body and head. It is 
then raised on the left arm, and the entire spine is sup- 

How to Give a Baby Air in Bad or Very Cold Weather. 

Dress him as if he were going out, and then open the 
windows. Place the carriage or crib near the window, 
but not in a draft. So long as the baby is out of a 
draft and away from the dampness, it will do him good. 
A veil is not necessary if he is n't in a draft, and in the 
street keep the sun from his eyes rather than use a 


Washing a Baby's Clothes. 

A baby's band, shirt, dress and stockings should be 
washed every day. No starch, bluing or soap powders 
should be used. Especially is this true in washing the 
diapers, as they might chafe and poison the skin of a 
small infant. 

The flannels have to be washed with care to prevent 
shrinking. All flannels should be washed and rinsed in 
tepid water. (See Laundry Lesson.) The flannels 
should be stretched into shape before being left to dry, 
and not dried near the fire. 



It is seldom a lack of love, but often a lack of knowl- 
edge, on the part of the homemaker, that compels a child 
to face life handicapped because of a weak body. Moth- 
ers and big sisters must learn that love will not excuse 
them. "All breaches of the law of health are physical 
sins." We sin against an irresponsible child when we 
allow it to eat the wrong food or unclean food, or to 
eat any food at the wrong time. 

This fact interests the world, for weak children grow 
into useless citizens; and the strength of a child and 
the value of a citizen depend largely upon the food that 
is given to the baby when he is too young to select for 


Milk appears to be all liquid, but in the stomach it be- 
comes partly solid. It has in it every kind of food that 
a baby requires. It is thirteen parts solid and eighty- 
seven parts water. The solid parts are protein, fat (or 
the cream), sugar (or the whey of the milk), and salts. 
The fat feeds the nerves, gives heat, and may be stored 
for future use; the sugar gives heat and energy; the 
proteids give growth to the blood cells and the muscles; 
the salts help the growth of the bones. An infant cannot 
digest its food without water, nor can it get rid of waste 
material. Milk, as we know, is the first food for animals, 
including human beings ; and as it is the only food taken 




for the first five or six months, the importance of its 
preparation can be readily seen. In France, it is against 
the law to give solid food to children under a year with- 
out a doctor's prescription. 

Let every girl have the fact firmly fixed in her mind 
that during the first three months of a baby's life it needs 
perfect care, more so than at any future time. A wrong 
start may mean a long life of suffering, as young life is so 
delicate that the body is unable to resist hurtful things. 
Bad milk is the easiest way to start the baby wrong. 
Impure milk is poison to an infant. This danger is one 
of the reasons why mothers are urged to nurse their 
children, rather than give them cow's milk ; for the moth- 
er's milk is fresh and pure, whereas, it is almost im- 
possible to buy cow's milk that has not been kept at least 
twenty- four hours. A healthy mother's milk is free from 
the danger of bacteria, which means it is clean milk; 
impure milk is milk in which the bacteria are multiplying. 

Flies in milk-shops are apt to do more harm than flies 
in other food-shops in the same neighborhood. The 
reason for this is because milk (especially in summer) is 
an excellent medium for bacteria. 

Milk is more easily infected than many other foods, 
whether flies drink it or fall into it. The same flies that 
spoil the milk by infection may walk on meat and not 
poison it. 

Knowing these facts, every girl will see that a mother 
will nurse her baby if it is possible for her to do so. 
There are handicapped babies who must eat from a bottle ; 
we must help them. 

It is often the work of the big sister in the family to 
prepare the baby's food; this chapter is not intended 
to teach what food should be given to the infant 
at a certain age, but how to prepare any food that is 


given, so that it may be pure and clean when it reaches 
the baby's stomach. 

There are many things that the girls in the family 
can learn about milk. One is to know bad, from good, 
milk. If you see any sediment or dirt in the bottom of 
a glass, or in the bottle of milk, do not use the milk; that 
sediment is dirt and has already begim to poison the milk. 
But unfortunately, a great deal of dirty milk looks clean. 
Bacteria are tiny living things that poison milk. These 
bacteria microbes are too small for any one to see without 
a microscope. There are thousands of them in one drop 
of bad milk, and they increase very rapidly, not only be- 
fore you give .the milk to the baby but after it is in the 
baby's stomach. All cow's milk contains germs, even 
when handled carefully ; but they may be harmless germs, 
and if the milk is kept cold they will not increase. Many 
germs are harmless; some simply make the milk sour, 
while others produce typhoid fever, diarrhea, and tu- 
berculosis. A single microbe, can in twenty-four hours 
increase to more than ten billion. Loose milk is the 
most likely to have poison bacteria in it. If any girl will 
stand for fifteen minutes at the door of a grocery, where 
loose milk is sold, she will see how often the lid of 
the can is lifted, how many chances the dusty air has 
to enter, and flies to light on the milk. A fly puts its 
feet for a few seconds into the milk and flies away, 
leaving one tiny spot behind, and that spot may increase 
into millions of rtiicrobes. Therefore buy only bottled 
milk which has been kept from contact with hands, insects, 
and other impurities. Bacteria multiply not only when 
milk is in a dusty place but when it is in a warm place. 

Having bought the milk in the bottle, as free from 
germs as possible, take it at once to a clean, cold place 
until you are ready to use it. The delay in putting the 



milk in a cold place is often the reason for sour milk. 
It is so easy for a girl, after she has purchased the 
milk, to let the bottle stand in the sun, near the stove 
or on the kitchen table, and then make the excuse, " I 
thought some one would put it in the ice-box." Every 
girl who purchases milk should feel responsible for it 
until it is in a clean, cold place and sealed against the 
air and insect life. 

There are many ways of keeping milk sweet and clean, 
even if you have not an ice-box. For example, take an 
old pail with a cover, make a hole in the bottom, put a 
piece of ice in the pail and the milk bottle on the ice. 
Put the cover on the pail, and throw a clean blanket over 
the whole. Place this simple ice-box in a pan, so. that 
when the ice drains through the hole in the pail the 
water will not go on to the floor. Do not forget that 
your pail and the blanket over it must be kept scrupu- 
lously clean. 

There are many things that every girl may learn on 
this subject of milk, and a few terms with which every 
homemaker should make herself familiar. 

''Modified Milk": To modify milk means to make 
the cow's milk as nearly like the mother's milk as possible. 
Mother's milk is very much weaker than cow's milk, or, 
as the latter is called, " whole milk." For example, there 
is three times as much protein in cow's milk as in 
mother's milk for a little baby four or five days old. 
You cannot give a tiny baby " whole milk " direct from 
the cow ; it must be weakened so that there will be only 
one part milk and three parts water. As a baby gets 
stronger more milk and less water is used, until at 
last, when the child is nine to twelve months old, it 
can take the cow's milk without any water. 

There are many different ways of preparing or modify- 


ing milk: milk and water; barley water and milk; oat- 
meal, and other preparations that doctors may decide arc 
the right food for different children at different ages. 
The proportions used in these preparations arc called 
" formulas," and any mother or big sister, living in our 
cities, who wants to know how to feed a baby can find 
out at a milk station. 

Take the infant there; it will be weighed, examined 
and its age asked. The doctor, at the station, will 
then give the nurse just the " formula " that the baby 
should have, and the nurse will show the mother how to 
prepare it. These formulas must be worked out only by 
a doctor or a trained nurse who has made this a study for 
years. Modifying milk by these formulas is a work that 
experts consider so necessary that many cities spend thou- 
sands of dollars a year in establishing milk stations and 
paying baby specialists. If there is no station in your 
city, take the baby to a nurse or consult a doctor. 
Don't guess at so important a question as the preparation 
of milk for the baby. 

Taking it for granted, therefore, that no girl is going 
to work out any formula without the help of an experi- 
enced person, our lesson will be simply how to do the 
work after the doctor has given the formula. 

Prepare the table as for cooking; cover it with clean, 
white paper, or a perfectly clean towel or cloth. All the 
basins, bowls, bottles, and any utensil used for the prep- 
aration of milk, should be used for no other purpose. 

The articles (which should be on the table before be- 
ginning to work) are as follows: 

Six feeding bottles. These should be round, not flat, 
so that they will clean easily, having no inside comers 
to collect the milk. Feeding bottles are marked with one 
ounce and half-ounce measurements, which enable any 




one to use them in place of a measuring glass. They 
come in different sizes, but an eight-ounce bottle is a good 
size, for when the baby is small the bottle may be partly 
filled, and when older it may be used entirely full. Two 
of these bottles may be bought for five cents. Prepare 
every morning as many bottles as will be needed during 
the next twenty-four hours. Put only food enough in 
each bottle for one feeding. 

Have also on the table rubber nipples, with a small 
hole at the end so that the milk will not rush too fast 
into the tiny stomach. These should be of black rubber 
which go over the neck of the bottle. A rubber feeding 
tube should never be used. 

A pitcher is needed in which to mix the food. If pos- 
sible, have this of glass, as germs do not collect on glass 
as readily as on other material. 

A glass funnel, to be used in pouring the milk prepara- 
tion into the bottles, must be at hand ; also corks for the 
bottles. Absorbent cotton often is used, but corks can 
be boiled every day and are cheaper. A bottle brush, 
some bicarbonate of soda, or if that is not convenient, 
common salt; a fine wire strainer (some use gauze to 
strain the barley water, but a fine wire strainer is easy 
to wash and to keep clean), a saucepan, sugar, a teaspoon, 
barley (prepared barley is good, but many doctors use 
ordinary clean store barley), a glass, and a pint bottle of 

After each feeding, bottles and nipples must be rinsed 
in cold water, then the bottle left filled with cold water (a 
little bicarbonate of soda may be added), and the nipple 
placed in a glass of cold water with half a teaspoonful 
of salt added. Hot water will sour any milk that has 
stuck to the bottle or the nipple. Corks should stay in a 
glass of water when not in use. 


Bottles, corks, and nipples should be thorbtighly washed 
once a day with hot water, soap and soda. Use the brush 
for the inside of the bottle, and turn the nipple inside out, 
washing it thoroughly. When nipples are new, boil them 
for at least ten minutes. 

The time has now come to prepare the baby's food. 
This should be done in the morning, early, and all food 
needed for the day should be prepared at one time. When 
the table is ready be sure that your hands and apron 
are clean, and that no soiled cloths are hanging over or 
near the table; remember how sensitive milk is to any 

Take the bottles, corks and nipples (all of which have 
been made perfectly clean, but not sterilized) and put 
them in a clean pan of cold water ; place them on the stove 
and allow them to stay there until the water has boiled 
twenty minutes. Washing bottles is not sufficient ; some- 
thing may stick to the bottle that only boiling will loosen. 

The formula given here is a simple milk modification. 
We will use it only as an example : 
Ten ounces milk, 
Ten ounces barley water, 
Half ounce sugar. 

This will fill five 8-ounce bottles. 

Take a saucepan, and with three cups of water use two 
teaspoonf uls barley flour. Put the water on to boil ; mix 
the barley flour with a little cold water, to avoid lumps, 
and then add it to the saucepan of boiling water. Add a 
pinch of salt, and boil for twenty minutes. 

To sterilize milk, it must be boiled, but this is not 
necessary if the milk is bottled and certified. Scalded 
milk only paralyzes any possible germs; it does not kill 

When the bottles are boiled, pour oflE the water, but 


leave the bottles in the saucepan and put the saucepan 
in a dish-pan of cold water until the bottles are cool. 

Take the corks from the water with a spoon, never 
with the fingers. Take the nipples from the water in 
the same way. 

Now allow the barley water, which has boiled twenty 
minutes, to cool while the bottles are cooling ; it will cool 
more quickly if placed in a pan of cold water. 

When the barley water, milk and bottles are cooled, 
pour ten ounces of milk into the glass pitcher. If there 
is no measuring cup at hand, measure by the extra feed- 
ing bottle, filling it full once and then measuring out two 
ounces more. Dissolve half an ounce, or four teaspoon- 
fuls of sugar in the barley water. If you have lump 
sugar, not granulated, one lump of sugar is equal to a 
teaspoonful, so that four lumps will be four teaspoonfuls. 
Strain this barley water and sugar into the milk. 

Now that the milk, barley water, sugar and the pinch 
of salt are mixed together in the glass pitcher, pour this 
mixture into the cooled, sterilized bottles. If five bottles 
are used, put four ounces of this milk and water mixture 
into each bottle. Cork at once and put on the ice. 

Before giving the bottle to the baby place the bottle in 
a saucepan of hot water. Test the milk by putting a drop 
on your wrist ; if it feels warm it is the right temperature. 
Never touch your lips to the bottle. 

If lime water is required, buy it at a drug store. A 
large amount may be purchased for five cents, and will 
keep, in a cool place, for three or four weeks. Lime 
water is not used in place of water, but to make the milk 
more easily digested. It is also used for babies suffer- 
ing with colic. 





List of General Foods for Little Children. 


Broths. Beef, mutton and chicken. 

Soups. Milk and vegetable. 

Eggs. Coddled, poached, scrambled, custard (never 

fried eggs). 
Meats. Broiled, roasted. 
Fish. Broiled, baked (never fried). 
Vegetables. Celery, peas, asparagus, potatoes, rice, 

macaroni, cauliflower, carrots, beans, spinach. 


Stewed fruits, apples, cherries, grapes, raspberries, 
strawberries, blackberries, dates, figs, prunes, pears, 

Juice of oranges, pineapple. 

Desserts: Junket, custards, plain- fruit jellies, fruit 
juice with gelatin, milk puddings, tapioca pudding. 

Food for Children Under Five Years. 

There is no subject more important to study than the 
care of little children, and food is the most important 
element in that care. The work in the home falls so 
heavily upon the mother, the cooking and serving the 
meals take so much of her time, that the responsibility 
for the younger children of the family is assumed at 
times by the older sisters. The very first thing that 
these older sisters must learn is that children must be 
saved from themselves; that what they want to eat and 
what they do not want is of no value ; such decisions must 
be made by older minds than theirs. The excuse, " he 



will not do It," or "he will not eat it," or "he wants 
this," or " he wants that " is a silly excuse for any one 
to give for allowing a child to have the wrong thing, or 
to eat food which injures the stomach. A child under 
eight years of age does not know what is good for him, 
and will almost invariably choose the wrong thing. If 
one is not strong enough to make her little charges 
eat nourishing food, if she has not the power to keep 
them from eating between meals, then she is not capable 
of looking after children. 

The work you are to take up now is the preparation of 
food for children after the first year. As we have seen, 
children under a year live almost entirely on milk. They 
have no teeth and cannot chew food, and neither has the 
stomach the juices to digest food, other than milk. Be- 
fore beginning the preparation of these foods for children, 
over a year old, let us take up a few of the rules of 
life that grown-up people must learn and must teach 
little children, in order that the child's body will be in a 
condition to turn the food into fuel. Just as in the stpve 
lesson no coal was put into the stove until the stove was 
in perfect working order. 



Sleep is an absolute necessity to life, and the amount 
of time a child spends in sleep, and the regularity with 
which it takes these rests, have a great deal to do with 
its health. Children under three years of age should 
sleep twelve hours every night, and besides this should 
take a nap in the daytime. Not only does the body need 
rest, but also the heart, the lungs, and the stomach. 
These organs all work at night, but they do not work 


so hard as in the daytime. The eyes need rest, too, and 
all the nerves of the body need to be absolutely quiet for 
at least half of the twenty-four hours. Even if a child 
is able to live with little sleep, and even if he looks healthy 
as a baby, he will meet manhood with insufficient strength 
if he does not have his right amount of sleep. There 
is no use to feed a tired body ; it is like piling coal into 
a worn-out stove. 


A little child of two or three years has no idea how 
much air should be in the room when he goes to bed; 
this must be decided by a grown person. If you put 
a child to bed in an overheated, close room, he will 
wake up in the morning more exhausted than when he 
went to bed, and will lose all the feeling of refreshment 
which should come after a night's sleep. One sign of this 
will be that he will want no breakfast. The food that a 
child eats at night is not given a chance to digest if that 
child sleeps in a close room. The waste matter is not 
thrown off, the system is clogged and the child feels 
heavy, and has no appetite. 


Playing and running about is the way that children 
exercise, and this exercise is absolutely necessary for 
digestion. But a big girl must remember when she is 
playing with a child that the exercise must not be violent. 
A walk across the room is a long journey for a baby, 
and a walk a block long is a long journey for a small 
child. It is sometimes difficult for a grown-up girl to 
realize how very delicate the muscles and nervous strength 
of a child are ; if these are overstrained, if the play is too 
violent, it may weaken a child's heart for the heart will 


pump hard and try to keep the body going when the nat- 
ural strength is exhausted. Big girls must never pull 
little ones by the arm, to make them hurry. Remember 
that children cannot hurry, and it is cruel to try to make 
them walk fast. 


One fact about children is that they never seem to 
want to be clean, especially little boys who object even to 
having their hands and faces washed, and balk at a 
bath unless it means a swim in the river. So this part 
of their daily life must be decided by some one who 
knows better than they. 

We know that a skin which is not clean becomes in- 
active, and often diseased. It certainly would be cruel 
to let a child's skin get into an unhealthy condition 
before the age when he is responsible. The entire body 
of a child must be washed with warm water, at least once 
a day, to keep the skin active. Do not put food into a 
dirty body ; the waste matter from the pores of the skin 
must be washed away. 


Every one wishes to be as good-looking as possibki 
and there is nothing that makes a man or a woman uglier 
than bad teeth. It is extremely cruel not to care for the 
teeth of a little child, and to neglect them in childhood 
means expense later on, and very often at a time when 
money is most needed for other things. It also means 
indigestion and malnutrition, that is, the food cannot 
nourish the body unless the teeth are in condition to do 
their part. Brush a child's teeth every morning and 
every night ; take it for granted that he will never want 
them brushed, that he will cry and do everything he can 


to make you omit this morning and evening duty. Later 
on, he will thank you, if you are faithful. Good, firm 
teeth prepare the food by chewing and breaking it thor- 
oughly apart. Remember this is the reason why we have 


A child comes into the world with no habits, either 
good or bad, and his life later on is decided by what 
habits are formed in childhood. A great responsibility 
in the care of a child is to make him form good, rather 
than bad, habits. 

The habit of liking the right, rather than the wrong 
food is accomplished by never giving the child any wrong 
food* If you hear a child crying for tea and refusing 
milk, it IS because his mother or some one has given him 
tea and created in him a taste for the stimulating, rather 
than the nourishing, drink. The habit of going to bed 
early is formed by regularity. If you let a child go to 
bed one night at seven o'clock and the next night at ten 
o'clock, and at another time allow him to sit up until the 
grown people go to bed, how can that child understand 
that he should go to sleep at a specific hour? 


It is a very common error for grown-up people to 
think that children can eat " what is on the table." The 
child sees certain foods that are served three times a day, 
and naturally asks for them, often by loud cries. It is 
estimated that one-half of the cases of illness among 
children are the result of eating this grown-up food; 
good food for people who have their growth but wrong 
for a child. 

In the first place, the child lacks the strong teeth to 


masticate the food. The juices of the stomach in a 
child are very different from those in a grown-up persoa; 
the stomach and intestines are small and tender, as is the 
child itself. No one would expect a baby of three to 
carry up the coal. Why should one expect a tiny stom- 
ach to do hard work? 

A child not only should be prevented from eating the 
wrong food, but he must eat the right food. Big 
people must know how much waste and water there is in 
each food, — what foods build tissue, what kind furnish 
heat, which contain minerals to purify the blood. Peo- 
ple in very cold countries eat foods that contribute heat. 
Old people eat foods that repair waste. To children 
we give much of the food that contains protein, for that 
makes muscle and tissue and provides the elements needed 
for the growing body. Never allow yourself to think 
again that all ages can be fed and treated alike. The 
growing boy eats twice as much food as his grandmother, 
for she eats only to provide heat and to repair the waste 
of the tissue, while he eats to increase the weight and 
height of his body. The old people feel cold when the 
children in the same atmosphere are too warm. That is 
because the circulation is slow in the former and quick 
and healthy in the child. Human life is a wonderful 
study. Make it such by knowing a great deal about it. 

Dr. Rotch, a man who has made a study as to what 
children should eat, divides the child's life into four 
periods. The first period is the first year of the baby's 
existence, and in that time, as we have learned, he lives 
on milk. The second period is from one year to thirty 
months old, and in these months it is very necessary 
to have variety in the food, always remembering that 
the foods given must contribute to growth. The child 
is still a baby, and its chief diet is milk, but this may 


be varied with fruit- juices, broth, gruel, white potato, 
and after eighteen months, an egg. Increase the quan- 
tity of the food only as fast as the stomach of the child 
can digest it. The third period begins when the child 
is two and a half years old, and then the child can 
begin to eat vegetables, such as fresh squash and peas. 
It may have more kinds of fruit, but always cooked 
fruit, not raw. It also must have more proteins ; add this 
element by beginning to give the child a little bacon 
or scraped meat. Then, when the child is three years 
old it may have such meats as chicken, mutton chop, 
roast beef and beefsteak, but these should be cut into 
very small pieces, with a little salt added, but no pepper. 
When a child is three years old it is well to give meat 
one day and an egg the next. A child eats eggs before 
it eats meat ; that is, a child can have eggs when it is a 
year and a half old, but it should not have meat until it 
is nearly three years old. 

Dr. Thompson gives the following general rules: 

" I. Allow time for meals. 4 

" 2. See that the food is thoroughly masticated. 

3. Do not allow nibbling between meals. 

4. Do not tempt the child with the sight of rich and 
indigestible foods. 

"5. Do not force the child to eat against its will, but 
examine the mouth, which may be sore from coming 
teeth, and examine the food, which may not be properly 
cooked or flavored. If good food is refused from peev- 
ishness merely, remove it, and do not offer it again be- 
fore the next meal-time. 

**6. In acute illness, reduce and dilute the food at 

" 7. In very hot weather give about one- fourth or one- 
third less food, and offer more water." 



Preparation of Food. 

Gruel, The great point in making cereal gruel is to 
cook it thoroughly. Oatmeal, farina, barley, hominy, and 
rice are the best cereals to use. Receipt, page 290. 

Until the child is four years of age milk forms the chief 
part of the diet, but after the first year it is used much 
in combination with other things. 

Put milk in soups, in puddings, in gruel, and give a child 
dried bread and milk if he says he is hungry. 

Never give a child really cold milk ; warm the milk a 
little for an infant under two. 

Never let any one, when overheated, drink cold milk. 
Milk is a food, not a drink. 

Never give a child an egg until you have tested it. 
Fried eggs and omelets are not good for children. Soft- 
boiled eggs are the most digestible. 

Fruits. After a child is a year old you must know how 
to prepare for it, orange juice, stewed prunes, and apples. 

The utensils used in preparing food for a child should 
be scrupulously clean. If possible, keep separate for this 
cooking a saucepan, a double boiler and the few other 
needed utensils. 

Two or three teaspoonsful of olive oil served with food 
each day is very healthful. 

The following are suggestions for the diet for little chil- 
dren. (All of the receipts for these suggestions are in 
the back of this book.) 

Division of Child Hygiene. 

Diet for Child from Twelfth to Eighteenth Month 


(i) Two to three tablespoons of juice of a sweet 
orange, or juice of six stewed prunes, or two tablespoons 
of pineapple juice. 



(2) One cup milk with either zwieback, or dried out 

Note : Fruit must be given either half an hour before 
or half an hour after milk. 


Milk alone or with zwieback. 


( 1 ) Small cup of meat soup or broth. 

(2) Dried bread may be added. 

Note : Soup may be made of chicken, beef or mutton. 


Milk with or without swieback. 


(i) One half cup thick gruel mixed with one half cup 
of milk, from top of bottle. Zwieback. 

Total milk in twenty-four hours, one quart or thirty- 
two ounces. 

Diet for Child front Eighteenth to Twenty-fourth 



( 1 ) Juice of one sweet orange, or strained pulp of six 
stewed prunes, or pulp of baked pear. 

(2) A cereal, such as cream of wheat, oatmeal, farina 
or hominy with top milk. These must be cooked until 
like gruel. 


A glass of milk with zwieback, or dried bread. 
(This is better than crackers for a very little child.) 



(i) Broth or soup made of beef, mutton or chicken, 
and thickened with peas, farina, sago or rice, or occasion- 

Beef juice with dried bread, or clear vegetable soup 
with yolk of egg, or on another day. 

Egg coddled, with bread, or the egg poached, with a 
glass of milk. 

(2) Dessert: apple sauce, prune pulp, or junket. 

Do not give milk at dinner with beef juice. 

(A child can often digest junket when its stomach will 
not retain milk.) 


Glass of warm milk, with zwieback and custard or 
stewed fruit. 

Total. milk in twenty- four hours, one quart. 

Diet for Child from Two to Three Years 


( 1 ) Juice of one sweet orange, or pulp of six stewed 
prunes, or a little pineapple juice, or apple sauce. 

(2) A cereal, such as oatmeal, farina, cream of wheat, 
hominy or steamed rice, slightly sweetened or salted, 
with the addition of top milk. Or, 

A soft boiled or poached egg with dried bread or toast 

(3) A glass of milk. 

Note: Milk and raw fruit- juice must not be given at 
the same time. 


(i) Broth or soup made of chicken, mutton, or beef, 
thickened with arrowroot, spaghetti, rice or with the addi- 
tion of the yolk of egg or toast squares. Or, 

(2) Scraped beef or white meat of chicken or boiled 


fish, never fried (small amount), and mixed with mashed 
or baked potato. Fresh peas or spinach, or carrots may 
be given, but must first be pressed through a sieve. 

(3) Dessert: apple sauce, baked apple, rice pudding, 
junket or custard. 


(i) A cereal or egg (if egg has not been taken with 
breakfast), with stale bread or toast. Corn bread with 
milk or with cocoa or bread and custard. 

Never give a child under three meat every day ; alter- 
nate with eggs, alternate potato with macaroni, or rice. 

(2) Stewed fruit. 

Diet for Child from Three to Six Years 


(i) Fruits : an orange, apple, pear or stewed prunes. 

(2) Cereal: oatmeal, hominy, rice or wheat prepara- 
tions, well cooked and salted, with thin cream and sugar, 

Egg : soft boiled, poached, or scrambled. 

(3) Milk or cocoa. 


(i) Meat: chicken or beefsteak, or roast beef, or lamb 
chops, or fish.^ 

(2) Vegetables: spinach or carrots or string beans, 
peas, cauliflower-tops, mashed or baked potatoes, beets 
or lettuce (without vinegar), macaroni, or spaghetti. 
Bread and butter (not fresh bread or rolls). 

(3) Dessert: custard, rice, bread or tapioca pudding. 
Home-made ice cream (once a week), corn-starch pud- 
ding (chocolate or other flavor), stewed prunes or baked 


Never give a child bought ice cream, the milk from 
which it is made may not be fresh ; the freezer may not 
have been clean ; and no one dan know exactly from what 
the flavoring is made. 


(i) Milk toast or Graham crackers and milk. Or a 
thick soup, such as pea, or cream of celery, with bread 
and butter. Or a cereal and thin cream with bread and 

(2) Dessert: stewed fruit; custard or plain pudding; 
jam or jelly (homemade). 

From United States Department of Agriculture 



" At the close of the day the mother might ask herself 
these questions. 

" I. Did each child take a quart of milk in one form of 
another ? 

" 2. Have I taken pains to see that the milk that comes 
to my house has been handled in a clean way? 

" 3. If I was obliged to serve skim milk for the sake of 
cleanliness or economy, did I supply a little extra fat in 
some other way? 

*' 4. Were the fats which I gave the child of the whole- 
some kind found in milk, cream, butter, and salad oils ; 
or the unwholesome kind found in doughnuts and other 
fried foods? 

" 5. Did I make use of all skim milk by using it in the 
preparation of cereal mushes, puddings, or otherwise ? 

** 6. Were all cereal foods thoroughly cooked? 



" 7. Did I keep in mind that while cereals are good food 
in themselves, they do not take the place of meat, milk, 
eggs, fruit, and vegetables? 

" 8. Did I keep in mind that children who do not have 
plenty of fruit and vegetables lack the minerals and the 
vegetable acids needed for laxative effects? 

" 9. Did each child have an egg or an equivalent amount 
of meat, fish or poultry? 

" 10. Were vegetables and fruits on the child's bill of 
fare once during the day? 

" II. Did either the fruit or the vegetable disagree with 
the child? If so, ought I to have cooked it more thor- 
oughly, chopped it more finely, or have removed the 
skin and seeds? 

" 12. Was the child given sweets between meals, or 
any thing that tempted him to eat when he was not 
hungry ? 

