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Full text of "The Home counties magazine"



i 



THE HOME COUNTIES 
MAGAZINE. 




THE HOME COUNTIES 
MAGAZINE 



Devoted to the topography of London, Middlesex, Essex, 
Herts, Bucks, Berks, Surrey and Kent. 



Edited by 
W. J. HARDY, F.S.A. 



VOLUME II. 
1900 



o" 



LONDON \ x , 

X ^ \ 
F. E. ROBINSON & Co. 

20, GREAT RUSSELL STREET 
W.C. 




Dfl 

20 

HI 




WILLIAM COWPER. 

(From Homney" s picture in the National Portrait Gallery). 



ON A PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM COWPER. 
BY F. M. O'DoNOGHUE, F.S.A. 



life-sized bust portrait in oils here reproduced, came 
JL to light only a few years ago. It appeared at Christie's, 
in May, 1894, in the sale of the collections of Miss Elizabeth 
Romney, grand-daughter of the painter, to whom the pictures, 
drawings, MSS., etc., which remained with the family after his 
death, descended. The portrait was catalogued only as 
" possibly Cowper," and, being without a frame and in an 
otherwise sadly neglected state, was acquired for a small sum 
by Messrs. Agnew. It had already attracted the notice of 
Mr. (afterwards Sir George) Scharf, the director of the 
National Portrait Gallery, who, after fully satisfying himself 
that it was an authentic likeness of the poet, purchased it on 
his own account. Subsequently he had it re-lined and put in 
perfect order, and in December of the same year presented it 
to the institution over which he presided. 

The first and, so far as is recorded, the only occasion on 
which Romney met Cowper was at Eartham, his friend 
Hayley's country residence near Chichester, in the summer of 
1792. He then made the crayon drawing of the poet, which 
elicited from the latter the graceful sonnet printed in the " Life 
of Romney " by his son, and was afterwards engraved by 
Blake for Hayley's " Life of Cowper." If the painting be 
correctly attributed to Romney, as seems fairly certain, it 
must be assigned to the same date. 

The portrait, as a study of the poet's personality, differs 
considerably from those by Abbott, Lawrence and Jackson, 
and also from the above-mentioned drawing by Romney, but 
is nevertheless perfectly consistent with them. It represents 
him in three-quarters view, looking downwards, and con- 
sequently the stare of the full prominent eyes, so suggestive 
of a tendency to insanity, of which he had occasional attacks, 
is less noticeable than in the others. 

As the centenary of Cowper's death, which occurred on 
25th April, 1800, is close at hand, this seems a fitting moment 
to introduce his portrait. 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 

It is satisfactory to note, that not only in regard to 
Hampstead Heath and Ham Common is the cry raised against 
making open spaces delightful from their "wildness and 
rusticity " into ornamental grounds or parks. Something in 
the " laying out " way is going on at Harpenden, and has 
awakened hostile criticism which is answered by writers to the 
local papers, who, in referring to picturesque ponds, speak of 
the advantages of "shapely sheets of water." Depend upon it 
such individuals would like to see such "shapely sheets" with 
concreted bottoms and nice, tidy, concrete edges. 

Laying out is fatal to natural beauty, and it is to be hoped 
that the Ealing District Council will not spoil, by any such 
process, the 30 acres of beautifully wooded park that, at a cost 
of 4O,ooo/., they are acquiring for the public. A fourth of this 
sum is contributed by the Middlesex County Council, which is 
also about to assist the local authorities at Hanwell in securing 
for the sane inhabitants of that place a recreation ground. 

It is a pity that the authorities at Richmond cannot at once 
rescue from the builder the Marble Hill Estate, and the 
authorities at Twickenham, at least some part of, Eel Pie 
Island. This spot covered with villas, or worse still with 
"works," would entirely alter the character of the Thames 
scenery there. Indeed, all the wood and meadow land 
between Richmond Bridge and Twickenham should be secured, 
if the beauty of the Thames is to be maintained. 

The park at Ealing is around a fine house said to be 
erected by Inigo Jones. This building is to be preserved as a 
library, picture gallery and museum. To such purposes will be 
employed, when the necessary alterations are completed, Queen 
Elizabeth's hunting lodge at Chingford, which is destined to be 
the home of antiquities and curiosities specially associated with 
Epping Forest. The museum in course of construction at 
Stratford will, we imagine, be the resting-place of those relating 
to East London and the suburban parts of Essex generally. 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 3 

The Hertfordshire County Museum at St. Albans, the 
progress of which has from time to time been referred to 
in these notes, was opened by the Countess Cowper on I5th 
November last. Only a portion of the building as designed by Mr. 
Arthur S. Flower has been erected, but that is well filled with 
county exhibits, and, if the programme of the museum as a 
teaching centre, sketched by some of the speakers at the 
opening, is carried out, it should not be long ere funds permit 
the completion of the museum buildings. 

The daily attendance of visitors since the opening has been 
most encouraging; and there is no reason why the St. Albans 
Museum should not be to Hertfordshire what the Reading 
Museum is to Berkshire. How popular is this last named 
institution may be judged from the fact, that during the quarter 
ending at Michaelmas last, the average attendance of visitors 
has been 300 a day. By-the-way, we have not heard much 
lately of the scheme for a County Museum at Aylesbury ; let us 
hope the idea has not been abandoned. 

One has only to look at the local newspapers connected 
with the Home Counties to see how generally encroachments 
on commons, roadside wastes, and rights-of-way are being 
attempted, and it behoves us to offer unstinting support to that 
valuable organisation the " Commons and Footpath Preservation 
Society," in order that this particular form of theft be 
successfully combated. The Society's work is, as often pointed 
out here, specially difficult on account of the negligence, 
wilful or otherwise, of local bodies. 

In the case of Horsell Common, in Surrey, Mr. J. Leslie, 
of that place, asks for signatures to a petition to 
the Parish Council, urging it to do its duty, and stop the 
encroachments by builders upon the common. At Twyford, 
the Berkshire County Council does not seem so desirous of 
helping the Parish Council, in resisting the niching of road- 
side waste, as was the Hertfordshire County Council in 
assisting the Elstree Parish Council, a year or so back, with 
regard to similar encroachments. At Weybridge we notice 
that the public right-of-way along the tow-path is being 
disputed by the Thames Conservancy. 



4 QUARTERLY NOTES. 

In these days of the obliteration of rusticity, it is pleasing 
to note that the hiring fair still holds its own in the Home 
Counties. At that which took place last September at High 
Wycombe, the shepherds and cow-men wore in their head-gear 
tufts of wool or hair to exemplify their calling ; whilst the 
plough or team drivers decorated their hats with knots of 
whip-cord. Higher wages than usual were asked and, on 
obtaining them, the fortunate ones donned bunches of bright 
coloured ribbands. 

We wonder if the spread of the light railway will kill this 
and similar remnants of arcadian uses. Certainly the new 
means of locomotion is being very generally adopted in the 
Home Counties, especially in the rural parts of Kent. 
Hertfordshire is to be invaded from Stanmore by a line running 
through Bushey to Watford, and westwards thence to 
Rickmansworth, and eastwards to St. Albans. Now, without 
at all deprecating the spread of light railways, we would utter 
a protest against their construction in localities already served 
by " heavy " lines. What is really wanted in Hertfordshire is 
a better means of communication than now exists between the 
eastern and western parts of the county. Why does not some 
enterprising individual set on foot a scheme for a light 
railway from, say, Hitchin to Bishop's Stortford, from thence 
to Hertford and, across the county, to Rickmansworth, 
managing to cross the three northern trunk lines at points 
where they have railway stations. 

The " heavy" lines do not seem to be applying to 
Parliament for any schemes materially affecting the 
Home Counties, though the powers many of them seek for 
widening their lines and for additional terminal accommodation, 
should certainly find favour with the travelling public. Even 
the Midland Railway when, possessed of abundant accommo- 
dation for conducting its goods traffic in comfort, may give a 
little attention to the punctuality of its passenger trains ! 

News of interesting archaeological discoveries comes to us 
from various parts of the Home Counties. Systematic 
excavations have been in progress during the past summer at 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 5 

Silchester, and the annual paper embodying the results of the 
past season's work will be laid before the Society of Antiquaries 
in the spring of next year. 

Very interesting, too, are the excavations which, under the 
direction of Mr. William Page, F.S.A., and the assistance 
of the Society of Antiquaries and others, are being carried out 
on the site of Verulamium, where foundations of important 
buildings have already been unearthed. 

The East Herts Society has also founded a separate fund 
for excavations, and it is much to be hoped a liberal response 
will be made to the Secretary's appeal for contributions to this 
fund. From the wording of the appeal it would seem that the 
excavations intended are entirely Roman or pre-historic. This 
is a pity ; there is much to be done in the way of excavating 
mediaeval buildings the sites of religious houses and so forth, 
that ought to be included. 

The Surrey Archaeological Society's excavations on the site 
of Waverley Abbey have already proved the value of such 
work, and there is little doubt that, ere long, the Society's 
object to obtain a complete ground plan of tbe first Cistercian 
House founded in England will be successful. The Society 
proposes to hold its annual meeting on the site of Waverley 
next summer. 

Illustrative of the pre- Roman period in the history of 
Britain, are the explorations which Mr. H. H. Cocks, of Great 
Marlow, is conducting on the site of the village of pile-dwellings 
at Hedsor; these are, of course, impeded by the presence of 
water, though that " element " is kept under by the constant 
use of the steam pump. The "finds" include flint implements, 
and some, though only a little, British pottery. Many of the 
piles discovered are of large dimensions, and, though they were 
mostly driven in with the bark upon them, just as cut, one 
was carefully squared. No human remains have been 
discovered during the past season. 

Besides what has been brought to light by systematic 
exploration, some curious discoveries have been made during the 



6 QUARTERLY NOTES. 

progress of work which entails digging for purposes other than 
archaeological. In preparing the foundations of the new 
municipal buildings at Colchester, a quantity of coins, bronze 
ornaments, pottery and glass, some early, has been unearthed 
and removed to the very excellent museum, of which Colehester 
is justly proud. During building operations at Braintree, a 
massive stone coffin has been found. 

Coming to a yet later period of history we may mention 
the discovery of the gibbet stumps on Hounslow Heath, 
unearthed at the junction of the Bath and Staines Roads, 
during the work necessary for the tram-line extension at 
Hounslow. Likely enough we shall hear of the discovery of 
the remains of some of those who paid the penalty of following 
the profitable career of highwaymen on the heath, and who 
were buried at the cross-roads, with, as Hood puts it, "stakes" 
in their insides. 

In London itself some interesting "finds" have been made 
during the extensive drainage and other works being carried 
out by the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn, under the 
direction of its surveyor, Mr. Dennett Barry. There have 
been unearthed quite a number of silver and copper coins of 
the reign of Elizabeth some of the shillings in really first- 
rate order and a lavish supply of jugs and drinking vessels 
often referred to in the Inn records as "green cups" and 
" green jugs " which bear witness to the convivial habits 
of the lawyers of the sixteen and seventeenth centuries. 

Many of the Inn buildings have undergone a very thorough 
and very careful restoration at Mr. Barry's hands ; and that 
gentleman is to be particularly congratulated on his treatment 
of the noble Tudor gates which fill the Chancery Lane 
entrance to the Inn. These gates have been stripped of many 
coats of paint and tar, the deal patching has been removed 
from them and replaced by old oak taken from Inn buildings 
formerly demolished, and they are to be wax-polished ; a treat- 
ment found most satisfactory in the case of oak subject to the 
influence of the weather. 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 7 

The development of the district lying to the north-east of 
London as a middle-class residential estate has already led to 
the obliteration of some of the most picturesque spots in 
Middlesex and South-West Essex, and the destruction of some 
of the most noble mansions which London's mercantile wealth, 
in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century caused to 
be erected. Many such buildings bordered on the high road 
through Edmonton, along which the wigless Gilpin galloped, 
and almost the last of them, Causeware Hall, at Lower 
Edmonton, is about to be cut up as a building estate. 

Around the very substantial house in Queen's Square, 
Bloomsbury, just acquired for a Jewish College, hangs a halo 
of musical romance : it was the home, for a time, of Handel's 
" Impresario " and no doubt was the scene of many stormy 
meetings, when things went wrong, as they often did, with the 
great master's productions. Some, we fancy, little noticed 
allusions to Handel's Musical career in London occur in 
Mr. J. J. Cartwright's " Wentworth Papers." The Earl of 
Stafford's son, Lord Wentwroth, writes to his father a good 
deal of London gossip, and in 1738 tells him of a piece entitled, 
"The Dragon of Wantcliff " (sic), the "tunes" in which, 
though it was a burlesque of the opera, Handel owned, 
bethought, "very well composed." Next year the rehearsals 
of " Saul " are named. Handel was borrowing " a pair of the 
largest kettle-drums in the Tower " for the performance, "so," 
says Lord Wentworth, "to be sure it will be most excessive 
noisy. ... I doubt it will not retrieve his former losses." 

In Mr. O'Donoghue's remarks on Cowper's portrait, which 
forms a frontispiece to the present issue of this Magazine, 
allusion is not made to Mr. W. H. Collingridge's generous gift 
to the people of Olney of Cowper's house, as that, with 
suitable illustrations, will be the subject of an article in our 
next issue, which will appear when the literary world is 
celebrating Cowper's first centenary. 

The question of the safe-keeping of local public records, so 
often referred to in these pages, has been recently again brought 
forward by Mr. Deputy White, in regard to city parochial 



8 QUARTERLY NOTES. 

records, other than parish registers. It is true the illustrations 
of civic life afforded by these parochial records, are not so 
early as those which may be drawn from the Corporation's 
Letter Books now being edited by Dr. Sharpe, but their value 
has been abundantly demonstrated, by public spirited men like 
Dr. Edwin Freshfield who, at their own expense, have printed 
and published volumes of such records ; and they are certainly 
fully appreciated by such workers as the Bishop of London and 
Professor Hales. 

Deputy White's suggestion that the Guildhall Library 
should be a home for the records of the city parishes will, we 
sincerely hope, be carried out. There is scarcely a city parish 
that has not had connected with it, more or less closely, some 
famous name. And surely the parochial records which through 
light on the daily life of illustrious men and women their 
political or religious views, their wealth or poverty are of 
greater value and interest than the registers which record their 
baptisms, marriages, or burials. Yet, in by far the greater number 
of parishes in London, and all over the country, even where 
the registers of births, marriages and deaths are carefully 
tended, other parish records are neglected, suffered to perish by 
decay, or lost. Let us hope that, ere long, Parliament will 
take some measures to secure the safety of local public records. 

A piece of ecclesiastical, parochial property, and a 
manuscript, though not a " record," has lately been restored 
to its proper custody after long absence : in the parish 
church of SS. Peter and Paul, Buckingham may now be seen 
an exceedingly interesting Bible, written mostly in a fourteenth 
century hand, but with some writing of an earlier date. It 
was given in to the chancel of the church by one John Rudyng 
in the year 1471, but like many other ecclesiastical belongings 
passed away from its rightful possession in the subsequent 
century. Later, we find it in the hands of the celebrated 
Browne Willis. At the sale of his library it was bought by 
Mr. Thomas Kerslake who, in 1855, returned it to the then 
vicar. The Holy Book remained in the vicarage till recently, 
when the present vicar, the Rev. P. P. Goldingham, returned 
it to the church. 






ESSEX CHARITIES. 9 

One of the most interesting gatherings that, during the last 
quarter, has taken place in the Home Counties, in the annual 
meeting of the Incorporated Law Society, held at Dover, from 
the gth to the 12th of July. The historic seaport accorded the 
lawyers, by their excellent mayor, Sir William Crundall, a very 
hearty and brilliant welcome at the Maison Dieu, on the 
evening of the gth. On the following days the president, Sir 
Henry Manisty, gave his address, and papers were read on 
subjects of great interest. The meeting terminated with one 
excursion to Boulogne, in the South -Eastern Railway Company's 
new steamer, the " Mabel Grace," when the Society was wel- 
comed by the Municipal Council of Boulogne, with the " Vin 
d' honneur." A special train conveyed a large party to visit 
Canterbury Cathedral and St. Martin's Church. The meeting 
was an unqualified success, and many hopes were expressed 
that the men of Kent might renew their invitation to the 
men of law at no distant date. 



ESSEX CHARITIES. 

BY THE EDITOR. 
(Continued from Vol. 7, p. 303). 

ALDHAM. 

By an Inquisition taken at the Lion at Kelvedon, 1 1 December, 
43 Elizabeth [A.D. 1600], it was found that Nicholas Stowe, late of 
Aldham, deceased, died seized of a messuage and 16 acres of land 
called Croxes, Ballwyns, and Waspes, in Aldham, and " being 
charged to serve our said sovereign lady the Queen's majestie in her 
affayres beyond the seas," did, by will dated in November, 1562, 
devise to Joan, his wife, the rent of the said messuage and lands, for 
her life (except the rent for two years after the date of his said will), 
and after her death the said messuage, etc., to John Wells, his 
godson, and the heirs of his body, and in default to Mary Wells, 
sister of the said John, and the heirs of her body, and in default to 
his executors to be sold, and the money obtained by the sale, 
distributed to the poor people of Aldham. The testator appointed 
John Cockerell and John Wells, his brother-in-law, his executors. 

The jurors found that John Wells, the godson, and Mary, his 
sister, died about 26 years before the date of the inquisition, in the 
life-time of the said Joan Stowe, without any lawful issue ; and that 
the said Joan Stowe, after the decease of the said Nicholas, received 



io ESSEX CHARITIES. 

the rents during her life, and died about 20 years since. The said 
John Wells, the elder, died in the life-time of the said Joan Stowe, 
and before any sale was made of the said messuage lands and 
tenements by the said John Cockerell and John Wells, or either of 
them. 

They also found that the said John Cockerell (notwithstanding 
he had proved the said will and taken upon him the charge 
thereof, unless the inhabitants would give consent that a lease of the 
said messuage lands and tenements should be made to him at a less 
yearly value than they were worth, after the decease of the said John 
Wells) would not, nor did not, in his life-time, sell the same messuage 
lands and tenements according to the trust reposed in him. 

They further found that one Joshua Newton (who was one of the 
inhabitants of the parish of Aldham at the time of the death of the 
said John Wells, the younger, and Mary W T ells, and at the time 
of the death of both the executors) being put in trust, on behalf 
of the poor of the said parish, to ask counsel and deal concerning 
the sale of the said premises, went to London, and asked 
counsel of divers good lawyers (as he said), and informed the 
inhabitants of the said parish, and made them believe, that the 
premises could not be sold according to the said will. And, 
thereupon, he got possession of them, and by the sinister practice of 
one John Searles, one of the inhabitants of the said parish, the said 
Joshua fraudulently procured one Joan Stowe, the sister and heir of 
the said Nicholas Stowe, the testator, to release or convey all her right 
estate and interest in the said premises to him, the said Joshua, and 
his heirs, informing her that the said premises did of right and by law 
belong to the poor people of the said parish. And, thereupon, for the 
sum of 5/. only, given to the said Joan Stowe, the said Joshua 
obtained the assurance and conveyance to himself of the said 
premises, and has ever since, being about 14 years, taken the rents 
and profits thereof. 

On the gth of January, 43 Elizabeth [A.D. 1601], it was ordered 
that, as the said Joshua Newton could not show that Mary W^ells was 
alive since the death of the said two executors, it should be lawful for 
the churchwardens and overseers of the poor of Aldham, for the time 
being, at any time thereafter to enter into the said messuage lands 
and tenements, and, by deed, for money sell, convey, and assure the 
same to any person and his heirs for ever, and to distribute all the 
money coming from such sale among the poor people of Aldham. 

COLNE WAKE. 

By an Inquisition taken at the Lion at Kelvedon, 1 1 December, 
43 Elizabeth [A.D. 1600], it was found that John Mylion and John 
Boteler, by their deed, bearing date on the feast of SS. Peter and 
Paul, 38 Henry VI. [A.D. 1460], enfeoffed, delivered and confirmed 
to John Loveney, and John atte Meadowe, of Colne Wake, one 
messuage with a garden, and three crofts of land thereto adjoining 
in Cplne Wake called Hethe's, situate between the land sometime 
William Booke's on the one part, and the land late John Smythe's on 
the other part, one head thereof abutting upon the land sometime John 



ESSEX CHARITIES. n 

Marler's, and another head thereof abutting upon the highway leading 
from Earle's Colne towards Munt Bewers [Mount Bures] which said 
messuage is now decayed ; to have and to hold the said messuage 
with the garden and three crofts of land aforesaid, with appurtenances, 
to the said John Loveney and John atte Meadowe, their heirs and 
assigns for ever. And also one meadow called Fuller's Meade, 
containing by estimation one acre, one rood, lying in Colne Wake, 
"between the river on the south part and the meadow of one 
Dowcett on the north, one head thereof abutting upon the lane that 
leads towards Wakes Myll westward ; and also one messuage or 
dwelling-house called the Church- House, otherwise the Towne 
House," in Colne Wake, adjoining to the churchyard of Colne Wake. 
All which said messuages, meadow, lands and tenements had, from 
time to time, for a very long time, been given and put and continued 
in feoffment to divers of the inhabitants of the said parish, whose 
names were unknown to the jurors, and their heirs upon especial 
trust and confidence only, and to that intent and purpose that the 
said feoffees, their heirs and assigns for ever, should bestow and 
employ all the rents, issues, and profits of all the said messuages, 
meadow, lands and tenements, to the use of the poor people 
inhabiting within the said parish of Colne Wake, and the reparations 
of the church, as occasion and necessity should require the same 
to be distributed and bestowed by the churchwardens for the time 
being, with the advice and consent of the parson, and four, or two at 
least, of the honest men of the said parish; which rents, etc., for 
long time, had been bestowed and employed accordingly. 

The jurors also found that the rents and profits of the said 
messuage or tenement called the Church-House, otherwise the 
Town House, were still employed to the good and charitable uses 
aforesaid ; but that John Keble, of Colne Wake, aforesaid, then 
took the issues and profits of the said meadow to his own use, 
contrary to the good and charitable intent of the first gift or 
feoffment. And that one William Keble, of Myleend, near Colchester, 
took all the rents, issues and profits of the said decayed messuage, 
garden and three crofts of land called "the Heathes," to his own use 
contrary to the intent of the first gift and feoffment. W T hich said 
John Keble and William Keble, have got some of the deeds and 
evidences touching the premises in their possession. 

On 5 January, 43 Elizabeth [A.D. 1601], it was ordered that it 
should be lawful for the churchwardens and overseers of the poor 
people of Colne Wake aforesaid, for the time being, or for so many 
of them as would consent, to enter into the said messuage called the 
Church- House, and into the said meadow, lands and tenements 
mentioned in the Inquisition, and by deed indented, make an estate 
in fee simple of the said messuage, meadow, lands and tenements 
with appurtenances, to the use of twelve at least "of the discreetest 
and honestest men" of the said parish of Colne Wake and their heirs 
for ever; to the intent and purpose that those persons, their heirs and 
assigns, should, from time to time for ever thereafter, bestow or 
employ all the rents, issues and profits of all the said messuage, 



12 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

meadow, lands and tenements, to the use of the poor people 
inhabiting within the parish of Colne Wake, and the reparations of 
the said church, as occasion and necessity should require the same 
to be distributed or bestowed by the churchwardens and overseers of 
the poor for the time being, with the advice and consent of the 
parson there, and four, or two at least, of the honest men of the said 
parish. And that the said messuage, meadow, lands and other 
premises should for ever thereafter be used and employed to the good 
and charitable uses aforesaid. And that the estate and interest 
which John Keble and William Keble had, or claimed to have, in the 
premises, should, after entry thereof, as aforesaid, cease. 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

BY REV. W. K. R. BEDFORD. 

No. I. HERTFORDSHIRE. 




Thrice welcome ye fair who attend at our call, 
Ye Cricketers' welcome, stout Archers and all, 
Diana herself (were she here) might improve 
In the pleasures of Archery, Freedom and Love. 

Our Bowmen so true make the target resound, 
Well pleased that no anguish results from the wound, 
Strong in pow'r to destroy yet as mild as the dove, 
They contend but in Archery, Freedom and Love. 

Our Union Society wills to be free, 
Yet, chaste in our freedom, no rebels are we ; 
All contempt of our rules we are free to reprove, 
For our motto is Archery, Freedom and Love. 

As for Love whilst we see so much beauty and grace, 
The cunning rogue, Cupid, must here find a place ; 
Shou'd he challenge our bowmen his arrows to prove, 
They'll shrink not from Archery, Freedom and Love. 

Then may mirth and good fellowship ever attend 
The Union Society, world without end ; 
That when we are call'd to the regions above, 
Our sons may toast Archery, Freedom and Love. 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 13 

THE Union Society, whose verses we quote, although they 
headed them with the armorial insignia of the counties of 
Hertford and Middlesex, held their meetings within the borders 
of the neighbouring shire of Essex, at Harlow first, and then 
in 1792 at Harlow Bush Common. Colonel Walrond, in the 
Badminton Archery Book, says of them, no doubt truly, "the 
rules are much the same as those of the other societies; they 
shot, had suppers and dances, and enjoyed life generally." 
What is curious about them, he proceeds to remark, " is that 
the colours of each lady and gentleman, are given in the list of 
names at the end of the book of rules, two French mottoes 
having also been adopted by each, the use of which is hard to 
understand. One lady, with orange as her colour, calls herself 
" La Novice, La Parfaite," another takes green, purple, and 
pink, and has as her mottoes, L'Infidelle (sic) La Jalouse; and 
one gentleman has chosen La (sic) Jolie La (sic) Lourde. As 
all the gentlemen's mottoes begin with "La," it is to be hoped 
that they knew more about shooting than they seem to have 
known of French. Their shooting regulations provide that 
they shall shoot at fifty and seventy yards, and that whoever 
hits a target at a shorter distance shall buy a new one." 

It is more than probable that this society shared the fate of 
many others in the memorable year 1793, when the famous 
Welsh Association, the Royal British Bowmen, recorded in 
their minutes: " Most of the gentlemen of the society having 
entered into some military employment for the defence of the 
country, our bows and arrows are hung up and have given way 
to the broad sword and musket." 

There can be no doubt that the more aristocratic assembly 
at Hatfield which existed for several years at the same period, 
languished and expired for similar reasons, since its foundress, 
Mary Amelia, daughter of the first Marquess of Downshire, 
who married in 1773, James, seventh Earl and afterwards first 
Marquess of Salisbury, survived until 1835. It was the 
outcome of a Gothic renaissance of which Strawberry Hill was 
the type, and for some years archery occupied a prominent 
place in fashionable entertainments. Lady Salisbury made 
herself conspicuous in promoting the revived pastime, and to 
her in 1791, the Rev. H. G. Oldfield dedicated a little volume 



I4 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

of Archery anecdotes. " Presuming (it says) on your 
Ladyship's well-known liberality in the encouragement of the 
elegant and fashionable science of archery." Additional proof 
of the celebrity of Lady Salisbury as an archeress, is afforded 
by a shockingly indecent caricature (Gillray's worst work), now 
in the library of the Society of Antiquaries. 

The plate from the Ladies Pocket Book of 1791, by no means 
contemptible in its execution, represents some of the prominent 
members of this Hertfordshire Society, although the ladies are 
not engaged in actual archery. The gentlemen, equipped in 
the full bowman's costume, " which shall consist of a green 
coat, white waistcoat and breeches, a black hat, green and 
white feathers, white stockings, half boots, a buff coloured 
leather belt with a pouch and green tassel, and black leather 
bracer," are not named; but the ladies are thus designated: 
Duchess of Leeds, Hon. Miss Grimston, Miss Sebright, and 
the patroness. 

Of these, the first was Catherine, daughter of Thomas 
Anguish, Esq., second wife of Francis, fifth Duke of Leeds, 
and mother of Lord Sidney Godolphin Osborne, once well- 
known to readers of the Times by his initials, S.G.O., as a 
frequent and pungent writer upon church matters. She was 
grandmother also to the author White Melville. Whether the 
Miss Grimston were Frances or Charlotte, sisters of the third 
Viscount, is not certain, though it may be presumed the figure 
most likely represents Charlotte, who was fond of ancient 
archery, and is remembered as the possessor of a most 
interesting relic, a leathern bracer, left by King Henry VI. at 
Bolton Hall, after his defeat at Hexham in 1464. 

Miss Sebright may be identified with Henrietta, sister of 
Sir J. S. Sebright, M.P. for Herts, and in 1794 married to 
Henry, second Earl of Harewood. The tall hats worn by the 
ladies are the quaintest part of the picture, which appears to 
have enjoyed extensive popularity, as the writer has seen, in a 
distant county, the identical design transferred to a china jug. 

We know but little of the doings of these doughty archers. 
A contemporary publication says that they possessed several 
valuable prizes, the principal of which was a gold heart, 
enriched with a bow and shaft and set in diamonds. 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 15 

An interesting incident in the history of the society is its 
reception of the freedom of a fraternity which still continues 
to exist, the Society of the Woodmen of the Forest of Arden, 
founded at Meriden in Warwickshire by Heneage, fourth Earl 
of Aylesford, in 1785. 

The diploma which conveyed the freedom is said by Hansard 
(Book of Archery, p. 152), to have been preserved at Hatfield, 
but is not now to be found. Hansard, however, gives a full 
description of the diploma, and faithful transcript of the words 
in which the freedom was conveyed, which is worth repeating. 







To the Most Noble the Marchioness of Salisbury 

PATRONESS 
And all others the Members of the Society of the 

Hertfordshire Archers 

The Woodmen of the Ancient Forest of Arden 
SEND GREETING. 



BE IT KNOWN, That, in token of the great love we bear the 
Patroness and Members of the said Society, We have given and granted, 
and by these presents Do give and grant, to each and every of them, the 
free Use of all our Butts Targets and Marks now erected or hereafter to be 
erected within the Bounds, Purlieus, Privileges, and Assorts of the FOREST 
of ARDEN, the property of the Woodmen of the said Forest. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our Hands and Common 
Seal this sixteenth day of November MDCCLXXXIX. 

(Seal) ARDEN. 

Passed through slits, on either side of the parchment on 
which the diploma was written, and below the device we have 
given above, was a piece of riband. That on the left side was 



16 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

garter-blue with a white border at each end, and had suspended 
from it a gold crescent, bugle and shaft, and under it was the 
signature, " Aylesford, Warden." That on the right side was 
red, with a black border at each end ; below this was the 
signature, "John Dilke, Master Forester." That below the 
device was, as Hansard describes it, "striped riband of pale 
violet blue " not a very clear description and below was the 
signature, "Wriothesley Digby, Secretary." 

The friendly expressions conveyed by the diploma seem to 
have been really carried into effect; for two at least of the 
members of the society were Hertfordshire residents, viz., the 
Rev. T. Bargus, Rector of Barkway, 1787, and Stephen 
Sulivan, of Ponsborne, 1791. 

In the hall of the Woodmen of Arden still hang sundry 
Indian bows and arrows presented by Mr. Sulivan. 

The target which the archers in the engraving are 
represented as using differs considerably from the regulation 
mark with its five circles, now generally adopted. It apparently 
is one of a pattern still in use in northern France, with nine 
circles of the following colours and value yellow, one ; white, 
two ; red, three ; yellow, four ; white, five ; red, six ; yellow, 
seven ; white, eight ; black, nine ; game 35, 

In addition to the societies already mentioned, there were 
at the end of the last century, Essex Archers, Hainault 
Foresters, who met at Fairlop, Robin Hood bowmen, at 
Highgate, and Woodmen of Hornsey, all competing for medals, 
bugle horns, and such like prizes, on grounds to the north of the 
metropolis. Most of these ceased to exist before 1800, though 
forty years later Harlow Bush Archers are noticed as still 
holding meetings, possibly upon the lines of the old Union 
Society. 

The fortunes of archery in Berkshire, Middlesex, Surrey, 
and Kent, will be treated of in future papers. 




j \ z 

I 

Iff 






72 Mile 



Westbourne Green, 1834. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN : A RETROSPECT. 

BY W. L. RUTTON, F.S.A. 



REFERENCE TO MAP. 

THE map opposite is a reproduction of part of the " Topo- 
graphical Survey of the Parish of St. Marylebone, by F. A. 
Bartlett, under the direction of John Britton, F.S.A. Published 
June 25th, 1834." It includes Paddington Parish. 

The Westbourne Green residences, to which reference is made in 
the article, are distinctively shown black, and are numbered on the 
map for the purpose of ready identification. 

1. WESTBOURNE PLACE or HOUSE, built circa 1745, by 
the architect Isaac Ware. Its subsequent occupants were Sir 
William Yorke, Bart.; the Venetian Ambassador; Jukes Coulson, 
iron merchant ; Samuel Pepys Cockerell, architect ; and Viscount 
Hill, General Commanding-in-Chief. 

2. WESTBOURNE FARM, occupied 1805-1817, by Mrs. 
Siddons, the great actress, and 1845-1848, by Charles James 
Mathews and Mrs. Mathews (Madame Vestris) comedians. 

3. DESBOROUGH LODGE, occupied 1814, by Charles 
Kemble, actor (brother of Mrs. Siddons) and his family. 

4. "THE MANOR PIOUSE," occupied by John Braithwaite, 
eminent as a mechanical engineer, who died here 1818; afterwards 
by his son, of the same name, distinguished as a civil- engineer ; by 
W r illiam Charles Carbonell, of the firm of wine merchants in Regent 
Street ; and lastly by Sir John Humphreys, senior coroner for 
Middlesex. 

5. BRIDGE HOUSE belonged to John White, architect to the 
Duke of Portland, and owner of property at Westbourne Green, 
including Westbourne Farm. 

The large figures on the map indicate estates, thus: I. (Not on 
the portion reproduced), the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 2. 
The Pickering Estate. 3. The Lord Bishop of London. 4. The 
Grand Junction Canal Company. 

Westbourne Green a name almost lost, or found only in 
old maps and books applied seventy years ago to a district 
now absorbed in "London," but then distant from the turmoil 

B 



i8 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

and pollution of town, and sought for quietude, rest, and pure 
breathing. A century back it was described as "one of those 
beautifully rural spots for which the parish of Paddington, 
although contiguous to the Metropolis, is distinguished. 

The rising ground commands a pleasing view 

of Hampstead and Highgate ; the village of Paddington with 
the elegant new church produces a pretty effect when viewed 
from hence ; and as no part of London can be seen, a 
person disposed to enjoy the pleasures of rural retirement 
might here forget his proximity to the busy hum of men."* 

Looking through the portfolios of the Grace Collection at 
the British Museum, we find more than one picture of the 
scene so refreshing, yet so regretful to look back to. Such is a 
"View near Paddington, with Kensington Gardens in the 
distance," now reproduced. Westbourne Place, a handsome, 
three storied mansion, the chief residence of the locality, 
stands in its own grounds, some distance back from the Green. 
The Green itself fills the fore-ground, unenclosed, unbroken 
sod, studded with trees and bushes in natural beauty, the home, 
as we readily imagine, of the rabbit, the linnet, and the lark. 
The pure West Bourn flows through it, and the rustic road 
to Harrow winds over the common, and up the same quickly 
rising hill which to-day demands the service of the extra horse 
to help the ordinary team of the loaded 'bus toiling up the 
street, now hemmed in with houses and shops and noisy with 
population and commerce. In our picture of circa 1790, there 
is but one coach, heavy and stately, with its two horses and 
servants, conveying, perhaps, the master of Westbourne Place, 
Jukes Coulson, the eminent iron merchant, who is returning 
home from his business house in Thames Street, London. 
And besides the rich man's coach there are two or three 
pedestrians, just to put a little life into the scene, and to mark 
the course of the road. In the distance is seen Kensington 
Palace, probably introduced after the manner of old pictures to 
indicate the vicinity of the royal building, although perhaps 
scarcely " visible to the naked eye." Yet the distance was but 
a mile,' and at that time no objects intervened save trees. By 
the road-side near Westbourne Place, appear some buildings 

* Universal Magazine, September, 1793, p. 177. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. ig 

which may represent its ancient predecessor, presently to be 
referred to. Two or three other houses existed, though not 
within the limits of the picture, and these, with the principal 
mansion just mentioned, and their occupants, will have our 
special attention ; but previously a brief reference to the more 
remote history of the locality seems demanded. 

The name Westbourne, taken from one of the three 
principal brooks which descended from the hills north of 
London to the Thames the other two being the Fleet and the 
Brent* seems to have been applied to the district west of the 
brook, and which after the formation of the parish of 
Paddington became its western moiety. The early history of 
the district, now that parish, is obscure, indeed but a matter of 
conjecture. Domesday, in so many cases the Alpha of topo- 
graphy, making no mention of it, it is supposed by some to 
have been comprehended in the manor of Tybourne which has 
mention. So also has Lilestone (now written Lisson), a manor 
apparently westward of Tybourne Manor, and divided from it 
by the stream of that name. Thus Lilestone may have 
intervened between Tybourne and the area afterwards known 
as Paddington. Tybourne, however, gained an unenviable 
notoriety by becoming at an early time as far back at least as 
the reign of Edward III. the place of public execution, and 
as London expanded, the gibbet was moved westward, carrying 
with it the name of the locality where it had been originally 
planted. Latterly, as we know, the name "Tyburn," synonym 
for the gallows, had been carried to the southern end of the 
Edgware Road, and the name there found seems to have 

* The old maps of Middlesex, e.g., those of Norden, 1593, Speed, 
1610, Morden, 1730, Seller, 1733, Rocque, 1757, show but the three 
streams, the Fleet, the Westbourne, and the Brent. The Tybourne being" 
of less volume is not figured, although it was important at an early period, 
as from its springs a supply of water was conducted to London, as it gave 
its name to a manor, and as the lower part of its course formed the ancient 
boundary of the Westminster Abbey estate. That boundary, indeed, has 
been disputed, and Robins, in "Paddington Past and Present," contends 
that the names Tybourne and Westbourne were given to the same brook, 
and that the Westbourne, as now known, limited both the Abbey estate 
and the manor of Tybourne. Such a conclusion, however, is opposed 
to the opinion of almost all who have studied the question ; but the point 
is beyond the scope of this article, and reference must suffice to Mr. J. G. 
Waller's paper on the Tybourne and \Vestbourne (Transactions oflthe 
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, Vol. VI.) Mr. Waller 
affords an excellent delineation of the two streams, and of their sources. 



20 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

created the opinion that the manor of Tybourne had extended 
over the Paddington and Westbourne district.* But, indeed, 
the more probable reason for that district being unaccounted 
for in Domesday is not that it was comprised in the Tybourne 
manor, but that at the time of the survey it was unreclaimed 
from the great Middlesex Forest. A small clearance in the 
forest on the banks of the Westbourne may have been made by 
a conjectured tribe of Psedings long before the Norman 
Conquest ; and in a Saxon charter of the reputed date 959, 
there is mention of a little farm, "prsediolum in Padintune," 
claimed by the Abbot of Westminster t ; but if existing at the 
time of the survey, the farm seems to have been over-looked, or 
perhaps escaped register by its insignificance. However, taking 
the little farm as the germ of Paddington, we easily imagine 
the gradual spread of cultivation and population during the 
progressive centuries. A hundred years after the making of 
Domesday Book, we have record of a sale of land in Padinton by 
William and Richard de Padinton to the Abbot, this in 1185 J. 
In 1222 it became necessary to adjudicate between the claims 
of the Abbot and another ecclesiastical power, the Bishop of 
London, and then, as previously in 951, the Tybourne is stated 
to be the western limit of the Abbey estate, the northern limit 
being the strata regia or Saxon herestreet, now Oxford Street ; 
"but," continues the decree, "beyond these limits are the villa 
of Knightsbridge, Westbourne, and Paddington with its chapel 
and appurtenances. " 

The above appears to be the first mention of Westbourne, 
and its being named with Knightsbridge is interesting from the 
fact that three centuries later than the decree of 1222, Knights- 
bridge and Westbourne, formerly extra Abbey lands (i.e., not 

* Robins (Paddington Past and Present, p. 11), supports this view 
by reference to an Act of 1734, in which messuages and lands at 
Westbourne are described as being "parcel of the manor of Tyburn, and 
called Byard's Watering Place " or Bays water. 

f Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus. Vol. VI., p. 17. 

\ Maddox, Formulare Anglicanum, p. 217. 

The earliest definition of the Abbey estate is in a charter of 951, 
quoted by Kemble (who thought the date probably 971) in " Codex 
Diplomaticus," Vol. III., p. 72. The decree of 1222 is given by Wharton 
in -'Historia de Episcopis et Decanis Londinensibus " (1690. Appendix 
p. 252. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 21 

within its more ancient limits), were formed into one manor. 
This was the Act of Henry VIII., after the spoliation of the 
Abbey, and although the leap is great from 1222 to 1542, it is 
not necessary for the purpose of this article to quote mention 
of Westbourne in the time of the Edwards, or to trace further 
the growth of the Abbey estate during the three centuries. 
We will pass on to the reign of Edward VI., when the 
parish of Paddington became divided by the West Bourn into 
two estates, the eastern division being assigned to the Bishop 
of London, the western to the Dean and Chapter of West- 
minster as successors to the old regime of the Abbot. This 
latter estate, now administered by the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners, is at the present time termed in our leases, " the 
manor of Knightsbridge with Westbourne." 

The earliest map affording details (e.g., the buildings) of the 
London district in past time, is that of the Frenchman Jean 
Rocque ; for which reason his excellent survey, published in 
1746, is constantly used and reproduced by those who write on 
London topography. There are many older maps of great 
value, but only of general character and small scale, whereas 
Rocque, with his fine scale of five inches to the mile, gives us 
the very houses in which we are interested, and for his work 
merits our constant gratitude. So turning to his survey we find 
the state of Westbourne Green in 1746. Its connection with 
the old highway to the west (held to have been the Roman 
strata and now generally known as the Uxbridge Road), is 
by " Wesborn Green Lane" (now Queen's Road), a track of 
varying width, fields on its western border, and on its eastern 
border common or waste land, with a large pond, perhaps an 
old gravel-pit, at one place. The lane leads to the rustic 
" Royal Oak," progenitor of one of the best known " public- 
houses " and omnibus stations of the London of our own day.* 
By the inn there is an orchard, and here from the lane turns off 
eastward, a footpath which leads through the fields to the 
village of Paddington ; the footpath was then called "Bishop's 
Walk," it has become Bishop's Road. About 300 yards east 
from the inn the path crosses a pure stream bordered with elm 

* A picture of the old Royal Oak accompanies an interesting account of 
the district by Henry Walker, F.G.S., in the Bayswater Annual, 1885. 



22 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

trees, the West Bourn, which gives its name to the locality, 
and from this point the Green (judging from the writing 
" Wesborn Green," on the plan and such fences as are shown), 
extends north-westward about three-quarters of a mile, but it 
is without definite limits. Following the lane northward, about 
a quarter-of-a-mile from the Royal Oak, it joins the high road 
to Harrow coming from the village of Paddington, half-a-mile 
eastward ; and by the side of the road shortly before junction 
with the lane, and just before crossing the West Bourn, is 
" The Red Lion " an inn or ale-house which is yet represented 
130 yards eastward. At the junction of Westbourne Green 
Lane with "the Harrow Road," as the highway is called, is the 
entrance-gate to Westbourne Place (or Westbourne Park as on 
our map), the country-house of Isaac Ware, the eminent 
architect, the first house which will have our attention ; and a 
quarter-of-a-mile further towards Harrow is Westbourne Farm, 
the second house claiming our notice. Close to it is another inn, 
"The Spotted Dog," also represented by a modern house, so 
we may think that with "The Royal Oak," "The Red Lion," 
and " The Spotted Dog," the thirst of the traveller over 
Westbourne Green was well provided for. Beyond Westbourne 
Farm there was not, in 1746, another house until Kensal Green 
was reached, or if there were it is omitted in Rocque's survey. 

Maps ranging in date between 1746 and 1834, tnat f the 
map presented, show the gradual and very slow increase of 
houses. The canal opened in 1801 gave rise to building around 
the wharves at Paddington, but caused no change at Westbourne 
Green. In 1808, " Wesborn Green Lane " (now Queen's 
Road), had not yet a house along it ; in 1819 it had only some 
small houses on the western side ; in 1828 a few had been 
built on the eastern side, and the lane was called " Black 
Lion Lane " from an old inn (still represented) at the 
south-east corner, in the Uxbridge Road. Pickering Place and 
Terrace, named apparently after a curate (we should now say 
vicar) of Paddington, were complete in 1828, and seem to have 
been commenced circa 1824, they are now the most venerable 
dwellings in the neighbourhood. The map of 1834 nas been 
selected as showing the state of the Green immediately before 
its destruction by the making of the Great Western Railway, 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 23 

which may be said to have brought London with it. Bishop's 
Walk still crosses the fields to Paddington ; Westbourne Grove, 
now the Regent Street of Bayswater, has yet no existence, 
but it and other thoroughfares have been designed and marked 
out. The map appears to be the result of careful survey, it is 
very nicely engraved, and the few interesting country-houses to 
which with their sometime occupants we will now refer, are 
precisely indicated. 

(To be Continued). 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 
BY " PETER DE SANDWICH." 

THE following extracts from the Visitations of the Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury, which I propose to give the 
readers of this magazine, will be read with interest, from the 
light which they throw on life in rural Kentish parishes, some 
two or three hundred years ago. The original returns are in 
the Cathedral library at Canterbury, and accessible to students, 
by the courtesy of the Dean and Chapter. 

WICKHAMBREUX. 

This parish is a few miles east of Canterbury, and is first 
mentioned as Wickham in the year 948, when a grant of " six 
' mansas ' (hides), which the people of Kent call six * sulings ' 
(or ploughs worth), was made by King Eadred to a religious 
woman named ^Elfwynne." The second part of the name 
Breux, or Bruse, is from the Breuse or Braose family who 
were the owners of the Manor from about 1218 to 1325. 

1569. " That Mr. Robert Foemell, of our parish, hath pulled 
down by his own private authority, an old chapel called Hooke 
chapel," late standing in the .same parish, and kept the chapel 

* The site of this chapel is at the present day unknown, but the chapel 
is mentioned in the year 1511, when Archbishop William Warham, on 
25th September, 1511, in Wye Church, held a visitation of the clergy and 
people in the Deanery of Bridge. "Hoke chapel annexed to this church 
(Wickhambreux), is in sore decay, but the Rector had begun to repair it, 
and promised the necessary material. Hog's and other unclean beasts fed 
in the churchyard, so that when the parishioners went in procession, first 
they had to drive them away." British Magazine, xxx. 527-8. 



24 SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

churchyard forcibly from the parson there, contrary to his ancient 
right and interest." 

1578. "John Loftie, of our said parish, for that he hath not 
received the Holy Communion this Easter twelve-month, or received 
by our minister ; for that he wished not, nor is willing to have the 
same." 

1581. " The churchyard is not fenced as it should be." 

1585. " We present our parson for that he hath felled, or caused 
to be felled, certain trees growing in the churchyard of Wickhambreux 
aforesaid, giving offence to the parishioners." John Smythe (rector 
1560-1602), said he felled two trees and employed them on the 
repairs of the church. 

1. " We present Thomas Beake for that he hath, and doth seize 
and retain a piece of land belonging to our church, being within the 
said parish, contrary to all right and equity ; and hath contrary to 
the consent of the most part of the parishioners of our parish, upon 
the same made fire and waste." 

2. "Thomas Beake being chosen sidesman by our parish 
according to custom, refuses to take the same upon him." 

3. "Thomas Beake absented himself from church about a 
quarter of a year ago upon^Sundays and Holy Days, when our Mr. 
Carter had openly in the pulpit in the forenoon, published, and had 
also given notice to all the parishioners, to resort to the church in 
the afternoon to hear a sermon, he the said Beake contemptuously to 
the offence of the good of such well disposed persons without any 
lawful cause, in contempt as we think of the preacher and his 
doctrines, absented himself from church." 

1586. "They have no box or chest for the poor, neither any 
other for the keeping of their register book." 

1588. "We have no Communion cup." 

1603. " We present John Haringford, of our parish, for refusing 
to pay his part of a cess made for the reparation of our church." 

1605. "Thomas Beake doth withhold certain church lands from 
the churchwardens, which had been a legacy given to our church by 
will ; and his father, and after his death, his mother, and after her 
decease, himself hath paid rent always for it, but now doth deny it." 

1605. July 22 (a second presentment). "Thomas Beake hath in 
his possession land belonging to the church of Wickhambreux 
aforesaid, for the yearly rent of which land, or otherwise out of the 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 25 

said land, the occupiers thereof, the predecessors of the said Thomas 
Beake, being his grandfather, his father, and his mother, occupiers 
of the said land, have paid yearly to the churchwardens of the parish 
of Wickhambreux for the time being, for and by the space of these 
forty years past and upwards, until such time as he the said Thomas 
Beake came into the possession of the said land the sum of 2/. 6s. 
lawful English money, or otherwise did allow for the same to the 
churchwardens of Wickhambreux." 

1607. " Our second bell is cracked, but we will have it shortly 
moulded." 

1608. "We whose names are under-written, do present unto 
your worship, Margery Loftie, wife of John Loftie, and Clemence 
Taylor, wife of Robert Taylor, both of Wickhambreux, for that they 
have at diverse times, within this quarter of the year, chidden, 
brawled, railed, and fought one with the other openly, and although 
they have been reproved for it by the minister, yet they will not 
forbear, but live very uncharitably and unchristianly, to the offence 
of all their neighbours." 

1615. " We have no carpet for the communion table." 

" We have not a convenient seat in our church for our minister to 
read from." 

"We have a communion cup and a cover to it, of silver, but the 
same is not a fair communion cup." 

"We have not a strong chest for alms for the poor, which hath 
locks and keys." 

"Our church is not well repaired, and our belfry-roof unslated, 
by our churchwardens default, and our churchyard is not well fenced 
in." 

1619. "In the parish church of Wickhambreux, the great bell 
being broken, the churchwardens and other parishioners have 
without any lawful authority, caused two small or little bells to be 
made thereof, and appropriated a yard residue of metal of the broken 
bell to their own proper use, contrary to the law and authority." 

[They were eventually ordered to make the four bells, then in 
the tower of Wickhambreux, tunable, and to add the remainder or 
surplus of the metal of the former great bell, and the four bells in 
the tower equal in proportion to the old ones. After another hundred 
years, in 1728, whilst Alexander Young was rector, the six bells that 
are now in the tower, were cast by Samuel Knight]. 



26 SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

1627. " We do present Henry Fostall and Alice his wife, both of 
our parish, for that there is a common fame within the said parish, 
that they are very contentious and uncharitable persons, and sowers 
of discord between their neighbours. Also they offend their neigh- 
bours by their profane swearing, and the same in within our parish." 

1628. "William Field, of our parish, for being absent from 
church upon Easter Day last past, being 8th April, 1628." 

" Robert Marshall, for a common drunkard or drunken person, 
who by reason of his said drunkenness offends most of the well 
disposed parishioners." 

1631. "We present upon a common fame the wife of Richard 
Terry, and the wife of Sampson Espe, for common talkers in the 
time of divine service, and for disturbing the other parishioners of 
Wickhambreux in the time of divine service." 

1636. "To our knowledge, all have received the Communion this 
last Easter in our parish, that are of sufficient age, except John 
Uffington and his wife Margery, but for what cause we know not, 
whom we now present for not receiving the Communion last Easter 
according to the articles." 

[The result of this was that they abused their Rector as the 
presentment of the following year shows]. 

1637. "John Uffington andhis wife Margery,for uttering and using 
many opprobrious and scandalous words against Mr. John Smith, 
parson of our said parish [rector 1602-43], in calling him a liar, and 
saying he was a slanderer of his neighbours, and that he did write 
lying letters against them, and that the said Mr. Smith did cause his 
neighbours to for-swear themselves about his lies. Furthermore, 
the said John Uffington and his wife affirmed that the said Mr. Smith, 
our parson, was an oppressor of his neighbours, taking away their 
goods wrongfully, and used other railing and * abusening passages ' 
against the said Mr. Smith, to the great disgrace and disparagement 
of the said Mr. Smith and his ministerial function, as the common 
fame is, in our parish." 

1638. " Elizabeth, wife of Sampson Espe, clerk of the parish, 
upon a common fame, that she is regarded to be a contentious person 
and a sower of discord amongst her neighbours, and a slanderer of 
her neighbours." 

(To be continued). 




St. Michael Eassishaw, looking West. 



A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AND RECTORY 
OF ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

BY W. B. PASSMORE. 

MR. EELES' interesting notes (Volume i, p. 341), as 
to the finding of many objects of interest during 
the excavation now in progress for the destruction of this 
church, leads me to think it may be useful to place on record 
some facts connected with the history of the church before it 
finally vanishes from sight, and the rectory becomes merged 
in the cure of St. Lawrence Jewry. 

Maitland states that he was unable to ascertain the time 
when this church was founded; but that it was of great 
antiquity is evident by its having been given by Bishop Gilbert 
to the Prior of St. Bartholomew, about the year 1140. It 
would appear, however, from Newcourt's Repertorium, that in 
1130 the rectory was already in the patronage of Rahere, 
founder of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. There has been, all 
along, a tradition in the parish that the jester and minstrel to 
King Henry I., was the founder of this church and rectory. 
Rahere made a journey to Rome to seek absolution for the 
follies of his youth ; in returning he had a dream in which a 
celestial visitor appeared to him and declared himself to be 
Bartholomew the Apostle. He directed Rahere to build and 
endow a hospital and sanctuary in Smithfield, and then, 
promising that he would be patron of the new sanctuary, 
vanished. Rahere obeyed the command and finished the church 
and priory in 1123, he became the first prior and filled the office 
for 22 years. All this is set out in detail in a window placed in 
the Guildhall, presented by Mr. Alderman Stone in 1866, " in 
honour of our ward of Bassishaw." The subject on the two 
main openings below the transom represents Rahere founding 
the church and hospital. The vision and its result are combined 
in the window, the former above, the latter below. The 
selection of the subject and preparation of the historical 
statement was, at the suggestion of the worthy Alderman, 
deputed to a committee of the elders of the parish, by the 
parishioners assembled in vestry, and the result arrived at was 
" much admired." 



28 ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

The original church was said to have been a thing of 
beauty, but it had fallen into a ruinous condition before 1460, 
when it was rebuilt, mainly at the charge of John Barton and 
his wife Agnes ; his mark runs throughout the roof of the choir 
and middle aisle. Numerous city magnates were buried in this 
church, whose tombs have been described by Stow and others. 
The chief monument appears to have been one erected to the 
memory of Sir John Yarford, mayor in 1520, "a fair tomb 
built in a chapel on the north side of the choir, in which he 
was buried in 1527, and his lady in the same tomb in 1548." 
It is frequently mentioned in the old churchwardens' book as 
"the greate tombe," and was kept in repair by the Weavers 
Company, their last payment of 405. was made in 1654, being 
" 305. for the paynter and los. for the plaisteriere." According 
to Sir John's will this monument was to be beautified for ever, 
as often as the church should be beautified inside. It was 
destroyed in the fire. 

Sir John Gresham was buried here in 1554: "Here 
lyeth buried under this tombe Sir John Gresham, Knt., 
some time Alderman and Lord Mayor of this cittie, who 
had two wives, Dame Mary first, by whom he had five 
sonnes and sixe daughters. By Dame Katherine, his last 
wife, he had no issue." This Sir John was uncle to Sir Thomas 
Gresham. At his funeral, on a fast day, a fish dinner was 
provided for all comers; he w r as buried with great pomp and 
display, the "church and street being hung with black and 
arms in great store." An old London Diarist, Henry Machyn, 
gives a quaint account of this funeral, which was reprinted by 
the Camden Society in 1848. Sir John Ailiffe, barber surgeon, 
sheriff in 1548, was also buried here ; his portrait appears in 
Holbein's picture of Henry 8th delivering the charter to the 
Court of Assistants of the Barber Surgeons Company. The 
inscription on his monument stated that " he was called to 
court by King Henry, who loved him dearly well." Another 
Lord Mayor, Sir Wolston Dixie, was buried in this church ; he 
was founder of the Divinity Lecture, and was distinguished for 
the magnificent pageantry of his show in 1585. His portrait 
hangs in the court-room of Christ's Hospital as " a person of 
uncommon merit." Adrian De Ewes and Alice his wife, nee 



ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 29 

Ravenscroft, died anno. 1551, of the sweating sickness, and 
according to Weaver, there was in one of the windows not far 
from where they were buried " a beautiful representation of 
them both." 

In the year 1618, the great bell seems to have fallen down, 
there being a charge in the churchwardens' book for " two 
greate pieces of tymber to mend the frame and wheel withal, 
for workmanship and men and other stuffe, the sum totell as 
appeareth by the bill was xviijs. iiijd." In the following year 
there is a further charge for ''bettering the bells," plaistering 
the church and making-up the pulpit cloth and cushion with 
crimson silk and fringe, and for a " greate piece of tymbre to 
bear up the joystes that the leads lye upon." In 1622 the 
steeple was " mended where it rayned in," and, by contribution 
of parishioners, new pews were built in the " chansill," which 
are described as " fayre pews for any gentleman to sit in." 
The church was repaired and " beautified " in 1636, the 
expense being defrayed by a house to house collection, by 
"voluntary gifts of divers inhabitants that had not borne the 
office of constable and churchwarden," and the remainder 
raised by a church rate, being the first case of levying a church 
rate in this parish. During the plague year, 1665, the burials 
in the churchyard numbered 246, one hundred-and-fifty-two 
loads of earth having been brought into the churchyard, the 
height was greatly increased above the level of the church floor 
and street. Next year occurred the great fire, which destroyed 
this church, except a portion of the tower, in the 2o6th year of 
its age. There was saved out of the fire, "the chest with three 
locks and three keys to it which the parish wrytings are in itt," 
and the church plate, which includes a silver gilt chalice, of 
great beauty of form and workmanship, still preserved in the 
plate chest. 

Incidental to the fire it must be stated that church affairs in 
the parish fell into the lowest depth of disorder and confusion, 
and so remained for several years. The rector had left, at the 
time of the plague, for his country cure at Market Deeping in 
Lincolnshire, and never returned to perform the duties of his 
office, leaving the vestry and churchwardens to deal with the 
forlorn condition of the church. The vestry minutes during 



30 ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

the following years illustrate this; there are many entries such 
as : "to the poor for sifting the church rubbish," "gave to the 
watchmen for drink," " paid for looking to the lead and about 
the great bell," " paid the labourers engaged in getting the bell 
metal and lead out of the ruins and lodging it in Guildhall." 
This bell metal and lead was sold in 1675 and produced 22/. iSs. 
The question of clearing the church ruins and raising a 
tabernacle was debated from time to time and put off, nothing 
being done until the last day of February, 1675, nine years 
after the fire, when Mr. Edward Smith came and officiated as 
minister, being paid out of the parish stock in lieu of tithes. He 
set to work, and formed a committee of twelve of the inhabitants 
to consider the question of rebuilding the church ; frequent 
interviews were had with Sir Christopher Wren, and dinners to 
him "about the church." Subscriptions and loans were raised, 
to be repaid, hereafter, out of the coal revenue with interest at 
six per cent. Meantime, arrangements were made for Mr. Smith 
to preach in Aldermanbury Church on " Sabbath mornings," 
and in the afternoon at Guildhall Chapel, to " the great joy of 
the inhabitants who, during this long period had been debarred 
the consolation of religious services at the hands of their own 
minister, and had betaken themselves to worship at such 
tabernacles or chapels as had been provided after the dreadful 
calamity." So it is written in the vestry minutes. 

The committee were constantly treating with Wren with a 
view of forw r arding the work, which was so far completed that 
at the end of 1677 a sub-committee was appointed for the 
purpose of pewing the church and " making a pulpit and other 
ornaments." The common council men came to see the roof, 
and the churchwarden " gave the workmen 2s. 6d. to encourage 
them to make haste and get on with it." Skilful surveyors 
reviewed and measured the church, reviewed the vaults, and, 
after discoursing with the joiners and the ancients of the 
parish, the pews were set up; the cost being computed at 300^, 
which was to be advanced by the several inhabitants according 
to the proportion of their poor rate ; this sum being found 
insufficient, a further ioo/. was raised, as was 40^. for the altar 
piece and rails, the whole to be paid out of the parish stock by 
instalments spread over six years. The altar piece was of 



ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 31 

stone with entablements containing the Commandments, the 
Lord's prayer, and the Creed, with cornice and pediment 
surmounted with urns. In later years the tables of this stone 
altar piece were painted black. 

So the church was completed in 1679. The elevation 
is not attractive, the force of circumstances necessitated 
the style adopted, the adjoining owners were not disposed 
to give up any portion of their land, whilst it appears 
from the ward inquest book that some of them, including 
the Company of Coopers, were presented, year after year, 
for encroaching three feet upon the churchyard in rebuilding 
their hall. The interior is one of Wren's happiest efforts ; the 
nave, as was so usual with him, is separated from the aisles by 
an arcade of Corinthian columns, which support an elaborate 
entablature and cornice, and a semi-circular roof of handsome 
design. The church is well lighted by a series of large 
windows, with clerestory windows ; the window over the 
communion table is partly bricked up ; the steeple is a tower 
crowned with a turret. The length of the church is 70 feet, 
breadth 50 feet, and height 45 feet ; the height of the tower is 
75 feet. 

An agreement was made with the bell founder for a bell of 
six or seven cwt., at 61. per hundred-weight, " if not approved 
at the end of twelve months it was to be returned." For 
further beautifying the church the pulpit cloth was embroidered. 
Towards the expenses the churchwarden borrowed 4O/. from the 
Lord Mayor ; this was ordered to be paid back the following 
year, and a direction to " give his worship thanks," appears on 
the minutes. In 1681 a wall was built "round about" the 
churchyard, which was "to be made and kept handsome," and 
"no cloaths" were to be "dried therein." In 1680, Sir George 
Jefferies, the judge, had been presented "for having two sinks 
running over the burial ground of the church." 

The Gordon rioters made an attack on the church 
in 1780, on the occasion of the interment of Mr. Alderman 
Kirkman, who had actively opposed them ; " the most 
effectual method of keeping peace and order," having been 
settled with the Lord Mayor, cost nL 155. 5^.; "making 
good the damage done by the rioters," amounted to 



32 ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

4<D/. 75. 3^. Upon the widow requesting permission to put 
up a hatchment in the church, it was ordered "that the 
vestry clerk do wait upon Mrs. Kirkman with a bill of expense 
which the parish was put to on account of the funeral of the 
said Alderman, to know her pleasure touching the paying the 
same." It was further ordered that "Mrs. Kirkman should 
have leave to erect the hatchment upon her paying the bill in 
question." Next year the "plummer" was paid 61. for laying 
on the New River water, and a payment is annually made to 
the gardener for trimming the vines in the churchyard and 
sowing "hay seed." 

The appropriation of the pews for seating the parishioners, 
their wives and families according to their dignity, was the cause 
of great vexation and trouble, which led to an order of vestry 
appointing a committee of all those that had been church- 
wardens to assist the present wardens in considering the 
various demands ; they were also to examine who were seated 
in the pews, strangers having been found in pews to which they 
were not entitled. The account contains a payment for locks 
and keys for the pews, 5/. IDS. Sir William Hedges and Sir 
Jeremy Sambrooke were to have the pillar pew, and Sir 
Rowland Aynsworth the pew next the communion table, " but 
not succeeding inhabitants that shall come into their houses." 

The Lord Mayor attended the church in state in 1691, a pew 
was lined for him, and a stand set up for his sword; the dove 
belonging to the branch, and the angel belonging to the pulpit 
candlestick, were regilded for this occasion. The entry in the 
vestry minutes runs thus : " Ordered that a pew be lined and 
a case for the Lord Mayor's sword be put up, and the alley be 
gravelled, and that Sir J. Sambrook, Sir William Hedges, and 
others, do assist the churchwardens." 

In connection with this incident, the churchwardens' 
account contains the following articles: "Paid for four load 
of gravel and spreading it in church alley, 175. Paid the 
upholsterer for lyning a pew, 3/. 8s. Paid for putting up a 
case for the Lord Mayor's sword, il. i8s. Spent on the 
bonfires, 135. The reason for this function appears to have 
been the arrival of King William from Holland. 

(To be Continued). 



METEOROLOGY OF THE HOME COUNTIES. 
BY JOHN HOPKINSON, F.R.MET.Soc., Assoc.lNST.C.E. 

July to September, 1899. 

TT^HE only alterations in the stations from the previous 
JL quarter are the omission of Sandhurst Lodge, Berks, the 
usual rainfall return not having been received from there, and 
the reinstatement of a former rainfall station, Upton Park, 
Slough, the return from which, for the June quarter, was 
received too late for the last report. 

The Counties are distinguished as follows: i, Middlesex; 
2, Essex; 3, Herts; 4, Bucks; 5, Berks; 6, Surrey; 7, Kent. 

Records of temperature have been received from Cookham 
and Bracknell, Berks, and they give the following means :- 
July, 65*0 ; August, 66*1; September, 56*4; the average for 
the quarter being 0*2 lower than that of the ten stations in the 
other counties. 

July was very warm, had a very dry atmosphere, a bright 
sky, and less than the average rainfall; August was still warmer, 
had also a very dry atmosphere and a very bright sky, and 
about two inches less rainfall than the average ; September was 
rather warm, had a dry atmosphere, a sky of average brightness, 
and about an average rainfall. Although in July the rainfall in 
the Home Counties generally was less than usual, in Essex it 
was greater, chiefly owing to the heavy falls on the 22nd and 
23rd, extending from Herts, through Essex, to Norfolk. On 
the 22nd, 1*20 in. fell at St. Aibans, 1*46 in. at Chelmsford, 
and rgo in. at Bennington ; on the 23rd, i'68 in. fell at 
Newport, Essex; and at Halstead 0*87 in. fell on both the 22nd 
and 23rd. There was a severe storm of wind, rain, thunder, 
and lightning, preceded in Herts and Bucks by a dust storm, 
on the afternoon of the I5th of August. In North Herts much 
damage was done to crops; at High Wycombe a house was set 
on fire by lightning ; at Amersham the stalls at the Horticultural 
Show were blown down ; and near Luton Hoo a tree was 
blown across the Great Northern Railway, delaying the traffic. 



34 



METEOROLOGY. 



On the 29th of September more than an inch of rain fell at 
several stations, the heaviest fall being 1*32 in. at Cranleigh, 
Surrey. 

Although the summer has been an unusually dry one, only 
3-93 inches of rain having fallen in the three summer months 
(June to August), we are having a wet autumn and the 
deficiency will probably be made up. 

July, 1899. 





Temperature of the Air 





o 


Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


1 


o 

"1 








Mean 


Min 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


ft 


1 


Ain't 


Days 




c 


o 


o 


O 





c 


P /n 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


67-3 


60-1 


74-5 


14-4 


52-5 


84-4 


69 


8-1 


1-78 


10 


2. Halstead . . 


64-6 


54-6 


74-6 


20-0 


48-0 


84-9 


72 


6-6 


3 04 


8 


,, Chelmsford.. 


63-6 


53-2 


73 9 


20-7 


46'1 


82-5 


72 


5-7 


2-96 


10 


3. Bennington 


64-3 


54-4 


74-2 


19-8 


47-3 


83-6 


68 


5-5 


1-90 


10 


,, Berkhamsted 


64^5 


53-9 


75-0 


21-1 


45 9 


85-3 


70 


5-5 


2-27 


10 


,, St. Albans. . 


64 2 


55-1 


73-3 


18-2 


48 


84-9 


68 


5-2 


2-20 


10 


6. W.Norwood 66-2 


56-0 


76-5 


20-5 


48-0 


87'3 


61 


5-0 


67 


8 


,, Cranleigh . . 


65-5 


55-2 


75-8 


20-6 


47'3 


85-5 


68 


5-5 


1-39 


8 


,, Addington. . 


64-7 


56-1 


73-4 


17-3 


48-5 


84-5 


66 


5-8 


77 


9 


7. Margate . . 


64-3 


56-2 


72-3 


16-1 


50-6 


82-9 


81 


6-0 


1-46 


6 


M!ean 


64-9 


55-5 


74-4 


189 


48 2 


84-6 


-69 


5-9 


1-84 


9 





August, 1899. 



Stations 


Temperature of the Air 





1 


f 


Rain 


Means 


Extremes 








Mean 


Min 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


W 


1 


Am't 


Days 




Q 


c 


c 


c> 








"/ 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


67'3 


59-3 


75-3 


16-0 


52 6 


86-0 


69 


43 


45 


;> 


2. Halstead . . 


64-0 


53-0 


74 9 


21-9 


41-9 


84 


69 


5-0 


67 


6 


,, Chelmsford.. 


63-1 


51-8 


74-3 


22-5 


38-2 


85-8 


72 


5-4 


92 


9 


3. Bennington 


64-9 


54-5 


75-2 


20-7 


44-6 


86 1 


68 


4-3 


1-59 


9 


,, Berkhamsted 


65-0 


53-0 


77 


24-0 


43 5 


86-9 


72 


4-7 


87 


6 


,, St. AlLans. . 


85-0 


54 6 


75-4 


2(1-8 


46 9 


85-9 


70 


40 


79 


9 


6. W Norwood 


66-1 


56 


76-3 


20-3 


47-5 


88-6 


66 


4-8 


55 


7 


,, Cranieigh . . 


66-7 


55-2 


78-3 


23-1 


45 3 


85-7 


73 


4-0 


62 


4 


., Addington. . 


6o"2 


/>6 2 


74-2 


18-n 


49-0 


86-5 


68 


6-1 


85 


9 


7. Margate . . 


65 1 


59 4 


7(i-8 | 11-4 


52-6 


83 1 


77 


6 2 


1-07 


9 


Mean 


65"> 


55-3 


75-2 


19-9 


4fi 9. 


85-9 


70 


4'9 -84 7 
















i 1 



METEOROLOGY. 
September, 1899, 



35 





Temperature of the Air 





Rain 




Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


1 


o 












9 


a 








Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


W 




6 


Am't 


Days 













o 


o 


o 


/ 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


59 7 


53-6 


65-9 


12-3 


43-3 


84-6 


72 i6-6 


2-69 


14 


2- Halstead .. 


57-4 


48-7 


66-1 


17-4 


31-0 


86-5 


74 


5-8 


2-19 


16 


,, Chelmsford . 


57-4 


48-2 


66-6 


18-4 


33-3 


87-0 


71 


6-2 


2-50 


15 


3. Bennington 


57-1 


48-9 


65-2 


16-3 


32-9 


84-7 


73 


6-6 


2-28 


17 


, Berkhamsted 


57-3 


48-0 


66-6 


18-6 


29-2 


86-1 


75 


6-6 


2-22 


19 


, St. Albans . . 


57'5 


49-6 


65-3 


15-7 


30-9 


84-1 


71 


6-5 


2-51 


19 


. W.Norwood 


58-3 


49-5 


67-1 


17-6 


38-6 


87-3 


70 


6-3 


2-43 


17 


, Cranleigh . . 


58-1 


49-1 


67-1 


18-0 


39-0 


84-0 


76 


5-0 


3-49 


13 


, Addington. . 


57'5 


50-3 


64-8 


14-5 


40-0 


84-5 


72 


7-2 


2-70 


16 


. Margate . . 


58-5 


51-8 


65-2 


13-4 


38-7 


83-6 


77 


6-4 


2-25 


13 


Mean 


57-9 


49-8 


66-0 


16-2 


35-7 


85-2 


73 


6-3 


2-53 


16 





Rainfall, July to September, 1899. 



Stations 


July. 


Aug-. 


Sept. 


Stations 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


1 Camden Square 


ins. 
1-45 


ins. 

'70 


ins. 
2 65 


4 Slouo-h 


ins. 
43 


ins. 


ins. 
2-11 


,, Harefield 


79 


60 


1-86 


5. Abingdon 


96 


1-99 


2-10 


2 Newport 


3-46 


1*76 


2-77 


Cookham 


1 23 


74 


9-22 


, , Southend 


1-30 


'78 


2-17 


,, Bracknell . . . 


62 


89 


2-69 


[ 3 R/o yston 


1-70 


1-03 


2-25 


6 Dorkin.0* 


93 


88 


2-93 


,, Hitchm 


1 53 


1-27 


2-09 


7. Tenterden . 


1-42 


1-09 


2*39 


|4 "Winslow 


1-17 


1-13 


1-88 


Bircliington 


1-42 


81 


2-30 



















Mean (24 stations} : July, 1'54 ins. ; August, 0'9i ins; September, 2-41 ins. 



CHALFONT ST. PETER CHURCH. 

BY THE REV. F. H. WOODS. 

In repairing the corner of the Georgian Tower it was found 
to be built not of solid stone, but of rubble with a smooth 
surface of plaster. The stones were evidently taken from the 
old church, which collapsed in 1708. Two of them have 
Decorated mouldings, ogee and fillet, dating about 1350, and 
are parts of an arch and doorway respectively. 



CHALFONT ST. PETER CHURCH-HOUSE. 

BY THE REV. F. H. WOODS. 

AN interesting feature of old village life once existed in this 
parish, viz., what was known as " the church-house." 
This, as we learn from certain documents to which reference 
will shortly be made, had for more than 50 years prior to 1665 
been occupied " by certain poor inhabitants of the said parish, 
or otherwise let by the churchwardens there with the consent ol 
the lord of the manor, towards the maintenance and assistance 
of the poor there." Besides rent, or probably only a very 
occasional rent, the churchwardens received a certain sum of 
money for the yearly "merry meetings and Whitsonales 
(Whitsun-tide Feasts)," etc., which the parishioners held in the 
church-house. This money was spent partly on the poor, and 
partly on the "church repairing" ; 45. yearly being paid "by one 
Monke to the clerk of the said parish in satisfaction of his 
pains in looking to and keeping the clock of the said parish." 
But for holding these feasts the consent of the lord of the 
manor was also necessary. That they should become a 
nuisance is natural enough, and certainly Richard Whitchurch, 
who bought the manor in 1650, being a staunch Puritan, would 
not have encouraged them had he been asked. A few years 
after he had bought the manor, finding the church-house 
untenanted and in a dilapidated condition, he claimed it as his 
own, repaired it, and put in his own tenant. At the time it 
was useless to oppose him. After the restoration, when the tide 
had turned, a commission under Act 43, Eliz. cap. 4, was held 
at Amersham, on September nth, 1665, before a local jury to 
decide the question between the lord of the manor on the one 
hand, and the vicar and churchwardens on the 'other. 

It is from the records of this inquiry, and of the depositions 
of witnesses, of which more presently, that our sole knowledge 
of this church-house is derived. The former are preserved in 
the Record Office (Chancery Petty Bag, Charity Inquisitions. 
Bundle 28, No. 23). The evidence before the commissioners 
showed that Richard Whitchurch, of Chalfont St. Peter, 
being lord of the manor there, "about n years ago, entered 



CHALFONT ST. PETER CHURCH-HOUSE. 37 

upon the said church-house, none then inhabiting therein," 
pretending, as there was no owner nor anybody claiming 
the same, that it became due to him as lord of the said 
manor, and in pursuance thereof let the same to John 
Copeland for about 2,1. per annum ; and the said Whitchurch 
had, ever since claimed the rents and profits thereof; but 
whether he ever received any, the jurors knew not ; but they 
were satisfied by " the church-book of the said parish," that 
the profits of the said church-house were formerly received by 
the churchwardens, and used for the use and repair of the 
church there. The judgment of the commissioners who heard 
this dispute was given at "the sign of the George at 
Amersham," on September i8th, 1665. They expressed 
themselves satisfied, as well " by some of them their own 
knowledges, as by the rate made for the monthly taxes to his 
Majesty," that the said church-house was of a greater value, 
and had been let by the said Richard Whitchurch for a greater 
yearly rent than the said 2/., and they ordered and decreed 
that the said Richard Whitchurch should, within one month, 
pay to Thomas Hall, "minister of Chalfont St. Peter," 2O/. for 
the rent of the said church-house so by him wrongfully 
detained, the same to be used for the repair of the church 
there ; and that the said Richard should also, " within the 
same time, release and for ever quit claim to the said minister 
and churchwardens all right and title to the said church-house" ; 
and also pay to Michael Babington, gent., clerk to the 
said commissioners, iSl. "for the cost of suing out the said 
commission and prosecuting the said inquisition." 

It appears from this judgment that Richard was accused, not 
only of taking for himself the rents, but in fact receiving a 
larger sum than the nominal rental ; the latter being fixed with 
the view, it may be supposed, to lower his taxes. The naive 
words, "whether he ever received any [profits] ," etc., imply 
that the feasts were no longer actually held. Had the 
parishioners paid for them, the jurors would certainly have 
known it. But if the real rent of the house was over 2/., it is 
difficult to see why Richard Whitchurch was only called upon 
to pay only 2O/. compensation for n years. The judgment, if 
justified by the evidence, was certainly not severe. 



38 CHALFONT ST. PETER CHURCH-HOUSE. 

The matter does not, however, seem to have been finally 
settled; for, strangely enough, the depositions of witnesses 
on this question appear to have been taken more than a 
year later, namely on nth October, 1666 (Chancery Petty- 
Bag, Charity Depositions. Bundle 9, No. n ; and Bundle 13, 
No. 13), at " the sign of the Crowne " in Uxbridge, and partly 
" at the dwelling-house of Joseph Fryer, innholder, called 
the Redd Lyon in Chalfont St. Peter," the commissioners 
having adjourned to the latter place. These depositions are 
full of interest ; they illustrate very clearly the double 
use to which the church-house was put, and the common 
rights which the churchwardens and the lord of the 
manor had in it. Thus Rowland Hayward, of Chalfont 
St. Peter, husbandman, aged about 80, says that about 
60 years ago, Jeffery Baker asked leave of Sir Henry 
Drury (the lord of the manor), to keep a Whitson ale ; he 
granted it, but told him he must also get leave of the 
parish, which he did. Winloe Grimsdale, a husbandman 
of Hagerley (Hedgerley), deposed that the said house had 
been reported to belong to the lord of the manor. Two 
Whitson ales had been kept there by leave of the lord of the 
manor, who gave to those who kept the said Whitson ales " a 
bushel of wheat or an angell in money." John Newman, of 
Langley, yeoman, says " that he and some other younger men 
of Chalfont St. Peter, desiring to keep a Midsomer ale, gave 
the churchwardens 2os. for permission to keep the same." 
Nothing is said in this case of asking leave of the lord of the 
manor. On another occasion, however, the churchwardens 
themselves got permission from the lord of the manor, William 
Drury, to keep a Whitson ale or two in the same house, the 
profits whereof, over the charges of the churchwardens, were 
employed for the repair of the church. 

It would appear from the following deposition of Robert 
Dell, the parish clerk, that events like Whitson ales were 
recorded in a parish book. He states that " the ancient book 
now produced belongs to the said parish, and the parishioners 
sometimes entrusted witness therewith to write in matters 
concerning the said parish. The said book was formerly in the 
possession of deponent's father, who was also parish clerk 
there and died about 20 years ago." 



CHALFONT ST. PETER CHURCH-HOUSE. 39 

The lords of the manor appear, from divers depositions, 
to have had more to do with the letting of the church-house than 
had the churchwardens. It would seem that they constantly 
repaired it at their own cost, and that William Drury twice put 
in his own bailiff. In fact, the house seems to have been in 
frequent need of repair. We are assured that it would have 
fallen down had not William Drury been at great charges in 
repairing it. Under the circumstances we are hardly surprised 
to hear from one Webb, a husbandman, that "some poor people 
went into the said house, but were obliged to remove themselves 
because they could not lye dry there for want of repairs of the 
said house." 

The usual practice was for the lord of the manor, or the 
churchwardens with his consent, to put in some poor person, 
either free of charge or at a nominal rent. John Monke, for 
example, who was born in the same house, deposed that his 
father Robert, being desirous of living there, asked the parish for 
their good will therein. This they gave, but told him he must 
go to the lord of the manor, who told him it was his house, and 
that he (the deponent) should dwell there and pay " noe mann 
a penny for the same." It is not very easy to reconcile this 
evidence with the statement of James Kirby, who deposed that 
"the churchwardens asked permission of Mr. William Drury, 
the lord of the manor, to put Robert Monke as tenant into the 
said house, and the said Robert paid 45. yearly to the clerk of 
the said parish towards the setting of the clock." It is clear 
that the commissioners, as appears from the result of their 
inquiry given above, laid great stress on this evidence. 
Probably John's evidence refers to an appeal made subsequently 
by Robert to the lord of the manor. The words of the latter 
suggest the repudiation of a claim. 

Richard Whitchurch does not seem to have interested 
himself in the church-house until about the year 1665, at 
which time, as the deposition of John Aldridge showed, "an 
ancient woman who then lived in the said church-house 
was removed to an almshouse, but by whom defendant 
knows not." The house was again in need of repairs, and 
Aldridge was a bricklayer employed in executing them. It 
appears that John Monke, who lived in the house, agreed to 



40 CHALFONT ST. PETER CHURCH-HOUSE. 

pay 405. rent; but, "not liking the said repairs, left, and the 
said house was then let to John Disborow for 40$. a year." 
This rent was afterwards increased to 3/., when John 
Copeland, a butcher, who occupied the house at the time of the 
commission, became tenant. He informed the commissioners 
that the rent covered the use of a yard and slaughter-house, 
and that the house, which alone was worth 30$., contained 
three upper rooms and two lower rooms, out of one of which 
he had taken a shop and a little stable. This was evidently 
the large room where Whitson ales used to be held. The 
discontinuance of the Whitson ales is testified to by Eldred 
Newman, " aged one hundred years or thereabouts," who 
stated that "of late years no Whitson ales have been kept in 
the said house by reason of disorders that usually fell out at 
such times." As Eldred Newman was baptized on November 
25th, 1582, and as the deposition was taken in 1666, the state- 
ment of age requires a somewhat liberal interpretation. The 
deponent was probably not more than 84. 

Another deposition is of special interest. Thomas Eggleton 
stated that he had known the school to be kept there, but did 
not know who placed the schoolmaster there. This seems to 
imply that the large room which had been used occasionally 
for Whitson and Midsummer ales, was at one time used for the 
schools, and that the schoolmaster lived in the house. The 
witness was only 34, and the arrangement is spoken of as 
temporary. It is interesting, however, to notice that the school 
and the schoolmaster are spoken of, even at this early date, as 
regular institutions. 

Unfortunately, no record has been preserved of the result of 
this second inquiry, if it be such, and were it not for the 
month in which the depositions were taken we should be 
almost tempted to think that the record contains an error as 
to the year, and that the depositions were, after all, the 
evidence upon which the decision was given by the com- 
missioners at Amersham in September, 1665. 

The Red Lion Inn, at which some of the depositions were 
taken, has long since been converted into "the Yew Tree 
Cottages," but the name survives in " Lion Yard." It is 
said that the inn-keeper was deprived of his licence, early in 



CHALFONT ST. PETER CHURCH-HOUSE. 41 

the nineteenth century, because a certain Worley killed a 
man named Ware in a fight. 

No tradition survives as to the locality of the church-house, 
but as church-houses were frequently situated in churchyards, 
it seems most probable that it occupied a site at the south 
east corner of the churchyard. On this site was built in the 
early part of the nineteenth century a "church school." Possibly 
the church-house had already come to be used regularly for this 
purpose. An aged parishioner, William Hodgkins, informs me 
that about 1840, his father, who was then master of the school, 
went up to be examined at Westminster, and after that it was 
always called " the national school." The school consisted 
of two rooms, the boys' and girls' schoolrooms being at right 
angles ; the latter being flush with the street, and the whole 
forming a square of about 50 feet each side. The dimensions 
are still marked by the cobbles on the pathway outside, and 
the irregularity of the churchyard wall. The site of school and 
yard is clearly defined in the Tithe Map. In digging a grave 
a few years ago a very large stone, which had evidently formed 
part of the foundation of the building was dug up. 

At this period there were several other private schools, one 
behind the old workhouse was kept by William Archer, another 
by George Gurney in a shed, having an entrance by " The 
Swan," near what is now " The George," and a third, an 
infants' school, was kept by Sally Hunt in the house now 
occupied by Mrs. Crump. There were about 14 scholars in the 
last. At all these schools the fees were 6d. a week, and they 
were considered more aristocratic than the national school. 

In 1848 (?) the latter was demolished,* and a much larger 
school was built in what is now known as School Lane. The 
boys and girls were divided by a semi-partition and a curtain. 
Some years after, the school becoming too small for the 
increasing number of scholars, the girls were transferred to 
" the lecture room " in the allotment gardens, and a few years 
after, that becoming again too small, to the church room, which 

* A vestry minute of November 6th, 1849, states that it was agreed at 
a special vestry meeting, to raise the ground on the south corner of the 
churchyard 18 inches, requiring about 320 loads of earth, thus filling up the 
cavity caused by pulling down the school. 



42 CHALFONT ST. PETER CHURCH-HOUSE. 

had been lately built by the then vicar, the Rev. G. M. Bullock. 
Meanwhile an infants' school had been built by J. N. Hibbert, 
Esq., opposite the entrance to School Lane (now turned into 
an almshouse). Before long, both infant school and girl's 
school proving again far too small for modern requirements, 
the present girls and infants' schools were built and opened in 
1893. In the last ten years the average attendance of the three 
schools has increased from 163 to 209. 

At the corner of the churchyard, between the Church School 
and the present Post Office, was a lock-up called "the cage." 
It contained at the back a rude bed-chamber to accommodate 
its involuntary occupants. Its name was suggested by its 
large iron gates, which, when the cage was pulled down and the 
cemetery laid out, were put up close by the, then, new church- 
room, on the west side of the churchyard. 

On the hill to the right of the Amersham Road, about a mile 
from the village, may be seen an obelisk and behind it a cluster 
of recently built villa-like houses. The obelisk, known as 
Gott's monument, is a rough structure of brick and stone put 
up by Sir H. T. Gott in 1785, to commemorate, it is said, the 
killing of a royal stag, by, or in the presence of, George III. 
The stags from Windsor Park are still hunted by Her Majesty's 
Staghounds in the neighbourhood, but they are never killed. 
The houses behind are the beginning of a colony w r hich, under 
the auspices of the National Society for the Employment of 
Epileptics, is rapidly springing up. Before very long (alas!) 
the ancient houses of Chalfont St. Peter, may be pulled down, 
the few remaining red brick fronts tidied into a uniform 
pattern of cold plaster, the "splash," spanned over by a County 
Council bridge of the newest design, and other historical 
landmarks effaced; but let us trust that at least this colony 
will remain and prosper, to continue the good work which has 
been begun. 



SOME REMARKS ON DENE-HOLES. 

BY J. G. WALLER, F.S.A. 

PENNANT, in his journey from Chester to London, after 
speaking of Redburn, and its cell of Benedictines, 
continues " the present great road, a little beyond this place, 
quits the Watling Street, which runs direct on the right to 
Verulam. The former can boast of no great extent of view, 
but is bounded by beautiful risings varied with woods, and 
enclosures dressed with a garden-like elegance. The common 
soil is almost covered with flints; the stratum beneath is chalk, 
which is used for a manure. Pliny describes this British earth 
under the title Creta argentaria, and adds petitur ex alto, in 
centenos pedes, acti, plerumque puteis, ore angustatis intus, lit in 
nietallis spatiante vena. Hac maxime Britannia utitur.* This 
very method is used in the county at present. The farmer 
sinks a pit, and (in the term of a miner) drives out on all sides, 
leaving a sufficient roof, and draws up the chalk in buckets, 
through a narrow mouth. Pliny informs us, in his remarks on 
the British marls, that they will last eighty years, and there is 
not an example of any person being obliged to marl his land 
twice in his life. An experienced farmer, whom I met with in 
Hertfordshire, assured me, that he had about thirty years before 
made use of this manure on a field of his, and that, should he 
live to the period mentioned by the Roman naturalist, he 
thought he should not have occasion for a repetition." t 

As dene-holes are frequent in certain of the Home Counties, 
and as theories concerning them are from time to time put 
forth, this passage from Pennant, bearing as it does so directly 
on the question, has more than ordinary significance. It does 
not appear, that the writer \vas acquainted with these 
excavations in Kent the pits at Blackheath, referred to in the 
issue of this magazine in 1899, for instance and in Essex ; 

* Lib. xvii., c. 3. 

t The journey from Chester to London by Thomas Pennant, Esq., 
with notes. London, 1811, pp. 302-303. 



