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Ipse parens vatum, princcps Heliconis HOMERUS. Claudian. 








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IN preparing an edition of an ancient author, the two points which 
divide the attention of the Editor are the correctness of his Text, 
and the adaptation of his illustrations to that class of students, for 
whom they are more immediately designed. With respect to the 
former of these essentials, so far as the ILIAD is concerned, little 
room, if any, is left for improvement, by the laborious critical re- 
searches of the illustrious HEYNE ; so that nothing remains but to 
adopt his readings, with the exception of a few instances, where a 
casual oversight, or an over-attachment to some favourite theory, 
may have led him into error. It is somewhat surprising, however, 
in this age of classical erudition, amid the various useful and learned 
editions of the Greek and Latin writers, which have issued from 
the press, that no attempt has been made to accommodate HOMER 
to the study of youth. The editions of the Iliad, which are at pre- 
sent in general use, are strikingly deficient in the means of effecting 
this important object. That of Dr. Clarke is almost entirely 
devoted to the comparison of parallel passages from Virgil, and the 
solution of metrical difficulties, in which he has, for the most part, 
totally failed ; and the minor edition of Heyne consists of little 
more than meagre explanations of the construction, abridged from 
the larger work, and brief analyses of each succeeding division of 
the subject. In these editions, also, the mythology, the customs, 
manners, arid antiquities of the early Greeks, are rarely, and only 
cursorily, noticed. Now, though it is true that on these points 



Homer generally goes before his commentator; and that from 
Homer himself these subjects are drawn and illustrated by the anti- 
quarian ; still it is useful, and often necessary, to call the attention 
of the student to the fact ; to point out the early source from which 
many of their habits were derived ; and to mark the changes which 
afterwards took place in them, by means of reference to later 

The grand object of the present attempt, therefore, has been, to 
afford information to the student in his first acquaintance with 
Homer, and during the progress of his Academical studies. With 
this view, all points of intricacy have been cleared up, peculiarities 
of construction explained, the true etymology and signification of 
the principal words and phrases defined, and illustrated by authori- 
ties from other writers, and citations from Eustathius, the Greek 
Scholiasts, and Lexicographers. It is hoped, therefore, that although 
the depths of verbal criticism have been generally avoided, a way 
has been opened for those, who may afterwards choose to push their 
researches further. With respect to the subject of antiquities, it 
seemed to be a point of peculiar interest to develope the correspon- 
dence and connexion between the religious, social, and civil cus- 
toms of the Greeks, and those of the Jews and other Oriental 
nations ; as it not only tends to throw a light upon the common 
source in which they mutually originated, but also, in many in- 
stances, to illustrate the Sacred Writers themselves. And it will 
frequently be found, that a striking similarity exists between them, 
extending itself even to sentiments and ideas, and the peculiar 
mode of expressing them. 

Succeeding Greek poets, and after them Virgil in particular, and 
the Roman poets in general, have been frequently indebted for some 
of their brightest ideas and most beautiful passages, to Homer. 
Those from Virgil are regularly cited by Clarke, with a most scru- 
pulous perseverance, and with a minuteness, in many cases, bor- 
dering on the ridiculous ; sometimes even where it would be 
difficult to find a resemblance, had it not been kindly pointed out. 
It has been thought sufficient to cite the most striking parallels ; 


not confining them, however, to Virgil, or even to the body of 
Greek and Roman authors, but occasionally extending them to 
our own poets, of whom Milton, in particular, has not hesitated to 
follow in the steps of his great predecessor. 

The remarks on the language and versification of Homer, it was 
at first intended to have embodied with the notes ; but from their 
frequent recurrence and general application, it was found more 
convenient to throw them together in a separate form. There are 
many circumstances also connected with the poet himself and his 
writings, with which the student would wish to be acquainted, 
merely as matters of curiosity ; but more particularly as they have 
lately engaged the attention and research of the first literary cha- 
racters of Europe. The more important of these topics, such as 
the variety of opinion respecting the life, the real existence, and 
individuality of Homer; the account of his writings, the probable 
method of their preservation, and the primary argument of the 
Iliad: these, together with the subjects above mentioned, are 
considered in a connected series of Preliminary Observations. 

With respect to the somewhat novel form of English annotation, 
it has been adopted, as in the Pentalogia Grceca ', from a firm con- 
viction of its utility. Every master knows, that a boy at school 
never thinks of looking at a Latin note ; and for this simple reason, 
that it is often more difficult, to a youth at least, than the passage 
which it is intended to explain. Indeed, a more advanced student 
will often think his information dearly bought, at the expense of 
wading through a maze of crabbed Latinity; particularly if in- 
volved in the learned prolixity of the German schools. That 
Latin is of infinite importance in publications of deep literary pre- 
tension, calculated and designed for foreign circulation, no one 
will pretend to deny ; but that it is expedient in a work, intended 

1 " PENTALOGIA GRJSCA. Sophoclis CEdipus Tyrannus, (Edipus Coloneus, et Anti- 
gone ; Euripidis Phcenissae ; et jEschyli Septem contra Thebas. Quinque Dramata 
de celeberrima Thebaide scripta. Notis Anglice scriptis illustravit, et Lexicon vocum 
difficiliorum adjecit GULIELMUS TROLLOPE, M.A. Christi Orphanotrophii Subprse- 
ceptor, et Aulae Pembrokiensis apud Cantabrigienses nuper Alumnus." 


for English students, at an English school, or in the lecture-room 
of an English University, is more than questionable. An English 
note will at least be read by those who wish for information ; while 
Latin is generally left for those, whose superior learning requires 
neither the one nor the other. 

The main object of the Editor then is utility, and if, in this 
respect, he has risen in the slightest degree above his predecessors, 
in the task of editing the Iliads/or the use of younger students, he will 
at least have done no injury to the cause of literature. 

W. T. 

July, 1827. 



IN this Edition the Text has been carefully revised throughout; 
some few emendations, and great additions have been made in the 
Notes ; the Scriptural Illustrations considerably augmented, and the 
Indices enlarged. Anxious to meet the convenience of Students, 
as far as lay in their power, the Publishers have now comprised the 
Work in a single volume, thereby effecting a considerable reduc- 
tion in price. The Editor, who has been long engaged upon the 
ODYSSEE, on a similar plan, will shortly be enabled to complete his 
design by its publication in the same form as the present Edition of 
the Iliad. 

W. T. 
Jan. 1, 1836. 




THE two great Poems of Homer are not only remarkable as the earliest 
remains of Grecian literature, and, indeed, next to the sacred Scriptures of 
the Old Testament, of Literature in general ; but as exhibiting the 
strongest powers of intellect and imagination to which the human mind 
has ever reached. With the exception, moreover, of the works of Hesiod, 
who is generally supposed to have flourished about the same period, they 
seem to have stood alone for a considerable length of time ; and to have 
been followed or preceded by no composition, whether in prose or verse, 
for several ages. It is the opinion of Herodotus, indeed, that poetry had 
never existed in Greece prior to the age of Homer ; and that Orpheus, 
Linus, Musaeus, and others, who are commonly referred to an earlier date, 
lived, in fact, long after him 1 . The existence of Orpheus has even been 
doubted altogether, and a passage to that effect is cited by Cicero, from 
the third book of the Poetics of Aristotle, which is now lost 2 . And 
although the concurring voice of antiquity, with this single exception, is 
almost decisive in support of the contrary opinion, still the Orphic Re- 
mains, as they are called, are, in all probability, the spurious productions 
of a comparatively modern age. Their antiquity has been maintained by 
Heyne, Wolfe, and Rhunken ; but they bear strong internal marks of a 
period considerably posterior to Homer, and their genuineness has been 
otherwise very generally questioned 3 . The Argonautica are referred by 
Beck to an era subsequent to that of Alexander the Great ; and many of 
the Hymns, from a supposed reference which they bear to a Great First 
Cause, have been sometimes even considered as a pious fraud of the early 
Christians. There can be no doubt, however, that Poetry was not only 
in existence, but had acquired a degree of reputation, some time before the 
age of Homer. The poet himself has recorded the punishment said to 
have been inflicted upon Thamyris, a Thracian bard, who had challenged 

1 Herod. II. 53. 

2 Cicero de Nat. Deor. 1. 38. Orpheum Poclam docct Aristoteles ntmquam fuisse. 

3 It was evidently doubted by Pausanias, Attic. XXXVII. 3. See also Aristotle, de 
minima, I. 5. 


the Muses to a poetical contest 1 ; besides which, he is generally supposed 
to allude to Linus, the reputed inventor of the art in Greece, in his 
description of the shield of Achilles 2 . But the dawn of Grecian learning 
was almost immediately overcast, and the state of barbarism, into which 
the country relapsed after the Dorian conquest, obliterated the memory of 
most of her early poets, and involved the history of those, whose names 
have survived, in fabulous uncertainty. It was doubtless also the unfor- 
tunate consequence of this revolution, that so little is known of Homer 

It will be seen, in the course of these observations 3 , that the Iliad and 
the Odyssee, in the connected state, at least, in which we now possess 
them, were unknown in European Greece, till about four centuries after 
their first promulgation in Ionia. Little, therefore, especially in these 
turbulent times, was probably thought of their author, who would be 
identified, almost involuntarily, with the rambling bard who recited his 
verses, But as soon as civilization and learning began to revive, and 
more especially when the two great poems, with which they had hitherto 
been acquainted only in detached portions, appeared before them as an 
uniform and connected whole, the curiosity of the Greeks would naturally 
be excited respecting the personal history of their Asiatic countryman, and 
inquiries set on foot in order to collect the scattered records of his life. In 
so great a lapse of time, however, any authentic information could scarcely 
be expected ; and little reliance can be placed upon the traditions, which, 
from the very character and genius of the country, would be no less ficti- 
tious than abundant. The Life of Homer, which passes under the name 
of Herodotus, is evidently compiled from such traditional sources. 
Though the Memoir is undoubtedly spurious 4 , and its statements delivered 
in a tone of accurate prolixity, which savours strongly of fable ; it is, at 
the same time, unquestionably of early date, and the basis upon which the 
Life attributed to Plutarch 5 , and every other account of the poet, has 
been successively founded. It will be necessary, therefore, to compress 
into as short a compass as possible the principal particulars therein re- 
corded, together with such additional information as may be derived from 
Plutarch and other writers, and to leave the student to form his own esti- 
mate of the degree of credibility to which they are entitled. From his 
own writings nothing respecting his personal history can be collected ; 
though we may justly infer from the characters of his heroes, and the sen- 
timents which he has put into their mouths, that he was actuated by the 
noblest feelings of public patriotism, and possessed of every private virtue 
in domestic life. 

1 I!. B. 594. 2 II. S. 570. 3 Sect. II. sub fine. 

4 Mr. Wood, in his Essay on The Original Genius of Homer, argues strongly in support 
of its genuineness ; but the evidence against it gieatly preponderates, Indeed, its mani- 
fest inferiority of style, and a statement which it contains respecting the age of Homer, 
directly at variance with the opinion of the historian, are alone sufficient to condemn it. 
But see the opening note in Wesseling's edition. 

5 This Life is also a forgery, and of earlier age than its reputed author, for it was 
clearly known to Quinctilian (Inst. Or. X. 1.), and Seneca (Epist. 88.) who lived before 
Plutarch, According to Tatian (ap. Fabric. Bibl. II. 1. 3.), Theagenes, Stesimbrotus, 
Antimachus of Colophon, Herodotus, Dionysius of Olynthus, Ephorus of Cumae, Philo- 
chorus, Metaclides, Chamasleon, and the grammarians Zenodotus, Aristophanes, Callima- 
chus, Crates, Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, and Apollodorus, had all written concerning 



According to this author, then, HOMER was an Asiatic Greek, a native 
of Smyrna. His mother's name was Crytheis, who had taken refuge in 
that town, having been found illegally with child, and banished in conse- 
quence by her uncle from Cumas. Shortly after her arrival, as she was 
one day celebrating a festival in the neighbourhood, on the banks of the 
river Meles, she was taken suddenly in labour, and gave birth to the poet 1 . 
In order to procure a maintenance for herself and her child, who was 
called, from the river near which he was born, Melesigenes, she took to 
the occupation of spinning 2 , which afforded them a scanty subsistence, till 
she had the good fortune to become acquainted with one Phemius, a 
schoolmaster, who eventually married her. Homer, in the mean time, 
was receiving his education under an eminent teacher, named Pronepides 3 , 
and giving early proof of that mighty genius, which was destined to be 
the admiration of all future ages. After the death of his father-in-law, 
he succeeded to his employment, in which he was found by Mentes, a 
merchant of considerable attainments, trading at Smyrna, who was at- 
tracted by the poet's learning, and invited him to relinquish his school, 
and travel : a proposition with which he gladly complied. 

Whatever truth there may be in these statements, it is unquestionable 
that Homer was a great traveller. This is a fact established beyond the 
possibility of doubt, by his minute and exact geographical description of 
the Troad, and the Grecian states, in the Catalogue of ships 4 . The accu- 
racy with which he has delineated the manners, and customs, and peculi- 
arities of the different nations, must have been the result of personal ac- 
quaintance and attentive observation. From the frequent descriptions of 
scenery which occur in the Odyssee, and which are at once so striking 
and so natural, and painted with a vividness that proves them to have 
been deeply impressed upon his mind, the celebrated Mr. Bryant has 
fixed upon Ithaca as the birth-place of the poet ; and built thereon a 
theory, far more ingenious indeed than satisfactory, that he describes 
himself in the person of Ulysses, and the constancy of his own wife in the 
faithful Penelope 5 . The arguments, however, by which this singular 
assumption is supported, are only so far conclusive as they regard the 
perfect acquaintance of the poet with the country of Ulysses ; and we are 
informed in his Life, that he was left by Mentes in Ithaca, where he was 
detained a considerable time, in consequence of a defluxion in his eyes ; 

1 In Plutarch's account, though evidently originating in the same tradition, the poet's 
birth is magnified into a miracle. He attributes the pregnancy of Crytheis to a Genius, 
or companion of the Muses ; and states that she was married to Maeon, king of the 
country, before she gave birth to Homer, who was called Maonides from his reputed father. 
His mother dying in child-birth, the infant was brought up by Maeon ; at whose death he 
was left in extreme poverty. The same account relates, that Dius, the brother of Mtzon, 
was the father of Hesiod by his wife Pycimede. 

2 The poet is thought to allude to his mother's condition in II. M. 433. 

3 Diod. Sic. lib. III. 

4 See note on II. B. 494. 

5 The speculations of this ingenious, though fanciful writer, on the subject and the 
characters of the Iliad and the Odyssee, on the non-existence of Troy, and on Homer 
himself, are not of a nature to require notice in these observations. They are altogether 
hypothetical, and supported with a greater waste of learning than solidity of argument. 
It is generally believed, however, that the poet has transplanted many events of his own 
life into those of his heroes ; and that in many of his characters the names of persons are 
preserved, with whom he had been connected in life by the ties of friendship or hospitality. 
We may instance that of Tychius, the leather-dresser, in II. H. 220. ; of Mentes, Phemius, 
and Mentor, in the Odvssee. 


and that during his stay he was furnished by one Mentor with the mate- 
rials for the composition of the Odyssee. It is further related, that he had 
visited Italy and Spain ; but this is exceedingly incredible, as no vestiges 
exist in his writings of any knowledge westward of Greece. Towards 
the south, his acquaintance extended beyond Thebes, as far as ^Ethiopia ; 
but, though he mentions Arabia and Libya, he probably had not travelled 
thither. His intimate acquaintance with the manners, customs, and rites 
of the Phoenicians and ^Egyptians, is evidence sufficient -that he resided 
for some time in both countries. From the former, whom he constantly 
represents as a sea-faring and commercial people 1 , he probably derived the 
extensive information with regard to early naval affairs, which we meet 
with in his works. In Egypt, as we are informed by Herodotus 2 , he was 
furnished with the outlines of his system of Mythology, which became the 
basis of the religion of Greece. It has also been inferred by some, from 
the striking similarity which subsists between manners and opinions as 
they are exhibited in his works and in the Sacred Writings, that he was 
made acquainted, during his stay in this country, with the Scriptures of 
the Old Testament. These points of resemblance are, indeed, numerous 
and striking, and extending sometimes even to expressions of sentiment 
and verbal allusions ; but they are very far from proving the object which 
they have in view. It would be more to the point, if Mr. Wood's suppo- 
sition were well founded, that the poet was not a stranger to Judaea and 
its inhabitants ; but the main authority for such an opinion is derived 
from a conjectural emendation of a line, cited by Strabo from the Iliad, 
but found in none of the MSS. of Homer 3 . But the analogy which unde- 
niably subsists between the ideas and expressions of the Asiatic Greeks in 
the age of Homer, and those of the historical times and places of the Old 
Testament, many of which will be pointed out in the notes 4 , is readily 
and sufficiently explained by referring them both to the same patriarchal 
origin, and to countries situated at no remote distance from each other. 

The complaint in his eyes, which caused the detention of the poet at 
Ithaca, is said to have returned upon him in after life, and with such in- 
creased violence, as to end in total blindness. The period at which he 
was visited with this calamity is uncertain, but the fact itself is very 
generally admitted ; and if the Hymn to Apollo be genuine, there can be 
no doubt of its truth. In this Hymn the poet himself, like Milton, tells 
us of his misfortune 5 ; and, though it has been referred with the rest of 
these compositions to a more recent age, Thucydides 6 does not hesitate 
to ascribe it to Homer. It seems most reasonable to suppose, however, 
that he did not entirely lose his sight till he was considerably advanced in 
years : at all events, the opinion which has been sometimes maintained, 

1 See on II. Z. 291. 2 Lib. II. ubi supra. 

3 The line, as preserved in Strabo, XIII. p. 929. stands thus : %wp<^ ivi dpvoevTt"Y$riQ 
tv iriovi Sr]fJi(t>. It is thus corrected in Dr. Taylor's Civil Law, p. 554. x^PV * vl $P v o- 
f.vr 'lovdrjt; kv TT'IOVI ffyjwy. 

4 See particularly on II. A. 27. It may be worth relating, as a literary anecdote, that 
the celebrated Joshua Barnes composed a Treatise, which, however, was not published, 
in order to prove that Homer was no other than King Solomon. This will appear less ex- 
traordinary, though the position must necessarily have been relinquished, in favour of the 
more recent discovery of the identity of the poet with Moses himself. This theory was 
gravely advocated in an Essay, which appeared in the year 1825. 

6 Vers. 172. rDyXog &.v^p } OIKEI oe Xty kvi 
6 Lib. III. 104. 


that he was born blind, is altogether inadmissible. This is a supposition 
which is so manifestly contradicted by his accurate and extensive know- 
ledge of men and countries, by his exquisite perception of natural objects, 
his picturesque delineation of scenery, and more especially by the length 
and number of his writings, in none of which, with the above exception, 
there is the most remote allusion to the fact, that we may fairly conclude 
with Paterculus : Quern siquis ccecum genitum putat, omnibus senaibus orbus 
est '. The author of his Life observes, that his name originated in his 
blindness, and that he was called Homer a?ro TOV JJLTI bpq.v. This deriva- 
tion, however, rests upon a tradition, which carries with it every appear- 
ance of fable. It is said that, while at Cumae, he was induced by his 
straitened circumstances to request an allowance from the public treasury, 
to which the Senate would probably have acceded, had it not been for the 
ill-timed observation of one of their body, that if they should undertake 
to maintain all the blind men ('Op/^oue), their resources would shortly 
be devoured. In consequence of this treatment, the poet left Cumae for 
Phocaea, expressing an earnest wish at his departure, that the town might 
never be immortalized as the birth-place of a poet. Other significations 
have been repeatedly affixed to the name by those, who consider it 
merely as an epithet of his real appellation, Melesigenes; but all are 
equally conjectural, unimportant, and unsatisfactory 2 . 

In pursuing his travels, Homer took frequent occasion, according to the 
custom of the times, of reciting his poems in the public assemblies, in the 
several places which he visited. Their intrinsic beauty and excellence 
were universally perceived and admired ; except, indeed, at Smyrna, 
where they were received with inattention and unconcern. At Phocaea, 
they were heard with such peculiar delight, that a maintenance was 
offered to the poet by one Thestorides, a schoolmaster, on condition of 
being allowed to transcribe them ; whereupon he immediately sailed for 
Chios, and there recited them as his own compositions. In order to 
expose the imposture, Homer followed him to Chios ; and being set on 
shore by the crew of a fishing-boat, in which he had obtained a passage 
from Erythrae, he was prevented by his blindness from proceeding, and 
wandered along the shore two days in quest of a guide. At length, 
falling in with a goatherd, named Glaucus, who came up providentially 
to rescue him from the fury of his dogs 3 , he was introduced by him to 
his master, with whom he lived some time at Bolissus, and attended to 
the education of his children. Thestorides fled at his arrival, and left 
him in the undisputed possession of the productions of his genius, and in 
the enjoyment of increasing prosperity and fame. 

In the later years of his life, it appears by the Hymn to Apollo, cited 
above, that he settled at Chios. Here he is said to have amassed con- 
siderable wealth, and to have married. One of two daughters, who were 
the fruit of this alliance, died young ; and the other was married to the 

1 Lib. I. 5. 

2 Some have derived it from 6 p,f]pog, a thigh; upon the supposition that he had some 
mark upon that part to indicate his illegitimacy. Proclus understands "OfjnjpoQ to signify 
an hostage ; and states that he was delivered up by Smyrna to Chios, in order to conclude 
a truce between them. Plutarch, in his Life, says that the name implies following ; but 
the reason which he assigns for the opinion is sufficiently absurd. 

3 This adventure is supposed to have suggested the narrative in Od. J. 30. of the 
escape of Ulysses from his own dogo. 


person whose children he had educated. Of his death nothing is posi- 
tively known ; but Plutarch relates an absurd tradition, that he died from 
grief, in consequence of his inability to solve a riddle which had been 
proposed to him by some fishermen at lo ; having been previously 
warned by an oracle to beware of attempting the solution 1 . The riddle 
was conveyed in a reply to the poet's inquiry respecting their sport, in 
the following terms: "Qaa eXojue^, Xnro^effda' od ov-% eXo/JP, fyepofjLEffda. 
It should seem that the wits had been engaged in catching and killing a 
somewhat different prey than their occupation indicated ; the presence of 
which was not calculated to contribute materially to their personal com- 
fort. For want of more authentic information, it may be sufficient to 
reject the marvellous addition to the account given in the Life attributed 
to Herodotus ; in which it is stated, that having undertaken a voyage to 
Athens, he fell sick at lo, where he died, and was buried on the sea- 
shore. The inhabitants buried him with great pomp, and inscribed the 
following epitaph on his tomb : 

rrjv Ispav KetyaXrjv Kara yala KaXv 
*A.vdpwv r]p(!i)itiv KofffJifjTopa, Qtlov 

It now remains to notice the conflicting opinions, and to enter briefly 
into the merits of the question, respecting the place of Homer's nativity, 
and the chronology of his birth. 

In very early times, the honour of giving birth to the prince of poets 
was contested with great pertinacity, and little pretension, by several of 
the states of Greece. This spirit of rivalry gave rise to the following 
distich, in which seven of the principal parties in the dispute are enu- 
merated : 

Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Salamis, Rhodos, Argos, Athenae, 
Orbis de patria certat, Homere, tua 2 . 

The grounds, upon which most of them supported their respective claims, 
were trivial in the extreme. At Colophon, for instance, they had a 
school in which the poet was said to have taught ; at lo, as an evidence 
of his birth, they could produce only the record of his death, his tomb 
upon the sea-shore 3 . If any credit is due to the unknown author of his 
Life, he was born, as we have already seen, at Smyrna ; but it is some- 
what singular, if that were really the case, that there is no mention of the 
place in any of his writings. It appears, indeed, that the Smyrnaeans 
treated him with indifference during his life, which may in some measure 
account for this extraordinary silence ; and it is certain that they paid far 
greater respect to his memory, than any of the other claimants. They 
struck medals in honour of him 4 ; they dedicated a temple to him ; and 

1 The oracle and riddle are also preserved in the Chrestomathia of Proclus, appended 
to Gaisford's edition of Hephaestion, p. 466. In this Treatise, however, his death is 
attributed to a fall, occasioned by striking his foot against a stone. 

2 Cicero mentions four of the competitors in his Oration, Pro Archia Poeta : Homerum 
Colophonii civem esse dicunt suum ; Chii suum vindicant ; Salaminii repetunt ; Smyrncei vero 
suum esse confirmant ; itaque etiam delubrum ejus in oppido dedicaverunt. Permulti alii 
praterea pugnant inter se, atque contendunt. 

3 Plin. IV. 12. 

4 In one of these, which is still in existence, he is represented reading. This is evi- 
dently at variance with the opinion noticed above, that he was born blind. 


they burnt Zoilus in effigy, in angry contempt of the abuse which he had 
heaped upon his works. 

The claims of Chios have found a warm advocate in Leo Allatius *, a 
native of the island ; but his arguments are by no means conclusive. 
From the above cited passage in the Hymn to Apollo, wherein the poet 
describes himself as a blind man resident (OIKEI) at Chios, it cannot pos- 
sibly be inferred that he was born there. Neither will the testimonies of 
Simonides 2 and Theocritus 3 , to a similar effect, which this writer has 
adduced in support of his assumption, prove any thing more than the 
simple fact, that Homer had lived for some time in the country. With 
respect to Homer himself, Aristotle 4 expressly affirms, that he has given 
no intimation in his writings, that he was a native of Chios. In speaking 
of the Homeridae, as the descendants of the poet, Allatius has mistaken 
their occupation for their descent. They were merely a company of 
wandering Rhapsodists 5 , as they were otherwise called, who obtained a 
subsistence like the old Welch harpers or Celtic bards, by reciting the 
compositions of Homer in the public assemblies, and more especially at 
the quinquennial games, which the Chians had instituted in honour of the 
poet. Plato 6 speaks of these Homeridae as still in existence in his 
time, not only in Chios, but dispersed throughout the states of Greece. 
Strabo 7 has fallen in with the opinion that Homer was a Chian, upon 
the ground that he speaks of the Icarian Sea in terms which prove his 
perfect acquaintance with its coast and navigation. It does not appear, 
however, that he has displayed a greater knowledge of this, than of the 
other seas which he has occasion to notice. 

But whatever may be the respective claims of each contending state 8 , 

1 In a Treatise de Patria Homeri : published A.D. 1640. 

2 Cited on II. Z. 146. 3 Theoc. Idyl. VII. 47. 4 Rhet. II. 23. 

5 The portions of the poem delivered at each recitation were called, from these persons, 
pa^ydiai, whence this title has been fixed to each respective book of the Iliad and the 
Odyssee, though it does not appear that a book was necessarily spoken at a time. Probably 
only a part, such as the duel of Hector and Ajax, the meeting of Glaucus and Diomed, 
and the like, constituted the original rhapsody. The commentators are divided as to the 
origin of the word, some deriving it from paTrrw, to sew, and others from pafidog, the 
staff, which the rhapsodist carried in his hand. See Wolfe's Prolegom. Mr. Penn sus- 
pects it to be of Egyptian origin ; and he has given an ingenious explanation of it, upon 
that supposition, in his treatise on the Primary Argument of the Iliad, p. 324. note. 

6 In his Dialogue, entitled *IQN, where the Rhapsodist and the Ionian are one and the 
same person. 

7 Strabo, XIII. p. 355. 

8 It is curious to compare these struggles for the honour of having given birth to Homer, 
with the blind zeal with which he was denounced by the converts to Christianity, at the 
commencement of the second century. " Heathenism was then to be destroyed, and 
Homer appeared the father of it ; whose fictions were at once the belief of the Pagan re- 
ligion, and the objections of Christianity against it. He became, therefore, very deeply 
involved in the question ; and not with that honour which hitherto attended him, but as 
a criminal who had drawn the world into folly. He was on one hand accused for having 
framed fables upon the works of Moses ; as the rebellion of the giants from the building of 
Babel, and the casting of Ate and Strife out of heaven, from the fall of Lucifer. He was ex- 
posed, on the other hand, for those which he is said to have invented, as when Arnobius cries 
out, ' This is the man who wounded your Venus, imprisoned your Mars, who freed even 
your Jupiter by Briareus, and who finds authorities for all your vices,' &c. Mankind 
was derided for whatever he had hitherto made them believe ; and Plato, who expelled 
him his commonwealth, has, of all the philosophers, found the best quarter from the 
Fathers, for passing that sentence. His finest beauties began to take a new appearance 
of pernicious qualities ; and, because they might be considered as allurements to fancy, or 
supports to those errors with which they were mingled, they were to be depreciated while 


it is certain that Homer was an Asiatic Greek ; and, most probably, of 
Ionia. His descriptions of scenery, and his impressions of natural ob- 
jects, are perfectly in accordance with this opinion. From several of his 
geographical statements and local allusions, it is sufficiently apparent that 
his early associations were formed in a country east of Greece ; and the 
character which he has given of the wind Zephyrus is perfectly Ionian '. 
At the same time, many of the customs which he describes, and more 
especially those which relate to sacrifices, are confessedly ^Eolian. Still, 
when it is remembered in how narrow a compass these contiguous 
countries lie, and that their customs must, in consequence, have been 
in a great degree similar, and equally familiar to Homer, it will not be 
possible to determine from thence, that he was necessarily a native of 
jEolia 2 . In fact, the point can never be finally settled in favour of either 
country ; nor do the pretensions of Chios or of Smyrna appear to have one 
whit the greater claim respectively to the honour in dispute ; except, 
perhaps, that the first impressions of scenery and of nature are more 
calculated to root themselves deeply in a rich and vivid fancy, than 
popular habits and peculiarities. 

The question of the age of Homer has given rise to more discussion, 
and with greater latitude, than that of his country. While some would 
make him contemporary with the Trojan war, there are others who fix 
him to a comparatively recent era. Some indeed would even make him 
coeval with Lycurgus ; and Strabo 3 mentions an interview which was 
said to have taken place between the poet and the lawgiver, for the pur- 
pose of settling the constitution of Sparta. Thucydides 4 affirms inde- 
finitely, that he lived long after the siege of Troy : and Cicero 5 is almost 
as indecisive in observing, " that though his age is uncertain, he lived 
many years before the foundation of Rome." Now there are several 
incidental circumstances which seem to favour the opinion of an early 
date, for the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssee ; at the same time 
that there is positive proof that the poet was not an eye-witness of the 
events which he describes 6 . It appears, for instance, that although 
works in ivory were of very remote antiquity, yet the elephant was 
known only to the Indians, until the Macedonians passed into Asia. 
Accordingly, we meet with no mention of this animal in Homer, although 
he repeatedly speaks of the use of ivory in ornamental workmanship 7 . 
In the Odyssee, the Nile is spoken of as the ^Egyptus, or the river of 
jEgypt, by which name it passed in the time of Moses and of Joshua 8 ; 
so that, in the time of Homer, it had not received its more recent appella- 

the contest of Faith was in being. It was hence that the reading them was discouraged, 
that we hear Ruffinus accusing St. Jerome for it, and that St. Austin rejects him as the 
grand master of fable ; though, indeed, the dulcissimd vanus which he applies to Homer, 
looks but like a fondling manner of parting with him." Pope's Essay on Homer. 

1 See on II. B. 145. 

2 See Wood's Essay on the Original Genius of Homer. 3 Lib. X. 

4 Lib. I. 3. 5 De Clar. Orat. 10. 

6 II. B. 486. 'HjUfle fit K\BOQ olov aKovo/jitv, ovSe ri l^^itv. 

7 Pausan. Attic. I. 12. 'EXs^avra yap OGOQ juft/ IQ Ipya Kal avfip&v xdpaQ, dalv tK 
TraXaiov drj\oi TTCLVTEQ eidortQ' aura Si TO. Orjpia TTplv fj Siafiijvai Mafce^oVaf knl rrjv 
'Aaiav, ovdi iupaKtffav ap^rfV, TT\YIV 'ivStiv re avrCJv, Kcti Atfivwv, Kal OGOI TrXrjaio- 
^tojooi TOVTOIQ. ArjXoi dt Kai "O/trjpog, of fiaaiXtvai K\ivag fiev Kal oiKiag TOIQ evdaipo- 
vtaTspotQ avT&v, k\k<f>avTi 7rotrj<7 KtKO(Tp,rjfievaQ f Orjpiov ds iXfyavTog]p,r)v ovdt- 
Hiav tTTOirjffaro. See II. A. 141. E. 583. 

8 Compare Od. T. 300. A. 355. Gen. xv. 18. Exod. viii. 6. 


tion. Of the Amphictyonic council, there is no mention in the writings 
of the poet ; whereas it could scarcely have failed of notice in a poem like 
the Iliad, if it had acquired that extensive importance to which it at- 
tained even in the early times of ancient Greece. Had Homer lived, 
however, after the aera of the Olympiads, the public annals would have 
afforded a satisfactory record of his birth. 

But there is evidence much more definitive to be collected from the 
works of Homer, which will bring the question respecting his chronology 
within much narrower limits than that already produced. In turning to 
the history of the times immediately succeeding the Trojan war, we may 
naturally expect that Homer would have incidentally alluded to some of 
the more important events, which happened between that age and his 
own. Now, according to Newton's Chronology, Troy fell 904 years 
before the Christian era; and eighty years after, i. e. B.C. 824, is the 
date of the return of the Heraclidae, an event by which a complete 
revolution was effected not only in the Peloponnesus, but in all the 
Grecian states along the western coast of Asia Minor, and the adjacent 
islands. To this occurrence, however, there is no allusion whatsoever 
throughout the Iliad and the Odyssee ; and though there are several 
references to Hercules \ there is not one word respecting his descendants. 
It has been supposed, indeed, that Homer intended to represent Jupiter 
as predicting the destruction of Argos, Sparta, and Mycenae, in the 
opening of the fourth Iliad 2 ; in which case Homer must have lived 
subsequently to that event, which followed the return of the Heraclidae, 
unless we suppose, with Eustathius, that he hazarded a prophecy, which 
was eventually realized. If the words of Jupiter are intended to convey 
any more than a general menace ; the destruction of Mycenae, to which 
they refer, is that which happened shortly after the time of Agamemnon 3 . 
It is further observable, that Homer himself has distinctly stated his 
opinion, that recent occurrences, from their nearer interest, are preferable 
for celebration 4 ; which could not possibly apply to the fate of Troy, after 
the return of the Heraclidae. It should seem also that the declaration, 
which has been already noticed, that he did not speak from personal ob- 
servation, would be altogether unmeaning, if he had lived at so distant a 
period from the times he describes, as to render it unnecessary. And it 
may be added, that the Catalogue of Ships, which exhibits a correct ac- 
count of the Peloponnesus, before the Dorian conquest, does not contain 
a single reference to any political change, which took place therein, subse- 
quent to that event. 

Hence, then, it appears, that Homer must have written his two great 
poems before the return of the Heraclidae 5 . It is also further remarkable, 
that the last event which he records, is the accession of the great-grand- 
children of jEneas to the throne of Troy 6 . This circumstance, therefore, 
will bring the date of the Iliad to the beginning of the third generation 
after the Trojan war ; and the probable date of Homer's birth within a 
few years of the same period. So that we may fairly consider him to 

1 See II. A. 689. E. 250. 2 See note on v. 41. 

3 Strabo: Mfrd TO. TpwiKa 'Aytt/ifijui'ovoe apx>7 Xu0t<rij. 

4 Odyss. I. 251. 

5 This argument was proposed by Mr. Wood, in his Essay on the Original Genius of 
Homer, and is followed up in Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. I. p. 251. 

6 See note on II. Y. 30?. 


have been in the zenith of his glory about the middle of the ninth cen- 
tury before the birth of Christ. And it will be some confirmation of this 
date, that it precisely coincides with that which Herodotus has assigned 
to the age of Homer. The Father of History flourished B.C. 444, and 
he places the Father of Poetry 400 years before himself; i. e. B.C. 844 . 
The Arundelian Marbles, dating probably from his birth, fix him B C. 
907 2 . 



THE uncertainty in which the Life of Homer is involved, has doubtless 
been, in some measure, the cause of similar uncertainty respecting his 
writings. While some, on the one hand, have been too ready to receive 
him as the author of poems, which he never could have written ; many, 
on the other, have been equally anxious to deprive him of the merit of 
those, to which he has the justest claim. The reputation in which his 
productions were held in Greece, would naturally induce the bards of the 
day to impose their own compositions upon the public, under the sanction 
of so great a name ; and the Ionian Rhapsodists in particular, incited by 
the prospect of gain, and the improbability of detection, would occasion- 
ally recite their own effusions before an audience, assembled to hear, and 
predisposed to admire, the verses of Homer. It was with the view, 
perhaps, of facilitating these impositions, that they assumed the appella- 
tion of Homeridce ; at least, if the name was intended to represent them 
as the descendants of the poet. For their rapid increase, and their wide 
dispersion, in the time of Plato, exceeds, on this supposition, the bounds 
of credibility ; so that the title must be referred either to a different origin, 
or to the purpose of imposition and fraud. 

To one or other of these Rhapsodists, then, may fairly be assigned a 
great proportion of those poems, which, in very early times, seem to have 
been attributed to Homer ; and the production of which, both from their 
number and variety, must greatly have surpassed the extent of human 
life, and the powers of human intellect. As learning advanced, and the 
merits of each composition were tried by the strict rules of criticism, many 
of them were easily discovered to be forgeries ; and their manifest infe- 
riority caused them soon to be thrown aside, and eventually forgotten. 
The titles of the following are preserved by different writers, but very 
little else is known respecting most of them ; and it is extremely doubtful 

1 Herod. II. 53. 'Htriodov yap icai "Op,f]pov j/Xi/eujv TiTpaKOGioiai tTtvi Soickoj fitv 
TrpeffjSwrlpouc yfveaOai, ai ov nXtoffi. The author of the Life, attributed to He- 
rodotus, affirms him to have lived more than 600 years before the Persian invasion under 
Xerxe s 

2 Heyne approves of this date, and raises some strong objections to the other ; which is 
nevertheless, quite as probable as any uncertain conjecture can be. 



whether any of them really belong to Homer '. In the Life attributed to 
Herodotus, several Epigrams are still extant, which he is supposed to 
have written ; some verses also are cited from a poetical contest, in which, 
he is said to have engaged with Hesiod ; and there is mention of the 
Phocteis, Eiresione, and some of his Gnomce. Suidas, in v. "O/zTjpog, 
speaks of his Epithalamia, Amazonia, Cyclus, and of the Geranomachia, 
Arachnomachia, and Psaromachia, three mock-heroic pieces of a similar 
class with the Batrachomuomachia. This Jast is still extant, and is 
generally supposed to be a juvenile production of the poet, though it 
has been attributed to Pigres 2 , of Halicarnassus, brother of the celebrated 
Artemisia, who commanded in the Persian fleet under Xerxes. But, 
from the character of the language, and other internal marks, Mr. R. P. 
Knight is of opinion that it is the production of some Athenian writer of 
an earlier age 3 . Another humourous poem, of a somewhat different 
description, was the Margites. Of this, only three verses remain, which 
are expressly quoted from the poem ; a fourth is found interwoven with 
the prose of Plato's Alcibiad. II. and three other lines which appear in 
the Scholia on Eurip. Orest. are supposed to belong to it. Zeno, the 
philosopher, was of opinion that the Margites was the first production of 
Homer ; and the poet Callimachus viewed it with great admiration 4 . In 
addition to these testimonies, the concurrent voice of antiquity is decisive 
in favour of its genuineness. Aristotle 5 , Plato, and Aristophanes 6 , quote 
from it, without the least hesitation, as an undoubted work of Homer ; 
which is ample authority for rejecting the contrary opinion of Suidas and 
Eustathius 7 . 

To proceed with a list of his reputed works, Herodotus mentions the 
Epigoni and the Carmina Cypria, but without any belief in their genu- 
ineness 6 ; the former on the subject of the second Theban war, the 
latter comprising a series of events, in eleven books, from the marriage 
of Peleus and Thetis to the opening of the Iliad ; and attributed, with 
great probability, to Stasinus, a Cyprian 9 . The Little Iliad, which in- 
cludes the time from the death of Achilles and the Judgment respecting 
his Arms, to the Destruction of Troy by the stratagem of the Wooden 
Horse, and which has been attributed to Homer, was more probably 
the composition of the Lesbian poet, Lesches. The arguments of this 
last and the Carmina Cypria are preserved in the Chrestomathia of Pro- 
clus 10 , together with that of the Noorrot, or the Returns of the Grecian 
Leaders from the siege of Troy. In the Bibliotheca of Fabricius ", to- 
gether with many of those above mentioned, there is notice of the Cer- 

1 In the opinion of an ancient Grammarian, cited by Leo Allatius, ovdtv avrov Qtrtov 
t'Zbi rriQ 'iXiaSog /coti 'OSva<rtia. This judgment, though doubtless incorrect, is true to 
a very great extent. 

2 This indefatigable writer is recorded to have undertaken the extremely amusing and 
profitable task of inserting a Pentameter between every verse of the Iliad. Suidas has 
favoured us with a specimen of his ingenuity in v. iriyprjQ. 

Mrjviv atidt Ota HrjXrjlddeb) 'A%iXrjoQ 
Movaa, ffi) yap Trdajjt; Trtipar' ?x ft 

3 Prolegom. in Horn. . 6. 

4 Harpocration in v. McrpyiYjjs" "OTTtp Troirjfia KaXXifjiax 

5 Poet. c. 4. e Aristoph. Av. 914. See Schol. 

7 See Penn on the Primary Argument of the Iliad, ch. XI. 353. 

8 See notes on II. A. 406. Z. 291. 9 Phot. Lex. 

10 Pp. 471. 481. 485. ed. Gaisford. See Heynii Excurs. I. ad Virg. /En. II. 

11 Lib. II. c. 1. ed. Harles. 



copes, founded on the metamorphosis of a set of jugglers into monkeys ; 
also of the Capture of (Echalia by Hercules, and of the Alt, 'E7rra7TKTO, 
a humourous piece, written in Iambic verse, and, therefore, in all pro- 
bability, much posterior to Homer. Atheriaeus l mentions the Epici- 
clides ; and Pausanias 2 , the Thebaisj in seven books, which he considers 
inferior only to the Iliad and the Odyssee. The Hymns, in number 
thirty-three, are still in our hands ; but though confessedly of very high 
antiquity, they are generally considered spurious. The Scholiast assigns 
them to a Rhapsodist named Cynaethus. Professor Hermann, however, 
argues strongly for their genuineness, and he is supported by the authority 
of Thucydides and Lucian. But there are several internal marks of a 
later age in each of them 3 , if we except the Hymn to Venus ; which, if 
not Homer's, is a production of very great merit, and evidently not much 
later than the poet's time. In all the rest also, corruptions and interpola- 
tions abound ; and the Hymn to Ceres, which was lately discovered by 
Matthiae at Moscow, varies materially from that to which Pausanias has 
alluded, though Hermann considers it a different copy of the same work. 

But whatever doubts may have existed among the Ancients respecting 
the authorship of all or any of the above compositions, it remained for 
modern scepticism to question the genuineness of the Iliad and the 
Odyssee. The German critics, with Wolfe and Heyne at their head, 
have exerted their strongest efforts in support of a theory which may, 
indeed, almost be called their own that these two poems, as we now 
possess them, are not the work of one mind. The theory is founded upon 
the supposition, that there existed originally a set of detached pieces, or 
rhapsodies, as they were called ; that these separate productions, of dif- 
ferent writers, upon the same subject, were at length collected into a 
series by some person of more than ordinary talent, and that the result 
of this compilation was the Iliad and the Odyssee. And of this extra- 
ordinary genius, after reducing Homer into a mere non-entity, and robbing 
him at once of his personality and his fame, Heyne thus triumphantly 
concludes : Jam ingenium illud prceclarum, cut compagem hancce tarn 
mirce artis debemus, nobis HOMERUS esto*. This hypothesis was originally 
started in France, about the commencement of the last century, where it 
was immediately rejected as untenable and absurd ; and however strange 
it may appear to Heyne and his countrymen, that any individual should 
have appeared on a sudden, in the midst of a barbarous age, with a mind 
capable of producing an epic poem, so perfect in every point of art, of 
diction, and of versification, as the Iliad or the Odyssee, the alternative to 
which they resort is far more miraculous. Paterculus observes of Homer : 
Neque ante ilium quern ille imitaretur, neque post ilium qui eum imitari 
posset, inventus est 5 . Now, if the latter part of this assertion is con- 

1 Lib. II. p. 65. XIV. p. 639- 2 Bceot. p. 729. 

3 The word TV^I], for instance, which is introduced into the Hymn to Minerva, does 
not occur throughout the Iliad and the Odyssee. See note on II. Z. 489. 

4 Heyn. Horn. T. VIII. p. 806. Bentley has expressed a somewhat more moderate 
opinion in his Phileleutherus Lipsiensis : . 7- " Homer," says he, " wrote a sequel of 
Songs and Rhapsodies, to be sung by himself for small earnings and good cheer, at festi- 
vals and other days of merriment. The Iliad he made for the men; and the Odysseis for the 
other sex. These loose songs were not collected together, in the form of an Epic Poem, till 
Pisistratus's time, about 500 years after. 

5 Lib. I. c. 5. This opinion coincides with that of Herodotus already noticed ; and, 
although poetry had existed previous to the age of Homer, it fell infinitely short of that 


fessedly true, why might not the former be true also ? Poetry is not like 
science, progressive ; but a bright genius arises at intervals, like Burns or 
Bloomfield among ourselves, whose untutored lays eclipse, with their 
beauty and simplicity, the laboured numbers of their predecessors in the 
art for many generations. The Poeta nascitur of Horace was doubtless 
founded upon deep observation, and an exact knowledge of the powers of 
the human mind ; and Homer is a striking proof of the justice of the 
maxim. At all events, the unity of design, of action, and of character, 
which pervades the respective poems ; the same peculiarities of language 
and of sentiment, and the intimate connexion which subsists between the 
whole and every part, must form an argument in the mind of every un- 
prejudiced admirer of Homer, almost amounting to conviction, of the 
unity of the person who produced them. 

The main prop by which this singular theory is supported, is derived 
from an assumed impossibility of preserving two poems, so long as the 
Iliad and the Odyssee, without the aid of alphabetical writing. There is 
more weight, however, in this consideration at first sight, than it will appear 
to possess upon an attentive investigation. Admitting for a moment that 
writing was not in use at the time when Homer composed the Iliad, the diffi- 
culties of its transmission to posterity were by no means insurmountable. 
In the early ages of society, while the mind was unfettered by variety of 
occupation, the memory would easily be rendered, by cultivation and 
exercise, retentive to a very high degree. Now it is distinctly asserted by 
Xenophon *, that there were several persons at Athens in his time, who 
could repeat the Iliad and Odyssee throughout. If this was the case, there- 
fore, at a period when copies of those works existed in every part of 
Greece, it may safely be inferred that the like facility would not be want- 
ing, when the absence of every other means for their preservation rendered 
it absolutely necessary. It may be remarked, however, that so great an 
extension of the memory as that recorded by Xenophon was scarcely re- 
quisite under the circumstances, with which the early history of the poems 
is connected. For if this were the medium through which they were 
transmitted in the first ages of their production, the Rhapsodists, wlio 
procured a maintenance by reciting them from town to town, and were 
therefore more deeply concerned in them, were, doubtless, the persons 
who delivered them from that fate, in which the works of all preceding 
poets were involved. And as it was impossible to give the whole of 
either poem at a single recitation, it would be sufficient for each 
Rhapsodist to commit to memory such part of the whole as he might 
select for the amusement of his audience, so that the complete poems 
would thus be distributed between the different members of their com- 
munity. By this division, however, the connexion would, in all pro- 
bability, be gradually lost ; and such we shall find to have been actually 
the case in European Greece, in the reign of Pisistratus. Upon the same 
grounds we might also plausibly account for the frequent repetitions which 
are found in Homer. Since detached portions only of the Iliad and the 
Odyssee were delivered at each recitation, it would sometimes be neces- 

perfection to which it rose in the Iliad. The great inferiority of all preceding poets, 
which is clearly evinced in the few fragments which still remain of the works attributed 
to them, probably induced a negligence respecting them, which was the ultimate cause of 
their destruction. 
1 Sympos. III. 6. 


sary to introduce an explanatory paragraph from the preceding part of the 
poem. But it is far more probable that they were so originally given by 
the poet himself, and though to modern ears they appear tedious and out of 
place, the defect may fairly be charged upon the early simplicity of the 
times. Instances of a similar nature are occasionally met with in the 
Sacred Writings of the Old Testament. 

But though the difficulty respecting the transmission of the Homeric 
poems may be thus readily removed, a question may fairly be hazarded, 
as to the truth of the premises upon which the objection proceeds. The 
main considerations alleged by Mr. Wood 1 , who favours the opinion that 
alphabetical writing was unknown in Greece in the age of Homer, are the 
lateness of the period at which any prose work subsequently appeared, and 
the non-existence of written laws and contracts. There is no prose writer 
upon record before Cadmus the Milesian, and Pherecydes of Scyros, who 
flourished B.C. 544 ; and the first of any note were Hecataeus of Mile- 
tus, and Pherecydes of Athens, who lived about half a century later. 
About the same time also, the laws of Draco were the first written code, 
nearly 350 years after the date which has been assigned to the birth of 
Homer. Hence it is inferred, that if writing had been in use at this early 
period, it is highly improbable that composition in prose should be so long 
subsequent to poetry ; and that laws should have remained so long un- 
written. Now it is generally admitted, that the comparative ease with 
which poetry is retained in the memory, whereby it afforded a ready chan- 
nel of communication both for the historian and the legislator, will satis- 
factorily account for its priority of success in the first instance. How 
then does it follow, that the pre-eminence thus attained would be imme- 
diately relinquished, as soon as the way was opened for the introduction of 
prose ? It is far more probable, that the species of composition, by which 
their predecessors had sealed their immortality, would induce others also, 
for a time at least, to follow in their path : and accordingly it is affirmed 
by Strabo 2 , that the first prose writings were poetry in every thing but the 
want of measure ; so that the latter was only gradually discontinued, or 
rather, shared the reputation which prose was gradually acquiring. The 
only case of parallel to which we have the means of adverting, is the 
Book of Job. That this work is a poem of very high merit, is now settled 
beyond the reach of controversy, and the most probable date of its com- 
position is about 184 years before Abraham, and somewhat above 2000 
years before the birth of Christ 3 . On the other hand, the earliest prose 
compositions, with which we are acquainted, are the historical books of the 
Old Testament, of which Moses was the author; B.C. 1570. Now that 
alphabetical writing was known to the Israelites long before the time of 
Moses, is confirmed by several passages in his histories, wherein he speaks 
of it in terms, which plainly prove it to have been in common use 4 . Here, 
then, is an instance of poetry antecedent to prose ; and by a period far 
more considerable than that contended for in the works of Homer. To the 
argument derived from the non-existence of written laws, the case of the 
Israelites cannot indeed be opposed, since their Decalogue was manifestly 
written. But although the code of Draco is the first that can be affirmed 
to have been written in Greece with historical certainty, there is still 

1 In his Essay on the Original Genius of Homer. 2 Lib. I. p. 34. 

3 Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. II. B. 1. 

4 See, for instance, Numb. v. 23. Dent. xxiv. 1. 



ground for believing that something of the kind was in existence at a much 
earlier date. There is a passage in Euripides, from which this may fairly 
be inferred, in relation to the era of the Trojan war; and Sophocles 
speaks even more distinctly on the point, in reference to the age of 
(Edipus l . At all events, it does not appear that the absence of a written 
legislation argues much against the knowledge of writing in general, as 
applied to the ordinary purposes of life. 

With regard to the objection, that all treaties and agreements were 
verbal, and for that reason accompanied by sacrifices and appeals to 
Heaven, in order to ensure their performance, it will appear to have little 
weight, when it is remembered, that a similar custom prevailed in the Pa- 
triarchal ages, and among the Jews to a very late period. Thus Abraham 
purchased the cave at Machpelah in the presence of all those who entered 
into the gates of the city of Hebron 2 ; so that the publicity of the bargain 
rendered any written contract unnecessary. Nor does it appear that any 
other than verbal covenants, if we except the Bill of Divorce 3 , were re- 
sorted to, up to the time of the prophet Jeremiah, who mentions a written 
contract upon a purchase 4 . The Romans, likewise always adhered to the 
form of making agreements before witnesses in the Forum, which they 
called Stipulatio. It may be remarked also, that the formality of written 
documents was not likely to occupy the attention of warriors, who had 
spent their lives in the service of arms ; just as a or^Xij, or the emblem of 
his profession, was a more ready mark of the grave of a departed hero 
than a graven epitaph and a laboured inscription. Hence an oar was the 
only monument on the tomb of Elpenor 5 . 

As to actual historical evidence, there is none, either on one side or on 
the other. Josephus, indeed, who wrote as late as the first century of the 
Christian era, expresses a doubt on the subject, and mentions an opinion 
maintained by some persons, that Homer did not leave his poems in 
writing 6 . But even if the historian spoke more decidedly, his authority 
could not be admitted as conclusive ; since the passage in question is 
found in the midst of a laboured attempt to throw discredit upon the early 
history of Greece, and a partial eulogium on his own country, where the 
knowledge of letters had existed at a much earlier period. The general 
belief, however, respecting the introduction of literal characters into Greece, 
seems to fix it to the age of Cadmus ; B.C. 1045 7 : and the very uncer- 
tainty, in which the circumstance is involved, is strongly in favour of high 
antiquity. Now whatever difficulties may be supposed to have attended 
the first discovery of the art of writing, it does not appear that there were 
any impediments to its reception and progressive improvement, which 
would not be amply counterbalanced by the exertions which its paramount 
utility must have induced, in order to render it practicable. Making 
every allowance, therefore, for the scarcity and rudeness of materials in the 
infancy of the invention, it is highly improbable that the lapse of five cen- 
turies, which is the period from the arrival of Cadmus in Greece to the 
earliest date of prose composition, should have intervened between the 

1 Eurip. Hec. 854. "H irXrjOoQ avrbv TroXeog, rj v6fj.(uv -ypa^al Elpyovcri xprjaQai pi 
Kara yvia^ii]v rpoiroiQ. Soph. Ant. 454. aypa?rra Osatv vofjufjia. 

2 Gen. xxiii. 10. 18. 3 Deut. xxiv. 1. i Jerem. xxxii. 10. 5 Od. M. 14. 

6 Contra Apion : I. 2. <buaiv } ovde "O^wjpov tv ypa/i/aa<ri ri\v avrov Troirjffiv Kara- 

XlTTtlV. Wf I ' 

7 Herod. V. 58. 


first introduction of writing and its general application. It is moreover 
certain, that a species of parchment or prepared skin, upon which they 
wrote with a kind of ink, was very early in use among the Jews * ; the best 
of which, called Charta Pergamena, was prepared at Pergamos, about 
sixty miles above Smyrna. It is highly probable, therefore, that Homer, 
who was an Asiatic Greek, was acquainted with this article. Indeed, 
Heyne himself allows, that alphabetical writing was employed by the 
lonians much earlier than in European Greece, on account of their know- 
ledge of parchment ; and that they had also their written books, though 
it is uncertain what became of them, amid the ruin of their literature, 
which happened about the time of the revival of learning in Europe 2 . 

When it is considered, then, that Homer himself, in one passage at 
least, has a probable allusion to alphabetical characters 3 , there are no light 
grounds for inferring that he committed his poems to writing, and that 
copies of them were dispersed throughout Ionia during his life. In Euro- 
pean Greece, however, the knowledge of them seems to have been limited, 
and derived entirely from the recitations of the Rhapsodists, who tra- 
velled with them through the different states, perhaps delivering from 
memory such detached portions as they deemed most likely to attract 
attention. Nothing else, therefore, could be reasonably expected, but that 
the connection of the whole should gradually have become confused ; 
some parts, perhaps, lost, and others interpolated. Such, indeed, was the 
natural consequence ; and so deeply was it lamented at Athens, a short 
time before the usurpation of Pisistratus, that a law was enacted by Solon 
for the arrangement of the Iliad and Odyssee, which seems to hare been 
undertaken by Pisistratus himself. Quis doctior, asks Cicero, usaem illis 
temporibus, aut cujus eloquentia literis instructior fuisse tradttur, quam Pi- 
sistrati ; qui primus Homeri libros, confusos antea, sic disposuisse dicitur, 
ut nunc habemus 4 ? To the same historical fact, we have the united testi- 
monies of Pausanias, ^Elian, Libanius, Suidas, and Eustathius 5 . Plato, 
however, lodges the merit of the undertaking with Hipparchus 6 ; so that 
we may safely conclude with Leo Allatius, in supposing that the son 
completed the work which the father had begun. And this opinion, be it 
remarked, derives considerable support from the above passage of Cicero, 
in which the adjective primus seems evidently to point at a subsequent 
revision to that of Pisistratus. 

It is necessary to state, that the authorities above cited are also adduced 
by Wolfe, in proof of his hypothesis, that the Iliad and the Odyssee were 
committed to writing for the first time, and collected in their present form 
by Pisistratus, or one of his family. In this doctrine he goes beyond 
Heyne, who admits the existence of written copies of the component 
parts in Ionia long before the age of the Pisistratidae, though he main- 

1 Isaiah xxxiv. 4. Jerem. xxxvi. 2. 18. 2 Heyn. Horn, T. VIII. pp. 814, 815. 

3 See on II. Z. 168. To the illustrations there cited may be added, the letter sent by 
Agamemnon to Clytaemnestra, in the opening of the first Iphigenia of Euripides. 
* De Orat. III. 13?. 

5 Pausan. VII. 26. p. 594. TlttaiffTpaTOQ trrr} rd 'O/ijjpou t(77ra<r/iva re ical aXXa^ou 
/Av//iovwo/i6va riQpoi&ro. ^Elian. V. H, XIII. 14. "YaTtpov ILsiaiffTparoe avvayaywv, 
d-TTetyyvt Trjv 'I\iaSa Kal Trjv 'Qdvaffeiav. Liban. Panegyr. in Julian. T. I. p. 170. 
Reisk. IIcKTiOTparoj/ iiraivovfttv virtp riJQ rSiv 'Ofirjpy 7rt7roit][J.tvwv avXXoyrjg. And 
to the same effect Suidas in v. "OfjLijpoQ, and Eustath. Comment, p. 5. 

6 Platon. Hipparch. p. 228. B. og a\\a re iroXXa Kal Ka\d 
Kal rd 'Qprjoov I wr) 7rpwro iicofjuatv e/ rijv yf)v Tavrrjvi. 


tains, with greater inconsistency perhaps, the distinct authorship of those 
parts, which were afterwards formed into a connected series. But, wav- 
ing the singularity of admitting the unity of the poems, and denying the 
unity of mind in their composition, it is evident that these authorities will 
not bear the assumption out. The writers in question attribute to Pisis- 
tratus nothing more than a re-arrangement of the scattered portions of the 
poems, which had been originally connected. This import is more parti- 
cularly manifest in the passage of Cicero, where the word confusos dis- 
tinctly refers to a prior connection and orderly arrangement. The TO. 
'Oyujfpov, which are said to have been brought to Athens by Hipparchus, 
though Heyne affects to doubt what poems are intended, must have been 
the whole of the acknowledged works of the poet ; just as TO, IIAarwvoc 
are the Works of Plato ; TO. ' ApiaroriXovg, the Works of dristotle ; and the 
like. The verb Kop'w also, as Mr. Penn observes *, applies to the con- 
veyance only of things real and material, and consequently to the works 
of Homer in an embodied form or volume. From the foregoing observa- 
tion, therefore, the following inferences may be fairly and probably de- 
duced : 

That the Iliad and the Odyssee are the production of one mind ; that 
they were originally committed to writing by Homer himself 2 ; that the 
confusion in which they were afterwards involved, arose from the uncon- 
nected manner of reciting them in European Greece; that this confusion 
did not extend to the written copies, dispersed throughout Ionia ; that 
they were again reduced into their original form, and edited in the order 
in which we now possess them by Pisis<ratus ; and that the arrange- 
ment of Pisistratus was confirmed, or amended if necessary, by collating 
it with a MS. copy of the two poems, which had been obtained for that 
purpose from Ionia, by his son Hipparchus 3 . 



THE extraordinary notion of the German critics respecting the composi- 
tion of the Iliad, by which they have been induced to deny the personality 
of its author, seems in a great measure to have originated in the ideas 
which they had imbibed with respect to its object and design. It is well 
known that Aristotle, in his Poetics, has laid down a set of rules for the 
composition of an epic poem, which he founded upon the basis of the Iliad 

1 Primary Argument of the Iliad, chap. XI. p. 310. 

2 It is not to be inferred, that Homer used the same form and characters in his writing, 
which were afterwards employed. The Greek alphabet was, at first, very imperfect, con- 
sisting only of sixteen letters ; so that several distinct sounds were expressed by the same 
character. The vowels H and Q, and the double consonants were unknown; of which the 
former were represented by E and O, and the latter by their component sounds, or by the 
aspirate. This circumstance, however, cannot affect the means by which the poems were 
preserved. See Kidd on Dawes's Misc. Crit. p. 32. Knight on the Greek Alphabet, p. 17- 

3 There is another opinion mentioned by Heraclides Ponticus, Milan (V. H. XIII. 14.), 
and Plutarch (in Fit. Lycurgi), that the introduction of the Homeric Poems into Greece is 
due to Lycurgus. This account, however, is not supported by competent evidence. 


and the Odyssee, and of which he pronounced those poems to be complete 
and perfect models. Now, in the case of the Odyssee, the judgment of 
Aristotle is generally allowed ; while, with respect to the Iliad, it has been 
as generally denied ; inasmuch as, when measured by the assumed argu- 
ment, with which it should be exactly commensurate, it is found to leave 
a considerable excess. Of course, this excess is at once condemned as 
spurious ; and, the work of rejection commenced, book after book is 
pronounced an interpolation, till the whole work is divided among an 
unlimited set of writers, all equally unknown. But the fact is, that the 
argument, which they have assumed, is not the true one which Homer 
designed, and which was recognised by Aristotle. Nor is it probable that 
that illustrious critic would have been so completely deceived in the appli- 
cation of his own rules, as to offer the Iliad as an exact illustration, when 
in fact it was a direct violation, of them. Since, therefore, he has no 
where stated what he took for the primary argument, it is much more 
likely that his modern followers have tried the poem by a different scale 
from that which he employed. 

If we turn to the proem, or introduction of the subject, in which we 
naturally look for a brief notification of the whole argument, and such 
Quinctilian declares to be afforded in the opening of the Iliad *, we find 
that it embraces two distinct propositions, connected with each other by 
the adversative particle $e. It appears also that the prjvtg ^A^tXrjoQ in the 
first clause is opposed by the Atoc (3ov\i) in the second, and in such a 
manner as to denote the superiority of the latter. According to the com- 
monly received punctuation of the passage, indeed, this connexion and 
opposition does not immediately appear ; but by removing the parenthesis 
in which the words Aioe Se TeXeiero /3ovAr) are usually inclosed, so as to 
render them unintelligible, the bearing and intent of the exordium is ma- 
nifest 2 . What this Atog /3ouX>), or Will of Jove, was, and its gradual ac- 
complishment during the time of Achilles' anger, is proposed as the subject 
of the poem, and must be collected from a perusal of the poem itself. 

From the poem, then, we find, that it is fixed in the determinate 
counsels of Jupiter, that Troy should be eventually destroyed, together 
with the whole race of Priam, by the allied Greeks ; Hector having first 
nobly fallen in the field, and received the rites of honourable burial. The 
period fixed by the declarations of fate for the final developement of the 
divine plans was now rapidly drawing to a close in the tenth year of the 
war, when the expectations of Greece are suddenly clouded by a contest, 
apparently irremediable, between Agamemnon and Achilles, which ends in 
the secession of the latter with his forces, and leaves the decrees of Jupiter, 
to all human appearance, likely to be unfulfilled. Still we perceive the 
divine mind gradually effecting its purposes : and though he complies, to 
a certain extent, with the prayer of Thetis, in favour of her son, yet he 
discloses to Juno, partially in II. 9. 473. and completely in II. O. 59. 
sqq. 3 , his intention of bringing back Achilles to the war, by means of the 
death of Patroclus. Accordingly we observe, that till this stated period, 
the entreaties of friends, the distresses of his countrymen, and the conces- 
sions of Agamemnon, are alike unavailable in working upon the mind of 
Achilles, who feels an unnatural, and almost inhuman delight, in the dis- 

1 See note on II. A. 1. 2 See note on II. A. 5. 

3 See the notes on these passages. 


astrous effects of his fury. But in spite of his unbending spirit of invete- 
rate revenge, no sooner does the counsel of Jupiter see fit, than he effects 
a means for completing his purpose, by diverting the obstinacy of Achilles 
into a different channel, and rendering him as anxious for battle, and to 
meet and slay Hector, as he had been for the success of Troy, and deter- 
mined to remain inactive. He accordingly issues from his retirement, 
revenges himself upon Hector, and determines to give his unburied corse 
to the birds and beasts of prey. This, again, is in direct opposition to the 
will of Jove, who destines Hector for honourable burial. Accordingly, he 
is again diverted from his purpose by a command from Jupiter, and the 
body being given up to Priam, and honoured with funeral rites, the will of 
Jove is accomplished and the poem concludes. So that we readily recognise 
the full extent of the proposition in the proem, and detect the argument of 
the Iliad, which is clearly intended to display " the irresistible power of 
the divine will over the most resolute and determined will of man, 
exemplified in the death and burial of Hector, by the instrumentality of 
Achilles, as the immediate preliminary to the destruction of Troy 1 ." 

Now it is easy to discover, by applying this argument to the Iliad, that 
it corresponds exactly with the rules laid down by Aristotle, and with the 
judgment which he has delivered respecting that poem. For it is engaged 
with one action 2 , and is in itself a one, entire, and perfect whole, pos- 
sessing those essential qualities of unity and entireness, a beginning, a 
middle, and an end 3 . Thus the anger of Achilles, and its consequent 
effects upon the Greeks, are the proper apx^j or beginning ; the death of 
Hector, followed by his sepulchral honours, in which the Atoe /3ouX>) is 
accomplished, is the re'Xoe, or end ; and the point at which the will of 
Jupiter first shows its manifest superiority over the will of man, in recall- 
ing Achilles to the field, i. e. the death of Patroclus, is the peaov, or 
middle. Whence it clearly appears that the main action of the Iliad is 
single and simple, pia KO.I airXovQ, and always directed to one and the 
same point, to which all its various incidents directly tend : viz. the bring- 
ing an honourable death and burial upon Hector by the instrumentality 
of Achilles. On the other hand, that of the Odyssee is complicated, tend- 
ing not only to the prosperity of Ulysses, but also to the destruction of 
the suitors 4 . And lastly, the argument of the Iliad is exactly co-extensive 
with the length of the poem, so that there is neither deficiency nor redun- 
dancy in its extent. 

Hence, then, we at once perceive the nature of the error into which 
modern critics have fallen, with respect to the action of the Iliad. The 
first thing, which strikes the eye at the opening of the poem, is the anger 
of Achilles, and this has been generally assumed, independent of any con- 
nexion with the second clause of the proem, as the primary argument. 
But in applying this argument to the poem itself, it is found to fail at the 
opening of Book XVIII. leaving an excess of nearly Seven Books. A 
less excess, but still equally fatal to the assumption, is observed by those 
critics of the French school, who have thought that the argument may be 

1 Penn's Primary Argument of the Iliad, ch. V. p. 164. 

2 Aristot. Poet. c. 8. Trept p,[av irpa%iv, o'iav Xeyo/uv TT/JV 'Odvfffftiav' bfjioi<i)Q Sk Kal 

3 Ibid. c. 7- "OXov g tctTi TO ZXQV ap%r)v, Kal /ilffov, Kal rfXsur/ji'. 

* Arist. Poet. c. 24 17 p,tv 'iXidj;, cnrXovv KOI iraQrjTutov rj OE 'Qdvaatia, 


discovered in the prayer of Thetis. There is, in this case a redundance of 
Two Books. Now it is, at all events, certain, that both of these argu- 
ments cannot be true : and one would think, that as neither of them gives 
the necessary results, the fairest conclusion is, that both are false. Still 
the one or the other had been invariably adhered to, till Mr. Penn vindi- 
cated Aristotle from the charge of being incompetent to apply a simple 
rule of his own, and established what we have just seen to be the primary 
argument of the Iliad 1 . 

This gratuitous assumption, it has been already observed, has, doubt- 
less, materially contributed to the propagation of those errors, which are 
so injurious to the fame of Homer, and the value of his poems. Not only 
has it been the means of condemning as spurious the final books of the 
Iliad, by which it is supposed to exceed the legitimate length, but passage 
after passage has been treated in the same unceremonious manner, until 
it is difficult to determine what portion the critics in question allow to 
belong to the poet, and what they reject. Heyne, in particular, has not 
hesitated to assign a merciless proportion of the poem to the Rhapsodists ; 
striking out, without any other assignable reason, whatsoever seemed to 
oppose his own theoretical views. So great, in fact, have been the depre- 
dations which have thus been attempted, that, had the passages been 
actually erased, the connected unity of design, which is so much and so 
preposterously admired, even by those who deny the unity of the writer, 
would have been inevitably destroyed. Interpolations, as well as omissions, 
have, in all probability, corrupted the text in the course of so many ages, 
more particularly during the revision of the Alexandrian critics ; but 
there is far less faith to be reposed in the amputating system of Heyne 
and his disciples, than in the other extreme so forcibly maintained by 
Macrobius : Tria hcec ex tequo impossibilia judicantur ; vel Jovi fulmen t 
vel Hercuti clavam, vel versum Homero subtrahere 2 . 



FROM the use of many words in the Iliad and the Odyssee, which the 
grammarians consider as exclusively jEolic, it has been very generally 
supposed that Homer's language is a mixture of the Ionic and JEolic 
dialects, and Bentley has accordingly distinguished it by the character- 
istic epithet, JEolico-Ionic 3 . A confusion of dialects, however, seems 
to be a species of anomaly, which Homer would not have admitted into 
his poems ; and it will be found, upon inquiry, that his language is essen- 
tially Ionic, and that which was currently spoken in his native country, 
during the age in which he lived. 

1 The whole of Mr. Penn's Treatise will amply repay the reader for its perusal. A 
brief sketch only of its subject is given in these observations. 

2 Macrob. Saturn. V. 3. 

3 Horsley, de Prosodiis, p. 15G. 


The origin of dialects in Greece may be traced to the immediate de- 
scendants of Hellen, son of Deucalion, from whom the country received 
its name. Two of the sons of this prince, ^Eolus and Dorus, having 
fixed upon settlements apart, and intermixing their own language with 
that of the hordes to which they attached themselves, gave rise to the 
peculiar dialectic varieties which bear their respective names. In the 
meantime Xuthus, their younger brother, passed into Attica, and married 
a daughter of Erectheus, by whom he had two sons, Achaeus and Ion. 
Achaeus, in consequence of an accidental homicide, retired into Laconia, 
and gave his name to that country ; while the Athenians adopted that of 
Ion, and from him were called, in the age of Homer, 'laovee l , and their 
language Ionian. Neleus, the son of Codrus, led a colony of these 
lonians into Asia Minor, who carried their language with them 2 . 

With the colonization of Asia, the age of Homer must have been 
nearly coeval ; and it is even supposed by Mr. Knight, that he was one 
of the original settlers 3 . It may fairly be inferred, therefore, that the 
language of the Iliad is an unmixed specimen of the old Ionic, and 
nearly the same that was spoken in Attica at the time of the above mi- 
gration. In this early stage of the dialect, it can scarcely be supposed to 
have possessed those distinguishing peculiarities, by which it is marked 
in the work of Herodotus. The several dialects originally retained many 
forms and inflexions in common with each other, and with the mother 
tongue, from the barbarities of which they had but recently emerged ; 
and the grammarians, in attributing to Homer the usage of ^Eolic and 
Doric peculiarities, forget that they were not peculiarities at the time 
when he wrote *. They take the language of Herodotus as the standard 
of pure Ionic ; and, because the poet employs many forms which are not 
to be met with in the historian, they conclude at once, that the dialect of 
the former is impure. Now, there is no more reason to suppose that the 
old Ionic remained stationary in Asia, than that the old Attic, which was 
the same dialect, remained stationary in Greece ; and it would be as just 
to examine the language of Homer by the standard of Thucydides, as it 
is by that of Herodotus. At the same time, the dialect of Herodotus, 
in essentially characteristic points, is by no means so distinct from that of 
Homer, as may perhaps be supposed ; and certainly less so, than the 
lapse of four centuries, between their respective ages, would reasonably 
lead us to expect 3 . 

But, though the language had not yet arrived at that fulness and per- 
fection which it afterwards acquired, it had risen, nevertheless, to a con- 
siderable degree of consistency and polish. The lonians, who were in 
possession of a rich and luxuriant soil, and soon began to rise in com- 
mercial prosperity, were the first who softened the asperities, and laid 

1 See on II. N. 685. 

2 Mitforcl's Hist, of Greece, ch. 3. . 1. 

3 Prolegom. in Horn. . 66. 

4 Knight's Proleg. in Horn. . 70. Parens et fons, e quo reliqua omnes effluxerunt, est 
lingua Homerica; qua non e diversis dialectis et licentiis Poeticis, ut grammatici somniarunt, 
cunflata est ; sed Achceorum vel Danaorum veterum sermo quotidianus et universalis ; 
quo, Homericis temporibus, omnia publica et privata negotia transigebantur ; atque omnes 
sensus et affectus animorum exprimebantur. See also Matt. Gr. Gr. . 6. 

5 The Attic dialect varied from the parent stock considerably more than the Ionic. See 
Bishop Blomfield's remarks on Matt. Gr. Gr. p. 31., and an article on the Ionic Dialect 
in the Mus. Crit. vol. II. p. 237. 


aside the harsh and inharmonious inflexions of their mother tongue. It is 
extremely natural to suppose that Homer would take every advantage of 
the improvements which had been already introduced into the language ; 
if he was not led by his own exuberant genius, and musical ear, to extend 
its refinement. The poets, who preceded him, had doubtless con- 
tributed something to the beneficial change ; and he was not likely to 
neglect the materials which they had prepared for its farther advancement. 
It is evident, in fact, from the trifling alteration which appears to have 
taken place in the Ionic dialect, between the times of Homer and Hip- 
pocrates, that it had received its characteristic form, and attained a high 
degree of polish in the time of Homer himself. It will be necessary to 
point out the chief peculiarities by which it is distinguished, and to note 
those which afterwards ceased to be Ionic, and were retained by the JE>o\ic 
and Doric respectively. The reference must be made of course to the 
Attic as a standard ; and it will appear that the most striking difference 
between the two dialects, which were both originally the same, is that 
which arose out of the national character of the people, by whom they 
were respectively employed. The frequent concurrence of vowel sounds, 
which Homer has so admirably adapted to the heroic measure of the Iliad, 
was too harsh and inharmonious for the delicate ears of the refined 
Athenians, who gradually softened their native tongue into the regular 
and polished dialect of the Tragic writers. In a word, the Attic is essen- 
tially contracted Ionic. With regard to the general properties of Homer's 
language, the following are the most remarkable, to which the attention 
of the student is directed in this place, as they are only occasionally noticed 
in the notes. 


In nouns masculine, of the first declension, ending in ae and r/c, the 
nominative singular is frequently changed into a; as Gut'ora, in II. B. 
107. So also the nouns adjective evpuoTra, v^eXr/ycpcra *, ^irjritYa, and 
the like ; passim. This nominative was afterwards an ^Eolic peculiarity. 
The termination of feminines, of this declension, which in Attic is a after 
p or a vowel, in Ionic is universally r; : as ^/nep*?, ao^irj. 

The genitive singular of nouns in rjg has two terminations in Homer ; 
EW and cto. II. $. 85. 0vyaV??p "AXrao yepovroe, " AXrew, oe K. r. X. The 
former of these, which is always monosyllabic, was retained by the lonians, 
and is found continually in Herodotus. The latter was afterwards con- 
fined to the Doric, and is frequent in Pindar. 

Of the genitive plural also in this declension there are two terminations 
in the Iliad; ewv and awv. II. I\ 273. fce^aXeW. B. 146. ve^eXaW. 
The former only was retained by the later Ionic writers. 

The dative plural yc for ate is common also in the Attic poets 2 . 

In the second declension, the termination oto is a poetic, rather than a 
dialectic variety. The proper noun Iltrewo, II. B. 552. is supposed to 

1 Hesychius seems to have understood this as the vocative, used for the nominative ; 
K\tiTiKt} avri ivOtiag. But see Keen, ad Greg. pp. 40. 283, 

2 See on II. A. 238, 


have arisen in a similar manner, from the form which the grammarians 
call Attic, forming the nominative in we. Of this class, MeveXewg, and 
other nouns occur in the Iliad. From"A6Jwe we meet with 'A0ow for "A0o> 
in II. IS. '229. 

The genitive and dative of imparisyllabic nouns in ie, ^og, frequently 
omit the $. Thus we have firjvio^ for p.fivt^og in Od. T. 135. In the 
dative also a further change takes place by contraction : as in 0m for 
0e'ru, II. S. 407. See also on II. A. 238. 

The last syllable of the accusative is frequently syncopated in those 
nouns, of which w is the final vowel ; as HotreiStS for Hovttduyal See on 
II. E. 416. 

The genitive dual in otiv is poetic. 

In the genitive and dative singular, and in the nominative plural of 
nouns in EVQ, the lonians used 77 in the penultima instead of e, e. g. /3a- 
ffiXriog, /3a<riAFt, /3a<nXr/. The Attics contracted this Ionic form by 
omitting the e. ; as /f>cunXi|c from /3a0-iXj/, instead of ftacriXelg. 

Instead of the contraction OVQ, Homer sometimes adopts EVQ. II. 9. 
368. 'Epj3cv. P. 573. dap<rtvg. It maybe observed that in some verbal 
terminations also eo is contracted into tv. II. I. 54. eirXcv. M. 160. 
dvrcvv. So also rev for row, i. e. rt'voe, in II. B. 388. This was after- 
wards a Doric usage. 

Lastly, in the genitive and dative singular and plural, the syllable 0c is 
frequently added ; in which case the final e of substantives in 77 is omitted, 
and the diphthong ov drops the last vowel in nouns in og. To the genitive 
also the syllable Oev, or 61, is sometimes added in a similar manner. Ex- 
amples of both cases abound. The latter forms were afterwards used as 
adverbs of place. See on II. A. 500. I. 300. 


The omission of the augment is mentioned by the grammarians as a 
peculiarity of the Ionic dialect ; and, although there is a considerable fluc- 
tuation in its use and rejection in Homer, the latter certainly prevails ; 
and from many verbs, to which it has been prefixed by the copyists, it 
should probably be removed. The correct reading of II. A. 5. for in- 
stance, is undoubtedly Aioe SE reXeiero /3ovX?), though the Edd. and MSS. 
for the most part read Aioe o' ereXeitro. Some verbs, however, regularly 
have the augment, as r/XvOov and ijXvOe ; and others are found sometimes 
with, and sometimes without it ; but in this case the metre will frequently 
account for the inconsistency. For a similar reason a single p is occasion- 
ally retained after the syllabic augment in verbs beginning with that 
letter ; and on the other hand, the initial consonant is sometimes doubled. 
Thus we have epefc, in II. B. 400. ; and t'XXa/3e, in II. E. 83 J . Homer 
also prefixes to some verbs the syllabic augment instead of the temporal, 
unless it is understood to be the temporal augment resolved ; as in eafydri 
for ij<f)Qr), II. N. 543. #. 419. So also Herodotus, as eatie, I. 151. ea'Xw/ai, 
I. 191. In these cases also the augment is occasionally lengthened, by 
substituting the diphthong t or tv ; as eloiKvlai, II. S. 418. evader, II. Is}. 
340. The termination OTCOV, which the lonians sometimes affix to the 

1 This is most generally in the case of a liquid ; but sometimes in other letters also ; as 
, &c. 


imperfect, is supposed by the grammarians to supply the place of the 
augment, which is then omitted. It seems more probable that these are 
derivative forms of the original verb, and that the augment is omitted, 
more lonico 1 . II. A. 330. tW/coj/, S. 546. SOVKEV. Herod. VII. 106. 
TTEpTTEffKE. The augment, however, is not always dropped ; as, for in- 
stance, in tyavKov, II. N. 100. And the present imperative fidaKE occurs 
in II. B. 8, and elsewhere. 

With respect to the reduplication, it is sometimes omitted, and some- 
times doubled in Homer, as in the case of the augment. Thus, for ^- 
we have SEKTO in II. B. 420., and SEI^EKTO in II. I. 224., SlypevoQ for 
in II. B. 794., flXripevoz for fieftXrjpevog in II. A. 191. In some 
verbs also the letters of the reduplication are inverted, as in eppope for 
pepope, in 11. O. 189. (.aavpai for aiavpai, in II. N. 79. The gram- 
marians notice a peculiar usage of the reduplication with the aorist, 
which they expressly distinguish as the Ionic Reduplication. The fol- 
lowing instances, among others, frequently recur : 7T7ri07j/, XeXa^e~iv t 
TETVKEffOat, XeXafiecrOai, KEKapslv, KEKa^EcrQat, &c. In the notes they have 
been occasionally explained in the usual manner ; but it appears highly 
probable that they are really forms of a new derivative present, from the 
perfect of the original verb. See Od. O. 61. So also rfraywv, in II. A. 
591. and /cefcX/yyovrec, in II. M. 125. which are sometimes considered as 
perfect participles declined JEolice, like the present, are in all probability 
formed from new verbs, rtrayw, fctfcX^yw. 

There are likewise to be met with in Homer new forms of verbs, de- 
rived from the futures of other verbs. Thus, Eftijtrero and edvffero recur 
continually ; we have O'LVETE in II. T. 103. Xe&o in II. I. 613. and several 
others. Of the future itself, it may be observed, that the termination ecru, 
which appears originally to have been the only form in use, is occasionally 
found in Homer, in verbs whose characteristics are X and p : as oXfVw, in 
II. M. 250., apeak), II. I. 120. This form, however, had already under- 
gone a double change, by omitting the and the a- respectively. Thus 
we have ap<rw, in II. A. 136. <W00p<rw, in II. N. 625 , fiaXeu), in II. O. 
403., ayyeXf'w, in II. 0. 409. The first of these forms was afterwards 
.^Eolian, and the latter was retained by the lonians. Hence StatydapeeTai, 
Herod. VIII. 108. 

There were some peculiarities also in several verbal terminations among 
the lonians. That of arcu and aro, in the third person plural, for vrai 
and VTO, is common both in Homer and Herodotus : as is also the original 
form of the plusquamperfectum in ea. In the perfect also of some 
verbs pure, they reject K; as, in lorawe, II. B. 170., for which Herodotus 
uses EffTEWQ, V. 92. In the third person plural of the imperative they 
write i)v for waav ; as Xe&ffduv, II. I. 67., Kreiveadujy, Herod. VII. 10. 
The termination OVTWV for erwyar, is common also in the Attic writers. 
Of the termination QEV for drjcrav, of the Ionic form of the subjunctive, and 
of the addition of the syllable <n to the third person singular, see the notes 
on II. A. 57. 129. 62. respectively. The terminations epev and epevai, of 
the infinitive, are poetical. Many forms also are found in Homer which 
must necessarily be referred to obsolete verbs in pi. 

In contractions, the termination is frequently extended by the re-inser- 

1 Clarke generally renders these verbs by soleo ; as irXvvtOKev, lavnre sole bant ; II. X. 


tion of one of the vowels forming the contraction, or of the corresponding 
long vowel, if required by the metre. Thus we meet with the participle 
icojudwvT-fe, passim ; opaac, II. H. 448.; /3oow<rt, P. 265.; atrtaW, N. 
215. ; opow, E. 244. ; ?//3wotp, A. 669. Sometimes also, without a con- 
traction, a long vowel is doubled; as ww<m', 11. A. 137.; or////, E. 598.; 
epfiriy, II. 94. ; 00%, II. 86 i. 


The principal literal changes in the Homeric dialect are : 

A for E ; as Tapvuv for rs/iveiv, which is common both in Homer and Herodotus. 

E for H ; as taav for f]aav, passim. 

H for A ; as TrpijZig for Trpa^tg, passim : irjTpoQ for iarpbg, II. A. 832. 

I for E ; as iffrir) for iffTia, Od. T. 304 ; and in Herodotus. 

Y for O ; as ayvpie for ayopa, II. II. 661. Q. 141. 

Q for H ; as TrroWw for Trr^acrw, II. E. 634. 

El for E ; as iceivog , %tlvoc;, &c. 

EY for E; as tvKrjXoQ for sKrjXog, II. A. 554. dtvopai for, II. N. 310. 

OI for O ; as xpoirj for %po?), II. 2. 164. 

OY for O ; as povvoQ, VOVGOQ, ovvofia, &c. 

OY for Y ; as d\f)\ovQa for t\r]\v9a, passim: This was afterwards peculiar to the 


A for 2; as ofyi?/ for OCTJUJ), II. &. 415. and passim : Herod. VII. 111. 
$ for 9 ; as 0}p for Orjp, II. A. 2G8. B. 743. 
22 for I1T ; as 7reo-(7w for 7T7rrw, 11. B. 237. Herod. II. 37 '. 

Besides the above peculiarities, many others will continually present 
themselves to the student, for which the metre will frequently afford a 
satisfactory reason. There are many varieties in the pronouns which it 
has not been necessary to point out, as they must soon become familiar, 
and some of them have been occasionally explained in the notes. The 
resolution of diphthongs, as 7ra"/f for 7rat, in II. B. 609., and the doubling 
of consonants in the middle of words, are purely metrical : except, per- 
haps, iiiaaog, roo-ffog, and the like, which are doubtless dialectic varieties, 
though they are sometimes to be met with even in the dialogues of the 
Greek tragedians. 



There is nothing in Homer more deserving of admiration than the expres- 
sive simplicity and the harmonious cadence of his Fersifaation. In an 
age when Greece was in a state of comparative barbarism, and the language 
fell infinitely short of that perfection which it afterwards acquired, he has 
succeeded in painting the loftiest sentiments in the most effective colours ; 
and in adapting the yet unformed dialect of his countrymen to the most 
exquisite beauties of poetry. The majestic force of compound epithets, 
the harmonious pauses, the easy flow of the numbers, and the unvaried 
adaptation of the sound to the sense, are felt and appreciated even by a 

1 See Matt. Gr. Gr. Part. I. passim. Burgess. Praef. ad Dawes. Misc. Crit. Heyn. 
Obss. Horn. T. VII. p. 712. sqq. T. VIII. p. 220. sqq. 


cursory reader ; and the general principles of the structure of this verse, 
which is the pure heroic Hexameter, are sufficiently understood by the 
common rules of prosody. It will, therefore, be sufficient to point out 
some of the less obvious niceties, and to account for some apparent ano- 
malies, which the critics have been too eager to class under the head 
of Poetic licenses, without considering that they may be reduced, for the 
most part, to fixed and regular rules. 

I. First, then, of the Ccesura. This term has been variously defined 
by different writers, in reference to the properties of different species of 
metre ; nor are they by any means agreed in. their opinions, where the same 
metre is concerned. In the Hexameter, however, the Ccesura, properly 
so called, is the division of the verse (ro/zj?) at the end of a word, in the 
middle of the third foot, where the voice naturally pauses in reading it. 
In technical language, the Caesura is penthemimeral ; of which the pre- 
vailing forms are : 

A. II. A. 1. Mtyyiv aae, Ota, 

B. II. A. 2. OvXapevriv, i) p,vpt | 'A^aiotf aXye' e6r]Ke. 

The proportion of these forms is nearly equal throughout the Iliad, though 
the latter exceeds in the first book; which, consisting of 611 lines, con- 
tains 290 instances of the form A, and 315 of the form B ; the remaining 
six lines, viz. vv. 145. 218. 307. 400. 466. 584. having no Caesura. Of 
those verses, which have no Caesura, the greater proportion divide them- 
selves into three distinct syzygies, or pairs of feet, many of them consist- 
ing entirely of proper names. Thus : 

II. A. 145. *H Ata, / | f lojUVve, rj | c>7oe 'QcvffffEve. 

A division of the verse also frequently occurs in the middle of the fourth 
foot, which is usually called an Hephthemimeral Caesura. The only legi- 
timate Caesura, however, seems to be that already mentioned ; and there 
are very few instances in which the other is found, that do not contain 
this also. The Iliad contains the following, and probably some few more, 
examples of the Hephthemimeral division only : II. T. 71. A. 124. 329. 
451. O. 346. I. 186. K. 502. A. 494. N. 715. O. 368. 2. 567. T. 38. 
$. 292. X. 258. . 362. 

II. Of the Arsis. It is a well-known property of the Caesura, that if 
the vowel upon which it falls be the last of a word, and short, such vowel 
is consequently lengthened. In addition to this, however, there are con- 
tinual instances in Homer of the lengthening of short syllables, both at the 
beginning and end of words, provided always that such syllables be the 
first of the foot. The principle upon which this proceeds is similar to that 
of the Caesura, and arises from the swell of the voice upon the first syllable 
of every foot, which was evidently considered necessary to the proper 
reading of the verse. The increase of time which this rising inflection of 
the voice, called the Arsis, required to elevate it above the ordinary tone, 
was of course considered a sufficient cause for lengthening the syllable 
upon which it fell. For examples, see II. A. 36. A. 135. I. 313. T. 5. 
43. 367. 390. 400. In order to lengthen a syllable in the middle of a 
word, and sometimes, indeed, in other cases, it was usual to double the 
succeeding consonant ; or to substitute, instead of the vowel, the corres- 
ponding diphthong. Instances of this occur in every page ; and it is 
hardly safe to admit the theory of Professor D unbar, who proposes to read 


such words as eddeitre, Kvveffffl, rcXaero, t/^evcu, and the like, wherever 
they occur, with a single consonant, and to account for the production of the 
syllable upon the same principle, as in other cases 1 . In II. A. 342. X. 5. the 
adjective O\OOQ seems to be an exception, as it occurs with the penultima 
long ; the only apparent reason for which is derived from the Arsis. Some, 
indeed, would read dXw^o-t and oXwi7, and others oXotrjvi and 0X0117, in the 
two instances respectively ; but there seems to be no authority for the 
change. In the compounds aVoaTrwv, II. T. 35. aVoe'jOo^, <. 283. and the 
like, the verb and the preposition must be considered as distinct. 

There are some instances also of the lengthening of short syllables at 
the end of a foot, i. e. in the thesis, or fall of the voice, before a liquid. 
Hence these letters are supposed to have possessed a certain property of 
doubling themselves in the pronunciation, by which means the preceding 
vowel becomes long. Thus II. E. 358. TroAAa Aio-ffoyuevr;. This vis eKra- 
n/o), as it is called, unquestionably belonged to the initial p 2 . The case 
is different in II. A. 193. ewe o ravff &pp,aire. Here it is probable that 
the pronoun is emphatic, and the stress of voice, which in consequence 
rested upon it, had the effect of lengthening the syllable. Compare II. K. 
507. O. 539. P. 106. S. 15. 4>. 602. In all these places Bentley pro- 
poses to read ewe o'ye. 

III. Of the shortening of long vowels or diphthongs. It may be ob- 
served, as a general rule, that a long vowel or diphthong at the end of a 
word, before another vowel or diphthong, is always made short, except in 
the Arsis ; but in the beginning or middle of a word it generally remains 
long, under the same circumstances. There is but one passage which mi- 
litates against the former part of the rule; viz. II. B. 145. where Professor 
Dunbar, to whom the canon is due, would read Uovrov r' 'Ifcap/oto, K. r. \. 
observing that TTOVTOQ is usually applied to this sea by Homer, and 6d- 
Xaarcra to the JEtgean ; so that two seas are, in fact, intended, and not one 
only, by means of an apposition. With regard to long vowels or diph- 
thongs remaining so in the middle or beginning of words, exceptions are 
chiefly confined to the word lireiri, as in II. A. 156. 169. and elsewhere. 
In II. B. 415. and other passages where the word c-ffios occurs with the 
first syllable short, the i may be subscribed ; and in II. A. 380. the true 
reading is probably /3/3Acat, the 2 sing. pres. pass, of fie(3Xr)fju, which is 
found in the Venetian MS. 

With respect to the Correptiones Atticce, as they are called ; i. e. the 
shortening of vowels before words beginning with a double consonant or a 
mute and a liquid, it is a distinguishing peculiarity in Homer, that he sel- 
dom adopts them, unless in those words, chiefly proper names, which 
could not otherwise have place in an Hexameter. Thus the words ppa- 
X<W, fya'fcwv, Kpa^cuVw, and some cases, as the genitive plural for instance, 
of /3poroe, must have been entirely excluded from the Iliad, without a 
partial admission of this license. Compare II. M. 389. B. 308. N. 504. H. 
446. et passim. The same observation applies to the words Sfcajuarfyoe, 
II. B. 465. ZdKvvBov, B. 634. ZeXeiav, B. 824. and several others. In 
II. r. 414. however, the word ayerXiri occurs with the first syllable short, 
which, unless it be corrupt, cannot be excused on the plea of necessity ; 

1 The Professor, however, has ably illustrated the principles of Homeric versification in 
an English dissertation, attached to his Prosodia Graeca. 

2 See on Soph. (Ed. T. 847- Pent. Gr. p. (JO. 



neither can the shortening of Se, before dpaypctTa, in II. A. 09. and be- 
fore xpi y * in II- "* 186. We also meet with //eyuvewro fyojuov, in II. ^F. 
361. and rerpa'/ov/cXov, with the first syllable short, in II. O. 324 *. Such 
instances, however, are extremely rare ; and it is in the Pseudo-Orpheus, 
and writers of a later age, that the want of melody, which the too frequent 
admission of them produces in the heroic Hexameter, is more particularly 
discernible *. 

IV. Of Elision, or Apostrophe ; and Crasis. The principles need but 
little explanation. It is well known that all the short and doubtful 
vowels are elided by Homer, except Y ; together with the diphthong AI, 
and sometimes, though rarely, OI. The latter usage has, indeed, been 
doubted altogether ; but there are some unquestionable examples in the 
Iliad ; e. g. II. N. 481. entire, 0/Xoi, fccti ju' oiy apvyere. Compare II. Z. 
165. I. 669. K. 544. II. 207. This elision, however, seems to be con- 
fined to POL and TOL ; of the elision of ai before a short vowel, the in- 
stances are numerous. With respect to vowels, the only observation of 
importance relates to the final i of the dative singular, of which the elision 
is extremely rare. In II. E. 5. we have aorep' oTrwpivw, and in II. II. 
385. tipaT oTTwpivw. Compare II. A. 259. A. 588. M/88. N. 289. O. 
26. For dffirift ivl Kpareprj, in II. T. 349. we find dairitii kv Kparepfj, in 
II. P. 45. though the MSS. vary in both places. The most usual Crases 
in Homer are those of 77, with the diphthong ov, as in II. E. 349. 77 ov^ 
aXte, and with , as in II. E. 466. r; ctero/cc. The particle drj, also, some- 
times forms a Crasis with the initial vowel of the following word ; as in 
II. Y. 220. oe r) aQveioTdTog. A Crasis of a somewhat remarkable 
nature is constructed between the diphthongs et and ov, in II. N. 777. 

eTrgi ovf)' ejue Tra/iTrav K. T. X. Compare Od. A. 352. 

V. Of Synizesis. This figure is nearly allied to Crasis, and consists in 
the extrusion of a short vowel before a long one or a diphthong, by which 
means two syllables coalesce into one. This is particularly the case with 
the vowels cw ; as in II. A. 1. Hr/Xr/m^w ; and ea, as in the accusative 
singular of nouns in eve. The two last syllables, however, do not neces- 
sarily coalesce in these accusatives, as some suppose ; since the final a, 
though generally long, is not necessarily so ; and the few deviations from 
the rule, which are to be found in the Attic poets, have most probably 
arisen out of the sanction which the Ionic dialect affords 3 . 



THERE is yet one important point connected with the Versification of 
Homer, which seems to demand a separate consideration : viz. the use of 
the Digamma in his poems. If a word ending with a vowel is succeeded 
by another beginning with a vowel, it produces an hiatus, which was ex- 

1 In II. A. 656. the true reading is unquestionably that of the Harleian MSS. fitXefft 
j8f/3X^araH which should have been admitted into the text. 

2 See Hermann's Appendix to the Argonautica, p. 755. sqq. 

3 See Person and Schsefer on Eurip. Hec. 870. 


cessively disagreeable to the delicate ears of the Greeks, and is, in fact, 
inconsistent with the general usage of the language. The Athenians, to 
whom such hiatus were peculiarly offensive, invariably avoided them 
either by the N eyeXKVffTiKbv, apostrophe or contraction. In Homer, how- 
ever, these anomalies, if so they may be called, incessantly occur, and 
words ending even with short vowels, are followed by others beginning 
with short vowels, in which the construction of the verse will not admit of 
the application of any of those means, which are usually employed in such 
cases. Hence an hypothesis suggested itself to the celebrated Bentley, 
that many words beginning with a vowel were originally pronounced with 
a consonant, or with some sound, which had the effect and power of a 
consonant. Now it appears from Dionysius Halicarnassensis ', that it 
was the custom of the ancient Greeks to prefix to many words beginning 
with a vowel, a letter somewhat resembling a F, with two cross lines 
joining one straight one, in the form of a double Gamma (F). Hence, 
this letter was called a Digamma, and it is supposed to have occupied the 
sixth place in the original Pelasgic alphabet of ancient Greece. The 
grammarian Trypho also attributes the use of the Digamma to the early 
TEolians, lonians, Laconians, and Boeotians 2 ; but since its use was re- 
tained by the former to a much later period than in any other of the 
Grecian States, it has been generally distinguished by the name of the 
sEolic Digamma. No document, however, of its existence as a written 
character remains, except in inscriptions ; of which the most remarkable 
is the celebrated Delian marble, discovered by Montfaucon, in 1708, and 
some coins at Velia. Cicero writes, in Epist. ad Attic. IX. 9. Neque 
solum Romtz, sed etiam Deli, tuum Digamma videram. 

Since, then, it appears that such a letter did exist in early Greece, and 
more especially in those parts in which Homer, in all probability, com- 
posed his poems, it can scarcely be doubted that its effects were still per- 
ceptible in the poet's time ; and that its application may be fairly applied 
to the removal of metrical difficulties in his writings. Bentley, indeed, 
has satisfactorily established his point to a considerable extent, and would 
probably have strengthened his hypothesis into a greater degree of cer- 
tainty, had he lived to prosecute his plans, in spite of the paltry and 
malicious ridicule to which his ingenious discovery exposed him 3 . The 
principles upon which he had proceeded, rested upon the observation, 
that there were certain words in Homer beginning with a vowel, which 
were never preceded by a consonant ; and others, of which the two first 
syllables were short, which were never preceded by a double consonant, 
except in cases of manifest corruption, and easy emendation. In proof 
of this position, Dawes, who followed up the inquiry in his Miscellanea 
Critica, has actually exhibited the result of an examination of all the places 
in the Iliad, in which the words aval, and tVog occur 4 ; from which it ap- 

1 Antiq. Rom. I. 20. 

2 In his UdOrj \t%ttov, . II. Mus. Grit. T. I. p. 34. 7rpo<m0trai <$e TO dtya/i/ia 
Trapd TI "Iwffi, KOI AioXcueri, Kal Aupiivffi, Kai Adcawn, Kai Boiwroif olov ava%, 
Fdva.%, 'EXeva, fcXkva, K. r. X. 

3 Among others, Pope ; Dunciad IV. 215. 

Roman and Greek grammarians ! know your better, 
Author of something yet more great than Letter : 
While towering o'er your alphabet, like Saul, 
Stands our digamma, and o'ertops them all. 

4 Misc. Crit. pp. 239. 262. 


pears, that in every instance, the preceding word invariably ends with a 
vowel in the one case, and with a syllable naturally short in the other ; or 
may be made to do so, either by removing a final v, or the expulsion of 
an useless particle. Hence, it should seem, that in these and similar in- 
stances, the Digamma necessarily formed a constituent part of the word, 
in order that the metre might not be violated ; and when it is known, 
upon the testimony of Dionysius, that aval:, was originally written Fct^a^, 
the evidence in favour of the theory is unquestionably powerful. 

Still there are several points to which the Digamma will not apply ; 
and others, with which its use is altogether irreconcileable. A scholar, 
indeed, no less eminent than Matthiae *, has ventured, upon these grounds, 
to dispute its existence in Homer altogether ; and, according to the system 
of Professor Dunbar, there are but two words, olvoc and et^w, in which its 
application is necessary. The Bentleian theory, however, is generally 
admitted by the learned, and the weight of argument is certainly in favour 
of its truth, at the same time that its failure, in a variety of instances, and 
in words to which in other cases it belongs, together with its fluctuating 
application in compound words, are matters which have not yet been 
satisfactorily accounted for. Instances of its arbitrary employment will 
be seen in the list of words which concludes this Section. 

But, though Dawes and Bentley are generally agreed upon the subject 
of the Digamma, there are yet two points upon which these great critics 
are entirely at issue. In the first place, instead of the ^Eolic Digamma, 
Dawes affirms that it should be distinguished by the title of the Ionic Fan, 
and assigns to it the power of the English W. No great importance, how- 
ever, seems to attach itself to the mere name of this imaginary character ; 
and as to the power of the letter, whether it was that of the Roman B, V, 
or F, or of the English W, or some intermediate labial pronunciation, the 
question is still undecided, and likely to remain so. Mr. Knight 2 has 
supported the opinion of Dawes, however untenable, with considerable 
ingenuity ; and Bishop Marsh 3 is far more successful in contending against 
it, than in establishing his own hypothesis ; according to which, the 
Digamma was pronounced like the Roman F. The more received opinion, 
however, and by far the more probable, is that which affixed to the letter 
the power, as near as may be, of the Roman V. According to Dionysius 4 , 
in the passage already referred to, the Digamma had the force of the diph- 
thong ov, which is constantly interchanged with the Roman V. Thus, for 
the names Firgilius and Severus, the Greeks wrote QvipyiXtog and 2tov- 
77(000, and the Romans expressed 'Aptoro/DovXoc, ARISTOBVLVS. In 
some inscriptions of the emperor Claudius, we meet with the Roman V 
under the form of an inverted F ; and many digammated Greek words, 
which have been transferred into Latin, are spelt with a V. Thus, Fo7/oc, 
vinum; Fotfcoc, vicus ; Frjp, ver ; Ftc, vis; oFic, ovis ; cuFwv, cevum; afop- 
vog, Avernus ; &c. &c. 

The other point of disagreement between Dawes and Bentley relates to 
the non-appearance of the Digamma in any of the Poems of Homer. It 
is well known that Bentley had conceived an intention of preparing an 
edition of Homer, with the character restored throughout, of which a 

1 Gr. Gram. .41. 

2 In his Prolegomena in Homerum, and Essay on the Greek Alphabet. 

3 In his Horee Pelasgicee. * Antiq. Rom. I. 20. 



specimen will be found in Kidd's edition of the Miscel. Crit. p. 336. 
Dawes, on the other hand, maintains, that although it would be well to 
insert a sign of the same kind for the instruction of modern readers, the 
form of the letter was entirely unknown in the time of Homer, and that 
its power alone existed. Which of these opinions is correct, it would be 
difficult to determine. If, on the one hand, the form of the letter was 
unknown, whence is it, that it appears on several ancient monuments ? 
And if, on the other, Homer actually employed it in writing his Poems, 
how can its total disappearance from all existing copies, without trace or 
vestige, be accounted for ? The only hypothesis, within the compass of 
probability, seems to be this : that at the time of the revision of Homer, 
under Pisistratus, the Digamma had fallen into complete disuse in Greece ; 
that the orthography was consequently remodelled, according to the form 
of language and writing which then prevailed ; and that the Asiatic 
originals, in which the character was exhibited, have been irretrievably 

The investigation of the Theory of the Digamma has been prosecuted 
by Heyne, with great learning and research, upon the principles laid down 
by Dawes, in three Excursions on II. T. vol. VII. p. 708. sqq. The list 
of the digammated words which he has given in the second Excursion is 
highly valuable ; as is also the Catalogue of Mr. Kidd, in his Notes on 
Dawes's Misc. Crit. p. 234. sqq l . The liberties, however, which Heyne 
has taken with the writings of Homer, in condemning, without mercy, as 
corrupt or spurious, the numerous passages which oppose his ideas re- 
specting the universal application of the Digamma, are unwarrantable in 
the extreme. That difficulties, perhaps insurmountable, do exist on this 
head, the following instances of inconstancy and variation will clearly 
indicate. The list is by no means perfect ; but it will be a sufficient 
proof that much remains to be done, before the doctrine of the Digamma 
can be reduced to any fixed principles of general application. It may 
also be observed, that there are several words digammated by the ancient 
grammarians, which do not admit the Digamma in Homer; as aV?;p, 
, &c. &c. 

1 It should be remembered, however, that the examples which Kidd has adduced, are 
rather conjectural emendations of the passages cited, than the passages themselves. 



"AXi. Generally digammated ; as in II. B. 90. I. 137. S- 122. $. 352. There are two 
exceptions, however ; the one in II. P. 54. where Bentley proposes o uXig, and 
Heyne rejects the verse ; the other in 11. <1>. 344. o'i pa KO.T' avrbv ciXtg 'iaav. In 
this latter instance Heyne would transpose the words, according to the reading of the 
Harleian MS. in v. 236. which he has there received into the text. Perhaps, how- 
ever, the correct reading is avrb aXif . See note in loc. 

dva, avdff<T(t>. It has been observed already that Dawes has examined all the passages 
in which these words occur. His emendations are frequently correct, but sometimes 
bold and inadmissible. See Kidd's notes. 

Digammated in II. A. 24. 378- but not in Od. K. 373. 
In II. II. 161. Od. K. 90. the N k<f>f\KvaTiKov should probably be removed. 

dpvtg. Sometimes this noun receives the Digamma; as in II. A. 158. 435. 6. 131. Com- 
pare however, II. B. 550. P. 103. 119. X. 263. 

dffTV. The Digamma is generally prefixed, as in II. B. 803. Z. 392. et alibi. Exceptions 
will be found in II. P. 140. A. 732. S. 274. The last instance, in which %ofjiev 
d<TTV occurs, is too much for Heyne's ingenuity, and he rejects it as spurious. 

lapivoQ. II. 0. 307- voTiyai re eiapivyaiv. In II. B. 471- however, we have wp# iv 
tiapivy. Heyne would eject the preposition ; but without authority. The same 
words occur in Od. S. 366. X. 301. and the substantive tap is never digammated. 

tOtipai. Digammated in II. H. 795. Hence Heyne rejects II. T. 382. as spurious. 

t Ida, eldtuQ, tldwXov. The verb ddw and its derivatives are very rarely found without the 
Digamma. For o0p' tldyQ in II. 6. 420, and elsewhere, Bentley corrects o$>pa t$j/. 
Still, however, there are many difficulties remaining. Compare II. 9. 555. I. 128. 
T. 245. . 263. Heyne of course rejects II. P. 224. as an interpolation. 

tiKOGi, ie'iKoat. Both these forms have the Digamma ; the first at the beginning, and the 
other before the second . See II. B. 748. O. 678. Od. P. 327. Exceptions will be 
found in II. I. 379. A. 25. X. 349. 

fica>, ttoTcw, tiKtXoQ. The verb CIKO* and its derivatives are very uncertain in their recep- 
tion of the Digamma ; which is recognised in II. P. 197. A. 86. E. 604. 2. 154. and 
elsewhere ; but rejected in II. T. 282. Mr. 66. and various other instances. Some- 
times also the perfect toiKa is written with one, and sometimes with two Digarnmas. 
Compare II. B. 233. P. 459. with II. A. 286. Y. 371. 

aXvw, dXvQdZa). There is an hiatus in II. Y. 492. but not in II. A. 156. 2. 522. . 393. 

tldiQa, Exceptions to the use of the Digamma occur in II. E. 766. Od. P. 394. 

cdf. This adverb and its derivatives are generally digammated. We have exceptions, 
particularly in tK^oXoq, in II. A. 21. 438. P. 333. Y. 153. and elsewhere. 

KaoToc, In favour of the Digamma, compare II. A. 607> B. 610. and elsewhere fre- 
quently. Against it, we have II. B. 719- E. 4?0. I. 180. &c. &c. 

fKrjXoQ. Digammated in II. E. 759. Z. 70. Heyne rejects II. 9. 512. S7ri(3aitv e'irqXoi. 
But compare Od. B. 311. P. 478. 

c/cwv. With the Digamma in II. A. 43. without it, in II. . 434. 585. 

iXiffffd). This verb is digammated in II. 9. 340. M. 74. S. 372. The exceptions, how- 
ever, are very numerous, and Heyne is in consequence very ready at detecting inter- 
polations. Compare II. N. 204. . 309. 320. 

t\7rw, tXTro/icri, \7ri'e. Instances in favour of the Digamma will be found in II. I. 40. N. 
309. and against it in II. Q. 491. and elsewhere. 

s'Xwp, iXwpiov. These words are found with an hiatus in II. A. 4. E. 684. P. 667- and 
with a consonant preceding in II. S. 93. 

tTrog, CTTW. These words are examined by Dawes, in Misc. Crit. p. 262. in order to 
establish the principle of the Digamma. See Kidd's notes throughout. 

epyov, pyao/iai. Digammated in II. A. 573. E. 175. et alibi: but examples of a con- 
trary description are numerous. Compare II. P. 351. A. 470. Z. 289. I. 228. 374. 
&c. &c. &c. To amend 11. B. 751. Heyne rejects vv. 750 to 755. inclusive. 

e'pyw, el'pyo), gjO/cof. The noun is digammated in II. E. 90. and the verb in II. A. 437- 
but they much more generally occur without an hiatus. Compare II. Z. 5. H. 211. 
1.476. II. 481. P. 354. 571." 


iodw. This word is seldom preceded by an hiatus. There is an instance, however, in II. 

tpsw, eijow. Heyne endeavours to prove that these verbs have the Digamma, when they 

signify dicere ; and reject it when they signify interrogare. He does not seem, how- 
ever, to have established his point. See vol. VII. p. 751. 
ipvat. With the Digamma in II. A. 190. 485. and elsewhere: without it, in II. A. 141. 

6. 143. A. 363. et scepius. 

trwaioQ. Compare II. E. 854. X. 292. with Od. Q. 282. 
I'/diiQ. Without the Digamma in II. A. 131. with it in II. A. 378. 3>. 508. 
f)Qog. In the Iliad this word has not the Digamma. See II. Z. 511. O. 268. The case 

is otherwise in Od. E. 411. 
"HjO?/. Juno. The appellations, 7rdrvia"Hj07/ on the one hand, and XevKuXtvog "Hprj on 

the other, continually present themselves. 

Digammated in II. B. 154. 589. N. 424. with which Od. B. 327. K. 246. #. 142. 

are at variance. 

Instances of variety in this name are too numerous to require examples. 
T IjOig. II. A. 199. et passim : irodctQ WKSO. 'I/oif. Compare II. ^. 198. 
l<TT][j,i, itrrwp. In favour of the Digamma we have II. A. 124. B. 486. 2. 420. 501. ^. 

312. &c. and against it II. Z. 151. Od. 6. 146. &c. 
IffOQ. This word and its compounds are frequently preceded by a vowel ; as in II. A. 

163. F. 310. and elsewhere. On the other hand, II. Z. 101. fjikvos iffofapiZetv. 1. 

142. ri<rw tie [iiv laov 'OpsffTy. 
70t. Compare II. A. 38. B. 720. 
i'w/. Compare II. A. 276. A. 308. with K. 139. 
o7/co. In this word and its derivatives the use of the Digamma is nearly constant. At 

the same time, however, some difficulties present themselves : as, for instance, in II. 

A. 19. ev 8' oiicaS' iKeaOai. Compare II. B. 750. Q. 572. et pauca alia. 

In this word also the Digamma seldom fails. Among the exceptions are 11. H. 

467. 472. I. 224. and some few in the Odyssee. 





AX^a, Xtrac Xpuo-ov, Xoipov arparov, t^flog 


In the War of Troy, the Greeks, having sacked some of the neighbouring towns, and 
taken from thence two beautiful captives, Chryseis and Briseis, allotted the first to 
Agamemnon and the last to Achilles. Chryses, the father of Chryseis, and priest of 
Apollo, comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her ; with which the action of the poem 
opens, in the tenth year of the siege. The priest being refused, and insolently 
dismissed by Agamemnon, intreats for vengeance from his god, who inflicts a pes- 
tilence on the Greeks. Achilles calls a council, and encourages Calchas to declare 
the cause of it ; who attributes it to the refusal of Chryseis. The king, being 
obliged to send back his captive, enters into a furious contest with Achilles, which 
Nestor pacifies ; however, as he had absolute command of the army, he seizes on 
Briseis in revenge. Achilles, in discontent, withdraws himself and forces from the 
rest of the Greeks ; and complaining to Thetis, she supplicates Jupiter to render them 
sensible of the wrong done to her son, by giving victory to the Trojans. Jupiter, 
granting her suit, incenses Juno ; between whom the debate runs high, till they are 
reconciled by the address of Vulcan. 

The time of two and twenty days is taken up in this Book ; nine during the plague, one 
in the council and quarrel of the princes, and twelve for Jupiter's stay with the 
Ethiopians, at whose return Thetis prefers her petition. The scene lies in the 
Grecian camp, then changes to Chrysa, and lastly to Olympus. 

MHNIN atiSe, Ota, 

Vers. 1. Mijviv. Irani perdurantem: Sov, from the patronymic TlrjXsiSric. Of the 
enduring, retentive rage. Schol. 6pyj)i/, %6- formation of male patronymics, it may be 
\ov iirifjievov. Eustathius also derives it observed generally, that they are formed by 
from [it vd), to remain fixed ; and not from changing the final syllable of the genitive of 
fjtaivop,ai. Ur]\T}'idSeu> is Ionic for U^Xei- the father's name into iSijs, or, if the penul- 




*Hpto(t)v, ai 

mri TE 7ra<7i* Atoc 

; as, TLr)\tvg, eog, 

tima be long, into 

From nouns in of the Ionic dialect forms the 
patronymic in iwv ; as, Kpovo, ov, Kpo- 
vium If formed immediately from the 
Ionic, the patronymic from nouns in tiig 
may be obtained by changing the final og of 
the genitive into iddrjg ; as, UrjXtvg, ijog, 
Un\qU8iK. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 99. Of fe- 
male patronymics, see on v. 1 1 1. infra ; and of 
the general peculiarities of Homer's dialect 
and versification, see Prelim. Obss. sectt. IV. 
and V. Horace has twice referred to the 
opening of the Iliad : Od. I. 6. 5. gravem 
Pelidee stomachum cedere nescii. Epist. II. 
2. 42. Iratus Graiis quantum nocuisset 
Achilles. Besides, he has given his appro- 
bation to the judgment of Homer in hurry- 
ing the reader at once in medias res ; intro- 
ducing such previous occurrences, as were 
necessary to be mentioned, by way of epi- 
sode. Hor. A. P. 136. Nee sic incipies ; 
&c. Compare Aristot. Poet. 23. Of the 
Procemium itself Quintilian speaks thus ; 
Inst. Orat. X. I. 48. Paucissimis versibus 
legem Prooemiorum non dico servavit Home- 
rus, sed constituit. Nam et benevolum audi- 
torem invocatione Dearum, quas preesidere 
vatibus creditum est ; et intentum, proposita 
rerum magnitudine ; et docilem, summa cele- 
riter comprehensa, facit. In a similar man- 
ner, Homer repeatedly invokes the Muses, 
more particularly upon occasions where su- 
pernatural information is required, respect- 
ing those circumstances which he could only 
have known by tradition. See II. B. 484. 
761. A. 218. JSJ. 508. n. 112. 

2. ovXofizvrjv. Destructive. Schol. 6Xe- 
9piav. The word, as Heyne observes, is 
explained by the context. 

3. Tro\\dg 8' tyQipovg '^v^dg. Many 
brave souls. In the same way, we have TroX- 
\dg ityBifiovG KeQaXdg in IL A. 55. where the 
expression, "A'idi Trpo'idtyeiv, again occurs, 
and also in II. Z. 87- whence it is imitated 
by jEschylus in Sept. Theb. 310. ^vx&e 
r/poiwj/. This may be looked upon as a 
common periphrasis for tjpwag, unless per- 
haps there is an opposition between the 
words 4 /v X^ ana< O-VTOVQ, themselves, i. e. 
their bodies, in the following line. There is 
no doubt of Homer's belief in the immor- 
tality of the soul ; but it is a gloomy and 
nugatory immortality that he assigns to 
his greatest heroes. Compare II. II. 856. 
and see especially Od. A. 487- sqq., and 
Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 121. 
The compound verb Trpoidirruv, is sup- 


posed by most commentators to signify, 
to send prematurely; but Heyne and 
Ernesti consider it as implying nothing 
more than the simple verb, in which they 
are supported by the parallels in Virg. ^En. 
II. 398. Multos Danaum dimittimus Oreo. 
X. 662. Obvia multa virum demittit corpora 
morti. Compare JEn. II. 85. IX. 527. 785. 
In II. E. 190. TrpoiaVmv is certainly used 
for the simple verb ; not to mention that 
this preposition is frequently redundant in 
composition: e. g. infra v. 326. F. 118. A. 
398. Heyne, however, is decidedly wrong 
in considering ldiTTf.iv as synonymous with 
7Tju,7Tiv, since the former verb includes the 
notion of violence, which the latter does not. 
See Damm. in voce. This distinction is 
marked by the passage cited by Heyne 
himself from 11. 9. 367. Of the derivation 
of i00i/iog, see on v. 38. infra. 

4. ?7pa>a)v. This designation was after- 
wards given to those only who were sup- 
posed to be descended from one immortal 
parent ; and the other, whether father or 
mother, mortal. During the heroic ages, 
the title was more extensively applied, and 
Homer has given it to all his principal cha- 
racters. Compare II. A. 102. B. 844. 1\ 
377. H. 120. Thus also, B. 110. "Hpwtg 
Aavaol, and elsewhere. The distinction 
is accurately marked in Hesiod. Op. D. 157- 
sqq. eXwpia. A prey ; but s'Xwp is more 
frequently used: II. E. 488. 684. P. 151. 667. 
Homer could not have described the woes 
of the Greeks more forcibly than by repre- 
senting them as deprived of interment. The 
rites of burial were considered as indispen- 
sable for the rest of the departed spirit ; and 
the notion was prevalent among the generality 
of mankind during that period of time. Com- 
pare Deut. xxviii. 26. 1 Sam. xvii. 44. 46. Ps. 
Ixxix. 2. Jerem. vii. 33. xvi. 4. xxii. 19. and 
see also on II. E. 297- The mode of expres- 
sion is frequent in Homer, and it has been re- 
peatedly imitated by the Greek tragedians. 
Compare ^Esch. Theb. 1015. Supp. 709. 
Soph. Ant. 29. 205. 697. 1080. See also 
Herod. VII. 10. ; and so Virg. in jEn. IX. 
485. canibus data prteda Latinis Alitibusque 
jaces. Compare Catul. Carm. LXI. 152. 
During the truce, after the first battle in 
book VII., the dead were interred ; they 
were left unburied after the second and third 
battles, in books VII. XVIII. 

5. Atog c)f TtXdtro /3ouXr/. And the will 
of Jove viz. that Hector should fall by the 
arm of Achilles, and be restored to Priam 
for the purpose of honourable burial, as the 


ou 17 ret Tr/owra Stadr//rrjv fpt 
rje re, aval; avSpwv, icat 

Kat Atoe woe* 6 yap |3a<T*A?t 

immediate preliminary to the destruction of 
Troy was gradually accomplishing. Heyne, 
and the generality of commentators under- 
stand this clause in a parenthesis, referring 
the following t ou $j) K. T. X. to the verbs 
irpoia^ev and rev^e. Such a construction 
is totally at variance with the simplicity of 
Homer's language ; besides that in every 
instance in which he uses the expression 
ov, it is in reference to the verb immediately 
preceding. Compare II. 9. 295. Q. 638. 
766. and elsewhere. And that in this in- 
stance also it refers to TtXeiero, we have the 
testimony of Aristarchus, one of the oldest of 
the Grammarians, and of the unknown au- 
thor of the Epitome Iliados, in the Poetce 
Latini Minores, T. IV. p. 617. But see 
Prelim. Obss. sect. III., where the reasons 
for the punctuation here adopted, whkh is 
due to the sagacity of Mr. Granville Penn, 
and the intent and bearing of the whole 
Prooemium, are fully explained. rfXa'tro. 
Imperf. indie, from rfXaw, for rsXsw ; Aug- 
ment omitted lonice. 

6. t ov drj. Scil. %p6vov. See Bos. El- 
lips. Gr. p. 399. ed. Oxon., and compare v. 
493. II. I. 415. et alibi. The expression 
in full would be tc TOV %povov, k% ov Srj 
K. T. X. It may be observed that all the 
particles in the Greek language seem ori- 
ginally to have had some specific meaning 
attached to them. The later writers, and 
particularly the Athenians, however, in 
softening down the Ionic dialect to their 
own refined ideas of harmony, frequently 
resorted to the insertion of several of these 
particles, such as yc, re, yap, Sk, without 
any signification whatever, for the sole pur- 
pose of relieving an hiatus, which was un- 
pleasant to their ears. In Homer, however, 
where the text is left to us lincorrupted by 
the corrections of the Alexandrian Copyists 
and Grammarians, the particles in general 
convey a peculiar beauty and force to the 
passage, though, in many instances, we find 
them inserted from the prevailing ignorance 
of the peculiar versification of Homer, (see 
Prelim. Obs. sect. VI.) even when they 
are destructive to the sense. We shall 
explain them as they occur, both sepa- 
rately and in combination. With the 
particle drj, indeed, is primarily connected 
the notion of time, as in this verse, and, 
when joined with the adverbs of time, it is 
nearly equivalent to the Latin jam. Hence 
it is extended to other uses, being chiefly 
employed in exhortations with the impera- 
tive, as infra v. 62. : and, in some instances, 

particularly after &>, it is expressive of 
irony. The particle is also used in interro- 
gative sentences, particularly where any in- 
tense feeling is expressed. It is observable 
also, that though r) in prose is never put at 
the beginning of a sentence, in poetry it 
frequently stands at the beginning of a con- 
clusion or consequence. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 605. 

8. riQ T ap cr0w 0ewj/ K. T. X. And who 
then of the gods ? The primary use of the 
particle ap, or apa, (Poetice, pa) is in syl- 
logistic sentences, answering to the Latin, 
ergo; "consequently." Thus in Lucian. 
Jov. Trag. sub fine : il yap tiai (Baifjiol, tlffi 
Kal Oeoi' aXXd [trjv fiat jE3*)/iot' tiaiv apa 
Kai Qtoi. Hence it implies generally any 
consequence or effect ; and must be trans- 
lated then, therefore: and it still retains this 
power, though the words of the argument 
are sometimes transposed; as infra v. 56. 
where it may be rendered by nempe, or sci- 
licet. Hence it often follows the relative 
of, as in II. E. 612. and elsewhere. See 
Hoogeveen de Particulis, pp. 47- 489. It is 
frequently used in interrogations: and, 
joined to another particle, is often equivalent 
to the English perhaps, as infra v. 65. It is 
found in the beginning of sentences only in 
the sense of utique, as in dp' ovv, ergo. 
Some Edd. and MSS. here read rap as a 
simple enclitic particle ; and so also in 11. 
B. 761. T. 226. A. 837. S. 6.; but it is 
evident, from the general usage of Homer, 
that this is incorrect. That T' ap is formed 
of re ap, not rot apa, is clear from the fact 
that ap is frequently short. See Buttm. 
Gr. Gr. . 29. n. 22. In the construction 
tpidi %vvsr)Kf must be taken together, 
wtTTl being supplied before /na'%<r0at. 
Thus we have in II. H. 210. ept$of fisvei 
%vver)Kt p,dxt09ai. Y. 66. Ot&v tpt^t 
%vviovT(i)v. And so <. 390. Compare also 
Y. 134. $. 394. Euripides also has used 
the same construction in Androm. 122. 
epi^t oruyep^t ZvveicXyffav. Homer would 
not have said tpidr /ia'%eT0at, but tp$a. 
Thus [jidxr]v l/ta%ovro, in II. O. 414. 673. 
2. 533. and elsewhere. 

9. o. The article is generally used in 
Homer in the same sense in which subse- 
quent writers used the pronoun avrbg or 
KCII/O . Even with the addition of a noun 
it may be frequently considered as retaining 
this pronominal import, like the relative 
ille in Latin. Thus v. 33. 6 ygptov, ille 
senex, as it must refer to the only old man 
hitherto mentioned ; and so in v. 19. ra * 


Noucrov ava <rrpar6v wpat icaidjv, oXtKOvro 
Ovvtica TOV Xpucrrjv ^rijurjo 1 ' aprjrijpa 
' o yap i?A0 Ooa ITTI vrjac ' 



aVoiva, /zzs ransom, where Heyne, without 
reason, proposes rafl' airoiva. Hence the 
remarks of several critics, that Homer knew 
nothing of the article ; and in many in- 
stances, Heyne has pronounced the passage 
corrupt, where the article evidently occurs 
in the ordinary usage of other writers. But 
there are numberless passages in which the 
article occurs precisely in this acceptation, 
which cannot be got rid of in this manner. 
Compare II. A. 576. B. 278. Z. 41. K. 1 1. 
O. 74. P. 122. 695. &c. which correspond 
with the Attic idiom. In fact, in all writers, 
the article 6 and the pronoun o are essen- 
tially the same thing, differing only in 
having or not having a noun annexed : and 
in both these ways it is constantly employed 
by Homer. See Middleton on the Greek 
Article, part I. ch. 2. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 262. 
Eustathius and Apollonius observe that the 
article, when used as a pronoun, should 
have the acute accent. See also Reizius de 
decent, p. 5. 

10. oXtKovTQ de Xaoi. Hence the pro- 
verbial expression in Horat. Epist. I. 2. 14. 
Quicquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. 
Compare Hesiod. Op. D. 260. *Q<f>p diro- 
Tiffy drjfiog draaOaXiaQ fiaffiXrjwv. We 
have a remarkable parallel in the History of 
David ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 

11. dprjTrjpa. Properly one who prays. 
Compare v. 35. Hence, a priest. The word 
occurs again infra v. 94. and in E. 78. The 
same person is called itpevg in v. 23. Aris- 

tOt. Poet. 21. TTtTTOllJfJLBVOV dk SffTlV, O, 

oXo> fjirj KaXovjjievov VTTO TIVWV, O.VTOQ 
TiOerai 6 TroirjTrjg' doKtl yap evia elvai 
ToiavTa' olov, TOV Upset, 'APHTHPA. 
The priests of the gods were held in the 
highest reverence by the ancients. Artemid. 
Oneirocr. III. 13. el TIQ viroXafloi 
yevea9ai, lepevg ykvoiro ?) pdvTiQ' TTJQ 
yap avTrjQ roiq Oeolg Kal OVTOI rvy^d- 
vovffi TiprJQ. ovvtKa, i. e. ov eveKa. In 
regard to the insertion of the article im- 
mediately before Xpuo-^v, Heyne, who 
regards the article, especially before pro- 
per names, altogether unknown to Homer, 
gives several emendations of preceding cri- 
tics, but leaves the passage as he found it. 
It appears, in general, that the Greek writers 
did not use the article before proper names, 
unless when the person had been already 
mentioned ; which, in the present instance, 
he had not. Still, however, Chryses was a 
person of great notoriety, and, from the cir- 
cumstances of the case, must have been 
uppermost in the speaker's mind ; so that 
the use of the article must be considered as 

emphatic. Similarly in the speech of Hec- 
tor, (9. 532.) the article is immediately pre- 
fixed to Tvdeidrjg, though Diomed had not 
been mentioned for some time previously ; 
but Hector must have had the Trojans up- 
permost in his mind, as must also his formi- 
dable antagonist. Thus also with respect 
to the Greek Tragedians, Valckenaer on 
Phoen. 147. observes, that they never prefix 
the article to proper names ; but Person 
modifies the rule thus ; Artlculum raro pro- 
priis nominibus prcefigunt Tragici, nisi prop- 
ter emphasin quandam, out initio sententice 
ubiparticula inseritur : and instances Phcen. 
522. Supp. 129. Dr. Blomfield, however, 
considers it more proper to call it the de- 
monstrative pronoun ; so that TOV Xpvarjv, 
is Him, Chryses. See the Remarks on Matt. 
Gr. Gr. p. xliv. Thus in the reports of our 
modern Parliamentary debates, we meet 
with He (Mr. A.), Him (Mr. B.), continu- 
ally ; in which form the person is first ob- 
scurely intimated, and his name afterwards 
declared, in order to prevent mistake. It 
may be observed, that it is common with 
Homer to begin a sentence with the article 
in reference to a proper name at the end of 
it, some action of the person being intro- 
duced by way of parenthesis. Compare II. 
A. 488. B. 402. T. 81. A. 20. E. 17- 
759 &c. Sometimes the article and proper 
name are only separated by some inferior 
word ; as in II. B. 105. 67- In all these 
instances, however, the person in question 
has been previously mentioned. See Mid- 
dleton on the Greek Article, part I. ch. 4. 
The late Professor Dobree conjectures TOV, 
i. e. avTOv. 

12. The passage commencing with this 
line, and ending with v. 45, has been con- 
verted into a prose narration by Plato, in 
his treatise De Republica, III. p. 275. ed. 
Bipont. for the purpose of illustrating the 
difference between the diriyqaig a7r\^, and 
the Sirjyrjffi^ did fiifirffftug, or simple and 
dramatic narrative. We shall give the pas- 
sage entire, as it will serve to exemplify 
some of the different usages of the early 
poets, and the Attic writers, which are 
noticed in the following notes. 'EXOwv de 
ieptvg tv%fTo iiceivoig fiiv TOVQ Btovg Sov~ 
vat, d\6vrag TI)V Tpoiav, avroiig ^ atDQij- 
vac TTJV ok OvyaTtpa ol ai>T(fi Xvaai, ct^a- 
HBVOVQ aTToiva, Kal TOV Otbv aiStaQtvraQ. 
ToiavTa Si ti-jrovTOQ avrov, 01 fitv aXXoi 
(7g/3ovro Kai avvyvovv b de ' AyajJikfJivuv 
riypiaivev, ivTtXXofisvog vvv Te dirikvai 
Kal avOig /itv) eXOelv, (Jirj ai)T($ TO Te ffKrjir- 
TOOV icai TO. TOV Qtov errf/it/xara OVK tTrap- 


TE Ovyarpa., 0p<ov r' cnrzptiai 
* v 

Xpv<rCi> ava crKTjTrrp^' Kai XICTCTETO Travrae ' 
t^a tte juaXtarra Svw, KOG/uLi'iTope Xawv* 
ai T, Kai aXXoi IvKvrjjuiSf 

'Ec7ri|0<Tai Ilpiajuoio TroXiv, v 3' oticaS' i 
iSa cT juoi Xucrai re 0iXrjv, ra 8' aVoiva 


Keeror Trpiv e \v9rjvai avrov rr\v Ovyd- 
repa, kv "Apyet t<f>r] ynpdaeiv fjitrd ov' 
dirdvai Sk siceXtve, Kai /LIT) eptOi&iv, 'iva 
ffw olicadt tXOot. 'O ^ TTpeaflvrriG, O.KOV- 
aag tdttas. re Kai aV^'ii ffiyy' 
6K rou orparoTTE^ou TroAXd 

v%ero, ra^ re eTrwvu/ttag rov 

Kat vrrop.ifJivi](TK<i}v i Kai d-jrav- 
TUIV, el ri TrwTrore T) tj^ 
aiv, ff \v itpaiv OvciaiQ 
prjffatTo' a>v drj \dpiv Kareu^iro, rttrat 
TOVQ 'Axaiovg TO, & ddicpva tKiivov jSsXe- 

13. Xuffo/ievof re Ouyarpa. To ransom 
his daughter Chryseis ; or, as she is called 
by some, Astynome. She had been allotted 
to Agamemnon as his portion of the spoil 
taken from Thebes, one of the eleven towns 
belonging to the Trojans, which had been 
sacked by Achilles. The use of the middle 
voice, which strictly implies an action re- 
flected upon the agent, or on something 
which belongs to him, is frequently ex- 
tended to represent an action which a per- 
son obtains to be done for himself, or what 
belongs to him, by some other person. Thus, 
Xvetv is to grant a release upon receiving a 
ransom, as in vv. 20. 29. 95. : Xue<r0at, to 
receive back from another that which belongs 
to one, upon paying a ransom. A similar 
difference between Sidaatcti and SiddffKerai 
is noticed by Person on Eurip. Med. 297- 
See Tate on the Middle Verb in the Museum 
Criticum, vol. I. p. 102. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
492. b. 

14. ort/jjua r ZXMV, K. r. X. So infra v. 
28. Of the ancient custom which prevailed 
among suppliants, of carrying before them 
olive-branches tipped with wool, which they 
called 0Tjujara, see the note on Soph. (Ed. 
T. 3. in Pentalog. Gr. p. 1. In the present 
instance, the priest seems to have used for 
this purpose, the fillet of the god bound 
upon the sceptre, which indicated his office ; 
thus at once inspiring the respect due to his 
sacred character, and exciting their attention 
to his prayers. Eustathius observes, that 
the ancients gave a golden sceptre to Apollo, 
as they did a silver one to the moon, and 
other sorts to the planets. 

15. Xpyoi<) dvd ffKrjTrrpq). The prepo- 
sition dvd, signifying upon, and constructed 
with a dative, is peculiar to the Ionic and 
Doric dialects. Thus, II. O. 152. dvd Tap- 
aKpy. Pind. Ol. VIII. 67. dvd 
Pyth. I. 10. dvd ffKriirrpy. So 
also in the Tragic Chorusses; Eurip. Iph. 
A. 759. dvd vavffiv. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 579. 1. TLpvaty is a dissyllable, as 
devdptq), in v. 152. So in Virg. JEn. VII. 
190. Aurea percussum virga. Compare 
Eclog. VIII. 80. JEn. X. 493. See Prelim. 
Obs. sect. V. . 5. 

18. vfiiv [Jitv Oeoi dolev, K. r. \. The 
custom of introducing a petition with a bless- 
ing, is of Eastern origin. Of the gramma- 
tical construction, see the note on v. 415. 
0eoi is frequently a monosyllable, as well in 
the tragic poets as in Homer. See Porson 
on Eurip. Orest. 393. 

20, The verbs Xixrai and ^l^ecr&u are in 
the infinitive, which is frequently used in- 
stead of the imperative, some other verb, 
such as fip,vr}ffo or 0gXe, being understood. 
The ellipse is filled up in v. 277- jw??re av, 
Ur]XfiSrj, 6tX' ipi^f^evai (3affiXffi. Her- 
mann, however, on Viger, p. 591. ed. Oxon. 
seems to consider the idiom as a remnant of 
the old simplicity of the language, in which 
a wish was expressed by a verb itself in the 
infinitive, without any further reference. 
Sometimes an imperative and an infinitive 
occur in the same sentence, as in the prayer 
cited by Plato in Alcibiad. II. Zeu /3ao-iXv, 
TO. fj,kv tffOXd Kai fw%o/ivotf Kai dvtvKTOiQ 
didov rd fit Xuypd Kai ew%o/zej/wv 
See Bishop Blomfield's Re- 
marks on Matt. Gr. Gr. p. xlviii. To this 
reading, however, which is Heyne's, after 
Eustathius, objections have been raised ; 
but, perhaps, without any sufficient rea- 
son. The old reading, Xvtrare, is against 
the metre ; and Barnes' \voaaQt, against 
the sense. See on v. 13. Clarke's obser- 
vation, that Xv<rat and Sk-^taQai in the 
infinitive do not agree with what follows, is 
refuted by Ernesti, who produces instances 
of similar construction from II. P. 692. Y 
338. To the reading, however, which Clarke 
adopts, no material objection exists, as the 


a\\ot fJLtv iravTtg lirtvQrifiiiaav 'Amatol, 

' tfpfja, ical ayXaa Sf^Ocu aTrotva* 
'AXX' OUK 'Arpa'Sy 'Ayaju^vovt r/vSavc 
'AXXa Kaicwe a^ict, fcpartpov 8' ?ri fj.v9ov 

M?] (7, ylpov, KOiXrjtriv lyw Trapa 
*H vuv ^IJ^UVOVT', 17 varf/oov aune 
Mrj vv rot ou xpaicrfjiy GK.r\irTpoVj KCLI <rrjUjua Oeolo. 

optative Xvtraire will imply the earnest en- 
treaty of Chryses for the release of his 
daughter ; and the change to the imperative 
in de\t(j9f, denies any reluctance in paying 
the ransom in case of such release. rd d' 
cnroiva, this ransom; pointing to it. See 
on v. 9. 

22. Virg. JEn. XI. 132. Unoque omnes 
eadem ore fremebant. The verb iTTtvfyrjfJitiv 
signifies, to testify one's assent, whether by 
words or otherwise. See Damm. in voce. 

23. de%9at. lonice for dtS^Oai, the re- 
duplication being omitted : and so in II. B. 
420. 794. T. 10. et passim. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 164. 

24. dXXd, but. This particle never ac- 
tually loses its adversative property. It fre- 
quently introduces an exhortation, as infra, 
vv. 393. 565. and elsewhere ; or a prayer, as 
in II. Z. 464. ; and sometimes marks a de- 
gree of abruptness, as in v. 32. It is fre- 
quently followed by other particles, which 
will be noticed as they occur. 

25. fcctKoif a<piti' TOVTSGTIV, dypiwf /ecu 
avQaS&Q /cat Trapd TO TrpoarJKov. Plutarch, 
de Audiend. Poet. c. 16. KpctTepbv p,v9ov. 
A threatening speech. Eustathius : TOV /isrd 
airttXiiQ Xlyft Xoyov. Thus, again, in 
II. O. 202. fivQov airijvka re, Kpartpov re. 
The expression is different in II. 199. Jt 
may be observed that pvQoQ is here used, 
as always by Homer, in its primary sense of 
a word or speech ; that of a myth or fictitious 
narrative having been affixed to it by later 
writers. Eustath. pvOov del b 7roirjTrj 
aTrXuJg TOV \6yov 0i}0i, TO fie 7ri \^fvSovg 
Xoyou TtOrjvai avrbv, T&V vffTspwv sort. 

26. fj,r) ffe Ki%iw. We must supply $v- 
Xdaaov, or some such verb, which Agamem- 
non drops in the vehemence of his address. 
It is worthy of remark, that the conjunctive 
particles, ivo, o^pa, OTTWC. , and fjLrj, are used 
to express an object both with the optative 
and subjunctive moods. With the latter, as 
in the present passage, they are used with- 
out av, after verbs of present or future sig- 
nification, in which case, the verb governed 
of the conjunction must denote the same 
time. This construction particularly occurs 
in negative propositions after pr) or ou prj, 
but only with the subjunctive aorist 1. pass, or 
aor. 2. act. and mid.. Compare Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 516. b. and . 578. 1. Kix" w is, therefore, 

the Ionic subj. aor. 2. for 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 239. We have the same 
construction with UQ, in v. 32. The con- 
struction with the optative is used after verbs 
of past time, which will be noticed in its 
proper place. Compare the passage of Plato 
cited at v. 12. See also on II. E. 128. 

27. rj vvv drjOvvovT 1 . The particle vvv 
is, properly, an adverb of time, being equi- 
valent to the English now; and, though 
found with verbs in the past and future, it 
never loses its primary signification of the 
present. Compare infra, v. 354. and E. 
279. N vvl, with the i paragogic, is always 
found with the present. Like the particle 
e^y, however, (see v. 6.) it acquires other 
uses, involving the notion of time ; particu- 
larly in exhortations, since earnest persua- 
sion excludes every idea of delay ; and in 
interrogations of importance and emphasis, 
as in II. A. 414, where the enclitic and 
poetic form, vv, is used, and in a sense pre- 
cisely similar to drj in the common interro- 
gative expression ri dr). In fact, the par- 
ticles $fi and vv are so nearly allied, that 
tTTfi vv is sometimes used for STTEI^J}, as in 
II. A. 416. See Hoogeveen de Particulis, 
p. 361. Some writers, among whom is 
Damm, distinguish between vvv and vv, 
considering the former only as an adverb of 
time, and the latter equivalent to certainly 
(v. 28.) ; or, more frequently, to therefore, 
consequently ; as in v. 382. B. 258. T. 183. et 
passim. The particle CLVTIQ has the idea both 
of time and motion ; in the former case 
implying repetition, (again) as in v. 140. 
ravTa fj,tTa<f>pa.G6[jLtaQa Kal CLVTIQ. In 
the latter it signifies returning ; and is 
usually joined with the verbs of going and 
coming ; as in II. 0. 271. O.VTIC, i&v. A. 
446. avTiQ viroffTotyac,. In this sense it is 
frequently joined with TraXiv. Thus, II. E. 
257- ou irdXtv avTiQ diroiaeTOv. This ple- 
onasm is doubled in Aristoph. Nub. 971. 
tir' av irdXiv avQiQ dviffTa^vovg ovp,\^fj- 
ffai. And so Soph. Phil. 952. See Monk on 
Eur. Alcest. 189. The two forms avOig and 
avTiQ are both in use, and synonymous ; of 
which Vigerus considers the latter to be 
Ionic, after Suidas and Eustathius. 

28. The verb xpaiafAsiv, from %pdw, uten- 
dum do, signifies, to avert an evil ; and is 
constructed with an accusative of the evil 



Trjv ' lyw ov Xvaw, Trpiv fj.iv KOL yrjpag 7TK7tv, 
vi oiKct) Iv "ApyfV, rrjXoOt Tra 




, icai 

averted, and a rfa^'w of the person from whom 
it is averted. II. H. 143. off dp' ou fcopvv*/ 
ol oAtOpov XpaT(T/Li aidrjptir). Compare A. 
120. Y. 296. Sometimes the accusative is 
wanting, as in the present instance, where 
\6\ov kfj,6v must be supplied ; and so again 
in II. A. 117- O. 32. II. 837. and elsewhere. 
We occasionally also meet with the ellipsis 
of both cases, as in v. 588. infra, rore ov 
TL foyjftntyuu, dxvvfjievoG Trtp, Xpai(t/eij>. 
See Damm in voce. 

29. r//J>. For Tavrr]v. See on v. 9. 
Heyne has a full point after \vati), referring 
Trpiv to the latter part of the line, in the 
sense ofpotius ; thus, I will not release her: 
rather than this, she shall grow old at Argos. 
So also Hermann, Bekker, and Thiersch. 
But the sense is not improved by the altera- 
tion, and we want instances where such 
construction is requisite. The verb tirtimv 
is used in a future signification. Eusta- 
thius: tirtioiv, dvTi TOV /u\Xoj/ro Ion, 
E7r\ii(Tfrai. Hesych. efyu* Topetsffo/tdtt. 
Compare infra vv. 169. 420. and else- 
where. This usage, however, is more pe- 
culiarly Attic ; and a variety of examples 
have been collected to illustrate it, from the 
tragedians and other Attic writers, in an ex- 
cellent note by Mr. Kidd, in his edition of 
Dawes' Misc. Crit. p. 126. See also Person 
on Eur. Hec. 1161. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 504. 3. 
In Homer, and in the later Greek writers, 
dpi has more generally a future sense ; but 
sometimes it is used in the present; as in 

ii. r. 61. 

31. 'HTTOV 7roi%opevr]i>. Plying the loom. 
Virg. JEn. VII. 14. Arguto tenues percur- 
rens pectine telas. Eustathius notices the 
use of the word (.Troi^taOai as peculiarly ap- 
propriate in expressing the ancient custom 
of standing at the loom. His words are : 

IffTOV iTTOlXOpSVtJV, TTfpt^paOTlKWf aVTl 

TOV v<t>aivovaav tarSxTai yap feat 87ri7ro- 
gtvofjitvai vfyaivov ai 7roiovp,evai rffv 
KTTOvo-yiav, Sid rryv T&V vQatvofJisvuv, wg 
tiKOQ, TrXaTVTrjra. Trpwrjj fie TIQ AiyvTrria 
yvvrj KaOe^ofisvrj vtyaivtv, d<j)' TJQ Kal Ai- 
' AQt]va.Q ayaX^ita KaQri^ikvriQ idpv- 
See also Schol. Find. Pyth. IX. 33. 
But this is fanciful, as appears from the use 
of the verb, in the same sense, in the phrase 
tpyov 67roiX<T0ai, in II. Z. 492. The verb 
properly signifies to approach, or to attack, 
as infra, v. 50. et passim ; hence, to under- 
take, or be busy about a thing. It is to be 

observed, however, that spinning, or weaving, 
was not a servile, but rather a princely oc- 
cupation ; as we find Helen and Andromache 
engaged in it; as also Penelope, Calypso, 
and Circe, in the Odyssee. 

Ib. dvTiodMTav. Poeticd for dvnittaav, 
contr. from dvnoua. See Prelim. Obs. sect. 
IV. Eustathius observes, that Homer has 
used this word, which may signify either to 
make, or to partake the bed, in delicacy to 
the feelings of the father of Chryseis. There 
can be no doubt that the latter is the sense 
in which the reader is to understand it 
(compare vv. 111. seqq.) ; and that Aga- 
memnon was not studying civility of expres- 
sion, appears, as Pope remarks, from the 
whole tenor of his speech. And although 
females were employed in preparing the 
beds, as Eustathius observes, referring, at 
the same time, to Theocrit. Idyl. V. 35. 
Eurip. Hel. 59. : still it is not probable that 
such was the office designed for Chryseis. 
Mistresses, however, and even those of dis- 
tinction, did not disdain to perform this 
service ; as appears from Catullus, in the 
lament of Ariadne to Theseus, Carm. LXIV. 
160. Attamen in vestras potuisti ducere sedes, 
Qua tibi jucundo famularer serva labore ; 
Candida permulcens liquidis vestigia lym- 
phis ; Purpureave tuum consternens veste 
cubile. Hesychius also follows Eustathius 
in his interpretation ; dvTiOdiffav VTTO- 

32. virjai. lonicd for vty, pres. subj. 
from vkop,ai. The particle KC, which the 
poets use for av, has properly the significa- 
tion of power. It is joined with the sub- 
junctive generally in present actions ; fre- 
quently also with the optative, as infra, v. 
60; and occasionally with the indicative. 
Thus, infra v. 66. the regular construction 
would be fi (3ov\r)Tai av, or idv /3ov\Jjrai. 
But those particles which, in Attic writers, 
are usually found with the subjunctive, are 
frequently met with in Homer after differ- 
ent moods, precisely in the same significa- 
tion. The adjective oa&TipoQ, in the com- 
parative, may be understood, as it frequently 
is, without any idea of comparison, for the 
positive. See Musgr. ad Eur. Alcest. 763. 
and compare the passage cited fiom Plato 
on v. 12. Or we might supply, more se- 
curely than thou otherwise wouldst. Com- 
pare II. *. 101. Q. 52. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
457- 3. 


Bf? S' aKtwv Trapa 07va 7roXv0Xot<rj3oto 
IloXXd S' ETTttr 1 a7ravU0 wv Tjpa^ 6 

avaicrt, rov rjvKOfjio^ rc/ce ATJTW* 

'Apyv/ooro', oc 
KXXav re ^aulrjv, TfvlSoio re 
sZjjLivOtv' a Trorl rot yapitvT ITTI VTJOV 


34. j3j;f 5' ajcewv K. r. X. We may take 
notice here, once for all, that Homer is fre- 
quently eloquent in his very silence. Chry- 
ses says not a word, but walks pensively 
along the shore, and the melancholy flowing 
of the verse admirably expresses the con- 
dition of the mournful and deserted Father. 
POPE. The verb ctKew, to be silent, occurs 
in Apol. Rhod. I. 765. whence the participle 
atciaiv, which frequently occurs in Homer, 
in direct concord with its substantive, as in 
this place ; in v. 565, infra ; Od. JSj. 195. and 
elsewhere. Sometimes, however, it is found 
in the masculine, with a feminine noun, as 
in II. A. 22. 0. 459. rjroi 'AOrjvair] ajeewi/ 
fjv. Possibly, indeed, it may be used, in 
these instances, adverbially, instead of its 
derivative a'/c^v ; for so it undoubtedly must 
be in Od. 4>. 89. 'AXV CCKSWV daivvaOe, /ca- 
Orjfjievoi. See also on II. T. 95. The lexico- 
graphers derive the word from a priv. and 
\aivii), kisco. 

35. The particle tirtiTa is nearly equi- 
valent to the Attic tlra, then, afterwards. 
Hence, it is frequently preceded by irpwrov, 
as in v. 50. E. 883. and elsewhere. The 
only difference which exists between the 
two adverbs, is, that the preposition tiri 
gives to the compound the idea of a time 
immediately subsequent. See Hoogeveen de 
Particulis, p. 186. This difference is, how- 
ever, not always discernible. After nume- 
rals, it has the idea of succession ; as in II. 
A. 462. rpif p,kv tirura, thrice successively. 

36. rivKopoQ. lonice for iVKopoQ, by the 
figure Diuresis. 

37. diLfyifikfiriKaQ. Hast protected, and 
still protectest. This repetition of an action, 
continued from the past to the present, is 
often implied in a past tense ; in the sense 
of the English, to be wont. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 503. Chrysa was situated on the 
sea-coast, near Adramyttium, in the terri- 
tory of Eetion, king of Asiatic Thebes ; 
where a temple was dedicated to Apollo 
Smintheus, in which Chryses was the offi- 
ciating priest. Compare vv. 100. 430. The 
origin of this title of Apollo is referred to a 
colony of Cretans, who, having settled in a 
district of Troas, which was grievously in- 
fested by mice, (called, in the Cretan lan- 
guage, apivOoi) invoked the assistance of 
Apollo, who destroyed the vermin. The 

Scholiast gives a somewhat different account 
of the matter. 

38. ^aOsijv. Perdivinam, preeclaram. A 
usual epithet of cities consecrated to a deity, 
as Cilia was to Apollo. Compare II. B. 508. 
520. I. 151. O. 432. From the #lolic in- 
tensive particle a, and Qiog. Z0i, Power- 
fully. Schol. iffxvp&Q, ytwaituQ. Also, 

bravely. Infra v. 151. et passim, dv^pdaiv 
l(pi /ia%<T0at. Hence, Z00i/iOf, v. 3. 

39. t Trorg roi K. T. X. It was usual in 
supplications to the gods, to begin with a con- 
ditional intimation of the suppliant's merits. 
So Virg. jEn. IX. 406. Siqua tuis unquam 
pro me pater Hyrtacus arts Dona tulit. XII. 
778. Colui vestros si semper honores. We 
shall have to speak hereafter of the various 
governments of the conditional particle . 
See on vv. 60. 83. 415. II. E. 258. Q. 74. 
CTTI vjjbv to6^/a. By Tmesis, for sTrlpe^/a ; 
and so Kara firjpi' tKya, for KctTeicya, in the 
following line. This separation of the pre- 
position from the verb, with which it is com- 
pounded, is very frequent in Homer, arising 
probably from the circumstance, that, in 
composition, prepositions are always used 
adverbially. Hence we find them frequently 
placed immediately after the verb; as in II. 
M. 195. i/apiov aV Ivrca. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 594. 2. In their religious cere- 
monies, it was usual to place garlands of 
flowers upon the shrines, statues, and altars 
of the gods. Thus, Virg. JEn. II. 248. Nos 
delubra Deum miseri, quibus ultimus esset 
Ille dies, festa velamus fronde per urbem. 
The verb eps^w is. properly, to cover, or 
arch over with earth, and hence, generally, 
to cover. Compare II. Q. 450. Apoll. Rhod. 
II. 1079. Scholiast, tpti/xa- lort 0dVw<ra ; 
and in this sense it occurs also in Apoll. 
Rhod. II. 159. EavQa d' ipe^dpevoi SdQvy 

Eurip. Bacch. 323. 