" 13. Was he allowed to eat sweets when he should 
have been eating cereals, meat, eggs, fruit or drinking 

" 14. Were sweets given to the child at the end of the 
meal unmixed with fat and not highly flavored? 

" 15. Was the child made to eat slowly and chew his 
food properly?" 






Part I 

The knowledge of disease is not only needed in times 
of sickness, but every one should have certain general 
information in order to recognize illness ; and to prevent 
its spread from one member of the family to another. 

A homemaker ignorant of what causes disease and what 
will prevent it unconsciously can do a great deal of harm. 
Almost every detail of housekeeping has some connection 
with health. Think how much harm could be done if a 
homemaker did not know that to leave food exposed to 
dust and insects might easily cause infection; or if she 
did not know that in impure drinking water are typhoid 
germs, or if she did not clean the sinks, drains, dishes, 
cooking utensils, and dish towels very thoroughly, know- 
ing the danger from possible germ life. 

Every girl must know the danger to healthy people if 
they are allowed to sleep in the bedclothes that have been 
used by a sick member of the family: and that the 
clothes of a fever patient must be washed separately from 
the family wash. 

When any member of the family is really sick, a 
doctor and a nurse must be called in at once, then the 
members of the family will be told exactly what to do. 

In this chapter we are going to talk about hygiene, the 
science of health, and of those acts of health prevention 



which every woman and girl can perform for herself. 
We will also find out how much home nursing and care of 
the sick a girl should know without pretending to be a 
trained nurse. 

First, take up the subject of 

Personal Hygiene. 

Hygiene is the science of health. Sanitation means 
applying this science in the preservation of health, and 
personal hygiene has to do with those principles or rules 
that apply to the care of the body. 

Sometimes, when we read or hear of the simple rules 
that are necessary for health, we want to say, " I always 
do that," or ",I never do that"; but the most careful 
people in the world have to be reminded constantly of the 
everyday acts that affect health, and the girl is in danger 
who is too sure of her knowledge on this subject, or who 
depends upon newspapers or quack doctors to give her 
prescriptions for health. Nature will do her part in ward- 
ing off disease and discomfort if we consistently follow 
her rules. This is not easy, for it means daily self-con- 
trol, courage often to go contrary to our neighbors' ideas, 
and character strong enough conscientiously to perform 
dull duties every day. 

In the first chapter is a description of the house and 
its conformity to all the rules of household hygiene or 
sanitation. We found that a house, to be sanitary, must 
have space, cleanliness, air -and sunlight, and that every 
part of it must be in perfect repair and working order. 
In this chapter we are to consider how to keep in 
order the health of the people who live in these houses. 
A house consists of walls, ceilings, floors and the fur- 
nishings. A home means the house and the people who 
live in it. 


The Skin. 

Every girl wants a clear skin. This is a mark of 
beauty; the skin more than anything else is a sign of 
bodily health or disease. A smooth, clear skin means that 
the tiny blood vessels are in good condition; that the 
circulation is good; that the right nourishment is being 
supplied to the body and that the digestion is normal. 
A dull, sallow skin, or pimples on the face, indicate that 
the blood or circulation is out of order. 

To keep the skin in perfect condition : 

First, Food. Eat the right food at meals and eat it 

Eat nothing between meals. 

Study what is the right food and take pains to get it. 
Do not rely too much on advertisements. Remember that 
the writers of most advertisements are interested only in 
selling their goods. They do not care about you or your 

Do not drink tea or coffee while you are getting your 

Second, Air. Fresh air contains oxygen. We must 
breathe a great deal of oxygen into our lungs to make the 
skin clear and cheeks red. 

Impure air is filled with poisonous substances. It con- 
tains the refuse from the lungs ; it is filled with dust and 
germs, and is lacking in oxygen. 

It is bad to breathe impure air as it is to drink impure 
water. You would not think of bathing in the water 
another person had bathed in, but you forget that in a close 
room filled with people we breathe into our lungs the air 
which other people have exhaled. 

Bad air, or not enough air, affects digestion and cir- 
culation, and shows in the skin. The signs are : the disap- 
pearance of bright coloring suggestive of health, pimples. 


dullness of skin and a puffy look, especially around the 

The rebuilding of the body is largely done at night dur- 
ing sleep, and oxygen is necessary for the process of 
rebuilding. For this reason the window must be open in 
a bedroom at night (winter as well as summer), and 
many times during the day the air in a room should be 

Third, Sun. In the first chapter you learned to have 
your house face south or west, so as to get the sunny 

Disease germs live in dark places away from the sun. 
Sun is a disinfectant. A room with sun, therefore, is a 
more healthy room than one without. There have been 
cases of face eruptions traced to living in sunless rooms. 
If you cannot have sun in your room, you can have air, 
and then plan to be out in the sunlight as much as possible. 

Fourth, Exercise. Exercise is absolutely necessary for 
a good circulation; and good circulation is necessary to 
carry off the waste matter of the body, otherwise this 
waste matter will clog and poison your systems. Noth- 
ing will ruin the skin more quickly than this kind of 

Choose walking, when possible, rather than riding in a 
subway or a hot trolley-car. Remember you are aiding 
circulation in the one case and retarding it in the other. 

Fifth, The Morning Bath. The loose dirt which we 
accumulate from the outside is, perhaps, blacker, but it is 
not more dangerous than the dirt, consisting of the waste 
matter which is given off through the skin, and which can 
be partially absorbed again to poison the body. The body 
should be bathed every day. 

Perspiration and oil are emitted through the pores of 
the body; if not washed or rubbed off, this hardens and 


clogs the pores ; it also gives off a disagreeable odor. 

Do not wash only — rub the skin hard every day. This 
is good for the nerves of the skin. The exercise makes 
them sound, healthy and hardy. 

The good or bad treatment of the skin has a decided 
effect on general health. 

Remember : 

We breathe through the skin as well as through the 

We feel through the skin. 

The skin must be clean so that nothing will obstruct it 
in throwing obnoxious matter and in taking in oxygen. 

Absence of a bathroom in the house is no reason for 
not bathing. A good way to take a bath without a bath- 
room is: 

Two basins of water, one warm and one cold, a wash 
cloth for each, soap and a towel. Stand in a third basin or 
tin tub. With the warm water and soap wash every part 
of the body. With the cold water rinse the body. Dry 
and rub hard with a coarse towel. Rinse out all basins, 
wash out cloths and put in sun to dry. Never allow any 
one else to use your wash-cloths or towel. 


It is natural that every girl should want to make her 
skin as lovely as possible, but it is by air, sun, good circu- 
lation and good digestion that this beauty will come; not 
by preparations and powders bought at the drug-store. 
These powders often contain lead, which makes ugly 
blackheads in the skin. Also, lead poisoning may enter 
the body through the pores and affect the muscles 
and the digestion. Even if there is no lead in face pow- 
ders, they often contain ingredients which in time make 
eruptions on the skin. 


Hands and Nails. 

Hands must be washed just before cooking or be- 
fore touching food. Also wash the hands after going 
to the toilet, after arranging the hair or putting on shoes 
and stockings. To avoid chapped hands, dry thoroughly 
after washing and at night rub with a pure cold cream. 

It is not enough to manicure the nails once in a while. 
Keep the nails moderately short and always have an or- 
ange-stick conveniently near the wash-basin, so that the 
nails may be cleaned each time the hands are washed. 


A very careful cook will always wear a cap when she 
is in the kitchen. This is to prevent any possibility of 
loose hairs getting into the food. If no cap is worn a 
careful cook will be sure that her hair is neat and held 
securely in place. No one should ever comb her hair 
in the kitchen, or in the room where the family eats, 
nor should she wash her hair in the rooms where food is 
prepared or eaten. A careful housecleaner will cover 
her hair with a cap while sweeping or dusting. 

It is well for a girl to remember that every time she 
goes out of doors without a hat, the air blowing through 
her hair gives it strength and beauty. Sun, air and 
a good brushing will keep the hair in such good condition 
that a wet shampoo will be necessary only once a month. 
The best shampoo for a healthy scalp is hot soapsuds 
made of pure unscented soap. Do not rub the soap 
directly on the head as this makes the hair sticky. Make 
soapsuds, wash the hair in these suds and then rinse in 
clear hot water. Soap again to make sure all grease is out 
and this time rinse thoroughly in three or four waters. 

Once a week wash out the hair brush and comb in hot 
water with a little ammonia in the water. The ammonia 


IS needed to cut the grease which comes from the hair. 
Do not put the handle of the brush in the water. 


There is not a girl studying this book who does not 
know that she should brush her teeth morning and night 
with her own tooth-brush, using tooth-powder when pos- 
sible, and rinsing the mouth with fresh water after each 
brushing. One must not forget that much of the disease 
from which people suffer comes from unclean and de- 
cayed teeth. Bad teeth are breeding-places for bacteria 
and germs. These disease germs get mixed with the 
food and then get into the stomach and intestines, where 
they often cause disease. Bad teeth can poison the entire 
system ; cause disease and even death. If every girl could 
only realize this, she would never go to school without 
brushing her teeth, and never go to bed leaving particles 
of food in her mouth to cause dangerous decay. 


A strong foot is a foot with the muscles in a healthy 
condition. The widest part of the foot is at the toes. 
Let any girl spread her foot out with the shoe off, and 
look at the foot and then at the shoe, and she will see 
that the shoe is usually not at all the shape of the foot. 
The foot, to a certain extent can be contracted but when 
it is crowded into a pointed shoe, the muscles are first 
hampered and finally rendered almost useless. The toes 
have no freedom of action and the muscles no exercise. 
The foot loses its spring, becomes weak, and "flat- 
foot " is often the result. The temptation to buy pointed 
shoes is apparently hard to resist; they are considered 
fashionable by some people, and the shoemakers cater to 
these people by making pointed shoes cheaper than good. 



broad ones ; but it is money well spent when a girl buys 
shoes with broad toes, even if she has to sacrifice some- 
thing to get them. 

If a girl changes her stockings at least every other day 
in winter, and every day in warm weather, she will find 
her feet keep warmer in winter and cooler in summer 
and grow less tired. It is very simple to wash out stock- 
ings. They do not need to be ironed, only well dried. 

Bathe the feet in hot water when tired ; a little cooking 
soda in the water is a good thing. Wash the feet in 
cold water every morning. This will keep the muscles 
hard and the feet strong. 

When the feet are not in good condition, a tired feeling, 
irritability, nervousness and general depression is the re- 


For reading, studying, sewing, or any work that re- 
quires keen eyesight, daylight is better than gas or elec- 
tric light, but every one must read or work sometimes by 
artificial light. Whether you get your light from a win- 
dow or from a gas-jet, the light should come from be- 
hind and above you. For writing, have it over your left 
shoulder if possible. 

If a girl has to strain her eyes to see objects clearly, 
or has frequent headaches, or the eyes look red at the 
end of the day, she should go to an oculist at once. 
Glasses in time often save the eyes for a lifetime. 


Germs (atiother name for bacteria) are a tiny form 
of vegetable life. These germs are found ever)nvhere 
— in dust, in air, on our skins, our hair, on the furniture, 
walls, floors, in water and in the earth. They are not 


all disease germs. Many are perfectly harmless ; in fact, 
some are necessary to our health. 

These little germs must live on something ; that is, they, 
like all life, must get food. Some get their food from 
dead matter and cannot live on live matter. These are 
the germs found on dead fish, meat, etc. This kind of 
bacteria you would find in your garbage pail, or on a dead 
horse that has fallen in the street. Then there are germs 
that get their food from living people. Most of the dis- 
ease germs are in this class. How these disease germs 
cause sickness is too far-reaching a subject for us to take 
up in this book, but as certain germs enter and feed on the 
bodies of human beings, they multiply and create poisons 
that are called by different names. One we call measles, 
one typhoid fever, one we speak of as a cold in the head. 
There are more than twenty-five kinds of known poisons, 
and each ha^ a different name ; but it is the doctor's busi- 
ness and not ours to study and learn how to counteract 
them. Our business is to learn how to keep these disease 
germs out of our bodies. 

It is through the mouth that most germs enter the body. 
There are other ways, through the nose, and the bacteria 
can enter through an open wound into the blood ; but in a 
healthy person it is mostly through the mouth and nose 
that disease germs enter; unbroken skin is a protection 
against them. 

How do disease germs get into the mouth? By being 
on the food, by being in the water and by being on any 
object put into the mouth. For example, if any one 
lets the baby suck dirty toys or a nipple from a milk 
bottle, that has not been boiled, the baby is sucking in 
germs. They may not be poisonous, but there is always 
the chance of the poisonous one getting in. 

How do disease germs get on the food ? When dishes 



are not clean the dust from the dish gets on the food; 
when flics which have stood in infected matter rest their 
dirty feet on our food ; and when our hands which have 
not been washed touch the food. 

Danger from Water. 

Water becomes impure by sewage or other impure mat- 
ter flowing into a stream and poisoning the water. 
Human beings who drink that water may be poisoned. 

The following rules every one must know and keep: 

Before touching food hands must be thoroughly washed 
with soap and hot water. 

Food must be covered so that ho insect or dust can 
rest on it. 

Sputum from the mouth must be regarded as poisonous. 
No one is ever allowed to spit in any public place, and 
all the sputum must be destroyed, like any ©ther poison, 
after it leaves the mouth. 

Waste matter from the bowels or kidneys may be 
poisonous, and must go into the sewers of the city and be 
destroyed like any other poison, and all water-closets or 
utensils that come in contact with this waste matter must 
be thoroughly washed with soap and water every day. 
The germs of many diseases live in this waste matter. 


This means the communicating of disease germs. That 
is, if a person is sick, the bacteria from that diseased 
person may be carried to a well person. It is for this 
reason that when there is sickness in a home or in the 
neighborhood every one must be very careful that every- 
thing which touches the sick person must be at once dis- 
infected. The hands of the nurse, or the clothing from 
the sick, must be thoroughly washed; mosquitoes and 


flies must be kept away ; because hands, flies, etc., might 
rest on the sick person and then touch the food that later 
some well person puts into his mouth. It is very easy 
for a girl who is acting as nurse to lift a sick person in 
bed, and then without washing her hands to cut the bread 
for breakfast. 


Disinfectants are something that destroy disease germs. 
There are three principal disinfectants. 

1st. The rays of the sun. If a girl hangs the clothes 
in the sun, or airs the bread box with the sunlight shining 
on it, she will disinfect or kill any possible germs on the 
clothes or in the bread box. It is because the sun is a 
disinfectant that we are advised to have sunlight in our 
rooms and to live in the sun as much as possible. 

2nd. Heat, This is another disinfectant. When 
food is cooked it is safer to eat than raw food, because the 
heat used in cooking has destroyed the germs that are 
found on all uncooked food (not all the germs are poison- 
ous). When you boil and iron clothes you disinfect the 
clothes as well as clean them, for the heat of the water 
and the heat of the iron kills any germs that the air or 
the body have left on the clothes. In case of accident, if 
you have no perfectly clean cloth to tie up a wound, boil 
your handkerchief twenty minutes and then you can be 
sure there are no bacteria to get in the wound. 

Chemicals, are the third disinfectant. There are many 
of these. Soap is the commonest one. Lime is another. 
Lime is what we throw down a water-closet if there is 
sickness in the house. Carbolic acid is another. This is 
the foundation of all the bedbug preparations. But the 
only chemical that it is necessary for children to remem- 


ber is soap. Soap cleans away the dirt as nothing else 
does, and it kills the germs at the same time. 

If every girl remembers that sun, heat and soap are, 
excepting in cases of serious illness, the necessary disin- 
fectants, she will know the principal rule that makes for 

If any girl wishes to be sure that she herself, and her 
room, are free from disease germs, she simply will have to 
scrub herself and scrub her room with soap and hot 
water, and then let in the sun. 

Part II 

Home Care of the Sick. 

So far we have talked only of preventing disease, but 
sickness is sure to come in every home sooner or later. 

What are the nursing duties that every one must be ac- 
quainted with in order to do her part in making a patient 
comfortable ? 

The Model Sick Room. 

This should be a room with sun in it, away from the 
noise and smells of the kitchen. The family should take 
from the bureau or closet in the sick room any clothes 
they may need later because the patient must not be dis- 
turbed by members of the family going in and out. 
When any one is sick, the room one is sick in should be- 
long entirely to that person. 

The great thing in the care of the sick is to make the 
patient comfortable and clean and as happy as possible. 
A good nurse is willing to give any amount of trouble to 
accomplish this. 



Have fresh air in the room and see that the room is 

A few flowers add a great deal. If order and clean- 
liness are necessary to produce in a healthy man the 
energy and power to go forth to meet life, so much more 
is this harmony needed to recreate the loss of health and 

If the simple tasks are performed quietly and well it 
will often help to restore health. 

Bathing a Sick Person in Bed and Changing the Sheets. 

The bed for a sick person should be pulled away from 
the wall and not face the light. 

Bed Bath. 

First get everything that you will need for the bath 
and place all the utensils on a table or chair near the bed, 
because when one begins to give a bed bath she must 
not leave the patient to go for water or cloth or soap, 
as this is most distressing to the sick. 

For the bath is needed a basin of warm water, soap, 
one or two bath towels, alcohol, and a wash cloth of gauze. 

A bath should be given before the sheets are changed. 

First take the spread from the bed, fold it neatly, and 
put it out of the way. Make your patient comfortable on 
the pillow before beginning the bath. Sick people are 
often irritable and easily annoyed. We should do all in 
our power to make this morning bath a pleasure and not 
something to be dreaded. 

Have plenty of hot water near at hand. Have an 
extra pitcher of hot water and a jar in which to empty 
the water from the basin when it becomes too cold or 
needs replenishing. 

Make the water a little soapy by shaking the soap in it ; 


do not rub the soap directly on the face or on the cloth. 

Before beginning the bath, loosen the clothes at the 
foot of the bed. 

First wash the face and ears, paying particular atten- 
tion to the ears. The back of the ears and the creases 
often get very dirty, — this is true especially of little 

Remember to be very gentle when you are playing the 
part of nurse. It is trying to any patient to have her ears 
washed. Do not expect the same patience in a sick 
person that you do in one that is well. 

After washing the face and ears rinse out the cloth. 
Wipe the face off again and then dry face and ears care- 

Next take off the nightgown, shake it out carefully and 
hang it over a chair. If the weather is cold place this 
chair near the stove. 

Now lift one arm from under the bedclothes and lay it 
on a Turkish towel which you have placed over the bed- 
clothes to protect them. Rub plenty of soap on the 
cloth, and rub the arm well, particularly under the arm. 
Rinse out the cloth, wipe the arm once more, and dry 
thoroughly. If the patient is not very sick, rub with a 
good brisk stroke. Before washing the <hand it is well 
to trim the finger nails, if they need it. Put the patient's 
hand over the basin, wash it thoroughly with soap and 
water. Clean the finger nails with an orange stick when 
the hand is thbroughly dry. Now wash the other hand 
and arm in the same way. 

It is very refreshing to any one who is obliged to stay 
in bed to have the arm and hand rubbed with alcohol after 
it is thoroughly clean. Never use wood alcohol, but 50 
per cent, pure alcohol gives a cool refreshed feeling. No 
matter what part of the body you are washing, remember 


you must always keep the patient covered, excepting the 
part which is being washed. 

Now, throw back the clothes to the waist line. Wash 
the body to the waist with the soapy cloth, rinse and dry 
with the Turkish towel, as you did the arm, and if pos- 
sible rub the body with alcohol. Next, turn the patient on 
her face and wash the back in the same way. 

The turning of a very sick person is quite a difficult 
matter because often one is so sick that she cannot turn 
herself ; but school girls studying this chapter must know 
they are too young to take care of a very sick person; 
so we can take it for granted that all these home-nurses 
have to do is to a^k the patient who is not very sick and 
to whom she is giving the bath, to turn herself over. 

Always place a Turkish towel under the body to protect 
the bed from dampness. 

Next draw the bed clothes up around the throat of the 
patient so as to keep her warm during the bathing. 
Take out first one leg, place under it the Turkish towel 
and be sure that all the rest of the patient's body is well 
covered. Wash the leg well with soap and water, wipe it 
off with fresh water, dry the leg with a brisk stroke, and 
if possible rub with alcohol. Cover that leg, take out the 
other and wash and dry in the same manner. 

Now you have bathed the face, the arms, the body and 
the legs of your patient, but you have not yet washed the 
feet. When one is sick in bed the feet get tired and hot 
and need careful bathing. For this, an old blanket, two 
towels and a basin are needed. From the foot of the bed 
where clothes have been loosened, slip the blanket under 
the legs and feet of your patient, put Turkish towel over 
the blanket. 

Ask your patient to bend her knees so that the bottom 
of the feet are resting flat on the bed. Slip the basin 



half full of warm water under the clothes, lift the feet 
and put them in the basin. Put a folded towel where the 
legs touch the basin so as to protect them from the edge. 
Now wash feet well with soap and water, dry thoroughly, 
and after drying take out the basin and towels, leave 
blanket for a little time, and if the feet are cold put a hot 
water bag in the bed. 

Do not hurry when you wash the feet of a sick person. 
It is well to let them soak for a few minutes in the hot 

It is understood that fresh hot water is always near by 
in a separate pitcher to add to and keep the basin water 
warm. Water with any chill in it will be unpleasant and 
possibly dangerous to the patient. 

Now the bath is finished. The one who is giving the 
bath can at once collect the basin, the towels, the cloths 
and soap and take them away while the patient rests a 

Combing the Hair. 

The next task in order is to comb your patient's hair. 
Put a towel (fresh if necessary) under her head. Part 
the hair from front to back with the comb. Comb first 
one side then the other. Always begin at the end of the 
hair and work up, combing a small part of it at a time. 
If tangled, twist it around your finger to relieve the pull 
on the scalp. A good nurse will never pull her patient's 
hair; that might start a headache that would last all day. 

After combing one side, braid the hair on that side; 
then braid the other in the same way. Have the braids 
go quite near the ears so that the back of the head may 
be left free and your patient may not be obliged to lie on a 
twist of her hair. 

Wash yoijr hands after combing the hair. 



If not too sick, your patient will want to brush her own 
teeth. Nothing is more refreshing in illness. Any fever 
or any trouble with the stomach at once gives a bad taste 
in the mouth. Cleansing does much to relieve this. Put 
a towel in front of your patient, covering the bed clothes 
carefully. On this put a basin, hand the patient a glass 
of fresh water, her toothbrush and tooth-powder. 

Now make a mouth wash with half a glass of fresh 
water or water and a little salt. After she has brushed 
her teeth and before taking the basin away let her rinse 
her mouth. 

Changing the Sheets with the Patient in Bed. 

First take out top sheet from under the blanket and 
place it one side to use later as a draw sheet. The blanket 
must cover the patient and protect her from all exposure. 

Now take the pillow very gently from under the pa- 
tient's head, move her to one side of the bed, roll the 
soiled under sheet and the draw sheet up next to the 

The clean sheet is then laid on to the uncovered half 
of the bed, the fold in the sheet coming midway in the 
bed. Tuck in this clean sheet on the free side and make 
it smooth as far as the patient; roll this clean sheet up 
tight against the patient beside the soiled one. 

Now fold the top sheet which you took from the bed 
into a strip about one yard wide for a draw sheet and 
tuck it into the side with the clean sheet. Make this 
smooth also, and roll it up next to the patient. 

Now turn the patient to the clean side of the bed over 
the rolls of sheets. Go to the far side of the bed, pull 
out and tbrow to one side the soiled sheet and soiled 
draw sheet that you rolled in the middle of the bed. 


Pull the clean sheet tight and tuck it in with square 
corners; at the same time pull draw sheet as tight as 
possible and tuck in with the sheet. 

Be very careful that there are no wrinkles in the sheet 
The draw sheet is used with a sick person to protect the 
under sheet, and when the sickness is of any severity a 
rubber sheet is placed between the under sheet and the 
draw sheet. 

The pillow, on which a clean pillow case has been put, 
is now placed under the patient's head. Lift her with 
one arm under the shoulders and slip the pillow in with 
the other hand. Pull the pillow down so that it will be a 
little way under each shoulder. Always ask your pa- 
tient whether the pillow is comfortable. 

All this time the patient has been covered with the 

Next, place a clean top sheet over the blanket and pull 
the blanket from under, having your patient hold the sheet 
at the top. The blanket is then placed over the top 
sheet and the sheet and blanket tucked in at the bottom 
of the bed. 

Put on the spread to protect the blanket and also to 
make the bed look attractive. 

No one can do this work at first without the help of a 
teacher. This is not dull and monotonous work like 
much of the housework. A human being is dependent 
upon the care of a nurse for both refreshment and 
strength. This sense of responsibility to another will 
make any work interesting. 

One thing every one should know is how to make peo- 
ple comfortable who have been in bed a long time. 
Often, as in the case of old people, they may not be sick 
enough to have a doctor, and yet they must spend much 
of their time in bed. 


Always be patient with these people. They are apt to 
be nervous and unreasonable. They will be trying, but 
one who has youth and health should feel only pity and 
not irritation for those who are morfe or less helpless. 

Bed Sores. 

When a patient lies in bed for a long time, different 
parts of the body become sore from pressing on the bed, 
from moisture, from wrinkles in the bedclothes, from 
crumbs in the bed and from lack of cleanliness. 

There are many ways to prevent these sores : 

Keep the bed and the patient in a perfectly clean con- 

Watch for sore places. The first sign will be a red look 
and a feeling of soreness. 

Wash these places carefully with half alcohol and half 
water, and then powder them with talcum powder to keep 
them free from moisture. 

If they do not get better at once, send for the doctor 
and ask him what to do. 

It is often a rest to a patient to keep the foot or the 
elbow from pressing on the bed. This can be done by 
making a round pad and resting the elbow or the heel 
in this. 

To Make a Pad, Take absorbent cotton and make a 
round ring of this cotton. Wind this ring around and 
around with gauze from two to three inches wide. 
When it is thoroughly wound, pin the end of the gauze 
with a safety pin, but be very careful that the safety pin 
is in a place where the patient's flesh cannot touch it. 

Medicine Closet. 
Every family should have in the house either a box or a 


medicine closet to hold articles to be used in case of illness 
or emergency. 

This box should contain alcohol (never wood alcohol), 
for use in bathing a patient ; vaseline, or oil, to use in case 
of bums; bicarbonate of soda (baking soda), also for 
use in case of bums ; talcum powder to dry the moisture 
from the skin ; white castile soap, for use in bathing a pa- 
tient ; absorbent cotton, which is used in nearly all illness ; 
sterilized gauze bandage; scissors, which should be kept 
in this box and used only for illness ; pins, ordinary and 
safety pins; cold cream for chapped hands. 

No medicines need to be kept in this box, for if a 
patient is obliged to take medicine the doctor will pre- 
scribe it. 

The Invalid's Tray. 

Let us take as an illustration a little sister who is sick. 
She has been made comfortable for the day. She has a 
clean, cool body ; the sheets on her bed are fresh ; and the 
room has been aired and dusted with a damp duster so 
that no dust has been thrown into the air and thus on to 
the patient. Now the patient is ready for something to 
eat, and it is the duty of the home-nurse to get the break- 

This meal must be daintily served, the dishes made at- 
tractive, the linen spotless ; and when hot food is used the 
dishes must be hot, when cold food is served the cup or 
dish must be cold. 

The appetite has a great effect on digestion, and sick 
people are very apt to have poor appetites, and so it is 
the part of the nurse to do everything in her power to 
stimulate, and to arouse, the appetite. An attractive 
room, a flower on the breakfast tray, and a happy, quiet. 


cheerful nurse wearing a very clean apron, all these do 
much toward making the patient willing to eat. If the 
tray-cloth is a little soiled, if the tea has slopped into the 
saucer, if the outside of the water glass is wet, if the 
nurse's finger-nails are dirty, the patient may lose her 
pleasure in the breakfast and refuse to eat. 

There are six things to remember in preparing an in- 
valid's tray : 

1. Make it look attractive. 

2. Have everything taste just right; Hot things very 
hot, cold things very cold, and each kind of food seasoned 
exactly right. A good cook must taste the food before 
she serves it. 

3. Be sure all of the food on the tray is easily digested. 
(When one is working or playing she can eat more 

solid food than she can when lying still in bed.) 

4. Be sure it is the kind of food that will give the pa- 
tient strength. She wants to get well and strong as soon 
as possible, and every mouthful of food must help her 
toward health. 