44 SOME REMARKS ON DENE-HOLES. 

else he could scarcely have omitted to notice them. The first 
edition of Pennant's journey was in 1782; it then appears that 
a little more than a century ago chalk was obtained for manure 
in exactly the same manner as described by Pliny ; and every 
one who has examined a dene-hole, above and below, must see 
the identity it has with his description. There is the well-like 
shaft down to the chalk, which being reached is then mined in 
various directions. Camden, in his Magna Brittania speaks of 
them, and the various opinions of his time respecting them, 
but quotes Pliny as the true solution. With the evidence of 
Pennant before us, it is difficult to resist the hard logic of facts. 
If these excavations were not made for the chalk, that would 
be refuse, and we should see it in mounds about the apertures, 
but this is not the case. It has been objected, that it would be 
absurd to excavate for that which could be obtained on the 
surface; a simple argument, for chalk is not everywhere on the 
surface. Besides that, it must be remembered that chalk is a 
marine deposit of myriads of minute organisms, foraminifera, 
debris of sponge, and other decomposed matters. Such a 
material would certainly be best for manure when obtained 
least acted upon by the air. 

The opinions or theories, which have gone on for 300 years, 
run much in the same direction. They were storage places 
or places of refuge. I have heard silos suggested, and, 
strange to say, one person suggested to me, they might 
be for flints. As to places of refuge, the difficulty of 
getting down or up would make them singularly inconvenient. 
Those below could easily be starved out, or very easily 
smothered, when thus discovered by an enemy. In France, 
in the neighbourhood of Rheims, they have been utilised 
for the storage of champagne in modern times ; but it would be 
rather a wild suggestion that they were made for that purpose. 
Opinions are a pleasant exercise of the imagination, and once 
entertained are hard to be given up, and of all things a simple 
solution of a difficulty is about the greatest offence that can be 
given to those entertaining them. 




South Gateway of Duke's Place, Aldgate, in 1793. 



THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY, OR 
CHRIST CHURCH, ALDGATE. 

BY W. R. LETHABY. 



T^HE accompanying plates are reproduced by the kind 
permission of the Marquis of Salisbury, from surveys 
made by J. Symons, almost certainly, as will be shown, about 
1592 ; these plans were found calendared in the Historical MSS. 
Commission's report on the Hatfield papers. The present 
writer thought that they would probably be of interest to 
students of old London, but their topographical value goes 
far beyond what was expected, restoring to us the accurate 
plan of one of the most ancient and famous of the monastic 
houses of London, together with a plan of the mediaeval 
Aldgate, a length of the city wall, and the church of St. 
Katherine Cree. 

The plans are so accurately drawn and annotated that it is 
easy to separate the monastic buildings from later accretions. 
It is evident that at the time they were made the great 
house, into which the priory was modified after the dissolution, 
had itself passed out of its first estate and was in course of 
being sub-divided into tenements. 

Henry VIII. put out the Canons in 1531, and afterwards 
gave the priory to Sir Thomas Audley (Grey Friars Chron.) 
The grant to Sir Thomas, made in 1534, clearly defines the 
whole precinct " from the great gate of the city called Aldgate, 
along the north side of Aldgate Street to the church of St. 
Katherine, from thence to the great gate of the late monastery 
and thence to the stone wall of the city, and to the great gate "- 
Aldgate (Calendar of State Papers, Henry VIII., vol. vii., p. 
232). 

According to Stow, Sir Thomas Audley, threw down the 
church and steeple and " builded and dwelt in the Priory till 
his death in 1544." The property in 1557 passed by marriage 
to the Duke of Norfolk, "and was then called the Duke's 
place" (Stow). Machyn, writing under date 1558, speaks of 
Christchurch as "my lord of Norffoke's Plasse." Twenty 



46 THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY. 

years after the Duke's execution in 1572, his son, the Earl 
of Suffolk, sold the priory precinct and mansion-house of his 
mother to the City of London. 

Our plans were evidently made before the rebuilding of St. 
Katherine's about 1620, or the erection of St. James, Duke's 
Place, in 1622. In 1606, Aldgate was destroyed and rebuilt 
in a more modern form. The plans which show the ancient 
gate, were therefore made before this time. It is most 
probable, as they were found amongst Cecil's papers, that 
they were made in 1592, when an application was made 
to the Crown, as chief lord, for permission to alienate. In 
July of that year a licence was given to Lord Howard, to 
grant " the site circuit and ambit of the late Monastery of Holy 
Trinity, commonly called Xpichurche, and the church of the 
Monastery to the City for ever " (Originalia Roll). That this 
is the date of the plans is confirmed by all the evidence I have 
been able to collect. A record of January, 1599, speaks of a 
man who died of a wound received "in a fencing schoole 
m the Duke's Place within Aldgate " (Atkinson's St. Botolph's). 
Now, on our second plan, a "Fense Skole " is found in the 
bottom left hand corner. Again the plans mention the garden 
of Sir Thomas Heneage. " Thomas Hennage, Esq.," is named 
among the inhabitants of St. Katherine Creechurch in the Lay 
Subsidy Roll of 1576-7. (From this roll we learn that many 
"strangers" were at this time living in "the precinct of the 
late Duke's Place.") Sir Thomas Heneage was buried in St. 
Paul's in 1594 (Hatton). It also appears in the plans that 
a large part of the site was owned or occupied by one Aunsel. 
In 1590 the roof of St. Botolph's, Aldgate, was surveyed by 
John Ansell, carpenter, who was a person of some importance, 
having his yard just outside the precinct in Houndsditch 
(Atkinson). Another considerable portion of the site was 
occupied by one Kerwin. Now a successful mason of this 
name was buried in St. Helen's in 1594, and his tomb, bearing 
the arms of the Masons' Company, is there still (Hatton). 

A large part of the old mansion, on the first floor, is shown 
as being in the occupation of Sir Francis Hind. In the 
Subsidy Roll for 1585, it is noted that " Sir Francis Hynde has 
a house in the ward and promises to pay." In the roll for 



BV J. SYRIANS. 



THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY. 47 

1596-7, the name of " the Lady Hinde " appears. In March of 
this year a Sir Francis Hynde died, seized of property in 
Cambridgeshire. (Inq. Post Mortem, 39 Eliz.) 

Much original documentary material regarding this house of 
Austin Canons still exists. The Priory was founded in 1108 
by Maud, wife of Henry I., and the charter is still extant, in 
which she makes it free of all subjection save to St. Paul's, 
and gives to it the gate of Aldgate. 

A charter of Henry I. grants that the Canons may "close 
the way which runs between their church and the city wall ; " 
and a charter by a son of King Stephen, mentions that Maud 
and Baldwin, children of Stephen were buried there. Several 
of these charters have been reproduced in the Facsimiles of 
National MSS. published by the British Museum in 1865. Let 
us see how these donations to the Priory are recorded in the 
" Liber Trinitatis." 

Stow speaks of having had this manuscript in his possession. 
It still exists, and a careful transcript of it, with a translation, is 
at Guildhall. It was written by Thomas de Axebridge early 
in the I5th century. It is mostly taken up with a collection of 
charters belonging to the Priory, but a short account of the 
foundation, and of the lives of abbots, precedes the body of the 
work : In the year 1108 the priory of Holy Trinity was founded 
by Queen Maud, in the place where Syred had, of old, begun a 
church in honour of the Holy Cross and St. Mary Magdalene. 
Norman was the first prior and the first canon of the Order of 
St. Augustine in the realm ; the good Queen Matilda gave 
to the Priory the gate of Aldgate, which the Lord Prior 
Norman newly rebuilt from the foundations, and kept peacefully 
all the days of his life, with all its customs. The Queen 
intended to dedicate the church herself, but her life did not last 
long enough. She also wished to be buried here, but the 
monks of Westminster persuaded the King in their own favour 
and she was buried in the Confessor's church in 1118. She left, 
however, her relics to Holy Trinity, including a piece of the 
True Cross in a "capsa" of Constantinople work, which the 
Emperor had sent to Henry I. In 1132 the church was burnt, 
together with nearly all its offices. Prior Norman died in 1147, 
and was buried before the high altar. King Stephen's son and 



48 THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY. 

daughter were buried on the north and south sides of the altar. 
Peter of Cornubia, the fourth prior, 1187-1221, was buried in 
the middle of the chapel of the Blessed Virgin which he had 
built. Here Matilda, daughter of Stephen, was baptised ; and 
here, Stow says, FitzAlwin, the first Mayor of London, was 
buried. 

So much for history. We now turn back to the 
plans which show that the church was a noble one, and 
evidently, in the main, of Norman date. If we form a. scale 
from the plan by comparison with dimensions which may still 
be obtained we iind that, as now printed, if inches, as nearly 
as possible, represents 100 feet. At this scale the total interior 
length is 245, the width 69, and 120 across the transepts. The 
nave was of seven bays, and the east limb of five, with a Lady 
Chapel beyond. There were chapels on the east sides of the 
transepts, and two others further eastward formed secondary tran- 
septs. Projecting west ward from the north aisle of the nave strong 
walls with Norman buttresses at the angles, enclose a space 
called the "Great Tower;" there are similar buttresses to 
the south transept, and the whole church seems to have been 
Norman with the probable exception of the small chapels and 
the Lady Chapel. The last was built about 1200, and this is 
itself evidence, according to the usual order in which work was 
undertaken, that the rest of the church had by that time been 
completed. On the north of the nave was a cloister about 80 
feet square. In the centre of its east side was a fine Chapter 
House about 56 by 30 feet, divided into three bays, by wall 
piers: from this circumstance, and the shafts in the corners, 
we may be sure, that it was stone-vaulted. Beyond the 
Chapter House, northwards, ran a range of buildings ; eastward 
" the vaults under the Dorter" and "the Dorter" above. 
This chamber was about no by 34 feet. By the angle of 
the Chapter House below, the foot of the dormitory stair is 
shown. 

The north side of the cloister was occupied by the Prater 
(" The Fratrye ") 70 by 34 feet. On its north side was a pro- 
jection containing a little stair ; this was the pulpit of the reader. 
At the north-west corners of this refectory stands the "great 
kitchen" and "the serving place." On the west side of the 



THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY. 49 

cloister was a range of vaulted cellars with a passage through 
them from the cloister to the "great court." The buildings 
above on the first floor, marked " Parlour, Hall, Privy Kitchen " 
were probably the Prior's House ; to which the second range of 
western buildings may have been additions. South of the great 
court is the gate house "entering into the monastery," with some 
buildings attached which may have been the guest house. Then 
outside at the south-west corner of " the churchyard," w r e have 
St. Katherine Creechurch in its mediaeval state, and against its 
east end a "gate entering to the monastery church," by which 
the south porch of the nave was reached (by passing across 
what would have been the cemetery of lay-folk), without entering 
the priory court. 

From Vanden Wyngaerde's view of London, it appears that 
there was a large central tower over the crossing. The steeple 
of which Stow speaks may possibly be the western tower, 
which may have contained the famous peal of bells. John 
Carter, in 1797, drew (and afterwards published), some Norman 
arches of the principal arcades, three of which were standing 
on the north side, and one on the south. He says they formed 
parts of a western aisle to the south transept, and an eastern 
aisle to the north transept. However, as the transepts were 
without aisles, and as the axis of the church is not pointed 
east, but south-east, he must have taken portions of the arcades 
of the choir and nave for parts of the transepts. Two etchings 
in Malcolm probably represent the same parts. Another etching 
in the European Magazine for 1802, shows some remains which 
came to light after a fire in 1800, at a part further to the east near 
the street of Aldgate, on the north side of what was then 
Mitre Court (not Mitre Square, which was then Little Duke's 
Place.) This would seem to represent two " transition " 
arches (pointed), and must be a part of the Lady Chapel. The 
gateway shown on this view led, as the later plans of the ward 
show, to the yard of the Mitre Inn, which adjoined these 
remains. 

From Dr. Sharpe's calendar of Wills, Mr. Philip Norman 
has collected the following dedications of secondary altars 
St. John Baptist, St. Anne and St. Erkenwald, and St. Peter. 
Wilkinson says that the parish altar in the south aisle of the 



50 THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY. 

nave was dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen. The great nave altar 
would have been dedicated to the Holy Cross. The principal 
gate of the Monastery stood until 1815. It was engraved by 
Wilkinson and others, and was evidently built about 1280. 
Wilkinson says it was called Thrum-gate, and gives an 
elaborate theory to account for this. On our plan we see that 
it was occupied by one Throm. 

The plan of this monastery may be compared with that of 
Barnwell (an Augustinian House), which was very similar; 
this last was founded in 1112, and completed with a Lady 
Chapel in 1229. (See Willis Clark on Austin Canons). 

The Duke's Place. It seems easy to follow on these plans 
the way in which the Priory was altered into a great house. 
The roofs of the church had evidently been removed to make 
two open courts out of the old choir and nave ; this is shown 
by the arrangement of windows. The Priory gate and great 
court were retained, but an additional entrance was made 
through the old Lady Chapel. A great drawing-room called 
the " Ivy Chamber " was built on the first floor, under, or in 
place of, the central tower. The refectory and kitchen of the 
Priory w r ere retained for their old purposes. Before the date of 
our plan, and the final degradation of the site, two houses seem 
to have been formed out of portions of the Duke's Palace or 
Place. The one over the Lady Chapel -was in the possession 
of Sir Francis Hind, and the other called a " Mansion house," 
stood between the cloister and the great court. 

Survivals. By means of these plans and the maps of 
Ogilby and Horwood, we may trace the transition of the site 
from its occupation by the Priory of Queen Maud to its present 
dreary squalor. The entrance over the site of the Lady Chapel 
remained until the beginning of this century (Gentleman's 
Magazine, 1800) ; the choir, changed into the east court of the 
Duke's Place, survived as Mitre Court. From this Court 
there was a passage across the north transept into the cloister 
which became Little Duke's Place, the present Mitre Square. 
From this court a passage into the great court through the 
western range of buildings, is exactly represented by the 
present covered passage into Duke's (or St. James's) Place. The 
site of the Chapter House, and probably its walls (see Ogilby and 



ORY," BY J. SYMANS. 



THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY. 



7 



THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY. 51 



also Hatton), became St. James's Church, which Strype says 
"was erected on the long decayed ruins of the Priory." St. 
James's gave place to the warehouse on the east of the present 
Mitre Square. The present court at the angle of Mitre Square, 
by these warehouses, is the site of the old north transept. 

The passage northwards out of this square is the old 
passage in continuation of the east walk of the cloister. The 
Priory gate stood at the south end of the modern King Street. 
Heneage Lane is the lane against "Sir Thomas Heneage's 
garden." Duke Street is the old "Way" at the back of the city 
wall, even the reason why it makes a bend at the top of Heneage 
Lane, is explained on the old plans. The big doorway which 
to-day stands against the east end of St. Katherine's Church, 
occupies the side of the gateway through which passed the 
parishioners to the south porch of the Priory Church. When 
early in the present century Mitre Street was built, it was made 
to start at the old east entrance into the Duke's Place ; it 
then absorbed the old Mitre Court, and passing seven or eight 
yards south of the old cloisters (Mitre Square), it joined King 
Street 20 or 30 feet north of the old gateway. It thus passes 
right through the axis of the church over the High Altar and 
the Altar of the Lady Chapel, over the graves of Prior Norman 
and the children of King Stephen. 

About two years ago a fifteenth century arch was discovered 
on the south side of Mitre Street, near its junction with the 
street of Aldgate ; it can hardly be anything else than the south 
window of the small eastern transept. (See Proceedings 
of the Society Antiquaries, March, 1898). 

St. Katherine Cree, and Aldgate. With these plans and still 
existing remnants, we may form a very good idea of what this 
church was as seen by Stow. The lower part of the tower, 
which stood open to the church with arches, still exists. The 
floor is very much raised, so that the old stair turret door is 
nearly buried. Inside, towards- the nave, the respond of the 
nave arcade with its cap is still attached to the angle of the 
tower, but only two or three feet above the present floor. 
Outside, the ancient masonry may be traced, low down, all 
along the south and west fronts. One of the most interesting 
parts of the survey is the plan of Aldgate itself, and this all the 



52 THE PRIORY OF HOLY TRINITY. 

more as it was the dwelling-house of Chaucer. Stow says that 
the gate was " repaired, or rather new built, after the manner 
of the Normans " about 1215, and we have seen that the 
Register book says it was built about a century before this time. 
When it was rebuilt in 1608, it was about 75 feet on the 
front, and it is likely that this would have followed the old 
dimensions. As the ancient circular towers are about 26 feet 
each, if we add a roadway of 20 feet, that will nearly make up 
the 75. By double gates Stow probably means inner and outer 
gates. The length of wall as given in the plans shows it was 
about 12 feet thick below, with steps up to the passage behind 
the battlements. Outside is the bank of the ditch. 

John Synions. The plans given herewith are of considerable 
intrinsic interest, as they are the earliest examples known to me 
of such careful delineation according to modern methods. In 
this respect they go far beyond the well-known plans of John 
Thorpe, made about the same time. Symons seems to have 
been proud of them himself, for on back he states that the 
"plot of Creechurche is drawn by J. Symons." About 1580, 
John Symons, master mason, was engaged on important works 
at Dover harbour, including building a pier. A letter in 1582, 
from Richard Barray at Dover Castle, promises to do his best 
in the absence of John Symons, gone to Burghley (CaL 
Hatfield MSS.) In the Calendar of State Papers (Domestic, 
Elizabeth) under 1577, a reference is given to a plan of Dover 
Harbour by " P. Symons," the date is followed by a query, and 
on referring to the plan itself it is seen that the signature on 
it is really " Per. J. Symons." Further entries in the 
Calendar of State Papers show that, in 1583, the building of a 
sluice in connection with the same work was entrusted 
to John Symons, the mason, who also gave his opinion, in 
conference with others, on what should be done. In 1584, Sir 
Richard Grenville made a report as to a "plot set down by 
Symons, Stickelles, and Star," for the Dover works. 

In 1593, John Symonds made two plans of the lodgings 
within St. Stephen's, Westminster.- (Cal. Hatfield MSS., 
Vol. iv.)> so that we find him in London about the time we have 

* I shall hope, with the help of the Editor, to publish a note on 
these plans. 




3 
o 

V) 

a. 



POPE AT BINFIELD. 53 

supposed that the plans of Holy Trinity were made. Under 
the year 1596, still another plan is calendered. It is of 
a coast fortification, and it is endorsed by Lord 
Burghley, "John Symons' plott of the reforming of the 
blockhouses"; an accompanying paper says that the platforms 
might be of earth, " the same as some are begun by Symons, 
whom Lord Burghley used at Dover." In the next year 1597, 
the death of "John Symonds, Queen's Plaisterer," is mentioned, 
and this is probably the same man, as a mason might very well 
be appointed to that office if it fell vacant at a convenient time, 
so as to enjoy the pension of is. a day attached to this and 
similar offices. It is evident that Symons was a skilled master 
mason, that is to say "architect " of the mediaeval pattern. It 
would seem probable that when he went to Burghley in 1582, 
it was to give advice in regard to the great mansion then 
building there by his patron. 



POPE AT BINFIELD. 

BY Lucius FITZGERALD. 

r I CHOUGH the parentage and life of Alexander Pope, 
JL have been the subject of considerable enquiry, little 
seems to be known of the house at Binfield in Windsor Forest, 
in which his early years were passed. With its situation few 
are acquainted, and the name by which it was known in the 
poet's days is quite forgotten even in the neighbourhood. Pope's 
biographers appear to be agreed that his father quitted London 
as a consequence of the Revolution of 1688, and according to 
Dr. Johnson's well-known story, being "disappointed by the 
sudden blast of Popish prosperity" retired to Binfield, "with 
about twenty thousand pounds ; for which being conscienciously 
determined not to entrust it to the Government, he found no 
better use than that of locking it up in a chest, and taking from 
it what his expenses required ; and his life was long enough to 
consume a great part of it before his son came to the 
inheritance." As a matter of fact, however, he did not 



54 POPE AT BINFIELD. 

purchase his Binfield property till nearly ten years after the 
Revolution, as the dates which follow will show. 

The future poet was born in London in May, 1688, and from 
this date, says Mr. Courthope,* "up to the little Alexander's 
twelfth year when, as he himself informs us, his father removed 
him to Binfield, the history of the family is almost a blank. There 
is nothing to show how long the father continued to pursue his 
business, or when he acquired the property at Binfield. He 
seems to have made a small fortune in trade which, according 
to Hearne the antiquary, an accurate reporter, brought him in 
an income of three or four hundred a year. It has been 
assumed on the most shadowy evidence that before making his 
purchase in Windsor Forest he resided at Kensington. On the 
other hand it is natural to suppose that many reasons may have 
conspired to make him desire a residence at some distance from 
London immediately after the Revolution ; nor can anything 
be argued from his son's expression, recorded by Spence, that 
when he was about twelve years old he went with his father 
into the Forest. Such a phrase may mean no more than at this 
age he was taken from school to live at home." 

Pope was often inaccurate in persona] matters, but 
in this case seems to be correct enough. Lysons in his 
Berkshire, says that Binfield is generally said to have been 
the birth-place of Pope ; but Dr. Wilson, the late rector, 
ascertained that he did not come there till he was six years 
of age. This also seems a mistake. Whitehill House, to 
give it the name by which it was known down to the end 
of the 1 8th century, is a red-brick building built probably 
during the I7th century like many of the farm houses near 
it. It has been altered and enlarged by successive 
owners, so that its appearance in the poet's time is undistin- 
guishable. Judging from the size of the two rooms which 
remain of the original house, it must have been very small, 
agreeing with a passage in one of the poet's letters to H. 
Cromwell, dated June 25th, 1711, wherein he speaks of a 
" little room and a little heart both at your service." It lies at 
the south end of the parish of Binfield, nearly two miles from 

* Life of Pope. Courthope & El win's Edition of Pope's Works. 1889. 



POPE AT BINFIELD. 55 

the parish church, and a short distance north of the road from 
London to Reading, through Bracknell and Wokingham, being 
about half-way between the two latter places and nearly 30 
miles from Hyde Park Corner. This road was in existence in 
the iyth century, but the other roads in the neighbourhood are 
no doubt more modern ; as for instance the Forest Road, not 
far north of Whitehill, a road running from Windsor to 
Reading, made by the surrounding landowners in 1770. A 
short distance before the 3Oth milestone from London a 
bye-way leaves the high-road in a northerly direction, and 
passes close to the poet's former home. The latter, which has 
been known successively as Whitehill House, Binfield Lodge, 
Pope Lodge, and The Firs, is now known as Arthurstone. 

The history of the house begins in the year 1695. In 
February of that year, "Gabriel Yonge, of Warfield, in the county 
Berks, gent.," sold to Charles Rackett, "of Hammersmith, in 
the parish of Fulham, in the county of Middlesex, gent.," for the 
sum of 445/., all that messuage or tenement called Whitehill 
House, with five closes of arable or pasture land, containing by 
estimation fourteen acres, and known as Whitehill Closes and 
Whitehill Coppice, lying and being together in the parish of 
Binfield, in the county of Berks, between the highway and 
common there on the east and south parts thereof, and a 
coppice now or late of Nathaniel Hawthorne on the north; 
and three acres of land lying dispersed in the common fields of 
Binfield, and a meadow known by the name of Little Corner, 
containing tw r o acres, bounded on the east and west by the land 
of John Pocock, on the south by the land of John Blackmore, 
called Home Croft, and by the common fields of Binfield on the 
north. This last piece of ground had been part of the land of 
John Blackmore, and had been sold by him to G. Young in 
1685, for the sum of 25^. 

It is impossible now to identify the position of these 
different closes, but the names of these seventeenth 
century yeomen are preserved by the two copses lying to 
the west of Whitehill, and marked on the Ordnance 
maps as Pococks (pronounced locally as Pockets), and 
Blackmans (Blackmore) copse. The enclosures, which took 
place when Windsor Forest was disforested at the beginning of 



5 6 POPE AT BINFIELD. 

the present century, probably make the words of Macaulay 
particularly applicable to this part of the country : " Could 
the England of 1685 be, by some magical process, set before 
our eyes, we should not know one landscape in a hundred, or 
one building in ten thousand. The country gentleman would 
not recognise his own fields." (History, cap. iii.) 

The house and grounds were at this time in the occupation 
of one Thomas Holmes, as tenant for the term of three 
years from September soth, 1694, at a yearly rent of i6l. 
Charles Rackett was no doubt the husband of Magdalen Pope, 
the poet's elder half-sister; and among the witnesses to the deed 
of conveyance, appears the name of Alexander Pope, who 
three years later, purchased the property for the same price that 
the latter had given for it. The Racketts are subsequently 
mentioned by Pope in his correspondence, in the year 1711, 
as living at Hall Grove, a house near Bagshot, which still 
exists under the same name. This purchase took place in 
July, 1698, and Pope is described as " of Hammersmith 
aforesaid Merchant," Rackett being late of the same place.*" 
Rackett, however, could not have lived at Binfield for more than 
a few months, as the lease of Holmes, the under tenant, would 
only have expired in September, 1697, some nine months before 
he sold the house to Pope. The latter may have gone to reside 
there at once, in the summer of 1698 when his son was just 
ten years of age. The few particulars known of his previous 
life may be mentioned here.t According to Warton, " Mr. 
Pope's grandfather was a clergyman of the Church of England 
in Hampshire. He placed his son, Mr. Pope's father, with a 
merchant at Lisbon, where he became a convert to Popery." 
Mr. Courthope adds. "Accepting this statement which 
appears to be made on good authority, it would appear to be 
not improbable, though it is by no means certain, that the 
poet's grandfather was one Alexander Pope, Rector of 
Thruxton, in Hampshire, who died in 1645. Alexander Pope, 
his son, and the poet's father, is said to have been a posthumous 
child." It may be remarked, however, that if he was 74 years 

* Of Hammersmith, in the parish of Fulham, now of Whitehall, in the 
parish of Binfield, in the county of Berks. 
t Mr. Courthope's Life. 



POPE AT BINFIELD. 57 

old at the time of his death, as the inscription on the tablet to 
his memory in Fulham Church states, it would make him about 
two years old at the death of the Rev. A. Pope. In either case 
he could not have been sent to Lisbon by his father. On his 
return from Lisbon he seems to have followed the trade of a 
linen draper in Broad Street, London, and the register of St. 
Bennet Fink shows that on the I2th of August, 1678, he 
buried his first wife, by whom he had one daughter, the 
Magdalen Rackett, whom the poet frequently speaks of in his 
correspondence as his sister. After his second marriage* he 
removed his business to Lombard Street, where his son was 
born, both parents being at the time more than forty years 
old. The date of Magdalen Pope's marriage with Rackett, 
seems to be unknown, and wherever he lived in the interval, 
the elder Pope could not have been at Whitehill, at any rate 
before it came into his son-in-law's possession at the end of 
1697 probably not till he purchased it himself in July, 1698. 
But in the April of 1700, he conveyed to Samuel Mawhood, 
citizen and fishmonger of London, and Charles Mawhood, of 
London, gent., " all that brick messuage or tenement wherein 
he, the said Alexander Pope, the elder, now dwelleth, in trust for 
his only son Alexander Pope, the younger, and his heirs," the 
various pieces of arable and pasture land amounting to seven- 
teen acres altogether. The land was divided into the House 
Close of two acres, a piece of meadow of four acres, three 
closes of arable amounting to six acres, the three acres in the 
common fields and Little Corner. The young Alexander was at 
this time nearly twelve years old, the age at which he says he 
went with his father into the Forest. He now formed his own 
plan of study and soon began his literary career. He made 
the acquaintance of Sir William Trumbull, with whom and 
other noted personages he corresponded, and in the course of 
the next fifteen years made his reputation as a poet. Trumbull, 
who had retired from office as Secretary of State in 1697, 
resided at Easthampstead Park, about a mile-and-a-half south 
of Whitehill in the old house, since pulled dow'n, when the 
present mansion was built. He died in 1716, and his epitaph 
was written by Pope, who also wrote the inscription on the 

* To Edith, daughter of William Turner, Esq., of York. 



58 POPE AT BINFIELD. 

tablet to the memory of Elijah Fenton, a fellow poet, in 
Easthampstead Church. Fenton died in 1730. The grove of 
beech trees known as Pope's Wood, lies about half-a-mile 
north-east of Whitehall, on the slope of a little hill from which 
a pleasant view is to be obtained. Here was the tree under the 
shade of which the poet is said to have sat while composing 
some of his works. On this tree Lady Gower is said to have 
caused the words " Here Pope sang," to be cut in large letters 
in the bark at some height from the ground. According to a 
writer in the Penny Magazine (February, 1835), this inscription 
was distinctly visible later than the year 1820, having doubtless 
been occasionally renewed, and the tree itself was then in good 
condition, though the stem, to the height of seven or eight 
feet, was covered with the names of visitors, many of them 
deeply cut into the bark. A few years later the upper portion 
of the tree was torn off by a gale, which is said to have injured 
none of the neighbouring beeches, and the whole tree has long 
since disappeared. Bill Hill, the seat of Earl Gower, lies a 
few miles from Binfield, and is often mentioned in the 
biographies and political histories of the i8th century. Lord 
Gower being a prominent statesman, and head of one of the 
great Whig families of the day. His first wife was the daughter 
of the Duke of Kingston, and sister of the celebrated Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu. Probably it was she who had the 
inscription cut. 

Little is known of the life led by the Pope family at 
Binfield. The elder Alexander is said to have been fond of 
gardening, and Sir William Trumbull, in one of his letters, 
sends him thanks for some artichokes*. The only place 
in the neighbourhood mentioned by name in the poet's 
correspondence is the Priests' Wood, between Whitehall and 
Bracknell, though he alludes to his rides with Trumbull and to 
his rambles about the Forest with his dog. He fills one of his 
letters with a description of the latter, wherein he mentions 
that its mother had lived to the age of 22 years. It has been 
suggested that the elder Pope fixed his residence at Binfield, 
partly on account of the proximity of several Roman Catholic 
families, the Blounts at Maple Durham, the Englefields at White 

* In 1706. 



POPE AT BINFIELD. 59 

Knights, near Reading, and the Dancastles at Binfield itself. 
But a residence in the country was not to the poet's taste, and 
accordingly he abandoned it as soon as his fame was assured, 
and the profits of his works had rendered him independent. t 
During the period of his life at Binfield, Pope had published 
his Pastorals, Essay on Criticism, Messiah, Unfortunate 
Lady, The Rape of the Lock, Temple of Fame, and Windsor 
Forest, the last in 1713, and in that year began his trans- 
lation of the Iliad, the profit of which brought him fortune as 
well as fame. Therefore, in March, 1715, Alexander Pope, the 
elder, and the two Mawhoods, "at the request and desire of 
Alexander Pope, the younger," sold Whitehill House, wherein 
the elder Pope " now dwelleth," to James Tanner, of the parish 
of St. Andrew's, Holborn, London, for the sum of 55O/. paid 
to Alexander Pope, the younger. With this sale the connexion 
of the poet and his family with Binfield ends, and all trace of 
of them has vanished. 

There was in the garden, down to the year 1884, when it 
died, a cypress tree, traditionally said to have been planted by 
Pope. The room known in later years as the "study," with the 
bedroom above, formed part of the original house, and is 
probably unaltered since the reign of Queen Anne ; it may 
therefore have been the poet's study, though there is no 
evidence of the fact. In an article on Audley End, the Essex 
seat of Lord Braybrooke, who also owns the Billingbear Estate 
near Binfield, which appeared in the Pall Mall Magazine for 
July, 1897, it is stated that there is, at the former place, a chair 
given to the third Lord Braybrooke in 1844, by the Rev. T. 
Ashley, who had been for many years curate at Binfield. He 
found it in a cottage, and the woman who owned it told him 
that her husband's mother had lived many years with the late 
Mr. Pope, and that it was her master's chair given to her as a 
keep-sake. Mr. Ashley thought the chair had been given to 
the poet after his translation of the Iliad, and that the carving 
on the back alluded to that work. The date at which Mr. 
Ashley purchased it is not stated. The row of fine Scotch 
firs from which one of the modern names of the house was 

t His father, the elder Pope, in 1707, invested 5,220 livres in an 
annuity on his son's life at 10 per cent. 



60 POPE AT BINFIELD. 

taken, must also have existed in the poet's time. Some writers 
have supposed that Pope alludes to the house and its surroundings 
in the lines wherein he speaks of 

" My paternal cell, 
A little house, with trees a-row, 
And like its master very low. 
There died my father, no man's debtor, 
And there I'll die, nor worse nor better."^ 

But the contradiction between the two last lines and the 
preceding ones, negatives the idea that any special allusion is 
intended. His father died in 1717, two years after the sale of 
Whitehill, in the house in Mawson'sBuildings,Chiswick, to which 
the family had removed. Pope himself died in 1743 in the more 
celebrated villa at Twickenham, the lease of which he purchased 
in 1719. Still Whitehill may be called his paternal cell. In 
a letter to his friend Caryll, dated the 2Oth March, 1715, after 
speaking of the distress among Roman Catholics, consequent 
on the Jacobite rising just defeated, he describes his farewell to 
the place thus: " I write this from Windsor Forest, which I 
am come to take my last look and leave of. We have bid our 
papist neighbours adieu, much as those who go to be hanged 
do their fellow prisoners who are condemned to follow them a 
few weeks after. I was at White Knights where I found the 
young ladies I just now mentioned, spoken of more coldly than 
I could, at this time especially, have wished. I parted from 
honest Mr. Dancastle with tenderness, and from old Sir William 
Trumbull as from a venerable prophet foretelling with uplifted 
hands the miseries to come upon posterity which he was just 
going to be removed from." He seems to have revisited 
Binfield two years later, as he says in another letter to the 
same : " Then I am obliged to pass some days between my 
Lord Bathurst's, and three or four more on Windsor side; 
thence also to Mr. Dancastle, and my relatives on Bagshot 
Heath." These latter being the Racketts. He does not mention 
the place again. The subsequent history of Whitehill may 
soon be traced. From James Tanner it passed into the possession 
of William Reynolds, Esq., who died in March, 1775, and left 

* Imitations of Horace, Epistle VII. 



POPE AT EINFIELD. 61 

it to his wife, and after her death, which took place in the 
following October, to Elisha Biscoe, of the Inner Temple, who 
died in January, 1776, and whose son sold it to James Batson, 
Esq., in September, 1776. The price paid for it was 2, no/., 
nearly four times the amount which Pope had received for it. 
Probably the house had been enlarged and improved in the 
interval, changed in fact from a yeoman's to a gentleman's 
residence. Mr. Reynolds had also added to the property the 
cottage and one acre of land lying opposite the house land 
which had belonged, in the seventeenth century, to John 
Blackmore. This he purchased in 1760 for 94^. IDS. Other 
small purchases and exchanges were made in the next thirty 
years, the ground known as Furzes being added in 1801. 
Edward David Batson, Esq., owned Whitehill in the year 1786, 
and during his ownership, and before 1801, the name was 
changed to that of Binfield Lodge. It was at this time let to 
Thomas Neate, Esq. At Mr. Batson's death it became the 
property of the Rev. Edward Fane, who sold it to Gerald 
FitzGerald, Esq., in 1841. It was then known for a time as 
Pope's Lodge, and subsequently as the Firs.* In 1884 it was 
purchased of L. H. Fitzgerald, Esq. by T. O. Wethered, Esq., 
who soon afterwards resold it to McNabb, Esq., by whom 
the house has again been renamed, and called Arthurstone. 
Thus it will be seen that in the space of two centuries, Whitehill 
has changed hands by sale eight times, and had fifteen different 
owners. In the course of the last hundred years it has borne 
four different names. 

* Extensive alterations and additions were made to the house about 
1860, or a little earlier. 



SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS IN MIDDLESEX 
AT THE TIME OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 

COMMUNICATED BY THE LORD BISHOP OF BRISTOL. 
(Continued from Vol. 1,p. 322). 

THE HUNDREDS OF ISLEWORTH, ELTHORNE AND SPELTHORNE. 

PRESENTMENT made by the jurors of the hundreds 
aforesaid, of the number and yearly values of all 
parsonages, vicarages, and other spiritual and ecclesiastical 
benefices and livings and other things within the places 
aforesaid, to them given in charge by the commissioners in 
that behalf, authorized by Letters Patent under the Great 
Seal of England, in pursuance of an Act of this present 
parliament of the 8th June, 1649, and by the said jurors 
delivered to the said commoners the 2gth October, 1650. 

ISLEWORTH. 

Imprimis, We present that we have within our parish one 
parsonage belonging to Henry Mildmay, Esquire, who had 
the [grant] thereof from the late Dean and Chapter 
of Windsor, for a certain term of which there is seven years 
to come at Lady-day next. [We] conceive the parsonage 
house, barns, outhouses, tithes, with the glebe land thereto 
belonging to be worth about one hundred and thirty-five 
pounds and five shillings per annum, and that Mr. Samuel 

Rowles is our present preaching minister in our 

vicarage by consent of the parishioners, and hath the 
profits thereof, which amount to about thirty pounds per 
annum, for his salary. 

TWICKENHAM. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage which belongs 
also to Henry Mildmay, Esquire, who had the grant thereof from 
the late Dean and Chapter of Windsor, for a certain term of 
which there is also seven years to come at Lady-day next for 
and under a reserved rent of thirty-five pounds [twelve] 
shillings and four-pence halfpenny for both parsonages. And 



SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 63 

we conceive our said parsonage, together with the glebe land 
thereunto belonging, to be worth about one hundred and six 
pounds per annum ; and that one Mr. Thomas Willis is deputy 

minister settled and chosen by the parishioners 

diligent in observing all commands of parliament, and hath 
for his salary the profits of the vicarage which amount to 
fifty-five pounds per annum or thereabouts. 

HESTON. 

Item. We present that we have within our parish one 
parsonage impropriate, and one vicarage and a chapel, and that 
Sir Thomas Stafford, knight, holds the said parsonage in the 
right of his lady during her life, and the lives of Sir William 
Killegrew, knt., and his lady by grant from the late Bishop of 

London the rent twenty-four pounds a year, 

and had formerly the presentation of the said vicarage. And 
we conceive the said parsonage, with two barns, an 
orchard, and the tithes thereto belonging to be worth about 
two hundred and four-score pounds per annum ; and that Mr. 
Nathaniel [Bos]tocke is our present incumbent, [and] was 
settled in the said vicarage about eleven years since by the said 

Bishop, and hath for his salary house with 

the appurtenances, fifteen acres of glebe land, and the tithe 
hay, and other petty tithes, which we conceive to be worth 

about sixty pounds per annum four 

pounds a year as an augmentation by order of the said 
committee. And that our chapel [Hounslow?] is above a mile 
distant from our church .... yearly rent of forty shillings, 
given by Mr. Roane for the inhabitants to hear prayers on 
Sabbath day, there being one hundred families in the said 
town (and most of them inn and ale-house keepers dependent 
upon travellers), which forty shillings is paid by Justinian 

Povey the said chapel is vacant for want of 

maintenance, but our said church is situated near about the 
middle of the parish and the cure [a]bly and painfully 
supplied by the said Mr. Bostocke. 

TEDDINGTON. 

Item. We present that we have one rectory appropriated 
and one vicarage which is a donative and hath no cure of 
souls, neither is it presentative .... our present rectory 



64 SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 

was, by letters patent in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, granted 
unto John Hill, Esq., and his heirs, and Wm. Hill, Esq., is 
now owner .... thereof. It was granted with the 
Manor of Tuddington, out of both which was then reserved to 
the Crown, for ever, eight pounds per annum. The whole 
profits of the said rectory we conceive to be worth about fifty 
pounds per annum which is received by the said Mr. Hill. 
There is no messuage or land belonging to the said 
. . . . only tithes of corn and hay and petty tithes, and no 
other duties. Also, that the donation of the said vicarage (which 
is now vacant), belongs to the said Mr. Hill and his heirs, and 
there is only due and belonging to the vicar, six pounds thirteen 
shillings and four-pence per annum, which the said Mr. Hill 
. . . . pay by the original grant, out of the parochial 
tithes ; and we humbly conceive our small church very 
convenient for the number of the inhabitants of our parish and 
not fit to be divided or joined to any other. 

SUNBURY. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage within our 
parish impropriate to Lancelot Lake, Esq., who formerly held 
the same by lease of the Dean . . .' . . . of Paul's, 
London, which is worth one hundred and thirty pounds per 
annum as it is now let. 

Also, that one Mr. Gall hath within our parish a parcel of 
. . . . which did formerly belong to the Dean and Chapter 
of Chichester, which is rented at eleven pounds a year. 

Likewise, that one Mr. George Phip hath a 

of tithes which is rented at fourteen pounds per annum. 

And we present that we have one vicarage formerly in the 
gift of the said Dean and Chapter of Paul's, to which Mr. 
Henry Jordan, our present incumbent, a pious preaching 
minister, was presented by the Lord's Commissioners of the 
Great Seal of England, who has for his salary the whole 
profits of the said vicarage, viz., a house and garden plot with 
forty-four acres of arable land and four acres of meadow and 
pasture [and] the small tithes thereto belonging which we 
conceive to be worth about forty pounds per annum. 




Cjeorge JJ1 i- olV bouse 



GEORGE ELIOT AT RICHMOND. 

BY FRED. TURNER, F.R.HIST.S. 

WHEN the literary history of the royal borough of 
Richmond is written, one chapter, recording the 
three years residence there of George Eliot, will stand out 
most prominently. 

There were no years in George Eliot's life more calculated 
to leave a permanent impression in the literary history of our 
country than those spent so industriously in apartments at No. 
8, Parkshot, Richmond a house haunted with the memories 
of many distinguished people ; with this fact in view, one is 
forced to express the hope that the rumour which reports the 
early demolition of this house, along with No. 7, Parkshot, a 
former residence of the great Corn Law reformer, the late 
Right Hon. C. P. Villiers, is without foundation. 

Richmond, one of the most picturesquely situated towns on 
the banks of the Thames, can boast of an interesting roll of 
fame : kings, queens, statesmen, poets, and novelists have at 
various periods dwelt within her borders, but it is safe to assert 
that there is no more famous name recorded on that roll than 
that of the distinguished lady whose nom de plume, George 
Eliot, is known throughout the world. 

We may not entirely agree with Mr. Oscar Browning in his 
estimate of George Eliot's place in our literary history a niche 
next to Shakespeare, but we can fully endorse his opinion that 
" no woman has attained a higher place " in literature ; and we 
may add that she secured this exalted position, chiefly, by work 
accomplished in the house to which we have alluded. 

George Eliot's residence in Richmond commenced in 
September, 1855, and we have the authority of her biographer 
her second husband for saying that it was between this 
date and the year 1859, when she left the town to reside at 
Wandsworth, that her " most memorable literary work was 
accomplished." 

No. 8, Parkshot, Richmond, represented in our illustration, 
is situated near to the railway station, at the back of the main 

E 



66 GEORGE ELIOT AT RICHMOND. 

thoroughfare from Kew, and in close proximity to Richmond 
Green and Old Deer Park. From an architectural point of 
view there is nothing very striking about the house ; it is 
exceedingly dull looking, and, apart from the prolific growth of 
ivy which nearly covers the front, it is devoid of 
picturesqueness. 

The rooms formerly occupied by the famous writer are those 
on the second floor; they are small and, at this time, dingy 
apartments, which the decaying hand of time has not rendered 
any pleasanter ; the ivy from without has forced its way through 
the cracks in the window frames, and is growing within the 
room which may possibly have been the novelist's writing 
room. Yet, as one stands in the old-fashioned place, the 
feeling is undoubtedly strengthened that Richmond should 
make an effort to secure the old house from destruction. 

The back of the house is very quaint, and a narrow path 
leads out to a pleasant garden in which we like to think that 
the novelist, with her love of nature in all its aspects, took the 
deepest interest. 

The novelist has said in one of her letters " We enjoy our 
new lodgings very much, everything is the pink of order and 
cleanliness." It will be remembered by the admirers of George 
Eliot's works, that her first attempts at novel writing were 
made in Richmond ; she and her husband had frequently 
discussed her qualifications for such an undertaking ; she had a 
wonderful power for descriptive writing, and she had wit ; but 
her husband was scarcely convinced of her ability to give 
expression to the deeper feelings of human nature, or to present 
her matter in dramatic form. However, an attempt was made, 
and on the occasion of a stroll in Richmond Park, a place she 
repeatedly visited, she announced to George Lewes that she 
had actually written part of a story to be called " The Sad 
Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton." When they returned 
to their apartments she produced the MS. and read over the 
story, as far as it was written, to the intense satisfaction of her 
husband. "We both cried over it," she relates, "and then he 
came up to me and kissed me, saying, ' I think your pathos is 
better than your fun'." 

The story was completed and appeared in Blackwood's 




George Eliot's House at Richmond. Back View. 



GEORGE ELIOT AT RICHMOND. 67 

Magazine for January, 1857 ; and ultimately became the initial 
tale of a series now known as " Scenes from Clerical Life." 
The author's popularity was at once assured, and her biography 
contains some amusing accounts of attempts made to discover 
her identity, most of her critics asserting that she was a 
clergyman ; and it is interesting to remember, so well was 
the secret kept, that even her publisher, Mr. John Blackwood, 
failed to discover her sex or real name until he was introduced 
to her personally, some time after, in her rooms at Parkshot. 

The sensation created by the appearance of "Clerical Life" 
had scarcely subsided before another important novel was 
begun; the novelist's journal for October 22nd, 1857, records 
that a long story to be entitled "Adam Bede " had been 
commenced. With the exception of a part of volume ii., the 
whole of " Adam Bede " was written at Richmond. The work 
is too well-known to require description ; it is without doubt 
the most popular of George Eliot's novels. For a four years 
copyright of " Adam Bede " the author received 8oo/. 

Space forbids an extended notice of the minor work George 
Eliot accomplished in Richmond ; she was constantly 
reviewing, translating, or composing in her room at Parkshot ; 
but before concluding, it is interesting to record her impressions 
of the neighbourhood in which she resided at so important 
a period in her literary life. 

She was particularly charmed with Richmond Hill and 
Park, and her journals contain frequent allusions to these 
delightful spots. " We have had a delicious walk in the 
Park," she says, " and I think the colouring of the scenery is 
more beautiful than ever. Many of the oaks are still thickly 
covered with leaves of a rich yellow-brown; the elms, golden 
sometimes, still with lingering patches of green. On our way 
to the Park the view from Richmond Hill had a delicate blue 
mist over it, that seemed to hang like a veil before the sober 
brownish-yellow of the distant elms. As we came home, the 
sun was setting on a fog-bank, and we saw him sink into that 
purple ocean the orange and gold passing into green above 
the fog-bank, the gold and orange Deflected in the river in more 
sombre tints. The other day, as we were coming home through 
the Park, after having walked under a sombre, heavily-clouded 



68 GEORGE ELIOT AT RICHMOND. 

sky, the western sun shone out from under the curtain, and lit 
up the trees and grass, thrown into relief on a background of 
dark-purple cloud. Then as we advanced towards the 
Richmond end of the park, the level reddening rays shone on a 
dry fern and the distant oaks, and threw crimson light on them. 
I have especially enjoyed this autumn, the delicious greenness 
of the turf, in contrast with the red and yellow of the dying 
leaves." 

In another place she gives a further impression of the royal 
borough. " Richmond is not fascinating in ' the season ' or 
through the summer. It is hot, noisy, and haunted with 
cockneys; but at other times we love the Park with an 
increasing love." 

There is a further interest associated with George Eliot's 
Richmond home ; the fame of the novelist appears to have 
dwarfed the, by no means unimportant fact that her husband, 
George Lewes, one of the most brilliant critics, scientists, and 
philosophers of his day, wrote, in the same room as his famous 
wife, books of considerable merit. Herbert Spencer, who was 
a frequent guest at Parkshot, had high opinions of the work of 
Lewes, and it is not unlikely that such works as "Sea-Side 
Studies," and "The Physiology of Common Life" may live, 
when much more popular literature is consigned to oblivion. 
George Eliot was the constant companion and fellow student 
of Lewes in his scientific wanderings and pursuits. 

George Eliot's residence in Richmond terminated in 
February, 1859. One hopes that enough has been said here to 
induce the literary spirit of the royal borough to keep alive the 
memory of one who, by her three years' residence there, has 
added lustre to the town's history. 

The present writer is convinced that there is sufficient 
literary interest in Richmond to secure the house in Parkshot 
from the ravages of the modern builder. Stratford-on-Avon 
has its houses of Shakespearian interest ; Ayr its Burns 
Cottage ; Grasmere its Dove Cottage, to keep green the 
memory of Wordsworth's residence there. Why may not 
Richmond have a memorial of its greatest literary resident ? 



THE ROADS AND RIVERS OF KENT IN 
THE LAST CENTURY. 

COMMUNICATED BY G. B. RASHLEIGH. 

A CCOMPANYING a copy of J. Seller's map of Kent, 
JL\ circa 1710, preserved at the British Museum C^), is 
a report made by Colonel Forbes, apparently to the War 
Office, on the roads and ways of Kent, which is of some 
topographical interest and modern importance ; the reference 
to footpaths will doubtless be noted by those who guard public 
rights in such matters. According to the Museum catalogue 
the report was made in 1755 a period when, it will be 
remembered, the French were threatening a descent upon 
England. The probability of a successful descent was evidently 
contemplated by the authorities, but the Colonel's observations 
as to the inevitable fate which would attend the invading force, 
once landed, must have given considerable relief. It reminds 
us of the remark attributed to Count Moltke: that he had 
devised many methods for bringing an army into England, but 
had failed to find any for taking it out again ! 

" According to your directions, I have looked over the middle part 
of Kent, from Maidstone down below Ashford, and from thence to 
Canterbury. 

I must, however, first observe that when the sea is at ebb, and 
no flood in the River Medway, that there are four places fordable 
between Rochester and Maidstone, which I have marked upon the 
map. But the ford next to Rochester is dangerous upon account of 
the breadth of the river, and the access to it from the east, being a 
kind of morass and swampy ground. 

From Maidstone up the river towards Tunbridge, the river is 
only made considerable, from the different locks made upon it on 
account of the navigation. But those locks destroyed, the river 
which is called the Tunn would be of consequence. 

The other branches that compose the Medway, come from the 
Weald of Kent, in a course from east to west, and pour out a great 
quantity of water ; as they run in a clayey soil, so that little or none 
of the water that runs from the high grounds to the north of the 
Weald, or from the Weald itself is any way absorbed. 

The most considerable of those branches is that which runs from 
above Smarden directly westward towards Yalding, and about a 
mile below that, joining with the other branches from the Weald, 
and the Tunn from Tunbridge ; they form the Medway. 



70 KENT ROADS AND RIVERS. 

Those other branches coming from the Weald, which in the maps 
appear distinct rivulets, yet are all the same, as in flood the whole 
are joined, and even in dry winter seasons they communicate by 
ousing along in the ditches of the different inclosures. 

Over each of those branches there are several bridges, but over 
the greatest branch, there are three considerable, as all or most of 
the roads from Sussex and the south parts of Kent centre at them. 
These are Yalding, Stiles and Stevens Bridges. From each of these 
bridges there is but one road, that leads from them directly northward 
for one mile or two through the Weald, and so up to the ridge of 
hills and villages and again separates up on the summit. 

The bridges are marked on the map with the letter A as are 
likewise the villages upon the hills through which the roads pass. 

The Weald or woody country of Kent is so well-known as to 
need no description. But to consider it in a military way, of its 
being 12, 14 or more miles broad, its being of a stiff deep clayey 
soil, that absorbs no rain or water that comes upon it, and that from 
the great timber trees, closeness of the hedges, and hollow ways, 
etc., the sun has scarce any influence upon the roads. It is, 
therefore, absolutely impassable for wheel carriages in the winter 
time, even to the inhabitants themselves, so consequently to any 
body of troops, not to be attempted. And the road, when practicable 
on horse- back, is only upon a narrow broken causeway of one or 
two feet broad, under the hedge, to keep one from sticking fast in 
the clay. 

N.B. There are footpaths through the inclosure by the side of 
the great roads. 

The hills or high grounds lying all along to the north of the 
Weald, begin when the Medway cuts them at Burston Park, and 
from thence run directly east 12 miles to Boughton Malherb. 

The ascent of that whole tract of hills from the Weald to the 
summit of them may be about half-a-mile in many places. Although 
their declivities are often more or less difficult. But in general the 
great road from the bridges through the villages to the tops of the 
hills is the easiest ascent. The grounds to the right and left of those 
roads are divided into small enclosures of hop grounds, cherry 
orchards, etc., which I fancy will make them a disagreeable route 
for any body of troops to pass through. 

The summits of the hills in general have a very thick coppice 
wood upon them, and towards the Medway behind this coppice there 
is a heath called Coxheath, where a body of infantry may encamp in 
one line, as it is three miles long and half-a-mile broad, tolerable 
good ground with wood and water. 

The Dragoons might encamp likewise, but could not well act or 
be of service as the country all around is enclosed. 

N.B. The villages upon the hills are at two and three miles 
distance one from the other all along for 20 or 25 miles. 

Those hills from Boughton Malherb stretch away to the south 
east, obliquely across the Weald towards Romney Marsh ; but are 
here so flattened as to become part of the Weald. But at Hum and 



A VISIT TO LITTLE DUMMOW. 71 

Bilsington the hills rise again, and in a north-east direction, run to 
Hyth along the side of Romney Marsh. Towards Charte Magna, 
where the hills become rather flattened, yet, notwithstanding, it must 
be about the highest part of the Weald, as those rivulets which 
run to the Medway rise to the south of it, and the Stoure that runs 
to Canterbury rises from the north side of the same village. 

There is another ridge of hills, that shape their course pretty 
much in the same direction, but eight miles to the northward of the 
former, that is to say half-way between Rochester and Maidstone, 
near the Medway. These, like the former, are more or less accessible 
all the way eastward to Eastwell (Lord Winchelsea's Park),* where 
they are cut by the Stoure, and part of this ridge accompanies that 
river to Canterbury, which is twelve miles, and where they are all 
along impracticable for a body of troops. The continuation of this 
ridge of hills on the east side of the Stoure runs away towards 
Folkestone and Dover. 

Ashford stands upon the opening that the Stoure makes in the 
last ridge of hills, and about three miles north of Charte Magna. 

The Stoure is -a pretty rapid stream, has three bridges upon it 
between Ashford and Canterbury, but, although impassable in floods 
in the winter season, yet there are sundry fords when the river is in 
its natural state. The bridges over the Stoure are Wye, Godmersham, 
and Shawford, four miles distant each from another. And at 
Godmersham the vale is so narrow that it might easily be rendered 
a difficult pass. 

The tracts of country here described comprehends from Yalding 
to the east of Ashford, 26 miles. 

From Bexley Hill upon the Medway down to Eastwell, 20 miles. 

And from Ashford down to Canterbury, 15 miles. 

(To be continued). 



A VISIT TO LITTLE DUNMOW. 
BY DUNCAN MOUL. 

ON the left bank of the river Chelmer, between Braintree and 
Bishop's Stortford, situated in one of the prettiest parts 
of Essex, lies the village of Little Dunmow. Once a place 
of some importance, it has now little to boast of, except 
the scanty remains of the ancient priory. The nearest station 
is Felstead, from which it is distant about half-a-mile. The 
village, a collection of picturesque cottages, is at the turn of 

* " 20 miles " written in the margin against this. 



72 A VISIT TO LITTLE DUNMOW. 

the road, and a few yards further down will be seen the newly 
built rectory-house where the key of the church is obtained. 
Taking a path through the field on the left we arrive, after a 
few hundred yards' walk, at the Norman church*, the only 
building in Dunmow that we can certainly point to as a 
remaining portion of the once celebrated priory, erected in 
1104, by Juga, the sister of Ralph Baynard, builder of Baynard 
Castle in London ; though it is quite possible that a group of 
old cottages, originally one building, facing the church door, 
may contain in them remains of some portions of the 
priory, for the walls are of remarkable thickness. 

The first view of the church is most disappointing, for it 
has been much " restored," and the outside made hideous 
by the ugly bell tower on the north side. But on entering 
the building, we find the restorer has left much that is of the 
greatest interest, and we can at once realize what the priory 
church must have been. On the south side, running 
below the windows, will be noticed an arcading with most 
remarkable and very elaborate carvings, some of them 
representing animals in the quaintest positions, intermingled 
with human figures. In the chancel, behind the altar, is a 
reredos, which, although rather broken, is lavishly decorated. 

Some years back a beautiful oak screen, curiously carved, 
separated the nave of the church from the chancel, but this 
has now gone ; it is said that the present pulpit was made out 
of portions of this screen. 

On the north side of the church, between tw r o of the 
pillars, is the tomb of the celebrated Matilda Fitz Walter, with 
whose name much romance is associated, and who, in legend, is 
indentified with " Maid Marion," sharer in the fortunes of 
" Robin Hood." The figure on the top is in a fair state of 
preservation, though the face is somewhat injured. It 
is dressed in long flowing robes with a rich girdle round the 
waist. The fingers are covered with rings ; and about the neck 
is a collar beneath a handsome necklace. On either side of 
the head are the remains of two small figures ; the feet rest 
upon a dog. 

The history of the lady is given as follows : She was the 

* The church constituted the south aisle of the priory church. 



A VISIT TO LITTLE DUNMOW. 73 

daughter o Robert, Baron FitzWalter, well-known in English 
history as chief of the Barons who rose against King John, 
and compelled him to grant the Great Charter. To celebrate 
her eighteenth birth-day, her father gave a long series of 
banquets and entertainments, to which all the neighbouring 
nobles and knights were bidden. On the fourth day a grand 
tournament was held, at which the assembled knights competed 
for a crown to be given by the fair Matilda, who acted as 
queen of the tournament. An unknown warrior obtained the 
prize, and on receiving it from the hands of the queen departed 
as secretly as he had come, though not before his gallant 
bearing and handsome face had won the affections of the lady. 

Prince John, who afterwards became King of England, was a 
guest at the festivities, and conceived a great passion for the 
beautiful Matilda, and endeavoured to induce her to become his 
mistress. Such proposals she, however, treated with scorn, 
and John, gathering his followers together, attacked the Castle, 
slaying its lordly owner, though his daughter escaped into the 
adjacent forest. Here, on the following day, she met the 
strange knight who had so distinguished himself at the 
tournament, but he was now clad in a dress of an archer. He 
told her that he was the outlawed Earl of Huntingdon, but 
that he was known as "Robin Hood," and that he and his 
followers lived in the forest. Matilda remained with the band 
some time, and married Robin, becoming, when he was 
restored to his earldom, Countess of Huntingdon. At his 
death she retired to Dunmow Priory, to which the FitzWalter 
family had been benefactors, to spend the rest of her days. 

John, who had then become King, had not forgotten the 
lady's beauty, and made another attempt to gain possession of 
her ; but with no success. Enraged at his second failure, he 
sent a knight to Dunmow bearing a present of a pair of 
poisoned gloves or, as some accounts give the story a 
poisoned bracelet, which, after she had donned, poisoned her 
blood and caused her death. The knight, who was ignorant of 
the form of the gift, on learning of its fearful nature, refused 
to return to the king and became a monk. Such is story ; its 
authenticity is shaken by the fact that Robert FitzWalter was 
killed at the seige of Damietta in the year 1234. 



74 



A VISIT TO LITTLE DUNMOW. 



Dunmow church also contains a fine, though much damaged, 
monument to Walter FitzWalter, grandfather of the Lady 
Matilda, who died A.D. 1198, and was buried in the choir with 
his second wife. 

But a notice of Dunmow church would not be complete 
without reference to the famous *' bacon " chair, which stands 
on the left of the chancel, and in which, as is well-known, 
the successful claimants of the "flitch" were chaired. 
Considering the rough usage this certainly venerable seat has 
probably received, its condition is better than might be 
expected. The story of the Dunmow Flitch has been so often 
related that there is no need to repeat it here ; an excellent 
account of it appears in Chambers' " Book of Days," edit. 
1863, vol. ii., pp. 248-251, where is figured Osborne's picture of 
this procession in 1751. 




THE CHARITIES OF HERTFORDSHIRE. 

BY THE EDITOR. 
(Continued from Vol. I. p. 228). 

Hertford, Watford School, St. Albans and Berkhampstead 
By an Inquisition taken at Hertford, ig January, 1645, 
it was found that, about 19 years before, John Brown, of 
London, merchant, dying intestate, the administration of his 
estate was granted to Sir Thomas Gardner, then Recorder of 
London, out of which it was ordered, in the Prerogative Court, 
that 6ooo/. should be taken and employed to pious uses ; 
whereupon the said Sir Thomas allowed 3oo/. out of the said 
estate to be employed to the use, of the poor of the town of 
Hertford. An inn in Hertford, known by the sign of the 
Chequer, at the time of taking the Inquisition, in the tenure of 
Robert Thorowgood, at the rent of i8/., was purchased, about 
17 years before the taking of the Inquisition, of Thomas 
Wright, sometime schoolmaster in Hertford, with 2jol. part of 
the said 3OO/., to the use of the poor of Hertford. Another 
messuage or tenement, situate in the parish of All Saints in 
Hertford, in the occupation of Thomas Hodge, at the rent of 
i/. 6s. Sd., was, about five years after, purchased with the 
remainder of the said 3OO/. to the use aforesaid. 

The jurors also found that Edward Card, gentleman, by his 
will dated 23 March, 1631, devised to George Gippes, parson, 
of the parish of St. Andrew, Hertford, and to Henry Bull, 
Esq., George Pettit, Joseph Dalton, and William Peele, of 
Hertford, gentlemen, and their heirs, a messuage and tenements 
in St. Andrew's, aforesaid, in the tenure of Samuel Goodman 
at the rent of 3/., to hold to them their heirs and assigns in 
trust that they, their heirs and assigns, should, out of the 
yearly rent and profit thereof, every year disburse 505., that is 
to say : 205. on Easter Tuesday, 205. on the feast of St. John 
the Baptist, and IDS. on the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, 
for ever, to such of the aged and impotent poor people of 
St. Andrew's, "as should usually resort to their parish church 
and should not be of ill name or fame, as they should think 
fit"; and that ios., residue of the said 6os., should be bestowed 
yearly upon a dinner on Tuesday in Easter week to those 
persons who, from time to time, should be trusted with the 
disposition of the said money to the use of the poor. The 
said Edward Card likewise gave 4O/. to be employed to the use 
of the poor of the parish of All Saints', Hertford, and a 
messuage in the said parish, adjoining the said tenement in the 



76 THE CHARITIES OF HERTFORDSHIRE. 

occupation of the said Thomas Hodge, and an orchard thereto 
belonging, were purchased with the said 4O/., to the use of the 
poor of the said parish ; the said messuage was, in 1645, in the 
occupation of one John Okeley at the rent of 405., and the 
said orchard is in the occupation of the said Thomas Hodge 
at the rent of 6s. Sd. 

The jurors further found that Mary Pettitt, widow, by her 
will dated 9 March, 1641, devised one messuage or tenement in 
the parish of St. Andrew, near Cowbridge, to the intent that it 
be inhabited by two poor widows of the same parish, rent 
free, successively, for ever. 

They also found that 29 acres and one rood of meadow, 
called King's Meadow, in Hertford, amongst other things 
theretofore purchased of the King by the mayor and burgesses 
of Hertford, was "pretended " for the use of "the poor of the 
corporation of Hertford," and that the same ought to be 
disposed of to the use of the poor of the said corporation for 
ever, all charges and payments, wherewith the said meadow 
ground was then partly chargeable, being first discharged. 
Albeit, the poor of the said corporation were left out of the 
said grant, and no use therein expressed to that purpose, the 
mayor and burgesses having confessed before the commissioners 
and jurors, that they did and do still intend the same to the use 
of the said poor, saving to every person his right of common in 
and to the premises. 

The jurors further found that Francis Combes, late of 
Hemel Hempstead, Esq., by his will dated I May, 1641, 
devised out of his lands, tenements and goods in Hemel 
Hempstead, io/. for ever to a free school in Watford, for 
teaching the poor to cast accounts, to read English, and to 
write. 

The said Francis also gave to the Abbey Church in St. 
Albans, for ever, out of his said lands, goods, tenements and 
tithes in Hemel Hempstead, io/. for ever, so long as there should 
be a weekly sermon on Saturday [the preacher] to be chosen 
by the greater part of the " best inhabitants," within the 
liberties of St. Albans borough. 

The jury conceived that the intent and meaning of the 
said testator was that the said io/. devised to the school of 
Watford should be paid yearly for ever out of his lands, 
tenements and goods to the said free school to the uses 
aforesaid, albeit the word yearly is not mentioned in the said 
will ; and that the said other lol. devised to the said Abbey 
Church should be likewise yearly paid for ever out of his said 
lands, tenements, goods and tithes, so long as there should be 
a weekly sermon on Saturday, and the lecturer chosen in 
manner aforesaid. 









THE CHARITIES OF HERTFORDSHIRE. 77 

The said Francis Combes also devised 2ol. per annum for 
ever, out of his lands in Berkhampstead St. Peter, otherwise 
Great Berkhampstead, and Hemel Hempstead, to a godly and 
learned preacher to be chosen by most voices, whereof, for a 
Monday lecture in Berkhampstead 20 nobles, and for a Thursday 
lecture in Hemel Hempstead 20 marks ; the said preacher to 
be yearly chosen for ever by most voices. 

The jury lastly found that neither the said sum of iol., nor 
the said 20 marks, nor 20 nobles, had been paid since the making 
of the said will, to their knowledge. 

The order is dated on the day of taking the Inquisition. 
It was directed that the profits from the premises in All 
Saints', Hertford, be employed yearly to the use of the poor of 
Hertford for ever ; and that the profits from the premises in 
St. Andrew's, Hertford, bequeathed by Edward Card and 
Mary Pettitt, be employed as the jury found they should be 
employed. 

It was further ordered that the Mayor of Hertford, for the 
time being, and two of the most ancient burgesses of each 
parish of the said town, together with six more of the ablest 
parishioners of each of the said several parishes, of such as 
bore the greatest burden for the relief of the said poor, not 
being burgesses, should, at the monthly meeting of the said 
mayor and burgesses, in the month of May, yearly, make choice 
of one to receive all such rents and monies as were intended for 
the uses aforesaid and according to their direction, or the major 
part of them, to issue out the same agreeable to the exigency 
and necessity of the poor of the said several parishes ; and 
that each party, so chosen and undertaking the said receipts and 
disbursements, should yearly, at the said meeting, exhibit his 
accounts for the past year ; and that a copy of these accounts 
should be delivered to such of the parishioners as should desire 
to peruse the same. The order then deals with certain over- 
payments made by the corporation of Hertford, and the 
circumstances under which the grant of the King's Meadow 
was obtained. 

With regard to Francis Combes' bequest to Watford 
School, it was ordered that the persons nominated for the 
ordering of the school should be paid yearly iol. from the rents 
and profits of the testator's property, to be paid by them to the 
schoolmaster ; and that the iol. to the Saturday lecturer at 
St. Albans Abbey should be paid yearly. The document is so 
much effaced, that it cannot be decided whether Combes' bequest 
to the lecturers at Berkhampstead and Hemel Hempstead is 
dealt with. (Petty Bag Charity Inquisitions. Bundle W, 
No. 15). 



-THE NATIONAL TRUST."* 

BY HUGH BLAKISTON. 

IT is probably unnecessary, in the year of grace 1900, to 
explain elaborately to the readers of the Home Counties 
Magazine what is the " National Trust for Places of Historic 
Interest or Natural Beauty." Even to those unacquainted 
with the Trust's work, its lengthy and sonorous title is almost 
a sufficient explanation, but for clearness sake, and in order to 
hasten the day when a fuller recognition will make it possible 
for us to wriggle off, like a lizard, our superfluous tail, and 
stand forth as the simple " National Trust," I will commence 
with a brief account of our history and work. I will then go 
on to dwell in more detail on certain aspects of the Trust's 
work, and to indicate the lines which, I think, its development 
should follow. 

The National Trust was founded in the year 1894 by the 
Duke of Westminster, the Earl of Carlisle, Lord Hobhouse, 
the Right Hon. James Bryce, Sir Robert Hunter, Miss 
Octavia Hill, and others, and was incorporated as a Limited 
Liability Company (I quote the Articles of Association) " to 
promote the permanent preservation for the benefit of the 
nation, of lands and tenements (including buildings) of beauty 
or historic interest ; and as regards lands, to preserve (so far as 
practicable) their natural aspect, features, and animal and 
plant life ; and for this purpose to accept from private owners 
of property, gifts of places of interest or beauty, and to hold 
the lands, houses, and other property thus acquired, in trust 
for the use and enjoyment of the nation." There is a further 
provision that no property thus acquired shall be dealt with, in 
the event of the dissolution of the Trust, in a manner 
inconsistent with its objects. In place of the usual Board 
of Directors there is a Council, which through its Executive 
Committee, transacts the business of the Trust, and presents a 
report to the annual general meeting of the members. 

So much then for the constitution of the Trust. Let us 
glance in passing at some of the work which it has done in its 

* " The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural 
Beauty/' i, Great College Street, S.W. 




Church of St. Mary, Stratford-le-Bow. 



"THE NATIONAL TRUST." 79 

short five years of life. It has purchased Barras Head, 
opposite Tintagel Castle, in Cornwall, and a most beautiful 
cliff, overlooking Barmouth, has been presented by a lady to 
the Trust. Toy's Hill, near Westerham, in Kent, and Ide 
Hill, in the same district, both commanding wide views over 
the Weald of Kent and Sussex, have been acquired. The 
purchase and restoration of the old Clergy House at Alfriston, 
Sussex, and of Joiner's Hall, Salisbury, have secured to the 
nation two fine specimens of mediaeval domestic architecture. 
The Falkland monument on the battlefield at Newbury is also 
under the care of the Trust. And it has recently purchased in 
Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, a piece of the primitive fen- 
land, which will remain for ever undrair.ed and untouched, 
with its original plant and animal life. 

The accompanying illustrations give a good idea of the 
diversified nature of the work in which the Trust engages. 
The Church of St. Mary, Stratford-le-Bow, E., standing as it 
does on an eminence at the passage of the Lea, calls up before 
our minds a picture of the days when wayfarers, journeying 
from Essex villages to London town, halted at the pleasant 
hamlet of Bow, before wending their way along the green lanes 
of Whitechapel to the City gates. On the understanding that 
the plans for restoration should be so drawn as to interfere as 
little as possible with the architectural beauties of the Church, 
the Trust have lent their help to the Rector in the difficult 
task of raising funds. Two thousand pounds is still wanted, 
the district is very poor, and the difficulty of obtaining 
subscriptions has been, according to the Bishop of Stepney, 
unprecedented. 

The other illustration depicts Eashing Bridge, an 
interesting structure of the reign of King John, which 
spans the river Wey at Godalming. It is hoped that, by the 
kindness of a gentleman in the neighbourhood, this bridge 
may, ere long, become the property of the Trust. 

I have somewhat placed the cart before the horse in 
describing the constitution and work of the Trust, before 
dealing with those causes which have rendered its establishment 
necessary. They are not, however, far to seek. We are 
familiar with them in other connections, though, perhaps, their 



8o " THE NATIONAL TRUST." 

operation upon the subject matter of this article may not have 
engaged our attention heretofore. The historian, whether of 
politics, morals, art, or science, is never weary of pointing to 
the great increase of industrial prosperity in England during 
the last century, or of commenting on its effects upon that 
division of the national life in which he is peculiarly interested. 
We too, looking at the past hundred years as lovers of the 
beautiful in nature, or the historic in the building arts, see the 
various causes which led to this prosperity operating sometimes 
beneficially, sometimes banefully, upon the objects of our 
concern. We see the lava stream of bricks and mortar 
obliterating the pleasant woods and fields ; we see the heaps of 
shale and slag rising grimly amidst the heather and fern ; we 
see the smoke-laden fog replace the white morning mist, and 
dull the quick colours of life to the dismal hues of death. 
The gin-palace swallows up the ancient hostelry; plate-glass 
windows and facia signs take the room of latticed casements 
and over-hanging eaves ; monstrosities in terra cotta flaunt 
their meritricious charms in exchange for the dignity and 
repose of manor house and castle. And we ourselves grow 
daily into the likeness of the work of our hands, until a stroll 
through the suburbs of a great town becomes a night-mare of 
meaningless design and purposeless faces, complementary the 
one to the other. 

But there is a reverse to our obverse, and we must not 
leave the medal unturned. For the pursuit of the beautiful is 
not the end of life, nor the constant contact with the past the 
only saving grace. At best they are but secondary influences, 
fairies, not angels. For a hundred years we have been learning 
freedom, and justice, and mercy ; we have discovered that we 
are our brother's keeper from the reservoir of the nation's 
energy, a bounteous stream has flowed into all the channels of 
philanthropy. Is it a great thing that, oppressed with nobler 
cares, we should, in a measure, have forgotten that beauty refines 
and history ennobles ? W T e have still enough on our consciences 
it is true, but at least we have not been altogether idle. 

And yet our forgetfulness has been disastrous. The Sibyl 
has offered us the books, and we have refused them many times. 
It is not going too far to say with one of the speakers at our 



W 




"THE NATIONAL TRUST." 81 

annual general meeting in 1897, that probably no half century 
in our whole history has seen the destruction of so many 
buildings of interest and beauty, as that which has passed since 
the Queen came to the throne. The same remark applies to 
natural scenery. Instances in proof thereof occur to every 
mind, and I will not commence a wearisome enumeration. I 
prefer to prove it indirectly, by pointing out that there has been, 
and is, no power which could withstand this wave of destruction, 
which, drawn by the attraction of industrialism, has swept over 
the face of the land. The Board of Works can accept megalithic 
remains for guardianship, and that is all. Compare with this the 
practice of France, Austria, and Italy, where the care of the 
monuments of the past is considered to be of sufficient 
importance to form one of the functions of a Minister of State. 

Supposing that we have now grasped to some extent the 
defenceless condition of our national monuments, and the 
wanton waste and destruction which has disgraced so much of 
the past century, there still remains the question, " Of what 
value are these monuments to the nation, that we should spend 
time and money in their preservation ? " Their archaeological 
interest we all admit, but archaeology is not an end in itself, it 
is a means to an end. Once more in our search for a cause 
final this time and not efficient, if the scholasticism may be 
pardoned will not lead us. far afield. We seek to preserve our 
national monuments, because we know that the influence of 
historic associations is one of the most powerful forces which 
mould a nation's character, and that unhappy indeed is the 
people which has no past. They are one of the sheet anchors 
which keep a people from drifting aimlessly down the tide of 
time, conscious of nothing but present hopes and fears. 
Witness the affectionate envy with which Americans regard 
our treasures, an envy which is sometimes magnified by the 
perfervid imaginations of journalists into a ravenous hunger, 
which can be satisfied with nothing less than the transportation 
of Stonehenge to Chicago. We have then in our hands this 
potent force, and it is our duty to direct it into the proper 
channels. We have to employ it to strengthen the sense of 
citizenship in our own children, and to deepen the sense 
of sonship in the members of our distant Empire. In the 

F 



82 "THE NATIONAL TRUST." 

first instance, we have to recollect that the steady increase 
of our population, side by side with the growing tendency to 
congregate in large masses, is rapidly turning the central 
portion of our large towns into a wilderness of offices and 
eating-houses, and the streets of the suburbs into vast 
dormitories, of which monotonous little houses form the 
cubicles. In the latter districts especially, and it must be 
remembered that they are the abiding-places of the children, 
nothing meets the eye which can suggest to the mind anything 
outside the dull, listless round of daily life. Street lamps, 
paving stones, hoardings, sky-signs what inspiration can be 
drawn from these ? In the last quarter of a century a great 
system of national education has been created : to every 
English child are now secured sufficient intellectual advantages. 
Is it not time for us to put the coping-stone on to this great 
edifice, to remember the power of imagination to train 
character, and the undoubted effect of circumstances upon the 
imagination ? If we cannot surround our people, young or old, 
with beautiful sights and sounds, can we not at least make 
sure that all those places, an occasional visit to which would 
leave a beautiful impression, are secured to them and their 
children for ever ? A place of natural beauty, a building of 
historic interest, may be to those who live in the immediate 
vicinity a direct means of education, to those who visit them 
but occasionally, their recollection may be " like a breeze* 
bringing health from pleasant places." Again, let us remember 
that we in England cannot with justice prefer an exclusive 
claim to the enjoyment of our country. We have to reckon 
with the fact that England is regarded as " home " by millions 
of men speaking her language, sprung from her stock, but now 
scattered over the face ot the earth. These men have a right 
to claim that the land of their origin, the mother of their 
institutions, the centre of the Empire of which they are 
members, shall be preserved in a manner worthy of her great 
history. They are partakers with us in a goodly heritage, 
and it is our duty who live upon that heritage, to 
cherish, guard, and develop it for the common good. Nor 
should it be forgotten that across the Atlantic is a mighty 

*Plato Repub. 



"THE NATIONAL TRUST." 83 

people, to whom the historic associations of England are hardly 
less dear than to ourselves. 

We come at last to the practical question, " How is the 
National Trust to fulfil its mission ? " Our first and most 
obvious duty is to make its existence, its aims and methods, as 
widely known as possible ; the next is to supply such machinery 
as will enable it to pursue its aims with the least possible 
friction. The means for making the Trust, its principles, and 
practice, better known lie ready to our hands. There exist all 
over the country a number of societies archaeological, scientific, 
literary, which are doing an excellent work by accumulating and 
gradually disseminating knowledge : it is only necessary to 
induce them to embark on missionary enterprise. Let each 
society appoint a sub-committee with an energetic secretary, 
and let the function of that sub-committee be to watch over all 
places of historic interest or natural beauty within a certain 
area, compiling if possible a sort of rough register, and let them 
give timely warning to the National Trust of danger or of 
opportunities of preservation. Let the local society obtain 
subscriptions to a central fund, of which the Trust shall be the 
guardian, and let the fund thus accumulated be applied to the 
purchase of historic properties or places of natural beauty in 
this or that district, as occasion arises. Arrangements could be 
made for the representation of the societies on the council of 
the Trust, and rules could be drawn up to ensure an equitable 
distribution of the fund. 

There is yet more machinery ready for our use. County 
Councils, District Councils, Parish Councils, have power to 
hold property for the public benefit. Nothing could be more 
in keeping with the spirit of English local government than 
that each local authority should have under its care such of 
the historic buildings or places of natural beauty within its 
jurisdiction, as might reasonably be entrusted to a public body. 
It would probably be found expedient at first to vest the freehold 
of such properties in the Trust, and make the management over 
to the local authority. The requisite historical and architectural 
knowledge will not always be at the disposal of the lesser local 
authorities, and a better safeguard against misuse is provided by 
giving the nation as well as the locality an interest in the 
properties. 



84 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

In fine, the creation of a healthy and well-informed public 
opinion should be our prime object ; it will not be long 
in finding practical expression. Abroad, as I have pointed 
out, the duties of the National Trust are performed by the 
central government. We, with different notions of private 
property and a wholesome dislike of official interference, 
should probably prefer to attain our end by some application 
of the functions of local authorities. Let us not, however, 
forget that, whatever provision we make for their safety, our 
historic buildings and places of natural beauty are and will 

remain a matter of national concern. 





NOTES AND QUERIES. 

THE MANGLING OF PLACE-NAMES. Mr. AbelPs remarks 
on p. 347, vol. i., give illustrations of the change which is in 
progress in some Kentish place-names. As the same process is 
going on all around, it is time to raise a protest against this 
destructive agency destructive so far as it breaks the 
continuity of local interest by snapping those links with 
the past which the old place-names maintain. To 
give many examples would occupy too large a space, though 
the task would be easy. Two instances, which came 
under notice on the last excursion of the Essex Arch geological 
Society, must suffice : Woodham Ferrers (showing the 
connection of the manor with a branch of the great Ferrers 
family), is turned into Woodham Ferriss, Stow Maries (derived 
from an old family name), becomes Stow St. Mary's. For 
confirming, if not for establishing, these alterations we have to 
thank the Railway and Post Office Officials who thus spell the 
names, but the local authorities follow suit on the way-posts. 
That the older forms of place-names should be preserved, will 
be admitted by the readers of The Home Counties Magazine; 
and it is to be hoped that their influence will be used in that 
direction on all available occasions. I. C. GOULD. 

CROUCH AND SANDERSON FAMILIES OF HACKNEY. Can 
anyone give me information regarding these two old Hackney 
families ? I am endeavouring to compile a pedigree, and shall 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 85 

be most thankful for any particulars readers may have. 
Both these names frequently occur in the registers of the 
old parish church. CHARLES H. CROUCH, Nightingale Lane, 
Wanstead. 

STONDON MASSEY CHARITIES. In the parish of Stondon 
Massey, Essex, we have a "bellrope" charity : a field given for 
the purpose of providing bellropes. The donor has been 
unknown from the middle of the i8th century, which suggests 
that the gift dates from a time considerably earlier. I have 
examined a number of early wills connected with the parish, at 
Somerset House, but, hitherto, without result. Unfortunately, 
during the stormy i7th century, Essex wills, among others, were 
not too well cared for. Our parochial records are meagre and 
scanty. Can any reader of The Home Counties Magazine assist 
me in discovering our benefactor? The Editor tells me that, in 
the calendar to the Charity Inquisitions, abstracts of which 
inquisitions he is printing for Essex, there is no reference to 
the charities of Stondon Massey. E. H. L. REEVE. 

COURT HILL ROAD, LEWISHAM. Can anyone give me 
information about a large old gabled house that stood on the 
site of the Congregational Church, Court Hill Road, Lewisham, 
Wilmot had the ground for a nursery, afterwards it was 
Wilmot and Chaundy. They added a counting-house, using 
the old house as a store-house for seeds. The house was 
pulled down about 50 years ago, but I believe the lease did not 
expire till some years after, when the railway and the road were 
made and the land sold. Also I should be glad to know the 
origin of the name Court Hill Road. Had it any connection 
with Queen Elizabeth ? M. A. DOBELL, Sherard House, 
Eltham, Kent. 

WATFORD FREE SCHOOL. In the Charity Inquisition for 
Hertfordshire, an abstract of which I print in this number, is a 
reference obscure in the original to a free school at Watford 
in 1645. I had an idea that the free school, founded by Mrs. 
Fuller in 1704, and ably described by Mr. W. R. Carter in the 
pages of our last volume, was the first institution of the kind at 
Watford, but apparently I am mistaken. Can any reader 
throw light on the point ? THE EDITOR. 



86 REPLIES. 

SANDERSON or SAUNDERSON FAMILY. I shall be extremely 
obliged to any reader who can give me genealogical information, 
no matter how small, relating to any persons bearing this 
name. There were numerous branches of this family residing 
in or near London, during the i6th, I7th, and i8th centuries, 
as may be seen from the registers which have been published of 
the London churches. Any particulars regarding the past 
history of the different members of the Sanderson family who 
may have lived in the counties which this magazine embraces, 
will be very thankfully received. I shall be pleased to exchange 
notes or correspond with any person interested in the family. 
The usual books of reference have been referred to. CHARLES 
H. CROUCH, Nightingale Lane, Wanstead. 



REPLIES. 

A CRANFORD SIGN PEGGY BEDFORD (i. 176, 346). In 
addition to the reference given, I would add the number of 
"All the Year Round " for July ist, 1893, being vol. x. of the 
third series. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN, 71, Brecknock Road. 

WILD BIRDS SEEN AT CATFORD (i, p. 304). In addition 
to the birds seen at Broadmead Farm, mentioned in October, 
a gentleman, who lived many years in the neighbourhood of 
Catford, tells me he has seen there the golden crested wren, 
siskin, waxwing, crossbill, teal, magpie, dabchick, coot, tree 
creeper, and nuthatch. M. A. DOBELL, Sherard House, 
Eltham, Kent. 

PETER, THE WILD BOY (i., p. 344). The undermentioned 
(and there may be many more) contain particulars of this 
celebrated character of days of long ago Kirby's " Wonderful 
and Eccentric Museum," Grainger's " Wonderful Museum," 
" Eccentric Magazine," " Wonders of Human Nature," 
Wilson's " Wonderful Characters," " Penny Magazine," 
(vol. iv.), "Annual Register" (1784-5), "The Book of 
Wonderful Characters," Chamber's " Miscellany " (Nos. 
16 and 48), " A Dictionary of the Wonders of Nature," 
" Gentleman's Magazine " (vol. 55), " Curiosities of Biography," 
" History of Hertfordshire," by Cussans, Lord Monboddo's 






REVIEWS. 87 

" Ancient Metaphysics," " Notes and Queries " (6th series, 
vol. x.) EVERARD HOME COLEMAN, 71, Brecknock Road. 
[Replies to same effect received from GEO. BENSON, Balham ; 
and W. F. ANDREWS, Hertford, and " STRANGER." ED.J 

PRONUNCIATION OF KENTISH PLACE-NAMES (i, pp. 78, 269, 
346). It is, or was, very Kentish to pronounce v as w. 
A villager, who was churchwarden in '88, used always to 
speak, when he had occasion to do so, of Wictoria, 
weel, westry, etc. This pronunciation was common in 
London. But it must not be considered as a modern 
cockneyism. On the contrary, it was the old English 
pronunciation, time-honoured since it had been current in this 
country for some 1500 years. This substitution of w for v, 
appears in some place-names. There are in East Kent two 
wades: Iwade, and St. Nicholas-at-Wade, in Thanet. In both 
places the Romans had a vadum ; at St. Nicholas across the 
Stour, and at Iwade through the Swale, connecting the main 
land and Sheppey. The I in Iwade is the initial letter of 
Insulce. The word therefore means the crossing to the island. 
Of similar meaning, though not a corruption of Latin, is Stoke. 
There are in the country many Stokes ; several on the Thames 
and one in Kent, in the Hundred of Hoo. The name seems to 
mean that which is staked up, and to refer to crossings over, or 
rather through, the water. M. T. P. 



REVIEWS. 

The Commune of London, and other Studies, by J. H. Bound, M.A., with a prefatory letter 

from Sir Walter Besant (Constable & Co., 12s. net). 

With the "other studies" we need not concern ourselves in these pages ; it is as 
a contribution to the history of London, that we have to consider Mr. Bound's book. 
In No. XI. of the "studies" now printed, he produces evidence of the highest 
importance to London history ; since it shows that a "commune," on the pattern 
then widely spreading over the continent, was, as he puts it, "transplanted bodily " to 
London early in the reign of Bichard I. Not only did this commune involve the 
erection of the office of mayor, but, under it, the Aldermen of the wards had 
nought to do with the civic organization. It was, in short, wholly unconnected with 
the ancient, and then generally prevailing system of corporate government in 
England. The documentary evidence which Mr. Round has brought together, 
and on which he relies for the assertions he makes, appears, on the whole, 
satisfactory, and it is indeed worthy of the closest study. 

The new form of government, the commune, which, some few years before* the 
close of the twelfth century, London received appears to have been modelled on that 
then enjoyed by the capital of Normandy the city of Rouen. Besides the new 
officials the mayor and " skivini," the "commune" of London was composed of 



88 REVIEWS. 

" alii probi homines." Mr. Bound considers these may be identified with the 
4 ' twenty -four " mentioned in another London document, he has discovered, dated 
in 1205-6, and with the " vingt quartre " of the commune of Rouen, an annually 
elected body which acted as the mayor's council. "It will naturally be asked," 
writes Mr. Bound, " what became of these twenty-four, the mayor's council in the 
reign of John. Mr. Loftie .... held that they became identified wi'h the 
aldermen. My own view is that, on the contrary, they were the germ of the 
common council." 

One thing Mr. Round's scholarly work certainly brings before us : it is that the 
last word as to the origin and development of the corporation has not be n said ; and 
it cannot be 8aid till all the Corporation's owu muniments are calendared, and the 
calandars to them made available to independent historical students Valuable and 
important as are the references to the London's government in the Public Records, 
the evidence in the Corporation's own documents is doubtless far more important. 

Report by the Historical Manuscripts' Commission on the Manuscripts of the Duke of 
Buccleuch. Edited by R. E. G. Kirk. (Eyre & Spottiswoode). 

In the report which Mr. Kirk has made to the Historical MSS. Commission on 
the papers at Montagu House, Whitehall, there is a large amount of matter 
illustrative of the London Theatre. 

There was, in 1722, some connection what is not clear between the Duke 
of Montagu and the "new" theatre in the Haymarket ; and at the outset of 
the year mentioned Aaron Hill, a theatrical manager, writes to his Grace that 
he is in difficulty in regard to the house. The writer, with Colonel Horsey 
and "some other gentlemen," was about to open the theatre for the 
performance of " English Tragedy," and they had provided for their 
venture " new scenes, clothes, and all proper provisions." Hill had agreed to 
pay 540?. for the house, for two seasons. Subsequently to this the agent for the 
theatre had been approached by " the French actors," who desired to take it. Hill 
offered no objection, but stipulated that they should act there only for ten night.s, 
and " make all those nights within the month of November." 

