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"The Centuriation of a district was its division into rectangular parcels 
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Devoted to the Topography of London, 

Middlesex, Essex, Herts, Bucks, 

Berks, Surrey, and Kent 


VOLUME XI, 1909 




Sir John Barnard. 
From a mcxxotint by J. Faber, aftc'r Allan Ramsey. 

l?v \V. L. RUTTON, F.S.A. 

[Continued from vol. x, p. 267.] 


OUR second portrait is that of one of the most eminent 
and estimable of the Lord Mayors, the four hundred 
and ninth. He was equally distinguished as mer- 
chant, magistrate, politician, financier, and philan- 
thropist. Of his parentage we only learn that his father and 
mother were of Reading, members of the Society of Friends, 
usually, though unhandsomely, called Quakers. The best traits 
of that respected sect were preserved by him through life, 
although as a thoughtful youth of eighteen he decided to adopt 
the more expressive Established Church. When fifteen he 
was placed in the wine business of his father, and by ability and 
assiduity made rapid progress towards its management. Foi 
some twenty years, however, his course, though prosperous, 
was ordinary, and not until his thirty-sixth year does he seem 
to have come into public notice as a strong and able man. 
Then, in 1720, he was chosen by his fellow-merchants to 
present a petition to the House of Lords against a bill which 
had been passed by the Commons adversely affecting their 
trade. His readiness of speech and argument on this occasion 
formed his passport to public life, his fitness to represent them 
in Parliament being made apparent to the citizens of London. 
His election followed in 1722, and for nearly forty years he re- 
presented the City, taking first rank as an authority in financial 
matters, and boldly expressing his opinions when adverse to the 
policy of the great Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole. By 
his courage, independence, and eloquence, he commanded the 
deference of the House, and what he had to say he determined 
should be heard ; a litttle story to this effect, though oft told, 
must be repeated. Once when speaking he observed the 
Prime Minister whispering to the Speaker, who deferentially 
leaned towards him on the arm of his chair. " Mr. Speaker ! 
Mr. Speaker ! " cried out Sir John, " I address myself to you 
and not to your chair. I will be heard. I call that Right 


Honourable Gentleman to order." Whereon the Speaker 
adjusted his position, begged pardon of the Member for 
London, and desired him to proceed. 

Bills presented by him had as their object better regulations 
for merchant-seamen, the improvement of gaols, the relief of 
poor debtors, the reformation of the London police. His chief 
measure, perhaps, was one of finance, viz., the reduction of 
interest on the National Debt from four to three per cent., 
which, although unsuccessful in 1737 and even at that time 
the cause of temporary unpopularity to Barnard had, when 
eventually carried, the effect of so much enhancing his reputa- 
tion as a financier that, in 1746, the Chancellorship of the 
Exchequer was offered to him. That high position, however, 
he declined. 

In the City his career was thus marked : Alderman ot 
Dowgate Ward, 1728 ; Knighted by George II, 1732 ; Sheriff, 
1735 ; Lord Mayor, 1737 ; " Father of the City " as Alderman 
of Bridge Without, 1749. On attaining the latter dignity, the 
London merchants, to testify their respect, erected his statue 
in the Royal Exchange, an honour previously accorded only to 
sovereigns, and one so inconsistent with his own modesty, that 
ever after he transacted his business outside the building. 1 
This great distinction, meant to crown his noble public conduct, 
had probably special reference to his high patriotism in 1745, 
when, to avert panic in the City and a run on the Bank, caused 
by the temporary success of the Pretender and his advance 
from Scotland, Barnard headed a band of 1,600 merchants who 
guaranteed the payment of the Bank's notes and obligations. 

As a magistrate he was vigilant, just and humane. Always 
religious and faithful to his early principles, he promoted the 
observance of Sunday ; but his deference to the clergy was not 
allowed to affect his constant impartiality. It is related that on 
one occassion when a " reverend " offender brought before him 
appealed for consideration in canonical garb, he was told that 
the sanctity of his profession had aggravated his offence, and 
the penalty should not be relaxed. 

Lord Stanhope, in his History, describes Sir John Barnard 
as the type of an honourable British Merchant. The Earl of 
Chatham when Mr. Pitt called him " the great commoner," a 

1 This statue doubtless perished in the fire of 1838. An existing picture 
of it scarcely causes regret for its disappearance. 



soubriquet afterwards attached to the Earl's own son, the 
illustrious Prime Minister. Sir Robert Walpole reckoned him 
a doughty opponent in Parliament. Other Ministers, Granville 
and Pulteney, sought his advice at Clapham. Lord Palmerston 
(the first) sanctioned the marriage of his son with the daughter 
of Sir John, who afterwards became the guardian of the son's 
son, the second Vicount. 

In 1754 was his last election by the City to Parliament; it 
was urged upon him against his desire. He retained his seat 
until 1761 ; but previously, in 1758, his age being seventy- 
three, he resigned his civic duties, and in some degree sought 
retirement in his home at Clapham. Here he lived kindly 
and hospitably with his neighbours, chiefly fellow-merchants, 
meeting them weekly at a club, riding out with them on 
Saturdays and Mondays, and occasionally taking part in the 
pastime of the bowling-green. And at times, as said above, he 
was visited by distinguished politicians. 

In his family he was exemplary. His wife was Jane, 
daughter of John Godschall, a City merchant. He had the 
misfortune to lose her in the year of his mayoralty, and it 
appears that she died at his City residence, for it is recorded 
that the funeral procession to Clapham was attended through 
the City by the children [i.e., the Blue-coat Boys] of Christ's 
Hospital, of which Sir John was many years President (A New 
and Gen. Biog. Diet., 1767, vol. xii, 69). The remains, however, 
were not finally deposited at Clapham, but (eleven days after 
death) in Mortlake Church, as noted in the register: " Sep. I, 
Dame Jane Barnard, Lady Mayoress of y e City of London was 
buried." The choice of place just then seems rather curious, 
for the daughter, Jane Barnard, was not yet married to the Hon. 
Henry Temple, of East Sheen, in Mortlake. That marriage, 
however, was celebrated so soon after as September I2th (Gent. 
Mag.), and it connected Sir John with Mortlake. For his 
son-in-law, Lord Palmerston's only son, died ere two years 
were completed, and we readily imagine the father's visit to his 
widowed daughter, who lived at East Sheen with her only son 
(the future second Lord Palmerston), to whom Sir John was 
guardian. This lady lived to see her grandson, the third 
Viscount, who was to be famous as the Prime Minister of 
Queen Victoria ; he was about four years old when his grand- 
mother died on January 25th, 1789 (Annual Register). I here 



correct an error of date taken from Lodge in my Temple Grove 
paper [vol. ix, p. 136]. She, too, was buried at Mortlake, 
"The Honb le Jane Temple," February 5th, 1789. 

The elder of Sir John's two daughters was Sarah, the wife of 
Sir Thomas Hankey, Kt., of London, and in their descendants 
is now represented the venerated Lord Mayor of 1738, for John, 
his only son to whom we shall presently refer left no issue. 

Sir John Barnard died on August 28th, 1764. The con- 
temporary record of the Gentleman's Magazine cannot be here 
omitted : 

" At Clapham, in a very advanced age, Sir John Barnard, Knt., 
sometime Father of the City. He served the office of Lord Mayor 
in 1737 [and 1738], represented the City in six Parliaments with 
great honour to himself and with the highest approbation of his 
constituents, and was ever justly revered and esteemed as a 
gentleman of consummate abilities and inviolable integrity." 

He was buried with his wife in Mortlake Church, September 
4th, 1764. The simple entry in the register is the only 
memorial there ; even his grave is now unknown. This we 
regret, and think discreditable to those who should have pre- 
served it. The words Humani Generis Decus were added to the 
inscription on his statue in the Royal Exchange, but both 
Exchange and statue perished in the fire of 1838. 

Some details of his will, at Somerset House, may be interest- 
ing. Very solemnly he commits his soul to God, and directs 
that his body may be buried at Mortlake near the remains of 
his dear wife, in a very private and inexpensive manner. His 
only son, John, had already been equipped " for his advantage 
in the world," and his two daughters, Dame Sarah Hankey and 
the Hon. Mrs. Temple, had had their marriage portions ; they 
have now further sums, and Dame Hankey having died her 
share is to be divided between her six children. Thomas 
Suttton, his grandson [? by Hankey marriage], has the money 
arising from the sale of his [Sir John's] furniture in the house 
in Broad Street ; this grandson has a further legacy, and each 
grandchild is similarly benefited. There are bequests to nieces 
Dowson and Mary Gofife, to cousins Hannah Thomas, Mary 
Willes of Marlborough, and Dr. Thomas, to the Governors of 
Christ's Hospital and of the Foundling Hospital, to his servants, 
to the Rev. Mr. Stonehouse [afterwards Baronet], Rector of 
Clapham, the Rev. Mr. Mapletoft, curate of same, and the 



assisting curate of Mortlake, five guineas each in lieu of 
burying fees. The residue of his personal estate, his goods and 
chattels, his freehold, copyhold, and leasehold lands and tene- 
ments [not named] he leaves to his dear son John, who with his 
worthy friend, John Small, of Clapham, are appointed executors 
with special legacies. By a codicil there is a legacy to his son- 
in-law, Sir Thomas Hankey, Knight, and bequests to the poor 
of Clapham, Mortlake, and East Sheen. The will was made 
April 24th, 1763, and proved September loth, 1764. 

From Sir John's pen there is extant a little volume entitled : 
A Present for an Apprentice, or a sure guide to gain both esteem 
and an estate, by a late Lord Mayor of London ( 1 740) ; it is 
described in Diet. Nat. Biog. as " a curious medley of Christian- 
ity and Commerce." Also : Considerations on the Proposal for 
reducing the Interest on the National Debt (1750), and, in his 
retirement, The Nature and Government of the Christian Church 
from the Word of God ( 1 76 1 ). 

JOHN BARNARD, the son, lived, apparently unmarried, 
as a rich man and collector of works of art, in Berkeley Square, 
London. What we learn of him is derived from his will and 
two notices in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1785 (pp. 64, 155), 
written shortly after his death. Here he is referred to as " son 
of the patriotic Sir J. Barnard, many years Father of the City 
of London." A portion of his will is quoted. He is said to 
have died worth ,200,000, and that having no issue he left his 
real and personal estate to his nephew, Thomas Hankey, Esq. 

The will contains the names of many legatees, and some 
interesting particulars. After pious committal of his soul, he 
desires the burial of his body in the most private and inexpen- 
sive manner possible, in woolen according to law, and where it 
will occasion the least trouble. To his " cousin " Joshua 
Payne, he leaves his estate called Playhatch, in the parish of 
Sunning, Oxfordshire, and the other of his freehold and lease- 
hold estates are left to his nephew, Thomas Hankey. To his 
sister, the Hon. Jane Temple, he leaves 2,000 ; to his three 
nephews, Henry, Lord Viscount Palmerston, John Hankey and 
Robert Hankey, certain life annuities. Legacies to his " cousin," 
Jane Johnson, of Mortlake ; to Mrs. Godschall, his cousin [ot 
his mother's family] ; to his good friend the Earl of Portmore ; 
to his friend Isaac Pilleau, a clerk in the Bank of England ; to 



his friend William Baillie, Esq., Commissioner of the Stamp 
Office ; to Captain Thomas Baillie, late Deputy Governor of 
Greenwich Hospital [the bequest quoted in Gent. Mag.'] " as a 
small token of my approbation of his worthy and disinterested 
though ineffectual endeavours to rescue that noble national 
charity from the rapacious hands of the basest and most wicked 
of mankind " (not named). Legacies also to his friend John 
Bertels, a native of Brussels, and one of the proprietors of the 
auction room in King Street, St. James's Square ; to Mr. John 
Greenwood, painter and auctioneer in the Haymarket ; to 
Mr. Dominic Serres, of Warwick, painter of sea-views ; to Alice 
Lewry, an old servant of my late father ; to his dear friend 
Nathaniel, Lord Scarsdale, his picture of the "Holy Family," by 
Simon Cantarini, " which I esteem one of the best of my 
historical pictures, begging him to keep it as a small remem- 
brance of the friendship and esteem I had for him " ; to his 
worthy friend, John Kendrick, Esq., a 1 Commissioner of the 
Stamp Office, "all my entire collection of prints and books 
of sculpture as they stand distinguished in my catalogue from 
my other books, begging him, as they were collected by me 
with great trouble and expense, that he will keep them entire 
as long as he shall live, and leave them at his decease to such 
as he thinks will be most likely to do the same. Charitable 
bequests are made to the Marine Society for putting out poor 
boys to sea ; to the Society for the discharge and relief of the 
persons imprisoned for small debts in Craven Street in the 
Strand ; to the Governors of the Lock Hospital, called the 
Asylum, near Westminster Bridge ; to the poor of whatever 
parish shall be the principal place of his residence at the time 
of his decease ; and there are liberal bequests to his servants. 
The rest and residue of his monies, government securities, 
long annuities, and life annuities in the Exchequer, his goods, 
chattels, and personal estate whatever, are left to his aforesaid 
nephew, Thomas Hankey, whom he appoints his sole executor. 
By codicil he leaves legacies to Mr. Joseph Nollekens, statuary 
in Mortimer Street; to Mrs. Susannah Pilleau, sister to Mr. Isaac 
Pilleau above mentioned ; to Mr. Simon Beauvais, miniature 
painter in Market Street, St. James's ; to his worthy friend, 
John Peachey, Esq., son of Sir John Peachey, Baronet, his 
picture of the " Finding of Moses," by Paolo Veronese, desiring 
him to accept it as a small token of the respect he had for him. 



By a later codicil he makes a further handsome bequest to 
his youngest nephew, Robert Hankey, in some compensation 
for the great loss he had sustained in his trade and partnership. 
He revokes the legacy to the Earl of Portmore, as he had 
not found his friendship such as he had thought it. 

And by a still later codicil he revokes his bequest to 
Mr. Joseph Nollekens, and gives legacies to John and Dominic 
Serres, the two sons of Mr. Dominic Serres, the painter of sea- 
views mentioned in his will. 

John Barnard died in Berkeley Square in November, 1784, 
and on December 1st was buried in the vault under the chapel 
of the burying-ground of his parish, St. George's, Hanover 
Square, on the Uxbridge Road (Registers}. I have not found 
any memorial. The will was proved by the executor, Thomas 
Hankey, November 26th, 1784 (? before the deposit of the 
remains in the vault). In the British Museum is found : A 
catalogue of the superb and well known Cabinet oj Drawings of 
John Barnard, Esq., late of Berkeley Square, deceased. To be 
sold by auction by Mr. Greenwood in Leicester Square, February 
1 6th, /7<5 > 7- The produce of the sale is noted on the catalogue 
as 2,472 I $s. 6d. 

Memoirs of Sir John Barnard were published in 1776, and these were 
reprinted in 1855 by his great-great-grandson, Thomas Hankey, Esq., of 
Portland Place, London, who wrote a Preface and included biographical 
sketches from Orridge's Citizens of London and Their Rulers, Heath's 
Grocer? Company, and Rees 3 Cyclopcedia. Also Chalmers' General 
Biographical Dictionary (1815), and, indeed, all works of that nature down 
to the latest and greatest, the Dictionary of National Biography, record 
and do honour to this noblest of Lord Mayors. 



THE Hampstead Assembly Rooms in Weatherall Place 
consisted of the " Long Room," which is contained in 
Weatherall House, and the " Assembly Room " or " Ball 
Room," now merged in Nos. 7 and 9 Well Walk. 
During the hundred odd years in which they have been used as 



private houses, many alterations, both external and internal, 
have been made in them by different owners, but not so as to 
obliterate all traces of the purpose for which they were original- 
ly designed. Probably the very fact of their having passed 
into private ownership -has contributed to their preservation, 
and notwithstanding the lapse of time some portions are 
alleged to be of late seventeenth century age few signs of 
decay are apparent. 

When the original Long Room and Pump Room on the east 
side of Well Walk were transformed into a place of worship in 
1725, the inhabitants and their visitors found themselves for 
the time being deprived of a suitable building in which they 
could hold their dances and assemblies. It was not very long 
before a fresh site was forthcoming, a little farther away from 
the Heath in the same road, in that part of it which, until 1 800, 
had no specific name. From that date until 1870, or perhaps 
rather later, it was called Weatherall Place, 1 and since then the 
whole length of the road has been designated Well Walk. 
There were buildings already existing here, (built in part in the 
seventeenth century,) which, by adaptation, and with the 
addition of new erections, provided all the accommodation 
required for public entertainments. 

The history of the property is very clearly set forth in an 
admirable little book on Hampstead Wells, 2 by Mr. George W. 
Potter, who, in his capacity of a Trustee of the Wells and of the 
Campden Charity, enjoyed the advantage of access to the local 
and other archives. He says that the earliest mention of the 
premises which he was able to find, occurs in the Manor Court 
Rolls for 1727. In this document they are spoken of as "a 
newly-erected building," which, it is pretty certain, is that now 
standing and formerly known as the Long Room ; the term 
" newly erected," Mr. Potter is careful to add, might be appli- 
ed to a building some years old. The property is again men- 
tioned, remarks the same author, in 1753, in connection with 
the will of one Henry Vipont, (who was admitted to it in 1734,) 
in these words ; " there had been erected upon the said premises 

1 In the London Suburban Directory for 1868, Weatherall Place is men- 
tioned, but in that for 1872, (they were issued every fourth year,) the name 
had disappeared. 

*Hampstead Wells; a short history of their rise and decline, by Geo. W. 
Potter; 1904. 



another messuage or tenement fronting the way leading from 
Flask Walk to Hampstead Wells, and also a new room called 
the Assembly Rooms." The language is not very explicit, but 
there can be no doubt, from the situation indicated, that this 
new messuage was the large Georgian Room, now incorporated 
in Weatherall House, and that the new room was the block 
now divided and numbered 7 and 9 Well Walk. The Long 
Room is certainly of older date than 1753, having apparently 
been only converted into a place of entertainment. 

The entire group of buildings can be plainly made out in 
the Hampstead section of Rocque's plan of London (1741-45); 
also in the plan in Park's Topography of Hampstead (1814). 
Copies of these, numbered I and 3, and lettered to correspond 
with the large-scale plan, c. 1761, No. 2, accompany this article. 
The fact that Park's plan is undated, having been compiled 
from various surveys, which are not named, detracts somewhat 
from its historic value. His description of the Weatherall 
Place Rooms, from whatever source it was taken, (for he could 
not himself have seen them before they were converted to 
private use), 1 is written with some minuteness of detail, and the 
inference may be drawn from it that the assemblies were more 
like a social club than a public resort. He says: "Here the 
gentry used formerly to meet every Monday Evening to play at 
cards, and here they had likewise an assembly, beginning at 
Whitsuntide and ending in October. The Ball Room [i.e. the 
Long Room] was seventy-five feet long by thirty-three feet 
wide, and adorned in a very elegant manner. On each side ot 
the entrance were two small but neat rooms for tea and cards. 
A guinea subscription admitted a gentleman and two ladies to 
the Ball Room every other Monday. To non-subscribers 
admittance was half-a-crown each night. The Master of the 
Ceremonies had an annual benefit, when the tickets were five 
shillings each ; on this occasion a concert usually commenced 
the evening." 

Towards the middle of the XVIII century a praiseworthy 
effort appears to have been made to keep the society of Hamp- 
stead as select as possible, " care being taken, (as Seymour 
relates) to discourage the meaner sort from making it a place 
of rendezvous, that it is now become, after Scarborough, Bath, 

'Park was born in 1795, the Y ear m which Thomas Weatherall senior, 
was admitted as tenant of the property, which included the Long Room. 



and Tunbridge, one of the politest places in England.' l But 
in whatever way the reform was brought about, the class of 
persons patronising these later Assembly Rooms was very 
different from that of most of the frequenters of the older 
rooms in the Wells Walk. The poet Rogers 2 testifies to this 
when he says that in his youth (circa 1783), he used to go to 
the Hampstead Assemblies, " which were frequented by a great 
deal of good company," and that he himself danced four or 
five minuets there in one evening. To these gatherings came 
Mark Akenside, about 1760, during his residence at North 
End, and here it was that Pope, Arbuthnot, and other literary 
celebrities resorted. Dr. Johnson's wife came also, from " the 
last house southward in Frognal " where she lodged in the 
year 1748, indulging herself in country air and nice living, and 
although the presence of the gifted man himself is not actually 
recorded, it is more than probable that he went in his " bushy, 
grayish wig, brown clothes, black stockings, and plain shirt," a 
solecism among the beaux resplendent in lace ruffles and em- 
broidery. Fanny Burney was here in the person of her heroine 
Evelina, if not in her own ; indeed her description of the Long 
Room seems too circumstantial to have been written merely 
from hearsay. She writes of it probably as it appeared to her 
before 1778: "This room seems very well named, for I 
believe it would be difficult to find any other epithet which 
might, with propriety, distinguish it, as it is without ornament, 
elegance, or any sort of singularity, and merely to be marked 
by its length."3 This impression of the Long Room is quite at 
variance with what Park says of it, as " adorned in a very 
elegant manner." Perhaps the adornment, whatever it may 
have been, was unnoticed by Miss Burney, who suffered from 
short sight. She was, moreover, a closer observer of people 
than of places, and consequently she gives very little more 
actual description of such public resorts as the Marylebone 
Gardens, Vauxhall, and Ranelagh, than of Hampstead. 

After a public career of sixty years or more, this second set 
of Assembly Rooms gradually declined in popularity, and 
passing into other hands was, about 1800, converted into 
private houses. When Mr. Charles Cooper came into posses- 

'Robert Seymour: Survey of London and Westminster, 1734-35, Appendix. 
'Samuel Rogers : Table Talk, Edited by A. Dyce, 1856. 
3 velina, Edit. 1903, (Macmillan,), p. 268. 



sion of the premises in 1810, they are described in the copy ot 
Court Roll as " The Long Room with a large garden, the 
Assembly Rooms, and also a new room called the Assembly 
Room." This second Assembly Room is that adjoining the 
Long Room, and is now used as the drawing room of Weather- 
all House. Being on the garden side of the house, it is only 
partly visible from the road. 

The most interesting of the new Wells Assembly Rooms, from 
its early associations, is, of course the Long Room. It was 
originally a long, low, white structure of timber, brick and 
mortar, but when the late Mr. Goodwin Rooth bought the 
property in 1 876, he had it encased in red brick, making the 
lower walls eighteen inches thick. The ground floor, before it 
was turned into a private residence, consisted of an entire room, 
with two small ante-rooms, one on either side of the entrance, 
used tor tea and card parties. The great length of the Long 
R oom seventy-five feet is still easily discernible. It has been 
sub-divided by wainscots into a dining room, hall and two 
smaller rooms ; all fronting the road. Along the whole length of 
these rooms, in the middle of the ceiling, run huge beams of oak, 
cased in moulded timber. The whole of the front of the house 
is believed to be of one date. The portion of the Long Room 
now forming the central hall is supportd by six pillars ; the 
walls, like those of the dining room, are panelled from floor to 
ceiling. There was probably another entrance at the north 
east end of the Long Room, some foundations having been dis- 
covered when a window was put in by Mr. Rooth. The family 
have a theory that at the end of the hall, opposite to the pre- 
sent main entrance, was a musicians' gallery, open to the floor 
above, where there is now a landing, reached by the staircase 
built by Mr. Rooth : one of the evidences that a gallery existed, 
is a large hook still fixed in the landing ceiling, such as might 
be used to carry a chandelier, which would serve as an over- 
head light for the orchestra. Over the greater part of the 
Long Room were five card rooms, originally communicating 
with one another by means of central doors. These rooms 
were, about one hundred years back, converted into bed-rooms. 
The old flight ol stairs, formerly outside the Long Room a 
4 lean-to,' but now roofed over by which the guests gained 
access to the upper rooms, has been preserved intact, as also 
has the arched fan-light of the outer or street door. Mr. Rooth 



had this stairway, which rises at the side of the passage on the 
ground floor, where the great beams end, ' capped ' with wood 
and the lower steps turned sideways into the passage : they 
formerly ran straight up. The entrance gate stood a few yards 
to the west of the present tradesmen's entrance on the street. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that when Mr. Rooth took 
the house some thirty years ago, he carried out many structural 
and other alterations, such as building a new staircase, inserting 
a window, putting in a fireplace, and a number of other minor 
changes. In fact the place underwent a thorough restoration 
at his hands. Yet, with all this, he succeeded admirably in 
preserving the characteristic features of the building as he 
found them. The rare taste and judgment observable in the 
fabric itself are equally manifest in the decorations of the in- 
terior, and nothing could be more appropriate than the beau- 
tiful antique furniture. 

Near Weatherall House, at the corner of the road leading to 
New End Square, is Burgh House. So far as is known, it 
had no special connection with the Assembly Rooms, but being 
included with them in the frequent references to the property 
which occur in the Court Rolls, some description of it seemed 
only proper. Unfortunately there is very little to relate. The 
house stands back from the main thoroughfare, and has a 
spacious quadrangle in front. The fa$ade is rather imposing, 
overtopping the neighbouring houses. It was built in 1709, 
but has not been called Burgh House for more than sixty years 
at the most, being so named after the Reverend Allatson de 
Burgh, (afterwards Burgh, the prefix " de " being dropped), 
who in later years resided in it. He was Vicar of St. Laurence 
Jewry, to which he was appointed in 1815, and held the living 
till his death in 1857 at Hampstead. He was a musical 
amateur of knowledge and skill, and built a large room for his 
organ, which is now used as a library. This house was at one 
time used for a Militia Barracks, at which time, (1863), two 
projecting wings abutting upon the roadway were added to the 
old mansion, and were used as an armoury and storehouse, the 
officers occupying Burgh House itself, which now belongs to 
Mr. Rooth, and is again a private residence. 

Associated with the Long Room, and standing only a few 
yards away from its north-eastern end, was an elongated 
building, marked in Chatelaine's print of 1745 by a projecting 



bay at each extremity, and having a mansard roof. This 
building has been already alluded to in the quotation from 
Henry Vipont's Will as "a new room called the Assembly 
Rooms," which " new room " seems to answer to the one 
referred to by Seymour in his Survey, published in 1734-35, 
when he says, " to add to the entertainment of the Company, 
there is, besides the Long Room, in which the Company meet 
publicly on a Monday Evening to play at cards, etc., a new 
Dancing Room, built this year 1735 by Mr. Vipand (sic), the 
owner of the other, [i.e. the Long Room]. This room is sixty 
feet long and thirty feet wide, well adorned with chandeliers, etc." 
This Dancing or Assembly Room seems to have been that 
portion of the building now known as No. 9 Well Walk, as the 
title deeds of that house, in the possession of the Rooth family, 
mention it as having been " converted out of a building 
formerly known as the Assembly Room." But as the frontage 
of Nos. 7 and 9 together measures 1 20 feet, there is a length of 
60 feet still to be accounted for. The most probable explana- 
tion seems to be that this was built after, and not before, 
Vipont's Dancing Room, namely, some time between the years 
1735 and 1745, in which latter years the entire block appears 
in Chatelaine's drawing. The building originally consisted of 
a lofty ground floor, with a top story, (which is still panelled), 
and a basement ; the present middle floor was inserted in the 
centre part of the block, but apparently not in the wings, when 
it was transformed into a dwelling house. 

The outward appearance of these semi-detached houses at 
the present day does not differ materially from Chatelaine's 
picture, except for the insertion of the front doors and rose 
windows in the south bay of No. 7, put in by a late owner, 
Mr. Henry Barrett-Lennard, who took the house some time 
between 1876 and 1880. Some years previously, (certainly 
before 1872), the southern half of the block now No. 7, was 
subdivided into two houses, and numbered 3 and 5, some of 
the steps leading up to the front door of the last mentioned 
house being still in situ, and in the garden there are remains of 
the dividing wall. No. 7, answering to the modern No. 9, 
seems always to have been one house. In the Suburban 
Directory for 1880, No. 3 only appears, Mr. Barrett-Lennard 
having thrown the two houses 3 and 5 into one ; he also 
made extensive alterations in the inside, among these being 



the lengthening of the dining room, and the formation of a 
passage leading to a large new room, which he built out at the 
back of the house. The drawing room, which occupies the 
southern bay, and is the largest room in the house, rests on 
massive brick vaulting. It measures forty feet long by fourteen 
feet wide, and has had the ceiling raised. The lighting is by a 
window at each end, probably as at first planned, and above 
each of these front and back is a rose window. The hall 
and main staircase leading up to the first floor are panelled in 
oak, and the bannisters are a good example of the carving of 
the period. The older stairs leading down from the top rooms 
have been closed. On the landing and in an upstairs room 
there are unsuspected doors and cupboards, concealed by wall 
paper, reminding one of the secret hiding places met with in 
some old Tudor and Jacobean houses. No. 9 has been slightly 
altered in front, where the bay, corresponding with that of 
No. 7, instead of projecting, stands flush with the centre part 
of the house. As seen from the back, however, the houses 
seem to have retained most of the salient features of the old 
Assembly Room. 

The best, if not the only view extant, of the Long Room and 
Assembly Rooms, is the print by Chatelaine, a copy of which, 
taken from Lysons' Environs of London (1795-1800), serves 
to illustrate this article. In her Life of Josiah Wedgwood 
(1865-6), Miss Meteyard describes the service of china made 
by him in 1773 for the Empress Catharine II of Russia, de- 
corated with views of English scenes. Among them are no 
fewer than twenty-one views of Hampstead and the vicinity, 
bringing in the Long Roon, Assembly Rooms and Burgh House. 
The collection is understood to be in the Hermitage Palace at 
St. Petersburg. William Howitt also mentions the service in his 
Northern Heights of London (1869), adding a list of pieces 
containing the Hampstead views. 

As these pages profess to deal only with the later Assembly 
Rooms, it is unnecessary to describe that part of the plan of 
1761 No. 2 which shows the original Wells Buildings. 
Permission* to reproduce this plan from his History of Hamp- 
stead Wells was kindly granted by Mr. G. W. Potter, and for 
the reproduction of Chatelaine's print and the plans numbered 
I and 3, by the Guildhall Library. 

The writer, in conclusion, desires to express his special 


obligations for the kind assistance given him by Miss Rooth, 
of Weatherall House, Mr. Ernest Wallis, of No. 7 Well Walk, 
Mr. George W. Potter, formerly of Hampstead, and Dr. 
Williamson, of Burgh House. 


THE encroachment of modern building on the environs oi 
the former metropolis has caused many antiquarian 
associations to be dropped into oblivion, and not the 
least important and interesting amongst these deserving 
special notice might very well be mentioned the numerous 
wells which surrounded London. 

To the antiquarian hunter and keen observer there are, how- 
ever, still some land-marks which link the present to the past, 
and cause us to stop a while and picture to ourselves the life 
of the earlier inhabitants of London. 

In dealing with this subject of wells, it must be borne in 
mind that, although the modern Londoner is not greatly 
interested in the sources of our water supply, yet in the not so 
excessively remote past, when our present elaborate system of 
water conduit had not sprung into being, it was necessary to a 
great extent to resort for the water supply of the Metropolis to 
surrounding springs and wells, some of which will be touched 
upon. The present remarks, however, will more especially be 
confined to those wells which were famous for their medicinal 

KlLBURN has become a byword to many in consequence 
of the popularity of the motor omnibuses which were pioneer 
in the field on the main thoroughfare of this district. Kilburn 
was famous not only for its mineral wells, no remains of 
which now exist, but also for its ancient Priory, which was 
founded in the reign of Henry I by Godwin, the hermit, who 
built the hermitage of Cuneburn, now Kilburn, which he after- 
wards ceded to three nuns, Emma, Christena and Gunelda, and 
hereafter the hermitage became a nunnery of the order of St. 
Benedict. About the time of the dissolution, the possessions 



were valued at .741 per annum, and the land was granted to 
John, Earl of Warwick. There are now no visible relics of the 
Priory, the occupants of which extended so much hospitality 
to travellers, but its memory is perpetuated in the name of the 
road which now occupies its site, namely, Priory Road. 

The Kilburn Wells were situated near at hand to the Priory, 
on the east side of Edgware Road, being, as the ancient records 
tell us, " a morning's walk from the centre of the metropolis, two 
miles from Oxford Street." The old site of the Wells is now 
occupied by a Bank, standing a little to the north of the 
Kilburn station on the L. & N. W. Railway, on the east side of 
the road, and the only indication of the interesting association 
is a tablet with inscription, on the wall of the Bank, as shown 
in our illustration, reading, " This was the site of the Kilburn 
Wells." From a newspaper cutting dated 1795, we learn that 
at that time this well was famous on account of its purgative 
qualities, and celebrated for its rural situation with extensive 
prospects, and for the acknowledged efficacy of its waters, which 
were more strongly impregnated with carbonic acid gas than any 
known spring in England. Close by the well existed a house 
set apart for the recreation and entertainment of people visiting 
the Wells, and in the season numerous concerts and balls were 

Journeying across country a few miles to the east of Kilburn 
upon a hill existed another well in equal favour as the one at 
Kilburn, being known as the HAMPSTEAD WELLS. Hampstead 
has now become a select residential quarter, and its picturesque 
heath still draws crowds of holiday seekers as in former days, 
when people journeyed out from London to this conspicuous 
amongst health resorts, to recuperate and to enjoy quietly the 
pure air of this high altitude, with its delightfully rural ap- 
pearance ; and also to drink of its life-giving waters. This 
Chalybeate Well was situated on a part of the heath which has 
since been encroached upon and is now covered with houses ; 
but the remembrance is still with us in the name Well Walk, 
which lies on the west side of the heath. But there is also 
another denoted in the shape of a fountain, which is situated 
where Gainsborough Gardens runs into the Well Walk. The 
water, which flows from this fountain from the side, as shown 
in our illustration, is the only remains of the well, and is 
forbidden to the public, having become contaminated. How- 


Kilburn Wells. 

Hampstead Wells. 


ever, one can still obtain a refreshing drink from another 
fountain placed against and adjoined to the same erection, and 
at the same time meditate on bygone times. It is interesting 
to observe in passing how the present Gainsborough Gardens 
derives its name. In the year 1698 the Earl of Gainsborough 
vested, we are told, in trustees for the use of the poor of the 
district, six acres of heath land, which was situated round 
about the medicinal wells, and it is probable that Gainsborough 
Gardens now occupies part of this land. 

ST. CHAD'S WELL, though its surroundings were uninviting, 
yet having an attraction all its own, was situated at the end of 
Gray's Inn Road, near Battle Bridge, King's Cross, where the 
present St. Chad's Lane lies, the only memory of the wells. 
The wells were opened in 1772, and were in great esteem, being 
visited not only by people of the district but by strangers. 
They were accessible by descending from Holborn Bars to the 
very bottom of Gray's Inn Lane, and their position was by the 
side of a hill, on which, we are told, "were wont to climb and 
brouse certain mountain goats." Curiously enough, this hill 
consisted of an accumulation of ashes, it was the largest heap 
of cinder dust in the neighbourhood or in London, and was 
formed by an annual deposit of some 100 cart loads. It is not 
generally known that this heap of cinder dust, after being 
razed to the ground, was exported to Russia for making 
bricks to rebuild Moscow after the burning of that city on the 
entrance of Napoleon. Opposite to this unsightly hill, and on 
the right hand side of the road, was an anglewise sign-board 
bearing the inscription, " St. Chad's Wells," and underneath, 
" Health restored and preserved." A poor wooden gate led 
into a scene which an unaccustomed eye might take for the 
pleasure ground of the " Giant Despair," for trees stood as 
though it was not their nature to vegetate; hedges without 
foliage, with numerous weeds straggling upon unlimited borders. 
But the reassuring octagonal sign-board was not a mockery, for 
St. Chad's, although with such a forbidding external, drew many 
persons to drink the invigorating waters, one pint, it being said, 
was sufficient, and many people in the neighbourhood who 
would not otherwise stir themselves to breathe the fresh 
morning air yet resorted to this spot for their health. 

ST. AGNES LE CLARE, near Hoxton, so named from a spring 
of water which was dedicated to that Saint. The spring was 

VOL. XI. 17 C 


situated at the end of Pitfield Street in Old Street, City Road. 
From the transparency and salubrity of its water it was de- 
nominated St. Agnes Le Clare, or, vulgarised, " Anniseed Clear." 
In the reign of Henry VIII it was thus named Fans voc' 
Dame Agnes a Clere, and it is suggested that it had been used 
to advantage by priests of former times. In a survey of the 
possessions of the Prebendal estate of Halliwell, alias Finsbury, 
it was called " Dame Agnes the Cleere," and by a previous 
survey taken in 1650 it is mentioned as lying in waste land, the 
owner of which was Charles Stuart, late King of England. The 
neighbouring Charles Square is no doubt named after that 
monarch. The waters were turned into a cold bath in 1774, 
and were recommended for nervous complaints and for the cure 
of rheumatism, etc. The bath, we are told, was thirty feet long 
and twenty feet broad and four feet six inches deep, and the 
water being continually running was capable of being rendered 
higher or lower by a contrivance of sluices. 

Not far from St. Agnes Le Clere existed the PEERLESS POOL, 
and it is interesting to note the origin of the nomenclature of 
the district, namely, Bath Street and City Road, and Peerless 
Street and Old Street, for the square formed by these four roads 
enclosed the site. The Peerless Pool, once known as the 
Perilous Pool in consequence of its having been a source of danger 
to the public, consisted of a spring which overflowed its banks 
and caused the death of many persons by drowning. To 
prevent these frequent accidents it was filled up in the year 
1 743, and through the instrumentality of a Mr. Kemp was con- 
verted into one of the completest swimming baths in the world 
then, and it was the only one of its kind in Christendom, The 
bath, we are told, was 170 feet long and over 100 feet broad 
and five feet deep in the middle, and was descended to by a 
grand staircase of marble steps. The bath was in the open air 
and was surrounded by numerous dressing apartments, and 
the ground in the immediate vicinity was laid out as a 
garden with many fine lime trees. Besides the above men- 
tioned swimming bath there was also a cold bath for gentlemen, 
supposed to be the largest of its kind in England, being forty feet 
long and twenty feet broad, with an approach of two flights of 
marble steps, and a dressing room at the end. At four feet 
depth was a bottom of lattice wood, under which was five feet 
of water. To these the ingenious originator added a well- 

' 18 


stocked fish-pond 320 feet long for the diversion of the sub- 
scribers who were fond of angling. This was also surrounded 
by terraces with stately lime trees, and at the end of the garden, 
we are told, existed a genteel public house, adjacent to which 
the son of the projector afterwards lived. 

To the above might be added other wells surrounding 
London, equally in repute in their time as places of amusement, 
recreation, and as health resorts, such as the wells of Acton, 
Richmond, Sydenham, Dulwich and the Beulah Spa, Norwood 
etc., etc.; but in the above selection the writer has limited himself 
to those wells which were in or near the main arteries to and 
from London, and in consequence perhaps were the better 
known and more frequented. 



NEAR to the town of Stevenage in Hertfordshire, and 
east of the high road leading to Baldock, lie the ruins 
of the ancient church of Chesfield, a parish which 
although united with that of Gravely since the time of 
Henry VI, in 1445, was formerly quite distinct. So ancient is 
the manor of Chesfield that even the name under which it has 
been known for centuries has, with regard to its origin, long 
been a stumbling-block to local historians, who seem to have 
failed in satisfactorily accounting for the name it now bears, and 
in reconciling that with the name under which it figures in 
Domesday Book. This, its manorial history, shows to have been 
identical with " Escelveia " or " Scelva." 

It will be found amusing, if not always convincing, to com- 
pare the various attempts made to elucidate this matter, which 
seem, in their extremes, to range between an engaging simpli- 
city and what has been styled " a peremptory roundness of 

The earliest writer of a description of Hertfordshire, John 
Norden, " Surveyor of His Majesty's Woods " to James I, and 
author of the Historical and Chorographical Survey of Middlesex 



and Hertfordshire, gives, amongst other place-names, the 
following curious derivation of Chesfield : " Chesfeyld, forte 
Choisfeyld (ager delectus) for the rich scituation in so fertile a 
corne soyle." This recalls a similar etymological triumph to be 
found in the pages of Fabian's Chronicle, on the derivation of 
Constantinople : " Then this Constantyne removed the em- 
peryall see unto his cytie of Constantyne the noble : and there 
for the more partye kepte his emperyall honoure ; and other 
emperours in lyke wyse after hym. By reason whereof the 
emperours were longe after called emperours of Constantyne 

In quite another style is the assumption of Sir Henry 
Chauncy, who, after tracing the manorial succession from 
Domesday Survey to the time of Henry III, proceeds "Then 
these manors [Graveley andChesfield] came into the possession 
of William de Chives, who erected a seat upon this hill and 
called it by his own name to perpetuate the memory thereof to 
posterity." The next paragraph however suddenly changes 
this name into " William de Monte Caviso" ; thus quite rever- 
sing the usual progression of place-names. Salmon's history of 
the county, an abridgment and continuation of the former to 
the year 1728, slightly modifies the foregoing statement, thus: 
" In the reign of Henry III William de Monte Caviso united 
these manors, and having built himself a seat upon the hill 
called it by his name, Cavisefield, corrupted since to Chisfield, 
dropping the old name of Escelveia." 

It seems to have fallen to the lot of Clutterbuck, whose 
history appeared in 1821, to call attention towards the various 
errors in Chauncy's book. He speaks of Chauncy's frequent 
digressions, total omission of many important particulars of 
church history, defective genealogical sketches and numerous 
errors in tracing the descent of property. One is not surprised, 
therefore, to find that he differs entirely from the foregoing 
statement, nor to hear that " The authorities quoted by Chauncy 
prove his facts to have no connection with the manor." x His 
own theory is that " Chesfield is a slight contraction of Chells- 
field or Chillsfield ; Chells being the name of a small adjoining 
lordship." This opinion is also adopted in the recently pub- 
lished volume of the Victoria County History. 

These later views on this subject certainly seem more con- 

1 Clutterbuck's History of Herts, vol. ii, p. 297. 


Chesfield Church. 
Photographs by Arthur J. Shorter. 


vincing, though requiring some further support. This, we 
believe, is afforded by the fact that " manors continued to be 
created until the eighteenth year of Edward I, and numerous 
parcels of land which now form manors of themselves, at the 
time of Domesday Survey must have been parcels of other 
manors still in existence." l In this way, out of a larger 
Escelveia or Scelva, or from the original manor of Chells itself, 
may have been created the separate manor of Chesfield, which 
would then carry on the old name in its modified form. 

Unsatisfactory as have been the efforts of local history to 
account for the origin of Chesfield's name, it has preserved for 
us some fragmentary account of Chesfield's ancient church 
previous to its demolishment. This took place in 1750, under 
a licence granted by the Bishop of Lincoln, in whose diocese 
the church then was, upon the representation of the Rector and 
Churchwardens, who alleged the ruinous and unsafe condition 
of the building for worship. There seems to have been no 
suggestion of repairing the fabric which had been the burial 
place, and contained many memorials of former lords of the 
manor. This Bishop was Dr. John Thomas, who, in 1753, was 
also responsible for the pulling down of Shenley Church tower, 
and the removal of the chancel and nave arches. And, again, 
in 1757, for the abstraction of the XIV century glass from 
the Churches of Stanstead Abbots and Eastwick, in order to 
replace them by modern windows. Fortunately, perhaps, for 
this diocese he was, in 1761, translated to Salisbury. 

As late as the time of Sir Henry Chauncy's history, and up 
to about the year 1728, the church was still used, though it had 
suffered much during the rebellion of 1642, quaintly alluded to 
as " the zeal of the times." According to both Salmon and 
Chauncy there were in their time still existing, various monu- 
ments and painted windows. Under the arch dividing the 
chapel from the chancel, stood a tomb two feet high, supposed 
to be that of the founder. In the chancel east window two 
headless figures, one of them representing St. Edmund. On 
the north side a Bishop, supposed to be Thomas a Beckett, with 
his crozier in his hand, and some remains of coats of arms. 
Another window showed the crest of the Barrington family, 
who were for a long period lords of this manor. There was 
also a memorial to John Hurst of Baldock, married to a 

1 Ellis's Introduction to Domesday Survey, vol. i, p. 41. 



daughter of John Throckmorton ; and an old stone bearing the 
inscription : 

Thomas de Blommule gist icy 
Dieu de sa alme eit merci. 
This old French form attests its antiquity. 

Paintings, memorials, and " storied windows " have dis- 
appeared ; Clutterbuck, writing in 1821, says " What remains 
of the church now is a miserable heap of ruins ; the roof is gone, 
the walls are broken, not one of the windows is entire ; the arms 
and inscriptions above mentioned are lost. The churchyard is 
thrown open. The following inscription is the only one which 
remains." This is, or rather was, on a stone, possibly the lid of 
a stone coffin or tombstone : 

Uxores inter 
Hie jacet Guli Goodwin 
Patrice Prceceptor, 
Ickleford et Purton 
Villarum Pater ; 
obiit xx Martii 
sEtatis Ixxxi 
Sequi prapari. 

At the present time but little of this remains, for the stone 
has been recklessly broken. One silent witness of the past, not 
previously alluded to, still exists. It is an old stone coffin 
without lid, slightly sunk below the ground level, showing a 
chiselled circular cavity for the head. 

So remorselessly has all this demolishment been carried out, 
that one could well imagine Talus himself had been set to 
work, and had 

" With his iron flale at it let flie." 

" And all the hewen stones thereof defaced 
That there mote be no hope of reparation 
Nor memory thereof to any nation." x 

Yet over this " shapeless mass of ruins " grows the kindly 
ivy, hiding all deformity with its trailing grace. 

In common with other churches, Chesfield was twice despoiled 
of its goods by order of " Protector " Somerset, who, having 
enriched himself and built Somerset House with the proceeds of 
1 Faery Queen, Bk. v, c. 1 1. 



ecclesiastical property, was also eager for the State. After his 
first Inquisition, in the second year of Edward VI, which still left 
the church much property, these robberies soon spread beyond 
his control. " Private men's halls were hung with altar-cloths ; 
their tables and beds covered with copes instead of carpets and 
coverlets. Many drank at their daily meals in chalices ; and no 
wonder if in proportion it came to the share of their horses to 
be watered in rich coffins of marble." l This state of things 
roused Somerset and his Privy Council to send out another 
Inquisition to fine and punish the offenders, and to sweep what 
was still left into the Treasury. It was then found that some 
portions were " utterly imbezeled, by some parties not detect- 
able, so cunningly they carried their stealths ; seeing every one 
who had nimmed a church bell did not ring it out for all to hear 
the sound thereof." 1 

When the Commission came to Chesfield there was found 
only " A Chalysse of Silver weighing x oz., a Vestymente of 
Blewe Chamlett, an other Vestyment of White fuschien, an old 
Cope of Stayned Clothe, Two Bellys in the Steple." 2 From 
which meagre account there would seem to have been some 
foundation here for the suspicion of " embezelment." 

Before leaving this part of the subject it is interesting to 
notice that near to the church and the old manor house of 
Chesfield formerly stood one of the beacons of the county ; 
others being placed at St. Peter's Church, St. Albans, Therfield 
near Royston, Amwell, and Hertford Heath. This at Chesfield 
must have been standing shortly before the beginning of the 
XVIII century, and is clearly denoted on the map of Hertford- 
shire appended to Chauncy's History r , who thus alludes to it : 
" Near the manor house a fair beacon might have been lately 
seen, which was wount by a light burning fire, to give notice to 
all the inhabitants round about when any enemies were coming." 

The population of this parish is now only about 450, in- 
cluding the picturesque hamlet of Cory's Mill. In this hamlet, 
lying on the boundary line of the town of Stevenage, there still 
lingers a curious tradition of its having been the site of one of 
the first paper mills established in the county ; a belief which 
seems to find expression (under the head of " paper " in 
Chambers' Encyclopedia. 

1 Fuller's Church Hist., chap, vii, sec. n. 
3 Cussans, vol. ii, p. 69. 



With regard to the charities of the parish, it is recorded by 
Cussans l that " Edmund Jordane of Chisfield gave by will, 
dated 12 June, 1626, an annual rent charge of four shillings for 
the benefit of the poor. It is settled on an acre of land in 
Graveley Bottom, abutting upon Span Mead." There was 
another benefaction which now appears to be lost. It was 
devised by Andrew Cater for the benefit of Sawbridgeworth. 
This man was a Rector of Chesfield at the time of the Common- 
wealth, being deprived in 1662, and is described as a "Sectary 
and a great preacher who keeps conventicles on the Lord's-day." 
By his will, dated 26 June, 1700, he gave five acres of land and 
a cottage in Graveley-cum-Chesfield, the annual rent of which 
was to be given to the poor of Sawbridgeworth. One half was 
to be expended in teaching four poor children to read, and the 
remainder in purchasing certain religious books, named by him, 
for their benefit. This latter bequest seems -to have proved a 
damnosa Juereditas, for, according to the same authority, " this 
gift has long been lost to Sawbridgeworth, probably on account 
of difficulty in obtaining copies of the books named," and also, 
apparently, difficulty about the five acres. 



THERE are few more interesting and picturesque places 
to be found in the neighbourhood of London than 
Harefield, lying about midway between Uxbridge and 
Rickmansworth. Picturesque, with the soft wooded 
beauty of a quiet English landscape ; interesting from its his- 
torical, literary and antiquarian associations. The church, 
though restored, and a not very impressive example of the 
Decorated period, is of old foundation, as is proved by its many 
brasses and monuments, for the most part in an excellent state 
of preservation, of which a short account will be given later ; 
but the historical records of the neighbourhood must first be 
touched on. 

Consulting the Domesday Book we find that at the date of its 
1 Hist, of Herts, vol. ii, p. 70. 





















compilation Harefield belonged to the Earl of Briou, " Richard, 
son of Gilbert, the Earl (of Briou) holdes Herefelle, which is 
taxed at five hides .... there are three cottars and three 
slaves, and two mills yielding 1 $s. rent, four fisheries yielding 
i ,000 eels, meadow equal to one carucate, pasture for the cattle 
of the manor, and pannage for a thousand hogs. The total 
annual value is 1 2/. ; it was only 8/. when entered on by the 
present owner ; in King Edward (the Confessor's) time being 
then the property of the Countess Goda it was I4/." 

From the Norman earl the property descended succes- 
sively to the Bacheworths, Swanlands, and Newdigates, in 
each case through marriage with an heiress. In the XVI 
century the head of the last-named family exchanged his 
heritage with that of another house, who sold it to the Lord 
Keeper Egerton, the tomb of whose wife (she was daughter of 
Sir John Spencer, of Althorpe, and widow of Ferdinando, Earl 
of Derby) is to be seen in the south-east corner of the chancel of 
the parish church, and is a heavy cumbrous structure, such as 
was popular at the time of her death. Whilst the wife of Sir 
Thomas Egerton she had the no doubt costly honour of twice 
entertaining Queen Elizabeth, then nearing the end of her 
reign. The first of these visits was paid in 1601, and amongst 
the amusements provided for the royal guests was a " Lotterie 
presented before ye Queene's Majestic." A " marriner," we are 
told, with "a boxe" under his arm, came into the presence sing- 
ing a song, which began : 

" Cynthia Queene of seas and lands, 
That Fortune everie where commands." 

Before the lottery took place the " marriner " addressed the 
feminine portion of his audience in these words : " Come, ladies, 
try your Fortunes, and if anie light vpon an vncomfortable 
blanke, let her thinke that Fortune do but moke her in these 
trifles, and meanes to pleasure her in great matters." 

Indeed the motto attached to one of the " vncomfortable 
blankes " was quite a cheery one running as follows : 
" Nothinge's your lot, this more than can be told 
For nothinge is more precious than gold." 

Amongst the treasures in the box we find a " plaine " gold 
ring, a " paire of sizzers," a mirror, and other small articles. 

All during this visit seems to have gone as merry as a 
marriage bell ; but in the following year, when the Queen came 



again to " Harevile," we are told that it rained without ceasing 
for the whole three days of her stay there. 

Notwithstanding this unpleasant state of the weather the 
brave old woman (for she was then about seventy years of age) 
sat on horseback for hours at a stretch receiving the homage 
and addresses of her subjects, and seems to have taken no hurt. 
For Sir Fulke Greville, who was one of the party at Harefield 
Place, says, in a letter to the Countess of Shrewsbury, " the beste 
newes I can write your ladieship is of the Queene's health and 
disposition of bodie, wch, I assure you, is excellent goode, and I 
haue not scene her in euery way better disposed these manie 

Indeed, though this was within a few months of her death at 
a good old age, Elizabeth seems to have been in a very light- 
hearted frame of mind, for we read of a little prank played by 
her which would have been more in keeping with a middle-class 
schoolgirl, than with the elderly majesty of England. Noticing 
that Lady Derby wore a miniature suspended from her throat 
she demanded to be allowed to examine it. On her hostess 
objecting she seized it. and having opened it and finding that 
it contained a portrait of Mr. Secretary (though what the wife 
of the Lord Keeper meant by wearing Cecil's picture on her 
breast the chronicler does not state), she tied it in the first in- 
stance to her shoe, and later, fastening it to her elbow, wore it 
thus for the remainder of the day. In regard to this occurrence, 
Cecil wrote and presented to his sovereign a flattering set of 
verses, such as, notwithstanding her many masculine qualities 
and lion heart, Elizabeth dearly loved. In fact, although to 
quote some lines out of many written, about her visit " poor St. 
S within now," dared " to show his cloudy brow," these three 
days did not pass by any means drearily. On the occasion of 
the Queen's departure there was a rustic ceremony, in which 
" Herfel " was shown mourning for her departure, the rain 
being attributed to the many tears which it shed at this sad 
misfortune. During the visit a Morality Play was acted before 
her Majesty by the Lord Chamberlain's players, brought down 
specially from London for the occasion, and since Shakespeare 
belonged to this company, it is thought that he may have been 
amongst the actors, though there is no evidence that such was 
the case. 

But if the appearance at Harefield of England's and, indeed, 


Brass of William Assheby and Jane his wife, 
Harefield Church. 


the world's greatest dramatist is " not proven," it is at any rate 
certain that another famous poet had a connection with the 
spot, since, for a festivity held about thirty years later in 
honour of the Dowager Countess of Derby, in which " some 
noble persons of her family appeared in pastoral habits," the 
Arcades of Milton was written. Part of this graceful poem 
sounds to modern ears a little fulsome, as, for instance, these 

lines : 

" And ye, the breathing roses of the wood, 
Fair silver-buskin'd nymphs as great and good ; 
I know this quest of yours and free intent, 
Was all in honor and devotion meant, 
To the great mistress of yon princely shrine, 
Who with low reverence I adore as mine." 

but this seeming exaggeration, we must recollect, was the fashion 
of the time. Milton appears to have been an intimate at 
Harefield Place during the five years, from 1632 till 1637, which 
he spent at Uxbridge, only about three miles away. 

The old home, which sheltered so many noble and at least 
one royal guest, was burned down in 1660 through the careless- 
ness of Sir Charles Sedley, a connection of the then owner. 
Norden describes it as being in his day " a faire house standing 
on the edge of a hill, the river Colne passing neere." Now 
only a few mounds are left to show where this pleasant home- 
stead stood. They are to be seen in a field close to the church, 
and traces of the moat which once surrounded both buildings 
are still visible, as well as the arches of a terrace walk, on which 
no doubt Lady Derby, and perhaps even the Maiden Queen, 
" took the air." These arches now form part of the boundary 
of the garden of the house inhabited by the sextoness and her 
husband, their dwelling being all that is left of % a XIII century 
building, which was probably one of the out offices of Harefield 
Place. The garden walls are very old, and of red brick mel- 
lowed into most artistic tints. A noble cedar stands in what 
was once the pleasance, and it is said that it dates from the 
time when the place was a stately mansion, not a ruin covered 
with mould and grass. The modern house, which belongs to 
the Newdigates, the family having again become owners of the 
property in the XVII century, lies not far from the road leading 
from Harefield to Uxbridge, and is now let to strangers. 

On the monuments in the church the name Newdigate is 
spelled indifferently with an / or an *, and sometimes without 



either as Newdgate, and on one tablet all three forms are used. 
But though their " faire house " is in ruins, another of ancient 
date is to be seen in a field close to the road which leads 
to Denham, and is still known as Moor or More Hall. It was 
once the property of the Knights Hospitallers, being the gift 
to them (by an undated deed) of Alice, daughter of Baldwin de 
Clare, and " was no doubt a cell to the Priory of St. John at 
Clerkenwell." It is now divided into three cottages, but retains 
its old-world appearance. The rooms are low, the ceilings 
having heavy beams supporting them, and in the central 
division there is, in one of the upstairs bedrooms, a very 
handsome oak mantelpiece, now somewhat broken. The early 
English chapel, with its graceful lancet windows, stands close 
beside the house, and is in a good state of preservation, though 
quite empty and unused, having until lately been a storehouse 
for farm produce. 

Let us now turn to Harefield Church, a gothic structure 
of flint and stone, consisting of a chancel, nave, and two aisles, 
with at the east end a low embattled square tower. The 
building is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and it, like More 
Hall, was once the property of the Knights of St. John of 
Jerusalem, having been presented to them by Beatrice de 
Boilers, relict of Baldwin FitzGeoffrey. But at the dissolution 
of the religious houses in the reign of the eighth Henry, the 
rectory and advowson were granted to Robert Tirwhyt, and 
have since passed through many hands. The church lies rather 
in a hollow, being reached from Harefield village by means of 
a short avenue shaded in one part by stately trees. On the 
left hand side of the main entrance is to be seen a curious 
mural monument placed there in the XVIII century by 
William Ashby, of Breakspeare, another historic house in this 
parish, and once it is said the home of a family from which 
sprang the English Pope, Adrian IV. The tablet is in memory 
of Mr. Ashby 's faithful servant, Robert Mossendew, who died in 
1 744 ; it shows in bas-relief a gamekeeper and his dog, and 
beneath them are the following lines : 

" In frost and snow, thro' hail and rain, 

He scour'd the woods and trudg'd the plain ; 

The steady pointer leads the way, 

Stands at the scent and springs his prey ; 

The tim'rous birds from stubble rise 

With pinions stretch'd divide the skies ; 

Hrass of George Assheby and Rose his wife, 
Harefield Church. 


The scatter'd lead pursues the sight, 
And death in thunder stops their flight ; 
His spaniel of true English kind 
With gratitude inflames his mind ; 
This servant in an honest way, 
In all his actions copied Tray." 

The whole is a handsome tribute, not only to the worth of a 
valued dependent, but also to the good qualities of man's 
truest and most faithful friend, who here indeed seems to be 
given the higher, not the lower place. 

On entering the church let us first go to the chancel where is 
the tomb of the Dowager Countess of Derby, who, though she 
died at an advanced age, is here shown with the golden brown 
hair of her youth flowing over her shoulders, and with a face 
fair and unlined. She lies full length, clad in a crimson robe of 
the fashion of the period, and with her head (encircled by 
a coronet) resting on an embroidered cushion. In niches 
underneath kneel her three daughters, Lady Chandos, and the 
Countesses of Bridgewater and of Huntingdon, and all over the 
tomb are to be found the arms blazoned of Stanley and 
Spencer, of Egerton, Bridgewater and Hastings, the whole 
effect though interesting being, to modern eyes, heavy and 
indeed rather wanting in good taste. This " ladye of high 
degree," was a notable personage in her day, being, according 
to Harrington 

" Fruitful and faire and of so cleare a name, 
That all this region marvell'd at her fame," 

and he adds that she 

" Took such sweet state vpon her, 
All eares, eyes, tongues, heard, saw and spoke her honour." 

Lady Derby appears to have been of a charitable disposition, 
for she it was who founded, shortly before her death in 1637, 
the picturesque almshouses for six old women, which stand 
beside the road leading to Harefield village, endowing each 
with 5 a year and i for repairs, a larger sum in those days 
than in these. She gave besides to the curate, whose stipend 
only amounted to 6 i$s. ^d. per annum, a yearly sum of 5 
and a house, on condition that he read prayers twice a week to 
the poor almswomen. 

Close to the imposing monument just mentioned is another 
and more interesting one, an altar tomb without date to John 
Newdigate and Anne his wife, who kneel opposite to each 



other, with behind them a train of thirteen sorrowing sons and 
daughters. On the stone table in front are some helmets and 
gauntlets of ancient date. 

The south aisle, which is known as the Brackenburye Chapel, 
so called from the family of de Brackenburgh, who, in the XIV 
century, leased a messuage and lands in Harefield from the 
de Swanlands, contains many interesting monuments of the old 
and honourable house of Newdigate. In the north-east wall 
is a XVI century table-tomb of one of its members and of 
Amphilicia his wife, who were the parents of no less than 
fourteen children. The brasses are in good preservation ; but, 
unfortunately, are nearly entirely hidden by a modern stall 
which is placed in front of the tomb. Very clear and perfect is 
another brass which ornaments the south wall, and represents 
Edetha, widow of William Newdigate, who died in 1444. 
Richard Newdigate, commemorated in a very long Latin 
inscription, lived in stirring and troublous times, Whitlock, 
in his memorials, giving a vivid account of various passages in 
his life. At the date of the execution of Charles I he was a 
Serjeant-at-law, and was summoned with other barristers into 
the presence of Cromwell, who announced his intention of 
making them judges ; but they declined the honour, asserting 
that they could not act under his commission. Upon this he 
turned from them angrily, saying: " If you of the red robe will 
not execute the law, my red coats shall," so they all cried out, 
"make us judges, we will be judges." But Newdigate was 
shortly after deprived of his post, for being sent on the northern 
circuit at a time when many cavaliers were tried for bearing 
arms in the cause of the Stuarts, he refused to sentence them, 
saying that he " knew no law which made it high treason to 
levy war against a Lord Protector." However, some years later 
he became Chief Justice of the Upper Bench, and on the re- 
storation received a baronetcy (the ordinary fees being remitted) 
from Charles II, who was by no means so ungrateful as some 
would have us believe, and also that monarch's warmest thanks 
for kindness shown to his friends during " the worst of times." 

Sir Richard, shortly before his death, which occurred in 1678, 
purchased the house and lands of Harefield, which had been 
exchanged by his grandfather for another property ; it was 
at the time in possession of the heirs of the Dowager Countess 
of Derby, and it has belonged to the Newdigate family ever since. 


William Asshebv's Children. 

George Asshebv's Children. 
Harefield Church. 


It may be of interest to readers to recall that the father 
of " George Eliot " was land agent to Francis Newdigate, Esq., 
at Arbury, in Warwickshire, which had been received in ex- 
change for Harefield Place by his ancestor, John Newdigate, 
and that the celebrated novelist was born at Arbury Farm. 

Space does not permit of a notice of all the tombs to be 
found in the Brackenburye Chapel, for the north aisle claims 
our notice. In it are to be seen many monuments to the 
family of Ashby of Brakespere or Braekspeare, though none 
quite so old as the earliest of the memorials to the Newdigates, 
already mentioned as bearing the date 1444. There are, 
however, several brasses of the XVI and XVII centuries in a 
capital state of preservation, notably those of George Asheby, 
"Clerke of the Sygnet to Kynge " Henry VII, and also to 
Henry VIII, to whom he was "Counseller" as well. The 
tomb bears no date, but is said to have been placed in the 
church in 1514. George Ashby 's wife, Rose, and their children 
are also represented. Another very perfect memorial is that to 
Willam Ashby and Jane his wife, the inscription, oddly enough, 
being placed upside down. Close by are many other brasses, 
the latest, which is to the memory of John Sheron, " surgeon," 
dating from 1755, and several mural monuments; whilst on the 
west wall of the passage leading from the Ashby aisle to the nave, 
may be seen one to the Rev. John Prichett, who, after serving 
as Vicar of the parish for thirty years, was raised to the See of 
Gloucester in 1672, dying in 1680. 

The church has been lately whitewashed and otherwise 
cleaned, which, though probably necessary and desirable, has 
somewhat spoiled its old-world appearance, but this is a fault 
which will no doubt be cured by time ; it is full of memories 
of the past, which will endear it to the heart of the antiquary. 

The information in regard to Harefield's past has been 
principally drawn from two sources, The Progresses of Queen 
Elizabeth, and An Historical Account of those Parishes in the 
County of Middlesex, which are not described in the Environs of 
London. My thanks are due to the Vicar of Harefield for 
permission to take rubbings ; to Mr. Gustavus A. Handcock, of 
the Public Record Office, and to Mr. George Watts, under 
whose able ciceronage I first made the acquaintance of 
Harefield, as well as to various residents in this charming and 
most interesting spot. 


NO genealogist," says the well-known archaeologist, 
Mr. William Smith Ellis, in his Early Kentish 
Armory, "has yet explained the origin of the name 
and family of Culpeper. No such local name has 
been met with either in England or Normandy. The pro- 
bability seems to be that the Culpepers rose to their high 
position by a wealthy alliance, and in that way acquired their 
coat armour with their property, but through what channel is at 
present unknown." 

On this text I wish to make a few remarks. That it was a 
remarkable family needs no demonstration, seeing that the 
" high position " to which they attained is made evident by 
Camden's remark that there were no less than twelve knights 
and baronets of that name living in his time. And after his 
time one branch of the family reached the peerage. 

They first appear in the page of English history in the person 
of Thomas de Colepeper, who was a judge of assize in the 
reign of King John, that is about the year 1200. They dis- 
appeared in the person of John Spencer Culpepper, who was 
born December i8th, 1740, and died unmarried. There is not 
known to be a single male descendant left in England. During 
this period of five centuries and a half they were the owners of 
six estates in Kent, one in Sussex and one in Rutland, together 
with numerous manor houses in Kent, Sussex, Surrey, 
Rutland, and Linconshire. And of them Dugdale says : " this 
family has for many ages past flourisht with great esteem in 
the counties of Kent and Sussex." 

Their coat of arms is mentioned by the poet Drayton in his 
Baron's Wars. 

"And Colepeper, with silver arm inrailed, 

Bore thereupon a bloody band engrailed." 

In heraldic language this reads " Argent, a bend engrailed 

These arms are first mentioned as borne by John Colepeper 
in 1330. Dugdale informs us that they were set up at 
Whitehall by Henry VIII for the valor of members of the 
family at the battle of the Spurs. And Hasted tells us that 
they were more than once carved on the roof of the cloisters of 
Canterbury Cathedral. 



Brass of Edith Xeudisiate, Harefield. 


As regards the origin of the name : the earliest form in 
which it appears is " Colepeper," with some ten after variations. 
But none of these give us the needful hint how the name arose. 
We find "Cole "in many combinations, e.g., "Cole Abbey"; 
while the second half " peper " is part of the name of a parish 
in Surrey, " Peper- Harrow." But as this Peper in Peper- 
Harrow is said to de derived from one Pipard, it does not help 
us in the matter. 

The family was best known as landed proprietors, though 
among its members some were in the army, at the bar, and in 
the Church. They had, however, no representative in litera- 
ture, unless we can dignify with that name the strange book 
published in 1653 under the title of Culpeper's Complete 
Herbal. The book was republished as a curiosity in 1835, with 
a portrait of the author showing the long hair, white collar, and 
general dress of a Puritan, and with a picture of the house in 
London in which he lived and died. There is a reference to it 
in the Gentleman's Magazine of February, 1836. And it 
appears to have been one of the books read by the youthful 
Livingstone, as in his autobiographical sketch he refers to it 
as "that extraordinary old book on Astrological Medicine, 
CulpepeSs Herbair 

The first property which came into the hands of the family, 
of which mention is made, is that of Bayhall, in the parish of 
Pepenbury (now Pembery, near Tonbridge Wells), which was 
owned by Sir John Colepeper in the latter end of the XIII 
century. Of him we know nothing. But his son, Sir Thomas, 
was in 1 309 appointed Bailiff of Ashdown Forest. The Bailiff 
had two sons. The elder, Thomas, who inherited Bayhall, was 
Castellan of Leeds Castle, near Maidstone, for Lord Badlesmere, 
and was beheaded in 1324 at Winchester for obeying his lord's 
orders to refuse the admission to the castle of Queen Isabella, 
wife of Edward II. 

He was succeeded at Bayhall by his son, John, who was the 
first to bear the family arms, as mentioned above ; which arms 
are engraved on old Pembury Church, which he is supposed to 
have built, and they can be seen there to-day. 

He was followed at Bayhall by his son, another Sir Thomas, 
who was one of the Commissioners for resisting the rebels under 
Wat Tyler. 

He, Thomas, married Joan, daughter of Sir Nicholas Green, 

VOL. xi. 33 D 


and in her right became possessed of Exton Park, Oakham, in 
Rutland. He was succeeded at Exton by his son, Sir Thomas, 
whose daughter, and only child, carried the estate to the 
Haringtons, whose eventual heiress, Mabel Harington, married 
Sir Andrew Noel, from whom descends the present holder of 
Exton, the Earl of Gainsborough. 

Sir Thomas, having inherited Exton, sold Bayhall about 
1450, to Humphry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, from whom 
it passed through several hands to Charles Browne, who died 
there in 1753. 

The second son of the Bailiff of Ashdown Forest, Walter, 
was the owner of several manors round about Tonbridge, 
amongst others of Fairlawn, now the property of Mr. William 

Walter's eldest son, Thomas, appears as the first holder of 
Preston Hall, near Aylesford, but as he left no children, the 
estate passed to his brother, Sir Jeffery, who served as High 
Sheriff of Kent in 1366 and again in 1374. 

Jeffery's grandson, Sir John, was judge in the Court of 
Common Pleas in 1406. From him through several genera- 
tions Preston passed to Sir Richard, who had three danghters, 
the second of whom, Joyce, married Lord Edward Howard, and 
was the mother of Queen Catherine, fifth wife of Henry VIII. 