. Oppian. Cyneget. 
IV. 260. Tlpvfjivav d' woau; GeXivoQ xai 
KKTO-OC: tpgTrroi/. Hesychius, however, has 
explained this word by (^Kodofirjcra, and so 
also Plato understood it ; but this interpre- 
tation must be incorrect. Hence, the adjec- 
tive afi^rjpe^ijg, undique contectus, in v. 45. 
%apitvTa. For -^apuvTuig, adverbially. 
See Pentalog. Gr. on Soph. CEd. T. 180. 
Of Trorl, see on v. 202. 


*H 1 8l/ 7TOT TfH KUTU TTtOVa fJLT}pl 

Tavpcjv 770 atywv, rooc /uot KjOi)jvov f 
Ticrziav Aavaoi Cjua 8acpua <Tot<Tt 


Bf) $ car' OuXvjUTroto 

Toe;' iij/LLOKnv L^W 

"EjcXay^av 8' ap otaro ?r 

Ai/roi) Kivv]QivTQ' o 8' rjtf VUKTI toucwg. 

?) $ /cXayyrj yEVfr' apyupftHo |3toto. 

/Uv TT/OWTOV 7T(j>Xro, jceA icuvac apyovc* 
Aura 7Ttr' avrolcn 



40. Kara ftj;pi' f/eya. See on v. 460. 

41. Kpi]i}vov. Poetice for fepyvov, from 
Kpatvw, perficio. 

45. d/x0J7p0a re 0aprpjv. The arrows 
were completely covered in the quivers of 
the ancients, which were closed at the top. 
Eustathius : toiKaaiv ov fjiiicpai TOIQ TTCL- 

, aXXa 
Tovg tffd) <TTyeiv. 

46. K\ay^av S' ap 6'iffTol K. T. \. So 
Virg. ^En. IV. 149. Tela sonant humeris. 
IX. 660. PJiaretramque fuga sensere sonan- 
tem. XI. 652. Aureus ex humero sonat 
arcus. The rattling of the arrows beauti- 
fully marks the irregular and hurried motion 
of the angry god ; in which respect Clarke 
considers the passages cited from Virgil as 
greatly inferior. The Latin poet, however, 
is also describing a similar motion ; as Heyne 
justly remarks, and quotes a similar expres- 
sion from Valer. Place. II. 511. Pulsentque 
graves ut terga pharetree. 

47. avTov KivriQkvroQ. As he moved. The 
genitive absolute is often thus used as a de- 
finition of time ; and would be resolvable 
by the adverbs orf, 7ra>/, &c. and the finite 
verb. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 565. 1. Eustathius 
observes that VVKTI ioticwg implies, in its 
direct signification, aypiov rr\v iftkav, i. e. 
terrible in aspect; comparing II. M. 463. 
where Hector is described as VVKTI Qoy ard- 
\avroQ wTTWTTta. He considers the expres- 
sion, however, as an allegorical allusion to 
the thick and vapoury appearance of the 
atmosphere, proceeding from the corruption 
of the air, during the season of a pestilence. 
7/tc. This may be the third person, either 
of the Ionic perfect r/'ia, which occurs in 
Herod. IV. 82. Horn. Od. A. 427. and else- 
where : or of the imperf. ij'iov (Od. K. 274. 
&c.) from the verb ft/u, to go. Matthiae 
observes (Gr. Gr. . 214. 4.), that the r\ ap- 
pears to be a sort of augment for if, as in 

for yStiv, from iw, (II. X. 280.) 
which was used in order to keep the chief 
syllable of the verb distinctly marked. 

48. /iera. I. e. fierd vfjag, towards the 
ships : in which sense ftra is used by the 
poets. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 587- 3. c. and 
on v. 484. infra. Some consider the words 
fitrd 8' Ibv 7jK, as a Tmesis for fitOsijice, 
which is not Greek. The proper construc- 
tion would be i'6v suffice, followed by a dative, 
as in v. 51. 

50. ovprjag p-ev irp&rov K. r. X. Wake- 
field refers to the remark of Heraclides 
Ponticus, in his Treatise on the Allegories 
of Homer, that, from the concurring testi- 
mony of physicians and philosophers, the 
commencement of pestilential diseases first 
discovers itself among four-footed animals. 
Eustathius attributes this to the subtilty of 
their smell. Aristotle (de Poet. 26.) inti- 
mates that Homer intended to represent the 
Deity as backward to punish, and giving 
the Greeks the first intimation of his anger, 
by destroying the most useful of their cattle. 
Thus, in the plagues of Egypt, the murrain 
among the cattle preceded the boils and 
blains (Exod. ix. 1.). So close is the con- 
nexion between the particles fiv and de, 
that when the latter is found alone, the for- 
mer must be considered as suppressed. So 
also when p,kv occurs without e, it is gene- 
rally followed by some equivalent particle ; 
as in this passage, et passim in Homer, by 
awrdp, or drdp, and by dXXd, fiivroi, and 
the like, in the Attic writers. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 606. 5. and on v. 282. infra. Be- 
fore 67ry%ero we must supply /3sXoc., from 
the following line. Compare v. 53. 

51. The poetic particle aurdp, in prose 
drdp, is nearly the same with the adversa- 
tive particle St, except that it always begins 
a sentence, and that dpa, with which it is 
compounded, imparts to it an inferential 
power; (see v. 8.) as infra, v. 118. where 
it is followed by yp. Hoogeveen de Par- 




BaXX', ai( 8s Trupai VEKVWV KCIIOVTO Oa/uiEtai. 
'Evvr/juap JUEV ava arrparov w^tro KrjXa Qeoio, 
T/j 8Karrj tT ayop/jv^s KaXecrcraro Xaov ' 
Tqji yap ITTI $p(7i &}K 0ea XfuicwXfvoc "Hprj* 
KrjSfro yap Aavawv, on pa Ovr^cfKOvra^ bparo. 
Oi 8' ITTEI ovv r}yfp0v, 6jurjypc re ylvovro, 

ticulis, p. 79- It is frequently followed, as 
in this verse, by eVeira, which together 
signify, but then, and then, and hereupon. 
Also, by STrtidrj, but as ; and by STTCI, but 
when. See also on v. 35. %f TTI;K . Pro- 
perly, bitter. Eustathius: t'x" ^" l Trevicrjg, 
TTiicpiav dyXadri' ical yap iriKpbv KOI rf]Q 
TrtvKrjc, TO daicpvov. Hence, powerful, or, 
perhaps, destructive, deadly. It is the opi- 
nion of Bp. Blomfield, however, that there 
was originally a noun TTIVKOQ, amaritudo, 
bearing some affinity with Truepdf, from 
which KtvKri was derived. Hence, also, the 
words TrtVKtSavoG, TTtvicrjtiQ, TrevKdXifjiog. 
See on ^Esch. Choeph. 381. 

53. iwrifiap. For nine days. Plutarch, 
in Vita Homeri, c. xxii. KGU iv TroXXoif r<p 
r&v rpiwv, ical irkvrf., KOI eVra, apiOfjKp 
XprjTai, j^aXierra ^e r^J T&V ivvka. Eusta- 
thius attributes this preference to the poet's 
partiality towards the Muses. See II. B. 96. 
654. Z. 174. H. 161. H. 785. S. 578. 
There is a similar affection in the sacred 
writers for the number seven. Compare 
Lev. xxv. 18. Numb, xxiii. 1. Job xlii. 8. 
Ps. cxix. 164. Jer. xv. 9. Ezek. xxxix. 9. 
Zech. iii. 9. Matt, xviii. 22. Luke xvii. 4. 
Rev. i. 4. 20. v. 6. 

54. ry Smeary. We must supply ry/zep^, 
-which is evident from the preceding adverb, 
ivvrjfiap. The ellipsis of this substantive is 
very common after the numeral adjectives 
ftia, fourlpa, rpirij, and the rest. After 
dtKctTT) it is omitted in Arist. Av. 388. ei 
deKarriv yap TTOTI K. r. X. 585. OVK dpTi 
Ova ri]V deicdrriv TavrrjQ tyw. With the 
present omission we may compare Theoc. 
Idyl. XXVI. 29. tlrj d' kwakrriQ, ff Kai StKot- 
rtt) 67rt/3aivoi. See Bos. Ellips. Gr. p. 108. 
ed. Oxon. ayoprjvde. The termination de, 
affixed to the accusative case of a noun, con- 
stitutes an adverb of place, answering to the 
question whither? as o'tKovSe, Trediovde, 
KXiviijvde, and the like. These abound in 
Homer, who sometimes uses the termina- 
tion twice, as ovde. SopovSt, in II. H. 445. 
Iff precedes the Se, ad is changed into , 
as Ovpa& for Ovpacrdt ; and when the ter- 
mination had once obtained, it was annexed 
also to other words, without respect to the 
form of the accusative. Thus, we have 0/;- 
yadt for <j>vyrjve, and olicaSe for o'ncovdt. 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 259. 

56. pa. See on v. 8. 

57. o'i S' tTTEt ovv K. T. X. When, there- 
fore, they 8fc. The conjunction tTrti is ap- 
plied in a two-fold signification : to denote 
a consequence, whether of time or of argu- 
ment. The analogy of the two usages is 
easily discernible ; in the first of which it is 
to be rendered by when, as in this verse; in 
the latter, by since, because, as infra v. 
112. and elsewhere. The particle ovv 
primarily denotes the final determination of 
any argument or circumstance ; and thence 
it generally signifies then, therefore. It 
must not, however, be confounded with apa, 
which is simply inferential, whereas ovv is 
conclusive. See Hoogeveen de Particulis, 
p. 446. Hence, it is often used in resuming 
the thread of a discourse, which has been 
sometime discontinued, as in II. <fr. 49. since 
this resumption is, as it were, a new begin- 
ning, and therefore necessarily implies a 
prior conclusion. The expression 01 5' eirti 
ovv repeatedly occurs in Homer, wherein 
the particular import of each component 
particle is distinctly marked. ijytpOtv. By 
Syncope for riyepOrjaav, they had been col- 
lected; 3 pers. pi. Aor. 1. pass, from dytipw, 
colligo, congrego ; and not from syf iptu, ex- 
cito, as some have thought. This will rea- 
dily appear by comparing the following 
passages : II. B. 438. 664. 1\ 47. A. 28. 
377. I. 388. A. 715. 769. II. 129. and 
elsewhere. Neither is there any tautology 
in the following member of the sentence, 
which expresses an act posterior to that al- 
ready performed. When the. chiefs had been 
assembled (by Achilles), and were (in con- 
sequence) gathered together. The termina- 
tion 0Ej/, for 9t]ffav, is considered by the 
author of the Etym. Mag. under this word, 
as peculiar to the ^Eolic and Doric dialect. 
We have, however, an example or two of its 
adoption by the Tragic poets ; for instance, 
^Esch. Pers. 994. Eurip. Hippol. 1242. 

58. Trotfaf w/ci! 'AxiXXtwf. It is usual 
with Homer to select some quality of mind 
or body, for which his several heroes were 
remarkable, and apply it to them as a dis- 
tinguishing, yet honourable, designation. 
Thus, upon the same principle with the pre- 
sent characteristic of Achilles, we repeatedly 
meet with iroXvJLriTie'OdvGatvc,, florjv dya- 

MfveXaof, and 




', ct KV Odvarov y tyvyot/uiev' 60 

Et $77 OfJlOV TToAfjUOC 7~ OttjU^ KCU \OlfJLOg 'A^atOVC^. 

'AAA' ay 77 rtva juavrtv fptiojufv, 77 ffprja, 

*H krat 6yff>o7roAov, (KCU 70/0 r 1 ovap EK Atoc iartv*) 

deed. Hoogeveen de Particulis, p. 152. 
Compare infra v. 574. M. 79. H. 66. $. 

62. Tiva p,dvTiv epe/o/iev, K. r. X. Au- 
gury, or divination, (juavret'a) seems to have 
been rising into repute in the age of Homer. 
Of the various persons who practised the art, 
two only are here mentioned ; the tepeut;, 
who deduced his observations from the sa- 
crifices to the gods, and the ovetpoTrdXog, or 
interpreter of dreams. Of the various kinds 
of divination, and the method of practising 
them, the student should consult Robinson's 
Archaeol. Graeca, book III. ch. 17. 'Epeio- 
pev is the Ionic form of the subjunctive, 
which is used in exhortations or wishes, in 
the first person plural, for epgw/iev. When 
the penultima is long, the long vowel is 
changed into the short one without the in- 
sertion of the i. Thus, in II. B. ^2. 0o>p?jo- 
[tev, for 6<i)pr)%(i)[jiv. That these are real 
subjunctive forms is evident, since passages 
are to be found in which the common form 
is used alternatively with them. II. K. 449. 
diroXvffofjiev 7/6 j0w/iv. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 495. 7- In similar hortatory passages 
the optative is used, when the verb is in the 
second or third person. Compare Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 513. . 515. and . 521. Obs. I. note. 

63. fj (cat, or even. Kat, besides its use 
as a conjunctive particle, has this also among 
other significations, which it may bear, per- 
haps, in the following parenthesis, Kal yap 
T' ovap K. T. X. for even dreams, 8fc. where 
Hoogeveen improperly understands Kal yap 
rot. De Particulis, p. 263. On the addition 
of the particle re, see on v. 81. Hence, 
also, jcai is sometimes joined with a partici- 
ple or adjective, in the sense of although, as 
in II. A. 653. ra'%a *cev KaldvaiTiov avTio- 
b)TO. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 607. Obs. Divi- 
nation by dreams was in far less repute than 
other kinds of augury, from the variety of 
dreams which admit of no satisfactory inter- 
pretation, and from the frivolous nature of 
dreams in general. See Aristotle's Trea- 
tise on this subject ; Cicero de Nat. Deor. 
III. 40. If the above interpretation, there- 
fore, be the true one, the parenthesis will 
imply, that although this species of divina- 
tion was inferior to that which consisted in 
the inspection of the entrails, &c. of sacri- 
ficed victims, still dreams, or at least some 
of them, were really notifications of the di- 
vine will. Compare II. B. 20. K. 496. 
And there can be no doubt that this 


the like. Equivalent to Tro^ag WKI>, are 
the adjectives, TTOOMKHIQ, iroBdpKT], conti- 
nually applied to Achilles. Euripides, also, 
in Androm. 1225. calls him ra^vv iroSaQ, 
and so Horn. II. N. 348. The particle ce, 
in the foregoing line, is repeated in this, in 
the same manner as, in Latin, cum autem 
is answered by turn vero. See also on v. 
137- infra. rol<n fieTe^rj. For tQrj /xerd 
rolaiv, i. e. among them. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 58?. 3 b. 

59. TraXijMTrXayx&JTag. Wandering back; 
which is invariably the idea of naXiv in 
Homer, whether in or out of composition : 
its use to signify again, is of later date. 
Imago est a sagitta, says Damm, illisa solido 
alicui, a quo resilit et repellitur. The ad- 
verb a^ is frequently redundant, not only 
with iraXiv, (compare S. 280.) but also 
after the verbs compounded with the prepo- 
sition dva, as in II. I\ 35. a\p aVe^wpTjdtv, 
and so B. 411. A. 392. &c. a/z/ie is the 
Doric or ^Eolic accusative plural for ?7jua ; 
and in the same way we meet with ciftpi 
and vppi, for rj^lv and vplv, in the dative ; 
and in the nominative a/i/Aff for ?7/me, and 
VjUjueg for vfitlg. Some, however, consider 
dp.p,e as the dual. Dionysius Halicarnas. in 
his treatise Trepi T%v7/g, c. 9. has pointed 
out the peculiar beauty and address of this 
speech of Achilles, and the reply of Calchas. 


Si a'XXjjXwv, icai TT&Q TO 
ol TOV 'Axi'XXwflv 
oi Be TOV jwaVrewf 

Trpo Tijz d-TTOKolatiiiQ. Though perhaps we 
should not altogether agree with this writer's 
observations, yet the entire passage is wor- 
thy of perusal. 

6'0. 6i Ktv QdvctTov ye ^vyoijtuv. On 
this construction, see v. 32. The particle 
ye is at once the most forcible and the most 
beautiful in the Greek language. Its pri- 
mary signification is certe, saltern (AnglicS, 
at least], in which sense Hoogeveen consi- 
ders it elliptical, as in Horn. II. E. 303. b 
ov dvo y' dvdpe Qtpoitv, i. e. two men at 
least, if not more. Hence, it derives various 
significations, such as yet, infra, vv. 82. 553. ; 
in which last place, and elsewhere, it is ex- 
pressive of indignation: perhaps, vv. 393. 
527 : and others, particularly in connexion 
with other particles, which will be noticed 
as occasion requires. In the following line, 
ti is used simply as an inferential particle, 
followed by an indicative ; ti $*), since in- 



f/ Oc K (7ry, o, TI roaaov t^weraro 
EM-' a/o' oy' fi/^wXric STHjuljU^creu, a'0' KarojUj3ric' 
At Kv TTWC apvwv Kviarjc; alywv re reXtiwv 
BouXsrat aimaaac i?ju7v OTTO Xoryov a/uLvvai. 

*Hroi oy' we HTTWV KCIT' ap' f'Sero* rottrt cT aviarrj 

KaX^aC 0OTOptTJ, OlWVOTToXwV 6^' aptOTOCj 

*Oc $$n T T' ovra, ra r' (T<TOjUva, ?rpo r' lovra, 
Kai vif<F<r riyrjaar 1 'A^euwv "iXtov ct'crw 


was the popular belief ; the origin of which 
may, perhaps, be traced to a higher source 
than Pagan superstition. We know that, in 
cases of high import, the God of Israel fre- 
quently revealed his will to the prophets 
and holy men, and sometimes even to hea- 
thens, such as Pharaoh and others, by 
dreams and visions. See Gen. xx. 3. xl. 
5. xli. 1. Numb. xii. 6. Matt. ii. 12. and 

64. The vulgar reading, which Heyne 
retains, is OQ K' tliroi, in the optative ; which 
would be qui fortasse dicat. We have 
adopted the reading of the Vienna MSS. 
Compare II. I. 165. The relative is fre- 
quently used for tvo, as in Latin, qui for ut. 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 528. 3. 

65. e/earo/ijSrjg. The hecatomb, which was 
properly a sacrifice of one hundred oxen, is 
used in Homer, by a very common poetical 
figure, for any animal sacrifice, whatever the 
number of victims might be. In II. Z. 
115. it consisted only of twelve oxen, 
which appears from v. 93. and in ^. 146, 7 
it is a sacrifice of fifty sheep. We are told 
in Herodotus, that a real hecatomb was 
offered by Clisthenes. The repetition of 
are is the same with that of the Latin sive. 
See also on v. 8. and of the noun ev^uXrj 
on II. B. 160. In the construction there 
seems to be an ellipse of the particle eWica,. 
which is supplied infra v. 94. 

66. TtXeiwv. It was essential that there 
should be no imperfection in the victim. 
The same was also enjoined to the Israelites, 
respecting the sacrifice of the paschal lamb. 
(Exod. xii. 5.) See also on v. 458. and on 
II. K. 293. The construction in the Attic 
and the later writers would have been d 
f3ov\r)Tcti av, or lav (BovXqrai. See on 
v. 60. Most MSS. and edd. read KviffGrjg, 
which was retained in the former edition. 
Hesychius, Photius, and other grammarians, 
however, spell the noun with a single <r, and 
this orthography is well defended by Bp. 
Blomfield on ^Esch. Prom. 505. Thus also 
the Venetian Scholiast : Kviarf, dirb TOV 
KviZw, Kviffhtf o arjfiaivei TO \7rruj/or XCTT- 
ToTctTOQ yap iffTiv 6 gTrtTrXovf. 

67- dvTuiffag. From avria'a>, not from 
avTidw, since the penultima is short. The 
two verbs are the same in signification, and, 

with a genitive, imply fruition, enjoyment ; 
(diro\avffiv yevariKrjv^ See Damm in 

68. The particle ^roi, igitur, is always 
affirmative in Homer, and never used to 
mark the division of a whole into distinct 
parts. It is, therefore, distinct from ijTOt, 
which is so used in later writers (see Hoo- 
geveen in voce) ; and which is a compound of 
the disjunctive particle 77. Damm considers 
it as synonymous with p.iv, except that it is 
more poetical, and that it always occurs at 
the beginning of a sentence : as avrdp is a 
poetical equivalent for St. But since f)Toi plv 
are frequently used in conjunction, as infra 
vv. 141. 211. and elsewhere, it should seem 
that when the former is followed by Sk, as 
in this place, the latter must be considered 
as suppressed. Before rolffi, there is an 
ellipsis, which is very frequent, of the pre- 
position kv. 

69. QX aprro. In Homer and the Ionic 
poets, llo^a, and by aphaeresis, o\a, are 
frequently joined adverbially to superla- 
tives, in order to strengthen the signification. 
Compare II. B. 761. E. 843. Z. 76. O. 282. 
Sometimes, in the same sense, we find TroX- 
\bv, as infra v. 91 ; and ftsya, as in II. B. 
82. where the Attics would use TroXXy or 
[jiaKpifi. In Eur. Alcest. 758. 924. however, 
the Homeric form occurs. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 461. Pierson on Moeris, p. 194. 

70. Virg. Georg. IV. 392. Navit namque 
omnia vates, Quee sint, quee fuerint, qua max 
ventura trahantur. We may also compare a 
similar expression in the^Revelations, i. 19. 
ypai//ov & ddtg, Kai a flat, Kai & /zlXXft 
yivtcQai [itTa ravTa. In the poets re is 
frequently used as a connecting particle, and 
that, too, many times successively. So supra 
v. 38. This usage in prose also, though 
more rarely, sometimes occurs. Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 607- 

71. "iXtov tiffd). In Attic the adverbs 
dffb) and taa) are always joined with the 
genitive. Some copies have yj>w/n77v <T<I> 
in Eur. Hipp. 512. but this has been pro- 
perly corrected in the best editions. In 
Homer they always take the accusative. 
The Augurs were persons of great import- 
ance in the armies of the early Greeks. They 
were consulted upon all occasions, and their 


VVrjV, ri]V OL 7TOp 

"O <T06v v0povwv ayopiicraro, KCU 
T O 'A^tXfO, jceXfat JUE, Aa ^iXf, 
Mfjvtv 'A7ToXXa)voc> fKarijjSfXErao avacro. 
Toryap "y<ov pao* aw $ avvOto, Kai /not 6jUoa(Tov, 

*H jUV jUOt 7Tp00pO>V 7T<n Kttl }(p(7lV apq^Etl/. 

T H yap oiofjiat avpa ^oXaxTfjUEv, 6c fJ.iya TTCLVTWV 
KOI ot 




advice punctually followed. Calchas had 
already been referred to in matters of diffi- 
culty. See II. B. 300. 

73. o <r0iv. MSS. and Edd. i> <r0tv. 
Wolf has properly restored o a<j)iv, upon 
the authority of the best grammarians : 
and so passim. 

75. t Karr](3t\kTao avaKTOQ. Macrob. Sa- 
turn.' 1. 17. Inde tKr)(36\oQ et frarj|3o\oe 
dictus Apollo (i. e. Sol), sKadev rag dKT~ivag 
(3d\\<t)v, e longissimo altissimoque radios in 
terram usque demittens. Alii cognominatum 
Apollinem sentiunt a> cnro\\vvTa TO. c,wa. 
Exanimat enim et perimit animantes, cum 
pestem intemperie caloris immittit : ut Euri- 
pides in Phaethonte : T Q xpwcro^eyyfg "HXi', 
wf p,' aTTtoXeffae' "OQev d 'ATroXXwv' ip,- 
d>ava> K\y'%tt (BpOTOQ. Item Archilochus : 

Ava.% "ATroXXov, Kat (TV TOVQ p.kv airiovQ 
Tlrffiaive, Kal afykaQ 6XXv', wtrTrcp 6\\vtiQ. 
Denique inustos morbo 'A7roXXa>vo/3X^rov^ 
Kai ri\to(3\fiTOV appellant. 

76. roiyap ty<ji)v epea>. The affirmative 
particles roi and ?}, which latter occurs in 
the two following lines, are nearly synony- 
mous, except that the former does not begin 
a sentence. They may be rendered in Latin 
by nimirum, in English, certainly, doubtless. 
Hoogeveen thinks, that, besides rot, two 
other particles enter into the composition of 
rotydp, namely, yt and apa, of which the 
former limits the force of rot, and the lat- 
ter conveys its usual notion of consequence 
or effect. See on \. 8. This is, most pro- 
bably, correct, though the illustration of the 
use of the particle in reference to this pas- 
sage is unsatisfactory. Calchas would say, 
Since it is your desire, I shall, therefore, cer~ 
tainly speak ; but you, at least, will undertake 
to protect me. The condition upon which he 
speaks, plainly marks the limiting power of 
ye. Some consider roi as the Doric dative 
of the pronoun ail, which would not mate- 
rially alter the signification of the particle. 
After avvQto, we must supply 9vp,<f. Com- 
pare II. Z. 334. The ellipsis is filled up in 
II. H. 44. ffvvOtro Qv[j,(jj (SovXriv. Od. A. 
328. 0pt (Ti (TvvQtro Osffiriv aoidrjv. In the 
same manner Cicero simply employs agitare 

for agitare animo, in Offic. I. 24. See Bos. 
Ellips. Gr. p. 121. ed. Oxon. 

77- *7 ptv p>oi. Hesych. "Ovrug jikv fioi* 
It seems probable that this is the Ionic form 
of expression for fj p,ijv, which is used by 
later writers, and sometimes by Homer him- 
self, to introduce any energetic asseveration, 
such as an oath, a promise, a threat, or the 
like. Xenoph. Cyrop. VIII. 4. 7. vvv 5e 

QtOVQ OflVlifJU, Tf\ [ii]V ifJlOl SoKflv, K. T. \. 

and so Thucyd. IV. 88. VIII. 81. Com 
pare II. I. 5?. 

78. xoXw<T6jLtv. This verb seems to be 
derived by Epenthesis from ^wo/jcti (v. 
80.), of which the root is, \kd), fundo; 
whence the substantive xoXoc, implies any 
violent, though transitory, emotion or per- 
turbation of the mind, in contradistinction 
to KOTOQ (v. 82.), which denotes suppressed 
anger, malice, manens alta mente repostum. 
Virg. JEn. I. 26. Hence Eustathius : x^-G 
KaTairuftQiiQ, (v. 81.) Koroc yiverar TOV- 
TO Se Kal opifffiog fivrjffiKaiciaQ tariv. An- 
other species of anger, HYIVIQ, is explained 
in the note on v. 1. Nemes. de Nat. Horn. . 
21. fidrj 5k TOV Qvpov rpter 9vfiog p,kv 
ydp,ap^)vKai Kivrjaiv t^w, opy?) Kai xoX?) 
/cat x<>Xo Xlycrar pijviG Sk %o\ri tiQ ira- 
Xaifcxriv dyo^ievij, irapd rb ^ikviiv KOTOQ 
^ opy?) iwiTtjpovffa Kaipbv fit; TificJpiav, 
irapa TO KtiaOai. Clarke, and the genera- 
lity of interpreters, render ^oXoxTf/itv by 
iratum fore, which is incorrect : the active 
verb xo^ov*> is to exasperate ; the passive, 
XoXovaQai, to be enraged. II. S. 111. o /ie 
vvv xoXw(Tv. So the Scholiast, tiq opytjv 

79. Kai ot TTtiOovTai. For Kai <$. The 
demonstrative pronoun is frequently used 
for the relative, in a continued proposition 
beginning with a relative, which should be re- 
peated in a different case. So also in Latin. 
Compare Cic. Tusc. V. 41. Phil. I. 10. The 
construction is somewhat similar, when the 
relative occurs only once, and must be sup- 
plied again in another case ; as in II. F. 
235. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 468. 3. 

80. xiprfi. This is the dative of the old 
positive x*P*/> fr m which were derived the 



'AXXa -ye icat jueroTrttr&v t\.ti KOTOV, opa 
'Ev a>T)]OE<rcriv eoiai' <rt> $ 0pacrat 
Tov S' a7ra/*t|3o/ivoe Trpocre^rj 
0ajOO7J(rac juaXa, t?r Otoirpowiov, o, rt otaOa. 
Ou jua -yap 'ATToXXwva, Aa QiXov, core <rv, KaX^av, 
EVOC Aavao7<n OeoirpOTrtas a 
Sol jc 


well-known comparative %tpei<i)v, and su- 
perlative %aprroe. The accusative occurs 
in II. A. 400. See Matt. Gr. Gr. .135. 

81. The enclitic Trcp, (see on v. 131.) 
subjoined to the conditional ei, gives it the 
signification of the Latin quamvis, or sz 
0cfo. Hence, the passage may be thus 
rendered : for even though he may, perhaps, 
subdue his anger for the present day, &c. ; in 
which not one of the several particles is re- 
dundant. For in the Ionic dialect in par- 
ticular, the particle re is frequently put 
after ydp, Se, fjikv, when it gives a degree of 
emphasis to the expression. This position 
of the particle seems to have originated in 
the early state of the language, and to have 
first given that connecting power, which 
afterwards existed between p,kv and de. 
Hence II. E. 139. TOV y&v TS adevog wpatv, 
fTreiTd dk T' ov 7rpoaafj,vvti. See Koen. ad 
Gregor. p. 192. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 607- Obs. 
The verb /caraTTfiTrreij/ is here metaphori- 
cally applied in the sense of to repress, to 
subdue : o yap Kpu^/i^oXog, says Eusta- 
thius, 7T<r<mv SoKtl TOV xoXov. Compare 
II. A. 513. I. 561. Other metaphoric senses 
of TTEO-trw, are noticed in II. B. 235. 0. 513. 
Eustathius also observes, that the senti- 
ment contained in this and the following 
lines, is the first moral sentiment which 
occurs in Homer, and compares Eurip. Med. 
119. cai Trwg 'OXiy' dpxop-tvoi, TroXXd cpa- 


Hence the sentence of Publius Syrus : Ful- 
men est, ubl cum potestate habitat Iracundia; 
which may be illustrated in the character of 
Tiberius given by Tacitus : Animo revolvente 
iras, etiam si impetus offensionis langueret, 
memoria valebat. Pindar also seems to have 
had his eye on this passage in Olymp. X. 
47. vtiKOQ de Kp6iaff6vwv d.Tro9e(r9' aTropov. 
Add Claudian in Ruf. 2. Sensu dolor hteret 
in alto Abditus, et tacitas vindictce preestitit 
iras. See also on II. B. 186. 

82. 'AXXa yt. These particles, taken 
separately, amount to but at least ; hence, 
conjointly, nevertheless. On the construc- 
tion of o<j>pa with the subjunctive, see on 
v. 26. 

83. (TV di <f>pdaai, tl JUE GauaiiQ. Con- 

sider, or reflect with yourself, in order that 
you may ^protect me. The particles et, wg, 
oTrwg, are frequently used by Homer instead 
of 'iva, and the verb 0pao/zeu, in the mid- 
dle, signifies, to reflect. Thus, II. P. 144. 
0pdeo vvv, 'birirwQ Kt TroXtv KOI aorv aatt)- 
ayq. Compare infra 554. B. 14. II. 646. 
X. 358. et passim. 

84. aVa/m/3o/uro. Properly the verb 
dfieiflstv denotes alternation; as in Eur. 
Hec. 1145, diaSo^aiQ djjuifiovcrai ^tpoiv, 
moving them from hand to hand successively. 
Hence transferred to speech, it signifies to 
interchange words, i. e. to answer ; in which 
sense it continually occurs in Homer. In 
v. 604. infra, it refers to the different parts 
taken in singing by the respective per- 

86. ov fid yap 'A. The adverb /id is 
used only in adjurations, and it is almost in 
variably accompanied by the affirmative vai 
or the negative ov, to determine its power 
In negative asseverations, it is sometimes 
used as a solitary particle, as if for \ii] ; but 
never, at least in Homer, in affirmations. 
without vat prefixed. Thus, infra, v. 234. 
vai /id rode <ref}7rrpoj>. See on v. 286. 
KdX%av is the proper vocative from the 
original nominative KdX%ai>, in which the 
v is rejected, and the preceding short vowel 
lengthened. Thus also AZav, Qoav, and the 
like. We find, however, HovXvSdfjta, II. N. 
751. and some other exceptions. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 74. 3. 

88. 7ri j(0ovi StpKOfikvoio. Me vivente 
et vidente. The verbs dspKtaOai, {SXtiruv, 
and bpqiv, are frequently used, and more 
especially in the Tragic poets, in the sense of 
%fjv, to live. Eurip. Hec. 311. OVK ovv r65* 

CTTtl d' oXa>X, Ji'j) %pajU<T0' Tl. Suppl. 77- 

TO, yap <j)9iTwv TOIQ option K6V/io. Iph. 
T. 719. Soph. Aj. 982. More frequently 
still with the addition of 0u>c> r $>yy> or 
the like. Eur. Hipp. 4. 0wf bpq,v rjXiov. 
Hec. 250. WOT' fio-opyv ye fytyyo 
rode. Alcest. 18. Oavwv Trpb Ktivov, 
ticropyv fyaoQ . Compare vv. 282. 683. And 
so Horn. II. S. 61. o0pa Se poi %wu Kai bpqi 
0aoc j]tXioio. Thus the Latins use lux for 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, A'. 15 

Aavawv* ouS' f)v 'Ayajufjuvova HTrrjCj 90 

*Oe vvv TroXXov apforoc 'A^euwv fu^ 

Kal rorf 17 0ap<rr/cr, KCU T)ua uavrig 
Our' ap' 6y' Ei^aAf/t; 7njUjU$>rcu, OU 
'AXX' Vc' aprjTripo^y ov ^rijurjcr* ', 

Ouyarpa, Kai OVK aTTfSf^ar' aVotva. 95 

7' OTTO TTttTpl 

vita. Virg. ^n. IV. 31 . ^wza re/erf : O luce 
magis dilecta sorori. See also the note on 
Eurip. Phten. 1100. Pentalog. Gr. p. 336. 

90. fjv UTryg. When a condition is ex- 
pressed, which may probably or possibly 
take place, this particle is used, as it is here, 
with the subjunctive. 

91. Madame Dacier observes, that the 
verb tv^trai is intended to throw a degree 
of contempt upon the authority of Agamem- 
non, who, though he now (vvv} boasted of 
his sovereignty over all the Grecian forces, 
would, at the close of the war, be reduced 
to a level with the princes of the other Gre- 
cian states, as king of Mycenae. But the 
Homeric signification of the verb tv\o^ai y is 
not to boast, but simply to profess ; or, more 
properly, iv-fctrai dvai is nothing more than 
a simple periphrasis for tori. In proof of 
this, Ernesti adduces II. B. 82. where 
Nestor uses precisely the same words, to add 
to the authority of Agamemnon, which are 
here supposed to detract from it. Of the 
expression iroXXov apiorof, see the note 
on v. 72. 

92. Of the particle /, with adverbs of 
time, see on v. 6. In the next line, the par- 
ticle dpa retains its primary signification, 
though the clauses of the sentences are in- 
verted : The god is incensed on account of his 
priest, and not therefore on account $c. See 
on v. 8. 

97- X f ^P a - Markland conjectures KJJpaf, 
which Wolf approves. But the genitive is 
not in regimen ; the sense being that Apollo 
will not restrain his hands from the plague, 
i. e. from sending it among the Greeks, 
until, Sfc. Such is the constant import of 
a.TTf.\f.iv TI TIVOQ in Homer. Thus II. Z. 96. 
At Kev TvdkoQ vibv dirocrxy 'I\iov iprjc,. 
The particle Trpiv, together with ewf, tar' 
dv, fiexpi ov, which denote a space of time 
beyond which something takes place, are 
usually constructed, like 'iva, wg, &c. (see 
on v. 26.) with the optative, when the action 
of the proposition is past, and with the con- 
junctive when it is present or future. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 522. In Homer, however, 
in future actions, it is often constructed with 

the indicative, as in the present case, and 
supra v. 29. and elsewhere. The general 
signification of vrpiv, in the poets, is that 
of a simple adverb, formerly, in the sense 
of Trporepov, as used by prose writers. 
Thus, in II. B. 112 it is opposed to vvv. 
Compare II. E. 472. and so TroXii Trpfv, long 
ago ; A. 236. N. 161. Hence, in the same 
manner as Trporspov is followed by TTOIV 
in prose, the poets frequently double Trpiv, 
as in II. B. 348. 354. 8. 46. 839. 2. 334. 
T. 170. 4>. 294. Q. 781. In these instances 
the former particle is not redundant, but 
adds a degree of emphasis to the proposition, 
which is here and elsewhere increased by 
the addition of yt in the succeeding clause. 
Eustathius observes, that wherever irpiv is 
thus repeated, the latter must be followed 
by an infinitive. But though universally 
true in Homer, the rule does not apply to 
succeeding writers. Aristoph. Pac. 1112. 
ov yap olov re 'Hfilv Trplv StSovai, Ttplv 
Kal \VKOQ olv vpevaiol. Hoogeveen de 
Particulis, p. 477- 

98. ciTrd TT. 0. dofievat. A Tmesis. 
Heyne prefers the derivation of the adjec- 
tive i\iK(i)\l/, or iXiK&Trit;, from the verb 
iXiffffb), to roll ; vigore oculorum per mobili- 
tatem declarato. Hence it would be rendered, 
having rolling eyes. Eustathius derives the 
word in the same manner, but his explana- 
tion is different : i\ix(i)7rtQ' 01 d^ioOearoi 
Kal tXiffaovrec, TOVC, wirag TUIV fiXtTrovruv 
tiQ tavTovg. Kovprj Sk q tXiKumg, r) dio- 
Osaroc, ical rot>(, % epaordg itpeXKOfJievr). Thus 
it would imply, attractive, beautiful; and, as 
applied to the Grecian princes in v. 389. ma- 
jestic, dignified. Perhaps, however, the best 
interpretation is that of the Scholiast and 
others, who deduce the word from iXiKog , 
black, which is evidently the root of the cog- 
nate word iXiKopXtyapoc., in Pind. Pyth. IV. 
305. It is certain that large and black eyes 
were looked upon by the ancients as marks 
of great beauty. Hor. Od. I. 32. 11. Et 
Lycum nigris oculis nigroque Crine decorum. 
And hence arose a custom, which was preva- 
lent throughout the East from the earliest 
ages, and which is frequently alluded to in 



avaTroivov, ayuv 0' iepi}v 

r6re KV JJLLV l\aaaa^voL 7T7ri0otjUv. 100 

Hrot oy' aic fiTrwv K.O.T ap' e^tro* rolcn 8' aviari] 
'Ar/oa'Srjc evpuicpfiwv 'Aya^tljuvtov, 

Voc $ julya 0pEV a/J0i [j.i\aivai 
o<7(t $ o Trupt Aa/U7Trowim ILKTTJV. 
Ka\\avTa Trpamtrra KO.K OGGOfJLtvoQ 7rpo<7t7T* 105 

Maim icaicwv, OVTTW TTOTE juot TO Kpriyvov urac 
Aid rot ra icaV ftrrl (pi\a <j>ptal juavrU<T0ai* 

Holy Writ, of tinging the corners of the eyes 
with black, for the purpose of increasing 
their lustre, and making them appear larger. 
(Jerem. iv. 30. Ezek. xxiii. 40. 2 Kings ix. 
30). See Lowth on Isaiah iii. 16. The same 
peculiarity is noticed as still in existence by 
Sonnini, who relates in his Travels, vol. I. 
p. 263. that " the most remarkable trait of 
beauty in the East, is large black eyes, and 
it is well known that nature has made this a 
characteristic of the women of those coun- 
tries. But not contented with these gifts of 
nature, those of Egypt employ every art to 
make their eyes appear larger and blacker. 
For this purpose, females of every descrip- 
tion, Mahometan, Jew, Christian, rich and 
poor, all tinge the eye-brows and eye-lashes 
with black lead ; an operation which the 
Roman ladies practised of old, and which 
Juvenal has described with so much exact- 
ness. They besides mark with it the angles 
of the eye, which makes the fissure appear 
greater." The passage of Juvenal to which 
the traveller alludes, is Sat. II. 93. Ille su- 
percilium madida fuligine tactum Obliqua 
producit acu, pingitque tumentes Attollens 
oculos. Tertullian also observes in his Trea- 
tise De Habltu Mulierum, ch. II. Nigro pul- 
vere oculorum exordia producuntur. See also 
Jul. Pollux, V. 16. Plin. N. H. XXXII. 6. 

100. For TTiOoijMfv, with the 
Ionic reduplication. On the construction, 
see the note to v. 32. 

103. Qptveg. The Diaphragm. In general, 
$>pr/v is the principle of thought and action, 
the understanding ; as distinguished from, mental energy. Damm : dat 
impetum ; 0pi)v vero consilium. From the 
intimate connexion, however, between the 
operation of the mind, and the preecordia or 
diaphragm, the word is frequently transferred 
from the mental to the corporeal functions. 
Eustathius : 0pgi>* ov \IOVQV a<rw/tarwf 
Kai vorjT&g kirl XoyifffJiov, a\Xd icai p-ipog 
ri TWV (TTrXdy^vwv, o feat ^ia^pay/ia Xe- 
yerai. Pollux, II. 4. 45. ro ia0pay/ia, 8 
KdXovat <j>pvag. In this sense it is not un- 
usual in Homer; (compare II. II. 481. 
504.) and so it occurs in ^Esch. Prom. 906. 

KpaSia k 06/3<> <j>pkva XaKTi&i. The epi- 
thet fjiiXaivai is appropriate, as in violent 
bursts of passion the veins about the pree- 
cordia become swoln and black with blood. 
Schol. p,e\aivac rtrapay/jgvai did rr/v 
opyrjv. See, however, on II. P. 83. 

104. tiKTijv. Plusq. Perf. for k^Ktirrjv, 
from tl'/cw, to resemble ; used only in the 
perfect. The vowel or diphthong in this 
tense is frequently syncopated in the poets : 
thus, in II. B. 341. 67T67ri0/iv for ETTITTOI- I. 49. f.iXi)\ov9p,(v for elXriXov-, and the like. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
195 5. With the expression compare Virg. 
jEn. XII. 101. His agitur furiis, totoque 
ardentis ab ore Scintilla absistunt ; oculis 
micat acribus ignis. 

105. KO.K oaaoptvog. This should not be 
translated torve intuens, with the generality 
of commentators ; but male preesagiens, 
' boding ill.' Although would be 
the regular JSolic form for oTrro/Ltai, it 
usually, if not invariably, signifies to pre- 
sage. Compare II. &. 17. 2. 224. Q. 172. 
So Villoison, and Porphyry in his Qufes- 
tiones Homericee, 16. tori "Offcra rj Oeia 
^hp-rj. Hence it may be derived from 6<r<ra, 
which in this poet denotes an ominous, or 
prophetic voice ; as in II. B. 93. where it is 
personified, and represented as AibgayytXog. 
See also Od. A. 283. Q. 413. Afterwards 
it came to signify Fame ; and thence the 
voice simply, as in Hesiod. Theog. 10. 43. 
852. In like manner 0/^/7 and <{>r)p.r] were 
used primarily of an ominous voice ; as in II. 
B. 41. Od. B. 35. Derived from the former 
is Ztvg iravop,<palog in II. 9. 250. 

106. P.O.VTI KUKWV, OVKOJ K. r. X. This 
passionate invective of Agamemnon illus- 
trates the proverb, veritas odium parit ; and 
particularly in regard to persons in exalted 
stations, who are peculiarly impatient of re- 
proof. We have a similar instance in Holy 
Writ, in the character of Ahab, in his reply 
to Jehoshaphat, respecting the prophet Mi- 
caiah : 1 Kings xxii. 8. LXX. Elg iffrivdvrjp 
elg TO t7rtfxi)Tf)ffai Si avrov rbv Kwpiov, 
Kai syw p,tp,iaqKa avrbv, ort ov XaXei Trtpi 

KaXa, dXX' rj KUKCL, Mix'? vlbg 



OV TL 7T(t) 

Kai vvv Iv AavaoTo-t 0O7r/oo7Ta>v a 

'Ge 81) rouS* VKa cr^iv 'EicrjjSoXoc aXyea 


OVK WeXov S 

i' ETTtt vroXu jSouXojuai avrr\v 
P a 

Ov oljua^, ou$ <f)Viiv, ovr ap 0>vac, oiire rt fp 
'AXXa /cat we IflAw OjUvcu TraXtv, i roy' ctjUftvov* 
i' fya) Xaov doov bfjLfjLEvaiy 77 aTToXIcraai. 


. The former unfavourable pre- 
dictions of Calchas, to which Agamemnon 
alludes, related to the ten years' duration of 
the siege of Troy, without reference, how- 
ever, to the necessity of the expiatory sacri- 
fice of his daughter Iphigenia at Aulis, 
which was unquestionably an invention sub- 
sequent to the age of Homer. See on II. I. 
145. The repetition of the same thing in 
this and the two following lines, is attributed 
by Eustathius to the violent passion of the 
speaker, which makes him insist on the 
subject uppermost in his mind. The en- 
clitic TTW, which is subjoined for the most 
part to negative particles, as in OVTTW, /X^TTW, 
OI^STTW (v. 108.), and the like, limits either 
the time or manner of an action ; and is 
respectively equivalent to hitherto, or by any 
means. See also on v. 124. infra. In its 
temporal use it is often followed by Trore, 
which it limits to the present and the past ; 
thus in this place, oinro) Trore, never hitherto ; 
ov-jTOTt, of itself, being indefinitely, never ; 
as in v. 234. Of Trore, see on v. 202. 
tcpijyvov. Eustath. TO dyaQbv, as opposed 
to ftdvTi KCIKWV. In the same sense, iaOXbv 
follows immediately. Hesych. dyaObv, txps- 
Xifjiov, vydt;. Villoison : TO T$ ictapi rjdv 
Kai 7rpo<rj7V. And so Porphyr. Qusest. 
Horn. 16. The word does not occur again 
in Homer. In Theocrit. Epigr. is op- 
posed to Trovjjpoe, and in Idyl. XX. 19. it 
is translated verum, true ; which is certainly 
not its signification here. The article in this 
and the next line is strictly agreeable with 
the Attic idiom. See on v.*9. 

111. XpvaqiSos. For Chrys'eis, i. e. the 
daughter of Chryses. Female patronymics 
are formed by changing the final syllable of 
the genitive of the father's name into tag or 
iq ; as A^rwia'c, Callim. H. Dian. 83. Xpv- 
ffng, vjog, XpvaniQ- Kpi<Ttv S , j) g, B(Oi<T?/if 
or into ivr} or wvrj t according as a vowel or 
consonant precedes the termination ; 'Aicpi- 
ffioQ, ov, 'AKpiaiojvri'*A()QiiffTO, ov, 'ASprj- 
<JT'IVI\. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 101. For the 
formation of male patronymics, see on v. 1. 
Before Kovpjjf there is an ellipsis of the pre- 

position dvTi, which is very usual after verbs 
of buying and selling, and other words of 
the same class. Compare Matt. x. 29. Act. 
Apost. vii. 16. The ellipse is supplied in 
Joel iii. 3. LXX. Hebr. xii. 16. See Bos. 
Ellips. Gr. p 415. 

113. Kai ya'p pa. Nee mirum hoc ; nam 
illam uxori pratfero. HEYNE. Such is the 
power of this expression, in which the force 
of each particle is manifest, either from an 
inversion of the clauses, or from a repetition 
of the foregoing ; thus : and I therefore wish 
it, for I prefer her, 8$c. So that Kai is copu- 
lative, pa, inferential, and yap assigns the 
reason for the inference. The form is poetic, 
and equivalent to Kai yap ovv, in prose. 
Hoogeveen de Particulis, p. 215. 

114. KovpidirjQ a'X6%ou. The adjective 
Kovpidiog, as applied to a wife, is thus ex- 
pressed in Virg. JEn. 1. 349. Cui pater in- 
tactam dederat primisque jugarat Ominibus. 
In II. E. 414. we have icovpidiov TTOGIV, i. e. 
the husband, whom she married when a virgin. 
e'0Ev. jEolic, for ov, and that for avTrjc.. 
On the particle Trei, see on v. 57. 

1 15. ov dtfjiaG, ovSt K. T. X. The accusa- 
tive is frequently placed in this manner after 
verbs or adjectives, without a preposition, 
when the signification must be completed by 
the English with respect to. Thus iroSag 
CJKVQ ' A^iXXivg, passim. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 423. 4. The grammarians supply Kara' ; 
but in II. T. 158. eig is employed in a si- 
milar construction. The variation of the 
particle in the latter part of the line, im- 
plies a variation in the tenor of the sen- 
tence ; the former part of which relates 
to the personal qualifications of Chryseis, 
and the latter to her mental endowments. 
Hoogeveen, p. 437- ' 

116. aXXa Kai wg. But even thus ; ne- 
vertheless. Soptvai irdXtv. To give back ; 
to restore. Of the word TraXtv, see on v. 59. 

117. /3ouXo/i' tyw K. T. X. Hence the 
maxim, Salus populi suprema lex. In the 
construction we must supply paXXov. The 
same ellipsis occurs in II. T. 41. A. 319. 
. 594. and elsewhere. So in Soph. Aj. 




Avrap juol ylpae avrl\ Irofjuaarar', ctypa JUT] otoc 

/ >/ y.\> J>\ >> . 

Acu<r(Tr yap royf Travrfc, 6 juoi yfpac '*V>X erai aXXr?. 120 
Tov S' 77jUtj3sr' 7Ttra 7roSapK:i]C ^o 

roi Swo-ovcri ytpas fityaOvfJiOi ' 
l ri TTO) '/SjUv ^vvrfia KtjUva TroXXa* 
'AXX<i ra jUV TroXtwv $7Tpa0OjUv, ra S 
Aaouc 8' OVK 7T(HK TraXiXXoya ravr' tiraytiptiv 
'AXXa CTV julv vuv rrjv^f Gfcj) TTpofC" avrap 


966. t/ioi TTiicpbg TeOvrjKev, T) KI'IVOIQ y\vKv. 
Eur. Androm. 351. rfotraf ' dv tvvac; Ovya- 
rsp' rjdiKiju'wriv BovXoi' aV evptiv, T) iraQiiv 
& 'ya> Xgya>. See also Longin. de Sublim. . 
33. Thucyd. II. 1 1. Themist. Orat. p. 14. 
A. and in N. T. Matt, xviii. 6. Luke xv. 7. 
xvii. 2. xviii. 14. 1 Cor. 14. 19. Compare 
Genes, xlix. 12. LXX. Similarly in Latin, 
particularly in Tacitus : German, c. 7' Con- 
silii, quam formidinis arUtrantur. And so 
Sallust, B. C. 8. Fortuna res cunctas ex 
Ubidine, quam ex vero celebrat. Plant. Ru- 
dens. IV. 4. 7 Tacita bona est mutter sem- 
per, quam loquens. See Bos. Ellips. Gr. 
p. 480. 

118. ypa. Properly, a present set apart 
for an elder, from ygpwv, senex ; and hence, 
for any person of distinction. It appears 
that a certain portion of the booty, taken in 
any engagement or expedition, was set apart 
as prizes for the chiefs, previous to the divi- 
sion of the remainder among the soldiery. 
These prizes were called yspara, or yepara 
llaipera ; hence, yspag is frequently used 
to signify and distinguish office or dignity, 
as in II. Y. 182. The custom of assigning 
female captives as presents to the conquerors, 
is recognized in Scripture History ; Judg. 
v. 30. The particle oQpa is peculiar to the 
poets, signifying, in general, as long as ; and 
referred to the corresponding particle ToQpa, 
so long ; which latter, though not always ex- 
pressed, is usually understood. From repre- 
senting a continued action, it is naturally 
transferred to the termination of such action, 
and is often rendered by donee, ' until ;' as 
infra v. 509. N. 141. Hence, its place is 
generally supplied in prose by E'OJ. Fre- 
quently, however, it is used simply to ex- 
press a final cause, and is equivalent to "iva, 
that : as in this verse ; and infra v. 158. 
Hoogeveen, p. 453. Of its construction, see 
on vv. 26. 97. 

120. tpxrai a\Xy. Supply b$$. The 
ellipse of this noun is very common. See 
Bos. Ellips. Gr. p. 207- Schol. fjyovv aTrsp- 
Xtrai aXXa^oi). This my prize is going 
elsewhere ; i. e. is going from me. In the 

construction, the relative o must be referred 
to Toye yspae; or it must be taken for KctO' 
o, or OTI, as frequently after the verbs to see, 
to know, and the like. Thus in II. E. 433. 
9. 140. 362. and elsewhere. 

1 23. 7rw yap roi K. T. X. In this pas- 
sage yap refers to a prior member of the 
sentence, which, supposed to be passing 
rapidly in the speaker's mind, is elegantly 
omitted in his hurried address : as if he had 
said, This cannot be, for how shall the Greeks, 
fyc. A similar omission occurs in II. E. 22. 
where Clarke compares Virg. yn. II. 428. ; 
in which a sentence must be supplied before 
the words Dis aliter visum. A case more in 
point would be Virg. Georg. IV. 445. Nam 
quis te, juvenum corifidentissime, nostras Jus- 
sit adire domos ; in which something is un- 
derstood before nam. In the N. T. the same 
process is required in Matt. xxv. 14. Mark 
xiii. 34. Acts xxvii. 25. Rom. xiv. 10. and 
elsewhere. See Markland on Eur. Suppl. 8. 
The ellipsis is evidently recognized in the 
conjunction ovde, in the following line, 
which properly refers to ov ptv in the mem- 
ber omitted. 

124. ovde ri Kb). See on v. 106. In ad- 
dition to what is there said, we may remark, 
that TI, in conjunction with a negative par- 
ticle, as ov, ovdt, ovrt, &c. completes the 
negation, so as to exclude every exception. 
The same entire exclusion is implied, when 
TI is separated from the other particle, so as 
to depend upon a verb, as in II. B. 486. or 
agree, in its pronominal acceptation, with a 
substantive ; as infra v. 542. Where there 
is nothing to which it can be thus referred, 
as in this instance, the preposition Kara 
must be supplied. Idptv for icr/itv, Z)o- 
rice; and that by Syncope for iffafjitv, from 

125. dXXa TO, ptv K. r. X. The article at 
the end of the line is used for the pronoun 
demonstrative ravra, (see on v. 9.) and in 
the beginning for the relative a, for which it 
is frequently put in Ionic and Doric writers; 
and in particular cases by the Tragic Poets. 
See Pentalog. Gr. Note on Soph. (Ed. T. 



TptTrXy rErpaTrXrj r' aTTortVojucv, 01 KE iroOi 

Tov S' a7rajUtj3ojUvoc irpQaifyr} Kpdwv ' AyafjLtfjLvwv' 130 

7Tl OV TTapfXEVO'fat, OuSf jU TTElO'ftC* 

'Ha^at SEUOJUEVOV ; KfXfat Si JUE r^vS' aTroSovvat j 
'AXX' i JUEV Swo-ouart ylpac jUya0UjUot 'A^atoi, 135 

' Apaavrtq Kara Ov/uLOVj OTTOJC avra^iov carat* 

1379. iZtirpdOofttv. For i&TrdpOofjifv, by 
Metathesis : Aor. 2 from 6K7rep0a>. The verb 
signifies tfo carry off the booty, including the 
idea of previous devastation. 

128. TpnrXy TfrpairXy re. Supply 
fioipa. This ellipsis is not uncommon. 
See Bos. Ell. p. 190. and compare note on 
II. A. 704. 

129. d(ji<ri. Ssing.aor. 2.subjunct. for&, 
from di()iD[jii. The Ionic dialect added the 
syllable cri, to this person of the subjunctive, 
as in fXOyai, Xdflyai, and the like; and 
Homer has retained the addition in this 
verb, whereby it resembles the indicative. 
He also uses dwyvi, infra v. 324; and dw- 
faxrtr, in the plural, v. 1 37 ; as if from Scja). 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. 207. 9. 

131. dyaOoQirtp twv. Bold; or, perhaps, 
with Heyne, prudent, cunning as thou art. 
Villoison : TO Sk ayaQoQ <rj/juaiV Kal TOV 
avfipelov, Kalrbv typovifioVt ical TOV diicaiov. 
The power of the enclitic TTfp, connected 
with a participle, seems to be that of the 
Latin, quamvis, or quantumvis ; thus, infra 
v. 241. d\vv^if.voQ 7TjO, quamvis dolens ; 
i. e. much as he ivas grieved. Compare 
infra v. 275. 352. B. 246. I. 373. and else- 
where. In these instances, however, the 
signification of Trep is easily deducible from 
its primary meaning, prorsus, penitus, as de- 
rived from 7rpt, or irtpiaa&G. See II. <. 
410. 441. Indeed, by referring it to the 
adjectives, this primary meaning would give 
them the power of superlatives; as dyaOog 
TTfp, very brave ; precisely analogous to the 
class of Latin adjectives, perfortis, permag- 
nus, perdurus, and the like. It is found only 
in the poets as a solitary particle, being al- 
ways joined in prose to some other word ; as 
in o(T7T6p, tiTTtp, &c. Plato de Repub. VI. 
Oeotiice\ov' TO <j)i>crti Siicaiov, Kal Ka\6v, 
ical a&tyaov. It should seem, however, that 
the words fcoaKeXof, dfjivfjiwv, Qtoidr], 
fiiog, and the like, are not intended to imply 
perfection, but merely superiority in some 
particular qualifications ; as courage in 
Achilles, wisdom in Ulysses, &c. Thus, d!o, 
as applied to the sea, in v. 141. must be ren- 
dered great, vast, expansive. Virg. ./En. V. 

618. per mare magnum Italiam sequimur 

132. K\7rre voy K. T. X. The verb 
K\67rro>, signifying to deceive, is illustrated 
in the Lexicon to Pentalog. Gr. TrapeXev- 
otai. From Trapgpxojuai, properly, to pass 
by, to overtake ; as in II. ^. 345. Hence, 
metaphorically, to over-reach. These two 
verbs are also used in conjunction by He- 
siod. Theogon. 613. w OVK tan Ai6f 

voov, OVTE 7rapfX9elv. 

133. r) iOsXeic, K. T. X. Of the interroga- 
tive particle T), see on v. 190. It is evident 
from the change of construction, that the 
clause, 60p' awrog t^-gq yepae, does not de- 
pend upon tOsXtig. The particle avrdp, 
however, is not redundant ; but retaining 
its adversative power, must be rendered by 
contra : Do you desire, while you yourself 
retain your prize, that I, on the contrary, 
should sit down thus, deprived of mine ? The 
adverb urw is sometimes the same with 
ovT<ag, and sometimes synonymous with 
pdTrjv, frustra. Either signification will 
apply here. 

135. a'XX' ti fikv duaovfft K. T. X. In 
conditional propositions, particularly in ani- 
mated addresses, the consequence is fre- 
quently omitted in the first member ; and 
the sense must be supplied, as it readily 
may, from the context. Thus, in this pas- 
sage, at the end of the first clause, we must 
supply the words KaXtig ?x"> or something 
to that effect. If they give me an equivalent, 
well; but if not, &c. Similar omissions 
occur repeatedly ; as in vv. 341. 580. Z. 150. 
6. 423. S. 101. and elsewhere. So also in 
Xenoph. Cyrop. VIII. a sy w iicar&Q SiddvKw 
vfJLag o'iovg xpj) ?rpoc dXXrjXovc. tivac d 
St ju), K. T. X. Plato de Leg. IX. Kai edv 
utv ooi dp&VTi TO.VTO. Xw0 n TO voaqpa- 
d cl fjir,, K. T. X. Also in the N. T. Mark 
xiv. 49. Luke xiii. 9. John i. 8. xiv. 30. 
xv. 25 ; and in like manner 1 Kings xiii. 14. 
LXX. See Kuster on Aristoph. Plut. 461. 
Matt. Gr. Gr. 608. 3. 

136. apaavTtQ. Either from apw, apto ; 
of which the yEolic future is dpaai, or from 
dpt(>, the same as dptaKw, placeo. In either 

D 2 


Ei K jur) $(jj(t)Gtv, iyw Si Ktv auroc 
*H rfoi/ r) Ai 
"A?w IXwv* o 

'AXX' ^rot jU> ravra jUra0pa<rojU<r0a icai 
Nui> $ ays, vya jufXcuvav tpvGao/Aev de Xa Stav, 
'Ec 8' jOra iiriTTjSce eryapOjUv, 8' jcarojuj3rjv 
0tOjUv, av 8' avrriv XpvariiSa icaXXtTraprjov 
flc $ Tt ap^oc avrjp 
r) 'lSojuVU, $ &O 
'H <ru, IlifXciSi], Travrwv l/CTra-yXorar' avopwv, 

'.Ttyltv 'Eicafp-yov *Aa 
Tov & ap vTroSpa tSwv Tr 


case, the expression dpffavreg Kara Ovpbv, 
will signify, doz'wg wAa< $5 agreeable to my 
mind; i. e. satisfying my mind. Eustath. 
Trdvrwf OTTf jO TIC, ap(rti Kara Ov^ov, o S.GTIV, 
ap/too-fi ^ dps PCI, 0u/i?jpe ^KCIVO cori. 
Some commentators understand rtju?jjna be- 
fore aj/raiov. See Bos. Ellips. p. 293. ed. 
Oxon. It should seem better to repeat ys- 
pae from the preceding line. 

137- ft de KC JUT) dwiiiffiv, K. T. X. In con- 
ditional propositions, where a probable event 
is supposed, the verb which denotes the con- 
dition is put by Homer in the subjunctive, 
with ci KC, or at KC, instead of lav, or T)V, as 
in prose. Compare II. F. 281. 284. 288. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 523. 1. In the latter clause, 
a prose writer would have used tXoifirjv av, 
in the optative ; or the future without av. 
See on vv. 32. 184. In this passage both 
constructions a re intermixed, unless we agree 
with Longinus, as preserved in the commen- 
tary of Eustathius, in rejecting v. 139. as 
inelegant and useless. The repetition of 
the particle de in two dependent clauses, is 
not unusual, though it more frequently hap- 
pens, when a proposition beginning with a 
demonstrative pronoun is referred to one 
beginning with a relative, as in v. 57- 

139. o ds Kev KtxoXojo-crat. Dr. Burgess 
has produced this passage in answer to the 
Canon of Dawes, who affirms that the particle 
av is never found with the future indicative. 
Misc. Crit. p. 166. ed. Kidd. There is ano- 
ther instance, infra v. 174. Trap' c/xoiyc ai 
aXXoi, Oi Kg juc Tiftrjcrovai. Others also may 
be found, though, in many cases, they may 
be nothing more than the old form of the sub- 
junctive ; as in II. K. 43. 449. Brunck has 
produced several examples from Aristophanes 
in his note on the Nubes, v. 465. See also 
Markl. ad Iph. T. 894. In this case, the 
particle generally seems to soften the deci- 
siveness of the question. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 

. 598. d. Before ov we must supply tig or 
?rt, which are frequently understood after 
words of motion. In the following lines, 
gpiWo/icv, a'ycipo/icv, 0ao/uv, jS^ffojUcv, 
are the old subjunctive forms above alluded 
to. See above on v. 62. 

141. ds&Xadlav. See above, on v. 131. 

142. TTiTr]SsQ. i. e. Kara ro tiriTri$'tQ. 
144. /3?7<7o/ii>. This verb is frequently 

used transitively in the Ionic poets. It oc- 
curs also in an active sense in Find. Pyth. X. 
19. Lucian. D. M. VII. 4. See also Por- 
son-on Eur. Orest. 1427- dvrjp (3ovXr)<p6- 
pog. The council consisted of the chiefs 

146. The adjective cKTrayXo?, (by meta- 
thesis, for K7rXayo, from K7rX^(T<Tw,) con- 
veys an idea either of admiration or of dread; 
and may be rendered either by admiraUlis 
or horribilis. In the worst sense it occurs 
in II. N. 413. 445. 4>. 452. and elsewhere : 
and in the better in II. E. 423. 2. 170. 
From this last-cited passage, in which pre- 
cisely the same expression recurs, it should 
seem best to understand it in the same ac- 
ceptation here, considering the compliment 
as ironical. In the same manner, Juvenal 
uses the word admiraUlis: Sat. XIII. 53. 
Improbitas illo fuit admirabilis cevo. The 
word is explained in Hesychius, by Oavfiaa- 
ToraroQ, and in the Etym. Mag. by ^o/3c- 

147- itptt pa. In reference to the 
offering of sacrifices, Homer always uses 
p'e&iv or dpyv. The verb Qvsiv, sacriftcare, 
is of later date. In the same manner the 
Latins employ facere. Virg. Eclog. III. 79- 
Cum faciam vitula profrugibus. 

149. dvaiBfirjv cVict/ieVc. Clothed with 
impudence; i. e. aVai$?)f, shameless. Com- 
pare II. H. 164. I. 231. Similar forms of 
metaphorical expression are not unfrequent 
in Holy Writ. Psalm xxxiv. 26. LXX. Ivdv- 


DwC Tfa rot TTpO^pWV 7T0't 7Tl0T)rat '^ 



17 av 

Ou yap tyw Tpwa>v eVfic' rjXt>0oi> at 
Afupo /ia;^rjcro/ivoc* ETTEI oim JJLOL airioi elviv. 
Ov -yap TTOJTTOT' juue j3ovc TJXa<rav, ouSl jUv '/TTTTOUC, 
Oi>& Tror' ly 3>0iy ptj3wXaa j3wrtavtp^ 
KapTTOv tSriXricravT*' jETrar) /uaXa TroXXa jUrau 
OujOfa T o-aovra, 0aXa<T(ra T i^fco-o-a* 
'AXXa (rot, w july' avai&g, a/uC <T7roju0', o^pa av 



KOI tvTpOTrrv ot y^- 
yaXopprifj,ovovvTQ STT' /i. cix. 18. ivtdv- 
craro Karapav we ipciTiov. 2 Mace. vii. 5. 
sfiTTfTropfjHjfJikvoi wjuorryra. So in N. T. 
also ; 1 Pet. v. 5. r>}v raTmvo^potruvTjv 
tyfcoj/3w<ra<T0e. Add Ps. cix. 29. Isa. xi. 5. 
Rom. xiii. 14. Eph. vi. 14. 1 Tim. ii. 9. 
In classic authors we meet with the like 
figures. jElian. V. H. I. 6. r)fjLTrd^tTO <rw- 
ippovvvy. Tacit. Ann. XI. 7 Induere mag- 
num animum. Quintil. Inst. Orat. I. 1 . In- 
duere sibi falsam persuasionem scientice. 
The meaning of KepSaXeotypov (selfish, ava- 
ricious,) is determined by v. 122. where 
the epithet QiXoKTsavoQ is evidently used 
in the same sense. It has been thought, 
however, to signify crafty, cunning, as if 
from KfpSu, a fox, instead of Kep8o, gain. 

151. 6$6v iXOs/jifvai. Thus, ire viam, in 
Latin. See .Elian. V. H. V. 5. Hence, in 
a military sense, it may be extended to sig- 
nify expeditionem facere ; and, as opposed to 
the words avdpaaiv t0t p.dxea9ai, it may 
be more immediately rendered insidias 
struere ; as Xo^ovS' isvat, infra v. 227. 
See note, and compare the passages. In a 
similar sense, Demosth. in Aristocr. iv oSy 
KaQfXuv : though, as Clarke justly observes, 
the meaning of 6<5o is there more distinctly 
marked by Ka0\wv, than here by tXOelv. 
Eustathius observes : fivvarai cs KO.I irXa- 
XsyT0at Trpog diaaroXrjv dvn- 
KOI TO ?rt \i 

TTOV, Ka TO 7Tl 

Xaow, j) 

152. ov yap lyw K. T. X. Here yap is 
again elliptical, as in v. 123. Clarke supplies 
the omission thus : Quomodo quisquam tibi 
lubens obsequatur : cum eos tarn male acci- 
pias, qui Tui solius causa bellum gerunt 1 
Non enim ego Trojanorum, fyc* 

153. The Lexicons in general render 
airiog, qui in causa rei est ; and so Maltby, 
citing his authority from II. JT. 164. But 
Eustathius observes that Homer always 
uses the word in the sense of airiarkoQ, Kal 
VTTO fjik^iv Kal airiaaiv K//ivof, i. e. 
blameworthy: assigning the other use of the 

word to later writers. The two significa- 
tions, however, are nearly allied to each 

156. knur). Since, or since indeed. Either 
for 7m$?}, according to Hoogeveen, the S 
being omitted poetice ; or else, simply kirtl, 
with the rj paragogic. This passage is imi- 
tated in Ovid. Trist. IV. 7. 21. Innumeri 
monies inter me teque, mceque t Fluminaque 
et campi, necfretapaucajacent. 

158. Of the adverb a/ta Viger remarks ; 
lifjia cum dandi casu, tempus significante, ele- 
ganter jungitur. This is true, not only in 
reference to time, but universally. The da- 
tive, however, is not governed by the ad- 
verb, but by the preposition ovv understood. 
In the same manner, simul is used in Latin. 
Hor. Sat. I. 10. 85. Simul his te, candide 
Furni. Ovid. Trist. V. 10. 29. Quippe si- 
mul nobis habitat discrimine nullo Barbarus. 

159. Ti[nr\v dovvfJitvoi K. T. X. The verb 
dovvfiai properly signifying to procure, or 
to retain, (II. Z. 446.) here implies only a 
wish or endeavour, and must be rendered to 
seek, to require. It is natural to speak of 
those things, of which we desire the perform- 
ance, as if they were already performed ; 
and hence verbs are often found to denote 
the wish, or the attempt to do the action, 
which they represent. Thus KTtivw is 
merely to intend to kill, in Soph. CEd. C. 
993. Aj. 1126. Eurip. Phcen. 1617- Thus, 
also, Herod. IX. 109. 7rd\i ididov, i. e. 
wished to give. See Lysias, Orat. VII. p. 
146. and Taylor's note in loco. In the N. 
T. we meet with the same idiom ; as Heb. 
xi. 17. irpofftvr]voxev,'he was ready to offer. 
Hence, probably, the future signification of 
?jwt, and its compounds. See on v. 29. 
Here, indeed, dpvvfifvos is a various read- 
ing, which would thus refer to Agamemnon 
alone ; but it is of very little authority. 
Compare II. E. 552. ri/i?)v must be ren- 
dered compensation, satis/action; which sig- 
nification it frequently bears, as in II. T. 
286. 288. Compare v. 290. Inv. 160. Trpoc 
with the genitive signifies from : and so 
again in II. II. 85. 



IIpoc Tjowwv' rwv ovrt /urarp7T^, oiS' a 
Kat Srj juoe -yfjoae auroc 
T Qi iVt TroXXa /uoyrj<TC, Socrav 

Ol> JUV <7Ol 7TOT t(TOV E 

TjOOKOV K7Tp(TWO-' V vaiO^VOV 7TToXl0pOV* 

'AXXa TO /uV TrXaov TroXucuicoc TroXfjUOto 
Xf7p juat StfTroua'* arap r\v wore Sacrjuo^ 
Sot ro ylpac TroXu jueT^ov, tyai ' oXtyov T 




tjUV <TUV VTJVtTl KOpamtTtV* OlfSt O"' OiW, 


160. rwv own fifrarptTr^. The verb 
/urarp7ro/uat, in the middle voice, signi- 
fies properly, to turn oneself towards another; 
as infra v. 199. Hence, in Homer, it fre- 
quently signifies to concern oneself about 
anything; and is nearly synonymous with 
dXcyi'&o, which follows. Compare II. I. 626. 
M. 238. In a like sense, eVrpsTro/icu is 
used in II. O. 554. Od. A. 60. and so Soph. 
(Ed. T. 724. wv kvTpBTtov av prid'tv. These 
verbs are regularly joined with a genitive. 
We find, however, in II. II. 388. Qtwv OTTIV 
OVK a\tyovTiq. Compare Hesiod. Op. D. 
249. and see Matt. Gr. Gr. . 326. It is 
almost needless to remark, that r&v cannot 
be referred to Tpwoiv, with the Scholiast. 
Of the government of a0uipt<T0ai, in the 
next verse, see on v. 182. infra. 

162. In the second clause, the relative 
must be repeated in the accusative. See on 

163. ?xw. That this must be taken in a 
future signification, as the present is fre- 
quently used in Homer, is evident from the 
circumstance that TJOWWV TrroXi'tflpov never 
refers to any of the towns of the Troad, but 
always to Troy itself: as, for instance, in 
II. B. 133. Besides the particles of time, 
ITTEI, oTrort, &c. with a subjunctive aorist, 
relate to a future action, in the sense of the 
Latin future perfect. See on v. 168. 

165. TroXvaiKoc TroXs/Aoio. Schol. TroX- 
Xtif 6p/idg Kai KivrjfftiQ t^ovroQ. And so 
Eustathius. Thus again II. Y. 328. and in 
E. 811. Kct.fjia.TOG 7ro\vai%. Hence, it may 
be translated, harassing, laborious; from 
TroXu and di<7<rw. Heyne considers it as an 
epithet belonging to the warrior, and hence 
transferred to the war itself, in qua pugnan- 
tes diffffovffi TroXXd. Compare (Ed. C. 299. 
1541. There is no authority for such an 
interpretation, except in Od. T. 177- Aw- 
piste TE TpixdiKeg. But though Eustathius 
considers the formation of the two adjec- 
tives similar, the exposition of the latter is 
by no means agreed upon. 


166. The adversative particle drdp refers 
to fiev in the last line. See on v. 24. 

167- oXiyov Tt <i>i\ov re. Parvum quidem, 
(i. e. in comparison of Agamemnon's,) quod 
tamen gratum sit. HEYNE. 

168. f-p%ofji t\(j)V K. T. X. The present 
for the future ; as in v. 163. The subjunc- 
tive is put with the particles of time, ETTT/V, 
tTTft^dv, OTO.V, OTTorav, (i. e. gTTfi aVj 
7Ti^r) av, &c.) when an action, frequently 
repeated, is mentioned in a present or future 
tense : except with the aorist, where a simple 
action is meant to be expressed by the Latin 
future perfect. When the reference is to a 
past action, frequently repeated, the optative 
is used with ore, O7ror, &c. Sometimes, 
OTO.V, 7Ti^dv, are found with the optative ; 
and or, 7Ti^), with the subjunctive ; but 
the latter only in Homer ; as in v. 163. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 521. 

170. vtjval Kopuviai. The Kopuvq was 
a curved wooden beak, strengthened with 
brass, which was fixed at the prow of the 
ship. Eustathius : O-TTO TOV wov Trig K ~ 
p(t)vr] (the crow) tvXvyiVTOV fyovvriQ Tbv 
rpd^^Xov. Hence, some would render the 
adjective KopwviQ, black, from the colour of 
the bird. The curved extremities of a bow, 
to which the string was attached, were also 
called (copwvai. See on II. A. 111. The 
following sentence has been variously ex- 
plained ; some referring the parenthesis, 
tvOdd' a,Tip.OQ k&v, to Agamemnon, and 
others to Achilles. Both the sense and the 
construction, however, require the latter 
reference ; and the order of the words will 
stand thus : ovfe (lyw), ivBdd' drifiog swr, 
old) ff d(f>v%fiv K. T. X. The verb dtyvavd) 
properly signifies, to pour from a larger vessel 
into a smaller. Infra v. 198. vEKrap UTTO 
Kpr)Trjpo(; dtyvcrawv. Hence, to collect, to 
draw from the stores of others into one's 
own. Eustath. dtyevog uev, 6 Si oXiyou 
ffvvayofievog' TT\OVTOQ ot, 6 Sid TTO\\WV 
ITWV. The origin of the words is more dis- 
tinctly marked by the Scholiast: 



artjuoe fwv, a^cvoc icai TrXourov atyv 
Tov 8' T7/ua|3r' swttTa ava avSpwv ' 

juaX', a rot 6vfj.oq iiri 
Aia-orojum tvic' Ijueio JUEVHV* Trap' t/moiye icat a'XXoi, 
Ot K jit TifuifiGOvai' fjioXiora E /iTjrifra ZEUC- 175 1 

"Enforce Ss juot icnrt torp$wv jSao-tXrjwv, 
Att yap rot pte TC 0t'Xrj, TroXtjUOi re, jua^ai rt. 
Ei jttaXa caprpoe cow, 0oc TTOU trot roy' c'Saxccv. 
V vrjuert re <r$e, *at <rote rapotort, 

ayaovc* <r!#v 8' -a> OVK aXttw 180 

i>8' o^Ojuat icortovroc' a 
'lie /*' o wp t rat Xp 
T?)v JUEV tyti) <ruv vi]t r' ljup Kat i/iotc srapotcrt 
>* tyw K' ayw Bpeo-qt^a KaXXtTrap^ov, 
twv /cXtdti^v^f, ro crov yipaq' o^>p' fu iS^C> 185 


juot <f>aaOai, KOL 6 
^)aro* nTjXftwvt 8* a' 

fver 9 tv SE ot 

Xsysrai 17 aTro Irog s^iaurov 
TrXovrog 5e r) a?r6 TroXXaiv. 

173. 7T(r(rwrai. For kiriakavTat. See 
Prelim. Obs. Sect. IV. 

175. fir]TiTa. For /klfttlri) 
See Prelim. Obs. M&J supra. 

176. On the Homeric epithets, 

and dioyj/te, Heyne cites the following 
from the Scholiast on Pindar (Pyth. IV. 
313.) : SK Aio eivai Xgyouo-i j 
ore yovog dffi TOV Aio^, aXX' on r 
Xfwtij; Aiof t^ovai. 

178. i /xaXa K. r. X. Hence the maxim, 
Omne bonum, Dei donum. So 1 Cor. iv. 7 TI 
8t *Xii, o OVK eXafltQ ; i Be KO.I tXafec, 
ri Kavxdaai wf p,rj Xa/3wv ; Compare 
Jerem. ix. 23. The enclitic TTOV is used 
primarily as an adverb of place, implying 
uncertainty, and to be rendered somewhere, 
as in II. E. 193. P. 446. Hence, employed 
generally as a conjectural particle, perhaps, 
probably ; as in II. &. 144. O. 43. *. 83. 
Q. 488. and elsewhere. In irony and in- 
vective, as in the present case, it insinuates 
an undeniable fact ; at the same time, with 
a degree of indecision, which detracts some- 
thing from a positive assertion, nearly in the 
sense of the Latin parenthetical Nifallor. 

180. Mvpfiidovtaaiv avaaoe. The verb 
avdffveiv, and others signifying to rule, are 
usually constructed with a genitive ; either 
because derived from substantives, or as im- 
plying the idea of a comparative. Supra v. 
38. Tfve&Ho l<f>i avaaatiQ. II. 23. 84. 
orparou arjiiaivtiv. Sometimes, however, 
in reference to a personal object, they are 

found with a dative : as infra, v. 288. <J>. 86. 
and elsewhere. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 338. 
Of the Myrmidones of Achilles, see on II. 
B. 684. 

182. The verb a0aipi<T0ai governs two 
accusatives. So again, infra v. 275. Com- 
pare II. Z. 70. O. 462. Sometimes, how- 
ever, it takes a dative of the person, as in 
v. 161. and sometimes the case of the per- 
son is altogether omitted ; as in II. Z. 28. 
and in v. 230. infra. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
412. 5. 

184. lyw de K' ayta. The subjunctive 
with dv or KTE is frequently used in Homer 
for the future. Thus, again, infra v. 205. 
See on v. 137- Sometimes dv is wanting, as 
in 11. H. 87- Z. 459. Kai TTOTS rig "nry<nv. 
Compare v. 462. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 516. 
Briseis is the patronymic of Hippodamia, 
daughter of Brises. Eustathius mentions 
an ancient tradition, that Brises and Chryses 
were brothers, sons of Ardys; so that Briseis 
and Chryseis were cousins: and that the 
former dwelt at Pedasus, upon the river As- 
turion; about a day's journey from Chrysa. 

187. Iffov ip,oi QdffOai. To call himself 
my equal. Thus it will better suit with 
ofioih)9r)p,tvai dvTrjv, than by understand- 
ing it with Eustathius for kvavriov dirtlv. 
Schol. iZurwQijvat. 

188. iv S'e ol j/rop K. r. X. Virg. ^En. 
V. 701. Nunc hue ingentes, nunc illuc pec- 
tore curas Mutabat versans. The adjective 
Xaeriog properly signifies covered with hair, 
hairy ; as in II. Q. 125. Hence, strong, in- 
trepid, manly. Compare B. 851. IT. 554. 



uc JUEV ava<7Trf(Tfv, 6 S' 'ArpttSrjv vapi%oi 
'HI ^oXov 7rau(7iv, Ep^rvtrf^f r OVJULOV. 
"Ewe o Tav0' a>pjucuv Kara fypiva KCU KUTCL OvfJibv, 

"EXlCETO 8' K KoXfOlO jUya ?1^>OC* J/X0 8' 'A0rJvTJ 

QvpavoBev' Trpo yap ^K 0ca Xfu/ccJXfvoc "H/orj, 
"AjU^w Ojuwe 0Ujii( ^iXfOvcra rf, KrjSoUfvr/ T* 
2rj 8' omOev, av0rje 1 KO'JUTJC 
Ot(j> ^aivojulvrj, raiv 8' a'XXwv ourt oparo. 



0ajuj3r?<7 8' 'AxfXfue, jUra SE rpaTTEr', avTiKa 

aS' 'AOrivatriv, 

ol OO-CFE a 

190. T) oyt, K. r. X. In two questions 
which mutually exclude each other, where, 
generally, Trorepov, or Trorepa, is followed 
by ^ in the second clause, Homer doubles 
the latter particle. In simple questions the 
particle ) is frequently used, as supra v. 133. 
but it is sometimes omitted. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 609. 

191. Tovg fikv dvaffrrjfffiev. The verb 
avi<rr?;/u properly signifies to raise up (II. 
Q. 550. 756.); or to rouse (II. K. 32.); 
also, to excite (H. 116. K. 176. 179.). 
Hence, in this passage, it has been severally 
rendered to raise a mutiny or sedition (i. e. 
dvavraTovQ iroitiv] ; to throw into confu- 
sion ; to move aside. The latter seems most 
agreeable to the sense, in reference to the 
confusion of the assembly making way for 
Achilles, as he rushed towards Agamemnon. 

193. Stag o ravQ'. On the metrical diffi- 
culty in this line, see Prelim. Obs. Sect. V. 
. 2. and on the distinction between ^pr/v 
and 9vfibe, on v. 103. So Virg. ^En. VII. 
11. magnam cui mentem animumque Delius 
inspirat votes. 

194. ijXOe 8' 'AOrjvr). On the repetition 
of the particle e, see on vv. 58. 137. In 
this instance, however, it has given offence 
to the critics, as impeding the construction ; 
and Barnes and Bentley propose to read 
?j\9ev 'A0r]vri. But it does not appear to 
be without its adversative force. The first 
8k answers directly to /*v, understood in 
the preceding clause ; and the second, which 
is considered objectionable, evidently points 
to a change of purpose to be effected in 
Achilles by the appearance of Minerva. 
Eustathius considers the descent of Minerva, 
at the request of Juno, as an allegory ; by 
which we are to understand, that Wisdom, 
represented in the person of its patron god- 
dess, excited by the regal majesty (of which 
Juno was the emblem) of Agamemnon, pro- 
duced the effect attributed to the personal 
interference of the deity. But although the 
mythology of the Greeks, derived principally 


from Egypt, and reduced to a system, as 
Herodotus informs us, by Homer himself, 
(Herod. II. 53.) consisted, in a great mea- 
sure, in the deification of certain abstract 
qualities ; or rather, in dividing the attri- 
butes of the true God, of which the know- 
ledge was originally obtained from primaeval 
revelation, and thence gradually corrupted 
and misapplied, among a multiplicity of 
divinities, to which popular superstition had 
given rise : still it is certain that the early 
Greeks considered their gods as possessing 
actual existence, and it does not seem that 
Homer intended to refine upon the general 
opinions of the age in which he lived. The 
gods, indeed, are frequently represented in 
the Iliad as visiting the earth, and some- 
times, though rarely, in visible form ; and 
the most splendid actions ai-e attributed to 
the personal interference of some divinity. 
Compare II. B. 182. T. 440.7. 108. et passim. 
To understand such passages allegorically, 
Bacon regards as inconsistent with the dra- 
matic action of the poem ; and the Scholiast 
observes on II. N. 521. Trapa r<> TroirjTy oi 
Qtoi ffo)fj.ariKu>Q Xa/i/3ai/o/ivoi avOpwrroei- 
iTTiaravTai, Kal aQavaviq, \iovov Sia- 

There are, however, some few alle- 
gorical descriptions in Homer ; of which the 
personification of Airai and "An? in II. I. 
498. may be cited as an instance. 

197- Kofirjc, t'Xe Hr)\ti(*)va. Those verbs 
which signify to seize, to touch, and the like, 
take a genitive of the part on which the sei- 
zure is made, while the whole is put in the 
accusative. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 366. Eus- 
tathius accounts for the construction either 
by an ellipse of the preposition iic, or by a 
change of case for icofjujv n^Xawrof. 

200. 8eivu ds ol ovae. <f>dav9ev. Some 
refer this to Achilles ; but there can be no 
doubt that Minerva is intended. There was 
a popular opinion among the ancients that 
the gods were to be distinguished by a pe- 
culiar brightness in the eye. Thus, Virg. 



Km fii 

Tnrr' avr, alyio\oio Atoc TCKOC, fi 
'H iva vfiptv t'Sp 'Ayajutjuvovoc 'Arpa^ao; 
"AXX' K rot p0>, ro St KCU TeXttvOcti 6/a>, 

'H t V7TpO7rXiy<r Ttt^' CLV 7TOT6 OvfJLOV 

Tov 8' aur 7rpOGr47T 0tt 

Travaovcra rov julvof, at K TTiOrjai, 

./En. V. 647. dzViwz" s/#na decoris, Arden- 
tesque notate oculos. The particle # is fre- 
quently put for yap, as in II. Z. 203. where 
a reason is evidently assigned for the anger 
of Proetus. Hence, 01 is for avnj, as supra 
v. 114. Wtv for avrrjg. QaavQtv for 0dj>- 
Oqaav. See on v. 57- 

201. 7Ta TTTtpofvra. Virg. jEn. XI. 
380. Verbis ^M^S /MO tibi magna volant. 

202. TITTTE. By syncope, for rt rrorf. 
The adverb ?ror, though it generally de- 
notes a past time, is not confined to that 
signification, as Hoogeveen seems to imply 
(De Particulis, p. 471.), but is frequently 
used in a future sense ; and, in fact, refers to 
every time indiscriminately, from one long 
past to one indefinitely future. Thus, di- 
rectly below, in v, 205. rd%' av Trore, pre- 
sently. In B. 547. 797. it signifies for- 
merly, in which sense it is sometimes joined 
in the Tragic writers with rrdXat. In II. 
6. 108. lately; and so &. 45. In I. 355. 
once; and not unfrequently it may be ren- 
dered by the Latin aliquando, ' some time or 
other;' as in II. A. 182. I. 491. Hence, 
compounded with rt, it is equivalent to the 
Latin cur tandem, denoting a degree of anx- 
iety and earnestness in asking a question. 
Compare II. B. 323. A. 243. 340. N. 250. 
4>. 369. and elsewhere. The particle avrt 
Homer frequently uses for av, which is the 
root of the adverb CLVTIQ, and employed al- 
most in the same sense. See on v. 27- Its 
primary sense is back, backwards ; as infra 
v. 459. 0. 325. and hence applied to any 
change in the tenor of a discourse, it implies, 
again, on the contrary; and so, generally, 
again; as infra v. 540. $. 394. Hence, in 
a continued conversation, it marks the alter- 
nate replies of the speakers ; so that it is 
not here redundant, but answers to avrt, 
repeated in v. 206. As an adversative par- 
ticle, it is also sometimes used for de, as in 
II. A. 367. and with ptv preceding, in v. 
108. and infra v. 237. In II. B. 493. 618. 
it is equivalent to STJ. See Hermann on 
Viger, p. 614. ed. Oxon. With respect to 
the epithet alyio-^OQ, Eustathius refers its 
derivation to a tradition, that the infant Ju- 
piter was nursed by a goat; the skin of 
which he afterwards preserved as a memo- 
rial, stretched upon a shield, which was 
thence called aiyic., JEgis. Hence, some 


have rendered the epithet, a capra nutritus : 
which is altogether inadmissible. II. E. 
738. 'Afi<j)i d' dp' w/iottrt /3a\cr' alyida 
Ovaaavotffffav. Compare A. 167- And so 
Virg. jEn. VIII. 354. ipsum Credunt se vi- 
disse Jovem, cum scepe nigrantem jEgida con- 
cuteret dextra. 

203. n 'iva vfipiv ISy K. r. X. The par- 
ticle ~t] is not only affirmative, as v. 76. but 
also interrogative ; and seems to differ from 
ff (with the acute accent), in confidently 
proposing the question without hesitation, 
or doubt as to the reply. See on v. 190. 

205. The primary import of the adverb 
ra^a is, quickly, soon ; from the neuter 
plural raxa. In later writers it signifies 
perhaps, whence it is sometimes interchanged 
with i<rw. In Homer, however, it never 
loses its proper signification ; as Eustathius 
justly observes on Odyss. A. 251. On the 
construction of av, with the subjunctive, see 
on v. 137 and on the word vTTtpoTrXia, see 
the note on Soph. Ant. 130. Pental. Graec. 
p. 222. The verb 5X\v/u signifies to de- 
stroy ; but Qvfibv 6\tlv is an Homeric ex- 
pression for to lose one's life ; i.e. to expose 
it to destruction. 

206. The adjective yXav/fwTrtf is com- 
monly rendered blue-eyed. But the deriva- 
tion of the word from yXavtraw, to look ear- 
nestly, seems to support the interpretation of 
Mr. P. Knight, who translates it keen-eyed, 
quick-sighted. So Damm, after Eustathius : 
Epitheton Minerva, non tantum yXavicoiig 
k^ovariQ 6<J)9a\noi}Q, sed etiam deivni; Trjv 
o^iv /ecu iicTrXrjKTiKrjg, Kara ra yXav/cwTrd 
TU>V Orjpiwv yXavicoi ydp 01 \kovreg, reges 

ferarum. Thus in II. Y. 172. the verb yXaw- 
Kidb), to glare fiercely, is applied to a lion 
darting upon his prey ; and hence Plin. Nat. 
Hist. VIII. 21. Oculiglauci(y\avKoi) iidem 
qui et ceBsii, quales suntfelis, leonis, et noc- 
tu<e oculi. Lucian also thus describes Mi- 
nerva in D. D. VIII. 3. yXavKW7rt ptv, 
dXXti Kofffjiei Kal TOVTO 77 Kopuq. See Hem- 
sterhuis ad lor. and Tollius on Apollon. Lex. 
Horn. p. 208. The idea of colour seems 
to have attached itself to the word yXaw/cof , 
as an epithet of the sea, II. H. 34. But here, 
also, as Damm observes, color marts respicit 
TO Qofitpbv, nam per tenebras varie lucet 
mare suis undis. 


OvpavoOev' TT/OO Si fi TIKE 6ta AeujcwAEvoc "Hpj, 
"AjU0a> 6jua> flujiitf (ptXiovaa re, KTjSojulvrj re. 
'A XX' aye, XiJ'y' |OtSoe, jU]Sf i<^oe -Aco % f 'P^' 
'AAX' rjrot OTEO-I /ufv ovaStaov, we Eo^rat 7Tp. 
'il^ yap ^pw, ro SE Kat rfffAfarjUfvov forai* 
Kat TTOTE rot r/oic ro'oraa TrapsvveTai. a-yXaa Stopa, 

f, 0ti, 

Kat juaXa 7Tjt> 0u/ua> KXoXwjUvo 
"Oe K Ofote 7rt7Tt0TjTat, /xaXa r' 

If icouXfov a(T 
'A^rjvatrje' ^ 
juar' ? at-ytoxoto Ato?, jLtra Sat/xovac a'XXouc. 



,Ka v t 

21 1. a> taerai Trep. Tmesis. The clause, 
rendered ad verbum, will be, just as it shall 
be ; i. e. just as the terms of reproach occur 
to you. Eustathius observes, that Minerva 
does not place too great a check upon the 
fiery spirit of Achilles, lest, by forbidding 
him to vent his wrath in reproaches, there 
should be greater difficulty in restraining 
him from actual violence. 

212. w^e yap c^psw, ic. r. X. In com- 
paring this line with v. 204. the contrast 
between the positive assurance of the deity, 
which is verified in II. T. 140. and the un- 
certainty of the determination of the mortal, 
which is completely frustrated, is worth re- 
marking. The order of the following sen- 
tence stands thus : 7rap(T<Trai (rot iron /cat 
rpif TOffaa dwpa, in which the force of the 
particles is evident. 

216. The word ITTOQ, which signifies, pro- 
perly, a word, is thence transferred to any 
composition or collection of words whatever : 
as, for instance, a speech, discourse, or poem ; 
a prayer, a threat, a command ; also, advice. 
In this place, it signifies a command or in- 
junction; and in the same sense we have 
HvQoQ, in v. 221. The dual o^onrepov 
applies both to Juno and Minerva. 

217. KO.L juaXa TTtp. For Ka'nrtp, al- 
though. The adverb &g, with the acute 
accent, is for ovrwf , sic ; as distinguished 
from we, ut. See v. 513. 

218. IK\VOV. They are wont to hear. On 
this signification of the tenses, see on v. 37. 
The sentiment, which is here put into the 
mouth of Achilles, is cited in the Treatise 
on the Life and Poetry of Homer, attributed 
to Plutarch, as the origin of the celebrated 

saying of Pythagoras : 0((j> E'TTOU. Hence, 
Seneca de Vit. beata : Fetus pratceptum, 
Deum sequere. See also Cic. de Fin. IV. 
Arrian. Epict. I. 10. Philo (de Migrat.) 
attributes the precept to Moses. It has 
been quoted repeatedly as an expression of 
pious obedience ; and is not without several 
parallels in Holy Writ. Thus John ix. 
31. oi^a/itv on a/iaprwXwv 6 9f6c. OVK 
aXX' lav rig 0o<r/3>}^ y, Kal TO 
avTOv iroiy, TOVTOV dbcovec. Com- 
pare Ps. xxxiv. 15. Ixvi. 19. Prov. i. 28. 
xv. 29. Isa. i. 15. et alibi. 

219- r/. For fyr]. For 0i|v, also, we 
have f)v, not only in Homer, but in the 
Attic writers. Aristoph. Lysis. 514. Vesp. 
795. Plato de Repub. Lib. I. sub initio, et 
passim. The first person present ?//ii, oc- 
curs in Arist. Ran. 37. Nub. 1145. See 
Viger, p. 19. 

220. fieya t'0oe. Two weapons of the 
sword kind were in use in the heroic age, 
very different from each other, the %i<poQ 
and the /naxatpa. The former was a large 
broad-sword ; the other was but a large 
knife, and used for other purposes as well as 
for a weapon. Compare II. T. 271. A. 843. 
T. 252. See Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. I. 
p. 79- Note. 

221. fieprjKtt. She was gone. In this 
sense, the aorist is generally used ; but the 
pluperfect seems to indicate the sudden and 
instantaneous result of an action, which had 
been previously performed. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 505. III. 2. 

223. drapr?7pol. The same with arr)- 
poi, angry, reproachful. 



Kvvbg OjUjuar' X WV > cpaSiJ]v S' iXa^oto, 225 

froXfjUOy ajua 

tlvat GVV 

TO $ rot jcr)p Et&rac tvat. 
'H TToXi) Xwtov fort, Kara arparov ipuv ' 
AWJO' a7roatpt<T0at, ofrrte <T0v avrtov Ewrp* 230 

'H -yap av, 'Ar/oaS^, vui varara X<o|3?](rato. 
AXX' K rot jOw, KOI 7Tt fiiyav O/OKOV 
Nat jua roSf tuc^Trrpov, ro jitfv ouTrorf ^>vXXa KOI 6 
^UfTEt, 7rtor) Trpwra rojur)v v opftrdt XfXotTTEV, 235 

OvS' ava^Xr)(Tt* TTfpt yap /oa I ^aXKoe I'Xf^fi 

225. olvopaptQ. Overpowered with wine. 
The politeness of Achilles, in thus branding 
Agamemnon with drunkenness, impudence, 
and cowardice, has been called in question 
both in ancient and modern times. Thus, 
Plato de Repub. III. 5. in reference to this 
passage : T'L fit TO. Toidde ; apa 

234. val jua rofo oTcijTrrpov, K. r. X. See 
on v. 86. supra. Eustathius observes, that 
Achilles, hurried on by his passion, swears 
by the first thing that presents itself. But 
it was customary with kings, as he himself 
notices, to swear by the sceptre, as an em- 
blem either of power or of justice. See the 

But freedom of speech seems to note on ^Esch. S. Theb. 525. Pent. Graze, p. 
have been in repute in the heroic ages ; and 444. Somewhat similar is the oath of Ne- 
this piece of invective is highly characteris- ' ' ' ^=- ^ _j u: j 

tic of the impetuous Achilles, as described 
in Hor. A. P. 121. Impiger, iracundus, inex- 
orabilis, acer, Jura neget sibi nata, nihil non 
arroget armis. This line is parodied by Ti- 
mon, in Athenaeus, lib. IV. Aenrvofiavkg, 
WKpov onnaT tx^v, Kpadirjv d' dicv\i<TTOv. 
227. Eustathius observes, that Homer re- 
presents an ambuscade as the most enter- 
prising manner of fight ; for which a few 
men only, and the most intrepid, were se- 

buchodonosor by his throne and kingdom, 
in Judith i. 12. It may be doubted, also, 
whether this description of the sceptre is 
symbolical, at least, in the degree which 
Eustathius understands it, of the utter im- 
possibility of any reconciliation between the 
two princes, represented in the impossi- 
bility of re-uniting the sceptre with the 
tree from which it was originally taken, 
so that it should again shoot out with leaves 
and branches : or, whether it is simply or- 

lected. See, especially, the speech of Idome- namental. At all events, it will be suffi- 

neus in II. N. 275. 

229. rj TroXu Xaiiov tan. This is ironical. 
In the following, the construction must be 

cient to adopt Clarke's interpretation: Quam 
certo hoc lignum nunquam repullulabit, tarn 
certo ingens mei desiderium Achivos, Hectori 

thus supplied ; Sa>p' cnroaipiiG&ai. iictivov, posthac succumbentes, afficiet, neque tu eis 


r. X. See on v. 182. 
yap av. Viger, 


pitulari valebis. And this is all that Virgil 
seems to have understood by the descrip- 

Heyne, and others, take these three parti- tion, which he has almost transcribed for 
cles in conjunction, considering them as a the sceptre of Latinus : JEn. XII. 206. Ut 
formula equivalent to alioquin, ' otherwise ;' sceptrum hoc sceptrum dextra nam forte 
understanding, with Eustathius, an ellipsis gerebat Nunquam fronde levi fundet vir- 
which must be^ supplied from the preceding gulta nee umbras ; Cum, semel in sylvis imo 
clause : thus, } yap av, d jjn/j ovriSavolaiv de stirpe recisum, Matre caret, posuitque 
ijvaaaiQ, vvv varara Xiofirjaaio. For comas et brachia ferro ; Olim arbos, nunc 
doubtless, unless it were so, you would now artificis manus eere decora Jnclusit, patribus- 
for the last time, 8fc. Here, however, every que dedit gestare Latinis. Compare also 
particle evidently retains its proper import, Valer. Flac. III. 70?. 
and the formula is to be rendered Profecto 
enim, and not alioquin. And so again in II. 
B. 242. Where the conditional clause is 
not omitted (as infra v. 293.), the sense of 
otherwise, as Hoogeveen observes, would be 
inadmissible (de Particulis, p. 228). 

^233. 7ri OQKOV ouovnai. Schol. 87ro/t- 
wafyai taTi, TO vTria^voviif.i'ov 6u6<rcu" 
i c^t, ro 

235. STTfi^j) wpwra. Cum semel; as in the 
passage cited from Virgil in the note above : 
and so again II. T. 9. and elsewhere. roar). 
Properly, a section, from TSUVW. Hence, the 
trunk of a tree, from which a bough is lopped. 
Some, however, would read Koarjv, to agree 
with the parallel from Virgil. 

236. %aXKO. The ancients had brought 
to great perfection the art of giving a degree 




fJLlV VlC 

'Ev TraXajUpc Qoptovai SucaaTroXot, otrc 
Iljooc Aioe cipvarcu" o St rot jufyac so'crsTta O/OKOC* 
^H TTOr' 'A^tXXrjoc 7TO0?) t^crm inae 'A^atwv 

g' rote 8* ouri 8w4<rectt, a^vvjucvoc TT^? 
, fvr' av TroXXot u^>' "Eicroooc avcpoQovoio 
fe TTiTrrwcrt* (TV 8' vSo0t OV/ULOV CL^JLV^IQ 
X(t)ojufvoe, or' apiorov 'A^cuwv ovStv cricrae. 
tN '' - j3aXe yeu'rj 


of hardness and polish to this metal, which 
we translate brass, so as to enable them to 
employ it for military weapons, and cutting 
instruments of every description. Pausan. 
Lacon. III. 3. "On Sk e?ri T&V 'Hpwwv TO. 
OTrXa ojtfoiwg ^aXsa rjv TTCLVTO., fjiapTvptl 
Hoi icai "Qpqoof /3e/3aioi de Kai dXXwe /ioi 
TOV Xoyov, kv &a<Tri\idi avnKeip,tvov, iv 
'AOrjvag tepy, TO doov 'AiXXewf KCU Nt- 

Kai roi; pew ij re 

7r7rot'j/rai. Taura JUEV ^ 
I%ovra ovrwg. The metal, however, so em- 
ployed, was, most probably, a simple metal 
(copper, perhaps); and not the compound 
which is now in use underthe name of brass. 
See Od. A. 99. irepuXttye. A Tmesis. 
237- vvv avre. See on v. 202. 
238. diKa<r7ro\oi, oire Olporag K. r. X. 
The ancient Greek princes were invested 
not only with the prerogatives of religious 
supremacy, and military command, but also 
with judicial power. Aristot. Polit. III. 14. 
Kuptoi df rjaav Tijg re Kara TroXejuov }ye- 
fiovictG, ical Ttjjv QVGI&V, oaai /xr) icpariKai* 
Kai 7rpo TOVTQLQ TCLQ diicag tKpivov. In 
the exercise of these functions, Homer takes 
frequent occasion to attribute to them a kind 
of divine right to respect and authority. 
Thus, in II. B. 204. ei Koipavog eVrw, 
Sauce Kpovou TTOIQ ay- 
SKrjTrrpov r' jj^e OtfmffTaQ, 'iva 
. Hence it further appears 
that the poet was also a warm friend to the 
monarchical government of the Grecian 
states ; which, however, was not absolute, 
but limited by established laws and customs. 
Dion. Halicarn. Ant. Rom. lib. V. Kar' 
dpx p,kv yap aTracra TTO\IQ 'EXXdg ej3a- 
<riXwero' TrXrjv ou%, wtTTrep rd (BdpfSapa 
tOvrj, ^effTToriKwg, dXXd Kara VO^OVQ re 
Kai e0i<r|uou Trarpiouc* Kal Kparioroe ijv 
/3a(TiXeuf , 6 ^iKaiorarog re Kai vo/jufiwTaroG. 
See Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. I. p. 124. 
and on v. 278. infra. Hermann observes (ad 
Orph. Arg. 700.) that the termination of 
the dative plural in yg is inadmissible be- 
fore a consonant ; and here, certainly, the 
Venetian MS. reads 7raXdjnai. See also 


Butt. Gr. Gr. . 34. n. 20. There are other 
passages in Homer, however, where there is 
no variety of reading, confirmatory of the 
received text. Thus in II. II. 766. Oypeog 

Compare also Od. A. 603. $. 164. X. 287- 
and elsewhere. The ending of the genitive 
of imparisyllabic nouns is, generally, tog in 
Homer, instead of idoc,. The Doric OkpiTog, 
however, seems to have been the origin of 
the Homeric flgjwiorof, from QkjjuQ. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 72. Obs. 1. 

239. TTpof Aiof eipwarai. See on v. 
159. The verb etpuw, or Ipvw, signifies 
generally, to draw ; hence, to derive, to re- 
ceive ; which may be the meaning here. 
Compare II. I. 99. It is, however, more 
usually rendered to defend, to guard, to pro- 
tect ; as in II. Z. 403. A. 363. and else- 
where. Schol. eipuarai* pvovTai, 0vXdcr- 
ffovfft. It may be added, that eipvarai, 
lonice for eipui/rat. And so i<j>QiaTO for 
tyOivTo, v. 251. TrvQoiaro for irvBoivTO, v. 
257- and Ke^apoiaro, with the Ionic redu- 
plication, for ftdpoivTO, Vt 256. 

242. "EKropoc. dvdpofyovoio. Horat. Epod. 
XVII. 12. Homicidam Hectorem. The ad- 
verb evre is generally a particle of time, sig- 
nifying when; as in II. E. 396. Z. 392. 
515. M. 373. and elsewhere. With av 
subjoined, it has the same construction with 
7rr)v, and sirtiddv. See on v. 168. Its 
primary use, however, seems to be in com- 
parisons; as in II. F. 10. in which sense 
Homer more frequently employs the Ionic 
form }wre. Compare infra v. 359. B. 87. 
445. T. 3. A. 243. et passim ; and see 
Zeune on Viger, p. 323. 

243. QVJJLOV diivZtic,. The verb d/tvff- 
<mv properly is, to tear, to lacerate : as in 
II. E. 425. T. 284. It is here used meta- 
phorically. Eustath. dfiixrativ Sk Kypiwg 

rr\v fyvxijv d/uier<reii' ^era^opiKov eoriv 
aTro T&V craj/iarog. Theocrit. XIII. 71- 
^aXeTrof ydp etra) 0e6g fjirap /iV(T<Te. 

244. ovdev erra. See below, on v. 

245. Trpori ^e ffKrjirTpov /3dXe. Tmesis, 
for irpofffBdXt. Homer uses Tr/oort, and the 


i]\oiat 7T7rajOjUvov* ^ro 8' avrog. 

lTpW0V jUrjV(* TOLffL 

ivopou<7, \iyvc; IlvXfaJV a 1 

TOV KtU ttTTO J\(t)fT(TTlQ jUfXtTOC ^XuKlWV |0V CLV^I] 

Ttj> ' 7/^17 Swo yfvfcu jUfpoVwv avc/QWTrwv 
'Ev IlwXty fiyaQiri, fira Se rptraroi<rtv ava<r<rv. 
'11 TroTrot, i) julya TrivOoc 'A^au&a yatav 


Doric Trort, indifferently for ?rpo. Telema- 
chus, in the same manner, throws his spear 
upon the ground in Odyss. B. 80. Compare 
also yEsch. Agam. 195. 

246. xpvatioig ijXoiai 7reTra.pp.evov. 
Adorned with golden studs : a species of or- 
namental workmanship much in use in 
those times. Compare II. A. 29. 632. 

249. TOV Kai airo yXwvvrjg K. T. X. Plu- 
tarch (de Vita Horn.) observes, that this is 
the highest encomium which could have 
been passed upon an orator. Hence Eurip. 
Fragm. Incert. Ei /tot TO N<rroptov ev- 
yXwffffov fisXi, 'AvTrivopog re, TOV 3>puy6> 
doit) 9eog. The same comparison has been 
frequently adopted both in sacred and pro- 
fane writers. Psalm cxviii. 103. LXX. we 
yXvKea ry Xa'puyyi jnowra Xoyta aov, virep 
fjieXt. ry oro/iari fiov. Compare Ps. xviii. 
10. Theocr. Idyll. I. 146. TrX^peg roi p,e- 
XtTog TO KaXov <rro/*a, Qvpai, ygyotro. 
VIII. 83. Kpeffcrov jLitXTro/ievw rev aKove- 
fiev 77 p.eXi Xeixtv. Pind. Nem. XI. 23. jueXi- 
%etv TOV doidalg. Isth. II. 46. 
Truv doiddv. JEsch. Prom. 179. 
aoig TreiOovg tiraoioalaiv. So Hor. 
Epist. I. 19. 44. Poetica mella. Calphurn. 
Eclog. IV. 49. Ferum qua imparibus modo 
concinuistis avenis, Tarn liquidum, tarn dulce 
sonant, ut non ego malim, Quod Peligna so- 
lent examina, lambere nectar. See also on 
v. 254. It seems that, even in Homer's age, 
the art of eloquence was greatly studied, 
and to be a good public speaker was esteemed 
among the most admired qualifications. The 
ayojOT/, or public assembly, was then known ; 
whence Nestor is here called Xiy itg ayopq- 
Trjg. See Mitford's Hist, of Greece ; ubi su- 
pra, and on II. T. 212. Compare also v. 
490. infra. It is a canon of Dawes (Misc. 
Crit. p. 449. ed. Kidd.), that the penultima of 
comparatives in iwv is always long in Attic. 
On the contrary, in all other poets, it is uni- 
versally short. Mr. Gaisford has illustrated 
this difference by parallel examples in a 
learned note in his edition of Markland's 
Eurip. Suppl. 1101=1111. p. 206. 

250. Svo [lev yeveai K. T. X. By the 
three ages which Nestor is said to have 

lived, Ovid understood three centuries ; 
and with him agrees the old poet Accius, 
who calls him, triscecli senex. So Hyginus, 
c. 10. Chloris in urbe Seti, Amphionis filia, 
qua ex septem superaverat. Hanc habuit in 
conjugem Neleus Hippocoontis filius ; ex qua 
procreavit liberos masculos duodecim. Her- 
cules cum Pylum expugnaret, Neleum inter- 
fecit, etfilios ejus decent. Undecimus autem 
Periclymenes, beneficio Neptuni avi in aquila 
effigiem commutatus, mortem effugit. Duo- 
decimus Nestor in Ilio erat, qui tria sacula 
vixisse dicitur Apollinis beneficio. Nam quos 
annos Chloris et fratrum Apollo eripuerat, 
Nestori concessit. It seems better, however, 
on the score of probability, to understand 
yeved, as signifying a generation, or a period 
of thirty years, which is the time in which 
one generation of men is computed to suc- 
ceed another. Hence, Herodotus (II. 142.) 
remarks that a century contains three gene- 
rations ; and, in fact, this is the only accep- 
tation consistent with the addition of the 
words /ispoTTcov avOpwirtav. The epithet 
H'spoty is applied to man, as endowed with 
the power of speech. Eustath. ftspoTreg St 
ol avQoti)TTOi Trapd TO 0w<m fjitfjitpiaiJikvrjv 
)V oTTtt tig re Xeei, *cai tig avX- 
Kai tig OTOi^Cia. From /wa'pw, di- 
vido, and 6^/, vox. 

251. Tpdfav ride y'evovTO. This is an in- 
stance of the figure, called vffTepov Trpore- 
pov, of which see on II. E. 168. 

254. w TTOTTOJ, K. T. X. Hor. Epist. I. 2. 
11. Nestor componere lites Inter Pelidenfes- 
tinat et inter Atridem. This speech of Nes- 
tor has been greatly admired for its judicious 
and eloquent language of reconciliation ; for 
the earnest yet inoffensive manner in which 
he urges the public good, as a motive for 
unanimity ; and for the general wisdom and 
equity of his advice. Some of the moderns, 
however, particularly Scaliger, have objected 
to the freedom with which he talks of his 
own merits, as futile and disgusting. But it 
does not seem to have been so considered by 
the ancients. Plutarch, in his treatise on 
Self Praise, defends it, as intended to excite 
the emulation of his hearers ; and he even 


npta/ioc, npia/ioto TE Trail 


"AXXoi T 

Ei arfytoiv ra Travra TrvOoiaro 
Ot 7TjOi jUV j3ouX?7v Aavawv, 7Tpt 8' 

yap TTOT' -ya> <cat apfiocrtv, ^ 

, KCU OUTTOTE ju' ciy* aOt 



considers it justifiable in Achilles, in order 
to remind those who were forgetful of his 
services, and reproach them with their in- 
gratitude. Hence, also, Cicero de Senect. 
10. Videtisne, ut apud Homerum stepissime 
Nestor virtutibus suis preedicet ? Tertiam 
enimjam tztatem hominum vivebat : nee erat 
ei verendum, ne, vera de se prcedicans, nimis 
videretur aut insolens aut loquax. Etenim, 
ut ait Homerus, ex ejus lingua melle dulcior 
fluebat oratio ; quam ad suavitatem nullis 
egebat corporis viribus : et tamen dux ille 
Greecite nusquam optat, ut Ajacis similes 
liabeat decent, at ut Nestoris; quod si accide- 
rit, non dubitat, quin brevi Troja sit peri- 
tura. (II. B. 372.) The expression o> TTOTTOI, 
used repeatedly as an interjection in Homer, 
seems to be equivalent to the Latin Proh 
Dii ! Plutarch, vol. II. p. 22. C. ApvoTTtQ de 
TTOTTOVQ TOVQ dciifjiovaQ KaXovffi. A differ- 
ent origin of this word is given in the Etym. 
M. p. 823, 30. ot "SKvOai, ayaXfiara' nva. 
t^ovrtg vTToyaia T&V Qt&v, TTOTTOVQ avra 
KaXovai. The word occurs in the nomina- 
tive case in Lycophr. Cassand. 943. rotydp 

TTOTTOl (f)V%,T)\lV ffvdptoGaV (TTTOpOV. 

255. ri Ktv yj07<7ai K. r. X. In condi- 
tional propositions, where a consequence is 
adduced as the probable result of an event 
which may or may not happen, the optative 
is used, as in this passage, with a in the 
premises without av, followed by the optative 
with av in the conclusion. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 523. 2. Parallel with the sentiment 
is the following line of Theognis. ; Olf 

Demosth. de fals. Legat. Qrjai de ye % 
ia ad delv, oirwg firj xatpwo-iv ol 
i, iroitiv. Aristotle also (de Rhetor. 
I. 6.) has quoted the passage of Homer in 
illustration of a similar sentiment ; and 
Virgil has expressed it in Jn. II. 104. Hoc 
Ithacus velit, et magno mercentur AcMvi. 
Compare also 2 Sam. i. 20. Ps. Ixxxix. 42. 

258. In the construction of this line, the 
preposition Kara must be supplied : o'i TTC- 
pteore Aavauiv Kara (3ov\rjv Kai Kara 
fjLd%r)v. See on v. 115. Many of the older 
editions read (3ov\y in the dative after Eu- 
stathius : in which case the meaning would 
be, in the council; as in II. B. 202. and else- 
where. Compare, however, II. N. 631 . Od. 

A. 66. S. 247. The infinitive is used with- 
out the article, as a noun in the accusative. 
See the note on Soph. Antig. 1050. Pent. 
Graec. p. 279. 

259. dXXd iriQioQ'- o>0w 3e K. T. X. 
The respect for old age, amongst the An- 
cients, would give Nestor's counsel peculiar 
weight. Ovid. Fast. V. 57- Magna fuit 
quondam capitis reverentia cani ; Inque suo 
pretio ruga senilis erat. Martis opus ju- 
venes, 8$c. Hence, also, the advice of Cyrus 
the Elder to his sons, in Xenoph. Cyrop. 
VIII. 7. 10. 'EiraidtvOriv Sk Kai avTog ov- 
TWQ VTTO Trjadt rrJQ /iij re Kai v^trkpaQ 
7rarpi$o, roif 7rpf<r/3i;repoig ov \iovov 
ddt\<polg, dXXd Kai TroXiraif, Kat bdwv Kai 
9aK<i)v Kai Xoywv inrtiKtiv Kai vfiag de, 
& Trainee, ovrwg &, apx^S STraiStvov, TOVQ 
p,ev yepairkpovg TrpoTi^v, T&V 
TrpOTtTifjLrjaGai' wg ovv TraXaid Kai 
\ikva Kai svvofjia Xeyoirot; tpov, 
dirodsxtaQe. See also on II. Q. 788. and 
compare 1 Pet. v. 5. The particle de is here 
used for ydp, as in v. 200. See also on v. 24. 

260. fjdr) yap TTOT syo> K. T. X. The ad- 
verb ijSr} differs from vvv, in describing an 
action on the eve of being performed ; thus 
denoting a time closely bordering on the pre- 
sent, though not actually arrived. Suidas : 
TO ijdr] dvTi TOV gyyuf rov TrapoVrof. Like 
vvv, however, (see on v. 27.) it is constructed 
with past tenses also, as just above (in v. 
251.), where it defines the time with less 
precision than vvv ; and in the present line, 
with Trore annexed, it may refer to a time 
indefinitely remote. With the future, it in- 
dicates a time which will be shortly present ; 
as in II. *. 20. The two adverbs together, as 
in v. 456. exclude every idea of delay, as 
jam nunc in Latin. It is proper to observe 
also, that the enclitic 7Tp, in composition 
with the comparative adverb rj, is not re- 
dundant, but limits the comparison. This 
will clearly be seen by considering the ex- 
pression as elliptical : qsTrep vfiiv Ka'nrep 
Kparioroif ovffi. See Hoogeveen de Parti- 
cults, pp. 221. 236. 

261. The verb dQepieiv, to slight, is con- 
structed with an accusative in Homer. Com- 
pare Od. 9. 112. V. 174. Elsewhere with 
a genitive; as in Apoll. Rhod. I. 123. II. 
477. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 326. Obs. 2. 



Ov yap TTW rotouc iSov avtpac, oio '/ 

Olov TleipiOoov T, Apuavra re, Troifj-iva Xawv, 

Katvta r', 'E^aStov re,.Kai avriOzov HoXv^rjjUoy, 

Orjarta r' AiyEtc^v, tTTtEiKtXov aOavaTOiat. 265 

Kaprtaroi 77 KtTvot iiri\Qov'ni)v rpatyev avSpwv* 

tv tcrav, icat KapricrTOig efj,a\ovTO 
rtv 6|p(7Kw(H<Tt, Kai K7rcryXa> aTToXeo-aav. 
Kcu jutv Totviv iyw juf^OjutXeov, t*c Ili/Xov fX0wv, 
TrjXoflcv IS 'ATT/IJC jatrj^' KaXaVavro jap avroi' 270 

Kai iaojLnv K<rr' LI' avrov lw' Keivouri 8' av 

262. ovde tdtti/uu. The subjunctive is 
here put for the future indicative, the par- 
ticle av, as is sometimes the case, being 
omitted. See on v. 184. and compare 11. 
O. 350. X. 418. 

263. iroifikva Xawv. This appellation, 
which frequently recurs in Homer, will re- 
mind the student of the language of Holy 
Writ, in which kings and prophets are de- 
signated by the title of shepherds. Ps. Ixxvi. 
20. LXX. wdrjyrjaag wq 7rpo/3ara rov Xaov 
ffov kv %ipi Muvvrj Kai 'Aapwv. Compare 
1 Chrori. xxi. 17- Ezek. xxxiv. 2. et alibi. 

264. Kaivsa. Clarke and Heyne would 
pronounce the two final syllables of the accu- 
sative of nouns in svg, as coalescing into one; 
because the last syllable is always long in 
the Attic poets. The reason, however, is not 
valid, since there are instances to be met 
with in the Tragic writers and Aristophanes, 
where the last syllable is necessarily short. 
See Prelim. Obs. sect. V. . 5. 

268. 0J7prtj> 6p<rK(KHcri. By mountain- 
beasts. Here and at II. B. 743. Eustathius, 
the Scholiasts, and the generality of com- 
mentators, understand the Centaurs: and 
it is true that the heroes, whom Nestor has 
just enumerated, assisted the Lapithae in 
their quarrel with these people, who seem to 
have been the early inhabitants of Thessaly, 
at the nuptials of Pirithous and Deidamia. 
Hence Madame Dacier takes occasion to 
point out the accuracy of Homer as to the 
age of Nestor ; since, if we suppose him to 
have been twenty years of age at the date of 
that event, which happened about fifty-six 
years before the Trojan war, he must have 
been in his eighty-sixth year at the time of 
the opening of the Iliad, in the tenth year 
of the war. All this may be very true ; and 
yet there seems to be no necessity for the 
above interpretation, when the common ac- 
ceptation of the words is sufficiently obvious, 
and the traditions respecting the Centaurs 
are not altogether consistent with the appel- 
lation of mountain monsters. The hospitality 
with which Hercules was treated by Pholus, 

and the education of Achilles under Chiron, 
exalt two, at least, of the community above 
such a designation : and in Od. 4>. 295. the 
epithet a'ya/cXvrdf, applied to Eurytion, is 
altogether at variance with it. Suidas, in- 
deed, calls them ciypiov TI $v\ov, but as- 
signs no reason for the expression ; and none 
of the commentators seem to know what to 
think of them. The fable respecting them 
seems to have arisen from the circumstance, 
that Thessaly was early famous for its breed 
of horses, and from the skill of that people 
in horsemanship ; and Palsephatus relates, 
that they pursued on horseback a herd of 
wild bulls, and destroyed them with their 
javelins ; whence, oVo rov Kfvrelv rovg 
ravpovQ, the etymology of the name. See 
Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. I. p 45. note. 
Of the adjective optaKijtoQ, see Lex. Pental. 
Graec. in voce. 

270. rri\6Qf.v t 'ATT'ITIQ yairjg. Apis, a 
Pelasgian adventurer, crossing the Corin- 
thian Gulf from JEtolia, first rendered Pelo- 
ponnesus habitable, by destroying the wild 
beasts ; and thence it was originally called 
Apia. Some suppose this Apis to have been 
a physician. See Tzetzes on Lycoph. 176; 
the note on Soph. CEd. C. 1301. Pent. 
Graec. p. 181. and Stephan. Byzant. in voce. 
The grammarians, however, and Strabo, 
(p. 371. D.) explain it, absurdly enough, by 
rije fiaicpbv aTroixrrjQ. 

271. Kai fj,a%6fj,rjv KO.T' e/i' avrbv fyw. 
Schol. KO.T kfJiavrov ^vva^iv, pro virili. 
But Heyne properly observes that this 
would be KO.T' !/t, not tear' ifiavrov. The 
meaning seems to be : / fought by myself; 
i. e. apart from the rest : as Virgil says in 
^En. V. 500. validis incurvant viribus arcus 
Pro se quisque viri. Compare II. B. 366. 
It is to be remarked, that Homer never 
uses the compound pronouns tpavrov, kav- 
TOV, as one word, but always separate. 
Thus in II. I. 124. ol avry. They are 
transposed in Herod. II. 10. IV. 134. VII. 
38. avrov ipm, avTip fioi. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 148. Obs. 1. In the next line the 




Twv, o l t vvv jSporot 

Kai jUV jltU |3ouXf W 

'AXXa iriOeaOe KOI vjUfifc, ir TreiOeaOaL CL/ULEIVOV' 
MTJTE <ri> rovS', ayaOoz Trep EWV, cnroaipeo KOV/OTJV, 
'AXX' a, we o? TT/owra Sotrav yipag vlsg ' 


* 7Tl 

Ei $ <rv i 
'AXX' 6y 

, 0a Si <T -yftvaro 
forty, 7Ti Tr 

* aurap 


'A^atoTtrt irlXfrat TroXI/ioto 
Tov S' a7rajUt]3ojUvoc Trpoo-f^ 
Nat 77 rai'ra yf Travra, ytpov, Kara /ULOipav 

* 285 

verb p,a%tffQai implies, <o Je equal in fight. 
Eustathius: <m 5i ro /na%oiro avrt rou 
eptcroi Kai kiG<t)Qtiri TO, fig p.d'^rjv. 

273. Zvvitv. For Zwieaav, imperfect 
from ^vvirifii. Dr. Clarke, after Madame 
Dacier, interprets this line and the following 
thus : Auscultate vos mihi sent juvenes, cui 
etiamjuveni auscultaverunt senes. Such was 
the reply of Augustus, preserved in the 
apophthegms of Plutarch, with which he si- 
lenced the murmurs of certain young men 
against some of his imperial edicts : CLKOV- 
vkoi ykpovroQ, ov vkov 

276. dXX' la. Scil. avrbv %tv r 

278. 7Ti OU7T00' 6/toijg K. r. X. Scil. 
ry TOV 'Ayafiefivovog Tipy. Agamemnon, 
as general of the whole united Grecian 
army, was superior in power and influence 
to the other princes of the several petty 
states into which Greece was, in those early 
times, divided : each of which had its own 
independent government. In this and the 
following lines, Nestor inculcates the right 
of kings to respect and reverence, as de- 
riving their authority from Jupiter, even 
from the noblest and most powerful of their 
subjects. The duty of allegiance is en- 
forced on higher authority than that of 
Homer, in N. T. 1 Pet. ii. 13. 'YTrorayjjre 
ovv iraay dvQpuTrivg KTiatt did. TOV Kv- 
ptov arc /SacriXtZ, a> uTrepg^ovrt, irf 
r/y/i6<Tiv, K. T. X. Compare also Rom. xiii. 
1. Tit. iii. 1. and see on v. 238. supra. 

282. 'Arptt'dj;, av dt nave K. T. X. The 
impropriety of the old interpretation of this 
passage was first pointed out by Henry 
Stephens, in his Thes. Ling. Gr. ; and the 
proper acceptation of it is vindicated by 

Person on Orest. 663. against the unsatisfac- 
tory arguments of Bellanger. It is well 
known to every Tyro, that the verb Xier<ro- 
fjiai governs only the accusative, as in vv. 
75. 173. ; and, therefore, 'A%iXXr;I can- 
not be referred to it, but must depend upon 
\6\ov, thus : Do thou, Atreides, repress 
your rage ; and then (avTcip) I entreat you, 
to give up your anger against Achilles. The 
common rules of grammar will not admit of 
the latter clause being rendered, but I en- 
treat Achilles to dismiss his anger : and the 
sense of avrap, which this passage requires, 
is not unfrequent in transitions from one 
part of a subject to another. Compare in- 
fra vv. 458. 464. 467- 469. That the lat- 
ter part of the exhortation is not a mere 
tautological repetition of the former, will be 
evident from the use of the word ^6\OQ, 
which is altogether different in signification 
from fikvoQ. See on v. 78 supra. Nestor 
first endeavours to check the violence of 
Agamemnon's burst of rage (jwlj/oc,), and 
then entreats him to give up his anger en- 
tirely, and not to harbour a spirit of re- 
venge, %6Xov KaTdTTETTTEiv, (v. 18.) against 
his adversary. In the sense which this 
passage requires. JUEJ>O is used in vv. 
103. 207. Eurip. Hippol. 987. 

284. epKos. Properly, a fence, or en- 
closure ; II. E. 90. Also, a court -yard; 
II. n. 231. Q. 306. Hence, metaphorically, 
applied to persons, a defence, a bulwark. 
Compare II. T. 229. Z. 5. H. 21 1 . and else- 
where. So ^Esch. Agam. 247- 'ATn'ag yai'af 
povotypovpov epKog. 

286. Kara fiolpav. That is, according 
to reason, justice, or propriety. The ex- 
pression recurs frequently in Homer, in re- 
ference to a variety of actions. Compare 



'AXX' oS' oW?p tflfc'Xff TTf/Ol TTaVTtoJV /UjUl>at aAXb>l', 

/utv /cparlav lOtXti, TravTevai & ava<r<rtv, 
o-rjjuat'vftv' a rti/ 6u TrtiataQai oiw. 
Ei Si fttv ai^urjri7v Wtaav Gfot atcv C 
Touv/ca ot irpoOtovmv ovd^ea 

Tov S' a'jo' u7roj3X?7i7v fijULtifiero Sto ' 
*H yap KCV ckiXoe T Kai ovriSavbe K 
Et Srj trot ?rav tpyov VTrd^OfJLai, 6, rrt Kv ci7rr?c* 
"AXXottrt S?7 ravr 1 fTTtrAXfO, ^77 yap E/uorye 
2/jjuatv'* ov yap Kywy' trt aoi TrdatffOm OLIO. 

' AXXo C rOt pO>5 (TV S' Vl 0|0(Tl jSaXXfO 

t jUv ourot yw 

(701, OUTf T(j> aXXfi), 7Tt 

8' aXXwv, a ^toi <m 0o^ Trapa v??i /zfXat 
Twv OUK av rt ^>potc av IXwv, OLEKOVTOC /ito. 
El o aye juy)vj TTftpr^aat, tva yi/waxTt Kat ot'Sf* 



II. 9. 146. K. 169. 0. 367. T. 256. Od. T. 
497. A. 783. I. 245. Schol. /card ro Trpocr- 
^KOV, /card ro irpkirov. The affirmative 
adverb vai, ^e*, certainly, is used in answer 
to questions, and in assenting to the opinion 
of others, or confirming one's own. The 
particle dr/ annexed, strengthens the assent 
or affirmation. It is also used in adjura- 
tions with /wd and Tr/oog, but never alone, 
as Eustathius supposes. See on v. 86. 
Viger, p. 336. 

288. TrdvTwv p,ev Kparletv ic. T. X. See 
above, on v. 1 80. 

289. u TLV ov TreiGeaOat oiw. For icaO' a. 
In which respect I do not think that any one 
will obey him. The verb oiw, to think, is 
frequently used in Homer to imply a degree 
of confidence and certainty as to the issue of 
the supposition. Thus, again in v. 296. 
where Achilles retorts the same expression 
upon Agamemnon. Compare vv. 204. 427- 
558. 561. Heyne reads ariv, but the sense 
is improved by separating the compound, 
and considering riva as the accusative sin- 
gular. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 478. a. and . 
487. 2. 

291. TOVVIKO. ot 7rpo0ou<ri K. r. X. Eu- 
stathius : rovvfKa 01 TrpoTpk%ovaiv oveiSea 

did TOVTO at ujSpstf aur< rov \kytiv 
7rpoTpsx ov<ri ' So also the Scholiast explains 
TTpoOeovvi, evidently mistaking the drift of 
the passage, and destroying the grammati- 
cal construction. The verb is the old form 
for irpoTiOtlat, from 0w, the obsolete root 
of riOrjfjii, and it is evidently employed to 
follow up the idea, which is conveyed in the 
simple verb 'iQtaav, in the line above. If 
Herodotus is correct in his derivation of Oto 


from 0w, the use of these words in con- 
nection with 0ot is peculiarly expressive. 
These are the historian's words: II. 52. 
Qtovg de TrpoffMvofiaadv GfytaQ dirb TOV 


7rp?7y/iara Kai 7ra(7ag vo/idf t%ov. Others, 
however, have assigned a different origin to 
the word. Still it is not correct to render 
the verb to permit, with Heyne, Clarke, and 
others ; but to ordain, to dispose. 

292. The adverb vTro^Xrjdijv implies in- 
terruption. Hesych. virof3Xridr)v' virofid\- 
XMJ/ TOV \6yov, Trpiv ffiwTrrjaat TOV Xe- 
yovra. On this class of adverbs, see Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 255. b. Viger de Idiom, p. 294. 

301. T&V OUK dv Tt 0epoie dv eXoij/. 
The repetition of dv with the same verb 
occurs, for the most part, only in the Attic 
poets, whence Dr. Clarke and other editors 
read dvfXwv. But this particle is not un- 
frequently joined with participles, to which 
it gives the same signification as if they 
were resolved by means of the finite verb. 
Hence, therefore, in this and other passages, 
where it appears twice, it may be consi- 
dered as once referred to the participle, and 
once to the finite verb. And so, also, when 
it occurs with an infinitive. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 597- I. and . 599. e. 

302. el S' aye pt}v, K. T. X. It is usual 
in this and similar expressions, where the 
particle ti stands without any government 
before imperatives, to supply the verb j3ov- 
Xet, or 0Xe. Thus again in II. I. 46 ci 
de Kai awroi, K. r. X. where Eustathius 
notes : avrl rov, el e fiovXovTai. Others 
understand no ellipsis whatever, considering 
the particle as an abbreviation of the inter- 
jection fla. Heyne, on II. Z. 376. observes, 




tya rot atjua KtXatvbv lpwi]ati TTfpi Sovpi. 
*Qi TO) y* avTtflioHTi jua^o-ajutvw tTrteaaiv 

r/r^V Xucrav S' ayopriv Trapa vr\va\v 'A^atwv. 


"Ht <ruv T Mfvotrtacrj /cai olc trapoto-tv* 
'Ar/ot$i7 $' apa vfja Bor\v aXa 
'Ec 8' c/olrac Kptvv hiKOcriv, tg 8' IjcarOj 
Brjtrc 0w* ava $ Xpu<rrj'ta icaXXtTraprjov 
Elcrfv aywv' lv 8' ap^oc j3rj TroXvarjTtg ' 
Ot 7Ttr' ava)3avrc fTTfTrXfOv uypa K 


Ot 8' a7TXujuaivovro, KCU tc Xa 

"EjoSov S' 'ATroXXtuvi rfX^so'O'ac Karo^|3ac 

Tavpcuv 77^' aiywv, Trapa 0Tv' aXoc aTpvytroto' 

8' OVpaVOV IlCV Xt(T(TOjUVrj 7Tpt KaTTVW. 

ot /iV ra Trfi'ovro Kara orparoV ouS' ' 
ptSoc ? TJJV Trpwrov 7T]7rtXr]cr' 'A^tXr)/. 
'AXX' oy TaX^ujSiOv rf /cat EupujSarrjv Tr/ootrfftTTf, 
Tw ot Korav KijpuKf Kat orprjpw Oepcnrovrt' 



that the form may have been originally el- 
liptic, and afterwards have extended itself 
into a regular idiom. See Schaefer on Lamb. 
Bos. p. 366. Hermann on Viger confines 
the idiom to the epic poets. 

303. ipwqffct. See on II. B. 179. II. 302. 

306. vijag etffag. The epithet tiaoQ, 
employed repeatedly by Homer with the 
nouns vavg and dale, and occasionally with 
tt<T7ri and ^PT/JV, has been variously inter- 
preted. Eustathius explains it by Trope vri- 
KOQ Kal Ta%v, as if from ievat, to go; 
but this signification, though it may apply 
here, will not suit its usage elsewhere ; and 
it probably arose out of the words vrfbg iov- 
arjg, infra v. 482. Heyne and Ernesti, after 
Zenodotus, cited by Clarke on v. 468. con- 
sider it the same as dyaBoQ. It seems better 
to adopt the interpretation of those who 
receive it as a poetic form of IGOQ. Scho- 
liast : tiaaQ' i<TOToi%ovg. In the only in- 
stance, indeed, in which it occurs in Homer 
apart from the nouns before mentioned, it 
must signify equal : viz. in II. B. 765. See 
also on v. 468. The epithet is found in the 
feminine gender only. 

308. The particle apa is not redundant; 
but it refers, as Clarke observes, to the de- 
termination expressed by Agamemnon, v. 
141. supra. 

312 Ke\tv9a. This is one of the class 
of nouns, which, being masculine or femi- 
nine in the singular, are neuter in the plu- 

ral. Of the same kind are, 

KVK\OQ, KVK\a~ StffflOQ, StOfl 

Kv^vof, \v%va' 0Ta0jwo, trraQud' Spvfibf, 

t?pt//ia'' ioj id' Ta'prapof, Taprapa* &c. 
Perhaps, however, there were, in fact, two 
forms of the same substantive, of which only 
one remains in use in the singular and one 
in the plural ; for we occasionally meet with 
an instance of both usages. Thus, we have 
KVK\OI, in II. Y. 280. dtffpovg, Od. 9. 724. 
&c. See Porson on Eur. Med. 494. Blom- 
field on jsch. Prom. 6. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 98. 

314. Av/zara. The word comes from 
\ov(t>, duo; the same verb from whence 
aTreXv/jiaivovTO, which precedes in the line, 
is derived. Perhaps this lustration might 
be used as a physical remedy in cleansing 
them from the contagion of the plague : as 
Pausanias tells us it was by the Arcadians. 

315. Tt\r)'e<Tffa, For T\eiag. See on 
v. 66. 

316. arpyysroio. Unfruitful. This seems 
to be the proper meaning of the word ; 
from Tpvyij, fruit. See the note on Eur. 
Phren. 216. Pental. Gr. p. 316. Eustathius 
mentions other interpretations, but their de- 
rivations are less satisfactory. See on II. P. 

321. OtpcnrovTf. In Homer, Otpd-Truv 
does not convey the idea of servility, but 
companionship. Patroclus, for instance, who 
in v. 345. is called the 'iraipoQ of Achilles, 


Xapoc tXovr' aytjUfv Bptarj/Sa 
Ei Sf KE jtty) Scupo-ty, tyw &| iv auroc 4'Xwjuat, 
'EX0wy CTUV TrXfovfaar ro ot KCH piyiov larai. 
* Kpartpov & iirt juivOov Hr 

Trapa 0lV 


Tov c)' upoy ?rapa rt K\icrir) KOL yrj! 
"Himevov' ov$ apa rwye tSwy yrjOria 
Tw juty rapj3/j(ravr, icai atSo/xlyw jSao'fXfja 
2rr/rrjy, ouSf rt juiv 7r/>oor^a>vov, ouS' fplovro. 


Aurap o 

Iv Qpicii 


tr'* ourz juoi v/uL/ 7rairtot, aXX' ' 


is elsewhere his 06 paVwv ; and so Merion 
is described in II. . 528. Oepdirwv ti> 
'ldop.tvijo. It was the custom of warriors, 
in the heroic ages, to attach to themselves 
companions of more humble birth, or less 
honourable pretensions. The word OV\OQ 
does not occur in Homer, by whom dfiutg is 
used to denote a slave, or servant. There 
is a like distinction between the term 
a/i^iVoXog and dov\r) in the feminine. 
Once only, in II. P. 409. the feminine 
Sov\r] occurs. From orpvvetv, the adjec- 
tive orpripoQ signifies prompt, zealous. 

322. p%f.a9ov icXtffirjv. Supply iirl, as 
in v. 139. Compare v. 328. 

326. KpctTtpbv S' 7ri pvOov trtXXc. See 
on v. 25. In Trpoiet, misit, the preposition 
is redundant. See on v. 3. 

327. rw f /3aVjv /c. r. X. The dual of 
this and the following line are interchanged 
in vv. 329. 332. for tvpov, irpoffttywvtov, 
and ipeovTo, in the plural. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 300. and note on v. 567. infra. 

330. ovdk yrjOrjaev. Eustath. VTreptXv- 
Tri]Qr] dri\ovori. An observation of Her- 
mogenes, Trtpi peBoSov dtivorrjTOG, c. 37- 
is cited by Clarke, that the negation of the 
contrary is frequently stronger than a posi- 
tive assertion. Thus, supra v. 244. ovdtv 
tTiaag for r)Tiiir)GaQ. Virg. ^En. VI. 392. 
Nee vero Alciden me sum laetatus euntem Ac- 
cessisse. See also on II. O. 11. 

331. rw [itv Tap(3rjffavTe, K. T. X. There 
was required a very remarkable manage- 
ment to preserve all the characters which 
are concerned in this nice conjuncture ; 
wherein the heralds were to obey at their 
peril, Agamemnon was to be grartfied by an 
insult on Achilles, and Achilles was to suffer 
so as to become his pride, and not have his 
violent temper provoked. From all this the 
poet has found the secret to extricate him- 

self, by only taking care to make his heralds 
stand in sight and be silent. Thus they 
neither make Agamemnon's majesty suffer 
by uttering their message submissively, nor 
occasion a rough treatment by Achilles, by 
demanding Briseis in the peremptory air he 
ordered : and at the same time Achilles is 
gratified by the opportunity of giving her 
up, as if he rather sent her than was forced 
to relinquish her. The art of this has been 
taken notice of by Eustathius. POPE. Hence 
it appears that jSacriX^fa, i. e. Agamemnon, 
must only be referred to aidoftivw, and that 
fill', sc. Achilles, must be understood after 
TapfirjGavTe. In adopting this suggestion 
of Mr. Jones, a writer in the Classical Jour- 
nal, T. III. p. 376. there seems to be no 
necessity for referring to some other of his 
illustrations of Homer, in which he enters 
too deeply into minutiae, from which his de- 
ductions are not equally satisfactory. 

334. Kr]pvK, Aioe ayytXot. The Krj- 
pviceg, or heralds, usually attended the am- 
bassadors : but in the earlier ages they were 
themselvesemployed in embassies or missions 
of importance, and their office was accounted 
sacred, as being descended from Mercury. 
Schol. dcrvXov Kal Otlov TO ytvog r&v KI\~ 
pvK(t>v. 'Eo/u,77 yap /ityeif ilavdpoay, ry 
KeKpoTTOc. ftvyarpi, ia\.tv vibv ovopaTi 
KrjpvKa, city' ov TO T&V KripvKiov yivog, 
we. IffTOOfl UroXtjuaTot;* ^7 OTI TO.Q foprdf 
TMV 9iS>v dyysXXowffiv ?) OTI airb 'Ep/iou 
tiaiv, OVTOQ dyyeXov Aio. Hence Eurip. 
Suppl. 120. KfipvZiv 'Epfjiov. A degree of 
sanctity was afterwards attached to the 
office, implied in the name of 7rp!<r/3uc., 
and continued to the Roman Legatus. 
Statius : Legatus sanctum populis per stecula 

335. tTraiTici. See on v. 153. 

F 2 



'AXX' aye, AfoyVC 
Kai <r0wtv 8oc aytiv' rw 8' aurw juaprupot corcoi/ 
npoe rs OEWV juaKOjOtuv, ?rpoc r 0v*jrwv avOpwTrw 
Kai TTpoc rou j3a<nX?)oc a?rrjvoc. EtTrorc 8' aurt 
Xpaw ijucto ytviirai aeixia \oiybv ajjivvai 
Tote a'XXo* *? 7"P oy' 6Xoy<rt <pp(n Bvei, 
rt ot8 voriaai a/aa 7Tpoo-(7a> icai O 
ot Trapa VTJU<TI <rooi 



8' ay ays icXtanjc Bptffi/tSa 
WKE 8' dyeiv' rw 8' tum trrjv ?rapa v^ 
'H 8' atjcova-' cijua roto-t yvvr) ctv* avrap 




338. ra 5' avru /^aprupoi <rra*v. 
Namely, of the insult passed upon Achilles 
by Agamemnon. Such is, doubtless, the 
sense of the passage ; for the insertion of 
the particle dk, after eiTrore in v. 340. and 
the general tenor of the speech, evidently 
require a pause at cnrtfvso^. 

339. TTpof &i>v. Before the gods. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 590. 5. 

341. Xoiyov a/Jivvai ToTg aXXoif. An 
aposiopesis. Achilles breaks off suddenly 
in the middle of his address, probably from 
an unwillingness to include the rest of the 
Greeks in the consequences, with which he 
was threatening Agamemnon. Heyne sup- 
plies the sense thus : Turn sentiet ille quam 
et cui injuriam hanc fecerit. On the metri- 
cal construction of v. 342. see Prelim. Obs. 
Sect. V. . 2. The verb Ovu, in Homer, 
signifies to rage : in which sense it occurs 
very rarely in later writers. ./Esch. Agam. 
1206. Ovovaav ydov /Ajjrspa. See Blom- 
field's Glos. in loc. 

343. irpoaffb) cat oTrifftrw. These words 
are generally translated preesentia et futura. 
But Heyne is, undoubtedly, right in ren- 
dering TO. Trpoffw, the future ; and TO. OTT'I- 
ffb), the past. The meaning is ; He has not 
sense to judge of the future from the past. 
Agamemnon had frequently witnessed the 
past services which Achilles had rendered 
to the Greeks ; and yet he deprived them 
of his future support, by provoking him to 
withdraw from the field. The expression 
oifc voijGai is a periphrasis, similar to the 
common forms fyr) Xsywv, Soph. Aj. 768. 
Herod. III. 156. V. 36. oi%e<70ai cnriwv, 
Aristid. Orat. p. 248. E. So also, II. B. 
71. vx ro ^svywv. 666. flrj 0fvywv, and 
the like. 

347- Trapd vijaQ, To, or towards the 


This is the general signification of 
with the accusative. Herod. III. 15. 
Trapd Kaj/3i>c7a. Thucyd. I. 115. 
Trap' 'AQrjvaiovg t\Q6vT(Q. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 588. c. 

348. avrap 'AxiXXtue Aaicpvffag, K. r. X. 
Eustathius observes on this passage, that 
it is no weakness in heroes to weep, but the 
very effect of humanity, and proof of a ge- 
nerous temper : of which he offers several 
instances, and takes notice, that if Sophocles 
would not let Ajax weep (v. 580.), it is be- 
cause he is drawn rather as a madman than 
a hero. But this general observation is not 
all we can offer in excuse for the tears of 
Achilles. His are tears of anger and dis- 
dain, of which a great and fiery temper is 
more susceptible than any other : and even 
in this case, Homer has taken care to pre- 
serve his high character, by making him 
retire to vent his tears out of sight. POPE. 
The instances cited by Eustathius are those 
of Agamemnon in II. I. 14., and of Patro- 
clus in II. II. T., introduced by the proverb 
dyaOoi d' apiddicpvts dvdptg. To these 
may be added that of Hercules in II. 0. 
364. and of ^Eneas in Virg. ^En. I. 463. 
et passim. -The adverb a0ap, forthwith, 
immediately, must be referred to XiaaOtlg, 
and the genitive tra'pwv is governed by 
voff<j)i. But Achilles immediately hastened 
to the shore, and sate weeping, apart from 
his companions. 

350. olvoira irovrov. The Homeric epi- 
thet oivo-^, and psXag also, as applied to 
the Sea in II. Q. 79. may be illustrated by the 
following passage from Cic. Qutest. Acad. 
iv. 33. Mare illud, quod nunc Favonio nas- 
cente purpureum videtur, nobismet ipsis 
coeruleum videbatur : mane flavum, nunc, 
qida a sole collucet, albescit et vibral. Thus 





MfJTp, 7Tl JJL 

Ti/Lirjv Trip fJLOL o^fXXfv 'OXv 

Zfl>C V^/<j3jOjLtTJJC* VUV S' Ol^ jU 

7 H -yap ji' 'Ar/oa'Srjc svpu/cpawv ^Ayafitpvwv 355 

i;* IXwv yap %ft ytpag, auroc aTroupac. 
J>CITO Sajcpu^o>v' row 
fv j3v0cro-tv aXoc Trapa vrarpi 

8' av^u 7roXtr?e uXoc, TJVT' 6fjLi)(\r]' 
Kai pa Trapot^ auroto ica0^ro cWpuxtovroe, 360 

Xapt T /itv Karpfv, ETTOC T' 0ar', K r' 

TE'KVOV, T/ K\aii ; ri Sf (T 0pva^ ticcro 
'E^auSa, ^UT) KU0 votj), tva 

Trjv & /3apv (rrfva^wv TTpocrf^i] Tro 

a' rir\ rot raura i^vip Travr' ayo/ofuw ; 365 

also otvoc, from which it is derived, is 
found with the epithets, spuflpof and /ieXctf, 
in Homer; so that otvo^ Troj/roe m y be 
regarded as identical with KUjita Trop^uptov, 
zw/ra v. 482. and S\e Trop^vpsij, in II. II. 
391. Hence Virg. Georg. IV. 373. / mare 
purpureum violentior influit amnis. 

351. x ^P a ? bptyvvq. The Scholiast 
observes, that in offering their prayers, the 
ancient heroes stretched forth their hands 
towards the gods whom they addressed ; 
whether in heaven, upon earth, or in the 
sea. So Virg. J3n. V. 233. Ni, palmas 
ponto tendens utrasque, Cloanthus Fudisset- 
que preces, Divosque in vota vocasset ; Di, 
quibus imperium est pelagi, quorum cequora 
curro, Vobis leetus ego, c. 

352. fjuvvv9ddi6v Trtp tovra. This al- 
ludes to a story which Achilles tells the 
ambassadors of Agamemnon, II. I. 411. 
that he had the choice of two fates ; one 
less glorious at home, but blessed with a 
very long life ; the other, full of glory at 
Troy. The alternative being thus proposed 
to him, not from Jupiter, but Thetis, who re- 
vealed the decree, he chose the latter. POPE. 
The plaintive expostulation of Achilles has 
been imitated by Virgil, in Georg. IV. 321. 

356. cXwv yap t%a ylpag. The verb 
e%w is often joined with an active par- 
ticiple, where the latter, as a finite verb, 
would have been sufficient : in which case, 
t%ot shows the possession of an object, 
and the participle the manner of arriving at 
it ; or the verb may simply express the con- 
tinuance of the action indicated by the par- 
ticiple. Sometimes, however, it only forms 
a circumlocution. See the examples cited 
in Matt. Gr. Gr. 559. b. and the note on 

Soph. (Ed. T. 557. Pent. Gr. p. 44. It is 
undecided whether the participle aTrowpae 
is put by syncope for aTTOVjOio'ag, lonice for 
d(j)opiaaQ, from a'0opia>, or whether it be 
for dTravprjaag, Aor. 1. lonicd from dirav- 
PCIM. The latter is certainly more agreeable 
with the sense and the usage of Homer. 
Compare II. Z. 17. K. 495. A. 115. with <J. 
296. and II. A. 344. with v. 432. But see 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 223. avroQ aVovpag. For 
o a'Tnjvpev. 

359. r/wr' 6jutxA>/. See on v. 242, 
363. 'iva zidofjiev a/*0o>. We should say ; 
that I may know as well as you. Heyne 
accounts for the use of 'iva with the indi- 
cative, whereas the construction requires 
the subjunctive, by observing that the rules 
of grammar were not so strictly fixed when 
Homer wrote, as they were afterwards ; so 
that he frequently makes them subservient 
to his metre. But i$o/iv is, in fact, no 
other than the old Ionic form of the sub- 
junctive, as in v. 62. et passim. 

365. ISviy dyoptvw. So II. K. 250. The 
expression is so frequent, as to have be- 
come an idiom. ^Esch. Prom. 450. 'AX\* 
avra aiyw' KOI yap eldviaiaiv civ ' 
Xsyoi/i' dv. Thucyd. II. 36. 
pu> v tidoffiv ov jSowXojuai. Dr. Blom- 
field has collected other examples in his 
Glossary to jEsch. Agam. 1373. The in- 
quiry of Thetis, however, is perfectly natu- 
ral, and must be referred to her maternal 
anxiety, not to actual ignorance of the 
cause of her son's complaint ; and though 
Achilles is well aware of her being ac- 
quainted with the facts, yet his recapitu- 
lation of them is perfectly consistent with 
the state of mind in which he then 


T?)v $ SttTTpaOofjLLV rf, Kai riyojuitv tvOaSe Travra- 
Kai ra /ulv ev 8a<rcravro jUra G^ic 
'EK 8' f'Xov 'Ar>t8r? X|OU<TT)t8a Ka 

u<ri? 8' au6T tpuc licarrj|3oXou 'ATroXXwvoc 370 

Ovyarpa, (j>pwv r' a 

ava tneffwrpip, KOL XtdfTEro Travrac 'A^aiou^ 
iSa SE juaXtara Suw, icoo'juryropf Xawv. 375 

' aXXot juiv Travrfc 7Tu^)77jur}(Tav'A^;afot, 
' tfprja, Kai ayXaa ^i^Oai aTroiva' 
'AXX' OUK 'ArptS^ ' AjafiifivovL rjvSav 0VjU(J, 
'AXXa KQKWC a^t', Kpartpov 8' ?ri pvOov f'rfXXf. 

o yljowv TraXtv w^ro" roto 8' 'ATroXXwv 380 
7Tt juaXa ot (t>i\o ^v. 