But the foreigners had come at the time of writing instead of during the 
previous Autumn, and had then already exceeded their " ten nights." Hill's 
company was ready to begin, and had warned the Frenchmen they could no longer 
have the " new " theatre, telling them that doubtless they could get permission to 
act " at the Opera House " two or three times a week, if they desired so to do ; and 
reminding them that "if the rent must be greater, the House will hold more 
company in proportion." In this dilemma Montagu was appealed to, and he 
appears to have decided in favour of the French players, but Hill earnestly 
entreated him to reflect on his action in refusing him admission to the house ' * after 
a very great expense of money and time for making and painting entire new sets of 
scenes and clothes, all which are now ready, as also in getting together an entire 
new company of actors fit for tragedy, most of whom, as well the men as the 
women, are persons of some character and distinction, and at least a better company 
than either of the old ones." Hill was ready to open. Let the French players, he 
suggests, agree for the Opera House, and if the rent be too heavy he will pay part 
of it ; or, rather than disoblige "his grace," he will be content to play two days a 
week in Lent, and " they [the French] the other two " ; or three days a week out 
of Lent, and "they the other three." There is one more letter on the subject 
of this theatrical dispute; it is from Hill. Montagu has informed him of facts that 
astonished him, and he wishes he had been told of them before the Duke had taken 
those measures which had "made such noise in the town." He will now try, in 
accordance with his Grace's hint, what he can do as to the Opera House for his own 
company, "though their voices will be no small sufferers by the exchange." His 
new scenery will, however, certainly not fit the stage, " being made for your 
Grace's house," after a new model " perfectly out of the general road of scenery." 

There is, in the report under notice, much of interest concerning persons, places 
and matters in London, besides the theatrical dispute which has been here selected 
for comment ; and we should advise our readers to give the report a careful perusal. 



EPSOM WELLS AND EPSOM DOWNS. 
13 Y GEORGE CLINCH, F.G.S. 

TS1HE quiet and eminently respectable town of Epsom 
JL presents an appearance of peacefulness and sleepiness 
which few would be inclined to associate with a highly 
fashionable inland watering-place. Yet, although the fact has 
become almost forgotten, Epsom was for a period the most 
celebrated resort of some of the best English society. Its 
fame, during its palmy days, was comparable only to that of 
Tunbridge Wells or Bath. The former was its predecessor as 
a fashionable spa; the latter succeeded it. 

The commodious and substantial red-brick houses, of which 
several excellent examples are to be found in Epsom, are clear 
indications of that period of prosperity when wealth and 
fashion flocked to the neighbourhood in such numbers as to 
over-flow the accommodation afforded by the hotels and 
lodging-houses of the time, and necessitate new buildings on a 
somewhat extensive scale. It is quite clear, in fact, that 
Epsom owes much of its growth and importance to the 
medicinal springs which were discovered there nearly three 
hun&red years ago ; yet it is not a little remarkable to find how 
completely Epsom Wells and all the associations which 
gathered around them have become forgotten. So entirely has 
the ancient glory departed from the mineral springs, and so 
faint has their memory become, that few of the residents seem 
to be able to give any very definite particulars of them, or to 
say where they are situated, or even whether they still exist. 

In the following brief sketch an attempt will be made 
to present a picture of the rise, growth, and decline of Epsom 
Wells and some of the amusements and recreations which 
were associated with them. It is also proposed to give a few 
particulars of the origin of that celebrated institution so 
popularly associated with Epsom "The Derby." 

The mineral springs at Epsom are situated near the highest 
point of Epsom Common, at a distance of about a mile west 

G 



go EPSOM WELLS AND EPSOM DOWNS. 

of the town. Their waters, which are charged with sulphate 
of magnesia, are derived from the bed of London clay of which 
Epsom Common is composed. The presence of this tenacious 
and impervious bed is indicated pretty clearly by the large 
number of small pools and puddles on the surface of the 
Common, particularly after rain. 

The date when the medicinal properties of these springs 
were first discovered, and the circumstances under which that 
discovery was made, are both somewhat doubtful points. 
According to one account their valuable properties were first 
detected during the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 
In this case, however, the water seems to have been that of a 
pond on the common, and it would appear that it was only 
applied externally for such disorders as ulcers. Upon this 
discovery being made known some physicians visited the place, 
and found the water contained a bitter purging salt, which, in 
the chemical language of the time, they pronounced " calcareous 
nitre." 

Local tradition, however, asserted that the Epsom Wells 
were found in 1618 by one Henry Wicker, who, during a dry 
summer, accidentally came across a small hole filled with 
water. This he enlarged so as to form a pond for watering his 
cattle, but it then appeared that in consequence of the bitterness 
of the water the cattle would not drink of it, and thus its 
mineral character was detected. 

The fame of the waters soon grew, and so many strangers 
visited Epsom, that in 1621 the owner of the spring enclosed it 
with a wall and built a kind of shed for the convenience of the 
sick persons who were taking the waters. By the year 1640 the 
reputation of the Epsom Wells had extended to foreign 
countries, and as a consequence persons of distinction from 
France, Germany, and other parts of Europe visited this little 
Surrey village. 

After the Restoration, Epsom became more famous than 
ever. A regular system of daily coaches was established in 
order to convey visitors from and to London. By the year 
1690 the proprietor of Epsom Wells found it necessary to 
extend the accommodation for his visitors. He built a ball-room 
seventy feet in length, as well as other necessary apartments; 




The Old Epsom Well. 




O 
O 

C/3 

O, 

w 



EPSOM WELLS AND EPSOM DOWNS. 91 

and a long walk, leading from the London road through 
Epsom, was laid out and planted with elm trees. 

The increasing number of visitors who came to Epsom for 
the purposes of health or recreation produced a marked effect 
upon the character of the place ; new inns and lodging-houses 
were erected, and one tavern especially, known as The New Inn, 
and kept by Mrs. Wright, was reputed to be the largest in 
England. 

In the streets and on the Common were to be seen numerous 
vehicles, including sedan chairs and hackney coaches, numbered 
in accordance with the custom of the metropolis. The amuse- 
ments provided for the patients and visitors comprised public 
breakfasts, dancing and music every morning ; horse-racing on 
the downs daily at noon ; cudgel-playing, wrestling and foot 
racing in the afternoon ; and assemblies and card parties in the 
evening. A vivid picture of fashionable life at Epsom Wells 
has been depicted by Sir Walter Besant in one of his well- 
known romances. 

During the reign of Queen Anne, Prince George of 
Denmark was an occasional visitor at Epsom, and there can be 
no doubt that his presence assisted very largely to attract 
many members of the nobility and gentry. John Toland, who 
about this time wrote an account of Epsom Wells and the 
amusements and recreations associated therewith, states that 
he had counted as many as sixty coaches in the ring on Sunday 
evenings, he also mentions that one of the elegant amusements 
of the place popular among the visitors was that of trying to 
catch a pig by the tail. 

Among the various characters attracted to Epsom Wells 
was Sarah Mapp, a celebrated bone-setter, or " shape-mistress." 
Mrs. Mapp is said to have been the daughter of one Wallin, a 
bone-setter, of Hindon, in Wiltshire, and sister of Lavinia 
Fenton, the well-known Polly Peachum, who was married to the 
third Duke of Bolton. The latter statement, however, is 
clearly inaccurate. Mrs. Mapp affected insanity, and was 
popularly known as " Crazy Sally." After strolling about 
the country for a time she at length settled at Epsom, 
where she attracted considerable attention by reason of 
her professional skill as well as her eccentric manner. 



9 2 EPSOM WELLS AND EPSOM DOWNS. 

In fact, she acquired such notoriety, and was so skilful in 
setting bones that it is said the town offered her one hundred 
guineas to remain at Epsom for a year; and it is also 
stated that so great was her skill, and so numerous were 
her patients, that she sometimes obtained as much as twenty 
guineas a day by her practice. Her fame was by no means 
confined to Epsom. She was well-known in London ; and 
Hogarth introduced her into his picture of "The Undertaker's 
Arms ; or Consultation of Physicians." 

An old ballad written before 1736 has the following lines 
about the spa at Epsom : 

" To fashion our healths, as our figures, we owe ; 
And while 'twas the fashion to Tunbridge to go, 
Its waters ne'er fail'd us, let ail us what wou'd ; 
It cemented crack'd bones, and it sweeten'd the blood. 
When Fashion resolv'd to raise Epsom to fame, 
Poor Tunbridge did nought ; but the blind and the lame, 
Or the sick, or the healthy, 'twas equally one, 
By Epsom's assistance their business was done." 

The first indication of declining popularity is found in the 
year 1706, when an apothecary named Levinstone, who was 
living at Epsom, conceived the idea of . setting up a rival 
establishment in opposition to the original wells. For a brief 
season he succeeded in attracting customers. He gave it out 
that the waters of the New Wells, as the place was called, 
were of equal mineral value to that of the original spring. 
This was soon found to be false, and when the trick was 
discovered, both the old wells and the new were brought into 
disrepute. 

Before the year 1720 the fashion of visiting Epsom for the 
sake of its mineral springs was rapidly on the decline, if it had 
not indeed become a thing of the past. The town was visited 
by the influential and wealthy classes no longer. During the 
excitement occasioned by the South Sea Scheme it would 
appear that Epsom enjoyed a brief period of popularity, but 
the revival, like others which followed, was only transitory. 
By the beginning of the present century Epsom Wells were so 
utterly neglected that in 1804 the buildings were pulled down, 
and the ground was purchased or leased by a Mr. Kitchener, 
who built a small house close by for his residence. 



k/>jp*L 




EPSOM WELLS AND EPSOM DOWNS. 93 

The old well and the wall enclosing it were suffered to 
remain, and the well still exists. The engraving of the Old 
Wells, Epsom, here reproduced, gives an idea of the 
appearance of the place early in the present century. 

The medicinal properties of the waters of Epsom Wells 
were formerly so highly valued that the salts were extracted 
from them and sold at the rate of five shillings an ounce. 
This substance, commonly called " Epsom Salts," was in 
great favour with the public, and the demand for it greatly 
exceeded the supply. Even the work of extracting these salts 
is no longer carried on at Epsom, the medicine now known as 
Epsom Salts being prepared at Middlesborough, in Yorkshire. 

Allen's view of Epsom here reproduced gives a good picture 
of Epsom as it existed early in the present century. The fine 
red-brick house on the right-hand side, now known as Waterloo 
House, still exists in good preservation, a noble example of 
early i8th century architecture. 

At the present time Epsom is unquestionably known most 
widely for its races, and especially for what has been termed 
" the turfs most-coveted prize " The Derby. This race, as 
all the world knows, takes place on Epsom Downs, and is 
attended by enormous crowds of spectators. The scene on 
" Derby Day " has been so frequently and so graphically 
depicted by writers and painters, that it would be superfluous 
for the present writer to attempt any account of it. A word or 
two as to the origin of the race, however, may be given. 

The race-course at Epsom is said to have been formed by 
James I., whilst he was living at Nonsuch Palace. The place 
is so admirably adapted by nature for the purposes of a race- 
course that it is probable little preparation of the ground 
was required. During the reign of Charles I. races took place 
at intervals, if not regularly, and by the year 1730 annual race- 
meetings were held. " The Oaks " was instituted in 1779, and 
;< The Derby " in 1780. Although racing was commenced at 
Epsom as early as the time of James I., there can be no 
question that the period of popular racing there began with, 
and indeed owed its origin to the fashionable company at the 
Wells. Horse-racing on the Downs is described as a regular 
part of the daily programme of the amusements of the visitors 
to the Wells. 



94 QUARTERLY NOTES. 

The Derby has taken a very strong hold upon popular fancy, 
and subscription pools, or " Derby Sweeps " as they are 
usually called, have existed in connection with it for a 
great number of years. One writer upon the subject states 
that during the last forty or fifty years there has been scarcely 
a town in the United Kingdom in which a Derby Sweepstake 
has not been regularly organized. In some of the larger towns 
pools of from forty to t\vo hundred are made every year, the 
subscription ranging from six-pence to two pounds, and the 
principal prize being sometimes as much as five hundred 
pounds. 

One of the peculiar features of a " Derby Sweepstake " is 
that many people take part in this kind of hazard whose sense 
of moral propriety would be greatly shocked by any other form 
of participation in horse-racing. 

The accompanying illustrations reproduced from old prints 
in the British Museum, and including " The Derby Sweep- 
stakes, 1792, by Sartorius," " Pollard's view of the Races, 
early in the present century," " Allom's view, 1842, showing 
the grand stand and the booths," and " Kemp's Plan and 
Survey of Epsom Race Course, including the rise and falls, 
1823." 

In conclusion, the writer desires to express his thanks to 
Professor J. L. Lobley, F.G.S., who has most courteously 
placed at his disposal some valuable MS. notes on Epsom. 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 

The fewness of the Quarterly Notes on this occasion is not 
due to absence of material on which to comment there is 
abundance of that but to the large amount of other material 
that needed to appear in the present issue. 

On the surmise that nobody to-day will look at anything 
that has not a war-like tone, let us commence by reminding the 
ladies of the Home Counties that their laudable desire to 
provide comforts for our soldiers in battle, and after it, is, perhaps, 
inherited; their grandmothers, or great-grandmothers, at the 
close of the last century, both in England, and on such parts 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 95 

of the continent as possessed settlements of English people did 
the like during the war that then ravaged a great part of 
Europe. 

Lord Ailesbury's son writing, in the winter of 1798, from 
Naples where Sir William, and the beautiful Lady Hamilton 
led English society speaks of a ''waistcoat club" such as 
was established in England, set going in Naples by Lady 
Spencer. " The ladies," continues the writer, " are employed 
every evening, in a most excellent way, which is in making 
flannel waistcoats for the English now at Toulon ; it is really 
charming to see how industrious they are. I am sure 300 must 
be made by this time." 

Just one more War Note. It will be interesting to remind 
our readers that Mr. Walter Money, F.S.A., a gentleman whose 
name is well-known in connection with Berkshire antiquities and 
topography, points out that Chieveley in South Africa is called 
after a village of similar name in England, not far from 
Newbury, and that it was settled by Berkshire emigrants. The 
Berkshire Chieveley also possesses war-like associations ; it was 
the scene of some hard fighting during the great Civil War. 

Now let us turn to matters falling more directly within our 
observation. Several of the different local societies, scientific, 
archaeological, or topographical, have issued their reports since 
the last number of this magazine went to press. We wish we 
had space to refer to all, for each, in its way, seems to be doing 
its best, and that best is good. In Hampstead has been formed 
a new society for the promotion of scientific study, with 
Mr. Edward Bond, M.P., as president, and Mr. Basil Martin, 
Elm Lodge, Elm Row, Hampstead, as secretary, and it 
bids fair to become as popular in that delightful suburb as is 
the Hampstead Antiquarian Society. 

The Surrey Archaeological Society, now at home in its new 
and appropriate head-quarters, at the Castle Arch, Guildford, 
has issued its 45th annual report. We thoroughly sympathize 
with the Society in its loss of so able a secretary as the Rev. 
T. S. Cooper, but we do not fancy that an archaeological body, 



g6 QUARTERLY NOTES. 

whose secretarial duties will be discharged by Mr. Montagu 
Guiseppi, F.S.A., has much to fear. We notice that the 
Society's museum has been enriched with many highly 
appropriate gifts, amongst them some local Court Rolls. 

This is as it should be. No class of local documents is 
more liable to destruction in these days of general enfranchise- 
ment than the records of manorial courts ; and no class is 
richer in matter of topographical value or material for social 
history, and it is sad to think of the fate that has already 
overtaken masses of these documents, and that probably awaits 
the majority of the remainder. 

Over and over again we have urged, in these pages, the 
necessity for taking some action in regard to the preservation, 
not only of court rolls, but of local records generally, and it 
is satisfactory to notice that Government has so far moved in 
the matter as to appoint a committee, consisting of the Bishop 
of London, Mr. Bryce, Sir Francis Mowatt, Sir H. Maxwell 
Lyte, Sir C. P. Ilbert, and Mr. S. E. Spring Rice, to consider 
what can be done to ensure the safe custody of local public 
records. The question we know is difficult and delicate, but it 
can only be dealt with by accepting the doctrine, as a basis 
for operations, that all local public records that is records in 
any way affecting the public are under the purview of the 
Master of the Rolls. Inspectors appointed by him must see 
that local bodies take due care of their documents; and if they 
do not, provision must be made for all those not actually 
required for the discharge of business, in central County record 
repositories. 

Though Croydon is not rich in buildings of architectural 
interest, it seems to set little value on the few it possesses. 
Whitgift's Hospital, which stands in the centre of the town, is 
now threatened with demolition, though it seems that the 
increased accommodation for traffic which, doubtless, is 
demanded by the circumstances of the case could be provided 
by a connecting road at the back of the hospital between North 
End and George Street. This would effectually relieve any 
congestion in the traffic, and would really add to the appearance 
of the hospital by isolating it. 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 97 

From this threatened vandalism it is pleasant to turn to an 
instance of a desire to complete a work of preservation. Many 
of our readers will remember the Abbey Gateway at Reading 
as a happy example of Sir Gilbert Scott's power of restoration, 
and those who do so will now be gratified to learn that Dr. 
J. B. Hurry, of Reading, is about to complete the scheme of 
restoration by having heads carved upon certain blocks of 
stone, and some of the columns foliated. This carving was 
left undone at the time of the restoration, some 40 years ago, 
from want of funds. No portion of the ancient work is to be 
touched. 

We have no space on this occasion to refer to the rapid 
demolition of old London that has been going on during the 
last month or so, more especially along the line of the new 
street from Holborn to the Strand ; but we must not pass 
unmentioned an excellent (save that it was too short) article in 
the Pall Mall Gazette of February loth, which tells us what has 
become of some demolished objects of interest that once stood 
in London. Portions of old London Bridge may be seen in 
Victoria Park and in the grounds of Guy's ; the lion on 
Northumberland House keeps guard at Sion House; Temple Bar 
is in Theobalds ; the giants from St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, 
ornament the gardens of St. Dunstan's Lodge, Regent's Park. 
But not all vanished landmarks of London that have been 
preserved, are within easy visiting distance of enquiring 
Londoners; some have travelled as far a-field as Northum- 
berland. 

A word in conclusion on Romney's portrait of William 
Cowper, a reproduction of which (from a photograph by 
Messrs. Walker and Boutall), formed the frontispiece of our 
last issue. As, thanks to Mr. Robert's letter in the Athenczum, 
the authenticity of the original has been the subject of some 
comment, it may be well to draw special attention to the 
remarks of Mr. Thomas Wright (post, p. 156), who gives a 
useful hint as to testing the genuineness of the picture as a 
portrait of Cowper. 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 
BY REV. W. K. R. BEDFORD, 

No. 2. KENT. 

THAT Kent should be a prominent county in supporting the 
revival of the practice of archery is not at all surprising, 
remembering the traditions associated with its freedom in 
Norman times, its motto "Invicta," and its device of the armed 
hand issuing from an oaken thicket (see Hollinshed's Chronicle). 
Neither do we wonder that this patriotic county should have 
discarded its ardour for the bow in favour of those modern 
arms of precision which had supplanted the weapons of 
chivalric ages, at a time when every Briton's spirit was aroused 
to meet the threatened invader ; but in the period between 
1785 and 1802, one society in particular maintained socially 
and "sportsmanly" the pretensions of the "unconquered" county 
in the pastime of archery. This was the association entitled 
the Royal Kentish Bowmen, which met originally in 1785-6 at 
Dartforth Heath, on the invitation of Mr. John Edward 
Madocks, of Vron Iw, co. Denbigh, who, however, resided 
about that period chiefly at Mount Mascal, co. Kent. 

The society appears to have, in its inception, been limited to 
a party of friends, eleven in number; but Mr. Madocks was a 
well-known and popular individual, and soon the numbers were 
so considerably enlarged that the accommodation provided for 
the archers had to extend its limits also, and from a small 
cottage where the targets were kept when not required 
for practice upon the adjacent common expanded into 
a well-kept ornamental lawn with buildings of considerable 
dimensions, not only for convivial meals, but for musical 
parties, dances, and other entertainments more attractive to the 
ladies. The founder himself was an accomplished musician, 
and the best talent, professional as well as amateur, was 
enlisted for the concerts given by the society. 

The reputation of "The Kentish Bowmen" as a fashionable 
gathering derived much additional eclat when George, Prince of 
Wales, then in the heyday of his " Florizel " reputation, 
vouchsafed them his patronage, presented them with prizes, 




George, Prince of Wales, as a Kentish Bowman, 
By Bartolozzi. 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 99 

generally small silver bugles of elegant design, and on one 
occasion at least, in 1789, personally presided at a meeting 
held on August I2th, His Royal Highness' birthday, when the 
Prince's prize, a bugle, was won by Mr. Madocks, though the 
Rev. James Dodd, in his dedication of a little book hereafter 
to be referred to, Ballads of Archery, "to the illustrious Patron 
of the R.K.B. while embodied," expresses his gratification that 
the Prince Regent, in 1818, should have recognized the writer 
as one, who upon that occasion " triumphantly enjoyed the 
honours of the day." 

It was, no doubt, in remembrance of this Royal visit that 
the full length portrait of Prince George in archery costume 
was painted by J. Russell, R.A., an engraving from which, 
by Bartolozzi, is one of the finest of that distinguished 
engraver's works. Along with the title of Royal, the 
society distinguished themselves by the establishment of 
standards to be carried on target days, one of which was 
presented by the Hon. H. Fitzroy (third son of the first Lord 
Southampton), the other by George Grote, Esq. For the due 
care and display of these " most sacred and honourable " 
colours, provision was made in the rules, which, printed in 
a little thumbnail volume prettily bound in green leather w r ith 
the society's device in gold, are still occasionally to be met 
with. In addition to the regulations for the meetings, the book 
contains a list of members interesting as recording names of 
past and present Kentish families, for it was stipulated that the 
number of ex-county members be limited to thirty-six, other 
candidates being required to be Kentish freeholders or 
leaseholders and their sons, or persons entitled to a freehold of 
ao/. per annum in the county, either in reversion or remainder, 
or holding a house under government in the county of Kent. 

Under such elegant patronage there is every reason to 
believe that the Kentish Archers became great dandies. At 
the first general meeting of the Archery Societies of Britain, 
held in 1789, the London Chronicle mentions that while the 
archers generally wore uniform, green coats, buff or white 
waistcoats, and breeches, Sir Sampson Gideon (afterwards 
Lord Eardley), Mr. Fitzroy and others (Kentish men), wore 
the Prince's button and a black cape. At this Blackheath 



loo ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

meeting the principal prize (in those days obtained by the 
most central shot) did not fall to the lot of the R.K.B. Society, 
and at the second meeting in 1790 it was gained by a 
representative of a rival club, the Kentish Rangers. It was not 
indeed until 1793 that the R.K.B. obtained the coveted honour 
by a central Gold, gained by Dr. Leith, on a measure with 
Dr. Jarvis, of Hornsey. This incident so impressed a 
rhymester of the period (who signed himself Laureate to the 
Royal Kentish Bowmen) that he plunged into verse : the 
effusion afterwards being printed with the title of the Bowman's 

prize. 

Survey the gay heath, what bright beauties appear, 

And hark to the musical horn ; 
The Archers are coming, behold, they are here 

As brilliant as Phoebus at morn. 
Near Surrey advance the bows of St. George, 

Old Hornsey her Woodmen has sent, 
And next Chevy-Chase boys, see Aylesford' s kind Lord 

Lead up the bold Bowmen of Kent. 

Hark, the signal is given, to targets they run, 

E'en swift as the arrow that flies; 
Their bows are all bent and the pastime begun 

A bugle of gold is the prize. 
The Woodman of Arden, how graceful he draws, 

For the goal sure his arrow is vent ; 
Hark, hark, from above what a burst of applause, 

'Tis hit by a bowman of Kent. 

Now Sol quits the field for his Thetis' s bed, 

When Leith his unerring bow bent; 
The shaft seemed exulting to cry as it fled, 

I win for the Bowmen of Kent. 
The signal is given ; to dinner each flies, 

Where Willis gives hunger content; 
Where the good Duke of Leeds presented the prize 

To Leith, the bold Bowman of Kent. 

The Earl of Aylesford, founder of the Woodmen of Arden, 
may on this occasion have ranked himself with the Kentish 
archers, with whom he was connected both by title and 
residence at the Friars, Aylesford, but the Earl of Morton, 
a Scottish Peer, was never a member of the Arden Society, 
though a note to the ballad says that he " led them " at this 
meeting. It is probable as the Royal Company of Scottish 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 101 

Archers, to which Lord Morton belonged, had no target 
of their own in this match, that he shot as an affiliated 
member with the associate society of the Forest of Arden. 
We find his name as shooting with the Edinburgh Archers at 
Blackheath in 1790, and he was president of a general meeting 
of Archers, held on Dulwich Common in 1794. 

Although the verses j ust quoted were printed anonymously, 
there is no doubt as to who was the real laureate of the Kentish 
bowmen, whether author of these lines or no. In the days of 
Garrick, an actor of more than respectable rank, named Dodd, 
played at the London theatres, and throve. This gentleman's 
son went from Westminster School to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1779, and was appointed by his College to the 
Vicarage of Swineshead in 1800, but did not reside either there, 
or at another benefice, to which he was afterwards appointed, 
continuing for 34 years (1784-1818) usher of Westminster 
School. What his classical attainments were we know not, 
but he had evidently some taste, and a natural knack at 
versification, while he was of that easy going, good humoured 
disposition, made familiar to us in the clerical portraits of 
Miss Austin and of George Eliot. Here is a stave from one 
of his ditties, which discloses the side of archery he found so 

attractive. 

A Bowman's life's the life to court, 

There's nought can charm so dearly ; 
As roving, butting, all in sport, 

To the sound of the bugle cheerly. 

Away he wends His bow he bends, 

His shafts will seldom fail 
Full thirteen score, and something more, 

To steadily hold their flight. 

Anon, at the butt, with a delicate art, 
He pops them into the white. 

And then to hear them whack 

And the gazers cry good lack ! 
Well, he does it with such a knack. 

Then he laughs a little And quaffs a little, 
And sings a little And shoots a little, 
And riddles a little And foots it a little, 
And sings himself home in a crack. 



102 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

These and such like jovial rhymes, with ballads commemor- 
ative of Robin Hood and various historical notes, made up a 
nicely printed volume of 175 pages which, with thirty-three 
plates of music to the songs, was printed by Woodfall in 1818, 
with a dedication to the Prince Regent, and a quotation from 
Roger Ascham, whom the author calls his predecessor in 
bowmanry and scholastic drudgery. "Both merie songes and 
good schootinge delighteth Apollo." 

The volume is also embellished by some very pretty wood 
cuts, designed by Sir Edmund Hungerford Lechmere (second 
Bart.) when a boy at Westminster School. Lord William 
Lennox gives a sketch of the author at this period, when 
resident master at the boarding-house in Great Dean's Yard 
known as " Mother Packs." He had on a suit of sables, coat, 
waistcoat, and continuations of black cloth, jet knee and shoe 
buckles, black silk stockings, white neck-cloth and shirt frill, 
powdered head and a pig-tail. He gave young Lennox, who 
had come to school, a glass of port- wine as he was just about 
himself to sit down to a roast fowl and a bottle, and dismissed 
him to supper. In spite, however, of the air of comfort which 
this description carries with it, it is probable that poor Dodd's 
circumstances were at this period somewhat reduced, and like 
many another bon vivant, his latter days were saddened by the 
memory of joys departed never to return. He died in the 
same year, 1818, aged 57, and a tablet to his memory is affixed 
to the eastern wall of the great cloister of Westminster Abbey. 




THE CHARITIES OF HERTFORDSHIRE. 

BY THE EDITOR. 
(Continued from p. 77). 

St. Albans, Redbourn, Harpenden, and Chipping Barnet. 
It was found by an Inquisition taken in Lincoln's Inn Hall on 
I4th July, 1647, that Richard Sampson, late Bishop of 
Chichester, in 33 Henry VIII. [A.D. 1541-2] made a lease of 
divers messuages, lands and tenements in or near Chancery 
Lane, to the then Master and Wardens of the Guild of our 
Lady and St. Dunstan in the West, London, from Michaelmas, 
1549, for 99 years, rendering to the said Bishop and his 
successors the yearly rent of 535. 4^. And that the interest in 
this lease afterwards came to Sir Richard Read, knight, late of 
Redbourn, in Hertfordshire, deceased, who, by his last will 
dated 7 March, 1559, bequeathed all the revenue and rent of 
the aforesaid lease, during the continuance thereof, to the 
following charitable uses : to twenty of the poorest inhabitants 
of St. Albans, Herts, towards their relief weekly, 20 groates, 
to every of them a groat a week ; to twelve of the poorest of 
Redbourn, in the same county, 12 groats a week ; to twenty 
of the poorest of Harpenden, within the same county, 35. 4^. 
a week; to eight of the poorest of Hadley, near Barnet, in the 
county of Middlesex, i6d. a week ; to twelve of the poorest of the 
town of Chipping Barnet, Herts, zd. a week; and to twenty 
of the poorest within the town of Okeingham (sic), Berks, 
35. 4^. a week ; and he further bequeathed 30^. out of the rents 
of the aforesaid lease during the continuance thereof to the 
several towns aforesaid for the binding forth of ten apprentices 
yearly out of the aforesaid towns. And that these sums thus 
given by the said will to the charitable uses aforesaid, amounted 
to 83/. 14$. Sd. per annum. And that the said Sir Richard 
Reade further bequeathed the residue of all the revenues of his 
said tenements, "surmounting" the former sums appointed 
as aforesaid, to be yearly bestowed, "so far as it will go 
during the term thereof, towards the help and guarding of such 
diseased people as lie by the highway side, infected with some 
great disease or grief, and to the poor people of the places 
aforesaid." And that his executors in his said will named 
should have the letting and setting of all his said tenements 
appointed to charitable uses as aforesaid during all the said 
term, and should make as much yearly rent thereof as they 
could to the end that there might be the more bestowed on the 
said last named charitable use. 

The Inquisition went on to find the several tenements and 
houses subject and liable to the said charitable uses given and 



104 CHARITIES OF HERTFORDSHIRE. 

mentioned in the last will and testament of the said Sir Richard 
Read, according to the old rents as they were long since 
generally let, either by the said Sir Richard Read in his life 
time, or by his executors since his death, amounting to the 
yearly sum of 8g/. 75. 4^. 

After the death of the said Sir Richard Read, his executors 
assigned over the remainder of the said term of 99 years then 
to come of and in the aforesaid several messuages or tenements, 
subject to the aforesaid conditions, to Maurice Evans, who by 
his last will, dated 12 April, 1618, devised all the right and term 
that he had then to come in the said lease, to Edward Kellett, 
who by deed dated 25 September, 1634, granted and assigned 
over all his right and interest in and to the aforesaid messuages 
and tenements to Humfray Rogers, who by deed dated 13 
February, 1638, assigned over all his right and term in the 
premises to Thomas Waye, gent., who by indenture dated 
, 1643, for the sum of I2O/., granted and assigned 
over all his right and term in the aforesaid houses to Leonard 
Stockdale, who accordingly entered thereupon, and thereof was 
possessed and interested, and the rents and profits thereof took 
to his own use, but never satisfied or paid any of the charitable 
uses aforesaid, so that the poor people of the several towns 
aforesaid have been unpaid the said several charitable uses in 
the said will given and bequeathed for these six years ending 
Lady Day last, 1647, which arrears amounted to 5O2/. 8s. 

It was therefore ordered on 22 September, 1647, by the said 
Commissioners, that the said Thomas Waye should pay to 
William Goshawke and Nicholas Hay ward, for the uses 
aforesaid, the said sum of 245/. 155. 2d., and the said Leonard 
Stockdale, 29O/. 8s. lod. ; and that the said William Goshawke 
and Nicholas Hayward, should from thenceforth have the 
setting, receiving and disposing of all and every the tenements 
and rents in the said inquisition specified, subject and liable to 
the charitable uses aforesaid, for and during all the residue of 
the said term of 99 years therein yet to come and unprovided 
for, and towards the satisfying and paying of the said charitable 
uses according to the true intent and meaning of the said will. 
" They being men approved of, for the trust aforesaid, by several 
persons of some of the said towns interested for the charitable 
uses aforesaid, who attended us at the taking of the said 
inquiry." All arrears of rents were also to be paid to the said 
William and Nicholas ; and the said Thomas Waye and Leonard 
Stockdale, "who have misimployed the charitable uses afore- 
said," were to pay to them for their charges in suing out this 
commission, I5/. which appeared to us to have been expended 
in the prosecution of the same." (Petty Bag Charity Inquisition. 
Bundle 19, No. 26). 



THE READES IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 

BY A. C. BICKLEY. 

THE Reade family is one that genealogists have long 
considered as being of considerable interest, not so much 
on account of its members having played parts of primary 
importance, as because its records have been carefully kept and 
its connections established with unusual clearness. It certainly 
produced one man who, at the time of the Great Rebellion, 
came near to greatness, but it had to wait till the present 
century (I hold that 3ist December, 1900, is the end of the 
century), before giving to the world a man of the first rank 
which it undoubtedly did in Charles Reade the novelist. 
General Meredith Reade, the late U.S. Ambassador to Greece, 
reflects credit on the family ; and the Rev. Compton Reade, 
the present rector of Kenchester, deserves a niche in the 
temple of Fame, if only because of his having compiled at the 
cost of much labour " a Record of the Reades," from which 
recently published erudite work nearly everything that appears 
in the present article has been borrowed or stolen, according 
to the way one looks at it. 

Like that of Jeames de la Pluche, the origin of the Reade 
family, is " wropped in mystery." Mr. Compton Reade does 
no more than suggest that it may have been an off-shoot of the 
Redes of Northumberland, a family of Royal origin. This at 
best is a conjecture, and one to which the arms borne by the 
respective families lends no colour. 

It is quite clear that there was a family of Redes settled 
in Reading, of which town one member, William Rede, was 
mayor no less than seven times, between 1452 and 1469, and 
which borough he represented in four parliaments; from this 
family the Redes of Abingdon, or rather of Barton Court, 
appear to have descended. 

Thomas Rede acquired the manor of Barton with the 
ancient palace of the Abbots of Abingdon from Sir Richard Lee, 
knight, in 1550. This gentleman died in 1556, and was buried 

H 



io6 THE READES IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 

in the Rede aisle, St. Helen's Church, Abingdon, leaving issue 
by his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Hoo, of Paul's Walden, 
Herts. 

He was succeeded by his only son Thomas, who seems to 
have got up in the world, for he altered the spelling of his 
name in approved modern fashion to Reade, and in 1597 
procured a grant of arms, viz., gules, a saltire between four 
garbes, or. By his wife, Mary Stonhouse, he had three sons, 
the eldest, Thomas, marrying Mary, daughter and co-heiress of 
Sir John Brocket, knight, of Brocket Hall, Hatfield. 

This Thomas was a busy and wealthy man. He was lord 
of three manors in Berks, two in Oxfordshire, one in Northants, 
and two in Herts, besides Brocket, which he acquired through 
his marriage. He also held land at Birchall, Herefordshire. 
He served as High Sheriff of Berks in 1606 (gaining the honour 
of a notice in Fuller's Worthies), of Oxfordshire in 1615, and 
of Herts in 1618. James I. knighted him at Royston in 1619. 

He married in March, 1597 or 98. His wife's father, Sir 
John Brocket, must have been a man of some importance, for 
he entertained the great Elizabeth when a princess, and she 
was at his house at Brocket when she was proclaimed Queen 
of England, according to a Cornewall pedigree. 

Although he was summoned at Bovingdon in 1625 for 3O/., 
his share of the forced loan, he seems to have kept on good 
terms with Charles I., for he had the honour of entertaining 
that Monarch and his Queen on three several occasions at 
Barton Court. Barton was sometimes called the King's House 
because the Monarch had a right to claim its hospitality, an 
honour no doubt very great but dreadfully expensive. 

It is rather strange that two of these visits took place after 
Sir Thomas had refused to pay ship money in 1636. The last 
Royal visit was in 1644, when according to Mr. Compton 
Reade, " the King fearing for the safety of Queen Henrietta 
Maria, brought her to Barton, the first stage of her journey to 
Exeter, hence the historic mansion witnessed the final farewell 
of the ill-starred Royal couple." 

A good deal about Sir Thomas Reade may be gathered from 
the newspapers of the time and the calendars of State Papers 
(Domestic Series). He was taken prisoner by the Parlia- 



THE READES IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 107 

mentarians, when some letters of importance were found upon 
him. In 1645 he was taken to London, and thence remanded 
to the committee at St. Albans, who were instructed to 
examine into the whole matter concerning him and to report. 

Apparently he got off very lightly and, indeed, it was 
probably intended that he should or else his third son would 
not have been allowed to sit on the committee. He seems to 
have changed sides for the Journals of the House of Commons, 
record that he was himself made a member of the committee 
for Oxfordshire during the following year. He refused to act 
on this committee in 1650, some three months before his death, 
but whether because he was not satisfied with its proceedings, 
from failing health or some other cause, is not known. 

By his marriage with Mary Brocket, Sir Thomas had no 
less than fourteen children, five sons and nine daughters. 

The Brocket family was also indirectly connected with the 
Reades by the marriage of Nicholas, the younger brother of the 
second Sir John Brocket, and grandfather of the above Mary, 
with a sister of Anne How who married Thomas Rede, of 
Barton, Abingdon. This Sir John lies buried in Wheathamp- 
stead Church ; Wheathampstead Place having been the family 
seat prior to the erection of Brocket Hall. 

Sir Thomas was not lucky in his sons. The eldest, William, 
died unmarried at the age of 24. The second son, Thomas, 
who also pre-deceased him, married when only seventeen, and 
an Oxford student, a daughter of Sir Thomas Cornewall, of 
Burford, who was his senior by more than six years, by whom 
he had nine children. For some reason or other he does not 
seem to have been on good terms with his father, and lived with 
his wife's relations. He was the founder of the Ipsden branch 
of the family, of which more anon. 

The third son, Richard, seems to have disappeared, as does 
the fifth, Geoffrey. Sir Thomas was, therefore, succeeded by 
his son John, who was born in 1617. 

This Sir John was the first member of the family to achieve 
hereditary honours. He was knighted at Newmarket on the 
i2th March, 1642, and four days later created a Baronet. 
Cromwell also made him a Baronet in 1656. Among other 
things that this gentleman did, on which one is inclined to look 
askance, is his changing his shield-of-arms. 



io8 THE READES IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 

In 1646 Sir John, who is described as of Hatfield, Bart., 
was assessed to contribute to the war expenses at 6oo/., but on 
account of his poverty he was let off. He is described as being 
a " right godly man, very active at committee, and, as a J.P., in 
suppressing ale-houses." He received a pardon from Charles 
II. in 1660. 

Susanne, his first wife, was a daughter of Sir Thomas Style, 
of Wateringbury, Kent, by whom he had five sons and four 
daughters. After her death in 1657, he married Alissimon, 
widow of Hon. Francis Pierrepont in 1662. This marriage 
appears to have been one of the profoundest failures on record. 

Mr. Compton Reade, perusing an old printed account, 
tells us that Sir John does not appear to have paid his wife her 
allowance. He complained that she made songs against him. 
" She says they were ' mournful complaints to God taken out 
of the scriptures,' and denies that they were sung about the 
house by servants." 

" She denies that she procured one of His Royal Highness 
guards to threaten Sir John's life." 

"He states that differences began one-and-a-half years after 
marriage. She says that within two months she had to 
withdraw from him (i.e., occasionally) on account of his 
violence, but she stood it for three-and-a-half years, e.g., he 
slept with a loaded pistol under his pillow. Then she had to 
sleep in an " out-room," and when she fell ill he would not 
allow her to be moved to another room with a fire (hers had no 
fire-place). He had disowned her, sent away all her servants, 
and would not let her engage more, threatened she should be 
his slave, etc. He came to her room with a pistol, and the 
servants sat up all night for fear he should murder her. He 
kept a mistress in the house and encouraged her to insult his 
wife. He padlocked her into her room. She has had to get 
up at night for fear of being burnt in her bed. He took away 
all her household stuff and plate, though he accuses her of 
having gone off with it." 

The quarrel got pretty bitter. When he forbade her 
tenants to pay her the rents from her separate estate, and 
denied her admission to " his Herts house," she sued him for 
alimony in the Court of Arches and won her case. Then he 



THE READES IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 109 

appealed to the delegates and lost. The King tried to mediate, 
but Sir John, loyal subject though he professed to be, would 
have naught of the Royal counsel, whereupon the King 
recommended the lady to go to the House of Lords. Sir John 
told his wife, when she begged him to be reconciled to her, 
that "she might as well persuade him to forsake Jesus Christ," 
and further that he should consider himself " damned if he did 
not forsake her," yet he assured the Lords that he never had 
an unworthy thought of her. 

How this pretty quarrel ended Mr. Reade does not tell us, 
but unless in two centuries the people of Hatfield and St. 
Albans have strangely altered they must have enjoyed it very 
much. 

It has been mentioned that by his first wife, Susanne, this 
cheerful member of the aristocracy had nine children, only one 
of whom, Sir James, the second Baronet, left issue. Of the 
deaths of three of them there is no record, and all that can be 
gathered is that it seems probable they quarrelled fiercely with 
their father, who, judging from what we know of him, was an 
interesting study as anyone else's father, but a failure as your 
own. 

Sir James seems to have been a quiet sort of man, about 
whom very little is known except that he was a large holder of 
Bank of England Stock, and that he married Love, daughter 
and co-heir of Robert Bring, citizen and Alderman of London, 
by whom he had one son and five daughters. He died in 1701, 
and was buried in the Reade Chapel at Hatfield. 

To him succeeded his only son John, who died at Rome of 
the small pox, on 22nd February, 1711-12. He was only 21, 
and unmarried, consequently the Baronetcy became extinct. 
Mr Compton Reade tells us that he was converted to Jacobite 
principles by his maternal uncle, Lord Kingsale, and had 
accepted an appointment in the suite of the Pretender. 

His co-heirs were his sisters, the fourth of whom Love, 
received Brocket Hall as part of her portion of the estate. 
In 1719 she married Thomas Winnington, of Stanford Court, 
Worcester, afterwards M.P., and successively holder of a 
number of government appointments, and a member of the 
Privy Council. She bore him one son, who died while a 



no THE READES IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 

baby. She died in 1730, her husband surviving her sixteen 
years. On his death he left Brocket to some relations of his 
own, who sold it to Matthew Lamb, M.P. for Peterborough. 
Thus ended the connection of the Reades with Brocket Hall. 
The house itself was pulled down in 1760. 

The other Hertfordshire estate, Minsden, went to Love's 
elder sister, Dorothea, who married Robert Dashwood, of 
Northbrooke, Oxfordshire, by whom she had issue. 

Although not strictly to do with Hertfordshire, it may be 
interesting to say a few words as to other branches of the 
Reades, I have already mentioned that Thomas, the heir of 
Sir Thomas Reade, married when very young, and greatly to 
his father's displeasure, Mary, second daughter of Sir Thomas 
Cornewall, by whom he had amongst numerous other children, 
Compton, born 1627, who was created a Baronet by Letters 
Patent as an acknowledgement of his great services to the 
Royal cause during the civil war. He married Mary, daughter 
of Sir Gilbert Cornewall, by whom he had a family, and from 
whom the present Sir George Compton Reade, gth baronet, is 
directly descended. 

Edward Reade, the younger brother of Sir Compton Reade, 
was a man who believed in matrimony, for he had four wives, 
by three of whom he had issue. His share of the family 
property was the estate of Ipsden, Oxfordshire, which was 
bequeathed to him by his grandfather, Sir Thomas Reade. 
By his first wife he had a son who died s.p. He seems to have 
been an oddity and quarrelled fiercely with his father, who was 
certainly lacking in desirable points. By his third wife he had 
four children, from the second of which the Ipsden Reades are 
descended. 

John Reade, of Ipsden, who was born in 1775, married in 
1796, Anna Maria, daughter of Major Scott- Waring, M.P., 
Military Secretary to Warren Hastings and his defender in the 
House of Commons. By this marriage John Reade had seven 
sons and four daughters. He was succeeded by his fourth son, 
William Barrington Reade, who was the grandfather of the 
present squire of Ipsden. 

The sixth son, Compton, was the father of the Rev. 
Compton Reade, the present rector of Kenchester, from whose 







From the drawing by Frederick Waddy, in " Cartoon Portraits and Biographical Sketches of 
Men of the Day, " London, Tinsley Brothers, December, 1872. 



KENT ROADS AND RIVERS. in 

admirable " Record of the Reades," the particulars in this 
article have been taken. 

The youngest of John Reade's children was Charles Reade, 
who, by his plays and his novels, would have made any family 
illustrious. Its members may be far prouder of him than of all 
the Royal descents, and they be many, put together. His 
fame as an author has over-shadowed the fact that he was a 
good scholar, and at one time Vice-President of Magdalen, 
but those who desire to know more of his career must be 
referred to " Charles Reade, a memoir, by C. L. and Rev. 
Compton Reade, published in 1887. 



THE ROADS AND RIVERS OF KENT IN 
THE LAST CENTURY. 

COMMUNICATED BY G. B. RASHLEIGH. 

(Continued from p. 71). 

AS all descriptions of countries as well as the maps, must be 
incorrect or difficult to be conceived, I therefore regret I had no 
good draughtsman along with me to have planned out my 
ideas, so that they might at least be understood. Notwithstanding 
as you was (sic) pleased to ask my opinion whether a large body of 
troops might not be impeded and retarded on their march and even 
harrassed by a smaller number than themselves in those parts of 
Kent ? I shall very freely give you my thoughts, although but weak 
ones : 

I shall suppose that ten or fifteen thousand French are to land on 
the south-east part of Kent or Romney Marsh, from whence they 
have but three different ways to penetrate into the country towards 
Chatham and the Medway. 

i st. By Hyth, etc., towards Canterbury. 

2nd. Across the Marsh of Romney and the Weald of Kent by 
Ashford, Maidstone, etc. 

3rd. By Appledore, Tenterden, etc., across the Weald to 
Maidstone, etc. 

ist. In order to prevent and retard their marching by the first 
route, there may be parties in readiness in the neighbourhood with 
proper tools to destroy and render Dimchurch Wall unpassable, and 
the flood gates there may be demolished, by which means all that 
part of the marsh of Romney will be inundated, besides a few 
cannons on the Wall towards Hyth can easily be retired in case of 
superiority. 



H2 KENT ROADS AND RIVERS. 

2nd. If failing in the first they should endeavour to march across 
the marsh from Romney to Ashford. that road across the marsh 
might be made extremely troublesome to them, for as it is only 20 or 
30 feet wide and ditches on each side, a few coupuves across it would 
be a great hindrance. But what might be still a greater difficulty to 
them, would be the getting out of the marsh to the Weald by Hum 
and Bilsington, because parties placed there and taking proper care 
of their retreat might gaul them, and as they retire might leave 
those roads unpassable by cutting down the trees, etc., to block it up, 
and leaving small parties behind the blockades to stop the avant- 
courreures. It would I fancy make any wise enemy move slowly. 

N.B. As this route leads towards Charte Magna and those hills 
that are the northern boundary of the Weald, they might there 
again be harrassed by those parties cantoned in the villages that run 
along those high grounds who, if at any time overpowered by 
numbers, have always a safe and easy retreat to the second ridge of 
hills where they have the same game to play over again. 

3rd. If the enemy should endeavour to pass by the south parts 
of Romney Marsh towards Appledore and Tenterden, the south 
flood gates may there be destroyed and the sea let in, which in a 
spring-tide will lay a great deal of ground under water ; but allowing 
them to get the length of Tenterden, I should be very glad to see 
them attempt to pass the Weald to get at Maidstone, as inevitable 
ruin must attend them. For sure if two troops of the Grays had a 
difficulty to pass it one day last week, and twice as much to repass it 
two days thereafter, I shall think it a miracle if any body of French, 
unless from want of knowledge, attempt the Weald as they can 
neither encamp nor cantoon, or have any provisions but what they 
carry upon their backs, and as the bridge may be broke, and the 
passage up the hills to the villages rendered impracticable, I really, 
with reason, think that they will be so wise as not to attempt this 
route, but fall back into Sussex towards Hastings and Battell. For 
two days ago the whole W^eald from Smarden down to Yalding was 
one continued inundation, so if they attempt any of the two last 
routes they must leave their cannon behind, in which case I flatter 
myself that we will make any parcel of troops equal to their greater 
numbers by the knowledge of the country and the posts we shall 
take. For I take it for granted that they will never dare, or we 
suffer them, either to send out reconnoitring parties, or parties to 
mend the roads. And if so and obliged to march in a body, I can 
no ways figure to myself either how they are to get forward, or 
subsist, as no doubt H.R.H. will take his precaution to prevent 
both. 

To conclude this long letter which I thought it my duty to write, 
I cannot help thinking that bodies of infantry can annoy and harrass 
them from the moment they shall dare to land, and I cannot help 
saying that as far as I have seen of Kent, it is by nature the most 
defensible country I ever saw, and if the French are to come, I wish 
their good advisers may counsel them to Romney Marsh, where 
indeed they may land in smooth water on one or the other side of 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 113 

Dungeness, let the wind blow from any quarter but the south-east. 
But surely their march from that may be made most disagreeable to 
them, although I have not yet reconnoitred the coast of Sussex, nor 
the roads from Hastings towards London with that view, but shall 
do it at any time, with pleasure, when called upon. 

There are several things (now the warlike genius is beginning to 
revive) that probably will be thought of, such as quicker passage for 
the troops from Essex to Kent than by London, as also how to make 
a proper use of Kentish men. But I dare say that has been thought 
of by better heads than ours. However, I must observe that where 
any descent is possible to be made upon us, it is much better we 
know the country before hand than examining it after the enemy 
are in possession. 

I shall be in town two or three days hence to receive forty 
recruit horses, and shall then say more in five minutes than I can 
write in one hour, but I can always say with truth that 

I am, dear Colonel, your most obedient, humble servant, 

Jo. FORBES. 
Ashford, Nov. 23rd. 

P.S. I called upon General Hawley and told him most of what 
I have wrote, which he seemed to relish. 

The villages and bridges along the Weald are marked with an A, 
and the chains of the hills are dotted with red ink on the map. 

Villages along the first ridge of hills Hunton, Linton, Sutton 
Valence, Boughton Malherb, Egerton, Plukely, and Charte Magna. 

Bridges above Maidstone Teston upon the Medway, Yalding, 
Stiles, Horsfield, Hockingbtiry, Stevens, and Smarden. All 
[except Teston] upon the great branch that runs down the Weald 
about two or three miles from the foot of the hills." 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE IN THE 
DIOCESE OF LONDON. 

BY EDWIN FRESHFIELD, JUNIOR. 
INTRODUCTORY. 

IN these notes we propose to give an account of the church 
plate in the Diocese of London. A convenient plan to 
adopt seems to be to take the Diocese of London in three 
parts, the City, the County of London, and the County of 
Middlesex, and to take the churches in alphabetical order in 
each division. 

Before commencing with a description of the plate it will 
be well to give a short historical review of the subject, and to 
explain a few technical terms. 



ii 4 NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 

The churches in the diocese may be divided into two 
classes ; first, the parish churches, that is to say, the churches 
of the ancient parishes which have existed from time 
immemorial, and of certain statutory parishes created by Acts 
of Parliament and Orders in Council during the I7th, i8th, and 
early igth centuries ; and, secondly, the churches of 
"ecclesiastical parishes" and districts created under the 
Church Building Acts since 1830. It is hardly necessary to 
say that the large majority of churches come under the second 
category, and, as the plate to be found in them has acquired no 
archaeological interest, it is omitted from these notes altogether. 
It is a fact frequently forgotten that prior to the Church 
Building Acts, passed in the second quarter of this century, 
there was no general Act in existence for church building, and 
the creation of a new parish and church involved, with one or 
two rare exceptions, a private or special Act of Parliament. 

At present the sets of plate consist of tankards or flagons, 
usually in pairs, cups with either conical covers or combination 
paten covers, patens, alms dishes and spoons, and, in the City 
especially, a miscellaneous collection of odds and ends of plate, 
some of it intended for very secular purposes. For instance, 
there are several snuff boxes, three mazers, four beakers, a 
posset cup, an oyster knife and fork (the church to which they 
belong is appropriately in the vicinity of Billingsgate!), a dozen 
teaspoons, two sugar tongs, a pepper pot, and muffineer. With 
the miscellaneous pieces should be included several fonts for 
private baptism and baptismal shells, sets of small Communion 
plate for private use, two or three censers, some processional 
crosses, a pulpit hour-glass, a few parochial badges, and a large 
and very interesting collection of beadles' staves and wands. 

HISTORICAL. 

The parish churches in the Diocese of London possess a 
very large and interesting collection of plate made during the 
last 350 years, that is to say from the commencement of the 
reign of King Edward VI. down to the present time. 
Unfortunately, the sweep of old church plate made during the 
time of the Reformation was so complete, that there are only 
six mediaeval pieces left, namely, an alms dish and a paten at 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 115 

St. Magnus, near London Bridge, an alms dish at St. Mary 
Woolnooth, Hawksmoor's church, which stands at the corner of 
Lombard Street, and a chalice and paten at West Drayton, 
made in 1507. 

For this clean sweep we are indebted in the first instance to 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners of King Edward VI., who 
were appointed to carry out Church reforms. To them was 
entrusted the duty of collecting from all over England vessels 
which had served for Popish purposes, chalices, patens, cruets, 
monstrances, and the like. The Commissioners, however, 
usually left sufficient plate in each parish to provide a cup and 
paten for the new use, and in the vast majority of cases these 
two articles were the only vessels which the parish possessed 
till the close of the i6th century. 

In the reign of Edward VI. the parishes throughout 
the country converted their old plate into new plate to suit the 
reformed service, but the reign was too short for the work of 
transformation to be completely carried out, and some old plate 
survived. During Queen Mary's reign, from 1553 to 1558, the 
unreformed service was revived and the old plate used to suit 
its requirements ; but w r ith Queen Elizabeth's accession the 
work of recasting and transforming recommenced with renewed 
and increased zeal. The parish books are full of interesting 
entries showing how the changes went on ; I take for example 
the following extracts from the parish record of St. Michael, 
Cornhill. After entries in 1548-1550, recording the removal of 
the images of Mary and John from the rood-loft, of the payment 
of 55. to the schoolmaster for writing the mass in English, and 
of the removal of the High Altar and the substituting of a 
table for it, the following entries appear in 1551 : 

" Item pd. for Muscadell at Mr. Carter's the last day of Febrwarye 
at ye wh. tyme the church plate was wayed and dd* to Mr. 
Lodge in Mr. Carter's howse in the presens of dyvers masters 
of the pyshe.f ij^." 

" Item pd. to Mr. AwstenJ ye xxvj daye of Mrche to pay the 
Goldsmythe yt. made comnyon cup waying xxj oz & qr. at 
xxijW. ye oz. ye workmanshyp for the wh. cup was dd a gylt 
challes waing-xx oz. lii qrs. and ij.r. iiij^. in money for the 
overwayght. Sumd. xlijj. iiijW." 

* Delivered. f Pix ? + One of the wardens. 



n6 NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 

Almost as soon as these alterations were made the King died, 
and in 1553 come the following entries: 

" Pd. for men ryngyng at the p'claymyng of the Quen's Grace 



" Pd. for ryngyng at ye coronation of the Quene ijs. injd." 
Her Grace, Queen Mary, was proclaimed on the igth July and 
crowned on the ist October, 1553. With her accession came, 
as we have said, a revival of popery, and shortly after we have 
the two following entries : 

" Item paide for makinge of the High Awlter vvt. bryck and all the 
steppes in the quire before the High Awlter wt. dyv's other 
places in the churche that wer made and mended, for ij m. lo. 
of bricke xviijj 1 . vjW." 

" Paide for a challyse wayinge xij ounces a hallfe and hallfe a 
quarter at vjj. the ounce iij/z'. xvs. iiij^." 

and in 1556 : 

" Paid to Peter the Joyner for makinge the Roode, Mary and John 
viij//'. xj." 

Then there was a short lull until Queen Mary's death, and in 
J 559 comes the entry relating to Queen Elizabeth's proclamation 
on iyth November, 1558 : 

" Paide to Ringers when the Quen's grace was proclaimede ijs." 
It will be seen that whereas the bellringers received 4^. at 
Queen Mary's proclamation, they got zs. for Queen Elizabeth, 
or six times as much. This increase may indicate the feelings 
of the citizens, for Queen Elizabeth was very popular in the 
City. The result of the energy and enthusiasm on the occasion 
named is seen, a little further on, in this significant entry : 

" Paide for mendinge the clapper of the greate Belle xs." 

With Queen Elizabeth's accession the Reformed service was 
revived, and in 1559 appears this entry: 

" Paide to the P'cher when the Visyters were here viij^." 

These were the Queen's Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and 
they, like King Edward's Commissioners, were appointed to 
carry out reforms. Shortly after their visit there was 

" Paide for removinge the smalle Orgains and the Table that 

stode vpon the Hight Aulter vi'ijd." 
and 

" Paide for taking dowen the Roode xLr." 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 117 

The literature of the unreformed Church shared the same 
fate as the ornaments, and the St. Michael's parish books 
record payments for the purchase of a Bible and chain, and for 
the " new order of the service book," and for a book of the 
Injunctions and for a book of the Articles and for a book 
called the " Whoale Book of Omeles," and for "a boke 
called the ' Paraphrasis of Erasmus,' " and for " Mr. Calvin's 
Instytucions," and for " Fox's Book of Martyrs," and also for 
"a cheyne a lock and four keyes " ; but in spite of these 
precautions the last mentioned book was afterwards stolen, and 
gs. was allowed, by consent of the Vestry, for expenses 
incurred in prosecuting the thief. 

The following entries from the parish records of St. Mary 
Woolnoth and St. Mary Woolchurch Haw for 1559 relate to 
the same subject : 

" Receyved of Robert Tayleboys for ij Chalcyses parcell gilt 
averyging xxv ounces at \s. the ounce whererin was founde 
iij/fr. of Leade so was not of sylver xxiij ounces vi/i. ijs.'' 

" Payed to Robert Tayleboys for a Communion cuppe with a cover 
gilt weyinge xxxiij ounces at vis. viij<tf. the ounce amounteth 
to vi//. iij.v. injd." 

and in 1560 : 

" Receyved of a stacyioner for the lattyn service bookes which 
weare sold by consent of the perishoners xxviy. viij<5?." 

What between the Commissioners of King Edward VI. and 
of Queen Elizabeth and the zeal of the parishes, the marvel is 
that any pre- Reformation plate at all escaped destruction. 
King Edward's reign was so short that the church plate made 
in his time is almost as scarce as the pre- Reformation plate, and 
even scarcer, perhaps, in the provinces. Queen Mary's reign 
was also very short, and, as might be expected, there is no 
ecclesiastical plate of her time to be found in the City. With 
Queen Elizabeth's accession came further alterations, and it 
would seem that new church plate was bought generally all 
over England. There is no doubt that this was the case in 
London, for the parish books bear evidence of it, and there are 
a great many Elizabethan cups and a quantity of patens and 
paten covers still in existence in the diocese. 



u8 NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 

Archbishop Laud was Bishop of London from 1628 to 
1633, and about his time there was a very large quantity of 
plate made, but it cannot be said that it was made subsequently 
in any great quantity at any particular time. In 1648 came the 
Great Rebellion, and there are very few pieces belonging to 
that period, nor are there many more between the accessions of 
Charles II. and 1666. In that year occurred in the City the 
Great Fire, when of 108 churches standing on the 3ist August, 
only twenty-three remained on the following 25th September. 
Luckily the church plate escaped wholesale destruction, probably 
because the progress of the fire was slow, and there was time 
to save it. There is an entry in the churchwardens' account 
books at St. Lawrence, Jewry, of a payment of los. made to a 
person for saving the plate of that church, and there is the 
following entry in the churchwardens' account books of the 
united parishes of St. Mary Woolnoth and St. Mary 
Woolchurch Haw under date 1666. 

" Paid for removing the vestments, plate, bookes and cushings in 
the tyme of the Fyre to severall places in the country and 
bringin them into London againe, and then removing them to 
severall places to secure them and carriage about same." 
005 ,, 06 ,, oo. 

But the parishes were not always quite so fortunate ; 
speaking of St. Benet Sherehog, Stow says, ''The plate, bells, 
and other ornaments of the church which they had before the 
fire were imbezzled by the churchwardens many years ago. 

During the rest of the seventeenth century little plate was 
made, but the eighteenth century contributes a considerable 
quantity. Of modern stuff of the nineteenth century there is, 
luckily, not much; five sets of plate have been made to replace 
that which was stolen,* and as many sets and a few odd pieces 
are the result of parochial vandalismt of which there has been, 
on the whole, very little. 

* In each of these cases the whole set of plate was stolen St. Paul's Cathedral. 
Stolen from the vestry about 1810. St. Mary, Aldermanbury. Also stolen from 
the vestry in 1889. St. Andrew, Holborn. Stolen from the parish clerk's house 
in 1799. St. George, Botolph Lane. Stolen from the church. All Hallows, 
London Wall. (?) Stolen from the church about 1830. 

t The worst case of vandalism took place at S. Bartholomew, Moor Lane, in 
1852. 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. ug 

The accompanying illustration, Plate A, contains a selection 
of the plate exhibited at Merchant Tailor's Hall on the I7th 
July, 1893. The following is a list of the pieces shown in it, 
and a fuller description of them will be found hereafter in the 
inventories of the different churches to which they belong. 

1. Cup, St. Lawrence, Jewry, date 1548. 

2. Cup, St. Botolph, Aldgate, date 1559, with a pre- 
Reformation stem. 

3. Cup and cover, Christ Church, date 1560. 

4. Cup and cover, St. Ethelburga, date 1560. 

5. Cup and cover, St. Olave, Old Jewry, date 1562. 

6. Cup, St. Michael, Cornhill, date 1550. 

7. Cup, St. Mary Abchurch, made at Antwerp, date 1581. 

8. Cups and covers, All Hallows the Great, dates 1575 and 
1608. 

9. Paten or dish, St. Benet, Paul's Wharf, date 1712. 

10. Ciborium, St. Bride, date 1672. 

11. Tankard, St. Benet Fink, date 1607. 

12. Dish, St. Benet, Paul's Wharf, date 1712. 

13. Tazza-paten, St. Botolph, Aldgate, date 1589, 

14. Cup, St. Giles, Cripplegate, date 1617. 

15. Tazza-paten, St. Giles, Cripplegate, date 1586. 

16. Beadle's arm badge, St. Giles, Cripplegate, date 1693. 

(To be continued). 



ESSEX CHARITIES. 

(Continued from p. 12). 

ESTHORPE, AND MUCH BIRCH. 

By an Order made at the Lion at Kelvedon, igth January, 43 
Elizabeth [A.D. 1601] it was directed, by John, Bishop-Suffragan of 
Colchester, William Ayliff, of Braxsted, Ralfe Wisman, Andrew 
Pascall, and Christopher Chiborne, esquires, in a cause concerning 
the poor people of the parish of Esthorpe, against John Binder and 
others, that forasmuch as it plainly appeared that by virtue of the 
last will of John Kingston, clerk, sometime of Esthorpe, deceased, 
there was payable for ever " unto the poor people of the said parish," 
the yearly rent of 75. 2|^., issuing out of certain lands and tenements 
called Winninges, lately Garlands, in Esthorpe, containing by 
estimation seven acres, then John Binder's, of Esthorpe, and out of 
a certain cottage and one rood of ground, parcel of the above 
named lands called Garlands, now the Widow Owen's, " the same 
sum to be given by the discretion of the parson or curate of Esthorpe 
for the time being, with the over-sight of the owners or tenants of 
the said lands, the same money to be yearly paid to the said parsons 
or curates for the time being at the Feasts of All Saints, or within 
eight days next ensuing" the said John Binder and Widow Owen, 
" and all and every person or persons hereafter owners, farmers or 
occupiers of the lands and tenements aforesaid, or of any parcel 
thereof," should thereafter pay to the said parson or curate the said 
sum of 75. 2^d. according to the said will, to be employed according 
to the said will. 

And it was further ordered that if, at any time, the said yearly 
rent should be unpaid, it should be lawful for the parson or curate of 
Esthorpe aforesaid to enter into the premises and distrain, and the 
distress so taken to retain until all the said sum be fully paid. 

Appended to the Order is the answer in the suit: The said John 
Binder says that he is the ow r ner of Garlands, and that the same 
lands ought not to be charged with the annuity of 55. in the 
inquisition mentioned, for the same annuity is limited absolutely in 
the said last will of John Kingstone, for the maintenance of an obit 
and anniversary for ever in the church of Much Birch, and in part 
to be distributed to the poor that should be present at the said 
obit or anniversary, so that it is absolutely limited to superstitious 
uses. All which the said John Binder was ready to prove and 
prayed that, as the same sum would then be due to the Queen's 
Majesty, he might be discharged of the payment thereof to the poor 
of Much Birch aforesaid. 




ISAAC 



, 






Front (i bunt by Roubiliuc. 

The engraving is doubtless that referred to by John Thomas Smith (in NoHnkena ami hi* Times'] 
as executed Dy himself in early life Mr. Smith considered the bust one of Roubiliac's best per- 
formances, and says that Ware, while sitting to the sculptor, related his story to his (Mr. Smith's) father. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN : A RETROSPECT. 
BY W. L. RUTTON, F.S.A. 

(Continued from p. 23). 
WESTBOURNE PLACE, OR HOUSE. 

Lysons (Environs of London, III., 330), shows that in 
1540, Henry VIII. granted to one Robert White, a capital 
messuage called Westbourne Place, with certain lands thereto 
belonging, and the author has no hesitation in concluding that 
the grant had reference to the property which will now have 
our attention. From White it returned to the Crown by sale 
or exchange for other lands ; Queen Mary sold it to Dr. 
Thomas Hues, one of her principal physicians, who gave it to 
his wife for life, with remainder to Merton College, Oxford 
(Robins, Paddington, pp. 35-37) ; and, coming down to the 
reign of George III., it was bought by Isaac Ware, an architect 
of considerable repute (Lysons). 

ISAAC WARE, whose origin was lowly, is thus written of in 
Nollekens and his Times, by John Thomas Smith, formerly 
Keeper of the Prints and Drawings at the British Museum. As 
a thin, sickly, little chimney-sweep, the boy Ware was one 
morning seen busy with a piece of chalk sketching, on its 
basement stones, Inigo Jones's fine, classic work at Whitehall, 
drawing the design as high as his arm would reach, and 
at intervals running into the street to study his model. The 
observer, " a gentleman of considerable taste and fortune " 
[probably Lord Burlington] , recognising that the boy's ability 
rendered him superior to the calling of a chimney-sweep, 
found out his master in Charles Court, Strand, benevolently 
bought the remainder of his apprenticeship, educated him, and 
afterwards sent him to study architecture in Italy. Returned 
to England, Ware was employed as an architect by his patron, 
and by him introduced to his friends. In 1728 he was 
appointed Clerk of the Works at the Tower of London, and in 
1736 became Secretary to the Board of Works. His private 
practice included perhaps as his chief work Chesterfield 



I2 2 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

House in South Audley Street; we hear of it in the Earl of 
Chesterfield's Letters, and learn that the marble columns 
and magnificent staircase were brought from Canons (near 
Edgware), the famous seat of the Duke of Chandos, demolished 
in 1744. The Earl's mansion was finished in 1749. 

The successful architect made his fortune and was enabled 
to purchase property at Westbourne Green, and thereon to 
build his own house, Westbourne Place ; the name was old, for, 
as has been shown, it dated from the time of Henry VIII. 
Lysons (Environs III., 330), says that the new house was built 
a little to the south of the old house which was suffered to stand 
several years longer, and which is probably represented by the 
blocks appearing in the described position on Rocque's map 
of 1746, Ware's new house having probably been built a little 
before that date. Lysons also tells us that when building, 
or rebuilding, Chesterfield House, the architect was allowed 
to transport certain material to Westbourne for use in his 
own house. His town house, which he himself built, yet 
stands at the south-west corner of Bloomsbury Square. Of 
London brick, it is externally very plain ; a dentilled 
cornice, and a pediment in the Hart Street face, are the only 
architectural features. On the opposite side of Hart Street, 
eighty yards westward (Nos. 11-13), is a ls a block attributed 
to him and distinguished by some good Georgian-classic 
doorways. 

Ware's work was certain to be Palladian as far as the 
exigencies of English climate would permit. Modified classic 
was the style of his day, and so thoroughly had he studied 
Palladio that he edited in English the master's works ; the 
"advertisement" of this edition is dated from Scotland Yard, 
1737. Another work more specially his own is A Complete 
Body of Architecture, with some Designs of Inigo Jones never 
before published. It was a posthumous publication in 1767, 
for his death occurred at his house in Bloomsbury Square, on 
5th January, 1766. (Gentleman's Magazine.)* 

* For a more complete account of Isaac Ware, the reader is referred 
to the Dictionary of Architecture, Part 23, Architectural Publication 
Society, 1892; and the Dictionary of National Biography, 1899. The 
house in Bloomsbury Square was afterwards occupied by Isaac D' Israeli, 
whose son, the Earl of Beaconsfield, here spent some years of his- 
childhood. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 123 

SIR WILLIAM YORKE, BART., purchased the house from 
the executors of Isaac Ware, but could have lived in it a 
short time only, for he let it to the Venetian Ambassador, and 
sold it in 1768. He was a successful lawyer, who, in 1743, 
became Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Ireland, 
and in 1761 was created a Baronet. He died s.p. September 
3Oth, 1776. (Gentleman s Magazine.) 

JUKES COULSON, of Thames Street, London, eminent as 
an iron merchant and anchor smith, was the purchaser of West- 
bourne Place. He held it about twenty-six years, and expended 
much money in enlarging the house and laying out the grounds ; 
Lysons says that he spent i,5OO/. on the library which he 
added. He died in 1794, leaving a widow, but apparently 
childless, for in 1800 the property was sold by his nephew to 
Mr. Cockerell. 

SAMUEL PEPYS COCKERELL, the next owner of Westbourne 
Place, is interesting as claiming kindred with the writer 
of the famous diary, his mother being the grand-daughter 
of Mrs. Jackson, Pepy's sister. Moreover, besides his great- 
great-uncle's name he had inherited some interesting relics, and 
a large collection of letters and papers to which Lord Braybrooke, 
the Diarist's editor, had access, as he gratefully acknowledges 
in his preface of 1825. Mr. Cockerell had considerable reputation 
as an architect, and has now his place in the Dictionary of 
National Biography. His professional work lay chiefly in the 
building or improvement of important country seats, but with 
other London work he rebuilt the Church of St. Martin 
Outwich, not now existing to testify to his skill ; and he held 
the office of surveyor to the Hon. East India Company. Before 
coming to Westbourne Place, he lived in a house at the corner 
of Savile Row and Burlington Street, which he occupied twenty- 
seven years, and there died aged seventy-four, 27th July, 1827. 
He extended the area of the grounds by annexing a portion 
of the Green, but this he did in an honest and open manner. 
Mr. Robins, in Paddington Past and Present, produces several 
extracts from the vestry minutes, showing the gradual absorption 
of the Green ; for instance, one dated 1801, July i5th : "Mr. 
Cockerell applied to enclose part of the waste of Westbourne 
Green, north and east of the Harrow Road." And the next 



124 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

year he and Mr. White, another Westbourne proprietor, paid 
4OO/. and ioo/. for land they had enclosed. The lawn and 
gardens of Westbourne Place, as left by Mr. Cockerell, are 
nicely depicted in our map.* 

CHARLES ROBERT COCKERELL, one of the five sons 
of the above, and the second in three generations of 
Cockerell architects, was of the three by far the most 
eminent. Though not born at Westbourne Place, he must 
have enjoyed his holidays there as a Westminster school-boy. 
He was equally distinguished as a writer on his art and in 
the practice of it, and his reputation was enhanced by 
architectural discoveries in Greece and Asia Minor, in which 
he was associated with others. Returned to England in 1817, 
he was in 1819 appointed surveyor to St. Paul's Cathedral, 
and held the office forty-four years, that is until his death. 
His London work included Hanover Chapel, Regent Street, 
lately removed, and with Sir William Tite the London and 
Westminster Bank, Lothbury ; in 1833 he succeeded Sir John 
Soane, as architect to the Bank of England. In 1847 he 
completed St. George's Hall, Liverpool. For many years he 
filled the chair of Professor of Architecture in the Royal 
Academy, delivered important lectures, and contributed many 
designs. In the early part of his career, doubtless, he often 
visited his father at Westbourne Green, but being a younger 
son did not inherit the mansion there. His residence was 13, 
Chester Terrace, Regent's Park, and there he died i7th 
September, 1863, his interment being in the crypt of St. Paul's, 
the resting place of Wren and of others who have been eminent 
in their art.f 

* A portrait of Samuel Pepys Cockerell, was painted by Sir William 
Beechey, R.A., and of this an excellent mezzotint engraving by Thomas 
Hodges is found with the Prints and Drawings of the British Museum. 
The face is of an elderly gentleman, scarcely handsome in features, but 
pleasant and prepossessing. 

t In the Cathedral is a handsome tablet to the memory of Charles 
Robert Cockerell, of whom there is a portrait at the Institute of Architects. 
His obituary in 7^he Illustrated London News (October 2nd, 1863), is 
accompanied by his likeness after a photograph by M. Claudet ; it is a 
handsome face. With other encomiums it is observed : " No artist ever 
quitted life more honoured, beloved, and regretted ; his sympathies were 
as generous as his love of art was pure." His effigy between those of 
Pugin and Barry appears on the Albert Memorial in Hyde Park. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 125 

FREDERICK PEPYS COCKERELL, second son of Charles 
Robert Cockerell, was the third architect of this family. 
He also had a considerable practice, and in London built 
Freemasons' Hall, Great Queen Street; he died in 1878. 
The Dictionary of National Biography has enrolled him as 
well as his father and grandfather. 

JOHN COCKERELL, eldest son of Samuel Pepys Cockerell, 
inherited the Westbourne property in 1827, but did not 
reside at Westbourne House, as the mansion at that time 
was called. He had been living at Fairfax House, Putney, 
and removed to " Little Westbourne," a house shown on our 
map of 1834 a little eastward of the larger house, where 
General, Lord Hill became his tenant. The Act obtained by 
the Great Western Railway Company in 1835, compelled Mr. 
Cockerell to sell his estate, and Little Westbourne gave place 
to a house built by the Company for their Secretary, Mr. Charles 
A. Saunders, which house, called Westbourne Lodge, is at 
present a music school.* It stands apart, a short distance from 
the public road and over-looking the Railway, a screen of trees 
and some green lawn attached giving it a suburban appearance. 

ROWLAND, VISCOUNT HILL, GENERAL COMMANDING-IN- 
CHIEF. The Rev. Edwin Sidney, Lord Hill's biographer, 
is not explicit as to the date at which the distinguished 
General " for the benefit of his health took a house at 
Westbourne." His tenancy of Westbourne House, however, 
seems to have commenced in 1828, when the veteran, 
whose renown had been won in the Peninsular War (notably in 
the taking of Almaraz, an achievement signalized in his title, 
Baron Hill of Almaraz, etc.), and at Waterloo, succeeded his 
chief, the Duke of Wellington, as Head of the Army. The 
Duke's retirement from the command was consequent on his 
becoming Prime Minister, and Lord Hill became virtually 
Commander-in-Chief, though, not having seniority on the army 
list, he was appointed to the command as senior general on the 
staff with designation as above. His object in coming to 
Westbourne was, so writes his biographer, " to unite as much 
as possible the enjoyment of the country with the business of 
his command." As a kind, unostentatious, hospitable gentle- 

* Information kindly afforded by a member of the Cockerell family. 



126 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

man, he was universally popular in the neighbourhood, and, 
moreover, being the personal favourite of his sovereign, William 
IV., the bluff, good-natured old King came to dine with him at 
West bourne. "I do not dine with any body in London, you 
know," said His Majesty, " but you do not live in London, and 
I shall come and dine with you." So the King came without 
state, but met a distinguished company which included the 
Duke of Wellington, the Duke of Gordon, Lord Melville, Lord 
Combermere, Sir Robert Peel, and other notables. On another 
occasion, the biographer tells us, the King and Queen engaged 
to honour the old soldier by their presence at a public 
breakfast ; King William was unfortunately prevented by 
indisposition, but good Queen Adelaide, with great kindness, 
came to the entertainment, which was distinguished by much 
handsome hospitality. 

But, alas ! The palmy days of Westbourne Green were 
coming to an end, and the Great Western Railway was soon to 
bring destruction on Lord Hill's pleasant house and fair lawns. 
The veteran was obliged to leave them and to seek another 
residence. Mr. Sidney again fails with the date, but it was 
probably in 1835 or 1836, soon after the Act was obtained. We 
learn only that in September, 1836, Lord Hill was at Hard wick 
Grange (a small estate near Shrewsbury, which many years 
before had been left to him by his uncle, Sir Richard Hill, 
Baronet), that at the beginning of 1842 he took a villa at 
Fulham, that in August of that year he resigned his command 
of the army owing to failing health, and that four months later, 
loth December, 1842, he died at Hardwick Grange, his age 
seventy years. He had not married, and by special remainder 
his titles Viscount and Baron passed to his nephew, Sir 
Rowland Hill, Baronet. There have been many Rowlands of 
this family ; one of them, the famous minister and preacher, 
was Lord Hill's uncle, and a letter is extant in which the 
General proposes that his uncle should visit him at Westbourne, 
or that he should see the aged minister at his own house. The 
Rev. Rowland Hill was then, 1832, in his Sgth year.* 

* Sir Rowland Hill, Knt., Lord Mayor of London in 1549, appears to 
have been the first Rowland; he is called the first Protestant Lord Mayor. 
The Baronetcy dates from 1727, the Barony from 1814, the Viscounty from 
1842. 




Rowland, Viscount Hill, etc., General Commanding in Chief 1828-1842. 

Reproduced from a photograph bi/ Messrs. Walker $ Boutall of the sketch in watercolours by 
George Richmond, K.A., in the National Portrait Gallery. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 127 

An 1837 edition of our map shows that the Railway had 
then been driven through the grounds of Westbourne House, 
and that not satisfied with the space there attained, it had 
thrust the Harrow Road some forty yards eastward, and to that 
extent diminished the Green. The mansion, however, remained 
intact. The line was opened to Maidenhead in June, 1838, 
with a temporary station under Bishop's Road Bridge, and 
Westbourne House partially survived until 1846 ; in that year 
it must have been entirely demolished, for the map of the 1847 
Post Office Directory shows the site occupied by new houses.* 

WESTBOURNE FARM. 

Having, as it were, passed through a century at Westbourne 
Place, it seems like putting back the shadow on the dial of time 
to return to the early days of the next dwelling on Westbourne 
Green which claims our notice. On Rocque's Map of 1746, a 
block represents Westbourne Farm, but this father of surveyors 
has not attached a name to the building, and the block-plan 
a mere oblong not resembling that in later maps we are left in 
some uncertainty as to the identity of the house. In all 
probability, however, there was here at that time an old farm, 
whether or not the house was later rebujlt. The land about is 
divided in fields, and, in other maps than Rocque's, certain of 
the fields are named " Desboroughs." The origin of the name 
is probably undiscoverable. Naturally, perhaps, it has been 
thought to have connection with Desborough, Desborow, or 
Disbrowe, the rough, blustering general of the army of the 
Commonwealth, and the brother-in-law of the Protector, and, 
as it seems to many the idea became fact. But no 
evidence has been adduced to show that " Ploughman 
Desborough," as Cromwell is said to have called him, ever 
farmed at Westbourne, although Robins says he had met with 
many circumstances unrelated by him which inclined him to 

* The article in The Universal Magazine of 1793, referred to ante 
p. 1 8, is accompanied by a view of Westbourne Place. The house is rather 
more ornate than it appears in the general picture of the Green which has 
been given ; and two other small pictures in the Grace Collection show 
variations. But it is learnt from experience that in the last century and 
early in the present, the draughtsman thought accuracy in details of little 
moment, his object being to make his picture pretty rather than correct. 



128 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

the belief. The known fact that Desborough had a house at 
Hackney, where he died in 1680*, is somewhat, though not 
conclusively, against his residence at Westbourne. But the 
name, whatever its origin, was a good one, and as such has 
not been allowed to drop, for it yet survives in the modern 
streets ; and when it may have been thought that "Westbourne 
Farm " was a name inappropriate to a house severed from the 
fields, and perhaps a little rustic, it was changed to Desborough 
Cottage, and finally became Desborough House. 

We have no certain information as to its occupants until 
1805 ; yet the writer of the article which has been quoted from 
the Universal Magazine of 1793, mentions a " farmhouse close 
to Mr. Coulson's mansion [Westbourne Place] , occupied at 
that time as an occasional country residence by the Most Noble 
George Grenville Nugent, Marquis of Buckingham." This 
seems to point to Westbourne Farm, but possibly to the small 
house called Little Westbourne, an appendage of Westbourne 
Place; the house known as "The Manor House" hardly 
answers the location. It is difficult, however, to believe that 
the master of Stowe could have accommodated himself, even 
for a short interval, in a " cottage," so small that the first 
tenant we hear of had to enlarge it. The Marquis, a statesman 
of his time Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 1783, and twice 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was, when residing at Westbourne 
Green, retired from political life; he lived, however, until 1813, 
and died at Stowe. 

(To be continued). 



* Dictionary of National Biography. 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 
BY " PETER DE SANDWICH." 

1 1 . - LlTTLEBOURNE. 



parish is between three and four miles east of 
JL Canterbury, and the place is first mentioned in the year 
696, when Withred, King of Kent (694-725) granted " five 
ploughsworth of the land that belongs to me at Littelbourne," 
to the Monastery of St. Augustine at Canterbury. There was 
a church on the manor when the Domesday Survey was made, 
but the present church was built after that date, as the chancel 
is of Early English character, with three lancet windows in the 
east wall, and four similar windows both in the north and south 
walls. The nave is also early, and when first built had a north 
aisle, similar to the present south aisle, but the north aisle has 
been destroyed, and two of the arches now blocked up, form 
part of the north wall. In more modern times, the present 
appendage was built on half of the original north aisle, the 
arches and pillars being removed so as to make the interior 
more open. 

The following presentments were made at the Visitations 
of the Archdeacons of Canterbury. 

1578. "That we had no quarterly sermons, for we had not a 
sermon in our parish church of Littlebourne since Palm Sunday 
last." 

"William Bowerman, for absence from his church most commonly 
upon the sabbath days, and also for that he hath not received the 
Holy Communion these three last years past." 

" Thomas Hodgekin, for absence from church most Sundays and 
Holy Days." When he appeared in the Archdeacon's Court, he 
stated, "that he had been but three Sundays from his parish church, 
and those days he was at Wingham, where he heard a sermon 
preached." 

" John Hilles, for his continual absence from church, and also 
that he hath not received the Holy Communion, neither he nor his 
wife the last year." He stated "he mostly worked out of the 
parish, and goeth to the church where he worketh." 



I 3 o SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

1579. " Richard Cole, for abusing his tongue against honest men, 
when he is in company, or frequently in the ale-house, in his drink, 
with the blasphemers of godly holy men, to the great affront of his 
neighbours." 

" Dame Barber, widow of Richard Barber, for with-holding from 
the parishioners [payment] for her husband's grave, being within 
the church." She appeared in the Archdeacon's Court, 8th 
December, 1579, and said "her husband was buried in the Church 
of Littlebourne, but not at her request, for the churchwardens 
expressly denied to her, to have him buried there, but that afterwards 
at the request, and upon letters to them sent by Sir John Hales, he 
was buried in the church, but not in the part of the Church, where 
she would have had him buried, neither did they demand anything 
of her for the breaking of the ground, nor at any time since, but a 
little time before this presentment." 

" Goodwife Bate, for with-holding certain duties belonging to 
the Church, which she should pay, twelve-pence by the year, for 
the six former years." 

1585. " Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Waller, hath not been at our 
parish church, above four times since Christmas last, to our 
knowledge." 

"Joan, wife of William Webb, hath not received the Holy 
Communion this last year past." 

" Thomas Hodgkin, for that his father was buried in our parish 
church, and hath not allowed us for the breaking up of the 
pavement." 

1603. " Christina, wife of William Mott, and Anne, the wife of 
William Hunter, for their uncharitableness, the one with the other." 

1607. "Our Minister [Roger Bristow, 1601-10] doth not wear the 
surplice, so often as is required in this article; but he hath a hood, 
being a Master of Arts. Neither doth he catechise the youth of our 
parish, so often as is required. He administered not the Communion 
but only at Easter-time, or at the most, but once after Easter." 

[The Rubric at the end of the Catechism in 1552, required 
" The Curate of every parish, or some other at his appointment, 
shall diligently upon Sundays and Holy Days, half-an-hour before 
evensong, openly in the church, instruct and examine so many 
children of his parish sent unto him, as the time will serve, and, as 
he shall think convenient in some part of this catechism. This was 
altered to the present rubric in 1662] . 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 131 

1608. "The wife of James Miller, of Littlebourne, for not 
receiving the Holy Communion in our parish church this Easter 
last." 

" Richard Boykett doth very negligently resort to our parish 
church, and is very often absent from our church." 

1609. "We have not service on Wednesdays and Fridays, not 
being holy-days, so often as is required in this article." 

" Richard Boykett will not, nor hath not, received the Holy 
Communion, and doth not frequent his parish church as he ought." 

1610. "That our Vicarage House laketh reparations, in the 
default of Mr. Bristow, our Vicar. Our Vicar is not resident now, 
or bestoweth anything to the poor of the parish, that we know of." 

1615. " W T e have no flaggon to put the wine in, whereby it may 
be set upon the Communion Table. Our Vicar [Christopher Cage, 
1610-17] reads divine service on Wednesdays and Fridays, and on 
the eves of the Sundays and holy-days." 

1617. "Elizabeth Weekes, the wife of Edward Weekes, of 
Littlebourne, for railing at, and cursing me the said Christopher 
Cage and my wife, wishing the Pope and the devil take me. She is 
a malicious and contentious person, amongst her neighbours, and 
especially for making discord between me the minister and my 
parishioners." 

The churchwardens presented "Mr. Cage, our Vicar, that we 
have not had monthly on the Sundays a sermon, this last year as by 
the said article is set down. He also does not instruct the youth." 

1620. "The wife of John Whitehead, of Ickham, who coming to 
our church of Littlebourne, going into the pew of Afra, the wife of 
George Courthope of our said parish, to hear divine service, was by 
the said Afra thrust back, whereupon the wife of the said John 
Whitehead began to thrust into the pew with greater violence, at last 
they both fell together most shamefully to thrusting and rushing, 
pinching and pulling one another, at least a quarter-of-an-hour 
together, to the great offence of the parishioners there, and evil 
example to others, and to the hindrance of the minister there, that 
he could not begin prayers." 

1629. "We present Mr. Silas Hawker, our Vicar [1617-52], for 
that his vicarage-house wanteth repairing." 

1637. "The vicarage-house is in good repair, but as the fame is, 
there was formerly a barn to it, which is altogether dilapidated." 
The Vicar, when he appeared in the Archdeacon's Court, said that 
the said barn was begun about forty years since, by a former Vicar 



132 HERTFORDSHIRE BIRDS OF PREY. 

of Littlebourne, who was also Rector of the adjoining parish of 
Stodmarsh, and now there is no use for the said barn. 

" William Eames, for standing ex -communicate in St. James' 
Church at Dover, and receiving the Communion at Littlebourne on 
Good Friday last past. Eames explained that about four years ago, 
being imprisoned in London, he was ex-communicated in Dover, 
which he never knew of till last Easter ; coming down into the 
country and being altogether ignorant thereof, he did frequent the 
parish church of Littlebourne, and received the Holy Communion 
on last Good Friday, but would not have done so, if he had known, 
until absolved." 

" The churchyard is neither walled, railed, or paled, but hedged. 

" We present John Knott and his wife Katherine, for refusing to 
come to Divine Service." 