Preston Hall passed to Sir Richard's younger brother, 
William, and from him to his great-grandson, Thomas. This 
Thomas was a man of varied parts. He figures as Chief 
Bailiff and Park Keeper of the Manor of Tonbridge, whilst 
it was held by the Duke of Buckingham ; and when the Duke 
was attainted by Henry VIII, Thomas shared in his disgrace, 
his offices being granted by the King in 1 542 to Ralph Fane. 

Having become accustomed to the management of a park 
when Thomas lost his position at Tonbridge he rented Knole 
Park from John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, until 1553, 
when the tenancy ceased on the sale of the property by the 
Duke to King Edward VI. 

On the accession of Queen Mary, Thomas, in company with 
the sons of Lord Cobham, joined in the rebellion under Sir 
Thomas Wyatt ; and in consequence his house, Preston Hall, 
was handed over to Mr. Cartwright the Under-Sheriff, whilst he 
himself was confined in the Tower of London. He had there 
as a fellow prisoner Thomas Fane, who had married his cousin, 



Elizabeth Culpeper. They appear to have been martyrs to 
their Protestant principles, for Dugdale records that they cut 
on the stone wall of the cell these words : " Be thou faithful to 
the end and I will give you a crown of eternal life 1554, 
T. Fane, T. Culpeper, of Ailsford, Kent." We must pardon the 
prisoners their somewhat hazy remembrance of Rev. ii, 10. 

In spite of their forebodings they appear to have been 
pardoned, for Fane lived to be Sir Thomas Fane of Mereworth 
Castle, and Culpeper became a Revenue Commissioner ; and in 
1561 he was " Purveyor of Rochester Bridge." Preston Hall 
seems to have been restored to him, for his grandson, Sir 
William, is described as of Preston Hall. 

This Sir William was created a baronet in 1627 it is 
noticeable that in the patent the name is spelt Colepepyr. He 
was succeeded by his son Sir Richard as second baronet, whose 
son, Sir Thomas, was third baronet. Sir Thomas died in 1723 
without children, and he left the property to his sister Alice. 
This Alice married four times. When the last baronet died 
and left her the estate, she was the childless widow of his 
cousin, Thomas Culpeper of Hollingbourne, and he doubtless 
thought that, as there were no direct heirs, she would leave her 
estate to her late husband's branch of the family. 

But within six months of his death, that is, in October, 1723, 
the wily Dr. Milner induced the old lady, then sixty-six years 
of age, to accept him as her fourth husband, and to settle all 
her property upon him. This done, Dr. Milner died the follow- 
ing year, and bequeathed the estate to his brother Charles, also 
an M.D. Charles Milner died at Preston Hall in 1771, leaving 
the property to his nephew, the Rev. Joseph Butler, from whom 
it passed to Henry Robert Milner, who held it in 1847. He, or 
his heir, sold it to Mr. E. L. Bates, who sold it to Mr. Henry 
Brassey. Mr. Brassey pulled down the old hall and erected the 
present grand modern house. 

The Sir Thomas Colepeper who through his wife Joan Green 
became possessed of Exton, and whose eldest son inherited 
Exton, had a second son, Walter, who served under Sir William 
Bourchier at the siege of Harfleur in 1415. When the war 
terminated at the battle of Agincourt, Walter returned to 
England, married Agnes, daughter of Edmund Roper, of 
! St. Dunstan's, Canterbury, and settled down as a country 
gentleman at Goudhurst. But his fighting temper, untamed by 



thirty-five years of peaceful life, led him, in company with his 
sons, John and Richard, to join the rebels under Jack Cade in 
1450. His eldest son John married Agnes, the heiress of 
Bedgebury, and so came into possession of that property ; while 
his second son, Richard, and his third son, Nicholas, became in 
succession the owners of VVakehurst in Sussex. 

By Agnes Bedgebury, of Bedgebury, this John was the father 
of two sons, the eldest, Alexander, succeeding to Bedgebury ; 
while the younger, Walter, through his marriage with Ann 
Aucher, becoming owner of Losenham, in the parish of 

We will first follow the line at Bedgebury, and then revert to 
the line at Losenham. 

Sir John (husband of Agnes) died in 1483, and was suc- 
ceeded, as stated above, by his son Alexander. This 
Alexander's son, Thomas, married twice, and both his wives 
being heiresses, they brought a number of manors into the 
family. By his first wife, Eliza Haute, he had two sons and 
one daughter; the elder of the sons, Alexander by name, 
followed him at Bedgebury ; while the daughter, Elizabeth, 
married Thomas Fane (afterwards Sir Thomas Fane of Mere- 
worth Castle) who was in the rebellion with Sir Thomas Wyatt 
in 1553, as mentioned above. By his second wife, Helen 
Somerset Hendley, he had a daughter, who married Christopher 
Sackville, ancestor of the Duke of Dorset. 

But, unsatisfied with having secured a number of properties 
by his two wives, this Thomas Culpeper is notorious in history 
as a barefaced trafficker in the manors of the dissolved 
monasteries. No less than twenty-nine of these transactions 
are on record. It would be wearisome to go into the details of 
these grants, purchases, and sales of manors all over the county ; 
but the result was that Thomas became perhaps the richest 
squire in Kent. 

He was buried at Goudhurst, and in the church there there 
is a large monument commemorating " the eldest son of ould 
Sir Alexander." 

He was succeeded at Bedgebury by his eldest son, Sir 
Alexander who entertained Queen Elizabeth at Bedgebury in 


It was at this period, I think, that the family reached its 
highest point as landed proprietors. For although they were 



afterwards to obtain two baronetcies and a peerage, yet as a 
family of squires they were, in 1 573, the owners of more estates 
than at any time either before or after. There was a Thomas at 
Crawley, a George at Balcombe, a William at Worth, a Richard 
at Onstye, and a William at Hunton. Francis was living at 
Greenway Court ; Sir John was the owner of Losenham, in 
Kent, and of Wigsell, in Sussex ; Thomas was flourishing at 
Preston Hall ; while Edward, of Wakehurst, was at that time a 
boy of eleven, whose inherited property was accumulating 
during his minority, so that in 1 590 he was able to rebuild 
Wakehurst, and turn the modest home of his ancestors into 
" one of the most stately houses in Sussex." 

Sir Alexander, of Bedgebury, died in 1 599, and was succeeded 
by his son, Sir Anthony. 

This Sir Anthony began dissipating his father's large estate, 
and his grandson, Thomas, sold Bedgebury and died childless. 

The above Anthony's fourth son was Colonel Sir Thomas, who 
in 1637 bought Place House. He married Lady Barbara 
Sidney, daughter of the Earl of Leicester, and widow of 
Viscount Strangford. By her he had a son, Thomas, who, in 
1675, sold Place House to Edward Hales, whose great 
grandson, Sir Edward Hales, Bart., pulled down the old house 
and built the large one now in the occupation of the French 

We hear no more of this Thomas, and with him that branch 
of the family appears to have died out. 

We must now revert, as proposed, to Walter, the second son 
/of Sir John of Bedgebury, who, as seen, became owner of 
Losenham. Of his descendants the most prominent was Sir 
John Culpeper, who, in 1644, was created by Charles I, Baron 
Culpeper of Thoresway, Lincoln. His three sons, Thomas, John, 
Cheney, were successively second, third, and fourth Barons. 
The last-named died unmarried in 1725, and the title became 

There was another line at Greenway Court and Holl ing- 
bourne, which manor was bought by Francis, second son of 
William, of Losenham. The son of Francis, known as Sir 
Thomas of Hollingbourne, bought Leeds Castle ; but, it seems, 
continued to live at Hollingbourne Manor House. His three 
daughters are known to fame as having embroidered the velvet 
altar cloth of Hollingbourne Church, the colours of which, 



though the work is 250 years old, are still brilliant. The room 
in which they did the work is known in the manor house to this 
day as " The Needle Room." They were engaged upon it during 
the days of the Commonwealth, but they did not dare present it 
for public use until the Restoration. The subject of the em- 
broidery is the twelve mystic fruits of the tree of life. 

Sir Thomas died in 1661, and his great grandson, John 
Spencer Culpeper, sold Greenway Court and all his property 
at Hollingbourne. 

This John Spencer, having got rid of all his family property, 
took up his abode in 1739 at the Charterhouse in London 
as Receiver. 

He married in 1743 Ruth Webb, by whom he had one son, 
John Spencer, his wife Ruth dying at her son's birth. In 1752 
he married secondly Mary Webb, by whom he had one son, 
Richard, who died unmarried. The second John Spencer died 
unmarried, and with him the wide-spread family of Culpeper, 
as regards male representatives, became finally extinct. 

There are many families in English history who, after be- 
coming prominent, have failed to leave male heirs to carry on 
the name. But I do not think there is any family who occu- 
pied so much land, and held so many public positions during a 
period of five hundred years, who have been so entirely 
obliterated as the descendants of Sir John Colepeper, who was 
the owner of Bayhall at the end of the XIII century. 


BY C. W. FORBES, Member of the Essex Archaeological Society. 

[Continued from vol. x, p. 260. ] 

1 PROPOSE in this article to complete the series of 
churches lying between Grays and Stanford-le-Hope, 
v j z: Grays Thurrock, Little or East Thurrock, West 
and East Tilbury, all of them being churches of early 


Little Thurrock Church. 

West Tilbury Church. 
Photographs by C. W. Forbes. 



The church at Grays Thurrock, commonly called Grays, is 
situated close to the railway station, a few yards to the south; it 
is cruciform in shape, built of flint and chalk. The tower, with 
its dwarf broached spire, is on the north side, and contains three 
bells. There are two entrances : south door with porch, and a 
plain north door. In 1846 the church was to a great extent 
rebuilt and considerably enlarged, the portions lying to the 
west of the south porch being new work. The interior contains 
chancel, with a modern wooden screen of no particular merit, 
dividing the altar from choir ; a nave of four bays, with north 
and south chapels, one on each side of the chancel. 

The east end of the church, the two chapels, and the lower 
portion of the tower, also the octagonal font, are attributed to 
the XIII century. So far as I have been able to learn there is 
no trace of an earlier structure. 

An Early English arch divides the north chapel from the aisle. 
The chancel arch is round and rather low ; it is believed that a 
similar XIII century one lies underneath, but covered in with 
modern work. The south chapel also has a modern brick 
division, the eastern portion being now used as a priest's vestry ; 
the western end, forming a part of the choir, has a small 
piscina and an aumbry. 

The interior is very poor as regards monumental work, but 
has one brass, circa 1510, to a civilian with two wives and 
several children. 

In digging the foundations for the station master's house 
close by, a very fine tesselated Roman pavement was dis- 
covered some few years back ; also portions of Roman 
masonry. Doubtless the Romans had a settlement here close 
to the river. 

This pavement, in its entirety, now forms the floor of the 
priest's vestry ; it is in very good preservation. 


One mile to the east, on the the road to Tilbury Docks, is 
the small church of East or Little Thurrock. The town of 
Grays has grown rapidly the last few years, and practically 
absorbed this small village. 

The structure is a small one, dating from the XII century, 
containing chancel and nave only, and an early XIII century 



door with porch on the north side, on the east side of the 
interior wall of which is the remains of a Holy water stoup. 
The south doorway on the opposite side of the church was 
bricked up during the early part of the XVII century. 

In the chancel is a small priest's door now fastened up. 

There was originally a small wooden western spire which 
was destroyed at the restoration in 1878, being replaced by the 
present low stunted tower of no great beauty ; in fact it rather 
mars the appearance of the church from the roadway. 

On entering, we notice traces of a large arch on the south 
wall, now built in No information is available as to what this 
arch really was ; it is supposed to have been at one time 
occupied by a tomb. This, however, is only conjecture. 

The pulpit is very plain, dated 1700. The font to the west 
of the north doorway is a plain octagonal one, and presumed to 
be XIII century work. 

The arch dividing the nave and chancel is a plain rounded 
one, probably original XII century work. It is believed that at 
one time another arch was placed in front of this, remains of 
which can be seen at the present time on the south side. 
These remains were uncovered at the late restoration, and 
traces of a curious old fresco were discovered on them. 

The best piece of work in the church is a handsome three- 
seated sedilia, and a large trefoil -headed piscina with an ogee 
ornamental top added. The sedilia has curious figure-heads 
carved in the stone on the arches. 


Continuing pn our journey towards the ferry, we next arrive 
at West Tilbury. This church stands at the top of a hill. On 
a clear day a very fine view of the river Thames and the county 
of Kent can be seen from the top of the tower. 

The renowned Archbishop Laud was at one time, circa 161$, 
Rector of this parish. It is stated that owing to this fact the 
building was despoiled, and partially destroyed by Lord 
Fairfax and his troopers in 1648, when on their way to the 
siege of Colchester. The building, like many others, was used 
as stables for the horses of his troopers. 

The present church, restored in 1883, contains a chancel and 
nave, and an embattled western tower with clock and five of 
the old bells, with dates 1621 to 1694. The early portions of 



East Tilbury Church. 
Photographs by C. \\'. Forbes. 


the structure, viz., the outer walls, north door, and some of the 
windows, are XIII century. 

A modern lychgate admits us to the churchyard. Built into 
the first buttress, to the east of the north door, is the stone 
framework of the remains of a trefoil-headed piscina ; this at 
one time was doubtless in the chancel, thrown out during the 
destruction in 1648, and at a later period inserted here to 
preserve it. 

The north doorway has the remains of a Holy-water stoup 
plainly visible on the west side. 

The interior has now little to interest the archaeologist ; the 
present font dates from the restoration ; but outside in the 
churchyard is an old pedestal font of the Georgian period. In 
the chancel is a plain two-seated sedilia. There are no other 
features of ancient work left worth mentioning. 

The Communion plate has two chalices, dated 1762 and 1797, 
and a flagon, circa 1800. 

The registers date from 1 540. 


We now pass to the last of the churches in this corner of 
the county, situated about a mile and a half from what is called 
Low Street, an ancient Roman road. This church, from the 
point of view of the historian, is certainly the most interest- 
ing in this part of Essex. It is quite close to the river, and 
near what is called Coalhouse Fort, built by the illustrious 
military hero, General Charles Gordon, while in command of 
the Thames forts, 1866 to 1871. 

The ancient parish of East Tilbury, and its church, may 
really be regarded as possessions of national importance. 
Tracing its history back to very early times, we read that A.D. 
43, the Roman Emperor, Claudius, crossed the Thames by the 
ferry here, and took command of the army of Aulus Plautius, 
preparatory to his march upon, and capture of, Camelodunum 
(or Colchester). Traces of the ancient causeway on the 
opposite side of the river from Rochester to Higham, point 
directly to East Tilbury as the site of the ancient Roman ferry. 

Later we find the Venerable Bede referring to two centres of 
St. Cedd's or Ceadda's spiritual work, viz., Ythancester and 
Tilbury. The first-named place has been identified with the site 
of the Roman fortress of Othona, which was situated near a 



small place called "Bradwell juxta mare," at the north-east 
corner of the Hundred of Dengie. As regards Tilbury, at that 
time called Tilaburg, Bede states that Cedd was, circa 655, at 
the request of Segibert, King or chief of the Kingdom of Essex, 
sent here to preach and baptize. He afterwards became the 
third Bishop of London, and is credited with building the first 
church here and a monastery, no traces of which are now in 
existence. Later we find that, circa 1042-1066, temp. Edward 
the Confessor, the parish was one manor subsequently divided 
into five, one of which still exists under its ancient name of 

The church, down to the middle of the XVII century, con- 
sisted of a nave, chancel, north and south aisles, and a lofty 
western tower ; there was also a chantry attached, founded and 
endowed, circa 1328, by Sir Thomas Gobyons, the then owner 
of the manor ; some remains of this can still be seen. 

In 1667 the Dutch fleet, under the celebrated De Ruyter, 
sailed up the Thames and Medway and caused considerable 
damage to the English fleet and dockyards at Sheerness and 
Chatham during the battle between the English and Dutch 
fleets, which took place in what is called the Lower Hope. 
The fine and lofty tower and south aisle, also the Vicarage, were 
fired on by the Dutch sailors and utterly wrecked. The foun- 
dations are still clearly visible, and numerous cannon balls can 
even now be picked up in the churchyard and surrounding fields. 

Until the year 1893, when about 1,000 was spent on the 
restoration, the church was simply a patched ruin, the roof was 
open in many places to the sky, the water stood in pools in 
the north aisle and nave after heavy rain, and the windows 
were so shattered that it was necessary to fasten a covering 
over them to keep out the wind and rain. After every firing of 
the guns at the adjoining fort and battery, large portions of the 
ceiling fell from the inside of the roof, and many tiles were 
dislodged from the outside. 

It is estimated that a further sum of at least 1,500 is 
necessary to rebuild the tower, etc., on the original sites, and 
complete the restoration. 

The body of the church is Norman work dating from the 
middle of the XII century. The walls, however, contain 
portions of earlier ancient masonry, probably Saxon or pre- 
Norman ; also fragments of Roman bricks and flanged roofing 



tiles. Additions and alterations were made in the XIV and 
XV centuries. 

The north doorway by which we enter is Early English with 
an ancient porch. 

There are three small lancet windows in the chancel, and one 
larger one which is now bricked up ; also an early-pointed 
priest's door. To the west of this is a low-side window of the 
XIV century, with an additional square-topped one built over 
it, forming a curious double window. 

The nave on the north side has one small lancet window 
similar to those in the chancel, the others being two and three 
light windows in the Decorated style. 

In the chancel is a trefoil-headed piscina with shelf and rose- 

The north aisle is separated from the nave by three pillars, 
two being round and the centre one octagonal. The orna- 
mental carved stone work at the top of each pillar is different. 

In the south wall are visible the remains of two arches which 
formed part of the south aisle. The wall, however, and the 
two windows in the Decorated style inserted in it, have been 
built up very roughly out of the old materials and stone work. 

The font is a fine octagonal one of the XIII century. 

There are no monuments or brasses now left in the interior ; 
but scattered about the western end are portions of two ancient 
stone coffins and a number of pieces of stone work which 
formed portions of early tombs which doubtless existed. The 
pulpit is Jacobean. 

In 1389 the living of East Tilbury was appropriated to Lord 
Cobham's College in Kent by authority of a bull of Pope 
Urban II. 

The reputed stone coffin of St. Chad, circa 667, is said to be in 
the churchyard, although I have not as yet been able to trace it. 

Nearly all the churches along the river from London to 
Shoebury had, it appears, originally strong stone towers, built 
and used as means of defence. It was probably owing to the 
tower at East Tilbury being used for this purpose that it was 
fired upon by the Dutch. 

Near by are remains of ancient earth works, also portions of 
the embankment or sea wall, built by the Danes to prevent the 
overflowing of the river. 

[To be continued.] 




[Continued from vol. x, p. 275.] 


1580. [See under Badlesmere, vol. vii, p. 212.] 

1605. We have a [Prayer] Book and a Bible, but we want 
a book of Homilies. We say our carpet was lately stolen 
away, and we will speedily provide another. We have not the 
Ten Commandments as yet [set up in the church]. 

Our church is somewhat at reparations wanting tileing and 
glazing, which hereafter shall shortly be repaired. 

We have not yet a table of degrees [of marriages forbidden] 
but will provide one. 

We have not a pulpit cloth, for it was lately stolen away. 
(Fol. 3.) 

That for the space of these five weeks we have had no 
service in the forenoon in our parish church. 

We have had no service on Wednesday and Fridays, and 
seldom on holydays this twelvemonth. 

He is beneficed and allowed preacher and preacheth every 
Sunday, but not at Buckland. 

We have no youth catechised in our parish this twelvemonth. 

An answer to the presentments made against the Vicar of 
Buckland by the churchwardens. 

The Vicar saith that he only omitted to read prayers two 
Sundays in the morning nor more as he thinketh, the reason 
whereof was partly for that he was not in health. That there 
is not a large Bible, with a surplice in the church, that divers 
times he requested the churchwardens to provide one, but they 
would not. 

He saith that on Holy-days for the most part they have had 
prayers, but for none come to the church. 

He is ready and willing to catechise the youth of the parish, 
but have none come to the church before evening prayer. 
(Vol. 1604-5, fl' 2I 4-) 

1637. We present Robert Clegat and his wife for that 
they have often neglected to come to our parish church on 
Sundays and Holydays to hear divine service ; and especially 



for their absence from church on the feast day of the Purification 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary ; and on the feast day of St.Mathias, 
1636; and on Sunday, 2 April, 1637; and Sunday, 23 April; 
and on St. Mark's day. 

Also we present Robert Clegat for that he suffereth his mill 
to go on Sundays and Holydays, albeit he hath been often 
warned to the contrary, to the great disturbance of the minister 
and people, especially on St. Matthew's day and on St. Mark's 

Also we present Robert Clegat and Sarah, his wife, and 
Elisabeth Thomas, his maid-servant, for not receiving the Holy 
Communion at Easter last. 

On 23 November, Robert Clegat appeared in Court and 
said : That by the necessary affairs of his calling he is often 
occasioned to be absent from home both Sundays and week 
days, sometimes a whole quarter of a year together, but at 
such times as he is at home he duly keeps his church upon 
Sundays, but for Holy-days it is the generality of the parish 
that is to blame as well as he for not keeping their church 
those days. 

That his mill never goeth in prayer time on the Sundays, 
nor that he permits on Holydays ; nor, indeed, on the Sundays 
from morning till toward evening. 

That he and his wife were from home the last Easter and 
abode here at Canterbury at his father's in St. Andrew's parish ; 
but shortly after, she being at Newcastle, received the Com- 
munion there, as appears by a certificate under the minister's 
hand. But he received it in his own parish church of Buckland 
last Whitsuntide, and had received it there with his wife and 
maid-servant on Low Sunday ; but because there were no more 
in the parish to receive but only they, not a convenient number 
to communicate alone, their Pastor refused to call or hold a 
Communion for them. (Vol. 1636-39, fol. 113.) 

1 640. We do present Whittingham Fogge l of the parish 
of Buckland, gent., for not paying his cess for the reparation of 
our church, which sum is ten shillings upon hin cessed the 7 
May, 1639, for 120 acres of land lying in our parish, at one 
penny an acre. (Vol. 1639-66, fol. 51.) 

[To be continued.] 

1 See Archaologia Cantiana, vol. v, for the Fogge Pedigree, etc. 



[Continued from vol. x, page 304.] 

THE plot of land, which, in the last Ordnance Survey Map 
(London, five feet scale, Sheet VI T, No 74) is marked 
" Site of the King's Old Bargehouse," T appears to me, as 
I have said, to lie too far to the west to coincide with the 
actual site of the building in question. For, although it is on 
the east side of the " Parlimentary Borough Boundary " between 
Southwark and Lambeth, indicated in the 1875 O.S. and other 
modern maps, it is distinctly on the west side of the original 
boundary, as shown in earlier maps, down to 1768. 

The fact that this plot is in the possession of the Duchy of 
Cornwall would, moreover, seem to indicate that it was anciently 
within the manor of Kennington and parish of Lambeth, whereas 
the actual site of the King's Bargehouse, as stated in the 
Cromwellian Survey, and as established by the old Court Rolls, 
was "within the parish of St. Saviour's" 

The obvious geographical boundary was the wide ditch 
which is so conspicuous a landmark in the early views, running 
north, or, more correctly, north-west, from St. George's Fields 
into the Thames, and which must have been of very ancient 
construction, if, as I gather from a passage in Allen's Lambeth 
(P- 357)> it coincided with part of the so-called "Canute's 

In most of the Elizabethan maps, e.g., the Guildhall origi- 
nal, 1 562, 2 Braun 1572, and Norden 1593, and in the Manorial 
Plan of 1627, its entire length is exposed to sight ; but in most 
of the later ones its northern end beyond Narrow Wall 
disappears from view, though it presumably pursued its straight 
course subterraneously, as it does, I am informed, at the present 
day, in the guise of a sewer. In one " Plan of the City in the 
time of Elizabeth " (reproduced in Besant's London Under the 
Tudors, p. 1 88) its upper end deviates to the westward, forming 

1 The lettering on this sheet, I may mention, covers a space having about 
loo feet river-frontage, but is no doubt meant to apply only to the narrow 
strip on which the same title is inscribed in the 1875 O.S. 

2 This map has generally been attributed to Agas ; but Overall, in the 
preface to the reproduction, contends that the date ascribed to it by Vertue, 
1560, is too early for it to have been by Agas, and appears to be of opinion 
that it is probably "the carde of London" entered on Gyles Godhead's 
list, 1562 ; and that if by Agas, it cannot have been made before 1591. 


a sharp loop suggesting the curvature of the modern Parlia- 
mentary boundary, but I think that this must be a faulty 
modification of Van de Keere's, 1 where as in other and more 
modern maps two branches turn off to the left, bordering 
Narrow Wall, while the remainder of the main ditch is not 
delineated. The same bend to the westward appears in 
Faithorne's map, but here we plainly see the main ditch de- 
bouching close to the Bargehouse. In Bray's " Ancient Plan " 
(the date of which is unknown), the main ditch, with its western 
off-shoots and its straight continuation into the Thames, are 
most distinctly shown. The discrepancies between the divers 
representations of the minor ditches are too numerous and too 
complicated for discussion here. That the old parochial 
boundary coincided with this main ditch may be seen in the 
Ogilby-Morgan map of 1677, where the dotted line bordering 
the ditch, 2 as far as that is visible, is produced thence direct to 
the river. The same line is followed by the dotted (? manorial) 
boundary in the Survey by R. Summersell, 1768, at the Office 
of the Duchy. 

In the 1627 plan of the Manor of Paris Garden, the ditch is 
exposed, and runs straight, its full length ; and that it was 
then the proprietary boundary seems implied by the fact that 
none of the land to westward of it is tinted. 

Nevertheless, a piece of ground on the Lambeth side of the 
ditch must have belonged, in some sort, to the Manor of Paris 
Garden ; for, among schedules of Copies of Court Roll deeds 3 
concerning copyhold lands held of that manor, I find in Sched. 
VI, No. i : 20 Jan., 1st Edw. VI, Indenture of Lease, whereby 
Martin Bowes, junior, Goldsmith, of London, and Frances, his 
wife, one of the heirs of Robert Amadas, late Goldsmith of 
London (according to the grant of a licence dated 23 Oct., 36 
Hen. VIII, by Henry Marwood, deputy to Sir Richard Long, 
High Steward of the King's manor of Paris Garden), demised to 
Robert Mott, Blacksmith, " all that messuage some time called 

1 Drawn 1 593 for Norden's Speculum Britannia. 

3 Along its western edge. 

3 At the office of Messrs. Lethbridge Money & Prior, Abingdon St., 
Westminster, who hold them for Edward G. Baron Lethbridge, Esq., of 
Tregeare, Egloskerry, Cornwall, the owner of part of the manor of Paris 
Garden, formerly possessed by the Baron family ; this property having 
descended to Mr. Baron Lethbridge through the marriage of his grand- 
father to Miss Baron, of Egloskerry. 



a mill, within the manor of P.G., and all the herbage upon the 
banks round about the said manor, also one acre of meadow in 
Lambeth Marsh, and one acre of pasture in St. George's Fields." 
The same is probably refered to in Sched. (i ?) No. 3 (4 Eliz.), 
when Bryan Stapleton, Esq., surrendered at a Court of the 
Manor of P.G., among other holdings .... "one acre of 
Customary land lying in the Parish of Lambeth^ which premises 
were late the estate of one Robert Amadas, Citizen of London." 
No. 4 (8 Eliz.) also mentions " I acre of meadow on Lambeth 

In 1542, Henry VIII 1 had granted to William Basely of 
Paris Garden, Gentleman, for the remainder of a term (of 
twenty-one years ?) all that messuage or farm called Paris 
Garden, with all buildings, all closes, fields, gardens, etc., in- 
cluding "the Bolyng Alyes," and with thirty-four acres of 
meadow and marsh, parcel of the Manor of Kennington^ late in 
the tenure of Robert Drueston ; all which farm and other 
premises, etc., were parcel of the possessions of the late dissolved 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. 

I must, however, repeat that the wide ditch was the recog- 
nised proprietary as well as parochial boundary ; for, apart 
from maps, there is authoritative verbal evidence on this point. 
At the Office of the Duchy of Cornwall is a survey made 
by John Norden, 2 in 1615, of the Manor of Kennington, which 
he divides into two parts ; the second corresponding, I think, 
to the Prince's Mead being thus defined : 

" Incipiendum juxta fluvium Thamesis ad os cujusdam aque cur- 
sus qui dividit manerium de Parres Garden et manerium istud de 
Kenington ; et, ab ore dicti aque cursus, per fossatum aquaticum 
subtiis Murum Viridum tendens a Paries Garden, versus Campum 
Sancti Georgii, usque ad alium fossatum aquaticum secundum a 
dicto campo ; et per dictum fossatum versus Austrum usque ad 
viridem venellam \Marginal Note : Medietatem istius viride ven- 
ellae pertinere manerio de Kenington existimo] quae ducit a villa de 
Lambeth Marshe, usque ad mariscum de Lambeth bori-occiden- 
taliter, et per venellam illam usque ad Rivulum Tamisie, ad 
emissarium sive locum cognitum per nomen de le Sluse ; et inde 
per littus fluvii, usque ad os sive exitus communis aquae cursus qui 
dividit maneria de Paries Garden et Kennington, ut supradictum est.'> 

1 Exchequer Augmentation Office, Misc. Book, 214, page 34 b. See also 
Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1542, p. 700. 

9 Mr. Peacock informs me that the text shown me was the original, and 
that no plans or drawings in connection with it exist at the Office, or are 
known to have existed. 


That" is to say/beginning'by the River Thames, at the mouth 
of a certain water-course*which \divides the Manor of Parres 
Garden and the Manor of Kenington ; and from the mouth of 
the said water-course by a ditch of water under the Green 
Wall, 1 leading from Paries Garden towards St. George's Field, 
to another ditch of water hard by the said field ; and by the 
said ditch, towards the south, to the Green Lane (half of which 
Green Lane belongs to the Manor of Kenington), which leads 
from the village of Lambeth Marsh to the marshes of Lambeth, 
north-west ; and by that lane, to the River Thames, to an 
outlet or place known by the name of the Sluice ; and thence 
by the river-side to the mouth or issue of the common water- 
course which divides the manors of Parres Garden and 
Kennington, as stated above. 

This may be compared with the Parliamentary Survey of 
i649 2 , in which we find, under "Particulars of all such lands 
and tenements belonging to the Manor of Kennington as are 
under demise or grant" : "The Prince's Mead, containing 22 
acres, M r Daniel Goodersay, under-tenant ; now divided into 
two several closes, adjoining unto the common or highway 
[i.e., Broad Wall], leading from the Bankside unto St. George's 
Fields on the east, unto Lambeth Marsh on the south, unto the 
Earl of Arundel's Garden on the west, and unto the River 
Thames on the north. . . . There are standing upon the said 
closes, called the Prince's Meadow, 37 willow trees, which wee 
valew to be worth 3 14^. od" 

This portion of the Manor of Kennington intervened between 
the Liberty of Paris Garden and the Church Manor of Lambeth, 
the boundaries of which are given in the following Parliamentary 
Survey of 1652 : 3 

" The Manor of Lambeth, late belonging to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, hath on ye west side ye River of Thames, and 
extends towards the King's Bargehouse by the Thames side to 
ye shore (i.e., ditch) eastward ; and there, leaving a peece of 
meadow of the Prince's Manner on the east, it turneth south- 
east by the ditch of the Prince's said Meadow, to the Bancke 

1 Another name for the Broad Wall, as stated on a map accompanying 
Middleton's Survey. 

* Record Office, Surveys and Rentals, Surrey, No. 33. 

3 Parliamentary Survey, Surrey, 49. Printed in the Collections of the 
Surrey Archceolo^ical Society, vol. xii, p. 35). 

VOL. XI. 49 ' E 


that goeth from the King's Bargehouse to St. George's Fields ; 
and thence, along by St. George's Fields, to the Lord Mayor's 
Stone by the Royall Forte." ' 

There is an apparent discrepancy between the above and that 
which Nicholson, in his New Survey of London? sets down thus: 

"The bounds or circuit of Lambeth Palace, as I had it from 
M r Gennaway,3 the only person I can hear of who perfectly 
knows it, is as follows : 

" From the landing-place, northward and eastward along the 
water-side to the old Bargehouse, and thence to the corner of 
St. George's Fields ; and so, on the westerly side of the ditch, 
to the Lord Mayor's Stone by the * Dog and Duck,' . . . ." etc. 

The difficulty, however, disappears, if for " Bargehouse " in 
the last account we read Bargehouses; for the premises so- 
called (being timber-yards, etc.) occupied the northern border 
of the tract which, in Nichols' Lambeth, 1786 (p. 25), is styled 
the WALL LIBERTY ; />., the Narrow Wall, from the King's 
Old Bargehouse to Cupar's Gardens, and the distinction ob- 
served by Nichols between the "Wall Liberty" and the 
" Prince's Liberty," or " Prince's Mead," apparently did not 
exist as early as 1649, since the "Prince's Mead" in the 
Parliamentary Survey of that date, is described as " bounded on 
the north by the Thames." Indeed, the Prince's Mead, accord- 
ing to its boundaries, must have included " the Bargehouses," 
though these are separately specified. 

The " Shore " with its " Sluice," mentioned in the foregoing 
surveys, is the one conspicuous on old maps'* that debouched 
close to Cupar's Stairs, just where the triangular northern 
extremity of Cupar's Garden touched the river ; and this, again, 
accords with the specification of the Earl of Arundel's Garden 
as the western boundary of the Mead. 

For the Garden that in 1636 was the freehold of Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Arundel,s was afterwards kept as a public 

1 There was one fort near the junction of Dirty Lane with Blackman 
Street, and not far from the windmill at the north-east angle of St. 
George's Fields. Others stood near the " Dog and Duck " and Vauxhall 

a Published in 1708 ; vol. ii, p. 386. 

3 Lambeth Burial Reg. : 1671, Feb. 6, Eliza, dau. of W m Gennaway. 

4 See Ogilby- Morgan, 1677, and Strype's Stow, 1720. 

5 Ducarel also tells us that the Earl also occupied the Prince's Meadow 
adjoining, and Allen states that in 1636 he had a house on Prince's 



pleasure resort hy his tenant and former gardener, Boydell 
Cupar, whence it became known as " Cupar's," and later as 
" Cupid's Garden," or " Cupid's Bowling Green," as marked on 
an undated map at the Duchy of Cornwall Office. It was 
suppressed in 1753, and its site is said to be covered by the 
timber wharves of Belvedere Road, near the approach to 
Waterloo Bridge. 

Among inhabitants of the " Prence's Leberty " who paid 
Hearth Tax in 1662, I find " Boyden Cooper 1 6 hearths." 

The embanked way bordered by ditches, called Narrow Wall, 
that followed the course of the river round to Lambeth Palace, 
and that the topographers tell us was a work of great antiquity, 
is marked on Bray's " Ancient Plan," " The Waye leading to 
Lambeth." I am not sure that I have found it called " Narrow 
Wall " in any map before Roque's ; but in Lambeth Burial 
Registers I have noted the entries: "1655, Feb. 25, Thos. 
Atkins from the Narrow Wall " ; " 1673, Oct. 16, Fulke Morris, 2 
from the Narrow Wall," and other instances. 

A part of " Upper Ground," also, would appear to have 
belonged to the parish of Lambeth, if we might accredit with 
accuracy the terms of a deed of endowment cited by Ducarel 
whereby it is stipulated that the overseers of a certain school in 
the Marsh Liberty, founded by Major Richard Lawrence, are to 
be " four able men in Lambeth Marsh and Upper Ground within 
the jtf/V/[Lambeth]/<7f7>^. In the Lambeth Burial Register I 
note: "1659, Ap. II, Richard Arthur, from the Upper 

[To be continued.] 

Meadow ; while my extracts show that he was tenant of a large amount 
of land within the manor of Paris Garden. 

1 The Lambeth Registers contain the following extracts : 1652, June 
29, Bur. Jacob, the sonne of Boyden Cuper ; 1659, June 4, Bapt. Sarah, 
the dau. of Abraham Cuper ; 1674, May 8, Bur. Abraham, son of Bodwin 

2 In 1662, Folck Morris paid tax on 5 hearths, in the Prince's Liberty, in 
the parish of Lambeth. 



AN appeal has been made by The Shakespeare Reading 
Society of London for funds, whereby the site of the 
Globe Playhouse of Shakespeare may be worthily com- 
memorated. The site is covered by the brewery of 
Barclay, Perkins and Co., Ltd., Park Street, Southwark, who 
have given permission for the erection of a tablet upon their 
premises, which face the public thoroughfare. A view of the 
tablet as it appears in the full-size plaster model is shown here- 
with. The model has been executed by Professor Lanteri of 
the Royal College of Art, South Kensington, from a design of 
Dr. William Martin, F.S.A., and will be cast in bronze, its di- 
mensions being five feet six inches in length and three feet six 
inches in breadth. The view depicts, in relief, Bankside, South- 
wark, in the time of Shakespeare, with the " Globe " in the fore- 
ground, a medallion-bust of the poet appearing in one corner. 
A suitable incription is also added. 

The view is largely based upon the Norden map of London 
of 1 593, in which a playhouse, probably the " Rose," and the 
Bear-garden are shown on opposite sides of a ditch (see H.C.M., 
vol. ix, p. 85). Other map-views and prints of the time have 
been drawn upon for detail. As regards the shape of the 
Globe, a cylindrical playhouse is shown in an inset to a map 
of Great Britain in Speed's Theatre of Great Britain, 1611, 
the map bearing the name of Hondius with the date 1610, no 
name, however, appearing on the inset. It is assumed that the 
cylindrical playhouse represents the Globe. A similarly shaped 
structure may be seen in other views, e.g. t that by Delaram, and 
on the title-page of Baker's Chronicles (H.C.M., vol. ix, p. 81 
and p. 201). 

There is no evidence that the Globe, which was burnt down 
in 1613, was polygonal in shape, as is so often represented to 
be the case ; the polygonal building occurring in the map-views 
of later date, would represent the theatre as re-erected. 

As regards the site of the Globe, the so-called " Ryther " map 
in the Crace Collection of date later than 1612 (H.C.M., vol. ix, 
p. 81), seems correctly to indicate where the theatre stood, viz., 
in the angle formed by what is now known as Park Street and 
the thoroughfare which, now no longer existent, bore the 
name of Bandy Leg Walk. The site was more accurately 







determined by the late Dr. Rendle from certain Sacrament 
Token Books of the early years of the XVII century, which 
are preserved in Southward Cathedral. These books contain 
lists of the inhabitants of the parish, arranged in order of their 
residence, and also contain incidental mention of the Globe 
in such a way that the situation was calculated. Although no 
view would appear to be known in which the round Globe, as 
opposed to the later polygonal Globe, and the Bear-garden, are 
shown along with the Rose, yet the Rose is known to have been 
contemporary with the Globe. The three structures are re- 
presented in the tablet. The bust is an adaptation of the 
Droeshout Portrait from the First Folio of the Plays, it will be 
seen that Professor Lanteri has invested the portrait with the 
intelligence which the Dutch original somewhat lacks. 

The project for commemorating the Globe has been approved 
on all sides. Surprise has been expressed that in these days 
of mural tablets, no indication has yet appeared upon the site ot 
what the late Halliwell-Phillipps characterised as " the most 
celebrated theatre the world has ever seen." 

The tablet will be vested in trustees on behalf of the public. 
To enable the unveiling to take place on Shakespeare Day, 
April 23rd, 1909, the executive committee desires it to be 
known that donations should be forwarded at an early date. 
The subscription list is open both for small and large amounts. 
The fear is expressed that the numerous admirers of the Poet 
have delayed subscribing under the impression that the neces- 
sary fund will easily be raised, with the result that the donation 
list has suffered. To produce the tablet and to provide a fund 
for maintenance and cleaning, the sum of about .300 will be 
required. Donations should be sent to the Honorary Treasurer, 
Mr. Cecil F. J. Jennings, 27 VValbrook, E.C.; or to the Honorary 
Secretary, Miss Gardner, I York Gate, Regent's Park, N.W. 



BRUCE CASTLE, Tottenham, is, at the present day, like 
many more once handsome edifices, only a relic of what 
it originally was. That is from the point of view of a 
fashionable, aristocratic residence, for the structure, like 
many more belonging to the good old times, is still in excellent 
preservation. From being a splendid nobleman's estate with 
all its requisite grandeur, it has, through the ravages of time, 
lost all its former fame and brilliancy, and gradually sunk 
down into ignominous decadence. Thomas Robinson, the 
historian of Tottenham, thus mourns its altered state in his 
History of Tottenham : " And thus, in the compass of a few 
short years, a mansion which had for so many centuries opened 
its portals only to nobles, princes, and kings, sunk for ever 
from its proud splendour and magnificent hospitality, and 
became lost in the long extended list of country houses, to 
which undistinguished, though opulent individuals retire after 
the fatigues of business." But still, a short account of its 
origin, former extent and splendour, its many distinguished 
owners and varied vicissitudes may not be altogether without 
interest. The mansion is pleasantly situated among a cluster 
of noble trees ; in fact very little of it is visible until one is in 
the grounds, and once through the little gateway the castle is 
displayed in all its glory, with its large windows and old- 
fashioned shutters, its picturesque gables, and other innumerable 
architectural peculiarities of old houses which cannot perish, 
although the surroundings may. If it were not for the modern 
park which the estate has been converted into, one would 
imagine they were back in the period to which the historic old 
building belongs. One can picture the jolting canter of a 
cavalcade of royalty and nobility coming up the drive, and the 
smiling, genial host on the steps welcoming them to ;< my 
humble dwelling," and beseeching them to partake of "my poor 
hospitality." But, alas ! we awake from this charming revery, 
and, with a sigh, painfully remember that the days that saw 
such picturesque gallantry and chivalry are no more, and that 
we are in the enlightened twentieth century, which, unfortu- 
nately, does not cater for such happenings. 

Bruce Castle, as its name implies, was intimately associated 
with the illustrious Bruce family ; but the intimacy did not 



extend, as is often erroneously supposed, to the present build- 
ing. There is a tradition that the foundation of the mansion 
was laid by Earl Waltheof, the celebrated warrior who married 
Judith, niece to William the Conqueror, and who was ultimately 
executed A.D. 1076 for conspiring against the life of the King. 
At any rate, according to the Domesday Book, the manor of 
Tottenham was part of the possessions of Earl Waltheof in 
the reign of King Edward the Confessor. After the death 
of Waltheof, the manor came into the possession of his wife, 
Judith, who was also heiress to Huntingdon, and ultimately 
into the hands of their only child, Matilda or Maud. She 
married a Norman nobleman, by name Simon St. Liz, and on 
his decease, in the reign of Henry I, she took for her second 
husband, David, King of Scotland. Her first husband, Simon, 
left two sons, from one of whom, Simon, the King took the 
Earldom of Huntingdon and gave it to David, the King of 
Scotland, husband of Maud (?). She died in 1 1 30, leaving a son, 
Henry, who was the possessor of Huntingdon until his death, 
which occurred in 1153, and his family still retained possession 
of it until about 1 1 74. King Henry 1 1 then ordered an army 
to besiege Huntingdon, and to return it to the family of Simon 
St. Liz, the rightful owners from whom it had been taken. The 
Castle soon capitulated, but on doing so there ensued such a 
scene of animosity between William, the descendant of Maud, 
who then owned it, and Simon St. Liz, that the King, who was 
present, declared that neither should have it, and ordered it to 
be destroyed. His wrath, however, seems to have soon abated, 
for some time after he confirmed the Earldom to Simon, and on 
his death without issue returned it to William. Isabel, second 
daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, married Robert Bruce, 
great grandfather of the celebrated King Robert Bruce ol 
Scotland. Thus the property at Tottenham came into the 
possession of the eminent Bruce family. She also brought to 
her husband, in England, the manors of Writtle and Hatfield ; 
also those of Conington and Huntingdon, Exton in Rutland, 
and Jarioch in Scotland. Their son was Robert Bruce, com- 
monly known as the " Competitor." He succeeded to the 
lordship of Annandale on the death of his father in 1245, an< ^ 
married Isabel, daughter of Gilburt de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. 
Being involved a great deal in Scottish affairs, consequently his 
active career was distributed between the two kingdoms. In 



1 290 he was one of the aspirants for the throne of Scotland ; 
but, unfortunately for him, he had a rival in this respect in the 
person of John Baliol, his cousin. On Baliol being adjudged 
the rightful heir, and ultimately crowned King, Bruce retired 
from Scotland, and settled on the estates of his father at 
Tottenham. He improved and repaired his property, and gave 
it his own name. Dying at Lochmaben, his castle, in 1294, he 
was buried in the family burial-place, Guisborough, in Cleveland. 
His son, Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, distinguished himself 
at the Crusades, and on his return in 1270 married Marjory, 
Countess of Carrick, and their son eventually become the 
distinguished King Robert, of Scotland. He died 1303-4, and 
was buried at Holmecultram in Cumberland. Bruce Castle 
remained in the possession of Robert Bruce for a very short 
time, for the property was forfeited to the crown on his asserting 
the throne of Scotland in 1 306. From that time to the great 
epoch in its history, that dawned with the accession of the 
Comptons as owners, Bruce Castle had been granted to and 
possessed by numerous individuals. A description of all of 
them is utterly impossible ; consequently, the most important 
are briefly recounted. Edward I granted to John de Brettigny 
the castle, town, and manors of Tottenham. These manors for- 
merly comprised Pembrokes, Bruses Bruce Castle, D'Awbenys, 
Mockings, and Dovecotes, and the owner was Lord of the 
manor of Tottenham. Roger de Waterville, in 1326, had com- 
mitted to him by Edward II the custody of the manor of 
Tottenham. Edward III gave to Richard Spigurnal one third 
of the manor of Tottenham, and this was declared by writ of privy 
seal at York, October I2th, 1335. It appears that Walter de 
Shepedon had it for some time, for at the suit of Thomas 
de Hethe, in 1340, Edward III granted to him the reversion of 
all the lands and tenements in Tottenham, forfeited by Robert 
Bruce, and lately held for term of life by Walter de Shepedon. 
Thomas de Hethe, not content with what had already been 
granted to him, claimed the third portion of the property that 
had been before granted to Spigurnal. There is every reason 
to believe that the Spigurnals lived long about Tottenham and 
in Essex. The property seems to have come into the hands of 
John de Bello Monte, for, in 1343, he died possessed of the 
manors of Tottenham and Greenfield. Some time later 
Richard II granted to Robert de Cheshunte, " the manors called 



Le Bruses in Tottenham." In the reign of Henry V, to be 
exact, 1421, "Alice, the wife of Elmungus Legett, died seised 
of a manor in Tottenham, called Bruses." Still a few years 
later, 1426, Elmungus Legett, the husband of this lady, pos- 
sessed sixty-nine acres of land in Tottenham, being part of the 
manor of Bruses. In 1455, John Teynton granted to Joan 
Gedeney, widow of John Gedeney, Alderman of London, the 
reversion of all the manors of Pembrokes and Bruses in 
Tottenham. Richard Turnant Joan Gedeney's son by a 
former husband inherited the property through his mother, 
and on his son-in-law, Sir John Risley, dying without issue, the 
manor escheated to the crown. John Stockton, Alderman of 
London, in 1466, remitted to the Bishop of Winchester his 
right in the manor of Bruses. About 1474, in the reign of 
Edward IV, Richard Cumberton held one third of the manor 
of Tottenham. 

In 1514 Bruce Castle came into the hands of Sir William 
Compton, a clever soldier and Groom of the Bedchamber. It 
was granted to him by Henry VIII. Sir William was the son 
of Edmund Compton, of Compton, in Warwickshire, and at his 
father's death, he then being about eleven years of age, Henry 
VII appointed him to wait on his son Henry, Duke of York 
afterwards Henry VIII whose special favour he had acquired. 
He remained in personal attendance on the King from 1 509 to 
1523, and occupied the position of absentee Chancellor of 
Ireland, as well as that of Keeper of the Privy Purse, and during 
the latter part of his life he distinguished himself in the Scottish 
war, taking part in the Earl of Surrey's expedition. He owned 
three seats or manor-houses : Bruce Castle, in the church of 
which his daughter Margaret lies buried, 1517; Battishorne, 
near Windsor ; and Compton in Warwickshire. So great was 
his favour with Henry VIII that the great Cardinal Wolsey 
became jealous and suspicious lest he might endanger his own, 
and on this account, he contrived to send him away ; but he 
was soon recalled. Whilst Bruce Castle was in his possession 
extensive alterations were made, and he practically rebuilt it, 
and two years after it had been granted to him, 1516, it is 
recorded : " On Saturday after Ascension Day in that year, 
King Henry VIII met his sister Margaret, Queen of Scots, at 
Maister Compton's house beside Tottnam." When the Castle 
came by inheritance into the possession of Henry Compton, 



grandson of Sir William, it was honoured by a visit from " Good 
Queen Bess." This happened in the spring of 1578. It will 
thus be seen that Bruce Castle could boast of a fair amount of 
royalty among its guests. 

Sir William Compton married Werburgh, daughter of Sir 
John Brereton, and left one son, Peter, at his death, which 
occurred in 1528, in the forty-seventh year of his age. If 
he had lived longer he would in all probability have been 
raised to the peerage, for at the time of his death he was in 
nomination to be elected a Knight of the Garter. His son, Peter, 
married Anne Talbot, daughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury, and 
had one son, Henry, created Baron Compton, who owned the 
Castle when Elizabeth paid a visit to it. Henry had a son by 
his first wife, William, who was created Earl of Northampton, 
by James I in 1618. Henry, Baron Compton, took for his 
second wife Anne, daughter and heiress of Sir John Spencer. 
She survived him, ultimately marrying Robert Sackville, Earl 
of Dorset, and living at Tottenham until her death in 1618. 
She left to William, her first husband's son by a former wife, 
the manors of Tottenham. It appears that he either sold or 
mortgaged them to Thomas Sutton and Thomas Wheller. 
The last that can be traced of the illustrious Comptons in 
relation to the property is that William Compton, Earl of 
Northampton, held the manor of Mockings, and died in 1630. 
In later years the Compton family probably the last-named 
William assumed as a crest a fire beacon with the legend, 
" Nisi Dominus" 

During the latter part of the XVII century, Bruce Castle 
was owned by the Hare family, coming into the possession of 
Henry Hare, second Lord Coleraine, though whether by in- 
heritance or purchase is very problematical. Hugh Hare, the 
founder of the house of Coleraine, was created, at the early age 
of nineteen, Lord Coleraine by Charles I. He married Lucy 
Montague, second daughter of the first Earl of Manchester, and 
from them descended the Lords Coleraine. He is chiefly re- 
membered as a celebrated but eccentric Royalist, who supplied 
the King with funds amounting to considerably over ,40,000. 
His son Henry, second Lord Coleraine, rebuilt the edifice, 
and his lady, Sarah, Dowager Duchess of Somerset, founded 
Tottenham Grammar School, and at her death left a large sum 
for improving it. Naturally Lord Coleraine removed the arms 



of the Compton family from their position over the old portico, 
when the property came into his possession, but out of respect 
for the eminent Comptons, he placed them elsewhere in the 
house. In front of the mansion there used to stand a detached 
brick tower, and the Comptons are credited with having been 
the erectors of this. Henry died in 1708. He built, in 1696, 
" with great expence and difficulty," a vestry at the east end of 
the north aisle of All Hallows, the parish church, and also a 
vault for his family. Being interested in antiquarian topics, he 
corresponded a great deal with Dr. John Woodward, the anti- 
quary. He was succeeded in the property by his grandson, 
Henry Hare, third and last Lord Coleraine. He was born 
at East Betch worth, in Surrey, in 1693, and was the son of 
Hugh Hare, son of the second Lord Coleraine, who died in 
1708. He was a renowned antiquary, and there is no doubt 
that he carried out many of his antiquarian researches at his 
estate at Tottenham. Being a good classic, and well versed in 
civil and ecclesiastical law and history, he was admitted a 
gentleman commoner of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He 
was Lord of the manor of Tottenham, Bruce Castle being then 
known as the manor-house. Henry Hare attained some fame 
as a writer, being the author of an account of the " History and 
antiquities of the town and church of Tottenham," which was 
unearthed from his MSS. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and 
printed in the second edition of Dyson's Tottenham^ 1792. 
He was a member of the Republica Letteraria di Arcadia, and 
became acquainted with the Marquis Scipio Maffei, who 
renewed the intimacy at Bruce Castle. After his first wife, 
Anne Hatcher, left him owing to domestic troubles, he entered 
into a solemn engagement with Rosa Duplessis, the daughter 
of Francois Duplessis, a French clergyman, and to their only 
child Henrietta jRosa Peregrina, born in Italy, he bequeathed 
Bruce Castle, in his will dated 1 746, and executed at Rotterdam. 
His valuable library was purchased at his death by Thomas 
Osborne, the bookseller, who appropriated many private deeds 
and papers secreted in presses behind the bookcases. Lord 
Coleraine died in 1749, and Mrs. Duplessis, on behalf of her 
daughter, entered on the estates. The Lords of the Treasury, 
however, filed a petition against Rosa Duplessis inheriting them, 
on account of her being an alien ; it was appealed against in 
1752, and subsequently dismissed through the instrumentality of 



Chauncy Townsend, Esq., who was intimately associated with 
the then Lord Holland. Rosa Duplessis, or Hare, married 
James, son of Chauncy Townsend, Esq., and a grant was made 
of the estates to Mr. and Mrs. Townsend, and this was later 
confirmed by an Act of Parliament. 

[To be continued.] 


THIS picturesque village, two miles from Ampthill, nestling 
at the foot of a high ridge of hills that cross the centre 
of Bedfordshire, and command a very fine and extensive 
view of the Vale of Bedford, possesses a most interesting 
history on account of its literary and antiquarian associations, 
which invest the place with a romantic glamour. From time 
immemorial this parish had been separated into two parts, one 
of which was called Houghton Franchise (Free), and the other 
Houghton Gildable (Taxed). There were also two rectories 
(but only one church) which were united during the period 
when Dr. Archer, a famous cleric in his day, was the Rector, 
1589-1620. When the two rectories were united the names 
Franchise and Gildable were dropped, and the name Conquest 
was substituted, after the ancient family of the Conquests, who 
possessed the manor of Houghton in the XII and XIII centuries, 
and who resided at Conquest Bury, a noble mansion, built on a 
plateau on the slope of the hill overlooking the village. Of this 
lordly mansion, with its "eves, curiously carved," no trace 
remains, the site alone being marked by a clump of fir trees. 
Fragments of the house, however, are still to be seen, having 
been built into some of the farmhouses and cottages in the 
neighbourhood. The homestead near the site is called the 
Bury Farm, which preserves the ancient name. Sir John 
Conquest was one of the Knights of Bedfordshire who served 
in the army of King Henry III, and members of the Conquest 
family are interred in the beautiful church of All Saints. 
Houghton Park, formerly the property of the ancient and noble 



family of St. Amand, who owned much valuable property in 
this county in the XIII and XIV centuries, was occupied by Sir 
Edmund Conquest, as Keeper and a lessee under the Crown. 
In the year 1605 his Royal Master, King James I, honoured 
him with a visit at his mansion, Conquest Bury, and his Majesty 
was attended on this occasion by a retinue of noblemen, in- 
cluding the Duke of Lennox, the Earls of Northampton, 
Suffolk, Salisbury, Devonshire and Pembroke ; Lords Knolles, 
Wootton and Stanhope, and his Almoner, Dr. Watson, Bishop 
of Chichester. On July 28th, 1605, "being our town feast 
day," the Sunday after St. James' Day (July 25th), his 
Majesty attended Divine Service at the parish church, in state, 
accompanied by his retinue. The Rector of Houghton Conquest, 
the celebrated Dr. Thomas Archer officiated, and the sermon 
was preached by Mr. Baly, Chaplain to the Earl of Suffolk. 
The King joined the Queen at Haynes Park, the residence of 
Sir R. Newdegate, the following day, and on the Tuesday Dr. 
Archer preached the sermon at the service at the Church of St. 
Mary, Haynes, taking for his text " Take us the foxes, the little 
foxes, that spoil the vines ; for our vines have tender grapes." 
(Cant, ii, 15, ' Song of Solomon"), which bore allusion to the 
Gunpowder Plot in the previous November. The King was so 
pleased with the sermon that the very same day he commanded 
Dr. Archer to be " sworn and admitted one of his chaplains-in- 
ordinary " (Haynes Park is about six miles from Houghton 
Conquest). Nor was this the last time that he preached before 
the King and Queen, for when their Majesties visited Tod- 
dington, three years later, in 1608, he preached the sermon at 
Divine Service in the Church of St. George, on July 24th, 
taking for his text : " Seek those things that are above ; " and, 
four years later, in 1612, during the visit of their Majesties at 
Bletsoe, he preached the sermon, on July 26th. This worthy 
Rector appears to have not only preached himself into the 
King's good graces, but also into the Rectory of Meppershall 
(about eight miles from Houghton Conquest), which, in those 
days, was a valuable living. This, in conjunction with the 
united rectories of Houghton Conquest, must have brought 
in to Dr. Archer a good income, so that he ought to have been 
a wealthy man. In the Archer MSS., which are preserved at 
Houghton Conquest Rectory, the following extraordinary entry 
is to be found : " Died Master Richard Reynar, Rector of 



Meppershall, in County Bedford, 19 Sept., 1613, Service there 
held by me, Thomas Archer. Text i, col. ix, 24, ' So run, 
that ye may obtain.' In whose place I succeeded Parson, 
presented thereunto by our Sovereign Lord, King James, my 
most gracious Lord, and I his most unworthy Chaplain, and I 
was instituted into the Rectory of Meppershall in Nov., A.D. 
1613." Dr. Archer continued to reside at Houghton Conquest, 
and employed a Curate to attend to the spiritual needs of his 
parishioners at Meppershall. The fine Rectory house, which 
he built, was surrounded by a moat (now filled in). The 
approach is both beautiful and dignified. A magnificent 
avenue of lime trees, that meet overhead, leads up to the front 
door, with its flight of stone steps, forming a very charming 
coupe rioeil. 

Another famous Rector ot Houghton Conquest was Dr. 
Zachary Grey, the editor of Hudibras, whose prolific pen pour- 
trayed such a wide range of subjects. He was instituted to 
the living of Houghton Conquest in 1725, and subsequently 
became Vicar of the Church of SS. Peter and Giles, Cambridge, 
which living he held in conjunction with the former, so that it 
will be seen that the Rectors of Houghton Conquest were 
notorious pluralists. Notwithstanding his clerical duties, 
which must have heavy, Dr. Zachary Grey, contrived to 
accomplish much literary work, and also to carry on a 
voluminous correspondence with other learned men. The 
list of his writings is a long and interesting one, and, with the 
exception of Hudibras and the attacks on Neal, are anonymous : 

1 I ) A Vindication of the Church of England, by a Presbyter of 
the Church of England (in answer to James Peirce), 1720; 

(2) Presbyterian Prejudice Displayed, 1722 ; (3) A Pair of 
Clean Shoes for a Dirty Baronet ; or, an Answer to Sir Richard 
Cox, 1722 ; (4) The Knight of Dumbleton, Foiled at his own 
Weapon by a Gentleman and no Knight, 1723; (5) A Century of 
Presbyterian Preachers, 1723 (a collection from sermons preached 
before Parliament in the Civil Wars) ; (6) A Letter of Thanks 
to Mr. Benjamin Bennet, a mere Pretender to History and 
Criticism, by a Lover of History, 1724, etc. Number twenty- 
four on the list is the celebrated Hudibras, in three parts, 
" written in the time of the late Civil Wars, corrected and 
amended ; with large annotations and a preface, adorned with a 
new set of cuts by Hogarth," which was published by subscrip- 



tion in 1744, and is said to have produced .1,500. A second 
edition of Hudibras appeared in 1/64, and a " Supplement " in 
1752. Dr. Grey's knowledge of Puritan literature enabled him 
to illustrate his author by profuse quotations from contem- 
porary authors, a method comparatively new. Fielding, in the 
preface to his Voyage to Lisbon^ calls it the " single book extant 
in which above 500 authors are quoted, not one of which could 
be found in the collection of the late Dr. Mead." Dr. Grey, 
through the medium of their mutual friend, James Tunstall, the 
Public Orator at Cambridge, borrowed some notes from 
Warburton, who said that he gave them expressly to oblige 
Tunstall. Although Dr. Grey " made proper acknowledgments 
in his preface," Warburton took umbrage at some supposed 
slight or omission, and gave vent to his feelings in the preface 
to his Shakespeare (1747), by saying that he doubted whether 
so "execrable a heap of nonsense had ever appeared in any 
learned language as Grey's commentaries on Hudibras" Dr. 
Grey, who was born at Burniston, Yorkshire, May 6th, 1688, is 
said by Cole to have possessed a charming and genial person- 
ality, and a sweet, communicative disposition. He was " ad- 
mitted a pensioner at Jesus College, Cambridge, loth April, 
1704, but migrated to Trinity Hall, where he was elected a 
scholar, 6th Jan., 1706-7. He took his LL.B. degree in 1709, 
and his LL.D. degree in 1720, but never obtained a Fellowship." 
He was twice married, his first wife being a Miss Tooley ; and 
his second wife, Miss Susanna Mass, a relative of Dean Mass, by 
whom he had one son, who died in 1726, and two daughters, one 
of whom married the Rev. William Cole, of Ely ; and the other 
to the Rev. M. Lepipre, Rector of Aspley Guise, Beds. Dr. 
Zachery Grey died on November 25th, 1766, aged seventy- 
eight years, and was interred in Houghton Conquest parish 
church, where a mural tablet was erected to his memory. 

Before describing the church, we must note the curious fact 
that, though dedicated to All Saints, the Dedication Festival is 
celebrated on St. James' Day, July 25th, and the village feast is 
" kept " on that day. 

The exterior of this beautiful and ancient church is built of red 
sandstone (which rich-coloured material is so largely used in 
this county for the building of churches, as it is both 
durable and picturesque) faced with bath stone. The tower, 
which is embattled, has an octagonal angle turret, and 



is supported by massive buttresses. A double row of battle- 
ments adorns the nave, and a single row ornaments the 
chancel ; while Greek crosses of various design surmount 
the gables of the nave, chancel, and transepts. The porch, 
which is also embattled, is surmounted by a Greek cross 
below which is a niche, richly ornamented with crockets 
with a statue sculptured therein, evidently intended to repre- 
sent our Lord. Sculptured at the angle of the cornice, which 
is decorated with a design of roses, are angels bearing shields ; 
while grotesque gargoyles are carved in the stonework at the 
junction of the cornice with the wall of the nave. The arch 
moulding terminates in two corbels, one being the head of a 
king wearing a crown, and the other that of a bishop wearing a 

The corbels of the arch mouldings of the windows of the 
church are very quaint and curious. A notable feature of the 
south wall of the chancel is an altar tomb, surmounted by a 
canopy which is built of stone, and projects slightly from the 
surface of the wall, being protected by the buttress at the angle 
at the east end. 

Roughly inscribed on a slab above the tomb are the words : 
" Thomas Awdley, January 22, 1531." This tomb was repaired 
in 1624 by a descendant and namesake of this gentleman, who 
must have been a benefactor to this church for his tomb to 
have been placed in this position, embedded in the outer wall 
of the sanctuary. There was also a monumental brass of 
Thomas Awdley and his lady, with one son and two daughters, 
in the church ; but this has long since been removed. The 
interior of the church, which is both beautiful and spacious, 
possesses many features of antiquarian interest, which are, for 
the most part, in an excellent state of preservation. 

[To be continued.] 

6 4 



THE Black Books of Lincoln's Inn are the official records 
of the proceedings of the Benchers, the governing body 
of the Inn. The still extant ones go back as far as 
1422 ; and there were undoubtedly earlier ones which 
have perished. I have had reason to wish more than once that 
in supplement of these minutes of the Bencher's meetings for 
that is what the Black Books amount to it had been some- 
body's duty through the centuries that have gone by since 
Lincoln's Inn came into being to keep a log-book of events 
happening in the Inn which never came under the purview of 
the Benchers in formal meeting assembled. I am inclined to 
think that the interest of such a chronicle to students of the 
times would have been little, if any, less than that of the Black 
Books themselves, and we should certainly have had preserved 
to us many a fact which we should now be glad to possess, and 
many a valuable sidelight on the manners and customs of our 
predecessors. It is one of these little fragments of the Inn's 
history, of which the Black Books take no notice, but which 
such a log-book or journal as I have hinted at would have 
chronicled, that I wish to record here. My knowledge of it 
comes from the old newspapers of the time. There is no other 
memorial of it, so far as I know. For several months during 
1682, almost every county and municipal authority and other 
organized societies considered it their duty to send to 
Charles II addresses of protest against and dissent from "the 
Association," found, or alleged to have been found, among Lord 
Shaftesbury's papers. The effect of this Association would 
have been, says Bishop Burnet, that " the King, if it had taken 
place, would have reigned only at the discretion of the party " ; 
but the Bishop is clearly of opinion that Shaftesbury had 
nothing to do with it. If any one wants, by the way, to com- 
pile a complete glossary of all the terms of abuse known to 
our forefathers of 1682 he can scarcely do better than get 
together as many of these " Loyal Addresses " as possible, 
and then extract from them the adjectives applied to the 
" Association." 

The Inns of Court, to be in the fashion, set about preparing 
and forwarding Loyal Addresses. There seems to have been 

VOL. xi. 65 F 


no hitch or trouble about the matter so far as the two Societies 
of the Temple and Gray's Inn were concerned. But at 
Lincoln's Inn things did not go quite so smoothly, for it 
happened that Lord Shaftesbury was a Lincoln's Inn man 
himself; and he apparently had sufficient friends there to make 
something of a fight for him so, at least, we gather from the 
following extract from The Loyal Protestant and True Domestick 
Intelligence of May 27, 1682. 

" Lincoln' s-Inn, May 25. This day an abhorrence of that 
most detestable Association found in the E. of S.'s Closet, was 
brought into the Hall of this Honourable Society and debated ; 
and the Gentlemen who promoted it desiring a Poll, the 
Opposers (doubting of their strength) thought it convenient to 
withdraw at that time. Two of the Benchers, and almost 100 
Worthy Gentlemen of that Society, have already subscrib'd it, 
and very speedily a Council of the Benchers will be call'd. 
to take it into further consideration ; it being not in the 
least doubted but this good work will be carried by the 
majority, there being not above 160 Chambers in the whole 

This extract from the old newspaper is of interest from 
another point of view, as it gives us the approximate number of 
chambers in the Inn in 1682. Apparently only tenants of 
chambers were allowed to vote. There is no record in the 
Black Books of the Council of Benchers announced by The 
Loyal Protestant^ and so, presumably, it did not take place. 
Somehow or other, however, the Address was drafted and 
adopted, and the London Gazette tells us that it was presented, 
with several others, to the King at Windsor on the 6th of June, 
and gives us the text of it. It runs as follows : 

" To the King's most excellent Majesty. 

"We, your Majesties most loyal and dutiful Subjects, the 
Benchers, Barristers, and Students of the Society of Lincoln's- 
Inn, whose names are hereunto subscribed ; Observing your 
Majesties unparall'd Justice, Mercy and Goodness ; and being 
Partakers of that Great Liberty, Peace and Happiness which 
your Majesties Subjects have always enjoyed since your 
Majesties happy Restauration ; the like whereof no People in 
the World did ever pretend, or can hope to enjoy : And also 
remembering that great and particular Honour your Majesty 
was pleas'd to do our Society by your gracious Condescension 



in Recording your Royal Name amongst us. 1 We of all People 
did think our selves under such high Obligations of Loyalty, 
Duty and Obedience, that to make any publick Profession 
thereof might give an unnecessary trouble to your Majesty, 
and seem in some measure to draw into question that which we 
thought no person could doubt : But being convinced (by that 
Treasonable Paper, and Hellish Project of Rebellion lately 
produced at the Proceedings against the Earl of Shaftesbury, a 
member of this Society, and which was then by good, and 
unquestionable Witness positively sworn to be found in his 
Lordship's Closet) that no Obligations can be sufficient to keep 
and detain some Men in their Duties : We therefore humbly 
claim leave to assure your Majesty, that we utterly Abhor, 
Detest and Abominate all such Base Ingratitude and Villainous 
Treasons, resolving to Defend your most Sacred Majesty, and 
your most Excellent Government as it is now Establish'd, your 
Heirs and Lawful Successors, with our Lives and Fortunes 
against all such Conspiracies and Associations, the Contrivers 
and Abettors of the same." 

The Loyal Protestant gives us the further information that 
this " Address in Abhorrence of the Damnable and Treasonable 
Association " was carried to Windsor by Sir James Butler and 
several other Persons of Quality. Sir James Butler, K.C., was 
successively the Queen's Solicitor and Attorney General. He 
was elected Treasurer of the Inn in 1673, and he again rilled 
that office from June 24th to November 28th, 1703, the 
Treasurer for the year, Mr. John Weddell, having died during 
his term of office. As I cannot find that the " Loyal Addresses " 
have been preserved at the Public Record Office, I am unable 
to say anything as to the number and names of those who 
subscribed the Address from Lincoln's Inn. 

1 When, accompanied by the Duke of York, Prince Rupert, and a 
distinguished suite of peers and gentlemen, he visited the Inn in 1671. 



[Continued from vol. x, p. 314.] 

1538, December 22. "Allso this yere, the Sonday afore 
Christmas Daye, Henry Daunce, bricklayer, which did use to 
preach in his house this sommer past, bare a fagott at Faults 
Crosse for heresye, and two persons more with him, one beinge 
a preist, for heresy allso." (Wriothesley's Chronicle, vol. i, p. 93.) 