5. Let no time elapse between the cooking and serving. 
Food that stands after cooking is not appetizing. 

6. Never ask your patient what she wants to eat, never 
talk about the food where she can hear you. Surprise 
her if possible. This surprise helps the appetite and 
adds interest to the dullness of a long sick-day. 

The tray on which you serve the meal must be large 
enough to hold all the dishes without any appearance of 
crowding. If, for example,* you are serving only milk 
and toast, use a small tray ; but three or four dishes will 
require a large one. 

Cover the tray with a tray-cloth. This does not need 
to be expensive, but it must be spotlessly white. If you 
have not a tray-cloth use a perfectly clean napkin. 


Choose the best china you have; the silver and glass- 
ware must be the best and polished. 

In setting the tray follow the same rules as you did 
in setting {he table. Place the plate where it can be con- 
veniently used ; knife at the right, sharp edge toward the 
plate; the fork at the left of the plate. A bread and 
butter plate should be placed above the fork. The 
napkin must be placed at the left of the fork. Cup and 
saucer at the right — with the handle so that your patient 
can reach it easily. Water glass above the knife, not full 
enough to spill as you carry the tray. Be sure that there 
is salt and pepper on the tray, sugar if required, and a 
small pitcher of cream or milk, if needed. Now the tray 
is ready for the hot dishes of food as soon as they are 

It depends upon how sick the patient is what she can 
eat. In this chapter you will find only a few suggestions. 
In the chapters on cooking you learnt about foods in 
general and how to prepare them. 

Do not give a sick person anything fried. Fried food 
is not as healthy as boiled or steamed or baked food. 

Some cooked fruit is more easily digested than raw 
fruit, for example, bake an apple or make it into apple 
sauce, and serve it with milk and sugar ; but if you have 
an orange the juice is, when served cold, often more 
acceptable than hot fruit, especially in warm weather. 
The flavor of this fruit will help give your patient an 
appetite for the more nutritive part of her breakfast, and 
orange juice is easily digested. Fruits also aid digestion. 
They are largely composed of water, and contain but 
little nutritive value, the little they have being sugar. 
But the blood needs the minerals in fruits, and so it is 
well to serve fruit with the meal.' 

Eggs have a great deal of protein and repair the waste 


of the body as does meat. There is so much food value 
in eggs that even if they are expensive try to buy one or 
two fresh ones for your patient's breakfast. Try to give 
the sick person the best, even if the healthy members of 
the family have to deny themselves. To determine 
whether an egg is fresh or not, put it in a cup of wa- 
ter; it will sink if fresh and rise to the top if not. 
The reasons why eggs are given to sick people are 

1. They have a great deal of food value. 

2. They taste good and are easy to eat. 

3. They are easily digested when raw or cooked soft. 

4. They are free from bacteria because the bacteria 
cannot get through the shell. 

Toast is more easily digested than bread. To make 
toast for an invalid : Cut oS the crust, toast the bread a 
rich brown, first on one side then on the other. Serve 
it hot and let the patient butter it at the last moment. 
Dry toast is easier to digest than buttered toast. 

Milk alone, or in cocoa, is often prescribed for the sick. 
If babies can digest milk and gain from it all the strength 
needed, it is easy to see how it would be just the food a 
doctor would prescribe for a sick person. 


What part should a girl play if she is at hand when an 
accident occurs? In other words, how much of what is 
called " First Aid to the Injured " is required of a school 


The first thing for every girl to learn is that she must 
keep her head in case of accidents. 

There probably will be in the crowd some one who 
knows more than she does. Follow his advice, help him 
by doing exactly what he orders, and try to keep the 


curious crowd as far away from the injured person as 

Do not let the one who is hurt see the injured part if 
you can avoid it. Often a man or woman who is hurt 
will suffer from shock ; that is, faint away or collapse if he 
is allowed to see the arm or leg or other part of the body 
that is injured. 

The second thing for a girl to do is to help to get the 
doctor as soon as possible. Do not take the patient 
to the doctor, but bring the doctor to the patient, be- 
cause moving one who is hurt may do a great deal of 
harm. Until the doctor comes have the patient lie per- 
fectly quiet, flat on his back. Do not try to find out 
where he is hurt. Do not even try to get his clothes oil, 
but keep him as quiet as possible, and cover him with a 
blanket or a coat, always keeping the crowd as far away 
as you can. 

Burns, Burns are the most common form of accidents. 
Little sisters who are under the care of big sisters are 
more apt to get burned than to be hurt in any other way. 

The first thing is to protect the burn from the air, and 
so to ease the pain. 

Mix baking soda with water until it is a thick paste, 
and put this wet dressing all over the burned spot. If 
you have no baking soda, use starch or flour. 

When the pain begins to grow less, cover the burned 
place with vaseline or olive oil or castor oil. 

If it is a bad burn, that is, if it seems to be very deep 
or to cover a large space, get the doctor as soon as pos- 

Sunburn is often a very bad bum, and can be relieved 
with baking soda or covered with oil like any other burn. 
Do not cover with a cloth or handkerchief that is not 



Cuts are another common accident. 

One important thing about treating cuts is to remember 
all the things that should not be done. 

When the skin is broken, there is danger of germs get- 
ting into the blood. Never tie up a cut with a dirty 
handkerchief or rag. Never touch the cut with your 
hand, for there are germs on everybody's fingers. Never 
let the child whose finger is cut put the finger in his 
mouth, for the sputum may contain bacteria that will 
enter the blood. 

Unless the bleeding is very bad, it does no harm 
to let a cut finger or cut foot bleed, because as long as the 
blood is going out no germs can get in. 

The air, also, does not harm the cut, and unless you 
have a clean gauze bandage or a freshly boiled cloth to 
cover it, it is better to leave the cut open to the air. 

Children are apt to fall down and scrape the skin 
from the knee or elbow and get the dirt of the street into 
this raw spot. To clean this out, soap and water are best, 
but if the soap hurts too much call a doctor, for a doctor 
always can do work of this kind more skilfully than an 
untrained person. 

Use boiled water to wash a wound and remember soap 
is a disinfectant. 

Sterilisation is another word you must learn. It means 
about the same as disinfectant. When gauze is sterilized 
it comes in contact with heat and all germs are de- 
stroyed. A handkerchief is sterilized when boiled twenty 

If a girl is faced with a more serious accident than a 
slight cut or a small burn, she should not try to give aid 
herself but simply to keep the patient quiet, and get the 



Hot weather has to be faced every year, and the ma- 
jority of people, on small incomes, are not prepared to 
meet it. Too little importance is attached in this country 
to climatic changes. In India, for example, where the 
thermometer is seldom below eighty degrees, clothing, 
food, hours for labor, are studied with a view to preserv- 
ing health and comfort in spite of the heat. In most 
parts of the United States there are only a few weeks 
of really warm weather, but many endure this rather 
than plan to meet the condition with the forethought and 
intelligence that comes from education on the subject. 
Thus the person who really desires to make the summer 
free from discomfort often does not know how. 


One of the great advantages of summer is that fresh 
air has opportunity to enter our homes, as it has not 
in cold weather. Doors and windows are wide open 
night and day, and there is little danger of breathing ex- 
hausted air. Every person should make the most of this. 
Sleep with every window in the house wide open; insist 
upon fresh air in the store or office or factory ; spend all 
of the recreation-time possible in the open air. Rides 
in an open car or on top of a stage or on a ferry-boat; 
an hour with a book on a park bench instead of in the 
house ; use of the roof for reading or working — are all 
perfectly possible open-air city pleasures. Summer is not 




the only season in the year when one can live under open- 
air conditions; in winter it simply takes mbre courage and 
vitality. It is much better for a girl to spend her money 
in trolley fare or for the short railroad journey that will 
take her to the country than it is to spend that same 
amount of money for a feather for her hat. 

Summer Furnishing. 

There are three reasons why warm clothing, dust-col- 
lecting table-covers, curtains, ornaments, etc., should be 
packed away in hot weather. 

First. They create a feeling of stuffiness and irrita- 
tion. Every one is more sensitive to disorder, to the 
overcrowding of a room, and to dirt, in hot weather than 
in cold. Nerves are on edge, and the vitality that in cold 
weather can help one to laugh at the discomfort of dis- 
order and crowded quarters is lacking in summer. 
Things press against us when we are suffering from the 
heat. Give the rooms in summer an atmosphere of space. 

Second. Curtains, table-covers, etc., collect dust when 
the windows are open, and add to labor and to the danger 
of disease germs. 

Third. A crowded room takes away from the free cir- 
culation of air, and in summer we must have all the draft 

Packing Away for Hot Weather. 

If you have not a chest or packing trunk get a wooden 
box. Any grocery store will have one and will deliver it 
to your house for a few cents. A box the length of the 
window and thirty-seven inches high makes a good win- 
dow-seat as well as packing box. Scrub this box thor- 
oughly inside and out with soap and soda and hot water. 
When dry, paint the inside cracks with turpentine. Five 


cents' worth of turpentine and a small brush will do the 
work. Stain the outside of the box, including the cover, 
with alcohol stain. 

To make stain. Mix with alcohol enough dry Aniline 
stain to make the required color. 

After the stain has thoroughly dried, rub off with a 
cloth the powdery remains of the stain which have not 
passed into the wood. Wax the box with melted beeswax 
or with any prepared floor wax. Hinges are never found 
on these grocery-store boxes, but good hinges can be pur- 
chased from any hardware store for ten cents. 

When the box is cleaned, stained, and the cover hinged, 
line it with newspaper, having the paper overlap so that 
there are no open spaces. Shake, brush, and thoroughly 
air every article of clothing or other material that is to be 
packed. Then fold carefully, and place the separate 
articles in the box, with a newspaper between each. 
When the box is full, cover the whole with a newspaper, 
tucking it in so that no air or insects can reach the cloth- 
ing. Fasten the cover on tight, and do not open until 

This box can be used for wood in winter. 


Mosquitoes in tropical countries are the carriers of 
malaria and yellow fever. The Panama Canal, because 
of the prevalence of yellow fever in the Canal Zone, 
could never have been built had it not been for the dis- 
covery that these fever poisons are carried from one 
person to another by the bite of a mosquito. In 1880, 
the French started to build the canal, but were obliged 
to give it up because the prevalence of the fevers made 
labor impossible. It was through the acts of brave men, 
among them Dr. Carroll and Dr. Lazaer, that it was 



proved that these tiny insects were so dangerous. These 
doctors allowed mosquitoes that had bitten yellow-fever 
patients to bite them, and in both cases the disease was 
contracted. Dr. La^aer studied the mosquito as it lit on 
his hand and drank his blood. Three days later he came 
down with yellow fever, and died, but his death proved 
beyond doubt that the mosquito must be eliminated. 
Havana has been free from yellow fever since 1902 be- 
cause of the splendid work of William C. Gk)rgas. 

Mosquitoes breed in damp places and in stagnant water. 
When the United States was ready to build the canal and 
it was decided that either the mosquito must go or the 
canal remain unbuilt, the first thing that was done in 
Panama and Colon was to install a perfect system of 
sewers and to pave the streets. This did away with the 
filth and the mud that had been the breeding place of the 
mosquito. As mosquitoes breed in damp undergrowth, 
this also was cleared away, swamps were drained, and 
stagnant pools were oiled. It was not possible at once 
absolutely to exterminate the disease, but as soon as any 
one showed signs of yellow fever, he was put into a 
screened room, and an officer was put on duty day and 
night to see that the screen doors were always closed and 
that no mosquitoes in the room could possibly fly out. 
As soon as the yellow fever patient was well, the house 
was fumigated and all mosquitoes were killed. 

This drainage and sanitary work cost the United States 
more than nine millions of dollars and the lives of many 
valuable men, but the discovery that the mosquito was a 
disease carrier was worth the lives of these scientists and 
doctors, and to clean up this one little spot in the world 
was worth all it cost. It is facts like these that make us 
respect the word "sanitation." The principal man at the 
head of all this cleaning-up work was Colonel Gorgas, and 


what that man did in a big way each girl can do in a 
small way. He stands simply as one of the greatest 
house-cleaners that ever lived. He made perfectly clean 
and healthy the place that was given him to clean, and 
that is all that is expected of any one. 


Flies are another danger of the summer months. A 
fly eats and carries on its body the filth and bacteria 
from the substances on which it feeds. The house-fly is 
a disease-carrier not because it infects people by its bite, 
as the mosquito does, but because it eats and lives and 
lays its eggs in infected material. Dead animals and ex- 
creta are its principal food. But if the house and the 
near-by street have no filth or disease bacteria exposed 
for the fly to feed on, it is a harmless, though annoying, 
insect. If one does not like the thought that the fly now 
walking around the edge of the cream-jug was a short 
time ago eating and walking on a dead fish, feeding in 
the garbage-pail, or even in more disgusting filth, the only 
thing to do is to keep all such feeding-places covered. 

The body of the fly is thickly covered with tiny hairs, 
its legs are like little brushes, and the dirt and germs 
stick to this hairy body. It is estimated that a fly can 
carry about infected bacteria on its legs and wings for at 
least eighteen hours. Not only do flies carry germs, but 
they also drop this dirty material from their body after 
they have eaten it. The fly always overeats, and it 
overeats decayed material, which it prefers to fresh food. 
This overeating causes a distention of the body, and in 
order to relieve this feeling, the fly drops the undigested 
food as it moves from object to object. The girls who 
study this book may have noticed that when a fly falls 
into the milk it will leave a trail as it crawb out. These 


trails are the droppings from the intestines and the mouth. 
They have been studied and proved to be often infected. 
Every girl has also seen fly-spots where the fly has 
walked. These spots are the same things: little drops 
of dirt. Flies feed on sputum, and when this sputum has 
dried to such an extent that the fly cannot draw it into its 
mouth, it will inject fluid and moisten in this way the 
dried sputum, so that it can be sucked in. 

The dirty habits of the fly are also conspicuous from 
the places in which it lays its eggs. Some flies prefer the 
wounds of animals, in which cases extensive sores are 
the result. Some will lay their eggs in the dirt of the 
street. A certain kind of fly will lay its eggs only in 
cheese, bacon, or some fatty material. As the common 
house fly does not pierce the skin, it cannot carry poison 
to the blood, but a fly will light on our skin again and 
again so that it may feed on the skin secretions. The 
danger from a fly lies, then, in the fact that they feed and 
breed in dirty, infected places, and then light on the food 
of human beings. You may never see the fly that poisons 
you or that makes your baby sick, for all that is necessary 
is that the hairy little body shall walk over filth and then 
infect the milk. 

Intestinal diseases are those most often given by the 
fly to human beings. This is because of the matter that 
the fly eats. Diarrhea in summer is the most common of 
these diseases. A single fly can carry on its body 6,600,- 
000 bacteria, and in one examination in England between 
the months of July and October, twenty per cent, of the 
flies were found to be infected with diarrhea germs. 

A fly does not move much from street to street or from 
house to house. So if the house you live in and the street 
you live on are clean, you are comparatively safe. 

What is the citizen's responsibility in this question? 


Flies wiU walk in filth if there is any filth to walk in. 
That is a habit in fiies we cannot control, but the milk 
and food in the house can be covered so that the dirty 
feet of the fly. cannot touch what we eat. Garbage-cans, 
ash-cans, and all waste can be covered, and so made im- 
possible for the fly to use as a feeding place. The win- 
dows can be screened. A screen can be bought for 
twenty-five cents, and the purchase of this may save a 
baby's life. A screen is also necessary to keep the 
mosquitoes away. In this country mosquitoes are not the 
deadly carriers of disease that they are in the tropics, 
but they do poison many people, they heat the blood, and 
they certainly do much to annoy and rob one of sleep. 
Do not shut the windows to keep insects out when a 
screen will do the same work. Just as uncovered garbage 
IS a breeding-place for flies, so stagnant water, even a 
small quantity of water in a pail, will act as a breeding- 
place for mosquitoes. 

Those who study this book may not go to Panama or 
give their lives to help science, but every one can take the 
rules that these great scientists have discovered, can learn 
them by heart, and can live by them day by day, and 
every girl can clean up her little corner or her one house, 
just as thoroughly as Colonel Gorgas did his larger house- 


Food is to the body what coal is to the stove, and as 
no one builds a big fire in the stove on a warm summer 
day if it can be helped, so no one should overheat the 
body in hot weather. One-fourth to one-third less food 
is needed in hot weather than in cold, and not only is the 
quantity of the food different but the quality is also dif- 
ferent. The foods that contain carbohydrate, fat and 



protein, such as meat, oil, butter and sugar, create heat in 
the body. Proteins and carbohydrates are quick fuels. 
For example, if energy is wanted quickly one may obtain 
this by giving the body eggs or sugar. 

To produce heat slowly in the body, and a heat that 
will last, as a hard coal fire outlasts a wood fire, eat oils, 
nuts and fat meats. It is for this reason that in cold 
countries, on all Polar expeditions, the men eat great 
quantities of fat, but little of this heat-giving food is 
necessary in warm weather. 

Cooling foods are the foods that contain much water. 
There is a constant loss of moisture from the body in 
summer as there is loss of heat in winter. In hot 
weather, therefore, we must eat food that makes up for 
this water loss, just as in winter we must eat food that 
gives back the loss of heat. Water is as cooling to the 
inside of the body as the cold bath is to the outside. Eat 
uncooked vegetables such as celery and lettuce; such 
fruits as pears, peaches and oranges, these being largely 
composed of water ; but when you eat this uncooked food 
be very careful that it is fresh and clean, for food decays 
very rapidly in hot weather. Never eat any fruit or 
vegetable or salad without washing it thoroughly. 

Freshly cooked vegetables, such as peas and beans, con- 
tain much nourishment and in summer they are better to 
eat than meat. Do not give the stomach a great deal of 
work to do in hot weather. Eggs are more quickly di- 
gested than fat meats. 

Eat foods in summer that require a short time to cook. 
It is often possible to cook in the morning the food neces- 
sary for the day, thus allowing the fire to go out and 
insuring a cool house to sleep in. Be thoughtful of 
the servant in hot weather; she suffers from the heat 
as truly as her employer. A supper of cold meat, crisp 


cool salad, cold milk and bread and butter is surely more 
appetizing than a steaming hot dish on a summer night. 

Buying in Summer. 

One reason for the increase in disease in warm weather 
is bad food. Every one knows that to keep food from 
decaying in summer it must be put on the ice ; in winter 
the cold weather takes the place of the ice-box. 

In winter most people are obliged to eat canned vege- 
tables, which never have the sweetness of the fresh vege- 
tables. Do not open a can of peas in July because it is 
easier than shelling the fresh, and equally cheap, peas 
from the market. In bu)ring vegetables, remember that 
they must be crisp. Lettuce that is not crisp is not fresh. 
If possible, buy fruit with the skins on. Never buy 
pineapple or watermelon by the slice, as the dust frdm 
the street has entered every piece. 

Sweet, syrupy drinks do not take the place of water. 
The sugar in soft drinks is heating, and clear water is 
healthier and more cooling. Our bodies cry out for 
moisture because of the great loss of water through the 
pores of our skin. 

Let each girl seriously take up the problem of hot 
weather living. The death-rate of children is much 
greater in summer than in winter. There is the danger 
from decaying food, because fermentation is quickened 
by the heat. The man who sells you fresh vegetables 
from a cart may be perfectly honest when he tells you 
they were fresh that morning. In summer a few hours 
are all that are needed to produce decay. Then, too, there 
is more dust in summer than in winter. Our windows 
are open, and the dust easily enters our homes. Also in 
summer, it requires more will-power to dust properly 
every morning and to get rid of all dust. Flies and 


mosquitoes infect the food in summer, and the overheated 
bodies of little children furnish easy lodgment for disease. 

The care of little children has been considered, but 
while we are on this subject let us go over a few abso- 
lutely necessary facts about helping the baby during the 

The baby should never be weaned in hot weather, but 
if it takes cow's milk, the milk must be kept in a cool 
place and covered. 

Milk which has been heated by the sun or by hot air, 
or has been too near the stove, is bad milk. 

A baby feels the heat more than grown-up people; in 
hot, weather it should wear as little clothing as possible. 
A loose cotton shirt and a diaper are sufficient for a hot 

In warm weather give the baby a cool sponge bath 
several times a day, and give it plenty of clean, cool 
boiled water to drink ; never forget that it gets thirsty and 
is unable to ask for water. 

If the baby vomits or has diarrhea, stop all feeding. 
Give it boiled water, and send for the doctor at once. 


While many people think picnics are only childish things 
and not important enough for study, they are really worth 
studying for two reasons. 

First. They are held out of doors; and to eat in the 
fresh air gives the body the best possible medicine. 

Second. A great many people who, at home, are very 
particular about meals tliink an3rthing will do for a picnic. 
On the contrary, cold food that is to take the place of a 
hot meal should be prepared with even more care if 
possible than the meal at home. It is usually eaten in 
a warm atmosphere after being carried some distance* 


Every one can recall how many children come home 
from picnics (which should mean health, relaxation and 
amusement) sick at their stomachs. Why? Because 
they either eat the wrong food, or the right food prepared 
in the wrong way, and as soon as the stomach feels the 
motion of the ferry or the car it protests. For it is an 
insult to the stomach to fill it with unwholesome food. 

What should be taken on a picnic? Sandwiches, fruit 
and something to drink. Sandwiches should be the main 
part of the lunch. In a sandwich we have the bread 
which is wanted at every meal and which contains the 
necessary starch ; butter contributes the fat, and a proper 
filling completes the needed nourishment. In making 
sandwiches in summer very little butter should be used, 
for it is apt to get rancid, and fat is heating. The filling 
of the sandwiches must contain as much food value as 
possible, and whether it consists of meat or salad or 
cheese a sandwich is the easiest way to carry the main 
part of the meal. 

Making Sandwiches. 

Have your hands clean, for sandwiches must be handled 
in the making. Bread a day old is better than fresh 
bread. Have the filling very cold. 

As sandwiches are usually eaten in hot weather and 
away from ice, they should be done up in oiled paper to 
keep out the air and heat. Germs are very active in warm 
weather. Sandwiches should not be of that material 
which easily decays. Meat is expensive, and quickly 
spoils in a warm place, so it is well, when possible, to 
select a substitute for meat. 

A quarter of a pound of cheese contains the same 
nourishment as i qt. of milk or as much as ^ lb. of meat. 

Two eggs are equal to % lb. of meat. 


Nuts are only 5 per cent, water and the remaining 95 
per cent, is nourishing. 

Thirty walnuts (without shells) contain as much fat 
as ^ lb. of meat. 

There is much nutritive value in olive oil. 

Sandwiches made with salad dressing and lettuce, 
chicory, cucumber and celery, do not give much nour- 
ishment apart from the oil and bread, but we do get re- 
freshment, water and salts. 

Vegetables, fish, cut fruit and meat make good sand- 
wiches, but spoil quickly in a hot place. 

Salad oil becomes rancid if kept in a warm place for 
any length of time. 

All these facts should help decide what kind of sand- 
wiches should be taken on a picnic. 

As a rule, cold food is not so appetizing as hot food 
(this does not mean iced dishes), and hence great care 
should be taken to make every sandwich dainty, even 
though it seems fussy and unnecessary at the time. All 
should be the same shape and size, and the edges cut even 
with a sharp knife. 

To Make a Sandwich. 

Prepare the material that you are to put in the sand- 

Have oiled or tissue paper ready (if the sandwich is to 
be taken away). 

Cut the bread in slices one quarter of an inch thick. 
Butter with soft butter (mash if butter is hard). If 
very dainty sandwiches are desired, cut off the crust after 
sandwich is filled, but remember that the crust cut off 
is just so much food value wasted. 

Spread filling on one slice of bread and place the other 
evenly on top. Wrap* in the paper before bread dries. 


Remember that knives and forks are not usually at 
hand when sandwiches are eaten. An3rthing of fibrous 
texture must be chopped fine, as eating with the fingers 
is unattractive if the food is not very dainty to handle. 

Never use anything excepting oiled or tissue paper for 
wrapping the sandwich. Never use newspaper. There 
are people who are so careless and have so little thought 
for health that they will use a dirty, inky newspaper to 
wrap about a luncheon. Newspapers are made from 
dirty rags; the printer's ink used on the type is black, 
greasy oil (rub it off on your hands and see for your- 
self). After the newspaper is printed it is carried by 
boys who handle it with dirty hands. 


The reason why every one needs to know about the 
disposition of the city refuse is because the ignorance and 
thoughtlessness of citizens is keeping back this disease- 
prevention work. Look down any air-shaft, or look into 
the alleys back of the tenement houses, and see the abso- 
lute disregard of the law which reads : " No person shall 
place ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse or other matter in 
the yards, open areas or alleys connected with or appur- 
tenant to any tenement house, except in suitable re- 
ceptacles provided for the same." Until these laws are 
known to every individual, and kept, the Street Clean- 
ing Department and the Health Department combined 
cannot make a city healthy. 

When any citizen throws rubbish from the window, 
or tosses papers on the street, he is breaking a law. 

Why is it difficult to make individuals do their part in 
this daily, municipal house-cleaning? Because so many 
lack the necessary imagination to take an interest in 
things out of sight. As soon as garbage or refuse is out 
of her house many a woman ceases to feel any responsi- 
bility for the harm it may do. Only education can create 
this civic interest, and only a social spirit can make men 
and women regard the work of the municipality as a per- 
sonal obligation. 

It is the business of each housekeeper to see that all 



household waste reaches the large street cans, and to see 
that none of it remains in the pipes or in the house re- 
ceptacles. It is the landlord's responsibility to have large 
covered cans to receive this household waste. It is the 
city's responsibility to care for this waste after it is out 
on the street. 

Here are three laws included in the sanitary code of 
many of the large cities. 

" Every tenement house and every part thereof shall be 
kept clean and free from any accumulation of dirt, filth 
or garbage, or other matter in or on the same, or in th^ 
yards, courts, passages, areas or alleys connected with or 
belonging to the same. 

" No person shall place or keep filth in any place in a 
tenement house other than that provided for the same. 

" The owner of every tenement house shall provide 
for building proper receptacles for ashes, rubbish, gar- 
bage, refuse and other matter." 

All this means that the law demands that every apart- 
ment house shall be kept clean, inside and out. According 
to definition, the poorest tenement house and the richest 
apartment house come under the same laws. 

In every home there must be three receptacles for the 
material that is to be thrown away : 

Can for Ashes — this to be emptied into the large 
street ash can. 

Can for Garbage — this to be emptied into the large 
street garbage can. 

Baskets for Waste Paper — these to be emptied into 
the city paper bag. 

Useless rubbish such as old bottles, old mattresses, tin 
cans, etc., is called for by the Street Cleaning Depart- 
ment. When the department is informed that there is 
rubbish in a house, the street carts must call for it at once. 



Never allow anything to go into the garbage pail but 
clean food-material, as dry as possible. 

Care of House Garbage Can. 

A garbage can should never be left open. 

It must be emptied every day. 

If newspaper always lines the can, scraps of meat or 
vegetables cannot get into the cracks. It will be very 
easy to wash it out with boiling soda-water, using a stick 
with a cloth on the end. Use the cloth for this purpose 
only. In emptying the garbage can, throw the garbage 
into the large outside garbage receptacle, but throw the 
paper that lined the can into the paper bag. 

Cleaning the Garbage Can. 

Be sure all food is scraped from the can. Put in a 
handful of soda, pour in boiling water and wash around 
with the cloth until all the soda is dissolved. Pour this 
dirty water down the toilet and rinse the can with clear 
hot water. 

When dry, air and put in fresh newspaper. 

It is not necessary to clean the ash can in this way. 
Ashes are clean as long as they are not blown about. 

Tie together papers before sending them out to the 
street to be taken by the wagon. 

What Becomes of the City Refuse. 

We say, it is the business of the municipality to re- 
move promptly all offensive and dangerous city refuse, 
but the burden is too heavy for any city department to 
carry alone; without the help of the individual it is im- 
possible to do the work well. A great deal is said and 
written of those diseases that can be controlled in clean 
surroundings. No city department can do this preventive 


work alone. The street cleaners are the doctors keeping 
down the death-rate, but until every person who desires 
health is willing to do his or her part, no number of muni- 
cipal doctors can control disease. 

" The individual needs fresh air, pure water, good food, 
safe shelter, a clean body and something beautiful to look 

When any person, desiring these healthy surroundings, 
becomes a part of a city, he must assume his share of obli- 

In New York City there were in 1915, 6,500 men em- 
ployed in keeping clean 1,359 i^iles of streets. The great 
majority of citizens are so absolutely uninterested in this 
work that day after day they not only do nothing to help 
make the city beautiful and healthy, but they actually 
hinder these men in their work. 