HERTFORDSHIRE BIRDS OF PREY. 
BY ALAN F. GROSSMAN, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

present list of the native birds of prey of Hertfordshire 
JL is a very small one, although, no doubt, in former days 
there were several other species, which could be included under 
the heading. The list of residents and visitors together only 
amounts to eighteen ; five of these are still regular breeding 
species with us. Probably two more were residents in bygone 
days, but I question whether anyone, who is alive now, can 
remember that time. The chief cause of the extermination of 
these former residents is undoubtedly game preserving. So 
many keepers cannot resist the temptation of killing a bird of 
prey, and certainly from their point of view there is much to be 
said against many of these birds. On the other hand, however, 
keepers should remember that hawks and owls do a great deal of 
good in destroying rats and other vermin, which either destroy 
young game birds, or else eat their food. This fact, I am glad 
to say, many people are beginning to recognise, and consequently 
we may expect a slight increase in certain of the species again. 
That the Raptores, or some of them, take game birds I do 
not deny for a moment, but what I say is that the harm 



HERTFORDSHIRE BIRDS OF PREY. 133 

they do is amply atoned for by their usefulness. In addition to 
game preserving the decrease of woodlands has something to 
do with the scarcity of birds of prey, but the latter is, I am 
afraid, quite a minor reason compared to the former. If all 
landowners encouraged owls and other such birds to breed on 
their estates, as did the late Lord Lilford, I am sure that in 
the long run they would not be losers thereby. I now propose 
to turn to the actual list of the owls and hawks of Hertford- 
shire, and to give some details of their occurrence in the 
county. 

WHITE OR BARN OWL (Strix flammea). This is a fairly plentiful 
species. Unfortunately it is a favourite bird to have stuffed, and 
this fact, in addition to the persecution it undergoes from keepers, 
does a great deal to prevent it from becoming commoner. 

LON GEARED OWL (Asio otus). The Longeared Owl is rather 
locally distributed in Hertfordshire, although, where it does occur, it 
is by no means rare. As it is partial to fir plantations, there are not 
many districts in the county where it is likely to be common. It is, 
however, to be found in many of the fir spinnies to the north of 
Hertfordshire, more particularly in the neighbourhood of Hitchin. 

SHORTEARED OWL (Asio accipitrinus ) . This bird is only a winter 
visitor, appearing some years in considerable numbers, though 
generally only locally. It is often flushed out of turnips and rough 
grass in October and November. 

TAWNY OR BROWN OWL (Syntium aluco). This owl is very 
partial to the districts where there are old trees, and in many parts of 
the county is no doubt plentiful, but, like its white relative, suffers 
considerable persecution. It is a bird which seems much inclined 
to make attacks on people who are passing near its nest, and at least 
one instance is on record of this happening in Hertfordshire. In 
1899, Mr. H. G. Fordham sent me a specimen which had been 
killed by flying against the telegraph wires near Odsey ; this I think 
is rather an unusual occurrence in the owl family. 

LITTLE OWL (Athene noctua). This is a species which should, 
I think, so far as this county is concerned, be classed under the 
heading " introduced." The first recorded specimen in the county 
was obtained near Ashwell in May, 1877. This example passed, I 
believe, through the hands of the late William Norman, of Royston. 
Nothing more appears to have been heard of the species in Hertford- 
shire until 1897, when a pair, which reared two young ones, nested 



I 3 4 HERTFORDSHIRE BIRDS OF PREY. 

in a locality which shall be nameless, the nest being in a hollow 
tree. In 1898 the birds again nested, but on this occasion in the loft 
of a barn. I am sorry to say that the birds in the latter year were 
disturbed and deserted their eggs, one of which has been presented 
to the County Museum at St. Albans. In addition to the above 
records, I am informed by Mr. A. Sainsbury Verey of Heronsgate, 
that in the early part of 1898, a little owl was shot at Bull's Land 
near that place, while later in the year another was obtained at West 
Hyde in the same district. The head-keeper at Moor Park also tells 
me that during 1898, he saw a small owl, about the size of a 
blackbird, there on several occasions; this bird probably belonged to 
the species under notice. From the above facts it would seem likely 
that the little owl is likely to become a permanent resident in 
Hertfordshire. 

HEN HARRIER (Circus cyaneus). The first record I have of this 
species in Hertfordshire is in 1845, when a pair were shot in the parish 
of Sandon, in the north of the county ; these birds passed into the 
possession of the late Mr. Henry Fordham. On October 28th, 1887, 
and on one or two occasions about that date, Mr. M. R. Pryor saw a 
bird which he is confident was of this species. At Tring a hen 
harrier, which is now in the possession of Sir V. H. Crewe, of Calke 
Abbey, Derbyshire, was obtained many years ago, while a female 
was shot there in December, 1884. On November 7th, 1897, Mrs. 
Brightwen's bailiff saw at Elstree Reservoir, a bird which he stated 
was of this species ; this remained in the neighbourhood for some 
days. 

MONTAGU'S HARRIER (Circus cineraceus). This hawk has only 
been recorded on one occasion, Captain Young having obtained a 
specimen at Hexton, near Hitchin, in 1875. 

BUZZARD (Butco vulgaris). This fine species is, I am sorry to 
say, only a very occasional visitor to the county, although in former 
times it was probably a fairly common resident. Now-a-days, it 
usually comes to an untimely end. At Munden House, near 
Watford, there is a buzzard in the collection of the Hon. A. 
Holland-Hibbert, which was shot there probably between 1840 and 
1850. This may have been a representative of the buzzards which 
no doubt at one time were natives of Bricket Wood. In 1877 a bird 
of this species was shot at Russell Farm, near Watford, while in 
1879 one was shot in Hatfield Park, in the neighbourhood of which 
its race had probably been comparatively common. In 1881, Mr. 
H. Cox procured one near Harpenden in February, and in October 



HERTFORDSHIRE BIRDS OF PREY. 135 

a buzzard was seen near Royston, which, on being fired at, dropped 
a rabbit it was carrying. On the i5th of the same month another 
was shot near Royston whilst in pursuit of a pigeon ; it measured 
39^ inches across the wings, and 19^ inches in length. In the 
County Museum at St. Albans, there is a specimen which was 
obtained at Cowheath Wood, near Hoddesdon ; this bird was caught 
in a hedgehog trap, and was presented to the Museum by Mr. F. M. 
Campbell. In September or October, 1897, a buzzard was shot at 
Harrington, while in the latter month one was seen flying over 
Earl's Wood, Barkway, where another was observed on October 
7th, 1898. 

ROUGH-LEGGED BUZZARD (Buteo lagopus). This bird was first 
recorded in Hertfordshire in 1880, when one, which frequented a 
high hill with a large tree at the top, through the greater part of 
October and part of November, was shot at Bennington on the gth 
of the latter month. It measured 4 feet 7^ inches across the wings, 
and i foot 9 inches in length. On January 3rd, 1881, Mr. T. F. 
Buxton, while out shooting on the Rye Meads near Ware, saw a 
rough-legged buzzard, which rose from the ground near him. A 
bird of this species, which was eventually exhibited by the late Lord 
Ebury at a meeting of the Herts Natural History Society on 
February igth, 1892, was trapped during that month in Bishop's 
Wood, near Rickmansworth, while in the Autumn of the same year 
a male and female were shot near Tring, where a third was taken alive 
a little later ; this latter was kept alive for some time in the Hon. 
Walter Rothschild's aviary. 

WHITE-TAILED OR SEA EAGLE (Plaliaetus albicilla). The late 
Mr. Abel Smith had in his possession a specimen of this bird, 
which was obtained some years previously to 1877 at Sacombe. In 
1890 an eagle was shot near Hitchin, which was reported in the 
papers as a golden eagle, but which probably belonged to this species. 
The history of the latter bird I have at present been unable to trace. 

SPARROW HAWK (Accipitev nisus). This is, perhaps, one of the 
worst of the feathered offenders against the game laws, so far as 
birds of prey are concerned, being especially fond of young birds. 
At the same time it is a pity that any indigenous species should be 
exterminated as this seems likely to be. Indeed, in some districts, 
it is now quite an unusual occurrence to see a sparrow hawk. 

KITE (Milvus ictinns). This species no doubt was at one time 
indigenous to Hertfordshire, but it has now so completely vanished 
that I am only able to mention one county specimen. This is now 



136 HERTFORDSHIRE BIRDS OF PREY. 

in the collection at Munden, and was shot in that neigbourhood 
between 1840 and 1850. 

HONEY BUZZARD (Pernis apivorus). There is also at Munden an 
example of this species which was obtained in the district about the 
same time as the kite above referred to. In 1881 a honey buzzard was 
obtained at Little Hadham on September 23rd. It was recorded in 
the Zoologist for November oi that year. The bird, which was being 
mobbed by some half-dozen rooks when it was shot, measured 53^- 
inches from tip to tip of its wings. On the 29th of the same month 
another was shot at Westmill Rectory, near Buntingford. 

PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregnnus). It is probable that in 
former days Falconry was carried on to some extent in Hertfordshire. 
Now-a-days, however, that grand sport has so dwindled, that few, if 
any, pursue it in this county. Certainly there are hardly any 
districts except on the northern boundary that are now suitable for 
it. At the present time this bird, whose instincts are essentially 
sporting, is only seen as an occasional visitor, which in most cases 
meets with a most inhospitable reception, and usually finds its way 
into the taxidermist's hands. In the last twenty-five years this 
species has been recorded on some fifteen occasions, but only in three 
instances does it appear to have escaped destruction. In 1876 one 
was shot at Hexton, near Hitchin, while in 1878 a pair, which passed 
into the possession of a Mr. Simpson, were killed at Newnham, near 
Baldock. On September i8th, 1891, a male in fine plumage was 
obtained on Stoney Hills, near Bengeo, while on November 23rd of 
that year a specimen was shot at Bramfield, near Hertford. A 
female, originally reported as a buzzard, was taken at the end of 
December, 1891, at Cole Green, and on March i6th, 1895, I saw a 
bird of this species, which from its size was presumably a female, 
stoop at a partridge at Pendley Manor, near Tring. In August, 
1891, a male was shot at Croxley Green, while Mr. Sutton, of 
Northchurch, has a fine example in his possession, which was killed 
by a boy with a stick while attacking Mr. Sutton 's fowls on August 
6th, 1896. Mr. Brown, of Newnham, near Baldock, has a female 
which he killed there on September 3oth, 1897; this bird, which 
was preserved by Mr. \Vright, of Clifton, Beds, weighed four 
pounds and measured 43 inches across the wings. In the same year 
a peregrine was seen near Royston during the Autumn, while one 
which remained some days was observed near Elstree, on December 
1 6th. In addition to the above occurrences there are some few 
others of which full details have not been kept, Mr. Franklin, of 



HERTFORDSHIRE BIRDS OF PREY. 137 

Sandridge, owning one which was obtained near there, while another 
was killed by a keeper called Pangbourne at Marshall's Wick, 
St. Albans. The late Norman Thrale also had two in his possession 
which were shot in Hertfordshire. 

HOBBY (Fako subbuteo). I am afraid that this little falcon is 
practically extinct as a breeding species in this county ; in fact, at 
the present time, I know of no locality where it now nests with us, 
nor, with one exception, am I able to enumerate any very recent 
occurrences of the bird. That it used formerly to nest frequently is 
certain, as Mr. Joseph Nunn, of Royston, informed me that in the 
forties it was comparatively common in the neighbourhood of 
Kelshall, in the north of the county; in 1849, however, the last 
specimen obtained in that parish was shot off the nest by a keeper. 
In 1879 a hobby was obtained in Hatfield Park, while in 1881 a nest 
containing four eggs, was found by a keeper in a fir tree in Moor 
Park. Mr. Latchmore, of Hitchin, also tells me that he has eggs 
of this species which were taken some years ago near Stevenage. 
Mr. Norman Thrale mounted one of these birds which was shot 
near Port Vale on September i7th, 1885, while Mr. F. M. Campbell 
owns one that was killed to the north of Cowheath Wood, near 
Hoddesdon, on July 3rd, 1887. The latest record I have of this 
bird in Hertfordshire is rather a doubtful one. This was a hawk, seen 
by myself on July 27th, 1889, which, from its appearance and flight, 
I am almost positive was a hobby, but I could not be absolutely 
sure on account of the light. 

MERLIN (Fako JEsalon). This bird can only, of course, be 
considered as an occasional visitor, which has been recorded in 
Hertfordshire about six times. I am informed by Mr. Latchmore 
that it has occurred near Hitchin, and Mr. J. H. Tuke also mentions 
that it has been obtained there. At Tring four specimens have been 
obtained, two birds in immature plumage having been shot there 
in February, 1886, while two adults were procured in January, 1887. 
The only other record of the bird which I have is of one seen at 
Elstree in December, 1896. 

KESTREL (Fako tinnuncuhis). This useful bird is, I am sorry to 
say, being gradually exterminated in many parts of the county, 
though it is still comparatively common in some of the more open 
districts. There is really no excuse for killing this species ; 
that it occasionally takes young game-birds I admit, but the 
amount of mice and other small vermin that it destroys quite 
counter-balances the damage it does. Unless some steps are taken 

K 



1 3 8 HERTFORDSHIRE BIRDS OF PREY. 

by landowners to stop their keepers killing this bird, I am afraid 
that it will gradually become a thing of the past. 

OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus). Hertfordshire can boast of several 
fine pieces of water, either natural or artificial, and to some of these 
the osprey occasionally comes. The reservoirs of the Grand 
Junction Canal Company at Tring have been favoured on two 
occasions, the first being in September, 1864, when a pair of these 
birds stayed there for some days, and were often watched while 
fishing. Eventually, on the 3oth of the month, the female was 
shot, the male happily escaping. In September, 1886, two more 
visited the reservoirs. In the same month in 1880, a female 
was obtained in Hatfield Park. This bird was noticed there for 
some days, and obtained a supply of fish from the River Lea. It 
measured five feet six inches across the wings, and two feet in 
length, and was in splendid plumage. Another of these birds was 
obtained in the parish of Great Gaddesden on September lyth, 
1887. It was fired at and wounded, and was with some difficulty 
captured, and taken alive to the late J. E. Littleboy for identification. 
It was kept alive for about six weeks, being fed on live fish which 
were put in a pail of water for it; it refused to take dead fish. It 
eventually died, and, being preserved, passed into the hands of Mr. 
W. M. Shirreff, of Belsize Park, London. This specimen measured 
five feet two inches across the wings, and was in very good condition. 
On the following day a male Osprey was observed fishing in the 
River Lea at Wheathampstead. This bird was shot by Mr. Wm. 
Thrale, and was also preserved. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that, although the list of 
Hertfordshire birds of prey is composed chiefly of visitors, some 
species have occurred on numerous occasions within the last twenty 
years. The probability is that most of the Raptor es would never 
become anything more than visitors, even if they were not shot 
whenever noticed ; but two or three species might, if unmolested, 
again return to nest in the county. 




ST MICHAEL BASSJSHAW. 

(i>r ffdsuyj HaH./ 

The family of a/singj trauch rdsbraied aj English Merchants have contributed the distinctive trrm 
applied to this Church . which from the ambiguity nj tfrr record cannat be futrd with certainty at which of 
the fottatnng perwdj it had. its foundutuin. vij U2S . 1163. or U99 thu was -me of the fire Churches, and 
w* rebuilt 1676 Pie Rrrtar John U'rr IJ-Jt Jttju^uUd Tho ' Uarrwtt D 17HI 



A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AND RECTORY 
OF ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

BY W. B. PASSMORE. 
(Continued from p. 32). 

IN the year 1700 it was found that the roof over the north and 
south aisles was very defective for "want of covering the 
same with lead," and a committee waited on the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and Sir Christopher Wren for the purpose of 
getting the work done at public expense. This does not appear 
to have been successful; for shortly afterwards an agreement 
was made with a slater to " amend the slates and keep 
the same in repair for three years " ; he, however, came to the 
vestry and declared he had found the repairs were greater than 
he could foresee, and applied to have the hard bargain taken 
into consideration; after debate it was ordered that "as the 
slater threw himself upon the mercy of the vestry they could 
but make respite." 

Much further debate arose in 1716 as to allotting pews 
"for families to sit in and hear divine service," and complaint 
was made that divers persons had keys to pews in which they 
had no right to sit; which " affair was enquired into," with 
the result that payment by way of pew money was enforced ; 
those who refused to pay were ejected from their seats. The 
sum paid for a pew in the chancel and middle aisle was 
io/., in the "back aisle" 5/. This being found a constant 
source of strife, owing to inhabitants seating themselves in 
pew T s without permission, it was ordered that "those persons 
who do not choose to purchase their pews shall be seated at the 
discretion of the churchwardens." 

A committee, " with the assistance of skilful workmen," 
reported in 1747, that by the injudicious framing of the roof 
and the weight thereof, "the bulging out of the north and south 
walls was occasioned; and in danger of falling"; the vestry 
thereupon ordered that a "method for the use of iron bars should 



I 4 o ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

be adopted, and at the same time that the church should be 
white-washed and beautified"; the workmen were paid by 
means of a rate at Sd. in the pound. The west gallery was 
erected in 1762, at a cost of 42/., for the purpose of receiving an 
"intended organ," and the surveyor was directed to take a view 
of the church leads in consequence of the rain coining in. 

Representation was made to the vestry that the churchyard 
and vaults were very full, and that it was high time to consider 
of some effective method to prevent any inconvenience .that 
might happen. In connexion with this the churchwardens' 
account has an item: spent 155. $%d. for beer to workmen for 
cleaning out the vaults, and " two shillings for burying the 
bones." 

It was decided by show of hands in 1777, that certain repairs 
to the church should be carried out and paid for by a sum of 
money, not exceeding 8oo/., to be borrowed upon annuities on 
lives of persons 60 years of age and upwards. According to the 
vestry minutes the church was closed soon after, and re-opened 
in February, 1781. The illustration at the commencement of this 
article is taken from a sketch made at the latter time. The low 
building in front is the watch-house which was built in 1681, as 
is stated in the minutes "after the manner of St. Goodfellows" ; 
a committee of eight parishioners was appointed " to oversee 
the work done, and bargain for the doing of it." A debate 
having arisen over the builder's account, the four common 
councilmen were joined to the committee, "to adjust the same 
and to see that satisfaction was effected " ; at a subsequent 
vestry it was ordered that the builder "be paid 28/. in full of all 
accompts." Next to the watch-house is the engine-house, built 
in 1715, to keep two fire engines, according to an Act of 
Parliament which enjoined every parish in London to provide 
two engines. There appears frequently in the churchwardens' 
accounts a charge for "cleaning and liquoring the engine," 
and also an annual charge of 3/. for " playing on " the same. 

The " fire ladders " are shown attached to the eastern wall 
of the church. By order of the vestry they were "to be 
provided for the use of the parish, to prevent any accident to 
the lives of the inhabitants by fire, and to be deposited in a 
convenient part of the churchyard." 



ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 141 

The old watch-house being no longer required, a conference 
was held with the Commissioners of Sewers in 1840, as to the 
expediency of having the footway widened ; the Commissioners 
having agreed to contribute 30^. towards the cost, the watch- 
house was pulled down and the ground given up to the City. 

The money for the repairs prior to the re-opening of the 
church in 1781, was borrowed from two persons, and annuities 
amounting to 8o/. secured upon the parish estates, were granted 
to them for their natural lives; i,35o/. was borrowed 
in the like manner for repairs to the fabric in 1800. Twenty 
years afterwards a report appears as to the state of the 
church; the spire was said to be in a dangerous condition 
owing to the sinking of graves; an application made to the 
Bishop for permission to take it down met with a refusal, 
whereupon the church and spire was repaired by the 
vestry at a cost of 2,5OO/., which amount was as usual 
borrowed by way of annuity, and charged upon the parish 
estates in London Wall. The money was lent by three 
persons for annuities amounting to i85/. ; one of these annuitants 
survived until 1853. In 1835 a dispute arose as to warming 
the church. The vestry had placed " patent hot-air dispensers " 
at the east end, at an expense of IQI/. i8s. n^., without a 
faculty. The Archdeacon ordered their removal, which the 
parishioners resisted ; after much contention an alteration was 
suggested by the vestry and approved by the Archdeacon, but 
then the Rector refused his consent, and it was resolved to 
abandon the said patent and to warm and light the church with 
gas; this, however, was found to be insufficient for warming 
purposes, and the vestry fell back upon a former resolution to 
repair the stoves. 

The churchyard was closed for burials in 1853, and 
covered with quick lime by order of the Home Office ; 
shortly afterwards the vaults were filled up under the 
direction of Dr. Letheby. The attendance upon Divine Service 
had now become very small, as the number of residents in 
the parish had greatly fallen off; the vestry, however, 
liberally provided for the repairs and decoration of their parish 
church, defraying the expenses of public worship, and also the 
support of the aged poor ; but with the year 1891 came a new 



142 ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

order of things by the passing into law of the Parochial 
Charities Scheme, which deprived the vestry of an annual 
income derived from the parish estates of 700^., and allotting, 
in lieu thereof, the sum of i8o/. per annum for church 
expenses, plus 45^. towards repairs of the fabric. The vestry 
considered this a very insufficient provision for the church, 
especially in view of the large income derived from the old 
parish estates, and an effort was made to obtain an increase ; 
but the Charity Commissioners stated that they had no fund 
out of which any further payment could be provided, and 
refused to entertain the application. 

The plan of the church and surroundings here reproduced is 
copied from the parish map made in 1815, by order of the vestry. 
In 1865 the churchyard, by agreement with the Bishop and 
the Commissioner of Se\vers, was levelled, and the space laid 
into the street. 

On the chancel floor is a slab with a Latin inscription, 
translated as follows: "Here lies Edward S. Smith, M.A., and 
rector of this church, where for 27 years he faithfully served 
his Master, the Lord Jesus Christ, with just and most humble 
piety in the administering of Divine things. He lived honestly, 
usefully, and very lovingly, molested by no one, dear to all, for 
he was of a most mild and agreeable temper. He leaves a widow 
and one son, blessed by the fates in external things, but mourning 
within their inmost hearts, inasmuch as both husband and 
father was much yearned for. He died October 22nd, 1708, 
aged 58." The following is also cut on a stone in the chancel, 
" Here lyeth the body of Sir Rowland Aynsworth, Knt., who 
departed this life January nth, Anno. 1702, aged 48, also three 
children, Eleonora, Richard, and a son who dyed before 
baptism." On the north side of the altar there is a grave-stone 
bearing the name of Bassill Hearne, 1692, the inscription is worn 
away, but is given in Seymour's History of London. There is 
a stone in memory of Hugh Wilbraham, gent., county of 
Chester. A fragment on the south side of the altar bears a 
long Latin inscription to the memory of Paris Slaughter and 
his two wives, Elizabeth and Anne, Anno. 1673. A slab on the 
chancel floor bears this inscription, " Here lies interred the 
body of Mrs. Elizabeth Tahourdin, daughter of John Chappell, 



ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 143 

of the city of Norwich, where she was born in the year 1688, 
married to Mr. Gabriel Tahourdin, merchant of London in 
1707, and on the 23rd May, 1729, in giving life to a son she lost 
her own. Near this place also lyeth the body of Mr. Gabriel 
Tahourdin, who died the 26th November, 1730, aged 52. 
John Chappell also died in 1729, and Mary, his relict, in 1746, 
aged respectively 83 and 86, buried in the same grave." Also 
cut on a grave-stone on the chancel floor, " Sacred to the 
memory of the Rev. William Brackenridge, D.D., formerly 
rector of this parish, and librarian of Sion College, ob. anno. 
1762 ; also of Helen, his wife ; the Rev. Archibald Brackenridge, 
his son, and several others of his children. This stone is 
inscribed by George Brackenridge, of Brislington, in the county 
of Somerset, Esq." Amongst memorials on the floor are 
are those of Matthew Beachcroft, Esq., 1759 ; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Beachcroft, 1767; Thomas Sutton, vestry clerk, 1803; Mrs. 
Jane Sutton, 1771 ; Dame Forrester; James Winstanley, 1684; 
Mrs. Elizabeth Dawe, and others which cannot be deciphered. 
There is a tablet on the chancel wall to the memory of 
Dr. Thomas Wharton, 1673, whose long connection with the 
parish has been described in the pages of the magazine of which 
this publication is the successor,* but the following extracted 
from Munk's College of Physicians will be of interest. Wharton 
was educated at Cambridge. He removed to Oxford, being 
tutor to John Scrope, son of the Earl of Sunderland. When 
the Civil War began Mr. Wharton removed to London and 
studied physic, under Dr. John Bathurst, physician to Oliver 
Cromwell. In 1646, when Oxford had surrendered to the 
parliamentary forces, Wharton returned to London and was 
created Doctor of Medicine in virtue of letters from Sir Thomas 
Fairfax. He was censor of the Royal College of Physicians in 
1658, 1661, 1666, 1667, 1668, and 1673, and was held in the 
highest estimation. He remained during the whole time of the 
plague and attended to the poor at St. Thomas's Hospital, of 
which he was physician. Dr. Wharton's resolution swerved for 
a moment when a panic seized the profession, but he was 
induced to persevere in the line of duty by a promise from 
Government, that if he would persist in attending the Guards, 
who were sent to St. Thomas's as fast as they fell, he should 

* Middlesex and Hertfordshire Notes and Queries, vol. iv., p. 22. 



144 METEOROLOGY. 

receive the first vacant appointment of Physician in Ordinary 
to the King. Soon after the plague had ceased a vacancy 
occurred, and Wharton proceeded to Court to solicit the 
fulfilment of the engagement. He was answered that H.M. 
was under the necessity of appointing another person, but to 
show his sense of Dr. Wharton's services, he would order the 
Heralds to grant him an augmentation to his paternal arms. 
The other tablets affixed to the walls are as follows : The 
Heylyn family, 1791. Wife of Richard Smith, 1804. Thomas 
Loggin, 1810. Joseph Wolfe, 1821. Solomon Wadd, 1820 
he represented the Ward in Common Council for 40 years. 
Wife and five children of Christopher Packe, rector, 1831. 
Edward Frisby, 1821. Henry Woodthorpe, LL.D. Thomas 
and Susannah Wheeler, 1834. Wife and children of William 
Bird, 1835, and Drew Wood, 1868. These memorials will be 
preserved at St. Lawrence Jewry, the church of the united 
parishes. 

(To be continued). 



METEOROLOGY OF THE HOME COUNTIES. 
BY JOHN HOPKINSON, F.R.MET.Soc., Assoc.lNST.C.E. 

October to December, 1899. 

NO report having been received from Cranleigh School,, 
Surrey, that station is omitted, reducing the number of 
the climatological stations to nine. On the other hand a former 
rainfall station, Sandhurst Lodge, Berks, has been reinstated, 
and another rainfall station, Throcking Rectory, Buntingford, 
has been added. This is the station of the Rev. C. W. Harvey, 
who takes other observations besides that of the rainfall, and 
has a complete record for 20 years. The height of this station 
above sea-level is 484 feet, the rim of the rain-gauge is one 
foot above the ground, and its diameter is five inches. 

The counties are distinguished as usual: i, Middlesex; 2, 
Essex ; 3, Herts ; 4, Bucks ; 5, Berks ; 6, Surrey ; 7, Kent. 
The observations are taken at nine a.m. 



METEOROLOGY. 



145 



October was rather warm, had an atmosphere of average 
humidity, a rather bright sky, and about a quarter of an inch 
less rainfall than the average for the Home Counties for the 
ten years, 1881-90. November was very warm, had a rather 
dry atmosphere, about the average amount of cloud, and nearly 
three-quarters of an inch more than the average rainfall. 
December was rather colder than usual, had an atmosphere of 
average humidity, a very cloudy sky, and about half-an-inch 
less than the average rainfall. The mean rainfall for the quarter 
was therefore about the average. There was a remarkable 
variation of the rainfall in October, the fall at Harefield in 
Middlesex, for example, being nearly double that at Halstead 
in Essex, and that at Royston being only two-thirds that at 
Hitchin ; both of these stations are in the north of the same 
county, Hertfordshire. There were several heavy falls of rain, 
falls exceeding an inch occurring on the ist and 27th of 
October, and the 3rd and 5th of November. 

Three stations in Berks Cookham, Bracknell, and 
Sandhurst show a mean temperature each month about 
two degrees lower than that of the rest of the Home Counties, 
the mean of the three in October being, 47*5; in November, 
44*9 ; and in December, 34*4. 

October, 1899. 





Temperature of the Air 







1 I 


Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


d 











Mean 


Min 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


ft 


5 


Am't 


Days 




o 


o 





o 





c 


O / 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


50-8 


45-0 


56-6 


11-6 


38-3 


6-2-7 


86 


5-9 


2-03 


9 


2. Halstead . . 


48-4 


38-9 


57-9 


19-0 


30 


65-0 


89 


4-8 


1-81 


11 


,, Chelmsford.. 


47-8 


38-2 


57'4 


19-2 


27-8 


62-8 


87 


7-0 


2-18 


13 


3. Bennington 


49-1 


40-2 


58-0 


17-8 


33-2 


63-4 


88 


5-9 


'2-30 


10 


,, Berkhamsted 


48-9 


38-8 


58-9 


20-1 


30 1 


65-2 yi 


6-0 


3-05 


10 


,, St. Albans. . 


48 9 


40-5 


57-4 


16-9 


31-2 


64-9 


88 


5-3 


3-02 


13 


6.W. Norwood 


49-4 


41-5 


57'3 


15-8 


33 5 


62-4 j 86 


5-5 


2 39 


14 


,, Addington. . 


49-5 


43-0 


56-0 


13-0 


32-6 


62-0 j 83 


6-0 


2 31 


16 


7. Margate . . 


51-1 


45-1 


57-1 


12-0 


36-0 


63-7 j 85 


6-1 


2-31 


11 


Mean 


49-3 


41 2 


57-4 


16 2 


32 5 


63-6 


87 


5-8 


2-38 


12 





z 4 6 



METEOROLOGY. 



November, 1899. 





Temperature of the Air 








Rain 


Stations 


Means ! Extremes 


1 


*- 








Mean 


Min 


Max 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


w 


s 


Am't 


Days 




Q 














o 


/ 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


49-4 


45-3 


.33-5 


8-2 


37 1 


62-1 


83 


8-2 


4-06 


10 


2. Halstead . . 


46-5 


40-2 


52 8 


12-6 


28-2 


61 5 


90 


6-7 


3-15 


9 


,, Chehtisford.. 


46-4 


39-9 


53-0 


13*1 


25-0 


61-7 


88 


7-5 


3-33 


7 


3. Benning-ton 


46-0 


40-4 


51 6 


11-2 


28-8 


60 8 


89 


7-9 


3-72 


11 


,, Berkhamsted 


46-0 


39-5 


52 4 


12-9 


28 


60-3 


90 


8-0 


3-40 


9 


,, St.. Albans.. 


45-9 


40 2 


ol-6 


11-4 


29 2 


58-8 


89 


7-2 


3-77 


10 


6.W Norwood 


47-5 


41 9 


a3'l 


11-2 


31-2 


62-3 


86 


7'9 


4-17 


12 


,, Addington. . 


47-2 


42-9 


')!/) 


8-6 


34 2 


60-4 


85 


8-2 


4-54 


15 


7. Margate . . 


48-7 


43-8 


53-6 


9-8 


31-5 


63-3 


90 


7'8 


1-95 


10 


Mean 


47-1 


41-6 


52-6 


11-0 


30-4 


61-2 


88 


7-7 


3 57 


9 





December, 1899. 





Temperature of the Air 


f 





Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


3 

1 











Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


w 


i 


Am't 


Days 


















i 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o / 




. 


















i O 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


384 


34-6 


42-3 


7-7 


24-3 


55-7 


83 


8-9 


1-09 


16 


2 Halstead .. 


36-0 


31-1 


40-8 


9-7 


14-0 


52-8 


94 


7-5 


1-53 


15 


,, Chelmsford . 


36-0 


30-8 


41-2 


10-4 


14-6 


53-4 


92 


8-0 


1-38 


13 


3. Bennington 


35-5 


30-8 


40-2 


9-4 


16'6 


53-7 


91 


8-3 


1-45 


19 


,, Berkhamsted 


35-4 


30-3 


40-4 


10-1 


15-8 


54-4 


91 


7-9 


1-44 


18 


,, St. Albans.. 


35-5 


31-1 


40-0 


8-9 


19-2 


52-4 


88 


7-9 


1-50 


18 


6.W. Norwood 


36-8 


32-0 


41-5 


9-5 


20-4 


54-5 


90 


8-1 


1-37 


19 


,, Addington. . 


35-1 


30-5 


39-7 


9-2 


19-5 


53-6 


95 


8-6 


1-76 


22 


7. Margate . . 


37-5 


32-9 


42 2 


9-3 


22-6 


52-8 


88 


7* t 


2-12 


18 


Mean . 


36-2 


31-6 


40-9 


9-3 


18-6 


53-7 


90 


8-1 


1-52 


18 





Rainfall, October to December, 1899. 



Stations 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Stations 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 




ins. 
2 03 


ins. 
4-13 


ins. 
1 05 


4 Sl-.u^h 


ins. 
2 93 


ins. 
3 36 


ins. 
35 


Harefield 


3 56 


3-71 


1-34 


5. Abingdon 


2-18 


2 45 


32 


2 Newport 


2-41 


3-61 


1 73 


, Cookham .... 


2-04 


3-61 


19 


, Southend . . . 


1-80 


3-98 


1-47 


, BrackneU 


2-58 


3-58 


43 


3. Royston 


1 91 


3-03 


1-54 


, Sandhurst .... 


2-96 


4-21 


47 


,, Hitchin 


3 14 


3-53 


1-69 


. Dorking .... 


2-48 


5-62 


61 


Throoking 


2 16 


3-83 


1-60 


. Tenterden 


2-33 


3-18 


2-22 


4. Winslow . 


2-27 


2-69 


1-51 


, Birchin^ton. . 


1-74 


2-04 


2-09 



Mean (25 stations) : Oct., 2'44 ins. ; Nov., 3-54 ins; Dec., T53 ins. 



KEW: ITS PALACES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 

WRITTEN AND ILLUSTRATED BY A. LEONARD SUMMERS. 

T INHERE is so much that is rural, and such a soothing air of 
JL tranquility and indifference to the turmoil and progression 
of the rest of the world, about the pretty little village of Kew, 
in Surrey, that it is difficult to fully realize the fact that it lies 
within half-a-dozen miles of the greatest city in existence; 
and this, in spite of such unmistakeable signs of the times as the 
opening up of its tramway, and the erection of modern villas at 
intervals, for the adequate accommodation of its two thousand 
r.nd more inhabitants. But its quietude is due in a great 
measure to immediate surroundings, bounded as it is by the 
Thames on the north, by Mortlake on the south-east, and by the 
Botanical Gardens, the Old Deer Park, and Richmond on the 
south and west. 

Kew was formerly a hamlet belonging to Kingston, and in 
ancient records is variously called Kayhough, Kayhoo, Keye, 
Kewe, etc. Lysons says " its situation near the water-side 
might induce one to seek for its etymology from the word key, 
or quay." At the time of Henry the Seventh it is mentioned 
under the appellation of Kayhough. 

There is not much left of its earliest greatness, however; 
nearly all the noble structures, royal and otherwise, having 
been long ago demolished. The principal mansions erected at 
Kew were : (i) Old Kew Palace, or the "White House " ; (2) 
" The Dutch House " (at present known as Kew Palace) ; (3) 
"George the Third's Castellated Palace"; (4) "The Dairie 
House"; and (5) "The Lodge," in Old Deer Park, or 
" Ormond House," named after the Duke of Ormond, who 
once owned it. In the reign of Edward the Sixth, the " Dairie 
House" was held by Sir Henry Gate, knight; in Elizabeth's 
time this mansion belonged to Robert Dudley, Earl of 
Leicester, and later, to Sir Hugh Portman, the Dutch 
merchant who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth. 



148 KEW. 

" Suffolk Place," mentioned in a court-roll of Elizabeth's 
time as having just been pulled down, is thought to have been 
the residence of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and his 
third wife, widow of Louis XII. of France, lived here. Sir 
John Pickering, Lord- Keeper of the Great Seal during the 
reign of Elizabeth, resided at Kew, and frequently entertained 
Her Majesty there. (See Sydney State Papers, Vol. i, p. 376). 

"The White House"; or, as it afterwards became called, 
"Kew House," belonged to Richard Bennett, Esq. (son of 
Sir Thomas Bennett, Lord Mayor of London, 1603), in the 
middle of the seventeenth century, and eventually descended 
to the Capel family; Lady Capel, wife of the Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland, 1692-6, died here in 1721, and was interred in the 
chapel, now the parish church. Samuel Molyneux next came 
into the property, and died in 1728. About 1730, Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, obtained a lease of Kew House, and made 
many additions and improvements thereto. When Frederick 
died, in 1751, the Princess- Dowager of Wales, made still 
further improvements to the place. At the death of the 
Princess, in February, 1772, Kew House became the frequent 
residence of her son, King George the Third, who bought the 
estate, which, in due course, was inherited by his family, and 
enlarged from time to time. His Majesty was very fond of the 
old house, and stayed in it about three months of each year. 
Kew House, or " The Old Palace," as afterwards described, 
was demolished in 1803, a castellated palace having been 
commenced, by command of the King, upon a spot adjacent to 
the Thames, in " Richmond Gardens." This palace, however, 
was never finished internally, although a considerable amount 
of money had been expended on its exterior, nor was it ever 
inhabited by the King ; and after his decease it was sold by 
order of George the Fourth. The Castellated Palace was 
pulled down in 1828. 

The house at present existing, and called Kew Palace 
(originally the Dutch House), stands on a site adjoining the 
Botanical Gardens, one side facing the river, and within a 
stone's throw of the green. It was, probably, erected in the 
time of James the First, by Sir Hugh Portman, who also 
owned the " Dairie House." His descendant, Sir John 



KEW. 149 

Portman, sold it in 1636 to Samuel Fortrey, Esq., and, in 
1697, we find it was alienated to Sir Richard Levett. Queen 
Caroline, when making her "improvements in Richmond 
Gardens," in George II.'s reign, took a long lease of 
the house, which had not expired in 1781, when the freehold 
was purchased for Queen Charlotte, by whom it had been 
previously used as a nursery for the royal offspring. Here it 
was that the Prince of Wales afterwards George IV. was 
educated by the Rev. Dr. Markham. At a later period, this 
house became known as "Queen's Lodge"; and, notwith- 
standing the fact that the apartments are inconveniently small, 
it appears to have been a favourite residence of the younger 
members of the family. Queen Charlotte died there on the 
i7th November, 1818, after a long illness. Kew Palace is a 
red-brick building, in the Dutch style of architecture, and of 
pleasing appearance ; but not particularly imposing, either 
outside or inside, and scarcely strikes one as being a " Palace," 
in the modern-day sense of the word ; neither would one 
expect it to have been held in such high esteem by royalty. 
Over the door-way may still be seen the initials "F.S.C.," with 
the date 1631. Inside, the massive brass door-plates yet 
remain, with the royal arms, the Prince of Wales' feathers, and 
"F.P.W." (Frederick, Prince of Wales) engraved thereon. 
The interior is of panelled oak, and painted white throughout. 

There is an old sun-dial on the lawn in front of the Palace, 
which denotes the precise spot where, in 1725, the Rev. James 
Bradley made the first observations which resulted in his 
discovery of the aberration of light, and the nutation of the 
earth's axis. 

Kew Green, close by, forms the site of other famous houses, 
the principal of those remaining at present being " Cambridge 
Cottage" and "The Herbarium." Cambridge Cottage occupies 
a site upon which Lord Bute's house once stood, on the green, 
in immediate proximity to Kew Church the roadway only 
dividing and is at present the most important house in the 
neighbourhood. Subsequently it belonged to Mr. Planta, and 
in 1837 came into the possession of the late Duke of 
Cambridge, who was instrumental in enlarging and improving 
it. It is a plain brick building, almost completely covered 



I 5 o KEW. 

with ivy, the effect of which adds greatly to the charm of the 
delightful grounds. The house contains a fine library, well filled 
with good books; and many valuable oil-paintings and portraits 
of various branches of the royal family adorn its walls. It is 
now 7 owned by the present Duke of Cambridge, who courteously 
gave me his permission to make the accompanying drawing 
of the place, showing the tower of Kew Church in the 
immediate back-ground. His Royal Highness seldom stays 
there now ; he resides for the major portion of the year at his 
Park Lane mansion, Gloucester House. 

"The Herbarium" (one of Lord Bute's "houses") was 
built in 1771, close to the site of Cambridge Cottage, and 
belonged to Robert Hunter. In 1830, William IV. granted 
it to the Duchess of Cumberland; after the late Duke's 
accession to the throne of Hanover it was known as 
the " King of Hanover's House," and he stayed there 
occasionally until his death, in 1851. The blind King of 
Hanover (Duke Ernest's son) also lived in this house. Close 
by, there stood, nearly 200 years ago, the house of Sir Peter 
Lely. 

Quite a number of great and famous people have from time 
to time made the picturesque little Green their home : the 
Lord Boston, the Lord Chamberlain ; General Graeme, the 
Queen's Secretary; and the Master of the Horse. Dr. Turner, 
the botanist, lived there in 1560, and in our own day, Sir Arthur 
Helps, the essayist. The Green once formed the scene of the 
celebrated fair (Kew Fair was ordered by the Vestry to be 
abolished on the i8th of May, 1781), in the days when Kew 
boasted a pound, a cage, a pair of stocks, and a watch- 
house for law-breakers; and it was not until about 1845 
that the last trace of these quaint things had entirely 
disappeared from the vicinity. The watch-house is described 
as having been close to the " chappie yard," and the cage was 
on the north side of the present church. 

Kew Church, built of red brick, stands on the open area 
of the Green, on a plot of ground granted by Queen Anne, 
who also gave one hundred pounds towards the building 
expenses (about 5oo/.) It was completed and consecrated 
as the " Chapel of St. Anne, of Kew Green," on the I2th 




Old Kew Bridge. 




Kew Church. 
From drawings by A. Leonard Summers. 



KEW. 151 

of May, 1714. As early as 1522 there was a small, private 
chapel at Kew licensed by the Bishop of Winchester, but 
that license reserved the rights of the vicar of Kingston 
of which parish Kew then formed part. The present 
church was greatly enlarged and restored in 1837-8, by 
Sir Jeffry Wyattville ; and King George III. (said to have 
been very fond of this church) built the royal gallery at its 
west end. In 1883 a new chancel was added, and a mortuary 
chapel, crowned with a small cupola. In this mausoleum rest 
the remains of the late Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. 
The monuments have been affixed against the walls in a 
uniform style, the pews are of grained oak, and the roof is 
supported at the sides by Doric columns, and at the ends 
by pilasters. The alter-recess contains tables of the Lord's 
Prayer and Commandments, and in a specially constructed 
recess there is a small organ supposed to have belonged to 
Handel, and presented to the church in 1823. Many handsome 
and interesting memorials may be seen in the church, including 
those to the Dowager Lady Capel ; Elizabeth, Countess of Derby 
(daughter of Thomas, Earl of Ossory) ; Sir John Day, F.R.S., 
Advocate-General of Bengal; Joshua Kirby, F.R.S. (author of 
" Perspective of Architecture," 1761); and Francis Bauer, 
F.R.S., who died at his house on the Green in 1840; while 
Gainsborough, Zoffani, Meyer, and other celebrated people lie 
buried in the churchyard. 

Kew Observatory stands in the Old Deer Park, adjoining 
the Botanical Gardens. This building was erected at the 
expense of George III. in 1768-9, from designs of Sir 
William Chambers who also erected the " Alhambra," the 
" Mosque," the Gothic Cathedral, and other ornamental 
buildings at Kew, long since taken down. It is a three-storied 
building, on an elevated base, and surmounted by a moveable 
dome. Here were made some of the earliest astronomical 
observations. 

Coming now to matters relating to the river at Kew, it is a 
particularly opportune moment to take a survey of the means 
of communication which the inhabitants of Kew have had 
with the opposite bank of the river Thames, for this year of 
grace, 1900, will see the last of the present old stone bridge 



i 5 2 KEW. 

that has stood there for more than a hundred years. Even 
now, as I write, the work of demolition is in active progress, 
and in a very brief period the whole structure will have become a 
thing of the past. A new and much wider bridge will be erected 
in place of this stone bridge, which, though of picturesque 
appearance, was dangerously narrow and of inconveniently 
steep approach. 

Originally there was a horse-ferry between the shores 
of Kew and Brentford, and the owner of that ferry, Robert 
Tunstall, petitioned Parliament on February the I2th, 1757, 
for permission to erect a bridge. An Act was passed, on the 
I7th March in the same year (receiving royal assent on the 
28th June) to construct a bridge ; and in the following year 
another Act was passed to alter the site of the proposed bridge. 
Accordingly the work was commenced, the first stone of the 
bridge being laid on the 2Qth April, 1758. The bridge, when 
finished, consisted of no less than eleven arches, mostly of 
wood. It was neither successful as a financial speculation, 
nor as a bridge, and had but a short existence. As 
might have been expected, it began to rot, necessitating 
temporary repairs in 1782, and almost immediately afterwards 
it appears to have been disused. TunstalPs son next tried his 
hand at bridging; and, entirely at his own cost, erected a 
stone bridge, that now being destroyed. The first stone 
was laid on the 4th June, 1783. It was completed 
and thrown open to the public on September 22nd, 1787. 
Mr. Thomas Robinson, another enterprising speculator, bought 
the bridge in 1819, for 22,ooo/., and retained the property until 
the year 1873, when it was finally purchased by the joint 
committee of the Corporation of London and the Metropolitan 
Board of Works, and the tolls abolished. 

Present-day interest in Kew, so far as concerns the general 
public, is principally centred in the Botanical Gardens, the 
average visitor, possibly, knowing little else about the 
neighbourhood beyond that it is a sleepy little place with a 
large green and a pleasant promenade beside the river. 

The Royal Gardens at Kew are, of course, a study in 
themselves, and, quite apart from a botanical point of view, 
interesting and lovely in the extreme ; they cover 270 acres. 



COWPER'S HOUSE AT OLNEY. 153 

Admirers of flowers may spend whole days here midst a 
seemingly endless variety of the choicest flowers and plants of 
all countries and climes ; and particularly pretty sights in this 
direction are the water-lily house and the rhododendron walk. 
In the Kew portion of the grounds, one of the principal 
buildings is the Museum commenced in the fifties and extended 
in 1881, in which are three floors for the accommodation of the 
fine collection of foods, drugs, timber, and miscellaneous things 
of both scientific and botanical interest. Facing this building, 
on the opposite side of the ornamental lake which divides them, 
is the Palm House, built in 1845, at a cost of something like 
33,ooo/. This structure is entirely of glass, 362ft. in length and 
looft. broad. The Chinese Pagoda, one of the remaining 
buildings of Sir William Chambers, stands at the Richmond 
end of the gardens, and is a picturesque, ten-storied octagonal 
building. Being 163 feet high, a good view is commanded 
from its top, which is reached by a spiral-staircase. 
Unfortunately, the public are now no longer allowed the 
privilege of entering it. 



COWPER'S HOUSE AT OLNEY. 

BY THOMAS WRIGHT, AUTHOR OF " THE LIFE OF 
WILLIAM COWPER," ETC. 

ON the 25th of April it will have been just one hundred 
years since William Cowper died, and on that day, we 
may be sure, the thoughts of tens of thousands will be directed 
to the little town of Olney, and the old-fashioned red-brick 
house in its Market Place where so many of the poet's best 
years were spent, and so much that is precious was given to the 
world. 

Cowper is dear to the hearts of Englishmen, not only 
because they cherish his works, but because also they love the 
man. His sweet and kindly nature has captivated all who have 
enquired into his life's story, whilst the terrible belief that 
haunted him and the anguish that rent his soul, have excited 
their constant wonder and fervent pity. 

L 



154 COWPER'S HOUSE AT OLNEY. 

A shy a painfully shy and sensitive man, Cowper could 
scarcely have found a spot more suited to his nature than the 
quiet and secluded town of Olney, for here he was completely 
cut off from the great world from which he was so anxious to 
separate himself. Much, however, has since been changed ; 
the tootling of the Wellingborough coach, for one thing, has 
given place to the snort of the locomotive, and Olney is now 
less than two hours distant from the metropolis. 

" Orchard Side," as Cowper's House was often called, 
situated on the south side of Olney Market Place, is a building 
of red-brick with stone dressings, and in Cowper's day boasted 
a " mimic face of architrave and frieze," removed about 1820. 
To its castellated appearance Cowper himself refers in a letter 
of July 3rd, 1786. William Unwin called it a prison. The 
part occupied by Cowper and his beloved friend Mrs. Unwin 
for they never occupied the whole was the western half 
entered by the door- way above the pair of steps. The two 
windows to the left of this doorway are those of Cowper's 
famous parlour ; the window on the right is that of his hall. 
The eastern half the house I have thought fit to call Dick 
Coleman's House, because it was inhabited by Cowper's 
protege, Dick Coleman (brought as a lad from St. Albans) and, 
as Cowper adds, Dick's wife and a thousand rats. 

The passage into which the front door of Cowper's house 
now opens, and the small room on the right were originally 
one and formed Cowper's Hall. At the back of the Hall was 
a " port-hole," through which the hares, Puss, Tiney, and Bess, 
whose sleeping box seems usually to have stood in the kitchen, 
used to come leaping out to their evening gambols. As the 
hall door opened into the street, visitors, when the hares were 
out, were " refused admittance at the grand entry, and referred 
to the back door as the only possible way of approach." The 
furniture of the hall consisted of a box sometimes used for the 
hares, a dove cage converted into a cupboard, and a paralytic 
table, all three Cowper's own workmanship, and prized 
accordingly. 

The illustrious parlour is about thirteen feet square, the 
walls are wainscotted for about a yard from the floor, and the 
windows retain their original inside shutters. 



COV/PER'S HOUSE AT OLNEY. 155 

Cowper's favourite seat in the daytime was at the second 
window from the front door, and here the ruddy-faced blue- 
eyed poet may be pictured, sitting in his parrot-like green and 
buff suit, the familiar white cap on his head, his silver stock 
buckle at his neck, and his silver shoe buckles on his square- 
toed shoes. It was from this window he saw the post-boy 

" With spattered boots, strapped waist, and frozen locks, 
News from all nations lumbering at his back." 

deliver his " expected bag" at the Swan, a balconied inn a few 
score yards distant ; and it was from this window, too, he first 
beheld Lady Austen at whose suggestion he wrote the Task 
who, with her sister, was entering the draper's shop opposite. 
The shop is still a draper's, and I have suggested that the 
following lines should be set over the door : 

Had Lady Austen never stood 

Within this famous portal, 
The Poet never might have penned 

His masterpiece immortal. 

But it is in the evening when the shutters are closed and 
the sofa is wheeled to the fire that we like best to see the poet, 
with Mrs. Unwin, Lady Hesketh, Lady Austen, Newton or 
Bull for companion, and the aroma of tea and toast loading the 
atmosphere. 

" Now stir the fire, and close the shutters fast, 
Let fall the curtains, wheel the sofa round, 
And while the bubbling and loud hissing urn 
Throws up a steamy column, and the cups 
That cheer but not inebriate, wait on each, 
So let us welcome peaceful evening in." 

The large room above the hall and part of the parlour was 
Cowper's bedroom. 

In the autumn of 1899 Mr. W. H. Collingridge, of London, 
who for many years had owned Cowper's house, earned the 
gratitude of all lovers of Cowper by presenting the property to 
the town of Olney. It was a generous act, performed at a 
fitting moment, for the house can now be turned into a Cowper 
Library and Museum ready for the influx of visitors on Cen- 
tenary Day. It is proposed to remove the present wooden 



156 COVVPER'S HOUSE AT OLNEY. 

partition dividing the hall, and to re-open the hares' "port-hole," 
and so restore Cowper's hall to its former appearance. The 
hall and the parlour, and, possibly Cowper's bedroom, would 
form the museum. The contents will consist of various relics 
of Cowper some gifts, others loans portraits of himself, and 
his friends, views of the scenery he describes, copies of the 
various editions of his works, and of works relating to him ; in 
short anything and everything that such a sanctuary should 
contain. As Carlyle's house at Chelsea, or Shakespeare's at 
Stratford, so Cowper's at Olney. 

There are in existence at least eight different portraits of 
Cowper (i) Cowper as a lad (in the possession of Sir Charles 
Dilke) ; (2) A pastel by John Russell, R.A., drawn about 1763; 
(3) A shadow taken at Olrey ; (4) An oil painting by Abbot, 
1792 ; (5) A portrait in crayons by Romney, 1792 ; (6) An oil 
painting by Romney (in the National Portrait Gallery); (7) The 
Sketch by (Sir) Thomas Lawrence ; (8) The portrait by Jackson 
(at Panshanger). 

A word respecting No. 6, which was reproduced from 
a photograph by Messrs. Walker and Boutall, in the 
January number of The Home Counties' Magazine. I had seen 
the original, but always doubted whether it was genuine. On 
receiving the magazine I was still unconvinced, when the idea 
occurred to me to turn the picture sideways. I did so, raising 
slightly the nearer edge. It was Cowper in a moment. Let 
anyone else acquainted with the various portraits of the poet do 
the same, and he will be startled with the strikingness of the 
likeness. Yet, looked at in the ordinary way, there is, to my 
mind at least, very little that suggests the " dear original." 

A gravel walk of thirty yards led, in Cowper's time, from 
the house to the famous summer-house, a tiny building, "not 
much bigger than a sedan chair," in which the poet wrote many 
of his minor compositions. This is now on a separate property. 
Between the summer house and the vicarage extends an orchard 
which, on account of the sum paid annually by Cowper and 
Newton for right of way through it, is generally called "Guinea 
Field." Such are a few of the associations of Cowper's House, 
but many others will be recalled by students of his poems and 
letters, the most beautiful of which, such as the Lines " On the 



I 5 6 



COVVPER'S HOUSE AT OLNEY. 



THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 157 

Receipt of my Mother's Picture," "The Lines to Mrs. Unwin," 
the Descriptive Passages in the Task, and the Letters to 
Lady Hesketh, are, it is scarcely necessary to say, among the 
finest things in literature. 



The manuscript of Cowper's " Yardley Oak," the first page 
of which is reproduced opposite, came into my possession 
many years ago. Yardley Oak is still in existence. It 
is situated on the outskirts of Kilwick Wood, about two 
miles and a half from Olney. In a letter to Lady Hesketh, 
dated September I3th, 1788, the poet wrote : " I walked with 
Mr. Gifford yesterday on a visit to an oak on the border of 
Yardley Chase, an oak which I often visit, and which is one of 
the wonders that I show to all who come this way, and have 
not seen it. I tell them it is a thousand years old, believing it 
to be so, though I do not know it." The poem was written in 
1791, but was not published during Cowper's life-time. It was 
discovered among his papers by his biographer, Hayley, with 
the following memorandum : " Yardley Oak in girth, feet 22, 
inches 6 J ; the Oak at Yardley Lodge, feet 28, inches 5." 

W. H. COLLINGRIDGE. 



THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 
BY REV. H. J. E. BURRELL. 

THE village of Littlebury, in Essex, is traversed by the 
main road between London and Newmarket, and at one 
time enjoyed from its position some small importance; but now 
the old coaching inns with ample stabling possibilities are 
but shadows of their former greatness, and the parish is 
practically unknown, save perhaps to bicyclists, who skim 
unheeding through its streets, far more intent upon creating 
a " new record," than interested in any record of the past 
which the place may happen to possess. 

We will begin by clearing up the history of the manor of 
Littlebury; for, like the historj- of scores of manors throughout 



158 THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 

England, it has been much confused by county historians. 
Morant states that from the beginning of the ninth century, 
Littlebury " belonged to a religious house in the Isle of Ely, 
and was inhabited by eight priests and their wives and 
families " an interesting statement, reminding us that at that 
period the celibacy of the clergy did not everywhere prevail. 

In the year 970, the Bishop of Winchester bought the Isle 
of Ely, and at once spoiled this little scene of domestic 
happiness by ejecting the then inmates in favour of an Abbot 
and his more ascetic monks. Later still we read that the fifth 
abbot, Leofric, let out the farms of the monastery on condition 
that the tenants should find the house maintenance all the year. 
Littlebury was to find two week's provision. The Domesday 
account also states that the monastery holds " Litelbyriam," 
and that there was there "pannage" (feeding for pigs), four 
mills, three hives of bees (vasa opium) ; that the manor was 
worth 20/.,and possessed a "berewick," called Strathola," which 
two individuals, William and Elwin, held. In this ''berewick," 
or hamlet, we recognise the neighbouring parish of Strethall. 

In 1108 the Bishopric of Ely was formed, and was endowed 
in part with lands taken from the Ely Monastery, which was 
considered to have grown too powerful. Littlebury was in all 
probability included among the estates then transferred. For 
in 1286, on a vacancy occurring in the see of Ely, and the 
usual return of the Episcopal property being made to the 
Crown, Littlebury is mentioned as belonging to the Bishop. 
In this return, it seems that the rents of the free and villain 
(serf) tenants amounted to 4/. 195. 10^., that the mill 
brought in il. 6s. 6d., and also that the apples sold for 
7s. 2d. Twelve years later we find from a similar source 
that the tenants were called upon to render "whytepund," 
"war-silver," and "average." Whytepund and war-silver 
are evidently taxes, the latter being levied for purposes 
of war, but " average," which is derived from a word 
meaning a beast of burden, imposed the service of carting, or 
conveying the landlord's goods. There were then in the manor 
two water mills, and the further detail is added that the sale of 
85 hens yielded IDS. fyd., from which it would seem that at 
present prices poultry farming was not a profitable occupation. 



THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 159 

We must remember though that the purchasing power of money 
was then vastly greater than at present. 

Amongst other miscellaneous information, the record tells 
us that there were in Littlebury 8 " virgarii." A virgarius was 
the holder of a " virgate " a piece of land of varying size, 
sometimes amounting to as much as 40 acres. In return for 
his holding, he was obliged to perform for his over-lord certain 
"works" or services, connected with the tilling of the soil. 
At Littlebury the tenants appear to have been as liberally 
treated in the way of holidays as an Eton school-boy ; for they 
were excused " one work " on every feast day falling on a 
Monday, Wednesday, or Friday, and during the octaves of the 
four great church festivals. 

A year later, a more interesting survey of the manor occurs, 
which proves the existence there of a hall, where the Bishop 
sojourned on his visits to the manor. The building contained a 
principal chamber, and another chamber annexed, for the 
use of the Bishop's Chamberlain. There were two chapels a 
large and a small, probably adjoining the hall. The stabling 
was extensive, and there was a granary with other farm 
buildings. The dove-cote, usually an important manorial 
appendage, is not referred to. Possibly this hall, or part of it, 
may survive in the quaint old building known as Gatehouse 
Farm, in the garden of which there is still the ruined bowl of 
an old font. This font could not have been removed from 
the parish church by some primitive "restorer," since the 
example still there belongs to an earlier period, so that it is 
probably the font from one, or other, of the Bishop's two 
chapels, of which no traces are now visible. 

We must now pass by 200 years, for I have been unable to 
discover any information, illustrative of the history of Littlebury 
during the I4th and I5th centuries. But in the year 1600 
Martin Heton, then Bishop of Ely, exchanged with Queen 
Elizabeth various lands belonging to his See, and with them 
Littlebury. The Queen on September soth, 1601, for the sum 
of 7,ooo/., granted to Thomas Sutton, the famous merchant, 
and the founder of Charterhouse, the same manor of Littlebury, 
and also that of Hadstock. Sutton, by his will (December 



160 THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 

nth, 1611) bequeathed these two manors to Thomas, Earl of 
Suffolk, on condition that within one year of his decease, the 
Earl should pay to his executors the sum of io,ooo/. The 
Earl appears to have paid the money, since he died possessed 
of the manors in 1626. If these manors were a desirable 
bequest at the cost of io,ooo/., it is evident that, in the first 
instance, Sutton must have made a very profitable bargain with 
a Queen who was notorious for her closeness and keen business 
capabilities ; but it is not unreasonable to suppose that Sutton 
may have obtained the lands for the small sum of 7,ooo/. in 
consideration of the great financial services he is known to have 
rendered to the Crown during the Spanish War. 

Having spoken of the history of the chief manor, a few 
lines on the sub-manors will be interesting. There were 
two sub-manors, Burdeux or Netherhall, and Catmere Hall. 
It seems that Edward III. allowed the grant to the Prior and 
Convent of Ely of " certain lands and rents in Nether 

Hall for an anniversary of John de Hothum, 

late Bishop of Ely, to be celebrated in the Priory 
aforesaid;" i.e., the lands were granted to sustain an annual 
celebration of mass on behalf of the departed prelate. At the 
dissolution of the monasteries, they passed to the Dean and 
Chapter by grant of King Henry VIII. The Dean and 
Chapter, however, do not seem to have kept a too exact 
account of their possessions ; for in the reign of Elizabeth 
some Chancery proceedings show that one William Marshall, 
farmer of the rectory or parsonage of Littlebury (the Bishop of 
Ely being patron), disputed the payment of his tithe to the 
Cathedral Body ; and that the only evidence which they were able 
to produce in favour of their claim was that " their predecessors 
had time out of mind had out of the same rectory a portion of 
tithes from a parcel of ground within the parish of Littlebury, 
but not certainly known what ground ! " Even at this early 
time, it is evident that the collection of tithe was not always 
unattended with difficulty. 

The second sub-manor, Catmere Hall, or Gatemere, after 
being in various hands, became the possession of the Earl of 
Suffolk, whom we have already noticed as lord of the chief 
manor of Littlebury. The Hall, which must have been of 



THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 161 

considerable size, was long ago demolished, though traces of 
the moat which surrounded it still remain. 

The chief manor, and the two subinfeudations became, 
subsequently to the reign of Elizabeth, the property of the 
Earls of Bristol, from whom they were purchased in the 
early part of this century by Richard Aldworth, second Baron 
Braybrooke, to whose family they now belong. 

Let us pass on to deal with the history of Littlebury 
as a parish, and our remarks will centre in the church, which 
stands within the area of a Roman encampment, and dates 
from the middle of the i2th century. At one time there was 
attached to it a chantry, of which there is now no trace. The 
existence of a chantry does not, however, of necessity, imply a 
structural addition to a church ; for frequently it was founded 
at an existing altar, though it sometimes took the form of 
an independent building in the churchyard, or even at some 
distance from the parent building. At Littlebury there is a 
hamlet called Chapel Green, where once stood a chapel. This 
was, perhaps, the chantry chapel, but it may equally well have 
been one of the two chapels already alluded to in reference to 
the Bishop's house. 

Whether a chantry was a mere "annexe" to the church, 
or was an entirely separate edifice, it is clear that its priest was 
always subordinate to the priest of the parish, and frequently 
helped him in his ministrations an arrangement which many 
a hard worked clergyman might be now disposed to envy. 
But the main duty of the chantry priest, for the performance 
of which he received his stipend, was to sing masses for 
the soul of the founder, and for the alleviation of his sufferings 
in purgatory. In course of time, how r ever, at Littlebury, as in 
other places, the founder's name became forgotten, though no 
such lapse of memory occurred as regards his benefaction. 
For the returns in the reign of Henry VIII. show that " lands 
and tenements had been given for the maintenance of a priest 
for ever," and that " the said priest doth say divine service 
within the parish church"; and in the returns of the next reign 
it is stated, in addition, that the Chantry Commissioners were 
unable to discover for what purpose the said lands were put in 
feoffment, for that we cannot see any foundation thereof." It 



162 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

was, however, " supposed that the parishioners of Littlebury 
upon devotion did find the priest to serve the cure there " ; a 
conjecture to the credit of the village indeed, but one which 
the founder of pious memory would scarcely have approved (!) 
We are also informed that Sir John Holy well, clerk, " of good 
conversation, litterate, and having none other provision," was 
then the incumbent of the Chantry, and that he received yearly 
2os. from the rent of a "garden plott called ClyfTes." No 
goods, plate or chattels belonged to the chantry. 

(To be continued). 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

BROMLEY AND LEWISHAM, KENT. Can any genealogist 
contribute further information relating to the persons mentioned 
in the following records ? Common Roll, No. 51, Hilary 14 
Hen. VIII. [A.D. 1522-3], m 2id., Kent. Sir James Yarford, 
knight, gives 6s. 8d. for licence to make an agreement with 
William Poynton and Johanna his wife, and Thomas More 
and Katharine his wife, daughters and co-heiresses of Hugh 
Vyolett, otherwise called Hugh Ferrour, concerning a messuage, 
a garden, four acres of land, 14 acres of meadow, four acres of 
pasture, and six acres of wood in the above parishes. Amongst 
the Feet of Fines for Kent in the same Term, No. 29 relates 
to this property, and is between Sir James Yarford, knight, 
John Cowland, Robert Clerkson, and Edmund Kemp of the 
one part, who give 4O/., and William Poynton and Thomas 
More, with their respective wives of the other part. Sir James 
was Mayor of London in 1519, and was buried at St. Michael's 
Bassishaw. His will was proved in 1527 (P.C.C. 20, Porch), and 
that of his widow, Dame Elizabeth (formerly Style) in 1548 
(P.C.C. 13, Populwell). At the dates of their wills they still held 
property in these parishes, and the widow left it to the family 
of Style ; they also had possessions in London, Essex, Surrey, 
and Middlesex. The other persons named I have at present 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 163 

failed to trace. In Harl. MS. 6072, Brit. Mus., there is a drawing 
of the Yarford coat-of-arms, and mention of the monumental 
inscription. E. M. POYNTON. 

THE OLD FIVE HORSE SHOES, MARKYATE, HERTS. In the 
ceiling of the bar parlour is a beam spanning from front to 
back walls, about 12 feet long, which is literally a tree as felled, 
with only the lower segments roughly axed off, leaving the trunk 
about i foot 6 inches across, and gradually widening out to 
about 3 feet at the base of the root. The building is now in a 
state of decay, and the licence has been renewed to new 
premises. PERCIVAL C. BLOW, A.R.I.B.A., St. Albans. 

GRIM'S DYKE NEAR PINNER STATION. Few travellers 
on the London and North Western Railway, from the direction 
of Watford and Bushey towards London, are aware that very 
shortly after passing the county boundary of Herts and 
Middlesex, when approaching the station of " Pinner and 
Hatch End," about 300 yards to the north of it, the line 
intersects the ancient earthwork called Grim's dyke or Grim's 
ditch. The mound and ditch were, till recently, distinguishable 
on both sides of the line; but those on the east side are now 
in course of rapid obliteration, owing to the modern 
earthworks in connexion with the formation of new streets 
cutting across the old dyke at right angles by two parallel 
roadways, part, apparently, of Royston Park Building Estate. 
Attention is now directed to the fact in the hope that some 
resident antiquary or archaeologist may take interest in the 
matter, and be on the alert to watch for any article turning up 
under the spade calculated to throw light on the dim history 
of the old earthworks. G.P.N. 

THE UNWIN FAMILY IN ESSEX. Can any reader give me 
information as to the early history of this family ? I have for 
some years past been collecting material for a complete 
pedigree, but find great difficulty with the I5th and i6th 
centuries. At Castle Hedingham the earlist reference is to 
" Martha Onwyn, alias Onion, daughter of Matthias Onwyn, 
alias Onion, was baptised 24th August, 1606," then follow 
baptisms of eight other children. Did this Matthias come from 



164 REPLIES. 

Stephen Bumpstead ? I think so. Who was his father ? I 
shall be pleased to place any information I have at the disposal 
of any correspondent who may be interested. GEORGE 
UNWIN, 27, Pilgrim Street, Ludgate Circus, E.G. 

FARLEIGH COURT, SURREY. I am just now very much 
interested in the history of the village of Farleigh (or Farley), 
Surrey, which lies just four miles south of Croydon. Can anyone 
tell me where information can be found with regard to the old 
moated grange of Farleigh Court, which only survives in the 
farm house of that name ? Or, are there any records of what 
family lived there ? WALTER H. GODFREY, " Farleigh," 
Berlin Road, Catford, Kent. 



REPLIES. 

PRONUNCIATION OF KENTISH PLACE-NAMES (i, pp. 78, 269, 
346 ; ii, p. 87). It is very possible that it is, or was, a Kentish 
practice to pronounce v as w, but the instances given by your 
correspondent M.T.P. are not in point. The Latin vadum 
(more properly, uadum), has nothing to do with the place-names 
Iwade and St. Nicholas-at-Wade, nor is the i in Iwade the 
initial letter of Insula. Both these names are English, and are 
derived from the A.S. wadan. Germ, waten, to wade. The A.S. 
subst. is gewczd, plur. gewadu, a ford, which regularly becomes 
iwade in Middle-English. Later on the initial i is dropped, 
and we get the form wade. The similarity to uadum depends 
on the curious fact that Latin throws an original Indo-Germanic 
dh into d, when it comes between two vowels. By the same 
law the Indo-Germanic neuter sb. wadhom is necessary to 
account for the German form waten, and the A.S. form wadan. 
By this law, therefore, commonly known as Grimm's Law, we 
know that though the Latin uadum is cognate with the English 
wade, neither is derived from the other, but both are 
independent vocables. The Anglo-Saxons, doubtless, had a 
ford at both the places mentioned by your correspondent, but 
there is nothing in the names of the places to show that the 
Romans had. The word Stoke may perhaps have the meaning 



REPLIES. 165 

of a water-crossing, as your correspondent no doubt speaks 
from personal knowledge. The A.S. stoc, however, has 
generally the meaning of a place which originally was palisaded 
round for purposes of defence. A preliminary study of Professor 
Skeat's very valuable little book, "A Primer of Etymology," 
is necessary before taking up such a thorny subject as the 
derivation of English place-names. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

STANDON MASSEY CHARITIES (p. 85). The Bell-rope 
Charity in this parish is not unique. By an entry in an old 
book of the parish of Thruxton, Herefordshire, an acre of 
land called the Bell Acre, situate in a field called Windmill, 
was given towards the buying of bell-ropes annually. The land 
is inclosed with the glebe, and let to the Rector, at a yearly 
rent of 55. Report on Charities, vol. xxxii, p. 309. EVERARD 
HOME COLEMAN, 71, Brecknock Road. 

CHARLES I. STATUE AT CHARING CROSS (Middlesex and 
Herts Notes and Queries, vol. iv., p. i). I notice reference, 
under date 6th May, 1692, to a ''Yorkshire" tavern (i.e, a 
tavern which visitors from Yorkshire frequented), with the 
sign of " The King on Horseback " at Charing Cross. This 
sign, no doubt, had reference to Le Sueur's famous statue, so 
ably described by Lord Dillon, and figured in the pages of this 
magazine for January, 1898. The tavern in question was in 
1692, suspected as a sojourning place for Jacobites (Home 
Office Warrant Book 6, p. 321). M.H. 

WESTBOURNE GREEN (pp. 6, 19). I read in Mr. Rutton's 
able article: "Tybourn, however, gained an unenviable notoriety 
by becoming at an early time as far back at least as the reign 
of Edward III. the place of public execution." This statement 
requires evidence to establish it. My own researches make the 
" Elms at Smithfield," the place of execution until the reign of 
Henry V., when it was by St. Giles Hospital, and called the 
" Novelles furches," where in 1417, Sir John Oldcastle was 
hanged, and burnt whilst hanging. It is clear from the term 
affixed that the place was newly appointed for the purpose 
of execution. Some writers have imagined that this was 
once called " Tyburn," which is altogether wrong. My belief 



i66 REPLIES. 

is that Tyburn did not become the place of execution until 
London had advanced to St. Giles's, also that it was a humane 
custom to have the place of public execution away from the 
dwellings of the living. This could easily be shown to have 
been the practice abroad as well as at at home. I think also 
it is time that we gave up the term " River Fleet " as this 
can only apply to where the tide flowed, which was up to 
Holborn Bridge. The true name of the stream was 
" Holebourne," as I have long since proved. J. G. WALLER. 

NETHER HALL, ROYDON, ESSEX (i, p. 216). Perhaps a few 
words may be admissible with reference to this subject. 
First, as to the date of erection, 1470 : It can hardly refer to the 
visible remnant of this charming specimen of brick-work, and it 
appears more likely that this was the handiwork of one of the 
Colt family not earlier than the reign of Henry VIII. From 
its general appearance I am inclined to think that we owe 
this gatehouse to Sir George Colt, who, according to Morant, 
inherited the manor in 1521, and died in 1578, but it may 
possibly be the work of his immediate predecessor. The sad 
mutilation of the erection can be judged by a comparison of the 
picture in Grose's Antiquities of England and Wales, taken 
in 1769, engraved in 1775, or of the picture drawn in 1790 for 
The Beauties of England and Wales, with that published in 
Britton's Architectural Antiquities in 1809. In the latter, as in 
the illustrations to the Excursions in the County of Essex, 1818, 
Wright's Essex, 1835, an d others, we see that the \vhole face of 
the projecting eastern bay of the tower had gone. It is 
a matter for congratulation that no very serious change has 
taken place since ; but for the mantling ivy and the loss of a 
few details, the view given in these pages (i, p. 216) is as 
that last mentioned. The loop-holing of the wall above the 
moat, the guard-room and the battlements must, like the 
machicolations, be regarded as mere architectural survivals of 
a time when defence was more a necessity than in the i6th 
century. As Mr. Gerish says, local history [or tradition] 
gives 1470 as the date of erection of Nether Hall, and tradition 
is probably right as to the hall, but not as to the beautiful gate- 
house. Grose's view dated 1775, shows the hall adjoining the 
western side of the gate tower, this has totally disappeared and 



REPLIES. 167 

was probably older, for it is recorded by Grose that within it, 
" on a door-case," were the arms of Colt and Trusbutt, similar 
to those on the tomb of Thomas Colt in Roydon Church. 
Thomas Colt married Joan Trusbutt, and died in 1476. 
Probably much older than the i6th century gate-house or the 
I5th century hall is the moat which still surrounds so much of the 
ancient enclosure ; this may have been dug by the canons of 
Waltham when they bought the manor in 1280, or may indeed 
date from an earlier age. I. CHALKLEY GOULD. 

DENE-HOLE (p. 43). The article on this subject 
leads me to think that a few notes by one who is engaged in 
making " Dene-Holes," may perhaps be of interest. In the 
neighbourhood of Hemel Hempstead a considerable quantity 
of lime used to be burnt, but owing to the development of 
lime-kilns more advantageously situated for delivery by rail, 
there is but one kiln now at work. The method still in use for 
raising the chalk is to sink pits 50 to 90 feet deep, and drive 
galleries out in all directions ; some of these galleries are 20 feet 
high and more to the roof. Recently two galleries fell in, in an 
old and disused pit, and an old workman who had helped to get 
chalk from this pit, told me that about the spot where the fall 
took place, the roof was worked out " as big as a wheat-cock," 
and that as the chalk in that spot came down "easy " they used 
to have a long ladder and poke down all they could reach. I 
know of four separate shafts which have been sunk in a space of 
about three acres, and on other brickyards in the neighbourhood 
the same thing has been going on probably for centuries. 
Local workmen tell me of chalk pits sunk and worked as 
described, and the chalk carted to the canal about two miles 
distant to be sent to the Midlands for glass-making ; one of 
these old pits fell in a few years back, carrying down an apple 
tree growing over it. In all the instances of collapse of arches 
which I have mentioned, it has been necessary to fill up the 
cavity, as its position was dangerous to people and cattle, 
but had they been left I expect they would have been 
typical " Dene-Holes." R. A. NORRIS, 43, Charles Street, 
Berkhampstead. 



REVIEWS. 

Luton Church, Historical and Descriptive, by the late Henry Cobbe, M.A. (Geo. Bell & Sons). 

It is always with a certain degree of reverence that we first open the book of 
one who has not lived to see his work through the press. "With such a feeling we 
take up the History of Lutou Church, by the late Rev. Henry Cobbe, which recalls 
to those who knew the author that kindly impetuosity and energy of manner which 
was so characteristic of him, and which is exemplified by, perhaps, an over 
eagerness to include in his history every scrap of information bearing directly or 
indirectly upon the subject in hand. The reason for including a notice of this book, 
which would appear to be outside the purview of our magazine, is that it contains 
so much relating to the Abbots of St. Albans, who were lords of a large portion of 
the parish, and exercised considerable rights there from a very early date. The 
book is divided into three parts, the first deals with the life of the parish, its vicars, 
and inhabitants, the second with the architectural details of the church, and the 
third includes a number of essays in the form of appendices on subjects referred to 
in the two earlier parts. Luton is fortunate in having a history which, by the 
researches of Mr. Cobbe, carries us back to the latter part of the eighth century. 
The real history commences with the grant by King Offa to St. Albaus Abbey of 
lands within the town, although Mr. Cobbe speculates, and with a considerable 
amount of probability, as to the earlier possessors of land there. Mr. Cobbe 
has collected a great mass of information relating to the Saxon and Early 
Norman periods, which, although his conclusions will not always bear a critical 
examination in the light of recent investigations, particularly his use of the term 
parish, and his estimate of a carucate, yet the information is brought before us in 
such a pleasa,nt manner that such slips can be passed over. We are carried through 
the history of Luton by a series of lives of those who were connected with the 
town, and this includes the lives of no inconsiderable persons, such as the faithful 
follower of Richard I., Baldwin de Bethune, the wickedest of all King John's 
wicked barons, Falkes de Breaute, the famous Sir John Wenlock, and others. 
Many ancient customs of the parish are recorded such as the yearly procession from 
Lutou to St. Albans Abbey. The architecture and heraldry, the brasses and tombs 
in the church appear to have been worked out with great care by Mr. Cobbe. His 
interpretation of the arms over the sedilia (p. 297) is open to criticism, shields 
numbers 3, 4, and 5 are, it would eeem, the arms of St. Oswyn, St. Alban, and 
St. Amphibalus, the three saints whose shrines belonged to the Abbey of St. Alban, 
and which appear in various parts of the Abbey Church. "We can conscientiously 
recommend the book to those who are interested in parochial history g-enerally, and 
the history of the parish of Luton in particular. 

The old Inns of St. Albans, with an illustrated account of the Peahen Hotel, past and present 
by F. G. Kttton, St. Albans. (Printed and published by the Proprietor of the Peahen, 1809), 

Map of St. Albans and its immediate neighbourhood by C. Wilton, Abbey Cloisters, St. 
Albans, 3d. 

Both these publications will be of considerable interest and use to the 
visitor to St. Albans of an archaeological turn of mind. Mr. Wilton's map 
marks the position of most of the interesting surviving features in and 
about the City, and the sites of many of those that do not survive, whilst Mr. 
Kitton describes, hi very interesting language the hostelries of St. Albans. Many 
as are the existing Inns, there were yet many more prior to the introduction of 
railways, for St. Albans was one of the most important coaching towns 011 the 
North Road. This fact furnishes Mr. Kitton with an excellent excuse for telling 
what he knows (and it is much) of incidents in coaching history. There are, of 
course, in various records connected with St. Albans, many references to the 
different signs by which the inns were known, and these references Mr. Kitton has 
collected together with assiduous care. The sign of ' The Peahen " is, he tells us, 
(but we confess we do not believe him) unique. Anciently the inn was not of much 
note ; but, in 1852, it absorbed its neighbour, " The Woolpack," which was one of 
the earliest and most important hostelries in the town. Though, within the last 
year or two, re -built, "The Peahen" still retains some relics of the ancient 
" Woolpack; " these include carved beams of, as Sir Gilbert Scott considered, the 
fifteenth century. It is therefore worthy a visit from archaeologists who (but, of 
course, they have souls above such sordid trifles), will find hospitable treatment at 
the hands of the ho*t, Mr. Walter Piioe. 




c 
o 

,. 



W 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN, 
BY W. PALEY BAILDON, F.S.A. 



" You enter Lincoln's Inn under a fair antient 
Gate-home." STRYPE'S STOW. 



that the Rolls House and Chapel are no more, the 
Gate House of Lincoln's Inn and the chambers on the 
south of it, are the only buildings of any antiquity left in 
Chancery Lane. It will be within the recollection of many 
that some ten years ago these relics of the past had themselves 
a very narrow escape from destruction, but all must rejoice 
that they have been preserved, and are now, thanks to recent 
repairs, likely to last for many years to come. The chambers 
may perhaps in course of time be removed to make room for 
others more in accordance with modern requirements, but there 
seems no reason why the Gate House should not remain, 
time and decay permitting, to interest many future generations 
of lawyers and antiquaries. 

In the days when every man's house was his castle, not 
only in theory, but also, not infrequently, in practice, a 
gate-house was an absolute necessity to every dwelling built on 
the court-yard plan. Many gate-houses still remain scattered 
about England; not a few still form the entrances to country 
mansions and colleges, while others, mostly those belonging to 
monastic houses, bear pathetic witness to the departed glories 
of the buildings they once guarded. London's gates have all 
disappeared, and of her once numerous gate-houses but four 
remain. These are St. James's Palace, Lambeth Palace, 
Lincoln's Inn, and St. John's, Clerkenwell. 

When the society of lawyers first took up their abode in 
Lincoln's Inn, they found there a Chapel, a Hall, and a 
Gate House, all of which have long since been rebuilt. This 
older gate is first mentioned in the records of the society in 

M 



170 THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 

1487, when $d. was paid for two iron bolts for it (i, 87).* It 
did not stand on the site of the existing gate, but probably 
lay to the south of it, about where No. 25, Old Square, now is. 
It was pulled down shortly after the erection of the new gate, 
and the Pensioner, in his accounts for 1521-2, notes the 
receipt of 7$. for the old gates (i, 201) : 

1522, Nov. 20. Agreed by all my Masters of the Bench that 
Harry See shall be assigned to the chamber in which George 
Barratt and William Roper f are admitted, and which of late was 
occupied by Serjeant Willoughby ; for which assignment he gave 
205., and also 'resigned and surrenderyd to the said Company a 
chamber beyng over the old Gate,' which he and William Hey don 
had, * which schalbe in profytt to the seid Company vjs. viij^.' 
(i, 203). 

No formal resolution for the building of a new gatehouse is 
recorded in the books of the Society, and the first intimation 
that such a work was in progress is derived from the Treasurer's 
accounts for 1517-8. 

The Treasurer accounts, inter alia, for 2O/. received from 
Sir Thomas Lovell for the new works about the gate ; and for 
ijl. 6s. 3d., the estimated value of a gold chain bequeathed by 
John Strange in the previous year, apparently for the same 
object.! 

The gold chain, as we are told later, consisted of 116 links, 
and when sold realized 16 135. 4^. (i,igi). 

The name of the designer of the Gate House is not recorded, 
but no doubt Lovell had a good deal to do with it. William 
Suliard, a Barrister of the Inn, was appointed " Supervisor of 
the Works." In 1523, mention is made of " the payne and 
labor that the said William Sulyarde haith taken abowte the 
byldyng of the newe Gate Howse of the saide Inne." (i, 204). 
It is from his accounts that most of the following items are 
taken. 

* Where nothing appears to the contrary, references are to the printed 
volumes of the Black Books. 

t The son-in-law and biographer of Sir Thomas More ; he was 
admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1518 ; called to the Bench, 1535. 

j The accounts relating to the Gate House will be found in detail in 
Vol. I. of the Black Books ; it has therefore been considered unnecessary 
to print them in full ; the principal items only are here mentioned. 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 171 

The first thing done was to pull down the old house then 
occupying the site ; this cost il. is. yd. (i } igi). The bricks were 
made in what is now the garden of the inn, but which was then 
a rough piece of ground known as the " Coney-Garth," from the 
number of rabbits in it. There must have been a considerable 
bed of clay there, for most of the old buildings of the Inn were 
built of bricks made on the spot. The clay seems to have been 
finally worked out in 1582-3, when the chambers above and 
adjoining the old kitchen were erected. 23^. 155. id. was paid 
to Thomas Nortriche, the " brykmaker," in 1518-19 (i, 191); 
and a further sum of 4/. us. for 19,000 bricks in 1520-1, while 
the cartage from the garden called the " Connyng Garth " to 
the gate cost zl. 75. Sd. (i, 200). 

It is stated in most of the books on the history of the Inn, 
that the timber for the Gate House was brought from Henley- 
on-Thames. Timber was certainly brought from Henley in 
1505, 6 and 7 (i, 143,147), but this was before the Gate House 
was begun, and was intended for other new buildings. It seems 
unlikely that sufficient remained over for the purposes of the 
Gate House. There is in 1520-1 a payment of ill. gs. Sd. for 
19 wagon-loads of timber, and for " hordes," and "quarteres," 
and for sawing (i, 200), but it does not appear where this came 
from. 

The stone work of the six windows towards the highway 
and other great stones cost 22/. los. ; and a further sum of 
i6/. 75. 5^. was paid for 43 wagon-loads of free-stone, and for the 
" apparels," that is, the fittings, of the hearths, and for cutting 
the arms above the Gate (i, 200). The lead for the roof cost 
46^., in addition to lol. for the " wurkemanschyppe " of it, and 
61. 8s. $d. to John Burwell, the King's Serjeant Plumber. 
Henry Smyth of the Savoy supplied the iron-work at a cost of 
7/. us. 2d. About 136^. was paid to the workmen, and 5/. gs. 
to the carpenter. 

The accounts are not very easy to follow, and it is not clear 
that some of the receipts do not occur twice over ; but as nearly 
as can be ascertained, the Gate House cost some 345^. This 
amount includes certain payments for woodwork for the Library, 
but these do not appear to have amounted to more than 
/. i6s. ^. 



i 7 2 THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 

The greater part of the cost was paid out of the common 
funds of the Society, some I33/. 6s. 8d. was subscribed for the 
purpose, and 63^. 135. 4^. seems to have been borrowed. 

The largest loan was that of Sir John Spencer, of which we 
find the following interesting note. 

1520. " M d that where as John Spenser, Esquyer, of his good 
and benyvolent mynde, by the handes of William Spenser, his son, 
hath lent and betaken to the company and Felyship of Lyncolles 
Inne the some of Forty powndes sterlynges for the furtheraunce of 
the byldyng of the newe Gatehowse of the seid Inne, yt is 
enactted and agreyd by vs, John Ropper,* John Skewes, Richard 
Clarke, and Robert Norwyche, Rewlers, and Benchers, of the said 
Inne, and in the name and by the consent of the hole Company, 
that the seid John Spenser, his heires and Executours, for the true 
and feythfull repayment of the seid somme at conuenyent dayes, 
shall haue suche good and substanciall suertes by his obligacions as 
the said Spenser will requyre and thynk sufficient ; And this to be 
done in Michelmas terme nex comeyng after the date herof ; wher 
vnto we bynde vs and all the hole companye and Felyship of the 
seid Inne by thes presentz subscribeyd w* oure owne handes, the 
xiijth day of Julye, in xijth yere of the Raygne of Kyng Henry 
the viijth " (i, 194). 

1523, October 12. William Spenser, son and heir and executor 
of John Spenser, knight, acknowledges the receipt of 61. 135. 4^. on 
account of the sum of 40^. lent by his father " toward the beldyng 
of the newe Gate Howse " (i, 206). 

The balance of the 40/. was paid to Sir William Spenser, as 
appears by the Treasurer's accounts for 1529-30 (i, 227). 

This Sir John Spencer was of Wormleighton, co. Warwick, 
ancestor of the family of Spencer-Churchill, Dukes of 
Marlborough. He was specially admitted to the Inn in 1507, 
and gave a hogshead of " claret wine " for his admission fee 
(i, 144). William Spencer, the son, was admitted in 1515. 

By far the largest benefactor to the new gate was Sir Thomas 
Lovell, who gave nearly one-third of the whole cost, viz. : io6/. 
135. 4^., unless, as is possible, some of the items appear twice 
over. It is commonly stated, indeed, that Sir Thomas "built " 
the Gate House, but this is incorrect. His large donations, 

* The father of William Roper; admitted at Lincoln's Inn, 1486; 
called to the Bench, 1504. 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 173 

however, seem to have induced the Benchers of the time to put 
his arms over the archway as a record of his liberality, and 
this, no doubt, has led to the erroneous assumption that he was 
the "builder." 

Sir Thomas Lovell was the fifth son of Sir Ralph Lovell, of 
Barton Bendish, co. Norfolk. He entered at Lincoln's Inn in 
1464, when he was called le terce, showing that two other 
members of his family already belonged to the Inn. Ir> 1468-9 
he served the office of Christmas Butler ; in 1469-71 he was 
Pensioner; he was Treasurer from 1472 to 1475 ; Bencher and 
Autumn Reader in 1475 ; Lent Reader in 1482. He was attainted 
by Richard III, and fought at Bosworth Field under Henry, 
Duke of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII, who, in 1485, made 
him Chancellor of the Exchequer for life. He was returned as 
M.P. for Northamptonshire in 1485, and was elected Speaker. 
In 1502 he was Treasurer of the Household and President of 
the Council. In 1503 he was made K.G., and in 1509, Constable 
of the Tower, Surveyor of the Court of Wards and Steward 
and Marshal of the Household. He was one of the executors 
of Henry VII's will. 