The same authority tells us that " this yeare [1538], in June 
and July, a bricklayer, called Henry Daunce, in White Chappell 
parishe without Algate in London, used to preach the Worde 
of God in his owne house in his garden, where he sett a tub to 
a tree, and therein he preached divers Sondayes and other 
dayes early in the morninge and at 6 of the clocke at night, and 
had great audience of people, both spirituall and temporall ; 
which sayd parson [person] had noe learninge of his booke, 
neither in Englishe nor other tongue, and yet he declared 
Scripture as well as [if] he had studyed at the Universities. 
But at the last, the Bishops had such indignation at him, by 
reason [that] the people followed him, that they sent for him to 
my Lord of Canterbury [Cranmer], where he was demaunded 
many questions ; but they coulde laye nothinge to his charge, 
but did inhibite him for [from] preachinge, because of the great 
resorte of people that drue to his sermons." (Ibid., p. 82.) 

Circa, 1538. Among the "Reminiscences of John Louthe." 
" Ther ys a lytle paryshe (I thynke called St. Margaret) in 
the ende of Estchepe, in the wych served a curate of as good 
religione as lyvyng, for bothe were sterke nowght, as any man 
by wych folowyth may judge, si homo ex fructibus. ... A 
commandement was gyven that all curattes (what so ever) 
should not be at sermones nor servyce longer than ix of the 
clocke, that then the curattes with the paryshes myght come to 
Poles Crosse and here the prechers. To this sayd this good 
curatt ' I wyll (quod he) make an ende of service at the 
proscribed hower gladly, seing I muste needes so doo. But so 
longe as any of these heretykes preche at the Crosse as nowe 
adayes thei do, I wyll never here them, for I wyll not come 
there. I will rather hange.'" (Camden Soc., vol. 77, p. 23.) 

1539, July 6. Thomas Warley to Lord Lisle : " My dewty 
moste humbly rememberyd both to yo r good Lordschip and to 



my synguler good Lady, Pleasith it yo r Lordschippe to be 
advertysed of the newes here currant ; this ys to sertefy the 
same. . . . Allso this day one George, a prest, bare a fagot at 
Powlles Crosse, whos opynyon was that Chryst nor any creatur 
had any meryt by his Passion, and allso that exorsysyng of 
holly water or holly bred wer execrable and detestable before 
God. And after the sermond was ended, he deliveryd the 
fagot and cast it to the Somer [Sumner], whiche he shuld have 
caryed where he recevid it, but he wold not for any thyng they 
could do. . . . Written in hast at London, the vj day of July, 
w l the rude hand of yo r most humble and faithfull servant 

to my poer 

Thomas Warley. 

To the Right Honorable and my synguler good Lord and M r , 
the Vicount Lyssle, at Calleis." (Lisle Papers, vol. viii, 
No. 41.) 

1539, July 23. John Hilsey, Bishop of Rochester, to 
Cromwell : " Gracia Dei tecum. Ryght Honorable and my 
syngular good Lorde. Thes be to put yo r Lordshyppe yn 
remembrans off my sute unto you for an ordre to be taken for 
sermons att y e Crosse\ for, sens y e Parleamentt, I cowd nott 
gett own [one] to preache a sermon there, savynge myselfe or 
own off my chaplens ; except own day only y 1 Doctor Byrde, 
at long sute, prechyd one sermon. I promysyd to wrete a 
booke to yo r Lordshyppe for y e sayd sermons, the w ch I have 
sent here wythe thys bylle, and yff hytt please yo r Lordshyppe 
to subscrybe hytt and commawnde hytt to y e Bysshoppe off 
London [Stokesley], for he can make provysyon for prechurs 
bettre then onny els (as hys chaplens reportythe) and as I 
yndeade thynke, for mennye doothe refreyne to preache there 
because y l he hathe nott y e ordre theroff; and off the oy r 
[other] syde, when I or onny off myn preache there, we ar soe 
untrewely reporttyd, y 1 we dare nott wythowt fere to preche 
onny more there. For whereas a chaplen off myn prechyd a 
Sonday last att y e Crosse, nowe he ys a cytyd to apere afore y e 
Bysshoppe off London a Fryday next ; but I trust he hathe 
nothynge prechyd agenst Godes lawys nor y e Kynges ; and a 
Sondey next, for lacke off own to preache, I must preache 
there myselfe, wythe more fere then ever I dyd yn my lyff. 
Nottwythstandyng, the mattre thys brokyn, yo r Lordshyppe 



shall commaunde and ordre me, nott only yn thys matters, but 
yn alle thynges, as yo r Lordshyppe shall thynke best, as longe 
as my lyff shall endure ; and therwyth shall alsoe pray to God 
for yo r prosperyte off body and sowle. \Vretyn yn Lambhethe 
Marshe, y e xxiij day off July. 

Yo r Lordshyppys humble Oratour, 

J. Roffen. 

To hys Ryght honorable and especyall good Lord, my Lord 
Privye Scale, thys be yevyn." {Letters and Papers, Henry 
VIII, vol. 152, fo. 207.) 

1539, August 4. "This yere, the 4th day of August, dyed 
the Bishopp of Rochester [John Hilsey], 1 which sometyme was 
a Blacke Fryer, and came from Bristowe [Bristol], and was 
Pryor of the Blacke Fryers in London, and was one of them 
that was a great setter forth of the syncerity of Scripture, and 
had occupied preachinge most at Pawles Crosse of any Bishopp ; 
and in all the seditious tyme, when any abuse should be shewed 
to the people, eyther of idolatrye or of the Bishop of Rome, he 
had the doeynge thereof by the Lord Vicegerentes [Cromwell's] 
commaundement from the Kinge, and allso had the admission 
of the preachers at Pawles Crosse theise 3 yeares and more." 
(Wriothesley's Chronicle, vol. i, p. 104.) 

1540, March 7. "The life and story of William Hierome, 
Vicar of Stepney, and Martyr of Christ. ... It so happened 
that the said Hierome, preaching at Paul's on the fourth 
Sunday in Lent [March 7] last past, made there a Sermon, 
wherein he recited and mentioned of Agar and Sara, declaring 
what these two signified. In process whereof he shewed 
further how that Sara and her child Isaac, and all they that 
were Isaacs and born of the free woman Sara, were freely 
justified ; contrary, they that were born of Agar the bond 
woman were bound and under the law, and cannot be freely 
justified. . . . This Sermon finished, it was not long but he was 
charged and convented before the King at Westminster, and 
there accused for erroneous doctrin. . . . The knot found in 
this rush was this, for that he preached erroneously at Paul's 
Cross, teaching the people that all that were born of Sara were 
freely justified, speaking there absolutely without any condition 

1 His death is usually assigned to 1538. 



either of baptism or of penance, etc. Who doubteth here but 
if St. Paul himselt had been at Faults Cross, and had preached 
the same words to the English-men which he wrote to the 
Galathians in this behalf, ipso facto he had been apprehended 
for an Heretick for preaching against the Sacrament of Baptism 
and Repentance." (Fox, Martyrs ', vol. ii, p. 441.) 

1540, March 7. " Th'effecte of certain erroneous doctrine 
taught by the Vicar of Stepney [William Jerome] in his sermon 
at Polles Crosse upon Sonday was sevenight, which was the 
vij th day of March. ... A summe of thiese articles is that the 
first persuaded makith obedience to prynces an outwarde 
behavour oonly, which is but a playe eyther for feare or 
manersake. The secounde engendrith such an assured pre- 
sumption and wantonnesse, that we care not gretly whether we 
obey God or man." Memorandum by Stephen Gardiner. 
(Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, vol. 158, fo. 50.) 

1 540, March . " Be it knowen to all men that I, William 
Hierome [Jerome], on myd [Lent] Sonday last past have 
preached erronyouslie, pernycyouslye, and .... [at] Paules 
Crosse, to the utter perverting of the . . . . ; which dampnable 
doctryne I utterlie deteste and re[fuse, desiring] hertelie, w l 
ernest purpose, to preache the contrarie to the [utmost] of my 
power . . . ." (Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, vol. 158, 
fo. 1 20.) 

Jerome was executed on July 3ist, 1540. 

1 540, March . " Be it known to all men that I, William 
Heirome, on Mid lent Sunday last past, have preached erron- 
eously, perniciously, and .... at Paules Crosse, . . . ." 
(Calendar of Letters and Papers, vol. xv, No. 411.) 

1 540, March 7. " The effect of certaine erroneous doctrines 
taught by the Vicar of Stepney in his sermon at Polles Crosse 
upon Sunday was sevennight, which was the vij th day of 
March." (Calendar of Letters and Papers, vol. xv, No. 345.) 

1 540, April 4. " Also on Low Soundaie following, the 
Person [Parson] of St. Martin's at the Well of Tow Buckettes 
in Bishopsgate, called Doctor Wilson, preached at Poules Crosse. 
. . . ." (Wriothesley's Chronicle, vol. i, p. 114.) 



1540, April II. "Also, the nth dale of Aprill, being 
Soundaie, preached at Powles Crosse the Bishopp of Wynchester 
[Gardiner] ; and in the sermon tyme was a fraye made betwene 
three or fower serving men in the said church yearde, and some 
hurt, to the great disturbance of the said sermon." 
(Wriothesley's Chronicle, vol. i, p. 115.) 

1541, March 6 & 27. "Stephen Gardiner, hearing that the 
said Barns, Heirome and Garret should preach the Lent 
following, Anno 1541, at Paul's Cross, to stop the course of 
their Doctrine, sent his Chaplain to the Bishop of London the 
Saturday before the first Sunday in Lent [March 5], to have a 
place for him to preach at Paul's, which to him was granted, 
and time appointed that he should preach the Sunday following, 
which should be on the morrow ; which Sunday was appointed 
before for Barns to occupy that room. . . . This sermon of 
Stephen Winchester finished, Doctor Barns, who was put oft 
from that Sunday, had his day appointed, which was the third 
Sunday next following [March 27], to make his sermon. . . . 
In the process of which sermon he proceeding, and calling out 
Stephen Gardiner by name to answer him, alluding in a 
pleasant allegory to a cock-fight ; terming the said Gardiner to 
be a fighting cock, and himself to be another, but the garden- 
cock (he said) lacked good spurs ; objecting moreover to the 
said Gardiner, and opposing him in his Grammar Rules ; thus 
saying, that if he had answered him in the Schools so as he had 
there preached at the Cross, he would have given him six 
stripes." (Fox, Martyrs, vol. ii, pp. 441, 442.) 

1541, October 16. "This yeare, the sixtenth daie of 
October, tow priestes wente a procession afore the Crosse in 
Poules, and stoode all the sermon with tapers and white roddes 
in their handes ; the cause was [that] they maried one 
Mr. Heringes sonne, a Proctor in the Arches, to a yong 
gentlewoman, in a chamber, without license or asking. . . . 
This matter was examyned in the Starre Chamber in West- 
minstre, before the Kinges Counsell, and by theim the said 
preistes were enjoyned penance." (Wriothesley's Chronicle, 
vol. ii, p. 1 30.) 

1 541, . " W. Tolwine, Parson of S. Antholine's. Presented 
and examined before Edmund Boner [Bishop of London], for 



permitting Alexander Seton to preach in his church, having no 
license of his Ordinary, and also for allowing the sermons of the 
said Alexander Seton, which he preached against Dr. Smith. 
To the said Tolwine, moreover, it was objected that he 
used, the space of two years, to make holy water, leaving out 
the general Exorcisme, beginning Exorciso te> etc. . . . against 
this objection thus Tolwine defended himself, saying, that he 
took occasion so to do by the King's Injunctions, which say, 
that Ceremonies should be used, all Ignorance and Superstition 
set apart. In the end, this Tolwine was forced to stand at 
PauFs Cross to recant his Doctrine and doings. 

"This same time also Robert Wisedom, Parish Priest of 
S. Margaret's in Lothbury, and Thomas Becon were brought to 
Paul's Cross> to recant and to revoke their Doctrine, and to 
burn their Books." (Fox, Martyrs, vol. ii, p. 450.) 

[To be continued.] 




[Continued from vol. x, p. 315.] 

J 799 May i. Lease of Possession for one year by John Larking, of Clare House, 
East Mailing, Kent, Esq., to Thomas Andrewes of East Mailing, Esq., of a 
messuage, &c., in East Mailing Street, formerly occupied by .... Workman, 
since of .... Lee, then late of .... Cooper, and then of John Buchanan ; and 
an oasthouse and hopground (then lately fenced off from a hopground containing 
three acres belonging to a messuage in East Mailing, then late of James Tomlyn, 
Esq., deceased, and purchased by the lessor with other hereditaments from the 
devisees of the said Tomlyn), the said fenced land containing from east to west along 
the highway 78 ft., and from east to west along the hopground 60 ft., and from north 
to south 60 ft., abutting on the high road from East to West Mailing north, to 
premises of Sir John Twysden, Bart., east, and to the said hopground south and 

1812, Aug. 14. Lease of Possession for one year by Alexander Smith, shop- 
keeper, to Joseph Hopkins, junior, Gent., both of Cholsey, co. Berks, of a messuage 
and orchard, &c., in Cholsey, then used as two tenements lately occupied by Marj 
Titcomb, and then by Richard Jones, Joseph Leader, and the lessee ; which 
premises (except a piece of land formerly called "Hog Close," containing 36 p., 
then forming part of the said orchard) were purchased by the lessor of Thomas Irons, 
and the said close with the barn thereon were likewise then lately purchased of the 
Kt. lion. William, Lord Kensington. 



1812, Dec. 15. Lease of Possession for one year by the Rt. Hon. Charles, Earl 
of Romney, only son and heir of the Rt. Hon. Charles, Earl of Romney, deceased, 
to Sir Richard Neave, of Dagnam Park, co. Essex, Bart., and Thomas Neave, of 
Broad Street Buildings, London, Esq., of a messuage on the west side of Arlington 
Street, in the parish of St. George, Hanover Square, formerly occupied by the said 
Earl, deceased, and then by the Earl of Pembroke ; containing from east to west 
221 ft. ; abutting west on a piece of land thereinafter described to have been granted 
by the Crown and laid into the garden ; east on Arlington Street ; north on a 
messuage then occupied by John Pitt, Esq. ; and south on a messuage then late in 
the possession of or belonging to the Duke of Newcastle ; and also a piece of land on 
the east of the garden belonging to the demised messuage, and abutting west on the 
Green Park, and held jointly with a piece of land adjoining the garden of the said 
John Pitt ; which pieces of land were held by warrant from the Treasury, at will, at 
I4J-. yearly. 

[To be continued.] 

JACKSON FAMILY. Information wanted as to who are the present 
representatives of James Jackson, of 17 Furnival's Inn, London, 
Attorney, who either died or retired from practice in 1779. He acted 
for the Molyneux and Sherard families. 

Office of Arms, Dublin. VEIRCE GUN MAHONY, Cork Herald. 

HAMPSTEAD ASSEMBLY ROOMS. We regret to say that the drawings 
illustrating Mr. Foord's interesting paper have been accidentally 
mislaid, and we are therefore unable to reproduce them in the present 
number. EDITOR. 


1 2-1 6). Lady Banks bequeathed several volumes of cuttings, notes, 
etc., on Archery to the British Museum. In Add. MS. 6318, fo. 28, 
is the following reference to the Hertfordshire Society : 

" The Hertfordshire Archers. Ladys' prize : a gold heart, on one 
side a bow and shaft, set with spark diamonds; on the other side 
a shaft, do. The Marchioness won this prize. 
Gentlemen's prize, a silver arrow, won by : 

Wm. Prior Johnson, Esqr., 2 August, 1790. 
John Cotton, Esqr., 8 August 1791. 
Matthew Raper, Esqr., 6 August, 1792. 
Marquis of Salisbury, 5 September, 1792. 
John Cotton, Esqr., 6 September, 1792. 
George Stainforth, junr., Esqr., Sepr. 7, 1792. 
Copied at Hatfield House, September 10, 1815." 

E. E. SQUIRES, Hertford. 



MUCKING (vol. x, p. 259). The derivation of this name suggested by 
Mr. Forbes will not do. Place names in ing, with or without a suffix, 
almost without exception denote ownership, and are derived from 
a personal name. The popular theory that ing always means meadow 
has been exposed by Professor Skeat and other philologists over and 
over again. Mucking is simply the long genitive form of a personal 
name, Muck or Mock, and probably records the first Saxon settler 
or owner. Compare Moxhall (co. Warwick), Moxby (co. York), 
Mugginton (co. Derby ; Domesday, Moginton), and the surnames, 
Mogg, Moggs, Moxon, and Muggins. PHILOLOGUS. 

THE PAGEANTS OF THE HOME COUNTIES (vol. x, p. 310). There is 
one error which should be corrected in Mr. Anderson's excellent 
article in the October number of the Home Counties Magazine. The 
name of the Master of the St. Albans Pageant \sjarman, not Farman. 
He is Mr. Herbert Jarman of the Lyric Theatre. If the promoters of 
one of next year's pageants should be so fortunate as to obtain his t 
services as Pageant Master, I feel sure that their pageant ought to be 
as great a success as ours. WM. R. L. LOWE, St. Albans. 

THE FINCHLEY FONT (vol. x, p. 316). Perhaps your correspondent 
may be satisfied with an additional authority to ours on this matter. 
In Sperling's Church Walks in Middlesex (1853), page 115, we read : 
" A marble vase has superseded the ancient font, whose octagonal and 
arcaded bowl lies desecrated in the belfry ; it is of First Pointed 
date." W. BOLTON, Croydon. 

Mr. J. P. Emslie also sends the quotation from Church Walks in 
Middlesex. EDITOR. 

In answer to Mr. Letts' enquiry, I have ascertained that the old font 
is in the back garden of Mr. Wells, Ballards Lane, Finchley, the 
present occupier of Mr. Plowman's house (builder), where it was no 
doubt put when the church was restored under Mr. Billing in 1873 
(see H.C.M.) vol. iii, p. 128). If Mr. Letts is interested in Finchley 
topography I shall be glad if he will communicate with me. A. HEAL, 
Nower Hill, Pinner. 



Brown, Langham & Co. ; pp. xi, 292. 
The recent "improvements" (save the mark!) at Marble Arch have 
brought the name of Tyburn once again into notice. Much has appeared 
in the public press as to the history of the famous gallows and the precise spot at 
which it stood. For the most part this has been crude and ill-digested stuff, 
founded on no sort of evidence, and written rather for the sake of advertisement 
than for giving information. Mr. Marks' book is of a very different calibre. 
Learned, sober, and methodical, he had treated his somewhat gruesome subject in 
most admirable fashion. Some ghastly details are inevitable in such a work, if it is 
to be truthful, but they are not unduly obtruded. We may consider this book in 
three aspects, topographical, historical, and juridical ; and in each it must be 
pronounced a notable success. As a valuable contribution to London topography 
(which is slowly being re- written), we can best compare it to Mr. Holden Mac- 
Michael's work, than which there is no higher praise ; as history it collects and 
arranges a vast number of facts, gathered from very many sources ; while the 
initial essay on capital punishment and kindred subjects in England is a most 
excellent and scholarly piece of work. It is a little startling to read that on a 
moderate computation 50,000 persons have been hanged at Tyburn, but our astonish- 
ment is lessened when we remember that there were at one time 200 offences for 
which the penalty was death by hanging. That the law made such savage reprisals 
in many cases that nowadays would be punished only by a short term of imprison- 
ment, seems very shocking to modern ideas. We are perhaps inclined to err in the 
opposite direction ; for, provided some spice of sentiment or romance can be rightly 
or wrongly discerned, the most brutal and callous murderer is sure of obtaining 
thousands of signatures of old women, of both sexes, to a petition for reprieve. The 
petition is some times successful, and is always a good advertisement for the solicitor. 
In the " Annals" Mr. Marks gives us a succession of stories, from 1177 to 1/83, the 
date of the last execution on Tyburn Tree. The reproductions of old maps and 
prints are a great addition to the book, on which the anthor is to be highly con- 
gratulated. There is a good index. 

EARTHWORK OF ENGLAND : Prehistoric, Roman, Saxon, Danish, 
Norman, and Mediaeval, by A. Hadrian Allcroft, M.A. Mac- 
millan & Co. ; pp. xix, 711 ; iSs. net 

To every book-lover it must from time to time have occurred, on reading a new 
work, to wonder why the subject had not been dealt with long before ; and in a few 
cases he will congratulate himself and the world at large that it has been reserved for 
his present author. It certainly seems strange that, with all our wealth of earth- 
works scattered over the country here numerous, there scanty, but never very far to 
.seek no book should hitherto have been written dealing with the subject generally. 
Such a work, for instance, might have been produced under the auspices of the 
Victoria County History people, had they been less obsessed with the parochial spirit 
which leads them to record solemnly, in forty-two volumes, that flies and mice are 
found in the houses, and buttercups and daisies in the fields of each county in 
England. We may, however, congratulate ourselves that these pundits thought as 
they did, for otherwise we should probably be the poorer by not having Mr. Allcroft's 
admirable treatise. The two introductory chapters are most interesting reading ; 
they contain a clear and concise account of what is known of prehistoric man in 
Britain, his manners and customs, his pursuits and his culture. The first type of 
earthwork to be considered is that of the so-called " promontory forts." These, as 


the name implies, occupy the extremities of headlands, spurs, or peninsulas, with 
an artificial protection only on the landward side. A good though small example of 
Ibis type may be seen on the East Hill at Hastings. Inland examples also occur 
in rocky districts, and by the sides of rivers. "Contour forts " are the next type 
dealt with. These, whether on hill tops or plateaus, have artificial defences on 
every side ; they are very numerous and of endless variety. Many camps of similar 
design are also found on relatively low ground or even in valleys. Roman camps 
and stations are exhaustively described ; likewise Saxon and Danish earthworks, 
Norman castles, and moated homesteads. The chapter on Dewponcls and the 
question of water supply to camps on high ground is of great interest. Mr. Allcroft 
sees no difficulty in the matter ; dewponds would supply some, and the remainder 
would be carried. He mentions certain African tribes who carry the water they 
require in calabashes ; and he might have added, by way of further illustration, that 
many of the castles on the Rhine and elsewhere were dependant on carried water ; 
the copper vessels used for this purpose until recent years may be sometimes seen 
in London curiosity shops, where they are sold for umbrella-stands ! We have been 
specially impressed by two chapters of this admirable book, those on " Prehistoric 
Fortification" and "The Primitive Homestead." These two essays are of the 
highest order, and will rank with the very best archaeological work of modern times. 
Mr. Allcroft has a pretty turn for quotation, and here and there a touch of dry 
humour. "Caesar and Noll [Oliver Cromwell] and Old Nick between them claim a 
most unfair share of the nation's antiquities," for example ; could anything be 
neater ? Well printed, equipped with over 200 illustrations and a first-rate index, 
this book will be indispensable to every student interested in the development of 
civilisation in Britain. 

ENGLISH HOUSES AND GARDENS in the iyth and i8th 

a series of bird's-eye views reproduced from contemporary en- 
gravings by Kip, Badeslade, Harris, and others, with descriptive 
notes by Mervyn Macartney, B.A., F.S.A. Batsford ; sixty-one 
plates ; pp. xvi, 34 ; 1 55. net. 

We have always had a particular liking for the engravings of the kind and period 
here reproduced. Stiff, formal and conventional as they undoubtedly are, there is 
yet a charm about them which appeals alike to the antiquary, the architect and the 
artist. Kip, who is our prime favourite, is represented by thirty-eight plates. The 
reproductions, though much reduced in size, are wonderfully clear, and the pub- 
lisher's claim that the special process employed " not only represents faithfully the 
detail of the original engraving, but also preserves much of its spirk and brilliance "- 
is fully warranted. Many of these beautiful old houses have been burnt or pulled 
down, and others have suffered so much from the ambitious architect as to he 
unrecognizable ; while most of the quaint and formal gardens were destroyed during 
the senseless rage for landscape-gardening, which has done so much to spoil the 
picturesqueness of the English country house. These engravings, therefore, have a 
historical value which is hardly to be over-estimated, and Mr. Batsford's beautiful 
reproductions should be welcomed by many who cannot hope to possess the originals. 
Mr. Macartney gives an interesting and adequate sketch of the general subject in his 
introduction ; while his descriptions of the plates and notes on the architecture and 
history of the various houses are so good that we should have preferred them a little 
less condensed. The get-up of the book, like all Mr. Batsford's productions, leaves 
nothing to be desired. 



LINGHAM, Surrey, transcribed and edited by W. Bruce Bannerman, 
F.S.A. The Surrey Parish Register Society ; pp. 94, 62, 117. 

Thanks to the untiring energy of Mr. Bannerman, this society's publications are 
beginning to make a good show, the present volume being No. 5. The permanent 
preservation of records of such value as our parish registers cannot be too highly 
estimated. An unprinted register is always at the mercy of destruction by a chance 
fire, though damage by neglect is probably a thing of the past. A photograph of 
the first book of the Addington registers shows the deplorable state to which it had 
been reduced. Photographs of the three churches are given, and there are full 
indices of names and places. 

THE CHURCHYARD SCRIBE, by Alfred Stapleton. Vol. iv of the 
" Genealogist's Pocket Library " ; pp. 106 ; 2s. 6d. net. 

The author divides his work into three sections. I. On recording the inscriptions 
in a churchyard or burial-ground. II. Hints on reading apparently illegible inscrip- 
tions. III. Typical and authentic examples. The first section is a thoughtful and 
well-reasoned plea for the copying of all monumental inscriptions. Such a work is 
of great importance to the genealogist, and we should like to see followed in every 
county the excellent example set by the East Herts Archaeological Society. Mr. 
Stapleton discusses the various systems adopted in copying inscriptions. Personally, 
we are strongly in favour of the verbatim inscription, with the omission of verses and 
texts, unless these contain some information, e.g.^ " the only son of his mother, and 
she was a widow." Mere selections should be sternly discouraged. Section II 
will be invaluable to the novice, and contains many hints that the fairly expert will 
find useful. Section III contains a good selection of examples from the genealogical 
and biographical point of view. 

" SAINT " GILBERT : The Story of Gilbert White and Selborne, by 
J. C. Wright. Elliot Stock ; pp. 90 ; 2S. 6d. net. 

A nice, chatty little volume on an evergreen subject, with many well-chosen 
quotations from \Vhite himself and his numerous biographers, editors, and commen- 
tators, and some pretty illustrations. While not containing anything very new, it is 
pleasant reading, and may serve to introduce its readers to the Natural History if 
they know it not. The title, which is not very happy, is explained by a paragraph 
in the preface : " It may be permissable to regard White as the patron saint of the 
little village where he spent the greater part of his life." 

RUINED AND DESERTED CHURCHES, by Lucy Elizabeth Beedham. 
Elliott Stock ; pp. 106 ; 55. net. 

A good idea, and well carried out. Miss Beedham writes with great charm and 
sympathy, and the twenty reproductions from photographs are well representative of 
different epochs. The story she has to tell is a melancholy one, and, as her work 
does not pretend to be exhaustive, it might easily be extended to much larger size. 
We hope to see further volumes on the same lines from Miss Beedham's pen, for, 



unfortunately, there is no lack of material. Hundreds of towns and villages have 
remains of these desecrated shrines, whether as actual ruins, or converted into barns 
or dwelling houses, or worse. And the process, as the author hints, with quite 
unnecessary delicacy, is still going on. Bishops and parsons who allow disused 
churches to become common doss-houses for tramps and dumping-grounds for village 
refuse (such as we have seen not a hundred miles from London) are not likely to be 
thin-skinned at a little wholesome and outspoken criticism. Particularly good are 
the chapters on " Early Christian Oratories," "Some Barns and their Story," and 
"Guild, Wayside, and Chantry Chapels"; but the whole book is well worth 

SELBY ABBEY; a Resume, A.D. 1069, A.D. 1908, by Ch. H. Moody, 
Organist of Ripon Minster, with illustrations by E. Ridsdale Tate, 
York, and a Preface by the Rev. Maurice Parkin, Vicar of Selby. 
Elliot Stock ; pp. 114 ; is. net. 

This is the best shilling's-worth we have ever seen. The text contains a good 
account of the great church, both historical and architectural, with some useful 
appendices, and lists of Abbots and Vicars. The account of the unfortunate fire in 
October, 1906, must have been sad writing for an organist; for at Selby, as at so 
many other places, the fire originated in the organ. Mr. Moody records the un- 
availing exertions of four fire brigades to extinguish the flames ; and it is a curious 
fact that if no attempt had been made to do so, the actual damage would have been 
infinitely less. It was the cold water on the hot stone that did most of the damage. 
It is fervently to be hoped that the renovated church will have an orchestra instead 
of an organ, and that if (absit omen !) there is another fire, it will be allowed to 
burn itself out. Of Mr. Tate's beautiful drawings it is impossible to speak too 
highly ; they are all that pen-and-ink work of the highest class should be. The 
photographic reproductions are also good, and those showing the results of the fire 
form an interesting record. A marvellous shilling's-worth. 

THE VILLAGE OF EYNSFORD ; illustrations by Herbert Cole and Fred. 
Adcock. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. ; pp. 92 ; is. net. 

Another excellent shilling's-worth. No author's name appears on the title page ; 
the introduction is signed by " II. H. B.," who states that the bulk of the material 
was collected by Mr. E. D. Till, of the Priory, Eynsford, and describes the book as 
" a plain narrative of the incidents of the village life since Saxon and Norman days." 
This last phrase rather led us to expect chronicles of the village-pump-and-" small- 
beer " order. We were therefore agreeably surprised to find that it is the result of 
much careful research. Many documents are quoted, and the book is a useful con- 
tribution to Kent local history. References are not always given, which is a mistake, 
and there are some curious misprints which should be corrected in a second edition. 
The account of the descent of the estate of William de Eynsford is unfortunate, for 
we fail to see how his property could pass "by marriage of his ward's daughter to 
Sir Nicholas de Crioll, as suggested on p. 13. As a matter of fact, the Close Roll 
of Edward I, cited on the same page, makes it quite pretty that de Enysford left two 
co-heiresses, one of whom married Nicholas de Crioll, and the other William de 
Ilering, and that both these ladies were then dead, leaving infant heirs, whose 
wardship belonged to the King. Eynsford seems to have more than its share of 
interesting buildings a church with some good Norman work, a ruined castle, 
several interesting examples of half-timbered houses and others of later date, and 
some delightful cottages ; all these are prettily illustrated. 



THE HERTFORDSHIRE WONDER, or Strange News from Ware. W. B, 
Gerish, Bishop's Stortford ; 15. net. 

This is another ot Mr. Gerish's useful reprints of old Hertfordshire pamphlets j. 
the present one was " printed for J. Clark at the Bible and Harp, West Smith-Field, 
near the Hospital Gate, 1669." The nature of the story sufficiently appears from 
the lengthy title-page, beloved of the seventeenth century : " Being an exact and 
true Relation of one Jane Stretton the Daughter of Thomas Stretton of Ware in- 
the County of Herts, who hath been visited in a strange kind of manner by extra- 
ordinary and unusual fits, her abstaining from sustenance for the space of 9 Months, 
being haunted by Imps or Devils in the form of several Creatures here described, the 
Parties adjudged of all by whom she was thus tormented and the occasion thereof, 
with many other remarkable things taken from her own mouth and confirmed by 
credible witnesses." Mr. Gerish has an interesting prefatory note on the subject of 
mediaeval and modern fasting performances. 



Leaving London Sept. 14 ; 



10 Days' Cruise 10 Guineas. 

Leaving Marseilles Sept. 25 ; 




22 Days' Cruise 21 Guineas. 

Illustrated Programmes free. 





(Near Mudie's Library and the British Museum) 

Have for sale a large Collection of OLD ENGLISH and FOREIGN 
ARMS and ARMOUR; Weapons, Ornaments, etc., illustrating 
Savage Life ; Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Antiquities ; Antique 
China, Pottery, Carved Oak, Metalwork, and Curiosities of all kinds. 

Commissions at Auction Sales undertaken. 








THE HYDES OF KENT .... * v v . 113 


WHARF . . 120 

AN EALING TRAGEDY, 1747 . -., IT. . .149 

NOTES AND QUERIES ...... , . . 155 

REVIEWS . 157 


It is particularly requested that all communications for the Editor be 
addressed to him by name at 5, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
All communications for the Publishers should be sent direct to them. 

The annual subscription to the Magazine is 6s. 6d. post free. Quarterly 
Parts, is. 6d. net each, by post, is. &d. Cases for binding, is. 6d. each, can 
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Copies of some of the Plates which have appeared in the Magazine are 
for sale, and certain Blocks can also be purchased at moderate prices. 



oj c 

c/: '^ 




O C 

-a rt 


DC 2 

SEAL OF ENGLAND, 1640-1703. 


WHEN, in 1665, the Judges of the London Law 
Courts were driven out of the city by the Great 
Plague, which, according to the Bills of Mortality, 
left 68,000 people dead behind it, they not unwisely betook 
themselves to the breezy heights of Hampstead, in search of 
a purer and healthier atmosphere. 

There, beneath the shade of an avenue, or grove, of elm 
trees, they held their court, much in the same way, it may be 
presumed, as the Tynwald Hill in the Isle of Man is used for 
a similar purpose at the present day. 

This avenue, or promenade, has ever since been known as 
" The Judges' Walk." It is situated upon a terrace of high 
ground, overlooking the western portion of Hampstead Heath. 
The elms, or their successors, are still there, though, alas, in a 
somewhat decadent condition; and as the judges paced up 
and down and surveyed the charming and extensive landscape 
which lay before them to the northward, consisting of a far- 
spread range of well wooded and undulating country, stretch- 
ing away to the Hertfordshire hills on the distant horizon, the 
only building probably to meet their gaze in that direction 
would be the gray square tower of the old church at Hendon, 
situated on rising ground, about a couple of miles distant from 
where they stood, and forming then, as it does still, the most 
conspicuous object in the middle distance of this wooded and 
pastured landscape. 

Like so much of the fertile land about the metropolis, 
portions of the country about Hendon were occupied in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries by the Knights Templars 
and their successors the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of 
Jerusalem. By an inquest taken in 1331, it was found that 
this last-named order of knights possessed some 140 acres of 
arable land in Hendon and Fynchele, at a value of $d. an 
acre, yearly rent, as well as two acres of meadowland, and 
other five acres as well, and in 1388, one Guy de Hoddeston 
made a release or quitclaim to the then Prior of the said 

VOL. XL 81 G 


Order, John Radyngton, of all lands at Hendon which were 
formerly held by Gilbert de Brauncestre. And it may also be 
remarked, as regards this deed of quitclaim, that a Richard de 
Breynte was one of the witnesses to it, showing that the name 
of Brent, which is the name of the stream running through 
Hendon, and which also gave its name to the old Brent Street 
(now completely modernized, though the name is still retained), 
is one which has long been a local name in Hendon, and was 
indigenous, as one may say, to the soil. The old order 
changeth, here as elsewhere, but the names of a locality 
seldom change, and often remain now the same as they were 
centuries ago. 

You may break, you may shatter 

The vase as you will, 
But the scent of the ointment 

Will cling to it still. 

And in this connection, it may also be interesting to notice 
that the Templars' rule in Hendon is still kept in record by 
the name of Temple Fortune, a hamlet about a mile from 
Hendon itself, towards the now well known Finchley Road, 
and close to the very modern buildings of the so-called Garden 
City, but no other trace of the white-robed knights seems now 
to be found in the neighbourhood. 

In 1410 Hendon was included with other lands in an assign- 
ment to Henry, Lord Scrope of Masham, for the maintenance 
of the servants and horses of his lordship, who was then 
attending Parliament on the King's service, and no doubt the 
inhabitants at that date would duly appreciate the honour 
thus conferred upon them. 

There is nothing especially remarkable about the church 
itself, which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, but it contains a 
capacious font which is a fine specimen of the Norman period, 
and is decorated with the small interlacing circular arches 
which are so characteristic of Norman work. 

In 1650 the parsonage of Hendon was worth about 170 a 
year, and it then belonged to Sir Percy Herbert, who is 
described by Lysons as a " recusant convict." 

In the church registers, extracts from which have been 
published, are many well known names. Among these may 
be mentioned the entries relating to the Powys family, to 
Joseph Ayliffe, the Antiquary (1781), and to Sir Jeremy 
Whichcote and his family (1677). There is a monument to 
Nathaniel Hone, the miniature painter, in the churchyard 



(1784), and in the church is a memorial slab to Edward 
Fowler, Bishop of Gloucester (1714); there are also many 
other monuments to more or less well-known people of various 

Probably, however, the most important and interesting 
monument in the parish church of Hendon is that to the 
memory of Sir William Rawlinson, of which more particular 
mention may now be made. 

This monument to Sir William Rawlinson takes the form 
of a stately recumbent effigy in white marble, said to be by 
Rysbrach, which is placed under a north window at the chancel 
end of the church. He is represented in his robes as a 
Commissioner of the Great Seal, and with one arm he leans 
on his Official Box, which has the arms of England carved 
upon it 

A small shield on one side is blazoned with the arms of 
Rawlinson, which are: Sable, three swords in pale silver, the 
hilts gold, two of them erect with the points upwards, the 
middle one with the point downwards; a chief indented of 
the third. 

The inscription on the monument is as follows : 

Effigies honoratissimi viri Gulielmi Rawlinson, 
Militis, servientis ad Legem, hie infra posita est, 

qui in omni re literaria et jurisprudentia 
insignis ad summum pro Magni Sigilli custodia, 

Munus a serenissimis Gulielmo et Maria 
Principibus primo regni sui anno (inter alios 

Commissionarios) ascitus est. 
Quo quidem munere cum fide et dignitate 
defunctus, rerum forensium pertaesus, vitae 

quod superfuit in religionis cultu et 
amicorum obseryantia cum leni otio et 

securitate exegit. 

Vixit annos 63. Obiit 11 Maii Anno 1703. 

Sepulchrum quod sibi testamento decreverat, 

posteri ejus integrafide posuerunt, Anno 1705. 

This Sir William Rawlinson was born in 1640. He was 
created a Serjeant-at-Law in 1686, and when the Revolution 
of 1688 had become an accomplished fact, he was appointed 
by King William as one of the three Commissioners to whose 
hands the custody of the Great Seal of England was entrusted. 

He was knighted by the King at Hampton Court in 1688-9. 
In after life, " rerum forensium pertaesus," as the inscription 
on his monument so pathetically expresses it, he retired to 
Hendon, where he purchased the old house in Brent Street 



which belonged to the ancient family of the Whichcotes, and 
he died there on the nth of May, 1703. 

Sir William was twice married; by his first wife, of whom 
no detailed information seems to be available, he had two 
daughters, named Elizabeth and Anne respectively, both of 
whom married and had descendants, Anne, the second 
daughter, marrying the Right Honourable Sir John Aislabie, 
of Studley Royal, Yorkshire. She died in 1742. 

Sir William's second wife was Jane, daughter of Edward 
Noseworthy of Devon. She died in 1712 and is buried at 

To return to the elder daughter by Sir William's first wife, 
Elizabeth Rawlinson. This lady was sought in marriage by 
William Lowther, Barrister-at-Law, who probably made her 
acquaintance when they were both living in London. He was 
born in 1659, and matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, in 
1687-8. There was no issue of this marriage, and after William 
Lowther's death, Mrs. Lowther married Giles Earle, of East 
Court, Wilts, and they had a son William, who was Member 
of Parliament for Malmesbury. 

This William Lowther was the second son of Sir John 
Lowther of Lowther, Westmoreland, Bart., by his second wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Hare of Stow 
Bardolph,by Elizabeth, only daughter of Thomas, Lord Keeper 
Coventry, and relict of Woolley Leigh, Esquire, of Addington, 

At his death in 1675, this Sir John Lowther left his widow, 
Lady Lowther, the sum of 20,000, " in lieu of dower," with 
which she purchased the estate of Ackworth, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, and she resided there until her death 
in 1700. 

It is by the care and labour of this remarkable lady that a 
long series of most interesting letters relating especially to 
the Lowther family, copied for the most part in her own 
handwriting into two large folio volumes, and dated from 1682 
to 1692, have been preserved. A few of these letters which 
relate to the marriage of her son William Lowther with 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Sir William Rawlinson whose 
monument, as has been already mentioned, forms such a 
conspicuous feature of interest in the old Parish Church of 
Hendon, are now by the kind permission of their present 
owner, Sir J. W. Ramsden, Bart, printed for the first time; 
and it will be found that they throw a very interesting light 



on the courtship and marriage of the aforesaid William Lowther 
and Elizabeth Rawlinson. 

The first letter is addressed by William Lowther to his 
mother, Lady Lowther, from which it would appear that, then 
as now, the course of true love seldom did run smooth, though, 
as not unfrequently happens on these occasions, the dtnoue- 
mentw&s of a quite satisfactory character to those immediately 

The first of these letters is written by 

William Lowther, Esq., Barrister-at-Law, to Lady Lowther. 

No date, but probably 1687-8. 
Honoured Mother, 

I shewed my Cousin Hare the letter, and he says he has 
not seen the young lady, nor so much as heard anything of 
her, since the last Long Vacation, neither does he know where 
she is at present, but he believes it will be much against the 
mother's mind. So that there is but small hopes and encour- 
agement for me A Knight of 1000 //. a year was refused; 
he says that also Sir Christopher Wandesford is very ill, the 
other night an impostume broke in his stomach with cough- 
ing &c \sic\. 

Your Ladyship's most dutiful and obedient Son. 


Sir William Rawlinson himself now appears upon the scene, 
and the next letter is a most charming one from Sir William 
to Lady Lowther; there is a fine old world fragrance and 
courtesy about it, which is most delightful. It appears from 
this epistle that the Knight with the .1,000 a year had now 
quite lost his place in the running, and that young Lowther 
had gained the day and become the affianced bridegroom of 
the " very very good girl " who would now shortly become 
Mrs. Lowther. 

The affair had so far advanced that the marriage articles 
had been signed, and we learn from another of these interest- 
ing documents that the marriage settlement was dated the 
28th of December, 1687, the contracting parties being William 
Lowther of the Middle Temple, William Rawlinson, Serjeant- 
at-Law, Dame Elizabeth Lowther of Ackworth Park, Sir John 
Lowther of Whitehaven, Baronet, John Sharpe, Doctor of 
Divinity and Dean of Norwich, and John Rawlinson, Esquire 
Secretary to The Honourable the Master of the Rolls. 



By this document 7,000 was settled on Elizabeth Rawlin- 
son by Mr. William Lowther, and 3,000 on her by her father, 
making a considerable dowry when the value of money in 
those days is taken into consideration. This document is 
signed by William Lowther and (Sir) John Lowther. 

Sir William Rawlinson, Knight, to Lady Lowther. 

The last day of the old year, 1687. 

Chancery Lane. 

I forebore the acknowledgement of the receipt of your letter 
received some time ago until I could doe it in such manner 
as I thought might suit Your Ladyship as well as my own 
inclinations. And I now send you this scribble to tell you 
that by the modesty of the young persons concerned on both 
sides, we have had some difficulties, as well as many delays, 
to bring the matter towards a conclusion. Yet I think I may 
not only wish Your Ladyship a merry Christmas, but also 
present you with a very very good girl for your daughter, and 
for a new year's gift, assuring Your Ladyship that, as I do 
not doubt, but (that) she will do likewise upon all occasions. 
I will endeavour to make your son William, as he was born, 
so also that he may continue, a happy new year's gift to you 
and your family. 

We have advanced so far, as that the other day your Son 
and I sealed the Articles, and this evening my brother Sharp, 
and my own brother John, have likewise sealed as Trustees. 

We are now going to your true friend as well as Son, Sir 
John Lowther, for him to scale, and then shall send them 
down for Your Ladyship's approbation. 

The honest Dean of Norwich desired to join with me in 
our most hearty respects and humble service to you, and to 
the good company with you, and what remains shall be to 
testify the Honour I have for Your Ladyship and your son 
William, yet further to assure you that I am, Madam, 
Your Ladyship's ever faithful friend, 
and most humble servant, 


The next letter is from William Lowther to his mother, 
informing her that he and his wife had taken up their residence 
close to Gray's Inn, and saying that his wife's sister, Anne 
Rawlinson, " a very good humoured young woman " was stay- 
ing with them. 



William Lowther to Lady Lowther. 

January, 1687-8. 
Honoured Mother, 

Your Ladyship's acceptable letter I received about ten days 
ago, and since that I received one from Sir John Lowther, 
which I have enclosed in this to you. My Wife also received 
a very kind one from my Lady Lowther. Both which I look 
upon to be very great favours, and could not but let you know 
of them. I am now removed from the Temple to Gray's Inn, 
the Sergeant has put me into very good Chambers of his that 
were formerly Sir William Jones's it was his pleasure that I 
should remove, it lying more convenient for business with the 
Northern Attorneys. My Wife and I have taken Lodgings in 
Grevell Street, which lies on the back of Gray's Inne Lane, 
and the Sergeant is pleased to be so kind as to let my Wife's 
Sister stay with us, who is a very good humoured young woman. 

We have been gone from the Sergeant these 10 days, but 
God be thanked, he still continues his wonted kindness to us, 
and I must and will always say so. My Father presents his 
service to you, and my Wife her duty. Both our services to 
the good family with you. 

I rest, craving your Blessing, 

Your most dutiful and obedient Son, 


This letter is followed by another letter from Sir William 
Rawlinson addressed to Lady Lowther, from which it appears 
that young Lowther was a man of business and had already 
started for the Northern Circuit, leaving his wife in charge of 
Sir William. 

Sir William Rawlinson to Lady Lowther. 

ist March, 1688. 
Dear Madam, 

I send you these few lines not only to acquaint Your 
Ladyship that I received the Counterpart of the Articles, but 
to give you my hearty thanks for your great favour and kindness 
to my daughter Lowther, and for your encouragement to her, 
not doubting but you will ever find her a very dutiful and 
affectionate child. And for your further comfort and assurance, 
that I have the same good hopes of my son Lowther, and to 
assure Your Ladyship that they shall both of them have all 



the encouragement and hearty assistance that shall lie in my 
power, to befriend them withall, and to promote my son's 
welfare, which I will tender as my own, and which by his 
good demeanour I do already find he shall deserve from me, 
and I do cheerfully hope, God will bless them together. 

I will take care of his wife in his absence, and I look upon 
it as a good amends for the trouble of his Circuit that he hath 
the opportunity of paying his duty to Your Ladyship, and to 
his other relations with you. 

The rest will not be so much of the profit of what his 
practice will amount unto, as to give him opportunity to 
make observations of what passes in the Circuit, and to 
increase his acquaintance, which I hope will insure him to a 
way of further advantage, which I doubt not he will obtain 
unto, and shall want no assistance I can contribute to, and I 
doubt as little the concurrence of the rest of his relations. 

I give Your Ladyship no further trouble, save my most 
unfeigned and hearty respects, and the assurance that I am, 
dear Lady, 

Your Ladyship's most affectionate and humble Servant. 


The next and last letter of this series is from Lady Lowther 
to Sir William Rawlinson, expressing her satisfaction at the 
marriage things moved slower in those days than they do 
now and apologizing for her " illegible scrawl," and it may be 
added, that a sight of the original would convince any one 
that her ladyship did herself no injustice in this respect. 

Lady Lowther of Ackworth, Yorkshire^ to 
Sir William Rawlinson. 

The 25th of March, 1688. 

Most dear and Honoured Brother, 

I am bound to return you my most true and hearty thanks 
for your great care and kindness to my Son, and think myself 
very happy in the alliance, and if my age and many infirmities 
and disagreement of the Town's air did not discourage me 
from taking so great a journey, I should attend personally to 
give you and my dear daughter a visit, and thereby better to 
express my sense of my son's happiness than I can manifest 
by my scribbles. 

All I can say is, I hope he will ever be governed by you, 

and though this Circuit is not encouraging to young lawyers, 

yet future advantages may follow, and your directions observed 

cannot want a good effect, if his parts and industry do well 



second them, as I hope his good nature and obligations will 
prompt him to, and my advice shall ever concur. 

I am ashamed to interrupt your most weighty occasions by 
my impertinent illegible scrawls, so beg your pardon, and 
return from myself and whole family our most obliged due 
services to your self and your Lady, and rest, 

Your most affectionate Sister and Servant, 

All that the space at our disposal will now permit us to do, 
is to add a few lines with reference to Hendon House itself, 
the residence, as has been already stated, of Sir William 
Rawlinson, while he lived at Hendon, and we desire here to 
express our thanks to the late occupier, Mrs. Burgess, for her 
courtesy in permitting us on a recent occasion to inspect the 
house and grounds. 

The original mansion is said to have been built by John 
Norden, the celebrated antiquary, who wrote a history of 
Hendon, and who resided there in the time of Elizabeth. 

To him succeeded the family of the Whichcotes, who are 
the subject of many entries in the parish registers, say from 
1654 to about 1698. At what date Sir William Rawlinson 
bought Hendon House is not quite clear, but at all events in 
1694 the grant was confirmed to him by William and Mary 
of all the charters of their predecessors, which freed the 
inhabitants of Hendon from all markets, fairs, bridges, river, 
and other tolls, so that at that date Sir William may have 
been probably a resident there. Sir William died at Hendon 
House in 1703, and he was succeeded in the ownership by the 
Cornwall family; a John Cornwall was there in 1795. 

In 1811 it had been purchased by a Mrs. Price, and a 
Mr. Stafford Price was about that time in possession of the 
property. In 1890 it was in the occupation of Major Ardwick 
Burgess, who resided there until his death in 1908. 

The present house, though no donbt it has been much 
altered from what it was in the seventeenth century, still 
retains many very interesting evidences of its past history. In 
two of the windows of the dining-room, one facing to the east, 
and the other to the south, are the arms of the Whichcotes 
in very fine coloured glass, which, by the care of the late 
occupiers, have been kept in a very complete state of pre- 
servation. The arms are: Ermine, Two Boars gules, langued 
and tusked blue, with the Badge of Ulster; and impaled with 
those of the families of Gould and Groves. 


The old staircase of oak, with small panels and carved 
balustrades, still remains, probably, much as it was in the 
time of the Whichcotes, and there is a low pitched entrance 
hall, the ceiling of which is supported by classical columns. 
On the roof is the bell which is generally found in houses of 
that period, with the date 1680 upon it ; and in the fruit and 
vegetable garden is a very fine leaden cistern, ornamented on 
the sides and dated 1689. This is probably one of the finest 
pieces of old lead work in that part of the country. 

The present mansion, as may be seen from the print of it, 
has only two stories, but there was at one time a third story 
with a gabled roof to it. This was removed when Lord 
Henley occupied the premises, after the purchase of the estate 
by Mrs. Price, on account, as it is said, of its weight threatening 
to injure the lower part of the building. There is also a 
legend to the effect that the third storey was haunted by 
an apparition in the shape of a lady who carried her head in 
her hands. However this may have been, the headless creature 
seems now to have disappeared, and Hendon House has no 
longer the antiquarian honour of being a haunted house. 

It stands in beautifully wooded grounds of about twenty- 
three acres in extent, situated on the slope of the hill, running 
down from the village of Hendon nearly to the river Brent. 
This is now little more than a dirty stream, and the rippling 
rivulet, rejoicing in the sunshine and the rain, which in the 
time of Sir William Rawlinson 

Gave shelter to the winged bands 
That haunted then the Brent, 

will now before long be reduced to that last sad stage of 
a stream's degradation, an underground sort of drain. What 
may be the future of this pleasant little estate with its lordly 
cedars and its lovely lawns, which was once the residence of a 
Commissioner of the Great Seal, remains to be seen, but it is 
not improbable that sooner or later another of those memories 
of the past, which are with us here to-day, may have disappeared 
before the dawning of a not very distant to-morrow. 

Since the above was written, the anticipations therein fore- 
shadowed have been realized, and last May the Hendon House 
estate was sold for building purposes. This will alter the 
charming and parklike character of that part of Hendon, and 


ttJ VD 
^ u 



all that is left to us will be to consider, as the old Romans 
would say, whether the event 

Creta an carbone notandum est. 

NOTE. The illustration is taken from a scarce print, which has been 
very kindly lent for the purpose by Mrs. Burgess, the late occupier of 
Hendon House. This print is undated, but it is probably not later than 



THE discoveries of dene-holes during 1907 have been 
more important than those in any other year since 
interest was first aroused in these mysterious excava- 
tions of the prehistoric period. Unfortunately it has been 
found impossible to preserve all the specimens discovered. 
But with two exceptions they have been carefully examined, 
and it is fitting that the record, together with the evidence 
obtained from them, should be preserved. For this purpose it 
is undoubtedly best to deal with them seriatim in the chrono- 
logical order of their discovery, pointing out new features 
bearing upon the history and the use of dene-holes, and 
avoiding as far as possible the controversy, which is still un- 
settled, as to whether they were granaries, chalk wells, gold 
mines, or any other of the likely or unlikely purposes which 
have been suggested from time to time. 

The first of these important discoveries of 1907 occurred 
early in the year at Gravesend. For the purpose of identifica- 
tion I have called this the Gravesend Twin-Chamber Dene- 
hole. Its discovery was entirely accidental. The land had 
been opened up for building and the workmen were engaged 
in sinking a cesspool. When some fifty feet below the surface, 
the supposed solid chalk fell away from the feet of the work- 
man, and very much to his surprise he found himself pre- 
cipitated into this underground cave. Fortunately he was 
uninjured although considerably startled. There is no known 
reference in any of the local or county historians to a dene- 
hole in this situation. It lies of the south of Windmill Hill, 
away from the river and completely hidden from it. Probably 



owing to the slope of the hill the sand and loam had fallen 
into the cave very evenly and steadily. The original shaft 
was completely filled and the earth was being forced into the 
cave at the bottom as from a huge funnel. 

An effort was made, largely supported by the then Mayor 
of the town, J. M. Arnold, Esq., a well-known Kentish 
antiquary, to raise a sum of money to defray the cost of 
removing this enormous quantity of sandy loam; unfortun- 
ately the project did not receive sufficient support and was 
abandoned. In the meantime, however, the builder had had 
a large quantity removed ; thus making it possible to take a 
more detailed survey than would have been the case other- 
wise. This minute examination showed that in all probability 
the cave had been sealed up for very many centuries, and 
there were no signs that it had been put to any use since it 
was left by its original excavators. In addition it was arranged 
on a very rare plan. The result was that it has been regarded 
as one of the most interesting and important specimens known. 

The cave was about fifty-five feet below the surface, although 
at an earlier date the depth was probably greater, as it appears 
likely that some of the upper soil has found its way into the 
valley. At the bottom of the loam the shaft is cut through 
the inevitable three feet of chalk before it widens out into the 
chamber. It is in the chamber that the great difference 
between this and the usual Dene-hole was observable. In 
place of the single chamber or the six chambers arranged like 
two clover leaves placed base to base, was what is best de- 
scribed as a twin-chamber cave. In the centre and immediately 
beneath the shaft was a dividing wall of chalk left there in its 
natural state when the cave was excavated. On the ground 
level was a communicating gap from one chamber to the other ; 
so that either chamber could be entered from the shaft or 
goods directed into either chamber, and at the same time it 
was not necessary to surmount this dividing wall upon every 
occasion. The chambers were unequal in size. The larger 
was about thirty feet by twenty-four feet and the smaller 
twenty-four feet by twenty feet. It was difficult to obtain 
exact measurements owing to the inequalites of the sand 
heap, but the figures given are so near that the account of 
the chambers cannot suffer in any way from the absence of 
minute measurements. The bones of various animals of the 
dog tribe were found close to the surface of this huge mound 
of sand. On excavating this deposit in one portion of the 



cave it was found to be between nine and ten feet deep, giving 
a total height in the loftiest part of about eighteen feet. 
Although the portion cleared was small the various periods 
could be traced quite easily by the animals' bones and other 
things found in the sand. Near the floor two or three good 
flints were found; one of them an excellent specimen of a 
scraper. On the roof of the smaller chamber, not quite so 
lofty as the other, was a curious smoothness of the chalk 
which could have been caused only by the constant rubbing 
of some fairly hard substance or some other material having 
the same effect. It was suggested that it had been caused by 
corn in the ear as it was thrown into the chamber. While its 
appearance entirely favoured the supposition, it cannot be said 
with certainty that this is the real explanation. There is no 
doubt, however, that the most valuable evidence relating to 
dene-holes is to be found in the marks left by the picks. 

Horn, bone, and flint implements were all in use at the 
same time ; that is, the periods overlapped, and different parts 
of the country had different methods of working. In other 
words, to render the statement plainer, it may be explained 
that as soon as the first bronze implement was made all the 
stone did not immediately suffer destruction, even at the 
hands of those who appreciated the advantages of bronze. 
Therefore it is possible that both bone and metal pick im- 
pressions might be found on the walls. This is the only ex- 
planation available where both types of pick marks are found 
on the same level of a wall. The Gravesend Twin Chamber 
Dene-hole showed no sign of these late metal picks. But 
excellent examples of marks which apparently could have 
been made only by bone or horn picks were to be seen near 
the roof. Fortunately I succeeded in obtaining two casts of 
these in plaster. It was necessary, however, to chop away 
round the cast before it could be removed, the result was that 
the impression was immediately destroyed. These pickmarks 
were only to be seen near the roof; the walls evidently had 
been smoothed with some flat instruments, probably one of 
the flint chisel-like implements found near the floor. 

The second discovery, due in some measure to accident, 
cannot be wholly ascribed to chance. In the neighbourhood 
of the ruins of the once famous Lessness Abbey is a deep 
well which was believed to be an adapted dene-hole, particu- 
larly as another near by had been used for a rubbish-pit and 
showed no appreciable signs of filling up. On examination it 



was found that although these wells were probably old they 
were not dene-holes, nor were they of any very great age, as 
time goes in estimating the age of dene-holes. In the woods 
close by a pit about fifteen feet deep bore every evidence of 
a dene-hole choked with branches of trees and rubbish. A 
crowbar pushed through revealed the fact that the shaft was 
continued beneath the obstruction. An endeavour to remove 
the debris only brought down a still larger quantity from the 
sides, and a more fitting opportunity was waited for. A 
number of cup-like depressions close by pointed to the exist- 
ence of a very large number of specimens. And the iron bar 
when driven down in the centre of the depression showed that 
about four feet through the earth was a cavity of some sort. 
Steady spade work threw open the shafts of two dene-holes, 
the others being left for a later occasion. The opening of 
other specimens is to be undertaken ; and a sum sufficiently 
large to pay for the removal and sifting of one or more of the 
mounds in the caves has been subscribed. The two opened 
were very similar in appearance and also in their details, so 
that it will be sufficient to describe one. It may be stated at 
the same time that they are typical specimens, and have no 
individual value beyond what may be revealed by the sifting, 
and the opening of the remaining specimens. The significance 
of the discovery lies in the number of caves scattered about 
the immediate neighbourhood, showing unequivocally that, 
whatever purpose dene-holes were put to, a large settlement 
of prehistoric people was situated on the spot some three or 
four thousand years ago. 

There could be no doubt whatever that these caves at 
Abbey Wood had been used for some purpose in compara- 
tively recent times. The chalk had fallen from the roofs and 
the upper walls in great masses, completely obliterating all 
signs of tools in the most important parts of the chambers. 
The pickmarks that were discovered here and there appeared 
to be those of modern metal tools. It must be admitted, how- 
ever, that it is extremely difficult if not impossible to identify 
with certainty the marks of metal tools in chalk of different 

The shafts were of the average depth, some sixty feet. The 
stemple holes, *.*., holes in the side of the shaft for stakes to 
form a ladder, were extremely good. Three feet of chalk 
forms the roofs of the caves, which were divided into the six 
chambers of the double clover leaves. There were no means 



of gauging the depth of the sand on the floor, but judging 
from general features the caves were very lofty, so much so 
that they became awe-inspiring. But this is a very frequent 
effect of dene-holes, even by those who are not already filled 
with those romantic theories which have brought so much 
ridicule upon an interesting and important study. On the 
top of the mound were articles not much more than a hundred 
years old. These included some bottles and earthenware of 
about the very early nineteenth century, a large number of 
dog, horse, and other animals' bones, together with two some- 
what battered examples of the old horn lanterns. 

The two specimens which were mentioned as exceptions in 
the early part of the paper were situated in back gardens at 
Grays Thurrock. They both caved in suddenly, fortunately 
without serious result, at different times. While it would 
have been somewhat dangerous to descend shafts in so pre- 
carious a state, an effort would have been made to secure 
some evidence if the cavities had not been filled in at the 
earliest moment. 

The last of these 1907 discoveries was the shallow dene- 
hole at Stone, which has been named the Stone Court Dene- 
hole. By the courtesy of Mr. J. J. Hewitt, every facility has 
been given for the careful examination of this example. This 
is fortunate, as it is an important discovery, disproving most 
decidedly the chalk draw-well theory, which has been for 
many years the only serious rival to the underground granary 

The dene-hole itself was typical and uninteresting in some 
respects. It was just a six chambered excavation. Near the 
angle of the roof and the shaft I succeeded in getting a cast 
of a remarkably good bone pickmark. This spot is the one 
least likely to be touched by any later workers in the cave, 
who usually confine their operations to the chambers and 
their enlargement. And in this case on the end walls of the 
chambers were marks of picks which could scarcely have been 
made by bone picks, although they bore little resemblance to 
the marks made by the modern steel pick. 

The great significance of the Stone Court Dene-hole lies in 
its shallowness. It is barely fifteen feet below the surface, 
instead of, as is usual, at least fifty. There is no appearance, 
in fact there appears to be no possibility, of a landslip having 
taken place. The chief argument of the chalk well theorists, 
that chalk from a great depth was of more value than that 



near the surface, is thus rendered nugatory. And, if chalk 
and chalk only was the object of this laborious excavation, 
why was the Stone Court Dene-hole sunk at all seeing that 
only a few yards distant the same bed of chalk outcrops? The 
question is a significant one. 

Many years ago two shallow dene-holes were discovered in 
the Crayford district ; they were eighteen feet from the sur- 
face, and the caves were simple single chambers. It is obvious 
at once that the evidence of the Stone Court Dene-hole is of 
the utmost importance. 

The whole evidence of these discoveries begins to fore- 
shadow the revelation of a picture of a busy, comparatively 
highly civilized, mercantile race, living in larger or smaller 
" towns " on the banks of the Thames in North Kent and to 
a lesser degree in South Essex. It will probably be possible, 
in the not very distant future, to outline with some certainty 
and minuteness the life of the prehistoric inhabitants of these 
parts of our country. 



AN interesting and historically instructive compilation 
bearing upon certain phases of social conditions in the 
Hertfordshire of bygone days, is that of the Hertford- 
shire County Records. For these volumes we are, in the first 
place, indebted to the Hertfordshire County Council who 
commissioned the calendaring of the Records in their custody. 
This work, ably carried out by Mr. W. J. Hardy, F.S.A., deals 
with the Council's Records from 1620 to 1850, to which are 
added, by the courtesy of the late Marquis of Salisbury, others 
of a more ancient date from the muniment room of Hatfield 
House, going back to the year 1581. Thus, with the exception 
of matters relating to the separate Liberty of St. Albans, there 
is a fairly continuous series for nearly two hundred and 
seventy years. Unfortunately for the completeness of the 
picture of county life and manners, which would otherwise 
have been shown, there is generally speaking no information 



as to the result of the many presentments and indictments 
forming the bulk of these records. 

The following selections may perhaps help to show how 
great have been the changes in the social life of this country 
during the period here treated of changes in manners and 
customs, laws, commerce, and especially the practice of religion. 
With regard to the punishment of offenders against the laws, 
there are here many cases showing with what severity com- 
paratively trifling offences were treated. Religious toleration 
was non-existent, and would, moreover, have been generally 
regarded as criminal. In later days we find instances where, 
if in some cases we are inclined to pity " ejected ministers," 
we are also reminded how many of these had been previously 
injected, or " intruded," to the ruin of those they supplanted. 
As to the housing of the people, it is rather startling to find, 
in these days of overcrowding, how many " presentments " are 
made for building cottages "whereunto they have not laid 
four acres of freehold land according to the statute." There 
are also many cases of unlawfully exercising certain callings, 
now free to all, and of others, the very names of which are 
obsolete and only to be met with, by way of allusion, in the 
works of old writers. As to these, and to various other 
matters occurring in the course of the extracts, we have 
ventured to offer a few sidelights. 

Dealing first with entries relating to the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, and observing the variations of law and social 
conditions shown in subsequent reigns, we begin with the 
year 1589. 

1589-90. Gaol Delivery, St. Albans. James Buckston, 
sentenced to be drawn to the gallows and hanged for clipping 
money; William Longe, to be hanged for burglary; Richard 
Bacchus, to be hanged as a cutpurse ; Thomas Pasgrave, John 
Mychell, and Thomas Wheelers, confess themselves guilty of 
stealing cattle, they claim benefit of clergy and are released. 
John Gibsons, and John Brokeson, for stealing bread, to be 
whipped; William Gray and Abery Gray his wife, and 
Thomas Gill and Alice Gill his wife, indicted as rogues et 

Presentment: "Mary Pennyfather, of Hipolletts, hath a 
woman child of the age of fower yeares which could neither 
goe nor speke, whom she caryed to Thomas Harden, because 
it is noysed in the country that he is a wyse man and can 

VOL. xi. 97 H 


skyll of many thinges, who told her that her childe was a 
changelinge, but would in tyme helpe her. The next tyme 
that she came unto him he bad her to take a nutt and to pick 
out the curnell and fyll yt with quicksilver, and to stoppe the 
hole with waxe and to bynd a thred a crosse over the nutte 
and to lay yt under a pyllow wher the chylde shoulde lye, 
and that shoulde helpe yt. Her chylde having thereby noe 
helpe, she repared to him againe, and then he bad her to sett 
the chylde in a chare uppon her dungell by the space of an 
houre uppon a sonny day, which she did, and the chylde had 
noe helpe." The woman gave him sixpence for his reward 
and promised him more. Others who " repared " to this man 
were John Bigge of Hipolletts, sick of a fever; Robert 
Dickinson of " Duddicote [query Codicote], who had a waist- 
coat purloined ; Goodwyfe Strat, of King's Walden, from whom 
a parcel of new cloth had been stolen; William Kynge of 
Gamlingay, who had lost two horses ; and Mr. Oly ver, who 
was desirous to know who had fired his mother's house at 

1590-91. Indictment of Joan White, wife of Thomas White 
of Bushey, labourer, as a common witch and enchantress, for 
devilishly bewitching Marion Man, daughter of William Man, 
of Bushey, tailor, through which she languished exceedingly 
from December 20 until June 27 next following, when she 
died. The jurors say that the said Joan feloniously killed her. 

Another case of this kind about the same date, though 
from another source, gives a curious instance of the old 
custom of tracking criminals by bloodhounds, a practice still 
occasionally resorted to in this country. 

1590: Information touching certain men taken up in the 
parish of Edmonton for practising the art of witchcraft and 
conjuring, "mystic articles were found in their possession, 
with powders and rats-bane, which the parties that fled strewed 
in the way, disappointing the bloodhounds thereby." 

It is difficult to account satisfactorily for the widespread 
and deep-rooted belief in this possession of supernatural powers 
by "wyse" men and women, who, in claiming this power, 
generally for the gain of very small profit, ran the risk of 
most cruel punishment. In spite of this, there is no doubt 
that witchcraft, as an indictable offence, did formerly prevail 
to an alarming extent. In this country severe laws against it 


were passed in the reigns of Henry VIII, Elizabeth, and 
James I. Three popes, Alexander VI, 1494; Julius II, 1521; 
and Julius III in 1522, issued Bulls in its condemnation; but, 
notwithstanding, it is estimated that in England alone and 
during the time of the Long Parliament, 3,000 victims were 
executed for this crime. In the course of two centuries, 
throughout Germany the appalling number of 100,000 burnings 
has been recorded, and in France, chiefly about the year 1520, 
so many that the historian, not trusting himself to figures, 
sums it all up as " an incredible number." * Doubtless many 
of these suffered by false accusations and by reason of public 
or private vengeance; some for no more cause than what 
would now be esteemed mere unpopularity, but in most cases 
on account of religious fanaticism. 

1590-91. Information that Tymothye Phillippis had been 
examined, concerning the stealing of Northe's sheep, by the 
constable and others above a dozen times before he was 
examined by Mr. Spencer, and said, although he be bound to 
give evidence, he would not appear because the constable 
and others " make so much a dooe thereabout." 

1591. Presentment of Robert Bound of Buntingford West- 
myll, for absenting himself from the parish church for three 

Presentment of Thomas , yeoman, of the parish of 

Aston, for striking one Thomas Battes of Aston, " with a staff 
maliciously, in the chancel of Hitchin Church, drawing blood." 

We do not find what was the result of this presentment, 
but the law enacted that if any person in a church or church- 
yard should smite or lay violent hands upon another, "he 
shall be excommunicated ipso facto; or if he should strike him 
with a weapon, he shall, besides being excommunicated, have 
one of his ears cut off, or in default of losing his ears be 
branded with the letter F in his cheek." 

Presentment of Thomas Smyth of Cottered, labourer, and 
John Barfoot of the same, bachelor, for buying and engrossing 
a parcel of grain called a " pese-ryke." 

Engrossing, forestalling, and regrating constantly form 
occasions for presentments in these records. All these practices 
had the effect of raising the price of goods, to the detriment of 
the purchaser in the market, by making what is now called 

1 Timperley's Ency., p. 233. 



"a corner" in wheat or some other commodity. Under the 
form of regrating, this offence must have been very prevalent 
about this time, for Latimer, in a sermon preached before 
Edward VI, takes occasion to denounce the same which he 
thus defines : " some farmers will regrate and buy up all the 
corne that cometh to the market, and lay it up in store, and 
sell it again at an higher price when they see their time." 
The " pese-ryke," alluded to above, is a little difficult to define 
accurately, but it would seem to denote some raised or heaped- 
up measure of grain. Somewhat in this sense the word Ryke 
occurs in Burns'/^ Beggars-. 