KOKOV /BfXoC* O $ VU XttOt 

ra ' 

Eu i8wc ayopV 0O7TpO7rtac 'Eicaroio. 385 

AVTLK tyw Trpwro^ KfXo/irjv 0ov tXacricacr^at* 

8' 7Tcra x^^C XajSfv* an//a 8' ayaorac 

v9ov f o 817 rfr 
??y fjilv yap GVV vi\i Oorj f 
'Ec Xpvariv TTf/iTrouo-tv, ayovai 8f 8wpa avaKri* 390 

, ri]v jttot 8ocray 
'AXXa ait, el 

366. itprjv. Prceclaram. See the note on therefore, QeoTrpoTria 'Eicaroio is the decla- 

v. 131 ; and of the situation of Thebe and ration of the prophet, as inspired by his god. 
other particulars relating thereto, see the 388. o. For OQ. See on v. 125. 
notes on the Catalogue, II. B. 691. 389. tXiKwirie 'K\aioi. Supra v. 98. 

371. fjXOe Qoag K. T. X. These lines are 393. ira^oQ krjOQ. Wolf, Heyne, Bek- 

repeated from v. 12. supra ; and similar ker, and most recent commentators, read 

repetitions abound in Homer. See Prelim, trjog with the soft breathing, taking it as 

Obs. Sect. II. the Ionic genitive for t0, from the ad- 

382. ol dk vv Xaoi. And hereupon, 8fc. jective kvq, brave. In the first edition, the 
See on v. 27. old reading OJOQ was retained, and ex- 

383. kiraoffvTtgoi' Hesych. aXXot ITT' plained as the Ionic genitive of the pos- 
dXXoiQ. Dr. Blomfield, in his Glossary on sessive pronoun toe, suus. Besides this 
^Esch. Choeph. 420. derives this word from place, this derivation would suit well with 
iTravavatvonai, and not from avaov, with II. O. 138. Q. 422. 550. But there are 
the grammarians. three other passages in Homer, in which 

384. a/jjwi de pavTig K. T. X. See on v. 59. that from tug is infinitely preferable, if, in- 
Heyne observes, that ayoptveiv 0eo7rpo- deed, any other can be admitted : viz. II. T. 
Triag is nothing more than vaticinari, as 342. Od. S. 505. O. 450. Nor indeed is it 
tltrttv OtoirpoTTtov, in v. 85. No oracle had altogether certain that the passages, ad- 
been actually delivered from Apollo; and, duced to prove that a pronoun of the 


vd OuXu/iTTovSf Am Xto-eu, a Trort ?'j ri 

IloXXa/a yap crto warpo^ im /nyaaot<nv 

, or' 0rjflr0a KsXfttvf^li Kpovauvt 
iv aBavaroiaiv atiKta Xoiyov afj.vvai, 
'OTTTTOTE juti> ^vi'Sfjoxu 'OXu/i7not rJ^cXo 
"HjOrj T', 77^ Iloa-aSawv, KCU HaXXae 'A0/jvrj. 
'AXXa au rov 7' iXflovera, 0a, inreXvcFao 



third may be used instead of those of the 
first and second, will substantiate the point. 
See on II. T. 174. True it is that there is 
no similar instance of the change of to 
into ?jo, in the genitive of adjectives in 
tvg ; but the declension of IVQ is, in other 
respects, irregular. Thus we meet with the 
genitive plur. fern, idmv, as if from toe., la, 
iov. See Koen. ad Gregor. p. 204. and the 
note on II. Q. 528. ti dvvaaai ye. For 
iTrti dvvaaai. See Hermann on Viger, p. 
643. . 410. 

396. Trarpog tvi /ityapoifft. Schol. iv 

TOIQ TOV TTCirpOQ fAOV, Iir}\<U^, OtKOlf kv 

9a\d(Tffy jap IlTjXeug KaroiKtiv OVK r\$v- 
VCITO. The pronoun a'to must be under- 
stood of Thetis, and construed with 

398. OCT; iv aQavaroiai K, r. X. Te solam 
perniciem ab eo depulisse. On this construc- 
tion of the infinitive, with its subject in the 
nominative, see note on Eurip. Phcen. 488. 
Pent. Gr. p. 331. Eustathius takes occasion 
to point out the nicety with which the per- 
suasive, which Achilles suggests to Thetis, is 
adapted to the exigence of the occasion. 
The three deities, who are mentioned in v. 
400. as being the enemies of Jupiter, when 
Thetis effected his deliverance, were those 
who principally favoured the Grecian cause ; 
so that, by calling their ancient enmity to 
his recollection, he would be more readily 
induced to comply with her wishes, in 
thwarting their intentions. In v. 400. for 
IlaAXaf 'A9r}vri, some read 4>oT/3o 'ATroX- 
\u)V, and others reject the verse altogether. 
Heyne seems to favour the latter opinion, 
objecting to the specific mention of three dei- 
ties, after the indefinite expression 'OXvfi- 
TTIOL aXXot. But it should seem that Juno, 
Neptune, and Minerva, are more particu- 
larly named, for the reason above given by 

401. vTctkvaao Se<rfiu>v. You rescued him 
from the chains, viz. with which they in- 
tended to bind him ; since they did not 
effect their purpose. Compare v. 406. 

403. ov Bpiapswv K. T. X. Besides the 
assistance here afforded to Jupiter, Briareus 
is related (by Hesiod. Theog. 734.) to have 
given his powerful support against the Ti- 
tans : and hence, perhaps, originated the 
mistake of the Scholiast, who refers this ac- 
count of Homer to the same transaction. 
But the expression 'OXv/jnrioi aXXo, which 
he explains by 01 'firavtQ, cannot, properly, 
be so interpreted; more especially in con- 
nexion with v. 400. A doubt also arises as 
to the parentage of ^Egaeon, who was the son 
of Uranus and Terra, according to Hesiod 
(Theogon. 147-) ; but the son of Neptune, ac- 
cording to the Scholiast. The latter opinion 
seems to be more agreeable with the paren- 
thesis in v. 404. in which ov TrctTpbg may 
have some reference to the contest in which 
Neptune was engaged ; though it must be 
confessed, that in this case his filial duty was 
completely forgotten. It appears also from 
Callim. H. 141. that for some offence after- 
wards committed against Jupiter, Briareus 
was confined under ^Etna; and Virgil speaks 
of him as receiving punishment in Tartarus 
for arming against Jupiter, in the war with 
the Titans, contrary to the statement of 
Hesiod. But whatever difference there may 
be in the mythological history of this giant, 
all agree in encumbering him with a hun- 
dred hands and fifty heads. Virg. JEn. X. 
567- JEgteon qualis, centum cui brachia 
dicunt, Centenasque manus. It is not at all 
improbable, that the origin of the Homeric 
mythology, respecting this rebellion of the 
gods, and other fabulous narratives, such as 
the precipitation of Vulcan from heaven, 
v. 590 ; the ejection of the Daemon of Dis- 
cord, in II. T. and Jupiter's threatening the 
inferior gods with Tartarus, in II. 0. was 
derived from imperfect and corrupted tradi- 
tions of the Scriptural account of the punish- 
ment of the rebellious angels. See 2 Pet. ii. 
4. Jude ver. 6. The opinion of Clarke and 
Pope, that these fables are nothing more 
than poetic allegoi-ies, borrowed from the 
doctrines of the ancient philosophers, is cer- 



Alyaiwv*' o yap avr fity ov Trarpoc a 

"Oc /oa Trapa Kpovtwvt KaOe^ETO, KvSti yauov. 

Tov Kai VTrlSSacrav juaKap HOI, ov$e T E 

Twv i'uv fjLiv jttvrjcracra Trapt^EO, Kai XajSf 

At Kv TTWC tBiXyaiv ?ri T/9W(T<nv api?ai, 

Toic $ Kara Trpu^uvac r Kai a'jU<^>' aXa tXcrat 'A ^ 

Kravo/ivouc, tva Travrfe ETTavpwvTai jSacnXrjoc, 



v arrjv, or 

tT fVeira 


TL vv 

tainly inverting the order of things. With 
respect to the two names of the giant, one of 
which is assigned to the gods, and the other 
to men, the same mode of expression fre- 
quently occurs in Homer; e. g. II. B. 813. 
S. 291. Y. 74. Od. K. 305. Hence Ovid 
Met. XI. 640. Hunc Icelon superi, mortale 
Phobetora vulgus Nominat. The Scholiast 
suggests that the divine appellation was more 
ancient, the other of more recent invention ; 
but the distinction most probably relates to the 
difference which exists in poetical and com- 
mon modes of expression. Thus the poetry 
of Homer has been frequently denominated 
the language of the gods. The appellations 
themselves are precisely similar in significa- 
tion : the first being deduced from the inten- 
sitive particle (3pi, and dprjQ, strength ; the 
latter from aicrcrw, to rush impetuously, and 
thus implying strength ; the excess of which 
in the giant seems to have given rise to the 
fable of his century of hands ; which is in 
strict analogy with the early custom of giving 
life to abstract ideas, so peculiarly prevalent 
in the East. 

404. o jdp avre. For he, on the other 
hand. See on v. 202. 

407- 7rapsfo, Kai Xa/3e yovvwv. To 
throw themselves at the feet, and embrace 
the knees of the person to whom they ad- 
dressed themselves, has been the custom of 
suppliants in all ages. Hence Pliny justly 
observes: N. H. XI. 45. Genibus queedam 
religio inest, observations gentium : heec sup- 
plices attingunt : htec lit aras adorant ; for- 
tasse quia ipsis inest vitalitas. See Potter's 
Archseol. Gr. B. II. c. 5. Sometimes they 
touched the knees with one hand and the 
chin with the other (v. 501.); and sometimes 
kissed the hands and knees (II. Q. 478.). 
The verb \ajw/3avw is here joined with a 
genitive, being used in the same sense with 
uTTTo/jLai, infra v. 512. O. 76. 4>. 65. Q. 35?. 
and elsewhere. 

409. TOVQ 'A^aiovg. See on v. 11. The 
preposition a/0i does not govern aXo, but 




is separated by Tmesis ; being 
the aor. 1. infin. by syncope for t\a<7ai, from 
eXdw, or \auva, abigo. Compare II. H. 450. 
S. 564. 

410. 'iva IT. iiravpuvTai (BaffiXfjog. 
Some understand evtKa, but the verb tTrav- 
peo~9ai, to enjoy, is properly followed by a 
genitive ; as in II. O. 17. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 361. 4. The expression is ironical, 
and has a parallel in Holy Writ : Prov. i. 30. 
roiyapovv idovrai Trjg tawrwv 6Sov TOVQ 
Kapirovg, Kai rrjg tavT&v dvejBtiac 7r\rjcr- 
9rj(Tov-ai. The strict sense might be ob- 
tained by supplying drrjg, from v. 412. The 
case of the object is wanting in II. Z. 353. 
The active form, eTravptiv is also in use in 
the sense of to taste, to feel, to experience ; 
and is constructed with the accusative : II. A. 
572. N. 649. 

412. i)v arrjv. His folly. The word 
art), in its primary signification, implies the 
folly or madness into which a person is hur- 
ried by any unrestrained passion, which was 
frequently attributed to the vengeance of 
some offended deity. Hence "ATTJ is person- 
ified as the daughter of Jupiter, in II. T. 91. 
From its primary signification, it was easily 
transferred to the effects which it produced ; 
whence it may sometimes be rendered by 
calamity, misfortune, and sometimes by inso- 
lence, or injustice, according as it affects the 
doer or the sufferer. Compare II. B. 111. 
Z. 356. 0. 237. I. 1 15. 500. 

414. Ti vv ff' iTpetyov, aiva reKovcra. So 
tTTfi vv, in v. 416. See on v. 27- aivd. For 
aiv&Q, i. e. icor/ey a'iffy, v. 418. Adjectives 
are not only used adverbially in the neuter 
plural, but in the singular also, and in the 
masculine and feminine, provided they are 
referred to substantives. Thus in II. P. 361. 
roi 8' dy%r]GTivoi (TTLTTTOV, for ayx 1 d\\rj- 
\u)v. This construction, however, is more 
frequent with adjectives derived from adverbs 
of time, and used for substantives in the da- 
tive. Infra v. 423. xQi&Q t/3?/, for 
472. Travrjfjifoioi i\a<TKOvro. 497. 


a vr\v(nv dSaKpvroc; KOI a 

T H<r0at* 7rt vv rot cua-a fj.ivvv6a rrep, oim jiiaXa S 
Nuv 8' a^ua T' wjcv/xopoe KOL 6tup6c ?rpi Travrwv 
* ETTASO* rcjJ <r Kajcrif atcrr/ r/cov tv 
Touro SE rot iplouffa CTTOC Act 
Et/i' awr?) 7rpoc"OXv^i7rov ayavvt^ov, at KE 
'AXXa (TU jiiv vuv, VTJVO-I irapriiuLivog W 
M^yt' 'A^atoTdt, TToXfjUOu 8' aTTOTraueo Tra/iTrav. 
yap 'CiKEavov jUEr' afjivfiovag AlOtOTrriag 
j3rj Kara SaTra, 0Oi 8' a/za 7ravr ITTOVTO. 

rot aurtc iXEvarfrat 
Kat roV fVftra rot tjut AIO&* Trort 

dvefli), for ^pt, za??e. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
446. 7- 8 ; 

415. aW o^tXeg K. r. X. In expressing 
a wish, the optative is frequently used alone, 
as supra vv. 18. 42. ; and often with the par- 
ticles yap, ei, tide, prefixed, as in Latin, 
utinam : II. A. 178. II. 722. P. 561. Od. A. 
217- B. 183. T. 205. See also the note on 
Soph. (Ed. T. 863. Pent. Gr. p. 61. But 
the more common form of expression in 
Homer is by the addition of the several per- 
sons of the imperfect or aor. 2. of the verb 
o^sAXw, or 6^t\w, debeo, with an infinitive. 
See II. P. 40. &. 48. Q. 253. Compare also 
Eur. Med. 1. Arist. Vesp. 730. Platon. Crit. 
. 3. Xen. Mem. I. 2. 46. and see Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 513. A. 

416. ultra p,ivvv9d Trep. Subaud. tart. 
Adverbs are not unfrequently used instead 
of adjectives after the verbs a/a, ylyvofjiai, 
and the like. Compare II. Z. 131. 139. The 
addition of a negative assertion to a positive 
affirmation in the same sentence is frequent 
in Homer, as also in the Tragic poets. II. 
T. 59. 7r fj,e fear' altrav tvt'uctaaG, ovd' 
vTrtp alffav. See on Soph. (Ed. T. 58. Ant. 
637. Pent. Gr. pp. 11. 252. and compare 
note on II. O. 11. 

418. ry. For <, and that for Si o. Some 
understand it in the sense of ovraig, so : as 
ry must generally be rendered, when it 
denotes the consequence of the attainment 
of a wish, which has been previously ex- 
pressed. But in this case it is usually fol- 
lowed by av, as in II. B. 373. T. 61. 

423. Zi yap g 'Qiceavbv K. T. \. By 
the Ocean some have supposed that a river 
is intended : perhaps, the Nile ; upon the 
authority of Diod. Sic. I. TOVQ AiywTrriout; 
Kara TT)J/ iftiav didXticrov 'Qiceavov \eyttv 
rbv NI\OV. But it seems more proper to 
understand the Southern Ocean, near the 
western extremity of which was the coun- 
try of the ^Ethiopians. Virg. ^En. IV. 480. 
Oceanifinemjuscta, solemque cadentem, Ulti- 





mus jEthiopum locus est. And so Strabo, 
lib. I. TOV 'Qictavbv TQV Ka9' o\ov TO p,e- 
ariUflpivbv icXi/ia TtTay^kvov. Compare 
Horn. Odyss. A. 22. Herod. II. 23. Of 
the epithet afjivfiova^, which may be ren- 
dered pious, see on v. 131. According to 
Diodorus Siculus, lib. III. p. 144. pomps 
and sacrifices, and ceremonies to the gods, 
are said to have originated with the 
Ethiopians ; and the simplicity and in- 
nocence of the manners of this people, 
are sufficiently observable in their reply to 
Cambyses, in Herod. III. 20. Eustathius at- 
tributes the mythological account of Homer 
to a yearly festival at Diospolis, which lasted 
for twelve days ; during which the statues 
of Jupiter and the rest of the gods were car- 
ried in procession throughout Libya, and 
banquets spread in the temples before the 
shrines. A similar practice prevailed in the 
Roman Lectisternia. A very early opinion 
prevailed that the gods were wont to honour 
with their presence the festivals instituted in 
honour of themselves. Compare II. Mr. 205. 
It was also a popular belief that they occa- 
sionally visited individuals deserving of their 
favour and protection. See Horn. Od. A. 
103. P. 1. Virg. En. VIII. 319. Ovid Met. 
VIII. 618. Fast. IV. 507. Macrob. Sat. I. 
7. Hygin. Fab. 130. Compare also Horn. 
II. P. 440. K. 278. 

426. x^KO|3ar dw. For dw/za. Ma- 
dame Dacier observes, that the epithet %a\- 
fcoj3aTe, which Homer frequently applies 
to the palace of Jupiter, gave rise to the 
opinion of Aristotle, and other ancient phi- 
losophers, that the heavens were a solid 
mass. But it was the opinion of the earlier 
ages, which may be traced in the sacred 
writers, that the heavens were a fluid, but 
immoveable, substance ; so that Homer, if 
he alluded to any opinion of this nature, 
rather intended their stability, than their 
solidity. It seems most probable that the 
word is nothing more than a descriptive epi- 



Kai fjLiv yovvaao[, Kai juiv irsiaevQai oiw. 

*Qi apa ^>wv^(Tatr' a7rj3i)<iaro" rov 
Xwojuevov Kara OvfjLOv uwvoio 
T)v pa ]3ip aKOvroc aTrrjupwv. Aura/5 ' 
'Ef Xjoutrrjv iKavv, aywv ieprjv KarojUj3i]v. 
O l i 8' or 877 XijU 

f loria juv ora'Xavro, Oecrav 8' iv VTJI 
IOTOV S' loroSoKT? TTtXatrav, TTporo voio"iv v 
KapTraXijuwe* TIJV 8' tic opjiiov 7rpOpv<7<rav 
'EK o evvag J3aXov, Kara 
'EK ^ Kai auroi |3aivov ET 
'EK 8' Karojuj3rjv 




KTj]3oX(j) ' 
fJ TrovTOiropoio. 

' ITT! 



Xputri], ?rpo ju' 

Kai jui 

v ava^ avSpwv 


vTTfp Aavawv, o^p' tXaarojiio-0a avaKra, 

thet, in allusion to the decorations of the 
palaces of princes in the heroic age ; the 
floors, doors, walls, &c. of which were usu- 
ally inlaid with brass. Compare Odyss. A. 
99. A. 71. H. 86. 

429. vZ,<t>voio ywaiKoQ. The gramma- 
rians supply evtica. So again in II. II. 320. 
$. 457. Similarly in Eurip. Orest. 741. 
Ovya-TtpoQ Ovfiovfj.tvo. But see Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 345. 

433. IffTia trrtiXavro, K. T. X. In 
this and the following lines is contained the 
whole process of the early Greeks upon dis- 
embarking after a voyage. Upon reaching 
the harbour, the sails were furled, and 
placed in the vessel to secure them from the 
weather; the mast was then taken down, 
and placed upon the iffrodoicrj, which, ac- 
cording to Suidas, was a case in which it 
was deposited; but Eustathius understands it 
to have been an upright pole of wood, against 
which it was reared ; and this meaning seems 
to accord with that of the cognate word Sov- 
podoKt) in Od. A. 1 28. See Potter's Archaeol. 
Graec. vol. II. B. III. c. 16. The sailors 
then took to their oars, and moored the ves- 
sel ; which was then secured, before the in- 
vention of anchors, by a weight, either of 
stone, or wood inlaid with lead, and let 
down from the prow into the sea ; their 
sterns being drawn up on shore, and 
fastened by cords, called Trpvfivrjaia, to 
stones erected for the purpose. These 
weights were called evvai, as Eustathius 
observes, Trapd TO evvd&iv Trjv vavv 
Xbifjitvac; tig TO vSbjp, Kai Troitiv 
Tpi'a dt orifj.aivti i] Xli Trapd TI 

Trjv Ko'iTrjv' Trjv ayicvpav, w vvv Trjv 
SiaTpifirjv. Compare II. B. 783. A. 115. &. 
207. Hence, Virg. JEn. III. 277. Anchorade 
prora jacitur ; stant littore puppes. Com- 
pare Od. N. 77- If their stay at any port 
was likely to be of long duration, the ships 
were drawn up entirely on shore, and fixed 
upon props placed under them, to prevent 
them from being carried by the waves 
into the water. Compare infra vv. 485, 6. 
The contrary to all this took place before 
setting sail (v. 481.). Of the verb (TTeXXttv, 
see on II. A. 294. It here signifies to furl. 

434. irpoTovoiffiv v<f>kvT(.Q. Having 
lowered it by means of ropes. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 401, 2. The TTOOTOVOI were 
ropes, passing through a pulley at the top 
of the mast, and extending (irpoTtivovrtg) 
from the prow to the stern, so as to keep 
the mast firm, or to displace it as occasion 
might require. Schol. Apoll. Rhod. I. 564. 
TrpoTovoi' TO. i% /carlpov fikpovq TOV iariov 
7Tt Trjv irpwprjv Kai TTT/V Trpvfivav 

fiiva ffxotvia. Bos understands 
and irpvfivrjGta (v. 436.) to be neuter ad- 
jectives, with an ellipsis of the noun a^oivia ; 
but the substantive TTOOTOVOQ is in use. 
jEsch. Agam. 8?0. crwrTjpa vaoQ Trpororov. 
See also on v. 476. 

435. opjuov. The landing-place. Schol. 
roVof \ipevog, IvBa rj VCLVQ op/ict. Hence 
Xtprjv fuop/ioy in II. $. 23. Od. A. 358. I. 
136. In 11. 2. 401. opp,o signifies ,a neck- 
lace ; in which signification the grammarians 
derive it from fipw, necto. 

444. IXaaofJitaOa. The vulgar reading is 
iXa<raaju0' aVajcra. That which the text 



} v * \ tf\ t\ 5*^ > ^ 

ftTTWV, V X 6 / 00 ^ 1 rt " t O O C 

<j>i\riv' rot 8' o>Ka Of(j> icXftr^v fKarojUjSrjv 
^ <7TTj<Tav fuSjUrjrov Trepi j3(Ujiiov. 
Xepvi^/avro 8' cVcira, KCU ouXo^urac avtXovro. 




, 'A/oyvporo!;', 


V jU, julya cT 'Apao Xaov ' 

>' \ - / W > / "AS 1 


vvv Aavaoitnv attract \oiybv ctjituvov. 

lN QC t^dT 1 ' eV\OfJLVO^' TOV cT KXu ^otjSo 

Avrap 7Ti /o' fv^avro, icai ouXoxvrac TTpojSaXovro, 


exhibits is required by the metre, and 
sanctioned by the authority of several MSS. 
See Dawes's Misc. Crit. p. 249. ed. Kidd. 

449. \fpvtyavTO. From the use of this verb 
in Eurip. Iph. T. 662. it has been explained 
by ayvioai di vdaroQ t%ovTOQ KpiQaq Kai 
a'Aag. Such, at least, is not its meaning in 
Homer ; where it always signifies, according 
to its derivation from 26tpa viTTTf.iv, to 
wash the hands. The washing of hands was 
a frequent ceremony both among the Greeks 
and Hebrews ; not only before the offering 
of sacrifice and every other religious exercise, 
but before and after meals. According to the 
Talmud, it was as criminal to eat with un- 
washen hands, as it was to lie with a harlot : 
and there is a tradition of a Jewish Rabbi 
who died of thirst in prison rather than 
drink the water which was only sufficient to 
wash his hands. Compare Matt. xv. 2. and see 
also on II. Z. 266. The basin used for these 
purifications was called xtpvijSov, and the 
water xtpvvfy. See on II. Q. 304. Com- 
pare also Od. A. 136. A. 48. E. 905. Athen. 
Deipn. I. 15. IV. 27. IX. 18. and see Heyne 
on Virg. ^n. I. 701. ovXoxvra^ avt- 
\OVTO. The ov\o%VTai were cakes of bar- 
ley mixed with salt, molte. salsa, which 
were thrown upon the altar, and upon 
the victim, previous to the sacrifice. They 
first raised the mola above the head of 
the victim (di/IXovro), and, after their 
prayers, cast it (7rpoj3d\ovro, v. 458.) upon 
the altar, and between the horns of the ani- 
mal. This ceremony, with the purification 
and prayers, were the chief 7rpo0u/icrra, or 
offerings before the sacrifice, in the age of 
Homer. Most of the old Scholiasts and 
grammarians derive ovXo^urat from bXof, 
whole ; alleging that, before the invention of 
mills, unbroken barley was scattered upon 
the altar. Such an interpretation would in- 

troduce an essential distinction between the 
practice of the Greeks and Romans ; but as 
no such distinction is recognized by any an- 
cient writer, and was clearly unknown to Dio- 
nysius Halicarnassensis (vii. 72-)> it is pre- 
ferable to derive the word from the old verb 
tXw, to bruise. Thus the ov\o%VTai of the 
Greeks and the mola of the Latins will 
precisely correspond. See Buttmann's Gr. 
Gr. . 26. n. 17- 

450. p,eyd\' cu^tro. For /teyaXo> , audi- 
bly, aloud. So again infra v. 482. Virg. 
^En. X. 667- Ut duplices cum voce manus 
ad sidera tendit. The two following lines 
are repeated from vv. 37- 38. 

453. -ijdri piv TTOT kfitv. See on v. 202. 
and for the expression f)8r] vvv, in v. 456. 
on v. 260. 

458. 7rpoj3dXovro. Schol. tig TOV j3w/*ov. 
This passage is valuable for being the most 
exact account of the ancient sacrifices any- 
where left us. There is, first, the purifica- 
tion ; secondly, the offering up of prayers ; 
thirdly, the mola, or barley cakes, thrown 
upon the victim ; fourthly, the manner of 
killing it, with the head turned upwards to 
the celestial gods ; as they turned it down- 
wards, when they offered to the infernals ; 
fifthly, their selecting the thighs and fat for 
their gods, as the best of the sacrifice, and 
the disposing about them pieces cut from 
every part, for a representation of the 
whole; sixthly, the libation of wine; se- 
venthly, the consuming the thighs in the 
fire of the altar ; and eighthly, the sacri- 
ficers' dressing and feasting on the rest, 
with joy and hymns to the gods. POPE. 
The near resemblance of these ceremonies 
with the sacrifices of the Hebrews, will be 
at once discernible from a perusal of the first 
and second chapters of Leviticus. It is very 
probable that the Heathens derived their 
G 2 



Ai j-pvcrav jiuv Trpwra, icai 

r* i^trajuov, Kara TE Kvi&g /caXu^av, 460 

a Troi^aavrfc, ?r' aurwv 8' wjuo0rT}<rav. 
Kate o 7Ti ayil^riQ 6 'ytpwv, TTI $' aWoTra oivov 
AajSc* vOt Si Trap' avrov t\ov 7TjU7raj3oXa ^p(Tiv. 
Airap 7Ti Kara jii?7|o' Kar), KOI GTT\ay\ya Tracravro, 
MtoruXXov r' apa raXXa, Kai a/u<' ojSfXoia-iv tVapav, 465 

sacrificial rites from the patriarchal ages, 
which will readily account for the many 
coincidences observable in the sacred prac- 
tices of the Patriarchs and Jews, and the 
nations around them. For similar passages 
see 11. B. 427- Od. T. 455. M. 359. 

459. av tpvffav. Drew back, scil. the 
neck. Eustath. IQoq 'EXXrjviKov, ti Ktv 
TOIQ dvb) tBvov, dva/eXoV TOV TOV itptiov 
Tpd^r]\ov, Mart a$opq,v a> etc ovpavbv, 
Kai IXsyero TOVTO av kpveiv roureort, 
O7ri<ra> eXictiv, Kai avatytpetv kv ry ava- 
K\q,v idv nevroi ijpwoiv rj oXwf TOIQ 
jcarotxo/ij/ote tOvov, /carw ro lepetov CLTTO- 
(BXiirov kGfya&To. Hence, Lamb. Bos sup- 
plies rpax/j\ov. 

460. fJLrjpovQ T J t&TafJiov, K. T. X. There 
is some difference of opinion as to whether 
/Ltjjpoi and fjirjpia are synonymous terms. 
From the fact that Homer, when speaking of 
the part which was consumed, always uses 
/Ltijpta, as in v. 40. supra ; it should seem 
that these were the portions cut out from the 
entire thigh, pvpoG, and set apart for the 
gods. Apollon. Lex. in. v. fj.rjpia- TO. K T&V 
liijpuv iZaipovptva Kai lepoBvTOVfjieva. 
That the syntax of firjpovQ kKrk^vtiv does not 
preclude this interpretation is clear from such 
forms as efcre/ivew avQpwTrov and tjerEjtt- 
viiv yriVy where the verb does not signify 
to cut off, but to cut out of. Compare Xen. 
Cyr. V. 2. 13. These pjpia, then, were the 
parts belonging to the gods, which were 
covered with double cauls of fat, that they 
might be more readily consumed; this being 
essential to acceptance with the gods. Upon 
them was skewered small pieces of flesh, cut 
from all parts of the beast, as the a?rapxat, 
or first fruits of the whole. This was called 
atp,o9eTtiv ; i. e. as explained by Eustathius, 
w/id TrdvToQev a.Kp(t)Tr]pid%eiv ; to place 
thereon raw pieces of flesh cut from all the 
other parts. Compare Od. JaJ. 427- In the 
next verse ITT* avr&v must be referred to 
prjp'nav, which is implied in /iTjpowe egera- 
P.OV. It will follow, also, that firjpa, in v. 
464. is not an heteroclite from /tJjpog, simi- 
lar with those enumerated at v. 312. supra; 
but a synonym of /iijpi'a. So the Scholiast. 
Some have supposed that the entrails also 
were offered to the gods. If so, it was 
after the age of Homer, who tells us that 
they were feasted upon (v. 464.) ; and it 

appears from Dionysius Halicarnassensis, 
that the ctTrapxai only of the entrails were 
sacrificed. (Antiq. Rom. p. 478. ed. Lips.) 
See Potter's Archaeol. Gr. B. II. c. 4. 

462. STTI ff%i%yG On split wood, or chips. 
In II. B. 425. the epithet d0t>XXoi indicates 
that they were dried, and therefore readily 
combustible. aWoTra oivov. Some com- 
mentators, among whom are theScholiast,Eu- 
stathius, Damm, and others, refer the epithet 
alQoty, as applied to wine, to its colour ; and 
consider it equivalent with ipvOpbg and fis~ 
Xa, which are so applied in Odys. E. 165. 
265. Eustathius also offers another signifi- 
cation, Oepfibg Kai kKKaiwv, ardent, fiery, 
from its heating nature. Aul. Gell. N, A. 
XVII. 8. Conjecture me vinum idcirco 
minus cito coalescere, quod semina qutedam 
caloris in sese haberet, essetque natura igni- 
tius ; ob eamque rem dictum esse ab Homero 
aWoTra olvov, non, ut alii putarent, propter 
calorem. Compare Macrob. Saturn. VII. 12. 
The proper meaning of the word is, without 
doubt, shining, sparkling ; from aWot, splen- 
derefacio. This is at once evident from the 
only other connexion in which it is used in 
the Iliad ; viz. as an epithet of \a\KOQ. 
See II. A. 495. B. 562. 681. P. 3. and else- 
where. It occurs once in the Odyssee (K. 
152.), as an epithet of KUTTVOQ. 

463. TTf/iTTw/SoXa. JEolice for TTIVT&- 
/3oXa. Five-pronged forks. These were 
used for stirring the flesh offered in sacrifice, 
in order that it might be quickly and com- 
pletely destroyed. In the versions this 
word is falsely rendered verua ; and so also 
the simple word 6j3e\oQ, in v. 465. But 
turning spits were unknown in the time of 
Homer. The mistake most probably ori- 
ginated with the imitation of the passage in 
Virg. JEn. I. 214. Illi se prceda accingunt, 
dapibusque futuris : Tergora diripiunt costis 
et viscera nudant : Pars in frusta secant, 
verubusque trementia figunt. 

464. avraokird. See on v. 282. On 
the verb ?rao/iai, see the Lexicon to Pent. 
Graec. in voce. Ernesti understands two 
distinct words, Trdo/iai and Trdtrtro/iai. 

465. fiiffruXXov T' dpa raXXa. Hence 
the point of Martial's epigram, I. 50. Si 
tibi Mistyllus coquus, Mmiliane, vocatur ; 
Dicatur quare non Taratalla mihi ? Schol. 

pl<TTV\\tlV df ptlffTa KOTTTtlV. 



av re 7Tpt</>paSa>, tpvaavro TE Travra. 
Avrap ?Ti Travaavro TTOVOV TSTVKOVTO TE SaTra, 
'* oi/Sl rt OV/ULOQ fSfufro Sairoc ito-ijc* 

7Tl 7TO(TtOC KCtl fSrjTVOC ? /OOV VTO, 

Koupot jiitv /cpTjrr/|Oac lirtartyavTO Troroto* 



466. wTTrJjo-av rt KT. r. X. Eustathius 
observes, that in the heroic ages the man- 
ner of dressing food was always to roast it. 
It is to be remarked, also, that the cook's 
was not a menial office : but even chiefs and 
princes dressed their own victuals. See on 
II. I. 206. 

468. SaiTOQ iiarjg. Schol. i<rj, 7ra<rij/ 
bfioiag, T) iVo/ioipow Kal fiepiGTrjc,. Clarke 
cites the following from Athenaeus : Kat 
TLJV icptwv fit fiolpai tvs[j,ovTO' '69ev ttaag 

ddiTaQ, dirb rr) iaoTTf]TOQ. 
$ ZrjvodoTOG, dcuTa iiarjv rrjv 
jv \tyea9ai. See the note on v. 306. 
Ernesti, indeed, objects that II. A. 48. is de- 
cisive in favour of rendering tiVogby opimus: 
but as Bdi properly signifies the banquet, 
which accompanied the sacrifice, and thence 
was taken for the sacrifice itself, there 
seems to be no ground for his objection. 
The true import of dai tiarj is sufficiently 
manifest, from the ancient custom of dis- 
tributing to every guest his portion, which 
was set before them with the greatest 
equality ; except in those instances where 
persons of high character received a larger 
share. This primitive custom at entertain- 
ments, hence called dalrtg, from $euw, 
was, in after times, discontinued, and ob- 
served only at sacrifices, or by those who 
still adhered to primitive temperance and 
simplicity, after the arts of luxury had been 
introduced. See Athen. Deipnos. I. 10. 11. 
Plut. Sympos. II. 10. It may be added, 
that the custom of dividing to the guests 
equally, except in cases of marked distinc- 
tion and favour, is recognized in Holy Writ. 
When Joseph set before Benjamin a mess 
five times as large as those of his other 
brethren, it is fairly inferred that their's were 
equally apportioned. See Gen. xliii. 34. 
and compare II. H. 321. 

469. awrdp ITTCI K. r.X. Virg. ^n. VIII. 
184. Postquam exempta fames, et amor com- 
pressus edendi. Compare ./En. I. 216. XI. 938. 
l^epovfii/ro. By Tmesis, for t^tvro, aor. 
2. mid. from ti/j/, to remove, to take away. 
Eustathius, Hesychius, and the gramma- 
rians, observe, that tpo is the ^Eolic form 
for fpwg. See Kb'en. ad Gregor. p. 286. 
and Maittaire de dial. p. 244. It is fre- 
quently used by Homer, but only in the no- 
minative and vocative cases. It occurs also 
in Soph. Elect. 197- and some few times in 


Euripides. So also ylXog, for ysXw^j in 
Odyss. Y. 346. 

470. tTriGTtyavTO. Filled to the brim. 
Athen. Deipnos. I. 11. 'E7rierr0ovrai Sk 
TTOTOIO 01 KpririjpEGi froi virepxttXiie ot 
KprjTrjptQ TTOiovvTai, wore Sia row TTOTOV 
kiriaTttyavovaQai. Again ; XV. 5. TO 6k 
0T0eii', TrX^pwcrtv riva ffrjfiaivei. And 
so the Scholiast. The custom of adorning 
the cups with garlands is of a later age. In 
the same sense, therefore, unless Virgil be 
guilty of an anachronism, we must under- 
stand the imitation of this passage in JEn. 
I. 723. Postquam prima quies epulis, men- 
sceque remota ; Crateras magnos statuunt, et 
vina coronant. Still we should rather, in 
this case, expect vinis coronant ; and there 
can be no doubt that Virgil refers to the 
more recent custom in ^En. III. 525. magnum 
cratera corona Induit, implevitque mero. 
So in Georg. II. 528. and the custom of 
crowning the cups is mentioned in Soph. 
CEd. C. 474. See also Athen. Deipn. xi. 
Theoc. Idyl. II. 2. Tibull. Eleg. II. 5. 98. 
Stat. Theb. VIII. 225. As a further proof, 
however, that this is not the sense here, 
Homer would scarcely have written KprjTrj- 
paQ TroroTo, whereas the regular construc- 
tion of verbs of filling is with a genitive. 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 330. b. It seems 
that the KpT/rrypfe were a larger kind 
of cup, so called Trapd TO KepdoaaOai ; the 
wine being usually mixed with a portion of 
water. From these it was poured into 
smaller cups, and handed to the guests by 
the attendants, /coupoi or KrjpuK. Compare 
Odyss. A. 109, 110. After the guests were 
satisfied, an additional goblet was handed 
round, for the purpose of a libation, with 
prayers and hymns to the gods. Plato Sym- 
pos. c. 4. 

471. vw/iJj<rav $' apa iraaiv, K. T. \. 
Athen. Deipn. I. 11. TO HASIN ov TO~IQ 
TTOTripioiQ, aXXd rolg avdpavi. On the 
verb viofjidot, which here signifies to hand 
about, to distribute; see Blomfield's Glos. 
on jEsch. Theb. 3. Schol. vwpyffav Ste- 
Htpiaav, disdojKav. The word itrap^dfit- 
voi has been variously interpreted. The 
Scholiast seems to understand it in the same 
reference to libations, which airapxtaQai 
bears to sacrifice ; i. e. offering the first-fruits. 
But it is better to take it in its proper 
sense, beginning, viz. the distribution ; which 



' aicouwv. 


Ot 8f 7 

KaXov aa'8ovre Tratrjova, jcovpot ' 
o 8f <J>pva 

JCai 7Tl KV 

Ar) ror KOi/j,f]GavTO Trapa Trpvjuvrje 
'Hjiioc 8' fipiytveta ^avrj /oo8o8aicruXoe ' 
Kai ror' 7Tir^ avayovro jUra orparov tvpiiv ' 
Toitriv 8' 'LK/J.EVOV ovpov Vet fjcafpyoc 'A-TroAXwv. 
Oi 8' tarov crrrja-avr', ava 0' torta Xfuica Triratraav. 

'Ev 8' aVCjUOC 7TjOr}(T jlt(TOV tOTtOV, ttjU^l 8f KUjUd 

Sra'/o^ TTOjO^upfov jueyaX' ia^, vrjoc love 
lN H 8' Kara icu/xa 8ta7rpr/a(7ovo-a 
Avrap 7Tt /o' tKOvro jUra OTjOarov evpvv ' 
Nf)a jUv ory 



is implied in vwfJiriffav. Heyne understands 
V(?eta, as in v. 597- since the cup passed 
from the right hand. See Matthiae on 
Hym. Horn. p. 433. Hence the construc- 
tion will be t-TrapZafjitvoi vt^q,v TOV olvov 
kv SeTrdtaffi. 

472. 01 ds Travripspiot. See on v. 414. 

473. Ttairjova. Of the word Traujwv, 
which is the same with TTCUWV and iraiav, 
see the Lexicon to Pent. Gr. m woce. 

475. rifiog. When. A poetic particle, 
equivalent to ore ; and accordingly followed 
by Tore, for which, however, the poetic 
rrjfioQ is also in use ; II. V. 228. Of the 
expression fry Tore, see on v. 6. 

476- TrpvfjLvrjffia vr}6q. 
were the ropes by which the ships were 
tied to the shore. .Eustath. on v. 436. supra: 
irpvpvijffia' ra airoyeia a-^oivia, dig lie 
rrJQ Trpvfjivrig TrpoadtGfjitirai r) vavg irpoQ 
ry yy' fcai olg aJ<r7Tp irtiQiTai, Sib rd 
avrd Kai 7ri(Tju.ara Xeyot'rai. These ropes 
are called in Latin retinacula : Virg. ^En. 
III. 639. Lamb. Bos considers the word as 
an adjective with an ellipsis of a^oivia ; but 
it is never used as such, except perhaps in the 
Etym. Mag. p. 177> 46. where a^Xacrra 
7rpvp,vriaia occurs. 

478. avdyovro. As opposed to each other, 
dvdyeaOai and jcarayt(70ai are nautical 
terms, signifying to set sail, and to make for 
land, respectively. See Od. T. 10. 178. K. 
140. n. 822. T. 202. In Homer, the verb is 
so used in the middle voice; but in other 
writers the active is more usual, with the 
accusative vavv expressed or understood. 
Herod. VII. 100. dvayayovrtg dirb TOV 
aiyiaXov. Xen. Hell. VI. 2. 16. iiravij- 
yaysv TO KtpaQ airb Trig y*?- Compare 
Herod. III. 109. IV. 141. Arist. Lysist. 
608. Xen. Anab. V. 1. 6. 2 Mace. xii. 4. 
LXX. Luke v. 2. viii. 22. Acts xiii. 13. xviii. 


21. xxviii. 12. Nearly similar in the Latin, 
Nave devehi. 

479. iKjjLtvov ovpov. A fresh breeze. 
Some derive this epithet from "ucpae, mois- 
ture : in support of which the Scholiast 
cites Od. E. 478. dv'^jniiv pivoQ vypbv 
akvTW. Others, with greater probability, 
deduce it from iKveio'dai. Virg. ^En. III. 
687- Ecce autem Boreas angusta ab sede 
Pelori Missus adest. Homer's iK/ztvof ovpog 
is equivalent to the missus adest of Virgil. 

481. kv & dvtfJiOQ Trprjffe. A Tmesis, 
from t/A7rpjj0w, inflo. Virg. jn. III. 358. 
Tumido inflatur carbasus Austro. Properly, 
Trpr)Q<it) signifies, as in II. 0. 217- to 
set on fire, to inflame ; and is thence me- 
taphorically applied to any energetic effect. 
See on II. I. 433. and compare also II. 
H. 350. Some would tamely identify the 
verb with Trpijaau (v.483.) ; which is formed 
from TTfpaw, transeo. Thus Stephan. Thes. 
Gr. Dicitur Trprjfffftiv bdbv, pro transire 
viam ; i. e. iter facer e ; Trprjafftiv bdov, i. e. 
Sid. Hence Eustathius : TO Si 
Kai TO 

ffovaa KeXevOov, o ICTTI SiaTrsp&ffa. Com- 
pare Od. N. 83. O. 47. 

482. Kvpa TToptyvptov. Eustath. avrl 
TOV [itXav 7Ti yyt> iit\aviaq kaTi Kai 
TO TTOptyvpovv. See on v. 350 supra. OTfipy. 
Villoison : TyTpOTridi TIJQ vtwQ, 7rti are- 
pto)Tepa T&V aavidwv vTrdp^tt. Anglice, 
the keel. 

484. /ird ffrpaTov. This is the reading 
of the best MSS. Vulgo Kara orparov. 
There is this difference between the import 
of the two prepositions, that fierd GTpaTov 
is ad exercitum, as in v. 478. supra : Kara 
orparoj/, per exercitum, as II. E. 495. Kara 
arparov <^ro TrdvTrj. Compare II. E. 589. 
Z. 104. H. 380. T. 234. 302. Q. 696. See 
also v. 487. and on v. 48. supra. 


, vir tpjuara juaicpa 
Avroi SE ffia'Svavro Kara icX/dta? re v*ae T. 
Avrap 6 fJLr)Vte s vrival 7rap?]jUvoe WK 

Owre TTOT' i ayoprjv TrajXItricETO KU&avEipav, 490 

Oure TTOT' Ig iroXefiov' aXXa tyOivvOeaKC <tXov lojp, 
AvOt /mivtt)V) Tro^leo'KE ' avrrjv re TrroXejUov re. 
'AXX' ore 77 p' K ro7o Sua^Eicarrj ytvtr' 'Hw 

Kai TOTE ?} 7TpO "OXujUTTOV Y(TaV 0fOt 

wa, ZZVQ & ^pX E * ^^ rf 8' ou \{]9^ l^trjutwv 495 
oc tou, aXX' ^y' avfSv(raTO KVfjia 0aXaor<n7f> 

S' avijSi] jutyav ovpavbv, OuXu/xTrov re. 
Eupcv o' tvpvoTra KpovtSrjv, arep TJ^UEVOV aXXwv, 
'AfcporaV?? Kopvfyy TroXuSffpaSo^ QV\V/J.TTOIO. 
Kai pa irdpoi& avroio KaOt&TO, Kai XajSe youvwy 500 

2cafy* Sf^fp^ S' ap' VTT' av^epswvoc fXouaa, 
Ato-(TOjUvi7 7rpoo-f7T Aia Kpoviwva ava/cra* 

ZEV Trarfp, t TTOTE ST^ <T jUr' aOavaTOiGiv ovrj(ra, 
^H 7Tt, 77 p7<j), ro^e juoi Kprjrjvov EfXSwp* 

juot utov, o (jJKVjUiop(jt)TaTo^ aXXwv 505 

'' arap jutv vuv y ava$ av^pwv ' 
IXwv yap ^i ytpac, auroc 
'AXXa o-u ?Tp /iiv rto-ov, 'OXujUTTtf, jurjrifra ZEU* 

486. '^p/jtara, Eustath. ra inroKtineva that of aXXo^i, 7ravr60i, oiicoOi, and the 

ralg vavaiv IK ^vXcDv kpt'iapcLTa, i<f>' <5i> like. ^ for yap, as in v. 200. 
ai VTJjff iptidovrai. On this verse see 493. IK roio. For K TOVTOV, scil. ^po- 

Hermann. ad Homer. H. Apoll. 507. vov, as in v. 6. 

488. 6. See on II. A. 11. 407. Wpiri 8' cLvkfa. See on v. 414. supra. 

490. ayopj)v Ku^iavsijoav. Schol. sv- There is a question respecting the derivation 
do%ov dvBpac; iroiovaav. See on v. 249. ofi/cpicf. InOd. I. 52. compared with v. 56. 
To the same effect, 11. I. 441. 'Ayopswi/, it clearly signifies ear/// in the morning, and 
ti/a r avdpeg dpnrptTrktQ TfXkQovai. so also in this place and in v. 557- Hence it 
7ro>\(TKro. For 7rw\iro. Instead of the will be derived from f)pt, mane. Some, how- 
augment, the lonians adopt this termination ever, deduce it from a^p, so as to signify on 
in the imperfect. So, again, fyQivvQtaKt, high ; and in the only place where it again 
and 7ro0(TKf, in the following lines. See occurs in Homer (II. T. 7-) it will bear this 
Prelim. Obs. sect. IV. sense, though it is not, perhaps, necessary. 

491. <}>QivvOt<TKe QiXov Krjp. We must 498. tvpvoTra KpoviSrjv. Either late 
either supply Kara, or the neuter verb tonantem from o^, vox ; or late prospicien- 
QQivvQw must he taken transitively, as in tern, from oTrro/xai, video. Heyne prefers 
Od. A. 250. and elsewhere. the former derivation ; and Damm insi- 

492. avQi pevuiv, K. T. X. Eustath. on nuates that Homer purposely adopted an 
II. H. p. 1062. considers av9tQ and avQi epithet of ambiguous formation, in order to 
as synonymous, and used indifferently, as convey the compound idea of Jupiter's all- 
TToXXdiciQ and TroXXa/ct, %wptg and X W P*> seeing and omnipotent attributes. 

and the like. But avOi is an adverb of 501. df%irtpy S' apa K. T. X. See on 

place, by syncope for avr69i, there ; the v. 407 An instance of a similar custom 

termination Oi implying rest in a place, will be found in 2 Kings xx. 9. 

which QIQ never does. Hoogeveen, de Par- 503. t TTOTZ drj K. r. X. See on v. 394. 

ticiilis, p. 74. Its formation, from the geni- sqq. 

tive of the pronoun auroe, is analogous to 



T6<f)pa o ETTI TjOwEtTfTt rtOei jcoaroc, o0 
Ytov ljuov riauxjiVj btytXXwvi rt E rtjiir?. 
tN Qc 0aro* rr^v 8' oim TTpoa^rj ve^e 
'AXX' ctKEtov Ctyv rforo* 0Ert cT, dc rj^aro youvtuv, 


fv 81) juot {JTTOCT^EO, icai jcaravEixrov, 
*H enroEtTr'' 7T( ov rot 7rt Sfoe' op' ev el&J, 




Trjv SE juey' byQriGaq 7Tpo<T0Tj 
'H Sr) \oiyia Kpy*, or' 
"Hpp, orav /i' Ipldqviv 

tV H St icat avrwc JLC' ott v aOavaroicri 0otort 
NftjceT, Kat re jul (^rjcrt jua^ Tpw(T(riv a 
'AXXa tru juiv vuy au^tc a7rocrrt^, jurj n 
"HjOij* /zoi $ fcf ravra /ufX^crEraf, 6^>pa re 
Ei o ayE, rot KE^aXrj KQLTavtvao/uLai, 6'0pa 
Tovro yap E^ EJUE^EV y jUr' aOavdroivi JULSJKTTOV 
TEKJUW/O* ov yap EJUOV TraXtvayperov, oiS' ttTrarrjXov, 
Ouo arEXfurrjrov, 6, rt KEV KtfyaXrj jcaravv<T(i>. 
H, Kat ciavr?(Ttv ETT' ofypvvt VEVCTE 

512. d\X' aicgwv ^?)v ^oro. See on 
V. 34. 5Mj?ra. This lengthened silence of 
Jupiter is completely at variance with the 
opinion of Wolfe, Heyne, and others, 
who have assumed the prayer of Thetis 
as containing the primary argument of 
the Iliad, that the goddess had entirely 
succeeded in her intercession with Jupiter. 
On the contrary, it evinces a reluctance to 
speak, and a desire to avoid a reply ; nor 
does she obtain an answer, till she had 
pressed her suit with renewed and increased 
earnestness. That she did not succeed in 
the full accomplishment of her wishes, is 
evident from the event : not to mention that 
Jupiter himself objects to her prayer, as 
iniquitous and criminal ; QtTidog kZ,a'iGiov 
dprjv, II. O. 598. See note in loco. 

513. dtvrepov CLVTIQ. Pleonasms of this 
kind, with avriQ, are very common. See on 
v. 27. 

514. vtjfiepriQ. Truly, decisively : from 
vrj and afiaprdva). In Hesiod. Theog. 234. 
Nereus is called yepwv vrjfiepTrjQ Kal ai^tv- 
dr)Q, and hence, probably, the names of two 
of the Nereides in II. S. 46. The verb 
cnroenrelv has the same sense as d-Tro^aa- 
Ktiv in Soph. (Ed. T. 485. See Lexicon to 
Pental. Graec. 

517. iiky oxQfoctc. The sigh, which 
followed the silence of Jupiter, was an addi- 
tional proof of his reluctance to reply, and 
betokened an inward sentiment, very dif- 



ferent from that of a simple assent to the 
wishes of Thetis. See Penn on the Primary 
Argument of the Iliad, chap IV. 

518. %0o^07T^(rat. To quarrel, to use 
hard words ; from t'%0oe and 6i//, vox. The 
verb is aVa Xtyofitvov. 

523. s/iot & Kt TCLVTCI K. T. \. These 
matters shall be my concern, until I have 
effected my purpose ; as it was said in v. 5. 
Aio d' ereXfitro (3ov\r). This response, 
as Mr. Penn observes (Primary Argument, 
ubi supra), is reserved, vague, and indefi- 
nite, and as equivocal as the response of an 
oracle. If the usual interpretation, which 
understands no more by this passage than 
ravTa Ti\tat, were the true one, there 
would be no room for the addition of fJieXrj- 
fftrai, which is clearly a word of doubtful 
import; as in II. P. 515. , 724. and else- 

526. ou yap efjibv TraXivayptrov, K. r. X. 
Eustathius supplies ttroQ. The same com- 
mentator observes, that there are three things 
which prevent the performance of human 
promises ; change of mind, an original in- 
tention not to perform them, or the want of 
power ; none of which can influence the 
operations of the Deity. The same is ex- 
pressed in Eurip. Alcest. 999. Kai yap 
Zevg, o, TI vtvcry, Evv trot TOVTO TtXtvrqi' 
TraXivayptrog, to be retracted, or repented 
of; from aytipw. 

528. T H, icai Kvavtyffi K. T. X. There 



apa ^airai tirtppwaavTO avaKTOQ 
Kparoc an"' aQavaroio' fityav & iXlXi^fv "O\vfjL7rov. 530 

Etc ctXa dXro fjautiav air at" 

6c Swjua. 0Oi S' a/ 

poc Ivdvrfov" oic) nc fVXr? 

MftVat 7Tp^OjUVOV, OtXX' O.VTLOL tGTUV aTTaVTSg. 535 

:, 0vyari7p aXtoto ypovroc 
Avrt/ca Kprojutowt Ata Kpovtwva TTjOOo-TjuSa* 

530. IXeXigev. The verb IXeXf^tv sig- 
nifies properly to whirl round, as in II. B. 
316. and hence to shake. Cicero de Repub. 
I. 36. has concuteret, 

531. SitTfiaytv. Eustath. $i%wpi(T0j7- 
oav. For ditTpdYnffav, aor. 2 pass, from 

is something exceedingly grand and ma- 
jestic in this description of the nod of Jupi- 
ter. It is said, that when the sculptor Phi- 
dias was asked whence he had derived the 
idea of his great work, the Olympian Jove, 
he replied by reciting this passage. Ma- 
crob. Saturn. V. 13. Phidias, cum Jovem 
Olympium fingeret, interrogates de quo ex- 
emplo divinam mutuaretur effigiem, respon- 
dit : Archetypum Jovis in his se tribus 
Homeri versibus invenisse. The same ac- 
count is given by the geographer Strabo ; 
VIII. p. 128. ed. Tzetz. : and a similar 
story is told of the painter Euphranor. See 
Valer. Maxim. VIII. 11. 2. 5. Virgil, also, 
has given the nod of Jupiter with great 
solemnity; jEn. X. 115. Annuit ; et nutu 
totum tremefecit Olympum, This nod, there- 
fore, which was the signal of Fate, could 
not be merely a courteous assent to Thetis, 
but betokened the certainty of the final ac- 
complishment of the divine purpose. See 
Prelim. Obs. sect. III. Hence Ovid. Met. I. 
179. Terrificam capitis concussit terque 
quaterque Ctesariem, cum qua terram, mare, 
sidera, movit. Compare also Catull. Carm. 
Ixiii. 203. 

529. eirsppwffavTO, Shook, waved. From 
jotjojuat, propero, ruo. Eustath. p.f.Trjvs^n 
drro avdp&v eppwju.6vof ei re epyov KI- 
vovpivuv pwovrai de icat ITTTTOI, ore tig 
dpojjiov GWTtivovrai. Compare II. A. 50. 
n. 166. S. 411. et alibi. The epithets a/t- 
/3po(riof, dfifiporoQ, and a|3porog, are dif- 
ferent forms of the same adjective, and ex- 
press any quality appertaining to the gods. 
Their primary signification is immortal, or 
divine ; whence the former, more particu- 
larly, is commonly used to imply excellence 
generally. Thus, a/i/3po'(Ttoe VTTVOQ, sweet 
sleep, in II. B. 19. and djtt/3poo'ijj vvZ,, in II. 
.B. 57. Compare v. 71. and see on II. A. 
131. Some derive djw/3po(riof from d^/3po- 
tria, which last, however, is only the femi- 
nine adjective with $a>$)}, or rpo0), under- 

532. dXro. By syncope for aXaro, 
lonice for ?/Xaro, from aXXo/iat, to leap ; 
with the soft breathing, JEolice for aXXo/ictt. 
Eustathius observes, that this word cannot 
strictly apply to tbv TTQOQ S&fjia, in its proper 
sense, but is there used simply in the sense 
of j}X0f. So, again, II. T. 327- txtiro will 
only properly apply to Ttv^a, though 
equally referred to ITTTTOI. See the note on 
Soph. CEd. T. 270. Pent. Gr. p. 26. 

535. The verb /mvai seems, in this 
place, to be used in the sense of manere 
sedens, to keep their seats, with an ellipsis 
of the preposition 7rpO, before 7rfp%6/if- 
vov. The two words, fitivai STTtpxo/zevoj/, 
however, are repeatedly used in conjunction 
by Homer; but always in a sense widely 
different from the above. Compare II. 9. 
536. IV. 472. X. 252. The Scholiast un- 
derstands tTrepxofJitvov as the accusative 
absolute, for STrepxo/tevov ; i. e. as he ad- 

538. aXtoio ytpovTog. Nereus ; and not 
either Proteus or Phorcys, as the Scho- 
liast supposes. See Hesiod. Theogon. 234. 
and compare II. S. 52. The allegorical 
notion affixed by some to apyvpoTTf^a, and 
the various epithets applied to the gods, 
has something too refined in it to be natural. 
The interpretation of the Scholiast is more 
simple, and equally probable : apywpoTTf^cr 
Xa/J7rpo7rovf , aV6 fikpovc, o\r} KoKi]. 

539. KtpTO(jLioi(Ti. Scil. tirtai. Compare 
v. 519. The ellipsis of this word is very 
frequent in this and similar expi-essions. 
Thus, in II. A. 256. with /mXt^/onri ; and so 
P. 431. See Bos. Ellips. Gr. p. 96. Schol. 
KpTO[iioig' iptOiffTiKolg' i. e. provoking, 




Tie 8 au rot, SoXojufjra, 6cwv <ruju0/>a(T(raro |3ouXac ; 540 
Atti rot ^tXov EOTIV, fjUfi) aTro voatytv lovra, 

ta 00ov*ovra c\Ka$jUv* ouSt rt TTW juot 

rrXrjicac EITTEIV 7TO, 6, rrt vorjcrrjc. 
T?jv 8' rifuid^er tVftra Trarrjp avSpwv re Gcwv rt* 
j, fir] Sri Travrac EJUOVC 7TtX7TO fjLvOovg 545 

aXfTroi rot <rovr', aXo^ TTCO ov<r>?. 

'AXX' OV jUV K' tTTtClKEC OKOUf/ifV, OVTig 7Ttra 

Ourf Gfwv Troorfpoe rovy' ettrerat, our' avOpwTrwv* 
1 Ov of K' fywv a7ravV0 OEWV tOeXoifJLi voijaat, 
Mr/ rt (TV rawra t/caorra Sit/0O, jUTjSl jUfraXXa. 550 

Tov o" ^UftSfr' 7Ttro SowTTtc TTorvta 

540. rtc ^ au. The particle dt is fre- 
quently used at the beginning of a sentence, 
without fikv preceding : where it indicates 
an abruptness expressive of the speaker's 
indignation. Compare II. $>. 481. In the 
same manner the Latins employ vero. 
Liv. XXVI. 21. Id vero adeo superbum 
atque indignum, fyc. ZeunS on Viger, p. 
437- ed. Oxon. 

541. Eustathius points out the change in 
the construction by which the participles 
kovra and Qpoveovra are taken in the accu- 
sative in reference to the infinitive ducd&iv, 
instead of the dative, to agree with aoi. In- 
stances of the same kind are very common. 
Herod. I. 37- TCL fcaXXiora Trportpov /core 
Kai ytwaioraTa jy/uv ?}v, tg rf 7ro\/xov 
Kal f dypaQ (poirkovraQ evdoKifikeiv. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 535. Obs. Hemsterhuis on 
Lucian, vol. III. p. 470. and compare II. X. 

542. ovdt TI TTW. See on vv. 106. 124. 

543. eivelv liroQ. See Pental. Gr. p. 247. 
on Soph. Antig. 551. ITTOQ. Consilium : 
and so [ivOoQ, v. 545. 

544. 7rarr/p dvdp&v rt. Qttiv re. Virg. 
JEn. XI. 725. Hominum sator atque deorum. 
So ^En. I. 69. X. 2. Compare Ennius in Ma- 
crob. Saturn. VI. 1. 

546. xaXcTroi roi taovrai. They will be 
too hard for you : \a\f.Trbv lorai aoi eidsvai 
CLVTOVQ. Thus the prophet says of the True 
God : Isaiah xl. 28. LXX. ovSe lonv stv- 
peo-ig rris 0povj(7W avroii. Compare Job 
xi. 7. Ps. xcii. 5. Wisd. ix. 13. Rom. xi. 34. 
The future form ddrjfftiv, occurs only in 
this place in the Iliad ; in Od. Z. 257- H. 
327. and some few times in the Hymns. 
In II. H. 226. and elsewhere, the Attic 
flaofjiai is used. 

547. OVTIQ tirtiTa Qvre QedSv K- r. X. 
No one shall know it before thee ; i. e. thou 
shalt know it before all others. Thus, in II. 
0. 253. ourif Trporcpot; Aavaon/, TroXXwv 

Trsp iovTtov, EvZaTO TvStic'ao ; i. e. 
dr) ev%a.TO Trporepoy Travrwi/ : antevertit 
caeteros, as Heyne interprets it. Compare 
P. 14. The Scholiast supplies at before 
aVovf/itv, instead of which Mr. Penn affirms 
that the context requires Qtovg ical av0pw- 
TTOVQ. This, however, seems to be of little 
importance. In either case, the words of 
Jupiter are a sufficient assurance that Thetis 
had not gained an unequivocal assent to her 
prayers, and that she had not been made ac- 
quainted with the divine counsels. For, 
according to this declaration, Juno was first 
to be instructed in the plans of Jupiter; and, 
accordingly, those plans were gradually deve- 
loped to her, first, partially, in 6. 473. and 
fully and finally in II. O. 61. See the notes 
on these places. The adjective tTTieiKrfQ de- 
notes fitting, proper. Eustath. dvrl rov Trpe- 
TTOV Kal koiKOQ. Later writers employed this 
adjective in the sense of irpaoQ, but this use 
of the word was wholly unknown to Homer. 
See Koen ad Gregor. Corinth, p. 520. 

550. TO.VTCL eicaffTa. Eustath. Kaivorepov 
*X l < ^X r lt J ' aTlff ^^ v ' /*f"67r(T yap dirb dpae- 
VIKOV ytvovQ tig ovderepov. It is not un- 
usual for the demonstrative pronouns to be 
put in the neuter plural, although the word 
to which they refer is of a different gender, 
and in the singular. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
439. The verb /zfraXX^v, to scrutinize, is 
metaphorically applied from the searching 
for metals ; and signifies properly, like fit- 
raXXfwttv, to dig metals from the mine. 
Hesych. /ifraXXtver ?JjreT, opvaati, dva- Eustathius explains the metaphor 

K T&V fltTaXXw, 7Tl [JLIjdtV TTfpltpyO- 

rspov rrjQ jitraXXovpyi'af. Although the 
verb is sometimes used of impertinent curi- 
osity, it as commonly denotes simple enquiry, 
as in II. T. 177. K. 125. Od A. 231. T. 69. 
et alibi. See also Pierson ad Moerin, p. 

551. /3ow7ri. Having large eyes. Ernesti : 
magnis oculis formosa. Hesych. 



Aivorarf Kj0ovc3i}, TTOIOV TOV juvOov 
Km Xujv (? Trapoe 7' OVT ft/oojuaf, ourt 
'AXXa fjLaX 1 fUKijXoc ra fypa&ai, aad l 
Nuv 8' aivwc SifSouca Kara <j>plva, JUTJ a- 

iriQ, Ovyarrip aXioto yepovroc;. 
yap croi ye TrapE^ro, ical Xaj3s yovvwv. 
Try <r' 6/'w Karavv<rat i-r^rujuov, wg 'A^fXija 
j oXlo-rjc Se TroXtae rl VTJUCTIV ' 



it jutv otcai 
MaXXov uot <Tat* ro 


aXX' OTTO OvfJiov 
i piyiov (rrat. 

9a\fjiog, 6w600a\/xoc. It was observed on 
v. 98. that large eyes were looked upon as a 
mark of peculiar beauty among the ancients. 
The translators render this epithet absurdly 
enough by bovinis oculis ; as if the eye of the 
ox were larger in proportion than that of 
other animals. The words (SovyaloQ, II. N. 
824. /3ou/3po>(m, Q. 532. and /SowTrig, are 
all of the same class, and are compounded of 
the intensive particle /3ov, or j3ot, in refe- 
rence to the size of the animal. With the 
same force, "nttroc, also is used in composition. 
Etym. Mag. iw0e yap 77 Trpoo^K?/ rwv 


drjXovv, olov, fiovXifioc;, o julyaf Xt/tof 
flovirctig, o [isyciQ TTCUQ. So Eustathius on II. 
N. 824. Hesych. (3ov TO p,tya Kai rroXv 

553. Trdoog y* OVT' tipopai. The present 
is frequently joined with Trapog , in reference 
to a past action ; the adverb itself sufficiently 
denoting the time. Compare II. A. 264. M. 
347- O. 257. H. 23. S. 386. and elsewhere. 
In like manner the Latins use dudum with 
a present tense ; as in Virg. jEn. II. 103. 
Jamdudum sumite pcenas. 

554. cuKjjXoe. JEolicd for 'licri\OQ, quiet, 
tranquil. In Homer the word is generally 
used of mental, and, by others, of bodily, 
tranquillity ; so as to mean at ease, or care- 
less. Such is also, probably, the sense in Od. 
r. 311. #. 259. and elsewhere; but not 
necessarily so. ra. For rawra,as in v. 125. ; 
and liaaa, for uTiva, from the Doric <rd, for 
nva. It is frequently used in Homer and 
Herodotus. Hence <rd p,av, in the Mega- 
rensian dialect, for TI fjifiv ; Aristoph. 
Acharn. 757- See Zeun on Viger, p. 28. 

555. p,r) <TE Trapdirg. Ne te blanditiis 
persuaserit. CLARKE. II. Z. 337- TraptiTrowff' 
a\o^0 fiaXatcolg STretaaiv. In this passage 
it is evidently used in a bad sense : but more 
frequently it occurs in a good one. Thus 

irapinruv, II. Z. 62. H. 121. So 
in v. 577 

558. Ty a' bint. Wherefore I suspect. Schol. 
TavTy of. VTTOVOU. See on v. 289. 

561. oaniovirj. A term of address very 
frequent in Homer, and similar to the Latin, 
O bona. Damm : Vox plerumque honorifica, 
scepe tamen admixta aliqua admiratione for- 
tunce vel animi insignioris in utramque par- 
tern. It generally, in Homer, expresses a 
degree of rebuke, or indignation. Compare 
II. B. 190. 200. T. 399. A. 31. Z. 326.407- 
I. 40. N. 448. Q. 194. It is also used re- 
peatedly by Plato. 

562. t/JTrjjt;- lonicd for tftiraQ. Its pri- 
mary import is altogether, as if compounded 
of iv TraffLV, scil. rpo7rot, omnibus modis ; 
and in this signification it occurs frequently 
in Homer. Compare II. H. 196. 9. 33. 464. 
I. 514. and elsewhere. Its more general ac- 
ceptation, however, is tamen; as in this 
place, et passim. Hesych. tfjnrrjQ' ofiuQ, 
jravTUQ, bp,oi(D. The following is cited in 
Blomfield's Gloss, on ^Esch. Prom. 48. 
from Valckenaer, on Theocrit. Idyl. XV. 
36. Usitatior etiam voculte significatus, ta- 
men, nihilominus, hie posset locum reperire : 
tp,ira, e'jUTrag, vel efiirrj^ hoc sensu turn ab 
aliis, sed frequenter adhibetur a Pindaro et 
Apollonio Jthodio ; in hujus Argonauticis 
minime vicies recurrens ; usitatissimum dXX' 
ofAbig dicitur aXX' 'ifiTrrj^ et a\X' tfiira^ 
Hesiodo, Callimacho, Apollonio, sed et Epi- 
charmo, et Theocrito, X. 29. XXII. 17- Priori 
sensu ponitur !/*7rj scepe apud Homerum, et in 
JEscli. Eumen. 229. ubi ftkyaQ f^nraQ, sicuti 
Theocritus dixit KaXbv t/iTraf. Hermann 
on Viger, p. 616. maintains, that it is never 
used, except in the sense of tamen. a?r6 
Ovfiov, i. e. aTToOvfJiioG, invisus, ingralus. 
The preposition aV6 properly implies re- 
moval or distance from a place, and hence 
alienation from an object. Thus Diogen. 
Laert. I. 100. airb Qvpov iroitiv,abalienare. 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 5?3. Viger de Idiom. 
p. 467. 

H 2 


Ei & ourw TOVT <rriv, ttw\ 

'AXX' ctKtovaa Ka^ijao, jui> S' timrdOeo 

Ml] VU rot OU ^aiCTjUdXTtV, 6(TOl GfOl flO 1 ' l> ' 

*Ao-<7OV iov0', ore icly rot acnrrovc 

' N Oe 0ar'* fSSatrf SE jSowTTtc TTorvta 
Kat jo' aKOu<ra Kaflijaro, fTTtyvajU^acra $i\ov icrjp. 
"Q^Orjo-av S' ava Satjua Aioe Gtot ovpaviwv^' 
Tot<7iv 8* " 



? H Si) Xotyia f'pya raS' (7<rrat, ouo r' avcra, 
Et 8/7 <T0a> cvEica QVK\TWV jOt8aivrov a>, 

GO!<JI KoXtuov iXauvfrov* ou8l ri Sairof 

j 7Tt ra j^E^ELOv 
Mrjrpi 8' -ya> TTttpa^TjjUt, KOI aurip 7Tp 

Alt, 6^/oa ju^ aur 


564. ei 5' ovra> rour' soriv, c. r. X. /'ac 
vero hoc ita se habere, ut tu suspicaris ; scito 
hoc mihi ita placere. 

567. affffov ibvQ'. Eustathius, and after 
him, Barnes and others, understand iovre in 
reference to Otol, and the verb ^pai(7juw(7i in 
the plural. Nor is it unusual to put the plural 
of the verb with the dual of the subject ; as 
in II. A. 453. E. 275. II. 337. ; 276. And 
so Eurip. Phren. 69. rw fit Zvpfiavr' Iraai>. 
This construction, however, can never obtain 
unless when speaking of two subjects. The 
examples to the contrary, adduced in Mat- 
thiae's Gr. Gr. . 303. Obs. are most of them 
corrupt ; and the rest must be differently ex- 
plained. See Blomfield's Remarks in loc. 
The truth is, that the word iovO' is not iov- 
Tt, but iovra, in the accusative singular after 
the verb xpaier/iaxri, and refers to fi, i. e. 
Jupiter, understood. See on v. 28. The ex- 
pression aaaov ievai occurs repeatedly in 
Homer, and always implying opposition and 
hostility) never assistance or support : except, 
perhaps, in II. I. 504. M*. 8. where it implies 
neither the one nor the other. Compare II. 
O. 105. X. 92. See also Dawes Misc. Crit. 
p. 84. ed. Kidd. daTtrovQ . Invincible. Scho- 
liast : &v aTTTtaOai ovddc, dvvarai % 

569. kTTiyvdfi^affa 0iXov Krjp. Curbing 
her passion. Eustath. i7ro^aXa(r0T(ra rou 
ctTfvovQ fjOovg- 77 Se /jfra^opa *c TOJV Ka/tTr- 
TOfievwv (7w/iara>v. The verb iiriyvafiTTTO) 
is used in the same sense in II. B. 14. T. 
510. In ^>. 178. it signifies, properly, to 

572. STrirjpa 0gpwv. So again in \. 578. 
The derivation of the word kirirjpoc., is mat- 
ter of considerable doubt among the com- 
mentators ; some deducing it from kpctdt, 
others from dtw, or deerKW, and others 

again from rip. Apollonius and the Scholiast 
explain 7rt?7pa by rijv per' kirtKovpiaQ 
Xapiv, from r)p, ripoq, explained by STTIKOV- 
pia in Herodian, cited by Eustathius. And 
so Heyne. Damm observes that the word 
never occurs in Homer except in the neuter 
plural ; and that always pro eo quodjuvat et 
gratumest. Hesych. k-jriripoc,- (3or]6bg, b%apiv 
cnroSidovQ. The simple form ijpog, is used 
occasionally ; as in II. JSJ. 132. and it is 
thought by many that the words should be 
here separated by Tmesis as in Od. T. 164. 
7ri fjpa $povT6. This, however, is at least 
questionable ; and the phrase 7Tij;pa 0e- 
ptiv occurs in Soph. CEd. T. 1094. 

573. T] dr) Xotyia tpya K. T. X. Truly 
there will be sad doings. So above in v. 

575. KoXwov. A tumult. The Scholiast 
derives the word from KoXoibg, a jay, or 
daw ; in allusion to its chattering. Damm, 
however, considers this etymology as alto- 
gether absurd, and deduces it immediately 
from K\cut), clamo. Hence the verb fcoXydw, 
to be clamorous, to prate : II. B. 212. See 
the passage from Gellius, there cited. 

576. 7Ti TO. ^ipt'iova viKq,. Euripides 
has borrowed this expression in Phcen. 903. 
7Ti dt Kptiaffov TO Kuicov sari Taya9ov. 
And with greater latitude in Suppl. 198. 
fXfSf yap TIQ, <JJQ TO. %ipova nXfiw fiporoi- 
aiviffTi r&v a\Lf.iv6v(>)v. Compare also Soph. 
Philoct. 455. "OTTOV y' 6 \iipuv rayaQov 
[iti%ov aOsvfi, JUairoipQivfi TOL %pq(7ra %w 
SZIVOQ Kpa.Tf.1, TOVTOVQ eycj TOVQavdpaQ ov 
arkpZa) TTOTS. In this passage, however, ra 
XfjOfiova is simply malum ; viz. the disturb- 
ance, which interrupted the tranquillity of 
the gods. The same Hemistich is repeated 
in Od. S. 403. 



7rar?7p, auv ' rtjjuv Satra rapa^y. 
Et7T/o yap K' tOtXyaiv 'OXfynrtoc a'aTfpOTrrjrr/e 
'E l$tt)V <rru0Xt!;at* 6 yap TroXv 0praro lortv. 
'AXXa (TU rov y' twieavi KaOcnrTtcrOai /mXaKOt<nv* 

7rt0' t'XaOC 'OXv/iTTiOC O-<7Tat 


Mrjrpt $tX^j 

TfrXa^t, fjirirep l/xr), /cat avacr^fo, 
Mr) (T, (f>i\r)v 7Tp loucrav, V o 
GtvOjUvrjv" TOTE 8' ou rt 
Xpat(TjUtv* apyaXloc yap 
"H^i7 yap juf Kai aXXor' a 
'PA//E, TroSoc rfraywv, OLTTO jSrjXou 
Tlav & rifJLap ^E/OOJUTJV, ajua S' i^fXttj) /cara^uvrt 

Ka7T7T(7OV V AlJjUVfjJ' oXiyO? S' m OvflOQ VIJV* 





Mftor/crao'a SE TratSo^ iSf^aro 
Avrap o rote aXXotdt 0otc I 


580. fi7Tp yap K' i9k\yai K. r. X. This 
sentence closes with an elegant aposiopesis : 
similar to that in v. 135. The sense 
may be thus filled up : TOVTO SvvaTai 
TTOisiv. This is much better than under- 
standing (TTvQtXiZai in the optative : and 
more suitable to the custom of the ancients, 
who frequently intimated their intentions 
by gesture instead of speech. The verb <TTV- 
(j)i\l%eiv (from oru0\6f, asper) signifies 
to treat, or handle, roughly : hence, to hurl 
down, to dethrone. Schol. 0rw0e\iar O.TTO- 
Kivf/ffat, dvavrptyat. 

582. KaBdirTtaOai. Infinitive for Im- 
perative. See on v. 20. 

584. deTrciQ dfi<j)iKinre\\ov. The dfifpi- 
KVTTt\\ov, according to Damm, is the same 
as the KU7r\\ov, v. 596. in which place 
Eustathius quotes a passage from Aristotle 
(Hist. Animal. IX. 40.), proving, by a com- 
parison from the honeycomb, in which the 
little cells appear back to back, that the 
dfHpiKVTTtXXov, called also diKvireXXov, 
was a double cup, having a bottom in the 
middle, common to each cup. Others dis- 
tinguish between the a/i^ucwTreXXov and 
the 8iKinrt\\ov, assigning Aristotle's de- 
scription to the latter, and describing the 
former as a cup with two handles, and wider 
in the body than at the mouth. As SETTUQ 
and d[MJ>iKvTre\\ov are both substantives, 
the one must be in apposition with the 

587. &v 6<j>Qa\fjiol(Jtv i'ooj/irti. The pre- 

position kv is here redundant, as in Soph. 
(Ed. T. 821. See note, Pental. Gr. p. 58. 

589. apyaXeof yap 'O. dvri(f>pea9ai. 
For apyaXlov tortv Ail avTiipspeaQat. 
This construction is very common. 

590. fjdr) -yap /AC jc. r. X. The occasion 
upon which Vulcan had formerly inter- 
fered in behalf of Juno, in consequence of 
which he received the punishment here 
mentioned, is that related in II. O. 17- sqq. 
Compare II. JSJ. 249. and see also on v. 403. 
supra. It is a different fable to which allu- 
sion is made in II. S. 395. 

591. rcraywv. Aor. 2. with the Ionic 
reduplication from rao*, or raw (whence 
Ttivui), signifying to extend the hand in 
order to take hold of any thing ; and so to 
seize. The imperative rrj occurs in II. JaJ. 
220. . 618. Od. E. 346. 0. 477- I- 347. 
K. 487- Hesych. rr)' \d(3e' Tivtg Sk Kai <rvv 
T(p i ypa^oufri (ry), oi>x wyiwg. Homer 
always uses this verb dawdsTwe, with- 
out a copulative conjunction. Of the 
construction, see on v. 197. Eustath. (3ij- 
Xo $ ffwrjOhtg, o Trj oiKiaQ flctTrjp, 
Trapa TO f3aiveo~0ai, a>e Kai ovSbg Trapa 
TO oBtveaQai' oQtv Kai roVot a'j8l/3jjXoe 
jJitv, 01 Upoi Kai a/3arof /3e/3^Xot dt, oi 
/3aroi Kai roi Tv^ovai. AnglicS, the 

594. 2tvric dvdptQ. The first inhabit- 
ants of the Isle of Lemnos. 
597. IvdeZia. See on v. 471. 



t, J\VKV VtKTdp tt 

ap' tvwpro -ytXwe fJLciKaptvGi 0fot<rtv, 
'& tSov "H^aierrov Sm Sw/zara TrotTrvuovra. 

l Qc Tore jutv TTpoirav ft/nap fi\iov JcaraSuvra 
Acuvvvr'* ouSf rt 0u/zoe tSeutro Satroe l/<rrjc> 
Ov /iv <j>6pfiiyyog TreptKaXXloc, ^v E'X' 'ATroXXwv, 
Moutrawv 0', at aaSov, ajuaj3o/<ivai OTTI icaXy. 

Avrap 7Tt KarcSu XajUTrpov ^>aoc ^eXtoto, 
Ot /uv icaKKEiovrsc /3av 




TTpoc ov 
Ev0a Trapoc KOtjua^', ore jut 
yaj3ac* Trapa 



599. dafitffTOQ yeXwg. Plato, rfe Repub. 
III. objects to the epithet da(3tGTO, inex- 
tinguishable. It is evident, however, that 
it is here used, by a kind of poetical exag- 
geration, simply in the sense of continued. 
This continued laughter was fairly raised at 
Vulcan's expense, who, as Eustathius ob- 
serves, was officiously performing the office 
of Hebe and Ganymede. It is evident that 
this description of the banqueting gods is 
formed upon the prevailing customs of the 
heroic ages. 

604. a/itj36/ii/ai OTTI KaXy. See on v. 
84. supra. 

606. KaKKtiovTeg. For KaraKeiovrts, 
from KaraKaw, decumbere cupio. 

610. OT fllV y\VKVQ VTTVOq IKOLVOl. 

Whenever sweet sleep came over Mm. The 
optative is used with the adverbs of time 
ore, tirtidri, OTrort, in reference to a past 
action frequently repeated. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 521. 

611. tvda KaBevd' dva(3d<;. Eustathius 

makes a distinction between KctSevdeiv and 
VTTVOVV, the verbs which are used at the 
end of this book and the beginning of the 
next, with regard to Jupiter's sleeping. He 
says, KaOevdetv only means, lying down in 
a disposition to sleep ; which solves the con- 
tradiction which else would follow in the 
next book ; where it is said, Jupiter did not 
sleep. It has been remarked by the Scho- 
liast, that this is the only book of the twenty- 
four without any simile ; a figure in which 
Homer abounds every where else. The like 
remark is made by Madame Dacier on the 
first of the Odyssee : and because the poet 
has observed the same conduct in both 
works, it is concluded he thought a simplicity 
of style, without the great figures, was pro- 
per during the first information of the 
reader. This observation may be true; 
but I cannot think the book had been the 
worse, though he had thrown in as many 
similes as Virgil has in the first JSneid. 



'PA^QAIA, B'. 


"Oveipov X l > ayop^v, rat 



Jupiter sends a deceitful vision to Agamemnon, persuading him to lead the army to 
battle ; and the General, who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy without the 
assistance of Achilles, but fears the army was discouraged by his absence, and the late 
plague, as well as by the length of time, contrives to make trial of their disposition by 
a stratagem. He first communicates his design to the princes in council, that he 
would propose a return to the soldiers, and that they should put a stop to them if the 
proposal was embraced. Then he assembles the whole host, and upon moving for a 
return to Greece, they unanimously agree to it, and run to prepare the ships. They 
are detained by the management of Ulysses, who chastises the insolence of Thersites. 
The assembly is recalled, several speeches made on the occasion, and, at length, the 
advice of Nestor followed, which was, to make a general muster of the troops, and to 
divide them into their several nations, before they proceed to battle. This gives occa- 
sion to the poet to enumerate all the force of the Greeks and Trojans, and in a large 

The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day. The Scene lies in the 
Grecian camp, and upon the sea-shore ; towards the end it removes to Troy. 

"AAAOI JUEV pa QEOL re KOL aviptg L 
EuSov iravvv^ioi, Am 8' OVK 

1 . 'nnroKOpvffTai From 'iiriroQ and properly signifying those who fight from a 

jcopiWai, armo. It cannot, therefore, sig- chariot. Schol. ify' 'ITTTTUV O7r\i6/ivoi, r) 

nify, as some have imagined, e^ovreg ITT- 'imrovQ KOpvaaovrsG' rovrkon TroXffjiiKoi, 

ireici rpi'^ag iv raiq Kopvaiv. In this 17 a'0' 'ITTTTUV fjLa^ofJiivoi. 

place, it is nothing more than an ornamen- 2- eudov iravvv\ioi. Aristotle tells us 

tal epithet ; so that dvepeg iTnroKopvarai (Poet. c. 26.), that this place had been ob- 

may be rendered simply warriors ; the word jected to by some critics of those times. 




'AXX' o y jUp/i//ptE Kara (f>ptva, 

> 6X(T^ $ TToXtaC ETTl 

ol Kara OVJULOV apiarr) ^CUVETO j3ovXr), 
ITT' 'Arp^ioy 'AyctjitE/ivovt ovXoy oveipov. 
0<i>vrj<7ac 7Ta TrrEpOEvra TT poar\va.' 
tat, ouX "O^Etpf, OoaQ ETTI 
*EX6/a>v EC jcXtortrjv 'Aya/iE/zvovoe ' 
Ilavra /LiaX' arpEKEtoc ayopEUfjitEv, 
Owptjat E k-lXEVE /capr? jcojuowimic 
r vOv "ya/o KV E'Xot TroXtv 
ov yap ET' a'jU^te 'OXv^uTTta 



They thought it gave a very ill idea of the 
military discipline of the Greeks, to repre- 
sent a whole army unguarded, and all the 
leaders asleep. They also pretended it was 
ridiculous to describe all the gods sleeping 
beside Jupiter. To both these Aristotle 
observes, that nothing is more usual or 
allowable than the figure which puts all 
for the greater part. One may add, with 
respect to the latter criticism, that nothing 
could give a better image of the superiority 
of Jupiter to the other gods, or of the Su- 
preme Being to all second causes, than the 
vigilance here ascribed to him over all 
things divine and human. POPE. Of the 
construction see on II. A. 414. The adjec- 
tive vrjdvfJiOG is a constant epithet of sleep 
in Homer, and from the context it is clearly 
synonymous with ridvg. Now there is also 
another adjective, ijdvp,OG, employed in the 
same sense and connexion in Horn. H. in 
Merc. 241. 449. Apoll. Rhod. II. 402. and 
other writers ; whence it is probable that 
there are different forms of the same deriva- 
tive ; if, indeed, the former has not arisen 
from an error in transcription, since it ge- 
nerally follows a word of which v would 
otherwise be the final letter. It has even 
been proposed to read here t\tv tjdvfjioQ 
VTTVOQ, and apply similar corrections other- 
wise ; but, supposing an error in the first 
instance, the usage was subsequently re- 
tained, and therefore cannot, in the face of 
all the MSS. and the authority of recent 
writers, be arbitrarily set aside. See Quint. 
Smyrn. II. 63. It recurs in II. K. 91. 187. 
23. 354. H.454. Od. A. 793. and elsewhere. 
Some have derived it from vr\ dvttv, in the 
sense of unde exire nequit, i. e. deep, sound ; 
but this will seldom suit the context. 

4. rt/iTjo-y, 6\ffg 5k. Some MSS. have 
. Hence it has been proposed by Voss, 
Hermann, and others, to read rt/iTjtm', 
6\eaat, in the optative ; and it is admitted 
that this syntax would be more regular. 
Thus, II. <I. 137. "Qpfiyve S avd Ovpov, 

10 K. T. X. See, however, on II. 
E. 128. 

5. Virg. yn. IV. 287. Hate alternanti 
potior sententia visa est. 

6. 7T/iv//cu ITT' 'Arptidy K. r. X. For 
7ri7r/^ai. Damm understands ovXo? in 
this place to be lonice for bXog, so that ov\ov 
"Oveipov would mean nothing more than a 
complete, i. e. a coherent, dream. But al- 
though the Ionic form of bXoc repeatedly 
occurs in Homer (e. g. II. K. 134.) ; still the 
more usual signification of the epithet is de- 
structive. Compare II. E. 461. 717- P. 756. 
$. 536. Schol. ovKov TOV 6\e9piov TOV tir 
6Xg0py TTt \LTcb\Livov. Of the mythology of 
dreams compare Od. A. 800. T. 560. Q. 

8. /Sdffic' c0i. Aul. Gell. XIII. 23. Quis 
tarn obtuso ingenio est, quin intelligat, fldcric' 
i0t, verba duo idem significantia non frustra 
posita esse kic TrapaXXryXou, ut quidam pu- 
tant : sed hortamentum esse acre imperatee 
celeritatis. The verb /3a<7/ew is formed from 
(Baa) or ]87jLti, as 0d<TKw from 0dw or 0?7jui, 
yT/pdo-Kw from yjpdw, and the like. 

10. u'yopU/iv. Infinitive for Impera- 
tive. The adverb a'rpfKswf is to be ren- 
dered accurately, word for word. 

11. leap?? Ko/ioWrae 'A%aiove. For 
Kara /cdpj^va. It is more common, how- 
ever, to read fcapjj/co/iowvrae in one word, 
which is less correct. The indeclinable 
noun icdpjj is formed, by apocope, from fcd- 
prjvov, or the plural Kapr^va. Of KfXtvtiv, 
and like verbs, the construction is more re- 
gular with the dative as in v. 50. infra ; 
but they also take an accusative, followed 
by an infinitive, as in this place. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 380.1. 

12. TravffvSiy. Omni impetu. The da- 
tive of the noun iravavdir), used adverbially. 
From irav and aevoj, moveo. It is sometimes 

13. The more usual signification of the 
adverb dfi^iQ, derived from the preposition 
i, is, around, on both sides ; and some- 


'AOavarot (frpa^ovrat' ETTEyvajU^f yap aVai/rac 

ETTEI rov /J.v6ov 



' f /Kai> 0oac fVi 
Br/ 8' a/)' ETT' 'ArptiSriv 'Ayajuljuvova' rov 8' C 

Sri? 8' a'jo' i/Trip KE^aXfje, N]Xrjt(> wit EOHCWC, 
NfVropt, rov pa juaXtara yfjoovrwv ri 



times, between, as in II. I\ 115. Hence, 
differently ; as in this place. Eustath. a/z- 
0if <t>pd%ovTcii' Sixoyvufjiovovffi. So also 
in II. N. 345. ro> 5' dfj.<f)ig Qpoveovre. 

15. Tpw(T(rt <5 K^^t' itprjirrai. And 
troubles have been connected with, i. e. hang 
over, will befall, ^e Trojans. It seems that 
these words were not in the text of Homer 
in the time of Aristotle, but were inserted, 
instead of the clause diSofitv dk oi v%o 
dpeaOai, by certain critics, who conceived 
that the original made Jupiter guilty of a lie, 
in promising glory to Agamemnon. Hence, 
Plato de Repub. III. sub fin. Aa TTtpi Bt&v 
Kal \kynv Kai iroitiv, w /u//rf avrovg yor)- 
TCLQ T(jj p,eTaf3a\\tiv kavrovg, /w^rc vip-ag 
ijjevdeai irapaytiv tv X6y^>, rj tpyq*. IloXXd 
apa 'OfjLrjpov tTraivovvT(.q aXXa, rouro OVK 
fTraivecrofitOa, rrjv TOV kvvTrviov iro\iT;i]v 
VTTO Aiog T^'Ayapefivovi. To remove this 
imputation, Aristotle informs us (Poet. 26.), 
that Hippias proposed to bring forward the 
accent to the penultima, so as to read Sido- 
fjiev for didopevat, the infinitive being used 
instead of the imperative. But although the 
Dream would, in this case, utter the promise 
of success to Agamemnon, the falsehood 
would equally attach itself to Jupiter as its 
author. Macrobius in Somn. Scip. I. 7* 
denies that there is any lie in the case; be- 
cause Agamemnon, in neglecting to summon 
Achilles into the field, did not call out all the 
forces, and, consequently, in not complying 
with the conditions, absolved Jupiter from 
his promise. There is a striking resemblance 
between this dream and the lying spirit, 
which the Almighty permitted to lure Ahab 
to his destruction ; 'l Kings xxii. 20. LXX. 
Kai et7T Kvpiog, Tt aVar^fftt TOV 'A^aa/3 
/SaatXIa 'Iffpaj)X, Kal dvajBrjaerai, Kai 
Triatlrai kv 'Pe/ijud0 TaXaa'd; Kal dirtv 
OVTOQ ovrwf, Kai OVTOQ O'VTMQ. Kai i^rjXOs 
7rvtvfj,a Kal tffTt] evibirtov Kwpiov, Kai tiTTtv, 
Eyw aVar]<Tw avrov. Kai ITT 7rpo 
avrbv Kupiof, 'Ev rivi ; Kaltlirtv, 'E^eXtu- 
Kal effOfiai irvivfia \l/tvdtg dq- TO 

ffTOfJ,a TravTwv T&V 7rpo0qraij/ awroi;' 
e t7Tv, 'A7rar^(Ttc, Kat yf 
Kal -jrotr]<rov OVTWQ. The same is repeated 
in 2 Chron. xvii 19. and it frequently happens 
that the Deity accomplishes his judgments 
by means of the perverse wickedness of his 
creatures. k^irTai. Perf. pass, from 0aV- 
TW, injungo. Schol. iTrrjOTtiT 


19. TTtpi 5' ap,j3p6<no 

The verb Trtpt^ew or 7Tpixww, circum- 
fundo, frequently signifies to embrace ; and 
so a/jiQixevb), in II. JHJ. 314. Hence these 
verbs are beautifully applied to sleep, to 
denote its complete possession of the mind. 
Compare II. ft. 253. -*". 63. The applica- 
tion of the word is precisely similar in v. 41. 
Of d/ij3p6<rtoc, see on II. A. 131. 529. 

20. erf) S' dp' i7Tp KtQaXfjg. JE>n. IV. 
702. Devolat, et supra caput astitit. Eusta- 
thius points out the strict correctness of the 
action of the dream. It rests upon the head, 
as the seat of the imagination ; it assumes 
the similitude of the person most esteemed 
by Agamemnon, and, therefore, most likely 
to occupy his sleeping thoughts; and, just 
at the instant of his waking, it leaves an im- 
pression upon his senses, as of one having 
just ceased speaking. 

22. fjiiv. This must be the accusative 
after irpoffttyuvet, not ktiad^ivoQ ; for, to 
denote himself, avTov would have been 
added. See Butt. Gr. Gr. p. 296. 

23. SatypovoQ. It is worthy of remark, 
that throughout the Iliad, with the excep- 
tion of the last book, this adjective signifies 
brave ; in the last book, and throughout the 
Odyssey, prudent. In Hesiod it is used as in 
the Iliad. To 'nnrodafjioG is to be referred 
the equum domitor, of Virgil passim. 

24. ov xpri -jravvv^iov K. T. X. Theo- 
crit. Idyl. VIII. 66. oi) %P7 Koip.aff9ai 
fiaQkwQ GVV iraidi vtpovTa. Schol. ad loc. 
TOVTO St % l O(J,r)Qov ?X t - ^^ e sentiment 
is also imitated in Sil. Ital. III. 1?2. Turpe 
dud somno totam consumere noctem. 



T Ot Xaoi T 7Ttrrpa^>arat, icai rooxra jUf/irjXf. 25 


vuv 7/ KV t'Xoic TroXtv tvpvayviav 
Tpwwv* ov yap fV aju^ic 'OAfywria 8w/iar' ^ovrc 30 

'AOavarot QpaZovraC 7ryvajin// yap a 
"Hprj Xt<rcrojUvi7* Tpw(rcrt t 
aXXa <ri> vrjcriv t 

a'v <T fjLtXifypwv virvog 

rov ' f'XtTr' aurou 35 

Ta ^>povOvr' ava 0vjuov, a ^>' oi/ TtXttaOai t-jUfXXf. 

* oi>8f ra ^'877 a /oa ZEVC /xr)ro epya. 
ya/o cr' e/ucXXev ?r' aXya rf orova^ac T 
r Kal AavaoTdi 8ia KparspaG va^ivag. 40 

' ? VTTVOU* ^117 81 /utv 
"E^ETO S' 6p0a>0/c* juaXaicov 8' 
KaXov, vrj^arfov* 7Tpi 8f julya /SaXXfro 
VTTO XtTrapotartv fSrjtraro icaXa ^ 
ap' iofjioicn jSaXfro ?i^)oc ap-yupor}Xov* 45 

E'/Xfro c^ (TKijTrrpov irarpwiov atyOirov ait, 

J3rj Kara 

pOU(ra Kai aXXot^ aOavaroiaiv. 
Avrap o KrjpuKEo-ort \tyvfQ6yyouri KfXfuf, 50 

K?7/ouo-o-tv ayop^v^fi icapr/ KO/xotuvrac 'A^atovc* 
Oi jiifv tKrjpvaaov, roi 8' fiydpovro jmaX w/ca. 
BouX?) o Trpairov jjityaOvfjujJV le yfpovrwv 
l^ Trapa VTJI JlvXctycvfOC |3acr(Xr)oc' 

25. l7riTr^)a0arai. A For STrirtrpa/jfig- 38. ov^f ra y^j? K. r. X. For ra tpya, a 

voi tiffi. jU/ui7\c. By Syncope, for /tt- pa K. r. X. It happens not unfrequently 

/LisX^Kc. See Prelim. Obs. sect. IV. that the noun, which should precede the re- 

27. avtvQtv itt)v. Scil. iv 'OXvpiry. lative, follows it in the same case. Compare 

Virg. ^En. V. 726. Imperio Jovis hue venio, II. H. 187. I. 131. P. 641. See Matt. Gr. 

9 classibus ignem Depulit, et ccelo tandem Gr. . 474. a. 

miseratus ab alto est. 39. Orjativ yap IT tjj.t\\tv sir aXyta. 

35. aTTfjSqo-tro. Imperfect, from aTro- For iiriOriffeiv. 

flrjaofjiai. A new class of verbs arises, par- 41. a/i^sxvr' 6p,<f>ri. See above, on v. 19. 

ticularly in the Poets, from the future of the and on II. A. 105. 

first form. Thus, dvaofiat, from dvvauai, 43. vyyartov. New ; from ytyvo/*ai. 

frequently occurs. So also Xl&o, from Xtyw, The word recurs in II. JcJ. 185. 

II. I. 613. 6p<rto, from opw, II. A. 204. 264. 46. Trarpwiov dfyQirov aid. See on v. 

otcrw, from 0lpa>, II. T. 173. Od. X. 106. 93. infra. 

and others. 54. Netrropl^ Trapd vrfi II. jSaffiXiJoc. 

36. a p" ou TtXkevQai 1/ieXXt. See on II. The genitive (3aai\rjog is in apposition with 
A. 8. 92. So also immediately below, v. 38. Ngcrropof, implied in the adjective Nf<r- 



, TrvKivrjv fiprvvtro j3ouX?jv* 
KXur, tyiXot, Ottos JULOL IVVTTVLOV i]X0v 
'Aju/3|00<mjv Sta VVKTU' (jLaXiara $ Nlcrropt 8/<j* 
EtSoc r, jUy0oc rf, ^vrjv r', ay^tara Itjjjca. 
' a/o' VTTp K^)aXrjc, cai /uf irpb^ fivOov f 
, 'Arploe WE cW'^povoe, 7T7roSa/ioio ; 
Oi xprf Travvu^tov fuSetv jSouXrj^o'pov a 
r Qi Xaoi T' 7TtTrpa0arat, icat roaaa jUEjuq 
Nuv S' jii0v uv a>Ka' Ato^ Se rot ayycXoc ei 
"Oe o-cu, avivQev <i>v, fi*ya Kr'jSerai ^S' tXeaip 
CTE KlXtutre Kapr/ icojuowvraf 'A^atoic 

vvv yap icev eXotc TroXtv iua 
T/owwv* ov yap r' afj.(^ig 'OXu/UTTt 

^pa^ovrat* 7TyvajUi// yap 



'Eic AO* aXXa < 

"Qi^cr' aTTOTrrajUfvoc* )U SE yXuicuc VTTVOC a 

'AXX' ayr', at d 

ITpaira o ywv cTrcart 7rip?]<TOjuat, ^ Oifug lort, 

ropey. So II. E. 741. Topyeij; 
TrtXwpov, for ropyovoe TrcXwpov. The 
same construction is used in Soph. (Ed. T. 
267- Antig. 1137. Compare also II. E. 108. 
Od. A. 634. and see Matt. Gr. Gr. . 431. 1. 

55. 7)pruvcro j8ou\?)j/. Consilium pro- 

56. ivvTTviov. For Kara TO ivinrviov. 

57. dfiftpoairjv vi)KTa. See on II. A. 
529. E. 287. The epithet is applied to the 
night, as devoted to sleep, rather than, as 
some suppose, because men are refreshed in 
the night-time. 

71. VX tT> aTTOTTTdutvog. See on II. A. 

72. a\\' ayer', ai Ktv TTtag. Villoison : 
X7Ti TO (TKOTrritTofitv. The ellipsis of this 
verb is very common before the particles 
ITTWC, IK, ft apa, and the like. Com- 
pare 11. Z. 04. 275. and elsewhere. So in 
N. T. Mark xi. 13. Acts xxvii. 12. The 
Latins sometimes make a similar omission. 
Cicero ad Div. Ep. III. 9. Quod te adeunt 
fere omnes, (sc. percontaturi) si quid veils. 

Sueton. IV. 2. Facile id sane Tiberio pa- 
tiente, (visuro) si per has mansuefieri posset 
ferum ejus ingenium. The sense is filled up 
in II. P. 652. SKlTrrco vvv, MevsXae Sio- 
Tpt$t, aiKtv tojjat. See Bos. Ellips. Gr. 
p. 407. 

73. Trpdira 8' lywv K. r. X. The best 
commentary upon the first part of this book 
is in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who has 
given us an admirable explication of the 
whole conduct of Agamemnon in his second 


treatise, Trepi laxn^Tifffisvotv. He says : 
This prince had nothing so much at heart as 
to draw the Greeks to a battle, yet knew not 
how to proceed without Achilles, who had just 
retired from the army ; and was apprehen- 
sive that the Greeks] who were displeased 
at the departure of Achilles, might refuse 
obedience to his orders, should he absolutely 
command it. In this circumstance, he pro- 
poses to the princes in council to make a trial 
of arming the Grecians, and offers an expe- 
dient himself; which was, that he should 
sound their disposition, by exhorting them to 
set sail for Greece ; but that then the other 
princes should be ready to dissuade and de- 
tain them. If any object to this stratagem, 
that Agamemnon's whole scheme would be 
ruined if the army should take him at his 
wordj which was very probable ; it is to be 
answered, that his design lay deeper than 
they imagine; nor did he depend upon his 
speech only for detaining them. He had 
some cause to fear the Greeks had a pique 
against him, which they had concealed ; and 
whatever it was, he judged it absolutely ne- 
cessary to know it, before he proceeded to 
a battle. He therefore furnishes them with 
an occasion to manifest it, and at the same 
time provides against any ill effects it might 
have, by his secret orders to the princes. It 
succeeds accordingly; and when the troops 
are running to embark, they are stopped by 
Ulysses and Nestor. POPE. 77 fll^ig sari. 
The common reading, y 0/uc lore, was re- 
tained in the former edition ; which, if cor- 




Kcu favyziv avv viivai Tro\VK\{fitft 

'YjUfte cT aXXo0v aXXoc Iprjrveiv ITT&GGIV. 

"Hrot 6 7' we inrwvj Kar' ap' t^cro* rolart 8' a 
Nlorwp, oc /oa IluXoto ava? rjv TJ|iia0ovro. 
"O (T0(v u0pov*wv ayoprjararo KOL 


Ei julv rt TOV ovtipov 'A^atwv a'XXo vt<T7T, 
^PfuSoe /av 0at/Uv, KOI voGtyiZoifJitOa juaXXov* 
Nuv 8' iSfv, o jUy' aptaroc EVI arpardj U}(Tat etvai. 
'AXX' ajer\ at KE 


t 8' 7ravlcrrrj(Tav, TreiOovro re Trot/uievL Xawv, 

X^C* 7T0-(TVOvrO 8f XttOt. 

l(7t U 


rect, must, doubtless, be rendered, as there 
stated, <?Ha J^'MS es (sell, sv ayop^) ; in- 
asmuch as $ always signifies <?a in Homer, 
nevei quemadmodum. Compare also II. I. 
33. It is clear, however, from II. T. 134. 
and elsewhere, that the true import of the 
phrase is quod fieri solet ; and hence it is 
more than probable that the true reading is 
that now exhibited, more especially as it is 
actually so written in Od. I. 268. Q. 286. 
Compare also Od. A. 691. A. 218. X 59. 
and see Hermann on Horn. H. in Merc. 241. 
The relative thus refers to the entire clause 
Trpwra d' ly w K. r. X. and it was the custom 
for the prince, who summoned the assembly, 
to open the business, by declaring the object 
which he had in view. In the Venetian 
MS. the reading is 77 0jui sort. 

74. Qevyeiv. Simply, to depart ; and so 
in v. 140. The epithet 7ro\VK\rfis, having 
many benches of rowers, is not derived from 
/cXdw, frango, according to the explanation 
of Eustathius : but from K\7?if, lonice for 
fcXae. Schol. Tro\VK\j]'iat' TroXvicaOkdpoig, 

OV 7TO\VK(t)TTOlQ' K\r)ldeQ jap KoXoVVTdl 

ai T>V kptffffovTwv KaOsdpai. 

75. vp,elg S' aXXo@v aXXof K. T. X. 
Supply jUjui/77(70E before ipijrveiv. See on 
II. A. 20. and the note on Eurip. Phcen. 

.1263. Pental. Graec. p. 375. 

79. riyriropsQ rjSt fJiedovTtQ. Leaders 
and counsellors. Eustath. SrjXovrat did 
fitv TOV rjyjjroptf, TO T&V /3at7tXlwi/ riyrj- 
fjioviKov Sid Se TOV [nsdovTSG, TO (3ov\tv- 


81. vo<r<f>i%oifJitQa fiaXXov. Scil. 77 TTI- 
QointQa. HEYNE. The sentiment of this 
passage is nearly allied to the following 
from Arrian. Expedit. Alex. Lib. VI. Ov 
yap %pf]vai our' ovv TOV fBaaiXka aXXo 
TI ri dXrjQtvsiv Trpbg TOVQ VTT^KOOVQ' cure 
Tivd dXXo TI i) dXijQsvtiv 

lv TOV fiaffiXsa. So also Quintil. Inst. 
Orat. IV. 2. Nee illud quidem prteteribo, 
quantum afferat fidem expositioni narrantis 
auctoritas. On the other hand, compare 
Eccles. ix. 16. Of the construction see 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 524, 2. 

82. tvxtrai elvai. See on II. A. 91. and 
of the expression /*gy' apioroc.. on II. A. 69. 

84. Vulgo s?)p%, and so Eustathius. 
The compound verb, however, is always in 
Homer, with the single exception of v. 273. 
infra, followed by a genitive of the thing be- 
gun ; as II. 2. 51 . 9mc. S' t^p%c yooto. Com- 
pare II. Z. 316. 605. X. 430. Q. 747- Wolf, 
and Heyne, therefore have properly sepa- 
rated the preposition from the verb. 

87. rivTt Wvea tlat K. T. X. The si- 
miles of Homer have been universally ad- 
mired for their beauty and correctness, and 
for the intensity of feeling and accuracy of 
perception which they exhibit. This is the 
first of above two hundred, which occur 
in the Iliad ; and, like most of those which 
succeed, has been imitated by Virgil. ./En. 
I. 434. Quails apes aestate nova per fiorea 
rura Exercet sub sole labor, cum gentis 
adultos Educunt foetus, aut cum liquentia 
mella Stipant, et dulci distendunt nectare 
cellos; &c. Again in ^n. VI. 707- Ac 
veluti in pratis, ubi apes testate serena 
Floribus insidunt variis, et Candida circum 
Lilia funduntur ; strepit omnis murmure 
campus. The similes in each poet have 
their peculiar beauties, though the design 
of them is very different. Macrob. Saturn. 
V. 11. Fides descriptas apes a Virgilio opi- 
fices, ab Homer o vagas ? Alter discursum, et 
solam volatus varietatem, alter exprimit na- 
tive artis officium. Virgil intended to de- 
scribe the diligence of the builders of Car- 
thage ; Homer, the multitude of the Greeks 
issuing from the ships. The similitude is 




Bor/ouSqv Sf TTcrovrcu cV avQeviv a 
At /uev r' fv0a aXte TTfTrorTjarcu, at Si re tvOa' 
lN 2c ?"wv Wvta TroXXa vswv OTTO Ktu 
'Hi'ovoe TTpOTrapotOe flaOtirjg t 


'Orpvvova \ivai, Atoe ayyeXoe* ot 8' aytpovro. 
Terp^x* 1 ' cryopT}, VTTO Se oreva^KsTO ytua, 
Aawv iZo 


threefold ; viz. the number of troops ex- 
pressed by the swarm of bees ; their egres- 
sion from the ships in a continued troop, by 
the bees pouring out of the rock ; and their 
dispersion over the shore, by their settling 
upon the flowers. Spondanus, therefore, as 
Pope correctly observes, was mistaken in 
confining the whole of the comparison to 
the single word i\adbv, catervatim. But, 
although the similes of Homer are for the 
most part rigidly exact in their resemblance to 
the action which they are chosen to illus- 
trate, they frequently involve a series of 
minor particulars, suggested to the poet's 
mind, without any connexion with the main 
j/jints of the similitude. Compare v. 469. 
II. r. 3. A. 130. 9. 551. K. 5. M. 278. N. 
137. B. 16. With such passages as these 
before him, Cicero might fairly ask in Tusc. 
Disp. V. 39. Qua! species ac forma pugnte, 
quce acies, quodremigium, qui motus hominum, 
qui ferarum, non ita expictus est, ut, quce ipse 
non viderit, nos ut videremus effecerit ? Eu- 
stathius affixes five distinct significations to 
the adjective adivoQ, viz. aflpooc,, oucrpog, 
riSvg, TTVKVOQ, Tjpf^a. Damm comprises 
all these into one simple notion, densus 
cum delectatione aliqua ; so that tQvta fit- 
Xiaaduv adivdwv, may be rendered, exa- 
mina apum frequentium et dulcia sectan- 
tium. The construction of elffi, with tQvta, 
is a violation of the well-known idiom, by 
which nouns in the neuter plural take the 
verb in the singular. This idiom is almost 
invariable in Attic, except when persons or 
animate creatures are signified. See Person 
on Eurip. Orest. 596. It may be said, per- 
haps, in the present instance, that 9vea 
is joined with ptXtaadwv, and therefore 
can hardly be called an exception to the 
rule. Homer, however, does frequently 
violate it. Compare infra vv. 135. 489. and 

89. jSorpudov. In a cluster like a bunch 
of grapes. Virg. Georg. IV. 557- Jamque 
arbore summa Confluere, et lentis uvam demit- 
tere ramis. 

90. aXi. Eustath. ?} 

93. /utrd ds ff<piffiv "Offffa dtdyti. This 
assembling of the army is full of beauties. 
The lively description of their overspreading 
the field ; the noble boldness of the figure, 
when Fame is represented in person shining 
at their head ; the universal tumult suc- 
ceeded by a solemn silence ; and lastly, the 
graceful rising of Agamemnon : all contri- 
bute to cast a majesty on this part. In the 
passage of the sceptre (v. 101.), Homer has 
found an artful and a poetical manner of 
acquainting us with the high descent of 
Agamemnon, and celebrating the heredi- 
tary right of his family ; as well as finely 
hinting the original of his power to be de- 
rived from heaven, in saying the sceptre 
was first the gift of Jupiter. It is with 
reference to this, that in the line where he 
first mentions it (v. 46.), he calls it d<pdirov 
aiti POPE. This sceptre is mentioned by 
Pausanias, as still in the possession of the 
Chaeroneans, by whom it was held in the 
highest veneration. See Pent. Graec. note 
on jsch. Theb. v. 525. p. 444. The verb 
dfdyti is the pluperf. mid. of Said), to burn ; 
and its figurative application is expressive of 
great energy. So Od. Y. 353. oi/zwyj) 
didyc. Virg. ^En. I. 436. Fervet opus. 
It has a different import in II. E. 4. Of the 
construction, see on II. A. 221. and of the 
noun oaffa, on II. A. 105. 

95. TtrpriXEi. Pluperfect from the unused 
verb rp?7x IJ/ > which is the same as Tpa\v- 
Vf.iv, to be rough ; hence, to be tumultuous ; as 
applied metaphorically to an assembly. 
Schol. erpa^uvfro VTTO 0opw/3ou, Qopv- 
iv. So 11. H. 345. ayopj), Seivtf t 
a. Others, however, regard rsrpj^^a 
as the Ionic perfect, used intransitively, of 
Bp&TTtiv, an Attic form of rapdfftruv. The 
MSS. vary between crrfva^i^cro and orova- 
%iro. Both forms are found in Homer ; 
but the former, according to Wolf, is alone 

96. o/tadoe. Schol. 17 6/iov avSr). Hence 
also, an assembled multitude, as in II. H. 306. 
where, as Damm observes, we have Xaoi/ de 
Greeds, opadov de barbaris. 

62 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, B'. 

S^otar', aKOvartiav $ Aiorpt0wv fiaGiXiiwv. 
YlavaafjLevoi K\ayjri^' ava \ Kpdwv 'Aya/iljui'wv 



w H^>at<rroe JUEV SWK Au Kpov/wvt avaKTi' 
A wrap apa Zfi SUJ>K 

Aurap 6 air 

c' 'Arp&, 7rotjUvt Xawv* 


Avrap 6 avr 0Uar' ' 


Ta> 67' pto-ajiivoc, tTc' ' 

Aavaot, Ozpairovrtc; 

1 10 

103. 'ApytHpovry. Mercury, <fte slayer 
q/" Argus; the monster, employed by Juno, 
to guard lo, whom she had changed into a 
cow. See Dion. Perieg. 140. and Eustath. 
zn /oc. Pausan. 1. 25. Ovid. Met. I. 624. The 
fable is nowhere recorded in Homer ; but 
the name is found again in II. 4>. 497. and 
frequently in the Odyssee. In form and deri- 
vation it is analogous to the noun avdpti<j)6v- 
Ttie in v. 651. infra, II. H. 166. P. 259. The 
epithet diaKTopOQ is applied to Mercury as 
the messenger of the gods. Schol. ^la/crop^ 1 
didyovri TCLQ ayytXtag rS)v Oe&v. This 
explanation is much better than that of 
Eustathius, who reads diaropqi with the 
following interpretation : aafyfiQ tv ralg 
ayycXtaic,, Topbv yap TO rpaveg icai <ra- 
^>g. See Hemsterhuis on Lucian, T. I. 
489. It is true, indeed, that Iris is the 
messenger of the gods throughout the Iliad, 
with the exception of the last book ; and 
that Mercury fills that office in the Odyssee. 
Still the epithet may refer to him in that 
office, which he bore in common with Iris ; 
and at all events his character of fyw%oiron- 
TTO, to which some refer it, is equally un- 
recognized in the Iliad, though it is men- 
tioned in Od. Q. 1. sqq. 

106. iroXvapvt QvtffTy. By Syncope, 
for TToXvdpevi, from 7ro\vap?jj/, multas oves 
habens. In the ruder ages of society, be- 
fore the use of coined money, the neces- 
saries of life were exchanged for one ano- 
ther, and wealth was accordingly estimated 
by the number of flocks and herds. Hence 
the epithets TroXuppJjv, 7roXvj3our?je, II. I. 
154. 296. TroXvtTTTToe, N. 171. So Virg. 
Eclog. II. 20. Quam dives pecoris nivei, 
quam lactis abundans. Hence also, as some 
think, the origin of several Greek verbs, 
which refer, in their primary signification, 
to the custom of exchanging commodities. 
Thus, apvu/icu, from ape, apvog, a lamb ; 
from ovog, an ass; TrtuXsw, from 

7rwXo, a foal. It was this, perhaps, that 
suggested to Servius Tullius, who first issued 
a stamped coinage, to mark the pieces with 
images of cattle, pecudes, thence called pecu- 
nia. See Plin. XXXIII. 3. Ovid. Fast. V.281. 

107. QV'IGT 'Ay. XtiTre. It is altogether 
uncertain whether Agamemnon was the son 
or grandson of Atreus. jEschylus, in his 
Agamemnon, Strabo (lib. VIII.), and Pau- 
sanias (III. 1.), make him and Menelaus sons 
of Atreus ; and the Scholiast on this place 
relates, that Atreus, at his death, be- 
queathed his kingdom to his brother Thy- 
estes, upon condition that he should resign 
it to his son Agamemnon, on his attaining 
manhood ; which Thyestes faithfully per- 
formed. Others have supposed them his 
grandsons, by his son Plisthenes, who died 
young. Homer mentions the death of JEgis- 
thus, by the hand of Orestes, to avenge the 
murder of his father, Agamemnon (Od. A. 
29. 298.) : but takes no other notice of the 
numerous domestic horrors in this family, 
which, in after ages, furnished matter for 
the Tragic poets. 

108. "Apyt'i TTUVTI. By the kingdom of 
Argos, Homer seems to have intended that 
part of the Peloponnesus afterwards called 
Argolis, comprehending the district which 
lay between Arcadia and the jEgean. The 
seat of government had been removed from 
Argos to Mycenae by Perseus, and this was 
the capital in Agamemnon's reign; Argos 
being still governed by its own chief magis- 
trate, under the title of king, but depen- 
dent upon the king of Mycenae. At the time 
of the Trojan war, Diomed was king of 
Argos : infra v. 570. Some, however, have 
supposed that the many islands, and all 
Argos, mentioned in this place, as subject to 
Agamemnon, included the whole of Pelopon- 
nesus. See Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. I. 
p. 36. and compare v. 618. infra. 

110. <J 0tXoi, K. T. X. The exquisite 


f?C Vr? 


TT/OIV /iv 

icai KaTVu<Tv, 


"iXiOV E 

Nvv Kaic?7V aTrarrjv 

AuoicXIa "Apyoe iKiaOai, 7rd TroXuv 

Ourw TTOU Aa jUfXXft u7T|OjUVt $tXov avat, 

tV Oc Si? TToXXawv TToXi'wv KaWXvaE icaprjva, 

'HS' cVi KOI \IHTEI' TOV yap Kparoe <m julytorov. 

Ai<rjpov yap TO y' EOTI feat 

Mai// ourw rotovSf TO<TOV r Xaov ' 



trt TraVjOorlpottTi* rlXoc S' OUTTW rt Tr 
ijO ic' iQiXoi/uiEv 'A^aiot rf Tpwlc T, 


OGGOI ta<jiv, 

art displayed in this speech of Agamemnon, 
wherein he attempts to prepare the Greeks 
for battle by arguments, to all appearance, 
directly at variance with his purpose, is 
noticed by Dionys. Halicarn. Trepi Te^vrfg, 
ch. 8. 9. See also Quintil. Inst. Orat. X. 
I. 47. The same words, and for the same 
purpose, are again put into the mouth of 
Agamemnon, in II. 1. 16. sqq. 

111. dry kvkfiriGt. Calamitate irretivit. 
Clarke compares M. Antonin. X. 428. 01- 
fiwwv rfjv fvStaiv im&v. Of the word 
art], see on II. A. 412. pkya for /uyaXwg. 

112. a%T\tog. This adjective is used 
sometimes in an active, but more generally 
in a passive signification. In the former, it 
implies qui miserias imponit, and may be 
rendered cruel, severe; as in this passage. 
In the latter, miseriis oppressus, i. e. un- 
happy, unfortunate ; as in II. P. 414. Hence 
also, it occasionally signifies, active, perse- 
vering ; at the same time including the idea 
of difficulty in the exertion ; 11. K. 164. 
And so, generally, brave, resolute, obstinate ; 
E. 403. It seems, originally, to combine 
the notion of injustice, as in this passage ; 
whence it is sometimes found in the sense 
of injustus, scelestus ; as in II. P. 150. and 
more particularly in later writers. The 
grammarians are not agreed as to the ety- 
mology of the word. Damm considers it 
as a compound of the verbs aj^kaQai and 
r\r)vai, observing, that its true import is 
expressed in II. E. 382. rkrXaOi, T'IKVOV 
ifjLov, Kai dvdaxto. TrpiV fJLtv p,oi vnea- 
Xtro. Scil. at Aulis. See the note on II. 
A. 97. 

116. /iieXXet. It appears. Schol. toiKiv. 
So again II. N. 226. Y. 451. and elsewhere. 


117. OQ dri K. T. X. Ezek. xxxv. 4. LXX. 
Kai rai7roXe<Ti aov tpr}n'iav iroiriaiit, Kai ffv 
tprjp,oQ t<ry, Kai yviixry on tya> fijui Kupiog. 

122. Trkfyavrai. Perf. pass. 3 sing, from 
0ivw. This must be distinguished from 
7rk(pavTai, in II. E. 531. O. 563. which is 
from 0a'w, to kill. There is a change in 
the construction, in which rlXog OVTTW Tt 
Qavfjvai should, properly, have followed 
in conjunction with Tro\tp.iZtiv and fid- 
\ta6ai. Compare v. 418. infra. 

123. i7Tp ya'p K' WsXoipev. Of this 
construction, see on II. A. 32. 

124. opKia Trttrrd ra/iovrcf. In solemn 
covenants, a victim was usually sacrificed 
for the ratification of the treaty. The phrase 
opiaa Tepvfiv, therefore, literally means, to 
slay the victim, in order to confirm a cove- 
nant. So Qvuv ydfJ.ovQ, to offer a sacrifice, 
in order to solemnize a marriage. Pre- 
cisely similar is the Latin phrase ferire 
f&dus : whence the English, to strike a bar- 
gain. See further, on v. 341. P. 273. 

125. Tpwctf \s%aa9ai. We must 
supply Kai ft 0gXoi/ifv from the preceding 
clause. f?i velimus Trojanos solos, i. e. ex- 
clusive of their allies, sejungere, seligere. 

Schol. 0OTlOr tTTOlKOl, iffTIV ttVTO- 

xQovf, TroXtrai. See also the Lexicon to 
Pent. Gr. in voce. Infra v. 130. ot vaiovcri 
Kara TrroXiv, in opposition to iiriKovpoi. 

126. EC. dtKaSag. Eustathius observes, 
upon the authority of Jamblichus, that at 
the table of Pythagoras the guests never 
exceeded ten, to which number the ancients 
usually limited their avaairia, or ordinary 
entertainments : and that, in reference to 
this custom, Agamemnon divides the Greeks 
into decades. It may be observed, how- 



T/owwv S' ai/Spa cjcaarov tXotjut^a olvo\oevtiv' 
IloXXai Kv SfKaSfC Sevomro otvo^ooto. 
Toertrov tyw 0ity TrXtac fjiijUEvat ulae 'A^atwv 
T/oa>o>v, cu vafoixn Kara TrroXtv* aXX' 7Ttcoupof 

DoXXaOV K TToXtWV fy^CTTraXoi avS/OC fWtV, 

Ot jUf jutya TrXa^ouo't, KOI OVK elwd WeXovra 

'iXtOU K7T|0(7ai U VaiOjUZVOV TTToX'ltOpOV. 

'Evvla Sr) j3fj3aa(Tt Atoc jUfyaXou Ivmurot, 
Kai 817 Sov/oa o-fVrjTrE vfwv, icat crTrapra XlXwrat* 
At SE TTOU ?7jUrpai T* aXo^ot, jcat vrjTTia TKVCI, 
Emr' vl fJieyapoiQ TroTiStyjjitvaL' a'ju/ii 
Avrwc aiepaavTOv, ov ivKa Sfvp' <ico/ 
'AXX' aytO', wg ay Eywv CITTW, 7Ti0(tjU0a 7ra 
<E>uywjUV o-uv VT/uo-1 0iXrjv c TrarptSa yatav' 
Oi yap m Tpotrjv atprj(TOjUv evpuayuiav. 

tN Qc 0a7"O* roiai O Ov/mo 
Ilaart jufra TrXrjfluv, otroi ou jSouXric iTraj 
8* ayop^, we Ku/uara 

ever, that the number of guests varied; 
some inviting three, four, and, in early 
times, never more than five. Athen. Deip. 
I. 4. XV. 3. In later times the number 
increased indefinitely ; and even in Homer 
we find Agamemnon banqueting the whole 
of the Grecian princes. Scaliger objects to 
the mode of enumeration here adopted, as 
low and vulgar ; and designates this part of 
the speech by the term tabernaria oratio ; 
but there is, doubtless, great art in repre- 
senting the Trojans as cup-bearers to the 
Greeks, and thus reducing them to the level 
of slaves. Madame Dacier instances a si- 
milar image employed by the king of Syria, 
to represent the inferiority of number of 
the people of Samaria: 3 Kings xxi. 10. 
LXX. Ta'$ 7roif)ffai p,oi 6 0oe i:ai Tade 
7rpoa-0irj, a kKirotrjati o %ovc, 

TCLIQ a\b>7Tct TTOLVTl Ttfi \Ct<p TOlg 

129. TrXsac Ifi/wvat. By Syncope, for 
TrXeovaQ. From II. 9. 562. it appears that 
the number of Trojans were 50,000 ; but in 
that enumeration the auxiliaries were in- 
cluded. The number of men in the Grecian 
army being, as will be seen on v. 494. 
about 102,000, the Trojans will be reduced 
to about 10,000. 

132. 7r\a%ovffi. Divert me from my pur- 
pose. Eustath. cnroTrXavwai TOV OKOTTOV. 
Agamemnon has evidently an hidden object 
in attributing greater consequence to the 
auxiliaries than to the Trojans themselves. 

134. Ivvka Sr) pefidaai K. r. X. Eu- 
stathius observes, that in adverting to the 




failure of the expedition for nine years, Aga- 
memnon would insinuate that Troy was not 
to be taken till the tenth year, which had 
now arrived ; and in speaking of the 
ruinous state of their shipping, he hints at 
the danger of returning. 

135. doupa veaiv. The planks of the 
ships. Sometimes Sopv is used for the ship 
itself, as in Eurip. Cycl. 14. Rhes. 458. and 
so trabs, in Latin : Virg. JEn. III. 191. 
vastumque cava trabe currimus aquar. Hor. 
Od. I. 1. 13. trabe Cypria Myrtoiim pavidus 
nauta secet mare. Of (TTrapror, which is 
a general name for hemp, and other ma- 
terials produced from plants, the use in 
shipping is described by Varro, in Aul. Gell. 
XVII. 3. Liburni plerasque naves loris sue- 
bant ; Grerci magis cannabo et stupa c&te- 
risque sativis rebus, a quibus aira-pra appel- 
labant. Salmasius calls them TO, pdju/jara 
TWV vtMV. Of the construction see on v. 

137. eVar'. For ti'arai, lonice for ^vrat, 
from, sedeo. 

138. avT(>}Q. In statu quo : frustra. See 
on II. A. 133. 

143. fjifTa Tr\r)9vv. Schol. kv ry ir\riQii. 
This signification of /ird with the accusa- 
tive is not common. 

144. uf Kv/JiaTa. We may take notice 
that Homer, in these two similitudes, has 
judiciously made choice of the two most wa- 
vering and inconstant things in nature to 
compare with the multitude; the waves, and 
ears of corn. The first alludes to the noise 
and tumult of the people, in the breaking 



HOVTOV 'I/cap/oto, ra /itv T' Evpo re Noroc 



a0u Xrjtov, e 

, TTI T 

ayop77 Ktv/j^rj* rot cT a 
Nrjac r' <7(TwovTO* TTO^WV 8* virtvtpOt icovtrj 
"lorar' aetpojuli'rj* rol 8* aXX?'/Xo(rt KfXfuov, 
"A7rr(r0at vrjwv ?]' IXic/iv ac aXa Stav, 
Qvpovg T' ^ica^atpov* aurr) ' ovpavbv 
O'/jca t/uvwv, VTTO 8' /Jou pjitara vrjwv. 
"Ev0a KV ^Apydotcriv VTrlp/Jiopa vocrroc ir 
Et ( ur) 'A^rjvcurjv "Hprj TT^OC ftvOov ie 


and rolling of the billows ; the second, to 
their taking the same course, like corn 
bending one way ; and both to the easiness 
with which they are moved by every breath. 

145. Eupog re Noro re. The only 
winds mentioned in Homer, are those which 
blow from the four cardinal points ; Eurus, 
Notus, Zephyrus, and Boreas. The most 
remarkable difference between them is, that 
the two first are mild and gentle, the two 
last stormy and boisterous ; and, therefore, 
for obvious reasons, more frequently intro- 
duced than the last. Eurus is never dis- 
tinguished by an epithet, and Notus only by 
that of swift ; Zephyrus, by various terms, 
indicative of its stormy nature ; and Boreas 
is rapid and violent, but healthy and invi- 
gorating. It seems, therefore, that the cha- 
racter of Zephyrus in particular, as inclement 
and tempestuous (v. 147-), is altogether at 
variance with the character of mildness at- 
tributed to it in more modern times. This 
difference is easily explained by the re- 
mark, that the Zephyrus of Homer's 
country, who seems to have been a native 
of Ionia, blew from the Thracian moun- 
tains over the .ZEgean sea, with great vio- 
lence and severity (II. I. 5.) ; and that, con- 
sequently, Homer would have been incor- 
rect in speaking of it in another character. 
For a more full account of Homer's winds, 
see Wood's Essay on Homer, p. 48. 

146. wpop' 7rata. Singular for dual. 
It frequently happens, that, when two or 
more substantives are united by a conjunc- 
tion, the verb is governed in number by 
the substantive nearest to it, whether it be a 
singular or a neuter plural. Compare II. E. 
703. H. 386. and elsewhere. So Eurip. Supp. 
146. TvdtvQ /ia%7jv Kvvrj^e UoXvveiicrjq 9' 
a/ia. Diod. Sic. XX. 72. Micpva Kal Strj- 
<rtiQ Kai Oprjvog iykvtro (rw^opijrog. 
Sometimes also, though more rarely, the 
verb is governed by the more remote sub- 
stantive : as in II. P. 387. . 380. See 


D'Orville on Chariton, p. 271. Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 303. The verb wpope is Perf. mid. lonice 
for opwpe, from opw, used in a transitive sig- 
nification ; to raise, to excite. It is used in- 
transitively, infra v. 707- r. 87. A. 657- A 
similar form is rypapa, used also actively 
and passively. Compare II. A. 110. A. 18. 

147- Ktvrjffti. Mover e solet. In this 
sense all the tenses are occasionally em- 
ployed, and frequently interchanged in the 
same sentence. See note on Soph. Ant. 
351. Pent. Grajc. p. 236. 

148. XajSpoe- Violent, tempestuous. He- 
sych. 7ro\ii, <r0oe?p6e. Thus in II. O. 624. 
Kvfia Xa/3()ov. 4>. 271. Trora/iog Xa/3pog. 
Eurip. Orest. 588. irvp Xdfioov. Herod. 
VIII. 12. ofj,j3pO(; \df3pOQ. And frequently 
in Pindar. Compare Ol. VIII. 47- Pyth. 
II. 159. IV. 435. Nem. VIII. 79- and 
elsewhere. Heyne explains kiraiy'i^wv 
by TUQ alyciS) i. e. fisyaXa KVfiara KIV&V. 
It seems more agreeable with the passage, 
to adopt the interpretation of Damm, de- 
super irruens ; nearly in the sense of tirai- 
ag, in v. 146. eiri r' )/u>i. We must 
supply TO \i]"iov, in the nominative. The 
verb imvtiv has not an active, but a neuter 
signification ; to bend, to stoop ; and hence, 
to fall. Compare infra v. 373. where there 
is no necessity for understanding Kaprj. In 
II. 0. 308. Kctprf is not the accusative, as 
the versions make it, but the nominative; 
which is evident from the construction em- 
ployed in II. T. 405. ijp.vfft Kaplan. 

153. owpoi'f. These were channels, cut 
for the purpose of launching the vessels. 
Scholiast : ra<ppoeii) opwy/tara, ot' Stv ai 
KaQt\KovTai tiQ Tr\v OdXaffvaV r/ 

154. e'pfiara vi]tiv. See on II. A. 486. 

155. vTTSp/iopa. In spite of fate ; con- 
trary to the decree of fate. The same as 
inrtp /xopov, II. Y. 30; UTr^p /ioipav, Y. 
336 ; virtp alaav, Z. 487. Schol. wTrep TO 





017 otKovcf, (f>i\riv TrarpiSa yatav, 

uovrcu lii ivpta vwra Qa\aGrrr\Q ; 
KaS $ Kfv fu^wXr)v Ilpm/z^ KCU Tpwai XtVotev 
'Apytirjv 'EXfvrjv, ^c avtKa TroXXoi ' 
'Ev Tpotr? aTroXovro, $i'Xrj CLTTO 
AXX' i'vt vuv Kara Xaov 'A^cuwv 



6/oac T 

, Au jurjrtv araXavrov, 
r 1 " ouo 6y ^170^ EiitrcrlXjUOto jUfXatvrjc 

Ourw 77 oiKov^f, ^)/Xrjv ^ Trarpt^a yalav, 



r/e f /vKa TroXXot 'A^mwv 
Ev Tpofy a?roXovro, ^iXrjc OTTO TrarpiSog 
AXX tat vf;y Kara Xaov 'A^atwv, JUTJ^ r' 

3' ay avali; ITT&GGIV p/jru ^>ara fWorov, 
a viyac 
()au' o O 

1 75 


157. arpurwvj;. Indefatigable, invinci- 
from arpurof, and that from a, prz'v. 
fero. Hesych. a/caraTrdvTjroe, 
arpwroe tv fta%^. The 
formation of the word is similar to that 
of female patronymics. See on II. A. 

160. icad dg icev XiTroitv. For /caraXi- 
TTOIIV civ, and that for KaraXnrovai. The 
optative is frequently used, and, as in the 
present instance, interchanged with the fu- 
ture indicative. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 514. 
3. This is particularly the case in the 
Tragic writers. Compare Soph. CEd. T. 
95. 282. (Ed. C. 507. 580. Antig. 1108. 
Aj. 88. Elect. 1491. The noun ti/^wX?) is, 
properly, a vow, as in II. A. 65. 93. Hence, 
that for which a vow is made ; that which is 
greatly wished for. Eustathius explains it by 

165. vrjag d[Ji<f>i(\i(raa.g. Schol. a/i^o- 
TepuOev TCUQ KMTTCLIQ iXavvo/jLf.vaQ. Er- 
nesti, on v. 175. renders this epithet celeres. 

175. iv i/J7(T7t TrtaovTSQ. For vtjvaiv 


in naves irruentes. So II. 1. 
235. A. 823. 

179- /*/7^e r' gpwEi. Do not desist. Hesych. 
fi?) vTroxwpfi. So II. N. 776. P. 422. T. 
170. The same verb is used in A. 303. in 
the sense of pgw, from which it is derived : 
and in II. N. 57- it has an active signi- 
fieation; to draw off, to restrain. See also 
on II. II. 302. The primary import of the 
word is celerity ; thence to cease instantly ; 
and so, generally, to cease. Voss would 
adopt the reading of some MSS. fjirfd' IT 
!pw, which is probably correct. Compare 
II. T. 407. Od. A. 289. B. 220. 

182. o de ZwerjKi- K. r. X. Eustathius 
compares Soph. Aj. 14. T Q 00!y/*' 'A.9dvaQ, 
0iXrdr^g tjuoi Qeutv, '& v/j,adeg aov, Kav 
aTTOTTTOQtjQ, o/twf $>(i)vr]fj,' dicovo), KO.I Z,vv- 
ap7raw 0peW. Precisely similar is Eurip. 
Hipp. 84. Soi Kal vvtip,i, /cat \6yoig dfjiei- 
(Sofiai, K\inv p,tv avdf/v, o/i/ia c' ov% 
bpuiv TO aov. Compare Iph. T. 1413. 
Rhes. 604. In their intercourse with men, 
it was seldom that the gods made themselves 



Bi] c O&ttv, OTTO SE x\aivav j3aXe" rrjv ' EKOj 
Kt}pu EupujSarrjc 'I0aicr/<TtO, oc ot oirr^ei. 
Avrog ' 'ArpEt'SEW 'AyajUEftvovoe avriog tXOwv, 
Af^aro ot <7K:ij7rT|Oov Trarpwiov afyBirov aii* 
Suv r< /3rj Kara vija 

"Ovrtva /if v |3a<TtXi/a /cat 
Tov 8' ayavoig 7T<TO'tv E 

Aatjuovt', ov tre EOtKE, KOKOI/ 
'AXX' avroc r ca0r)<TO KOI 
Ou -yap TTW cra^a otaO', oloc vooc ' 
Nvv JUEV TTEtjOaratj Ta^a 8' t^rai iua ' 
'Ev |3ouXp 8* ou TravTfc aicoua-ajUfv olov fct7T. 
M// n xoXaKTajUvoe /0'5^ Kaicov ulac 'A^atwv. 
Gujuoc fjLtjag I art 
Tt/ur) 8' K Aioc 0-Tf 5 0tXi SE I jurjrtEra 

visible. Od. n. 161. ou yap TTW Trd.vTf.GGi 
Otoi QaivovTai. svapyiig. Compare II. Y. 
131. Hence, Catull. Epithalam. Pel. Thet. 
in ^we. A^ec se contingi patiuntur lumine 
claro. See Valckenaer on Hippol. 1. c. 

183. jSi) ^ 0tj/. See on II. A. 343. 
OTTO $6 ^Xctivav /3aXe. Eustath. 'iva tv ry 
0gtv |0^ov rp%oi. As the outer garments 
of the ancients were loose and flowing, it 
was usual to throw them off in order to 
greater speed in running, or to activity in 
any laborious employments. The same 
practice is frequently mentioned in Holy 
Writ. Compare 1 Kings xviii. 46. Mark x. 
50. Acts vii. 58. 

186. d&aTo 01 ffKTJTTTpov. Received it of 
htm. For CLTT' awrow. So again II. O. 87. 
Ge/iiori ^6 KaXXiTrapy'^ AEKT-O de-iraQ. Od. 
II. 40. 01 idk^aro %a\Kov ty^og. See 
Brunck on Soph. Elect. 422. Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 395. 2 Agamemnon lent his sceptre to 
Ulysses, as a pledge that he had his autho- 
rity in re-assembling the army. 

188. ovriva piv K. T. \. If the relative 
refers to definite persons or things, it is joined 
with the indicative. But if the reference be 
indefinite, and analogous to the Latin siquis, 
the verb is placed in the optative, without dv, 
when the whole proposition affirms some- 
thing of past time, as in this instance, and 
again in v. 198.: and in the subjunctive 
with av, if it affirms something present or 
future ; as infra v. 391. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 527- 1. 

190. KO.KOV we, detSiafftGQai. Virg. ^En. 
iv. 13. Degeneres animos timor arguit. 
Lucan. Ph. III. 149. Metus degener. These 
citations, however, are not exactly parallel ; 
since the notion of fear does not exactly suit 
the sense. The Scholiast explains SttSia- 




000ai by evXafleiGOat, which also does not 
give the precise meaning. For the most 
part, the verb occurs in the middle voice, with 
an active signification, to frighten, to terrify : 
from dtiSw. See II. A. 184. N. 810. S. 164. 
and elsewhere. In this verse it is passive, 
and must be rendered turbari. 

192. ov yap TTW K. r. X. The sense is : 
Nobody has yet spoken but Agamemnon, 
and therefore it is impossible to know of 
what nature his sentiments are, and whether 
it is proper to adopt them. 

194. a.Kovaap,v. For riKovaare. Ulysses 
identifies himself with those of the princes 
who were not present at the council, which 
consisted only of the Elders; v. 53. 

195. p,r) TI xoXwGoifjitvoQ pkZ.y. Supply 
dkSoiKa, or 0vXa<T(re, as in II. A. 26. 

196. OvfjioQ 8k /ilyac K. T. X. Heyne 
understands these words in reference to Aga- 
memnon alone ; but their application seems 
to be general, and similar to the expression 
in II. A. 80. KpeiffGuv yap fiaffiXtvQ, ore 
Xw<Trat avcpl xP^'i- Hence, Eurip. Med. 
119. Suva Tvpdvvb)v\r)iJiaTa. Pind. Pyth. 
III. 21. x^ ^' V K dXitfiof yivsrai Traidwv 
Ato. So also Senec. Med. 494. Gravis ira 
Regum est semper. Some MSS. indeed, 
though of inferior authority, read SioTpt- 
fykbiv flaGi\r]{t)V in the plural. 

197. Tipri S' tK Aioe <m, K. T. X. He- 
siod. Theogon. 96. Callim. H. Jov. 79. IK 
e Aioc, j3a<riX?jEC. Hence, in a fragment 
of Tyrtaeus, kings are called Qeorifjujroi. 
Parallels may be found in Holy Writ. 
Dan. ii. xxi. LXX. Auroe, i. e. Geoe, Ka- 
OIGTQ (3aai\els icai /ufliora". Rom. xiii. 1. 
Ov yap tanv i^ovaia, i p,rj airo Qeov' 
ai Se ovGai, virb Qtov TIT ay \ikvai eiaiv. 
Hence Iren. Hser. V. 24. Dei jussu reges 

K 2 



Toi> cncijTrrptj.) IXao-atriav, OjUOicX/jaafrKE re /uLvOc^' 
ovt', ar/>juae I?<TO, KCU aXXwv 


fiat* <ru 

KCU avaXa, 

tV dp lO JULIO , OVT tvl flov\rj. 

O't aO 



OUK ayaObv TroXuicofpavnf tip Kolpavog ora>, 

Elg jSacnXfuc, GJ SUJK? Kpovou 7rat a 


orparov' ot 

constituuntur. Tertul. Apol. 30. /nrfe esf 
imperator, unde et homo ante quam imperator. 
Compare Prov. viii. 15. There is a similar 
sentiment in Tacit. Ann. VI. 8. Ti&i sum- 
mum rerum judicium Dii dedere : nobis obse- 
quii gloria relicta est. Tip-rj. Regal autho- 
rity, dignity ; and so II. Z. 193. P. 251. Y. 

198. drj/j-ov dvdpa. Eustath. rov tdi- 
&TT)v \6yi. Xenophon informs us (Mem. 
I. 2. 58.), that the accusations against So- 
crates were partly grounded upon his fre- 
quent citation of this passage : which he was 
maliciously declared to have perverted into 
an argument for inflicting corporal punish- 
ment upon inferior citizens. 

200. arpkuaQ fjffo. Sit still; i. e. re- 
main quiet. So II. N. 280. The more com- 
mon expression, in later writers, is drpejua 
f^e, which occurs in II. N. 537- and repeat- 
edly in Aristophanes. See Thesm. 230. Nub. 
261. Ay. 1200. 1572. et passim. The two 
forms, arp!/ict and arp^ia, are both in use ; 
the latter, however, which is found in II. 9. 
318, is never used in Homer, except when 
the metre requires it. Herodotus also em- 
ploys . VIII. 14. 

201. (Tt S" aTrroXe/zoc c. r. X. ysch. 
Suppl. 218. Qpaavarontiv yap ov TrpSTm 


204. OVK ayaBbv TroXvicoipavir)' K. r. X. 
See on II. A. 238. Hence, Cornel. Nepos 
in Dion. Non potest bene geri respublica 
multorum imperils. Compare the speech of 
Darius in Herodot. III. 83. Indeed, this 
passage has been cited again and again, in 
support of monarchical institutions. See 
Arist. Polit. IV. 4. Theophr. Char, de Oli- 
garch. ; D. Chrysost. de Regno ; Just. Mart. 
ad Gent, et de Monarch. ; Theodoret; Origen, 
&c. Hence also Arist. Ethic. VIII. 10. 
/BsXrioTTj p,kv r) (3a<n\tia. Herodian. IV. 
(3a.(ri\eia.v 6 Ztif w0"7rp avroQ I%i ju.6Vo, 
ouroo Kai avQpunr&v evi dsduJKS. Plutarch. 
Conv. S. S. Eu^atjwov 7rroXi0pov tvog Krj- 
PVKOQ O.KOVWV. Min. Felix. Rex unus in 
apibus, dux unus in gregibus, 8fc. Jerome: 
Grues unam sequuntur ordim literato. Im- 

perator unus est. Unum esse Reipublicce 
corpus atque unius animo regendum : duo aut 
premunt rempublicam, aut distrahunt. Com- 
pare Tacit. Ann. I. 4. For Scriptural paral- 
lels, see Judg. ix. 2. 1 Sam. viii. 5. Prov. 
xxviii. 2. James iii. 1. The neuter adjective 
dyaObv, in reference to the feminine noun 
TroXvKOipavir], agrees with the word xpjjjiia, 
or the like, understood. The construction 
is very common, both in Greek and Latin 
writers. Thus Virg. Eclog. III. 80. Triste 
lupus stabulis. Examples abound. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 437. 

205. djKv\ofjiYiTt(t). Schol. dyicuXa /cat 
ffKoXtd fiovXevaafjisvov /card TOV Trarpof 
/cat T&V Traiddjv. The epithet seems rather 
to mean simply, inflexa, i. e. alta habens con- 
silia. Anglice, inscrutable. See also on v. 
868. infra. 

206. This verse is generally looked upon 
as spurious. Eustathius has no reference to 
it in his commentary, but supplies TO f3a- 
aiXtveiv after I^WKC, in the preceding line. 
Neither is there any allusion to it in the 
Scholia of Didyrnus : and it is omitted in se- 
veral MSS. It is observed, also, that there 
is nothing to which atyiaiv can apply, as in 
II. I. 99. where nearly the same line recurs, 
and the pronoun is referred to \a&v. If it 
retains its place here, aty'im must be under- 
stood in the sense of r//uj>. See on II. A. 

207. Koipavwv. Schol. TO TOV Koipdvov 
Ipyov tTTiTtX&v. This participle is usually 
taken absolutely, as again in II. A. 250. et 
alibi; and therefore Heyne would separate 
the compound verbs diaicoipavkd) in II. A. 
230. and KaraKoipavsw, in II. E. 332. so as 
to connect the prepositions with the substan- 
tives. Compare II. E. 824, M. 318. Od. A. 
247. The best MSS. however, join the 
verb and preposition; and perhaps there 
is no great reason to alter the text. Madame 
Dacier here understands the word as ex- 
pressive of the authority which he had de- 
rived from holding the sceptre of Agamem- 
non. But its obvious signification, command- 
ing, directing, is quite sufficient. &7re. Or- 
dinavit, i. e. in quietem reduxit. 




we or KVfjLa 7roXv(f>\oicrfioio OaXaaGiiz 
AlytaXtf ptjtiXty |3|0jU TCU > ffftapayei $ re TTOVTOC. 
"AXXot JJLZV p I'^ovro, eprjTvO^v St Ka0' I'S/oae^. 
en juouvoe ajUrpO7rr}c ejcoAc^a, 
fypediv fjaiv aKoajJLa r TroAXa r rj^ij, 
Mai/;, ara/o ov Kara jcoajuov, t 
'AXX', 6, rt oi c'/eratro yeXofcov ' 

aitr^wrroc SE avr)|0 VTTO "iXtov 7/X0. 
TJV, ^wXoe 8' erc/oo v TroSa' ra> $ ot 
Kuorw, 7Tt <rrf}00 O-UVO^WKOTE' aurap 


jt>' 7Ta 

212. GepffiTiiG & ITIK. T. X. Aristotle 
in his Poetics, c. 4. states, that Homer af- 
forded the first model of Comic poetry in his 
Margites ; a poem which bore the same re- 
lation to Comedy, that the Iliad and the 
Odyssee bear to Tragedy. Of this poem, 
only three verses now remain ; but there is 
no doubt, from the character of Thersites in 
this place, and of Irus in Odyss. S. that the 
genius of Homer was equally capable of ludi- 
crous and serious writing. But objections 
have been raised to the authenticity of this 
satirical piece, which is, nevertheless, upon 
the strongest evidence attributed to Homer, 
upon the ground that a production of so 
light and trivial a description, could not be 
conceived to have occupied the mind of so 
great a poet ; and, upon a similar principle, 
several critics have questioned the propriety 
of introducing such a character as that of 
Thersites, into a poem of such grave and 
lofty matter as the Iliad. On the contrary, 
it is observed by Dionysius Halicarnassensis, 
that this artifice was the best that could have 
been devised for recalling the troops to their 
duty ; since nothing could more readily deter 
them from proceeding in their intentions, 
than seeing them supported by so mean and 
contemptible an advocate. If Nestor had 
opposed himself to Agamemnon, and de- 
fended Achilles, the Greeks would have per- 
sisted in embarking, and would have been 
pressed in vain to continue the siege. Heyne 
considers it probable, that, as there would, 
doubtless, be many who would be exaspe- 
rated with Agamemnon, and unwilling to 
return to their duty, it was the poet's inten- 
tion to represent these malcontents in the 
character of a single individual, remarkable 
alike for his contempt of his superiors, his 
seditious designs, and his incessant attempts 
to render every thing ridiculous which would 
tend to preserve unanimity and subordina- 
tion. There is something similar* in the 
character of Thersites to that of Shimei, in 
2 Sam. xvi. 5. tKoXipa. See on II. A. 5?5. 
Aul. Gel. I. 15. Neque non merito Homerus 


unumex omnibus TJiersiten afiTpo(7rrj,a.Kpi- 
appellat, modo verba illius multa et 
strepentium sine modo graculorum 
similia esse dicit. Quid enim est illud cip.i- 
rpo67n}e KO\<jja ? Compare v. 246. 

213. sTTfa ydr]. Verba novit ; i. e. dixit. 
So e'nrtlv rjiriaTCtTO is used for tiTTtv. 

214. jud^, drap K. r. X. These words are 
referred by some to t*coX^a, the intervening 
line being taken parenthetically : but the 
construction would thus be harsh and inter- 
rupted. The order is: og tTrea $$77, (wort) 

|3a<nXcv9tv juthp, aVdp ov Kara KOG- 
, aXX' o, TI K. T. X. Schol. ov Kara KO<T- 
fjiov' ov Kara TO irpkirov, ara'/crwt;' TOVTS.G- 
TIV, ov ducaiwQ s^iXoveticsi rolg j8a<nXfw(Tiv. 
The Scholiast explains the following line, as 
if it was to be understood, that the words of 
Thersites appeared ridiculous to the Greeks. 
The evident meaning is : that Thersites 
said what appeared to him calculated to excite 
laughter in the Greeks. 

217. QoXKOQ. Squinting: Eustath. 6 
TOVQ 6([>9a\fj,ovs pri 6p0ovc. x a>v > XXd 
tar^ap,p,kvovQ. Such is the sense which has 
been attached to this word, which is to be 
found in no other writer, by the ancient 
grammarians generally, and most modern cri- 
tics, who derive it from t\Ktiv, trahere. Butt- 
mann, however, deduces it from <j>s\Keiv, 
which is the same as 7r\sicttv, flectere. It 
will thus coincide with the Latin volgus, 
and signify bow-legged. 

218. GvvoxwKOTt. For avvk%ovTt, drawn 
together, contracted. Hesychius has avvo- 

hich he explains by tiriffvp.- 
; and this form is approved by 
Ernesti, and Valcknser on Ammon. p. 23. 
Heyne, however, gives the preference to the 
common reading, which is supported by Sui- 
das, Eustathius, and several MSS. In some 
obsolete forms e was changed into o; whence 
from ?xw, of which the old perfect was o^a, 
Attice, oKwxa, came OKW^^J which Ernesti 
considers as the root of the old form, avvo- 
Xow. See Etym. Mag. 