Lovell was a great builder. Besides the Gate House at 
Lincoln's Inn, he built East Harling Hall, co. Norfolk, 
contributed to the building of Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge, and was a large benefactor to the Benedictine 
Nunnery of Holywell, or Haliwell, in the parish of Shoreditch. 
Stow says that this house was " reedified by Sir Thomas 
Lovell, Knight of the Garter, who builded much there in the 
raignes of Hen. the Vllth, and of Hen. the Vlllth. He 
endowed this house with fayre lands, and was there buried in a 
large chappell by him builded for that purpose." Weever, in 
his Funeral Monuments, says he was a benefactor, " not onely in 
building a beautifull chappell, wherein his body was interred, 
but in many other goodly buildings." He adds, " In most of 
the glasse windowes of this House these two verses following 
(not long since to be read) were curiously painted : 

All the nunnes of Holywell 

Pray for the soul of Sir Thomas Lovel." 

Blomefield in his History of Norfolk gives another version of 



174 THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 

the rhyme, which was, he says, inscribed on a wall of the 

Priory House : 

11 All ye nunns of HaliAvell 
Pray ye both day and night ; 
For the soul of Sir Thomas Lovel, 
Whom Harry the seventh made knyght." 

Lovell had a mansion house near this nunnery, and another at 
Enfield, co. Middlesex, where he was visited by Margaret, the 
Dowager Queen of Scotland, in 1516. 

Sir Thomas was twice married, but left no issue. He died 
at his Enfield house on May 25th, 1524, and was buried in his 
chantry at Holywell under a tomb of white marble. 

A long and interesting account of the funeral is preserved 
at the Herald's College, parts of which have been printed. 

No portrait of him is known. One formerly existed in glass 
in a window in Malvern Church, and Blomefield says that " a 
brass bust of his own likeness surrounded with the garter," still 
adorned the tower of East Harling Hall, when he wrote in 
1739. Window and bust have, alas! both disappeared. 

The occasion of building the new gate was used for the 
more stringent collection of arrears due to the society from its 
members, and the sums so got in were to be devoted to that 
purpose. 

Thus, on Ascension Day, 1519, the Pensioner was ordered 
to collect all pensions * from Fellows in commons, under pain 
of expulsion, and to deliver the money to the Master of the 
Works for the new gate (i, 190). 

Fines were also utilised to swell the building fund : 

1520, Autumn Vacation. The following gentlemen were 
amerced for a doe [dama] seized and taken away at the Gate of 
Lincoln's Inn, from a certain poor man who was coming to speak 
with Danastre, and who left his horse standing at the Gate, 
bearing the said doe : Master Curzon, 35. 4^. ; Master Tounesend, 
2od. ; Master Burgh, 35. 4^. ; Master Lane, 20^. ; Master 
Smyth, 2od. ; Master Lee, 2O^f. ; Master Menell, 2od. ; Master 
Talbot, zod. Of these sums, 145. was given to Master Sulyard 

* The pension was a small annual payment made by the members of 
the Society, and was originally instituted to provide for the rent of the 
house due to the Bishops of Chichester, and for the repair of the 
buildings. 




Lincoln's Inn Gate, igoo 

Drawn by Hanslip Fletcher. 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 175 

for the building of the new gate ; the rest was given to the 
poor man in satisfaction for his doe. As the fines only amount 
to i6s. 8d., the poor man only received 2s. Sd. (i, 194). 

The chambers in the Gate House were ready for occupation 
early in 1521. Here are some of the first admissions. 

Feb. loth, 1520 [-21] " Md that it is agreid and graunted by all 
my Masters of the Benche that Sr. William Barantyne, knyght, and 
Drue Barantyne, his son, shalbe admitted in the great chambre 
directly over the grett Gate of the newe Toure or Gate-howse, wt 
the chambre and study next adioynyng one the southside of the said 
chambre; also they shall have all th'oder chambre from the steire 
dore of the said middle chambre upward on the southside to the 
dore of the ledes wtin the said Toure, except the studye in the toppe 

of the steire of the southside For the whiche speciall 

admyttaunce, as is rehersid, in the chambers afforsaid, the said Sr 
William hathe geven to th'use of the place viij/t. xiijs. iiij^. in money, 
and also hathe bestowed xx/f. in reparacions in the said romes." 
(i, 196, 197.) 

On March 4th, 1521, John and Thomas Rotheram were 
admitted to the upper chamber on the north side of the new 
gate, and on June 2Oth following, Edward Stubbys, pro- 
thonotary, was admitted to another chamber on the north side 
(i, 198). 

Doubts have been expressed as to whether the main 
passage of the Gate House was ever vaulted. The arrange- 
ments of the brick-work seem to leave little room for doubt on 
the subject,* while the fact that in 1542, 305. was paid for 
pointing the vaulting of the archway [circa estoppac' le vaute 
ibidem] (i, 261), should suffice to settle the question. 

The illustrations render any detailed description unnecessary. 
The very interesting armorial tablet, however, requires a few 
words. 

This consists of three compartments ; that in the centre has 
the arms of Henry VIII, France and England quarterly, 
within the Garter, and surmounted by a crown ; on the left are 
the arms of Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, the reputed founder 
or patron of the Society (or, a lion rampant purpure) ; and on 
the right are the arms of Sir Thomas Lovell, Lovell quartering 

* This is shown in the illustration opposite. 



1 7 6 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 



Muswell (vert, two chevronels argent, each charged with a 
cinq-foil gules), also within the Garter. Underneath is a label, 
inscribed ANNO DNI 1518. 

These arms were formerly painted and gilt, though little if 

any trace of such decora- 
tion now remains. 

Below is another tablet, 
bearing the following 
inscription : 

" Insignia haec refecta et 
decorata, Johanne Hawles, 
Armig., Solicitat. General., 
Thesaurario, 1695." 

Sir John Hawles also 
placed a small marble 
tablet on the west side. 
This bears his arms and 
initials, with the date 1695. 
The arms are somewhat 
weathered, and are now 
difficult to make out. Le Neve (Knights, p. 450), describes 
them as Quarterly; i and 4, sable, three greyhounds' heads, 
erased, argent; 2 and 3, or, a fess between three crescents, 
gules. According to the 1623 Visitation of Dorset, the fess in 
the quartering should be sable and the field argent. No name 
is given for this coat. 

In 1656-7, during the treasurership of William Prynne, 
405. was paid to William Herrenden, stone mason, for a sun- 
dial over the Great Gate (iii, 439). This must have been on 
the western front, but has long since been removed. 

(To be continued). 




QUARTERLY NOTES. 

Most of the Topographical and Archaeological Societies in 
the Home Counties have held their annual meetings during the 
past quarter, and nearly all can show a good record of work 
completed or in hand ; but we are sorry to see that the people 
of Reading do not give quite so lively a support to the 
Berkshire Archaeological Society as could be desired ; with 
Mr. C. E. Keyser as president, and the Rev. P. H. Ditchfield 
as honorary secretary, the Society ought to thrive. We notice, 
too, that the Buckinghamshire Society shows no very large 
increase of membership. We can, however, specially con- 
gratulate the Surrey Society ; aided, no doubt, by a local 
habitation, this excellent body grows apace, and its activity 
and usefulness increase proportionately. 

In Essex and Hertfordshire we find very attractive 
programmes put forth by the different societies devoted to 
subjects with which this magazine is particularly concerned. 
Specially glad are we to notice the two Hertfordshire Societies 
pulling well together, and that the East Herts Society was 
entertained on June 27th by the body which has it head-quarters 
at St. Albans. 

Just now, in the advent of the excursion season, we may be 
permitted to remind our readers of two facts : one, that thanks 
to the arrangements of Messrs. Thomas Cook and Son, special 
facilities are offered to Londoners for day-trips to places of 
historic interest ; and the other, that in a work which will very 
shortly be published, Mr. George Clinch will provide a vade 
mecum for the visitor to ancient churches in the shape of a short 
treatise on ecclesiastical architecture, furniture, decoration, 
and monuments ; many of Mr. Clinch's illustrations are drawn 
from sacred edifices in the Home Counties. 

The Hampstead Antiquarian Society continues to flourish, 
and makes its members and their friends more and more familiar 



178 QUARTERLY NOTES. 

with the history, literary, and artistic associations of the neigh- 
bourhood. We notice that it has been urging the Hampstead 
Vestry to establish a museum for local collections and an art 
gallery. We feel sure that the courteous manner in which the 
Hampstead Vestry expressed its inability to do this at present, 
will leave an open door for a renewed application. 

Talking of local collections we must not pass unnoticed 
the very excellent catalogue of Essex books and Essex authors 
which has been compiled by Mr. Z. Moon, F.R.Hist. Soc., 
librarian of the Leyton Public Libraries. No local library has 
a keener seeker after local material than Mr. Moon, and we 
wish his example was more widely imitated. Essex folk will 
appreciate his labours as much as they will the labours of their 
Archaeological Society in publishing an index to its proceedings 
from 1852 to 1895 ; applications for this work should be 
addressed to Mr. G. F. Beaumont, F.S.A., at Coggeshall. 

The Kyrle Society, too, has been busy during 1899 in 
brightening the walls of school-rooms, club-rooms, halls, and 
the like, in many dreary parts of London All Saints Girls' 
Club, Caledonian Road, Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum, and 
St. John's Mission Hall, Copenhagen Street, to mention some. 
Not only within doors has its instrumentality been in evidence ; 
it paid jbgl. out of the 1,640^., the price of Ide Hill, the breezy 
Kentish hillside depicted in these pages last year, and described 
by Miss Octavia Hill. The Society appeals for help to raise 
700^. to acquire an addition to Postmans' Park, and to add 
some 40 acres to Brockwell Park, for which over 4,ooo/. is still 
needed. 

It is pleasing on these sultry days to read of such efforts to 
secure breathing spaces for Londoners. The Corporation is 
active in regard to Finsbury Gardens, and the Middlesex 
County Council has determined to give substantial help towards 
the efforts of various local bodies in North London to acquire 
for the public the Alexandra Palace and Park. Let the reader 
of fifty years, who for one moment doubts the urgent need 
of securing this delightful spot, gaze to-day from the high land 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 179 

at Highgate, and remember the appearance of the expansive 
view as it was twenty or thirty years ago. The Alexandra 
Palace then stood in fields and woods, with but a stray house, 
or cluster of houses around it, and Hornsey was still a village. 
Now villas have swallowed up this village, and woods and 
fields have fallen a prey to the greedy builder. The grounds 
of the Alexandra Palace alone remain an open spot. 

Whilst striving to acquire fresh open spaces we must also 
be mindful to preserve ; a study of the local press to-day 
reveals a growing number of references to instances of 
" filching" of open land. A timely warning on this point was 
recently (June 7th), uttered by the " Globe." When, says the 
writer, motor-cars come into general use, our roads will need 
to be as wide as when stage-coaches rattled along them, and 
then the ground on either side of the " made " road, so often 
left " unmade," will be needed. " Riparian " owners have a 
remarkable fondness for this roadside waste and, as the 
probability of its being valuable increases, the desire for 
possession will also increase. Local public bodies should 
remember that they may rely on assistance from the Commons 
and Foot-paths Preservation Society and kindred institutions. 
Amongst these we may congratulate the Watford Field Path 
Association, whose first annual report shows much good work 
done. 

Obliteration of rustic beauty is always deplorable ; it is more 
so when wanton. Reckless lopping of trees is a very frequent 
cause of the disfigurement of pleasing landscapes, and we are 
glad to notice protests against it from many parts of the area 
to which these pages are devoted. The appearance of Morden 
College, near Blackheath, has been recently spoilt by lopping 
the beautiful limes that form the avenue to it. The clergy 
frequently offend in the matter of tree-destruction, and many 
of them will do well to study the charge recently delivered by 
the Archdeacon 'of Bucks, in which he points out the illegality 
of committing waste in churchyards. 

Destruction of the beautiful goes on as rapidly in regard to 
works of art as it does in regard to works of nature. In almost 



i8o QUARTERLY NOTES. 

every town buildings of dignity and beauty are giving place to 
erections that possess neither quality. We are reminded of 
the number of picturesque buildings in London, that have 
vanished within the past few years, by the appearance of the 
third part of the " Illustrated Topographical Record," issued 
by the London Topographical Society. The " Record " is but 
one of the publications to which members of this excellent 
Society are entitled. Its issue of maps and plans of ancient 
London has, on more than one occasion, formed the subject of 
a note in these pages, so we will now only invite our 
readers, who are earnest in the study of London topography, to 
call at 16, Clifford's Inn and enrol themselves members of this 
Society. 

By the newly opened line from South Croydon to near 
Earlswood, the Brighton Railway Company gets a line of its 
own from Croydon to the South Coast ; hitherto it has had but 
a joint occupation with the South-Eastern of the metals between 
Croydon and Redhill. With the opening of the new line the 
local service has been continued from South Croydon to Stoate's 
Nest, a newly opened station a little south of Purley. Some 
of our readers may perhaps remember the station at Stoate's 
Nest that was used when first the Brighton line was opened. 
The remains of this have now, we fancy, vanished, as have the 
remains of the old Brighton engines that used to lie huddled 
together near Horley. 

We referred in our last issue to the Government commission 
appointed to enquire into the custody of local records civil 
and ecclesiastical. Various bodies corporate and individuals 
have been invited by the Commissioners to express opinions as 
to the best means of preserving local records, and we hope soon 
to see the Commissioners' report, and to learn what steps 
Government propose to take thereon. 

Pending the issue of this report, it is a little surprising to 
observe that, on May the 2ist, a bill, introduced by Lord 
Belper, passed the House of Lords, by which bill the custody 
of diocesan records all over England is vested in the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, who are empowered to spend money for the 



THE REAL VICAR OF BRAY. 181 

due preservation of such records. No doubt the custody 
named is very excellent, but why is a portion of the whole 
question, on which we await the report of the Local Records 
Commissioners, dealt with by a special Act ? An explanation 
should be demanded when the bill comes before the Commons. 

A good deal has been done since our last issue in the way 
of making certain local records available to the student by 
means of transcription and publication. At Harrow-on-the- 
Hill the parish register has been transcribed and printed. As 
may be supposed, numerous interesting names occur in the 
register, and the work which may be obtained from the 
Rev. W. D. Williams, Byron Villa, Harrow possesses more 
than ordinary genealogical interest. 

One of the " outcomes " of the attack of war-fever through 
which the country is passing is an increased interest in regi- 
mental history, especially as regards our yeomanry and militia 
regiments. A great deal of valuable material has been gathered 
together and published ; but much of it, in a no more permanent 
form than newspaper articles. This is a pity, and we hope that 
the local newspapers in which these historical sketches have 
appeared, will see their way to issue them in book form after 
the manner of Lord Harris' excellent sketch of the history of 
the East Kent Militia. 



THE REAL VICAR OF BRAY. 
BY J. CHALLENGE SMITH, F.S.A. 

A perusal of the excellent introduction prefixed by Mr. 
James Gairdner (whose name so worthily appears in the 
recent list of Birthday Honours) to his edition of the " Paston 
Letters " makes clear to us that the sixteenth-century pourtrayal 
of Sir John FalstafFs character formed a caricature rather than 
a portrait of the veritable Sir John Fastolf, the doughty old 
warrior of King Henry the Sixth's reign. 

In the case of Symon Alen, the famed Vicar of Bray, Berk- 
shire, a similar tendency to exaggerate the shortcomings of an 



182 THE REAL VICAR OF BRAY. 

unpopular person was supplemented by the poetic licence of an 
anonymous song-writer who, proprio suo motu, associated the 
story of the tergiversating vicar with the seventeenth instead 
of the sixteenth century. 

As so very little of Symon Alen's history has been known, I 
have brought together a few notes of a biographical character. 

I have been able to find no allusion to him prior to his 
graduating at Oxford in 1539, but the home of his family is 
perhaps indicated in the will of his kinsman Thomas Alleyn, 
parson of Stevenage, Herts., dated 12-24 May, 1558, and proved 
17 February following : The testator desires to be buried at 
Stevenage, between the chancel and the " quere called Saint 
Tebalde's quere " . . . .to have convenient stone .... 
his soul to be prayed for at Stevenage, Thorne Hill, Yorks, and 
Sherlande, co. Derby. He mentions " cosyns " Langley and 
Edwards .... James Allen, of Sherland, etc.; and gives 
to his " Kuynnesman Mr. Simo, vicare of Cookesom and Braye, 
one littill white silver cuppe, with a fetherbedde, bolster, and a 

coveringe and also one fyne surples." He also 

devised various lands at Wryttelsham, etc., Kent, and in the 
counties of Leicester, Herts, Suffolk, and Lincoln, to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, for the maintenance of schools at Uttoxeter 
and Stone, in Staffordshire, and at Stevenage. These endow- 
ments are, I believe, still in operation. 

In October, 1553, Symon Alen was instituted to Cookham, 
when his sureties for payment of first fruits were John Langley, 
of St. Vedast, London, goldsmith, and William Edwards, of 
St. Michael Quern, London, vintner. Both these surnames 
occur amongst the "cosyns" mentioned in the above quoted 
will of Thomas Alleyn. 

Perhaps Symon became vicar of Bray in 1551, for in that 
year his predecessor presumably William Staverton, who 
was instituted in February, 1548-9 died. At any rate Symon 
held Bray and Cookham conjointly in 1558, as has already 
been shown. In June, 1559, he was made Canon of Windsor. 
The canonry and the vicarages of Bray and Cookham 
were all void by his death in June, 1565. He had made 
his will on the loth of that month, directing to be buried in 
the " quenes free chappell of Windsore," his wife to pay for 



THE REAL VICAR OF BRAY. 183 

the honest expenses of his burial according to the order of his 
degree, having a consideration to the poor. He mentions three 
sons, William, Robert, and Symon. The will was proved by 
his widow, Elizabeth. The entry of his burial occurs in the 
parish register of St. John's, Windsor, under date I5th June, 
1566, i.e., a whole year after his death, but a comparison of 
that register which is of course a transcript made thirty years 
later with testamentary records of the period, proves that the 
former must be very inaccurate as well as being imperfect, and 
in at least three other instances, 1565-7, the burial of a person 
is recorded several months (presumably a full year) subsequent 
to his decease. Although the entry of Symon Alen's burial 
occurs in the register of the parish church, it may be taken for 
granted that he was buried, in accordance with the injunctions 
of his will, at St. George's chapel, for the vicar of St. John's 
tells me that it was then customary to record the St. George's 
burials in the register of the adjacent church.* 

The identity of Symon Alen's wife is established by an 
inscription which was formerly in St. John's Church,t but 
which is apparently now lost : " Here lyeth buried Elizabeth 
Harden, dau : of Richard Harden t, of Farneth, in par. Prescott 
co. Lane, sometime wife of Mr. Symond Allen canon of 
Windsor, late the wife of Henry Walker, peticanon, son of 
John Walker, of Otford, co. Kent, gent., by whom this mont. 
was erected for her that lived vertuously 50 years, beloved of 
all, and departed this world in a constant approved faith, 
13 Oct., 1580." 

"Elizabeth Walker" was buried on Oct. I5th, 1580. Her 
nuncupative will, dated Oct. loth, 1580, and proved July 6th, 
1582, reads thus : " Elizabeth Walker late the wiffe of Henrye 
Walker one of her majesty's gentlemen of her free chappell of 
Windesour . . her son William Allen . . . Mr. Symon 
Alen his father ... to said William two dozen and the 

* Veracious local tradition at Bray points out another resting-place 
(with monumental brass) of the renowned vicar in the church there ! The 
monument selected for the purpose is one (the inscription plate of which is 
lost) placed to the memory of Thomas Little, 1507. 

t See Ashmole's, Berks. 

| New Windsor Register contains an entry of burial May i6th, 1563, 
Elizabeth Harden. 



i8 4 THE REAL VICAR OF BRAY. 

half of fyne napkyns, a long wasshing towell for a table . . . 
twoe newe Spanyshe saddles with theire furniture with two 
newe bridles with theire bittes and bosses ... a newe 
cloke of her husband Mr. Symon Alen faced broade withe 
velvett . . . her son Robert Alen prentize to Mr. Richard 
Needeham .... her daughter Rachell .... Item 
she bequeathed to her husband Henry Walker whom she made 
executor . . . one indenture withe an obligacion of twoe 
hundred poundes for the perfourmance thereof whiche writinges 
did concerne a promise of marriage to be donne betwene her 
and Mr. Paule Frenche, the whiche beinge broken of his parte 
she then revealed, whereas a longe tyme before she had con- 
cealed the same for divers consideracions, the whiche indenture 
and bonde she saide laye withe her husband maister Alen his 
patent of his prebend of Windsor with other writinges also, in 
a rounde blacke boxe in her greate chest, amongst her lynnen." 

This faithless Paule Frenche was also a canon of Windsor, 
1560-1600, and his will shows that he married some other lady. 
A brass which was placed in St. George's Chapel to com- 
memorate him has, with some twenty others, disappeared since 
Ashmole's time. 

Symon Alen was merely one of a large number of clergy 
who were able from time to time to conform their religious 
principles (assuming that they had any) to temporal exigencies. 
In many cases they made one more volte face than did Symon 
Alen, so as to " live and die " parsons or vicars of their respec- 
tive parishes. 

I have to thank both Mr. C. W. Holgate, Registrar to the 
Bishop of Salisbury, and Mr. Maiden, his deputy, for some 
kind help. 



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RICHARD TOTTELL, THE PRINTER, AND HIS 
CONNECTION WITH BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

BY HENRY R. PLOMER. 

SOME of those who read The Home Counties Magazine may be 
interested in the accompanying pedigree, or rather attempt 
at a pedigree, of the Tottell family, whose descendants are 
still settled at Shardeloes in the county of Bucks. I do not 
profess to have much skill in the making of pedigrees, and this 
one was only undertaken in order to unravel, if possible, the 
family connections of Richard Tottell, a noted sixteenth 
century printer. In the process, however, some interesting 
documents have been seen, and, generally speaking, the utter 
worthlessness of most of the heraldic authorities has been 
demonstrated. I may say at once that I have not tested every 
link in the chain. To do so would mean a considerable outlay 
of time and money, so that I do not pretend that, as it stands, 
the pedigree is correct ; in fact, it is my conviction that there 
are several weak links in it that has tempted me to send it to 
The Home Counties Magazine in the hope that someone more 
familiar with the history of Buckinghamshire may be able to 
fill up the blanks or correct the errors. For whatever I 
have tested I have given chapter and verse. I can only regret 
that the present owner of Shardeloes, in answer to my 
inquiries, replied that he could give me no information on the 
subject. The family name Tottell is spelt in an infinite 
variety of ways, such as Tothill, Tottyl, Tuthill, Tottle and 
Tathyll. The Devonshire form appears to be generally Tothill ; 
in Norfolk it comes out Tuthill ; and in London it was 
generally Tottell or Tottyl. 

From this pedigree it appears that Richard Tottell was the 
third son of William Tothill, mayor of Exeter in 1552. The 
standard topographical works on Devonshire have very little to 
say about these Exeter Tothills, and I should be very glad if 



i86 RICHARD TOTTELL, THE PRINTER. 

any Western antiquary, who knows anything about them, 
would communicate with me on the subject. After all the 
year 1552, the first authentic date in this pedigree, is very 
late ; and if the family, as appears probable, was one of some 
importance in Exeter, it ought to be possible to carry this 
pedigree back several generations, and certainly to obtain more 
reliable information than is given in Harleian MS., 1169. 

At some date previous to 1552 Richard Tottell came to 
London and was apprenticed to a printer. There was nothing 
derogatory in a gentleman following this calling in the sixteenth 
century ; indeed, most of the important printers were men of 
good social position, and Tottell was as often described as 
gentleman of London, as " citizen and stationer " of London. 
There are no records to tell us to whom he was apprenticed, 
but it is just possible it was to Richard Grafton, whose daughter 
Joan he married, according to the pedigree of Grafton at the 
Herald's College. As yet I have been unable to find either 
the date or place of this marriage, but later documents shew 
a close intimacy between the two families, and Joan was 
certainly the name of TottelPs wife. 

According to Hazlitt (Handbook p. 639) Richard Tottell 
set up in business at the sign of the Hand and Star in Fleet 
Street, between the two Temple Gates, in 1552, in which year 
he printed in octavo, Gilbert Walker's Manifest detection of 
Dice Play, a copy of which was sold at the Beauclere sale ; 
and in the following year a small quarto entitled The Historic 
of Quintius Curcius. This book has at the foot of the colophon 
a privilege for seven years, and it was clearly about this time 
that he obtained the royal patent to print all books concerning 
the common law, to which was added the further privilege of 
printing any other book which he might first take in hand out 
of any written copy, or might buy. This patent no doubt he 
obtained by favour of Grafton ; it was renewed in 1556 by Philip 
and Mary, again by Elizabeth, and was one of the most 
lucrative of all the printing monopolies. In 1556 Tottell 
purchased the two houses in Fleet Street, which formed his 
shop and dwelling house, of Robert Holbech (Indenture 
2 & 3 Ph. & Mary & Feet of Fines Midd., Easter, 2 & 3 
Ph. & Mary). These documents incidentally mention that 



RICHARD TOTTELL, THE PRINTER. x87 

this property was " parcell" of the possessions of the Priory 
and Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. In 1557 Tottell 
printed the collection of English poetry which has ever since 
been known as Tottell's Miscellany though its real title was 
Songes and Sonnettes, written by the Ryght Honorable Lorde Henry 
Hawarde, late Earl of Surrey, and others the others being 
Sir Thomas Wyat, Thomas Churchyard, Thomas, Lord Vaux, 
John Heywood, and Nicholas Grimald. Altogether there were 
271 poems in this edition, which were increased to 280 on the 
appearance of the second edition in July of the same year. So 
popular was this work that eight editions of it were published 
during Elizabeth's reign. 

But the object of this paper being to shew Tottell's con- 
nection with the county of Bucks, I must leave the interesting 
subject of his work as a printer. It is not clear when or how 
he became possessed of his Buckinghamshire property. He 
may have acquired some of it on his marriage with Grafton's 
daughter. I have never been able to find out in what part of 
the county Grafton lived. At any rate he acquired some of it 
by purchase, as we learn from certain actions in Chancery that 
were afterwards instituted. Thus from one (Chan. Proc. Eliz. 
L. 2, No. 45), we read that on the i7th April, 1574, John 
Lovatt, of the parish of Chesham, in Bucks, sold one " more " 
of land called Mylls More, alias Mary's More, and one close 
pasture called by the name of More Piece, in the parish of 
Little Missenden, to Richard Tottell, of London, gentleman, 
for the sum of 56/. Again we find he held some nine acres of 
land of William Hawtrey, lord of the manor of Wendover 
Forens, over which there was much turmoil (Chan. Proc. 
Eliz. T. 6/16, 1/16, Star Chamber Proceedings, T. 36/19). 
Another document of the same kind (Chan. Proc. Eliz. W. 
21/49), was an action brought by Edward Wyer, of London, 
yeoman, to recover a moiety of premises known as the Three 
Cranes in the Vintry, which he purchased, by exchange, of 
Richard Tottell, stationer, giving lands in Wendover, in Buck- 
inghamshire, to the value of four hundred pounds. But the 
most authentic account of his possessions in this county is given 
in the inquisition taken after his death in 1593. (Inq. 
P.M. 36, Eliz. No. 18.) In this it is stated that he was seized 



i88 RICHARD TOTTELL, THE PRINTER. 

of the manors of Wedonhill and of divers lands, tenements 
and hereditaments belonging to, near, or being in Wedonhill, 
Chesham, Amersham, and Little Missenden, and in the manor 
of Mantellor Mantels, in Little Missenden, of divers lands and 
tenements in Wendover, and a farm called Braisers End in 
Cholsbury Bucklands. 

The Inquisition goes on to state that the lands in Wedonhill 
and Amersham was held of the Castle of Berkhampstead, the 
land in Little Missenden of the Earl of Oxford as of his manor 
of Whitchurch, those in Chesham of Milone Sands of his 
manor of Chesham Higham, while that at Wendover was held 
of William Hawtrey, of his manor of W 7 endover. The total 
value of these lands was stated to be I3/. 6s. 8d. But the 
most interesting of these holdings was that of the manor of 
Mantells, which was held of the Queen, by great serjeanty ; 
by acting as the Queen's " naparius " at her coronation. 

In 1584 Richard Tottell took as an apprentice Jeffrey Tottell, 
son of William Tottell, of Shellingford, co. Devon, perhaps a 
grandson of his brother John (see pedigree). 

Tottell was Master of the Stationers' Company in 1578, 
and again in 1584. Shortly before his death, i.e., in 1588, he 
bought some houses in Weston, or Wiston, in the co. of Pem- 
broke, where he died on the ist Sept., 1593. His will, if he 
made one, has not been found, but the Inquisition above noted 
shews that in addition to his Buckinghamshire property he held 
lands in Devonshire, possibly his share of the family property. 
His eldest son was William, who frequently figures in Chancery 
Proceedings. How many more children he had is not clear. 
In Tuckett's Devonshire Pedigrees (pp. 162, 163), only the 
direct line is given, and Richard TottelPs issue is not shewn at 
all. The best authority I have found is Meyrick's edition of 
Lewis Dwynn's Heraldic Visitations of Wales (Vol. i, p. 183), 
where he is credited with eleven children, four sons and seven 
daughters, and William is said to have married Catherine, the 
daughter of John Denham. Lipscombe, in his History of 
the County (Vol. III., pp. 153, 154), makes the same statement. 
But in the will of John Cheyne, of Agmondesham (Amersham), 
co. Bucks, proved on the 2nd January, 1578 (P.C.C. 4 Bakon), 
occurs this passage. 



RICHARD TOTTELL, THE PRINTER. 189 

" Item, for as moche as before this time there hath bin a comuni- 
caton betwene me and Richard Totill, of London, gent., for a 
marriage to be had and made betwixt Willyam Totill sonne and 
heire of the said Richard, and Jane Cheynie, my youngest daughter, 
yf therefore yt shall please Almightie God that the same marriage 
take effect, and that they twaine may be knitt together as man and 
wief according to God's laws and the laws of this realm, my will and 
mynde is, and I do give and bequeath unto my said daughter Jane 
Cheynie for the furtheraunce of the said marriage all those my several 
grounds and parcels of land lying and being in the parish of Agmon- 
desham, in the county of Bucks, called or known by the name and 
names of Pipers, . . . but if it shall happen that my said 
daughter, Jane Cheynie, doe not marrye with the said William Tottill 
within three years next after my decease or being married to the 
said William in maner aforesaide do dye without yssue of her bodie 
lawfully begotten then my will and mynde is that all the said 
groundes called Pypers . . . shall be to the use and behoofe of 
my eldest son Henry." 

I have no evidence that this marriage ever took place. 
Perhaps the registers of Amersham would clear up the point. 
Lipscombe states that William Tothill had thirty-three 
children. Common sense tells us that if this number is right 
he must have been married more than once. I have only found 
a record of two of his children, a daughter named Katherine 
and another named Joan, who married Francis Drake, by 
whom she had a son William, to whom livery was granted on 
the loth February, 3 Charles i, all the lands of William 
Tothill in the co. of Bucks, by right of his mother, and from 
whom no doubt the present holder of Shardeloes claims 
descent. 

Of the remainder of Richard Tottell's children I have only 
the evidence of Meyrick and Lipscombe, and a stray note in 
Add MS. 5524, f. 2o8b. I shall gladly welcome any other 
information concerning them, and trust the readers of the 
Home Counties Magazine will pardon this amateur attempt 
at genealogy. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN : A RETROSPECT. 

BY W. L. RUTTON, F.S.A. 

(Continued from p. 128.) 

WESTBOURNE FARM. 

MRS. SIDDONS. " In the April of 1805 Mrs. Siddons took 
possession of a pleasant cottage at Westbourne near Padding- 
ton." This we learn from her intimate friend and biographer, 
Thomas Campbell, the poet ; and that the cottage was called 
"Westbourne Farm " we know from her own letters. Doubt, 
indeed error, has obscured the site. Peter Cunningham (1850) 
notices the cottage and Mrs. Siddons's tenancy of it, and 
also Lord Hill's residence " pleasantly situated in the fields, 
with country air all around it." He then says " the Great 
Western Railway has altered the whole position of the place," 
which was undoubtedly the case ; but he does not say that the 
cottage was levelled by the Railway, as his somewhat ambiguous 
paragraph has been understood to imply by all late biographers 
of Mrs. Siddons, down to the latest in the Dictionary of National 
Biography. The Railway did not touch the cottage, for it was 
not in its way. Robins (Paddington Past and Present, p. 183). 
writing in 1853, represents it as " still standing in the Harrow 
Road, a little south and east of the second Canal bridge," now r 
called the " Lock Bridge," from the adjacent hospital. This 
definition of the site, which the present writer has been at 
much pains to verify, is perfectly correct. We shall find, as we 
proceed in our account of Mrs. Siddons, reference to the near- 
ness of her house to the Canal ; and on our map there is really 
but one house, " south and east " of the Canal which answers 
the site described. The identification is ensured by comparing 
the "block-plan" of the house with its "elevation" in the 
pretty little picture we have fortunately acquired. In plan the 
house has a projecting annex or outbuilding at either end, and 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 191 

these are plainly apparent in the picture. Further, the Canal, 
opened in 1801, being a feature common to maps both of that 
time and our own, we are enabled by measurement from it to 
fix precisely the site once occupied by the cottage. 

The picture is a reproduction kindly allowed by Mr. 
Dethridge (Vestry Clerk of Paddington), of a coloured engraving 
in his possession. Where the drawing by " P. Galindo, Esq. " 
may be, is unknown. The view, which is of the garden or 
eastward side of the house, is evidently the same, with slight 
alterations, as that given by Mr. Walford in Old and New 
London, v. 216, of which he does not note the source. The 
field in the foreground is part of the land called " Des- 
boroughs " mentioned ante p. 127, which name was afterwards, 
though not in Mrs. Siddons's time, transferred to the cottage, 
and is yet found in the vicinity.* 

Sarah Kemble, the child of respectable strolling-players, or 
perhaps we should say travelling comedians, was born in the 
atmosphere of the stage ; in her earliest years she showed the 
talent which, developed, made her famous ; and great histrionic 
ability was at the first and always enhanced by the attraction 
of personal beauty. At the age of twelve her father, Roger 
Kemble, presented her to a public audience as a youthful 
phenomenon, and when at eighteen she married William 
Siddons, a handsome young actor, she commenced with him at 
Bath, towards the end ot 1773, her professional career. Two 

* The name Galindo attached to the engraving is associated with an 
incident in Mrs. Siddons's life which brought on her considerable trouble. 
Galindo was a fencing-master, and his wife an actress, at the Dublin theatre 
when Mrs. Siddons played there in 1802. Of a too effusive disposition, 
although generally reserved to strang'ers, she conceived a warmth of 
attachment to these people disproportionate to her acquaintance with them 
or to their merits. She travelled with them in Ireland, and encouraged 
them to follow her to London, promising Mrs. Galindo an engagement at 
Covent Garden. But that promise Mrs. Siddons was unable to fulfil, for 
the manager, John Kemble, her brother, opposed the hastily formed friend- 
ship, and refused the engagement. The disappointment turned the friend- 
ship to enmity, which culminated in a pamphlet yet extant by Mrs. 
Galindo, in which she accused Mrs. Siddons of deception and meanness, 
and, moreover, of improper relations with her husband. These accusations 
have universally been considered as malignant inventions. In 1805, when 
the cottage was taken, the friendship had not come to an end, and it is 
therefore probable that the drawing was by the fencing-master, who 
in it shows that he had other skill than that of" the foil. 



i 9 2 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

years of struggle for a living were spent in the West, and then 
Garrick nearing the close of his career heard of her promise, 
and sent a subordinate actor to judge her ability. The result 
was an engagement for Drury Lane, where, for the first time, 
she acted as Portia on the 2gth December, 1775. But it 
was too soon ; her powers, as said a London newspaper, were 
not yet equal to a London theatre, and after five weeks' playing 
failure compelled her return to the provinces. 

Audiences were kinder to her at Manchester, at Liverpool 
and at York. By and bye she got back to Bath, which had 
been her nursery ; there her powers developed, and success was 
achieved, so that rumour of it having reached London, the 
capital again claimed the service of her genius. The interval 
of growth had been six years, and now there was no failure. 
On the loth October, 1782, as " Mrs. Siddons from Bath," she 
re-appeared on the boards of Drury Lane, then under the 
management of the brilliant but erratic Sheridan ; soon success 
was followed by triumph, "all London was at her feet," and 
henceforth for thirty years the lustre of her fame was undimmed. 
During the winter seasons she played in London, and in the 
spring or summer she favoured audiences at the principal 
English towns, and at Edinburgh and Dublin. 

It was during her second visit to Dublin, in June, 1784, 
that our portrait was taken ; it has been chosen among many as 
perhaps less known than others, as representing her while 
3'oung (her age was twenty-nine), and as being non-theatrical 
and therefore natural. The picture was painted by Horace 
Hone, A.R.A., who gained distinction in London and Dublin as 
a miniature painter ; it was engraved by Bartolozzi, and our 
reproduction, same size as the original, is of a copy of the 
engraving at the British Museum. Mrs. Siddons, during this 
visit to Dublin, was not happy in her relations either with the 
manager of the theatre or the people. A certain austerity of 
demeanour did not suit the Irish temperament, and a tendency 
to hard pecuniary dealings with managers brought trouble to 
the great actress. Ill reports were circulated at this time, and 
one of these related to the picture, viz., that the artist having 
asked the favour of a sitting was discourteously refused, and 
that on his expressing indifference the lady boxed his ears ! 









O/ /A?' 
<U 
*-Ss/i 

-n&r-/ 




tnorfr 



ff- 




fr 



( f7?n & 



-fmon 



London, 1785. Published as the Act directs by F. Bartolozzifor H. Hone in Dublin. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 193 

But, says Mr. Percy Fitzgerald (The Kembles, I, 188), this 
story is disproved by the fact that Mrs. Siddons did sit, and is 
said to have been greatly pleased with the picture. It will be 
observed that the engraving is dedicated by Horace Hone, 
to " The Honourable Mrs. O'Neill," the possessor of the 
miniature. This lady when Miss Boyle (of the Earl of Cork's 
family), had kindly assisted Mrs. Siddons at Cheltenham in her 
early, struggling days ; she had married Mr. O'Neill, afterwards 
Lord O'Neill, of Shane's Castle in County Antrim, and the 
now famous actress was there hospitably received as a 
distinguished visitor ; in one of her letters she describes the 
beauties of Shane's Castle, and the profuse entertainment of 
the guests. It is sad to remember that a few years later the 
Castle was destroyed by fire, and that Lord O'Neill died of 
wounds received in the suppression of the rebellion of 1798. 

We may not here follow closely Mrs. Siddons's career, but 
as the lack of cordiality towards her in Dublin has been noticed 
it may be added that in 1802-3 she again played in the Irish 
capital, and also at Cork and Belfast ; that a fourth visit to 
Ireland was made in 1805, shortly after coming to Westbourne; 
and that although Mrs. A. Kennard (in Eminent Women) is 
perhaps right in saying that the great actress never won Irish 
hearts, she certainly commanded Irish admiration. 

When Mrs. Siddons sought the quietude of Westbourne 
Green she was fifty years of age, and had been on the stage 
thirty-two years, twenty-three of which had elapsed since she 
had taken a leading position in London. That position, how- 
ever, had not been gained at once nor without effort, neither 
had it been maintained without toil, professional vexations, and 
personal troubles, some of her own making, some inflicted by 
others. As an affectionate mother, also, she had suffered in the 
loss of two of her three daughters. Cecilia, the youngest of 
her children, alone remained to live with her at Westbourne, 
and she had besides the companionship of her constant friend 
and " dresser," Miss Martha (" Patty ") Wilkinson, daughter 
of Tate Wilkinson, her business manager. Of her two sons, 
Henry, the elder, was manager of the Edinburgh Theatre, 
George, the younger, had entered the civil service of the East 
India Company. Her husband, William Siddons, is said by 



IQ4 WESTEOURNE GREEN. 

Boaden to have become " impatient of the crown matrimonial " ; 
of this there is too much evidence, nor was it unnatural that it 
should be so. The usual relations were reversed, the wife's 
talent and consequent position overshadowed the husband's, 
and she was the purse-filler. They were a good deal apart, and 
this, doubtless, was often caused by professional engagements. 
But there was no formal division, and they were together 
at the Westbourne cottage when it was taken; some humorous 
verses then written by Mr. Siddons are preserved contrasting 
the diininutiveness of the place w 7 ith the " greatness " of his 
wife. Soon afterwards, however, he went to live at Bath, 
ostensibly, and perhaps truly, to seek relief from rheumatism, 
and there he died three years later (n March, 1808) shortly 
after Mrs. Siddons, who had stayed with him for six weeks, had 
been obliged by engagement to go to Edinburgh, where she 
was when his death occurred. 

Many years before coming to Westbourne Green she had 
expressed her desire " that the Great Disposer would permit 
her to spend the evening of her toilsome, bustling day in a 
cottage." Now that evening was coming on, and although 
complete retirement was yet seven years distant in the future, 
she found in her cottage partial rest, with sweet country air 
around, and a quietude which musthave been very welcome after 
town life in Prince's Street, Hanover Square. "The cottage," 
says Campbell, " was small, but contained more accommo- 
dation than its appearance indicated, and the new tenant, 
with the aid of her trusty upholsterer, Nixon [who had been 
her landlord in Prince's Street] , fitted it up very elegantly, built 
an additional room for a studio, and laid out the shrubbery and 
garden with great taste. She was surrounded with fresh air 
and green fields, and described herself as delighted with her 
retreat." 

The year of her coming (1805) was a busy one, and soon 
after arrival in April she had engagements in Edinburgh and 
Dublin. Probably it was during her absence that Nixon effected 
the improvement of the cottage, and weary with professional 
toil, and tedious the journeys it entailed by coach and " packet- 
boat " (ten miles an hour in cramped discomfort contrasting 
with our sixty miles an hour in comparatively luxurious roomi- 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 195 

ness), how sweet to return to that peaceful haven, and in it to 
rest awhile before entering on the work of the winter season in 
London. A letter written in 1807 thus expressed her satisfaction 
in "the dear hut, my home," to her friend, James Balantyne, of 
Edinburgh : " You would scarcely know this sweet little spot 
it is so improved since you saw it. I believe that I wrote to 
you about my new dining-room, and the pretty bed-chamber at 
the end of it, where you are to sleep unannoyed by your former 
neighbours in their mangers, stalls I should say. All the laurels 
are green and flourishing, all the wooden pales hidden by sweet 
shrubs and flowers that form a verdant wall all around me. 
Oh ! it is the prettiest little nook in all the world, and I do 
hope you will soon come and say you think so.'' (Thibaudeau, 
Catalogue of Autograph Letters formed by Alfred Morrison. 
Siddons.*} 

Of the many visitors who came out to see Mrs. Siddons in 
her retreat, we hear of Miss Berry, Madame D'Arblay, and 
Incledon, the singer, who sang The Storm after dinner with 
such feeling as drew the tears of his hostess. Poet Campbell 
also came to see " the great Queen of Tragedy," and, as he 
relates, having walked all the way from " The Elephant and 
Castle," whither a coach had conveyed him from Sydenham, 
he arrived at " the picturesque banks of the Paddington Canal." 
Somewhat tired and heated after his long walk, although the 
month was January (1810), he had thrown off his great coat 
which hung over his left arm, while in his right hand he held a 
pair of yellow gloves which he had bought in order to appear 
genteelly before the object of his expedition. Thus proceeding 
he raised his eyes, and beheld on the bank at a distance of 200 
yards two female figures approaching. They were Mrs. Siddons 
and Miss Patty Wilkinson! Taken rather aback, he had 
hastily to whip on his great-coat and adjust himself for the inter- 
view. And, although he knew the ladies at the first glimpse, 
he affected an enamoured contemplation of the scene, looked 
on the fields and dust-barges as if ruminating on their beauties, 

* A contemporary in The Ambulator of 1811 refers to Westbourne 
and " the villa of Mr. Cockerell surrounded by picturesque and park-like 
grounds, commanding- a view of the Paddington Canal," adding "and 
opposite is the secluded cottage of the unrivalled Siddons, who here 
dedicates her morning's to study." 



ig6 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

and in the meantime wiped the " dew" from his face, arranged 
his cravat, and got his hat read}' for the salutation. All came 
off well, "the Queen" was very glad to see him, and here the 
letter- writer could no longer joke, for the meeting was affecting 
to both, they had not met for a long time, and much had 
happened in the interval. He adds: "The affection in her 
behaviour, the perfect dignity and propriety of all her words 
and looks, were to me irresistible." He then alludes to his 
reception at the cottage where he met her youngest daughter, 
Cecilia, and had much interesting talk with his old friend ; and 
when the time for parting came she took both his hands and 
prayed him that they should not lose sight of one another.* 
Cyrus Redding, the journalist, was also a pilgrim to Westbourne, 
and writes in his Recollections of early walks out of town to "an 
inn near Mrs. Siddons's villa, a little on the town side of Kensal 
Green then far in the green fields." The inn, where seemingly 
he did his reverence at a distance, was probably " The Spotted 
Dog," which, as the present writer has with other information 
gathered from an inhabitant old enough to remember it, stood 
close to Westbourne Farm; a block on our map seems to 
represent it. The nearness of the inn we might scarcely think 
an advantage, but perhaps the innkeeper was the farmer of the 
adjoining Desborough fields, and he may have been welcome as 
a neighbour affording some protection to the lady who lived so 
far out in the country. 

Mrs. Siddons's stay at Westbourne Farm was twelve-and-a- 
half years, during seven of which she continued to act in the 
seasons at Covent Garden, where her famous brother, John 
Philip Kemble, had been manager since September, 1803. 
That theatre, however, had been in the interval destroyed by 
fire (September, 1808), and while it was being rebuilt the 
services of the great actress were transferred to the Opera 
House and the Haymarket Theatre. Her retirement from the 
stage was on the 2gth June, 1812; the whole length of her 
professional career had been thirty-nine years. " Her acting," 
writes Henry Crabb Robinson in his Diary, " w r as as good as 
ever, but her voice had lost its brilliancy," and probably other 

* Life and Litters of Thomas Campbell, edited by William Beattie, 
M.D. (1849) II., 189. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 197 

signs of physical failure prompted the advisability of retire- 
ment. So for the last time she played her great part Lady 
Macbeth to an immense concourse, who accorded to her an 
enthusiastic farewell. 

Mrs. Siddons still lived on at Westbourne Green another 
live years, the whole of her sojourn there being twelve-and-a- 
half. From her retirement she emerged several times to play 
for the benefit of others. Thus in 1813 for the Theatrical 
Fund, and in the same year she read not for the first time 
to the Royal Family at Windsor; in November, 1815, she 
played ten times at Edinburgh to aid the family of her son 
Henry, whose loss she had had recently to mourn ; in 1816, 
1817, and finally in 1819, when on the gth of June she made 
her very last appearance on the stage, for the benefit of Charles 
Kemble, her brother ; it was late enough, her years were 
sixty-four, and we learn regretfully that her once tall, slender, 
and eminently graceful figure had become unwieldy. 

In the autumn of 1817 she gave up Westbourne Farm and 
returned to town in order that Cecilia (afterwards Mrs.Coombe), 
now her only child in England, might have the advantage of 
more society. She then took the house in Upper Baker Street 
now marked by a medallion noting her residence and close of 
life. The house looked pleasantly over Regent's Park, so that 
refreshing verdure still greeted her eyes. Here, with her 
daughter and Miss Wilkinson, she lived fourteen years, in the 
first two acting twice, and afterwards continuing to charm her 
friends, either in their drawing-rooms or her own, with readings 
of the parts she had formerly so vividly personified. She died 
from an acute attack of erysipelas on the 8th of June, 1831, 
and Nixon, " her trusty upholsterer," who had arranged the 
Westbourne cottage, was by her own desire entrusted with the 
duty of laying her body in Paddington churchyard. The place 
was then favoured for its retirement, and now, intramural and 
disused for burial, it is prettily planted and laid out for the 
service of the Paddington children and their elders. The 
simple tomb of Sarah Siddons remains undisturbed. An iron 
railing surrounds the plain slab which, according with her own 
direction, covers the grave ; and some vases holding flowers or 
shrubs, of late years placed on it, do not obscure the inscription, 



ig8 METEOROLOGY. 

which, in simple, formal words, is read on the edge of the slab. 
And at the head is a small upright stone which tells that " the 
body of Martha Wilkinson, who died in her 76th year, 
December 3ist, 1847, rests in the vault of her most beloved 
friend, S. S." 

A white marble seated figure of Mrs. Siddons was unveiled 
on Paddington Green by Sir Henry Irving, on I4th June, 1897. 
London has not been thought happy in its statues, but this 
one at least may be considered worthy of the capital, and of 
the lady commemorated. 



METEOROLOGY OF THE HOME COUNTIES. 
BY JOHN HOPKINSON, F.R.MET.Soc., Assoc.lNST.C.E. 

January to March, 1900. 

IT has been necessary to make one alteration this quarter 
in the rainfall stations owing to reports for Throcking 
Rectory having been received for January and February only. 
For this station, Rothamsted, Harpenden, the Experimental 
Station of Sir John Lawes and Sir Henry Gilbert, has been 
substituted. There are three gauges, one being five inches in 
diameter, one eight inches, and one a thousandth of an acre. 
It is the first of these of which the reading is here given. The 
height of the station is 420 feet above sea-level, and the rim of 
the gauge is nine inches above the ground. Having presented 
my own instruments to the Hertfordshire County Museum at 
St. Albans, they were removed there from " The Grange " on 
the last day of February. They are in a well-exposed position 
about 386 feet above sea-level, being six feet higher than in 
their former position. The observations are taken by the 
caretaker of the Museum, Mr. Polman. 

The counties are distinguished as before, i, Middlesex; 2, 
Essex ; 3, Herts ; 4, Bucks ; 5, Berks ; 6, Surrey ; 7, Kent. 
The observations are taken at 9 a.m. 



METEOROLOGY. 



199 



The weather was very mild in January, both days and 
nights being warmer than usual, the atmosphere was of average 
humidity, the sky rather cloudy, and the rainfall very heavy. 
In February the temperature was about the average, but the 
days were rather colder than usual, and there were a few very 
cold nights ; there was more than usual moisture in the 
atmosphere, the sky was of average brightness, and the rainfall 
was excessively heavy. March was a cold month, the days 
especially being cold, the atmosphere was of average humidity, 
the sky rather bright, and the rainfall very small. The mean 
temperature usually increases about one degree from January 
to February and about four degrees from February to March, 
but this year February was the coldest month, and March was 
colder than January. Although the rainfall in March was 
more than an inch below the average, that of the whole quarter 
was nearly double the average. 

Three stations in Berks Cookham, Bracknell, and Sand- 
hurst show a mean temperature for January of 38*3 ; 
February, 36' i ; and March, 38*7 ; the mean for the quarter 
being nearly a degree lower than that for the rest of the Home 
Counties. 

January, 1900. 





Temperature of the Air 





o 


Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


1 











Mean 


Min 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


w 


1 


Ain't 


Days 







o 


o 





o 


c 


p /e 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


41-4 


37-3 


45-5 


8-2 


29-8 


53-4 


88 


8-9 


2-70 


22 


2. Halstead .. 


38-2 


32-9 


43-6 


10-7 


24-0 


51-8 


93 


7-6 


2 73 


21 


,, Chelmsf ord. . 


38-5 


32-8 


442 


11-4 


22-4 


51-8 


92 


8-0 


2-83 


19 


3. Bennington 


38-5 


33-9 


43 2 


9-3 


25-1 


51-3 


93 


8-2 


2-67 


21 


,, Berkhamstedi 39-1 


34-0 


44-3 


10-3 


24-2 


52-6 


93 


8-5 


3-92 


22 


,, St. Albans. . 


38-5 


33-4 


43-6 


10-2 


25-5 


51-6 


91 


8-0 


3-59 


21 


6.W. Norwood 


40-0 


35-0 


45-0 


10-0 


25 9 


53-0 


90 


8-4 


2 59 


22 


,, Addington.,1 39 -2 


35-0 


43-4 


8-4 


28-0 


51-5 


90 


8-8 


3 03 


23 


7. Margate . . 


39-9 


35-3 


44-6 


9-3 


27-6 


52-3 


90 


7-2 


2-88 


24 


Mean 


39-3 


34 4 


44-2 


98 


25 8 


52-1 


91 


8-2 


2-99 


22 





METEOROLOGY. 
February, igoo. 





Temperature of the Air 


>> 1 2 


Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


1 


o 


_ 







Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


W 


3 
o 


Am't 


Days 







o 


o 





o 


o 


9j- 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


39-5 


35-5 


43-6 


8-1 


23-3 


56-2 


83 rt 


8-1 


3-77 


19 


2. Halstead . . 


37-2 


31-2 


43-1 


11-9 


14-0 


57-5 


9 "2 


7-8 


3-41 


16 


,, Chelmsford.. 


37-3 


31-3 


43-3 


12-0 


15-6 


59-2 


92 




3-16 


19 


3. Bennington 


36-6 


31-3 


41-8 


10-5 


13-1 


56-1 


92 


7-9 


3-91 


18 


,, Berkhamsted 


36-5 


30-6 


424 


11-8 


11-0 


56-9 


91 


7-8 


5-60 


19 


,, St. Albans.. 


36-6 


31-3 


42-0 


10-7 


16 8 


56-8 


91 


7-1 


4-87 


20 


6.W. Norwood 


38-3 


33-1 


43-5 


10-4 


18-5 


56-4 


89 


7-4 


4-50 


21 


,, Addington. . 


37'3 


32-8 


41-8 


9-0 


19-2 


56-0 


89 


8-6 


4-15 


21 


7. Margate . . 


39-0 


33-7 


44-3 


10-6 


21-6 


60-3 


90 


7'5 


4-09 


17 


Mean 


37-6 


32-3 


42-9 


10-6 


17-0 


57-3 


89 


7'7 


4'16 


1 Q 



























March, igoo. 





Temperature of the Air 








Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


| 


o 




i 








Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


w 


5 


Am't 


Days ' 







o 


o 


o 


o 





/o| 


ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


404 


35-6 


45-2 


9-6 


28-3 


56-2 


78 


7-3 


84 


1 


2. Halstead . . 


38-6 


32-2 


45-0 


12-8 


21-5 


56-0 


80 


7-3 


1-09 


13 


,, Chelmsford . 


38-1 


31-5 


44-7 


13-2 


20-2 


55-1 


80 6'0 


89 


8 


3. Bennington 


37-9 


31-8 


44-0 


12-2 


20-3 


56-4 


85 7-5 


66 


10 


,, Berkhamsted 


38-2 


31-7 


44-7 


13-0 


20-5 


57-3 


85 6-9 


80 


12 


,, St. Albans.. 


38-5 


32-2 


44-8 


12-6 


21-6 


55-1 


85 


6-0 


83 


11 


6.W. Norwood 


39-1 


33-3 


44-9 


11-6 


23-5 


56-0 


81 


7-5 


89 


11 


,, Addington. . 


37-5 


32-4 


42-5 


10-1 


24-3 


56-7 


84 9-0 


92 


14 


7. Margate . . 


39-5 


35-0 


43 9 


8-9 


24-9 


51-4 


82 6-6 


1-05 


14 


Mean 


38-6 


32-8 


44-4 


12-6 


22-8 


55-6 


82 7-1 1 -89 


11 





















Rainfall, January to March, igoo. 



Stations 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Stations 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


1 Oamden Square 


ins. 
2 9*> 


ins. 
3-99 


ins. 
79 


4. Sloujrh 


ins. 
2-88 


ins. 

3-88 


ins. 
73 


,, Harefield 


3 42 


3-69 


60 


o. Abingdon 


2-32 


3 74 


52 


2. Newport 


3-00 


5-53 


84 


,, Cookham .... 


3 13 


1-65 


78 


, Southend 


2-80 


3-54 


88 


,, Bracknell .... 


3-00 


3-41 


1-U6 


3 Royston 


2-64 


4-38 


'71 


,, Sandhurst. . . . 


2-62 


4-93 


roo 


,, Hitchin . . 


3 11 


4-49 


86 


6. Dorking .... 


4-10 


6-44 


1-02 


,, Harpenden .... 
4. Winslow . 


3 54 
3-42 


4-82 
4-54 


95 

66 


7. Tenterden . . 
, , Birchin^ton . . 


3-31 

2-98 


5-57 
4-54 


1-17 
99 



Mean (25 stations) : Jan., 3'0o ins. ; Feb., 4'38 ins. ; March., 0-86 in 




Lord Mountstuart. 

From a painting after Ramsay. 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 
BY THE REV. W. K. R. BEDFORD. 

No. 3. MIDDLESEX. 

IT would be impossible to deal with the archery of the 
Metropolis within the limits of a single number of this 
magazine, so we must confine ourselves to the county outside 
London, and to a period later than that at which the "butts" 
were still an institution in the neighbourhood of the City. 
Then patriotic Englishmen practised archery so assiduously 
that, as Bishop Latimer tells us, the turf was "eaten bare" by 
the shafts. In many of our old town-walls the grooves, worn 
in the stones by sharpening the steels, may yet be traced. 

That era closed with the introduction of fire-arms, and 
probably the latest trace of it in Middlesex is to be found 
in the account book of Sir John Franklyn, of Willesden, 
quoted by Hansard in his Book of Archery, where the sums 
paid by the worthy knight for bows, arrows, and other archery 
gear in the year 1627, are set out with most laudable minute- 
ness. 

Still archery continued to be in evidence not very far from 
the residence of this careful devotee of the ancient sport more 
than a century after the date just quoted its perpetuation 
being due to the bequest by John Lyon, founder of Harrow 
School, of a silver arrow value 3/., which he desired should be 
shot for by the Harrovian pupils every August. A paragraph 
in the Craftsman of August 5th, 1727, informs its readers of the 
occurrence of this contest between six of the scholars, when 
" Mr. Chandler, a captain in the tame army, marched thither 
from London with about thirty or forty of his company, and 
performed a fine exercise in honour of the day, and his son, 
who is one of the scholars." This celebration took place on a 
piece of ground called the Butts, a very pretty arena (worthy, 



202 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

said Dr. Parr, of a Roman amphitheatre), steps being cut for 
spectators in the grassy side of a wooded knoll on the left of 
the road which entered Harrow from London. Here six, eight, 
and, in later years, twelve competitors in fancy dresses of green, 
white, or scarlet satin, with green silk sashes and caps, exhibited 
their skill before the masters of the school, arrayed in full 
academicals, and a crowd of interested spectators of all ranks. 
The winner was the archer who obtained the greatest number 
of central shots, each hit being signalized by a fanfare of 
French horns. A procession conducted the winner back to the 
school, where a ball was often given to the families in the 
neigbourhood. 

In 1757 the winner's name was, according to the Gentleman's 
Magazine, Earle. In 1758, Middleton. In 1759, among the 
names of the competitors, are those of the youthful Duke 
of Gordon, his brother Lord William Gordon, and Lord 
Mountstuart, son of the Earl of Bute. In 1760 the name of 
Earle again occurs, and in 1761 the winner was the Earl of 
Barrymore. We find a young gentleman named Mee as winner 
in 1764, and another named Davies in 1765. It was on that 
occasion that the Iroquois Indians, then in England, were 
among the spectators, and expressed a desire to compete. An 
Indian Chief had been present in 1744, and remarked that the 
boys shot well, but that he could have beaten them. The 
winner in 1766 was Charles Wager Allix, whose son, in after 
years, presented the prize arrow to the Vaughan Library. " Here, 
says the historian of Harrow in Blackwood's Magazine, 1867, 
also may be seen an old print of the contest, in one corner of 
which is a figure going off the ground with an arrow sticking in 
his face, to which he applies his hand. Tradition states that it 
represents one Goding, a barber of Harrow, who (through his 
own or an archer's carelessness) was, on one of these occasions 
shot either in the eye or the mouth ; on this point the 
authorities differ. It has been said that this unlucky accident 
led to the suppression of the custom. The expense of the 
costumes and entertainment is also said to have been the 
cause, but the real reasons were that the practice which the 
competitors required was found to be a serious interruption 
to the work of the school, and the shooting day also brought 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 203 

down an influx of undesirable company from London." 
When Dr. Heath became headmaster in 1772, he suggested 
some curtailment of the practice days and other archers' 
privileges, whereupon the boys declined to shoot at all. The 
last arrow was won by Lord Althorpe, afterwards the second 
Earl Spencer, in 1771. The memory of the custom is still, 
however, retained in the crossed arrows placed on the school 
prize books by Dr. Butler. George Agar Hansard, "Gwent 
Bowman," denounces the destruction of the old Butts (shooting 
fields, as they were styled at Eton) with amusing vehemence, 
and valiantly defends the practice of archery as a wholesome 
exercise for youths. 

Less than a dozen years after the cessation of the Harrow 
contest, the northern environs of London experienced quite 
a wave of fervour for the noble art of archery. Societies were 
formed at Highgate, Hornsey, and several other places where 
grounds for practice were procurable, and a resident at 
Highgate was the champion Toxophilite. Though possessed 
of the Scottish name of Anderson, he claimed Flemish 
nationality, and although he was a little under the average 
height, shot with one of those long bows of self-yew, in the 
manufacture of which the bowyers of Flanders excelled. The 
poet of the Blackheath gathering held in 1793, found him in 
the zenith of his reputation. Two prizes fell to his lot. 

See Anderson triumph, like Robin of old 
His arrows with judgement are sent, 

And Jarvis, like Midas, turns all into gold, 
While Leith fills the targets for Kent. 

The days work is over, the targets are told 
When Anderson mounts o'er the rest. 

While Jarvis of Hornsey, for merit enrolled, 
And Green, win the gems for the breast. 

Anderson's Flemish bow was six feet three inches; this 
would include the horn nock to hold the bow string, which 
in these bows was generally shaped into a cockatoo's head, and 
the possession of one of these peculiar ends indicates an 
imported bow of that period. It is said that he never 
declined a challenge, and in 1795 shot a famous three-days' 
match, with a Kentish archer named Gibson, from the Isle of 



204 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

Thanet, and won it by a score of 1390 to 1120 (old scoring, which 
was about three-fifths only of the present rate). What was 
his exact position in society there is no means of ascertaining ; 
for, although he certainly bought and sold bows, he bought 
four for i6l. at a Custom House sale in 1794, and the writer 
possessed for many years one sold by him to the first Sir 
Edmund Hartopp he lived in good style at Highgate, gave 
archery parties in his own grounds, and was captain (perhaps 
founder) of the society called the Robin Hood's Bowmen, which, 
with another club, the Woodmen of Hornsey, practised at 
shooting grounds in the north of London. 

The privately printed record of the Royal Toxophilite 
Society (1867), states that at Mr. Anderson's grounds the 
popinjay game was practised ; the sport usually began by 
shooting at the Flemish blazon or square target, somewhat 
larger than ours, with its face divided into 50 small squares 
each marked with a blank or prize, the latter progressively 
increasing in value from one to twenty-six. Five-and-twenty 
years ago the writer saw the work-people on the Due 
d' Aumale's estate at Chantilly, in blouses and sabots, shooting, 
one October Sunday afternoon, at a similar mark with bows 
and arrows. 

The record continues "At a meeting there [that is to 
say in Mr. Anderson's grounds] in September, 1792, various 
members of the Royal Toxophilites, Robin Hood's Bowmen, 
and Woodmen of Arden shot ; the shooting lasted three hours, 
when J. Palmer, Esq., of the Woodmen, won the medal for the 
central shot, and Dr. Haworth (Howarth, Hansard calls him), 
a Royal Toxophilite won that for the greatest number of prizes. 
The figure of an eagle fixed to a perch, 140 feet high, was also 
shot at for about an hour, affording much amusement from its 
novelty ; at the expiration of that time Mr. Peacock, Robin 
Hood's Bowman, shot it off the perch and thereby won a 
gold medal. After dining with his friends in the lodge, Mr. 
Anderson amused them with fireworks emblematical of the 
archery of the day." 

The eagle in this pastime evidently took the place of the 
papingo or popinjay which is still the mark for archers both 
with long and cross bows in Belgium and Northern France. 




Shooting at the Popinjay at Kilwinning. 

Frotn an old print. 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 205 

Travellers may notice the masts to which these objects are 
attached in the environs of provincial towns. Upon closer 
examination it will be found that the masts are furnished with 
slender yards or cross pieces, and have a penthouse some 
twelve feet up the stem. The shooter stands about six feet 
from the foot of the mast, and discharges a blunt arrow at the 
object of aim, a wooden bird, so constructed as to fall asunder 
if hit in a particular spot. There are, moreover, minor prizes 
suspended from the yards, and should an arrow dislodge one of 
these it earns a consolation premium of a few francs value. As 
soon as the bow is loosed the bowman makes for the penthouse 
to shelter from the falling arrow. 

It does not appear that this type of competition ever became 
popular in England, but in the town of Kilwinning, in Ayrshire, 
it was practised for many years, the three-hundred-and-eighty- 
third anniversary being celebrated in 1865. Here the wooden 
figure of a parrot was suspended from a long pole projecting 
from the ancient tower of the ruined Abbey church. The bird 
was shot at with many antique ceremonies every July. Soon 
after the date quoted the Borough Council decided to abolish the 
competition as dangerous to the public. In this connection it 
may be remarked that instead of an entrance payment, each 
competitor was bound to purchase, and wear, a Scottish bonnet 
of extremely stout material as a protection from falling arrows. 
There seems no prospect of a revival of this kind of contest, 
however numerous may become the archers who practice at 
targets in Middlesex. Still less likely is it that the Scoto-Flemish 
custom, described by Daines Harrington (in 1784), will ever 
be revived, except in the modified form which he suggests : 
" A living goose was enclosed in a turf butt, having its head 
alone exposed to view ; and the archer who first hit the goose's 
head was entitled to the bird as his reward. But this custom, 
on account of its barbarity, has long been laid aside, a mark 
about an inch in diameter being fixed upon each butt." 

Since the paragraphs relating to the Harrow archery contest 
were written and put into type, I have, by the kindness of the 
headmaster of Harrow, been allowed to study the archery relics 
preserved in the Vaughan Library. 



206 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

The principal object of interest among these is the portrait 
of Lord Mountstuart, of which a reproduction accompanies 
this article. It is a copy of a portrait by Allan Ramsay, son of 
Allan Ramsay, the famous Scotch poet, who, in 1767 was 
appointed principal painter to George III., and who was a protege 
of the Marquis of Bute. Lord Mountstuart's portrait is con- 
sidered to be one of the, finest specimens of Ramsay's work. 
The coat is of a delicate pink colour. In a glass case beneath 
the picture is preserved a specimen of a similar garment, 
faded by age, but identical in form and ornament. The. cap, 
which is not shown in the portrait, is of silk of the same colour, 
in shape like a jockey's with an exaggerated peak ; not elegant, 
but well adapted to shade the eyes of the wearer. 

Two of the silver arrows, each twenty-four inches long, are 
also shown, as are two of the bows ; these are not like the bow 
shown in the painting, which bow is of normal length; but 
scarcely measures three feet six inches. 

Near the case is displayed an engraving (reproduced in the 
Badminton Archery book) which represents the Harrow boys 
shooting with arrows. This engraving is described in the 
Badminton volume as an admission ticket to the Harrow con- 
test. It may be so, but the rudeness of execution and the 
antiquated costume represented, suggest that it was probably 
only a printer's vignette which had for long been used for 
various purposes connected with archery. The vignette 
represents the competitors shooting after the manner now 
followed by the Royal Scottish Archers at a small circular 
target which is placed on a butt of turf or straw probably only 
some thirty yards away ; the number of hits in the small disc 
would, of course, be few. 



SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS IN MIDDLESEX 
AT THE TIME OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 

COMMUNICATED BY THE LORD BISHOP OF BRISTOL. 
(Continued from p. 64). 

HAMPTON. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage with a barn 
of five bays, the glebe land and other profits, tithes and rights 
thereto belonging, worth about forty-five pounds per annum, 
which one Edmond Pigeon, deceased, purchased of Michael 
Cole and John Rowden, unto whom the same was given by 
King James in the fifth year of his reign, to be held of the 
manor of East Greenwich in free socage only, and not in capite 
or [by] knights service. 

And the said premises are now in the possession of one 
Edmond Pigeon, who has the presentation of our vicarage, and 
by his predecessor, one William Mainstone, was presented 
thereto in Anno 1608, and has duly and orderly served the 
cure himself until about six years since ; that by reason of his 
age and infirmities of his body he was necessitated to get 
one Mr. Hales to assist him, who now officiates as curate 
for him, and is allowed by the said Mr. Mainstone twenty 
pounds for his salary out of the profits of the said vicarage, 
which with the small tithes and eighteen acres of glebe land, 

and a pension of thirty-six pounds 

and eight-pence a year allowed by the said King in lieu of 
glebe and tithes of the Courtfield then taken into the said 
(sic) park, are worth about sixty-five pounds per annum. 

BEDFONT. 

Item. We present that we have within our parish one 
vicarage and two parsonages, one of them worth four-score 
pounds per annum impropriate to Mrs. Scott, widow, 
who has the same by lease from the late Bishop of London, 
for two lives in being, paying a reserved rent of eight pounds 

shillings and four-pence a year ; the other 

worth about thirty pounds per annum, in the possession of one 



208 SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 

Francis Page, yeoman, who held in free 

socage of the manor of East Greenwich by fealty only. And 
that one Mr. Robert Bincks is the present incumbent, a 
constant [preach] ing minister, who hath for his salary 
the whole profits of the said vicarage, which, with thirteen 

acres of glebe land and the small tithes, amount to 

nine pounds a year or thereabouts; and that our said parish 
is not of extent fit to be divided, nor so little as to be [united] . 

FELTHAM. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage which is 
worth about one hundred pounds per annum, and that one Mr. 
Job Iggleton is our constant preaching minister, and hath for 
his salary the whole profits of the vicarage worth, i$l. 6s. Sd. 
per annum, which was formerly in the presentation of Lord 
Cottington, but now in the Lord President of the Council of 
State ; and our church being situated about the middle of our 
parish, all the parishioners may with good convenience repair 
thereunto. 

STANWELL. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage impropriate 
which, with the tithes thereto belonging, and three-score acres 
of glebe land, is worth two hundred and sixty pounds per 
annum. Tbe one moiety thereof belongeth to Sir Humphrey 
Tracey, Bart., and the other moiety belongeth to John [C]arey, 
Esq. Also, that we have one vicarage and about six acres of 
glebe land thereunto belonging which, with the small tithes, 
is valued at thirty-five pounds per annum. And one Mr. 
Edward Richardson is our present incumbent, and a pious 
minister, observing all commands of parliament, put in by the 
Committee for Plundered Ministers, who has the aforesaid profits 
of the vicarage for his salary, as also fifty pounds a year granted 
as an augmentation out of the sequestered part of the said 
impropriation ; and as we humbly conceive our parish is of a 
reasonable extent, and our church of a sufficient capacity to 
receive all the inhabitants. 

SHEPPERTON. 

Item. We present that our sequestered parsonage is 
presentative, and formerly in the presentation of Sir Henry 



SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 209 

Spiller, Knt, which, with the tithes thereunto belonging and 
nineteen acres of glebe land we conceive to be worth about one 
hundred and thirty pounds per annum ; and that one Mr. John 
Dodridge is incumbent and our present minister, who has for 
his salary the said hundred and thirty pounds a year. Also 
that we have within our said parish a farm formerly belonging 
to the Queen, now in the occupation of William Westbrooke, 
the tithes of which farm are worth twenty pounds per annum, 
out of which is due to the minister sixteen shillings a year. 
Likewise we have six-and-twenty acres of meadow in the 
possession of William Stiles and Clement Gregory, the tithe of 
which is worth about twenty-four shillings per annum, but no 
part thereof, as we can find, is or has been paid to the minister, 
and [we] conceive our parish no ways convenient to be divided 
nor fit to be united. 

LALEHAM. 

Item. We present that we have one paisonage valued at 
one hundred pounds per annum, now in the occupation of Mr. 
Tompson Stapley, tenant unto George Homes and Robert 
Homes, owners thereof; and also one vicarage which, with the 
house, orchard, small tithes and seventeen acres of glebe land, 
is worth about twenty-two pounds a year, of which Sir Thomas 
Reignolds, Knt., has the presentation, and presented one Mr. 
William Croft, our present incumbent, thereto, who was 
instituted and inducted according to ordinance of parliament. 

ASHFORD. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage, of which 
the Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal of England have the 
presentation, and one vicarage, and that one Mistress Feilden 
hath the said parsonage or impropriation, but whether by lease 
or otherwise, we know not. We conceive the same to be 
worth about three-score pounds per annum, as it is now let to 
John Whiting, her tenant; and we conceive the annual value of 
the said vicarage, together with the small tithes and glebe land 
thereto belonging, to be about twenty-four pounds per annum, 
which Mr. George Bonieman, our present minister, brought in 
by the consent and with the approbation of the parish, hath for 
his salary. 



210 SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 

LITTLETON. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage and about 
fifty acres of glebe land, which together with the whole tithes 
thereto belonging, we conceive to be worth ninety pounds per 
annum, and that Nicholas Townley, Esq., has the right of 
patronage ; and one Mr. John Leare is our constant preaching 
minister, put in by order of the Committee for Plundered 
Ministers bearing date 2Oth September last, who hath all the said 
ninety pounds a year for his salary. And that our parish 
church is very convenient for the parishioners to repair unto. 

STAINES. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage and one 
vicarage, and that one Mr. Thomas Bartholomew purchased 
the said parsonage or impropriation to him and his heirs for 
ever, which we conceive to be worth about four-score pounds 
per annum, as it is now let to one William Ludgall ; and 
we value the vicarage house with twenty . . . acres of 
meadow and pasture, and thirty acres of arable land at 
four-score pounds per annum, which Mr. Gabriel Price, our 
present incumbent, placed by the Lords Commissioners of the 
Great Seal, has for his salary; and that our church being 
spacious enough to receive all the parishioners, we conceive it 
not fit to be divided nor convenient to be [united] . 

WOXB RIDGE. 

Item. We present that we have a chapel-of-ease in our 
populous market town of Woxbridge, within the parish of 
Hillingdon, without presentation, which is above a mile 
from the church of Hillingdon aforesaid, and which said 
church is not able to contain the multitude of people belonging to 
our chapel if they should repair thereunto ; and the maintenance 
within our said town of Woxbridge, arising out of orchards 
and other petty tithes, amounts not to above eight pounds per 
annum, by which means we are altogether destitute of a settled 
preaching minister, and we conceive it fit and humbly pray, if 

no neighbouring parish be joined to us, that our 

parish may be established a distinct parish of itself, and we 
allowed a competent maintenance for a deserving minister 
according to the act of parliament in that behalf. 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 211 

COWLEY. 

Item. We present that there is one parsonage house and 
twenty acres of glebe land, which, with great and small tithes, 
if duly paid, we conceive to be worth about three-score and ten 
pounds per annum, and that Mistress Francklyn, having the 
right of patronage, conferred the same upon Mr. William 
Beare (? ) the present preaching minister, who has all the 
aforesaid and profits for his salary. 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

BY " PETER DE SANDWICH." 
III. ST. MARY'S, SANDWICH. 

[1557 ?], Thomas Rutton presented for withholding of 28 cwt. 
of lead, more or less, and one kine belonging to the church of Our 
Lady there. 

Mr. Warren presented for withholding of eight acres of land 
from the said church, which was given by one Graves ; and also he 
doth withhold thirteen acres of land and a barn given for an obit 
to be kept in the said church, by one Aldred's widow. 

Thomas Corkwell for withholding of a house from the said 
church, which was given by the said Aldred's widow towards the 
obit aforesaid. 

[The above occur in a volume of undated presentments made by 
commissioners, probably in the first year of the reign of Queen 
Mary. In 1557 Nicholas Harpesfield, Archdeacon of Canterbury 
(1554-9) visited all the churches in the diocese, even those exempt 
from the visitation of the Archdeacon. Perhaps the volume may be 
a part of that visitation]. 

1569. That their Bible is not of the largest volume. 

That the Sacrament is ministered in fine manchet bread. 

That there are goods pertaining to their church in the hands of 
one William Lothbery, Esq., of London, dwelling in Terns (sic) 
Street at the Gilten Cross, to the value of 2ol. and more, he then 
being churchwarden, and hath made no account for it. Mr. Lothbery 
is now at St. Stephen's. 



212 SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

That these persons have not received the Holy Communion 
Edmond Darnell and his wife, Peter Pattynson's wife, Edward 
Young. That their Vicar is parson of Ham. Peter Pattynson is a 
blasphemer and a railer. Edmond Darnell a drunkard and 
blasphemer. That their schoolmaster teacheth grammar by another 
work than is set forth by public authority. 

1579. Our minister [Thomas Pawson] doth not wear a surplice. 

1584. We have not a surplice. 

1594. Thomas Pawson, our minister, for very often omitting the 
wearing of the surplice in reading service and administering the 
sacrament. 

[Thomas Pawson was vicar of Preston next Wingham, 1560-65, 
where four of his children were baptised. Vicar of St. Mary, 
Sandwich 1565-97, where he was buried 23 February, 1596-7 : 
"Thomas Pawsone minister and preacher." Next year his widow 
(and fourth wife) Christian Pawsonne was married at St. Mary's, 
Sandwich, to William Willesnal], 

1597. The butchers of their parish do sell meat openly, and keep 
open their shops upon Sundays, and in time of divine service. 

1608. Christopher Leggatt, miller, did by himself or his servant 
grind corn in his mill on the nth September last, being a Sunday, 
in the time of divine service or sermon in the parish church of 
St. Mary, to the affront of well disposed persons. 

Robert Smith and Robert Richards being butchers, do kill and 
sell flesh, and keep open their shop windows on Sundays and holy 
days in the time of divine service. 

1609. Stephen Huffam, clerk, of St. Mary's, Sandwich, for 
marrying William Hayward and his wife on the ninth day of 
January, 1609, which was in the times prohibited, without licence or 
dispensation. 

[Stephen Huffam (or Hougham) vicar of St. Mary's, 1600-24, 
was also vicar of St. Nicholas at Wade, in the Isle of Thanet, 
1616-29. He died 6th May, 1629, and was buried in the chancel of 
St. Nicholas at Wade, leaving issue six sons and seven daughters.] 

1614. Mr. Openshaw and Mr. Cedred have preached. We have 
a font in the usual place. One bell is broken and sent to London to 
be new cast, and we crave a reasonable time to place it again. 

1615. We do every year walk the circuit of our parish, but in 
certain places anciently known to be ours, we are denied both the 
cess for our poor, and church dues, and therefore we do present 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 213 

them : Thomas Deane, of St. Mary's, for his malt-house ; Daniel 
Barnes for his malt-house ; Nicholas James for his dwelling-house ; 
and John Wilson for his dwelling-house. 

1617. Elizabeth Carter, of the parish of St. Mary's, and Margaret 
Kennett, of St. Peter's (the daughter of John Kennett), for fighting in 
our church in time of divine service upon the Sabbath Day, the 2ist 
day of September, 1617, as we stand informed by John Amye, our 
clerk, and William Hamden, one of the Serjeants of our town. 

1624. Abraham Rutton, late of our parish, now of St. Peter's, for 
refusing to pay his cess to our poor, he being cessed at 25. a year, 
and being behind for three quarters, before his departure out of our 
parish. 

1625. Christopher Leggatt for refusing to pay his cess to the 
church for his mill, which is five shillings ; and it hath been lawfully 
demanded of him. 

1626. John Bowdon for not paying the sum of four shillings, he 
being lawfully cessed towards the use of the poor. 

1632. Jane Barham, of St. Clement's parish in our said town, 
coining to our parish church, hath intruded into a pew, contrary to 
our advertisement, and thereby disturbed and kept out of the same 
pew some of our parishioners of good rank who used to sit therein ; 
she being by some of us required to refrain and come out of the said 
pew, not only refused so to do, but likewise laughed in a jeering 
manner, as we conceived, in time of divine service, sermon, and 
administration of the sacrament, for which being in a few words 
reproved by Robert Dunkin, one of the churchwardens, she called 
him "Jack in an office," and such other unseemly words. 

1636. We have the Book of Common Prayer, and the Bible of 
the largest volume, well and fairly bound. 

1638. The churchwardens and sidesmen say that there is one 
Mr. Robert Jagger that refuseth to pay his cess made for the church 
and churchyard repairs, being one quarter's cess, the sum of six 
shillings. 

And also one Katherine Goager, widow, that refuseth to pay her 
cess made for the reparations of the church and churchyard aforesaid, 
being one quarter's cess, the sum of eight shillings. 

1639. Christopher Verrall, of St. Mary's parish, and John 
Markham, of St. Clement's, for quarrelling and fighting in the 
churchyard. 



214 ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

IV. ST. JAMES'S, SANDWICH. 

This was a chapel-of-ease attached to St. Mary's Church, 
and under the control of the churchwardens of that parish. It 
was generally known as the chapel of St. Jacob, and had a 
burial ground, afterwards used as a cemetery for the parish of 
St. Mary. The chapel was served by a hermit, whose 
hermitage, at the south-west corner, was in the gift of the 
Mayor and Jurats of Sandwich. When suppressed in the 
reign of Edward VI., the last hermit, John Stewart, became 
vicar of St. Mary, until his death in 1564. 

The book of undated presentments (1557 ?) first referred to 
under St. Mary's parish, contains the following : 

Thomas Burwell and Thomas Watson presented, for that when 
they were churchwardens of the said church, they sold all the 
ornaments. 

Thomas Burwell withholds two garden plots, with one little 
shed belonging to the said church of St. James. 

John Broke, of Denton, for that he with-holds one garden plot, 
given to St. James. 

John Huggesson, withholds one vestment belonging to St. 
James' church. 



A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AND RECTORY 
OF ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

BY W. B. PASSMORE. 
(Continued from p. 144). 

AS already stated this is a rectory of remote foundation, 
the date being uncertain ; it appears to have remained 
in the gift of the Prior and Canons of St. Bartholmew 
until 1327. In the year 1437 the Dean and Chapter of 
St. Paul's presented to the living, and they have continued 
to do so until the present time. A chantry was founded by 
John of London, in the reign of Richard II., to which a 
chaplain was admitted, but as it was of no great value the 
chaplain was collated to another chantry for his better mainten- 
ance. In the year 1636 the annual profits of the rectory, 



ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 215 

including tithes, casualties, Sir Wolston's gift and parsonage, 
were returned at I55/. Under the Act of 1804, the rectorial 
tithe produces 22O/. i8s. 4^. The rector also receives 4O/. as 
rent of a former rectory house, and 58^. for a divinity lecture. 

Of the rectors, Newcourt gives a very incomplete list, 
without assigning any reason for its being so imperfect. From 
a careful study of the old parish registers and churchwardens* 
books, Dr. Sharpe's calendar of Wills, and after consulting the 
late Dr. Sparrow Simpson at St. Paul's Library, but especially 
from some very learned notes which the Rev. George Hennessey 
sent me, the following list of rectors, and references to the 
church have been compiled. 
A.D. 

1275 Thos. de Basinge gives to Margery, his wife, the advowson of St. Michael 
Bassiughall, for life, with remainder to Richard, his brother. 

1286 Ralph de Pelham. His quit rent of half a mark to be sold by his 
executors. 

1310 William, died 1318. He bequeathed certain houses and rents in Pentecoste 
Lane, in the Shambles, to be devoted to the maintenance of a chantry here. 

1327 Randolphus de Waltham, died 1327. 

1335 Henry de Bydyke made a bequest to Thomas de Karlisle, rector of the 
church of Bassyngeshawe, and left the adowson, to Johanna, his wife. 

1337 Thomas de Karlisle , alias Cardinal, presented 4 April, was rector in 1342. 
He died, it appears, in 1350, bequeathing to God and St. Michael an annual 
rent of twenty shillings charged on his tenement in the churchyard, in aid 
of a chantry founded by "William de Sydemauton, his predecessor. 

1351 If offer de Tahvorth, he had license from the King to exchange the living with 
William de Wakefield, for the church of Wotton, Lincolnshire; by his 
will in 1353, he made pecuniary bequests to every priest serving in the 
church of St. Michael de Bassyngeshawe, and to William, clerk of the 
same, a robe of bluet. 

*354 W. de Wakefield, by his will desired to be buried in the church 
if convenient. After leaving to Johanna, wife of William Tydyman, his 
best bed and two entire robes, one being red and the other of a mixed 
colour, a cup of mazer, etc., and to Thomas Godard, for life, his garden 
which he had bought of Richard El sing, mercer, he left the remainder of 
his property to the aforesaid church, on condition that the rectors 
celebrated mass every Friday with Requiem and collect Inclina. The will 
is dated at the hostel of John (Thoresby) Archbishop of York. 

1356 Thomas de Cornhill was here at this date. 

1359 Richard Savich was buried where the Communion table stands. 

1362 Thomas Godard, died in 1374. 

1375 Thomas Caysho, died 1378. 

1392 William Sent was here at this date, and in 1405. 



216 ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

1435 Thomas Galle, died 1437. He was rector of St. Mary's, Whitechapel, 
in 1410. 

'437 John Scotte, per mortem Galle, Presented by the Dean and Chapter of 
St. Paul's. To John Scott, the rector and churchwardens and their 
successors, John Asshe leaves his brewery called " la Cok on the Hoope," 
situate in the parish, charged with the observance of the obit of 
John Willis. This is now a valuable property situate at the corner of 
Basinghall Street paid London Wall. 

1460 John Olstan, alias Colt, here 1460, died 1489. 

1500 Rolt. Radclyffe, died 1500, desired to be buried before the image of 
Christ on the north wall. 

1510 Simon Robynson here at this time. 

1517 /. Kendall leaves a bequest to the church. 

1542 Sir John Andertcn died 1561, buried in the chancel The number of 
" houseliug " people [communicants] living in the parish at this time was 
500. 

1561 Alexander Wymshurst instituted 9 August. 

1569 William Palmer, 23 June, by Bishop's certificate. 

1572 George Gardiner, 4 April, by Bishop's certificate. 

B 575 Roger Barker, he resigned June 10th. 

1575 Roger Greene, also vicar of Edmonton, Bishop's certificate. 

1588 Edward Griffith was licensed to serve the cure. 

1589 William Hutchinson, 30 September, Bishop's certificate. 

1604 Rowland Burrell, 2 November, Dean and Chapter's certificate; he was 
rector of Brompton Ralph, Somerset. 

1607 Dr. John Gifford, 10 November, lie remained rector until 1642, when, 
upon the petition of the inhabitants, he was removed by the Parliament 
at the great rebellion. There is an entry in the churchwardens' book in 
1645 of a payment of 6J. 13s. 4rf. to the " old doctor;" this is the last 
time his name appears in the parish records. 

1642 Charles Newton was appointed by Parliament to discharge the cure upon 
the removal of Dr. Gifford. It is doubtful if he was canonically 
instituted. He died in 1645. 

1646 Simeon Aah, Commonwealth minister, was appointed; he remained until 
1651. Probably this Simeon Ash was the person named by Calamy 
in his account of the ministers ejected after tLe restoration in 1660. 
" Good old Simeon Ash from St. Austin, member of the assembly 
divines, he went to heaven at a seasonable time and was buried on the eve 
of St. Bartholomew." A,-h was chaplain to the Earl of Manche8t< 
during the lebellion, and was one of the divines who framed the solemi 
league and covenant. He was present at the battle of Marston Moor 
wrote an account of it. 

1653 Philip Edlin was "parson of the parish" until the restoration. 
Upon Mr. Ash leaving the parish in 1651, there appears a curious account 
of srane negotiations with the Parliament as to the election of a new 
minister.. There were two candidates in the field, Mr. Jaggard and 
Mr. Edlin, and much complication; going* to and fro, with "boat hire " 



ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 217 

and coach hire to Westminster to visit the " Lord Whitelock," the Lords of 
the Council, the Commissioner of the Great Seal, and so on. The 
inter-regnum must have existed for a lengthened period, for there is a list in 
the vestry minutes of twenty-eight ministers who preached 58 sermons in 
church to fill up the gap between the going of Mr. Ash and the coming of 
Mr. Edlin. He must have been elected in 1652, from which time he performed 
his duty to the satisfaction of the parishioners. The Commonwealth 
marriages averaged from 20 to 30 a year, nearly all being specified as taking 
place before a justice, "and in the church of Mr. Edlin, parson." 
Whether he died or resigned his living, does not appear ; he is not 
mentioned as one of the ejected ministers. 