Let me ryke up to dight that tear 

An' go wi' me an' be my dear, 
An' then your every care an' fear 

May whistle owre the lave o't. 

Presentment of the Jury. " We present that Richard Ernes 
with one Thomas Davies, the 2Oth October last past, demand- 
ing relief of one Robert Sibthorpe, who, speaking of their 
disorderly walking, Davies said that the said Sibthorpe and 
such as he wolde deal with them as the Earl of Leicester 
wolde have done. Beinge demanded how the Earle wolde 
have delt with them, he answered, he wolde have hanged 
three hundred of us in one morninge for demanding of our 
pay, Sibthorpe said he had some other cause so to doe. Then 
Davies answered that it was well known what he was, and that 
he was a traitor. Sibthorpe warned him to take heede what 
he saide. Then Richard Ernes said it was well known both 
to the Queene and her Councell, for I cuminge over with 
the Earle of Darbie, when he came out of Flanders, he brought 
over a scroule in writinge of his treason to this lengthe 
makinge a marke on his staffe to the length of half a yarde." 

This seems an echo of one of the many attempts to destroy 
the reputation and also the life of Elizabeth's favourite 
minister, prompted generally by party jealousy and religious 
animosity; instances of which are chronicled in the State 
Papers of this reign. To give an example, we find that in 
1586, one Lieven Archevier, described as "born at Ghent," 
gives information touching the design of certain Jesuits to 
kill the Earl of Leicester, either by poison or other violent 
means; and about the same time, John Clarke, a prisoner, 
details " the seditions and vile speeches of one Fishwick, and 
his plots to burn the Earl's house at Wanstead and to raise a 
Catholic rebellion; his knowledge of inflammable oils for 



burning houses; and of the making of mortal poisons and 
perfumes." These conspiracies and libels aroused the anger 
of the Queen, who caused a letter to be sent to the Lord 
Mayor, expressing her indignation at the infamous libels 
spread against the Earl of Leicester " of which most malicious 
and wicked imputations, Her Majesty, in her own clear know- 
ledge, doth declare and testify his innocence to all the world. 
Her Majesty believes in her conscience that none but the 
Devil himself could believe them to be true." The above is 
endorsed by Lord Burghley: "A copy of a Pre wrytten by 
Hir Ma ls cSma'dment to ye Mayre of London in defence of 
ye Er. of LeicestV 

Sessions, 1593. Breaking out of Gaol. Verdict: " Wee fynd 
that there is fower doores belonging to the Gayle goyinge 
into the gayle as thorowe an entrye, whereof the first doore 
nexte unto the mayne gayle was cleane broken down, and 
the second doore beyinge distant from the inner doore aboute 
two foote and a halfe, beyinge chayned to the inner doore, 
was broken and the chayne also as they mighte have gonn 
owte, but they went not beyond the said second doore of the 
other doores, the inner was shutt still and the forth doore 
standeth all wayes open in the day time ; which brekynge of 
doores was by Hamond Bateman, Willyam Temple, John 
Martyne, and John Clarke, with an intent to escape, but 
whether the breakynge of the said gayle doores as aforesaid 
be fellonye or no, we refer ourselves to the opinion of the 
Corte, and if it be fellonye we fynd them all gyltie, and that 
they had neither goods, chattells, lands, or tenentes at they 
tyme of the said fellonye or since to our knowledge ; and yf 
it be no fellonye then we fynde ' not gyltie/ and that they 
broke the first doore and cam into the second doore and 
brake that to, so whether it be fellonye or not we leave to 
your worships judgement." The parties are respited. At the 
Gaol Delivery, Epiphany Sessions, these men were indicted 
for prison breaking. Those pleading not guilty were remanded. 
Two of them confessed themselves guilty, claimed benefit of 
clergy and were discharged. 

In the verdict of this rather muddled jury, the only thing 
which comes out clearly is the claim to Benefit of Clergy, 
denoting that these two men possessed the then rare accom- 
plishment of being able to read, thereby coming under the 
denomination clerici. From a very early period the Clergy 



together with their consecrated buildings were exempt from 
civil jurisdiction, reminiscences of which still linger in the 
name of Broad Sanctuary, in the precincts of Westminster 
Abbey. The Church had also demanded and received the 
same immunity for Laymen of sufficient education ; reading 
(then a rare accomplishment) being considered a sufficient 
test. This privilege, however, was restricted to first offences, 
in token of which, the culprit before being handed over to the 
ecclesiastical authorities, was branded by the gaoler with a 
hot iron in the " brawn of the left thumb." The meaning of 
this is very clearly shown by a passage occurring in a descrip- 
tion of one of Queen Elizabeth's progresses: "March i8th 
1559, Eleven persons, malefactors, rode to hanging; seven 
men and four women; one of these men was a priest, his 
crime was for cutting a purse wherein were three shillings; 
but he was burnt in the hand, or else the book would have 
saved him." 1 

1592-3. Presentment of John Locke of Barkway, and 
Francis Umwell of the same, baker, for breaking the assize 
of bread there to wit, John Locke made his " twoe pennye 
lofes" sixteen ounces under weight, and Francis Umwell 
made his two penny loaves twenty-seven ounces under weight, 
and his penny loaves six ounces under weight, to the great 
loss of the public. 

The above throws some light on the purchasing power of 
money at this period, and one can well imagine the size of 
the penny and two penny loaves, to have borne such a 
diminution of weight without disappearing altogether. Much 
evidence as to the cost of provisions is furnished by the 
articles of agreement made about this time between the Privy 
Council and the county authorities for the delivery of pro- 
visions to the Royal Household. This agreement, subject to 
a " composition " which no doubt somewhat reduced the 
market price, states : 

" Fjrst. That 50 fatt veales of the age of six weeks and up- 
wards shall be delivered the 1st of June at each, iiijj. m]d" 

" Item. That cxx fat lambes and meet for Her Majesty's 
service shall be delivered the 2Oth November at xijaf." 

" Item. That 30 fatt and great porkes and sufficient for 
Her Majesty's service shall be delivered 2Oth November at 
each, iiijj." 

1 Nichols, Progresses of Queen Elizabeth. 



" Item. That 400 quarters of wheate at vjs. v\\]d. the quarter 
[query bushel] shall be continued according to the old and 
ancyent composition, and that it shall be lawful for Her 
Majesty's purveyors for the monthe, to take yearlie within 
the said sheare by vertue of commission 70 quarters of the 
best wheate, payinge reddy money for the same, after the rate 
that of the second price that wheate shall be sold for that 
sum in the market, or to abate iiijd. for a bushell of the best 
price of the said market." 

A great number of presentments are made with regard to 
the practice of stopping up rights of way through field-paths, 
etc., and the unlawful enclosing of common lands. They occur 
at all periods covered by these records, and are perhaps more 
numerous than any other kind of offence here chronicled. No 
wonder that the comparative immunity enjoyed by such 
offenders should have been at all times the cause of much 
seething discontent among the people, especially when con- 
trasting this leniency to the wealthy intruders with the frequent 
hangings of their own class for petty thefts. An early and 
quaint illustration of how these encroachments would occasion- 
ally provoke a serious revolt is given in Grafton's Chronicle, 
where he records that about the fifth year of Henry VIII 
" The townes men about London, as Islington, Hogsdon, 
Hackney, Shordiche, and such other, had so enclosed the 
common fields wyth hedges and dyches, that neyther the 
young men of the Citie myght shoote nor the auncient 
persons walke for their pleasure, except eyther their Bowes 
and Arrowes were broken or taken away, or the substanciall 
arrested and endyted, saiying that no Londoner shoulde go 
out of the Citie but in ye high wayes. This saing so grieved 
the Londoners, that sodeinly in a morning a Turner in a 
foole's coate came criying thorough the Citie, ' Shovels and 
Spades'; so many people followed that it was wonder. And 
within a short space all the hedges about the townes were 
cast downe and the dyches filled, and every thing made playne. 
The Kynge's Counsayle, hearyng of this assemblye, came to 
the Gray-Fryers, nowe called Christe's Hospitall, and sent for 
the Maior and Counsell of ye Citie to knowe the cause, 
whyche declared unto them the noysaunce done to the 
Citizens and their commodities and liberties taken from them, 
which though they being rulers woulde not, yet the common- 
altie which were anoyed, woulde plucke up and remedy. 
When the Kynge's Counsayle had heard the answer, they 



dissembled the matter, and commaunded the Maior to see 
that no other thyng were attempted and to call home the 
Citizens: who, when they had done their enterprize, came 
home without any more harme doyng. And so after, the 
fieldes were never hedged." At a subsequent and milder 
period of history the enclosure grievance found its expression 
in the oft quoted lines: 

Why prosecute the vulgar felon 
Who steals the goose from off the common, 
But leave the greater villain loose 
Who steals the common from the goose ! 

The next presentments show the usual method of procedure 
in such cases. 

1593-94. Presentment: That from time immemorial there 
has been a common way called a " common fylde gappe " in 
a field within the parish of Weston, called Hill Syde, through 
which "common gappe" the inhabitants of Weston were 
accustomed for all time to pass with their carriages and 
droves; nevertheless Thomas Harmer, the younger, by force 
and arms, knowingly and designedly stopped up and barred 
" le comen gappe " with a great and very deep ditch, and 
with a quickset hedge. 

Presentment: That whereas the inhabitants of Braughinge 
had long used a certain way and common passage at Brawhinge 
through a field called Stonye Crofte, when the said field was 
not lying sown, John Gayler, yeoman, had of late enclosed 
about six acres with ditches and hedges, being parcel of the 
said field, and so stopped up the said way. 

1593-94. Indictment of John Clarke of Waltham Crosse, 
smith, for that on October I9th, 1593, at night, viz., between 
the hours of seven and eight after midday, he burglariously 
entered the mansion house of Symon Crowche, at Waltham 
Crosse, and took two cloaks value 2os., one capon, value 6*/., 
and one sack, value \2d. y the goods of the said Crowche. 
Sentenced to be hanged. 

Presentment: That the highway between Stapleforde Bridge 
and Doggesheade in the Pott in the parish of Anstye, is 

1594-95. Agreement of the Justices that every High Sheriff 
of the County at the time of the Assize shall make provision 



and keep a table for the Justices who shall appear at the same 
Assizes. Each Justice to pay and contribute for his dinner 
two shillings and sixpence in money, and for the dinner of 
his servant eightpence. 

1 595-9^' Order of the Privy Council for the restraint of 
killing and eating of flesh this next Lent. 

Presentment: That John Shotbolte of Yardley, gent., had 
lately enclosed with a hedge and ditch a part of the common 
way there, lying in the fields of Yardley. 

1596-97. Presentment: That William Kyngeof Brawghinge, 
labourer, on the above date, took "a young mastie bytch" 
belonging to George Hamond and did flea her, being a live, 
and so the dog had come to the house of the said George 
Hamond, without its skin. 

Edward Bull affirmed that it was spoken in his hearing 
upon Cottered Greene, that the Lord Admiral of England 
had put sand into barrels instead of " powlder " within the 
ships that the Earl of Essex should go forth withal, and that 
the Lord Admiral for that was committed to the Tower, but 
by whom those words were spoken he well remembreth not ; 
and that Thomas Antwissel " should " bring this news from 
the Court, having been lately there, but who affirmed that he 
likewise remembreth not. Edward Whytenberry of Cottered, 
tailor, deposed to similar effect. Thomas Antwissel " confessed 
(being examined) that he told Whytenberry that (as he knew) 
there was sand or grease where powder should be, but he 
thought it was not by the Lord Admiral's means." 

1598-1599. Presentment: That Robert Renoldes of Hert- 
ford, not having the fear of God before his eyes, entered the 
yard of Robert Dawson of Hertford, "coryer," and carried 
away five hides worth 2os. 

1599-1600. Presentment of John Pearson and sixteen others 
(some of them being also unlicensed) for selling beer at the 
rate of three halfpence per quart. 

Petition of the inhabitants of Cheshunt to Sir Henry Coke, 
Knight, Lord of the manor of Cheshunt, in reference to a 
recent order for the relief of the poor. As touching the pro- 
vision of corn, they complain that John Shellye and Thomas 
Harrys of Cheshunt, " loders," not only buy corn in one 



market and sell it in another market, unground, but also go 
from barn to barn, and buy up the corn at the barn doors, 
so that the petitioners can not buy it for their ready money. 
They formerly had their corn from Mr. Dakers, the parson, 
as they needed it, for money, but now, on account of the said 
forestalling, he carries it not to market. 

1600-1601. Presentment: That the pound and the stocks of 
Weston are not sufficient and ought to be " done " by the 
Lady Pickerringe, Lady of the same manor. 

1601-1602. Presentment: That William Day of Braughing, 
yeoman, has stopped up an ancient way of passage through 
his ground to Cockyn Lane, in the said parish, and has cut up 
the stiles and has " taken away the easementes, with hedging 
upp and dyching out the Queen's leige people." 

As before stated, there are many such like presentments, 
both with regard to rights of way and the enclosures of common 
land, greatly to the loss of the poorer classes, too often sufferers 
in this way from the "oppressor's wrong, the proud man's 
contumely " ; but no doubt there were also honourable ex- 
ceptions, of which the following letter, printed in the State 
Papers of this reign may be cited as a striking example: 

1600. Secretary Cecil to William Cock of Hertfordshire: 
" I had no intention to annoy my neighbours by the enclosure 
of lands, for which I paid dearly to enlarge my park, and 
finding they are dissatisfied, I repent what is done. I was 
assured by those who sounded the dispositions of those 
interested, that it had the good will of the country, or I would 
not have attempted it had the land been given me. I offer 
now how far soever the enclosure has proceeded, to lay it open 
again, if the parties of whom the land was bought, will return 
the money, and to secure full compensation to those that had 
right of common. I request you if there be any peevish person 
who tries to divert his neighbours' good affection, to assure 
them that though my place about the Queen prevents my 
enjoying their acquaintance, I bear them a neighbourly mind. 
I wish you to over-rule my men, if they injure others to the 
value of a farthing." 

The above quotations bring us to the end of the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, and here it may be useful to give, on the 


Vange Church. 

Pitsea Church. 
Photographs by C. W. Forbes. 


authority of Hansard's Parliamentary History^ a list of the 
prices of provisions prevailing during this time. 1559: Wheat, 
8s.; rye, Ss. 1560: Wheat, Ss.; rye, 8^.; barley, 5^. 2d.\ oats, 
55.; old hay, I2s. 6d. per load; new hay, 6s. 8d. 1561 : Wheat, 
Ss. ; rye, Ss. ; malt, 5 s. ; oats, 55. 1 562 : Wheat, Ss. ; barley, 5 s. ; 
hay, 13^. $d. per load; straw, 6s.; claret, 2 los. per hogshead. 
1563: Rye, 13^. 4*/.; oats, 55-. 1574, a dearth, and wheat was 
2 i6s. per quarter; beef, is. lod. per stone; and herrings 
only five for 2d. ; bay salt (never so dear), 6s. the bushel. After 
harvest wheat was i qs. and continued so about a year. In 
1587 wheat was 3 4^. per quarter at London; and, in other 
places, at ios., I2s. and 13^. per bushel occasioned by excessive 
transportation. In 15 94, wheat, 2 \6s\ rye, 2. In 1595 wheat, 
by great transportation, 2 i$s. $d.\ a hen's egg i*/.,or at best, 
three for 2d.\ a pound of sweet butter, yd. In 1596 wheat, 
by reason of great rains, at 4 per quarter; rye, 2 Ss.; 
oatmeal, 3J-. the bushel. In 1597 wheat was 5 4^. and fell to 
4 per quarter; rye from gs. to 6s. per bushel, and then 
to 3^. 2d, and afterwards rose again to the greatest price. 
Bishop Goodwin says, wheat was once this year at 1 3 s. ^d. per 
bushel. In 1 598 pepper, Ss. per pound ; raisins, 6d. ; Gascoygne 
wine, 2s. Sd. per gallon; sweet wine, 4s. In 1603 the price 
of ale and strong beer was settled by Act of Parliament at 
id. the quart, and small beer at two quarts for a penny in ale 


BY C. W. FORBES, Member of the Essex Archaeological 

[Continued from p. 43.] 

ON the south side of the main road between Stanford-le- 
Hope and Hadleigh, a distance of about ten miles, are 
four other parishes, besides those of Corringham and 
Fobbing (which have already been described), viz.: Vange, 
Pitsea, Bowers Gifford, and South Benfleet. 

In this number I propose to take these four parishes, in 
the above order. 




Vange is situated partly on a creek of the Thames and 
partly on the main road that runs between Stanford and 
Hadleigh. Following this road from Stanford for three miles 
we arrive at the village. The church, about one hundred 
yards to the south, is hardly visible in the summer, owing to 
the trees surrounding the churchyard. It is a very small 
structure, built of stone and rubble, consisting of a nave and 
chancel only, with a low wooden bell turret at the west end, 
containing one bell. 

Entrance to the church is by the south door, which has a 
plain brick porch; the north door has, as is so often the 
case, been bricked up. 

The foundation is ancient, but the present structure dates 
from the thirteenth century ; the windows and bell turret are 
attributed to the fifteenth century; the plain west window is 
doubtless a later addition to give light to the small western 

The font is square with arrow marks on the side facing 
east, and rests on a circular centre pillar with a smaller one 
at each angle ; it is probably very early Norman. 

In the east window are some fragments of ancient glass. 

Between the chancel and nave is a stone screen running 
from wall to wall, having a rude arched opening about five 
feet wide with semicircular head ; the whole of this wall at 
the present time is blank, but doubtless in pre-reformation 
times it was covered with frescoes, to form a background for 
the rood. 

In the south wall are the remains of the rood stairs and 
opening for beam. 

The chancel screen is about four feet thick, but appears to 
be hollow. 

The registers date from 1558 and are in good condition. 


Continuing on the main road for another mile and a half 
we reach Pitsea, formerly called Picescia. The parish is situated 
on a peninsular formed by creeks running into the river; the 
church, which is quite close to the railway station, is in a very 
prominent position on the top of a small hill. 

According to Domesday Book, at the time of the Conqueror 
the manor was in the possession of one Ulueva wife of Phin. 

1 08 

Bowers Gifford Church. 

South Benfleet Church. 
Photographs by C. W. Forbes. 


The present church of stone and rubble consists of chancel, 
nave, south porch, and embattled western tower. With the 
exception of the tower (containing five bells), which is attri- 
buted to the thirteenth century, the building is a modern struc- 
ture, dating from the year 1871. 

Inside the altar rails and underneath the south chancel 
window, almost on a level with the floor, is an interesting 
brass dated 1588. It is unfortunately much defaced and 
cracked across the middle; it is believed to have been origin- 
ally on the chancel floor, but was placed in its present position 
at the restoration or rebuilding. 

The Latin inscription on it reads : 












Here lies hidden and buried in this tomb Elizabeth, wife of 
John Purlevant, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Raye. 
To her husband she was a very dear wife, attached always, 
loving and faithful; To her personal friends she was most 
affectionate and to all others how kind! The flower of all 
mercy and the patroness of goodness; Dying to the world 
she lives in God. Her body lies in the earth, her soul rests in 
Heaven. She passed away on the 26th day of September in 
the year of our Lord 1588. In the 3Oth year of the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. 

The communion plate is interesting; the chalice is of the 
year 1 597, and the paten, which is of the type usually known 
as a " credence paten," has the hall-mark of 1692. 



On the paten are the arms of Sir Samuel Moyer, Knight 
(created 1701), of Pitsea Hall, Sheriff of Essex in 1698, who 
died in the year 1716. His arms were: silver and two 
chevrons gules. He married Rebecca, sister of Alderman 
Sir William Jolliffe, whose arms were: silver, a pile azure, 
and three right hands on the pile. Both of these arms appear 
on the paten, which doubtless formed part of their gift to the 


Leaving Pitsea, which contains little else to interest the 
visitor, we proceed on our way to Bowers Gifford. The 
parish of Bowers or Burrs is bounded on the south by the 
creek which separates Canvey Island from the mainland, and 
gives communication to the Thames. The village is under 
two miles from Pitsea railway station and principally on the 
main road. To reach the church we have to take a narrow 
lane to the south for about half a mile until we nearly reach 
the railway line between Pitsea and South Benfleet; the 
church is on the north side. 

The foundation is believed to be very ancient, although no 
evidence of an earlier building, so far as is known, exists; it 
is stated that prior to the Norman invasion the manor was 
held by the Abbey of Westminster. 

The present structure is a small stone building dating from 
the fourteenth century, consisting of a chancel and nave only, 
and at the western end a low tower with a wooden spire contain- 
ing two bells ; on the south-west angle of the tower is a buttress 
placed there as a support on account of the sloping nature of 
the ground towards the river. 

Originally there were three doorways; the west side of 
the tower shows traces of one filled in with stone work; 
the south door, which has a plain modern wooden porch, is 
the only one used, the one on the north side having been 
closed up as usual. 

On each side of the nave are double and triple light 
windows, probably late fourteenth or early fifteenth century. 

The east window is filled with modern stained glass ; the 
chancel has also a double light window of the same period as 
those in the nave. 

In the chancel is a trefoil head piscina. There is no arch 
or screen between chancel and nave. The font is fourteenth 

I tO 

I a' 










century, octagonal on an octagonal pillar with very little in 
the way of ornament. 

The most interesting feature in this little church is a 
mutilated brass to Sir John Gifford, Bart. A modern brass 
plate states that Sir John Gifford was the son of Sir Robert 
Gifford, and grandson of William Gifford, at one time Lord 
of the Manor and patron of the living, who fought at Cre*cy, 
and died about the time of the fall of Cre*cy, circa 1347-48. 
The brass was lost for many years ; it was found and restored 
to the church in 1870, and was repaired and fixed to the 
north wall of the chancel in 1897. The head of the effigy and 
the inscription are lost 

There are also five modern brasses to ancestors of Sir 
Duncan Campbell, dated 1902. 

This church, although a small one, is well worth a visit. 


The village of South Benfleet is easily accessible, there 
being a station here on the railway line running between 
Fenchurch Street and Southend. If, however, we wish to 
continue our journey by road, we must return to the highway ; 
a signpost some two miles further points the way to South 
Benfleet and Canvey Island; turning down here and keeping 
to the left for, say, another two miles, we come to the church 
on our right, in the centre of the village. 

The parish is situated on the north and east of Hadleigh 
Bay, the river flowing between it and Canvey Island. 

The original Norman church is believed to have been 
similar to Hadleigh, a description of which will appear in the 
next number. 

The present structure is chiefly fifteenth-century work; 
it is built of stone and rubble, and consists of a chancel, nave 
of three bays, with clerestory, north and south aisles, and a 
low massive tower with a short stunted spire. 

The doorway at the west end of the nave, leading into the 
tower, is Norman, circa 1 100, the ornamental side facing the 
interior of the tower ; this doorway was the western entrance 
of the first Norman church. 1 

1 The description suggests the possibility that we have here the remains 
of a small Saxon or early Norman church with a central tower. On this 
supposition, the doorway referred to would have been the chancel arch, 
not the west door. The chancel arches in these early churches were generally 



The tower which we now see was erected circa 1250. On 
examination of the exterior we notice a number of Roman 
tiles worked in with the rubble; the face of each of the 
buttresses is ornamented with crosses worked in flints and 
stone, those on the west being red, and on the north and south 
white. The wooden spire was erected about 150 years back. 
The tower contains five bells; the tenor weighs nearly 20 cwt, 
and was cast in 1636; the treble is dated 1664. The door in 
the north aisle is bricked up. The fifteenth-century porch on 
the south side is considered to be the finest timbered porch in 
the county. 

The font, which is a modern square one on four pillars, is 
at the west end of the south aisle; the old font was taken 
away at the last restoration. 

The arcades separating the aisles from the nave are sup- 
ported on the north side by clustered shafts with moulded caps 
and bases, those on the south side are octangular. 

The present roof is a wooden hammer-beamed flat one of 
the fifteenth century, the original one was acutely pointed. 

In the clerestory are eight corbels which formerly carried 
the earlier roof; four are sculptured with grotesque figures 
and four with heads of evangelists. 

The nave opens into the chancel with a fine and spacious 
arch of two reveals, with hollow chamfered edges springing 
from clustered shafts; the chancel arch and nave pillars on 
the north side date from circa 1240, the pillars on the south 
side are circa 1320. 

On the south side of the altar is a piscina with a shelf, 
within a niche. 

The windows on the north side are Perpendicular, and are 
attributed to the fifteenth century ; on the south side they are 
mostly pointed decorated work of the fourteenth century. 

The east end of the south aisle was formerly a chapel, and 
retains a piscina with large bracket for credence or image. 

There are also indications of an altar at east end of north 
aisle, with a square credence in the wall. 

Remains of the rood stairs are to be seen in the wall of 
the north aisle. 

The walls of the aisles were formerly embattled ; portions 
of the battlements still remain on the south side. Portions of 
the foundations of an early church were found some time ago 

very small. St. Peter's, Barton-on-H umber, may be cited as an example. 



on the south-east side of the priest's door, now closed. An 
ancient sepulchral slab, with a raised cross and a French 
inscription of thirteenth-century date, was also discovered 
during restoration. Many early memorials are to be found in 
the church. 

The communion cup, with a cover, is dated 1576. 

The church belonged from the time of the Conquest to the 
Abbey of Westminster; the living is now in the hands of the 
Dean and Chapter. 

The list of Vicars dates from 1309. 


A marshy island defended by high banks erected in 1623, 
it is joined to South Benfleet at low water by a causeway 
across Hadleigh Bay. It originally formed part of nine 
separate parishes in the adjacent country; in 1881 it was 
formed into a separate ecclesiastical parish. 

The present wooden church was erected in 1875 m place of 
an earlier structure built in 1712; it consists of a chancel, 
nave, transepts, and small central belfry, with one bell. Of 
the earlier building some windows and the porch remain. 

The registers date from 1819; before that date entries were 
made at South Benfleet. 

[To be continued.] 


BY FRED ARMITAGE, Author of A Short Masonic History. 

WE have no records of stirring strife and battle to tell 
in these pages, but the history of a nation is not now 
told in the deeds of the battlefield alone, for com- 
merce and industry have their own story to tell and form no 
less a part of the nation's life than the epic of the soldier. The 
history of the ancient Kentish family of Hyde is one which 
must stir our interest, particularly as the records of much of 
its history and family doings are clear cut and can be quite 
easily proved, and we can see the characters living and 
breathing, loving and dying, under our own eyes. 

There are many families of the name of Hyde scattered 
VOL. XL 113 I 


throughout England, and naturally enough, for it comes from 
the Anglo-Saxon word " Hyd," the designation of a piece of 
land which could be tilled with one plough, and would sup- 
port one family. 

One branch of the Hydes, those of Berkshire, profess to 
trace their descent direct from King Canute to Sir George 
Hyde, K.B., of Denchworth near Wantage, Berks, who died 
1535, but these sixteenth-century pedigrees are not to be 
trusted. We have, however, to deal with the Hydes of Kent, 
concerning whom we have gleaned some little information. 

The story starts during the reign of Henry VIII, in the 
village of Thurgarton, in Nottinghamshire, which is now the 
site of the palace of the Bishop of Southwell, and is itself the 
next station to Southwell, on that short line which runs from 
Newark to Nottingham. At Thurgarton resided Hugh Hyde, 
who was born about 1529. He was a landed proprietor, and 
possessed estates in the villages of Langtoft and Baston, 
which are in the south of the County of Lincoln, not many 
miles away from Thurgarton ; this land descended from father 
to son in the family for several generations. Hugh is placed 
at the head of the pedigree of the family of the Hydes of 
Langtoft in the volume of Lincolnshire Pedigrees issued by 
the Harleian Society. His arms are given by the Heralds as : 
gules, a saltire argent between four plates, a chief ermine. 
His pedigree is also traced in the Heralds' Visitation of London 
in 1633, the difference between the Lincolnshire and London 
records being that two different branches of his descendants 
are followed up. 

Hugh Hyde died about 1590, leaving his son John Hyde 
of Thurgarton surviving him. The son was born in 1551, and 
was the first of the family to come to the southern counties 
to live; for we find that he married a lady who lived at 
Addington in Surrey, in the person of one Mary Leigh, the 
daughter of John Leigh. 

In 1575 was born to them a son, Bernard, who first estab- 
lished himself in London as a Salt Merchant, and lived in 
Mincing Lane in the Tower Street Ward. It was, of course, 
quite the usual thing at that time for merchants to live in the 
city, and there is an interesting note in Strype's edition of 
Stow's Survey of London, which shows us the character of 
Mincing Lane in days gone by. " Mincing Lane," he says, 
" antiently called Mincheon, is garnished with very good 
houses, which for the generality are taken up by Merchants 



and persons of repute, and the Street is broad and straight 
coming out of Tower Street, and coming up into Fenchurch 

Salt was an article the price of which had risen in 1627 
from 2 IQS. to 12 " per weight," and as to which there were 
then considerable profits by reason of the monopoly granted 
by James I to manufacturers of salt in Shields. Salt was also 
imported from Spain, and to carry on this branch of trade 
Bernard had a Wharf or " Key," as he spells it, on the River 
Thames near Mincing Lane. The Salters' Company had been 
founded in the year 1558 to guard the interests of the trade, 
and Bernard Hyde became a member of the Livery, and in 
1611 occupied the Chair of Master of the Company. This 
chair is still in the Company's Hall in St. Swithin's Lane, 
having been saved from the Great Fire of 1666. On the wall 
of the Court Room is a full-length oil painting of Bernard 
Hyde, who appears as a tall imposing man of about sixty, 
wearing a beard, attired in hose and doublet, with a ruff round 
his neck, and holding an embroidered gauntlet in his left hand. 
Immediately beside this picture hangs a contemporary por- 
trait of Charles I, who appointed him to office. 

In 1607 Bernard Hyde married Anne Walcot, the daughter 
of Humphrey Walcot of Walcot, Shropshire. The Walcots 
were a family with old traditions, for in the Visitation of 
Shropshire in 1623, no less than ten generations of the Walcots 
are chronicled, beginning with Sir John Walcot, Knight, who 
died in the year 1406, in the reign of Henry IV. Their arms 
in the reign of Henry V were: argent, a chevron between 
3 chess rooks, ermines. At last they moved to London, where 
Humphrey Walcot married Alice, the daughter of Richard 
Halsey, also of London. Accordingly Humphrey Walcot 
quartered with his arms those of his wife's family, which were: 
ermine, on a chief or, a demi-lion issuant, vert. When 
Bernard Hyde married Anne Walcot he added his wife's arms 
to his own, which then took the form of the Hyde arms on 
the dexter side of the shield, and on the sinister side were the 
quartered arms of Walcot and Halsey. We observe in the 
Journal of the Kent Archaeological Society for 1860 a print of 
these arms which are described as "the Arms of Hyde im- 
paling Walcot and Helgise quarterly," the word Helgise being 
an obvious mistake for Halsey. The couple resided over the 
business premises in Mincing Lane, though their country seat 
was at Little Ilford, Essex; and they had a family of five 


children, Bernard born in 1608, Humphrey, John, William, 
and Anne. 

About 1610 Bernard Hyde bought Boar Place, Kent, and 
the Millbrook Estate adjoining. Boar Place is actually in the 
Parish of Chiddingstone, next to Sundridge, and at the present 
time nothing is left of it but one wall in ruins. In the garden, 
however, stands a lime tree, which has still upon its trunk a 
shield bearing the Hyde arms. 

The history of Boar Place can be traced back through many 
years to the reign of Henry III, when a family of the name of 
Boar or Bore lived there. About the year 1421 John Bore 
conveyed the mansion, which had then become somewhat 
ruinous, to John Alphew, who rebuilt it, and died possessed of 
it in 1489. On his death it passed to his daughter Margaret, 
who married Sir Robert Read, a barrister, who was made a 
Judge of the Court of King's Bench by Henry VII in 1495, 
and eleven years later was raised to be Lord Chief Justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas. Sir Robert lived at Boar Place, 
which he enlarged. When he died, in January, 1519, he left 
only female issue, and again the estate passed to a daughter, 
who is described in one authority as Bridget, in another as 
Catherine Read. She, like her mother, married a Judge, in 
the person of Sir Thomas Willoughby, who was appointed a 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and likewise resided at 
Boar Place. He died on 29th September, 1545, and is buried 
in Chiddingstone Church. From him the estate descended to 
his son, Robert Willoughby, and thereafter to his grandson, 
Sir Percival Willoughby, who, as we have seen, sold it in 
1610 to Commissioner Hyde. 

Boar Place was a typical Tudor mansion, forming three 
sides of a square with a courtyard, in front of which was a 
moat dividing it from the highway. 

Fortunately there are three good views of it in existence. 
One is contained in that fine old quarto volume Dr. Harris's 
History of Kent, published in 1719, which possesses many 
double-page wood blocks of country residences. A larger 
view is preserved in the writer's family, a water-colour draw- 
ing, which differs somewhat in detail from the view on the 
map, due no doubt to alterations made from time to time. 
An oil painting on panel is also in the possession of Colonel 
Streatfeild of Chiddingstone. 

The fact that Bernard's name is not included in the Heralds' 
first Visitation of Kent in the year 1619 seems proof positive 



that he did not occupy his country seat at Boar Place at that 
period. He habitually lived in town, and attended the Church 
of St. Dunstan in the East, where he desired to be buried. 
He was naturally a man with pride of ancestry, and accord- 
ingly he went to the College of Arms, where he exhibited the 
family arms borne by his grandfather, Hugh Hyde; and on 
1 6th September, 1609, he obtained from the Garter King at 
Arms, Sir William Segar, an examplification or certificate of 
their authenticity. 

In 1609 the large undertaking for supplying London with 
water brought by a new river from Chadwell and Amwell, 
Berkshire, was conceived by the leading engineer of the day, 
Hugh Middleton. He took up a difficult enterprise at his own 
expense and risk; the work was commenced in 1609 and 
completed at the end of 1613. When half through his enter- 
prise his means came to an end, and on 2nd May, 1612, he 
made a bargain with James I for the latter to pay half the 
cost of the work present and future upon condition of receiving 
half the profits. Middleton and the King both saw they must 
take in partners to whom they could sell parts of their ventures, 
and accordingly the King's moiety and the Adventurers 1 
moiety were each cut up into thirty-six parts, and from time 
to time Middleton sold these shares to his friends, till out of 
his thirty-six shares only thirteen remained to him at his 
death. One share Middleton sold to Bernard Hyde and 
another to Sir Nicholas Hyde, Lord Chief Justice of the 
King's Bench. The shares were freehold property, and although 
cut up into fractions to divide amongst the family on the deaths 
of their successive owners, part of Commissioner Hyde's share 
remained in the family for nearly 300 years, till the New 
River Company was dissolved, and taken over by the Metro- 
politan Water Board in 1905. 

Bernard Hyde now came into touch with a remarkable 
man, whose name figures largely in the history of those times, 
Sir John Wolstenholme. He was a great favourite at Court 
and a prominent City merchant. James I had appointed him 
a Commissioner of Customs, and in 1619 granted to him and 
others a lease for eight years of the duties on wines. The 
lease expired in 1627, and then Sir John got together a little 
syndicate, of whom Bernard Hyde was one, to act with him 
as Commissioners of the Customs. The State Papers of the 
times contain a record of the transaction, and we read that on 
3rd September, 1627, the King confirmed the offer of a lease 



to be granted to Sir John Wolstenholme, Sir Maurice Abbott, 
Henry Garway, Abraham Jacob, Bernard Hyde, William 
Garway, Richard Crosham, John Williams, and John Millward, 
of the customs on wines and corinths, or currants, for three 
and a half years, with a release for the time past, in considera- 
tion of a fine of 12,000 and a loan to the King of .20,000. 
The King changed his mind before the actual lease was 
drawn up, and obtained better terms and a heavier rent: 
for on the 2ist November, 1627, the document was sealed, 
and is stated to be a " Lease of the Customs of wines and 
currants for 3^ years at the rent of .44,005, and upon the 
terms contained in the Confirmation before calendared." Sir 
John Wolstenholme wasaclose personal friendof Commissioner 
Hyde, and is mentioned in the latter's will. Commissioner 
Hyde was obviously constantly at the Custom House, for in 
his will he refers to a friend of his in the " Wyne office at 
the Custom House." In 1627 his own Company of the Salters 
requested him to get from the Custom House some money 
which was due to them in connection with the salt trade. 

Commissioner Bernard's love for landed property did not 
end with the purchase of Boar Place, for we find that he also 
purchased in the year 1630 the Manor of Stroud near 
Rochester. This Manor was granted by the Crown to Sir 
Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, who died in 1612, leaving it to 
his son and heir, William, Earl of Salisbury, who sold it to 
Bernard Hyde, and thence it passed to Bernard's third son, 
John Hyde. 

On 1 2th December, 1630, Commissioner Hyde executed a 
Deed of Gift to the Master and Wardens of the Salters' 
Company, whereby he settled .1,500, represented in after 
years by 1,900 three per cent. Consols, producing 57 IDS. 
per annum. The income was to be applied as follows: 

To a lecturer for a weekly sermon in St. Dunstan's in the 
East or at St. Mary at Hill, .30; to the poor of the parish 
where the lecture was said, 5 ; to ten poor brethren of the 
company at Christmas, 5 ; to the poor of the parish of Little 
Ilford, i ; to fifty-four poor widows or maids out of thirty 
City parishes, $s. each, amounting to 13 ios.', to the Master, 
Wardens, and officers of the Salters' Company, 3. This 
lecture, thus provided for, was for many years delivered at St. 
Mary's church, but has now fallen into disuse, and the money 
is applied to other purposes by the Charity Commissioners. 

By his will Bernard Hyde also left 3 to be divided amongst 



the brethren of the Salters' Almshouses in Bread Street, 
Cheapside, on the day of his funeral. He died on 2Oth July, 
1631 (though the date on his tablet is given as 1630), and was 
buried in the church of St. Dunstan in the East, one report 
stating that he was buried " under ye altar." His estate is 
estimated to have been worth 20,000, equivalent to 100,000 
at the present value of money. He, like all the Hydes, left 
many legacies to charities, and provided for the poor of many 
city parishes, including St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, St. Botolph, 
Aldgate, St. Olave, Hart Street, St. Dunstan in the East, 
St. Sepulchre, and others. He bequeathed mourning to 
several friends, and in particular he left a legacy to his friend, 
Sir John Wolstenholme, to pay for a " mourning Cloake for 
himself and his man," while a lady friend was provided with 
a mourning gown. The eldest son, Bernard the younger, was 
at the time of his father's death engaged to be married to a 
young lady, Hester, the daughter of John Trott of St. Augustin's 
Fryers (or Austin Friars) in the city of London. Her mother 
was Catherine Hills, the daughter of Daniell Hills, a merchant 
of London, who was entitled to a coat of arms, and whose 
pedigree was set out by the Heralds at their Visitation 
of London. An agreement for a settlement on the marriage 
of Bernard and Hester was made by the father of the bride- 
groom, whereby he arranged to settle 3,000 on his son, but 
Bernard the father died before the wedding could take place. 
To his other sons Commissioner Hyde left 3,000 apiece; 
Bernard in addition got Boar Place, and the land at Little 
Ilford, while Humphrey received the Lincolnshire property 
that had belonged to his great-grandfather Hugh Hyde. 
Mrs. Anne Hyde survived her husband ten years, dying in 
1641, and was likewise buried in St. Dunstan's in the East. 
Her will is dated I3th January, 1637-8, and was proved on 
2Oth May, 1641; by it she left 3 per annum to be divided 
amongst six poor widows of St. Dunstan's, besides legacies to 
the poor of Langtoft, Little Ilford, Chesham, and Chiddingston. 
She was the eldest of a long family, for one of her brothers 
was born after her marriage, and her husband stood godfather 
to the baby who was named after him. Indeed the Com- 
missioner playfully alludes to his namesake as " my brother- 
in-law and godsonne, Bernard Walcot" Her eldest brother, 
Humphrey Walcot, was a man of standing, and was appointed 
High Sheriff of Shropshire in 1631. 

[To be continued.] 




AMONGST the London churches destroyed in the fire 
of 1666, one of the most interesting, from its associa- 
tions with the College of Arms, was the church of St. 
Bennet, Paul's Wharf, in Thames Street. Its early records 
probably perished with it, the earliest of those now deposited 
at the Guildhall consisting of the Churchwardens' Accounts 
from 1565 to 1648, and the Vestry Minute Book beginning in 
1572. Of these the more interesting is the Vestry Minute 
Book, in which the business transacted at the meetings of 
that body were supposed to be entered. I say " supposed," 
because up to a certain point the minutes were very badly 
entered, and only a small part of the work of the Vestry is 
recorded. Nevertheless the Vestry Book of St. Bennet, Paul's 
Wharf, has its own distinctive character, and though some- 
what late in date, contains much that is interesting to the 
student of bygone civic life. 

The book is a small folio of some five hundred pages, and 
has been written up from both ends, but is only paged from 
one, which may be taken as the legitimate commencement of 
the volume. 

The entries begin with a list of the sums collected for the 
poor from the year 1572 to the year 1596, and the nature of 
these entries may be gathered from the earliest one, which 
will also serve as an example of Elizabethan spelling: 

1572. M d Resevyd of Ihon Macham and Hare [Harry] 
Ro ben son, in mone that they dyd gather to the yowes of the 
powres cheste. xxxjj. 

The sum annually received varied from 5 75. %d. to 2s. 
and amongst those who collected the largest amount during 
their year of office was one Henry Bynneman. This was the 
printer of that name who had lately come into the parish, and 
was carrying on business in Thames Street, near Baynard's 
Castle, having removed from the sign of the Mermaid in 
Knightrider Street about 1578. Bynneman was noted for the 
excellence of his work and was largely employed by the 



booksellers and publishers of those days. His death took 
place early in 1584. 

Nor was Bynneman the only London printer whose name 
occurs in the records of St. Bennet, Paul's Wharf, there being 
several other large printing offices in the parish, in Thames 
Street, Doctors' Commons, and Addling or Addle Hill, whose 
proprietors at one time and another during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, served as officers of the Vestry. It was 
as one of the " constables " of the parish, that Henry Bynne- 
man had made his collection for the poor box in 1580. In 
1586 and 1587 we meet with the name of Thomas East, 
famous as a printer of music. In the imprint to an undated 
edition of Sir Thomas Malory's, La Mort D' Arthur, he de- 
scribes the position of his printing office as " betweene Paules 
wharfe and Baynardes Castle," and it is just possible that it 
was the same house in which Bynneman had lived. East also 
rented from the churchwardens of St. Bennet a shed adjoin- 
ing the church, for which he paid ten shillings a year, but his 
residence in the parish was short, and he subsequently moved 
to the sign of the Black Horse in Aldersgate Street. Between 
1592 and 1603 John Windet's name occurs in these records 
either as " constable," or as serving on the wardmote inquest. 
This printer lived first at the sign of the White Bear in 
Addling Street, "nigh Baynards Castle," where he was in 
partnership with John Judson, and later at the Cross Keys 
on Paul's Wharf. John Windet succeeded John Wolf as official 
printer to the City of London in 1603. Other printers of note 
whose names are met with during the seventeenth century 
are John Raworth, Thomas Newcombe who married John 
Raworth's widow and succeeded to the business, Thomas 
Mottershead of Doctors' Commons, and Thomas Ratcliffe his 

It would appear that the duties connected with the various 
offices of constable, scavenger, and the like, were of an 
arduous nature, for the minutes down to the year 1650 con- 
sist of little else than petitions from one and another of those 
elected, to be excused from serving, on the ground of age or 
pressure of business. On one occasion two of the Proctors of 
the Prerogative Court were allowed to compound, for the sum 
of six pounds apiece, the Vestry considering that if they 
should be taken from their business " it might prove very 
prejudicial to the people of this commonwealth." 

On another occasion a Mr. George Fielding refused to serve 



the office of scavenger or to pay the usual fine for not serving, 
and the Vestry were compelled to take proceedings against 
him in the Lord Mayor's Court, with the result that he had to 
pay a good deal more in the end than he would have done in 
the first place. 

At one period the number of those appealing for exemption 
increased so much that the Vestry were compelled to make 
an order increasing the fine for non service, in the case of 
constables to a minimum of four pounds, and in the case of 
scavengers to a minimum of six pounds. This order was 
signed by twenty-three of the parishioners, and it is interest- 
ing to note that of this number there were only three who 
were unable to write. 

Being a waterside neighbourhood, there was much poverty 
in the parish, and the Vestry Book may well be termed the 
short and simple annals of the poor. Here for example is a 
note of the proceedings on the i6th June, 1657: 

Imprimis, that goodie Nickolls have hir i8 d made 2S. a 

2 ndi y That the overseers tacke care of the widow Dandie 
and that she have 5^. for the present. 

3 rdlf That John Thelwall have 20^. for his former servis in 
warding and attendance on the parrish, as a full discharge. 

4 th That goodie Gilberd have 5*. lent her for a stocke. 

5 th That goodie Milner have 3^. for keeping of goodie 
Gilberd for a weeke paid to hir. 

6 th That goodie Commins have 35. grattuitie paid hir. 

Another reference to the widow Dandie occurs on the 
I4th December, 1658, when a payment was made to her in 
regard that " hir boate and skulls are out of repaire, and she 
expects them to be brought home every hour from mending." 

John Bennett was a foundling left in Frying-Pan- Alley on 
the ist December, 1652, and he was handed over to George 
Berd whom the Vestry allowed eighteen pence weekly for his 
keep. The following year George Berd was allowed ten 
shillings for the maintenance of the child's clothing, and a 
quarterly payment of five shillings. Probably the child John 
Bennett died, for in 1656 George Berd was admitted to the 
almshouses on Paul's Wharf. 

The calls upon the Vestry were many and various, as may 
be gathered from a few entries culled at random from the 



It is agreed . . . that Goodwife Pedglar being lately deceased, 
and her husband not having wherewithall to bury her, the 
Vestry have thought good to allow him five shillings towards 
his charges in bying her a shroud, and towards the burying 
of her. 

Ordered . . . that Simon Marbury shall have one flock bed 
and Bolster with a paire of sheetes and two sheftes. 

Ordered that the churchwardens doe forthwith pay unto old 
Widow Lambert five shillings towards the making upp of some 
cloathes for her little grand child William Smith, and noe more 
without further order of this vestry. 

Ordered that the two penny loaves given formerlye on the 
Sabbath daies to Mistress Alsopp, a poore woman of this 
parish, (bee taken off) and given, and continued to be given, 
every Sabbath day to the children of one William Fowler, 
liveinge on St. Bennitts Hill, and at present in a very poore 
condition till further order of this vestry. 

A note of humour is imparted to these otherwise pitiful 
narratives by the following story of old Mistress Lambert, as 
set down in the minutes of December, 1659. 

Old M ris Lambert, one of the Almeswomen in the almes 
houses on St. Petters-hill, appeared at the vestrye, and craved 
some helpe of maynetenance towardes the keepeinge of a little 
boy, late of one Smith a tayler, who married one of the 
daughters of olde M rl8 Lambert (to which M ri8 Lambert is 
grandmother) which Smith and his wife are deceased about 
a yeare and a halfe or two yeares: To whiche the Vestry 
replyed that they were certified, that the parents of the child 
did leave behind them, the sume of tenn poundes in ready 
money, besides twoe ringes and alsoe household stuffe, and 
asked her where the money was, and the rings and goods, to 
which shee answered that for the goods there was not much 
left, but in theire sicknesse, it was sould and pawned . . . 
and for the rings they were disposed off to buy necessaries for 
the child . . . but as for the tenn poundes, that was safe, shee 
knew where it was, but it should remaine where it was, and 
that it was safe enough, and nobody should have it, for shee 
had put it upp soe that it lies and is safe and shall bee kept 
for the good of the child, and to that effect. . . . 

In vain the members of the Vestry pointed out to the old 
dame that the money might be stolen, that it would be much 
safer in the churchwardens' hands, and that if put out to 
interest it would be of more use to the child, besides reim- 
bursing the vestry for any present outlay. But, says the 



churchwarden, " all the perswations of the vestrye to her could 
not prevaile," so the matter was adjourned to the next vestry 
meeting, several persons promising to have another interview 
with the old lady, to try to induce her to give up the money. 
They might as well have tried to move the church. She refused 
to give it up or to say where it was hidden. 

Soe that this vestry seeing her stubbornesse herein is 
resolved, and doth agree and consent, that verye suddenlye 
shee bee carried (?) inn by the churchwardens and overseers 
. . . before the Lord Mayor ... or some other Justices of 
the Peace within the cittye of London . . . whereby shee 
may bee perswaded or indeed forced to declare where the said 
tenn poundes . . . are . . . unlesse within a few daies . . . 
she doe appeare and declare herself where the money is. 

We are left to imagine the pains and penalties that " olde 
M ris Lambert " brought upon herself, but we doubt whether 
the vestry ever found that ten pounds. 

In 1659 one of the churchwardens was a certain Joseph 
Gillman, who took a much wider view of his duties than any 
of his predecessors. During his period of office the minutes 
were entered more fully than had ever been the case previously, 
and it is due to his energy that the proceedings respecting 
Mr. George Fielding and the case of old Mrs. Lambert, are 
preserved to us. Nor is this all, Joseph Gillman was a bit of 
an antiquary in his way. He was always complaining that 
orders made by the vestry in times past had never been 
entered in the minute book, but that the minutes had been 
kept privately by the churchwardens. He accordingly sought 
out any such unrecorded minutes and entered them ; with the 
result that he made a discovery of some importance which he 
records thus: 

This is to be taken notice of &c. August, 1659. That I 
Joseph Gillman Churchwarden of St. Bennetts Paul's Wharf 
London lookinge into the parish booke, I there found sett 
downe in the time of Mr. Henry Bodeman churchwarden in 
the yeare . . . 1642. That amongest other things receaved for 
the use of the poore, that these wordes followeinge were sett 
downe in writeinge, viz. : 

Receaved for the guift of Alderman Lambert and 
Alderman Stiles, fortye shillinges, beinge the dividend 
part of Eight Pounds, given by them to the ward, which 
comes soe to bee paid to this Ward of Castle Baynard, 
once in sixteene yeares. I say receaved 02 oos. ood. 


Which findeinge soe sett downe (seemed att presentt to 
bee some thinge a darke business) and I made Inquiry of 
several housekeepers in the parish and at present could not bee 
fullye satisfied in the thinge, but makeinge a strict search into 
it (I found) it is to be paid by the Company of Grocers. . . . 
And have gained from Mr. Francis Harris, one of the clerkes, 
belonginge to Grocers-hall, a breviatt at length of the guift, 
together with the doner's names, and how and when to be 
distributed, which coppye of it, I thought good to sett downe 
in this booke belongeinge to the parish, and is written to 
a word accordinglye, this 25th day of Januarye, 1659. 

He then proceeds to set down a minute dated 22nd January, 
1590, made by the Alderman, Wardens, and Assistants of the 
Company of Grocers, to the effect that Richard Lambert, late 
Alderman, had left a sum of one hundred pounds for the 
relief and benefit of the poor in all the wards of London, and 
in accordance with the terms of the bequest they agreed that 
for the next two years, it should be divided between two 
young freemen of the Grocer's Company, and so on every two 
years the recipients being drawn from a different ward each 
time. A similar sum was also left by Alderman Stile with the 
same object. 

The worthy churchwarden, having finished his copy, adds : 

This is a true Coppye to a word, which I thought good to 
insert, for a memorandum for the future, and the rather, 
because that I find heretofore vestry orders have bene kept 
privatelye in person's handes, and not sett downe in the 
vestry-booke, to the dishoner of a parishe : Mr. Fetter Tomlinson, 
a former churchwarden hath done it and I leave it to better 
judgementts whether it ought to bee soe or noe. 

Had it not been for the foresight of Joseph Gillman it seems 
probable that all record of this bequest, at least as regards the 
Ward of Baynard Castle, would have been lost. 

The parish of St. Bennet possessed almshouses in St. Peter's 
Hill, in Addling Hill, and on Paul's Wharf. There does not 
appear to be any record as to how they became possessed of 
those in Addling Hill and Paul's Wharf, but the houses on 
St. Peter's Hill were the bequest of David Smith, embroiderer, 
who died in the year 1587, and left by will six newly built 
houses, to be inhabited by six poor widows of the parish of 
St. Bennet, Paul's Wharf, which were to be called the poor 
widows Alley or poore widows Inn. The will is entered at 



length in the book of bequests (Guildhall MS. 387), and as 
regards the original the following order was made on the 
9th January, 1663-4: 

That there bee a more especiall care taken of the will of 
Mr. David Smith, Imbroyderer, deceased, then hath beene 
had, and that it bee distinctly read over in the saide Vestry 
twice in every yeare, viz. at the choyse of officers for parish 
affaires, beinge about Easter, and at theire choyse of officers 
for Ward occasions about Christmas; and that as he was 
the sole doner of those sixe new built Tenements one St. 
Peter's Hill in this parish called by him the poore widdows 
Inn; soe there bee diligent care taken by the churchwardens 
for the time beinge, that the orders therein bee observed and 
kept, and securitye bee taken of everye person cominge in, to 
inhabite in any of the saide sixe houses, accordinge to the 
intent of the doner, and his meaninge in the saide will, and 
to prevent further charge or trouble through neglect, as for a 
precedent Elizabeth Graves widdow, hath done, and that it 
bee duelye observed for the future vnto which were subscribed 
our hands. 

Needless to say this entry is in the handwriting of Joseph 

Of the religious troubles of the Commonwealth period, there 
is only a faint echo in this book. In 1653 a Mr. Allen Geare 
was appointed minister of the church, but in May of the 
following year he had evidently ceased to officiate and there 
is an entry under his hand, resigning his right to the Rectory 
and an order of the Vestry that an allowance should be made 
to him for certain things he left behind. He was succeeded 
by the Rev. John Jackson with whom there appears to have 
been some trouble at the Restoration, which is recorded in 
a note by Stephen Trigg, one of the churchwardens. 

From this it appears that in the year 1662 Mr. Jackson 
was suspended by the Chancellor for refusing to read the 
Common Prayer, and a previous churchwarden had locked 
the minister out of the church and set two men, one of whom 
was the porter at the Heralds' College, to keep him out of 
his desk. Stephen Trigg refused to follow " that envious 
pattarne" and complains that for that reason he was sorely 
persecuted and kept out of his moneys nearly half a year. But 
these and all similar troubles found a common grave in the 
ashes of the church in that fateful September, 1666. 




[Continued from p. 45.] 


1569. (Abp. Parker's Visitation.) 

CAPLEFERNE is a chapel to Alkham. 
Curate: Dom. John Cadman, Vicar of Alkham. 
Householders, 18 
Communicants, 61. (Fol. 55.) 

That our Vicar is Vicar at Alkham and Capleferne, and 
Curate of Folkestone. (Vol. 1569.) 

1570. That our parish being a Chapel annexed to Alkham, 
ought to be served after this manner: that is to say, the 
Vicar of Alkham is bounden to do ministrations at all times, 
and for that he hath all the small tithes of our parish, and for 
the duly saying of divine service my Lord, his Grace, hath 
always allowed us and yet doth, a pension of 4, whereof 
always our Vicar had a marc (13^. 4*3?.) for receiving of the 
same, and our clerk the rest for saying our daily Divine 
Service, until now of late that Mr. Cadman being our Vicar, 
doth withhold most part of the same from our clerk, whereby 
we are like to want our divine service, and also the poor man 
our clerk, driven to live upon the alms of the parish. (Vol. ii, 
1 570-7 1.) 1 

1578. That the church windows be unglazed in divers 
places and the church porch untiled. 

2. They have no poor-man's box, neither was there at any 
time any collections made and distributed to the poor of the 

3. Also they have no chest with locks for keeping of their 
Register Book ; they have no Paraphrases. 

4. Our churchyard is un-hedged. 

5. They have sold certain stones, both cross-stones and 
tome [tomb] stones, and kept the money to their own use. 

6. That they have taken down a spire steeple of forty or 

1 This volume is in the Probate Office at Canterbury. 



fifty feet height which was covered with lead, and sold away 
certain of the lead, more than ten pounds worth, and five score 
of it they have in their custody, and some of it now the 
Churchwardens saith was stolen away, and that they have 
repaired the church with the money thereof. 

7. They have cut down certain trees, sixteen or twenty, 
whereof some they take for timber, some they burned, and 
some they sold away. 

8. They sold away the timber of the steeple. (Fol. 9.) 
Our Minister doth not instruct the youth in the Catechism ; 

also our Vicar doth not wear a surplice. (Fol. n.) 

1 579. That Ingerham Joll keepeth one mansion-house with 
a hundred acres of land, which he now doth occupy as a barn, 
from which the clerk was wont to have sixteenpence every 
year, and now hath had no wages for the space of six years 
last past at Michaelmas. (Vol. 1577-83, fol. 33.) 

1580. [See under Badlesmere, vol. vii, p. 212.] 

1 587. The seats in our church be a little broken and decayed. 
We have not had our quarter sermons. (Fol. 42.) 

1591. We present our Vicar for not schooling and teaching 
our children and servants the Catechism and other things, but 
he promiseth amendment. (Fol. 129.) 

There is no sufficient Book of Common Prayer within the 
parish, and there is lacking the second Book of Homilies, and 
no presentment by the churchwardens and sidesmen before 
this time made there. (Fol. 130.) 

1 592. These are to signify to Your Worship that we have, 
and have had, remaining in our parish of Alkham, at the now 
dwelling-house of Robert Woollett, two gentlewomen, that is 
to say, Mr. Daniel Woolett his wife, and one Mistress Norden, 
sister to Woollett, who have been there in the parish these six 
weeks, refusing to come to the church, although there was on 
Palm Sunday warning given to come to a sermon, which 
Mr. Hull preached the same day, neither did they either come 
to the church on Easter Day neither did they receive the 
Holy Communion. (Fol. 141.) 

We present and answer that sometimes we have not Divine 
Service upon Sundays and Holydays in such order as we 



should, for our Minister dwelleth not in our parish, by reason 
whereof he, either being letted by the weather or other 
business we know not of, cometh not to our church to read 
and say service accordingly. 

2. Our Minister is not resident at this time, neither hath 
been heretofore. 

3. Our Minister doth not catechise so oft as is required 
of. (Fol. 141.) 

1593. We present we have had no sermons this last year, 
but our Vicar hath promised we shall have two sermons this 
next year; but if your Worship will allow us no more, we 
must be contented. 

As touching the catechising of the children of our parish, 
our Minister doth it, but we have found some fault with him 
for it, but he hath promised it shall be amended. (Vol. 1585- 
92, fol. 175.) 

1594. We have all things well, saving Divine Service; we 
have been very ill served from Christmas last hitherward, for 
some time we have service, for some time none, and these three 
last Sundays we have had none at all. 

On 25th November it was stated in Court that Mr. 
Hemming, 1 the Vicar, was not provided at that time of a 
curate, but since he came he hath served the cure there 
accordingly, saving when he was necessarily from his benefice. 
(Vol. 1585-92, part ii, fol. 37.) 

1602. We have nothing to present, saving our chancel of 
our church, which Mr. Hamon hath promised to repair 
shortly. (Fol. 20.) 

1609. Our Minister neither readeth service on Wednesdays 
and Fridays, not being holy days. 

Our parishioners have not received so often as is required, 
but I present Mr. Francis Rogers, 3 our Minister, through 

1 Robert Hemming, B.D., Vicar of Brabourne 1593, but resigned the 
same year: Alkham, 1594-6; Chislet, 1594-1601 ; Harbledown, 1597-1601. 

a He was second son of Richard Rogers, Bishop of Dover (1568-97), 
and Dean of Canterbury (1584-97). Francis Rogers was Rector of Holy 
Trinity (Minories), London, 1606-7 ; Vicar of Alkham with Capel le Feme, 
1607-27; Rector of Denton, 1608-38; St. Margaret's, Canterbury, 1629- 
38, where he was buried. He married (i) Afra, the daughter of Vincent 
Boys of Bekesbourne, by whom two daughters ; (2) Thomasine Fogge, the 

K r OL. XI. 129 K 


whose neglect (in not appointing the times of receiving so 
often as that the parishioners might according receive as is 
required), this hath been. 

Our Minister doth not wear the surplice and hood at such 
times in our parish. On the 1 5th July he appeared in Court 
and stated: That if there hath been any neglect of service on 
Wednesdays and Fridays, the fault was in his curate, who is 
lately gone from him. He hath had Communions three times 
a year in the Chapel at Capel-le-ferne, and the fourth time 
they were to come to the Communion at Alkham, being the 
mother church, which they neglected to do. He doth not 
wear his hood when he cometh to Capel-le-Ferne for that it is 
so far from Alkham, yet he doth wear his surplice and tippett 
when he preacheth, or administering the Sacrament. (Vol. 
1602-9, fol. 172.) 

1610. We have not Divine Service upon Wednesdays and 
Fridays, and our curate is not licensed by the Bishop. (Fol. 21.) 

1611. That we have not Divine Service upon Holydays 
and Fridays, according to the form prescribed in the Book of 
Common Prayer. (Vol. 1609-18, fol. 36.) 

1721. I, Ingram Spearpoint, sole churchwarden of the parish, 
present William Nethersole the elder and William Nethersole 
the younger, both of Alkham, farmers of the parsonage of 
our parish of Capel, for that our chancel is very badly paved, 
and the walls thereof want white limeing. (Fol. 47.) 

1626. That in our parish he [the curate, Mr. Harbert] hath 
not so read the Litany, but in Alkham he hath and doth. 

2. That our Minister doth only preach once every Sunday, 
but very shortly he meaneth to catechise the youth. 

3. Our Minister would willingly wear such a gown if he 
were able to buy one, and when he is, he will. (Vol. 1621-32, 
fol. 106.) 

1635. David Marsh of Capel for his cess for the church, 
which is is. 

widowof George Fogge of Chilham. Thomasine wasadaughterof Matthew 
Gibbon (ob. 1628) of Westcliff, and married (i) . . . Colley; (2) in K 
George Fogge; and (3) in 1618, this Francis Rogers. (Hasted, Hist. 
Kent\ Ada Curia of Archdeacon of Canterbury, MS. vols.) 



We, the Minister, church-wardens and sidesmen of the 
parish of Capel or Capel le Feme, do present David Marsh of 
the same parish, for speaking scandalous speeches of our 
church or chapel, namely, that John Lushington should have 
it for a barn, or else it should be an ale-house, and Mr. Pownall's 
wife should keep the ale-house, and we will come all thither. 
This is a common reputed fame in our parish and in many 
men's mouths as spoken by Marsh to many. 

Ingram Hogben for not paying of his cess being 4^. 
(Fol. 39.) 

John Andrews for 8s. iod., which he refuseth to pay, for 
that the church cannot be re-paved for want of money. 

William Mockett for 2s. 6d. (Fol. 40.) 

1636. We present David Marsh, who raileth at his Minister, 
church-wardens, and neighbours, for making of a cess for the 
church, saying, as the fame and common report goeth "a 
company of rogues have set their hands to a cess, and trouble 
honest men to ride about it." 

The church wanteth some paveing and the church-yard 
some railing, which could not be done by reason there hath 
been controversy about the cess. (Vol. 1583-1636, fol. 53.) 


1563. It is presented that they have neither parson, vicar 
nor curate, whereby they are altogether unserved. Henry 
Leonard of Dover, farmer. 

That Mr. Alexander Mynge of Dover doth keep the church- 
yard from the church, and thereon doth make pasture. 

They have no Register Book and none to keep it. 

That Sir John Burvell, Vicar of Alkham, had away the 
chalice and book and other ornaments belonging to the church, 
which said Sir John Burvell was the last Minister there. 

They have no manner of books, and none doth mind to 
provide [them]. (Vol. 1562-3.) 

1569. (Abp. Parker's Visitation.) 
Est ecclesia desolata. 
Householders, 6 
Communicants, 14. (Vol. 1574-76,^0!. 55.) 


1574. That the church is ruinously fallen into decay, neither 
font in reparation, nor books serviceable, nor bell to give the 
people warning, nor seats to sit in. (Vol. 1574-6, fol. 70.) 

1579. Our church is decayed, by reason whereof we have 
no service there said, nor Sacraments ministered, whereby we 
are constrained to repair unto St. James' in Dover, unto Mr. 
Watts, Minister, and there the Sacraments are ministered unto 
us, and we there have the service of God. (Vol. 1577-83, 
fol. 3 1.) 

1580. (See under Badlesmere, vol. vii, p. 212.) 

1585. We lack a Bible of the largest volume. (Fol. 6.) 

1588. We present Mr. Watts, Minister of the parish of 
Charlton, for lacking of Divine Service certain days. 

William Mackner, victualler of the parish, for keeping of 
men in Evening Prayer [time] in his house. 

We present William Mackner for speaking against the 
church, he said it was better to hurl the money down the 
stream l than to be bestowed upon the seats as it was ; that it 
makes them which we have cessed be unwilling to pay, for 
they say there be some in our parish that said the money that 
had been given aforetime it were better it had been hurled 
down the stream ; and there be some that have heard William 
Mackner speak them words and nobody but him, and there- 
fore we cannot judge nobody but him. (Fol. 50.) 

1 590. Henry Newman, for shaking abroad four powtes * of 
hay upon the Sabbath-day; but he being at service in the 
forenoon and afternoon. 

Also for the like, Nicholas Boykett and goodwife Milton. 

James Kingscote, for mowing on the Sabbath-day stubble 
for his own use. 

Goodman Milton's servant, his name is Harry, for playing 
at cards in the parish in the service time. (Fol. 104.) 

1 The old church stood close to the east bank of the Dour. See Some 
More Memories of Old Dover^ by Miss M. Horsley, for a description of 
this stream. 

* A pout is a small round stack of hay or straw ; the small heaps are 
called cocks and the larger ones pouts. Diet. Kent Dialect. 



1591. We present Henry Milton, miller, for grinding on 
the Sabbath-day, being the nineteenth day of September. 
(Fol. 134.) 

1593. We present our Minister, Mr. Watts, for that upon 
Whitsunday last we had no Evening Prayer, nor upon the 
morrow following, and upon divers Sundays and Holydays 
we have but service once a day, and sometimes none at all. 

We have no covering for our Communion Table, nor any 
cup, nor cushion for our pulpit, nor any box for the poor. 
(Vol. 1585-92, fol. 171.) 

1 594. There is no Communion cup, for the which I do crave 
some reasonable time to provide the same. (Fol. 33.) 

1 60 1. We do present Henry Milton, who lately was church- 
warden and clerk of the parish, having in his keeping the 
Communion Cup, and the cloth for the Communion Table, 
and now doth withhold them from the church. (Vol. 1593- 
1602, part ii, fol. 161.) 

1602. On the twenty-sixth day of June, William Watts, the 
Rector of the parish, appeared in Court and said : That he is 
not resident at Charlton according to law; that indeed he 
dwelleth not upon his parsonage, but is continually abiding 
every day teaching school in the parish church there. 

He was ordered by the Court: That he do not let to farm 
his tithes of the parsonage unto Mr. Thomas Monings, his 
former farmer; and that he be resident upon his parsonage of 
Charlton according to law. (Vol. 1600-1602, fol. 206.) 

1606. This we do present with the rest: first, Stephen 
Constable of the parish of Buckland, with the rest of his com- 
pany; William Burvill of the same parish; William Blurstone 
of the parish of Charlton; Thomas Judge of the same, for 
reaping of pease upon the Sabbath day. (Fol. 88.) 

Abraham Goden, for breaking of the floor of the church, 
and not making it again. 

On 3rd November he appeared in Court, and confessed : 
That he buried his wife in the parish church of Charlton, where 
was no pavement but only a floor, and purposeth to lay a 
stone over her grave, and saith that the floor of or over the 
same grave was and is made again as before the same burial 



it was, and saith that he intendeth to pave the same grave or 
lay a decent stone upon the same. (Fol. 89.) 

We also present Thomas Bing, for working on the Sabbath 
day. (Vol. 1602-9, foL 89.) 

1607. We present Abraham Godwine [sic], for that he doth 
not cover his wife's grave in the church. (Fol. 105.) 

Thomas Alison, for not coming orderly to Divine Service 
in our parish. (Fol. 106.) 

Thomas Webb, miller, doth use to load and grind corn 
upon holy-days. 

On ist June, when Webb appeared in the Court and con- 
fessed: That he hath sometimes, when there hath been a 
holyday fallen upon a Saturday, being the common market- 
day at Dover, ground corn in his mill situate in the parish of 
Charlton near Dover, but hath not ground any corn in the 
time of Divine Service upon any holy-day, as he believeth. 
(Fol. 1 08.) 

Abraham Godden and his wife of our parish, for that they 
do not diligently resort to our church to hear Divine Service. 
(Fol. 109.) 

Mr. Watts, parson there, for that he suffereth the chancel of 
our church to go to decay, in not repairing of it where and 
when it needeth, so as it raineth in upon the Communion 

Likewise for that he doth but very seldom read service 
publicly in our church, either upon Sundays or Holydays, but 
divers times will forsake us and goes elsewhere, and there says 
service on such days. 

1608. That the wife of Thomas Pepper hath been delivered 
of a child some two months past, and doth refuse to go to the 
church to give God thanks for her safe delivery in childbirth, 
according to laws in that behalf provided.-(Vol. 1602-9, 
fol. 143-) 

To be continued.] 







[Continued from p. 51.] 

^ I ^HE earliest map or plan known to me that shows any 
houses immediately to westward of the great ditch, is 
-*- the one that for convenience I refer to as Bray's, 1 it 
having been in his possession. 