8' 'A^X^t juaXtor' ^y, 178' ' 
Tw yap VtKt<TK:. Tor' aur' 'Ayafjiefjivovi Si^ 
'O^ta K(cXrjywc Xty' oya'Sfa* rw 8* ap' 'A^atoi 



Aurap o fjiaKpa jSowv 'Ayajiijuyoya vt 

'Arpa'Srj, rlo 8' aur' 7n/*jU0at, 
flXfTat rot ^aXicov icXtcFtat, TroXXat $ yuyaT/c 
Eioriy Ivt icXtofyc ^atprot, a rot 'A^mot 
IlpamoTfj* St&o^tfv, fvr' ay 7rroXt0pov 
? H rt icai xpua-ov hrt&facti, oy K 
Tpwwy tTTTTO^a/iwy ? 'iXtou, vloc aTrotva, 
"Oy K.y lyo) Sr^cTac ayaj a>, 77 aXXoc ' 
'H -yuyaiKa vi]y, tya 
"Hy r' auroc a?ro vovtyi icari(T^at ; Ou j 
'AjO^ov lovra, Ka*cwy 7Ttj3a(TK:jLiy ula^ ' 
? Q TTtTroyfc, KO/C' fXfy^f', 'A^aacWj ow/c r' 'Amatol, 




219. Schol. 0o6e* dgvicfyraXog. Eustath. 
0o^oc 5e K60a\7)v Xsyerai o et'e 6$t X^you- 
<rav l%(t>v O.VTIJV, i. e. having the upper part 
of the head terminating in a point ; viz. like 
a cone. The word is u.-Ka%, \ty6fi(vov in Ho- 
mer, but is frequently employed by medical 
writers. Respecting the derivation of the 
verb tTTtvijvoOe, there is great disagreement 
among the commentators ; some deriving it 
from o9<j), moveo, others from 6kw, curro. 
The more usual opinion is that of Damm ; 
viz. that BTrrjvOa, perf. mid. of tTraj/Oew, by 
the insertion of o, becomes ktr^voOa, and with 
the Attic reduplication iTrtvfjvoBa. Heyne 
also, but by a different and more correct pro- 
cess, since the sense requires the imperfect, 
derives it from avBew, of which the forms 
dv 9(D and dvoQa) seem to have been also in 
use ; whence, imperf. ijvoOov, Attice ivrjvo- 
Qov. The word recurs in II. K. 134. Od. 6. 
365. KctTevijvoOa, Hesiod. Scut. H. 269. 

, Apoll. Rhod. I. 664. Schol. 

l, S7T(CITO. 

220. ZxQiaTOG d' 'Ax- K. r. X. Ther- 
sites odit Peliden, odit Ulyssen : Nempe hie 
consilio pr&stitit, ille manu. Felices ambo ! 
scelus est placuisse Neroni ; Et laus, Thersita, 
est displicuisse tibi. As opposed to the cha- 
racter of Thersites, compare Hesiod Op. 
D. 2. Mrjdt KaKutv srapov, firjd' taQK&v 
veiK(7ri7pa. Find. Pyth. IV. 506. "EfiaOe 
S' v/3pi^ovra /iitmv, OVK ipiZ,(*)v avria rolg 
dyaQoiQ. Seneca (de Ira, III. 23.) calls a 
common slanderer a Thersites. 

221. vtiKtitaKt. He was wont to abuse. 
See on II. A. 37- 

222. Xgy' ovtidta. See on v. 515. infra. 
225. reo. For row, and that for 

227. t^aipsrot. See on II. A. 118. This 
and the following line are ridiculously ad- 
dressed to Agamemnon, in allusion to the 
speech of Achilles, in II. A. 163. and so 
again vv. 240. 242. which are also the words 
of the same hero, II. A. 356. 232. 

229. ov Kt TIQ o'iffei. See on II. A. 139. 

232. yvvdiKa vkrjv. Properly it should 
have been yvvaiKOQ vki]Q, dependent upon 
iTTidtvtai, but, by a change in the syntax, 
the accusative must be referred to 

233. aTro. At a distance. The prepo- 
sitions, without a case, and with the ac- 
cent thrown back, are frequently used as 
adverbs. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 594. 1. 
Some read cnrovofffyi in one word. And 
so we find curoTrpoOev, in II. K. 209. and 
in Eurip. Orest. 1452. airoTrpo, which is, 
nevertheless, separated in v. 143. of the 
same play. 

234. KCIK&V kTTifBaffKBfiev. See the note 
on Soph. CEd. C. 188. Pent. Grsec. p. 118. 

235. 'AxaddtQ, OVK tV 'A^atoi. Virg. 
JEn. IX. 617- O vere Phrygice, neque enim 
Phryges. The same terms of reproach are 
used by Menelaus in II. H. 96. where Eu- 
stathius cites the declaration of Xerxes in 
Herod. VIII. 83. 01 /if v avdpig ytyovaai 
fioi jvvaiKfQ' ai Sk yvvcuKf., avdptg. 
Compare I. 155. Hence, Cicero de Offic. 
1.187- Itaque in probris maxime in promptu 
est, siquid tale did potest : 

Vos etenimjuvenes animum geritis muliebrem, 
Ilia virago viri. 

From Ennius. Thus, in the Oration for 
Milo, c. 21. paratus in imparatos Clodius, 



Trsp avv vrival vfo'/ue^a* TOVCE & ito 
AVTOV fvt Tpot'r? yspa 7T(rcrjUi', o<pa i 
H /oa rt ot ^' i7jUie Trpoo-ajuuvojutv, 776 KCU OUKI' 
V Oc KCU vuv 'A^tXija, to jUy' a/msivova ( 


<p/o(Tiv, aXXa 


'AXXa ^uaX' OUK 'A^tXrji 
'H ya/> av, 'ArptSrj, 


fiv'nraTre fj.vB(t)' 

Ou yap 

"E^fvat, oo-o-ot aju' ' 

Tw OUK av |3acrtXfjac va (TTO/LL 

Kttt (T 

v jSporov aXXov 
-' VTTO "iXiOv f;X0ov. 



rroi ra tpya, 

H U, ?] KaKW^, VOOT//(TO^tV llC A^atWV. 

'ArjOi^r? 'A-ya/if'/ivovt, Troifjitvi Xawy, 

, ori ot juaXa TroXXa 
Aavaot* <ru SE Kpro/Uw 

'AXX' K rot pW, TO Kai TTX(TjUVOV laTt' 

Ei K' rt tr' a^patvovra Kt^a-Ojuae, we vu 7Tp w 




mulier inciderat in viros. The ad- 
jective TTETTWV, properly an epithet of fruit, 
signifying ripe, mellow, is used also in a 
two-fold metaphorical sense, good and bad. 
In the former, which is more common, it 
may be rendered gentle, kind, friendly, 
Thus, w TTSTTOV, my friend, II. Z. 55. I. 
252. A. 314. 764. M. 322. and elsewhere. 
In a bad sense, besides the present passage, 
it occurs in II. N. 120. where it signifies, 
weak, dastardly. Et hie mains significatus, 
says Damm, est ab eo, quod quidem Greed 
poma fracida vocarunt Triirova. The verb 
7T7rro>, coquo, from which it is derived, sig- 
nifies also, among other metaphorical usages, 
maturo, 'to ripen;' Odyss. H. 119. The 
jEolic form, irkaao), occurs two lines below, 
in the sense of consumo, or fruor. So also 
Pind. Pyth. IV. 300. aKivdvvov aiSjva 
irefffftov. Apol. Rhod. I. 283. OptTrrripia 
Triatro). KaK i\f.y%ta, for gXgy^tlg. Res 
pro persona. See Pental. Graec. p. 234. on 
Soph. Antig. 320. 

239. fis-y' dfjieivova. The adjective julya 
is frequently joined with a comparative, to 
increase the measure of the comparison, 
So 7roXX6i> dfjuivuv, II. Z. 479 For this 
the Attic poets use a form of double com- 

parative : as in Soph. Ant. 86. See note, 
Pent. Gr. p. 219. Of the use of p.sya 
with the superlative, which recurs infra v. 
274. see on II. A. 69. 

241. dXXd /*e%iwv. Soil. 'AxiXXsvf 
kariv. The adjective signifies remiss, neg- 
ligent ; from jU#t?7/u, remitto. 

242. ^ yap dv. See on II. A. 232. 
246. d/epir6/AU0. Loquacious : from O.K- 

pirof , confused. Infra v. 796. fJivOoi dicptroi, 
which the Scholiast explains by adidicpiToi, 
TroXXot. Compare 11. P. 412. 

250. ry. For this reason : and so v. 254. 
See on II. A. 418. dvd oro/ti' t%wv. Schol. 

251. The sense of the passage is :^ sat 
VOGTQV fyv\dacroi, wore atyiv Trpo^spetv 
ovtiSea. You observe and catch at the op- 
portunity, afforded by the eagerness of the. 
armi/ to return, in order to heap reproaches 
upon them. VOGTOQ here signifies, reditus 
cupido ; and so vstffOai, in v. 291. optare 
reditum. The five following lines are ge- 
nerally supposed to be spurious, from the 
want of connexion in the passage, and the 
words fjaai ovtidiZwv (in v. 255.) ; since 
Thersites was not sitting. See v. 268. 

258. oifo. It has been asserted that wdt 


' tVar' 'OcWf/i Kapri w/iOKTtv 778117, 
m TrjXfjuaxoiO Trarrjp KicXrjjU^oc U)v, 
Ei jit?) tyw <T Xapwv, cnro JUEV ^uXa f t'jiiara 
XXatvav r' T^E ^trwva, ra r' cucMJ 
AVTOV SE icXatovra 

we ayopiiOsv a 
' 0T oicifirrp^i $ jUra0pvov T$ /ecu 

6 O IcVwOl]) OaXtbv Ot K7T<7 oVf 



U7TO ^plKTEOlT 6 8' Ctp' ^TO, Tap|3rj(Tl T* 

8', axpaov to\iv, aTTOjUop^aro Sacpv. 
, /cat a\yvfjiEvoL Trep, ?r' aurtj ii 

Of Tf^ t7T(TCV l$WV C TrXl^tTtOV 
TTOTTOt, fj 817 jUUjOt' 'OUO-(Tl>C <T0Xa 

ayaOac;, TroXfjuov rf 


is never an adverb of place in Homer, but 
always synonymous with oftrw, sic. Against 
this, however, there are insuperable objec- 
tions in II. S. 392. Od. A. 182. P. 544. 
and elsewhere. 

2GO. KK\r)fjisvoQ 6i??v. See Pent. Graec. 
p. 304. on Eurip. Phcen. 10. The use of 
the verb KgK\?7/icu, for sum, is also common 
in the N. T. See Matt. i. 16. v. 19. Luke 
i. 76- and elsewhere. The expression is imi- 
tated in Ovid, Epist. ex Pont. II. 8. 65. 
Nam caput e nostra citius cervice recedet, 
Quam caream raptis, fyc, Propert. Eleg. II. 
7- 7 Nam citius paterer caput hoc discedere 
collo, Quam possem nuptae perdere amore 

261. a/*?} syd> K. T. \. The particles d 
fit} are usually, in Homer, followed by the 
indicative. The only example of their con- 
struction with the subjunctive is Od, JSJ. 373. 
With the optative they are found in II. E. 
21 5. and three times in the Odyssee : E. 137- 
K. 342. H. 103. 

266. idvwOr]. He bent back his head; as 
is usual with those who have received a 
violent blow on the back. Eustath. dirb 
TOV TO iviov dovrjBrfvai, i. e. occiput re~ 
flectendo. In 11. N. 618. we have idvuOri 
Tt TTIGWV, which is supposed to be expressed 
in Virg. ^En. XL 644. Latos huic hasta 
per armos Acta tremit, duplicatque virum 
transfixa dolore. See Heyne, in loco. The 
idea is, perhaps, more clearly marked in 
Ovid, Met. III. 68. Ille, dolore ferox, caput 
in sua terga retorsit. Oa\epbg is, properly, 
virens, florens. Thus, OaXepoi ai^rjol, II. 
T. 26. K. 259. 0aXepj)v TrapaKoirfjv, F. 
53. Hence, OaXtpbv ddicpv, the starting 
tear. It is explained TO d-rraXov, in the 

Etym. Mag. p. 441. 32. Eustathius : TO 
dicpciiov, rj TO tviKfiov' iic jra0op<; TMV 

268. GKIJTTTOOV VTTQ %pw<Tow. That is, 
^pwffftoie 7/Xoicri TrtTrapfJievov, II. A. 246. 

269. dxpeiov iduv. Looking foolish, silly. 
This signification of a%ptiog is abundantly 
sanctioned by Eurip. Med. 301. where it is 
opposed to (T00o. Thus also in Od. S. 
162. dxptiov S' iysXafffft. Eustath. a'/cat- 

p<t) dTToflXtyctQ KCtl 7Tl OV^tjLll^ Xpfta. 

Dr. Clarke has produced several examples 
of a similar use of the Latin inutilis ; but 
they do not convey the idea of d%ptlog in 
this passage. The construction is that of 
the neuter adjective, used adverbially. The 
old editions have aVtjuop^aro ; but the 
reading of the text, which is agreeable with 
the Ionic dialect, is sanctioned by several 
MSS. : and the forms fiopyvv/jii and 6/iopy- 
Wfti are both extant. In the same manner 
were written KsXXw and oKs'XXw, dvpoftai 
and odvpo/Jiai, KpvbtiQ and oicpvoeiQ, and 
the like. See Porson on Hec. 728. and 
Praefat p. 19. 

273. flovXctQ T' ggapxwv. See on v. 84. 
supra. According to Eustathius, there is 
an ellipsis of the preposition ti. But al- 
though the verb t^dp^w is usually, in Homer, 
followed by a genitive, still it is frequently 
found in other writers with an accusative. 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 351. Obs. In the 
succeeding clause, also, the same commen- 
tator understands g before 7r6Xf/iov ; but 
the verb Kopvactd), to put on an helmet, to 
arm, is here used metaphorically in the sense 
of yf/pw. In a sense somewhat similar, it 
occurs in II. A. 424. 442. 4>. 306. And so 
Pind. Isth. VIII. 115. Kopvo-ativ tpyov. 


tV Oc TOV Xa>/3rjrfjpa 7T(r|oov ta\ cryopawv. 
Ov OYJV fiiv TraXiv civQiq avr}Gti OVJULOQ ayri 
NetKEfetv j3a<TiXfjae ovei 

*QiQ fyCLGCLV 1? 7rXrj0WC' Vtt O 

"Ecrrrj (TKijTrrpov E'XWV' Trapa Si, yXavjcwTnc 'A0ijvij, 
EiojUvrj jdjpuia, GLWTT^V Xaov avwyti, 
'lie af*a 0' o< Trpwroi re KCU u<yrarot vice ' 
Mu0ov aicovtraav, icai 7R0pa(r<raiaro |3ouXrj 
"O <r$tv tvQpovttov ayop/jo-aro KOI jUrHTv* 






jUpO7r<rart |3poroT<ni/ 
7rp viriarav 


yap r Tratfc vfapot, XP a * r 
jXotCTtv oSvpovrai OIKOV$E v 
'H jur)v KOI TTOVOC <rrii/ aviriOivra v 


275. \<t)(3r)Trjpa. Scholiast; vf 
Thus \a)f3aaQai for w/3pc'Eu>, in v. 242. 
Eustathius understands 7r<r/36Xov in the 
sense of tTTtai fldXXovra, i. e. verbis insec- 
tantem. In the next line, dyjjvwp, which 
properly signifies manly, intrepid, brave, 
(II. K. 220.), is used in a bad sense, as 
implying, haughty, proud, arrogant. Schol. 
avQd$Tj, vjSpiffTrjQ, feat QpaffVQ. Compare 
II. I. 695. . 443. 

278. TTToX'nropQoQ 'Odvffatvg. Cicero ad 
Famil. Epist. X. 13. Qui M. Antonium op- 
presserit, is bellum confecerit. Itaque Ho- 
merus non Ajacem nee Achillem, sed Ulyssem 
appellavit 7rro\i7rop0ov. Thus Minerva 
to Ulysses in Od. X. 230. 2y d' 77X0 
(3ov\y Hpidfjiov TroXtg evpvdyvia. And so 
Ulysses himself in Ovid. Met. XIII. 349. 
Pergama turn vici, cum vinci posse coegi. 
The same epithet, however, is applied to 
Achilles in II. 9. 372. $. 530. In the for- 
mer part of the line, the collective noun 
TrXrjBvg, is followed by a plural verb. So 
also in II. O. 305. ^sch. Agam. 588. He- 
rod. IX. 23. Xen. Mem. IV. 3. 10. et pas- 


282. tTruppaacraiciTo jSouXrjv. The verb 
!7rt0paw, indico, signifies, in the middle 
voice, to understand, as in II. 2. 93. or to 
weigh, to consider, as in II. N. 741. Heyne 
prefers the former meaning in this passage. 
See also on II. A. 83. 

284. 'ATpfidr], vvv dr) (re, K. r. X. Quin- 
tilian, speaking of the various kinds of ora- 
tory which may be learned from Homer, 
mentions among the greatest instances the 
speeches in this book. Nonne vel unus liber 

quo missa ad Achillem legatio narratur, vel 
in primo inter duces ilia contentio, vel dictce 
in secundo sententice, omnes litium ac consilio- 
rum explicant artes ? Affectus quidem vel 
illos mites, vel hos concitatos, nemo erit tarn 
indoctus, qui non in sua potestate hunc au- 
torem habuisse fateatur ? It is, indeed. 
hardly possible to find any where more re- 
fined turns of policy, or more artful touches 
of oratory. We have no sooner seen Aga- 
memnon excel in one sort of eloquence, but 
Ulysses is to shine no less in another directly 
opposite to it. POPE. The passage from 
Quintilian is in his Instit. Orat. X. 1. ide- 
Xovfftv 9sp,evai. For fieXXovvi Qtivai, iroi- 

285. /upo7T<r<n jSporoifft. See on II. A. 

287. trt. The Scholiast explains sv T<$ 
OTti^tiv, i. e. on their march. So Od. A. 
736. ov fjioi tdwKt TraTfip In Stvpo Kiovffy. 

288. tKTrkpaavTa. Scil. <re, i. e. Aga- 
memnon. Compare v. 113. supra. Barnes 
and others understand eKirepffavTe, which 
must be incorrect. See on II. A. 567- 

289. wtrre yap T) Tral^f. Since the par- 
ticle T) is always repeated in the second 
clause, Heyne, after Bentley, would read 
wort yap ei, in a form analogous to Mad, 
OMTirfpii. As there is no similar example to 
be found, it would be better, perhaps, to 
read axrel yap iraidfg. 

291. r] fjujv Kal TTOVOQ iffrl K. r. X. 

There is considerable difficulty in the con- 

struction of this line. Eustathius explains 

it as follows : ton TOOOV kir'nTovog o TO- 




Kai yap riq 0' tva /uf/va JUEVWV OTTO rig a\6\oio 
aw vrfi TroXv^vybj, ovTTtp 
iXldKTfv, opivojULtvri TE O 

'Hjutv 8' ivaro tort TTfpirpOTTtwv 


aav Trapa VIJUCTI Kopuvtaiv' aXXa icai 
ov rot Srjjooy rt julvcti;, iceveov TE vtt 
TXfJT, fyiXoi, KOL jUEtvar' ETTI ^povov, o 
*H irov KdX^ac juavrUrat, ?] <cai ovtct 
Eu yap Sr/ ro '/fytv vi ^pEtrtv* EOTE ^ 
Maprupot, oue jurj Kj|0 |3av Oavaroto tytoovcrai 
X0ia r cal Trpwf'S'' or' C AvXiSa vfjf 
aKa IljOtajU(j> feat Tpwdl 

t^ O ttUl 7Tn K{VYV lOV JCttTtt 


aatTr}Q Trot/iog, wtrre wyo>e av rtva 
avirjOsvra tyieaQai TOV voarov. To the 
same effect, Heyne : Est sane tails belli 
protracti cerumna, ut aliquis, tcedio captus, 
optare possit reditum in patriam. May not 
a line have been lost, which would render 
the passage complete ? 

293. acr^aXaa. lonice for da^akq., from 
a'<r%aXaw, to grieve, to lament. So again in 
v. 297- II. X. 412. Q. 403. The later 
writers used aVxa'XXw. The old form, how- 
ever, occurs in Eurip. Iph. A. 925. Archi- 
loch. ap. Stobseum : p. 107. ^sch. Prom. 
167. Porson would restore it also to Eurip. 
Orest. 775. where he cites the above in- 
stances, to which Dr. Blomfield adds ^Esch. 
Prom. 251. Bion. Idyll. II. 7. Homer uses 
aer^aXXw in Od. B. 193. For avv, many 
editions have Trapd, which has slipt into some 
MSS. from the copyist not understanding 
the latter as a marginal explanation. The 
epithet 7roXwuyo has the same significa- 
tion with 7TO\vK\r)'t in v. 74. The vyd 
were the seats of the rowers. See Pent. Gr. 
p. 308. note on Eur. Phoen. 72. 

296. ivOdde fii/jLvovTtffci, Since we have 
been here. In definitions of time, the dative 
of a participle is frequently added, which 
may be rendered by an adverb of time. 
Compare II. Q. 414. with *. 151. A simi- 
lar construction is also used in reference to 
the distance or situation of a place. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 390. ivovrtoffi for 

298. atVxpov roi drjpbv K. r. X. This 
afterwards became proverbial. See Eras- 
mus in Adag. Turpe est et mansisse diu, 
vacuumque redire. Hence, Cicero de Offic. 
III. Inanem redire turpissimum est. The 
passage is imitated by Q. Calaber, in lib. 
IX. Aidwg yap /ia'Xa TroXXoi/ STTI %povov 
tvQa p.tvovTct "Eleven aTrprjKrov^. So 


also Ovid, Met. XIII. 227. Quidve domum 
fertis decimo, nisi dedecus, anno? The fol- 
lowing lines, to v. 330. inclusive, are trans- 
lated by Cicero, de Div. II. 30. Ferte viri, 
et duros animo tolerate labores ; Auguris ut 
nostri, &c. But Tully was no poet. 

299. 7ri xpovov. For some time. This 
preposition, with the accusative, in defini- 
tions of time, denotes continuance. Thus, 
Thucyd. II. 35. 7ri dvo rifiEpa^. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 586. c. For ITTI some copies have 
tri, but compare Od. &. 193. O. 494. 
Hesiod. Op. D. 324. 

300. fj irtbv K. T. X. See on II. A. 1 06. 

302. Kr/pe Qavdroio. Mortis Fata ; 
i. e. Mors fatalis : and so again infra v. 
834. /3av fykpovaai. For t'^tpov, abstu- 
leruntt rapiierunt : a pleonasm somewhat 
similar to those noticed on II. A. 343. The 
Scholiast and others point at ^spovcrai, re- 
ferring the words %0ia re jcat 7rpana, in 
the following line, to idpev, in v. 301. sup- 
posing that the interval of ten years is thus 
abridged, for the purpose of allaying the im- 
patience of the Greeks. It seems much 
better, however, to extend the parenthesis 
to 7rpw'ia, since the words will then refer 
simply to the period of the late pestilence. 
And so Heyne, Wolfe, and others. The 
phrase itself denotes any recent occurrence. 
So Plat. Gorg. p. 470. D. x ^ Ka \ ^P^j/v. 
A similar mode of expression prevailed also 
among the Hebrews ; whence Gen. xxxi. 2. 
LXX. wo-ei %0 Kai TpiTfjv imepav. Com- 
pare 1 Sam. xix. 7- * 

305. a'/i0i TTtpi Kprjvrjv. Round about 
thefountain. The prepositions d^l and 
Trtpi, joined with an accusative, signify in- 
differently circa. Hence, Hoogeveen on 
Viger (p. 524. ed. Oxon.), supposes that one 
of them is here redundant^ and so again II. 




UTTO 7rXaravtcrr(j>, oOtv pttv ay\aov u 
fj.iya o-fjjua' Spa/cwv ETT! vwra 
roy /o' avrog 'OXujU7no rjK 
uircuac Trpoe pa TrXarainorov 
8' eaav orpoufloto vO<r<rot, vijTna TIKVCI, 

'Ofcra>* arap 


#. 10. where CLVTOVS is understood after 
Trtpt. But it should rather seem that the 
first of the two, a'ju^i, is put without its 
case, adverbially : just as the same preposi- 
tion frequently occurs twice, once adver- 
bially, and again with a case, or in compo- 
sition with a verb. Thus in Herod. II. 176. 
iv Sf Kai kv M/i0i. II. V. 709. "Av d' 
'Odvasvc, TroXv/jujriQ dviararo. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 594. 1. Hermann on Viger, p. 
657. In Oppian Halieut. I. we have a'/^i- 
TTfpt in one word. 

307. KaXy VTTO 7rXaravi0T<). From 
this passage, Ernesti observes, Plato drew 
the beautiful description which follows : 
N?) T-//V "Hpav Ka\r) y r/ Karaywy?). 
Hre yap 7r\dravoQ avrrj, /uaXa a/JKpiXa^rjQ 
TB Kai vi^n\r], TOV re ayvov TO V-^OQ KUI 
Gvaiciov, Tray/caXov, Kai w(,'aV/i?)v ?^i TIJQ 
avQriQ, IJJQ av tvudtcrTaTOv 7rnp%i TOV 
TOTTOV. 'Hye av Trrjjfi ^apitorar?; VTTO 
Trj TrXaTavov ptl jwaXa ^v^pov vdaTog, 
it)Q ys Ttj) TroSi TeKfJiyoaffOai. Nfjit^aiv 
r TIV&V, K. T. X. VoL III. p. 229. To 
this Cicero alludes in Orator. I. 7- 28. Cur 
non imitamur Socratem ilium, qui est in Ph<z- 
dro Platonis ? nam me hcec tua platanus ad- 
monuit, quce non minus ad opacandum hunc 
locum patulis est diffusa ramis, quam ilia, 
cujus umbram secutus est Socrates ; qua; 
mihi videtur non tarn ipsa aquula, qua; des- 
cribitur, quam Platonis oratione crevisse. 
Pausanias informs us, that in his time the 
trunk of this plane-tree was still preserved 
in the Temple of Diana, at Aulis ; and that 
the fountain was still shown, by the side of 
which it grew. Heyne suggests, that there 
was a stone near the place, upon which a 
serpent was graven ; and that hence the 
tradition of the prodigy arose. ^Eschylus 
has invented a different appearance in 
Agam. 110. sqq. There is a great simila- 
rity between this portent, and that of the 
seven full ears of corn, and the seven fat 
kine in Pharoah's two dreams: Gen. xli. 
2. 5. 

308. SaQoivoQ. There is a great differ- 
ence of opinion as to the true meaning of 
this epithet. Schol. irvppoQ Kara vaira, f; 
6 ayav QOVIOQ. The Etym. M. p. 250. 21. 
also gives both interpretations, deriving the 
latter from the intensive particle da and 

r TK r/cva" 


Dr. Blomfield, in his Glossary on 
jEsch. Prom. 1058. renders it cruentus ; and 
the Scholiast on II. K. 23. explains it by 
BidtyoivoQ, (j)Ovei>TtKOQ. It occurs, however, 
in Eur. Alcest. 598. Xfovrwv a SaQoivbg 
tXa : where, from the epithets /3aXi6g and 
TToiKiXoOpiK, with which it is accompanied, 
it seems undoubtedly intended to designate 
colour. As to the passage before us, and 
generally in Homer, either interpretation 
will meet the sense. The adjective (rp.epda- 
Xlof properly signifies aspectu terribilis r 
from fffjLspBa), or fjitpdb), aspicio ; and thence, 
generally, terribilis. Schol. 6 *rara7rX^/c- 
TIKOQ ry oi//i. It is the same with a/jiepd- 
VOQ, II. E. 742. The <r prefixed has the 
same force as the intensive particle a ; 
and the formation is similar to that of <rjwt- 
Kpbg from fiiKpoz, and the like. See Damm 

n voce. 

310. Trpof pa irXaTaviffTov. The par- 
ticle pa, both in this line and the preceding, 
is strictly inferential ; in the first instance, 
declaring that the appearance was divine : 
and in the other, that Jupiter himself was 
the author of the prodigy. 

311. (TTpovBolo veoffffoi, vrfiria refcva. 
Homer frequently uses rKva for the young 
of birds and animals, in the same manner as 
veoaaoi, on the contrary, is used to signify 
children. Thus, again, infra vv. 315. 317- 
A. 113. T. 400. and elsewhere. See the 
note on Soph. CEd. T. 1?. Pent. G. p. 9. 
Valck. on Herod. III. 109. Eustathius ob- 
serves, and after him Vossius de Idol. III. 
86. that VTpovObe is a general term signi- 
fying either a sparrow or any other bird. 
In the latter case, however, (TTpovOoQ is 
never found without an epithet. Thus Julian. 
Hist. Animal. XIV. 13. (TTpovQol xtpvaloi. 
Herod. IV. 175. <rrpou0oi Karayaloi, os- 
triches. See Blomfield on ^Esch. Agam. 

312. TreraXotc, wTTOTreTrrqwrec;. Sub 
frondibus considentes, latitantes. HEYNE. 

The most probable formation of the partici- 
ple 7T7rr?jwg is from the old form 7Trw, 
or Trrsw (whence TTITTTW), of which the per- 
fect was TTBTTTtiKa, part. TTfTrrjjfcwe, for which 
Homer uses 7r7rrr/d>e, also in Od. N. 98. 
JSJ. 354. and 7T7rrW, II. *. 503. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 245. 




075 rovg gsfiva icarrj<Tt rerpfywrac* 

3' ajU07roraro 6SupOjU*vrj 0tXa rlicva* 
Trjv ' eXEXi^ajUEVOc Trrtpwyoe XajSev afjL^ 
Aiirap 7m Kara rKi/ e^a-yt arpovOoio Kal avrrjv, 


Aaav yap /utv 0rjK Kpovou 

8' <rraor 0aujuao/jv, oTov t 


TtVr' a 

rlpac jUfya jurjri 
, oou KiXfOC OVTTOT' oXftrat. 
ouroc Kara rKv' f^ayf crrpow^oto, Kat aur?)v, 
arap fiiirrip IvarTj ^v, ) rtKE rKva* 


'AXX' a^ 
Aurov, icroKv aarru 

ra Sr) vvv Travra rfXarai. 
wavTzg, IvKVTjjUtStc 'Amatol, 


315. p,r]Tir)p d' aju,^>67TOTaro K, r. X. 
Hence the beautiful illustration in Heliodo- 
rus: jEthiop. II. p. 100. wffTrcp, ofyicu, rtg 
opvif, o0wc avrriz TTJV Ka\iav TropOovvrog, 
iv 600a\/ioig re r)v yovrjv Ooiv^fiivov, 
TrpoatXOelv fitv oicvel, 0evyiv ^t ou 0pti, 
7r60oe yap sv aur^ Kal TrdBoq dvraywvi- 
Z,ovrai' Tirpiyvla de TrcpiTrorarai r^v TTO- 
Xiopiciav, <Sra dvfjp,tpa, Kal OLQ tktov 
OVK Eyj/wpifftv j; <f>vai, avi]vvTov iKtrripiav 
TOV /iTjrpyov eiadyovffa Opijvov. 

316. r>)j/ ^' \eXi$ajj/oe TTTtpwyoQ. Im- 
plicans se ei (/card Trjg) irrkpvyoQ. HEYNE. 
d/z^iaxwiav. Part. perf. mid. from d//,0i- 
ct^w, circumsono. 

318. rov /iev. Scil. dpaKOVTCt. dpt^- 
Xov. Conspicuous ; i. e. so as to indicate 
that the appearance was portentous. From 
the intensive particle dpi, and dij\ov, the 
two letters and d being convertible. It 
appears from the Scholiast that there was 
another reading, dt^Xov or di^jjXov, ac- 
cording to which the meaning will be, that 
Jupiter, who had sent the omen, after- 
wards caused the serpent to disappear. 
This, however, is quite at variance with v. 
319. Cicero, however, had plainly this 
reading before him, when he thus translated 
the passage, de Divin. II. 30. Qui luci 
ediderat Jupiter Saturnius idem Abdidit, et 
duro formavit tegmina saxo. offntp tyyve. 
Scil. MTISTCI Zcvf, v. 324. 

319. Xdav. See on v. 307. 
,323. dVfy. Silent, dumb. Damm con- 
siders it a poetic form for avavoQ, from d 
priv. and avto, clamo. Schol. ave^' dtywvoi, 
Kara arkpriGiv TrjQ iwrJQ, o sari rrjc, (fxjJvrJQ. 
The word occurs in II. T. 84. I. 30. 691. 
In Od. . 93. it is used adverbially ; whence 
many have inferred that it should always be 
so understood, as dicrjv tykvovTO, in II. P. 
95. It certainly never appears in any form 
but the present. 

325. oou. For ou, the genitive of the 
relative OQ. In the feminine, we meet with 
erjg for ?Jf, in II. II. 208. 

330. rd j) vvv irdvTa rtXarat. Cicero : 
qua jam matura videtis ; i. e. according to 
Heyne, in eo sunt ut eventum habeant : they 
are now on the eve of their accomplishment. 
In the beginning of the verse the MSS. vary 
between rcug and 0' &, and so again in II. 
S. 48. It should rather seem, however, that 
rwf is more properly answered by wf, as in 
II. T. 415, and here at least the authorities 
are in favour of the other reading. So also 
in Od. S. 271. 

332. aVoKfv. Until. A poetic particle, 
equivalent to SUJQ. Of its construction, see 
on II. A. 97- It is more usually found with 
the subjunctive ; sometimes with the future 
indicative, as in II. T. 409. <&. 133. but 
rarely with the optative. An instance occurs 
in II. O. 70. See Hermann on Viger, p. 659. 




' avSpw 


MvOov liraivijcravTE^ 'OSucrtrrjoe vfioto. 335 


TTOTTOt, ft Sr) 7rariv EOtKOTEe ayopaa<T0E 
oim jUfXft TToXEjurjta 
TE Kai o/OKia ]3r)(Trai 
Sr) |3ouXat TE yEvoiaro, 
r' aKpTjrot icat c^tai, c 
yap /o' ETTEEo-tr' Eptc)aivojUv, OU^E rt 
:vat SuvajUEcr^a, TroXuv %p6vov evOac < 

^ \ ^ v/y> ? s>> > j//D"\^ 

bj], (TV o EC/ , we Trpiv, X W ^ aoTju0a pouA?7V, 
/' 'Apytotcrt Kara Kparspac uo-juivag* 345 

a tyOivvOtiv, Eva Kat Suo, roi KCV ^A^ai^jv 
r\ (avvatc; 8 OVK <T(Trat aurwv,) 

casions was not mixed with water, as was 
usual at entertainments ; but a portion was 
supplied by each of the contracting parties, 
and poured into the same cup, as an emblem 
of mutual compact. Hence the epithet d- 
KprjTOQ, lonice for aKparog , pure, unmixed : 
for Ktpdui, which signifies to mix wine with 
water, differs from (niayw, which is used in 
II. T. 270, where the ceremony of striking 
a covenant is described at length. Since 
Homer has nowhere noticed the compact 
between Tyndareus and the suitors of 
Helen, it is most probable that Nestor here 
alludes to a pledge given to Agamemnon at 
Aulis. Thucydides, however, certainly men- 
tions the oath imposed by Tyndareus, in a 
manner which proves that the story was 
generally believed ; I. 9. See Mitford's 
Hist, of Greece, p. 84. note. Of the form 
errsTriQfjiev, see on II. A. 104. 

342. avTtaQ yap p" kirktaai K. T. X. Frus- 
tra sane verbafacimus, 8fc. The force of the 
particles will be evident from an inversion 
of the clauses, as in II. A. 113. The substan- 
tive prjxoe, remedium, should properly be 
followed by a genitive of the evil to be 
averted. Eurip. Andr. 536. KctKwv pnx' 
Herod. IT. 181. KO.KOV /^x' Theoc. Idyl. 
II. 95. xaXtTrag vocrw ftaxG' Here, then, 
we must understand, any remedy for the de- 
lay, which is clearly implied in what follows. 
The construction is different in II. I. 249. 
Eustathius observes, that Nestor indirectly 
alludes to the quarrel between Agamemnon 
and Achilles, as the cause of the protracted 
duration of the war. 

346. eva Kal dvo. This is intended to 
insinuate the extreme paucity of the num- 
ber of those who wished to return ; and 
more especially directed, as Eustathius 
thinks, against Thersites, and, perhaps, indi- 
rectly against Achilles. On the repetition of 
7rpV in w. 348. 354. see note on II. A. 97- 

334. VTT' 'Axatwv. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
496. 3. 

336. rfp^viog. Nestor is so called from 
Gereng, a town of Messenia, in the Pelo- 
ponnesus, where he was brought up. The 
derivation of this adjective from ypct, 
whence it would signify honourable, is forced 
and unsatisfactory. 

339. jSjjfferai. Schol. a7ro/3/j<Trai. The 
reading of all the earlier editions is TTOV Srj. 
But Trfj should doubtless be restored before 
the verb fiaivu), and it has all the best au- 
thorities in its favour. Compare II. Z. 377- 
Heyne also properly continues the interro- 
gation through the two following lines, con- 
sidering yevoiaro as the optative, instead of 
the future indicative. In this sense, how- 
ever, it is more usual with the addition of 
the particle av or KC, as in v. 160. 

340. kv Trvpl ytvolaTO ; Shall they be 
thrown into the fire ? i. e. be destroyed, ren- 
dered useless. The expression is metapho- 
rical, and analogous to the early mode of 
speaking. Thus, in the Sacred Writings : 
Amos i. 4. LXX. Kal aTTOffrAui Trwp tig 
TOV olicov 'Aa?)X, i. e. / will destroy it. 
Compare vv. 7. 10. Allied to this is the ex- 
pression Sia TrvpoQ /zoXav, which occurs 
in Eurip. Elect. 1182. Androm. 487. 
Arist. Lysist. 133. and is indicative of ex- 
treme peril. So Horat. Od. II. 1. 7. In- 
cedis per ignes Suppositos cineri doloso. 
Compare Liv. XX. 35. 40. Propert. I. 5. 5. 
Of the opposite expression, IK TTVOOQ GW&IV, 
see on 11. K. 246. 

341. (nrovdai aicpqroi. That is, 01- 
vov atcpctTOV. It was usual in solemn 
leagues and covenants, after the sacrifice of 
the victim (see v. 124.) to make a libation 
of wine. Their right hands were joined, in 
token of the strictest fidelity; and the vio- 
lation of the compact was an act of the foul- 
est dishonour. The wine used on these oc- 



Ylpiv "Ajoyoo'S' livai, irpiv KOI Atoc cuyio^oto 

-i / V I *"' ^ f f i \ \ * / 

lvG>juvai HTE ywcot; virocf^ai^f TJE Kai ovia. 
tfrrjjut 7<zp ovv KaTavtvaai v7TpjUVa Kpov/wva 
"H/xtm T<, ore VTJUCTIV TT' wKViropoiaiv tfiaivov 
aot, T/oa<7crt tyovov KOL Krjpa 

v ETTI&^I', tvaitrtjua a^juara 

T(j), JUT] TIC 7T(HV tTTEiyiorOb) OtKOV^E 

Ilpiv rtva Trap Tpwwv aXo^ caraKOtjUT}0fjva*, 

Ei Se TIC iKTrayAwc tO&ti oTicovSe vttcrOat, 


a irpoaB* aXXwv Oavarov Kai TTOTJUOV iwi 
'AXXa, ava^, ain-oe T' EV jur^Sfo, 7Tt0o r' aXX(j)* 

, O, TTl ICV 17TW. 

Kptv' avS/oac icaTa ^uXa, Kara 




350. KaravEWffai. Annuisse : Scil. wos 
Trojam expugnaturos esse. HEYNE. 

353. aorpaTrrwv 67ri^^ia, fc. r. X. So 
II. I. 356. Ztu e (T^iv Kpovi^e ev^^ta 
<r7/iara 0afvwv 'Aarpdirrti. It is obser- 
vable that lucky omens were supposed to 
come from the right by the Greeks, and from 
the left by the Latins. Cic. Div. II. 36. 
Sinistrum, quod bonum sit, nostri nominave- 
runt : externi dextrum. It seems, however, 
that both Greeks and Romans considered 
the East to be the lucky quarter of the hea- 
vens ; so that the above difference consists 
in the words alone, arising from the situa- 
tion of those who took the auguries. In 
doing this, the former stood with their faces 
towards the North, the latter towards the 
South. Plin. N. H. II. 55. Compare II. M. 
239. Virg. ^En. II. 693. IX. 63. Still the 
Latins themselves frequently use dexter for 
favourable, and sinister for unfavourable ; in 
imitation of the Greeks: e. g. Virg. JEn. IV. 
579. Eclog. IX. 15. The syntax of this 
passage is an instance of anacoluthon, since 
aorpctTrrwv in the nominative refers to 
Kpoviwva in the accusative, v. 350. Changes 
in the construction, of a similar nature, will 
be found in v. 681. infra, II. T. 21 1. Z. 
396. 510. K. 224. 437. See also Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 610. 

355. Trpiv nva. For O.VTOV, or 
rov. So again v. 382. sqq. 

356. 'EXevriQ, That is, 'E\v?e 

If 'EXkvrjQ be understood to depend upon 
6jOju?//iara re 0roj/a%a'e re, Nestor will be 
made to insinuate that Helen was carried 
off against her inclination, which does not 
accord with the traditions respecting her. 
Eustathius, indeed, understands the former 

of the two substantives of her departure, 
and the latter of her subsequent repentance. 
But they seem rather to indicate the expedi- 
tion undertaken by the Greeks, and the 
miseries which they endured on her account. 

359. Kai TTOT^OV kiriffTrrj. This 
is an Homeric idiom, equivalent to the 
Latin oppetere mortem. So II. Z- 412. O. 
495. T. 294. Y. 337- <J>. 100. X. 39. The 
common form would be Odvarog 07rtrai, 
or Ki^dvei, Tivd. Thus Simonides: 'O $' 
av QdvaroQ tKi%f Kai TOV 0uyo/^a^ov, 
which Horace seems to have had in view in 
the Latin illustration, which Heyne, trust- 
ing to memory, has cited incorrectly from 
Od. III. 2. 14. Horace's line is: Mors et 
fugacem persequitur virum. 

360. avroQ T' iv [Arjdeo, K. r. X. Liv. 
XXII. 29. Dum imperare discimus, parere 
prudenti in animum inducamns. Compare 
also Psal. ii. 10. 

361. a7ro/3X?jrov. Schol. a7ro3oXqc 

362. Kara <pv\a, Kara ^p^rpag. Ce- 
crops divided the citizens of Athens into 
four 0uXa, or tribes; each of these tribes 
into three ^parpiai, or wards; and these 
again into thirty yevr], or families, who were 
more closely connected by kindred and re- 
lationship. Pollux III. 4. VIII. 9- Apol- 
lonius, however, understands nothing more 
than that the forces should be arranged ac- 
cording to cities and states. Pope observes, 
that the army would be much strengthened 
by this union, since those who had different 
aims, interests, and friendships, could not 
assist each other with so much zeal, as 
when friends aided friends, and kinsmen 
their kindred : and when each commander 



Ei S KEV we <=(>?VCj KC " rot Kt'iOtoVTai 'Amatol, 

', oq 9' i?yjiiovwv KOKOC, t>c 
T oe K <T0Xoe Iptft' Kara frtyiag yap 
el KOL OtGTTtGty TroXtv OVK a 
*H avSpwv KaKorrjrt, icat a^pa&'rj 
Tov 8' a7rajua/3ojUvoe 7rpo<70T 
? H juav aur' ayopr? viKae, ytpov, vlag 'A^atwv* 
A? yap, Ztu TE Trarcp, ical 'Aflrjvati), icat "ATroXXov, 





T(t> JC8 


'AXXa j 

f/ Oc juf JUET aTTpr/jcrowc 

Kai yap yo>p 'A\fX 

' AvTifiiotg 7rt<T(Ttp 

Et O TTOr' C yf jU/aV jSou 

Tpwatv avajSXrjmc /caicou 



had the glory of his own nation in view, as 
well as the honour of Greece in general. 
ipprjTpr). lonicd for ^parpt'a, and hence, 
says Damm, the Latin f rater. 

366. Kara a&tac. Pro se quisque. See 
on II. A. 271. 

367- OecTTtviy. Eustathius : tXXti^iv 6%i 
TOV f3ov\y, fj yv&iJiy, r) KtXtvaei. Heyne 
supplies po'iptf.. See Bos Ellips. Gr. p. 53. 
The adjective OeaTriaiot;, from OeoQ and 
dirt tv, properly signifies divinely spoken or 
decreed : thence generally divine ; and, in a 
more extended sense, excellent, good. So also 
fooaKeXof and OtffKtXoc, of which the for- 
mer is usually applied to men, the latter to 
things : but QkairiQ and QkatyaroQ, which are 
in fact synonymous with Qe<nrs<no, are 
never employed by Homer otherwise than of 
things in some sort divine. 

368. d(ppaSiy. The translators render 
this word by imperitia : Heyne, more pro- 
perly, by socordia. Od. K. 27. avruv diria- 

370 avre. Rursus ; nunc, ut alias. 

372. TOIOVTOI ^gKtt K. r. X. See on II. A. 
254. So Herod. IV. 143. Aapaoc Sk d-rre, 
Mfya/3a^ov<; dv ot Toaovrovg dpiOp-bv 
ytveffOai (3ovXe<?9ai paXXov j) TT}V 'EXXdSa 
vTrfjicoov, soil, oaoi iv ry ponj KOKKOI. See 
also Aristot. Ethic. III. 12. The sentiment 
is recorded by Tatian, Chrysostom, and 
other Christian Fathers. 

373. T(f KE rax qpvffete. See on v. 148. 
supra, and on II. A. 418. 

376. P.IT d-trprjKTOvg K. r. X. For ttf 
soiSag g/ijSa'XXft. Dionysius Halicarnas- 


^ai veiKta 

V, OUK r 7T<ra 

, owS' rifiaiov. 


sensis, de Arie, c. 9. points out the nicety 
of the artifice employed by Agamemnon, 
in making a candid acknowledgment of his 
fault, previous to asserting his supreme au- 

379. ? yt fiiav fiovXtvaofitv. Supply 
povXrjv. So jElian. Hist. Anim. V. 9. dg 
ftiav votiv Kai TT/JV avTrjv. See Bos El- 
lips, p. 41. 

381. vvv d' f.p\taQ' ITTI dtiTrvov. In the 
heroic ages, the Greeks seem to have had 
three meals in the day, which they called 
dpiarov, Stlirvov, dopirov. Athen. I. p. 11. 
D. trirov d' lidkvai Sidjpiffa, "Apiara, delir- 
va, ^opTra 0' aiptlaOai Tpia. The first 
of these was the morning meal ; Od. II. 2. 
'~E>VTVVOVT' aoiarov U\L r]o~i. Compare Xen. 
Cyrop. VI. 4. 1. The SfiTTvov was taken 
about noon, after which they returned to 
the war, or their several occupations ; 
whence its derivation, Trapd TO, Sti irovtiv. 
The copirov was their supper. The names 
of these meals, however, were sometimes in- 
terchanged ; and here Stircvov is evidently 
used for the morning repast. See v. 385. and 
compare Od. M. 439. P. 176. Others, how- 
ever, suppose that the early Greeks had only 
two meals in the day, and that dflirvov was 
used indifferently for either. Athen. V. 4. The 
passage is imitated in Virg. ^En. IX. 157. 
Quod superest, lati bene gestis corpora rebus 
Procurate, viri ; et pugnam sperate parati : 
of which Macrobius, Saturn. VII. 1. 
Brevius et expressius Homerus. Eustathius 
observes, that %vvdyeiv is opposed to dia- 
, v. 387- 

80 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, B'. 

Ev JUEV rtg oopi orj^atraoj, cu o aaTri^a Oiai 

Ev T fTTTTOtOTi ^t' 

Eu ^ Tic apjuaroc ajui(f)ic; iSwv, TroXfjUOto 

' OC K 7TaV1]jLlptOt OTVyfpa) KptVWfltO'* "ApTJf . 

Ou yap Trauo-wXrj yf jUT(T(Tra, owS' ^ 

T' v v ^ 
ill JU77 VUC 


aju^ujSporrje, 7Tpi S' 




X *P a 




av Trapa v^ucri jcopwvta-tv, ov o 7Ttra 
Apfctov fCTtrarat 0vytv KVVCK? ri& olwvovg. 


fi), rov S' OWTTOTC KUjuara 


382. cu ^' acTTTi'^a 0<r0ft>. 
/zs ^ze/c? ; from riOtfjiai, dispono. Verbum 
in hujusmodi locutionibus usitatissimum, mo- 
do activa, modo in media voce : et non raro 
cum tv construitur. Blomfield, Gloss, ^sch. 
Agam. 31, where, among other examples, 
are adduced Eurip. Bacch. 49. Soph. (Ed. 
T. 633. Elect. 1434. Pope observes, that 
there is a great beauty in the repetition of 
the same words in this and the following 
lines ; and he believes that Milton had the 
passage in his eye in P. L. VI. 535. Let 
each His adamantine coat gird well, and 
each Fit well his helm, gripe fast his orbed 
shield, Borne even or high : for this day 
will pour down, If I conjecture aught, no 
drizzling shower, But rattling storm of ar- 
rows barbed with fire. Compare Virg. jEn. 
IX. 912. 

384. iipnaTOQ an<t>iQ idwv. The Ho- 
meric form ideiv dfifpig, or dfityi, TIVOQ, for TI, circumcirca inspicere aliquid. 
Schol. TTtpio'Kf^/ajttevoe icai a'KpijSaig ara- 

385. Kpivw/460' "Aprj'L There is this 
distinction between the simple and com- 
pound verb (v. 387)> that the former refers 
to the continuance, the latter to the termi- 
nation of the contest. 

388. idpwtm /iv Ttv K. T. \. Hor. Od. 
I. 15. 9. Eheu ! quantus equis, quantus 
adest viris Sudor ! Stat. Theb. III. 210. 
Quantus equis quantusque viris in pulvere 
crasso Sudor ! The slow spondaic measure 
in this passage is evidently an echo to the 
sense. Of TS.V for TIVOQ, see Maittaire de 
dial. p. 468. It will here signify either 
each one, as just above ; or many a one, as 
in II. n. 379. 4>. 126. and elsewhere. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 487. 

389. dffTiidoQ a'jLt$ij3p6r77. The shields 
of the ancient Greeks were generally cir- 
cular (tvicvK\oi, II. E. 453.), and of "suffi- 
cient diameter to protect the whole body. 
Hence the Homeric epithets a'jti^ijSporoc 
and TTodijveKrjg, II. O. 646. and the de- 
scription of Tyrtseus : III. 23. Mjjpouc re, 

KwfjfJiaQ T KCLTil), KOI OTSpVCt, Kal W/JLOVQ, 

'A.wjridoQ ypjjt,' yaorpt KaXv^dfievoQ. 
So also Virg. JEn. II, 227. Clypei sub orbe 
teguntur. They were commonly made of 
hides, doubled into folds, and strengthened 
with brass ; and were slung across the 
shoulder by means of a leathern thong 
(rfXa/iwv), and not borne upon the arm as 
in after times. Compare Herod. I. 171. 
In the latter part of this line there is a change 
in the construction, since Kajuarai cannot 
refer to the shield, but to the warrior. The 
sense must be supplied thus : Kal 

II. N. 77- ip,oi TTfpi dowpari 
p daTTTOi Mat^iaiffi. 

391. ov ds K' kyujv K. T. X. Of this con- 
struction, see the note on v. 188. 

392. vrjval rcopawffi. See on II. A. 170. 

393. apciov. Properly, sufficient; from 
apKEW, sufficio ; and in this sense it is found 
in II. K. 304. Here, however, it seems to 
follow apKb>, in the signification which it 
sometimes bears of the Latin arceo, to re- 
pel, to keep off ; and in this sense we have 
7rapKo>, infra v. 873. but no where else 
in the Iliad. See the note on Eur. Phcen. 
938. Pent. Gr. p. 358. Hence the sense 
will be : Nihil erit quod prohibeat, quo minus 
insepultus abjiciatur. 

394. OJQ ort Kvfjia. Scil. ia%t. 

396. irpofiXrJTi VKOTreXy. Heyne is 
right in joining these words, by apposition, 




TlavToi(t)V avifJLtoV) orav V0' rj tvOa ye 
'AvaravrfC S' oplovro, KcW0i;rc Kara vrjae, 
KaTTvtcrdav T Kara KXttn'ac, Kat SaTrvov e'Xovro. 
"AXXoe cT aXXti) Epf^f 0fwv atetytvfrawv, 
Ev^ofjifiVOQ Oavarov re 0vytv Kai /uwXov " 
Avrap 6 ]3ouv tpU<Tv ava? avSpwv ' 
fltova, 7TvrarT)pov, virtpiJ.tvi Kpoviam* 
KtcXi](7K SE ylpovrac apttrrrjac Dava^aiaiv, 
Nlarojoa jiifv Trpamara, Kai 'lSo/uvfja avaKra, 
Aura/o 7Ttr' Aiavrf Suw, KOI TuSloc inov, 
EKTOV o' avr' 'OSiKrra Au urrtv araXavrov. 



ot orjv ayac; 
"H t S yap Kara BV/ULOV a^cX^EOv, a>c 
Bouv & TreptcrrrjGavTO, KOL ovXo^vrac avlXovro. 



ZEU KuSf(rr, fj.iyi(TT, 
Mi) Trpiv ITT' rieXtov Svvai, KOL lirl 

UE Kara Trprjvff jSaXlfiv TljOtajUOto julXavpoi' 
t^aXofv, irpr/a-at ^ Trupoc Srj/oto Ovptrpa' 

with a/cr^ t^>' ii|/j/\y, and placing a point at 
!X0wv, which is wanting in other editions. 
Schol. ir/DOjSXijrr Trpo^xovrt cif r/)v 0a\a(r- 
o-av. So Virg. ^En. III. 699. Projectaque 
saxa Pachyni. 

397- TravTo'nav dvk^nav. Supply cveica. 

400. aXXoc F a\X^ K. r. X. Scil. DM 
quisque patriis. HEYNE. Eustathius ob- 
serves, that Euripides had this line in view 
in Hippol. 103. aXXowiv aXXog Ot&v re 
KdvQpMTrwv usXu. Of the verb tpt&. see 
on II. A. 147. 

408. avroficLTOQ. Uninvited. Schol. avtv 
TOV K\r)9rjvai. His relationship removed 
the probability of intrusion. The cavils of 
the critics respecting the propriety of this 
conduct of Menelaus are idle in the extreme. 
Of the^term (3oi}v dyaOog, see on v. 586. 

409. ydte dfo\$tbv, we iTrovtiro. For 
we kirovtiTQ afoX^of. The subject of a 
proposition is frequently placed in the accu- 
sative, with the verb of the preceding sen- 
tence, instead of being construed with the 
verb to which it immediately refers. Com- 
pare II. E. 85. Y. 310. The same construc- 
tion is adopted also by the Attic writers. 
Thus Eurip. Med. 250. Asyoutrt d' ijfiaf, 
we dtMwov (3iov Zaifjitv KCLT OIKOVQ. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 295. 3. So also in Latin. 
Thus Tacitus : Stepe eum audivi, cum diceret. 
Terence : Sdn' me, in quibus sim gaudiis. 
Compare Hor. Od. I. 35. 9. IV. 1. 48. Ter. 
And. I. 1. 20. Other examples may be 


found in Kuster on Arist. Plut. 55. though 
he incorrectly confines the idiom to the ac- 
cusative : whereas it is equally true of other 
cases, according to the government of the 
verb. See Hoogeveen on Viger, p. 148. 
Valckenaer on Eur. Phcen. p. 555. The verb 
irovtlaQai evidently refers to the preparation 
of the banquet and the sacrificial rites ; as 
Trovoe, in v. 430. Eustath. on ivrjpyti 
TTfpt Ovaiav. 

410. oi)\o\VTUQ dvkXovTO. See on II. 
A. 449. 

413. pri Trpiv ETT' rysXiov fivvat. Eusta- 
thius : XeiTTft ro dbg, T) iroiriuov. In in- 
vocations of this nature, this ellipsis is very 
usual, particularly in Ionic writers. Thus 
again in II. H. 1?9. and in Herod. V. 105, 
w Ztv, iKytvsaQat /uoe. 'ABrfvaiouQ riaaaQai. 
The sense is complete in Xenoph. Cyrop. VI. 
4. 9. a'XX', w ZEW fikyiffrt, S6g pot ^avfjvai 
dZ'iy [lev UavQdaQ dvdpi. Compare VI. 
3. 11. The ellipsis is supplied also in Horn. 
II. Z. 307. 476. See Valckenaer on Herod. 1. c. 
and Bos Ellips. Gr. p. 372. A similar con- 
struction is often employed in the Attic 
poets ; where, however, it is more usual to 
supply tv-^aiiai. Eurip. Suppl. 3. Elect. 
809. ^sch. Theb. 75- 239. Arist. Ran. 914. 
See Markland on the passage of the Sup- 
plices ; and compare Arist. Ran. 884. 

415. TrvpoQ 771010. The preposition Sia 
must be supplied ; and so again II. Z. 331. 
H. 410. I. 242. This use of the genitive, 


XaXk'tjJ pwyaXtov' TroXttc ^ aju<^' avrov tralpoi 
IIprji;e v Kovigaiv 6Sa Xa^otaro yalav. 

*Q,g $ar'* ou 3' apa TTU ot 7TKpatatv K/oovtwv* 
'AXX' oy K:ro juv tpa, TTOVOV & a/miyapTOV o^fXXfv. 
Avrap 7T(' p' #avro, KOI ouXo^vrac 7rpo|3aXovro, 421 
Av fpvorav JUEV 7r/oarra, Km <r0aav icat e 
Mrjpovc T' fl^lrajuov, Kara T 

Kat ra jUfv a|0 (f^i^ymv atyvXXoicri KarfKatov* 425 

ISTrXay^va S' ap' aju.7Ttpavrf ? V7rtp^ov 'H^aiorofo. 
Avrap 7ra Kara juf/p' Kai], Kai (TTrXaY^va 7ra<ravro, 
Mto-ruXXov T* ajoa ra'XXa, Kat a^u0' ojSfXotdtv 7rtpai/, 
"iQ7rr^(Tav r TTEjOt^paSlwc? ipvaavro r Travra. 
Avrap 7Tt iravaavTO TTOVOU, rfrwKOvro r SaTra, 430 

Aatvvvr', ovSl rt Ovfjibz IdtvtTO Satroc titffijc- 
Avrap 7Tt TTOdtoc icat ^i]rvoc i epov tvro, 
Tc apa fjivOwv ^p\ rcp^jvtoc tTTTrora 

' av^t \tyta[JLlQaj pri^t rt STJOOV 435 

a pyov, 0^17 ^EOC,' 
'AXX' aye, K^pVKEC j^v 'A^atwv 
Aaov KripvGGOVTtc; ayEtpovrwv Kara v)ac* 

8' aOpoot w Kara or/oarov upi)v 'A 

K 0a(T(7Ov iyeipo/mtv bvv "Aprja. 440 

AVTIKO. KrjpVKEUGl XiyvtyOoyjOlGl KXV(T, 

Ot jUv K/^pV(T(7OV, rot 8' rjyftpovro jttaX' WKCI. 
Ot 8' a^u^)' 'ArpEtwva Atorpe</)C jSaa-fXi^e 445 

Gwvov KpivovTtg' jUra $, yXauKWTTtc 'A^/jvrj, 
' Iptrtjuov, ayripaov, TE" 

however, is more usual in reference to the of this verb have been proposed by the 

agent, than the instrument. See Matt. Gr. critics. The Scholiast explains it by ta\- 

Gr. . 349. Obs. In II. 0. 182.217. /*- yw/0a, and Clarke renders it by iewpws 

Trprjaai is followed by Trvpi in the dative. colloquendo teramus ; nor is it unnatural to 

418. Xaotaro. There is here a change suppose that the chiefs may have prolonged 

in the construction, somewhat similar to that the banquet by conversation. If this sense, 

noticed above on v. 122. therefore, be the true one, as is probably 

420. a/iyaprov. Simply magnum : in the case, the received text is preferable to 
which sense also afyQovoQ is sometimes used, the emendation of Buttmann, who proposes 
Compare Od. A. 400. P. 219. Hesiod. to read fjujKeri vvv d-fj ravra Kef&ptQa, 
Theog. 666. comparing II. N. 292. Y. 244. Od. F. 240. 

421. This and the following lines are re- N. 296. Some explain ffvvaOpoi%wp.tQa, 
peated from II. A. 458. and others render cubemus ; but, in the last 

426. vTTtipexov 'Etyaioroio. Schol. UTTE- sense, the verb always occurs in the aorist. 
pavw tlxv TOV TTVjOOf. 447. aiyid' t^ouff" ipiripoy. It is a great 

435. \fywpt9a. Different interpretations doubt among the learned, whether the aegis 



ZKCLTOV Ovaavoi 

Cj licaro^ujSoiOC $ 

vro Aaov 'A^atwv, 
livaC Iv Se aOtvog <5p<Tv 
fy, aXXrjicrov iroXt/mt&iv rie na 

' 176 



rl yA 
uT Trwp a/'&TjXov E 




Twv S', 
X;va>v, 77 



xvas a breast-plate or a shield. That of 
Minerva, however, was certainly a shield, 
as is evident from the description given of 
it in II. E. 738. sqq. The Qiiaavoi were 
rows of fringe, or golden tassels, attached 
to the edge of the shield, for the purpose 
of striking terror into the enemy by their 
dazzling motion. 

449. Kard/t|3oio. Valued at a hundred 
oxen. See on v. 106. 

450. 7rai(J)dcr<rov<ra. Schol. IvQovffi&aa, 
bpfi&aa. Properly, to fix the eyes eagerly 
upon an object. 

4,51. iv dk aQkvoQ K. T. X. Virg. .En. IX. 
717' animum viresque Latinis Addidit, et 
stimulos acres sub pectore vertit. 

455. rjVTt Trvp K. T. X. Homer, on the 
sight of the march of this numerous army, 
gives us five similes in a breath, but all en- 
tirely different. The first regards the splen- 
dour of their armour, as a fire, &c. The 
second, the various movements of so many 
thousands before they can range themselves 
in battle-array, like the swans, &c. The 
third respects their number, as the leaves 
or flowers, &c. The fourth, the ardour with 
which they run to the combat, like the 
legions of insects, &c. And the fifth, the 
obedience and exact discipline of the troops, 
ranged without confusion under their lead- 
ers, as flocks under their shepherds. This 
fecundity and variety can never be enough 
admired. POPE; from Dacier. With the 
first of these similes we may compare Virg. 
Georg. II. 302. sqq. dior]\ov. Causing to 
disappear: i. e. destructive. Schol. adqXo- 


459. rwv <$'. Scil. 'Axai&v. The genitive 
is here placed without any government, and 
repeated in v. 464. after the subject of the 
simile. So again in v. 474. 

ovpavbv IK. 
' 6pvi'0a>v 7TTr}va)v 0Va TroXXa, 
77 KVKVOJV SouXi^ooftpwv, 
/i^i p&Opa, 


461. 'Afffoi. lonice for 'Atrt'ov. It ap- 
pears from Strabo (XIV. p. 961. C.), that 
there was a meadow on the banks of the 
Cayster, so called from Asius, a king of 
Lydia, from whom the Lydians suppose 
that Asia derived its name : Herod. IV. 45. 
It seems to be of little consequence, whether 
we read 'Aoiw in the genitive, or the adjec- 
tive 'A<riy in the dative, as it is in most 
editions. The latter is sanctioned by Virgil, 
who has beautifully imitated this simile in 
jEn. VII. 699. Ceu quondam nivei liquida 
inter nubila cycni, Cum sese e pastu referunt, 
et longa canoros Dant per colla modos ; sonat 
amnis et Asia longe Pulsa palus. So again 
in Georg. I. 338. Jam varias pelagi volucres, 
et qua Asia circum Dulcibus in stagnis ri- 
mantur prata Caystri. Some grammarians 
have thought that this adjective is derived 
from affiQ, dry mud ; and others would ren- 
der it Asiatic ; but the metre is decisive 
against either interpretation. There are 
two heroes of this name, Asius, mentioned 
in the Iliad ; B. 837- II. 715. The Cayster 
was a river, near Sardes, famous for the 
number of swans by which it was fre- 
quented. See Ovid, Met. II. 252. 

462. ayaXXojUfva irTtpvytovi. Latan- 
tes, plaudentes, alites. HEYNE. Virg. ^En. 
III. 226. magnis quatiunt clangor ibus alas. 
The vulgar reading, ayaXXofierai, may be 
equally correct, since it sometimes happens 
that an adjective agrees in gender with the 
latter of two substantives, and in case with 
the former ; as in Soph. Ant. 1001. So also 
Aj. 168. Trrr]vS>v dykXai Mlyav aiyuTriov 
vTTodtlffavTte. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 434. 
b. The reading of the text, however, is 
supported by the best authority. In the 
following line there is a change in the con- 
struction, which involves the passage in 

M 2 




tov Wvta TroXXa vtuv OTTO Kai 

irpo\iovTO SicajuavSptov' aurap UTTO \Btt)v 
v icovajSi^e TroSwv avrwv re KCU tTrvrwi/. 
"Eorav 8' Iv Xa/uwvi SicajuavSpitj) avOe/uLoevTi 
Mupiot, oa-a-a re <j>v\\a teal avOta jiyvErai a>prj. 

'Hvre juvtawv aSivawv t^vea TroXXa, 
Atre Kara arafyuov TroifjLvri'iov fiXaaKovmv 
iiapivrj, ore r 7X070? a 
7Tt TjOWa<7t icap?] KO/uo 
'Ev TTfStq.) taravro, $iappaiGai 

Toi>e 8', war' aiTroXm TrXare" atywu aiTroXot 


ilvat* jUra 

some obscurity. The connexion seems to 
stand thus : tr/japayei dk TS \i/uav, (avrwv) 
K\ayyrjSbv 7rpo/ca0i6vrwi', i. e. Ka0i^6v- 
rwv dXXwv Trpo aXXwv. 

464. VEWV O.TTO KOI K\i<jid(i)v. Scaliger 
is greatly mistaken when he accuses this 
simile of impropriety, on the supposition 
that a number of birds, flying without or- 
der, are here compared to an army ranged 
in array of battle. On the contrary, Homer 
in this expresses the stir and tumult the 
troops were in before they got into order, 
running together from the ships and tents. 
But when they are placed in their ranks, he 
compares them to the flocks under their 
shepherds. POPE. It is to be observed, with 
regard to the syntax, that in the Ionic 
writers generally, and also in the Attic 
poets, the prepositions are frequently placed 
after the cases which they govern. So 
Theog. 34. 'EaBX&v /*/ yap air' Iff9\a 
HaQijaeai. So also in Latin : Ovid, de Pont. 
III. 3. 46. Discipulo peril solus ab ipse meo. 
Sometimes also the preposition is separated 
from its case by the intervening words of 
the sentence ; as, in the next line, virb TTO- 
Stiv. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 595. 3. Zeune 
on Viger, p. 459. 

465. Trediov "SKapavdpiov. See on II. Z. 
431. The beautiful accordance of the words 
with the sense in the following sentence, 
has been frequently noticed. It has been 
imitated by Virgil ; ^n. VIII. 596. Quad- 
rupedante pedum sonitu quatit ungula cam- 
pum. A variety of instances of a similar 
nature are produced by Clarke on 11. T. 

468. uijoy. Scil. kv eiapivy, as in v. 471. 

469. rjvTf. p,vid<uv K. T. X. The tameness 
of this image, in comparison with those 
which precede it, would scarce be forgiven 


in a poet of these times. Another follows 
of the same kind, in the simile of Agamem- 
non to a bull, just after he had been com- 
pared to Jove, Mars, and Neptune. This, 
Eustathius tells us, was blamed by some 
critics ; but Milton, who was a close imi- 
tator of Homer, has often copied him in 
these humble comparisons. He has not 
scrupled to insert one in the midst of that 
pompous description of the rout of the rebel 
Angels, in the sixth book, where the Son 
of God, in all his dreadful majesty, is repre- 
sented pouring his vengeance upon them : 
as a herd Of goats, or timorous flocks together 
thronged, Drove them before him thunder- 
struck. POPE. Heyne observes, that the 
whole of the comparison consists in the con- 
cluding words diaftpaiffai ^/iauir, and is 
directed to the ardour and resolution of the 
men rushing to the combat. Schol. irpbg 
TO kTTiOvfirjTiKov Tov aifjiaTOQ. Compare II. 
H. 641. P. 570. And so, in the simile of 
the bull, v. 479. the similitude is confined 
to the strength and majestic appearance 
of the animal. Hor. Sat. I. 3. 110. Viribus 
editior c&debat, ut in grege taurus. It will 
be seen that the construction is changed in 
v. 472. since rotraoi should properly be re- 
ferred to otroi, or rivre to WQ. So again in 
v. 480. The verb Trlrovrai, or the like, 
must be understood after fjividwv tQvta. 

470. ri\d(TKovffi. Schol. TTtpl TOV avrbv 
TOTTOV eiXovvTai, KVK\H> 7T\av(dp.vai. Eu- 
stathius remarks upon the propriety of this 
epithet, as applied to files. See Lowth de 
Sacra Poesi Hebr. p. 231 . Of araOfjibg, see 
on II. E. 140. 

473. diappdicrai. Scil. O.VTOVQ. HEYNE. 

477. psTti tie. Supply TOVTOIQ. See Bos 
Ellips. Gr. p. 304. 



Kai KtQaXriv I'lccXoc Au 
fi f %wvr]v, artpvov O 
'Hvr j3of;e ayeXytyi juty' c^o^oc ETrXcro Traimov 

* o yap r j3o<rcrt ^ira7rp7Tt 
ToTov ap' 'ArpaSfjv 0fjK ZEVC r/juart 

'ElC7rp7r' V TToXXottTt KOI 

* E<T7Tr viJv juot, Moudaf, 'OXujUTna Sw/xar' 
('Yjitfte yap 0ai OT, TrapEorl T, torf rf TTavra, 
'Hfiac ete icXOc oiov aKOvo/uiev, oi/Sf rt tfyifi;*) 
ijyjuovc Aavawv Kai Koipavot rja-ai;. 

Ovc t 
Et JUT) ' 



JUEV yXwcrtrat, $fca Sf aro^tar' tv, 


Moi)(TO, Ato 
taO^ oaot UTTO "iXtov r) 

av vrjwv pa>, v^ac r 

479. *Ape'i de ^vi\v. The ?WJ/T;, more 
usually called /iiYpj? (II. A. 137-)> was ge- 
nerally of brass, lined with wool, and worn 
next the skin, beneath the coat of mail. It 
was so essential to the equipment of a war- 
rior, that it is frequently used as a general 
word for the whole armour, as in this place. 
Hence, also, ZuvvvffOai, to arm, in II. A. 
15. Pausan. Boeot. IX. 17. TO Se ivtivvai 
TO. o?r\a, tKakovv oi TraXaioi Z,MVVVG&CU. 
Kai drj "Op-rjpov "Apti TOV ' Ayafjisfivova 
Troiijffavra a'/ca&iv TTJV l,Mvr\v t TU>V oir- 
\<j)v ri]v GKtvriv tyaaiv tiKa^tiv. See Ro- 
binson's Antiq. of Greece, p. 360. It seems, 
however, from the analogy of the other 
parts of the comparison, that the armour 
is here used metaphorically, to denote the 
strength and prowess of the wearer. It 
is observed by Pope, that the character of 
majesty, which is here assigned to Aga- 
memnon, is preserved throughout the Iliad. 
It is thus that he appears in his ship in the 
catalogue ; in the eyes of Priam, in II. T. 
166; and so throughout. 

480. ftly' foxof. See on II. A. 69. The 
passage is imitated in Quint. Smyrn. I. 798. 

484. "EffTTfrc vvv JJLOI, Mow<rai, K. r. X. 
There is great tact and beauty in intro- 
ducing the catalogue with an invocation to the 
Muses, as alone able to supply the correct 
materials for compiling it. See note on II. 
A. 1. Virgil has opened his enumeration 
of the leaders with an exact imitation of it, 
in JEn. VII. 641. Pandite nunc Helicona, 
Dea, cantusque movete ; Qui bello exciti 
reges ; qua quemque secutce Complerint cam- 

pos acies ; quibus Itala jam turn Floruerit 
terra alma viris, quibus arserit armis. Et 
meministis enim, Dives, et memorare potestis : 
Ad nos vix tennis famce perlabitur aura. 
Compare Val. Flac. Argon. VI. 33. 

486. fcXeoe olov. Report alone. This sig- 
nification of JcXeof is found again in II. A. 
227. and elsewhere. So Soph. Phil. 251. 
OvS' ovop ap', ovde TU>V spwv KOKUV JcXgoe 
"HiffOov TTOT ovfikv. 

488. 7T\r]Bvv S' OVK av tyw K. r. X. Virg. 
Georg. II. 42. Non ego cuncta meis am- 
plecti versibus opto : Non, mihi si lingua 
centum sint, oraque centum, Ferrea vox, 8fc. 
Compare ^En. VI. 625. Of the Ionic sub- 
junctive aorist,, see on II. A. 62. 

494. Boiwrwi/. In the age of Homer, 
Greece was divided into a number of small 
states, governed by their respective princes, 
and totally independent of each other. In 
the catalogue of ships, which had acquired 
the title of Boiwria from its first word, the 
relative position and extent of these prin- 
cipalities is marked out with an historical 
exactness which, in addition to its being the 
most ancient specimen of early topography, 
has rendered it, in all ages, the most valu- 
able, and, indeed, the only authentic source 
of information, respecting the geography of 
Greece, before the Trojan war. For the Poet 
does not pass, in his enumeration, from one 
state to another, without order or design, 
but every kingdom is mentioned with the 
strictest adherence to its relative position on 
the map. Beginning at Aulis, the most 
noted promontory of Greece, where the fleet 



'ApK<riAaoc ?"> ri|OO0o/jvwp rt 
Oi 0' 'YjOtTjv ivljuovro, <cai Ai/AiSa 

T, SlCwAov Tf, TToXvKVrjfJLOV T 


was stationed at the outset of the expedi- 
tion, we are conducted in a direct route to 
the Peloponnesus (v. 559.). and thence, from 
place to place, to Thessaly, in the order in 
which a traveller would naturally visit them. 
Strabo I. p. 47. T$ KaraXoy^ TCLQ plv 
7r<5\ OVK tyeZrJQ \kytf ov yap avayKalov 
rd dk tOvrj tytZrje. In this respect, the 
Catalogue of Homer is considered by Macro- 
bius (Saturn. V. 15.), as infinitely superior 
to that of Virgil, in J,n. VII. who passes 
from one place to another, without any re- 
gard to its relative situation. In fact, the 
former seems to have been intended by the 
Poet to furnish an exact geographical ac- 
count of his country ; and this will at once 
remove the objection which has sometimes 
been urged against it, with respect to its 
length. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that the cities in the early ages were 
not regularly inhabited, but consisted of de- 
tached cottages, scattered across the plains, 
or upon the hills, and peopled by one or 
more families, whom relationship, and some- 
times chance, had thrown together. Hence 
Homer repeatedly uses apty' ivtfiovTo, in 
reference to their population. So great was 
the reputed authority of this piece of his- 
tory, that the number of works, which are 
said to have been written upon it, is almost 
incredible. Demetrius of Scepsis, who lived 
within sight of Troy, is said to have devoted 
sixty-three books to that part relating to 
the Troade; and besides the valuable re- 
marks of Strabo, Menogenes and Apollo- 
dorus composed several volumes upon the 
subject, which are now lost. Indeed, so 
high was the respect which was paid to it, 
that a law was enacted in some of the states, 
to compel their youth to learn it by heart ; 
and Solon is said to have appealed to it, at 
the time when Salamis was contested by 
Athens and Megara, and succeeded in es- 
tablishing the claims of the former. See on 
v. 527- infra. Several instances also are 
collected by Eustathius, in which disputes 
respecting the boundaries of several states 
were settled upon the authority of the ca- 
talogue ; the accuracy of which has been 
attested even by modern travellers. See 
Wood's Essay, p. 40. With respect to the 
number of the Grecian army, Plutarch, 
reckoning the ships at 1,200, places it at 
120,000 men ; and Thucydides, with much 
greater accuracy, at about 102,000. For 
the Boeotian vessels, carrying 120 men each, 
and those of Philoctetes and Achilles (II. 

V. 207.) 50 ; if we consider these as the 
largest and smallest respectively, the mean 
will be 85 for each vessel. Upon this cal- 
culation, Thucydides obtains his aggregate 
(I. 10.) ; whereas Plutarch must have al- 
lowed 100 men to each ship. Still, neither 
estimate can be exactly correct, since the 
vessels in Homer's fleet amount only to 
1,186. And it is curious to remark, that 
the number has been variously given by 
different authors. The Poets, in general, 
fix it at 1,000, most probably as a round 
number. Eurip. Androm. 106. %i\i6Vavf 
'E\Xddog &Ki)Q*Apr)G. And so Orest. 352. 
Iph. A. 174. Iph. T. 140. Rhes. 260. Elect. 
2. ^Esch. Again. 44. In this agree the 
Latin poets in a body. Virg. JEn. II. 197- 
Quos neque Tydides, nee Larissatus Achilles, 
Non anni domuere decent, non mille carince. 
Ovid, Met. XII. 6. conjuratceque sequuntur 
Mille rates. See also Propert. II. 26. 38. 
Senec. Agam. 40. 

As to the poetic merits of the Catalogue, 
it should seem almost impossible that there 
could be any beauty in the enumeration of 
a list of proper names of people, princes, and 
countries. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, how- 
ever, in his Treatise de Structura Ferborum, 
is full of praise of the harmony of the versi- 
fication ; and the several mythological his- 
tories, and other digressions, which are in- 
terwoven with the narrative, are well calcu- 
lated to relieve the tediousness of the main 
subject. The various repetitions of the same 
form of expression, with which the different 
divisions are introduced and closed, may 
fairly be attributed to the early state of the 
language, and the simplicity of the age. 
Precisely the same usage is observable in 
the numbering of the children of Israel in 
the plains of Moab, Numb. xxvi. and in the 
sealing of the twelve tribes, in Rev. vii. At 
all events, the Catalogue has been imitated 
by the Poets of all ages and countries. Eu- 
ripides has an enumeration grounded upon 
it in the first choral ode of the Iphigenia in 
Aulis : and besides the Catalogue of Virgil 
above alluded to, Statins has almost trans- 
lated part of it in Thebaid IV, Among the 
moderns, it is sufficient to notice Tasso's 
catalogue of Heroes, and Milton's, of the 
fallen Angels. See Pope's Observations. 

497. Tro\vKvr)nov. Mountainous. Infra 
v. 821. "ldr}Q iv Kvr)jJ.oi(Ti. Schol. KVTJ- 
fiol dk [JitTaQopiK&G, dirb T&V aV0po>7ri- 
V(*)v KVYj^Siv. So Stat. Theb. VII. 266. 
densamqtie jugis Eteonon iniquis. 



6e<T7retav, F/oaiav re teal evov^o^ov MvKa\r,(Ta6v' 
Ot r a/LL^^'ApfjC eve'jLtovro, Ktu EtXecrtov, KCU ' 
Oi r' 'EXewv' etxov, ^^' "YXrjv, ical Iltretova, 

MeSewva r', Iv KTIJUL^VOV TrroXteflpov, 
, EurpTjffiv re, TroXvrprjpwva re 0i(rj3r/v' 
Ot re Ko/oa>vetav, Kai 7roi)?ev0' ' AXtaprov, 
Ot re nXaratav e'xov, 17$' ot FXttravr' eyejuovro, 
Ot 0' f Y7T00/]|3ae etxov, ^ icrfyievov TrroXteO/oov, 
"O'yx T ? <J " r y ^ *pov, Hoat&rjiov ayXaov aXtroe* 
Ot re TioXutrra^uXov "Apvrjv e'xov, ot re Mt'Setav, 
Nia-av re 5a^>?v, 'AvOrjSova r' etrxarowcrav. 
Twy juev Trevrrjicovra Wee KIOV* ev Se emary 
Kovpoi Botwrwv Karov KOI ei/cocrt jSatvov. 

Oi 8' 'AtTTrXrjSova vatov, tS' 'Opx ^ 6 ^^^ Mtvvetov, 
Twv ^px' 'Ao-KaXa^og Kat 'laXjuevoc, 




uTrepwtov et(ravaj3a(Ta, 
jt jcparepo}' o Se ot TrapeXeSaro Xa^prj. 
ToTc Se rpirjKOvra yXa^upat veec e<rrtxoavro. 
Avrap 3>iOKT)(jjv Sx^^toc ^a 

iu.tyaOvfj.ov NaujSoXtSao* 


498. eypvxopov. The Scholiast inter- 
prets this epithet TrXartlav, fieyaXtjv, and 
Ernesti, after Hemsterhuis on Lucian, T. I. 
p. 56. supposes that Homer has shortened 
X'dipov into xopov. But wherever the word 
occurs in Homer, it is written invariably 
vpwX0pe- Compare II. I. 474. . 299. 
Od. A. 635. A. 264. The other form oc- 
curs in Find. Nem. X. 97- but there also 
the metre requires tvpvxopov STraprT/g. 
See Maltby in voce. Nor can we see any 
reasonable objection to the interpretation of 
Damm: tvOa kariv ivpi) %optvttv. Epi- 
theton x^P a C iWafywvof, et plena ceetuum 
hilarium. And so Heyne. 

499. "Apfia. This place was so called 
from the circumstance, that the earth opened 
in its neighbourhood, and closed upon Am- 
phiaraus and his chariot (apfia). Hence 
it was sometimes called XsKTpa 'A/u0tapaov. 
Strabo IX. p. 279. 

502. TroXurp^pwva. Stat. Theb. VII. 
261. Dioneis avibus circumsona Thisbe. 

505. 'Y7ro0r//3ag. A town not far from 
Thebes, as indicated by the derivation, 
Compare Od. T. 81. Thebes itself had been 
recently overthrown by the Epigoni ; and 
thence, as Eustathius observes, the Thebans 
are not mentioned in the Catalogue. See 
on II. A. 406. 

506. aX(70f . In this place, simply an en- 
closure. See the note on Soph. Ant. 845. 

Pent. Gr. p. 267. According to Strabo, 
Onchestus was situated upon a hill, and the 
Temple of Neptune was wholly unshaded, 
and without a sacred grove. Pausanias in 
Bceoticis, mentions this temple, and a statue 
of the god, as still in existence in his time. 
See also Horn. H. Apol. 250. and H. Merc. 
88. 186. 

508. 'AvOrjdova r' ka^aTo^aav. Stat. 
Theb. VII. 834. quaque ultima tractu, An- 
thedon. Anthedon was situated at the ex- 
tremity of Bceotia, towards Euboea. 

511. 'Opxo/ttvov Mivvtiov. So called 
in contradistinction from the town of the 
same name in Arcadia, \. 605. Homer has 
separated this place and Aspledon from the 
rest of Bceotia, because the Minyae were 
headed by their own princes. See Strabo 
IX. 616. Herod. IV. 145. and Valckenaer 
in loc. : and on II. I. 381. 

515. 7raptXsctTO. Clarke would wish 
to form this verb from the unused form XI- 
%ofiai, accumbo: and some have gone so 
far as to assert that Xgyo> never signifies to 
speak, to say, in Homer ; but this is mani- 
festly contradicted by v. 222. supra. Still, 
however, it not unfrequently means to lie 
down ; as, for instance, in II. A. 131. I. 
662. 2J. 350. and elsewhere. In the pre- 
sent passage either interpretation will meet 
the sense. 

88 'OMHPOY '1AIAAO2, B'. 

Ot Ku7rapf(r<TOv f'xov, uwva T 

KjOi(rav TE a0Tjv, Kai AauXtSa, Kai IlavoTrija' 520 

Ot r' 'Avjucu/3tav, feat 'YajUTroXtv otju^cvfjuovro* 

Ot r' apa Trap Trorajuov KTj^taov Stov f'vatov* 

Ot rf AtXatav X OV > T^y^C Tt Kij^ttroTo. 

Tote eT ctjua TeaaapaKOvra /uLtXaivai vrieg IETTOVTO. 

O? JUEV ^WKIJWV artxac toracrav a|U07rovr, 525 

Botwrwv 8' EjitTrXrjv ETT' aptarrfpa 

Aoicpwv ' i7yfjuov 

Meiwv, ourt rotroc -y, otroc TfXajuwvtoc 
'AXXa TroXv jUta>v* oXiyoc jUV ETJV, 
'Eyx t/ V ^' ^fKaoro navcXXr^vac cai 'A^atou?' 530 

Ot Kvvov r' ivfjuovr', 'OTToevra re, KaXXtapov re, 
Bfj<7<rav Tf, Sicap^r^v rf, KCU Avytias tparttvac, 
TapQriv re, Opovtov re, Boay/otov aft^t /o0pa. 
Ttj) o' ajita r(T(TapaKOi'ra jUfXatvat VTJ 7rovro 
Aoicpwv, ot vaiovGi Trlprjv teprjc EvjSoirjc. 535 

Ot 8' EujSotav XOV jUVa 7TVIOV7C "Aj3aVTC, 

r', Etplrptav r, TroXuara^uXov 0' 'lortatav, 
ov r' 0aXov, Atov r' aiTru TrroXtfOpov* 
Ot r Kapuo-rov f'xov, ^8' ot Srupa vaiEraatricov* 
Twv 8' av0' i7yjuovv' 'EX^)?ivwp, o^oc "Aprjoc, 540 

o^ 'AjSavrwv. 

519. IIv0wva. The region in which aVa/caXa. It appears, from v. 562, that in 

Delphi, which is not mentioned either by Homer's time Achaea included Argos, and 

Homer or Hesiod, was afterwards situated, all the north-eastern coast of the Pelopon- 

There was, however, a temple of Apollo in nesus. 

the neighbourhood, of which see on II. 536. /uj/ta TrvdovrtQ. Furorem, i. e. 

I. 404. bellum spirantes : " eager for war." The 

523. irriyyc tiri KtiQiaoio. Stat. Theb. expression is repeatedly adopted in the 

VII. 348. propellentemque Lilceam Cephisi Tragic writers : Soph. Elect. 610. ^sch. 

glaciate caput. Eum. 838. So also KOTOV Trvttiv, .<Esch. 

528. (j.ei(i)v, ovn Toffog ye, K. T. X. Choeph. 31. Ovpbv irvktiv, Eurip. Bacch. 

These lines are in a parenthesis ; and it has 620. Khes. 786. "Aprjv irvetiv, ^Esch. 

been supposed that they are an interpola- Agam. 366. and again \. 1206. where Dr. 

tion ; perhaps, however, without any suffi- Blomfield extracts the following observation 

cient reason, though they somewhat impede of an ancient grammarian from Villoison : 

the connexion. Anecd. Gr. II. p. 84. dvTi TOV tlirtiv 

530. Havk\\r]vaQ Kai 'A^cuove. Pro- /Aa'x^f iiriOvfiti, \id\i\v irvku Xeyovffi. 

perly, the 'A%aioi were the inhabitants of Again: avriTou tiirtlv ay piog Kai avrjuepog, 

that narrow tract of country which extended "Aprjv TTVMI Xsyouort. 

westward along the bay of Corinth; and 540. O%OQ" Apijoc;. Properly, a branch; 

the"EXXj/vfeof Thessaly. Sometimes, how- hence, metaphorically, an offspring of Mars. 

ever, Homer uses the former as a general Euripides has borrowed the term in Iph. A. 

appellation ; seldom, if ever, the latter. 201. and similarly in Hec. 122. ro> Qtjaeida 

Thucyd. I. 1. "Ofj,i]po ov^afiov TOVQ Zv/j,- d', 6^o> 'AOqv&v. The expression is of 

TravTUG wvopaatv "E\\r)va, ovd' aXXowg Eastern origin, and several of a like nature 

r} rove ft7"' 'A^iXXcwf IK rrje $0iari^oe, are found in the Sacred Writings. ^ Thus 

cat irpwToi"E\\rivtGfiaav. Aavaovg in Isai. xi. 1. LXX. el-eXtwo-erai pd(3do 

i, Kai 'Apydovc, Kai 'AX^IOVQ SK ri)f pi^rjg 'Itffaai. Compare Isai. iv. 2. 



CLJUL "AjSavrcc eirovro Oool, 

wreg opeKrrjai 
av Srjiwv a^l 
' a'jua rta-trapaicovra peXaivai vr}tg ZTTOVTO. 

Afj/zov 'EpE^flfjoe jUfyaX/jro/ooe, ov TTOT' 'A&jvrj 
0>Ei//, Atoc Owyarvp, r^e t ZdSwpOQ "Apowpa, 
KaS 8' iv 'Aflrjvrfff' flo-v ^> iin TTtovt vrjy, 
jutv ravpoiai KCU apvaole tXa 


au0' riyefjiovev^ vlbg HZTEMO, 



xxv. 5. Jerem. xxiii. 5. Dan. xi. 7. Hos. xi. 
6. Job viii. 17. The metaphor is not always 
preserved in the Septuagint version. 

542. o-TTiQev KOfiowvTfe. A tergo co- 
mantes. It was the custom of these people 
to shave the fore part of their heads, which 
they did that their enemies might not take 
the advantage of seizing them by the hair ; 
the hinder part they let grow, as a valiant 
race that would never turn their backs. 
Plutarch tells us this in the life of Theseus, 
and cites, to strengthen the authority of 
Homer, some verses of Archilochus to the 
same effect. POPE. The same custom seems 
to have been prevalent in many early na- 
tions. Of the Arabians, we have the fol- 
lowing account in Herod. III. 8. KtipovTai 
7T6(Oirp6xX> TrepiZvpouvTtg TOVQ jcpora- 
0ow. The same is confirmed by the 
testimony of Holy Writ : Jerem. ix. 25. 
Compare ch. xxv. 23, 24. xlix. 32. From 
the same custom, the Solymaei, a colony 
of Phoenicia, were called rpoxoKovpadeg, 
Roundheads ; Joseph, in Apion. 1. It should 
seem, however, that this was not only a 
warlike, but a religious practice. Herodotus 
informs us, that the Arabians did it in 
imitation of Bacchus; and from the inter- 
diction of its use among the Israelites, in 
Levit. xix. 2?., it was most probably a rite, 
by which the Heathens dedicated themselves 
to some of their gods. See Lowth on Jerem. 
ix. 25. 

543. opeKryfft ptXiyffi. The principal 
offensive weapon of the early Greeks was 
the spear, the body of which was generally 
of ash, and the head, ai'xp), of brass. This 
was used sometimes in close fight, though 
it was generally thrown from a distance; 
the Abantes being the only warriors, men- 
tioned by Homer, as fighting hand to hand 
with the optKTrf [tf\irj, or extended spear, 
in a manner similar to our pike-men. Strabo, 
Lib. X. The usual method was to throw 
the javelin, and retreat immediately into 

the ranks ; and the great force with which 
the heroes are reported to have hurled these 
weapons, which were exceedingly weighty, 
seems almost incredible. Mr. Mitford, how- 
ever, has produced an instance of a Persian 
soldier, whose exquisite skill and strength 
in throwing a stick substantiates the truth 
of Homer's descriptions. Hist, of Greece, 
vol. I. p. 162. Note. The substantive fit\iri 
is properly an ash-tree ; II. N. 178. and 
thence easily transferred to the spear : SIOTI 
aV6 v\ov p.e\iac, taKtva&TO. Schol. 

547. dfj/iov. Urbem; and in the same 
sense civitas is frequently used in Latin. 
Aul. Gell. XVIII. 7. Civitas dicitur et pro 
loco, et pro oppido, et pro jure quoque om- 
nium, et pro hominum multitudine. Erec- 
theus is the same prince, whom Pausanias 
and some other writers call Ericthonius. 
See Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. I. p. 56. 

548. ZfiSupOQ. Fruitful : from 'a, 
corn, rye. Plin. N. H. XVIII. 19. Zea, 
propter quam Homerus getfupofi "Apovpa 
dixit : non, ut aliqui arUtrantur, quoniam 
vitam donaret. 

549. tvl iriovi vr}(^. So Virg. ./En. IV. 
62. pingues spatiatur ad aras. VII. 764. 
pinguis uU et placabilis ara Diana. Schol. 
iriovf dvTt TOV TrXovaiy xal evdaipovt. 
In allusion to the sacrifices offered there. 
See II. A. 40. Erectheus was deified in the 
Temple of Minerva as a hero of the country, 
and one of the avroj(QovtQ, and a period- 
ical festival was instituted in honour of his 
immortality. The following lines, however, 
are supposed, by Eustathius and others, to 
refer to the feast of the Panatlieneea, which 
were celebrated every five years. They 
were supposed to have been instituted by 
Orpheus, and renewed by Theseus, and 
were, therefore, in existence before the 
Trojan war. 

551. TrtpirsXXojuivwv eviavrutv. Vol- 
vcntibus annis : Virgil. See Lexicon to 
Pent. Gr. in v. 7Ttptr\Xojai. 


Nlorwp oioc p*2v> o 7p TTpoyEvlcrrf/ooe ifcv. 555 

T<> o a'jua 7TvrT]KOvra fi\aivai vfj tVovro. 

Ai'ac 8' K SaXajuivoc ay SuoKafSeica vrj 
2rfj<T 8' aywv, iV 'Aflrjvai'wv idravro <a 

Oi <T "Ajoyoc T' tx ov > TtpvvOd re 
'Epjutovrjv, 'Acrii/ijv re, flaOuv Kara KoXyrov ixou<rac, 560 
T/ooi?jv', 'Htovac T, Kai aj 
Oi r' f'xov A'iyivavj Madura rf, Kovpoi ' 
Twv 3' 
Kai 20 

Tottri S' a/i' EvjOvaXoe rptraroc Kti/, ICTO^EOC ^>wCj 565 

Mr/ia0T(oc vto^ 1 TaXatov/Sao CLVCLKTOQ. 
SvjUTravrwv 8' r/yaro jSo^v ayaObg AtOjiirjc)jc' 
8' a/i' oy^wicoyra jucXaivat v^C 7rovro. 

Ot ^ Mvic/jvac iX ov ^ Krijuvov 7rroXt^pov, 

ov re KopivOov, i) ^TL^iivag re KXa>vac> 570 

' V/xovro, 'ApaiOuplrjv r' partv^v, 
Kai 2tKuwv', 60' ap' ''A^prjtrroc Trpwr' ju)3a<nXVv' 
Oi v' YTreprjcrtr^v r, KOI aiTmvrjv 
neXXT/VTjv r' t%ov, 198' A'/ytov aj 
AtymXov r' ava Travra, Kai aju^)' 'EXncrjv evptlav' 575 

5 y ?roXu TrXaaroi Kai apiarot 
Aaoi tVovr'* fv (T awroc ^ucraro vaJpoTra x a XKO 

554. Kotr/irjo-ai. Schol. ^lara^ai, Ka0- Ajacem naves suas Atheniensibus junxisse. 
OTrXtaai. By 'i-jnrovg we must understand See also the last chapter of Aristotle's Rhe- 
the chariots, which make a principal figure toric, lib. I. ; Laertius and Plutarch, in Vita 
in Homer's battles. Compare II. E. 227. et Solonis; and Strabo, lib. IX. A different 
passim. Riding on horseback had not yet account of the recovery of Salamis is given by 
been generally applied to military purposes, Demosthenes : De Falsd Legatione, . 72. 
though it does not appear to have been un- 570. Kopiv9ov. With the exception of 
known. See on II. K. 513. O. 679. and this place, and II. N. 664, Corinth is always 
Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. I. p. 159. mentioned in Homer under its more ancient 

555. Nsorwp oio K. T. \. Nestor's skill name Ephyra: as in II. Z. 152. 

in charioteering may be inferred from II. ^. 572. "Ad. TrpdtT k^aaiXtvtv. Accord- 

306. sqq. ing to Pausanias, Adrastus was the seven- 

557. Alas d' efc 2a\afuvoQ K. T. X. Upon teenth king of Sicyon. Hence Scaliger un- 

the authority of these two lines Salamis is derstands Trpoira in the sense of Trportpov, 

said to have been assigned to Athens, in so that Adrastus will be said to have reigned 

the contest alluded to in the opening note in Sicyon before he reigned at Argos ; which 

on the Catalogue. It has been strongly Servius asserts to have been the case, on Virg. 

suspected, however, that Solon substituted jn.VI.480. Otherinterpretationshavebeen 

them in the place of two others which he given, but they are all equally uncertain. 

had erased, and which favoured the cause 578. vwpoTra %a\K.6v. Macrobius (Sa- 

o"f the Megaraeans. Quintil. Inst. Orat. V. turn. VII. 16.) has the following translation 

11. Neque est ignoUle exemplum, Megareos of an observation of Plutarch in Sympos. V. 

ab Atheniensibus, cum de Salamine conten- sub fine : Quiinmetalloterismorantur, sem- 

derent, victos Homeri versu ; qui tamen ipse per oculorum sanitate pollent : et quibus 

non in omni editione reperitur, significans ante palpebra nudatee fuerant, illic conves- 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, B'. 91 


OvvtK aptoroc i]v, TroXu $ irXdcrrovc aye \aovg. 580 

4>aptv r, STraprTjy re, TroXurprjjOwva rt 
Bpuo-aae T' tvtfjLOvTO, /cat Aiytae f 
Ot r' a'/o' 'AjiiwicXae iX ov > "EXC i"' S^aAov 7rroXt0pov' 
Ot T Aaav tt\ov, r$ OtruXov aju0vjuovro* 585 

ot a^fX^foc ^PX ]3o?7V ayaOoQ MfvlXaoe, 
ra VEWV, a7rarp0 


TifraaOai 'EXfvijc 6/OjU/]juara r (rrova^ac re. 590 

Ot ^ n<;Xov r' V/xovro, icai 'AjO^vr^v c/Qarfivr^v, 
Kat Qpvov, 'AX^>toTo Tropov, KO.I EVKTITOV Alirv, 
Kat Ku7rapt(T(r?)vra > icat 'AjU^fy^ftav tvatov, 
Kat IlrXov, Kat "EXo^j KOI AoOptov* evOa TE Movaxu 
'Avro/zevat Gajuuptv rov Gp77tKa Trauo-ay aot^^j 595 

tovra Trap' EvpvTOV Ot^aXt^o^. 

fi^ojufvoc vtcrj(TjUv, t7Tp av aurat 
Moucrat aftootEv, icovpat Atoc ai'ytoxoto* 
At SE xXw<rajUvat TTT/JOOV Olcrav, avrap aotS^v 

tiuntur. Aura enim qua; ex cere procedit, See Strabo, VIII. p. 563. Homer seems to 

m OCM^OS incidens, haurit et exsiccat quod have distinguished Sparta as the principal 

za/e influit. Unde et Homerus modo tvr)- city of the district. 

vopa, 7oc?o vwpoTra x a ^ov, Aas causas 586. The epithet |3o>)j/ aya06f, which 

secutus appellat. This, as Clarke observes, is applied in this and other places to Mene- 

is perfectly ridiculous. The adjective vwpoip laus, and which literally signifies loud-voiced, 

is simply, dazzling, from vrj and bpdo), or o^/. is made by the commentators to mean va- 

Eustath. Xa/ZTrpof KCU ffrtpiffKwv rov bpqiv. liant, and translated bello strenuus. The 

581. KrjTwtaaav. Eustath. ri\v p,tyd- reason given by Eustathius is, that a loud 

\t]v, ?rapa TO KTJTOG, TO fiflZov rStv ivv- voice is a mark of strength ; the usual 

ypcov. This interpretation, though strongly effect of fear being to cut short the respira- 

con tested, is adopted by Heyne, Hemster- tion. I own this seems to be forced, and 

huis (ad Lucian. T. I. p. 139.), and others ; rather believe it to be one of those kind 

and it accords with the sense of /ityaic^nje of surnames, given from some distinguishing 

in II. 6. 222. and elsewhere. Others would quality of the person ; in the same manner 

render it abounding in whales; which is not as some of our kings were called Edward 

true of Lacedaemon, though it appears from Long-shanks, William Rufus, &c. POPE. 

.Elian (Hist. An. XVII. 6.) that whales See on II. A. 58. The fact is, that the 

are sometimes found near the coast. Others, ancients invariably joining battle with a shout, 

again, adopt the reading KaitTataoav, full the nouns /3o?), avrrj, and the like, were 

of caverns ; from Kaitrbg, a cave. This used by degrees to denote the battle itself, 

epithet occurs in Callim. frag. 224., but both and became synonymous with /ia^. Athen. 

here and in Od. A. 1. the authorities pre- IV. 26. KaXovvrwv T&V -jraXaiwv rov TTO- 

ponderate in favour of the common reading. \f/iov, (3or}V. 

Moreover, the grammarians seem rather to 590. See on \. 356. supra. 

derive KaiiTatig from Kaierd, a species of 595. Qdfivoiv TOV Qprfiica. See Prelim. 

herb. The epithet KoiXqv refers to the Obs. Sect. I. sub initio. 

situation of Lacedaemon in the valley be- 597. ffTtvro. See on II. F. 83. 

tween the Taygetus and mount Parthenius. 599. avTap. And then. See on II. A. 

So KO~I\OV "Apyog in Soph. CEd. C. 371. 282. 



a^tXovro, icai lK\t\aOov KiQapiarvv. 
Twv au0' ifyfjuovfvfc Ffprfvioc tTTTrora NiVrw/o' 
Tw 8' Vvrjicovra yXa^upai 
O l t 8' X OV 'Apica8ir)v, VTTO 
AtTrurtov Trapa rujujSov, tV avp 


'PtTrrjv TE, SrpariTjv r, icai t'ivjuo<T<rav ' 
Kai Tf-ylrjv ax ov > Ka * Mavrtvlrjv /oartvrjv, 
^TVjUL^riXov r' a^ov, icai ITa/o/oa(7ti7V IVE/ULOVTO' 
Twv rijO^' 'Ayiccuoto Trat'c? 





Nijac cv 

ava? avSpwv ' 
7Tpaav ITTI oivoTra TTOVTOV, 


Ot 8' apa BouTTpatnov T, KQI "HXtSa 8tav evatov, 615 
"Oo-crov 0' 'YpjLtfvi] KCU Muptrivoc 
Illrprj r' 'ilXi/tj, KOI ' 
Twv av rcrcra|0C ap^oi (iav, c)K'a ' a 

oat, TroXffc 8' ju/3atvov 'Erraoi. 
ap' 'Aju^)tjuaxo? KCU 
, 6 jUi> Krarov, 6 S' ap' Eupvrov ' 
Twv 8' 'AjuajOvy 
Twv $ rrapra;v 
Ytoc 'Ayaa0VOc AvyrjmSao a 

O l i 8' /c AouXtxtoto, 'Ex^vawv 0' tfpawv 
, at vaiovai TTfprjv aXoc, "HXt8o^ avra* 


600. K\\a0ov KiOapiaTvv. The con- 
struction of Xavfldvaj/ is usually with the 
genitive, though it is sometimes found with 
the accusative. Lysias, p. 231. p) yap 
oi(T0, o> avp ducaorat, et i/ii /3ov- 
\(T0 rd TQvrtp 7r7roir}fjieva 7ri\a0(rOat, 
Kai Tovg 9toi>Q iTriXrjvtaOai. So also p,fi- 
vijfiat, which takes the genitive upon the 
same principle, is found with the accusa- 
tive in II. Z. 222. See Matt Gr. Gr. . 325. 
Musgrave on Eur. Alcest. 196. 

604. AITTVTIOV. Concerning JEpytus, see 
Pausan. VIII. 16. 

612. avrbe yap otyw K. r. X. The Ar- 
cadians, being an inland people, were un- 
skilled in navigation, for which reason Aga- 
memnon furnished them with shipping, 
From hence, and from the last line of the 
description of the sceptre, where he is said 
to preside over many islands, Thucydides 
takes occasion to observe, that the power 

of Agamemnon was superior to the rest of 
the princes of Greece, on account of his 
naval forces, which had rendered him mas- 
ter of the sea. Thucyd. lib. I. POPE. 

614. /i/tt^\i. Properly /t\i is fol- 
lowed by a genitive of the thing, as in II. 
4>. 360. Sometimes, however, it is pre- 
ceded by the nominative ; or, in the infini- 
tive, by the accusative. Compare II. E. 
490. Od. A. 159. and see Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
326. Obs. 2. 

621. 'AKropiwvof. Both Cteatus and 
Eurytus were sons of Actor. See II. N. 
185. . 638. 

626. vaiovai. Sitce sunt ; for vaiovrai. 
So v. 648. vaitTawaaQ. The same usage is 
common in Homer. Eustathius compares 
Soph. Aj. 604. T Q K\tiva SaXajuif, <rv \ikv 
irov Naie dXiTrXayKrog. Thus also Apoll. 
Rhod. I. 831. III. 1091. Herod. II. 166. 
where Wesseling compares Isocrates, in 



Twv avB^ rj7juovu Mtyrjz , araXavroe "AprjY, 
<uX/Srfe, ov rtKTf Aa 0t'Xo iTnrora 
f/ Oc Trore AouXi^tovS' aTrfvatTtraro, Trarpi 
T<> 8* ajua T<ra-a|OttKOvra 

Avrap ' 
Oi /o' 'I^a 
Km KpofcvXa' VJUOVTO, KCU AtyiXtTra 

Ol T ZaKUV^OV XOV, 778' OL S 

Oi T' "HTTftpov fi'xov, 178' avrnrtpai* Ivi^ovro. 





i^a r' ayx* a ^ oi; > KaXvSwva re 7rrp7)(T(Tai/ 
Ov yap r' Oivfjoc jUEY 
Oi>8' ap' r' auroc ?v, 0a 
Ta> 8' ?ri TTO.VT trIraXro a 
Tto o ajua T<T(Tapaicovra jji\aivai V^EC 7rovro. 



Ot Kvwfrcroy r' d^ov, Fopruva r 
Avicrov, Mt'X^rov T, Kai apytvovra Av 

', Ot 

Twv jUv ap' 'IoojUVi/c 

MrjptovTjc r' araXavroc 'EvuaXt(j> av^pEt^ovr^" 

Toi<n 8' aju' oySwKOvra julXatvai vrjfe ?rovro. 

' 'HpaicXfiSrjCj ^e T fjLtyag T, 


Laud. Busir. p. 214. E. r)v TroXtv CTTTO- 
pddriv teal Kara jcw/uag OIKOVGO.V IQ TO.VTQV 
avvayayaiv. Phocylides in Dion. Chrysost. 
Borysthenit. p. 441. A. 7r6Xt kv aicoTrkXq), 
Kara Koapov oiKtvoa (r/zt/cp^. 

629. Trarpt x^ w ^ t 'ff' On account of 
the anger of his father Augeas ; to whose 
treachery, in refusing to give the promised 
reward to Hercules, he bore witness. The 
account will be seen at length in Apollod. 
Biblioth. II. 5. 5. 

632. N^ptrov. A mountain of Ithaca, 
See Od. I. 21. 

635. avTiTrepaia. The continent opposite 
to the islands above enumerated. 

637. (JuXTOTrdoyoi. Having red cheeks; 
i. e. prows. From /iiXrog, vermilion. Eu- 
stath. /iiXro xpw/ia eoriv ipvOoov. Herod, 
III. 58. ro #6 iraXaibv liiraaai a\ vriQ 
i)ffav m\Trj\i<j>tG. Hence Virg. jEn. VIII. 
93. pictas innare carinas. 

641. ov yap IT }crav. Were no more ; 

i. e. were dead. So again II. X. 384. "EK- 
TOQOQ OVK I r' kovroQ. This use of the verb 
1^1 for aw, to live, is very common ; more 
especially in the Tragic writers. Compare 
Eurip. Hipp. 357. 866. 1157- Supp. 1146. 
et passim. So also in N. T. Matt. ii. 18. 
'Pa%)X K\aiovaa TO. riicva avrfjs, xal OVK 
ijdfXt 7rapaK\r]9f)vai, on OVK curt. The 
idiom is precisely our own. This short 
glance at the death of Meleager, and the 
unhappy catastrophe of the family of CEneus, 
is exceedingly beautiful, and marked with 
that pathetic simplicity for which Homer is 
singularly remarkable. For the stories of 
Tydeus and Meleager, the sons of (Eneus, 
see II. A. 371. sqq. I. 525. sqq. 

649. Karo/i7roXiv. In Od. T. 174. Crete 
is mentioned as containing only ninety cities ; 
but this refers to the state of the island after 
the sedition raised by Leucus against Ido- 
meneus, in which ten cities were utterly 



'EK f Pooou tvvia. vrjag ay 'Pootwv a 
Ot 'PoSov ajUKfrtvifJLOVTo ia Tpt^a icoa-jiir)0vr, 
AivSov, 'lijAuo-ffov TE, KOL apyiyovra Kaj 
Twv JUEV TXr^TToXtjUOC oovpiK\VTO^ 



Ilp<Tae aarea TroXXa 



AVTLKO. Trarpoe Qto QiXov jurjrpwa carKra 
"HSrj -yTjpacT/covra, AIKVJULVIOV, oZ,ov 
Atya Si vfjac TT]^, TroXuv S' 6y Xaov 
B?j tyevywv ?rt TTOVTOV' aTTftXrjaav yap Oi aXXot 
YC, vi(*)voi T, jSirjc f Hpak'Xr]tTjc' 
Avrap 6y' ^ 'Pooov I^EV aXwfjiEvo^, aXyfa Tra 
Tpi^Oa SE tpKiiOev Kara^uXaSov, 178' 
'Eic AtoC; OOTE 0Ot(Tt icai av6/pw7rot<Ttv ava 
Kat (T0tv 0(T7T(Tiov TrXourov /car^U Kpoviwv. 
Nt/ovc av Su/iJ7^v ayfi 
vc, 'AyXa/Tje 0' wtoc, XajOOTroto r' a 

KaXXtoroc avr)p UTTO "iXtov 
Twv aXXwy Aavawv, jUr' a/uLV/mova Hrj\iwva' 
'AXX' aXaTraSvoc T^V, iravpoQ i oi eiTrero Xao^. 




Ot S' apa Ntdupov r' txov, KpaTra^ov T, Kacroy T, 
Kai Kwv, EvpuTTuXoto Tro 
Twv au ^>t^7r7Toc T /cat " Avrityoc; Ti 
0(rcraXou vt Sva 

654. aycpw^wv. Eustathius explains this 
ayav ygpag Ixdvrwv, i. e. illustrious, mag- 
nificent ; and in this sense it generally oc- 
curs in Homer. Compare II. T. 36. E. 623. 
H. 343. n. 708. *. 584. The Scholiast 
understands it to signify proud, arrogant ; in 
which sense, the derivation would be from 
ayav av^iiv. But the former interpreta- 
tion seems to be generally preferable, though, 
in the present instance, haughtiness seems 
to have been particularly characteristic 
of the Rhodians. See Terent. Eunuch, 
III. 1. 

655. Sid. rpt'%a tcofffirjOkvTfg. Divided 
into three districts. See Horn. H. Cer. 86. 
Callim, H. Jov. 61. Apoll. Rhod. B. 997- 

658. /3iy 'Hpa*cXjyi^. See note on Eur. 
Phcen. 55. Pent. Gr. p. 307- 

659. 'ityupjjg. Not Corinth, but a city 
of Corinth. There was also a town of Thes- 
protia, bearing the same name, which is 
mentioned in Od. A. 259. See Strabo VIII. 
p. 521. Steph. Byz. in voce. 


662. jw?;rpwa Karssra. This appears to 
have been perfectly accidental. See Apol- 
lod. Bibl. II. 7- 6. 

670, TT\OVTOV Kark^tvt Kpovtwv. Com- 
pare Find. OI. VII. 63. 90. 

671- Niptvf. In the chapter of Macro- 
bius, cited at \. 494. wherein a comparison 
is instituted between the respective merits 
of the Catalogues of Homer and Virgil, it is 
mentioned as a superior excellence in the 
former, that all the heroes, therein enume- 
rated, appear afterwards on the field of 
action. There is an exception in the case 
of Nireus ; who, being merely remarkable 
for the beauty of his person, and wholly de- 
ficient in courage and warlike acquirements, 
seems to have gained sufficient glory, as De- 
metrius Phalareus observes, by the three- 
fold repetition of his name : TCtpi 'Epjtijj- 
veiag, . 61. 

677- EvpwTrvXoto TTO\IV. Eurypylus was 
the son of Neptune by Astyochaea. He was 
killed by Hercules, who afterwards married 


Twv $ Tpn']KOVTa yXa^upai v&c tariyouvTO. 680 

Nvv av roi>c, OGGOL TO TlEXaayiKOv "Apyoc svatov, 
Oi r'"AXov, ot T 'AXo7ri)v, ot re T/orj^Tva VEJ 
Ot r' HX OV $0"|Vj 178' 'EXXaSa icaXXtyuvatica, 
Mup^ttSovfc $ KaXfuvro, icat "EXXrjv, KOL ' 
Twv aw TTfvrrjKOvra v(5v ^v PX fc Aj(lXX*fic. 685 

'AXX' oty' ou TToXfjuoto Si/o7jXOC Ejuvwovro* 

Ou yap T]V, OtTrtf <T01V 7Tl 

Kftro yap ev vfaaai Tr 

Tr)v IK Aupv^traov t^ftXero TroXXa jUoyTjtrac, 690 

ov SicnropBrtGOf; Kal 
t Muv]r' cjSaXc icai 'ETTtorpo^ov 
EvrjvoTo 2X7]?rtaSao a 

oy /car' 

'-X ov ^wXaKrjv, /cai Ilupadov av^fjuofyra, 6Q5 

JUVO, "Irwva r fJLJ]ripa 
taXov T' 'Avrpwv', 17^5 DrXoi> 
Twv au Ilpwreo-iXaoc apr/toc iiyjuovu ? 
Za>oc wv* ror 8' r)$fj t'xv Kara yata [AtXatva. 
Tou ^ cat ajU^t^jOV^rjc aXo^oc ^vXa/crj eXfXftTrro, 700 

Kai Sojuo? iijutrfXrjc' rov 8' cicravE AapSavoc avi)p, 

his daughter Chalciope, by whom he had Cicero : Diutius commorans Atlienis, quoniam 

Thessalus, the father of Pheidippus and An- venti negabant solvendi facultatem, erat ani- 

tiphus. See Apollod. Bibl. II. 7. 1. mus ad te scribere. Virg. ^En. I. 241. Pol- 

681. HeXaffyiKov "Apyof. As distin- licitus, qute te, genitor, sententia vertit ? 
guished from the Achaian Argosin Pelopon- 691. Lyrnessus and Thebe were cities, 

nesus, v. 559. See also on v. 108. The one in Cilicia, and the other near it in the 

name Pelasgia was, in very early times, a southern part of Troas, which was also under 

general name for the whole country of the dominion of the Cilicians. At the sack- 

Greece (Herod. II. 56.); but the northern ing of the Trojan cities by Achilles, Briseis 

parts appear to have been overrun by the fell into his hands at Lyrnessus, after wit- 

various hordes of Pelasgian wanderers, long nessing the slaughter of her brothers ; and 

before Apis passed into the Peninsula. See Chrysei's at Thebe. At the capture of this 

on II. A. 270. We find, however, Argos latter place also, whereat Eetion, king of 

in Peloponnesus with the epithet ttfXatryi- the country, was killed, some valuable 

KOV, in Eur. Phcen. 263. booty seems to have been found ; among 

684. Wlvp[jii6ve Se KO.XEVVTO. From which was the lyre of Achilles, II. I. 186. 
Myrmidon, an ancient prince of the country, his horse Pedasus, IT. 133. and the discus 
A fabulous origin has also been assigned to which was given as the prize at the funeral 
the name, founded upon its apparent deri- games of Patroclus, "*". 827- See also II. Z. 
vation from the word /ivp/t/jicfg, signifying 395. T. 291. Y. 92. 192. 

ants or pismires ; for which, however, there 700. d/-i0ipt>0?7. Laniatis genis ; from 

seems to be no foundation. See Ovid, Met. flpVTrrw, to flay. 11. A. 393. Tov dk yvvai- 

VII. 654. The names"E\X?/vfgand'Axaiot, KOQ fjitv T' dptyiSpvtyoi tiai iraptiai. See 

are not here applied generally, but desig- Hygin. Fab. 103. 4. 

nate properly those portions of the country 701 . dopog r/^trfX^C- Schol. ?/roi are K- 

to which they originally belonged. See on VOQ, r\ a^yprjfjiivog TOV ergpou T&V dtffrro- 

v. 530, supra. TWV, fj artXaWoc' /3Xnoi/ St eiprjuOai 

685. T&V av K. r. X. An anacoluthon. r/^treX?) did TO fir) yfycvryeora Traldat; 
See above on \. 353. Barnes has the fol- TrXtvffai. It has been matter of great dis- 

lowing examples of the same usage in Latin, cussion which of these interpretations is to 




OuSf JUE> owS' 01 avap^oi sorav, iroOtov ye 
'AXXa afyicLQ KO(TjUi]o- JQoSapioje, oo 
VIOQ TToXu/i/jXou <J>uXaia'Sao, 



'O-TrXorspoc yVr)* 6 o" apa 7rporpO Kat a'pa'wv 
OpwrErriXaoc" dpriiog' ov$i TI Xaol 

T7yfjuovoe, iroStov SE ^UEV td^Xov ovra. 
Tcj) S' ctjua TEdtrapaKOvra jUfXatvat vfje^ ETTOVTO. 

Ot SE Ofpac vjuovro irapai 
Botj3/v, Kat rXa^UjOae, Kai v/cr 

' 'A^jUTjroto (piXoc TratQ fvfk-a vrjwv, 
, rov VTT' 'A^jU^r^ TEJCE Sta 'yuvatjcwv 
) IlcXtao ^uyarpwv ft^oc apicrrrj. 
Oi 8' a/>a 
Kai MfXtjSomv E' 




cat ' 



c tv Kacrrrj 


'AXX' o jUv EV vrjatg KEITO Kpartp* aXyea 
EV riyaOty, oOi jutv XtTrov wife ' 

be adopted. Certain it is, that marriage is 
frequently called rsXog, and married persons 
ol TfXtioi. Eustath. r\o 6 y/*o, o0tj/ 
reXftouc roie ysya/iijKorag tXeyov. Thus 
Od. Y. 74. T\OQ QaXepolo ydpoio. ^Esch. 
Agam. 945. dvdpbg TtXeiov ^di/ia. Hence, 
perhaps, ?7/iirX?}g may be rendered contain- 
ing only half the marriage ; viz. the husband 
or wife being absent or dead. Thus, in al- 
lusion to this passage of Homer, Protesilaus 
says in Lucian : D. M. XIX. p. 470. dirk- 
Oavov, rjfJLirfXfj fikv TOV dofiov KaraXnrwv, 
XripavdtTrjvvtoyafjiovyvvaiKa. See Hem- 
sterhuis in loc. and Timaei Lex. Platon. v. 
TrporsXaa, who understand the expression 
do[io J7/ureXr}g to mean dofiog x*?P> un ^ e 
maritus abierat ad bellum Trojanum: which 
coincides with the second interpretation 
offered by the Scholiast. So also Hesychius : 
r//ureXr/f r//uyajuo. Thus, Eurip. Alcest. 
878. OTuyvai d' fyetg x*)P <JJV /Xa'0pwv. In 
the same sense Ovid, Epist. Heroid. VIII. 21. 
aula vidua. IX. 35. domus vidua. The Ho- 
meric expression is retained by Valer. Flac- 
cus : conjux miser anda Caico Linquitur, et 
primo domus imperfecta cubili. Eustathius 
supposes that Euphorbus, who is called Aap- 
SavoQ dvr}p in II. II. 807-, was the Trojan 
who killed Protesilaus as he landed. But 
this is altogether uncertain. According to the 
Carmina Cypriaca, he was killed by Hector, 

His sepulchre, in the Thracian Chersonese, 
is mentioned in Herod. IX. 116. sqq. 

703. TroQEov y /i?^ ctp%6v. For KaiVep 
7ro06ovrc. So v. 726. and so, also, the Ve- 
netian MS. in v. 709. Wolf proposes Ss jtuv. 

707- OTrXdrspoc. Properly, armis aptior : 
and thence younger. Eustath. 6 vsof, wt; 
OTrXoif irpoGrjKiov. The superlative oTrXo- 
TCLTOQ occurs in Od. F. 465. H. 58. and 

718. rowv tv e t'dwg. Adjectives and par- 
ticiples, which express an idea of relation, 
are usually followed by a genitive, to de- 
note the object of such relation. Compare 
v. 823. 11. Z. 488. H. 811. P. 5. X. 219. 
an d see Matt. Gr. Gr. . 322. Sometimes, 
however, an infinitive is employed, as in v. 
611. supra: STTiaTa^tvot 7roXf/iiv. In 
the same sense also tidwQ sometimes occurs 
with the accusative; as in II. P. 202. H. 
278, and elsewhere. In v. 720. where the 
same form occurs, wort must be supplied 
before nd^taOai. 

721. aXX' o [icv tv vrjffi^ K. r. X. So- 
phocles seems to have had this passage be- 
fore him in the opening of his Philoctetes. 
It has been thought that the necessity of the 
presence of Philoctetes in order to the de- 
struction of Troy, is an invention subsequent 
to the age of Homer; and, consequently, 
that vv. 724, 725. are spurious. 

'OMHPOY 'IATAA02, B'. 97 

EXicEi fjio\Bi^ovTa KdKty oXoo^povoc uSpov. 

1 078 Ktr' a\iwv' ra^a SE [ivriazaOat EfitXXov 

i Trapa vrjutri ^tXoKr^rao avaKToe. 725 

V oi>8' Oi avapxot Ecrav, TroOeov ye JJL\V ap^ov, 
'AXXa M<UV KOayirjffEv, 'OtXfjoe voQoQ vibe;, 
Tov /a' rK f Pi)vrj VTT' 'Ot'Xijt 

O* o' t\ov TpiKKTjv, KOL 'l^o^urjv 
Ot r' X V Oi^aXirjv, TroXtv Ei/purou Oi^aXtr)oc ? 730 

Twv av^' riydaOyv 'A(TicXT)7riov Suo Trat^f, 
'Ii]ri)p' ayaOw, TloSaXtipio 
Tote ^ rptrjicovra y\a<f)vpa\ vies e 

O l i 8* %OV 'OpjUVtOV, Ot T 

Ot r' ^ov 'A<TTjOtov, Ttravoto r XfUKa Kaprjva, 735 

Twv ^px' EvjOUTTvXoC) Euat/uovo^ ayXaoc utoc" 
Ttf S' a/ua r<T(rapaicovra jUfXmvat v^^C CTTOVTO. 
O l S' "Apytvaav f'xov, cai ruprojvrjv ivfj 


Twv au0' i7yjLiovU fiV7rroX/uoe IIoXuTrotrriCj 740 

Iltpt0ooto, TOV aOavarog TEKETO 

/0* V7TO rit/)f00(j) TKTO 

J, ore $^pag mtraro 
Toic 8' K IlTjXiou t5(T, KOI AlOiKeaal 7rfXa<7arv' 
OUK otoc, jua T(jJ y AOVTI>J o^oc "AprjoC) 745 

Ytoc virepOvfjioio Kopwvou KatviSao. 
Tote ^' (LfJLa rfO'trapaKovra /mtXaivai vritg fVovro. 
FOUVEVC 8* <c Kvtyov %ye v<o icat HKOO-I v^ae* 
Tfj> 8' 'Evtfjvfc IVovro, jUEVETrroXfjUOi TE Ilpatj3oi, 
Ot 7Tpi AwSwvrjv Suo-xct^fpov otfcf WZVTO, 750 

Ot r' ctju^' t/zcprov Tfraprjdiov Ep^a VEJUOVTO, 

723. 6Xoo0povo. Malignant, noxious. It Gr. . 116. 6. Obs. and . 118. 3. Of the 

seems to bear a different signification in Od. power of the particle pa, see on II. A. 8. 

A. 52. 743. $>)pag. See on II. A. 268. 

729. K\wjua/c6(T<Tav. Craggy, mountain- 751. The Titaresius seems to have been 

ous. Eustathius explains icXa/*aK Q as being the same with the Eurotas, of which there is 

TOTTOI r) \60oi Kara roi TraXaioiif vi//jjXot. the following description in Pliny ; N. H. 

738. "Apyiaaav. This is Larissa, in IV. 8. Accipit autem Eurotam Peneus, nee 

Thessaly. recipit tamen ; sed olei modo supernatantem, 

742. K\vro 'l7nrodd[*,tia. Several ad- ut dictum est Homero, brevi spatio portatum 

jectives, which have properly three termina- abdicat, poenales aquas, Dirisque genitas, ar- 

tions, are found in Homer, as well as in the genteis suis misceri recusans. Heyne ob- 

Attic writers, as common : and, on the other serves, that this river may be called an arm 

hand, many adjectives which are properly or branch of the Styx, from the fact that it 

common, are frequently declined with three took its rise from some spring in the bowels 

endings. Thus we have] in II. A. of the earth. It appears, however, from 

447. B. 447. et passim. This the gramma- Herod. VI. 74. that there was a fountain 

rians call a schema Atticum ; but it appears named Styx, in Arcadia, by which the peo- 

that it is not confined to the Attic writers, pie of the country used to swear, in imitation 

See Monk on Eur. Hipp. 437- Matt. Gr. of the great oath of the gods by the Tarta- 



"Oc p* ec Tlrivetbv irpotct Ka\\ippoov v 

'AXXa -yt jUiv KaOvirtpOev tirippiti, r)VT 
"Opicou yap ceivov Srvyoc voaroc lortv cnropptjjz. 755 

Mcryvrjrwv 8' ripX npo0oC> TevflprjSovoc woe, 

Ot 7Tpl DrfVaOV KOL Hri\LOV HVOOl^uXXoV 

NCUEO-KOV* rwv JUEV Ilpoflooc 0ooe riytfJLovEve' 
Ttjj & ajua rfo-crajoaicovra jueXatvai vijfe 7rovro. 

Ourot ap' ifyjuovC Aavawv Kai icoipavot ^jo-av. 760 

Tic T' P TWV o^' apiGTOc; i]v, au juot EVVETTE, Mouaa, 
Avrwv, 178' tTTTTwv, ot aju' 'Arp('<fy<rtv fTrovro ; 

Tac EujurjXoe eXauVf, TroSwKfac, opviOac we, 
"Orp^ae, oiTaCj ora^vXrj TTI vwrov i&NIC' 765 

Tac tv Difpt^ Op^' ajoyu/ooro^oc ' 
r]Xeia t PojSov "Aprjoc 
au July' aptcrrog 17V TfXajUwvioc Amc, 

c fJLriviEv' o yap TroXi) ^>jOraroc 

a , o? ^optEdicov ajuv/uova IlrjXf/ttH'a. 770 

'AXX' o JUEV v vrjtvGi Kopwvtart TTOvroTropota-i 
aTTOjur/vitrac 'AyajUfjUvovt, Troifjiivi Xawv, 

Xaot 8t ?rapa pr^yfu 
Ai(7KOi(ri rIpTrovro Ktu aiyavtyaiv, t 

17T7TOI ^ TTOjo' ap/>ia(TtV oltTtV CKClOTOg 1 775 


rean lake. Near this fountain, which dis- On the general usages of OTTO in composi- 

charged itself into a bason, the Titaresius tion, see Zeune on Viger, p. 467- 

probably had its source ; and the words 774. There is nothing in this line upon 

opicov Stivov, which are in apposition with which ikvreg immediately depends, so that 

Srvyog, in v. 755. will relate to the oath of it must be taken absolutely, referring the 

the Arcadians. See also Strabo, Lib. VIII. words diffKoiffi /cat aiyav'syai ro^oiai re 

Pausan. VIII. 19. The epithet t/itprov to rkpirovro. They amused themselves with 

refers to the country through which the river the coits, fyc. hurling them. Milton has 

flows. imitated this passage in his description 

761. GX' apiffTOQ. In v. 769. TroXii $!p- of the diversions of the angels during the 

TdTog. See on II. A. 69. absence of Satan : P. L. II. 526. Part on 

765. OTptxag, oikreag. For 6/*oi6rpi^a, the plain, or in the air sublime, Upon the 

ofjiosTtaQ. Having their manes of the same wing, or in swift race contend ; Part curb 

colour, and being of the same age. trra^vXij, their fiery steeds, or shun the goal With rapid 

accented on the penultima, is a plumb-line, a wheels, or pointed brigades form. Others with 

perpendicular rule. The Scholiast thus ex- vast Typhcean rage, Sfc. 

plains the passage : OVTWQ IGCIQ Kai ava\6- 775. 'ITTTTOL Sk K. T. \, It frequently hap- 

JOVQ TOIQ v&TOic,, oitTTTtp ffTaOuy. Of the pens that GKCHTTOC, is found not only with a 

adjective kiaag, see on II. A. 306. 468. verb in the plural ; but, as in this instance, 

768. Tf\rt/nwmo Auxe- Hence Soph, in apposition with a noun in the plural, in 

Aj. 1340."Ev' avdp' iSelv apiarov 'Apyeiw, order to make a fuller definition. Compare 

offot Tpoiav a^iKofieaOa, TT\^V 'Ax/XXtwc- H. E. 878. H. 175. 185. 2. 496. Some- 

772. cnroiirjviffaQ. This compound is times the verb is found in the singular, 

generally understood merely in the sense of though the noun is in the plural. In the 

the simple verb ; but Ernesti supposes the same way TTOLQ is used in II. II. 265. and so 

preposition to imply continuance or duration, also quisque in Latin. 



* apjuara b i) TTETrvKacrfjiiva KtTro ava 
'Ev icXio-fye* 01 8* PX OV oplfyfXa 
QOITWV tvOa KOL v(/a Kara arparbv, oi<$ jua 

Oil 3' ap' '/(rav, woW re Trupi \0wv iraaa 
Fata 8' uTrfarsva^^E, Au wg T^TTtKepavv 
Xa>o/iV(>, ore r' a^u^i Tu^>a>t yatav fjua 
Elv 'Aptjuotc? o0t 0a<ri TU^WEOC j 
l Qf a/oa rwv UTTO TTOCTCTI fJLtya oreva^i^Ero -yata 
vwv* juaXa 8' wica ^liirpriaaov irtSioio. 




Ot 8' 

ayopevov ETTI n/otajuoto Ovpyai 


E'/o-aro ^ <f)9oyyriv VLL Dptajuoto DoAirrj, 

?r' ajcporar^ AtdUTjrao ylpovroc, 
OTTTrorE vavtyiv a 


r 2 -ylpov, aii roi fivOoi fyiXoi aicpiToi flaw, 

,g Tror' ?r' elpjjvrig' iroXtfjiog 8' aXiaaroG optupev. 

782. ydlav ip.d<T0y. i. e. TrXrfacry. Ful- 
mine percutiat. Hesiod. Theog. 856. STTCI 
jutv Sdpaae. TrX^yytnv ifudaaac;. HEYNE. 
It appears from Strabo, Josephus,and others, 
as well as the more modern traveller Bo- 
chart (Geog. Sacr. II. 5.), that the "Api/xot, 
among whom Homer has fixed the scene of 
the defeat and imprisonment of the Giant 
Typhon, are the same as the Syrians. Hence 
it is conjectured by Mr. Wood, in his Essay 
on Homer, that the story is a mythological 
invention, built upon the fate of the cities of 
Sodom and Gomorrha ; and he is confirmed 
in his opinion by the striking similitude in 
the Greek and Jewish accounts of the im- 
piety which drew down the divine ven- 
geance. See note on II. A. 403. Virgil, and 
after him the generality of Latin poets, have 
removed the scene of the fable to the vicinity 
of Naples, though their mythology is formed 
upon this passage of Homer. Virg. JEn. IX. 
715. Turn sonitu Prochyta alia tremit, du- 
rumque cubile Inarime Jovis imperils impost a 
Typhceo. Inarime is formed from the two 
words iV 'ApifioiQ of the Greek poet ; some- 
what in the same manner, says Clarke, as the 
Latin caeteri from %a.T6poi. The durum cubile 
of Virgil evidently corresponds with Tu0w- 
tvvac of Homer. Compare II. Q. 615. 
And it should seem that Virgil affixedthe name 
to the little island Pithecusa, near Naples. 
See the Scholiast on Apoll. Rhod. II. 1215. 

Pliny (III. 6.) even asserts that the same 
island is intended by Homer. On the fabu- 
lous History of Typhon, see Blomfield's 
Gloss, on jEsch. Prom. 359. and the autho- 
rities there cited. 

785. SieTTprjaffov irtdioio. There is an 
ellipse of bSov or Troptiav. So again II. I 1 . 
14. See on II. A. 481. 

788. ayopde ayoptvoi/. On this and si- 
milar pleonasms, see Pent. Gr. p. 247. note 
on Soph. Ant. 551. and on Eur. Phoen. 65. 
p. 308. 

793. rvfJ,(B({) AiavrjTao. On the tombs 
of the ancients, see the note on Soph. Ant. 
848. Pent. Gr. p. 267. and on II. II. 457. 
From that of ^Esyetes, there seems to have 
been an extensive view of the Grecian fleet, 
and of the plain between the two rivers, 
Scamander and Simois. Of the same 
nature was the hill Batiea, which had 
originally been the tomb of the Amazon 
Myrina: vv. 813, 814. Strabo (XIII. p. 
409.) gives an account of several tombs of 
the heroes who fought at Troy, which were 
still to be seen, on the shore of the Helles- 
pont, in his time. Besides those of Patro- 
clus and Archilochus, he mentions parti- 
cularly that of Achilles near the jEgean, 
and of Ajax near the Rhaetean, promontory. 

796. p,v9oi dicpiTOi. See above, on v. 

O 2 



*H /iv 17 juaXa TroXXa fiax^C tl<rh\vOov a 


Ai't/v jap ^wXXoto-iv OtKor fi ^afjiaOoimv 

i TTcStOtO, jUaX^Oj^VOt 7T/Ol aOTU. 

, <70i 8s juaXidr' iVirtXXojUcu* wSe Si /OECU* 
IIoXXoi yap Kara a'aru /ufya Ilptajuou tiriKOVpoi, 
"AXXrj 2' a'XXcov 'yXwtro'a 7roXu<T7Tp(i>v a 
Tolaiv CKaaroc av^jO o-rjjuatvlrw, olri 7T/o a 
Twv S' tZriytiaOtt 

lV Qc 0a0'* "Eicrwp 8' own 

Ati/^a ^ XUCT' ayoprjv' enl rev^ta 3' <ro-vovro. 
ITao-ai 8' wtyvvvro TruXat, IK <T O-(TUTO Xaoc, 



t 9\ t 


g T* TToXi/c 





r (rfjjua 

a ror 


' a/ia rw ^f TroXv TrXfttrroi Kal aptoroi 
Aaoi 0a>j077(T(TOvro, 
Aa/oSavtwv avr' 
, rov VTT' ' 


OVK otoc, ajua rtjJ y vw 'Avrrfvopog VIE, 

'A /A ^ ' ' A ' ' < ??^i/ 

A/OX^AOXOC T , AKa/xac T, fJ.u\rj(: ev fioorf 
Ot ^ ZfXfiav f'vatov VTTOI TrdSa vfiarov v 
'A^vEioi, TTtvovrEc vStup jUfXav AitrrjTroto, 
Tpa>, TWV avr' ^/>X Auicaovoe ayXaoc vt 
IlavSajooc, t^ Kai ro^ov 'A?roXXwv at/roc ' 
Ot S' ap' 'A^pr]CTriav r' X OV Ka * ^A 10 " 
Kai Dirvftav Xv> Kat Tripdrie opoc OITTU, 


803. The particle ydp refers to a sup- 
pressed clause, which is thus supplied by 
Clarke: Cave ne qua oriatur confusio ; nam 
-multi, fyc. See on II. A. 123. 

809. TTaoai Trv\ai. See on II. P. 1 45. 

813. rr)v r\TQi avdptg K. T. X. See on 
II. A. 403. 

814. TToXvo-fcapfytoio. Schol. iroXvKivri- 
row, TCtxtiaC <7Krap0/i6e yap ij rS>v TroS&v 
Kivr\aiQ. From GKaipio, salio. According to 
the Scholiast, Myrina was one of the Ama- 
zons ; of whom, see on II. T. 189. 

816. KopuOca'oXof. Swift, active. Porphyr. 
Quaest. Horn. 3. 6 avve^CJQ KivCjv TIJV 

/copufla. This seems to be the real meaning 
of the epithet, which is continually applied 
to Hector; and it is thus explained by the 
Scholiast : $ia T&Q kv TroXs/iy avvi%tiQ Kal 
fftyodpag ivepysiag. Others refer it simply 
to the variegated plume of the helmet. But 
see on II. A. 186. For an account of the 
several places mentioned in the ensuing 
enumeration of the Trojans and their allies, 
the student is referred to Wood's Compa- 
rative View of the ancient and present State 
of the Troade. 

819. Aapdaviwv. See Heyne's VI. Ex- 
cursus on Virg. ^En. III. 






, O 7T|Ol TTttVTWV 

i/Sf ovc TratSae eaffKE 
C TroXtjuov (f>OiaT]vopa' rw $ ot ov TL 
70/0 ayov jUfXavoe Oavaroio. 
Ot 8' apa Ilfp/ctoTTjv icat IljOaicrtov aju0vjuovro, 
Kal STJOTOV KCU "AjSuSov f'xov, KCU Stav 
Twv av0' 'YjoraiaSrje rip\" AGIOS, 
"A<Ttoe 'Y/oraia'Srje, ov 'Api<r|3rj0i; 
, jUE-yaXot, Trorajuou aTro 




Twv, ot Aapto-<rav IptjSwXaKa vatfraatricov' 
Twv ^/QX' 'ITTTO^OOC TH> DvXatoc T', o^oc "A/oTjo?, 
Yi Suw AriOoio ZlfXadyou Tfuraiuioao. 
Avrap 0prj<Kac ^7' 'Aicajuac, icai Ilftpooc 

'EXXrjcTTrovroc ayappoog EVTOC p7t. 


Ytoc Tpot^voio Ator/o(/)0^ 

Avrap IlujoaiXft^C 7 Ilo/ovac e 

Ofv $ 'AjuuSwvoc, aTr' 'AtoD fi/pu piovrog, 
v, ou KaXXtarov v^tup 7TfKi8varat atp. 

IluXaijUVOC Xatrtov K 


833. ra> ^6 ot ov TI II. 1 Sam. ii. 25. 
LXX. /cai OWK ijKtovov TTJG ^(aviJQ rov ira- 
rpoQ avr&v, on (3ov\6fj,f.voQ t/SoyXtro Kw- 
piot; SicHpQeipai UVTOVQ. 

834. K7p(; Oavaroio. See above, on \. 

836. *A/3vdov. Abydus, famed for the 
bridge of Xerxes, and the loves of Hero 
and Leander. 

845. dyappoof. Swift-flowing, rapid. 
Schol. a-yav powo^, o lerri (7^o^pd pew- 
juara t\ovra. This adjective seems to im- 
ply, that Homer considered the Hellespont 
merely as a river, and so it is actually called 
by Herodotus ; for, though really a sea, it is 
narrower than many river:. Hence, Eusta- 
thius and others have endeavoured to ex- 
plain away the epithet TrXariig, broad, which 
is applied to the Hellespont in II. H. 86. 
and elsewhere. But it should seem that 
the scenery and the surrounding objects 
conveying the idea of a fine river, rather 
than a sea, its breadth is estimated in re- 
ference to this circumstance ; and, though a 
narrow and confined sea, it may still be con- 
sidered as a broad and r-apid river. See 
Wood's Description of the Troade. 

846. Kucovwv. See Herod. VII. 59. 

848. ayKvKoTo^ovQ . Having crooked bows. 

Thus we have dyicvXa roa, in II. E. 209. 
Z. 322. Some derive it from dyicwAfj, a 
string or thong, which was fixed to the mid- 
dle of the shaft, in order to draw it back 
again : in which case, the dart was called 
ptadyKvXov, Eur. Phoen. 1157. But this 
is less probable. Similar compounds,. dyKf- 
Xo/iJjr^f and dyKvXo%eiXj7, occur in II. B. 
205. n. 428. Of the Paonians, see Herod. 
V. 13. 

850. 'Aiou, ov KaXXtffTOv K. T. X. Ac- 
cording to this reading, the verse should 
be translated, Axius, that diffuses its beau- 
tiful waters over the land. But we are as- 
sured by Strabo, that Axius was a muddy 
river, and that the ancients understood it 
thus : Axius, that receives into it several 
beautiful rivers. The criticism lies in the 
last word of the verse, aly, which Strabo 
reads Atr]Q, and interprets of the river JEa, 
whose waters were poured into the Axius. 
However, Homer describes this river agree- 
ably to the vulgar reading in II. <J>. 158. 
'A%iov, o KaXXioToi/ vSwp kiri yalav 'irjaiv. 
POPE. This line, however, does not appear 
in some MSS. 

851. TlvXaiptveoQ Xdffiov Krjp. This is 
a pleonasm similar to that noticed in v. 658. 
Of Pyleemenes, see II. E. 576. sqq. 



Evtrwv, oOt 

Oi pa Kurwpov f'xov, KOI S/j<rajuov a 
'Ajit^u T Ilap^fviov wora/nov icXura 
Kpw/zvav r', AtytaXov re, icat tyrjXovg ^EpvOlvovg. 
Aurap 'AXt^wvwv 'O&'oc Kai 'ETTtcrrpo^oc 
y <; 'AXujSrjc, o0v apyvpou tcrrt 


'AXX' OUK olwvoiviv pu<raro 

'AXX' iSaUTJ V7TO ^ 00 ^ 7ToS(tJKOC AiaiClSaO 


Ti/X' ^ ' 



av frjc r Kat 
Yi TaXatjUVoc> rw Ffyair] TC 
Ot icat Mijovac ^yov VTTO TjLtwXqj 

NaoT)]^ au Kapwv riyrjcraTO 
O? MtXrjrov E'XOV, 0ipwv r opog 
Matav^pov T /ooac> MujcaXrj 
Twv /tV a'jo' 'Ajut/zaoc KOI NacrrTjc 


852. ? 'Evtrwv, o0tv K. r. X. These 
people were the first inhabitants of Paphla- 
gonia. After the Trojan war they passed, 
with Antenor, into Italy, and built the city, 
now called Venice, upon the Adriatic Gulf. 
See Virg. ,<En. I. 242. Liv. I.I. In Ho- 
mer's time, they seem to have been re- 
markable for a breed of mules ; and in 
after times the Venetian horses were the 
most celebrated in the Grecian games, 
Hesych. 'EveTida^' TrwXowe ffTf<pavi]<j>6- 
povg, CLTTO rrJQ 7Tpl 'Adpiciv 'Evri<5o' 
diaQtpovoi yap iicel. 

857 'A\v(Br]Q, '69ev dpyvpov K. r. X. 
These people are the same with the Chaly- 
bes, on the Euxine Sea. The silver mines 
had failed in the time of Strabo ; but he 
mentions that iron mines had then been 
opened, for which the country was afterwards 

859. aXX' OVK oiWoiffi K. r. X. Apoll. 
Rhod. II. 818. dXXd fjnv OVTI MavToavvat 
ffd<jjffav. Virg. ./En. IX. 328. Sed non au- 
gurio potuit depellere pestem. 

861. The verb jcepcu^w seems to be no- 
thing more than a poetic form of Ke'ipw, 
vasto. Damm and others, however, follow 
the Scholiast in deriving it from KepctQ, 
cornu ; dirb r&v TOIQ Kf.pd.TOiQ p,a%0fj,s- 
vu)v wwv. In this case, therefore, it will 
properly signify corn ibus dejicere ; and thence 


generally, to destroy. Suidas: KtnaiZ,tf Trop- 
6sl, avaipii, diap7rdti. The reference is 
to II. <3>. sub init. 

865. Yvya'iri Xi'/ivjf. See Herod. I. 93. 

867- Kapwv f3ap(3apo(f)<jjv<i)v. The cus- 
torn of calling all nations, except themselves, 
Barbarians, did not yet prevail among the 
Greeks in the time of Homer. Thucyd. I. 
3. Ow \*.i]v ovft Bap/Sapovf tlpijictv ("Ofjirj- 
po^), cia TO fjujdk "EXXrjvdg TTW, wg ip,ol 
doicti, avr'nraXov dq 'tv ovojjia cnroKticpia- 
Oat. In respect to the epithet which is 
here given to the Carians, Strabo, Lib. XIV. 
though he does not entirely agree with 
Thucydides, observes, that it applies not to 
the people, but to their language : which, 
from their being continually engaged in 
commerce with Greece, had been corrupted 
into a mixture of Carian and Greek. Apol- 
lonius thinks that it is intended as a sar- 
casm upon the Carians, against whom the 
lonians, who were the countrymen of the 
poet, seem to have entertained a powerful 

872. r/vrt Kovprj. This at once fixes 
the poet's meaning ; which is, to mark the 
effeminacy and vanity of Amphimachus ; 
since it was not unusual for the armour of 
the heroes to be inlaid with gold, as that of 
Glaucus for instance ; II. Z. 236. The 
same custom seems also to have been con- 



TL ol 

'AXX' l^dfjiri VTTO 
'Ei> TTorajua), ^pvabv 

S' ^PX AUKIWV, icai rXavfcoc 
tic AvKir), BdvOov airb 

Sa't^pwv. 875 

tinued in later times. Hence the exhor- 
tation of the consul Papirius, in Liv. X. 
39. Non cristas vulnera facer e : et per picta 
atque aurata scuta transire Romanum pilum, 
et candore tunicarum fulgentem aciem, ubi 
res f err o geratur, cruentari. To the same 
effect is the speech of Calgacus to the Bri- 
tons in Tacit. Vit. Agric. 32. Ne terreat 
vanus aspectus, et aurifulgor atque argenti, 

quod neque tegit, neque vulnerat. With 
respect to the comparison, there is one pre- 
cisely similar to it in the Apocryphal Letter 
of Jeremiah ; ver. 9. LXX. Kai axnrep 

rrl TOLQ K<J>a\a.Q 

873. eTrrjpicefff. See above on v. 393. 
With the sentiment compare Prov. xi. 14. 






o'/oie fjiodog earlv 



The armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed upon between Menelaus 
and Paris, by the intervention of Hector, for the determination of the war. Iris is 
sent to call Helena to behold the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where 
Priam sate with his counsellors, observing the Grecian leaders on the plain below; 
and Helen gives an account of the chief of them. The Kings on either part take the 
solemn oath for the conditions of the combat. The duel ensues, wherein Paris being 
overcome, is snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported to his apartment. 
She then calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers together. Agamemnon, on 
the part of the Grecians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of 
the articles. 

The three and twentieth day still continues throughout this Book. The Scene is some- 
times in the Fields before Troy, and sometimes in Troy itself. 


, evowr T aav, 
7Tp K\ayyri yepdviov TTfXft ovpavoOi 



2. JcXayyy r', svoiry T Iffav. There 
is an ellipsis of the preposition avv, which 
frequently takes place with the ablative, 
used adverbially : as in II. B. 149. 209. and 
elsewhere. So also <nyy, in v. 8, which 
corresponds with the similar use of the 
Latin silentio. See Bos Ellips. Gr. p. 463. 
Of the monosyllabic ending of the line, see 
Prelim. Obs. Sect. V. . 2. 

3. rjvre. 7Tp K\ayy?) K. r, X. In this 
simile, the likeness consists in two points, 
the noise, and the order : the latter is so 
observable, as to have given some of the 

ancients occasion to imagine, the embattling 
of an army was first learned from the close 
manner of flight of these birds. But this 
part of the simile, not being directly ex- 
pressed by the author, has been overlooked 
by some of the commentators. It may be 
remarked, that Homer has generally a won- 
derful closeness in all the particulars of his 
comparisons, notwithstanding he takes a 
liberty in his expression of them. He seems 
so secure of the main likeness, that he makes 
no scruple to play with the circumstances ; 
sometimes by transposing the order of them, 



Air', 7Ti ovv \eifiwva <J>vjov KOL a 
KXayyp Taije irirovrai ITT 'Qcavo7o /ooawv, 
'AvSpa<r< Hvyfiaioun <j>6vov K.CLI /cfjpa fyipovaa 
'Hfpmt S' apa rafyt KO.KYIV f'ptSa 7Tpo0povTa. 
Ot 8* ap' t'a-av a-typ jUVa 7rvaovrc ' 
'Ev Ovfjidfj jUjuaair a 

EvV opfOf K0pu 
Yloifiiaiv OVTL (f>i\r\v, KXfVrrj T vuicroe ajUiva>, 
Totrtrov rt r' ETnXfuo-tra, otrov r' ITTI Xoav 
lV Qc a'pa TWV UTTO TTOO-O-I fcoviffaXoc wpvur' 

Ep^OjUtVWV* fJLClXa S' WKCt i7TpJ(T(TOV TTfSlOtO. 

Ot 8' or 17 o-^fSov ^trav, ?r' a\\r)\oi<nv tovrfc, 



Kat ?t'0oe' aurap o 

IlaXXtuv, 'Apyftwy 7rpOKaXi^ro TTGLVTCLQ aptorouc? 
'Avrt]3iov fj,a\i(ja<jQaL Iv alvrj 
Tov o we ovv PO17(TV aTj'/' 




sometimes by superadding them, and some- 
times, as in this place, by neglecting them 
in such a manner, as to leave the reader to 
supply them himself. For the present com- 
parison, it has been taken by Virg. jEn. X. 
264. and applied to the clamours of soldiers 
in the same manner. Quales sub nuUbus 
atris Strymonia dant signa grues, atque 
fethera tranant Cum sonitu,fugiuntque Notos 
clamore secundo. POPE. It should be ob- 
served, however, that it does not refer to 
the general shout, with which Greeks as 
well as Trojans rushed to the onset ; but 
merely to the tumultuous movement of the 
latter. See on II. B. 586. The reason of 
this disorder is explained at the close of a 
similar passage in II. A. 437. Ov yap 
irdvTuv fjtv 6/io 0p6og, oi)S' la yijovf, 
'AXXd yXwtrtra /IE/UKT-O, Tro\vK\r]Toi d' 
taav avdpsQ. In the syntax, rfvrt is for 
ore, in which sense tvrt more generally 
occurs : and the relative is repeated in v. 5. 
So also Od. B. 327- O. 488. A similar 
usage is also found in Latin. Compare 
Virg. Georg. II. 435. Hor. Od. I. 9. 15. 
See also on \. 409. infra. 

6. avdpdffi HvypaioHn. It is very un- 
certain, and perhaps not very important to 
discover, what people are meant by this 
name. They are placed by Aristotle and 
Strabo on the banks of the Nile, and the 
Scholiast describes them as a diminutive 
race of men in Upper Egypt, who assemble 

in their fields for the purpose of scaring 
the cranes from their corn, at the time of 
their periodical passage to the warmer cli- 
mate of the south. The derivation of the 
name from 7rt>y/i), a span, and the fabu- 
lous notion founded thereon, that they did 
not exceed a cubit in stature, cannot be 
inferred from Homer. It may be observed, 
however, as a matter of curiosity, that the 
Gammadim, a people of Phoenicia, men- 
tioned in Ezek. xxvii. 7- from the circum- 
stance that the Hebrew Gammad signifies 
a cubit, are called Pygmtzi in the Latin 

10. tVT optoe K. T. X. Eur. Iph. T. 995. 
KXETrrwv yap rj vv%, riJQ d' aXriQtiaQ TO 
0oif . Maxim. Tyr. Diss. IX. 3?evy<av r?Xtov, 
di(i)K(t)v VVKTU Kai ofiixXrjv, 7rotj(i<m> OVTI 
<J>i\riv, K\7TTy d' ayaQrfv. 'O plv iroifikvi 
toiKtv, o Sk KteTTTy toiKtv, Kai yap XavOd- 
vtiv tvxerai. Hence Horat. Epist. I. 16. 
62. Noctem peccatis, et fraudibus objice 
nubem. Homer represents a mist as more 
convenient to the thief, because the sheep 
are then dispersed abroad, and not folded as 
in the night. Kar^vtv. Offundere solet : 
see II. A. 37. B. 147- and of the particle 
evrt on II. A. 242. 