1660 William Hall, prebendary of Isledon, died soon after of the dropsy. 

1662 Francis Hall. He was prebend of St. Paul's, chaplain to Charles II., 
and incumbent of Market Deeping. Newcourt says he resigned his 
cure, but that is not entirely correct. He left the parish for his country cure 
on the first appearance of the plague in 1665 and did not return until 1670, 
when the question of augmentation of tithe came up. He then put in a 
claim for his tithe and for the said augmentation, although he had not 
visited the parish or performed any duty therein during those years. 
Upon this the parishioners assembled in vestry, and unanimously resolved 
" that no such augmentation could possibly be made." They appealed to 
the committee to "discountenance all further attempts of this nature " ; 
meantime they undertook to pay Mr. Hall one half the tithe assessed upon 
them until the parish church should be rebuilt. He retained the living 
nntil 1675, receiving the emoluments but performing no duty. 

1675 Edward Smith was appointed to the cure on the 17th November in this 
year, Mr. Hall having at length resigned. The present church was 
erected under the auspices of Mr. Smith. 

1701 fir. Roderick on the death of Smith. 

1730 Dr. Laving ton on the death of Roderick. 

1742 Dr. Brackenridge on the death of Lavington. 

1762 Thomas Marriott on the death of Brackenridge. 

1781 John Moore, on the death of Marriott. He was also rector of Langdon 
Hill, Essex, canon of St. Paul's, and one of the King's chaplains. He 
disputed the right of the vestry to appoint the Divinity Lecturer, a founda- 
tion of Sir Wolstone Dixie and Mr. Vaughan, in consequence of which the 
lecture was in abeyance for some years. 

1 82 1 Christopher Packe on the death of Moore. 

1835 JE. G. A. Beckwith on the resignation of Packe. 

1857 John finley on the death of Beckwith. 

1865 John E. Me Caul on exchange with Finley. 

1892 /. Stephen Ban-as on the death of McCaul. Present rector. 

The Charity Commissioners under their scheme of 
union had provided the sum of i,3io/. for repairs to the 
fabric of the church, if claimed within twelve months. The 
specification of repairs required having been approved by Mr. 



218 ST. MICHAEL BASSISHAW. 

Christian, architect to the Commissioners, the church was 
closed on the 27th April, 1892, and the work proceeded with 
until June, when the City Sanitary Authority intervened and 
stopped further progress, requiring the removal of the human 
remains from beneath the floor of the church. After six months 
of correspondence an order was received from the Privy 
Council on the 3Oth January, 1893, for the removal forthwith 
of the remains, and for reburial in consecrated ground. This 
order was confirmed by the Home Office, the Secretary of 
State advising that "no further sanction was required from any 
other authority." Upon this a site was secured at the Great 
Northern Cemetery, and the exhumation proceeded with. 
The Chancellor of the Consistory Court, however, gave it as 
his opinion that the removal could not be carried out without 
a faculty, and stated that " if the parish acted solely under the 
order of the Home Office, the churchwardens would be 
admonished for so doing in the Ecclesiastical Courts, and 
condemned in costs." The vestry taking the matter into 
consideration, decided to apply for a faculty. 

The soil in the south arcade was excavated to a depth of 
eight feet, nineteen lead coffins with name plates attached, 
nineteen without names, and twenty-four cases of loose bones 
were taken out and re-interred at Southgate, when Dr. Tristram, 
Chancellor of the Diocese, delivered an order suspending all 
further excavation upon the ground that further removal would 
endanger the stability of the structure. He also directed that 
no further work should be proceeded with, but that the church 
should be taken down and the rectory united to a neighbouring 
parish. He reported his grounds for this order to the Home 
Office, and intimated that the costs, already incurred and to be 
incurred, should be defrayed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
as they would receive the purchase money for the site of the 
church. The Bishop's commission as to the union with St. 
Lawrence Jewry, was issued on the 22nd December, 1893, and 
the Commissioners reported on the 23rd February, 1894, tnat 
the proposed union was expedient. The vestries of the two 
parishes met and signified their assent to the Bishop's scheme 
with certain modifications. The scheme was ultimately carried 
into effect, and its provisions are given in detail by the Rev. 



THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 219 

H. W. Clark in his book, "The City Churches," under the 
heading of "St. Michael at Bassing Hall." 

Owing to differences that had arisen with reference to the 
scheme of union of the two benefices, the emptying of the 
vaults was not resumed until 1899. When this work was 
completed, the fabric of Wren's church and tower was sold by 
auction and produced 378^ Its demolition is now being 
proceeded with, and the site has been purchased by the City 
Corporation for 36,ooo/. 



THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 

BY REV. H. J. E. BURRELL. 
(Concluded from p. 162), 

LET us now come to the church as it stands to-day. In the 
year 1745, the Rev. William Cole, the Cambridge anti- 
quary (born 1714, died 1782), paid a visit to the parish and 
left a record of his impressions in the form of a roughly 
illustrated manuscript now in the British Museum. He 
describes the exterior as " handsome and regular built, with a 
square tower containing five bells," and says that the building 
is " dedicated to St. Nicholas." We must, however, take 
exception to the latter statement. For certainly, as early as 
1484, the dedication was to the Holy Trinity, when a certain 
George Nicholl desired by his will, "to be buried in the parish 
church of Holy Trinity, Littlebury, before the altar of St. 
Peter in the south aisle of the same church," and left bequests 
" to the Guild of St. Peter of the same church and to the lights 
of the torches (i.e. the hearse light) and to the rood light." 

Since Cole's visit the church has been greatly altered. 
The churchwardens' accounts show 7 that in 1818 much money 
was spent upon the fabric, principally upon the roof. Besides 
this, the body of the building was restored in 1870, and the 
chancel in 1875. These restorations were generously carried 
out, but they were not happy from an antiquarian point of view. 
For much of the ancient work was then smoothed over, and the 



220 THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 

chancel entirely rebuilt on a larger scale with much careful 
elaboration of detail, but with no attempt to make use of the 
old material, or to preserve original features. As regards the 
exterior we need add nothing to Cole's description, except 
to notice the two striking porches which seem to have been 
added about the end of the fourteenth century. Some early 
architectural notes in the British Museum point out that the 
porch windows are ''destitute of weatherings," and certainly 
the absence of dripstones above the windows presents a 
somewhat unusual appearance. In both porches a scheme of 
vaulting is suggested, but the work was never carried to 
completion. About the same date several windows appear to 
have been inserted in the tower and elsewhere. The main 
fabric of the church, however, belongs to the I2th century, and 
its decoration is transitional in character. The south doorway 
contains a round Norman arch on which is cut a deep Early 
English Moulding, and the foliage of the capitals beneath are 
also of the later style, but the reverse of this may be seen in 
the nave arcades where pointed arches are associated with 
plain Norman columns and capitals of differing designs. 

The old font still remains simple and unpretentious, and on 
this account, as it would seem, unsuited to the ideas of 
the I5th century villagers. For it was then enclosed and 
entirely hidden from view by what is now the most interesting 
feature of the church, viz., a very fine oaken case, some 16 feet 
in height, with folding doors opening to the back, and crowned 
by a richly carved canopy, containing niches (the figures are 
lost), and possessing the wealth of minute detail which is 
characteristic of the period. Both case and doors seem at first 
sight to be panelled, but in reality, the panels with their 
framing are cut from solid wood. They are carved with a 
curious variation of the linen pattern, the folds of which, in 
some instances, are marked at the ends with an incised cross. 
The folding doors are held, and connected by long jointed 
hinges, pierced at intervals with the emblems of the Passion. 
The wood-work is in excellent order, and its preservation is no 
doubt due to the repeated coats of whitewash to which it has 
been treated. It is said, indeed, that the canopy formerly 
resembled an immense and solid cone of white sugar ! This 



THE FONT COVER. LJTTLEBURY 





Brass of an Ecclesiastic, circa 1510, at Littlebury. 



THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 221 

disfigurement was very skilfully removed about thirty years 
ago. For this unique piece of church furniture, the parish 
has, in all probability, to thank the wool-workers of the period, 
a class which (as Norfolk churches bear witness) was very 
generous in all church matters. Littlebury was once a seat of 
the woollen trade, and on the fine old north door, above the 
wicket, are carved two pairs of shears the trade-sign of the 
guild. Their benefactions were not confined to the font 
cover ; in 1745 the chancel was rich in oak, for Cole describes 
it as " stalled round, and pretty large, and divided from ye nave 
by a very elegant screen, finely carved and gilt." All this has 
been at some time " restored " away, and doubtless much be- 
sides ; the base and support of the old lectern, however, still 
exist. 

The brasses were once numerous, but they are now reduced 
to seven, one being only an inscription. Several have dis- 
appeared during the last 150 years, and at the more recent 
restoration the remainder were removed from their slabs, which 
are now buried beneath the tiled pavement of the chancel. 
Lately the surviving brasses have been fixed on oak and fastened 
to the walls, since it was not found possible to replace them in 
their old positions. A brief description is appended. 

1. A civilian, circa 1480, with cap and scarf. 

2. A priest, circa 1510, robed in stole, chasuble, maniple, 
and apparelled alb, and amice, and holding in his hands a host 
and chalice (see illustration). The chalice is unusual, in that 
it has a small projecting ornament at each angle of the foot. 
Mr. Cripps, in his took on old English plate, says that such 
ornaments usually, though not invariably, take the form of an 
ornamental letter M (thus indicating the name of the Blessed 
Virgin), and that only fifteen specimens are known. Here, 
however, there is no resemblance to any letter of the alphabet. 

3. A civilian and wife (scrolls lost) circa 1510. 

4. A civilian (inscription lost) circa 1520. 

5. A woman, 1578. This is a good example of costume. 
The inscription states that she was " Jane Bradbury, wife of 
Henry Bradbury, gent., and daughter of one Gyles Poulton, of 
Dysborough, in ye Countie of Northaton, gent." Cole tells us 
that in his time there were also effigies of a son and three 



222 THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 

daughters, and under them the arms, "a chevron Er : int. 
three buckles for Bradbury, impaling a fess int. two mullets for 
Polton." Henry Bradbury, the husband, owned at one time 
the manor of Catmere Hall, before referred to. 

6. A woman, 1624, wearing a broad brimmed hat with a 
wreath round the Crown, and dressed in a ruffle and gown with 
hanging sleeves. By the inscription, she was Anne Byrd, wife 
of Thomas Byrd. The arms are lost, but were, according to 
Cole, " Qrty. in ye ist Qr. an eagle displaid." This lady 
belonged to a family of some local distinction, which included 
among its members Sir William Ryrd, Dean of Arches, and 
Dr. William Bird, Governor of Charterhouse, 1614. 

7. An inscription as follows : " Hie jacet Jacobus Edwards 
quodam Satelles de Hadstock et Hadam tune | hujus Ville, qui 
omni morum probitate hoc munus gessit, et candidissimo 
Favo- | re Domini Redman Episcopi Eliens. hoc funts (?) officio 
tandem fatali Peste pie | Expirans 1111 Calendas Octobris 
anno Gracie 1522." 

James Edwards, who died of the plague in 1522, was 
evidently some sort of official (satelles) under Bishop Redman, 
of Ely, but what his office exactly may have been is difficult to 
say. The following extract from a letter and postscript from 
Strype, the famous historian, may be of , interest as dealing 
with the question. 

" To the Rev. Mr. Kilburne at Saffron Walden, 

Leyton, January 2ist, 1705. 

Sir, I thank you for your antient and curious inscription. 
The date is undoubtedly 1522. The figure 5 was formerly 

made after that manner But at the word satelles 

I stick, because it cannot here be taken in the common sense 

of the word Hoc Munus puts it out of doubt 

that it was some office, and hence I first thought this person 
might have been a guard or some honourable attendant or 
sergeant to the Bishop. But [there are] the words that follow, 

de Hadstock and Hadham and so he might 

first have been his steward for Hadham, as afterwards he might 
be steward to the Bishop of Ely for your village of Littlebury, 
tune hujus mile. And the account it gives of his honest behaviour 
in the office (Omni Morum Probitate hoc munus gessit) agrees 



THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 223 

with the office of steward. But I acknowledge I am not 
satisfied with this signification of the word, though I cannot 

produce a better 

Your affectionate Brother, and humble servant, 

JOH. STRYPE. 

Sir, I fancy the engraver was mistaken in putting the 
word satelles for seneschallus : or, unless you viewed the word 
exactly, it may be wrote by abbreviation sen'allus, for 
seneschallus, which sense will agree with what follows, as 
implying great trust, viz. omni morum Probitate, etc. But as for 
the word satelles taken in a military sense, I never heard of any 
such office under the Bishops of Ely, and if taken in a civil 
sense for bailiff, or rent-gatherer, the meaning of the word is 
new and altogether forced 

We will not presume to offer an opinion as to the precise 
rank of this worthy man, but will pass on to the Church 
Registers, which commence with the year 1559, though there 
is a transcript dating back to 1545. Unfortunately, they 
contain nothing worthy of quotation, save perhaps the following 
allusion to the Restoration " Januarie, ye 6th 1660 after 
thirteene years and halfe sequestration the old vicar Henry 
Tucker enters againe upon the vicarage and supplies the cure." 

Another vicar, John Hutton, became the first Master of 
Charterhouse, the famous foundation of Thomas Sutton. 

The church bells are six in number. Originally there were 
four, three of which were re-cast in 1763, and the fourth in 
1789, at which time a treble was added in commemoration of 
the recovery of George III. from his serious illness. It was 
inscribed with the following couplet, more remarkable for 
loyalty of sentiment than elegance of rhythm " Unfeigned 
praise to Heaven's Almighty King for health restored to George 
the Third we sing." The next year the sixth bell was added. 

And now this paper may well be concluded with a few words 
about the one famous inhabitant of whom Littlebury can 
boast Henry Winstanley, a man of eccentric genius and 
quaint conceits, and the designer and builder of the ill-fated 
Eddystone Lighthouse, which was blown down in a gale in 
1703. He was the son of Charles and Penelope Winstanley 
and the entry of his baptism, dated I3th October, 1677, may 



224 THE MANOR AND PARISH OF LITTLEBURY. 

be found in the register of Saffron Walden Church. He lived, 
however, at Littlebury, which is distant from Saffron Walden 
ij miles. A few mounds are all that now remain of his 
house, a building which at one time excited a considerable 
interest in the neighbourhood. Cole describes it thus : " He 
built also near ye south wall of ye churchyard a very handsom 
though whimsical house of brick, in every room of which was some 
ingenious contrivance or other, but these oddities are now out 
of repair and useless, and the house is let to a gentleman who 
resides in it. In some of the rooms were easy chairs, which, if 
anyone had the curiosity to sit down in, he was immediately 
conveyed by springs and pulleys underground, and did not get 
out of them till he was at ye further end of ye garden. Here 
was likewise an attempt to show perpetual motion, and various 
other contrivances too long to be here inserted." Among these 
contrivances was doubtless a brick tunnel under the river 
Granta, a fragment of which is still visible beneath the water. 
There was also a model of the Eddystone lighthouse, for Cole 
states that an exact model of it, used when he went to school 
to Mr. Butt's at Saffron Walden, " some 20 years since, to stand 
in a field to ye south of ye church about two furlongs." In 
reference to this model, there was a tradition, that at the time 
of the fatal storm, Mrs. Winstanley was at Littlebury, and 
nervous and anxious for her husband became imbued with a 
presentiment that the safety of the great light-house on the 
Eddystone, was bound up with the preservation of the little 
model in her garden. One morning she awoke to find that the 
latter had succumbed to the violence of a sudden gale, and she 
at once abandoned hope and resigned herself to the belief that 
she would never see her husband's face again. Only too surely 
was her premonition realised. For that night the lighthouse, 
a fantastic structure and as little suited as a Chinese pagoda 
to withstand the fury of a storm, was swept away, and with 
it perished its ill-fated founder. 

Winstanley's fertile imagination had brought him no fortune, 
and his widow was left without provision. In the end she was 
forced to desecrate her husband's house, with its store of 
mechanical freaks and fanciful inventions, by opening it as a 
place of attraction, to the public. We quote from the Essex 



THE CHARITIES OF HERTFORDSHIRE. 225 

Review (Vol. ii. p. 63), the following advertisement, which is 
copied from the Postboy of December 18, 1712. " The fam'd 
house of the late ingenious Mr. Winstanley is opened and 
shown for the benefit of his widow, with all the curiosities as 
formerly ; and is lately butifi'd and well furnish'd, and several 
new additions made by her; it is on the Coach Road to 
Cambridge, Newmarket, Berry, Norwich, Lynn and Yarmouth, 
and is shown for izd. each, and to liverymen 6d. This is 
known by a lanthorn on the top of it ; and was built and 
contrived by the same Winstanley that made the famous 
Water Theater at the lower end of Piccadily near Hide Park, 
and are both in possession of his widow." 



THE CHARITIES OF HERTFORDSHIRE. 

BY THE EDITOR. 
(Continued from p. 124). 

Buntingford. Order, made at "The Bear" inn at Cambridge, 
21 April, 1652, in a suit brought by Thomas and Charles 
Hobson on behalf of the " poor kindred " of Thomas Hobson, 
of Cambridge, carrier, deceased, and " the poor inhabitants " 
of, inter alia, Buntingford, against Christopher Rose, gentleman, 
executor of the last mentioned Thomas. 

The testator by his will, dated 24 December, 1630, and by 
codicil dated i May, 1631, gave the residue of his estate to his 
daughter, Anne Knight, and to his grand-children, the aforesaid 
Thomas and Charles Hobson, "to be distributed amongst his 
poor kinsfolk and the poor people" of, inter alia, Buntingford. 

The said executor had withheld of the said residue the sum 
of i,74O/. 155. 5^. for twenty years past, and it was ordered 
that he should pay that sum, with interest at the rate of five 
per cent, by the year, to the afore-named Charles and Thomas, 
to be distributed as aforesaid. No direction is given as to the 
investment of the money. (Petty Bag Charity Inquisition. 
Bundle 27, No. 5). 

Broxbourne and Hoddesdon. Inquisition taken at Broxbourne 
3 June, 1653. The jury say that Mr. William Thorogood, by 
his will, dated 6 August, 1602, gave to his son Thomas (whom 
he made one of his executors) his heirs and assigns, the yearly 
rents of 40$. and i6s. from two houses in the parish of St. 



226 THE CHARITIES OF HERTFORDSHIRE. 

Antholin, in the city of London, on condition that, so long as 
the religion then established continued, they should pay yearly 
to the churchwardens of the parish of Broxbourne the said rent 
of 405., to be given by those churchwardens to the vicar, or 
some other godly, learned, or religious preacher, to preach six 
sermons in the said parish church or in the chapel of 
Hoddesdon. After the death of the executors the rent was to 
be applied, at the discretion of the said churchwardens, and six 
of "the chiefest and most substantial parishioners," who had 
been churchwardens, for preaching six "godly and religious" 
sermons in the parish church of Broxbourne, or in the chapel 
of Hoddesdon. 

The jury said that both the executors named were dead, and 
that the two houses had descended to Elizabeth Rawden, sole 
daughter of the executor Thomas Thorogood, and the arrears of 
the 405. rent amounted to 38/., and ought to be paid by the said 
Elizabeth. 

The jury further found that the said i6s. a year rent was 
bequeathed for the repair of the windows of the parish church 
of Broxbourne, and that the arrears of that rent amounted to 
4/., and ought to be paid by the said Elizabeth. 

The jury further found that Bevill Mouldsworth, Esq., by 
his will, gave 50$. a year "to the parish of Broxbourne" in 
these words : " Whereas I have certain poor houses lying in 

the parish of Broxbourne at a rent of 50$. a 

year " ; 20$. of this rent was to be paid yearly to the vicar of 
Broxbourne for preaching a sermon, " by way of commemo- 
ration," of the testator in the said parish church ; 2os. yearly 
to be divided to such "poor persons" of the said parish, who 
should be present at that sermon, and " present themselves " to 
the vicar and churchwardens to receive it; and the los. balance 
was to be bestowed upon the said tenements, and upon the 
" fayre and descent mayntayning of the pavements in the 
church, about the stone " under which the testator's body 
should be buried. 

The jury found that Martha Mouldsworth was the testator's 
widow and executrix, and received the said rent till about 13 
years before the date of the enquiry when the houses were 
accidentally burnt ; that she had till then duly paid the said 
2os. and 205., but not the said los. They also said that after 
the said fire there remained unconsumed, a great quantity of 
bricks and other materials worth about 405. which she converted 
to her own use. The said Martha was dead, and the said 
Elizabeth Rawden was her executrix. 

The Order states that the said Elizabeth appeared, by 
counsel, and informed the commissioners that the said rents of 



First floor. 

Half plan through pilaster and jamb. 
Quarter full size. 




nn 



mm 



r ~j 

[^w ~ qv-jll 



Pilaster, first floor. 



floo 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 227 

405. and i6s. had been paid by her to Mr. Thomas Hassell, " a 
godly, learned, and religious preacher " for preaching, yearly, 
six sermons in Hoddesdon chapel, until about five years 
before the date of the enquiry ; whereby the will of the said 
William Thorogood had been performed, "though not according 
to the express letter." She also contended that she did not own 
the houses (from which the rents arose) under the will in 
question, but by conveyance from her said father, Thomas 
Thorogood, who was himself a purchaser thereof from the 
Crown ; and she, therefore, denied her liability to pay over the 
rents, etc. 

The Commissioners held that the said Elizabeth possessed 
this property by descent, that there was no proof of any such 
conve} r ance a c that alleged, and that the payment by the said 
Elizabeth to Mr. Hassell was a " misemployment " of the money 
left by her grandfather [i.e., that it was not bestowed, after the 
executor's death, by the churchwardens, etc., of Broxbourne] . 

It was, therefore, ordered that the said Elizabeth, her heirs 
and assigns, should pay to the churchwardens of Broxbourne 
the sum of 38/., the arrears of the said 405. yearly rent, and 4/. 
the arrears of the said i6s., and continue to pay the said sum 
of 405. and 1 6s. " forever hereafter." 

With regard to Mouldsworth's gift it was ordered that the 
said Elizabeth should pay all arrears to the churchwardens of 
Broxbourne, to be by them employed towards building a 
tenement or dwelling-house on the site of the tenements 
destroyed by fire, and that the rent received therefrom should 
be, by the said churchwardens, for ever employed according to 
the will of the said Bevill Mouldsworth. (Ibid. Bundle 22, 
No. 2). 



No. 17, FLEET STREET, SOMETIMES CALLED 
THE INNER TEMPLE GATE-HOUSE. 

BY PHILIP NORMAN, TREAS. S.A. 

1 LL of us who take any interest in the architectural relics 
JL of old London are familiar with that notable house 
No. 17, Fleet Street, extending over the Inner Temple 
Gateway, which, through the energetic action of the London 
County Council, aided by the City authorities, has been 
secured, in part at least, for the pleasure and instruction of our 
own and future generations. With the exception of Crosby 



228 No. 17, FLEET STREET. 

Hall,* it is perhaps the oldest house in the city, and from its 
architectural merit alone well worthy of preservation. Besides, 
it has an interesting history, and one by no means easy to 
unravel ; therefore, in spite of the many previous allusions 
which have found their way into print, I venture to make it the 
subject of an article. 

First as to the actual structure. The house, until quite 
recently, occupied a considerable space along the east side of 
Inner Temple Lane, but the back part, with one staircase, had 
already been pulled down before it was suggested that the 
London County Council should save from demolition the far 
more interesting portion which remains. The existing front 
has been much modernised. The massive rusticated arch, with 
the Pegasus of the Inner Temple on the spandrels, is thoroughly 
Jacobean in character, as are the carved wooden panels between 
the first and second floor windows, two of which are 
ornamented with plumes of feathers; but all the rest of the 
front now visible from Fleet Street is of comparatively recent 
date. Inside, fortunately, there are fragments which prove to 
us what was the appearance of the original building. The first 
storey, overhanging the ground-floor and archway, but con- 
siderably less than at present, had carved pilasters at the sides, 
and two bay windows with transoms, which were divided in the 
middle by a similar pilaster. The second storey projected gj 
inches beyond the first, the bay windows being carried up. 
Here again a fragment of a carved pilaster has been found, and 
remains of the other two are probably in existence behind the 
modern house front. Mr. W. A. Webb lately made most careful 
measured drawings of these features in the building, which had 
not before been studied, and he has kindly allowed me to use 
them for purposes of illustration. We give here a view of the 
house with the windows still unaltered ; it seems fairly accurate, 
and appears, with other views, on a map by Bowles, issued late 
in the eighteenth century, but is doubtless very much older. 
I have not yet come across it as a separate print. 

When the house was remodelled, now long ago, the old 
front was completely covered and concealed by a new one 

* We might mention, also, part of the Charterhouse Buildings, used for 
some time as a private dwelling by members of the Howard family. 









n&s near ~v Temple Gate in. Tie e 




Earliest known view of No. 17, Fleet Street. 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 229 

brought slightly forward, and projecting equally before the 
rooms of the first and second floors ; the bays being removed. 
The present flat windows were inserted and the original panels 
re-arranged. On the first floor there is a space of about i foot 
9 inches between the old front and the present one. The top 
storey or attic, structurally but little changed, consists of two 
gables with their tiled roofs slightly hipped. This hipping 
back is, however, a modern alteration as is proved by an 
engraving of Prattent's in the European Magazine, vol. x, 
1786, where the bay windows have already disappeared, the 
front being arranged as at present, but the points of the 
gables are not hipped. The gables stand back about seven 
feet from the frontage of the second floor ; thus there is 
a platform, which, in Prattent's view is shown protected 
by a railing with turned balusters, and must have formed a 
pleasant and useful adjunct to the building ; but all this is now 
concealed by a screen of a more or less temporary nature, built 
up so as to form a small front room. The old houses near St. 
Dunstan's church, numbered 184 and 185 Fleet Street, had 
platforms of this kind ; and there is a gabled wooden house, 
still standing on the east side of Bishopsgate Street Without, 
which has a similar arrangement. 

Passing through the shop, from which all trace of age has 
been eliminated, one mounts by a staircase, with massive turned 
balusters, which may be original, to the first floor, where is a 
room facing the street and occupying the whole width of the 
house. It is nearly square, being about 23ft. in length from 
east to west, about 2oft. in breadth, and loft. 6in. high. This 
room contains two features of very great interest. The west 
end has fine oak panelling, while its frieze or cornice and two 
pilasters of the same material richly carved, are good examples 
of early seventeenth century design. But the glory of the 
room is the plaster ceiling elaborately ornamented ; as far as I 
am aware, the only specimen of the kind now left in the city, 
though there was one very similar in Oldbourn Hall, Shoe 
Lane, with the date 1617, and another quite recently of some- 
what earlier date in Sir Paul Pindar's house, Bishopsgate Street 
Without. There was also a fragment in Crosby Hall Chambers. 

As the art of decorative plaster-work was one for which 



230 No. 17, FLEET STREET. 

Englishmen were famous, I may here perhaps be allowed a 
slight digression. Our mediaeval plasterers were fine craftsmen ; 
but the kind of ornamental stucco work so well exemplified in 
this ceiling did not come into fashion in England until the time 
of Henry VIII., being first produced by Italians at his palace of 
Nonsuch. Used both for internal and external decoration, it 
was soon taken up by native workmen, who seem to have 
travelled about the country more or less supplying their own 
designs. The first Englishman, as far as I am aware, who is 
known to have practised this art, was Charles Williams, who in 
1547 offered his services at Longleat to supply internal plaster 
decorations "after the Italian fashion"; he may have been 
employed at Nonsuch. Our English plasterers soon learned 
to excel, and most houses of importance, built during the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James I., were adorned, to some extent 
at least, with their work. Some of the late Gothic roofs of 
Henry Vllth's reign, with their radiating ribs and pendentives, 
at first no doubt helped to give suggestions. Geometric patterns 
of projecting ribs, as a rule, formed the basis of the designs, 
which soon became highly varied ; small emblems, armorial 
bearings and personal devices being used to fill up vacant spaces 
in these patterns. In the earlier work the ribs were plainly 
moulded after the manner of groin ribs, but later their flat 
surfaces were ornamented. The ceiling of No. 17, Fleet Street 
is of this kind. In what seems to have been the centre of the 
principal design, enclosed by a star-shaped border, are the 
Prince of Wales's feathers and the letters P.H. Surrounding 
the centre is a well arranged system of patterns with appropriate 
ornament. Along the south side of the room a series of small 
oblong panels occur, forming no necessary part of the general 
design ; on one of them are the arms of the Vintner's Company 
a chevron between three tuns. There is, however, no record 
of this Company having been connected with the house ; perhaps 
its first owner belonged to the Company, but the early lists of 
members were destroyed in the Great Fire. The ceiling is now 
elaborately coloured ; and although the paint has, no doubt, 
been renewed again and again, and the delicacy of the ornament 
is thereby somewhat obliterated, we must bear in mind that 
there is here something of the original effect, for in the old 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 231 

stucco work colour and gilding were largely employed. Spenser 
reminds us of this in his well-known lines : 

" Gold was the parget, and the ceiling bright, 
Did shine all scaly with great plates of gold." 

A striking characteristic of the Fleet Street ceiling is the 
extraordinary tenacity with which it holds together, though in 
parts it has sunk many inches. This is owing to the fine quality 
of the plaster, far superior to any now produced, perhaps also 
to an admixture of hair and of some glutinous substance which 
holds it together. Among his excellent illustrations of " Van- 
ishing London," Mr. Roland Paul has given a measured drawing 
of this ceiling, in which it is shown that a strip of decorative 
plaster work at the east end has disappeared, the ceiling in this 
part now being unadorned. There is, however, just space for 
sufficient ornament to make it correspond with that which is 
opposite. The mantelpiece of wood and marble, at the east 
of the room, dates from the eighteenth century, which is also 
the case with the panelling on that side. The panelling on the 
south side, though not precisely similar, is also of the eighteenth 
century ; the wall here is partly an external one, the room 
extending over the Inner Temple Gateway. 

But it is time to turn to the historical associations of this 
old Gate-house ; and first a few words on the great legal foun- 
dation with which it is to a great extent associated. That part 
of the district lying between Fleet Street and the Thames, 
which is called the Temple, was the home of the Knights 
Templars in London from 1184, till "they decayed through 
pride " in the early part of the fourteenth century. After their 
downfall it came to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, by 
whom the Inner and Middle Temples were leased to the students 
of the Common Law. No change in their tenure took place 
when, at the dissolution of religious houses, the property passed 
to the Crown ; but in 1608 James I., by letters patent, granted 
it, at a nominal rent, to certain high legal officials and to the 
benchers and their successors for ever. There is a tradition that 
in Wolsey's young days, when he came to take possession of 
the benefice of Lymington, in Hampshire, Sir Amyas Paulet 
clapped him in the stocks, and that, many years afterwards, 
when he was chancellor, in revenge for the indignity which 
had once been put upon him, he ordered Paulet, then treasurer 



232 No. 17, FLEET STREET. 

of the Middle Temple, not to quit London without leave, and so 
the latter had to live in the Middle Temple for five or six years. 
To propitiate Wolsey, when the Gateway was restored he is 
said to have placed over the front of it the cardinal's arms, hat, 
and other insignia. This tends to show the early existence of 
the Middle Temple Gate-house, which was re-built by Wren as 
it now appears in 1684. The Inner Temple Records tell us 
how, at a meeting of the Temple Authorities, 28 Jan., 1538-39, 
" hit was agreid that a nue yate shalbe made corny ng from the 
streitt to the Tempell." It does not appear, however, to which 
gate this applies. In Ralph Agas's plan of London, thought 
by the best authorities to have been prepared not earlier than 
the year 1591, the Middle Temple Gate-house and Lane are 
marked quite distinctly, but there are no signs of an Inner 
Temple Gate-house; and Mr. Pitt Lewis, Q.C., in his "History 
of the Temple," p. 79, says : " Tanfield Court had been erected 
20 Henry VIII., but with this exception the Inner Temple had 
no buildings of importance, nor gateway into the Strand. In 
1610 a gateway was opened." Nevertheless, one probably 
existed long before, as seems proved by the following extract 
from the Inner Temple Records, a Calendar of which has been 
printed under the able editorship of Mr. F. A. Inderwick, Q.C. 

Inner Temple, Parliament held on loth June, 8 James I., A.D. 
1610, before Andrew Gray, Ralph Radcliffe, Hugh Hare, George 
Wylde, John Hare, Richard Brownelowe, William Towse, Edward 
Prideaux, and others ; George Croke, treasurer. 

" Whereas John Bennett, one of the King's sergeants-at-arms, 
has petitioned that the Inner Temple Gate, in some vacation after a 
reading, may be stopped up for a month or six weeks in order that 
it may be rebuilt, together with his house called the Prince's Arms, 
adjoining to and over the said gate and lane, and that he may jettie 
over the gate towards the street. Which building over the gate and 
lane will be in length from the street backwards 19 feet upon the 
ground, besides the 'jettie' towards the street, which will be 2 feet 
4 inches besides the window. And in consideration of the same 
being granted, the said Bennett promised to raise the gate and walls 
thereof to be in height, 1 1 feet and in breadth 9 feet, and to make 
the same according to a plot under his hand, to make the gates new 
(he being allowed the old gates), and he will pave the street against 
the said house and gate." Calendar of Inner Temple Records, 
vol ii. p. 51. 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 233 

Permission was accordingly granted and the work soon 
afterwards carried out. This document, therefore, shows clearly 
the age of the present Gate-House, and the circumstances under 
which it was built, with its stories " jettying," or jutting, over 
the pavement in front. It also furnishes an explanation of the 
plumes of feathers, outside and on the ceiling, and of the 
initials P. H., which apply to Henry, elder son of James I., 
and Prince of Wales when the house was rebuilt, and would 
have been put there in compliment to him. For although it is 
true that, strictly speaking, a plume of feathers borne in a coronet 
represents the Prince's badge and not his arms, sufficient 
reason for their existence here is doubtless supplied by the 
fact that, as appears from the above extract, the house on this 
site, even before the present structure, was called the Prince's 
Arms. 

There is, however, a strong belief that this house No. 17, 
Fleet Street, was originally the office and council chamber of 
the Duchy of Cornwall, and the reason for this, apart from or 
in addition to the presence of the plumes of feathers and initials, 
is the fact that in the various seventeenth century documents 
proof is given that there was a " Prince's Council Chamber " 
in Fleet Street. One with this heading is mentioned in the 
Calendar of the State Papers (Vol. X., 1619-23), edited by Mrs. 
Green and Mr. Robert Lemon. It is an order of the Council 
of the Duchy of Cornwall to the keepers of Brancepeth, Raby, 
and Barnard Castles, the date being February 25, 1619. More 
important still is a proclamation, now at the Record Office, 
dated 1635, which runs thus : "Our pleasure is" that those of 
our subjects who seek to have defective titles made good shall, 
before Hilary term next, ''repair to our now Commissioners at 
a house in Fleet Street (where our Commissioners for our 
Revenue while we were Prince of Wales did usually meet) 
where our now Commissioners will have their frequent meetings." 
Other such examples could be given from documents at the 
present office of the Duchy of Cornwall. Here, amidst a few 
original records, are eleven volumes of old copies, entitled "Acts 
of Council, Prince Charles," 1615 to 1625. Transcribed from 
the first minutes or memoranda of what took place at the meet- 
ings of the Council, they are dated from various places. Among 

Q 



234 No - !7 FLEET STREET. 

them several of the year 1617 are from "the Counsell Chamber 
in Fleete Streete"; there is also one, dated from "the Commis- 
sion Howse in Fleet Street," on June 22, 1625, a few weeks 
after Charles ascended the throne. Besides these bound volumes 
of memoranda, there are many old copies of warrants,* dated 
between the years 1625 and 1641. Again, at the Record Office, 
is a volume in which are bound successive letters of the Council. 
Among them are letters of various dates from June 20, 1620, to 
April 25, 1621, which were written at "the Council Chamber 
in Fleet Street." It has thus been shown that there are plenty 
of references to a Council Chamber in Fleet Street between the 
years 1617 and 1625, described as " His Majesty's Commission 
House " from the time that Charles I. ascended the throne in 
the latter year, until, at the earliest, 1641 ; although not one has 
yet been forthcoming of the time of Henry Prince of Wales, 
whose initials appear on the ceiling. 

On the other hand, there is strong reason for supposing that 
the Council of the Duchy of Cornwall, during part of this 
period at least, had no regular office, but transacted its business 
in various hired, leased, or lent places. Thus, beginning October 
14, 1615, and continuing through part of 1616 are letters and 
minutes dated from Salisbury Court (near the bottom of Fleet 
Street). November 25, 1617, is the date of a meeting at " the 
Dutchie Howse," which is mentioned again in the following 
year, while a letter of February 22, 1619-20 is written from 
Whitehall, and in 1622 and 1623 papers are dated from " the 
Counsell Chamber at Denmark House, in the Strand." 

Some seventeenth century documents relating to the Duchyt 

* These warrants deal indiscriminately with the Manors belonging" to 
the Crown and the Duchy, because Charles I. (who no doubt wanted the 
revenue), did not give up possession of the Duchy to his eldest son until 
January i3th, 1645. His own case had been somewhat similar, Prince 
Henry dying in November, 1612, whereas Charles did not succeed to the 
revenue of the Duchy till June 21, 1615. It may be mentioned by the 
way, that the eldest son of the reigning monarch is born Duke of Cornwall, 
but created Prince of Wales. The only grandson who has ever held the 
title was Richard JI. after the death of his father, the Black Prince, and 
that was by special charter. 

t It is perhaps worth while to note that from the time of Charles I. 
until the Hanoverian succession the title of Duke of Cornwall remained in 
abeyance, because it happens that for this long period there was no one 
recognised as eldest son of the reigning monarch. The regular 
minutes, now preserved at the office of the Duchy of Cornwall, begin in 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 235 

were issued at places other than London at Windsor, Wan- 
stead, etc. If, immediately before the advent of the common- 
wealth, the Duchy, had possessed a house (its own freehold) for 
the purposes of its office, that house would have been sold by the 
Parliament (1646-1650) as King's or Prince's forfeited property, 
or at least would have been mentioned in the careful survey of 
the Duchy's possessions then made and still in existence. There 
is a deed of sale of the " Duchy House in the Savoy " (that is 
the home of the Duchy of Lancaster), but no sale of the house 
or office of the Duchy of Cornwall. And there is neither record 
forthcoming of that Duchy having owned a house in Fleet 
Street, nor of their having rented one, although, if they had 
done so for any length of time, surely some notice of the fact 
would have been preserved. The most that we can say at 
present, pending the possible discovery of further documents, is 
that, on and off, from 1617 to 1625, tne Commissioners of the 
Duchy of Cornwall, afterwards until 1641 or later, the Com- 
missioners of the King's Revenue, met at an office in Fleet 
Street, and that this office lent or hired, was perhaps the hand- 
somely decorated first-floor room of the Inner Temple Gate 
House, which had been built by John Bennett on the site of 
his previous house called the Prince's Arms ; the sign being 
accounted for by the fact that, until the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, the plan of numbering houses not having 
been invented, it was necessary to give to each one its special 
designation. As a somewhat parallel case, we know that in 
the sixteenth century there were houses called the " Talbott " 
and the " Olyvaunte" (or Elephant), within the precinct of the 
Inner Temple. Here I would draw attention to the fact that 
this gentleman was not a legal Serjeant, but a " King's sergeant- 
at-arms" (the patent granting him this office, is still in exis- 
tence), and that it would have been one of his duties to keep 
prisoners in safe custody at his house or elsewhere. His will 

1715. The first is dated from " the Prince's Councell Chambers, Whitehall," 
others of the same year are from St. James's, and they are continued un- 
interruptedly till now. By an act passed in 1775 the office of the Duchy 
was established in the present Somerset House, which, however, was not 
begun until the following year. This office being required for the Inland 
Revenue Department, a piece of land near Buckingham Palace was pur- 
chased, and the present office built in 1854, from the designs of Sir James 
Pennethorne. 



2 3 6 ESSEX CHARITIES. 

was proved, August 10, 1631. In it he is described as " Ser- 
giant-at-Armes to our Souveraigne Lord the King," from whom 
he claims TOO/. He owned a little property at Farnham and at 
Southampton, but there is no mention of the house in Fleet 
Street; so doubtless he had parted with his interest in it. One 
of his executors Ralph Marshe is described as "citizen and 
vintner," which strengthens the idea that Bennett was con- 
nected in some way with the Vintner's Company. The inquisi- 
tion on him is taken at the Quest House in St. Clement Danes. 
Before quitting this branch of the subject I would add that 
the design of the Inner Temple Gate House has of late been 
attributed to Inigo Jones, partly because in 1610 he was 
appointed Surveyor General to Henry Prince of Wales ; but 
as the house was built for John Bennett, this fact does not 
increase the probability of its being his work. 
(To be continued). 



ESSEX CHARITIES. 

(Continued from p. 120). 

BERGHOLT, COLCHESTER, MUCH AND LITTLE HORKSLEY, 
BOXTED AND LEXDEN. 

Inquisition taken at the Lion at Kelvedon, 12 August, 43 Eliz. 
[A.D. 1601]. It was found that Robert Frankham, of the parish of 
St. Nicholas, Colchester, by his will dated 20 July, 1577, demised a 
messuage or tenement called Nycolls, in West Bergholt to Alice, his 
wife, for her life, on condition that she gave to the maintenance of 
an " Allmesse House " in Bergholt aforesaid, if any should be there 
erected within two years then next following, the sum of 35. 4^.; and 
if the said house should not be so erected that then the said sum 
should be given to "the collectors for the poor" of the said parish to 
the use of the poor, yearly, so long as she should live. He also 
willed that after the decease of his said wife the premises should go 
to his daughter, Elizabeth and the heirs of her body under the 
condition that they should give yearly either to an almshouse, or to 
the use of the poor, 35. 4^. If the said Elizabeth should die without 
heir, then the churchwardens of Bergholt, "with four other honest 
men appointed and chosen by the said parish," should appoint a 
tenant for the said messuage or tenement and keep it in repair, and 
out of the rent thereof give yearly to " the poor people of the parish 



ESSEX CHARITIES. 237 

of St. Nicholas, Colchester, 135. 4^., and distribute any surplus of 
the said rent (all repairs, etc., being paid for) to the use of the poor 
people" in Bergholt "where most need requireth," as the said "six 
men " [i.e. the two churchwardens and the four other men] should 
decide. The testator died at Colchester on the day of making his 
will, and Elizabeth, the daughter died during the lifetime of the said 
Alice, without leaving issue, about 16 years before the date of 
the inquisition. 

Immediately after the death of the said Alice, Jeffery Mott and 
John Bernard, then churchwardens of Bergholt, with the consent of 

four other honest men, appointed Hawkes, of Bergholt, 

farmer of the said messuage, etc. ; and afterwards Henry Wilson, 
gentleman, of Bergholt, confederating with Hawkes, got possession 
of the premises, and took the issues thereof to his own use to the 
value of over $L a year. 

It was further found that Thomas Love, deceased, by his will, 
charged certain lands, etc., called Whitlocks, in Bergholt, with the 
payment, within a year of his death of his wife, of 265. Sd. to the 
poor people of the following parishes : Much and Little Horksley, 
Boxted, Lexden, and West Bergholt. Testator's said wife is dead 
and the lands are in the possession of the said Henry Wilson, but 
the sum aforesaid has not been paid. 

Order made at the Lion, 30 September, 1601, recites that the 
said Henry Wilson, who was present at the taking of the fore- 
going inquisition, alleged that after the death of Alice Frankham, 
there was a suit concerning the land in question in Chancery, between 
Alice Dyster, widow, and other inhabitants of Bergholt, complainants 
and one Lane and his wife, who pretended herself to be next heir 
of the said Frankham, defendants. 

At the hearing of that cause on 23 June, 1585, it was ordered 
that the defendants, in recompense of the said land, should 
assure a rent-charge of 105. in perpetuity to the poor people of 
Bergholt ; which said order by another order of 1 1 February, 
1587, was confirmed, with a clause that the plaintiffs might 
exhibit a new bill to reverse the former orders or take such other 
remedy as the common law might afford. The said Henry Wilson 
confessed that a new bill was shortly after exhibited against the said 
Lane and his wife and himself, he being " terr-tenant," for reversing 
the former orders; and that he the said Wilson, "the said rent 
hanging," and knowing of the said orders, compounded with the said 
Lane and his wife for the said lands, etc., and gave 3/. in money 
" underhand " to one that followed that cause, to the intent that the 
bill should be no further prosecuted. 

In respect of these orders the said Commissioners, with consent 
of counsel for the poor of the said parishes and inhabitants of Berg- 
holt, requested the said Mr. Wilson that he would make security for 
the payment of the said annuity, and also pay to the use of the poor 
of St. Nicholas, Colchester, all arrears of the said 135. 4^. since the 
death of the said Alice Frankham, which happened more than sixteen 
years ago, and give security for the regular payment thereof for the 



238 THE OLD MILL AT MITCHAM. 

future, according to the honest meaning of the said Robert Frankham, 
so that the said commissioners should not differ from the said orders, 
but the said Wilson altogether refused to comply with these 
suggestions. 

We, the said Commissioners reverenceing the said orders as is 
meet, but rather according to the said Act of Parliament (the Act for 
Charitable Uses), and according to our commission, endeavouring 
that the good will and meaning of the said Robert Frankham might 
be performed in full do order that it shall be lawful for Thomas 
Marten and George Hayward, now churchwardens of Bergholt, and 
Robert Colton, gent., John Smyth, Edward Spark, and Thomas 
Patch, overseers of the poor of Bergholt, or four other honest men to 
be chosen by the inhabitants of the said parish, to appoint a tenant 
of the messuage in question, and with the rent thereof to keep the 
same in good repair and pay to the churchwardens and overseers 
of the poor of St. Nicholas, Colchester, the sum of 135. 4^. yearly 
to be by them distributed to the poor of the said parish, and 135. 4^. 
to the poor of Bergholt aforesaid, "where most need requireth," the 
same course to be yearly taken by those who shall hereafter be 
churchwardens and overseers of the poor of Bergholt " so long as 
the world endureth." The said Wilson was moreover to enfeoff 
twelve of the "chiefest inhabitants" of Bergholt with the aforesaid 
messuage, etc., that they, their heirs and assigns, should for ever 
bestow all the issues and profits thereof according to the last will of 
the said Robert Frankham. 

There is no order of the Commissioners in regard to Thomas 
Love's bequest to the poor of Much and Little Horksley, Boxted, 
Lexden, and West Bergholt. 

(To be continued). 



THE OLD MILL AT MITCHAM. 
BY GEORGE CLINCH. 

THE old windmill on Mitcham Common is likely to 
disappear before long. For so many years it has been 
one of the chief landmarks of the Mitcham district, and 
especially of the heath upon which it stands, that its 
removal can hardly fail to produce that feeling of regret which 
is inseparable from the destruction of old and familiar features 
in a landscape. 

It must be confessed that the old mill has outlived its period 
of usefulness, for it is upwards of thirty years since it was 
employed in the grinding of corn. Of late years, too, it has 
suffered much from the ravages of lightning and the slower 




Old Mill at Mitcham, Surrey. 



THE OLD MILL AT MITCHAM. 239 

but not less surely destructive influences of the weather ; and 
quite recently some fractures have appeared in some of the 
main timbers which are either the cause or the effect of a some- 
what serious settlement of the structure. 

This example is what is known as a turret post mill, an 
interesting and picturesque form through which the windmill 
passed in its development from the earliest recorded type the 
tripod post mill to the most complete and comparatively recent 
shape known as the tower mill. 

One of the earliest representations of an English windmill 
is that on the Walsokne brass at Lynn, Norfolk. The date is 
1349, and the form is that known as the tripod post mill. In 
time the tripod legs were covered by a roof and the sheltered 
space thus obtained was found to be convenient for the storage 
of corn, etc. In the very earliest examples the body of the 
mill seems to have been capable of being moved, so that the 
sails should catch the breeze, by means of a long lever or beam, 
generally placed near the ladder which led to the mill, and 
furnished with a small wheel at the end by means of which it 
passed easily and smoothly along the ground. This method of 
turning the chief part of the structure round in order to bring 
the sails into play appears to have been in vogue for several 
centuries. In the Mitcham example the upper part of the 
beam still remains. 

Owing to the growth of trees around the mill only the roof 
or upper part of the turret is visible, but upon entering it the 
details of the construction are clearly seen. First, we find an 
apartment below the level of the ground, from the sides of 
which rise four strong piers of brick. These carry two massive 
beams, placed horizontally and crossed in the middle. From 
the point where the beams meet a fine octagonal post of oak or 
chestnut rises perpendicularly. This is the main support and 
pivot of the whole building. It is kept in position by four strong 
struts or stay-beams which reach from the top of the brick piers 
and are fixed into the main post at the top of the pointed roof 
of the turret. The movements of the mill were once communi- 
cated to mill-stones in this lower part of the mill, where some 
of the corn-grinding was done. The upper or main part of 
the mill was approached by means of a ladder as will be seen 



240 NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 

in the photograph. The mill is probably of early eighteenth 
century date, and was in use until well past the middle of the 
present century. 

The further development of the windmill to what is known 
as the tower type, in which the turret was enlarged to a tower- 
like structure and surmounted by a revolving cap to suit the 
changing winds, was so natural that it is surprising to find that 
the newer form did not in a short space supersede all the mills 
of the Mitcham type. The retention of the older form for so 
many years is, in fact, a remarkable testimony to the conserva- 
tism of English mill-wrights. 

With the increasing application of steam to milling purposes, 
and the improved means of transport of foreign flour, it is 
pretty clear that the days of windmills, if not quite over, are 
rapidly becoming fewer, and at no very distant date most of 
the numerous picturesque examples now left in the Home 
Counties will have fallen victims to neglect and decay, or have 
been swept away to make room for more utilitarian buildings. 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE IN THE 
DIOCESE OF LONDON. 

BY EDWIN FRESHFIELD, JUNIOR. 

INTRODUCTORY. 
(Continued from p. 119.) 

During the first 30 years after the Reformation the parishes 
possessed only cups and patens, and it is therefore necessary to 
speak of these first. 

Not one of the least important alterations introduced at the 
Reformation, was the revival of the practice of the early 
church of administering the Blessed Sacrament to the laity in 
both kinds. The reformers, therefore, were called upon to 
replace the small mediaeval chalice, which had served for the 
priest alone, by a cup large enough to fulfil the requirements of 
the whole congregation, and this distinguishes for antiquarian 
purposes a chalice from a communion cup. It is not known 
whether the ecclesiastical authorities of the day prescribed 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 241 

any particular size and shape for the new cup, but from the 
close resemblance of the early examples to one another, it is 
probable that there was a common official model. 

The reign of Edward VI. was so short that very little could 
be done towards plate making. In fact, only 15 cups are 
known to exist in England, and of these no less than nine are 
in this diocese. 

EDWARD VI. CUPS. 

The cup at St. Mildred, Bread Street, and the two cups at 
St. James', Garlickhythe, three of the rare Edwardian cups, 
were purchased by the parishes to replace the pre- Reformation 
chalice ; they have plain bowls purposely made very large, and 
plain stems without ornament or decoration. These early 
Communion cups were all designed on the same simple model, 
and the oldest is at St. Lawrence, Jewry, made in 1548. It is 
interesting to compare this style of large, deep-bowled vessel 
it might almost be called clumsy with that of the shallow 
tazza cups, very like the modern champagne glass, introduced 
by the Reformers into Scotland* and Switzerland, t for each 
in its way was an invention to suit a new reed. 

The Edwardian cups in this diocese will be found at : 
St. Lawrence, Jewry ; St. Mildred, Bread Street ; St. James, 
Garlickhythe (2) ; St. Peter, Cornhill ; St. Michael, Wood 
Street, now in the custody of the Bishop of London ; St. 
Margaret, Westminster (2) ; and St. Michael, Cornhill. 

THE EDWARD VI. PATEN. 

The size of the patens required no alteration, but Popish 
ornaments and engravings were ordered to be defaced, and 
though occasionally a mediaeval paten can be found with the 
design hammered out, it was apparently thought more 
satisfactory to have the patens recast. The earliest 
" Reformed " patens were exactly like their predecessors, 
merely flat plates. The City possesses only two of them. 

THE ELIZABETHAN CUPS. 

In Queen's Elizabeth's reign the cup was altered in two 
.respects ; first, the bowl was engraved with a conventional and 

* A cup of this kind was exhibited some years ago by Lord Rosebery 
n the New Gallery at the Stuart Exhibition. 

f Cups of this kind will be found at the Cathedral at Lausanne. 



242 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLALE. 



stiff design called the strap pattern, and secondly, the stem was 
divided by a knot. The flat paten was raised on to a short 
stem or foot, and made to fit as a cover for the cup. 

In describing the cups in this general way, it will, of course, 
be understood that no two pieces were exactly alike in detail, 
and each artist introduced varieties according to his own 
fancy. 

During the iyth and i8th centuries the style of cup was 
continually changing, and the mediaeval revival in this century 
has brought back once again the shape of the ancient chalice 
copied from one or other of the few surviving examples, 
notably that at Nettlecombe. 

To avoid descriptive repetition the cups are classified into 
different types, commencing with a mediaeval chalice and the 
cup introduced during the Reformation in the reign of King 
Edward VI. To make this classification intelligible, the reader 
is asked to refer to the plate opposite, containing a group of 
cups, and to the reference which follows : 



REFER- 
ENCE TO 
THB 

PLATE. 


CHURCH. 


DATE. 


TYPE. 


PERIOD. 


! 


"West Drayton 


1504 


Mediseval chalice 




2 


S. Mildred, Bread Street . 


1549 


Typel . . 


Edward VI. 


3 


S. Margaret, Lothbury . 


15S7 


Type 2 . . 


Elizabeth. 


4 


S. Anne and S. Agnes . 


1619 


Type 2 . . 


Jaines I. 


6 


S. Anne and S. Agnes 


1570 


Type 4 . . 


Elizabeth. 


6 


All Hallows, Lombard Street 


1642 


Tvpe 5 . . 


Charles I. 


7 


All Hallows, Lombard Street 


1663 


Type 6 . . 


Commonwealth. 


8 


S. Katharine Coleman . . 


1685 


Transition . 


Restoration. 


9 


S Margaret. Lothbury . 


1715 


Transition . 


Anne. 


10 


S Edmund, King and Martyr 


1757 


Type 8 . . 


Georgian. 


11 


S A] ph age 


1803 


TV HP ft 


Early 19th century 


12 


S. Olave. Stoke Newington . 


1S15 


Type 7 ' ! 


Early ISth century 


13 


S. Mary, Aldermanbury . 


1889 


Type 9 . . 


Present time. 



The chalice at West Drayton is taken to illustrate the Pre- 
Reformation style and the cup at S. Mildred, Bread Street, is 
taken to illustrate the Edwardian style which I call type i. 

I now come to the Elizabethan period, when a vast quantity 
of cups were made. Owing to the scarcity of Edwardian 
cups these cups were, practically the immediate outcome 
of the Reformation, that is to say, the immediate successors of 
the unreformed chalice ; they are to be found literally by the 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 243 

score all over England, and they testify to the very complete 
way the reformers carried out their work. The fact that they 
were made more or less on one model seems to point to the 
issue of some general order or prescribed pattern by the 
Ecclesiastical authorities. But so far, in spite of many 
searches by the learned author of Old English Plate and others, 
no evidence of this has been obtained. 

By far the greater number of cups belong to type 2. The 
distinctive features of type 2 are a deep bowl, ornamented in 
the first part of Queen Elizabeth's reign by strap pattern round 
the body of the bowl, in the last part of her reign by strap 
pattern round the lip, and in King James I. and Charles I. 
reign by absence of ornament on the bowl altogether ; a stem 
divided into two equal parts by a knop, an invariable feature in 
these cups ; a foot, flat in the early part of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign, and subsequently bell-shaped ; examples, S. Margaret, 
Lothbury (a), and S. Anne and S. Agnes. Type 3, a variety of 
type 2, with a pointed instead of a round base, is rarely met 
with and may be practically ignored. 

The cup of S. Margaret, Lothbury (a), made in 1567 and 
presented by John Belgrave, a vicar, is a good example of the 
early Elizabethan cup. The general appearance of the bowl is 
the same as that of the Edward cup, and the chief difference, 
apart from the engraved ornament, is the introduction of a knop 
dividing the stem into two parts. 

The cup at S. Anne and S. Agnes, made in 1619 and given 
by William Small, shows the next development ; the bowl is 
more conical and has no ornament, and the foot, instead of 
being flat, is bell-shaped. This was the style of cup adopted 
during Archbishop Laud's revival, and there are a great many 
to be found all over the country. 

The next three cups belong to a style easily distinguished by 
the pear or trumpet stem with a flange or hilt on it, put, I 
suppose, to give the communicant a firm grip of the cup. This 
was one of the earliest post- Reformat ion styles, and existed 
concurrently with the plainer Edward and Elizabeth models of 
types i and 2. 

The distinctive feature of type 4 is in the pear-shaped stem 
with a hilt on it. The bowls were either conical or like those 



244 NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 

of the preceding types; example, S.Anne and S. Agnes (a). The 
cup at S. Anne and S. Agnes was made about 1570. There is 
no date mark on it; the bowl is inscribed : "This cup was in 
use in 1591 "; but it is earlier than that date by at least twenty 
years. It has the pear-shaped stem, but the conical bowl is a 
later addition. The earliest cup of this kind I have seen is at 
S. Margaret, Westminster, made in 1551. There is also one at 
S. Mary-le-Bow made in 1559, and at S. Mary Aldermary made 
in 1609. 

The distinctive feature of type 5 is also in the trumpet stem 
with a hilt on it ; example. All Hallows, Lombard Street (a). 
The cup at All Hallows, Lombard Street, made in 1642 and 
given by William Clarke, shows the Jacobean variation of the 
pear into the trumpet-shaped stem. There are many of these 
cups to be found about the country and in London, and 
examples will be found at S. James, Garlickhythe, 1641, and 
S. Helen, Bishopsgate, 1634. A cup of this variety converted 
into a flagon by the addition of a spout was exhibited by its 
owners, the parish of Fen Ditton, Cambs., at the exhibition of 
College plate in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge 
in 1895. 

The distinctive feature of type 6 is the plain straight-sided 
bowl and the plain trumpet stem devoid of any kind of ornament ; 
example, All Hallows, Lombard Street (b). The cup at All 
Hallows, Lombard Street, 1663, presented by Mrs. Mary 
Masters, is a simplification of William Clarke's cup and very 
appropriate to the severe Puritan period when it was made. 

The next cup, at S. Katherine Coleman, 1685, shows the 
transition from the Commonwealth style of Mary Masters' cup 
to the modified copies of types i and 2 which came into fashion 
in Queen Anne's reign. The knop of the Coleman cup is really 
a flange bent down so as to make it look like a knop. 

The distinctive features of type 8 are the same as those of 
types i and 2. The examples are for type i S. Margaret, Lotk- 
bury (b), and for type 2 5. Edmund and S. Alphage. The two 
cups at S. Edmund and S. Alphage, 1757 and 1803 respectively, 
are constructed on the same principle as the cups of type 2. 
They, too, were very common throughout the eighteenth century 
and up to the first few years of this century, when they were 
replaced by the thistle cups. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 245 

The distinctive feature of type 7 is in the shape of the bowl, 
and for lack of a better description I call it the thistle shape; 
example, S. Olave, Stoke Newington. This cup, made in 1815, 
belonged to S. Margaret, Lothbury, and has been assigned to 
the parish of S. Olave, Stoke Newington. I have called these 
thistle-shaped cups from the profile of a bowl, and I believe 
they represent an attempt to produce a classical design during 
the period when the classical art was so much in favour. In 
later days this shape was very commonly used for athletic and 
sporting prize cups. 

The distinctive feature of type 9 is the mediaeval model ; 
examples, West Drayton and S. Mary, Aldermanbury. The cup 
at S. Mary, Aldermanbury, made in 1889, is copied from a 
mediaeval chalice, and for the moment all the modern ready- 
made shop chalices, and indeed most of those designed to order, 
are taken from one or other of the well-known ancient examples 
of that period. Unfortunately the makers rarely copy the 
beautiful ancient examples accurately, and in nine cases out of 
ten where they introduce variations of their own design the 

result is a failure. 

(To be continued). 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

THE MARGATE GROTTO. Attention is so often called in 
i llustrated papers and magazines to this curious piece of work, 
and a remote pre-historic antiquity is so confidently claimed for 
it, that a note on the subject may not be out of place here. 
The grotto is situated in the Dane, a valley running from the sea, 
about half-a-mile inland. An arched passage has been excavated 
in the chalk, of from fifty to sixty feet in length, sloping 
towards the valley, and terminating in a rectangular chamber 
about twelve feet square covered by an ordinary plaster ceiling. 
This passage and room are lined with a mosaic of shells such 
as are common on the shores of Pegwell Bay, the cockle being 
used most freely, set in Roman cement. The space covered 
contains about 2,000 square feet. The design is set in panels 
with geometrical and simple floral devices. The conception 
appears to have been clearly derived from the shell grotto at 



246 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Versailles, a print of which may have fallen into the hands of 
the Margate artist. Apart from external evidence, examination 
of the grotto will leave no doubt that the work is modern. A 
small row of houses called Bellevue Place faces the Dane. 
The front entrance of one of these has been walled up, and the 
basement room forms the so-called chamber or temple of the 
grotto, the original ceiling being retained. From this room a 
tunnel has been driven upwards through the garden of the 
villa, and access is now obtained at the top of the garden. It 
will be seen at once that this passage is exactly contained in 
the garden, a most remarkable coincidence, if, as the story 
goes, a former proprietor discovered the grotto accidentally, 
when digging in his garden. Further, as the roof of the 
passage is carried up in one place to some height, and 
terminated by a miniature dome constructed above the level of 
the soil, the original discoverer can hardly be regarded as a 
man of acute observation ! I believe the work dates from about 
1820-30. Charles Knight, in " The Land we Live in," published 
about 1850, says "the shell work was done by an ingenious 
artisan of Margate, who some years ago went to America." 
Persons living in Margate as late as 1875 remembered the 
making of the grotto. It would be interesting to know if any 
of them still survive. Such then is the place which we are 
every now and then bidden to admire as the eighth wonder of 
the world. Miss Marie Corelli in her " Cameos," is inclined 
to attribute the execution to the Vikings. Hardly, perhaps, 
one of that gifted lady's happiest inspirations. One would 
have thought such tedious and minute work peculiarly dis- 
tasteful to those rude warriors. A writer in Temple Bar on the 
other hand considers the grotto the creation of a Roman 
colonist, of some "comes littoris Saxonici" we may suppose, 
who in the intervals of watching for the Jutish or Frisian 
pirate, " dubiis venturum Saxona ventis," filled in his leisure 
moments with this highly original occupation. It is fair to add 
that the proprietor makes no assertion as to the antiquity of the 
work, but leaves visitors to draw their own conclusions, which 
they have certainly done with considerable freedom. The 
grotto is well worth the trifling sum charged for admission, 
and it should be seen by anyone who has an opportunity. 
C. H. WOODRUFF. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 247 

THE SERPENT OF EAST HORNDON, co. ESSEX. I should 
like to know if there is in print any reference to a curious 
tradition which was written down in 1695 by John Tyrell, of 
Billericay, co. Essex, and of Barnard's Inn, London, Esq. 
(d. 20 September, 1712, and bur. Great Burstead, co. Essex). 
He says he had often heard his father, Thomas Tyrell, of 
Buttesbury, and others say, that it was related to them by his 
great grandfather, old Sir Henry Tyrell, of Heron, co. Essex, 
who died 20 May, 1588 ; and that Sir Henry said he had it 
" as a very truth from his ancestors." It is as follows : 
"That the merchants of Barbary having brought home a 
serpent in a ship which lay upon the Thames, within twelve 
miles of Heron (the antient seat of the TyrelPs ever since Sir 
James Tyrell married the heir of Sir William Heron *), which 
escaping out of the ship, lived and haunted about those woods, 
'twixt Heron and Horndon Parish Church, devouring such 
passengers as came that way, which made the country seek 
redress from Sir James Tyrell, a great man in those parts. He 
armed himself and hung a looking-glass before his breast, and 
going to the aforesaid churchyard (or near unto it), the serpent 
came hovering at the glass, and playing at her own shadow, 
whereat Sir James taking his best advantage, stroke the serpent 
and slew it, cut off his head and carried it to his wife's bedside 
before she arose in the morning. But he so over-heated himself 
with his combat, that he shortly after dyed, and his son coming 
that way, where the serpent's bones lay, spurned one of them 
saying, ' This is the bone of the serpent that was the death of 
my father,' but the bone piercing the summer shoe, so hurt 
his toe, which gangrened, and his leg was cut off at the knee. 
The picture of which Tyrell t with one leg, is now to be seen 
in the glass windows at Heron, thereby causing the tradition to 
be often mentioned." F. BULKELEY-OWEN." 

SIGN OF THE " PEAHEN." I note that in the last issue of 
the Home Counties Magazine the reviewer of my little book on 
" The Old Inns of St. Albans," throws doubt upon the assertion 
that the sign of the " Peahen " in St. Albans is unique, my own 

* In the 1 4th century. They lived at Heron until the middle of the last 
century. 

t This must have been Sir Walter Tyrell. Probably the glass is gone, 
as is most of the old house. 



248 REPLIES. 

words were "probably unique". In support of my conjecture 
I may observe that this sign is not mentioned in Larwood and 
Hotten's " History of Signboards," nor is it included in the 
long list of signs of inns and public-houses (extending to about 
fifty columns) which appears in the London Directory. It 
would be interesting to know if any reader of the Home Counties 
Magazine is aware of the existence of an inn bearing the sign 
of the " Peahen " besides that at St. Albans. F. G. KITTON. 



REPLIES. 

LITTLEBURY, ESSEX (p. 157). The interesting paper on 
" The Manor and Parish of Littlebury," states that the 
church " stands within the area of a Roman encampment." 
Having met with this statement in various descriptions of the 
county I vainly sought, on occasional hurried visits, to find some 
traces of this encampment. May I ask your contributor, the 
Rev. H. J. E. Burrell, whether any evidence of its existence is 
visible ? I. CHALKLEY GOULD. 

TYBURN GALLOWS, AND THE FLEET (p. 165). Having 
occupied my allotted space in this month's issue I can only 
very briefly reply to Mr. Waller's objections, " Westbourne 
Green." My remark as to Tyburn was based on Holmshed's 
account of Mortimer's execution in 1330, which I now find 
corroborated by (e.g.) the contemporary chronicler, Adam 
Murimuth. In regard to the name " Fleet," although Mr. 
Waller in his excellent article, " The Hole Bourne " (London 
and Middlesex Archaeological Society's Transactions iv. 97,) has 
certainly shown that the latter name applied to part of the 
brook, I cannot think it was ever given to the whole, or even 
to all of the course from the sources to Holborn Bridge. 
Wanting a comprehensive name the stream has become, as 
Mr. Waller allows, " best known as The River Fleet," and this 
name though philologically wrong is, so it appears to me, too 
firmly attached to be now altered. W. L. RUTTON. 

KEW (p. 147). Richard Bennet, the owner of Kew house, 
was not son of Sir Thomas, the Lord Mayor, but of Thomas, 



REPLIES. 249 

the sheriff, 1613-14. After his death, April 15, 1658, the 
property reverted to the Capell family by reason of the marriage 
of Henry, Baron Capell, of Tewkesbury, to his (Richard 
Bennet's) daughter, Dorothy. The initials over the doorway 
of the " Dutch House" should be read as S.C.F., not F.S.C. 
The date 1631 appended to them implies that Samuel Fortrey 
and Catherine, his wife whose initials they were possessed 
the house at an earlier date than 1636, the year that Mr. 
Summers ascribes to their acquisition of it. J. CHALLENOR 
SMITH. 

In Mr. A. L. Summers' paper on Kew I find some inaccuracies 
which I should like to correct. Writing away from my books 
and notes I must content myself with noting in somewhat 
general terms a few of the points which struck me when 
reading the article in question. I begin with mentioning 
that the sale of what is now called Kew Palace to Samuel 
Fortrey must have taken place in 1631, not in 1636. The 
Herbarium belonging to the Royal Gardens, Kew, has for some 
years past been lodged in an entirely new building behind " the 
King of Hanover's House," which now contains a fine botanical 
library. I do not see how this enlarged building can be said to 
be " close to the site of Cambridge Cottage," since the two 
structures are on opposite sides of Kew Green. We now come 
to the church. This is not built of red brick, but of London 
stock bricks, with red brick quoins and facings, the western 
portico and bell turret being of stone. The gallery was given 
by William IV., not by George III. The mausoleum for the 
Cambridge family was not first constructed in 1883, but was 
then removed and rebuilt further to the east. The church pews 
are not of grained oak, but of stained and varnished pine. The 
" altar-recess " does not contain " Tables of the Lord's Prayer 
and Commandments." In the organ-chamber is an organ, 
built by Gray and Davison, in which have been incorporated 
some of the pipes from the small instrument " supposed to 
have belonged to Handel." Leaving Kew Church I cannot 
help saying that Mr. Summers might have improved upon the 
account he gives of the Royal Gardens, Kew, without devoting 
more space to this important subject. The Great Winter- 
Garden or Temperate House deserved mention. There are 

R 



250 REPLIES. 

three museums, all assigned to economic and scientific botany, 
but none containing the " miscellaneous things " referred to 
by the author of the paper. If the Pagoda were once again 
accessible to the general public, as Mr. Summers wishes, 
the presence would be needed of half-a-dozen attendants on 
the staircase, to prevent the renewed disfigurement of its walls 
by inane and obscene scribblirigs. A. H. CHURCH. 

Mr. A. Leonard Summers, relying too much on Lysons 
when drawing up his interesting account of Kew, has fallen 
into one or two unimportant errors which it may be worth 
while to correct. Richard Bennet, the owner of Kew House 
in the middle of the seventeenth century, was not the son of 
Sir Thomas Bennet, Lord Mayor of London, 1603-4, but his 
great nephew. His father was Thomas Bennet, citizen and 
mercer, who was Sheriff of London and Middlesex in 1613-14, 
and younger brother of Sir John Bennet, Judge of the 
Prerogative Court, the ancestor of the Barons Ossulston and 
Earls of Tankerville (a title still existing) and of the Earl 
of Arlington, a title which has merged in the dukedom of 
Grafton. Richard Bennet, of Kew, was therefore first cousin 
of Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington and Secretary of State to 
King Charles II. (See G. E. Cokayne's " The Lord Mayors 
and Sheriffs of the first quarter of the seventeenth century.") 
The present Kew Palace seems to be the successor of the 
old " Dairy House," and was probably built, not by Sir Hugh 
Portman, but by Samuel Fortrey who was in possession of 
the property before 1636, the date recorded by Lysons as that 
in which he purchased it. I have given these corrections in 
The London Argus for January 20th, 1900, where I expressed 
the hope that this fine old Jacobean building might be utilized 
to some good purpose, such as a Guelph Museum of pictures, 
furniture, and other specimens of decoration and applied art, 
belonging to the period of the three earlier Georges, including 
George IV., who though born and educated at Kew, hated 
the place and would not live in it. The house in its existing 
state presents a bare and desolate appearance, which is not 
merited by its antecedents. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

COWPER'S " BIRTHPLACE." (p. 153). The house at Olney 
here figured is not the Poet's birthplace ; he was, as is well 
known, born at Berkhampstead in 1731. W. F. NEWTON. 



REVIEWS. 

The Cartes Antique of Lord Willoughby de Broke. Part II. Hertfordshire. Edited by Rev. 
J. Harvey Bloom, M.A., Rector of Whitchurch, and published by C. Turner, Hemsworth. 

The present volume of abstracts of Lord "Willoughby de Broke's charters has 
a special claim to notice in this Magazine as the documents dealt with concern the 
property of the Cheney family at Cottred, Herts. The various spellings of the 
word Cottred, and the numerous place-names within the manor, which occur in the 
charters from the 1 3th to the loth century, are interesting to note. 

The Hampstead Annual, for 1899, Edited by Greville E. Matheson and Sydney C. Mayle. 
Hampstead. (S. C. Mayle). 

Like its predecessor, issued last year, the present volume is charming both in its 
appearance and contents. Under the title, ''The King of Bohemia a Hampstead 
inn-name," Professor Hales tells the story of the Elector-Palatine husband of 
the beautiful Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I. Dr. G-arnett writes 
of poets connected with Hampstead ; and Canon Ainger on the artist and intimate 
friend of Wordsworth, Miss Margaret Gillies, once a resident in Church Row, 
Hampstead. Other articles on local subjects add to the value of the work, and the 
illustrations are even better than those which appeared in the last issue. 

Index to the Charters and Rolls in the Department of Manuscripts, British Museum, edited by 
Henry J. Ellis and Francis B. Bickley. Vol. 1 Index Locorum. Printed by Order of the 
Trustees. 

The labour of compiling this index must have been enormous, but Mr. Ellis and 
Mr. Bickley will be, we feel sure, repaid by the appreciation with which their work 
will be received ; no more important contribution towards this study of topography 
has ever appeared. The issue of the work is singularly opportune, just at this 
time ; for already many hands are busy on the new Victorian County Histories, 
which Messrs. Constable and Co. are about to publish. In these days of wholesale 
enfranchisement of copyholds, the need of preservation of Court Rolls grows less 
and lees, with the result that numbers are yearly sacrificed. It is comforting to see 
by the Calendar under notice that many of these valuable records are safely housed 
in the British Museum ; others, too, are at the Public Record Office, and Sir H. C. 
Maxwell-Lyte recently issued a catalogue to these which should be possessed by the 
man who values Messrs. Ellis & Bickley's laborious compilation. 

TJie Homeland Series Association's Handbooks" Guildford." by J. E. Morris (London, 
Beechings, 6d.) 

Mr. J. E. Morris has given us a charming picture of " Astolat, that is in 
English called Guildford" in the Homeland Series of Handbooks. Guildfordians 
will find a sound history of their town, and a full account of the benefactions of 
Archbishop Abbot, the town's pride. Objects of antiquarian interest. are described 
and depicted, not only for casual ramblers, but also for those who linger intelligently 
over the architectural beauties of bygone days. Nor has the author in his zeal for 
the past forgotten the wants of to-day, and the cyclist will find his route for miles 
around clearly defined by a cycling authority. Angling, too, and boating have their 
fair share of attention. The guide is well and plentifully illustrated by Gordon 
Home. We have also received k< Lyonesse " and " Dulverton" in the same series, 
which are delightful little books, but cannot be appropriately reviewed in a 
magazine which confines its attention to the Home Counties. 

Hertford in the Nineteenth Century, by W. F. Andrews. (Hertford, Austin & Sons). 

To put on record the history of his town during the last hundred years, is Mr. 
Andrews' motive for producing this little pamphlet, and we heartily commend him 
for doing what he has done. The history of our own time, and the time of our 
fathers and grandfathers, is just that about which most of us know exceedingly little. 
A century ago Hertford, with its population of 5,000, was probably no worse off than 



252 REVIEWS. 

the majority of country towns of a similar size in other parts of England, so Mr. 
Andrews need not feel unhappy at the unsatisfactory conditions, at that period, of 
the town in which he takes so lively an interest. A fire engine was provided in 
1809 ; gas in 1825 ; police replaced watchmen in 1830 ; and railway communication 
was provided some twenty years later. The drainage was improved after an alarming 
outbreak of cholera in 1849. Till 1809, the students of the East India Company's 
College were taught and resided at the Castle ; they then moved to Haileybury. 
The pamphlet records the demolition of various old buildings, and the discovery of 
the remains of some that had long since disappeared. In writing what he has 
written. Mr. Andrews has set an example which residents in other parts of the 
Home Counties may advantageously follow. 

History of Strood, by Henry Smetham, Chatham. (Barrett & Neves, 8vo., 7.?. 6d.) 

Mr. Smetham has produced a book that is reliable and pleasant to read, 
although it partakes more of the nature of a guide-book than of a parochial 
history. He has devoted comparatively little space to the history of .Strood, 
properly so called, and seems to have been anxious to make it interesting rather 
than complete. The account of early times is strikingly meagre, and the 
derivation of the name from strata seems very far-fetched. The chapter on Strood 
manors is good, but we fancy that it might easily be amplified in a second edition, 
if the author will consult records. An inspection of the Lambeth MSS. would 
probably enable Mr. Smetham to make considerable additions to his account of 
Strood hospitals, and the pilgrims. Notwithstanding these omissions, the book must 
be allowed to be a valuable contribution to Kentish topography, and the author has 
placed a large number of curious and valuable facts at the command of the student 
of custom. The book is amply illustrated, but suffers from the want of a map. 
One is glad to see included a sympathetic and fairly copious biography of the late 
C. Roach Smith, F.S.A. With singularly good taste the builders who purchased 
his .estate after his death, and laid it out in streets, have named them respectively, 
Charles Street, Roach Street, Smith Street, and Antiquary Street. 

A. Calendar of Letter Books, A and B of the City of London. Edited by Reginald R. Sharpe, 
D.C.L., etc. Printed by order of the Corporation under the direction of the Library 
Committee. 

It is with the greatest satisfaction that we are able to note the efforts of the 
Library Committee of the Corporation of London to make accessible to the historical 
student the contents of their most valuable muniment room. The calendars which 
have just been issued under the able and careful editorship of Dr. Reginald R. 
Sharpe, are devoted to the class of records called Letter Books, not because they 
contain correspondence, but on account of their having been designated by the 
letters of the alphabet. The volumes before us extend from 1275 to 1312, and con- 
tain principally recognizances for debts, which, though, perhaps not individually 
containing much of general historical value, yet taken collectively are of the greatest 
service to the student of economic history." We have also here recorded many 
incidents throwing a side light upon civic life and customs of the times, viz. : the 
treatment of the Jews just before their expulsion from England, the procedure in 
the City Courts of Law, notices of various offences such as " night walking after 
curfew," robbery with violence, frequenting of taverns and houses of ill-fame, and 
gambling, the supervision by the corporation of all trades, and many other matters 
which would occupy too much space to enumerate. It would be difficult here to 
give any critical analysis of the contents of the calendar, suffice it to say there 
appears to be everything requisite in it for the student, and this is all that could be 
desired as the work is essentially one for the student and not for the general reader. 

Who's Who, 1900 An Annual Biographical Dictionary (A. & C. Black, 3s. 6rf). 

So many of the celebrities figuring in Who's Who, reside in, or are connected 
with, the Home Counties, that a notice of the work may appropriately find a notice 
in these pages. The edition for the present year is fuller than ever, and conse- 
quently more useful ; in it the reader will find all he wants to know (and perhaps 
something besides) concerning men and women of the present day who are famous 
in any particular walk of life. The book is equally useful in the library, the 
drawing-room, or the office. 







Chaucer and his Contemporaries. 

Richard II. Chaucer. 

Gower. John o' Gaunt. 

Henry IV. Wyckcliff. 



CHAUCER AT ALDGATE. 
BY PROFESSOR HALES, F.S.A. 

OF the poets that are intimately, both by birth and by 
residence, associated with London, Chaucer is certainly 
one of the chief after Milton ; he must be mentioned along 
with Spenser, Ben Jonson, Herrick, Pope, and Browning. He 
was born, it is fairly certain, in Thames Street ; he spent 
some dozen of the best years of his manhood not far from the 
spot of his birth ; he was buried in the Cloisters of the Abbey 
Church of Westminster. And from his writings and from what 
records there are of his life, we are assured of his familiarity 
with London and its neighbourhood with Old St. Paul's, with 
the Temple, with the Custom House, with Charing Cross, with 
Cheapside, with Smithfield, with Friday Street, with Aldgate, 
with the Savoy Palace, with the Black Friars' Monastery, with 
Southwark and the Tabard Inn, and the Bell, with Westminster 
and its Palace and its Courts of Law, with the Old Kent 
Road, with Hatcham and its " Foul Oak," with Greenwich, 
with Bow and with Stratford, with Eltham, with Sheen (now 
Richmond). Thus he was a Londoner born and bred, and 
much as he loved his books, and the flowers of the field, not 
less loved he his fellow-men, and delighted to move among 
them and with keen but not unkindly eyes, however little they 
might suspect that "a chield" was "amang" 'em "takin notes," 
to observe their ways and humours, their frauds and their 
benevolences, the good and the ill which form " the mingled 
yarn of the web of our life." He too, might say, with "the 
Spectator " of Queen Anne's time : " As I am a great lover of 
mankind, my heart naturally over-flows with pleasure at the 
sight of a prosperous and happy multitude, insomuch that at 
many publick solemnities, I cannot forbear expressing my joy 
with tears that have stolen down my cheeks." At least, he was 
of like passions with the Spectator, though his feeling would 
not exhibit itself quite in the same fashion. He had yet more 
in common with Charles Lamb than with Addison. He could 
justly appropriate as Elia could have appropriated and did in 
sense, if not verbis ipsissimis, appropriate that catholic that 
admirable, however hackneyed line, that, by a man nothing 
human should be regarded as alien. 

S 



254 CHAUCER AT ALDGATE. 

" The lighted shops of the Strand and Fleet Street," writes Lamb 
to Wordsworth ; " the innumerable trades, tradesmen and customers, 
coaches, waggons, playhouses ; all the bustle and wickedness round 
about Covent Garden ; the watchmen, drunken scenes, rattles ; life 
awake, if you awake, at all hours of the night ; the impossibility 
of being dull in Fleet Street ; the crowds, the very dirt and mud, 
the sun shining upon houses and pavements, the print shops, the 
old book-stalls, parsons cheapening books, coffee-houses, steams of 
soups from kitchens, the pantomimes London itself a pantomime 
and a masquerade all these things work themselves into my mind, 
and feed me without a power of satiating me. The wonder of these 
sights impels me into night-walks about her crowded streets, and I 
often shed tears in the motley Strand from fulness of joy at so 
much life." 

Not Walt Whitman was more comprehensive in his 
catalogue of interests, or clasped the world to his bosom with 
a more generous embrace ; and Chaucer, we may be sure, was 
not less attached to the London of his day. He is not only 
one of London's most distinguished natives, but like Dr. 
Johnson, and Dickens, and many another, one of London's most 
ardent lovers. And in The Home Counties Magazine for this 
October, which is exactly 500 years since he was laid to rest in 
what was then a suburb of the city that was his birth-place, 
and for so long his home, let us think of him as a Londoner. 

London has still, and will we may be assured always have, 
its enthusiastic friends and adherents in whose eyes it is, and 
will be, the only place where life is worth living, whatever its 
uglinesses in whatever districts ; but it need scarcely be said 
the London, whose streets Chaucer paced so observingly while 
he seemed to be noticing nothing, was of a very different aspect 
from the London we know. The city was only beginning to 
out-grow its ancient precincts. Within and without the walls 
rose many monastic buildings, some of great architectural 
interest and beauty : Holy Trinity Priory, St. Helen's 
Nunnery, the residences of Friars Gra} r , Black, Crutched, 
and Austin, The Charterhouse, St. Bartholomew's, and its 
Austin Canons, the headquarters of the Knights Hospitallers, 
and many another ' religious ' establishment ; and close by there 
were fields where the grass was fresh and green, and streams 
of water yet undefiled and clear. And, however unsatisfactory 



CHAUCER AT ALDGATE. 255 

the sanitary condition of the houses was already, or was very 
soon to be, externally they were highly attractive, and the 
tout ensemble of the old thoroughfares picturesqueness itself. 
It needs no slight effort to recall the London of the last 
Plantagenets. 

Forget six counties over-hung with smoke ; 

Forget the snorting steam and piston stroke; 

Forget the spreading of the hideous town. 

Think rather of the pack-horse on the down, 

And dream of London small and white and clean, 

The clear Thames bordered by its gardens green. 

Think that below bridge the green lapping waves 

Smite some few keels that bear Levantine staves 

Cut from the yew wood on the burnt up hill, 

And pointed jars that Greek hands toiled to fill, 

And treasured scanty spice from some far sea, 

Florence gold cloth, and Ypres napery, 

And cloth of Bruges, and hogsheads of Guienne, 

While nigh the thronged wharf Geoffrey Chaucer's pen 

Moves over bills of lading. 

Till recently, most biographers and critics of Chaucer have 
accepted The Testament of Love, as one of Chaucer's Works, 
though it is difficult indeed to believe that such an acceptance 
could be based on any intelligent perusal ; and a passage used 
to be quoted from it as authorizing the statement that Chaucer 
was born in London, and that he dearly loved the place of his 
nativity. The research and the acuteness of Professor Skeat 
and Mr. Henry Bradley, have proved beyond question that The 
Testament of Love was in fact written by one Thomas Usk, 
who was a collector of Customs during part of the time when 
Chaucer was the Comptroller, and so must have known the 
great poet personally, though there was probably not much 
sympathy between them, as Usk's political conduct was as 
dubious as his literary style, and the unfortunate man was 
condemned and executed in 1388. Suspensus ac incontinent* 
depositus, ac post xxx a mucronis ictus fere decapitatus. It was 
while in prison that Usk wrote The Testament of Love, so 
blindly attributed to Chaucer, and in it occur words about 
London that are worth re-quoting as showing the devotion to 
London of one of Chaucer's contemporaries and acquaintances. 



256 CHAUCER AT ALDGATE. 

He is describing how the peace of the commonalty was " in 
point to be broken and annulled," and in London, too, how 
disturbances were rife : 

" Also the Citee of London that is to me so dere and swete, in 
whiche I was forth growen (and more kyndely love have I to that 
place than to any other in erthe, as every kyndely creature hath ful 
appetyte to that place of his kyndely engendure, and to wilne reste 
and pees in that stede to abyde) thilke pees shulde thus there have 
ben broken, and of al wyse it is commended and desyred." 

All his life long Chaucer must have been a well-known 
figure in the London Streets, and must often have encountered 
with friendly greetings, or at least with recognition, such notable 
persons as Gower, Wicliffe, Langland, Philpot, Walworth, 
Whittington. But we will confine ourselves to the period of 
his middle life when he actually dwelt in London, the tenant of 
one of the old city gates, viz., from 1374 to J 386. 

In May, 1374, about the time of his appointment as Con- 
troller of the Customs, when it became necessary that he should 
be housed near his place of business, the Mayor, the Aldermen, 
and the Commonalty of the City of London "granted and 
released unto Geoffey Chaucer " we quote Mr. Riley's translation 
of the original Latin document " the whole of the dwelling- 
house above the Gate of Algate, with the rooms built over and 
a certain cellar beneath the same gate on the south side of that 
gate and the appurtenances thereof, to have and to hold the 
whole of the house aforesaid with the rooms so built over and" 
the said cellar and the appurtenances thereof, unto the aforesaid 
Geoffrey, for the whole life of him, the same Geoffrey." Chaucer 
is to keep the rooms in repair ; and he is to surrender them for 
the time if the City has to be put in state of defence against any 
enemy ; but otherwise he is to have them to himself, no gaol 
being "made thereof, for the safe keeping of prisoners therein 
during the life of the said Geoffrey, "gate- towers being commonly 
enough used for incarceration. His official duties were exact- 
ing. It was strictly ordered that he should write his own rolls 
with his own hand manu sua propria scribat, et continue moretur 
ibidem, et omnia que ad officium suum pertinent in propria persona 
sua et non per substitutum suum facial et exequatur. Some eight 
years later, in 1382, he was appointed Controller also of the Petty 
Customs (Contrarotulator parve custume nostre in portuLondinie), 



CHAUCER AT ALDGATE. 257 

but in this case he was permitted to nominate a substitute on the 
understanding that he was responsible for him, that is, the 
work might be done per se vel sufficientem deputation suum pro 
quo respondere voluerit. At last in February, 1385, he received 
permission to nominate a deputy for the first appointment also; 
and there can be little doubt he at once availed himself of an 
indulgence for which it may be confidently presumed he had 
petitioned, and that probably he changed his domicile to 
Greenwich. At all events we know that in October, 1386, one 
Richard Forster became the lessee of the Algate premises, and 
the place that had known Chaucer for some eleven or twelve 
years knew him no more. 

The old tower in which Chaucer lived was pulled down in 
1606, and its successor suffered the same fate about the middle 
of the last century. So only the site survives ; and we must 
imagine the old poet's abode and its surroundings and its inner 
arrangements as best we may. His face we know well, and it 
is not so difficult to picture it to ourselves looking forth from 
some quaint lattice on the motley crowd as it bustled to and fro 
beneath, towards Whitechapel, or London Bridge, or the Tower, 
or Leadenhall Street and Cornhill. 