Here, in the large corner plot north of the Narrow Wall 
(the holding, I take it, of " M r Kent ") are three double-gabled 
houses, and a little tower with a round top which Bray describes 
as " a cupola," and from which, he says, " a staff with a flag at 
the end is extended towards the river " ; though to my thinking 
it rather suggests a crane, a common feature of these riverside 

Adjoining this plot is " the Prince's Land on the west," the 
bare state of which might lead us to infer that this plan was 
drawn before the houses specified in 1649 were erected, but 
that experience of early maps shows their negative evidence 
to be of little or no value, whole rows or clusters of houses 
appearing and disappearing repeatedly, in a series of maps 
professing to have been drawn within a few years of each other. 

The land south of the way is marked " A parte of the 
Prince's Meadow," and has a cottage in its north-eastern 
corner, doubtless the one to be referred to below, as " occupied 
by washerwomen." 

To revert to the Survey of October, 1649, the description 
of "the Prince's Meadow" is followed by: 

WHITE'S WOODYARD: M p White under-tenant. All 
that tenement, etc., lying in a place called the Bargchouses on 
the bankside of the river of Thames, in the parish of Lambeth, 
within the said manor of Kennington; consisting of one 
messuage, containing foure rooms below stayrs and foure 
rooms aboove stayrs, one wash-house cont. one room below 
and one above, one little tenement, cont. two rooms below 
and one above, and one other little tenement cont. three 
rooms below and three above, one yard, cont. \\ acres land, 
and one great crane; which premises are bounded by one 
great woodyard now in possession of M r Kent on the E., the 
Prince's Mead on the S., one. great woodyard in possession of 
M r Smith, on the W., and the river Thames on the N. Worth 
per an: 2%. 

1 See ante, vol. x, p. 164. 


SMITH'S WOODYARD: M r Smith under-tenant. All 
that tenement, . . . etc., lying in the said place called the Barge- 
houses . . . consisting of one messuage, cont. four rooms below 
stayres and foure above, one garret, one great yard cont. 
i acre of land, one countinghouse, cont. two rooms, one large 
crane, and six large sheades, and one pond for water; which 
premises are bounded with White's Woodyard on the E., the 
sd. Prince's Meadow on the S., one yard in possession of 
M r James Sherley, on the W., and the Thames on the N. 
Worth ; 3 o. 

SHIRLIE'S WOODYARD: M r Jas. Shirley 1 under- 
tenant. All that tenement . . . lying in the said place called 
the Bargehouses . . . consisting of one messuage; anew-built 
house of deal boards, not fully finished, cont. two rooms below 
stayrs and three rooms above, one great yard, cont. 3 roods, 
. . . etc. of land, one parcell of waste ground, and one parcell 
of waste land lying between the sd. yard and the sluce, cont. 
i acre of ground ; bounded with the sd. Smith's Woodyard on 
the E., the sd. Prince's Meadow on the S., the sd. Sluce upon 
the W., and the Thames on the N. Worth ^8. 

JUDAH WALKER, Undertenant. One little tenement 
standing in the N.E. corner of the sd. close or parcell of 
meadowe called the Prince's Meadoues, consisting of three 
little rooms wherein washerwomen live. Worth per an., 
i IQS. 

The last-named must, I think, be identical with the premises 
referred to in the following extract from Norden's Survey, 
1615 (No. 147). 

[Official Translation]. Randolph Hanmer, Gent., among 
other things hath purchased a certain piece of ground, formerly 
Cockerham's containing by estimation ij acres, lying near 
the river Thames, called the Corner Meadow, lying in the 
marsh there called Prince's Marsh, in Lambeth and Lambeth 
Marsh, within the Manor of Kennington, and lying in the 
north corner of the said Prince's Meadow, next to the garden 
called Paries Garden, adjoining to the house upon the bank 
there, and containing from thence in breadth, at the north 
corner [/.*., from the N.E. corner] towards the west, by a 
trench there leading to the river Thames, n rods; but in 

1 In a Surrey Fine of Michaelmas term, 1657, Thomas Sherley, gent., 
appears as one of several querents to whom James Sherley, Clerk in 
Holy Orders, and Mary his wife, quit-claimed for ^200, three messuages, 
2 cottages, 4 gardens, one acre of land, and three wharves with the 
appurtenances, in Lambeth. In 1662 Stan(wer?)dine Sherley paid tax ori 
nine hearths in Foxhall Liberty, South Lambeth. 



IHkiS: *? T^ 


length, by the ditch and Bank of Paryes Garden towards the 
south, 22 rods; as by four separate posts and boundaries 
called stakes, fixed in the acre-and-a-half of meadow ground, 
according to the custom of the said manor, for the separating 
and better distinguishing of the same, more plainly appears; 
at the yearly rent of 2id. 

It will be noticed that although Mr. Kent's woodyard is 
mentioned as the eastern boundary of the first of the premises 
lying in " the Bargehouses " described in the Survey of the 
Manor of Kennington, it is not itself included in that survey; 
neither is it claimed as a Crown possession by Cromwell's 
surveyors, who declare the King's Bargehouse to be adjoined 
on the west by " a timber yard now in the possession of 
Griffiths Kent." 

This I cannot explain; but its situation indisputably 
identifies Kent's yard with a part if not the whole of the 
enclosure just across the ditch from the King's Barge Yard, as 
pourtrayed on Bray's plan. 

Its holder (who, it will be remembered, eventually purchased 
the old Bargehouse) was perhaps the son of (if not identical 
with) one "Griffith Kent, 1 Citizen & Sadler of London," who 
was a party to an indenture dated December, 1655 (Close 
Roll, 3865, No. 21), whereby Richard Mountney of London, 
Merchant, conveyed to Kent certain lands in Bermondsey 
(described in detail), near St. Saviour's Mill Pond and " the 
Divell's Neckinger." The indenture mentions, further, one 
Peter Theobald, as late husband of Mary, the then wife of the 
said Griffith Kent. 

In 1658 Griffith Kent was one of the Auditors of the Ac- 
counts of the Overseers of the Poor of Paris Garden (Add. 
MS. 34110). 

The Court Book of the Manor 2 contains the Counterpart 
(Scried, vi, No. 10) of a Lease dated 1663, from William Angell 
to Griffith Kent of " a parcell of land, or wharf, lying by the 
Thames-side in Paris Garden," from Lady-day then last past, 
for the term of thirty-one years, at the yearly rent of 

1 Ducarel states that in 1636 Thomas Kent, Gent., held the Manor 
House of Kennington. In 1662 Thomas Kent paid tax on 10 hearths in 
the Prince's Liberty in the parish of Lambeth (Lay Subsidies, Bundle 
187, No. 479). 

In Lambeth Parish Registers are the entries : 

1629, Oct. 31. Bur: a dau. of Thomas Kent's, Still-born. 
1674, March 31. Bur: Lane the son of Mathew Kent. 

2 At Messrs. Lethbridge, Money, and Prior's. 



In 1676 the same premises (evidently) were demised, by 
Angell and others, to Joseph Holden and William Wilkinson, 
under the description of " a little wharfe by the Thames side, 
over against the Temple, in lease to Griffiths Kent at 30^. 
a year." 

This item is immediately followed by " A messuage near 
the Barge House in the occupation of \blank~\ Quinborough, 
at 4"; and " A piece of ground adjoining, in lease to George 
Biggs, whereon were three houses built by Biggs." 

We may get a fair idea of the general aspect of the tene- 
ments collectively known as the Bargehouses, though we 
cannot identify house by house, from Faithorne's map, which 
is said to have been surveyed between 1643 an ^ J 647, but 
to have had features introduced up to the date of its engraving 
in 1658. This shows several buildings scattered along a strip 
of land confined between the Thames and the long ditch bor- 
dering Narrow Wall, and divided by lesser ditches into three 
parcels. In the westernmost of these, close to the embouchure 
of the Cupar's Garden Sluice, stands a long-armed windmill, 
the wood-saw-mill, said to have been erected during Cromwell's 
Protectorate, 1 and to have been frequently visited by him as a 
curious object, the first of its kind in England, though common 
enough in Holland. The ground in this and the second division 
is strewn with little rectangles which may be meant for planks, 
symbolizing timber yards; but in the third there are small 
squares that may perhaps represent tanks for the whetsters, 
tenters, 3 or other local trades. 

In the map in Strype's Stow^ 1720, the same strip is cut up 
into seven holdings, bearing the names respectively (proceed 
ing from Old Barge Stairs) of Squire Shorter, 3 M r Tibals 

1 Manning and Bray, iii, 467. 

* Bleachers and dyers. 

3 The above-named "Squire" was possibly son of Sir John Shorter, 
who, as we learn from Robert Woodger Bower's Sketches of Southtuark 
Old and New, was Lord Mayor in 1688, and, dying the same year, devised 
by his will to the poor of the parish of Southwark, the rents of a freehold 
house and land formerly on the east side of Boddy's Bridge. Sir John was 
a dissenter, an Anabaptist, and John Bunyan was his Chaplain. The wife 
of Sir Robert Walpole was his granddaughter. In 1658 John Shorter was 
one of the auditors of the Paris Garden Overseers' accounts [Add. MS. 
34100]. The same year William Angell leased to John Shorter "4 Putt 
(Galleries or Shedds, built over the mill-stream upon the wharfe thereof, 
in Paris Garden, for 99 years, at the yearly rent of id" [Old Court Book 
at Messrs. Lethbridge and Prior's, p. 40.] In 1661, 24th April, William 
Angell conveyed to John Shorter " a wharfe . . . adjoining to the east 




"55 2 




[>>., Theobalds] M r Batcher 1 [i.e., Bachelor; here is a dry 
dock] M r Phillips, M r Baker, M r Hering, and Sir Peter Rich. 

In Roque's map, 1746, a Glass house yard seems to cover the 
site of Snorter's or perhaps the next tenement In Summer- 
sell's map, 1768, the first division is Capt. Snorter's, the next 
Mr. James's, and the next to that Mr. Theobald's a very large 
timber yard, including a dock, and reaching to " Morris' Cause- 
way " and the " Lord Mayor's Bargehouse." 

In Middleton's Survey, 1784, "Snorter's" is, apparently, 
represented by " No. 1 1 " (George Russell's wood shed and 
wharf), while a bare plot, 22 ft. 9 in. wide, intervenes between 
it and Bargehouse Alley. In SummerseH's Survey a division 
corresponding to this bare plot is demarked from Snorter's by 
the dotted parochial boundary line, so that it evidently be- 
longed to the old liberty of Paris Garden ; whereas the division 
corresponding to Shorter's, and marked in the latest ordnance 
map as " Site of the King's Old Bargehouse," belongs to the 

From comparison of these maps with the Ogilby-Morgan, 
where the westernmost of the buildings marked " Old Barge- 
houses " is contiguous to the Alley, and from other evidence 
considered in this paper, I would submit that the bare plot, 
and not " No. 1 1 " was the actual site of the " King's Old 
Bargehouse," as described in the Survey of 1652 (see ante, 
vol. x, p. 173). 



[Continued from p. 60.] 

JAMES TOWNSEND added a new east wing to the 
mansion. He figured very prominently in political circles 
in his day, and in 1769 was elected an Alderman of the 
ird of Bishopsgate, while in 1772-3 he became Lord Mayor 

side of Old Paris Garden Stairs, together with the sd. Common Staires or 
landing-place." [Ibid., Schedule i, No. 35.] For discussion of the term 
"Pott Gallery" see Notes and Queries, May (et seq.}, 1907. 
1 The Lambeth Burial Registers : 

1656, April 14. Joseph the son of Thomas Baccheler, a stranger. 

1665, Jan. 3. Samuel son of John Batcheller. 

1667, . . . Katherin the wife of John Batcheller. 



of London. In Parliament he represented Calne in Wiltshire, 
the representation extending to the time of his death. He was 
acquainted with Lord Shelburne, who, while on a visit to 
Bruce Castle in 1771, wrote to Lord Chatham. Chatham in 
his reply spoke of " our worthy warm friend your landlord." 
His wife died in 1785, and he followed her to the grave four 
years later, leaving one daughter and one son, James or Henry 
Hare Townsend, who then came into the estate. As we find 
in the case of some other old houses, there was an ancient 
custom connected with Bruce Castle. When a member of the 
family died the corpse was not carried to its last resting place 
through the gate, but an opening was made for it to pass 
through in the outer wall nearest to the church. The church 
was All Hallows, Tottenham, which is situated opposite the 
side entrance to the premises. The last time this curious old 
custom was enacted happened in 1789, when a breach was 
made in the wall for the body of Alderman Townsend to pass 

In Dyson's Tottenliam, 1792, is found the following descrip- 
tion of Bruce Castle: "the attic story consists of a large 
nursery, and 9 good bedchambers, with 2 large closets. The 
middle story contains a library, 35 ft. by 18 ft; a billiard 
room, 31 by 22; 7 neat bedrooms, with 4 dressing rooms; and 
a store room. The ground floor consists of a commodious 
hall, 33 by 22; a saloon, 35 by 18; and a handsome staircase; 
a drawing room, 26 by 19; an eating-room, 30 by 24; a break- 
fast parlour, 1 8 by 22; and a dressing-room'adjoining; besides 
apartments for steward, housekeeper, and butler, servants' hall, 
spacious kitchen, and back stairs, and roomy dry cellaring. 
Among the detached offices are stables for 12 horses, a treble 
coach-house with loft, and the whole is supplied with water 
from a deep well over which is erected a brick tower on the 
S.W. of the house, the upper part of which is used as a dairy." 
It will thus be readily seen that the house was of no mean 
order, but, on the contrary, a fine specimen of what once con- 
stituted a nobleman's residence. There used to be a painting 
of the house before its alteration by the Coleraine family, and 
this was placed over the mantelpiece in one of the parlours. 
Curiously enough, this picture shows two more towers like the 
one mentioned in the preceding description of the mansion, 
but all of them have now been razed to the ground. 

Some time after during the latter part of the eighteenth 
century the whole of the estate was purchased by a Mr. Smith, 



O O 

H 3 





who, however, did not retain it long, but disposed of it to Mr. 
Ayton Lee. He, in turn, sold it shortly afterwards to his cousin, 
Richard Lee. Thus within the space of a very few years, the 
Castle found three purchasers, but fate seems to have ordained 
that it should not remain long in the possession of any one 
of them. 

Richard Lee resided at Bruce Castle for a short time, and 
it then became the property of John Eardley Wilmot, one of 
the Masters in Chancery. This was about 1804. He contrived 
to extend the property by procuring adjacent land, in all about 
twenty-five acres. Mr. Wilmot owned the estate until 1813, 
when it was by his order put up for sale by Messrs. Hoggart 
and Phillips, then of the Auction Mart. The estate then con- 
sisted of, roughly, forty-seven acres, comprising the house, 
pleasure garden, and paddock, about twenty acres, orchard, 
farm-yard, and farm-house, about twelve acres ; the remaining 
ground was situated immediately opposite the mansion-house, 
on the south side of Lordship Lane, extending in a consider- 
able line from east to west. About this time the Land Tax on 
the property was redeemed ; the valuable timber, the worth of 
which was estimated at 1,100, was also included in the sale. 
Bruce Castle was not sold by auction, but was bought in at 
12,900. It was, however, disposed of by private contract, to 
Mr. John Ede, a very prosperous city merchant, as is amply 
proved by the fact that he paid Mr. Wilmot no less than 
11,500 for it. This included the fixtures in the house, the 
park and grounds behind the mansion, and also the valuable 

Mr. Ede, on taking possession, entirely demolished the west 
wing of the house, including the stables and coach-house, and 
under his direction the remainder of the structure underwent 
a good and complete repair. There used to be an avenue of 
fine old elms which ran from the high road to the mansion, 
and Bruce Grove now marks this site. The estate was owned 
by Mr. Ede until 1827, when he parted with the mansion and 
fifteen acres of pleasure ground, gardens, etc., to the celebrated 
Hill family. He also sold part of the land directly in the front 
of the house, containing about eighteen acres to a Mr. Joseph 
Fletcher, reserving to himself the hoppet on the west side of 
the Lane, leading from Lordship Lane to All Hallows Church, 
and a field opposite on which he built some houses. 

The three brothers Hill, Edwin, Frederick, and Rowland, 
afterwards Sir Rowland Hill, converted the premises into a 



school, as a branch establishment of " Hazelwood School," 
Birmingham, which was then conducted by their father, 
Thomas Wright Hill, and which enjoyed a great reputation 
as a respectable middle-class boarding school. It can be safely 
asserted that " Bruce Castle School " soon acquired equal 
celebrity. It was about this time that the entrance to the 
house was altered ; a new one being made round the side of 
the premises, the drive being shaped accordingly, whilst the 
old front door immediately under the ancient clock tower, was 
bricked up and made to form a retiring or ante-room, jutting 
off the dining-hall. From the window of this small room one 
can now enjoy an uninterrupted view of the lawn. The room 
in which Sir Rowland is said to have thought out his idea of 
the penny postage, is happily still intact, and possesses a 
considerable amount of interest. 

In 1833 Rowland Hill came to the conclusion that on 
account of failing health, he must abandon the profession of 
a schoolmaster ; he accordingly withdrew from the school and 
devoted himself to public life. His brothers Edwin and 
Frederick did likewise some time after, both of them eventu- 
ally gaining high positions in the public service. On their 
retirement the school was successfully conducted by Mr. 
Arthur Hill, and subsequently by Sir Rowland's nephew, 
Birkbeck Hill. 

Having been in the possession of the Hills for about fifty 
years, Bruce Castle again changed hand in 1877, the new 
owner being the Rev. W. Almack, M.A. Sir Rowland Hill in 
an account of the years he spent at Bruce Castle, written in 
1 869, says : " Although, however, I separated myself from 
duties in which I had been engaged for three and twenty 
years, I have never lost interest in the school, nor ever failed 
to render it such assistance as lay in my power. I gladly 
hailed the early return of its prosperity ; and at the end of 
thirty-six years from my withdrawal, I rejoice to see it still 

As has been before stated, eight years later, and fifty from 
its opening as a school, Bruce Castle had passed from the 
possession of the Hill family. In 1892, the Tottenham Urban 
District Council purchased it from Joshua Pedley, Esq., of 
White Hart Lane, the amount paid for it being 2 5,000. The 
object of the purchase was to secure the historic old place for 
the public, and so preserve it. The grounds have been made 
into a public park, and the house has been entirely renovated. 



It now contains a valuable and well-arranged museum, and 
also a reading-room and branch library in connection with the 
Tottenham Public Libraries. For these purposes two long 
rooms have been thrown into one, but beyond this, and some 
redecoration and repairs, it can happily be stated that very 
little has been done towards reconstruction or so-called 
restoration. The old fireplaces are still preserved, one of them 
having the china painting down the sides still intact, while 
another of later date is closed up. There are two handsome 
oak staircases, the larger one leading from the hall to the 
apartments above, being a splendid example of the old wide 
staircase of long ago ; the other one, situated at the back of 
the premises, is probably the older of the two. It is not so 
massive as the front stair, but what it lacks in this respect it 
makes up for in other features, being beautifully rounded and 
bearing much handsome carving, some of which has been un- 
fortunately detached. The ancient row of bells still hang in 
the old place high up at the far end of the hall. Among the 
apartments upstairs is a gymnasium, besides a few cells in 
excellent preservation. On the wall over the balcony hangs 
an oil painting of Bruce Castle as it was in the seventeenth 
century. The house is still adorned with the clinging ivy and 
creeper, the growth of centuries, while above all, as firm as 
ever, stands the old clock tower, with its pretty little balustrade. 
The ancient mansion is well worth a visit. 



[Continued from p. 64.] 

ON the north side of the chancel is a large altar tomb of 
Purbeck stone, inlaid with the brasses of Richard and 
Isabella Conquest, with their nine sons and five 
daughters, and of John Conquest, the father of Richard. The 
two male effigies are represented in early Tudor armour, in 
simple cuirasses, small placcates, condieres, and mail skirts 
below skirts of taces with tuilles; and the lady is represented 
in a close-fitting bodice and sleeves, a flowing skirt, and a 



pedimental head-dress. Each of these three effigies measures 
twenty-eight inches. Above the knight is a shield, on the 
sinister side, with the arms of Conquest: Quarterly, argent 
and sable, a label of three points, gules', impaling: quarterly, I 
and IV, cheeky, a fess, ermine-, II and III, a bend, lozengy. 
Below the effigies, in miniature, of the nine sons, is the symbol 
of St. Luke, a winged ox; and, at the sinister corner, is the 
symbol of St. Matthew, the angel bearing the Bible. The 
inscription is as follows: 

Hie jacet Joties Conquest, armiger, nup dims de Houghton, 
et Ricus Conquest, films et heres ejusde Johis ac Isabella 
uxor eius qui quide Ricus obiit die A dni Mcccc & j?dca 
Isabella obiit 18 Augusti A dni 1493, qu'# aiabuz ppicieP 
de am. 

The other brasses represent the effigies of Richard and 
Elizabeth Conquest, with their six sons and two daughters. 
The male is represented in Tudor armour, and his lady in a 
flowing skirt, close-fitting bodice and sleeves, and pedimental 
head-dress. The inscription is as follows: 

Orate f? mortuis quia moriemur. Hie jacet Ricus Conquest 
Armiger, et Elizabeth, uxor eius, qui quidem Ricus obiit 
xxviij die mens Julii Anno dni Milliccccc, et diet' Elizabeth 
obiit die A dni Mvc: quoru aiabuz ^picietur Deus, 

Arms: Per cross, a file of five points, Conquest (over the 
lady); two swords in saltire, points in chief. 

The male line of the Conquest family became extinct on 
the death of Benedict Conquest, the father of Lady Arundel, 
and the estate was purchased of them by the father of the Earl 
of Upper Ossory, of Ampthill Park, in 1741. 

The mural monument in memory of the celebrated Dr. 
Thomas Archer, of Jacobean fame, is characteristic; it repre- 
sents the bust of the worthy priest, attired in a preacher's 
gown, with a ruff and a black skull cap. The effigy, which is 
painted in proper colours, is represented as leaning on a pulpit 
cushion, and as holding the Bible in his left hand. The in- 
scription, in Latin, is as quaint as the monument, and com- 
mences by adjuring the reader that, " If things are well within, 
do not trouble," and goes on to say that, " I have instructed 
many, while living, now I instruct few. What one day con- 
structs, one day pulls down. So the wonderful fabric of the 



beautiful world falls down. So man rises, dies, a defenceless 
worm. O, happy one that I am, who, after being relieved of 
the burden of the flesh, I have changed uncertainties for 
realities, and vanities for blessings. Thomas Archer, Chaplain 
to King James, Rector of this Church for 41 years, placed this 
in his lifetime, in the year of our Lord, 1620, in the year of 
his age 76." 

The mural tablet in memory of Dr. Zachary Grey, of gray 
and white marble, is simple and undecorative; it bears this 
inscription: " Sacred to the Memory of Zachary Grey, L.L.D., 
late Rector of this Parish, who, with zeal undissembled, served 
his God, with love and affection endeared himself to his Family, 
with Sincerity unaffected promoted the Interest of his Friends, 
and with real Charity and extensive Humanity behaved to- 
wards all mankind. He died Nov. 25, 1766. Aged 78." Be- 
side this tablet is that of his wife, bearing this inscription: 
" Near this Place is interred Susanna Grey, relict of the late 
Rev d Zachary Grey. She died Feb. 3 rd , 1771. Aged 82, whose 
social virtues rendered her dear to all." 

The east window is Perpendicular, of five lights; the glass, 
representing the Crucifixion and the Ascension, was placed 
"In loving Memory of three Benefactors, Eliza Hargreave, 
and Mary and Sarah Windle, A.D. 1880." 

On either side of the altar are niches of the Decorated period, 
ornamented with quaint leafy crockets and rose-tipped cusps, 
and slender shafts in the jambs, with circular capitals. The 
double piscina is Perpendicular, having a cinquefoil head, 
supported by slender octagonal shafts in the jambs. Some of 
the ancient carved oak has been preserved in the choir stalls. 
In the vestry is a chest or " safe," made of wood, with strong 
iron bands, and bearing the date 1691. The fine old hammer- 
beam roof has fortunately been preserved. The windows of 
the chancel are all Perpendicular, and contain some ancient 
glass. The rood screen belongs to the same period, and is of 
oak, carved in a graceful design, after the " window " pattern 
and painted red, with ornamentations in the form of white and 
gold flowers. The nave is separated from the aisles by clustered 
columns, of the Decorated period. The arch mouldings ter- 
minate in beautiful corbels, representing the heads of a king and 
a queen, a bishop, nuns and monks, our Lord, St. John, the 
beloved disciple, and the Blessed Virgin Mary. The beautiful 
windows of the north and south aisles belong both to the 
Decorated and the Early Perpendicular periods. In the upper 

VOL. XI. 145 L 


lights are preserved some valuable bits of ancient stained 
glass, depicting shields charged with coats of arms. 

Over the north door is a fine fresco, " more than life size 
colossal," representing St. Christopher bearing his divine 
burden. The figure is of immense proportions, and eminently 
striking to the eye; it would be wonderfully interesting to 
know whose was the hand that limned it, hundreds of years 
ago. Remains of other frescoes remind us of what the interior 
of this noble church must have been like in all its former 
beauty. Over the chancel arch is a representation of the 
glorified Christ, with an angel on either side, and shields of 
arms ; while on the upper part of the eastern wall of the south 
aisle the double triangles, or "six-pointed stars," known as 
Solomon's Seal or David's Shield, are discernible ; on the north 
wall, in a line with the effigy of St. Christopher, is part of an 
inscription which, however, is not legible. 

The font, which is septagonal, is Decorated, the panels of 
the basin being richly ornamented with " crockets " and 
" tabernacle work." The seventh panel is rough and un- 

The spacious pre-Reformation pews have fortunately sur- 
vived past " restorations," l and their decorative standards, 
carved with cusps and flanked by quaint " buttresses," remain 
untouched. Recessed in thewall in thesouth aisleis a Decorated 
piscina, surmounted by an ogee arch, and in close proximity 
is a small square niche, which probably served as an aumbry. 
Square leafy bosses ornament the juncture of the ribs of the 
ancient oak roof of the nave and the aisles, and traces of 
colouring are still visible in the aisles. 

The tower is separated from the nave by a pointed arcl 
springing from octagonal capitals. Above, high up, projecting 
from the wall, is a tiny ringer's gallery, with massive oak rails, 
a rare feature of the interior of Bedfordshire churches. A rinj 
of six bells hangs in the belfry. 

Taking leave of the beautiful and venerable church of All 
Saints, with its cluster of old-world memories, we return t( 
matters mundane, and consider the other features of anti- 
quarian interest in the parish that have not yet been descril 

The Almshouse was erected and endowed in 1632 by Sii 
Francis Clarke, Kt., the benefactor of Sidney Sussex College 
Cambridge, for six poor widows, "out of his desire to con- 
tribute a perpetual benefit to the inhabitants of Houghtoi 

1 The last being in 1845. 


Conquest." Attached to the almshouse is a free school, with a 
residence for the master. 

Bedfordshire pillow lace which, so tradition tells us, was 
introduced into the county by Queen Katherine of Arragon, 
during her residence at Ampthill Castle from 1510 to 1533 
is made in the village, and, until quite recently, the lace-makers 
used to celebrate St. Katherine's Day, 25th November, as the 
holiday of their craft, " in memory of good Queen Katherine, 
who, when the trade was dull, burnt all her lace and ordered 
new to be made." 

About two miles from the village of Houghton Conquest, 
picturesquely situated in a noble park, with fine avenues of 
oak and chestnut trees and commanding a magnificent view 
of the Vale of Bedford, stand the ruins of Houghton House, 
once the palatial residence of Mary Herbert, Countess of 
Pembroke "Sidney's sister and Pembroke's mother" (who 
built it in 1615) now but the veriest shell of its former great- 
ness, ivy mantled and desolate. By good fortune pictures re- 
main to show us what Houghton House was like in its pristine 
splendour, when it rose " like an exhalation from the earth " 
under the direction of Inigo Jones, who reproduced in the 
north front the style of Palladio, which is supposed to be a 
replica of the Convent della Carita, Venice. The south and 
west fronts were richly ornamented with colonnades of Doric 
and Ionic columns, with the pediments and the friezes finely 
sculptured with the porcupine, the bear and ragged staff, and 
the lion rampant, the crests of the Sidney, Dudley, and Pem- 
broke families. Square towers, with incurved roofs, stood at 
the corners of the mansion, and added considerably to its beauty 
and dignity. The numerous windows, of which nothing re- 
mains but the stone framework and the massive mullions, were 
of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. The terraces and 
the pleasaunces, that formed the fair setting to this mansion, 
have long since disappeared and no traces remain, except a few 
holly and yew trees that have survived the general devastation. 

Houghton House was purchased by John, Duke of Bedford, 
in J 738, and was restored and fitted up for his son, the 
Marquis of Tavistock. He was killed in 1767, by a fall from 
his horse, and after this sad event no member of the Bedford 
family cared to reside here. The last occupant was the Earl of 
Upper Ossory. In 1794 the mansion was dismantled, and 
part of the materials were used in the building of the Swan 
Hotel, on the embankment, Bedford. 


Mary, Countess of Pembroke, who was a very gifted woman, 
of high intellectual abilities combined with great personal 
beauty and exquisite charm of manner, and a brilliant orna- 
ment of the Court of Queen Elizabeth, retired to Houghton 
House, which she erected in her widowhood, and there is an 
idea that this house was built after some plan or description 
set forth in the " Arcadia," a tribute of affection to the memory 
of her brave and noble brother, Sir Philip Sidney. This cele- 
brated lady, according to Coxeter, translated the whole of 
the Psalms into English metre, being assisted in this work 
by Dr. Gervase Babington, her lord's chaplain, afterwards 
Bishop of Exeter, and wrote the " Tragedie of Antonie," " done 
from the French," bearing the name and date " Ramsbury, 
Nov. 26, 1590." After the defeat of the Royalist army at 
Worcester in 1651, the celebrated Christiana, Countess of 
Devonshire, took up her residence at Houghton House (at 
this time the seat of her brother, Thomas, Earl of Elgin), and 
here she lived for three years in comparative seclusion, "lighten- 
ing her griefs and her expenses," and also taking an active part 
in planning the restoration of King Charles II. This noble 
lady, who was the daughter of Edward, Lord Bruce of Kinloss, 
and wife of William, Earl of Devonshire, was in constant 
correspondence with General Monk, who was instrumental in 
bringing about the restoration of the King, and she also be- 
friended Dr. George Lawson, a staunch Royalist, who was 
wrongfully ejected from his benefice in Northamptonshire 
during the Commonwealth. Lady Devonshire lived to see the 
dream of her life fulfilled, and a great wrong righted; she 
passed peacefully away at Derby in 1674, truly a " victor after 
hard won fight." A story is told of how " once even a troop of 
soldiers were sent to Houghton House to take her prisoner, 
and convey her to the Tower of London," but, fortunately, 
she avoided their malevolent designs, and worked on harder 
than ever at the cause she had so much at heart. 

Many are the historic memories that cluster around this 
stately ruin, majestic even in its decay ; and by a writer whose 
romances of bygone Bedfordshire have delighted many hearts, 
Houghton House has been immortalized by being identified 
as the original of the " House Beautiful," seen with the golden 
vision of the " Immortal Dreamer." 



THE district of Castle Bar Hill is now the most fashion- 
able part of Ealing, and its staid and well-to-do inhabit- 
ants would doubtless be greatly shocked if any deed of 
violence were committed in so respectable a quarter. 

A century and a half ago it was a lonely and desolate spot. 
As late as 1825, Gary's Map shows not a single house on the 
north side of the " Oxford, Cheltenham, Glocester and Mil- 
ford Road," now the Uxbridge Road, between Acton and 
Ealing Dean; while at "Castle Bear Hill " there were appar- 
ently only two houses, close to the end of Pitshanger Lane. 
Between this lane and Perivale a large piece of land is marked 
as " Castle Bear Common." 

It was probably on this common that my ancestor, Samuel 
Verry, was shot by highwaymen in 1747. A Broadside giving 
an account of the murder was issued in a few days, a copy of 
which has been handed down in the family and is now in my 
possession. It runs as follows: 

JAN. 24 th A Full and Particular 1747. 


Apprending and Taking 


William Groves, and Noah Groves. 

For the barbarous Murder of Mr. Samuel Verry, a fub- 
ftantial Farmer of Oxendon-hill in the Parifh of Perrivale, 
Middlefex; who going home laft Saturday Night about Seven 
o'Clock, was attacked clofe by the empty Houfe by Caftle Bar, 
late in the Poffeflion of Dr. Hollings, near the Uxbridge Road. 
With the Whole Examination, before the Right Hon the 
Worfhipful Juftice Clithero, and their Commitment laft Night 
the one to Newgate, and the other to New-Prison. 

The Farmer fliot was Mr. Samuel Verry, an honeft fub- 
ftantial Farmer of Oxendon-hill, in the Parifh of Perrivale, 



Middlefex; who going home laft Saturday Night about Seven 
o'Clock, with his Son, a Youth about Seventeen Years of Age, 
was attacked clofe by the empty House by Caftle-bar, late in 
the Poffeflion Dr. Rollings, near the Uxbridge-road. Mr. 
Verry rode by the Fellows on which they endeavoured to 
flop his Son, but failed, the Boy riding back towards the Sign 
of the Feathers, crying Murder! Mr. Verry turning back to 
look for his Son, was ftopp'd ; and one of the Fellows being 
about to rob him, Mr. Verry who was fomewhat in Liquor 
and a stout Man, ftruck him a violent blow, on which the 
other Villain fhot Mr. Verry in the breaft; and robb'd him of 
fome part of his Money. Mr. Verry riding back towards the 
Feathers, met his Son, who had got afliftance, and told them 
that he had been robb'd and fhot, but that he thought himfelf 
not much hurt. And he feem'd very hearty when he had dif- 
mounted at the Feathers. But his Friends obferving after 
fome time, a great Quantity of Blood in the Chair on which 
he fat, he was ftripp'd and a Surgeon fent for, who found he 
was mot in the Left Breaft with a Ball and a Slug. The Ball 
went through his Body and was found in his Clothes; the Slug 
having been ftopp'd by one of the breaft bones, was taken out. 
Mr. Verry continued in his Senfes till he dy'd, which was on 
Monday Morning, about Two o'Clock: And in the mean 
Time, fettled his Affairs, and earneftly defired all People to 
be cautious of travelling late, or making Refiftance if attacked 
by fuch Villains. 

Wednefday two Fellows were taken up and examined by 
James Clithero, Efq ; one of his Majefty's Juftices of the Peace 
for the County of Middlefex, they having been feen to load 
Piftols the fame Evening the Fact was done. And Yefterday 
they were re-examined by the faid Gentleman, when he com- 
mitted one of them, Noah Groves, to New-Prifon, and the 
other, William Groves, to Newgate, being charged on a violent 
Sufpicion of mooting the faid Samuel Verry on the King's 

The above William Groves was formerly an Evidence 
againft three Men for fmuggling, who were found guilty, fin'd 
and imprifon'd, and all died in Newgate. 




[Continued from p. 73.] 

1541, November 13. "Alexander Seton, a Scotish, and a 
worther Preacher. . . . This Seton was Chaplain to the Duke 
of Suffolk, and by him was made free Denison. In his sermon 
preached at Saint Antholine's, his adversaries picked against 
him matter containing fifteen objections, or rather cavillations. 
. . . Touching reconciliation spoken of by Doctor Smith, 
preaching in the forenoon at Paul's Cross, Alexander Seton, 
preaching at afternoon at Saint Anthonie's [sic], and reciting 
his sayings and Scriptures, reproved him for alledging this 
saying, Reconciliamini Deo, and Englishing the same thus, 
1 Reconcile your selves to God ' ; because it is there spoken 
passively, and not actively, so that there should be nothing in 
man pertaining to reconciliation, but all in God. Also reprov- 
ing the said Doctor Smith, for that the said D. said that man 
by his good works might merit. Which saying of Doctor 
Smith the said Alexander Seton reproved in the Pulpit at 
S. Anthonie's [sic] the 13 day of November, the year of our 
Lord 1541, as naughtily spoken. ... So that in the end, he, 
with Tolwine aforesaid, was caused to recant at Paul's Cross, 
1541." (Fox, Martyrs, vol. ii, pp. 451, 452.) 

1543, July 8. " Allso, the 8 of Julye, beinge Reliques Son- 
day, three persons recanted at Paules Crosse, one called 
Thomas Beacon alias Theodore Basill, Wysedome, Curate 
of Aldermary under Doctor Cromer [Edward Crome], and 
one Shingleton, all three preistes; and the said Thomas 
Beacon cutt in peeces, at his sayd recantinge, n bookes 
which he had made and caused to be printed, wherein was 
certeine heresyes." (Wriothesley's Chronicle, Camden Soc., 
N. S., vol. ii, p. 142.) 

1544, July 6. "This same year also followed the Recanta- 
tion of John Hay wood; who, although he was tached for 
Treason for denying the King's Supremacy, yet using the 


clemency of the King, upon his better reformation and amend- 
ment, made an open and Solemn Recantation in the face of 
all the people, abandoning and renouncing the Pope's usurped 
supremacy, and confessing of the King to be chief supream 
Head and Governour of this Church of England, all forein 
Authority and Jurisdiction being excluded. The tenour and 
effect of whose Recantation here followeth." . . . Memor- 
andum that the above recantation was made and publicly 
pronounced by the s d John Haywood, on Sunday, July 6th, 
1544, at Paul's Cross, at the time of the Sermon. (Fox, 
Martyrs, vol. ii, p. 479.) 

1 544, July 6. " The 6 day of July, Hayward recanted his 
treason at Pawles Crosse, which had bene afore condempned 
to death, and brought to be layd on the hardell [hurdle], for 
denyinge the Supremacye of the Kinges Majestic against the 
Bishop of Rome." (Wriothesley's Chronicle, Camden Soc., 
N. S., vol. ii, p. 148.) 

1545, February 8. "This 8th day allso, stoode at Pawles 
Crosse a preist, with a broad stole of linen cloath, couloured 
with drops like bloud, about his necke; which was given him 
in pennance by my Lord Chauncellour [Wriothesley], in the 
Starre Chamber, for fayninge and counterfeyting a miracle 
that he woulde had [been] done whilest he was at Masse, and 
pricked his ringer [so] that the bloud dropped on the corporasse 
and aulter, so that he woulde have made men beleue that the 
Hoste of the Body of Christ, by him consecrated, had bledde, 
and allso he quaveringe and shakinge at the tyme of consecra- 
tion; all which he openly declared at Pawles Crosse" 
(Wriothesley's Chronicle, Camden Soc., N. S., vol. ii, p. 152.) 

1545. "This yere, the xxvii daie of June, doctor Crome 
preached at Poules Crosse, and there openly confessed that he 
had been seduced with naughtie bookes, contrary to the true 
doctrine of Christe, and in this dooyng he saied he was not 
compelled so to saie, neither for feare nor by any other 
meanes, but onely of his free and voluntary will." (Fabyan.) 

1545. "And thys yere stode a prest of Kente at Polles 
Crose for cuttynge of hys fynger and made it to blede on the 
hoste at his Masse for a fallse sacrafyce ; and also another 
prest this yere was sett on the pyllere in Chepe, for makynge 



of false letters in the weste centre unto a blynde woman." 
(Chronicle of the Grey Friars, p. 48.) 

1546, April II. "Item the xj day of Aprille before was 
Passion Sonday, and then preched Doctor Crome in hys 
pariche church [St. Mary Aldermary], at the wyche sermond 
he preched agayne [against] the Sacrament of the Auter; and 
that same tyme he was send for unto the Corte, and there was 
exammynd ; and the V sarmondes at Ester spake alle agayne 
[against] the sayd oppynyons, but namyd not hym. And the 
Sonday after the Low Sonday, the wyche was the ix day of 
May after, he preched at Powlles Crosse, and there sayd he 
came not thether to recante nor to denye hys worddes, nor 
wolde not. And then he was send for that same day agayne, 
and was examynd agayne; and the xxvij day of June after, 
wyche was the Sonday after Corpus Christi day, he was com- 
andyd to preche at Powlles Crosse agayne, and there recantyd 
and denyyd hys worddes." (Chronicle of the Grey Friars, 
p. 50.) 

1 546, May 8. " Doctour Crome beeng called and examyned 
before the Counsail, present the Bishops of London and 
Worcester and such of the Kinges Chaplaynes as the daye 
before were appointed to be at his sermon at Poles Crosse, 
was examyned uppon his rashenes and indirect procedinges, 
and therupon committed to a chambre to answere to certeyne 
interrogatoryes." (Acts of the Privy Council?) 

1546, May 9. Dr. Edward Crome preached. See June 2/th 


" Mr. Secretary, after our harty commendacions, yesterday, 
in the morning, we had Mr. Crome before us, unto whom, 
according to the Kinges Majestes commandent, we objectid 
his misbehavour at Paules Crosse, contrary to the Kinges 
Hieghnes expectacion and his owne promes. Which matter 
we engrevid as the qualite thereof wourthily required. . . . 
Whereunto when he had aunswered with grete asseverations, 
and with a mervaillous constante behavour, that he had so 
doon and fulfilled his promes at Paules Crosse^ as no man 
ought to fynde faulte with his doinges, and layenge his hand 
on his brest, saide he knew himself better then any other man 



did, and he thought he had doon so well, as he shuld never 
have been charged or blamed, but rather comendid there- 
fore. . . "(State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. i, p. 842.) 


"Mr. Secretarye, after our right harty commendations. 
Where thies herers, my Lord of Worcestre [Nicholas Heath], 
and others the Kinges Majesties Chaplayns, doe repayre at 
this tyme to his Majestic, to declare unto him the procedinges 
with Crome sithens [since] our last advertisement, whereunto 
they shall make you pryvey, we shall require you to helpe 
them to his Majesties presence, and to know whether his 
Hieghnes woll heruppon commaunde us any further, touching 
this matier, then is alredy signefyed unto us. This day we 
looke for Latymer, the Vicar of St. Brides, and summe others 
of those that have specially comforted Crome in his folye. 
Crome, sithens the last depositions sent to his Majestic, hath 
confessed that Huick, uppon sight of th' articles which he 
shuld have sett furth at Pole Crosse, shewed himself to mislyke 
the same, and thought they could not be mayntened with good 
conscyence, and that he doubted not, therfore, but the said 
Crome could declare them honestly ; by the which, and such 
other thinges as Crome hath confessed, it appereth that he, 
and summe of those folkes that he named in his depositions, 
be as much to be blamed, or more, then himself." (State 
Papers, Henry VIII, vol. i, p. 845.^ 

[To be continued.] 




[Continued from p. 74.] 

1 573 Sept. 27. Lease by John Nuttynge of Hendon, yeoman, to Thomas Wood 
of Great Marlow, Bucks, Glover, of the lessor's small tenement with an orchard, 
in Great Marlow, then in the lessee's occupation, for 21 years, at 2os. per annum. 
Covenants by the lessee, for full repairs, not to sub-lease or assign to any but his 
kindred without license of the lessor, and to plant at least 12 fruit trees in the 
orchard in the first 3 years. 

1 598, Aug. 27. Lease by Richard Brenchley to Francis Pope, both of Bobbing, 
co. Kent, yeomen, of 10 acres of land there, for 3 years at a peppercorn rent. 
Counterpart signed by Pope. 

1619, May 20. Lease by John Barker of London, Merchant, to John Greene of 
Lincoln's Inn, Esq., for 21 years at 10 per annum, of a garden and garden-house 
occupied by the lessor in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, adjoining on the 
east to a garden occupied by Robert Parkhurst, and severed with a new brick wall 
on the west from a garden occupied by John Turkell, and with another new brick 
wall on the north from a garden occupied by Thomas Stone, and on the south with 
a high " tymber pale cantrailed next the alley" leading to the demised premises 
and to other gardens. Counterpart with Schedule of fixtures and fittings. 

Memorandum endorsed, that on 22 Jan., 1623, Henry Blount of London, Girdler, 
assignee of the lessor, in consideration of ^17. 10. o paid to him, accepted a sur- 
render of the lease and all the estate the exors. of Dame Mary Weld had in the 
demised premises. 

1620, Jan. i. Lease by Henry Mann alias Towsey, of Quainton, Bucks, 
yeoman, & Isabel his wife, to Thomas Brice, son of the said Isabel, in considera- 
tion of 60, of a tenement occupied by Annis Clarke, widow, and 2 parts of a 
yardland divided into 3 parts, & common of pasture for 4 horses, 4 kine, & 
27 sheep, & 3 acres I rood of meadow in the common meadow, occupied by the 
said Mann, all in Quainton : to hold for 40 years, if either of lessors should live so 
long. The Lessors are to save the lessee from a lease of the premises made by 
Isabel, while a widow, to the said Henry, for 40 years, which lease was supposed 
to be lost. 

1683, Oct. i. Lease by Ann Whittle, widow, of Eastmalling, Kent, as 
guardian to her five sons, Thurston, William, Robert, Thomas, & George, to 
Francis Tomlin of Eastmalling, yeoman, for 1 1 years, at ^14 per annum, of 3 pieces 
of land called Lunsford's Broomes, containing 26 acres, in the lessee's occupation, 
near Larkefield Heath, in the parish of Eastmalling, & 4 pieces of land contain- 
ing 7 acres, adjoining Larkefield Heath, in the lessee's occupation, then late of 
James Dowell. 

1689, April 2. Lease by William Warne, scrivener, and John Teale, pewterer, 
to Nicholas Blackman, blacksmith, for 2 years, at ^32 per annum, of a messuage 
on the east side of Castle Street in the parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, then 
lately new built, & in the occupation of ... Hattanvil, tallow chandler, and 
then occupied by the lessee, with the building behind, and used as a workshop, 
next to an alley there serving for a passage to other adjacent houses of the lessors. 
Paper-counterpart, signed by Blackman. Witnesses, Tho. Gilbert, a scriv r in St. 
Martin's, & Ralph Mayor, a coachmaker there. 

1692, Nov. 10. Lease and counterpart lease by Thomas Scott of Shoreditch, 
Middlesex, brickmaker, to Jonathan Parsons of Stepney, carpenter, for 60 years, 



at 2 per annum, of a piece of ground 30 feet by 47 feet, on the east side of Den- 
mark St., Stepney, abutting on a house belonging to Isaac & Abraham Hickman 
on the south, on gardens on the east, on Betts St. on the west, & on another 
piece of ground belonging to the lessor on the north. Lessee covenants to erect 
2 houses on the land. 

1692, Nov. 30. Lease by the same lessor to Jeremiah Slow of Stepney, husband- 
man, for 60 years, at i. 10 o per annum, of a piece of ground similarly situated as 
in the last, & 30 feet by 49 feet, abutting on a tenement belonging to John Oxden 
on the south, & on a tenement belonging to Richard Sankey on the north. 
Lessee covenants as in the last lease. Counterpart. 

1692, Dec. 14. Lease by Isaac Hickman, citizen & leatherseller of London, 
to James Browne of Stepney, Carpenter, for 60 years, at $. 10 o per annum, 
of a piece of ground similarly situated as in the last, & 41 feet by 47^ feet, 
abutting on land of John Edmondson, Saylemaker, on the west, on land of Thomas 
Scott leased to Parsons on the north, & on land of Isaac Hickman let to Browne 
on the south. Lessee covenants to erect 3 houses on the land. Counterpart. 

1720, March 20. Unexecuted lease by Robert Gosling of London, Bookseller, 
executor of Christian Griffin, widow, late of the same, deceased, & on behalf of 
Joseph Griffin of Kingsale, Ireland, Gent., to John Ditcher of London, Gent., for 
1 1 years at ,30 per annum, of a shop & messuage belonging to the said Joseph 
in the Old Bayly, London, in the parish of St. Martin, Ludgate, late occupied by 
. . . Tysoe, Painter, abutting on the north on another messuage of the said Griffin, 
occupied by John Decker, Glazier. With Schedule of fixtures. 

1789, April i. Lease by Richard Barrett of the hamlet of Ratcliff in the parish 
of Stepney, Middlesex, Boat Builder, to Charles Wainwright of the parish of 
St. George, Middlesex, Baker, for 30 years at ^20 per annum, of two messuages 
in St. George's, being the north west corner of Cannon St. & the messuage 
adjoining thereto, occupied by ... Mushroy & ... Hadshead. 

1804, Feb. 29. Assignment of the unexpired term in the above premises, en- 
dorsed on the lease, in consideration of 286, Charles Wainwright to Richard 
Hester of Windsor, Baker. 

1790, Nov. 15. Lease by Thomas Andrewes of East Mailing, Kent, Gent., to 
Sarah Parker of Marden, Kent, widow, for 21 years at ^30 per annum, of a 
messuage with a barn, stable, millhouse, &c., & 5 acres of land in Marden, 
formerly occupied by Michael Stone, then late by William Parker, then by 
the said Sarah. Counterpart. 

1806, ijune 2. Lease by Thomas Andrewes of East Mailing, Kent, Gent., 
to Elizabeth Eagles, of Yalding, Kent, widow, for 21 years at 63. 16. o per 
annum, of a messuage, &c., & 63 acres in Yalding, occupied by the lessee. 

[To be continued.] 

COOK'S COURT. In Bleak House Charles Dickens describes Cook's 
Court as being situated in Cursitor Street, on the eastern side of 
Chancery Lane. Obviously he meant Tooks Court, a thoroughfare 
formerly much patronized by law stationers of the Snagsby type. 
Why did Dickens mis-name this court? It may not be generally 
known that a Cook's Court did really exist on the western side of 
Chancery Lane and adjacent to Lincoln's Inn. This court was 
demolished some twenty-eight years ago, and was to some extent, 
like Tooks Court, given over to the law stationery business. The 
proper Cook's Court was a passage between Searle Street and that 
part of Carey Street facing the eastern wing of King's College Hospital, 
now about to be removed to Denmark Hill. This passage was entered 



from both ends under an archway, and at one period a beadle was 
stationed there to ensure quietness and to warn off beggars and other 
undesirables. The site, now bounded by Carey Street on two sides, 
Portugal Street and Searle Street, is now covered by the block of red 
brick buildings mostly let out as chambers. 

The real Tooks Court is fast disappearing, for H.M. Patent Office 
has acquired, and is still acquiring, much of the property there to meet 
its growing demands for more space. A few of the old houses yet 
remain. The Chiswick Press has been located here since 1827, and, as 
some evidence of the date of some of the houses, it may be mentioned 
that No. 14, a lock-up warehouse in the possession of the Chiswick 
Press, has in the basement a leaden cistern bearing the date 1 746, cast 
in the middle of a geometrical design on the front. Prior to 1827, 
when Charles Whittingham took a lease of No. 21, that building was 
occupied by another well-known printer, Richard Valpy, who issued 
the famous one hundred volumes of classics. C. T. J. 

ROLLS' YARD was, I believe, situated in Chancery Lane, somewhere 
near or on the spot of the Record Office. Was there not a chapel 
there, and if so when was it demolished? Has any reference been 
made in former numbers of this Magazine to this place and chapel? 
Was there any connection between this and St. Thomas' Liberty of 
the Rolls, a church formerly standing in Breams Buildings? J. 



an Itinerary; by Leland L. Duncan, M.V.O., F.S.A. With 
chapters on the Geology of the District by W. H. Griffin, 

and on the Local Authorities by A. W. Hiscox, sometime Mayor 

of the Borough. Charles North, pp. 173. 

A valuable contribution to local topography. Founded necessarily on Hasted, 
it is expanded and enlarged, added to here, corrected there, until Hasted himself 
would hardly recognize it. The history of Lewisham is longer than most boroughs 
can boast ; from 862 (the first dated document cited is of that year) to the present 
day, nearly ten centuries and a half, is indeed a record for what was, nearly down 
to our own time, a small and insignificant village. But unimportant as Lewisham 
was in the past, its history has considerable interest. Given to the great Abbey of 
Ghent by Elfrida, daughter of King Alfred, in 918; seized from time to time by 
various kings, as the property of an alien priory ; finally confiscated, for the same 
reason, in 1414, by Henry V, and given to the Carthusian Priory at Shene; given 
to Henry VIII in 1531 in exchange for other lands; given subsequently to John 
Dudley, Earl of Warwick, to Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, to Cardinal Pole; 
and by James I to one of his hungry Scotchmen; sold to Reynold Graham in 
1640, who bequeathed it to his nephew, George Legge, the ancestor of the Earl of 



Dartmouth, the present lord of the manor here is a history, indeed ! But Mr. 
Duncan's book does not stop here. He has unearthed some Court Rolls in the 
Record Office, and from these he gives us copious extracts, showing the little 
everyday incidents of life in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. We get the 
little human touches that appeal to us more than alien priories and Scotch earls : 
how Alice Pod sold bread short in weight, how John Scot drew blood from 
William Palfreyman, how Robert Lord was fined $d. for digging turves on the 
common de la Blakeheth, and so forth and so on. When we get to the story of 
Abraham Colfe, the sturdy and enlightened vicar for forty-seven years, 1610 to 
J 657i we have Mr. Duncan at his best. He handles that worthy man, like Isaac 
Walton and the frog, as though he loved him, as, indeed, the founder and builder 
of the Grammar School ought to be revered by Lewisham folk. An exhaustive 
itinerary follows, which includes a graphic account of the many stirring incidents 
associated with Blackheath. The book is well illustrated from old prints, maps, 
and photographs. The Index is not as good as it ought to be. 

A LIFE OF JOHN COLET, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's and Founder of 
St. Paul's School, with an Appendix of some of his English 
writings; by the late J. H. Lupton, D.D., formerly Surmaster of 
St. Paul's School and Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
New edition. George Bell and Sons; pp. xiv, 323; Ss. 6d. net. 

Twenty-two years have elapsed since Dr. Lupton published his well-known Life 
of Colet ; no more fitting celebration of the four hundredth anniversary of the 
foundation of the great school could have been found than a new edition of the 
Life of the Founder. Until the first publication of Dr. Lupton's work the worthy 
Dean had almost been overshadowed by his own school; the pious founder 
was remembered, the scholar was wellnigh forgotten. This important fact is 
admirably brought out. Colet was the intimate friend of Erasmus, Sir Thomas 
More, and most of the enlightened and scholarly men of his day. Indeed, so 
advanced was he in some of his views, that on one occasion he was accused of 
heresy by his bishop, on the ground that he had taught that images ought not to 
be worshipped. Yet More declared " that none more learned or more holy had 
lived among them for many ages past " ; and the pious Carthusian monks of Shene 
had no objection to receive him among them for his last days. His works are now 
little read, but were highly valued in his own day. The Statutes and some other 
papers relating to St. Paul's School are printed in an Appendix. These are well 
worth reading, both from their quaintness of diction and their extraordinary minute- 
ness of detail. Nothing was too trivial for him; every possible contingency, both 
for the masters and the scholars, seems to have been anticipated. The story of 
his severity, not to say brutality, to the children, is absolutely discredited. That 
he loved children is clear from the " lytell proheme " to his Accidence'. " Wherfore 
I praye you, al lytel babys, al lytel chyldren, lerne gladly this lytel treatyse, and 
commende it dylygently to your memoryes. . . . And lyfte up your lytel whyte 
handes for me, which prayeth for you to God." These are not the words of one 
who ordered the flogging of a child of ten, and stood callously looking on till the 
boy swooned. No wonder Dr. Lupton is "simply amazed at the credulity" of 
those who ever believed the story. There is a good Index. 

THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, newly translated by G. E. C. Gomme, 
B.A. George Bell and Sons; pp. xvi, 315. 6s. net. 

All students of our early history should be grateful for this scholarly translation. 
Mr. Gomme's work is done on sound and common-sense lines. To begin with, we 



find him throwing over-board a large amount of the pedantic spelling of names, 
beloved of certain historians. It is a positive relief to read of "Edward" and 
"Alfred" once more. Place-names are treated in similar fashion; where the 
identification is certain the modern spelling is used ; in other cases, the spelling of 
the original. The translation is " word for word in the most literal and exact way." 
Mr. Gomme's collation of the various MSS. is careful and minute, and his twenty 
pages of notes add very greatly to the value of the book ; we gather from them that 
he has no particular axe to grind, which is as it should be. There is an exhaustive 

THE TRAMPING METHODIST, by Sheila Kaye-Smith. George Bell 
and Sons; pp. 316; 6s. 

A story of considerable power and much originality. The scene is mostly in 
Sussex, the period the eighteenth century, and the subject the early days of 
Methodism. It is difficult to realize nowadays the scorn and persecution that 
had to be faced by the early followers of Wesley. It is equally hard to picture the 
callousness, indifference and downright brutality of many of the clergy of the 
Church of England ; and yet, in spite of this, we cannot help hoping that Miss 
Kaye-Smith's incidents are not founded on fact. Her style is crisp and lucid, and 
the descriptions of atmosphere and scenery delicate and poetical. The story itself, 
though a little melodramatic, is well conceived and will be read with great interest. 

THE HISTORY OF WENDOVER in the County of Buckingham; by 
Leonard H. West, LL.D., Representative of Wendover on the 
Bucks County Council and Member of the County Education 
Committee, Aylesbury: "Bucks Advertiser" Office; pp. 89. 

An interesting little book. Wendover has almost more than its fair share of 
celebrities, and for so small a place the list is a remarkable one. Beginning with 
Roger of Wendover, the historian, we find two other eminent literary men con- 
nected with the Borough, Richard Steele and Edmund Burke. John Hampden, of 
Ship-Money fame, and several others of his family were members of Parliament 
for Wendover, as also were George Grenville, the instigator of the American 
Stamp Acts which resulted in the War of Independence, and George Canning. 
Wendover was the scene of a good many stirring incidents during the Civil War, 
which are well told. The story of the Vicar's wife in 1643, who made apple pies 
for the Royalist troops and had perforce to see them consumed by the Roundheads, 
has a touch of grim humour about it. The work was originally written, we are 
told, as a lecture, and reprinted in book form ; it will be worth while, in a sub- 
sequent edition, which is sure to be called for, to get rid of the lecture element 
altogether. Lectures rarely print well, and some of the defects of arrangement 
are doubtless due to this cause. Dr. West should also reconsider the statement 
(p. 62) that Hugh Seymour Conway was a descendant of Jane Seymour. 

TIONS; by Percy C. Rushen, Chartered Patent Agent. Stevens 
and Sons; pp. 124. 

The title sufficiently indicates the nature and scope of this work ; the criticism 
is at once legal, antiquarian, and etymological. Many of Mr. Rushen's suggested 
improvements are admirable. A learned work, and by no means dry reading. 



FIELD. A Short History of the Foundation, and a Description 
of the Fabric, and also of the Church of St. Bartholomew-the- 
Less; by George Worley; 42 illustrations. George Bell and 
Sons; pp. viii, 82; is. 6d. net. 

For clearness and conciseness, those two prime factors in a guide book, Mr. 
Worley's account of St. Bartholomew's will compare favourably with any of its 
predecessors in the well-known ' ' Cathedral Series. " The history of the Priory, 
from its foundation by Rahere in 1123 down to the present time, the extraordinary 
vicissitudes of the Priory Church, and the noble efforts that have preserved what 
we see to-day, are well and sympathetically told. The Hospital, with its curious 
church of St. Bartholomew-the-Less, has a chapter to itself, and all the facts and 
details required by the visitor are carefully recorded. The illustrations are well 
chosen, and include reproductions of a number of old prints showing the church at 
various dates, the principal monuments, and casts of all the known seals of the 
Priory. Some corrections are required in the transcript of the inscription on 
page 67, but this minor detail seems all that there is for the most captious critic to 
cavil at. 

"A MANNOR AND COURT BARON" (Harleian MS. 6714); edited by 
Nathaniel J. Hone, with a preface by J. Samuel Green, M.A., 
B.C.L., LL.D., Barrister-at-Law. The Manorial Society; pp. 59. 

It is a capital idea to start printing some of the numerous MSS. relating to 
manors and copyholds, and we trust that this is but the first of a long series, to 
include also the reprinting of some of the scarcer pamphlets on the subject. The 
MS. here printed is apparently anonymous. Mr. Green dates it as late sixteenth 
or early seventeenth century ; it was, therefore, written at a time when the manorial 
system had suffered very little change from its first institution in England. The 
author, as it seems to us, was clearly a lawyer and well versed in manorial law ; 
some of the theories he puts forward are not now accepted, but on the whole he is 
singularly free from the fantastic notions found in many writers of the period. We 
know that barristers of good practice, and even Serjeants, were not above acting as 
stewards of manors, and we should judge that the author was probably such an 
one. The treatise is not always easy reading, and the scarcity of stops does not 
tend to make it easier. It is too highly technical to be used as an elementary text- 
book, but the advanced student will read it with advantage. 

LONDON'S LURE ; an Anthology in Prose and Verse. By Helen and 
Lewis Melville. George Bell and Sons; pp. 328; 35-. 6d. net. 

An interesting collection of prose and poetry, garnered from a wide range of 
authors, and grouped under various headings. The items are well selected and' 
arranged. The title-page and end-papers in pen and ink are very pretty; we would 
gladly mention the artist's name if we could read it ! 

1 60 


Publications of the Committee for the 

Survey of the Memorials of 

Greater London 

n. T. BA TSFORD has pleasure in announcing that he has 
secured a limited number of Copies of these important but little- 
known Publications, which he is able to offer, for tJie present, at the 
Special Prices mentioned. 


An Object Lesson in National History. With 13 full-page and 
folding Plates, comprising Pen Drawings, Original Lithographs, and 
Hand-Coloured Illustrations. 410, paper covers, as issued, 1896 
(pub. ;i is. net). Price TS. 6d. net. 

BROM LEY-BY-BOW: a Register of the Historic and 

Beautiful Landmarks of the Parish. With 36 full-page Plates, from 
Photographs and Drawings. 4to, paper covers, as issued, 1900 
(pub. i is. net). Price TS. 6d. net. 

page Illustrations. 4to, paper covers, as issued, 1903 (pub. ^i u. 
net). Price 95. 6d. net. 

BROOKE HOUSE, HACKNEY. With 9 full-page 

Illustrations, and a fine Etching of the Courtyard as Frontispiece. 
4to, paper covers, as issued, 1904 (pub. 15*. net). Price 55. net. 


With 8 full-page Illustrations, and a fine Etching of the Church as 
Frontispiece. 4to, paper covers, as issued, 1905 (pub. 15^. net). 
Price TS. 6d. net. 

The above Five Volumes offered for i los. net 
(published at 4 133.). 

These finely produced Monographs dealing with the remains of 
beautiful or historic buildings in Greater London are of the greatest 
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To secure Copies early application should be made, as the small 
stock is certain to be soon exhausted. 



SURVEY OF MIDDLESEX: With Tables showing the 
accuracy of that Survey compared with the Ordnance 
Survey. By MONTAGU SHARPE, of Gray's Inn, Barrister- 
at-Law, Chairman Middlesex Quarter Sessions. Quarto, 
26 pp. Post free, 2s. 6d. 

Uniform with the above, and by the same Author: 


MIDDLESEX DISTRICT. 20 pp., with Map. 2s. 6d. 


British, Roman, and Saxon Times. 105 pp., with Maps and 
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with Three Maps and Two Plans, I2S. net. 

The Itinerary of John Leland. 


Previously issued: Vol. I (containing Parts Mil), iSs. net; Vol. II 
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Vol. V, completing the work, is nearly ready. 

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quary an amusing and most instructive companion. " Westminster Gazette. 

New and Revised Edition. Demy 8v0, Ss. 6d. net. 

Life of Dean Colet, Founder of St. Paul's School. 


Surmaster of St. PauFs School, and formerly Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

With an Appendix of some of his English Writings, and a Facsimile 
Portrait taken from the Engraving in Holland's " Heroologia." 


Highways and Byways in Middlesex 

By WALTER JERROLD. With Illustrations by HUGH THOMSON, 
and a Map. Extra Crown 8vo, gilt top, 6s. 

\Highway and Byway Series 

PALL MALL GAZETTE : " Mr. Jerrold has achieved a triumph, in the shape of a record of the 
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desired more redolent than his sketches are of the bloom and fragrance of an England that is fast 
disappearing, or of the way in which a kindly soil and a slandered climate contrive to strew our way- 
sides still with greenery and beauty in the teeth of an age of science and unpicturesqueness. . . . his 
book, like its pictures, simply beams with broad good nature." 




(Near Mudie's Library and the British Museum) 

Have for sale a large Collection of OLD ENGLISH and FOREIGN 
ARMS and ARMOUR ; Weapons, Ornaments, etc., illustrating 
Savage Life; Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Antiquities Antique 
China, Pottery, Carved Oak, Metalwork, and Curiosities of all kinds. 

Commissions at Auction Sales undertaken. 






ESSEX 182 


MODERN . , , . . . V . . 191 



DOWNING STREET . . . ... . 220 

THE AUCHER FAMILY . . . V* . 222 
NOTES AND QUERIES .,,,.. ,235 

REVIEWS . . . , , . . . 237 


It is particularly requested that all communications for the Editor be 
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Copies of some of the Plates which have appeared in the Magazine are 
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The Princess Pocahontas. 
From an old print. 



THE discovery of human remains, pronounced by an 
expert to be those of an Indian female of high 
degree, near the site of the old chapel of St. Mary, at 
Gravesend, has done nothing to settle the old dispute as to 
the burial of Pocahontas, but it has drawn attention to the 
intensely interesting story of the Indian Princess who came 
to so untimely an end at Gravesend. It has been a matter 
of great uncertainty where she was buried, but the question 
will be dealt with later on in the present article. 

Pocahontas, the daughter of the chief, Powhatan, was born 
at the end of the sixteenth century, most probably in 1595. 
Her real name was " Matoaka," but, following the practice of 
her people, who lived in superstitious fear of spirits, this was 
hidden from the colonists of Virginia, and the better-known 
name of Pocahontas bestowed upon her. A great deal of 
misconception regarding the condition and standing of her 
father has always existed, chiefly owing to the fatuity of 
King James I. Powhatan was acknowledged as the most 
powerful of the chiefs living in the vicinity of James River. 
This fact was communicated to the King, who was unable to 
appreciate the circumstances of savage life. Powhatan was 
obviously an emperor; and, to establish the fact, King James 
sent over a copper-gilt crown and some almost worthless 
presents. The chief fact thus impressed upon the mind of 
the savage chief was his own importance. This naturally led 
to arrogance, a great increase in the magnitude of his unful- 
filled promises, and a notable increase in his demands, which 
were in reality thefts, from the struggling colonists. 

Powhatan's story has very little in common with that of 
Pocahontas, but so much it was necessary to state to make 
clear the more interesting account of Matoaka. 

The other strand of the story was woven in London, by the 
foundation of the London Virginia Company in 1606. 

John Smith was born in 1580 at Willoughby, in Lincoln- 
shire. He attended school at Alford, but later on was sent to 
the Grammar School at Louth. On the death of his father, 
followed soon after by that of his mother, Smith was sent by 

VOL. XI. 161 M 


his guardian, George Mettham, to the office of a shipper 
named Sendall, at King's Lynn. He soon tired of office 
work, however, and at fifteen or sixteen years of age, he 
started out on the high road to fortune. He passed through 
numerous adventures in various parts of the Continent, then 
in a very unsettled state. Some of these have been subjected 
to severe criticism, and their authenticity disputed by some of 
Smith's commentators. He returned to England in 1604. 
About this time he was attacked with the " colony " fever. 
He spent some time in obtaining all the information he could 
that related to the " New Lands," and in 1606 the London 
Virginia Company was formed with a royal charter. This 
was largely due to the exertions of Smith and those whom 
he had interested in his schemes. On December 19, 1606, 
three ships were sent out, the " Susan Constant," the admiral's 
ship, the " Godspeed," and the " Discovery." The voyage 
was not a happy one. Smith was put in irons, and threatened 
with hanging. 

This fleet, of two ships and a pinnace, for the " Discovery " 
was only of twenty tons burden, cast anchor in Chesapeake 
Bay on the 25th of April, 1607. The crews forced a landing 
in the face of the opposition of the Indians, and opened the 
sealed orders under which the colonists had sailed. It was 
then found that Smith had been appointed to a seat on the 
Council acting in Virginia. In this way the colonists settled 
in Virginia and founded Jamestown. 

While their stores remained the colonists lived on them, 
eating even their seeds. When these were done, they bewailed 
their lot and took very few measures to supply their wants. 
Smith was perhaps the only settler who realized their needs, 
but even he was unable to do anything to make the colonists 
thrifty and industrious. For some years this was the history 
of the men sent out by the London Virginia Company ; men, 
for the most part, failures at home, ignorant of farming and 
unused to work. They lived on the fat of the stores when a 
ship reached them, and on the charity of the Indians when 
they were without food. Their sufferings excited the pity of 
Pocahontas, and, accompanied by " braves," she brought them 
corn and other food-stuffs. 

These kindnesses were only possible following on the better 
relations Smith had established with their savage neighbours, 
when his influence increased. Smith was captured by one 
of the tribes, when on an exploring expedition. After 



the " medicine men " failed to arrive at a decision, he was 
brought before Powhatan, the over-chief, at Wesowocomoco, 
an Indian village not far from Jamestown. 

Powhatan had no serious doubts about the matter, and 
ordered Smith's execution. Pocahontas pleaded, but in vain, 
for his release. The primitive method of executing a captive 
was to lay his head on one stone and beat out his brains with 
another. Pocahontas at once threw herself on Smith and 
covered him, and, so the story goes, Powhatan pardoned the 
captive on condition that two of the culverins should be 
given to the " braves " who would accompany him to James- 
town. Knowing that they would be unable to carry them 
away, Smith readily promised this. 