14. dieTTprjffCFov irtSioio. See on 11. B. 

23. w<m \in>v exapr; K. T. X. Virg. 
^n. X. 723. Impastus stabula alta leo ceu 
seepe perag rans (Suadet enim vesana fames), 



Eupwv 17 tXa^ov Ktpaov, 17 cryptov atya, 

xa>v* jitaXa -yap rf icar<T0/t, i7T|0 av avrov 


r' aijrjot* 

tX^P 1 ? MfvlXaoC) 'AXl^avS/oov OtoeiSta 

iSwv' <f>dro yap rio-<r0m aXa'rrjv' 
o-uv TEVXSOW dXro xajuaSf- 

VV VOTJ(TV 'AXf^avSpOC 0OlS?7e 

'Ev TrpOjuaxoiffi <^>avVTa, Karf7rXj'y*j (fiiXov rjrop' 
*A*// S' Irapwv e 0voc ix**?* 
'& $' # T T *C re Spcucovra iSwv 

pojuoc f'XXajSf yuta 




Tov S' 


'Arpoc wov, ' 

e r' jUvat, ayajuoe T' cnroXtaOai. 40 

si forte fugacem Conspexit capream, aut sur- 
gentem in cornua cervum, Gaudet Mans im- 
mane, 8fc. Compare II. S. 161. Hesiod. 
Scut. H. 425. Eustathius observes on this 
passage, that the quick measure, and the 
omission of the copulatives, admirably ex- 
presses the swiftness with which the lion 
seizes and devours his prey. A similar 
rapidity in the numbers is observable in 
v. 46. The grammarians have observed that 
Homer always uses o&fia for the dead, and 
$/ta for the living, body, to which the 
Scholiast objects that the lion seldom touches 
the dead carcase. Be it observed, however, 
that TTtivdwv is probably added to mark 
the rarity of the occurrence. 

33. w S' ore T'IQ rt dpcucovra K. T. \. 
Virg. jEn. II. 379. Improvisum aspris ve- 
luti qui sentibus anguem Pressit humi nitens, 
trepidusque repente refugit Attollentem iras, 
et ccerula colla tumentem : Hand secus, Sfc. 
iraXivopaoQ. Starting back : from opw, 
suscito. Etym. Mag. p. 648, 27. Hence 
also the word TraXivog^kvog, in II. A. 326. 
as it is generally read, though it is sepa- 
rated by Heyne. The compound a-^oppoQ 
is more frequently met with : e. g. infra v. 
313. II. A. 152. H. 413. 4>. 456. and else- 

36. SJQ avriQ K. r. X. The retreat of 
Paris is not here represented as purely the 
effect of fear ; but it proceeded from his 
sense of guilt with respect to the parti- 
cular person of Menelaus. He appeared 
at the head of the army to challenge the 
boldest of the enemy ; nor is his character 
elsewhere in the Iliad by any means that 

of a coward. Hector, at the end of the 
Sixth Book, confesses that no man could 
justly reproach him as such : nor is he so 
represented by Ovid, who copied Homer 
very closely, in the end of his Epistle to 
Helen. The moral of Homer is much finer. 
A brave mind, however blinded with pas- 
sion, is sensible of remorse as soon as the 
injured object presents itself: and Paris 
never behaves himself ill in war, but when 
his spirits are depressed by the conscious- 
ness of an injustice. POPE. Heyne also 
observes, that Paris, though engaged among 
the 7rpo/wa%oi, who were always heavily 
armed, was himself not so ; which, though 
it might deter him from meeting Menelaus, 
was no proof of personal cowardice. 

39. Aixnrapi. Unhappy Paris. A simi- 
lar compound is aivoTraptg, in Eur. Hec. 
932. The Venetian Scholiast has preserved 
the following fragment of the Poet Alcman : 
AvcrirapiQ, aivoirapic, KO.KOV 'EXXa^t /3w- 
navtipy. Thus also in Eur. Orest. 1383. 
dvvfXkvaQ. Of the same class is Kct/cot- 
Xiov, in Od. T. 260. *". 19. also several 
nouns common, as dvffTraTrjp, dv(rp,r)TTjp, 
and the like : but more particularly adjec- 
tives, as SiHTTTorfiog, SvairaQfiQ, &c. See 
Pent. Gr. Lex. v. aivopopoQ. 

40. aW o0fXf K. T. X. See on 11. A. 
415. In this place, ayovog signifies unborn, 
as in Soph. CEd. T. 27. Eur. Phcen. 1614. 
Eustath. 6 fJLri ytvvrjOtig. It is more usually 
the same with drticvog, childless. The line 
is somewhat varied in Sueton. Aug. 65. in a 
wish expressed by the Emperor respecting 



Kai KE TO fiov\oi/j.r]i>, Kai Kv TroXu Kp&ov fcv 
*H ovrw Xw/Srjv r' EjUEvai jcai vir6\jjiov aXXwv. 
icaprj KOjUoa>vr 'A^atoi, 

aptora Trpojuov /i/xvai, 
r'* aXX' OI/K <m j3irj 0p 


Ilovrov 7Tt7rXw(Tac, mipouc pn?pae aya'pae, 
Mt^0ic aXXo^aTToto-t, yu vatic' tv 
'E? 'ATTITJC ya"]e> vuov avSpwv ai 

i TE orw julya Trij/za, TroXr)/' r, TTCLVT'I TE S?]jutj), 

JUEV xap/^a, fcarrj^Efrjv orot 
OUK av ^17 jUtvtac aprji<f)i\ov 
Fvoirjc x'j ocou 0am>c %tC ^aXeprjv irapatcoiTiv. 
OVK av rot xpaiajjir) KiQapiQ, ra r 
"H rf KOjurj, ro T t^oc, or' 
'AXXa juaXa TpwC SftSr^jUOVfc' ^ TE KEV rj^J] 
Aai'vov E'O-CTO ^^wva, KOJCWV Vx'j oo-aa topyag 



41. <cat K ro (3ov\oifjir]v. Supply /*a\- 
Xov, as in II. A. 117. 

42. \(i)(3r]v. A disgrace : 72es pro per- 
ona. The old reading, 7roi|/ioi/, is equiva- 
lent to conspiciendus, which as Ernesti ob- 
serves, is sometimes used in a bad sense in 
Latin. But VTTO^IOV is supported by the 
best authorities, and is preferred by Heyne, 
who renders it invisus, rather than suspectus. 
Eustathius : 6 Se vTrotyiog ?) TOV STrovdSur- 
TOV dr]\ol Kai VTTOTTTOV, ov Tivt i7roj3\6- 
irovTcti vTTodpa did. TO fjdffoQ, r) TOV TOVQ 

47. ipirfpaQ. Strongly attached, closely 
connected: from the intensive particle epi, 
and apw, conjungo. Damm regards the plu- 
ral !pi7jpe either as a metaplasm for spirjpoi, 
since the nominative is gpt'j/pog, II. A. 266. 
or as syncopated from ipirjpfiQ, from the 
form spirjprjQ. But as epirjpoQ occurs but in 
this one place, and tpirjpeQ frequently, this 
assumption seems to be somewhat arbitrary. 
The Etym. M. recognises another nomina- 
tive gpnjp. Schol. Ipijjpaf ayav evap/ioo 1 - 

49. ' ATrirjg -yairig. See on II. A. 270. 

51. Karrityfirjv. Some read KctTr)<j)iir) in 
the nominative, and so Heyne ; supposing the 
reference more suitable to Paris than Helen. 
The fact is, that neither are intended, but 
there is an apposition, which is equivalent to 
b sort Trarpi K. T. \. and embracing the 
whole preceding sentence. Compare II. Q. 
735. See note on Soph. (Ed. T. 603. Pent. 
Gr. p. 46. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 432, 4. 

52. OVK av ST^ fjidvttaQ a. M. ; Could' st 
thou not withstand him ? The optative is 
thus used with av or KI in a negative inter- 

rogation, so as to imply a more gentle im- 
perative. Compare II. K. 204. 303. In 
the following line, the sense must be sup- 
plied thus : If thou did'st so, thou would'st 
then perceive, $c. The conditional proposi- 
tion with i is frequently omitted in similar 
constructions, as in II. I. 245. 303. instead of 
which the genitive absolute is used in II. K. 
246. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 514. and 525. note. 

54. OVK av TOI %paio-/Lt^ K. T. X. It is 
remarked by Dacier, that Homer, who cele- 
brates the Greeks for their long hair (<cap/ 
Ko/iowiTctf 'A%aioii), and Achilles for his 
skill on the harp, makes Hector, in this 
place, object them both to Paris. The Greeks 
nourished their hair to appear more dread- 
ful to the enemy, and Paris to please the 
eyes of women. Achilles sang to his harp 
the acts of heroes, and Paris the amours of 
lovers. The same reason which makes 
Hector here displeased at them, made Alex- 
ander afterward refuse to see this lyre of 
Paris, when offered to be shown to him, as 
Plutarch relates the story in his oration of 
the fortune of Alexander. POPE. See II. I. 
189. Hence Horat. Od. I. 15. 13. Nequic- 
quam, Veneris preesidio ferox, Pectes ccesa- 
riem, grataque feminis Jmbelli cithara car- 
mina divides ; tamen, heu ! serus adulteros 
Crines pulvere collines. 

57. \aivov (T(TO ^irwva. You would have 
put on a coat of stone : a poetical expression, 
which implies stoning to death. The Scho- 
liast, however, and others, understand it 
simply to mean, sepultus esses, i. e. you 
would have been laid in a sepulchre of stone. 
Upon what authority Pope asserts that 
stonino- was not the punishment of adultery 

p 2 

108 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, F'. 

Tov 8' avrs 7rpo<rt7Tv 'AXt^avSjOoc 0Ot8rj* 
"E/cro/o, ITTEI jU icar' cuaav ViK<rae, ou8' u?rp at 
Att rot Kpa8t'i], TrA-ficu^ we, ortv arttpriG, 60 

"Oc T' ft(7t ota 8ou|o6e VTT' avfpof , oc, 1 pa re 
Nrjtov tKTafJLvymv, o^eXXet 8' avSpbg tpw^v 
& TOI vt GTTjOzaaiv ara|oj3rjroc voo tort. 
M?} juot 

Ourot a7ro|3Xrjr' cart 0wv tpiKv^ia 8t5|oa, 65 

"OtTtra Kv aurot 8wartv, IKWV ' OVK av rtc fXotro. 
Nuv 8' aur', et 

"AXXovc JUEV KaOttrov Tpwa^ Kai Travrac ' 
Avrap [JL iv fJiiaaty icat aprj/'^tXov MfvAaov 

icat KT^uao-t Tra^t ULaaOaC 70 


wv i Travra, yvvaiKa re, 
Ot o aXXot, ^>tXor]ra icat opicta TTtora 
Natotrf Tpotrjv EptjSwXaica' TOI 
"AjO-yoc ? t7T7ro/3orov icat ^A\au^a KaXXt-yuvatJca. 75 

lX Qc ^a0'* "Eicrwp 8' avr' XP*? M^7 a ? fJLvOov ciicovcrac, 
Kai /()' f jLtla-o-ov twv Tpwwv avpy (j>a\ayya, 
MECTO-OU Sovpbg iXwv' rot 8' tSpuv0rj(rav a7ravr. 
Ttf 8' 7Tro^a^ovro leap?) KO/iowvrfc 'A^atot, 
'loicrt re rtrvdicojUEvoi Xa<T(Tt T' fjSaXXov. 80 

Aura/0 6 juaicpov avav ava^ av8pwv ' 

', 'A/oyaot, JUT) j3aXXfr, icoupot 


among the Trojans, it does not appear : and Heyne confines this meaning of the verb to 

that it was resorted to in common with this passage in Homer. It occurs, however, 

other Eastern nations is far from improba- in the same sense in ^Esch. Agam. 194. 

ble. This was certainly the penalty of the 65. ouroi aTrojSXjjr' tori K. T. \. Hence 

Jewish law. John viii. 5. 'Ev Sk r< vofKf Eur. Hipp. 106. n^aiaiv, a* Tral, Saipovuv 

Mw(T77f ^Iv evercfXaro rdf roiavrac. Xi- ^p^cr^at xpiwv. Lucian in Timon : ouroi 

9o(Bo\tlff9ai. Compare Levit. xx. 10. Deut. cnr6(3\r)Td kan d&pa Trapa TOV Aide.. Ar- 

xxii. 22. rian in Epictet. II. 23. 'Aaefiovg fiev, on 

59. "Efcrop, tTfti pe K. r. X. See on II. TCLQ irapd 6eov %a'pirac drt/ia^t. Ovid, 

A. 416. The conclusion to be drawn from Met. XIII. 139. bona nee sua guisque recuset. 

this concession of Paris is omitted ; but the The word dirofiXrjTov is used in a similar 

sense is manifest. Since you blame me passage in 1 Tim. iv. 4. In the next line, 

justly, I acquiesce, I submit. Similar omis- IKWV is not to be taken in its usual accepta- 

sions after the particle ITTCI, which were, tion of lubens ; it signifies suo arbitrio. 

most probably, readily inferred from the 72- tv TrdvTa. Omnia omnino. ERNESTI. 

gesture of the speaker, are frequently met It appears that Paris had carried off with 

with. Compare II. N. 68. 775. S. 101. Helen her treasures also. See II. Z. 291. 

Od. r. 103. A. 204. 0. 236. In II. Z. 334. N. 626. X. 114. sqq. 

the apodosis is supplied by the words TOV- 73. ooKia Triord TapovTig. See on II. B. 

veica ffoi tptat. Somewhat similar is the 124. 

construction noticed on II. A. 135. tear' 78- ptffffov dovooQ t'Xwv. Either to in- 

alaav. Schol. icard TO TrpovrJKov. So dicate a pacific intention, and that he was 

Kara fiolpav. II. A. 286. not about to hurl it ; or, for the purpose of 

61. etffi. See on II. A. 29. making the Trojans fall back into their 

64. Trpd^ept. Schol. 6veidi&. And so ranks. 

it is also explained by Suidas and Hesychius. 81.6. See on II. A. 11. 



yap ri JETTOC 
off' 01 ' 

K&cXure UE 




row ctWica vaicoc 

c j"V KtXsrat Tpwac *cat Travrac ' 
KaX' aTToOiaOat ETTI \9ovl TrovXujSora'pr)* 
Avrov 8' iv [*&&( KOL apTjt^iXov MevcXaov 
EXfV^ icat KTjjjitaa't 7ra<n 


iXwv u Travra, yuvatKa TE, o'/icaS' 
Ol 8' aXXoi ^tXorrjra KCU opicm TTtora 

lV Qc tyaff' ol 8' a^oa Travrf^ ajcr7V l^fvovro <ri(jjTry. 
Tottrt SE cai /xrt7T j3o?7v ayaObc; MsviXaog' 
vuv Kat jUto* /uLoXicfTa yap aX-yo^ 



8' o 

i' aXXoi 

8' apv', 

83. orevrai. From ortw/ttat, syncopated 
from orcuo/iat, <o affirm, also ^o determine. 
Schol. Venet. Kara Sictvoiav 6ptcrai. The 
word is purely Homeric, and is used in se- 
veral significations, all of which, however, 
denote an eager desire, or determination of 
the mind. Compare II. B. 597- E. 832. I. 
241. S. 191. $. 455. 

86. KBK\VT [iiv, Tpweg K. r. X. It has 
been asked how the different nations could 
understand one another in these confer- 
ences, since we have no mention in Homer 
of any interpreter between them. Some 
reason may be offered that they both spoke 
the same language ; for the Trojans, as may 
be seen in Dion. Halic. Lib. I. were of 
Grecian extraction originally. Dardanus, 
the first of their kings, was born in Ar- 
cadia ; and even their names were gene- 
rally Greek ; as Hector, Anchises, Andro- 
mache, Astyanax, fyc. Of the last of these, 
in particular, Homer gives us a derivation 
which is purely Greek, in II. Z. 403. But 
however it be, this is no more than the 
just privilege of poetry. jEneas and Turnus 
understand each other in Virgil, and the 
language of the Poet is supposed to be uni- 
versally intelligible. POPE. Homer has only 
made the Greeks and Trojans use the same 
language ; the allies differed in speech, both 
from them, and from each other. See on II, 
B. 867- 

icat Tpwac, ETTEI icaica TroXXa 7T7roo-0 
ai 'AXf^ 



95. ajejjv iysvovTO. See on II. A. 34. 
The construction is similar with such as 
TrX^criov ^v, (rtya terrw, and the like. 

97- KgtfXvre vwv Kai s/mo. We may ob- 
serve what care Homer takes to give every 
one his proper character; and how this 
speech of Menelaus is suited to the Laconic. 
POPE. Infra v. 213. 'Hrot pkv Mtv'eXaoe 
ETrirpoxd^v ayopeve, Haupa p.kv, dXXd 
fiaXa Xiyswf, ITTCI ow TroXv^vOog, OvS' 

98. Qpovtu). Schol. 

99. TTETrotrOe. Eustathius explains this, 
by syncope, for TrtTrovrjaOe, and others, with 
the Scholiast, for irtTrovOctTe. But it is 
more probably put for TrfTroff^arc, from 
TTSTrotr^a, perfect of Traer^w, which is found 
in Epicharm. ap. Etym. M. p. 602. 11. and 
Stesichor. ap. Phot. Lex. The word occurs 
again in Od. K. 465. V. 53. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 245. At all events, the derivation 
from Trdo-^fa* is the correct one. Compare 
II. B. 667. E. 886. 

100. evfic' apx^S- Scil. TJJG tpidog. 
HEYNE. Or we may understand dp^j), 
with Clarke, in the sense of the Latin in- 

103. o'iatTt d' apv', K. r. X. The Tro- 
jans, says the old Scholiast, were required 
to sacrifice two lambs ; one male, of white 
colour, to the sun ; and one female, of black, 
to the earth ; as the sun is the father of 



T KCU 'HcXttj)* Ail 

Ere O Ilpfajuoto |3tjv, o 

7T O TTttlSf 

' ooKia rajuvp 



A 3' 

OIc 8* 6 ytpwv jUT^<ni>, a/na Trpoffda) KCU o 

AVO-0-, O7TWC O^' apKTTd fJL^T afJifyQTipOKJl jeV^TaL. 110 

J'. f W / '4 / rp * / 

01 c ^a/oi7(rav A^atoi r l>W T, 
TravataOai ot^vpou TroXf/LCOto. 
Kat /o' tTTTTouc juev f'pv^av ETTI ort^ac, *c S' J3av avroi, 
Ti>Xa r' fSfSvovro, ra jUv KariOavT ITTI yaip 

aXXrjXwv, 6\iyij S' ^v a/i^ic apovpa. 115 

SE Trport aorv Sua> K^pujcac 7rjU7T 
Kap7raXt'jii(t>e, apvag re 0lptv, Hprnjuov r 
Avrap 6 TaXOvfliov TrpoiEi Kpdwv ' 
N^ag 7Ti y\a(f)vpag Uvai, 
Ot<Tjitvar 6 8' op* OVK airlOrid 'AyajUfjuvovt Sitj). 120 

yaXo({>, 'AvrijvopiSao 
Trjv 'Avrrjvopir]c ^X Kpei(t)v ' 
AaoStKrfv, nptajuoto OvyaTpwv Coc a 

rpV^ar*} / t\ ^iv > f \ 

Iryv o fp v jUyap({.) 17 O ptyav IGTQV 

AiVXajca, 7rop^vpr]v' 7roXac 

tTTTTO^ajuwv, Kai 'A^atwv 
etveic' fiTraa-^ov VTT' "Aprjo? 


Tpw(t)v (P 7 


light ; and the earth, the mother and nurse 
of men. The Greeks were to offer a third 
to Jupiter, perhaps to Jupiter Xenius, be- 
cause the Trojans had broken the laws of 
hospitality. POPE. The two victims were 
furnished by the Trojans, because the war 
was in their country. The verb olatTe is 
the future indicative, instead of the impe- 
rative, and not a real imperative from the 
future form, mentioned on v. 35. See on 
11. K. 88. The idiom is the same in En- 
glish. Thus we should say : You will bring 
two lambs, and we will bring a third. 

105. Ilpia/ioio (3irjv. Compare II. B. 

106. i>7Tp^ia\ot. It does not appear 
that this adjective necessarily conveys re- 
proach, though it is generally used in a bad 
sense. In Od. A. 227. S. r j\. the adverb 
wTrep^idXwc. simply means exceedingly. 
Compare also Od. $. 289. 


108. j}p!0ovrai. ^re %A as air ; i. e. 
unstable. Fragm. incert. ap. Stob. "HjS?/ *cai 
vf.ort\c, tTriKov^'i^ti voov dvdpog. Theognis : 
To vkov UTTCIV v^jjXov tan Kai Qpacrv. 
Horat. Art. P. 165. Imberbis juvenis, tan- 
dem custode remoto, Sublimis cupidusque, et 
amata relinquere pernix. Compare also II. 
M*. 589. and the parallels there cited. 

109. dig. For et TKTI. See on II. JSj. 81. 
115. dfi^ig. See on II. B. 13. 

124. Of Laodice, see II. Z. 251. 

125. 'HTTOV v<paive. See on II. A. 31. 

126. diTrXaica. Eustath. \eiirti vQrjv, rj 
rt TOIOVTOV nvtq Se TO '^Kalvav \tiirtiv 
^Jjaiv. See Bos Ellips. Gr. p. 330. The 
commentators explain it by SipiTOV x\ai- 
vav. See Blomfield's Gloss, on JEsch. 
Pers. 282. That the word is properly an 
adjective, is clear from II. ^r. 243. Ivkiraa- 
aiv. Schol. V7roiKi\\cv. 

1 30. OsaiceXa Ipya. See on 11. B. 367- 



Ot irpiv IV a\\ri\oi(Ti (pepov TroXvSaKpvv "Aprja 

'Ev TTf&'tt), 6XooTo XtXatOjUfVOt TToXfjLlOtO. 

0? T) vuv carat aiyy> TroXcjUOC $ 7T7rai>rat, 
'Ao-TTicrt KEK\ifj.ivoL, Trapa 8' *7X a ^"^P" TrtVij'yev. 
Avrap 'AXtavSjOoc K 



AVTIKO. 8' apycvvrjio-t /caXuT//ajUvrj oOovymv, 
'Qpjuar' !K OaXafjLoio riptv Kara Saicpu ^E 
Oi/c o'/i], tijua rip'yfi ical aju^tTroXot 8v' t 
AWpr), ritT&joe ^uyarrjp, KXujLivrj re 
Aiifja 8' 7Tt0' ticayov, o0t dreamt TruXai ^trav. 
Ot 8' a^u^i Ylpia/ULOv KOI HavOoov f]$t 0ujuotr?v, 

T, KXvrtov 0', 'IicfTaova r', 6$ov "Aprjoc, 
eywv T jcai 
Eiaro SriiuLoytpovT 
Fripa'i 877 TroXfjUOto 7r7raijulvoi* aXX' ayopTjrat 

o f /r 
Xff/oiO(T(Tav tao-i' 



135. affTriffi KsK\i[.ievoi. Supply ev or 
7rt. And so again in II. A. 371. $. 549. 
Virg. jEn. IX. 229. Stant longis annixi 
hastis, et scuta tenentes. XII. 130. Deftgunt 
tellure hastas, et scuta reclinant. 

138. KticXrjay. See on II. B. 260. 

141. KaXvfya.fJi.evT]. Having covered her- 
self; according to the strict and primary 
usage of the middle verb. So again II. &. 

143. a/z0i7roXoi. See on II. A. 321. 

144. The Scholiast informs us, that when 
Helen, who had been carried off by The- 
seus, was delivered by the Dioscuri, they 
brought away ^Ethra, to whose care she was 
consigned at Aphidnae. Others, however, 
suppose that this cannot be .ZEthra, the 
mother of Theseus, as she could never have 
been an attendant of Helen. But there can 
be no cause to suspect the genuineness of 
the verse upon that account, since the cus- 
torn of the time, which reduced Hecuba and 
Andromache to this situation, would ac- 
count for a similar usage in the present in- 
stance. See the Hecuba of Euripides, and 
compare II. Z. 454. sqq. On the mythology, 
see Hygin. Fab. 79- Schol. Lycoph. Cass. 
503. and compare Herod. IX. 73. Pausan. 
X. 25. 

145. Sfcaiai irv\nt. The Scaean gates 
only are expressly mentioned by Homer, 
and on this ground Heyne denies the ex- 


istence of any other. Dares Phrygius, on 
the contrary, tells us, that Troy had seven 
gates. Whether this was, or was not, the 
case, it is evident from II. B. 809. where 
the Trojans are said to issue from all the 
gates, that there were, at least, more than 
one : since it is not satisfactory to under- 
stand Tracrai, with Heyne, in the sense of 

146. ol f dju^i Hpia/ioi/ K. r. X. That 
is, Priam, Panthus, fyc. with their compa- 
nions, or attendants : in which sense the 
article is frequently used with the preposi- 
tions aptyi, or 7Tpt, and a proper name. 
Compare II. Z. 435. Sometimes, however, 
the phrase merely implies the person him- 
self, whom the proper name expresses ; as 
in Herod. III. 76. ; but Matthiae is certainly 
wrong in affirming that such is the case 
here, and that we cannot suppose any com- 
panions of Priam and the rest (Gr. Gr. . 
271. 2.) 

152. oTra Xtipiotvaav. Schol. tiriQv- 
prjTrjv, rjStiav. Others render it weak, 
slender ; and so Hesychius : \ipioi' aira- 
\o. But the former interpretation is more 
agreeable to the derivation of the word 
from \eipiov, a lily : and the grasshopper 
seems to have been generally considered by 
the ancients as a musical creature. Virgil, 
indeed, applies the epithet raucee to cicada 1 ; 
but Anacreon praises its melody in Od. 43. 



ToTot apa T/owwv ^-y^ropsc Tfvr' ETTI Tru 
Oi S' u>e ouv fiSov 'EXf'vrjv iVi Trvpyov toutrav, 
TT/OOC aXXrjXoue 7Ta Trrepoevr* ayopcuov* 
Ow v^o-ic, Tpwac KCU liJKvrifjLL^ag 'A^atouc 
TroXuv xpovov a'Xyca Tra 


'AXXtt Kttt 0>C, TO/TJ 7Tp OV<r', V 

' 17/UlV TK(TCrt T' OTTtO-O-tt) TTTJjUa XtTTOtrO. 


ic 7rporpov T TTOOW, TTTJOVC re, 0t 
(Ouri /xoi alrcrf krai* 0oi vu juot ainot tl<nv, 
Oi jiioi I^wpjurjaav TroXf/iOv TroXu&aKpuv ' 


ilC juot Kal rovd a 

and so also Theocr. Id. II. 148. 
CTree TV ya ^sorepov adstg. Of the sweet- 
ness of the voice in old age, Nestor is a 
celebrated example. It should seem, how- 
ever, that this does not embrace the whole 
of the comparison, which may extend also 
to the infirmities of age. Thus Solomon 
compares an old man to a grasshopper in 
Eccles. xii. 5. in which he seems to allude 
to the projecting limbs, and shrivelled ap- 
pearance of the insect. And hence, per- 
haps, arose the fable of Tithonus, from 
which Homer is supposed by Eustathius to 
have derived his simile; who, after living 
to an extreme old age, was turned at last 
into a grasshopper. 

156. ou vefJLeffiQ. Scil. fort. It is not 
blameworthy : Schol. ov /*6jui//i. Compare 
II. E. 80. So also Virg. Mn. IV. 349. 
Quce tandem Ausonia Teucros considere terra 
Invidia est ? The expression is equivalent 
to Nee mirum. Upon this passage Quinc- 
tilian has the following remarks in Instit. 
Orat. VIII. 4. 21. Non putant indignum 
Trojani principes, Graios Trojanosque propter 
Helena speciem tot mala, tanto temporis 
spatio, sustinere. Qucenam igitur ilia forma 
credenda est ? Non enim hoc dicit Paris, 
qui rapuit ; non aliquis juvenis, non unus e 
vulgo ; sed senes, et prudentissimi, et Priamo 
assidentes. Verum et ipse rex, decenni bello 
exhaustus, amissis tot liberis, imminente 
summo discrimine, cut faciem illam, ex qua 
tot lacrimarum origo fluxisset, invisam atque 
abominandam esse oportebat, et audit hcec, et 
eamfiliam appellans juxta se locat, et excusat 
etiam, atque sibi esse malorum causam negat. 
Hence also Lucian in Dial. Mort. Menip. 
Merc. Men. EZra ai ^iXtai vfftQ did TOVTO 

TOGOVTOI 7r<rov"EXX7jv re Kal fldpflapoi, 
Kal Toaavrai TroXfigdvacrrttroi yeyovacriv ; 


Merc. 'AXX' OVK does, & MSVITTTTC, 

Tr)v fvvalKa' tyris yap av KUI av avt- 

P,<TTJTOV iivai, Toiyd' aj-ifyi yvvalKi K. r. X. 

157. ap,<j)l yvvaiKi. The preposition 
d/^0i with a dative signifies propter; and 
its use in this sense, though rare, is not 
confined to Homer, as some have thought. 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 583. b. 

158. aivtig. Schol. \lav, Trdvv. So also 
in Apoll. Rhod. III. 15. v7rep<j>ia\OQ TrsXct 
aivu>Q. 480. dXXd paX' alv&Q Aci^w. Herod. 
JV. 61. alv&G a%v\ov. tiQ wTra. With 
respect to. In similar constructions the pre- 
position is more usually omitted. Od. A. 
208. alvG)Q ydp KetyaXrjv rt KCH o/ijitara 
fcaXd toiKag Kttvy See on II. A. 115. 

164. OVTI fioi airir} gtroi, K. r. X. Virg. 
jEn. II. 601. Non tibi Tyndaridis fades 
invisa Laceenee, Culpatusve Paris ; Divum 
inclementia, Divum, Has ever tit opes, ster- 
nitque a culmine Trojam. 

166. we [toi Kal Tovd' avdpa K. T. X. 
This view of the Grecian leaders from the 
walls of Troy, is justly looked upon as an 
episode of great beauty, as well as a mas- 
terpiece of conduct in Homer; who by 
this means acquaints the readers with the 
figure and qualifications of each hero, in a 
more lively and agreeable manner. Several 
great poets have been engaged by the 
beauty of this passage to an imitation of it. 
In Stat. Theb. VII. Phorbas standing with 
Antigone on the tower of Thebes shows 
her the forces as they were drawn up, and 
describes their commanders, who were 
neighbouring princes of Bceotia. It is also 
imitated by Tasso in his Third Book, where 
Erminia, from the walls of Jerusalem, points 
out the chief warriors to the king. POPE. 
It should be observed, however, that the 
description of Statius is not taken imme- 
diately from Homer, but through the in- 




^H rot fj.ev K$aXri KOL /Utov a'XXot a<rt, 
KaXov 8' ourw eywv OUTTW t'Sov 600aXjuoT<nv, 
OvS' ourw ytpapov' |3a<nXfji yap avSpi otK. 
Tov 8' 'EXfVTj fULvSoKnv ajuttjSero, ta 

AtSoiOC T jUOi <T<Tl, ^tXf KUp, SavOf Tf 

( Q/g o^tXe Oavarog JULOL a$eiv KO.K.OC;, OTTTTOTE SEU/JO 
Yta <rw ITTOJUTJV, OaXa/uiov yvwTOvz re XtTrovaa, 
ITatSa re rijXu'yETrji', Kai ojurjXt/arjv partv?)v. 
'AXXa ra 7' OVK yvovro* TO Kai JcXatoutra rrr|Ka. 
Touro 81 ro iw, o 



i\ev T 



* TOV 

tervention of Euripides, who has intro- 
duced an aged attendant for the purpose of 
giving a precisely similar description to An- 
tigone (Phoeniss. 86.). To an old objection, 
which has been repeated by Scaliger, that 
it appears strange, how Priam should be 
unacquainted with the persons of the Gre- 
cian leaders in the tenth year of the war, 
and particularly with Ulysses, who had been 
on an embassy to Troy ; it is fairly answered, 
that the Greeks do not appear, on any 
former occasion, to have advanced so near 
the walls of Troy ; and Priam may be sup- 
posed to have forgotten the features of 
Ulysses, since the time of his departure. 

173. adtiv. Had been preferred. Schol. 

175. TTaiSd Tf. Tf]\v/eTr]V. Properly, 
a child born in old age: II. E. 153. Schol. 
KvpiaiQ Tt]\vytToi KaXovvrai ot Tf)\ov TrJQ 
yovfi OVTIQ Tratfcg, o iariv kv ytpovTtKy 
r)\iiciif, ffTrapKVTSQ. In this acceptation, 
however, it cannot possibly apply to Her- 
mione, the daughter of Menelaus and Helen. 
Since in old age, therefore, there is less like- 
lihood of many children, the word is gene- 
rally taken in a secondary signification ; in 
which some understand it to mean an only, 
others a beloved, and others a delicate, child. 
(II. N. 470.) The former seems the more 
probable interpretation ; since Homer says 
expressly in Od. A. 14. sqq. that Hermione 
was an only child, although others have 
maintained a contrary opinion. See Heyne 
on Apollod. Bibl. III. 11. 1. Compare II. 
I. 143. 478. Mosch. Idyl. IV. 79. 

176. d\\d TO. y' OVK tygj/ovro. Quod 
optaverim, quodque factum oportebat, non 
evenit. CLARKE. 


179. d/<i06rpov (3aai\tvQ K. r. X. This 
was the verse which Alexander the Great 
preferred to all others in Homer ; and 
which he proposes as the pattern of his 
own actions, as including whatever can be 
desired in a prince. Plut. Orat. de fort. 
Alex. I. POPE. Xenoph. Mem. III. 2. 2. 'H 
ri 77 Trore OVTWQ 67ry'j/<T rov'Ayajug/ivova, 

C17TWV 'AfJltyOTtpOV j8a<7lXV K. T. X. ; 

T Apa y OTI aLxfJ-r]T^g Tf. Kai Kparepbe 
av ?j;, OVK tl povoQ avroQ tv ayiovi^oiTO 
Trpof rove TToXf/iiovf, dXX' el Kai travri 
T(fi 0rparo7rsd<> TOVTOV alnoQ iq ; feat 
(BaaiXtvQ dyaGog, OVK t fiovov TOV iav- 

TOV (3lOV KaX&Q 7rpOOT7KOl, dXX' 1 Kttt (t)V 

/3a(7iXVoi, rowrotg tvdaipoviag aiTiog elrj ; 
Auson. Epitaph. Her. VII. Consilio, belloque 
bonus, qua; copula rara est. Sail. B. C. Stre- 
nui militis et boni imperatoris qfficium simul 
exequebatur. B. J. Quod difficillimum impri- 
mis est, et preelio strenuus erat, et bonus con- 

180. i TTOT' trjv ye. The meaning of 
these words is not very apparent. Eustath. 
irpavvet TOV t-rri Ty p,veiy TOV dvdpog 
Xvirovfitvov 1<TU)Q /car' avTrjg' oiovei Xe- 
yovaa, wf ou vvv kanv, dXXd Trorf ijv. 
Heyne would understand i Trorf to be used 
instead of OTTOTe, thus ; quando ille erat 
socer meus. It seems to be a formula ex- 
pressive of regret for a lost possession ; 
He was mine once: would he were yet! Com- 
pare II. A. 762. Q. 426. Od. O. 268. T. 315. 
On the construction of the former part of 
the line, see the note on Soph. (Ed. C. 332. 
Pent. Gr. p. 126. 

182. fioiorjyevsg. Schol. dya9y fioipa 
yeytvvtjfiive. And so Eustathius, Hesy- 
chius, and others. 



'H pa vv TOI TroXXoi SeSfju'iaTo Kovpoi ' 

' Hoi) KOI ^Ppuyirjv ia7JXu0ov a/unr 

'Ei'i/a loov irX^iarovg <&pvya, avspag aioXo7ra>XouCj 185 

Aaovg 'Orp^oc Kai MuySovoc avri6/Oto, 

Ot pa TOT orrparowvro Trap' o\Qaq ^ayyap'ioio' 

"I^ VV'JN)/ IX \^- \ / /\ 

"H/iari rw, orf r' r\\Qov 'Ajua^ovfc avrmvfipai' 

'AXX' oi/S' OL TOffOt i)crav, oaroi fXtKWTTfc 'A^aiof. 190 

Afvrfpov aur', 'O^vtrf/tt iSwv, piv* 6 
EiV ay juoi Kai rov^, 0iXov TKOC, 
!v K^>aXi7V ' Aya/mijuivovog ' 





, icrtXoc we, 7Tt7rwXarai 

"Ocrr' otwv juf-ya TTWU $ip\Tai a 

Tov 8* ^juajSfr' 7rt0' 'EXfvrj, Atoc E 
u av AaprtaSi)^, Tr 

183. df.8p.f)a.TO. Imperio tuo parebant ; 
i. e. are wow/ ^o o&ez/. The use of the per- 
fect would have been more regular. See 
on II. A. 37. Barnes, indeed, reads fo- 
p,rjarai vltg 'A^aiUjv, but without the au- 
thority of a single MS. 

185. atoXoTrwXowg. See on II. A. 186. 

187- 'Tap' o\QaQ. Along the banks. Eu- 
stath. 01 ^e /i0' "Op,rjpov Trap' o^Qaig 
fyaaiv. This, however, is not altogether 
true, since Trap' o%0atc. signifies, near the 
banks ; as in ^sch. Theb. 388. Soph. Phil. 
726. The accusative occurs in the sense 
of this passage in ^Esch. Prom. 835. See 
Blom field in loc. Compare II. A. 487- 

189. 'A/*a6vf avTidrtipai. According 
to Diodorus Siculus, the Amazons were a 
tribe of warlike women, who had settled 
in Africa sometime before the Trojan war. 
They afterwards appear to have established 
themselves in Cappadocia, and, by degrees, 
to have overrun a great part of Asia Minor, 
extending their possessions along the Eux- 
ine, as far as the Caspian Sea. Various 
accounts are given of them by Herodotus, 
Justin, Q. Curtius, and Plutarch in Fit. 
Thesei : but for the most part so involved 
in fable, that many have been induced to 
doubt their existence ; and Strabo considers 
their history as a proof of the credulity of 
mankind : Lib. XI. p. 347- Plutarch also 
says of their wonderful exploits, Trtpifyav&Q 
toiKt p,vQ(p Kai TrXdff/jiaTi. Q. Smyrnseus 
relates in his Post-Homerica, that they as- 
sisted Priam in the Trojan war ; and Virgil 
describes their appearance, and celebrates 


their achievements, under their Queen Pen- 
thesilea, in JEn. I. 490. Ducit Amazonidum, 
lunatis agmina peltis Penthesilea furens, me- 
diisque in millibus ardet, Aurea subnectens 
exertee cingula mamma Bellatrix, audetque 
viris concurrere virgo. Homer mentions 
them once again in II. Z. 186. and with 
the same epithet. Schol. avTidveipac al 
laai Kara tvva^niv avBpdaiv, i) al tvav- 
Tiovp,evai avdpdaiv, i% ov TroXe/uicai. 
Virgil has fully and beautifully expressed 
the idea of the epithet in the passage cited 
above. For a full account of these hero- 
ines, and the opinions respecting them, 
see Bryant's Heathen Mythology, I. 32. 
V. 110. 

197. TrrjyeaifJidXX^. Denso vellere prce- 
dito. This is doubtless the true meaning, 
as it is properly explained by Apollonius ; 
p,a\\ov^, TOVT'IGTIV tvrpafyCiQ, 
From Trrjyvvpi, figo, compingo. See 
on II. I. 124. This simile is considered 
very beautiful and natural ; as the ram was 
generally considered a symbol of authority, 
from being trained to lead and conduct the 
flock. Arist. Hist. Anim. VI. 19. Iv^xdffry 
yap TroifjLvy KaraffKtvd^ovaiv r/yejuoi/a rwv 
dppsvujv, o orav ovojuari K\r]By VTTO row 
Troi/isvof, Trpo^ytlrai. Hence, the king of 
Persia is represented under the figure of a 
ram in Dan. viii. 3. 20. In Exod. xv. 15. 
where the Hebrew word signifies a ram, 
the LXX. have apxojrfg ; and in Ezek. 
xvii. 13. j/ytjttovag. The Latin Vulgate, 
however, in both instances, gives arietes. 
Compare Jerem, 1. 8. Zech. x. 3. 




iravToiovg T SoAoue KCU /Li/j&a TTVKVCI 
TTJV ' our' 'AvrrjvWjO 7riirvv/j.ivo avriov 
yvvat, rj jULaXa TOVTO 
rj yap Kal c$U>o TTOT 


tyw ^tyt(T(ra, /cat tv /uLtyapoicri 

u)v $ 0ur?v <5a)jv KCU /uij& 
or $77 Tpw<Trrtv v aypojuivo 

/itv MfvAaog virtipt^tv tvpia^ 


'AXX' OT S?7 fJLl)9oV^ KOL 

'H rot jUV MfVfXao 
Ilav/oa jUv, aXXa ^uaXa 

201. Kpavar)Q. Craggy, mountainous. 
Schol. rpvxtiac. Virg. ^n. III. 272. 
Scopulos Ithaca. Hence Cicero Orat* I. 
44. CW/MS rei (sell, amoris Patrice] tanta 
est vis et tanta natura, ut Ithacam illam, in 
asperrimis saxulis tanquam nidulum affixam, 
sapientissimus vir immortalitati anteponeret. 
Cf. Odyss. E. 208. sqq. Of dnuoe, in the 
sense of 7ro\i , see on II. B. 547- 

202. ddw iravToiovQ K. T. X See on II. 
B. 718. 

203. ri]v d' avr 'AvTrjvwp K. r. X. In 
this view of the leaders of the army, it had 
been an oversight in Homer to have taken 
no notice of Menelaus, who was not only 
one of the principal of them, but was im- 
mediately to engage the attention of the 
reader in the single combat. On the other 
hand, it had been a high indecorum to have 
made Helen speak of him. He has, there- 
fore, put his praises into the mouth of Ante- 
nor ; which was also a more artful way than 
to have presented him to the eye of Priam 
in the same manner with the rest. POPE. 

206. atv ZvtK dyytXtTj^. That is, 
aov. So Thucyd. VIII. 15. dyytXia TIJG 
Xiow, i. e. concerning Chios. 39. ayyeXiav 
TOV ZvfjnrapaKOfjuaOfjvai, i. e. respecting the 
conveyance. Compare I. 100. 140. This 
use of the genitive is very common, par- 
ticularly after verbs of hearing, enquiring, 
and the like. See Pent. Gr. p. 287. on Soph. 
Ant. 1182. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 320. This 
embassy of Ulysses and Menelaus is men- 
tioned in Herod. II. 117. That of Ulysses 
in Od. A. 242. 199. was performed on a 
different occasion. 

210. vTrtipextv. See on II. B. 426. and 
on v. 353. of the change of construction in 
the following line. 

212. dXX' ore drj [ivQovc K. T. X. This 

7Tt ov 


passage concerning the different eloquence 
of Menelaus and Ulysses is inexpressibly 
just and beautiful. The close laconic con- 
ciseness of the one, is finely opposed to the 
copious, vehement, and penetrating oratory 
of the other ; which is so exquisitely de- 
scribed in the simile of the snow falling 
fast, and sinking deep. For it is in this 
the beauty of the comparison consists, ac- 
cording to Quintilian, Inst. Orat. XII. 10. 
64. In Ulysse facundiam et magnitudinem 
junxit, cui orationem nivibus hybernis, et 
copia verborum atque impetu, parem, tribuit. 
POPE. Aul. Gell. VII. 14. Sed ea ipsa 
genera dicendi, jam antiquitus tradita ab 
Homero, sunt tria in tribus ; Magnificum in 
Ulysse et ubertum ; Subtile in Menelao et co - 
hibitum : Mixtum moderatumque in Nestore. 
213. tTCiTpo^a^^v. Summarily, briefly, 
rapidly. Eustath. avrl TOV 

TroXXa. Quintil. Inst. Orat. XII. ubi supra. 
Homerus brevem quidem cum animi jucun- 
ditate, et propriam, id enim est non errare 
verbis, et carentem supervacuis eloquentiam 
Menelao dedit. Hence the epithet d0a- 
/*apro7n}g, (v. 215.), digressive, discur- 
sive, wandering from the point. Schol. airo- 
Tvy\dv(>)v TOV (TKOTrov TU)V Xoywv Od. 
A. 510. Aii Trpwrof tj3af icai ov% ?y/iap- 
Tavf. fj,v9<i)v. The contrary is said of Ajax 
in II. N. 824. 

214. Xiyo>g. Clara voce. This is the 
more general acceptation of the word, as 
in II. T. 5. *-. 218. and elsewhere: but 
the ancients seem to have understood it in 
the sense of suaviter. Cicero de Clar. Orat. 
Menelaum ipsum, dulcem ilium quidem tra- 
dit Homerus, sed pauca loqnentem. 

215. yv. .In age. Schol. T 


Q 2 

116 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, T. 

'AXX' #T 817 

2ra<riv, UTTCU SE icWicE, Kara -^BovoQ oju/uara 

SjojTrrpov S' our' OTTttrw, oure 

'AXX' aoTEjU^EC EXEO-JCEV, aiSpt'i 0am EOIKO>* 

<I>an7C KE ZCIKOTOV TE rtv' EJUJUEVCU, a<pova 0' auroe. 220 

'AXX' OTE Srj /o' 6Va T fJLtyaXriv EIC arriOfog ? ? 

Kai ETTfa va^(T(Ttv EOticora 

Ov TOTE 7' a>8* 'OSvo-rjoc a7a<7(raju0' 

To rpfrov aur', Atavra t^wv, ptv' 6 yepatog' 225 

T/c T' />' ocT aXXoc 'A^aioc avr)p ^i5c T fieyag TE, 
"E^oxoc 'Apyslwv K$aXrjv T icat 

Tov 8' 'EXfvrj ravv7T7rXoc 
' A'/ac <TTI TrfXwptoc? 

' TpO)0V Vl KprjT(T(Tl, 0OC W^, 230 

"Ecrrrjic 1 * aju^)i ^ JULIV Kprjrwv a-yoi 
HoXXa/a jutv ?ivicro-v aprj/^tXot; 


Nuv 8' aXXoic jttEV Travrac opw 

OVQ Kv Eii yvoirjv, KOL rovvofia juuftrjffaijurjv* 235 

Aota> S' ov Svvajuai i^EEtv KO(Tjurjrop XawV) 

Kaoropa 0' nrTroSajuov, icai TTU^ ayaOb 

Avroica(Tt7vr7ro>, rw juot /ita ydvaro 


aur' ovjc lOtXovai fJLa\r\v KaraSvjUEvat av^pwv, 

tStorfe KOI 6vi^a ?roXX', a juot Et 
lN Ctc 0aro* rou o ry^rj (carfx^ fyvai^oog ala 
'Ev AaicE^atjuovt auOt, ^)tXr^ EVI Trarpi^t 

216. dXX' ore / c. r. X. See on II. A. on v. 212. and Plin. Epist. I. 20. Schol. 
610. and compare infra v. 232. A. 334. 344. Xdyoe TroXXoi (cat TTVKVOI. We meet with 
I. 191. and elsewhere. a comparison very similar in Deut xxxii. 2. 

217. OTdffKtv, i>7ral St K. r. X. Quintil. LXX. Ilpo(r&>Ka<T0w d> vtTOQ TO airo- 
Instit. Orat. XI. 3. 158. Mire enim auditu- <j)9eyfid fiov, icai fcara/S^rw ae dpoaoc TOL 
rum dicturi cura delectat, et judex se ipse prjfiara p.ov, wad ofippOQ ITT' aypwortv, 
componit. Hoc preecepit Homerus Ulixis ex- Kai dxrel vuptTog 7rt ^oprov. 

emplo, quern stetisse oculis in terram de- 229. epwog 'A\ai&v. See on II. A. 284. 

fixis, immotoque sceptro, priusquam illam 235. Kai rovvo^a. Supply otv. See on 

eloquentiae procellam effunderet, dicit II. A. 79. 

Hence Ovid. Met. XIII. 125. Adstitit, at- 244. Trarptdi yaiy. That is, at Therapna : 

que oculos paulum tellure moratus Sustulit Find. Pyth. XI. 95. Nem. X. 106. See 

adproceres. Heyne on Apoll. III. 2. 2. Mr. P. Knight, 

222. vujtddeaaiv toiKora xet/ifpcyo-ti/. in his Prolegomena, objects to Helen's igno- 

Senec. 40. Itaque oratio ilia Ulyssis apud ranee of the death of her brothers as an im- 

Homerum concitata, et sine intermissione in probable circumstance : but her long absence 

morem nivis superveniens, oralori data est. from her country will readily solve the diffi- 

See also the passage from Quintilian, cited culty. 

'OMHPOY 'I AT A ACS, T. 117 


A|t>v 8v<i>, Kal otvov tvtypova, KapTrov apouprjc? 

'l8atoc ??8 

f 8 'ylpovra 7raptara/.ivo 
"Op<TO, AaOjU8oima8rj" KaXfOuanv apicrroi 250 

' t7r7ro8a/i(i>v Kai 'Axatwv ^aXicoxirwviuv, 
'Eg 7T8iov Kara|3f}vat, iV opKta TTttrra ra/ui]at. 
Aurap 'AXl^av^po^ Kat aprjt^tXoc 

T< ^ K VtKriGdVTL ^VVT) KOL KT^jUtt^' 7TOtTO' 255 

Of 8' aXXot, 0tXori7ra cat OjOicm Trtara ra/uovrf?, 
v T/ootrjv ipijSwXaKa* rot Sf viovrat 
C t7T7roj3orov icat 
' 6 

* roi 8' orpaXlwc 7riOovro. 260 

'Av 8' ap' j3j] Ilpta/Aoc, Kara 8' i7via Ttvv 
Flap SE ot 'Avrijvwp TTfptKaXXfa 
To) 8f 8m S/caiwv ?r8/ov8' f'xov 

'AXX' OTE 817 p' IKOVTO jUra Tpwa^ KOL ^ 

a7TOj3avrc 7Ti x^ova 7rouXvj3or<pav, 265 

T/owwv KOI 'A%atwv Ecrrtxowvro. 
8' avriK 7rtra ava^ av8paiv 'AyajUfjUvwv, 
'Av 8' 'O8u(Tuc TroXvjUTjrtc' arap KrjpvKiQ ayavol 
"OpKta TTtcrra 0wv avvayov, KpijrijjOt 8l olvov 
Mio-yov, arap 

H ot Trap ^i^>oc julya KOuXfov aiv a 

K K0aXfwv rafjive Tpi\ag' aurap 

Tpwwv Kai 'Axtwv vajuav apt 
Toio-tv 8' 'Ar/ot8i]c jUf-yaX' UXTO, ^(fipag avaa^v" 275 

0*, oc Travr' 0opc> KOI Travr' 7raKOuac> 

247. K/OTjriJpa. Of this, and the KVTreX- with cutting a portion of hair from the fore- 

Xov, mentioned in the following line, see on head of the victim, and distributing it 

II. A. 470. 584. among the contracting parties, that all might 

257. vsovrai. Present for future. See share in the oath. Virgil has imitated this 

the note on Soph. Ant. 33. Pent. Gr. p. 215. description of the ceremony in ^En. XII. 

268. av d' 'Odvatvg. That is, av&pwro. 161. sqq. and has given the adjuration with 

269. KpTjriJpi Sk olvov Mt'cryov. See on peculiar grandeur and effect in v. 176. Esto 
II. B. 341. nunc sol testis, et htec mihi terra vocanti, 

271. /ixtpav. See on II. A. 220. Quum propter tantos potui perferre labor -es, 

273. dpvwv K KtQaXewv K. T. X. Com- Et pater omnipotens, $c. 

pare Virg. ^En. VI. 245. The ceremony of 277- 'HlXtog 0'. The nominative for the 

striking a covenant, of which Homer has vocative. See on Eur. Phcen. 796. Pent. 

here given a minute description, commenced Gr. p. 350. 



Kat IlorajLtoi, KOI Tata, KOI 01 vtrivepOt 

TTOVf; TivvaOov, oriq K 7TtopKOV Ojuot 
juaprupot core, 0uXaar<TT ' opKta TTtara. 

Ei fJiiv K MfvAaov 'A 
0' 'EXlvr/v 

l O V V/J(T<Tl V(5jll0a TTOVTOTTOjOOlO'lV" 

Ei Sf K' 'AXfSavSpov KTtvrj av06e MfvlXaoc, 
Tpwag 7m0' 'EXlvijv ical Kr/jjuara TTCLVT aTToSouvai, 
TijUT7i> 3' 'Ajoyaoie aTTortvtjttfv, rjvriv' OiKv, 
f/ H r icat <7crOjUVOicri jUfr' avOpwiroiai TrsXrjrat. 
Ei S' ay juoi riju^v Dpiajuoe Ilpiajuoio r TraT&c 
TIVEIV OWK lOtXaxnv, 'AX^avSpoto 
Avrap 70) /cat 7Ttra /xa)(//crojuai tvKa 

t(i>C K TfXoC TToXlfJLOLO 

rojLta^ou^ apvwv 
Kat rovg jUV KartOriKev ?rt \0ovbc; a 


Ot^ov S' K KjOrjrfjjOOC 

, 178 fv^ovro 00tc at 





279- rivvaQov. Since this is in the dual, 
the reference must be to Pluto and Proser- 
pine. See on II. A. 567- Of the construc- 
tion of the relative brig in the singular, with 
the antecedent in the plural, see Pent. Gr. 
p. 257. note on Soph. Ant. 707- 

281. ti /iV K M. On this construction, 
which is repeated in vv. 284. 288. see on II. 
A. 137. 

285. aTTodovvai. For aTrodovrwv. The 
infinitive for the imperative. See on II. A. 
20. This usage, however, is less frequent, 
when the third person imperative is to be 
understood. Compare II. Z. 92. H. 79. 
375. and see Person on Eur. Hec. 876. 

287. n re Kal taffopsvoHn K. r. X. This 
Madame Dacier renders, The tribute shall 
be paid to the posterity of the Greeks for ever. 
I think she is single in that explication ; 
the majority of the interpreters taking it to 
signify, that the victory of the Greeks and 
this pecuniary acknowledgment, should be 
recorded to all posterity . If it means more 
than this, at least it cannot come up to the 
sense Madame Dacier gives it ; for a nation 
put under perpetual tribute is rather en- 
slaved, than received to friendship and alli- 
ance, which are the terms of Agamemnon's 
speech. It seems rather to be a fine, de- 
manded as a recompence for the expenses 
of the war, which being made over to the 
Greeks, should remain to their posterity for 
ever; that is to say, which they should 


never be molested for, or which should never 
be redemanded in any age as a case of in- 
jury. The phrase is the same we use at this 
day, when any purchase or grant is at once 
made over to a man and his heirs for ever. 
With this will agree the Scholiast's note, 
which tells us the mulct was reported to 
have been half the goods then in the be- 
sieged city. POPE. Of the signification of 
riju,)} in the preceding and following lines, 
which is equivalent with iroivf/ in v. 290., 
see on II. A. 159. 

292. ?}, Kat CLTTO GTOp,d%OVQ K. T. X. 

Virg. JEn. XII. 212. Talibus inter sefirma- 
bant foedera dictis, Conspectu in medio pro- 
cerum ; turn rite sacratas Inflammam jugu- 
lant pecudes. Eustath. ov Xa/i/3oV TOV 
ar6fjiaj(ov Kara Tr)v vvv avvi]9eiav, dXXd 
Kara TI)V TOTV <m>/ia%<H yap $r]<7i, TO. 
Karw ftepTf row Xai^wov. 

293. CLffTraipovraQ. Panting, struggling. 
Odyss. 0. 526. 'H p,ev TOV OvrjffKovTa Kat 
d(T7raipovra idovva. This is the Homeric 
form, which is used also in Herod. I. 3. 
VIII. 5. See Valckenaer on the latter pas- 
sage. The same commentator has also il- 
lustrated this and similar words,, such as 
aXa7ra'u>, afiXrixpoe, and the like, which 
in later writers omit the initial a, in his 
note on Theocrit. Adoniaz. p. 220. The 
form CFTraipu) occurs in Apoll. Rhod. IV. 
874. TraT&z 0iXov ffiraipovTO. Sia 0Xoyo. 

297- rtf. For eKaaroQ, as in II. B. 355. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, F'. 119 

Zev KV&OTC, jULEji(TT, Kdl aOavciToi Oeol aXXo<, 

f O7T7rOrpOt TTpOTfpOt VTTtp OpKta TTTJjUrJvfmv, 

T O (70' yK0aXoe XfifJtttSt*; ptot, J; oc) oTvoc, 300 

Avrwv, Kai TCKEWV, aXo^ot S' aXXomi [jLtytisv. 

*& 0av* oi>S' apa TTW (r^>tv 7TKpaiaiV Kpovi'wv. 
lffi Si AapSaviSijc Iljomjuoc jUfra fj.v9ov 7T* 

?'jjUie * A\aioi' 


>, 7Tl OU7TW T\r)<TO[JL V 6^)9a\fJLO'i(nv OpaCfOttt 

<j)i\ov viov apriityiXty MfVfXaw. 
TTOV roy ot^ Kai aOavaroi Otol aXXof, 


oeo^ <^MQ' 310 

'Av S' a^o' j3atv' avroc? Kara o ?jvia 
Tlap Si ot 'Avr^vwp TTf/otKaXXfa flr'i 
Ta> jUv a^o' a^oppoi Trporl "iXiov aTrovlovro. 

SE, IljOta/ioto irate? KOI ^Toc 'O^U(T(Tic 
v JUEV TTpwrov ^jUT|0ov, avrap 7Ttra 315 


Aaoi S' ?]pr/(ravro 

7Tar|0, IrjV /XWV, KUtOTf, fJ.yi(TT, 320 

Tov Soc a7ro00/jUvov Suvat Sojuov "Atooc t 
tv 8' av ^tXorrjra Kat OjOKta TTtarra 

opowv* Ilapioc ^ ^owc K KX^poc opovctv. 325 

299. i7rep bp/cia irrjpyvtiav. Prater 318. The old reading is Xaot 5' ri^aavro, 

jusjurandum. This use of the preposition 06ol<ri ^6 %. a. But the construction in 

i7T|0 is Homeric. So again II. A. 67. 236. verbs which, signifying to pray, are fol- 

The preposition is omitted supra v. 107. lowed by a dative, is much improved by 

In the same sense we have in II. H. 351. the reading and punctuation of the text, 

OjOKicr Triara tyevdtffQai. which is sanctioned by MSS. authority. 

306. tv 600aX/ioI<riv. See on II. A. 587- So also in II. H. 177. Compare v. 296. 

310. Sitypov dpvctQ Qkro. Hence it ap- supra. 

pears, that in sacrifices of this nature, in 321. Tads tpya t Qr]Kt. Harum rerum, i. e. 

which a curse is invoked in case of a breach hujus pugnee, auctor est. This use of riOrjfii 

of the oath, the victims were not eaten, as is not unusual, particularly in the Trage- 

upon other occasions ; but carried away, and dians. Eur. Suppl. 960. T'I KravQf. Aoyxaf, 

destroyed, by the contracting parties. It Kai KO.T aXX^Xtov <}>6vov TiQeaOe ; Iph. 

should seem from II. T. 267- that they were A. 1334. 'Iw, tor fJttydXa iraQta, p,ejd\a 

cast into the sea. Schol. tOoQ fjv TO. tirl rolg 5' d%ta Tolg Aavaidaic TiQtiaa TwdapiQ 

opKoigyiyvoiJievaisptia TOV [tev sy%wpiovQ fcopa. 1418. jwa%a 'Avdpwv TiBtiaa Kai 

yy TrtptoTsXXtiv, TOVQ fit 7rriXvda. tig ri\v (jtovovg. So again in II. A. 83. 0iX6rj?ra 

OdXacrffav piTrriiv. p,tr' a/n0orpot(Ti TiQrjvi Zfvg. In the 

316. KXrjpovQ tv Kvvey K. r, X. See Pent, same sense jSa'XXw is also used in II. A. 

Gr. p. 440. note on JEsch. Theb. 454. 16. 




"iTTTTOt aEptriTroSec, KOL iroiKiXa reu^ca KaYo. 
Avrap 07' a/i^)' Mfioimv tSudaro rev^ea jcaXa 
Atoc 'AXt^avSpo^) 'EXtvijc Trocrtc: fivKOfioio. 
Kvi]juTSac jucv Trpwra TTtpi KV^IJLTQGIV 0rjKf. 
KaXaCj apyuptOKTiv iTTto'^vpiotc Oj 
Acvrepov au flw'prjica TTEJOI arr^l 
OTo KaGiyvriTOio AvKaovog' ^jpjuocrt ' avrto* 
'AjU^)i cT ap' WJJ.OKJL jSaXtro %>i<f>og apyvporjXov, 
XaXtceov" avrap ETretra CTOKOC fJ.iya re ortjSapov rt* 
Kpari S' ITT' ItyOifJict) Kvviriv EVTVKTOV 



Et'Xfro S* aXicijuov 

aurtt>c MfvfXaoc aprjiog 

Ot 8* 7Tt ovv Ka 
'Ec JU(T(TOV Tpwwv Kai 'A 

326. eKaffTtp. Some MSS. have 
Either will do ; but the received text is sup- 
ported by II. A. 607- E. 195. K. 413. and 

327. tTTTTOi atpcriTTofoc. Schol. Villoi- 
son : ro tKtro OVK tan KOIVOV kni rStv ITT- 
TTWV, aXXefc TrpoffVTraKovofjifv TO tGraaav. 
See on II. A. 532. 

330. KvripZSag. Greaves, of brass, or 
sometimes of tin, for the defence of the legs, 
and fastened about the ancles with buttons, 
which were sometimes of gold or silver. It 
should seem from the expression (.vKvrjfii- 
8f 'Amatol, which so frequently occurs in 
Homer, that this piece of armour was in 
more general use among the Greeks, and, 
though worn by Paris, not universally 
adopted by the Trojans. See Robinson's 
ArchaoL Grose, p. 362. 

335. It appears from this passage, com- 
pared with v. 356. that the ffaKOQ and aairiQ, 
according to Homer, were the same. In 
fact, however, the GO.KOQ was a barbaric 
shield, entirely distinct from the Grecian 
affTTi'g. See on II. B. 389. and compare 
Eur. Phcen. 138, 139. 

337. otivbv Se X600 KaQvirfpOtv Ivevev. 
The most remarkable part of the helmet was 
the \60o, or crest, which was fixed into the 
0a'Xo, or cone ; whence the helmet is some- 
times called awXwTrif, as in II. E. 182. from 
the orifice, auXof, into which the crest was 
inserted. These crests were generally of 
horsehair, whence the helmet is frequently 
distinguished by the epithets iTTTroupic;, ITT- 
TroxaiTrjQ, iTTTroda'eraa, and the like. Eu- 
stath. iTrTrovpic' >'; aw txovaa Trepl TOV 
, "nrirwv ovpag' cnrsp lyiVgro 


Sid TO 00j3epwrpoj/. Hence Virg. jn. X. 
869. jEre caput fulgens, cristaque hirsutus 
equina. Compare Theocr. Idyl. XVI. 81. 
XXII. 186. Sometimes three or more of 
these plumes were united, and the helmet 
was accordingly rpiXo0og, rtrpa'0aXo, dp,- 
0iXo00 ; but the former seems to have been 
most in use. See Pent. Gr. p. 435. note on 
ysch. Theb. 380. Hence the TpvQaXtirj, 
v. 372. is generally explained by the gram- 
marians, rj rpac QaXovQ t\ovaa. The nod- 
ding of the crest was supposed to render its 
appearance more terrific. Lucret. II. 632. 
Terrificas capitum quatientes numine cristas. 
Compare II. X. 1 32. It appears from the 
above passage, that the defensive armour of 
the ancients consisted of a helmet, a breast- 
plate, and greaves, all of brass. The breast- 
plate appears to have met the belt, which 
was a considerable defence to the lower 
parts of the body, with an appendant skirt 
to protect the thighs, so that the forepart of 
the soldier was entirely covered from the 
throat to the ancle ; exclusive of the addi- 
tional protection of the shield. See Mit- 
ford's Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 158. Their 
offensive weapons, or at least the chief of 
them, were the spear, the sword, the bow, 
and the sling : with darts, dicovTia., of va- 
rious descriptions. 

342. deivbv dtpKofjifvoi. Looking ter- 
ribly. The use of a neuter adjective, in- 
stead of an adverb, after the verbs deoKtaQat 
and fiXsireiv, is very usual in Homer : and 
it has been imitated also by the Latin poets. 
Thus Virg. JEn. VI. 467. torva tuentem. 
Lucret. V. 34. acerba tuens. Somewhat 
similar is the use of the accusative, put 



ae 0' tTTTroSa/uove icai EVKvfifJii$a ' 
Kai p' eyyi> or^rrjv &ajUrprjrw Ivl X^j ^? 
tovr' Ey^EiaQy aXXrjXoKn KOTEOVTE. 


Kai j3a\v rpEao jcar 

Ouo tpprj^ev x a X/cov* avyva 

'A<T7rtS' Evt Kparfprj* 6 SE <urpoc wpvuro 

'ATpd$r] MevlXaoc, 7Tv!;ajUvoc Att Trarpt* 

ZEU ava, oe rttfarrflat, o JUE TrporEpoc KOK' 
Atov 'AXc^av^pov, KOI 

tppiyr)m KOL tyiyovwv avOpwiruv, 
OKOV icaica pi^ai, o KE ^>tXorjra Trapaa'^y. 

'H /oa, Kat a 
Kai paXe IlptajUioao icar' atTTTt^a Travroo 1 ' t(7rjv. 

Attt jUV atTTTt 

Kat cm 6wpr)KO TroXv^atcaXov fipJ 
'AvriKpv irapat \a7raprjv ^ia 
"EyxC' o $' /cXn/0j, KOI aXfv 


- aju^)i ^' ap 
r cat Tfrpa 

, tSwv Etc oupavov Ei/puv* 




adverbially, after the same verbs. See Pent. 
Gr. p. 413. on ^Esch. Theb. 53. 

347. Travroo-' sio-jjv. That is, evicufcXov. 
See on II. A. 506. 468. B. 389. 

348. x<*^ K v- Heyne, with some MSS., 
reads ^a\*c6f , in the nominative : and so 
again in II. P. 44. but in II. H. 259. %a\- 
KOV. It should seem that the reading would 
at least be uniform ; and, as the verb prj%ai 
is usually followed by the accusative, that 
case is probably the true one. 11. . 165. 
Kat p' erlpy p,tv Sovpl <ra.Kog jSaXf v, ovSk 
dunrpb 'PijKe OO.KOQ. Compare II. E. 307- 
N. 439. 507- . 673. In II. M. 341. 411. 
O. 617- the accusative is clearly understood, 

350. 7reua/voe Ati Trarpi. Homer 
puts a prayer in the mouth of Menelaus, 
but none in Paris', Menelaus is the person 
injured and innocent, and may therefore 
apply to the god for justice ; but Paris, who 
is the criminal, remains silent. POPE ; 
from Spondanus. 

359. avTtKpv. Properly, E regione ; 
"over against, opposite." Seepe est et pro 
fooXov, dia/jnrtpec;, omnino ; scepe et tyavt- 
pw. Damm: who derives it by syncope 
from ajTifcapv, i. e. avriTrpoffWTrov, after 
Eustathius and the Etym, M. p. 114, 28. 

In this place it should be rendered 
Tcpte, rzg/tf through; and so in II. A. 481. 
E. 67. 100. H. 253. A. 253. and elsewhere. 
In II. H. 362. it signifies, plainly, decidedly. 
See Viger de Idiom, p. 303. There seems, 
however, to be no room for the distinction 
which the grammarians have placed be- 
tween avrucpuf and aj/riKpu, which were 
probably used indifferently ; precisely as 
we meet with tvOvg and tvQi), IQvQ and 
iOii, niaariyvQ and fifffarjyv. See Monk 
on Eurip. Hippol. 1192. It may be re- 
marked, that avTiKpvs, which never occurs 
in Homer, seems to have been adopted by 
later writers. 

362. avaaxopevoQ. Scil. TO i'0of. 

363. rpi%0a rt Kal rtrpa%0d K. T. X. 
Eustathius points out the beautiful onoma- 
topeia in this passage, observing, that we 
hear, in imagination, the sound of the 
breaking sword in that of the words. This 
is a beauty frequent in Homer : and upon 
a similar principle Clarke accounts for the 
use of the Tribrach in the beginning of v. 
357- But see Prelim. Obs. Sect. V. . 2. 

365. OVTIQ otio K. r. X. II. X. 15. 'Eca- 
py, Qt&v 6Xowrar Travrwv. Compare 
Herod. III. 40. Liv. V. 21. X. 13. 

122 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, 

' AXI|ai>Spov 

Nvv Si fJLOi Iv yjciptad layr\ Kityog' IK Si JJLOI 
'Htx^J? 7raXajur?0tv rc5(Ttov, ovS' j3aXov jutv 

T H, KCU E7cuac Kopvfloc XajSfv t 
"EXjcf S' 7norpli/>ac JUET' luicvjjjuiSae 
"Ayx Si jutv 7roXuic<TTOc /uac aTraXrjv wro Sapr)v, 
'O^ ot UTT' av0|0wvo 6^ic TTO.TO rpvfyaXtirig. 
Kai vu KEV ipuo-(rl r, icai atTTTfrov ^fparo KuSo?, 
Ei ju^ ap' 6su vorj(T A(O OvyaTTjp 'A^pootrrj, 
"H o prj&v tjuavra jSooc t^i icrajulvoto' 375 

Sf r/ou^aXfta aju' fWfro 


Avrap 6 a^/ 7ropova- icaraKTajUvat jUV 
"Eyx 84 X a ^ Kft V* r ^ v ^ fi^pTaf 'A^)poStr?j 380 

'Pfia juaX', OXTTE OEOC* KaXv^// S' ap' i^lpt TroXXrl, 
Kao' o' flo 1 ' Iv OaXd/uLt^ cvaiSfi, Ki]tt)vrt. 

0' v^rjXw' ?Tpi SE Tpwai aXtc 
SE vficrajolou favou rtva^ XajSoutra* 385 

Si jttfv iKuta 7raXatyvlii 
juq), TJ ot AaKfSatjUOvt v 
ctpia icaXa, juaAtora Si juiv 

l(TajulvTJ 7TpO<T$<i)V 

' 1'0'* 'AXl^avSpoc (T icaXfT oticovS vievOaC 390 

67' Iv Qa\d[4ty KOL Stvwrot<ri 

366. KaKor^rog. We must supply e'vtiea. should rather be written kavvbQ, is more 

See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 345. 5 a. generally derived from pi(>),fluo, and signi- 

372. 6%u. The same with i/zdt; in the fies fluens, ductilis. Stephens, however, 

preceding line ; i. e. the thong, by which considers them both as the same word ; and 

the helmet was fastened under the chin. that it never occurs as a substantive, except 

TpvfyaXdriQ. See above on v. 337- by virtue of TTETrXog understood; but though 

375. /3oo tyi fcra/isvoio. Plutarch, garments maybe said metaphorically to flow, 

Sympos. II. 9. Twv yap p) voaii) [jir]dk the difference of quantity, which always 

yr/pp diaXvofjikvcjv, d\\' virb aQayrjz, marks the different use of the word, seems 

tvTovov TO (Jsp/ia Kai arpv^vov yevecr^at* plainly to authorize a different etymology. 

TO. 8t VTTO Orjpiuv ^ri\Qkvra, TOIQ dippaai See Maltby in voce. Of the construction, 

<j)\ttyv Kai paKovaOai. see on II. A. 197. 

380. tyx x a ^ Ki V- See on H - A - 388 - fatM. Imperf. 3. sing, from 

236. do-KEw. This is the only example of the v 

382. Kjjwevrt. Perfumed. Eustath. ira- paragogic in this tense ; but similar instances 

pd TO KJjai, ijyovv, Kavffai Kai Qvpiaaai. of its use with the pluperfect occur in II. Mr. 

385. The word tavoQ, peplum, which oc- 691. Od. S. 342. See Dawes Misc. Crit. 

curs as a substantive repeatedly in Homer, p. 411. ed. Kidd. Valckenaer ad Eur. Hipp. 

differs not only in quantity from the adjec- 405. fiiv. Schol. Vet. Trjv yoavv. The 

tive tavoQ, which is found with the penul- construction rather points to Helen. 

tima long, as in II. E. 734. and elsewhere, 391. KUVOQ oy'. So in Latin, Hie iste. 

but also in its derivation from e'w, induo. Compare JEn. VII. 255. Cic. Quaest. Acad. 

The adjective iavbs, which Heyne supposes I. 1. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, r 1 . 


KaXXu TI <m'X/3wv icul tifjiaaiv' ov$e KE 

rovy' tXaav, aXXa 
^opoto vov Xrj-yovra KaOi&iv. 
tV Oc 0aro* Trf 8* apa Ov/mbv tvi orrj0(r<Ttv opive. 

Kttt /o' WC OUV VOTJ<7 0tie TTE/OtKaXXEd (klplJV, 

Sr//0a 0' tjUpovra, icai OjUjuara juapjuatpovra, 
r' ap' ETrctra, ETTOC r' f^ar', EK r' 
j, TL fie ravra XtXatat ^ 

7T/J J 



Ei TIC; rot Kai Kt0t (j>i\0 fJLtpoTrwv avOpdtirwv ; 
Ouvca 817 vvv Stov 'AXfSav^jOov MfvfXaoc 
NiKfaag tOi\ti GTvytpriv tfj.1 o'/KaS' ayeaOai, 
Touvfjca 8?) vvv Sfvpo SoXofypovtovGa 7rajOOTrj ; 



'AXX' Oll 7Tpt KftVOV 6/'?U, Kttl 0v 

Kt(T S' -ya)V OWK t) 

KEIVOU 7ropo-avou<ra XE^OC' Tpwat 8f ju' o 
MTJ jtt' jO0f, (Trti* UT waaUEVT/ (7 



^ct Xvypa, 
Tpwwv Kai Aavawv* or> SE KEV KOKOV otrov oXrjat. 

392. Ka'XXs'i <rri'X/3a)v. Athen. I. 16. 
fivpoig a\ti<f>6nevo. There seems to be 
no necessity for this interpretation. In Od. 
S. 191. we meet with the expression icdX- 
\ei xpt^0at> where fca'XXo^ is generally 
understood to signify, metaphorically, an 
essence, or cosmetic. Hesych. /caXXtii' ry 
/uvpy r< r^f 'AQpodirrig. But the proper 
sense will equally suit the present passage ; 
though the other is somewhat countenanced 
by Virg. ^En. IV. 215. Et nunc ille Paris 
cum semiviro comitatu, Mceonia mentum 
mitra crinemque madentem Subnexus, rapto 

406. Kt\tv9ov. The ways, i. e. the abodes. 
See on II. A. 312. 

409. ?) oyt SovXrjv. Clarke, after Bent- 
ley (on Horat. Od. I. 9. 15.), observes, that 
the repetition of the pronoun in the second 
clause is not redundant, but introduced for 
the purpose of emphasis. The following 
are instances of a similar usage. Od. B: 
326. *H TIVO.Q S.K IIwXou a%fi a[jivvTOpaQ 
, "H oye KOU S7ra'prij0i>. He- 

siod. Op. D. 221. "H rwyye orparov 
dTrwXtfffr, r) oye ri%og. In Latin, Virg. 
JSn. V. 447- Nunc dextra ingeminans ictus, 
nunc ille sinistra. Ovid. Fast II. 271. Et 
sen vomeribus, sen tu pulsabere rastris. Com - 
pare also v. 5. swp-a ; and see Wolf on He- 
siod. 1. c. This is the only place in which 
^owXoc is found in Homer, either in the 
masculine or feminine. See II. A. 321. 

411. Tropaavkovaa Xk^oQ. The vulgar 
reading is iropavveovaa, which does not 
affect the sense. But as the phrase Tropcrat- 
vtiv Xexog, lectum parare, or participare, 
recurs constantly in Apollonius Rhodius, 
Heyne has properly admitted it into the 
text. On the construction of cfyu with a 
participle, see Matt. Gr. Gr. . 459. c. 

412. aKpira. See on II. B. 246. 

414. a^trXiri, See on II. B. 112- 

415. rwg. See on II. B. 330. 

416. niaaqj <$' d/i^orspwi/ *c. r. X. The 
sense is still continued through these words ; 
fjnjriaofiai being the Ionic form of the sub- 
junctive. See on II. A. 62. 



S' c EXvrj, 

Bij $ Karacr^OfjLivr) tavq apyijrt 
Styry* Traarac $ Tjowac Xa0v* rjpx SE cV/iwv. 420 

At 8' or' 'AX^SavSpoto Sojuov TTEpticaXXf t/covro, 
'Aju^iTToXoi JUEV ETTEtra 0ow 7 fjOya rpcnrovro, 
H o i tyopofyov OaXa/uLOv Kie Sta 
T^? 6" apa Sitypov eXovva ^tXojUjUEfS 

'Avrf 'AXf^avSpoto 0a KartOriKe ^epouo-a. 425 

"Ev0a /ca^tf 'EXlvrj, icovprj Atog atyio^oto, 
O(T<T TraXfv icXivatra' TTOGIV S' fivtTrcnrt /uLvOty' 

e w^fXfc avroO^ 6\aOat, 
, oc fjuoe TTporepOQ TTOVIQ r\tv. 
H jUfv or) TT/otv *' Vs' arjttXow MVXaov 430 


'AXX' t^t vuv TrpOKaXfffo-cu aprjt^tXov MfvlXaov 
\i(jaa9ai IVCLVTLOV' aXXa <r' f'ywye 
K(\Ofiai f JUIJ^E ^ay^ MfvfXacjj 

ToXfjUtSftV ^ ^.d^CfQaL 435 

x' ^^ avrov Soup! SajUfiTjc- 

MIJ jue, yvvat, xaXtiroiaiv ovdStGi Ovfjiov vt7rr. 

Nuv /iv yap MfvAaoc V/Krj(Tv aw 'AOrivy' 

Kftvov S' avrtc cyw* 7ra/oa yap 0oi i(Tt icat 17/11 v. 440 

'AXX' ay 8 

Ou yap TTW 


apird%a. Iv TrovroTropoto-t v(T<rt, 

Iv Kava Iiiv tXorrjri cai uv 445 

424. ditypov. A stool, or cAafr. It will that each individual was the peculiar care 

not suit this passage, to understand it of a of some protecting deity. Thus also in Eur. 

seat for menials, to which sense it is some- Suppl. 602. syw yap ^aifiovoQ Tovpov p,sra 

times restricted ; though KXrjnoi and Qpovoi SrparJ?Xar^<Ta> cXf IVOQ Iv K\tiv(fi dopi. 

are mentioned in Od. A. 145. as used by The idea, though in a very inferior degree, 

more honourable personages. is allied to, and was, perhaps, originally 

427. oaae TraXiv K\ivaaa. jEsch. Agam. derived from, the Scripture doctrine of 

751. TraXivrpoTTOiaiv o^aaiv. Compare Guardian Angels (Matt, xviii. 10.). See 

Virg. ^n. IV. 462. also on II. A. 423. K. 278. 

432. a\X' i0i vvv K. T. X. This is iron- 441. rpaTrao/uv. It should seem the 

ical. more ready way to take this verb, by sys- 

434. KfXofjiai. I advise, i.e. seriously. tole, for Tpcnr&nev, from rpsTrw, to turn. 

438. Ii/iTrrt. Objurga ; or, rather, la- But since the expression kv ^iXor^rt tvvrj- 

cera ; from ITTTW, Icedo ; not, with the Etym. Qrjvai occurs in II. {Sj. 331. 360. it is more 

M. p. 342. for CVETTW. Hesych. iviiTTiiv usual to form it by transposition for rap- 

KUKOVV, \l/e-yttv, XoiBopeiv. Before Qvpbv TTW/ZSV, from repTrw, delecto. Compare Od. 

there is an ellipse of the preposition Kara. E. 227- 

440. Ktlvov 5' avTiQ syw. Scil. VIKT?- 445. vriffqt Iv TLpavdy. There is great 

<rat/u civ. Trapd yap Otoi tioi Kai rifiiv. doubt respecting the name and situation 

Compare II. A. 174. Hence there appears to of this island. According to Strabo, IX. 

have existed a belief among the ancients, p. 275. it is the same which was afterwards 


"Of aso vuv f/oajuat, jcat jUf J\VKVC t/uepoc atpa. 

'H /oa, Kat 7]p\6 X^O<TO KIWI/, a^ua 8' i7Tr' 
Tw JUEV ap' Iv rpr/roTcri KartvvaaOtv 

'ArpaSrje 8' av' opiXov l^oira, 0rjpt 
Et TTOU (ra0p?)(Tty 'AA^avS/oov 00tSla. 450 

'AXX' ourt^ uvaro Tpwwv jcXetrwv r' t 
Aa?at 'AXI^av^pov ror' aprj'i^iX 
Ou JUEV yap ^tXorrjri y' Ku0avov, ti 
7 I(rov yap (T0iv TTaatv airi]\QtTO Ki]pt 
ToTcri Kat jUrt?Tv ava av^pwv 'AyajUfjUvwv* 455 

' apr)Y^>/Xou 

ftc S* 'Apyf/rjv 'EXlvrjv icai KTrifjiaO' a/uC 
, icat rtjU?7V a7rortvjLtv, r^vrtv' loucCv, 

H T KOI <T(TOjUVOt(Tt jUr' aVVpWTTQlGl TrlXlJTat. 460 

aXXot ' 

called Helena, opposite to the promontory 457. VMC| ^afverat. For Qavepd i<TTt. 

of Sunium, and near the coast of Attica. In this sense, QaivtvOai is frequent in Ho- 

453. iicevQavov. This poetic form occurs mer. Eustathius compares Od. A. 695. 

only in this place. Heyne would read tKtu- 459. ri/j?}i/ aTTOTivejJiev. A change from 

0ov av, which the construction seems to the imperative to the infinitive, in the same 

require. sense. See on II. A. 20. and supra v. 285. 





Ae'Xra, 0ewv ayopj), opk'wv -^yaig^ dpeog 



The Gods deliberate in council concerning the Trojan war ; they'agree upon the con- 
tinuance of it, and Jupiter sends down Minerva to break the^truce. She persuades 
Pandarus to aim an arrow at Menelaus, who is wounded, but cured by Machaon. In 
the mean time, some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks. Agamemnon is dis- 
tinguished in all the parts of a good general ; he reviews the troops, and exhorts the 
leaders, some by praises, and others by reproofs. Nestor is particularly celebrated 
for his military discipline. The battle joins, and great numbers are slain on both 

The same day continues through this, as through the last book ; as it does also through 
the two following, and almost to the end of the seventh book. The Scene is wholly 
in the field before Troy. 

OI cc 0coi Trap ZTJVI ica^r/jucvoi fiyopowvro 

t viai worvia "H3?j 

1. It was from the beginning of this book cumstances seemed to him of importance 

that Virgil has taken that of his tenth enough, to build the whole of his work upon 

jEneid, as the whole tenour of the story in them ; though in Homer they are but open- 

this and the last book is followed in his ings to the general action, and such as, in 

twelfth. The truce and the solemn oath, their warmth, are still exceeded by all that 

the breach of it by a dart thrown by Tolum- follow them. They are chosen, we grant, 

nius, Juturna's inciting the Latines to renew by Virgil, with great judgment, and con- 

the war, the wound of ./Eneas, his speedy elude his poem with a becoming majesty ; 

cure, and the battle ensuing, all these are yet the finishing his scheme with that which 

manifestly copied from hence. The so- is but the coolest part of Homer's action, 

lemnity, surprise, and variety of these cir- tends, in some degree, to show the disparity 





aXXijXouCj Tpojwv iroXiv fit 
AurtV 7TfjoaTO KpoviSrje p&?/.tv "Hprjv, 

Aotai jul 

"Hprj r* 'Ap-yarj, Km 'AXaXk-OjUvrjlc 'A07jVTj* 
'AXX' ^roi ral, votr^i /caOr/jUEvaf, 
TfpTTfo-ftov* rtJ S" aur ^tXoju/mS 
Aifi TrajO^tf/zjSXttucf, icai aurow jcijpac 
Kai vvv fCfo-aaxTfv 6i'ojUvov Oa 
'AXX' ^roi VI'KTJ JUEV aprji^iXov 
'HjiifT^ $ <^paa>jii0', OTTWC^ carat ra tpya* 
"H /o' aurf^ TroXfjuov T jcajcov icai fyvXoiriv alvfiv 
"O/oao/zv, 77 ^tXorrjra ^Ufr' afJLtyoTtpoi 
Et 8* aurtuc TO Tratrt ^/Xov /cat 17^ 



urfc 8' 'Apyftrjv 'EXlvr/v MfVfXaoc cryotro. 

^>a0'' at 8* 7rjuuav 'AOrivaui r teat "Hpr/* 


of poetical fire in these two authors. POPE. 
}yop6a)vro. This verb does not always bear 
its strict signification in Homer ; i. e. to sz7 
council : but frequently implies, as in this 
place, to converse. So also in II. B. 787- 
ayopdf ayojotuov CTTI Hpidfioio 

3. veKTap iyvoxoei. At the heroic en- 
tertainments, the oiVo^oot, cup-bearers, were 
young men, generally of high birth. See 
on II. A. 470. Sometimes also virgins per- 
formed this office, which among the gods is 
assigned to Hebe, the goddess of youth; for 
the purpose of showing, as Madame Dacier 
observes, that the immortals enjoy eternal 
youth, and that their life is spent in endless 

4. fcidlxar' d\\r]\ov . Received the cup 
one from the other. Athen. I. 11. rjroi tdtt- 
OVVTO, 7rp07rivovT tavTQiQ t TCUQ de^iatQ. 
See on II. A. 47 J. 

6. Trapafl\f)dr)v. Heyne translates this 
adverb, dolose, or rather, simulate ; observ- 
ing that Jupiter did not speak his real sen- 
timents. This corresponds with tgaTrarjj- 
rtKW, which is the exposition of Apollo- 
nius ; and to the same purpose Suidas ex- 
plains TrapajSaXeaOai by t^air arijaai. 
Hesychius, however, renders it by lp0i(rri- 
K&C,, contentiously ; and in this sense it is 
understood by Musgrave on Eurip. Androm. 
289. who cites in illustration Apoll. Rhod. 
II. 60. <o t0ar'* avrap oy' OVTI Trapaf3Xfj- 
Srjv ipidyvt. But the word occurs several 
times in this poet, and always in the sense of 
vicissim. Thus in v. 623. of the same book : 

There is no reason why it should not be 
taken in the same signification here, in re- 
ference to the former attack of Juno upon 
Jupiter, in II. A. 539. 

8. ' A\a\KOfjitvT)ig. This epithet should 
not be derived, with the commentators and 
grammarians, from dXaXntiv, auxiliari ; but 
from Alalcomenos, a district of Boeotia, 
where the goddess was worshipped. Strabo 
IX. p. 233. ed. Casaub. This is evident 
from its being found in connexion with an- 
other Gentile adjective 'Apyciq. 

10. T<f. Scil. Paridi. 

11. Trap/iE/ijSXw/cf. This form is Ho- 
meric ; from 7rapa/*/t|3\oa>, for TrapaftoXtw, 
auxilior, adsum. Heyne, however, thinks it 
the same as /ug/zjSXojuai, which occurs in II. 
T. 343. S>. 516. Od. X. 12. But this lat- 
ter is formed from p,e\o), curce sum. Com- 
pare Matt. Gr. Gr. . 133. 6. and . 242. 

12. oioptvov OavetcrQai. Expectantem, 
metuentem. II. 0. 728. aXX' av%a^ro TVT- 
Qbv oio^voQ QavktaQai. HEYNE. The 
preservation of Paris gave the Trojans no ill 
pretence for breaking the treaty ; and it has 
been disputed whether the articles were 
binding upon them or not, since the contro- 
versy was to be determined by the death of 
one of the combatants. See Plato de Repub. 
Plutarch. Sympos. IX. 13. 

16. /3aXw/iv. See on II. T. 321. 

20. iTTSfiv^av. They murmured. Schol. 
ptfjivKoffi roig xttXtGiv 7r<rrevaai>. It 
has been doubted whether this verb is ex- 
pressive of contempt or indignation. Er- 



T Hrot 'Aflrjvairj aiclwv ^v, ovSf ri HTTf, 
2icvo/uV)7 Atl TrarjOi, ^oXoc St juiv crypto? 

OVK % a ^ orf/0oe xoXov, aXXa 
Atvorare K/ooviSrj, TTOIOV rov pvOov ttnrtg ; 

eXeig aXtov Oslvai TTOVOV, 178' arlXforov? 

', ov iSjOwtra ftoytj) ; Ka^ir^v St jiiot tTTTrot 
Aaov aytipovar), Ilpmjutj) jcaica, roto re Traifftv. 
Ep<5'* arap oi; rot Travrfe 7ratvOjUv Oeoi aXXot. 



??, ri vu o- Hpia/uLOQ HpiafJLoio TE 
Kaica |0^ouatv, or 1 a 

Ei Si au -y', d(T\Oov<Ta TruXac KOI rt^a /uaicpa, 
jSpw^otc IlptajLiov n/om/ioto r TratSac, 
re Tpwa^, ror K 

Soi Kai juot jit!-/ e 

rot lpW, (TU 

KHV KOI eyw /ijuaac TroXiv l 

, 30d roi 0iXot avipeg l 
Mr) rt 8earp(j3etv rov EJUOV ^oXov, aXXa ju' 
Kai -yap lyw aot Swica IKWV acovri y Ov/uuy. 



nesti observes, that it may express either, 
The latter is evidently the signification 
here: and again II. 0. 457- See Hemster- 
huis on Lttcian, p. 253. 

22. 'A.Qr)vair} aKEov TJV. See on II. A. 34. 

27. idpw 9'. Vulgo idpwO'. The accusa- 
tive t^pw occurs in II. K. 572. 574. See also 
on II. E. 416. and the other form is more 
recent than Homer. It occurs, however, in 
Hesiod. Op. D. 289.^ 

28. Ilpiajuy icafca. This refers to \abv 
dytipovcry, and it frequently happens that 
the apposition contains, not so much an ex- 
position of the word or sentence with which 
it is connected, as the design of it. So 
again in v. 155. infra. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
433. Obs. 2. and the note on Eur. Phcen. 
1372. Pent. Gr. p. 351. The Scholiast 
notices the change in the construction, 
which, in order to proceed regularly, would 
require KapctTOv T&V 'ITTTTUV. 

32. dffTTf p% . Hesych. ddtaXt'nrTWQ. Of 
the verb, jitvtaivtiv, see on II. II. 491. 
Homer's knowledge of the cause of Juno's 
anger against Paris, has been doubted. See 
on II. Q. 28. 

35. wjuov /3j3pw0oi. We find in Per- 
sius' Satires the name of Labeo, as an ill 

poet, who made a miserable translation of 
the Iliad ; one of whose verses is still pre- 
served, and happens to be that of this place : 
Crudum manduces Priamum, Priamique pi~ 
sinnos. I. 50. POPE. Hence Xenoph. Anab. 
IV. 3. 14. TOVTOVQ, ijv nag Sw^ptOu, ical 
fapovg dtl Kara^aytiv. Hellen. III. 3. 6. 
ro /LIT) ov% rjBswG av ical wn&v kaOieiv av- 
TWV. Compare also II. Q. 212. 

41. rriv 0\a>. Clarke translates thus : 
Siquando et ego vehementer urbem exscin- 
dere istam, scil. aliquam istarum, voluero. 
In this case, as Ernesti remarks, it would be 
more simple to understand rrjv for nva in- 
definitely. Pope believes that Homer has 
put into the mouth of Jupiter, a prophecy 
respecting the destruction of Myceruz. This, 
however, did not take place till after the re- 
turn of the Heraclidee, and Homer most pro- 
bably wrote some time previous to that 
event. See Prelim. Obs. Sect. I. Still it is 
more usual to use the article for the relative, 
so that Argos may, perhaps, be intended, 
which began to decline some time before the 
subversion of Mycenae. 

42. \ir\ TI Siarpi(3fiv. Infinitive for im- 
perative ; as frequently before. 

43. In this place #w/ca must either be 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, A'. 129 

A? yap UTT' TjtXtw TE Kai oupav^J aorEpoEVTi 

NaiTaov<ri TroXrjEe ETTIX^OVIWV avOpMTTwv, 45 

Tawv ^woi ?Tpi KfjjOi Tt(TKTO "iXioc pr), 

Kai Hpiajuoc, Kai Xaoc u/XjUXi'w YlptafULOio. 

Ov yao fJLoi TTOTE j3a>juo E^EVETO Sairbg Ei 

Aotj3ie *"> Kviarrjc T' TO ya ( o X 

Tov 8' T^uEijSfT* ETTEiTa |3ow7ne TToYvia "Hjorj* 50 

*Hroi Ejiioi T/OEIC /**v TroXu ^uXrarcu Eicn TroX^E?, 
T, STrajOrrj r, Km ti^puayufa MuKrJvjj* 
TTfpcrat, orav roi cnri^OwvTai iripi KtjpC 
Tawv ou rot cyw Trpocr^' tor&ficu, ov$e /ifyatpo>. 
EtVfp yajO (f>Oovi(A) rf, Kai ou/c iw StawtpGai, 55 

Oi>c avvb) (frOoviow ' tTTEtr) TroXu 
'AXXa xp r ) Ka ^ jwov Otfjievai TTOVOV OVK 
Kai -yap lyw 0o^ ftjut, yivo$ Si juot f'v0v, o^v trot' 
Kai JUE 7rp(Tj3urar}v rljcero Kpovoc ayicuXoju^rrj^, 

, ytverj r, KOI ouvKa ar) irapaKOiTtg 60 

(Ti> SE iratri JUET' aOavaroiGiv avaGfretg. 
'AXX' ^roi JUEV raii0' viroEt^OjUEV aXXr)Xoto p f, 

Soi jUEV yw, <TU S* EjUOl* ETTt 8' fyoVTdl 0Ot CtXXot 

(TV SE OCKTGOV ^AOrjvaiy ETTtrEtXat, 
/owwv Kai 'A^ataiv fyvXoiriv aivr)v, 65 

0', we,' KE TpwEC v7TpKi8avrac 'A^a/oi>c 
m TTporE/oot vTTEp opKta $r)\r)<jaaOai. 

&f-i yi i ' ' 7 ' r/1 \ ' 7\ - /I " 

lie 0ar ouo a7Tii7i7(T TraTrjp avcpw TE I/EWV TE. 
AVTLK 'AOrivairjv ETTEa TrrEpofvra TTpoo-rjuSa* 

juaX' EC trrparov EX0E JUETO Tpwa^ cai 'Axatovc? 70 

taken absolutely, 7 have yielded (and so Eu- 59. dyicv\ofj.riTr]g. See on II. B. 205. 

stathius ; a'vri rou Trapexwpj^tra) ; or we TrpeffjSurarjjv Eustath. rtjLwrdrj;v. See 

must supply Ipfoti/ OTTW^ tOeXtiQ, from v. Wolf's Proleg. p. 40. 

37. The expression ZKWV akteovri ye Ovpy, 60. dnQortpov. There is an ellipsis of 

which afterwards passed into a proverb, is the preposition Kara. And so above in II. 

explained in the readiness of Jove to permit F. 179. dfi^onpov jSacriXevf r' dyaQoQ, 

the fate of Troy, as fixed in the divine fcpartpog r' alx^n r ^Q- Compare infra \. 

counsels; and his regret, at the same time, 145. H. 418. N. 166. S. 365. et passim. 

at the necessity of bringing evil upon those, 61. KticXrjfJiat. See on II. B. 260. 

who had never failed in their allegiance to 62. o'XX* }roi K. r. X. Hor. A. P. 11. 

him. Scimus ; et hanc veniam petimusque damns- 

45. vaitrdovai. See on II. B. 626. que vicissim. Compare Eccles. x. 4. 

46. 7Tf|Oi KJ7pi TikctKtTO. A Tmesis for 66. virtpKvdavTae. This is taken by 
TrspiTitffKt TO, i. e. particularly honoured ; some to be syncopated from the participle 
which is the force of the preposition 7Tpi in vTrtpKvSdvavTaQ from KvSaivu. But it 
composition : or we may understand Trfpt seems preferable to consider it as contracted 
adverbially, in the sense of TTipiGG&Q. Be- for vTrepKvddevTag, from the adjective KV- 
fore Krjpi, which is contracted from iceap, ddeig. 

the heart, not from Krjp,fate, the preposition 67- vTrtp opjcta StjXrjffaaOai. See on II. 

sv must be supplied. There is precisely the T. 299. 

same construction in v. 53. 70. perd Tpwaf. See on II. A. 48. and 

48. Sairog tiffi^. See on II. A. 468. compare supra v, 65. 


130 'OMHPOY 'IATAA02, A'. 

TT/ooTEpoi iJTTEp o/ojcta 


Bfj SE icar' OvXvjuTTOio Kaprjvwy a/^ao-a. 

Olov ' aoTEp' ETJKE Kpovou Trat'c ayicuAojiirjrfw, 75 

H vavrycri Tpa, ?? oTjoarto evpti Xawv, 
Aa/ULirpoVj TOV r TroXXol OTTO 
Tw EtKvf ritSfv ETTI x^o va IlaXXae ' 
KacT S' 00jo' EC julffo-ov* 0a 

ica( UKvr]jUtSac 'A^atouc- 80 


T fcaicoc Ktu <j> 

Eo-<rraf, ^ ^nXoTijra jUr' a/mtyortpotcFi 
ZEU^, oar' av^pwTrwv rajutrj^ TroXljuoto 

lN lc a/o ^C '/7T<TKy 'A^aiwv r T/owwv TE. 85 

V H S' avS/oi iidXi] Tpwwv carSu(T^' o^ 
Aao^OK^ 'AvrrjvoptSrj, /c/oarptj) at 
IlavSapov avriOeov St?i7jUE*vr7, EI TTOU E 
Ei/|0 AuKaovoc vtov ajuujuova TE, KjOarpov re, 
r Eo-raor f ' a/z^i Si jittv Kpartpai crri\t aGWHJTawv 90 

Aawv, 01 ot ETTOVTO CITT AltrryTTOio yooa 
'Ay^ou S' 0TajUVTj 7Ta 7rr 

V H /oa vu juot rt iriOoio, AvKaovog viz 


KE TpwEaro-t X"P lv Ka ^ 1 ^^^OC o/ooto, 95 

E/c Travrwv oi juaXtora 'AXf^ai'Spfj) jSaCTtXijt. 
Tov KEV Srj TrafjnrpWTa Trap* ayXaa 

75. a<rrepa. ^ meteor ; and not a comet, quid jam apud se statutum atque decretum ; 

with the Scholiast, who is followed by Clau- statim intellecturos, Paxne futura sit an bel- 

dian in his imitation of this passage ; Pros. lum. 

I. 230. Dtvino sewzVa ^ressw Claruit. Au- 83. riOrjffi. See on II. T. 321. 

gurium qualis laturus iniquum Praceps san- 88. JUdvdapov avriOtov BiZijfjLsvr]. Plu- 

guineo delabitur igne cometes Prodigiale tarch. de Pyth. Orac. ?) yap ovx op^e r^}v 

rubens : non ilium navita tuto, Non impune 'AOrjvav, ort Trtiaai flovXtrai TOV 'A%ai- 

vident populi ; sed crine minaci Nunciat aut oiif, TOV 'Odwaea TrapaKaXoutrav ; tire 

ratibus ventos, aut urbibus hostes. <rvy%lai ra opKia, TOV Ha.v8a.pov Z,r}Tov- 

81. idwv ir\r)oiov d\\ov. So ^Esch. <rav ; ore rps^a<T0ai rot;? Tpwa , STTI rov 
Supp. 109. ioBoQd) tlq v/3piv. Soph. Elect. Aiofirjdrjv (3a8i%ovaav ; 'O jusv yp, tvpu)- 
893. cif ri j8\e\//a<Ta. Eur. Phcen. 1456. orof Kai /td^i^og- 6 51, TO^IKOQ KO.I dvor}- 
Trpof Ka<riyvrjTi]v Idatv. See Markland on rof 6 5e, deivoQ eiirtiv Kai (j>oovifiog. The 
Eur. Suppl. 689. Scholiast observes, that the notorious per - 

82. ij p' avTiQ K. r. X. Bentley would fidy of the Lycians rendered Pandarus a fit 
read this passage interrogatively, as expres- agent for effecting a breach of the truce. 
sive of doubt respecting the intent of the Virgil alludes to this incident in JEn. V. 496. 
prodigy. Others understand rj for /LtaXXov Pandare, qui quondam, jussus confundere 
ij. Clarke's interpretation, however, is suf- foedus, Inmedios telum torsisti primus Achivos. 
ficiently explicit, who thus understands the 93. iriOoio. Optative for future indica- 
soldiers to remark : Rem non amplius in in- tive. See on II. B. 339. In the following 
certofore, quippe signum dedisse Jovem, all- line the particle ice is added. 


At cV t'Srj MfVfXaov apr/tov, 'Arpcoc vtoy, 

'AXX' ay', oiaTsvaov MfvfXaou KuSaXtjUOto* 
T 'ATToXXam AuajyVt icXuroro^, 
TTjOtoroyovwv /oc^av icXarijv fKaro/xj 
te aari> 



AVTIK i(Tv\a TOOV ivoov, taou ayt; 
'Ayptov, ov /oa TTOT' auroc, VTTO aripvoio TV\f] 


BfjSXrjKft 7TpO arfj0OC, 6 S' VTTTtOC /i7T(T 

Tov Ktpa IK Kf^aXij 

Kat ra jucv a<TK//<rac 

Ilav o' tu Xftpvat;, \pvaii]v t 

Kat ro jUtv eu KariOriKt ravu(T(rajUvoc Trport 


100. MeveXaou. Subaud. cara. 

101. Macrob. Saturnal. I. 1?. Prwc* 
GrcRcorum primam lucem, quce prtecedit Soils 
exortus, XVKTJV appellaverunt. Hinc afj-fyi- 
\VKrj vv%, et 'ATToXXwvi \WK/yvi, quod 
significat r<p ycvvoivre r)v XVKIJV. This 
is the most probable interpretation. The 
passage quoted by Clarke from ^Elian, de 
Animal. X. 26. seems to refer to another of 
Apollo's titles, AvKttoQ. See the note on 
JEsch. Theb. 133. Pent. Gr. p. 419. 

105. tffvXa, Eduxit e theca, qua ap- 
pellabatur ywpvrof. Od. 0. 54. CLARKE. 
Schol. iffvXa- iyvpvov, t^gjSaXt rrje ^17- 
KTJQ. The origin of the epithet iaXo, 
(which implies bounding, leaping, nimble,) 
is uncertain. Schol. id\ov aiyof TrrjSr]- 
TIKOV Kai bpfJiriTiKov, Trapa TOV itcvtiaQai. 
In this derivation there is the ^Eolic change 
of accent, and in Heyne's, from ai and 
ttXXojuat, salio, there is something like tau- 
tology in the addition of cuyog. Perhaps, 
therefore, it is preferable to deduce it, with 
Damm, from t^vf , lumbus, 

106. The construction is : ov 

KEl 7TpO GTrfOoQ, TVyflGClQ (dVTOv) K. T. X. 

Compare II. M. 189. 

109. iKKatStKctdajpa. Sixteen palms ; i. e. 
about two feet and a half. It is not neces- 
sary, however, to suppose that the bow 
itself was therefore five feet in length ; so 
that Pope's objection to its size, as extra- 
vagant and unmanageable, has no weight. 

111. Kopwvijv. Schol. TO tTTiKapTre^ 
dicpov TOV TO%OV, oQtv dirr'jpTrjTai 77 vt vpd. 
The extremity to which the string was fixed, 
and which was generally of gold, completed 
the bow. Hence Eustathius derives the 
proverbial expression tTriQtlvai icopiovrjv, 
in reference to the successful event of any 

undertaking. Lucian. de Mart. Peregr. 
Xpvayi j3t'y xavaijv Kopwwqv iiriOtlvai. 
And, doubtless, hence also the Latin pro- 
verb : Finis coronat opus. 

112. Kai ro /iv ev K. T. X. The poet 
having held us, through the foregoing book, 
in expectation of a peace, makes the con- 
ditions be here broken, after such a man- 
ner as should oblige the Greeks to act 
through the war with that irreconcileable 
fury, which affords him the opportunity of 
exerting the full fire of his own genius. 
The shot of Pandarus being, therefore, of 
such consequence and, as he calls it, the 
t.pfj.a 68vvd(t)v, the foundation of future 
woes, it was thought fit not to pass it over 
in a few words, like the flight of every 
common arrow, but to give it a description 
some way correspondent to its importance. 
For this, he surrounds us with a train of 
circumstances : the history of the bow, the 
bending it, the covering Pandarus with 
shields, the choice of the arrow, the prayer 
and posture of the shooter, the sound of 
the string, and flight of the shaft, all most 
beautifully and livelily painted. It may be 
observed, too, how proper a time it was to 
expatiate on these particulars, when, the 
armies being unemployed, and only one 
man acting, the poet and his readers had 
leisure to be the spectators of a single and 
deliberate action. I think it will be allowed 
that the little circumstances, which are some- 
times thought too redundant in Homer, 
have a wonderful beauty in this place. 
Virgil has not failed to copy it, and with 
the greatest happiness imaginable : JEn. 
XI. 858. Dixit, et aurata volucrem Threissa 
sagittam Deprompsit pharetra, cornuque in- 
fensa tetendit, Et duxit longe, donee curvata 
S 2 



>i iraipoi, 

M?) irplv avat&iav aprjioi ut ' 
nptv j3Xfj<T0at MtviXaov apfiiov, ap^ov ' 
Avrap 6 (ruXa irwjua (ftaptrpric; , IK <T f'Xcr' tov 
*Aj3X?ra ? Trrepofvra, jUfXeuvwv fp// oSuvawv* 
/a ' 7Ti vfupy Kardcocr^uti irucpov oiarbv, 


f/ EXcf 8' 6 


KOI vtupa 

Avrap 7TtS?7 



t, irpwrr) $ Ato^ Ovyarrip ' 
"H rot TTpoaOe arracra, jSfXoc i 
IX H Sf roo-ov /LIEV Icpyev OTTO 

coirent Inter se capita, et manibus jam tan- 
geret aquis, Leeva aciemferri, dextra nervo- 
que papillam. Extemplo teli stridorem au- 
rasque sonantes Audiit una Aruns, heesitque 
in corpore ferrum. POPE. See Macrob. 
Saturn. V. 3. The use of TiOrjfjii with the 
adverb iv, has been noticed on II. B. 381. 

113. ayK\ti/af. Scil. ro TO%OV. 

122. vevpa jSdtia. The bowstrings were 
usually of leather, cut into slips. The 
y\v<piQ was a notch cut in the extremity of 
the arrow, for the purpose of fixing it stea- 
dily in the string. There is a various read- 
ing, y\v^>id' avrt Xa/3a>v, but compare Od. 
$. 419. Apoll. Rhod. IV. 282. 

124. fcu/cAo7-()6f treive. Schol. avri 
TOV, reivag KVK\ortp i-jroiriat. 

125. The verb Xtyyw, to sound shrilly, is 
evidently formed from the association of 
ideas in regard to sound. Eustath. ro Sk 
Atye Kai TO la%ev ajvofiaTOTrsTroirjvTai' 
riOtiTai dk TO plv XtioTtpov, oliceiwQ ?ri 


vivpaq. Hence Quinctil. Inst. Orat. I. 5. 
Minime nobis concessa est 'Ovop.aTOTroua. 
Quis enim ferat, siquid simile illis merito 
laudatis, Xiy^e j8t6f et <nfi 6^0a\/i6f, 
fingere audeamns? Od. I. 394. See also 
Dionys. Halicarn. de Homeri Poesi, . 6. 
Dio Chrysost. Orat. 12. who instance $oi)- 
Tree, apajSog, ]36jLtj3oe, poxQu, avtflpvxe, 
KTVTTOQ, Kavajcn, &c. as words of a similar 
formation. The words iirnrTtaQai juevtai- 
vttiv, which are applied in the next line to 
an inanimate object, are intended to repre- 
sent the rapidity of the arrow with greater 



emphasis. See Aristot. Rhetor. III. 11. 
and compare II. A. 573. 

128. 'Ay\i7/. Pradatrix: from ayo> 
and Xaa. The old reading aytXair] has no 
meaning. It frequently happens that a 
verb of an opposite sense is to be supplied, 
from one which has immediately preceded; 
and here it should seem that /is/ivjjro aeOfv 
is understood after' A yeXju/. Plat. Apol.p.36. 
B. d/uX^o-ag wvrrtp ol TroXXot, scil. 7Ti/if- 
\ovvTai. This, however, more commonly 
belongs to a construction with an infinitive ; 
as in II. E. 821. r^vy' ovrdfiev, scil. SKS- 
XfU, from OVK tiag in v. 819. See on 
Soph. Ant. 241. Pent. Gr. p. 24. Compare 
also 1 Cor. xiv. 34. 

129. f3e\og x 7rl ""- See on II. A. 51. 

130. w ore ju^r rjp K. T. X. This is one of 
those humble comparisons which Homer 
sometimes uses to diversify his subject ; but 
a very exact one in its kind, and correspond- 
ing in all its parts. The care of the goddess, 
the unsuspecting security of Menelaus, the 
ease with which she diverts the danger, and 
the danger itself, are all included in this 
short compass. To which it may be added, 
that if the providence of heavenly powers to 
their creatures is expressed by the love of a 
mother to her child, if men in regard to 
them are but as heedless sleeping infants 
and if those dangers which may seem great 
to us are by them as easily warded off as 
the simile implies ; there will seem some- 
thing sublime in this conception, however 
little or low the image may be thought at 
first sight in respect to a hero. A higher 



AVTTJ S' aur' Wvvw, oBt a>OT7jjOoe b\r\ 
Xpvcrtioi avv\ov, KOL 

'Ev & 7T<T 

Am JUEV ap Sa>o-rf/poe eX^Xaro 
Kat & 


"H ot TrXftorov puro, Sm ?rpa cte tdaro KOI rije* 
'Acporarov 8' ap' ottrroc tTriypaipt \poa QWTOG* 
AVTIKO. S' eppeev al/za KfXafvf^fe $ wrXr}e. 
'Qc 8' ore rfe r' IXl^avra YVVI) QoiviKi /mirjvri 
M^oviC) iic Kajoa, irapijiov ifmtvat ITTTTWV* 
Karat 8' v 0aXa/z(jj, TroXffC r /xtv i7pr/crai;ro 

'iTTTT^fC 1 00jOtV, j3aO > tX^ S^ KCLTM 

'AjU0orpoi/, KOO-JUOC 0' iTTTTtt), tXarijpi r 
ToToi rot, MfvlXae, jutavOriv atjitari 



8' ap' 7Ttra ava? av^pwv ' 

Pryrj<T o icai avrbg a 
f lc ^ t vevpov r 

comparison would but have tended to lessen 
the disparity between the gods and man ; 
and the justness of the simile had been 
lost, as well as the grandeur of the senti- 
ment. POPE. The construction is here 
changed as in 11. B 469. 481. since ro<rov, 
i. e. ITTI roerov, is followed by o>f, which 
should have been preceded by rivn. 

131. Xsgerai. For the present Xsyerat. 
See on II. B. 147. Also on v. 515. 

133. avwxov. Sell. tavTovQ. II. Y. 478. 
"iva Zwixovffi rkvovrtc, ayK&vog. 

137. /a'rpj/e 0'. Hence it appears that 
Minerva turned aside the arrow, so as to 
fall upon that part of the body which was 
most defended ; viz. where the breastplate 
met the w0T)p, or belt. See on II. T. 
337. The WCT/}Q and Zwvr) were distinct, 
and not synonymous, as Heyne supposes ; 
the latter being the same with the fiiTprj. 
See on II. B. 479. Schol. p.irpa tie tXeyero 
TO iawrepov rrJQ \ayovoQ ti\r}p,a sptovv, 
XXK< tZuQtv rrtpitiXrjfikvov. epKOQ O.KOV- 
Twv. That is, against javelins. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 313. 

139. 7rlypai//f. Catullo, conscribillavit. 
CLARKE. Schol. rffv iirufxivtiav TOV <r<i)fia- 
TOQ t7ri%t<Tv. Anglice Grazed. See on II. 
Z. 168. 

141. w S' ore rig K. r. X. Eustathius ex- 
tols this passage for the variety it presents, 
and the learning it includes. We learn from 


hence, that the Lydians and Carians were 
famous in the first times for their staining 
in purple, and that the women excelled in 
works of ivory ; as also, that there were cer- 
tain ornaments, which only kings and princes 
were privileged to wear. POPE. The verb 
[iiaiveiv, is here used simply in the sense 
of jBctTTTtiv, to dye, to stain ; as the Latins use 
adulterare, and Virgil, violare, in his imita- 
tion of this simile in jEn. XII. 67- Indum 
sangvineo veluti violaverit astro Siquis ebur, 
8fc. See Macrob. Saturn. V. 12. 

144. l7r7r?/. Charioteers ; in the same 
meaning with sXariJpt, in the next line. See 
on II. B. 554. The noun ayaX/ua is not sy- 
nonymous with KofrfioG, but must be taken 
in its primitive acceptation. See the note 
on Soph. Ant. 704. Pent. Gr. p. 257. 
Be it remarked, also, that the Homeric 
senses of KO<T/JOC. are order, regularity, 
or ornamental attire, Its philosophical ap- 
plication to denote the system of the uni- 
verse, or the world, is of much more recent 
date. See Bentleii Opusc. Philol. pp. 347. 
445. Of a//0or0ov, see above on v. 60. 

146. TOIOI. For roiw, since WQ preceded. 
Schol. roToi ror ovrw ffoi. The same 
Scholiast informs us that fuavQriv is syn- 
copated from the dual piavQrjTrjV. Others 
take it for p.iavQtv, instead of sjJiidvOijoav. 
Compare, however, II. B. 731. 

151. vtiipov re Kai oyfcovg. The vtvpov 



A\>opp6v ol OvjiiOQ ivi arri 

jSdjOU OTEl/a^WV jllr0J Kpl'lWV ' 

MevfXaoy* iTTEOTfva^oirro S' Iratpot. 
j Oavarov vv rot opKi* rajuvov, 
OTov TrpooTTjtrae TT/DO 'A^atwv Tpaxri fj.a^ecFOai. 
"Qi d |3aXov Tpa>e> Kara 8' opiaa Trtora 7rarj<rav. 
Ou jUV 7ra>c aXtov TTfXa opKtov, aljua re apvwv, 
STTOV&U r' aKpjjrof, Kai Emi, $e 7r7rt6//iv. 
Enrcp yap re icai CLVTIK 'OXfynrtoe OVK erlXfcrtTEv, 
"Eic re icai OT/> rcXet, GVV re jueyaXt^i aTTErtcrav, 
2uv afrjvi K0aXr?a-, yvvai^t TB KOL rco-(Ttv. 
Eu yap yw roo otSa Kara 0pva KOI Kara 9v/j.ov, 
v Erro-rat ijjuap, or' av Tror' oXwXp "iXtoc <p^> 
Kai n/omjuoc, Kal Xaoc VjUjUXta> Ilptajuoio* 
ZEUC SE a^iv KjOoi^tSrjCj v^i^vyoc, alOspL vaiwv, 
AVTOQ 7rto > <rty}(Ttv pjuvr)v ai 



is the sfrzwg Jj/ w^z'c/^ ^e /jead o/" f/te weapon 
was fixed to the shaft ; and oyicof , properly 
a swelling, a projection, is used in the plural 
to denote /*e barbed head itself. Schol. 
/war, Iv y ^l^crai ro ffidrjpov TOV 
?rp6g rov KaXa/iov oyKov? ^> rag 
Kai i^o^aQ TOV BsXovQ 

155. QdvctTov vi) TOI opici Ira/zvov. That 
is, a treaty, which is the cause of thy death. 
See on v. 28. supra. Compare also II. T. 51. 

157- KaTcnraTrjaav. Have trodden under 
foot ; i. e. have treated with contempt. Eu- 
stath. TroXXf/v $77X01 KctTa<j)p6vr)ffiv TO ira- 
Trjffai. Suidas : TrctTeiv' vfipi%eiv. So Epic- 
tet. I. 8. ovxl $e TrdvTctQ TOVQ \6yovQ TOV- 
TOVQ KaTcnrctTriGaG, ^TTijppevoQ rjjuv Kai 
irftyvaijutvoc, TTtpiTrarti; Compare Isai. 
xxviii. 3. ; Ixiii. 3. Dan. viii. 10. LXX. Heb. 
x. 29. 

159. ffirovSai r a.Kpr}TOi. See on II. B. 341. 

160. etTTtp yap r at UVTIK' 'OXu/iTriOf 
ic. T. X. Hence Aristid. Orat. II. wffTrep /cat 
i7riopKrjffa(Tiv"OfirjpoQt<f)T} vvpflaivtiv, avv 
TroXXoIf Kat jneyaXotg uorepov tuTivtiv TU.Q 
diicaQ. Eurip. Ion. 1615. %povia /ui/ rd 
rwv Ofwv Trwf, fj'g rlXog $' OVK aoOevij. 
The sentiment is frequently introduced by 
the tragic poets. So Horat. Od. III. 2. 31. 
Raro antecedentem scelestum Deseruit pede 
Pcena claudo. Tibull. El. I. 9. 4. Sera ta- 
men tacitis pccna venit pedibus. Stat. Theb. 
V. 688. Sed videt hoc, videt ille Detim reg- 
ulator, et ausis, Sera quidem, manet ira ta- 
men. Caesar, B. G. I. Consuesse enim Deos 
immortales, quo gravius homines ex commu- 
tatione rerum doleant, quos pro scelere eorum 
ulcisci velint, his secundiores inferdum res, et 
diuturniorem impunitalem concedere. Valer. 


Maxim. I. 11. Lento gradu ad vindictam sui 
divina procedit ira, tarditatemque supplicii 
gravitate compensat. 

161. cLTreTiaav. The use of the aorist 
ind. instead of the future, by means of a 
change of tense similar to that in v. 131. is 
very rare. It may here, however, be un- 
derstood in the sense of the Latin future 
perfect, by which the certain consequence 
of an event is expressed as though it had 
already happened. But we are rather in- 
clined to consider the present instance as a 
union of two propositions, for K r Kai 6i|/ 
rfXel, Tpwsf Tt cnroTicrovai' cnreTtcrav (luere 
solent) yap ot 7rapa/3aivovrf ra opKia. 
See Herman de Emend. Gr. Gr. p. 190. 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 506. 2. Bos supplies TTOI- 
vrjv or Tifiriv after aireTiaav, as in II. F. 
286. and roK<> with avv /*tyaXy. Schol. 
GVV /AtyaXy %6Xy, rj TOK<J> iJTOi Troivy 
7rpo<rri/iy. Thus also the Latins use magno 
and magno cumfcenore. 

163. ev ydp 'fyw K. r. X. So Hector in 11. 
Z. 447. 

164. or' av. So Heyne reads in II. Z. 
448. though he here has orav. See Person 
on Eur. Med. 191. 

166. i4/iiyog. Enthroned on high.^ Schol. 
6 feTTt vtyrjXov Opovov KaOt^ojjitvos' rj fitTa- 
^>opa aTTO r&v kv vavai vya>v, e^>' wf KaQe- 
ZOVTUI 01 spkaaovTfc;. Eurip. Phoen. 72. 
?ri Z,vyoiQ naOk^tT apxi]Q- See note Pent. 
Gr. p. 308 

167. avToQ tTriaatiyGiv p/*v^v at'ytiJa. 
Hence Virg. ^n. VIII. 355. Credunt se vi- 
disse Jovem, cum scepe nigrantem Mgida con- 
cuteret dextra. This noble passage seems to 
decide in favour of the jEgis being a shield. 
See on II. B. 447- 


' a7raVje Koricov' ra jUV ttrtrerat OVK a 
'AXXa fJLQi alvbv a^oc o"*0V (rcrrai, a> MtvcXac, 
At K 0avri, Kai poipav ava7rX?j(T^C j3toroto* 170 

Kai KEV fcXly^tcrroc 7roXuSii//iov "A/oyoe IKOIJU?JV. 
AVTIKO. yap juvTjtrovrat 'A^atoi TrarptSoc; 

'EXevrjv* <rlo cT oarla Truant apoupa 
v T/ootrj, arf 

Kai K rtc >$' jOft Tpwtuv V 
Tvjuj3(^ 7rt0paWicwv McveXaou 
AtO' ourtuc 7Ti Traa-t ^oXov rfXetret' ' 
'lie Kat vuv aXtov (rrparbv fiyaytv I 
Kai 77 cjSrj oTKOV^f 0tXrjv cc Trarpt^a yatav 180 

2vv Kivj(Tt vrjuai, XITTWV ayaObv McvtXaov. 
"flc TTOTE ne ptf rore ftot X" vot tvptia X^ v * 

Tov 8* eiriOapavvcjv trpoatyi] ZavObg MfvlXaoc* 
0apo-t, jur^Sfi rt TTO) St8taro-0 Xaov 'Axtwv. 
VK Iv Kaiptw b^v TTajrj /BfXoc, aXXa 7rapot0v 185 

tOa-TTJp T TTa 

a r, icat jutrp?], rrjv x a ^ K ^ ^ Ka/aov 
Tov 8' a?rajUtj3ojUvo 
At yap Sr) ourw^ 117, <f>i\O a> 
f 'EXcoc 8' tTjrrJp 7rtjuao-o-rat, 178' liriOfifffi 190 

, a KC Travo-rjat /ifXatvawv o 

orrt Taxtffra Ma^aova vupo 

170. polpav avcnrXriffyQ. Another read- of variegated, simply because it will suit 
ing is TToTfiov, as in II. A. 263. Either ex- certain passages. Compare II. E. 295. H. 
pression is alike common, as well as o\- 222. K. 77- A. 236. and elsewhere. In II. 
0pov\r]<Tai. See Brunck on Apoll. T. 404. we have atoXof 'Lwog ; and so aio- 
Rhod. IV. 1388. XojrwXof, swift rider, in II. I\ 185. Com- 

171. 7roXw^i^tov*Apyof. Hesiod. ap> Eu- pare also v. 489 infra. 

stath. "Apyog dvvdpov ibv Aavaog Troirjatv 187- The wjwa is here used for the 0w- 

tvvdpov. Pausan. II. p. 112. #pot> ^ aua pa? in v. 136. and so again in v. 216. It 

atyiffiv iffTi TCI ptvpara, ir\r)v rdSv iv does not appear, however, that the terms 

Akpwg. See also Spanheim on Callim. L. were convertible ; but the w//a was a brazen 

P. 46. skirt subjoined to the thorax, and reaching 

182. TOTI p.oi %avoi eupaa %0wv. Virg. from thence to the knees. Schol. Zutfjia- 6 

IV. 24. Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima ZaiffTVQ XIT&V. 

dehiscat. The Scholiast understands ivptia, 190. iTripdaaerai. The poetic future of 

adverbially, for fyplwg. eVi/ia'o/jat, the same with STrifiaiofjiai, in- 

185. kv icaipiy. Scil. TOTT^I. Hesych. vestigo. The simple verb fiaitffOai occurs in 
Kaipia- Qavaai^a. See Pent. Gr. Lex. in Od. J3. 356. which the Scholiast explains by 
voce, and on II. 0. 84. iTTi%r]Ttlv. Also attrecto ; and hence attrec- 

186. Trctf ctioXo. Properly, aioXog, and tando inquire, i. e. Anglice, to probe. Eu- 
its compound 7rcrvaioXo, signify rapidly stath. dtd 67ra0)g Qipairivaai. Compare II. 
whirling, or moving. This signification it E. 748. 

always retains in Homer ; as there is no 191. Travayai. Scil. ro fc'Xfcof. See Matt. 

reason for adopting the more modern sense Gr. Gr. . 331. d. 



', 'AtTKXrjTnou vibv a/uLVfJiovog irjrrj 
"O0pa t'Sp MfvlXaov apifiov, ap^ov 'A^atwv, 
"Ov rte oiartvffag fjSaXe, ro'wv fv HW, 
Tptotuv r} AUKUUV" r< ^utv icXtoc, 

*QtQ ^>ar'* ou' apa ot K/jpu 
Bij S' ilvat Kara Xaov 'A^atwv 
IlaTrratvwv r/pwa Ma^aova* rov S' CVOTJCTEV 
'Eoraor'* ajuufn Sf jutv Kparspai 
Aawv, ot Oi ETTOVTO T/>ncrje ^ 



Op<r', 'Aa-fcXr/TnaSi]* icaXlfi Kpt/cov ' 

MevcXaov aprjiov, 'Arpcoc vtov, 
f/ Ov rc oicrrevGas ejSaXe, rowv fv ciSwc? 
T/owwv 17 AVKIWV* ru> JUEV icXcoCi a/ijut c irivOog. 

*QiQ 0aro' rw 8' apa Ovfibv Ivl (rrrj^to-o-fv opive. 
Bav ^' tvat Ka0' ojutXov ava arparbv svpvv ' 
'AXX' ore 3?j ^ iWvov, o^i av0o MevAaoc 
Trept S' avrbv 

"', 6 ^' V jU(TOrOi(Tt TT 

AVTIKO. 8' jc 2(txrri}jOoc ajorjporoc 


Au<T Sf ot ^worf/joa TravatoXov, 
Zaijua rf, icai jurrpTjv, r?)v ^ 

7Tt tOfV E'XKOP, O0' 

7r'ap' rjTrm ^apjuaica flS 




' virtvtpOe 


194. The word 0wra must either be 
taken absolutely, or it must be joined with 
Maxova; but the latter of these cases, 
Heyne observes, would scarcely be Greek ; 
and wherever 0ti> occurs in Homer, in ap- 
position with a proper name, it is always 
joined with an adjective. Thus iaoQtos 
0o>f, infra v. 212. B. 565. T. 310. 1.211. 
et passim. Hence he proposes to read It]- 
T?ipa instead of iijTiipoQ. Others, however, 
understand 0wra to signify /car* i^oxrjv, 
that excellent man. Pausan. II. 26, wg av 
t Xsyot, Qeov Trdida avOpvTrov. Thus 
St. Paul uses the word avBpuTTOQ in 1 Tim. 
ii. 5. Elf yefcp QtoQ, dg Kai MeaiTtjg Qcov 
Kai avOpwTrwv, avQpUTTOQ Xpioroc '!TJ- 

200. TraTTTaivwv. Undique circumspi- 
dens. Hesych. Tra-XTaivtiv TrfpifiXsirttv 

204. optr'. That is, optrco, Imper. mid- 
die of the future form opvofiai, from opw, 
excito. See on II. B. 35. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 244. 

210. d\\' ore 3t} K. T. X. See on II. A. 
6. The first member of the sentence con- 

tinues through the two following lines, and 
is answered by avr'iKa di, in v. 213. Of 
the repetition of Sk in the apodosis see on 
11. A. 58. 

212. KVK\6a. The Venetian Scholiast 
and the old Homeric editor, Aristarchus, 
would read KVK\O, in apposition with apta- 
rot. So also in II. P. 392. The syntax in 
this case would be the same as in 11. Y. 16G. 
dypopevoi, TTCLQ ^ftog. There is no reason 
however for this rejection of the adverb 
KVK\6at, beyond mere arbitrary conjecture. 
See Lobeck. ad Phrynich. p. 9. 

214. ayev. For ijyrjaav. 

218. rfTTia ^dp^iafca Ildfffff. Eustathius : 
rpcif 0ap^a/cwi/ ideal Trap' 'O/x^p^r ITTI- 
-jraara, wf vvv tiri Meve\aow Kai xpiord, 
oloi', iov ^pit(T0ai* (Od. A. 262.) Kai 
Triard Kara TOV AH^^vXov (Prom. 488.), 
rovrkaTi, TTOTCL fj irorifia, wg iirl 'EXtvrig 
tv 'Odvaatiy. A. 220. In addition to these, 
viz. lotions, unguents, and potions, three 
other species of pharmacy are also men- 
tioned in Greek authors : for instance, the 
TrXaord, /3pw<rijua, and tTrt^ai. See Blom- 


riao-(7, ra ot Trorf Trarpi 0tX 

"O^>pa roi a/u07Tvovro fiorjv ayaObv MfvfXaov, 220 

To(j)pa cP ITTI Tpwwv (TTi^ec rjAuflov aairtaraa)!;* 
O't <P aim Kara rev^s' c^uv, juvrjativro $E \apfjLr\Q. 
"Ev0' OVK av j3ptovra '/Sofc ' Ayafit/uvova Stov, 
OI/CE /caraTrrwcrffOvr', ouS' OUK E^lXovra fia^aSai' 
'AXXa /LtaXa <T7TuSovra /ua^rjv f KU&awi/WMf, 225 

'ITTTTOUC JWEV 7/ coo's KOL apjuara Troiia'Xa 
Kai roue /itv ^tpaTTwv a7ravi> 


Tw juaXa TroXX' ETrlrtXXf 7rapto-^/uv, OTTTTOTE KEV //tv 

Fma Xa|3^ cajuaro, TroXla^ StaKOtpavfovra* 230 

Avrap o TTE^OC wy fTTfTrwXaro 

Kai ^ oug /Liy <T7Tvoi;rac t^o 

Touc fJLaXa. Oap<ruvtcFK Traptcrrajiifvoc 7T 

'Apyaot, ju7 TTW rt jU0tr ^ovpt^oc aXjcf/c' 
Ou yap ?ri \f;Ev$i(rai Trarirjp ZEI/C iVtrfr' apwyoc* 235 

AXX' ot7T/o irpoTEpoi VTrIp op/cta orjX7)(Tavro, 
Twv ^rot aurwv rlpfva XP ' 41 'y^Trec c'Sovrat* 

' awr' aXoxouc T <j>i\a KOL vr)iria rlicva 
EV vfitacriv, ETT^V irToXitOpov ?Xa)jUv. 

av fJitOitvTac; VSot (rruycpou TroXfjUOio, 210 

i> jUClXa VtlCtO-fC X o ^Wro7o-tV 7T(T(TtV* 

field's Gloss, ad ^Esch. /oc. V. Hemster- troops, and separately addressing the Gre- 

huis on Arist. Plut. 717- cian chiefs. 

219. 01 TraTpL For ou irarpt. The 230. TroXsag ^tafcotpavcoj^ra. See on II. 

poets frequently used the dative of the pro- B. 207- 

noun with another dative, instead of the 231. STTfTrwXttro. Hence the inscription 

genitive. Somewhat similar is the use of or title of the book. Compare Xenoph. 

the pronoun in the accusative, before ano- Cyrop. VII. 1. 9. 

ther accusative with the preposition Kara 234. firj TTW rt. See on II. A. 106. 124. 

understood. Thus, in II. A. 362. TSKVOV, and of the adjective Bovpidog, on II. E. 30. 
ri K\altiQ ; rt 8s (re <j>ptvag nctro TrkvQoQ, 235. \bevdeaffi. Heyne retains the vulgar 

i. e. 0pj/a <rov. And so again infra v. reading tyevdwai, from ^tvdoe, understand- 

229. More frequently however the dative ing a res pro persona; chiefly because the 

is put as a pleonasm; as in II. E. 116. i adjective ^tvS-^g does not elsewhere occur in 

Trore fioi icai irarpi <j>l\a (ftpovBovaa ira- Homer, who uses i^tvarriQ in II. Q. 261. We 

pk<JTi]Q. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 392. h. and have however $i\o^tvdri in II. M. 164. and 

. 413. Obs. 6. From II. A. 831. it appears (tyevdife in II. S. 46. and it is certain that 

that Chiron instructed Achilles also in the the expression aputybg tlvai accords better 

art of medicine. with persons than things. Compare II. 9. 

221. ro^pa S' ITTI Tpwwv K. T. X. 205. O. 302. $. 371- The sentiment con- 

Heyne justly suspects the genuineness of tained in this line, is expressed in Eurip. 

this line, which is most probably the inter- Med. 1388. Tie ^ K\vt crov OeoQ ?) at>wj/ 

polation of some Rhapsodist, in order that Tow -^evdopicov Kai ZtivaTrara ; Compare 

50pa might be followed by the correspond- Prov. xix. 9. 

ing particle ro^pa. If the Trojans were 242. io^poi. The derivation and im- 

now advancing, the short space left between port of this epithet is uncertain. The more 

the two armies (II. T. 114.) would not allow usual acceptation is that of bellicosi: from 

time for Agamemnon's marshalling the u> and /iei'pw, divido, Schol. ot Trept t'ouf 




T0r}7rorC, ^V 


ao*', oi8* apa rtc ^ 4 JUETO. typEffi yiyvtrai a\Kri' 




Eipvar' tinrpvfivoi, 

rjr' at K' 




X */ a 

7Tt Kpi7r(TO'i, Ktwv ava ov\afj.ov 
Ot 8' aju^ 'lSojUvf?a 

V Vt 

o apa ot TTVjuarac wrpuv ^>aXa 
wv y?70]<Tv ava^ av^pwv ' 
AVTIKO. S' 'iSojUfvfja 7rpOGr)v$a jUftXt^ 
'loojUVu, 7T|Ot julv <T Tttu Aavawv 

Vl TTToX^qj, ^S' aXXoiti) 7Tl 
' V $ai8\ OT 7Tp T 'y^pOVO'tOV 

ot aptarot ivt Kprjr^pt Ktpwvrai 
E'/7Tp yap r' aXXot y icaprj icojuowvrfc ' 
Aatrpov TTtvaxrt, <rov ^ TrXaov ^fTrac' ait 
"Earrjx', 0)<77T/) /iol, 7Tttv, or 
AXX' 6p(Tu T 

Tov 8' aw 'lSojUVi;Cj KpTjrdv a-yoc? avriov 
i], juaXa jUv roi iywv |0tijpoc Tatpoc 

we TO TTjOwrov vTrlcrrrjv cat KarVi(ra* 
AXX aXXouc oTpvvt Kaor) KOjUowvrac ' 
'O(j>pa ra^tora jua^a>jU0'* 7Ti <ruv 7' 
Tpwc" roio-tv 8' au 0avaroe icai jcr)^ OTrtacra) 

E<7<TT , 7Tl 7TpOTpOt V7Tp O 





Kcti TO&O. fie/j,opT]p,evoii o k0Ti KauvovTSQ. 
And this seems to be the more probable, 
from the similar epithet ky^ecfifjuapog in II. 
B. 692. 840. nor is the change of quantity 
in the first syllable, ioQ being invariably 
long, an objection of great weight. See 
Prelim. Obs. Sect. V. . 1. The deriva- 
tion, which some adopt from tipa, cura, so 
as to imply rSiv iStv &pav, i. e. (ppovTida, 
eX OVTS Gi is inconsistent with the sense. 
Thejerb akfitaQai is here used in the sense 
of aioiiaQai or ivTptTreffOai. Eustath. com- 
pares Od. P. 123. (TSjSac ft' ?x "Vepowvra. 

244. iredioto Oe.ovffai. Supply ia. 

256. (j,ti\ixioioiv. Scil. eTreai. See on II. 

259. ytpovaiov. Eustath. rotf ykpovuiv, 
17701 rotf ivrifjioi diSojjifvov. 


262. <rov ^ TT. ^. ai."Eor7x'. The cus- 
torn which obtained of distributing larger 
portions of meat to the more honourable 
guests, which was noticed on II. A. 468. A. 
48. extended also to the wine : which was 
presented to the company in equal portions, 
the cups of the chiefs being kept constantly 
full. Compare II. 0. 162. M. 311. Athen. 
V. 4. Oi Kpar^pft' avrolg, wffTTfp t%ti ai 
Tovvopa, Keicpapevoi TraptffTrjKtffav wv 
oi Kovpoi diaKovovfitvoi, TOIQ fiev ivi i\io- 
raroig ad TrXrjpfQ ira.ptl%ov TO irorripiov, 
TOIQ S' dXXoig 1% Iffov Sdvinov. daiTpbv de 
irivtiv, tTrtppjy/iartKwgavri TOV nffj.epifffj.e- 

264. ?rapoc u%at elvai. See on II. A. 
91. 553. and of the form opaev, on II. 
B. 35. 

'OMHPOY 'IAJAA02, A'. 139 

'HX0 c LIT* Aiavr(T<n, KIWV ava ovXajUOV avSpwv. 
Tw $ KOpvcrffiaOrjV) ajua St vifyoq etTrcro TTE^WV. 
'&C $' or' OTTO orKOTnfje tSe v0oe atTroXoe avrip, 275 

Kara TTOVTOV virb Zetyvpoio 
tvOev IOVTI, 
' tov Kara Trovrov, aya Se re Xat'XaTra 7roXXr)v* 

r iSu>v, VTTO r airioq rjXa<r jufjXa* 
Totat aju' Atavr(7<n Atorpf^aov ai^wv 280 

Aijtov ^ TroXfjUOv TTUKtvat Ktvuvro ^a 
Kuaveat, <raK<7t' r 

Atavr', 'Apyfiwv ifyrjropE ^aXKO^irwvwv, 285 

20wt /iv (oi> -yap totK* 6rpuvjUv) 
Aurw yap fjioXa Xaov avwyerov I^>t 
At yap, Zcu re 7rarp, KOI 'A0)]vatrj, KOI "ATroXXov, 

OvfJLOQ Ivi OT7/0O'(Tt ytVOLTO. 

K ra^' i7juuo-f 7ToXc Xlpm/xoto avaKroc, 290 

Xouo-a r, 7Tp0OjUVi] r. 
iV Xi7Tv aurov, ]3ij 
r^ic, Xt-yuv IluXuuv a 
trrlXXovra, Kai OTpvvovra jua 

)i /iyav XlfXayovra r', 'AXaaropa r, Xpofuov rt, 295 
A'ifjiova re Kpt'ovra, Biavra r, 7rotjUva Xawv. 
Trpwra cri/v 

274. v!0og eiTTfro TTE^WJ/. So again old punctuation, which included only the 
II. "*. 133. and the same figurative sense words oi> ydp eW in the parenthesis, it 
of ve<j)OQ is very usual. Eur. Hec. 907- was necessary to supply \abv after orpu- 
'EXXjjvwv vg^oc. Schol. vk<pog' TrX^Oog. vsjucv from the next line. Buttman, how- 
Herod. VIII. 109. vityoQ dvOpwTrwv. Diod. evei, justly considers the emendation of 
Sic. III. 28. vt<t>t\r) aKpiShtv. In Latin Wolf as conveying a sense better adapted to 
also, Virg. ./En. VII. 793. Insequitur nimbus the characters both of Agamemnon himself 
peditum. Likewise in the N. T. Heb. xii. 1. and the leaders whom he addressed. In II. 
vk<f>og [lapTvpuv. T. 79. *. 379. the construction of toiict is 

275. w 8' OT OTTO (TK07ri?/ K. T. X. similar ; and, however rare is an accusative 
Virgil has imitated this simile in ;n. XII. of the person only after jctXcvw, it is sanc- 
451. Qualis ubi ad terras abrupto sidere tioned by Od. I. 278. A. 507- 

nimbus It mare per medium; miseris lieu! 290. ry ice ra%' rmvatit. See on II. A. 

prascia longe Horrescunt cor da agricolis : 418. B. 148. 

dabit ille ruinas Arboribus stragemque satis, 294. OVQ irdpovg (TrsXXovra. The Scho- 

ruet omnia late: Antevolant, sonitumque fe- liast on Eurip. Hec. 117- mentions four sig- 

runt ad littora venti : Talis in adversos, fyc. nifications of the verb oreXXw. But its 

277- /JtXajTfpov. The use of the com- primary sense, to which every other may be 

parative has excited considerable discussion : reduced, is simply instruere, as in this place. 

some regarding it as put for the positive, and Compare Od. B. 287- Eurip. Troad. 168. 

others rendering jjwre, than. One of the Hence, in the middle and passive voice, 

Scholiasts would point after it, and begin a (mXXfffflcu, instrui ad profidscendum ; 

new clause at Tjurc. Probably it may mean, thence proficisci ; and by an easy transition, 

as we should say, blacker and blacker. induere, obtegere. See Blomfield's Gloss, on 

286. ff(J><t>i [iiv K. T. X. According to the jEsch. Pers. 615. 

T 2 



T KOI t 
TToXtjUOtO* KdKOl/e O JU(T(TOV Xa<7<TV, 



Mrjc) rt, tTTTTCxruvp T KOI 

Oioc TTpotrO' aXXwv jUfjuarw Tpwfitrcrt fjLa 

va^wpftrw* aXaTraSvorfpoi ^ap (T<T0t. 

K' uvrjp aTro wv o^twv Tp' ap/maf? I 



voov icai OVJULOV fvl (7rrj0arcrtv 
lV Hc o yl/owv wrpuv, TraXat 
Kai TOV 
Kaf itv 


7Ta 7rrpovra 
T Q yipov, i(T, a>c 0fju6c,' vi GT 
"Oc ^rot yovvatf 7rotro ? jSi'rj ^ rot 
'AXXa (Tf yripac rfipt ojuouov* w 



299. KdKoifg d' kg ptaaov K. T. X. This 
artifice of placing those men, whose beha- 
viour was most to be doubted, in the middle, 
so as to put them under a necessity of en- 
gaging even against their inclination, was 
followed by Hannibal in the battle of Zama; 
as is observed and praised by Polybius, lib. 
XV. who quotes this verse on that occasion, 
in acknowledgment of Homer's skill in mi- 
litary discipline. That our author was the 
first master of that art in Greece, is the opi- 
nion of jElian, Tactic, c. 1. Frontinus gives 
us another example of Pyrrhus, king of 
Epirus, following this instruction of Homer. 
Fide Stratagem. II. 3. So Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus, lib. XIV. Imperator catervis pedi- 
tum infirmis medium inter acies spatium, se- 
cundum Homericam dispositionem, praestituit. 
POPE. Hence the facetious allusion in 
Quintil. Inst. Orat. V. 12. Queesitum po- 
tentissima argumenta primone ponenda sint 
loco ; an summo ; an partita primo summo- 
que, ut Homerica dispositione in media sint 

305. aXa7rcr$v6r6poi yap tatcrOe. The 
sudden transition to the second person is in- 
tended to arrest the attention of the hearer. 
Quintil. Inst. Orat. IX. 3. Hcec schemata et 
convertunt in se auditorem, nee languere pa- 
tiuntur, subito aliqua notabili figura excita- 
tum. See also Longinus de Sublim. . 27. 
Virgil has a similar instance in yn. IX. 634. 
et cava tempora ferro Trajicit : I, verbis vir- 
tutem illude superbis. 

307. tyx 6pa<r0w. Eustathius ob- 
serves, that this expression admits of four 

interpretations, and considers the ambiguity 
as an excellence. But, in addition to the 
impropriety of using ambiguous terms in 
military commands, not one of the exposi- 
tions of Eustathius is correct. The truth is, 
that the direction regards the use of the 
optKTTj fAtXitj, described in the note on II. 
B. 543. and in the construction there is an el- 
lipsis of the preposition avv, with KO.T avrov 
also understood : i. e. ffiiv ey%ti optZdvOa) 
KO.T avTOv. But this mode of combat was 
on foot, as is evident from II. E. 335. *". 
805. In II. E. 851. also, where the same 
expression occurs, Mars is fighting on foot, 
since he had resigned his chariot to Venus 
in v. 363. and the words vTTtp vyov, rivia 
6' WTTWV, refer to the chariot of Diomed. 
The sense will therefore be ; Siquis curru 
suo relicto, i. e. pedes, alii currui obvium 
iverit, hasta extensa pugnet. That the pro- 
tended spear always implies hostility, and 
not assistance, is clear from the several pas- 
sages cited above. 

310. TToXe/jwv tv a'wf. Horat. Od. I. 
15. 24. Stiens pugna. See on II. B. 718. 

315. yjjpag 6/ioaov. Senectus communis ; 
i. e. to which all are equally exposed. The 
adjectives ojuoTog, and bfJtoiiog, are alike ; 
except that the latter is always used in a 
bad sense, as expressive of grief or calamity. 
Schol. bfioiiov TO 6/JOiwg Traert xaXnrbv 
iareov Sk OTI 6 TTOIIJT^Q Tcavrayov TO 
bp-oi'iov sirl TOV <pav\ov \ct[j,(3dvti.. Thus 
TroXefJLOQ bfioiiog, II. I. 440. N. 635. O. 670. 
and elsewhere : vcucof bpo'uov, infra v. 444. 
, Od. F. 236, 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, A'. 141 

Tov 8' fjjuajSfr' 7rtra rp??v*oc tTTTTora Nto-rwp* 
ij, juaXa JUEV rot -ya>v 0'Xotjui Kai avroe 

ore 8iov 'Epu0aXiwva Kartjcrav. 
'AXX' OVTTWC jua iravra Otoi 8oo-av av0pa>7rod<nv. 320 

Et rare KOV/DOC ta, vuv avr jue yrjp 
'AXXa Kai a>e i7T7rV(Ti jUfrfWojuai, ^81 
BovXr] Km fjLv9oi(TL' TO yap ypae eo-ri 

i%jUa(T(TOUO-t VWT/OOt, Ot7Tp 

yf-yaao-t, TreiroiOcKri re fliriQiv. 325 

' WfOV IlrWO, 

'Ea-raor'* aju^t S* 'A^rjvaTot jurj 

Avrap 6 TrXTjcriov <Tr?]ct TroXvjurjrtc ' 

IlajO 81, Kf^aXXrjvwv eiju^l (rr^C o^^ aXaTraSvat 330 

"Etrratrav* oi> yap TTW er^tv aKOVfro Xaoe aurijc, 

'AXXa vlov (Tvyopfvo/Ltvai KLVVVTO (t>a\ayyt 

TpW(jJV 0' tTTTToSajUWV Kttl 'A%atWV* Ot 8f jUVOVTC 

"Eoratrav, oTTTrorf Trupyoc 'A^atwv aXXoc tVfXflwv 

6pjurj(7t, Kai ap^etav TroXfjUOto. 335 


Kat <T 

T/TTTE KaraTrrwo-cTOvrfc a^)<rrar, fiijULvere 8' aXXouc > 340 

2(iJtV UV T' 7TOtK 

Dpoirtu yap Kai 8atr6c aKOva$<T0o 
OTTTTOTE Satra ytpovaiv 0OTrXt(HjUv ' 


319. ore (Stov 'E. KartKrav. Nestor re- seems to have stood with his forces at a dis- 
lates this exploit in II. H. 136. sqq. Com- tance from the centre of the army, so that 
pare also II. A. 669. ^. 629. the confusion, which the late events had 

320. aXV OVTTWG (ifjta K. r. X. Find. Ol. caused, had but just reached his station; 
VIII. 17. *AXXa S' ETT' aXXov tj3av dya- and it wpuld have been inconsistent with 
Q&v IloXXat 8' odol avv Gtott; fUTrpa^tag. his prudent caution to have moved, till the 
Liv. XXII. Non omnia eidem Dii dede- cause of the tumult was sufficiently ascer- 
runt. tained. 

323. TO ydp yspac; serri ygpovrwv. Aris- 334. OTTTTOTE Trvpyog K. T. X. Of this 

tot. de Polit. 6. 17 p,kv ^vva^iQ tv j/ewrspoif, construction see on II. A. 610. F. 216. 

r'j de (ppovrjOiQ iv Trp<rfivTpoi. Plutarch, 341. Of the use of the accusative before 

in his Treatise An seni gerenda Resp. fid- iffrdpev, instead of the dative, in reference 

Xiora trw^frai TroXtg, tvQa jSowXat ytpov- to (T^aTiv, see on II. A. 541. In the fol- 

raiv, Kat viuv avdpulv apiartvoveiv ai%- lowing reproach, Agamemnon alludes to the 

fiat. Eurip. Menalip. Frag. HaXaibg cdvo, honours of the invitation, and not to the 

tpya fikv vtdJTepwv, BovXat S' t\ovai ruiv gratification of the feast ; as if he had said : 

yajottirf'pwv /cparog. See also on II. T. 219. You are ready enough to receive the reward 

331. oi yap TToi o<j>iv K. r. X. Ulysses of bravery, and care not to deserve it. 

142 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, A'. 

Oivov TTivtjUEvm jUfXtTjSfoe, o^p' I 
Nvv Sf ^iXwc X* bpotyTt) icat a Sfjca wvpyoi 
irpoirapoiOe fia^oiaro vrj\i'i XO\K(. 
Tov 8' ap' uTroopa iSa>v Trpoo^Tj 7roXvjur/rt ' 

j, TroTov <7 fVoe (frvjev )OKoe oSoimov ; 350 

Si) <r?e TroXfjuoto juf.0i!jUv ; oTTTroV ' Amatol 
tcnv lyeipo/uLEV o^vv "Aprja, 
a, KOI at KV rot ra 
<j>i\ov Trarspa Trpofia^oiffL 

* or) O Tttur' avfjUwXta j3aaC' 355 

Tov 8' lirifjitiSriGac; TTpocrl^rj Kptwv ' 


OtSa yap, we T-OI 0ujuoe vt o-rr)0o-o-t ^tXottrtv 360 

"HTna S)va oTSf* ra -yap ^oovte> ar' E-yoj 7Tp. 
'AXX' t'0*, ravra 8' OTTivOtv dpfrarojU0', et n icaicov vuv 
E'/pTjrai* ra Travra 0oi jUrajuwvta 0iv. 

tN Qc i7rwv, roue ftV Xt7Tv aurou, |3fj ^ jUfr' aXXouc* 
EujO Si TuSfoc vtov viripOvfjLOv Atojur/Sfa, 365 

'Eoraor' cv 0' 'iinroiai KOL apfjiam KoXXrjrottrt. 
flap O ot IOTIJKEI S^lvfXoCj KaTravTjtoc vtoc 
Kai rov U 

Kat jutv ^(i)vr)(rac 7Ta Trrfpofvra 

"1 fJLOlf TvOC Vt 8ai^)jOOVOC tTTTToSajUOtO, 3/0 

Ti 7rro)(Tarfe, rt o OTrnrTEveiQ TroXijuioto yefyvpac; ; 

Olf JUV TuSf'l y' wSf (j>l\OV 

AXXa TroXi) Trpo 0tXwv Irapwv 
'Qi ipaaav, ot jtitv t^ovro TTOVEV/XEVOV* ou ^ap 

350. e'pfcog o^ovrwv. This formula is ap- See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 32?. Obs. 1. In the 

plied as a simple periphrasis for the tee^, ensuing clause there has been some discus- 

in a fragment attributed to Solon, in BruncJcii sion respecting the meaning of the adverb 

Anal. T. I. p. 64. Hence Porson (Tracts, TroXiv. Heyne renders vicissim ; but it 

p. 207.) rejects the fragment as spurious ; rather denotes aliter, as indicating a change 

since it is certain that the lips, which form, in Agamemnon's address from censure to 

as it were, a defence or enclosure for the praise. So the Scholiast: tyoyov tiVdiv, 

teeth, are intended. See Damm in v. The vvv ITTCLIVOV Xeya. The same expression 

entire expression occurs frequently in Ho- occurs in Od. N. 254. where a change from 

mer, with reference to a speech delivered truth to fiction is indicated. Compare also 

harshly and inconsiderately. Compare Cic. II. 1. 56. 