We may picture him going forth to his labour till the evening 
by several routes down the Minories and then by the Tower, 
and the Church of All Hallows, Barking, and so to Customers' 
Key ; or down Aldgate and Fenchurch Street as far as Mark 
Lane and so to his destination ; or more commonly perhaps 
proceeding down Jewry Street and Crutched Friars and Hart 
Street (to use the now current names) and so into Mark Street 
and on to his official desk. 

The Custom House, where he worked most of his time, is 
as non-existent as the Aldgate tower. It stood very near the 
present one, but was removed in 1385, just when Chaucer was 
securing his manumission. And the present one is the fifth 
successor of the scene of Chaucer's labours. 

One of the brightest lyric poets of our literature was made 
an exciseman ; and one of the greatest of all our poets, one 
William Wordsworth, acquired an income as a stamp-distributor ; 
and he whom Stow, not yet fully conscious of the splendour of 
his own age, justly calls "the most famous poet of England," 



258 



CHAUCER AT ALDGATE. 



drudged away many of his best years as the Controller of 
Customs ! Probably all three poets were thankful for what they 
could get ; but certainly they were thankful for small or at least 
scarcely apt and well-considered mercies. Whatever compen- 
sations there may be, it cannot be denied that it seems far 
from an ideal management of things to turn the most brilliant 
geniuses of the country into gaugers and clerks. 

No doubt in Chaucer's case there were compensations. 
What varieties of life and character must have come to his 
knowledge, as he sat at the receipt of Customs! The wide 
world itself must have filed past him, and revealed itself to him 
on the quay, or in his counting-house. And in those daily 
walks to and fro how many forms and phases of human nature he 
must have seen and noted ! We may well suppose that all the 
hours spent over those endless rolls those cockets and dockets 
was not time wasted. He was carrying on mankind's proper 
study the study of man. He was heaping up knowledge, 
some part at least of which he was himself to gather and to 
leave behind him in an imperishable shape. 

Certainly every evening he went back hungering and thirsting 
not only physically but intellectually, eager to turn to his books, 
and the better able to understand them through the insight into 
men and into life obtained on the Custom House wharf and by 
contact with all sorts and conditions of men. And late into 
the night we may imagine this official, his business hours over, 
reading and writing. He draws for us just such a picture 
of himself, when in the House of Fame, he represents the 
Eagle who is transporting him to another region, as addressing 
him in this wise : 

When thy labour doon al is, 

And hast ymaad thy rekenynges, 

In stede of reste and newe thynges, 

Thou gost hoom to thy hous anoon, 

And also domb as any stoon, 

Thou sittest at another boke, 

i.e. another book than the ledger you have been poring 
over all day long 

Tyl fully daswyd is thy looke, 

And lyvest thus as an heremyte, 

Although thyn abstynence is lyte. 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 259 

However weary his hand with writing out those matter-of- 
fact documents, it was now addressed to other and delightful 
labours to labours of love. And it was in the old tower of 
Aldgate that he made himself a supreme master of the poetic 
craft, and turned his mastery to immortal account in the pro- 
duction of so exquisite a piece as Troilus and Cressida, and in 
the designing of a work that should give, yet ampler expression 
to his manifold gifts and graces, to his maturest thought and 
his highest inspiration. 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 

Since our last issue two measures, which intimately concern 
the interests to which these pages are devoted, have become 
law: the Ancient Monuments' Protection Bill, and the Land 
Dedication Bill. The former amends that of 1882, and by it 
County Councils are enabled to purchase, or, at the request of 
the owner, become guardians of, ancient monuments, and to 
maintain and manage them. They may also receive con- 
tributions towards the cost of purchase or maintenance of 
such monuments. The Land Dedication Bill enables the 
owner of property to dedicate it to the public for specific 
purposes, without surrendering the ownership. 

Both these measures have been materially helped by those 
two excellent institutions, the National Trust and the Society 
for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. Each body may con- 
gratulate itself on other good work accomplished. The former 
has, indeed, cause to lament the death of its late president, 
the Duke of Westminster ; but it may surely look for good 
things from so politic and artistic a man as the Earl of Dufferin 
and Ava, who has suceeded him. 

The Trust needs about 3OO/. to acquire and preserve a very 
remarkable building, possibly of fourteenth century construction, 
the Old Court House at Long Crendon, in Buckinghamshire. 
The building was probably erected as a wool-store ; but being 
commodious was, from early times, used for holding the 
manorial courts hence its name. Such courts will still be 



260 QUARTERLY NOTES. 

held there if the building is preserved, so that the historical 
associations of the place will be maintained ; a portion of the 
building will be leased to the vicar for parochial purposes. 

The annual report of the other society named, that which 
safe-guards ancient buildings, is exceptionally interesting. 
A vigorous protest is made against the threatened destruction 
of a great part of the west side of Lincoln's Inn Fields, for the 
purpose of making the new street from Holborn to the Strand, 
where every house, though none are more than a couple of 
centuries old, possesses interesting associations, and is a fine 
example of the builder's art. It is devoutly to be hoped that 
the London County Council will not turn a deaf ear to this 
protest, even though the preservation of the buildings may 
necessitate some sacrifice in regard to the new street. 

Nothing is said in this report about the Whitgift Hospital 
at Croydon which seems in imminent danger of destruction. 
As we mentioned before (p. 96), the almshouses project 
beyond the new building line of George Street, and constitute 
a real difficulty in regard to the traffic. The suggestion to 
preserve the whole structure by constructing a road at 
the rear of the hospital is good, but costly ; a cheaper, though 
not so satisfactory a plan, would be to sacrifice the extreme 
corner cottage, and thus round off the sharp angle. In any case 
all who are interested in the preservation of this very fine and 
beautiful example of sixteenth century almshouses should do 
their utmost to bring influence to bear upon the authorities, and 
vigorously oppose the present proposals of demolition. An 
article on the Hospital buildings, written and illustrated by 
Mr. Walter H. Godfrey, will appear in the next issue of 
this magazine. 

There was another bill before Parliament to which we 
referred in these notes for July the Diocesan Records' Bill. 
That has not found its way into the Statute Book, and, for 
reasons already stated, we do not regret its absence. It only 
dealt with a portion of a very important subject which demands 
attention as a whole, namely, the proper custody and preserva- 
tion of local public records. Perhaps before next session the 
Government Commission enquiring into the matter will have 



QUARTERLY NOTES. 261 

made its report. If it has not done so we fancy that enquiries 
as to the progress of the Committee's work will be made by 
more than one honourable member. 

Meanwhile it is satisfactory to note that certain local bodies 
are paying some heed to their documents ; the parochial records 
of Westminster are (witness the new calendar and press-list to 
them reviewed in the present number of this magazine), evidently 
carefully preserved, and we notice that in various parts of the 
home counties as for instance, at Hungerford, in Berkshire, and 
Hillingdon, in Middlesex, local bodies are providing safes in 
which to place their muniments. 

It is to be wished that such bodies, District Councils 
and the like, were equally alive to their duties in regard to 
another matter which has often formed the subject of these 
notes the preservation of open spaces. The sentiments of 
the Uxbridge Rural District Council, as evidenced in the recent 
discussion over contesting the publicity of Charville Lane, are 
most unsatisfactory. Surely the Council should be as desirous 
as Lord Hillingdon himself, to get the question settled. 
Equally unsatisfactory is the Council's attitude about No 
Man's land at Cowley. The Council seems ready to agree to 
a scheme of enclosure sooner than be at trouble or expense in 
maintaining an open space. At Brill, in Buckinghamshire, 
the common rights (which appear in danger) seem more 
zealously looked after by local bodies. 

This really grievous lethargy emphasizes the necessity for 
the existence of the Commons and Footpaths Preservation 
Society. That energetic body continues to do much useful 
work, both as to commons and footpaths. The Berkshire 
branch seems to be particularly active, and besides discharging 
its own functions is, we are glad to see, helping the movement 
in Reading for preventing a further disfigurement of the Thames- 
side thereabouts, and also that which seeks to restrain the 
Corporation from pulling down part of the hospitium of the 
Abbey in order to enlarge the Town Hall. 

Equally active is the Kent and Surrey branch of the Society. 
In its report it dwells upon the value of the Commons' Regula- 



262 QUARTERLY NOTES. 

tion Act of last year, which simplifies the placing of commons 
under the control of Urban and Rural District Councils, which 
can frame rules for the general good government of open spaces, 
including power to deal with the gipsy nuisance. The action 
of Lord Onslow in regard to many Surrey commons shows 
that lords of manors thoroughly approve of the Act, and grasp 
its advantages for themselves, and for the public. Speaking of 
Surrey Commons, we may express regret that Croham Hurst is 
not yet secured as an open space. 

The memory of an old-time champion of public rights-of- 
way, Timothy Bennett, has been kept green by the erection 
of a monument at Hampton Wick, the gift of Mr. J. C. Buck- 
master. Timothy, a shoemaker by trade, lived in the neigh- 
bourhood about a century-and-a-half ago, and was much 
distressed at seeing his fellow villagers denied their passage 
across Bushey Park. He determined to try the legality of the 
" closure " and the Ranger of the day gave way under the 
shadow of an action so the story goes. 

Since Timothy's day public rights in Bushey Park have not 
been obstructed ; but they had been before, on more than one 
occasion. Lord Carrington, in unveiling the shoe-maker's 
effigy, forgot to remind his hearers that a flagrant culprit in 
the matter of obstructing public rights-of-way in and about 
Bushey Park was Oliver Cromwell, who, during the ten years 
or so that the Crown property was in his hands, placed poles 
across "the highway for horse and foot," leading from "the 
Wick to Hampton Court through the Hare Warren." 

At the Richmond Public Library there is being brought 
together a collection of local books books locally written, 
published or printed. The idea of forming such a collection is 
good, and we are glad to see that it is being taken up, 
by individuals as well as by libraries. If residents in different 
parts of the home counties would set to work to collect 
books and pamphlets, not only about their particular localities, 
but produced in them, many interesting bibliographical facts 
would come to light, and the existence of some early 
printing presses in little expected tow T ns and villages would, 
we fancy, be revealed. The Kentish Express tells us that such 
collections are now quite the fashion in Kent. 



A NEW HISTORY OF SURREY. 263 

We must not close these necessarily short notes without 
bidding welcome to a publication that, running much on the 
lines on which this magazine runs, will deal exclusively with 
East Anglia. We mean "The Eastern Counties Magazine and 
Suffolk Note Book," edited by the Hon. Mary Henniker. Miss 
Henniker is a lady well qualified by family connection with the 
Eastern Counties, and by her literary ability to edit such a 
work. The first number is full of excellent matter old and 
new. 



A NEW HISTORY OF SURREY. * 

IT is no light task that Mr. Maiden has attempted, to set 
forth within the limits of a popular series, and with 
scholarly accuracy and completeness, the history of such a 
county as Surrey. The county, as he tells us, unlike several 
others, never corresponded to the territory of a people nor of a 
tribe. With the exception of the Thames in the north, and, 
for a few miles, of the Blackwater in the west, the county has 
no natural boundary. Consequently, down to the time of the 
Domesday Survey, its limits appear but ill-defined, the line of 
demarcation in the south, between it and Sussex, through the 
great and sparsely inhabited forest, the Andredesweald, being 
then hardly determined. 

Its name, Surrey, whether we are to derive it from Anglo- 
Saxon rice a kingdom, or with Camden probably wrongly 
from rea a river, suggests that it was named by people who lived 
to the north of it. In the earliest times it must have been 
regarded as an appendage of something greater to the north of 
it, very much as in the present day it has become to the 
dwellers and workers in London, their most delightful rural 
suburb. 

It is, indeed, to its position between London and the south 
coast that Surrey owes its importance in the general history of 
England. Every army which approached London from the 

* A History of Surrey, by Henry Elliot Maiden, M.A. Popular County 
Histories. Elliot Stock, London, 1900. 



264 A NEW HISTORY OF SURREY. 

south had to march through Surrey, and thus the county 
became the theatre of more than one of those great struggles 
which played their part in the making of the English people. 

Passing over the period of the Roman rule and the 
extremely intricate history of the period immediately subsequent 
to it, we come, in the year 568, to the first recorded war 
between two English Kings. The battle of Wipandune was 
fought between the West Saxons and the Kentish men for the 
possession of Surrey, and resulted in the over-throw of the 
latter. The site of the battle is a vexed question, historians on 
the whole being inclined to favour the claims of Wimbledon. 
But Wimbledon, as Mr. Maiden points out, in the older forms 
of its name, Wimbaldon or Wymbalton, hardly suggests 
Wippa's or Wibba's dun. Moreover, if the story be true that 
Ethelbert, the Kentish King, was invading Ceawlin's territory, 
we should look for the scene of the battle further west, and 
hence Worplesden has been suggested, but at a venture. Mr. 
Maiden has yet a third claimant for the site, and advances his 
views with no little plausibility. In a charter of Chertsey 
Abbey of 675, edited in post-conquest times, the name 
Wipsedone, which would be the more modern form of 
Wipandune, occurs in a list of the boundaries of the manors of 
Chertsey, Thorpe, Egham, and Chobham. On the strength 
of this charter, Mr. Maiden would place the site of the battle 
on the heaths near Chobham, on the line of the Roman road 
from Staines to Silchester. 

Barely three hundred years after this event Surrey was 
again to become the scene of a conflict, which was yet more 
fully to confirm the permanence of West Saxon rule. This 
time the invaders were a new foe, now first appearing in the 
country. A large body of the Danes having passed up the 
Thames and sacked London, were marching through Surrey by 
the Roman Stone Street when they were met by Ethelwulf, 
and exterminated in a great battle hard by Ockley Wood. 
Local tradition used to call the British camp on Anstiebury the 
Danish camp, but although the Danes had slept in the camp 
during the night before the battle, it is certain that they did 
not make it. The camp is not fashioned after Danish methods, 
and is moreover too elaborate for a passing body of invaders. 



A NEW HISTORY OF SURREY. 265 

Through the subsequent years of intermittent warfare with 
the Danes, Surrey must have suffered in common with the 
whole country. Once, indeed, before the coming of the 
Normans, it was the scene of a mysterious historical event. 
The Etheling Alfred on his way from Normandy to Winchester, 
to secure the succession of his half brother Harthacnut, was 
treacherously arrested and put to death at Guildford. 

After the battle of Hastings, Surrey was to be traversed by 
the Conqueror's army on its march towards London. The line 
of ravage can be traced from the Domesday Survey by the 
deterioration in value of the manors which suffered, and forms 
an interesting study. The confiscation and change of conditions 
of holding in Surrey were extensive but not universal. At 
that time nothing larger than what we should call a 
village, appears in the survey. Guildford is not specially 
distinguished, and there is no indication of a county capital. 
If Kingston had retained any importance since the Danish wars, 
it was lost by now. Leatherhead, which, in Henry Ill's reign, 
was stated on doubtful evidence to have always been the place 
of meeting of the County Court, is a place of no importance 
in Domesday. South wark had suffered much from the ravage 
inflicted in 1066. 

Guildford became a royal residence much frequented by John 
and Henry III. The royal manor was probably not undefended 
even before 1066. Stone castles can hardly have existed in 
England before then, because even in Normandy itself the art of 
building them was at that time a recent and barely acquired 
one. Previously the method of fortification had been to heap up 
an artificial mound, to surround it with a ditch, and to guard its 
slopes all round with palisades. Such an earthwork had 
probably existed at Guildford from an early date. The Norman 
stone keep which is still standing bears evidence of having 
been erected in the reign of Henry II. It is an interesting 
example, of which the castles of Christchurch and Clun are 
the only others known in England, of a solid keep partly 
planted upon an artificial mound. To have placed the keep 
entirely upon such a mound would have been an impossibility, 
but at Guildford, whilst the east wall alone is based upon the 
solid ground, it is constructed of an extraordinary thickness to 



266 A NEW HISTORY OF SURREY. 

help in holding up the three sides built on the mound. These 
three sides are further lightened with frequent piercings for 
doors and windows. 

The elaborate directions given by Henry III. for preparing 
the castle for the reception of the Court and of his son 
Edward, when a boy of barely seven years, can still be read, 
and throw a most interesting light on the domestic manners 
and architecture of his time. It is only possible here to refer 
the reader to Mr. Maiden's book for a knowledge of their 
contents. 

Guildford Castle and the other ancient castles of Surrey, 
Farnham, Reigate and Blechingley, all play a part more or less 
important in the course of the Barons' wars. These wars were 
waged, perhaps, none the less keenly in Surrey, because ever 
and again there would be mixed up with them the hereditary 
rivalries of the two most powerful baronial families in the 
county the De Warennes and the De Clares. 

Whatever benefit Surrey may have derived from the 
patronage bestowed by John and his successors on Guildford, 
it is certain that in other respects the county had little cause to 
be grateful for its close relations with royalty. Its proximity 
to Windsor subjected it to every attempt of the sovereign to 
extend the bounds of that royal forest, and within the forests 
the King was still master as he was not elsewhere. Henry 
II. afforested firstly his own demesne at Guildford and 
Woking, and ended by afforesting the whole county in 1226, 
and making it an appendage to the Forest of Windsor. So 
strongly was this resented that Richard I. agreed that three- 
fourths of the county should be disafforested, a concession 
however which he left to his successor to carry out. This left 
the country west of the Wey and north of the Hog's Back as 
forest, and for some centuries later this tract, known as the 
Bailiwick of Surrey, was a fruitful cause of debate between the 
Crown and its subjects. Not until 1642 was it finally decided 
that the posts and rails of the park at Guildford had been in 
James I.'s reign the bounds of the only part of the Forest of 
Windsor within the limits of the county of Surrey, and that 
the grant by King Charles of this park to the Earl of 
Annandale had distinctly disafforested the only part of the 
bailiwick which had not been disafforested long before. 



A NEW HISTORY OF SURREY. 267 

Of the town life of Surrey in the early and middle ages, 
says Mr. Maiden, there is little to be said. It is safe to say 
that Surrey might have had one great city of its own if there 
had not been a greater in Middlesex. Guildford and Southwark 
were the only two places in the county that had any claims to 
be considered as towns. Of these the latter early began to be 
subjected to the city of London, the commencement of the 
process by which London is at the present day absorbing 
Surrey. Southwark at first an ecclesiastical, then a theatrical, 
was, throughout, a disorderly suburb of London. Kingston had 
a certain importance as being on the river and commanding, 
till the last century, the nearest bridge above London, but 
with all its ancient dignity, it was never a large and busy town. 
Only during certain years of the fourteenth century did it send 
members to Parliament, the inhabitants having, as the story 
goes, successfully petitioned to be relieved of the burden. 
Down to the first Reform Act the Parliamentary boroughs of 
Surrey were Guildford, Southwark, Reigate, Blechingley, 
Gatton, and Haslemere ; Reigate and Blechingley because 
they were the strongholds in the county of the De Warennes 
and De Clares respectively. Gatton was almost as much, and 
with more cause, a by-word for a rotten borough as Old Sarum. 
Haslemere is a fair example of a rotten borough created by the 
Tudors as a means of strengthening their influence in the 
Lower House. 

It is impossible to follow here the history of Surrey through 
the concluding portion of the middle ages. Every rebellion or 
war which affected London had its effect on the county adjoin- 
ing it on the south. The Peasant's Revolt of 1381, Jack Cade's 
Rebellion, the Wars of the Roses were all felt in Surrey; but 
all this is matter of general history. 

Under the Tudors Surrey again became a county of habitual 
royal residence. Henry VII. rebuilt the old palace of Sheen, 
at which Edward III. had died, and gave it the name of 
Richmond from the earldom which he had held before his 
accession. In 1539, Henry VIII. began the great palace of 
Nonsuch, of which, says Mr. Maiden, language seems scarcely 
sufficient to express the splendours as it appeared to its con- 
temporaries. But the royal favour thus shown to Surrey does 



268 A NEW HISTORY OF SURREY. 

not appear to have been considered an unmixed benefit. In a 
remonstrance from the county to Queen Elizabeth we are told 
that the shire was among "the least and barrenest in England" 
and " the most charged of any by reason that her Majesty lieth 
within or about the shire continually, and thereby it is charged 
with continual removes and carriages of coals, wood and other 
provision to the Court ; and likewise with continual carriage 
for the Admiralty and the Master of the Ordnance ; also by 
my Lord Treasurer for the reparations of Her Majesty's 
houses." 

As to the internal condition of the county, Mr. Maiden has 
much to say that is interesting. The bad condition of the 
roads, down to the end of the first half of the last century, 
was a serious drawback to the prosperity of any industry in 
the county. In the memory of living men we are told that 
fat pigs, sold at a farm in the Weald, had to be killed on 
the spot, because it was impossible to remove them alive either 
on their own feet or on wheels. In a petition from the people 
of Horsham to Parliament in 1750 for a passable carriage-road 
to London, they gravely declared that, if they wanted to drive 
to London, they had to go down to the coast and round by 
Canterbury. It is partly to this state of things that Surrey is 
indebted for the honour of being the first county in England 
to canalise one of its rivers by means of locks. In 1651 Sir 
Richard Weston, of Sutton Place, near Guildford, who had 
seen the invention of locks in the Low Countries, obtained an 
Act of Parliament for making the Wey from Guildford to its 
junction with the Thames, navigable by means of locks. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN: A RETROSPECT. 
BY W. L. RUTTON, F.S.A. 

(Concluded from p. 198). 
WESTBOURNE FARM, OR DESBOROUGH COTTAGE. 

From 1817, when Mrs. Siddons gave up this house, until 
1845 a space of twenty-eight years we have no sure infor- 
mation in regard to its occupation. It is rumoured that Giulia 
Grisi, the prima donna, who came to London in 1834, had it 
for a time, and this as a proved fact would be welcome, but it 
is no more than rumour. 

CHARLES JAMES MATHEWS AND MRS. MATHEWS ("MADAME 
VESTRIS"). Charles Dickens (the second), like too many 
biographers, takes little pains to tell us where the brilliant 
actor lived from time to time, and of Westbourne Green as 
once his home we should probably have no more than rumour, 
as in the case of Grisi, were it not that the time was later, and 
London blessed with a Directory. One other proof of the fact 
is peculiar. Mathews, a clever draughtsman, had a humorous 
way of acquainting his friends with the situation of his abode 
by making a sketch of it in his letters. Two, at least, of such 
sketches have been preserved, and that here reproduced is 
invaluable to us in showing not only that he did live at 
Westbourne Green, but in putting the identity of the house 
beyond doubt. Our sketch accompanies an undated letter to 
his friends the Keeleys, and fortunately another letter similarly 
illustrated is dated " Westbourne Green, August 2ist, 1845."* 
Thus we are assured that Mathews was living here in 1845, 
though the precise time of his arrival is not discovered. The 
Post Office London Directory, now so ponderous, had then 
scarcely reached maturity. The infant volume, born in 1800, 
measured at its birth but 7ins. by 4jins. by fin. thick, and 
these modest dimensions though growing in thickness it 
maintained until 1840 when it underwent considerable 
expansion. Its object is commercial only until 1841 when, for 

* Our reproduction is from The Keeleys on the Stage and at Home, 
by Walter Goodman, 1895. The second letter referred to is mentioned in 
Notes and Queries, 8th S. III. 469. 

T 



270 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

the first time, a Court Directory includes private residences ; in 
1842 Westbourne Green has first mention, but although we 
know from Mathews's letter that he was there in 1845, it is the 
volume of 1847 which first announces on the Harrow Road 
" Charles James Matthews (sic) Esq., Madame Vestris"; this 
again appears in the issue of 1848, but not in that of 1849, so 
it may be presumed that in the latter year they lived elsewhere. 

The sketch reproduced clearly shows " Desborough 
Cottage " as Mathews names the former " Westbourne 
Farm " to be the house nearest to the Canal, on the right 
hand side of the Harrow Road as his friends the Keeleys, in 
their one-horse-chaise, approach from London. To explain the 
position the spire of Harrow Church, though eight miles off, 
appears on the horizon, a fictitious milestone states the distance 
from Tyburn as a mile and a-half, while two finger-posts and a 
man pointing with his stick direct the travellers, to whose 
question ''Is Mathews at home"? the reply is " Always on 
Sundays." The sketch makes it clear to us that Desborough 
Cottage was identical with Westbourne Farm, and that the 
home of " The Queen of Tragedy " became that of the light 
comedians. 

Mathews, whose age in 1845 was forty- two, may be con- 
sidered as in his prime when he lived at Westbourne Green. 
Before becoming an actor he had followed the life of a 
leisured gentleman at home and abroad, and the ease and 
courtesy thus rendered habitual served afterwards on '.the stage 
as his special distinction and charm. Son of a famous actor 
it had not been intended that he should follow in his father's 
footsteps, but the faculty inherited was in private exercised, 
and when, at the age of thirty-two, his father's failure com- 
pelled him to earn his living, he with facility took his place on 
the stage. The earning of his living, however, was the least 
successful part of his career, for although he could fill houses 
by the charm of his gentlemanly acting, the spending of his 
income was achieved with equal ease. In September, 1835 he, 
with Yates, opened the Adelphi, and in November of the same 
year was introduced by Liston at the Olympic ; he there played 
George Rattleton in the Humpbacked Lover, written by himself. 
There is an excellent portrait of him in that character, but 





1 



Charles James Mathews in his 75th year. 

Reproduced by permission of Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd. 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 271 

here it is preferred to give him " in his habit as he lived," 
although a somewhat younger likeness would have been chosen 
had it been available. This portrait, probably the last taken, 
may, however, have the advantage of representing him as 
remembered by the greater number of the readers of this 
notice. 

In July, 1838, he married Madame Vestris then managing 
the Olympic. This fascinating actress was some six years 
older than her husband, and had been a widow about fifteen 
years ; had her beauty and cleverness been equalled by careful 
management of resources she would have been a treasure to 
Mathews, but her extravagance kept time with his; nevertheless 
during eighteen years of married life they appear to have been 
affectionately attached to each other. Together they made an 
unprofitable visit to America, and in September, 1839 they 
opened Covent Garden, a venture which terminated in bank- 
ruptcy in April, 1842. Next they were for a very short time 
with Macready, at Drury Lane, and afterwards at the Hay- 
market, where they played until October, 1843, when occurred 
another collapse, and Mathews to escape his creditors took 
refuge on the Continent ; but in December of the same year 
they were back again at the same theatre, and continued there 
until July, 1845. We now come to the time when they Hved 
at Westbourne Green, but are without the means of dating 
their arrival. The circumstances of the undated letter which 
has been noticed point to the spring of 1845, and we know 
from the dated letter that they were here in August of that 
year. During their sojourn at Westbourne Green they played 
at the Surrey, the Princess's, and provincial towns, and it was 
probably consequent upon their taking the Lyceum in October, 
1847, that they gave up Desborough Cottage the next year ; 
thus the duration of their stay was between three and four 
years. 

The beauty and seclusion of the locality had been impaired 
when Mathews and Madame Vestris resided in Desborough 
Cottage. Scarcely 200 yards northwards, though at the other 
side of the canal, a portion of the Lock Hospital had been 
opened in 1842, and blocks of houses gradually arose along the 
Harrow Road ; the steady though not very rapid advance of 



272 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

town can be followed in the annual map of the Post Office 
London Directory. So to avoid the encroachment, or perhaps 
in order to live nearer the Lyceum where their occupation lay, 
Mathew r s and his wife gave up Desborough Cottage apparently 
early in 1848. For seven years the Lyceum was profitably 
worked, but poor Mathews never could clear himself of debt, 
and bankruptcy persistently dogged him. The break-down of 
Madame Vestris's health probably conduced to the termination 
of their career at the Lyceum ; her last appearance there was 
on the 26th July, 1854, and Mathews resigned the management 
in March, 1855. In 1856 he was playing in the country when 
he was arrested for debt and, on 4th July, lodged in Lancaster 
Castle, i.e., Jail, and there continued a month. During that 
month his wife was dying, and many letters written at this 
time testify to his anxiety and affection for her ; a week after 
his release she died at Gore Lodge, Fulham, August 8th, 1856. 
As an actress she was famous for beauty, grace, sprightliness, 
and her winsome manner of acting ; her rich contralto singing 
was an additional charm, and her taste in stage scenery, 
Equipment, and costume was in advance of her time. 

Further reference to the career of Mathews, as not coming 
within our limits, must be very brief. He found a second wife 
in Mrs. Davenport \vhen playing at New, York in 1857. In 
1870 he again forsook London and played in Australia, New 
Zealand, Honolulu, the United States, and Canada. Then five 
or six years more in England, with an interlude at Calcutta, and 
so working on until late in life he was overtaken by death, when 
playing at Staleybridge, in his 75th year. Struck by illness he 
returned to the Queen's Hotel at Manchester, and there died 
on the 24th June, 1878. His body removed thence to his last 
London residence, 59, Belgrave Road, S.W., was taken to 
Kensal Green, where a host of sorrowing friends assembled at 
his grave which adjoins those of his first wife, Madame Vestris, 
and of Anne Mathews, the mother whom he had affectionately 
cherished. His second wife died in January, 1899, and was 
buried with him. 

It W 7 ould scarcely be interesting even were it possible to 
name the tenants of the house at Westbourne Green after it 
was vacated by Mathew r s. It stood some eight years longer, 



WESTSOURNE GREEN. 273 

and rose in dignity (?) to be " Desborough House." The last 
map of the Post Office London Directory which shows it is that 
of 1856, when doubtless it gave way to the new and debased 
order of things, of Cirencester and Woodchester Streets. 

DESBOROUGH LODGE. 

The next house to be noticed on Westbourne Green is that 
numbered 3 on our map, a little southward of Mrs. Siddons's 
cottage, and a little further trom the Canal. It does not appear 
to have been old for it is not shown on Gary's map of 1810, 
which, however, in a map of that time is not positive proof of 
its non-existence. In later times it seems to have been called 
Desborough Lodge. 

CHARLES KEMBLE. That this clever actor the youngest 
brother of Mrs. Siddons, her junior by twenty years ever lived 
on Westbourne Green would now be unknown were it not 
set down in his daughter's Record of a Girlhood. Thus writes 
Fanny Kemble (Mrs. Pierce Butler) : " Our next house after 
Newman Street was at a place called Westbourne Green. . . 
. . . The site of our dwelling was not far from the Paddington 
Canal, and was then so far out of town that our nearest neigh- 
bours, people of the name of Cockerell, were the owners of a 
charming residence in the middle of park-like grounds of which 

I have still a faint pleasurable remembrance 

Mrs. Siddons at that time lived next door to us," the distance 
between the houses was about sixty yards. Mrs. Fanny 
Kemble (she was not called by her marriage name) was born in 
November, 1809, and as she tells us that at the time referred 
to she was four years old, the year must have been 1813 or 
1814. Her childish memories as well as being amusing have 
local interest ; it is pleasant to hear of the kind daughters of 
Mr. Cockerell who delighted her with toys, and to observe on 
our map the carriage-drive down which as "a tailless monkey of 
four years," wearing a foolscap in disgrace, she danced, nothing 
daunted, to meet her friend the postman. Interesting it is also 
to hear of Aunt Siddons, " Melpomene," as she calls her, who 
having taken the child on her knee to reprove for bad behaviour, 
is interrupted in her lecture by little Fanny's exclamation, 
" What beautiful eyes you have!" Whereon the aunt, not to be 
seen laughing, has hastily to release the culprit. 



274 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

Charles Kemble was in his prime when he took the cottage 
at Westbourne Green, probably as a retreat for his wife and 
children during a space of two years in which he played in the 
provinces and on the continent. He had been associated with 
his famous brother and sister at Covent Garden for ten years, 
and although considered second to his brother in the great 
tragic characters of Shakspeare, his representation of lighter 
parts, such as Romeo and Mercutio, were of exquisite finish, 
while his masterly versatility enabled him, says Dr. Doran, to 
play a greater number of parts than any actor save Garrick. 
Fie, too, was one of the handsome Kembles, and this personal 
advantage enhanced the effect of his brilliant acting. The 
family at Westbourne consisted of Mrs. Kemble (who had been 
Miss De Camp), an actress of merit in secondary parts, and 
three children, viz., John Mitchell Kemble, who as an Anglo- 
Saxon student and historian made his reputation, Frances 
Anne (" Fanny"), who fora few years figured brilliantly on the 
stage, but early retired from it, and Henry, a handsome boy 
who died young. Adelaide (Mrs. Sartoris), distinguished 
chiefly as a vocalist, was not born until later. 

They seem to have been a shifting family in regard to 
residence, and the early memories of the authoress of Record 
of a Girlhood embrace another house in Paddington, one near 
the churchyard, in which the children made " play-tables " of 
the flat tombstones. Kemble returned from his wanderings to 
Covent Garden in September, 1815, and then fixed his residence 
near the theatre in a house, the site of which was in after-times 
covered by " Evans's," doubtless remembered by elder readers 
as dedicated to song and supper. His elder brother retiring in 
1817 left him his share in the theatre, but the generous gift did 
not prove an advantage, Charles Kemble not proving to be a 
successful manager, and in 1829 collapse was only saved by the 
brillant acting of Fanny Kemble, who made her debut that 
year. With this daughter of high promise he went to America 
in 1832 on a professional expedition, which in 1834 was 
terminated by her marriage to Mr. Pierce Butler, a union not 
in its result felicitous. In 1835 Kemble, returned to London, 
played at the Haymarket. At the end of 1836 he nominally 
retired, but a great favourite, both as an actor and in his private 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 275 

capacity, royal mandate recalled him to Covent Garden in the 
spring of 1840, and having played twelve times he made his 
last appearance on the loth April. He lived fourteen years 
longer, a familiar and much esteemed frequenter of the Garrick 
Club, and at the age of seventy-nine died beloved and regretted, 
I2th November, 1854. Thirty-eight years later, January, 1893, 
his grave at Kensal Green was opened to receive the remains of 
his good daughter, Fanny, "the last of the Kembles." The 
house at Westbourne Green where she had been a merry child, 
had then been demolished about forty years. 

"THE MANOR HOUSE." 

This house is not quite a satisfactory subject to the writer 
inasmuch as its origin remains hidden. In a drawing preserved 
of it the appearance is venerable, yet Lysons a hundred years 
ago had nothing to say about it, and Robins half a century later 
is equally uninstructive. But although it has been said in this 
article (ante p. 22) that in 1746 there was no house nearer 
Kensal Green than Westbourne Farm, the correction must be 
made that in Rocque's map there is a block which may represent 
the house in question. The name is attractive but questionable, 
for it does not appear that the nominal manor of " Knights- 
bridge with Westbourne " (or " with Westbourne Green ") ever 
had a true manorial status, or a representative manor-house. 
This house, however, as the principal, if not only one on the 
estate (Westbourne Place being other property) received the 
appellation. 

The writer's information, gathered from a late agent for 
building leases on the estate, is as follows : That early in the 
century the Dean and Chapter of Westminster leased the estate 
to Rundell of the firm Rundell and Bridge, the King's gold- 
smiths, and that Rundell's heir was his nephew, Mr. Joseph 
Neeld. Robins (Paddington p. 52) says, in 1853 : " Mr. Neild 
(sic.) is the lessee of all the land claimed by the Dean and 
Chapter of Westminster in this parish." Subsequently the 
lease was surrendered on condition of a partition of the estate, 
which effected left it divided between the Dean and Chapter 
(represented by the Ecclesiastical Commission), and the Neeld 
family, now represented by Sir Audley Neeld, Bart., of 
Grittleton, near Chippenham, Wilts. 



276 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

The old house stood on the Neeld moiety, but long before 
that became their property it had got its name, for on our 
map of 1834 we see it designated "Westbourne Manor House." 
It had no distinctive features, but was old enough to have 
become picturesque; while standing amidst fine trees, and 
encompassed by four acres of tastefully laid out grounds, it was 
a pleasant residence. The place was minutely surveyed by the 
Ordnance Corps in 1865, the year before its destruction, so that 
an accurate plan on the largest scale is preserved, and our own 
smaller map shows one of the chief features, viz., " The Long 
Walk " of 330 yards, which wound through a belt of trees 
down to the pure running stream, the Westbourne. The 
occupants of the house within the knov/ledge of the writer's 
informant were the following : 

JOHN BRAITHWAITE, a famous mechanical-engineer, was 
living here some years before his death in 1818. He was one 
of the first successful constructors and practical employers of 
the diving-bell. By means of it he, in 1783, rescued from the 
Royal Geoi'ge, sunk at Spithead the previous year, many of her 
guns, and the sheet-anchor. Subsequently among other rescues 
he, in 1788, recovered from the Hartwell, an East Indiaman 
wrecked off Ronavista, one of the Cape Verd Islands, 38, GOO/. 
in dollars, and other valuable cargo ; and another great salvage 
achieved in 1806 was also from the wreck of an East Indiaman, 
the Abergavenny, sunk off Portland, when the value of dollars 
and freight rescued amounted to 105, ooo/. His engine-factory 
was on the New Road (near Fitzroy Square), and his private 
residence, latterly at least, was at Westbourne Green, where 
according to The Gentleman's Magazine, he died in June, 1818 
after a short illness which followed a paralytic stroke. The 
obituary records his principal achievements, and observes that 
in private life Mr. Braithwaite was highly respected. 

JOHN BRAITHWAITE (the second), son of the above, was 
born at i, Bath Place, New Road, in March, 1797 ; we 
therefore suppose that the family had not yet moved to 
Westbourne Green, but lived near the engine-works. He 
succeeded his father in their management just after he had 
come of age, and, according to the old inhabitant, in the 
occupation of the house in which we are interested. His chief 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 277 

mechanical achievement was in association with Captain 
John Ericson the construction of the Novelty, one of the 
earliest steam locomotives, and in the invention, or at least 
manufacture, in 1830, of the first practical steam fire-engine. 
When the demand for railways became general he devoted 
himself to the construction of the Eastern Counties (now the 
Great Eastern) Railway, opened in June, 1839. During the 
latter twenty years of his life his practice was chiefly that of a 
consulting engineer, especially in regard to mechanical questions 
and patents, his office being 18, Great George Street, West- 
minster. His private residence, after he left Westbourne Green 
about 1840, was at 39, Bedford Square, and in 1860 he moved 
to 6, Clifton Gardens, Maida Hill, where he died on the 25th 
of September, 1870. 

WILLIAM CHARLES CARBCNELL, the next occupant of "The 
Manor House," represented the firm of wine merchants long 
established in Regent Street, and now represented by his son, 
Mr. John Carbonell, who first saw light at Westbourne Green. 
He preserves a sketch of the old house, the accompanying copy 
of which he has kindly allowed us to reproduce. 

SIR JOHN HUMPHREYS. Mr. Carbonell having vacated the 
house in 1854, its next and last tenant was Mr. Humphreys, the 
coroner for East Middlesex. He was of the legal profession 
and a parliamentary agent, also eventually J.P. and D.L. for 
the Tower Hamlets, and in 1881 received the honour of 
Knighthood. He lived in the house about eleven years, and 
left it in 1865 or 1866, just before the destruction, not waiting 
to hold a post mortem on its remains ! Afterwards his house in 
London was 13, Stratford Place, and in the country, Riverden, 
Wargrave, Berks. He died 2Oth November, 1886. 

The 1866 map of the Post Office London Directory shows 
" The Manor House," still standing in its handsomely laid out 
grounds, but on the map of 1867 it is seen no longer, advancing 
London has overwhelmed it, and Sutherland Avenue traverses 
the site. 

BRIDGE HOUSE. 

JOHN WHITE, architect, and Surveyor of the Duke of 
Portland's Marylebone Estate, seems to have used this house, 
which stood between " The Manor House " and the Canal, as a 



278 WESTBOURNE GREEN. 

country lodge, having his principal house and office on the 
estate he managed, at 2, Devonshire Place. He had land here 
at Westbourne Green which comprised Westbourne Farm, and 
after his death in 1850, his son, John Alfred White, also an 
architect, and District Surveyor of Marylebone, occupied 
Bridge House until it was demolished. 

OTHER HOUSES. 

Other houses existing as far back as 1834 were ten detached 
blocks west of the Lock Hospital (which was not built until 
1842), and on the south side of the Harrow Road. They 
carried the name " Orme's Green," and perhaps had the same 
founder as Orme Square, Bayswater, viz., Mr. Orme, a print 
seller of Bond Street. The block nearest the Hospital is " The 
Windsor Castle," and that at the other extremity was called 
" Mountfield House" (now a Roman Catholic Home for Boys), 
where in 1843 and after years, lived Henry Robert Abraham, 
solicitor. Another early settler was Charles Woodroffe, whose 
extensive nursery-garden existed until overwhelmed by the 
building of new streets in 1880. At the southern end of the 
district is a pleasant house isolated in nicely tended grounds, 
and built probably a little later than Pickering Place, immedi- 
ately north of which it stands. On the Ordnance Survey of 
1865 it is called " Westbourne Green," and, as a last vestige of 
the Green, it might be wished that it had preserved the name. 
But it has become "The Lodge, Porchester Square," its 
occupant being Sir Henry Charles Burdett, K.C.B., whose name 
is honourably connected with London hospitals. 

As said at the beginning of this article, the name West- 
bourne Green is now practically obsolete, and this is to be 
regretted for reasons practical as well as sentimental. Even 
business people are not without regard for an old name, which, 
moreover, may have a commercial value, and in this case there 
is a practical loss, for the district has been left nameless. It 
would have been well had even the ancient name Westbourne 
been preserved, but now were a Londoner to say at Westminster 
that he was going to Westbourne, his destination would not be 
understood. The fact seems to be that the name has been so 
much applied to component parts, to terrace, square, crescent, 
grove, park, gardens, road, villas, and mews, as to be thought 



WESTBOURNE GREEN. 279 

too much " used up " to define the whole. The southern part 
of ancient Westbourne is now known as Bayswater, a pretty 
and convenient name, although originally it designated only "a 
shallow' bay-water where cattle might drink at the way-side." 
(Canon Isaac Taylor. Words and Places.) North of Westbourne 
Grove the district is now without a general name. If it be 
desirable to perpetuate an old name, as is often done notwith- 
standing altered circumstances, it should be Westbourne Green 
(and we are glad to see it thus written on the Ordnance -Map), 
or if that be thought too primitive and rustic by the refined 
Londoner, Westbourne Park would serve as a compromise. 
But better still perhaps that it should be known simply by its 
original designation, Westbourne. 

The Retrospect may now fitly close with a record of the 
sites once occupied by the houses which have interested us : 

i. WESTBOURNE PLACE (or HOUSE, or PARK) stood 28 
yards west of Westbourne-Park Chapel, and covered the ground 
now occupied by the houses or gardens of Westbourne-Park- 
Villas, Nos. 6-18. 

2. WESTBOURNE FARM (or DESBOROUGH COTTAGE) stood 
84 yards south of the Canal, on the ground now covered by 
"The Spotted Dog," and Nos. 12-18, Cirencester Street, the 
school in the rear, and Nos. 15-21, Woodchester Street. 

3. DESBOROUGH LODGE was where is now the south end 
of the blind-alley called Desborough Street. Oliver Mews, 
close by, was probably named, not after the Protector, but after 
James Oliver, the last tenant. 

4. " THE MANOR HOUSE " occupied the ground of Nos. 
69-71, Amberley Road, and Nos. 13-21, Sutherland Avenue. 
The stables stood across Sutherland Avenue, 70 yards east of 
the Harrow Road frontage. 

5. BRIDGE HOUSE stood on the site of the existing Electric 
Supply Company's premises, between Amberley Road and the 
Canal. 

Addenda et Corrigenda. 

ISAAC WARE, p. 122. The house No. 5, Bloomsbury 
Square (at S.W. corner, the hall-door being in Hart Street), 
has, internally, handsome features. It is proposed to make 
special reference to the house in a future number of this 



23o SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 

Magazine. In regard to the block in Hart Street, for " Nos. 
II 13 " read " Nos. 12 and 13." 

SAMUEL PEPYS COCKERELL was elected a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries in 1805. He lived twenty-seven years 
at Westbourne Place, and died there I2th July, 1827. To this 
effect the sentence commencing " Before coming," p. 123, 
requires transposition. 

ROWLAND, VISCOUNT HILL. It is found in Boyle's Court 
Guide that Lord Hill came to reside at Westbourne House in 
the spring of 1829, that he left it in 1837, and that afterwards, 
until his death, his London residence was 24, Belgrave Square. 






SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS IN MIDDLESEX 
AT THE TIME OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 

COMMUNICATED BY THE LORD BISHOP OF BRISTOL. 
(Continued from p. 7/7.) 

HILLINGDON. 

We present that we have one vicarage to which a cure 
of souls is annexed, and one rectory without cure of souls, now 
leased out by John Clarke, Esq., the impropriat [or] , for three 
hundred pounds per annum, who holds the same by lease for 
certain lives from the late Bishop of Worcester at a reserved rent 
of thirty-three pounds six shillings and eight pence per annum, 
and that one Mr. Philip Taverner, a godly preaching minister, 
is our present incumbent presented by the Lords Commissioners 
of the Great Seal of .... the 16 May last past. And we 
conceive our said vicarage and profits which consisteth of one 
house, gardens, back sides, two acres of ground, privy tithes, 
and two foggs of ... and thirteen shillings and four pence in 
money yearly issuing out of the said rectory, altogether to be 
worth about thirty-five pounds per annum, which the said Mr. 
Taverner has for his salary. Also the said Bishop's reserved 
rent of thirty-three pounds six shillings and eight pence allowed 
him as an augmentation by order of the Honourable Committee 
for plundered ministers. And we present that in the populous 
market town of Woxbridge, about a mile distant from our 
town, there is a fair chapel vacant for want of maintenance 



SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 281 

belonging to our church of Hillingdon, and that the precincts 
of Woxbridge are certainly known, and are and have been long 
distinct from . ... in the election of parochial officers 
amongst themselves, and in partaking of service and sacrament 
in the said chapel, and do make distinct assessments, and have 
several rights, benefits, and privileges, proper to themselves and 
apart from Hillingdon, and are numerous, and their said chapel 
very fitt to be made a parish church, and that Hillingdon is not 
of so large an extent, but that the parishioners may conveniently 
repair to our said church to partake of the public worship and 
service of God, and no part thereof is so fit to be joined to any 
other church or chapel. 

HARFIELD. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage impropriate 
to the Lord Shandois [Chandos] in fee (who, as we are informed, 
has the right of patronage). And we conceive the same to be 
worth about one hundred and forty pounds per annum in small 
and great tithes, and find that by order of the committee at 
Goldsmith's Hall, upon the said Lord Shandois, his com- 
position, he is to allow towards the maintenance of an able 
minister amongst us, the yearly sum of one hundred pounds, 
which is of late settled upon one Mr. Hoare, our present 
incumbent and constant preaching minister. 

RUISLIPP. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage which is an 
impropriation held of the Dean and Prebends of Windsor, 
which is worth about three hundred pounds per annum, 
now in the possession of John Hawtrey, Esq., by lease, but 
when his lease began or when it ends, we know not. Also we 
present that we have one vicarage presentation possessed by 
Robert Cresswell, our present and constant preaching minister, 
who has for his salary the vicarage house with a barn, stable, 
orchard, garden, and twenty-nine acres of glebe land, worth 
thirty-seven pounds, and privy tithes worth twenty-three 
pounds per annum, the profits in toto being three-score pounds 
per annum; also 2i/. formerly paid to the said Dean and 
Chapter allowed as an augmentation. And that we have one 
church sufficient to receive all our parishioners without the 
help of any chapel. 



282 SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 

ICKENHAM. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage in the 
presentation of Richard Shoreditch, Esq., which, with the 
tithes thereto belonging, twenty-five acres of glebe land, in 
several fifteen lands in the common fields, and two leets of 
meadow we value at one-hundred- and-thirty-eight pounds per 
annum, and that one Mr. Nathaniel Nicholls is our present and 
constant preaching minister put in by the Honourable Committee 
for plundered ministers (shortly after the sequestration of Dr. 
Clare), who has all the aforesaid profits for his salary ; .and we 
humbly conceive our said parish too little to be divided, am 
too big and too far distant to be joined to any other. 

CRANFORD. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage house with 
fifteen acres of glebe land and the whole tithes thereunto 
belonging worth fourscore pounds, which is in the presentation 
of George Berkley, Esq., who presented one Mr. Ashford, an 
aged, sickly man, that has taken to his assistance one Mr. 

William Bridgewater painfully performs the 

cure, and that our church is situated about the middle of our 
parish, and the furthest inhabitant not much above a mile 
distant from it. 

WEST DRAYTON. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage in the 
possession of the Lady Dowager Pagett for term of her natural 
life, and after her decease is the inheritance of William Lord 
Pagett and his heirs, and has been held in fee farm by their 
predecessors ever since the reign of Henry eighth. And also 
that we have one vicarage worth thirty pounds per annum in 
the possession of one, Mr. Jacob, our present incumbent and 
constant preacher, put in by the said Lady Pagett, who has for 
his salary the said thirty pounds per annum. 

HARMONDSWORTH. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage worth two- 
hundred-and-twenty pounds per annum, which belongs to the 
Lady Pagett during her life, and after her decease to the Lord 
Pagett, who then has the same by right of inheritance ; and also 
that we have one vicarage house and orchard and twenty acres 
of glebe land, which with the privy tithes are worth forty pounds 



SURVEY OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 283 

per annum, and that one, Mr. Emmanuel Hodge, is our present 
incumbent presented thereunto by the Lord Pagett, deceased, 
and has for his salary the said sum of forty pounds per annum. 

[HANWORTH.] 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage house with 
out-houses, tithes, and thirty acres of glebe land worth sixty 
pounds per annum in the presentation of the Lord of the Manor 
of Hanworth aforesaid, and one Symon Rumney is our present 
incumbent, instituted and inducted thereto by authority of 
parliament about May, 1648, and has for his salary the said 
parsonage house and whole profits thereto belonging, but doth 
neglect his preaching diverse Lord's days and days of 
humiliation and thanksgiving, especially on Tuesday, the 8th of 
this instant October, and the Lord's day before ; and we 
humbly conceive our parish to be of that fit distance from 

as that it need not be divided, neither is it fit 

to be united. 

[HARLINGTON] . 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage house with 
barns, out-houses, orchards, and the tithes thereto belonging, 
worth about one-hundred-and-forty pounds per annum, and 36 
acres of glebe land worth twenty .... pounds per 
annum, which Sir John Bennett, Knight, holds by lease from 

one Mr sometime minister of Harlington, but 

when the said lease began or expires we know not; and one 
Mr. Pritchett is our present minister, put in by the said Sir 
John Bennett, who allows him forty-two pounds in money, 
besides the small tithes and his dwelling in the parsonage, 
which together are worth fifty-two pounds per annum. 

GREENFORD. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage presentative, 
which with the barns, stables, outhouses and fifty acres of glebe 
land is worth forty pounds per annum, and also parochial tithes 
thereto belonging worth one-hundred-and-twenty pounds per 
annum, and that one, Mr. Edward Terry, our present incum- 
bent, has the right of patronage and receives the whole profits 
for his salary ; and as we humbly conceive our parish church is 
very convenient of itself as now it is for the parishioners to 
repair unto for the worship and service of God. 



284 SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

PERIVALE. 

Item. We present that we have one parsonage in the 
presentation of Thomas Lane, Esq., who presented one Mr. 
Edward Read, our present incumbent thereto, who has for his 
salary the whole profits of the said parsonage which amount 
to about fifty-five pounds per annum. 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

BY " PETER DE SANDWICH." 
VI. ST. CLEMENT'S, SANDWICH. 

[Undated, probably 1557]. Thomas Pynnocke for that he hath 
not accounted for the goods of the Church, this two years. 

Walter Shuttenden for that he hath not accounted for the church 
goods this two years. 

Mr. Tyler for that he hath not accounted for the arrearage of the 
church goods for two years. 

Thomas Cotton and Richard Orpen, churchwardens there, have 
not accounted for two years. 

1569. That the Communion is ministered in fine white common 
bread. That the Chancel is somewhat uncovered, and the windows 
ungiazed. 

1577. That our churchyard is not well fenced and enclosed. 

1579. That we want a surplice. 

1590. The Church now by the last tempest wanteth reparations. 

1594. Mr. George Joye, their minister, for omitting the wearing 
of the surplice in the time of divine service and administration of 
the sacrament. 

Also Mr. Joye for removing a tombstone out of the middle chancel ; 
removing it to Elmested without knowledge and consent. 

[The Rev. George Joye, M.A., was rector of St. Peter's, Sandwich, 
1570-77; vicar of St. Clement's, 1574-1600; and also rector of Elmsted, 
1580-1600, where three of his children were baptised. He was a son of 
George Joy (a native of Bedfordshire) the protestant controversalist who 
died in 1553. St. John's College, Cambridge, in June, 1573, presented him 
to Higham Vicarage in Kent, which he resigned two years later. By his 
will he desired to be buried in the chancel of St. Clement's, Sandwich. 
His widow, Mary Joye, married 24th October, 1603, at Elmstone Church, 
the Rev. John Stebbing, vicar of Ash-next-Sandwich, 1593-1615.] 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 285 

1602. Alexander Woodcock, of our parish, for that he living in 
our parish, and he having a child born in our parish, he caused the 
same to be christened in the parish of St. Mary, contrary to law. 

1603. John Gates and George Parker for playing at " cailes "* in 
a victualling house in the time of divine service, in the morning of 
the seventh day of August, being the Sabbath Day. 

Thomas Godfrey for travelling into the Island [of Thanet] to sell 
fruit, on the fourteenth day of August, being the Sabbath day. 

Also William Barber for carrying and selling fruit. 

William Oveland for selling victuals and entertaining company 
in his house, in the time of divine service on the fourteenth day of 
August, being the Sabbath day. 

1604. Thomas Morrice withholds 5/. of money, and sixteen 
ewes, being part of the Stock belonging to the church and poor of 
the parish. 

1605. George Wood for that he hath taken away a certain tomb- 
stone out of the churchyard which did lie over his father, and it was 
taken away five years ago, and although he hath promised to lay a 
better in place for it, yet hath laid none. 

1607. We present Mr. Simons [vicar, 1 600-16] for not repairing 
the chancel and parsonage house. 

Isaak Goger for not keeping his fence repaired, next to the church- 
yard. 

George Richard our clerk for teaching children, not being licenced. 

1608. The Vicar doth not repair his chancel and vicarage-house. 
[Peter Simon, M.A., was vicar, 1600- 16. In 1615 it was stated that 

the parsonage and vicarage had no glebe land, more than a little garden, 
together with the backside and stable adjoining thereto, belonging to the 
vicarage house, which paid three shillings a year to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital in Sandwich]. 

1608. The late churchwardens, John Amye and William Griffin, 
for that they suffered the churchyard of St. Clement's to be digged 
by hogs, annoyed by dunghills, and in some places unfenced, and 
also suffered clothes to be washed in it and spread in it, to the great 
annoyance of the churchyard. 

The said churchwardens have suffered one John Burfoot, an 
excommunicated person to be buried in the said churchyard. They 
have not repaired the windows of the Church with glass, so that it is 
annoyed with birds. They have suffered the north aisle in our church 
to be stopped up and straightened, by building of a seat or pew, to 

* Cailes is the Kentish name for skittles and ninepins 

L 1 



286 SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

farm out the same, which both Mr. Archdeacon and Mr. Commissary 
being with our views, gave commandment that it should be removed 
and amended, which as yet is not. 

Adam Hayward, miller of St. Clement's in Sandwich, did permit 
his mill to go, and did by himself or his servant, grind corn in his 
mill, being within the parishes of St. Clement and St. Peter on the 
eleventh day of September, being the Sabbath day, in the time of 
divine service and sermon to the affront of well disposed persons. 

Isaak Goger and Nicholas Joanes for not keeping their fence 
sufficiently repaired next to the churchyard, whereby the churchyard 
is annoyed very much. 

Jane Moore, wife of John Moore, householder of St. Clement's 
parish, for disturbing the minister in the administration of the Holy 
Sacrament of Baptism, by violent taking away of the child, 
immediately upon the sprinkling, before the admission, and 
obstinately refused to bring it again. 

Also Jane Moore refuses to kneel at prayer, and stand at the 
saying of the Creed according to the accustomed order and uniform 
practice of our congregation, whereof being gently admonished she 
with others of her faction, most impudently stand at prayer and 
kneel at profession [the Creed] , giving out, as the report is, both this 
and the other disorder will be safely answered. These abuses were 
committed on the twenty-seventh day of November, 1608. 

1615. Two houses encroach on the churchyard by making a door; 
the house of Widow Iden, and the house of Nicholas Jones do 
annoy the churchyard by passages and dung hills. 

1617. Isaac Goger for refusing payment for six acres, being a 
piece of land called Larrupps, and four acres being late Mr. Symons, 
paying eleven pence per acre at a cess made the eight day oi 
November, 1616. 

John Broker, alias Carley, for ten acres of land. 

Richard Style, for twenty-nine acres of a piece of land, call* 
Archer's Lowe. 

We present William Richardson, gent., of the parish of St. Peter'j 
in Sandwich, for a certain cess made by the consent of th< 
parishioners of St. Clement in the town aforesaid, the twenty-thin 
day of February, 1617, for three score and one acres of land whicl 
he occupieth in our parish of St. Clement, being therein cessed 
four-pence the acre towards the reparation of our church, the making 
a new pulpit there, and also for other necessary and ordinj 
ornaments to the said church belonging. 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 287 

1618. Thomas Fyle for denying to pay the duties belonging to 
our clerk, whose wages due from him are two shillings and 
eightpence. 

Nicholas Castaker for two shillings being for certain land at 
fourpence the acre, cessed towards the reparation of the church 
aforesaid. 

Mr. Edward Chilton, jurat, doth refuse to pay part of his cess, 
being cessed at twenty-six shillings, and he will pay twenty shillings, 
so that the sum due is six shillings. 

1619. John Pett, George Cornish, and Joseph Hatch, of the 
parish of St. Clement in Sandwich, kiddle-men,* did take and catch 
fish on the Sabbath days, and did take and carry the same from the 
sea side to their own houses, and often in the time of church service. 
And that they have also this manner of taking and carrying of fish 
on the Sabbath day these four years at the least, to the offence of 
well disposed people. 

William Smithley hath not paid his share of the clerk's wages 
for one half-year due at Michaelmas last, eightpence. And when 
fourpence for one quarter was demanded of him by the parish-clerk, 
he denied payment and reviled the parish-clerk, calling him knave 
and paltry begging fellow. 

1621. That our churches of St. Clement's and St. Mary should for 
four months in every two years, each of them observe Wednesdays 
and Fridays prayers, and St. Peter's should observe them eight 
month in every year. Now for the other two churches we have not 
to answer ; but for our own minister doth not observe them, and as 
for the Commination he hath never read it since he was our vicar. 

[The rubric then was "a Commination against sinners, with certain 
prayers, to be used divers times in the year." The service was " After 
Morning Prayer ended, the people being called together by the ringing of 
a bell, and assembled in the Church, the English litany shall be said after 
the accustomed manner ; which ended, the Priest shall go into the pulpit 
and say thus ":] 

Our minister hath two benefices, and hath a sufficient curate 
at his other benefice, but hath none at our parish church, he being 
absent himself. 

We present Mr. Francis Fotherby, our minister or vicar, for 
particularly and purposely impeaching a point of doctrine preached 
by Mr. Richard Marston, our late lecturer, in our church concerning 

* In the Dictionary of Sussex Dialect. KEDDLE-NETS is the word 
used for stake nets. The Anglo-Saxon CITELIAN meaning to tickle, to 
entice, to coax. 



288 SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

drunkenness, wherein Mr. Fotherby, by comparison of a quart and 
pint pot, made such an apology for drunkenness, saying a man could 
not be said to be drunk, so long as he could get out of a waggon 
way, or hold up his finger ; whereupon divers young folks that heard 
him said they might now drink by authority, so long as they could 
bear it away. 

[In the year 1611 the Corporation of Sandwich allowed 3 o/. to a Mr. 
Richard Marston, preacher of God's word, to be entertained to preach a 
weekly lecture in the town. He died in 1620 and was buried at St. 
Clement's]. 

He doth sometimes wear his surplice at the administration of 
the Holy Communion ; as for his hood, we know not of any he hath. 

He did refuse to visit the wife of Adam Trickhearne, being 
thereunto earnestly required. 

Our minister hath not to our knowledge denied to baptise ; 
but he refused to bury the child of John La Motte, referring it to 
his clerk to do it, which the clerk also peremptorily refused to do, 
until he might first be paid for the burial, and so the child was left 
unburied for that night. 

We have the Book of Canons, whereof our minister readeth 
thereof this last year, but when in reading he met with any canon 
that concerned his duty, he skippeth over it, and readeth it not at all. 

He doth sometimes resort to such houses, where (as we hear 
by common report) he doth sometimes behave himself, not so well 
for example as he ought to do, but distinguished himself by 
immoderate drinking to the grief and affront of the beholders. 

Our minister is seldom resident with us, neither keepeth he 
any hospitality to our knowledge, whereupon we have cessed him at 
forty shillings a year to the poor, whereof he will pay the thirty-two 
shillings, but refuseth to pay the forty shillings. 

[Francis Fotherby, vicar of St. Clement's, 1618-42, was ejected by the 
Puritans; he was also vicar of Linstead near Sittingbourne, 1618-49, 
where he was sequestered ; being presented to both livings by the Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury. Charles Fotherby was both Archdeacon (1596- 
1619) and Dean of Canterbury (1615-19) and in addition held the rectories 
of Aldington and Bishopsbourne in Kent until his death 29 March, 1619. 
Francis Fotherby was evidently of the same family, although his name does 
not appear in the Fotherby pedigree. On the 28 June, 1628 a marriage 
licence was granted to Francis Fotherby, clerk, vicar of Linstead, 
bachelor, about thirty-four ; and Anne (or Agnes) Hatch, of Bapchild, 
widow of John Hatch ; to marry at Bapchild.] 

1621. We have a Register Book, but whether it be parchment or 
paper, we know not, for as it hath been used before our time so it 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 289 

continueth, that is that John Shearman, our parish clerk, keepeth it at 
his own house, nor tending or shewing it to us the wardens and 
sidesmen, to take note of anything therein, but writeth and certifieth 
himself at his own pleasure, and then he telleth us we must put our 
hands thereto, but whether it be right or wrong, we must rely upon 
his credit for it. 

We have a Book of Martyrs belonging to our church, but our 
clerk hath lent it out we know not where, so that our parishioners 
can have no benefit thereof. 

We have a strong and sufficient box or chest for the alms of 
the poor, conveniently placed and kept locked under two locks and 
keys, the one in the keeping of the clerk for the minister as he saith, 
and the other in the keeping of one of the wardens. For the clerk 
will keep what he can, and order, dispose, and rule, at his own 
pleasure, without the acquaintance or knowledge either of the 
wardens, or sidesmen, or parishioners; which we hereto complain, 
present, and desire reformation. 

We earnestly and humbly desire that John Shearman, our 
parish clerk, may be charged and taught to meddle less with sworn 
men's office, and the church goods, and to let them remain and 
execute their charge and duty according to their own care, and not 
to be taught by him, as they refuse to do ; and he shall not hereafter 
open and frame his mouth of foul language in their face, as he hath 
formerly and lately done. 

That John Brook professeth to serve the cure of St. Clement's in 
Sandwich, having no licence from the Ordinary, nor having 
subscribed according to the Canons, nor bringing any testimonial 
from the Ordinary of the diocese from whence he came. That he 
hath served within the diocese of London at Hendon, under Doctor 
Paske. That he refuseth not to subscribe, but desireth to be spared 
from subscription, until he came before the Lord of Canterbury, his 
Grace, when he will subscribe as he saith. 

[Thomas Paske was Vicar of Hendon, 1611-26, and Rector of Much 
Hadham in Herts ; and afterwards Archdeacon of London, 1626-62.] 

1622. That John Brook, curate, hath served the cure in St. 
Clement's, Sandwich, three quarters of a year and more, now 
surpliced. 

He suffers men to receive the Communion without kneeling, 
and never advised them to kneel, neither publicly or privately. 

He baptized the child of one Mr. Wilson of another parish, 
without making the sign of the cross, of which Mr. Wilson's 



2go SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 

minister understanding before-hand, willed him to desist, but he 
would not. 

He caused John Dirand and Richard Saunder, convicted of 
perjury in the earlier court, to do their penance with their hats on 
their heads. 

He administered the Communion at St. Bartholomew's hospital, 
[just outside the town of Sandwich], last Sunday, whither many of 
other parishes resorted, who would not kneel to receive the Com- 
munion, and accordingly received it. 

He baptized five children at once, and signed none of them 
with the sign of the cross. 

He always curtailed the Common Prayer, and is sometimes 
hours in his sermon. 

In the time of receiving the Communion he chargeth the 
churchwardens to gather money from the communicants, and 
causeth them to lay it down at the communion table, before service 
be ended, to the great offence of them which are there present. 

1623. There is a breach in the [churchyard] wall, through which 
the tenants of Richard File come into the churchyard, and much 
annoy it, making it an ordinary back-side ; also a door which the 
said Richard File hath made into the churchyard, wherein he putteth 
straw usually. 

We present Adam Hayward or Hooward, son-in-law or servant 
to John Polhill, miller, for grinding upon the sabbath day in time of 
divine service ; and going to him to request him to leave off, he told 
me he would grind in spite of the minister, or he that said nay, and 
told me that I had nothing to do with it. 

1624. Specifing the presentment -made at the last Visitation 
concerning the annoyance of our churchyard, I further declare that 
Richard File hath of late broken down a hole or passage into the 
churchyard of St. Clement, whereby divers of his under-tenants 
whose names cannot be safely known, do pass and repass into the 
churchyard and much annoy and defame, as well by the sullage of 
their houses, as by the most noisome excrements of their bodies, 
and otherwise. Richard File upon his appearance, upon interro- 
gation must declare their names that are the offenders therein ; and 
the said Richard File, I present as the main agent and instrumental 
cause in the premises. 

When Richard File appeared in the Archdeacon's Court, he 
alleged that now the hole or passage is stopped, and a door instead 
thereof placed and kept shut ; and that he hath no under-tenant at 



SOME EAST KENT PARISH HISTORY. 291 

all now dwelling in the place, nor any annoyance now made by him 
the resident, and of his under-tenant, nor shall hereafter be made. 

1625. The vicarage -house is somewhat in decay. 

1626. In the year 1624, at a vestry, we the churchwardens of the 
parish of St. Clement in Sandwich, with the assistance of many of 
the parishioners, did make a cess for the repair of our church, and 
at that time did cess and tax one Thomas File for a certain house 
which he had in his occupation, which Thomas File, before the cess 
was paid, died, after him his brother Richard File as heir, entered on 
all his brother's lands, which Richard we have often entreated to pay 
the cess, but will not. Whereupon we desire that you would take 
cause by order of law against him, that payment may be made. 

1627. John Jones, of Sandwich, executor of the last will and 
testament of Richard Jones, late of Deal, deceased, for refusing to 
pay a legacy of twenty shillings, given by the said Richard Jones, 
to the parishioners of the parish of S. Clement, in Sandwich, although 
hath often been demanded it. 

1629. Mr. Francis Fotherby, our vicar, for that he hath let 
the vicarage-house and the stables go to ruin. 

1632. Christopher Stare and William Smithley, of the parish of 
St. Clement, for that they will not pay their cesses made towards the 
repairs of our parish church. William Smithley, three shillings and 
sixpence ; Christopher Stare, two shillings. 

Also William Smithley for not receiving the communion in our 
parish church, or elsewhere that we know of, by the space of two 
years last past, and when the minister exhorted him to come, he 
answered that the Word of God taught him not to come, because he 
was not in charity. The minister replied that the Word of God 
taught him to be in charity and to come, and not to neglect the 
ordinance of God, as it was a fearful sin to live so long in malice, 
and that he could not say the Lord's Prayer with any comfort 
to himself, except he were in charity. 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 

BY W. PALEY BAILDON, F.S.A. 

(Concluded from p. 176). 

To our modern ideas, one of the most objectionable 
customs of our forefathers was that of disfiguring important 
buildings by erecting small shops or sheds in front of them. 
In England these have mostly disappeared, but some can still 
be seen nestling round continental cathedrals. Those familiar 
with old prints will readily re-call instances in this country. 
I may mention two London examples, the south side of the 
Temple Church, and the north front of Westminster Hall. 

Lincoln's Inn Gate was not exempt from these parasitic 
growths. Sheds or shops, at first of wood but afterwards of 
brick, were built against the east front, in the exterior angles of 
the towers. These were occupied from time to time by dealers 
in various wares, and at different dates, a " skinner " (probably 
a dealer in parchment), a clock maker, a girdler, a stationer, a 
" semester," and one who sold "ribons of the best sorte," have 
all plied their trades under the shadow of the Gate-house. 
There was also a shop within the arch-way itself, generally 
occupied by a stationer. This was on the north side of the 
main passage, and was converted into a footway and a side 
entrance in 1834. 

Some of the notes concerning these various shops are of 
sufficient interest to print here in detail. 

In May, 1601, a committee was appointed to " consider of 
the place without the Gate, whether it be fitt that a shop 
shall be sett up there for Hull, the skinner " (ii, 68). And on 
October 22nd following, " it is thought not fitt that Hull, the 
skinner, shall have a place at the Gate" (ii, 69). "Skinner" 
here probably means a dealer in parchment ; a sheet of parch- 
ment is still always called a " skin " by lawyers. 

Five years later the shop question came up again. On 
November 28th, 1606, Mr. Hugh Hughes and two other 
Benchers were directed to " take the view of the corner of the 
place nere the Gate-house, on the streete syde of Lyncolne's 



i. g 

^ 2. 

"*! 3 

OB" 




THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 293 

Inne, to see yf a shoppe may be convenyentlye builded there " 
(ii, 102). Their report does not appear, but apparently a shop 
was built on one side of the Gate, probably in the angle of the 
tower. For on February I4th, 1609, it is recorded that 

" Henry Colte's peticion is graunted that he shall have leave to 
builde a shoppe in such manner as Mr. [Thomas] Spencer and Mr. 
[Hugh] Hughes shall limitt, soe they stoppe no lightes, agreable to 
the shoppe one the other side of the Gate-howse" (ii, 119). 

1614, July nth. " Whereas John Cermoys, clockmaker, by his 
petition humblie desired the Mrs. of the Bench to allowe him the 
little shedd, shopp, or standinge, built by the wall on the south side 
of the Great Gate of this Howse in Chauncery Lane, paying there- 
fore as the Mrs. of the Bench shall thinke reasonable." It was 
referred to a Committee of two, who " reported their opinions at this 
Counsell that they conceived it would be very fitt and necessarye for 
the Howse to give allowaunce of the peticioner's request." Ordered 
that the shed, shop, or standing-place shall be let to the said 
Cermoys at a yearly rent of 5$. "as tenant at sufferance onlie, 
duringe the pleasure of the Mrs. of the Bench" (ii, 164). 

1616, June igth. " Uppon the petition of Samuell Smallman, 
servant to the Steward of this House, for a shoppe on the north syde 
of the Great Gate of this House in Chauncery Lane; It is ordered 
that he shall have the said shoppe, payinge five shillinges yearelye 
to the House. Provided that yt be used for a girdler's shoppe onlye, 
and that the streete and places thereaboutes be cleanelye keept, 
w th out annoyance" (ii, 185). 

1617, Oct. 1 4th. "Frauncys Parke, stacioner, is admytted to 
have a standynge in the fore gate next Chauncery Lane, as Colt had 
formerlye the same, but not to breake anye walle " (ii, 196). On 
Nov. 6th, leave was given for him to make a " convenyent shopp " 
there ; and on Nov. I3th the rent was fixed at 405., and permission 
given to begin at once, under the directions of the Chief Butler,* 
"soe as there be noe disgrace to the said Gate thereby, neyther anye 
inconvenyence to the passage there " (ii, 198). 

1618, June 24th. Margaret Claxton is to have the shed adjoining 
the Great Gate, " soe as she use therein the trade of a semester, or 
els place such a convenient and fitt man therein as the Chief Butler 
shall thinke fitt " (ii, 206). This shed had been lately built by 
Richard Hussey, Margaret's late husband, (ii, 205). 

* At this time the Chief Butler performed most of the functions now 
exercised by the Steward, while the Steward was concerned solely with the 
catering. 



294 THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 

1618, Oct. 2oth. Hearzie Wayt may occupy the shed on the 
north side of the Great Gate until the end of Hilary Term, when 
the petition of Thomas Rymer and Anne his wife, as to the same 
shed, shall be considered. " Samuell Smallman, for takeinge pewter 
from the Reader, and other misdemeanors is expelled for havinge 
anyething to doe with the shop or aboute the House" (ii, 207). 

The petition of the Rymers was apparently successful, for in 
1624 it was ordered that Thomas Rymer might " build up his shed 
or shop, soe it be done with brick sutable to the rest of the building 
of the Howse." The former rent was to be continued (ii, 252). 

In 1660, Mistress Winsper was admitted tenant of the stationer's 
shop under the Gate, upon the like terms as her late husband had 
it. (iii, 3). 

The Great Fire of London broke out on September 2nd, 
1666, and lasted until the 5th. Fanned by a strong east wind, 
it spread steadily west-ward. It crossed Fetter Lane, consumed 
part of Clifford's Inn, and, it is believed, a considerable portion 
of the Rolls Estate.* 

The Benchers of Lincoln's Inn took energetic steps to 
preserve their property, the wooden sheds or shops adjoining 
the Gate were pulled down, and, by an arrangement with the 
owners, the S. John's Head Tavern, otherwise known as the 
Baptist's Head, shared the same fate, thus completely isolating 
the Inn on the south side, t These sensible precautions were 
rendered unnecessary by the wind veering to the west, as is 
well-known, but the sound and practical wisdom of the action 
thus taken by the Benchers commands our admiration just the 
same. If similar drastic measures had been taken at an earlier 
stage, the damage done by the fire would probably have been 
much less. 

On February 7th, 1667, it was ordered " that the shopps without 
the Gate be built of brick" (iii, 53). 

On January 26th, 1671, a petition was* presented to the Bench by 

* When the Rolls Chapel was pulled down a few years ago, it was 
found that the then east wall contained a walled-up chancel arch, and that 
the previous chancel had entirely disappeared. Many of the stones in this 
portion of the building showed traces of having been subjected to great 
heat. The remains of the chancel arch have been preserved, and are now 
built up against part of the new building's of the Record Office, vide an 
illustrated article in Midd. and Herts Notes and Queries, vol. ii. pp. 49-68. 

t The site of this tavern is now occupied by Messrs. Moss and 
Jameson's premises. 




Gateway of Lincoln's Inn. 

Drawn by Hanslip Fletcher. 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 295 

" Heph-Zibah Smith, widdow and relict of Nicholas Smith, late one 
of the Buttlers, shewing that her husband, Nicholas Smith, held as 
Buttler a shop under the said Inne in Chancery Lane, which was 
pulled downe by order of the said Society in the tyme of the late 
dreadfull fire in London ; and that her said husband rebuilt the 
same some tyme after, att his owne charge, but dyed before he 
reimbursed himselfe the charge by reception of the rents ; and the 
peticioner desired some satisfaccion." The matter was referred to 
a committee, but the result does not appear (iii, 72). 

On May nth, 1730, " upon the petition of Mr. Nath : Moody, 
stationer, setting forth that he was admitted into a shop under 
Chancery Lane Gate about 5 years agoe, which said shop was very 
much out of repair, and cost the said Mr. Moody near 2o/. It is 
ordered that Mr. John Willoughby, who was lately admitted into 
the said shop, do pay the said Mr. Moody the sum of 5/., and in 
default thereof that he be discharged from the said shop " (iii, 294). 

On May gth, 1740, it was ordered " that the shop under Chancery 
Lane Gate be forthwith removed" (iii, 321); but apparently the 
order was not carried out. 

On February I2th, 1753, Luke Robinson, Esq., Barrister, who 
had lately purchased one whole ground chamber at No. 25, Gate 
House Court, Chancery Lane Row, complained " that there is 
erected a shop or shed in Chancery Lane, joining to the said 
chambers, and part thereof under the window of the said 
chamber and other part thereof, close to the said window, 
which is a great nusance and darkens the windows, and is 
otherwise greatly inconvenient," and prayed that it might be 
removed. It was ordered on February 27th following that it should 
be removed at the expense of the Society, on payment by Mr. 
Robinson of lol. los. to the Second Butler, in consideration of his 
interest therein (iii, 353,354)- 

Probably all frequenters of Chancery Lane have noticed 
that an apple woman is allowed to pitch her stall on the north 
side of the arch in Chancery Lane, but probably few passers-by 
are aware that her predecessor followed the same humble 
calling in the same place more than three centuries and a half 
ago. Such, however, seems to be the fact ; for though the 
" wyff " in the first of the following extracts is not expressly 
referred to as a fruit-seller, yet the subsequent notes leave little 
doubt that the stall at the Gate has always been a fruit stall. 



2 9 6 THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 

1531, May i8th. "The wyff next the Gate shall avoyde 
bytwene this and Witsondaye at her perell, and yf she will not 
avoyde by that daye, then to avoyd her by the lawe; and Mr. 
Curson hath takyn upon hym to geve her warnyng " (i, 230). 

The Mr. Curson here named was Robert Curson, a Bencher 
of the Inn, who was appointed a Baron of the Exchequer in 
1547. The text somehow suggests that the " wyff" was by way 
of being a termagant, and not a person to be lightly 
encountered. 

It seems probable that the fruit-stall was found to be a 
convenient institution, and therefore continued. Mention is 
made of it from time to time. Under date, July 8th, 1614, 
we read : 

" Whereas one Roger Levett by his peticion humblie desired 
that in regard hee hath a longe tyme served the gentlemen of this 
Howse w th ribons of the best sorte, and cheaper then can bee bought 
in any shopps, and thereby gotten such good will and favour 
amongest them as that hee doubteth nott butt they will afforde him, 
the saide Roger Levett, their best furtherance in what may tende to 
his good ; And for that the poore woman, w ch lately solde fruyte 
w th in the Great Gate of this Howse, is nowe dead ; that therefore 
the M rs of the Benche woulde bee pleased, in commiseracion of his 
estate, being a poore man, charged w th a wif&and familye, to allowe 
him the same roome w ch the deceased widdowe injoyed, to sell his 
saide ribbons, and other commodityes as the saide widdowe solde " 
(ii, 164). It does not appear whether the petition was granted or 
not. 

On October 26th, 1671, it was ordered that " Alexander Croome, 
one of porters at the Gate, have the proffitt of selling apples and 
other fruit under the Gate added to the imployment he hath of 
sweeping and cleaning the Court ; and no other to sell apples or 
other fruit there " (iii, 75). 

On June 5th, 1676, it was ordered that Hugh Pattle, the Chief 
Porter, should have ''the place of sitteing and selling fruit at the 
foregate, by the guift of the Bench," during pleasure, " and that 
Croome's wife have liberty till Michaelmas terme to remove " 
(iii, 107). 

On February 3rd, 1738, it was ordered "that the fruit shop 
under the Gate in Chancery Lane he removed, and the Gate kept 
open in the day time " (iii, 315). It appears from this that the fruit 
stall had been placed inside the Gate, in such a way as to prevent 
one leaf from opening. 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 297 

In 1885 the Gate-house was threatened with destruction. 
The old chambers to the north of it had been pulled down and 
rebuilt, and the scheme of reconstruction included a new Gate- 
house. A petition \vas presented to the Bench, praying them 
" to countermand the further destruction of the buildings of 
the Gate-house Court," which was largely signed by members 
of the Inn. The Society of Antiquaries and the Society for 
the Preservation of Ancient Buildings passed resolutions to the 
same effect. Again in 1890 rumours were started that the 
Bench intended to pull down the Gate and the old buildings 
adjoining it on the south. The late Mr. A. C. Ranyard, then 
editor of " Knowledge," took the matter up warmly, in an 
interesting article which appeared in that Magazine for June, 
1890. Mr. Ranyard obtained the professional opinions of Mr. 
G. R. Crickmay, Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, and Mr. Philip 
Webb*, who all considered that the Gate-house was capable of 
being put into a sound structural condition. 

At length, after an interval of nine years, this has been 
done. In the Long Vacation of 1899, the Gate-house was placed 
in the able hands of Mr. Dennett Barry, the Surveyor to the 
Inn, and underwent a thorough and sympathetic repair. The 
parapet and some of the chimney-stacks had to be taken down 
and rebuilt, the rest of the brick work was pointed and, where 
necessary, renewed. The fine old oak gates were denuded of 
their paint, repaired with old oak saved from other parts of the 
inn, and wax-polished. 

I have already mentioned that the smaller or northern 
entrance from Chancery Lane was made in 1834, by taking 
down the south wall of the stationer's shop. This, no doubt, 
necessitated the removal of the vaulting over the main passage, 
and took away the solid support from the wall above. A 
bressummer was inserted to carry the wall, and this was 
supported by an iron pillar in the middle. Mr. Webb stated 
that these alterations were done ''in a clumsy, unworkman-like 
.manner, and a settlement-crack was the result." Mr. Barry 
has now encased the iron-pillar in a substantial brick pier, and 
has placed two brick arches under the bressummer. The 
appearance of the passage is greatly improved in consequence, 

* Knowledge, July, 1890. 



2 9 8 THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 

and the structure rendered much more stable. It may, perhaps, 
be regretted that the vaulting was not replaced at the same 
time. 

The care of the Gate, the principal entrance to the Inn, was 
always, as now, the duty of the Chief Porter, though the office 
was sometime delegated temporarily to other servants of the 
Inn. Thus, in the autumn of 1603 the Reading was abandoned 
and special precautions taken, " in regard the sicknes growes 
daungerous and the terme being therefore adjorned." One of 
the butlers, the two panniermen and their boy, and the second 
cook were appointed to look after the house during the vacation. 
They were all to sleep within the Inn every night, in different 
parts, all the gates were to be kept locked, one of the pannier- 
men was to remain in the day time at or nigh the Great Gate* 
and at night to lie in the Porter's Lodge ; no strangers were t< 
be suffered to lodge in the House, no one was to be admitt< 
except on business, and no women were to be allowed in at all 
(ii, 80). 

At ordinary times the Chief Porter's duties, as laid down in 
1613, were as follows : 

" First, that hee shall not suffer any wandringe or idle persons, 
rogues, vagabondes or beggers, to walke or wander up and down in 
any parte of the Howse, or to lurke or abide about the Gate, but th; 
hee ridde the Howse of them ; and if they shall make resistance, 
carry them to the constable, to be further proceeded again; 
accordinge to the lawe. . . . 

" Item, that in the day tyme hee shall diligently attende about 
the Gate . . . and that hee shutt and locke up the Great Gat 
at eleaven of the clocke in the night in sommer, and at term of th< 
clocke in wynter. 

" Item, for preventinge such trouble and annoyans as are done fr 
coaches w th in the house, that he contynuallie in the daye tyme keej 
one leafe of the gate shutt, w th the barr of yron soe extern 
towardes the other leafe of the gate that noe coaches maye come ii 
onely while the Lord Chiefe Justice of the Common Pleas * lodgetl 
in the Howse, he shalbee ready to open the gate for the comming 
or goinge out of his LOPP' S coach, and not otherwise " (ii, 160, 161). 

* Sir Henry Hobart, a member of the Inn, had just been appointee 
November I3th, 1613, and had not yet given up his chambers there. 








The Guard Room, Lincoln's Inn Gate House. 

Drawn by Hanslip Fletcher. 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 299 

In 1652, July yth, it was ordered " that all the gates of the House 
be locked up by eleaven of the clocke att night, and not opened till 
three of the clocke next morninge" ; and, November loth, "that the 
gates of the House be shutt upp att ten of the clocke in the wynter 
tyme, and not to be opened till foure in the morning duringe 
winter " (ii, 396). 

During the great plague of 1665-6 special regulations were 
made for the safe-keeping of the Inn. 

On May 26th, 1665, it was ordered "that every Lord's Day, and 
alsoe upon other speciall dayes, during the time of divine service or 
sermon, both the back gates of this House shall be safely locked up 
by the Porter of the House, who alsoe is to see that the fore gate be 
shutt before service time on those dayes, to the end that none but 
persons of quality may be admitted to come unto the Chappell 
during the time of the infeccion " (iii, 46). 

In the following June the Inn was shut up, a few servants 
and some others being left in charge, amongst whom was John 
Durfey, stationer at the Gate. These were placed under 
Richard Brownley, the Chief Butler, and a stringent set of 
regulations was drawn up. The " watchers by night " were to 
go round the Inn twice each night, and " to goe up every story 
in each staire case "; the " warders by day " were to do the 
same twice each day. Strangers coming to the Inn on business 
were to be accompanied by a " warder " " unto the chamber 
which he or they inquire for." "Noe gentleman of the Society 
or other person after tenn a'clocke at night (when the fore gate 
is peremtorily to be shutt upp, and to be opened noe more 
untill the next morning) shall expect to have the gate opened 
for him " (iii, 47, 48). 

John Whatley, or Whateley, the Porter, who was one of 
those left in charge, died, whether or not of the plague does 
not appear. On February 8th, 1666, when the Society re- 
assembled, it was ordered " that whosoever shall be Porter of 
this House shall permitt and suffer Amy Josselyn, widdowe, 
to make use of the benche and place under the Gate, as formerly 
she hath donne, freely and without any interrupcion " (iii, 49). 

On November 8th, 1 700, it was ordered " that from henceforth 
no coach be admitted to come within he Gates of this House after 



300 



THE OLD GATE-HOUSE OF LINCOLN'S INN. 



10 a'clock at night; and that the keyes of the Great Gates of this 
House be left at the chamber of the Black Book Keeper every night 
immediately after 10 a'clock" (iii, 206). 

Space will not permit of any detailed account of the many 
distinguished men who have occupied the chambers in the 
Gate-house ; but there is a tradition connected with the 
principal set over the archway, which merits some examination. 
It is stated in several works that Oliver Cromwell occupied 
these chambers at some time or other. * I have failed to trace 
the story to its origin, and a careful search in the records of the 
Inn has not produced any facts tending to verify the statement. 
The Protector was never a member of the Society, and the 
rules against the under-letting of chambers, were, until quite 
modern times, of a very stringent nature. Under these 
circumstances, we are compelled, however reluctantly, to 
discredit the story altogether. It probably arose from a jumble 
of several facts. Five near relatives of the Protector were 
members of the Inn, namely, Henry (grandfather), admitted 
in 1557 ; Oliver (uncle) and Robert (father), admitted in 1582 ; 
Richard (uncle), admitted in 1592 ; while Richard, son and 
heir apparent of Oliver Cromwell, of Ely, in the Isle of Ely, 
in the county of Cambridge, Esquire, was admitted on May 

27th, 1647. This last was " tumble- 
down Dick," the son and successor 
of the Protector. Now when we 
consider that Thurloe, Cromwell's 
Secretary of State, had chambers at 
No. 25, nearly adjoining the Gate- 
house, where, without any great 
straining of probability, we may 
imagine that Cromwell himself was 
an occasional visitor, we seem to have 
got at the nucleus of fact around 
which the tradition in question has, 
not unnaturally, grown. 



* Ireland, Inns of Court and Chancery, p. 108 ; Spilsbury, Lincoln's 
Inn, 1850 ; p. 38 ; etc. 







RICHARD CANDELER OF TOTTENHAM. 

BY JOHN CHANDLER. 

IN the parish church of Tottenham in Middlesex is a very 
beautiful Elizabethan monument of veined marble, which, 
fortunately, escaped destruction when the old church was 
rebuilt. It has two arches. Under the one on the left hand 
side are the effigies of Richard Candeler and his wife. They are 
both represented in a kneeling attitude. He is habited in the 
gown of a merchant, and between the two figures is that of their 
infant son in swaddling clothes. Under the arch on the right 
are the effigies of their daughter Anne and her husband, Sir 
Ferdinando Heybourne, both also represented kneeling, he in 
armour. The monument bears the following inscription : 

" Here resteth in peace ye bodye of Richard Candeler | Esq. 
Justice of Peace within ye contye of Middel. borne | at Walsingham 
in ye cov[n]tie of Norf: he married to wife | Eliza: Lock, ye daughter 
and sole heire of Matthew Lock sea cond son to Sir Will : Lock 
Knig : they lived togeather in holie | wedlock 26 yeares, they had 
yssue one son and one daugter | Edw. died in his infantciee and Ann 
ye first wife of Sr Ferdi | nando Heybourne Knig. He ended this 
life ye 24 of | October Ao Doni. 1602, aged 61 yeares and the said | 
Eliza, deceased ye second day of January 1622 Heer under buried. 
" Heere also resteth in peace ye bodye of Sr Ferdinando Hey- 
borne Knig [ht]. Justice of Peace and corarn in ye coun. of Midd. he 
wayted | at ye feete of Q. Elizabeth of famous memorye and our 
Soveraigne | Lo : King James in ther Privie Chamber. He was 
a careful maies | trate wthout respect of p [er] sons and a true friend 
to ye cause | of ye poore. He married Dame Anne ye daughter and 
heire of Richard | Candeler, Esq. They lived together in holy 
wedlock 23 | yeares, he ended this life ye 4 of June A.D. 1618 
aged 60 | yeares and Dame Anne ended this life ye 24 of June Ao 
Dni 1615 I aged 44 yeares. 