The colony had met with so many misfortunes during 
Smith's captivity, that the settlers were on the point of 
putting to sea in the pinnace. Smith prevented this, how- 
ever, and Pocahontas's gifts enabled them to tide over the 
period intervening before the arrival of the " Phoenix " from 
England. The London Council sent out gold miners and 
glass-blowers, but still the colony did not prosper. 

Powhatan fixed upon swords and muskets as the only 
legal tender for the purchase of corn. Of course this was a 
prohibitive price, and Smith set out on a trading expedition 
up the river Pannukey. This met with no success, although 
it was known that the Indians had abundance of corn. So 
far had the relations between the colonists and the Indians 
suffered, by the deceit of the latter on the one hand, and the 
vacillation of the former on the other, that a night attack was 
planned to exterminate Smith and his comrades just before 
they returned from this fruitless expedition. Pocahontas 
learned the secret, and warned Smith of the impending 
danger. As a result of this, Smith let the enemy know that 
he had discovered the plan, and so prevented its being put 
into operation. Already the Indians had begun to view 
Smith as something more than man, and a surprise seemed 
the only means of effecting his death. Another attempt was 
made, with a large number of braves, to secure him, but this 
also failed. 

Soon after, however, Smith was accidentally or intentionally 
blown up by the explosion of a bag of gunpowder. It was 
feared that his injuries would prove fatal, but he recovered 
sufficiently to return to England where he was completely 
cured. Pocahontas missed her friend, and inquired for him 



at Jamestown. She was told that Smith was dead, and a 
newly made grave was pointed out to her as that of the 
intrepid captain. 

The presents of corn ceased from that time, and the interest 
of the colony so far as Pocahontas is concerned, ceased with 
this, until 1612. 

From this period the story has a greater interest, as 
Pocahontas is the chief figure in it. The Governors of the 
Colony had relinquished Smith's vigorous policy, and, in 
consequence suffered considerably from the arrogance of the 
chief Powhatan, when Captain Argall, who had entered the 
river with a store-ship, succeeded in capturing Pocahontas, 
now about seventeen years old, by a subterfuge, not to call 
his method by a worse name. For one reason or another, 
possibly because he knew no harm would come to her, 
Powhatan refused to redeem his daughter with fresh 
promises. The princess quickly settled down to the life 
and ways of the English, with whom indeed she had always 
shown herself in sympathy. She adopted the dress of the 
few Englishwomen in the colony, learned the language, and 
endeavoured to adapt herself to the ways of her captors. 

This went on for two years, until the time when she was 
married to John Rolfe, a prominent colonist. The idea 
appears to have been that the union would create and 
cement a friendship between the two peoples. The project 
appears to have met with some success, as there is no doubt 
that both before and after her marriage Pocahontas did more 
than any other to establish amicable relations between her own 
people and the whites. Rolfe came of an old Norfolk family. 
He and his first wife had met with bad weather and heavy 
misfortunes on their voyage to Virginia, with the result that 
she had succumbed in 1610. 

Matoaka, who had been dubbed Pocahontas, was now, in 
1614, baptised into the Christian faith in the name of Rebecca, 
and was then generally known as the Lady Rebecca. This 
period of her life is commemorated in the mural decorations 
on the Capitol Buildings at Washington. 

A son was born to them, and in 1616 the little family of 
three undertook the voyage to England, in company with 
Sir Thomas Dale and a few of Powhatan's " braves," one of 
whom was instructed by his chief to " count the number of 
the English." As the daughter of " Emperor " Powhatan, 
as well as on account of the benefits she had secured for the 



Virginian settlers, Pocahontas was well received. Smith had 
written a pamphlet about her as soon as he had learned of the 
visit, and this had been sent broadcast about the country. 
Lady Rebecca was entertained by the Bishop of London, 
then Dr. King, and presented at the Court of the King, 
James I. 

It was not, however, all plain sailing. James, knowing he 
had conferred the title of "Emperor" on the old chief, 
together with a cruse of oil for his anointing, and a 
copper-gilt crown, was not quite sure that Rolfe had not 
committed treason by marrying the daughter of a foreign 
potentate; and so Rolfe came as little as possible before 
the King's notice. The health of the Princess suffered con- 
siderably at this time, and she left London for Brentford, 
then a place of some renown and beauty, and noted for its 

Captain Smith, who still enjoyed a sufficiently good income 
in spite of the misfortunes that had dogged his steps since he 
left Virginia, had taken up his residence at Brentford, and as 
a pleasant surprise for the Princess a meeting was arranged 
between them. Pocahontas was still in ignorance that her 
friend was still alive, and when she again saw the man whom 
for so many years she had thought dead, she suffered a severe 
revulsion of feeling. As the story goes she is supposed to 
have ejaculated the one word, " Father." The shock of this 
meeting is said to have broken her heart; but, doubtless, the 
change from the free air of the Virginian forests to the London 
of the early seventeenth century had already undermined her 
health. At all events she did not see Virginia again, and 
her little son, Thomas, was left behind and brought up by his 
uncle, Henry Rolfe, until, when he was twenty-five years of 
age, he too went out to Virginia. 

The rest of the pathetic story has a large amount of uncer- 
tainty in it. By one account she is said to have left London by 
the King's ship " George," and to have died before the vessel 
reached the open sea, being brought ashore at Gravesend. 
Another version states that she followed the usual practice 
of passengers of distinction, and travelled from London by 
coach to pick up the " George " at Gravesend, the last land in 
England ; but was taken suddenly ill at an inn, situated at a 
corner of what is now Stone Street. It is not known with 
certainty what malady she died of, but it is very generally 
believed to have been smallpox. Which version is correct is 


not a matter of great importance. There is no doubt that she 
was buried in the river-side town. The following entry in the 
parish register: " 1616. March 2J, [old style] Rebecca 
Wrolfe, wyffe of Thomas Wrolfe, gent, a Virginian lady 
borne, here was buried in ye Chauncell," would appear not 
only to settle the fact that she was buried in Gravesend, but 
to indicate clearly where the body was buried. Unfortunately 
this is not so. The then Parish Church of St. George's was 
situated where the present church now stands, and if it could 
be shown that the " Chauncell " of the register was the same 
as that in the church, there would be no difficulty in fixing 
upon the position of the grave, in spite of the fact that the 
church was destroyed by fire in 1727. The church of 
St. Mary was then standing where the White Post Inn is 
now situated, and a comparatively large burial ground 
surrounded it. At that time the minister of St. George's 
was the Rev. Nicholas Trankwell, who no doubt performed 
the Service. St. George's had been made the parish church 
as early as 1544, by a grant of Henry VIII, but St. Mary's 
Church still stood. 

If the Princess died of the dread disease which was so much 
feared in England at that time, there is some ground for 
those who contend that instead of being buried in a vault in 
the chancel of St. George's, her remains were interred in the 
farthest point of the burial ground of St. Mary's Church 
then nearly a mile from the town and almost isolated. The 
discovery of the bones already referred to has given great 
support to this theory ; but it can scarcely be described as 
conclusive. At the same time it must be admitted that very 
little is known regarding this early church on the outskirts of 
the town. 

The present parish church contains a memorial tablet to 
the unfortunate Princess, and the Virginians are exceedingly 
anxious to erect a more enduring and substantial monument 
to one whom they regard as amongst their greatest women. 
The project has been broached several times, but up to the 
present nothing has been done, chiefly on account of the 
uncertainty surrounding the place of her burial. 

1 66 



OF all those districts lining the northern heights of 
London which have, during the last decade or so, 
become annexed to the great capital of the world, 
none, perhaps, has withstood the march of so-called progress 
so effectively or has been longer in a state of transition, than 
the pretty little village of Southgate. Neighbouring and out- 
lying districts, thanks to the speculative builder and other 
unsentimental wreckers, have been completely robbed of their 
rurality ; in other words swallowed up whole, and thus 
qualified to become portions of the mighty everspreading 
metropolis ; but Southgate has, for a long time, made a brave 
fight against such unwarrantable desecration. Even now, 
surrounded as it is on all sides by sunny suburbia and other 
outward indications of increasing and excessive modernity, 
Southgate is still successful in retaining a little of that 
individuality which characterized it of yore, and we may 
rejoice that it yet has spots which have altered but little 
during the last half century. 

Standing on a sunny morning by the village green and the 
quaint old Cherry Tree Inn with the tall massive trees and 
surrounding greenery rustling in the gentle breeze, the 
picturesque old cottages and shops that line the High Street, 
the spire of the handsome parish church towering far above 
the highest trees one might well believe himself anywhere 
but near modernity as he enjoys its restful calm and quietude. 
Yet only a few yards down the road there stretches a fashion- 
able parade of new shops and the ever-present electric tram ! 
The beauty of this ancient spot has ofttimes been recorded, 
notably by H. Crabb Robinson, who laudably sang its praises, 
and Sir Augustus Hare, who devotes a whole chapter to 
Southgate in his Story of my Life, of whom more anon. 
There is one account, however, that is in no wise omitted in 
every publication descriptive of the district ; to write an article 
on Southgate without its inclusion, would be only to prove 
that article hopelessly incomplete. Indeed, so often has it been 
employed, that it has become almost hackneyed if such words 
can be hackneyed ! It may not, however, be altogether out 
of place in this unpretentious survey. I refer to the words 


of the litterateur and poet, Leigh Hunt, who was born at 
Southgate. He says : " It is a pleasure to me to know that I 
was ever born in so sweet a village as Southgate. I first saw 
light there on the iQth October, 1784. It found me cradled 
not only in the lap of nature which I love, but in the midst 
of all the truly English scenery which I love beyond all other. 
Middlesex in general ... is a scene of trees and meadows of 
greenery and nestling cottages, and Southgate is a prime speci- 
men of Middlesex. It is a place lying out of the way of innova- 
tion, therefore it has the pure sweet air of antiquity about it." 

It must be admitted that these words are sweet, and the name 
of their distinguished author certainly enhances their value. 

Southgate derives its name from its situation at the southern 
extremity of the once royal Chase of Enfield. In many old 
books it is referred to as " South Street," but with the lapse 
of time it received its present appellation. The district was 
for a long time nothing more than waste and forest land, 
whilst the perpetuation of such names as "Chase Side," 
" Chase Road," and " Chase Riding," still serve to connect the 
neighbourhood with the famous old-time sport indulged in by 
our ancestors in the great Forest of Middlesex. 

Southgate is now a populous district of some 28,000 souls; 
it is bounded on the north by Enfield and Winchmore Hill, 
on the south by Wood Green, on the east by Barnet, and on 
the west by Edmonton. 

New Southgate is a district of recent growth lying to the 
south of the old village, which was formerly designated Colney 
Hatch. The exact meaning of this term is rather doubtful, 
but it may be found mentioned in a Court Roll of the time of 
Henry VII. In all probability it had reference to a gateway 
or other entrance to the Enfield Chase. Instances of the word 
" Hatch" may be found elsewhere, notably the " Pilgrims' 
Hatch," near Brentwood, which is a standing landmark to the 
great Forest of Waltham. 

The Lunatic Asylum of the County of London, which was 
erected at Colney Hatch in 1841, in conjunction with the 
advent of the Great Northern Railway, thirty years later, has 
perhaps done more than anything else to turn the neighbour- 
hood from the pleasing hamlet that it once was, into the 
modern residential district that it is to-day. 

The Asylum, which occupies a site to the west of the 
railway station, is a plain structure, in the Italian style, 
devoid of all ornamentation, erected from the designs of 

1 68 


Mr. S. W. Bankes. It originally occupied something like 
four acres of ground, but it has since been considerably 
enlarged. The chapel, a large oblong room, is situated in the 
centre of the north front of the building. The late Prince 
Consort laid the foundation stone in 1841, and the institution 
was opened for the receipt of patients two years later. It will 
be readily seen that the staff necessary for a large asylum 
created a great influx to the population of Southgate. 

The earliest and most important place of worship in South- 
gate was the Weld Chapel. Previous to the seventeenth 
century the inhabitants of the village had journeyed across 
to Edmonton to perform their devotions; but in 1615 Sir 
John Weld, a descendant of the distinguished Weld family of 
Lulworth Castle, and one of the most important residents of 
Southgate at that time, erected a chapel to serve the needs of 
his household and the populace of Southgate, in the grounds 
of his estate, then called Arnolds. It is recorded that the 
length of this edifice was 42 feet, while in breadth it measured 
20 feet. It was formally consecrated on 24th May, 1615, 
by Dr. John King, the then Bishop of London. It was estab- 
lished : " . . f . Saving always the right and interest of the 
mother Church, in the parish whereof the said chapel or oratory 
aforesaid is placed and situated, in all and singular tithes, 
oblations, wages, profits, privileges, rights and emoluments 
whatsoever, ordinary and extraordinary, to the said mother 
church of right or custom in any wise due or accustomed or 
belonging or appertaining, and there being reserved to the 
said John Weld, Esq., his heirs and assigns, free and full 
power a fit priest from time to time to nominate and appoint 
to the said chapel, for the performing and celebrating the 
divine offices aforesaid in the same chapel, by our episcopal 
authority and of our successors from time to time to be 
appointed and limited, the assent and consent of the Vicar of 
the said mother church for the time being, and his successors, 
first being requested and the oath of the said priest testified, 
all and which singular things we so reserve by these presents. 
The inhabitants to receive the sacrament on Easter day at the 
mother church, and not in the chapel without license, and no 
baptism or marriage shall be solemnised without the assent 
and consent of the Vicar of the mother church and the 
possessor of Arnolds." 

It will thus be seen that the patronage of the chapel was 
given into the hands of its founder and his descendants, 



who, in conjunction with the Vicar of the mother church at 
Edmonton, were to appoint a curate to its charge, and his 
stipend was stipulated as being not less than 2" 13 6s. %d. 
Sir John Weld died eight years later, and by his will directed 
that his body was to be buried " in my late erected chapel, 
near unto my mansion house, called Arnolds." He also 
bequeathed a sum of something like 550 in favour of the 
chapel, which was to be invested, and the produce disposed 
of in the following manner: "twenty marks to the curate; 
twenty marks to poor kindred ; twelve pence weekly in bread ; 
ten shillings to the clerk; the remainder to be employed in 
repairing the chapel or increasing the salary of the curate." 
If there were no applications to the curate for poor relief, the 
twenty marks set apart for that purpose were to go to him. 
Sir John also provided for the erection of a domicile in the 
neighbourhood for the curate. In 1625 his widow, Dame 
Frances Weld, contributed a sum of 20 towards the better 
maintenance of the clergyman, and in December of that year 
she procured of one Henry Rastell some property in Essex 
called Ossett, by means of which the chapel was subsequently 
endowed. Some years later a silver cup was presented to the 
chapel by Dame Frances, on the foot of which was engraved, 
" The guift of the Lady Frances Weld, anno 1639." In May, 
1645, the Weld Chapel came into the possession of Sir William 
Acton, Bart, to whom Dame Frances sold it with other pro- 
perty, and the estate of Arnolds. The words of the deed of 
conveyance were: 

We give and grant for us and our heirs, unto Sir William 
Acton, Bart., and his heirs and assigns for ever, all our and 
every of our estate, right, tithe, interest, claim and demand 
of in, all to all, that chapel, chancel, seats and burying 
place in the new erected chapel of Edmonton, near to the 
capital messuage called Arnolds, which we have sold to the 
said Sir William Acton, his heirs, and assigns for ever. 

It is generally supposed that the price paid by Sir William 
Acton for the property was .3,600. It is interesting to note 
that in this conveyance no mention is made of the power to 
nominate a minister to the chapel, this being eventually the 
cause of a dispute. Perhaps Dame Frances Weld reserved 
this right, but whether she did or no, it remains a fact that the 
family never availed themselves of the privilege. In 1722 the 
Rev. William Washbourn, Vicar of Edmonton, made applica- 
tion to Margaret Weld to nominate a minister to the custody 



of the chapel, and, on her refusing, he himself appointed the 
Rev. James Kilner. The chapel was enlarged by the addition 
of a north aisle in 1715, and for the carrying out of this 311 
was raised by public subscription. On the application of the 

inhabitants of Southgate and the Rev. Harrison, the 

then chaplain, in 1732, the Bishop of London granted a faculty 
to demolish the minister's house for the purpose of further 
extending the chapel. Eventually Weld Chapel descended 
into the hands of Sir George Colebrooke. It would appear 
that his trustees disposed of it in 1774 to the Rev. Henry 
Shepherd for 525. This gentleman held it until 1784, when 
he sold it to the Rev. William Barclay for 1,000; thus 
making a clear profit of ^475. Two years later Mr. Barclay 
accepted ^"1,175 for it, from Robert Winbolt, a lawyer, of 
Enfield. He presented the living to his son, the Rev. Thomas 
Winbolt, and although he referred to the matter in his will, 
bequeathing the chapel to his wife, Elizabeth, it seems that he 
did not draw up a separate nomination in writing. The 
Rev. T. Winbolt officiated as Incumbent of Weld Chapel 
until his death in 1813, when his mother, claiming the right 
of presentation, nominated the Rev. S. W. Curtis, nephew 
of Sir William Curtis, of Cullands Grove. The Vicar of 
Edmonton, the Rev. Dawson Warren, on hearing of the 
appointment, objected. He took possession of the chapel, 
and gave out that he should keep charge of it until a new 
incumbent had been legally appointed. An action was begun 
by Mrs. Winbolt, in the Court of King's Bench, to compel the 
Vicar to give up the chapel, and it was arranged on the 
7th July, 1841, that the suit should be tried ; but before the 
trial, Mrs. Winbolt ceded all right to the chapel to the Vicar 
of Edmonton, as appears by the following letter : 

No. 4, Copthall Buildings. 

March i, 1815. 

In compliance of the advice of my solicitor, Mr. Wadeson, 
I hereby acquaint you that I have abandoned this suit, and 
give up all my pretensions to the right of nominating a clergy- 
man to officiate in the Southgate Chapel. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

To the Rev. Mr. Warren, 



The Rev. Davvson Warren was thus left in entire possession 
of the Weld Chapel, and he and his assistant curates continued 
to officiate until 1829, when the Rev. Thomas Sale was ap- 
pointed to the charge. He resigned after eight years' service, 
and was succeeded by the Rev. Vincent Stanton, who made 
further alterations in the structure in 1830, consisting of a new 
roof, chancel, and pews, the total cost of which amounted to 
1,868-10*. nd. 

Owing to the growth of Southgate, it was found about 1860 
that Weld Chapel was quite inadequate to cope with the in- 
creasing congregation; so the Rev. James Baird, the then In- 
cumbent, erected a handsome stone edifice in the Early English 
style, from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A. The building 
is lofty, with north and south aisles and chancel. There are two 
stained glass windows at the east end of the north aisle, by 
Burne-Jones, and another at the west end of the south aisle 
by Rossetti. There are in the church, among others, the follow- 
ing memorial windows: 




There is also a memorial tablet to the Rev. James Baird, 
the first Vicar of the Church, and a window to his successor, 
the Rev. C. F. Wilson: 










In 1906 Vyell E. Walker, of Arnos Grove, at his own ex- 
pense, converted the north transept into a Lady Chapel, in 
memory of his parents; he died before its completion, and the 
following tablet was set up to his memory: 



The tower contains a peal of fine toned bells, and also a set 
of Cambridge chimes, which were installed as a souvenir of 
the late Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1887. Christ Church, 
Southgate, is indeed one of the most handsome parish churches 
to be seen, standing as it does amidst pleasant surroundings, 
with its massive spire towering far above the tallest greenery. 
Nothing remains to mark the site of the old Weld Chapel, 
except a space in the churchyard devoid of graves. 

One of the chief places of interest in Southgate at the present 
time is Broomfield Park. The historic old mansion Broomfield, 
or Bromfield, House, together with the fine grounds, comprising 
about fifty odd acres, was purchased by the Southgate Urban 
District Council, in 1903, for the sum of 2 5,000, and turned 
into a public park. The Middlesex County Council contributed 
6,250 towards the purchase. The early history of the site is 
shrouded in mystery, but it is generally supposed to have been 
a monastery adjacent to the great Forest of Middlesex. The 
front of the house looks out on to three large lakes, and there 
is no doubt that in the " good old times " the monks could have 
been seen fishing here on a Thursday. 

It is probable that when Bluff King Hal dealt hardly with 
the conventual establishments of the country he granted 
Broomfield House to one of his courtiers, a supposition which 
is borne out by the fact of the present structure being of Tudor 
design. It is said that King James I was in the habit of using 
the place as a hunting box whilst following his favourite sport 



The mansion was for some time the home of the Skeffingtons, 
and later the Jacksons owned it for three centuries; a de- 
scendant of the latter family marrying William Tash, it eventu- 
ally came into his hands. In later years it was the residence 
of Sir Ralph Littler, K.C. 

The interior of the edifice is very fine, nearly all the walls 
being panelled with oak, and there is a handsome old oak ] 
staircase bearing some exquisite carving. The staircase walls ! 
and ceiling are adorned with valuable frescoes, representing 
the four seasons. These were executed by Sir James Thornhill, 
who is chiefly remembered for his decorations at St. Paul's, 
Greenwich Palace, Hampton Court, etc. 

The ground floor consists of seven large rooms, a curious 
little ante-room resembling a secret chamber, and the usual 
household offices. Here are the drawing-room, dining-room, 
and a billiard room, the doors of which are of solid oak and of; 
an unusual thickness; at least two of the apartments contain 
very good oak mantlepieces, ornamented with handsome 
carving. The floor above contains fifteen smaller rooms. 

The spacious grounds contain some very fine trees, notably 
a, long avenue of ancient elms, which is supposed to have! 
formerly been the western approach to the Royal Chase of j 
Enfield. There are also two yew trees considerably over 800 
years old, while better examples of Scotch fir and green oak 
would be difficult to find. As has been previously stated,. 
Broomfield House was purchased from Mr. Powys Sybbe, con- 
verted into a public recreation ground, and formally dedicated\] 
to " the public as an open space for ever " on 23rd April, 1903. 
The house is now used as a Secondary School. 

Adjoining Broomfield Park are the house and grounds of : 
Arnos Grove, at one time called Arnolds. In 1610 the estate 
was possessed by Sir John Weld, who has been spoken oft 
previously in connection with the Weld Chapel. The property] 
came by purchase into the hands of Sir William Acton in 1620,, 
and from that time until a century later little is known of its* 
history. At his death Arnos Grove was inherited by his only 
daughter, who married Sir William Whitmore. Their only som 
William, who subsequently became possessed of it, died with-] 
out issue and bequeathed the estate to a relative, Thomas j 

In 1720 Mr. James Colebrooke purchased Arnos Grove, his 
son, Sir George Colebrooke, eventually inheriting it. It would! 
appear that previous to his purchase James Colebrooke took| 



a lease of Arnos Grove and other lands in Southgate for a 
period of three years from Oliver Horseman of Hatton Gar- 
den, M.D., executor of Sir Samuel Blewitt of Edmonton, knt., 
and guardian of his infant son and heir, John Blewitt. The 
property is described as " All that capitall messuage or man- 
sion house, with the outhouses, orchards, gardens and curtilages 
thereunto belonging, with the appurtenances, in South Street 
I alias Southgate, late in the possession or occupation of the 
said Sir Samuell Blewitt," etc. Among the fixtures were " a 
sideboard with an iron foot," " a hatchment and a picture of the 
Sargeants yeoman," " twelve pictures of the Apostles and two 
Escutcheons," " a sideboard with an iron legg," a " Chimney 
sett with Dutch Tyles," " a Draught of the house in a picture," 
and " twelve leather bucketts hanging on peggs." 

Mr. James Colebrooke is generally supposed to have de- 
stroyed the old structure and commenced the erection of a new 
one, but dying while the work was in progress, his son Sir 
George completed it. He afterwards sold the mansion and 
grounds to Abraham Hume, for ; 10,302 5^. 

The next owner was Sir William Mayne, Bart, afterwards 
created Lord Newhaven, who greatly improved the premises 
and added a new wing; this being about the year 1776. 
John Brown, Esq., was the next owner of Arnos Grove, but 
it was soon purchased from him by Mr. Isaac Walker, and it 
has remained in the possession of the Walker family to the 
present time. 

The Walkers were great lovers of our national game of 
cricket, and Tom Walker, a member of the old Hambledon 
Club is credited with the invention in 1785 of the round or 
straight arm bowling in distinction to the old underhand 
method. The discovery was, however, suppressed at the time 
owing to jealousy and professional prejudice, but it was revived 
in 1805. 

The mansion contains some exceptionally fine apartments, 
and in the dining and drawing rooms there are two valuable 
Sicilian jasper mantlepieces, made in Italy, one of them con- 
sisting of a magnificent statuary mask of Apollo. 

Arnos Grove also boasts a picturesque old staircase de- 
corated by Lanscroon with the triumphal entry of Julius 
Caesar into Rome ; it was also noted for a large and valuable 
collection of paintings, Etruscan vases, and relics from 
Herculaneum and Pompeii. 

The grounds a century or so ago comprised 100 acres, 



covered with beautiful timber, including some cedars ol 
Lebanon, and tall Weymouth pines; the whole being beauti- 
fully watered by the New River. 

Beaver Hall was another handsome seat of Southgate 
occupying a site close to Arnos Grove. It came by purchas 
into the hands of Mr. John Walker in 1870, and he pull< 
down the house and included the land in his estate. Formerly 
the residence of the Schneider family, Beaver Hall was finally- 
possessed by a wealthy railway contractor named Joseph 

The mansion and park of Cannons or Cullands Grove wa< 
situated close to Alderman's Hill, which derived its name 
from Sir William Curtis, an Alderman of the City of London, 
and Lord Mayor in 1795. He resided here for many years, 
and, on being created a Baronet in 1802, was described as 
"of Cullands Grove, Southgate." Sir William Curtis was 
born in 1752, and had the distinction of being elected Alder- 
man for Tower Ward when only thirty-three years of ag< 
In 1790 he was elected M.P. for the City, a position which he 
filled without interruption for twenty-eight years. He was a 
man of great political importance and influence, and when th( 
Tories became unpopular in 1818, he, as the head of that 
party, suffered also by losing his seat. To alleviate his di 
pointment he was offered a peerage as Lord Tenterden, whicl 
he promptly refused. Compensation for his defeat, however, 
was tendered to him at a special meeting of the Drapers' 
Company of which he was a Liveryman at Drapers' Hall 
where he was presented with an illuminated address, a gol< 
snuff-box, and a purse containing two hundred guineas. Tw( 
years later he received the honour of re-election to Parliament 
as Member for the City. Sir William was very popular amonj 
royalty, and whilst accompanying George IV to Scotland ii 
1822, the King, as a mark of appreciation, presented him wi1 
his portrait, inscribed : " G. R. to his faithful and loyal subject, 
Sir William Curtis." 

He is considered to have been the most caricatured per- 
sonage of his time, and although a great public man and 
mover in the tlite of Society, it would appear that he 
exceedingly ignorant. The following anecdote, which is quot( 
on the authority of a contemporary historian of the neighbour- 
hood, goes to prove this : " . . . when his royal patron was 
dining at Cullands Grove, a Mr. Cox being of the party, Sii 




William proceeded to toast His Majesty and the commoner 
in one health and in these words ' Here 's to the three C's 
King, Cox and Curtis.' " 

Bowes Park, that latest exponent of all that is up-to-date 
in modern suburbia, now marks the site of Bowes Manor, at 
one time the residence of Thomas Wilde, who was Lord 
Chancellor in 1850, and in that year created Baron Truro of 
Bowes Manor, Middlesex. The first mention of the property 
occurs in a deed dated 1397, in which a citizen of London, by 
name John Northampton, " grants the manors of Bowes and 
Darnford with Pole House and Fordes" to one William 
Horsecroft. The manor of Bowes was owned in the reign of 
Henry IV by Sir John Danbriggecomb, who granted it to 
Thomas Langley, Bishop of Durham, and Ralph Nevile, Earl 
of Westmorland. In 1413 Bowes and other manors were 
conceded to the Crown, and it appears that they were after- 
wards made over to St. Paul's Cathedral, for in 1428 the 
Dean and Chapter granted them on lease to one William 
Bothe. Sir Edward Barkham owned Bowes Manor for some 
time, and in 1694 Robert Frampton was lessee. Other tenants 
were John Dashwood King and Sir James Pennyman about 
1750, Mr. Hare in 1777, Mr. Berdmore in 1780, and eventually 
Mr. Julius Hutchinson, from whom it was purchased about 
1819 by William Tash, sometime owner of Broomfield House. 
Afterwards Bowes Manor came into the possession of Lord 
Truro. He is worthy of notice for the exceptional rapidity 
with which he rose in the public service. Entering parliament 
in 1831 as Member for Newmarket, he attained the position 
of Solicitor-General in 1840; Attorney-General in the follow- 
ing year, and finally Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas 
in 1846. It must be admitted that this was a feat of which 
any man might be proud. He lost his parliamentary seat, 
however, in the general election of 1832, but regained it in 
1835, and held it until 1841. He was one of the earliest sup- 
porters of Sir Rowland Hill's postal reform scheme, which he 
himself introduced into the House of Commons in 1843; he 
also supported a measure in the following year for the total 
suppression of the slave trade. Lord Truro died in 1 85 5 , and was 
buried at St. Lawrence, near Ramsgate. His valuable law 
library was presented by his widow to the House of Lords. 
During the time of Lord Truro's possession of Bowes Manor 
the grounds comprised seventy acres, and to the south of the 

VOL. xi. 177 N 


mansion there was a beautiful grove walk, lined by an avenue 
of tall and majestic trees. The house, some time before its 
demolition, was the residence of Alderman Sidney, who served 
the office of Lord Mayor in 1853-4. 

Southgate Grove or, as it is now designated, Grovelands 
was erected at the beginning of the last century by Walker 
Gray, Esq., who employed as architect Thomas Nash. The 
building is mainly Ionic in its design, and is encompassed by 
undulating pleasure grounds, which are very pleasing in their 
effect as they gradually fall to a piece of water. The mansion 
can claim the distinction of possessing three names within 
half a century. Originally called Southgate Grove, the name 
was changed by J. Donnithorne Taylor grandfather of the 
present owner to Woodlands, and again in 1850 it was re- 
christened Grovelands. The original gates of the mansion 
now form the entrance to Broomfield Park, and are inscribed 
the " village gates." 

Southgate House happily still exists, but, beyond its size 
and beautiful estate, there is little of historic interest attach- 
ing to it. One of the Walker family lived and died here in 

It is with regret that one recollects Minchenden House, 
because it was one of the finest seats that Southgate possessed. 
The mansion was intimately associated with the Duke of 
Chandos, who, after the demolition of his other residence, 
Canons, at Edgware, came to reside at Southgate. It was 
erected about 1747 a large brick building shut out from the 
high road by a large wall or fence by one John Nicholl, who, 
however, only lived to complete it. His daughter, who inherited 
the property, married in 1753 James, third Duke of Chandos, 
who had been appointed Ranger of Enfield Chase. She died 
in 1768. After her death Minchenden House became the 
occasional residence of the Dowager Duchess of Chandos 
until her decease in 1813. The house then came into the 
possession of the Marquis of Buckingham, through his wife, 
who was the heiress of the last Duke of Chandos. In 1853 
Mr. Isaac Walker became possessed of the property, and in 
that year he destroyed the house and added the grounds to 
his estate of Arnos Grove. To reach the entrance of this fine 
old mansion, one had to traverse a broad gravel path, running 
by the side of the New River, and then through a shrubbery 



O ^ 


C O 


that led on to the lawn. A massive old pollard oak known as 
the Chandos oak is still in existence, and is said to cover more 
ground than any other tree in England, its spread measuring 
no less than 1 36 feet ; it is still increasing. 

Although Minchenden House is now no more, there still 
exists a smaller structure called Minchenden Lodge, originally 
a small cottage, a little to the north of the site; this was 
enlarged some time after the demolition of the old mansion, 
some of its materials being utilized for this purpose. It was 
here that the late Queen and Prince Consort stayed for refresh- 
ment when they laid the foundation stone of Colney Hatch 
Lunatic Asylum. 

Queen Elizabeth's Lodge was for a period of half a century 
or so inhabited by the Rev. Charles Bradley, the elder brother 
of the late Dean of Westminster, who conducted a school 
there. There is a tradition that " Good Queen Bess " was 
accustomed to watch the hunting from the garden of the 
Lodge, hence its name. Sir Augustus Hare speaks of it in his 
Story of my Life. He says: " His [Mr. Bradley's] house was 
an ugly brick villa, standing a little way back from the road, 
in the pretty village of Southgate, about ten miles from 
London. . . . The life at Southgate for the next two years 
was certainly the reverse of luxurious, and I did not get on 
well with my tutor, owing to his extraordinary peculiarities, 
and probably to my own faults also ; but I feel that mentally 
I owe everything to Mr. Bradley." 

The New River flows through Southgate. With the growth 
of London at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the 
means for the supply of pure water had become totally in- 
adequate. Complaints had been raised from time to time, and 
even Acts of Parliament passed in 1605 and 1606, authorizing 
the making of a stream from the springs of Anwell and 
Chadwell in Hertfordshire, to remedy the defect. Nothing 
seems to have been done, however, until Mr. Hugh Myddleton, 
who as a member of the Parliamentary Committees appointed 
to inquire into the matter had given the subject careful study, 
agreed to undertake the project. He set to work diligently 
and promised to complete the channel in four years from 1609. 
At first great opposition was encountered from the several 
landowners through whose property the stream was to flow. 
In the following year his adversaries sent a deputation to the 
House of Commons, and succeeded in getting a Special Com- 



mittee appointed to inquire into their grievances, but before 
a report could be made, parliament had dissolved. The oppo- 
sition of the landed gentry, however, had so severely harassed 
Myddleton in his task, that in 1611 he was obliged to petition 
for an extension of time, which was granted him. When the 
stream was brought to Enfield, just half way to London, he 
was faced by another and more serious difficulty, namely, lack 
of funds, and on soliciting parliament and the rich city mer- 
chants for assistance he was met by a distinct refusal. Finally, 
in desperation, he requested James I to furnish him with 
capital, and the canny Scot, who ever had an eye to business, 
having become interested in the undertaking by watching the 
progress of the work from his palace of Theobalds, readily 
acceded to his request, by agreeing to pay half the cost on 
condition of receiving half the profit. To these rather harsh 
terms Myddleton perforce consented, and thus provided with 
fresh funds he commenced again with renewed vigour, and 
completed his work in 1613. 

On Michaelmas day in that year, the Lord Mayor, Sir 
Thomas Myddleton his elder brother presided over the 
ceremony at Clerkenwell to celebrate the entrance of the 
New River into London. In the following year Myddleton, 
who had expended the best part of his savings upon the costly 
undertaking, was obliged to ask the corporation of the City 
for a loan of ^"3,000, which was at once granted to him " in 
consideration of the benefit likely to accrue to the city from 
his New River.' 1 As a reward for the success of his enterprise 
James I made him a Baronet in 1622. 

Sir Hugh Myddleton died in 1631, aged seventy-one years, 
and was buried in the Church of St. Matthew, Friday Street. 

His wife died at Bush Hill some twelve years later, and 
was interred in the chancel of Edmonton Church. 

In its earliest form the New River was a canal about ten 
feet wide, and four in depth, but it has since been widened 
and generally improved in the matter of reservoirs, etc. 

Charles Lamb, commenting on a friend of his George 
Dyer, sometime Editor of the Cambridge edition of the 
Classics who had the misfortune to fall into the New River, 
thus immortalizes the stream in his Amicus Redivivus: 

Waters of Sir Hugh Myddleton what a spark you were like 

to have extinguished for ever! Your salubrious streams to this 

city for now near two centuries, would hardly have atoned for 

what you were in a moment washing away. Mockery of a 

1 80 


river, liquid artifice, wretched conduit ! henceforth rank with 
canels and sluggish aqueducts. Was it for this, that smit in 
boyhood with the explorations of that Abyssinian traveller, I 
paced the vales of Anwell to explore your tributary springs, 
to trace your salutary waters sparkling through green Hert- 
fordshire and cultured Enfield Parks? (ye have no swans, no 
Naiad, no river God) or did the benevolent hoary aspect of 
my friend tempt ye to suck him in that ye also might have the 
tutelary genius of your waters. 

It has been previously stated that Leigh Hunt was born at 
Southgate ; Eagle Hall, his birthplace, although altered some- 
what, is still existing, hidden from view by a line of modern 
buildings. Isaac Hunt, the father of the litterateur, was for 
some time pastor of a chapel at Lisson Grove, W., and also 
an occasional preacher at Southgate, and it is surmised that 
in this capacity he attracted the attention of the Duke of 
Chandos of Minchenden House. His helpful sermons and 
charming personality made a favourable impression on the 
Duke, so much, indeed, that he invited him to become tutor 
to his nephew, Mr. James Henry Leigh. On the birth of 
Mr. Hunt's youngest son in 1784, he was christened, by the 
express wish of the Duke, in the names of his father's pupil, 
who stood godfather to him, so that his full name became 
James Henry Leigh Hunt. 

Isaac Hunt founded a school at his residence, Eagle Hall, 
and received as pupils sons of the local aristocracy. At his 
decease the institution was conducted by Mr. Fleuret, and 
eventually by Mr. James Rumsey, who made extensive altera- 
tions in enlarging the place. On his retirement about 1856, 
his son, Henry Rumsey was appointed to the charge, retiring 
himself after some ten years' work. There were two more 
masters of the school, and then it ceased to exist. 

Southgate school was situated at the northern extremity of 
the town ; a plain, brick, thatched building supported by the 
munificence of Mr. John Walker. It originally consisted of 
about 140 pupils, and was open to children irrespective of sect. 

One can only conclude with the fervent hope that Southgate 
may long remain a place " lying out of the way of innovation," 
as Leigh Hunt so ably put it; at the present day the district 
may be described as one of the healthiest, most picturesque, 
and most charming suburbs on the beautiful "northern heights." 



BY C. W. FORBES, Member of the Essex Archaeological 

[Continued from p. 113.] 


OUR next visit is to Hadleigh, anciently called Hadleigh 
ad Castrum, a village which gives its name to the bay 
or strait that separates Canvey Island from the main- 
land; the village is situated about two and a half miles north- 
east from South Benfleet station, and two miles from Leigh. 

The church is a Norman structure, dating from the reign of 
King Stephen, circa 1140, nearly a century before mention is 
first made of the district as Hadleigh ad Castrum ; it therefore 
claims greater antiquity than the castle erected near here by 
Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, temp. Henry III. It is one of 
a few churches left in the county with round apsidal endings 
to the chancel, similar to East Ham. 1 There are, I believe, eight 
others still in existence, viz.: Great and Little Maplestead, 
Haversfield, Colchester Castle Chapel, Bamborough Chapel, 
Little Braxted, Langford, and Copford. 

The building consists of a chancel, nave, western wooden 
spire, and south porch ; the walls are very thick, as is usual 
with Norman structures, measuring about three feet two inches 

The spire, added in the fifteenth century, was originally 
shingled, and contained down to the time of Edward VI four 
bells; there is now only one, which was recast in 1636, which 
date is on it 

In the chancel are four small Norman windows, and six in 
the nave, as follows: one in west wall, two in north wall, and 
three in the south wall. On the north side, near the chancel, is 
a small Early English lancet window, and opposite, in south 
wall, one of the Decorated period; besides these we notice 
two fairly large two-light Perpendicular windows, one on each 

1 A description of the church at East Ham was given in the first of this 
series of articles. See vol. ix, p. 209. 


Hadleigh Church. 
Photographs by C. W. Forbes. 


Originally the church had three entrances, north, south, and 
west; the one on the north, twelfth century, has been blocked 
up; the south door is of the same date, but has fourteenth- 
century moulding and a trefoil holy-water stoup added on the 
exterior ; the porch is also attributed to the same period. The 
small doorway on the west is a plain Norman one. There is 
also a priest's door on the north side, now blocked up, attributed 
to the fourteenth century. Dividing the nave from the chancel 
is a stonewall about three feet thick ; it forms part of the original 
Norman building, and furnishes a good example of a mediaeval 
stone screen. 1 It was originally pierced with three semicir- 
cular arches ; the small side openings were, however, rilled in 
with masonry in the early part of the fifteenth century. This 
masonry was pierced, probably later in the same century, with 
two very fine cinquefoil openings or hagioscopes, 3 one on each 
side of the nave; between these openings and the centre arch, 
in a narrow space of about eleven inches, were minute niches 
with cusped ogee arches and delicate tracery of the same date ; 
one niche only without tracery now remains on the north side. 

The chancel arch presents a fine and striking appearance 
from its lofty proportions as one looks eastward from the 
western end of the nave. 

In the chancel are two aumbries, and on the north side a 
lofty Perpendicular niche or credence, with cusped tracery. 

The rood screen stood in front of the arch, and the staircase 
leading to the loft still remains on the north side; it was blocked 
up and the old door taken away at the restoration in 1855. 

The walls of the nave were originally covered with large 
paintings or frescoes; in the eighteenth century these were 
covered with whitewash, and on the removal of this whitewash 
in 1855 portions of the frescoes were discovered. The subjects 
were St. George and the Dragon, the Virgin and Child, and 
St. Thomas of Canterbury in full pontificals. They are attri- 
buted to the latter end of the twelfth century. Portions of two 
frescoes that have been preserved are, The Angel and Child, 
to be seen on the arch of a Norman window on the north side 
of the nave, and St. Thomas a Becket, fragments of which 
are to be found on the splay of the lancet window on the 
same side. 

1 There is a good example of an early stone screen at Vange Church. 
See ante, p. 108. 

3 Many authorities consider that these small openings in screens were 
for confessionals. Editor. 



The font at the west end, three feet two inches high, has an 
octagonal bowl, two feet four inches in diameter; the under part 
is circular, and has a bold torus moulding with trefoil leaves ; 
it stands on three modern ornamental round pillars ; the bowl 
is probably of the same age as the church, twelfth century. 
Among the church plate is a communion cup (now disused) 
with a paten cover of the time of Edward VI. It is engraved 
" Hadle of Essex bi the Castil." An extensive restoration was 
undertaken in 1855, under the direction of the late Sir G. E. 
Street, when the roofs of both nave and chancel were renewed ; 
they may probably be facsimiles of the earlier ones, the style 
being an old one ; the walls also were replastered inside. 

The altar table, pulpit, prayer desk, and lectern of oak date 
from 1855, and were all designed by the architect. 

The stained glass is modern, and inserted during the latter 
part of the nineteenth century; that in the Perpendicular 
window on the south side of the nave is in memory of the wife 
of Mr. King, who was a noted Essex antiquary. Both this 
window and a smaller one on the same side in the chancel are 
worthy of note from their fine colouring ; they are the work of 
Messrs. Cox and Sons of London. 

Some little distance to the south of the church are the re- 
mains of Hadleigh Castle, built by Hubert de Burgh, Earl of 
Kent, about 1228. It appears later to have been confiscated by 
the Crown, and extensive alterations and repairs were made 
by order of Edward III. The castle was granted from time to 
time to a royal favourite. Henry VIII made a grant of the 
castle and lands to Anne of Cleves. In 1551 it was given by 
Edward VI to Richard, first Baron Rich of Leeze, who for 
some reason reduced the castle to a ruin ; these ruins now con- 
sist of two round towers, which are falling to pieces, and por- 
tions of the gateway tower and the walls enclosing the court- 
yard, and still exhibit traces of their former grandeur; they 
are overrun with shrubs and brushwood, and look very 
picturesque. The ruins are now the property of the Salvation 


Eastwood is a place known to have been in existence as 
early as the time of Edward the Confessor ; it is situated 
about two miles north-east of Hadleigh. 

The ancient church is an interesting old structure, built of 









brick and stone; it is very picturesque in appearance, and the 
venerable elms in the churchyard add much to the beauty and 
pleasing seclusion of the site. It consists of a nave, with 
north and south aisles, a large and lofty chancel, and a tower 
with a long slender spire at the south-west corner of the 
edifice, which is rather a rare example in this county. 

The spire was originally shingled ; now, however, we find 
it boarded in a very modern style of carpentry. Formerly 
there were four bells, but only three now exist ; two of them 
are ancient, and have Latin inscriptions. The first reads: 
" Sancte Gregore, ora pro nobis"; the second, "Sancta 
Katerina, ora pro nobis "; the third bears the date 1693. The 
present building dates from the middle of the twelfth century ; 
extensive alterations appear to have been made in the thir- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries. The nave is the oldest part 
of the church; the original Norman building doubtless con- 
sisted of a nave and chancel only. About the end of the 
thirteenth century the north and south aisles and tower were 
added ; the chancel also appears to have been enlarged about 
that period, and the low Norman arch supplanted by the lofty 
Early English one we now see; traces of an early arch are 
visible at the sides. 

The tower was heightened slightly, and the spire added, in 
the fourteenth century. 

The porch of the south door, which is the only entrance 
into the church, is a red brick Tudor one of the sixteenth 
century. Over the front at the top is a niche for an image ; 
on the east side of the doorway can be seen the remains of a 
trefoil holy-water stoup. 

The square-headed oaken door at the entrance is very fine 
and much admired ; it is covered with decorative iron work. 
On one of the iron bands across it, although much worn, one 
can still read the following inscription in Latin : " Pax regat 
intrantes, eadem regat egredientes," a literal translation of 
which is : " May peace direct those who enter, also those who 

The north doorway is blocked up; but a similar ancient 
door (without, however, any inscription), which formerly hung 
here, now stands in the vestry. The priests' doorway, on 
the south side of chancel, is also filled in. On entering, the 
first object of interest one notices is the magnificent old 
circular font of the Norman period ; the exterior round the 
basin is beautifully carved with interlaced ornamental arcading ; 


the basin is about four feet in diameter ; the lead lining is said 
to be as old as the font itself. 

The aisles are separated from the nave by two octagonal 
pillars and three pointed arches on each side. Over those on 
the north side are the filled-in remains of three small Norman 
clerestory windows, showing that the dividing wall over the 
arches is a portion of the original north wall of the church, 
cut through to form the aisle. 

The western end of the north aisle was enclosed by wood- 
work in the early part of the fifteenth century, a floor being 
inserted in the enclosure, thus dividing it into two stories or 
apartments. The lower one was used as a sacristy and the 
upper chamber as a muniment room; it is quite possible, 
however, that it was originally built as a priests' house ; the 
floor of the upper part is framed with a well hole as the 
only means of access ; the wooden trap-door is furnished 
with a lock of huge proportions ; it is lit by two small lancet 

The south aisle was at one time used as a chapel ; it may 
have been a chantry. The remains of a small piscina can be 
seen in the south wall, and an aumbry in the east wall. 

A peculiar feature of this church is the cutting of the two 
pillars on the south side of the nave, about four ft. from the floor. 
The first pillar from the chancel has a small portion cut out 
on the north side, and the second column a similar piece off 
the south side ; the sacristan was thus enabled, by looking 
between these two columns, and the hagioscope cut in the 
stone chancel wall, to ring the Sanctus bell at the Elevation 
of the Host. 

On the south side of the chancel are plain sedilia and the 
remains of a piscina. There is also near this a low side 
window ; over this window is an arched recess, probably the 
remains of a founder's tomb. 

A small Jacobean altar table, now disused, is also to be 
seen in the chancel. Within the altar rails is a brass to 
Thomas Burrow, who died in 1600. 

The benefice of Eastwood belonged at an early period to 
the Priory of Prittlewell. It is supposed that it was given by 
the founder, Robert son of Suene ; at any rate, the Priory was 
in possession in the reign of Henry II, during the Arch- 
bishopric of Thomas cL Becket. The church was then a chapel 
to Prittlewell ; afterwards it became a rectory to which the 
Prior presented. About 1 390 the sanction of the Pope was 

1 86 







procured for its appropriation to the Priory ; as, however, this 
was done without the consent of the King or the bishop of 
the diocese, they were obliged to obtain a licence from King 
Richard II, in 1394, to appropriate the churches of Eastwood 
and North Shoebury to their own use ; and, by way of com- 
pensation to the Bishop of London, to agree to pay him and 
his successors 6s. %d. yearly. This agreement was made in 


The Priory retained possession of the advowson of East- 
wood until the suppression of the monasteries, when it came 
into the possession of the Crown, which has held it unto the 
present day. 

A note with reference to this church is to be found in Arch- 
deacon Hale's Precedents in causes of office against church- 
wardens and others , published in 1841, being " Extracts from 
the Act Books of the Consistory Court of London." It is 
stated that in 1612 the church was in a dilapidated condition 
as regards the roof; and that the " seates were neither fflored, 
nor well benched "; there was neither " pott or pewter, nor 
any other mettall to put wine in, for the communion table," etc. 
Want of money being pleaded as an excuse for not doing the 
repairs, a commission was granted, to survey "ye decayes," 
and the making of a rate, to the churchwardens, and to 
Mr. Vassall, Richard Thorneton, Francis Gates, John Hawkin, 
Richard Ellis, and other parishioners; they had orders to 
transmit their proceedings and rate, together with the com- 
mission, into the court. 

The "pott" above mentioned was a vessel used to contain 
the wine before consecration. 


Leigh, an ancient place which up to a few years ago was a 
small fishing village, is situated some three miles to the west 
of Southend ; the church is to be found about half a mile to 
the south of the main London Road, between Hadleigh and 

Probably a church existed here from an early period, but 
the present edifice was erected in the latter half of the fifteenth 
century, in the late Perpendicular style, of Kentish ragstone. 
It consists of a nave, chancel, north and south aisles, north 
chapel, and a fine embattled stone tower, eighty feet high at 
the west end, containing a clock and six bells. 


The north door is bricked up ; the south door has a porch 
of red brick, with a sundial dated 1729. 

On the south side of the chancel is a priests' doorway. 

On the north side the aisle and chapel are of corresponding 
length, divided from the nave and chancel by six octagonal 
columns, four in the nave and two in the chancel. 

The font is a modern one, apparently a copy of that at 

The church in the past has undergone considerable restora- 
tion and reconstruction ; first, in the early part of the eighteenth 
century, when the present porch was added and material 
alterations made in the chancel, the south window being 
blocked up ; again in 1837 ; and, lastly, in 1871, when the 
chancel was lengthened and practically rebuilt, in the 
Decorated style. The last column dividing the chancel 
from the north chapel was probably inserted at this time ; 
it is smaller and lower, the arch being more acute. 

The windows also are nearly all modern. Between the 
chancel and the nave is a recess, now filled up, which may 
have contained the rood stairs, or possibly an aumbry. 

There are several brasses with effigies, the earliest being 
one to Richard Haddok, who died in 1453, and his wife, with 
seven sons and three daughters. There are also a number of 
monuments in the church. 
[To be continued.] 



WITHIN the boundaries of the great Hospital of St 
Bartholomew, and directly appertaining to it, is the 
little church of St. Bartholomew the Less, which has 
been quite eclipsed by the interest of St. Bartholomew the 
Great. The structure has been rebuilt in comparatively recent 
times, and its many modern tablets cause it to appear at first 
sight to contain nothing worthy of notice. Yet such is not the 
case ; and although we know, from incidental mention of them, 
that many monuments have disappeared, it is the purpose of 

1 88 

Brass of William Markeby and his wife 
(St. Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield). 

Arms granted to Robert Balthorpe. 

Arms of Robert Balthorpe 
(from his Monument, St. Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield). 


this article to show there is still much of interest to the anti- 
quary and collector. 

The oldest memorial now to be found is a brass of the fif- 
teenth century, with figures of a gentleman and his wife in the 
usual dress of the period. The inscription is simple, and re- 
markable only for the insertion of an English word in a Latin 
inscription, instead of its usual Latin equivalent. The wording 
runs : " Hie Jacent Willm Markeby de Londoniis Gentilmil 
qui obiit 1 1 die July A. dni M cccc xxx ix, et Alicia uxor ei9." 
Here it will be seen that the inscription has been cut away to 
destroy the pious request for prayers for the deceased. The 
man's head has been broken off and not very skilfully rejoined, 
giving the lower part of the face a curious twisted appear- 

Next to call for attention, in the recess on the south side of 
the chancel, partly hidden by the organ, is a monument, con- 
sisting of a panel with an inscription, above which is the effigy 
of a gentleman kneeling within an arched canopy, supported 
by two pillars, while surmounting all is a shield of arms with 
helmet, crest, and mantling. This commemorates Robert 
Balthorpe, Sergeant -Surgeon to Queen Elizabeth. The in- 
scription is so delightfully quaint we may surely risk giving it 
in full: 

Here Robert Balthorpe lyes Intomb'd to Elizabeth our Queen, 
Who sergeant of the Surgeons sworn near thirty years hath been. 
He dyed at Sixty nine of yeares December ninth the Day; 
The yeare of Grace eight hundred twice, deducting nine away. 

Let here his rotten bones repose 

Till angell Trumpet sound 

To warn the World of present change 

And raise the dead from ground. 
Vivat post funera virtus. 

The ingenuity of getting in all the facts to rhyme is charm- 
ing. The doctor's will is still more attractive, but it is alto- 
gether too long even to give a fair abstract of it. Naturally 
he mentions some of his assistants and surgical instruments, 
as, " my lancett that is sett in golde and enamyled " ; " my 
syringe of silver gilted and three pipes of silver and 
gilted belonging to the same"; " my servaunts that nowe are 
with me, and have bene my servaunts in time past which do 
practize and exercise the art of chirurgery." Then there is a 
box mentioned as having the lock, hinges, and bars over it of 



"copper gilted." Does any collector possess this? or either 
the " greate Ringe of golde with my scale of Armes" and " my 
lesser Ringe of golde with my scale of Armes"? Where are 
these things? 

There is an allusion to his being in the royal service in the 
paragraph, " my English bible which is at the Courte," also 
" my bagge with the case and all the instruments and other 
things that are therein which lyeth for my daily use in my 
chest wherein I put my linnen at the Courte." Again, the 
description of sundry articles of dress shows how much richer 
and more picturesque was the dress of his day than is that of 
our own. We might quote particulars of his bequest of a silver 
gilt " bell bowle " to the Company of Barbers and Surgeons, 
and of money for them to make " a dynner" in their Hall after 
the funeral, then a general practice; but we must stay our 

Strange to say, the arms on this monument, though much 
discoloured, appear to differ from those granted toDr.Balthorpe 
by William Harvey, Clarenceux King of Arms, which are here 

We have lingered so long with Dr. Balthorpe we must dis- 
miss our next illustration, the rubbing from a brass, the oldest 
memorial remaining in trie church, leaving it to speak for 

Under the window at the west end of the church are the 
remains of a fine altar tomb of late fifteenth-century work ; it 
has been somewhat defaced, and no traces of the brasses are 
to be found, while the whole tomb was misappropriated by an 
eighteenth-century surgeon, John Freke, as a memorial of 
himself and his wife, who was Elizabeth, daughter of Richard 
Blundell of London. For this purpose a brief Latin inscription 
has been cut at the back, and a block of stone carved with the 
arms here depicted let in at the top. The lady died in 1741, 
and John Freke himself in 1756, intestate; administration to 
his effects being granted to his only child, Susanna, wife of 
William Williams. 

The accompanying shield of arms is on a floor slab, the 
helmet and crest are hidden by a fixed safe the usual disregard 
of monuments and other objects of interest, when any altera- 
tions or restorations in churches are made, is responsible. The 
inscription records that Thomas Sprigg, citizen and cooper, 
who died in 1735-6, lies there; as also his relict, Mrs. Sarah 
Sprigg, who died in 1751-2. The will of Thomas Sprigg con- 


Arms on the Freke Monument 

(St. Bartholomew the Less). 

Drawn by A. J. Jewars. 


tains nothing of general interest ; he appears to have left no 
children, as his brothers came in for most of what he had to 
leave, part of which was in the fatal South Sea Annuities. 

To the north of the chancel is a memorial of the wife of Sir 
Thomas Bodley, the founder of the Bodleian Library at Ox- 
ford, but it calls for no special mention. 



THE following is an attempt to bring together various 

^ records relating to the observance of Maundy Thursday 
and its attendant ceremonials, from the earliest periods 
to the present time, more especially with regard to our own 
country. It will be seen how, from its simple inauguration by 
the founder of Christianity, the Maundy grew into a cere- 
monious and royal function, practised also by great nobles 
and princes of the Church, and rising apparently to its fullest 
development as a State ceremony under the Tudor Queens, 
Mary and Elizabeth. Shortly after these reigns there was a 
curtailment of the ceremony, and from the time of James II, 
that part relating to the washing of the feet of the poor was 
no longer performed by. the monarch in person. 

It may be that the detailed quotations here given from old 
writers ipsissima verba appear somewhat prolix, yet it is 
hoped that the quaintness of the original, occasionally pre- 
serving by its ancient orthography information beyond that 
of the immediate narrative, may not be found uninteresting. 
As observed by Cowper, in one of his letters, " the same idea, 
which clothed in colloquial language seems childish and even 
foolish, assumes quite a different air in Latin," so, perhaps, in 
some such way these descriptions of old customs, given in the 
actual diction of the times portrayed, may lend to the scene 
an atmosphere of antiquity and some sense of perspective to 
the imagination. 

Authorities differ as to the derivation of the word "Maundy," 
some holding that it comes from maund, the old name for a 
basket in which gifts were carried and subsequently distri- 



buted. In this sense the word is used by Shakespeare in 
A Lover's Complaint: 

A thousand favours from a maund she drew 
Of amber, crystal, and of beaded jet. 

Spelman and others derive the word from this source, thus 
seeming to confine the term to that part of the ceremony 
which consisted of the giving of alms. But by most writers 
it is thought to have been derived from the Latin mandatum> 
with reference to Our Lord's precept in St. John's Gospel, 
" If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet, ye 
also ought to wash one another's feet." Thus Bishop Sparrow, 
on this subject, writes : "This day Christ washed His disciples' 
feet and gave them a commandment to do likewise. Hence 
it is called dies mandati, mandate or Maundy Thursday"; 
and it is now generally accepted that from a vernacular 
corruption of this Latin form we get our English word 
Maundy. It is also to be remembered that in primitive 
times obedience to Christ's precept was the chief if not the 
only object; the distribution of gifts to the poor being a later 

Other names formerly used for this occasion were " Dies 
Coenae Domini," referring to the inauguration of the Lord's 
Supper; "Holy Thursday"; "White Thursday "the Lenten 
vestments and hangings of some churches being then changed 
from violet to white, in memory of the institution of the 
Blessed Sacrament and "Shere Thursday." This last is so 
called from the custom practised by the monks and others of 
being then shaven and shorn in preparation for the coming 
Easter. As an old writer has it: "For in old Faders' daies 
the people wolde that daye shere their hedes and clyppe their 
berdes and poll their hedes, and so make theym honest ayenst 
Esterday." l In addition to this, and giving the practice a 
wider significance, was the fact that on this day those people 
who had been put out of the Church and subjected to penance 
were, if repentant, again reconciled after an ordeal that might 
well have given occasion to this rendering of the name. On 
the first day of Lent these offenders had been required to 
present themselves before the bishop clothed in sackcloth, 
with naked feet, and with every accompaniment of abject 
humility. Upon entering the church, the penitential Psalms 
having been recited, the priests threw ashes upon the 

1 Liber Festivalis ( 1 500), cited by Wheatley. 

OH <L> 

S e 

o co 

o . 




"penitents," and covered their heads with sackcloth. After 
this they were driven out of the church, followed by the 
clergy repeating the curse pronounced against Adam when 
expelled from Paradise. But with the arrival of Maundy 
Thursday, all the doors of the church were thrown open, and 
the penitents, lying outside prostrate on the earth, were 
welcomed in by the bishop. They then trimmed their heads 
and beards, took off their penitential weeds, and reclothed 
themselves in decent apparel in token of their reconciliation. 1 
The extreme severity of many penances that were formerly 
inflicted, by causing them to be frequently evaded, gave rise 
to a relaxation of discipline in the form of a commutation of 
sentences. "A new system of canonical arithmetic was estab- 
lished ; and the fast of a day was taxed at the rate of a silver 
penny for the rich, or 50 paternosters for the illiterate and 
50 psalms for the learned." 2 In the eighth century penance 
might be commuted for alms and prayers; in the tenth, pil- 
grimages were enjoined, in which a man might never pass two 
nights in one place, might not eat meat, nor clip his hair or 
nails. If rich he founded a church, built a bridge, or made 
roads, or emancipated serfs. In the twelfth century it con- 
sisted generally of pilgrimages. In 1389 men in shirts and 
breeches, women in shifts, holding sacred images, stood during 
Mass bareheaded and barefooted, and finally made an offering 
to the priest. In 1554 penitents stood wrapped in a white 
sheet, with a taper in one hand and a rod in the other, during 
a sermon, after which they were struck on the head, at Paul's 
Cross, and so reconciled. 3 This particular penance was in- 
flicted by the Church long after the above date, and was 
particularly insisted upon throughout the land. In the printed 
articles, dated 1625, ordered " to be enquired of by the Church- 
wardens and sworne-men in every parish within the Commis- 
sariship of Essex and Hertford ; and presentment thereof to 
be made to the Commissary, with peculiar answer to every 
article," the following is the 45th and concluding article: 
" Lastly, you, the Churchwardens, are at the charge of your 
parish to provide a convenient large Sheete and a White 
Wand to be had and kept within your Church or Vestrie, to 
be used at such times as offenders are censured for their 
grievous and notorious crimes." Our Commination Service, 

1 Bp. Sparrow's Rationale on Book of Common Prayer, pp. 117, 126. 

* Lingard, Anglo-Saxon Church, p. 336. 

* Feasey, Ancient English Holy Week Ceremonials , p. 100. 

VOL. XI. 193 O 


appointed to be used on the first day of Lent, " and at other 
times as the Ordinary shall appoint," is all that now remains 
to remind us of that "Godly Discipline" of primitive times, of 
which our Prayer Book, in archaic language, still deplores the 

In addition to those people who were reconciled after 
penance, it was customary with many who had kept Lent, 
to bathe and wash their bodies on Maundy Thursday, in order 
to appear decently pure and clean "from the filth which their 
bodies might have contracted from the austerities of Lent." 1 

To what extremes these " austerities " were sometimes 
carried may be seen from a passage in Bede's Life of St. 
Cuthbert. Describing this Saint's withdrawal from all earthly 
matters, he says: 

So entirely had he put off all care as to the body, and so 
had given himself up to the care of the soul alone, that when 
once he had put on his long hose, which were made of hide, he 
used to wear them for several months together. Yea, with the 
exception of once at Easter, it may be said that he never took 
them off again for a year, until the return of the Pasch, when 
he was unshod for the ceremony of washing the feet, which is 
wont to take place on Maundy Thursday. Hence on account 
of his frequent prayers and genuflections which he performed 
when thus hosed, it was discovered that he had an oblong and 
extensive callosity at the juncture of the feet and legs. 

The Church's obedience to the mandatum has been traced 
as far back as the fourth century. In the Early English 
Text Society's transcription of the South England Legendary 
may be found a direct reference to the keeping of Maundy 
Thursday, in the sixth century, by St. Brendan and his 
monks. St. Brendan, who died at the age of ninety-four, in 
the year 578, is there described as a great traveller, and the 
chief actor in many marvellous adventures. It was on the 
occasion of his voyage to the " Isle of Sheep," where he arrived 
with his monks on Maundy Thursday, that the event took 
place which is here given in a literal translation from the 
old rhymed version: 

So that their ship at the last to that isle drew 

On Shire Thursday 

The Procurator came to meet them and welcomed them anon, 

1 Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church, p. 353. 


And kissed St. Brendan's feet, and the monks, each one ; 

[the time of day required it] 

And set them [sith] to supper, for the day it would so. 
And then he washed their feet all, the Maundy for to do. 

[did stay] 

They held there their Maundy, and there they gan stay 
On Good Friday all the long day, until Easter Eve. 

Other early references to this day are made by Alcuin in 
the eighth century, who gives the form for its celebration in 
his Book of Offices; also in an ancient MS. pontifical of the 
English Church of the tenth century, now preserved in the 
British Museum. 

In addition to the primitive practice of washing one another's 
feet, it became customary to provide for the poor gifts of 
clothes, food, and money, together with a substantial meal at 
the time of their distribution; this last being a recognition by 
the Church of the previous fasting undergone by the recipients. 1 
It would seem, too, that this breaking of the Lenten fast was 
a concession enjoyed not only by poor Maundy folk. The 
following verses sarcastically portray a monastic celebration, 
and are translated from some old and apparently contempor- 
aneous writer possibly one of those members of the secular 
clergy who regarded the monks with such well-known jealousy, 
a jealousy and animosity apparent not only in their writings 
but also in those monkish caricatures on bosses and corbels 
still to be seen in various churches throughout the land: 

And here the monks their maundies make with sundry solemn rites, 

And signs of great humility and wondrous pleasant sights, 

Each one the other's feet doth wash and wipe them clean and dry, 

With helpful mind and secret fraud, that in their hearts doth lie ; 

As if that Christ with his examples did these things require, 

And not to help our brethren here with zeal and free desire ; 

Each one supplying other's want, in all things that they may, 

As he himself a servant made, to serve us every way. 

Then straight the loaves do walk, and pots in every place they skink, a 

Wherewith the holy fathers oft to pleasant damsels drink. 

In the ancient Offices of the Church of England, among the 
various observances connected with the ceremony, was the 
passing round of the "loving cup" (called in the Rubric 
caritatis potum} after the washing of feet and the sermon 
which followed. 3 This poculum caritatis^ or loving cup, was a 
survival of the wassail-bowl of Saxon times, which, instead of 

1 Stephen, Common Prayer^ pp. 889-90. 
a Skink, A.S. Scene, to draw liquor. 
' Blunt, Ann. Common Prayer. 



being abolished on the introduction of Christianity, was adopted 
under the above name for use in religious ceremonies. 

It is interesting to note that there are in some of our cathe- 
dral churches indications still remaining of the places where 
the ceremony of the washing of feet was performed. 

At York Minster, the Maundy seats are probably those in 
the north quire aisle; at Worcester in the east alley of the 
cloisters is a bench table anciently used at the Maundy. On 
a stone bench in the east cloister at Westminster sat the twelve 
beggars whose feet the Abbot washed, and under the nosing 
of the bench, still remain the copper eyes from which hung 
the carpet on which he knelt during the performance of the 
ceremony. At Lichfield and probably other cathedrals desti- 
tute of cloisters, the maundy ceremony took place in quires; 
the stalls and aumbries on the north side of the quire at York 
having probably some connection with the ceremonial. 1 

In the Middle Ages kings, princes, and nobles kept their 
Maundy with much ceremony, records of which have been 
preserved in the accounts of the privy purse expenses of 
monarchs, the receipts and payments of great houses, and in 
the ancient chronicles of early historians. The first mention of 
the monarch's name in this connection appears to be that of 
Edward II, who, in the nineteenth year of his reign, washed 
the feet of fifty poor men. 2 In the following reign, Edward III, 
an order was given, 2Oth March, 1361, to John de Newbury, 
to buy and deliver to Thomas de Keynes, the King's Almoner, 
" 200 ells of cloth of Candlewykstrete, 50 pairs of slippers, 2 
short towels of Paris [cloth], and 4 ells of linen of Flanders, 
for next Cena Domini?* In the next century, under the head 
of the privy expenses of Henry VII, there is an entry of six 
pounds and four pence to thirty-eight poor men, in alms, and 
one shilling and eight pence for thirty-eight small purses; this 
number corresponding with the King's age in that year. Who 
inaugurated the custom of making his benefactions correspond 
with the number of his own years of age does not clearly 
appear; but, as we have seen from the foregoing, the practice 
would seem to date at least as far back as the reign of Edwai 
III in 1361, part of whose gifts consisted of fifty pairs 
slippers, he being fifty years old at that time. 

1 Feasey, Ancient Holy Week Ceremonials, pp. 107, 109. 
8 Wardrobe Roll, 19 Ed. II, cited by Feasey, p. no. 
3 Close Roll, 34 Ed. III. 



In 1502 the privy purse expenses of Elizabeth of York show 
a disbursement by her of three shillings and a penny for each 
of thirty-seven poor women upon " Shere Thursday." Also 
about this time the ceremony was carried out at the Church of 
St. Mary, Huntingdon, and at Barking Abbey, and doubtless 
by many others, records of which have perished. 

Greatest of the nobles who held yearly celebrations of the 
Maundy was the fifth Earl of Northumberland (1477-1527). 
Of this we have a full account by the antiquary Grose, taken 
from the Northumberland Household Book, edited in 1770 by 
Bishop Percy. Here is shown minutely the Earl's method of 
distributing his gifts on that day, not only in his own person, 
but also for his wife and children. The household, we are told, 
was established upon the same plan, and with a splendour 
scarcely inferior to that of the Royal Court ; and it is interest- 
ing to notice his custom with regard to the royal practice of 
apportioning the Maundy gifts according to the age of the 
giver. Here, too, we have a practical illustration of the old 
motto, " Noblesse oblige," in the constantly recurring formula, 
" To gyf to as manny as his Lordshipe is yeares of age and 
one for the year e of my Lordis aige to come" 

Extracted from the voluminous accounts of the expenditure 
of this house, the following are the items relating exclusively 
to the Maundy. It will be noticed how curiously they are set 
out, according to the custom at that time, with an entire 
absence of punctuation, though with an attempt to supply its 
place by means of capital letters, and in a form entailing, to a 
non-legal mind, a vast amount of vain repetition : 

Al Manner of Things Yerly Geven by my Lorde for his Maundy 
ande my Laidis and his Lordshippis Children As the Con- 
sideration Why more playnly hereafter folowyth. 