N. D. II. 59. Of the noun c'pjcog, see on II. 371. TroXt'juoio y0upct. The bridge of the 

A. 284. war ; i. e. the space between the two armies, 

357. w y vui xwo/uVoio. Subaud. irtpL the field of battle ; as a bridge is the space 

When he observed that he was angry. This between the opposite shores. Schol. TO.Q 

ellipsis is not unusual with this and like verbs, die%6dovg TOV TroXe'/aov. Virgil has a similar 

commonly governing an accusative which, metaphor in JEn. IX. 528. belli oras. 

in this case, appears to be understood. Thus 374. oi) yap lywyt *c. T. X. The Theban 

Thucyd. V. 83. o> ya&ovro Tti^ovTCjf. war, in which Tydeus is mentioned as one 


"Hvrrjcr', ov$t tSov" Trcpt o aXXwi/ <^adi ytvicrBai. 
T Hrot jUv yap arp TroXfjUOu Eto-rjXfle Mi>K?7vae 
^SjfTvoc, /*' avn0Et{> IIoXuvEtKEt, Xaov ayEtpwv. 
Ot /oa TOTE crrparowv^' tpa Trpoc TEt^fa G?7j3i]c? 
Kat joa juaXa XtaxTOVTO SOJUEV KXttroi/c ETTtKOupoue 
O? <T t'OfXov SojUfvat, /cai ETrrJvEOv, we EKE'XEUOV* 
'AXXa ZEUC TpET//, 7rapat<na (Tr^uara tyaivwv. 
Ot ', ETTEI ouv tfxovr, r]$t TTpo oSou f-yEvovTO, 
'A<rw7rovS' tjcovro flaOvvxoivov, X^TTOII]V. 
"Ev0' aur' a-yyfXtrjv 7rt TuS^ crrccXav ' 
Avrap o j3i], TroXfac T Kt^ 
AatvujUVOi>c Kara Sw/ 






'AXX' 6y' a0XVtv TTjOOfcaXt^fro, Travra 8' ivtica 

f PrjitSlttC' TOtTJ Ot 7TtjO/OO0OC ^V *A0?JV|. 

Ot ^ ^oXwO-ajUVOl KaS/XftOt, KVrOpC tTTTTWV, 

"A ot 


Maiiov At 

of the seven chiefs, was beyond the recollec- 
tion of Agamemnon, in the age of Atreus 
and Thyestes. 

376. 7/roi juev yap K. r. X. This long nar- 
ration concerning the history of Tydeus, is 
not of the nature of those for which Homer 
has been blamed with some colour of justice. 
It is not a cold story, but a warm reproof; 
while the particularizing the actions of the 
father is made the highest incentive to the 
son. As for the story itself, it is finely told 
by Statius, in the second book of the The- 
baid. POPE. It is objected, however, by 
Heyne and others, who accordingly con- 
sider the passage as spurious, that the length 
of the narration is inconsistent with the 
necessary hurry of Agamemnon's motions. 
Clarke, however, observes, that Diomed was 
the last of the chiefs to whom he addressed 
himself, and the propriety of the allusion 
is fully appreciated by Pope. arcp TroXt'/iou. 
Schol. \dipiQ 7roXe/uuc?7c, Trapara^wc. This 
does not refer, as is generally supposed, to 
his subsequent expedition to Thebes. In 
fact, they were at that time engaged in the 
expedition, ot pa rare orparowvro, and 
were raising subsidies in Mycenae. 

380. o'i ^ ZOtXov. Scil. Mycensi. kir-g- 
vtov. They assented. See Lex. Pent. Gr. 
v. aivlu). 

381. erpi//e. Eustath. 

382. Trpo oSov. Forward on their way. 
The expression is peculiar ; and it should 
seem that Trpo is used in the sense of Trpocrw 
or Tropp'w. 

383. ' AadtTTovff . This must have been 
within the Peloponnesus, and not the river 
of Bosotia. 

389. atOXtvsiv 7rpo/caXiero. The en- 
tertainments of the ancients were frequently 
succeeded by wrestling, leaping, racing, and 
other bodily exercises. This appears from 
the description of the feast of Alcinous in 
Od. H. 100. The same account of Tydeus 
is given by Minerva herself in II. E. 803. 
Tfavra. The accusative plural ; card 
iravTa, sc. dt9\a, which must be supplied 
from deBXeveiv. Schol. iv TTCLVTI dywviff- 

390. Toir) ol S7ri'pp'o00 ff^v 'A. Ernesti 
proposes two translations : Nam ei adjutrix 
magna aderat Minerva; or rather Adeo ei 
adjutrix erat. The former however is the 
more correct : of which use of TOIOQ exam- 
ples abound : as in 11. K. 145. Mf. 16. et 
passim. And so also the Latin talis. See 
Ernesti himself on Callim. H. Del. 27. 

392. TTVKIVOV \OXQV. This conspiracy 
is mentioned by Statius (Theb. II. 485.) ; 
but without the circumstances which gave 
rise to it. In the following line jcowpowc 
is in apposition with Xo- 



AvTO(j>6voio, jUV7rroXejiioc 
uc juv KCU Totaiv aajcla TTOT/ULOV i^fjjct* 

7T0v', 2 va S' o/W ta otKOvSf vteaOai* 
Maiov' a/oa TrpotrjKe, f/wv rjoa<Tai TTiOfiGaz. 
loe rjv TuSa>e AtrwXtoc* aXXa rov vtov 

ao X*?^" ^"XP* 7PP ' 
aro* rov ' oim 7rpo<70 

Xf)oc Vt?rr)v cuc)ototo. 
Tov S' woe Ka7ravrjo ajuct^aro K 
uSe', 7riorajUvoe <ra 
e rot TTCITEOWV ^7' a^ivov^g fv\6^.fff tivcu. 




Xaov ayayovO' VTTO 
Tfjoafcrtrt OeHjv K 




Tov cT ap 

viroSpa tSto 




398. Otwv Tfpatfftri iriOrjaaQ. Statius 
attributes this to the advice of Minerva ; 
Theb. II. 684. The Scholiast, however, 
informs us that the sword of Tydeus broke 
in his hand, and this he considered as por- 

399. rov viov Tefvaro. Heyne objects 
to the article in this place, and considers it 
similar to II. A. 11. These instances how- 
ever are distinct ; and in cases like the pre~ 
sent, where the article appears to be redun- 
dant, the construction may, perhaps, be 
assisted by understanding an ellipsis ; Hut 
the son whom he begat, he begat inferior to 
himself, &c. And so in Arist. Av. 820. 
KaXbv ffv y' aTfKVMQ KO.I fcey' typte TOV- 
vofia. Other instances, though rare, may 
be found ; so that there is no necessity 
either for rejecting the passage, or hazard- 
ing an emendation. 

400. \kpr]a. The reading of all the edi- 
tions is %6|0ia, which is explained by Syn- 
cope for xepa'oi/a. This however has no 
support in analogy ; and there is little doubt 
but that the true reading is exhibited in the 
text. See on II. A. 80. 

401. TOV S' OVTI irpoatyr] K. r. X. Though 
Diomed does not here reply to the reproach 
of Agamemnon, from a conviction of the re- 
spect due to his general, and with a deter- 
mination to answer it by his actions rather 
than his words, still he does not hesitate, 
upon a future occasion, in II. I. 31. to re- 
mind Agamemnon of the injustice of the re- 
buke, as soon as his deeds had rendered his 
bravery unquestionable. This has been re- 


peatedly remarked by the critics. See Plu- 
tarch, de and. Poet. Dionys. Halicarn. de 
Horn. Poes. . 20. 

405. Trarspwv /iy' dptivovtQ. Hence 
Horat. Od. I. xv. 28. Tydides melior patre. 

406. T//Mi /ecu Qr)(3rjG K. r. \. The first 
Theban war of which Agamemnon spoke in 
the preceding lines, was twenty-seven years 
before the war of Troy. Sthenelus here 
speaks of the second Theban war, which 
happened ten years after the first ; when 
the sons of the seven captains conquered the 
city, before which their fathers were de- 
stroyed. Tydeus expired gnawing the head 
of his enemy, and Capaneus was thunder- 
struck while he blasphemed Jupiter. POPE. 
See Apollodor. III. 6. 2; 7- 2. Find. Nem. 
IX. 41. Stat. Theb. III. 456. This second 
war was celebrated in a poem under the title 
of the Epigoni, which was in very early 
times attributed to Homer. But its genu- 
ineness has been questioned, and it may 
probably be classed with the numerous lite- 
rary forgeries, to which the uncertainty, in 
which the history of the poet is involved, 
naturally gave rise. Herod. IV. 32. Ian de 
KO.I 'O/i77p< EV 'FiTTiyovoiai, el Sij T$ OVTI 
yt"OfiijpOQ TauTa TO, tTrea iiroirjof. See 
Prelim. Obs. Sect. II. 

407- Ttlxo "Apttov. See on JEsch. 
Theb. 101. Pent. Gr. p. 417- Of the par- 
ticiple dyayov9"m the dual, with reference to 
a plural verb, see on II. A. 567. Sthenelus 
speaks particularly of Diomed and himself. 

412. rlrra. My friend. Eustath. Trpoer- 
ffTi Kai vvv 



Ov yap tyw vffifcrw 'Aya/uljuvovt, iroifJL&vi Xawv, 
'Or/ouvovrt fj.a\<EcrOa.i lvKvfi[u$a 'A^atov^. 
Tourti) JUEV "yap icuSoc aju' t^trat, i Kv 'A^aiot 
jwdaxHv, fXwcri re "iXtov ipi]v' 
au jutya TTEV^OC, 'A^atwv 
'AXX' aye Sr), KCU vwt jU<}a>jU0a BovptSoc a 

*H /oa, Ktu ? o^fwv a-vv ru^<rtv aXro 
Aavov 8' j3pa^ ^aXtcoc 7r! arriOeaaiv avaicroe 

OU* 1J7TO KV ToXaai^pOVO. 7Tp ^OC fTXf 

or' fv atyrnXt^ 
TTafftrurEpov, Zf^upou v 
v ra TT/owra 




Ku/orov lov KOpvQovTai, CLTTOTTTVU 8' aXoc 
<x Qc ror' 7ra(i(Turat Aayawv icfvuvro a 

*TT ^ $' >'A A 

Hyjuovwv' ot o aAAot 
TO(T(TOV Xaov 


i / 




Tjowf^ 8', worr' O'KC TroXuTrajUOvoc 
Mupfat aTTJKa<Ttv ajUfX^OjUfvai yaXa XIKOV 
aKOvovaai OTTO, apvwv' 


The derivation of the word 
is altogether uncertain; and those who sup- 
pose it to be for rerXa, syncopated from rk- 
T\a9i, perfer, have no authority in favour 
of such an opinion. 

421. VTTO KV T. IT. f>. d\ev. A tmesis 
for i;0a\tv. 

422. <!>g S' oV kv aiyiaXy K. T. X. This 
simile in which the Greeks, troop after 
troop, collecting to engage, are compared to 
a rising storm, which begins at sea and rises 
progressively, while the waves, one after 
another, proceed to break with increasing 
violence upon the shore has been imitated 
by Virgil in ^En. VII. 528. Fluctus uti primo 
ccepit cum albescere vento, Paulatim sese tol- 
lit mare, et altius undas Erigit, inde imo con- 
surgit ad cethera fundo. See Macrob. Sa- 
turn. V. 13. and compare also II. H. 63. &. 
16. Virg. Georg. III. 237. Catull. Epitha- 
lam. 270. On the nature of the wind Ze- 
phyrus, according to Homer, see on II. B. 

423. STraaffvTfpov. See on II. A. 383. 
and for the verb KopvaatoQai, in the follow- 
ing line, and v. 442. on II. B. 273. 

426. KvpTOV. Schol. jitcrEwpov, v-fyri\6v. 
The proper meaning is curvatus : and, as 
Heyne says, cum notione adjuncta tumoris. 

Anglice, conwe*. With the latter Hemistich 
Ernesti compares Callim. H. Del. 14. airo- 
fidfffftrai vSarog a)(yi\v. Of the noun 
a^vij, see on Tl. E. 499. 

42J. & TOT' tTrctffavTtpai K. T. X. This 
is the first battle in Homer, and it is worthy 
of observation with what grandeur it is de- 
scribed, and raised by one circumstance 
above another till all is involved in horror 
and tumult. The foregoing simile of the 
winds rising by degrees into a general tem- 
pest, is an image of the progress of his own 
spirit in this description. We see first an 
innumerable army moving in order, and are 
amused with the pomp and silence: then 
wakened with the noise and clamour : next 
they join : the adverse gods are let down 
among them : the imaginary persons of Ter- 
ror, Flight, Discord, succeed to reinforce 
them : then all is undistinguished fury, and 
a confusion of horrors, only that at different 
openings we behold the distinct deaths of se- 
veral heroes, and then are involved again in 
the same confusion. POPE. 

433. TroXvTrajuovog. Wealthy. Of this, 
and similar derivatives of Trdofiai, see 
Valckenaer on Ammon. p. 187- 

434. iGTijicaai. Stare solent. Of the 
anacoluthon in v. 436. see on II. B. 353. 




*Qi(; Tpwwv aXaXrjro ava orparov tvpvv o 
Ou -yap Travrwv ^ev bfJibg Opoog, ovS' '/a 
'AXXa -yXworo-a jue/utKro, TroXvKXrjrot 8' <rav a 

of roue fitv "Aprj, roi> $ yXaiHcwTTtc 'A0r/vr/, 

<E>oj3o, (cat "Epte ajuorov jUE^uauta, 440 

to Kaaryv^ri), Iraprj rf* 
"H r' oXiyri juilv TTjOwra KOpu<r<Term, avrap 7Tra 
Ovpavq arri|0t? Jca/OT/, Kal ETTI ^9ovl 

"H CT^tV Kttl rore VHKOC OjULOUOV jUj3aXg 

'Ejo^Ojulvrj ica0' OjUiXov, 60XXou(7a trrovov av^pwv. 4.45 
Ot 8', 6r S^ /o' ^ %wpov f'va ^vviovrfc VKOVTO, 
jo' j3aXov /otvouc, CTVV 8' yX a > KOI 

' arap atrTTtSfc 6jU 
E7rXjvr' aXX^X^trt, 7roXi>c 8' o/oujua-ySoc opwpet. 

' olfjL(jt)yr) re Kat eu^wX?) TrAev avSpwv, 450 

T, icat oXXujulvwv' /off 8' atjuart ycua. 
8' ore \dfiappoi Trorajuoi, Kar' o/oetr^t 

437- oi yap Travrwv K. r. X. See on 

ii. r. 3. 

439. rovg fJitv'Aprjc;, K. r. X. Trojanos 
Mars, Greecos Minerva, utrosque Terror, $c. 
CLARKE. Compare Valer. Flacc. Argon. 
VI. 173. 

440. aporov fjiffiavla. Inexplebiliter fu- 
rens. The adjective a/zorog is derived from 
/ioro, /zw^, and that from juow, infercio. 
Schol. Venet. dfjLorov aTrX^pwrov a^' ov 
Kai fioTa, ra iTriQsfitva TOIQ KoiXoIf rpav- 
tiaaiv oQovia Trpoc avaTrXTJpwtrij/ rije 
erapjcoc- See Heyn. Excurs. 17. on Virg. 
^En. II. 

442. rj T' 6\iyrj fitv Trpwra K. r. X. 
This is the passage so highly extolled by 
Longinus, . 9. as one of the most signal 
instances of the noble sublimity of this 
author : where it is said, that the image 
here drawn of Discord, whose head touched 
the heavens, and whose feet were on earth, 
may as justly be applied to the vast reach 
and elevation of the genius of Homer. 
Virgil has taken it word for word, and ap- 
plied it to the person of Fame : jEn. IV. 
176. Parva metu primo, max sese attollit in 
auras, fngrediturque solo, et caput inter 
nubila condit. POPE. The superiority of 
Homer is maintained by Macrob. Saturn. 
V. 13. The passage is also imitated in 
Callim. H. Cerer. 59. ifyiara fJLev x*P ff V> 
Kt<j>a\a fik ol rtyaT "OXv/iTroj/. See Ernesti 
in loc. 

443. Schol. 60r?7pir 
ijyyivf. And so Hesych. 

aai. This verb is employed, as Eustathius 
observes, in Eurip. Hipp. 1202. but there, 

and generally in the Tragic writers, it oc- 
curs intransitively, the accusative being un- 
derstood. See Valckenaer and Monk in 

444. vtlKog bp,oi'iov. See above on v. 

446. o'i 8', ore *} K. r. X. The verses 
which follow are, perhaps, excelled by 
none in Homer ; and that he had himself 
a particular fondness for them, may be ima- 
gined from his inserting them again in the 
same words in II. 6. 61. They are very 
happily imitated by Statius ; lib. VII. Jam 
clypeus clypeis, umbone repellitur umbo, 
Ense minax ensis, pede pes, et cuspide cus- 
pis, 8fc. POPE. Xenophon also is supposed 
to have had this passage before his eyes in 
Cyrop. VII. 1. 38. Hellen. IV. 3. 12. 

449. tTrXrjvT. Imperf. pass, of TrX^/it, 
inusitat, from TrsXaw, to approach. See 
Rhunken. Epist. Crit. p. 91. 

452. we <T ore K. T. X. This comparison 
of rivers meeting and roaring, with two 
armies mingling in battle, is an image of 
that nobleness which, to say nothing more, 
was worthy the invention of Homer, and 
the imitation of Virgil. Aut ubi decursu 
rapido de montibus altis, Dant sonitum spu- 
mosi amnes, et in tequora currunt, Quisque 
suum populatus iter. Stupet inscius alto 
Accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor. 
The word populatus has here a beauty which 
one must be insensible not to observe. Sca- 
liger prefers Virgil, and Macrobius Homer, 
without any reason on either side ; but 
only one critic's positive word against ano- 
ther's. The reader may judge between 


'Eg fiuryayKeiav (TUjujSaXXarov o]3pjuov 
Kpovvwv K /utyaXwv, KO/Xrje tvroaOe 
Twv $ re TTjXoCTE SOUTTOV v oUjOecriv fcXu Trotjurjv* 455 

yivero la^fj re 0oj3oe T. 

T/owwv f'Xfv avSpa 
v fvl 7rpojua^Of<Ti, G 
Tov /a' cjSaXf Trpwroe copu0oe 0aXov tT 

'Ev O jUrW7T(j) TTij^E, 7T|0?7<T $' ap' 6<7TOV l(T(i> 460 

Al%juiri xaXicdri' roi/ SE o-jcoroc 6cro- Ka 

"Hpnre 8', we ore Trupyocj vt 

Tov 8f TTfo-ovra TroSwv 'Xaj3 Kpf 

XaX/cwSovria^TjCj juf-yaflujuwv ap^oc 'AjSavrwv* 

f 'EXK S' VTT' K jSfXfwv XfXfrjjUfvoc, 6^>pa Ta^tara 465 

a O Ot *yV0' OjOjUTJ. 

ov -yap Ipvovra tSwv fj.Eya9vfio^ 'Ayrjvwp, 
a, ra oi fcu^/avrt TTOJO' aa-TTiSoe ?^)aav0ij, 
Ouri]o- SIXTT^) -^aXK^pa, XUCTE -yvta. 

' ITT' aur<j) 8' f'pyov iTif^Or] 470 

'A^attuv* ot , \VKOL ac, 
avrjp ' ' 

Ov apov, ifjLoeffiov' ov TTOTE 

artouo-a, Trap' o-^Oyai St/xovroc 475 

', 7Tt /oa TOKfutrtv a/x' EWfro, j 
Touvca jutv KaXfov 2tjuoi(7tov' ou SE 
0p7rr/oa <}>i\oi aTTfSwKf, jiuvuv0a8toc ot 

them. POPE. The parallel from Virgil is 465. eXfce 5' TT' IK jSeXewv. For u0- 

composed of two passages united : jn. XII. tTXKf. The compound verb denotes the 

523. II. 307. descent of the weapons. Of the custom of 

453. /UCTyayKaav. This word is nearly spoiling the bodies of the slain, see on II. 

synonymous with icoiX^ %apa^pj in the Z. 68. 

following line. Eustath. ayKOQ lori 6 /3a- 470. Ipyov. That is, paxy. So again 

0U Kai 0apayya#j Kai KoiXog TOTTOC' Z7z/ra v. 539. and elsewhere. 

iav dk HQ TOIOVTOV OL-^KOQ TroXXa ffvjj.- 472. dv?)p d' av5p' l^j/oTrdXt^ti/. Virg. 

/3aXXa>(Tiv w^ara, ^tirydyicficf rovro Xc- jEn. XI. 631. Congressi in prcelia, totas 

ycrat. That Homer, however, had but two Implicuere inter se acies, legitque virum vir. 

streams in view, is evident from the com- The verb SvoTraXi^at, to overthrow, is a 

parison, in which two armies only are con- compound of Sovew and TrdXXw. Eustath. 

cerned, and from his employing avp,(3d\- sSvoTraXi&v, o IGTIV iSovti Kai tTraXti/, 

\ZTOV in the dual. See on II. A. 567. ) eSovtt TCUQ iraXccfiaiQ. 

The converse of what is there stated is 474. j}i0toj>. See Pent. Gr. Lex. in voce. 

equally true, and the dual of the verb is 478. OpeTrrpa. By syncope, for Qptir- 

often construed with the plural of the sub- rrjpia, mercedem nutritionis. To neglect 

ject. Thus II. E. 10. Svu Se oi vittg T/OTT/V. to make provision for their parents, was 

The use of a/i^w and dvw, with a plural considered by the ancients a mark of the 

substantive, when only two persons are sig- greatest impiety, and worthy of divine ven- 

nified, is very common. See Hoogeveen on geance : and many instances of its punish - 

Viger, p. 31. ment are recorded in the old poets. Com- 

455. Sovirov. See above on v. 125. pare II. I. 454. Od. B. 134. Hesiod. Op. 

u 2 




'j VTT' Atavro jUE-yaftujuov Sovpl 

/o fttv tovra j3aXc oTi}0o, Trapa juao 
" avrt/cpv SE &' Mfjiov ^aXicEov E^^O? 

o 8' EV Kovirjffi xut 10 * Ktvtv, a'/yEtpoc we? 
W H pa T EV EtajUEvrJ tXcoc fJityaXoio TTf^vicEi, 
Aeirj, arap TE ot 6o* ITT' aKporary irttyvaai' 
Tr)y JUEV 0' apjuaroTTij'yoe av?7p aWwvi aiSr 485 

'E^Erajii', 60pa truv Ka/x^/r) TrepiicaXXa 
*H jUfv r' a^OjUV] Keirai Trorajuolo Trap o 
ToTov p' ^AvOffJLi^rj 
Atoyevr/c* T-OU 

Keif? OjtitXov aicovrtfrfv o^ft covpi. 490 

Tou JUEV afjiapf?' o $t AEVKOV, 'OSvaatot; svOXbv Iratpov, 
/3ou]3t5va, vlicvv trtpwd ipvovra* 

avT(, vfKpo? SE ot 


Xa Ovjjibv aTroicrajUEVOto 


ij o juaX' tyyvg iwv, icat a/covrt(r ooupt 

i I TraTrrrJvae* UTTO SE TpwEC KCKaSovro, 
'Av/ooc aKOVTiGaavTog* o 8' ou% aXtov jSlXoc 
'AXX' ulov nptajuoto voOov jS 
"Oc ot 'A/3uSo0Ev ^X0, Trap' tTTTrwv 
Tov /o' 'OSvorEvc, Erapoto ^ 

* 17 S' ETEpoto Sta K/oora^oto TTprj<Tv 
rov SE O-KOTOC otrerE 


D. I. 13. See also Plato de Leg. lib. XL 
This provision was also called rpo^ela. See 
Valckenser on Eur. Phren. 47- Solon en- 
acted a law which subjected an undutiful 
son to the severest penalties. 

483. kv tlafntvy. Inameadow. The de- 
rivation of this word is uncertain. 

487- The difference between the terms 
irap' o%0a, and Trap' oyQaiQ, is clearly 
marked in this line, compared with v. 475. 
supra. See note on II. T. 187. 

488. 'AvQfjJiidriv. The correct patrony- 
mic of 'Avdep-iiiiv, \. 473. is ' AvQefuwvL- 
Srj. See on II. A. 1. 'AvBefiiSijg, therefore, 
must be a contracted form, as we have Au- 
KoXidriQ for AevfcaXiaw^e in II. M. 117. 

489. aloXoOutprjZ. Porphyrio : Thora- 
cem corpus suum ihorace indutum agiliter 
motans. Quaest. Homer. 3. CLARKE. See 
on v. 186 supra; and compare II. B. 816. 

492. j86j3X?7Ki. The pluperfect for the 
aorist. Compare v. 459. and see on 11. A. 
221. Clarke observes, that the perfect, in 
this instance, would have been as incorrect, 
as to say in English, has wounded, instead 

of did wound. Before /3ow/3wj/a the prepo- 
sition Kara is understood. 

496. eyyve twf. Heyne prefers syyvg 
swv. Both expressions, however, are equally 
familiar in Homer ; one denoting approach, 
the other presence. Compare II. E. 611. 
I. 201. K. 113. 221. A. 340. 429. 464. M. 457. 

0. 619. P. 347. 484. 4>. 285. Q. 365^. 
497- KtKddovTO. lonice for e%aoovro, 

from %aw, recedo. On this verb see Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 238. 

500. Trap' tTTTrwv. From the mares : 

1. e. from the charge of the herds, belonging 
to Priam, at Abydos. Schol. ! SKI'IVOV TOV 
TOTTOV, kv $ 'ITTTTOI iytvv&VTO ra%i . EITTC 
^ OTI K krptyovTO Kal ol 'iiriroi TOV 
Iloidfjiov. In fact, Trap' 'ITTTTUV may be 
looked upon as in apposition with 'Aj3v66- 
Qtv, since adverbs of this form are generally 
used instead of the preposition IK with a ge- 
nitive; the termination 6tv having been 
originally a genitive form, as is evident from 
the circumstance that the preposition is 
sometimes added. See II. O. 19. 304 and 



' VTTO TE 7TjOOjuax<H, icat 0ai8t/ioe "Eicrajp. 505 

Wvaav 8e TroXv 7rpOTjoaT vju<rrj<re 8' ' 
ajuou kKartSwv, Tpwcr<n 


XaXjcov a 

Ov /nav oi>8' 'AxtXfue, 6n8oc Tra/c ^vjco/ 

ajovarm, aXX' ITTI vrjuai \<JXov OvfjiaXyia Trivcti. 

oc Owyarrip, KuStorrj Tpiroylvfm, 



^uopa Trrjo-f* 
OJO jSXrjro ?rapa atyvpbv OKptofvrt, 


s riovr Kat 6oTa Xaac 

a7TT}Xo(T](TV* O 8* VTTTtOC V 


Iltpa>c* ovra 

, 6? f)' ^aXl 

8oupi -Trap' OjU^aXov' IK 8' apa Traarai 525 

508. Il|0ya/*ou. T/je czforfeZ o/ Tro?/. 
See Lex. Pent. Gr. v. Trlpyajua. From II. 
E. 445. it appears that Apollo had a temple 

512. ov pav ovd' 'A%i\vg, *c. T. X. Ho- 
mer from time to time puts his readers in 
mind of Achilles, during his absence from 
the war ; and finds occasion of celebrating 
his valour with the highest praises. There 
cannot be a greater encomium than this, 
where Apollo himself tells the Trojans they 
have nothing to fear, since Achilles fights no 
longer against them. POPE. Oftheexpres- 
sion xoXov Trsaaeiv, in the following line, 
see on II. A. 81. 

515. TpiToyeveia. Minerva. It has been 
supposed that rpirw, in the Boeotian dialect, 
signified a head : and that there is a refer- 
ence in the name to the fabled birth of the 
goddess from the head of Jupiter. But this 
was an invention later than the age of 
Homer, and first mentioned, according to 
the Scholiast on Apoll. Rh. IV. 1310. by 
Stesichorus. Others derive it from the story 
in Herod. IV. 180. which makes Minerva 
the daughter of Neptune and the lake Trito- 
nis. Compare iEsch. Bum. 283. The origin 
of the name, however, is altogether uncer- 
tain. See Heyne on Apollod. Bibl. pp. 40. 

518. ofcpioevrt. Some MSS. read 
oevrt. But see on II. Z. 344. 

521. avaidrjQ. Schol. ra%u. It seems 
preferable to understand it in the sense of 
ingens : as the Latins sometimes use impro- 
bus. Thus Virgil : Labor omnia vincit Im- 
probus. See also on II. N. 139. Eustathius 
explains it by dvrj\erjQ. 

522. Eustathius informs us, that the an- 
cients understood a%ptf in this passage in 
the sense of SioXov, at the same time ob- 
serving, that it may also bear its usual sig- 
nification, usque ad: barka a%ptf being 
taken for a%pi a? TO, 6<rr!a. Ernesti sup- 
poses it elliptical for a%pi TTUVTOQ, as in 
Strab. VIII. p. 578. and Heyne considers it 
equivalent to #i Trpo. II. E. 66. cnrb $' 
barkov a^pig apac. The particle is used 
in the same sense in II. II. 324. Schol. aTTif- 
\oirjatv aTrsKo^c. 

524. Heyne observes, that an inquiry 
might frequently be instituted, whether 
death is a necessary consequence of several 
of the wounds, which it appears to follow in 
Homer. In the present instance, however, 
the expression Ovpbv cnroTrvi'nav implies 
fainting ; as the death of Diores is caused 
by the spear of Piros, in the following line. 

525. ovra. 3. Pers. aor. 2. from ourdw, 
as from ovrijfJii, in the same manner as tKra, 

150 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, A'. 

XVVTO XdjuLoi x<>Xa8* rov 8 GKOTOQ ovae Ka\v\f;e. 

Tov 8 0oaf AtrwXoc 7T(7o p i>jUvoc jSaXe 8oupi 
Srfpvov, virep /iao7o, Treryrj 8' Iv irvevfiovi 
'Ay%ifjLO\ov 81 ot r)\0e 0oac, c 8* ojSptjuov 
'EtTTracraro orfjovofo* ipvaaaro 8f t$oc 6v, 530 

T< oye yaartpa TUI//E fjitariv, IK 8* atvuro Ovpov. 
8' OVK aTTfSuaT 7Tpio-rr](Tav 70/0 Iratpot 

t, 80X1%' ^7X f 
Ot I ^yav 7T/o lovra, Ktu t^^ijuov, Kat a 

OTTO O-^EIWV* o 8f \a<j(ja^voQ ir^\^L\Qj]. 535 

Trap' aXXr)Xot(7t 
Hrot 6 jUV QpyKMVj o 8' 'ETTHWV 


ai avouraroc o 

Kara JU(T(TOV, 0701 81 IlaXXa^ ' 
iXouo 1 ', avrap jSfiXlwv a7TpiKOi 
IloXXot 70/0 Tpwtov Kat 'A^atwv rijuart 
ITpi]Vc V Kovtyffi Trap' aXX?^Xot<7i ri 

infra \. 319. from rcrt iVa>, or Krr^/ii. Clarke to the poetical spirit of the author, after 

has the following from the Scholiast on having rapidly run along with the heat of 

Eurip. Hipp. 684. 01 vcwrtpoi OVK laaai the engagement. It was an old superstition, 

TJ)V ia00|0ttv row Ovravai KUI BaXeTv. that this fourth book of the Iliad, being laid 

"OpqpoG dt OvTavai fitv TO IK xeipbg ical IK under the head, was a cure for the Quartan 

TOV avveyyvG Tp&aai, "BaXelv dt TO Troppa)- ague. Serenus Sammonicus, a celebrated 

9ev. This difference is clearly marked in physician in the time of the younger Gor- 

v. 540. dian, and preceptor to that Emperor, gravely 

533. Qprj'iiceg a>cp6KO/iOt. Having their prescribed it among other receipts in his 

hair tied in altitudinem ; i. e. collected in a medicinal precepts : Praec. 50. Mceonia 

knot at the top of the head. Tacitus men- Iliados quartum suppone timenti. POPE, ou- 

tions the same custom among the ancient KSTI bvoaaiTO. Non reprehendisset ; i. e. 

Germans : and it still exists in some of the maxime probasset, miratus esset. The fol- 

American tribes to this day. lowing similar instances of the figure Lito- 

535. TrfXtfjiixOr}. Eustath. fj,tTaKivT]9ti tes are cited by Heyne : 11. Z. 522. N. 127- 

v7Txwp?0'. 287. P 398. Soph. Prom. Sol. fragm. ap 

539. tvQa KEV OVKSTI K. r. X. The turn- Dionys. H. 1. 41. Apoll. Rhod. I. 205. 829. 

ing off in this place from the actions of the Callim. H. in Dian. 219. 222. 

field, to represent to us a man with security 540. dfBXrjTog KO.I dvovrarog. Hence 

and calmness walking through it without Lucretius : Suave etiam belli certamina 

being able to reprehend any thing in the magna tueri Per campos instructa, tua sine 

whole action, is not only a fine praise of parte pericli. 
the battle, but as it were a breathing place 





El, fiaXXei Kvfe'petaj/, "Apijd re, TU&'OC vio. 



Diomed, assisted by Pallas, performs wonders in this day's battle. Pandarus wounds 
him with an arrow, but the Goddess cures him, enables him to discern Gods from 
mortals, and prohibits him from contending with any of the former, excepting Venus. 
^Eneas joins Pandarus to oppose him : Pandarus is killed, and ./Eneas in great dan- 
ger, but for the assistance of Venus ; who, as she is removing her son from the fight, 
is wounded in the hand by Diomed. Apollo seconds her in his rescue, and at length 
carries off ^Eneas to Troy, where he is healed in the temple of Pergamus. Mars ral- 
lies the Trojans, and assists Hector to make a stand. In the mean time .<Eneas is 
restored to the field, and they overthrow several of the Greeks ; among them Tle- 
polemus is slain by Sarpedon. Juno and Minerva descend to resist Mars ; the latter 
incites Diomed to go against that God : he wounds him, and sends him groaning to 

The first battle continues through this book. The scene is the same as in the former. 

ENO' av TvSa'cfy 


1. The Scholiast observes, that tvQa, 
which is generally an adverb of place, is 
here an adverb of time: and this is fre- 
quently the case in Homer. Compare infra 
vv. 608. 677. et passim. Hence, as the 
particle av is, in some instances, equivalent 
to }, the expression IvQ' av will amount 
to turn vero. See on II. A. 202. This fifth 
book of the Iliad is looked upon by Heyne 

and others as spurious, and introduced into 
the poem in some age subsequent to that of 
Homer. The relation, however, which it 
contains of the acts of Diomed, seems to 
connect it with his patient submission to 
the reproach of Agamemnon in the fore- 
going book, and his silent resolution to 
prove its injustice by his subsequent con- 
duct. That it is the work of Homer, there 



ActTt Ot JC 

'Aarfp' o 

l&0\bv apoiro. 

V T Kttt ttOTTtOOC aiCajUttTOV 

IvaXtyKtov, oe T 

ToTov Oi TTVjO SaiEi* airo icparo T /cat 

'&p(T SE jutv Kara jU<r<rov, 66/t irXctOTpt icXovOim>. 

*Hv C) TIC V TpW<T(Ti Aaprj, a(f)Vi-lO, OtjUUjUWV, 

f IpiC 'H^aioroto* Suw Sf CH wlee rjorrjv, 


Tw ot, a7TOKptv0vr, Ivavriw 
Tw jUv a^>' finrouv, o 8' OTTO \OovoQ wpvuro TTE^OC- 
Ot 8' 6r 877 (T^Sov ^aav ETT* aXX^Xotdiv lovrcc? 
Tr/oorcpoc irpofa 8oXt^o(TKtoi/ &XX^> 


uS' ?]3aX' auroi/ 6 
^rjc* ^o^ 8' ou^ aXtov jSlXoc 
'AXX' J3aXfi crr^0oc jUfrajtta^tov, t5o" 8' 



can be no doubt, from the style in which it 
is written ; and the events which naturally 
spring out of it, such as the parting of Hec- 
tor and Andromache, and the return of 
Paris to the battle, evidently fix its situa- 
tion in this place. In short, the whole 
character of Diomed, as developed in the 
Iliad, is so interwoven with the facts re- 
lated in this book, that its removal would 
materially detract from the connexion and 
consistency of the whole poem. 

4. dais. Scil. Minerva. This verb, in 
the present and imperfect, is transitive in 
Homer; and so ^Xeyw and the like are 
frequently used in the Attic poets. See 
note on Eur. Phcen. 233. Pent. Gr. p. 317. 
In the past tenses, however, the verb is 
usually intransitive, as in II. B. 93. The 
metaphoric expression, which is here and 
elsewhere employed by Homer, is exceed- 
ingly natural and beautiful, and has been 
repeatedly imitated ; particularly in the 
parallel passage of Virg. ^En. X. 270. 
Ardet apex capiti, cristisque a vertice flam- 
ma Funditur, et vastos umbo vomit aureus 
ignes ; Non secus ac liquida siquando node 
cometae Sanguinei lugubre rubent, aut Sirius 
ardor, $c. Compare JEn. VII. 785. VIII. 
620. 680. IX. 732. Liv. I. 39. 

5. dorep' oTrwpivy. That is, Sirius, or 
the Dog-star ; which was visible in Ionia, 
to the westward of Orion, early in the 
Autumn. Compare II. X. 27- The ex- 
ceeding splendour of this star is signified 
in its name, which is derived from the verb 
<rfipidcij>, splendere. Eustathius takes oc- 


casion to point out the difference be- 
tween aarrip and a<rrpov ; the one sig- 
nifying a constellation, and the other a sin- 
gle star. 

. 6, XeXou/isvoc, 'QfcsavoTo. That is, at its 
rising. Schol. vewori dvargXXwv E 'Qicta- 
vov. Thus Apoll. Rhod. III. 956. "Oe dr t 
rot KoXbg [.lev dpf^TjXoe r IpldeffOai ' A.V- 
rgXXa. Virgil has a similar description of 
Lucifer in ^En. VIII. 589. Qualis ubi Oceani 
perfusus Lucifer unda, Quern Venus ante alias 
astrorum diligit ignes, Extullt os sacrum coelo, 
tenebrasque resolvit. Compare II. X. 317- 
Of the construction, see on II. Z. 508. 

10. dvu) $ piviicfi ijffTriv. See on II. A. 

12. cnroKpivQkvTt. Scil. cnrb TOV ofii- 

13. atj>' 'iTnroiiv. From on the horses ; i.e. 
in chariots. Schol d0' ap/xaroc. The pre- 
positions cnrb and K, which properly denote 
motion from a place, are frequently used 
with verbs which mark no proper motion, 
in order to denote the direction of an action 
to a place different from the place of action. 
Thus, in this instance, the combatants di- 
rected their weapons to another place, 
though the one remained in his chariot, 
and the other, cnrb \QovoQ, on the ground. 
See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 596. 5. b. 

20. XITTWJ/ TTCjOi/caXXsa ditypov. Zoilus 
had a cavil at this place. He thought it 
ridiculous in Idaeus to descend from his 
chariot to fly, which he might have done 
faster by the help of his horses. But his 
alighting from his chariot was not that he 



Ou8' fYX?] Trepifiiivat a$\(J)tov 

Oi8 yap ov8 KEV avrbg v-rrtKQvye icijpa 

'AXX' "H^a 

r Qc 817 * A 47 ) Ku 

8' ISeXatrac /mtyaOvjjiov TV&OQ woe, 
KOt'Xac 7Ti 



Tov jUv aXfvajufvov, rov 8 
Tlacrtv opivOri Ov/mog' arap 

1 ', 7T(7(Tt 7T 


OIK av ST) Tpwac JUEV a(rat/xv KOI ' 
MapvatrO', oTTTrorfpoto-t Trari^p Zfi)c 
Nwt ^ ^a$wjUo-0a, Atoe 8' aXew/uLeOa 

*& fiTTOUtra, jua^rjc $>?77 Oovpov "Aprja. 
Tov jUV 7Ttra ica0a<rv ITT' rjio 

8' cicXtvav Aavaoi* f'Xf 8' av8pa 






Aov7rrjo- 81 7T<Ta>v, ajOaj3?j(r 8f rev^s ITT' avrtf. 

'l8o//Vi/c 8' a/oa <l>at(rrov Ei^'paro, M^ovoc vt 
Bwpou, of IK Tapvrj^ fptjSwXaKO^ 1 eiXrjXou0i' 
Tov jUv ap' 'l8ojUVi)c 8ouptKXuroc 7X t ^"Kp*? 
Nv', tTTTrwv ETTtjSijo-OjUfvov, Kara Sf^tov w/xov* 
v HjOt7T 8' ? 6^wv, (rruyfpoc 8' a/oa jitiv (Ticoroc cl 
Tov juh' ap' 'I8o/iv^oc ftru 

could run faster on foot, but that he could 
sooner escape, by mixing with the crowd of 
common soldiers. There is a particular of 
the same nature in Judges iv. 15. where 
Sisera alights to fly in the same manner, 

22. ovSk jap ovSe Ktv CLVTOQ K. T. X. Er- 
nesti would render the passage thus : Enim- 
vero nee ipse effugisset, $c. There seems, 
however, to be an ellipsis before yap, though 
different from that which Clarke supplies, 
The sense seems to be this : For, if he had 
remained to protect his brother's body, he 
would not have escaped death. See on II. 
A. 123. 

29. opivBi] QvpoQ. Non concitatus, sed 
percussus, labefactus est. HEYNE. 

30. Oovpov. Impetuous ; from 0opw, im- 
petum do. It is a constant epithet of Mars, 

as infra vv. 35. 355. 454. e* passim. In the 
feminine, we have 0ovpi> OovpiSog. Thus, 
Oovpidoe d\Krjg in II. A. 234. and else- 
where. In Eurip. Phcen. 247- we meet 
with Qovptoe *Apr)G, but the form occurs 
but seldom ; and never in Homer. 

31. T ApC,"Apg. On the metre of this 
line, see Prelim. Obs. Sect. V. Eustatk rt t- 
xfffiTrX^r^c' Tro\iopicr]Tije, o TOIQ Tti^oi 
TrXqerid^wv 7ri iropOfiaei. In v. 33. we must 
supply ut videamus, after /iapva<r0ai. See 
on 11. B. 72. 

36. ITT' Tj'iotvn 2*c. Ad Scamandrum ri- 
pas habentem ; i. e. ad Scamandri ripas. 
The versions render the adjective jjfioac, 
herbosus, as if it were derived from lov, a 
violet ; whereas the proper derivation is 
evidently from *?iwv, ripa. And so Eus- 

154 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, E'. 

Ytoy 8s Srpo^tofo SicajuaySptoy, atjuoya 

'E(T0Xoy rjprjrjpa' taf ya/o prjUf avri 
BaXXay aypta Trayra, ra T rpifyti ou()(Tfy uXj. 
'AXX' ou ot ror -y ^pata/i' "Aprfjutc to^tafjoa, 
Oi';& ticrj|3oXtai, r?<rt ro TT^/y 7' wdlttWTO" 
'AXXa fjitv 'Arpft^rj^ oowpticXftroc MfyfXao^, 

ju.G<jriyv, cia ot 




cal ' 
'Ap^fjcaicouc, at 7ra(Tt KUKOV TpwsaGi ytvovro, 

f\* >> . 1\V /I > /) / J ''5> 

Ut r awrw ?rt ourt c/fwv c vtatpara yoq 
Toy jUy MTjjOfoyrj^, ort 8r) KarljitapTrrf Stwicwy, 
Bfj3X/Kf Y^ our ^^ Kara Se^ioy* TJ ^ Sta TT^O 
'Ayr/icpu /cara KVGTIV UTT' QCFTZOV r]\vff aca)K?7" 




49. ai/iova Qi'iprjg. Scliol. tTriaTrjftova 
cuv;ytrtK>}(;. The superior skill of Sea- 
mandrius is emphatically marked in the 
repetition of the same sense in the words 
iaBXov OrjpriTfjpa (v. 51.), and in attributing 
it to the instruction of Diana. The epi- 
thet ai^v is an obsolete word for datpwv, 
which is formed from darjfjiuv, peritus, and 
used in that sense in a fragment of Archi- 
lochus, preserved in Plutarch, Vit. Thes. 
p. 6. TavTTjg yap KeZvoi Saifjiovfg tiai 

Hence the gods were called Sai- 
Plato Cratyl. 16. on ^povip.ot ical 
jffav, daipovaG CLVTOVQ wvo- 
Kal tv ye ap-^a'iq, ry r/^ifrsp^ fyiovy 
ayro avfjifiaivti TO ovopa. See Blomfield's 
Gloss, on ./Esch. Prom. 85. 

50. 6%votvTi. Some have looked upon 
this adjective as the same with bZ,i)Q, but it 
is properly a derivative from o^vrj, a species 
of thorn, frequently mentioned in Theo- 
phrastus ; the true nature of which is 
however uncertain. It is used as an epi- 
thet of tyxoc, in the same manner as a 
spear is called /ztXir/, from the wood of 
which it is made. See on II. B. 543. 
Porphyry in Qusest. Homeric. 11. cites 
from Archilochus, oZvrf TTOTCLTO. So also 
Eurip. Herac. 72?. x"P #' tvBtQ o^vnv- 
The word frequently recurs in Homer : 

e. g. z'w/ra 5C9. H. 11. 6. 514. and else- 

53. d\V ov ol K. r. X. Virg. ^En. XI. 

843. Nee tibi desertee in dumis coluisse 

Dianam Profuit. The epithet loyt.a.ipa is 

not from -^ciipa), but from x w > fundo. Of 

the verb ^ftaiff^tiv see on II. A. 28. 

60. iravra. Thatis,7ravTola,omnis generis, 

63. ap%tKCLKov. Malorum causam. Herod. 

V. 9?. avrai SI at vitQ apx^ KUKMV *ye- 

VOVTO *E\Xj(7i rf Kat jSap^dpotg. Com- 

pare Virg. ^En. IV. 169. VII. 481. 

64. Ottiv IK Oia<j>a.Ta. Some read kicOiff- 
<j>a.Ta. The Trojans had been commanded 
by an oracle to abstain from naval affairs, 
and to confine themselves to agriculture. 
This line has been thought to indicate that 
Phereclus was the shipwright who built the 
fleet of Paris, though the grammatical con- 
struction of the passage strictly assigns the 
work to his father Harmonides. Besides, 
the fleet in which Paris carried off Helen 
must have been built some years previous 
to the war, which was now in the tenth year; 
so that the father was probably the builder 
rather than the son. Neither does ol r 
air<p, as Heyne supposes, necessarily refer 
to Phereclus. It refers indeed neither to 
one nor the other, but to Paris, as correctly 
stated by the Scholiast. 




TTOffEt o 

Tov /iv OuXft&rjc ctawpticXuroe) tyyvOtv 
BE/3A?jfct K^>aXfic Kara mov O^H Soupt* 
'AVTAKOV cT ai/ 6&ovra UTTO yXwtrfrav ra/Lt 

"HptTTf S' V KOVtrj, \fjV\pOV & f'Xf ^aXlCOV 6 

EvpuTTuXoe S' Euatjuovi^ijc 'Y^rjvopa Stov, 
Ytov uTTfp^ujuou AoXoTTiovoe, o /oa 2cajuavSpoi 
'ApTjr?7p TTVKro, 0O 8* we rffro Sr'/ 
Tov ftkv.&p Evpu7ruXo, Eimtjuovoe 



e* WTTO 8' s'^co"* X ^? a j3aptav. 

%fp TTfSltj) 7T0"* TOV 

"EXXajSf 7rop(j)VpO QavaroQ K.CU juotpa icparatr;. 

tV Oc o JUIEV 7rovovro Kara icparfp^ 
TuSaS^v 8' OUK ai/ yvoiriz, Trorlpoicrt 
'HI jUra Tpwf(T(Ttv o/J.L\iotj 77 jUr' 'A 

av 7T&t 

appty, oar' wca /o 

Toy ?' our' a'p' TC yifyvpat pyjiivat i 
Our' a'pa pKa ttrx^i aXwawv IpiOriXtwv, 


74. a>riKptr. See on II. r. 359. 

78. ap7/7-77p. See on II. A. 11. 

83. irop<j)vpeo QO.VO.TOQ. Mors atra. 
Scbol. ^tyti ^e Tropfyvptov TOV fjie\ava. 
See on II. A. 482. This verse was applied 
to himself by the Emperor Julian, upon bis 
assumption of the imperial purple ; and' by 
Theocritus, the sophist, to Alexander the 
Great when he changed the dress of his 
country tor that of Persia, and ordered a 
supply of purple from Ionia. See Am- 
mian. Marcell. XV. Athen. XII. It has a 
similar metaphorical application in Clem. 
Alex. Paedagog. II., 10. and in Plutarch's 
Life of Diogenes. 

85. TvBtidrjv d' OVK dv yvoir/f, TT. jti. 
So Livy XXXIX. 31. Prator ipse primus 
hostem percussit, et ita se immiscuit mediis, 
ut vix, utrius partis esset, nosci posset. Of 
the construction see on II. B. 409. The 
verb jvoirjQ in the second person is elegantly 
put for the third with the indefinite pronoun 
TIQ. See Brunck on Soph. Trach. 2. Por- 
son on Eur. Orest. 308. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
294. Obs. 

87. TTordfjitf) Tr\i]QovTi toiK&g. This 
whole passage, says Eustathius, is extremely 
beautiful. It describes the hero carried by 
an enthusiastic valour into the midst of his 
enemies, and so mingled with their ranks 
as if himself were a Trojan. And the 
simile wonderfully illustrates this fury, pro- 

ceeding from an uncommon infusion of 
courage from Heaven, in resembling it not 
to a constant river, but a torrent rising from 
an extraordinary burst of rain. Virgil in 
jEn. II. 496. has inserted an imitation of it, 
which I cannot think equal to this, though 
Scaliger prefers Virgil's to all our author's 
similitudes of rivers put together. Non sic 
aggeribus ruptis cum spumeus amnis Exiit, 
oppositasque evicit gurgite moles, Fertur in 
arva furens cumulo, camposque per omnes 
Cum stabulis armenta trahit. POPE. See 
Macrob. Saturn. V. 13. The simile is also 
imitated in Lucret. I. 284. Montibus ex 
allis magnus decursus aqua'i, Fragmina con- 
jiciens sylvarum, arbustaque tola ; Nee validi 
possunt ponies venientis aquai Vim subitam 
tolerare ; ita magno turbidus imbri Molibus 
incurrit validis cum viribus amnis; Dot so- 
nitu magno stragem, volvitque sub undis 
Grandia saxa ; ruit, qua quidquam fluctibus 
obstat. Compare also II. P. 746. Virg. ^En. 
II. 305. X. 603. Horat. Od. IV. 14. 25. 

88. iKsSaffae. Aor. 1. from KeSdat, Poe- 
tice for OKI ddhi ; used in the sense of to be 

89. yt^vpat lepy/iavat. Ponies sublicis 
et tignis sibi oppositis firmati, muniti, ad un- 
darum impetumfrangendum. HEYNE. Schol. 

or gardens, 


x w P' wv 



156 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, E'. 

IloXXa 8' VTT' aurov Epya KarTjptTTfi KaX 

Tpwwv, 01/8' apa /xiv jitijuvov, 

Tov 8' we ouv tvor](Tf Aujcaoi/oc ayXaoc vto 

1 av 7T8tov, TT/OO Wtv icXovfOVTa (fro 
7ri Tv8i'8^ mratvfro icajUTruX 
Kat |3aX' 7rai<7orovra, ru^wv Kara 
0wpT]coc yvaXov* Sm 8' tTrraro TTiicpoc otorroc, 
'AvrtKpv Se &(T)(* 7raXao-(Tro 8' atjuari 0wpTj?. 100 

Tw 8' ITT! juaicpov au<r Auicaovoc ayXaoc vioc* 

fJityaOvnoi, Kfvropf 
yap aptoroc 'A^atwv* oi>^ 

? Qp<7V ava^, Atoc vtoc, aTropvvfJiEvov AvKiriOev. 105 

tv i2e ^ar' u^ojUvoc" TOV S' ov jSfXoc 
'AXX', ava^wpria-ac, TTpocrO^ tTTTrottv /cat 
''Earrj, Kai S0VXov Trporr^i], KaTravTjtov utov* 
, 7T7rov KaTravTjmSr], caraj3?7(7O S^pov, 
juot f^ tofjioio pv<T<rr) TTtKpov oVorov. 110 

ap' ^17' SOfvfXoc ^ Ka^' tTTTTWv aXro ^ajuaStj 

^ OTCie, jSlXoc WKU 8tajU7T|0C $pV(r' WjUOU* 

8' avrjKOi/rt^ 8ta orpfTrroto ^traivoc. 
A?j ror' 7Ttr' r^paro j3o?7V ayaObz AtOjur/8Tjc* 

KXi)0i juot, at-yto^oto Atoc rcoc, arpvrwvi7' 115 

Et 7ror /uot Kat ?rarpi 0iX 

rwv. Compare Od. H. 122. A. 193. Hence The breastplate, here called x-wj>, was of 

pjea aXwdwv may be rendered garden- two kinds, one of which consisted of a 

waJfo. But a\w>) is a threshing-floor in II. double lamina of inflexible metal ; hence 

E. 499. Y. 496. and elsewhere ; or, rather, called 0wpa GTCLTOQ, or the upright breast- 

a place in the open air for treading out the plate. The other, generally formed of hides 

corn. of beasts strengthened with pieces of metal, 

92. ?pya. Arboreta : from v. 90. Clarke connected by chains or hooks, and flexible, 

improperly translates it segetes. seems to be that which is here denominated 

95. AVKO.OVOQ ayXaoe viog. Pandarus. by the general term %irwv arptTTTOQ. Of 

99. yuceXov. The interior cavity of the this species there were other particular 
breastplate, which was convex outward, names, according to their formation ; as, 
Schol. ro KoTXov TOV Q&paKOG. This is its for instance, the 0wpa aXixrtdwrog, fcpt- 
only sense in Homer ; whence the epithet fcwrof, &c. So Virg. JEn. III. 467- loricam 
KparaiyvaXoQ in II. T. 361. consertam hamis. 

100. di<r%e. Sell, lavrov. Many tran- 115. K\vQ'i pot. In II. A. 37- K\v9i is 
sitives are thus used as neuter, with an ellip- followed by a genitive. The dative seems 
sis of this pronoun : especially aytiv, /3dX- here to be used, as the verb includes the 
Xeiv, tXavvtiv, f%fiv, and didovai. See notion of favour and assistance. It is 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 496, 1. observable that it is only in the impera- 

109. TreTrov. See on II. B. 235. Kara- tive that this verb has a double construc- 

Priaso. The imperative of Kara/3/j(ro/jai, tion. 

which is one of the class of verbs mentioned 116. juoi Kai Trarpi. That is, ?rarpi //ov. 

on II. B. 35. See on II. A. 219. 

113. <rrp7rroio. Flexible: from orpt^w. 




i r ft avSpa iXeiv, Kai op/iijv fy^Eoe iX0uv, 
ft' fjSaXe 00a^tvoe, cat tTreu^rat, OI^E JUE 

Arjpov r' 

tN Qc E^ 

Fvta S' 

XajuTTjoov fyaog rjfXtoto. 



Kai \elpaQ v7Tp0V* 

t f <TrajUv] 7Ta 

v vvv, Ato^irj^fe, ETTI TpaJfa'crt 
'Ev yap rot GTriOevai jufvo^ irarpw'iov 7]Ka 
"Arpoftov, otov E^EO-ICE traicfo-TraXoc tTTTrora 

rot a?r' o^OaXjLLMv I'Xov, ^ ?rpiv E 


at KE 0foc 7Ttp(JjUuoc fv^aS' V/crjrat, 
Mr; rt auy' aOavaroun 0Otc avrtKpv ima\(fOaL 
Tote a'XXotf* arao a KE Atoc Ovyarrjp ' 
v EX0r?(r' EC TroXfjUOV, rrjv y' ourajUv o^ 
'H JUEV ap' we EtTroiW aTrfjSi] yXauicwTrte 


118. The Scholiast understands \iv in 
the sense of ev X 6 ? '* 1 ' ^X lv > instead of its 
usual acceptation interficere ; but the con- 
struction is an instance of what is called by 
grammarians worepov Trporepov, in which 
the order of thought is anticipated, the two 
members of the sentence presenting them- 
selves simultaneously to the mind of the 
speaker. Similar examples are frequent in 
Homer. Compare II. A. 251. Od. A. 208. 
723. Thus also Xen. Mem. III. 5. 10. 
rpoQrjv Kai yevtcriv. Virg. Mn. I. 264. 
moresque viris et mcenia ponet ; for mcenia et 
mores. This figure, however, more fre- 
quently occurs in cases of violent emotion 
as in the present instance, and in Virg. JEn. 
II. 353. moriamur, et in media arma ruamus. 

120. otyeaQai <[>doQ rytXioio. See on II. 
A. 88. 

124. pcCgto&u. Infin. for imperative. 
So again in v. 130. and owra/*v in v. 132. 
See on II. A. 20. The verb is rarely fol- 
lowed by a dative with STTI. Compare, how- 
ever, v. 244. *. 26. 

127. dx\vv d' aii rot K. T. X. For the 
present purpose it was necessary that the 
mortal film should be removed from the 
eyes of Diomed, in order that he might 
distinguish the gods who were opposed 
against him, as they did not render them- 
selves generally visible. See on II. B. 182. 
As soon as this purpose was effected, in 
wounding Venus and Mars, the Scholiast 
observes that the gift was recalled ; and in 
11. Z. 123. Diomed is ignorant whether 
Glaucus is a man or god. Thus Venus dis- 
closes to ./Eneas the gods who were engaged 
against Troy, in jEn. II. 604. Adspice ; 

namque omnem, qiue nunc obducta tuenti 
Mortales hebetat vlsus tibi, et humida circum 
Caligat, nubem eripiam. In the same man- 
ner Michael discovers to Adam the events 
of futurity in Milton, P. L. XI. 411. to 
nobler sight Michael from Adam's eye the 
film removed. Somewhat parallel are the 
examples of Hagar and Balaam in the Old 
Test. Gen. xxi. 14. Numb. xxii. 31. Com- 
pare also Luke xxiv. 31. Apoll. Lex. d%- 

128. o0p' V yiyvuxTKyg. The subjunc- 
tive mood, with the particles o^pa, 'Lva, and 
the like, is correctly used only after verbs 
of present or future, and the optative after 
verbs of past time. See on II. A. 26. In 
cases, however, where the verb which de- 
pends upon the conjunction shews a present 
action, the subjunctive may be used, though 
the preceding verb be in the past time. 
Thus, in the present instance, the verb 
yiyvaxTKyQ denotes a present consequence 
of the past action, axXuv dtyfXov. The 
distinction will be clearly seen by compar- 
ing a passage of Plato in reference to this 
action of Minerva ; Alcib. II. in fine. 
ri]v ' 

o<j>p tv yivbHTKOi j/itv tv rj Ka vpa. 
Here the action is no longer present, and 
60pa yiyvwffKyg would be a solcecism. It 
has been already observed, however, that 
Homer, in the earlier state of the language, 
did not always adhere to the niceties of 
grammatical construction. See Matt. Gr. 
Gr. . 518. 

129. Treipw/Lifvog. Congressus pugna. 



rjc 8' t^avrig twv 

Km, Trptv TTfp 0uju<j> /jfjuawc Tpwco-at jua%f(T0at, 
Ar) ror jutv rpie ro'crcrov HXfv /ulvoe, wort Xlovra, 
Ov /oa T Trotjurjv ayptj) ITT' ipO7TOKOie oi 
Xpav(TT) julv T ai>XiJ V7TpaXjUvov, ou ($ 
Tov ILZV T aOtvoc; a>pcrv, 7Ttra Si T' ou 
'AXXa Kara (jraOfjLOvg Sutrat' ra 8* pf/|Ua ^>o/3arat* 
A? JUEV r' ay^tarlvaL 7r' aXX/jX^crt 
Avrap o j 



, irot/jitva 

' e'Xfcv 'Aarruvoov KOI ' 
Tov /UEV vTTtp juajoio jSaXwv 
Tov o trcpov ^t^t jUyaX(jj 
nXij^' a?ro 8' au^lvo? w/uov 
Tovg lad , o $T "AjSavra jUrtjj^ro, au 
Ytlac Eujouoajuavroc^ 6v<pO7rdXo/o ylpovroc* 
Tote OUK, p^ojUvot^? 6 ylpwv t/cptvar' bvtlpov?, 
'AXXa <r0a Kparepuc; AiOjur)orjc t 
B^ ^ juera BavOov T, Gowva r, 
"A/i^w rijXu'ylra)* 6 refpfro yfipa'i Xu-ypw, 
Y6v o o?> rKr' aXXov, ITTI jcrfarfcrcri \nriaQai. 
, (f>i\ov 8' t^a 




135. fJLfiah)g. For jue/iaora, in reference 
to Tw^tt^^in the preceding, instead of /uv 
in the succeeding line. With the following 
simile compare Virg. .(En. XII. 4. 

138. ai>X?7. ^ sheep-pen. Properly, any 
enclosure exposed to the wind; from auw, 
spiro. See on II. Q. 161. The critics, an- 
cient and modern, have raised instead of 
removing difficulties in this passage, which 
is in itself sufficiently intelligible. 

139. TOV. Scil. \kovroQ. TrpoffafJLvvet. 
Scil. Pastor. Of the force of the particle re 
in this line see on II. A. 81. 

140. (TTaBfJLovQ. Plural for singular. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 292. Eustath. orafyior 
rd tv roTg dypoiQ ZwoaTacria, at tTrav\ii' 
teal oXwg KciTOiKiai dyporifcai. Anglice : a 
shepherd's cot. II. B. 470. <rra0juov iroifi- 
vrj'iov. rd d' tp^jua 00j8etroti. Schol. Venet. 

ro (T//taiv6/AVOv, KOI ov Trpog ro 
TOVTO iirriyaytv. See on Eurip. 
Phoen. 1303. Pent. Gr. p. 377- There is 
no occasion, with Eustathius, to supply 
?rp6/3ara or flps/i/iara. 

141. a'i [ikv T ay^iOTivai K. T. X. They 
are tumbled together, one upon another, in a 
heap: and the lion, having selected his prey, 
retires from the fold. Schol. ro ay^iarlvai 

p,tv TO TrvKva'c yivtrai dt irapa TO 
iaTavat, o TTOIOVGIV a'i oiey, dia 06- 


/3ov TrvKvovptvai. And again : <ce%vj/rai- 
KtTvrat d^poai. Compare Od. X. 387- 389. 
The last of these lines is merely orna- 
mental, and it is supposed by some to be 
spurious ; but the two must at all events 
stand or fall together, as the article, i. e. 
the pronoun in the rejected line is evidently 
opposed to a'i d' ay^iorivai in the pre- 
ceding. In /j/u/uaa*f the preposition is re- 

146. K\i]lda. lonice for icXtlda, the col- 
lar-bone. In II. <I>. 117- K\rjlda Trap av- 

150. The participle ep\ofievoiQ must be 
taken absolutely ; euntibus, i. e. cum ad bel- 
lum abirent : as infra v. 198. And, indeed, is frequently used to signify abeo. 
Compare II. M. 343. O. 221. P. 741. Y. 
24. and elsewhere. The difficulty which 
the commentators have experienced in this 
line arose from construing the adverb OVK 
with ip^ofikvotg, which can only be re- 
ferred to kpia/aro. The only rational in- 
terpretation of which the passage admits, 
is this : Eurydamas had neglected to employ 
the gift of divination by dreams, in order to 
ascertain the fate of his sons, at the time of 
their departure to the war. 

153. rjXuyrw. See on II. F. 1?5. 


>, Traripi Se yoov KOL lo'/Sea Xuypa 
AetTr'* eVei ov ^o'tovre fia^ifc eKvo0T/j<rai>T 
OTa ^ ^ ^ ta KTj<Ttv Sareovro. 
' mac Hpiajmoio Suw XajSe AapSavt'Sao 
Eiv evl St^P^ eovrae, 'E^jj/iova re, Xpo/itov re. 160 

'lie <& Xewv ev j3ou<ri 

i?e |3oo, />Xo)(ov Kara 
aju^ore/oouc f? ITTTTWV 
Bf/<re KaK(Jjg aeKOvra, eTrefra &e 
"ITTTTOUC 8' olc Irapoto-f SiSou ftfra v^ac tXawvcfy. 165 

Toy 8' '/ov Alvtiac; aXaTra^ovra 
B^ 8' '/juev av re jua^rjy cat ava k'Xovov 
flav^apov avriOtov &r/juevoc, ei TTOU e^evpot. 
AVKOOVOC v<ov a/mv/nova re, Kparejooy re* 
e Trpocr^ ai/roto, eVoc re /x/v avrtou rjiiSa' 170 

DavSape, TTOU rot ro^ov, tete Trrepoevrec otcrrol, 
Kai icXeoc 5 w owrtc T o f ept^erai ev^a^e *y' avr/p, 
OiSe rtc tv AuK/r? aeo 7' eu^erat eTvai ajueiywv. 
'AXX' aye, rwS' '$> avSpt jSeXoC) Att ^eTjoa^ avaa^wv, 

^e icpareef, Kal Si) Ka/ca TroXXa eopye 175 

eTrei TroXXwv re icat etr^Xwy yovvar 
Ei JUT} r*c 0eo(, % etrri, 

Tov S' avre Tr/oocreetTre Auicaovoc ayXaoc 
Atveta, Tpwtuv j3ouX?]^)ope ^aXfco^trwvwy, 180 

156. a/i0orepa>. This is the accusative once the prototype of the Pius JEneas of 

dual ; and the construction is similar to II. Virgil. 

A. 182. 177. d pri TIQ QtoQ <m, K. r. X. This 

158. x^pworat. By this term were de- must be referred to the words r<p<5' t(f>f 

signaled the nearest surviving relations of a jSeXog in v. 174. 

family, in which there were no legitimate 178. ipwv. We must supply KVIKCL. The 

or adopted children to succeed to the pos- duty of men to the gods seems to have con- 

sessions. Schol. Villois. 01 TOV x^pov OIKOV sisted, according to Homer, entirely in sa- 

^lavffiofjifvoi K\ijpov6fjioi. To die without crifice. Several other marks of honour, 

an heir was looked upon, in those times, such as songs, vows, &c. seem to have 

as a source of additional regret. Compare been grateful to them ; but sacrifices, per- 

Find. Olymp. X. 106. formed or neglected, were alone effectual 

161. t av%eva dy. A tmesis for fcay, to the success or failure of an enterprize. 

frangere solet. It is observable, that Homer Compare II. A. 47 4. I. 530. et passim ; and 

constantly uses the subjunctive in com- see Mitford's Hist, of Greece, vol. I. p. 115. 

parisons, after particles of all kinds, as We cannot help remarking the striking 

denoting a thing of usual occurrence, difference in this respect between the early 

Thus, also, with the relative oc,, infra v. heathen nations, and the people of the true 

138. This construction is analogous to God; more particularly as the rites them- 

that with the particles orav, iTTiiddv, selves evidently originated in the same pri- 

&c. See on II. A. 168. Matt. Gr. Gr. 521. mseval source. See Psalm 1. 8. li. 16. With 

Obs. 3. the closing sentiment we may compare Ovid. 

164. /3>J<Tf. Deciders fecit, dejecit. See Trist. V. Plus valet humanis viribus ira dei. 

on II. A. 144. Seneca : Gravis ira regum est : quanta magis 

174. Ati x"P a avaa^biv. See on II. dei, qui rex regum. Compare also Ps. ii. 

A. 351. In this address we recognize at 12. xc. 11. 

160 'OMHPOY '1AIAAOE, E'. 

iSi? fjiiv eywye Sat^povt iravra itaKW, 


daopowv' <ra$a eT OVK oIS', el Oeo^ evriv. 
Ei & 67' avr}p, ov $r\im, Sa'/'^pwv Tv$oc woe, 
Oix oy' avevOe Oeov raSe jmaiveTai, aXXa TLQ ay\i 
"Eanjic' aOavarwv, ve^eXy eiXvpevoc; WJUQUC, 
A Oc TOVTOV fieXog WKU Ki\fnuLevov rpa7Tv aXXrj* 

ap ot 0f)ca j3tXoc, Kat jiui> jSaXo 
ov, avrfKpv Sta Ott)or]KO^ yvaXoto* 
Ka/ jUiv eywy' etydfjLriv 'AVSa>vf}7 Trpo'ityeiv, 



"ITTTTOC 8' oi> irapeacn, KOL apjitara, rwv c' 7rtj3atrjv. 
'AXXa TTOU v fjieyapoi(n Avtcdovoc; ev&ica S 
KaXoi, TTpwroTrayaTc, vsortu^tEC* ju^t 
IleirTavTai' Trapa $ or^tv KaoT(|j StSuyfc tinroi 
'Eoram, fc/ot XEUKOV p7rro/ivot Kal oXupa^. 
T H jusv juot juaXa ?roXXa yipwv al^ifra AVKCLWV 

7TTXX SojUOlC vl TTOtlJToTo-tV* 

KlXU Kai apjuacrev ju)3j3awra 
*Ap\evetv Tpa><To-t Kara icparfpac v(TjUivac" 
'AXX' <ya) oi> TnOojurjv, (^r' av TroXu Kep^LOv riev, 


182. diTTri^t yiyvhKTKdJv. For ia dff- 
So Soph. (Ed. C. 323. ay 5' au- 
TIK ZZtariv naQtiv. Similar instances 
abound. But see Matt. Gr. Gr. . 401. 2. 
Obs. 1. Of the auXwTrit; TpvQaXdt], see 
on II. P. 337. 

186. vs<j)e\y tiXvfievoQ wp,ov. Horat. 
Od. I. 2. 31. Nube candentes humeros amic- 
tus Augur Apollo. 

187- TOVTOV j8\og Ki%i]iitvov. The ar- 
row which reached him. In II. A. 451. the 
genitive, which here depends upon the par- 
ticiple Ki%r)iJitvo, is omitted, and, to com- 
plete the construction, the verb 00dvw is 
followed by the pronoun in the accusative, 
After d\\y, we must supply 6&, as in II. 
A. 120. 

190. 'Atttfjt iroo'ia.'fytiv. See on II. A. 
3. and of tpTrrjc,, in the next line, on v. 

192. ITTTTOI 6' oi) Trapsaffi, K. T. X. There 
seems to be no immediate connexion be- 
tween this part of the speech of Pandarus 
and the preceding : Heyne objects to it, as 
loquacious and tiresome, and considers it 
as an interpolation of some later rhapsodist. 
These lengthened harangues, however, are 
not inconsistent with the manners of the 
heroic ages ; and the narration is perfectly 
suited to the character of Pandarus. 


196. KpT. By apocope, not (says Eusta- 
thius) from the feminine Kpi0//,* but the 
neuter Kpipvov, a bearded kind of grain, 
most probably barley. Damm supposes that, 
with the epithet \tvicbv, with which it is 
usually found in Homer, it signifies oats ; 
but it is certain that the eastern nations fed 
their horses with barley. See 1 Kings iv. 
28. and compare Herod. II. 36. We are 
informed also by Hasselquist, in his Travels, 
p. 129. that on the plains of Jericho the 
Arabs still grow barley for their horses. 
It is probable that the adjective \evicbv is 
used in contradistinction to another spe- 
cies of grain, called fieXdvOiov, and by the 
Latins Nigella. Whether the b\voai were 
a herb, or a grain, is not easily determined. 
Eustathius seems to think it a species of 
rye; and so Pliny, N. H. XVIII. 8. who 
explains it by zea and arinca; and ob- 
serves, jumentis dari ab Homero dicta. In 
Ezek. iv. 9. LXX. it is given as the in- 
terpretation of the Hebrew Cusmeth, which 
we translate fitches ; i. e. vetches. But it 
seems most probable that Homer intended 
the grain called spelt. See Celsii Hierobot. 
T. II. p. 99. Jerom. Comment, on Ezek. 
T. III. p. 722. After all, however, the 
question is mere matter of curiosity. 

202. 'iinruv tidojitvog. Eustathius has 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, E'. 161 

*lg \'nrov, aurap 7T*oc C 
To?ot<Tt TTtavvos' ra ^ ji/ ovK ap' EjUtAXcv ovr)Giv' 205 

yap Sotottrtv aptoTrj<T<Tv 
cfy T, icai 'Ar/oaSp* EK 

fyi' <r<7ua |3aXwv' T/ytpa $ /uaXXov. 
T(j> pa icaicr? a'/<rp OTTO TratTcraXou ayjcuXa roa 
Hjuart rc iXojurjv, 6r "iXfov ac EparEiVTfv 210 


AVTLK 7Tir' aV jUio icaprj rajuot aXXorptoc ^>wc, 
Ei JUT) yw raSf ro^a 0atv^J tv Trupt 0trjv, 215 

XfjOtrt SmcXa(T<Ta' avjuaXta yap juot OTrijSfT. 
Tov S' aur' Atvfiac, T/owwv ayoc, avrtov 
Mrjo ovrwc ayopV* irapog S' OUK (T(rrat a 

. 220 

'AXX' ay', Ifiwv o%twv 7Tt]37(TO, o^pa iSrjat 

OlOl TpOJiOl 17T7TOI, 7Tt(TrajUVOl 

KpatTTva juaX' v0a Kai v0a 

Tw KOL vwt TroXtvSfi o-awo-frov, t7Tp av avr 

Zfvc ?rl TuSfiSp AtOjur]^V KV^OC op^. 225 

'AXX' ay, vvv juaariya icat i^v/a (TtyaXofvra 

totally misunderstood this passage, in attri- 459. 

buting this conduct of Pandarus to parsi- V'IOVQ eaOffra tyoiviKffV kv roig 

mony, of which there is no reason to sup- ^opeiv, "iv ti TpwOeiij TIQ, \av9dvg roiig 

pose him guilty. The plain sense of the TroXt/a'ovg &a TO bpoxpav. See also .(Elian. 

words, and the additional explanation of V. H. VI. 6. Val. Maxim. II. 6. 

them in the following line, evidently refer 214. air' sfielo Kdprj rdjitot. A tmesis, 

to the difficulty of procuring provender in a for aTrora/ioi. See also on II. A. 415. 

besieged city. 215. kv nvpi Otirjv. See on II. B. 340. 

^ 203. d\o[jisv(av. In urbe inclusis : from and of the singular use of the optative after 

i\w, to shut up, to confine : and so in II. ci p,rj, on v. 261. 

2. 287- Q. 162. Hence, by an easy trans- 218. The adverb irdpoc is here followed 

sition, to collect, to assemble : infra v. 782. by irpiv, and the construction is precisely 

With the sense of this passage Heyne com- that of irpiv doubled. See on II. A. 97. 

pares, after Koeppen, Herod. I. 190. fidxy and compare Od. B. 127. The order of the 

^r<rw0vrfe KaTeiXrjOrjaav tic, TO dffTV. following lines is this : irpiv J>w, eirt\06vTe 

a^rjv. To satiety. Poetice for dSrjv, from (Bar) dvTt^irjv avv'iTnroig Kai oxen ryS' 

ddia, satio. dvdpl, TreiprjOrjvai (CLVTOV) ffvv IVTIGI. 

208. o-TOfKlg difjia. Pandarus says he is The Attic dual i>w occurs again in Od. O. 

sure it was real blood that followed his ar- 475. II. 306 ; elsewhere Homer has vSJi, as 

row : because it was anciently a custom, in v. 224. 

particularly among the Spartans, to have 222. Tpwiioi ITTTTOI. See below on v. 265. 

ornaments and figures of a purple colour on 226. atyaXoevra. Splendid, beautiful. 

their breast- plates, that the blood they lost Eustat. on II. X. 468. (riyaXotvra- rd 

might not be seen by the soldiers, and tend ciyr)v <Sri\arj tp,TrotovvTa Si EKTr\t)%iv. 

to their discouragement. Plutarch, in his Others, however, among whom are Heyne 

Tnstit. Lacon. takes notice of this point of and P. Knight, derive it, by means of the 

antiquity. POPE. Schol. Villois. on II. A. insertion of the jEolic digamma from ffia- 




'HE (TV TOV$E SEC^O, jLteXr/troutrt 8' EJUOI 

Tov 8' rtvre TrpOG&nrz AVKCLOVOS ayXaoe vtoe' 
AivEta, <7i> JUEV auroc 1^' rjvta cai TEW tTTTrw* 
MaXXov v<^>' r7VO)(() tlwOori Ka/Li7rv\ov ap/j,a 


Mr) rw JUEV c)t<ravT juar^trfrov, ouo e^a 

'EK^EpEjUEV TToXe/ULOlO, TOV (frOoyyOV 7TO0OVr* 

Nun 8' cTraf^ac: ja^yaOv/uLOv TuSloc vtoc 
Avru) r icrfivrj, cai iXacray juwvu^ag ITTTTOUC. 
'AXXa (TV y' avrof fXauvf TE' apjuara Kal r(t) '/TTTTW, 
Tov^f 8' lywv ETrcovra Sfc^Ojuai o^a Sovpi. 
tN Qc V a $<*>vr/<ravrCj ^C ap/xara TroiKi\a 3a 
wr' ?rt 




' opow icparfpw TTI (roi jUjuawr fjLa 
f^ovrac* 6 jufv ro^wv fu 
, vtoc 8' aurs Aujcaovoe urat avat* 
Atvtac S', vibs fj.t 


jurjrijp SE ot Etrr' 

Xow, v^riego. Hesych. triaXwo-af TrotKiXat. 
See Taylor's Leci. Lysiac. p. 703. The for- 
mer interpretation appears the most proba- 
ble ; and is precisely similar to a common 
expression of our own : to be struck dumb 
with admiration. 

227. ITTTTWV a7ro/37<ro/iai. / will alight 
from the chariot. This is the ordinary sense 
of dTTofiaivtiv, and there is no reason 
against retaining it here, though the com- 
mentators in general have understood it dif- 
ferently. Eustath. TO TTtZtvacu TOV ap^ta- 
rof, tTTTTwv diro[3r)va.i Xsytf ovrw de TIQ 
aVo/3aivi KCLI vt]oQ. But it was not un- 
usual for the warrior to quit the chariot, and 
fight on foot. In the ensuing engagement 
between Pandarus and Diomed, the latter is 
certainly on the ground, while Sthenelus 
remains at hand with the horses. Pandarus, 
however, does not alight, as it appears from 
v. 294. and hence arises a difficulty in v. 
291. as it seems scarcely possible that he 
should have received the wound to which 
his death is attributed, from an antagonist 
in a lower position than himself. But it 
should be recollected, that the chariots of 
the ancients were built extremely low ; by 
which the circumstance will be readily ac- 
counted for. Wakefield endeavours to ex- 

plain it, somewhat ingeniously, upon the 
mathematical principles of projection. 

231. aw0oYi. /Sfcz'/. r}vioxtiv awrowg, as 
supplied by the Scholiast. 

233. rw jwtv Seiffavre K. r. X. Scil. 
Cavendum est ne, &c. See on II. A. 26. The 
verb fiar^v properly signifies, to lose time, 
to hesitate : from the adverb p,a.Trjv. Com- 
pare II. II. 474. . 510. Hence, in this 
place, to be restive. Damm has illustrated 
its meaning by the words of Terence ; moves 
quidem, sed nihil promoves. Of the subjunc- 
tive form /iarj^tro/ttai, see on II. A. 62. 

240. l/uifjuaoir'. That is, t/i/if/iawn, 
sell. Tvdtioy. Compare vv. 142. 143. The 
versions improperly render it impetu conci- 
tati, in reference to ^Eneas and Pandarus, 
by which means there is a change from the 
plural to the dual, and then to the plural 
again in the verb e^ov. In the preceding 
line, to avoid the jingle of the same termi- 
nation, Heyne proposes to read Quvijcrav, 
Kai f ap/uara. 

245. Iv aTreXeOpov. Robur immensum. 
Schol. a'/Ktrpov, TroXX^v. From a intensi- 
tive, and TriXtQpov, an acre. In what fol- 
lows, the Scholiast notices the change of con- 
struction, for rovrtttv o fitv sori. 

'AXX' aye Sri ^aa>jU0' 0' tTTTrcov, jUrjSf JJLOI 



Tov $' ap' vTTo&pa towv Trpoa^rj Kparfjoo 
Mr? rt 0oj3ovS' ayopfu', 7ra ouSf ore 7Tto-jitv oiw. 
Ou -yap juoi yfvvatov aXucrKa^oim 
Oi^ KaraTTTwo-o-fiv* rt juot jUvo 

'O*CVIW O 17T7TWV 7Tfj3atV/iV* ttXXa KCU 

'Avri'ov tju' aurwv' rpav ju' OVK IlaXXac 'A0r/vj. 
Tourw ' ov TraX/v avrt aTrottrfrov WK tTTTrot 
^' i^uawv, i -youv trcpoc 7^ (j>vy \IGIV. 

TOt pO>, (TU ' Vl ^pfO"! jSaXXfO (T^(TIV' 

juot TroXujSouXoc 'AOfivri KvSog op*rj, 

Tfph) KTtivCLl, (TV $ rOV^E JU 

Aurou pu/cafctv, 1^ avrvyog rjvia 
Alveiao o lira't^at fjLefjLVYijjLtvog I'TTTTWV, 
'Eic S' fXaaat Tpaiwv ftr' UKV7]jut8ac ' 

yap rot -yfvfijcj ^c T/ow/' 7Tp fupuoTra 




252. /xr/ n 06/3ov5' ayoptu'. There is 
an ellipsis of the verb rpkirtaQai ; and so 
again in II. II. 697. Of this there is no 
mention in Lamb. Bos. It may be remarked, 
that the advice of Sthenelus'did not intend 
that Diomed should quit the field, but 
merely that they should retire into their 
own ranks ; a resource, of which the great- 
est heroes did not disdain to avail them- 
selves in cases of imminent peril. Thus in 
II. ffl. 408. Hector himself is retreating to- 
wards his phalanx, when Ajax brings him to 
the ground with an enormous stone. In re- 
ference to this custom, Heyne adduces Find. 
Nem. IX. 64. kv y<ip dai[jiovioi<n 06/3oi 
QivyovTi KO.I iralSfQ QtGiv. See Mitford's 
Hist, of Greece, vol. I. p. 162. 

253.^ dXvaKa^ovTi ^a^t^Qai. That is, 
dXvaKaZtiv rr)v pawiv. See on II. A. 258. 
and compare Od. P. 581. X. 330. In II. 
Z. 443. the construction seems to be ellipti- 
cal. Examples of the simple form dXvfficu), 
from which aXucrKa^w is formed by para- 
goge, repeatedly occur. The use of the par- 
ticiple instead of the infinitive is not un- 
usual. Thus in Isocr. Panath. p. 268. E. 17 
7r6Xi avTolg OVK kfciT^u irapaflctivovai 
TOV vofiov, for TrapajSatvav. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 550. Obs. 4. The Scholiast ex- 
plains ytvvalov by syyevke, Trdrpiov. In 
later writers it signifies noble : but it does 
not recur in Homer. 

255. oKveittt. Nolo. 

258. si yovv STtpoe y Qvyyotv. This 
construction of a with the subjunctive is pe- 
culiar to Homer, and the Ionic and Doric 
writers. Compare 11. 1.318. A. 116. M. 224. 

245. O. 16. H. 30. 559. Herod. II. 13. 52. 
VII. 161. VIII. 49. Pind. Pyth. IV. 473. 
Nem. VII. 16. Theocrit. Id. XXV. 45. See 
Brunck on Aristoph. Plut. 116. Matt. Gr. 
Gr. 525. 7- b. 

262. sK AvrvyoQ rfvia nivag. The dvrvZ 
was a raised semicircle in front of the cha- 
riot ; to the top of this was attached a peg, 
upon which the reins were fixed, when it 
was necessary to stop the horses. In some 
chariots there was a corresponding semi- 
circle behind, as in that of Juno, infra v. 
728. where the Venetian Scholiast observes : 

dvTVy(Q' TO. 67TI TOV SitypOV ^fAlKVKXa, tV- 

Oev Kai TO. rjvia i%diTTOVTai. See Hem- 
sterhuis on Lucian. T. I. p. 279. In general, 
however, O.VTV% is any external rim or bor- 
der. Thus we have dvTV% daTriSoQ, II. Z. 
118. O. 645. and dvTV% KiOdpag, in Eur. 
Hippol. 1131. See Monk in loco. 

265. TIQ Tpou TTtp K. T. X. Which Jupi- 
piter bestowed upon Tros : so that, according 
to Eustathius' opinion, the translators are 
mistaken, who turn Tpwioi (Wot, the Tro- 
jan horses, in v. 222. where ^Eneas extols 
their qualities to Pandarus. The same author 
takes notice, that frauds in the case of horses 
have been thought excusable in all times, 
and commends Anchises for this piece of 
theft. Virgil was so well pleased with it, as 
to imitate this passage in JEn. VII. 280. 
Absenti Mnea currum, geminosque jugales 
Semine ab tetherio, spirantes naribus ignem, 
Illorum de gente, patri quos Dadala Circe 
Supposita de matre nothos furata creavit. 
POPK. See Apollod. Bibl. II. 5. 9. and of 
the epithet et/pt'OTnje, on 11. A. 498. 

y 2 

164 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, E'. 

TTOtvrjv FavujurjSEOC* OVVEK apt<rrot 
ITTTTOJV, oaaoi I'atTtv UTT' ^w r' ritXtov TE' 
ije 7Vr/e e/cXc^/ev aval; avSpwv 'A-yX 1 ' " 1 ??* 
Aaflprj AaojueSovroc wnw^wv 9rj\eag ITTTTOUC* 

ot t tvovro * v * JLiaoi(TL tviO\riG. 270 

' Alvdq. 

Ei rourw ICE Aoj3otjUv, apotjU0a K icXtoc <r0Xov. 

tv &e ot JUEV romura Trpoc aXX^Xoue ayOjOfvov* 
Ta> SE rax' tyyvQw ?i\0ov, iXavvovT* w/cac 'LTTTTOV^. 275 
Tov TrpOTfpoc 7rpocTt7r Avjcaovo^ ayXao vto^* 

Kajorpo0UjU, Satypov, ajavov TuSloc vt, 
^H juaXa tr' ov jSfXoc WKU Sajuao-traro, TTticpoc 6toro' 
Nvv avr' 7X ^P TTftp^o-Ojuat, CUKE rv^ot^i. 

7 H joa, Kat a/J7T7raXwv Trpo'itt $O\I)(O<TKIOV ey\O, 280 

Kat jSaXf Tu^t^ao icar' ao-TTtSa' rrje Se Sta ?rpo 

Ttj> o ?ri juaicpoy aucr AvKaovo? a-yXaoc 

BljSXr^at iccvfwva ^/ajU7TpC> ouS! o-' otai 

Arjpov r' avorxr?<T<T0at, Ijuoi ^ jUy' ix o ^ *Sw*C 285 

Tov o ov Tappr)aa. Trpoarf^i] icparfpoc AiOjurjSrjg' 

ovS' ruxC* arap ou jUV cr^wi 7' otai 
' a7TO7rau(T(T0a{, TTpiv 7' ?} Tpov ye 7T(rovra 

2G8. r^f yevcijt;. Sell, rivdf, and r^g which is at least as good a reading. If ad- 

for ravTrjQ. The genitive is frequently put mitted, it will be in apposition with s. As 

after verbs transitive, with the accusative of the text now stands the construction is, tZ, wv 

the indefinite pronoun TIQ understood. This -ytvkO\r]Q iy'tvovro avrijj %lv /uyapoiffi. 

is expressed in English by the word some, 275. rw de rax eyyvOtv 17X60 v, K. r.X. 

and, in the singular, by the omission of the See on II. A. 567. 

article. Thus in II. I. 214. iraaaf. & aXbg 287. ?}/i/3por. The verbs d^portiv 

G do 10, he sprinkled salt over it. Compare and d(3ooTd&iv (II. K. 65.), signifying to go 

II. &. 121. X. 325. Od. I. 225. O. 98. astray, to err, to miss, have been derived 

Herod. III. 11. IV. 172. Eurip. Hec. 614. from dfipoTr] (Ion. fcem. ofajSporog), which 

So also in Exod. xxix. 7. 20. Levit. x. 18. is the epithet of vit% in II. &. 78. and else- 

Prov. xxii. 9. LXX. Marc. ii. 21. The same where, and is sometimes used substantively 

ellipsis occurs also in Latin. Thus, Tacit, of the night. So also in Od. A. 329. a/^3po- 

Germ. 15. Mos est civitatibus ultro et viritim TOQ vv%. They are accordingly said to 

conferre principibus vel armentorum vel fru- mean properly, to go astray in the darkness 

gum; scil. aliquam partem. See Matt. Gr. of the night. Eustathius, indeed, explains 

Gr. . 356. b. Bos Ellips. Gr. 176. The the latter verb by TOV jSporou d-rroTvy^dvuv 

words rfje yeverjc; are repeated from v. 265. tv bd(fi, and in this sense it is referred to 

the intervening lines being parenthetical. a/3poro, as denoting mortalibus carens, in 

269. VTToax&v. Submittens. Schol. VTTO- ^sch. Prom. 2. a/3poroi> eiQ iprjfjiiav. Hence 
/3a\wv. Eustathius notices another read- also the Scholiast on II. 2. 78. a(3p6rr)' iv 
ing, QrjKtaq, with the accent on the penulti- y QWQ ov yivtrai. That such, however, is 
ma, for OrjXtiaQ. But OtjXvg, riSi)Q, and the not the meaning of the adjective in Homer, 
like, in Homer, have generally but two ter- is clear from its being convertible with dp- 
minations ; as in II. T. 97- "Hprj, 6fi\vg ppoaioe. See on II. A. 529. B. 57- Neither 
eouo-a. Compare K. 216. . 409. Od. M. is it certain thata/3porog is the true reading 
369. We have, however, the feminine Orj- in the passage cited from the Prometheus. 
Xe/a in II. B. 767. 9. 7. A. 680. Buttman accurately traces both forms by a 

270. yj/!0X/. Some MSS. have ytvtOXi], regular chain from 



Aijuaroc aam^ApTja raXavpivov iroX 

*Qc $juvoc 7TpOTjK , j3fXo 8' Wvvsv 
'Piva Trap' 6(j>0a\[ji6v XEUKOVC 8' 7TpTjcrv oSo 
Tou 8' aTTO jUV yXt5(r<jav TTpUjiivrjv rajue ^aXicoc artpr)c, 
r 8' ?Xu0rj Tra/oa vaarov av0pwva. 

' ? 6x*)v, apaj3rj<r 8t rtv^ 8 ' ^ 7r ' aurtJJ 
AtoXa, TrajU^avowvTa' Trapirpecrcfav 81 ot ITTTTOI 
'QfcuTToSte' row 8' au0t Xvflrj i//u)(rj rt pivot; T. 
Atvftae 8' aTTopoutrfi CTUV ao-7rt8t, 8ovpt rt juaicptjj, 

ot tpvvaiaTO VCK/OOV 'A^atou 
t 8' ajo' aurtf j3a7v, Xlwv we, aXici 7T7rot0we. 
8f ot 8opu T' eo^X 8 ' ^ CT7r ^ a TravToa tcrr/v, 


6 8f jfepfiaBtOV Xa/3f 
, o ou 8uo 7' av8p 



289. raXavpivov. Fortem : from ra\aa>, 
sustineo, and pivog, cutis. The derivation 
is analogous to that of raXafftyptuv, rakaai- 
KapdioQ, &c. Eustathius explains it by tu- 
roXjuog, iVxupog. As an epithet of Mars, it 
occurs again in II. Y. 78. X. 267- In the 
preceding line, Barnes proposes to expunge 
the particle ye after irpiv in both cases, but 
Clarke justly observes, that the repetition 
imparts a degree of elegance to the verse : 
neither is it entirely without its limiting 
import. In the other two places, its proper 
signification is clearly discernible. See on 
II. A. 60. 

291. piva. Subaud. Kara. See on v. 227. 

292. yXwffffav Trpvpvrjv. The root of the 
tongue. Eustath. irpvpvov TO to-^arov. 
And so Hesychius. From the same root, 

;, ad finem perduco, came the noun 
stirps. See Pent Gr. Lex. v. av- 
, and compare II. M. 149. 

293. !$e\v0ij. Was spent : i. e. its force 
was exhausted : in which sense the verb 
\vtv9ai and its compounds are continually 
employed, more particularly in reference to 
the dissolution of death. Thus infra v. 296. 
XvQr) tyvxrj rt p,kvoQ re. Hence XvQrjvai is 
used in the sense of Oavtiv, as Heyne ob- 
serves after Eustathius. Soph. Ant. 1268. 
f.9a.vtQ, dTTtXvQrjQ. 1314. TTOI^> dirt\vffaro 
rpoTry. Hence also Xueiv /3iov, and a?ro- 
Xweiv \|/vx)v, in Euripides. See Hemster- 
huis on Lucian, T. III. p. 356. Some good 
MSS. however, here read t&avOr], which is 
not improbably correct. 

297. Aivfiag d' aTropoutre K. r. X. This 
protecting of the dead body was not only an 
office of piety agreeable to the character of 
JEneas in particular, but looked upon as a 
matter of great importance in those times. 
It was believed that the very soul of the 


deceased suffered by the body's remaining 
destitute of the rites of sepulture, as not 
being else admitted to pass the waters of 
Styx. See what Patroclus's ghost says to 
Achilles, in II. V. 69. Hence Virg. jEn. VI. 
325. HCBC omnis, quam cernis, inops inhu- 
mataque turba est : Portitor ille Charon ; hi, 
quos vehit unda, sepulti. Nee ripas datur 
horrendas et raucajtuenta Transportareprius, 
quam sedibus ossa quierunt : Centum errant 
annos, volitantque hcec littora circum. Who- 
ever considers this will not be surprised at 
those long and obstinate combats for the 
bodies of the heroes, so frequent in the Iliad. 
Homer thought it of such weight, that he has 
put this circumstance of want of burial into 
the proposition at the beginning of the poem, 
as one of the chief misfortunes that befel the 
Greeks. POPE. See the note on II. A. 4. 

299. dXfci. See on v. 845. 

303. /ilya tpyov. This expression, in 
apposition with a preceding noun, is em- 
phatic, and is intended, in this instance, to 
draw the attention more forcibly to the 
amazing size of the stone. Some interpret 
fpyov of the act of raising the stone, but it 
is unquestionably the stone itself; and in 
Xen. Cyrop. I. 4. 8. /*ya xPW* a is used in 
a similar manner. So Arist. Nub. 2. TO 
XpijjLia T&V VVKT&V. Herod. I. 36. ffvoQ 
XpJ)/*a fi'sya. We have also in Virg. JEn. V. 
119. ingenti mole Chinuzram, Urbis opus. 
See Hoogeveen on Viger, p. 70. Virgil has 
adopted the opinion of the degeneracy of 
mankind, set forth in this passage, with an 
additional allowance for the distance of his 
own age from that of Homer, in jEn. XII. 
899. Vix illud lecti bis sex cervice subirent, 
Qualia nunc hominum producit corpora tel- 
lus. Hence also Juvenal, in allusion to the 
stone with which Diomed here strikes 



Olot vvv jSporoi Eta', o Si /miv pia TraXXf /cat otoc- 
TtJ jSaXev Aivf/ao icar" ttr^iov, tvOa rf jurjpoe 
'Itf^ifjj vaT>^>rat' jcoruArjv rl jutv fcaXloucrt' 
0Xa<7(T Si ot KoruXrjv, Trpoc 1 $' afi^w /ofjsf revovrt' 


tpnrwv, KCU pi< 
St OCTO-E KEXatu?? vu KaXw//. 
Kat vv Kv V0' aTroXoiro aval; avSpwv Aivta, 
Ei jur) a'jo' oi> vorj(T Atoc Ovyarrip 'A^poSirrj, 

TJ /itv UTT' 'AY^torrj rc j3oucoXoyrt* 
( S' Oi (f>i\ov vibv l^ev 

^ Ot 7T7rXotO 

ju v jSfXftov, jur? rtc Aavawv 

r?0(T(yi ]3aXwv, c OVJJLOV f'Xotro. 

V OV 0tXoV V4OV W7T^^)p TToXljUOlO' 

uS' vtoc KaTravrJoc tXiiOtro <ruv0<7taa>v 



in Sat. XV. 69. Nam gewws Aoc m'wo 
jam decrescebat Homer o ; Terra malos ho- 
mines nunc educat atque pusillos. Homer 
has used the same observation in II. M. 383. 
449. Y. 287. from which it has been in- 
ferred, that he must have lived long after 
the Trojan war. Veil. Paterc. I. 5. Hie 
longius a temporibus belli, quod composuit, 
Troici, quam quidam rentur, Quo 
nomine non est mirandum, quod sape illud 
usurpat: oloi vvv /3poroi dvi. Gibbon, in 
his Miscellaneous Works, Vol. III. p. 70. 
has revived this opinion, which had been 
long since successfully refuted by Barnes, 
who observes that Nestor makes precisely 
the same comparison in II. A. 272. between 
the contemporaries of his youth and of his 
age. Consequently no argument can be 
drawn from this passage, in order to set 
aside the date assigned to the age of Homer 
in Prelim. Obss. Sect. I. As to the opinion 
itself, respecting the superior strength and 
stature of the men of the early ages, it may 
perhaps have originated in actual fact. 
There seems indeed to be some authority 
for the tradition in Holy Writ ; though it 
has been strongly contended that the giants 
there mentioned were merely tyrannical 
oppressors. See Gen, vi. 4. Num. xiii. 34. 
LXX. We extract the following, however, 
from Augustin. Civit. Dei, XV. 23. Vidi 
ipse, non solus, sed aliquot mecum, in Uti- 
censi litore molarem hominis dentem tarn in- 
gentem, ut si in nostrorum dentium modules 
minutatim concideretur, centum nobis vide- 
retur facere potuisse ; sed ilium Gigantis 
alicujus fuisse crediderim. See also Pliri. 
N. H. VII. 16. A. Gell. III. 10. Max. Tyr. 
Diss. VIII. The amazing strength, how- 
ever, with which the ancient heroes are 

said to have thrown stones of a vast weight, 
may be in some measure accounted for by 
the fact, that their youth were trained to 
the practice. The same exercise was also 
common in the oriental nations. Mos est 
in urbibus Palestine, says St. Jerome, et 
usque hodie per omnem Judeeam vetus consue- 
tudo servatur, ut in viculis, oppidis, et castel- 
lis rotundi ponuntur lapides gravissimi pon- 
deris, ad quos juvenes exercere se solent, et 
eos pro varietate virium sublevare ; alii ad 
genua, alii ad umbilicum, alii ad huineros, ad 
caput, nonnulli super verticem, rectis junctis- 
que manibus, magnitudinem virium demon- 
strantes, pondus attollunt. Pope observes, 
in his Essay on Homer's Battles, that a 
similar custom still prevails in some parts of 
Scotland. With regard to the construction, 
the optative in a potential signification 
should properly be accompanied by av or 
Ke ; but in Homer it is sometimes wanting. 
Thus again in II. H. 48. See on II. A. 32. 
Brunck on Arist. Equit. 400. Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 514. 5. Obs. Of the force of the particle 
ye in this passage see on II. A. 60. 

306. KOTvXrjv. Properly, a little cup : 
as in II. X. 494. Hence any cavity, as the 
palm of the hand ; and in this place, the 
hollow of the hip-bone, into which the head 
of the thigh-bone is inserted. Eustath. on 
II. X. in loc. cit. KOTV\TIV ^ SB $r]vi rr\v 
[iiicpav KVTTtXXida' Kal 7raXafj,ri Koi\a)p,a' 
Kal rj Kara TO iVxiov row /*7jpou KoiXorjje. 

309. yviiZ, tpnrdjv. See on v. 539. infra. 

310. yair)Q. Upon the ground: subaud. 

311. teal vv Ktv IvQ' aTroXoiro. Schol. 
dvrl TOV dVwXtro av. So again in II. P. 
70. and infra \: 388. See Matt. Gr. Gr. .' 
508. Obs. 2. 


TawVj ac lirtVsXXs /3oi]v ayaObz 

'AXX > oj roue /UEV !oi>c ^pu 

Noo-^tv aTTO ^Xoi<rj3ou, f avTvyoQ r/vt'a rei 

Aivftao <$' f7ra'/?ac Ka\\iTpi\a^ 'ITTTTOVC; 

'E?Xa<7 T/owwv, JUET' IvKvrjfjit 

Awk-t $ ArjnruXw, Iraptj) $*'Xw, ov 7Tpi 

TTfv ojUTjXnarje, ort ot 0p<nv aprta r/Srj, 

7Ti y\a(f>vprj(nv tXavvtfJitv' aurap oy' 
7nj3ag 2Xaj3' 17 vm 




or' avaXicfc ^v 0oc ? oi>O 
Tawv, atr' avSpwv TroXfjUOv Kara 
Our' ap' 'A^rjvatrj, our 7rroXnrop0O ' 
'AXX' 6r ?r) joa Kix a v 7roXi/v ica0' Ojut 



Sta 7T7rXou, ov ot Xaptrfc ica/iov aurat, 
ov v7Tp Qivapog* pie & a/xj3porov aljua Oeoto, 


326. on ol ^pca'tv apria yStj. Quod 
siiz" in animo consentanea novit, sensit : i. e. 
he was of a disposition congenial with his 
own. Hesych. dpna- irpoaqpnoafjisva. 
From apw, apto, conjungo. The sentiment 
is the same as that expressed in II. A. 361. 
rd yap ^povsstg, ar' lyo> irtp. The usual 
signification, however, of apriog is prudens ; 
i. e. prudentife consentaneus : as in II. JaJ. 
92. Od. 0. 240. apria (3deiv. Schol. 
vyt?) teal dp/ito^ia. So Eurip. Troad. 417- 
a'prtae x l QpevctQ. Ernesti, therefore, 
would understand the passage thus : Quia 
ejus bonis consiliis uti poterat, ob prudentiam. 
But this is less satisfactory. It may be ob- 
served that lidtvai, followed by a neuter 
plural, has much the same import as the 
adjective with the verb substantive ; so 
that aprta ydrj is equivalent with dpnog 

329. /*E07T. Sequi fecit, transitively. 
See also on II. 0. 126. 

332. KaraKoipavtovai. See on II. B. 207- 

333. 'Evvui. Bellona. See Pent. Gr. 
p. 412. on JLsch. Theb. 45. 

334. oTrdZdJV. Eustath. KUTOTTIV SIM- 
K<i)v. The Scholiast notices the following 
varieties in the signification of this verb, 
viz. to give, as in 11. 0. 141. to drive along, 
A. 493. to select, T. 238. These, how- 
ever, may all be reduced to one general ac- 

ceptation, #o sen? along: which will meet 
the sense wherever it occurs. 

335. IvB' STropt^a/uvog. Scil. O.VTIJG 
avv ty%ft. HEYNE. See on II. A. 307- 
Clarke and others understand the inter- 
ference of Venus, and the wound she re- 
ceives from Diomed, at the instigation of 
Minerva, (supra v. 131.) in an allegorical 
sense. To this Heyne justly objects that 
Venus, in delivering her son, must neces- 
sarily be considered as a real agent. See 
on II. A. 194. 

337- dfiXrjxpriv. Weak, tender. Schol. 
dffQevij, aira\i]v. So we have in v. 425. 
%tpa dpair]v. Some consider the a re- 
dundant, while others render /SXjj^pof du~ 
rus, and make it privative. The former is 
correct. Compare the note on II. F. 293. 
and see Valckenaer on Theocrit. Adoniaz. 
p. 218. Eustathius explains the adverb 
tWap by evOvg. 

340. t%wp. This word is understood by 
Eustathius to signify, generally, rbv Kara 
tyvffiv /ird rpotyrjv ^vXov, the nutritious 
juices produced in the body by food ; but 
qualified, in the present instance, to imply, 
by analogy, the dju/3porov aifia, or blood 
of the gods. Hence it seems, however, to 
have been more usually employed in this 
confined sense ; as in the reply of the wounded 
Alexander to his flatterers (Plutarch, de 



Ov -yap GITOV tSovd, ov Trivovd aWoTra otvov, 
TovvtK avaijuovtc flvi, KCU aOavarot KaXtovrat. 

t\TT <Jl\ / t f >\ '/3/3"\ ' ' . 

H OE jtitya la^overa a?ro to KappaAev viov 
Kai TOV filv jutra ^fptriv eputraro $otj3oc 'A?roXXwv 
KvavEr? vt^eXp, JUTJ nc Aavawv ra^v:rwXwv, 
XaXicov Ivi <rrTj0(T(Ti jSaXwv, EK Ov/jLov tXoiro. 
TTJ ' STTI juaicpov av'(T (3or)v ayaOb 
EiKf, Aioe Ou-yarfp, TroXtjUOu KCU 


Ei Si (TV y' ^ TroXfjUOv 

'Pfyritrftv TroXfjuov ye, Kai ei \ kripwfti TrvOrjat. 

lN Qc 0a0'* ^ 2' aXuoixr' a7Tj3ijoraro' Ttipero S' 

Trjv JUEV ap' ' 



?r' aptorfpa ^ovpov "Aprja 



lV H S 
IloXXa XttTcTOjulvrj, 




a^OofJiat cXicoc, o JUE jSporoc ouratTEv avrjp 
Srjc, oc vuv "/ cat av Aa warpl jua 
^aro* rp S' ap' 

/or<. Alex.} : To^v/ia<ri E TrX^ycig fig ro 
<TK\og, we TroXXot ffvvkSpctfJiov T&V TToX- 
dJV avrbv 9tbv irpoGayopevtiv, 
fi TrpotrwTTy, Tovri JU.EV aljua, 
^77, we opart, Kai OVK 'Ix&p, oloQ Trep TS 
pi paKdptffai 0oT(Ti. Milton has imitated 
this passage in his Par. L. VI. 327. Then 
Satan first Knew pain, and writhed him to 
and fro ; so sore The griding sword with 
discontinuous wound Passed through him ; 
but th' eethereal substance closed, Not long 
divisible, and from the gash A stream of nee- 
tarous humour issuing flowed, Sanguine, 
such as celestial spirits may bleed ; Yet soon 
he healed, Sec. 

341. ov yap OITOV tdova', K. T. X. Com- 
pare II. Z. 142. 

352. aXvovffa. Distracted with pain, 
Schol. aSrifjiovovffa, Kai olov \vaiv fjLiij 
tvpiffKovffa TWV KaK&v. The verb dXww, 
however, signifies generally insanio, what- 
ever be the cause. Compare Od. 2. 332. 
It is observable, also, that the penultima is 
invariably long in the Tragic writers, and 
in Homer always short, except in the single 
instance, probably corrupt, of Od. I. 398. 
where the derivation is thus given by Eus- 
tathius : aXvtiv TO tv a\y Kai Traotait 

r?)v ^vx^jv X 61V< ^ ee Blomfield's Gloss. 
on ^Esch. Theb. 387. Perizon. ad ^Elian. 
V. H. IX. 25. 

356. ty%oe KK\iro. Scil. 7rt r^ yj/. 
In the latter member "laravro must be sup- 
plied. See on II. A. 532. 

357. yvi spiirovtra. That is, from ex- 
haustion : and so again in v. 370. Compare 
v. 309. Eustathius understands this as an 
act of earnest entreaty, which the nature of 
the request does not seem to demand ; 
neither does it appear that supplicants, 
among the early Greeks, were used to fall 
on their knees, but to throw themselves at 
the feet of the person solicited. See on II. 
A. 407- 

358. xP Vff ^t JL7rvKa ^ 'ITTTTOVC;. Eustath. 
d^irv^ tKaXtiro ffeipa KaTaxpvoog TO.Q 
irtpi re /werwTrov T&V 'iinrwv rpixag 0vv- 
deovaa. These frontlets were also called 
dfnrvKTripfQ. See Lex. Pent. Gr. in voce ; 
and on II. X. 469. 

359. The vulgar reading, $o $ JJLOI VTT- 
TTOVQ, is strongly supported, and confirmed 
by examples, by Schaefer on Dionysius, p. 
192. See also Hermann on Viger, p. 646. ed. 
Oxon. The reading in the text seems to be 




*H 8' C $i<f>pov tfiaivEv, OtftfXtyilini <j>i\ov 
Hap 81 01 T IjOtc tfiaivt, Kat ijvia Xa'&ro 
Ma<m? 8' tXaav, rw 8' OUK: afjcovre 
ticovro 0wv '8o 



Avaad E o%wv, Trapa 
lN H 8' EV yovvacri TTITTTE Atwvrj^ 8t' 'A0po8trrj, 
life* $ 8' ayicae Xa$ro Owyaripa ^v, 

T jUtV KaT/0^V, 6TTOC T' 0ar', K T 

Tic vu <T roiaS' 

Ma^/t8twc> we EC Tt 
T?)v 8' ti 

Oura JUE 

Ovveic' -yw ^)tXov viov 

Atvftav, o Ijuoi TTavrwi' woXi* 

Ou yap Tt T^owwv cat 'A^atwv 

iSrj Aavaot -y (cat aOavdroiari fia^ovrai. 
o T9jUft]3r' 7Ttra Atwvrj, 8t 
i, TZKVOV fjuov, Kat avaGr^O, 

IIoXXoi yap 817 rXij/if v 'OXujUTTta 8w/xar' 

'E? av8/owv, ^aXfV aXyf' ?r' aXX^Xotfft 

TXrj jUv "A/or/c, or [Jitv^QiTOG, Kparfpoc ?" 
, 8i}<rav icparfp^ Ivl 







Kai vu ICEV V0' axroXotro v Apj]c> aroc 

366. Heyne thus completes the con- 
struction : IfidaTiZe dt TOVQ 'iirirovQ, tU(rre 
avTOvg \$v TO apfia. 

371. ayicaf. / Aer arms. An adverb ; 
the same as ayKaBiv in ^Esch. Eum. 80. 
aytcaQev Xa/3wv /Spsraf. But in v. 375. 
of the same play, dyicaQw is for dveicaOtv, 

374. kvdJTry. Publicly. Schol. Villois. 
kv o-fyti ddiKovaav. 

383. TroXXoi ydp Stf T\fjfiev K. T. X. 
The sense of the passage seems to be this : 
that many of the gods have used the 
agency of men in inflicting evils upon each 
other. Schol. VTTO dvQpwTruv d\\f)\ovQ 
KCIK&G 7rpda0ovTt. Compare infra v. 873. 
The fables which follow were most probably 
in existence before the time of Homer, and 
embellished by him from the traditional 
mythology of the country. The passage is 
imitated in a fragment of Panyasis, pre- 
served by Clemens Alexand. p. 22. D. TXj 
pkv Aq/ijjrjjp, rXfjj Sf. K\VTog ' AfJKJHyvfjeiQ, 
TXrjj Se noatidddjv, r\fj S' dpyvporoZoe 
'Avdpi Trapd 

Compare also Ovid. Fast. I. 
489. Eustathius and others, after Hera- 
elides Ponticus, understand the whole as 

385. rX?) fitv "Apqc 8 K. r. X. This 
fable will be found at length in Apollod. 
Bibl. I. 7. 4. Pope observes, that Virgil 
speaks much in the same figure, when he 
describes the peace in the time of Augustus: 
JEn. I. 298. Furor impius intus Saiva sedens 
super arma, et centum vinctus ahenis Post 
tergum nodis, /remit horridus ore cruento. 

387- Kspa/wy. Properly, an earthen ves- 
sel ; as in II. I. 465. In the Cyprian Ian- 
guage, says Eustathius, it signifies a subter- 
raneous cavern : and Heyne considers the 
use of the word in this sense, a proof of 
the antiquity of the fable. The epithet 
xd\Kto implies nothing more than muni- 
tus : as turris ahenea in Horat. Od. III. 
16. 1. 

388. Kai vv KIV tvB' aVoXoiro. Some 
of Homer's censurers have inferred from 
this passage, that the poet represents his 
gods subject to death ; when nothing but 



Ei jLti) jurjr/QUtr), TTtjOAicaXXrjc 'Hf/ftj3ofa 

av* o ' t 


TXij eT "H/)j, ore jui 

Af^trtjoov Kara /xa6v, otorw 

BfjSXTjKft" TOTE Kai juiv avr/Kfarov Xaj3cv aXyoc* 

TXij 8' 'Ai&7 v roi<Ti TreXaJptoc WKUV OIOTOV, 

Evrc juiv wvroc av?7p, vioc Aioc aiyio^oio, 

'Ev IlvXtjJ Iv VKV(T<Tl, jSttXwV, 6UVy<7lV f' 

Avrap o ]3) Trpoc Saijua Aioc Kai juaKpov 




' 7Tt Elatrjwv, o^uvrj^ara (^a 

'* ov ^V -aO rt Kara0vi7TOc ye TTVKTO. 

ov/c 60er' aiav\a ptZiov, 

UC> O l t "OXv/iTTOV 

i o ?ri rourov aviJK 0fa 

ro otSf Kara ^> 

Orrt juaX' ou Srjvatoc, oc aOavaroKn jiia 
i/Sl rt jittv Trai&r irporl yovvavi Trcnrira 


great misery is here described. It is a 
common way of speech to use perdition and 
destruction for misfortune. The language 
of Scripture calls eternal punishment perish- 
ing everlastingly. There is a remarkable 
passage to this purpose in Tacit. Annal. VI. 
which very livelily represents the miserable 
state of a distracted tyrant: Quid scribam 
vobis, P. C. aut quomodo scribam, aut quid 
omnino non scribam hoc tempore? Dii me de- 
eeque pejus perdant, quam perire quotidie 
sentio, si scio. POPE. Thus St. Paul in 
1 Cor. xv. 31. KaB' -im'kpav d-jroQvtiffKu). 
Liban. Epist. 1320. p. 615. In ZwvrtQ 
TeQvf)Kafjiev. See also infra v. 402. 

392. rXr) V "Eprj, K. T. \. This hap- 
pened in the battle between Hercules and 
Neleus, before Pylos. See Apollod. II. 
7. 3. Hercules, who is here called by the 
name of his earthly father, is presently 
after (in v. 396.) pronounced the son of 

393. Tpiy\ti)X lvl - Eustath. rpag aKiSac, 
IXVTI. Thus Senec. Here. F. 560. Bello 
cum peteres Nestoream Pylon, Telum terge- 
mina cuspide prceferens. 

395. kv roitri. That is, among the gods 
who joined against Hercules at Pylos. See 
Apollod. ubi supra. 

396. (Wof. Idem. Clarke and the early 
Edd. have avrbq, which is certainly used 
in Homer, as the Attics use 6 avroQ, in II. 
M. 236. Od. II. 138. But that he also uses 

6 avroQ, which is written Jonice, especially 
in Herodotus, wvrof , in the same sense, 
is evident from 11. Z. 391. Od. H. 55. and 
elsewhere ; and that the article is not always 
a pronoun in Homer, see on 11. A. 9- The 
reading of the text is sanctioned by all the 
MSS. See also Buttman. Gr. Gr. . 29. 12. 
Schaef. ad Greg. Cor. 419. 

397. The construction is : tv TlvXy (3a- 
Xwv p,iv, HSioicev avrbv odvvyfftv kv vtKV- 
iaai, scil. in mortuorum strage jacentem. 

401. odvvirfctTa. Schol. TCLQ 6vvaQ 
KarairavovTa Kai (})9eipovTa. From ^>aw, 
to destroy. See also on II. A. 473. A. 218. 
and of Hairjwv, see Lex. Pent. Gr. in v. 

403. axtrXwc,, 6/3pi/iOpyo, K. r. X. See 
on II. B. 112. Clarke refers these words 
to wuro drj}p, in v. 396. including the 
five preceding lines in a parenthesis. But 
Ernesti justly considers them as an apos- 
trophe ; similar to Virg. Mn. VI. 590. De- 
mens ! qui nimbos et non imitabile fulmen, 
8fc. The participle p^wv, for the infinitive 
pt&tv. Compare II. O. 166. and see Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 551. 

405. 7ri TOVTOV avfiice. A Tmesis, for 

407. orn /udX* ou dr^vaibg, K. T. X. Com- 
pare 11. Z. 139. 

408. ovde ri piv K. r.X. This is Homer's 
manner of foretelling that he shall perish 
unfortunately in battle, which he intimates 



'EX0ovr' EK: 

KOI atvrj 

f t icai fiaa 

ol azt'vwv ao 


M?) Srjv AtytaXfta, irtptypwv ' 

'E UTTVOU yoowo-a (f>t\ovg otKfjae iytipy, 

Koupt'Stov iroOiovaa TTOCTIV, rov CLOKJTOV ' 


7 H /oa, icat aptyortpriaiv air i^w X et P ojj.ooyvv' 
"AX0ETO X f *P> oSvyai SE Karj7riowim> |3a/otat. 
At ' air' Eitropoworai 'A^rjvatrj re KCLI "Hpi), 
KE/OTOjUt'ote ETTEEcrcri Ala Kpovti]v p0tov* 
Total SE fj,v6(t)v rip\ 0tt -yXauicwTrtc 'A0r)vij* 

ZEU TTttTfp, ^ pa rt /xot K)(oXw(rat, o rrt Kv t?rw ; 
'H juaXa oft riva KuTrptg 'A^attaSwv avitiaa 
Tpwalv afjia airiaQai, rovq vvv fWayXa ^)tX*j(T, 
Twy rtva Kappi^ovaa ' A\atiaJ8<i>v ^7T7rXa>v, 
oc \pvatri Trtpovy Kara^v^aro \tlpa apatriv. 




by describing the loss of the most sensible 
and affecting pleasure that a warrior can 
receive at his return. Of the like nature 
is the prophecy at the end of this speech of 
the hero's death, by representing it in a 
dream of his wife's. There are many fine 
strokes of this kind in the prophetical parts 
of the Old Testament. Nothing is more 
natural than Dione's forming these images 
of revenge upon Diomed, the hope of which 
vengeance was so proper a topic of conso- 
lation to Venus. POPE. Virgil, however, 
has departed from this prophecy, in the 
answer of Diomed to the ambassadors of 
king Latinus, wherein he enumerates his 
misfortunes from the fall of Troy to the 
time of his settlement in Italy, and im- 
putes their cause to this attempt upon 
Venus: Mn. XL 274. Heec adeo ex illo 
mihi jam speranda fuerunt Tempore, cum 
ferro ccelestia corpora demens Appetii, et 
Generis violavi vulnere dextram. TraTnrd- 
Z,ovaiv. Patrem blande compellant. Eu- 
stath. wvofictTOTrtiroiriTai Sk 

Trarepa. Thus, irdTnra Ko\iiv, in Arist. 
Eccles. 645. Pac. 120. Juvenal also em- 
ploys the word pappus in Sat. VI. 633. 
though in an acceptation somewhat en- 
larged. We have an infantine appellation 
precisely similar among ourselves. 

412. fj.rj drjv AiyidXeia, K. T. X. The 
poet seems here to compliment the fair 
sex, at the expence of truth, by concealing 
the character of jEgiale, whom he has de- 

scribed with the disposition of a faithful 
wife ; though the history of those times 
represents her as an abandoned prostitute, 
who gave up her own person, and her 
husband's crown, to her lover. So that 
Diomed, at his return from Troy, when 
he expected to be received with all the 
tenderness of a loving spouse, found his 
bed and throne possessed by an adulterer, 
was forced to fly his country, and seek 
refuge and subsistence in foreign lands. 
POPE. See Apollod. Bibl. I. 9. 

414. KovpiStov. See on II. A. 114. 

416. t'xw. This is the reading of Eu 
stafhius, who describes it as the accusative, 
with the omission of the final syllable, for 
i'x;aipa, by the same analogy as we find 
iSpti for tfywra, II. A. 620. So also IIo- 
<mui for Hootid&va, Kvicew for KVKt&va, 
and the like. The old editions read tx3p', 
which Clarke proposes to retain with the 
rejection of the apocope ; upon the suppo- 
sition that the word was used indifferently 
in the masculine and neuter gender. For 
Xpo Zenodotus read ^fpffi'v. But ap- 
<j>OTpai is frequently used elliptically, as 
in Od. K. 264. 2. 28. So Theoc. Idyl. 
VII. 157. SpdypaTa icat pctKuvae iv dp- 
QoTspycriv x l(ra - See Bos - Elli P s - Gr - P- 
327. and Schaefer. in loc. 

423. Tpwtrtj/ apa a-jrkaBai. This seems 
to allude to Paris and Helen, in II. T. 

424. T&V. For rourwr, scil. ' 
repeated from v. 422. 

172 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, E'. 

Kcu pa KaXfOTrajUfvoc Trpoo^rj yjp\)<jiir\v 

Ou rot, TEKVOV juov, SlSorat TroXfjUTjta 
'AXXa <7i; y jitpovra jufrlp^fo fpya 
Taura S' "April 0ocj> icai 'A0rjv^ iravra jueX^tret. 430 

tV Qc o* juv TOiaiira Trpoc aXXrjXoi/c a 

vu)(TK(i)v 9 6 01 avroc vTTE/pc^e ^ftpac 'ATroXXwv* 
'AXX' o-y' ap' ouSc 0fov fjiijav aero, tero 8' attt 
Aivctav KTcTvat, KOI OTTO KXvra rcu^fa Sutrcu. 435 

'AXX' orf Sr) TO Ttraprov 7T<7<rwo, Satjuovi ft 

ofiOK\ri<jaQ irpoatyri iKatpyog 'ATroXXwv* 

rj cai "? o tl^I Oeotvtv 440 

' rf 0wv, afial IOjUf'vwv r' av0pa>7ra)v 


' aTrarcp^fv ojutXov 0fJKv 'ATroXXwv 445 

v f/oy, 601 ot vrjo? ^ TTUKTO* 
Hroi rov AIJTOJ r icai y Aprefjug \o\iaipa 
Ev fieyoXtj) aourtj) aKEOvro TE, KuSatvov T. 
Aura/o 6 ccSaiXov rv^' apyvporoZoz 'ATroXXcov, 

T Aivfta iiccXov, icat ru^o-t rotov* 450 

S* ap' EtSwXtj) Tpwfe KUI Stoi ' 

, Xaurijta r 7rr 
Aij rorc Oovpov "Apr^a Trpoo-TjuSa <E>o7j3oc ' 

429. dXXd (TV y' l/iepotvra K, r. X. Vir- as Clarke observes, was unknown to Homer : 

gil has a similar sentiment in ^En. VII. 443. and there is no reason why the received 

Cura tibi, Divfim effigies et templa tueri ; word may not bear its ordinary sense of 

Bella viri pacemque gerant, queis bella ge- honorare, honorifice excipere. 

renda. 449. avrap o tldwXov K. r. X. Virgil 

433. yiyvwoTKwv, o ol K. r. X. For KaB' has imitated this artifice in ./En. X. 636. 

o, i. e. on. See on II. A. 120. and com- Turn Dea nube cava tenuem sine viribus um- 

pare v. 537- bram In faciem Mnece visu mirabile man- 

437. darriS'. Soil. Diomedis. That the strum Dardaniis ornat telis : clypeumque 

shield of Apollo cannot be meant, is clear jubasque Divini assimulat capitis, dot inania 

from the meaning of the word GTvQtXiZeiv, verba, Dot sine mente sonum, gressusque 

which here is to strike against, as in II. II. effingit euntis. Morte obita quales, &c. 

774. Hence it also signifies to repel, as in 453. \aiar]ia. These were a small sort 

II. H. 261. M. 405. of shield, of an oblong shape, exceedingly 

446. Hfjoyd/iy dv Upy. See on II. A. light ; whence, says Eustathius, the epithet 

508. Trrepotvra. The same commentator informs 

448. Kvdaivov. Heyne explains this us, on II. M. 426. that they were made 

word by MfpaTTtvov, in which sense it is of raw hides, aKarfpyaWwv /3up<rwv. 

frequently used by Lycophron. Madame Herod. VII. 91. \aifffjia (t>/*o/3oi7 irtTroir)- 

Dacier would read Krjdaivov ; but this verb, pi/a. 




OVK av Si) rovcT av$pa jua^rjc ipvaato 
Tvcta'Srjv, vvv jf KOL av Au irarpl 

Avrap 7Tir' avr< juot liriaavro, 
tN EtTrwv, aiVoc JUEV E^E^Ero 

(rri^ac ovXoc "A/o]e wrpvvt 
'AKafiavTi Oooj riyriropi 
Ytatri Sf nptajuoto Atorp^>(r(Tt 



ri ITI 



c i T^To'i ja 

Karai avrjp, ov r t<rov IrtojUEv "E^ropt 
AtvE/ac, vtoc jLtfyaXrjrojooc 'Ayxtaao. 
'AXX' ayr', K <j>\oiafloio aawtjo^v t(rO\bv traipov. 

tN Qc irwv, wrpvve fiivog KOL BV/J.OV licacrrou. 
"Ev0' au SapTTTjSwv juaXa viK(Tv M Eicropa ^tov* 

f 'Ecro/o, TTT} Sr) rot /Zvo^ ot^frat, o TT/OI v fi^ttr/cfc ; 

)c ""ow arjO Xawv TroXiv I^EJUEV 17^' ITHKOV/OWV, 

i <vv aUSooTo-f KaGLvrTOiai TE aoiaC 


Twv vuv ov 
'AXXa K 


Ol7TjO r' tTTLKOVpOl VtjUV. 

Kat yojO lywv, 7rtKOV|Ooc wv, jitaXa ri]Xo0v ^JKW* 
TrjXov -yap Aviarj, /Sjav^qj ITTI Stvrjevrt, 
v Ev0' aXo^ov re 0iXrjv fXfTrov KCU VTJTTIOV vlov, 
KaS $ Krrjjuara TroXXa, ra r' Xrat 6c ic' 7TfSvrc- 
'AXXa KCU we Av/ciovc or/ovvw, icai JUE/XOV' avroc 

ti'. That is, Kara aa. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 504. 1. 


458. xtip'. That is, Kara %apa. 

465. e ri. //ow /ora^- ? Eustath. %po- 
Ktirai dvrl TOV, /A6%pt T'IVOQ ' ourw 
e Kal TO fiaoKtv (v. 466.) dvTi TOV, fa)Q 
ov. See on II. B. 332. and Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 578. 

467- ov r Iffov. The particle re is fre- 
quently, in Homer, joined with the relatives 
of, oloe, O(TOC, &c. without any copulative 
reference to what precedes. See again v. 
477. Hoogeveen considers this usage ellip- 
tie^, and that something, to which the par- 
tide refers, is omitted. But Hermann, on 
Viger, p. 645. ed. Oxon. observes that o 
did not originally signify qui, but hie; and 
therefore o'orc, et hie, was properly used for 

472. 7r?7 Sri TOI n'tvoQ K, T. X. Where has 
your wonted courage gone ? The present, 
oi^trat, is put for the aorist ; which is fre- 
quently the case in animated addresses. See 

Matt. Gr. Gr. . 504. 1. This speech of 
Sarpedon is deservedly admired, both for its 
energetic language and spirited reproof. 

473. i&ntv. Schol. c'lttv, avvk&iv, avv- 
K<TW<TV, 0uXa'v. 

474. The term ya/i/3p6f properly signi- 
fies a son-in-law, a daughter's husband ; as 
in II. Z. 177- L 142. N. 428. and else- 
where. See Lexicon, Pent. Gr. in voce. In 
this passage, however, and in II. N. 464. it 
clearly denotes a sister's husband, a brother- 
in-law. Of these Hector had twelve. See 
II. Z. 248. Apollod. Bibl. III. 12. 5. 

481. icdS Sk icr7//mra. That is, 
TTOV. The following clause, rd r 

K. r. X. implies simply pauperibus expe- 
tend<E, as a necessary consequence of riches 
in general. 

482. /il/iova. Perfect mid. from fjiivti), 
sustineo. See Lex. Pent. Gr. in voce. So 
again v 486. 



'Avfyu juax?]<raar0at' arap OVTI juoi tvOaSt roloi/, 
Olov K' ?) ^>ljootfv 'Amatol, TJ KEV ayotcv* 
Tvvrj S' Eorrjicae, arap ouc^ aAAoun iceAeuae 

/UVjiii/, Kai ajuuvljiifvai tbpwm. 

, we a^ttrt At vou aXovrt Travaypov, 
(T(Ttv I'Xwp Kal Kvp/j,a 

Oi <$ ra}(' K7TE/0<rOU<r' U VaiOjUEVIJV TToXtV 

Soi x/orj raSe Travra jUfXfiv vuKra re icai 
'Ap^ove At<7<rojUV<t) rrjXtKXrjrwv liriKOvptov 
, Kpareprjv S' cnroOeaOai 





IlaXXwv 8' o^la Soupa, Kara orparov 

483. arap ourt ftot K. r. X. .ZV/Ta'Z Azc es< 
mearum opum, quod tuendum mihi sit, ne ab 
hoste diripiatur. HEYNE. Eustathius dis- 
tinguishes between ayeiv and <f>epeiv thus : 
Xsycrat wg STTI TroXu dytoOai p,iv TO. /*- 
i//w^a Kat padiffTiKci- tykptaQai dk TO. j3aff- 
Ta%6p,tva. It should seem, however, that 
the verbs are for the most part used together 
as a general pleonastic expression, whether 
persons or things, or both be intended. 
Sometimes also, ^Iptiv is used alone in the 
same sense : as in Thucyd. I. 7 fyepov KOI 
d\\ji\ovg. The Latins, in like manner, 
use agere et ferre : as in Liv. xxii. 3. 
xxxviii. 15. The idiom is very frequent in 
Sallust; and so also Virg. jEn. II. 347- ra- 
piunt incensa fer unique Pergama. See Viger 
de Idiom, pp. 175. 251. ed. Oxon. 

486. wp(T<Ti. The dative pi. contr. Ion. 
of Sap, a wife. II. I. 327- oapwv eveica 
o^frcjoawv. In Od. P. 222. we have aopag 
in the ace. pi. and this is generally consi- 
dered the proper form, (as derived from 
attpw, conjungo,) with the vowels trans- 
posed, to distinguish it from aop, a sword ; 
11. K. 484. and elsewhere. Anacreon has 
lengthened the short vowel in Od. LII. 19. 
tpw dwpa Qk\yd)v. Schol. wpsffac TCUQ 
yvvaiZi, Trapd ro avvt&v'xQa.i TOIQ avSpd- 
aiv. The root of aop, a sword, is cmpw, 
tollo. - 

487- a^lffi XtVou. In the meshes of a net. 
Eustath. at^lSeQ SIKTVOV, al Kafjnral ical 
ayKaXai. From UTTTO), necto. This line, 
as it stands in all the editions, is evidently 
corrupt. In order to remedy the deficiency 
in the metre, the first syllable in dXovre 
being invariably short, Clarke proposes to 
read Xivoio, or to insert the particle TTOV or 
Trtp before aXovTf. Still the use of the 
dual, in reference to the plural verb, cannot 
be satisfactorily defended, for it can hardly 
be taken for tu etpopulus tuus, as in v. 485. 

l Xaol aXXot ; since the words Xaoi 
aXXoi are in themselves plural. See on 11. 
A. 567' So that the soloecism and the 
metre together seem to indicate a more la- 
tent corruption than the simple addition of 
aparticle will remove. Itwould be hazardous, 
perhaps, to admit the emendation of Bent- 
ley, who proposes \ivov Tramypoio a\6v- 
TIQ into the text ; inasmuch as all conjec- 
tures are necessarily uncertain. It is sanc- 
tioned however by Heyne, in his Obss. in 
loc. though he accounts for the dual, as 
above, in his notes. Before jWTjTrwg, there is 
the usual ellipsis of opart. 

488. Kyp/ia. A gain, an acquisition ; 
from Kvpu), to fall in with, to acquire. It is 
frequently used in conjunction with fc'Xwp, 
as again infra v. 684. P. 151. Hence in 11. 

I. 83. Xsav 7rt croi/iart Kvp<ra. See on 

II. A. 4. In the following line Barnes has 
sfC7Tp(rw<7' for a Far. Lect. which we are 
almost inclined to prefer. 

490. jusXttv. See on II. B. 614. 

491. rr]\K\r]T&v. Far-summoned. Many 
MSS. read r^XticXtirwv, far-famed; but the 
reading of the text is decidedly preferable. 
Compare Tro\VK\r)TOQ in II. A. 438. K. 420. 

492. t%/iv. Eustath. TroXe/mv Kal 
dvTBxttv. Rather, there is an ellipsis of 
TroXtv, and the verb signifies to defend, as 
in v. 473. supra. It is uncertain whether 
the following words Kpareprjv d' diroQtffOai 
ivnrriv, to abstain from severe reproof, 
should be referred to Hector himself or to 
the allies. In either case they are not very 
intelligible : and it has been suspected, with 
some probability, that the two concluding 
lines of the speech are spurious. 

493. daKe. Grieved. The verb ddweiv 
occurs in this metaphorical sense in Hesiod. 
Theog. 567. Op. D. 449. ^Esch. Pers. 577. 
851. Herod. VII. 517. Xen. Cyr. I. 4. 13. 
et alibi. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, E'. 175 

fJia^aaaOai, fcyHpE Sa (J>V\OTTIV alvriv. 
O l t 8' eXtXiOrjfjav, KOL tvavrioi 0rav ' 

XtKjUwvrwv, ore re av0rj Arj/irjrrjp 500 

Kptvp, 7rryojUvu>v avfjuwv, xapirov rt cat a 
At 8' vTroXfuicaivovrat a^vpjumi* w TOT* ' 


7T7rXT}'yOl/ TTO^fC tTTTTWV, 


Ilavroo- 1 7rotxojuvoc? TOU 

Tpaxriv Ovpbv lyeipai, ITTCI tSe DaXXaS' 'A^f)VJ?w 510 

* r? yap pa TTfXf AavaoToriv apijywv. 
8' Aivmv juaXa TTCOVOC $ aSuroto 
T H/c, Kai Iv <rrf)8eff<n pivog jSaXe 7rotjUvt Xawv. 

Aivdas 8' rapot(Tt jUf^iVraro* roi 8' ^api](Tav, 
'ic cl^ov ?a>ov r KOI aprfjula vrpocriovra, 515 

Kai julvoc ff0X6v I^oyro" jUfraXXrjdav y f juev ou rt* 
Ou yap la TTOVOC aXXoc, ov 'Ajoyuporo^oc 
* Aprjc r j3poroXoryoj "Eptc r ' UJJIOTOV 
A'/avr Sva> KOI 'OcW<rve icat 

v Aavaoi>c 7roX/ut^jUv* ot Si icai auroi 520 

OvT /3mc Tjowwv vtrfSdStcraVj ovre IwKag' 
'AXX' jUVOVj v0Xyartv OiKorj a^ r Kpovtwv 

497. sXAi'x^traj/. Scil. 6<c (pvyrj^. They and would understand //fe Trojans. But 

rallied. Compare II. A. 587- P. 728. it connects far more simply with tTTTrwv, 

499. it pdg Kar' aXwac;. See above on v. 90. i. e. the horses of the Trojans, who were now 
Homer calls the threshing-floor sacred, says rallying ; and moreover the relative avruv 
Eustathius, not only as it was consecrated cannot easily refer to any other antecedent 
to Ceres, but in regard of its great use and than 'A^'oi in the line preceding. 
advantage to human kind. This simile is 505. inrb 5' larpt^ov. Scil. 'iirirovQ. 
of an exquisite beauty. POPE. The noun The particle Si is for yap, as in II. A. 
UXVTI, chaff, denotes, generally, any light 200. 

substance, id quod non cohceret ; from a priv. 506. JJLSVOQ xpwv iOi)Q ty'f.pov. Manus 

and txw- Hence it also frequently signi- cum hoste conferebant. See Hoogeveen on 

fies the spray or foam of the sea ; as in II. Viger, p. 121. 

A. 426. and elsewhere. 509. xpixraopov. Schol. xpvaofyaaya - 

500. %av9rj A?;/ir/r7/p. So Virg. Georg. vov, xpucrovv t0og I^OVTOQ. See above 

I. 96. Flava Ceres. on v. 486. 

502. axvpfiiai. Schol. axvpoOqicai' 01 516. The particles ye /uv, in this verse, 

roTrot, tic ovg x^9 l ^V itva T0 ^ airov T& seem to have the force of ye /i/)j>, i. e. certe 

axvpa sKTriTTTti. tamen, at vero. See Hermann on Viger, p. 

504. oypavov Tro\vxa\Kov. See on 641. That [itv is sometimes used, lonice, 

II. A. 426. eireir\r]yov. For TrX^aoovTtQ for firjv, see also on II. A. 77- 

^yetpov. Heyne construes the words di// 522. vetyeXyaiv IOIKOTIQ, K. r. X. In a 

v with avr&v, in v. 503. mountainous country it frequently happens, 




trjc sorijtrtv sir' ajcpOTroXoKnv optoaiv 
'Arpjuoe, o^p' U(fy(Tt JUEVOC Bojocao, KCU a'XXwv 
avljuwv, oiVe V^>a 
cyvppcri &a<mSva<rtv a 
Aavaot Tpwae /UEVOV fjUTTfSov, oucte 0/3ovro. 

a i/' OjUiXov i^oira, TroXXa 
*H ^iXoi, avpc <JT, /cat a 
'AXX?}Xouc T"' aiSfttrOf Kara icparepac 



S' our* ap icXfOC opvurat, our TIQ aXio). 

TTT \ / 7l N/J^.O^A ^V ' ''5* 

H, Kat aicovrt<7 ooupi uowg paA o Trpo^uov avopa, 
tvftw frapov juya0ujuou, ArjtKOwi;ra 

OV TpWEC OjUGJC IlptajUOtO rK(T(7t 535 

Tov /oa car' acrTTiSa Soupi jSaXf icpfiwv ' 

that in very calm weather the atmosphere 
is charged with thick vapours, whose gra- 
vity is such that they neither rise nor fall, 
but remain poised in the air at a certain 
height, where they continue frequently for 
several days together. In a plain country 
this occasions no other visible appearance 
but of an uniform clouded sky ; but in a 
hilly region these vapours are to be seen 
covering the tops, and stretched along the 
sides of the mountains, the clouded parts 
above being terminated and distinguished 
from the clear parts below, by a straight 
line running parallel to the horizon, as far 
as the mountains extend. But as soon as 
the winds arise, which disperse and break 
the clouds, this regular order is soon dis- 
solved. POPE. This comparison is some- 
what similar to that in II. A. 275. The- 
ophrastus (Sign. Temp.) mentions this ap- 
pearance as indicative of an approaching 
storm : kav ETTI Kopvtyfjg opoi> veQoQ 6p06v 
ory, %t/Ltwva arifialvei' oQtv KO.I 'Ap^t- 
\o%og TToirjae, FXavx opa- K. T. X. So 
also Plin. N. H. XVIII. 35. Cum in cacu- 
minibus montium nubes consident, hyemabit. 
Compare also Arati Diosem. 188. In the 
next line ovffrjg is understood with vijve~ 
ftiijG, which is the genitive absolute. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 378. 2. 

525. %a%pr]ii>v. Valde irruentium ; from 
the intensitive particle Z>a and XP W > irruo. 
This is the reading of Eustathius, which 
we have no hesitation in admitting into the 
text, as far better adapted to the sense than 
axptwv, from ^pcia, utilitas. It is true 
that this latter has the sanction both of the 
MSS. and Edd. but it is not to be found 
elsewhere in Homer, and does not appear a 
very appropriate epithet of avk^nav. The 

form axp?*k occurs again in II. M. 347. 
360. N. 684. See also Apoll. Rhod. I. 

528. TroXXa jctXtvwv. Magnopere cohor- 
tatus : for he says but little. Or it may be, 
perhaps, for Tro\\diciQ , frequently ; i. e. re- 
peating the same words. 

531. alBonkvwv S' avdpwv. Scil. dX- 
XfjfXov^, as in the preceding line : revering 
each other, i. e. being ashamed to shrink from 
duty in the sight of others. Heyne observes 
that this is the TO KepSaXeov rijc. dptrijc 
of Xenophon : Cyrop. VII. 1.18. Com- 
pare Anab. III. 1. 43. The sentiment is 
the same in Sail. B. C. 61. Semper in pralio 
Us maximum est periculum, qui maxime ti- 
ment. Audacia pro muro habetur. And so 
again, B. J. 92. Videre fugientes capi, aut 
occidi ; forlissimum quemque tutissimum. 
Hor. Od. III. 2. Mors et fugacem prose- 
quitur virum, Nee parcit imbellis juventa 
Poplitibusy timidoque tergo. Hence, also, 
the trite proverb, Audaces fortuna juvat. 
Claudian (Epist. ad Prob.) : Fors juvat au- 
dentes, Chii sententia vatis. The whole of 
this noble exhortation is imitated by Tyr- 
taeus, Eleg. II. 13. Here TrtyavTcti is 3. 
pres. plur. of 0aw, to kill. See on II. B. 
122. The Homeric form aidofJiat is seldom 
found in prose writers. 

534. Vulgo Aiveieu. But see Thiersch. 
Gr. Gr. . 178. 26. 

536. OOOQ. Properly, quick, speedy; as 
just above, v. 533. and hence, prompt, eager. 
Compare II. H. 422. 494. and elsewhere. 
The nominative in the following lines is 
changed four times successively : since 
refers to aairig, iiaaro to tyx<>, 
to Agamemnon, and doi>7rr)<rt to 



H OVK tyX tp VTO > <* TTpo etcraro KOI rfj 
Naat'pr? S' Iv yaorpi Sta wcrr7poc f'Xao-ae. 

7T<Ta>y, apc/prjo'f O rev^e TT' aurtjJ. 
aur' AtvEia? Aavawy cXsv a' 

, Kp/j&ova r, 
Twy pa Trarjjp /xtv EvatEy IvKTijuiEvy Ivi 

to /3toroto* ylvoc S' ^v *c Trora/uoTo 


'Opo-tXo^oc S' p' ^rticre AtOKXija fj.tyaOvfj.ov' 




^o 1 ', 'AyajUfjuyoyt cai 
rw 8' av0i rAoc Oavdroio 
TO) ye XlovrE Svw 6poc 

UTTO jurjrpi, paOeir^g rdptysaiv vXijc* 
ap* ap7raovT jSoac Kat t^ta juf?Xa 

av0pw7rwv (ctpa'/'^crov, otypa KOL ai/rtu 

Totw r 

Ka7T7rarri7y, i 
Ttu el TTforovr' 

Bf/ ^ S 

Sftwy ly^ffv* TOU 
Ta ^)povtuv, t'va ^ 

T6v 8' tSev 'AyrtXoxoc /Xfya0ujuou Nltrropoc 
TTpt yap 8t 7roifJ.ivi Xawy, 



j3orjv ayaOb 

wrpuve jUyoc 
iv VTT' Atvffao 

Tj o 

543. *;py. A city of Messenia, else- 
where called ^jjpat. See II. I. 151. Od. 
T. 488. O. 186. <I>. 15. 

544. d^veioe j3toroio. Adjectives and 
verbs denoting fulness, want, riches, &c. 
are usually constructed with a genitive: 
and in the same manner we have dives agri, 
and the like, in Latin. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the dative or accusative are used for 
the genitive. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 329. 

545. ITuXiwr Sia yairjg. This Pylos 
was a town of Elis, situated, as it appears, 
at the mouth of the Alpheus, between the 
Peneus and the Selleis. There were two 
other towns of the same name ; one of 
Messenia, and the other of Arcadia. Each 
of the three laid claim to the honour of 
giving birth to Nestor ; but that in Mes- 


senia seems to have the preference. Pindar 
calls him ygpwv Memnp'iO?, in Pyth. VI. 
35. See also on II. A. 336. Hence the 
old adage : "Bern OwXce Trpo IIvAoio, Hw- 
Xog y p.ev SGTI Kai d\\o. See Aristoph. 
Equit. 1059. 

552. rtjuryv dpvu/tevw. See on II. A. 

555. tTpa<j)kTrjv. For srpa^/jrT/v, Ac- 
live for passive. Both the perfect rsrpo^a, 
and the aor. 2. tTpcupov, have a passive 
signification in Homer, with the exception 
of II. . 90. where the latter is transitive. 
Compare Soph. CEd. C. 74. 1604. and see 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 496. 4. Buttmann. Gr. Gr. 
. 113. 117- 

557. Kepai&rov. See on II. B. 861. 

564. rd. For TO.VTCL. 



Mi/ TI TTafly, fj.ija (70a cnroo^r/Aae TTOVOIO. 
Tw jucv Sr) "xtipaQ re KOL yX a 0*> 
'Avrtov aXX/jXwv e^rrjv, jujuawr /ma 

O jUClX' OtyX 4 T ra P^ raro 7TOtJUVt XttWV* 

8' ou 
^C ?$ ouo (f>wT Trap* aXXrjXoiat fjii 

Ot 8' 7Tl OUV VKpOl>e pV<TaV jUETtt XttOV ' 

To) )Uv apa 

"EvOa IluXat/ilvfa IXfVrjv, araXavrov 
'AjO^ov ria^Xayovwy jUyaaujuwv O 
Tov ^EV ap' 'ArptSrj 
'Errraor' 7X t v ^ ? Kara 
'AvriXo^oc Si MvSwva |3aX' livto^ov, 0pa7rovra 
'E<r0X6v, 'ArujUviaSrjv, (6 8' v7TaTp0 jULM 
Xf/o/ia3t(j> ayicwva TU^WV JUECTOV* K 8' apa 
Hv/a Xu/c' fXf^avri ^afiai TTECTOV v 
'AvrtXc^oc 8' ap' 7rai^ac ?t^>t r/Xao-f ico 
Avrap oy* a<70juatvwv upyoc liortffs Sifypov 




Touc 8' 


jUra SE arparov ri\ad ' 
"Eicrwp vo](T Kara crrtxac, wpro 8' ?r' CLVTOVQ 
' ajua SE Tpwwv E'/TTOVTO ^aXay^fc 591 

56?. A*?? n TrdOy, K. T. X. For, as 
Agamemnon said in II. A. 170. sqq. upon 
Menelaus' being wounded, if he were slain, 
the war would be at an end, and the Greeks 
think only of returning to their country, 
POPE: from Spondanus. The expression 
iraQtlv rt, so frequently employed by the 
Greeks in relation to death, originated in 
that natural abhorrence which they enter- 
tained for thoughts of a gloomy tendency. 
Precisely similar is the Latin phrase aliquid 
accidere, which frequently occurs in Cicero: 
and the same mode of speech is still retained 
among ourselves. Their nervous delicacy 
caused them carefully to exclude from their 
conversation all words which they con- 
sidered ominous ; dva<f>r}fjLa CTD;, male omi- 
nata verba ; Horat. Od. III. 14. 11. See 
Markland on Eurip. Iph. A. 143. and on II. 
A. 241. 

568. ra> ^iv drj. ^Eneas and Menelaus. 

574. TO) ptv apa fctXw. Crethon and 

576. Ilt'Xatjulrta iXtrijv. Some have 

argued, against the ordinary sense of the 
words, that Pylsemenes was only wounded ; 
because he appears again on the scene of 
action in II. N. 650. sqq. See, however, 
the note there. It will be allowed, even on 
the supposition of a contradiction between the 
two places, that the mistake will go a very 
little way in proving that the Iliad is the 
work of several hands. 

586. Ky/j/3a%o. Prceceps in caput. As 
a substantive, it signifies the upper part of 
aw helmet (II. O. 535.), from KvpfBr], bating, 
cymba ; and thence, from some similarity 
in shape, a skull. Suidas : Kvpfly Kt<pa\rj. 
H. Steph. Thes. Gr. Ling. v. Kv/i/3og. 
Ab hoc Kiiftflr], significants caput, seu po- 
tius superiorem capitis concham cavam et 
rotundam, est KV^^TI^V, proprie significans 
TO ITTI rrfv K0aXr)v p'nrruv : quod supra 
KvfliVTqiv, a synonymo Kvfiij. Etym. M. 
Ab eodem KVfj,j3rj, tests eodem, dicitur KVfj,- 
/3a%o Tr'nrrtiv is qui ETTI Kf.<j>a\rjV TTiTrrti. 
Compare ^En. XII. 292. 

590. roug. Menelaus and Antilochus. 





'H fJLtv, t\ovaa Kv$oi/ a 

"ApT?c &' V TraXaj 

3>oiTa 8* a'XXore JUEV irpoaO^ f/ Ecropoc, a'XXor' O7Tta-0. 5Q5 

Tov St iSwv piyrjvt ]3o?jv ayaBbs 
'Qc S 1 or' avrjp aTraXa/zvoc, iwv TroXcoc 


fuiopfjivpovTa iSwv, ava T' paju' OTTI 
rore Tu^efSrjc avc^a^cro, a?T TE Xaw* 
^>iXot, olov S?7 Oav/j.a%O]uitv "Efcropa 

T' f'juevcu, icai Oap<ra\ov 
T(ti> o att irapa tig y 0Ewv, oc^ Xotyov 
Kat vuv ot Trapa Kttvoc "Ap?c, j3p<m a 
'AXXa TTjOoc Tpwa TeTpa/mfjLivoi altv OTTI 



Etv Ivt ^i^>p(j.) ovre ? Mev(70rjv, 'A'y^mXoi/ T. 
Tw $ 7Taovr' IXfr/df j-iiyaq TfXajUwvtoc Ata^, 
Srr} ^E juaX' lyyue iwv, icai aKOvrt(T Soupi 
Kai jSaXfv "Afj.<piov SfXayov wov, 6c /o' t 
Nat TroXvjcrrjjUwv, TroXvXrVtoc* aXXa I Motpa 
'Hy' tTTiKOVpvcrovTa jitfra Dptajuov T Kai vtac. 
Tov /oa Kara Sworfjpa jSd'Xe TeXa/mwviog Atac, 
Naatprj ' iv yaarpi irayr] ^o 

6 8' 

jowfc 8' ?ri Soupar' 
a, TrajU^ayowvra' (rajcoc 8' avfSl^aro TroXXa. 



592. /f)X 5' apa K. r. \. There is a 
great nobleness in this passage. With 
what pomp is Hector introduced into the 
battle, where Mars and Bellona are his at- 
tendants. The retreat of Diomed is no less 
beautiful. Minerva had removed the mist 
from his eyes, and he immediately dis- 
covers Mars assisting Hector. His sur- 
prise on this occasion is finely imaged by 
that of the traveller on the sudden sight of 
the river. POPE. In the next line, Kwtfot- 
(ibe, Tumult, is personified as in II. S. 535. 
Compare Hesiod. Scut. H. 156. 

593. i%ovaa. Habens secum, comitem 
ducens. Schol. w'c 0iX?/, xtipof Kark^ovoa. 
Eustathius improperly explains it by ?%ov- 
aa iv %epaiv, as in the succeeding line. 

597- dird\afjivo. Perplexed, disconcerted; 
not knowing how to proceed. Eustath. cnrd- 
\ap,vov \kyti TOV dneipov, Kai ^ t^ovra 

Tt\vaaaoQai n, tJf otov a^tipa, Kat 
l^ovra TraXaietv 7) TraXa/uao^at n. 