If the refuse of an average city for one year were put 
together, it would fill one large city block in a pile more 
than 1000 feet high ; and if the sewage of New York was 
collected into one stream it would make a continuous 
flowing river as large as the Hudson in summer. Surely, 
with a problem as great as is the disposition of this huge 
amount of waste matter, every man, woman and child 
should be trained to do their part ; there must be no pos- 
sibility for the excuse, "I did not know the law,*' or "I 
did not know it was my business." Action is created 
through interest, and what we are interested in we take 
care of. Let every school child become interested in his 
city, and he will want to help keep it clean. 

In studying the disposition of a city's refuse, it is 
necessary constantly to keep in mind the two sides of the 
question — the sanitary and the business side. That is, 
the work must be done well, but it must also be done as 
efficiently as possible. 



All city waste should be taken care of by the city, 
rather than by individual persons or companies. The 
municipal method is more systematic, more sanitary, 
cheaper for the people, and easier for the street clean- 
ers. No city where the municipality is not responsible 
for the disposition of its garbage and refuse is up to the 
highest civic standard. 

City Refuse or Waste. 

This is composed of : 

Sewage, or night soil. 

Street sweepings — that is, the soot and air dust; the 
rubbish falling from refuse-cans; manure; pavement 
dirt ; leaves ; droppings from carts ; bits of material from 
building construction. 

Garbage — Animal and vegetable matter, and, in many 
cities, dead animals. 

Ashes — including unbumt coal. 

Rubbish — Paper-boxes, rags, bedding, leather, rubber, 
metals, bottles and glass, paper-sweepings from houses, 
furniture, old clothes, old shoes, old carpets, etc. 


Waste is matter whose present usefulness is over. It 
must be so taken care of as to do no harm, and must be 
changed or reduced into by-products consistent with the 
health of the community. Health is so closely allied with 
the disposition of waste that this side of the subject is of 
the greatest importance to every one. 

The expense to a city of keeping its streets clean is so 
great that the matter of the by-products becomes very 
important. They must help to pay the cost of cleaning. 

A by-product is a secondary product. It is something 
produced in addition to the principal product. As, for 
example; food is the principal product in the use of ani- 


mal or vegetable matter, but when the matter has served 
its use as food and becomes garbage, it may be turned 
into a secondary by-product, grease. 

A short study of every kind of city waste will show 
the danger if this waste is not properly cared for, and the 
economical loss if it is not reduced to its greatest value or 
its most marketable by-products. 

Liquid Waste or Sewage. 

Sewage is waste water from houses, street refuse and 
area drainage. 

There is an average of one hundred gallons of sewage 
per person to be disposed of every day. The responsibil- 
ity of caring for this falls on the city, and there is no 
profit to be derived from this liquid waste. 

Inland communities must bury the sewage; this is a 
costly and unsatisfactory method. In cities situated near 
water, the sewage is often carried into the rivers, ocean 
or lakes, and the great danger is the pollution of the water. 

In the last few years much progress has been made 
in the purification of domestic sewage, which can now 
be so disinfected and filtered that all danger is re- 
moved. Engineers, sanitarians and chemists are con- 
stantly working on the subject of the safe disposal of 
sewage — but there is much municipal house-cleaning 
still to be done. 

Street Sweepings. 

Country-road dust is composed principally of ground-up 
rock, and is comparatively clean, because the ccuntry 
roads are but little used for travel. In cities, however, 
there is a natural fouling of the city streets which comes 
from the animal manure, wear from the pavements, soot, 
dust from the air, slobbering of animals. This dirt can- 


not be avoided ; it can only be scientifically taken care of. 
There is also the unnatural, unnecessary dirt: sputum 
from hiunan beings, scattered garbage, house-sweepings, 
and droppings from carts. The danger comes when this 
mixture of natural and unnecessary filth is ground fine by 
the action of traffic. In this condition it is mud or slime 
in wet weather, and dust in dry weather. The slimy 
mud sticks to the feet and clothing of the people, and in 
this way is carried into homes and stores, where it mixes 
with the air, and this contaminated air finds a lodgment in 
the human lungs. This street dust settles on furniture, 
our fingers come in contact with this dust and later touch 
food ; the dust also settles directly on uncovered food and 
the food becomes contaminated and carries disease to 
human beings. 

Dust, in dry weather, requires neither clothing nor 
boots to carry it into our homes; it blows in through 
windows, doors and the smallest crack. Mud is less ob- 
jectionable than dust, but mud in warm weather becomes 
a breeding-place for germs. 

It should be remembered that it is not enough to remove 
layer-dirt from the streets ; it is the mud and dust under- 
neath that hold the disease germs. 

There are three methods of cleaning. 

Method I — Hand-sweeping. 

Method II — Machine sweeping. 

Method III — Flushing. 

Sprinkling paved streets does not in any way clean 
them; it simply turns dust into mud, which soon dries 
and becomes dust again. It is believed by experts that 
if streets were properly cleaned, sprinkling would be un- 
necessary. In large cities streets are now flushed every 
day. Snow as well as dirt is removed in this way. 



Disposition of Street Sweepings. 

For the sake of the city's health, street sweepings, be- 
ing dangerous, should be disposed of every day. They 
and night-soil are the only refuse which have no value, 
and are the most difficult of disposal. For example, it is 
not easy to bum street-dirt because the sweepings carry 
moisture and sand. This clogs furnaces and adds vir- 
tually nothing to the heat. The animal manure is too 
often mixed with other rubbish to be of much value as a 

In some places the street sweepings are disposed of 
in dumps, or are used to fill in roads, but this creates 
offensive odors, and the disease-laden material is blown 
into the air in the form of dust. In some cities, for ex- 
amplei Columbus, Ohio, the sweepings are mixed with 
water and flushed down the sewers, and all danger is 
thus avoided. Here is, however, the danger of a noxious 
deposit being formed at the sewer outlet, which must be 
cared for. 

The care of the sewers is every one's responsibility. 
We have no right to take the time of street-cleaners to 
work over a dammed-up sewer, clogged only because 
some one has thrown down sticks, stones or other solid 

In 191 1, the expense of cleaning the streets of New 
York City was more than six million dollars, apart from 
the expense of removing the snow, which was two and a 
half million. It is estimated that if people had not 
thrown litter on the streets or in the sewers, and had 
kept the laws regarding the care of garbage, the cost of 
cleaning the streets would have been reduced at least 
$400,000. Other ways in which people can assist in keep- 
ing streets clean is to refrain from the filthy habit 
of spitting, and from shaking rugs and mats on the 


sidewalk or from the windows. Both are unlawful. 

A desire for cleanliness is contagious. If we make 
it our habit to be clean, others, almost unconsciously, 
will copy us. Each person should resolve that, ** As an 
individual I will do nothing that will contribute to the 
disorder of the city streets, and wherever possible I will 
prevent others." 

Is there anjrthing that the city can do to make the 
careless man and woman keep the street-cleaning 

The city can compel officials, who have the power, to 
arrest and fine all persons who will not keep the laws. 
As it is at present, except in cases of epidemic when 
the citizens are thoroughly frightened, many laws are a 
mere farce. 

The municipality, also, can make the keeping of the laws 
possible. For example, when the law says " no person 
shall throw papers on the street," receptacles in which to 
throw papers should be in convenient places. 

Ashes. The ashes which are dumped in the city ash- 
cans contain much unburnt coal. The accumulated con- 
tents of these cans has a heating value of fifty per cent 
of new coal. The cost of obtaining this coal is collec- 
tion and the labor of separating the coal from the ash. 
The cost of this combined labor is less than fifty per cent, 
of the value received. The fine ashes can be used to fill 
in low land, and ashes mixed with lime will make Port- 
land cement. In certain combinations the ashes make a 
common brick material; in other combinations, they are 
used to make ornamental tiles, and an artificial stone for 
sidewalks. In some communities, cesspool material and 
ashes together are used for fertilizing. 

Every city has its own method of disposing of the ashes. 

From New York City the ashes are taken to Riker's 


Island in the East River. This island originally had 
eighty-six acres. In 1914, because of all the ashes 
dumped there, it had grown to three hundred and twenty- 
five acres. The Street Cleaning Department can make 
land on this island until it is fifteen feet above high 
water mark. Then they must stop and go elsewhere ; but 
as ashes are soft and constantly sink, land is slow in 
making. Land made in this way is not good enough to 
build on, but on account of the fertilizing value of the 
ashes, and the vegetable matter that gets mixed in with 
the ashes, such a dump can be used for planting certain 
rank-growing things. 


When we speak of rubbish, we mean bottles, paper, 
rags, mattresses, old furniture, old clothes, old carpets, tin 
cans, broken crockery, etc., which have lost their original 

Rubbish should be collected by the city, and the city, 
not the householder, be held responsible for its disposition. 
In Cleveland, Ohio, the rubbish is collected by workhouse 
prisoners ; in Buffalo, the city contracts for the collection 
of ashes, rubbish and garbage; in New York, it is col- 
lected by the Street Cleaning Department and sold to a 

The rubbish from which we obtain the most valuable 
by-products are: 

Paper and rags. These may be sold to the paper-stock 
trade, and reappear in the form of paper boxes and com- 
mon paper. 

Tin cans. These are generally melted and molded into 
sash weights. The tin and the solder are often re- 
claimed. Cans are also melted and rolled out into sheets 
of tin from which buttons are punched out. These are 



used for nailing down building paper. The tin sheets 
are used also in fireproof and burglar-proof safes. 

Bottles. The unbroken white glass bottles are usually 
sold back to the firm whose name is blown in the glass. 
Broken bottles and old glass are melted and reblown. 
Glass in combination with other material is used in mak- 
ing artificial stone. 

Empty Barrels. These are often returned to commis- 
sion merchants to be used again for vegetables, and other 

Old Iron. This is used for low-grade castings. 

Old Shoes. These are sold for burnishing and polish- 
ing castings. 

In New York the Street Cleaning Department of the 
city Is obliged to call for and cart the rubbish of the city to 
thirteen dumps on the North and East Rivers. At these 
dump-stations are scows, or big flat-bottomed boats. 
After the rubbish is on these scows it belongs to a con- 
tractor, who pays New York City hundreds of dollars a 
year: for the privilege of looking over this refuse material 
and taking out anything of money value. Men hired for 
this purpose stand on the scow with long forks and pick 
out such material as is of commercial value. The con- 
tractor is obliged to return to milk-dealers their own milk- 
bottles, and for this collection and return he is paid by 
the milk-dealers. . The rags are sold to paper-makers ; tin 
cans, bits of copper and ticking from old mattresses are 
sold to various manufacturers. After each scow of rub- 
bish is looked over it is leveled off and taken to the city's 
rubbish dump. 

Until a few years ago all useless rubbish was generally 
taken out to sea and dumped. This was stopped because 
the rubbish washed back onto the shore or floated about in 
the water. 



Garbage means animal and vegetable waste matter that 
has served its usefulness as food. 

Swill is another word for garbage. This word was 
used in Connecticut and Rhode Island, and is used to-day 
in some parts of Massachusetts. Slops was the word 
used for years in Philadelphia. 

The reason why it is necessary to define exactly what 
is meant by these words is that the public may under- 
stand the laws, and, also, that the contractors, who often 
are licensed to collect and dispose of garbage, may know 
the exact material for which they are contracting. 

Garbage Laws from Different Cities. 

" Rain water, liquids and dishwater must not be mixed 
with garbage." " Garbage must be kept in proper recep- 
tacles." " Wells, courts, passages, areas and alleys must 
be kept free from garbage." In some places, " Garbage- 
cans must be outside in summer and inside in winter." 
In one city, " Garbage-cans shall be placed two feet out- 
side of lot line." In another, they " shall stand outside 
of street line." 

These laws are for the householder, but a law that is 
made and not kept is worse than no law at all. There are 
three ways for the city to enforce garbage laws : 

1. Educate the people, especially the children; "sani- 
tary instruction is even more important than sanitary 

2. Fine those who will not keep the law. 

3. Refuse to collect garbage if it is not placed accord- 
ing to the law, and report the negligent householder. 

The city of Washington and many other cities make 
it a crime for any person to disturb garbage after it 
has been put in a garbage receptacle. This is to prevent 


the turning over of garbage for the collection of pos- 
sible junk, food, bones, fat and in so doing scattering it 
on the street. 

Odors and Decay. 

Garbage is subject to rapid decay, and as this decay 
goes on objectionable odors are given forth. This is one 
reason why the collection of garbage is such an insistent 
part of municipal house-cleaning, and why the dumping 
of garbage is offensive. Decay takes place more rapidly 
in warm weather than in cold, and there is half again 
as much garbage in summer as there is in winter. When 
we consider the fruit-skins, pea-pods, melon-rinds and 
other vegetable coverings that are thrown out during the 
summer months, it is easy to account for this increase. 

Garbage Cans. 

These are nearly always offensive, and how to keep 
them clean is a difficult matter. To disinfect these cans 
and to make laws that will insure their cleanliness have 
been attempted by many cities and by hundreds of in- 
dividual experts ; but the required size of the city's gar- 
bage-cans makes it impossible to force this labor on the 
women of the home. For example, in New York the 
cans must be large enough to contain the garbage for 
thirty-six hours; in Cleveland for forty-eight hours; in 
Yonkers for three days ; in Rochester the can must allow 
one gallon of garbage for every member of the family. 
The law in Philadelphia is that no can shall be too large 
to be handled by one man. It has so far proved im- 
practicable for the householder or the garbage collector 
to wash these cans. Therefore, in nearly all cities they 
are offensive in looks and odor. In Buffalo, from May 
I to October 30, there is a law requiring that all cans be 


thoroughly disinfected every day to the satisfaction of the 
Board of Health. Water-tight, covered receptacles are 
required in all cities, and this requirement may be easily 
enforced, but a garbage receptacle is clean only when 
washed daily. 

Final Disposition of Garbage. 

In small places garbage is fed to swine, the farmers 
being willing to call for it for nothing on condition that 
garbage fit for this purpose be kept separate from other 
refuse. This method is not considered sanitary, because 
disease is spread by pigs eating contaminated meat. Hogs 
so fed are apt to develop disease and their feeding-places 
are necessarily dirty and offensive. 

Dumping is never a method of garbage disposal, for the 
dumps would become unsanitary, and a breeding-place for 
flies. Any waste heap is a gathering-place for the poor of 
the city who hope to find junk or food. 

In still other towns garbage is buried. This method 
is expensive, as it requires much unused land. It is also 
a nuisance, for such a burying-place has to be near the 
city, as a long haul is very expensive. 

Garbage when carried out to sea and dumped in the 
water floats back to shore. 

There are but two scientific methods of disposing of 
garbage : 

First: Reduction method, cooking the garbage into 

Second: Incineration, burning and destroying it. 

One or the other of these methods is now employed in 
most of the large cities. 

Reduction Method. 
When the reduction method is used, the garbage is 


boiled down an<i made into grease. The grease made 
from garbage is the most valuable by-product of all city 
waste. Dead animals, in some states, are included with 
garbage, while in other places they are sold separately. 
Every part of an animal has value and can be turned into 
some by-product. 

To understand this reduction method, take for example 
New York City. All the garbage of New York is taken 
by the street cleaning department to one of the seven 
garbage dumps and there loaded onto scows. These 
scows are separate from the ash and refuse scows. From 
the moment the garbage reaches the dump, the city has no 
more responsibility. It is sold to a contractor either by 
the ton or by yearly contract. In 1914 New York City 
received twenty-one cents a ton for its garbage. Another 
year the agreement was $85,500 for the year's garbage, 
not including hotel garbage or dead animals. Hotels, 
realizing the value of this waste matter, are not willing to 
give it to the city but make separate contracts with soap 
makers ; a large hotel receives as much as $3,000 a year 
for its garbage. 

All dead animals in New York belong to the Board of 

The New York contractor takes all garbage to Barren 
Island in Jamaica Bay. On Barren Island is a large gar- 
bage plant, where are huge boilers, presses arid highly- 
heated furnaces. The garbage first runs down long nar- 
row troughs, at the side of which little boys stand to pick 
out any pieces of glass, iron or hard material which may 
injure the boilers. The garbage is then cooked for eight 
hours. At the end of that time it comes out a pulpy mass 
the color and consistency of apple butter. Seventy per 
cent, of all city garbage is water, and before the grease 
can be used the moisture and fiber must be separated by 


pressure. The pulpy mass is put into large hydraulic 
presses and pressed down until the moisture in the garbage 
is squeezed out and run into large basins. Here the 
grease rises and flows into tanks where the water — what 
is still left of it — is further separated from the grease. 
The grease then is drained into barrels. Until the late 
war, much of this grease was sent to Belgium for the mak- 
ing of soap. In Belgium they have a process of taking 
the glycerine out of the grease, and as this glycerine is 
very valuable, it is more profitable to sell it to the country 
where it can be extracted to the best advantage. At least 
one hundred and fifty barrels of grease were sent to 
Europe each day from New York alone. 

After the grease has been extracted from the garbage, 
the fibrous part is left. The next step is to get this fiber 
very dry. This is done by the application of tremend- 
ous heat, but even this great heat cannot entirely extract 
the grease. So the fiber is put into great cylinders and 
naphtha is poured in, then pumped out again and again 
until the naphtha comes out perfectly white, which shows 
there is no more grease in the fiber. The fiber is used 
mostly for fertilizing the tobacco countries of the South. 



Columbus, Ohio, is said to have the best reduction plant. 
Its garbage collections are made by the dty and disposed 
of at the city's plant. These collections are made in cov- 
ered carts, with spring seats for the drivers. The horses 
are provided with good stables, the men's quarters with 
bathrooms and lockers. 

The carts dump the garbage into steel cars which carry 
It to the reduction building. There the garbage is weighed 
in the car, which then turns over, dumping the contents 



upon a floor. In this floor are drains, and the water from 
the garbage drains into a gutter^ from which it passes 
into a catch basin, thence into grease separating tanks, 
where any grease remaining may be freed from the 
water. The garbage is then shoveled into long troughs 
and conveyed to the top of the reduction building ; thence 
It goes into big spouts, which discharge it directly into 
eight great digesters. Here it cooks from six to eight 
hours. It is then poured into receiving hoppers. From 
these hoppers this cooked mass passes into presses which 
press out the moisture and grease, leaving the fiber, used 
as fertilizer. The grease is then pumped into tanks, 
where it is separated from the remaining water. There 
are six of these tanks. The grease rises in the first and 
overflows into the second, and so on, until it reaches the 
sixth tank, when it is almost pure grease. Thence it 
passes to the drier, and the remaining water is evaporated. 
After the grease has been taken off, what is left is a 
molasses-like compound called "stick," which is added 
to the fertilizer. 


This means destruction by burning. 
An incinerator bums and destroys rubbish as well as 
garbage. This method, because it destroys all germs of 
disease, is approved by the medical profession. 

There are four classes of waste to be disposed of under 
this method : 
First — Wet Garbage, which has no heat value. This 

includes dead animals. 
Second — Refuse that is combustible, such as shoes, 

rubbers, bedding, paper, etc. 
Third — Refuse that is not combusHble, such as cans, 
iron, stones. 


Fourth — Ashes, which have the heat value of the un- 
burnt coal. 

Incinerator Plant. 

Generally, an incinerator plant consists of from two to 
twelve furnaces. It is usually three stories in height, with 
a chimney which must be very high in order to create 
sufficient draft. The raw material is received at the top 
of the building. Many incinerators have the refuse 
dumped on a moving platform. On each side of this stand 
" sorters," who pick out the non-combustible material as 
it passes, and these are later sold as by-products. The 
refuse remaining is then mixed for burning. This mixing 
is necessary, as there must be at least twenty-five per cent, 
of dry material in order to insure combustion. This mix- 
ture of garbage, ashes, rubbish and dead animals is fed 
into the furnaces, from the rear, first on to a grate where 
it is partly dried. It is then raked forward, where the 
heat, created by forced draft, passes over it, causing 
evaporation, and under it, causing combustion. After the 
refuse has been destroyed, the clinkers (broken up with 
bars) fall through to the basement and are raked into 
clinker cars. In nearly all incinerators coal, coke or 
shavings are added to help the material burn. 

The by-products from this method of burning garbage 
and rubbish are: 

First steam from the great heat. In Minneapolis, this 
steam is used to heat the poor-house, and to drive the 
machinery that produces the electricity used in the street- 
cleaning plant. 

In Frederiksburg, Denmark, the steam from the incin- 
erators heats twenty-four blocks of hospital buildings, 
and is sufficient for the washing, cooking and all disin- 


Second by-product — clinkers. This combined with 
asphalt makes a dustless, sanitary pavment. Building 
blocks, slabs, brick and mortar are also made from clinkers 
in combination with other material. 

Third by-product — dust. The dust left from combus- 
tion, when mixed with asphalt, makes a good filler. Five 
hundred tons of dust (which is a good yearly average for 
a large incinerator) can be sold for about $1200. 




One of the arguments for the reduction method as 
against incineration is that refuse can be seldom entirely 
destroyed; which means that the remainder has to be 
dumped. To appreciate the difficulty of burning this wet 
material, one has only to think how hard it is to burn 
wet grass which easily becomes a smoldering mass. 
However, the material is sterilized by the cooking, and 
there is no danger of disease germs. 

Another point against the practicability of incineration 
is that the principal by-product, steam, is too variable to 
be useful. In summer there is an excess of wet garbage 
and an equal decrease of ashes; in winter less moisture 
and more steam. Consequently the steam from an in- 
cinerator plant is very fickle. 

On the other hand, an equal number of reasons are 
given why the incinerator is better than the reduction 

Reduction plants, because of the odor, are usually built 
at a considerable distance from a city, and this necessitates 
long hauls at much expense. In Rochester, N. Y., the 
plant is in the center of the city. This is seldom possible, 


however, for citizens will not have garbage reduction 
plants near their homes. 

The reduction-plant machinery is expensive to operate 
and to keep in repair; but one reduction furnace is built 
for a city, as against many incinerator furnaces. It 
stands to reason that it would be a great calamity to a 
city to have its one garbage plant destroyed or even seri- 
ously injured. The incinerator furnaces being less ex- 
pensive, many are built for a city and the temporary 
injury to one is not serious. 

The greatest point for the incinerator over the reduc- 
tion plant is that all infected matter is destroyed or steril- 
ized. The chief argument for reducing refuse is that 
the by-products, especially grease, are very valuable and 
can be sold for the benefit of the city. 

Only sanitary experts can decide these important ques- 
tions, but surely every one, if intelligent in regard to the 
care of the city waste, can do his part in keeping the city 
clean. First, by knowing the laws; second, by keeping 
them; third, understanding as far as possible the street 
cleaning problem of his individual city, in order to help 
solve that problem. 



The combined food material eaten gives the body the 
daily fuel needed. 

Raw food when unfit for nourishment is made nu- 
tritious by cooking. 

Blood, muscle, bone, tendon, brain and nerve — all or- 
gans and tissue of the body — are built from the nutritive 
part of food. 

With every motion of the body, with every exercise of 
feeling and thought, material is consumed and must be 
resupplied by food. 

Protein compounds supply the building and repair ma- 
terial; not more than % of the food eaten should be of 
this tissue building quality. 

Carbohydrates and fats supply the energy or fuel value : 
J4 fats and ^ starch or carbohydrates. Authorities 
differ as to the per cent, of food compounds needed. 

Mineral in food give lime to the bones. 

Calories are fuel units. 

The calories required depend upon the size of the body 
and the energy exerted. 

Requirement per day Fuel Value 

For Calories 

Man doing ordinary work 3A^5 

Man at hard labor 5»oo5 

Professionals, teachers, etc 3,220 

Woman at moderate active work 2,700 

Woman at light work 2,450 

Boy of 15-16 years of age 3,069 

Boy of 13-14 years of age 1 ^^ 

Girl of 15-16 years of age J ^' 

Child under 3 years of age 1,023 





Beverages 287 

Cereals 289 

Cereals in Combination with Other Foods . . . 292 

Soups 295 

Preparation of Soups for Children 299 

Eggs 302 

Fish 306 

How TO Cook Fish for Children 309 

Meat Dishes 310 

Baked Meat Dishes 313 

Vegetables 318 

Vegetables Especially for Children 324 

Sauces 326 

Salads 328 

Cheese 332 

Muffins, Breads, etc 334 

Sandwiches 341 

Desserts 344 

Pudding Sauces 351 

Cakes and Cookies 353 

Cooked Fruits 358 

Marmalade, Jam and Jelly 362 

Italian Receipts 365 

Kosher Receipts 369 




Fuel value of food 
material (as pur- 










Beef, fresh sir- 
loin steak .... 

Beef rump 

Beef, corned beef 

Veal, hind quar- 

Mutton, loin 

Pork chops .... 

Soups : 
Cream of celery 



Poultry : 




Cod : 

Shad roe 

Canned salmon 
Canned sar- 

Oysters (without 
liquor) ... .. 




Whole milk .»• 




Com meal 

Oat meal 


White bread ... 
Sugar, granu- 


Maple sirup .... 

Per ct. 









1 1.2 

Per ct, 















Per ct. 






























Per ct. 







































Fuel value of food 
material (as fur- 







Vegetables : 
Dried beans . . 
String beans . . 


Peas dried . . . 
Peas shelled, 




Com, green, 


Fruits, fresh 



Fruits, dried : 

Apricots ave- 
Dates f rage 
Nuts, peanuts 
highest food 


Chestnuts low- 
est food 










Per ct. 












Per ct. 












Per ct, 






































When no mention is made of the number of persons, 
each receipt will serve six people. 


Cocoa for One 

2 tsp. cocoa Yi. cup milk 

2 tsp. sugar ^ cup water (boiling) 

Pinch of salt (for each cup) 

Dissolve cocoa and sugar and salt in boiling water, 
using saucepan or upper part of double boiler. Boil five 
minutes, and then add milk, place over fire until hot, or 
if made in double boiler scald over boiling water. 

For each cup: 

I cup cold water 

I tbsp. coffee (heaping) 

Rinse out coffee-pot with freshly boiled water. Put in 
coffee. Pour on cold water and let it slowly come to the 
boiling-point. As soon as it boils hard, take from fire. 


Never use water that has boiled before or has been 
standing in the teakettle. Draw fresh cold water and let 
it boil for the first time. Water that has boiled before 
tastes flat because the air has gone out of it. 

The amount of tea to be used depends upon the kind 
of tea. The saying goes " a teaspoon for each cup and 



one for the pot," but this is too much tea; usually two 
teaspoons for four or five people is enough. 

Heat the tea-pot by rinsing it with hot water. Put tea 
into the warm tea-pot and pour in boiling water. Let it 
stand five minutes and serve. (Never give tea to chil- 
dren; never let tea boil.) If you wish to use the tea 
later, pour off all liquid from the tea-leaves and heat this 
liquid when desired. You will, thereby, avoid drawing 
the poisonous tannic acid from the tea-leaves. 

2 squares chocolate i cup boiling water 

4 cups milk 

Melt the chocolate and sugar in the boiling water. Al- 
low it to boil hard for a minute or two. Add the milk 
and have it thoroughly mixed and very hot (but the milk 
not boiling) before taking from the fire. If sweetened 
condensed milk is used, omit the sugar. If sweetened 
chocolate is used very little sugar is needed. 

Time-Table for Cooking Cereals 




Rolled Oats 

Oatmeal (coarse ). 


Cream of Wheat . . 



H. O 

Hominy (fine) . . . 
















2 hrs. 

I hr. 

I hrs. or 

All starchy foods, among them cereals, should be cooked 
long enough to be easily digested. The starch must be 
liberated by the bursting of the granules. If the cereal 
is cooked in a very high temperature a long time this 
starch will change into a substance called dextrine. If 
starch is eaten before it is changed, it is not easily 
digested. It is for this reason that such emphasis is laid 
on the necessity of cooking cereals a long time. Imper- 
fectly cooked cereals are worse than nothing, and espe- 
cially harmful for children. 

Cereals for Children Under Three 

Cook in boiling, salted water for at least three hours. 
Strain and mix with milk or thin cream. Season with 
salt but no sugar. 

' 289 



Wash the grain to be used (wheat, oatmeal). Use four 
tablespoons of oats with one-half teaspoon salt; cook in 
two cups of water in a double boiler for three hours. 
It will then be thick and creamy. Be watchful to see 
that there is always enough boiling water in the under part 
of the double boiler. After this long boiling, strain 
through a fine sieve, mix with an equal quantity of hot 
milk, a little salt, and serve at once. Mix eight table- 
spoons of the strained cereal with eight tablespoons of top 

Barley Gruel 

Dissolve two tablespoons patent barley in a little cold 
water. Stir in one pint of boiling water. Add a pinch of 
salt. Cook thirty minutes in a double boiler. Strain and 
add an equal amount of hot milk. 