" Elizabeth Candeler 

In Testimonie 
of Her Love erec : 
ted this monu : 
ment at her one 
charges 
16 . . " 



302 RICHARD CANDELER OF TOTTENHAM. 

This Richard Candeler came of a good Norfolk family, 
closely allied to the Greshams. In the Visitation of London, 
1568 Howard and Armytage, Harleian Society his arms are 
thus given : " Ar : three pellets in bend cotised, between two 
pellets ; impaling (for Lock) quarterly i and 4. Per fesse azure 
and or, a pale counter-charged, in the first, three falcons rising 
and holding in their mouths a padlock of the second; 2 and 3. 
Sable, a chevron between three conies heads erased argent 
(Spencer). Crest A goat's head couped, sable, attired argent. 

The following pedigree from Vincent MSS., No. ng-fF. 236, 
309, Heralds' College, will elucidate the above. 

Sir Wm. Loke knt. 

and alderman of London "y 1. Alice Spencer d. 1522. bur : in 

Born 1480. d. 1550. Mercers' Chapel. 



Matthew of London, merchant. 
Born 23 Feb. 1521, ninth & last child 



Elizabeth 

Sole heir d. 2 Jan. 

1622, bur. at Tottenham. 



Elizabeth d. of Baker 



Rich : Candeler of London Esq. 

merchant d. 24 Oct 1602. 
oat 61. Bur: in Tottenham Church. 



Sir Ferdinando Richardson alias 



Anne d. 24 June 1615. 
Aged 44. Bur. in Tottenham Church. 



Hey bourne, knt., Groom of the Privy 
Chamber to Queen Eliz: d. 4 June 



1618 aged 60. 

In comparing the dates in the monumental inscriptions, the 
Visitation of London and Vincent's pedigree, with one another, 
a discrepancy will be noticed. According to the inscriptions 
Richard Candeler died in 1602, after " 26 yeares of holy wed- 
lock." Therefore he was married in 1576. From the same 
source and also from Vincent's pedigree we learn that his 
daughter and heire died in 1615, aged 44 years. This makes 
her out to have been born four years before the marriage of her 
parents, but in the Visitation of London we find them married 
in 1568. A mistake has evidently been made in the inscription 
as to the number of years of her parents' married life. The 
number of years there assigned them, viz. 26, must be incorrect. 
If they were married in 1568 and he died in 1602, the number 
would be 34. In the Visitations of Essex from 1552 to 1634 
(Harleian Soc. vol. 14) is as follows, from pedigree of Heyborne 
of Waltham, Essex. " Marriage, 1596, 38 Eliz.: Sir Ferdinando 
Heyborne, Knt., Groom Porter of the Privy Chamber to Queen 



RICHARD CANDELER OF TOTTENHAM. 303 

Eliz., married Elizabeth [?] daughter of Richard Chandler of 
London, mercer, by the daughter of ... Bromley." This 
Bromley is most likely Bromley by Bow. The surname Candeler 
is one of the many variants of Chandler and a family using the 
latter form and bearing the same coat-of-arms as Richard 
Candeler have long been settled at Witley in Surrey, where, 
to borrow a phrase of Philpot's, " they have been of some 
eminence in'this track." But I have not, as yet, been able to 
trace the connection. In Norfolk the name is frequently met 
with and mostly in the form of " Candler." 

Richard Candeler's family was connected with the Gresham 
family through Susan, daughter of William Gresham of Wal- 
singham, who married William Chaundler or Candeler of the 
same place. She was first cousin to Sir Richard Gresham and 
Sir John Gresham ; each was Lord Mayor of London, and uncle 
to Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal Exchange. Three 
children of William and Susan Chaundler are mentioned in the 
wills of Sir Richard and Sir John ; viz., Richard, Thomas and 
a daughter, The will of Sir John Gresham is dated 1554, and 
he leaves " x. li. to my kynnswoman's daughter, Thomas 
Candler's sister, sometyme dwelling with Mystress Cresswell, 
widdowe, to her marriage. Also to Thomas Candler my 
apprentice x. li" 

Richard Candler is mentioned in Sir Richard Gresham's 
will, 1548, thus " To every of my cosyn Chaundler's children, 
except Richd. vi. li. xiijs. iiid., and to the said Richard x. li." 
and again in the will of Isabel, 1565, widdow of Sir Richard. 
" To Richard Candler v. li. in money and a black gowne." 

This Richard Candeler was the London factor to Sir Thomas 
Gresham and is mentioned as such in the State Papers, Domestic 
Series, p. 232, Dec. 20, 1563. I cannot think that this is the 
same Richard as the one buried at Tottenham for the latter was 
born in 1541 and this would make him only twenty-two years 
of age, when he held the responsible position of Sir Thomas 
Gresham's London representative. He of Tottenham was 
probably the son of the London factor. An earlier entry in the 
State Papers, p. 156, date 1560, refers to an account of munitions 
already in the Tower and of quantities to be shipped, with 
request of Ric. Candeler for a warrant. We have seen from 



304 RICHARD CANDELER OF TOTTENHAM. 

his monument that Richard Candeler of Tottenham, who died in 
J&l? Aft^-.no mate jj>fii\?, j^Ar AhpJiame series of State Papers 
p. 141, James I., 1604, there is a grant to Chris. Hey6urn antf 1 
Rich. Candeler in reversion, after Ferdinando Richardson, of the 
office of making and registering assurances on ships and mer- 
chandize in London. This same office was held in 1576 vide 
State Papers, Elizabeth, p. 523, by Richard Candeler, probably 
either the London factor of Sir Thomas Gresham, or the Richard 
Candler of Tottenham. The Richard Candeler who applies for 
the office in 1604 was without doubt a member of the same 
family and probably descended from Thomas Candeler, the 
apprentice to Sir John Gresham. 

I cut the following paragraph from the Pall Mall Gazette, May 
22, 1899 : "Among the literary treasures at Hatfield House, 
recently overhauled by the Historical Manuscripts Commission, 
is the following note, dated September 24, 1597, of the exam- 
ination of John Dewrance, of Enfield, gentleman, touching a 
head found in Enfield Chase. 'About a month past one John 
Lane brought the said head to my house in Enfield, saying it 
was the head of ' Ferogh Makehewe ' an arch-traitor of Ireland, 
who was slain by Captain Thomas Lee and his company, and 
the head brought into England by John Lane to the Earl of 
Essex, who referred him to Mr. Secretary for his reward. But 
as the head-money had already been paid in Ireland, John Lant 
was told he might bestow the said head where he would. And, 
having it with him, he came to my house and wished to leave 
it there. This I would not permit, nor let it be buried in my 
garden. He then gave the head to his boy to bury in Enfield 
Chase, who, instead, put it on a tree, where it was found on 
Wednesday last by two boys, who went to fetch their cattle." 
The deposition is endorsed "Taken before me, Richard Candeler, 
September 24, 1597." There is no clue to the ultimate dis- 
position of the ill-used head ! " 

This Richard Candeler is he who lies beneath the monument 
in Tottenham Church, " ye Justice of Peace within ye contye 
of MiddelfsexJ." 



METEOROLOGY OF THE HOME COUNTIES. 

BY JOHN HOPKINSON, F.R.MET.Soc., Assoc.lNST.C.E. 

April to June, igoo. 

flpHE omission of the rainfall at Abingdon, through the 
JL return not having been received, is the only alteration in 
the report for this quarter. Two additional returns promised 
have not yet been received. 

The counties are distinguished numerically as usual : i, 
Middlesex; 2, Essex; 3, Herts; 4, Bucks; 5, Berks; 6, Surrey; 
7, Kent. The observations are taken at 9 a.m. 

The mean temperature during the quarter was about the 
average, the air was rather dry, the sky more cloudy than 
usual, and the rainfall small, though there was quite the 
average number of wet days. April was rather warm, chiefly 
owing to the mean night temperature being high, although a 
few nights were very cold ; the air was unusually dry, the sky 
rather bright, and the rainfall very small. May was rather 
cold, owing to the low day temperature, the nights being about 
as warm as usual ; the air was rather dry, the sky cloudy, and 
the rainfall small. June was rather warm, the nights being 
especially so, while the days were a little colder than usual ; 
the air was of average humidity, the sky cloudy, and the 
rainfall heavy, the number of wet days also being large. Early 
in the month the weather became very warm, and Monday the 
nth was the hottest day of which I can find any record so 
early in the year, all stations in the Home Counties recording 
a maximum shade temperature above 80, with an average 
above 84 and the maximum in London varying from about 
86 to 90. There were several deaths from sunstroke. During 
a field-day of the troops at Aldershot four men died and about 
300 fell out of the ranks from exhaustion, the effects of the 
heat being augmented by want of sufficient food and by 
unsuitable clothkig. There was a severe thunderstorm on this 
and also on the following day when the lightning struck a 
public-house at Bucks Hill, Chipperfield, throwing down the 
chimney, damaging an iron grate and an iron bedstead, taking 
the lip off a quart measure, and drilling a small hole in the side 



306 



METEOROLOGY. 



of it. During a thunderstorm on the 25th the tower of Little 
Hallingbury Church, Bishop's Stortford, was damaged by 
lightning, and an ash tree in Winch Hill Wood, King's 
Walden, was rooted up and shivered into long thin splinters. 

Cookham, Bracknell, and Sandhurst give a mean temperature 
for April of 47'9; May, 52'2 ; and June, 6o'2; being nearly 
a degree higher for the quarter than that of the rest of the 
Home Counties. 

April, 1900. 





Temperature of the Air 


& 


o 


Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


1 


o 








Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


W 





Ain't 


Days 




P 


Q 








o 


c 


/e 




ins. 




1 . Old Street . . 


49-2 


42-0 


56-5 


14-5 


30-8 


75-0 


73 


5-7 


79 


15 


2. Halstead . . 


43-8 


32-9 


53-6 


20-7 


24-0 


75-1 


66 


6-4 


1 04 


9 


,, Chelmsford.. 


46-8 


36-8 


56 8 


20-0 


21-1 


75-8 


72 


5-3 


73 


7 


3. Beniiington 


46-9 


37-6 


56-2 


18-6 


24-9 


73-8 


75 


6-1 


1-21 


14 


,, Berkhamsted 


43-5 


36-2 


56-8 


20-6 


24-1 


75-5 


74 


6-5 


1-02 


15 


,, St. Albans., 


46 8 


38-3 


55-3 


17-0 


25-4 


73-7 


75 


6-0 


1-27 


14 


6.W. Norwood 


4S-0 


38-6 


57-3 


18-7 


26-5 


77-5 


72 


6-4 


83 


15 


, , Addington . . 


46-7 


39-0 


54-4 


15-4 


27-6 


74-0 


70 


7-4 


89 


14 


7. Margate . . 


47-0 


40-3 


53-6 


13-3 


32-8 


72-0 


75 


6-0 


63 


10 


Mo.'in . 


46-8 


38 


55-6 


17 6 


26 4 


74-7 


72 


6-2 


93 


13 





May, 1900. 





Temperature of the Air 





o 


Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


1 



H 








Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


W 




a 


Am't 


Days 




Q 


o 


p 





o 





01 

' o 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


53-8 


47-1 


60-5 


13-4 


37-4 


71-0 


67 


7-1 


1-05 


12 


2. Halstead . . 


51-7 


43-1 


60-4 


17'3 


30-5 


71 2 


68 


7-1 


83 


10 


,, Chelmsford. . 


51-1 


42-0 


60-2 


18-2 


28-7 


72-8 


72 


7-0 


83 


10 


3. Bennington 


50-7 


42-5 


58-9 


16-4 


33-9 


68 7 


70 


7-7 


1-08 


12 


,, Berkhamsted 


50-6 


41-6 


59-6 


18-0 


31-1 


69-0 


71 


6-6 


1-09 


12 


,, St. Albans. . 


50-4 


42-5 


58-4 


15-9 


33 2 


67-5 


71 


69 


1-10 


12 


6.W. Norwood 


52-3 


43 9 


60-8 


16-9 


34-5 


70-4 


73 


7-4 


1-24 


13 


,, Addington. . 


50-9 


43-6 


58-1 


14-5 


34-7 


67-7 


71 


8-0 


1-43 


12 


7. Margate . . 


51-8 


41-6 


59-0 


14-4 


38-8 


72-8 


73 


7-2 


88 


10 


Mean 


51-5 


43'4 


59-6 


16-2 


33-6 


70-1 


71 


7-2 


1-06 


11 





METEOROLOGY. 



307 



June, igoo. 





Temperature of the Air 


> 


o 
1 


Rain 


Stations 


Means 


Extremes 


! 3 














3 


p^ 








Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


W 


s 


Am't 


Days 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 





o / 




ins. 




1. Old Street.. 


61-4 


53-8 


69-0 


15-2 


47-1 


86-2 


70 


7-3 


1-94 


12 


2. Halstead . . 


60-1 


51-4 


68-8 


17-4 


45-8 


84-0 


72 


7-4 


2-66 


16 


,, Chelmsford . 


59-6 


50-2 


69-0 


18-8 


43-2 


83-5 


74 


7-6 


2-20 


18 


3. Bennington 


58-8 


50-2 


67-4 


17-2 


44-2 


84-1 


75 


7-7 


2-40 


16 


,, Berkhamsted 


58-7 


49-7 


67-7 


18-0 


43-4 


85-9 


75 


7-2 


2-13 


15 


,, St. Albans.. 


58-3 


50-2 


66-4 


16-2 


43-7 


84-4 


75 


7-1 


2-95 


18 


6.W. Norwood 


60-4 


51-4 


69-4 


18-0 


45-3 


86-9 


71 


6-3 


2-78 


15 


,, Addington. . 


58-3 


50-6 


66-0 


15-4 


43-0 


83-5 


75 


7'3 


2-91 


16 


7. Margate . . 


58-9 


51-8 


66-0 


14-2 


47-6 


80-1 


76 


7-4 


2-62 


* 15 


Mean 


59-4 


51-0 


67-7 


16-7 


44-8 


84-3 


74 


7-2 


2-51 


16 



Rainfall, April to June, 1900. 



Stations 


April 


May 


June 


Stations 


April 


May 


June 


1 Camden Square. . 


ins. 
98 


ins. 
93 


ins. 
2 26 


4. Slough 


ins. 
64 


ins. 
1-69 


ins. 
2-08 


Harefield 


68 


T03 


2*67 










2 Newport .... 


90 


T30 


2-55 


,, Cookham .... 


89 


1-04 


2-04 


, Houthend 


64 


84 


2-68 


,, Bracknell .... 


89 


1-37 


2-69 


3. Royston 
,, Hitchin 


83 
1-43 


1-20 
99 


2-44 
2-30 


,, Sandhurst. . . . 
6. Dorking .... 


89 
Ml 


1-41 

1-06 


2-66 
3-43 


,, Harpenden .... 
4. Winslow . 


1-33 
55 


1-06 
1-45 


2-56 
3'90 


7. Tenterden 
. Birchinsrton . . 


82 
54 


98 
92 


2-14 
2-36 



Mean (24 stations) : April, 0'90 in. ; May, 1-12 in. ; June, 2-56 ins. 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE IN THE 
DIOCESE OF LONDON. 

BY EDWIN FRESHFIELD, JUNIOR. 

INTRODUCTORY. 
(Continued from p. 245). 

Before leaving chalices and cups it will be convenient to 
mention a number of cups, some made for sacred use and 
others made for secular purposes, and appropriated or presented 
at various times to churches for use as communion cups. 

In the first category are first 

At S. Saviour's Church, Sunbury Green, a German silver- 
gilt chalice made in the latter part of the fourteenth century, 
obtained from a private collection by the rector of Sunbury, 
the late Dr. Vigne, and presented by him to .this district church. 
It has been restored and there are no marks on it. 

At S. Botolph, Aldgate, a cup, illustrated in the first article 
of this series; the bowl is in the style of type i, and was made 
in 1559 ; the stem belongs to a pre- Reformation chalice, but 
has no mark on it to fix the date. It has been suggested that 
the upper part is an example of a stemless cup with a 
rudimentary foot. This is possible, but the cup must have 
been very top heavy. 

A V-shaped cup, the only ecclesiastical cup of its kind in 
the diocese, also belonging to S. Botolph, Aldgate ; presented 
by Robert Dow, merchant tailor, in 1606. 

A silver-gilt cup at Kensington. The V-shaped bowl is 
ornamented with scallop shells. The bowl is joined to 
the baluster stem by a collar, and the hilt or flange usually 
found in the cups of type 4. The knop of the stem is decorated 
with the peculiar scratches, called the hyphen ornament, 
usually found on the stems of early Elizabethan chalices. The 
stem ends in a flange, and the foot, engraved with scallop 
shells, is bell-shaped like those of the spire cups. The date 
mark is that for 1599, and the maker's mark, a squirrel in a 
plain shield. Cups of this kind will be found at S. Giles, 
Camberwell, 1597, and at Dulwich College, 1599. 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 309 

At Ealing, a silver-gilt cup made in 1639 by Thomas Bird. 
This cup belongs to a group made, as I believe, during Arch- 
bishop's Laud's revival, and in imitation of the pre- Reformation 
chalice. The bowl has straight sides and a flat base, and round 
the centre is a band with a conventional leaf design, repousse". 
The stem is hexagonal and divided by a knop. The lower part 
of the stem rests on a curved hexagonal foot, similar to that of 
the chalice at Coomb Keynes, in Dorset. Each angle of the 
foot is finished off with a cherub's head and wings. Mr. St. 
John Hope gives me the following list of these cups in different 
parts of England : Staunton Harold, Leicestershire ; Peter- 
house, Cambridge, made of gold, one of the rare pieces of 
church plate in that metal ; and a pair in the cathedral church 
at Rochester. There are also a group of five (formerly seven) 
given to as many churches in Derbyshire by Lady Frances 
Kniveton, in the reign of Charles I. They remain at 
Muggington, 1640 ; Osmaston by Ashbourne ; Kirk Langley ; 
Bradley and Kniveton ; the lost ones were at Ashbourne and 
Brailsford. Besides these I have come across the following : 
Kingswood, Surrey, 1675 ; Barking, Essex, 1680, and Mr. 
Markham has noted one at Cottesbrook, Northants, 1635. 

At Hampton, there is another silver cup in the same style, 
but made as late as 1704, by George Lewis. This cup has a 
large bowl similar to those found in the late seventeenth 
century variety of type 2. The stem is divided by a knop, and 
the curved foot ends in six points, and is similar to the foot of 
the Ashby-de-la-Zouch cup, illustrated in Old English Plate, 
but without the angels' heads. This is an interesting late 
example of an imitation of the foot of a mediaeval chalice, and 
should be compared with the chalice at West Drayton, and the 
cup at Ealing, 1639, which has just been mentioned. 

Two silver cups at S. George in the East, made in 1729, 
classed under type 3, with peculiar bell-shaped feet. 

Two glass cups at S. John, Clerkenwell, with hemispherical 
bowls and trumpet stems. 

At Hayes, a silver French chalice and paten made probably 
in the eighteenth century, but the marks on them are not 
distinguishable. This is a priest's chalice and has a small 
U-shaped bowl decorated with three cherubs' heads and foliage 



3 io NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 

and fruit. The pear knop on the stem is also covered with 
foliage and fruit, repousse. The foot, decorated like the bowl 
with three cherubs' heads and the emblems of the Passion, has 
a perforated rim. 

At Ealing, two silver gilt cups, belonging to the late seven- 
teenth century variety of type 2, very finely chased and repousse, 
one made in 1674, an d a copy of it made in 1890. These were 
presented anonymously, or rather left at the Vicarage door by 
a stranger one Christmas morning. The cup has a straight- 
sided bowl, a flat base, and a trumpet stem divided by a knop, 
and is in shape, a compromise between types i and 2 ; but 
the poverty in design is made up for by the elaborate decoration, 
and nearly the whole surface is covered with scrolls, foliage and 
bunches of fruit, repousse". There are three panels on the bowl, 
one containing the sacred monogram, the other two repre- 
sentations of (?) the Flight into Egypt and the Temptation. 
The panels on the ne\v cup contain representations of the 
Woman of Samaria, and the Ascension. 

The maker's mark on the old cup is G.G. with a fleur-de- 
lys below in a shaped shield. The makers of the copy were 
J. Wakely and Frank Wheeler. 

At Stanmore, a modern French silver-gilt cup and cover, 
presented by Arthur Neverre in 1850, with a French mark 
for this centur}', and two other indistinguishable marks. It has 
been suggested that it was intended for use as a ciborium. I 
do not think it was, though, in support of that theory, I notice 
that the cover is decorated with a representation of the Children 
of Israel gathering manna in the wilderness ; but if it is a cup, 
as I believe, it is unusually large for a popish chalice. The 
bowl is U-shaped, and the lower part decorated with repouss6 
work. Three cherubs' heads separate three medallions, 
containing representations of the Adoration of the Magi, the 
Resurrection, and the Ascension. The stem has an inverted 
pear-shaped knop ; the six-lobed foot, much splayed, is decorated 
with cherubs' heads in high relief, and has three repouss6 
medallions representing Elijah being taken up into heaven, 
Jonah and the whale, and the Judgment of Solomon. The 
cover is shaped like a pear with the lower half cut off, and on 
the top is a little circular pedestal with a statuette of Our 
Saviour holding a plain cross. 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 311 

At Acton, a modern silver chalice made in France. The 
model is not a bad one, but the metal is very thin. It is made 
in imitation of the mediaeval shape of type 9 with a U-shaped 
bowl supported on a hexagonal stem divided by a knop. The 
stem ends in a globe and a curved circular foot. The decoration 
on it is original, pretty and quite foreign in character. 

At S. Mary, Abchurch, a little cup made in 1581 at Antwerp, 
and illustrated in the plate in the first article, p. 119. 

Two silver cups made in 1575 aod 1608, formerly at All 
Hallowes, Thames Street, and now at S. Michael Royal, also 
illustrated in the plate in the first article, p. 119. One of these 
was recently presented to the French Hospital in Victoria 
Park Road, N.E., made in the same period. This was exhibited 
at the Church Congress in London in 1899, an d illustrated 
in the catalogue. These cups are really beakers fitted on to a 
stem with grotesque brackets ; each has a little cover. 

Then come the following cups made, as I believe, for 
secular purposes, which may be divided into two classes ; 
those made in England and those made abroad. 

In the first category are 

Two cups at S. Margaret's Pattens, the only examples of 
their kind in the City. The smaller of the two has the date 
mark for 1545, but the maker's mark is, unfortunately, not 
distinguishable ; probably it is a plant or tree in a circular 
stamp. It was made, no doubt, for secular purposes, purchased 
by the parish, and adapted to sacred use in the reign of Edward 
VI. Round the lip is a scroll ornament with three medallions 
engraved rather roughly with human heads. There are men's 
heads in profile ; one, a head crowned with a laurel wreath, 
the other helmeted; the third is that of a woman, full face, 
with her hair done in two large nets, or bags, on each side of 
the head. The other cup, an exact copy of the older cup, was 
made in 1649. A cup of the same style as these will be found 
at Gatcombe, Isle of Wight, illustrated on p. 206 of Old 
English Plate. The engraved helmeted head on these cups 
may be compared with a similar head on the tazza patens at 
S. Giles, and S. Botolph, Aldgate. 

At Willesden, a cup made in 1606, with an egg-shaped bowl, 
decorated with repousse work containing the conventional 



312 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 



chrysanthemum, and a baluster stem and foot decorated with 
the egg and tongue pattern. This is an unusual style of cup 
to find used as a chalice in 1606, no doubt it was originally 
made for secular purposes. 

A cup with two handles and a conical cover, at S. Helen, 
Bishopgate, also the only piece of ecclesiastical plate of its 
kind in the diocese. 

At Hadley, a silver-gilt standing cup, with a cover and a 
spire to it, illustrated on the plate opposite, made in 1615 by a 
maker whose mark was T. F. in monogram in the plain shield. 
This is one of many cups, called spire cups from the shape of 
the cover of the same pattern to be found all over England, 
used as chalices or for secular purposes. In the following list 
of these cups the first thirteen are used as chalices : 

Date. Maker. 

Greeting, Suffolk 
Corby, Northants 
Aldgate S. Botolph, London 
First Church, Boston, Mass: U.S. A 

" Governor John "Winthrop " cup 
Barford, Wilts .. 
Welland, Worcester 
Hadley, Middlesex 
Fulham, All Saints (2) 
Worplesdon, Surrey 
Ambleside. Westmoreland 

Playford, Suffolk 

Hampstead, S. Mary, Middlesex 



Date. 

1593 

1601 TO and pellet, shaped shield. 

1609 ? S F, in monogram. 
) i a i f\ ( T. C. 3 pellets above and one below, 
/ 161 i plain shield. 

1611 

1613 

1615 T F, in monogram, plain shield. 
1615 

1616 T F, in a shaped stand. 
1618 IS, pellet below, plain shield. 

Illegible. 

R B, mullet below shaped shield. 



1619 
1629 



The following are used for secular purposes : 



Date. 
1608 
16Q9 

1608 



Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge : } 

" fiishop Jegon " cup . . . . f 

Armourer's Co: London: "Ley croft' 'cup 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge : ' ' Bishop ) 

Barlow " cup . . . . . . . . J 

Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge : 

"Earl of Kent "cup 

\ 1609 
Carpenters' Co: London, four cups. The f 1611 

second is the ' Edmonds " cup . . f 1613 

J 1628 
Trinity House. London . . . . . . 1611 

Cutler's Co: London, " Gilbert Clarke'" 

cup 



Maker. 
T W, in monogram. 

I S, over crescent, pla: 

L K, plain shield. 
T C, three pellets above and one 
below, plain shield. 

W R, over a rainbow. 

T F monogram, plain shield. 

R, S, with pellets, quatre-foil stamp 

T F moiiogram, plain shield. 



1616 



Earl 



Emmanuel College, Cambridge 

of Westmoreland" cup .. .. / 

Painter's Co., London, " W. Campden" 
cup 

Trinity House, London . . , . . . 1627 

Christ College, Cambridge: "Earl of 
Manchester " cup 



J j g ^ ^ ^ 
( 



C B monogram, plain shield 
1629 j T F monogram, plain shield. 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 313 

Armourers' Co: London: ''Foster" cup 1631 
Haberdasher's Co.. London. " Jewett " ) ,- 

cup J 1637 

Vintners' Co : London : ^ Eawlin-on J 1646 J A F> p]ain ^^ 

In addition to these the following cups of this kind are 
mentioned in the Appendix of Old English Plate : Northleach, 
Gloucestershire, 1619 ; Linton, Kent, 1619 ; Bodmin, Corn- 
wall, 1617 ; Odcombe, Somersetshire, 1614 ; Romanoff House, 
Moscow, 1613; Holm Cultram, Cumberland, 1613; Bongate 
Church, Appleby, 1612 ; and the Cutlers' Company, 1607. 

At Hadley there is another silver-gilt cup made in 1610 by 
an unknown maker, whose mark was T C with three pellets, 
and one below in a shaped shield ; it is like the last with the 
same spire cover, but without the grotesque brackets. Illus- 
trated on the plate opposite. 

Also at Hadley, a silver gilt cocoanut cup made in 1586. 
This is a very interesting piece of Elizabethan secular plate, in 
a style made to imitate the cocoanut-shell cups frequently 
found in collections of mediaeval plate. The maker's mark will 
be found in the appendix to Old English Plate, under date 1613. 
Illustrated on the plate opposite. 

I take the following remarks on cups of this kind from Old 
English Plate, 4th edition, p. 275. 

" Turning now to standing cups as we find them, precedence 
must be given to those made of ostrich eggs and cocoanuts, 
mounted in silver and having feet of the same metal. These 
were very popular in early times, and they are classed together 
because they are of similar size and shape, and their mounting 
is of the same character. Sometimes the cup itself was formed 
of silver or silver gilt, shaped as an egg or nut, and in these 
cases it is difficult to say which of the two it is intended to 
represent. It has been suggested that the silver examples only 
occur when the earlier nut or egg has been broken, and the 
owner, not being able to procure another, has refilled the mount 
with a silver bowl or lining of similar shape ; but to set against 
this, it may be said that some of the silver linings are found 01 
the same date and fashion as the feet and other mountings 
with which they are fitted. 

" Cocoanut cups of the fifteenth century are to be seen at 
Oriel and New Colleges, Oxford, the latter society owning two 



3 i4 NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 

specimens. The great City Companies possess several ; the 
Vinters, the Armourers, and the Ironmongers each have one. 
The example at Vinter's Hall bears the hall mark of 1518. 
Ostrich egg cups are not so common, perhaps because they are 
rather more easily broken. Exeter College, Oxford, possesses 
an egg-cup of the first years of the seventeenth century, and 
the Earl Howe another of earlier date. There is a very ancient 
ostrich egg at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, the history 
of which can be traced to the fourteenth century. It was 
originally used for carrying about the host." 

Two silver-gilt English cups, at Fulham, designed after 
the grace cups of the period ; the stems are plain balusters, 
with three little brackets ; the bowls are circular, and the 
lids dome-shaped, with the same triangular spire as on the 
German cup. One of them has the date mark for 1615, and 
the London maker's mark A B in linked letters in a shaped 
shield ; the other has no marks. 

These may have been made for use as chalices, but I have 
mentioned them here owing to their resemblance to spire cups. 

I now come to the cups made abroad :: 

The silver-gilt Fulham cup, by far the finest piece of church 
plate in London, has two marks (i) the Nuremberg letter N, 
and (2) the maker's mark T W in monogram in a circular 
stamp, the mark of Tobias Wolf, 1604. It is not unlikely 
that this is one of the models from which the Carpenters' cu] 
and the others of the same type were copied. There are th< 
same bell-shaped foot, the brackets on the stem, and th( 
cover with the triangular spire. As a work of art, by a lonj 
way the finest piece of church plate in London. 

Then come three foreign beaker cups on stems : 

At Bromley, a silver-gilt cup. This beautiful piece has tw< 
marks (i) N in a square stamp, the Nuremberg mark, and (2] 
K B in an oval stamp, the mark of the maker Rasper Bauch, 
1567-83 ; this maker's name and mark will be found on p. 24^ 
of Rosenburg's Der Goldschmeide Merkzeichen, published ii 
1890 by Keller at Frankfort on the Maine. From an inscriptioi 
it appears that it was the gift of the women of Bromley in 1617, 
In general appearance the cup is very like one at S. Michae 
Bassishaw (mentioned below), made at Augsburg about 1600, 



NOTES ON CHURCH PLATE. 315 

but rather larger ; the bowl is deep, narrow, considerably 
splayed at the lip, and hammered into conventional scroll and 
medallion pattern, with cherubs' heads, fruits and flowers ; the 
stem, three female half figures back to back, ends in a chased 
bulb and a flat circular foot, as in the Bassishaw cup. The 
cover is an ordinary paten cover of the usual type. 

Another silver-gilt cup, also at Bromley, has two marks (i) 
the Augsburg pine-cone mark, and (2) I G in a circular stamp. 
The cup is inscribed, " The gift of David Annan, ex-church- 
warden 1887." The bowl is straight sided, splayed at the lip, 
flat at the base, and hammered into simple scrolls and foliage. 
The plain baluster stem ends in a bell-shaped foot, similar in 
outline to the lower part of the stem and the foot of the spire 
cups. 

A very fine silver-gilt cup or hanap at S. Michael Bassishaw. 
The bowl is straight-sided, very long and deep, with a slightly 
splayed lip, and flat at the base. The stem is short, divided by 
a knop, swelling first into a bulb and then into a broad foot. 
The cover is shallow, with a small pedestal on the top and a 
statuette of S. Michael. The bowl, the cover, and the foot are 
elaborately decorated with repousse work and chasing. The 
cup is of foreign make, of the early seventeenth century, and 
there are two marks : first, two sceptres in saltire on a plain 
shield, and secondly, the Augsburg pine cone. By the kindness 
of the churchwardens I have been able to give a note in the 
inventory of the information which has been obtained up to the 
present concerning it. 

It is now in the possession of S. Lawrence Jewry the church 
with which S. Michael, Bassishaw was united after the latter 
was demolished. 

Finally. At Southgate there is a silver tumbler used as a 
chalice with an Austrian silver eighteenth-century dollar in it. 
On the obverse is the head of the Empress, and the initial 
letters of her titles, " Maria Theresa Romanorum Imperatrix, 
Germaniae Hungariae Bohemiae Regina, Archiducissa 
Austrias, Ducissa Burgundiae, Comitissa Tirolis," and on 
the reverse, " Sta Maria Mater Dei Patrona Hungariae, 1747.'* 
Coins in the bottom of goblets or secular drinking-cups are 
very common, and this cup, no doubt originally made for 



316 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

secular purposes, was presented to the church at a period when 
any sort of vessel was considered suitable for the Holy 
Communion. 



Index to the plate at Hadley Monken, illustrated with this 
article : 

1. Silver-gilt flagon .., ... ... ... 1609 

2. Parcel-gilt cup 1562 

3. Silver spire cup ... ... ... ... 1615 

4. Silver-gilt spire cup ... ... ... 1610 

5. Standing cup 1586 

The first and third were presented by Thomas Emerson, 
Lord of the Manor in 1619 ; the second is the original Eliza- 
bethan chalice made after the Reformation ; the fourth was 
presented by Cecil Walker in about 1612, and the fifth by 
James Quilter in about 1733. 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 
BY THE REV. W. K. BEDFORD. 

No. 4. SURREY AND BERKS. 

fTHHE county of Surrey contains so many romantic expanses 
JL of wood and heath, that while its archers, doubtless, 
have been generally drawn from the metropolis, they naturally 
preferred to locate their shooting grounds on some wider 
range than the immediate vicinity of Southwark or Clapham 
could afford; they, therefore, chose Epsom Downs for their 
rendezvous, when shooting for the silver arrow presented by 
their patroness, Mrs. Crespigny, of Grove House, Camberwell. 
This lady's fetes at her private grounds, then rural and 
beautiful, gave a vast amount of pleasure to the archery world, 
and led to her election as patroness of the Toxophilite Society 
in 1801. 

From the historical volume, printed for circulation among 
the members of the last named Society, we find that she was the 
daughter and heir of a Mr. Clarke, and that she married Mr. 
Claude Champion Crespigny, who, on being created a baronet 






ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 317 

in 1805, resumed the prefix of "de" before his name. A 
biographical sketch of the lady, with a portrait, appeared in the 
European Magazine. She was not only handsome, witty, and 
accomplished, but full of active benevolence and charity, in aid 
of which she enlisted the guests at her "Archery breakfasts" in 
the grounds of Grove House. It was probably due to her taste 
that the " ball costume " of ladies of the Royal Surrey Archers 
in 1801, was settled in a fashion thus described in a contemporary 
publication, "white muslin round gown with green and buff 
sash, white chip hat bound with narrow green riband. Riband 
of the same colour as the sash encircled the crown, on which 
were two bows rising one above the other. A magnificent snow 
white ostrich plume waved over this tasteful headgear, and a 
sprig of box was so arranged beneath as to appear just above 
the wearer's left eyebrow." 

Although ladies in tall " chimney pot " hats and long gloves 
are shown with bows in their hands in our plate, there is 
nothing like the above-described costume. The date of the 
engraving, 1794, suggests that it represents the contest for a 
silver bugle given by the Duke of Clarence (William IV.), and 
won, on August 2Qth, 1793, by Mr. Starkie. 

Mrs. Crespigny figured not unsuccessfully in the literary 
world. Her letters to her son were published and appreciated, 
and so were sundry epigrams and occasional stanzas from her 
pen. Here is a specimen from a song in praise of Archery. 
" For no devastation here follows our game ; 

Our pleasure's to one productive of pain : 

Though we pierce through the centre, and bear off the prize, 

The wound never rankles, the victim ne'er dies. 

Where humanity points you will sure lead the way 

So the pleasures of Archery carry the day. 
Then, sons of the bow, 
'Tis meet ere we go. 

That to wish it success ev'ry glass should o'erflow." 

Surrey Archery may also claim a connection with a poet of 
undoubted reputation, Thomson, the bard of the " Seasons " 
and the " Castle of Indolence." About 1725 he kept an academy 
at Kew, and was in the habit of practising at the target with 
some of his pupils. Frederick, Prince of Wales, was then, as 
readers of our April number will remember, resident at Kew 

w 



3i8 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

Palace, and probably joined (for he was fond of Archery) in 
the sport ; at any rate he certainly witnessed the practice. 
One of the boys, Littlejohn by name, attracted the special 
notice of the good-natured prince, who said to him one day: 
"When I am King, Littlejohn, you shall be our bow-bearer-in- 
chief, and have Sherwood Forest." 

The prince, no doubt, remembered the companion of 
Robin Hood. 

This infant was called John. Little, quoth he, 

Which name shall be changed anon ; 
The words we'll transpose, and wherever he goes 
He sure shall be called Little John. 

From the days of the Queen's great grandfather we 
may trace the attachment of the Royal House of Hanover to 
the national sport of Archery ; and although the figure of her 
Majesty as an archeress, which forms the frontispiece to 
Hansard's Book of Archery, is probably as fanciful in costume 
as in the landscape and accessories, it is nevertheless a fact 
that our Queen, when Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent, 
was a member of the St. Leonard's Archery Society, and 
exercised her skill upon its grounds. The introduction of 
Windsor Castle into the engraving may be an artistic licence, 
but the spirit of the drawing is unquestionably true, and 
limns, though perhaps not in exact similitude, the graceful 
and gentle air of the maiden monarch. 

Berkshire was at one time a county in which archery enjoyed 
an exceeding popularity. In addition to the Windsor Archers, 
of whom we know little more than the name, each point of the 
compass North, South, East, and West has had its archery 
club. The last-named, however, has existed the longest, and 
certainly attained the widest celebrity, though its meetings are 
but seldom held within the county from which it takes its 
name, and it is now only a small club of gentlemen. 

If not the actual founder of the present society, which 
claims to be coeval with the century, one of its chief revivers 
and supporters was John Hughes, of Donnington Priory, whose 
father was a canon of St. Paul's and friend of Walter Scott. 
The son went from Westminster School to Oriel College, 
Oxford, where he began to be known as a composer of apt vers 




Portrait of H.M. the Queen as a Windsor Archer. 

From Hansard's ''''Book of Archery " 



ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 319 

de societe, and associated with Richard Barham (author of the 
Ingoldsby Legends), and men of the same stamp. In a humorous 
epistle to the late Mr. Spedding, he tells him how, in 1830, 
" hearing that there were certain scattered people here and there 
who shot occasionally at home, we managed to get them and 
others together in a tent on my premises. Some three hours work 
was done at 60 yards, the blind leading the blind, we were all 
in good humour with our noble selves after dinner ; our best 
' bon parti ' saw our prettiest Berkshire belle for the first time, 
and in five months the usual conjugal consequences ensued 
(but this is an episode). In short I proposed that we should 
found a gentlemen's and ladies' club, and two divisions were 
established, one in the Wantage, one in the Newbury neighbour- 
hood and sometimes we mustered 250 or 280." 

" The second year, by giving a cup for 100 yards, I con- 
vinced them that they could shoot the distance ; and an all 
England subscription handicap was established at Benham 
Park, near Newbury, at 100 yards, as an additional feature to 
our meetings. Men came from the Windsor and Maidenhead 
end of the county, so did certain distinguished Toxophilites ; 
then the former founded an East Berks Club on similar rules, 
which was highly prosperous." 

One of the modes by which Mr. Hughes promoted his pet 
society was by sonnets and ballads from his own lively pen. 
He composed the brochure, published in 1832, entitled the 
Pindar of Wakefield's Legend, in which, in the words of its 
own preface, " The names of the outlaws of Robin Hood's band 
seem assumed to designate the members of some Archery 
Society of the date and (as it should appear from the local 
allusions) abiding not far from the royal residence of Windsor." 

He introduces his theme with 

The Pindar of Wakefield is my style, 

And what I list, I write. 
Whilome, a clerk, of Oxenford, 
But now a wandering wight. 

He tells us that, when birds are singing and " sports are to 
the fore," he sallies forth " with fiddle and long-bow." 
By those fair spots of earth, 

Where Chaucer conned his minstrelsy, 
And Alfred drew his birth." 

(viz., Wantage and Donnington Castle). 



320 ARCHERY IN THE HOME COUNTIES. 

The Pindar goes on to assert that he must needs indite 
every chance conceit of his brain, even as 
My godfather of Greece, 

Whose worthy name I bear, 
Of a cock or a bull or a whale would sing, 

And seldom stopped to care. 
Like him it listeth me to tell 

Some fytte, in former years 
Of the merry men all, and yeoman tall 

Who were my jovial freres. 

This he proceeds to do with greater elaboration than will 
suit our space nevertheless a specimen is worth giving 
Clerk Thomaline was like Friar Tuck 

Most apt at heathen lore : 
Of Sir Teucer, and Earl Pandarus, 

Those bowmen bold of yore. 
And how their clothyard arrows flew 

On battlefields of Troy ; 
And^how Count Paris wrought the bane 

Of Thetis' princely boy. 
How stout Duke Hercules got swamped, 

A shooting carrion game, 
With Earl Strongbow, in an Irish bog, 

Lough Styonphalus by name,. 
And smote point blank at thirteen score 

Through hide and carcass sheer, 
Some son of a black horse godmother, 

Who would trot off his dear. 

Some fifty stanzas in this airy strain depict the worthies of 
the^Vale of White Horse, and with good taste, he thus winds 

up his fytte. 

Fain would I sing of those fair dames 

Who graced our archers' hall, 
And the good Lord William's gentle bride 

The flower and pride of all. 
But ladies names are touch-me-nots, 

To my rude minstrelsy, 
More wont to sing of sturdy feat, 

Quaint jest, and revelry. 
Sing Honi soit qui mat y pense 

And who will quarrel may. 
For in pure good fellowship and troth 

The Pindar has said his saye. 




No. 17, Fleet Street, in 1786. 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 321 

The writer of these papers on Archery in the Home 
Counties, may perhaps close with these words his discursive 
gossip, lest his readers should be aweary. But he will be ever 
ready to record the feats of old time in a sport which he has 
enjoyed for fifty years, and to commend it to ladies as well as 
men. 

Archery is no doubt even more than angling has been said 
to be the contemplative man's recreation. Many a sermon or 
a stanza has been turned between the targets ; and the art of 
the bow is also one of the most innocent, healthful and 
sociable of enjoyments. Experto crede. 



No. 17, FLEET STREET, SOMETIMES CALLED 
THE INNER TEMPLE GATE-HOUSE. 

BY PHILIP NORMAN, Treas. S.A. 
(Concluded from p. 236). 

THE Gate-house was from the first a freehold in the parish 
of St. Dunstan's in the West. At the same time, owing 
to the fact that it stood over the Inner Temple Lane and also 
extended for some distance along the east side of it, the 
authorities of the Inner Temple had certain rights over the 
property, which, as we have seen, were fully recognised by 
Mr. Sergeant Bennett. It is unfortunate that no early deeds 
of the house are at present forthcoming, nor can I find much 
direct allusion to it in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
From the list of names for the Poll Tax of 1666 no special 
information can be obtained, nor from that of the Hearth Tax 
levied in 1666, when apparently Mary Coke was the occupant. 
At that time, however, the back part, if not the whole, must 
already have been used for a tavern, with an entrance from 
Inner Temple Lane ; for in 1665 Monsieur Angiers advertises 
his famous remedies for stopping the plague, to be had at 



32* No. 17, FLEET STREET. 

Mr. Drinkwater's, at die Fountain,* Inner Temple Gate 



m. i i " i.rir. ~i. 2. m. i r. r i r. ~ _ r. r. ~ ~ . r m 7 . ~ .r . 7 ~ ~ r L ~ ! i v T n c 

_! 1 1". 1 !~. ~ r r II T I". ~ ! ~-I r. ~ r.I r~ ~r. rTr - 1~_ ^ ___ I'^-TZ "I ~ '.''.'. ~ '.'. 1 I ~ " 

references from them, wind wfll appear in the third volume of 
die Calendar, now in course of publication under the able 
editorship of Mr. F. A. Inderwkk, Q.C. They refer largely to 
the power of control over the windows. Thus, among the 
Bench Table orders is one of 23rd May, 1693, " that Soatherby 
have notice to aft^rnH IJM* committee of the ii**f^i at thg Library 
on Friday next, to make oat his title to the windows of the 
Fountain Tavern that look into the Temple, and that in the 
meantime the order of the table for shotting np the windows 
be suspended till farther order." And on July 2, 4, and 5 it is 
ordered " that the lights of the Fountain Tavern, next the 
Inner Temple Lane, be shot op." This has the desired effect, 
for we find that on the 230! of July : " Upon consideration of 
the petition of Edward Dixon, the vintner at the Fountain 
Tavern by the Temple Gate, whereby he owns the right of this 
society in permitting the lights of his house that are next 
the Inner Temple Lane, and prays that the obstruction lately 
r "IT M7 rr.iY i't Ti":rn i:"-"-7. ini TJLIT hr :.. firm IT r..~.>^.~ TI 






cknowkdgment for the lights as the table shall think fit, 
whereupon it is ordered that the obstruction of the said tights I 
be t^trtfti down, and that the said Mr. Dixon, in consideration ] 

Tr.rTr . I. rhll" .<~-~ 17 ITT '.'." Tf.t "J.5f if TJlr mi.~Trrf I f TT.t Ir^lh 

of this society the best room in his house upon any public show \ 
or occasion (when required) and that he pay yearly 2s. 64. on the j 
Feast of St. John the Baptist as a rent and further ackoow- j 
ledgement, and that he pay the charges of putting np the 
blind against the said lights, and subscribe this order in the I 



_ Ife Cafcadai :: S:i:e Pipers I tea ^: 
Xacwera in Fleet Street connected with a. 



i the foOowing extract : " 1637, June 22. Warrant foam the 

::' :n::ri _-~: :. .-,::-:'- S.-irr-e. -rr.s-rzrtr ::^e 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 323 

book of orders belonging to the house." This may be accepted 
as a proof that the room on the first floor with the fine ceiling 
and panelling then formed part of the tavern, for it was the 
" best room " in the house facing Fleet Street. 

The benchers, there is reason to believe, soon exercised their 
privilege, for in the General Account Book, 16 Nov., 1701, to 
15 Nov., 1702 are the following entries : " Expenses at the 
Fountain Tavern by the treasurer and masters of the bench 
while the Queen was proclaimed los. : at the Fountain Tavern 
(29 Oct.) by the masters of the bench when the Queen went to 
the Mayor's feast: at the Fountain Tavern (12 Nov.) spent this 
day being thanksgiving." I learn from other sources that the 
Society of Antiquaries, or the founders of that learned Society 
Mr. Humphrey Wanley, Mr. Bagford, and ? Mr. Talman, 
first met at the Bear Tavern, in the Strand, December 5th, 1707. 
They shortly afterwards changed their quarters to the Young 
Devil Tavern ; but the host failed, and, as Browne Willis tells 
us, the Society, in or about 1709, " met at the Fountain Tavern, 
as we went down into the Inner Temple against Chancery 
Lane." In 1739 their place of assembly was the no less historic 
Mitre, in Fleet Street. 

Referring again to the Inner Temple Records, I find that in 
July, 1731, Mr. James Sotheby (in whose family the freehold 
has continued until now), renewed his agreement with the 
Treasurer of the Temple in the following words : " I am con- 
tent to pay 2s. 6d. per annum to the Society for the privilege 
of the lights belonging to the Prince's A rms or Fountain Tavern, 
looking or opening into the Inner Temple Lane, and promise 
to make good the shops under or near the Inner Temple Gate, 
if damaged by my repairing the said tavern. I do also agree 
that the best room of the said house shall be from time to time 
set apart for the use of the masters of the said society on public 
shows or occasions, as long as and whenever the said house is 
used as a tavern or public-house, so long as two days' notice be 
given for setting apart such room to the tenant or occupier of the 
said house." In the deed of the partition of certain properties 
between the societies of the Inner and Middle Temples dating 
from November 2nd, 1732, is conveyed " all that gate opening 
into the street called Fleet Street towards the north, opposite 



3 2 4 No. 17, FLEET STREET. 

south end of the street called Chancery Lane, and the ground and 
soil of the gate and gate place, with the sole custody of the keys 
thereof, and all that lane called the Inner Temple Lane, leading 
from the said gate to the Temple Church porch," saving a right- 
of-way to the Middle Temple ; " and all those two small shops, 
the one in and the other near the said gateway on the west 
side of the said Inner Temple Lane." The shops seem to have 
remained till the earlier part of the present century. 

During many years Fleet Street was noted for exhibitions 
of various kinds, and for a time the old Gate-house was 
occupied by one, a short account of which may here be 
appropriately inserted. Perhaps the most famous wax-work 
exhibition before Madame Tussaud's was that first formed by 
Mrs. Salmon, which in the days of Queen Ann was to be seen 
at "The Golden Salmon" in St. Martin's, near Aldersgate 
(Harl. MS. 5931). In the Spectator for 2nd April, 1711, No. 28, 
is the following sentence : It would have been ridiculous for 
the ingenious Mrs. Salmon to have lived at the sign of the 
trout ; for which reason she has erected before her house the 
figure of the fish that is her name-sake. Further allusions to 
this lady are made in No. 31, 5th April, 1711, and in No. 609, 
28th October, 1714. The wax-works migrated to Fleet Street, 
where they were shown " near the Horn Tavern," now 
Anderton's Hotel. A handbill describing them, mentions " 140 
figures as big as life all made by Mrs. Salmon, who sells all 
sorts of moulds and glass eyes and teaches the full art." The 
death of the original proprietor is thus recorded: "March, 
1760, died Mrs. Steers, aged 90, but was generally known by 
the name of her former husband, Mrs. Salmon. She was famed 
for making several figures in wax which have long been shown 
in Fleet Street." The collection was then bought by Mr. 
Clark or Clarke, a surgeon, of Chancery Lane (said to have 
been the father of Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke, M.D.), and 
when he died his wife continued the exhibition under the 
name of Salmon. In 1788 we find the wax-works some little 
distance west of the Horn Tavern, at an old house, No. 189, 
Fleet Street, the site of which was afterwards occupied by 
Praed's Bank. There is a view of it in the European Magazine 
for that year, and another by J. T. Smith (1793), in his 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 325 

" Antiquities of London." At the beginning of 1795, Mrs. 
Clark shifted her quarters to No. 17 over the way. Her removal 
is announced as follows in the Morning Herald for January 
28th, 1795 (not 1785 as we are told by Timbs). "The house 
in which Mrs. Salmon's Waxworks have for above a century been 
exhibited, is pulling down : the figures are removed to the 
very spacious and handsome apartments at the corner of the 
Inner Temple Gate, which was once the Palace of Henry 
Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King James the First, and 
they are now the residence of many a royal guest. Here are 
held the Courts of Alexander the Great, of King Henry the 
Eighth, of Caractacus, and the present Duke of York. Happy 
ingenuity to bring heroes together maugre the lapse of time ! 
The levees of each of these persons are daily very numerously 
attended, and we find them all to be of very easy access, since 
it is insured by a shilling to one of the attendants." At the 
door was placed the figure on crutches of a well-known person, 
Ann Siggs by name, and, according to J. T. Smith, if a certain 
spring were trodden on, the counterfeit presentment of Mother 
Shipton kicked the astonished guest when he was in the act of 
leaving. John Timbs and C. T. Noble both say that Mrs. 
Clark died at an advanced age in 1812, and that the figures 
were then sold for 50^. or less, and removed to No. 67, at the 
corner of Water Lane. However, in a parish tithes-book I find 
the name at No. 17 three years later. In 1811, Mrs. " Biddy " 
Clark paid ios., while Messrs. Gosling and Sharpe on the east 
side paid 2/. 45. 4^., Messrs. Groom's contribution at No. 16 
was only 45., and Mrs. Deeme, of the Rainbow, paid 135. 4^. 
In 1814, Mrs. Biddy Clark is replaced by William Reed, or Read. 
Next year the name of Clark is seen again, but in the fourth 
quarter " Charlotte " is substituted for " Biddy." The following 
year Reed's name re-appears, and so ends the Clark connection. 
There is a view of the house with the sign of a salmon in front, 
old houses adjoining, a reproduction of which is given. It is by 
Schnebbelie, and first appeared in Hughson's, London, 1807. 
I would here remark that the apocryphal statement now on the 
front, that it was "formerly the palace of Henry VIII. and 
Cardinal Wolsey," probably grew in part out of the more modest 
claim that it was " once the palace of Henry Prince of Wales,'* 



326 No. 17, FLEET STREET. 

in part out of the tale already referred to of Wolsey's arms 
having been placed on the old Middle Temple Gate-house. 

We have reached the time when Mr. Reed became tenant 
in place of Mrs. Clark, and we can now gather fresh information 
from documents at the Inner Temple, which prove that after 
Mrs. Clark's time the house, or part of it, was known by its 
old sign as the Fountain Tavern. In 1817 Mr. Reed, who 
replaced Mrs. Clark, paid a small sum for the privilege of 
opening fresh lights into Inner Temple Lane. In 1822 
difficulties arose between the authorities of the Inner Temple 
and the tenant, and Mr. James Sotheby received notice 
that unless certain of his windows opening on to Inner 
Temple Lane were blocked up within a given period the 
Society would block them. Against this he petitioned, 
and in the Society's note of his petition he is described as 
" owner of the Fountain Tavern, heretofore called the Prince's 
Arms," in the occupation of Mr. Parlour, " part whereof is 
built over the Gateway." At Lady Day, 1823, the account 
book shows rent for windows looking on Inner Temple Lane, 
as follows: "Fountain Tavern, 35. 9^., Mr. Reed, is. 6^.," 
which proves that at this time the house "had two 
separate tenants. About this time or shortly afterwards the 
windows were shut off, and in 1831 a wall was ordered to be 
built on the east side of Inner Temple Lane, " next to the 
Fountain Tavern," in lieu of the scaffolding which had pre- 
viously been erected. Here we have the last mention of this 
sign. In a document of the previous year the house is described 
as " all that messuage or tenement with the buildings, offices 
and appurtenances to the same belonging, formerly known by 
the name of the Fountain Tavern, situate standing and being 
in Fleet Street heretofore in the tenure or occupation of 
Abraham Stevens afterwards of Peter Robinson and now of 
Joseph Parlour." It will be observed that there is no mention 
of Reed or of Mrs. Clark, so it seems probable that during the 
time of the wax-works the house was divided, and that part 
continued to be used as the Fountain Tavern. Again turning 
to the Records, we find that in 1842 there is a memorial from 
the owner and from Tom Skelton (hairdresser) who has become 
the occupant, which reveals the cause of the trouble that 




No. 17, Fleet Street. 

From a phoiograph taken by Mr. W. Strudivick in i i 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 327 

had led to the second shutting off of the windows ; for in it, is 
set forth that " a previous tenant had converted several of the 
rooms on the east side of the Inner Temple Lane into billiard 
rooms," by which he had incurred the displeasure of the Society, 
and that a wall had therefore been built up, excluding light 
from the ground floor windows. They prayed that this wall 
might be removed or cut through. Shortly afterwards they 
were allowed to re-open the five ground-floor windows on pay- 
ment of 55. a year, and provided that no part of the house 
should be used " as a tavern, eating house, hotel, coffee house, 
or for public exhibitions or entertainments, or for billiard-rooms." 
As we learn from, a note of 1862, the Society's party wall had 
afterwards been removed. In 1848 the firm occupying the 
house was Honey and Skelton. The hairdressing business has 
been for many years in the hands of Mr. Carter, the present 
tenant, to whom the writer is obliged for his courtesy. Our 
view of the house in 1869, is from an excellent photograph 
taken by Mr. Strudwick, one of many which he did about 
that time : it is reproduced by his kind permission. 

I have left till last, reference to Nando's coffee-house and its 
connection, real or supposed, with No. 17, Fleet Street. We all 
know what is told about Nando's in books of London topo- 
graphy, namely that it was at the east corner of Inner Temple 
Lane, which implies that it was in the Inner Temple Gate- 
house. Timbs says positively that No. 17, Fleet Street, " was 
formerly Nando's also the depository of Mrs. Salmon's 
Waxwork." Mr. H. B. Wheatley (following Peter Cunningham) 
is on surer ground when he tells us that Nando's was frequented 
by Lord Chancellor Thurlow when a briefless barrister ; * the 
charms of punch and the landlady's daughter rendering it at 
that time popular, and that here Thurlow's skill in argument 
obtained for him, from a stranger, the appointment of a junior 
counsel in the famous case of Douglas v. the Duke of Hamilton. 
No one explains the origin of the name, which w r as probably 
a contraction for Ferdinands, or Ferdinando's ; it being much 
the fashion to call coffee-houses after the name of the owner or 
occupant as Tom's, Dick's, etc. : compare also Don Saltero's. 

* " There was no one who could supply coffee or punch better than 
Mrs. Humphries ; and her fair daughter was always admired at the Bar 
and by the bar." Cradock's Memoirs, p. 71. 



328 No. 17, FLEET STREET. 

" Nando's coffee house in Fleet Street " already existed in 
1697, when a fourth part of it was conveyed to the trustees of 
the free-school at Hampton "for the maintenance of an able 
schoolmaster to teach the Latin tongue (Lysons' Middlesex 
Parishes, p. 90). As " Nondoes (sic) coffee-house near Temple 
Bar," it appears in an advertisement in the Post Boy of May 
7-9, 1700, and it is mentioned in the Universal British Directory 
as late as 1798, as still " much frequented by the professional 
gentlemen in the law." But what is the original authority for 
connecting it with the Inner Temple Gate-house ? That 
authority, as far as I have been able to ascertain, is confined to 
the fact that Bernard Lintot, the well-known publisher, in 
1707, advertised a list of his books " from the Cross Keys and 
Cushion, next Nando's Coffee House, Temple Bar," again that 
the imprint of Colley Gibber's " Lady's Last Stake," with I 
suppose many other works, is at the same address, and that 
when announcing the issue of Pope's translation of the four 
books of the Iliad, and elsewhere, described his place of business 
as being "between the Two Temple Gates." True! Mr. John 
Ashton, in his list of London coffee-houses during the reign of 
Queen Anne, mentions " Nando's at the Inner Temple Gate," but 
this, even if taken from original documents, would apply equally 
to Groom's Coffee-house or the Rainbow, both of which have 
windows on the west side of Inner Temple Lane for which 
they pay rent. On referring to Mr. F. G. Hilton Price's paper 
on Fleet Street Street Signs (Archaeological Journal, Dec., 
I ^95)> I find that the Cross Keys and Cushion was No. 16, 
the site now occupied by Groom's Coffee House, and therefore 
next to No. 17. But what proof is there that it did not occupy 
No. 15 or part of it the famous Rainbow Coffee House which 
is approached by a long passage ? or the house in front of the 
Rainbow, both next to Bernard Lintot's ? As in the case of 
No. 17, I have tried if old deeds would throw any light on the 
matter but none are forth-coming. The earliest extant shows 
that in 1807 the " Rainbow or Rainbow Coffee House," 
consisted of two tenements, " one the Rainbow Public House 
in tenure of Mrs. Deeme," the other occupied by "Mr. Barber, 
printer." 

I shall now give some evidence which favours the notion that 
the Rainbow and the coffee-house named after the mysterious 



> 



No. 17, FLEET STREET. 329 

Nando were one and the same, or at any rate were immediately 
adjoining each other, as was the case with Dick's (No. 8), 
and the Young Devil Tavern which were approached by the 
same narrow passage ; and I will begin by saying that there is 
no mention of Nando's, under that name, either (as one would 
expect to be the case if it were at No. 17) in the Inner Temple 
Records, or apparently in the parish rate-books. 

On March 22nd, 1769, occurred the " Battle of Temple 
Bar," when some 600 sober-minded people, merchants, bankers, 
and others opposed to Wilkes, set out from the Guildhall, 
headed by the City Marshall, to deliver an address at St. 
James's. The mob attacked them, took possession of Temple 
Bar, and drove them out of their carriages, and Mr. Boehm and 
several others had to retreat into Nando's Coffee House. A 
caricature of the scene exists, showing the south side of Fleet 
Street near Temple Bar. It is not strictly accurate, various 
houses being omitted, still there is a foundation of fact in it. 
Nando's, or the entrance to it, is shown, the structure above 
bearing no resemblance to the Inner Temple Gate-house, while 
the entrance is not unlike that of the Rainbow. The Devil 
Tavern is slightly to the west and close to Temple Bar. 

In the history and description of London by David 
Hughson (1807), from which we have reproduced the illustration 
by Schnebbelie, where, not only the Inner Temple Gate-house, 
but the entrance to the Rainbow appears, we are told that 
" James Farr, a barber, who kept the coffee-house, now the 
Rainbow, or Nando's coffee-house, by the Inner Temple Gate, 
one of the first in England, was in the year 1667, presented by 
the inquest of St. Dunstan's in the west, for making and 
selling a sort of liquor called coffee, as a great nuisance and 
prejudice of the neighbourhood." 

In " Tavern Anecdotes, etc., by one of the Old School " 
(a book referred to with perhaps undue disparagement in Notes 
and Queries for December 9th, 1899), there is a notice of the 
house to some extent repeating what is said by Hughson. It is 
headed : "The Rainbow ; or Nando's Coffee- House." 

In "The Every Night Book, or Life after Dark" (1827), by 
the author of Cigar (really William Clarke who compiled " The 
Boy's Own Book"), there is an account of the Rainbow, in which 



330 No. 17, FLEET STREET. 

we are told that " this tavern which stands near the Temple 
Gate, opposite Chancery Lane, in Fleet Street, once bore the 
title of Nando's as well as that of the Rainbow." 

It has been shown that Nando's was already in existence 
at the end of the i7th century. Therefore, if it were, here it 
must have been under the same roof as the Fountain, when, as 
shown in the Inner Temple Records, difficulties were being 
adjusted between Mr. Sotheby and the benchers. And yet it 
must have had an entirely separate existence, for a fourth part 
of it was conveyed to the Hampton free-school. Again, it 
survived at least until 1798, and so must have been in the same 
building as Mrs. Salmon's Waxworks; yet no record of the fact 
is forthcoming. Other arguments could be used on the same 
side of the question. But space is limited and this paper has 
been a long one; perhaps taking it as a starting-point, some 
one will be able still further to extend our knowledge of the 
fine old Inner Temple Gate-house. I will conclude by express- 
ing my thanks for their kindly assistance to Mr. G. H. Birch, 
F.S.A., to Mr. J. Hebb, to Mr. F. A. Inderwick, Q.C., to 
Mr. H. B. Wheatley, F.S.A., to Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, 
Dir.S.A., to Colonel W. F. Prideaux, to Mr. W. A. Webb, 
and to the Sub-Treasurer and Librarian of the Inner Temple. 

Note. In the July number of the Home Counties Magazine (frontis- 
piece of this article), Mr. Webb's measured drawings of the pilasters are 
wrongly named ; that in front of the first floor is described as belonging to 
the second floor, and vice versa. On page 232, Edward Prideaux 
should be Edmund Prideaux. An illustration of the gate-house in its 
unaltered condition occurs on a copy by George Vertue, dated 1723, of a 
plan of London after the Great Fire. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

"ToM KING," AND DRURY LANE THEATRE. By a deed 
poll in my possession dated i6th September, 1784, Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan, Thomas Linley, and James Ford, as 
Patentees and Proprietors of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 
granted to Thomas King, of Gerrard Street, Soho, Esq., a rent 
of two shillings for every day or night wherein any performance 
shall be exhibited, together with free admission to any part of 
the Theatre, except the stage and behind the scenes, and private 
boxes, for twenty-one years, in consideration of 250^. And by 
a deed of assignment indorsed thereon, dated i6th December, 
1785, Thomas King assigned such rent and free admission to 
Nathaniel Middleton in consideration of 230^. Can any of 
your readers inform me if this Thomas King was the actor and 
manager of Drury Lane Theatre (1782-87) commonly called 
" Tom King," the "pleasant wag," whose love of fun suggested 
and executed the prank recorded in the well-known verses 
" Monsieur Tonson," by John Taylor, illustrated by Robert 
Cruikshank, London : Alfred Miller, Oxford Street, 1830 ? 
the lines begin, 

" There liv'd, as Fame reports, in days of yore, 
At least some fifty years ago or more, 

A pleasant wag on town, yclep'd Tom King." 

And can he be identified as living in Gerrard Street ? E. J. 
BARRON. 

EMIGRANTS FROM ST. ALBANS, 1635. Can any reader give 
me information about the locality from which the emigrants 
who sailed from England in The Planter, 2nd April, 1635, may 
have proceeded ? The statement (Hotten p. 45) that they 
embarked under a certificate from the minister of St. Albans 
appears to imply that they were the parishioners of the St. 
Albans minister for 1635. In what registers may the following 
names be found as belonging to fellow-townsfolk of the same 
period : Tuttell, Lawrence, Antrobus, Wrast, Chittwood, 
Olney, Giddins, Beardsley. The uncommon name, Perley 
Feloe, baker, may afford some clue. VINCENT B. REDSTONE. 



332 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

HUBERT DE BURGH. I should esteem it a favour if any 
of your readers could give me any information as to the name 
of the smith who refused to put fetters on Hubert de Burgh 
when he was arrested at Brentwood. Z. MOON, Leyton Public 
Library. 

OAK PANELS AT ST. PETER'S CHURCH, THANET. In 
the vestry of St. Peter's Church, Thanet, are some oak 
panels that originally one may reasonably conjecture formed 
part of the rood screen. Some six panels have been highly 
decorated, but are so rubbed and defaced that it is rather 
difficult to make out the subjects with accuracy : Queen Bertha, 
The Blessed Virgin, St. Augustine, St. George, and perhaps 
King Ethelbert may represent some of the subjects. But a 
skilful hand. and one accustomed to mediaeval ornamentation 
should depict these panels properly, and I earnestly hope this 
may be carried out and the results placed over the originals 
that the subjects may be distinctly regarded and appreciated. 
I have heard that in Kent similar panels in fair preservation 
exist, but in what church I know not. These panels and the 
underground chapels in Thanet are, I contend, objects of great 
interest and might be better known. That at St. Nicholas Court 
and the one in the Garden at Nash Court are excellent examples. 
I believe that others exist in Thanet. It would gratify me 
to hear the opinion of a noted antiquary upon these chapels. 
ALFRED J. COPELAND, Lieut. -Col., F.S.A., Ramsgate. 

CHIPCHASE FAMILY. I desire to trace the antecedents of 
members of this north-country family who settled in the eastern 
parts of London, and to learn whether there are any ot 
their tombs or gravestones in existence. JOHN WORTLEY 
CHIPCHASE, 14, Clover Street, Chatham. 

BRAWLING IN BRAUGHING CHURCH, HERTS. Among the 
Star Chamber Proceedings of Henry VIII. (Bundle 19, Nos. 
294, 316, 319), is a petition by Robert Philipson, the vicar, 
alleging that on the 29th May, 1520, Humphrey Fitzherbert, 
one of the churchwardens, and others, attacked him while he 
was standing before the crucifix, and " made a terrible assaute 
and affraye and drewe blod on hym." They continually 
threatened him, and he was unable to perform his duties. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 333 

Fitzherbert in his examination admits having said that 
petitioner was a " simple and a lewd preest " and divers other 
words " that were of small effect." ERNEST F. KIRK. 

GEORGE ELIOT AT RICHMOND. An illustrated article on 
George Eliot's house at Richmond appeared in the January 
number of this Magazine. In 1855 George Eliot took small 
lodgings on the second floor of 8, Parkshott, Richmond, close to 
the station ; and soon after, amid the beauties of Richmond 
Park, determined on attempting a novel. In these lodgings she 
produced all the " Scenes of Clerical Life," and wrote nearly the 
whole of " Adam Bede." This is to say that not only was her 
career fixed in these lodgings, but that the whole of her freshest 
and very nearly her best work (I am thinking of " Middlemarch " 
in my reservation) was produced here. The tiny lodgings in 
the little house so entirely represent a great and fruitful career 
that I plead, before it be entirely too late, that an effort be made 
for the acquisition of it ; and for its conversion to some public 
end in Richmond in commemoration of George Eliot. The 
sands are running out as the property may at any moment be 
purchased. If this be entirely impossible it ought now at once 
to be taken care that on the exact site, in any new house which 
is erected, a tablet be placed stating the facts of her residence, 
and the work produced here ; or that a tablet or small memorial 
opposite the site, and detached from the house, should be so 
erected. C. S. OAKLEY. 

RAMSGATE. The origin of the name of Ramsgate is involved 
in much obscurity. Every topographer who has dealt with 
the subject has recognized the difficulty, but no satisfactory 
solution has ever been made. Lewis, in his " History of 
Tenet," ed. 1736, p. 174, says that " the Vanity of the 
Inhabitants has fancied the name to be Romans-gate, from its 
being used as a Port or Landing-place by the Romans." He 
does not mention that the vanity of one or two tradesmen 
carried them so far as to have tokens struck towards the end 
of the seventeenth century with the name " Romans-gate " 
upon them, and although I agree with him in rejecting this 
etymology, he is incorrect in inferring that the Romans were 
never at Ramsgate from the apparent absence of any coins or 
other remains. As a matter of fact a considerable number of 

x 



334 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Roman antiquities have been discovered within recent years at 
Ramsgate. Later authorities have fancied that the first 
syllable of the word represents the Celtic Riiim, which is said 
to have been the original name, some say, of Richborough, 
some of the Isle of Thanet. I think it extremely unlikely that a 
hybrid formation of this kind would have given a permanent 
name to the place. There is no evidence that the Anglo- 
Saxons ever adopted such a word as Ruim. The chief difficulty 
lies in the fact that no very ancient form of the name seems to 
be discoverable. The earliest mention of it in Dr. Cotton's 
valuable " History of St. Laurence" occurs in "The Hundred 
Roll of Kent," when Cristina de Remmesgate is mentioned, 
with others, as having stopped a common road at Remisgate 
(1274). ^ n the list of the payers of Romescot, temp. Edw. I., 
several persons with the surname of Raunsgate are included. 
Up to the time of Lewis, the name was spelt Ramesgate. 
This uncertainty leads one to have recourse to analogy. 
Several places in England bear the same prefix. One of the 
most important was Ramsbury in Wiltshire, which in Anglo- 
Saxon times was an episcopal See. This place was originally 
Hraefnesburh, or Ravensbury, and it is also found in the 
softened form Hremnes-burh (" Crawford Charters," vii. 13). 
Hremmes-den or Ramsdean in Hants, and Ramnes-mere or 
Ramsmere in Hants, are also found in the Charters (Thorpe's 
" Diplomatarium," pp. 146, 252). It is therefore easy to see 
how from the prefix Hrsefen or the softened form Hremn we 
arrive at the name of Ramsgate in the earliest known spelling 
of Rauns-gate or Remmes-gate. The name may possibly 
point to a Danish occupation in very early times, which 
considering the geographical position of the port, would be 
not an unlikely occurrence. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

OLD BLENHEIMS. In an article on " Charles and Mary 
Lamb" (" Midd. and Herts. N. and Q.," Jan. 1897,) the writer 
refers to a cottage near Blakesware House, known as 
Blenheims, where had lived a young girl by name Ann 
Simmons, the gentle maid, Anna, of Lamb's poems [the Alice 
Witnterton of his Essays of Elia] who appears to have been 
the only person for whom he had a sentimental attachment. 
In visiting Old Blenheims, last July, I learnt with regret that 



REPLIES. 



335 



the cottage had been wantonly destroyed eight months 
before by the present owner of Blakesware. It stood 
within a short walk of Helham Green, across the upland, 
near a group of trees. A few heaps of scattered bricks 
and the remains of an old well are all that is now left. 
In a short time every trace will be lost, and future pilgrims to 
Widford will seek in vain the cottage of the fair-haired maid. 
One can only echo Lamb's own words on the demolition of Old 
Blakesware. How shall they build it up again ? H. H., 
Royal Societies Club. 



REPLIES. 

P R I N C E'S 

COURT TABLET 
(Middlesex and 
Herts Notes and 
Queries, Vol. i., 
p. 103). It may 
be of interest to 
those who were 
readers of the 
Middlesex and 
Herts Notes and 
Queries, to know 
that the tablet 
in s c r i b e d 
" P r i n c e's 
Court," which is 
mentioned in 
"Vanishing 
Landmarks," is 
r - l - still in existence, 
having been re- 
placed by the Clerk of the Works during the building operations 
that were going on in Prince's Street some time ago. The 
shield, which is of excellent design and workmanship, is shown 
in the accompanying sketch. WALTER H* GODFREY, Fair- 
leigh, Berlin Road, Catford. 




336 REVIEWS. 



REVIEWS. 

The Early History of English Poor Relief. By E. M. Leonard, Cambridge. (The University 
Press, 1900. Is. 6d. net.) 

The tendency of the present day is to pay increasing attention to the social 
aspects of English History, some of the most important of which form the subject 
matter of the work before us. In its earlier stages the public organisation of poor 
relief was closely connected with the maintenance of social order. A bad harvest 
or a crisis in the cloth trade produced a riot or an insurrection, and it was to a great 
extent out of the measures taken to grapple with disorder that our system of 
public poor relief arose. 

The present work is the result of much original research, chiefly among the 
municipal records of London and Norwich, and the very numerous reports returned 
by Justices of the Peace and now preserved among the State papers. One of the 
chief points which Miss Leonard seeks to establish is that the English system of 
poor relief was not derived from the statutes and imposed from above, but was 
established antecedently to the statutes by municipal regulations which grew up 
gradually to meet social necessities ; in fact, that, like other English institutions, 
it was " a growth, not a creation." 

The first Act, providing for compulsory assessment for poor relief, was passed in 
1572, but as early as 1547 the Common Council of the City of London had levied 
half a fifteenth from their own citizens for that purpose, while in 1524 vagabonds 
' mighty of body " were to be whipped " at a cart's tayle," and in 1533 the alder- 
men were to gather " the devotions of the parishioners for the poor folk weekly, 
and to distribute them to the poor folk at the church doors." Again the Royal 
Palace of Bridewell, chiefly through Bishop Ridley's influence, was set apart to 
provide work "wherewith the willing poor may be exercised, and wherewith the 
froward, strong and sturdy vagabond may be compelled to live profitably to the 
Commonwealth . ' ' 

The connection between the early methods of poor relief and the provision and 
enforcement of work is traced throughout the work before us. Miss Leonard has 
endeavoured to show that, notably during the personal Government of Charles I., 
a series of measures were undertaken by the Privy Council with the object of im- 
proving the condition of the poorer classes', and that these were enforced with 
considerable vigour by the Justices of the Peace. Among those expedients were the 
distribution of corn to the poor at reduced prices during years of scarcity, the pro- 
vision of work for the unemployed, the stringent enforcement of the apprenticeship 
of pour children, and the improvement of wages by Government regulation. Where 
measures of repression failed to cope with the evils of vagrancy, measures of 
organised relief to a great extent succeeded in transforming the idle and disorderly 
into industrious members of the community. Indeed the importance of this action 
by the Privy Council can scarcely be over-rated, and we certainly do not think that 
Miss Leonard has gone too far in the statement of her case, however much it may 
conflict with the preconceived ideas of a certain school of economic wiiters. 

Space prevents our alluding further to the interesting conclusions discussed in 
this book and supported by a mass of evidence patiently and judiciously gathered 
from original sources. 

We heartily commend the work before us to all interested in the study of 
economics and poor relief. It adds largely to our knowledge of a very obscure 
subject, and forms a valuable addition to the still somewhat scantily furnished 
library of social and economic history. It will be useful alike to the student and 
the social reformer, and will be heartily welcomed by philanthropic workers who 
take an intellectual interest in the problems which confront them. 

Sweet Hampstead and its Associations, by Mrs. Caroline White. (Elliot Stock, 15s.) 

It may, perhaps, be thought that there could be no room for another book 

treating of Hampstead, but Mrs. White's work discovers certain points in 

Hampstead history that have not yet received the notice they deserve, and deals 

with them pleasantly and instructively. The writer is clearly an ardent lover of 






REVIEWS. 337 

this once rural and still attractive suburb of London. Of Hampetead worthies and 
unworthies (there were many of each) she has much to tell us. Mrs. White does 
not know for certain whether the fine continental glass, placed by the late Thomas 
Neave in Branch Hill Lodge, still remains there ; we are glad to inform her that it 
does, and that it is prized and admired by the present owner of the house, Mr. 
Basil Woodd Smith, J.P., whose intended departure from Hampstead will be 
regretted by all who are aware of the lively interest he has always taken in every- 
thing that tended to promote the welfare of the place. 

A Catalogue of "Westminster Records in the custody of the Vestry. Edited by J. E. Smith, 
F.S.A., Vestry Clerk. (Wightman & Co). 

This is a really sumptuous volume ; it is illustrated by numerous facsimiles of 
portions of the records dealt with, and is tastefully bound and printed. As a con- 
tribution to London topography it will be most valuable. The custodians of the 
parish records in past years seem to have been unusually zealous in the care of the 
archives in their charge, and to have expended money for the repair and binding 
of those archives at a period when little heed was paid to such things. As a result 
Mr. Smith has in his custody Churchwardens' Accounts going back to 1460. This is 
the principal series of records, but the Overseers' Accounts, Vestry Minutes, and 
Kate Books, and some of the miscellaneous classes, are of respectable antiquity. 

In compiling his calendar Mr. Smith has followed the logical practice of giving 
a complete list of the records in his custody ; so that the enquirer for a particular 
fact may see at once from the list what there is for the date he requires to search. 
A list like this is invaluable, but it is "dry" reading. Mr. Smith is conscious 
of the fact, and so he has given us from some of the classes copious extracts, and 
has edited these extracts with explanatory notes. 

It is difficult to know what to refer to here as the most interesting extracts, all 
abound with illustrations of domestic life and manners, and many entries refer to 
individuals famous in history, as for instance those relating to Caxton and his 
father, and the former's bequest of books. Ecclesiolo gists will certainly be interested 
in the inventories of goods, jewels and ornaments in St. Margaret's Church in 1511, 
1572, and 1614-15 ; the earliest fills three pages ; the second and last together only 
occupy the like space. 

Pedigree "Work a Handbook for the Genealogist, by "W. P. "W. Phillimore, M.A. (Phillimore & 
Co., 1*. net). 

Mr. Philliraore has compiled a most useful vade mecum for the genealogist ; he 
tells him (or her) how to collect material for family history and what to do with it 
when collected. His short accounts of the different record repositories in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland are very concise, and his chapter on "chronology," with a 
table of regnal years of the King* and Queen of England will be found exceedingly 
useful. The book will fit comfortably in the coat pocket. 

Farnham and its surroundings, written and illustrated by Gordon Home, with introduction, by 
Edna Lyall. (Homeland Association, St. Bride's Press, 6rf.) "Week Ends in Uoplands, 
written and illustrated by Duncan Moule. (Homeland Association, Is.) 

There is an obvious reason why the publications of the Homeland Association 
should receive notice in these pages : the object of the Association nd of this 
magazine is identical - the spread of knowledge of English topography. No greater 
incitement to visit the Farnham district in Surrey and the Tonbridge district of 
Kent, can the stay-at-home Londoner receive than the study of the two little hand- 
books before us. Mr. Moule's skill as a draftsman is already known to the readers 
of the " Home Counties Magazine," and his illustrations of Ightham Mote, 
Chiddingstone, and Hever in the present volume are particularly pleasing examples 
of his work. In a different style, but also attractive, are Mr. Gordon Home's 
Surrey pictures that appear in the Farnham book. This volume, be it said, in a most 
remarkable production. How it can be issued for the money is more than we can 
fathom. The amount of really valuable topography gathered together in it (some 
from original records) is wonderful. That "Edna Ly all's " introduction, in 
which she describes her own connection with, and recollections of Farnham, is 
charmingly written goes without saying. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Aldgate, Chaucer at, 253. 
Aldgate, Holy Trinity, 45. 
Aldham, charities of, 9. 
America, emigrants to, 331. 
Archery in the Home Counties, 12, 98, 

201, 316. 
Ashford, 209. 



Baildon, W. Paley, 169. 

Barren, E. J., 331. 

Bedfont, 207. 

Bedford, Rev. W. K. R., 12, 98, 201, 

316. 

Berghold, charities of, 236. 
Berkhampstead, charities of, 75. 
Berkshire, archery in, 316. 
Bickley, A. C., 105. 
Binfield, Pope at, 53. 
Birds cf Prey in Hertfordshire, 131. 
Blakistor', Hugh, 78. 
Blenhiems, Old, 334. 
Boxted, charities of, 236. 
Braughing Church, 332. 
Bray, the Real Vicar of, 181. 
Bromley (Kent), 162. 
Broxbourne, charities of, 225. 
Buckinghamshire, Richard Tottell's 

connection with, 185. 
Bulkeley-Owen, F., 247. 
Buntingford, charities of, 225. 
Burrell, Rev. H. J. E., 157, 219. 



Caudeler, Richard, tomb of, 301. 
Carbonell, William Charles, 277. 
Catford, wild birds at, 86. 
Chalfont St. Peter's, Church and 

Church-house at, 35-36. 
Chandler, John, 301. 
Charing Cross, Charles I's statue at, 

165. 



Charities, Essex, 9, 120, 236. 

, Herts, 75, 103, 225. 

Charles I., statue of at Charing Cross, 

165. 

Chaucer at Aldgate, 253. 
Chipchase family, 332. 

, J. W., 332. 

Chipping Barnet, charities of, 103. 
Christ Church, Aldgate, or Holy 

Trinity, Priory of, 45. 
Church Livings in Middlesex at the 

time of the Commonwealth, Survey 

of, 62, 207, 280. 
Church Plate, hi the Diocese of London 

Notes on, 113, 240, 308. 
Clinch, George, 89, 238. 
Cockerell, Samuel Pepys, 280. 
Colchester, charities of, 236. 
Colne Wake, charities of, 10. 
Copeland, A. J., 332. 
Cowley, 211, 
Cowper, William, house of, at Olney, 

153. 

, Birthplace of, 250. 

, Portrait of, 1. 

Cranford, 282. 

, Sign of the " Peggy Bed- 
ford " at, 86. 
Grossman, Alan F., 132. 
Crouch, Family of, 84. 



De Burgh, Hubert, 332. 
Dene Holes, 43, 167. 
Desborough Lodge, 273, 279. 
Drury Lane Theatre, 331. 



E 



East Horndon, Story of the Serpent 

of, 247. 

East Kent, see Kent. 
"Eliot, George," 65, 333. 
Epsom Wells and Epsom Downs, 89. 
Essex Charities, 9, 120, 236. 
Esthorpe, 120. 



INDEX, 



339 



Farleigh Court, Surrey, 164. 

Feltham, 208. 

Fitzgerald, Lucius, 53. 

Fleet, the, 248. 

Fleet Street (No. 17), sometimes called 

the Inner Temple Gate-house, 227, 

321. 
Freshfield, E. H., 113, 240, 308. 



Greenford, 283. 
Grim' s Dyke, 163. 



H., H. 335. 
Hackney, 84. 
Hales, Professor, 253. 
Hampton, 207. 
Han worth, 283. 
Harefield, 281. 
Harlington, 282. 
Harmondsworth, 282. 
Harpenden, 103. 
Hertford, charities of, 75 
Hertfordshire, archery in, 12. 

, Birds of prey in, 131. 

, Charities of, 75, 103, 225. 

Heston, 62. 

Hill, Rowland, Viscount, 280. 

Hillingdon, 280. 

Holy Trinity or Christchurch Priory, 

at Aldgate, 45. 
Home Counties, archery in, 12, 98, 

201, 316. 
, meteorology of, 33, 144, 198, 

305. 

Hopkinson, John, 33, 144, 198, 305. 
Humphreys, Sir John, 277- 



Ickenham, 282. 
Isleworth, 62. 



Kemble, Charles, 273. 

Kent, archery in, 98. 

, roads and rivers of in the last 

century, 69, 111. 
, East, parish history of, 23, 129, 

211, 284. 
Kentish Place-names, pronunciation 

of, 87, 164. 
Kew, its palaces and associations, 147, 

248. 

King, Tom, 331. 
Kirk, E. F., 333. 



Laleham, 209. 
Lethaby, W. R., 45. 
Lewisham, 162. 

, Court Hill Road, at 85. 

Lexden, charities of, 236. 

Lincoln's Inn, the old gate -house of, 

169, 292. 
Littlebury, manor and parish of, 157, 

219, 248. 
Littleton, 210. 
Little Dunmow, visit to, 71. 
Little Horksley, charities of, 236. 



Margate Grotto, 245. 

Markyate, Herts, the Old Five Horse 

Shoes at, 163. 
Mathews, Charles James, 269. 

, Mrs., 269. 

Meteorology of the Home Counties, 

33, 144, 198, 275. 
Middlesex, Archery in, 201. 
, survey of church livings in, 

at time of Commonwealth, 62, 207, 

280. 

Mitcham, old mill at, 238. 
Moon, Z., 332. 
Moul, Duncan, 71. 
Much Birch, charities of, 120. 
, Horksley, charities of, 236. 



N 



National Trust, the, 78. 

Nether Hall, Roydon, 166. 

Norman, Philip, 227, 321. 

Notes and Queries, 84, 162, 245, 331. 



Oakley, C. S., 333. 

O'Donoghue, F.M., 1. 

Old Blenhiems, 334. 

Olney, Cowper's house at, 153, 250. 



Passmore, W. B., 27, 139, 214. 
" Peahen," the sign of, 24ft 
Perivale, 284. 
Peter, the wild boy, 86. 
Place-Names, mangling of, 84. 

-, Kentish, pronunciation of, 

87, 164. 

Plomer, Henry R., 185. 
Pope at Binfield, 53. 
Prideaux, W. F., 334. 



340 



INDEX. 



Q 



Quarterly Notes, 2, 94, 177, 259. 



Ramsgate, 333. 
Rashliegh, G. B., 69, 111. 
Read, family of, in Hertfordshire, 105. 
Redbourne, charities of, 103. 
Redstone, Vincent B, 331. 
Replies, 86, 164, 248, 335. 
Reviews, 87, 168, 251, 336. 
Richmond, "George Eliot's" house 

at, 65, 333 
Roads and Rivers of Kent in the last 

century, 69, 111. 
Roydon, Nether Hall at, 166. 
Ruislip, 281. 
Rutton, W. L., 17, 121, 190, 269. 



S 



St. Albans, charities of, 75, 103. 

, emigrar-ts from, 331 

St. Michael Bassishaw, history of the 

church and rectory of, 27, 139, 214. 
St. Peter's, Thanet, paintings in, 332. 
Sanderson or Saucderson Family, 84, 

86. 

Sandwich, 214, 284. 
Sandwich, Peter de, 23, 129, 284. 
Smith, J. Challenor, 181. 
Staines, 210. 

Standon Massey Charities, 85, 165. 
Stanwell, 208. 
Shepperton, 208. 
Summers, A. Leonard, 147. 
Sunbury, 62. 
Surrey, archery in, 316 
, a new history of, 263. 



Teddington, 62. 

Thanet, St. Peter's Church in, 332. 

Tottell, Richard, the printer, and his 

connection with Buckinghamshire, 

185. 

Turner, F., 65. 
Twickenham. 62 
Tyburn Gallows and the Fleet, 248. 



U 



Unwin family, the, 163. 
Uxbridge, 210. 



W 



Waller, J. G., 43. 
Ware, Isaac, 279. 
Watford Free School, 85. 

School, 75. 

Westbourne Farm, 27^. 
Westbourne Green, 17, 121, 165, 190, 
269. 

House, 279. 

Park, 279. 

Place, 279. 

West Drayton, 282. 

White, John, 277. 

Wild birds seen at Catford, 86. 

Woods, Rev. F. H., 35, 36. 

Woxbridge, pee Uxbridge. 

Wright, Thomas, 153. 






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