603. r<p 5' aici K. r. X. See on II. T. 

604. Ktlvog. The pronoun seems to be 
here used <$IIKTIKU>, as ode in II. I. 684. 

606. ntvtaivkfitv. For p,evaivtTt, with 
a change in the construction, the former 
verb, tiictTt, being in the imperative. See 
on II. A. 20. With the sentiment com- 
pare v. 130. supra ; Z. 129. 141. and else- 
where. So Find. Pyth. II. 162. %pr) e 
irpbg Otbv oijK ipi&iv. Eurip. Iph. T. 
1479. ri yap H/oof TOVQ aQ'tvovraQ QIOVQ 
a/uXXa<70ai KaXov ; Theognis : OVK tern 
OvrjToim Trpof aOavaTOVQ /a%i<ra<r9ai. 
Compare 2 Chron. xiii. 12. Acts v. 39. xi. 
17. xxiii. 9. 

612. llaiffi^. Called also Apeesus : II. 
B. 828. 

A a 2 

180 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, E'. 

Avrap 6 A 7T|OO(Tj3ac K vficpou \a\Keov yxC 620 

ucT ap' tV aAAa $uvi)(raro ru^fct KaAa 
iiv cKptXtaOat' lirziytTO -yap /BfA&o-tn. 
Aa<r 3' 07' ajU0i/3tt<riv KparEjOijv TpaWv a 
Ot TroAAot rf icai <r$A 
Oit , jjLtyav Trsp iovra KCU '/^>0tjuov KOI ayavbv, 625 

ttTTO afytlWV' 6 < 


'HpaKAfiSrjv, ^i5v T, /ntyav re, 
?r' avTiQiig SapTTfjSom MoTpa jcparatr). 
O S' orf ^r) arxs^ov ^crav TT' aAA^Aotcriv toyrf^, 630 

Ytog- 0', vituvoe r Aioc I'E^fATjyf/olrao, 
Tov icai TArjTToAfjuo^ 7rporpoc Trpoc fivOov t7T* 
AuKtwv /3ouArj^op, rtc 


t, ?Tt TroAAov KEivwv fTTtSfufat avSpwv, 
O? Afoc syvoi>ro TTI irporepwv avOptvirwv. 
AAA otov rtva 0a<Ti j3ii]v 'HjoaicATjffijv 
Elvat, juov Trarljoa, Opavv/ntfjivova, OvfjioXtovra ; 


v \\^r / 

CTUV vrjuai Kai avopaai 7rauporpoi<nv, 

'lAiou E^aAaTraSf TroAtv, x^P wtT & ayviat;. 
Sot Si icaicoc' JUEV Ovfjio^y cnrotyOivvOovGi ^ Aaot" 

Ol>O Tl (T TjOWCT(TtV 6'tOjUat CtAlcap (T(T0at, 

'EA^ovr' ic AUKITJC? ouS' i juaAa Kaprtpot; iem, 645 

620. Xa^. This adverb does not neces- during the government of the Medes : VIII. 
sarily denote tfAe /zee/, as it is commonly 44. ETTI KE/CJOOTTOC,-, in the time of Cecrops. 
rendered, but either extremity of the foot, See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 584. a. 

aTro row X^yovrog 770^05. In this instance 638. aXX' olov nva K. T. \. Some would 

it certainly means the toes, and so again in remove the interrogation, and read aXXotov, 

Z. 65. K. 158. and elsewhere. Eustath. TO longe alium. On the common periphrasis, 

vTTOKaTto) /*()0 T&V TOV TTodoQ BaKTV\wv. (Biij 'HpatcXi/eii}, see Pent. Gr. p. 307- on 

621. aXXa. Used somewhat inaccurately; Eur. Phcen. 55. and on II. T. 416. 

as he drew away nothing but the spear, 639. QpcKTVfiefnvova. Schol. Villois. roX- 

which was his own. ^pov, 9paavv tv r<p psveiv, ?) Opatrgtue 

633. AVKIUV j3ovX^06p. Spondanus vTropevovTa kv ry pctxy- 

observes, that the Lycians had long been at 640. 6'g TTOTC dtvp' X0wv, fe. r. X. He 

peace, so that there is a peculiar sarcasm in alludes to the history of the first destruction 

the insinuation of Tlepolemus, that Sarpe- of Troy by Hercules, occasioned by Laome- 

don was more skilled in oratory than in don's refusing that hero the horses, which 

war. were the reward promised him for the de- 

635. ^tvSofievoi St. <re Qaffi. For fyrv- livery of his daughter Hesione. POPE. See 

dovrat QavrtQ. The primary sentiment is Virg. ^En. II. 642. III. 476. Troy was also 

frequently contained in the participle, and taken by the Amazons before the expedi- 

so again in II. I. 20. See Herman on Soph, tion of the Greeks. SeeLycoph. Cassand.61. 

Aj. 1113. Elect. 1304. 642. x^P W(T - Eustath. sprjpovc; dvBpwv 

63J. 7rt Trp. dv0pw7rwv. The preposi- tTroiriat. Herod. VI. 83.*Apyoc fit dvcpuv 

tion 7ri is frequently used in definitions of kxrjp&Qi] . So Virg. Mn. VIII. 571. tarn 

time. Herod. I. 134. ETTI M?jdwv dpx VTh)v > multis viduasset civibus urbem. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, E'. 181 

'AXX' VTT IfJLoi fjir}6ivTa irvXaq 'AiSoo 

Tov S' av SapTTTjSwv, AUKIWV 0170?, avrtov 
TXrjTroXfju', ^rot KEtvoe aTrwXfO^v "iXtov 1/0171;, 

a^paS/'yatv ayauou AaojUEcovroc, 
/ /utv i> /)?avra KOKW riv'nraire fjLvO^, 650 



c ijuoi Swo-Etv, \IJV\YIV 


rwv JUEV a^uapr^ bovpara 
. 'Eic ^apwv r}tav' 6 jUv j3aXfv avyiva 

Tov $ rear' 

TXrjTroXfjUOc S' a'joa fjir^pov apt(rrpv 7X t AtKpji 660 

Bf/3XrjKr ai^jur) SE Sitaavro 

Trarip o' ETi Xotyov afj.vvfv. 
Ol JUEV ap' avriOtov Sa/OTrrjSova Stot iraipoi 

'E^E^EpOV TToXt/ULOiO' |3ajOVV ^ jUtV SopU jUOKOOV 
'EXjCo'jUEVOV, TO JUEV OVTfC f7r0pa(Tar', Ol8' VOIJ(T 665 

jUftXiVOV, O0p' E 

* roTov yap E'XOV TTO'VOV 


' V01](T ^ StOe 'O^U(T(TlC, 

Ov/mbv i\t*)v 9 /uatjurjo-c SE oi 0iXov ^ro/o. 670 

ETTEtra Kara 0pva icai Kara 6v/mbv, 

*H oy rwv TrXEovwv Ai/Ktwv OLTTO OV/ULOV E'Xotro. 
OTJ'/ /iEyaXr^ropt juopertjuov ^EV, 
vtov a?roKra/>tv o^ft x a ^ K V' ^^^ 

Tw pa Kara 7rXi70i)v AvKtwv r/oaTTE OV/ULOV 'A^rjvrj. 

oy Kotpavov flXsv, 'AXatrrojOa re, Xpojuiov r, 
', "AXiov rt?, No^juova r, Dpvravtv r. 
Kai vu K' n TrXlovag AVKIWV KravE Stoc 'OSua(7i)f , 
Ei ^tr) ap' 6$v vorj(T jmiya^ KOpu^aioXoc "EKrw/o. 680 

B^ SE Sta TTjOo/ia^wv KKOpi0/>ivoc aWoiri 

656. afiapry. Eodem tempore ; the da- 661. /36/3\jfc. Probably the true read- 

tive used adverbially, with an ellipsis of the ing is /3fj3\7?Ktv. See on II. T. 388. 

preposition <ryv. Some read 6/iapry, which 673. rwv TrXtovwv AVK'IWV. This is the 

amounts to the same thing; but the other same as TrXtjOvc AVKIWV, in v. 676. The 

seems to be the more ancient Homeric article has precisely the same force as in the 

form. The derivation is from lifia, or 6/iou, Attic otTroXXoi. In v. 679. TrXsovfg, without 

and apw, apto. the article, is simply plures. See on II. A. 9. 

The pronoun oyt is repeated as in II. P. 409. 



Aavaotorf \CLQTI} 8' apa ot TrpotTtovrt 


p] 877 fi f'Xwp AavaoTanv la 

t, aXX' 7ra/uuvov' 7Ttra JUE teal Xnrot aituv 685 

'Ev TroXfi vfJLtTtpip* 7Tt OUR: ap' EjiifXXov 

ot/cov8, ^t'Xrjv C irarpiSa yatav, 

aXo^ov T ^>tXrjv cat 
tX Qc <f>aTO' TOV 8' oim TTpoatyr 
'AXXa 7rap7jt^, XfXiijjii^oc, o^/oa ra^itrra 6QO 

"Qo-atr* 'ApycfovC; TroXfoJV 8* aTro OVJULOV f'Xotro. 
Ot jUV cijo' avriOtov SapTrrjSova Stot IraT/oot 
Eltrav UTT' alyto^oio Aioc irepiKaXXii 
'Eic 8' apa ot fj.r)pov %opv jUEiXtyov were 
"L^OtfJLO^ nfiXaytuv, oc ot fy'iXoc; fav Iratpoc' 695 

Tov ^ XtTTf ^vyfi, Kara 8' 600aXjUc5v KEX^T' 
Aurtc ^' dfJurrv\)vQi]j TTEp\ o irvotrj Boplao 
Zwypu 7rt7rvioixra icaicwc raca^ijafa OV/ULOV. 
'ApyfToi 8' VTT' "Apiji KOL "Eicropt 


Our TTOT' avr^povro jua^p* aXX' atV OTTttrtra) 
, we 7rw0ovro jUfra T/owfo-criv "Apr^a. 
rtva TTpwrov, rtva 8' vorarov i^vapt^v 
"Eicrwp rf Ilpta/ioto Trat'c Kat ^aXicfog "Aprjc 5 
'AvriOeov TtvOpavT*, lirl 8t TrX^tTTTrov *Opl<rfi|y, 705 

Tpfj^ov T' at^jUT]ri7v AtrwXtov, Otvoftaov re, 
OIVOTTIOTJV 1 "EXevov, Kai 'OptcrjStov atoXojutrpijv, 

686. 7Ti oiK ap' 1/itXXov tywye K. r. X. 
Compare Virg. ^En. XI. 269. 

693. Aio 0J?y<f>. This was a stately tree 
near the Scsean gate, as appears from 11. Z. 
237- It is mentioned again in II. H. 22. I. 
354. A. 170. $. 549. 

694. QvpaZe. Eustath. aVrt TOV tw. 
698. wypei. See on II. Z. 46. 

700. tTTt vrj&v. So Thuc. I. 116. TrXtlv 
tiri Sa/iov. Xen. Cyr. VII. 2. 1. kirl Sap- 
dswv tyiv-yuv. More usually, however, 
with the accusative. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 
506. c. 

701. avre^epovro. Eustath. avTi]v e^e- 

702. aXX' alkv 67ri(T(Tw Xa^ov0'. This 
manner of retreat was in use among the an- 
cient Lacedaemonians. The practice took its 
rise among that brave people from the ap- 
prehension of being slain with a wound re- 
ceived in their backs. Such a misfortune 

was not only attended with the highest in- 
famy, but was punished, as Eustathius in- 
forms us, by a denial of the rights of burial. 
POPE. This orderly retreat, with the front 
always turned to the enemy, is in confor- 
mity with the instructions of Diomed ; supra 
v. 605. 

703. Virg. ^En. XI. 664. Quern telo pri- 
mum, quern postremum, aspera Virgo, Deji- 
cis ? aut quot humi morientia corpora fun- 
dis ? On the construction of the verb in the 
singular see on II. B. 146. Heyne, how- 
ever, with one MS. reads i&vdpdiav. 

704. %aXe0 *Ap?/. For ^aXico/copu- 
ffrr]Q. So Herod. II. 152. xaXxrtoi dvSptQ. 

708. jue/^Xdig. In Homer this participle 
is always used actively, and governs a geni- 
tive ; though the indicative, f.ikfirj\e, is inva- 
riably neuter, with the exception of Hym. 
Merc. 437- In Find. Ol. I. 89. it is followed 
by a dative. 



KtK\ifJitvo KrityicriSi' Trap Si ot aXXot 
Natov Bofwrot, juaXa iriova Srjjuov e^ovrec- 
TOVQ & a>c ovv tv6r]G 9ea XtuiccJXfvoc "Hprj 
'Apyaoue oXficovrae vt Kpareprj uar/iivr/, 
AVTIK 'Aflrjvairjv 7ra Trrejooevra TrpocrrjuSa* 

*fli TTOTTot, aiyto^oto Atoc rwtoCj 'Arpurwmj, 
*H />' aXtov TOV fJLvOov vTrlorrjjUfv MfvfXatj), 



El OVTLO juaiveaOai latro/ifv ouXov "Ap?]a. 
'AXX' a^E Sr? feat vwt jUWjU0a OovpiSog aXfcf/c. 

tX Qc 0ctT J " ovcT awiOriGE Oea 
'H juv 7rot^ojUvi7 )(pv<ra/Lirvic 
w H|Or/, wpeafia Ota, OvyaTrip jUEyaXoto Kpovoto. 
"HjSrj S' ajU0' 6^(i(rt 0owc j3aXf Kafjnrv\a KVK\O. 
XaXKa, OKTaKvrjjLia, atorjjOajj a^ovi ctju^ic* 
Twv ^rot ^pu<Tr} true a(j)Oi.TO, aurap u7Tp0v 

, 7TpO(ra/)Tjpora, 9avfj.a iStaOai' 
apyu/oow i<rt TTEpio 
pu(TOto-t cai apyvptoiaiv if 
'Evrlrarat* Sotai ^ 7TptSjOOjUOt avrwyiq dai' 



709. KK\i)Lt8vog. Ficinus. Schol. Trapa- 
KeifitvoQ, ytiTvi&v, 7rpt%6/t^oc;. The 
verb is used in this sense, properly, in refe- 
rence to the situation of places, as in Od. 
N. 235. and thence also it is transferred to 
persons, as in this instance, and in II. O. 740. 
n 68. Compare also Callim. H. Dian. 253. 
01 pa Trap' avrbv ~K.tK\i[iEvoi vaiovai [Bobg 
Tropov 'ivaxnttvrjQ. Hesiod. Theog. 1168. 
TroAtf 'Ar}9aiq> K(K\i^ikvr] Trt^iy. Dionys. 
Perieg. 847. Trpoe d' (iXa KtK\ip,kvr]v A.VKIOI 
%06va vaitTaovai. Soph. Trach. 101. fiiv- 
aalg airtipoiQ K\iQtiQ. 

711. TOVQ. Hector and Mars. 

715. TOV fjivBov v7reffTr)fj,ev. This pro- 
mise is no where mentioned in the Iliad. It 
must be supposed to have been given to 
Menelaus some time previous to the com- 
mencement of the action of the poem ; pro- 
bably at the beginning of the war. 

720. tvrviv. Eustath. eiirpsTrt^tv, w- 
TrXi^fv. The more usual form is ivrvvw 
with the penultima long, as in II. I. 203. 
*5j. 162. But evrvtiJ occurs again in Od. 
. 289. So also in Find. Ol. III. 51. Pyth. 
IV. 322. IX. 117- Nem. IX. 86. 

721. 7T|Og(7/3a. The feminine 7rp<7/3a, 
of the adjective Trpeaflvg, is obsolete ; in- 
stead of which, besides irpsafla, we have 
7rpg(T/3t|Oo, Horn. H. Ven. 32. and Trpea- 
fivriQ, Theoc. Idyl. XV. 62. It seems pro- 
bable, however, that irptfffla is syncopated 
from the superlative 7rp(r/3vrarjj. Od. F. 

452. 7rp(r/3a KXvfi&voio Ovyarputv. Hence 
Etym. M. p. 687, 3. TrptT/Sa- irptaflvrdrri, 


723. OKTaievrjfMa. Having eight spoJces. 
It appears that the number in the wheels of 
an ordinary chariot was only six. See Schol. 
Find. Pyth. II. 73. It was usual, when the 
chariot was not in use, to take off the wheels, 
and protect it from the damp by a coverlid. 
In the following description are enumerated, 
ITVQ, the circumference of the wheel: tTriff- 
atjjTpa, the exterior rims of brass ; TrXrjfivrj, 
the nave ; $i'0poe, the body of the chariot ; 
avTvyeQ, the raised semicircles in the front 
and back of the chariot ; and pvfioQ, the 
pole. The \B7raSva (v. 730.) were broad 
straps or breast bands, by which the horses 
were harnessed to the yoke (%vybv\ and an- 
swering the purpose of the modern collar. 
Schol. Villois. 7rXari i[j,dvTt, olg ava- 
dfVfjiovvTai ol rpa%;Xoi r&v tTTTrwv Trpbg 
TOV Z,vybv. And so Hesychius. Pollux. I. 
147- TO. cnrb TMV pvpuv cnrrjpTrifjieva, Ta 
VTTO TOVQ av^svag TtSJv 

727. dtypOG- This word is here used in 
its proper signification for the body of the 
chariot, or that part in which the charioteer 
and the warrior, rfvio^OQ and TrapapQTrjc, 
placed themselves. Hence its derivation 
from SIQ and Qspw. Generally, it signifies the 
chariot itself. Of the dvTvytQ, mentioned 
in the next line, see above on v. 262. 

184 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, E'. 

Tou o Is; djoyupfoc pv/mbg irtXtv' aurap ?r' aicpw 
Ar)o* ^putrffov icaXov %vybv, v ^ XfTraSva 
KaX' j3aX, \pvcreL' UTTO ^ %vybv riyayev "Qpr; 
'ITTTTOU^ wKUTrooa^, jii/mi>T' tpicog KOI avrr\q. 

A-vrap 'A^jjumrj, KOvprj Aiog aiyto^oto, 
IllTrXoy /iv car^Uv iavbv Ttarpbg iir ov$ti, 
IIotKtXov, ov /o' auri) iroirjaaTo KOL KUJULE \ipGiv' 

Ig TToXfjUOV 0(t>plJO > (TrO 

>t 8' ap' &[Jioi(n jSaXfr' aiyiSa OvaaavotGaav, 




Tj TE, <TjUjOovr) re, Ato? TtpaQ aiyio^oto. 
Kpart 8' ?r' a/uL^i^aXov Kvvsrjv Biro 

irjv, l/carov 7roXwv TrpuXlfarar' apaputav. 

BptOu, /UE^a, art/Bapov, ra> Sa/ivrjat 

rotcrt r Kora-(Tra ojSpijUOTrarpi]. 

729. CTT' dicpy. 

extremity, scil. 

734. 7T7rXoi> /iV Karl%WV K. r. X. 

Eustathius tells us that the ancients marked 
this place with a star, to distinguish it as one 
of those that were perfectly admirable. In- 
deed there is a greatness and sublimity in 
the whole passage, which is superior to any 
imagination but that of Homer : nor is 
there any which might better give occasion 
for that celebrated saying, That he was the 
only man who had seen the forms of the Gods, 
or the only man who had shown them. POPE. 
The peplus was a long white garment sa- 
cred and peculiar to Minerva : in reference 
to which a number of virgins were appointed 
to weave a long embroidered robe, called 
also TriTrXof , and ornamented with a repre- 
sentation of the martial achievements of the 
Goddess, with which her statue was clothed 
at the great festival of the Panathenaea. See 
Plato, in Euthyphron : Plaut. Mercat. I. 1. 
67- This she is now represented as throwing 
aside, in order to array herself in the armour 
of Jupiter. Of the adjective tavbg see on 
II. T. 385. 

738. aiyida Ovfftravotaaav. Homer does 
not particularly describe this fringe of the 
jEgis as consisting of serpents : but that it 
did so may be learned from Herod. IV. 139. 
And Virgil's description of the same ^Egis 
agrees with this : jEn. VIII. 435. JEgida- 
que horrificam, turbatce Palladia arma, Cer- 
tatim squamis serpentum, auroque polibant, 

Connexosque angues, 8fc. POPE. See on II. 
B. 447- The symbolical devices of Terror, 
Discord, and the rest, are similar to those 
i-n JLn. VIII. 701. tristesque ex tether e Dirce, 
Et scissa gaudens vadit Discordia palla, 
Quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona fla- 

740. Kpv6i(Taa. See on II. Z. 344. 

741. Yopytir) KtQaXrj. For Topyovog. 
See on II. B. 54. and for the adjective aiJiepS- 
vbe, in the next line, on II. B. 308. The 
Gorgon was always an emblem of horror 
and affright. See on II. 9. 349. A. 36. Od. 
A. 634. and compare Eur. Phoen. 465. 
Alcest. 1137- It does not appear, however, 
that the more elaborate mythology of the 
Gorgon's head was known in Homer's time. 
Hesiod is the first who mentions three Gor- 
gons (Theog. 274.), and he relates the fable 
of Perseus and Medusa in Scut. H. 215. 

743. rrptt0a'\7/pov. Having four buckles. 
Of the helmet itself see on II. T. 337. 

744. 7rpu\f(Tri. Eustath. irt^oiQ oirXi- 
ratg. Of two interpretations which Eusta- 
thius has given of this clause, Heyne justly 
prefers the former, which represents the 
helmet as sufficiently capacious to have co- 
vered the armies of a hundred cities. Er- 
nesti rather refers the expression to the 
strength of the helmet, as able to resist the 
attack of a hundred armies. This is some- 
what forced. 

747. ofipifioTrdrpr). Schol. 6/3pt/ioj/ KcrT 
aTfpa t%ovffa. 



7Tjuair' ap 
t rrvXai JULVKOV Oupavov, a 


Tr; pa $i avrawv KfvrjorjvfKfac X OV 
Eiijoov c) Kpoviwva, 0wv arjo rj/zvov aXXwv, 
'A/cporarrj ico/ou^r) TroXuSapaSoe Qv\v[jnroio. 
"EvO 1 tTTTroue arrja-ao-a 0a XeuKwXcvoc "Hjor/ 755 

ZTJV' vTrarov Kpovi^rjv c?^ero, KCU 
Zfu Trarfp, ov vjU<r/p ''AjOft raS 

'0(T<TaT70V T KQl OlOV aTTwXfCTt XttOV ' 

Ma*//, arap oi> Kara KOCTJUOV, jUot S' a^oc ; 01 ^ KrjXoi 
TfpTrovrai KuTrpic ^e ^ai a^>'yuporo?oc 'ATroXXwv, 760 

"A^pova rourov avvrC^ oc o(5 riva oT^ 0jut<rra. 
ZEU TraYfpj ^ /oa ri juot K;(oXw<Tat, a'/Kv "Apjja 
TrfTrXrjyuTa /ua 


JULO.V, ol 7TOjO<TOv 'A^rjyaiTjv a 



icai owpavou acrrpOvroc 


Too 1 (TO v tT 



v\pr]"xtc; 'iTnroi. 



' 15 o^f'wv' TTE/OI 8' ??pa TrovXuv 

748. s7TjLtatr' ap' 'ITTTTOVQ. Eustath. 
&m dt 7ri/iat(T0ai KOIVW^ /tv ro jrtj>, 
aXXwf 5 ro jraxipi?<T0ai :at aTTTtff- 
Oat. See on 11. A. 190. The two signifi- 
cations are nearly allied. This line is con- 
nected by^the particle apa with v. 732. 

749. avTOfjiarai Be TrvXai K. r. X. Hence 
Milton, P. L. V. 253. At the gate Of Heaven 
arrived, the gate self-opened wide On golden 
hinges turning. And again in VI. 2. till 
morn, Waked by the circling Hours with rosy 
hand Unbarred the gates of light. 

751. rjfjiev ava.K\lvai K. r. X. Natal, 
Com. IV. 5. Homerus libra quinto Iliadis 
non solum has (Horas) portas cceli servare 
dicit, sed etiam nubes inducere et serenum 
facere, cum libuerit : quippe cum apertum 
ccelum, serenum nominent poeta, et clausum, 

nubibus. The verbs here employed 
are properly used of opening and shutting a 
door. Compare II. 2. 169. Od. X. 156. 

761. avevret;. Incitantes. Sumtumesta 
canibus, quos avitvai dicuntur pastores vel 
venatores. HEYNE. So Apollon. Lex. rijg 
/ura^opdg ovarie cnrb TrJQ aviepevriQ r&v 
KVV&V Kara TOVQ OrjpciQ afaakwQ. 

765. ay pet pav. Schol. dyt By. 

770. ^pot^6. Simply, rov alpa. This 
passage is referred to by Longinus, sect. 9. 
as a noble instance of the sublime. 

774. yx i P&G K - T - ^- See n IL Z ' 431 

776. rispa TTOV\VV. Since d?)p is always 

feminine in Homer, we have here an in- 

stance of a masculine adjective, with a. noun 

feminine, of which see Matt. Gr. Gr. . 436. 2. 

B b 

186 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, E'. 

Toicriv 8' aju)3jOO(Tt?jv 

A? jSarrjv rpi}(>WGi TreXeidcriv WfjiaO* ofjioiai, 
'AvSpatnv 'Apytioiaiv aXf^ejUEvcu jue/xautat. 
'AXX' ore Si] p' ticavov, o0t TrXttorot Kai aptarot 780 

Eorcurav, a^u^i |3ir;v 
EiXojuevot, Xeioucrtv ioticorcc w 
H aTJO"! KaVpottn, rwv re aOtvot; OVK a 
Ev0a orao-' rjuo-e 0a XEViaJXfvoe "Hprj, 

Srlvropt daafjLtvri /ueyaXrjropi ^aXKeo^wvw, 785 

(> Toaov auSrja-aa-^, otrov aXXot Trevrr/Kovra* 
AiSwC) 'Apyeloi, KCIK' fXt-yx 80 ' ^C ayr^rot. 

ev ec TroXe^iov 7ra>Xl(Ticfro oToc 'A^tXXevc? 
jowec Trpo TTuXawv Aapaviawy 
' Ktvou yap iSdSivav 6j3pfjuov ey^o^. 790 

vv & EKttC TToXlO^ KOtX^ 7Tl VrjlKTt 

7ropou(T a - 

Ei>p ^ rov ye avaKra Trap' "TTTTOKJI KOL 
"EXicoc ava^/v^ovra, ro ju/v jSaXf Ilavoapoc t^* 795 

iv rtpv VTTO TrXareoc 

VKVK\OV' Tto rtprO, KttjU 

'Av 8' '/(T^wv reXajuwva, KfXatv^c at/x' a 

*H oXiyov Oi iratSa eoocora yzivaro TvSevQ' 800 

TuSeuc rot /ULiKpoc juev r/v Stjuac, aXXa jua^rjrrjc- 
Kai /a' ore irl/o jutv 70* TroXfjui^ftv OI>K: ta<r/cov, 

778. a'i ^ ftdrrjv K. T. X. This simile is no authority for assigning this office to 

is intended to express the lightness and Stentor, and the epithet ptyaXriropi more 

smoothness of the motion of these god- properly belongs to a warrior than a herald. 

desses. Milton finely calls this, smooth gli- It should seem, moreover, that the use of 

ding without step. Virgil describes the trumpets was not entirely unknown in the 

gliding of a dove by an image parallel to heroic ages. See note on Eur. Phoen. 1392. 

that in this verse, in jEn. V. 213. Max acre Pent. Gr. p. 382. 

lapsa quieto, Radit iter liquidum, celeres 787- sidoQ ayrjToi. Schol. Venet. r< 

neque commovet alas. This kind of move - tlSti povov OavpaffToi. Of the expression 

ment was appropriated to the gods by the KCLK' tXiy^fa, see on II. B. 235. 

^Egyptians, as we see in Heliodorus, lib. V. 801. Tvdevg rot /ucpoe K. r. X. Hence 

Homer might possibly have taken this no- Ovid : Utilior Tydeus, qui, siquid credis 

tion from them. And Virgil, in that pas- Homero, Ingenio pugnax, corpore parvus 

sage where ^Eneas discovers Venus by her erat. Stat. Theb. I. 415. Sed non et viri- 

gait, Et vera incessu patuit Dea, seems to bus infra Tydea fert animus, totosque in- 

allude to some manner of moving, that dis- fusa per artus Major in exiguo regnabat cor- 

tinguished divinities from mortals. POPE. pore virtus. To this passage Quinctilian 

782. ciXo/ievot. See on v. 203. alludes in Instit. Orat. III. 7- 12. Interim 

785. Stentor is mentioned no where else confert admirationi multum etiam infirmitas ; 

in the Iliad. Eustathius observes, that he ut cum Homerus Tydea parvum, sed bclla- 

was a herald or crier : a description of per- torem dicit fuisse. Compare Virg. Georg. 

sons who were very necessary in an army IV. 83. 
before the invention of trumpets. But there 



, Or T* ijXvOt: VOfftylV ' 

"AyyfXoc C r?|3ae, 

AaivvaOai jutv avwyov Ivl ptydpoKriv Ki)Xov. 

Airap o OU/ULOV %\wv ov icaprfpov, a>c ro Trdpog TTf 

Koupovc KaSjua'wv 7r/>OKaXtro* iravra S' tvtKa 

f Pi)iiia>C* rotrj ot lyalv eTTLTcippoOog r\a. 

Soi 8' rjrot jitv ya> Trapa 0' torajuat, ?$ ^>iXet(T(Ttt>, 

Kai a Trpofypuvtwg KtXo/mai Tpwfardt fid^EcrOaC 

'AXXa o-u TJ icajuaroc TroXuat'S 

"H VU <T 7TOU O l(Tt CtKTtOV" OV (TU 



o-jcw cr, 0a, Ovyartp Atoc at-yto^oto. 
Tw rot Tr-oo^povftoc pla> eiTOCj ou' 

Ol5r Tl JU 0^ tO'X 54 ttK///HOV, OUT 
'AXX' 77 (TWV 

Ou it' a' 


arao, t 



ToiW/ca vuv auro^ r' avax2ojuat, ?$ icai aXXouc 

rfXtiwra aXr/jUfvm v0a Travrag' 
toaKdJ yap "Apria fJLa^r\v ava 
Tov S 1 ?7Ut3r' 


Mrjrf cru y' "Aprja royf SdStOi, pyre TLV aXXov 
'A^avarwv* roir] rot ya>v iTriTappouog tlfii. 
'AXX' ay', ?r' "A/orjt Trpwrtjj Xf juwvu^a 

rjS' a$O Sovpov "Aprja 


803. sKTraifydvativ. See on II. B. 450. 
805. avwyov. Scil. Thebani. See II. A. 
386. sqq. whence this passage is repeated. 

811. KapaTOQ 7ro\vai%. See on II. A. 

812. aicripiov. Heartless, cowardly ; from 
K/Jp, the heart. Schol. a^v^oTroibv, tig 
d\l>vx'iav ayov. The same word is used in 
Od. .328. in the sense of immortal; as if 
from Krjp,fate. Heyne renders the expres- 
sion ov (TV y' tiriiTa, by quae cum ita sint. 
The force of the particles is very apparent. 

821. ri]v y' ovrdfiev. Scil. iKeXtvtQ. See 
on II. A. 128. 

823. a\7/xvat. From a\7/jut, congrego, 
not from dXrjpt, vagor. Schol. dOpoiffOfj- 
vat, avaTpaQrjvai. The derivation is from 
a\?)g, confertus, densus. Hence Ernesti 
properly restores the aspirate upon MSS. 
authority, the common reading being d\^- 

jucvat. In the following line, some read 
dvctKoipaveovTa. See on II. B. 250. At 
all events, the accent of the preposition, if 
separated, must be thrown back ; which it 
is not in most editions. 

827. Vulgo, *Apja Tovde dddiOi, which 
is manifestly corrupt. Heyne, from the 
Harleian MS. reads rbv for Tovdt, and other 
emendations have been offered. That of 
Wolf, now given in the text, is the most 
probable. Compare II. &. 342. With royt 
supply waro, and render, in this respect. 

830. o^ii]v. Cominus : used adverbially 
with an ellipsis of TVTrr}v } or TrXrjyriv. 
This is not in Bos. Hesych. ffx^ir)' TO 
K ^ipo Trara^ai OVTMQ Xsytrat. So 
avroff^iriv, in II. M. 192. Schol. avroa- 
%^ir\v IK TOV 7r\j(Ttov, IK X ei P- Stanley 
observes on jEsch. Choeph. 157. ayitiia 
(3g\; sunt quibus cominus pugnatur, et quee 




Tourov juatvojUEvov, TVKTOV icaicov, aXXoTrpotraXXov' 

Oc TT/owrjv Ijuoi re icai w H/07j OTVUT 

Tpaxii jua^r/a-fa-flat, arap ^A 

Nuv > jucra T/oaW<nv ojUtXtt, rwv Se XAaarat. 

*Ge $ajulv), 2$VXov jiiv a^' ITTTTWV were 
XftjOi TraXty Ipucrao-'* o 8' ap' ijUjuazTtwc a7ropou<7' 

H o 8t<^>pov j3atvf Trapai 


vpa a/otorov. 
jULaariya KOL r^via IlaXXac 'A^ifjvi?. 

AvTIK 7?' "Apljt TTpWTW 

'Hrot o jUv Jlfpt^avrtt TT 

AtrwXwv o^' aptGTOv, ^O^rjaiov ay\aov viov' 

Tov jUV "Aprjc vapt^ fjuaifyovoc;' aurap 'A0j) 

<H 6j3/OtjUOC " 



ot Trpwrov 
Avrap 6 )3) /o' t^i> 


in pugna statoria adhibentur, cum ad digla- 
diationem ventum est : enses *7. quibus 
manubrium est. 


calamitatem et perniciem aliorum natum, et 
temerario impetu ferri solitum, ita ut nee 
promissis datis stet, sed mutatis partibus 
modo his, modo illis student. HEYNE. Eras- 
mus in Adag. : Homerus Mart em subinde 
mutantem partes novo verbo aXXoTrpocrttX- 
\ov appellat. The formation of the word 
is readily apparent. Eustathius : aXXoTrpo- 
traXXov dararovvTa, KO.I aXXort aXX^j 
\apiZ,6[jitvov. The same commentator ob- 
serves, that the word is allegorically de- 
scriptive of the nature of Mars, who na- 
turally goes over to the weaker side, in 
order to keep up the broil. The promise, 
however, which Minerva asserts to have 
been given by Mars, is not recorded. As 
to the expression TVKTOV KO.KOV, it will be 
readily resolved into og krv^Qr] Ka/eoif. Of 
the verb artvpai, see on II. F. 83. 

834. fJLSTa Tpw<r<rtv. With the Trojans ; 
i. e. on their behalf. The preposition, /itra, 
occurs with the dative in the poets only. 
Compare II. A. 251. In the sense of this 
passage it is found in Attic with the geni- 
tive. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 587. 

835. SQfvsXov a<j)' ITTTTWV K. r. X. 
Hence Virg. ^En. XII. 469. Aur'igam Tumi 
media inter lora Metiscum Excutit, et longe 
lapsum temone relmquit ; Jpsa subit, mani- 
busque undantes flectit habenas. Compare 
Hesiod. Scut. H. 455. 

836. /A/ia7r6(>. Schol. a/ia ry tirti. 
Passow, however, in his Lexicon, derives 
it from /lapTrrw, of which the aor. 2. e/ia- 
TTOV, is found in Hesiod. Hence it will 
denote promptly. 

838. jitsya d' I. 0. a. BptGotruvy. Virg. 
Georg. III. 172. sub pondere faginus axis 

842. iZtvdpi&v. He was spoiling. The 
MSS. vary between i%tvdpiKtv and it- 
vdpiev ; and so again in v. 844. Heyne 
has edited the former, which must be ren- 
dered he slew; but the Scholiast rightly 
prefers the latter. 

845. dvv'"A'iSoQ Kvvkrjv. As every thing 
that goes into the dark empire of Pluto 
disappears, and is seen no more, the Greeks 
from thence borrowed this figurative ex- 
pression, to put on Pluto's helmet; that is 
to say, to become invisible. Plato uses this 
proverb, de Repub. X. 612. and Aristo- 
phanes in Acharnens. 337. POPE. Add 
Hesiod. Scut. H. 227. Lucian Bis Ace. 
VII. 80. and see Heyne on Apollod. Bibl. 
I. 6. 2. p. 76. The genitive "A'idoc, is for 
'AtSov, as if from *A"i. There are other 
nouns also of the first and second declen- 
sion which adopt the terminations of the 
third ; but more particularly in the dative 
and accusative singular. Thus supra v. 
299. d\KL, for d\Ky, as if from aX. In II. 
B. 441. XTra, and S. 352. Xir, for Xirov, 
\iT<fi. In 0. 56. vffp,lvi for vap.ivy. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 92. 2. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, E'. 189 

6r 877 <r^<5ov ?7<rav ?r' aXXrjXotmv tovTfe, 850 

ti), jUjuaa>e OTTO Ovpov sXt 
Kat ro y X a P^ Xa/Bouaa 0tt 

v0' top/tare |3o?jv ayaOoQ AtOjur$Tjc 855 

ctw* 7TpH<T 
Nfiarov EC KVwva, o0t 

WV, 8ta 
avric;' o 

t 860 

ap' VTTO rpojuof EtXfv 'A^atou^ T, Tpwa^ 
* roaov /3pa^' "Aprj^j aroc T 

Kav/iaroc, ? avfjuoto Sutrafoc opvujulvoto* 865 

v fie ovpavov tvpvv. 
tcav Oewv oor, OITTUV " 
ITap 8t Aa Kjooviwvi Ka0?ro, OVJJ.Q 
AftSf^ 8' a/u]3porov aljua, Karapptov IS 
Kat /a' 6Xo0ipo/xvoc 7Ta 7rrpOvra 

u 7rarp, ou vjUo-i?rj, opwv ra^ icaprf/oa 

Atft rot piyiara Otol rrXi]orC ijLtV, 
'AXX?jXwv torrjrt, X^P tv ^' iMjpP 
Soi Travrff jjLayoiJLtafta' cru yap rKC o^pova Kouprjv 875 
uXojulvrjv, ^ r' aiv arjcrvXa fpya 

851. *Aprjg a>ps%aQ' vTrkp %vy6v. Sell. Eur. Alcest. 50. 6avaroe is said rot 

Diomedis. See on II. A. 307- As opposed to Xotxri Bdvarov efi(3a\eiv. See Monk i ^oc. 

CevTepoQ in v. 855. the adverb irpoatiev must Hence we may defend the common reading 

be understood for Trportpof. in Eur. Iph. A. 775. ed. Markl. by refer- 

860. o<7<rov r' ewtax 1 ^ 01 K - r - ^- This ring the verb 0rj<ra to the nominative "Agrjc 

hyperbole, to express the roaring of Mars, in v. 764. 

so strong as it is, yet is not extravagant. 865. Kaw/iarog. Subaud. $ui. 

The voice is not human, but that of a Deity ; 867- 6/iov vttyktaaiv. That is, enveloped 

and the comparison, being taken from an with clouds. 

army, renders it more natural with respect 873. TtT\r)6rtQ eifitv. For TerXrjKafiev. 

to the god of war. It is less daring to say, The verb efyu is frequently used with a 

that a god could send forth a voice as loud participle, merely as a circumlocution. See 

as two armies, than that Camilla, a Latian Matt. Gr. Gr. . 559. With respect to the 

nymph, could run so swiftly over the corn, sentiment, compare supra v. 383. 

as not to bend an ear of it. Yet Virgil ge- 875. ^la^o^oQa. Increpamus. Compare 

nerally escapes the censure of those mo- II. N. 118. 

derns, who are shocked with the bold flights 876. d?j(TvXa tpya. Eustath. TO, /3\a7T- 

of Homer. POPE. The same lines recur, riica. Damm considers this adjective as 

in reference to the shout of Neptune, in II. synonymous with alavXog, which occurs 

JHJ. 148. The same noun, *AprjG, is used above, v. 403. It is found only in 

twice in the same sentence, once as war this place. Of jU/iJ?^. see above on v. 

itself, and once as the god of war. So in 708. 




"AXXot jiiV 7j Travrff, oaot Oeoi tlai* Iv 'OXu 
2ot r 7rt7rfi0ovrat, feat 
Taurrjv 8' our' r TTportjSaXXfat, ourt rt 
'AXX' avtTc> 7Ti avroq eytivao TraiS' at'&ijXov' 
lX H vvv TuSeoc vtov uTTfp^uaXov Atoju?$a 
Mapyaivtiv averjKev ITT' aOavaToivi Oeotat. 
KuTrptSa jiiv Trpwrov (T^Soi/ oura<7 X 6 */ ' ^ K 
Avrap 7Ttr' avrtjJ juot 7T(ro p uro, Sai/novi tcroe* 
'AXXa ju' virr'ivsiKav ra\ieg TTO^C' ^ TC K S??pov 

"H K 

Tov S' ap' vTroSpa iSwv TTpocrl^)] i>$Xr}'ypra 
Mijrt juot, 'AXXoTrpotraXXf, Traj 
"Ex^to'TOc St juot i(T(Tt Oewv, OL 
Ait yap rot jOt^ r 1X1 TroXfzot T j.aai re. 





OUK 7rttKrov, 

' 7T(TC7t* 
T(5 (T* 6tfe> KtVT]C T^ TTCUTXtlV IvVtGlTQGlV. 

'AXX' ov ftav & f'ri ^j^pov avf^Ojuat aXyt' e'^ovra* 
'Eic yap jUu yevos <T(Tt, fjtioi Si <T yeivaro 
Ei SE ru ^ aXXou 
Kat Kv Sr) TraXat ^< 
lN Qc aro, cat 


() 7Tt 

'HC(Tar'* oi> JUEV yap rt 
'Qc 8* OT' OTTOC yaXa XIKOV 



878. dtd[jirifj,ea9a e'fcaffrog. Of this change 
in person, see on II. A. 305. We have 
another instance in II. Z. 71. 

880. avieiQ. From avda), the same as 
avirjfjii, indulgeo, indulgendo incito. Brunck 
has improperly continued this form, which 
is purely Homeric, in many places of the 
Greek Tragedians. See Porson on Eur. 
Orest. 141. 

887. n Ke ZUQ K. T. X. Those are mis- 
taken who imagine our author represents 
his gods as mortal. He only represents 
the inferior deities as capable of pains and 
punishments during the will of Jupiter. 
Homer takes care to tell us both of Mars and 
of Pluto, when Paeon cured them, that they 
were not mortal : vv. 402. 901. ov per 
yap TI KardOvijTOQ yc TSTVKTO. POPE. See 
also above on v. 383. 

889. 'AXXoTTooffaXXf. Supra v. 831. 
Of the verb fjuvvoi%iiv, to lament, to com- 
plain, see Pent. Gr. Lex. v. fiivvpofjiai, and 
Valckenaer on Ammon. p. 94. 

891. aiti yap rot K. r. X. This line is 
repeated from II. A. 177- Hence Virg.- 
-^En. VII. 325. Cui tristia bella, Iraque, 
insidiceque, et crimina noxia cordi. Odit et 
ipse pater. 

894. Eustathius : ivvtffiyffiv fjyovvffvfji- 
|3oXatf cnrb TOV ivirjfu, TO /i]8aXXw. 
Hesiod. Theogon. 494. FaitjQ svvtaiyffi 
iroXvQpadetaffi doXuOe'iQ. 

897. at<fyXog. See on II. B. 455. 

898. ivepTtpoQ Ovpaviuvuv. That is, 
below Tartarus. The Ovpavi&veg, i. e. the 
Titans, sons of Uranus, were confined under 
Tartarus, after their defeat by Jupiter: 
Hesiod. Theog. 207- 717' But see Heyne 
on Apollod. Bibl. p. 10. 

900. Uairjwv. See on II. A. 473. Also 
on II. A. 218. 

902. WQ S' OT OTTOS K. T. X. The sud- 
den operation of the remedy, administered 
by Paaon, is well expressed by this similitude. 
It is necessary just to take notice that they 
anciently made use of the juice or sap of a 



>v eov, jtmXct <B' aW 7rptrp0rat KVKOWVTL 

KapTTaXfyiwc irjoraro 0oupov "j 
Tov S' f/ H|3r? XoDtre, ^aptsvra tte eV/iara 

Hap Alt KpOVtWVt Ka0?TO KU1 JdUOV. 

At ' aSrtc TJOOC Swjua Aio^ jLtfyaXoio vlovro, 
"Hprj T' 'Ap7t7] icat 'AXaXKO]Uvi]ic '. 
|3/ooroXot7Ov"Ap]V a 


fig for runnet, to cause their milk to coagu- 
late. POPE. !7Tiy6jUi>o. Agitated, stirred 

903. Vulgo, 7rfpiorp0reu. But Trept- 
rpl^frai is, doubtless, the true reading, 
which Eustathius restores from Herodian, 
and explains by Trij-yvvTai, i. e. coagulates : 
as in the preceding line. Compare Od. JSJ. 
477. So Soph. Trach. 572. afupiOpf-TTTOv 
al/jia. Schol. imrriyoQ' Opstyai ydp ro 
TrijZai. The dative KVKOWTI is equivalent 
to VTTO TOV KVKObivrog. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 395. The verb KVK$V frequently occurs 
both in a primary and metaphorical sense. 

Compare II. A. 129. 63?. 2. 229. Od. K. 
235. and elsewhere. 

905. \ovfft, K. T. X. Such offices were 
not deemed unworthy of the most illus- 
trious females. See Od. T. 464. A. 252. K. 
450. Sometimes, however, they were per- 
formed by slaves ; as in Od. A. 49. P. 88. 
T.356. ' 

906. Kvde'i yaihiv. Mars is no sooner 
healed, than he recovers his wonted fero- 
city. Heyne however, with his usual readi- 
ness, condemns this and the following lines 
as spurious. 

908. 'AXaXfco/ievjjif . See on II. A. 8. 






re K:cu"E/cropog ear' o 



The Gods having left the field, the Grecians prevail. Helenus, the chief Augur of 
Troy, commands Hector to return to the city, in order to appoint a solemn pro- 
cession of the Queen and the Trojan matrons to the Temple of Minerva, to entreat 
her to remove Diomed from the fight. The battle relaxing during the absence of 
Hector, Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies ; where, 
coming to the knowledge of the friendship and hospitality passed between their 
ancestors, they make exchange of their arms. Hector, having performed the orders 
of Helenus, prevailed upon Paris to return to the battle, and taken a tender leave of 
his wife Andromache, hastens again to the field. 

The scene is first in the field of battle between the rivers Simois and Scamander, and 
then changes to Troy. 


T oiw0?/ KOI 'A^euwv (j>v\OTrig aivr). 
ap' evOa KOL V0' Wvcre jua^rj TTE 
I0vvofj,v(jt)v xa\Krjpa Sovpa 
St/ioevroe iSf BavOoio poawv. 
TTpwroe Tt Actjuwvioc, epKO 'A%atwv, 

2. /iax>?. That is, 01 fiaxo/zevoi. The Sp&v car') a\\r)\atv ra ^owpa 

same substitution of the res pro persona The verb iQvveaOai is used in an active 

occurs also in the word 0v\07Ti, in the first signification in Od. E. 270. X. 8. The line 

line. See also on II. #. 201. With Tredioio is, however, plainly redundant, and perhaps 

we must supply did. Heyne constructs the spurious, 

following line thus : i'0vvofievwv (rwi/ dv- 6. 06w. Schol. x a P" v > ffuTrjpiav. Com- 



aXwv, Sg aptoroc vi OprjK(ra-t TETUKTO, 
Yfov 'Euo-(TtJpov, 'AKajuavr', ??uv re /meyav TE. 
Tov jo' j3aXf TTjOwro 
'Ev ptTwirty TTTJ^C, Treprjae S' a/o' oorfov iaw 


6c evaifv IvKTi/uLevy Iv 'Apttrj3<p, 
toe jStoroto, <f>i\0 ' ^v avOpotiroiai' 

, 6<5 7rt otiaa va/wv. 

'AXXa ot oime TWV 72 TOT' ri/)ic(7 Xv^pov o 
ITpO(T0v vTravrtao-ac* aXX' a/x^w aTrrjvpa, 
AVTOV KOI Oepairovra KaA^7<fiov, 6? /oa ro0' 
"E(T/cv v<f>rjvio'\og' rw ' a/i^xo yalav fSvrrjv. 
Apijcrov 8' EupuaXoc icat 'O^IXrtov i^vapiSt* 
icat Il^Sa(7Ov, ouc TTOTC 




pare II. O. 282. P. 615. e* aZi&i. So also 
Eur. Orest. 237. 0&f s/ioig Kai aoTe Kafcoif. 
Soph. Elect. 1354. w QiXrctTov $&, & 
fiovog ffb)Trjo ^6/iwv. Antig. 599. Nuv yap 
ccr^araf VTrep 'Pt^a^ srsraro 0ao^ V Oi^t- 
TTOU dopoiQ. Horat. Od. IV. 5. 5. Lucem 
redde tuee, dux bone, patria. The same 
metaphorical use of this word is frequent in 
the Sacred Writings. Compare Esther viii. 
16. Job iii. 20. xxxiii. 28. Psalm xxvii. 1. 
xcvii. 11. Matt. iv. 16. 

8. 'AKdfiavT, fjvv re [iiyav re. This 
Thracian prince is the same in whose like- 
ness Mars appears in the preceding Book, 
rallying the Trojans, and forcing the Greeks 
to retire. In the present description of his 
strength and size, we see with what pro- 
priety this personage was selected by the 
poet, as fit to be assumed by the god of war. 
POPE. See II. E. 462. 

10. 7nje. That is, Alag TT^tv y%o. 
The verb is transitive. 

14. 0i\og S' ?iv avOpuTToiai. This beau- 
tiful character of Axylus has not been able to 
escape the misunderstanding of some of the 
commentators, who thought Homer designed 
it as a reproof of an undistinguished gene- 
rosity. It is evidently a panegyric on that 
virtue, and not improbably on the memory 
of some excellent but unfortunate man in 
that country, whom the poet honours with 
the noble title of A Friend to Mankind. 
His manner of keeping house near a fre- 
quented highway, and relieving all travellers, 
is agreeable to that spirit of ancient hospi- 
tality, of which there is abundance every 
where in the Odyssee. The patriarchs in 
the Old Testament sit at their gates, to see 
those who pass by, and entreat them to enter 
into their houses. This cordial manner of 

invitation is particularly described in Genes, 
xviii. xix. The Eastern nations seem to 
have had a peculiar disposition to these ex- 
ercises of humanity, which continues, in a 
great measure, to this day. POPE. See 
Wood's Essay on Homer ; the works of 
Burckhardt, Clarke, Belzoni, and other ori- 
ental travellers ; Harmer's Observations ; 
and Burder's Oriental Customs. On this 
interesting subject, it jaay be worth while to 
notice the following passages in the Odys- 
see ; A. 119. A.I. Z. 208. 0. 392. 547. 
and particularly Od. F. 4. compared with 
Thucyd. I. 5. See also Judg. xix. 16, 17. 
Job xxxi. 32. Heb. xiii. 2. 1 Pet. iv. 9. 
The ages of chivalry were, in this respect, 
congenial with the heroic ages. Hence 
Shakspeare's Cymbeline, III. 6. 87- Fair 
youth, come in 7 Discourse is heavy, fasting : 
when we've supped, We'll mannerly demand 
thee of thy story. From these laws of hos- 
pitality arose the duty of showing particular 
kindness to an hereditary guest, which is 
beautifully illustrated in the ensuing episode 
of Glaucus and Diomed. See Mitford's 
Hist, of Greece, vol. I. p. 180. and the note 
on v. 215. infra. 

16. aXXa ot OVTIQ K. r. X. Homer does 
not intend this, as Pope and others have 
supposed, for a satire on human ingratitude. 
It is merely stated as a circumstance to ex- 
cite commiseration, that no one of those, 
whom gratitude would have prompted to 
assist Axylus, chanced to be at hand to de- 
fend him. Of the verb apictiv, j;ee on II. B. 


17, aTrrjvpa. Scil. Diomedes. 

19. v^nvlo^oQ. Probably the same as 
rivioxoQ. The noun does not recur in 

C C 

194 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAOS, 71. 

Ni]ic ' 

o r)v vtoc ayavov 

np<T/3i'raroe yVrj, o-jcortov Si I yavaro jUTjrr/p. 
Ilotjuaivwt/ 8' ETr" o<r<7t /ityrj ^tXorr^rt icai i/vijf. 25 

1 H 8' viroKVGGajJLivr] 8t8u/<iaov yeivaro 7rai8. 
Kat JULEV TUV vjrlXvcrt julvoc Kat 0at8fjua ywa 
Mijcrr?)ta8T)e, Kai QLTT' wjiiwy TEW^E' (ruXa. 
'AcruaXov 8' ap' ETTE^VE jucvfTrroXcjuoc TToXuTroir^c- 

eve DepKojo-tov E^vapt^Ev 30 

X a ^ K< ' t l'> Ttv/cpoc 8' 'Apcraova Stov. 
"Aj3X;pov ivyparo Sovpl 
EXarov of aya^ avSpaJ 
Nate Se, SarvtOEvroc IvpptiTao Trap 

aiTTftvrjv. $wXaKOv 8' IXe Aijtroc ^/owc 35 

EupUTTuXoc ^ MfXav^tov t^fyapiScv. 
' ap' 7Ttra j3o7]v ajaOoQ MfvlXaoc 
Zwov IXV '/TTTTW yap ot aruojiiVto 7T^toto, 
Ivt p\a(j)0vT jAVpiKivty, ay'KvXov apjua 
r' iv TTjOturt^ pvfJLtjj, aurw JUEV fjSrjrrjv 40 

TToXtV, ^7Tp Of a'XXoi aTU^OjUEVOi <j)ofitOVTO' 

Avrbg 8' E/C $i(f>poio Trapa rp 

EV Koviyaiv ITTI oro/xa* Trap 81 ot 

8' ap' fTTEtra XajSwv EXX/<T(7ro yovvwv* 45 

, 'Arploc vt, <rv 8' a^ta 8f^a 
IloXXa 8' EV atyvttov Trarpoc KtjUi]Xta 
XaXjcoc TE, ^putroc T-E, TroXvK/irjroc TE <7/8rjpoc* 
Twv KEV TOI ^apiffatTO Trarrip curepeiai aVoiva, 

Et KEV jU ?0)OV TTtirvQoiT ETTt VIJUCTIV 'A^atWV. 50 

l iC <J>(ITO' TCp 8' OjOa OvfJLOV EVl <JTr)0(TGlV 7Tt0" 

23. BovKoXiW. This name probably verb occurs again in II. II. 331. . 387. 
originated in the custom mentioned at II. 571. 674.782. Od. A. 195. So alsoin^Esch. 

A. 106. Y. 91. Agam. 118. See Blomfield's Gloss, in loc. 

24. (JKoTiov. Illegitimate. Hesych. <TKO- The myrica, or tamarisk, is a tail and beauti- 
riog' voBoQ- 6 \d9pa yevvijOel^ T&V JOVEMV ful tree, which seems to have been very 
rrjg KoprjQ- TOVQ yap pt} iic <f>avtpae, \aO- luxuriant in the neighbourhood of Troy. 
paictQ ok p.i%WQ yeyovoTae SKon'ovg Ka- Compare II. K. 466. <. 18. and elsewhere : 
\ovv. Eurip. Alcest. 1009. Ot&v OKOTIOI and of the quantity of the word see on II. 
Traldeg. Troad. 252. XsKrpwv OKOTIO. Wft- J>. 350. 

tytvrripia.. See Cuperi Obss. I. 16. 40. Trpwry. Schol. aicpy. Compare II. 

28. MrjKi(TTT)lddr]G. Euryalus. See II. E. 729. 

B. 565. Of the government of truX^v, see on 46. ayp. Take me alive. Eustath. 
II. A. 182. and compare v. 70. infra. Zwyptiv Z,S)VTa ayptvtiv nvd. Hence also 

38. drv^ofjiEva). Schol. Tapaaaofikvb). to revive, as in II. E. 698. where the same 
Compare II. X. 474. and v. 468. infra. With commentator explains it by IIQ Zwrjv ayel- 
TTf&'oto^supply dia, as in II. A. 244. psiv. Compare Virg. >En. X. 525. In the 

39. o<> gvi j8Xa00etT. Schol. VTTO TOV following line olicy is understood. 
K\dSov ifnroSi(r9VTf. In this sense the 



Kai Sri /J.LV ra\ E^ueXXf Ooag ETTI vijac ' 
Awo-tv (J OtpairovTi Kara^i/nev' aXX' ' 
'Aim'oc r/X0 0<ov, Kat b/ULOKXriaa 

T O TTfVov, w MevtXaf, rirj Se tru Krj 
'AvSpwv ; 17 <TOI apitrra TreTrotrjrat Kara ot 
oc Tpwwv* TMV jLtrjrte vTTK<f)vyoi alirvv o 
' JULiertpaQ' JUTJ' ovriva -yacrrfpt ju// 
Koupov idvra 0po, JUTJO' oe ^vyot* aXX' ajua 7ravrC 
'iX/ov ?a7roXomr', afCJ)E<mu Kai cfyavrot. 


6 8' a;ro 

Oura Kara XaTrajorjv* S ' avrpa7Tr'* 
^ v arriOt 
Nlo-rwp S 1 ' 



r ii (j>t\oi, flpwfc Aavaoi, Otpairovrtc; 
v, evapt*)v 7Tij 


* 7Ttra f Kat ra 


56. ^ <roi apiffra. This is ironical. Of 
the preposition Trpog with the genitive, see 
on II. A. 159. 

58. fj.r)d' ovriva K. r. X. The commen- 
tators, shocked at Agamemnon's cruelty in 
extending his revenge even to unborn babes, 
have endeavoured to explain away the 
meaning of this passage ; some by altering 
the reading, and others by observing that 
Koiipog always means a male ; and not only 
so, but a youth ; and that consequently it 
cannot be understood of a child in the womb. 
Eustathius explains yaorepi by sv fc6\7ni. 
It seems more natural, however, to under- 
stand the poet as speaking in a strong hy- 
perbole ; perfectly consistent with the ex- 
treme barbarity of the times, and in strict 
accordance with the ferocious disposition of 
Agamemnon himself. Besides, it seems 
difficult to refer the words yctorspi and /i?j- 
TTjp to a full-grown child ; and the strict 
sense of the passage is not more repugnant, 
than the fact of Agamemnon killing the man, 
whom his brother had spared. The differ- 
ence in the disposition of these two brothers 
is strongly marked by Homer. This rebuke 
of Menelaus has been frequently compared 
with that of Samuel's reproof of Saul for 
sparing Agag: 1 Sam. xv. 

60. 'iXi'ou !a7roXotar'. For i%'I\iovcnr6- 
\OIVTO. Compare Od. 25. 182. dKrjSeaTOi. 
This is generally rendered unburied. The 
substantive KrjSog signifies properly affinity, 
hence affectionate anxiety, and so grief 
generally. From this we may deduce the 

signification which it frequently bears of 
mourning for the dead; and thence, by an 
easy transition, the rites of sepulture. Com- 
pare II. 4>. 123. Od. Q. 186. ; but see also 
on II. Q. 526. It may perhaps, however, 
be rendered simply unpitied, unlamented. 
Hesych. KrjfitffOai' oiKTtiptiv. See above v. 
55. The adjective atyavroQ \sforgotten. 

62. ai<7i/ia. What is just and proper; 
i. e. in regard to an enemy. Schol. Villois. 
TO. TTpeTrovTct ToiQ adiKovfjievoiG. The neu- 
ter plural is here used adverbially. Of the 
verb 7rapi7T6tv, see on II. A. 555. 

68. ftrjTiQ vvv, kvapwv K. r. X. This ad- 
vice of Nestor seems to have been little at- 
tended to, much as it was wanted. The 
passion which the conquerors continually 
exhibited for possessing the spoil of the 
slain, is very characteristic of the barbarity 
of the times, and must have created no little 
confusion and carnage. In fact, the most 
important duties were frequently neglected, 
and the greatest dangers incurred, to gratify 
it. Thus Diomed is wounded by Paris in 
II. A. 369. while stripping Agastrophus ; 
and similar instances abound. The verb 
67ri/3aXXe:70ai is here used in the sense of 
kTTiQvfitlv, and, therefore, according to Eu- 
stathius, constructed with a genitive. The 
proper syntax would be tTTtflaXXtaQai rov 
vovv Tivi, to set one's mind upon a thing. 
Somewhat similar is the construction of 6ps- 
aro with a genitive, infra v. 466. and else- 
where. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 328. 

70. rd. For raura, scil. ra ei/apa. 

c c 2 

196 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, Z' '. 

a/unreSiov auXr)<rT 

Kttt O 


"iXtov i< 

Ei ju?j ap' Aivta T ical "EicTopi nr Trapaorae 75 

npmjutS^c w E\voc, oiwvoTToXwv 6^ aptoroc* 

AlVEta T ICOl "ElCrOp, 7Tl TTOVOf VjUjUt jUaXlOTa 

Tpwcuv ical AVKIWV E-yiclicXmu, oiWic' aptorot 

ricidav TT' t0i/y lar, jua^(70at T ^>poviv T* 

Sr)r' aurov, icat Xaov tpVKa.KT Trpo TruXawv, 80 

Ilavrrj 7rot^OjUvot, TT/OIV avr' Iv X 6 ?^ yvvaiiciov 

Avrap ITTEI ICE ^aXa-yyac 7rorpuvi]rov aira 
'HjUfT^ jUv AavaoT(Tt fjLa^ffOfjLEu' avui 
Kai juaXa TtpOjUVOt TTfp' avayicairi yap LTrdjEL' 85 

"Eicro/o, arap or> TroXtv^f jUfrlp^o, EITTE S' 7rtra 
Mr/rlpt o-p ical jU^* ^ ^uvayov<ra yepaia^ 
Nijov 'A0i7vairjc yXauicwTrtSoc v TroXft aicpy, 
icX/tSt Ovpag lepoto Sojuoto, 

ot 8oKi x ?^* 7 17 " ? ^^ fj.iyi(TTOc; 90 

Etvat Ivi jUE-yapq.), icaf ot TroXv ^iXraroc aur^, 
0tvat 'A0i]van]c ET! yovvacnv 
Kai ol viroaxtcrOaL SvojcaiSfica / 

"HvtC ^K(TTae pU(TjUV, at ic' i 

"Aoru rf icai Tpwwv aXox ou C KOI v^rta ricva* 95 

At Kv TuSloc wtov aTrotrx^ 'iXiou tpic> 
"Ayptov al\fjLriTTiv 9 icparfpov firiGTWpa 0oj3oto' 
lX Ov ^17 70) icapricrrov 'Axatwv ^>??jut yEvtadat 
7T00' wSl 7' iSciStjuev, op"\aniov 

Verbs which signify /o a&e away, as av\q.v, be rendered 7^o6/e ; without reference to 

and the like, are usually followed by two age. 

accusatives. Thus d:0aipa(T0ai in 11. A. 90. TrtTrXov. See on II. E. 734. Robes 

182. The change of person in this passage, of a similar kind seem to have been worn 

from the first to the third, is remarked by by women of rank ; most probably in honour 

Eustathius as peculiarly emphatic. Nestor of the goddess. 

assigns to himself a share in the war, but 92. Qtivai. Infinitive for imperative. 

leaves the spoils to his comrades. See on See on II. T. 285. From the expression 

II. A. 305. tiri yovvaffi, it appears that the statue of 

73. VTT 'A%atwv K. r. X. The passive the goddess was in a sitting posture. See 

construction might here be explained by Strabo: XIII. p. 413. 44. 
joining VTTO with c?a/ii>rf. See, however, 93. jSouc, rfviq. Yearling heifers ; for 

Matt. Gr. Gr. . 496. 3. ijvias, ace. pi. from IJVIG, which is derived 

87. } dk Zwayovva K. r. X. Compare from I VOQ, a year. 

Virg. jEn. I. 483. XI. 477. A procession 94. TjKtffrag. Schol. aKivrrirovQ, dda- 

of this kind took place also in the festival fidarovQ. Poetice for &KIGTOQ, from icev- 

of the Panathensea ; which was probably rlw, stimulo. We have also KSOTOC, II. JSJ. 

even then in existence. See on II. B. 214. iro\vK6ffTO, F. 371. Of the con- 

549. The adjective ytpaiaQ must here struction in the next clause, see on II. B. 72. 



Ov7Tp Qcurl Oeac f EJUJUEVCU' aXX' SSe X/TJV 
ouSt rtq ol ^vvarai JUEVOC tcr 
'* "Eicrwp S' ouri Kaaryvrjr^ 
v aXro 

IlaXXwv 8' 6?a Sou/oa, Kara crrparov (^X ro navTrj, 
'Orpvvwv jua^o-a(70at, tyttpt (j>v\O7rtv alvrjv. 
Oi 8' EXfXix^JO'ai'j Ka t Evavrfoi Earav 'Axatwv. 
'Ajoyaot 8' vTTt\Mpr\Gav, Xfjav SE <f>6voio' 
<]>av TIV' a9avaT(t)v ? ovpavov a<rrjooVToe 
T/owcriv aX?rj<roirra KarfX^fjufv, we XfXtx,0v. 
KicXro, juaKpov auo-ae* 

t T' 7TtKOU|OO4, 




' av 7(1) jSftw TrpoTi "iXtov, T7 ytpovaiv 
E'/TTW SouXfurpo-t, icat i]jLiTprjc aXo^oio-t, 

apriaacfOat, viroa^iaOaL 8' caro/ij3a. 
wi^arae aTrljSrj KOpvOaioXog 

t Sf jUtV (T^)Vpa TUTTTfc KOI aV\VCL SfpjUtt 

rj TTVjuarrj 0v afTTT/Soc 6jU^>aXo(T(7Tjc- 
XavKOC 8' 'iTTTToXo^oto TTat? Kai TUOC vt 
JU(TOV afJL(j>OTpit)V GVv'iTr\v 


100. FM/go, i^efjifievai, and so Heyne ; 
but compare II. E. 544. 896. S. 472. O. 
187- T. 105. e passim. 

108. The Scholiast rightly understands 
$, in this line, for yap. See on II. A. 200. 

112. avtpeQ (rre, K. r. X. The word 
avr)p is here used emphatically ; and so f zr 
frequently in Latin ; whence Cicero (Tusc. 
Quaest. II.) derives virtus a viro. Thus He- 
rod. VII. 210. AjjjXov krcoitov r< jSaaiXcT, 
on TroXXoi p,kv avOpwTTOi dtv, oXiyot fit 
avdpeg. Compare 1 Sam. iv. 9. 2 Sam. x. 
12. I Cor. xvi. 13. 

115. cKaro/ijSag. See on II. A. 65. 

117- TVTTTS. Struck, beat against. So 
Propert. III. 15. 32. Et feries nudos veste 
fluents pedes. 

118. dvTV%. Schol. vvv ry Trept^peta 
TTJG affTTidog. See on II. E. 262. Ernesti 
observes, that this line is in explanatory 
apposition with deppa KtXaivbv in the pre- 
ceding. Eusta thius understands Oeev for 
TrepwOfev, and adduces the passage in illus- 
tration of the aairiQ a/i0i/3p6rq. See on 
II. B. 389. 

119. TXavKog d' 'iTrTroXo^oto TTCLIQ K. r. X. 
This beautiful Episode of Glaucus and Di- 
omed has been repeatedly objected to, as 
too long for insertion in the heat of a severe 
engagement, and as having nothing to do 
with the main action of the poem ; and, 


accordingly, some modern critics have con- 
sidered it as the work of another hand. 
We may remark, however, with Eusta- 
thius, that the battle had relaxed upon the 
departure of Hector, and that this pleasing 
historical relation is happily introduced to 
relieve the attention of the reader, which 
has been so long engaged with the disorder 
and tumult of the war. And though this, 
and the other Episodes in the Iliad, may 
not, perhaps, be absolutely necessary to the 
main action, they are by no means uncon- 
nected with it; at the same time that they 
exhibit a familiar display of the manners, 
and customs, and feelings, of ancient times. 
Thus we may collect from this and several 
passages in Homer, that it was very usual 
in these times for the combatants to enter 
into conversations before they engaged ; 
and the length of the narrative may readily 
be accounted for in the present instance, 
by the interest which it excited in Diomed. 
One would think, at least, that the same 
dignity of style, the same beauty of expres- 
sion, and the same strength of genius, 
which is observable in this and every other 
part of Homer, would be a sufficient proof 
of its authenticity. And the same may 
be said of the interview between Hector 
and Andromache, which has not altogether 
escaped a similar imputation. 



O l i o or crj tr^coov rjaav tii aXX/jXoicriv lovrtg, 

TOV TTpOTtpOg 7rpO<Tl7T j3o?]V ttjaOo^ AlOjUT^TJC" 

Tie Si av (7<n, 0pi<rr, KaraOvriTwv avOpwiriov ; 
Oi jtiv yap TTOT' oVwTra jua^rj vi (cv&avcfpp 
To Trpiv' arap jUV vuv 7* TroXu irpofitfitiKag aTravrwv 125 
S< flapera, or' Ijuov 
AUOT/JVWV SI re 7raTo 
Ei St TIC aOavarw y Kar' ovpavov tl\ri\ovOa , 
OVK av eywyt Osotcriv 7Tovpavtotcri ^a^otjurjv. 
Oi;^ -yap ov^ Apuavroc vtoc Kparfpoc Au/coopyoc 130 

Arjv ^v, o^ /oa OeoLGiv 7roupavtot<Ttv e 


icar' riyaOtov Nua-rjVov* at S' a/xa 


1 aXoc Kara KUjua* Gertc ^ vTrtSc^a 
ra* Kjoarepoc yajO e^c rpOyUoc avEpbg 

Kat jiiiv Tv<j)\bv WTJKE Kpovov TraTc* ouS' ap' n cJi^ 
7 Hv, 7Tt aOavaroiaiv cnr{]\QtTo TTU.GI Bsolviv. 
OuS' av ya> juaicapor(Tt 0foTc eOeXoi/ 
Ei $ ric 0"cri jSporwv, 01 apouprjc KapTrov f' 


128. i # rif dOavarwv. See on II. E. 

129. OVK av cywye K. r. X. This decla- 
ration of Diomed, who had just wounded 
two of the gods, appears somewhat incon- 
sistent ; but, be it remembered, that his 
former conduct had been instigated by 

131. drjv. See on II. A. 416. So again 
infra v. 139. 

132. Aiuvvaoio TiOrjvag. The nurses 
of Bacchus, commonly called the Bacchce. 
See Eurip; Bacch. passim. The opinions 
of mythologists, respecting the nurses to 
whom the infant god was given after his 
delivery from the thigh of Jupiter, are 
materially different. Ovid (Fast. V.) agrees 
with Apollodorus, in committing him to the 
Hyades, and Euripides assigns him to Dirce, 
the daughter of the river Achelous. Again, 
it is related by Lucian, that he was trans- 
ported by Mercury to Nysa, a city of 
Arabia, where he was educated by the 
nymphs, and whence he is supposed by 
some to have derived his name. Others, 
on the contrary, deduce it from the fable 
of his birth : airb TOV vvaaeiv Aibg p,r)pov. 
The Nysa above referred to cannot how- 
ever be the place mentioned in this pas- 

sage, which was in the dominions of Ly- 
curgus, and, consequently, a city of Thrace. 
The insult which the god received from 
Lycurgus, was the abolition of his worship, 
and the destruction of all the vines in his 
dominions. Homer assigns to him the 
punishment of blindness, affirming that he 
made a violent attack upon the god him- 
self and his nurses, and drove him for 
refuge into the bosom of Thetis. The 
mythologists relate, that being deprived by 
Bacchus of his senses, he killed his son 
Dryas, and cut off his own legs, mistaking 
them for vine-stumps ; and that at last, to 
appease the god, he was put to death by 
his own subjects. See Heyne on Apollod. 
Bibl. III. 5. p. 571. 

134. 6v<rQ\a. Eustath. 01 TOVQ 
K\a5ovg, oi dk TOVQ Ovpvovg, tvioi de 
iravra KOIV&Q TO. Trpbg rrjv TtXfTijv. 
Heyne justly prefers the latter interpreta- 

135. /3ov7r\^yt. With an ox-goad. 
138. Otol pila ZwovTtQ. Dii facile sen 

beats viventes. Milton seems to have had 
this in his eye in P. L. II. 852. Thou 
wilt bring me soon To that new world of 
light and bliss, among The gods who live 
at ease. POPE. 



T A<7(TOV 10', U> KV OaCFGOV 6Xt0pOU 

Tov 8' av0' 'iTTTToXoxoio 7rpo<TTjv8 
Tu8a8T/ juya0ujue, TITJ -yV?7V /oivi ; 145 

Oil] 7T/o 0uXXwv yeyai^, roirj8e Kai av8pwv. 

ra jutv r' avEfiOQ x ^"^? X^ t> aXXa 81 0' uXrj 

jooc 8' liriyiyvtraL W/OTJ* 
tN O? av8|oc5v / yVi7, 17 juiv ^>ui, 17 8' cnroXrjysi. 
Ei 8' 0Xi icai ravra 8aijjUvai, o^>p' u i8ipc 150 

"Eori TroXic 'E<U/OTJ , j^^XV "Apyfoc iTTTrojSoroiO, 

(7ICV, 6 K/o8l(7TOC 

143. 6XI0pov TTftpaO'. That is, o\c- 
So again II. H. 402. and else- 
where. This and similar circumlocutions 
are intended to mark the perfection of a 
thing. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 430. 6. Pent. 
Gr. p. 465. on ^sch. Theb. 898. 

146. o'irj Trep <pv\\b)v K. T. X. The 
reader, who has seen so many passages 
imitated from Homer by succeeding poets, 
will no doubt be pleased to see one of an 
ancient poet, which Homer has here imi- 
tated. This is a fragment of Musaeus, pre- 
served by Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom. 
VI. 'Qf d' a'vTWQ Kcti 0vXXa <j>vtt 
apovpa, "AXXa fj.kv tv p.t\iy(riv ctTro 
aXXa fik (jtvti' "Qg dk Kal avQptlJTrov 
Kai $v\\ov iXiaaei. Though this compa- 
rison be justly admired for its beauty in 
this obvious application to the mortality 
and succession of human life, it seems, 
however, designed by the poet in this 
place, as a proper emblem of the transitory 
state not of men, but of families ; which, 
being by their misfortunes or follies fallen 
or decayed, do again, in a happier season, 
revive and flourish in the fame and virtues 
of their posterity. In this sense it is a 
direct answer to what Diomed had asked, 
as well as a proper preface to what Glaucus 
relates of his own family, which, having 
been extinct in Corinth, had recovered new 
life in Lycia. POPE. It seems much more 
probable, however, that Musaeus was pos- 
terior to Homer. We may compare also 
Aristoph. Av. 685. "Ays. St Qvaiv dvdptg 
ap.avpo(3iot, (f>v\\a)v ytvtg, Trpoffojwoioi, 
'OXyofyavE, TrXaff/jara TnjXow, K. r. X. 
Eurip. Fragm. ap. Plutarch, de Consolat. 
KVK\O yap avroQ Kap7rc'/ioi TS yijg $v- 
TOIQ, Gv^rwv rt ytveq' TO!Q p,6v av^erai 
/Stog, Twv de <f>9ivti rt KaicOtpiZiTai ira- 
Xtv. Cic. Philip. XI I. Nil semper floret : 
eetas succedit cetati. Hence also Simonides : 
"Ev dt TO KaXXiffTOV Xtog ttiTttv dvrjo' 
O'ir] Trtp <j>v\\(i)v K. T. X. Somewhat si- 
milar is Horat. A. P. 60. Ut sylvae foliis 
pronos mutantur in annos, Prima cadunt ; 

ita verborum vetus interit eetas, Etjuvenum 
ritu florent modo nata vigentque. In the 
sacred writings similar comparisons abound. 
Thus, Psalm ciii. 15. LXX. 
watt ^oprof al r/julpai avrov, axrti 
TOV dypow OVTUQ iZavOrjffti. "On 
BirjXOtv f.v avT(f, Kai ov^ v-jrdpZti, Kal 
OVK 7riyvw<Trai en TOV TOTTOV UVTOV. 
Sirac. XIV. 18. 'Qg <f>v\\ov OdXXov kiri 
devdpov daaeog, TO. fj,tv KarajSaXXfi, aXXa 
de (pvtc ovT(>)Q yevtd aapKOQ Kal a'ifjiaTOQ, 
r] fikv TeXevTg,, irkpa de yevvarai. Com- 
pare 1 Chron. xxix. 15. Ps. xc. 5. Job viii. 
4. xiv. 2. Isai. xl. 6. James iv. 14. 1 Pet. i. 
24. and elsewhere. In these several in- 
stances, the application of the simile is 
somewhat more general than in Homer. 

148. tapOQ C* iiriyiyvtTai toprj. This 
is parenthetical, being, in fact, equivalent 
with tapOQ &pr)Q kiriyiyvofikvrjQ. In order 
that 0ui, repeated in the next verse, may 
retain its active signification, Heyne sup- 
plies the construction thus : rj fiev $vi dv- 
8pas, 77 ^ aTToX^yei <j>veiv dvdpag. The 
verb is only passive in the aorist and the 
perfect. With the sentiment, compare 
Eccles. i. 4. 

150. el 8' I9e\eie K. T. X. We must 
supply ddrjOi, XE<I>, or some such word, as 
the apodosis is wanting. Omissions of this 
kind are very frequent, and were probably 
remedied by a significant look, or the ges- 
ture of the speaker. See also on 11. A. 135. 

r. 59. 

151. TroXXot de K. T. X. Etsi genus meum 
non obscurum est. 

152. 'Etyvprj. It was the same which 
was afterwards called Corinth, and had that 
name in Homer's time, as appears from his 
Catalogue ; II. B. 570. POPE. The proper 
import of the word /ivyoc is an inward re- 
cess, as in II. X. 440. So in Eurip. Cyclop. 
290. yrjs iv 'EXXddos juvxolg. In this 
place, however, /iv% "Apytoe is simply a 
periphrasis for the Peloponnesus. 

153. KepSiffTOf. Horat. Sat. I. 3. 21. 
Vafer ille Sisyphus. Such was the general 





AioXi^r/c" o S' p FXaDicov rK0' viov. 
C rt(crv ajuv/xova 


* aurap ot Ilpolroc KOKa jUTjeraro 
/' K ^rjjuiov 'Aaa-arfv, ITTU TroXv 


jufyrj/ucvat" aXXa TOV own 
ajaOa 0povovra Safy>po 
oe ^/EuaajLitvrj Xljootrov jSatft 
, w Ilpotr', 77 Kacrav 

^tXorrjrt ju^y^juevat OVK 
rov ^t ava/cra oXoc XaSfv, olov aicou(T. 




f (Trjjuara Xvypa, 

opinion of antiquity ; whence Eustathius 
observes, that Glaucus uses a word of am- 
biguous import, that he may not affect the 
memory of his ancestor. 

155. Bt\\|0o0ovr77v. He took this 
name, BeXX^pov <}>ovsv<;, after the murder 
of his brother BELLERUS, in consequence 
of which he fled to the court of Prcetus, 
king of Argos. His original name was 
Hipponous. The history of this young 
hero has been repeatedly pointed out, as 
bearing a strong resemblance to that of 
Joseph at the court of Pharaoh. 

159. eddfjiaact. Scil. avrovQ. 

160. #T "Avreia. She was called also 
Sthenobaa, by Euripides and others. See 
Heyne on Apollod. II. 2. 1. p. 277- The 
epithet dta is merely beautiful. See on II. 
A. 131. 

164. re^vaijjf. For Te9va9i. As if she 
said, observes the Scholiast, u (BovXti %yv, 
fKtivov avi\e, intimating that the life of 
Prcetus himself was in danger. 

167- Toye. Scil. ro Kriivai avrov. The 
rites of hospitality would thus have been 

168. (T^/tara Xvypa. Mournful charac- 
ters. There has been considerable con- 
trovers) r respecting the nature of these 
characters. Those who advocate the opi- 
nion that alphabetical writing was un- 
known in the age of Homer, understand 
by them certain hieroglyphic representa- 
tions, which would indicate to Jobates 
the estimation in which the bearer was 
held by Prcetus. Wolfe, as likewise Wood 
in his Essay on Homer, explains them to 
mean symbols conventionally understood by 
a family, but which no stranger could de- 
cypher. It is rather difficult to conceive 
however, how any symbolical characters, 

sufficiently intelligible, could be devised, in 
order to convey a message of so peculiar a 
nature as that of Prcetus, with respect to 
which there seems to have been no pre- 
vious understanding between the parties. 
Besides, it is certain, that the words may 
as well refer, in themselves, to alphabetical 
as to hieroglyphic writing, provided it can 
be proved that the former was in existence 
at the period in question. An expression 
somewhat similar, where it is unquestion- 
able that alphabetical writing is intended, 
occurs in Ovid, Amor. I. 12. 7- Ite hinc, 
difficiles, funebria signa, tabella : Tuque 
negaturis cera referta notis. Now, although 
there is no passage in Homer himself, by 
which the point may be decided, there is 
sufficient proof in other writers that writing 
was then in use, and that it was applied to 
the ordinary purposes of life. Sophocles, 
for instance, in Trach. 157. mentions a 
\TOV eyycypa/i/ievtyj', or written will, of 
Hercules, who was nearly contemporary 
with Bellerophon. Euripides also, in Hip- 
pol. 861. 881. speaks of an iiriaToXr), or 
(SsXrog, written by Phaedra to Theseus, 
eighty years before the Trojan war. That 
Virgil maintained a similar opinion, may 
be collected from jEn. III. 443. VI. 74. 
III. 286. of which passages the two former 
are quoted by Wolfe himself, in his Prole- 
gomena, though he imputes the writing of 
the Sibyl to a trifling mistake of the poet. 
The above authorities, however, must be 
considered as palpable anachronisms, in 
persons who were much more capable of 
ascertaining the fact than we can be at the 
present day ; or the evidence in favour of 
the use of alphabetical writing in the age of 
Homer is conclusive. See Penn's Primary 
Argument, ch. XI. p. 289. That the verb 



Iv'irtvaiu TTTVKT^ Bv/mofyOopa TroXXa, 
Aa^ai S' ?] vary a $ 7Tv0/ow, o^p' aTroXotro. 
Avrap o j3fj AuiarjvSe 0wv VTT' afivjiiovi 
'AXX' or S) Auiar/v I?, EavOov TE 


TlV a 

, Kttl VVa 

'AXX' or 817 SficarT) < 

Kai rorf jutv iplftvf, icai r?r o-fjjua 

W O m joa ot yctjUjSpoto Trajoa Dpofroio 0potro. 


Ilpwrov JUEV /oa Xt/xatpav ajuatjieaiclrTjv fic 

S' ap' eijv ^tov jivo^, ouS' av0paJ7ro;v, 
, oiriOev Sf SpaKtuv, JUECTCTTJ ^(j 

Aftvov cnroTrvdovara TTVJOOC ftvoc alOofjiivoio. 

Kai rr)v JUEV Kar7T0v, 
av, 2oXv/uoi<ri 



originally signified ^o grave, and 
not to wnte, is true. Schol. Theocr. VI. 
18. ypa^ai TO %effai 01 TraXeuoi IXfyov. 
Hesych. ypd^|/af ^tcrai, %apaai, djwv^ai. 
But with the use of writing the latter signi- 
fication gradually prevailed. Wolfe, Proleg. 
. 20. note, assigns its first usage in this 
sense, as well as the word deXrog, to jEs- 
chylus and Pindar ; so that there can be no 
impropriety in fixing that meaning to it in 
Sophocles and Euripides. There is one 
other passage in II. H. 175. where the verb 
ar^iaivb) is used like (r^/iara in this place, 
to denote the characters employed by the 
Grecian leaders, whom Hector had chal- 
lenged to single combat, to distinguish 
their respective lots. But, as in this case, 
any mark whatever would be sufficient for 
the purpose, it is of very little weight on 
either side of the question. The TrivaZ, 
ITTVKTOQ, or folded tablet, in which these 
characters were contained, was in all pro- 
bability a roll of prepared skin or parch- 
ment, with which the Asiatic Greeks were 
early acquainted. See Prelim. Obss. Sect. 
II. where this curious subject is more fully 
investigated than the limits of a note will 

174. evv^/iap Ztivwat. Eustathius ob- 
serves, that it was the custom of the an- 
cients to forbear any inquiries in cases of 
this kind, till the tenth day after their 
arrival, and instances the case of Paris, 
when he carried off Helen. Others have 
supposed that a solemn feast, of nine days' 
duration, prevented an earlier examination 
of the letters. 

179. XifJiaipav. Chimaera was feigned 
to have the head of a lion breathing flames, 

the body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon, 
because a mountain of that name in Lycia 
had a volcano on its top, and nourished 
lions ; the middle part afforded pasture for 
goats ; and the bottom was infested with 
serpents. Bellerophon destroying these, and 
rendering the mountain habitable, was said 
to have conquered Chimaera. POPE. Tzetzes, 
Chil. 149. understands the Chimaera to re- 
present three nations conquered by Belle- 
rophon. The fable, however, is variously 
explained. It was in this exploit that Bel- 
lerophon is said to have been mounted upon 
the steed Pegasus, which he had received 
from Minerva. The adjective a/uai/*acrog 
is differently interpreted. Eustathius under- 
stands it in the sense of ingens, from a in- 
tensitive, and fidfcoe, Doricd for /i^|cog, 
longitudo, with the first syllable doubled; 
and such seems to be its import in Od. 23. 
311. According to others, it signifies furens, 
from /tatftdw. By the Scholiast, on II. II. 
329. it is rendered aKara/idx^roc, inex- 
pugnabilis. Perhaps the Homeric use of 
the word is most clearly marked by the 
passage of the Odyssee. It occurs as an 
epithet of the Furies in Soph. (Ed. C. 

181. x^ l P- Hesych. cti dypia. The- 
ocritus uses xi'juajoo in Idyl. I. 6. which 
the Scholiast in loc. explains of a goat one 
winter old; as if from %1/Lta, hyems. See 
Blomfield's Gloss, on jEsch. Pers. 5?3. 
It is evident that this line is parenthe- 

184. SoXvfioi<ri. These Solymi were an 

ancient nation, inhabiting the mountainous 

parts of Asia Minor, between Lycia and 

Pisidia. Pliny mentions them as an in- 

D d 



Kapriorrjv Sr) r/jv -y juri^rjv 0aro Sv/uitvai avSpwv. 
To rptrov au, Kariirifyvtv 'Ajuaovac a 
T< ' a/a' avtp^Ojulv^ Trujavov SoXov aXXov 
Kp/'vae K Aviarje vpirjc $wrac apitrroue, 
El<T Xo^ov* rot 8' ovrt TraXtv oticovSe vtovro' 
Ilavrae yap KaTtTretyvtv ajUVjiiwv BsXXepo^ovrrjc'. 
'AXX' ore Si) y[yvworK Oeov yovov f)vv lovra, 
AvroD JJLIV icarpuic, StSou 8' oye Ovyartpa rjv* 
AWK $ ot TtytTje jSafftXrjtSoe TjfMtrv TraoTje. 
Kai jU*v ot AVKIOL T^/aevog ra/iov ?o^ov aXXwv, 
KaXov, ^vraXt^c *at apovjOjc> 
*H 8' TK rpia rtKva Safypovt 
r, Kai 'iTTTToXo^ov, 

^cn'O jui7rira 




'AXX' or S?) 

fTO Tratrt 
TO 'AXijtov otoc aXaro, 



Mapvajucvov SoXvjuottrt Karljcravf 
Tr)v SE 

stance of a people so entirely destroyed, 
that no footsteps of them remained in his 
time. Some authors, both ancient and mo- 
dern, from a resemblance in sound to the 
Lai in name of Jerusalem, have confounded 
them with the Jews. Tacitus, speaking of 
the various opinions concerning the origin 
of the Jewish nation, has these words : 
Clara alii tradunt Judceorum initia; Soly- 
mos, carminibus Homeri celebratam gentem, 
conditfB urbi Hierosolymam nomen e suo 
fecisse. Hist V. 2. POPE. This tradition 
respecting the origin of the Jewish nation, 
argues complete ignorance of the Hebrew 
name of Jerusalem. ^ 

186. 'A/iaoVae avriavtipag. See on 
II. T. 189. These labours, which Jobates 
imposed upon Bellerophon, are highly de- 
scriptive of the times. Of the same nature 
were those of Hercules, under Eurystheus, 
and Jason, under Pelias. 

192. Qvyarkpa. Apollodorus calls her 
Philonoe. ^ 

194. feat p,kv 01 AVKIOI K. T. X. It was 
usual in the ancient times, upon any signal 
piece of service performed by the kings or 
great men, to have a portion of land de- 
creed by the public, as a reward for them. 
Thus, when Sarpedon, in II. M. 310. sqq. 
incites Glaucus to behave himself valiantly, 
he puts him in mind of these possessions 
granted by his countrymen. In the same 


manner in Virg. jEn. IX. 274. Nisus is 
promised by Ascanius the fields which were 
possessed by Latinus, as a reward for the 
service he undertook : campi quod rex habet 
ipse Latinus. POPE. 

200. dXV ore Sri KaKtlvog K. r. X. 
Heyne understands the expression cnrrjx- 
0cro Tracri Otolffi to mean nothing more 
than that he was overtaken by misfor- 
tunes, which the ancients were accustomed 
to attribute to the anger of the gods. See 
on II. Y. 306. The crime by which he 
incurred this hatred, Glaucus carefully 
omits to mention ; but it was probably 
his daring ascent on Pegasus, when Ju- 
piter, irritated at his presumption, stung 
the steed with a gad-fly, and precipitated 
the rider to the earth. He fell upon the 
plains of Cilicia, afterward called 'AXquu, 
from his unhappy and solitary wanderings, 
which Homer intimates in this passage. 
See also Apollod. Bibl. II. 3. III. 1. Natal. 
Com. IX. 4. Hence Milton, P. L. VII. 
17. Lest from this flying steed unreined 
as once Bellerophon, though from a lower 
clime Dismounted on the Aleian field I 
fall, Erroneous there to wander and forlorn. 
Cicero has translated the two following 
lines in Tusc. Qusest. III. Qui miser in 
campis mcerens errabat Aleis, Ipse suum cor 
edens, hominum vestigia vitans. 

205. ri]v. Laodamia. See below on v. 428. 



ot jU /( y' apfarot 


f ju' Tpoujv, KCU juot juciXci 7roXX' tTrl 

AlV Clpt(7TUtV, KOL V 

M/$ yivoQ TTdTtpuv at 

"Ev r' 'E<vpr) f-ylvovro, KCU v AuKtp fvpdy. 

rot yfvfijc T KCU aifJLaTOQ ev^ofiat tivat. 
$aro' yriBriai Sc jSorjv dyaObe AtojurjSrje* 
e julv icarfTrTj^fv ITTI ^0ovt TrouXujSorf/prj, 
Avrap o /uciXi^ocani TrpoaTjuSa Trotjulva Xawv' 
? H ^oa vu juot 5^t vo? Trarpwioc f^o"! TraXatoc' 


EVI /if-yapoio-tv, hiKomv 
O? ^ Kal aXXrjXot<rt Tropov ^eivrjia icaXa. 
Otvfve jUV ZwcrTripa SiSou 
BfXXfjOo^ovTTjc ^ \pvcriov 
Kat utv f-w icarfXftTrov iwv Iv 




', or' Iv 
(rot Ui^ 

a:rwXro Xaoc 'A%atwv. 



IIoXXoi JUEV ya/o ^uot Tpwc, icTjrot r 

KrlVtV, OV K 0O^ ^ 7TO/00 Kttt TTOCTdt 

IloXXot S' av aoi 'A^atoi, IvatpljUfv, ov KE Su 

208. atj/ apiffTtvtiv K. r. X. 
versus, et alte animis juvenum infigendi ! 
HEYNE. With the latter part of this ad- 
vice, we may compare Thucyd. Lib. I. 
XPjl TOVQ vtuTtpovg, iraT'epuv ruv aya- 
QGtv ytvofievwv 7ralda, 7retpao-0ai fjnij aia- 
Xvvai rag irpoarjicovaas apeTug. To the 
same effect Virg. ^En. III. 342. In anti- 
quam virtutem animosque viriles Et pater 
Mneas et avunculus excitat Hector. 

215. Z.HVOQ Trarpouoe kaai TraXaioQ. The 
strictness with which the rites of hospi- 
tality were observed in the heroic ages, 
cannot be better exemplified than it is in 
the whole of this beautiful episode. See 
above on v. 14. The friendship thereby 
contracted was obligatory upon their pos- 
terity ; and the presents which were usually 
exchanged upon parting, were laid up 
among their treasures as pledges and me- 
morials for future generations. These pre- 
sents were called av^jBoXa ZtviKCL, by the 
Greeks, and tesseree hospitalitatis, by the 
Romans ; and the production of them gave 
a mutual claim to the contracting parties 
or their descendants, to a hospitable recep- 
tion. See Eur. Med. 61 3. Plaut. Pcen. V. 2. 

To be neglectful of these duties was looked 
upon as highly disgraceful ; and they were 
even more imperative than those of con- 
sanguinity. Hence the observation of Ad- 
metus in Eurip. Alcest.^ 5?3. Kai Trpoe 
Kaicolaiv aXXo TOVT av r\v KCLKOV, A6/uioi)<; 
KaXelaOai TOVQ spoiic ixQpo&vovQ. Avroe 
5' dpioTov rovdt Tvyxdvw &vov, "Orav 
irep'ApyovQ Sityiav t\Qu> xQova. The last 
lines of this citation precisely correspond 
with those of Diomed, in v. 224. On the 
present occasion, as no other Suipa Zevuca 
were at hand, the two friends change their 
armour. It is well known that a similar 
species of free-masonry prevailed among 
the ancient Christians, to which there seems 
to be an allusion in Rev. ii. 17- See also 
Sam. Petit's Miscell. II. 1. Cave's Prim, 
Christianity, III. 3. 

222. TvCea 5' ov (iKfJ,vr] The verbs 
to remember, to forget, &c. are properly 
joined with the genitive, as in v. 1 12. supra, 
II. A. 407. O- 60. and elsewhere. They 
are sometimes, however, though rarely in 
Homer, found with an accusative. Herod. 
VIII. 66. TWV iirtpvriaQnv TTportpov rdt 
ouvouara. See on II. B. 600. 



* o<ppa KOI ot' 

, ort avoi irarpcJcoc ci^Ojiiefl' EC vat. 
tX Oc apa ^wvrjcravre, ica0' tTTTrwv a'/'^avrt, 
Xctpac T' aXX^Xwv XajStTTjv, icai Tnorworavro. 
"Ev0' aurf rXauKqj Kpovt'Srjc <j>pvct l^tXtro 
lV Oc 7rpo TuSetSrjv AiOju/jSsa TEU^C' a'juetjSe, 
Xpvorca ^aXicEiwv, icaTOju|3ot' Ivvaj3oiu>v. 
w Eicra>p 8' a>e Sjcame TE Tr 

/itv Tpwwv a'Xo^ot 0lov ?$ Ovya 
irai^dg re, KaatyvriTOVQ re, tra^ rf 
Kai Trocrtac* o 




'AXX' 6r Sr) Ilpmjuoto Sojuov TTfpticaXX^ i'icav, 
Sfo-r^cr' alOovcrriat rfruyjUfvov* avrap iv avr(i"J 
Ilvrr)covr' Vcrav OaXajULOi ZBOTTOIO \iOoto, 
IlXi7(TiOt aXXrjXtov Sf^T|jLivof tvflaSe Trainee 
Kotjuwvro npia^toto ?rapa juvr/arrjc aXo^otat. 
Kovpawv o' trtpwOev tvavrioi tvSo^tv auAf/c 


234. !sXero. Ademit. This is the only 
sense in which Homer employs Igaiptly, 
as in II. P. 470. T. 137. The words imply 
simply that the superior value of his armour 
above that of Diomed never entered his 
mind : and the fact is attributed, according 
to the custom of the times, to the agency of 
Jupiter. Porphyry, and Eustathius, whom 
Pope also has followed in opposition to his 
better judgment, understand the verb in the 
sense of to elevate. This would be eiraipeiv, 
not iZaiptiv, and the passages above cited, 
where the same expression recurs, are de- 
cisive against them. 

236. Karo/z/3oi' tweafBoiuv. See on 
II. B. 106. 449. This unequal exchange 
of Glaucus and Diomed passed into a pro- 
verb. Hence Martial, Epigr. IX. Tarn 
stupidus nunquam nee tu,puto, Glance, fuisti, 
XaX/cca donanti %pvffea qui dederas. See 
also A. Gell. II. 23. Cicero ad Attic. Lib. 
VI. Aristot. Ethic. V. 9. Plato in Phaedr. 
&c. Of the construction see Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 342. b. 

239. TraiSctG. That is, irtpl Traidwv. 

241. TroXXyeri #e Krjde 0rj7rro. See on 
II. B. 15. Eustathius observes that this is 
a parenthetical remark of the poet himself. 

243. aiOovayai. Porches, or Porticoes, 
built on pillars in front of the house, so as 
to admit the solar rays : whence the deri- 
vation from alOb), splendere facio. Eustath. 
\iQivoiQ iiTraiOpoiQ aroaig alBo^iivaiQ ?}Xi<>. 

244. TrevrrfKovr' tvtaav OaXa/Jiot K. T. X. 
Hence Virg. ^En. II. 603. Quinquaginta 
illi thalami, spes tanta nepotum, Barbarico 

pastes auro spoliisque superbi. Compare II. 
Q. 495. and see Apollod. III. 12. 5. It ap- 
pears from this passage that masonry was 
not unknown in the time of Homer, though 
it was very far from that splendid magni- 
ficence which it afterwards reached. Hence 
also, and from II. I. 468. we may form a 
tolerable idea of the structure and accommo- 
dation of the houses of the opulent in the 
heroic ages. They seem to have been built 
within an enclosure e'pKOf, which surrounded 
the outer court, aiX), into which there was 
an entrance beneath a porch or portico. In 
front of the house itself was a hall, irpoSopog, 
into which the several chambers, OdXajuoi, 
opened; and these latter were separately 
assigned to the male and female branches of 
the family. Thus the sons and daughters of 
Priam had their respective apartments on 
opposite sides of the house. It does not 
appear, however, that the women were so 
completely separated from the society and 
conversation of the men, as they afterwards 
were ; and the avdpuv and yuvai/comrif, 
as they were called, are not mentioned in 
Homer. It seems, indeed, that the upper 
part of the house was more particularly as- 
signed to virgins (II. B. 514.) ; but it does 
not appear that they ever scrupled to join 
the society of the men. See Mitford's Hist, 
of Greece, vol. I. p. 189. 

247. The genitive Kovgawv must be con- 
strued with 0ctXajuoi. The adjective reyeoi, 
in the following line, is nothing more than 
an ornamental epithet to complete the line, 
and used precisely in the same manner as 



taav rtytoi BaXa/uLOi ?crro7o \Woio, 
ioi aXX?'jX(t>v SeSjLtr/jUfvot* tvOd^t -yetjujSpoi 
Kotjuwvro Hpidfioto Trap' euSofyc aXo^ottrtv. 
ot ?]7rioSfe>poe Evavrtrj TjXu0 juijrrjp, 

Eo-cryoiKra, Owyarpuv ftSoe ajo/arrjv* 
"Ev r' apa ot 0u X f P*> ETTOC T' ^>ar', EK T' o 

TEKVOV, TITTTE XtTraJv TroXcjtiov Opavvv Et 
*H fj.d\a ?) TtipovGi SiKrwvujuot I/IEC 'A^aiwv, 
Mapva/iEvot TTEpi aoru, ai 8' Ev0a($ 0ujuoe av?icv 



'AXXa fifV, o^pa K rot jufXtrj^la oTvov E 
'Qc o'TTfio'pc Aa TraTjOi Kai aXXotc 
Ilpwrov, ETTCcra ^ K' avrbc; ovrjaeai, at KE wiyaOa. 
ftlvoc /ufya oivoc ?* 


^jUEijSfr' 7Ttra 
Mr) juoi oTvov atp 
M?) LI' a7royvib)orr) 
rl o aviTTTOKn Aa 

l8 7T17 (7Tl 

Atjuart Kat \v9p(t) TTETraXayjUEvov E 

the Latins frequently call the whole house 
tectum. There is evidently no distinction 
intended between these twelve chambers 
and the former fifty ; and it seems probable, 
that in this instance, they may have formed 
two sides of a quadrangular building, of 
which the palace, or part occupied by Priam 
himself, was the third ; the epKog, or enclo- 
sure, completing the square. Eustathius 
understands by rsyeoi that these were above 
the others, at the top of the palace, but this 
is evidently contradicted by the words ere- 
pd0v evavTioi. 

251. rj-n-iodupoQ. This compound epithet 
implies nothing more than the simple adjec- 
tive jjTriV 

252. Eustathius understands svdyovaa 
intransitively for daiovaa, as does also Por- 
phyry with the commentators in general. 
Schol. l(rayou<ra, avri row, Trpoe AaoSiKrjv 
Tropeyo/jevjj. trw^c yap Trpog avrijv elaeX- 
Gtlv flovXofjievr). Perhaps, however, it may 
simply mean leading, conducting ; i. e. at- 
tended by Laodice ; the preposition being 
redundant. That, indeed, ellipses, similar 
to the above, are not unfrequent, see Bos. 
Ellips. Gr. p. 74. but eiarayttv elsewhere in 
Homer signifies to introduce ; as in II. A. 
777- M. 18. Q. 620. 

^263. Iv T apa ot 0y xP. For M0v 
avrov xpi i- e. iStZtovro avrov. 

255. % fjiaXa dr) K. T. X. That the dis- 


Xci} TE Xa0a>juad. 

aiOoira oivov 


tress of the Trojans was known within the 
city is evident from v. 386. and the purpose 
for which Hector had left the field imme- 
diately suggested itself to Hecuba, probably 
from the existence of a custom of suppli- 
eating the gods upon similar occasions. 

261. avdpi de KSKprjuri K. T. \. Hence 
Horat. Epist. I. 19. 6. Laudibus arguitur 
vini vinosus Homerus. Compare II. T. 161. 
Od. JBJ. 463. There is, however, a similar 
passage in Ps. civ. 15. LXX. olvoq ev<J>paivi 
KapSiav avQpuirov. See also on II. JSJ. 325. 

265. u.r) a' cnroyvniiffyQ. Lest you ener- 
vate, weaken me. Schol. (3\d^yg p,ov TO. 

266. xpo"t d' av'nrroiGi K. T. X. See on 
II. A. 449. The learned Spencer, in speak- 
ing of this custom among the Jews, (de 
PurificaL p. 778.), considers it as derived by 
them from the Pagan nations around them. 
It is particularly enjoined in Exod. xxx. 20. 
and the custom is alluded to in Psalm xxv. 
6. LXX. Ni\//o/Ltat iv aQ&oiQ TO.Q x 'P" 
pov, KO.I KUK\w(ra> TO Qvaiaarripiov GOV. 
Compare 1 Tim. ii. 8. 

267. tari. For e&crri, licet. In this 
sense it is usually followed by a dative of the 
person, as in II. Y. 246. ; but sometimes by 
an accusative with the infinitive. So again 
in II. N. 787. Od. B. 310. 

268. a'ipaTi Kai \v9py K. T. X. There is 
a fine passage in Eurip. Iph. T. 380. where 






"EoTtv ivi jUfyap(j), icat rot TroXv ^tXraroe atrip, 
Tov *AftfVO/W T^ yovvamv ^u/cojuoto, 
Kat ot viroaxtaOai Suoicat&Ka jSoue ivt vrjo7 
"Hvtc ??KOTae hptvat/mtv, at K' fXe^o 1 ^ 
"AOTU T6 ica( Tjoaxtfv aXo^ou^ Kai vryTrta ricva' 
At KEV TuSfOC vtov aTroa^rj 'iXtou tp/c> 
"Aypiov at^jurjrrjv, Kpartpov jU7]orwpa ^ojSoto. 
'AXXa <ri) JUEV TT/OOC VT^OV ^A0r]vairi a 
"Ep^U* iyw ^ Efa/otv jUfrfXfuao/iat, o^/oa 
At K' l^lXptr' ftTTovroc afcoujuv' ac KV ot 
Fata ^avot* jUya ya/) jutv 'OXv^uTTtoc TjO0 Trfj 
Tpwo-t T, Kat n/otajutj) jUyaX?]ropt, roto r Trattrtv 
Et KEIPOV i y tootjut KrarfXOovr' "AtSoc I<TOJ, 
^afi]!/ ICE 0pv' arepirov oi^voq tK\t\aO(rOai. 

*lc c0a0'' r) ^ jUoXoutra Trort 
KfcXro' Kai 8* ap' aoXXicr(raf Kara acrru 
Aurr) 8' ? OaXa/jLOv Karj3ri(Tro 
"Ev0' <rav ot 7T7rXot TrajUTrotJctXot, 
StSovtwv, rac avrbc; 'AXl^av^poc ^Ot8r/c 
, 7rt7rXwc tvpea TTOVTOV, 

fp avriyaytv i7rarptav. 




Iphigenia argues how impossible it is that 
human sacrifices should be acceptable to the 
gods, since they do not permit any defiled 
with blood, or even polluted with the touch 
of a dead body, to come near their altars. 
Virgil makes his ^Lneas say the same thing 
Hector does here : J2n. II. 719' Me~belloe 
tanto digressum et ccede recenti Attrectare 
nefas, donee meflumine vivo Abluero. POPE, 
Purification after touching a dead body was 
also required by the law of Moses : Numb, 
xix. 11, 12, 13. xxxi. 19. The water used 
upon these occasions, as it appears from the 
passage of Virgil, was running water. 

281. o> K'IV 01 avOi F. %avot. See Matt, 
Gr. Gr..513. Obs. 1. Itseems, however, that 
this is the only instance in Homer, where 
the particle Kt accompanies the optative, in 
the expression of a wish. See Herman ad 
Horn. H. Apol. 51. 

285. $peva. Supply Kara. 

288. KrjdJtvTa. See on II. F. 382. 

291. "ZiSovirjOtv. Dictys Cretensis, Lib. 
I. acquaints us, that Paris returned not di- 
rectly to Troy after the rape of Helen, but 
fetched a compass, probably to avoid pur- 



suit. He touched at Sidon, where he sur- 
prised the king of Phoenicia by night, and 
carried off many of his treasures and cap- 
tives, among which probably were these 
Sidonian women. The author of the an- 
dent poem of the Cypriacs says, he sailed 
from Sparta to Troy in three days; from 
which passage Herodotus concludes that the 
poem was not Homer's : II. 117- We find 
in the Scriptures, that Tyre and Sidon were 
famous for works in gold, embroidery, &c. 
and whatever regarded magnificence and 
luxury. POPE. See especially Isai. xxiii. 
Ezek. xxvii. xxviii. In fact, the Phoenicians 
were, in very early times, celebrated for 
merchandise of every description ; and their 
country was justly considered the emporium 
of the East. They were the earliest navi- 
gators ; and their skill in ship-building may 
be inferred from 1 Kings v. 6. The ars 
Sidonia passed into a proverb , and the term 
Sidonian was used as a general epithet for 
magnificence. Compare Judg. xviii. 7- Their 
early trading with Greece is mentioned in 
Herod. I. 1. In the next line Kara must be 
supplied before odov. 


TTOtKtXjuao-tv, r) 

'AaT77p 8' we aTTfXajUTrfv* Ktro 8e vsmroc aXXwv. 295 

B/ 8' tlvat, TroXXai 8 jUr<r<Ti;ovro yfpatat. 
At 8' OTE vrjov t'jcavov 'A0rjvje v TroXft arc/or}, 
wpa wt^e Gfavw KaXXtTrajOrjoe, 

'AvrrjVOjOOC t7T7To8ajUOtO* 

T?7i^ yap TpwC 0i7cav 'Aflrjvatrje tpaav. 300 

A? 8' oXoXvyrJ 7ra<rat *AOr)VY) ytipaQ avftr^ov. 
f H S' a'pa 7T7rXov fXovtra 0avw icaXXtTra/opoc? 


' ^paro Atoc Kovpy /ufyaXoto* 
ITorvi' 'A^Tjvatrj, IjOVtrtTrroXt, 8ta 0awv, 305 

>; ASov 877 7X^ AfOjurjSfoe, ^^ Kat O.VTOV 
IIpi7Va Soe 7TTtv Sicatwv TTjOOTrapot^f Tr 
rot avTiKa vvv SvoKa&eKa flovg ivl 

Ao-ru T Kal Tpwwv aXo^ovc Kai vriwia rlcva. 310 


KaXa, ra /o' avroQ irevZe avv av^/oaatv, ot ror' apurroi 
^Hcrav fvt TjQOty jOtj3(tXaict rlcrovC avSpcc* 315 

Gt ot 7Tofrj(rav aaXa^uov, Kat owjua, Kai ai>X?7V, 
u^t rf nptajitoto KQI "EKropoc, iv TroXft 
Aa 0tXoe* Iv 8* a/oa 

TTfpl XP " 80 ? TTOpKTJC* 320 

Tov 8' eujo' Iv OaXafjLtj) TTf/oticaXXIa TW\E' fVovra, 

299. Kwrtrijtc. According to Euripides, duced with less propriety, as Pallas appears 

Hecuba was also the daughter of Cisseus ; no where interested in the conduct of affairs, 

in which case Theano was her sister. Virgil through the whole jEneid. I take the epi- 

follows Euripides in .<En. X. 705. as do also thet sputrtTrroXi to allude to Minerva's being 

the rest of the Latin poets. Homer, how- the particular protectress of Troy, by means 

ever, makes her the daughter of Dymas, in of the Palladium. POPE. In ^Esch. Theb. 

II. n. 718. See Porson on Hec. 3. Heyne 122. Pallas is called ((WnrroXif, which the 

on Virg. ^En. V. 357. and compare II. E. 70. Scholiast and others would substitute in this 

A. 223. place. 

301. oXoXwyy. The preposition <ri)v 308. awri/ca vvv. Forthwith; presently. 

is understood. See also Lex. Pent. Gr. v. The expression must be understood with 

oXoXvy/40 , and compare Od. 1\ 450. Herod, some limitation. 

IV. 189. 320. TropicrjQ. Schol. 6 KpiicoG o avvtxwv 

305. TTOTVI 'AOrivairj, K. T. X. This TOV aidqpov irpbg rb %v\ov TOV d6pctTO, 

prayer to the goddess is translated almost Sid TO ireipeiv TO 86pv Si CIVTOV. 

word for word in Virg. JEn. XI. 483. Ar- 321. rv%e' eirovTa. Eustath. dfupe- 

mipotens belli preeses, Tritonia virgo, Frange TTOVTO., irtpikirovTa, irtpl avrd irovovfitvov. 

manu telum Phrygii pradonis, et ipsum Pro- In this single instance the verb eVw has an 

num sterne solo, portisque effunde sub altis. active signification, being usually joined with 

This prayer in the Latin poet seems intro- some preposition. 

208 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, Z'. 

a 5 icai flwptjica, icai ayicuXa ro' a^o 
'EXevrj jUr' a'joa Sjuwrjo-i yuvcuiv 

T H<TTO, Km d/LL(^L7r6\OL(TL TTtplK\VTa t 
TOV 8' W EKTW/> VIK(7<TV l8(i)V aiO-^/OOtC 7T<TO-r 325 

Aaijuovi', ou JUEV icaXa ^oXov rovo evOto 

AttOl fJLtV <j)OlVvOoV(Tl TTfjOl TTToXtV, CUTTU T 

Mapvafivoi* trio 8' eiveic' aurrj r TrroXfjUOc 
"Aon; ro8' d/uL^t^^y^' ov 8' av fia^iffaio KOI 
Ei Tivd TTOV ju0tvra i'Sotc arvyspov TroXljuoto. 330 

'AXX' ova, jur) Taya aarv Trupoc 
Tov 8' avr 7rpoo-i7Tv 'AXlC 
"EicrOjO, 7Ti )U Kar' alaav IvtiKtaag, oiS' vTrlp alaav, 


Ou roi ya) Tpwwv rocrcrov XoXejj ouc) VfjU(T(7i 335 

"Hjui7v Iv 0aXajU(>, cdeXov 8* aX" TTpOTpaTTEtrOai. 
Nvv SI /i TrapftTTOuo-' a'Xo^oc juaXaKOtc 

"QpfJlirid C TToXfjLlOV* $OKl Sf jUOl O)^ KTttt 

Awiov ^(TffEffdai* vi/cr] 8* 7rajUtj3rai aVSpac. 

'AXX' aye vuv fTTijiiavov, dprfia rfu^ea 8ua>" 340 

*H 10', yw 8e fj 

lN Qc $aro' roy ouri 
Tov 8* 'EXevij fULvO 

JU10, K 

' r/juan r<j>, ore jtte TrpioTov TEKE JLUJTTJ/O, 345 

if opO, r} etc KUjua TroXu^XoiVjSoto 

322. aQoiovTa. From a^aw, contrecto. Trrjv, dovvai ry \viry. Of the verb ?rap- 

Eustath. xpioftevov, ^iXocaXowj/ra. enrtlv, in the next line, see on II. A. 

326. AaijLtoj/t', ou /iv Ka\d K. r. X. All 555. 

the commentators observe this speech of 339. VIICT; 6" 7ra/m/3erai avSpag. Virg. 

Hector to be a piece of artifice. He seems .<En. II. 367. Quondam etiam victis redit in 

to imagine, that the retirement of Paris pro- prcecordia virtus, Victoresque cadunt. Livy : 

ceeds only from his resentment against the Nunquam minus quam in bello evening re- 

Trojans, and not from his indolence, luxury, spondent. Simul parta ac sperata decora 

or any other cause. POPE. See Plutarch unius horce fortuna evertere potest. Ovid, 

de Adulat. et Amid discrim. sub fine. The Metam. VIII. 13. Inter utrumque volat dubiis 

probable cause of this supposed resentment victoria pennis. Compare II. F. 440. 
may be found, infra vv. 351. 524. 344. KVVOQ. This seems, in early times, 

331. irvpbg Srjioio. Subaud. ia. See to have been a term of severe reproach. 

on II. B. 415. Compare II. A. 225. The adjective oKpvo- 

333. "Ejcrop , lirii /ic K. r. X. See on II. eig, which is the same with Kpvotie, in II. E. 

A. 416. T. 59. and of the ellipsis in the next 740. and /epvepof, in II. N. 48. signifies 

line on II. A. 76. as derived from icpvoQ that which produces 

336. IfleXov S' a^ii TrporpcnrtaQai. The cold, or shuddering; hence, dreadful, hor- 

Scholiast understands a^ft for Sia d\tog, rible. Thus II. I. 64. we have TroXtfiog 

and supplies nd^r]g after 7rporpa7rs<r0ai. oicpvoeiQ. This word, though perfectly dis- 

But the true sense is undoubtedly dolori tinct, is frequently confounded with 6/cpioetff, 
meo indulgere, in luctum me convertere ; and asper ; 11. A. 518. O. 327. Of similar double 
so Eustathius : %&pav, ff fj.d\\ov evrpo- forms, see on II. B. 269. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, Z'. 209 

"EvOa /* KVfJL airotpGE, Trapoe raSe tpya 

Airrap 7ra raSe y 1 wSs 0oi Kaica 

'AvSpoe 7Tr' w^EXXov a/xivovo Etvm aicome, 350 

"O? /(>' $$*? VEjltEdlV TE Kttl a'/CT^Ed TToXX' aV0ptt>7TWV. 

Tourtj.) '' ovr' ap vuv ^>pV EJUTTE&H, our' ap' O 
"Eo-o-ovrat* rw icai /Lttv tTravpiiasvOai OLW. 
'AXX' cryE vuv EireXtfe, Kai ^o rwS' TTI 

, 7T/ rrt jLtaXtora TTOVOC (frpivac; ajU0tj3l]3i7JCv, 355 

7Tl UC *?K ICttKOV 
WTTOKTl 7TXwjLl0' OO&tfJUM l 

Trjv 8' rifKtfitr 7Ttra fji^ya^ KOpv0atoXoe f/ EiCTa>/o' 
Mr/ JUE KaOt<?, 'EXimj, (f>i\eov<ra TTfp, owSl /u TTEidftc- 360 
yap fiot ^Ujuoc 7T<r(7wre 
tra 1 ', o l /*'/' ftio TroOrjv 

'AXXa au y' opvvOi TOVTOV, tTTtiytffOb) SE icai 
"Q, KEV tft / vroo'0 TroXioc KCLrajULap^py ovra. 
Kai yajO y(i)v OIKOV^' iGsXevao/uiat, 6^>pa iSwjuat 365 

Otjc^ac, aXo^ov r ^iXrjv, tcai vf)iriov vlov. 
Ov yap r' otS', i ri (T^tv i/7rorpo7roc V^Ojuai airtc> 
VTTO X P^ ^ ^ ^a/^owo-iv 'A^atwv. 

wv?7<Tac aTrfjSi] KOpuOatoXoc "Eicrwp. 
An//a o' 7T0' iKav Sojuouc v vaiEraovrac, 3/0 

'AXX' rj-ya ?uv TratSt icai ajU^tTroX 

f^fcrrrjicft yoowo-a TE, juupo/UEvrj TE. 

o , we O ^ K EVOOV afivfiova TETJUEV aicoirtv, 

>/-c 5>\ ? v v 5>\ ^ - > o*re 

Ecrrrj ETT ouoov twv, jUEra OE G/uLtoyviv EE^TTEV 3/5 

Ei o a-yf j^ot, S/zwai, I'Tj/iEprEa juu0r)(ra(r^' 
11^ EJSrj 'AvSjOOjua^Tj XfuicwXEvoc K fueyapoio ; 
'HE Trrj EC yaXowv, 17 ivar/owv EU 

348. a7r66p<T6. From aTrolppw, *o drown, 353. iiravprjaeffQai oto). Scil. TOVTOV, TOV 
to suffocate. II. $>. 329. ^irj ^itv aTrospcme JWT) eZvai awry <f>pkva.Q iftirkSovg. HEYNE. 
fieyag Trorafioe (3aQvdivT)Q. Apollon. Lex. See on II. A. 410. The meaning is, / *ws- 
aTrofpfff cnrkirviZev kv vdctTi. The con- joec/ <Aai Ae wz'W reap /ie /rw^ q/" Az's /o%. 
struction should properly have been with There is a similar sentiment in Psalm cvii. 
av or K. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 509. 5. d. 17. 

Obs. Helen utters a similar wish in II. T. 356. arriQ. See on II. A. 412. 

173. Sophocles seems to have had his mind 358. aoiSifjioi. Celebrated in song. Eus- 

upon this passage in (Ed. C. 1659. tath. kv ySale 0po/*voi, rai STTI dv<r- 

349. TtK/jiypavTO. Constituerunt, desti- K\ti$ SrjXadij. It is used in a good sense 
narunt : from rk/iap, finis, consilium. He- Find. Ol. XIV. 3. Nem. III. 136. Of ad- 
sipd. Op. D. 228. ovdi TTOT avroiQ 'Apya- jectives of this class, ending in t/iof, see 
Xeov TToXe/iov rcK/zaipgrat tvpvoira Ztvt;. Blomfield's Gloss, on jEsch. Agam. 395. 
Hence it also signifies to indicate, to portend. 3?0. SofJtove tv vaitr. See on II. B. 626. 
Compare Od. K. 563. A. 112. 376. el S' aye poi. See on II. B. 302. 

351. ydr). Knew: i. e. felt. 378. In this line there is an ellipsis of 

E e 



v0a 7T/o aXXcu 
Tpwai luTrXoicajUOi Savijv 0ov tXatricovrcu ; 

Tov S' avr or/orjjorj rajiiiTj Trpoe fivOov Eft*!*' 
"EKTOp, 7Ti juaX' avaryac aXrj0a fj.v9r](raaOai' 
Ovrc TTi] ic yaXowv, our' avcmpwv tuTTfVXwv, 
Our' Ic 'Aflrjvcu'rjc ?otx rat ) v0a TTE/) aXXm 
Tpwat U7rXoKajuot Savrjv 0ov tXadKOvrcu. 
'AXX' 7ri irvpyov I'jSrj jufyav 'iXi'ov, OUVK' aicou(T 
TetpetrOai Tpwae, /utya $ Kparoc ttvai ' 
lV H jUfv ^77 Trpoe 
Matvojulv^ tticma' ^>tpt 8' ajua TratSa 

? H joa -yuvr) ra^utrj* 6 cT airiaavTQ ^w/zaroc "Eicrwp 
Tr)v avrriv oSov aurtg, fujcrt/utvac Jcar' ayutac- 
Eur TruXac ticavE, ^tp)(OjUvoc jueya aoru, 
ac, (rp "yttjO f/ieXXe ^i^i^vat TTt^tovSe,) 

avTii) ri\0i Oiovcra, 

a^rj, OvyaTYip jmtyaXrjTOpog 'Her/wvoc, 
VTTO FlXaK^ v\r]tacrri, 
, KtXtKffro 1 ' avOjOcr<rtv avdcrawv. 
Tov 7Tp ^ 

W TT f '' ' '' 

H ot 7Ttr Tj 







IlaTo 7ri KoXTrov t^ow' cira\a(j)pova, vrjiriov av 


Tov p' w Efcra>f) KaX(TK 2cajuavSptov, avra/o ot a'XXot 
'Aoruavaicr'* oloc yap puro "iXtov " 

6 U 

9a\dfj.ovQ or dopovg, and in the next of 
vaov. Both are of frequent occurrence, 
See Bos. Ellips. Gr. pp. 71. 195. Of the 
use of s^oi%rai in the present, instead of 
the aorist, see on II. E. 472. 

396. 'HtTiiav. Of this anacoluthon, see 
on 11. B. 350. Matt. Gr. Gr. . 433. 

398 . Z\tTO. Was married. The verb 
t%etv (Subaud. yvj/cruca or Trofftv) is con- 
stantly used in this sense. Compare Herod, 
IX. 76. Xen. Cyr. I. 5. 10. Hellen. VII. 4 23. 
Deut. xxviii. 30. 2 Chron. xi. 21. LXX. D. 
Matt. xiv. 4. xxii. 28. Mark vi. 18. John iii. 
29- iv. 17. 1 Cor. vii. 2. et s&pius. 

400. draXaQpova. Eustath. diraXd (qu.? 
araXd) Qpovovvra. II. S. 567. TrapQsviKcti 
Sk Kal rftOeoi draXd (ftpovtovTeg. Hence 
the adjective signifies tender, delicate. The 
Scholiast on the next line renders dya- 
TTIJTOV by fiovoyevfj, in which he is ap- 
proved by Ernesti, who observes that the 
word has the same signification in Holy 
Writ: e.g. Matt. iii. 17- xvii. 5. compared 
with John i. 14. So also Gen. xxii. 3. LXX. 

But there seems to be no good reason for 
rejecting, in either case, the primary signi- 
fication of the word: and in Homer at least 
it must signify beloved ; otherwise there is a 
tautology in Od. B. 365. JJIOVVOQ iuv dya- 

403. ' AaTvdvaKT '. This manner of giving 
proper names to children, derived from any 
place, accident, or quality belonging to them 
or their parents, is very ancient, and was 
customary among the Hebrews. The Tro- 
jans called the son of Hector Astyanax, be- 
cause, as it is said here, and in II. X. 506. 
his father defended the city. There are 
many instances of the same kind in Genes. 
xxx. where the names given to Jacob's chil- 
dren, and the reasons of those names, are 
enumerated. POPE. In general they added 
the name of the father, either for distinc- 
tion, or from respect. II. K. 68. HarpoOcv 
SK yevtrjg ovofidZwv avSpa sVaorov, TLdv- 
rag KvSaivwv. The reason of the name 
which Hector himself had given to his son, 
does not immediately appear. 


$ ol ay\i Traptoraro cajc/ou^touaa, 405 

apa ot 0u X a P*> MTOC r' E^ar', EK r' 

Oiaet O-E ro trov JUE'VOC, ouS' tXe 
IlatSa TE vr/TTta^ov, KCU E/U' a/j,[jiopov, r) TCL^CL 
* ra^a yap tr icaraKravOV(Ttv 'A 
0opjurj0VTc* fftot St KE Kpc\ov ar/, 410 

a(f>a/j.apTOvar), ^Oova ou/iveu, ou yap ET' a'XXrj 
"Eorat OaXwwpri, lird av avyz TTOT^JLOV ET 
'AAA' X '" ouSt juot core Trarrjp fcai Trorna 
'Hrot yap Trarlp' ajjLOv a7TKrav ^Toc 'A^iXXEuCs 
'E/c ^ TroXtv 7Tpo- KtXticwv fu vatraw(Tav, 415 

0)7/3*jv v\^i7rv\ov' Kara 3' Kravv 'Hfrtwva, 
Ovci JJLIV ^fvapt^* <rj3a(T(TaTO yajO royE 
'AAX' apa /itv KarE/cpf truv evrco-t 
'Ho 7rl af//u' ^v* 7 

Nvft^ai 'O/ofo-rmSfc, Kovpai Atoc aiyto^oto. 420 

O? of juot ?rra Kaaiyvr\TOi caav v 

Ot jUV TTaVTf^ t([) KIOI/ 

yap icar7r^)V 

TT' ftXfTToSfacrt ical apj^vvyc oiecrcrt. 

Mrjrlpa S', rj jSatrtXfVEv UTTO IlXaK^ uXriEO'crrj, 425 

Tijv 7ra ap Stup' riyay' a^' a'XXotcrt KTar(T(Ttv, 
A^ oye r^v aireXvat, XajSwv aireptlm airoiva' 
Tlarpbg o" cv jueyapotat ]3aX' "AjOTEjUt? io\taipa. 

408. dfifjiopov. See Lex. Pent. Gr. v. ei cineri, siqua est ea cura, remitto. POPE. 

apoipoc. See above on v. 68. 

411. atyafJiapTOvay. This verb a^ofiap- 419. TrrtXsag tyvrtvoav. It was the 
raj/av sometimes signifies, as in this place, custom to plant about tombs only such trees 
to lose, to be deprived of. So again in II. X. as elms, alders, &c. that bear no fruit, as 
105. being most suitable to the dead. POPE. 

412. tirti av ffvye TTOT^OV 7ri<77ry. See 422. i<p?7/iari. On one day. This is the 
on II. B. 359. The aorist subjunctive is only instance in which i'6f, i. e. fiibg, the 
used in this passage in the sense of the Latin old masculine form of tic, occurs. The fe- 
future perfect. See on II. A. 168. minine to, for /uo, is sufficiently common. 

414. ajjiov. Schol. Venet. ro Se afiov tv 425. /ujjrspa #'. That is, With regard to 

Tlpoowdiq, 0j(Ttv 'Hpwdiavbg AwptKwrfpov my mother : an accusative absolute. See 

tivat CLTTO TOV afitTepov. See note on yEsch. note on Soph. Ant. 212. Pent. Gr. p. 228. 
Theb. 413. Pent. Gr. p. 43). 426. dtvpo. Namely, into the Grecian 

418. Karccye avv tvrtai. This circum- camp, which was stationed before Troy. 
stance of Eetion's being burnt with his arms, 428. jSaVAprgjutf. The Greeks ascribed 

will not appear trivial in this relation, when all sudden deaths of women to Diana. So 

we reflect with what eager passion the ancient Ulysses, in Od. A. 171- asks Anticleia, 

heroes sought to spoil and carry off the ar- among the shades, if she died by the darts 

mour of a vanquished enemy : and there- of Diana. And in the present book, v. 205. 

fore this action of Achilles is mentioned as an Laodamia, the daughter of Bellerophon, is 

instance of uncommon favour and generosity, said to have perished young by the arrows 

Thus jEneas, in Virg. JEn. X. 827. having of this goddess. Or, perhaps, it may al- 

slain Lausus, and being moved with com- lude to some disease fatal to women, such as 

passion for this unhappy youth, gives him a Macrobius speaks of; Saturn. I. 17- Femi- 

promise of the like favour : Arma, quibus nas certis affiictas morbis StXr/vojSXj/rowg 

latatus, habe tua ; leque parentum Manibus Kai 'ApTffJ,idofl\iiTOi><: vacant. POPE. In 



"Eicrop, ara/o (ru juoi Etrtn Trarijp KOL TTOTVICL jLtr/rr)(0, 
'H jcaoryvrjroc, fjv E juot OaXepbg TrapaKOirijc. 430 

'AXX' try vuv iXsatjOE, Kai avrov jut/xv' ETTI 
Mrj TratS' bpfyaviKov OEU?C> X^P T ' V T yvvalic 
Aaov orf/crov Trap' fptvfov, EvOa juaXtara 
"A/u|3aroe E<m TroXt?, icat ETn'SpojUOv ETrXfro 
Tpi ya/o Tip y' sX^ovTEC 7Ttpi7(Tav6r 01 apiGTOi 435 

' AtavTE Sua>, /cat ayaicXurov 'iSojUEvfja, 
' 'ArpEtSac, KOI TuSfOC a\KifJLOv viov' 

C <T01V Vt(T7T 0O7TpO7TlWV U l 

H vu KOI avTwv OV/ULO^ ETTOT/ovva icat a 
T?)v 8' aiT Trpoo-EEtTTE juiiya^ KOpv9aioXo^ t 'EKT(t)p" 440 

and that towards the city is distinguished as 
the TTfdiov Tjowucov; II. B. 465. K. 11. 
and elsewhere. The irtSiov 'Idri'iov, men- 
tioned in II. <. 558. lay probably along the 
side of the mountain, towards the ^Egasan 
Sea. At a little distance from the Scaean 
gate, in the direction of the ships, and visi- 
ble from the tower here mentioned, was a 
little hillock, or watch-tower; and near it 
the gpiveog, or fig-tree ; v. 433. Compare 
II. X. 145. In the same direction also were 
the tomb of Ilus, and the Aio Qriyoe, II. E. 
693. Thus much may be collected from 
Homer ; but of Troy itself there were no 
remains, even in the time of Strabo. Alex- 
ander also, when he visited the spot where 
Troy was said to have stood, for the pur- 
pose of rebuilding it, could rind no vestige 
to guide him ; and Lucian informs us, that 
when Caesar examined the site of the Troade, 
Pharsal. IX. 961. etiam periere ruince. Mo- 
dern travellers, however, have asserted, that 
although considerable alterations have been 
effected by earthquakes, and other natural 
causes, the country affords undeniable proof 
of the general veracity of Homer. See Gell 
and Rennell on the Topography of Troy ; 
Wood's Essay on Homer ; Clarke's Travels, 
Part II. ; Bryant's Dissertation; and Mor- 
ritt's Vindication of Homer. At all events, 
whatever may be the merits of the question 
respecting the existence of Troy, and the 
reality of the events recorded in the Iliad, 
its decision can never detract from the fame 
of Homer as a poet, should it even invalidate 
his testimony, and sink his long established 
character as an historian. 

433. ipivtov. A fig-tree. Compare II. 
4>. 37. According to Strabo, XIII. p. 411, 
43. rpa%i ri TOTTOQ KOI spi^fw^f. 

434. a^/3aro. Accessible. Schol. avd- 

the same manner, the sudden deaths of men 
are attributed to Apollo. See note on II. A. 
370. and compare Od. O. 409. 

429. "Eicrop, arap av K. T. \. These 
beautiful lines have been repeatedly imi- 
tated, but they have never been equalled in 
tenderness and feeling. Propert. El. I. 23. 
Tu mihi sola domus, tti, Cynthia, sola paren- 
tes, Omnia tu nostrce tempora Icetitia. And 
again, Eleg. IV. ii. 75. Fungere maternis 
vicibus, pater : ilia meorum Omnis erit collo 
turba ferenda tuo. But, in particular, the 
whole of this pathetic address of Andro- 
mache should be compared with that of 
Tecmessa in Soph. Aj. 485. The position 
of the pronoun and the particle ar<ip would 
have been inverted in the Tragic writers. 
See the note on Soph. (Ed. C. 507. Pent. 
Gr. p. 137. 

430. OaXepbg TrapaKoirrfQ. See on II. B. 

431. g?rt 7rupyy. It seems that this 
tower was built upon a part of the battle- 
ments, where the ascent to the city was less 
steep, and the wall more open to the at- 
tacks of the enemy : v. 434. Troy, with its 
citadel, Pergama, was situated upon one of 
the lower ridges of Mount Ida, and fortified 
by a wall, fabled to have been raised by 
Apollo and Neptune: II. H. 452. From 
behind, the city was overhung by the lofty 
promontories, Gargarus and Lectum; on 
the former of which was the altar of Jupiter; 
0. 47. In front lay an extensive plain, 
gently declining towards the Hellespont, 
and watered by the two rivers Simois and 
Scamander : the former bursting like a tor- 
rent from the central ridge of Ida, and the 
latter issuing from two fountains, the one 
hot and the other cold, close under the walls 
of the city. That part of the plain along 
which the Grecian fleet was stationed, at 
the mouth of the Scamander, between the 
well-known Rhaetean and Sigaean promon- 
tories, is called the 

435. tTTtiprfffavO'. Scil. avafiaivtiv Kai, from the last verse. Of the 
syntax, see on II. T. 146. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, Z'. 213 

ra Travra jUtXa, yuvaf aXXa |iiaX' 
T/owae Kai TpwaSae 
At K, KaKOC wc> voa^tv aXi(TKaa> 
Out}' jii Ovfibg avwyfv* ITTSI paOov jujuvai i 
Ait, Kai 7rpa>roi(7i jUra Tpueaai iia\(jQai, 445 

'Apvwjiifvoc Trarpoc re julya KXIoc, 1$' jiiov aurou. 
Ev jtiv yap roSf oTSa Kara 0p*va Kai Kara Bvfjiov, 
"Eor<rrat ^ftap, or' av Tror' oXoOXrj "iXtoc tp7, 
Kai nptajuocj Kai Xaoc IvjUjueXtw Dptajuoto. 
'AXX' ov fJLOL T/owwv rotrrrov /ulXft aXyo? OTTIO-O-W, 450 

Our' aurijc 'Ecaj3r]C? o^r Dpta/ioio avaKroc, 
Our Kacrfyvijrwv, ot Kv TroXffC r Kat <r0Xot 

TTfCTOdfV UTT* dvSpa(Tl SuO'jLtVO > (TtV, 

t', ore K!V r<c 'A^atwv )(aXKO)(fraiva)v 
Aacpi>O(T(Tav a'yrjrat, fXfuOfpov ^jua/o cnrovpa^' 455 

Ka/ KEV, Iv "Apyt lovara, Trpoc a'XXrjc t 
Kat Kv v^WjO 0op0tc MeacrijtSoc T) ' 
floXX' aKa2ojUvi]* Kpar/or) 
Kai ?ror rtc iVportv, iSwv Kara 
"E/cropo^ r/^ yuvi], oc aptcrrU(Tc jua^(rvat 460 

Tpwwv t7T7ro3a/iwv, or "iXtov a'jU0jua^ovro. 
"Qc Trorl rtf pt* trot S' au vlov <T<Trat 
Xrjre'i rotouS' dvSpbg, dfivvtiv SouXtov 
J AXXa jU r0viwra ^ur] Kara -yata 

v y rt a-^c ^ jSofje? trou 0' IXKrjOjUoTo TrvOtaOai. 465 

442. alSeofiat Tpwag c. r. X. See on Androm. 99. and elsewhere in the Tragic 

II. E. 531. Hector uses the same words writers. 

again in II. X. 105. Hence Pers. Sat. I. 5. 456. Kai KCV, iv *Apya K. r. X. Com- 

Ne mihi Polydamas et Troiades Labeonem pare II. X. 482. Euripides seems to have 

Prestulerint. Cicero also applies the pas- had this passage in view in Androm. 166. 

sage proverbially in Epist. ad Attic. II. 5. If any particular place is here intended, it 

VII. 1. must be Argos in Thessaly, since two foun- 

444. OV^OQ avwytv. We must supply, tains, Messeis and Hyperia, adjacent to the 

from the last line, d\vffKa.&iv, sciL fcijpa. ruins of some Thessalian town, are men- 

See on II. E. 253. Of the verb dpvvaQai tioned by Strabo ; IX. p. 302, 46. but we 

in v. 446. see on II. A. 159. should probably understand Greece in ge- 

447. iv /*v yap ToSe K. r. X. The par- neral. See on II. B. 108. 

tide yap is here elliptical, as in II. A. 123. 459. Kai TTOT'E rig tiirgat K. T. X. See 

and may be translated although. This and on II. A. 184. 

the two following verses are repeated from 463. dfivveiv d. tjfiap. Supply oicrrt, in 

II. A. 163. the sense of OQ Ktv apvvoi, who might avert. 

452. o'L KS irkaoiiv. Qui forte occubi- Compare II. N. 312. T. 140. This sense 

turi sint. The optative here bears its usual seems preferable to that produced by making 

potential signification, and the construction dfivveiv dependent upon roiovSe, which 

does not therefore coincide with the remark would, nevertheless, yield a good mean- 

on II. B. 188. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 528. 2. ing. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 532, 2. and . 

and compare II. 0. 291. K. 166. 534. d. 

455. IXfvB^tov fi ftap. So infra v. 463. 465. i\Kr)Ofiolo. Compare 11. X. 62. Od. 

fjfiap. Compare Eur. Hec. 56. A, 580. 



CITT' aKporarrjC 

tV Qc t7ra>v, ov TTCUOOC 6pfar 
*Ai// 8' 6 Trat'e Trpoc KoXirov ev^wvoto TiOfi 
irarpbc; <j>i\ov oi 
v r', 1?O Xo^o 

floe vfuovra vorjcrae* 
'EK Sf -yAatrcrs irarrip re <t'Xoc, Kai irorvia fjii\TTi]p. 
AVTIK aTTO Kparoc icopua ct'Xtro 0ai 
Kai rrjv jutv KareBrjKer tVi. ^flo 
Avrap oy' ov <^>iXov vtov ITTEI Kvae, w^Xe rt 
El7Tv l7ruSjUvoc Act r', a\\oiat re OsolaC 
Zcw, a'XXot TE 0Oi, 8or Sii) icat 



tr;v T' dyaObv, KOL 'iXt'ou t^>t ava 
Kai 7TOT rte t7rr?(Tt, Trarpoc S' oy TroXXov ajUt 
'Efc TToXljuou avtovra' (f>poi $ cvapa j3porovra, 
Kriva orfiov avSpa, ^apeirj o tftpiva jifiTrip. 


cS' lov* ^ 8' a'joa jutv K^wSfi ^E 
fv -ycXacratra* TTOGIQ $ iXl 

T Utl/ fCaT^ 


jii?7 juot n 

Ov jap rig JUL v?Tp alaav civrjp "Ai'Sl irpoiaifjti. 
Molpav o' ovTLva 0?7jut TTf^vyjUfVOv av 
Ov icafcov, oi>^ UEV 

466. TraidoQ ops^aro. See above on v. 
68. This is a common use of the middle 
voice, in which the direct action is done on 
the agent himself, but in reference to another 
person. Compare II. T. 25. and see Tate 
on the middle verb ; Mus. Crit. T. I. p. 103. 

468. drvxpeif. See on v. 38. supra. 

476. Zev, d\\oi re 6eol, K. T. X. Soph, 
Aj. 550. T Q Tral, jkvoio Trarpoe tvrw%k<j- 
rfjoog, Ta S' d\\' 6fJtolo^ m KOI ysvoi av ov 
Kai:6g. Virg. ^En. XII. 435. Disce, puer, 
virtutem ex me, verumque laborem, Fortunam 
ex aliis. 

479. Kai TTOTS Ti tiTTyai. One of the 
Harleian MSS. reads TTOI, and there seems 
little doubt of the truth of the reading. See 
Dawes's Misc. Crit. p. 247. ed. Kidd. The 
vulgar lection most probably originated in 
v. 459. supra ; though the sense of the two 
passages is completely different, and dis- 
syllables, such as 7rarpo, never occur with 
the first syllable short before a mute and a 
liquid. The construction is : Kai TOTS TIQ 
dTToi (avrbv) avwvra K TroXsjuov, ira- 
rpoc $' oyt K. T. X. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
410. b. 

487- vTrep alaav. See on II. B. 155. 
With the sentiment contained in the fol- 
lowing lines, compare Horat. Od. I. 4. 13. 
Pallida mors cequo pulsat pede pauperum 
tabernas Regumque turres. So again Od. 
II. 3. 25; 14. 11; 18. 32. Sat. II. 6. A. P. 
63. Passages to the same effect are very 
frequent in the Tragic writers. Thus Eur. 
Hipp. 1251. ovd' tan fioipaQ row %ptwv 
T' aTraXXayTj. Alcest. 431. 798. /3poroig 
airaai KarQavtiv o^ej'Xtrai. Compare also 
Soph. El. 1173. Eur. And. 1272. et alibi. 
Eustathius notices an oracular response of 
Apollo, from ^Elian : Molpav piv Qvriroiaiv 
ap.i^avov i%a\saaOai,"}Iv kiriyfivofikvoiai 
7rar)p Zeiif yywaXie. Compare 2 Sam. 
xiv. 14. Job xxxiv. 15. Heb. ix. 27- 

489. tTrijv TairpCJra j'tvrjTai. The idea 
was very generally imbibed in early times, 
that the period of a man's life was fixed at 
the time of his birth. It may be proper 
here to observe, that the true Homeric notion 
of Fate, is that of an original purpose of 
the almighty power of Jupiter. Thus 
Damm, in v. alaa. Quatenus quidam anti- 
quorum id extra Deum posuerunt, errarunt : 


'AXX' t OIKOV lovcra ra travrfje p7 a 
'larov r', ijXaicarrjv re, ical dfj,(j>nr6\oi(Tt 
"Ep-yov tiroi\crOai' Tro 

, rot t<j> tyytyaaatv 




7ra0' wave 

Kara Sa/cpu ^c 
v vatmiovrac 


'AXX' 67', 7Tt 

ert ^woy yoov "EicrOjOa <^ vi oiK(i>* 
fttv r' ^avro wTTorpoTrov IK 


u icXura 


' 7Ttr' ava aoru, TTOCTI Kpanrvotcri 
6r r*c oraro 


res z/wa cer^a es^ : e Fatum sensu sano nil 
aliud est, nisi decretum divinum de existentia 
mundi, rerumque omnium qua in eo fount. 
Hence Macrob. V. 16. Fortunam Homerus 
nescire maluit, et soli Deo, quern Moipav 
vocat, omnia regenda committit ; adeo ut hoc 
vocabulum TV\T], in nulla parte Homerici vo- 
luminis nominetur. Contra Virgilius non 
solum novit et meminit, sed Omnipotentiam 
quoque ei tribuit. See, however, on II. P. 

490. aXV tiQ OIKOV K. T. X. Compare II. 
E. 429. JEsch. Theb. 1 84. So also Ovid, Met. 
XII. 474. columque, I, cape cum calathis, et 
stamina pollice torque. Bella relinque viris. 
The Jewish Rabbins also have a maxim, 
that a woman's wisdom is centered in the 

491. j/XafcarTjv. The distaff. The neuter 
plural TO. TjXaKara is the wool upon the dis- 
taff. Eustath. TO. Trepi rfjv rjXaKaTrjv tpta. 
See Od. Z. 53. 30. P. 97. and compare Od. 
A. 135. 

492. tpyov 7roix<r0ai. See on II. A. 31. 

49G. ivTpoira\iZ,op.'evri. Repeatedly look- 
ing back. Schol. /car' oXtyov Kat avv%u> 
i TricrrpE^Ojue v n. 

506. wf d' ore rig K. T. X. This beau- 
tiful comparison is translated in Virg. JEn. 
XI. 492. Qualis ubi abruptis fugit prase- 
pia vinclis Tandem liber equus, campoque 
potitus apertOj Aut ille in pastus armentaque 
tendit equarum, Aut assuelus aquee perfundi 
flumine noto Emicat, arrectisque /remit cer- 
vicibus atte Liucurians ; luduntque jubee per 


colla, per armos. Somewhat similar is that 
in Shakspeare's Henry IV. Act. I. I. 9. 
Contention, like a horse Full of high feeding, 
madly hath broke loose, And bears down all 
before him. Schol. orarof 6 0ra> STTI 
Trokiiv xpoVov. The verb aKOGTiiv, to 
feed, is derived from aKoori;, a sort of 
bearded grain, or barley. Eustath. CLKOO- 
Trjaat' TroXvicpiOijaai, aKoorai ydp at Kpi- 
OaL The noun occurs in Nicand. Alex- 
ipharm. 106. This simile is repeated, with 
a somewhat different aim, in II. O. 263. 

507- irtBioio. Subaud. Sid. Schol. Kpo- 
aivuv tTruepovwj/ rolg iroaiv. Schol. 
Villois. tpiydovTruv. So Virgil : Quadru- 
pedante sono solidum quatit ungula campum. 

508. XovtaQai Trora/ioTo. The Vene- 
tian Scholiast understands an ellipsis of 
vdaTi; and on II. E. 6. where the same 
construction occurs, he supplies the pre- 
position !. If there is any ellipsis at all, 
the former is, doubtless, correct, as sanc- 
tioned by II. II. 669. \OV<TOV Trora/zoio 
poyai. It seems probable, however, that 
Xoueiv, and many other words, are found 
with a genitive and dative indifferently, 
and sometimes also with a preposition. See 
Musgrave on Eurip. Iph. A. 1078. Schaefer 
on Lamb. Bos. Ellips. Gr. p. 312. In II. 
E. 6. Heyne would construe 'QKeavolo with 
the verb Tra^aivgai, which the sense of 
the passage and general usage forbid. Com- 
pare II. <J. 560. Hesiod. Theogon. 5. The 
adjective ivpptloc, is the Ionic genitive of 






rai' o ' ay\aiij(j)L 

'PtjU^a yovva (ftipti jJLtrd r* riOta jcai vofjiov tT 
l Qc Vi6c Ilpta/ioto flap Kara 
Tcu^eo-t 7raju^>atvwv, WOT' ^ 
Kay^aXowv, ra^ltc ^ TTO^EC fyipov' ai^a S' ETTEira 
"EcrOjoa Stov f'rfrjUfv aSfX^fov, vr' ap' 



'Hvt', ^ juaXa 017 CT icai itrtrv 

Tov o 1 a7rajUj3(tyivo 

KOpvOaioXog "Eicrwp" 520 

vt , OVK av rt^ rot av?7p, o 


TO 8' /ZOl' 

Epyov a 

'AXXa f/CW 

Iv OVJULW, off virlo (T0v ato-^e' aicouw 

TpWWV, 01 ^OV(Tt TToXi/V 7TOVOV tlVEKO. OTEtO. 525 

AXX' tojuv* ra 8' o7rt(T0v apfCTarojUf^ 1 , aticE 

'Eic Tpoirjc iXaaavrac fU 

510. ay\at^0i 7re7roi0wg. So Stat. 
Achill. I. 279. ///e rfm campis fluviisque et 
honore superbo Gavisus. Schol. ayXatp^f 
r< fcdXXei rou (rcG/iarog. Instances of 
anacoluthon, similar to that in the follow- 
ing line, abound in Homer ; and they ex- 
hibit a species of negligence which can 
only be attributed to the inattention which 
was paid to grammatical rules in the early 
state of the language. See on II. B. 355. 

513. rfXeiCTwp. The Sun. Eustathius de- 
rives it Trapd TOV xovaoQavrj i]\tKTOov. 
Others, with more probability, perhaps, 
take it for aXeKTOOQ, from a priv. and \SK- 
rpoj/, cubile ; because the sun never rests, 
But the derivation is altogether uncertain. 

516. 6apie. Eustath. did. Xoywv wjui- 
Xei. From cap, a wife. See on II. E. 

518. ^0i'. Fenerande. Scholiast, on II. 
X. 229. oeTTTiKtj <J)(H)VT} irpbg 7rpco-/3vrpov 
aSe\(j)6v. Compare also II. K. 37- In II. 
. 94. it is applied by Achilles to Patro- 
clus ; and its endearing import will be 
readily inferred from its use in Od. JSJ. 

. 521. ivaiffifioQ. Intelligent. Eustath. o 
Kara TO dsov (ppov&v. Od. E. 190. cat 
yap t/iot vdoc tffrtv kvaiai^OQ. So Heyne. 
The sense, however, in which the word 
usually occurs, is, ^MS^, fitting, proper, as 
in v. 518. It may possibly bear the same 
signification here, where the Scholiast ex- 
plains it Kara TO KaQrjKov, tv ttpq.. 

523. fjaOitiQ. Scil. TroXsjuov, as in II. A, 
240. The sense is fully expressed in II. K. 
121. TroXXaia yap /ufliei re fcai OVK 

528. KpT/rfJpa &\ev9epov. The free bowl, 
in which they made libations to Jupiter 
after the recovery of their liberty. The 
expression is observed by M. Dacier, to 
resemble those of the Hebrews, the cup 
of salvation, the cup of sorrow, the cup of 
benediction, fyc. Athenaeus mentions those 
cups which the Greeks called ypa/i/iart/cd 
K7rw/iara, and which were consecrated to 
the gods, in memory of some success. He 
gives us the inscription of one of this sort, 
which was, AIO2 SQTHPOS. POPE. 
This is what Virgil calls Craterem statu- 





'Hra ft A'tag 



The battle renewing with double ardour upon the return of Hector, Minerva is under 
apprehension for the Greeks. Apollo, seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her 
near the Scaean gate. They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, 
and incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat. Nine of the princes 
accepting the challenge, the lot is cast, and falls upon Ajax. These heroes, after 
several attacks, are parted by the night. The Trojans calling a council, Antenor 
proposes the delivery of Helen to the Greeks, to which Paris will not consent, but 
offers to restore them her riches. Priam sends a herald to make this offer, and to 
demand a truce for burying the dead, the last of which only is agreed to by Aga- 
memnon. When the funerals are performed, the Greeks, pursuant to the advice of 
Nestor, erect a fortification to protect their fleet and camp, flanked with towers, and 
defended by a ditch and palisades. Neptune testifies his jealousy at this work, but 
is pacified by a promise from Jupiter. Both armies pass the night in feasting, but 
Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with thunder, and other signs of his wrath. 

The three and twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and Ajax. The next day 
the truce is agreed upon ; another is taken up in the funeral rites of the slain ; 
and one more in building the fortifications before the ships : so that somewhat 
above three days is employed in this book. The scene lies wholly in the field. 