Pearl barley may be used by soaking four or five hours 
and then boiling four or five hours. Add water from 
time to time. 

Oatmeal Gruel, Without Double Boiler 

Yi, cup oatmeal i tsp. salt 

3 cups boiling water J^ cup milk 

Add oatmeal to boiling salted water, cook two hours. 

Add milk and scald for a few minutes before removing 

from fire. Strain before serving. 

White Sauce 

2 tbls. butter i cup milk 

2 tbls. flour J4 tsp. salt 

A little pepper 
Measure flour, salt, pepper, and butter in upper part 
- of double boiler. Cook together for three minutes. 
Take from fire, add milk slowly, stirring constantly to 


prevent lumping. Put back over upper part of double 
boiler and steam until it thickens. 

If you have not a double boiler, rub flour and butter 
together with a spoon in a small saucepan. Add milk, 
and stir steadily over a moderate heat until the sauce 
thickens. Add salt and pepper. 

Boiled Rice 

Boiled rice is not an easy dish to prepare. A very 
careful study of the subject is therefore necessary. 

I cup rice 3 cups water 

I tsp. salt 

Put water in a saucepan and let it boil. Pick over 
and wash the rice in four or five waters. When water is 
boiling rapidly, drop rice in so slowly that it will not stop 
the boiling of the water. If the grains settle on the bot- 
tom stir them gently with a fork, not with a spoon. Al- 
low rice to boil from twenty to thirty minutes in a covered 
saucepan. Add salt when rice is nearly cooked. Turn 
into a strainer and drain thoroughly. Dry in a serv- 
ing dish in the oven for a few minutes before serving. 

Old rice absorbs more water than new rice and takes 
longer to cook. 

Broken rice is less expensive and just as nourishing. 
Rice is rich in starch but lacks fat. 

Steamed Rice 

To three cups of boiling water and one tablespoon of 
salt add one cup of washed rice. Boil for five minutes 
and then place in upper part of double boiler and let it 
steam for forty-five minutes. 

To Wash Rice 

Always wash rice before cooking. Put rice in strainer 
and wash in cold water, placing strainer ovfeijbowl of 

• " • 


water. Change water and repeat the washing three times, 
or until the water is clear. 



Hominy Mush with Prunes 

Wash and pick over one-half pound prunes. Soak 
these in cold water two hours, then cook in same water 
until soft. When nearly cooked, add one-half cup sugar. 
Pour slowly one cup of hominy into four cups of boiling 
water, salt, and boil one hour. Pour prunes over hominy 
and serve hot. Hominy, or Indian corn, ranks in food 
value next to oats and with wheat. Prunes have seventy- 
five per cent, nutritive value. 

Rice and Cheese 

1 cup rice % lb. cheese 
3 cups water i tsp. salt 

2 cups white sauce A little pepper 

Boil rice as in boiled rice receipt and add white sauce. 
Fill a pudding dish with this cooked rice. Cover with 
fine shavings of cheese, and bake until brown. 

Protein and fat lacking in rice are here supplied. 

Rice Croquettes 

Warm one pint of cooked rice in two tablespoons of 
hot milk. Add the beaten yolk of one egg, and salt to 
taste. Allow this rice mixture to cool, then shape it in 
rolls and fry in hot lard or deep fat of any kind. If too 
soft to shape add more rice. 

• i 


Rice with Cheese 

(For eight persons) 

Steanii'one cup of rice. Cover bottom of buttered pud- 
ding dish with this rice. Add in small pieces one table- 
spoon butter. Sprinkle with thin shavings of cheese and 
a little paprika. Repeat until all the rice and one-fourth 
pound of cheese are used. Add milk to half the depth of 
contents of dish, cover with cracker crumbs and bake 
until cheese melts and top browns. 

Commeal and Syrup 

One cup cornmeal to six cups boiling salted water. 
Cook in double boiler for three hours, add more water if 
necessary. Serve hot with maple syrup. 


Samp, or coarse Indian com, is cheap and makes a 
delicious vegetable. 

Soak two cups of samp over night. In the morning 
drain, and pour cold water over the samp in order to 
remove the outside starchy substance. Then boil in salted 
water for from three to four hours. If the water 
boils away add more. Drain all water from samp, and 
when dry add two tablespoons of butter and a little salt ; 
serve hot. 

Hominy Pudding 

Cook one cup of hominy in four cups of boiling, salted 
water for one and one-half hours. Drain and let stand 
until partly cool, then mix hominy with one-half pint of 
milk, two beaten eggs, one tablespoon butter. Bake in 
pudding dish in oven for about ten minutes. Cheese can 
be sprinkled on top of hominy before baking, if desired. 


Farina with Dates 

3 cups boiling water i cup farina, a wheat prep- 

I tsp. salt aration 

Put boiling water and salt in top part of double boiler. 
Add farina slowly while water is boiling, stirring con- 
stantly. Cook over fire until mixture thickens. Then 
place over hot water in double boiler. Steam thirty min- 
utes. A few minutes before serving add one cup of 
dates washed and cut in small pieces. Dates have high 
nutritive value. 

For Cereals made into puddings see Desserts. 


Cream of Tomato Soup 

iK cups milk V/i cups tomato 

3 tbsp. flour ^ tsp. salt 

3 tbsp. butter % tsp. soda 

Little sugar 

Melt butter, stir in flour. Add the tomato, stirring 
constantly. Add the soda to this tomato mixture. Have 
milk scalded and add milk to tomato until they are thor- 
oughly blended and the mixture thickens. Add the sea- 
soning before taking from the stove. Serve with crou- 
tons. Strain before serving soup. 

To make croutons, cut stale bread into one-third inch 
slices, cut off the crusts. Spread thinly with butter. 
Cut slices into cubes. Place in a pan in oven and allow 
to get a delicate brown. 

Fish Chowder 

I lb. fresh fish (cod or ij^ pt. milk 

haddock) with bones 3 water crackers 

3 large potatoes Pepper, salt and % lb. salt 

I large onion pork 

Boil fish with bones for about fifteen minutes. Save 
fish water by straining into separate pan. Pick fish from 
bones. Cut potatoes and onion into slices. Try out 
pork and then fry onions until a light brown. Place in al- 
ternate layers in saucepan — first potatoes, then fish, then 
pork and onions. Dust with salt and pepper and continue 
in this order until all the materials are used. Cover 



the whole with the fish water and let the mixture sim- 
mer for thirty minutes. Scald the milk and pour it 
over the whole. Water crackers can be split and put in 
at the last moment. 

Vegetable Soup with Meat 

1 lb. soup meat i onion (chopped) 

2 carrots Small stalk celery 
4 or 5 potatoes (cut in (chopped) 

squares) A few soup greens 

Yz cup tomato J4 cup rice 

Pepper and salt to taste 

Put meat in cold water. Let it come to the boiling 
point and cook one-half hour. Take meat from water, 
cut in small pieces and return to the pot, adding more 
water, also the chopped carrot and celery. Boil twenty 
minutes. Wash the rice, and add this and the potato 
to the soup, with seasoning and chopped soup greens. 
Cook all together for twenty minutes more. 

Scotch Broth 

I lb. lean beef and bones 

I cup dried green peas (washed and picked over) 

J^ cup barley 

I potato 

Little chopped cabbage 

Soup greens. 

Soak peas over night. In the morning drain and cook 
in fresh water with meat, bones and barley for one hour. 
Add chopped cabbage, potato and seasoning. Cook for 
one hour more, be sure peas are soft. 


Vegetable Soup with Spaghetti 

I cup cabbage, chopped J^ cup carrot 

4 potatoes cut in cubes i cup tomato 

y2 lb. spaghetti 2 tbsp. lard or oil 

1 onion 2 cents' worth soup greens 

Salt and pepper to taste 
Fry onion in fat until brown. Add this with cab- 
bage, tomato and carrot to one quart of boiling water. 
Cook one-half hour, then add potato, spaghetti and 
chopped soup greens, and cook one-half hour more. Sea- 
son with salt and pepper. 

Tripe Soup 

J^ lb. tripe 2 tbsp. lard or drippings 

2 cups milk I onion 

2 cups cut up potatoes J^ tbsp. salt 

2 tbsp. flour % tsp. pepper 

Wash tripe and boil with sliced onion and cut up 
potatoes for one-half hour. Melt fat and mix with flour. 
Scald milk and add to this the flour, fat and tripe mix- 
ture ; season, and let it all boil together until it begins to 

Lentil Soup 

I lb. lentils 2 tbsp. lard, oil, or drip- 

I cup tomatoes pings 

Soup greens i onion 

Salt and pepper to taste 
Soak lentils over night. Allow them to cook in the 
morning for two hours. Fry onions in oil or drippings 
until brown. Add to this onion mixture tomato, season- 
ing and chopped soup greens. Fry for a few minutes 
and then add tomato mixture to lentils and boil all to- 
gether foir fifteen minutes or more. 


Clam Chowder (without Tomato) 

25 clams I tbsp. butter 

I onion 2 tbsp. flour 

Small piece salt pork 2 cups milk 

3 potatoes J4 tsp. pepper 

14 tsp. salt 

Boil the clams in their own liquor for three minutes. 
Remove clams and return liquor to fire. Fry pork (cut 
in slices), and chopped onion together until both are 
brown. Add flour, stir, and allow flour to get well 
cooked. Then add this to clam liquor and season with 
salt and pepper. Have potatoes cut into dice, and cook 
in clam liquor until tender. When ready to serve add 
milk and clams, which have been chopped. 

Corn Soup 

I can corn 2 tbsp. butter 

J4 pt. boiling water 2 tbsp. flour 

I pt. milk I tsp. salt 

I slice onion Pinch pepper, 

Cook corn in boiling water for thirty minutes. Scald 
milk with chopped onion, and add milk to com, then add 
butter and flour which have been cooked together with a 
little of the milk. Season with salt and pepper. 

Celery Soup 

Cut stalks and leaves of one large head of celery in 
one-half-inch pieces and add to one quart of boiling 
water. Boil until tender. Make white sauce of one 
tablespoon flour, one tablespoon butter, two cups of milk, 
and salt. Press the cooked celery through a sieve. Add 
this celery to the white stock and heat thoroughly be- 
fore serving. 


Mock Bisque 

2 cups tomatoes ^ onion 

2 tsp. sugar 2 tbsp. butter 
4 cups milk 6 cloves 

J4 tsp. salt }i tsp. pepper 

Sprig of parsley i bay leaf 

y2 tsp. soda 
Scald milk with chopped parsley and the bay leaf. 
Remove bay leaf after milk scalds. Cook the tomato, 
onion, cloves, and sugar together; add soda and press 
through a sieve. Add this tomato mixture to the milk 
mixture, adding at the last the salt, pepper, and but- 

Oyster Soup 

I qt. oysters 4 cups scalded milk 

3 tbsp. butter 3 tbsp. flour 

Salt and pepper to taste. 

Take oysters from oyster liquor and wash in cold 
water. Take out the hard muscle in each oyster. Strain 
liquor through cheese cloth and heat to boiling point. 
Add oysters and heat tmtil edges begin to curl (about 
three minutes). Remove oysters with skimmer and add 
to the liquor the scalded milk and the flour and butter 
which have been cooked together. Chopped celery, or a 
little chopped onion and chopped parsley may be added. 
Season with salt and paprika. Just before serving put 
the oysters in. Be sure the soup is very hot. 

If cream is used instead of milk no flour or butter are 



Beef Juice 

Buy one-half pound lean beef. Tak^ off all fat and 


gristle. Broil over a clear fire from six to eight min- 
utes. Cut the meat into small pieces and squeeze out 
juice with a lemon squeezer (being sure it is perfectly 
clean). Add salt. When you are ready to warm this 
juice do not heat it directly over the fire but put it in a 
cup and set the cup in hot water. 

Beef Broth 

Buy chopped lean beef and use one potmd of meat 
to one quart of water. (If the child is well grown, one 
onion can be used.) Soak the meat in cold salted water 
(with or without the onion) for from two to six hours, 
keeping it on ice or in a cool place all the time. Then 
in the same water let it slowly simmer on the stove for 
three hours. Cool over night. Remove the fat in the 
morning. Keep this broth covered in a cold place until 
needed, when it is reheated. 

Clear Vegetable Soup 

One hour before beef broth or stock is cooked, add 
any vegetables desired. First wash, scrape, and cut the 
vegetables into pieces. Just before soup is done add the 
salt. Take from fire, strain all through a fine sieve into 
an earthen bowl. Let it cool without covering. When 
ready to serve remove the grease, add more salt, and heat. 

Mutton Broth 

Buy one pound of the best meat from neck of mutton. 
Cover with one quart of cold water, add pinch of salt 
and one tablespoon of crushed barley. Let it stand at 
the back of the stove one hour. Then move it forward 
and let it simmer for three hours. Add water so that it 
will not fall below one-half pint. Strain and allow to 
cool. When cold remove the fat, adding more salt if 


This can be thickened with a little cornstarch; cook 
for ten minutes, and then add three ounces of milk to 
one-half pint of broth. 

Chicken Broth 

Cut up a fowl into small pieces. Take out all skin 
and fat. Cover with cold water and let it simmer for six 
hours. Cool over night. Take the fat off that has 
risen to the top. Season, strain off the broth, and heat. 
A four-pound chicken will make one quart of broth. 

A little cornstarch, flour, or arrowroot may be used 
to thicken the soup. 

Cream Soups 

Cream soups (which are very good for little children) 
can be made of any vegetables; asparagus, green peas, 
string beans, spinach, and celery being especially good. 
All of these vegetable soups are made in the same way. 
The vegetable is boiled until soft, and is then pressed 
through a sieve. A white sauce is made of one table- 
spoon of butter, one tablespoon of flour, a very little pep- 
per, salt enough to season, and two cups of milk, or one 
cup of milk and one cup of beef or chicken broth. In 
the place of flour, two teaspoons of cornstarch may be 
used as thickening. Add the strained vegetable to the 
milk, replace on the fire, and allow it to simmer for a few 



There are four reasons why raw eggs are given to the 

1. They contain much food value. 

2. They are easy to eat. 

3. They are easily digested when raw or soft cooked. 

4. They are free from bacteria. 
How to Tell if an Egg is Fresh. 

1. Observe the shell. A fresh egg has a thick rough 

2. Drop the egg into cold water. If it sinks it is 
fresh. If it floats it is stale. 

Care of Eggs. 

1. Wash the eggs with a damp cloth when they first 
come from the store. 

2. Keep the eggs in a cool, dry place. 

3. Never throw away the shells of eggs, as they may 
be used to clear coffee. 


Soft-Boiled Eggs 

Put water in a saucepan. Let it come to the boiling 
point. Lower the eggs into it with a spoon. Remove at 
once from the fire and let stand, covered, for about ten 

Eggs in a Nest 

Separate the white of an egg from the yolk. Beat the 
white stiff and dry. Put it in a cup or small dish, mak- 
ing in the top of it a hollow the size of the yolk. Into 



this hollow slip the yolk. Set bowl in a covered saucepan 
containing boiling water. Cook until the top of the white 
of the egg is firm. 

Goldenrod Eggs 

I cup white sauce 6 slices toast 

4 eggs boiled hard 
Separate the whites from the yolks of the hard boiled 
eggs. Cut the whites into rather small pieces and add 
to the well-seasoned white sauce. Press the yolks of the 
eggs through a strainer or potato ricer. Serve white of 
egg and white sauce on toast with the riced yolks 
sprinkled on top. A little parsley around the dish adds 
to the taste and the appearance. 

Creamed Eggs 

I cup white sauce 4 hard boiled eggs 

2 tbsp. grated cheese 
Remove the shells of the eggs and cut in cubes. Place 
eggs in a baking dish and pour over them the white 
sauce. Sprinkle a little grated cheese on top and serve 
very hot. If the eggs have cooled in the preparation, 
place the dish in the oven for a few moments before 

Scrambled Eggs 

4 eggs y2 tsp. salt 

% cup milk A little pepper 

Heat frying pan. Melt butter in it. Only enough to 
grease the bottom of the pan. Beat the eggs, whites and 
yolks together. Add milk, salt and pepper. (Water can 
be used instead of milk.) Be sure that the irymg pan is 
very hot before eggs are poured in. Stir eggs and scrape 
from bottom constantly while cooking. As soon as eggs 
are creamy take from fire and serve. 



Coddled Eggs 

Have water boiling. Put eggs in saucepan. Pour 
over eggs the boiling water, cover and stand (away from 
the fire) for about ten minutes. 

These eggs are cooked all the way through and are 
easily digested. 

Poached Eggs 

Break eggs carefully one at a time into a saucer 
and slip into a frying pan of hot salted water. Dip the 
hot water over the yolks with a spoon while the egg is 
cooking. When the white is firm, take up the eggs with 
a skimmer, and serve on hot buttered toast. Sprinkle 
over each egg a little salt and a little paprika. 

Eggs in Spanish Style 

I cup tomato 4 hard boiled eggs 

J4 green pepper 2 tbsp. butter or oil 

I tbsp. chopped onion Salt and pepper 

Cut eggs in half lengthwise; separate yolks from 
whites. Put yolks in a bowl and mix with salt, pepper 
and a little olive oil. Put the yolk mixture back in 
whites of eggs. Make hot tomato sauce (from receipt). 
Pour sauce over eggs : heat through and serve hot. 


Beat eggs, whites and yolks together, with a teaspoon of 
cream (or water) for each egg. Season with salt and 
paprika. Turn the beaten egg into a very hot pan which 
has in it enough butter to just grease the bottom of pan. 
Constantly run a silver knife under omelet as it begins 
to harden, allowing uncooked egg to flow under. When 
all is of a creamy consistency fold and serve at once on 
hot platter. 


Albumen Water 

This is ordered in case of vomiting, and a child will be 
able sometimes to retain albumen water when no other 
food will stay in his stomach. 
White of one fresh egg i tsp. brandy 
V2 pint of cold water Pinch of salt 

Shake all ingredients thoroughly together, and feed to 
child with a spoon or from the feeding bottle. 


Codfish Hash 

J4 lb. salt codfish J4 cup milk 

6 medium-sized potatoes 2 tbsp. butter 

Parboil codfish for fifteen or twenty minutes. Pick 
it over, taking out all bone or skin. Boil and mash pota- 
toes, and add them to the fish. Have equal amount of 
fish and potatoes. Add the butter, and enough milk to 
make it a soft mass. Beat well, and season with salt and 
pepper. Put into the oven to brown or put into buttered 
frying pan, and cook on top of the stove without stirring, 
until brown underneath. Fold and serve. 

Salt Codfish Balls 

Soak the fish three hours in water hot but not boiling. 
Take from water and when thoroughly cold chop until 
like down. Boil and mash potatoes. Take equal quanti- 
ties of fish and mashed potatoes (cup for cup), add but- 
ter and season with salt and pepper. Make into cakes 
three-fourths of an inch thick. Have frying pan one-half 
inch deep with pork fat or crisco. When very hot, roll 
cakes first in beaten egg, then a little flour and put in hot 
fat. In five minutes they will be a beautiful brown. 
Then turn. To be good, fish cakes should be eaten at 
once after taking from frying pan. 

Shredded Codfish Balls 

I box shredded codfish 2 eggs 
6 potatoes i tbsp. butter. 

Salt and pepper 


Soak codfish well and pick over. Put into saucepan 
and cover with cold water. Let it come to the boiling 
point, but do not boil it as that would make it hard. 
Strain water from fish. Put potatoes on to boil, cutting 
them in small pieces so that they will boil quickly, and 
at the same time put on the fire one and one-half pounds 
of lard in a deep kettle. This lard must be very hot 
before it can be used to fry the fish balls. Beat the eggs 
stiff, the whites and yolks separately. Mash the pota- 
toes and mix with the butter. No milk should be used, 
but the potatoes and butter should be beaten until creamy. 
Add potatoes to fish. Mix fish and potato mixture and 
yolks of eggs together, beating hard. The last thing beat 
in the whites. Mold with a spoon, not with the hands, 
and drop in the hot fat. Cook until a nice brown. 

Baked Fish 

Blue fish, weak fish, or any whole fish can be used for 
I cup cracker crumbs, or }i tsp. pepper 

bread crumbs i tbsp. chopped onion 

% lb. fat salt pork i tbsp. capers 

J4 tsp. salt I tbsp. pickle 

J4 cup melted butter 
Clean fish, and wipe thoroughly outside and in with 
cloth wrung out of cold water. Make a stuffing of the 
above ingredients, that is, bread crumbs, onion, parsley, 
capers, pickles, butter and seasoning. Mix these thor- 
oughly together. Put the stuffing in the cavity of the 
fish and sew up the opening with clean coarse thread. 
Rub the fish thoroughly on both sides with butter and 
pepper and salt. Cut gashes across the sides of the fish 
about two inches apart, and in these put tiny strips 
of fat salt fork. Dredge the whole with flour. Put in 



baking dish, with small pieces of pork placed on the 
back, and bake about ten minutes to the pound, basting 
frequently with the pork which will melt into the baking 
fish. When nicely brown serve on platter, with pieces of 
parsley, sliced lemon and, if desired, hard boiled eggs 
around the dish. 

A Good Way to Cook Fish 

I sliced fresh codfish i onion 

(about I lb.) 2 tbsp. butter 

I carrot Salt 

1 turnip Paprika or pepper 

Cut up the carrot, turnip and onion. Boil these vege- 
tables gently, and when they are half boiled, drain and 
put into a stew pan or casserole with butter, one cup 
of vegetable water, parsley and seasoning. When these 
vegetables are nearly cooked add the fish, and baste fish 
with the vegetable mixture until fish is tender. 

Baked Halibut with Tomato Sauce 

2 lbs. halibut J^ tbsp. sugar 

2 cups tomato 3 tbsp. butter 
I cup water 3 tbsp. flour 

I slice onion ^ tsp. salt 

3 cloves }i tsp. pepper 

Cook the tomato with onion, cloves and sugar for 
twenty minutes. Mix butter and flour and stir into hot 
tomato mixture. Add salt and pepper. Cook for ten 
minutes and strain. Clean fish, wipe, put into baking 
pan and pour around it half the sauce. Bake thirty-five 
minutes, basting often. Remove to hot platter, pour 
around it the remaining sauce, and garnish with parsley. 
Add boiling water to the sauce if it is too thick. 


Codfish Pudding 

J^ lb. dried codfish 4 good-sized potatoes 

2 tbsp. butter 2 cups milk 

2 tbsp. flour 

Soak the codfish over night. Throw away the water 
in which the codfish was soaked. Boil in fresh water 
for one hour. Boil and then mash the potatoes. Take 
the bones out of the codfish and mix fish and potatoes 
together. Make white sauce of the butter, milk and flour. 
Add fish mi^fture to white sauce. Put in a baking dish 
and brown in the oven with crumbs on top. 


Fish is a good food for children if it is absolutely 
fresh. It is nourishing and more easily digested than 
meat. As soon as the fish comes from the market it 
should be scaled, skinned, washed and put into a cool 
place at once. If the flesh of fish is not firm and hard it 
is not fresh. Never fry the fish for children, but boil, 
bake or broil it. In broiling fish, turn the flesh side to 
the fire first and then the skin side. Be very careful 
not to scorch the skin side. Fish for children can be 
served plain or with a milk sauce. 

Milk Sauce for Fish 

To white sauce add the well-beaten yolk of an egg. 
Do not add egg until you have taken the sauce from the 



Casserole of Meat and Rice 

2 cups cooked rice ^ cup boiling water 

I lb. meat (chopped) i tsp. salt 

I egg Dash of pepper 

1 onion i tsp. celery salt 

2 tbsp. bread crumbs i tsp. parsley 

Mix meaty rice and seasoning together with chopped 
onion and parsley. Beat egg stiff and add to meat mix- 
ture. Put this in a baking dish, sprinkle bread crumbs 
on top and cover. Bake in oven at least thirty minutes. 

Beef Stew 

2 lbs. upper part of shin of 4 tbsp. flour 
beef with bone 2 onions 

3 qts. boiling water 3 potatoes 

1 turnip I tsp. salt 

2 carrots i tsp. pepper 

Have meat cut in one and one-half inch pieces. Wipe 
the meat and bone with a damp cloth, and sprinkle meat 
with salt and flour. Put fat from meat in a hot frying 
pan and try out. Add the meat to this fat, turning it 
often until it is well browned. Then put the meat into a 
soup kettle with the bones and seasoning and boiling 
water, rinsing out your frying pan with some of the 
water and pouring the contents into the soup kettle so 
that none of the good of the meat will be wasted. Let 
the meat boil hard for five minutes, then set it back 
on the stove and allow it to simmer slowly for two 



hours. Prepare vegetables by peeling and cutting them 
into one inch cubes. Add these to meat and allow them 
to cook thoroughly. Peel and cut potatoes in cubes and 
add them to the soup kettle about twenty minutes be- 
fore serving. 

Mince Meat on Toast 

Use leftover meat, remove gristle and chop meat fine. 
Moisten with gravy and season with salt, pepper and 
celery salt. Put a little fat or butter in frying pan and 
when very" hot add chopped meat and heat quickly, 
stirring so that it will not stick to the bottom of the pan. 
When thoroughly hot, serve on slices of hot buttered 

Pigs in Clover 

Cut bacon very thin. Cut calves' liver about one- 
fourth inch thick. Drop the liver into water below boil- 
ing temperature and let it remain a few minutes to cook. 
Roll each piece of liver in a slice of bacon, holding 
bacon together with a toothpick. Cook in hot fat until 
a light brown. This is much improved when served on 
hot toast. 

Hamburg Steak 

I lb. chuck steak i onion 

I tbsp. butter i tsp. salt 

}i tsp. pepper 
Chop meat and onion together (every one should have 
her own meat grinder and grind her own meat). Season 
meat with pepper and salt. Make into firm balls, sear 
in butter. Turn balls often and serve rare. Chopped 
parsley and lemon juice may be added and one-fourth cup 


Plain Stew 

I lb. breast of veal or lamb i onion 

I qt. water i carrot 

I tbsp. butter i turnip 

I tsp. salt 2 potatoes 

% tsp. pepper 

Gravy : i tbsp. flour, 2 tbsp. water 
Cut meat in small pieces. Put in saucepan with salt, 
pepper and cold water or stock. Raise slowly to sim- 
mering point, and keep there until tender (two or three 
hours). Cut vegetables into small pieces, brown them 
in butter and add them to the stew, twenty minutes be- 
fore serving add potatoes which have been peeled and 
cut into squares. Before taking from fire add the thick- 
ening made of flour and water. Boil hard for ten min- 
utes after flour is added. 

A Good Way to Use Leftover Meat 

I cup leftover meat, J^ cup tomato 

chopped J4 cup rice, boiled 

I green pepper Seasoning 

Put in the center of a baking dish a mixture of the 
meat, chopped green pepper, tomato, pepper and salt. 
Cover this meat mixture with the rice and bake in a 
hot oven. 

Corned Beef Hash 

1 cup corned beef J^ cup milk 

2 cups potatoes 2 tbsp. butter 
I tsp. salt }i tsp. pepper 

Drop corned beef into boiling water and simmer, al- 
lowing thirty minutes to the pound. When cold, chop 
meat, but not too fine. Do not use meat-grinder. 
Chop cold cooked potatoes, do not mash. Mix corned 


beef, potato and seasoning together. Butter the bottom 
of a pan. Put in the corned beef and potato mixture. 
Over the top put half the butter. Pour the milk over the 
whole and put the pan in the oven. Let it remain there 
for a half hour, stirring the first ten minutes. Reserve 
half of the butter, and after the second stirring melt the 
butter and pour on top. Let the mixture remain in the 
oven without stirring until it is brown. 


Hot Pot 

I lb. of shoulder of beef cut up into 2 inch squares 
4 potatoes sliced thin 

1 onion cut up fine 

In a deep dish, which has first been well buttered, place 
a layer of meat. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Over 
this sprinkle one-half the onion, then a layer of pota- 
toes and a little butter. Repeat this, having a thick layer 
of potatoes on top to brown nicely. Moisten with water 
in a covered dish and bake two hours in rather a slow 

Braised Beef 

3 lb. of beef from lower part of round or face of rump 

2 thin slices of fat salt pork 
Yi tsp. peppercorns 

3 cloves 

J4 cup each of carrots, turnips, onions, celery (cut 
these in dice) 

A little salt, pepper and one bay leaf 

Try out pork and remove scraps. Wipe meat and 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour and 
brown entire surface in pork fat. Place in deep granite 
pan or in earthen pudding dish and surround with vege- 



tables, peppercorns and three cups of boiling water. 
Cover closely and bake four hours in very slow oven, 
basting every half hour and turn after the second hour. 
Throughout, the liquid should be kept below the boiling 
point. Serve with brown sauce made from the liquid 
in pan. 