Furst My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerely uppon 
Maundy Thursday when his Lordship is at home to gyf yerly 
as menny Gownes to as manny Poor Men as my Lorde is Yeres 
of Aige with Hoodes to them and one for the Yere of my 
Lordes Aige to Come Of Russet cloth after iij yerddes of 
Erode Cloth in every Gowne and Hoode Ande after *\\d the 
brode Yerde of Clothe 

Item My Lorde useth ande accustomyth yerly uppon Maundy 
Thursday when his Lordship is at Home to gyf yerly as manny 
Sherts of Lynnon Cloth to as manny Poure Men as his Lord- 
shipe is Yers of Aige ande one for the Yere of my Lords Aige 


to come After ij yerdes dim. \dimidius = half] in every shert and 
after . . . the yerde 

Item My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerly uppon the said 
Maundy Thursday when his Lordshipe is at Home to gyf yerly 
as manny Iren Platers [wooden trenchers] after ob. \pbolus^ a 
halfpenny] the pece with a Cast of Brede and a Certen Meat 
in it to as manny Poure Men as his Lordship is Yeres of Aige 
and one for the Yere of my Lordis Aige to come 

Item My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerly upon the said 
Maundy Thursday when his Lordship is at home to gyf yerely 
as many Eshen [ashen] Cuppis after ob. the pece with Wyne 
in them to as many Poure Men as his Lordship is Yeres of 
Aige and one for the Yere of my Lordis Aige to come 

Item. My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerly uppon the 
said Maundy Thursday when his Lordshipe is at home to gyf 
yerly as manny Pursses of Lether after ob. the pece with as 
manny Penys in every purse to as many poore men as his 
Lordshipe is Yeres of Aige and one for the Yere of my Lords 
Aige to come 

Item. My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerely uppon 
Maundy Thursday to cause to be bought iij Yerdis and iij 
Quarters of Erode Violett Cloth for a Gowne for his Lordshipe 
to doo service in Or for them that schall doo service in his 
Lordshypes Absence After iiij,? v\i]d the Yerde And to be 
furrede with Blake Lamb Contenynge ij Keippe and a half 
after xxx skynnes in a kepe and vjs \\}d the kepe and after 
ij ob. the skynne and after LXXV skynns for Furringe of the 
said Gowne Which Gowne my Lorde werith all the tyme his 
Lordship doith service And after his Lordship hath don his 
service at his said Maundy doith gyf to the pourest man that 
he fyndeth as he thynkyth emongs them all the said Gowne 

Item. My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerly upon the 
said Maundy Thursday to caus to be delyvered to one of my 
Lordis Chaplayns 1 for my Lady If she be at my Lordis fynd- 
ynge and not at her owen To comaunde hym to gyf for her as 
manny Groits to as manny Poure Men as her Ladyshipe is 
Yeres of Aige and one for the Yere of hir Aige to come Owte 
of my Lordis Coffueres if sche be not at hir owen fyndynge 

Item. My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerly uppon the 
said Maundy Thursday to caus to be delyvered to one of my 
Lordis Chaplayns for my Lordis Eldest Sone the Lord Percy 
For hym to comaunde to gyf for hym as manny Pens of ij Pens 
to as manny Poure Men as his Lordshipe is Yeres of Aige and 
one for the Yere of his Lordshipes aige to come 

1 There were eleven priests in the Earl's household. 



Item My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerly uppon Maundy 
Thursday to cause to be delyverit to one of my Lordis Chap- 
layns for every of my Yonge Maisters My Lordis Yonger Sones 
To gyf for every of them as manny Pens to as manny Poore 
Men as every of my said Maisters is yeeres of Aige and for 
the Yere to come. 

As an instance of the way in which the ceremony was 
observed by a prince of the Church, we find that about the 
same time as the foregoing illustration, Cardinal Wolsey, in 
the hey-day of his prosperity, made a grand progress with 
a body of 160 followers from Richmond to Peterborough, 
and there kept Maundy Thursday and the Easter celebrations. 
The event is thus quaintly chronicled by Holinshed : 

Then prepared the Cardinal for his journey into the North, 
and sent to London for liverie clothes for his servants, and so 
rode from Richmond to Hendon, from thence to a place called 
the Rie; the next day to Raistone [Royston] where he lodged 
in the Priorie; the next daie to Huntingdon and there lodged 
in the Abbeie; the next day to Peterborow and there lodged 
in the Abbeie, where he abode all the next weeke and there 
he kept his Easter, his traine was in number an hundred and 
three score persons. Upon Maundie thursdaie he made his 
maundie, there having nine and fiftie poore men, whose feet 
he washed, and gave everie one twelve pence in monie, three 
els of good canvas, a paire of shoes, a cast of red herrings, and 
three white herrings, and one of them had two shillings. 1 

In this reign also Catherine of Arragon, while Queen, had been 
accustomed to celebrate the day ; but after her divorce she 
was forbidden by the King to do so (1533), except under the 
title of Princess Dowager. 

In the two next reigns, Mary and Elizabeth, we reach what 
we have called the highest development of the Maundy as a 
religious and royal ceremonial, and in reading the account of 
Queen Mary's observance of the day it is apparent to all, as 
it was to the narrator, how great was the fervour of her 
devotion, not only to the form but also to the spirit of the 
mandatum. The account is contained in a letter written by 
Marco Antonio Faitta, secretary to Cardinal Pole, the Pope's 
Legate in this country, to his correspondent, a Doctor of 
Divinity in Venice, and is dated 3rd April, 1556. After 
writing on other matters, he proceeds : 

1 Holinshed, vol. iii, p. 914. 


and on Holy Thursday, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, the 
most Serene Queen accompanied by the right reverend 
Legate and by the Council, entered a large hall, 1 at the head 
of which was my Lord Bishop of Ely, as Dean of the Queen's 
Chaplains, with the Choristers of her Majesty's chapel. 
Around the hall on either side there were seated on certain 
benches, with their feet on stools, many poor women to the 
number of forty and one, such being the number of the years 
of the most Serene Queen. Then one of the menials of the 
Court, having washed the right foot of each of these poor 
persons, and this function being also next performed by the 
Under-Almoner, and also by the Grand Almoner, who is the 
Bishop of Chichester, her Majesty next commenced the cere- 
mony in the following manner: 

At the entrance of the Hall, there was a great number of the 
chief dames and noble ladies of the Court, and they prepared 
themselves by putting on a long linen apron which reached 
the ground, and round their necks they placed a towel, the 
two ends of which remained pendant at full length on either 
side, each of them carrying a silver ewer, and they had flowers 
in their hands, the Queen also being arrayed in like manner. 
Her Majesty knelt down on both her knees before the first of 
the poor women and taking in her left hand the woman's 
right foot, she washed it with her own right hand, drying it 
very thoroughly with the towel which hung at her neck, and 
having signed it with the cross, she kissed the foot so fervently 
that it seemed as if she were embracing something very 
precious. She did the like by all and each of the other poor 
women, one by one, each of the ladies, her attendants, giving 
her in turn their basin and ewer and towel ; and I vow to you 
that in all her movements and gestures, and by her manner 
she seemed to act thus not merely out of ceremony, but from 
great feeling and devotion. Amongst these demonstration 
there was this one remarkable, that in washing the feet, she 
went the whole length of that long hall from one end to the 
other, ever on her knees. Having finished and risen on he 
feet, she went back to the head of the hall and commencec 
giving in turn to each of the poor women a large wooden 
platter with enough food for four persons, filled with grea 
pieces of salted fish, and two large loaves, and thus she went a 
second time distributing these alms. She next returned a 
third time, to begin again, giving to each of the women a 
wooden bowl filled with wine, or rather, I think, hippocras 
after which for the fourth time she returned and gave to 

1 Query, Somerset House. 


each of those poor people a piece of cloth of royal mixture 
for clothing. Then returning for the fifth time she gave to 
each a pair of shoes and stockings ; for the sixth time she 
gave to each a leathern purse, containing fortyone pennies, 
according to the number of her own years, and which in 
value may amount to rather more than half an Italian golden 
crown; 1 finally, going back for the seventh time, she distributed 
all the aprons and towels which had been carried by those 
dames and noble ladies, in number forty-one, giving each with 
her own hand. 

Her Majesty then quitted the hall to take off the gown she 
had worn, and half an hour afterwards she returned, being 
preceded by an attendant carrying the said gown, and thus 
she went twice round the hall, examining very closely all the 
poor women one by one, and then returning for the third 
time, she gave the said gown to the one who was in fact the 
poorest and most aged of them all ; and this gown was of the 
finest purple cloth lined with Marten's fur, and with sleeves so 
long and wide that they reached the ground. During the 
ceremony the choristers chaunted the miserere^ with certain 
other psalms, reciting at each verse the words : In diebus illis 
mulier qua erat in civitate peccatrix. I will not omit telling 
you that on Holy Thursday alms were distributed here in the 
Court to a great amount to upwards of 3000 persons. 3 

An incidental testimony to the importance known to be 
attached by the Queen to this Lenten observance occurs in 
a list of the presents received by her on New Year's Day. 
These were given, for the most part, by high dignitaries of 
Church and State, nobles, and titled ladies, and were both 
numerous and costly; but among gifts, presumably from the 
more humble members of the Court, such as flowers, fruit, 
sweetmeatSjtrinkets, and needlework, it is especially interesting 
to notice, "a table painted with the Maundy"; and again, 
"a table of needleworke of the Maundy." 3 

Queen Elizabeth appears to have closely followed the 
example set by her sister in most particulars, save perhaps as 

1 The golden crown and the Venetian sequin were of equal value, so it 
is thus seen that in the course of two centuries and a half the standard of 
the English silver coinage had been so debased that the sequin, which in 
1410 could be purchased in London for y^d. was worth 82 pence in 
the year 1556. The value of the sequin in English money in 1410 is 
ascertained by a document registered in the Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, 


2 Calendar of State Papers (Venetian), vol. vi, p. 428. 

8 J. Nichols, Illus. Manners and Expences of Ancient Times. 

2O I 


to the extent of her personal humiliation, and to have made 
elaborate preparation for her Maundy by Royal Warrant. 
That for the year 1578 is addressed to the Keeper of the 
Great Wardrobe in the following terms : 

Wee will and commaund you that immediatelye upon the 
sight hereof ye do liver or cause to be delyvered to our well 
beloved servante, Raufe Hope, Yeoman of our Wardrobe of 
robes, for th'use of our Mawndye, and our sayd Wardrobe 
theyse parcelles of stuffe followinge, that is to say, first, one 
hundred thirtye and fyve yerdes of russet cloth, to make 
fourety and three gownes [sic] for fouretye and fyve poore 
women ; and fouretye and fyve peire of single soled showes for 
them. Item, two hundrethe fyvetye and eight elles of lynen 
cloth, as well to make smockes for the said poore women, as 
also to be employed in the service of our said Mawndye. 
Item, twentie and sixe peire of bearinge and trussinge sheetes 
of two bredthes and a half of Hollande cloth, and two elles 
thre quarters longe the pere. Item, thirtye elles of diaper of 
elle quarter brode; and eighteene napkyns cont' one elle long 
the pere, for thuse of our said wardrobe. Item, one peire of 
presse sheetes, of fower bredthes of Holland cloth, and nyne 
elles long the pere. Item, one curten for a presse, of lynen 
cloth, cont' seven bredthes and two elles longe. Item, thirtye 
elles of canvas, and the boultes of stronge rope to trusse the 
said stuff in, and that ye content and paye for making of the 
premisses ; and also for carriadge of the same from our greate 
Wardrobe to the place wheare, God willing, we shall make 
our said Maundye. And theyse our Ires signed with our 
owne hande, shal be your sufficient warrante and dischardge 
in this behalf annempst us, our heires and successors. 

Geoven under out Signett at our Pallaise at Westm' the 
12 th day of Marche, the 2i t Yeare of our reigne 

Jo. Saru. 

To our trustie and well beloved servannte, John 
Forteskewe, esquire, Maister of our Greate Wardrobe 

Ex' p N. Pigeon. 1 

For a detailed illustration of Queen Elizabeth's celebration 
of Maundy Thursday we must go back from the date of this 
warrant to the year 1572. The Court was at this time held at 
Greenwich, and the account proceeds: 

First the hall was prepared with a long table on each side, 
and forms set by them ; on the edges of which tables, and 

1 J. Nichols, Illus. Manners, etc.^ in Ancient Times. 


under these forms were laid carpets and cushions for her 
Majesty to kneel when she should wash them. There was also 
another table set across the upper end of the hall, somewhat 
above the foot pace, for the Chaplain to stand at. A little 
beneath the midst whereof, and beneath the said foot pace, a 
stool and cushion of estate was pitched for her Majesty to kneel 
at during the service time. This done, the holy water, basins, 
alms, and other things being brought into the hall, and the 
Chaplain and poor folks having taken the said places, the 
laundress, armed with a fair towel, and taking a silver basin 
filled with warm water and sweet flowers, washed their feet all 
after one another, and wiped the same with his towel, and so 
making a cross a little above the toes, kissed them. After him 
within a little while followed the sub-almoner doing likewise, 
and after him the almoner himself also. Then lastly, her 
Majesty came into the hall and after some singing and prayers 
made, and the Gospel of Christs' washing of his disciples' feet 
read, thirty nine ladies and gentlewomen (for so many were 
the poor folks, according to the number of yeares complete 
of her Majesty's age) addressed themselves with aprons and 
towels to wait upon her Majesty; and she kneeling down upon 
the cushions and carpets under the feet of the poor women, 
first washed one foot of every one of them in so many several 
basins of warm water and sweet flowers, brought to her severally 
by the said ladies and gentlewomen, then wiped, crossed, and 
kissed them as the almoner and others had done before. When 
her Majesty had thus gone through the whole number of thirty- 
nine (of which twenty sat on the one side of the hall and nine- 
teen on the other) she resorted to the first again, and gave to 
each one certain yards of broadcloth to make a gown, so 
passing to them all. Thirdly, she began at the first, and gave 
to each of them a pair of shoes. Fourthly, to each of them a 
wooden platter whereon was half a side of salmon, as much 
ling, six red herrings and cheat [manchet] loaves of bread. 
Fifthly, she began with the first and gave to each of them a 
white wooden dish with claret wine. Sixthly, she received of 
each waiting lady and gentlewoman their towel and apron, 
and gave to each poor woman one of the same; and after this 
the ladies and gentlewomen waited no longer, nor served as 
they had done throughout the courses before. But the trea- 
surer of the Chamber, M r Heneage, came to her Majesty with 
thirty nine small white purses wherein were also thirty nine 
pence (as they say) after the number of years to her Majesty's 
said age, and of him she received and distributed them severally. 
Which done she received of him so many leather purses also, 
each containing twenty shillings for the redemption of her 


Majesty's gown which (so men say) by ancient order she ought 
to give some of them at her pleasure : but she, to avoid the 
trouble of suit, which accustomably was made for that prefer- 
ment, had changed that reward into money, to be equally 
divided among them all, namely, twenty shillings apiece, and 
she also delivered particularly to the whole company. And so 
taking her ease upon the cushion of estate, and hearing the 
choir a little while, her Majesty withdrew herself and the com- 
pany departed : for it was by that time the sun was setting. 1 

One deviation from long established usage may here be 
noticed in the procedure of the Queen, who no longer gives 
away the royal robe. The cause for this would seem to have 
been some little difficulty as to its bestowal, here delicately 
alluded to as "the trouble of suit which accustomably was 
made for that preferment." In one of her earlier celebrations 
(1559-60) it is recorded that Elizabeth "gave to twenty poor 
women so many gowns, and one of them had her best gown," 
a circumstance which fixes this reign as the period when the 
old custom was abandoned in favour of a money payment 
" for the redemption of the gown." 

Not every year, however, could Elizabeth carry out this 
elaborate ritual. In 1564 a proclamation was issued remitting 
the distribution of the Maundy by the Queen in person, though 
alms were ordered to be given to the poor of Windsor and 
Eton. The reason assigned was because of the " present time 
of contagious sickness." 3 There was at this time a terrible 
visitation of the plague, which appears to have been very fatal 
in its results, and is thus commented upon by Grafton in his 
Chronicle : 

The infection mervelously encreased in sundry places, but 
most chiefly in the citie of London, so that there dyed in the 
sayd citie and suburbs of the same, conteyning 108 parishes, 
from the sixt day of April unto the last day of November next 
following, 23660 persons. And at the first entraunce of thys 
plague into the Cytie, the Maior and his brethren tooke order 
that at such houses as were infected therewyth, should have a 
headlesse Crosse, coloure blewe, wyth thys wrytyng under the 
foote of the same, Per signum Tau, set over the streete doore, 
but these crosses encreased so sore and the citizens were crossed 
away so fast, that at lengthe they were faine to leave their 
crosses and to referre ye matter to God's good mercifull hand. 

1 J. Nichols, Royal Progresses, p. 37. 
* Misc. State Papers ', 1561, p. 26. 


The accounts of the prayers and ceremonies used by the 
House of Stuart for Maundy Thursday are preserved in the 
Royal Cheque Book, from which it appears that the washing 
of feet was performed by a more expeditious method than that 
formerly in use. This consisted in sprinkling the feet of the 
poor with a sprig of hyssop dipped in water, and afterwards 
wiping and kissing them; the distribution of gifts and the 
prayers interspersed with anthems being continued as before. 
The service concluded by the almoner calling for wine to drink 
the King's health, and bidding the poor to be thankful to God 
and pray for the King. 1 The last English monarch who thus 
observed the ancient ceremony of washing the feet of the poor 
was James II, a brief record of which, to the following effect, 
is contained in an old book still preserved at Somerset House: 
" On Maundy Thursday, April i6 th , Our Gracious King James 
ye 2 nd , washed, wiped, and kissed the feet of 52 poor men, with 
wonderful humility." 

Under the Hanoverian sovereigns, this part of the ceremony 
was deputed to the Lord Almoner. The account of the pro- 
ceedings in the year 1731 is given in the pages of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine this year, by the way, being the first appear- 
ance of that valuable (styled by Cowper "immortal") repository 
of contemporary and other information : 

Thursday, April i5 th , 1731, being Maundy Thursday, there 
was distributed at the Banquetting House, Whitehall, to 48 
poor men and 48 poor women (the King's age being 48) boiled 
Beef, shoulders of Mutton, and small bowls of Ale, which is 
called dinner; after that large wooden platters of Fish and 
Loaves, viz. undressed, i large old Ling, a and one large dried 
Cod; 12 red Herrings, and 4 half quarter Loaves; each person 
had one platter of this Provision. After which was distributed 
to them, Shoes, Stockings, Linen and Woollen Cloth and 
leathern bags with one penny, two penny, three penny and 
four penny pieces of silver, to each about 4. in value. His 
Grace the Lord Archbishop of York, Lord High Almoner, 
performed the ceremony of washing the feet of a certain number 
of poor people in the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, formerly done 
by the Kings themselves. 

1 Feasey, p. iii. 

* Ling, now seldom heard of, was formerly much esteemed. Fuller in 
his Worthies, treating of the extent of our fisheries before the Civil Wars, 
speaks of upwards of 200 ships being engaged, " Chiefly for the taking of 
Ling:, that noble Fish, co-rival in his joule with the surloin of Beef at the 
tables of Gentlemen." 



The washing of the feet as a Maundy observance seems to 
have entirely disappeared since 1736. In that year the Arch- 
bishop of York distributed at Whitehall to fifty-three poor 
persons alms consisting of food, clothing, twenty shillings in 
lieu of the King's robe, and fifty-three pence for the maundy 
coin. In the following year, alms, with fifty-four pence were 
given, the washing being omitted, and since that time it has 
formed no part of the ceremony. The Yeomen of the Guard, 
who still attend, were until the last twenty-five years always 
covered during the service. 1 

To check the bartering which frequently took place with the 
gifts in kind, they have gradually been replaced by money 
payments, and now the maundy alms are composed entirely 
of money, apportioned in the following manner: (i) The 
gift of pence at the rate of one penny for each year of the 
sovereign's age, given in a white leather purse; (2) sums of 
i IQS. in lieu of provisions, and i inclosed in a red leather 
purse in lieu of the gown formerly given from the royal ward- 
robe; (3) a further gift of 35*. to the women and 45 s. to the 
men in lieu of clothing, this last gift being inclosed in a 
paper packet. The ceremony of the distribution of the 
maundy alms was, with some exceptions during alterations 
in the building, performed in the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 
from 1714 to 1890, and (the chapel having been closed) since 
that time in Westminster Abbey. 3 The order of service for 
the Maundy is mainly that used for Matins, interspersed with 
special anthems having reference to the ceremony. 8 

With regard to the denominations of the silver pieces 
known as Maundy money, the penny is by far the most 
ancient and dates back to the time of the Mercian King, 
OfTa (757-796). 

Down to and for some time after the reign of King John 
the penny was the chief coin in general circulation, and, 
according to the following statement in Harrison's disserta- 
tion, prefixed to Holinshed's Chronicle^ not before the time of 
Edward I did it take a circular form. Having prefaced his 
remarks by the na'fve confession, " The Saxon Coine before the 
Conquest is in maner utterlie unknown to me" he proceeds: 

1 Feasey's Ancient Holy Week Ceremonial. 
" Information derived from the Mint. 
3 The service is fully set forth in Stephen's Book of Common Pray 
under Thursday in Holy Week. 



I read that King Edward in the eight year of his reign, did 
first coin the penie and smallest pieces of silver roundwise 
which before were square, and wont to beare a double crosse, 
with a crest, in such sort that the penie might easilie be 
broken either into halfes or quarters ; by which shift onlie the 
people came by small monies, as half pence and fardings, 
that otherwise were not stamped nor coined of set purpose. 

Round halfpennies, however, were coined during the reigns 
of Alfred, ^Edweard, and ^Edred. They were also issued 
by John. Silver groats, which had appeared, probably as 
pattern coins, under Edward I, came into general use during 
the reign of Edward III, together with the half groat, while 
the threepenny piece was first issued by Edward VI. 

Previous to the time of the Restoration, the Maundy money 
had always been furnished from the current coin, but under 
Charles II a new and special issue of small silver pieces was 
struck (1661) for the express purpose of the Maundy distribu- 
tion. These coins, of which there were various issues, consisted 
in the first instance of hammered money, made by hand in the 
customary manner by striking the die with a hammer or 
mallet. Afterwards, in 1668, the Maundy money was pro- 
duced by a new method termed "milling," and took on a new 
form, in which the various denominations were indicated by 
an ingenious device of interlinked Cs, the groat having, on 
the reverse, four Cs surmounted by the crown, and in the 
spandrels representations of the rose, thistle, fleur-de-lis, and 
harp; the threepenny piece bore three Cs; the twopenny, 
two; and the penny, one; these being without the national 
emblems. 1 Although a process of coining by the machinery 
of the " mill and screw " had previously been introduced here 
in 1561, it met with scant encouragement by the Mint au- 
thorities, nor did it entirely succeed in displacing the old 
system, but on its re-introduction by Charles II, milling was 
permanently adopted for all the coinage; pieces below the 
value of sixpence (viz., the Maundy coins), however, being 
produced with the smooth edge which has ever since been the 

The novelty of the appearance of milled money on both 
these occasions would naturally have been much commented 
upon by the people and appears to have suggested the curious 
anachronism which occurs in a remark of one of Shakespeare's 

1 See illustration. a Fourpcnny pieces had milled edges. Editor. 



characters. In the Merry ^ Wives of Windsor Falstaff (temp. 
1378-1459), addressing Pistol, says: "Pistol, did you pick 
Master Slender's purse?" to whom Slender replies: "Ay, 
by these gloves did he (or I would I might never come 
in mine own great chamber else) of seven groats in mill six- 
pences," etc. 

Returning to our main subject, a brief reference to the 
more recent celebrations of Maundy Thursday will serve to 
show the precipitate decline in the ceremonial of this day as 
contrasted with that of former ages. At present even the 
etymologies of the name disappear, there being now no sign 
of either " maund " or mandatum, unless, indeed, with regard 
to the latter, we accept the girding on of perfunctory towels 
by the Almoner and his assistants as a sufficient indication. 
Nor, considering that this particular ceremony was in use up 
to the middle of the eighteenth century, do the modern 
apologists of the Church, on this matter, seem quite con-^ 
vincing in the statement: "The Church of England in later 
ages, has considered the commandment to follow our Lord's 
example in that particular [St. John, xiii, 14] as one which is 
not of a perpetual obligation." l 

A report on the day following the most recent observance 
of Maundy Thursday, at Westminster Abbey, alludes to it 
as " a last remnant of the custom maintained for centuries. 
A form of prayer, and the money gifts to the poor, still remai 
together with what is described as " a charming and splendi 
spectacle." But there must be many who regret that obedien 
to a direct precept should, after the practice of so many 
centuries, have been abandoned by the Anglican branch of 
the Catholic Church. 

Subjoined are representations of the Maundy coins of 
Charles II, showing the device of interlinked Cs, together 
with specimens of those struck during the last year of Queen 
Victoria and the first year of King Edward VII. 

1 Biunt's Annotated Prayer Book. 






Maundy Money. 



[Continued from p. 134.] 

CHERITON (now in Elham Deanery). 

1557- (Cardinal Pole's Visitation?) 

EORGE BINGHAM for one pention [pension] which 
accustom ably hath yearly been paid to the vicar of 

Henry Birche that he with holdeth two acres and a half of 
land from the Vicar of Coldred, which was given to the Vicars 
of Coldred for the time being by a deade [deed]. 

The Parson of Waldershare, for with holding a pension of 
6s. by the year accustomed yearly to be paid to the Vicars of 
Coldred for certain lands lying within the bounds of Coldred, 
and the said Parson hath tithe thereof. 

Margaret, dwelling with Mr. Eton, for that Mary Maudelyn's 
day [22 July] last past she went out of the church, as soon as 
the sacring bell was rung. 

Mr. Geoffrey Eton, for at the sacring time he looketh upon 
his book and not upon the sacrament, and that he is a very 
envying [injuring?] to the church. (Undated Vol., fols. 1 1, 44.) 

Note. This is an undated Volume of the reign of Queen 

1560. That the Injunctions is [sic] not kept. 

That there hath been delivered to Mr. Collins a to be burnt, 
the Communion Book, the Book of Omeles [szc], and the 
Sawter Book. (Vol. 1560-84, fol. 2O.)| 

1562. The parsonage-house is in great decay, and the 
church is not served with any curate. -(Vol. 1562-3.) 

1 Anciently in Sandwich Deanery. 

* Robert Collins (or Colens) was Commissary to Abp. Pole, and 
Official to the Archdeacon, and deprived in 1559. A Canon of Wingham 
College at the suppression in 1 547, when he received a pension. 

VOL. XI. 209 P 


1565. The chancel is in great decay and ruin, that is to say, 
in tiling, glazing and paveing. 

That the parsonage-house was taken down by Mr. Geoffrey 
Eates, and he promised to build up the ruin within eight 
weeks the which he hath not done, but the timber of the said 
house lieth waste and surfers much harm. 

1569. (Abp. Parker's Visitation.) 
Rectory ; appropriator, the Abp. of Canterbury. 
Vicarage, in same patronage. 

Vicar : Dom Robert Bannister, who is married, does not 
reside there, but serves the cure himself ; has also the vicarage 
of Shepherdswell in the same [Sandwich] Deanery, where he 
lives ; not a preacher nor licensed to preach, and is not a 

Householders, 13. 
Communicants, 61. (Fol. 21.) 

That their parsonage-house is fallen down ; the chancel in 
decay for lack of tiling, glazing and paveing. 

The Vicar is not resident, and hath two benefices joining 
together. (Vol. 1569.) 

1586. The church roof is in decay. 

1590. Whereas the church was somewhat in ruin an< 
decayed by the weather, we have repaired some of it as 
as may be. 

Our vicarage-house is ruinous, and hath been heretofoi 
presented and not yet reformed. 

1592. Our church wants reparations, and we desire time fc 
the amendment of the same. 

We present our Vicar, for we have not our quarterly sermoi 
according to the Article, and the use in other parishes.- 
(Fol. 147.) 

1 594. The register-book is well kept, but their chest wantet 
the locks appointed. 

Their church wanteth reparation by reason of the last wind, 
also the chancel. (Fol. 16.) 

1597. Our chancel windows are out of repair which we 
present, but know not who ought to repair them. (Fol. 82.) 



1598. Thomas Jekyn being cessed for the necessary repairs 
of our church, at the sum of 2s. Sd. t he refuseth to pay the 
same. (Fol. 90.) 

1600. George Brett refuseth to pay his cess towards the 
repair of the church. 

The chancel is not sufficiently repaired, nor the church. 

1601. Stephen Pilcher refuses to pay his part of the cess 
made for the use of our church, being the sum of 4*. %d. 
(Fol. 134.) 

1604. Concerning the bill aforesaid it is answered by the 
Churchwarden of the parish of Coldred under his hand, that 
the church is not repaired as it ought to be, by reason the 
parishioners cannot agree about a rate, so that he the Church- 
warden knoweth not how to have that amended which is 
amiss, not able himself to disburse such sums of money as 
thereunto are necessarily required, as also he saith there yet 
wanteth a new service-book for the cause aforesaid. 

1605. Our Communion cloth is not decent. We have not 
the Ten Commandments. There is no chest for alms given to 
the poor. Our church wants reparations. The churchyard is 
not fenced with any other fence than a hedge. The Church- 
wardens have not given any account for the last year. We 
have no Table of Degrees of marriages forbidden. We have 
neither comely pulpit-cloth or cushion. The going of the 
perambulation of our parish hath been neglected for this year 
last past. (Fol. 44.) 

Our Minister doth not read the Litany nor the Commination 
against sinners, neither indeed reads any service on these days 
in our parish-church. 

Our Minister doth not wear the surplice at public-prayers, 
and but seldom at the ministering of the Communion, neither 
doth he wear any hood. 

We have the Canons, but these have not been read as yet 
publicly in our parish church. (Fol. 50.) 

1606. Whereas it is ordered in the 59 Canon that servants 
shall obediently hear and be ordered by the Minister during 
the time of Catechism. So it is, very notable abuse hath been 
offered in the church to my person (I mean in regard of my 



place and office) by John Broadbridge, servant to Richard 
Minbrie of Coldred, and John Ashley, servant to Steven 
Pilcher of that parish, who have not only been very negligent 
in coming, but also most unreverent when they are present, 
froward in their answers, in behaviour very scoffing, distemper- 
ing the whole company of youth, refusing to be instructed, 
either departing out of the church afore we have done, drawing 
others with them into the churchyard, there to glory in their 
doings, with neglect of Evening Prayer; or else, when they 
do stay, they use the place as though it were ordered for 
scurrility. And especially it is reported and much spoken of 
by persons very credible, who were much grieved thereat, that 
Ashley, as soon as I began Evening Prayer and so had my 
back towards him, made the Communion Table his stool, and 
then made merry at me, to the offence of many. (Fol. 56.) 

We want a lock and key to the coffer in which our book of 
christenings, marriages and burials remains. 

We have not the Ten Commandments set upon the church, 
neither is the seat where our Minister sitteth convenient, for 
there wanteth a desk whereon to lay the books. 

We want a door to the pulpit, neither have we a chest for to 
receive that which is given to the poor. 

The floor of the church is not paved, nor have we the table 
of degrees of marriages forbidden, in our parish church. 

We want a pulpit cloth and a large and comely surplice. ! 
(Fol. 62.) 

1607. Thomas Jenkin refuseth to pay his cess towards the 
raparation of our church, the sum of 37 s. 6d. 

1608. Thomas Jenkin refuses to pay his cess made for the 
reparation of our church, and certain ornaments in the same 
to be provided, the sum he is cessed at is 37^. 

1609. Our church is not well repaired in default of the 
Churchwardens, and also the churchyard is un fenced. 

We have not a sufficient carpet for our Communion Table. 
We have no pot of pewter to put the wine in for the Com- 
munion ; nor a box for the money for the poor. (Vol. 

1618. Joan Rose, wife of Arnold Rose (or Miller) of the 
parish of Coldred, for railing and scolding at her neighbours, 



and especially for railing at our Minister, Mr. Mark Grace- 
borrow, as the fame is in our parish. (Fol. 196.) 

Edward Jenkin, for not paying his cess towards the repara- 
tion of our parish church, he being divers times demanded the 
said cess, namely the sum of 1 1 s. 

Edward Jenkin, when Churchwarden, about four years ago, 
did disburse about the parish business .3 or thereabouts more 
than he received by his cesses; and that William Ponet and 
John Coppin, the succeeding Churchwardens there, or one of 
them, did pay unto Edward Jenkin in part payment of the 
3, the sum of Ss. or thereabouts, and in the name of the 
parishioners of Coldred did promise payment of the residue, 
out of such cesses as afterwards should be made in the parish 
towards the parish business, which now they refuse or deny to 
pay. (Fol. 197; vol. 1610-37.) 

1623. Richard Smyth of our parish, sidesman, for that he 
did work at the harrow and rowle [roll] on one of the Holy 
Days happening in Easter week last past, as the common fame 
is in our parish, of which offence we came to have notice 
pointed out, since the presentment ordered at Easter last. 
(Fol. 95.) 

1631. Our vicarage-house is much gone to decay in the 
timber work and walls thereof, in Mr. Graceborrow our Vicar's 
default (Fol. 163.) 

1633. A part of the fence of our churchyard is at reparations 
and in decay, in the default as I conceive of Thomas Philpot, 
esquire, farmer of our parsonage ; for that the same part hath 
heretofore usually been repaired, as occasion required, by the 
farmer of the parsonage for the time being ; and another part 
of the fence about our churchyard is likewise in decay, in the 
default of John Pile of our parish, who hath promised speedily 
to repair the same. (Fol. 190; vol. 1610-37, part ii.) 

[To be continued.] 

2I 3 



ONE of the most interesting features of the pleasant little 
town of Coggeshall in Essex is the long -establish 
Friends' Meeting. This particular branch of the Sock 
of Friends has had a continuous existence for more than tw< 
hundred and thirty years. Its minute books, which are stil 
extant, date from the year 1672. 

These books, which, by the kindness of Mr. Doubleday, 
Coggeshall, I have been allowed to examine, give a curioi 
picture of the early growth of this little religious community. 
Already, in 1672, the Friends in Coggeshall must have been ai 
established body, with recent traditions of courage and oi 
suffering. The imprisonment and death of James Parnell 
Colchester Gaol must have been fresh in their memories ; l b\ 
during the years succeeding the commencement of the 
minutes such persecution as the Members of the Society undc 
went was less violent, and was chiefly caused by their attitw 
in regard to the payment of tithes and the ceremony 

About these points their rules were of the strictest. Ind< 
their whole discipline was severe ; necessarily so, perhaps, ii 
an infant community maintaining itself with difficulty again* 
the outside world. The earliest entry in the minute-bool 
(nth January, 1671-2) is a declaration against those wl 
sometimes frequented the meeting, but had relapsed inl 
worldliness; against those who were profane or drunken, 
cozeners of other men's money; and, above all, against the 
who " have run to the preists for husbands and for wives/ 
About fifteen persons, who had been admonished in vain, 
" disassociated." 

Complaints of delinquents who " ran to the preists for 
marriage," are of frequent occurrence throughout these earl] 
minute-books, though it was the only legal method then exij 

1 James Parnell, a youth of nineteen, one of the earliest of the Qi 
martyrs, was imprisoned in Colchester Gaol, and there died in 1655. It 
is said that his death was caused by the brutality of his gaolers. 



ing for contracting marriages. That numerous "Friends" were, 
however, strong enough to defy law and convention on this 
point is shown by the frequent records of weddings. The 
second entry is of this nature: 

Upon the first day of the third month, Lawrence Candler 
and Elizabeth Knight, both of Fearinge, did at the monthly 
men's meeting lay before freinds . . . their intention of taking 
each other to husband and wife, and freinds then left buissnes 
to John Raven and James Carberton to enquire wheather 
they were cleare from any other person each of them, whoe 
did upon the third of the fourth month certifie freinds that 
they made enquiry and did finde them cleare. 

After this account there is a ten years' gap, but in 1682 the 
first entries are those of four marriages; in these cases, how- 
ever, the record seems to be simply one of marriage " with the 
consent of friends." There is no question of investigation. 

It is noteworthy, as showing the degree of education among 
the " Friends," that in the majority of cases the bride and 
bridegroom sign their names, instead of making their marks, 
the bridegroom signing more frequently than the bride. 

The brevity of the notes concerning the batch of marriages 
in 1682 may possibly arise from the fact that the "Meeting" 
had scarcely yet established itself in a regular groove. There 
are occasional hints that some " Friends " had not yet quite 
accommodated themselves to their new habits; such as when, 
in 1692, the clerk, by a slip of the pen, writes " December " for 
"twelfth month." The meeting, too, was still in process of 
development: in 1692 (when, to judge by the change in the 
handwriting, a new clerk must have been appointed), the 
meeting becomes the " men's and women's meeting," the first 
occasion in the records on which both sexes are mentioned as 
co-equal members of the society. It is a natural corollary 
from this that a few years later two men and two women 
Friends are set to investigate the " clearness " of a would-be 
bride and bridegroom. 

In 1692 the Meeting adopted a further method of satisfying 
itself in the case of marriages by receiving certificates. John 
Bale of Colchester, wishing to marry Elizabeth Evans, brought 
three certificates to satisfy the Friends, one from his father 
and mother, one from London, and one from Colchester, which 
had been his last place of residence; while, some years later 
( I 7O3) Joseph Sanderson, of Spittlefield, wishing to marry 



Elizabeth Bell of Kelvedon, produced a certificate from Lon- 
don, signed by twenty-one Friends. As the sect increased in 
numbers, these certificates probably became more necessary ; 
for on 5th July, 1698, *' It is desired that all friends living out 
of ye Division in which they intend to take a wife that they 
do at the first monthly meating they appeare at, bring a cer- 
tificate from there owne meeting unto which they do belong 
to satisfye ye freinds that all things are cleare." 

Such a certificate was by no means always easy to obtain, 
as George Clark of Halsted found when he applied to the 
meeting for a certificate. He had " gone to the priest " for his 
former wife, and "had given no satisfaction"; so he was now 
desired to wait a month. 

From regulating marriages to supervising love-affairs was a 
short step. On " the 6th 2nd mo. 1695," a Friend was " spoken 
with " (i.e. admonished) about a report concerning himself and 
a certain widow: " Wee found the man in a very tender frame 
of spirit, and he did acknowledge that he had given sum 
ocation by carrying of her abroad . . . and he tould us foras- 
much as she hath denied me for to have nothing to do with 
her concerning marridge which was to our satisfaction"! 

All Friends did not, however, take rebuke so meekly 
when it touched a delicate subject. The widow Page, when 
admonished in a similar affair by two men and two women, 
" sleyted our advice ... It was her owne concern and nobodies 

A broken engagement was a very serious matter; such a 
case occurred in 1673, when a young couple, who had pre- 
viously wished to take each other for husband and wife, " de- 
sired to flee each other." The Friends examined the business, 
and found that there was no contract, so they were willing to 
leave them free. "Yet afterwards the mother of the maydei 
said that they had parted them that had made a contract with 
each other." Whereon ensued renewed investigation ; and not 
till the youth and girl had affirmed several times before the meet- 
ing that there had never been any contract between them, 
were they looked on as " clear of each other and each of them 
had their freedom to take any other as by the Lord they shall 
be directed." On the whole, a breach of promise suit would 
probably have been less embarrassing ; yet the intervention of 
the meeting seems sometimes to have been welcomed by lovers, 
as in the case of Mathew Delle and Betsy Charden in 1697, 
who, when spoken with about the " grate delay in there ii 



tended maridge," said it was " becaus of the surconstances of 
the house"; and they would be glad of Friends' help to put 
an end to them. " She say she will not marry till it be ended." 

Matrimonial difficulties were not the only causes which the 
Meeting took under its care. In fact, as the Friends declined 
to resort to worldly tribunals, the Meeting necessarily became 
a court of justice and appeal, with, however, only one penalty 
in its power, that of " disassociation." Persons guilty of pro- 
fanity, drunkenness, debt, and the taking of oaths, were rebuked 
and advised by individuals appointed for the purpose by the 
Meeting: women being usually sent to rebuke women, and 
men, men. Generally the culprit came voluntarily to confession, 
as in the case of Thomas Perry in 1704-5, who owned that 
" he has caused truth to be evil spoken of ... by contracting 
of debts more than I could answer ... for which I have felt 
the just judgement of God upon me. ... So I hope I shall 
be more carefull and not doe anything whereby I may bring 
Dishonour to Truth and Exercise to them that walk therein. 
... So I desire you may pass my offence so that I may be 
in Unity with you." 

Like the greater world without, this little community had 
to deal with the question of heresy. In 1699 Thomas Turner 
and Joseph Simpson were in high argument whether or no a 
certain George Kieth was an orthodox preacher; Turner 
affirming, Simpson denying that he "spoke against truth"; 
and a little later Simpson himself advanced the doctrine that 
" we shall be saved by the light within us, and doe not own what 
Christ hath done without us." He declined to be argued out 
of his opinions, and was finally told severely that " The truth 
would be Cleere and ye people of it will be cleere of him." 

In various other ways did this tiny state within a state show 
a sense of its responsibilities. In 1703 it commenced to keep 
a register of births and burials. The care of the poor was 
early an object of attention. In 1698 Giles Sayer of Colchester 
came to the monthly meeting in Coggeshall, and did " deliver 
to the men's freinds, 6\ and four pound to the women's 
monthly meeting in Coggeshall . . . being ten pound given 
poor people calld Quakers in and about Coggeshall by Sarah 
Mootham deceased." And this was only one of a series of 
legacies devised for similar purposes. But the Friends by no 
means relied on legacies. Collections for the poor were made 
at stated times; and the zeal of the subscribers appears in the 
following entry, 3Oth of the ninth month, 1704. "We whose 



names are subscribed underneath are freely willing to make 
good our places on ye days yt are for collection for ye Poor if 
we should be absent on those days that ye collection is called 
for"; to which declaration seventeen signatures are appended. 
The sense of responsibility must have been very strong in 
these men, most of whom appear to have been farmers, arti- 
sans, tradesmen and the like. 

The money obtained by legacies and collections was fre- 
quently distributed in small weekly pensions to poor Friends. 
A pretty touch in connection with these pensions was the 
application of an old woman in 1700, "who did speak to 
Edward Mines of her owne accord that sixpence a week less 
might serve her occasion, whereas she used to have two 
shillings and threepence ye week: this I acquainted friends 
with at our two meetings." Sometimes a lump sum would be 
disbursed in gifts ; William Abrams, for instance, gave $os. in 
1704, which was distributed among five poor Friends in gifts, 
varying in amount from 1 to 6d. Sometimes, both the 
money and the goods of a deceased friend were applied to 
charity. In 1704 Anne Hazlewood died and the Friends seem 
to have acted as her executors. They expended 1 6s. 6d. in 
her funeral; i?s. 6d. for the Queen's taxes and the "Coffen"; 
and applying the rest to common purposes, they laid out, for 
Samuel Clarke's son, 1 $s. 9^., paid the half year's rent of Mary 
Addem, 14^., lent to one Friend to reimburse another, $s. gd.\ 
and for a new collection book, 3^. The total was 3 iSs. 6d. t 
and the Meeting still had sevenpence in hand. In addition to 
this, however, certain kitchen utensils of Anne Hazlewood's 
were lent to another Friend ; to wit, " A Glass case, A puter 
dish, 3 earthern dishes, a ketle, a porage pott, a skillet, a fry- 
ing pann, a stooll and a Tea-mill." 

The relief of the poor must have formed the largest part of 
the financial affairs of the meeting ; but the Friends had other 
and serious calls ; such, for instance, as the rent of the meet- 
ing-house chamber itself; this rent though not high, ten 
shillings a year, had in 1704 been in arrears for eight years. 
Then, too, there were gifts to other Meetings, as when " Coxall 
subscribed 2os. towards repairing the meeting house at 
Coulne." There was, of course, the cost of lights for their own 
meeting, and its furnishing, though this was probably scanty; 
in 1703 they paid five shillings and sixpence to Edward Mines 
for " two tables and Tressels and a chair in ye Meeting House." 
Another piece of furniture was provided in 1706: " It is agreed 



by this meeting there should be a cubard either at the stand 
or upon the shelf to lock up our books in as friends do think 
conveant." These books may have been certain volumes which 
appear to have been lent out among members of the Society. 
Among them were George Foxe's Journal and Epistles, and 
Thomas Ellwood's Foundation of Tithes. 

This last work touches a burning question of the day: the 
greatest difficulty under which the little society laboured was 
the resistance they felt it necessary to make to the payment 
of tithes; and the consequent troubles of many individual 
members are recorded in these books. About 1700 appears, 
"A Coppey of the suffering of Andrew Hills. Upon the 9th 
and 22nd day of 6th mo. Andrew Hills of Fearinge had taken 
from him by John Hamon and Robert Guyon and other 
seruants to Henry Abbott Junor of Earles Coulne, tieth far- 
mer under John Cotton, Impropreator, out of corn, thirty-four 
pounds; two loads of barley, a load of peese 6." 

The Friends were earnestly encouraged to keep up their 
resistance. Richard Adely was "exorted" to faithfulness in 
the matter and to be very careful to " keep his sone clear." If 
tithes were paid for any person, it was regarded as a reproach 
against them. In 1701 Thomas Houchen "protested with 
weeping eyes that he knew nothing of his brother and his sons 
paying Richard Hane for James Boyes . . . and when he 
came to Peering and did see his Tumbrell and his mares which 
were distrained from him for tythes, he was struck at the 
sight of it and did say he did hoope he should in some time 
moore get out of that snarld case . . . speaking with weeping 

But despite all difficulties with tithe-collectors outside and 
recalcitrant members inside, the little community flourished; 
by 1724 it had fairly settled down into an even course of life, 
a vigorous body itself, and a centre for numerous lesser meet- 
ings in the neighbourhood. It continued to grow throughout 
the eighteenth century, developing among its members such 
habits of strict discipline and neighbourly co-operation, such 
a deep sense of individual and common responsibility, as must 
have gone far to render them true citizens of the wider national 




READERS of a certain popular London daily were 
recently reminded of the obscure origin and topo- 
graphical history of ^ the world-renowned Downing 
Street. Bearing in mind that this obscure street is the heart 
of our Empire, it is astonishing how little throwing a light on 
its early history is to be found recorded apart from the great 
official names associated with it. This being the case, the con- 
tents of an old deed dealing with the unpretentious property 
formerly standing against the street and of which a part still ' 
remains as the official residence of the Premier, will be of | 
interest and perhaps of value. 

The deed is dated 8th June, 1803, an d made between James 
Martin, formerly of Whitehall, late of Downing Street, and ! 
then of Great George Street, Westminster, of the one part, and 
the United Company of Merchants of England trading to the 
East Indies, of the other part. The recitals are lengthy, and 
from them a good deal of information may be gathered. 

It appears that by Letters Patent, dated 5th February, 1752, j 
King George II leased to Sir Jacob Gerrard Downing, in con- 
sideration of a fine of .1,000 and a rent of 9 per annum, 
for a term which with that then in being would make up fifty 
years, a piece of ground at the west end of Downing Street, 
abutting on the east on a house then lately repaired or rebuilt 
by the Crown for the first Commissioner of the Treasury; on 
the north on the wall of the garden of the latter ; on the west 
on the wall of St. James's Park; and on the south on the large 
area at the upper end of the street in part, and on a garden 
belonging to Mr. Beard for the other part, and of these dimen- 
sions, 119 ft. on the west, 128 ft. on the north, 63^ ft. on the 
east, and on the south 57^ ft. next the said area, and 67 
next the garden ; together with the four houses standing 
the site and the terrace adjoining and enjoyed therewith, 
houses being occupied by Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Barom 
the Duke of Bolton, Mr. Delaval, and the Bishop of St. David's; 
together with two other pieces of ground with the houses thei 
on. Sir Jacob Downing died about 1764, leaving his reli< 



Dame Margaret, sole executrix of his will, which was proved 
by her in the Canterbury Court. Dame Margaret afterwards 
married George Bowyer, Esq., and being entitled to the 
premises as residuary legatee of her first husband's will, she, 
by her settlement, dated loth November, 1768, assigned the 
same to William Greaves, Beaupre Bell, Thomas Ryder, Henry 
Mountford, and John Rose, as trustees for her sole use after 
marriage. By Letters Patent dated 9th May, 1772, King 
George III, in consideration of 267 paid by the trustees, 
granted another lease of the premises to them for seventeen 
years, from i6th February, 1803, at the increased rent of 15 
per annum, until 1803 and from that date 75 per annum. 
By a deed, dated 24th November, 1772, the lease was assigned 
to William Masered of Hertford Street, St. George's, Hanover 
Square, for 10,500, of which 2,500 was advanced by the 
trustees on mortgage of the lease. The house next to the 
Park by a deed dated 25th May, 1775, was leased by Masered 
for thirty years to William Hunt of Well Street, St. Maryle- 
bone, Builder, at 210 per annum, being then occupied by 
Major-General Simon Fraser, formerly by Sir John Cust, 
Baronet, and Dame Elthreda his widow ; the adjoining house 
then being occupied by Sir John Eden, Baronet, formerly by 
the Earl of Scarborough. In the following month, Hunt 
assigned his premises to General Fraser for 2,100, of which 
1,500 was advanced by Hunt on mortgage of them. By 
deed, dated I7th May, 1777, Bowyer and Masered conveyed 
the head lease of General Fraser's house to him in considera- 
tion of 2,800 to Masered and 700 to Bowyer in reduction 
of Masered's mortgage. General Fraser died 8th February, 
1782, and his executors, together with the assignee of his 
mortgagee, conveyed Fraser's house to James Martin, by deed, 
dated 8th April, 1783, in consideration of 1,492 IDS. to the 
executors and 1,500 to the mortgagee. Then, by the deed 
of 8th June, 1803, the said Martin conveys to the company 
the house of which he was thus possessed for 6,650, apparently 
showing a very handsome profit. 

On the deed is indorsed another, dated 2nd April, 1804, by 
which the East India Company assigned the premises to 
William Chinnery, Esq., one of the chief clerks in the office 
of the Lord Commissioners of the Treasury, on behalf of his 
Majesty, in consideration of 9,433 public money, a transaction 
showing another handsome profit to the vendor. 

No doubt the premises of which the Premier's official resi- 



dence formed part were built by Sir Jacob Downing during the 
term which seems to have been granted to him prior to 1752, 
and in consequence of his being lessee of all or most of the 
frontage in the street his name has been perpetuated in the 
name of the thoroughfare. 

FAMILY OF AUCHER, A.D. 853-1726. 


THIS was one of the few Saxon families which main- 
tained their position as landed gentry, in spite of the 
almost universal change in the ownership of land result- 
ing from the Norman Conquest. 

First, as regards the spelling of the name, which, running 
back as the family does to remote Saxon times, has experi- 
enced even more than the usual mutations. 
It appears in the following variations: 

In Latin Aucherus, Alcherus, Aulcherus. 
In Anglo-Saxon Ealher, Ealcher. 
In Norman French Fitzaucher. 
In English Auger, Aucher. 

A.D. 853. The first representative who appears in hist( 
is an Anglo-Saxon Earl, appointed by King Ethelwulf l tc 
lead the men of Kent against the Danes. 

The Danes having been defeated, in 852, by kings Ethelwul 
and Athelstan, renewed the war in 853, by invading the Isl 
of Thanet. They landed at Sandwich with a considerable fore 
and, being attacked by Earl Ealcher at the head of the Kentish 
men and Earl Hulda leading the posse comitatus of Surrey, 
an obstinate battle was fought, in which many lives were lost, 
among the killed being Earl Ealcher himself. This Kentish 
Earl, as commander of the forces of the county, had what we 
should call " brevet rank " as duke. 

At the time of the Conquest the names of two of the family 
appear; one as a benefactor of St. Saviour's, Bermondsey, and 
one as holding the Manor of Bosenham in Sussex, by grant 
from William I. 

1 The father of Alfred the Great. 


What connection they had with the first Earl of Kent it is 
impossible to say, and the interval between 853 and 1066 being 
so considerable, the claim of descent, though possibly good 
and even probably so, cannot be verified. 

The next name that appears is that of William Fitzaucher, 
to whom Henry II (1154-1189) gave the fourth part of a 
knight's fee in Essex, and in the reign of his son, King John 
(1199-1216), a Fitzaucher appears as the owner of the Manor 
of Losenham in Kent Whether he was the same person as 
William of Essex, or was his son, cannot be shown; but we 
are told that William's grandson, Richard, was one of the 
Kentish gentlemen who attended Henry III in the expedition 
he made into Wales in 1258. 

Meantime, in 1241, a Sir Thomas Fitzaucher founded the 
Carmelite Friary of St. Mary's, Losenham, and I think it was 
he who, as " Thomas filius Alcheri," was named among the 
holders of fees in Kent in 1254, as holding of the Prior of 
Leeds (Ledes). 

In 1274 Henry son of Richard Fitzaucher did homage to 
1 the Abbat of Waltham for Copped Hall, Shingled Hall, Lang- 
fare, and other lands in Essex. And about the same time 
Henry III granted him free warren in all his lands in the 
counties of Essex, Cambridge, Wilts, and Southampton. 1 

1300. The name of Henry Fitzaucher occurs in the roll of 
Kentish men who were with Edward I at the siege of Carlave- 
rock in Scotland ; he was there made a knight banneret. 

In the next reign, that of Edward II, we find an Aucher as 
hereditary forester of Waltham Forest in Essex, and another 
as a Baron of the Realm of Thorpe, co. York. 

There was also one Peter Aucher, called " valet" (equivalent 
to our modern " gentleman of the bedchamber ") to King 
Edward II. He, fearing lest he might be accounted of the 
Order of the Templars on account of his long beard, and 
possibly on account of his friendship with Roger the rector of 
Godmersham (who in 1294 was thinking of entering the Order) 
obtained a letter from the King certifying that he was his "valet" 
and was not, nor ever had been, a member of that Order. 2 

1 He appears to have had property in several counties, but we are told 
that his principal seat was Copped Hall. His arms in the Charles Roll of 
Arms, A.p. 1250-1300, are, ermine, on a chief azure, 3 lions rampant or. 

* It will be remembered that the Knight Templars were at this time 
under the shadow of the awful charges made against them. Under pressure 
from his father-in-law, Philip the Fair, King of France, Edward II in 



In the reign of Edward II the owner of the Manor of 
Losenham was 

Nicholas Aucher. He married a daughter of Oxenbridge 

of Breed, Sussex, by whom he had one son and one daughter. 
I. Henry, who succeeded to Losenham. 
(i) Agnes, who appears in Edward Ill's time as the de-; 
fendant in a lawsuit brought against her by Isabella^ 
wife of Henry Aucher of Losenham. This, I take it,; 
was Isabel At Towne, who married Agnes' nephew, 
Henry; see below. 
Nicholas was succeeded by his son, 

Henry Aucher of Losenham, who married Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Digge 1 of Barham, and through her he became pos- 
sessed of the Manor of Digges Court in the parish of Westwell, 
as well as that of Lowden or Little Maytham. 

In 1347 he paid aid for making the Black Prince a knight, 
for both manors, as well as for land in the Hundred of Rolvens 
den (Rolvindenne), in company with his father Nicholas, and.^ 
for land in the Hundred of Tenterden in his own name. 

In 1367 he was one of those appointed to inquire into the 
age of William de Septvans, as a tenant of Edward Illjf 
among his coadjutors were Thomas Colepeper and Geffrey 
Colepeper. He was succeeded by his son (or grandson). 

Henry Aiicher, of Losenham and Digges Court. He paid 
aid in 1403 at the marriage of Blanch, the sister of King 
Henry IV. 

He was twice married: ist, to Isabel At Towne of Throwley; 
and, 2nd, to Joan, daughter of Thomas St. Leger of Otterden. 
By his first wife he had two sons: 
I. Thomas, heir to Losenham. 
II. Robert, heir to Digges Court. 

By his second wife he had an only son, Henry, who suc- 
ceeded to Otterden in right of his mother. 
The eldest son of the first marriage was : 
Thomas Aucher of Losenham. He married and had a son, 
who succeeded as 

Henry Aucher of Losenham. He (as Henry Auger) is in 
the list of Kentish gentry in 1492. 

December, 1307, imprisoned all the Templars then in England, to await 
the trial which was afterwards held in Paris in 1309. In view of the in- 
human tortures used to extort confessions, we cannot wonder at Peter 
Aucher's anxiety to dissociate himself with the doomed Order. 
1 This John Digge was probably the son of Adonerus de Digges. 

22 4 


He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Guldeford, of 
Halden, by whom he had an only daughter, Anne, who by 
marriage carried the estate of Losenham and the Manor of 
Lowden, or Little Maytham, to Walter Colepeper, second son 
of Sir John Colepeper of Bedgebury. 


The second son of Henry Aucher's first marriage inherited 
the estate of Digges Court in the parish of Westwell, as 
Robert Aucher of Digges Court. 

He married Joane , by whom he had two sons, i. Henry, 

ii. James. 

His descendants lived at Digges Court until the end of the 
seventeenth century, when it was sold to one Godden, who in 
1 700 sold it to William Bokenham of Rochester; his descend- 
ant sold it in 1719 to Henry May, Recorder of Chichester, 
who sold it to Thomas May of Godmersham, who took the 
name of Knight, and dying in 1781 left it to his son, Thomas 
Knight of Godmersham. 


Henry Aucher of Losenham; by right of his wife, Joane 
St. Leger, became possessed of Otterden. Otterden (in Domes- 
day, Otringedene) was granted by William I to Odo, Bishop 
of Baieux, his half-brother. It afterwards came into the hands 
of Lawrence de Ottringden, who died in the reign of Edward II 
(1307-1327), leaving an only daughter, who married one of the 
Peyforers, from whom the manor passed to the family of 
Potyn. Nicholas Potyn left an only daughter, Juliana (temp. 
Richard II), who married Thomas St. Leger, second son of 
Ralph St. Leger of Ulcomb, M.P. for Kent in 1377. He 
(Thomas St. Leger) lived at Otterden and died there in 1408. 
His daughter, Joane, married Henry Aucher, as above, and 
through her he obtained several other manors. 

EASTHALL. This estate was sold by Thomas de la Pine in 
the reign of Richard II to Thomas St. Leger, and Henry 
Aucher in 1453 sold it to Humphrey Evans, whose descend- 
ant, Alicia Evans, carried it by marriage to Thomas Hales, 
whose son Christopher Hales sold it in 1522 to Sir Anthony 
Aucher (see post}. 

NEWHALL, in the parish of Minster. This manor Henry 
Aucher sold to Sir William Cromer, Lord Mayor of London 

in 1433- 
VOL. XL 225 Q 


EVERSLEY This manor in the reign of Henry III (1216- 
1272) belonged to Brian de Eversley. Afterwards it belonged 
to the families of Peyforer and Potyn, and through them it 
passed to Thomas St. Leger and to the Auchers, who in 
Elizabeth's reign sold it to the Sondes. 

EMLEY. This manor was held by Fulk de Peyforer in 1277, 
and in the next century his descendant, Juliana, carried it by 
marriage to Thomas St. Leger. It was sold by Henry Aucher 
to Sir William Cromer. Henry Aucher was succeeded by his 

Henry Aucher of Otterden Place, who was living there in 
1441. He married Alicia Bolyn, and by her had a son. 

John Aucher of Otterden Place. He (as John Auger) was 
one of the trustees under the will of James a Bourne of 
Dodyngton, made in 1467. And, also as John Auger, he ap- 
pears in the list of Kentish gentry in 1492. He married Alice 
Church, by whom he had three sons and two daughters. 

I. James, heir to Otterden. 
II. William, died s.J>. 1 

III. Marmaduke, who married a daughter of one Gilbole. 
(i) Elizabeth, who married Thomas Besham of Sissing- 


(2) Jane, who married Thomas Corbet. 
He died 23rd April, 1503, and was buried in Otterden Chi 
being succeeded by his son 

James Aucher of Otterden Place. He married Ali< 
daughter of Thomas Hills of Eggarton, near Godmershai 
by whom he had one son and one daughter. 

I. Anthony, heir to Otterden. 
(i) Susan, who married James Aucher. 2 

1 It seems probable that this was the William Aucher to whom thi 
is a brass in Rainham Church, with the following inscription : " Pray i 
the souls of W m Aucher and Elizabeth his wife, which William di 
23 December, 1514, on whose soul may God have mercy." 

3 This must be, I think, the James Aucher known as "of Cherit( 
who bought the small manor of Sweet Arden, in the parish of Cherit< 
of James Man in 1550. Whose son he was I cannot say. Hasted sa) 
"his descendant Anthony Aucher, of Bishopsbourne, in 1691 sold it (t 
Manor of Sweet Arden) to Richard Topcliff" ; but he is, I think, conf 
ing u James of Cheriton" with "James of Otterden." At all events he 
wrong in the date 1691, as Godwin Topcliffe of Hythe, the son of th< 
purchaser, resold it in 1619 to Robert Broadnax of Cheriton. This i< 
confirmed by the Archaologia Cantiana, where (vol. xvii, p. 365) it : ' 
stated that "The Rev d Richard Topcliffe, Rector of Cheriton 1584-1 
bought of Anth* Aucher cir. 1591 Bank House farm and Sweet Ai 



He died January 6, 1 508, and was buried at Otterden near 
his father. 1 He was succeeded by his only son 

Sir Anthony Aucher of Otterden Place. He married Affra, 
daughter of William Cornwallis of Norfolk, by whom he had 
four sons: 

I. John, heir to Otterden. 
II. Edward, of Bourne Place. 

III. Thomas, died s.p. 

IV. William, of Nonington. 3 

Sir Anthony Aucher had almost as many transactions in land 
as his friend and neighbour, Thomas Colepeper of Bedgebury, 
and so I have transferred the particulars to an appendix. 

In 1540 he was appointed with William Goldwell to enquire 
into a charge of disloyalty against the Rev. William Marshall, 
parson of Mersham. In 1542 he was a contributor to the loan 
to King Henry VIII; He was subsequently appointed Audi- 
tor and Supervisor as well as an Assistant of the dissolved 
Priory of Christ Church, Canterbury. This appointment may 
, or may not have a connection with the contribution to the 
loan ; but he appears to have been of the school of the Vicar 
of Bray, for we find him in Mary's reign Master of the Jewel 
House (juelhouse) to receive goods of Colleges and Chantries. 
He was killed at the siege of Calais in 1557, and was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son 

John Aucher of Otterden Place. He married a daughter of 
Sir William Kellaway, by whom he left an only daughter, 
Anne, who in the reign of Elizabeth married Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert, 3 and so carried Otterden and sundry other manors 

Manor." How the property passed from James of Cheriton in 1550 to 
Anthony of Bishopsbourne in 1591 is not clear. Possibly it was another 
Anthony, perhaps a son of James of Cheriton. 

1 There is some confusion in dates here. James Aucher's widow, 
Alice, is said to have married secondly, James Hardres of Hardres Court, 
who died in 1490; whereas by the above she did not become a widow 
until 1508. 

a This may have been the William Aucher who was patron of the 
Rectory of Badlesmere, and presented the Rev. Richard Yates to the 
living, 3ist March, 1579. Perhaps he was acting for his niece, Anne, who 
; married Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who sold the Manor of Badlesmere in 
1581. There was another William, known as "William Aucher of God- 
; mersham," who, on 6th October, 1590, presented Paul Chapman to the 
Rectory of Hurst, Romney. Possibly these two Williams are identical, 
but if so they could not be identical with William of Nonington. 

1 Sir Humphrey Gilbert was half-brother to Sir Walter Raleigh. He 
was knighted in 1577, and he is most memorable as having made the firs 



into his possession. He sold Otterden to William Lewin, LL.D., 
who lived there, but died in London, I5th April, 1598, and 
was buried in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, a monument to him 
being erected in Otterden Church. His son, Sir Justinian 
Lewin, lived at Otterden, and died there, 28th June, 1620. Sir 
Justinian married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Arthur Capel of 
Hertford, Bart, and left an only daughter, who by marriage 
carried the property to Richard Rogers of Brianstone, Somer- 
set, whose daughter, Elizabeth, by marriage carried it first to 
Charles Cavendish, Lord Mansfield (son of William Cavendish, 
Duke of Newcastle), and secondly to Charles Stuart, Duke of 
Richmond and Lenox, who sold it to Sir George Curteis, who 
lived and died at Otterden, being buried in the church, October, 
1702. His granddaughter, Anne Curteis, by marriage carriec 
it to Thomas Wheler, D.D., Prebendary of Durham, and aft 
wards to Humphrey Walcot, who sold it to Granville Whel( 
the younger brother of his wife's first husband. Granvill 
Wheler died at Otterden in May, 1770, and the propei 
passed to his son, Granville Hastings Wheler. 


John de Bourne had a charter of Free Warren granted t( 
him by Edward I in 1289. His descendant carried the Mam 
of Bourne by marriage to the family of Shelving, 1 whence 
was commonly called Shelvingsbourne. A daughter of thi 
family carried it by marriage to Edward Haut, when it came 
to be known as Hautbourne. His daughter, Elizabeth, carried 
it by marriage to Thomas Colepeper, who in 1544, sold it* 
together with the Manor of Bishopsbourne which he had 
obtained by exchange from the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
to Sir Anthony Aucher, who at his death in 1558 left them 
to his second son. 

Edward Aucher of Bourne Place. He married, Mabel 
daughter of Sir Thomas Wrothe, by whom he had one soft 
and one daughter. 

I. Anthony, heir to Bourne Place. 

settlement in Newfoundland : and, in the foundation of England's first 
colony, given a date for the birth of the British Empire. 

1 Descended from John de Shelving of Woodnesborough, who died 
in 1412. 



(i) Elizabeth, who married Sir William Lovelace of 

Bethersden. 1 

On Edward Aucher's death he was succeeded by his only son, 
Anthony Aucher of Bourne Place, who was High Sheriff of 
Kent in 1570. He married twice, and by his second wife, 
Margaret, daughter of Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York, 
(who died 1609) he had two sons and two daughters. 
I. Anthony, heir to Bourne Place. 
II. Edwin, of Willesborough. 3 

(1) Elizabeth, who married first, Sir William Hammond 

of St. Alban's Court, and second (in 1624), the Very 
Rev. Walter Balcauqual, Dean of Rochester. 

(2) Margaret, who married Sir Roger James. 

He died I3th January, 1609-10, and was succeeded by 

Sir Anthony Aucher of Bourne Place. This Anthony in 
1604 (i.e. during his father's lifetime) is said to have fled to 
the continent, in company of Sir Thomas Hardres, to avoid 
his creditors their lands being compulsorily sold by Act of 
Parliament. This appears, however, to have been but a tem- 
porary difficulty, for in 1620 he was High Sheriff of Kent; 
and before 1630 he sold to Sir James Hales, the Manor of 
Staplegate alias Nackington, which he had bought of Walter 
Waller. He married Hester, daughter of Peter Collet of London. 
He died in 1637 and was succeeded by his only son 

Sir Anthony Aucher of Bourne Place. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert Hatton, who died in i648, 3 and secondly, 

1 The Bethersden Parish books mention William Lovelace as paying 
in 1558 twenty shillings towards cost of a new great bell for the church. 
And in 1591, the churchwardens acknowledge the receipt from "Mrs. 
Lovelace of 5-r. that she did give towards mendynge of the ledde of the 
church." This Elizabeth Lovelace ne Aucher, was buried in Canterbury 
Cathedral, 3rd December, 1627. Sir William Lovelace died in 1629, leaving 
by his wife, Elizabeth Aucher, a son known as Sir William Lovelace of 
Woolrich, who married Anne, daughter of Sir William Barnes, and by 
her had a son, Sir Richard Lovelace of Lovelace Place. He died in 1658, 
leaving an only daughter, Margaret, who married a son of Lord Chief 
Justice Coke. 

* He married Mary, daughter of John Gibbon, and their son, the Rev. 
John Aucher, was Prebendary of Canterbury. 

' In the year that his first wife died (1648) his name appears in the 
following list of the leaders of the Royalist rising in Kent : 

Sir Gamaliel Dudley, Sir George Lisle, Sir William Compton, Sir 
Robert Tracey, Col. Leigh, Sir John Many, Sir James Hales, Sir William 
Many, Sir Richard Hardres, Col. Washington, Col. L'Estrange, Col. 
Hacker, Sir Anthony Aucher, Sir William Brockman of Beechborough, 
Sir Thomas Colepeper of St. Stephen's, Darrell of Scotney Castle, Sir 



Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Hewitt, by whom he had 
four sons and two daughters. 

I. Anthony, heir to Bourne Place. 

II. Hewitt, heir to his brother. 

III. Rev. Robert, of Queen's College, Oxford. 

IV. Hatton, Administrator of the goods of his brother 


(1) Elizabeth, who married John Corbett, LL.D. 

(2) Hester, who married Ralph Blomer, D.D., Prebendary 

of Canterbury, by whom she had a daughter, Anne 

Blomer, who married James Teale, and had a son, 

Isaac M. Teale, and a daughter, Mary Teale, who 

married General Sir Charles Shipley and left three 

daughters : ( I ) Katherine Jane Shipley, who married 

Colonel Edward Warner; (2) Augusta Mary Shipley, 

who married Alexander Manning; (3) Elizabeth 

Cole Shipley, who married Henry, Earl of Buchan. 