ToJ & ctju' 'AXl^avSpoc icf aSsX^foc' iv S' opa 

'AjU^OTfpOt jUtjUCKTdV TT 

'lie Si 00 vavrriffiv t 

4. wg 8k OIOQ K. T. X. This simile makes med and Glaucus, in the former book, was 
it plain that the battle had relaxed during not, as Homer's censurers would havejt, in 
the absence of Hector in Troy ; and, conse- the heat of the engagement. POPE. ftfwjcc. 
quently, that the conversation between Dio- Dare solet. See on II. A. 37- 

F f 



Ilovrov IXauvovrcc, Kajuartj) 8' VTTO jvta \i\vvraC 

"Ev0' iXETrjv, 6 julv vtov 'Aprjiflooio ava/croe, 
"Apvir? vaitraovTa MV<j0fov, ov Kopvv^rrj^ 
Fttvar' 'Aprj/flooe Kai ^uXojue^ouffa j3ow7rte" 10 

8' 'HYovfja |3aX' 
virb <T7-0avrj 

', 'iTTTroXo^oto irciiq, AVKIWV ayoQ avSjOoiv, 
j3aXf ooupt, Kara KjOarprjv vtrjutvrjv, 


6 <T 1^ ?7rira)v aiaStc TTEO-E \vvro 

BiJ /oa fear' Oi/Xuju?roto 

*lXtov i^ ieprjv' rip c avrioq wpvur' 'ATroXXwv, 20 

Ekpyajiiov EKKartSwv, Tpw(ro-t ^E flovXtro 
'AXXrjXotart OE rwye (JwavriaQr\v napa 
TYJV TTporcpoc Trpoatenrev ava^, Atoc vioc> 'ATroXXwv* 

(TO 3' au /uEjitauta, Atoc Ovyartp jUEyaXoio, 
a?r' OuXujUTroto, jjiiyag Si (TE OVJULOQ avijKEv ; 25 

tva &) Aavaotart fta^rjc IrfpaXKEa 
5 7Ti ou ri Tpwac aTroXXujUEvo 

'AXX' El jUOt Tl TTlOotO, TO KtV TToXu KEpStOV Etl], 

Nvy JUEV Trav<j(i)[jiv TroXsjUOv Kai Sr]torfjra 

VOTEpOV aWTE IU.axf)(JOVT\ t(70K TEKjUWp 30 

' ETTEI a>c (j>i\ov ETrXfro ^UjU^J 
aOavaTTpai, Sm7rpa0i/ TO^E aaru. 
Tov S' ai)r Trpoa&nre Sea yXavicwTrtc; 'A0ijvr/* 
Oo EOTW, E/caEpyf* ra yap fypoveovaa KOL avrfj 
'HXOov OTT' OV\VJULTTOIO jUEra T/)wac Kai 'A^aiouC' 35 

'A XX' ay, TTWC jU/uovac TroXfjUOv KaraTravffEjuEv avSpwv ; 

Trjv S' aurf 7rpoo-t7Tv ava^, Atoc vtoc> ' 
Eicropoc op(TO)fJLEv icparcpov JUEVOC tT 
'Hv rtva TTOU AavaaJv TTpOKaXtacrtTai oioOev otoc 

7 ^avrjrrjv. See on II. K. 236. 32. vpv aBavaryai. Eustathius ob- 

9. KopvvrjTijQ. Qui clavam gestat. It serves, that the adjective in the feminine 

was the custom of the chiefs, in the heroic must refer to Minerva and Juno. One MS. 

ages, to carry a baton. Cf. v. 138. however, reads dQavaroiai, in which case 

12. 0T<f>dvriQ. Schol. Villois. tldog Trepu Jupiter would be included. 

K0a\ataf, k^o^rjv %ov 77 <5e /ura^opa 39. oioOev oiog. Omnino solus. In ex- 

aTro rije rwv opwv OTt^dvrjQ. Properly, pressions of this kind the adverbial genitive 

the exterior rim of the helmet : and thence is merely emphatic, and adds nothing to the 

the helmet itself: II. K. 30. A. 96. sense. So again infra v. 67- aivoBev 


i v avr 

Ot 8fi K ayaffGafjLtvoi \a\KOKV 
Otov 7ro/o(Tav TTO\fjii^et 
lV Qc $ar'' oi>cT airiOriat Ota 

8' "EXevoc, TTjOtajUOto <j>i\OQ Tralc, avvOero 6v[uo 
fjv, rj pa Oeoiaiv E^vSavf jurjrfowtR* 
Srr) $ Trap' "Eicrop' twv, icai jutv Trpoe fjLvOov t7Tv" 

"Ejcrop, iul n/ota/ioto, Aa /xfjrtv araXavr, 
*H joa vu juot ri TriOoio ; Kaai'yvrjroc ^ rot a/it'. 
jUv KaOiGOV Tjowa^ icai TTUVTU^ ' 
7r/ooicaX(7(Tai 'Axa^ 
'Avr/j3tov fiaxtaaaOai tv aivri 
Ov -ya/o TTW rot jULotpa Oavttv KCU TTOT/LIOV 7Tt(T7rtv. 




l Oc 0a0'* "Ecrw|0 8* aur' xajf>r? julya, juivov a 
Kai p ig jjiiaaov iwv, Tjowwv avltpye tyaXayyas, 
M(T<TOV Soupoe fXwv* roi 8' iSpvvOricrav airavrts' 
Ka8 8' *Aajitj.vtov i(7v UfcviUtSa 'Aatou. 


Ka8 8' *Ayajjitfj.vtov i(7v Ufcvi7jUtSae 'A)(atou^. 
KaS 8' op' 'A0rjvatrj re Kat apyvporo^og 'ATroXXwv 
'E<r0rjv, opviGiv ioiKoreg alyvTriotvi, 

0' v^//i]X^ TraTjOoc Aioc atY^o 

atTi Tp7TOjUVOt* TWV 8f 

'A(T7rt(Tt Kai Kopu^ftrtrt Kai 




Soph. (Ed. C. 1447. vea ve60fv. Somewhat 

similar is ^Esch. Prom. 980. 

TTiKpov. Agam. 208. 6py TTfpiopywg. 

50. 'AXIW^ bcrrif apioroe. For rov 
dpuTTOv. This elegant use of the relative, 
with the verb ci'jui expressed or understood, 
is not uncommon. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
445. 6. a. 

52. ov yap TTW rot K. r. X. Eustathius 
observes, that Helenus detracts from Hec- 
tor's intrepidity, by assuring him of the re- 
suit of the combat : but although his brother 
very naturally acquaints him with the fact, 
it does not appear that there was any need 
of such a stimulus. The words oTra dicovaa, 
in the next line, imply nothing more than 
ffvvOtro 9vp,(f, in v. 44. 

56. /il(T(Tou doupog tXwv. See on II. 
r. 78. ? 

59. ioiKoree aiyvTriolai. The fiction of 
these divinities sitting on the beech-tree, in 
the shape of vultures, is imitated by Milton 
in Paradise Lost, book IV. where Satan, 
leaping over the boundaries of Eden, sits in 
the form of a cormorant upon the tree of 
life. POPE. aiyuTTiottrt. Schol. oi \iiv tufog 
arou, oi di TOVQ yvtraQ iZt 

N. A. II. 46. roue ai'yuTrioug, 4 
yuTroiv ovrac cat dtrwv. 

61. av^pafft rp7ro/ivot. Eustath. EK 
TOVTOV loiKtv apxn v Xo/3tTv 6 TOV dv9pat- 
TTOV opicrdfitvog iraiyviov Oeov. See Plato 
rfe ^cg 1 ^- VII. p. 352. ed. Bipont. 

63. o'ir) e Zrfvpoio K. r. X. The thick 
ranks of the troops composing themselves in 
order to sit and hear what Hector was about 
to propose, are compared to the waves of the 
sea just stirred by the west wind; the si- 
mile partly consisting in the darkness and 
the stillness. This is plainly different from 
those images of the sea, given us on other 
occasions, when the armies in their engage- 
ment and confusion are compared to the 
waves in their agitation and tumult : and 
that the contrary is the drift of this simile, 
appears particularly from Homer's using the 
word et'aro, sedebant, twice in the applica- 
tion of it. POPE. The noun 0pi properly 
signifies shuddering ; from 0pi(7<ro>, horreo ; 
and thence, the gentle rippling of the waves, 
as the wind begins to rise. Dr. Blomfield 
compares it with the KvpdTwv ykXaafia in 
^Esch. Prom. 89. but the derivations, at 
least, of the words, are totally dissimilar. 
Ff 2 

220 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, H'. 

'OpvujU*voto viovj jUfXciva St re TTOVTO^ VTT' 

Totcu apa ori^C 'tar' 'A^aiwv re Tpwwv TE 65 

'Ev 7TSt(j)' "EjCTtojO Sf JJLZT ajUL^OTtpOKTlV t7T* 
JUV, TpW, KCU ' 

ra JUE Ovfj,OQ Ivi 

'AXXa Kaica 0pova>v rKjueuprai a^orlpotcnv, 70 


*H auroi Trapa v?jucri SajUt 

'Yjutv ftV yap a<rtv ajotcrrrifc Ilava^atwV 

Twv vvv, ovriva OvjjLog ljuot /ia^craT0at avuyti, 

ITW, K TTaVTWV TTpOjUOC jU/>tVai "EKTOjOt Sj). 75 

Ei )UV Kv j 

KOtXac 7Ti v^ 

ljuoy o/uva TraXtv, o^pa Trupop /zc 
ica! Tpwwv aXo^ot XEXa^tutrt Oavovra. 80 

El Si K' lyw rov ?Xw, Stjjr] /zot v 
Te^x^a o-vXTjo-ac, otact) irporl "iXtov tp?]v, 
Kat icpfjuow Trpori 

Sfc VfKUV 7Tt V^aC EUO-trlXjUOUC,' a 

rajO^vo-wtri icapi] KOjUowvrfe 'A^afOi, 85 

Sf/jua rl 01 XEUO-WO-IV ITTI TrXarft 'EXX?]ff7rovrcj. 

Kttl 7TOT TfC StTTpfft Kttl tylJOVtoV avOptoTT(*)V 9 
Nljl 7ToXvcXl7tSt TrXltOV 7Tt OlVOTTa 7TOVTOV* 


69. opicta ^v Kpovf^e K:. r. X. Hector, 80. XeXaxwfft. Impertiant; in an active 

in the opening of his speech, anticipates sense. Schol. \a\iiv 7roiri<r&fftv, olovu 

the objection to the combat, which would ^fraXa/3av. Of the construction of Xay- 

naturally arise in the minds of the Greeks, x vw with a genitive, see Matt. Gr. Gr. . 

from the treachery of Pandarus ; which, in 363. 5. 

the language of the times, he imputes to Ju- 83. Kp/i6w Trpori vrjbv 'A. It was the 

piter, who had ordained the continuance of manner of the ancients to dedicate trophies 

the war. The object of the combat, how- of this kind in the temples of the gods. 

ever, is different from that between Paris POPE. See note on ysch. Theb. 262. 

and Menelaus, which was intended to decide Pent. Gr. p. 427. Compare also II. I. 241. 

the fate of war ; whereas this is simply pro- K. 460. 

posed as a trial of valour. In the next line 85. rap\vffQHTi. Schol. Oa^/wfft. The 

KO.KO. must be construed, or perhaps re- Scholiast says, that rd Tapxta are funeral 

peated, with r^K/iai'pcrcu. Compare II. Z. obsequies, and Eustathius derives the word 

349. from TtipaxoQ, strepitus, i. e. lamentation. 

73. vfjuv p,kv yap K. T. X. The clauses of It should seem, however, that the verb is 

the sentences are inverted ; the causal par- contracted from rapixcuw, to embalm ; 

tide yap, which may be rendered since t whence 6 rajOi%0, a mummy; Herod. 

being placed in the first member. This chal- IX. 120. See Gataker on M. Antonin. p. 

lenge of Hector, and the consequent dismay 175. 

of the Greeks, may be compared with that 86. oijpd rk ol xtvauow. See on II. B. 

of Goliath, in 1 Sam. xvii. 8. 793. Of the epithet 7rXart>, as applied to 

79. dontvai. For 36. See on II. T. the Hellespont, see on II. B. 845. 

285. 87. dv-gai. See on II. A. 184. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, H'. 221 

Ov TTOT' apUTTEvovra Karlicrcvt <ai&jUO f 'EKra>p. 90 

rig pi* TO S' fjuov jcXIo^ OUTTOT' oXttrat. 
'* ot S* a/oa rravreg aicr)v 

Sr) MevlXaoc avioraro, KCU jUTt7T, 
vtSiwv, julya e oTova^&TO Ov/j.( 95 

"lijuot, aTTEtXrjrf/jOfc, 'A^atit&f, OVKT ' 

Et JUT) rtc Aavawv vvv "Eicropoc CLVTIOQ tlffiv. 

'AA"\' f ^ N r f '5* V - ' ) 

AAA vjuae /UV Travrfc votUjO jcat yaia yevoivut, 
"Hjuevoi au0t fjcaorot aic^pfot, aicXlfC aurwc- 100 

' ywv O.VTOQ 0wpr)5o/xai* aurap v7Tp0 

7Tt|Oar' I'^ovrai v aOavaroun OEOICFIV. 

apa 0wvr)(rac /carfSvo'aro rfu^a fcaXa. 

K rot, MfvlXaf, 0avr; jStoroto rfXfur?? 

w Ecropoc tv TraXajU^a-tv, 7ra TroXu ^fprfpoe ^ev* 105 

Et u> avai^avTe ?Xov 3ct(rtX^ 


ou rt 
a^potruvrjc* oiva ^ cr~)^o t ICTJ^O/XEVOC T^p? 110 

i^, rov T GrrvyOi(7t Kai aXXot. 
Km 8' 'AX*XI>C rovrtj) y jua^p tvl KuSmvtp^ 
"Eppiy* avrijSoXtjaat, OTTp (rlo TroXXov a/itvwv. 
'AXXa <TU jUv vuv i^V; iwv jUra 0voc rat/9a>v* 115 

Tourqj o^ Trpojuov a'XXov avaorr^o'oucrtv ' 
Ei7Tp atr]c 7"' eori, Kat i fJLoOov <TT' aico 

96. ttTrttXiyr^ptg. Fain-boasters. See on 109. ow & ri (T xpj) T. a. See on II. I. 

II. 0. 150. So magnaminari, in Latin. Of 337- 

the rest, see on II. B. 235. and of aivoBtv 111. l pi&>. For Iptfli, as in II. A. 8. 

aivwQ, in the next line, on v. 39. supra. In the same sense we have Trept tpidog, in- 

99. wdwp Kai yaia yevoiaQe. That is, /ra v. 301. With the sentiment we may 
Be resolved into those principles you sprung compare Eurip. Hec. 404. av d' t <J rdXatva, 
from, or die. Thus Eustathius explains it TOLQ Kparovai uj) ^a\ov. Find. Nem. X. 
very exactly from a verse he cites of Xeno- 136. % a ^ 7ra o p*C avQpwTroiffiv 6/uXeIv 
phanes : Travrfc 7^p yaijje re Kai u^aroe Kptaaovwv. 

ticyj/ojU<70a. POPE. Compare Apoll. Rhod. 112. ffrvytovai. Eustath. Qpiffaovar 

IV. 1408. a^ro Zerov ry Ippi-yafft. Cf. v. 114. The 

100. aKrjpioi. See on II. E. 812. verb arvytiv, which in later writers usually 
102. v'tKriQ Treipara. Eustath. Trtpi^patr- signifies ^o ^aie, is employed by Homer to 

TIKWQ CLVTI TOV ij viKij. See on II. Z. 143. designate also the emotions of fear and grief. 

With the sentiment we may compare Prov. Compare II. 9. 370. 515. O. 167. P. 694. 

xxi. 31. LXX. "iTTTTOf eroi/id^frai eif rj ps- Y. 65. 

pav TroXkfJLov, Trapd de Kvpt'ov 17 fiorjOtia. 117. fiTTfp adeifjQ T' karl, K. T. X. It can- 

In Clem. Alex. Strom. 6. the following hex- not with certainty be concluded from the 

ameter is formed from this of Homer : viKtig words of Homer, who is the person to whom 

Ottiv IK Trtipara Kctrat. Agamemnon applies the last lines of this 



fj.iv aGTracriwg yovv KUJJL^IV, ai K 
Aqiou IK TroXljuoto Kat aivrjc 8rjtorr)roe. 
<N lic enrwv 7rap7Tto-v a8fX0tou Qpiv 
At(7i/ua TraptiTTwv' 6 8' lirdOtTO' row jiiV 7Ttra 
0pa7rovr <*T' wjuwv TEu^f 1 tXovro. 
'Apyioi(7a> aviararo icat /Uri7rv* 
7 Q TTOTTOt, 17 julya TTtvOog 'A^au8a yatav tKa 
'H K july' olfJLw&it yfpwv tTTTrrjXara 


7TOT u' tO 

TOLC vuv ft 7rrw<7<rovra 
IloXXa KV aBavaroKn 





r 7rarp, cat ' 

, jcai "ATroXXov, 

'A-ypo/ifvot rivXtot TE Kai 'A|0ca8c E 
<J>tac TTa/o Tti\t<JGiv 9 'lapSavov aju^)l p&Opa. 
Toto-t 8' 'EjOfvOaXtwv TT/OO/XOC loraro, 
TV%' %wv wfjioiaiv 'ApTjt^ooto avaicroc* 

(AtOV 'AjOTJtaoOU, rOV 7TtKX^(Ti 

KXrjarKOv, KaXXi^wvot re 
ap' ou ro^oto-t /ua^f(TKro, 8oupt r 
'AXXa (TtSrjpEtr? jcopvvr/ priyvvGKE ^aXayyac- 
Tov AuKoopyoc 7T0v 8oXtj), ov rt jcparf't y, 
Srtva>7T(j> EV 68(j>, 60' ap' oi; /copuvrj ot o\tOpov 
XjoaT(TjU <rt8]piJ7* Trpiv yap Au/coopyoc viro^Bag 
Aou/oi jU<rov 7T/oovi7(Tv' 6 8' vTTrioc ov8a pt(70r}* 




speech : and the interpreters leave it as un- 
determined as it is in the original. Some 
would have it understood of Hector, that 
the Greeks would send such an antagonist 
against him, from whose hands he might 
be glad to escape. But this interpretation 
seems contrary to the plain design of Aga- 
memnon's discourse, which only aims to 
deter his brother from so rash an under- 
taking as engaging with Hector. So that, 
instead of dropping any expression which 
might depreciate the power or courage of 
this hero, he endeavours rather to represent 
him as the most formidable of men, and 
dreadful even to Achilles. POPE. Heyne, 
however, and perhaps justly, prefers the 
former interpretation, which the structure 
of the passage properly requires. And it 
seems scarcely probable that Menelaus, who 
was the first to offer himself, and to upbraid 
the others for their sluggishness, would be 

induced to relinquish his purpose, unless he 
were assured that a more able substitute 
could be provided. Schol. p,69ow juax7C. 

118. yovv Kap,^fiv. Schol. dvcnrav- 
ta9ai. See on Soph. (Ed. C. 19. Pent. Gr. 
p. 106. 

1 27- o TTOTS /*' eipopevos K. T. X. This 
conversation took place at the conference 
which Nestor, Ulysses, and Phoenix, were 
deputed to hold with Peleus, on the subject 
of sending Achilles to the war ; since, with- 
out his assistance, the failure of the expe- 
dition was said to be inevitable. Compare 
II. A. 764. sqq. 

128. ytvtriv re TOKOV re. For Trcpi yo- 
vswv /ecu TSKVWV. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 
411. 3. 

136. rolffi. That is, iv Tolm, among 
them ; scil. the Arcadians. Of this Arcadian 
war, see Pausan. V. 18. VIII. 4. ; and of 
the geography, Strabo, VIII. p. 236. 



T iX a ^' iSevajOt^e, ra ot Trope \a\Kt og "A/or/c* 

Kai ra /i> avroe 7Ttr' f^opet jitera /iwXov 

Avrap, 7Ti AuKOOjoyoe Ivt fjLEyapoicriv 

AW/C 8' 'E/oU0aXta>vt, ^tXtjj 0pa7rovrt, 

Tou 6y ru^e' c'x^v TrpoicaXi^Er 

Ot 8f juaX' rpojuov jcat 8t8i<rav, ovSf rtg rXrj. 

'AXX' /z OV/ULOG avriKS TroXurXrjjUwv 

Oap(7i qj* yfv^ ^ vo>raroc <TKOV 

Kat jua^OjUTjv ot 70), SWKE Si juot v 

Tbv Sr) /mrjKiGTOv KOL Kaprtorov icravov avopa* 





S' Oi7Tp tatrtv a 

uS 7 ot 7TjOO^)pov(uc jujua0' "Eicropoc avrtov i 
ytJC(T(r' 6 7jowv* Oi 8' i/v!a 
TroXi) TTpwroc 

Ttf 8* 7Ti TvSttSlJC WpTO KpaTjOOC 

Toto-t 8' fV Atavrfc, 0oi)piv lirieifjitvoi aAic/jv' 
ToTcrt 8' CTT' 'l8ojUVuc? Kat OTTOWV ' 
MrjjOiovrjCj araXavroc 'EvuaXt^ ai; 
Tottrt 8' TT' EvpuTTuXoc, Euat/zovoc ayXaoc vto 
'Ay 8i Goag 'Av8patjuovt8T]e, icat 8toc 'Oouo p o r u 
IIavrc ap' oty' KfleXov TroXf/itSftv "Eicro/w 8t<j). 

tC 8' aWTtC jUTt7T rjOTJVtOC tTTTTOTa NloTWjO 

. 160 



146. ra ot Trope xaXiceof "]Q. Homer 
has the peculiar happiness of being able to 
raise the obscurest circumstance into the 
strongest point of light. Areithous had 
taken these arms in battle, and this gives 
occasion to our author to say, they were 
the present of Mars. POPE. 

151. t'rXjj. Scil. 7ro\6/uv, which must 
be supplied from the verse following. 

156. TroXXof. Schol. jiteyag. Clarke cites 
the Scholiast on Eurip. Hippol. 1. but 
TroXX*} is there used in the sense of n/ua. 
See Valck. in loc. Trapyopog. In immen- 
sum porrectus : Eustath. Trap/jpr^lvoe, 
o icrTi KfxynkvoQ w$e Kat tfcei, Kai ovrii) 

TroXvV 67TX W ^ T07TOV T(j) fflSjfiaTf tlX^TT- 

Tat Sk r; \k%i IK jwera^opac row TTap^'o- 
pot; 'iirirov. JEsch. Prom. 371. Kai vvv 
dxpaov Kai Trapy'opov dtpae KcTrat. See 
Blomf. Gloss, in loc. also on II. 0. 87. 

158. r< K ra%' avTrjotit K. T. X. Hec- 
tor would soon find an antagonist ready to 
engage him. The noun fidxns, for 

aofikvov, as in II. Z. 2. See also on II. A. 
418. The construction of the following 
lines is this : t/jwwv dk ovdk ot (i. e. ourot), 
oiTrcp taaiv apuTTrjeQ Hava^ai&v, K. r. X. 
There is a change of person in taaiv for 

161. oi $' tvvka Travrsg. Nine complete ; 
i.e. no less titan nine. This pleonasm is 
very frequent in Homer, and is intended 
to denote a degree of emphasis which, as 
Clarke observes, the Latins express by the 
pronoun ipse. Thus Cicero : decem ipsos 
dies ; i. e. ten full days. Compare II. K. 
560. 2. 373. 470. T. 247. Q. 232. The 
article is inserted in Herod. III. 66. (3affi- 


fiffvag irsvTt. And again IX. 70. In the 
following lines, instead of repeating the 
verb, the preposition only recurs. See 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 594. 2. 

164. iirutjucvoi d\Krjv. See on II. A. 

Scil. ro 7roX/*i- 



yap Sr) ovvjcrEt IvKvri 

Kai & avroc ov OvfjLov ovrjarereu, at KE tyv 
Aijcov IK TToXtjUOto Kat aivfje Sij'corifTOC. 

tN Qc 0a0'' ot SE icXrjpov <nj/u^vavro Efcaaroc, 
'Ev S' fjSaXov Kuvlrj ' 
Aaoi o r^prjo'avro Oeolg, tSc 

T/-V$ $/ >> $^ 

Il0 rtf 17T<7KV, tOWV t 

ZEV TraTEp, T} Atavra Xa^fTv, 17 TuSto? vtov, 
*H avrov j3a<7tXfja 7roXu^pu<roto Mvjcrjvi]^. 
*Qt ap I0av* TraXXf SE Fsprivioc; LTnrora Nf 



'Eic o f'vopc KrXrJpoc KUVETJCJ ov ap' rfov auroi, 

lf ivSl^ca Traatv a 

o, ou yiyvwGKOVTeg, airrjv^vavTo t'tcaaro^ 


'AXX' 6r 77 rov tcav, 0pwv av' o/miXov cnravTY], 

frj jSaXe ^a 

Hroi V7T 

ip* o S' ap' 

Tov JUEV Trap ?roS' lov ^ajua&c /BaXf, 
7 li <pi\oi, % rot 

0UjU<* 7Tt SoKfW 

'AXX' aytr, 6^>p' av i^ 

Aa Kpovtwvt 
Iva jur) T^WEC y T 
HE Kat aju^>ao/rjy, ETTEI ovrtva ^EtStj 
Ow yap rtc JUE |3tp y EKTWV aEicovra 

r ? at'SpEiy ETTEt ov^' EJUE vrjt'Sa *y' 




^fiv "Ejeropi. The verb irakaaativ pro- 
perly signifies, to besmear, with the idea of 
motion affixed ; as in II. E. 100. Z. 268. 
A. 98. 196. M. 186. and elsewhere. It 
also signifies, io shake the lots ; and it is 
here applied, in the passive, to the warriors 
themselves, whose lots were to be cast, 
With the dative K\r)py, the preposition 
avv must be supplied. Of the K\fjpo, or 
lot, see on v. 189. 

175. sicaffTog. See on II. B. 775. ; and 
of the ancient custom of shaking the lots in 
a helmet, see on vEsch. Theb. 454. Pent, 
Gr. p. 440. 

179. T) Aiavra \a\tiv. Supply dog. 
See on II. B. 413. 

187. OQ Hiv K. T. X. See on II. B. 38. 

188. o <$' ap' t/fj3aXcv. Scil. Kr}pv%. yv> 
d. Scil. Ajax. 

189. KX^pou fffjfjia.. There is no neces- 
sity to suppose that they put any letters 

upon these lots, at least not their names, 
because the herald could not tell to whom 
the lot of Ajax belonged, till he claimed it 
himself. It is most probable that they 
made some private mark or signet, each upon 
his own lot : the lot being only a piece of 
wood, a shell, or any thing that lay at 
hand. POPE : from Eustathius. See on II. 
Z. 168. 

195. triyy 0' vpeMv. In silence, with 
yourselves ; that the Trojans, as Eustathius 
observes, might not overhear them, andattri- 
bute their prayers to the effect of fear. 

196. a^adirjv. Schol. 0aj>pw. Of 
tfjnrrjQ, see on II. A. 562. 

198. eTrti oi>tf fyt K. r. X. Virg. JEn. 
IX. 201. Non ita me genitor bellis assuetus 
Opheltes, Argolicum terror em inter Trojteque 
labores Sublatum, erudiit. In the next line 
we have rpa^c'/jfv for Tpatyrjvai. See on 
II. E. 555. 


Iv SaXajum yevteOai TE, rpa^^ufv re. 

*Qi ^>a0'* OL S' Eu^ovro Au Kpovtcovt O.VCIKTI. 200 

$ Tf (7r(TKv, tSwv ic ovpavbv 
Ztv Trarfp, "iSrjflf v jUfSlwv, KvSiare, 

A'/avrt KCU cryXaov ZV\OQ ap&rflat" 
Ei feat "Eicropa TT() <j>t\ti c, icai /ojcteeu aurou, 

ajU0orpoi(T jSirjv KCU KU^OC OTTOIGGOV. 205 


Oar' a 

iiar' 7Tt0', oloc TE 

jttfr avpac, ouc T 

VVT]K fJLa^i^OaL' 210 

Totoc ctjo' A'/ac w/oro 

Tov ^ JUEV 'Ajoyaot july' eyriOzov 

Tpwac ^ rpojuoc mvo u7rrjXv0 yma Ka(rrov, 215 

"Ecropt r' aurw Ovfj.bc; l 


^A^ XttWV C OfJLlXoVj 7Tt 7TjOOKaX(T(7arO 

A'iag S' lyyvBtv ^X0g, 0pwv o-a/coc, i?vr 

XaX/cOv, 7rraj3otov, 6 ot Tv^ioc ica/UE rux wv ? 22 

Sjcvroro/xwv 6^ apto-roe, "YX^? vt otKia vaiwv* 

W O? Ot 7TOl^(T (TOKOC ttloXov, 7Traj3otOV 

Tavpwv Zarpetytuvj ?rt S' oySoov r)Xacr ^a^KOV. 

To 7Tpo<T0 trrlpvofo 0/owv TfXa/iwvtoc A'/ac 

2rfj /oa juaX' "E/cropoc 77^?, cnreiXrtaag TTpotnjuSa* 225 

"E/crop, vuv jUv r/ tra^a Etcreai oioOev oi 
Olot Kai Aavaoto'tv aj 
Kai jUfr' 'A^tXX^a pn%tivopa f 


Kttr' a7TOjUTjvt<rac 'Aya/xfjuvovt, TTOIJUEVI Xawv. 230 

'HjUftc 8' tjUv rotot, ot av a0v avria<rcu/xv, 
Kat TToXffc* aXX' apX ^"X 1 ^ ^^ rrroXfjUOto. 

Toi' S' auT 7rpoor(7T fJiiydQ KOpvOaio\O "EKrwp* 
Atav Atoyi^c, TsXafiwvie, KOtpav Xawv, 

216. 0v/x6g vi ffrriOtcrai iraraaGt. Ci- pectore trementem provocasse ad pugnam 

cero alludes to this passage in Tusc. Disp. poeniteret. Clarke justly observes, however, 

IV. 22. Videmus progredientem apud Ho- that Cicero has totally misunderstood the 

merum Ajacem mult a cum hilaritate, cum passage ; since Hector by no means repents 

depugnaturus esset cum Hectare : cujus, ut of the challenge ; and his beating heart does 

arraa sumsit, ingressio latitiam attulit sociis, not necessarily indicate fear and apprehen- 

terrorem autem hostibus : ut ipsum Hecto- sion. 

rem, quemadmodum est apud Homerum, toto 220. Tv%iog. See Prelim. Obs. Sect. I. 

G g 


M.IJTI jiifu, rjVTt rrai^oQ a^aupov, TrEtp/jTt^E, 235 

'He yvvaiKog, fj OUK olSe TroXtjur/m tpya' 
Avrap Eywv ev otSa jua^ac T'J avSpOKraaiac re* 

/-^TTM > V 5 1 ?* V 5l > V - /3 "* 

Oto ETTI CE^ia, oio 7T apiOTpa vwjuijtrai pwv 
'AjaXtTjv* ro juoi <rri xaXauptvov TToXe/ni %tiv' 
OtSa S' EVI trraSir? Sqi^ fiiXtreffOaL "April" 240 

OtSa S' 7ra/Sai /uLoOov '/TTTrwv wicaawv. 
'AXX' ov yajO o-' lOtXw jSaXfftv, rotourov lovra, 
AaOpri ownrrtvaag, aXX' aju^a^ov, at KE 
? H pa, Kai ajU7T7raXwv irpo'iei SoXt^oo 
Kai /3aXfv A'/avroc Sftvov aaicot; 7rraj3oftov, 245 

Kara ' 


Kai jSaXf HptajUiSao icar' a.<nrl$a irdvTod aoTjv. 250 


Kat &a ^(JprjKOC TroXuSatSaXou riph 

c Trapat XaTraprjv Stajurja 
o S' ticXiv0), Kat a'Xsuaro 
Tw 3' K(T7ra(7(TaUVw ^oXi' ^ a ^ V a'u<a> 255 



JUEV tTTftra JUECTOV <7aKO ourao-f Soupt* 

ot al^jj,r}. 

A'iag $ a'(T7TtSa vu^v ETraXjUEvoc* 17 OE ^ta ?rp6 260 

"HXu0V ly^Eirj* o-rv^)X^ SE /xtv jUEjuawra* 
Tjur]8^v S' avyiv ETT^X^E* jUfXav 8' avEKrjKtEV al^ua. 
'AXX' ouS' we aTTEXrjyE jua^rjc KOpvOaio\O "Eferctip* 
'AXX' ava^aCTtrajUEvoc \iOov Et'Xfro X t P >l ^"X 6 ^? 

, rpri\vv T, [ityav TE* 265 

M<T<TOV lirofKJtaXiov' 7Tptr/x*J^ 8' apa 

239. ro. For &.' o, and so passim. Of Ajax should prepare himself, as he had no 
the verb r^ficm), see Blomfield's Gloss, on intention of taking any unfair advantage of 
jEsch. Theb. 3. and of the adjective ra\av- so generous a foe. 

pti/og, on II. E. 289. 244. ?) pa, Kai K. r. X. Compare II. T. 

240. fjit\7rta9ai "Aprji. This may pro- 355. sqq. 

bably allude to some martial dance, such as 262. TprjSrjv tirijXQe. Cadendo attigit. 

the UvppiKrj opx^aic, so called from Pyr- The verb indicates the slightness of the 

rhus, the son of Achilles. See on II. S. 591. wound. Eustath. ro l7wro\a.%ov dr]\oi r)f 

The phrase is here used, however, simply in TrX^yj/f. 

the sense of fia^taQai. In v. 242. the par- 267. The construction must be thus 

tide yap is elliptical. We may conceive supplied: Kara ro [ikaaov 

that Hector intimated, by his gesture, that 



TTO\V jiiiova Xaav aipa, 

7Tpl<7 $ iv' aTTfXfflpOV, 

a<T7ricT a?, |3aX<ov fj,v\oiEi'i irirpty, 270 

BXai/'E 8f 01 ^>iXa yovvaO*' o 8' VTTTIOC %>TavvaOri, 
'A 0-7718' vtx>t/z00V rov 8' cut//' wp0w<rv 'A?roXXwv. 
Kai vu KE Si) l^ifyitG<j avTO(T^^bv oiraovro, 
Ei JUT) K^pVKCCj AID? ayytXoi r)S Kai av^pwv, 

6 juv TjOwwv, 6 8' 'A^aiwv ^aXKo^trwvwv, 275 

Mlcraw S' a/i0or|pa>v 

a^tOov, etTri re fjivOov 


S' ai^urjra* royf 17 icai '/SjUfv 
v S' r/Srj rsXiOei, ayaOov KOL VVKT\ 
Tov 8' a 


Auroc yajO X^WP 7rpOKaX(7(7aro Travra^ apicrrouc. 
'ApXrw, ai/rap fyw /uaXa TTftaojuaf, tfarffp av 

Tov o ai>r 7rpo 

Atav, ?Tt rot SWICE ^toc ptytOog re j3i?v 
Kai TTiwrr^v, 7T/oi 
Nuv /UEV 7rat(TtJjU(T0a jua^C Kai Sr/iorijroc 





owe,' rf 
Ai/rap s 
Tpwac u 
Ai T jiioi 
Awpa 8', o-y'j a 

fi, ayaObv KOL VVKT\ 

TTCLVTCLQ ?rapa vrjuaiv ' 
f'ra, KOI ETft/pOVCj o? roi IcuriV* 
Kara aorv jUEya Flpiajuoio 


Ostov 8uo < ovrai ayaiva. 
TrfpucXura 8(Jo/iv 

274. K/jpuiceg, Aio ayysXoi. See on II. 

278. firiSea ddw S . See on II. B. 718. 

282. VVKTI iriOiaOai. So again II. 9. 
502. I. 65. Od. M. 291. This beautiful 
application of the verb is imitated in Virg. 
./En. II. 9. suadent cadentia sidera som- 

289. TriWTTi}v. Scil. ffvvffftv, or <}>p6vr)- 
ffiv. That iriWTri is properly a feminine 
adjective is evident from Od. A. 444. com- 
pared with Od. A. 229. 

298. Biiov dvaovrat aywva. Eustathius 
has given several interpretations of this pas- 

sage. The most probable solution of the dif- 
ficulty is, by understanding the word dywv 
in a sense which it frequently bears, of a 
assembly, or place of meeting. Apollon. Lex. 
dywv OTOTTOQ fisov avvayovTai. Compare 
II. T. 42. Q. 1. Hence Oeiov dy&va will 
be a sacred assembly. The sense of the verb 
dvtffOai, subire, is exemplified in the forms, 
dvtiv, or SvtaOai, doftov, '6fii\ov, TroXiv, 
and the like, which recur continually. Some 
have thought that Otiog aywv should be 
rendered templum ; from the images of the 
gods which are there collected. But it is 
better to refer the passage, in the above ac- 
Gg 2 

228 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, H'. 

rig t tmprtv A\atwv re Tpwwv T* 300 

jv pt8oe Tript Ovpoflopoto, 


/coXfto re (f)pwv KCU VTJU//T(I) TeXajUwvi' 
8f worr)pa 8i'8ou tyoiviKi 0aavov. 305 

Tw 8f 8iaKptv0vr, 6 JUEV /zTtt Xaov 
"H't', 6 8' T/owaiv ojua8ov Ktf* roi 
'Qc t8ov a>ov re KCU 
Atavroc Trpo^wyovra pivoq KOL 
Kai /o' ^yov TTport a'aru, afXTrrgovrfc troov ffvcu. 310 

Ai'avr' av^ tTz 
Etc ' 
Oi 8' 6r 

7Tvrari]jOOv, vTrtpfitvti Kjoovwvi. 315 

Tov 8j0ov, aju^)t 0' CTTOI;, Kai jttiv 8t^vav a?ravra, 
MtorrvXXov r' ap' 7Ti(TrajUVtt)Ci irstpav r' ojSfXoicrtv, 
"QTTrrjfTav T TTfpt^paScwCj pv<ravro T Travra. 
Aurap 7Ti TTaucravro TTOVOU, rfrvtcovro T 8aTra, 
Aatvuvr', ov8f rt 0ujuoc iSfUfro Sairoc /(Ti7C' 320 

N<Jrat<n 8' Aiavra 8ti]VK(T(Ti ytpatpsv 

7Tt 7TO(TIOC KCU ^Tf]TVO^ 1% pOV VTO, 

Tote 6 ytpwv TrajunrpwTog vtyaivtiv ripx 

NfOTW/O, OU Kttt 7TpO(T0V aptffTTJ (JHllVtTO j3ouX?7. 325 

ceptation, to the assembly and procession of see on II. X. 159. Of the rest of the pas- 

the females to the Temple of Minerva ; II. sage, see the notes on II. A. 465. sqq. and 

Z. 296. of the repetition of the particle 5k, on v. 

302. apfyiTjo-aj/rt. . United : from apa>, 137- 

a/jtfo, conjungo. Hence also, apfyuo?, ami- 321. vwroiaid' Atai/ra K. r. X. The dis- 
cus ; Od. II. 427. and dpfyioc, amicitia ; tinction usually observed towards the more 
Horn. H. Merc. 521. The verb dpOfjiea) oc- honourable guest, in giving him a larger 
curs in Apoll. Rhod. I. 1340. portion than the rest, is here more particu- 

303. B&Kt ZtyoQ K. T. X. It is said that larly marked by Agamemnon, who assigns 
this exchange of presents between Hector to Ajax the part of the victim which pecu- 
and Ajax gave birth to a proverb ; that the liarly belonged to himself. Herod. VI. ^56. 
presents of enemies are generally fatal. For rStv de Ovopevutv airdvTW TO, dspfiaTa. re 
Ajax with this sword afterwards killed him- Kai rd vSira \ap,f3dvfiv tr^eag, scil. TOVQ 
self, and Hector was dragged by this belt at flaaiXsaQ. Xenophon, speaking of Lycur- 
the chariot of Achilles. POPE. Soph. Aj. gus, observes in his Treatise de Repub. La- 
661. sxQpwv ddwpa dtipa, KOVK bv^ai^a. cedam. ^ijuopi^ yt ktri r<p Seiirvy KTtuijffev, 

307- ofj.adov. See on II. B. 96. ov% "iva. SnrXdaia Kara^ayoitv, a\X' "iva 

314. ieptucrfv. Simply killed. The use Kai dirb rovde Tipijaat l^ouv, ft nva (3ov- 

of this verb is in reference to the custom of Xoivro. See on II. A. 468. 

the heroic ages, according to which their 324. vfyaivtiv ^YITLV. So in II. P. 212. 

entertainments were always preceded by sa- 6. 93. et passim. Somewhat similar is the 

crificing the first fruits to the gods. Hesych. expression irX'eictiv Xoyouc, which is fre- 

<r0a. Compare II. Q. 125. and quently employed by Euripides. 



"O <T(f)l 

'Arpa'Srj re, KOL a'XXot aptorfjfc 
IIoXXoi -yap TtOvacri Ka/orj /co/notuvrec ' 
Twv vuv aljua KfXcuvov, tvppoov, aju^l 

1^01 iravaai 

Tw <r ^or) TroXf/iov 
AVTOL ' aypojufvoi 

KCU riniovoiatv' arap KaraiciOjUv 


328. TroXXoi yap reQvaai K. r. X. There 
is a great deal of artifice in this counsel of 
Nestor, of burning the dead and raising a 
fortification ; for, though piety was the spe- 
cious pretext, their security was the real aim 
of the truce, which they made use of to 
finish their works. Their doing this at the 
same time they erected their funeral piles, 
made the imposition easy upon the enemy, 
who might naturally mistake one work for 
the other. And this also obviates a plain 
objection ; viz. Why the Trojans did not 
interrupt them in this work ? The truce 
determined no exact time ; but as much as 
was needful for discharging the rites of the 
dead. POPE. It may be observed, that there 
was no necessity for these fortifications in 
the earlier years of the war, since the Tro- 
jans had never left the city, till the secession 
of Achilles. See II. E. 789. The participle 
yap is either elliptical, as in II. A. 123. and 
may be thus supplied ; Hear, ye Greeks ; for, 
&c. ; or it may express the cause of what 
follows, as in v. 73. supra. 

330. 'A'iSovSt. That is, a'e"Aiog dwfjia. 
Properly the termination is only thus affixed 
to the accusative, as in II. A. 54. but the 
substantives OIKOV and da>fia are continually 
understood with the genitive, whence the 
above form also arose. 

332. KVK\r]ffo^.tv vtKpovg. Eustath. avrl 
TOV rpo%oi aydyw/if v, f) juaXiora 0' a/ta- 
%,&v /eo/U(Ttojuv, tl> a7ro jugpouf TO. ydjf) 
KVfcXa, fijovv 01 rpo%ot, jutpo a^a^Q. See 
II. E. 722. Others explain the verb by in 
orbem circumagere ; but the interpretation of 
Eustathius is sanctioned by v. 426. infra. 
Of this and the following subjunctive forms, 
see on II. A. 62. 

333. KaraKtiofitv CLVTOVQ. It may not 
be unwelcome to enlarge a little upon the 
way of disposing the dead among the an- 
cients. It may be proved, from innumerable 
instances, that the Hebrews interred their 
dead. Thus Abraham's burying-place is 
frequently mentioned in Scripture. And 
that the Egyptians did the same, is plain 
from their embalming them. Some have 
been of opinion, that the usage of burning 

the dead was originally to prevent any out- 
rage to the bodies from their enemies : which 
imagination is rendered not improbable by 
that passage in 1 Sam. xxxi. 12. where the 
Israelites burn the bodies of Saul and his 
sons, after they had been misused by the 
Philistines, even though their common cus- 
tom was to bury their dead. So Sylla, 
among the Romans, was the first of his fa- 
mily who ordered his body to be burned, for 
fear the barbarities he had exercised on that 
of Marius might be retaliated upon his own. 
Cic. de Legg. II. 22. Procul dubio cremandi 
ritus a Greeds venit, nam sepultum legimus 
Numam ad Anienis fontem ; totique genti 
Cornelia solemne fuisse sepulcrum, usque ad 
Syllam, qui primus ex ea gente crematus est. 
The Greeks used both ways of interring and 
burning. Patroclus was burned : and Ajax 
laid in the ground, as appears from Soph. 
Aj. 1165. STTEVOW KoiXqv KaireTov TIV' 
idelv K. T. X. Thucydides, in book II. men- 
tions XdpvaKaQ KV7rap7crti>af, coffins or 
chests made of cypress wood, in which the 
Athenians kept the bones of their friends 
that died in the wars. The Romans de- 
rived from the Greeks both these customs 
of burning and burying. " In urbe neve 
sepelito, neve urito;" says the law of the 
Twelve Tables. The place where they 
burned the dead was set apart for this reli- 
gious use, and called glebe; from which 
practice the name is yet applied to all the 
grounds belonging to the church. Plutarch 
observes, that Homer is the first who men- 
tions one general tomb for a number of dead 
persons. Here is a Tumulus, built round the 
pyre, not to bury their bodies, for they were 
to be burned ; nor to receive the bones, for 
they were to be carried to Greece ; but, 
perhaps, to inter their ashes, which cus- 
tom may be gathered from a passage in II. 
V. 252. or it might be only a cenotaph in 
remembrance of the dead. POPE. On this 
subject, see Herod. II. 85. Diod. Sic. I. 91. 
Nicolaus de Sepulcris Hebreeorum ; Kirch- 
man de Fun. Roman. Adams's Roman An- 
tiquities, p. 435. Robinson's Archeeol. Greec. 
V. 6. 7. and Blomfield's Gloss, on jEsch. 


Turaov airb Trpo vwv, &g K oorla TraiaHv 

7rarpt8a yaTav. 335 

8' ajit^l Truprjv f'va ^vofj.ev ?ayayovrc 
Acpm>v c 7Tf8iou* Trpori 8' avrbv W 

K<U aurwv* 

'Ev o avToiGi 7TuXa TTOi/jtrojutv u apaputac 

81' auractw tTrxr^Xaa-tT/ 6S6c aV 340 

a^aav opv^Ojuav iyyvOi ratypov, 
t Xaov epuicai 
Mr) TTOT' tTTtjSptap TroXe^uoc TpcJwv a 

l Oc 6^>ao * ot o a'joa Travrc 
Tjowwv 8' aur' ayopr) yiver 'iX/ou ev TroXet aKprj, 345 

Aetvr), rfrpi]^;uTa, Trajoa Ilpm/ioto Ovprjtrt. 

O* 'AvrjjVWjO 7T7rVU/iVOC *)px' ttyOjOUtV* 

/iv, Tpa>^' Km AapSavot, 178' tiriKOvpoi, 
ra jue Ivl arfjOtGai KtXtvei. 

' ayer', 'Apyir;v 'EXlvr/v KOI KTrjfiaO' CLJUL avrp 350 

'ArjOfo> t ?crtv ayziv' vvv 8' opKia TTLCTTO. 
T( ov vv TL c 

tva JUT 
'Hroi 6y' a>^ ftTrwv icar' ap' t^cro* roicrt 8' av 


'Avrijvop, (Ti) JUEV OUK r' juot 0tXa raur 1 ayopUtc* 
OlaOa KOI aXXov fj.vOov d/mdvova rov8f voi)(rat. 
Et 8' frfov 877 rourov aTro (TTrouSiic dyoptvEig, 
'E^ apa 8/j rot ?rira 0ot fypivaQ wXeeav avroi. 360 

Avrap cyw Tpwfo-trt jU0' t7T7ro8ajUOtc ayOjOU(ra>" 
u 8' aTro^rjjU*, yuvatjca jUfv OVK a7ro8(o<raT 

Again. 429. The notes on II. Mr. will fur- Ourw ^ k-%6vTo>v, ZIKOQ rolg ptv iro\tfjiioi 

nish an account of the particular rites with kvavriovg tlvai TOVQ Qeoiig, rj^iiv 8e try/z/ia- 

which funerals were solemnized. X ^- So again, III. 1. 22. ^lian. V. H. 

346. Aav?;. Valde commota. Of the par- XIV. 2. ToiigTrapaflavras OQKOVQ T&V flap- 
ticiple rt rpjjx u ^; see on IL B - 9 5 - /3dpwv iiryvtaev 'Ayto-tXaog, on roic ^covg 

347. rolffiv S' 'Avrffvup K. T. X. Horace ixPvG avroiq Troirjadfievoi TCUQ 7riop- 
alludes to this speech of Antenor in Epist. KIUIQ, avry QiXovg Kal avp^a^ovQ Kart- 
I. 2. 9. Antenor censet belli preecidere can- Trpagaj/ro. Liv. III. 2. Si perjurio gaude- 
sam : Quod Paris, ut regnet salvus, vivatque ant, Diis magis iratis quam hostibus gesturos 
beatus, Cogi posse negat. bellum. 

353. 'iva prj. Unless. Eustath. avri row, 359. a?r6 (TTrow^ijg. In earnest. Eustath. 

iav p,rj pe'Cojuev ourw. With the sentiment dvrl TOV (nrovdaicjQ Kal ov-% WQ ITTI Treip^. 

expressed in this passage we may compare TIV'I. 

Xenoph. Anab. III. 2. 10. JIp&TOv yap 362. avriKpu d' a7r60)//u. / positively 

riV-tiG fitv e/jiirtdovfitv TOVQ T&V QtG>v op- refuse. See on II. F. 359. and Lex. Pent. 

KOVQ, oi fit TroXs/tioi iTTiwpKijffaffi re, Kal Gr. v. 

TO.Q 07TOvda Kttl TOV OpKOVQ \t\VKaGlV. 


Kr/jjuara 8', 6<r<r' ajo^v ? 


V\ A 1 f\ * 

V aAA 7rti/ii'at. 
T Hrot oy' we i7rwv Kar' ap 'ETO* rotfft 8' avtarij 365 
Aajo8avt8rje IIpiajuo, Otofyi / 

7Tp, 370 

O a(f)LV v0povwv ayopTjo-aro 

KlicXurl jiiu, T/ow Km Aap8avot, r?8' 

a jU 

Kai )u 

., /cat 

v 'Arpti8^(r', 'Aya/iljuvovf icai 
'AXf^av^poto, row tvic 

Kttl T()8' l7TjltVat TTUKtVOV 7TOC, at K' #XfeKTt 





V(TT|OOV OVT jUCr)(7J<7OjU, l(TOK 
''AjUjltE SlCLKplVri, 8wr t ? 8' TpOt(Tl Y VtKT]V. 

1 QC ^>a0'" ot 8' apa rou juaXa jUv KXvov, ^8' tTri 

AopTTOV 7Tt0' t'XoVTO Kara OTpaTOV V TX(T(TfV. 

'Hai^fv 8' 'l8atoc j3rj KotXac 7Tt vf)a. 
Touc 8' ijo' tv a-yopy Aavaouc^ Otpcnrovrat; "Aprjoc, 
Nrjt Trapa Trpvjuvrj 'Ayajuljuvovoc* aurap 6 rotat, 
Srac iv jLtor(roto-t, jUT</)wvV rfirvra Kijpv?* 

'Arpt8at T, icat aXXot apttrrrifc Dava^atwv, 
'Hvwyft npta/Ltoc T icai aXXot Tpwc ayavot 

EtTTElV, at'C 7Tp VjLljUt <tX()V ICttl 1781) jtvOLTO, 

MvOov 'AXf^avSpoio, row tvKa vftKOC 6pW|0. 
Krrjjuara JUEV 6<r' 'AXf^avSjOO^ KOiX^c vi VTJIXTIV 
'Hyayfro TpotTjv8', (we TT/OIV w^fXX' a7roXo-0at,) 
ITavr' l^lXft 8ojUvat, icai r' o'/icoOfv aXX' i 
KoujOi8tTjv 8' aXo^ov MfVfXaou Ki;8aXtjuoto 
Ow rtrt 8w<rfitv" UTV Towlc KfXovrat. 

380. j> r\(rertj/. At their posts. Eu-. 
stath. rd orpartwrtKa Xgy ray/iara. The 
word is frequently used in a military sense 
by Xenophon. Compare also II. K. 56. 

386. ^vwyei IIpia/Ltoe re K. r. X. See on 
II. B. 146. 

393 ov 0q<ri. That is, he refuses. The 
expression is idiomatic, and equivalent to 
the Latin negat. Soph. Elect. 1211. ov 
(prifi lannv. Phil. 903. ov <prjjj.' tywyc. 
Thucyd. IV. 28. OVK l$r\ OVTOQ. Compare 
Herod. I. 37- VI. 61. Xenoph. Anab. I. 
3- ! Plato in Euthryph. c. 9. See Zeune 
on Viger, p. 363. The particles r\ fjirjv ye 
may be rendered although indeed. See on 
II. A. 77- 

366. 0e60i ju/<mop drdXavTOQ. A god- 
&7re counsellor. The appellation, however, 
must be understood in reference to the ge- 
neral character of Priam, and not to the 
foolish fondness with which he complies 
with the proposals of his son. From this 
expression ^Eschylus has coined the word 
foojUTjoTwp, which occurs in Pers. 659. 

370. Vulgo Kara; (rrparov. Some MSS. 
read Kara TrroXiv, and so Heyne. The 
vulgar reading is sanctioned by v. 380. 
which Heyne, however, condemns as spu- 
rious; and the other is confirmed by v. 477. 

375. eiTrefjievai. Infinitive for imperative ; 
as in \. 79. 

232 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, H'. 

Kal 8f ro8' fivw 

HavaaaOai troXifjioio Sua-rj^Eoe, I<TOKE veKpovt; 395 

' vcrrEpov avTE fjLa^r)a6fjL^9\ EIO-O/CE 
8mc/oivp, 8wrj 8' irepoLCfi y vt/cijv. 

'* Oi 8' apa 7ravr ajCTjv lyevovTO 

Mr)r' aj> rte vuv Krrjjtiar' 'AXf^avSpoto ^^o-0w, 400 

jjfl' f EXlv)7v* -yvwrov ^, icat of juaXa v^Tri 
r Qc ^8l Tpwtvaiv o\iOpov irsipar ^7rrat. 
l Qc 0a0'* Of o a^oa TTCLVTZC; liria^ov vle^ ' 
Muflov ayao-o-ajUfvot Ato/i^Sfoc LTnro^dfjLoto. 
Kal TOT* op* 'I Sato v wpoaicftTr) Kptiwit 'AyajU/ivwv' 405 

loat , ^rot ftvOov 'A^aiwv UVTOQ 
"Off rot VTTOKpivovraf E/^ot 8' iTTtav 
carajctjUv oim 

', 7Tl K OdvtoMn, TTVpOg jltlXt(T<T/XV WKO. 410 

OpKia SE ZEVC tarai, lorySowT 
tx i2c EITTWV, TO o-jcrJTrrpov avEo-)(0 Tratrt 

8* 'l8atoc j3rj Trport 
8' Ear' EIV ayopip TpwEC feat 

jurpyEpEEc, TrporiSf-yjUEvoi binrGT av eXOoi 415 

'l8aioe* 6 8' ap' r^X0E icat ayyEXirjv aTTEEtTTE, 
Sra? EV jUE(T(TOt<Tt* roi 8' wTrXt^ovro jua'X' a>ca, 
'A/i^>orjOov, viKvaQ T a-yljiiEv, ercpoe 8s 
Apyftot 8' IrEpwaEv EutraEXjuwv OLTTO 
'QiTpvvovro, veicvg ayE/ZEv, ercpot 8 JUE^' vXrjv. 420 

'HlXtoc JUEV ETTEtra VEOV TTjOOCTEjSaXXfv apovpaz, 
'E aKaXappeirao flaOvppoov 'ilicEavoto 
Ovpavov daaviwv' ot 8' r/vrov aXXrjXottrfv. 
*Ev0a 8myvwvat ^aX?rwc ^v av8pa eicaarroy* 
'AXX' u8art vt^ovrEC aTro jSporov at^uaroEvra, 425 

Auicpi;a ^Epjita ^EOvrEC, ajua^awv ETraEtpav. 
Ou8' aa /cXaiav np/a/ioc jUEya^* ot 8f oruoTry 


'Ev 8s TTUjOt 7rprj(ravTg EjSav Trport "iXtov t/orjv. 

409. vsKvo)v KarartOvtiuTbiv. The same tificari ; subaud. ^ia. Hesych. fieiXifffffiv 
pleonasm occurs in Od. X. 447. So Soph. Kf%apt(T/iva Trparrav. 

Ant. 515. 6 KarQavtov VSKVQ. Eurip. 412. VKijTrrpov dvtG^Qt iraai Beolffi. 

Supp. 16. vfKpovc roue oXwXorag. With See on II. A. 234. 

the sentiment, compare Virg. ^En. XI. 104. 421. 7rpooi/3aX\v a/oovpae. Scil. ac- 

Nullum cum metis certamen, et cethere cassis, rlaiv. Virgil has imitated this passage of 

The preposition TTfpi must be supplied. Homer, respecting the funeral rites of the 

410. 7rupo fjii\i(Tffkfiei/. Per ignem gra- dead, in ,<En. XI. 182. sqq. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, H'. 233 



'Ev c> TTvpi TrpTftTavrfc |3av icoiXac vri vfjac. 

TO f v > \ >/ TO > , A / \ y 

o OVT ap IT to ijwc, rt o ajEtpcAwni we,, 
ap' jU0i TTUprjv KpiTog typtro Xaoc ' 
v 8' ajU^>' avrrjv va Trofeov l^ayayovrfc 435 

"Aicptrov K TTf^iou* TTjOort 8* avrov ra^oc tjuav, 
Ilujoyouc 0' vi/'jjAoi'C} ti\ap VTJWV re KOL auraiv* 
'Ev S' avTolm jrvXac V7rotfov u otjoapuiac, 
avT(i(t)v tTrTTTjXaffiij oSoc *|* 

opu^av, 440 

Evpaav, jUyaXrjv' 
tX Qc ot /y TTOvlovro icapr; 
Ot Se 0Oi, Trap 

/ulya fpyov 

fJLl)9a)V ^pX I10(TtSa(UV lvO(TL\9(x)V' 445 

Trarfp, ^ /oa rtc c^ri /Bjoorwv ITT' a7T/pova 

aOavaroiGi voov KOL juijrtv vi^t ; 
opaac o T S' avr icapr) 

; 450 

Tou S' ^rot JcXlo^ (rrai, ocr^v T' 7TficiSvarat 
Tou S' 7TtXr)crovrat, o T' ya> Kai 
"Hp(> AaojLil^ovrt TroXterorajLtcv a 
Tov Sf jUy' b\Q{]<sas 7Tpo(T 

T il TTOTTOt, > EvVO(Tt'yai > VpV(T0VC> OtOV EEtTTEt,' j 455 

"AXXoc KV r<c rowro 0wy SI<T( vorjjua, 
l 'Oc <TO TroXXoy a^auporfpoc %tpac T jUvoc T* 
2ov 8* ijjrot icXIoc eorat, 6<njv r' 7TfictSvarat ^wc- 
"Ay/oft juav, or' av avre Kaprj KOJUOWVTE^ 'A%aioi 

, ro jUy ic aa irav 

433. afJK})i\vKri vvZ,. See on II. A. 101. therefore, the jealousy of Neptune, and the 

444. Oriivvro. Mirati sunt. Eustath. total destruction of the wall, in conformity 
tQavfia^ov. with the promise of Jupiter, in II. M. 

445. kvoai'xQaiv . The same as ivoai- 17- 

yaws in v. 455. See on II. I. 183. 450. fi\aaav. There are a variety of 

447. dQavotTOiat voov Kai prJTiv kvifyii ; nouns, followed by which the verb eXaw- 

Consilia sua ad deos relaturus sit ? i. e. with vtiv signifies, to draw in a direct line ; and 

a view of securing their assistance and fa- thence, to place. Thus we have here t\av- 

vour. Eustathius has given another inter- vtiv rafypov, et sic sczpius : in II. A. 68. 

pretation ; but the true meaning of the pas- iXavvtiv oyfiov. S. 564. tXavvtiv tpKog. 

sage is evident from v. 450. Pope observes, Od. Z. 9. eXavveiv Ttlx- - ^}" & avveiv 

that as the building of this wall was a mere aravpovg. See Passow's Lex. in v. 
fiction, it was necessary to account for no 456. rovro vd^fia. This contrivance ; i. e. 

traces of it being left in after ages. Hence, the wall. 

H h 

234 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, H'. 

AVTIC; ' rfiova [JLtyaXriv 

"Oe K!V rot juc-ya rft^oe a/zaXSvv?jrat ' 

lN 12c 01 JMV romura Trpoe aXXrjXove cr 

Auo-ero 3' ^tXtoc, rErlXfaro SE Epyov 'A^aiwv. 465 

BOU^OVEOV St Kara icXto-/ac, icai SO/OTTOV f'Xovro. 
N^e^ o l/c Arjjjivoio 7raplo p rao p av, oTvov ayoverat, 
IloXXai, rac TT/oolrjicev 'Ir/oroviSijc EUVTJOC, 
Toy /a' r^ 'Y^iTTvXrj VTT' 'I^crovt TTOI/ULZVL Xawv. 
Xwpic 8' 'ArpiS>?d', 'Ayajufjuvovt icat MEVfXay, 4/0 

Awicev 'Ii](TOviSrjc oyl/i 
"Ev0v ap' oiv/^oi'ro Kaprj KOjUowvrfc ' 
' AXXot jttv ^aXK(j>, aXXot S' aWwvi 
"AXXot ^ pivoigj aXXot 8' avTijori j 

"AXXot 8' avSpaTro^Eo-o-i' riOtvTO Satra ^aXftav. 475 

Ilavvu^tot jUv 7Ttra icapi] ' 

Aatvuvro, Tpwfc 8f Kara TrroXtv 17 
* roi)^ ^ ^Xwpov SfO^ ^'pfi. 

^ ov owSe r* crXi 480 

Koi/mr)(ravT > a/o' 7Ttra, Kai VTTVOV Swpov f'Xovro. 

467- v^f? ^' K Aij/Jivoio K. T. X. The wines, and drove a traffic in them: and 

verses from hence to the end of the book, that coined money was not in use in the 

afford us the knowledge of some points of time of the Trojan war, but the trade of 

history and antiquity ; as, that Jason had a countries carried on by exchange in gross ; 

son by Hypsipyle, who succeeded his mother brass, oxen, slaves, &c. POPE. See on II. 

in the kingdom of Lemnos : that the isle B. 106. 
of Lemnos was anciently famous for its 





' AX\w. 
, Qt&v ayop?), Tpwwi/ KparoQ, "E/cropoc ev^o^. 


Jupiter assembles a council of the Deities, and threatens them with the pains of Tar- 
tarus, if they assist either side ; Minerva only obtains of him, that she may direct 
the Greeks by her counsels. The armies join battle; Jupiter, on Mount Ida, weighs 
in his balances the fates of both, and affrights the Greeks with his thunders and 
lightnings. Nestor alone continues in the field, in great danger ; Diomed relieves 
him ; whose exploits, and those of Hector, are excellently described. Juno endea- 
vours to animate Neptune to the assistance of the Greeks, but in vain. The acts of 
Teucer, who is at length wounded by Hector, and carried off. Juno and Minerva 
prepare to aid the Grecians, but are restrained by Iris, sent from Jupiter. The 
night puts an end to the battle. Hector continues in the field, the Greeks being 
driven to their fortifications before the ships, and gives orders to keep the watch 
all night in the camp, to prevent the enemy from re-embarking, and escaping by 
flight. They kindle fires through all the field, and pass the night under arms. 

The time of seven and twenty days is employed from the opening of the poem to the 
end of this book. The scene here, except of the celestial machines, lies in the field, 
toward the sea-shore. 

v KpOKOTTETrAoe IjcitWro iraaav tV dlav, 
O afwv ayoprjv Trotrjtraro rEp/nKEpauvoc, 
r^ jcopv^ij? TroAuSapaSoc Ov\vfjL7roio' 
SI G< ayoptve, 0toi 3' VTTO Travrec UKOVOV. 

4. VTTO TTCLVTSQ cLKovov. A tmesis for are inverted, and that the latter verb refers 
virr]Kovov, they obeyed ; scil. his summons, to dyoprjv Troirjffaro, in v. 2. 
It seems that the clauses of this sentence 



T 6/eoi, Tracrai rt Ot 
, ra jii Ovfjibg tvi <Trrj0<T<Tt Ke 

aTa> ciaKipcrai f^uov 7TO" aXX' ajua Tra 
Atvar'* o<j!>pa ra^tora rfAeurrjo-a) raSt p-ya. 

EAUOVT' 17 TpoOfacrfv apriyifitv, 77 Aavaoto't, 
nXrjyflc ov Kara KOG/UIOV iXtvcrtTai Ou 
"H jutv IXwv /oi^w Taprapov rj/oovra, 
T^X jitaX', p^t flaOiarov virb \0ovo^ lort 
"EvOa (TtS?7piat r TrvXat feat X^KOC ovSocj 
Toarcrov Vp0' 'Atfa>, OCTOV ovpavoq IGT OTTO 
FVOJO-ET' 7Ti0', otrov ft/it 0fwv Kaprtcrroc aTra 
Et S' ay, 7Tt/or7(rao-0 0ot, iva 


OVK av IpvaaiT i$ ovpavoOtv 
virarov jurjorwjo', ouS' i juaXa TroXXa 
'AXX' 6Vf 8rj icat yw 7rpo^)/owv lOtXoifJit 


1 5 


7- 9r)\eia. See on II. E. 269. 

8. SiaKepaai. To set aside, to transgress. 
Schol. SiaKotyai, avarptyai. II. II. 120. 
fJidxrjQ 7ri pridfa iceipei Ztvg. 

9. aiVtlrc. Acquiesce. Schol. eruvai- 
vcirt, avyKaTariOtaOe. See Pent. Gr. Lex. 
MZ woce. 

12. TrXjjyeif ou Kara Koffpov. Schol. 
Vill. avri row fC6pawa)0Ei^ This con- 
nexion seems preferable to joining ov Kara 
Koauov with iXevcrerat. Compare II. B. 

14. foptQpov. An abyss. It was written 
also (BdpaOpov, whence the Latin bara- 
thrum. There was a deep pit so called at 
Athens, which was used as a place of ca- 
pital punishment, into which the criminal 
was thrown, and left to perish. See Herod. 
VII. 133. Xenoph. Hellen. I. Schol. in 
Arist. Plut. 431 . Meurs. Lect. Att. I. 25. 
Hence, in after times, it became a general 
name for a prison, in which sense it was 
also adopted by the Romans. Hence this 
curious etymology of the word in Isido- 
rus, XIII. 9. Barathrum : voratrum y quasi 
vorago atrox. Festus derives it from /3a- 

16. rooffov tvipQ' 'Aidtu), K. T. X. He- 
siod has nearly the same line in Theog. 720. 
Toffffov ZvtpB' UTTO yj}, offov ovpavoc kar' 
a-Tro yanjc. So Virg. ^n. VI. 577- turn 
Tartarus ipse Bis patet in prceceps tantum, 
tenditque sub umbras, Quantus ad tethereum 
coeli suspectus Olympum. And Milton, P. 

L. I. 73. As far removed from God and light 
of heaven, As from the centre thrice to th' 
utmost pole. Of the probable origin of this 
threat of Jupiter, see on II. A. 403. 

19. atiprjv xpvaeirjv. The opinions re- 
specting this chain of Jupiter, as collected 
by Eustathius, seem to be little worthy of 
attention. The more general belief of the 
ancients was, that it meant the sun. Thus 
Plato in Theaetet. : ovdev aXXo r/ rov ijXiov 
"Ofirjpo^ Xsyti icai etyXoT. Hence Pope 
would understand it to be the attractive 
force of the sun, by which the planetary 
system is preserved. It seems more pro- 
bable, and certainly more consistent with 
the natural simplicity which pervades his 
writings, that Homer meant no more than 
the plain signification which his words con- 
vey. The laboured conjectures, and the 
allegorical interpretations, by which the 
simplest and most beautiful passages in the 
Iliad have been obscured and impeded, aie 
equally calculated to perplex by their ex- 
travagance, and disgust by their affectation. 
See on II. A. 194. 

23. 7rp60pwv WeXoifJii. Cum libuerit. 
The adjective Trpo^pwv is redundant. A 
similar pleonasm of the word c/cwv some- 
times occurs. Xen. Anab. V. 1. 14. iroXtiQ 
tKovvciQ tireicre. Perhaps, however, the ad- 
jective may bear the meaning of iratus, 
which, though extremely rare, the sense 
and connexion evidently require in v. 



AVTYJ Kfv yaiy Ipvaaifji , avrirj re 

riV fliv KV 7rtra TTtpl plOV OvXlfjULTTOLO 

* ra 81 K CLVTE jUrrjo/oa iravra yivoiro. 
To(7<TOv eytt) TTtpt r EI/ULL 0wv, Trcpt r' f t'ju' 

*! 0a0\ ot <$' apa Tr 
Mu0ov ayao-o-a^ufvot' /*aXa yap 

'Ol// O?) jUrl7T 0tt 

7 O 7rarp itytrjO, KpovtSrj, 
Ei) vu feat T7Utc t'&zv 6 rot aQivo OVK 



O? Kv 0^7 icaKOV OITOV avaTrXijtravrfc oXwvrat. 
'AXX' ^ro TroXifiov JUEV a^>5ojU0', 
BouX^v 8' 'Apyffotc v7ro0Tj<70jU0\ 
f oXwvrat oSvaGauiEvoio reoto. 


i^lXw o rot 


ov vu rt Uj 


& tUa 

, iruKrov, ow fTT 
8' fXaav* rw 8' ov*c aKOvrf 7Tr(T0j]v 
trjc r Kai owpavou a(rrpOvroc. 
f /Kay TroXuTnSaica, jurjrfpa Bripwv, 



24. awry Ktv yaiy. There is an ellipsis 
of the preposition ow, which is continually 
the case with the dative of the pronoun au- 
roc- So again i/ ra v. 290. A. 698. Y. 481. 
V. 8. The idiom has been called Attic, 
but it is not confined to any class of writers, 
though its use is more particularly fre- 
quent in the Tragic poets. See Elmsley 
on Eurip. Med. 261. in which he renders 
the words awrolg fjitXaOpoig, by our fa- 
miliar expression, house and all ; and illus- 
trates the formula by a variety of examples, 
We may add, Herod. II. 47. III. 45. VI. 32. 
Xenoph. Anab. I. 3. and other instances will 
frequently recur. See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 400. 
f. Herman on Viger, p. 602. 

29. KpartpuQ. Angrily. See on II. A. 25. 

34. ot Kv oXwvrai. Who will perish ; 
in the future. See on II. B. 188. 

40. Trpo^povt. Irato. See on v. 23. 

43. ylvro. He took ; for c'Xro, i. e. 
\ro. It is supposed that the y is for the 
digamma or spiritus asper ; as we have 

yaforat for a^erat, yolvo for OIVOQ, and 
the like. The X is changed into v, as in 
K'BVTO for KsXero, J>0e for }\0e. See Matt. 
Gr. Gr. . 227. Ernesti on Callim. H. in 
Cer. 44. 

47. TroXviridaica, /i/jrspa 0;pwv. We 
are informed by Mr. Wood, in his Descrip- 
tion of the Troade, that the present state 
of Ida corresponds with Homer's descrip- 
tion of it. It still abounds with fountains 
and rills ; and its forests of pine-trees are 
the resort of jackalls and wild beasts. 

48. Tapyapov. To Gargarus ; i. e. a 
single point of Ida ; which is added by way 
of apposition to "iSijv, to determine more 
accurately the spot to which Jupiter was 
going. So again in II. Jaf. 284. See also 
Matt. Gr. Gr. . 432. 3. where examples 
are cited from II. II. 502. Y. 44. 4>. 37. 
These, however, more properly belong to 
the construction noticed on II. A. 219. or 
on Soph. CEd. T. 718. Pent. Gr. p. 53. See 
likewise on II. Z. 431. 


t oxtW, Kara 8' fc'pa TrouXvv e^euev. 50 

uroe 8' Iv Kopvtyrjat KaOi&TO Ku8ef yatwv, 
Ettropoaiv Tpwwv re TroXtv Kat vfjac ' 
Ot 8 a/oa oftTTvov f'Xovro Kaprj 

Kara icXto-iac, aTro 8' avrou 
cC o auv Irpto0v ava TrroXtv a>7rXtovro 55 

* /uejuaa-av 8e /cat we vvfjuvi /la 
Xpetot avajKaiy; Trpo re Tra/Swv jcat Trpo 
Dao-ai 8* wiyvuvro TruXai, ic 8' t'crcruro Xaoc, 
Ilc^ot 0', tTTTrfe TE* TToXug 8' opvjuay^oc opwpa. 
Ot 8* ore 8rj /o' e^ X^P OV * va S^vtovrec "KOVTO, 60 

ptvovg, <rvv 8' 

arap a(77rt8fc Oj 

"ETrXrjvr' aXX)Xr?(Tt' TroXi/c 8' 6j 
'EvOa8' a/i' olfiwyii re /cat ev^wXr) TreXev av8pwv, 
'OXXuvrwv re jcat oXXu/ieywv* /ote 8' at pan yaia. 65 

To^pa juaX' afjKJtOTtpwv /BfXe' ^Trrero, 7Ti7rr 8f Xaoc* 
*Hjuoe 8' 'HlXtoc fjiiaov oupavov ajU^ijSejS/jKet, 
Kat rore 877 xpvGtia Trarrjp Irtratvf raXavra, 
'Ev 8 ertaet 8uo K^joe ravTjXfyeoc Oavaroio, 70 

T/OWO)V 0' t7T7To8ajUWV KOI 'A^CUWV X a ^ ( 

w EXic 8e juecrcra XajSwv, /o7T 8' aicrifiov 
At juev 'Axtwv K/pec eVt ^0ovt Tr 

" Tpwwv 8f Trpoc oupavov evpvv atputv. 
vroe 8' ^"1817? jueyaX' tfcruTre, 8atOjityov 8e 75 

creXac juera Xaov 'A^atwv' ot 8e t8ovrfc 
0ajLtj3ij(rav, Kat Travrac VTTO ^Xwpov 8oe eTXev. 
"Ev0' our' 'l8ojUveuc rXrj juijtivetv, our' ' 
Oure 8u' Atavrec jUverr/v, 0epa7ro 

8' oto^ e'jUtjuve Fep^vtoc* ovpog 'A\at)v 3 80 

60. o'i 5" orf 5) K. r. X. See on II. A. Patties and realms ; in these he puts two 

446. weights, The sequel each of parting and of 

69. TraTijp triTaivf. raXavra. This pas- fight ; The latter quick up flew, and kicked 

sage has been imitated by Virgil ; ^En. XII. the beam. We may also compare the fol- 

725. Jupiter ipse duas eequato pondere lances lowing passages of Scripture : Job xxxi. 6. 

Sustinet, et fata imponit diversa duorum, Prov. xvi. 2. 11. 1 Sam. ii. 3. Dan. v. 27. 

Quern damnet labor, et quo vergat pondere Eustathius explains the descent of the scales 

letum. See Macrob. Sat. V. 13. Homer to signify mortality and death, and their as- 

has repeated it in II. X. 209. and Milton cent to imply life and prosperity. 

also imitated it in P. L. IV. 996. The 74. iZ,toOr]v. Of the verb in the dual, 

Eternal, to prevent such horrid fray, Hung in reference to a nominative plural, see on 

forth in heaven his golden scales, yet seen II. A. 453. In the succeeding clause, how- 

Between Astrcea and the Scorpion sign ; ever, the verb changes to the plural. 

Wherein all things created first he weighed, 75. awrdf c" ^"l^rjQK. T. X. There is a 

The pendulous round earth, with balanced passage strikingly similar in 1 Sam. vii. 

air In counterpoise ; now ponders all events, 10. Compare 2 Sam. xxii. 14. 


'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, 9'. 239 

Oim Kt)i>, aXX' tTrTroc THpro* rov jSaXev toj 
AToc 'AXlSavSpoc, 'EXtvrjc iruaiq fivK 

KCtK KOpU^rjV, 60t T TTptoTCU Tpi 

o-f, /uLciXiGTa SE Kcupiov <mv. 

' avETraXro, j3Aoc 8* de EyKE^aXov Su, 85 

Suv S' tTTTTOve Irapa^E, Ku 
v O0p' o yipwv IITITOIO TTaprjOpiaQ a 
tpafryavtj) aiawv, ro^p' f 'EcrOjOoc W 
T HX0ov av' tw^juov, 0pa<ruv 17^10^0 
"Emropa" icat vu Kv V0' 6 yipwv airo Qvfjibv oXeaaev, 90 
Et JUT) ap' o^u vorjtTE jSo^v ayaObc; 

Elf) (ftsvyeit;, |Ura vwra ]3aXa> 

M^rtf roi (ftEvyovrt jUfra^pIv^ v ^opi> TTTJ^T). 95 

'AXXa JUEV'J 6^)joa -ytpovroc a7rwcrojUv ayptov av^pa. 

'AXXa Tra{]i% > KOiAag ?ri 

'j auroc T p ^v, TTpOjua^oicriv 

Trpoa-fl' ^TTTTWV Nr/XTjtaSao yepovroc, 100 

Kat jutv ^wvrjtrac cVea Trrepoevra TrpocrrjuSa* 

^Q ytpov, ^ juaXa Sr) (re vtot Tsipovat jua^Tjrm, 
Srj Si jStrj XtXurai, ^aXtTrov Se CTE yrjpac OTra^Et* 
'H7rav6^ SE vu rot 0pa7rwv, j3pac & roi ITTTTO*. 
'AXX' ay'j EJUWV 6^o>v 7rtj3rj(70, 60|0a t'Sijat 105 

OlOt Tp&ioi ITTTTOt, 7Tl(TrajUVOl TTE^tOtO 

KpatTrva juaX' ev^a icai cv0a StwicEjUEv ^Sl <f>tf3tvOat 9 
T' WTT' AtvEtav IXd/ur^v ju?7(Tra)p 

84. [ictXiffTO. de icatpiov e<m. So Virg. an additional horse to the side of the chariot, 
,/En. XII. 507. Qwffl ,/afa celerrima. Hip- which would therefore be ready to supply 
pocrat. ^<fe ^r^. p. 600. Kcupioi irXriyai at the place of either of the other two, which 
KpoTa<})iritg. Of the adjective Kaipiog, might happen to be disabled. This horse 
mortalis, see on II. A. 185. was also called ffeipaioz or crapa^opoe. 

85. aXyriaciQ d' aviiraXro. Reared with Dionys. Halicarn. A. R. VII. p. 462. Au- 
the pain. Virg. Jn. XI. 638. Sonipes ictu <rtv "ITTTTOIQ eZtvypkvoiG, ov rpo?rov &vy- 

furit arduus, altaque jactat, Vulneris impa- vvrai ffvvwpig, rpirog TrapeiirfTO SetpaToe 

tienS) arrecto pect ore crura. And again ^En. 'ITTTTOQ pvTrjpai avwxofievog, ov airi) rov 

X. 892. Tollit se arrectum sonipes, 8fc. Trapywp^crdai jeai GvvtfyvyQcLi Hapyopov 

86. KvXivdofjievos Trepl %a\K<. Wri- ItcaXovv 01 TraXaiof. In the quadriga there 
thing under the weapon; i. e. endeavouring was an equusfunalis on each side. See Lex. 
to shake it from his forehead. Eustath. Pent. Gr. v. dtZioasipoe, and Valckenaer on 
Trtpi x a ^ K V' T V T v oiffTov ffi^Tjpy &j- Theocrit. Adoniaz. p. 246. A. 

Xa^. The Scholiast, absurdly enough, un- 95. [JIIJTIQ TOI ic. r. X. Supply opa, &- 

derstands x a ^ K V ^ ^ e wnee ls of the cha- ^oiKa, or some such word, as in II. A. 26. 

riot. inirrjZy is separated by Tmesis. 

87. TrapyopiaQ. Scil. /via. The reins, 97. -n-oXurXac. Hence Horat. Epod. xvii. 
by which the equus funalis, or Trapyopog, 16. Laboriosus Ulysses. Epist. I. vii. 40. 
was connected with the equi jugales. So Fattens Ulysses. 

again in II. H. 152. It was usual to attach 108. out; TTOT' air' Aivtiav fXo/ttJjv. A 

240 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, 9'. 

fJLtV 0poVovr KOjUEtTCilV* TwSf 8f V 


, i Kai E/AOV 8opv fiaiverai EV 7raXajur?(Tiv. 


"l(j>9tfjLOL S 

Tw 8' Eie ajLt^orpw AiO/^r/Sfoe ap^uara jS^rrjv' 115 

8' v xttptaHTi Xaj3' 77vt 

8' ITTTTOVCJ TX a ^' "Eicropoc a 
Tou 8' t0i>c jLtfjuawroc aicovrto- TuSfO^ woe* 
Kai rov julv /o' aQafjLapTEv' o 8' ^vto^ov 0pa7rovra, 
Ytov virepOvfjiov 0rjj3atou, 'HviOTrija, 120 

"ITTTTWV iivt' f^ovra, jSaXf OTIJ^OC nrapa jua^ov. 

"H/OtTTE 8' ? 6;iJV, V7rjOOJ170-av 81 Ot tTTTTOt 

'ilKU7ro8fc* rou 8' au^t Xu^ij 
"E/cropa 8' aivov ot'xC 7ruca< 
T6v juiv 7Tir' tao-, KCU a^yvfj.ev6^ TTfp fratpou, 125 

* 6 8' r]vioyov jU07T 0paari)v, 01/8' ap' m 8?7V 

t^a yap upv 
Opacrvv, ov pa roO' tTTTrwi/ 

, 8t8oi 8f Ot iJvtO X f P CT tV. 

c Xotyoc *?v, Kai ajurj^ava f'pya yvoyro* 130 

Kat vu K a 
Ei JUT] ap' o^u vorj(T 

Bpovr)(Tac 8' a'joa 8tv6v, a'$r}ic' dpyrira 
Ka8 8f Trpoaa 

Aetvrt 8s ^>Xo? wpTO Bedov jcatojufvoto* 135 

Tw 8' tTTTrw 8t(ravr Kara7rrijri7v VTT' 6%(r^)t* 
Nlorojoa 8' EK: XjEipwv Qvyov 17 via oryaXoEvra* 
AEI(T 8' 07' EV Ovfjiq, Aio^irj8a 
Tv8i8r;, a'-yE 8' auTE ^>oj3ov8' 

T H ou yiyv&VKUC, o roi EK Atoc ov^' E'TTET' a'Xc// ; 140 

Nvv JUEV yap 

tmesis for d<j>ti\6p,riv. Of the construction, A.UI//C. The verb 7rica^w signifies /o cover 

see on II. A. 182. These horses fell into thickly or closely, from the adverb Trw/ca. 

the hands of Diomed, in II. E. 323. See See Blomfield on ,Esch. Theb. 137. Valck- 

also on v. 265. naer on Herod. VII. 197- and compare II. 

109. OepdirovTe. Nestor is, scil. et Dio- P. 551. Q. 581. 

medis: v. 114. 126. fjiiOeTre. Schol. s^ni. The verb 

116. 17 via o-tyaXoevra. See on II. E. 226. properly signifies immittere, as in II. E. 329. 

Heyne reads with some MSS. QOIVIKOIVTCI. Hence arcessere ; and so quarere. 

The common reading seems preferable. 133. dtyrJKf. Emisit : and in the next 

122. VTTtjOwqow. Stopped short; or line, KaOrjice, immisit. 

started back. Eustath. ave^wp^ffav, dvt- 136. Kara7rra7r>/v. Schol. 
Kodiffav. See on II. B. 179. 

124. irvKaot. Clouded. Eustath. f/ca- 



2//jUpov, vvTfpov avT Koi fi/uuv, ai K 
Afc'o-ft* a'v?)p $ KV OVTL Aioc voov apuaatro, 
OvSl jitaX' "upOipoe' 7Tf?7 TroXi; 0pTpoc OT. 

Tov 8' ifytajSfT 1 tTTftra j3or)v ayaObs AtOjurj^ijc' 145 

Nat 77 ravra y Trayra, ylpov, Kara juotpav 
'AXXa roS' atvov a^oc KpaStrjv Kat Ovfjibv IKU 
yap TTOTC ^fiati, Ivl Tpwead ayopevwv, 
jc vTT 1 fjufto ^ojSfVjUEVOC icro vrjag. 

e TTOT' aTTftXriaft* rorf /not ^avoi cvpua \0(i)V. 150 

Tov S' ^jUf/jSfr' 7Ttra Ffp^vtoc tTTTrora Ncorajp* 

TI/SOC V 8at^)pOVOC, OlOV 

yap a' "EKTW/O y Kacov KOI 
'AXX' ou TTftaovrai Tpwc KOI 
Kat TJOWWV aXo^ot /ifyaflujuwv ao-TTicrTawv, 155 

Tawv v Koviyat jSaXf^ OaXtpovg Trapaicotrac* 
lN I2c ap a fyuvfoaq ^uyaSf rpaTTt juwvu^ac ITTTTOUC, 
iw^/zov* ITTJ <$ Tpwl^ re Kat "EKrwp 

fXfa orovotvra ^lovro. 
T<jj 8' 7Tt juaKpov au<T jufyac KOpu^atoXoc "EKrwp* 160 

TuSft^rj, 7T/ot /iv GT Ttov Aavaot 
"E^py r, Kplaai r', i7E TrXftotc 
Nuv tr' an/uLYiffovai' yvvaiKO ap' avrt TTU!;O. 

7Tl OlK, taVTOC jUtO, 

V77(7<T' Trapoc rot 
^c,* 8f t 
t, Kal vavrtj3tov 

143. tipvffaiTO. Eustath. aVri rov fi0- 

Kw<m, ^ KtaXvffti. 

150. dirtiXrjati. Schol. KavxfjfftTat, KO/W- 
Compare II. H. 96. 4>. 161. The 
verb a7ri\iv signifies, properly, 2o threaten; 
as in II. A. 161. : thence to 6oas, *o ta/A: 
big ; and sometimes also to vow, to promise : 
^f. 863. 

162. e^py. The TTposSpia, or chief seat 
at an entertainment, or at public meetings, 
was one of the first marks of distinction and 
respect among the Greeks. That the same 
also was the case among the Jews, is evi- 
dent from Luke xiv. 8. Of the other marks 
of superiority here mentioned, see on II. A. 
468. A. 262. TrXttotg. Schol. TTfTrX^pw/il- 
VOIQ, yl/iewtrt. From TrXaog, plenus. 

163. yvvaiKOQ ap' AVTI rkrvlo. Eustath. 
KtoTOfitl dvTi yvvaiKOQ ytvkaQai TOV Aio- 
fjLrjdrjv, fjyovv Iffov yvvaiKi. The vulgar 
lection is avrtrkrv^o. Heyne has dvrl 

rlrw^o, which is evidently the correct read- 
ing, and sanctioned by Eustathius, except 
that the accent of the preposition should be 
thrown back on account of the anastrophe. 
See also on v. 233. 

164. icaKj) y\rjvr]. SchoL 
Koprj r} KO.KOV Okafia, y\i]vri yap 
) TOV ofyOaXfiov Kopr). Compare II. ?. 

166. Saifiova Sdiffb). Valckenaer ob- 
serves on Eurip. Hippol. 809. Sors tristis, 
sive fortuna mala, sen calamitas, qua nobis 
obtingit non sine Numine, frequenter dicitur 
Saipuv, ut Homero, sic aliis. In illustra- 
tion are cited, Soph. CEd. C. 1337- Eurip. 
Alcest. 577. 957. See also Kuster on Aris- 
toph. Plut. 6. Instances will frequently 
be met with in Homer. In the present 
instance, though the word is used inde- 
finitely as usual, Death is evidently in- 

I i 



Kara ptva Km Kara 
8* ap' a7r* TSatwv optwv KTVTTS /urjrttra Zic, 


fc, KOI AvKtoi, KOI AapSavot a 

wo-KO) 8', ort juot TTpo^pwv Karlvua- Kpovtwv 
Nnojv Kai /ulya KUOC, ara/o AavaoTcr* y 7T%ta. 
N^TTtOi, o? a'/oa Sr) ra r/^a jitr/^avowvro, 
'AjSArj^p', ow^fvotrw^a' raS* ou julvo^ O./ULOV l^v^u' 

"iTTTTOt ^ |0a TafypOV VITSpOoptOVTai OpVKTl'lV. 

'A XX' or KV Si) vrjudiv ?rt YXa^vprjcrt ytvwfjiai, 
ETTftra Trvpbc; Srjioio yfvta^a), 


a VJJUCTIV, arv^ofiivov^ VTTO Kairvq. 

OtCTtV KlcXrO, (frlbvrjatV T* 

^Jav^f T, Kal au Ilo8a|p7, Kat AWwv, Aaju7T r Tf, 
Nvv juoi r?]v KO/utSijv a7rortvroi;, r}v juaXa 7roXXr)v 
'AvSpOjLiaxi?^ Ovyarrip /uEyaXr/ropoc 'Hmwvoc, 
'Yjutv Trap irpoTipoiat /ufXt^pova TTU^OV 0]icv, 
Olvov r' tyKEpaaaaa TTietv, orf avwyot, 

TT >> ' f /l"\^ ' ' T 

li ftoi, oc 7Tp ot aaAfpoc Trocrtc sv^o/mai zivai. 
'AXX' l^ojuajorftrov KOI <T7Tv8rov, 60pa Xaj3a>jUv 
'A(T7n8a Nforopl^v, rf/^ vuv KXfoc ovpavov tct, 
Iladav \pvadriv /ivat, Kavovae rf fcai ai>rr/v' 
Aurap OTT' wfioiiv AtOjuijSfO^ tTTTroSajUOto, 
awprjKa, rov "H^aioroc Ka^u 

178. ovStvoffwpa. Eustath. ovdtfiiaQ 

, o <rrt Qpovridog, a^ia. 
181. jivrifjioffvvri ytvivOw. That is, prr}- 




185. EavBe. TE, icai ffu Ho^apyc, K. r. \. 
There have been critics who blame this 
manner, introduced by Homer, and copied 
by Virgil, of making a hero address his 
discourse to his horses. In jEn. X. 858. 
Mezentius speaks to his horse in the same 
manner as Hector does here. And nothing 
can be more spirited and affecting than this 
enthusiasm of Hector, who, in the trans- 
port of his joy at the sight of Diomed flying 
before him, breaks out into this apostrophe 
to his horses, as he is pursuing. POPE. In 
order to account for the verb in the dual, 
the four horses must be combined into two 
pairs. See on II. A. 567. 

188. Trap TrpOTspoiffi K. T. X. That 
is, vfilv irporepov TrapkOrjicev 77 t/ioi. It 
appears to have been the custom of the 


wives to meet their husbands on their re- 
turn from the battle, and, loosing the horses 
from the chariot, to give them their pro- 
vender. Hence Amphitrite unyokes those 
of Neptune, in Apollon. Rhod. IV. 1370. 
It seems, also, from this passage, that corn 
or wheat, steeped in wine, was given as a 
nutritious food to favourite horses. 

193. Kavovaq. These were two rods of 
wood or metal which reached across the 
shield, and served as handles : II. N. 407- 
Eustath. pd(35ovg TIVCLQ avatyoptctQ TI]Q 
aairidos, roptvrovQ laws OVTO.Q, Kal W? 
tlirtlv KCIVOVWTOVG. In later ages, the 
shield was borne by a more commodious 
handle, which consisted of small bars placed 
across each other, in the form of the letter 
% ; and called o^avov, from t\<t), teneo. 
See Pollux, I. 10. 

195. SaiddXtov QwpriKa, K. r. X. These 
were the arms that Diomed received from 
Glaucus, and a prize worthy of Hector, 



El rOUrti) K Xa 


2i<raro c)' ivi apoi^, AXic; $ juaicpov 

Km /oa IIotTfiSawva, ptyav 0ov, avri'ov qu&c* 

'li TTOTTOI, 'Evvoaryat' i>pua0Vc, ouSc vu (rot ?Tp 
'OXXujiiva>v Aavawv 6Xo</)uprai i 
Oi rot i 'EXticrjv T Kai Aiyac 
IloXXa re KCU ^aptvra* <TI> ^ a^ttrt jSouXfo VLK.T\V. 
E'/7Tp yap K' 0XotjUv, OCTOI Aavaotffiv apwyoi, 
Tpwac airwcraaSat, KOL epuKjUv svpvoira Z)v', 
AuroO K^ V0' aica^otro KaOr)[jLvo dioc; Iv "I^r;. 



Trotov rov 
av 7(07' lOeXoifjiL Ail KpoviMvi jua^(T0ai 

row^ aXXoi>c> 7Tir) TroXi) 
tV I2c oe jUy roiavra TT/OOC aXXrjXouc 
Twv cT, o<rov IK vrjwv aTTo Trupyou ra^po^ 
IlXrj0v 6/iwc ITTTTWV r Kai av^pwv atTTTK 
EiXojufvwv* u'Xfi ^ 0o<j) araXavroc "Aprj'i 
"Ecrtt>/o npiajui^rjcj ore 01 ZEU^ KvSo 
Kai vu K' V7rpjcr Trvpi Kr^X^ vrjac 

El l? 7Tl (Tl 0c' ^AaJLtlVOVL TTOTVia 



Bfj S' ivai Trapa r 

icai vr/a^ ' 





j (TK, ytytovt/uisv a 

being, as we are told in II. Z. 236. entirely 
of gold. I do not remember any other 
place where the shield of Nestor is cele- 
brated by Homer. POPE. 

203. Helice and Mga were two cities of 
Achaia, in which the worship of Neptune 
was particularly attended to. There was 
another JEgce in Eubcea. See Strabo ; VIII. 
p. 266. IX. p. 279. ed. Cas. 

209. a7rro7r. Severe in speech. Eu- 
stath. ^XoT ri\v Ka9cnrTOp,evr)v iv tiriai 
icai vflpiariKriv. We are rather inclined, 
however, to prefer a7rro7Tff, with the soft 
breathing ; i. e. bold in speech, from a priv. 
and 7rrofa>. Heyne retains the aspirate, 
for which the authorities prevail ; but the 
sense is in favour of the other reading, which 
is also not without support. 

213. offov IK vti&v K. r. X, Eustathius 

understands this of the space between the 
ditch and the wall, which had been con- 
structed in the late truce. There was also 
another space behind the wall, in front of 
the ships, which, as it seems from v. 220. 
was also crowded. Heyne therefore pro- 
poses to read K vtjtiv, irvpyov T aTro, so 
as to include the whole entrenchment. 

222. /wyaKtjrtY. Immense : from KJ/ro, 
a whale. There is a similar analogy in the 
composition in the class of words noticed on 
11. A. 551. See Hemsterhuis on Lucian, 
T. I. p. 139. 

224. rip-tv tir' AlavroQ K. T. X. We 
learn from hence the situation of the ships 
of Ulysses, Achilles, and Ajax. The two 
latter, being the strongest heroes of the 
army (v. 226.), were placed to defend either 
end of the fleet, as most obnoxious to the 



'HS' fV 'A^tXXfjoc, rot p ia\ara VYIU^ Haag 
E'/puo-av, ?7vopr? iriavvoi KOI icapra 


Ilr) |3ay Ev^wXai, OTE Sr) ^QJUEV Etveu aptaroC 
1 AC, OTTOT' f v Arjjuvt^, KE vcau^c i?yopaa<T0, 
KjOEa TroXXa |3owv Oj 
prjTripag 7naT<^ac o'/voto, 
ova Eicurov TE SIYIKOGIWV re 



EVi7rpr<Tft Trupt 






ZEV TrarEp, ^ pa rtv' 
TijS' arp aao-ac, icat 


Nrjl' TroXw/cX^/St 
'AXX' ETTI TTaart |3owy 
f IE/IE voc Tpoi?ji Ei 

'AXXa, ZEU, TO^E TTfp juot ETnKpyjrjvov Ef 
Avrovc; S/7 TTEp E'CKTOV vTrtK^wyhiv KCU a 
ovrw TpwEdcriv sa Sa^uvaa^at ' 
c ^>aro* rov SE 7rarr)p 

1 ot Xaov o-oov EjUjUEvat, oi>8' a 




incursions or surprizes of the enemy; and 
Ulysses, being the ablest head, was allotted 
the middle place, as more safe and conve- 
nient for the council, and that he might be 
nearer, if any emergency required his ad- 
vice. POPE : from Eustathius and Sponda- 
nus. Both here, however, and in II. A. 5. 
the language of Homer must be considered 
as a bold and poetical hyperbole : at least, 
if we are to understand by it that Agamem- 
non was heard at both extremities of the 
fleet, which would include a space of nearly 
six miles each way, the distance from the 
Rhaetean to the Sigaean promontory being 
about twelve. See Wood's Description of 
the Troade. The waving, therefore, of the 
purple robe, in order to gain attention, was 
no less necessary on account of the extent, 
than the confusion, of the army. This and 
the two following lines are wanting in one 
MS. and they are marked with asterisks by 

227. #ta7rpi(7iov. See Lex. Pent. Gr. 
in voce. 

230. OTTOT-' iv A^/ivy. Scil. f)}Jitv. This 
occurrence was previous to the action of the 
Iliad. Several instances of change of per- 
son, similar to that in this passage, have 

been already noticed. See on II. A. 305. 
E. 878. and elsewhere. 

232. sTriarf^laf olvoio. Schol. TrX^ptif. 
See on II. A. 470. 

233. dv9' t/earov arf]ffeff9'. Would stand 
instead of a hundred; i. e. would be equiva- 
lent to a hundred. The expression ffrrjvai 
avrl nvog is properly applied to weights. 
It is here synonymous with dioQ tlvai, in 
the next verse, and Herod. VII. 104. Com- 
pare supra v. 163. I. 116. A. 514. $. 75. 
and elsewhere. 

239. t'ppom Schol. ITTI <f>Qopav Trapa- 

240. Srjfibv Kal p;pi'. That is, pinguia 
femora ; an Hendiadys. So Virg. Georg. 
II. 192. pateris libamus et auro, for pateris 

243. O.VTOVQ. That is, hos Achivos. 

247. avTiKa 8' aiirbv fjicf, K. r. X. Ju- 
piter, upon the prayers of Agamemnon, 
sends an omen to encourage the Greeks. 
The application of it is obvious : the eagle 
signified Hector, the fawn denoted the fear 
and flight of the Greeks, which, being dropt 
at the altar of Jupiter, shewed that they 
would be saved by the protection of that 
god. The word 7raj/o/i0euo, says Eusta- 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAOS, 9'. 245 

Nj3poi> c 

Dap $ Atoe j3wjuw TTEpfKaXXlt KajSjSaXg vt/3/oov, 

"Ev0a Travo[ ZTJVI /OE^EO-JCOV 'A^atot. 250 

Ot 8' o;c ovv f'/oovO', or' ap' 
MaXXov 7Tt Tpw<Ta - i Oopov, /iVTj 
"Ev0' oim TTjOorfpoc Aavawv, TroXXwv 
Eu^aro TvSst^ao Trapoc; ayifjitv wxiag "ITTTTOVQ, 
Ta<^>pou r' f^Xa(rat, KCU vavrt]3tov fjLa\iaaaQaC 255 

'AXXa TroXu TT^WTOC T|0wa>v t'Xcv avSpa 

'A^tXaov* o JUEV (fivyaSe rpaTTtv 

vc;, Sia SE a 

, apaj3i]<T ^ rv^' TT' aurq). 260 

Tov Si jUfV 'ArpaSat, ^AyafjLtfjLVMv KOL Mfi^Xaoc* 

fV A'/ayrfc, Oovpiv 7nfjuvot aXicriv" 
tflrt 8' fV 'iSojUEVfuCj icm OTrawv ' 
> araXavroc 'EvimXttu av 
Total S' tV Ei/ouTTvXo^, Euat/xovoc ayXaoc vto^. 265 

8' t'/varoc ^X0, TraXivrova ro^a rtratvwv' 
' ap 1 VTT* A'/avroc o"act TfXajUwvtaSao. 

^^)p dajcoc, avrap 07' rjpw? 

j 7Tt OO TLV oi<JTV(Tag Iv OjUtXfj) 
JKt, O jUV ai>0t 7r(ra)V aTTO OvfJlOV oX(TCTV, 270 

Avrap 6 avTtg twv, TraVc <^C ^^o jurjrjoa, 
Etc AtavO'* 6 8f /utv aaKft Kpi7rrao-K 
*Ev0a r/va Trpwrov TjOtuwv 

thius, has a great significancy in this place, rova, r) STTI 0arfpa fieprj 

The Greeks, having just received this happy Attius : Reciproca tela. See also Wesse- 

omen from Jupiter, were offering oblations ling on Herod. VII. 69. and compare Soph. 

to him under the title of the Father of Trach. 521. Apoll. Rhod. 793. Perhaps 

Oracles. Virgil has a fine imitation of this the adjective simply implies that the ex- 

passage, but diversified with many more tremities were turned in a contrary direc- 

circumstances, where he makes Juturna tion. Heyne considers it the same as ay- 

show a prodigy of the like nature to en- Kv\a, icapirvXa, tvKdfnrea. II. E. 209. 

courage the Latins : ^En. XII. 247. Nam- K. 333. Theocr. Idyll. XIII. 56. Schol. 

que volans rubra fulvus Jovis ales ab cethra, tig rouTrttrw Ttivofieva. The plural roa, 

&c. POPE, fcf the verb pt&tv, sacrificare, instead of the singular, is usual both in 

in v. 250. see on II. A. 147. Homer, and in the Tragic writers. 

251. oping. An omen. See notes on Soph. 271. Traig WQ K. T. X. Eustathius ob- 

GEd. T. 52. JEsch. Theb. 594. Pent. Gr. serves, that Teucer, being an excellent 

pp. 11 449. archer, and using only the bow, would 

253. OVTIQ TTjOorfjOoe Tvfcidao. See on not bear any arms that would encumber 

II. A. 547. him, and render him less expedite in his 

262. 7mi/ivoi a\Kr]v. See on II. A. archery. Homer, to secure him from the 

149. enemy, represents him as standing behind 

266. TToXivrova Tola. Blomfield on the shield of Ajax, and shooting from 

/Esch. Choe'ph. 155. Erant roga ira\iv- thence ; and there is a wonderful ten- 

Tova arcus, qui nervis solutis non illico derness in the simile, with which he il- 

tvOvrovoi, recti fiebant, sed in contrariam lustrates his retreat behind the shield. 

partem sese flectebant. Hesych. biriaQo- POPE. 

246 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, 9'. 

filv TTjOwra, KOI 

Aatropa TE, XjOOjUtoi> T, Kai avriOtov AuKO^ovrrjv, 275 

Kai IloXuatjUoviSrjv 'AjuoTraova, Kai MfXavtTTTrov, 

Tov <$ i.Swv yj70Tj(Tv aval:, avSpwv ' 

ctTro K|oarpou Tpwtov oXt/covra 

^ avrbv ta*v, Kai jutv 7T|OO /mvOov t7r' 280 

, $1X17 K0aXr), TfXajuwvte, KOipavf Xawv, 
BaXX' ovrwcj aticfy rt 0oa>c Aavaotcrt yiviqai, 
Flarpi re (Tw TfXajUwvt, 6 d f'rpf^E rvrOov tovra, 
Kai tr, vo0oi' 7Tp iovra, KO/ULiaaaro to ti/i O'/MO* 
Tov, Kat r?jXo0' ovra, fVJcXfirjc 7rt]3i7crov. 285 

/cat ' 

'iXtou E^aXaTTaSat IVKTLJJL^VOV 7rroXi0pov, 
n/)tMr(jj rot /Ltfr' jU 7Tp(TJ3?Vtov v 

^H TplTToS', ?7 SuW 17T7TOUC aVTOLGlV O^(T0iV, 290 

'H yvvat-%, rj KEV rot 6/xov Xf^oc icrava]3aivoi. 

icu8t(7T, rt juc omuSovra icat aurov 
; ou JUEV rot, oo-rj Suvajtitc y 7ra|0orrt, 
flauojuat* aXX' ^ ou Trport "iXtov wo^ajUfO' avroug, 295 

'Eic row ^17 ro^otcri ^fSfyjUfvoe avSoac tvatpw. 
'O/crw 817 Trpolrj/ca Tai/vyXw%ivac OI 

Tovrov ' ou Svva/uiai j3aXttv Kuva Xu<T<rrjrf/pa. 

'H |aa, Kat a'XXov oVcrrov aTro vfwpr)^)tv t'aXXfv 300 

"EKTOQOC aiTiKpi), ]3aXtv I tro 

281. 0iX; Kf^aXj/. This use of K0a\), quently took the captives, whom they re- 

in the sense of person, is very common in ceived as rewards of valour, to their beds. 

Homer. See II. IT. 77- S. 114. . 94. Od. And we hear that Theano, the wife of 

A. 343. and elsewhere. So Find. Olymp. Antenor, paid as much attention to his il- 

V. 103. Pyth. IX. 51. ./Elian. V. 11. XII. 8. legitimate children, as she would have 

In the Scriptures, 2 Sam. i. 16. 1 Kings ii. done to her own: II. E. 75. Teucer's 

33. Matt. viii. 20. Luke ix. 58. Acts xviii. birth also was as high as s*ch could be, 

6. Col. ii. 19. In the same sense icdpa is being the son of Telamon by Hesione, the 

used by the Tragic writers ; as in Soph, daughter of Priam. Agamemnon, however, 

(Ed. C. 526. 783. Ant. 1. Eur. Orest. 237. imputes it to him as a reproach in Soph. 

1374. Troad. 1031. Virgil also employs Aj. 1228. 

the same synecdoche in JEn. IV. 354. capi- 285. tikXeijje 7rt/3j(Tov. Schol. dotys 

Usque injuria cari. It could be shown, STrijSiyvai iroir]Gov. See on II. B. 234. 

however, that fcapa is not unfrequently a 289. TrpecrjSrjiiov. Eustath. dcJpov rifiiov, 

mere pleonasm. See on II. I. 40?. and of ?}yovv role; Trpfo-^wrspotg Kai ivTifioiQ dt- 

the word 06w, in the next line, see on II. doptvov. Hence synonymous with yspag. 

Z. 6. See on II. A. 118. 

284. voQov TTtp kovra. Eustathius ob- 290. avrolaiv o%f.a<t>iv. See above on v. 

serves, that spurious birth was no disgrace 24. and of the construction, in the next line, 

among the ancients, as the heroes fre^ on 11, Z. 452. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAOS, 9'. 247 

Km row julv p a^ajuapO'' o 8' ajuu/iova 
Yt'ov fiiv Ilpmjuoto, Kara arrjOog jSaXsv tw* 

TOV p *S At<Tl)jUr)0V OTTVlOjULtVri TC ^t?'/TJp, 

KaXr) Kaarmvajoa, Stjuae aicwa Otrjffi. 305 

M^KWV 8' d) TjO(iKT KapTJ jS 

KapTrw j3pt00juavrf ? voTiyai re 

*lg iripwa* fyjuvare Kaprj TrrjXrjfa 

8' a'XXoi/ oitrrbv aTro vup)^)tv taXXfv 
avrtk-pv, jSoXtttv Si tro Bv/mog. 310 

'AXX' 6y icat r60' ajULaprt' irapeaQriXe yap 


, j3aX (rrrjOoc Trapa juaoi>' 


T juvog r. 315 

euvov aoc 7rv/ca(7 

i a^vujUfvoc TTEJO traipov' 
fXftv' o 8' a'p' OUK cnriOriatv a 

7raju$avowim>e, 320 

v XajSe X t P^> 
81 9vno ovaryei. 
6 /Xv ^>a/orprjc ?tXro TTi/cpov 6/(rr6v, 

0f?K 8' 7Tt VUplJ' TOV 8' a5 KOpU^aioXoC "ElCTWp 

Au fpvovra, Trap' w/iov, 60t /cXrjlc dwoipyti 325 

Kv^iva re (tr^Ooc T, juaXtara 8f Kaiptov Itrrt, 

Tip ^0' 7Ti ot jUfjuawra jSaXf \iOit) otcptoevri" 

f P^^ 8f ot vfUjorjv* vapK 

Sri) 8f yvu^ IptTrwv, ro^ov 8f ot 

8' OVK a/xXi](T Ka<nyvf]Toio TTEtrovroc, 330 

tt 0WV TTfjOf |3l7, KCU Ot (Ttt 

306. /*T;KWJ/ 5* d>e rpw(T K. r- \. This it was the helmet of Euryalus, which occa- 

simile is very beautiful, and exactly repre- sioned the discovery and unfortunate death 

sents the manner of Gorgythion's death, of this young hero and his friend. POPE. 

Virgil has applied it to the death of Eury- The beautiful addition, however, of the idea 

alus : JEn. IX. 434. inque humeros cervix contained in succisus aratro, was taken by 

collapsa recumbit ; Purpureus veluti cumflos Virgil from Catull. XI. 23. LXII. 40.^ The 

succisus aratro Languescit moriens ; lassove order of construction is : //KWJ> $ oe, iJ T ' 

papavera collo Demisere caput, pluvid cum tvi K^TT^ K. (3. v. T. e. irspwffe icdpr] (3d\tv. 

forte gravantur. This is finely improved in Compare Od. A. 411. and see Matt. Gr. 

the Roman author with the particulars of sue- Gr. . 555. Obs. 1. 

cisus aratro and lasso collo. But it may on the 308. r/juvae. See on II. B. 1 48. 

other hand be observed in favour of Homer, 313. ikfievov TroXtfJiovdt. Scil. Ikvai. So 

that the circumstance of the head being op- II. B. 154. olicade ispevoi. This ellipsis, 

pressed and weighed down by the helmet, however, is not noticed by Bos. 

is so remarkably just, that it is a wonder 328. vtvpfiv. The string of the bow evi- 

Virgil omitted it ; and the rather, because dently, from v. 324. not the tendon of the 

he had particularly taken notice before, that arm. 




i/c, 'E^toto wait;, KOL 
7Tt yXa^vpae <^prrjv |3apa orfva^ofra. 

*A</> 8' dime Tptt><r<nV 'OXujUTHOe V jUVO (5pCTl>. 

Ot 8' i0ue ra^poto flaOdriG oxrav 'A^atove* 
"Ejcrwp o V Trpwroiort , aOtvf'i jSXEjueatvwv. 
r flte 8' 3r rt'c T KWWV o-uoc aypt'ou r? XEOVTO? 
o7rt<r0, TTOO"! ra^ 
T, fXt 



AtV aTTOKTflVWV TOV OTTlffTttTOV' Ot $ ^fj 

Aura/o 7Ti 8ta r a/c 

jUv 017 irapa vrjvmv tprjTvovTO /utvovTeg, 

T KcXojLlVOt, Kttt 


o tt 

C OfJLJJLCLT t%b)V, ?] flpOTO\OlJOV 

Toi/c 8t t^ouo-' fXlrjo-f Ofa XfUJCwXfvoc "H/orj 
At^a o' 'Avrjvatrjv 7Ta Trrfpofvra TrpocnjvSa* 

'i TTOTTOt, aiyto^oto A/oc rcoc, ovfcm vwt 
OXXujitfVwv Aavawv KE/caSrjcrOjU^, VCTTCLTIOV 7 
Ot KV S?) KO.KOV OITOV avaTrX^aavrfc oXwvrat 
'AvS/ooc voc /otTT^* 6 $ fiaiverai ov/cl' 
Eicrwp n/QtajutSi]c, Kai 817 KOKQ TroXXa opy. 



Kai Xtrjv owroc yc julvo^ OV/LLOV r 6X(Tt, 
Xp<Ttv VTT 'Ajoyfiwv 00fyivo EV TTar/otSt 
'AXXa TraTi)p bvfj.bc; (pptel juafvfrat ou/c ayaOrjui, 
aXtTjOoc, / 


336. i0u^ ra'^poio. Supply ^ia. 

337. ffQsvt'i flXtptaivwv. Viribus fero- 
ew^s : for (3ptjj.a(vuv, from j8p/iw, fremo. 

Schol. ff(j)odp& lTrippwvvfj,evo. Damm 
observes : ywz a |3\7r iv derivant, unde sit 
ro /3XI/ijLia, fWi noncogitant, verbum (3\iTreiv 
CMTO *MW surculis Homericum non esse ; ut 
igitur in Homero inde quoque nihil ultra de- 
n'van possit. Proprie autem hoc verbum de 
leonibus ant apris ponitur, qui cum truci aut 
terrlbili murmure contra hostem feruntur. 
Compare II. M. 42. P. 22. 135. 

349. Topyoug opfiar. See on II. E. 741. 
Eustathius records yopyovog as the reading 
of Zenodotus. Both forms, yopyw and yop- 
ywv, were in use ; but the former only in 
Homer and Hesiod. In later authors, we 
also meet with yopyovrj. Herodian. 'ETTI- 

/ipt(r/i. p. 17. Topyov^' 
yvvrj. FopycJ, ro auro. 

353. KtKa5i)a6p.t9a. Either from KT^^O- 
/^at, curam gero, as i^^ffw, from ti^w, or 
from fcaw, /o^^^c^ for %" w > recedo. If the 
latter, then the note of interrogation should 
be cancelled ; and this, perhaps, seems the 
more probable, though the other method is 
more generally followed. See Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 238. Interp. ad Hesych. m wee. 

361. aXirpog. Unjust. Eustath. 6 TOV 
SSOVTOQ d\iriov, r)Toi a/taprwv. Schol. 
ajuaprwXoe, aStKOQ. By syncope for aXi- 
rripbg, from d\rj, mentis error. Soph. CEd. 
C. 371. aXtr j?poc 0pr/v, cited by Eustathius. 
Others derive it, with Stephens, Thes. Ling. 
Greec. in v. from a priv. and Xir?}, in which 
case it would signify inexorable. 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, 6'. 249 

Ou<$ TL rwv jLtjUVTjrat, 6 ol fj.a\a TroXXaiac vtov 
Teipofievov (rwftricov VTT' Eupua-Ofjoe ai9\tDv. 
T Hroi o julv icXai(7K TTjOOC ovjOavoV aurap ijU Zevc 
T< 7raX?)o-ou<rav OTT' oupavo0v TrpotaXXfv. 365 

Ei 7ap s-y w ra $&' ii;l 0jO<r 
Eurl juiv ie T AiSao TruXaprao 
'E 'EpIjSfuc aovra icvva, oriryfpoii 'AiSao* 
OVK av VTrt&Qwye 2rvyoc vSaroc aiTra /ot0pa. 
Nvv 8' jU jUv arvyiei, 0nSoc 8' l^iiwo'S |3ouXac, 370 

"H ot yovvar' KV(T(T, icat 'AX 
AiaaofLiivn Ttju^trat 'A^tXX^a TrroXtTropaov. 
v E(Trai ftav, or' av aur ^iXrjv FXauicwTr^a 


' av lyw, KaraSuo-a Atoc Sojuov atyto^oto, 375 

Ei vwi Ilptajuoto Tra't'e icopv^afoXoc " 
'ft 7Tpo^avt(ra ava 
Kat Tpwwv Kopiu ttvvaq i$ oi 

Kat (rapC(T(rt, 7T(ra)v ?ri vrjuolv 'A^atwv. 380 

iv ic ^> a7 "'* ovS' am9r}ff Ota 

'H ]UV 7TOt^OjLlfV1] ^piKTOjUTTUKaC VTlV tT 

"HjOTj, 7rp<TJ3a 0a, Ovyarrjp [JityaXoto Kpovoio. 

Aurap 'A0TjvatT|, Koupi] Atoc aiyio^oto, 

IlfiTrXov jLtv Kar^Uv lavov Trarpoc ETT' ouSft, 385 

IlotictXov, ov /o' aur^ Trotr/o-aro icat jcaju 


367. TrvXaprao. Portam occlusam ha- yrjOriotie ; this figure is called an Oropis- 
bentis. Schol. iaxvp&g ffuvappoZovTOG Kai mus ; and occurs frequently in the Tragic 
c\etoi>ro rdf -rrvXag, dia TO pijSeva VTTO- writers. Compare Soph. (Ed. T. 936. Aj. 
errpl^tv sr'Ai^ou. " 136. 789. Phil. 1314. Eurip. Hipp. 1335. 

368. 'Epefitvg. Ionic6 for 'EpefiovQ. See Rhes. 391. Brunck and others understand 
Prelim. Obss. Sect. IV. an ellipsis of opwv or CIKOVUV, as the case 

371. eXXa/St %api ytveiov. Plin. N. H. may be. But it seems rather, that the ex- 

11.45. Antiquis Greeds in supplicationibus pression is idiomatic; and the Venetian 

mentum attingere mos erat. Eurip. Hec. Scholiast on II. I. justly observes, ou XftTra 

740. iKtTtv<i) ere T&vdt yovvciTUiv, Kat aov TO bpS>v. See Schsefer on Bos : p. 16. Matt. 

ytvdov, Sepias r evSaifiovog. See also on Gr. Gr. . 408. 

II. A. 407- and compare K. 454. A custom 378. TrroXI/^oto yt^vpaf. Eustath. TO.Q 

somewhat allied to this prevailed among dia TOV psvpaTOQ TJV ai^artav diodovQ. 

the Eastern nations, with whom kissing the But see on II. A. 371. 

beard was a customary form of salutation. 379. ^ TIQ Kai Tpwwv. That is, many 

See 2 Sam. xx. 9. an one. See on II. B. 388. It is generally 

377. vSii yriBi]Gii irpofyaviiaa. The supposed, however, that Hector is here more 

accusative of the object, which regularly ac- particularly intended. 

companies those verbs active which denote 381. &Q ?0ar'' ovtf aTriQqoe K. T. X. 

any mental emotion, is frequently found 'This passage is repeated from II. E. 719. 

also with verbs intransitive of the same 745. 
class. Thus again in II. I. 77- Tig av TaSt 

K k 

250 'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, 

a?ro 8' 
Bptflu, fitya, ortjSapov, raJ Sajuvrja-t ort^ac av8pwv 390 

'HpOJWV, rOltTl T KOr<7(Trai 6|3pfjUO7rarpl]. 

Hpi? CE /marry* 0ow 7Tfjuair' ap' ITTTTOVC* 
Avrojuarat & TruXat fjiVKOv oupavov, a t'xov T Qpcu, 
7TtTT|oa7rrai fJL^yag ovpavbc;, QvXv/unrog re, 
avaicXivai TTVKivov vetyog, rift 7ri0tvat. 395 



a avrrjv 

ov jap caXa (TWOKTO/uLiOa ?rroXjUOv^. 400 

t/0W, TO KCU TT 
jUv 0-00HV u^ 1 apjuacrtv 
o IK ot^pou jSaXfw, Kara 0' apjuara 

KV I? 

' cnraXOriGeaOov, a KEV juapTrrTjdi Kpauvoc* 405 


"Hprj 8* ovrt ro(TOv vfjUECTt^o/xat, outte 
Ati 7"? j 1101 cw^fv EvtKXofv, o rrt 

lN Oc l^ar " wpro ^ ^IjOtc afXXoTTOC a 
B^ Kar"lSa/wv opiwv I? /uaKpov "OXujUTrov. 410 

Hpwrym Sf 

jU/uarov ; rt aQwiv ivi ^>pf<ri juatvfrat 
7rajuvvjUv 'A/pyffoariy. 

KpOVOU TTOt'Cj ^ TfXfft 7Tp, 415 

jiiv atpwiv vfy* apjuatriv (JfCfac ImrouCj 
8' K SiQpov jSaXcftv, Kara 0' ap/uara av. 

a Kv jUctjOTrr^ari K/oauvoc" 

e? or' av trco Trarpt jua^rjat. 420 

yap ot Eoi0v EvtKXav, o rrt 

399. TraXtv rpETrc. Eustath. ffrpaQijvai" gendo imprimere ; i. e. <o inflict. In the 
OTTIO-O) Kai dvaKa'fjnpai rr\g bdov Troiijffov, next line, 60pa a'fly is elliptical ; </ia^ 5/e 
See also on II. B. 8. wzai/ A:?zow the consequence. 

400. ow yap /caXa; K. r. X. That is, 408. VIK\$V. Poetice for tyfcX^v. Eu- 
ig ffVfjL(3d\oifjLsv dv fia'xy. fFe stath. s/iTro^wv cTvat ai fcarafca'^Trrciv, 

join 6afe, we s/m# disagree, at their Kai d olov KaraK\q,v ra tig dpObv tftot 

. povXtvOevTO.' IK peTatyopac de <J>VT&V 6p- 

402. y ww<7&>. / u;i7Z Zame. See on II. Qorkvwv eiXrjTTTai TO iviK\$v. So in Latin, 

Z. 265. infringere for prohibere. We should say, to 

405. /j,dp7TTyffi. Scil. awra'c- The verb wap off. 

HdpiTTf.iv is, properly, prehendere, altin- 411. irpwTyffi TruXytrt, / portarum 

gere ; as in II. jSJ. 346. and thence attin- adilv. 



'AXXa <rvy\ aivorarrj, KUOV ac^EEe, ^ ErEov -ye 
ToAjurj0-*e Atoe avra TrcXwjOtov ty 

f H JUEV ap' we i7rou<r' aTrljSrj 7ro8ae WK 
Aurap 'A0rjvatrjv "H/orj Trpoe fJLvOov EEtTTEv' 

T Q TroTrot, aiytox 010 Atoe rEKoe, ouKEr' t 
Nwt EW, Atoe avra, jSporwy E'VEKO, 



re icai AavaoT(rt 

tN Qc a/oa 0wv?7<Ta<ra, TraXtv T/OETTE ju 
T^trty 8' r il/oat JUEV Xuo-av 
Kai roue JUEV (carlSrjo-av ETT' 
"A/Ojuara 8' EicXtvav TTJOOC EVWTTta TrajU^avowvra 

Aural $ ^jOU(TEOtCT6V ETTt lcXl(TjUo7<Tt Ka 



T(J ^ Kat ITTTTOUC JUEV Xu(T icXuroc ' 

"Ap flora 8' afi j3a>jUoTo-i ri0t, Kara Xtra 7Tra<T(rac. 

Auroc SE x? U(Ttov ^ Opovov fupuoTra ZEUC 

"E^Ero, r^I S' UTTO Troaai jusyae 7TEXjUt^r' 

Ai 8' otat Aioc aju^)ie ^AOrivair) r Kat "H/orj 

"HtT^lJV, OuSl ri jUtV 7TpO(T^)WVOV, Ol>8' E^E 

Aura/0 o E-yvw ^(7tv EVI ^/OECTI, ^WVI/O-EV r" 
Tt00' ourw rri)]<T0ov, ^AOrivair) r KOI " 
Ou JUEV 0^v KajUErov -yE jua^r? Evi KvSiavttpy 
'OXXutrat Tpwac, roTcri Korov atvov WtcrOt. 



423. dXXd <rwy', alvordrrj, K. r. X. After 
these words, which are added by Iris her- 
self, there is an aposiopesis, similar to II. 
A. 341. which maybe thus supplied; If, 
however, you (Juno) do attempt, c. it will 
be at your peril. See on II. A. 135. Iris 
seems to allude to the words of Jupiter in 
v. 400. Ernesti understands no aposiopesis, 
but supplies the sense thus : at tu profecto 
ferocissima et audacissima (sis,) si revera 
vis, Sfc. But the address is evidently in the 

427. OVKST eywye iw. I no longer ad- 

430. K6 Tvxy- Scil. d7ro00i(T0ai 
fj jSiwvai. Pope observes that this expres- 
sion contradicts the notion which Macrobius 
and others have imbibed, respecting the 
Homeric doctrine of Fate. See on II. Z. 
489. It is observable, however, that the 
verb Tvyxdvui does not, in Homer, convey 
the idea of chance, as expressed by Ivxn 
in later writers, and also in Hesiod, Theo- 

gon. 360. not to mention that the words 
immediately succeeding refer the decision 
directly to Jupiter. 

435. i/a7ria. The outer walls. Eustath. 
roi%ou, 01 tv 600aX^oif a'0-i TwvTrapoStv- 
OVTWV t^w0ev, $16 Kai Tra^avowira rd 
roiavra. Damm, however, improperly ap- 
plies the epithet 7rafi(j)av6ti)VTa, glittering, 
sc.from the sun, to d'p/tara, which not only 
impedes the construction, but is clearly con- 
tradicted by II. N. 261. 

441. a'jn /3w/iolai. For dva /3a>fioi. On 
pedestals, or frames. Eustathius observes 
that |8a>/io is not only an altar, but any 
raised surface ; as the base of a statue, &c. 
See Od. H. 100. Of the construction, see 
on II. A. 15. and of the accusative XTra on 
II. E. 845. Compare Od. A. 130. 

448. ov p,tv Ofjv Kafierov yf. Ye did not 
toil then ; ironically. The particle Qf)v is 
synonymous with drj. Compare II. F. 394. 
K- 104. A. 365. and elsewhere. Some, 
however, read Srfv. 

252 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, 8'. 

, oiov jiiov 76 jiivoe icat X */ C acMrrot, 450 

OVK av fi T|0^iav, 6Voi 0oi EI<T' EV 'OXvjUTrw. 
^j^toi'v SE Trpiv 7T|0 Tpo/nog e'XXajSe ^>aiSijua yvia, 
EljOiv TroXfjUov T' iSffiv TToXl/zoio T fJLtpfJLtpa ipya. 

r Qi$t y<ip ^pWj TO $ KV rrfX(TjUVOV 1]V. 

OUK av 0' vjUfrtjQwv o^wv, 7rXi]'yvr Kfpavvy, 455 

"A^ C "OXvjUTTOV IK0-00V, IV* aflavaTWV f'So 

"Ge 0a0'* at 8' 7TjUV?av 'A0rjvairj re KOL 

aiy' j](j9ijv t KUKO. SE T 
'A^rjvairj ajcauv ^v, oi>^ rt 

2cuojUvrj Aa Trarpt, \O\OQ <$i juiv aypiog pptr 460 

"Hpp 8' OVK f'xaSf OTTJ^OC xoXov, aXXa TrpoarjvSa' 

Aivorarf K/ooviSi?, TTOIOV rov [ivOov seartg ; 
Ev vu Kai 7/jUic iojUv, o roi aOivoc; OVK TTIIKTOV* 
'AXX' eftirtjc Aavawv 6Xo<^)i>pOjU0' aixjurjrawv, 
Oi KV 8?) Kaicov oirov avaTrXTiaravrc^ oXwvrai. 465 

'AXX' JTOt TToXllOU XV a$OU0' 1 

oXwvrai, 6ua p crajuvoio TFOIO. 
TTJV 8' a7rajUij3ojUvoc 77/000-^1] vf^fXrjyfp 
'Houc 8r) Kai juaXXof v7TpjiiVa Kpoviwva 470 

"O^ai, aiV tOtXrjarOa, j3oa>7ric Trorvia 
'OXXvvr' 'Apyfiwv TrouXvv oriparov 
Ov yap TT/OIV TToXifiov aTTOTrauo-frai o|3pijuoe "E/crwp, 

450. olov t/iov y fikvoQ. For lire roiov and accordingly, in this passage, he makes 

if. r. X. Certainly all the gods, $c. since a partial disclosure of them, reserving the 

The relative is frequently thus used in re- final developement of his plans till the fif- 

ference to a noun following, in order to teenth book. These were no other than the 

explain the remainder of the proposition, fulfilment of the Atoc (Bov\ij, (II. A. 5.), in 

Compare II. 2. 95. 262. X. 347- ejf passim, the utter destruction of Troy, consequent 

See Matt. Gr. Gr. . 480. Obs. 3. upon the death and burial of Hector ; which 

454. The particle yap, in this line, is el- would, in all human probability, have pro- 

liptical : But you acted wisely ; for &c. In ceeded regularly to its ultimate end, had it 

the following line the participle is in the not been interrupted by the anger and se- 

masculine, in reference to Juno and Minerva, cession of Achilles. We here learn then, that 

Similar instances of non-agreement between the hindrance interposed by Achilles, the 

the adjective and substantive will be found destined instrument for effecting this pur- 

in Matt. Gr. Gr. . 436. 1. Valckenser on pose, will eventually be overcome ; but not 

Eur. Hippol. 386. It happens more fre- till he is again roused into action by the 

quently with the dual of participles. death of Patroclus, which is the means of 

457. og 0a0'- al S' eTTE/ivgav K. r. X. bringing back the course of operation into 

Repeated from II. A. 20. and v. 32. supra. its proper channel. Heyne, therefore, ob- 

470. TIOVQ. Subaud. s. Early in the serves truly, that the passage is remarkable 

morning. Eustath. IK TrpoKac. avoiov. So for its reference to the economy of the poem, 

again v. 525. The preposition is expressed since Jupiter now more fully avows his design, 

in Aristoph. Thesm. 2. e iwOivov, sc. %po- and the poet prepares the way for the action 

vov. of the following books. We must remark, 

473. ov yap Trpiv iroXifiov K. T. X. In however, that the fact is directly at variance 

II. A. 547. Jupiter made a promise to Juno with the assumption, that Thetis had com- 

that she should be made acquainted with pletely succeeded in the object of her prayer 

his divine counsels before every other deity; to Jupiter, and that his complete exposition 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, 9'. 253 

wpOai Trapa vavtyi Tr 
Hjiiari rtj>, or' av ot juv STTI wpvimvyai jua^wvrai, 475 

v mvorar^, ?rpi IIarpocXoto 
yap Otatyarov <m* aiQtv ' yw 

, OuS' t K TO VEtttTa TTzipoff tKTJCU 

KCU Trovroto, tV 'laTreroc re K/oovoc re 
i, our' avyrjg virepiovog 'HfXioto 480 

', our' avfjuotart, j3a0i>c $ re Taprapoc 
V0' a^ijojcu aXatyiEvrj, ou aeu CYwye 

aXlycu, tVa ou o-lo Kuvrepov aXXo. 
*Cte 0aro* rov 8' ouri Trpoo-e'^rj XfuicwXevoc 
'Ev 8' CTTfo-' 'ilKEavaJ XajUTrpov ^aoc 'HfXtoto, 485 

"EXfcov VVKTO. fiiXaivav ITTI Z^tSwoov a/ooupav. 
Tpwcriv jUV /o' aicou<nv tSu fyaoQ' aurap 'A^atotc 
'AcTTracrtrj, rptXXto-roCj 7rr]Xu0 vi)S EpfjSfvvr]. 

aur' ayop^v Troni^aro fftai^ijuiog "Eicrwp, 
ayaytuv, Trorajuw 7rt Stv^fvrt, 490 

'Ev Ka0ap<* 60t 817 VEICUWV $tt<j>aivtTO ^wpoe- 
'E^ t7T7ra)v S' a7roj3avr^ ?ri ^0ova, fj.vOov aicouov, 
Tov /o' "Eicrwp ayopU, Aa ^)tXoc' V 8' apa % f P^ 
%' IvSficaTrri^u' Trapot^f ^ Xa/iTTEro 

aXlCEirj, TTfpl ^ XpU(TOe TTOpKlJC' 
6y' jOtO-ajUVO?, 7Ta TpW(T(Tt 

Nwt; ^a/i]v, vrjac r' oXivag KOL Travrac ' 

of his designs to that goddess embraces the confined after their attempt to reinstate Sa- 

primary argument of the poem. For, how- turn, was supposed to be at the western ex- 

ever widely she might have interpreted the tremity of the earth. See Hesiod, Theogon. 

answer of Jupiter in II. A. 523. it is evident 728. sqq. 

from the assurance subsequently given to 480. virtpiovoQ 'HeXtoto. Hyperion was 

Juno, and his partial declaration of his de- the Father of the Sun, thence called 'YTrt- 

signs in this place, which designs are di- pioviSriQ, in Od. M. 176. See Hesiod, Theo- 

rectly contradictory of the wish of Achilles, gon. 371. Hence wTrtptW has been thought 

expressed in the prayer of Thetis, that she to be syncopated for 'YTrtpifaw'wj/, but it 

still remained in total ignorance of the de- seems better to understand it, with Heyne, 

crees of Fate ; and the same ignorance is as a simple epithet. So also Damm explains 

manifest in her strong expression of vexa- it ; 6 uTrtp 'np.a.Q iwV fj\io. It occurs again 

tion and disappointment, when they turn in II. T. 398. 

out contrary to her expectation : II. S. 94. 483. icvvrepov. More impudent, more au- 

See Prelim. Obss. Sect. III. Of the con- dacious : properly, more currish. It is a 

struction, see on II. A. 97. comparative, formed from Kixav, cants. The 

477- okdiv 8' gyo> OVK a'\yio>. See on superlative, fcvvrarof, occurs in Eur. Suppl. 

II. A. 160. 817. Compare also II. K. 503. 

478. ovd' t KE TO. vdara K. T. X. There 488. roiXXtorof. Thrice-wished, desi- 

is nothing in these words that can suggest ruble ; from rpig and Xivaopai. 

any cause of alarm in Jupiter ; but from the 491. vticvuv dieQaivtro. That is, tyai- 

mention of lapetus and Saturn, he evidently VfTO Sid vtKvwv, appeared among the 

alludes to a renewal of the war with the dead. 

Titans,*at the instigation of Juno. The de- 498. The particle vvv must be con- 

scent into Tartarus, where the Titans were strued with airovoariiativ. See ou II. A. 27- 




*At// cnrovo(TTr)<TLv Trporl "iXtov rj 
'AXXa TTpiv KV0ac r/X#, TO vuv to-awcre /xaXtora 
'Apyaouc *cat vfjae ETTI /orj-yjulvt OaXaaarig. 
'AXX' rjro vi)v JUEV 7Ti0wju0a VVKTI /xeXcuvrj, 
AopTra r' E^oTrXtfTojufo^'' avrap 


'Eic TroXto^ 8' a^acr 
KapTraXfytwe, oivov ^ ju 
SIrov r' c Ufawy* TTI 



irvpa TroXXa, (TfXa^ S' i ovpavbv IK^' 
KOI &a VVKTU Kapri KO/uLOWTtg 'A^atot 
opjurjawvrat TT' ipla vwra OaXaavriG. 
Mr) /xav acnrovSi ye vwv 7rtj3aiv crjXoi' 
'AXX' a>e rtc TOVTWV ye jSlXoc cat o'lKoOi irivGTQ, 


(, r) 

tva rtc aTvytycFi KOL aXXoc 

ptV TToXvSaJCjOUV "ApTJtt. 

o ava aoru Aa <J)i\oi ayyfXX 
7Tpw0/jj3ac, TroXtojcpora^ouc TE 



julya Kcuovrwi'* 0vXa*cr) 81 rtc 1 
Mr) Xo^oc slvzXOyai TroXtv, Xawv a7Tovrwv. 

Tov 8', r] 

r\ aXXotat re Ototaiv, 

502. 7ra0w/ie0a VVKT'I. See on II. H. 

510. $ia VVKTCI. Through favour of the 
nigM; as in Virg. JEn. VIII. 658. dono 
noctis. The Scholiast improperly explains 
it by Sia VVKTOQ, in the night. See Hoo- 
geveen on Viger, p. 471. Matt. Gr. Gr. 
. 580. 2. 

512. cHTirovdi Without difficulty. Most 
editions have dffTrovdti. On adverbs of 
this class, see Blomfield's Gloss, on ^Esch. 
Prom. 216. 

513. jSsXo^ Kai o"iKo9t ireffffy. The verb 
TTf.aat.iv, coquere, is here used in the sense 
of sanare. Eustath. vkfftniV QepaTTtviiv. 
By a common figure also, /3g\oe, a weapon, 
is transferred to signify the wound which it 
inflicts. Of the verb GTvyiiv, see on II. H. 


519. Xsa<70ai. This verb generally sig- 
nifies in Homer, o We ?OWTI ; hence, #o ?w- 
pose one's self ; scil. as a sentinel. See on 
II. B. 515. So again in II. I. 67. The 
epithet QrjXvTepai, in the following line, is 
simply a pleonastic epithet, expressive, per- 
haps, of the weakness of the sex, as unfit 
for severer duties. Thus Soph. Trach. 
1064. ywij dl, 6rj\VQ oiiaa, KOVK avSpoQ 
<pv<riv. Eurip. Orest. 1203. TO (rw/ia 5' kv 
yvvai^i OrjXeiag Trpknov. 

525. TOV S'. Scil. vyirj OVTO. pvOov, 
from the last line. 

527- KrjoeaaiipoprjTOvg. Provided the 
next line be genuine, of which there is 
considerable doubt, this epithet is fully 
explained by it, to signify, mails fatis ad- 
vectos. This line, however, was omitted 
by Zenodotus as superfluous, and it is re- 

'OMHPOY 'IAIAA02, 9'. 


[ji\aiva.t*)v ETTI 

'AXX' riTOL 7Tl VVKTl 0uXaojl 

Hpwl 8' vTrrjolot avv review 

Nrjucriv lirl yXatyvprJGtv tytipofjitv 6^,vv "Aprja. 

E'/o-OjUtu, a'/ Kf /x* 6 TuSft&je Kpar/ooc Afo/i^Tjc 

flap vrjwv TTjooc TfT^oc aTTwo'frat, rj ICEV lyw rov 

XaXfctjJ &pw<ra, vapa j3porovra 

Avpiov fjv apT)v Smi<7rai, m K 

Mf/yrj 7TjO^OjUvov" aXX' Iv Trpwrotcrfi' 6/w 

oirr)0tCj TroXlfc 8' a/x^' avrbv IraTjOOt, 
aviovro EC auptov" at yap fywv we 
Etrjv a^avaroc Kai ayrjpaoc rijuara Travra, 
Ttoi/uLrjv & a>c 7"tr' ^AOrjvair] KOL ' 
' KUKOV > 




A^trav 8' 1/j.avTeaGi Trajo' apjuaaiv oltrtv /cacrroc' 
'EK TroXtoc 8' a^avro |3oac icai t^)ia juf)Xa 
KapTraXfjLtwc* otvov Se jUtXt^pova otvt^ovro, 
StTov T' IK jutyapwv* ?rt SE ^uXa TroXXa Xt-yovro. 
Ki/tcrrjv 8' K TTfSiov avfjuot <j>tpov oupavov a't 

Ot Sf, julya ^>povOVTCj ?ri TrroXljUOto 
Eiaro Travvuxtor Trupa cr^>fcrt icaifro TroXXa. 
f lc 8' or' V ovpavw a(rrpa 



jected by Rhunken ; Epist. Grit. I. p. 56. 

Suidas : KrjpeffffiQopijTOQ' 6 rov Qdvarov *Ep^ov 

STTI t ^vXa TroXXd Xeyovro 1 

530. virqoioi. lonicS for vTrriyoi, ma- 
tutini. Of this adverbial use of the adjec- 
tive masculine, see on II. A. 414. The 
same is also a Latin idiom ; as in Virg. 
JEn. VIII. 465. Mneas se matutinus agebat. 
The preposition avv is separated from the 
verb iyeipoptv by Tmesis. 

532. 6 TvddSrjQ. See on II. A. 11. 

535. }v dptrr/j/ ^tafitrerai. ^Te sAaW 
prove his valour. The use of the middle 
verb in this passage, is the same as in II. 
Z. 466. 

538. ai yap eywi/ WQ K. T. X. Utinam ego 
tarn certe consequi possim immortalitatem , 
quam certe crastino die Achlvl male sibi res 
suas evenire videbunt. HEYNE. 

547. In the edition of Barnes, four 
verses are here inserted from Plato, Al- 
cibiad. II. in fine, which are, to all appear- 
ance, genuine ; and the first of them, at 
least, from its connection with the sacri- 
ficial term Kviarjv, is fairly assigned to 
this place. It is but proper to give the 
passage in full : 

fiviarjv d' IK irtdiov avtp,oi 


'HSflav rfig S' OVTI 9eol /id/eapfg SUTBOVTO, 
Ovd' tOeXov fj,d\a yap a<ptv aTrr)x^ tTO 

"JXtog tp), 
Kai Upiajuog, Kat Xa6g lv(t[jit\i(i) Ilpta- 

549. 01 ^e, /*sya QpoveovTeg, K. T. X. 
See on Eur. Phoen. 41. Pent. Gr. p. 306. 
and compare Rom. xii. 3. 16. 

551. w^d'or' tvovpavyic.T.X. Thiscom- 
parison is inferior to none in Homer. It 
is the most beautiful night-piece that can 
be found in poetry. He presents you with 
a prospect of the heavens, the seas, and 
the earth ; the stars shine, the air is se- 
rene, the world enlightened, and the moon 
mounted in glory. POPE. Claudian has 
briefly imitated this simile in Cons. Hon. 
VI. 453. Nox erat, et late stellarum more 
videbam Barbaricos ardere focos. We have 
a close parallel also in Scott's Minstrel, III. 
29. Soon a score of fires, I ween, From 
height and hill and cliff were seen ; Each 

256 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, 9'. 

<PaivT apt7T|07r, ore T fTrXcro vfivsfiog ai0?]p, 

"Eic T 0avv Tradai a/coTrmt, KOI TTpwovfc Kpo/, 

Kat vairaC ovpavoOtv 8' ap' virtppayri acrTreroc alOfjp, 

TlavTa r* a'Scrat aor/oa* ytyrjSe $e re <t>ptva TrotjUTjv* 555 

Toacra, fmtffrjyv vcwv 17^6 ^av9oio poawv, 

Tpwwv Kat6vT(jjv Trupa (f>aiveTO 'iXto^t Trpo. 

XiAi' ap' Iv TTf^t^ TTU/oa /caiero* Trap 

Etaro TTfvrrjKOvra, trfXa Trupoc 

"ITTTTOI cte ic/ot XUKOV lp7rrojuvot cai oXv/oac, 560 

'Eo-raorfc Trap* o^a^LV) u0povov 'Hw 

with warlike tidings fraught ; Each from is very natural, and allied to an idiom of 

each the signal caught ; Each after each our own. The use of the aorist in this 

they glanced to sight, As stars arise upon construction has been repeatedly noticed. 
the night. 558. %i\i' ap kv ireti'up K. r. X. See on 

554. vTrtppdyr]. Breaks up, clears off. II. B. 129. 
The metaphorical application of this verb 560. Kpl \tvicbv K. T. X. See on II. E. 196. 







Agamemnon, after the last day's defeat, proposes to the Greeks to quit the siege, and 
return to their country. Diomed opposes this, and Nestor seconds him, praising his 
wisdom and resolution. He orders the guard to be strengthened, and a council sum- 
moned to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency. Agamem- 
non pursues this advice, and Nestor further prevails upon him to send ambassadors 
to Achilles, in order to move him to a reconciliation. Ulysses and Ajax are made 
choice of, who are accompanied by old Phoenix. They make each of them very 
moving and pressing speeches, but are rejected with roughness by Achilles, who, 
notwithstanding, retains Phcenix in his tent. The ambassadors return unsuccessfully 
to the camp, and the troops betake themselves to sleep. 

This book, and the next following, take up the space of one night, which is the twenty- 
seventh from the beginning of the poem. The scene lies on the sea-shore, the station 
of the Grecian ships. 


8' a 

a, <3?o|3ou icpuofvroe Ircuprj* 
jSfjSoX/jaro 7ravrC aptorot. 

2. <$va. Terror, dismay ; and so a dis- 
position to flight. Hence her personification 
as the companion of <J>6/3o, which is similar 
to that of Discord, as the sister of Mars, 
II. A. 440. Damm : <pva est in animo, 
06j3oe in pedibus ipsis. The former, how- 
ever, is sometimes used for flight itself: as 
in II. S. 140. O. 62. and elsewhere. 

3. jScjSoX^aro. Forj3t/36X^vro, 3. pl.plu- 
perf. pass, of /3o\w, a poetic derivative of 
/3dXXw. Hence also the participle ptpoXrj- 
juevoc, in v. 9. The Scholia Victoriana, 
which Clarke continually cites throughout 
this book, observe : ol fikv d\\oi Trepi 0v- 
yijjc sTTi/nlXf tav kiroiovvro, ot Sk apioroi iv 
TrkvBti ffffav. 

L 1 

258 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, I'. 

'Qi S' avfjuoi Suo TTOVTOV opivfrov i 
Boplrjc KOI Z$upoe, rw re Opr7icrj0i> ajrov, 
'EXOovr' ta7rnnj* afj.vEi St re 
KopOvtrai TroXXov $ Tra/ofS aXa 
ioQ Ivi or?j0<ra-tv ' 

\iyv<j)06yyoi<n jcEXevtuv, 10 

KX?)f)v fie ayoprjv KtKXrjo-icsiv avSpa f/caarrov, 
jSoav* auroc O jUra TT^WTOKJL 

larraro >aKpv^iit)v y wars 

H re Kar' aiyiXiTTOc 7TTprj Svofapbv \iei uSwp* 15 

N Qc o /3a|0i) trrfvaxwv STTC' 'Apysuno-i 
T Q (f>i\oi, * 

at' 20 

Nuv Se Kac)7V aTrarrjv j3ouXu<raro, icat jU KfiXfiUfi 
AutTKXfa "Apyoc tK<r^at, TTEI TroXuv wXfa-a Xaov. 
Ovra> TTOU Ail jUfXXft vtrtpfiivti ^tXov avat, 
*Oe ^r] TroXXawv TroXtwv KarlXucrf (cap]va, 
'H8' en Kal Xv<r* rov yap icparoc <TTI JAEJIVTOV. 25 

'AXX' (iytO\ we ov -ya>v aT 
^vywfj.v cruv VTJUCTI <j)i\r]v EC TrarpfSa yatav' 
Ou 70/0 Ti Tpofrjv cupi7<T(tyi 

lN Qc 0o0'* Oi 8' apa 7ravrC aic^v f 

4. wf ^' avepot dvo K. r. X. The par- designs were in this extremity. POPE : from 

ticular parts of this comparison agree admi- Eustathius. 

rably with the design of Homer, to express 17- w 0iXoi, K. r. X. This speech of 

the distraction of the Greeks ; the two Agamemnon is repeated word for word from 

winds representing the different opinions of II. B. 110. It is a question among the 

the army, one part of which were inclined critics, however, whether it was delivered 

to return, the other to stay. POPE : from as the real sentiments of the general, or 

Eustathius. Compare Virg. Mn. II. 416. intended, as before, to sound the disposition 

Heyne observes, on the contrary, that the of the army. It certainly appears to be 

force of the comparison consists in the agi- the more probable conclusion, that precisely 

tation of the sea, whereby is represented the same words were intended to produce 

the mental agitation of the Greeks. Both precisely the same effect. Dionysius of Ha- 

these ideas, however, may perhaps be in- licarnassus argues strongly for this view of 

eluded in the simile. Of the winds Boreas the case ; De Arte ; VIII. 13. IX. 4. and 

and Zephyrus, see on II. B. 145. The ad~ such is evidently the purport of the inscrip- 

dition of vv. 6, 7 is merely ornamental. tion, 'ATroTmpa, affixed to the book. Dio- 

11. avSpa tteaarov. The council con- med and Nestor were necessarily acquainted 
sisted of the chiefs only ; as appears from with the intention of Agamemnon, and 
v. 17. their speeches must therefore be considered 

12. p.r]Ck (3o$v. The reason why Aga- as proceeding in a tone of feigned reproach, 
memnon commands his heralds to summon for the purpose of furthering his plans ; and 
the leaders in silence, is for fear the enemy of repressing, by a pretended indignation at 
should discover their consternation, by rea- his proposal, the rising inclination of the 
son of their nearness, or perceive what their Greeks to return. 


trot TT/owra jua^ro-Ojuat a 

rT <ru JUT} rt 
'AXfcr)v julv juot Trpwroc 6vt$t<rac li/ Aavao7<n, 
4>ac jUv aTTToXf/xov Kat avaXaSa* raura $ Travra 
"IffCKr' 'Apyttwv 7]jUv vlot, TJ^E 
Sot ^ StavSf^a SWK KjOovov Tratc a 

rot WK TerifirfcrOaL 7Tpt 
ourot 8wKV, o T Kj 

Aatjuovt', ourw TTOV juaXa f'XTTfai vtac 'A^atwv 
'ATrroXfjUOVc r' jUvat iccu avaXictSac, a>c a 
Et ^ rot aurto Ov/mbs 7T<rcrurat, 
rot 6So) v?C ^ ^o 

', at rot fVovro MvKrjvrjOev fj.aXa TroXXat. 
'AXX' a'XXot jUVOU(7t icaprj KOjUowvrfc 'A^atot, 

El(TOK 7Tp TpOlT]V Sta7Tp(TOjUV* 1 ^ Kttl avrOl, 

avv vrjucrt ^tXijv ^ TrarptSa yalav. 

t(TOJC rK 




UV yap 


avt<rra/ivoc /urf^>wvv tTTTrora 

Srj, 7Tpt jUV TToXfjUCtJ Vt KaprtpO 

Kat jSouXrJ jura Travrae 6/XTjXtKac 7rXU aptcrroc* 
rot rov fJLvOov ovoo - o > rat, oo'O'Oi 'A^atot, 
TraXtv /0t* arap ou rlXoc tKO fivOwv. 
K icat ' 


, 7Tt Kara fJLolpav t7TC. 

'AXX* ay', lywv, oc <Tto yepairepog fu^Ojuat tvat, 
, Kat Travra Stt^Ojuai* ovSl K rt? juot 









33. fi?/ n x^ w ^C- In prohibitions with 
p/i, the subjunctive is generally used in the 
aorist ; if the present is used, it is in the 
imperative. Soph. (Ed. C. 731. ov p.rjT 
oKvtire, fjirjT d^fjr' ITTOQ KO.KOV. See For- 
son on Eurip. Hec. 1166. Of the phrase 
i/j BsfJiiQ iariv, see on II. B. 73. 

35. tya-Q t/jiev aTrroXf/iov K. r. X. This 
alludes to the rebuke of Agamemnon in II. 
A. 370. See on v. 401. 

37. Stdvdixa- Properly, divisim ; thence, 
e bints alterum, Schol. Victor, tfi^pjj/ter'wg, 
ro ertpov TU>V dvolv, ow% t/cartpov. 

46. tideicai avToi. Scil. 0wyv QfXovot. 
The aposiopesis was probably supplied by the 

gesture of the speaker. But see on II. A. 302. 

48. v&i d', tyw 0V\6 rf. Caesar de- 
clares to the same effect, in B. G. I. 40. 
Quod si prceterea nemo sequatur, tamen se 
contra Germanos et Ariovistum cum sola 
decima legione iturum. 

49. avv yap 06 y tiXrjXoufyiEV. Deo vo- 
lente, annuente. Compare 11. E. 185. A. 
791. O. 403. Od. O. 530. S. 352. So 2 
Kings xviii. 25. LXX. Kat vvv pr) dvev 
Kvp/ou avtflr]Htv ITTI rbv TOTTOV TOVTOV 
rov $ia(j>Qtipa.i avrov. Of d\i]\ovQpf.v, see 
on II. A. 104. 

59. 'Apytiwv j3a(rtX^ac. There is an 
ellipsis of the preposition 

260 'OMHPOY 'IAIAAO2, I'. 

MvOov ari/mriGfi, ov Kpttwv \ 

fparat e 

'AXX' ^roi vuv /iv 7Tt0ajU0a vuicri jutXatvr/, 
AopTra r' tyoirXiaofjiEGOa' <^>vXacrfjpc $ ficaarot 
Afi;ao-0wv Trapa riuppov O^VKTTJV rft^foc /cro. 
Koupo<rt ]UV raur' iTnraXXo/zat* avrap 
'ArjOf/Srj, ai) jUV PX * ^ 7"^ 
Acuvu eura ytpovatv' &OIK rot, ovrot 
tat rot otvou K\iaiai, TOV vfjfc ' 



TTOVTOV ayovat. 


Datra rot (T0' u 

uo-r/* juaXa XP a( ^ 7T 

j ort Srjtot tyyvOi 
Katouert TTUpa TroXXa* rig av ra^ yrjO 


' apa rou juaXa jufv /cXvov, ?^S' ITTLUOVTO. 

63. a^p^rwp, a0e/u<rro, dvlcrrtog. It 
will be proper to give a particular expli- 
cation of each of these words : d^p^rwp, 
says Eustathius, signifies one that is a 
vagabond, or foreigner. The Athenians 
kept a register, in which all that were 
born were enrolled, whence it easily ap- 
peared who were citizens, or not : d^p^rwp, 
therefore, signifies one who is deprived of 
the privilege of a citizen : d0ju<7rof, is 
one who has forfeited a