Beef Croquettes 

Chop very fine two cupfuls of roasted or boiled beef. 
Fry one teaspoonful of chopped onion and one table- 
spoonful of butter until a light brown, then add the 
chopped meat and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. 
Now add one cupful of mashed potatoes, season with 
pepper and salt, stir in, the last thing, two eggs well 
beaten. Form into croquettes, dip in egg, then in crumbs, 
and fry in hot fat. 

Stuffed Spare Rib 
I whole spare rib cracked in the middle 
4 apples J4 lb. raisins. 

Wipe meat with damp cloth. Slice apples, seed raisins, 
place apples and raisins on half of spare rib and fold 
balance over. Tie together (or sew). Put it on rack 
in roasting pan and into hot oven. After ten minutes or 
after the outside is seared reduce temperature of oven 
and put a little water in the pan with which to baste the 
roast occasionally. Cook three hours, serve with the 
gravy made in the pan. 

Meat Pie 

For meat pie it is not necessary to have always the 
same things. Leftover meat is needed and 

1 cup flour y2 tbsp. lard 

2 tsp. baking powder J4 cup milk (or milk and water) 
Yi tsp. salt Yi tbsp. butter 


Cut up meat, add any leftover vegetables that may be 
on hand. A little gravy or stock that may be left from 
the day before will add richness. Season with salt, pep- 
per and a little celery salt and cover with a crust made 
after the receipt of baking powder biscuits. 

It is fully as necessary to learn how to put leftover 
materials together in an appetizing way without a receipt 
as to be able to follow a receipt book perfectly. .This art 
comes with practice, by tasting frequently while prepar- 
ing the dish; and it comes also by an appreciation of the 
value of every scrap of leftover food ; thus saving many 
dollars during the year. 

Crust of Meat Pie 

Mix and sift flour, salt and baking powder. Cut in 
lard and butter. Add milk, mixing with knife. Bake in 
oven until dough is thoroughly cooked. 

Cannelon of Beef 

2 lbs. of beef from top of round 

I tbsp. of fine chopped parsley. 

I tsp. salt, I of onion juice and J4 tsp. of mace. 

I egg beaten. 

Ys cup soft bread crumbs 

% tsp. pepper. 
Put meat through the chopper several times. Add sea- 
soning, the beaten egg, and the bread crumbs (which have 
been soaked and wrung dry). Mix thoroughly and shape 
in a roll. Bake for thirty or forty minutes. Baste fre- 
quently with fat from salt pork and hot water. Serve 
with tomato or mushroom sauce, or with macaroni and 
tomato sauce. 

Chops «- Lamb or Mutton 

Chops should never be fried, always broiled over or 
under a hot fire. The broiler should be turned very 



often. When the meat is puffy it is done. If you cook 
the chops too long they will be hard and dry. In cooking 
a chop sear the outside at once. Thus the juices are shut 
in. It is the steam shut into the chop that gives it the 
puffy look. It should not take more than eight or ten 
minutes to broil a chop. If your chop is two inches 
thick it is better than when thinner, as the thicker meat 
will be more juicy. Before broiling, trim off the fat and 
wipe with a damp, clean cloth. Be sure that the fire is 
lively, and not one that has begun to cool. 

Beef Kidney Stew 

Soak kidneys in salt and water for half an hour. Melt 
two tablespoonf uls of butter in a casserole. Add to butter 
a small onion chopped fine and the kidneys, which have 
been salted, add pepper, and dredge with flour. Then 
add two-thirds cup of hot water and slice of lemon. 
Cook ten minutes. 

Cottage Pie 

I cup leftover meat J4 green pepper 

I cup gravy i onion 

I cup mashed potatoes Salt and pepper 

Chop onion and pepper, mix it with meat and gravy 
and season with salt and pepper. Line baking dish with 
potato and put meat mixture in the middle. Spread 
lightly over the top more mashed potato. Let the whole 
bake in oven until the top of potato is a good brown. 

A Good Gravy to Use with Leftover Meats 

J^ cup soup stock I tbsp. butter or drip- 

I tbsp. flour pings 

Little salt and pepper 
Yi tsp. minced onion, or green pepper, or both 
Melt fat, add flour and cool for about three minutes. 


Add soup stock and onion, and bring to the boiling point. 
Add the seasoning the last thing. 

Potato with Meat Gravy 

2 cups freshly boiled potatoes 

^ lb. meat 

I tbsp. flour 

5^ cup canned tomatoes 
Mash the potatoes and season with pepper and salt. 
Put meat in cold water and allow it to boil until tender. 
Take out the meat and chop fine or put through meat 
grinder. Make a gravy of the stock, in which the meat 
was boiled, by adding onion, fried in drippings, and toma- 
toes and flour. To this gravy add the chopped meat. 
Have the mashed potatoes very hot and serve by pour- 
ing the meat gravy over the potatoes. 



Why is potato so valuable a food ? 

1. It is easy to cultivate. 

2. It can be kept through the winter. 

3. It is easy to prepare as a food. 

4. Potatoes give us the needed bulk rather than any 
large amount of nutritive value. Because potatoes lack 
protein they should be used with meat or fish or eggs or in 
combination with milk and cheese. Potatoes are cheaper 
when bought by the quantity, and as they keep well, should 
not be purchased in small amounts unless necessary. 

Potatoes keep best in cold dry cellars ; in barrels or in 
bins. When the sprouts appear on potatoes they always 
should be removed, as these sprouts spoil the potato. 

How to Buy 

Select potatoes with smooth skins, and have the sizes 
as even as possible. 

How to Boil a Potato 

It is better to boil the potato with the skin on and peel 
afterwards, for the part of the potato just under the skin 
contains the minerals, which are very valuable, and if we 
peel a potato before boiling it we lose a great deal of this 
good mineral matter with the peeling. It is also true that 
when you peel a potato and then put it into water, some 
of this good tissue-building value is soaked out in the 



Wash your potato, using a small vegetable brush to 
scrub it with. Take out any black spots with the point of 
a knife. Boil with the skin on, peeling off a narrow 
strip in order to prevent the potato from bursting. Put 
the potato at once in boiling water. Only very old pota- 
toes are improved by being pared and soaked in cold 
water before boiling ; this is done to restore the moisture 
that the potato has lost from being exposed to the air 
and from thus drying for so long a time. Potatoes must 
be boiled until soft in the middle. In boiling potatoes let 
the water boil gently. When the water boils too hard the 
outside of the potato gets very soft before the center is 
done. Do not let a boiled potato stand in the boiling 
water after it is cooked, because it will absorb the water 
and become very soggy. 

Baked Potato 

When you bake a potato it is the water in the potato 
that gets hot and softens the starch. This water changes 
to steam, and the starchy part is left dried and mealy. 
If you allow a baked potato to lie in the warm oven after 
it is thoroughly cooked, the steam will turn back to 
water and the potato gets soggy. For baked potatoes 
have a quick oven, for if your oven is slow the potato be- 
comes dry and hard. 

Browned Potatoes 
Peel the potatoes and put in the dish with meat for 
roasting. When basting the meat, pour the liquid from 
the pan over the potatoes at the same time. 

Baked Creamed Potatoes 

Take leftover potatoes, cut in squares and mix with a 
white sauce; be sure that potatoes are well seasoned. 
Butter a baking dish, put in the creamed potatoes. Cover 


the whole with buttered bread crumbs and bake until 
crumbs are brown. Half the quantity of bread crumbs 
and half grated cheese will make this dish more nourish- 
ing and, to many people, more appetizing. 

Mashed Potatoes 

Put hot boiled potatoes through a sieve or ricer, or 
mash with potato-masher. For six meditun-sized pota- 
toes add two tbsp. butter, one tsp. salt, few grains pepper, 
enough milk to very make creamy. Beat well to make 
light. Pile on hot dish and serve. Or put in oven and 
brown on top. 

Rice Potatoes 

Force hot boiled potatoes through a potato-ricer or 
coarse strainer. Serve, lightly piled on hot vegetable- 

Creamed Potatoes with Cheese for Six 

4 cups cold boiled potatoes (diced) 
I pt. white sauce 

J^ lb. store cheese (cut in small pieces) 
Reheat diced potatoes in white sauce to which the 
cheese has been added. 

Fried Potatoes 

Cut cold boiled potatoes in cubes or slices. Melt in 
frying-pan three tbsp. butter for each cup cold diced po- 
tato. Put in potatoes. Fry until well browned. 

Another Creamed Potatoes with Cheese 

4 cups cold boiled potatoes cut in small squares or 

54 lb. store cheese cut in small pieces 

I pt. white sauce 

Heat the potatoes in the white sauce. Add the cheese 
and cook all together until cheese is well melted. 


Potato Pancake 

Take seven or eight good-sized potatoes, pare and grate 
raw. Drain through a cheesecloth to remove the brown 
water that gathers on them. Then turn the grated potato 
into a dish and pour over them a pint of boiling hot milk 
(this whitens the potato again). Salt to taste, add two 
beaten eggs, mold and fry in hot lard until a nice brown. 

Do not squeeze the potato through the cloth. Only the 
brown water should run through. 

Time Table for Cooking Vegetables 

Time for Cooking 
Lima beans i to i^ hours 

String beans i to 3 hours 

Beets, young 45 minutes 

Beets, old 3 to 4 hours 

Cabbage 35 to 60 minutes 

Cauliflower 20 to 25 minutes 

Celery Used raw 

Com 20 minutes 

Lettuce Used raw 

Onions 45 to 60 minutes 

Spinach 25 to 30 minutes 

Tomatoes Cooked or raw 

Peas 20 to 60 minutes 

To Cook String Beans 

Wash the beans in cold water, string, cut into one- 
inch lengths. Put beans in fresh boiling water, and 
add salt the last half-hour of boiling. 

The time for cooking any vegetable varies, some vege- 
tables being fresher and younger than others. These 
take less time than the older vegetables. So each girl 
must test her beans to see when they are soft enough to 



eat. The cooking will take from one to three hours. 
When soft, drain and season with butter and salt. These 
beans do not contain a great deal of nutritive value, £ind 
should be eaten with meat. 

To Cook Peas 

Peas contain a great deal of nourishment, and when 
young are easy to digest. 

Take peas from pods, cover them with cold water 
and let them stand one-half hour. Skim off peas that 
rise to the top of the water and throw these away; 
drain the others free from all water. 

Cook as you do the beans in fresh boiling salted water. 
Cook from twenty minutes to one hour. Season with 
butter, salt, and pepper. While these two vegetables are 
cooking talk with your teacher about the other vege- 

As peas and beans have so much nutritive value, you 
can serve them as the main dish for a meal. It is a good 
thing, if there is time, to set the table and serve one of 
these vegetables with bread and butter, and a pitcher of 
cold milk. This is a good enough meal for any one on a 
summer's night. 

Stewed Celery 

Cut off roots and leaves. Separate stalks, wash, scrape 
and cut into one inch pieces. Boil in salted water one- 
half hour or more. Strain. Mix this celery with a sauce 
made of one-half celery water and one-half milk. Season 
with salt to taste. 

Young Beets 

These roots contain much sugar and are not, when 
fresh and young, indigestible for a child over five years 


of age. Wash the root without bruising it. Cut off 
the top at least one inch from the beet. Cook in boiling 
water from one to two hours. Salt, drain and put into 
cold water. Then remove skins and chop fine. 


Wash and scrape carrots. Boil in salted water until 
soft enough to press through a sieve. The length of time 
of boiling depends upon whether the carrot is young or 


Squash should be young, tender and thin skinned. 

Wash squash and cut it in thick slices. Cook one-half 
hour (or until very soft) in boiling salted water. When 
done turn into a piece of cheesecloth, or a fine sieve and 
drain out all the water. Now mash, and strain again 
through the sieve. Season with a little butter, salt and 
(for children) very little, if any, pepper. 

Baked Beans 

One quart pea beans. Cover with cold water and soak 
over night. In the morning drain, cover with fresh water 
and boil on top of the stove at least two hours. Put beans 
in bean pot with a small piece of fat salt pork. Mix one 
teaspoon of salt, four tablespoons of molasses. Pour 
enough of the bean water over the beans to moisten them. 
Cover the bean pot, put in oven, and bake for about one 

If beans are baked over night it is not necessary to boil 
them first, cover with boiling water before baking. 

Baked Com 

I can com i^ tbsp. butter 


2 eggs I pt. scalded milk 

I tsp. salt }i tsp. pepper 

Drain water from com. Add to corn the eggs slightly 
beaten. Add salt, pepper, melted butter and scalded 
milk. Stir thoroughly and turn into a buttered baking 
dish. Bake in a slow oven. 


Macaroni (or spaghetti) is a very nourishing food. 
It is formed chiefly of gluten, which is the more valuable 
part of wheat. It is more digestible than meat, and has 
some of the same tissue building quality. 

To prepare macaroni, have the water boiling and 
salted in the saucepan before adding the sticks of maca- 
roni. Drop these sticks in one by one so as not to stop 
the water from boiling. Boil for twenty minutes, drain 
off the water, pour over it cold water, put the macaroni 
back in the saucepan, adding a cream or white sauce, and 
allow it to simmer at the back of the stove for a few 

Baked Macaroni with Cheese 

(For eight persons) 

Put a layer of boiled macaroni in a buttered baking 
dish. Sprinkle with grated cheese and white sauce. 
Repeat until all the macaroni is used. Cover the whole 
with butter, a few bread crumbs and a last layer of 
cheese ; bake until the crumbs are brown. 


Many of the following receipts give the preparation of 
vegetables for children. In cooking for adults it is not 
necessary to put the cooked vegetable through a sieve. 

Vegetables good for little children are : asparagus tips. 


string beans, stewed celery, young beets, carrots, squash, 

White Potatoes 

These should be baked, boiled or mashed, never fried for 
children. They may be served with beef juice or milk. 


Cook peas, if possible, the day they are picked. Boil 
for at least thirty minutes in a granite saucepan. Salt 
before taking from the fire. Press through a sieve before 
giving these peas to a young child. 


Carefully pick over, take out wilted leaves, wash in 
four or five waters, or until there is not a trace of sand 
on the bottom of the pan in which the spinach is washed. 
If at all wilted let it stand in cold water until fresh. 
Cook in boiling salted water for ten minutes. Let it 
boil with cover partly off to let steam escape. At the end 
of ten minutes drain off hot water and pour cold water 
over and at once let it drain well. When spinach is 
young and tender, it will boil in its own moisture and no 
water needs to be added. Chop and mix with butter, 
and salt. Allow two tbsps. to half peck of spinach. 

Asparagus Tips 

Use only the soft part that will snap off. Wash, re- 
move scales and boil in salted water for one-half hour. 
Strain and press through a sieve, or serve whole. 



Horseradish Sauce 

yi cup horseradish J/2 cup cream 

yi cup cracker dust i tsp. mustard 

I tsp. salt J4 cup vinegar 

Pepper 2 tsp. powdered sugar 

Mix salt, pepper, cracker dust and horseradish. Make 
paste of mustard and cream and add it, with rest of 
cream, to mixture. Add full amount of vinegar if horse- 
radish is fresh, and heat the whole over boiling water. 
Serve hot. 

German Horseradish Sauce 

j4 cup horseradish 
Vinegar to cover 
2 tsp. sugar 
I tsp. salt 

I sour apple grated 
Milk all thoroughly and serve cold. 

Tomato Sauce 

I cup tomato i onion 

J^ tsp. salt yi green pepper 

J4 tsp. sugar A little parsley 

I tbsp. butter 
Fry butter, chopped onion and green pepper together. 
Cook tomato until quite thick (at least one-half hour). 
Add this tomato to butter and onion. Chop parsley and 
add to tomato mixture. Cook all together for a few 
minutes with salt and pepper and sugar. Serve hot. 



White Sauce 

(For six persons) 

2y2 tbsp. butter >4 tsp. salt 

3 tbsp. flour Pepper 

I pt. milk 
Melt butter in upper part of double boiler or saucepan. 
Add flour and salt and stir to a smooth paste. Remove 
from fire. Stir in milk. Put back on fire, or over hot water 
if made in double boiler^ and cook until sauce thickens. 

Cream Sauce for Oysters 

4 tbsp. flour 

Piece of butter the size of 2 eggs 

Cut up I cup celery and boil it. Press through a sieve. 

Scald I qt. milk. 

Cream together flour and butter, add this to scalded 
milk. Add celery and cook about fifteen minutes. Cook 
oysters in their own liquor a few minutes and then add 
oysters to cream sauce with a part of the oyster liquor. 
Serve on toast. 

Onion Sauce 

2 tbsp. drippings, before melting 3 onions 

3 tbsp. flour Salt and pepper 
Melt drippings, add flour. Let this brown in the frying 

pan. Add enough water to make a creamy sauce. Let this 
cook for ten minutes. Cut onions in rings and fry in the 
sauce until a golden brown. Season with salt and pepper. 

Mint Sauce 

J4 cup chopped mint i tablespoon sugar 

J4 cup vinegar 

Let mint stand in sugar and vinegar for half an hour 
on back of stove. Be sure that mint is washed well before 


Boiled .Dressing 

2 tbsp. sugar i egg (not absolutely nec- 

J4 cup milk essary) 

Yz cup vinegar 2 tbsp. flour 

I tbsp. butter i tsp. salt 

y^ tsp. pepper i tsp. mustard 

Mix dry ingredients and stir to a smooth paste with the 
milk. Beat this well, add the vinegar and blend together 
thoroughly. The last thing add the butter and the beaten 
egg (if egg is used). Cook until the mixture thickens. 

Mayonnaise Dressing 

Yolk I egg lYi tsp. lemon juice or 

Yi tsp. salt vinegar 

About I cup salad oil A little pepper 

Be sure that the oil and egg are cold before beginning 
the dressing. Also, the dish in which the dressing is 
made must be cold. In summer it is often necessary to 
chill the plate with ice. 

Have yolk of egg free from all white^ Add oil to yolk 
very slowly, at first drop by drop. After the egg begins 
to thicken the oil can be added a little faster. Add oil 
until egg will hold no more and the dressing is too 
thick to pour, now add seasoning and vinegar and a little 

The difficult part of mayonnaise dressing is to keep it 
from curdling. The cold egg, cold oil and cold dish 
should prevent this, if oil is added drop by drop at first. 
If the dressing does curdle, a tiny piece of ice added 
sometimes brings it, back. 


Do not throw away the egg if it does curdle, but add 
the curdled mayonnaise slowly to a fresh yolk. 

French Dressing for Salad 

Yi tsp. salt I tbsp. vinegar 

y^ tsp. pepper 6 tbsp. oil 

J4 tsp. mustard Onion 

Mix salt, pepper and mustard together (a little onion 
juice adds much to the flavor). Pour oil slowly on mus- 
tard and salt mixture, stirring thoroughly. Add vine- 
gar the last thing. No good cook will depend absolutely 
on a written receipt for French dressing, but will depend 
upon her own taste as to whether there is salt or pepper 
enough, or whether she should add a little more oil or a 
little more vinegar. 

When greens are used for salad they should first be 
washed and then allowed to stand in very cold water 
until thoroughly crisp. Take greens from cold water; 
wrap in clean dry towel or white cotton bag kept for the 
purpose. Put in cold place until ready to use. 

Potato Salad 

6 good-sized cold potatoes 

I onion 

A little parsley 

At least, I cup French dressing as potatoes absorb a 
great deal. 

It is better to boil the potatoes with skins on and re- 
move them after potato is cold. 

Cut potatoes into small thin pieces. Chop parsley and 
onion, and mix all with French dressing. Serve on let- 
tuce leaves. 

Remember you never can trust entirely to a receipt; 
taste before serving to be sure the seasoning is perfect. 



Potatoes can be mixed with boiled dressing instead 
of French dressing. 

Water Cress and Apples 

Have water cress cold, crisp and dry, as with lettuce. 
Slice apples thin. Serve with French dressing. 

Celery used for a salad should be washed, scraped and 
cut into pieces one-half inch long. 

Cucumber and Tomato Salad 

Slice cucumbers and tomatoes, and so arrange them as 
to look well on lettuce. 

Salad with Hard-Boiled Eggs 

Boil eggs, slice and serve on lettuce, or stuff egg as in 
picnic receipt, serve in halves on lettuce with French 
dressing or mayonnaise. 

Celery and Walnut Salad 

Use one-third as much chopped walnuts as chopped 
or cut up celery. To prepare celery, wash it, scrape it 
and cut it in even pieces. Cover it with very cold water 
until ready to use. Mix well the celery and nuts with 
mayonnaise. Serve one spoonful of the mixture on each 
lettuce leaf. 

Fruit Salads 

Such fruits as orange, grape fruit and grapes make 
a delicious salad, and can be used in place of dessert. 

Be sure there are no seeds left in the fruit. 

Cut the orange in thin slices. 

Separate grape fruit from skin. This can be done 
by cutting grape fruit in half and cutting good part away 
from bitter skin with sharp knife. 

Cut grapes in halves and remove seeds. 


Fruit salads are served with boiled or French dressing. 
Cold meats and cold fish make good salads. 
The meat must be free from all skin and gristle, and 
the fish free from bones and flaked. 

Serve meats and fish with mayonnaise dressing. 

Vegetable Salads 

Salads such as lettuce, water cress, cucumber, tomato, 
contain very little nourishment, but they help the appe- 
tite and are valuable for the water and salts they contain. 
The olive oil used in the dressing contains much nourish- 
ment and is a valuable fat for the system. 

Nearly all vegetables can be served as salad. They 
must be fresh and they must be cold. If there is any 
green, the leaves must be crisp and dry. 

In serving lettuce, be sure no water is on the leaves 
when French dressing is added, for the water will spoil 
the dressing and the oil will not adhere to the lettuce. 

Never put dressing on lettuce until the moment of 

Beets, peas, beans, cauliflower, lima beans, all make 
delicious salads. 

If fresh vegetables are used : 

Boil vegetables in salted water. Drain and allow to 
get very cold. Then mix with French or boiled dressing, 
and serve on lettuce leaves. 

If left over vegetables are used, be sure they are cold 
and arranged in an attractive way. 

Beets should be cut in even cubes. 

String beans in tiny lengthwise strips. 

Cauliflower into small flowers. 

Where several vegetables are used in the same salad, 
each should be separately mixed with dressing before put- 
ting into dish. 



A pound of cheese has as much food value as a gallon 
of milk. It contains all the protein and fat of the milk 
with the water taken out. Therefore, it is very neces- 
sary for each housekeeper to know as many ways as pos- 
sible for using cheese. 

Cheese Crackers 

Spread grated cheese on Uneeda biscuit, or on any 
plain cracker, and sprinkle with a few grains of cayenne 
pepper. Put these cheese crackers in a baking tin and 
brown in the oven. These are very good served with 
salad, or with afternoon tea. 

Cheese Fondu 

I tbsp. butter i cup grated cheese 

I cup milk 2 eggs, well beaten 

I cup bread crumbs J4 tsp. mustard 

J4 tsp. salt 

Melt the butter and add milk, bread crumbs, cheese, 
salt and mustard. Cook over hot water until the cheese 
melts. Then add the eggs and cook for two or three 
minutes longer. Pour into a greased baking dish and 
bake about twenty minutes in a moderate oven. This 
must be served at once. 

Cottage Cheese 

Put thick sour milk into a pan on the back of the stove 
until the curd has separated from the whey. Then pour 



into a piece of cheesecloth and drain the whey from the 
curd. Season the curd which remains with salt and 
pepper. If desired, a little cream can be added. 

Cheese Sticks 

I cup flour I tbsp. melted butter 

J4 cup grated cheese I tsp. baking powder 

A little salt and enough milk to make stiff dough. 

Mix all together and roll out, then cut in strips. Bake 
on brown paper until a light brown. 


Johnny Cake 

I tbls. butter i cup cornmeal 

I egg I cup flour 

I cup milk 3 tsps. baking powder 

I pinch of salt 

Cream one tablespoon butter with one of sugar. Add 
one beaten egg, one cup of milk a pinch of salt, one 
cup flour and three teaspoons baking powder. Now add 
one cup cornmeal. Mix all thoroughly together and fill 
muffin tins with this mixture. Bake in a moderate oven 
twenty minutes. 

One Egg Muffins 

(For eight persons) 

2 cups flour I tbsp. melted fat or but- 

i}i cups milk ter 

1 egg 3 tsp. baking powder 

I tsp. salt 
Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add milk and beaten 
egg. Beat thoroughly. Add melted butter or fat the last 
thing. Bake about twenty minutes in buttered gem pans. 

No Egg Muffins 

(For eight persons) 

2 cups flour I tbsp. butter 

I cup milk 3 tsp. baking powder 

yi tsp. salt 
Mix and sift dry ingredients. Stir in milk and beat 



well. Add melted butter last. Bake about twenty min- 
utes in buttered gem pans. 

Oatmeal Muffins 

% cup rolled oats i cup scalded milk 

Mix these together and allow to stand until cold. Add 

3 tbsp. sugar i>4 cups flour 
2 tbsp. melted butter I egg 

4 tsp. baking powder ^ tsp. salt 

Mix well and bake twenty or twenty-five minutes. 

Corn Bread 

2 eggs 2 cups wheat flour 

2 tbsp. sugar (heaping) 2 tsps. baking powder 

2 tbsp. butter (heaping) (heaping) 

1 cup Indian meal 2 cups sweet milk 

Beat the eggs well. Add sugar to eggs. Sift three 
times salt, baking powder, flour and Indian meal. Add 
the dry ingredients and milk to the egg, putting in first a 
little of one and then a little of the other. The last 
thing, add the butter partly melted. Beat hard, and 
bake in flat baking pan, having the batter not more than 
three-fourths of an inch thick in pan. 

It may be necessary to use a little less or a little more 
milk. This can be ascertained by trying the receipt once 
or twice. The mixture should be very thin. Bake in 
hot oven for twenty-five or thirty minutes. 

Baking Powder Biscuits 
(For twelve persons) 

2 cups flour I tsp. salt 
ji cup milk and water in i tbsp. lard 

equal parts i tbsp. butter 

4 tsp. baking powder 


Mix dry ingredients and sift twice. Cut in butter and 
lard. Add liquid, mixing with a knife. Toss on a 
floured board, pat and roll. Cut with biscuit cutter. 
Bake in hot, buttered pans fifteen minutes. 

Short Cake 

(For twelve persons) 
2 cups flour I tbsp. lard 

J4 cup milk I tbsp. butter 

4 tsp. baking powder i tsp. salt 

Mix dry ingredients and sift twice. Cut in butter and 
lard with a knife. Gradually add the liquid. Roll to a 
thickness of one-half inch. 

When short cake is cooked, take from oven and slit 
open. Fill with any fresh fruit; strawberries are the 
best. Mash these slightly, keeping out a few of the best 
to put on the top of the cake. Place the crushed fruit 
between the upper and lower crust. 

Peaches cut up and sugared are also a good fruit to 

Dried Bread 

Cut the bread into thin slices. Place in the oven with 
the door open. Dry until crisp, but do not bum. 
Buckwheat Griddle Cakes (prepared flour) 

For all griddle cakes, a soap stone griddle is the best. 

I cup buckwheat flour 2 tsp. baking powder 

% tsp. salt 94 cup cold water 

I tbsp. sugar ^ cup milk 

Sift dry ingredients. Add water and mix thoroughly. 

Drop on hot griddle and turn with pancake turner when 

brown on one side. 

Buckwheat Cakes (ordinary not prepared floiir) 
3 cups buckwheat flour 


I cup Indian meal 

I cup bread crumbs, soaked in cold water 

y2 cake of yeast with water enough to m^ke a 


Put this compound in a stone jar, warming the jar first. 
Then put in a warm place for six or seven hours. When 
ready to make cakes, add one teaspoon of soda, one table- 
spoon molasses and melted butter the size of an egg. 
Make the batter as thin with water as is possible and still 
turn the cake. Have the griddle very hot (a soap stone 
griddle is the best). One minute will brown the cakes. 
Serve at once. 