He was created a Baronet by Charles II in 1666. In 1673, 

the Advowson of the Rectory of East Church Minster was 

granted by Charles II to Sir Henry Palmer of Wingham, Bart, 

and eleven other gentlemen, of whom Sir Anthony Aucher of 

Bishopsbourne was one. The trustees presented Sir Anthony's 

third son, the Rev. Robert Aucher, to the living, and on his 

death in or about 1682, his younger brother Hatton as his 

Administrator (with I presume the consent of the twelve 

trustees) presented Anthony Woolrick to the Vicarage: he 

appears to have held it only two years, for in 1684 the trustees 

presented the Rev. James Jeffreys to the living, who, dying in 

1689, was succeeded by the Rev. William Mills, who held it for 

ten years. Sir Anthony died in May, 1692, aged seventy-eight, 1 

and was succeeded by his son, 

Sir Anthony Aucher , second Baronet. He died a minor in 
1694, when the title and estate passed to his next brother, 

Sir Hewitt Aucher, third Baronet. The only mention of him 
I have found is in Dr. John Harris's History of Kent, who, 

Thomas Godfrey of Heppington, Edward Hales of Tunsted, Anthony and 
Francis Hammond of St. Alban's Court, Francis Lovelace, Sir Henry and 
Sir Thomas Palmer of Beaksbourne, Sir Thomas Payton of Knowlton, 
Mr. James Dowell, Mr. George Newman, and Mr. Whelton. 

1 His widow, Elizabeth (nte Hewitt) in 1707 sold to Sir Henry Furness 
of Waldershare, Bart., a large tract of woodland, some 1,100 acres, once 
called North Blean and afterwards Abbats Blean, as belonging to the 
Abbat and convent of Faversham. 



writing in 1719, says " Sir Hewitt Aucher has a very fine new- 
built brick house in this parish," i.e. Bishopsbourne. He died 
unmarried in 1726, when the title became extinct and the 
estate passed to his eldest sister. 

Elizabeth Corbett, wife of John Corbett, LL.D. At her death 1 
she left five daughters as co-heirs. 

(1) Catherine, who married, as his second wife, a Stephen 

Beckingham. He, in 1752, bought up the shares of 
his four sisters-in-law, and left the whole estate to his 
son, the Rev. John Charles Beckingham, who at his 
death left an only daughter Louisa, 3 who, on 6th Sept- 
ember, 1802, married Edward Taylor of Bifrons, M.P. 
for Canterbury, 1807-1814.* 

(2) Elizabeth, who married Thomas Dinward. 

(3) Frances, who married Sir William Hardres, Bart. 

(4) Antonina, who married Ignatius Geoghagen. 

(5) Margaret Hannah Roberta, who married William 

Hougham of Barton Court, by whom she had one son 
and one daughter. 

The son, William Hougham of Barton Court, died in 1828, 

The daughter, Catherine Hougham, married the Rev. Richard 
Sandys, and by him had one son and one daughter. 

The son, Richard Edwin Sandys, Lieut. R.N., was killed at 
Copenhagen in 1801. 

The daughter, Catherine, married in 1803 John Chesshyre. 
Captain R.N., and so carried Barton Court to that family. 

>IR ANTHONY AUCHER, 1540-1557. 

The Manor of Liminge was in the hands of the See of 
mterbury, and Archbishop Ralph, in 1 1 14, charged it with 
\d. per day towards supplying the lepers in the Hospital at 

1 She died in 1764, aged eighty-two. 

3 His first wife was a Miss Cox by whom he had a son, Stephen Beck- 

fham, who married Mary, daughter of John Sawbridge of Ollanteigh. 

1 Mrs. Taylor of Bifrons, as the eldest co-heir of the last baronet of 
the Hardres family, has a dagger given by Henry VIII to Sir Thomas 
Hardres, with whom he was hunting in Hardres Park when Sir Thomas 
was ranger thereof. 

* Bifrons was sold to the Marquess Conyngham, and Bourne Place to 
Matthew Bell. 



Harbledown with drink. In 1540 Archbishop Cranmer ex- 
changed it with the King for other property. The King granted 
the manor, together with the advowsons of Liminge, Stanford, 
and Paddlesworth, to Sir Anthony Aucher of Otterden, to hold 
in chief at a rental of 4. Js. 2d. After his death in 1557 it 
passed to his eldest son, John, and so to his granddaughter 
Joane, wife of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. The property consisted 
of the manor and park of Liminge, and 300 acres in Elham, 
Postling, Bethersden, Woodchurch, and Orleston, with the ad- 
vowsons of Liminge, Paulford, and Stamford. It afterwards 
reverted to the Bishopsbourne branch of the Aucher family, 
and was sold by Sir Anthony Aucher of Bourne Place, soon 
after the death of Charles I, to Sir John Roberts of Canter- 
bury, Knt, who died in 1658; it then passed through several 
hands to the Rev. Ralph Price, who held it in 1790. 

Folkestone. In 1540 Henry VIII devised the vicarage and 
parish church of Folkestone, "with all its rights profits and 
emoluments," to Thomas, Lord Cromwell, who assigned his 
interests to Anthony Aucher. But the fee remaining with the 
King, they were granted in 1551 by Edward VI to Edward, 
Lord Clinton, and they afterwards came into the possession of 
the See of Canterbury. 

Swingfield. The land in the parish of Swingfield, which 
had belonged to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, on the 
dissolution of the Order in. 1541, was granted in 1542 by 
Henry VIII to Sir Anthony Aucher of Otterden, who, in 1552, 
passed it to Sir Henry Palmer of Wingham. 

Bilcherst. The Manor of Bilcherst in the parish of Hawking 
was granted in 1542 by Henry VIII to Sir Anthony Aucher, 
who sold it to Thomas Smersole. 

Higham. The Manor of Higham, in the parish of Patrix- 
bourne, was sold by Thomas Colepeper of Bedgebury in 1 543 
to Sir Anthony Aucher, whose descendant, Sir Hewitt Aucher, 
dying in 1726, bequeathed it to his sister Elizabeth, wife of 
Thomas Corbett, LL.D., whose daughter sold it to James 
Hallet, who was living there in 1790. 

Kingston. The Manorof Kingston, near Bridge, was granted 
by Edward IV to Roger, Lord Wentworth, whose descendant 
Richard, Lord Wentworth, sold it in 1530 to Thomas Cole- 



peper, who, in 1533, sold it to Sir Anthony Aucher; his de- 
scendant, Sir Anthony Aucher, Bart, sold it in 1647 to Thomas 
Gibbon of Westcliffe. 

Mottenden. The Manor of Mottenden (Modinden) in the 
parish of Headcorn was granted by Henry VIII in 1545 to 
Sir Anthony Aucher in chief, and was assigned by him in 1553 
to Sir Walter Handley, who in the same year passed it to his 
son-in-law, Thomas Colepeper of Bedgebury. 

Wildmarsh. Wildmarsh (or Wolmarsh) in the parish of 
Stone, belonging to the Abbey of Faversham, was granted by 
Henry VIII in 1545 to Sir Anthony Aucher, from whom it 
passed to his granddaughter, Anne, wife of Sir Humphrey 

Postling. The Manor of Postling was in Domesday part of 
the possessions of Hugh de Montford. It subsequently passed 
through the families of De Colembers, De Delves, and Fitz- 
Alan, till in 1547 it was sold to Sir Anthony Aucher, from 
whom it passed to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who in 1579 sold it 
to Thomas Smith of Westenhanger, ancestor of the Viscounts 
Strangford, from whom it passed to Thomas Gomeldon of 
Sellinge, and finally was sold to the trustees of Sir Windham 
Knatchbull, Bart, who, dying in 1768, left it to his heir, and 
so to Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bart, of Hatch. 

Ashford. The Manor of Ashford (in Domesday Essetes- 
ford), was granted by Edward VI in 1 550 to Thomas Colepeper 
of Bedgebury, and was assigned by him (without license from 
the King) to Sir Anthony Aucher, who in 1555, mortgaged it 
with other property to Sir Andrew Judde of London, and not 
being able to redeem them, they passed into the possession of 
Sir Andrew. The property was afterwards broken up and 
passed into several hands. 1 

Plumford. The estate of Plumford in the parish of Ospringe 
belonged to St. Stephen's, Westminster, and was granted by 

1 It is stated (Archaologia Cantiana, vol. xvii, p. 193) that Thomas 
Smythe of Westenhanger, commonly called Customer Smythe (as being 
an officer in the Customs), bought the Manor of Ashford of Sir Anthony 
Aucher. This does not tally with the above, unless the sale was made 
through Sir Andrew Judde. 



Edward VI in 1547 to Sir Anthony Aucher, who sold it to 
Thomas Colepeper, who sold it to John Greenstreet. This, 
together with the adjoining estate of Painters, which John 
Greenstreet had also bought, were sold by a descendant of his 
to Sir Henry Furness of Waldershare, Bart, whose son, Sir 
Robert Furness, married Arabella, daughter of the Earl of 
Rockingham, by whom he had a daughter, Catherine, who 
became the ultimate heir of these two estates. She married, 
first, Lewis, Earl of Rockingham, and second (in 1751), 
Francis, Earl of Guildford. She died in 1766, leaving the 
property to her second husband, whose heir is the present 

Cobham. A messuage and four acres in Cobham were 
granted by Henry VIII in 1547 to Sir Anthony Aucher, to be 
held in chief. 

Statisfield. The Manor of Statisfield (in Domesday, Stane- 
felde) was bought by Sir Anthony Aucher of Sir Anthony 
St. Leger (temp. Edward VI), and his son, Sir Anthony, sold 
it (temp. James I) to one Salter, from whom it passed to 
Richard Webbe of Elham, and thence through the Head 
baronets to Dr. John Lynch, who held it in 1790. 

Badlesmere. The Manor of Badlesmere, with 2,000 acres in 
Badlesmere, Sheldwich, Selling, Chelloch, Throwley, and 
Leveland, was bought by Sir Anthony Aucher in 1549 of 
Sir Robert Southwell, Master of the Rolls to Henry VIII. 
Sir Anthony's granddaughter, Anne, carried it by marriage to 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who sold it in 1581 to Sir Michael 
Sondes of Throwley, from whom it descended to the present 
Earl Sondes. 

Old Surrenden alias Bethersden. This Manor belonged to 
the College of Wye, and at the suppression of the religious 
houses was granted by Henry VIII to Sir Maurice Dennys, 
Captain of Calais, who in 1549 sold it to Sir Anthony Aucher, 
who in 1551 sold it to Philip Chowte, 1 Standard Bearer to 
Henry VIII at the siege of Boulogne, whose descendant, 
Sir George Choute, Bart, dying in 1721, left it to Sir Edward 
Austen of Tenterden, Bart, who sold it to Thomas Best 

1 Sometimes spelt Choute, and on a monument in Holingbourne Church 
spelt Chovet. 



East Hall or EasthalL East Hall in the parish of Murston 
was in 1552 bought of Christopher Hales by Sir Anthony 
Aucher, who the next year sold it to Thomas Gardyner, who 
in 1568 sold it to Thomas Norden, who sold it to William 
Pordage of Rodmersham, from whose descendant it passed to- 
Richard Hazard. 

Rigsell. Twenty-four acres known as Rigsell in the parish 
of Statisfield, belonging to the Priory of Leeds, were held by 
Sir Anthony Aucher in 1558, and by Sir Humphrey Gilbert 
in 1574. 

Rollys. A part of the Manor of Dyve Court, known as 
Rollys, was at one time held by Sir Anthony Aucher, and 
afterwards by Peter Greenstreet. 


DENE-HOLES (vol. xi, p. 91). I am glad to see that you have 
taken up this interesting question. Surely, with the evidence 
that has been accumulated of recent years, it is time that the 
experts came to some agreement as to their date and object. I should 
like to ask what is the earliest use of the term Dene Hole, and what 
is the precise meaning and derivation of dene. I have heard them 
called Dane Holes. J. R., Gravesend. 


THE CULPEPERS IN KENT (vol. xi, p. 32). There is a slight inac- 
curacy in this interesting article. It is stated on page 35, that Preston 
Hall, Aylesford, was sold to Mr. E. L. Bates, who sold it to Mr. 
Henry Brassey, and that the latter pulled down the old Hall. The 
purchaser was Mr. Edward Ladd Betts, a partner in the great firm of 
Peto, Betts, and Brassey. It was Mr. Betts who pulled down the old 
Hall and built the present house. On his death Mr. Henry Brassey 
purchased the estate, and lived and died there. 


DENE-HOLES (vol. xi, p. 91). A Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
yesterday called my attention to an article on Dene-Holes in your last 
number, where I was surprised to see it stated (p. 93) that the pick marks 



in the Dene-Hole found by Mr. P. J. Martin on Windmill Hill, Graves- 
end, were made with deer horn, or, at any rate, were not modern metal 
pick marks. On referring to my notes of 23rd September, 1907, when 
Mr. Norman Brooks and I thoroughly explored the old chalk well, I 
find the following: " Now as to the nature of the walls of these caverns, 
they were very roughly hewn, as at Bexley and Hangman's Wood, 
and unusually rich in pick marks. We examined about forty of these, 
and in places where the chalk was damp, found them very clear, some 
an inch deep, some two inches deep, or more. Many were quite 
square, with clear cut sides, gradually tapering to a point. Others were 
more rounded, but still inclining to the square form, as if the once 
square implement was much worn. Hence we could form no other 
conclusion than that the holes or marks were made with a metal pick 
(i.e., of bronze or iron), not of horn, bone, or flint." This report ap- 
peared in a Northfleet paper at the time. It is important that the fact 
should be known, otherwise a false antiquity would be given to a very 
commonplace chalk excavation, which excavations are quite common 
both in Kent and Essex. 

J. W. HAYES, West Thurrock Vicarage^ Grays, Essex. 

ROLLS YARD AND CHAPEL (vol. xi, p. 157). No reference to this 
place and the Chapel appears to have been made in former numbers 
of this Magazine, but an interesting article on " The Rolls House and 
Chapel," by Mr. W. J. Hardy, F.S.A., appeared in vol. ii (pp. 49-68) 
of the Middlesex and Hertfordshire Notes and Queries, which Magazine 
was the precursor of the Home Counties Magazine. 

The Record Office Museum now stands on the site of the Rolls 
Chapel; it contains some of the monuments, notably the beautiful 
one by Torrigiano to Dr. John Young, who was appointed Master of 
the Rolls in 1508. The museum is well worth a visit. 

There was no connection between the Rolls Chapel and St. Thomas's 
Church in Bream's Buildings. The District called the Liberty of the 
Rolls was without a church of its own before St. Thomas's was built 
in 1842, up to which time the Church of St. Dunstan in the West 
had been used by the parishioners. 

St. Thomas's was a modest looking brick building, having a stone 
Norman arched doorway in Bream's buildings, and a door at the rear 
in Church Passage, opening into the vestry. The church was erected 
partly by subscriptions of the residents and business men in the Liberty, 
and was consecrated on i3th July, 1842, by the Bishop of London. 
The interior was striking on account of its fine old oak panelling and 
pewing, which had formerly been in the Temple Church and was 
purchased from the Temple together with the carved oak communion 
table. The latter, I was informed, was carved by Grinling Gibbons, 
and was presented to the Temple by Sir Christopher Wren. If my 



information is correct, the table and some of the handsomely carved 
pew doors have found a resting place in St. Dunstan's Church. Owing 
to much of the residential part of the Liberty being improved away, 
the congregation of St. Thomas's dwindled almost to vanishing point, 
and the church being no longer required was demolished in 1887. 

Church Passage, which now appears to be a misnomer, had previous 
to the erection of the church been known as " White's Alley;" it was 
many years before the old inhabitants got reconciled to the change, 
and for a long time they persisted in calling it by its old name. 




ESTIC AND ECCLESIASTICAL, with about 100 illustra- 
tions, 200 facsimile marks, and 1000 full descriptions of 
touches from the Touch Plates at Pewterers' Hall, as well as 
other marks obtained from various sources; list of members of 
the Pewterers' Company from 1450 to the present time, etc. By 
Christopher A. Markham, F.S.A. Reeves and Turner; pp. xv, 
316; 215. 

A good many books have appeared on Pewter during the last few years, of very 
varying merit; but many of these can hardly be said to be more than descriptive. 
They are, for the most part, nicely " got up " and pleasantly written, and have so 
many hundred pretty pictures. The present work has all these qualities, and a 
good deal more it is a practical work by a practical man, and has nothing about 
it of the " illustrated gift-book " order. 

After a sufficient account of the history of the craft, in which some of the early 
statutes are printed in full, we find an excellent descriptive section on domestic 
pewter, with many apt quotations from inventories, plays, and other sources; the 
section on ecclesiastical pewter is equally good. Chapters on the manufacture of 
pewter, the various alloys used, and some very useful hints on cleaning and repairing, 
complete this part of the work. 

The sections following deal with the maker's marks or "touches" as they were 
called. The system adopted, the regulations of the company, and the frequent 
evasions and disputes, are all fully and clearly dealt with. Then we have a most 
useful list of the Freemen of the Pewterers' Company, from 1450 until almost the 
present time ; this list fills more than thirty-three pages. Finally there is a detailed 
account of the fine remaining " Touch Plates," with either an illustration or a 
description of every mark recorded upon them. It is impossible to speak too highly 
of the value of this work ; it does for the amateur of pewter what Chaffers and 
others have done for the collectors of china and silver. The illustrations of various 
specimens are well chosen ; most are from photographs, but not a few from drawings 
by the author, who has a very pretty ' ' touch " of his own, both with pen and brush. 
There is a good index. 




The first article in this volume is a very useful catalogue of the armorial ledger 
grave-stones in St. Saviour's Church, South wark, by Mr. A. Ridley Bax, F.S.A. 
A rubbing is given of the arms in each case, and voluminous extracts from wills. 
Mr. R. A. Roberts continues his copies of the Inventories of Church Goods in the 
time of Edward VI. The most noteworthy feature in this instalment is the return 
for the parish of Gatton ; it was made by Dame Elizabeth Copley, and she certified 
that " she has nother church wardens nor syde men within the parishe of Gatton, 
but only hyr selff and hyr familye of hyr place and hathe byn so longe tyme of 
memorye." The good lady exhibited an inventory made by Sir Roger Copley, her 
late husband, which includes "a bell not lowde inowghe to be hard a flight schotte 
agaynst the wynde." Mr. Maiden contributes an interesting and scholarly paper on 
the operations of the Civil War in Surrey in 1642. Mr. P. Woods' history of the 
Rectory Manor of Godalming is a valuable addition to Surrey topography. These 
small ecclesiastical manors within manors were very numerous, but as a rule little 
is known of their history. Mr. Woods was fortunate enough to find a document, 
which is not strictly speaking a ' ' custumal " but rather a survey, being a list of tenants 
with the services due from each one. Such documents are not too common, and 
should always be printed, though this particular one presents no special features. 

Mr. P. M. Johnston, F.S.A., has another of his exhaustive monographs on 
Surrey churches. West Horsley, the church now treated of, has not the same 
amount of architectural interest as Stoke D'Abernon, but Mr. Johnston thinks that 
portions of a pre-Conquest building are still remaining. Papers by Mr. Reginald 
A. Smith, F.S.A., on Romano-British Remains at Cobham, by Mr. C. H. Jenkinson 
on Temple Elfold, by Mr. George Clinch, F.G.S., on the Lumley Monuments at 
Cheam, and by Mr. G. F. Hill on Roman Coins found at Brooklands, complete a 
first-rate volume. 

by Montagu Sharpe. Brentford Printing and Publishing Co. | 
pp. 26; 2s. 6d. net, post free. 

We gladly welcome another of Mr. Sharpe's scholarly contributions on ancient 
Middlesex. The present essay, which forms Chapter XVI of the author's work, 
Some Antiquities of Middlesex, is an attempt to show the continuity of the Roman 
measurements down to the time of the great Domeesday Survey, and, as a natural 
consequence, the existence, in main lines at any rate, of the Roman laying out and 
planning of roads, fields, and other sub-divisions. The latter question was dealt 
with to a great extent in Mr. Sharpe's previous chapter, on " the Roman Centuri- 
ation of the Middlesex District" (see Home Counties Magazine, vol. x, p. 160), 
and he is here principally concerned with the measures. Starting with the assump- 
tion (based on his previous chapter), that the Domesday virgate is the equivalent of 
the Roman centuria, Mr. Sharpe gives us some very remarkable figures. Compar- 
ing the Domesday calculation with the modern acreage, he show a difference for 
the whole county of a little over 271 acres in a total of over 141,876 acres. The 
nearness of the result shows that Mr. Sharpe's estimate, based on the hide of 125 
acres, instead of the more usual 120, cannot be far out, and as the 125 acres equals 
four ccnturiae, we consider that a strong case is made out, so far as Middlesex is con- 
cerned. But, as is well known, the area of the field hide varied in different districts. 

With regard to the question of the survival of Roman institutions and customs, as 
opposed to measurements and physical objects, we must confess that we cannot 
agree with all Mr. Sharpe's conclusions. For the Saxon settlers to occupy fields 
and roads without alteration is one thing, for them to accept all the rights claimed 



by the Romano- British coloni, is another. There are no doubt certain similarities 
between the Roman and the old English systems, but even so it does not necessarily 
follow that one is derived from the other, and in any case they are, in our opinion, 
too few to bear the serious weight of argument that is sometimes put upon them. 

of Farnham. George Allen and Sons; pp. 201; 2S. 6d. net. 

Farnham and its Rector are alike to be congratulated on this excellent little book, 
which is one of the best of the smaller parish histories that we have ever seen. The 
author seems to have exhausted all the printed sources of information, and in 
addition to have collected a considerable amount of material by original research 
The result is that we have a fairly consecutive history of the parish and its various 
manors from the Conquest to the present day. There are gaps in the history, as 
there are in most cases, but Mr. Geare treats these as a sober historian should ; he 
gives us his suggestion, without any attempt to state as fact more than he can prove 
from his evidence. Moreover (excellent man !) he gives references to his docu- 
ments. The descriptive portions are equally good; his chapters on the parish 
registers, rectors, churchwardens, briefs and charities, recusants, etc., all show 
careful and accurate study, wide reading, and sound antiquarian knowledge. We do 
not agree with all the author's suggested derivations ol field-names, but that is 
hardly to be expected, since there is no branch of archaeology in which there 
is so much room for difference of opinion. The index is poor and unworthy; with 
this sole exception, we have nothing but praise for the author and his book. 

By the Rev. J. W. Hayes. Reprinted from the Journal of the 
Royal Anthropological Institute ) vol. 39. is. 6d. 

We print in this number a note by Mr. Hayes on the Gravesend Dene-Holes, 
and a perusal of his paper shows that he has made special and careful study of the 
question. He gives a mass of evidence to show that Dene-Holes are simply exca- 
vations for the purpose of getting chalk, and not a few of his witnesses have actually 
assisted in the operation. We find his arguments too cogent to be resisted, and we 
think he might have strengthened his case by laying more stress on the negative 
side of the evidence. How comes it if these excavations were granaries that no 
store of corn has been found in any one of them? If they were refuges, how is it 
that no instance has been found of a group of skeletons huddled up in a corner? If 
they were made for getting flints, how is it that no store of flints, collected but not 
removed, has ever been noted? Mr. Hayes has done good service by giving us this 
lucid summing up. 

A HANDLIST TO THE SURNAMES represented by Inscriptions in the 
Hundred of Edwinstree, co. Herts, recorded in 1907. Compiled 
by W. B. Gerish; pp. 16; is. net. 

We have here an index to monumental inscriptions within the eighteen parishes 
comprising the Hundred of Edwinstree, including churches, churchyards, noncon- 
formist and other burial-grounds. The value of such a list is very great, not only 
to the genealogist but also to the lawyer, since the result of a lawsuit may frequently 
depend on the knowledge of a particular gravestone. This list gives surnames and 



parishes only, but Mr. Gerish states that the manuscript lists may be freely con- 
sulted at his house at Bishop's Stortford, and that he will answer inquiries if * 
stamped and addressed envelope be sent to him. We congratulate Mr. Gerish on 
his enterprise and industry, and trust that he will find many imitators in other 

TYBURN GALLOWS, by G. L. Gomme, F.S.A.; pp. 24; 2d. 

Not the least valuable part of the educational work done by the London County 
Council is the series of historical booklets of which the present monograph forms 
one. While making free use of Mr. Mark's work, Tyburn Tree : its History and 
Annals [see ante> p. 76], and other authorities, Mr. Gomme has given a number 
of most valuable extracts from the records of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 
The manor of " le Hyde," now Hyde Park, belonged to the Abbey, and from the 
old leases and other documents cited, it is conclusively shown that a gallows existed 
at the spot as far back as 1478, and probably much earlier, and that the name 
Tyburn was applied to the locality as early as 1440, and probably as early as 1356. 
Due acknowledgment is made to Mr. Herbert Sieveking, M.R.C.S., who first 
suggested that the site of the Tyburn Gallows should be suitably indicated. 

THE ARCHER GUIDE TO BIRCHINGTON, compiled by Gilbert Miller. 
Archer Printing Co.; pp. 52; 3^. 

This is quite a good little guide-book, and contains also brief descriptions of West- 
gate, Minster, Margate, Broadstairs, and other places in the neighbourhood. It is 
pleasantly written, and contains just the right amount of historical and antiquarian 
detail for the seaside visitor. Mr. B. C. Dexter contributes some pretty pen-and- 
ink sketches, but the half-tone illustrations printed in the text are not a success. 

2 4 


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St. Martin's, Ludgate. 
From an old print. 



* I A HE historians of London give but a meagre history of the 
church of St. Martin's, Ludgate. John Stow, generally the 
-- best of authorities, passes it over with singular brevity, and 
does not appear to have known anything about its first founda- 
tion, or early benefactors. He takes us back no further than the 
year 1418, and his successors have added little or nothing to 
his record of the church. Yet the present building is the third 
that has stood on the site, the first of which was built in the 
twelfth century, and there exists to-day amongst the church 
records deposited in the Guildhall Library an almost unbroken 
series of records belonging to St. Martin's Church, from the 
year 1220 to the present day. The earlier ones are contained 
in a volume which, by some extraordinary oversight, is lettered 
"St. Martin's Ludgate, Vestry Book from the year 1 568 to 171 5." 
This volume consists of two books bound together, the earlier 
one being of vellum and containing copies of inventories, in- 
dentures, inquisitions, deeds of gift, and other documents, the 
earliest of which dates back to the year 1220. The hand- 
writing is that of the fifteenth century, and the entries were 
made without any regard to chronological order, but just as 
the originals came out of the church chest. The latest of these 
early documents is dated 1485. I am inclined to think that 
the copies were begun by Nicholas Frost, who was church- 
warden of St. Martin's in the eleventh year of Henry IV 
(1409-10). There is then a gap in the entries of about ninety 
years, when the Vestry Minutes begin in 1568, continuing down 
to 1688. The second portion of the volume is of paper, and 
contains the continuation of the Vestry Minutes from I7th 
August, 1688, down to the year 1715. 

In this book, then, we have the history of the church, not 
for only for one hundred and forty-seven years, as the dates 
on the cover would have us believe, but for very nearly five 
hundred years! Unfortunately, when the volume was put into 
its present binding, probably in the eighteenth century, it was 
badly cropped by the binder. 

Of the records contained in the earlier portion of this book 
one, and only one, has, I believe, ever been printed, and that 

VOL. XL 241 R 



is the fifteenth-century inventory of church goods, which was 
edited by the Rev. E. S. Dewick, F.S.A., and published in the 
Transactions of the St. Pauls Ecclesiological Society for 1905 
(pp. 117-128). In the following article I propose to lay before 
the reader some of the more important and interesting of the 
unpublished documents in this book, and I shall do so as far 
as possible in their chronological sequence. 

The place of honour is claimed by the two following un- 
dated deeds of gift : 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum perven- 
erit, Osbertus Plumbarius salutem, Novit universitas vestra 
me divine caritatis intuitu et pro salute anime mee dedisse et 
per superscript! carta mea confirmasse Deo et ecclesie Sancti 
Martini de Ludgate decem et octo denarios quieti et annui 
redditus in puram et perpetuam elemosinam ad inveniendum 
in dicta ecclesia unum cereum percipiendos annuatim de domo 
ilia in qua mansi, que est de feodo Hospitalis Sancti Bartholo- 
mei, ad duos terminos anni, scilicet ad festum Sancti Michaeli 
nonem denarios et ad Pascham nonem denarios, sine occasione. 
Et volo quod capellanus et parochia dicte ecclesie beati 
Martini habeant liberam potestatem intrandi et distringendi 
dictam domum pro illis decem et octo denariis redditus si 
opus fuerit. Hos autem decem et octo denarios quieti et annui 
redditus ego Osbertus predictus et heredes mei prenominate 1 
ecclesie inperpetuum sicut nostram puram et perpetuam elemo- 
sinam contra omnes gentes debemus warantizare. Et ut hec 
mea donacio warantia et presentis carte mee connrmacio 
perpetue firmitatis robur obtineat presens scriptum sigilli mei 
testimonio roboravi. Hiis testibus, Aldred' capellano, Penti- 
cost' aurifabro, Michaele venditore librorum, Johanne Calicer 
Rogero diacono, Nicholao Petrario, Johanne de Westm'f?] 
Ricardo Capellano, Thome Allutario, Rogero clerico, et aliis. 
Redditus xviij denariorum per annum de concessione 
Osberti plumbarii ad inveniendum unum cereum in ecclesia 
Sancti Martini de Ludgate. [Fol. 17.] 

We can fix the date of this gift, with some degree of con- 
fidence, as before the year 1223, for amongst the records of 
St. Paul's Cathedral (calendared by Sir H. Maxwell Lyte and 
printed as an appendix to the ninth Report of the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission) is a deed of sale by Jordan son of 
Edwin, which is witnessed by Alderman Pentecost the gold- 
smith, Michael qui vendit libros, and John qui ligat libros. 
Osbert the plumber is also mentioned in the next document 
calendared, and to which the above date is assigned. 



From the occurrence of many of the same witnesses to the 
econd deed it is clearly of the same date, although there 
re many other names, not the least interesting being that of 
Walter who builds walls " : 

Sciant presentes''. et futuri quod ego, Wygot monetarius, 
consensu et assensu Matilde uxoris mee, et pro salute anime 
mee et antecessorum et successorum meorum, dedi et concessi 
et hac present! carta mea confirmavi Deo et ecclesie Beati 
Martini de Ludgate, in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, sex 
denarios quieti redditus ad lumen inveniendum in predicta 
ecclesia, scilicet de terra quam Radulfus de Fonte tenuit de 
me in eadem parochia, Unde idem Radulfus vel heredes sui 
vel quicunque predictam terram tenebunt reddent predicte 
ecclesie annuatim ad festum Sancti Johannis Baptiste tres 
denarios et ad Nativitatem Domini tres denarios. Hos autem 
predictos sex denarios quieti redditus ego, dictus Wygot, et 
heredes mei warantizabimus predicte ecclesie contra omnes 
homines et feminas imperpetuum. Et quia volo quod hec mea 
donacio concessio firma et stabilis imperpetuum permaneat 
presentem paginam sigillo meo roboravi. Hiis testibus, Ada 
de capello ecclesie Sancti Martini, Herveo Diacono, Galfrido 
Baron, Willelmo Clerico, Radulfo de Fonte, Willelmo Car- 
pentario, Waltero qui facit muros, Andree Framur', Willelmo 
Thyers, Pentecost' aurifabro, Willelmo Plumbario, Osberto 
Plumbario, Galfrido Capellano, Nicholao Petrario, et multis 

Redditus sex denariorum de dono Wygot monetarii ad 
inveniendum lumen in ecclesia Sancti Martini de Ludgate. 
[Fol. 17^.] 

Another early benefactor to the church was " Master Michael 
:>f London," who died in the year 1269. In "the 19 th year of 
Edward the son of Henry" (/.*., Edward I, 1291), on the 
Monday next after the Feast of St. Edward, an extract from 
his will was sworn to by Richard de Hokele, one of his ex- 
ecutors, and Walter de Ege. By this he left a sum of five marks 
a year for the income of one chaplain, to say the divine offices 
for his soul and the souls of his parents for ever. This sum was 
to be taken out of the rents of a certain house and shop left 
to him by his father, which were situated in the parish of St. 
Martin's parva, " juxta muros de Ludgate," and "ex altera parte 
via in eadem parochia," and which were then in the occupation 
of Richard de Herdfeild and Stephen Capellanus. He appointed 
three of the best and most faithful men in the parish, namely, 
Richard de Hokele, William le Waleys, and Osbert le chalicer, 



is the fifteenth-century inventory of church goods, which was 
edited by the Rev. E. S. Dewick, F.S.A., and published in the 
Transactions of the St. Pauls Ecclesiological Society for 1905 
(pp. 117-128). In the following article I propose to lay before 
the reader some of the more important and interesting of the 
unpublished documents in this book, and I shall do so as far 
as possible in their chronological sequence. 

The place of honour is claimed by the two following un- 
dated deeds of gift : 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum perven- i 
erit, Osbertus Plumbarius salutem, Novit universitas vestra 
me divine caritatis intuitu et pro salute anime mee dedisse et 
per superscripti carta mea confirmasse Deo et ecclesie Sancti 
Martini de Ludgate decem et octo denarios quieti et annui 
redditus in puram et perpetuam elemosinam ad inveniendum 
in dicta ecclesia unum cereum percipiendos annuatim de domo 
ilia in qua mansi, que est de feodo Hospitalis Sancti Bartholo 
mei, ad duos terminos anni, scilicet ad festum Sancti Michael! 
nonem denarios et ad Pascham nonem denarios, sine occasione. j 
Et volo quod capellanus et parochia dicte ecclesie beati 
Martini habeant liberam potestatem intrandi et distringendi 
dictam domum pro illis decem et octo denariis redditus si i 
opus fuerit. Hos autem decem et octo denarios quieti et annui 
redditus ego Osbertus predictus et heredes mei prenominate 1 
ecclesie inperpetuum sicut nostram puram et perpetuam elemo- 
sinam contra omnes gentes debemus warantizare. Et ut hec 
mea donacio warantia et presentis carte mee confirmacio 
perpetue firmitatis robur obtineat presens scriptum sigilli mei 
testimonio roboravi. Hiis testibus, Aldred' capellano, Penti- 
cost' aurifabro, Michaele venditore librorum, Johanne Calicer 
Rogero diacono, Nicholao Petrario, Johanne de Westm'f?] 
Ricardo Capellano, Thome Allutario, Rogero clerico, et aliis. 
Redditus xviij denariorum per annum de concessione 
Osberti plumbarii ad inveniendum unum cereum in ecclesia 
Sancti Martini de Ludgate. [Fol. 17.] 

We can fix the date of this gift, with some degree of con- 
fidence, as before the year 1223, for amongst the records of. 
St. Paul's Cathedral (calendared by Sir H. Maxwell Lyte and 
printed as an appendix to the ninth Report of the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission) is a deed of sale by Jordan son of 
Edwin, which is witnessed by Alderman Pentecost the gold- 
smith, Michael qui vendit libros, and John qui ligat libros. 
Osbert the plumber is also mentioned in the next document 
calendared, and to which the above date is assigned. 



From the occurrence of many of the same witnesses to the 
second deed it is clearly of the same date, although there 
are many other names, not the least interesting being that of 
14 Walter who builds walls " : 

Sciant presentes '] et futuri quod ego, Wygot monetarius, 
consensu et assensu Matilde uxoris mee, et pro salute anime 
mee et antecessorum et successorum meorum, dedi et concessi 
et hac present! carta mea confirmavi Deo et ecclesie Beati 
Martini de Ludgate, in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, sex 
denarios quieti redditus ad lumen inveniendum in predicta 
ecclesia, scilicet de terra quam Radulfus de Fonte tenuit de 
me in eadem parochia, Unde idem Radulfus vel heredes sui 
vel quicunque predictam terram tenebunt reddent predicte 
ecclesie annuatim ad festum Sancti Johannis Baptiste tres 
denarios et ad Nativitatem Domini tres denarios. Hos autem 
predictos sex denarios quieti redditus ego, dictus Wygot, et 
heredes mei warantizabimus predicte ecclesie contra omnes 
homines et feminas imperpetuum. Et quia volo quod hec mea 
donacio concessio firma et stabilis imperpetuum permaneat 
presentem paginam sigillo meo roboravi. Hiis testibus, Ada 
de capello ecclesie Sancti Martini, Herveo Diacono, Galfrido 
Baron, Willelmo Clerico, Radulfo de Fonte, Willelmo Car- 
pentario, Waltero qui facit muros, Andree Framur', Willelmo 
Thyers, Pentecost' aurifabro, Willelmo Plumbario, Osberto 
Plumbario, Galfrido Capellano, Nicholao Petrario, et multis 

Redditus sex denariorum de dono Wygot monetarii ad 
inveniendum lumen in ecclesia Sancti Martini de Ludgate. 
[Fol. i7<] 

Another early benefactor to the church was " Master Michael 
of London," who died in the year 1269. In "the 19 th year of 
Edward the son of Henry" (i.e., Edward I, 1291), on the 
Monday next after the Feast of St. Edward, an extract from 
his will was sworn to by Richard de Hokele, one of his ex- 
ecutors, and Walter de Ege. By this he left a sum of five marks 
; a year for the income of one chaplain, to say the divine offices 
i for his soul and the souls of his parents for ever. This sum was 
I to be taken out of the rents of a certain house and shop left 
to him by his father, which were situated in the parish of St. 
Martin's parva, " juxta muros de Ludgate," and "ex altera parte 
via in eadem parochia," and which were then in the occupation 
of Richard de Herdfeild and Stephen Capellanus. He appointed 
three of the best and most faithful men in the parish, namely, 
Richard de Hokele, William le Waleys, and Osbert U chalicer, 



to see the obit established in the church of St. Martin. Nearly 
a century later Edward III ordered an inquest to be taken of 
the property held of the Crown by the said Master Michael of 
London. This inquiry was taken before John Lovekyn, Mayor 
of the City of London and the King's Escheator, on October i, 
41 Edward III (1368). The jurors were Robert Tetteworth, 
Robert Messenden, Thomas atte Crouch, John Dene, Robert 
Mortimer, Richard Harewe, Nicholas Reding, John Wilby, 
John Burton, William Botelmaker, Robert Mauncel, and 
Thomas Davy. They said that Master Michael died in the 
year 1269, but upon what day they were ignorant, and after 
referring to his bequest, declared that the house was then (1368) 
in the occupation of Peter atte Mershe and Geoffry Boneyre, 
and the shop in that of Robert Spenser, and that the chantry 
had been duly founded and the said five marks received by 
the churchwardens of St. Martin's, who at the time the inquiry 
was taken were John Dene and Robert Spenser, " sporier." 
(Fol. 9<a, iod.} From Dr. Sharpe's Calendar of Letter Book G, 
(London, 1905), we get a few more glimpses of some of the 
citizens of London mentioned in this inquisition. Thomas atte 
Crouche was a " sporier," who, on June 17, 1353, was nominated 
one of the guardians of a daughter of Thomas le Horner (p. 9). 
A year or two afterwards he is found acting as collector in 
the Ward of Farndone, or Farringdon Without, of a benevo- 
lence (p. 59). In 1360 he witnesses an indenture (p. 121), and 
in 1371 a writ was issued to the Mayor and Sheriffs forbidding 
them to put Thomas atte Crouche upon assizes, juries, etc., 
should he prove to be over seventy years of age (p. 285). 

GeofFry Boneyre or Bonere was a " paternostrer." He was 
executor to the will of William Bonere, " paternoster," and 
was summoned to render due accounts concerning the property 
left by the deceased, some of which was in the parish of 
St. Martin within Ludgate (p. 1 14). He died before November, 
1368. Robert Spenser figures in 1369 as one of the collectors 
of a subsidy for the Ward of Farringdon Without. 

Extracts from a large number of wills are transcribed in this 
volume. Most of them were enrolled on the Hastings Rolls 
and are noted in Dr. Sharpe's Calendar \ but whereas in the 
latter the abstracts are very brief, in these extracts we get full 
particulars of the bequests to the church. For example, the 
following is the will of Richard le Long, goldsmith of London, 
made in 1 349, and proved on the ix kalends of May in the 
same year. 



In Dei nomine, Amen! Ego, Ricardus le Longe, civis et 
aurifaber London', sanis mente et bona memoria, die dominica 
in qua cantatur quasi modo gtniti^ Anno domini millesimo 
CCC quadragesimo nono, condo testamentum meum in hunc 
modum. In primis lego animam meam Deo Omnipotenti, Beate 
Marie, et omnibus sanctis, et corpus meum ad sepeliendum 
in ecclesiam Sancti Martini juxta Ludgate dicte civitatis. Item, 
lego summo altari ejusdem ecclesie ijs., pro decimis et obla- 
cionibus meis oblitis. Item, lego fabrice dicte ecclesie \\]d. 
Item, maiori clerico vj</., minori clerico \\]d. Item, lego Alicie 
uxori mee residuum omnium bonorum meorum, ut ipsa dis- 
ponat pro exequiis meis secundum voluntatem suam, prout 
melius videat Deo placere, et ad salutem anime mee et anime 
sue proficere. Item, lego dicte Alicie uxori mee duas schopas 
cum solariis supra edificatis et cum omnibus pertinenciis 
habendas et tenendas predictas duas schopas cum pertinenciis 
prefate Alicie ad totam vitam suam; Et post decessum dicte 
Alicie lego predictas duas schopas cum pertinentiis Roberto 
de Miscenden et Edithe, uxori sue et filie mee, et heredibus 
de corpore dicte Edithe legitime exeuntibus. Et si contingat 
qd dicta Editha sine herede de corpore suo legitime procreate 
obierit, ex tune volo et ordino quod post decessum predictorum 
Roberti et Edithe predicte due shope cum solariis et suis per- 
tinenciis per Rectorem predicte ecclesie et per tres probos et 
legales homines ejusdem parochie vel per visum et ordina- 
cionem eorum allocentur, reparentur et sustineantur, meliori 
modo quo eis viderint perficere, et pecunia inde recepta, ex- 
cerptis expensis pro reparacione et emendacione earundem 
schoparum, per eosdem cuidem capellano divina celebranti 
in eadem ecclesia annuatim, secundum quod attingere potent 
errogetur imperpetuum pro animabus Nicholai et Agnetis, 
patris et matris mee, ac eciam pro anima mea et Alicie uxoris 
mee, et animabus omni fidelium defunctorum. Hujus autem 
testament! mei execucionem faciendam istos constituo ex- 
ecutores meos, videlicet, predictas Aliciam uxorem meam et 
Editham filiam meam. In cujus rei testimonium sigillum pre- 
sentibus apposui. Dat' et del' London', die et anno supradictis, et 
anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum vicesimo tercio. 

Probatus [per juramentum] Hugonis de Lemynton et Galfridi 
de Wychyngham. [Fol. 16.] 

In Letter Book F (p. 6), is a list of names of the citizens of 
London who lent money for making presents to the King and 
Queen during the mayoralty of John de Pulteneye, 1336-37, 

1 Quasimodo Sunday is Low Sunday, the next after Easter. 



in which Richard le Long, there described as a " pessoner," l 
gave no less a sum than loos, equivalent to 50 or 60 of our 
present money. Geoffry de Wychyngham, one of the attesting 
witnesses to the will, was a notable man. He was sometimes 
called Geoffry " le Tableter," a mercer by trade, and in 1 346 
was elected as Member of Parliament for the City of London. 
He was Mayor of the City in 1345. (Sharpe, Calendar , Letter 
Book F, pp. 1 19, et seq.) 

Another fourteenth-century will is that of Robert Howner, 
Citizen and Brewer, who desired to be buried in the church of 
St. Martin, and left a sum of two marks annually to the rector 
and churchwardens, to found a chantry. This sum was to be 
levied on his brewhouse and other tenements in the parish, 
which he held of the Prioress of Dartford. The indenture of 
lease between the Prioress of Dartford and Robert Howner is 
also entered, dated in July, 1371. The premises were in the 
parish of St. Martin without Ludgate, and the lease was for 
sixty years at a rent of sixty-six shillings. 

Adam Haket, bowyer, died in 1378; his widow released to 
Thomas Prenteys and John Haxay, then churchwardens of 
St. Martin's, a rent of seven shillings a year from a house called 
" the Walssheman on the hoop," and a further rent of $s. 6d. 
from a tenement in the parish, which Robert Bray held of her 
late husband. 

Another house, mentioned in a list of the rentals of the 
church at this time, was " the Horshed without Ludgate in 
Fleet Street," then inhabited by John Kyng, barber. 

There is another interesting series of documents relating to 
Roger Payn, " sporier," including his admission to the freedom 
of the City of London, a grant to him by John de Stratton and 
Isabel, his wife, of lands in the parish, and his will and codicil 
proved in the Archdeaconry Court of London on April 7, 1405. 
With this, and other fifteenth-century documents in this wonder- 
ful volume, I hope to deal in another article. 

1 This is probably a different individual. Pessoner is a fishmonger, 
modern French, poissonnier. EDITOR. 





SOME regret was felt by lovers of the picturesque when 
Chelmsford was chosen as the See of the new Diocese of 
Essex. Yet though the place has not many beautiful old 
buildings, it lies in the midst of a district very rich in memories 
of the past. In the seventeenth century Essex had almost the 
highest rateable value among the wealthy eastern counties, 
and was full of timbered halls and pargetted ceilings. " The 
Nobility," says Sir John Bramston in his Autobiography, 
" came very often to the Saturday market sermons, as did two 
Earls of Sussex who lived at Woodham Walter." This passage 
refers to Maldon, but Chelmsford was near to the Earls of 
Warwick (and afterwards of Manchester) at Leighs, and to 
Monck's son, the Duke of Albemarle, at New Hall. Thanks 
to the old memoirs it is possible to become very intimate with 
the Chelmsford circle of those long-ago days. Unfortunately, 
there is nothing to equal the Verney Memoirs among the old 
books, and after we have crossed that living stage it is not easy 
at first to move among the pale wax-works of other authors. 
Lady Verney's rare gift of selection has made the Denton and 
the Verney sisters as real as Mrs. Tulliver and Mrs. Glegg in 
the Mill on the Floss. With Sir Ralph Verney's warm-hearted 
sister, Cary Gardiner, we can become as intimate as with Pepys 
himself. There is a great charm in her liberal spelling, as when 
she unconsciously dubs the baby Old Pretender " the Prince 
of Wails." Her conscious comments on passing history, as on 
the Revolution of 1688, are no less valuable. In 1689 she 
writes : " I confes popery wod A bin much wors, for that wod 
A destroyed thousands of bodies and souls and estates in a 
short time ; bot I heare there is great discontents now. I have 
sent you the King's speech which I liked and disliked, hee 
being subject to sinsures, as well as his meanest subject" 

When we have closed with reluctance the last of the four 
volumes of the Verney Papers, there is some consolation in 
discovering that the Verney family had many roots in other 
counties, and, among others, in Essex. Cary Gardiner often 
goes to stay there with her sister Betty, the wife of the Vicar 



of Great Badow, near Chelmsford. Sir John Bramston's 
brother, Sir Moundeford Bramston, lived at Bassets, in the 
next hamlet of Little Badow. The Bramstons and their kin 
were dotted about all over Essex, and the Verneys and the 
Stewkeleys were frequent guests in those old wainscotted 

In the Autobiography of Mary Rich, Countess of Warwick, 
we get a good idea of Puritan thought and feeling in the 
homes and parsonages round Leighs. But The Autobiography 
of Sir John Bramston has more links with everyday seven- 
teenth-century life; the quiet royalist ladies in it are more like 
the Verney sisters than puritan Madam Walker in the moated 
Rectory at Fyfield, near as it was to Sir John Bramston's 
Essex home of Skreens. Doubtless Abigail Bramston could 
"draw spirits in an alembic or cold still and make pastry, 
angelots, and other cream-cheese " as well as Madam Walker, 
but we fancy that she was less tied by observances, and would 
foot it with the rest when Mr. Petre sent over his priest from 
Ingatestone: " I had heard him play his part in music," says 
Sir John, "and he had often played to us while we were 
dancing." Carlyle condemns the Autobiography because of its 
long-winded incoherence, quoting meanwhile a most vivid 
passage about Cromwell's troopers springing out of the corn 
on the young Bramstons as they carry their father's message 
to York in 1642. The book is terribly rambling and involved, 
yet between its pages there lie pictures of every kind of seven- 
teenth-century life, and a record of pious royalists who were 
willing to suffer death, hunger, and imprisonment for their 

The headquarters of the family was the timbered house of 
Skreens, near Chelmsford, but their kin were dotted over the 
whole county. Sir John does not write for the printer but 
rambles on for his own grandchildren; as the memories 
throng in on his mind, the pages rustle, and we seem to hear 
the hoofs of the six gray and four black horses, as the two shut 
" calesses " rattle through Oxford to join the Prince of Orange 
in November, 1688; and we can see the spar-hawk, with 
which Sir John loved to go fowling, poised above the fields 
round Skreens. 

The sister of Sir Ralph Verney, who lived near Sir Moun- 
deford Bramston at Little Badow, was that Betty who married 
late, and who always had such difficulties in finding lodgings 
where her hair could be satisfactorily dressed. " I am con- 


Sir John Bramston, C.J.K.B. 
From the painting in the National Portrait Gallery. 


fident going to plow would not mack me more sick than the 
reaching up of my arms does," she says. The Verney family 
considered she had thrown herself away by marrying Mr. 
Charles Adams, Rector of Great Badow, and she was herself 
" willing to Ack knolig upon her knees this great folt of hers." 
Her sister Cary deplores the " rash ackt," but condones it by 
remembering that Lady Mary Bertie married Dr. Hewitt, who 
was " bot a chapling." Betty Adams is the Mrs. Gummidge of 
the Verney Papers \ when the grand sisters or aunts die, they 
leave their silver plate to " the Quollity," but " much lumber " 
to poor Betty Adams. " I am glad the elections and corona- 
tion is over," she writes in 1685, "thay forgot to tolk of aney 
thing els, but nothing can make me forget my soroes." 

Sir John Bramston's father was a judge, who, like Sir Ralph 
Verney, was not altogether a persona grata either to King or 
Parliament. Carlyle quotes the account of how Charles I sent 
for him to York in 1642, and the Parliament refused to allow 
him to go. Consequently, he was supplanted in his office of 
Chief Justice; and until the ruffling wind of civil war had 
blown over, he lived quietly at Skreens, where he kept a 
patriarchal board for fifty of his family and their connections, 
even to the Lord Brabazon from Ireland. At first they " all 
had for nothinge," but at length the kind old judge was driven 
to let the clan contribute toward the table, and the " hey and 
grass " for the horses. 

The autobiographer was the eldest son of the judge, and a 
distinguished lawyer. He had been friend and chamber- 
fellow of the great Lord Clarendon, whose portrait is at 
Skreens, as is also the writ from James, Duke of York, in 
1667, bidding Sir John, as Vice-Admiral, hinder the escape of 
the fallen Earl from any of the ports, creeks, or places within 
his jurisdiction. "The drums and trumpets blew my gown 
over my eares," says Sir John, " the Judges making a nose of 
wax of the law, and wresting it to serve turns." Consequently, 
he sold his chamber in the Temple and quitted his gown. The 
beauty of the old memoir lies partly in the real piety displayed 
by this very uncanting family. Cromwell was not slow to 
recognize the sterling worth of the old judge; but though he 
urged him earnestly to resume the office of Chief Justice, the 
old man could not forget the dead King, and preferred ob- 
scurity to place and power. 

There are many curious particulars in the book about 
doctors, illnesses, and medicines. Old Judge Bramston's first 



wife was Bridget Moundeford, daughter of Dr. Thomas 
Moundeford, physician to James I. Perhaps this relationship 
gave Sir John his intense interest in diseases and their re- 
medies, and has given us glimpses of Dr. Turberville, the 
friend of Pepys, Dr. Scarborow, the friend of Cowley, and 
Harvey, who recommended fasting against the gout. " Dr. 
Harvie hath starved himself these twentie years and yet hath 
the gout," said one Mr. Coppin; to which Sir John Bramston 
replied: " If to fast and have gout be all one with to eat and 
have gout, I will doe as I have done " and he lived to the 
age of eighty-nine with scarce a twinge of it ! 

In the Verney Papers, Cary Gardiner, a connection by 
marriage with Sir John Bramston's sister, Lady Dorothy 
Palmer, takes her daughter Peg to see Dr. Turberville at 
Crewkerne. Poor Peg's eye " labours with 4 diseases," de- 
scribed in full by Gary's graphic pen. Cary is always sanguine, 
and she hopes that Dr. Turberville will " butify Peg's left eye." 
With her usual inconsequence Cary trusts less to Dr. Turber- 
ville's skill than to the fact that " his birth is very good, which 
makes mee believe hee will perform what he has promised." 
In the end Peg throws over Dr. Turberville for a " mounty- 
bank," to whom a good character has been given by Prince 
Rupert. Towards the end of the Autobiography (which fills 
400 closely-printed pages) we read how his daughter, Lady 
Andrew Jenour of Bigods, near Dunmow, in Essex, comes to 
his Soho house, in Greek Street, to stay with him. She has a 
terrible fungus on her eye, and has been two years under the 
care of Dr. Turberville at Salisbury. An " issue " on the 
shoulder relieves her for a time, and then the waters of North- 
hall, a Hertfordshire spring, are tried. Cowley's friend, Sir 
Charles Scarborow, advises " the hummums," which seems 
to have been a kind of Turkish bath, but the poor lady 
proved too weak to bear such a prescription, and soon died. 
She is one of the band of quiet gentlewomen who fit in 
so well with the Doll Leeks, and Lady Hobarts and Aunt 
I shams of the Verney Papers. Another kindly picture is that 
of Sir John's sister, Lady Katharine Dyke. She was long a 
widow, and highly honoured by her son, Sir Thomas Dyke, 
for whose family she made a London home. She died in the 
eighth year of William and Mary, days when one does not 
expect minute church observances. Yet " since she came to 
dwell in town, if she were in health, or not hindered by ill 
weather she was at Morning or Evening Prayer in the church 



or tabernacle daily, as well working days as holidays and 

Sir John's other sister, Lady Dorothy Palmer, reminds us 
yet more of Aunt Isham in the Verney Papers, with her silver 
pocket nutmeg-grater, or Aunt Pen Osborne, who was so 
skilled in domestic medicine. Lady Osborne used to mix 
white hellebore root and grated nutmeg for a cold in the head, 
" to take as you do snuff, it clears the brain " ; another of her 
recipes for a like complaint was " Conserve of Reddrosis." 
Lady Dorothy Palmer, once of Hill, was also clever at making 
home medicines. She lived to be a widow of eighty-one, pass- 
ing from a daughter's summer home in Bedfordshire to another 
daughter's winter home in Basingshaw Street. God had blessed 
her with many cures in Bedfordshire, Sir John says, and wher- 
ever she came the poor flocked to her. An ungrateful husband 
left her ill-dowered, but she was always full of kind works. 
She would have no physician, but caused what she had to be 
made at home. On the death of her London son-in-law she 
was at a loss for a home, but her sister, Lady Dyke, sends to 
say : " Bring your bed and come to me, you shall set it up in 
my dining-room and we will be together." 

The ways of the sisters sound old fashioned now, but their 
piety is as fragrant as the herbs and the red roses they gathered 
by the old Essex garden-walls. As we read of their useful 
quiet lives we think of Margaret Blagge in Evelyn's pages, 
who " trussed up her little fardle like the two daughters whom 
the angell hastened and conducted," and left the wicked Court 
of Charles II. Doubtless in the Essex cathedral of the future 
there will be many living stones joined now to the Church 
Triumphant, and fit to be had in everlasting remembrance: 

And our chaste lamps we hourly trim, 
Lest the great Bridegroom find them dim. 

These words of Andrew Marvell's fit well for Sir John 
Bramston's sisters and daughters, but there are stirring and 
lively pages in the biography as well as quiet ones. As the 
old man sat, pen in hand, in the "Low Parlour" at Skreens, 
or with the rumble of London coaches in his ear at Greek 
Street, the " old unhappy far-off things and battles long ago" 
passed in review. There was the Uncle Stepkin, who had 
drained Wapping Marshes, and then lost many of the profits 
of his toil through the " hungerie courtiers " of James I. His 
son, Peter Stepkin, was at Edge Hill fight, "strooke his colonel, 



and was sentenced to death, but escaped." Cousin William 
Bramston left Cambridge and the Temple for armed fields, 
endured great hardship in the siege of Colchester, and finally 
died under Sir John Bramston's protection at Skreens. Thomas 
Palmer, a nephew, takes his doctor's degree at Padua, and 
settles at Cambridge. 

The kinsfolk are not always of unblemished character. Some 
of them are as shady as Lady Hobart's nephew, Dick Hals, 
the highwayman, whom she helps to escape, and for whom she 
borrows a flaxen "wigg" from Sir Ralph Verney. Sir John 
Bramston visits his shady kinsfolk in the Fleet Prison, as else- 
where, and does his kindly best for them, as he had done for 
Lady Hobart's highwayman nephew when he was shut up in 
Chelmsford Gaol. The Essex clergy had persuaded Dick 
Hals to turn informer, and the poor highwayman writes from 
Chelmsford Gaol bitterly regretting this cowardice, and long- 
ing for " my state of innocency, I meane while I was a pure 
theife, without blott or blemish." The same kindly charity 
was shown by Sir John to a cousin, Theodosia Stepkin of 
Wapping, who had three husbands, one of them an East India 
merchant who " courted her with jewels and fine things." Her 
credit was blasted in the end because she forged some deeds. 

Sir John's own mother, a " beautiful, comely person," died 
when he was a delicate lad at a Squeers-like school at Black- 
more End in Essex, kept by a preaching Mr. Walmsly, who 
had pies baked of the pigeons trapped by his boys at Smith's 
Hall, and beat little Moundeford Bramston with fifty strokes 
of a heavy elm rod, merely because he (Walmsly) was in a 
temper with his wife. During the punishment the big brother 
was away minding the master's cattle and conning his task. 
From school John Bramston went to Wadham College, a 
foundation with advantages for Essex boys, since Dorothy 
Wadham was by birth an Essex Petre of the Ingatestone 
family. The judge's young family was brought up by a 
wonderful old Moundeford grandmother, who came to look 
after them in the large city house in Philip Lane. She lived 
to be ninety-four, was very straight and upright, grave and 
comely, but, like so many able women, not tall. She was a 
skilful needlewoman, and wrought many chairs and cushions 
for her grandchildren, in spite of which she could read without 
spectacles, and walk without a staff till her last short sickness. 
Sir John's retentive memory passed on the tradition of another 
mother in Israel. Mrs. Moundeford's mother, Elizabeth Hill, 



nte Locke, had been the twentieth child of a London citizen,and 
had suffered perils by land and sea in the Marian persecution. 
She had fled to Antwerp, taking with her " but one feather- 
bed," and submitted to Catholic baptism for her children, with 
the permission of Latimer and Ridley, trying to give the rite 
a Protestant tincture by " putting sugar instead of salt into the 
handkercher which was to be delivered to the priest." She had 
two husbands, one Richard Hill and the second Nicholas 
Bullingham, Bishop of Worcester. 

Sir John recalls a stirring adventure in 1631, when his father 
bade the lad, then a youth of twenty, accompany him on a 
journey to Ireland, undertaken with the object of winning as his 
second wife a lady who had been his first love. Judge Bramston 
makes Hill, in Bedfordshire, the home of his daughter Lady 
Palmer, the first stage in his journey. This was the same home 
as that to which fifteen-year-old Cary Verney rode in her 
honeymoon days, from the Verney nest at the Peach in 
Covent Garden, with her husband Captain Thomas Gardiner. 
One of Captain Gardiner's sisters seems to have been married 
to a brother or a son of Sir William Palmer, for Cary was 
much at Hill until her first husband's sad death in a skirmish 
at Ethrop in 1643. 

From Hill Judge Bramston and his son have a most ad- 
venturous journey, by Penmaenmawr to Beaumaris and Holy- 
head. They are nearly overtaken by the tide as they gallop 
over the sands to Beaumaris Ferry from Chester, where they 
had left their coach. They were nearly put to a swimming 
bout on horseback, like that of Mistress Alice Thornton over 
Swale-water when in flood, but at last the drinking ferrymen 
appeared, and they were shipped in safety. At Holyhead the 
Welsh parson had prepared an English sermon for the travel- 
lers, but they had to leave it and their dinner in the lurch, and 
take advantage of an auspicious Sunday wind. 

Judge Bramston had known the lady he was wooing in 
Queen Elizabeth's days, when she stayed as a young girl at 
Munden Hall, near Chelmsford, with her sister Aylmer, wife 
of good old Bishop Aylmer's eldest son. In those days Lord 
Brabazon refused his daughter to plain John Bramston and 
sent her to Ireland, where she married first a knight and then 
a bishop. In 1631 she is again a widow, and the travellers 
ride, with bare-legged running Irish footmen alongside, to pay 
their court to the Lady Elizabeth Brereton. " When I saw 
her," Sir John says, " I confess I wondered at my Father's 



love. She was low, fatt, red-faced: her dress too was a hatt 
and a ruff which she never changed to her death. But my 
Father, seeing me change countenance, told me it was not 
beautie but virtue he courted. I believe she had been hand- 
some in her youth: she had a delicate fine hand, white and 
plumpe, and indeed proved a good wife and step-mother too." 
This indifference to the outer man by the graver sort in the 
seventeenth century may be paralleled in the case of Sir 
William Temple and many others. 

The journey home, too, was not without adventure. As the 
cavalcade rode over the sands from Beaumaris to Conway, 
the stout bride in her ruff was perched on horseback behind 
her young step-son; unthinkingly she pulled off her glove 
and with it accidentally let fall her wedding-ring. The im- 
perious lady at once made her serving-man dismount and fish 
for the ring in the sand, and when he could not reach it leapt 
from her horse and refused to move without it. The man was 
made to strip his arm and fish again, while he and she sank to 
their knees in the yielding sand. At last patience was rewarded, 
the ring was found, and the party moved on again, climbing 
like flies over the side of the beetling rock until they reached 
Conway. We wish that Sir John gave more particulars of the 
home life in Philip Lane and Boswell Court, but he only says 
that his step-mother died in 1647, and lies buried in Roxwell 

In Commonwealth days the judge and his son showed kind- 
ness to Dr. Michelson, Rector of Chelmsford and Moulsham, 
who was evicted from his living partly by the agency of the 
Puritan Henry Mildmay, of Graces in Badow. This man was 
the implacable political enemy of Sir John Bramston. " Dr. 
Michelson was one day burying a corps," says Sir John, " with 
the Book of Common Prayer in his hand ; the rabble threw 
him into the grave, and had buried him and the booke doubt- 
less (for they began to throw earth on him), had not some of 
the wiser townsmen rescued him." The poor man was se- 
questered and had to flee to Holland, creeping home at last to 
live sparely at Writtle, on the charity of the Bramstons and 
of Dr. Warner, Bishop of Rochester. 

In 1654 the old judge died. He had been a little rash "in 
eating of a goose," in the house of his son Moundeford, at 
Bassets, in Little Badow. He had then walked from Bassets 
to Tofts, " and talking with the old Lady Barrington, that 
impertinent everlasting talker, he whispered me, he felt himself 



not well." Dr. Leonard and the judge's Kentish daughter, 
Mary Porter, came to see him, but he was seventy-seven years 
old, and the illness could not be shaken off. After a few days 
the end came at Skreens. " And diligently to live after Thy 
commandments what a word is that diligently," he said to 
Dr. Michelson. Soon after he received the Absolution and 
died. He was buried at Roxwell, near Skreens. Cowley wrote 
his epitaph: 

Ambitione, ira, donoque potentior omni 
Qui judex aliis lex fuit ipse sibi. 

It was lonely for Sir John at Skreens after his father's 
death, for his own happy married life with Alderman Abdy's 
daughter Alice had not been a long one, though the poor lady 
bore him ten children between November, 1635, and her death 
in February, 1647. Sir John only paints his portraits in pastel : 
they are not Dutch in their accuracy and detail, like Lady 
Verney's pictures, nor has he that felicity of phrase which 
makes every Verney letter so luminous, that we long for the 
unwritten works of scapegrace Tom Verney more than for 
fresh volumes from Sir Thomas Browne. Sir John cannot 
match Cary Gardiner's second husband, John Stewkeley, who 
describes his growing group of babies at Preshaw by saying: 
" Here are many white aprons that have long strings." Yet 
we seem to see gentle Alice Bramston sketched with a few 
pale touches by the husband writing so many years after she 
left him. She died in 1647, he in 1700, and he never married 
again. "She was a most careful indulgent Mother to her 
children," he says, " and heard them the catechism, Lord's 
prayer, commandments and creed, constantly every morning, 
as well as some psalms and chapters. She would daylie dress 
one or more of the gyrles with her own hands. She was a very 
observant wife. I scarce ever went a journey but she wept." 
In the winter of 1647 she came up to her husband's London 
house in the Charterhouse Yard. When she was shopping at 
Thorowgood's, the linendraper's, a football came through the 
window and struck the young wife, who was ailing from some 
" shogg or jolt or fright coming up from Skreens, for she 
was very fearful in a coach." These complications defied the 
skill of Dr. Prujean and all the physicians, and when her baby 
was born she died. Sir John took his two motherless girls to 
Mrs. Salmon's school at Hackney, where they probably 
learned " Jappaning," and we will hope also "all accomplish- 
ments that will render them considerable and lovely in the 



sight of God and man," as did Molly Verney at Mrs. Priest's 
school at Chelsea. 

Sir John's weaker side was his sternness towards Dissenters, 
whom he calls " fanaticks." He would scarcely have appre- 
ciated Thomas Ellwood of Thame, the young Quaker who 
stood so many " whirrets " on the ear from his father for keep- 
ing his hat on, and felt such pangs in his innocent heart for 
having gone a back way to avoid affronting the town mag- 
nates, and so having "shunned the Cross." Yet Sir John 
recognizes the generosity of Mr. Ellis Crispe, a " fanatick " 
who helps him in his great dilemma in 1672, when his enemy, 
Henry Mildmay, hatches a little Popish plot for Sir John's 
own special benefit, and suborns a Portuguese false witness, 
called Macedo, to swear that Sir John is a Papist, and has a 
permit from the Pope to worship the devil! 

Sir John writes comparatively little about the reign of 
Charles II, though he describes the King's apoplexy, and the 
application of a fire-pan and burning amber to his head. 
After Charles II's death, we get many most interesting diary- 
entries during the stirring times of James II, and the puzzling 
dilemmas of William and Mary's reign. Sir John pays many 
heavy fines before he takes the new oaths, but at last he sub- 
mits, feeling that King James's desertion of the kingdom has 
abrogated the old oaths. " Marrie, if he doe returne, I think 
our allegiance will also returne to him," writes the old man in 
those days of questioning of hearts. 

Perhaps the most vivid of the many life-like glimpses of 
James II's short reign is the story of King James's hunt at 
New Hall, near Chelmsford. It is May, 1686. His Majesty 
is about to visit the Duke of Albemarle, the unworthy son of 
the great General Monck. The King is in fine company: 
there is young Prince George of Denmark, his daughter 
Anne's husband, the Earl of Feversham, with Sedgemoor 
laurels not yet withered, Lord Dartmouth, and others. " The 
great lords, being on the other side of the wood, heard not the 
hounds, and so several cast out and never reacht the hounds. 
But the stagg came out of the wood near by Moulsham Hall, 
where the King was, ran near to Wanstead, and the King was 
in at the death. This put him in a good humour, and he 
would have his fellow-hunters to sup with him at New Hall, 
with spendthrift Albemarle and his flighty Newcastle duchess." 
Next spring the Duke made a great hit by recovering the 
wrecked Spanish galleon and .200,000 of Spanish gold lost 



sixty years before and encrusted with rust and coral. King 
James had his share, and was doubtless glad of it. 

On the second day of the hunt the stag leaps the pale and 
runs to the Roothings. His Majesty keeps near the dogs, 
though the ditches are broad and deep, and the hedges high. 
He is again much pleased that the lords are cast out, and 
Lord Dartmouth sends a messenger to Copt Hall, to the Earl 
of Dorset, to say the King will dine there. It turns out that 
the Earl is away, and the messenger meets the Countess and 
her mother, Lady Northampton, going a-visiting in their coach. 
The Countess is much perturbed, for the cook and butler are 
gone to the fair at Waltham. She hurries home, however, has 
locks and doors broken open, and by the time the King has 
washed, and viewed the house and gardens, a handsome colla- 
tion is prepared. On the way back to London the King meets 
the Earl of Dorset, who bemoans his ill-fortune in missing the 
King : " Make no excuses, it was exceeding well and very 
handsome," answers James. In a few months the clouds have 
drawn across the fresh May sky, and the Countess's uncle, 
Henry Compton, Bishop of London, is suspended. Three short 
years more, and Bishop Compton,in place of Sancroft, the non- 
juror, is setting the crown on the heads of William and Mary. 

One of the kindest of Sir John's neighbours was Lady Jane 
Abdy, of Albyns, near Navestock. There is an amusing page 
in the Verney Papers when twenty - one - year old Jane 
Nicholas, the daughter of Dr. Denton's only child Nancy, 
marries "the old gallant," Sir John Abdy of Albyns. He 
must, indeed, have been an old man in 1687, as he was a 
brother of Sir John Bramston's wife Alice. Edmund Verney 
is much against the match. " Cosen Jinny cannot love an old 
man," he writes, thinking perhaps of spoiled lives, of his own 
poor lunatic wife Mary, at the White House, and Mary Eure, 
whom he had loved so passionately, but might never wed. 
" Doctor's Nancy " wisely leaves the decision to Jinny, " for 
'tis she must live with him." Sir John Bramston tells us that 
the marriage took place in Henry VII's Chapel on loth May, 
1687, in a high wind so high indeed that on the I2th the tide 
was kept back and men walked down the bed of the Thames 
from Westminster to Whitehall. Lady Verney tells us that 
Jinny's short four years' marriage was a happy one. When 
baby Jane is born nothing will please Lady Abdy but that 
Sir Ralph Verney should be godfather, as he had been to the 
baby's mother and grandmother. 

VOL. XI. 257 S