If the batter has fomented, sometimes more soda is 

Corn Meal Griddle Cakes 

2 cups milk I tsp. salt 

Yi cup corn meal 3 tsp. baking powder 

Enough flour to make a smooth batter, but thin. Stir 
all together and bake on hot, well-buttered griddle or large 
frying pan. If sour milk is used, use one-half teaspoon 
soda dissolved in one-fourth cup hot water and two tea- 
spoons baking powder instead of three teaspoons baking 

Sour Milk Griddle Cakes 

2^ cups flour 2 cups sour milk 

J4 tsp. salt I egg 

2 tsp. soda 
Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add sour milk and 
beaten egg. Have griddle very hot and greased. Turn 
when brown and cook on other side. Serve hot with 
syrup or molasses. 



Brown Bread 

2j4 cups corn meal i cup molasses 

2j4 cups rye meal 3 cups very nice sour milk 

Rye meal is purchasable 4 even teaspoons baking 
only in certain stores soda 

A little salt 
Mix all together. Beat and beat very hard. In mix- 
ing begin with the milk, and gradually add other ingre- 
dients to this. Steam three hours, and then bake in oven 
one-half hour. 

Oatmeal Muffins 

For these muffins use cooked oatmeal. 
13^ cups cooked oatmeal J4 cup milk 

1 cup flour 2 tsp. melted butter 

2 tbsp. sugar ^ tsp. salt 

4 tsp. baking powder 
Mix and sift dry ingredients (flour, sugar, baking pow- 
der, salt). Add to this one-half of the milk and whole 
egg well beaten. The remainder of the milk should be 
mixed with the oatmeal and beaten thoroughly. Now 
add dry ingredient mixture to oatmeal mixture, adding to 
the whole the melted butter. Bake in buttered muffin 
pans for fifteen or twenty minutes. 

Bread Omelet 

J^ cup soft bread crumbs 2 eggs 

4 tbsp. milk J4 tsp. salt 

I tsp. butter Pepper 

Soak the bread crumbs in the milk until the milk has 
been absorbed, and then add salt and pepper. Separate 
the yolk from the white of egg. Beat the white stiff. 
Add beaten yolk to the bread crumbs. Fold in the white 
and proceed as in a plain omelet. 


Mushrooms and Bread Omelet 

5 mushrooms i cup bread crumbs 

2 tbsp. butter i tbsp. cheese 

2 eggs Leaf of marjoram 

Peel mushrooms, cut into rather small pieces and put 
in a frying pan with butter and salt. Fry lightly until 
the mushrooms are brown. In the meantime beat up 
separately yolks and whites of eggs, add to the eggs the 
bread crumbs which have been soaked in water, add also 
the cheese grated and two leaves of marjoram. Go on 
beating until the bread has become absorbed by the eggs. 
Pour this mixture into the frying pan with the mush- 
rooms, mix all together and make omelet in usual way. 


Zwieback or rusks. Cut bread into slices and dry in a 
slow oven until the bread is of a deep yellow color. 


Dry. Toast 

Bread is best for toast when one or two days old. 
Cut bread in one-fourth-inch slices and place on a broiler 
or hold on a long fork over clear red coals until done 
golden brown. When brown on one side, turn and brown 
on the other side. Toast should be served as soon as 

White Sauce for Toast for Six 

2^ tbsp. butter ^ tsp. salt 

3 tbsp. flour I pt. milk 

Melt butter in upper part of double boiler or sauce* 
pan. Add flour and salt, and stir to a smooth paste. 
Remove from fire, stir in milk. Put back on fire, over 
hot water, and cook until it thickens. Pour over toast. 

If cream is used, do not use flour or butter. Heat 
cream and season with salt and paprika. 

Cream-Toast with Cheese 

Make toast 

Make white sauce as in last receipt. 

To white sauce add three or four tablespoons of grated 
cheese just before taking from fire. When cheese is 
melted pour sauce over toast. 

ft: 340 


These are only a few of the many kinds of sandwiches 
that can be made. 

Cheese Sandwiches 

Mash very smooth two tablespoonfuls of cream cheese. 
Add one tablespoonful of melted butter and one table- 
spoonful of chopped parsley. Spread bread with cheese 
paste, being careful that none squeezes out between the 
slices of bread. In this case it is not necessary to butter 
the bread before spreading, as there is butter with the 

Cheese and Nut Sandwiches 

Chop any nuts fine, and mix the nuts with cheese which 
has been mashed smooth. The amount of nuts depends 
upon the taste of the maker. Spread between bread as in 
cheese sandwiches. 

Egg Sandwiches 

Boil eggs hard. The number of eggs must be deter- 
mined by the number of sandwiches you wish to make. 
Separate whites from yolks and chop whites fine. Mash 
the yolks and season with pepper and salt. Or make a 
French salad dressing and mix it with the yolks. Stir in 
the whites and spread on buttered bread. 

Cheese and Olive Sandwiches 

Make cheese sandwiches as in cheese sandwich receipt. 
Chop olives fine and sprinkle on top of spread bread. 




Lettuce Sandwich 

Make French dressing. Dip lettuce leaves in the dress- 
ing and lay them between the slices of bread. Any green 
salad can be used in this way for a sandwich. 

Celery Sandwich 

Make mayonnaise dressing and spread the bread with 
it instead of butter. Wash, scrape and chop (or cut in 
very small pieces) the tender part of celery. Put this be- 
tween the mayonnaise spread bread. Nuts chopped in 
with the celery add to the food value, as well as to the 

Meat Sandwiches 

Any cold leftover meat can be used. Chop this meat 
and mix it with mayonnaise dressing and spread between 
slices of bread. 


Spread bread with butter and use sliced meat simply 
seasoned with salt and pepper. A little chopped celery 
added to the meat gives a good flavor. 


Cold meat can be cut in thin slices and placed between 
slices of buttered bread. Sprinkle a little salt over the 

Fish Sandwiches 

Any cold, cooked fish may be used. Take from the 
cooked fish all bones and skin. Mash fish to a paste, sea- 
son with salt and pepper and a little lemon juice. Spread 
this paste between slices of buttered bread. 

Raw Beef Sandwiches 
Raw meat is more easily digested than cooked meat, and 


for this reason is given to persons who need the nourish- 
ment but cannot digest the cooked meat. 

Buy beef from the round, scrape with grain of meat and 
with a silver spoon or knife ; spread between thin slices of 
bread. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. These sand- 
wiches can be eaten cold, or put on a toaster and heated 

Water Cress Sandwiches 

Wash first, and then chop one bunch of water cress. 
Mix ^ this water cress with a French dressing. Cut the 
bread in thin slices and butter. Between two slices of 
this buttered bread spread the water cress. These sand- 
wiches are better served cold. 



Indian Meal Pudding 

Three tablespoons of meal in one pint of boiling milk. 
Let it boil a few minutes. Add one pint of cold milk, 
two beaten eggs, four tablespoons molasses, one tablespoon 
butter, one-half teaspoon salt and one-half teaspoon 
ginger. Butter dish, and bake slowly three hours. 


Indian Pudding 

1 qt. scalded milk % cup molasses 
8 tbsp. corn meal i tsp. salt 

I tsp. ginger 
Pour milk slowly on meal. Cook in double boiler 
fifteen minutes. Add molasses, salt and ginger. Pour 
into buttered baking-dish. Bake two hours in slow 

Bread and Butter Apple Pudding 

Put in bottom of a baking dish some apple sauce. 
Cut stale bread in slices and cut in small squares. Spread 
with softened butter and brown slightly in the oven. Ar- 
range closely together over the apple. Sprinkle gener- 
ously with sugar, to which add a few drops of vanilla. 
Bake in a moderate oven and serve with hard sauce (or 
any pudding sauce desired). 

Apple Dumplings 

(For six persons) 

2 cups flour 3 tbsp. butter 



% cup milk 3>4 tsp. baking powder 

6 apples y2 tsp. salt 

Mix dough as for biscuits (see Baking Powder Bis- 
cuits). Roll and cut large enough to cover an apple. 
Pare and core apple, fill center with sugar and squeeze in 
a little lemon juice. Place this apple in the middle of 
dough and draw piece of dough up over each apple, press- 
ing the edges together at the top. Put on floured tins 
and bake in a moderate oven until apples are tender. 
Serve with hard sauce or molasses sauce, or melted butter 
and sugar. (See Pudding Sauces.) 

Apple Pudding 

Fill a buttered pudding dish with alternate layers 
of bread crumbs and apple sauce which has been sweet- 
ened with brown sugar and slightly spiced. A table- 
spoonful of melted butter mixed with the top layer of 
crumbs will give a crisp crust. Cover with ol plate and 
bake slowly for one-half hour. Remove the cover for 
the last five minutes and brown on top. Raw apples 
sliced or chopped may be used, but in that case the pud- 
ding must be baked for an hour or until the apples are 
tender. Serve hot with sauce. 

Spiced Pudding 

Soak one packed cup of the browned crusts of bread 
in one pint of scalded milk until soft. Then add one- 
half cup of molasses, one tablespoon salt, one-fourth 
teaspoon of spices, one-half cup of raisins. Stir oc- 
•casionally at first, and bake in a very moderate oven. 
Serve with hard sauce. 

Steamed Rice with Chocolate Sauce 

Steam rice in double boiler, or boil for thirty minutes. 



as in *' Boiled Rice " receipt. Serve this rice with hot 
chocolate sauce. 

Scalloped Apples 

(For six persons) 

ij4 cups apples Nutmeg 

I cup bread crumbs Cinnamon 

ij4 tbsp. butter }i tsp. salt 

J4 cup sugar j/2 cup boiling water 

Melt butter and stir crumbs and butter together. 
Put one-fourth of them in bottom of buttered pudding 
dish. Then put in a layer of one-half of the apples. 
Mix sugar, salt, spices and lemon rind and sprinkle one- 
half of this over apples in dish. Now repeat with an- 
other layer of crumbs, apples and lemon. Add the water. 
Sprinkle crumbs on top. Cover and bake thirty to 
forty-five minutes, or until apples get soft. 

Apple Snow 

First make apple sauce from dried or fresh apples. 
I cup apple sauce (strained) 
% cup sugar 
White of I egg 
Lemon juice and grated rind 

Beat all together until white and fluffy. Serve with 
boiled custard. 

Apple Tapioca 

(For eight persons) 

^ cup minute tapioca 2j4 cups boiling water 

J4 tsp. salt yi cup sugar 

7 sour apples 
Add four more cups of water and one-half tsp. salt. 
Cook in double boiler until transparent. 


Core and pare apples and put in buttered pudding 
dish. Fill cavities of apples with sugar and a little lemon 
juice. Raisins and nuts may be put in the center also. 
Pour the tapioca over the apples and bake in a moderate 
oven until the apples are soft. Serve with sugar and 
cream or with one of the pudding sauces. 

Peaches, pears, bananas, cooked figs or quinces can be 
substituted for apples. Bread crumbs sprinkled on top 
of pudding will brown, also keep the moisture in. 

Plain Bread Pudding 

1 cup bread crumbs i egg 

2 cups milk 3 tbsp. sugar 

^2 tsp. salt 

Lemon Bread Pudding 

1 cup bread crumbs 4 tbsp. sugar 

2 cups milk yi tsp. salt 

I egg Rind of i lemon 

Chocolate Bread Pudding 

1 cup bread crumbs 8 tbsp. sugar 

2 cups milk yi tsp. salt 

I egg I oz. chocolate 

Soak crumbs and milk until crumbs are soft. Beat 
eggS' with sugar and salt and add this to the soaked 
crumbs. Put into a buttered dish and bake in a moderate 
oven for thirty or forty minutes, or until a knife can be 
put into the pudding and, come out clean. 

Serve plain puddings with milk and sugar. Chocolate 
pudding with chocolate sauce, and lemon pudding with a 
lemon sauce. 

French Toast 
I egg I tbsp. butter 



J4 cup milk ^ tsp. each salt and pep- 

1 tsp. sugar per 

4 slices bread 
Beat egg slightly, and add salt, sugar and milk. Soak 
bread in mixture until soft. Have buttered griddle very 
hot. Fry bread on griddle, browning first on one side 
and then on the other. This can be served for breakfast 
or luncheon, or with a sauce can be served as a dessert. 

Rice Pudding 

4 cups milk ^ tsp. salt 

% cup rice % cup sugar 

Few gratings of nutmeg or i tsp. vanilla 

Wash rice. Mix all ingredients together in bowl, pour 
into a buttered baking dish. Bake three hours in slow 

When time is limited, wash rice, put in four cups 
scalded milk and steam twenty minutes. Add sugar, salt 
and flavorirg. Pour in buttered baking dish. Bake 
thirty minutes. 

Parson's Pie 

Cut apples into eighths and fill your pie plate full. 
Pour over the apples two-thirds of a cup of molasses 
and one teaspoon of cinnamon. Cover this with a pie 
crust and bake until the apples are soft. 

Soft Custard 

2 cups scalded milk J^ tsp. salt 
Yolks of 3 eggs or 2 whole % cup sugar 

eggs yi tsp. vanilla 

Scald milk. Beat eggs slightly, add sugar and salt. 

Add hot milk to egg mixture so slowly as to prevent 

lumping. Pour all back into double boiler and cook until 

inixture coats the spoon. Now remove at once from the 


fire and flavor and cool. If cooked too long the custard 
will curdle. If eggs are expensive two tablespoons of 
cornstarch may be substituted for one egg. 


Heat one cup of sweet milk in a clean enameled sauce- 
pan. Dissolve a junket tablet in one tablespoon of cold 
water. Turn this into the warm milk, and stir just 
enough to mix it. Add a very little sugar and vanilla or 
chocolate flavor. Turn into a bowl to cool. A beaten egg 
added just before taking from the fire adds to the nour- 
ishing quality. 

Blanc Mange 

Into a pint of boiling fresh milk stir two tablespoon- 
fuls of cornstarch made smooth in a little cold milk. 
While thickening, add two tablespoons of sugar and one- 
half cup of the juice of some fruit or chocolate. Turn 
into a double boiler and let it steam for half an hour. 
Pour into molds and let it cool. Serve with cream. 

Ice Cream 

Scald a pint of milk in a double boiler. Thicken with 
one tablespoonful of cornstarch, which has first been 
rubbed smooth with a little cold milk. Add one egg 
(beaten) and one cup of sugar. When it thickens set 
aside to cool. Flavor and freeze. A pint of cream 
whipped and added before freezing will make the ice 
cream richer. 

Baked Custard 

4 eggs J^ cup sugar 

4 cups scalded milk ^ tsp. salt 

A little grated nutmeg 
Beat eggs slightly, add sugar and salt and scalded milk. 
Strain into buttered pudding dish. Sprinkle with nut- 


meg. Place dish in pan of warm water. Bake in slow 
oven until firm. Run a knife blade into custard. If 
knife comes out clean custard is done. 

Caramel Custard 

(For six persons) 

J^ cup sugar % tsp. salt 

2 cups milk (scalded) }i tsp. vanilla 

2 eggs 
Melt sugar in saucepan. Add scalded milk and cook 
until free from lumps. Pour slowly into beaten egg. 
Add vanilla. Bake in dish placed in pan of hot water in 
a moderate oven until knife blade put in center comes 
out clean. 

Lemon Milk Sherbet 

I qt. milk Juice of 3 lemons ij^ cups sugar 
Mix the juice and sugar together and gradually stir 
in the milk. Freeze in an ice cream freezer and serve. 

Junket Ice Cream 

Heat three-fourths cup of sugar in one quart of milk 
and one cup of cream. When lukewarm add one junket 
tablet dissolved in cold water. Pour directly into the 
freezer. When it begins to thicken flavor with vanilla, 
chocolate or any fruit syrups and freeze. 

Arrowroot Blanc Mange 

}i cup sugar 2 tbsp. arrowroot 

I pt. milk I tsp. lemon 

Heat milk to boiling point. Mix arrowroot and sugar 
together and a little milk to make paste. Add this paste 
to hot milk. Cook all in double boiler for twenty minutes 


and then strain. Add flavoring just before taking from 
Arrowroot can be purchased from any drug store. 


Brown Sugar Sauce 

1 cup water ij4 tbsp. flour 

2 tsp. lemon juice J4 cup brown sugar 
I tbsp. butter A little nutmeg 

Mix sugar and flour together, pour over it boiling 
water. Cook until clear and slightly thick. Add butter 
just before taking from the stove, and lemon juice before 

Caramel Sauce 
y2 cup caramel J4 cup water 

4 tbsp. flour 3 tbsp. sugar 

J4 tsp. vanilla 
To make caramel, melt one-half cup of sugar, stirring 
constantly but not allowing it to bum or get dark. Take 
It from the fire for a minute and add one-half cup boiling 
water. Return to fire and boil until smooth. This cara- 
mel will keep for a long time. 

Mix flour and sugar with a little water until smooth. 
Add this to the caramel and cook until slightly thick and 
clear. Add vanilla. 

Fruit Sauce 

White of I egg % cup powdered sugar 

% cup of fruit juice Lemon juice 

Put unbeaten white of t%% in bowl, add fruit and 
sugar gradually, beating it with the Dover t.g% beater. 
Beat until smooth and thick. Lemon juice is added to 
bring out the flavor of the fruit and less sugar is needed 
if fruit is sweet. 


Hard Sauce 

Pour one tablespoon boiling water over one-half cup of 
butter. Stir until creamy and then mix in one cup of 
granulated sugar. Flavor with nutmeg or lemon or van- 
illa. Serve cold. 

Molasses Sauce 

1 cup golden drip syrup Pinch of salt 

2 tbsp. vinegar or juice J4 i tbsp. butter 
lemon A little vanilla 

Cook all together until the mixture begins to thicken, 
then take from stove and cool, or the sauce can be served 

Chocolate Sauce. No. i 

1 cup sugar ij^ tbsp. cornstarch 

2 tbsp. cocoa 2 cups boiling water - 
Pinch salt I tsp. vanilla 

Mix dry ingredients. Add boiling water slowly, stir- 
ring constantly. Cook on slow fire for ten minutes. Re- 
move from fire, add vanilla and serve hot with rice or any 

Chocolate Sauce. No. 2 

I cup water i oz. bitter chocolate 

J^ cup sugar J^ tsp. vanilla 

I tbsp. flour 
Mix sugar and flour. Pour over it boiling water. 
Cook until clear, and slightly thick. Add melted choco- 
late and vanilla just before taking from the stove. 


To Test an Oven 

1. Place a piece of clean white paper in oven and time 
with the clock. If paper browns in five minutes, oven is 
hot; if paper burns in five minutes, oven is too hot; if 
paper browns in eight minutes, oven is moderately hot. 

2. Another test is holding the hand in the oven and 
counting. Your hand should feel very hot in six counts 
for a hot oven and in eight counts for a moderate oven. 

To Test a Cake 

1. Take a clean toothpick and pierce center of cake 
when it begins to seem done. If toothpick comes out 
dry and clean, cake is done. If moist, the cake is not 

2. A cake shrinks from the sides of the pan when done, 
excepting a pound cake. 

3. Press a cake lightly with tip of finger ; if it rebounds 
cake is done, if not cake is not done. 

Spanish Cake 

% cup butter i scant cup flour 

J4 cup milk I egg 

J4 cup sugar i J^ tsp. baking powder 

J4 tsp. cinnamon Pinch of salt. 

Mix dry ingredients. Cream together butter and 
sugar. Beat the yolk of egg and add this to the milk. 
Now add milk and egg mixture to flour mixture, and then 
sugar and butter, and lastly the white of the egg beaten. 




Spice Cake 

54 cup sugar i egg 

54 cup sour milk i tsp. soda 

J4 cup molasses i tsp. ginger 

iy2 cup flour I tsp. salt 

Mix and sift dry ingredients, excepting sugar. Com- 
bine sugar and molasses. Add to this the beaten ^gg^ 
and then add to the molasses and tgg mixture the flour 
and the milk alternately. Bake twenty minutes in muffin 

Dutch Apple Cake 

2 cups flour 3 tsp. baking powder 
I cup milk, scant 2 tbsp. sugar 

3 tbsp. melted butter i tgg 

Yi tsp. salt 
Mix dry ingredients together. Add milk and egg 
(beaten). Add melted butter. Spread this batter about 
three-quarter inch thick on a buttered tin. Stick this full 
of thin slices of apple. Sprinkle with sugar and cinna- 
mon, and bake until brown. This can be served with a 
number of sauces, one of which is Brown Sugar Sauce. 

Feather Cake 

(For twelve persons) 

4 tbsp. butter 2j4 tsp. baking powder 
I cup sugar 2 eggs 

1 34 cup flour J4 cup milk 

Put butter in a mixing bowl and work it with a spoon 
until creamy. Then gradually add sugar, continuing to 
cream it. Sift salt, baking powder and flour together. 
Separate the yolks of the eggs from the whites, beat yolks 
and add to milk. Now add the milk and egg mixture and 
the flour mixture to the creamed butter, alternating first 
one then the other. Add a little vanilla, and the last 


thing stir in the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. 
Bake in a shallow pan. Either butter this pan slightly or 
line with buttered paper. Bake about thirty minutes. 

Ginger B^ead 

(For twelve persons) 

2 cups flour ^ cup sour milk 
J4 cup brown sugar i tsp. cinnamon 
54 cup molasses 2 tbsp. butter or 

I tsp, soda I tbsp. butter and 

I tsp. ginger I tbsp. lard 

Sift together dry ingredients. Mix soda and molasses 
and milk, and stir slowly into the dry ingredients. Melt 
the butter (or the butter and lard) and add this to the 
whole. Bake from twenty to thirty minutes in moderate 
oven. Test with a toothpick kept for the purpose, not 
with a broom straw. 

Cinnamon Cakes 
(For twelve persons) 

J4 cup butter i }i cups flour 

I cup sugar 3 tbsp. baking powder 

Yolks 2 eggs I tbsp. cinnamon 

yi cup milk Whites 2 eggs 

Cream butter and sugar. Beat yolks of eggs, add 
milk. Add egg and milk to butter and sugar. Sift all 
dry ingredients and add to wet mixture. Beat whites 
of eggs stiff and fold in to mixture. Put in well but- 
tered mufHn pan and bake until done when tested. 

Chocolate Frosting with Nuts 

3 cups brown sugar i cup cream or milk 
A little butter 2 squares chocolate 
I cup walnuts Vanilla 


Boil all together like fudge. Add a few drops of 
vanilla and the nuts at the last. 


1 cup butter 2 cups flour 

2 cups sugar 2 eggs 

I cup milk Yi tsp. vanilla 

2 tsp. baking powder 
Beat butter and sugar together and to this add milk and 
beaten egg. Sift flour and baking powder together and 
add this to butter mixture. 


(For twelve persons) 

1 cup sugar 3 tbsp. butter or 
J4 cup milk 3 tbsp. fat 

2 cups flour 2 tsp. baking powder 

1 egg ^ tsp. salt 

Little Nutmeg 

Beat butter and sugar together (hard). Add beaten 
egg. Sift dry ingredients together, and add to butter and 
egg mixture flour and milk alternately. 


J^ cup butter i tsp. cinnamon 

J4 cup sugar 2^/2 cups flour 

3 eggs I cup sour milk 

2 tsp. soda I cup molasses 

I tsp. ginger i cup chopped raisins 

I tsp. cloves J4 cup chopped nuts 

Sift dry ingredients. Add to this butter creamed, mo- 
lasses and sour milk in which soda has been dissolved. 
Lastly add the beaten eggs, raisins and nuts. Drop as 
thin as possible onto buttered tin. 


Oatmeal Cakes 

1 cup sugar i tbsp. butter 

2^ cups Quaker Oats i tsp. baking powder 

2 eggs I tsp. vanilla 

Cream together sugar and butter. Add to this eggs 
(beaten) and Quaker Oats mixed with baking powder. 
Add vanilla at the last. Butter pans and dredge with 
flour. Drop batter on to pan and bake in hot oven. 



Baked Apple 

Wash and core tart apples. Place in a shallow baking- 
pan. Fill centers with one tbsp. sugar for each apple. 
Pour over boiling water enough to cover bottom of pan 
well. Sprinkle with nutmeg or cinnamon. Bake in mod- 
erate oven until very tender. During baking, baste apple 
with the syrup at least every fifteen or twenty minutes. 
Serve hot or cold, with or without cream. 

Stewed Apples 

Select sour apples for cooking. 

Wash, pare, and cut into quarters. Remove cores. 
For every four whole apples make a syrup of the follow- 

I tbsp. lemon juice, or J4 tsp. nutmeg. 
I cup sugar yi cup water 

Drop apples into this syrup and cook until clear, stirring 
carefully to avoid breaking. 

Apple Sauce 

Wash and pare six nice sour apples. Cut in slices. 
Put in saucepan with water enough to prevent their burn- 
ing. Cook until apple is soft. Just before taking from 
fire, add one tbsp. sugar for each apple and the juice 
of one lemon. Stir hard. Take from fire, and strain 
through fine strainer. A sprinkling of nutmeg or cinna- 
mon adds to flavor. 



Dried Apple Sauce 

I cup dried apples % cup sugar or molasses 

3 cups cold water A little nutmeg 

Wash apples and let them soak in cold water about a 
half hour. Stew in same water until soft. Add sugar 
and nutmeg (lemon juice can be added in place of nut- 
meg). Serve hot or cold. 

There are many desserts made from dried fruits and 
thus utilize this food with its high nutritive value : for ex- 
ample, Fig Pudding, Prune Souffle, Prune Pudding, Fig 
Sandwiches, Fig filling for cake, Dried Apple Pie, Dried 
Apple Pudding. 

Stewed Prunes 

I lb. prunes Pinch of salt 

Cold water 2 tbsp. sugar 

Wash and pick over prunes. Put in a saucepan of cold 
water and soak for two hours. Then in the same water 
allow the prunes to cook until soft. When they seem 
nearly soft enough add the sugar and salt. Molasses can 
be added instead of sugar, or cook prunes with no sugar. 

Prune Jelly 

% lb. prunes 2 tbsp. almonds 

I cup sugar J/^ box Cox's gelatine or 

2 tbsp. granulated gelatine 
Soak washed prunes in cold water as for stewed prunes, 
and stew until tender. Take out the stones and add 
sugar. Dissolve the gelatine in a little cold water. Add 
this gelatine to the prunes while boiling hot. Also add 
the juice of one lemon and the almonds, which have been 
blanched and chopped. Pour the jelly into a mold and 
put on ice, or cover it and put it in a cold place. This 
is better eaten with cream or milk. 


Stewed Apricots 

Yi lb. apricots I tsp. lemon juice 

I tbsp. sugar Pinch of salt 

Pick over and wash the apricots. Put in saucepan 
and* allow to soak for at least two hours. Then cook in 
the same water until soft, adding more water if neces- 
sary. Add sugar, lemon and salt, and serve hot or cold. 


Stewed Fresh Fruits 

Raw fruits are seldom good for children or persons with 
delicate stomachs. The steamed or stewed fruit is pre- 
pared by washing the raw fruit, peeling, coring it, and 
cutting it into quarters. It can be cooked with a little 


Fruit can be cooked without extra sugar, as the sugar 
in the fruit is enough for children. 

Steamed Apple 

Pare and core the apple and drop it at once into cold 
water, for if it begins to discolor it is bad for the child. 
Put the apple into the top part of the double boiler, add- 
ing no water to the apple, but having plenty of boiling 
water in the lower part. When apple is soft, beat it with 
a spoon. Add a very little sugar and strain through a 
fine strainer. An agate strainer is better than tin, as the 
latter destroys the flavor of the apple. Apple sauce may 
be made instead of steamed apple, and strained in the 
same way. 


Squeeze the ^uice from the orange. Strain it through 
a fine strainer so that no pulp remains. At first give a 
child two tablespoonfuls, and very gradually increase. 


Other fruit juices which are good for children are: 
Peach, red raspberry, strawberry, pineapple. All of 
these should be strained very carefully, as neither pulp nor 
seeds should be given to a child. To extract the juice, 
it may be necessary to cook the fruit for a few moments 
before straining. Give fruit juice to a child in the morn- 
ing; never at night. 



Grape Marmalade 

Pick over, wash, drain and remove stems from grapes. 
Separate pulp from skins. Put pulp in kettle and cook 
until seeds separate, then strain through sieve. Return 
pulp to kettle with skins. Add three-fourths as much 
sugar as fruit. Cook slowly twenty minutes, stirring 
occasionally. Put in sterilized stone jars or jelly glasses. 

Rhubarb Marmalade 

One quart bright red rhubarb stalks. Yellow rind and 
pulp of six oranges. One and a half pounds of granu- 
lated sugar. 

Wash and cut rhubarb in small pieces, add orange pulp 
and cook until thick when tried on a cold saucer. Re- 
move from fire and add one cup of nuts which have been 
cut in small pieces. Cut the orange rind in strips and 
cook until tender; then cut in still smaller pieces and 
add to rhubarb. Also add one cup of raisins. Put back 
over the fire and boil ten minutes. Pour into sterilized 
jars or tumblers. 

Raisins and rhubarb may be cut with scissors. 

The orange rind is what imparts the bitter taste to the 

Orange Marmalade 

6 large sour oranges 3j4 pts. cold water 

3 lemons 4 lbs. sugar 

Scrub and cut fruit in slices, rejecting ends and seeds. 



Cover with the water and soak over night. The follow- 
ing morning add sugar and cook one hour. Two cups of 
shredded, blanched almonds may be added just before 
taking from the fire. 

Raspberry Jam 

Pick over raspberries, wash, put in a preserving kettle 
and mash fine with a potato masher. Heat to boiling 
point and add an equal quantity of sugar. Cook slowly 
until thick when tried on a cold saucer. Put in sterilized 
jars or jelly glasses. Any berries may be used in the 
same way. 

Grape Jelly 

Pick over grapes, wash, remove stems, put in a pre- 
serving kettle and heat to boiling point. Then mash and 
cook for thirty minutes. Strain through a coarse strainer 
to remove skins and seeds. Then put in a jelly bag and 
drain. Measure juice, put in the kettle and boil five 
minutes. Add sugar (equal portion), boil three minutes, 
and pour into sterilized glasses. 

Do not squeeze pulp for jelly; it makes the jelly cloudy. 

Currant Jelly 

Currant jelly is made the same way as grape jelly, only 
currants do not need "to be removed from stems at the 

Crab-apple Jelly 

Crab-apple jelly is made the same as grape, after apples 
are wiped and cut in quarters, stems and stem ends being 
rejected. In making crab-apple jelly, the apples are 
cooked in enough water to come to the edge of apples in 
the kettle, and are cooked until tender. 


Cranberry Jelly 

Pick over and wash berries. For every four cups of 
berries use one cup of boiling water. Cook until soft. 
Rub through fine sieve, add two cups of sugar and cook 
for five minutes. Turn into glasses or a mold. 

Cranberry Sauce 

Pick over and wash three cups berries. Put in a sauce- 
pan with one and one- fourth cups of sugar and one cup of 
cold water. Boil until soft. Skim and cool. 


Beans and Pasta 

Yi lb. pasta I tbsp. chopped onion 

2 tbsp. oil or drippings ^ red pepper 

I cup or y^ lb. beans Little salt 

Boil beans about two hours after soaking over night ; 
add pasta and cook about half an hour more ; heat oil in 
separate saucepan with red pepper, and chopped onion. 
Add this to beans at the time pasta is added. 

Macaroni with Tomato 

1 lb. macaroni i green pepper 

2 tbsp. oil or drippings Salt 

I pt. can tomatoes i tbsp. onion 

Boil tomato, drippings, pepper, seasoning, and onion 
together for one hour slowly; cook macaroni in boiling 
water for about half an hour; drain off hot water and 
pour cold water over macaroni to remove starchy sctun. 
Fill dish with dry hot macaroni and pour tomato mixture 
over the whole. A quarter of a pound store cheese g^ted 
should be added to the hot macaroni just before serving. 

Rice and Pea Soup 

y2 cup rice 

I cup whole dry green peas 
Cook same as pasta and beans. 

Lentils and Rice 

Put lentils to soak night before ; drain off water, add 



lentils to fresh boiling water, and boil until soft. Fry 
separately two tablespoons drippings, half chopped small 
onion, pepper and salt; fry until onion is brown; add 
to this two tablespoons chopped celery and a like quan- 
tity chopped parsley. Add this fried mixture to the 
cooking lentils. Add at the same time the rice well 
washed. Cook the whole together for half an hour. 

Dried Lima Beans and Pasta 

These are cooked the same as beans and pasta. Lima 
beans may be used with rice instead of pasta. 

If it is desired to have the lentils, macaroni, peas and 
beans more of a soup consistency, cook longer in more 


I cup corn meal Parmesan cheese J4 lb. 

4 heaping tbsp. butter 
Salt and pepper. Boil cornmeal in boiling water and 
salt, for at least two hours; have it the consistency of 
mush and pour into a shallow dish; the mush not more 
than one inch thick. When cold cut mush in squares. 
Place layer of cornmeal squares in baking-dish ; cover the 
layer with pieces of butter and sprinkling of cheese, more 
corn meal and then more butter and cheese. Sprinkle 
grated cheese on top, brown in oven. 

Rice with Tomato and Cheese 

One cup rice. Tomato sauce, as for macaroni. Four 
tablespoons grated cheese (Roman cheese is used by 
Italians). Cook rice in boiling water for half an hour; 
drain off water, pour tomato mixture on the rice, and just 
before serving sprinkle grated cheese on top. 


Rice and Beans 

Rice and beans are cooked in the same way as pasta and 
beans. To half cup of rice and half cup of beans, a little 
garlic is always added by the Italians. 


2 cups tomato i small cabbage 

I onion 3 good-sized potatoes 

1 green pepper J^ tsp. salt 

2 tbsp. olive oil ^ cents' worth soup greens 
I stalk celery A little garlic 

3 carrots 
Chop onion, green pepper and garlic, and fry in oil. 
Chop cabbage and soup greens, and boil for about ten 
minutes in one quart of water. At the end of ten min- 
utes add the carrot sliced and the potato cut in cubes, 
and allow to boil for half hour more. Add the tomato 
and the oil and onion mixture. Season, and when all are 
thoroughly blended together, serve. 


Yi cup rice Small piece veal or sweet- 

I cup strong stock bread 

I cup tomato (canned) 3 small onions 

or I fresh tomato i tbsp. butter (heaping) 

Fry onion, chopped fine, in butter, add tomato and let 
it boil hard for half an hour with just enough water to 
thin the tomato so that it will boil easily. Chop the pieces 
of veal very fine, or put it through the meat grinder. 
Ham can be used instead of veal or sweetbread, chopped 
fine. Add this meat to the tomato with one cup of good 

Wash rice and add slowly to boiling stock. Stir care- 
fully so that rice is quite cooked but not pulpy. Mix in 


at least four tablespoons of grated Parmesan cheese. 
The rice should be the consistency of a vegetable not a 


Noodles and Cheese 

Yi lb. noodles J4 lb. pot cheese 

Butter size of walnut Salt to taste 

Put water on to boil, with salt. Cook noodles in boil- 
ing water about half hour. Strain off water, add butter 
and cheese to noodles after taking from fire. Stir before 

Oatmeal and Potatoes 

I pound potatoes Butter size of walnut 

I onion Salt to taste 

J4 cup oatmeal i cent's worth soup greens 

Put one and half quarts water to boil, with salt. Cook 
oatmeal in boiling salted water quarter of an hour. Add 
potatoes cut in cubes and boil half hour longer. While 
potatoes and oatmeal are boiling, fry the onion in the 
butter with the chopped soup greens. Add this to potato 
and oatmeal mixture. Season to taste. 

Noodles and Milk 

ij^ qts. milk J4 lb. noodles 

Salt to taste 

Cook noodles in boiling salted water until soft. Do 
not strain off quite all of the water. Add boiling milk 
just before serving. Season to taste. 

Pea Soup 

I cup dried split peas 2 cents' worth soup greens 




I onion Salt to taste 

5^2 lb. noodles Butter size of walnut 

Soak peas over night. In the morning boil peas slowly 
for about one hour. Fry chopped onion, soup greens, 
and butter together in a frying pan. Add to cooked peas 
half pound of noodles twenty minutes before serving. 
Add the fried onion and butter at least ten minutes be- 
fore taking from fire. 

Lima Beans and Barley 

I cup dried Lima beans Yi cup barley 
I onion Butter size of walnut 

Soup greens Salt to taste 

Cook beans two hours, add barley, and cook one hour 

longer. Add fried butter and onion mixture, as in receipt 

for oatmeal and potatoes. 

White Beans and Rice 

1 cup white beans Y^ cup rice 
Butter size of walnut i onion 

I cent's worth soup greens 

Cook beans two hours, add rice and cook for twenty 
minutes longer. Just before serving, add fried butter, 
onion, and chopped soup greens mixture, as in receipt 
for oatmeal and potatoes. 

Beans and Green Peppers 

y2 lb. red kidney beans Yz lb. cheese 

2 peppers 

Cayenne pepper and salt to taste 

Soak beans over night. In the morning, cook slowly 
for one hour. Chop peppers and cook with beans. Just 
before taking from fire, add cut-up cheese to hot beans 
and peppers. Serve hot on toast. 


Nut Loaf 

I cup peanuts i cup chopped walnuts 

2>4 cups bread crumbs 2 eggs 

I tsp. salt Pepper 

I tbls. butter 
Mix together ground peanuts and chopped walnuts or 
almonds, salt, pepper, fine bread crumbs. When well 
blended, add eggs, slightly beaten, and mold into a loaf. 
Place in a well buttered roasting tin, and cook in mod- 
erate oven about ten minutes. Then pour over it one 
cup hot water in which the butter has been stirred, and 
bake half hour, basting as in meat. Make a gravy from 
the drippings. 





Accidents, 246-248 
Accounting, household, 126-134 
Agateware, care of, 29 
Aid, first, to injured, 246-248 
Air, for babies, 201 
for children, 213 
in summer, 249 
Albumen water, receipt, 315 
Ants and roaches, to rid closets 

of, 32 
Apartment, selecting, 6 
Apples, baked, receipt, 358 
Apple and water cress salad, 

receipt, 330 
Apple dumpling, receipt, 345 
Apple pudding, receipt, 344 
Apple sauce, receipt, 358, 359 
Apple snow, receipt, 346 
Apple, steamed, receipt, 360 
Apple tapioca, receipt, 346 
Arrowroot blanc mange, re- 
ceipt, 350 
Asparagus tip» receipt, 325 

Baby, air for, 201 

bathing, 198 

clothes for, 183-190 

dressing, 199 

necessities for, 183 

nursing, 193 

prenatal care of, 190 

sleep for, 200 

washing clothes of, 202 
Bacteria, see germs, 231 
Baked apples, food value of, 

Baked beans, receipt, 323 
Baked com, receipt, 323 
Baked custard, receipt, 349 
Baked halibut with tomato 

sauce, receipt, 308 
Baking, 163-174 
Baking cake, 173 
Baking-powder biscuits, 335 
Barley gruel, 290 
Bathing, baby, 198 

children, 214 

invalids, 236 
Bathroom, furnishing, yy 
Bath-tubs, cleaning, 78 
Batter, rules for making, 167 
Beans and green peppers, re- 
ceipt, 370 
Beans and pasta, receipt, 365 
Bed linen, laundering, 96, 103 
Bed, to make a, 60-62 
Bedroom, care of, 59 

child's, 57 

don'ts for the, 54 

guest's, 58 
Bedrooms, 9 
Bed sores, 242 
Beef broth, receipt, 300 
Beef croquettes, receipt, 314 
Beef juice, receipt, 299 
Beef kidney stew, receipt, 316 
Beef, methods of cutting, 113 
Beef stew, receipt, 310 
Beets, receipt, 322 
Blanc mange, receipt, 349 
Blankets, laundering, 105 
Blood stains, to remove, 99 
Body, needs of the, 282 





Boiled salad dressing, receipt. 

Boiler for laundry, 91 
Bottles for infants, 208 
Braised beef, receipt, 313 
Brass, to clean, 66 
Bread and butter apple pud- 
ding, receipt, 344 
Bread and butter, food value 

of, 156 
Bread, food value of, 144 
Bread omelet, receipt, 338 
Bread pudding, receipt, 347 
Breakfast table, setting, 40 
Brickets, 23 

Brown bread, receipt, 338 
Brown sugar sauce, receipt, 351 
Buckwheat griddle cakes, re- 
ceipt, 336 
Bums, treatment of, 247 
Butter, food value of, 144 

Cake making, 173 
Cake receipts, 353 
Calory, 138, 142, 282 
Cannelon of beef, receipt, 315 
Canning fruit, 176, 179 
Caramel custard, receipt, 350 
Caramel sauce, receipt, 351 
Carrots, receipt, 323 
Casserole of meat and rice, re- 
ceipt, 310 
Celery sandwiches, receipt, 342 
Celery soup, receipt, 298 
Cereals, cooking, 289 

food value of, 143 

for children, 289 

time-table for cooking, 155 
Cheese and nut sandwiches, re- 
ceipt, 341 
Cheese and olive sandwiches, 

receipt, 341 
Cheese crackers, receipt, 332 
Cheese fondu, receipt, 332 
Cheese sandwiches, receipt, 341 

Cheese sticks, receipt, 333 
Chicken broth, receipt, 301 
Child hygiene, 218-223 
Children, air for, 213 

bathing, 214 

care of, 183-215 

care of teeth of, 214 

cereals for, 269 

exercise for, 213 

food for, 210-223 

fruits for, 211 

preparation of food for, 212 

sleep for, 212 
Children's diseases, 195-197 

colic, 195 

constipation, 195 

convulsions, 195 

croup, 196 

diarrhea, 196 

earache, 196 

measles, 197 

mumps, 197 

whooping-cough, 197 
China, shelves for, 37 
Chocolate frosting with nuts, 

receipt, 355 
Chocolate sauce, receipt, 352 
Chocolate stains, to remove, 99 
Chops — lamb or mutton, re- 
ceipt, 315 
Cinnamon cakes, receipt, 355 
City waste, disposal of, 262-282 
Gam chowder, receipt, 297 
Clear vegetable soup, receipt, 

Qothes, for baby, 183-190 

soaking clothes, 94 

soiled, receptacles for, 85 

washing baby's, 202 
Clothes-stick for laundry, 91 
Gosets, to clean kitchen, 31-33 
Coal, 22 

Coddled eggs, receipt, 304 
Codfish balls, receipt, 3106 
Codfish hash, receipt, 306 



Codfish pudding, receipt, 309 
Colic, 19s 

Colored clothes, laundering, 105 
Colored cotton cloth, 97 
Constipation in children, 195 
Convulsions, 195 
Cookies, receipt, 356 
Cooking, cereals, 154 
definition and methods, 152, 

proportions, 152 

rules, 151 

vegetables, 172 

weights and measures, 151 
Corn bread, receipt, 196 
Corn soup, receipt, 298 
Corned beef hash, receipt, 312 
Commeal and syrup, receipt, 

Cornmeal griddle cakes, re- 
ceipt, 337 
Cosmetics, advice as to, 228 
Cottage cheese, receipt, 332 
Cottage pie, receipt, 316 
Country houses, 12 
Crabapple jelly, receipt, 363 
Cranberry jelly, receipt, 364 
Cranberry sauce, receipt, 364 
Cream of tomato soup, receipt, 


Cream sauce for oysters, re- 
ceipt, 327 

Cream soups, receipt, 301 

Creamed eggs, receipt, 303 

Creamed potatoes with cheese, 
receipt, 320 

Croup, 196 

Currant jelly, receipt, 363 

Cuts, 248 

Desk in living-room, 49 
Desserts, receipt, 344 
Diarrhea, 196 
Diet sensible, 135-149 
Diets for children, 218-223 

Dining room, care of, 39 

furnishing, 37 

rules, 44 
Dinner table, to set, 41 
Disease, prevention of, 224-235 
Diseases of children, 195-197 
Dish towels, washing, 26 
Dish washing, 23-25 
Disinfectants, 234 
Don'ts for babies, 201 
Door handles, repairing, 85 
Doughs, 166 
Dressing baby, 199 
Dried apple sauce, receipt, 359 
Dried bread, receipt, 336 
Dried Lima beans and pasta, 

receipt, 366 
Dry toast, receipt, 340 
Dutch apple cake, 354 

Earache, 196 
Egg muffins, receipt, 334 
Egg sandwiches, receipt, 341 
Eggs, coddled, receipt, 304 
creamed, receipt, 303 
goldenrod, receipt, 303 
in a nest, receipt, 302 
scrambled, receipt, 303 
soft-boiled, receipt, 302 
Spanish style, receipt, 304 
Equipment for ironing, 92 
Equipment for laundry, 89-93 
Exercise for children, 213 
Eyes, care of, 231 

Farina with dates, receipt, 294 

Feather cake, receipt, 354 

Feet, care of, 230 

Fire, making the kitchen fire, 20 

Fire-escapes, 7 

Fireplaces, 9 

Fish, 123 

baked, receipt, 307 

balls, receipt, 306 

chowder, receipt, 295 




sandwiches,, receipt, 342 

seasons. 124 
Flannels, laundering, 104 
Flies as disease carriers, 253 
Floors, treatment of, 81 
Food, elements in, 136-139 

for children, 210-223 

for infants, 203-210 

summer, 255 
Food value of bread and butter, 

Food value of fruit, 175 
Food values, 135-149 
French salad dressing, receipt, 

French toast, receipt, 347 

Fruit, buying, 124 

canning, 176, 179 

food value of, 175 

jars, testing and sterilizing, 

preserving, 175-182 
Fruit salad, receipt, 330 
Fruit sauce, receipt, 351 
Fruits, cooked, receipt, 358 

for children, 211 

fresh, stewed, receipt, 360 
Fruit stains, to remove, 99 
Fuel value of food material, 

table, 285 
Furnishing, suggestions, 79-81 
Furniture, oiling and waxing, 

Furniture polish, receipt, 85 

Furniture staining, 84 

Garbage, 262-281 

cans, 264, 274 

definition of, 2^^ 

disposal of, 264 

incineration of, 278 

laws concerning, 263. 273 

odors and decay, 274 

reduction of, 275-278 
Gas meter, to read, 86 

General suggestions, 9 
German horseradish sauce, re- 
ceipt, 326 
Ginger bread, receipt, 355 
Glue, to remove, 100 
Goldenrod eggs, receipt, 303 
Grape jelly, receipt, 363 
Grape marmalade, receipt, 362 
Grass stains, to remove, 100 
Gravy for cold meats, receipt, 

Grease stains, to remove, 100 
Gruels, receipt, 316 

Hair, care of, 229 
Halibut, baked, receipt, 308 
Hamburg steak, receipt, 311 
Hands and nails, care of, 229 
Hard sauce, receipt, 352 
Health in the home, 3 
Heating, 10 
Hermits, receipt, 356 
Home making, 3 
Home, selecting a, 5-13 
Hominy pudding, receipt, 293 
Horseradish sauce, receipt, 326 
Hot-air heating, 10 
Hot pot, receipt, 313 
Hot water heating, 10 
Hot weather lesson, 249-261 
Household management, 127 
Housing laws in cities, 1 1 
Hygiene, personal, 225-235 

Ice-box, care of, 30 
Ice cream, receipt, 349 
Incineration of garbage, 271-281 
Indian neal pudding, receipt, 

Income, definition of income, 


division of, 127-130 

Infants' bottles, 208 

Infants* food, 203-210 

Infants, lime water for, 210 



Infection, 233 

Ink stains, to remove, 100 

Inside conditions, 8 

Invalid, care of, 240 et seq, 

Invalid*s tray, 243 

Ironing, equipment for,^ 93, 107 

Irons, care of, 109 

Ironware, to remove rust from, 

Italian dishes, receipt, 365 

Jams, receipts, 362 

Jars, to test and sterilize fruit, 

Jellies, receipts, 362 
Jell-bag, 178 
Jelly-glasses, 181 
Johnny cake, 195 
Junket, receipt, 349 
Junket ice cream, 350 

Kerosene stains, to remove, 100 
Kitchen, cleaning, 31-36 

equipment, 16 

furnishing, 14-16 

sinks, 15, 2!7 

scrubbing, table, 26 

stove, 16-23 

ventilation of, 14 

washing utensils, 23 

work, 16 
Kosher, 369 

Lamb, methods of cutting, 119 
Laundering, baby's clothes, 202 

blankets, 105 

colored clothes, 105 

flannels, 104 

silks, 106 

skirts, 108 

stockings, 106 

table linen, 10 1 

underclothes, 108 

woolens, 104 
Laundry equipment, 89-93 

Laundry materials, 93 
Laundry work, 

cleaning tubs, 107 

hanging clothes, 102 

ironing, 107 

removing stains, 

soaking clothes, loi 

sorting clothes, 94 

starching clothes, 103 
Lemon milk sherbet, receipt, 

Lentil soup, receipt, 297 
Lentils and rice, receipt, 365 
Lettuce sandwiches, receipt, 342 
Lima beans and barley, 370 
Linens, laundering, 103 
Liquid waste, see sewage 
Living-room, care of, 51 
Locks, repairing, 9, 85 
Luncheon and supper table, 42 

Macaroni, receipt, 324 
Macaroni with tomato, receipt, 

Marketing, 110-112 

Marketing, fruit, 124 

Marketing, vegetables, 124 

Marmalade, making, 181 

Marmalade receipts, 

grape, 362 

orange, 362 

rhubarb, 362 
Mayonnaise dressing, receipt, 

Meat pie, receipt, 314 
Meat sandwiches, receipt, 342 
Meat sauce, receipt, 327 
Menus, sample, 154, 157, 159, 

160, 161 
Milk, food value of, 154 
Milk sauce for fish, receipt, 309 
Minced meat on toast, receipt, 

Mint sauce, receipt, 327 

Mock bisque soup, receipt, 298 





Molasses sauce, receipt, 352 
Mold, causes of, in closets, 32 
Money, saving, 86-88 
Mosquitoes, dangers from, 251 
Muffins, no egg, receipt, 334 
Mumps, 197 
Mushroom and bread omelet, 

receipt, 339 
Mutton broth, receipt, 300 

Nickel, to clean, 67 
Noodles and cheese, receipt, 369 
Nursing, baby, 193 
Nursing, sick, 235-248 
Nut loaf, 371 

Oatmeal and potatoes, receipt, 

Oatmeal cakes, receipt, 357 

Oatmeal gruel, receipt, 290 

Oatmeal muffins, receipt, 335, 

Omelet, receipt, 304 
Onion sauce, receipt, 327 
Open fires, 10 
Orange juice, 360 
Orange marmalade, receipt, 362 
Outside conditions, 7 
Oyster soup, receipt, 299 

Packing away for hot weather, 

Parson's pie, receipt, 348 
Pea soup, receipt, 369 
Peas, 322 

Peas, food value, 161 
Picnics, 258 

Pigs in clover, receipt, 311 
Pipes, to clear of grease, 74 
Plain stew, receipt, 312 
Plumbing laws. 70-73 
Plumbing troubles, 68-70 
Poached eggs, receipt. 304 
Polenta, receipt, 366 
Potato pancake, receipt, 321 
Potato salad, receipt, 329 

Potato with meat gravy, re- 
ceipt, 317 
Potatoes, baked, creamed, re- 
ceipt, 319 
browned, receipt, 319 
creamed, with cheese, receipt, 
Potatoes, food value, 145 
Potatoes, fried, receipt, 320 
Pots, pans, and kettles, to clean, 

Preserving fruit, 175-182 

Prune jelly, receipt, 359 

Prunes, stewed, receipt, 359 

Pudding sauces, receipt, 351 

Puddings, receipt, 344 

Rack for writing desk, 49 
Radiator box, 38 
Raspberry jam, receipt, 363 
Raw beef sandwiches, receipt, 

albumen water, 315 
apple, baked, 358 
apple and water cress salad, 

apple dumpling, 345 
apple pudding, 344, 345 
apple sauce, 358, 359 
apple snow, 346 
apple, steamed, 360 
apple tapioca, 346 
arrowroot blanc mange, 350 
asparagus tips, 325 
baked beans, 323 
baked corn, 323 
baked custard, 349 
baked halibut with tomato 

sauce, 308 
baking-powder biscuits, 335 
barley gruel, 290 
beans and green peppers, 370 
beans and pasta, 365 
beef broth, 300 



Receipts — continued 

beef croquettes, 314 

beef juice, 299 

beef kidney stew, 316 

beef stew, 310 

beets, 322 

blanc mange, 349 

boiled salad dressing, 328 

braised beef, 313 

bread and butter apple pud- 
ding. 344 

bread omelet, 338 

bread puddings, 347 

brown bread, 338 

brown sugar sauce, 351 

buckwheat griddle cakes, 336 

cakes, 353 

cannelon of beef, 315 

caramel custard, 350 

caramel sauce, 351 

carrots, 323 

casserole of meat and rice, 

celery, sandwiches, 342 

celery soup, 298 

cereals for children, 289 

cheese and nut sandwiches, 

cheese and olive sandwiches, 

cheese crackers, 332 

cheese fondu, 332 

cheese sandwiches, 341 

cheese sticks, 333 

chicken broth, 301 

chocolate frosting with nuts, 

chocolate sauce, 352 

chops — lamb or mutton, 315 

cinnamon cakes, 355 

clam chowder, 297 

clear vegetable soup, 300 

coddled eggs, 304 

codfish balls, 306 

codfish hash, 306 

Receipts — continued 
codfish pudding, 309 
cookies, 356 
corn bread, 196 
corn soup, 298 
corned beef hash, 312 
cornmeal and syrup, 293 
commeal griddle cakes, 337 
cottage cheese, 332 
cottage pie, 316 
crabapple jelly, 363 
cranberry jelly, 364 
cranberry sauce, 364 
cream of tomato soup, 295 
cream sauce for oysters, 327 
cream soups, 301 
creamed eggs, 303 
creamed potatoes with cheese, 

currant jelly, 363 
desserts, 344 
dried apple sauce, 359 
dried bread, 336 
dried Lima beans and pasta, 

dry toast, 340 
Dutch apple cake, 354 
egg muffins, 334 
egg sandwiches, 341 
eggs, coddled, 304 
eggs, creamed, 303 
eggs, goldenrod, 303 
eggs in a nest, 302 
eggs, scrambled, 303 
eggs, soft-boiled, 302 
eggs, Spanish style, 304 
farina with dates, 294 
feather cake, 354 
fish, baked, 307 
fish balls, 306 
fish chowder, 295 
fish sandwiches, 342 
French salad dressing, 329 
French toast, 347 
fruit salad, 330 




Receipts — continued 
fruit sauce, 351 
fruits, cooked, 358 
fruits, fresh, stewed, 360 
German horseradish sauce, 

ginger bread, 355 
goldenrod eggs, 303 
grape jelly, 363 
grape marmalade, 362 
gravy for cold meats, 316 
gruels, 290 

halibut, baked, 308 

Hamburg steak, 311 

hard sauce, 352 

hermits, 356 

hominy pudding, 293 

horseradish sauce, 326 

hot pot, 313 

ice cream, 349 

Indian meal pudding, 344 

Italian dishes, 365 

jellies, 362 

Johnny cake, 195 

junket, 349 

junket ice cream, 350 

kosher, 369 

lemon milk sherbet, 350 

lentil soup, 297 

lentils and rice, 365 

lettuce sandwiches, 342 

Lima beans and barley, 370 

macaroni, 324 

macaroni with tomato, 365 

macaroni, baked, with cheese, 

marmalade, grape, 362 
marmalade, orange, 362 
marmalade, rhubarb, 362 
mayonnaise dressing, 328 
meat pie, 314 
meat sandwiches, 342 
meat sauce, 327 
milk sauce for fish, 309 
minced meat on toast, 311 
mint sauce, 327 

Receipts -r- continued 
mock bisque soup, 298 
molasses sauce, 352 
muffins, no egg, 334 
mushrooms and bread omelet, 

mutton broth, 300 

noodles and cheese, 369 

nut loaf, 371 

oatmeal and potatoes, 369 

oatmeal cakes, 357 

oatmeal gruel, 290 

oatmeal muffins, 335, 338 

omelet, 304 

onion saiice, 327 

orange juice, 360 

orange marmalade, 362 

oyster soup, 299 

parson's pie, 348 

pea soup, 369 

peas, 322 

pigs in clover, 311 

plain stew, 312 

poached eggs, 304 

polenta, 366 

potato pancake, 321 

potato salad, 329 

potato with meat gravy, 317 

potatoes, baked, creamed, 319 

potatoes, browned, 319 

potatoes, creamed, with 

cheese, 320 
potatoes, fried, 320 
prime jelly, 359 
prunes, stewed, 359 
pudding sauces, 351 
puddings, 344 
raspberry jam, 363 
raw beef sandwiches, 342 
rhubarb marmalade, 362 
rice and beans, 367 
rice and cheese, 292 
rice and pea soup, 365 
rice, boiled, 291 
rice croquettes, 292 
rice pudding, 348